Skip to main content

Full text of "Soil survey interpretations for community planning in Big Sandy, Montana"

See other formats


s 

631 .47 
U 1 7 s s i b 
1967 


Soil survey 
interpretati on s 
for community 
planning in Big 
Sandy? Montana 



STATE DOCUMENTS COL 


AUG 1 2 1990 

MoN i A 8 ^i T «thAvr 


TERPRETATIONS 
FOR 


COMMUNITY PLANNING 




IN 


HELENA, MONTANA 596 : 


big sandy, Montana 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 




SOIL SURVEY INTERPRETATIONS 


for 

COMMUNITY PLANNING 
in 

BIG SANDY , MONTANA 


Prepared by 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 

SOIL SURVEY PARTY 

Clair 0, Clark 
Dean H, Farnsworth 
Brent N, Weight 


September 1967 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT : 

Honorable Glenn Hymphrey, Mayor 

Ray Amen, Councilman 

Allen Adam's, Pastor 

Joe Trepina, Water Commissioner 

Odin Svennungsen, Dry Cleaner Owner 

Odin Blockhus, Postmaster 

Don Courtnage, Businessman 

Aaron Peterson, Bank Cashier 

Big Sandy FFA Chapter 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2016 


https://archive.org/details/soilsurveyinterp1967unit 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Page 


Section I. The Soil Survey 

Location and Extent ...... 

Climate and Geology ..... 

Needs and Methods ....... 

How to Use the Report . . . . , 

Names and Description of Soils 
Soil Survey Map ....... 

Table 1. Identification Legend 


Symbols Used on Soils Map 
Description of Mapping Units 


Aa Absher-Devon, alkali variant .......... 

Ab Absher-Nobe Complex ............... 

Da Devon loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ........ 

Db Devon loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes ........ 

Dc Devon loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes ........ 

Dd Devon loam, thick solum, 0 to 1 percent slopes 
De Devon loam, alkali variant, 0 to 2 percent slopes 

Df Devon loam, alkali variant, 2 to 4 percent slopes 

Ea Emmer -Absher complex .............. 

Eb Ethridge clay loam, 0 to 1 percent slopes .... 

Ha Hagga loam, 0 to 1 percent slopes ........ 

Hb Hagga loam, saline phase, 0 to 1 percent slopes . 
He Hill and Tinsley soils, 6 to 20 percent slopes 
Hd Hill-Devon loams, 3 to 10 percent slopes .... 

Ia Ideon clay loam, 0 to 1 percent slopes ..... 

Ib Ideon clay, alkali variant, 0 to 1 percent slopes 
Ic Ideon clay, sandy substratum phase, 0 to 1 percent 

slopes ............ ... 

Pa Poser-Kervin clay loams, 0 to 1 percent slopes 
Pb Poser, moderately well drained var iant -Emmer loams 
Ra Rista clay loam, 0 to 1 percent slopes ..... 
Rb Rista clay loam, wet phase, 0 to 1 percent slopes 


Section II. Soil Interpretations for Land Use planning 
Definitions - Soil Characteristics and Qualities . . 
Table 2. Soil Characteristics and Qualities . . . . 
Definitions - Chemical Properties of Soils . . . . . 


Table 3. Estimated Physical and Chemical Properties of 
soils ........... o ........... . 


1 

2 

3 

5 

6 


7 

8 

9 

9 

9 

10 

10 

10 

11 

11 

11 

12 

12 

13 

13 

13 

14 

15 
15 

15 

16 
16 
17 
17 

19 

19 

21 

24 


27 


Definitions - Interpretations of Engineering Properties of 
soils ..................... 29 

Table 4. Interpretations of Engineering Properties of 
soils . .................... 30 

Soil Suitability for Agriculture 32 

Land Capability Class and Subclass ............ 32 

Table 5. Soil Suitability for Agriculture . . . 34 

Trees and Shrubs for Protection and Beautification .... 35 

Table 6. Shrub and Tree Adaptation Ratings 37 

Section III. Soil Limitations for Community Development and 

Interpretive Maps .................... 39 

Table 7. Soil Limitation Ratings for Community Development 41 

Soil Ratings for Residential Development ......... 43 

Interpretive Map for Residential Development ....... 45 

Soil Ratings for Roads and Parking Areas ......... 47 

Interpretive Map for Roads and Parking .......... 49 

Soil Ratings for Lawns and Landscaping .......... 51 

Soil Ratings for Intensive Play Areas .......... 53 

Soil Ratings for Picnic and Play Areas .......... 55 

Soil Ratings for Cemeteries ............... 57 

Soil Ratings for Sanitary Land Fills . . .... 59 

Soil Ratings for Septic Tank Filter Fields ........ 61 

Soil Ratings for Sewage Lagoons .... ..... 63 

Soil Ratings for Corrosivity of Untreated Steel ...... 65 

Interpretive Map for Soil Corrosivity ........... 67 

Glossary .............. ...... 69 


FOREWORD 


The Soil Conservation Service in the United States Department of 
Agriculture has been making soil surveys for over thirty-one years. 
Historically, these surveys were used primarily to guide proper land 
use in farm and ranch planning. Current trends and competitive use of 
our land have given soil surveys a much broader scope. Soil surveys of 
today are being interpreted for many uses and should be the basis for 
all land use decisions. They are multipurpose in character and designed 
for a wide variety of land use. planners. 

The soil survey for this community was made at the request of the City 
Council of Big Sandy, who asked for assistance through their local Soil 
and Water Conservation District. Soil scientists from the Soil Conser- 
vation Service made the survey along with volunteer labor and assistance 
from the community of Big Sandy. 

This soils report and the interpretive maps will provide the community 
planners and developers with basic soils information that can help them 
to make wise land use decisions for the betterment of the community. 

Properly used, this report can help the City Council, as well as all 
citizens of the community, in making Big Sandy a better place to live. 
Home owners, planning consultants, engineers and others can all benefit 
from a better knowledge of their basic resource-- the soil. The inter- 
pretations given in this report will not eliminate the need for on-site 
soil investigations for specific design and construction. 

The Soil Conservation Service gratefully acknowledges the assistance and 
support extended by the community of Big Sandy. It is the hope of the 
Service that all who are involved in land use decisions will consider 
the soil resource, the alternatives for its land use, and the needs of 



SECTION I. THE SOIL SURVEY 


Location and Extent 


The community of Big Sandy is located in Chouteau County, Montana, 
approximately 81 miles northeast of Great Falls and 33 miles southwest 
of Havre on Highway 87. 

This soil survey and report covers an area of 1640 acres. Approxi- 
mately 270 acres are in the city limits of Big Sandy. The topography 
is nearly level to moderately sloping. There are short undulating 
slopes to the south, west, and north, forming a basin within the city 
limits. The drainage pattern consists of several small intermittent 
drainage courses leading into Big Sandy Creek, a perennial stream flow- 
ing to the north. Elevation ranges from a low of 2685 feet where Big 
Sandy Creek leaves the northeast corner of the survey area to a high 
of 2800 feet on the rolling slopes on the northwestern edge of the 
survey area. 



Figure 1. Aerial view of Big Sandy showing new grade school in 
foreground. 1968 SCS Photo. 


1 


Climate and Geology 


The climate is characterized by relatively low rainfall, hot summers, 
cold winters, and a large portion of sunny days. Annual precipitation 
at Big Sandy averages 12.06 inches. The heaviest rainfall is in late 
spring and early summer. Occasional heavy snows are recorded during 
the winter months. The maximum temperature on record is 109 degrees F. 
recorded in July. The coldest temperature on record is a minus 52 
degrees F. recorded in February. The daily temperature fluctuations 
are greatest when the nights are cool and daytime temperatures reach 
90 to 100 degrees F. The frost-free season averages 120 to 130 days. 
The last killing frost occurs in mid May and the first killing frost 
in early or mid September. Strong winds are common to the area and 
are more prevalent in the early spring. Hail storms occur in local- 
ized areas during the summer months . 

The soils and physiographic features of the area are closely related. 
The alluvial soils occur on the nearly level flood plains of Big Sandy 
Creek. They consist of stratified clay, silt, and sand, and were 
deposited by flood waters. These soils are usually poorly drained. 

The slightly higher lying area on which the town of Big Sandy is built 
has a thin mantle of alluvium overlying a dense but unconsolidated 
glacial deposit. Associated with the glacial deposit along the west 
and north edge of town is a narrow ridge. This ridge has pockets of 
sand and gravel mixed with the silt and clay materials and is the only 
source of gravel near the city. 



Figure 2. Soil profile of Hill loam with pockets of gravel occurring 
below 2 feet. SCS photo. 


2 


Needs and Methods 


The Big Sandy City Council recognizes the need for and value of soils 
information as a base for planning future developments and improve- 
ments in the community. Because of inadequate surface drainage and 
adverse soil conditions, it has been difficult to maintain streets in 
this community. In some areas, soft spots and depressions make 
streets impassable in the spring or during wet weather. Locally, poor 
surface drainage and slow permeability of the soil causes surface pond 
ing. Basements receive some seepage water where subsurface water 
moves laterally along the less permeable soil layers. In some areas, 
wetness and high salt concentrations have caused damage to concrete 
foundations, sidewalks, buried pipelines, and to shrubbery. 



Figure 3. Temporary flooding and ponding from surface runoff during 
spring and summer causes damage and inconvenience to some 
home owners . 

To help the community of Big Sandy with these problems, the City Council 
made a formal request to the Big Sandy Soil and Water Conservation 
District for assistance. They asked for a detailed soil survey and the 
soil interpretations that would help them in their future planning. At 
the request of the District, soil scientists from the Soil Conservation 
Service made a detailed soil survey on 1640 acres. The city of Big 
Sandy hired a backhoe and operator to dig 44 pits. These pits were 
of tremendous value for making detailed study of the soils and des- 
cribing their characteristics. The pits varied in depth from 8 to 
12 feet. They were located by the survey party leader and were 
representative of the most extensive soils in the area. 

A pastor, postmaster, water commissioner, bank cashier, two businessmen, 
and the local Chapter of Future Farmers of America volunteered their 
assistance. They helped collect and label soil samples for laboratory 
analyses . 


3 



Figure 4. Future Farmers of America boys assisting SCS soil scientist 
with sampling and labeling soils for laboratory analyses. 
SCS photo. 



Figure 5. Reverend Adam and Water Commissioner Trepina bagging soil 
samples for laboratory analyses. SCS photo 1967. 


4 


The State Highway Commission of Montana made laboratory analyses of 
these samples and furnished some of the data in evaluating the differ- 
ent soils for various uses. 



Figure 6. Soil Scientist Clark examines the Rista soil in a pit 
excavated with a backhoe by the City of Big Sandy. 

Photo by Jeanne Wilson. 

In the course of the survey, the soil scientists observed the depth of 
the soil and the thickness of each soil layer. They studied and 
recorded for each soil layer such characteristics as color, texture, 
structure, consistence, lime content, wetness, salts, and kinds and 
amounts of gravel. In addition to these soil characteristics, which 
identify each kind of soil, slope, past erosion and flood hazards 
were also considered. 


How to Use this Report 

The information in this report can be more easily understood by follow- 
ing a sequence of study. 

First, examine the soil map on page 7. It shows the location and extent 
of each kind of soil. Cultural features such as roads, buildings and 
Big Sandy Creek are reference points which can help locate a particular 
tract of land. Many tracts of land will have two or more different 
kinds of soils within its boundary. Each delineation on the soil map 
is called a soil mapping unit and contains a map symbol by which it 
can be identified. All soil symbols on the map are defined in Table I. 
Identification Legend. It is important to know that boundaries between 
many soils are not sharp and that one kind of soil tends to grade into 
another which is joining it. 


5 


After finding the area of interest, identify the soil symbol and turn 
to the appropriate soil description. The soil description includes 
information about the composition of soils in the mapping unit and 
specific statements about the texture, color, structure, and depth. In 
studying the soil description, it should be understood there are ranges 
in characteristics of the properties of each soil. The properties des- 
cribed are most representative of the soil for that area. Within each 
mapping unit there are usually minor inclusions of other soils. 

When the descriptions of mapping units have been studied, refer to the 
section on soil interpretations. Detailed information is given in this 
section on the limitations of the soils for alternative uses. 


Names and Descriptions of Soils 


There are twenty-one different mapping units on the soil map for the 
Big Sandy community. Each mapping unit is named in terms of the major 
soil series within its boundary. A soil series is a kind of soil that 
has similar characteristics and sequence of soil layers, or horizons, 
except for texture of the surface six inches of soil. The surface 
texture for the same soil may change because of tillage. All soil 
series names in this report are tentative and subject to change pending 
completion of a soil survey of Chouteau County. Soil series name 
changes will not affect the usefulness of the soil map or the interpre- 
tations that can be made from it. 

Several of the mapping units described in this report consist of two or 
more kinds of soil that occur in intricate patterns and are not large 
enough to show separately. 

The mapping units are listed alphabetically in the identification 
legend in Table 1. Following the identification legend is the des- 
cription of each mapping unit. These descriptions emphasize the 
major soil properties that influence the behavior of the soil under 
alternative uses and kinds of management needed to protect the resource. 


- 6 - 


R. 13 E 



> < 

t < 

h- 

=5 o 

5 2E 


h~ 


05 

CVJ 




ADVANCE COPY ™ SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



Table 1 . Identification Legend - Mapping Unit Name and Approximate 

Acreage. (All soil names are tentative and subject to change) 


S y mb o 1 Soil N ame 

Acres 

Percent 

Aa 

Absher-Devon , alkali variant, complex, 3 to 6 
percent slopes 

18 

1.0 

Ab 

Absher-Nobe complex, 0 to 2 percent slopes 

14 

0.9 

Da 

Devon loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes 

76 

4.6 

Db 

Devon loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes 

312 

19.1 

Dc 

Devon loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes 

21 

1.3 

Dd 

Devon loam, thick solum phase, 0 to 1 percent slopes 50 

3.0 

De 

Devon loam, alkali variant, 0 to 2 percent slopes 

59 

3.6 

Df 

Devon loam, alkali variant, 2 to 4 percent slopes 

16 

1.0 

Ea 

Emmer-Absher complex, 0 to 1 percent slopes 

191 

11.7 

Eb 

Ethridge clay loam, 0 to 1 percent slopes 

102 

Cs) 

0 

Ha 

Hagga loam, 0 to 1 percent slopes 

59 

3.6 

Hb 

Hagga loam, saline phase, 0 to 1 percent slopes 

95 

5.8 

He 

Hill and Tinsley soils, 6 to 20 percent slopes 

45 

2.7 

Hd 

Hill -Devon loams, 3 to 10 percent slopes 

107 

6.5 

la 

Ideon clay loam, 0 to 1 percent slopes 

109 

6.7 

lb 

Ideon clay, alkali variant, 0 to 1 percent slopes 

18 

1.0 

Ic 

Ideon clay, sandy substratum phase, 0 to 1 percent 
s i opes 

25 

1.5 

Pa 

Poser -Kerwin clay loams, 0 to 1 percent slopes 

9 

0.5 

Pb 

Poser, moderately well drained variant-Emmer loams 
0 to 1 percent slopes 

110 

6.8 

Ra 

Rista clay loam, 0 to 1 percent slopes 

50 

3.0 

Rb 

Rista clay loam, wet phase, 0 to 1 percent slopes 

144 

8.9 


Lagoon _L0 (A6 

1640 100.0 


TOTAL 


Symbols Used on Soils Maps 


Soil symbol and boundary: Soil symbol 



•*--Soil 


boundary 


(Aa Absher-Devon , alkali variant, complex, 3 to 6 percent slopes-- 
The symbol "Aa" identifies the mapping unit. The black line that 
surrounds each symbol is the mapping unit boundary.) 


Other boundaries , marks 
City limits _ 


Cemetery 


CEM 


and monuments: 


Works of structures 
Good motor road 
Poor motor road 
Railroad 


) l I l I -H I I / / 


Hwy . 



Cultural features significant for orientation : 


Church 


i 


School 


Gravel Pit 


£ 

V 


Drainage : 


Perennial stream 


Intermittent drainageway 


8 


Descriptions of Soil Mapping Units 


(Aa) Absher-Devon , alkali variant, complex, 3 to 6 percent slopes - - 
This unit has two major soils that occur in an intricate pattern. It 
is impractical to make separation on the map with the scale used. The 
soils in this unit occur on gentle to moderate, irregular or undulating 
slopes. They are found in one area just north of Big Sandy. This unit 
consists mainly of two so ils- -Absher clay loam and Devon loam, alkali 
variant. The Absher soils comprise about. 30 percent of the unit and 
are on the more concave portion of the landscape. The Devon, alkali 
variant, soils comprise approximately 50 percent of the unit. Small 
inclusions of several other soils that have only slightly different 
characteristics comprise up to 25 percent of the unit. 

The Absher soils have a thin, grayish brown, mildly alkaline, loam sur- 
face layer about 4 inches thick. The subsoil to 18 inches is heavy 
silty clay loam with distinct prismatic or blocky structure. The. soils 
below 18 to 24 inches are strongly alkaline clays that are very hard 
when dry and very slowly permeable. White flecks of segregated lime 
and gypsum are common in this layer. 

The Devon, alkali variant, soils have a grayish brown, mildly alkaline 
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsoils to 12 inches are 
friable clay loam, with prismatic or blocky structure. Below 12 inches 
the soils become very strongly alkaline and loam or clay loam textures 
predominate. The Devon soils are slowly permeable except for thin 
lenses of fine sandy loam that transmit water laterally. This results 
in seepage in excavation and open cuts. 

(Ab) Absher-Nobe complex, 0 to 2 percent slopes - - 

The soils in this unit are nearly level and occur only in one area 
northeast of Big Sandy. This unit: consists mainly of Absher clay loam 
and Nobe clay. The Absher soils comprise about .50 percent of the unit 
and occupy the smooth, slightly elevated position. The Nobe clay soils 
comprise about 40 to 50 percent of the unit and occur on the concave 
positions which are nearly barren of vegetation. These two soils occur 
in an intricate pattern and it is not practical to separate them on the map 
at the mapping scale used. 

The Absher soils have a thin, grayish brown, mildly alkaline, loam surface 
layer about 4 inches thick. The subsoil to 18 inches is a silty clay 
with distinct prismatic, or blocky structure. The soil below 18 inches 
is strongly alkaline clay that is very hard when dry and very slowly 
permeable. White flecks of segregated lime and gypsum are common in 
this layer. 

The Nobe clay soils have a very thin, light brownish gray surface layer 
which forms a hard crust when dry. The soil below 2 inches is a strongly 
alkaline clay that, is very slowly permeable. The surface runoff from 
adjacent areas frequently ponds in these shallow concave positions. 


9 


(Da) Devon loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes - - 

This soil occurs on nearly level to very gently undulating slopes. In 
this unit Devon soils comprise about 85 percent of the area. Included 
are several other soils that have only slightly different characteris- 
tics. These comprise less than 15 percent of the unit. 

The Devon soils have a grayish brown, friable loam surface layer about 
6 inches thick. The subsoil to 12 inches is a friable clay loam with 
prismatic structure. The clay loam soil below 12 inches is strongly 
calcareous and segregated lime is common. Below 24 inches the soil is 
a friable clay loam with weak prismatic structure. This soil is under- 
lain by a compact clay loam glacial till or lacustrine deposit at 40- 
to 60-inch depths. Within short distances the depth to the compact 
soil may vary as much as 2 feet. The soil permeability is moderately 
slow to the compact layer and slow below. 


(Db) Devon loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes -- 

Soils in this unit are on gently sloping to gently undulating topography. 
Devon loam comprises -80 to 85 percent of the soils in this unit. Small 
inclusions of Hill loam on convex positions and Ethridge loam in some 
concave areas comprise less than 20 percent of the area. The inclusions 
of Hill and Ethridge soils are in areas less than 5 acres in size and 
in very irregular pattern. 

The Devon soils have a grayish brown, friable loam surface layer about 
6 inches thick. The subsoil to 12 inches is a friable clay loam with 
prismatic structure. The clay loam soil below 12 inches is strongly 
calcareous and segregated lime is common. Below 24 inches is a friable 
clay loam with weak prismatic structure. This soil is underlain by a 
compact clay loam glacial till or lacustrine deposit at 40- to 60-inch 
depths. Within short distances these depths may vary as much as 2 feet. 
The soil permeability is moderately slow to the compact layer. The 
compact layer below 30 inches is slowly permeable. 

The Hill soils are calcareous and have a light colored, loam surface 
layer. The subsoil to depths greater than 6 feet have stratified, 
loamy textures with moderate permeability. 

The Ethridge soils have a grayish brown, friable loam surface layer 
6 inches thick. The subsoil to about 18 inches is friable silty clay 
with prismatic structure. Below 18 to 24 inches is a silty clay loam 
that is strongly calcareous and has common lime segregation. The lower 
subsoil at about 40-inch depths is more compact and slowly permeable. 


