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88071432 _ 

Department of 
' Agriculture 


Natural 

Resources 

Conservation 

Service 


In cooperation with 
United States 
Department of the 
Interior, Bureau of Land 
Management, and 
University of Nevada 
Aricultural 
Experiment Station 


Soil Survey of 
Northwest Elko 
County Area, 
Nevada, 

Parts of Elko and 
Eureka Counties 


Part I 










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How To Use This Soil Survey 


This survey is divided into three parts. Part I includes general 
information about the survey area; descriptions of the detailed soil 
map units and soil series in the area; and a description of how the 
soils formed. Part II describes the use and management of the soils 
and the major soil properties. Part III includes the maps. 

The detailed soil map units follow the general information about the 
survey area. These map units can be useful in planning the use and 
management of small areas. 

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on 
the Index to Map Sheets, note the number of the map sheet, and turn 
to that sheet. 

Locate your area of interest on the map sheet. Note the map unit 
symbols that are in that area. Turn to the Index to Map Units in Part I 
of this survey, which lists the map units by symbol and name and 
shows the page where each map unit is described. 

The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific 
land use for each detailed soil map unit. See Contents for sections of 
this publication that may address your specific needs. 

A State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO) is available for this 
survey area. This database consists of a soils map at a scale of 1 to 
250,000 and descriptions of groups of associated soils. It replaces 
the general soil map published in older soil surveys. The map and the 
database can be used for multicounty planning, and map output can 
be tailored for a specific use. More information about the State Soil 
Geographic Database for this survey area, or any portion of Nevada, 
is available at the local office of the Natural Resources Conservation 
Service. 

Some standards or values may change as more information is 
collected and analyzed. Thus, as older published interpretive 
information becomes outdated, new interpretive data must be 
generated and tailored to local conditions. This information is added 
to the State Subset of the Map Unit Interpretation Record (MUIR) 
database as needed. Map Unit Interpretation Records are the soil 
survey specific data and interpretations in the state soil survey 
database. 


BLM Library 
Denver Federal Center 
Bldg. 50, OC-521 
RO. Box 25047 
Denver, CO 80225 










This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a 
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal 
agencies. State agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and 
local agencies. The Natural Resources Conservation Service has leadership 
for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. 

Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1985. Soil names and 
descriptions were approved in 1986. Unless otherwise indicated, statements 
in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1985. This survey 
was made cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, the 
United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, and the 
University of Nevada Agricultural Experiment Station. It is part of the 
technical assistance furnished to the Owyhee Conservation District. 

Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of 
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of 
mapping. If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils 
that could have been shown at a larger scale. 

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits 
discrimination in its programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, 
religion, age, disability, political beliefs and marital or familial status. (Not all 
prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Person with disabilites who require 
alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large 
print, audiotape, etc.) should contact the USDA Office of Communications at 
(202) 720-2791. 

To file a complaint, write the Secretary of Agriculture, U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 20250, or call (202) 720-7327 (voice) or 
(202) 720-1127 (TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity employer. 




Contents 


Part I 


Index to map units.v 

Summary of tables.ix 

Foreword.xi 

How this survey was made. 1 

General nature of the survey area.2 

History.2 

Industry, transportation, and recreation.2 

Physiography, drainage, and geology.3 

Climate.3 

Detailed Soil Map Units.5 

Map Unit Descriptions.6 

Prime farmland.171 

Classification of the soils.173 

Taxonomic units and their morphology.173 

Akier series .173 

Alley series.174 

Alyan series.175 

Arcia series.176 

Bartome series.177 

Bilbo series.178 

Bioya series.179 

Blitzen series.180 

Booford series.181 

Bregar series.182 

Buffaran series.182 

Bulake series.183 

Bullump series.184 

Carstump series.185 

Cavanaugh series.186 

Chen series.186 

Cherry Spring series.187 

Chiara series.188 

Chime series.189 

Cleavage series.190 

Clementine series.191 

Clurde series.192 

Clurde Variant.193 

Coltroop series.193 

Cotant series.194 

Creemon series.195 

Crooked Creek series.196 

Dacker series.197 

Deepeek series.198 

Deseed series.199 

Deunah series.200 

Dewar series.201 

Donna series.202 

Enko series.203 


Erakatak series.204 

Fulstone series.205 

Gando series.206 

Gochea series.206 

Graley series.208 

Gumble series.208 

Hackwood series.209 

Handy series.210 

Hapgood series.211 

Hatpeak series.212 

Heechee series.213 

Humboldt series.213 

Hunnton series.214 

Kelk series.215 

Kleckner series.217 

Kortty series.218 

Lerrow series.219 

Linkup series.220 

Loncan series.220 

Lynnbow series.221 

Mahala series.222 

McCleary series.223 

Mclvey series.224 

Midraw series.225 

Ninemile series.226 

Olac series.227 

Old Camp series.228 

Orovada series .228 

Pattani series.230 

Pequop series.230 

Pernty series.231 

Petan series.232 

Pie Creek series.233 

Piline series.234 

Placeritos series.234 

Puett series.236 

Puett Variant.236 

Quarz series.237 

Ramires series.238 

Ratsow series.239 

Relley series.240 

Reluctan series.241 

Rugar series.241 

Shabliss series.242 

Shalake series.243 

Shalper series.244 

Shively series.245 

Short Creek series.246 









































































































Skull Creek series.247 

Snowmore series.247 

Sodhouse series.249 

Sonoma series.249 

Soonaker series.250 

Soughe series.251 

Stampede series.252 

Sumine series.253 

Susie Creek series.253 

Thwoop series.254 

Troughs series.255 

Trunk series.256 

Tuffo series.257 

Tusel series.257 

Tusk series.258 

Tweba series.259 

Tweener series.260 

Upville series.261 

Vanwyper series.261 

Welch series.262 

Weso series.263 

Wickahoney series.264 

Wieland series.265 

Willhill series.266 

Wilsor series.267 

Xeric Torriorthents.268 

Yuko series.268 

Zevadez series.269 

Formation of the soils.271 

Factors of soil formation.271 

Climate.271 

Living organisms.272 

Topography .272 

Parent material.273 

Time.274 

References.277 

Glossary.279 


Part II 

Summary of tables .iii 

Crops and pasture. 

Cropland limitations and hazards. 

Crop yield estimates. 

Land capability classification. 

Erosion factors. 

Rangeland and grazeable woodland 

resource management. 

Range condition. 

Rangeland management. 

Wildlife considerations. 

Plant Communities of 

Northwest Elko County Area. 

Forest land. 

Woodland ordination system. 

Forest land management and productivity 

Wildlife habitat. 

Elements of wildlife habitat. 

Kinds of wildlife habitat. 

Recreation. 

Engineering. 

Building site development. 

Sanitary facilities. 

Waste management. 

Construction materials. 

Water management. 

Soil properties. 

Engineering index properties. 

Physical and chemical properties. 

Water features. 

Soil features. 

References. 

Glossary . 

Tables. 

Rangeland plants and woodland 
understory. 1015 


Issued November 1997 


IV 


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Index to Map Units 


001 --Rubble land.6 

120-Cotant, moderately steep-Lerrow-Cotant 

association.6 

126- Cotant-Lerrow-Akler association.7 

127- Cotant-Ninemile-Lerrow association.8 

128- Cotant-Graley association.8 

129- Cotant-Chen-Crooked Creek association.9 

130- Cotant-Booford association.10 

140- Upville, frequently flooded-Upville 

association.10 

141- Upville-Kleckner association.11 

150—Gochea gravelly loam, 2 to 4 

percent slopes.11 

161— Sonoma silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 

percent slopes.11 

162- Sonoma silt loam, drained, 

occasionally flooded.12 

184- Crooked Creek silty clay loam, frequently 

flooded, 0 to 2 percent slopes.12 

185- Crooked Creek, moderately wet- 

Crooked Creek association.13 

186- Crooked Creek-Crooked Creek, 

occasionally flooded-Crooked Creek, 

drained association.13 

188-Crooked Creek-Welch-Crooked Creek, 

drained association.14 

190-Heechee-Heechee, cobbly association.14 

200—Lynnbow-Rugar association.15 

201 -Lynnbow-Lerrow-Crooked Creek 

association.15 

210-Soonaker-Bulake association.16 

220-Cavanaugh-Rugar-Mclvey association.17 

221 -Cavanaugh-Quarz-Alyan association.17 

233- Bioya-Bilbo-Chiara association.18 

234- Bioya-Shabliss-Puett association.19 

235- Bioya-Trunk-Alley association.19 

236- Bioya-Wieland-Kleckner association.20 

241-Wickahoney-Deunah-Petan association.21 

270-Pernty, steep-Loncan-Pernty association.21 

280-Humboldt silty clay loam, occasionally 

flooded.22 

308- Akler-Pattani-Cotant association.22 

309— Akier-Susie Creek association.23 

457- Donna-Stampede-Short Creek 

association.24 

458- Donna-Stampede association.24 

464-Stampede silt loam, 2 to 8 percent 

slopes.25 

570— Sumine-Cleavage-Hapgood association.25 

571— Sumine-Tusel-Gando association.26 

572— Sumine-Reluctan-Cleavage association.27 


576- Sumine-Hapgood-Cleavage association, 

very gravelly.28 

577- Sumine-Hapgood-Chen association.29 

578- Sumine-Tusel-Hapgood association, 

very steep.29 

579- Sumine-Pernty-Tusel association.30 

580- Sumine-Pie Creek-Reluctan association.31 

581- Sumine-Hapgood-Cleavage association.31 

582- Sumine-Tusel-Cleavage association.32 

583- Sumine-Hapgood-Pernty association.33 

584- Sumine-Tusel-Hapgood association, 

steep.34 

585- Sumine-Rock outcrop-Rubble 

land association.35 

586- Sumine-Loncan-Cleavage association.35 

600- Hapgood-Bullump-Gando association.36 

601- Hapgood-Blitzen-Tusel association.37 

602- Hapgood-Hackwood-Tusel association.38 

623- Soughe-Rock outcrop association.38 

624- Soughe-Soughe, very steep-Rock 

outcrop association.39 

625- Soughe-Alyan-Shalper association.39 

626- Soughe, cobbly-Vanwyper- 

Soughe association.40 

690-Welch, drained-Welch association.41 

920- Bullump-Gando-Tusel association.41 

921- Bullump-Hackwood-Cleavage association.42 

922- Bullump-Cleavage-Hapgood association.43 

1130- Clementine silt loam, drained, 

0 to 2 percent slopes.44 

1131- Clementine, drained-Clementine, gently 

sloping-Clementine association.44 

1135-Clementine-Clurde 

association.45 

1150-Clurde-Wieland association.45 

1155-Clurde very fine sandy loam, 

0 to 2 percent slopes.46 

11 56—Clurde-Kortty association.46 

1157-Clurde-Zevadez-Chiara association.47 

11 90-Cherry Spring-Enko association.48 

1191-Cherry Spring-Wieland association.48 

1193-Cherry Spring-Hunnton-Chiara 

association.49 

1210-Skull Creek-Shabliss-Puett association.49 

1220- Hunnton, strongly sloping-Hunnton- 

Fulstone association.50 

1221- Hunnton, moderately steep-Hunnton- 

Fulstone association.51 

1223- Hunnton-Shabliss-Puett association.51 

1224- Hunnton-Trunk-Shabliss association.52 

1226-Hunnton-Wieland-Clementine 

association.53 


V 





















































































1227- Hunnton-Chiara-Bilbo association.54 

1228- -Hunnton-Hunnton, moderately sloping 

association.54 

1 229-Hunnton-Chiara-Wieland association.55 

1 230—Fulstone-Hunnton association.56 

1 231—Fulstone-Fulstone, moderately steep- 

Hunnton association.56 

1232-Fulstone-Fulstone, cobbly loam-Wieland 

association.57 

1241- Enko-Shabliss-Orovada association.58 

1242- Enko-Enko, strongly sloping 

association.58 

1260- Kleckner-Upville-Fulstone association.59 

1261- Kleckner-Fleechee association.60 

1290-Tweba very fine sandy loam, drained, 

0 to 2 percent slopes.60 

1 350-Shabliss-Hunnton-Bioya association.60 

1 351-Shabliss-Bartome association.61 

1 352-Shabliss-Skull Creek-Puett 

association.62 

1360—Orovada very fine sandy loam, 

0 to 2 percent slopes.62 

1362— Orovada-Clurde-Wieland association.63 

1363- Orovada-Tweba-Weso association.64 

1530—Creemon-Placeritos association.64 

1 572—Weso-Orovada-Shabliss association.65 

1573-Weso-Orovada-Tweba association.65 

1617-Cleavage-Hapgood-Tweener 

association.66 

1 618-Cleavage-Sumine-Pequop association.67 

1619-Cleavage-Tusk-Sumine association.68 

1621- Cleavage-Graiey-Cleavage, moderately 

steep association.68 

1622- Cleavage-Sumine-Hapgood 

association.69 

1623- Cleavage-Hapgood-Sumine 

association.70 

1 625-Cleavage-Ninemile-Sumine 

association.71 

1626-Cleavage-Carstump-Chen association.71 

1628-Cleavage-Chen-Reiuctan association.72 

1640-Tusk-Cleavage-Flackwood 

association.73 

1650-Ninemile-Tusk-Ninemile, steep 

association.73 

1 651 —Ninemile-Reluctan-Ninemile, 

moderately steep association.74 

1652- Ninemile, steep-Graley-Ninemile 

association.75 

1653- Ninemile-Reluctan-Graley association.76 


1655- Ninemile-Thwoop-Pequop association.76 

1656- Ninemile-Pequop-Gumble association.77 

1657- Ninemile-Alyan association.78 

1658- Ninemile-Vanwyper-Ninemile, moderately 

steep association.79 

1659- Ninemile-Carstump association .79 

1660- Susie Creek-Pie Creek-Pattani 

association.80 

1671- Linkup-Carstump-Linkup, very cobbly 

loam association.80 

1672- Linkup, steep-Carstump-Linkup 

association.81 

1673- Linkup-Quarz-Alyan association.82 

1675- Linkup-Snowmore-Ratsow 

association.83 

1676- Linkup-Quarz association.83 

1680-Carstump-Reluctan-Ninemile 

association, hilly.84 

1685- Carstump-Ninemile-Graley association.85 

1686- Carstump-Reluctan-Ninemile 

association, steep.85 

1687- Carstump, cobbly loam-Linkup-Carstump 

association.86 

1691-Pequop-Rock outcrop-Rubble land 

association.87 

1700-Cotant-Quarz-Ninemile association.87 

1702- Cotant-Mclvey-Blitzen association.88 

1703— Cotant-Lerrow-Bullump association.89 

1711 -Reluctan-Ninemile-Cleavage 

association.89 

1712-Reluctan-Sumine-Cleavage 

association.90 

171 3—Reluctan-Erakatak-Rugar association.91 

1 720-Quarz-Alyan-Ninemile association.91 

1725— Quarz-Cleavage-Loncan association.92 

1726- Quarz-Ninemile-Pequop association.93 

1730-Graley-Erakatak-Chen association.93 

1 732—Graley-Quarz-Ninemile association.94 

1 733—Graley-Loncan association.95 

1740-Erakatak-Cleavage-Hackwood 

association.95 

1741 -Erakatak-Chen-Tusk association.96 

1742-Erakatak-Rugar-Tusel association.97 

1 744-Erakatak-Graley-Tusel association.98 

1 746-Booford-Cotant-Blitzen association.98 

1800-Bregar, moderately steep-Bregar- 

Carstump association.99 

1802- Bregar-Ninemile-Pequop association.100 

1803- Bregar-Sumine-Rock outcrop 

association.100 


VI 










































































1805--Bregar-Deseed-Linkup association.101 

1810—Shively-Ninemile-Hackwood 

association.102 

1 830--Vanwyper, steep-Alyan-Vanwyper 

association.103 

1831— -Vanwyper, moderately steep-Trunk- 

Vanwyper association.103 

1832— Vanwyper-Trunk-Trunk, steep 

association.104 

1833— Vanwyper-Rock outcrop-Trunk 

association...105 

1852- Gumble-Tuffo-Hunnton association.105 

1853- Gumble-Tuffo-Rock outcrop 

association.106 

1854- Gumble-Chen association ..107 

1855- Gumble-Puett Variant-Xeric 

Torriorthents association.107 

1870-Chen-Graley-Quarz association.108 

1871 —Chen-Cotant-Graley association.109 

1872—Chen-Sumine-Tusel association.109 

1874— Chen-Quarz-Arcia association.110 

1875- -Chen-Bregar-Ramires association.Ill 

1876— Chen-Chen, steep-Arcia association.112 

1877- Chen-Bregar-Loncan association.112 

1880-Chen-Blitzen-Pequop association.113 

1881 —Chen-Blitzen-Loncan association.114 

1888- Chen-Pie Creek-Alyan association.114 

1889- Chen-Sumine association.115 

1910-Mahala-Ramires association.116 

1920- Lerrow-Chen-Cotant association...116 

1921- Lerrow-Quarz-Rugar association.117 

1931 —Tweener-Cleavage-Reluctan 

association...118 

1932— Tweener-Sumine-Cleavage 

association.118 

1933— Tweener-Pequop'Cleavage 

association.. 119 

1950-Mclvey-Mclvey, very cobbly- 

Tusel association. 120 

1980-Thwoop-Trunk-Pequop association.121 

2000- Alyan-Cotant-Akler association.121 

2001- Alyan, steep-Bregar-Alyan 

association....1 22 

2002- Alyan, moderately steep-Alyan-Quarz 

association...123 

2003- Alyan-Deepeek-Susie Creek 

association.1 23 

2004- Alyan, cobbly loam-Ninemile- 

Alyan association.124 


2005-Alyan-Graley-Rock outcrop 

association.125 

2171 -Deseed-Reluctan-Cleavage 

association.126 

2173-Deseed-Quarz association.126 

2205— Coltroop-Snowmore association.127 

2206— Coltroop-Vanwyper association.127 

2310— Bulake-Deunah-Bulake, very 

cobbly association.128 

2311- Bulake-Hatpeak-Petan association.129 

2505-Buffaran-Zevadez association. 129 

2511—Bilbo-Alley-Deepeek association.130 

2514-Bilbo-Susie Creek-Buffaran 

association.131 

2521— Dewar-Chiara-Chiara, very 

cobbly association.132 

2522- Dewar-Sodhouse association.132 

2531-Clurde Variant-Clurde-Rock outcrop 

association.133 

2541—Kelk very fine sandy loam, occasionally 

flooded, 0 to 2 percent slopes.134 

2545—Kelk-Clurde association.134 

2555—Piline silty clay loam. 134 

2560- McCleary silt loam, occasionally 

flooded. 135 

2561- McCleary cobbly silt loam, drained, 

rarely flooded.135 

2571- Chiara-Chiara, cobbly-Chiara, very 

cobbly association.136 

2572- Chiara-Chiara, moderately eroded 

association.136 

2573- Chiara, very cobbly-Chiara 

association.137 

2575-Chiara-Dacker-Shalake 

association. 138 

2577—Chiara-Orovada association.138 

2600-Shalake-Chiara-Shalake, gently 

sloping association.139 

2611— Dacker-Hunnton association. 140 

2612— Dacker-Zevadez association.140 

261 5—Dacker-Chiara association.141 

2621—Gochea-Susie Creek-Carstump 

association.141 

2641-Olac-Snowmore association .142 

2650- Wieland-Bartome-Zevadez association.143 

2651- Wieland-Buffaran association. 143 

2652- Wieland-Dacker-Zevadez association.144 

2655- Wieland-Gumble-Bilbo association.145 

2656— Wieland-Hunnton-Thwoop association . 145 


VII 













































































2658--Wieland very gravelly loam, 15 

to 30 percent slopes.146 

2666- -Puett-Orovada association.147 

2667- Puett-Rock outcrop-Clurde 

association.147 

2668- Puett-Yuko-Zevadez association.148 

2710- Ramires-Bartome-Bilbo association.148 

2711- Ramires-Bilbo-Buffaran association.149 

2741-Wilsor-Wilsor, moderately steep 

association.150 

2751-Yuko-Chime-Clurde association.150 

2775- Zevadez-Bartome-Wieland association.151 

2776- Zevadez-Chiara association.152 

2777- Zevadez-Wieland-Clurde association.152 

2778- Zevadez-Yuko-Kelk association.153 

2780-Snowmore, cobbly-Snowmore 

association.1 54 

2781 —Snowmore, cobbly-Sno\A/more, very 

cobbly-Snowmore association.155 

2782— Snowmore-Zevadez-Snowmore, cobbly 

association.1 55 

2783— Snowmore-Willhill association.156 

2790-Old Camp-Troughs-Olac association.157 

2801 -Bartome-Alley-Clurde association.1 57 

2802- Bartome-Buffaran association.158 

2803— Bartome-Buffaran-Ramires 

association.158 


2804- Bartome-Chiara association.159 

2805- Bartome very fine sandy loam, 

0 to 2 percent slopes.160 

2807- Bartome-Coltroop-Zevadez 

association.160 

2808- Bartome-Susie Creek-Wieland 

association. 161 

2809- Bartome-Dacker association.162 

2820-Alley-Vanwyper-Rock outcrop 

association.162 

2822-Alley-Rock outcrop-Rubble land 

association.163 

3000-Handy-Wilsor-Deseed association.163 

3010-Relley-Kelk association.164 

3020-Sodhouse-Chiara association.165 

3030-Deepeek-Alley association.165 

3100-Ratsow-Quarz-Susie Creek 

association.166 

3510-Midraw-Troughs-Midraw, strongly 

sloping association.166 

3710-Petan-Bulake-Rock outcrop 

association.167 

3715-Petan-Deunah-Hatpeak association.168 

3721- Hatpeak-Deunah association.168 

3722- Hatpeak-Hatpeak, moderately steep 

association.169 

W-Water.170 


viii 










































Summary of Tables 

Part II 

Temperature and precipitation (table 1).47 

Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2)...49 

Growing season (table 3).50 

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) ..53 

Cropland limitations and hazards (table 5).59 

Land capability and yields per acre of crops (table 6).85 

Suitability for rangeland seeding (table 7).89 

Woodland management and productivity (table 8). 123 

Wildlife habitat (table 9) . 125 

Recreational development (table 10). 165 

Building site development (table 11)...251 

Sanitary facilities (table 12).337 

Construction materials (table 13).425 

Water management (table 14).509 

Engineering index properties (table 15).589 

Physical properites of the soils (table 16).765 

Chemical properties of the soils (table 17).853 

Water features (table 18).931 

Soil features (table 19). 971 

Classification of the soils (table 20).1011 


ix 








































Foreword 


This soil survey contains information that can be used in 
land-planning programs in Northwest Elko County Area, 
Nevada, Parts of Elko and Eureka Counties. It contains 
predictions of soil behavior for selected land uses. The survey 
also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil, 
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the 
impact of selected land uses on the environment. 

This soil survey is designed for many different users. 

Farmers, ranchers, foresters, and agronomists can use it to 
evaluate the potential of the soil and the management needed 
for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community 
officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can 
use the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, 
and identify special practices needed to ensure proper 
performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and 
specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, 
and pollution control can use the survey to help them 
understand, protect, and enhance the environment. 

Great differences in soil properties can occur within short 
distances. Some soils are seasonally wet or subject to 
flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock. Some are too unstable 
to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or 
wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption 
fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly suited to 
basements or underground installations. 

These and many other soil properties that affect land use are 
described in this soil survey. The location of each soil is shown 
on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is 
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. 
Help in using this publication and additional information are 
available at the local office of the Natural Resources 
Conservation Service or Nevada Cooperative Extension. 



William D. Goddard 

State Conservationist 

Natural Resources Conservation Service 















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1 


Soil Survey of 

Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada, 
Parts of Elko and Eureka Counties 


By Terry S. Bowerman, Natural Resources Conservation Service 

Fieldwork by Terry S. Bowerman, Paul W. Blackburn, Alan R. Wasner, Roderick W. 
Douglass, Jr., and H. David Pickel, Natural Resources Conservation Service; Mike 
Jackson, Steve Mellington and Mike Zielinski, Bureau of Land Management; 
Goodson and Associates, Inc. under Bureau of Land Management contract in the 
Owyhee Desert 

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, 
in cooperation with 

United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, and the 
University of Nevada Agricultural Experiment Station 


How This Survey Was Made 

This survey was made to provide information about 
the soils and miscellaneous areas in the survey area. 
The information includes a description of the soils and 
miscellaneous areas and their location and a discussion 
of their suitability, limitations, and management for 
specified uses. Soil scientists observed the steepness, 
length, and shape of the slopes; the general pattern of 
drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants; and the 
kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes to study the 
soil profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or 
horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface 
down into the unconsolidated material in which the soil 
formed. The unconsolidated material is devoid of roots 
and other living organisms and has not been changed 
by other biological activity. 

The soils and miscellaneous areas in the survey area 
are in an orderly pattern that is related to the geology, 
landforms, relief, climate, and natural vegetation of the 
area. Each kind of soil and miscellaneous area is 
associated with a particular kind or segment of the 
landscape. By observing the soils and miscellaneous 
areas in the survey area and relating their position to 
specific segments of the landscape, soil scientists 
develop a concept, or model, of how the soils were 
formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables the 
soil scientists to predict with a considerable degree of 
accuracy the kind of soil or miscellaneous area at a 
specific location on the landscape. 

Individual soils on the landscape commonly merge 
into one another as their characteristics gradually 
change. To construct an accurate map, however, soil 


scientists must determine the boundaries between the 
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil 
profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, 
supplemented by an understanding of the soil- 
vegetation-landscape relationship, are sufficient to 
verify predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to 
determine the boundaries. 

Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil 
profiles that they studied. They noted color, texture, 
size, and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of 
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, reaction, 
and other features that enable them to identify soils. 
After describing the soils in the survey area and 
determining their properties, the soil scientists assigned 
the soils to taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic 
classes are concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set 
of soil characteristics with precisely defined limits. The 
classes are used as a basis for comparison to classify 
soils systematically. Soil taxonomy, the system of 
taxonomic classification used in the United States, is 
based mainly on the kind and character of soil 
properties and the arrangement of horizons within the 
profile. After the soil scientists classified and named 
the soils in the survey area, they compared the 
individual soils with similar soils in the same taxonomic 
class in other areas so that they could confirm data and 
assemble additional data based on experience and 
research. 

While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of 
the soils in the area generally are collected for 
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil 
scientists interpret the data from these analyses and 










2 


Soil Survey of 


tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and 
the soil properties to determine the expected behavior 
of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all 
of the soils are field tested through observation of the 
soils in different uses and under different levels of 
management. Some interpretations are modified to fit 
local conditions, and some new interpretations are 
developed to meet local needs. Data are assembled 
from other sources, such as research information, 
production records, and field experience of specialists. 
For example, data on crop yields under defined levels 
of management are assembled from farm records and 
from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of 
soil. 

Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on 
soil properties but also on such variables as climate 
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable 
over long periods of time, but they are not predictable 
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can 
predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a 
given soil will have a high water table within certain 
depths in most years, but they cannot predict that a 
high water table will always be at a specific level in the 
soil on a specific date. 

After soil scientists located and identified the 
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, 
they drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial 
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit. 
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, 
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries 
accurately. 


General Nature of the Survey Area 

This section gives general information about the 
survey area. It briefly discusses history; industries, 
transportation, and recreation; physiography, drainage, 
and geology; and climate. 

History 

The survey area was long inhabited by the tribes of 
the Shoshone Indians. Fur trappers first entered the 
area in 1826 via the South Fork of the Owyhee River. 
For the next twenty years, the area saw little intrusion 
by others. Flowever, in the 1850's the Overland Trail, 
which follows the Humboldt River, became the major 
route to California. Emigrants and gold seekers began 
filtering into the area, settling in the valleys and 
searching for gold in the mountains. 

Sheep ranching was the first livestock industry to get 
its start when the first flocks were herded to California. 
The Owyhee Desert became a popular winter range, 
and, by 1860, permanent flocks were a common sight 
in the area. 

The cattle industry was of major importance by the 
1880's. Herds were being driven north from Texas and 
Mexico. When it was discovered that these cattle could 


survive the winters, stockmen began settling into the 
area. The Owyhee Desert served as a favorite winter 
range for the cattle. 

In 1867, gold was discovered in the Tuscarora 
Mountains and the mining camp of Tuscarora was 
established. Tuscarora became the biggest producing 
mine in northeast Nevada, and by 1884, it 
outnumbered Elko in population, importance and 
influence. The community flourished through the turn 
of the century until the mines began to close, and by 
the 1930's, Tuscarora had dwindled to a mere handful 
of people. 

In 1907, gold was discovered in the mountains near 
Rock Creek and the mining camp of Midas was 
established. Although this community did not grow as 
large as Tuscarora, it was a thriving little boomtown 
during its peak from 1916 through 1921. The mine 
was eventually closed in 1942, and today, few people 
remain in Midas. 

Industry, Transportation, and Recreation 

The main industries in the survey area are ranching 
and mining. 

The ranches are dominantly cow-calf operations, 
usually weaning and selling the calves in the fall of the 
year. A few operations carry over yearling steers to be 
sold at a later date. There are a limited number of 
ranches that are cow-calf-sheep operations. 

The crops grown are dominantly meadow hay with 
some areas of alfalfa. The major sources of irrigation 
water in the survey area are the South Fork of the 
Owyhee River and its tributaries. Willow Creek, Rock 
Creek and Evans Creek. Irrigation water is stored in 
Desert Ranch Reservoir, Wilson Reservoir, Bull Run 
Reservoir, and Willow Creek Reservoir. At the higher 
elevations, numerous small springs and seeps and 
several small perennial streams provide adequate 
watering facilities for livestock and wildlife. In the 
valleys, most of the streams are intermittent. The 
ground water supply in the valleys is quite variable in 
quality. The amount that is available for irrigation in 
each valley has not been determined. 

There has been mining of gold, silver, and barite in 
the past, but, at present, there is little mining activity 
in the survey area. 

The area is so sparsely settled that there is little need 
for improved roads. In the summer and fall, most of the 
survey area is accessible by dirt roads or jeep trails. 

There is one main highway in the survey area. This is 
State Route 226 which runs from Taylor Canyon north 
through Independence Valley. 

The survey area provides recreational opportunities 
for hunting, fishing, backpacking, and other back 
country activities. Wilson Reservoir, Willow Reservoir, 
and Bull Run Reservoir are noted fisheries. Perennial 
streams also provide opportunities for fishing. Game 
birds, deer, and pronghorn antelope are common in the 
area. The remoteness and rugged terrain typical of the 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


3 


area are desired by many backpacking enthusiasts and 
campers. 


Physiography, Drainage, and Geology 

The Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada, Parts of 
Elko and Eureka Counties, is in the north-central part of 
Nevada. It has a total area of 1,899,379 acres or 
2,968 square miles. The small unincorporated town of 
Tuscarora is located in the southeastern part of the 
survey area, and the town of Midas is located in the 
southwestern part of the survey area. 

Important physiographic features in the survey area 
include the Tuscarora, Bull Run, and Independence 
Mountains; Squaw and Independence Valleys; and the 
Owyhee Desert. Elevation ranges from about 4,600 
feet in the Evans Creek drainage to about 8,500 feet in 
the Bull Run mountains. 

The northern two-thirds of the survey area, including 
Independence Valley, is drained by the South Fork of 
the Owyhee River and its tributaries. The South Fork of 
the Owyhee River joins the main fork in the north, 
outside the survey area. 

The south part of the survey area is drained by Rock 
Creek, Maggie Creek, and their tributaries. These two 
creeks join the Humboldt River south of the survey 
area. 

The southwestern corner of the survey area is drained 
by intermittent Evans Creek, its tributaries, and by 
many intermittent creeks which end in valleys to the 
southwest. 

The valleys in the survey area consist of Quaternary 
alluvial deposits (4). These deposits makeup the 
floodplains and the fan piedmonts. Typical soils formed 
in these deposits include Donna, Fulstone, Hunnton, 
Orovada, Shabliss, and Stampede. 

The fan piedmonts of the Owyhee Desert and the fan 
piedmonts around Willow Creek Reservoir and north of 
Squaw Valley consist of Tertiary basalt, gravel and 
tuffaceous sediments, ash-flow tuffs, and tuffaceous 
sedimentary rocks all overlain by a thin mantle of 
Quaternary alluvial deposits. Typical soils derived from 
this material include Bartome, Chiara, Donna, Fulstone, 
Hunnton, Orovada, Shabliss, and Stampede. 

The hills and plateaus in the survey area consist of 
Tertiary ash-flow tuffs, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, 
welded and non-welded silicic ash-flow tuffs, and 
rhyolitic flows (4). Typical soils derived from these 
rocks include Chen, Coltroop, Cotant, Lerrow, Linkup, 
Ninemile, Petan, Sumine, and Vanwyper. 

The mountains in the survey area consist mainly of 


Tertiary welded and non-welded silicic ash-flow tuffs, 
andesite, rhyolitic flows with minor amounts of shale, 
chert, quartzite, and limestone (4). Typical soils derived 
from these rocks include Bregar, Carstump, Cleavage, 
Graley, Hapgood, Linkup, Ninemile, and Sumine. 

Climate 

Prepared by the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina. 

Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation 
for the survey area as recorded at Owyhee and 
Tuscarora in the period 1951 to 1978. Table 2 shows 
probable dates of the first freeze in fall and the last 
freeze in spring. Table 3 provides data on length of the 
growing season. 

In winter, the average temperature is 29 degrees F 
and the average daily minimum temperature is 19 
degrees F. The lowest temperature on record, which 
occurred at Owyhee on January 19, 1922, is -35 
degrees. In summer, the average temperature is 64 
degrees and the average daily maximum temperature is 
82 degrees. The highest recorded temperature, which 
occurred at Owyhee on August 13, 1933, is 108 
degrees. 

Growing degree days are shown in table 1. They are 
equivalent to "heat units." During the month, growing 
degree days accumulate by the amount that the 
average temperature each day exceeds a base 
temperature (40 degrees F). The normal monthly 
accumulation is used to schedule single or successive 
plantings of a crop between the last freeze in spring 
and the first freeze in fall. 

The total annual precipitation is 14 inches at Owyhee 
and 12 inches at Tuscarora. Forty to fifty percent of 
the precipitation usually falls in April through 
September. The growing season for most crops is 
within this period. Thunderstorms occur on about 20 
days each year, mainly in the summer. 

The average seasonal snowfall is 40 to 80 inches. 

The greatest snow depth at any one time during the 
period of record was 42 inches. On an average of 20 
to 30 days, at least 1 inch of snow is on the ground. 
The number of such days varies greatly from year to 
year. 

The average relative humidity in mid-afternoon is 
about 40 percent. Humidity is higher at night, and the 
average at dawn is about 70 percent. The sun shines 
80 percent of the time in summer and 70 percent in 
winter. The prevailing wind is from the southwest. 
Average windspeed (7 miles per hour) is highest in 
spring. 










5 


Detailed Soil Map Units 


The map units on the detailed maps in Part III of this 
publication represent the soils or miscellaneous areas in 
the survey area. The map unit descriptions in this 
section, along with the maps, can be used to determine 
the suitability and potential of a unit for specific uses. 
They also can be used to plan the management needed 
for those uses. More information about each map unit 
is given under the headings "Use and Management of 
the Soils" and "Soil Properties." 

A map unit delineation on the detailed soil maps 
represents an area dominated by one or more soils or 
miscellaneous areas. A map unit is identified and 
named according to the taxonomic classification of the 
dominant soils or miscellaneous areas. Within a 
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for 
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, 
the soils and miscellaneous areas are natural 
phenomena, and they have the characteristic variability 
of all natural phenomena. Thus, the range of some 
observed properties may extend beyond the limits 
defined for a taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single 
taxonomic class rarely, if ever, are mapped without 
including areas of other taxonomic classes. 
Consequently, map units are made up of the soils or 
miscellaneous areas for which they are named and 
some "included" areas that belong to other taxonomic 
classes. 

Most included soils have properties and behavioral 
characteristics similar to those of the dominant soil or 
soils in the map unit, and thus they do not affect use 
and management. These are called noncontrasting, or 
similar, inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned 
in the map unit description. Other included soils and 
miscellaneous areas, however, have properties and 
behavioral characteristics divergent enough to affect 
use or to require different management. These are 
called contrasting, or dissimilar, inclusions. They 
generally are in small areas and could not be mapped 
separately because of the scale used. Some small areas 
of strongly contrasting soils or miscellaneous areas are 
identified by a special symbol on the maps. The 
included areas of contrasting soils or miscellaneous 
areas are mentioned in the map unit descriptions. A 
few included areas may not have been observed, and, 
consequently, they are not mentioned in the 
descriptions, especially where the pattern was so 
complex that it was impractical to make enough 
observations to identify all the soils and miscellaneous 
areas on the landscape. 

The presence of included areas in a map unit in no 
way diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the data. 


The objective of mapping is not to delineate pure 
taxonomic classes but rather to separate the landscape 
into segments that have similar use and management 
requirements. The delineation of such landscape 
segments on the map provides sufficient information 
for the development of resource plans, but, if intensive 
use of small areas is planned, onsite investigation is 
needed to define and locate the soils and miscellaneous 
areas. 

An identifying symbol precedes the map unit name in 
the map unit descriptions. Each description includes 
general facts about the unit. The principal hazards and 
limitations to be considered in planning for specific 
uses are identified in the tables and narrative in Part II. 

Kinds of Map Units 

Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up 
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the 
surface layer, all the soils of a series have major 
horizons that are similar in composition, thickness, and 
arrangement. 

Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface 
layer, slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of 
erosion, and other characteristics that affect their use. 
On the basis of such differences, a soil series is divided 
into soil phases. Some of the areas shown on the 
detailed soil maps are phases of soil series. The name 
of a soil phase commonly indicates a feature that 
affects use or management. For example, gravelly loam 
is a phase of the Gochea series. 

Some map units are made up of two or more major 
soils or miscellaneous areas. These map units are 
complexes or associations. 

An association is made up of two or more 
geographically associated soils or miscellaneous areas 
that are shown as one unit on the maps. Because of 
present or anticipated uses of the map units in the 
survey area, it was not considered practical or 
necessary to map the soils or miscellaneous areas 
separately. The pattern and relative proportion of the 
soils or miscellaneous areas are somewhat similar. 
Cotant-Lerrow-Akler association is an example. 

This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas 
have little or no soil material and support little or no 
vegetation. Rubble land is an example. 

Acreage and Extent 

Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of 
each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables") 





6 


Soil Survey of 


give properties of the soils and the limitations, 
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The 
Glossary defines many of the terms used in describing 
the soils or miscellaneous areas. 

Headings and Introductory Phases 

In the map unit descriptions that follow, a semitabular 
format is used. In this format, the major headings are 
centered in the column (for example. Composition). 
They identify the information grouped directly below 
them. Introducing each item of information under the 
centered heading is a term or phrase (for example. 
Major Components) that identifies or describes the 
information. Many of the centered headings and 
introductory terms are self-explanatory, however, some 
of them need further explanation and are defined in the 
Glossary. Explanations of the headings and 
introductory phrases are provided in the following 
paragraphs, generally in the order in which they are 
used in the map unit descriptions. 

Composition is given for the components (soils or 
miscellaneous areas) identified in the name of the map 
unit as well as for the contrasting inclusions. 

Contrasting Inclusions are areas of components that 
differ sufficiently in use and management from the soils 
or miscellaneous areas for which the map unit is 
named. As was explained earlier, inclusions can either 
be simitar or contrasting. Note that in the Composition 
section a single percentage is provided for a named soil 
and its similar inclusions because their use and 
management are similar. 

Map Unit Setting is given for the entire map unit. This 
section gives the position on the landscape. The 
landscape positions given for the entire map unit 
generally are broader than those given for each 
component. Below the map unit setting, the position 
of each component and inclusion is listed, and the 
physiographic location of each is identified. 

Major Component Description lists the characteristics 
of the major components. These include elevation, 
texture of the surface layer, drainage class, parent 
material, and climatic data. 

Dominant Present Vegetation lists the common plants 
growing on each soil at the present time. The present 
vegetation may be similar to the potential native plant 
community, but, in some areas it consists of other 
plants, either cultivated or wild, that dominate the soils 
in the map unit. 

Ecological Site is the assigned rangeland or grazed 
forest land ecological site that identifies a unique 
potential native plant community. The plant species 
and production typical of each ecological site are listed 
by map unit in the section "Rangeland Plants and 
Woodland Understory." Additional information about 
these sites is provided under the heading "Rangeland 
and Grazeable Woodland Resource Management" in 
Part II of this publication. Further information also can 
be obtained from the local office of the Natural 
Resources Conservation Service. 


Map Unit Descriptions 
001 "Rubble land 

Composition 

Major Components 

Rubble land fragmental material, 50 to 75 percent 
slopes-100 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Rubble land-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Major Component Description 
Rubble land Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 5,200 to 8,000 feet 
Surface layer texture: Fragmental material 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Rubble land: None 

Ecological Site 

Rubble land: None 


120--Cotant, moderately steep-Lerrow-Cotant 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cotant gravelly clay loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Lerrow gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Cotant gravelly clay loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Bregar very gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Cotant—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Lerrow-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Cotant—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect; south 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Cotant Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


7 


Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Lerrow Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Cotant Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cotant: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Lerrow: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Cotant: Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Low sagebrush 

Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye 

Ecological Site 

Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Lerrow: 025XY027NV 
Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY051NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 


126—Cotant-Lerrow-Akler association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cotant very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Lerrow cobbly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Akier loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes—20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, occasionally flooded-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 15 to 
30 percent slopes—4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Lerrow gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes—3 percent 


Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Cotant-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Lerrow-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Akier-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: toeslope 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 4—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Cotant Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Lerrow Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Akier Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cotant: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Lerrow: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Akier: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Nevada bluegrass 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: None 

Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Lerrow: 025XY009NV 
Akier: 025XY018NV 




8 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 1: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: 025XY027NV 


127-Cotant-Ninemile-Lerrow association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cotant very gravelly silty clay loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes--35 percent 

Ninemile very cobbly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes-- 
35 percent 

Lerrow gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Loncan very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes-7 percent 
Inclusion 2: Rugar loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-6 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Crooked Creek gravelly silty clay loam, 2 
to 4 percent slopes-1 percent 
Inclusion 4: Quarz very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent 
slopes--1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Cotant-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: toeslope 
Ninemile-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Lerrow-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

toeslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2-Lanclform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

toeslope; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 3-Lanclform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Major Component Description 
Cotant Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly silty clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 


Lerrow Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cotant: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Lerrow: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Antelope bitterbrush, big sagebrush, 
bluebunch wheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, bulbous oniongrass, wyethia 

Inclusion 3: Nevada bluegrass 

Inclusion 4: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Lerrow: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY047NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY009NV 


128"Cotant-Graley association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cotant very gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes--45 
percent 

Graley very gravelly loam, 8 to 1 5 percent slopes--40 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
very gravelly loam-10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Lerrow cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes, frequently flooded—2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Cotant-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 

Graley-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


9 


Major Component Description 
Cotant Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Graley Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cotant: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Graley: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: Antelope bitterbrush, big sagebrush, 
bluebunch wheatgrass 
Inclusion 3: Sedge, tufted hairgrass 

Ecological Site 

Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Graley: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 


129-Cotant-Chen-Crooked Creek association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cotant very gravelly clay loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes 
“35 percent 

Chen very gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes--30 
percent 

Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Aridic Palexerolls, very fine, 

montmorillonitic, frigid silty clay loam, 4 to 15 
percent slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Quarz very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent 
slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Loncan very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes--3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, frequently flooded-2 percent 


Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Cotant-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: toeslope 
Chen-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Crooked Creek—Landform: Stream terraces 
Inclusion 1--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
toeslope 

Inclusion 2--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 3--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 4--Landform: Flood plains 

Major Component Description 
Cotant Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Chen Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Crooked Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cotant: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Crooked Creek: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 
Inclusion 1: Low sagebrush 

Inclusion 2: Bluebunch wheatgrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
bluebunch wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Sedge, tufted hairgrass 

Ecological Site 

Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Chen: 025XY017NV 
Crooked Creek: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY017NV 




10 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 2: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 3; 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY005NV 


Inclusion 1: 025XY025NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 


130-Cotant-Booford association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cotant gravelly clay loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-65 
percent 

Booford silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--30 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Puett sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-- 
3 percent 

Inclusion 2: Welch loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded--2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Cotant-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Booford-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: south 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Cotant Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Booford Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cotant: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Booford: Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
rabbitbrush 

Ecological Site 

Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Booford: 025XY012NV 


140--Upville, frequently flooded-Upville 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Upville gravelly loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently 
flooded--55 percent 

Upville gravelly loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-35 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Aridic Haploxerolls, sandy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid gravelly sandy loam-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Cumulic Haplaquolls, sandy-skeletal, 
mixed, frigid sandy loam-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Upville-Landform: Alluvial fans; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: concave 
Upville-Landform: Alluvial fans; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Upville Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Upville Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Upville: Nevada bluegrass, cheatgrass 
Upville: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
bluegrass, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: Nevada bluegrass, sedge, tufted hairgrass, 
willow 

Ecological Site 

Upville: 025XY006NV 
Upville: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY005NV 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


11 


141 —Upville-Kleckner association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Upville gravelly loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--45 percent 
Kleckner gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--45 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 
percent slopes—10 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Upville-Landform: Fan skirts; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Kleckner—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 

position: summit; position on slope: upper; shape of 
slope: plane 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: upper; shape of 
slope: concave 

Major Component Description 
Upville Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Kleckner Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Upville: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Kleckner: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Upville: 025XY014NV 
Kleckner: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 


150--Gochea gravelly loam, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes 

Composition 

Major Components 

Gochea gravelly loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes-85 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Aridic Duric Haploxerolls, loamy-skeletal, 
mixed, frigid gravelly loam—10 percent 
Inclusion 2: Upville gravelly loam, wet, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Durargidic Argixerolls, fine, 

montmorillonitic, frigid gravelly loam—2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Gochea-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Major Component Description 
Gochea Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 45 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 90 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Gochea: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Nevada bluegrass 
Inclusion 3: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Gochea: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY017NV 


161--Sonoma silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 
percent slopes 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sonoma silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent slopes-85 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Sonoma silt loam, slightly saline, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, occasionally flooded—10 percent 




12 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 2: Fluvaquentic Haplaquolls, fine-loamy, 
mixed (calcareous), frigid silt loam-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Sonoma-Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Flood plains; position on slope: 
upper part 

Major Component Description 
Sonoma Series 

Elevation: 4,900 to 5,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sonoma: Douglas rabbitbrush, basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, rubber rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Sonoma: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY006NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 


162-Sonoma silt loam, drained, occasionally 
flooded 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sonoma silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally 
flooded-90 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Aquic Torriorthents, fine-silty, mixed 
(calcareous), mesic silt loam-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Aquic Durorthidic Torriorthents, fine-silty, 
mixed (calcareous), mesic silt loam—5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Sonoma-Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Stream terraces 

Major Component Description 
Sonoma Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 4,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 


Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 
Sonoma: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, black 
greasewood 

Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye 
Inclusion 2: Black greasewood 

Ecological Site 
Sonoma: 024XY006NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY006NV 
Inclusion 2: 024XY011NV 


184—Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 

frequently flooded, 0 to 2 percent slopes 

Composition 

Major Components 

Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-95 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-2 percent 
Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Crooked Creek—Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Stream terraces; position on 
slope: upper part 

Major Component Description 
Crooked Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Crooked Creek: Cinquefoil, rush, sedge, tufted 
hairgrass 

Inclusion 1: Rush, sedge 

Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye 

Ecological Site 

Crooked Creek: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada—Part I 


13 


185--Crooked Creek, moderately wet-Crooked 
Creek association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Crooked Creek silty clay loam, moderately wet, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, frequently flooded—70 percent 
Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes— 

15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-10 percent 
Inclusion 2: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, occasionally flooded-4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Sonoma silt loam, drained, slightly saline, 

0 to 2 percent slopes-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Crooked Creek-Landform: Stream terraces 
Crooked Creek-Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Stream terraces 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Stream terraces 
Inclusion 3—Landform: Stream terraces; position on 
slope: lower part 

Major Component Description 
Crooked Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Crooked Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Crooked Creek: Nevada bluegrass, basin wildrye, mat 
muhly, willow 

Crooked Creek: Bluegrass, rush, sedge, tufted 
hairgrass 

Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 2: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 
Inclusion 3: Basin wildrye, black greasewood 

Ecological Site 

Crooked Creek: 025XY001NV 
Crooked Creek: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY003NV 


Inclusion 2: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 3: 024XY007NV 


186"Crooked Creek-Crooked Creek, 
occasionally flooded-Crooked Creek, 
drained association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-60 percent 
Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasional flooded-15 percent 
Crooked Creek silty clay loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes-15 percent 
Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Cumulic Haplaquolls, loamy-skeletal, 
mixed, frigid silt loam-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Cumulic Haplaquolls, loamy-skeletal, 
mixed, frigid silt loam, drained-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Crooked Creek-Landform: Stream terraces 
Crooked Creek-Landform: Stream terraces 
Crooked Creek-Landform: Stream terraces 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Crooked Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Crooked Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Crooked Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 




14 


Soil Survey of 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Crooked Creek: Cinquefoil, rush, sedge, tufted 
hairgrass 

Crooked Creek: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy, 
basin wildrye, sedge 

Crooked Creek: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 1: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Crooked Creek: 025XY005NV 
Crooked Creek: 025XY006NV 
Crooked Creek: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 


188--Crooked Creek-Welch-Crooked Creek, 
drained association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded—45 percent 
Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent slopes, rarely 
flooded-25 percent 

Crooked Creek silty clay loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes-15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded—10 percent 
Inclusion 2: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, gravelly 
substratum, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently 
flooded-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Crooked Creek-Landform: Flood plains 
Welch-Landform: Stream terraces 
Crooked Creek-Landform: Stream terraces 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Flood plains 

Major Component Description 
Crooked Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Welch Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 


Drainage class: Very poorly drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Crooked Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Crooked Creek: Nevada bluegrass, rush, sedge, tufted 
hairgrass, willow 

Welch: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, bluegrass 
Crooked Creek: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 1: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass 
Inclusion 2: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Crooked Creek: 025XY005NV 
Welch: 025XY003NV 
Crooked Creek: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY005NV 


190-Heechee-Heechee, cobbly association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Heechee gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-60 
percent 

Heechee cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Contrasting inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
very gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Durargidic Argixerolls, clayey-skeletal, 
montmorillonitic, frigid gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 
percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 2 to 8 
percent slopes, frequently flooded—5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Heechee-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 
Heechee-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


15 


Major Component Description 
Heechee Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Heechee Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Heechee: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Heechee: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 

Ecological Site 

Heechee: 025XY027NV 
Heechee: 025XY007NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 