(Dc) Devon loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes -- 

The soils in this mapping unit are similar to the Devon loam soils on 
2 to 4 percent slopes (Db) , except they are more sloping and moderately 
undulating. They occur mostly along the northwest edge of the survey 
area. Devon loam soil comprises 80 to 85 percent of this unit with 
minor inclusions of Hill loam on some convex positions. The Hill soils 
occur in areas less than 5 acres in size. 


- 10 


(Dd ) Devon loam, thick so l um phase, Q to 1 percent slopes - - 
This soil is found on nearly level to slightly concave slopes. The 
soils in this unit differ from Devon loam in having the lime deeper in 
the profile. The Devon, thick solum, soils comprise about 80 percent, 
of the unit. Small inclusions of Poser soils will not exceed 20 percent 
of the unit. The Poser soils occur in an irregular pattern and in small 
concave positions in areas less than 3 acres in size. 

The Devon loam, thick solum, soils have a grayish brown, friable, loam 
surface layer about 7 inches thick. The subsoil to about 26 inches is 
a friable clay loam with prismatic structure. Below 26 inches the soil 
is strongly calcareous and has some segregated lime. Loam textures 
dominate this layer to a depth of about 60 inches, at which depth the 
soil is a compact clay loam glacial till. Permeability is moderately 
slow to 60 inches and slow in the compact glacial till below 60 inches. 

The Poser soils have a light brownish gray loam surface about 7 inches 
thick that forms a crust when dry. The subsoil to 1.5 inches is clay 
texture with prismatic structure. The soil between 15 and 60 inches is 
strongly calcareous, heavy clay loam texture with blocky structure. The 
soil below 40 inches is strongly alkaline and slowly permeable. 


(De) Devon loam, alkali variant, 0 to 2 percent slopes - - 
This soil is found north of Big Sandy on nearly level to very gentle 
slopes. Devon loam, alkali variant, makes up 85 to 95 percent of the 
unit. Absher clay loam soils occur in small, slightly concave posi- 
tions throughout the unit in areas less than an acre in size. 

Devon loam, alkali variant, has a grayish brown loam surface layer about 
5 inches thick. The subsoil to about 11 inches is a friable clay loam 
with prismatic structure. Below 11 inches the soil texture is predomi- 
nantly clay loam. It is very strongly alkaline and strongly calcareous 
with white flecks of lime, gypsum, and salts. The soil below 11 inches 
is slowly permeable. 

Absher soils have a thin, grayish brown, mildly alkaline, loam surface 
layer about 4 inches thick. The subsoil to 14 inches is a heavy clay 
loam with distinct prismatic structure. Below 14 inches is strongly 
alkaline clay loam or clay that becomes very hard when dry and is very 
s 1 ow 1 y p e. r me able. 


(Df) Devon loam, alkali variant, 2 to 4 percent slopes - - 
This soil is found north of Big Sandy on gently sloping to gently undu- 
lating slopes. Devon loam, alkali variant, makes up 85 to 90 percent of 
the unit. Inclusions of Absher clay loam occur in small, slightly con- 
cave areas throughout the unit. These areas are less than an acre in 
size and comprise less than 15 percent of the mapping unit. 

Devon loam, alkali variant, has a thin, grayish brown, loam surface 
layer about 5 inches thick. The subsoil to about 11 inches is a friable 
clay loam with prismatic structure. Below 11 inches the soil texture 
is predominantly clay loam. It is very strongly alkaline and strongly 


11 


calcareous with white flecks of lime, gypsum and salts. The soil 
below 11 inches is slowly permeable. 

The Absher soils have a thin, grayish brown, mildly alkaline loam sur- 
face layer about 4 inches thick. The subsoil to 14 inches is a heavy 
clay loam with distinct prismatic structure. Below 14 inches is strongly 
alkaline clay loam or clay that becomes very hard when dry and is very 
slowly permeable. 


(Ea) Emmer-Absher complex, 0 to 1 percent slopes - - 

The soils in this complex occur on nearly level terraces. They developed 
in strongly alkaline alluvium. This unit consists mainly of Emmer loam 
and Absher clay loam soils. The Emmer soils comprise about 50 percent 
of the unit and occur on the smooth, slightly elevated positions. The 
Absher soils comprise about 36 percent of the unit and are found on the 
smooth to slightly concave positions. Small inclusions of Nobe clay 
are found in the concave areas that are nearly barren of vegetation. 

The Emmer soils have a grayish brown, friable loam surface layer about 
6 inches thick. The subsoil to 20 inches is clay texture with prismatic 
structure. Below 20 inches the clay subsoil is strongly alkaline and 
strongly calcareous. Prominent flecks of lime and salt are visible. 

The surface layer of the Emmer soils absorbs water readily. The clay 
layer below 20 inches is very slowly permeable and temporary saturation 
causes the soil to remain wet for longer periods. 

The Absher soils have a thin grayish brown, mildly alkaline, loam surface 
layer about 4 inches thick. The subsoil to 18 inches is a clay texture 
with distinct prismatic structure. The clay subsoil below 18 to 24 
inches is very slowly permeable and strongly alkaline. It becomes very 
hard when dry and has white flecks of segregated lime and gypsum. 

Nobe clay has a very thin, light brownish gray surface that forms a 
hard crust when dry. The soil below 2 inches is clay texture and very 
strongly alkaline. It is very slowly permeable and surface runoff from 
adjacent areas frequently ponds in these shallow concave positions. 


(Eb) Ethridge clay loam, 0 to 1 percent slopes -- 

Soils in this unit are dominantly within the town site of Big Sandy and 
occur on nearly level to slightly concave slopes. Ethridge clay loam 
comprises about 80 percent of the unit. Small inclusions of Devon loam 
occur on slightly convex positions in areas less than 3 acres in size. 

Ethridge soils have a grayish brown, friable, clay loam surface layer 
7 to 10 inches thick. The subsoil texture to 15 or 18 inches is a clay 
loam with strong prismatic structure. Below 18 inches the clay loam 
texture is strongly calcareous and strongly alkaline. White flecks of 
segregated lime are easily seen. The soil permeability is moderately 
slow. 


- 12 - 


The Devon soils have a grayish brown, friable, loam surface layer about 
6 inches thick. The subsoil to 12 inches is a friable clay loam with 
moderate prismatic structure. Below 12 inches the friable, clay loam is 
strongly calcareous and has weak prismatic structure. This soil is under 
lain by a compact clay loam glacial till or lacustrine deposit at 40- to 
60-inch depths. The soil is moderately permeable to the compact layer 
slowly permeable below. 

(Ha) Hagga loam, 0 to 1 percent slopes - - 

This soil occurs on the nearly level to very slightly undulating flood 
plain of Big Sandy Creek. It is subject to frequent overflow during 
periods of runoff. The Hagga loam comprises 80 to 85 percent of the unit 
Minor inclusions of Ideon clay loam occupy long, narrow, slightly con- 
cave areas that are less than 5 acres in size. 

The poorly drained Hagga soils have a grayish brown, friable, loam sur- 
face layer about 5 inches thick. The subsoil to about 48 inches is 
stratified loamy textured and is calcareous and moderately alkaline. 
Yellowish brown mottles associated, with restricted drainage are common 
in the. subsoil. The soil below 48 inches is dominantly very slowly 
permeable clay that is strongly alkaline. 

The Ideon soils have more clay throughout the profile than the 
associated Hagga soils. 


(Hb) Hagga loam, saline phase, 0 to 1 percent slopes - - 
This soil occurs on the. very slightly undulating flood plain of Big 
Sandy Creek and is subject to frequent overflow during periods of runoff. 
The Hagga soils in this unit are strongly saline and comprise about 80 
percent of the unit. Minor inclusions of Ideon clay loam occur in long, 
narrow, slightly concave areas which are less than 3 acres in size. 

The saline Hagga soils have a light brownish gray loam or clay loam sur- 
face layer about 5 inches thick. A thin, white, salt crust forms on the 
surface when the soil is dry. The subsoil to a depth of 48 inches is 
stratified sandy loam and clay loam. It is strongly alkaline and has 
common white salt, flecks and, yellowish brown mottles. These. Hagga soils 
are poorly drained and have a very slowly permeable clay layer below 48 
inches . 

The included Ideon soils differ from the Hagga soils primarily in having 
more clay throughout the profile. The Ideon soils do not have the white, 
salt crust on the surface, but are strongly alkaline in the lower subsoils 


(He) Hill and Tinsley soils, 6 to 20 percent slopes - - 

Soils in this unit occur on moderately steep and rolling topography north 
and west of Big Sandy. Hill loam and Tinsley cobbly loam comprise about 
70 percent of the. unit. These soils occur in unpredictable, patterns on 
convex, slopes of ridges and mounds. The Hill soils comprise. 40 to 50 
percent of the unit and Tinsley cobbly and gravelly soils 15 to 30 per- 
cent. Devon loam is a major included soil. It occurs in narrow, 
irregular pattern on concave slopes adjacent to drainageways and com- 
prises about 15 to 25 percent of the unit. 


13 


The Hill soils have a thin, light brownish gray, friable, calcareous, 
loam surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsoils are calcareous, 
stratified loam and clay loam material with occasional gravel pockets 
and thin lenses of fine sandy loam. This kind of soil continues to 
depths of 6 feet or more. 

The Tinsley soils have a thin, grayish brown, cobbly and gravelly loam 
surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 5 feet or 
more is stratified very gravelly sandy loam, very gravelly loamy sand, 
and very fine sand. This soil is rapidly permeable and has very low 
available water storage because of its sandy texture. 

The associated Devon soils have a grayish brown, friable, loam surface 
layer about 6 inches thick. The subsoil to about 12 inches is a friable 
clay loam with prismatic and blocky structure. Below 12 inches is a 
friable clay loam with prismatic and blocky structure. Below 12 inches 
the friable clay loam or loam soils become strongly calcareous, with weak 
prismatic structure in the upper part. The permeability of the Devon 
soils is moderately slow. These soils have good water storage capacity. 


(Hd ) Hill-Devon loams, 3 to 10 percent slopes - - 

The soils in this unit are found northeast of Big Sandy on moderately 
sloping and rolling topography. This unit consists mainly of Hill and 
Devon loams. The Hill soils comprise 45 to 60 percent of the unit and 
occur on the convex positions of the landscape. Devon soils make up 
15 to 35 percent of the unit and occupy smooth slopes and some concave 
positions. These two soils occur in such irregular complex patterns 
that it is not feasible to make separation on a soil map at the scale 
used. Minor inclusions of Ethridge clay loam may occur in concave 
positions but make up less than 15 percent of the unit. 

The Hill soils have a thin, light brownish gray, friable loam surface 
layer about 5 inches thick. The subsoil to 60 inches or more is strati- 
fied calcareous loam and clay loam. 

The Devon soils in this unit have a grayish brown, friable, loam surface 
layer about 6 inches thick. The subsoil to 12 inches is friable clay 
loam with prismatic and blocky structure. Below 12 inches the soil is 
a clay loam or loam with weak prismatic structure which becomes massive 
below 24 inches. This soil is strongly calcareous and has some lime 
segregation. It is underlain by a compact clay loam glacial till or 
lacustrine deposit at 30- to 60-inch depths. Within a short distance 
these depths may vary as much as 2 feet. The permeability of the soil 
is moderately slow to the compact layer and is slow in the compact, layer. 

The Ethridge soils have a grayish brown, friable, clay loam or loam sur- 
face layer about 6 inches thick. The subsoil to about 18 inches is 
friable silty clay with prismatic and blocky structure. Below 18 inches 
the soil is a strongly calcareous silty clay loam with blocky structure 
in the upper part. 


" 14 ~ 


(la) Ideon clay loam, 0 to 1 percent slopes - - 

This soil occurs on the nearly level flood plain of Big Sandy Creek, 
which is subject to frequent, overflow during periods of runoff. The 
Ideon soils comprise about 85 percent of the unit. Inclusions of 
Hagga soils occur in the narrow, slightly convex positions in areas 
less than 3 acres in size. 

The poorly drained Ideon soils have a grayish brown, friable, clay loam 
surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsoil below 5 inches is 
stratified calcareous clay loam and clay which is strongly alkaline, and 
very hard when dry. It is slowly permeable and has yellowish brown 
mottles . 

The poorly drained Hagga soils have a light brownish gray loam surface 
layer about 5 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 48 inches is 
stratified loamy materials that are moderately alkaline and have common 
yellowish brown mottles. Below 48 inches the soil is dominantly clay 
which is strongly alkaline and very slowly permeable. 


(l b) Ideon clay , alkali variant, 0 to 1 percent slopes — 

This soil occurs on nearly level and slightly concave positions on the 
flood plain of Big Sandy Creek. The very strongly alkaline Ideon soils 
comprise about 70 percent of the unit. Inclusions of the normal Ideon 
clay loam soil occur on the slightly convex areas as long, narrow 
fingers. These areas are less than 2 acres in size. 

The very strongly alkaline Ideon soils are light brownish gray clay to 
depths of 60 inches or more. Thin layers of loamy textured soils occur 
locally. This soil is very slowly permeable, poorly drained, and sub- 
ject to overflow during periods of high runoff. 

The normal Ideon clay loam soils have a grayish brown, friable, clay 
loam surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsoil below 5 inches is 
stratified clay and clay loam which is calcareous, strongly alkaline, 
and s 1 ow 1 y p e r me able. 

(l c) Ideon clay, sandy substratum phase, 0 to 1 percent slopes - - 
This soil occurs on nearly level to very gently undulating topography 

on the flood plain of Big Sandy Creek. It is subject to overflow during 
periods of runoff. The sandy substratum phase, of Ideon soils comprises 
about 80 percent of the unit. Minor inclusions of Hagga clay loam, 
saline phase, occur on slightly convex positions in long, narrow fingers 
less than 2 acres in size. 

In this unit the poorly drained Ideon soils have a light brownish gray, 
strongly alkaline, clay or clay loam surface layer about 9 inches thick. 
The subsoil to a depth of 26 inches is stratified, calcareous clay and 
clay loam with yellowish brown mottles. The soil is slowly permeable 
to 26 inches. Below 26 inches the soils are sandy loam and loamy sand 
and are strongly alkaline and moderately permeable. The water table 
fluctuates rapidly with changes in streamflow of Big Sandy Creek. 


- 15 


The poorly drained Hagga clay loam, saline phase, has a light brownish 
gray surface layer about 5 inches thick. A thin, white, salt crust 
forms on the surface when dry. The subsoil to 40 inches or more is 
stratified loam and friable clay loam with yellowish brown mottles 
and common white salt flecks. 


(Pa) Poser-Kerwin clay loams, 0 to 1 percent slopes -- 
The soils in this complex occur south of Big Sandy on nearly level 
terraces. This unit comprises Poser and Kerwin clay loam soils. The 
Poser soils occupy the concave positions and comprise 50 to 70 percent 
of the unit. The Kerwin soils are commonly found on the nearly level 
to slightly concave positions. 

The Poser soils have a light brownish gray clay loam surface layer about 
6 inches thick which forms a crust when dry. The subsoil to about 27 
inches is firm clay with prismatic and blocky structure. Dark yellowish 
brown mottles are present in this layer. Below 27 inches the soil is a 
strongly calcareous clay with many visible soft lime nodules. The slowly 
permeable Poser soils receive additional runoff from adjacent areas and 
temporary ponding is common to many areas . 

The Kerwin soils have a grayish brown, friable, silty clay loam surface 
layer about 10 inches thick. The subsoil to about 24 or 29 inches is 
friable silty clay with blocky and prismatic structure. Below 29 inches 
the soil is a massive, calcareous silty clay loam and silty clay which 
is strongly alkaline and slowly permeable. 


( Pb) Poser, moderately well drained variant -Emmer loams, 0 to 1 percent 
slopes -- 

Soils in this complex occur on very gently undulating terraces south of 
Big Sandy. Poser loam, moderately well drained variant, and Emmer loam 
comprise about 80 percent of the mapping unit. The Poser soils make up 
about 50 percent of the unit and occur in the slightly concave positions 
The Emmer soils comprise about 30 percent of the unit and occupy the 
nearly level to slightly convex positions. Minor inclusions of strongly 
alkaline soils occur on the slightly higher convex portion of the land- 
scape. These strongly alkaline soils comprise about 20 percent of the 
mapping unit. They occur in small areas in a very complex pattern. 

The Poser, moderately well drained variant, soil has a light brownish 
gray loam surface layer about 7 inches thick which forms a hard crust 
on drying. The subsoil to 15 inches is a firm clay with blocky and 
prismatic structure. It lacks the distinct, yellowish brown mottles 
of the typical Poser soil. Below 15 inches the soil is strongly cal- 
careous clay and clay loam which is strongly alkaline and contains 
white flecks of segregated lime and gypsum. This soil is slowly perme- 
ab 1 e . 

The Emmer soils have a grayish brown, friable, loam surface layer 
about 6 inches thick. The subsoil to 16 inches is a clay texture with 


16 


prismatic and blocky structure. Below 16 inches the clay soil is 
massive, strongly calcareous and strongly alkaline- Soil permeabil- 
ity is slow to very slow 0 

(Ra) Rista clay loam, 0 to 1 percent slopes - - 

This soil occurs on the nearly level flood plain adjacent to Big Sandy 
Creek where the soil is frequently flooded. The Rista soils make up 
about 80 percent of the unit. Inclusions of poorly drained Hagga soils 
occur in concave positions and comprise less 20 percent of the unit. 

The Rista soils, which are calcareous, have a grayish brown, friable, 
clay loam or loam surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsoil to 
a depth of about 60 inches is stratified and predominantly sandy loam, 
loam, clay loam, and loamy fine sand texture. Yellowish brown mottles 
occur throughout the soil. Below 60 inches the soil has slowly permeable 
clay layers. 

The poorly drained Hagga soils have a light brownish gray, friable loam 
surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of about. 48 
inches has stratified loamy textures. This soil is calcareous, strongly 
alkaline, and has common yellowish brown mottles. Below 48 inches, the 
soil is dominantly clay which is slowly permeable. 

(Rb) Rista clay loam, wet p h ase, 0 to 1 percent slopes - - 
This very poorly drained soil occurs on nearly level and slightly con- 
cave positions on the flood plain of Big Sandy Creek. These wet soils 
comprise about: 75 percent of the unit. Inclusions of Ideon soils occupy 
slightly higher portions of the landscape. They occur as narrow 
fingers in areas less than 3 acres in size. 

The Rista soils have a grayish brown, friable, clay loam surface layer 
about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is stratified, calcareous, sandy loam and 
loam textures that are usually wet and have yellowish brown mottles. 

Below 50 inches there are slowly permeable clay layers that are very 
hard when dry and strongly alkaline. 

The Ideon soils have a light brownish gray clay loam or clay surface 
layer about 9 inches thick, which is strongly alkaline. The subsoil 
to a depth of 25 inches is stratified clay and silty clay that is cal- 
careous and has yellowish brown mottles. Below 26 inches the soil is 
more sandy than is typical for the Ideon soils. 


- 17 


SECTION II. SOIL INTERPRETATIONS FOR LAND USE PLANNING 


This section contains the kinds of soil interpretations that should 
guide land use decisions of engineers, contractors, planners, home 
owners, and farmers. Soil interpretations are predictions of how 
soils will react or behave under specific use and treatment. These 
interpretations are based on soil properties to a depth of five feet 
and provide the layman with the kinds of soil information that can 
be readily understood and used when making land use decisions. They 
point out the limitations and hazards of each kind of soil for a 
particular kind of use. They are not recommendations and should not 
be used when determining the need for specific design and construction. 
They will not eliminate the need for on-site sampling and testing for 
the design and construction of engineering works. 

Colored maps are used to show the limitations and hazards of soils for 
different kinds of uses. Color ratings of green, yellow and red are 
used, based on the most limiting soil quality of a soil. Green is used 
for the soils having the least limitation, yellow for the next, and red 
for the soils with the greatest limitation. There are three colored 
interpretive maps contained in this report. Each map shows the evalua- 
tion of soils for a particular kind of use. These are single-purpose 
interpretive maps--a very effective way to show what soil areas are 
best suited for a particular kind of use. 

In some areas soils occur in complex patterns, and mapping units must, 
by necessity, include more than one kind of soil. In areas where two 
or more soils behave differently, it becomes necessary to make the 
evaluation on the most limiting soil in the complex, provided it com- 
prises one-third of the area in the mapping unit. 

Guides and criteria used in making specific interpretations are included 
in Section III of this report. 

Soil Characteristics and Qualities 


Table 2 shows the important soil characteristics and qualities of each 
kind of soil that influence its use. Definitions of column headings for 
Table 2 are given below. 

(1) Soil Series names. All soil series names are tentative and subject 
to change. 

(2) Pos it ion is the kind of land form or type of topography on which 
the soil occurs. 

Soil Profile is a vertical section of the soil through all of its hori- 
zons or layers extending from the surface into the parent material. 

This is subdivided into three major horizons: surface layer, subsoil, 

and substratum. 


(3) Surface Layer is the uppermost layer of soil. It varies in thick- 
ness for each kind of soil. Usually it is no more than 8 inches thick. 


- 19 


(4) Subsoil is that: part of the soil profile lying between the sur- 
face layer and the substratum. It varies in thickness in rela- 
tion to the contrast of soil characteristics below. 

(5) Substratum is the lower portion of the soil profile that has been 
least altered by soil forming processes. 

Soil Drainage refers to the rapidity and extent of the removal of water 
from the soil in relation to surface runoff and by flow through the soil 
to underground spaces. Two types of soil drainage are significant to 
evaluation for multiple land use treatment: surface and internal. 

(6) Surface Runoff refers to the rate water is removed from the soil 
by surface flow. It may fall in the form of rain or accumulate 
as runoff from adjacent areas. 

(7) Drainage Class is determined on the basis of observation 

and inferences used to obtain rate of runoff, soil permeability 
and internal movement of water through the soil. Six drainage 
classes were used and they are defined in the Glossary. 

(8) Flooding or Overflo w refers to the frequency that excessive water 
accumulates or flows over the soil surface from stream flooding, 
runoff, or seepage for more than two consecutive days. The fre- 
quency of flooding for residential use is more critical than for 
cropland use. The flood class hazard rating is based on residen- 
tial use of the land, not for agriculture. 

Classes F requency 

Never 

Occasional - Once in 15 years 

Frequent - More often than once in 15 years 

(9) AWC (Available Water Capacity) is the amount of water held in the 
soil that is available for plant growth after all free water has 
drained away. It is expressed as inches of water per 5-foot depth 
of soil. 

(10) Effective S oil Depth is the depth to which the soil is readily 
penetrated by roots and utilized for extraction of water and plant 
nutrients. The soils in this area were all more than 60 inches 
deep . 

(11) Erosion H azard is the relative susceptibility of the soil to the 
prevailing erosion agents of water and wind. In general, the 
risk of erosion depends on soil texture, structure, slope, vege- 
tative cover, runoff, and stream overflow. Erosion hazards are 
listed as slight, moderate, or severe, based on the soil qualities 
which make them susceptable to erosion if they are not protected 
by an adequate plant cover. 


20 - 


Table 2. Soil Characteristics and Qualities 



T-ible 2 (Continued) 


r O X ^ 

< c ^ 


a; 

cj X 
3 X 
X O 

G c 
3 3 

c/5 a; 


X) w 
3 


X 








































3 




Zj 



01 





ty 






aj 




y 




X 





X 




0J 





L 




m 



G 





G 






~ 













X 




L 





OJ 




O 



O 





0) 










y 




Cl 





oo 




0J 





"C 




> 



> 





> 






• — 




> 




•r- 





• r-* 




> 





' 




dJ 



o 





<y 






, — i 




<y 










—> 




01 









y 



C/3 





co 






cr. 




y. 




C/5 





y. 




y. 





-4- 




+ 



+ 





+ 






+ 




+ 




_+ 





+ 




_-F 





Z 







o 





o 






C 








b 





o 




3 





X 




X 



X 





X 






X 




X 




X 





X 




X 









7 



I 

































o 




— - 



x 





z 






— 1 








— < 





b 









"I* 




o 



i 





O' 






o 








1 

o 





1 




O' 





00 






































































































3 









3 













X 



X 





X 






X 




C 




X 





C 




X 









c 



C 





c 






c 




o 




c 





O 




c 









<y 



0) 





0» 






<y 




•G 




01 





•G 




OJ 









3 



3 





3 






3 




CO 




3 





CO 




3 





OJ 




cr 



cr 





cr 






cr 




3 




cr 





3 




cr 





> 




a> 



dJ 





<y 






<y 




O 




0) 





CJ 




0J 





<y 




g 



G 





G 






G 




U 




G 





o 




L 





z 




x 



Cl 





Cl 






X 




O 




a 





o 




a 























>. 




> 




z 








































r™J 















“0 






X 











<y 




dJ 




0> 















0) 



X 



3 


X 




X 





X 

X 



X 


X 


X 


X 




X 




X 





c 



>. dJ 



X 

3^ 

oj 



Z 

d> 





3 

<y 



3 


cy 


3 


0J 




cy 



z 

0J 








x c 



3 


C 




c 





G 

c 



G 


c 


G 


c 




c 




c 





3 



Li X 



oj 

G 




G 

*G 





<V 

r ^ -G 



<y 

. — 1 



0J 

rG 




r— t 




G 

•G 





V- 



O 03 



F. 

O 

3 



O 

3 





X 

x CT3 



X 

X 

3 


X 

rG 

3 



X 

3 



O 

3 




oj 

X 



0 g 




O 

G 



o 

G 





O 

<y g 



o 

0) 

G 


O 

0J 

G 



dJ 

G 



O 

G 




3 




cu -a 



C/3 

CL -O 



Cl 

X 





x 

5 X 





X 




X 




X 



a 

X 




X 



































£ 





• M 




3 



3 





3 










>. 













•G 





a 




o 



O 





o 






o 




G 

o 



o 





O 




X 





H3 






















<y 













0J 





a 




C/3 



CO 





CO 






cr 




> 

CO 



t n 





C/5 




£ 
























, 





<y 








F 




















X 







00 





c 




i 




3 




















0) 






X 

c 









X 



X 

O 




















•M 






CO 

e o 



c 




c 


o 



CO 





















X 

X 





•G 

3 G 





3 


5 

z 

E 



•G 


. r 



















•G 

0) 





c 

O X 



o 

G 



o 

G 




C 

z 

X 



















X 

5 

a» 




« 

x co 



G 

d) 

rG 


G 

0J 




* 

3 

G 0) 



















3 


c 




o 




X 

> 

3 


X 

> 

CO 

0) 


o 

r— l 

3 C 



















G 

. «. 

•G 




G 

>N •- 









3 

c 


G 

CJ 

X *G 



















X 

co 





X 

3 >N 



X 


Z 


X 


O 

•G 


X 


r—C 



















CO 

<y 

3 





x 3 



CO 

<y 

rG 


CO 

0J 

0J 

«— ( 



X 

Z 3 




















G 





X 

O x 



•G 

> 

00 


•G 

> 

G 

3 


X 

c 

G 



















>> 

3 

X 




X 

U 

cy 


Z 

•G 

c 


z 

•G 

3 



X 

3 

0J rG 



















3 

X 

3 




00 

>N 

c 


3 

CO 

o 


3 

CO 

o 



00 


> 3 



















G 

X 





•G 

X Z 

• G 


G 

CO 

G 


G 

CO 

M 

3 


•G 

Z 




















00 

0) 

>N 




X 

X Li 

X 


OO 

3 

X 


00 

3 

3 



G 

3 

.r >, 




















X 

G 





•G G 

3 



b 

CO 



b 

O 

Z 



r— l 

cy -y 



















z 


00 




z 

CO -G 



- 




- 



. — i 


- 

o 

> 00 



















o 

3n 

c 




O 

CO 

1 — 1 


o 

. » 

. r 


o 

. r 

. r 

0J 


o 


■G C 



















X 

X 

o 




X 

Z 

3 


X 

>* 

X 


X 

z 

X 

X 


X 

z 

co O 



















1 

c 

G 




1 

3 X 



1 

3 

G 


i 

3 

G 

3 


1 

3 

CO L 



















X 

3 

X 




ON 

G C 



o 


3 


i-"- 


3 

G 


m 

G 

3 x 



















CNJ 

CO 

co 




CJ 

00 3 



rG 

O 

X 


CM 

CJ 

X 

0J 


rG 

00 

E w 







X 

Z 

... 


X 



1 


3^ 



X 















1 






.r 


X 





CO 

3 

dJ 


<y 


Z 

F= 


G 


co 

<y 








X 







CO 


. r 




X 


0J 

X 


l 


•G 

r— t 

> 


X 

. « 

M 

O 

F 

d> 

>, 

3 

■G 







. » 

<y 



. M 




■G 


0J 




G d) 


•G 

C 

. r. 

3 


3 

o 

•G 


X 

X 

00 

o 

5 

> 

X 

0 

X 

>N 

. » 





00 u 

X 



o 




G 


c 




3 C 


X 

3 

0J 



O 


co 


• M • »■ 

G 

c X 


o 


00 

di 


3 

X 




C 

C -G 

3 



•G 




a 


•G 


• r 

X 

X *G 


•G 


> 

rG 


r— 1 

X 

CO 

CO 

X Z 

3 

O dJ 


G 


c 

G 

X 


a» 




:* 

O X 

G 



X 

CO 




X 

rG 


z 

c 



X 

P 

■G 

3 

CO 

rG 

a; 

03 

3 

03 03 

X 

G x 

Z 

X 

> 

o 

3 

3 

u 





o 

G 3 

cy 


3 

3 

X 


Z 


G 

3 


3 

3 

Z 3 


3 

d 

CO 


p 

<D 

•G 

t 

O 

G X 


X X 

3 


•rJ 

G 

O 

G 


X 




G 

G B 

X 


rG 

b 

rG 


3 


3 

JZ 


r— 1 


g 


G 

O 

CO 

Z 

O 

z 

CM 


01 

x a 

Z 

co x 

rL 

X 

CO 

X 

rX 

X 

X 

X 




X 

CO CO 

o 


u 

CO 

3 



z 

X 



o 

z 

0J G 


X 

i — i 

3 


0) 


•M 

. ► 

g 

CO 

G 

O 

cj 

CO 

CO 

CO 

3 

CO 

c 

o 





•G 

b 



•G 

co 


CJ 



3 




> 3 


CO 


b 

00 

G 

X 

X 

F. 

03 


dJ 

- B 


•M 

3 


O 


3 

b 





•- G 



c 

G 




o 

z 



C 

o 




r 


c 

3 

X 

03 

03 

o 

Z 

> 

CO 

z 


E 

>•> 


3n 



CO 



G 

X Cl 

. * 


3 

CL 

. r 


Z 

o 

G 

Z 


:* 

o 

— Z 


Z 

E 

. r. 

o 

CJ 

00 

G 

O 

X 

03 e 


3 

3 

o 


G 


3 

P 

. ^ 

3 



3 

3 

X 


o 


X 


3 

rG 

0) 

rG 


O 

' — 1 

CJ rG 


3 

3 

F. 

G 

> — i 

•G 

AJ 

•—* 

03 

G 03 

. ^ 

O 0) 

G 

iX 

. ^ 

d> 

d) 

G 

3 

CO 

O 



X 

X m3 

G 

cy 

G 


G 


G 

X 

> 

dJ 


G 

X 

•G <D 


G 

O 

3 

X 

3 

. — 1 

CO 


U 

00 O 

dJ 

dJ C 

OO 


CO 

> 

C 

00 

O 

<y 

0) 




o 

3 

c 

X 


3 

X 

00 



X 

X 

X 


X X 


00 


O 

CO 

CJ 





i — i 

> 

G X 


O 

<u 


•G 


X 

G 

G 



- 

>N 

X 

•G 


z 

X 

c 


00 

. r 

3 

cy 


00 

3 3 




rG 



z 

C 


. r 

- 

•M 

03 x 

z 

3^ x 

. * 

X 

z 


3 

3 



CT' 

>N 


i — 1 

- 

JZ 


<y 

z 

c 

CJ 

G 

, — i 

z 

c 

B G 


“ 

Z 


. «. 

. M 

c 

;j 

F. 

X 

O >, 

CO 

U 3 

o 


X 

X 

3 

X 

3n 

X 

U 



CM 

X O 

>N 

3 

o 

o 

z 

CO 

F- 

o 

• G 

0) 

X 

m 

o 

CO 0J 


o 

X 

Z X 

0J 


O 

03 

G 

X 03 

CO 

x _* 

X 

C 

X 

G 

J* 

CNJ 

3 

X 




1 

G O 

G 

JZ 

X 

o 

G 

at 

CM 

G 

X 

X 

X 

. — i 

G 

•G X) 


X 

c 

3 

G 

c 

i 

G 

O 

03 

1 X 

3 

3 x 

1 

o 

o 

3 

X 

1 

.“J 

d> 

3 



o 

•G G 

<y 

X 

i 

X 

cy 

G 

1 

X 

3 

o 

O 

i 

X 

G O 


1 

3 

rG 

3 

•G 


X 


X 

X o 

fc 

O 3 

X 

E 

E 

X 

3 

O' 

O 

X 

U 




CO x 

> 

3 

CM 

X 

> 

a 

X 

CO 

E 

b 

E 

CO 

CO 

a 6 


X 

CO 

CJ 

X. 

G 

X 

z 







... 

3^ 

CO 

3 


X 




>> 


c 




X 


, 


X 





X 




E 





CO 




c 




d t 


O 


CO 


X 








CO 


X 


co 





CO 




3 

G 




■ g 

X 

cj 


3 

X 



G 

00 

cy 


•G 

z 

c 

. ^ 

00 


o 




■G 


o 


•G 



CO 


•G 




O 

3 




C 

x 

3 

co 

O X 

X 

CO 


3 

c 

G 


C 

3 

3 

a> 

c 


G 

X 



c 


b 

0) 

c 


. r 

X 


c 




rG 

rG 


co 



oo 

G 

3 

v- B 

00 

3 

. - 

X 

o 

3 


5 

X 


G 

o 


X 

E 6 

X 


:* 

X 


c 

:* 

. r 

0J 

CO 


3 

X 




a 

. r 

0 


o 

•r-l 

X 

O 

X 3 

• M 

O 

z 

u 

G 

O 


o 

o 

G 

3 

G 



3 3 

G 


O 

G 

. r 

• G 

O 

E 

G 

3 


O 

G 



z 

c 

X 

o 


G 

■ 1 

co 

<y 

G 


dJ 

3 

3 

X 

»-M 


G 


3 

X 



X 

O G 

3 


G 

3 

X 


G 

3 

3 

G 


G 

3 

X 


3 

3 

OJ 

0J 


X 

CO 


Li 

x o 

CO 

G 

X 

G 

CO 

3 


X 

G 

X 

CJ 

CO 


CO 

x u 

X 


X 

X 

CO 

3 

X 

O 

X 

CJ 


X 

x 

CO 


i — l 

G 

•G 

G 




X 

03 

CO 


3 

CJ 

X 


U 



O 

3 

3 



•G 






3 



. — i 

O 





3 


O 

00 X 

3 


X 


F. 

CJ 

•M • r. 


O 


CO 




X 


C 

G 



>N 

>. X 



X 


G 


X 


3 



X 

. r 

G 




* G 

CJ 


X 

e 

3 

i — 1 

z B 

dJ 

i—j 

z 


X 

. M 


X 


3 

X 

X 


3 

3 C 

cy 


X 

E 

CJ 

3 

X 

Z 

G 

X 


X 

E 

CJ 


z 

. r 

X 

rG 


00 

03 

G 

03 

03 03 

G 

3 

3 

G 

G 

U 


00 

3 

G 

CO 

G 

d> 

G 

x 3 

G 


00 

3 



00 

3 

X 

G 


00 

3 



3 

E 

3 

3 


•G 

O 

o 

CJ 

G O 

3 

U 

G 

3 

3 

c 


•G 

X 

00 


3 

c 

00 

U 

3 


•G 

O 

cy 

z 

• G 

. — i 

CO 

3 


•G 

O 

0) 


G 

3 

G 

CJ 


rL 

i— • 



OC x 

X 


oo 

» ^ 

X 

' M 


. — 1 

O 


>-. 

r* 

■ G 


Z 

X 


X 

x 

> 

T“J 

. — 1 

O 


X 


i — 1 

r — l 

> 


00 

O 

X 








o 



3 


X 





X 


f-J 


>. X 

O 





<y 



z 





•G 



rG 

CO 



~ 

Z 

X) 

dJ 

r Z 

3 

X 

z 

C 

3>-> 

3 


- 

:n 

B 

O 

Z 

3 

o 

x x) 

3 


- 

Z 

CO 

X 

- 

z 

X 

z 

•G 

2 

z 

CO 


~ 



X 


X 

03 

G 

G 

X 03 

G 

G 

X 

3 

G 

JxC 



3 

3 

o 

L 

X 

. — i 

'X o 

G 


CM 

3 

CO 

3 

X 

3 

3 

G 

CO 

CO 

3 

CO 


X 

X 

X 

G 



G 

03 

3 


X 

3 

1 

G 

0) 



1 

G 

O 


dJ 


i 

•G G 

X 



G 

3 

G 

1 

G 


<y 

3 


G 

3 


1 

c 

C 

3 



00 

X 


m u 

CO 

X 

m 

00 

> 

3 


r— 

OO 


X 

> 

3 

CO 

CO CJ 

CO 



00 

e 

0) 

m 

00 

a 

> 

dJ 

m 

00 

E 


in 

3 

3 

X 




1 








































c 


a) c 



0) 

c 




<y 

c 





cy 

>N 



cy 




0J 





<y 




0J 

C 




z 


o 

(0 

> X 



> 

■rJ 




> 

•G 





> 

r— < 



> 

C 



> 





> 

C 



> 

•G 




i— < 

X 

o 

<U 

01 03 



0J 

3 




<y 

3 





0) 

X 



cy 

•G 



OJ 





dJ 




0J 

3 




<D 

C 


a 
















X 

CO 





c 

r-J 







z 

c 






X 

03 

oo 

G 

a 




CL 





a 






oo <y 

cy 



a> 

<y 

o 







0J 

rG Qj 

o 


a 




3 


c 

. — i 

>, 



Z 





3n 






x 

•G > 

a 


z 

CJ 

> 

• G 

z 





z 

CJ 

x > 

•G 

z 





G 

CL 

X 

co 

x x 



X 

X 




X 

X 





X 

x 3 

3 


. — i 

3 

3 

X 

r— 1 





rG 

3 

X 3 

X 

1 — 1 

X 




dJ 

dJ 

X 


G O 



G 

o 




G 

o 





G 

CO O 

G 


G 

G 

CJ 

■M 

G 





G 

G 

00 CJ 

• G 

G 

o 




X 

a; 

X 

X 

3 G 



3 

o 




3 

0 





3 

C 

G 


3 

G 

C 

CO 

3 





3 

U 

•G C 

CO 

3 

0 




O 

X 

o 

a 

a; x 



d) 

X 




<y 

X 





(U 

o o 

<y 


01 

cy 

o 

O 

OJ 





dJ 

dJ 

— 1 o 

O 

0J 

1 — 1 





CO 

g 

> 

X 



Z 

X 




z 

X 





z 

X CJ 

X 


Z 

X 

u 

a 

z 





Z 

X 

CO CJ 

a 

z 

X 





































X 








































c 








































3 














-M 


























•G 














X 





>, 






CO 













G 


G 











co 



3 





X 






f— 1 








co 





dJ 

— i 

3 


CO 





CO 




x 



X 





c 

F: 





x 




CO 




r-J 





X 

rM 

> 


. — i 





• — • 




x 



» — i 





3 

3 





0 




X 




• G 





o 

dJ 



•G 





•r. 




c 



3 

X 




co 

X 





CO 




• M 




o 






3 

X 


o 





~ 




/. 




c 





3 









G 




CO 







0J 


CO 





r. 







«• 

3 




- 

G 





C 




co 










>. 

c 











c 



C 

■M 




C 

X 

d> 












G 





G 

■ — i 



3 





— 







3 

G 




O 

CO 

co 




3 




CJ 




01 





dJ 

<u 

3 


X 





— 




G 



O 

3 




<y 

X 

3 




G 




X 




X 





co 

X 

G 


CO 





— • 




X 



~ 

> 




X 

3 

_z 




<y 




Q 




G 





G 

3 

X 







— 




... 









■/ 

X 




1Z 




z 




— 





— 




a 






22 


able 2 continued) 


co 03 
O N 
5-. 03 


03 

3-i 

<U 

> 

03 

CO 


03 

P 

03 

34 

03 

O 


Effective 

Soil 

43 

-U 

CL O 
03 — < 

Q ^ 

60"+ 

60"+ 



4-1 














03 












CO 

03 












03 

P 


z 










CJ 43 



o 






- 




3 o 

m 

c^ 

I — 1 






43 




< 




1 






i 





u 


00 






in 






0) 














P 













-1 














D 















s 












5X) 

o 


P 












1 — 1 

N 

c 











-4 

4-1 

00 

03 










03 

4- 


33 






34 





D 

03 


cr 






03 





J 

> 


03 






> 




r— 1 

6 


U 






03 




P 



P 






2i 















i 

03 














03 

03 




0) 









> 

C 




50 




03 






•r4 




03 

CO 


P 

03 





CO 

03 



03 

1 


co 

s 

i — i 

P 





CO 

34 



5X! 


-1 

05 

n- 

3-4 

■r-l 





03 

03 



03 

03 

I— 1 


O 

03 





<J 




C 


-1 

CJ 


o 

U 





X 

P 



*r4 

a 



PC 

03 





W 

r—l 



o3 















5-i 















Q 

03 














o 

4-1 








£ 




i — i 

03 

P 








P 




•r-4 

P 

o 

/-N 

£ 






•r-l 




o 


-1 

C 

vO 

o 






03 




CO 


3 

33 

•wr- 

r— 1 






03 





CO 

P 


CO 






pI 











03 












03 


03 











p 

34 

03 

t— l 











03 

03 

P 

P 









6 


r— 4 

43 

•r-l 

P 











o 


r— 1 

o 









-1-3 



P 

0. 