200"Lynnbow-Rugar association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Lynnbow silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--55 percent 
Rugar loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--30 percent 
Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Bilbo very gravelly very fine sandy loam, 
30 to 50 percent slopes--7 percent 
Inclusion 2: Cotant gravelly clay loam, 15 to 50 
percent slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, drained, 0 
to 2 percent slopes—2 percent 
Inclusion 4: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, frequently flooded-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Lynnbow—Landform: Pediments; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: plane 
Rugar—Landform: Pediments; geomorphic position: 
summit; shape of slope: convex 


Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic 
position: backslope 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Lynnbow Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Rugar Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Lynnbow: Idaho fescue, low sagebrush 
Rugar: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush, bluegrass 
Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 4: Rush, sedge, willow 

Ecological Site 

Lynnbow: 025XY017NV 
Rugar: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY005NV 


201 -Lynnbow-Lerrow-Crooked Creek 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Lynnbow silt loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes—40 percent 

Lerrow gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded—15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Cotant gravelly clay loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes—7 percent 










16 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 2: Chen very gravelly sandy clay loam, 4 to 
15 percent slopes--3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Ninemile very cobbly loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Cotant cobbly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes--2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Lynnbow--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Lerrow-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 
shape of slope: plane 

Crooked Creek-Landform: Stream terraces 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 2--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 4--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 
Lynnbow Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Lerrow Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Crooked Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Lynnbow: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy, mat 
muhly, sedge 

Lerrow: Antelope bitterbrush, big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, cheatgrass 

Crooked Creek: Nevada bluegrass, cheatgrass, meadow 
barley, sedge, squirreltail 


Inclusion 1: Low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Lynnbow: 025XY017NV 
Lerrow: 025XY027NV 
Crooked Creek: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY017NV 


210"Soonaker-Bulake association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Soonaker fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-50 
percent 

Bulake gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--35 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
very gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-10 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Soonaker-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Bulake-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 
shape of slope: convex 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
toeslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Soonaker Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Bulake Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


17 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Soonaker: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush, 
bluegrass, cheatgrass, rabbitbrush 
Bulake: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Ecological Site 

Soonaker: 025XY027NV 
Bulake: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 


220-Cavanaugh-Rugar-Mclvey association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cavanaugh very stony loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes- 
50 percent 

Rugar clay loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--20 percent 
Mclvey cobbly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, occasionally flooded-10 percent 
Inclusion 2: Lithic Argixerolls, clayey-skeletal, 

montmorillonitic, frigid very gravelly loam-3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Cavanaugh-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Rugar—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: footslope; 

shape of slope: concave 
Mclvey-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills 
Inclusion 3—Landform: Hills 

Major Component Description 
Cavanaugh Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Rugar Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Mclvey Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 15 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cavanaugh: Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, low 
sagebrush 

Rugar: Basin wildrye, bottlebrush squirreltail, mulesear 
wyethia, slender wheatgrass 
Mclvey: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, mountain 
big sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
serviceberry 
Inclusion 3: None 

Ecological Site 

Cavanaugh: 025XY017NV 
Rugar: 025XY047NV 
Mclvey: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY046NV 
Inclusion 3: None 


221 --Cavanaugh-Quarz-Alyan association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cavanaugh very stony loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes- 
35 percent 

Quarz very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes—25 
percent 

Alyan gravelly clay loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Pachic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-10 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Tweener very cobbly sandy loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Cavanaugh-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: convex 

Quarz-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Alyan-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 







18 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: lower; shape of slope: 
concave; aspect: north 

Inclusion 2--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Major Component Description 
Cavanaugh Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Quarz Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Alyan Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cavanaugh: Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, low 
sagebrush 

Quarz: Basin wildrye, big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Alyan: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Antelope bitterbrush, bluegrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Cavanaugh: 025XY017NV 
Quarz: 025XY009NV 
Alyan: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 1: 0250X027NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY007NV 


233--Bioya-Bilbo-Chiara association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bioya loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--55 percent 


Bilbo gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes--15 
percent 

Chiara silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Puett fine sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Hunnton silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—5 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Xerollic Durargids, loamy, mixed, mesic, 
shallow gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Qrovada loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Bioya-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Bilbo-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Chiara-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

summit; position on slope: upper part 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder; aspect: south 
Inclusion 2—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; aspect: north 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; aspect: north 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Bioya Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Bilbo Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


19 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bioya: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Bilbo: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Bioya: 025XY019NV 
Bilbo: 025XY015NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY025NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


234--Bioya-Shabliss-Puett association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bioya very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--55 
percent 

Shabliss very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-- 
15 percent 

Puett stony sandy loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop--5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Xeric Torriorthents, coarse-loamy, mixed, 
nonacid, mesic gravelly loam, 0 to 8 percent slopes 
-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Kelk silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded—4 percent 
Inclusion 4: Shabliss stony loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Bioya-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Shabliss-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Puett-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic 
position: backslope 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder 


Major Component Description 
Bioya Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Shabliss Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Puett Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Stony sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bioya: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Shabliss: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Puett: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Thurber needlegrass, big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, rubber 
rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 4: Thurber needlegrass, big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Bioya: 024XY005NV 
Shabliss: 024XY005NV 
Puett: 025XY025NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 024XY005NV 
Inclusion 3: 024XY006NV 
Inclusion 4: 024XY005NV 


235--Bioya-Trunk-Alley association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bioya loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-40 percent 
Trunk gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-30 
percent 







20 


Soil Survey of 


Alley very stony loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Bioya very stony loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 
Bioya--Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Trunk-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Alley--Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
shoulder 

Major Component Description 
Bioya Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Trunk Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Alley Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bioya: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Trunk: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Alley: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Bioya: 025XY019NV 
Trunk: 025XY019NV 
Alley: 025XY019NV 


Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 

236--Bioya-WieIand-Kleckner association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bioya very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes--45 
percent 

Wieland loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--20 percent 
Kleckner gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes—5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Shabliss very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Durixerollic Camborthids, coarse-silty, 
mixed, mesic fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Hunnton silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—3 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Bioya-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

summit; position on slope: lower part 
Wieland-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Kleckner-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: upper part 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Major Component Description 
Bioya Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Wieland Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Kleckner Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,400 feet 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


21 


Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bioya: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Kleckner: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 4: Big sagebrush, cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Bioya: 025XY019NV 
Wieland: 025XY019NV 
Kleckner: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY031NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


241 —Wickahoney-Deunah-Petan association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Wickahoney extremely stony loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes--50 percent 

Deunah loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--20 percent 

Petan very cobbly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Durixeralfs, clayey-skeletal, 
montmorillonitic, frigid very cobbly loam, 2 to 8 
percent slopes—10 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 

Wickahoney-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Deunah-Landform: Plateaus 

Petan-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Major Component Description 

Wickahoney Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 5,700 feet 

Precipitation: About 14 inches 

Air temperature: About 43 degrees 

Frost-free season: About 85 days 


Surface layer texture: Extremely stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Deunah Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Petan Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Wickahoney: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Deunah: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Petan: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, low sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Wickahoney: 025XY017NV 
Deunah: 025XY017NV 
Petan: 025XY022NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY017NV 


270--Pernty, steep-Loncan-Pernty association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Pernty very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-45 
percent 

Loncan very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Pernty very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-2 percent 

Inclusion 2: Rubble land fragmental material—2 percent 

Inclusion 3: Typic Haplaquolls, sandy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Pernty-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Loncan-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope 



22 


Soil Survey of 


Pernty-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position; summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 
Inclusion 3--Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Pernty Series 

Elevation: 6,400 to 7,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Loncan Series 

Elevation: 6,400 to 7,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Pernty Series 

Elevation: 6,400 to 7,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Pernty: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Loncan: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, mountain 
big sagebrush 

Pernty: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: None 

Inclusion 3: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy, basin 
wildrye 

Ecological Site 

Pernty: 025XY012NV 
Loncan: 025XY012NV 
Pernty: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY006NV 


280--Humboldt silty clay loam, occasionally 
flooded 

Composition 

Major Components 

Humboldt silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes--90 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Sonoma silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Fluvaquentic Haploxerolls, coarse-loamy, 
mixed, mesic silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-4 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Humboldt silty clay loam, saline-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Humboldt-Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Stream terraces; position on 
slope: upper part 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Stream terraces 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Stream terraces; shape of slope: 
convex 

Major Component Description 
Humboldt Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 4,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 7 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Humboldt: Alkali sacaton, black greasewood, inland 
saitgrass 

Inclusion 1: Alkali sacaton, black greasewood, inland 
saitgrass 

Inclusion 2: Basin wildrye, inland saitgrass 
Inclusion 3: Basin wildrye, inland saitgrass 

Ecological Site 
Humboldt: 024XY007NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY007NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY001NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY001NV 


308--Akler-Pattani-Cotant association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Akier loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-45 percent 
Pattani clay, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-30 percent 
Cotant cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Mahala loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-4 
percent 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


23 


Inclusion 2: Aridic Argixerolls, fine, montmorillonitic, 
frigid gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes--4 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-1 percent 
Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded—1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Akier—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 

position on slope: lower part 
Pattani—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 

position on slope: lower part 
Cotant-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper part 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Akier Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Pattani Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Clay 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Cotant Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Akier: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Pattani: Basin wildrye, big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 
Cotant: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Bluebunch wheatgrass, low sagebrush 


Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 4: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass, cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Akier: 025XY018NV 
Pattani: 025XY013NV 
Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY003NV 


309--Akler-Susie Creek association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Akier loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-45 percent 
Susie Creek loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-40 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Clementine silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-7 percent 

Inclusion 2: Durargidic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, 
frigid loam, 8 to 1 5 percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Bregar very gravelly sandy loam, 4 to 1 5 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Akier-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 
shape of slope: convex 

Susie Creek-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit; shape of slope: convex 

Major Component Description 
Akier Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Susie Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 90 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 





24 


Soil Survey of 


Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Akier: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Susie Creek: Basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, bluegrass, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 3: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Akier: 025XY018NV 
Susie Creek: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY051NV 


457“Donna-Stampede-Short Creek 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Donna gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--40 percent 
Stampede gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Short Creek gravelly clay loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Pie Creek gravelly loam, 2 to 1 5 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Sumine very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 
percent slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes--5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Donna--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: concave 
Stampede-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 
Short Creek-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic 
position: footslope; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 3--Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Donna Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 


Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Stampede Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 90 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Short Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 90 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixec 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Donna: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Stampede: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, rabbitbrush 
Short Creek: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Bluebunch wheatgrass, bluegrass, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 2: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Ecological Site 

Donna: 025XY018NV 
Stampede: 025XY014NV 
Short Creek: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 


458”Donna-Stampede association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Donna gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-45 percent 
Stampede gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--40 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Short Creek gravelly clay loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes-10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Gochea silt loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes— 
5 percent 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


25 


Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Donna--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: concave 
Stampede-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 1--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 2--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Major Component Description 
Donna Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Stampede Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 90 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Donna: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Stampede: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: Basin wildrye, big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Donna: 025XY018NV 
Stampede: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 


464—Stampede silt loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes 

Composition 

Major Components 

Stampede silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-85 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, drained, 0 
to 2 percent slopes, rarely flooded-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, frequently flooded-5 percent 


Inclusion 3: Bilbo gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Donna loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Stampede—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: concave 

Major Component Description 
Stampede Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 90 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Stampede: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 2: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 3: Basin wildrye, big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 4: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Stampede: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY018NV 


570-Sumine-Cleavage-Hapgood association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes— 
40 percent 

Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-30 percent 

Hapgood very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes— 
15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Entic Cryumbrepts, loamy-skeletal, mixed 
very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-6 
percent 







26 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion T Cumulic Haplaquolls, loamy-skeletal silt 
loam-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Bullump very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Entic Cryumbrepts, loamy-skeletal, mixed 
very gravelly loam—2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Cleavage-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: upper; shape of slope: 
convex 

Hapgood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2—Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: upper; 
aspect: south 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: upper; shape 
of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Extremely gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Hapgood Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 7,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 


Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Hapgood: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Inclusion 1: Letterman needlegrass, mountain brome, 
quaking aspen 

Inclusion 2: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 3: Antelope bitterbrush, basin wildrye, 
mountain big sagebrush, mountain brome 
Inclusion 4: Letterman needlegrass, lupine 

Ecological Site 

Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Cleavage: 025XY024NV 
Hapgood: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY002NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY028NV 


571—Sumine-Tusel-Gando association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes— 
50 percent 

Tusel gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Gando very gravelly loam, 8 to 30 percent slopes—15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop—7 percent 
Inclusion 2: Hackwood gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 15 to 
50 percent slopes-2 percent 
Inclusion 4: Rubble land fragmental material-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Tusel-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Gando—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position; 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Major Component Description 
Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,400 to 6,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


27 


Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Tusel Series 

Elevation: 6,400 to 6,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Gando Series 

Elevation: 6,400 to 6,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 80 days 
Surface iayer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Tusel: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, slender 
wheatgrass, snowberry 
Gando: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Mountain brome, quaking aspen, slender 
wheatgrass, sweetanise 
Inclusion 3: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Tusel: 025XY010NV 
Gando: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY065NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


572-Sumine-ReIuctan-Cleavage association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes- 
40 percent 

Reluctan cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes--30 
percent 

Cleavage very gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-- 
15 percent 


Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Loncan very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes--9 percent 
Inclusion 2: Cotant cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes--3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 8 to 15 
percent slopes-2 percent 
Inclusion 4: Rock outcrop-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Sumine-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane; aspect: south 
Reluctan—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Cleavage—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: south 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope; position on slope: lower; shape of slope: 
convex 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; position on slope: upper part 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Major Component Description 
Sumine Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Reluctan Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface rock fragments: 10 percent cobbles; 10 
percent gravel 

Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Cleavage Series 
Elevation: 5,300 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent materiai: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 







28 


Soil Survey of 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Reluctan: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, mountain 
big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 
Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, black sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Sumine; 025XY009NV 
Reluctan: 025XY012NV 
Cleavage: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


576—Sumine-Hapgood-Cleavage association, 
very gravelly 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
35 percent 

Hapgood very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
30 percent 

Cleavage very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-- 
20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 4 to 15 
percent slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Bullump very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes—4 percent 

Inclusion 4: Lithic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Hapgood—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Cleavage—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; shape of slope: convex 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position; summit; position on slope: upper part 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Drainageways 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Mountains; position on slope: 
upper; aspect: south 


Inclusion 4—Landform: Mountains; shape of slope: 
convex 

Major Component Description 
Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,100 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 


Hapgood Series 

Elevation: 6,100 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,100 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sumine; Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Hapgood: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, black sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 3: Antelope bitterbrush, basin wildrye, 
mountain big sagebrush, mountain brome 
Inclusion 4: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
serviceberry 

Ecological Site 

Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Hapgood: 025XY004NV 
Cleavage: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY016NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY046NV 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


29 


577-Sumine-Hapgood-Chen association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-- 
40 percent 

Hapgood very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
30 percent 

Chen very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes--15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Reluctan very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes--10 percent 
Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Lithic Torriorthents very gravelly loam--1 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Rock outcrop-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Sumine—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Hapgood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Chen-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope; lower; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position; backslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Major Component Description 
Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 6,900 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Hapgood Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 6,900 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Chen Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 6,900 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 


Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Hapgood: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Bluegrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 3: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Hapgood: 025XY004NV 
Chen: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY042NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


578-Sumine-Tusel-Hapgood association, very 
steep 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 50 to 75 percent slopes— 
45 percent 

Tusel gravelly loam, 50 to 75 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Hapgood very gravelly loam, 50 to 75 percent slopes— 

15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1; Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 15 to 
50 percent slopes-10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Chen very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-1 percent 

Inclusion 4: Bullump very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Tusel-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: north 

Hapgood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: upper part 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: lower part 





30 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 3-i^andform: Drainageways 
Inclusion • * andform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position, bdckslope; position on slope: upper; 
aspect: south 

Major Component Description 
Sumine Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 7,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from quartzite 

Tusel Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 7,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 8 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from quartzite 

Hapgood Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 7,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from quartzite 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Tusel: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, slender 
wheatgrass, snowberry 
Hapgood: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 3: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 4: Basin wildrye, mountain big sagebrush, 
mountain brome 

Ecological Site 

Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Tusel: 025XY010NV 
Hapgood: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY016NV 


579-Sumine-Pernty-Tusel association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
35 percent 

Pernty very stony loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes—30 
percent 

Tusel very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 15 to 
50 percent slopes-9 percent 
Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop-4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded—1 percent 
Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded—1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Pernty-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Tusel-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4—Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,600 to 7,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Pernty Series 

Elevation: 6,600 to 7,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Tusel Series 

Elevation: 6,600 to 7,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


31 


Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Pernty: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Tusel: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, slender 
wheatgrass, snowberry 

Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: None 

Inclusion 3: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 4: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Ecological Site 

Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Pernty: 025XY046NV 
Tusel: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY003NV 


580-Sumine-Pie Creek-Reluctan association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes— 
40 percent 

Pie Creek very cobbly silt loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes 
-25 percent 

Reluctan gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam—7 percent 

Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded—4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Cleavage very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes-4 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Sumine-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Pie Creek-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Reluctan—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: convex 


Major Component Description 
Sumine Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Pie Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Reluctan Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Pie Creek: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Reluctan: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, mountain 
big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 
Inclusion 3: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Pie Creek: 025XY018NV 
Reluctan: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY017NV 


581 --Sumine-Hapgood-Cleavage association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
35 percent 

Hapgood very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes— 
35 percent 





32 


Soil Survey of 


Cleavage tremely gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slept . percent 

ContrasInclusions 

Inclusion 1: Tusel very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes--9 percent 

Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded--2 percent 
Inclusion 3; Pachic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam—2 percent 
Inclusion 4: Typic Haploxerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam—2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Hapgood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Cleavage—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position; 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: lower; 
aspect; north 

Major Component Description 
Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 7,850 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Hapgood Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 7,850 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 7,850 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Extremely gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Hapgood: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, slender wheatgrass, 
snowberry 

Inclusion 2: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 
Inclusion 3; Idaho fescue, basin wildrye 
Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Hapgood: 025XY004NV 
Cleavage: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY029NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY012NV 


582--Sumine-Tusel-Cleavage association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
45 percent 

Tusel very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes—25 
percent 

Cleavage very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes- 
15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Argixerolls, clayey-skeletal, 

montmorillonitic, frigid very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Bullump very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 4 to 15 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded—3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Tusel-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Cleavage-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; shape of slope: convex 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: upper part 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: upper part 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part 1 


33 


Major Component Description 
Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Tusel Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
quartzite 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Tusel: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, slender 
wheatgrass, snowberry 
Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Basin wildrye, mountain big sagebrush, 
mountain brome 

Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, black sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye 

Ecological Site 

Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Tusel: 025XY004NV 
Cleavage: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY016NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY003NV 


583-Sumine-Hapgood-Pernty association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 50 to 75 percent slopes- 
40 percent 


Hapgood very gravelly loam, 50 to 75 percent slopes— 
30 percent 

Pernty very gravelly loam, 50 to 75 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Cryic Lithic Rendolls, loamy-skeletal, 
carbonatic very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Lithic Argixerolls, clayey-skeletal, 

montmorillonitic, frigid very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes—5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Lithic Haploxerolls, loamy-skeletal, 
carbonatic, frigid very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes—3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Cryic Rendolls, loamy-skeletal, carbonatic 
very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Hapgood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Pernty-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: lower; shape of slope: 
convex 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: upper; 
aspect: south 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: upper; 
aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Sumine Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 8,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Hapgood Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 8,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Pernty Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,500 feet 









34 


Soil Survey of 


Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air tempera ■■re: About 44 degrees 
Frust-fr^e season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Hapgood: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Pernty: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Utah juniper, big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Bluebunch wheatgrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 3: Basin wildrye, mountain big sagebrush, 
mountain brome 

Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, snowberry 

Ecological Site 

Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Hapgood: 025XY004NV 
Pernty: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY059NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY016NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY004NV 


584-Sumine-Tusel-Hapgood association, 
steep 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-- 
35 percent 

Tusel very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes--30 
percent 

Hapgood very gravelly loam, 50 to 75 percent slopes- 
20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam, 8 to 50 percent slopes-8 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Bullump very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Lithic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Tusel—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: north 


Hapgood—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: upper; 
aspect: south 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: lower; 
aspect: south 

Major Component Description 
Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,100 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Tusel Series 

Elevation: 6,100 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 


Hapgood Series 

Elevation: 6,100 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Tusel: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, slender 
wheatgrass, snowberry 
Hapgood: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Inclusion 1: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Basin wildrye, mountain big sagebrush, 
mountain brome 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 4: Basin wildrye, big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Sumine: 025XY009NV 



Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


35 


Tusel: 025XY004NV 
Hapgood: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY016NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY015NV 


585"Sumine-Rock outcrop-Rubble land 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes— 
40 percent 

Rock outcrop-25 percent 

Rubble land fragmental material, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Pachic Haploxerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Graley very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes—5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Cumulic Haplaquolls silt loam, 0 to 4 
percent slopes—3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Hackwood silt loam, 4 to 1 5 percent 
slopes—2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Sumine—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane; aspect: south 
Rock outcrop-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Rubble land-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position; backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: 
north 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Rock outcrop Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 


Drainage class: Excessively drained 
Rubble land Miscellaneous Area 
Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Surface layer texture: Fragmental material 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Rock outcrop: None 
Rubble land: None 
Inclusion 1: Snowbrush ceanothus 
Inclusion 2: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Quaking aspen, rush, sedge, streambank 
wheatgrass, yarrow 

Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Rubble land: None 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: 025XY052NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY064NV 
Inclusion 3; 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY065NV 


586—Sumine-Loncan-Cleavage association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes— 
45 percent 

Loncan very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes-15 percent 

Contrasting inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Mclvey cobbly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 2: Chen very cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-1 percent 

Inclusion 4: Fluvaquentic Haplaquolls, sandy-skeletal, 
mixed, frigid gravelly loam—1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Loncan-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Cleavage-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: lower part 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 






36 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,400 to 7,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Loncan Series 

Elevation: 6,400 to 7,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,600 to 7,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Extremely gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Loncan: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, mountain 
big sagebrush 

Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Bluebunch wheatgrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: None 

Inclusion 4: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Loncan: 025XY012NV 
Cleavage: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: 025XY006NV 


600—Hapgood-Bullump-Gando association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Hapgood very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes— 
30 percent 

Bullump very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes— 
30 percent 

Gando very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes—25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Hackwood very gravelly sandy loam, 30 to 
50 percent slopes, frequently flooded-6 percent 
Inclusion 2: Cumulic Haplaquolls, loamy-skeletal silt 
loam—4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Entic Cryumbrepts, loamy-skeletal, mixed 
very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Cumulic Haplaquolls, loamy-skeletal silt 
loam-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Hapgood—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Bullump—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Gando-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: 
north 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Hapgood Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 7,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Bullump Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 7,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 75 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
mixed rocks 


Gando Series 

Elevation: 6,800 to 7,700 feet 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada—Part I 


37 


Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 80 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Hapgood: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Bullump: Idaho fescue, basin wildrye, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain brome 
Gando: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Mountain brome, quaking aspen, slender 
wheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 3: Letterman needlegrass, mountain brome, 
quaking aspen 

Inclusion 4: Quaking aspen, rush, sedge, streambank 
wheatgrass, yarrow 

Ecological Site 

Hapgood: 025XY004NV 
Bullump: 025XY016NV 
Gando: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY065NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY002NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY064NV 


601 --Hapgood-Blitzen-Tusel association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Hapgood very gravelly loam, 30 to 75 percent slopes- 
35 percent 

Blitzen very gravelly loam, 30 to 75 percent slopes—35 
percent 

Tusel gravelly loam, 50 to 75 percent slopes—15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes—5 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Cleavage very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 
percent slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded—3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Hapgood—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Blitzen—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Tusel-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: backslope; 
shape of slope: convex; aspect: north 


Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

toeslope; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Hapgood Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Blitzen Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 3 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Tusel Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Hapgood: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Blitzen: Basin wildrye, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Tusel: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, slender 
wheatgrass, snowberry 
Inclusion 1: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 4: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 

Ecological Site 

Hapgood: 025XY004NV 
Blitzen: 025XY009NV 
Tusel: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY006NV 






38 


Soil Survey of 


602--Hapgood-Hackwood-Tusel association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Hapgood very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-- 
45 percent 

Hackwood silt loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes--25 
percent 

Tusel gravelly loam, 30 to 75 percent slopes--15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Entic Cryumbrepts, loamy-skeletal, mixed 
very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Cumulic Haplaquolls silt loam, 4 to 30 
percent slopeS”4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Cleavage very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Hapgood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Hackwood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Tusel-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 4—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex 

Major Component Description 
Hapgood Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Hackwood Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
mixed rocks 

Tusel Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 


Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Hapgood: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Hackwood: Mountain brome, quaking aspen, slender 
wheatgrass 

Tusel: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Letterman needlegrass, mountain brome, 
quaking aspen 

Inclusion 2: Quaking aspen, rush, sedge, streambank 
wheatgrass, yarrow 
Inclusion 3: None 

Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Hapgood: 025XY004NV 
Hackwood: 025XY065NV 
Tusel: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY002NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY064NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: 025XY017NV 


623--Soughe-Rock outcrop association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Soughe very cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-60 
percent 

Rock outcrop-25 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Aridic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Soughe very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Weso very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Soughe—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 

Rock outcrop-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Drainageways 

Inclusion 4—Landform: Hills; position on slope: lower 
part 



Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada—Part I 


39 


Major Component Description 
Soughe Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 100 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 
Rock outcrop Miscellaneous Area 
Elevation: 4,800 to 5,600 feet 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Soughe: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Rock outcrop: None 

Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 4: Bottlebrush squirreltail, bud sagebrush, 
shadscale 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Soughe: 025XY019NV 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 024XY002NV 


624—Soughe-Soughe, very steep-Rock 
outcrop association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Soughe very stony loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes—40 
percent 