E 









03 


p 

34 

44 










34 


03 

03 

1 — 1 

. r, 









i-i 

in 

3-i 

> 

03 

CO 









CO 

- — 1 

OX) 



33 









4C 



. ~ 

p 

O 









33 


+ 

03 

r— 1 

03 









CO 


- 

> 

oc 

34 











o 

•r-l 

c 

03 











43 

CO 

o 

CJ 











l 

CO 

34 












O 

03 

P 

03 











m 

b 

CO 

o 











03 


fix) 


c 


43 








03 


P 

1 

13 


CO 


03 03 








o 

34 

o 




P 03 






4-1 

. r. 

34 

03 

34 


P 

P 

c 






■r-l 

£ 

P 

CJ 

43 


2 

1 

p p 


03 




p 

03 

CO 




o 

, 1 

03 


i — i 




03 

O 


03 

43 


34 

03 43 

^ 3-i 


•r4 


I — 1 


5-i 

i — i 

. « 

O 

CO 


43 

> P 

B W) 


P 


• r— 1 


1-t 


o3 


•r-l 



03 *r4 

03 


O 


o 


CO 

P 

34 

. rs 

2 


P 

34 2 

O 03 


34 


CO 



03 

oj 

03 

o 


43 

50 

T— 1 1 1 


P 


-0 



P 

c 

43 

C 

, — 1 


50 

03 

50 

CO 





03 

o3 


•r-l 

1— 1 


•r— 1 

P C 

P P 

3 

i — i 


CO 


3-i 

CO 

. ~ 

i — 1 

03 


. 1 

34 03 

O P 

O 

•r-l 




00 


03 

03 

P 

co 


03 C0 

CO 

03 

o 






> 

Pi 


03 


> 

CO 

34 

CO 




z 


•r—l 

■ — I 

. r 

r— 1 

+ 


M •" 

03 





o 

§ 

CO 

03 

CO 

P 

o 

>■ £ 

03 03 

CJ 





m 

o3 

CO 


P 

P 

43 

03 a3 

c 






i 

O 

o3 

P 

O 

o 

l 

34 O 

03 03 

03 





43 

r— 1 

E 


03 

£ 

m 

50 r-4 

P CO 

o 





B 







p 







03 






p 

03 







o 






2 

34 







1 — 1 

. rv 





o 

50 





Cl 



03 





34 






03 


p 

3-i 





43 

. n 





P 


03 

2 






B 





03 



P 





43 

03 





H-l 


O 

a 





CO 

o 






S N 


33 





•r-l 

H P 





03 

m 

P 

34 





P 

P 





O 


03 

-U 





03 

o 





03 


C 

co 





3-1 

r—l CO 





4-1 


00 






50 

, 1 





U 



P 






03 •« 





33 


3 

-U» 

03 




- 

> U 





CO 


+o 

03 

34 




in 

03 03 







1 

r— 1 

03 




i 

34 rP 







m 

CL 

43 





50 P3 





















03 

P 


P 




l 





c 


> 

■ — 1 


• r-4 



P 

r-i CO 





o 


03 

p 


03 



r-4 

r—l i — 1 





•1-4 


> — l 

43 


r—l 



03 

O H 

co 




p 

/• — •» 


OX) 

03 

Cl 



4_‘ 

34 O 

03 




■rl 

CsJ 

P 

•r-l 

> 




P 

P 

50 




co 

v — 1 

> — i 

i — 1 

03 

03 



34 

a p: 

03 




o 


3-i 

co 

O 

o 



03 

01 

•r-4 




p 


03 


p 

O 



03 

03 50 

34 






03 

o 

o 

r—l 



O 

P P 








1-4 

o 

P 



53 

J ) *r4 

-3 



co 

03 


S-i 

<13 

ro 



03 


" 03 

03 CO 
P 03 
co 43 

■iH fX 

04 


CO 

c 

H 


23 


Estimated Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils 


Table 3 contains information about each kind of soil., based on field 
observations, detailed soil descriptions, and special engineering test 
data. From this information, soil scientists, engineers, and land use 
planners can make predictions about soil behavior for specific uses. 
Explanations of column headings are given below: 

(1) Soil Series ♦ Each kind of soil is listed separately by series. 

Where mapping units have more than one kind of soil, ratings are 
given for individual components at the series level. 

(2) Depth to Seasonal High Water Table . This is the depth in inches 
from the ground surface to the highest seasonal water table. This 
depth is determined largely by soil colors and mottles and by 
observations in holes and pits. The duration of the water table at 
a certain level varies with seasons, and the range of seasonal fluc- 
tuation is given in this column where it is known. 

(3) Soil Depth From Surface . This column indicates the depth at which 
the major soil layers occur from the surface. The layers described 
are fairly typical of the major horizons for all the soils of any 
one series. The soil properties described in the remaining columns 
are listed for each of these layers. 

Soil Texture Classification refers to the particle size distribution of 
sand, silt and clay. The physical properties associated with their 
behavior under different moisture tensions are considered in these evalu- 
ations. There are three systems of classifications given: 

(4) United States Department of Agriculture (USDA ) system gives the 
soil texture values in terms of clay, silty clay, sandy clay, clay 
loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, loam, silt loam, silt, 
sandy loam, loamy sand, and sand. 

(5) Unif red classification system, used by engineers, is based on the 
plastic qualities of soil associated with texture in respect to 
their performance under physical disturbance. The gravel fraction 
of the soil mass is included in the evaluation. 

(6) AASHO classification system was developed by the American Associa- 
tion of State Highway Officials for evaluating soils properties 
affecting road construction and load -carrying capacity. The rating 
of A-l is for the best soils, and A-7 is for the poorest. 

(7) Range in Permeability relates to the downward movement of water 
through saturated, undisturbed soil. It is expressed in terms of 
inches per hour. 

(8) Range, in Available Moisture Capacity is the amount of water held 

in the soil for plant growth after all free water has drained away. 
It is expressed in inches of water held per inch depth of soil. 


24 


(9) Soil Reaction (pH) shows the range in reaction (alkaline or acid) 
for each layer, expressed in pH (see Glossary for more information 
on reaction values). 

(10) Shrink-Swell Potential is the potential volume change of a wet soil 
compared to the same soil when dry. The volume change behavior of 
soils is influenced by the amount and kind of clay present in the 
soil. In general, soils classified as CH or A-7 have a high shrink- 
swell potential, whereas soils having high sand and gravel content 
with small amounts of clay and silt have a low shrink- swell poten- 
tial. Values of low, moderate and high are used to rate each major 
soil layer. 

(11) Frost Heave Potential refers to the heaving of soils upon freezing 
as a result of the formation of ice crystals or lenses in the soil. 
This is extremely notieable in the spring when the freezing and 
thawing action is most intense. The intensity of the problem is 
associated with soil and drainage characteristics. Values of high, 
moderate and low are used to rate this soil hazard for soils when 
frost, heave is a problem. 

High hazard - soils having water tables within 36 inches of the 
surface and soils with coarse pores, often found in silty textures. 

Moderate hazard - soils that are moderately well drained and have 
a high proportion of sand in relation to silt plus clay. 

Low hazard - soils that are well drained and have a low proportion 
of silt plus clay in relation to sand and gravel. 

Soil Corrosivity is the chemical action of the soil that corrodes struc- 
tural material such as concrete or metal when buried in the soil. The 
potential corrosion ratings of low, moderate and high are given for each 
major soil layer. Guides for evaluating the corrosivity of soil on 
untreated steel and an interpretive map showing the more hazardous areas 
of corrosion are found on pages 65 and 66 of Section III of this report. 

(12) Concrete placed in soil may be affected by the presence of certain 
kinds of chemicals found in certain soils. These chemicals are in 
the form of acid salt crystals, primarily sodium and magnesium 
sulfates. These salt crystals are quite soluble and go into solu- 
tion easily. The salt solution enters the pores of concrete and 
when drying reforms crystals which expand and rupture the concrete 
causing deterioration. The rate of deterioration is dependent on 
the kind and amount of salt present and the porosity of the con- 
crete. When salts are a problem, the corrosivity on concrete can 
be reduced by using sulfate resistant cement and quality concrete 
with a minimum of pores. 

(13) Untreated Steel . The rusting or corrosion of untreated metal when 
in contact with soil is a physical -biochemical process of oxidation 
which converts iron into ions. The presence of air and water are 
both needed for this process. The soil corrosivity is commonly 


25 


determined by electrical resistivity of the soil to the flow of 
current. The total acidity, soil drainage, and soil texture all 
have an effect on the oxidation-reduction process. 


- 26 


Table 3. Estimated Physical w ,u Chemical Properties of Soils 


cd 

4-J <D 'rl 

CO > 4-J 

O cd C 

u <u a) 

Cm P: u 


i cd 

C -» J-J ^ 
•r-l •“« C O 
}h (D <D ^ 

x £ 4J ^ 

cn co o 

CJ 


o u cu o\ 
co cd ^ 
<u 
cC 


QJ i— H 4-J 
60 “H CO 

C Cd T-t 

03 > O 

& <C X 


c a 


c j 

■H I P 

cd >3 co O 
CD 0) 4-J CD PP 

M E ^ 

C }-) r-i o ^ 

cd 0 ) -h C D ^ 

Cd Ch -C I — 1 CJ 







<D 



CD 









CD 










CD 














Ml 



X 









X 










X 














cd 



cd 









cd 










cd 














5 - 



X 









X 










X 










— 

X 



<D 



0 ) 


X 

X 


X 

X 



CD 


X 


X 


X 


X 


<D 


X 


X 


X 

X 


1 

60 

6t 

1 

3 

dJ 

1 

5 

dd 

1 

60 

60 

i 

60 

60 

1 

3 

- o 

i 

60 


60 

1 

60 


60 

l 

dd 

1 

61 


61 

i 

60 

60 


1 


■H 

l 

O 

o 

1 

O 

o 

l 

•X 


i 

•X 

•X 

1 

o 

u 

i 



■X 

1 

•X 


•X 

l 

o 

1 

•X 

i 

•X 

i 




1 


X 

1 

1 

£ 

1 


B 


X 

X 


X 

X 

‘ 


b 

i 

X 



1 

X 


X 

1 

E 

1 

X 

i 

X 

i 

X 

X 


0) 





CD 



CD 

CD 



CD 





CD 










a) 

CD 








Ml 





M 



X 




X 





X 










X 

X 








cd 





cd 



cd 

cd 



cd 





cd 










cd 

cd 








x 





u 



X 

X 



X 





X 










X 

X 








(0 

r* 

X 



(D 



CD 

CD 

X 

X 

CD 

X 

X 



CD 

X 

X 


X 

X 

X 


X 


0) 

CD 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 


dd 

60 

6C 

3 

P 5 

dd 

3 

3 

dd 

dd 

60 

60 i 

dd 

60 

60 

3 

3 

dd 

60 

60 


60 

60 

60 


60 

3 

dd 

dd 

61 

60 

60 

60 

60 

60 


o 

•X 

• M 

O 

O 

o 

O 

o 

o 

o 

•X 

•X 

o 

•X 

'X 

o 

o 

o 

•X 

•X 


•X 

*x 

•X 


•X 

o 

O 

o 

•X 

*x 

•X 

•X 

•X 



a 

X 

X 

r_l 


E 

r— 1 


£ 

E 

X 

X 

E 

X 




b 

X 

X 


X 

X 

1 


X 

rX 

h 

s 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 


(0 



<0 



<D 



<D 



CD 














<D 

<D 









Ml 



Ml 



X 



X 



X 














Ml 

X 









cd 



cd 



cd 



cd 



cd 














cd 

cd 









u 



u 



u 



X 



X 














X 

X 









<v 

X 

..c 

<0 

X 

X 

CD 

X 

X 

(D 

X 

X 

CD 

x 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 


X 

X 

X 


X 

a) 

CD 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 


dd 

60 

6£ 

X) 

60 

60 

dd 

60 

60 

dd 

60 

60 

dd 

60 

60 

60 

60 

60 

60 

60 


60 

60 

60 


60 

dd 

dd 

60 

60 

6£ 

60 

6C 

60 

60 


O 

•X 

* r— 1 

o 

•M 

X 

o 

•X 


o 

•X 

•X 

o 

•X 

•X 

•X 

•X 


•X 

•X 


•X 

•X 



•X 

o 

o 

•X 

•X 

•X 

•X 

■X 


•X 


e 

X 

X 

e 

X 

X 

E 

X 

X 

E 

X 

X 

E 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 



X 

X 


X 

E 

t 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 






0) 

CD 


CD 

CD 


CD 

CD 




(D 

CD 

CD 











CD 





a) 







Ml 

X 


X 

X 


X 

X 




X 

X 

X 











X 





MJ 







cd 

cd 


cd 

cd 


cd 

cd 




cd 

cd 

cd 











cd 





cd 







u 

X 


X 

X 


X 

X 




u 

X 

X 











X 





Jh 




X 

X 


(D 

CD 


CD 

D 


CD 

CD 


X 

X 

CD 

CD 

<D 




X 




X 



<D 

X 

X 

X 

X 

<D 



3 

60 

trf 

£ 

T 3 

dd 

2 

d0 

dj 

5 

dd 

dd 

3 

60 

60 

dd 

dd 

dd 

3 

3 


60 

3 

3 


60 

3 

3 

dd 

60 

60 

6£ 

60 dd 

3 


O 

• M 

•X 

O 

O 

o 

o 

o 

0 

o 

o 

o 

o 

•X 

•X 

o 

o 

o 

o 

o 


•X 

o 

o 


•X 

O 

o 

o 

•X 

•X 

"X 

•X 

o 

o 




X. 


E 

S 

r ""* 

E 

£ 

1 — 1 

E 

E 

1 — 1 

X 

X 

E 

h 

b 


1 — 1 


X 


r— — 1 


X 

T— 1 


E 

X 

X 

X 

X 

a 



co 

X 

CN 

o 

<t 

o 

co 

00 

o 

o 


CN 

00 

00 

o 

00 

oo 

00 

<t 

o 


o 

o 

o 


o 

X 

00 

<t 

o 

X 


o 

o 

o 


p^ 

co 

O' 

00 

00 

06 

p 


a-' 

oo 

00 

06 

6-- 

O'- 

06 

n- 

1^- 

00 

00 

06 


06 

06 

06 


06 

00 

00 

00 

06 

00 

06 

06 

06 

06 


<f 


m 

<}■ 

06 

in 

<t 


in 

<J- 

06 

X 


<± 

X 

<t 


in 

06 

<1* 


X 

in 

in 


in 

co 

in 

06 

in 

CN 

o 

in 

X 

X 


p- 

p. 

00 

p« 

p 

oo 

p 


00 



00 

r^. 


oo 



oo 

I"- 

oo 


CO 

00 

co 


00 

oo 

oo 

p- 

00 

00 

06 

oo 

00 

00 


p* 

O 

00 

p- 

06 

p 


c^ 

r^. 

r"- 

06 

X 


CN 

06 

06 

o 

06 

r->. 

r-'- 


On 

X 

X 


06 

n- 

r*- 

06 

o 

O 

o 

o 

06 



G 

CN 


G 

t-M 

r “ l 


X 




r - 1 

iX 

CN 

1 — 1 


CN 

G 




rX 

i — i 

rX 


i — i 

1-1 

rX 

rX 

CN 

CN 

CN 

CN 

rX 

G 


in 

i 

00 

i 

p» 

n 

1 

X 

i 

in 

i 

in 

i 

X 

i 

in 

n 

1 

X 

1 

in 

1 

CO 

1 

X 

1 

X 

1 

oo 

X 

in 

i 

n 


X 

i 

1 


i 

X 

i 

n 

1 

n 

1 

X 

1 

00 

00 

1 

oo 

1 

00 

l 

X 

l 

CN 






I— l 






rX 



rX 


rX 




r— 1 




r— 1 







pX 

rX 

rX 

rX 

< — 1 





o 

o 

CN 

o 

o 


o 



o 



o 



o 








o 



CN 


X 



O 


co 

CN 

X 

• 

• 

• 


• 

co 


m 

CN 

• 

CN 

X 

• 

CO 

CO 

• 

CO 


X 

CO 

CO 


X 

• 

CO 

CO 

• 

CN 

o 

CN 

CN 

• 


X 

• 

o 

CN 

CN 

O 

CN 

CN 

X 

CN 

X 

( * 

CN 

* 

o 

CN 

X 

X 

CN 

X 


o 

X 

X 


o 

CN 

X 

X 

o 

• 

• 

• 

• 

CN 


1 

X 


co 

co 

X 

m 

CO 

1 

CO 

i 

X 

CO 

X 


CO 

1 

1 

CO 

l 



, 

l 



CO 

i 

1 

X 

X 


X 

X 

CO 


CN 

O 

V 

X 

X 

o 

X 

X 

CN 

X 

CN 

o 

X 

o 

V 

X 

CN 

CN 

X 

CN 


V 

CN 

CN 


V 

X 

CN 

CN 

o 

o 

V 

o 

O 

X 


1 

X 

p- 


X 

X 

1 

X 

X 

, 

X 

X 

1 

O'- 



X 

X 

1 




, 




, 


l 

p- 

1 

P- 

1 

X 

CN 


1 

< 

<c 

1 

< 

< 

1 

< 

<t 

i 

< 

< 

1 

<: 

< 

1 

<d 

<d 

' 

<c 


< 

1 

<: 


< 

1 

<c 

1 

< 

1 

< 

1 

< 

< 





















X 




X 
































CJ 




CJ 














X 


X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 


X 

g: 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 


X 

X 

X 


Pd 

X 

H 

X 

X 

pp 

P^ 

X 

hJ 

'S 



o 

CJ 


o 

u 

IS 

X 

o 


CJ 

CJ 

X 

o 

o 

CJ 

CJ 

CJ 


£ 


o 

CJ 

** 


CJ 

IS 

CJ 

CJ 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

CO 





























E 

















F 














E 





cd 





E 








F 




cd 



a 











cd 





o 


> 



cd 

>3 







cd 




o 



cd 





£ 






o 





i— H 


cd 



o 

cd 







o 




1 — 1 



o 





cd 






1 — 1 







rX 



1 — 1 

t — i 







t— i 







rX 





o 



dd 




dd 






o 




u 











o 








1 — 1 



c 




c 




cd 





>3 


*3 










X 











cd 

E 


cd 

cd 

a 



, — i 


m 3 



cd 

m 3 


T 3 


>3 

>3 









cd 









cd 


i — i 


cd 



o 





i — i 


E 

c 


cd 

cd 


E 

E 


E 

E 



r— 1 




E 

cd 

E 


E 

o 


CJ 

E 

o 




E 

E 



CJ 

E 

cd 

cd 





cd 

cd 


cd 

cd 


cd 

a 




cd 

X 

cd 


cd 

X 



cd 

i— i 



dd 

cd 

cd 




cd 

o 

c n 


CJ 

o 


o 

o 


o 

o 


o 





o 

O 

o 


o 



u 

o 




c 

o 

o 



o 

o 

i — i 






. — i 

, — i 


1 — 1 

. — 1 


, — 1 

m 3 




i — i 


, — i 


i — i 



o 

i — i 

>6 



cd 

i — i 

, — i 



Ml 

i — i 


>3 


>3 



















dd 




dd 










>3 

H 

£ 

Ml 

Ml 

E 

>6 

> 





>6 

E 

E 

>6 

>. 


> 

>> 

a 

6n 

c 

>N 

E 

>3 

C 

>3 

E 

E 

>3 

>6 

>3 

>3 

>3 

>3 

dd 

cd 

rd 

r— 1 

. — 1 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

dJ 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

cd 

C 

o 

O 

•1— 1 

• H 

o 

, — i 

, — i 

o 

X 

1 — 1 

o 

, — i 

o 

o 

t — i 

r—i 

. — i 

CD 

. — i 

o 

i — i 

co 

r— 1 

o 

i — i 

co 

i — i 

o 

o 

, — i 

i — i 

i — i 

. — i 

pX 

rX 

cd 

— i 

H 

X 

X 


u 

o 


u 

u 

r— H 

o 


r-H 

u 

u 

CJ 

— 

CJ 

rH 

CJ 


u 

i — i 

o 


CJ 


i — i 

a 

o 

a 

o 

o 

o 

cn 




b 



o 



b 



b 



b 


X 

b 




b 




b 









b 


- 

o 

X) 

- 

o 

X 

- 

X 

X 

“ 

. — i 

X 

z 

■ — i 

X 

b 

• — i 

X 

z 

CO 


X 

z 

oo 


X 

z 

b 

z 

b 

z 

b 


X 

X 


<r 

CM 

i 

X 

x- 

i 

co 

CN 

i 

X 

. — i 

i 

X 

CN 

i 

i — i 

1 

i 

n 



i 

in 

<t- 


i 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

O'- 

CN 

i 


i 

1 

o 

1 

i 

o 

i 

l 

X 

1 

i 

i — i 

1 

1 

, — i 

i 

o 

X 

i 

1 


00 

i 

1 


CO 

1 

i 

1 

i 

1 

i 

1 

1 

X 


o 


CN 

o 

X 

<1- 

o 

00 

CN 

o 

X 

r— 1 

o 

X 

CN 

o 


r—l 

o 

in 


<0 

o 

in 



o 

X 

o 

X 

o 

X 

o 

06 

CNJ 


CN 



nj 



C6] 



CN 



CN 



CN 











CN 










r»» 



p 









n*. 
























3 



3 



3 



3 



£ 



3 



b 




b 




3 


o 


oo 


b 




6 



0 



o 



o 



o 



o 











o 


<r 














rX 
















i 






i 








0) 



QJ 



CD 



CD 



CD 



CD 



o 




o 




CD 


c 


o 


o 




ro 



* 



CO 



CO 



CO 






C6) 




CN 




X 


CN 


CN 


CN 













C 





















c 















cd 













CD 








cd 












P 



•X 













CO 








•X 












D 



X 













cd 








JH 



CD 












cd 













X 








Cd 



CT. 









O 



> 













X 








> 



Cd 









X 









co 






























■X 






X 







CD 








•X 



CJ 



CO 






X 



— i 






•X 







C 








. — 1 


> , 




H 



X 



o 



cd 



CO 



O 



co 




•X 






CO 


a 



f- 



•-< 



, — | 



• M 



X 



— 1 



CO 



1 — 1 




i— < 




CO 


. — 1 


X 


C 

D 



o 



•r- 1 



X 



X 



•X 






•X 




cd 




r-H 


•X 


r-H 


Cd 

Ml 



X 



G 



Ml 



cd 



C 



CD 



o 




CO 




•X 


G 


cd 


c r, 

G 






X 









CO 



60 



CO 








o 


CO 





X 



M 






«- 

0) 








dd 







- 




co 







X 



co 



c 




X 


C 



X 



•X 



cd 




cd 






c 


c 


c 

•s. 



_r: 



G 



G 

rd 


G 



CD 



X 



60 




60 






c 


c 


G 

X 



X 



> 



> 



> 



P 



X 



60 




60 




r-H 


CD 


CD 


(D 

3 



X 



CD 



CD 

G 


CD 



c 



X 



G 




cd 




•X 


dd 


dd 


—/ 

c/1 






X 






X 



W 






X 




X 




X 






— 





o 

CO X 


< 

Q /-N 

co <f 


<D 


u 

.n e cd ^ 

r-H mi o '-M cn 

•H P- J ' 

o a) mh 3 

co Q co 


Ml Cd 

c x u a> 

X O 60 QJ • — I -“v 

Ml CO -X 4-J X CN 

p. cd rn re cd ^ 

d) CO ^ H 

O CO 


27 


Table i ( Cont inued ) 



4-1 

> 

X. 

0 

1 

S tool 


; 

L, 

“3 

x 


; 

X 



X 

TV 


X 

•r 

1 X 

• X X 

| is 


r 













J 

13 

03 















*_) 










4-1 


4-1 

























3 

3 

3 















U 

r'j 


l- 







u 

u 

L 

L 














u 

— 


03 

r~ 


x 

x 



03 

01 

03 

0/ 

_Z 

_z 

~ 



X 









. 



of. 


X 

x 


3 

T3 

T3 

~ 

X 

X 

X 

X 


X 

X X 

3 

3 



-O 





z 

O 

• -< 


• — 


■-4 


0 

z 

z 

G 

•— 

■ — 

■ — 


•-4 

•-4 -r4 

G 

C 









fc 



X 













X x 








- 






03 




0/ 

03 

03 

03 

03 











0 


■ — 

. — v 





4-1 




4-1 

4-< 

4J 

4—1 

4-1 










CO 

> 

4-1 

, — i 





3 




3 

3 

3 

3 

3 













£ 

— i 





L4 




U 

i_, 

Li 

L. 

L. 










l 

03 

a/ 

w 

— 

c* 

C" 


03 

X 

X 

X 

03 

03 

03 

0) 

03 

~ 

X 


X 

X X 





Cl- 


4-1 


X 

X 

X 


T3 

X 

X 

X 

T3 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 


X 

X X 

3 

3 






C, 



• -4 



G 



• r-4 

G 

O 


G 

z 

•-4 




•r4 ■ r4 

O 

O 









■ L ” 



E 

X 

X 


b 

E 

P 

b 

b 


X 


X 

X X 
































1 



03 




03 











03 



03 






X 



. 

,, — s 



4-1 











4-1 



4-1 






c 



4—1 

O 



3 











3 



3 








c 




L. 











L- 



L. 






C4 

03 

0) 



X 

03 






X 

X 


X 

r~ 

03 



03 

X 





X 






X T3 


3 

x 

0£ 

3 

X 

X 

3 

X 

X 

X 

15 


X 

3 X 

3 




CO 

CO 

g 


o 

•-4 

O 


G 

•r4 

•r4 

0 

•-4 

•r-4 

C 

* r4 

•r4 

O 

0 


O 

0 — 1 

O 

O 






0- 



X 

E 



X 

X 


X 

X 


X 


E 



E 

-4 x 






c 



























o 



00 

<t 

O 


<r 

0 

0 

m 


<r 

m 

00 

O 

O 

0 


<r 

0 0 

00 

<r 

























• 





4- 


X 


r^- 

00 

■O' 


00 

O' 

O' 

r- 

00 

00 

n- 


ON 

ON 

ON 


00 

O' ON 

r-. 

00 



o 

u 

C- or 



1 


1 


1 



1 

1 


1 




1 

1 1 

1 

1 



CO 

03 



<r 

Or 

CO 


ON 

m 

m 

X 

<r 

(O' 

X 

CM 

X 

<r 

m 


ON 

X X 

<r 

ON 




0) 




















• • 

• 





Cb 




r-'. 

00 


f''. 

00 

ao 

X 

r>. 


X 


00 

00 

00 



00 00 

r-' 

r^. 


03 


•4- 

























C 

a 

c 

























>-i X 

l 





o 

CM 

O' 




X 

O' 

CM 

CM 

r>- 

CM 

ON 

O' 

m 


ON 

m 0 

X 

O 


03 

: 

c 


X 


. — 1 

CM 

r-4 


«-4 

r— < 

0 

r-4 

CM 

CM 

, — 1 

CM 

r-4 

«—» 

r-4 


r-4 

r-4 CM 

1—4 

r—4 


03 — i 

4J 



1-1 

,~y 


















• • 

• 

• 


X t4 

CO 


Q. 00 

1 

1 

1 


1 

1 

1 

1 

1 


1 


1 

1 

1 


1 

1 1 

1 

1 


c a 




03 


X) 

00 

x> 


u3 

m 

m 

X 

GO 

ao 

m 

00 

X 

X 

CM 


X 

CM 00 

m 

0O 


03 > 

r 

c 


5 


r-4 

—4 

r-4 


O 

0 

0 

1 

—4 

r-4 

1-4 

-4 

1-4 

i—i 

r-4 


i-4 

r-4 r-4 

i—4 

O 


CtL < 

£ 




■ 

* 















' 

■ ■ 


* 


C 




L- 























•r4 1 




3 







X 

X 




O 



0 

O 



0 

O 



03 

> 

</> 

O 


no 

CM 

CM 



O 

0 

cn 

CM 

CM 


CM 

CM 




O 

• CM 


O 


cu a> 

4-1 

03 

X 

✓^y 

X) 

• 






X 

• 

• 

CM 



CM 

CM 



CM • 

CM 

CM 


oo E 

• — 

X 



r-v 


1 

1 






1 

1 


1 

l 

1 

1 


CM 

1 1 




C L. 

r-» 

c 


Lf 


1 

X 

X 


l 

7 

v 

1 

X 

X 

m 

X 

X 

m 

m 


1 

cn x 

cn 

cn 


03 0) 

•r4 

c 


0) 


CM 

0 

0 


1 



CM 

0 

0 

X 

O 

0 

X 

X 


cn 

X O 

X 



Cb 0- 

X) 


0- 




* 


1 












X 

* * 


X 






o 



























X 


1 

C". 

O'. 


1 


1 — 

l 


r^. 

1 

r- 


1 



1 


1 

CM 






CO 

X) 

1 

1 

1 


1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 


1 

1 1 

1 

1 






3 

w 

1 

< 

< 


1 

< 

< 

1 

< 

< 

1 

< 

< 

1 

< 


1 

< < 

1 

< 































o 



























4-1 



























03 


~D 

























CJ 


03 




















































X 


U-l 

m 

-3 

X 

X 


X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 


X 

X X 

X 

X 




•r-4 


•-4 


CJ 

CJ 

u 


X 

CJ 

CJ 

CJ 

u 

CJ 


(J 

CJ 

CJ 

2 : 


CJ 

X CJ 

CJ 

O 




CO 


3 

























C/3 



























03 






















































CJ 


















r 



e 






















E 

E 

E 



3 






a» 




E 


F 










3 

3 

3 



O 






u 






3 

> 









O 

0 

O 

E 


r-4 






3 




3 


O 

3 












3 



E 

>> 




4—1 



















O 



3 

r— 1 




X 







CJ 









> 

w# 

>, 

-4 


X 

0 

1 

X3 



03 




:n 

:n 

X 










3 


X 



c 

r-4 

03 

c 



H 


< 


3 

03 

3 

>- 




E 





4 

E 

c 

> 

E 

3 


> 

3 





o 

/—V 




4-1 




3 





0 

3 

3 

3 

3 

U) 

>N 

3 

CO 



■ — i 


CO 

't 

O 

O 

U 

, — 1 




O 






O 

X) 

r-4 

O 


r 1 

U 




•r- 1 


X 





• r4 









-<3 



CJ 

i—4 


r-4 

X 

X 



(3 






>s 

CO 











r 




03 


h 



CO 




4J 

4-1 

4-1 


E 

>, 

> 


> 

> 

E 

>T 

> 


F 

X 


B > 

> 

X 

3 







— 1 

r-4 

-4 

0 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

c 

3 

3 3 

3 

L4 

O 







•r4 

•r4 

• -4 

4-1 

O 

1— 1 

r— 1 

—4 

, — 1 

r-4 

O 

• — 1 

-4 

r— 4 

O 

3 

-4 

O — < 

Li 

0) 

r-4 







C/3 

C/3 

CO 



O 

O 

< J 

U 

O 

1 

O 

u 

u 



O 

— < O 

X 

> 






03 

























F 


n 


r 

O' 

b 



- 

b 


= 

b 


= 

b 


- 



r b 


- 


. — i 

4-1 

r 


L-i 

m 

o 

CM 

X 



b 

X 


r- 

X 


in 

X 


b 



0 X 


b 


•-4 

Q 

C 


■m 


. — i 

1 

1 


CM 

i — 4 

1 

X 

CM 

1 

ao 

^-1 

1 

X 

X 


X 

m 1 

in 

X 


o 

03 

U- 


3 


i 

O 

(O' 


1 

1 

0 

1 

1 

r>- 

1 

1 

m 

1 

1 


1 

1 O 

1 

1 


'X 

"** 



CO 


o 


CM 


O 

CM 

1—1 

O 

X 

CM 

O 

00 


0 

X 


O 

x m 

O 

m 


o — « 






CM 




b 



CM 



CM 








CM 



4-1 "3 













f'- 











C- 



C 


V- 

03 















- 








o 

X 01 

— i 

✓*- y 








3 



3 



b 



z 


3 



4-1 X) 




X3 


0 




0 



O 



C 






0 


O 



a- 3 

X 

3 

3 


















cn 





0) 03 




. - 


03 




03 



03 



03 



0 



1 


03 



Q CO 






-c 




CO 



X 



=C 



CM 



O 


22 




















































03 





















03 






X 





















4-1 






3 





















3 

X 





X 


10 









x. 










L, 

03 





CL 


•— 1 







/: 


— < 







r. 



03 

c 


CT> 





■-4 









-— 




CO 






X 






4-1 


O 







•— « 


g 




, — 1 






c 

3 


• r4 



03 


CO 







L-> 

- — y 

X 




•-< 



O 



E 

Li 

4-1 

G 



> 









0/ 

— 





z 



C/5 




X 

c 

c/. 





>, 







CO 


c 




C/1 






r 


3 






03 









■-4 







Li 



Li 

r-4 

--4 

3 



3 


—4 







— 






03 



03 



03 

■ — 1 

L. 

4-1 



4-1 


CO 







• — • 


l 




X 



(J) 




03 


■x. 



■x. 


c 







z 


03 




z 



z 



G 

3 

> 

—4 



•H 


■■4 







J~. 


X 




s' 



x 



X 



aL 



— 






28 


Interpretations of Engineering Properties of Soils 


Table 4 shows the interpretations of engineering properties of soils and 
gives estimates of the suitability of each soil for specific uses and the 
major soil limitations for these uses, The estimates in this table are 
based on laboratory test data and the judgment of soil scientists and 
engineers who have worked in the area. Explanations of column headings 
are given below. 

(1) Soil Series names are tentative and subject to change. 

Suitability of soils as a source of: 

(2) Topsoil . Usually the top 6 to 10 inches of soil is richest in plant 

nutrients and organic matter and is best to topdress lawns, gardens, 

parks and roadbanks . Good , fair , and poor suitability ratings are 
given to rate each soil for this kind of use. 

(3) Sand and Gravel as a source of aggregate for concrete or other struc- 

tural aggregate needs. Ratings of good , fair , poor or unsuitable 
are used to rate each soil for this kind of use. 

(4) Roadf ill refers to the suitability of material to be used for 
embankment, to support normal modern day traffic. Ratings of good , 
fair , or poor are used to evaluate each soil for this kind of use. 

(5) Highway Location . Soil factors considered for highway location 
are those physical features that affect performance. The entire 
soil profile is evaluated, based on an undisturbed soil. It is 
assumed the surface soil layer high in organic matter will be removed 
in construction. Factors affecting the soil for this use are identi- 
fied in the table. 

(6) Dikes and Levees . Soil features considered are those that influence 
the suitability of the disturbed soil materials for constructing 
relatively low height and low hazard structures. Factors affecting 
the soil for this use are identified in the tables. 

(7) Winter grading . The suitability of soils for winter grading depends 
on the ease with which the soil can be moved and traversed by ordinary 
construction equipment during cold weather. Soil features affecting 
winter grading are given in the table. 


29 


Table 4. Interpretations of Engineering Properties of Soils 



Suitability as a Source of-- 

Soil 

Features Affect 

ing-- 



Sana ana 


Soil Series Names 
0) 

Topso i 1 
(2) 

Gravel 
1 (3) 

Road fill 
(4) 

Highway Location 
(5) 

Dikes & Levees 
(6) 

Winter Grading 
(7) 

Absher soils 

Poor--thin 
surface and 
high clay 

Unsuitable 

Poor--highl y 
plastic and 
poor s t ab i 1 i tv 

Highly plastic 
clays : frost 
(leave hazard 

Unstable on 
s 1 opes : high 
shr ink-swe 1 1 

Low s tab il i tv on 
freezing and 
thawing: high 
p las t ic ity 

Devon soils 

Good to 8" 

Unsuitable 



Fair to poor : 
clays with low 
to moderate 
plas t ic ity, A-b 

High frost 
heave hazard 

Moderate 
shr ink-swe 1 1 

Low s tab il ity 
on freezing and 
thawing 

Devon , alkali 
var i ant 

Fair to b": 
some sal ts 

Unsuitable 

Fair to poor : 
clays with lowi 
to moderate 
pi as t ic i ty, A-6 ‘ 

High frost 
heave hazard 

Moderate 
' shr i nk -swe 1 1 ; 

1 1 ow s tab il ity 

Low stability on 
freezing and 
thawing 

Emmer soils 

Good to 6" 

Unsuitable 

Poor --highly 
plastic clays 

; 

High plasticity: 
poor compaction 

High shrink- 
swell : low 
stability 

High plasticity; 
low s tab i 1 i ty on 
freezing and 
thawing 

Ethridge soils 

Good to 10" 

Unsuitable 

- - - 

Fair to poor: 
clays with 
low to moder- j 
ate plasticity 1 

High frost 
heave hazard 

Moderate 
shr ink-swel 1 

Low stability on 
freezing and 
thawing 

Hagga soils 

Good to 5" 

Unsuitable 

Fair--high 
frost heave 
action; poor 1 
drainage 

Poor drainage, 
flooding, and 
high frost heave 
action 

None 

Poor drainage; 
high frost heave; 
large frozen clods 

Hagga , saline 
phase 

Unsuitable 

Unsuitable 

Fair to poor: ! 
high frost 
heave : high 
salts : high 1 

water table 

Poor drainage, 
flooding, and 
high frost 
heave action 



High salts; low 
stability 

Poor drainage; 
high frost heave, 
large frozen 
clods 

Hill soils 

Fair to 6" 

Unsuitable 

Fair to good : 
subject to 
frost heave 

Frost heave 
topography 

None 

Low stability on 
freezing and 
thawing 

Ideon soils 

Fair to 5" 

Unsuitable 

Poor--highlv 
plas t ic clays : 
high shrink- 

Poor drainage; 
flooding; plas- 
tic clay; high 

High shrink- 
swell ; low 
s tab il ity 

Poor drainage; 
high frost heave; 
plastic clays 

Ideon, Alakli 
variant 

Unsuitable 


swel 1 : high 
frost heave 

frost heave 




Ideon, sandy 
subs tratum 
variant 

Poor--high 

clay 

Unsuitable 

Fa ir- -plas t ic 
clay to 2b": 
poor drainage 
affects 
Accessibility 

Poor drainage: Subject to 

flooding: high 1 piping: low 
frost heave 1 stability 

Poor drainage; 
high frost heave: 
flooding 

Kerwin soils 

Fair to 10": 
hard cloddy 
or crusty 
surface 

Unsuitable 

Poor--highly 
plastic clay: 
high shrink- 
swel 1 

Plastic clay: 
high frost 
heave action 

High shrink- 
swell : 1 ow 
s tab il ity 

Low stability on 
freezing & thawing 
high plasticity 

Nobe soils 

Unsuitable 



Unsu i table 

Poor--highly 
plastic clay: 
low stability: 
high salts 

Plastic clays 'Low stability: 

high frost heave, high salts: 
action: high 'subject to 

salts : low piping 

stabil ity 

Plastic clays; 
low stability on 
freezing and 
thawing 

Poser soils 

Poor--hard 
crustv sur- 
face 

Unsuitable 

. 

Poor--h ighly 
plas t ic clays : 
1 ow s tabi 1 ity 

Plastic clay: 
high shrink- 
swell 

High shrink- 
swel 1 : low 
stab il i ty 

pi as t ic cl ays : 
low stability on 
freezing and 
thawing 

Poser, moderately 
well drained 
var iant 

Fa i r- -hard 
clocklv and 
c rus t\ 
sur L ace 

Unsu i tabl e 

Poor- -h ighl v 
plastic clays : 
low stability 

L 

Plastic clay: 
high shrink- 
swe 1 1 

High shrink- 
swe 11: low 
stabil it v 

Plastic clays: 

1 ow s tab i 1 ity on 
freezing and 
thawing 


30 


Table 4. (Continued) 


Suitability as a Source of-- 


1 


Sand and 


Soil 

Features Affecting-- 

Soil Series Names: 
(1) 

Topsoil 

(2) 

Gravel 

(3) 

Roadf ill 

(4) 

Highway Location 

(5) 

Dikes & Levees 
(6) 

Winter Grading 
(7) 

| 

Rista soils-- 

i 

I 

Fair to 6"; 
thin surface: 
clay texture 
below 

Unsuitable 

Fai . i o 50" : 
poor arainage : 
high frost 
heave action 

Poor drainage ; 
flooding; high 
frost heave 

Subject to 
piping 

Poor drainage; 
high frost heave; 
flooding 

i 

Tinsley soils 

Poor--thin 
surface ; 
gravel con- 
tent 

Good if 
washed 

Good 

Topography 
cuts and fills 

Rapidly 
permeable ; 
coarse texture 

None 


31 


Soil Suitability for Agriculture 


Soils and climate are the major factors affecting crop production. 

Table 5, Soil Suitability for Agriculture, lists the land capability 
classification relative to its suitability for cultivated crops and 
the limiting factors for each soil. 

The land capability classification is a means of expressing the relative 
hazards and limitations of soils or climate when used for cultivated 
crops, range or woodland. There are eight capability classes which are 
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The risks of soil damage 
or limitations for use in agriculture become progressively greater from 
Class I. through Class VIII. Soils in Class I have few limitations, 
have the widest range of use, and have the least risk of damage for all 
uses. Soils in classes I through IV, under good management, are suitable 
for growing cultivated crops common to the area. Soils in Classes V, VI 
and VII are not suitable for cultivation but can be safely used for pas- 
ture, range, woodland or wildlife. Soils in land capability Glass VIII 
are not suitable for commercial production of cultivated crops, range or 
wood products. They are suitable only for wildlife and recreation use. 

Land capability classes are divided into subclasses to show the major 
kind of limitation or hazard affecting their use. The four subclasses are 
e - erosion hazard (wind or water); w - wetness or flooding; s - soil 
limitations such as stoniness, shallowness, high clay or alkali content; 
c - climatic limitation such as cold temperatures or lack of rainfall to 
meet crop needs . 