Soughe very stony loam, 50 to 75 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Rock outcrop-15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rubble land fragmental material—10 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Durixerollic Camborthids, loamy-skeletal, 
mixed, mesic fine sandy loam, 8 to 1 5 percent 
slopes—5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 

Soughe-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Soughe-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: upper part 

Rock outcrop—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic 
position: backslope 


Inclusion 1-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Major Component Description 
Soughe Variant 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 100 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Soughe Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 100 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Rock outcrop Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,400 feet 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Soughe: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
cheatgrass 

Soughe: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
cheatgrass 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Soughe: 025XY015NV 
Soughe: 025XY015NV 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 


625—Soughe-Alyan-Shalper association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Soughe very cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Alyan very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes—30 
percent 

Shalper very gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Chen very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent 
slopes-7 percent 







40 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop-4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Lithic Xerollic Haplargids, clayey-skeletal, 
montmorillonitic, frigid very gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 
percent slopes—2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Aridic Haploxerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Soughe-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Alyan-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane; aspect: north 
Shalper-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: lower; shape of slope: 
convex 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: lower part; shape of 
slope: convex 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: concave 

Major Component Description 
Soughe Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Alyan Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Shalper Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Soughe: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, bluegrass, cheatgrass 
Alyan: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 


Shalper: Basin big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 1: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: None 

Inclusion 3: Bluebunch wheatgrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Soughe: 025XY015NV 
Alyan: 025XY014NV 
Shalper: 025XY021NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY022NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY003NV 


626-Soughe, cobbly-Vanwyper-Soughe 
associaiton 

Composition 

Major Components 

Soughe cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes—35 
percent 

Vanwyper cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Soughe very cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes—20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Haploxerollic Durorthids, coarse-loamy, 
mixed, mesic cobbly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—5 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Xerollic Nadurargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic cobbly loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes—5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Clementine silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 
Soughe-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Vanwyper-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Soughe-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Fan remnants; position on 
slope: lower part 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants 
Inclusion 3—Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Soughe Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 100 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


41 


Vanwyper Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Soughe Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 100 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Soughe: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Vanwyper: Basin big sagebrush, big sagebrush, 
bluebunch wheatgrass 
Soughe: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, spiny hopsage 
Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
rabbitbrush 

Ecological Site 

Soughe: 025XY019NV 
Vanwyper: 025XY015NV 
Soughe: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY005NV 
Inclusion 2: 024XY020NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 


690--Welch, drained-Welch association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent slopes, rarely 
flooded--70 percent 

Welch silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes, frequently 
flooded--15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Cumulic Haploxerolls, loamy-skeletal, 
mixed, frigid silt loam-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Crooked Creek silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, rarely flooded-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 

Welch-Landform: Flood plains 


Welch-Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Stream terraces; position on 
slope: upper part 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Stream terraces; position on 
slope: lower part 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Stream terraces 

Major Component Description 
Welch Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Very poorly drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Welch Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Very poorly drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Welch: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, bluegrass 
Welch: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 2: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 
Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Ecological Site 

Welch: 025XY003NV 
Welch: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 


920--Bullump-Gando-Tusel association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bullump very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
45 percent 

Gando very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Tusel gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes—15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Hackwood gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop-5 percent 




42 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 3: Entic Cryumbrepts, loamy-skeletal, mixed 
very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Bullump-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Gando-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Tusel-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: 
north 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Bullump Series 

Elevation: 6,600 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 75 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
quartzite 

Gando Series 

Elevation: 6,600 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 80 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Tusel Series 

Elevation: 6,600 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from quartzite 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bullump: Idaho fescue, basin wildrye, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain brome 
Gando: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 


Tusel: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, slender 
wheatgrass, snowberry 

Inclusion 1: Mountain brome, slender wheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: None 

Inclusion 3: Letterman needlegrass, mountain brome, 
quaking aspen 

Inclusion 4: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Ecological Site 

Bullump: 025XY016NV 
Gando: 025XY024NV 
Tusel: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY065NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY002NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY003NV 


921 -Bullump-Hackwood-Cleavage 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bullump very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
40 percent 

Hackwood silt loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent 
slopes-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Tusel very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes-6 percent 

Inclusion 2: Hapgood very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Entic Cryumbrepts, loamy-skeletal, mixed 
very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-4 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Entic Cryumbrepts, loamy-skeletal, mixed 
very gravelly loam-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Bullump-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Hackwood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Cleavage-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; shape of slope: convex 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: summit; shape of slope: concave; aspect: 
north 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope; concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: 
north 

Inclusion 4—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position; summit; shape of slope: concave; aspect: 
north 






Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


43 


Major Component Description 
Bullump Series 

Elevation: 6,800 to 8,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 75 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Hackwood Series 

Elevation: 6,800 to 8,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks 


Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,800 to 8,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Extremely gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bullump: Idaho fescue, basin wildrye, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain brome 

Hackwood: Mountain brome, quaking aspen, slender 
wheatgrass 

Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, slender 
wheatgrass, snowberry 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, slender 
wheatgrass, snowberry 

Inclusion 3: Letterman needlegrass, mountain brome, 
quaking aspen 

Inclusion 4: Letterman needlegrass, lupine 


Ecological Site 
Bullump: 025XY016NV 
Hackwood: 025XY065NV 


Cleavage: 025XY024NV 


Inclusion 1 
Inclusion 2 
Inclusion 3 
Inclusion 4 


025XY004NV 

025XY004NV 

025XY002NV 

025XY028NV 


922--Bullump-Cleavage-Hapgood association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bullump very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-- 
40 percent 

Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes—30 percent 

Hapgood very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes— 
1 5 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Entic Cryumbrepts, loamy-skeletal, mixed 
very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Tusel very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Hackwood silt loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Argic Pachic Cryoborolls, loamy-skeletal, 
mixed gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes—2 
percent 


Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Bullump-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Cleavage—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Hapgood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Bullump Series 

Elevation: 6,600 to 8,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 75 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,600 to 8,600 feet 

Precipitation: About 14 inches 

Air temperature: About 44 degrees 

Frost-free season: About 85 days 

Surface layer texture: Extremely gravelly loam 

Drainage class: Well drained 






44 


Soil Survey of 


Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Hapgood Series 

Elevation: 6,600 to 8,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bullump: Idaho fescue, basin wildrye, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain brome 
Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Hapgood: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Inclusion 1: Letterman needlegrass, mountain brome, 
quaking aspen 

Inclusion 2: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Inclusion 3: Mountain brome, quaking aspen, slender 
wheatgrass 

Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, black sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Bullump: 025XY016NV 
Cleavage: 025XY024NV 
Hapgood: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY002NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY065NV 
Inclusion 4: 024XY042NV 


1130—Clementine silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 
percent slopes 

Composition 

Major Components 

Clementine silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent slopes--90 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Hunnton silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Wieland loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--5 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Clementine-Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Fan remnants 
Inclusion 2—Landform: Fan remnants 

Major Component Description 
Clementine Series 

Elevation: 4,000 to 4,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 


Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Clementine: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Clementine: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 


1131 "Clementine, drained-Clementine, gently 
sloping-Clementine association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Clementine silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent slopes-60 
percent 

Clementine silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Clementine silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes--15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Bioya loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—5 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Cumulic Haplaquolls silt loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Clementine-Landform: Flood plains 
Clementine-Landform: Flood plains 
Clementine-Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Flood plains 

Major Component Description 
Clementine Series 

Elevation: 4,000 to 5,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Clementine Series 

Elevation: 4,000 to 5,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


45 


Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Clementine Series 

Elevation: 4,000 to 5,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Clementine: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass, rabbitbrush 

Clementine: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass, rabbitbrush 

Clementine: Nevada bluegrass, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, rabbitbrush, wildrye 

Ecological Site 

Clementine: 025XY003NV 
Clementine: 025XY003NV 
Clementine: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY001NV 


1135—Clementine-Clurde association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Clementine silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent slopes-60 
percent 

Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Durixerollic Camborthids, fine-loamy over 
sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic fine sandy 
loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-4 percent 
Inclusion 2: Kelk very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, occasionally flooded-4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Cumulic Haplaquolls, fine-loamy, mixed, 
mesic silt loam, drained-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Clementine—Landform: Flood plains 
Clurde—Landform: Fan remnants 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 2—Landform: Flood plains 
inclusion 3-Landform: Flood plains 

Major Component Description 
Clementine Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 


Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Clurde Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Clementine: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass, rabbitbrush 

Clurde: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass, rabbitbrush 

Ecological Site 

Clementine: 025XY003NV 
Clurde: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 024XY006NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 


1150-Clurde-Wieland association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Clurde very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-50 
percent 

Wieland gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Orovada fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Kleckner gravelly loam, 2 to 15 percent 
slopes—4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Xeric Torriorthents, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
nonacid, mesic gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes- 
-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 

Clurde-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: lower part 







46 


Soil Survey of 


Wieland-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: -ummit; position on slope: upper part 
Inclusion 1--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: upper part 
Inclusion 3--Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Clurde Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Wieland Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Clurde: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 4: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 

Ecological Site 

Clurde: 025XY019NV 
Wieland: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY005NV 


1155--Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes 

Composition 

Major Components 

Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes--85 
percent 


Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Durixerollic Camborthids, coarse-loamy, 
mixed, mesic fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes-8 percent 

Inclusion 2: Durixerollic Camborthids, fine-loamy over 
sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic fine sandy 
loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Kelk very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, occasionally flooded-2 percent 
Inclusion 4: Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Clurde-Landform: Fan remnants 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope 

Major Component Description 
Clurde Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Clurde: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Clurde: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 024XY006NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


1156--Clurde-Kortty association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-45 
percent 

Kortty silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes—40 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Dacker very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 



Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


47 


Inclusion 2: Shalake very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Chiara very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes—4 percent 
Inclusion 4: Typic Calciorthids, fine-loamy, mixed, 
mesic very gravelly loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Clurde-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Kortty—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Major Component Description 
Clurde Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Kortty Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Clurde: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, cheatgrass, 
squirreltail 

Kortty: Bottlebrush squirreltail, bud sagebrush, 
shadscale 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 4: Bottlebrush squirreltail, bud sagebrush, 
shadscale 

Ecological Site 

Clurde: 025XY019NV 
Kortty: 024XY002NV 


Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 024XY002NV 


1157--Clurde-Zevadez-Chiara association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes- 
25 percent 

Chiara very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Shalake very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Xerollic Haplargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic gravelly loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes—5 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Clurde-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position; 

summit; shape of slope: concave 
Zevadez-Landform: Fan remnants; shape of slope: 
concave 

Chiara-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Clurde Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Zevadez Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 








48 


Soil Survey of 


Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Clurde: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Zevadez: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: Bluebunch wheatgrass, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Clurde: 025XY019NV 
Zevadez: 025XY019NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY050NV 


1190--Cherry Spring-Enko association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cherry Spring very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes-50 percent 

Enko very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—40 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Wieland loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-8 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Aerie Fluvaquents, coarse-loamy, mixed 
(calcareous), mesic loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Cherry Spring—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 
Enko-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: upper part 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Cherry Spring Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 


Enko Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cherry Spring: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Enko: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Ecological Site 

Cherry Spring: 025XY019NV 
Enko: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 


1191--Cherry Spring-Wieland association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cherry Spring gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-60 
percent 

Wieland gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Shabliss gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Durixerollic Haplargids, fine-loamy, mixed, 
mesic gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—5 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Cherry Spring—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Wieland—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: lower part 

Major Component Description 
Cherry Spring Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


49 


Wieland Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cherry Spring: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Cherry Spring: 025XY019NV 
Wieland: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 


1193"Cherry Spring-Hunnton-Chiara 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cherry Spring silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-45 
percent 

Hunnton silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-25 percent 
Chiara silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--20 percent 
Contrasting Inclusions 
Inclusion 1: Orovada silt loam--10 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Cherry Spring—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: concave 
Hunnton—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Chiara—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Cherry Spring Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 


Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cherry Spring: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Cherry Spring: 025XY019NV 
Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 


1210-Skull Creek-Shabliss-Puett association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Skull Creek very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes-45 percent 

Shabliss very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes- 
25 percent 

Puett sandy loam, 8 to 30 percent slopes-15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-6 percent 

Inclusion 2: Tweba very fine sandy loam, drained, 0 to 
2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Wieland loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-4 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Xeric Torripsamments, mixed, mesic fine 
sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 

Skull Creek—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Shabliss-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave 






50 


Soil Survey of 


Puett-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic position: 
backslope aspect: south 

Inclusion 1--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position; backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 2--Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave 

Major Component Description 
Skull Creek Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Shabliss Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Puett Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Skull Creek: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Shabliss: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Puett: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2; Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye 
Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 4: Indian ricegrass, basin big sagebrush, hairy 
horsebrush, rabbitbrush 

Ecological Site 

Skull Creek: 025XY019NV 
Shabliss: 025XY019NV 
Puett: 025XY025NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


Inclusion 4: 024XY001NV 


1220"Hunnton, strongly sloping-Hunnton- 
Fulstone association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Hunnton loam, 8 to 1 5 percent slopes--40 percent 
Hunnton loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-35 percent 
Fulstone cobbly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes--15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Wieland loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—5 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Fulstone cobbly loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave 
Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: plane 
Fulstone—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 

Major Component Description 
Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Fulstone Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


51 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Fulstone: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Fulstone: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY018NV 


1221-Hunnton, moderately steep-Hunnton- 
Fulstone association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Hunnton gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes--35 
percent 

Hunnton loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--30 percent 
Fulstone gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes--20 
percent 

Contrasting inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Skull Creek very fine sandy loam, 4 to 15 
percent slopes—7 percent 
Inclusion 2: Clementine silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Puett fine sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: plane 
Fulstone-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 

Major Component Description 
Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Fulstone Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Fulstone: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass, rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
rabbitbrush 

Ecological Site 

Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Fulstone: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY025NV 


1223-Hunnton-Shabliss-Puett association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Hunnton gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Shabliss very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes- 
25 percent 

Puett very cobbly loamy sand, 15 to 30 percent slopes 
-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Xeric Torriorthents, fine-loamy, mixed, 
nonacid, mesic gravelly loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes 
-5 percent 












52 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 2; Shabliss gravelly fine sandy loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop--4 percent 
Inclusion 4; Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded—1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Shabliss-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Puett-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic 
position: backslope 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Flood plains 

Major Component Description 
Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Shabliss Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Puett Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loamy sand 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Shabliss: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Puett: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, inland saitgrass, 
rubber rabbitbrush 


Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 
Inclusion 3: None 

Inclusion 4: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 

Ecological Site 

Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Shabliss: 025XY019NV 
Puett: 025XY025NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY006NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: 025XY005NV 


1224—Hunnton-Trunk-Shabliss association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Hunnton loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-35 percent 
Trunk very cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Shabliss gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Durorthids, loamy, mixed, mesic, 
shallow gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Typic Durorthids, loamy, mixed, mesic, 
shallow gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes-4 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Lithic Xerollic Camborthids, loamy-skeletal, 
mixed, mesic very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Rock outcrop-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains and intermontane 
basins 

Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Trunk—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Shabliss-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 
Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 




Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


53 


Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Trunk Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Shabliss Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Trunk: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Shabliss: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
shadscale 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
shadscale 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Trunk: 025XY019NV 
Shabliss: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY002NV 
Inclusion 2: 024XY002NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


1226--Hunnton-Wieland-Clementine 

association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Hunnton gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Wieland gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--30 
percent 

Clementine silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent slopes--20 
percent 


Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Chiara very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 
percent slopes--5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Xeric Torriorthents gravelly loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 
Wieland-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: plane 
Clementine-Landform: Stream terraces 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 4,900 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Wieland Series 

Elevation: 4,900 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Clementine Series 

Elevation: 4,900 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Clementine: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 





54 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 2- VVycming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltai! 

Inclusion 3. Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
rabbitbrush 

Ecological Site 

Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Wieland: 025XY019NV 
Clementine: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 024XY006NV 


1227--Hunnton-Chiara-Bilbo association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Hunnton silt loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--40 percent 
Chiara silt loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-25 percent 
Bilbo cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes--20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Orovada very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 
percent slopes--10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Xeric Torriorthents, loamy, mixed, mesic, 
shallow gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes--2 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Aridic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Dewar loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-1 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: plane 
Chiara-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Bilbo-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Inset fans; aspect: south 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: upper; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: plane 

Major Component Description 
Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 


Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Bilbo Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Bilbo: Cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 3: Big sagebrush, bluegrass 
Inclusion 4: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Bilbo: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY025NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


1228-Hunnton-Hunnton, moderately sloping 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Hunnton silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-65 percent 

Hunnton silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Lithic Xerollic Haplargids, loamy, 

montmorillonitic, mesic very gravelly loam, 2 to 8 
percent slopes-10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Gochea silt loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes- 
-2 percent 

Inclusion 3: Lithic Haplargids, clayey, montmorillonitic, 
mesic very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
2 percent 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


55 


Inclusion 4: Chiara silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--1 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: plane 
Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic 
position: shoulder 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 3—Landform: Pediments; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 

Major Component Description 
Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


1229--Hunnton-Chiara-Wieland association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Hunnton silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—40 percent 
Chiara silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—30 percent 
Wieland silt loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-1 5 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Enko very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Stampede silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes- 
5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Durixerollic Haplargids, loamy-skeletal, 
mixed, mesic loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Durargidic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, 
frigid gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: plane 
Chiara-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Wieland-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; aspect: north 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder 

Inclusion 4—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Wieland Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 




56 


Soil Survey of 


Surface rock fragments: 10 percent cobbles; 

Surface layC: texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush, 
bluebunch wheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Wieland: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY027NV 


1230--Fulstone-Hunnton association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Fulstone gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—45 
percent 

Hunnton loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-40 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Short Creek cobbly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent 
slopes—6 percent 

Inclusion 2: Clementine silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-6 percent 

Inclusion 3: Aridic Argixerolls, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 

Fulstone-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: north 


Major Component Description 
Fulstone Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Fulstone: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Fulstone: 025XY018NV 
Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY014NV 


1231"Fulstone-Fulstone, moderately steep- 
Hunnton association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Fulstone very cobbly silt loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes- 
40 percent 

Fulstone very cobbly silt loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-30 percent 

Hunnton loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Clementine silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-6 percent 

Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Aridic Argixerolls gravelly loam, 4 to 15 
percent slopes-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


57 


Fulstone-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Fulstone-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: upper; aspect: 
north 

Major Component Description 
Fulstone Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Fulstone Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Fulstone: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Fulstone: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 2: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 3: Bluebunch wheatgrass, low sagebrush 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Fulstone: 025XY018NV 
Fulstone: 025XY018NV 
Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY005NV 


Inclusion 3: 025XY017NV 


1232-Fulstone-Fulstone, cobbly loam- 
Wieland association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Fulstone gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—35 
percent 

Fulstone cobbly loam, 8 to 1 5 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Wieland loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Bilbo gravelly very fine sandy loam, 30 to 
50 percent slopes-7 percent 
Inclusion 2: Clementine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes, frequently flooded-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Fulstone-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Fulstone-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Wieland-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Stream terraces 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Flood plains 

Major Component Description 
Fulstone Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Fulstone Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Wieland Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 





58 


Soil Survey of 


Drainage class. Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Fulstone: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Fulstone: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 3: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 

Ecological Site 

Fulstone: 025XY018NV 

Fulstone: 025XY018NV 

Wieland: 025XY019NV 

Inclusion 1: 025XY015NV 

Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 

Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 


1241 -Enko-Shabliss-Orovada association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Enko fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--60 
percent 

Shabliss very fine sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-1 5 percent 

Orovada very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-- 
15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Xeric Torripsamments fine sand, 8 to 1 5 
percent slopes--10 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Enko-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Shabliss-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 
Orovada-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: upper part 

Major Component Description 

Enko Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 


Shabliss Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Orovada Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Enko: Bluegrass, cheatgrass, squirreltail 
Shabliss: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Orovada: Thurber needlegrass, Wyoming big 
sagebrush, cheatgrass, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: Indian ricegrass, big sagebrush, 
rabbitbrush 

Ecological Site 
Enko: 025XY019NV 
Shabliss: 025XY019NV 
Orovada: 024XY020NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY001NV 


1242--Enko-Enko, strongly sloping 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Enko fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes--65 
percent 

Enko fine sandy loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Durixerollic Camborthids, coarse-silty, 
mixed, mesic fine sandy loam-8 percent 

Inclusion 2: Wieland loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—7 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 

Enko—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Enko—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position; 
backslope; shape of slope: plane 

Inclusion 1—Landform; Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Inclusion 2—Landform; Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex 




Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


59 


Major Component Description 

Enko Series 

Elevation: 4,400 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Enko Series 

Elevation: 4,400 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Enko: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Enko: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Enko: 025XY019NV 
Enko: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 


1260--Kleckner-Upville-Fulstone association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Kleckner gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes--40 
percent 

Upville gravelly loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes-30 percent 

Fulstone very cobbly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes, frequently flooded—8 percent 

Inclusion 2: Hunnton loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-1 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Orovada loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-1 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 

Kleckner-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Upville-Landform: Fan skirts; geomorphic position: 
footslope 


Fulstone-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: lower; shape of 
slope: convex 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Kleckner Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 6,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Upville Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 6,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Fulstone Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Kleckner: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Upville: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Fulstone: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Kleckner: 025XY014NV 
Upville: 025XY014NV 
Fulstone: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 










60 


Soil Survey of 


1261-K! ^^-cH-fisr^HoGcho© QssociQtion 

Composition 

Major Components 

Kleckner gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-55 
percent 

Heechee cobbly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Contrasting inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Donna gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes-8 percent 

Inclusion 2: Upville gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes--2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Kleckner-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Heechee—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Kleckner Series 

Elevation: 5,900 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Heechee Series 

Elevation: 5,900 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Kleckner: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Heechee: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Kleckner: 025XY014NV 
Heechee: 025XY007NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY006NV 


1290—Tweba very fine sandy loam, drained, 

0 to 2 percent slopes 

Composition 

Major Components 

Tweba very fine sandy loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes—90 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Orovada very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes—5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Aerie Haplaquepts, fine-silty, mixed 

(calcareous), mesic loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes—5 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Tweba-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Flood plains 

Major Component Description 
Tweba Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Very poorly drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Tweba: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, bluegrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
cheatgrass, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 2: Basin wildrye, black greasewood, 
cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Tweba: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 024XY008NV 


1350-Shabliss-Hunnton-Bioya association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Shabliss gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Hunnton gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes—35 
percent 

Bioya loam, 8 to 1 5 percent slopes—20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Xeric Torriorthents gravelly loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 2: Clementine silt loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes-1 percent 

Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-1 percent 



Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


61 


Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Shabliss-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Hunnton--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave 
Bioya-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion l—Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 2--Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 3—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Major Component Description 
Shabliss Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Bioya Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Shabliss: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
cheatgrass 

Bioya: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 2: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 3: None 

Ecological Site 

Shabliss: 025XY019NV 
Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Bioya: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY006NV 


Inclusion 2: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 3: None 


1351 —Shabliss-Bartome association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Shabliss very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes- 
70 percent 

Bartome very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes— 

1 5 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Durixerollic Camborthids, fine-loamy over 
sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic fine sandy 
loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes—6 percent 
Inclusion 2: Shalake very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Shabliss-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: plane 
Bartome-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 2—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: footslope; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: footslope; shape of slope: plane 

Major Component Description 
Shabliss Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Bartome Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Shabliss: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 








62 


Soil Survey of 


Bartome: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Shabliss: 025XY019NV 
Bartome: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


1352-Shabliss-Skull Creek-Puett association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Shabliss very fine sandy loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-- 
40 percent 

Skull Creek very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes-30 percent 

Puett very cobbly sandy loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
-20 percent 
Contrasting Inclusions 
Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Durixerollic Camborthids, coarse-silty, 
mixed, mesic fine sandy loam-2 percent 
Inclusion 3: Xeric Torripsamments, mixed, mesic fine 
sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Shabliss—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Skull Creek-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Puett-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave 

Major Component Description 
Shabliss Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 


Skull Creek Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Puett Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Shabliss: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Skull Creek: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Puett: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 3: Indian ricegrass, basin big sagebrush, 
needleandthread 

Ecological Site 

Shabliss: 025XY019NV 
Skull Creek: 025XY019NV 
Puett: 025XY025NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 024XY006NV 
Inclusion 3: 024XY001NV 


1360-Orovada very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes 

Composition 

Major Components 

Orovada very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes- 
90 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Xeric Torriorthents gravelly loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Enko fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Orovada-Landform: Fan skirts 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan skirts 
Inclusion 2—Landform: Fan skirts 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


63 


Major Component Description 
Orovada Series 

Elevation: 4,400 to 5,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Orovada: Thurber needlegrass, Wyoming big 
sagebrush, cheatgrass, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: Thurber needlegrass, Wyoming big 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 2: Thurber needlegrass, Wyoming big 
sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Orovada: 024XY020NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY005NV 
Inclusion 2: 024XY005NV 


1362—Orovada-Clurde-Wieland association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Orovada very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes- 
35 percent 

Clurde very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Wieland loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Bioya loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Typic Durorthids, fine-loamy, mixed, mesic 
loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Xeric Torriorthents, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
nonacid, mesic gravelly loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes 
-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Duric Camborthids, coarse-loamy, mixed, 
mesic fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 

Orovada—Landform: Fan skirts 

Clurde-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit; shape of slope; plane 

Wieland-Landform; Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: upper part 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 

position: summit; position on slope: lower; shape of 
slope: convex 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan skirts 