The twenty -one different mapping units can be grouped into three land 
capability classes using all of the subclasses. The are defined below: 

Land Capability Tile . Soils subject to severe erosion if they are culti- 
vated and not protected. They require special conservation practices or 
treatment to minimize the erosion hazard when cropped. 

Land C ap ab 1 1 i ty Ills . Soil quality affecting crop production is severely 
limited by strongly alkaline soils and clay textures which are slowly 
permeable. 

Land Capability Hie . Soil quality is good but crop production is limited 
because of relatively low annual rainfall. 

Land C a p ab i .1 i ty IV e . Soils subject to very severe erosion if they are 
cultivated and not protected. They require very careful! management and 
special conservation practices to keep erosion under control. 

Land Capability Vie . Soils generally unsuited for cultivation because of 
severe hazard of erosion. Their agricultural use is limited largely to 
range, wildlife and recreation. 

Land Gap ability VIw . Soils severely limited, for use. because of the. high 
risk of flooding, seasonal high water table, and strong alkalinity. 
Perennial plant cover is needed for adequate protection. 


32 - 


Land Capability Vis . Soils severely limited for agricultural use because 
of very slowly permeable and strongly to very strongly alkaline subsoil. 

Table 5 lists each soil mapping unit and shows its land capability classi- 
fication, relative suitability for growing cultivated field crops, hay 
and garden vegetables, and its relative suitability for range use. The 
following ratings are used: very good, good, fair and poor. The ratings 
of mapping units having more than one kind of soil are based on the most 
limiting factors affecting use. The most limiting soil comprises at 
least 30 percent of the unit. 


33 


Table 5. Soil Suitability for Agriculture 


Soil Land 


Mapping 
Un i t 
Symbol 

Cl) 

Capabil itv 
Class i - 
f icat ion 
_ (2) 

Cultivated 

field 

Crops 

0) 

Suitabilitv for: 
Garden 

Hay Vegetables 

(4) (5) 

Range 

(6) 

Most Limiting Factors 

(7) 

Aa 


IVe 

Fair 

Fair 

Poor 

Fair 

Alkalinity: slow permeability 

Ab 


Vis 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Fair 

Alkalinity: slow permeability 

Da 


IIIc 

Very good 

Very good 

Verv good 

Very good 

Low annual rainfall 

Db 


111c 1 

Very good 

Very good 

Very good 

Very good 

Low annual rainfall 

Dc 


I He 

Good 

Very good 

Good 

Very good 

Low rainfall; topography 

Dd 


IIIc 

Very good 

Very good 

Good 

Very good 

Low rainfall 

De 


Ills 

Fair 

Fair 

Fair 

Good 

Alkal inity 

Df 


Ills 

Fair 

Fair 

Fair 

Good 

Alkalinity 

Ea 


Ills 

Good 

Good 

Fair 

Good 

Alkalinity; slow permeability 

Eb 


IIIc 

Very good 

Very good 

Very good 

Very good 

Low rainfall 

Ha 


VIw 

Poor 

Good 

Poor 

Very good 

Flooding; high water table 

Hb 


VIw 

Poor 

Fair 

Poor 

Good 

Flooding; salinity 

He 


Vie 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Good 

Steep slopes; gravelly soil 

Hd 


IIIc 

Good 

Very good 

Good 

Very good 

Moderate slopes; low rainfall 

la 


VIw 

Poor 

Good 

Poor 

Very good 

Flooding; high water table 

lb 


VIw 

Poor 

Fair 

Poor 

Good 

Flooding: alkalinity 

Ic 


VIw 

Poor 

Good 

Poor 

Very good 

Flooding; high water table 

Pa 


IVw 

Poor 

Good 

Fair 

Good 

Flooding; slow permeability 

Pb 


Ills 

Good 

Good 

Fair 

Good 

Slow permeability 

Ra 


VIw 

Poor 

Good 

Poor 

Very good 

Flooding; high water table 

Rb 


VIw 

Poor 

Fair 

Poor 

Good 

Flooding; high water table 


34 


Trees and Shrubs for Protection and Beautification 


No conservation measure applied to the land provides so many year-round 
benefits as does the planting and care of trees and shrubs. Protection 
from winter winds, catchment of blowing snow, shade from the hot summer 
sun, and beautifying the landscape are only a few of the benefits. Song 
birds are attracted to trees and shrubs to make their homes, and other 
wildlife seek this cover for protection. In short, trees make any place 
a better place to live. 

This part of the report deals with suitability and limitations of the soils 
for growing trees and shrubs . Trees vary in their response to different 
soils and should be selected accordingly. Table 6 shows most of the 
species that have value for home and recreational use for this area. 

They are rated according to how they can be expected to grow on the 
individual soils of the area. Landscape specialists should be con- 
sulted for selection of species, arrangement, and location of plantings. 

Tree and Shrub Suitability Groups 

The individual soils have been placed into five broad suitability groups 
for tree and shrub production. Each group consists of soils that are 
nearly alike in those characteristics that determine their suitability 
for growing trees or shrubs. Table 6 shows shrub and tree species 
adapted to the area and their relative suitability within each of the 
five soil groups. 

Group 1 . Soils in this group are the most desirable for growing trees 
and shrubs . 

Da. Devon 
Db Devon 
Dc Devon 
Dd Devon 
Eb Ethridge 

Hd Devon loam portion only 

Group 2 . These soils are less desirable for growing trees and shrubs 
than soil in Group 1. These soils have more clay and are slowly permeable. 

Pa Poser 

Pb Poser, moderately well drained variant 
Ea Emmer loam portion only 

Group 3 . Soils in this group are poorly drained and the water table 
affects species adaptation. 

Ra Rista 

Rb Rista, wet phase 

Group 4 . Soils in this group are strongly alkaline or have high lime, 
content that are severe limitations for growing shrubs and trees. 


35 


Aa Absher 
Ab Absher 

De Devon, alkali variant. 

Df Devon, alkali variant 
Hd Hill loam portion 
He Hill 

Pa Kerwin portion 

Group 5 . Soils in this group are strongly alkaline and poorly drained 
and have very severe limitations for growing shrubs and trees. 

Ha Hagga 

Hb Hagga, saline phase 
la Ideon 

lb Ideon, alkali variant 
Ic Ideon, sandy substratum 

Where the soils are suitable, most trees and shrubs will respond 
favorably to irrigation if good quality water is available. Plantings 
should receive sufficient water to moisten the soil to a depth of 6 
feet. Infrequent irrigations will help to control weeds and encourage 
deep rootings of trees and shrubs. It is desirable to withhold irri- 
gation water in late summer to permit trees to harden before frost. 
August 1 is suggested as the last irrigation of these soils. A late 
fall application of irrigation water just before freezeup is very 
beneficial to trees if the soil is dry. This is especially true for 
evergreens <> 


36 - 


Table 6. Shrub and Tree Adaptations Rating by Soil Group 


Shrubs and Trees 


Soil 

Suitabili 

ty Group 


Group 1 

Group 2 

Group 3 

Group 4 

Group 5 

Shrubs 






Caragana 

1 

3 

4 

2 

4 

Skunkbush sumac 

1 

3 

4 

3 

4 

Tatarian honeysuckle 

1 

3 

3 

3 

4 

Lilac, common 

1 

2 

2 

4 

4 

Chokecherry 

1 

3 

4 

4 

4 

American plum 

1 

3 

4 

4 

4 

Purple willow 

4 

4 

1 

4 

3 

Buf faloberry , common 

2 

4 

2 

2 

3 

Sandcherry 

1 

4 

4 

4 

4- 

Nanking cherry 

1 

4 

4 

4 

4 

Redos ier Dogwood 

3 

4 

1 

4 

3 

Cotoneaster, Peking 

3 

3 

3 

4 

3 

Salttree, Siberian 

4 

4 

3 

2 

3 

Trees --low form 






Russianolive 

1 

2 

2 

2 

2 

Siberian crabapple 

2 

2 

3 

4 

4 

Trees --tall form 






Green ash 

1 

2 

3 

2 

3 

American elm 

4 

4 

4- 

4 

4 

Siberian elm 

1 

3 

3 

4 

4 

White willow 

4 

2 

1 

4 

2 

Golden willow 

4 

2 

1 

4 

2 

Cottonwood, Siouxland 

4 

3 

1 

4 

3 

Birch, water 

4 

3 

2 

4 

4 

Trees - -evergreens 






Scotch pine 

1 

2 

4 

4 

4 

Ponderosa pine 

1 

2 

4 

4 

4 

Colorado blue spruce 

1 

3 

3 

4 

4 

Rocky Mountain juniper 

1 

2 

2 

3 

2 


Adaptability Ratings: 1 - Good; 2 - Fair; 3 - Poor; 4 - Not Suited 


37 - 



































































































SECTION III. SOIL LIMITATIONS FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND INTERPRETIVE 
MAPS 

Planning is essential in today's changing and expanding communities. 

An increasing population coupled with greater mobility, more leisure 
time, and higher standards of living, all point to the need for sound 
land use decisions in community planning and development. Basic soils 
information that can be interpreted from the soil survey is fundamental 
for making sound decisions on land use. Community plans based on soil 
facts and proper land use are vital to the economic and prosperous 
growth of any community. 

This section contains soil interpretation tables and maps that can be 
used by planning commissioners, planning consultants, city officials, 
and others in making land use decisions for the community of Big Sandy. 

The information contained in Table 7 enables the user to find the most 
desirable soil area for the following uses. 

1. Residential development with public sewage disposal 

2. Roads and parking areas 

3. Lawns and landscaping 

4. Intensive play areas 

5. Picnic areas 

6. Cemeteries 

7. Sanitary land fills 

8. Septic tank filter fields 

9. Sewage lagoons 

In making soil interpretations for these uses, the soils are rated in 
terms of the degree of limitation- slight , moderate , and severe . By 
assigning a limitation rating to each kind of soil, we are indicating 
the severity of the problems expected to be encountered. This does not 
mean the problems cannot be overcome at a cost. The decision of whether 
a soil will be used for a specific purpose regardless of its limitations 
for that use must be made by the land use planners and developers. 

In addition to information contained in Table 7 for these nine kinds of 
land uses for community development, corrosivity ratings of soils are 
shown on the map on page 67 of this section. 

The information contained in this section is not intended to eliminate 
the need for on-site investigation and study to determine specific 
locations for the installation of a facility. 


- 39 ' 


Three degrees of soil limitations are defined as: 


1. None to slight (colored green on the interpretive maps): These 

soils have few, if any, limitations for use that cannot be readily 
overcome . 

2. Moderate (colored yellow on the interpretive maps): These soils 

have one or more characteristics which impose moderate limitations 
for its use. To correct or overcome these limitations will 
increase the installation and maintenance cost. 

3. Severe (colored red on the interpretive maps): These soils have 

one or more characteristics which impose serious limitations for 
its use. To correct or overcome these limitations will be costly 
and in some cases the cost may be prohibitive. 

Flooding is one of the primary hazards affecting residential develop- 
ment in the Big Sandy community. The flood plain of Big Sandy Creek 
is frequently covered with water from spring runoff and sometimes by 
heavy rains. Fortunately there has been no housing development in 
this area. 



Figure 7. The Hagga, Ideon and Rista soils were all flooded from 
the overflow of Big Sandy Creek during the 1964 flood. 
Photo by Clarence Baxter. 



Table 7. Soil Limitation Ratings for Community Development in Big Sandy, Montana 





03 




03 







03 



CO 


4—1 




4-1 







4J 



C 

4-1 

03 

4-1 

4-1 

4-1 

03 

03 03 

4-J 

4-1 

4-1 

4-J 

4-1 

cd 

03 


o ^ 

X 

3j 

x 

X 

x 

U 

34 34 

X 

x 

X 

X 

X 

34 

34 

r— 1 

o o 

ec 

03 

60 

60 

60 

03 

03 03 

DC 

DC 

DO 

DC 

60 

03 

03 

CT3 

DC «-< 

•r— 1 

X 

•r-l 

• r—l 

•i—l 

X 

> > 

•r4 

•r-4 

•r4 

•r—l 

•r- 1 

X 

> 

X 

03 ^ 

t— 1 

O 

r— —I 

■—I 

> — i 

O 

03 03 

■ — i 

1 — 1 

1—4 

■ 1 

i — i 

o 

03 

O 

h4 

CO 

pT 

CO 

CO 

CO 


CO CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

zz 

CO 

o. 
































•l— 1 

X 















o 

p 
















03 















03 

H 







03 








60 








4-1 








cd 

U ON 

03 

4-1 

03 

03 

03 

03 

cd 0) 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

3 

•l— 1 

3-i 

_c 

3-i 

34 

3-4 

34 

34 34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

0) 

4-J 

03 

60 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 03 

03 

03 

0) 

03 

03 

03 

03 

CO 

a 

> 

•r-l 

> 

> 

> 

> 

X > 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 


03 

03 

i — ( 

03 

03 

03 

03 

O 03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 


CO 

C/3 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

2 co 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 


r- ■ 1 















> 

r—l 


03 

03 




03 03 







03 

J-4 

• H 


4-1 

4-» 




4-1 4-1 







4-J 

cd 

Ci. ^ 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

cd 

-U 

00 

>-i 

3-i 

3-4 

34 

34 

34 

34 34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

•r-l 

X w 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

c 

p 

> 

X 

X 

> 

> 

> 

X X 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

X 

03 

03 

03 

O 

o 

03 

03 

03 

o o 

03 

03 

03 

03 

0) 

03 

o 

CO 

hJ 

CO 


55 

CO 

CO 

CO 

2 2 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

2 


CO 
















03 

0) 






03 







03 


•r- 1 

4-1 






4-» 







4J 


3-J 

03 

4-> 

4-1 

03 

03 

03 

4-1 03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

0) 

03 

cd 


03 ^ 

3-i 

x 

X 

34 

3-4 

34 

X 3-4 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 


4-1 f\ 

03 

60 

60 

03 

03 

03 

60 03 

0) 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 


03 w 

X 

•r-l 

•r-l 

> 

> 

> 

•H X 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

X 


6 

o 

i 1 

r—l 

03 

03 

03 

o 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

O 


03 

pr) 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

co 2 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

2 


CJ 
















C0 
















03 
















03 

0) 

03 

03 

03 

03 


03 03 


03 


03 

03 


03 


U 

4-» 

4-J 

4-1 

4-1 

4J 


4-1 4-J 


4-1 


4-3 

4-1 


4-1 


< 

03 

03 

03 

03 

Cd 

03 

03 03 

03 

P 

03 

cd 

cd 

03 

cd 



3-1 

J-i 

3-i 

34 

3-4 

34 

34 34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 


O mO 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

0) 

03 03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 


•i—i 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

> 

X X 

> 

X 

> 

X 

X 

> 

X 


c 

O 

O 

o 

o 

O 

03 

O O 

03 

O 

0) 

o 

O 

03 

O 


o 

2 


2 

2 


CO 

2 2 

CO 

2 

CO 

zz 

2 

CO 

2 


















P-. 
















CO 















CD 

03 















> 

03 

03 

03 

0) 

03 

03 


03 


03 


03 

03 



•i— 1 

3-i 

4-> 

4-1 

4-» 

4-1 

4-> 


4-1 


4-1 


4-1 

4-1 



CO 

< 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 03 

0) 

P 

03 

cd 

cd 

03 

03 

P 

X 

3-i 

3-i 

J-i 

34 

34 

34 

34 J-. 

3-4 

34 

34 

34 

3-4 

34 

34 

03 


03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

4-> 

03 

XI 

X 

X 

X 

X 

> 

X > 

> 

X 

> 

X 

X 

> 

> 

c 

T— 1 

O 

o 

O 

O 

O 

03 

O 03 

03 

O 

03 

O 

O 

03 

03 

i — i 

Pm 

2 


2 

2 

2 

CO 

2 CO 

CO 

2 

CO 

2 


CO 

CO 


60 
















G 















x 

•i— l 

0) 






03 





0) 


03 

c 

Cu 

4-1 






4-1 





4-» 


4—1 

03 

03 ^ 

03 

4-1 

03 

03 

03 

03 

4-3 03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

cd 

03 

cd 


o <t 

3-i 

X 

J-i 

34 

3-4 

34 

X 34 

34 

34 

3-4 

34 

3-4 

34 

34 

CO 

CO 

03 

60 

03 

03 

03 

03 

60 03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

0) 

03 

03 

P 

X 

XJ 

•r-l 

> 

> 

> 

> 

•H X 

> 

> 

> 

> 

X 

> 

X 

£ 

P 

O 

i — l 

03 

03 

03 

03 

r-t O 

03 

03 

03 

03 

O 

03 

O 

03 

03 

ZZ 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

co 2 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

2 

CO 

zz. 

X 

K-l 























03 03 







03 

<3 

60 







4-J 4-» 







4-J 


P 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

cd 

CO 

•r-l N 

3-i 

J-i 

3-i 

34 

J-i 

34 

34 34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

X 

x X 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 03 

03 

03 

03 

0) 

0) 

03 

03 

03 

3-1 w 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

X X 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

X 

O 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

O O 

03 

03 

03 

0) 

03 

03 

O 


D-t 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

2 2 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

2 

T— 1 

4-1 














■ 

03 

P 















■r( 

03 







03 







03 

•U 

e 







4-» 







4-» 

e 

a ^ 

03 

•U 

03 

03 

03 

03 

4-1 03 

03 

03 

03 

0) 

0> 

03 

cd 

03 

O CN1 

J-i 

X 

34 

34 

34 

34 

X 34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

X 

r—l ^ — ' 

03 

60 

03 

03 

03 

03 

60 03 

03 

03 

0) 

03 

03 

03 

03 

•r- 1 

03 

> 

•r—l 

> 

> 

> 

> 

•r-4 X 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

X 

CO 

> 

03 

r—l 

03 

03 

03 

03 

— i O 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

03 

O 

03 

03 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

co 2 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

pr 1 


Q 




























4-1 
















P 
















P 
















• r4 
















34 
















cd 
















> 
















X 
















03 
















a 
















••-< 
















cd 
















34 











■ X in 





X 











00 —1 
















1 1 





• — i 







4-1 




X 00 





• — i 







c 









03 







03 




X X 












• r-l 




03 03 









CO 



J-i 




C- Qu 





>, 




03 



03 




O O 





i — i 




£ 



> 




1 1 r—l 





03 




03 





'X 


X X 





4—1 




'■ ' 



•r—l 


— 1 


- — ' 





cd 


X 



c n 


t 1 


.-4 


1 


X 



34 


, — i 


CO 

< — i 

C/3 

03 

< r. 

G 

X 

1 

X 

■ — 1 


X 

03 

X 

• —4 


03 ^ 

•— t 

— i 

X 

—4 

CO 

. — 1 

X 

1—4 

•l-l 

X 

1 — 1 

X 

, — i 

G 


•r4 1 

o 

• -4 

—4 

• —4 


•-4 

i—l 

•r-4 

c 

—4 

• -1 

G 

• -4 

C/3 


J-i — 

c/) 

o 

03 

o 

03 

c 

• H 

G 

X 

• i-4 

G 


G 



03 


X 


X 

DC 

X 

z 

X 


G 

X 


X 

>, 


CO 

J-i 




X 


X 


p 

X 




03 



03 

p 

P 

34 

•-4 

p 


c 

•r-4 


3-i 

Zi 

CZ 

—4 


— 1 

X 

z 

z 

03 

34 

DC 

■ — i 

z 

•> 

o 

ZJ 

a 

4-1 

X 


•H 

X 

> 

> 


x 

DC 

— i 

03 

34 

JZ 

X 

X 

X 

JZ 


o 

X 

0/ 

03 

£ 

4-1 

P 

•-4 

X 

03 

o 

z 

z 

.-4 

• i-4 


CO 


— 

— 


x 

X 



•_z 


z. 

— 

& 

r- 


41 










Soil Ratings for Residential Development With Public Sewage Disposal 


This interpretation indicates the degree of soil limitation for the 
construction and maintenance of homes and small buildings less than 
three stories high and having basements. 

Soils are important in the construction and maintenance of buildings. 
The cost of excavation, bearing strength of the soil supporting the 
foundation, soil drainage, both surface and internal, flood hazard, 
salts, shrink-swell behavior of clay, topography, and depth to rock 
are all important factors to consider when subdividing lands for urban 
development . 

Soil characteristics affecting building sites in residential develop- 
ments are: shrink-swell behavior, depth to seasonal high water table, 

flood hazard, steepness of topography, depth to rock, amount of stone, 
and salinity or alkalinity. In the following table, each of these 
characteristics is rated as to degree of limitation affecting use. The 
soil property giving the highest degree of limitation is used to rate 
the soil as slight , moderate , or severe for this kind of land use. 