Major Component Description 
Orovada Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 5,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Clurde Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Wieland Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Orovada: Thurber needlegrass, Wyoming big 
sagebrush, cheatgrass, rabbitbrush 
Clurde: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Bottlebrush squirreltail, bud sagebrush, 
cheatgrass, shadscale 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 4: Basin wildrye, black greasewood, 
cheatgrass, rabbitbrush 

Ecological Site 

Orovada: 024XY020NV 
Clurde: 024XY005NV 
Wieland: 024XY005NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY005NV 
Inclusion 2: 024XY002NV 
Inclusion 3: 024XY006NV 
Inclusion 4: 024XY002NV 





64 


Soil Survey of 


1363--Orovada-Tweba-Weso association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Orovada very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes- 
40 percent 

Tweba sandy loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
rarely flooded--25 percent 

Weso very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Enko fine sandy loam, 0 to 4 percent 
slopeS"5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Tweba sandy loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, frequently flooded--5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Orovada-Landform: Fan skirts; position on slope: 
upper part 

Tweba-Landform: Inset fans 

Weso--Landform: Fan skirts; position on slope: lower 
part 

Inclusion 1--Landform: Fan skirts; geomorphic position: 

summit; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 2--Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Orovada Series 

Elevation: 4,400 to 5,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Tweba Series 

Elevation: 4,400 to 5,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam 
Drainage class: Very poorly drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Weso Series 

Elevation: 4,400 to 5,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 7 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Orovada: Thurber needlegrass, Wyoming big 
sagebrush, cheatgrass, rabbitbrush 


Tweba: Basin wildrye, black greasewood 
Weso: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
shadscale 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Ecological Site 

Orovada: 024XY020NV 
Tweba: 024XY006NV 
Weso: 024XY002NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY005NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 


1530-Creemon-Placeritos association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Creemon silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes--45 percent 
Placeritos silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes--40 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-6 percent 
Inclusion 2: Orovada very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-6 percent 
Inclusion 3: Durorthidic Torriorthents, coarse-silty, 
mixed, mesic silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Creemon—Landform: Stream terraces 
Placeritos—Landform: Flood plains 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan skirts 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan skirts 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Flood plains 

Major Component Description 
Creemon Series 

Elevation: 4,400 to 4,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 7 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Placeritos Series 

Elevation: 4,400 to 4,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 




Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


65 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Creemon: Black greasewood, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
shadscale 

Placeritos: Black greasewood, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, cheatgrass, 
rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 3: Basin wildrye, black greasewood, inland 
saitgrass 

Ecological Site 

Creemon: 024XY003NV 
Placeritos: 024XY022NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY005NV 
Inclusion 2: 024XY020NV 
Inclusion 3: 024XY011NV 


1572-Weso-Orovada-Shabliss association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Weso very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes--45 
percent 

Orovada very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes— 
25 percent 

Shabliss very fine sandy loam, 1 5 to 30 percent 
slopes-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Xeric Torripsamments fine sand, 8 to 15 
percent slopes—10 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Weso-Landform: Fan skirts 
Orovada-Landform: Inset fans 
Shabliss—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Major Component Description 
Weso Series 

Elevation: 4,400 to 4,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 7 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Orovada Series 

Elevation: 4,400 to 5,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Shabliss Series 

Elevation: 4,600 to 5,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Weso: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
shadscale 

Orovada: Thurber needlegrass, Wyoming big 
sagebrush, cheatgrass, rabbitbrush 
Shabliss: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Inclusion 1: Indian ricegrass, basin big sagebrush, 
cheatgrass, rabbitbrush 

Ecological Site 

Weso: 024XY002NV 
Orovada: 024XY020NV 
Shabliss: 024XY005NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY001NV 


1573—Weso-Orovada-Tweba associaiton 

Composition 

Major Components 

Weso very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Orovada loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-30 percent 

Tweba sandy loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
rarely flooded—25 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Torriorthents, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
nonacid, mesic sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes- 
10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Tweba sandy loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, frequently flooded-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Shabliss loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-1 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Wieland loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-1 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 

Weso-Landform: Fan skirts; position on slope: lower 
part 

Orovada-Landform: Fan skirts; position on slope: 
upper part 

Tweba-Landform: Inset fans 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Inset fans 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex 






66 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position; oackslope; shape of slope: concave 

Major Component Description 
Weso Series 

Elevation: 4,400 to 5,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 7 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Orovada Series 

Elevation: 4,400 to 5,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Tweba Series 

Elevation: 4,400 to 5,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam 
Drainage class: Very poorly drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Weso: Bottlebrush squirreltail, shadscale 
Orovada: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Tweba: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, black 
greasewood, rubber rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: Basin wildrye, black greasewood 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Weso: 024XY002NV 
Orovada: 025XY019NV 
Tweba: 024XY006NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY011NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


1617-Cleavage-Hapgood-Tweener 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 30 to 75 percent 
slopes--40 percent 

Hapgood very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-- 
30 percent 

Tweener very cobbly sandy loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes--15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Welch sandy loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded—6 percent 
Inclusion 2: Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 4 to 15 
percent slopes-3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Cleavage very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes-3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Loncan very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes—3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Cleavage—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Hapgood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Tweener-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: 
north 

Major Component Description 
Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,600 to 7,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Extremely gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 


Hapgood Series 
Elevation: 6,600 to 7,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 


Tweener Series 

Elevation: 6,600 to 7,400 feet 




Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


67 


Precipitation: About 14 inohes 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very oobbly sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and oolluvium 
derived from tuffaoeous rooks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cleavage: Idaho fesoue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Hapgood: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Tweener: Antelope bitterbrush, bluegrass, oheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inolusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 3: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Cleavage: 025XY024NV 
Hapgood: 025XY004NV 
Tweener: 025XY007NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY012NV 


1618--Cleavage-Sumine-Pequop association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cleavage very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-- 
40 percent 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-- 
25 percent 

Pequop gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes--20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Tweener very oobbly sandy loam, 15 to 50 
percent slopes--8 percent 

Inclusion 2: Aridic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Graley very oobbly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent 
slopes-2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Cleavage—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: convex 

Sumine-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Pequop—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 


Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: north 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaoeous rocks 

Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaoeous rocks 

Pequop Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaoeous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
oheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Pequop: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Antelope bitterbrush, bluegrass, mountain 
big sagebrush 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 4: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 

Ecological Site 

Cleavage: 025XY017NV 
Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Pequop: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY007NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY006NV 







68 


Soil Survey of 


1619-Cleavage-Tusk-Sumine association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes--35 percent 

Tusk loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-30 percent 
Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
20 percent 

Contrasting inclusions 

Inclusion 1; Chen very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes-10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Cotant very gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Hackwood silt loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-1 percent 

Inclusion 4: Rock outcrop-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Cleavage—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: upper; shape of slope: 
convex 

Tusk-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: lower; shape 
of slope: convex 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: lower; shape 
of slope: plane; aspect: north 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Major Component Description 
Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,800 to 7,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Extremely gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Tusk Series 

Elevation: 6,600 to 7,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,600 to 7,600 feet 


Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Tusk; Idaho fescue, basin wildrye, mountain big 
sagebrush 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
inclusion 1: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 3: Mountain brome, quaking aspen, slender 
wheatgrass 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Cleavage: 025XY024NV 
Tusk: 025XY029NV 
Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY065NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


1621 --Cleavage-Graley-Cleavage, moderately 
steep association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cleavage very gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes— 
35 percent 

Graley stony loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-30 percent 

Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Pachic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-6 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded—3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Cleavage-Landform; Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: upper part 

Graley—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Cleavage-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: convex 




Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


69 


Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: upper; shape 
of slope: plane; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 
Inclusion 3--Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Major Component Description 
Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Graley Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
quartzite 

Cleavage Series 
Elevation: 6,000 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Extremely gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cleavage: Idaho fescue, low sagebrush 
Graley: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: None 

Inclusion 3: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 4: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Cleavage: 025XY017NV 
Graley: 025XY012NV 
Cleavage: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY009NV 


1622-Cleavage-Sumine-Hapgood association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 50 to 75 percent 
slopes—50 percent 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
20 percent 

Hapgood very gravelly loam, 50 to 75 percent slopes— 
1 5 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 15 to 
50 percent slopes—5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Hapgood very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 
percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Tusel gravelly loam, 50 to 75 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Argic Pachic Cryoborolls gravelly loam, 50 
to 75 percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Cleavage-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Hapgood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: footslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: upper; shape 
of slope: plane; aspect: north 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Extreniely gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 






70 


Soil Survey of 


Hapgood Series 
Elevation: 6,200 to 7,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Hapgood: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Inclusion 1: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 2: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Basin wildrye, mountain big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Cleavage: 025XY024NV 
Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Hapgood: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY029NV 


1623--Cleavage-Hapgood-Sumine association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes—50 percent 

Hapgood very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
20 percent 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Cleavage very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Aridic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Cleavage—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: convex 

Hapgood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Sumine—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 


Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: lower; shape 
of slope: convex; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: lower; shape 
of slope: convex 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Major Component Description 
Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Extremely gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Hapgood Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Hapgood: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Cleavage: 025XY024NV 
Hapgood: 025XY004NV 
Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY017NV 



Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


71 


Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY027NV 


1625—Cleavage-Ninemile-Sumine association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cleavage very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes- 
55 percent 

Ninemile gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes—15 
percent 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes— 

1 5 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Welch sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded—5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Typic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Typic Argixerolls, fine, montmorillonitic, 
frigid very gravelly loam-3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Tusk loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains and foothills 
Cleavage-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: upper; shape of slope: 
convex 

Ninemile—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position; 

footslope; position on slope: lower part 
Sumine—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: 
north 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Inclusion 4—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,300 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
mixed rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, cheatgrass, mountain 
big sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4; Basin wildrye, mountain big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Cleavage: 025XY017NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY029NV 


1626-Cleavage-Carstump-Chen association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cleavage very gravelly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Carstump gravelly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Chen very cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop—10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Graley very cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Cleavage-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: plane 

Carstump—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: plane 

Chen—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 




72 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 2-L.andform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
shoulder; aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Carstump Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Chen Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Carstump: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Antelope bitterbrush, big sagebrush, 
bluebunch wheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Cleavage: 025XY017NV 
Carstump: 025XY014NV 
Chen: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY012NV 


1628-Cleavage-Chen-Reluctan association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cleavage very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes- 
40 percent 

Chen very cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--30 
percent 


Reluctan gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Carstump gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Aridic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes—4 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Clementine silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Rock outcrop—3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Cleavage-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position; 
shoulder 

Chen-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Reluctan-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope; upper part 

Major Component Description 
Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 7,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Chen Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 7,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Reluctan Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Chen: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


73 


Reluctan: Bluegrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Cleavage: 025XY017NV 
Chen: 025XY017NV 
Reluctan: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


1640—Tusk-Cleavage-Hackwood association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Tusk gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes--40 percent 
Cleavage very cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Hackwood silt loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop--6 percent 
Inclusion 2: Sumine very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 
percent slopes—3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded—3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Reluctan gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Tusk-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: lower; shape of slope: 
concave 

Cleavage—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

summit; position on slope: upper part 
Hackwood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: upper; shape 
of slope: convex 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: lower; shape 
of slope: convex 

Major Component Description 

Tusk Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 8,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 


Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,700 to 8,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Hackwood Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 8,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Tusk: Cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush, 
rabbitbrush, snowberry 

Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 

Hackwood: Mountain brome, quaking aspen, slender 
wheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Tusk: 025XY004NV 
Cleavage: 025XY024NV 
Hackwood: 025XY065NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY012NV 


1650—Ninemile-Tusk-Ninemile, steep 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Ninemile very cobbly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Tusk gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Ninemile very cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes— 
20 percent 







74 


Soil Survey of 


Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Pachic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes—5 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Graley gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Pachic Haploxerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Tusk-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: upper; shape 
of slope: plane; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: upper; shape 
of slope: convex 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: lower; shape 
of slope: convex; aspect: north 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 7,500 to 8,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Tusk Series 

Elevation: 7,000 to 8,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 7,000 to 8,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Tusk: Cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush, 
rabbitbrush, snowberry 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: None 

inclusion 3: Antelope bitterbrush, bluegrass, mountain 
big sagebrush 

Inclusion 4: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 

Ecological Site 

Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Tusk: 025XY004NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY006NV 


1651 --Ninemile-Reluctan-Ninemile, 
moderately steep association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Ninemile very cobbly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes—35 
percent 

Reluctan cobbly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes—35 
percent 

Ninemile very cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes- 
15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-6 percent 

Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Pachic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Aridic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
gravelly loam-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: upper part 

Reluctan—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: lower; aspect: north 

Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: convex 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: upper; shape 
of slope: convex 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Drainageways 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: upper; 
aspect: north 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


75 


Inclusion 4--Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 

Major Component Description 
Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 6,300 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Reluctan Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Reluctan: Bluegrass, mountain big sagebrush, 
rabbitbrush 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 
Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Reluctan: 025XY012NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY009NV 


1652--Ninemlle, steep-Graley-Ninemile 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Ninemile very cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes— 
35 percent 

Graley very cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes—30 
percent 

Ninemile very cobbly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes—20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-9 percent 
Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-2 percent 
Inclusion 3: Shively loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Graley-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: lower; shape of slope: 
concave; aspect: north 

Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position; 
summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: upper; shape 
of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 

Major Component Description 
Ninemile Series 

Eievation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Graley Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
quartzite 


Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 6,400 to 7,000 feet 












76 


Soil Survey of 


Precipitate n: About 14 inches 
Air tenipei^ture: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Graley: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Graley: 025XY012NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY009NV 


1653-Ninemile-Reluctan-Graley association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Ninemile cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Reluctan very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Graley stony loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes--20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-6 percent 

Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-2 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded—2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Reluctan-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: lower part 

Graley—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: upper part 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 


Major Component Description 
Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 6,400 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Reluctan Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Graley Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
quartzite 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Reluctan: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, mountain 
big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 

Graley: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 3: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 

Ecological Site 

Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Reluctan: 025XY012NV 
Graley: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY006NV 


1655--Ninemile-Thwoop-Pequop association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Ninemile very stony loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Thwoop gravelly silt loam, 8 to 1 5 percent slopes—30 
percent 

Pequop gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes—20 
percent 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


77 


Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Quarz very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Aridic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-4 percent 
Inclusion 4: Lithic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes-1 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

summit; position on slope: upper part 
Thwoop-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

footslope; position on slope: lower part 
Pequop—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 4—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: shoulder 

Major Component Description 
Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 5,900 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Thwoop Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Pequop Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Thwoop: Thurber needlegrass, basin wildrye, big 
sagebrush, bluegrass 

Pequop: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue 

Ecological Site 

Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Thwoop: 025XY014NV 
Pequop: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: 025XY046NV 


1656--Ninemile-Pequop-Gumble association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Ninemile gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Pequop gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Gumble very gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Reluctan gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes—6 percent 

Inclusion 2: Pie Creek gravelly loam, 2 to 1 5 percent 
slopes-2 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch sandy loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Ninemile-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Pequop-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper; aspect: north 
Gumble-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: lower; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 5,900 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 








78 


Soil Survey of 


Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Pequop Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Gumble Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,400 feet 

Precipitation: About 9 inches 

Air temperature: About 47 degrees 

Frost-free season: About 110 days 

Surface layer texture: Very gravelly sandy loam 

Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Pequop: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 

Gumble: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Ecological Site 

Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Pequop: 025XY012NV 
Gumble: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 


1657”Ninemile-Alyan association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Ninemile gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes—45 
percent 

Alyan gravelly loam, 8 to 1 5 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Xerollic Haplargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
frigid gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-9 
percent 


Inclusion 2: Linkup very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded—2 percent 
Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded—1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Ninemile-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Alyan-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Alyan Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Ninemile: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Alyan: Bluegrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 4: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 

Ecological Site 

Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Alyan: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY006NV 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


79 


1658--Ninemile-Vanwyper-Ninemile, 
moderately steep association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Ninemile gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes—35 
percent 

Vanwyper very cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes— 
25 percent 

Ninemile gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Aridic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-10 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Rubble land fragmental material-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Ninemile—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Vanwyper-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Ninemile-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 
Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Vanwyper Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Vanwyper: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: None 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Vanwyper: 025XY015NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: None 


1659—Ninemile-Carstump association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Ninemile gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-50 
percent 

Carstump gravelly loam, 8 to 30 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Susie Creek loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes- 
10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Soughe very cobbly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Rubble land fragmental material-1 percent 
Inclusion 4: Rock outcrop-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Ninemile-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Carstump-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Major Component Description 
Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 




80 


Soil Survey of 


Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Carstump Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Carstump: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Carstump: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: None 


1660--Susie Creek-Pie Creek-Pattani 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Susie Creek loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes--55 percent 

Pie Creek loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes--25 percent 

Pattani clay, 4 to 15 percent slopes--15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Reluctan gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent 
slopes—3 percent 

Inclusion 2: Xerollic Haplargids, clayey-skeletal, 
montmorillonitic, frigid gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes—2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Susie Creek-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit; shape of slope: plane 

Pie Creek-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: plane 

Pattani-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 


Major Component Description 
Susie Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 90 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Pie Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Pattani Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Clay 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Susie Creek: Basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, bluegrass, rabbitbrush 
Pie Creek: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Pattani: Basin wildrye, big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Susie Creek: 025XY014NV 
Pie Creek: 025XY018NV 
Pattani: 025XY013NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY015NV 


1671-Linkup-Carstump-Linkup, very cobbly 
loam association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Linkup cobbly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes—45 
percent 

Carstump very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes- 
20 percent 

Linkup very cobbly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-20 
percent 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada—Part I 


81 


Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-6 percent 
Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop—5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-2 percent 
Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Linkup-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Carstump-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave 
Linkup-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Linkup Series 

Elevation: 5,900 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Carstump Series 

Elevation: 5,900 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Linkup Series 

Elevation: 6,100 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Linkup: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Carstump: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 

Linkup: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 1: Basin wildrye, bluegrass 
Inclusion 2: None 

Inclusion 3: Rush, tufted hairgrass, willow 


Inclusion 4: Alpine timothy 

Ecological Site 

Linkup: 025XY018NV 
Carstump: 025XY014NV 
Linkup: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY006NV 


1672--Linkup, steep-Carstump-Linkup 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Linkup very cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Carstump gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Linkup very cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-3 percent 
Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Reluctan gravelly loam, 8 to 1 5 percent 
slopes-2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Linkup-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Carstump-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: upper; shape of slope: 
plane 

Linkup-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope; lower; shape 
of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Linkup Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 8,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 







82 


Soil Survey of 


Carstump Series 

Elevation. 6.000 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Linkup Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 8,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Linkup: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Carstump: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 

Linkup: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Rush, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush 
Inclusion 4: Basin wildrye, bluegrass 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Linkup: 025XY018NV 
Carstump: 025XY014NV 
Linkup: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY003NV 


1673-Linkup-Quarz-Alyan association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Linkup very gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Quarz very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Alyan cobbly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Reluctan very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 

Linkup-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 


Quarz-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Alyan-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: lower; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Linkup Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Quarz Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Alyan Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Linkup: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Quarz: Antelope bitterbrush, basin wildrye, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Alyan: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: None 

Inclusion 3: Basin wildrye, bluegrass 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Linkup: 025XY018NV 
Quarz: 025XY009NV 
Alyan: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada—Part I 


83 


1675-Linkup-Snowmore-Ratsow association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Linkup gravelly clay loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-45 
percent 

Snowmore very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes 
-20 percent 

Ratsow loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes—20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Olac cobbly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes- 
5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Coltroop very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes—4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop—3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Rubble land fragmental material-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Linkup—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave 
Snowmore-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
shoulder 

Ratsow-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 
shape of slope: plane 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 
Linkup Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Snowmore Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 6,000 feet 

Precipitation: About 9 inches 

Air temperature: About 47 degrees 

Frost-free season: About 110 days 

Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 

Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Loess and volcanic ash 

Ratsow Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Linkup: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Snowmore: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 

Ratsow: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Linkup: 025XY018NV 
Snowmore: 025XY019NV 
Ratsow: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: None 


1676—Linkup-Quarz association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Linkup cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-65 percent 
Quarz very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Vanwyper cobbly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes-8 percent 

Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Linkup-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Quarz-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Linkup Series 

Elevation: 6,100 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 







84 


Soil Survey of 


Quarz Series 

Elevation: 6,100 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Linkup: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Quarz: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Bluebunch wheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: None 

Inclusion 3: Rush, tufted hairgrass, willow 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Linkup: 025XY018NV 
Quarz: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 


1680--Carstump-Reluctan-Ninemile 
association, hilly 

Composition 

Major Components 

Carstump very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes-- 
30 percent 

Reluctan cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes--30 
percent 

Ninemile very cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes— 
25 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rubble land fragmental material-8 percent 

Inclusion 2: Pachic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Lithic Xerollic Haplargids, clayey, 

montmorillonitic, frigid very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Carstump—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: plane; aspect: south 

Reluctan—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: lower; aspect: north 

Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: convex 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 


Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: upper; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Carstump Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Reluctan Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Carstump: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 

Reluctan: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
rabbitbrush 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 

Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue 

Inclusion 3: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 

Inclusion 4: Rush, tufted hairgrass, willow 

Ecological Site 

Carstump: 025XY014NV 
Reluctan: 025XY012NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY005NV 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


85 


1685—Carstump-Ninemile-Graley association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Carstump very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
35 percent 

Ninemile very cobbly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes— 
30 percent 

Graley very cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-6 percent 
Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded—3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded—3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Carstump-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Graley—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Carstump Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Graley Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Carstump: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Graley: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Rush, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 3: Alpine timothy 
Inclusion 4: Basin wildrye, bluegrass 

Ecological Site 

Carstump: 025XY014NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Graley: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY003NV 


1686--Carstump-Reluctan-Ninemile 
association, steep 

Composition 

Major Components 

Carstump gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes—35 
percent 

Reluctan cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes—30 
percent 

Ninemile very stony loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Shively loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Carstump-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Reluctan-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: upper; shape of slope: 
convex 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: upper part 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 










86 


Soil Survey of 


Major Component Description 
Carstump Series 
Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Reluctan Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Carstump: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 

Reluctan: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
rabbitbrush 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 

Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue 

Inclusion 3: Basin wildrye, bluegrass 

Inclusion 4: Rush, tufted hairgrass, willow 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Carstump: 025XY014NV 
Reluctan: 025XY012NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY005NV 


1687-Carstump, cobbly loam-Linkup- 
Carstump association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Carstump cobbly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Linkup cobbly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes--35 percent 


Carstump gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes—15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop—7 percent 
Inclusion 2: Graley very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-2 percent 
Inclusion 4: Rubble land fragmental material-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Carstump-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Linkup—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

summit; position on slope: upper part 
Carstump-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Major Component Description 
Carstump Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Linkup Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Carstump Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Carstump: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 

Linkup: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 



Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


87 


Carstump: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush 
Inclusion 3: Basin wildrye, bluegrass 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Carstump: 025XY014NV 
Linkup: 025XY018NV 
Carstump: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


1691”Pequop-Rock outcrop-Rubble land 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Pequop gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes--40 
percent 

Rock outcrop-25 percent 

Rubble land fragmental material, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-25 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Graley very gravelly loam, 30 to 75 
percent slopes-10 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Pequop-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Rock outcrop-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Rubble land-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Pequop Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Rock outcrop Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,500 feet 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Rubble land Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,500 feet 
Surface layer texture: Fragmental material 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Pequop: Idaho fescue, bluegrass 

Rock outcrop: None 

Rubble land: None 

Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, bluegrass 

Ecological Site 

Pequop: 025XY012NV 
Rubble land: None 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 


1700-Cotant-Quarz-Ninemile association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cotant gravelly clay loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Quarz very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Ninemile very cobbly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes— 

1 5 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Pachic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Hapgood very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 
percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Cotant-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 

position on slope: lower part 
Quarz-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Ninemile-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper part 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: upper; shape of slope: 
concave 

Major Component Description 
Cotant Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 







88 


Soil Survey of 


Quarz Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation. About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cotant: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Quarz: Antelope bitterbrush, basin wildrye, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 1: Alpine timothy 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, bluegrass 
Inclusion 3: Basin wildrye, bluegrass 
Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, mountain brome 

Ecological Site 

Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Quarz: 025XY009NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY004NV 


1702“Cotant-Mclvey-Blitzen association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cotant gravelly clay loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-45 
percent 

Mclvey cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--30 
percent 

Blitzen very gravelly clay loam, 1 5 to 30 percent 
slopes-15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Donna gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent 
slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 2: Gochea gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent 
slopes—3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Pachic Argixerolls, fine, montmorillonitic, 
frigid very gravelly loam-3 percent 


Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Cotant—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Mclvey-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Blitzen-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Cotant Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Mclvey Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 15 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Blitzen Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 13 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cotant: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Mclvey: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush 
Blitzen: Basin wildrye, bluebunch wheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 3: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Mclvey: 025XY012NV 
Blitzen: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY014NV 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


89 


1703-Cotant-Lerrow-Bullump association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Cotant gravelly clay loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes—45 
percent 

Lerrow cobbly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes—25 
percent 

Bullump very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Graley very cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Typic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes—4 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Cotant-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 

shape of slope: convex 
Lerrow-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Bullump-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper; shape of slope: 
concave 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
shoulder 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope; aspect: north 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Major Component Description 
Cotant Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Lerrow Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Bullump Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 75 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 


Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Cotant: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Lerrow: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Bullump: Idaho fescue, basin wildrye, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain brome 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: None 

Ecological Site 

Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Lerrow: 025XY009NV 
Bullump: 025XY016NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 3: None 


1711 --Reluctan-Ninemile-Cleavage association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Reluctan cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes—35 
percent 