Table of Soil Limitations for 


Building Sites in Residential Developments With Public Sewage Disposal 


Limiting Factors 
Affecting Use 

Degree of Limitation 

Slight 

Moderate 

Severe 

Shrink-swell behavior 

Low 

Moderate 

High 

Depth to seasonal 
high water table 2/ 

> 7Z~ 

36 to 72" 

Less than 36" 

Flood hazard 1/ 

Never 

Never 

More often than 
once in 50 years 

Slope 

0 to 8% 

8 to 15% 

More than 15%, 

Depth to bedrock 

More than 60 M 

36 to 60" 

Less than 36" 

Stoniness or 
rockiness 

Stony 

Very stony 

Extremely stony 

Salinity or 
alkalinity (salts) 

Slight 

Moderate 

Strong 


!_/ Any area subject to flooding more often than once in 50 years has 
severe limitation for residential use. 


2/ Residential development without basement would have less severe 
restriction for water table and depth to rock. 


Soil mapping units having only slight limitations for residential use 
are: Da, Db, Dc, Dd, Hd. 

Soil mapping units having moderate limitations for residential develop- 
ment and factors affecting use are: 

De Salinity and alkalinity, and moderate shrink-swell 
Df Salinity and alkalinity, and moderate shrink-swell 
He Moderately steep slopes 

Soil mapping units having severe limitations for residential develop- 
ment and factors affecting this use are: 


Aa 

Ab 

Ea 

Eb 

Ha 

Hb 

la 

lb 

Ic 

Pa 

Pb 

Ra 

Rb 


High shrink-swell, alkalinity, and occasional flooding 
High shrink-swell, alkalinity, and occasional flooding 
high shrink-swell, alkalinity, and occasional flooding 
Frequent flooding 

Frequent flooding, and water table 

Frequent flooding, water table, and salinity and alkalinity 

Frequent flooding, shrink-swell, and water table 

Frequent flooding, shrink-swell, water table, and alkalinity 

Frequent flqoding, and water table 

Frequent flooding and high shrink-swell 

Occasional flooding, and shrink-swell 

Frequent flooding, and water table 

Frequent flooding, and water table 


- 44 



>” < 

"ts 

h- 


tr * 


L O- 


S ^ 


00 W 


”3 2 

O Q 
_J 
UJ 

> ^ >■ 

Ll! O h- 

Q O 2 

^ > O 

— Q ° 

S < < 

9 CO h 


UJ /P 

q: — 


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION 


SERVICE 'LISDA-SCS-PORTLAND. OREG. 1968 


ADVANCE COPY- SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



Soil Ratings for Roads and Parking Areas 


This interpretation indicates the degree of soil limitation for the 
construction and maintenance of roads and parking areas in the Big Sandy 
community . 

Soil properties influencing construction and maintenance costs are: 
depth to water table, flooding hazard, load-bearing capacities (AASHO 
rating), frost heave potential, stoniness, depth to rock, and topography. 

The following table lists these soil characteristics and indicates the 
degree of limitation applied to the range of each property. 


Table of Soil Limitations for 


Community Roads and Parking Areas 


Limiting Factors 
Affecting Use 

Degree of Limitation 

Slight 

Moderate 

Severe 

Depth to high 
water table 

Below 36" 

20 to 36" 

Less than 20" 

Flooding hazard 

No more than 
once in 10 yrs . 

No more than 
once in 5 yrs . 

More than once in 
5 years 

Load-bearing 
capacity (AASHO 
rating) 

A-l to A-3 

A-4 to A-5 

A-6 to A-7 

Frost heave 
potential 

Low 

Moderate 

High 

Stoniness 

Very stony 

Extremely stony 

Stony land or 
rubble 

Depth to rock 

Below 36" 

20 to 36" 

Less than 20" 

Topography (slope 
range) 
for parking 

for roads 

0 to 37> 
0 to 8%. 

3 to 8% 

8 to 157, 

Over 87, 
Over 1 57, 


Other properties unique to a particular soil quality which may affect 
its use for roads and parking are high shrink-swell and erodibility. 


- 47 


There are no soils in the area that have only slight limitations for use 
as roads or parking. 

Soil mapping units having moderate limitation for roads and parking and 
factors affecting this kind of use are: 

He Steepness of slope 

Hd Bearing capacity, frost heave, and slope 

Soil mapping units having severe limitation for roads and parking and 
factors affecting this use are: 

Aa Low bearing capacity, and high frost heave 

Ab Low bearing capacity, and high frost heave 

Da Low bearing capacity and high frost heave 

Db Low bearing capacity and high frost heave 

Dc Low bearing capacity and high frost heave 

Dd Low bearing capacity and high frost heave 

De Low bearing capacity and high frost heave 

Df Low bearing capacity and high frost heave 

Ea Low bearing capacity and high frost heave 

Eb Low bearing capacity and high frost heave 

Ha Frequent flooding and high frost heave 
Hb Frequent flooding and high frost heave 

la Frequent flooding, low bearing capacity, and high frost heave 

lb Frequent flooding, low bearing capacity, and high frost heave 

Ic Frequent flooding, low bearing capacity, and high frost heave 

Pa Low bearing capacity, and high frost heave 

Pb Low bearing capacity 

Ra Frequent flooding, and high frost heave 

Rb High water table, frequent flooding, and high frost heave 


- 48 



> 

’ tz CO 

z < 

D UJ 

^ < 
o CD 


cr 

o 

IL. 

CO 


p Q 

< ^ 
h ^ 

5 co 

-§ 
-1 O 


> < 
fci 
z t 

il 

§?f 

0 | 

>» ° 

Q° 
Z 3 
< < 
tD K 

3 

CD o 


U. s. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 


4JSDA-SCS-P0RTLAN D. OREG. 1968 


ADVANCE COPY- SUBJECT TO CHANGE 





Soil Ratings for Lawns and Landscaping 


This interpretation indicates the degree of soil limitation for lawns 
and landscaping. The soil is rated on the assumption it will be used 
for lawn turf, shrubs, and trees, without the need for adding topsoil 
for good establishment and also that irrigation is provided, 

A lawn turf should withstand a moderate amount of foot traffic in addi- 
t ion to controlling soil erosion from, runoff. 

Soil characteristics affecting this use are depth to seasonal high water 
table, slope, depth to bedrock, stoniness, soil texture (surface), flood 
hazard, and salts. The following table lists these properties and gives 
the degree of limitation for the range of each property. The soil char- 
acteristic giving the highest limitation is used to rate the soil as 
s 1 i ght , mod erate or s evere . 


Table of Soil Limitations for 
Lawns and Landscapes 


Limiting Factors 
Affecting Use. , 

Degree of Limitation 

Slight 

Moderate 

Severe 

Depth to seasonal 
high water table 

Below 20" 

6 to 20" 

Less than 6" 

Slope 1/ 

0 to 8% 

8 to 1,5% 

More than 15% 

Depth to bedrock 

More than 36" 

20 to 36" 

Less than 20" 

Stoniness 

Nonstony to 
stony 

Very stony 

Extremely stony 
to stony land 

2 / 

Soil texture — of 
the surface 6 inches 

Sandy loams, 
loams, silt 
loam with up to 
50? o gravel 

Silt, silty 
clay loam, 
sandy clay loam, 
clay loam with 
up to 50% 
gravel 

Sand, loamy sands, 
silty clay, clay, 
muck or peat „ 

Flood hazard 

None to 
seldom 

Occas ional 

Frequent 

Salinity or 
alkalinity of 
surface 12 inches 

Low 

Moderate 
(pH 8.5 to 9.0) 

High (pH over 9.0) 


1/ Slopes greater than 15 percent are difficult to mow and they have a 
high erosion hazard during turf establishment. 


2/ Soil which forms a hard crust on drying is rated one degree, higher in 
severity of the. problem, except for silty clay and clay which remain 
as severe because of texture. 


- 51 


Soil mapping units having only slight limitations for lawns and land- 
scaping are: Da, Db, Dc , Dd, and Hd. 

Soil mapping units having moderate limitations and factors affecting 
this use are: 

Aa (Absher portion only) Occasional flooding and surface texture 
Ab (Absher portion only) Occasional flooding and surface texture 
He Slopes up to 15 percent 

Pb Occasional flooding, and crusty surface 

Soil mapping units having severe limitations and factors affecting this 
use are: 


Aa (Devon, alkali variant) High salinity 
Ab (Noble portion only) Clay surface and high salinity 
De High salinity 

Df High salinity 

Ea Frequent flooding and surface crusting 
Eb Frequent flooding 

Ha Frequent flooding 

Hb Frequent flooding and high salinity 

la Frequent flooding and surface crusting 

lb Frequent flooding, high salinity and alkalinity, and surface crusting 
Ic Frequent flooding, clay texture, and surface crusting 
Pa Frequent flooding and crusty surface 
Ra Frequent flooding 

Rb Frequent flooding and poor drainage 


52 - 


Soil Ratings for Intensive Play Areas 

This interpretation indicates the degree of soil limitation for areas 
developed for playgrounds and organized games such as baseball, football, 
volleyball, and running. They are subject to much foot traffic and 
require smooth, nearly level to gentle slopes. In general, areas need 
not be larger than two acres in size. Soils should be capable of support 
ing and maintaining a grass cover if desired. 

Soil characteristics affecting this kind of use are slope, water table, 
flood hazard, surface texture to a depth of six inches, depth to hard 
rock, stoniness, and soil erodibility. The following table lists these 
properties and gives the degree of limitation applied to each. The 
soil characteristic giving the highest limitation is used to rate the 
soil as slight , moderate , or severe . 


Table of Soil Limitation for 


Limiting Factors 

— — — ■■ J . 1- — - 

Degree of Limitation 

Affecting Use 

SI ight 

Moderate „ 

Severe 

Slope 

0 to 5% 

5 to 10% 

Over 10% 

Depth to high 
water table 

Below 36" 

12 to 36" 

Less than 12" 

Flood hazard 

No flooding 
during period 
of heavy use 

Occas iona 1 
flooding during 
period of heavy 
use 

Frequent flooding 
during period of 
heavy use 

Surface texture 
to 6 inches 

Goars e s loamy 

fine loamy or 
fine silty 

Clayey or sandy 1/ 
and peat or muck 

Depth to hard rock 

Below 20" 

10 to 20" 

Less than 10" 

Stoniness 

None 

Oceas tonal 

Very stony 

Soil erodibility 

Slight or 
moderate 

Severe 

Very severe 


1/ Sandy textures are ideal for some types of intensive play such as 
beaches where they remain moist. They are usually too loose (when 
dry) for good footing for competitive sports. 


There are no soils in the area that have only slight limitations for use 
as intensive play areas. 

Soil mapping units having moderate limitations for intensive play and 
factors affecting this use are: 

Aa Soil texture, occasional flooding, and slopes 
Da Soil texture affecting water intake rate 

Db Soil texture affecting water intake rate 

Dc Soil texture and slope 

Dd Soil texture affecting water intake rate 

De Soil texture affecting water intake rate 

Df Soil texture affecting water intake rate 

Ea Soil texture and occasional flooding during heavy use period 

Eb Soil texture and occasional flooding during heavy use period 

Hd Soil texture and slope 

Pa Soil texture and occasional flooding during heavy use period 

Pb Soil texture and occasional flooding during heavy use period 

Soil mapping units having severe limitations for intensive play areas, 
and factors affecting this use are:. 

Ab Clay surface, and slow water intake rate 
Ha Flooding and poor drainage 

Hb Flooding and poor drainage 

He Steepness of slope 

la Frequent flooding and poor drainage 
lb Frequent flooding, clay texture, and poor drainage 
Ic Frequent flooding, clay texture, and poor drainage 
Ra Frequent flooding, and poor drainage 
Rb Frequent flooding, and poor drainage 


- 54 


S oil Ratings for Picnic and Play Areas 


This interpretation indicates the degree of soil limitations for picnic 
and play areas® The areas should provide adequate space for limited 
running or unorganized games, picnic tables and fireplaces. Soils should 
be capable of supporting and maintaining trees and grass under this use, 
with very little site preparation needed. The landscape for the site 
should be attractive. 

Soil characteristics affecting this use include depth to seasonal high 
water table, flood hazard during period of heavy use, soil texture of the 
surface six inches, slope, stoniness, and inherent erodibility. The 
following table lists these properties and gives the degree of limitation 
for the range of each property. The soil characteristic giving the high- 
est limitation is used to rate the soil as s light , moderate , or s eve re . 


Table of Soil Limitation for 
Picnic and Play Areas 


Limit ing Fac tors 

Degree of Limitation 

Affecting Use 

Slight 

Moderate 

Severe 

Depth to Seasonal 
high water table 

Below 36" 

18 to 36" 

Less than 18" 

Flood hazard 
(during heavy use) 

Never or 
seldom 

Oecas ional 

Frequent 

Soil texture 
(surface 6 inches) 

Sandy or 
coarse loamy 

Fine silty or 
fine loam 

Clay, peat, or 
muck 

Slope 

Less than 8%, 

8 to 20% 

Over 20% 

Stonines s 

None to very 
stony 

Extremely 

stony 

Rubb 1 e 

Inherent 

erodibility 

Slight to 
moderate 

Severe 

Very severe 


1/ The need for water supply and sewage disposal problems are not considered 
in these ratings. 


There are no soils in the area that have only slight limitation for use 
as picnic or play areas. 

Soil mapping units having moderate limitations for picnic and play areas 
and factors affecting this use are: 


Aa 

Soil 

texture 

and 

occas ional 

flooding 

Da 

Soil 

texture 




Db 

Soil 

texture 




Dc 

Soil 

texture 




Dd 

Soil 

texture 




Df 

Soil 

texture 




Ea 

Soil 

texture 




Eb 

Soil 

texture 

and 

occas ional 

flooding 

He 

Slope 




Hd 

Soil 

texture 




Pa 

Soil 

texture 

and 

occas ional 

flooding 

Pb 

Soil 

texture 

and 

occas ional 

flooding 


Soil mapping units having severe limitations for picnic and play areas 
and factors affecting this use are: 


Ha Frequent flooding and poor drainage 

Hb Frequent flooding and poor drainage 

la Frequent flooding and poor drainage 

lb Frequent flooding, clay texture and poor drainage 

Ic Frequent flooding, clay texture, and poor drainage 

Ra Frequent flooding and poor drainage 

Rb Frequent flooding and poor drainage 


56 


Soil Ratings for Cemeteries 

This interpretation indicates the degree of soil limitation for community 
type cemeteries,, The soil properties should permit excavation for grave 
sites to a depth of six feet during all seasons of the year. It is assumed 
the top soil excavated at the site will be reused as topsoil for lawn 
turf establishment. 

Soil characteristics affecting cemeteries are seasonal high water table, 
flooding hazard, depth to hard rock, slope, stoniness and soil texture 
of the surface 6 inches. The following table lists these factors and 
indicates the degree of limitation applied to each range of the soil 
property. The property giving the highest degree of limitation is used 
to rate the soil as slight , moderate or s evere a 


Table of Soil Limitations for Cemeteries 


Limiting Factors 
Affecting Use 

Degree of Limitation 

Slight 

Moderate 

Severe 

Seasonal High 
water table 

Below 7 feet 

5 to 7 feet 

Less than 5 feet 

Flooding hazard 

Never 

Occas ional 

Frequent 

Depth to hard rock 

Below 6 feet 

Below 6 feet 

Less than 6 feet 

Slope 

0 to 8% 

8 to 15% 

Over 15% 

Stoniness 

Nons tony 

stony 

Very stony 

Surface texture 
to 6 inches A/' 

Coarse loamy 

Fine loamy 

Sandy or clayey 


1/ The surface 6 inches of soil may contain up to 50 percent gravel or 
cobble in the coarse loamy or fine loamy textural groups. 


Soil mapping units having only slight limitations for use as cemeteries 
are: Da, Db, Dc , Dd, De, Df, and Hd. 

Soil mapping units having moderate limitations for cemeteries and 
factors affecting their use are: 

Aa Occasional flooding and fine loamy surface 
Ac Slope 

Pb Occasional flooding and fine loamy surface 

Soil mapping units having severe limitations for cemeteries and factors 
affecting this use are: 


Ab 

Clay texture and high 

alkalinity 


Ea 

Frequent 

flooding 





Eb 

Frequent 

flooding 





Ha 

Frequent 

flooding 

and 

high water 

table 

Hb 

Frequent 

flooding 

and 

high 

water 

table 

la 

Frequent 

flooding 

and 

high 

water 

table 

lb 

Frequent 

flooding 

and 

high 

water 

table 

Ic 

Frequent 

flooding 

and 

high 

water 

table 

Pa 

Frequent 

flooding 





Ra 

Frequent 

flooding 

and 

high 

water 

table 

Rb 

Frequent 

flooding 

and 

high 

water 

table 


58 


Soil Ratings for Sanil 


Fills 


This interpretation indicates the degree of soil limitation for sanitary 
land fills. They are disposal areas for trash and garbage. The soils 
are rated for the trench method of land-fill construction with hauling 
of cover material unnecessary. A good sanitary land fill should operate 
without contaminating water supplies, reducing aesthetic land values, or 
causing health hazards. In addition, they should be usable during all 
easons of the year. Fill areas that have been adequately compacted and 
covered can be used for parking areas, parks, recreation areas, industrial 
sites, and many other valuable uses. 


Soil factors considered in rating the limitations for use are seasonal 
high water table, permeability, slope, depth to bedrock, stoniness, 
surface texture, and flood hazard. The following table lists these 
factors and indicates the degree of limitation applied to each range 
of the soil property. The one giving the highest degree of limitation 
is used to rate the soil as s lig ht , moderate , or severe . 


Tab le of Soil Limitations for Sanitary Land Fills 


Limiting Factors 
Affecting Use 

De 

gree of Limitation 

Slight 

Moderate 

Severe 

Depth to seasonal 
high water table — 1 

Deeper than 10' 
below surface 

6 to 10 s 
below surface 

Less than 6' 
below surface 

Permeability 

More, than 
. 63 !, /hr . 

.20 to .63”/ hr 

Less than 
. 20 H /hr . 

Slope 

0 to 87c 

8 to 15% 

15+7) 

Depth to bedrock — 

More than 6 5 

4 to 6 s 

Less than 4 9 

Stoniness 

No ns tony to 
s tony 

Very stony 

Extremely stony 
to rubble land 

Excavated soil 
texture. 

Sandy and 
coarse- loamy 9 
up to 50% 
gravel 

fine -loamy or 
fine-silty, up 
to 507o gravel 

C 1 ay ey t: ex t ur e o r 
peat, or muck 

Flood hazard — 7 

Seldom 

Occas ional 

Frequent 


If Seasonal high water table will prevent proper land-fill operations 
during certain seasons and seepage can cause contaminated liquids to 


flow out on the lower banks . 

2/ This is depth to hard unrippab'le bedrock, and on-site investigation 
should be made to determine actual depth to bedrock. 

3/ This is an estimate of dominate condition, and on-site investigation 
to determine actual overflow frequency should be made. 

Current Montana Department of Health regulations for Sanitary Land Fill 
should be followed. 


.59 - 


There are no mapping units having only s light j.1 imitat ions for sanitary 
land fills . 

Soil mapping units having moderate limitations for sanitary land fills 
and factors affecting this use are: 

Da Fine loamy textures and moderately slow permeability 

Db Fine loamy textures and moderately slow permeability 

Dc Fine loamy textures and moderately slow permeability 

De Fine loamy textures and moderately slow permeability 

Df Fine loamy textures and moderately slow permeability 

He Steepness of slopes 

Hd Fine loamy texture and moderately slow permeability 

Soil mapping units having severe limitations for sanitary land fills and 
factors affecting this use are: 

Aa Clay textures and slow permeability 
Ab Clay textures and slow permeability 
Ea Clay textures, slow permeability and flooding 
Eb Frequent flooding 

Ha Frequent flooding, poor drainage and underlying clay 

Hb Frequent flooding, poor drainage and underlying clay 

la Frequent flooding, poor drainage and clay texture 

lb Frequent flooding, poor drainage and clay texture 

Ic Frequent flooding, poor drainage and clay texture 

Pa Frequent flooding, clay texture and slow permeability 
Pb Clay texture and slow permeability 
Ra Frequent flooding and poor drainage 
Rb Frequent flooding and poor drainage 


60 


S oil Ra t ings for On-Site Sewage. Disposal F ields (Septic. Tank ) 

This interpretation indicates the degree of soil limitation for on-site, 
sewage disposal. The most common on-site sewage disposal used in areas 
where central sewage systems are unavailable is the septic tank system. 

The well designed system, consists of a septic tank for holding solid wastes, 
a distribution box for dispensing effluent, and a tile disposal field. 
Successful operation of the entire system depends on the ability of the 
soil to absorb and filter the liquid or effluent passed through the tile 
field. It is in the soil where effluent purification takes place. The 
presence of a soil characteristic which impairs proper absorption and 
filtering of the effluent will cause health hazards as well as public 
nuisance situations in smaller lots. 

Soil characteristics affecting the operation of the tile disposal field 
include permeability rates, depth to bedrock, depth to seasonal high 
water table, slope, stoniness, and flood hazard. The following table lists 
these and indicates the degree of limitation applied to each range of soil 
properties. The soil property or characteristic giving the highest degree 
of limitation is used to rate the soil as s 1 ight , moderate , or severe. 


Table of Soil Limitation for on-Site Disposal Systems 


Limiting Factors 
Affecting Use 

Degree of Limitation 

SI ight 

Moderate 

Severe 

Soi l Per meal) i 1 ity 
rate 

More than 
1 in/ hr 'd 

.63 to 1 in/hr 

Less than 
.63 in/ hr 

2/ 

Depth to Bedrock — 

More than 6 ! 

4 to 6 5 

Less than 4 9 

Seasonal High 
Water Table 

More than 6 
below surface 

3 to 6 ' below 
surface 

Less than 3® 
below surface 

Slope 

0 to 5% 

5 to 10% 

Over 10% 3/ 

Stoniness 

Stony to 
very stony 

Very stony 

Ext r eme 1 y s t o ny t o 
stony land 

Flood ing 

Never 

Never 

Occasional to 
frequent 


\J Possible pollution hazard to surface water and ground water supplies 
where permeability rates are rapid. > 

2/ Creviced, shattered or dissolved passageways in limestone, bedrock may 
not adequately filter effluent and present a pollution problem. 

3/ Slopes greater than 10 percent have severe limitations because 
unfiltered effluent may surface on the downhill slope. 

Current. Montana Department of Health standards for septic tank system 
design and installation should be followed where on-site disposal systems 
are planned. 


- 61 


The following mapping units have only slight limitations in their use for 
on-site sewage disposal fields: Da, Db, and Dd. 

Soil mapping units having moderate limitations for sewage disposal fields 
and factors affecting this use are: 

Dc Slope 

Hd Slope 

Soil mapping units having severe limitations for sewage disposal fields 
and factors affecting this use are: 

Aa Slow permeability and occasional flooding 
Ab Slow permeability and occasional flooding 
De Slow permeability 

Df Slow permeability 

Ea Slow permeability and frequent flooding 
Eb Frequent flooding 

Ha Frequent flooding and high water table 

Hb Frequent flooding and high water table 

He Steep slopes 

la Frequent flooding, high water table and slow permeability 
lb Frequent flooding, high water table and slow permeability 
Pa Frequent flooding and slow permeability 
Pb Slow permeability and occasional flooding 
Ra Frequent flooding and high water tabl'fe 

Rb Frequent flooding and high water table 


62 


Soil Ratings for Sewage Lagoons 


This interpretation indicates the degree of soil limitation for sewage 
lagoons. A lagoon is a shallow lake used to hold sewage for the time 
required for bacteria decomposition. A suitable site should provide, an 
impoundment area and enough soil material to make the dam structure. 

The completed lagoon must be able to hold water with minimum seepage 
and prevent contamination of water supplies. Other important factors to 
consider are locations of occupied buildings, prevailing winds, inflow 
hazard from adjacent slopes, and the characteristics of receiving streams. 
Final selection of the specific location will require on-site investi- 
gations . 

Soil characteristics affecting sewage lagoons are permeability, slope, 
depth to bedrock, coarse fragments, stoniness, soil texture, and 
organic matter. The following table lists these factors and indicates 
the degree of limitation applied to each range of the soil property. 

The soil property giving the highest degree of limitation is used to 
rate the soil as slight. , moderate or severe . 


Table of Soil Limitations for Sewage Lagoons 


Limiting Factors 
Affecting Use 

Dee 

,ree of Limitation 

Slight 

Moderate 

S ever e 

Permeability 
(basin floor) 

Less than 
.63 in/ hr 

.63 in. to 
2.0 in/hr 

More than 
2 in /hr 

Slope 

0 to 3% 

3 to 8% 

Over 8%, 

Depth to bedrock 

More than 5 " 

3* to 5* 

Less than 3’ 

Coarse fragments 
less than 6" in dia. 

0 to 20% 

20 to 50% 

Over 50% 

Percent of surface 
covered by stones 
over Cinches in dia. 

Less than 3% 

3 to 15% 

Over 15% 

Soil texture or 
2 / 

material — 

GC , SC ? CL, CH 

GM, ML, SM, MH 

GP, GW, SP, SW s 
OL, OH, PT 

Organic Matter U 

Less than 2% 

2 to 15% 

More than 1.5% 


1/ Ground water may become contaminated, by seepage through rapidly perme- 
able fractured rock, open gravel, or cavernous limestone. 


2/ This refers to the undisturbed soil underlying the embankment and 
impoundment in terms of the United Soil Glassification System. 

3/ This is based on organic matter content below the surface 18 inches. 
This assumes the top 18 inches of soil will be scraped from the lagoon 
s ite . 

Current Montana Department of Health Standards for sewage, lagoons should 
be followed. 


63 - 


The following mapping units have only slight limitations in their use 
for sewage lagoons: Ab, De, Ea, Eb, la, lb, Pa, and Pb. 

Soil mapping units having moderate limitations for sewage lagoons and 
factors affecting this use are: 

Aa Moderate slope 
Da Soil permeability 
Db Soil permeability and slope 
Dc Soil permeability and slope 
Df Moderate slope 

Ha Soil stratification affecting seepage 
Hb Soil stratification affecting seepage 
Ic Soil permeability and sandy texture 
Ra Soil stratification affecting seepage 

Rb Soil stratification affecting seepage', high water table 

Soil mapping units having severe limitations for sewage lagoons and 
factors affecting this use are: 

He Steep slopes and rapid permeability 
Hd Steepness of slope 


64 


Soil R atings for Corrosivity of Untreated Steel that is in Contact 
With Soil 


This interpretation indicates the degree of soil limitation that affects 
the corrosion of uncoated steel when buried in the soil . This is a 
physical -biochemical process which converts iron into ions through an 
oxidation and reduction process. Soil moisture is needed to form solu- 
tions with soluable salts in an environment having differential concen- 
tration before the oxidation-reduction process can operate. This con- 
stitutes what: is known as a corrosion cell. Some of the soil factors 
affecting corrosivity are moisture content , soil permeability, conduc- 
tivity of soil solution, hydrogen ion activity of soil solution (pH), 
soiL aeration, activity of soil organisms causing oxidation-reduction 
reactions. The corrosivity of soil is commonly determined by (1) 
electrical resistivity or resistance to a flow of current, (2) total 
acidity which is roughly equal to the extractable acidity and not neces- 
sarily related to pH of the soil, (3) soil drainage (fluctuating water 
tpbles), and (4) soil texture. 

Soil factors considered in rating the limitation for this use are soil 
drainage, soil permeability, soil texture, total acidity, soil resistivity 
and soil conductivity. The following table lists these factors and indi- 
cates the degree of limitation applied to each range of property. The one 
giving the highest degree of limitation is used to rate the soil as slight 
moderate or severe. The rating is based on the assumption the pipe or 
metal will be buried at depths between 10 and 40 inches. If the pipe or 
metal is to be located at some other depth, the rating does not apply. 


Table of Soil Limitation for Untreated Metal (Corrosivity for Steel) 


Limiting Factors 
affecting use 

Degree of Limitation 

Slight 

Moderate 

Severe 

Soil drainage (class)—/ 

Well to 
excessive 

Well and 
moderately well 

Imperfectly to 
poorly 

Soil permeability 
(inches per hour) 

More than .63 

0.2 to 6.3 

Less than 0.2 

Soil texture group 

S andy and 
coarse loamy 

Fine -silty and 
fine -loamy 

Clayey, peat or 
muck 

Total acidity 
(Meg/ 1 00 grams soil) 

Less than 8 

8 to 11 

More than 12 

Soil Resistivity at 
Mo i s t u r e E q u i v a 1 en t 
(ohms per cm.) 

More than 
5000 

2000 to 5000 

Less than 2000 

Soil conduc t iv i ty 
(mmho per cm @ 25°C) 

Less than 0.2 

0.2 to 0.5 

more than 0.5 


1/ The drainage class may vary with soil texture and fluctuating water 
table. Usually soils with permanent high water tables are less 
corrosive than those, fhat' f Idctuate. 


65 


There are no soils in the area that have only slight limitation for 
corrosion of untreated steel when buried in soil. 


The following mapping units have moderate limitations that affect the 
corrosivity of untreated steel when buried in the soil. 


Da 

Moderately 

fine 

textures 

Db 

Moderately 

fine 

textures 

Dc 

Moderately 

fine 

textures 

Dd 

Moderately 

fine 

textures 

Eb 

Moderately 

fine 

textures 

He 

Moderately 

fine 

textures 

Hd 

Moderately 

fine 

textures 


and strong alkalinity 
and strong alkalinity 
and strong alkalinity 

and strong alkalinity 
except for Tinsley portion. 


The following mapping units have severe limitations that affect the 
corrosivity of untreated steel when buried in the soil. 


Aa 

Ab 

De 

Df 

Ea 

Ha 

Hb 

la 

lb 

1c 

Pa 

Pb 

Ra 

Rb 


Fine textured soil 
Fine textured soil 
High salt content 
High salt content 
Fine textured soil 
Fluctuating water 
Fluctuating water 
Fluctuating water 
Fluctuating water 
Fluctuating water 
Fine textures and 
Fine textures and 
Fluctuating water 
Fluctuating water 


, permeability, and high salt content 
, permeability, and high salt content 
in the subsoil 
in the subsoil 

, permeability, and high salt content 

table, high salts, and clay substrata 

table, high salts, and clay substrata 

table and fine textures 

table, high salts and fine texture 

table and high salts 

temporary flooding 

high salts 

tables 

tables, and clay substrata 


66 


> 



S* 


go 


s 

1*5 

k- Hi 

< a: 

H h- 

§* 
-J u- 


>” < 


o 

o 

> 

Q 

22 

< 

iO 

O 


o 

2 

#» 

> 

»- 

z 

Z> 

o 

o 

z> 

< 

UJ 

H~ 

3 

O 


U. S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE -LI S DA SCS- PO RTL A N D. OREG. 1960 


ADVANCE COPY- SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



GLOSSARY 


AASHO System - A system, for classifying the engineering properties of 

soils based on the American Association of State Highway Officials® 
system. 

Aeration, Soil - The process by which air and other gases in the soil are 
renewed , 

Aggregate,, Soil - A single mass or cluster of soil consisting of many 
primary soil particles (sand , silt, clay). 

Alluvial Soil - Soil developed from relatively recently deposited mater- 
ials, transported by flowing water. 

Available Water Capacity (AWG) - The capacity of a soil to hold water in 

a form available to plants. Amount of moisture held in soil between 
field capacity, or about one-third atmosphere of tension, and the 
wilting coefficient, or about 15 atmospheres of tension. 

Bearing Strength - This is the load supporting capacity of a soil. 

Calcareous Soil - Soil containing sufficient calcium carbonate to effer- 
vesce visibly when treated with 0,1 normal hydrochloric acid. 


As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less than ,002 
mi 1 1 meters in diameter „ 


As a soil textural class, soil material that is 40 percent or 
more clay, less than 45 percent sand, and less than 40 percent 
silt . 


Cl ayey - Soil texture containing more than 35 percent clay. 

Coarse-loamy - Soil texture containing less than 18 percent clay and 
more than 15 percent coarser than very fine sand. 


Complex, Soil - A mapping unit composed of two or more soils that are 
mingled in such an intricate pattern or in such small individual 
areas that they cannot be shown separately on a published soil map, 

C o ns is t enc e , So 1 1 - The feel of the soil and the ease with which a lump 
can be crushed by the fingers. Terms commonly used to describe 
con s is t enc e ar e t 


Loose - Noncoherent; will not hold together in a mass 

Friable - When moist, crushes easily under thumb and forefinger 
and can be pressed together into a lump. 

Firm - When moist, crushes under moderate pressure between thumb 
and forefinger, but resistance is distinctly noticeable. 


69 


Hard - When dry, moderately resistant to pressure; can be broken 
with difficulty between thumb and forefinger. 

Very hard - When dry, very resistant to pressure; cannot be 
broken between thumb and forefinger. 

Soft - When dry, breaks into powder or individual grains under 
slight pressure. 

Plastic - When wet, readily deformed by moderate pressure but 

can be pressed into a lump; will form a wire when rolled 
between thumb and forefinger. 

Sticky - When wet, adheres to other material; tends to stretch 
somewhat and pull apart rather than pull free from other 
material . 

Corrosion Potential - A rating based on the drainage, conductivity, 
texture, acidity, and alkalinity of the soil which indicates 
how rapidly untreated metal or concrete buried in the soil 
will corrode. 

Depth, Soil - The depth in inches from the surface to a root -impeding 
layer in the soil. The following classes are used to express 
soil depth. 

Deep - more than 40 inches deep 
Moderately deep - 20 to 40 inches deep 
Shallow - 10 to 20 inches deep 
Very shallow - Less than 10 inches deep 

Drainage, Soil - The rate or extent of removal of water from the soil. 
Seven classes of soil drainage are recognized as follows: 

Very poorly drained - Water is removed from the soil so slowly 
that the water table remains at or near the surface the 
greater part of the time. Soils of this class usually 
occupy level or depressed sites and are frequently 
ponded . 

Poorly drained - Water is removed from the soil so slowly that 
the soil remains wet for a large part of the time. The 
water table is commonly at or near the surface during 
a considerable part of the year. 

Somewhat poorly drained - Water is removed from the soil slowly 
enough to keep it wet for significant periods but not all 
of the time. Somewhat poorly drained soils commonly have 
a slowly permeable layer within the profile, a high water 
table, additions through seepage, or a combination of 
these conditions. 


70 


Moderately well drained - Water is removed from the soil somewhat 
slowly so that the profile is wet for a small but signifi- 
cant part of the time. Moderately well drained soils 
commonly have a slowly permeable layer within or imme- 
diately beneath the solum, a relatively high water table, 
additions of water through seepage, or some combination of 
these conditions. 

Well drained - Water is removed from the soil readily but not 

rapidly. Well drained soils are commonly intermediate in 
texture although soils of other textural classes may also 
be well dr a in e d . 

Excessively drained - Water is removed from the soil very rapidly. 
Excessively drained soils are commonly shallow, steep, or 
very coarse and porous. 

Erosion Hazard - Relative susceptibility of the soil to the prevailing 
erosion agents of water and wind. 

Fine -loamy - Soil textures containing more than 18 percent clay and 

less than 35 percent clay and more than 15 percent coarser than 
very fine sand. 

Fine- silty - Soil textures containing more than 18 percent clay and 

less than 35 percent clay and less than 15 percent coarser than 
very fine sand. 

Flood Pl ain - The nearly level areas along streams that are subject to 
overf 1 ow. 

Glacial Drift - Material deposited after being transported by glacier 
ice, includes all deposits of a glacial origin made in glacial 
streams and lakes. The deposits may be stratified glacial out- 
wash materials or unstratified deposits of till. 

Glacial Till - That part of the glacial material deposited directly by 
the ice with little or no transportation by water. 

Gravel - Rounded or partially rounded rock fragments two millimeters 
to three inches in diameter. 

Horizon - A layer of soil or soil material approximately parallel to the 
land surface and differing from adjacent genetically related 
layers in physical, chemical, and biological properties or char- 
acteristics , 

Infiltration - The downward entry of water into soil. 

Internal Drainage - The downward movement of water through the soil pro- 
file, The rate of movement is affected by the texture, structure, 
and height of the ground water table, either permanent or perched. 


71 - 


Interpretation, Soil - The art and science of explaining the meaning 
or significance of basic soil information for alternative uses. 

Lagoon - A lagoon is a shallow lake used to hold sewage for the time 
required for bacterial decomposition. 

Liquid Limit - The moisture content at which a soil passes from a 
plastic to a liquid or fluid state. 

Loam - A soil textural class having a relatively even mixture of sand 
silt and clay. 

Mapping Unit - It is composed of one or more soils having defined 
properties. Included are areas of other soils. 

Microrelief - Minor surface irregularities of the land. 

Mottled - Irregularly marked with spots of different colors that vary 
in number and size. Mottling in soils usually indicates poor 
aeration and lack of drainage. 

Parent Material - The rock or other geological materials from which a 
soil is formed. 

Ped - An individual natural soil aggregate such as a crumb, a prism, 
or a block, in contrast to a clod. 

Permeability - The rate at which water will move downward through a 
saturated soil. Terms used to describe relative classes of 
soil permeability in this report are as follows: 

Class Rate of Measurement Through Soil 

Very slow Less than 0.06 inches per hour 


Slow 

0.06 

to 

0.20 

inches 

per 

hour 

Moderately slow 

0.20 

to 

0.63 

inches 

per 

hour 

Moderate 

0.63 

to 

2.00 

inches 

per 

hour 

Moderately rapid 

2.00 

to 

6.30 

inches 

per 

hour 

Rapid 

6.30 

to 

20.0 

inches 

per 

hour 


Very rapid More than 20.0 inches per hour 

£H - A numerical expression of the acidity or alkalinity of the soil 
the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration. A pH 
of 7 denotes neutrality; less than 7 denotes an acid condition; 
and more than 7 denotes an alkaline condition in the soil. 


72 


Phase, Soil - A subdivision of a soil series, important to its use 
and management but not affecting its classification in the 
natural landscape, A soil series, for example, may be divided 
into phases because of differences in texture, slope, thickness, 
wetness, or some other characteristic that affects management. 

Plastic, limit - The moisture content at which a soil changes from a 
semisolid to a plastic state. 

Profile, Soil - A vertical section of the soil through all of its 

horizons, extending from the surface into the parent material. 

Reaction - The degree of acidity or alkalinity of the soil, usually 
expressed as a pH value. The following reaction classes are 
recognized : 


Extremely acid 

pH 

1. 

ess 

than 

.4.5 

Very strongly acid 

pH 

4 

.5 

to 

5. 

0 

Strongly acid 

pH 

5 

.1 

to 

5 . 

5 

Medium acid 

pH 

5 

. 6 

to 

6 . 

0 

Slightly acid 

pH 

6 

.1 

to 

6. 

5 

Neutral 

pH 

6 

.6 

to 

7. 

3 

Mildly alkaline 

pH 

7 

.4 

to 

7 o 

8 

Moderately alkaline 

pH 

7 

.9 

to 

8. 

4 

Strongly alkaline 

pH 

8 

.5 

to 

9. 

0 

Very strongly alkaline 

PH 

more 

1 than 

. 9.0 


Relief - The configuration or inequalities of the land surface which 
denote differences in elevation from one point to another in a 
g iven 1 and s c ape. 

Runo f f * The removal of water by flow over the surface of the soil. 

The amount and rapidity of surface runoff are affected by the 
texture, structure, and porosity of the surface layer, by the 
vegetative covering, by the prevailing climate, and by the slope. 
The rate of surface runoff is expressed as follows: ponded, 

very slow, slow, medium, rapid, and very rapid. 

S and - 

a. Individual rock or mineral fragments having diameters ranging 
from. 0.05 millimeters to 2.0 millimeters. Sand grains consist 
chiefly of quartz but they may be of any mineral composition. 

b. As a soil textural class, soil that is 85 percent or more 
sand and not more than 10 percent clay. 

Series, Soil - A group of soils developed from a particular type of 
parent material and having genetic horizons that, except for 
texture of the surface soil, are similar in differentiating 
characteristics and in arrangement in the profile. 


73 


Silt. - 

a. Individual mineral particles of soil that range in diameter 
from 0.002 millimeters to 0.05 millimeters. 

b. As a textural class, soil that is 80 percent or more silt 
and less than 12 percent clay. 

Slope - The rise or fall of the land surface measured in feet per 
hundred feet distance and expressed in percent. 

Solum - That part of the soil profile, above the parent material, in 
which the processes of soil formation are taking place. In 
mature soils, this includes the A and B horizons, and the char- 
acter of the material may be greatly unlike that of the parent 
material . 

Structure, Soil - The aggregation of soil particles into clusters of 

particles, which are separated from adjoining aggregates by sur- 
faces of weakness. 

Subsoil - Commonly that part of the soil profile lying below the sur- 
face layer and the substratum. 

Substratum - Any layer beneath the solum, or true soil; the C or R 
hor izon . 

Surface Soil - The soil ordinarily moved in tillage or its equivalent 
in uncultivated soil (about 5 to 8 inches in thickness) . 

Texture, Soil - The relative proportions of sand, silty and clay 

particles in a mass of soil. (See also clay, sand and silt.) 

The basic textural classes, in order of increasing proportions 
of fine particles are sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, loam, silt 
loam, silt, sandy clay loam, clay loam, silty clay loam, sandy 
clay, silty clay and clay. The sand, loamy sand and sandy 
loam classes may be further divided by specifying "coarse," 
"fine," and "very fine." 

Topsoil - Usually darkest in color, highest in organic matter, and 
most fertile. Used to top-dress road banks, parks, lawns or 
gardens , 

Unified System - A system developed by the U. S. Army, Corps of 

Engineers for classifying the engineering properties of soils. 

Variant, Soil - A soil that has properties sufficiently different from 
those of other known soils to justify a new series name, but 
whose geographic area is so limited that creation of a new 
series is not believed justified. 

Water Table - The upper surface of ground water, or the upper limit of 
the part of the soil or underlying material wholly saturated with 
water. In some places an upper or perched water table may be 
separated from a lower one by a relatively impervious dry zone. 


74