Ninemile cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes—30 
percent 

Cleavage gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Hackwood silt loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Reluctan-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: lower part 

Cleavage-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: upper part 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 





90 


Soil Survey of 


Major Component Description 
Reluctan Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Reluctan: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, mountain 
big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 
Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Mountain brome, quaking aspen, slender 
wheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 3: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 4: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Reluctan: 025XY012NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Cleavage: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY065NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY006NV 


1712--Reluctan-Sumine-Cleavage association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Reluctan cobbly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopeS"55 
percent 


Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-- 
1 5 percent 

Cleavage very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes-- 
1 5 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Hapgood very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 
percent slopes--8 percent 

Inclusion 2: Tweener very cobbly sandy loam, 15 to 50 
percent slopes--3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Tusel gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes-2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Reluctan-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane; aspect: north 
Sumine-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Cleavage—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper; aspect: north 
Inclusion 4--Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Reluctan Series 

Elevation: 6,400 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,400 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


91 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Reluctan: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, mountain 
big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 
Sumine; Antelope bitterbrush, cheatgrass, mountain 
big sagebrush 

Cleavage: Idaho fescue, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, snowberry 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 

Ecological Site 

Reluctan; 025XY012NV 
Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Cleavage: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY007NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY005NV 


1713--Reluctan-Erakatak-Rugar association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Reluctan gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Erakatak gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes—30 
percent 

Rugar loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded-6 percent 

Inclusion 2: Aridic Argixerolls gravelly loam, 8 to 30 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Hapgood very gravelly loam, 30 to 75 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Reluctan-Landform; Mountains; geomorphic position: 
footslope; position on slope: lower; shape of slope; 
convex 

Erakatak-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Rugar-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
footslope; shape of slope: concave 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Drainageways 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 


Major Component Description 
Reluctan Series 

Elevation: 6,300 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Erakatak Series 

Elevation: 6,300 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Rugar Series 

Elevation: 6,300 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Reluctan: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, mountain 
big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 
Erakatak: Basin wildrye, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Rugar: Basin wildrye, bottlebrush squirreltail, mulesear 
wyethia, slender wheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, snowberry 
Inclusion 4: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Reluctan: 025XY012NV 
Erakatak: 025XY016NV 
Rugar: 025XY047NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 2; 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY009NV 


1720"Quarz-Alyan-Ninemile association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Quarz very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-35 
percent 









92 


Soil Survey of 


Alyan cobbiy loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Ninemile very cobbiy loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes— 
25 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Quarz-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Alyan-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Ninemile-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: upper; shape of slope: 
convex 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Major Component Description 
Quarz Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Alyan Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbiy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbiy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Quarz: Antelope bitterbrush, basin wildrye, big 
sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass 
Alyan: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 


Ecological Site 

Quarz: 025XY009NV 
Alyan: 025XY012NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: None 


1725--Quarz-Cleavage-Loncan association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Quarz very stony loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes-25 percent 

Loncan very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes—25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-7 percent 
Inclusion 2: Typic Argixerolls, fine, montmorillonitic, 
frigid very gravelly loam-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Crooked Creek gravelly silty clay loam, 0 
to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded—3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Quarz-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Cleavage-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

summit; position on slope: upper part 
Loncan-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Quarz Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture:. Extremely gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 


Loncan Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,500 feet 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


93 


Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Quarz; Antelope bitterbrush, basin wildrye, big 
sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass 
Cleavage: Idaho fescue, low sagebrush 
Loncan: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, mountain 
big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy, sedge 

Ecological Site 

Quarz: 025XY009NV 
Cleavage: 025XY024NV 
Loncan: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY006NV 


1726"Quarz-Ninemile-Pequop association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Quarz very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Ninemile gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Pequop gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes—20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Shively loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes—5 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Quarz-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Pequop-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: plane; aspect: north 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Major Component Description 

Quarz Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 6,300 feet 

Precipitation: About 12 inches 

Air temperature: About 44 degrees 


Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Pequop Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Quarz: Antelope bitterbrush, basin wildrye, big 
sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass 
Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Pequop: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Quarz: 025XY009NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Pequop: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY010NV 


1730-Graley-Erakatak-Chen association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Graley very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Erakatak very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes— 
30 percent 

Chen very gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes—15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Argic Pachic Cryoborolls, clayey-skeletal, 
montmorillonitic gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Pachic Palexerolls, fine, montmorillonitic, 
frigid gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-5 
percent 



94 


Soil Survey of 


Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Graley-Landrorm: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Erakatak-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Chen--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 
shape of slope: convex 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: plane; aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Graley Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Erakatak Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Chen Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Graley: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Erakatak: Basin wildrye, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, snowberry 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, low sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Graley: 025XY012NV 
Erakatak: 025XY016NV 
Chen: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY017NV 


1732--Graley-Quarz-Ninemile association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Graley very stony loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Quarz very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes--30 
percent 

Ninemile very cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes— 

15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-8 percent 
Inclusion 2: Shively loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-4 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 15 to 
50 percent slopes-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Graley-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane; aspect: north 
Quarz--Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

summit; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 

Major Component Description 
Graley Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Quarz Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


95 


Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Graley: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Quarz: Antelope bitterbrush, basin wildrye, big 
sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass 
Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Graley: 025XY012NV 
Quarz: 025XY009NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY024NV 


1733-Graley-Loncan association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Graley very stony loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes--55 
percent 

Loncan very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes--30 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Quarz very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes-9 percent 

Inclusion 2: Ninemile gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Graley-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Loncan-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: south 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Major Component Description 
Graley Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Loncan Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Graley: Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, mountain 
big sagebrush 

Loncan: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, mountain 
big sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: None 

Ecological Site 

Graley: 025XY012NV 
Loncan: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 3: None 


1740--Erakatak-Cleavage-Hackwood 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Erakatak very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes— 
40 percent 

Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-30 percent 

Hackwood silt loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Sumine very gravelly loam, 50 to 75 
percent slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Hapgood very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Typic Argixerolls, clayey-skeletal, 

montmorillonitic, frigid very gravelly loam, 8 to 15 
percent slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 4: Crooked Creek gravelly silty clay loam, 0 
to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded—2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains and foothills 

Erakatak-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Cleavage-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: upper; shape of slope: 
convex 








96 


Soil Survey of 


Hackwood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: lower; 
aspect: south 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; shape of slope: plane; aspect: 
north 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Erakatak Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,400 to 7,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Extremely gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Hackwood Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Erakatak: Basin wildrye, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 

Hackwood: Mountain brome, quaking aspen, slender 
wheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, snowberry 
Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 

Ecological Site 

Erakatak: 025XY016NV 
Cleavage: 025XY024NV 
Hackwood: 025XY065NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY009NV 


Inclusion 2: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY006NV 


1741 -Erakatak-Chen-Tusk association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Erakatak very gravelly clay loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-40 percent 

Chen very gravelly sandy clay loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes--25 percent 

Tusk gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes--20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Lithic Argixerolls, clayey-skeletal, 

montmorillonitic, frigid very gravelly loam-6 percent 
Inclusion 2: Aridic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Erakatak-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: south 
Chen—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 
shape of slope: convex 

Tusk-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: backslope; 

shape of slope: plane; rspect: north 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Erakatak Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Chen Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 7,000 feet 

Precipitation: About 12 inches 

Air temperature: About 44 degrees 

Frost-free season: About 85 days 

Surface layer texture: Very gravelly sandy clay loam 

Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


97 


Tusk Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
mixed rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Erakatak: Basin wildrye, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Tusk: Cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush, 
rabbitbrush, snowberry 

Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 4: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 

Ecological Site 

Erakatak: 025XY016NV 
Chen: 025XY017NV 
Tusk: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY006NV 


1742—Erakatak-Rugar-Tusel association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Erakatak gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Rugar clay loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-25 percent 

Tusel very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes--20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Lithic Argixerolls, clayey-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam, 8 to 30 percent slopes-7 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Graley very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Tusel gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes—2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Typic Argixerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam—1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Erakatak-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Rugar—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: footslope; 
shape of slope: concave 


Tusel-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: backslope; 

shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect; south 
Inclusion 2-Landform; Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

shoulder; shape of slope: convex; aspect: north 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: lower part 

Major Component Description 
Erakatak Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost tree season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Rugar Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Tusel Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Erakatak: Basin wildrye, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
n jntain big sagebrush 

Rugar: Basin wildrye, mulesear wyethia, slender 
wheatgrass 

Tusel: Mountain brome, snowberry 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, serviceberry 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Erakatak: 025XY016NV 
Rugar: 025XY047NV 
Tusel: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY046NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY010NV 




98 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 4: 025XY027NV 


1744--Erakatak-Graley-Tusel association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Erakatak very gravelly clay loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes--35 percent 

Graley very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes—30 
percent 

Tusel very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes—20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Argixerolls, clayey-skeletal, 

montmorillonitic, frigid very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 
percent slopes-6 percent 
Inclusion 2: Lithic Argixerolls, clayey-skeletal, 

montmorillonitic, frigid very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 
percent slopes-4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Rugar loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Lithic Xerorthents, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Erakatak-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Graley-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope; plane 
Tusel-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: backslope; 

shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 2-Landform; Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 3—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope; position on slope: lower part; shape of 
slope: plane 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
shoulder 

Major Component Description 
Erakatak Series 

Elevation: 5,900 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Graley Series 

Elevation: 5,900 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 


Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Tusel Series 

Elevation: 5,900 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 8 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Erakatak: Basin wildrye, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Graley: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Tusel: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, slender 
wheatgrass, snowberry 

Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, serviceberry 
Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, wyethia 
Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, black sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Erakatak: 025XY016NV 
Graley: 025XY012NV 
Tusel: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY046NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY047NV 
Inclusion 4: 024XY042NV 


1746--Booford-Cotant-Blitzen association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Booford silt loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes—35 percent 

Cotant gravelly clay loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Blitzen gravelly clay loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Argixerolls, fine, montmorillonitic, 
frigid very gravelly loam-6 percent 

Inclusion 2: Tusel gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes—3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Lithic Argixerolls, clayey-skeletal, 

montmorillonitic, frigid very gravelly loam—3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Booford-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


99 


Cotant-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 

shape of slope: convex 
Blitzen-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper; aspect: north 
Inclusion 3—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 4—Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Booford Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Cotant Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Blitzen Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 13 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Booford: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush, 
wheatgrass 

Cotant: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Blitzen: Basin wildrye, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, serviceberry 
Inclusion 4: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Ecological Site 

Booford: 025XY012NV 
Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Blitzen: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY004NV 


Inclusion 2: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY046NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY003NV 


1800-Bregar, moderately steep-Bregar- 
Carstump association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bregar very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes—45 
percent 

Bregar very gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Carstump very cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop—5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Clementine silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Clementine silt loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes—1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Bregar—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Bregar-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Carstump-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: upper part; 
shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Bregar Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 13 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Bregar Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 3 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Carstump Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 




100 


Soil Survey of 


Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bregar: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Bregar: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Carstump; Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 3: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 

Ecological Site 

Bregar: 025XY018NV 
Bregar: 025XY018NV 
Carstump: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 


1802—Bregar-Ninemile-Pequop association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bregar very gravelly loam, eroded, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-40 percent 

Ninemile gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Pequop gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop--6 percent 

Inclusion 2: Quarz very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Tweener very cobbly loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes--2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Bregar-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 
aspect: south 

Ninemile-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
toeslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: north 

Pequop-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
toeslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: upper part; shape of 
slope: convex 

Inclusion 2--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 


Major Component Description 
Bregar Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 13 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Pequop Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bregar: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Pequop: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Bregar: 025XY051NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Pequop: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY007NV 


1803-Bregar-Sumine-Rock outcrop 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bregar very gravelly sandy loam, eroded, 1 5 to 50 
percent slopes—45 percent 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


101 


Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
25 percent 

Rock outcrop--15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Pernty very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes-10 percent 
Inclusion 2: Chen very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Bregar—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 

shape of slope: convex 
Sumine-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane; aspect: south 
Rock outcrop-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: upper; shape of slope: 
convex 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Major Component Description 
Bregar Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 13 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Sumine Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Rock outcrop Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,600 feet 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bregar: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Rock outcrop: None 

Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush 
Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Bregar: 025XY051NV 
Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 


Inclusion 2: 025XY017NV 


1805--Bregar-Deseed-Linkup association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bregar extremely cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes- 
-35 percent 

Deseed gravelly loam, 8 to 1 5 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Linkup very cobbly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Lithic Xerollic Haplargids, loamy, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes—7 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Xerollic Durargids, clayey, 

montmorillonitic, frigid, shallow gravelly loam, 4 to 
15 percent slopes—3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Ratsow loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Bregar-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Deseed-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: north 
Linkup-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper; shape of slope: 
convex 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Major Component Description 
Bregar Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 13 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Extremely cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Deseed Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 




102 


Soil Survey of 


Linkup Sf • 

Elevation: -,600 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bregar: Bluegrass, low sagebrush, rabbitbrush 
Deseed: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Linkup: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: None 

Inclusion 4: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Bregar: 025XY022NV 
Deseed: 025XY014NV 
Linkup: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: 025XY014NV 


1810—Shively-Ninemile-Hackwood 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Shively loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes--35 percent 

Ninemile very cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--30 
percent 

Hackwood silt loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop--10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Tusk loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes--3 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Pachic Cryoborolls, fine-loamy, mixed very 
gravelly loam-1 percent 

Inclusion 4: Rubble land fragmental material-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Shively-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Ninemile—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Hackwood-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: north 


Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Major Component Description 
Shively Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface rock fragments: 2 percent cobbles; 

Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Hackwood Series 

Elevation: 6,500 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
mixed rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Shively: Idaho fescue, basin wildrye, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, snowberry 

Ninemile: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Hackwood: Mountain brome, quaking aspen, slender 
wheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Mountain big sagebrush, snowberry 
Inclusion 3: Mountain brome, quaking aspen, slender 
wheatgrass 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Shively: 025XY010NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Hackwood: 025XY065NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY002NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


103 


1830-Vanwyper, steep-Alyan-Vanwyper 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Vanwyper gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes--50 
percent 

Alyan gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes--20 
percent 

Vanwyper gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Lithic Argixerolls, clayey-skeletal, 
montmorillonitic, mesic very gravelly loam-6 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Aridic Argixerolls, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Xerollic Haplargids, clayey-skeletal, 
montmorillonitic, mesic gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes—2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Vanwyper-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Alyan-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Vanwyper-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Major Component Description 
Vanwyper Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Alyan Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Vanwyper Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 


Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Vanwyper: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass 
Alyan: Bluegrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Vanwyper: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass 
Inclusion 1: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 3: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Vanwyper: 025XY019NV 
Alyan: 025XY014NV 
Vanwyper: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY015NV 


1831-Vanwyper, moderately steep-Trunk- 
Vanwyper association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Vanwyper cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Trunk gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Vanwyper cobbly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Lithic Haplargids, clayey-skeletal, 
montmorillonitic, mesic very gravelly loam-3 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Rubble land fragmental material-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Xerollic Haplargids, clayey-skeletal, 
montmorillonitic, mesic gravelly loam, 4 to 15 
percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Vanwyper-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Trunk—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Vanwyper-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 







104 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 4--Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Major Component Description 
Vanwyper Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Trunk Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Vanwyper Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Vanwyper: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass 
Trunk: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Vanwyper: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass 
Inclusion 1: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: None 

Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Vanwyper: 025XY019NV 
Trunk: 025XY019NV 
Vanwyper: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


1832-Vanwyper-Trunk-Trunk, steep 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Vanwyper very cobbly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-- 
35 percent 

Trunk cobbly clay loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--25 
percent 

Trunk cobbly clay loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes--25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop--6 percent 
Inclusion 2: Aridic Haploxerolls cobbly loam--3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Xerollic Camborthids cobbly loam--3 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Typic Durorthids cobbly loam--3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Vanwyper-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Trunk--Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Trunk-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2--Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4--Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Major Component Description 
Vanwyper Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Trunk Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Trunk Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


105 


Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Vanwyper: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Trunk: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Trunk: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye 
Inclusion 4: Cheatgrass, shadscale 

Ecological Site 

Vanwyper: 025XY015NV 
Trunk: 025XY019NV 
Trunk: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY031NV 
Inclusion 4: 024XY002NV 


1833-Vanwyper-Rock outcrop-Trunk 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Vanwyper very cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-- 
35 percent 

Rock outcrop--30 percent 

Trunk cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Aridic Haploxerolls cobbly loam--5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Xerollic Camborthids gravelly loam—5 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Rubble land fragmental material-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Vanwyper-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Rock outcrop—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Trunk-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 
Vanwyper Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Rock outcrop Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,400 feet 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Trunk Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Vanwyper: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 
Rock outcrop: None 

Trunk: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Bluegrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 
Inclusion 3: None 

Ecological Site 

Vanwyper: 025XY015NV 
Trunk: 025XY019NV 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 3: None 


1852-GumbIe-Tuffo-Hunnton association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Gumble fine sandy loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Tuffo fine sandy loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Hunnton silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-25 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Xeric Torriorthents, loamy, mixed, nonacid, 
mesic, shallow gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 2: Gumble very gravelly sandy loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 

Gumble-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Tuffo-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants 




106 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position, backslope; aspect: south 

Major Component Description 
Gamble Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Tuffo Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Somewhat excessively drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Gumble: Thurber needlegrass, Wyoming big sagebrush, 
bluebunch wheatgrass 

Tuffo: Thurber needlegrass, Wyoming big sagebrush, 
bluebunch wheatgrass 

Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Indian ricegrass, Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Gumble: 025XY019NV 
Tuffo: 025XY019NV 
Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY015NV 


1853—Gumble-Tuffo-Rock outcrop 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Gumble very gravelly sandy loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes--50 percent 


Tuffo gravelly sandy loam, 30 to 50 percent slopeS”25 
percent 

Rock outcrop--15 percent 
Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Hunnton silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes--5 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Durargidic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, 
mesic gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Tuffo fine sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Gumble-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Tuffo-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Rock outcrop-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: footslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder; aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Gumble Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Tuffo Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly sandy loam 
Drainage class: Somewhat excessively drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Rock outcrop Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Gumble: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, cheatgrass 

Tuffo: Thurber needlegrass, Wyoming big sagebrush, 
bluebunch wheatgrass 
Rock outcrop: None 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 



Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada—Part I 


107 


Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Gumble: 025XY015NV 
Tuffo: 025XY015NV 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


1854-Gumble-Chen association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Gumble very gravelly sandy loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-45 percent 

Chen very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Quarz very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-6 percent 

Inclusion 2: Wieland very gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Xerollic Camborthids, coarse-loamy, mixed, 
frigid gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-1 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Gumble-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Chen-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Major Component Description 
Gumble Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Chen Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 


Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Gumble: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye 
Inclusion 4: Indian ricegrass, big sagebrush, 
needleandthread, rabbitbrush 

Ecological Site 

Gumble: 025XY015NV 
Chen: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 024XY017NV 


1855--Gumble-Puett variant-Xeric 
Torriorthents association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Gumble gravelly sandy loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
55 percent 

Puett Variant gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
15 percent 

Xeric Torriorthents gravelly fine sandy loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes—15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Vanwyper gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes—10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Typic Haplargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes— 
4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Xeric Torriorthents, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
nonacid, mesic gravelly loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes 
— 1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Gumble-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Puett Variant-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: convex 

Xeric Torriorthents-Landform: Hills; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 







108 


Soil Survey of 


Major Component Description 
Gumbie Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Puett Variant Variant 

Elevation: 4,500 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Xeric Torriorthents Soils 

Elevation: 4,500 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface rock fragments: 3 percent cobbles; 40 percent 
gravel 

Surface layer texture: Gravelly fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Gumbie: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass 
Puett Variant: Cheatgrass, shadscale 
Xeric Torriorthents: Wyoming big sagebrush, 
cheatgrass, shadscale 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Bottlebrush squirreltail, rabbitbrush, 
shadscale 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Gumbie: 025XY015NV 
Puett Variant: 024XY002NV 
Xeric Torriorthents: 024XY020NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 024XY025NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


1870—Chen-Graley-Quarz association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chen very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes-40 
percent 


Graley very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes--30 
percent 

Quarz very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes--15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Arcia silty clay loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes-8 percent 

Inclusion 2: Graley very stony loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop--l percent 
Inclusion 4: Hapgood very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 
percent slopes-l percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Chen--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 

shape of slope: convex 
Graley-'Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: north 
Quarz--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 1--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 3--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 4--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Chen Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Graley Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Quarz Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


109 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Graley: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Quarz: Antelope bitterbrush, basin wildrye, big 
sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2; Antelope bitterbrush, mountain big 
sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: None 

Inclusion 4: Mountain brome, snowberry 

Ecological Site 

Chen: 025XY017NV 
Graley: 025XY012NV 
Quarz: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
inclusion 2: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: 025XY004NV 


1871 -Chen-Cotant-Graley association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chen very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--40 
percent 

Cotant very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--35 
percent 

Graley very gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes--15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Mclvey gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded--3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop—2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Chen-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 
shape of slope: convex 

Cotant-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: shoulder 
Graley-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position; 
summit 

Major Component Description 
Chen Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Cotant Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Graley Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Cotant: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Graley: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Rush, sedge, willow 
Inclusion 3: None 

Ecological Site 

Chen: 025XY017NV 
Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Graley: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 3: None 


1872--Chen-Sumine-Tusel association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chen very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes--40 
percent 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
30 percent 

Tusel very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes--15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-6 percent 

Inclusion 2: Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 15 to 
50 percent slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Argic Pachic Cryoborolls, fine, 

montmorillonitic gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes-2 percent 





110 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 4. Tusel gravelly loam, 30 to 75 percent 
slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Chen-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Tusel-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 3--Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: footslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 4--Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Chen Series 

Elevation: 6,100 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,100 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Tusel Series 

Elevation: 6,100 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Tusel: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, slender 
wheatgrass, snowberry 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: Low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Mountain brome, snowberry 


Inclusion 4: Mountain big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Chen: 025XY017NV 
Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Tusel: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY010NV 


1874--Chen-Quarz-Arcia association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chen very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes--35 
percent 

Quarz gravelly clay loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes--30 
percent 

Arcia silt loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes--20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 15 to 
50 percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Bregar extremely gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 
percent slopes--4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop--3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Tusk gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes--3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 

Chen—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Quarz-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Arcia-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: shoulder 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: upper; shape 
of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Chen Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Quarz Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


111 


Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Arcia Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Quarz: Antelope bitterbrush, basin wildrye, big 
sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass 
Arcia: Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, mountain 
big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: None 

Inclusion 4: Mountain brome, snowberry 

Ecological Site 

Chen: 025XY017NV 
Quarz: 025XY009NV 
Arcia: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY022NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: 025XY004NV 


1875-Chen-Bregar-Ramires association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chen very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--50 
percent 

Bregar extremely gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes- 
-20 percent 

Ramires clay loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Ninemile very cobbly loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes-7 percent 

Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Alyan gravelly clay loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 4: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes, frequently flooded-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Chen-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 

Bregar-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: shoulder 


Ramires-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

toeslope; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
shoulder 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

shoulder; aspect: north 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Chen Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Bregar Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 13 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Extremely gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Ramires Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Bregar: Bluegrass, low sagebrush, rabbitbrush 
Ramires: Basin wildrye, big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: Low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: None 

Inclusion 3: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Rush, sedge 

Ecological Site 

Chen: 025XY017NV 
Bregar: 025XY022NV 
Ramires: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY005NV 






112 


Soil Survey of 


1876--Chen-Chen, steep-Arcia association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chen very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--55 
percent 

Chen very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Arcia silt loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes--15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Bregar extremely gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 
percent slopes—5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop-3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, frequently flooded-1 percent 
Inclusion 4: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, drained, 0 
to 2 percent slopes, rarely flooded-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Chen-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 
shape of slope: convex 

Chen-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: backslope; 
shape of slope: convex 

Arcia-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: backslope 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Chen Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Chen Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Arcia Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Chen: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Arcia: Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, mountain 
big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: Rush, sedge, willow 
Inclusion 4: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye 

Ecological Site 

Chen: 025XY017NV 
Chen: 025XY017NV 
Arcia: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY022NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY003NV 


1877--Chen-Bregar-Loncan association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chen very cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-45 
percent 

Bregar very gravelly sandy loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-25 percent 

Loncan very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes—15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-9 percent 
Inclusion 2: Fluvaquentic Haploxerolls, fine-loamy, 
mixed, frigid silt loam-3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 8 to 1 5 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Chen-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: backslope; 
shape of slope: convex 

Bregar-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Loncan-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Major Component Description 
Chen Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


113 


Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Bregar Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 13 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Loncan Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Bregar: Bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Loncan: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, mountain 
big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 
Inclusion 3: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Chen: 025XY017NV 
Bregar: 025XY051NV 
Loncan: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY024NV 


1880”Chen-Blitzen-Pequop association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chen very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Blitzen very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Pequop gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes--25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop—2 percent 

Inclusion 2: Chen very gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent 
slopes-2 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 


Chen-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: upper; shape of slope: 
convex 

Blitzen-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Pequop-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Chen Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Blitzen Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 13 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Pequop Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Blitzen: Basin wildrye, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Pequop: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Ecological Site 

Chen: 025XY017NV 
Blitzen: 025XY009NV 
Pequop: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY017NV 





114 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion J: 026XY003NV 


1881 --Chen-Blitzen-Loncan association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chen very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes—35 
percent 

Blitzen gravelly clay loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes—30 
percent 

Loncan very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes—25 
percent 

Contrasting inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Shively loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-1 percent 
Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains and foothills 
Chen-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: upper; shape of slope: 
convex 

Blitzen—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Loncan—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 

position: backslope; position on slope: upper; shape 
of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Chen Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Blitzen Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 13 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 


Loncan Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chen: Low sagebrush 

Blitzen: Basin wildrye, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Loncan: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, mountain 
big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 4: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 

Ecological Site 

Chen: 025XY017NV 
Blitzen: 025XY009NV 
Loncan: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY006NV 


1888—Chen-Pie Creek-Alyan association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chen cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-40 percent 

Pie Creek very cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes- 
25 percent 

Alyan gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Aridic Calcic Argixerolls, fine, 

montmorillonitic, frigid gravelly loam-7 percent 

Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, frequently flooded-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Chen-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 

Pie Creek—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
toeslope 

Alyan—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 



Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


115 


Inclusion 2--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 3--Landfornn: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4—Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Chen Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Pie Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Alyan Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Pie Creek: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Alyan: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: None 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 4: Rush, sedge, tufted hairgrass, willow 

Ecological Site 

Chen: 025XY017NV 
Pie Creek: 025XY018NV 
Alyan: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY005NV 


1889--Chen-Sumine association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chen very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-60 
percent 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-- 
25 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Arcia silty clay loam, 1 5 to 50 percent 
slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Pachic Haploxerolls very gravelly loam, 15 
to 50 percent slopes-4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop—3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Cleavage extremely gravelly loam—3 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Chen-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 4—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: upper part 

Major Component Description 
Chen Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Sumine Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 7,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Bluebunch wheatgrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 





116 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 2: Basin wildrye, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: None 

Inclusion 4: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Chen: 025XY017NV 
Sumine: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY029NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: 025XY024NV 


1910--Mahala-Ramires association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Mahala silt loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-55 percent 
Ramires clay loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--30 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Aridic Durixerolls, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic gravelly loam--5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Xerollic Durargids, clayey, 

montmorillonitic, mesic, shallow gravelly loam, 2 to 
8 percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Mahala-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 
shape of slope: concave 

Ramires—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit; 
shape of slope: convex 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 
Mahala Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Ramires Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Mahala: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Ramires: Basin wildrye, big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
wheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: None 

Ecological Site 

Mahala: 025XY018NV 
Ramires: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 3: None 


1920"Lerrow-Chen-Cotant association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Lerrow cobbly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes—40 
percent 

Chen very cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes—30 
percent 

Cotant cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Sumine very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Typic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-4 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Tweener very cobbly sandy loam, 4 to 15 
percent slopes-4 percent 
Inclusion 4: Rock outcrop-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Lerrow-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: south 
Chen—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: backslope; 

position on slope: upper; shape of slope: convex 
Cotant-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: lower; shape of slope: 
convex 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 
Lerrow Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


117 


Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Chen Series 

Elevation: 6,400 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Cotant Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Lerrow: Basin wildrye, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Chen: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Cotant: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Bluebunch wheatgrass, cheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue 
Inclusion 3: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Lerrow: 025XY009NV 
Chen: 025XY017NV 
Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY007NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


1921 "Lerrow-Quarz-Rugar association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Lerrow gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes--35 
percent 

Quarz very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Rugar loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes--20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Chen very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-10 percent 


Inclusion 2: Aridic Argixerolls, fine, montmorillonitic, 
frigid gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes—2 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Reluctan gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes—2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Crooked Creek gravelly silty clay loam, 0 
to 2 percent slopes—1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Lerrow-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Quarz-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Rugar-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: footslope; 
aspect: north 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Lerrow Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Quarz Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface rock fragments: 5 percent cobbles; 50 percent 
gravel 

Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from sedimentary rocks 

Rugar Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 16 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Lerrow: Idaho fescue, Nevada bluegrass, big 
sagebrush, cheatgrass 



118 


Soil Survey of 


Quarz; Antelor“= bitterbrush, basin wildrye, big 
sagebrush, wheatgrass 

Rugar; Basin wildrye, bottlebrush squirreltail, mulesear 
wyethia, slender wheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue 

Inclusion 3: Bluebunch wheatgrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 4: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 

Ecological Site 

Lerrow: 025XY027NV 
Quarz: 025XY009NV 
Rugar: 025XY047NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY006NV 


1931 —Tweener-Cleavage-Reluctan 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Tweener very cobbly sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-45 percent 

Cleavage very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-- 
25 percent 

Reluctan cobbly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded--3 percent 
Inclusion 2: Gumble very gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 50 
percent slopes—2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Tweener-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Cleavage-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Reluctan—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Major Component Description 
Tweener Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 


Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Reluctan Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Tweener: Antelope bitterbrush, bluegrass, cheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 

Reluctan: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, mountain 
big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Tweener: 025XY007NV 
Cleavage: 025XY017NV 
Reluctan: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY015NV 


1932--Tweener-Sumine-Cleavage association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Tweener very gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes-30 percent 

Sumine very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes— 
30 percent 

Cleavage very gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes- 
25 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Hapgood very gravelly loam, 30 to 75 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Tusel gravelly loam, 50 to 75 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded—3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded—2 percent 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


119 


Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains and foothills 
Tweener-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Sumine-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Cleavage-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 3--Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4--Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Tweener Series 

Elevation: 6,300 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Sumine Series 

Elevation: 6,300 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,300 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Tweener: Antelope bitterbrush, bluegrass, cheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 

Sumine: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, snowberry 
Inclusion 2: Mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye 
Inclusion 4: Nevada bluegrass 

Ecological Site 

Tweener: 025XY007NV 
Sumine: 025XY009NV 


Cleavage: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY006NV 


1933--Tweener-Pequop-Cleavage association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Tweener very cobbly sandy loam, 1 5 to 30 percent 
slopes—55 percent 

Pequop gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes—15 
percent 

Cleavage very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes- 
1 5 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Gumble very gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 50 
percent slopes-7 percent 

Inclusion 2: Typic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-6 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Bregar very gravelly sandy loam, 4 to 15 
percent slopes-1 percent 

Inclusion 4: Rock outcrop-1 percent 


Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Tweener-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: convex 

Pequop-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Cleavage-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit; shape of slope: convex 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 


Major Component Description 
Tweener Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Pequop Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 






120 


Soil Survey of 


Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Tweener: Antelope bitterbrush, bluegrass, cheatgrass, 
mountain big sagebrush 
Pequop: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 

Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Low sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Tweener: 025XY007NV 
Pequop: 025XY012NV 
Cleavage: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY051NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


1950--Mclvey-Mclvey, very cobbly-Tusel 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Mclvey gravelly silt loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Mclvey very cobbly silt loam, 1 5 to 50 percent slopes- 
35 percent 

Tusel very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Entic Cryumbrepts, loamy-skeletal, mixed 
very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-10 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Typic Argixerolls, clayey-skeletal, 

montmorillonitic, frigid very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Aridic Argixerolls, clayey-skeletal, 
montmorillonitic, frigid gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 
percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 


Mclvey-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Mclvey-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Tusel-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: backslope; 
shape of slope: concave 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 
Mclvey Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 15 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
quartzite 

Mclvey Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 15 inches 
Air temperature: About 43 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Colluvium derived from 
quartzite 

Tusel Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 7,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 18 inches 
Air temperature: About 42 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 60 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from quartzite 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Mclvey: Idaho fescue, big sagebrush, mountain brome, 
snowberry 

Mclvey: Idaho fescue, big sagebrush, mountain brome, 
snowberry 

Tusel: Idaho fescue, mountain brome, slender 
wheatgrass, snowberry 

Inclusion 1: Letterman needlegrass, quaking aspen 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Mclvey: 025XY004NV 
Mclvey: 025XY004NV 
Tusel: 025XY004NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY002NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY009NV 


1 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


121 


Inclusion 3: 025XY007NV 


1980-Thwoop-Trunk-Pequop association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Thwoop gravelly silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes--40 
percent 

Trunk gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes--25 
percent 

Pequop gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop—7 percent 
Inclusion 2: Chen very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3; Bregar very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Thwoop-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex; aspect: south 
Trunk-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

footslope; position on slope: lower; aspect: south 
Pequop-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: shoulder; aspect: south 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Thwoop Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Trunk Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Pequop Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 6,000 feet 


Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Thwoop: Thurber needlegrass, basin wildrye, big 
sagebrush, bluegrass 

Trunk: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, cheatgrass 
Pequop: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Low sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Basin big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Thwoop: 025XY014NV 
Trunk: 025XY019NV 
Pequop: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY003NV 


2000-Alyan-Cotant-Akler association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Alyan cobbly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-40 
percent 

Cotant cobbly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Akier loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Pattani clay, 8 to 15 percent slopes—10 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-1 percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Alyan-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: north 

Cotant-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Akler-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: toeslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 




122 


Soil Survey of 


Major Component Description 
Alyan Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Cotant Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Akier Series 

Elevation: 6,200 to 6,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Alyan: Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, mountain 
big sagebrush 

Cotant: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Akier: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Basin wildrye, big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 2: None 

Inclusion 3: Rush, sedge, willow 

Inclusion 4: Basin big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Alyan: 025XY012NV 
Cotant: 025XY017NV 
Akier: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY013NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY003NV 


2001--Alyan, steep-Bregar-Alyan association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Alyan gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Bregar very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-30 
percent 


Alyan gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes—20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rubble land fragmental material-7 percent 
Inclusion 2: Shively loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-4 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Cleavage extremely gravelly loam, 4 to 15 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded—1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Alyan-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave 
Bregar-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Alyan-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Alyan Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Bregar Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,550 feet 
Precipitation: About 13 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Alyan Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Alyan: Bluebunch wheatgrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


123 


Bregar: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Alyan: Bluebunch wheatgrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Basin big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 
Alyan; 025XY014NV 
Bregar: 025XY018NV 
Alyan: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY010NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY024NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY003NV 


2002--Alyan, moderately steep-Alyan-Quarz 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Alyan gravelly clay loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes—35 
percent 

Alyan gravelly clay loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Quarz very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Ninemile gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-8 percent 

Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Reluctan gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Lithic Xerollic Haplargids, loamy-skeletal, 
mixed, frigid very gravelly loam—1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Alyan-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Alyan-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper; aspect: north 
Quarz-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Major Component Description 
Alyan Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 


Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Alyan Series 

Elevation: 5,800 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly clay loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Quarz Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Alyan: Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, mountain 
big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 

Alyan: Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, mountain 
big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 
Quarz: Antelope bitterbrush, basin wildrye, big 
sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 3: Bluebunch wheatgrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 4: Big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Alyan: 025XY027NV 
Alyan: 025XY027NV 
Quarz: 025XY009NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY015NV 


2003—Alyan-Deepeek-Susie Creek association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Alyan very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Deepeek very cobbly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Susie Creek very fine sandy loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-25 percent 







124 


Soil Survey of 


Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Bartome very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Bilbo very gravelly very fine sandy loam, 
15 to 30 percent slopes--5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Haploxerollic Durargids, loamy-skeletal, 
mixed, mesic gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopeS”3 percent 

Inclusion 4; Rock outcrop-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Alyan-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper part 
Deepeek-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Susie Creek-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

shoulder; aspect: south 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills 

Major Component Description 
Alyan Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Deepeek Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Susie Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 90 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Alyan: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 


Deepeek: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Susie Creek: Basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, bluegrass, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, cheatgrass, 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 3: Big sagebrush, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Alyan: 025XY014NV 
Deepeek: 025XY019NV 
Susie Creek: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


2004”Alyan, cobbly loam-Ninemile-Alyan 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Alyan cobbly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Ninemile gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Alyan gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Lithic Haploxerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam-7 percent 
Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-1 percent 
Inclusion 3: Welch silt loam, drained, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded—1 percent 
Inclusion 4: Rock outcrop-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Alyan-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Ninemile-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Alyan-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit; aspect: north 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: shoulder 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainagev\/ays 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains 

Major Component Description 
Alyan Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly loam 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


125 


Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Ninemile Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Alyan Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Alyan: Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass 
Ninemile: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Alyan: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Rush, sedge, willow 
Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Alyan: 025XY012NV 
Ninemile: 025XY017NV 
Alyan: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY005NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


2005-Alyan-Graley-Rock outcrop association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Alyan gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes—50 
percent 

Graley very stony loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Rock outcrop-15 percent 


Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Puett gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Welch silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, rarely flooded-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Alyan-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 

summit; position on slope: upper part 
Graley-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Rock outcrop-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Alyan Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Graley Series 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
quartzite 

Rock outcrop Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 6,000 to 7,500 feet 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Alyan: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 

Graley: Idaho fescue, antelope bitterbrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, mountain big sagebrush 
Rock outcrop: None 

Inclusion 1: Indian ricegrass, Wyoming big sagebrush, 
cheatgrass, rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Ecological Site 

Alyan: 025XY014NV 
Graley: 025XY012NV 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: 025XY025NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY003NV 





126 


Soil Survey of 


2171 -Deseed-Reluctan-Cleavage association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Deseed gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes--45 
percent 

Reluctan gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes--25 
percent 

Cleavage very gravelly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes—15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Chen very cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-6 percent 

Inclusion 2: Carstump gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Rubble land fragmental material-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Mountains 
Deseed-Landform; Mountains; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Reluctan-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
shoulder 

Cleavage-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: shoulder 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position; backslope; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 3-Landform; Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Mountains; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Major Component Description 
Deseed Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 7,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Reluctan Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 7,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Cleavage Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 7,100 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 


Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Deseed: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Reluctan: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, mountain 
big sagebrush, rabbitbrush 
Cleavage: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Deseed: 025XY014NV 
Reluctan: 025XY012NV 
Cleavage; 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: None 


2173-Deseed-Quarz association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Deseed gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-55 
percent 

Quarz very cobbly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-7 percent 

Inclusion 2: Xerollic Haplargids, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
frigid gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Rubble land fragmental material-2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Reluctan gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Deseed-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Quarz-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform; Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 4—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: northeast 

Major Component Description 

Deseed Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 6,300 feet 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


127 


Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Quarz Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 1 2 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Deseed: Big sagebrush, bluegrass 
Quarz: Big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: None 

Inclusion 4: Bluebunch wheatgrass, mountain big 
sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Deseed: 025XY014NV 
Quarz: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: 025XY012NV 


2205—Coltroop-Snowmore association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Coltroop very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-- 
50 percent 

Snowmore very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes 
--35 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Linkup gravelly clay loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Olac cobbly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-4 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes—3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Clurde Variant very gravelly sandy loam, 0 
to 7 percent slopes-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 

Coltroop—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Snowmore—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
shoulder 


Inclusion 1-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
shoulder 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
toeslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Coltroop Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Snowmore Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Coltroop: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Snowmore: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Coltroop: 025XY019NV 
Snowmore: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


2206—Coltroop-Vanwyper association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Coltroop cobbly very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes-55 percent 

Vanwyper very stony loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes—30 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Chiara cobbly silt loam, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes-5 percent 



128 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 

Coltroop-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Vanwyper-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
toeslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 
Coltroop Variant 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Vanwyper Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Coltroop: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Vanwyper: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 3: None 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Coltroop: 025XY019NV 
Vanwyper: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: None 


2310—Bulake-Deunah-Bulake, very cobbly 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bulake gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-45 percent 


Deunah loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes-20 percent 
Bulake very cobbly very fine sanuy loam, 2 to 8 
percent slopes-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Hatpeak stony loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes—7 percent 

Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop—4 percent 
Inclusion 3: Rubble land fragmental material—2 percent 
Inclusion 4: Durargidic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, 
frigid gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Bulake-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position; 
backslope 

Deunah-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Bulake-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: toeslope 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 
Bulake Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Deunah Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Bulake Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 

Surface layer texture: Very cobbly very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bulake: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


129 


Deunah: Idaho fescue, alkali sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Bulake: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: None 

Inclusion 4: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Bulake: 025XY017NV 
Deunah: 025XY017NV 
Bulake: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: 025XY027NV 


2311--Bulake-Hatpeak-Petan association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bulake very cobbly very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 
percent slopes--55 percent 
Hatpeak loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-15 percent 
Petan very stony loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Mclvey cobbly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Cumulic Haplaquolls, loamy-skeletal, 
mixed, frigid silt loam-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Bilbo very gravelly very fine sandy loam, 

30 to 50 percent slopes—3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Gumble very gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 50 
percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 
Bulake-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: plane 
Hatpeak-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Petan—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 1—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: south 

Major Component Description 
Bulake Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,700 feet 

Precipitation: About 14 inches 

Air temperature: About 44 degrees 

Frost-free season: About 85 days 

Surface layer texture: Very cobbly very fine sandy loam 


Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Hatpeak Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Petan Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bulake: Idaho fescue, bluegrass, low sagebrush 
Hatpeak: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Petan: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Nevada bluegrass, alpine timothy 
Inclusion 3: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 4: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Bulake: 025XY017NV 
Hatpeak: 025XY027NV 
Petan: 025XY022NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY006NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY015NV 


2505--Buffaran-Zevadez association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Buffaran very fine sandy loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes- 
50 percent 

Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes- 
35 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Haploxerollic Durargids, fine, 

montmorillonitic, mesic gravelly loam, 0 to 4 
percent slopes-6 percent 





130 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 2: Xerollic Camborthids, loamy-skeletal, 

mixed, mesic gravelly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Puett gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes-2 percent 

Inclusion 4: Xerollic Haplargids, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
mesic gravelly loam-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Buffaran-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope 

Zevadez-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder 
Inclusion 2—Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 

Major Component Description 
Buffaran Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Zevadez Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Buffaran: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Zevadez: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Indian ricegrass, Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Big sagebrush, cheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Buffaran: 025XY019NV 
Zevadez: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY025NV 


Inclusion 4: 025XY015NV 


2511"Bilbo-Alley-Deepeek association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bilbo extremely stony sandy loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-35 percent 

Alley very stony loam, 50 to 70 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Deepeek very cobbly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes- 
25 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Rubble land fragmental material-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Durixerollic Haplargids, clayey-skeletal, 
montmorillonitic, mesic very cobbly loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes-4 percent 
Inclusion 4: Puett gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 
Bilbo-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: lower part 
Alley-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper part 
Deepeek-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
toeslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Canyons; geomorphic position: 
shoulder 

Major Component Description 

Bilbo Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,600 feet 

Precipitation: About 10 inches 

Air temperature: About 47 degrees 

Frost-free season: About 110 days 

Surface layer texture: Extremely stony sandy loam 

Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Alley Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


131 


Deepeek Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bilbo: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Alley: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Deepeek: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: None 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 4: Indian ricegrass, Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Bilbo: 025XY015NV 
Alley: 025XY019NV 
Deepeek: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY025NV 


2514-Bilbo-Susie Creek-Buffaran association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bilbo very gravelly very fine sandy loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes--35 percent 

Susie Creek very fine sandy loam, 4 to 15 percent 
siopes-30 percent 

Buffaran very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes-- 
20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Alyan very gravelly very fine sandy loam, 
15 to 50 percent slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Ramires silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes- 
5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Zevadez gravelly loam, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes--4 percent 

Inclusion 4: Puett gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes--1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 

Bilbo—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Susie Creek--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: north 

Buffaran-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 


Inclusion 1--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 2--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: plane 
Inclusion 3--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: 
south 

Major Component Description 

Bilbo Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly very fine sandy 
loam 

Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Susie Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 90 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Buffaran Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bilbo: Bluebunch wheatgrass, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Susie Creek: Basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, bluegrass, rabbitbrush 
Buffaran: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 4: Indian ricegrass, Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Bilbo: 025XY015NV 
Susie Creek: 025XY014NV 
Buffaran: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 







132 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY025NV 


2521-Dewar-Chiara-Chiara, very cobbly 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Dewar very cobbly very fine sandy loam, 8 to 15 
percent slopes--55 percent 

Chiara very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--15 
percent 

Chiara very cobbly very fine sandy loam, 4 to 8 
percent slopes-15 percent 
Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Coltroop cobbly very fine sandy loam, 0 to 
2 percent slopes-7 percent 
Inclusion 2: Xerollic Durargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic gravelly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes--6 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop--2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Dewar--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper part 
Chiara—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: lower; shape of slope: 
concave 

Chiara--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position; 
footslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope 
Inclusion 3--Landform: Hills 

Major Component Description 
Dewar Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 

Precipitation: About 9 inches 

Air temperature: About 47 degrees 

Frost-free season: About 110 days 

Surface layer texture: Very cobbly very fine sandy loam 

Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 


Precipitation: About 9 inches 

Air temperature: About 47 degrees 

Frost-free season: About 105 days 

Surface layer texture: Very cobbly very fine sandy loam 

Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Dewar: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 
Inclusion 3: None 

Ecoiogicai Site 
Dewar: 025XY019NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: None 


2522--Dewar-Sodhouse association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Dewar very cobbly very fine sandy loam, 4 to 8 
percent slopes-55 percent 
Sodhouse cobbly silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--30 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Dacker very cobbly sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Relley silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
frequently flooded-3 percent 
Inclusion 4; Rock outcrop--2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Dewar—Landform; Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Sodhouse-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 2—Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 4—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


133 


Major Component Description 
Dewar Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,300 feet 

Precipitation: About 9 inches 

Air temperature: About 47 degrees 

Frost-free season: About 110 days 

Surface layer texture: Very cobbly very fine sandy loam 

Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Sodhouse Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 8 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Dewar: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Sodhouse: Bottlebrush squirreltail, winterfat, winterfat 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Indian ricegrass, shadscale 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Dewar: 023XY006NV 
Sodhouse: 024XY059NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 024XY012NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


2531"Clurde Variant-Clurde-Rock outcrop 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Clurde Variant loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded—50 percent 

Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Rock outcrop—15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Xerollic Haplargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic gravelly loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes—7 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Durixerollic Camborthids, sandy-skeletal, 
mixed, mesic fine sandy loam, 0 to 4 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Durixerollic Camborthids, coarse-loamy, 
mixed, mesic fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes-3 percent 


Inclusion 4: Wieland loam, 0 2 percent slopes-2 

percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Clurde Variant-Landform: Inset fans 
Clurde-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
toeslope 

Rock outcrop-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope 

Major Component Description 
Clurde Variant 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Clurde Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Rock outcrop Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Clurde Variant: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Clurde: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Rock outcrop: None 

Inclusion 1: Bluebunch wheatgrass, bluegrass 
Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Clurde Variant: 025XY019NV 
Clurde: 025XY019NV 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: 025XY050NV 





134 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3; 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


2541--Kelk very fine sandy loam, occasionally 
flooded, 0 to 2 percent slopes 

Composition 

Major Components 

Kelk very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
occasionally flooded--85 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Clementine silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 
percent slopes--8 percent 
Inclusion 2: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes—7 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Kelk-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 

Kelk Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Kelk: Thurber needlegrass, Wyoming big sagebrush, 
basin big sagebrush 

Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
bluegrass 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Kelk: 024XY006NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 


2545--Kelk-Clurde association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Kelk very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-60 
percent 

Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes—25 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Durixerollic Camborthids, coarse-loamy, 
mixed, mesic fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes—5 percent 


Inclusion 2: Durixerollic Camborthids, fine-loamy over 
sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic fine sandy 
loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Kelk very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, occasionally flooded-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Kelk-Landform: Inset fans 
Clurde-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 

Kelk Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Clurde Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Kelk: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass, rabbitbrush 

Clurde: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
rabbitbrush 

Ecological Site 

Kelk: 025XY019NV 
Clurde: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 024XY006NV 


2555-Piline silty clay loam 

Composition 

Major Components 

Piline silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-85 percent 



Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


135 


Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1; McCleary silt loam, occasionally flooded-- 
10 percent 

Inclusion 2: McCleary cobbly sandy loam, rarely 
flooded-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Bolsons 
Piline-Landform: Lake plains 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Lake plains; shape of slope: 
concave 

Inclusion 2--Landform: Alluvial fans; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 

Major Component Description 
Piline Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam 
Drainage class: Poorly drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Piline: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, mat muhly 
Inclusion 1: Mat muhly, povertyweed 
Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Piline: 025XY049NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY048NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 


2560-McCleary silt loam, occasionally 
flooded 

Composition 

Major Components 

McCleary silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally 
flooded-85 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: McCleary very fine sandy loam, overwash, 
rarely flooded--10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Piline silty clay loam, frequently flooded-3 
percent 

Inclusion 3: McCleary cobbly silt loam, rarely flooded-- 
2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Bolsons 

McCleary-Landform: Lake plains; shape of slope: 
concave 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Lake plains; shape of slope: 
convex 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Lake plains; position on slope: 
lower part; shape of slope: concave 


Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 

Major Component Description 
McCleary Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Very poorly drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

McCleary: Silver sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Bluegrass, mat muhly, povertyweed 
Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

McCleary: 025XY048NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY049NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2561-McCleary cobbly silt loam, drained, 
rarely flooded 

Composition 

Major Components 

McCleary cobbly silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, rarely 
flooded-85 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: McCleary silt loam, occasionally flooded- 
10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Chiara very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
McCleary-Landform: Fan skirts 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Lake plains; shape of slope: 
convex 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 

Major Component Description 
McCleary Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly silt loam 
Drainage class: Very poorly drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 



136 


Soil Survey of 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

McCleary: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 1: Mat muhly, povertyweed 
Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 
McCleary: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY048NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 


2571--Chiara-Chiara, cobbly-Chiara, very 
cobbly association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chiara very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes--40 
percent 

Chiara cobbly silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--30 
percent 

Chiara very cobbly very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes-15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Shalake very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Xerollic Haplargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic gravelly loam--5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Coltroop cobbly very fine sandy loam, 0 to 
2 percent slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Chiara-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper part 
Chiara-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: concave 
Chiara-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

footslope; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position; summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Major Component Description 
Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 


Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 

Precipitation: About 9 inches 

Air temperature: About 47 degrees 

Frost-free season: About 105 days 

Surface layer texture: Very cobbly very fine sandy loam 

Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2572-Chiara-Chiara, moderately eroded 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chiara very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes—70 
percent 

Chiara silt loam, moderately eroded, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes-15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Shalake very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-6 percent 

Inclusion 2: Durixerollic Camborthids, fine-loamy over 
sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic fine sandy 
loam-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Dacker very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Xerollic Haplargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic gravelly loam—2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


137 


Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Chiara--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Chiara-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 4—Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Bluebunch wheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY050NV 


2573--Chiara, very cobbly-Chiara association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chiara very cobbly very fine sandy loam, 4 to 15 
percent slopes--45 percent 


Chiara cobbly silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--40 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Shalake very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Xerollic Haplargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic extremely cobbly loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes 
-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Coltroop cobbly very fine sandy loam, 2 to 
8 percent slopes--3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Rock outcrop--2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Chiara--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Chiara--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Major Component Description 
Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 5,600 feet 

Precipitation: About 9 inches 

Air temperature: About 47 degrees 

Frost-free season: About 105 days 

Surface layer texture: Very cobbly very fine sandy loam 

Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Bluebunch wheatgrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 
Inclusion 4: None 



138 


Soil Survey of 


Ecological Site 

Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY050NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


2575-Chiara-Dacker-Shalake association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chiara very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes—40 
percent 

□acker very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes—25 
percent 

Shalake very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes- 
20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes~10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Durixerollic Camborthids, fine-loamy over 
sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic fine sandy 
loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Xerollic Haplargids, fine, montmorillontic, 
mesic extremely cobbly loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes 
-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Chiara-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Dacker-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Shalake—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 2—Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope 

Major Component Description 
Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

□acker Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Shalake Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
□acker: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Shalake: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Bluebunch wheatgrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Chiara: 025XY019NV 
□acker: 025XY019NV 
Shalake: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY050NV 


2577-Chiara-Orovada association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Chiara very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-50 
percent 

Orovada very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-- 
40 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Chiara very cobbly sandy loam, 2 to 8 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Xeric Torripsamments, mixed, mesic fine 
sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 

Chiara-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Orovada-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


139 


Major Component Description 
Chiara Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 5,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Orovada Series 

Elevation: 4,500 to 5,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Orovada: Thurber needlegrass, Wyoming big 
sagebrush, rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Basin big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Chiara: 024XY005NV 
Orovada: 024XY020NV 
Inclusion 1: 024XY005NV 
Inclusion 2: 024XY001NV 


2600--Shalake-Chiara-Shalake, gently sloping 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Shalake very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-- 
35 percent 

Chiara very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopeS"25 
percent 

Shalake very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes- 
25 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Xerollic Haplargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic extremely cobbly loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes 
-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Durixerollic Camborthids, fine-loamy over 
sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic fine sandy 
loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-2 percent 


Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Shalake-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Chiara-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Shalake-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Shalake Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Shalake Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Shalake: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Shalake: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Bluebunch wheatgrass 
Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 



140 


Soil Survey of 


Ecological Site 

Shalake: 025.XY019NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Shalake: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY050NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


2611-Dacker-Hunnton association 

Composition 

Major Components 

□acker silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--55 percent 
Hunnton silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--30 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Wieland loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--? 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Bartome very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes-? percent 
Inclusion 3: Chiara very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Dacker-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 

Major Component Description 
□acker Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 4? degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 4? degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

□acker: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 


Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

□acker: 025XY019NV 
Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2612-Dacker-Zevadez association 

Composition 

Major Components 

□acker very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-55 
percent 

Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes- 
30 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes—? percent 
Inclusion 2: Chiara very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: □urixerollic Camborthids, fine-loamy over 
sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic fine sandy 
loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
□acker-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Zevadez-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Inset fans; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
□acker Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 4? degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Zevadez Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 4? degrees 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


141 


Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

□acker: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Zevadez: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

□acker: 025XY019NV 
Zevadez: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2615—Dacker-Chiara association 

Composition 

Major Components 

□acker very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--50 
percent 

Chiara very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: □urixerollic Camborthids, fine-loamy over 
sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic fine sandy 
loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Shalake very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes—4 percent 

Inclusion 4: Xerollic Haplargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic extremely cobbly loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes 
-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
□acker-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Chiara-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: concave 

Major Component Description 
□acker Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 


Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface iayer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

□acker: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Bluebunch wheatgrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 
□acker: 025XY019NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY050NV 


2621 —Gochea-Susie Creek-Carstump 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Gochea gravelly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Susie Creek loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-25 percent 

Carstump very cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes- 
25 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Haploxerollic Curargids, fine, 

montmorillonitic, frigid gravelly loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Handy very cobbly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop—3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Rubble land fragmental material-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills and intermontane basins 

Gochea-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 






142 


Soil Survey of 


Susie Creek-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Carstump-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 2--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 3--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 4--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 
Gochea Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 45 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 90 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Susie Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 90 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Carstump Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Gochea: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Susie Creek: Basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, bluegrass, rabbitbrush 
Carstump: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecoiogical Site 

Gochea: 025XY014NV 
Susie Creek: 025XY014NV 
Carstump: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY014NV 


Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: None 


2641-Olac-Snowmore association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Olac very stony loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--70 
percent 

Snowmore very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes 
--15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Coltroop very cobbly fine sandy loam, 0 to 
2 percent slopes--5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Chiara very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopeS"5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Rubble land fragmental material--3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Xerollic Haplargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic extremely cobbly loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes 
-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Olac--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: footslope 
Snowmore-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
shoulder 

Inclusion 2--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 4--Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 

Olac Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Snowmore Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Olac: Bluebunch wheatgrass, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


143 


Snowmore: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: None 

Inclusion 4: Bluebunch wheatgrass 

Ecological Site 

Olac: 025XY018NV 
Snowmore: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: 025XY050NV 


2650-Wieland-Bartome-Zevadez assocation 

Composition 

Major Components 

Wieland gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes--45 
percent 

Bartome very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes- 
25 percent 

Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-- 
20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Dacker very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes-7 percent 

Inclusion 2: Haploxerollic Durargids, fine-loamy, mixed, 
mesic gravelly loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Wieland—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Bartome—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Zevadez—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder; shape of slope: convex 

Major Component Description 
Wieland Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Bartome Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 


Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Zevadez Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Bartome: Bluegrass, cheatgrass 
Zevadez: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Wieland: 025XY019NV 
Bartome: 025XY019NV 
Zevadez: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 


2651 --Wieland-Buffaran association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Wieland loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-45 percent 

Buffaran very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes— 
40 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Haploxerollic Durargids, fine, 

montmorillonitic, mesic gravelly loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Puett gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Rock outcrop-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 

Wieland—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Buffaran-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope 





144 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 2--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position, shoulder; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 3--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: upper; shape 
of slope: convex 

Inclusion 4--Landform: Pediments; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Major Component Description 
Wieland Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Buffaran Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Buffaran: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Wieland: 025XY019NV 
Buffaran: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY025NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


2652-Wieland-Dacker-Zevadez association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Wieland loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--30 percent 
□acker silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--30 percent 
Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes- 
25 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Hunnton silt loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-6 
percent 


Inclusion 2: Olac cobbly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes--4 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Aridic Haploxerolls, fine-silty, mixed, mesic 
silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes—3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Buffaran very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Wieland-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope 

Dacker-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Zevadez-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: footslope; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Major Component Description 
Wieland Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 dav^ 

Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

□acker Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Zevadez Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
□acker: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Zevadez: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


145 


Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Wieland: 025XY019NV 
□acker: 025XY019NV 
Zevadez: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


2655-Wieland-Gumble-Bilbo association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Wieland loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--40 percent 
Gumble gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes— 
25 percent 

Bilbo gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-20 percent 

Contrasting inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Hunnton loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—10 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Gumble very gravelly sandy loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes—2 percent 

Inclusion 3: Durargidic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, 
mesic gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Aridic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, mesic 
gravelly loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes-1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Wieland-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Gumble—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Bilbo-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Major Component Description 
Wieland Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Gumble Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Bilbo Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Gumble: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Bilbo: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Wieland: 025XY019NV 
Gumble: 025XY019NV 
Bilbo: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY014NV 


2656—Wieland-Hunnton-Thwoop association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Wieland loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes—35 percent 

Hunnton silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes—30 percent 

Thwoop gravelly silt loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Vanwyper gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Xerollic Haplargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes—5 
percent 




146 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 3: Pachic Haploxerolls, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
mesic very gravelly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Inclusion 4: Xerollic Camborthids, fine-loamy, mixed, 
mesic gravelly loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills and intermontane basins 
Wieland-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Hunnton-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Thwoop-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: north 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; position on slope: upper; 

shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Wieland Series 

Eievation: 5,100 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Hunnton Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Thwoop Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Hunnton: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Thwoop: Thurber needlegrass, basin wildrye, big 
sagebrush, bluegrass 


Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Wieland: 025XY019NV 
Hunnton: 025XY019NV 
Thwoop: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY003NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


2658--Wieland very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes 

Composition 

Major Components 

Wieland very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes- 
85 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Durixerollic Camborthids, loamy-skeletal, 
mixed, mesic fine sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Durixerollic Haplargids, fine, 

montmorillonitic, mesic very gravelly loam, 8 to 15 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Wieland-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder 

Major Component Description 
Wieland Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


147 


Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Wieland: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2666"Puett-Orovada association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Puett fine sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-65 
percent 

Orovada very fine sandy loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-- 
25 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Orovada loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes—10 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Puett-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Orovada-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Puett Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Orovada Series 

Elevation: 5,000 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Puett: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, rabbitbrush 
Orovada: Thurber needlegrass, Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail _ 

Ecological Site 

Puett: 025XY025NV 
Orovada: 024XY020NV 


Inclusion 1: 024XY005NV 


2667-Puett-Rock outcrop-Clurde association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Puett gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-50 
percent 

Rock outcrop—20 percent 

Clurde very fine sandy loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes—15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Chiara very fine sandy loam, 8 to 15 
percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Alley gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Yuko sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes 
-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills and intermontane basins 
Puett-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: backslope; 

position on slope: upper part 
Rock outcrop-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Clurde-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: lower; aspect: south 

Major Component Description 
Puett Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Rock outcrop Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,700 feet 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Clurde Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 



148 


Soil Survey of 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Puett: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, rabbitbrush 
Rock outcrop: None 

Clurde: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Puett: 025XY025NV 
Clurde: 025XY019NV 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2668-Puett-Yuko-Zevadez association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Puett gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-45 
percent 

Yuko sandy loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes--25 percent 
Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-- 
15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Chime gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Xeric Torriorthents, loamy-skeletal, mixed, 
nonacid, mesic gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Chiara very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Puett-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper part 
Yuko-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: lower part 
Zevadez-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder 

Major Component Description 
Puett Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 


Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Yuko Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Zevadez Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Puett: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, rabbitbrush 
Yuko: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Zevadez: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 
Inclusion 3: None 

Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Puett: 025XY025NV 
Yuko: 025XY019NV 
Zevadez: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: None 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


2710-Ramires-Bartome-Bilbo association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Ramires silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-35 percent 
Bartome very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes- 
30 percent 

Bilbo very gravelly very fine sandy loam, 1 5 to 30 
percent slopes-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Buffaran very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


149 


Inclusion 2: Alyan very gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes--5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills and intermontane basins 
Ramires-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: north 
Bartome-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Bilbo-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Ramires Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Bartome Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Bilbo Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly very fine sandy 
loam 

Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Ramires: Basin wildrye, big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, rabbitbrush 
Bartome: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Bilbo: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail 


Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Ramires: 025XY014NV 
Bartome: 025XY019NV 
Bilbo: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2711-Ramires-Bilbo-Buffaran association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Ramires silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes--35 percent 
Bilbo very gravelly very fine sandy loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes-30 percent 

Buffaran very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-- 
20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Alyan very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Hatpeak loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Bartome very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Ramires-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: lower; aspect: north 
Bilbo-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper; aspect: south 
Buffaran-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper part 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
shoulder 

Major Component Description 
Ramires Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Bilbo Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very gravelly very fine sandy 
loam 


I 





150 


Soil Survey of 


Drainage class Well drained 

Dominan parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Buffaran Series 

Elevation: 5,700 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Ramires: Basin wildrye, big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, rabbitbrush 

Bilbo: Thurber needlegrass, big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Buffaran: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Ramires: 025XY014NV 
Bilbo: 025XY015NV 
Buffaran: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2741—Wilsor-Wilsor, moderately steep 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Wilsor loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-55 percent 

Wilsor loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-30 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Xeric Torriorthents, loamy, mixed, nonacid, 
frigid, shallow gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 percent 
slopes--10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Ratsow loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Rock outcrop-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Wilsor-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 

Wilsor-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: shoulder 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 


Major Component Description 
Wilsor Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Wilsor Series 

Elevation: 5,600 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Wilsor: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Wilsor: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Indian ricegrass, Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 3: None 

Ecological Site 

Wilsor: 025XY019NV 
Wilsor: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY025NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: None 


2751 -Yuko-Chime-Clurde association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Yuko sandy loam, 8 to 1 5 percent slopes—35 percent 

Chime gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Clurde very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Chiara very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Durixerollic Haplargids, fine, 

montmorillonitic, mesic gravelly loam, 8 to 15 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Zevadez gravelly loam, 4 to 8 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


151 


Yuko-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Chime-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Clurde-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 1--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 3--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: concave 

Major Component Description 
Yuko Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Chime Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
sedimentary rocks 

Clurde Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Yuko: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Chime: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Clurde: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush 


Ecological Site 

Yuko: 025XY019NV 
Chime: 025XY019NV 
Clurde: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


2775-Zevadez-Bartome-Wieland association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes- 
35 percent 

Bartome very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes- 
30 percent 

Wieland loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Buffaran very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Kelk very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Haploxerollic Durargids, fine, 

montmorillonitic, mesic gravelly loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes--5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Zevadez-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Bartome-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: convex 
Wieland-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope; shape of slope: concave 
Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 
Inclusion 2—Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder; shape of slope: convex 

Major Component Description 
Zevadez Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Bartome Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 




152 


Soil Survey of 


Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Wieland Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Zevadez: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Bartome: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Zevadez: 025XY019NV 
Bartome: 025XY019NV 
Wieland: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2776--Zevadez-Chiara association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-- 
45 percent 

Chiara very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--40 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Durixerollic Camborthids, fine-loamy over 
sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic fine sandy 
loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Buffaran very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 3: Packer very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes-4 percent 

Inclusion 4: Wieland very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes—2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 

Zevadez-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Chiara—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: upper part 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Inset fans 


Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope 

Major Component Description 
Zevadez Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Zevadez: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Zevadez: 025XY019NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


2777”Zevadez-Wieland-Clurde association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes- 
45 percent 

Wieland loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes—25 percent 
Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes—15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: McCleary sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, occasionally flooded—5 percent 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


153 


Inclusion 2: Durixerollic Camborthids, fine-loamy over 
sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic fine sandy 
loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: McCleary very fine sandy loam, overwash, 
0 to 2 percent slopes, occasionally flooded-5 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills and intermontane basins 
Zevadez-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Wieland-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit; shape of slope: concave 
Clurde-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Lake plains 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 

Major Component Description 
Zevadez Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Wieland Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Clurde Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Zevadez: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Clurde: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Mat muhly, silver sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 


Inclusion 3: Silver sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Zevadez: 025XY019NV 
Wieland: 025XY019NV 
Clurde: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY048NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY048NV 


2778--Zevadez-Yuko-Kelk association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes- 
45 percent 

Yuko sandy loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-25 percent 
Kelk very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-1 5 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Chime gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent 
slopes-7 percent 

Inclusion 2: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Durixerollic Camborthids, fine-loamy over 
sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic fine sandy 
loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Chiara very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills and intermontane basins 
Zevadez-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Yuko-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic position: 

shoulder; aspect: south 
Kelk-Landform: Inset fans 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Major Component Description 
Zevadez Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Yuko Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 



154 


Soil Survey of 


Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Kelk Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Zevadez: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Yuko: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Kelk: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1; Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Zevadez: 025XY019NV 
Yuko: 025XY019NV 
Kelk: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


2780--Snowmore, cobbly-Snowmore 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Snowmore cobbly fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes--60 percent 

Snowmore very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes 
-25 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Coltroop very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Troughs cobbly loam, 4 to 8 percent 
slopes-5 percent 


Inclusion 3: Olac gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes 
-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Rock outcrop-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 

Snowmore-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Snowmore-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 

summit; shape of slope: convex 
Inclusion 4—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Major Component Description 
Snowmore Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Snowmore Series 
Elevation: 5,100 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Snowmore: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Snowmore: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Low sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Snowmore: 025XY019NV 
Snowmore: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


155 


2781-Snowmore, cobbly-Snowmore, very 
cobbly-Snowmore association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Snowmore cobbly fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes-40 percent 

Snowmore very cobbly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Snowmore very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes 
-15 percent 
Contrasting Inclusions 
Inclusion 1: Rock outcrop--? percent 
Inclusion 2: Troughs cobbly loam, 4 to 8 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Coltroop very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 

Snowmore—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: concave 
Snowmore-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 

backslope; shape of slope: convex 
Snowmore-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit; shape of slope: convex 

Major Component Description 
Snowmore Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Snowmore Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Snowmore Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Snowmore: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Snowmore: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Snowmore: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: None 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Snowmore: 025XY019NV 
Snowmore: 025XY019NV 
Snowmore: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: None 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2782“Snowmore-Zevadez-Snowmore, cobbly 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Snowmore very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes 
-50 percent 

Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes- 
20 percent 

Snowmore cobbly fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes-15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Coltroop very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Wieland very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Troughs cobbly loam, 4 to 8 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 

Snowmore-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Zevadez—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Snowmore-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
footslope; shape of slope: concave 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 

Snowmore Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,400 feet 



156 


Soil Survey of 


Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature. About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Zevadez Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Snowmore Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,400 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Cobbly fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Snowmore: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Zevadez: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Snowmore: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Snowmore: 025XY019NV 
Zevadez: 025XY019NV 
Snowmore: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2783—Snowmore-Willhill association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Snowmore very fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes 
-50 percent 

Willhill gravelly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Midraw gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes-5 percent 


Inclusion 2: Olac cobbly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Lithic Xerollic Haplargids, clayey-skeletal, 
montmorillonitic, mesic extremely cobbly loam, 0 to 
4 percent slopes-3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 

Snowmore-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Willhill-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper part 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Drainageways 

Major Component Description 
Snowmore Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Willhill Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Snowmore: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Willhill: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Low sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: Bluebunch wheatgrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Snowmore: 025XY019NV 
Willhill: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY050NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 



Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


157 


2790--0ld Camp-Troughs-Olac association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Old Camp extremely stony loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes--45 percent 

Troughs gravelly loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Olac very stony loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Snowmore very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes—7 percent 
Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop-3 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 

Old Camp—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Troughs—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Olac—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Major Component Description 
Old Camp Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Extremely stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Troughs Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Olac Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 


Dominant Present Vegetation 

Old Camp: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Troughs: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Olac: Bluebunch wheatgrass, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, low sagebrush 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 
Inclusion 2: None 

Ecological Site 

Old Camp: 025XY019NV 
Troughs: 025XY019NV 
Olac: 025XY018NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: None 


2801 —Bartome-Alley-Clurde association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bartome very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes- 
40 percent 

Alley gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent slopes-30 
percent 

Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-15 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Chime gravelly loam, 8 to 1 5 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Wieland gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Yuko sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes- 
5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Bartome-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Alley-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Clurde—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
toeslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 2—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position; footslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 

Major Component Description 
Bartome Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 






158 


Soil Survey of 


Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 
Alley Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Clurde Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bartome: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Alley: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Clurde: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Bartome: 025XY019NV 
Alley: 025XY019NV 
Clurde: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2802--Bartome-Buffaran association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bartome very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes-- 
50 percent 

Buffaran very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes- 
35 percent 

Contrasting inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Susie Creek very fine sandy loam, 4 to 8 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Dacker very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopeS”5 percent 


Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Bartome-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Buffaran-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Drainageways 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 
Bartome Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Buffaran Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bartome: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Buffaran: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Bartome: 025XY019NV 
Buffaran: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2803-Bartome-Buffaran-Ramires association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bartome very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes- 
30 percent 

Buffaran very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes— 
30 percent 

Ramires silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes—25 percent 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


159 


Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Packer very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Bilbo very gravelly very fine sandy loam, 

15 to 30 percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Aridic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Bartome—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Buffaran-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Ramires-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder; aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Bartome Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Buffaran Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks 

Ramires Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bartome: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Buffaran: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Ramires: Basin wildrye, big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, rabbitbrush 


Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Bartome: 025XY019NV 
Buffaran: 025XY019NV 
Ramires: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY027NV 


2804—Bartome-Chiara association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bartome very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes— 
50 percent 

Chiara very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes—35 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Buffaran very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Dacker very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Xerollic Haplargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic extremely cobbly loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes- 
-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes—2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Bartome-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Chiara-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 4—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: footslope 

Major Component Description 
Bartome Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 



160 


Soil Survey of 


Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bartome: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Bluebunch wheatgrass 
Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Bartome: 025XY019NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY050NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY019NV 


2805--Bartome very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bartome very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-- 
85 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Dacker very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-10 percent 
Inclusion 2: Wieland very fine sandy loam, 4 to 8 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Bartome-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder 

Inclusion 2--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope 

Major Component Description 
Bartome Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 


Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bartome: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Bartome: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 


2807—Bartome-Coltroop-Zevadez association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bartome very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-- 
40 percent 

Coltroop very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes-- 
25 percent 

Zevadez gravelly loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes—20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Vanwyper extremely stony loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Shalake very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Lithic Xerollic Camborthids, loamy, mixed, 
mesic very gravelly loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes—5 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills and intermontane basins 
Bartome—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Coltroop-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic position: 
shoulder 

Zevadez—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
toeslope 

Major Component Description 
Bartome Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada—Part I 


161 


Coltroop Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Zevadez Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bartome: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Coltroop: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Zevadez: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Bartome: 025XY019NV 
Coltroop: 025XY019NV 
Zevadez: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2808-Bartome-Susie Creek-Wieland 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bartome very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes— 
40 percent 

Susie Creek very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes-25 percent 

Wieland very fine sandy loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes— 
20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Buffaran very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes—5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Ramires silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes- 
5 percent 


Inclusion 3: Dacker very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills and intermontane basins 
Bartome-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Susie Creek-Landform: Pediments; geomorphic 
position: footslope; aspect: north 
Wieland-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder 

Major Component Description 
Bartome Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Susie Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 90 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Wieland Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bartome: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebiush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Susie Creek: Basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, bluegrass, rabbitbrush 
Wieland: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 



162 


Soil Survey of 


Inclusion 3; Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Bartome: 025XY019NV 
Susie Creek: 025XY014NV 
Wieland: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 


2809-Bartome-Dacker association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Bartome silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes--45 percent 
□acker silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-40 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Hunnton silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes-6 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Wieland very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes--5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Chiara very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Xerollic Haplargids, fine, montmorillonitic, 
mesic extremely stony loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes- 
1 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Bartome—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

□acker—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position; summit 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Inset fans; geomorphic position: 
footslope; shape of slope: concave 

Major Component Description 
Bartome Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

□acker Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 


Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Bartome: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
□acker: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1; Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 4: Bottlebrush squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Bartome: 025XY019NV 
□acker: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY050NV 


2820—Alley-Vanwyper-Rock outcrop 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Alley very stony loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes—45 
percent 

Vanwyper very stony loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-25 
percent 

Rock outcrop-15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Xeric Torrifluvents, sandy, mixed, mesic 
loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Aridic Argixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, mesic 
gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Puett gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Rubble land fragmental material-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 

Alley-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Vanwyper-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Rock outcrop-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: □rainageways 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


163 


Major Component Description 

Alley Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Vanwyper Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 10 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Rock outcrop Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,600 feet 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Alley: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Vanwyper: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Rock outcrop: None 

Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye, 
rabbitbrush 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Alley: 025XY019NV 
Vanwyper: 025XY019NV 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: 024XY006NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY025NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


2822--Alley-Rock outcrop-Rubble land 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Alley very stony loam, 50 to 75 percent slopeS”45 
percent 

Rock outcrop--25 percent 

Rubble land fragmental material-20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Alley cobbly fine sandy loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes—10 percent 


Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Alley—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: backslope 
Rock outcrop-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Rubble land-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Major Component Description 

Alley Series 

Elevation: 4,900 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Rock outcrop Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 4,900 to 5,700 feet 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Rubble land Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 4,900 to 5,500 feet 
Surface layer texture: Fragmental material 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Alley: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Rock outcrop: None 
Rubble land: None 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecological Site 

Alley: 025XY019NV 
Rubble land: None 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 


3000-Handy-Wilsor-Deseed association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Handy loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes—40 percent 

Wilsor loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-25 percent 

Deseed gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Xerollic Haplargids, fine-loamy, mixed, 
frigid gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent slopes-7 
percent 

Inclusion 2: Rock outcrop-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Lithic Xerollic Haplargids, loamy, mixed, 
frigid very gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes—3 
percent 



164 


Soil Survey of 


Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Handy--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Wilsor--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: footslope 
Deseed--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Inclusion 1--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: south 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 3--Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Major Component Description 
Handy Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Wilsor Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from tuffaceous rocks 

Deseed Series 

Elevation: 5,500 to 6,500 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Handy: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Wilsor: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Deseed: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: None 

Inclusion 3: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Handy: 025XY014NV 
Wilsor: 025XY019NV 
Deseed: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 2: None 


Inclusion 3: 025XY014NV 

3010-Relley-Kelk association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Relley silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently 
flooded--65 percent 

Kelk very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes--20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Zevadez very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes—10 percent 
Inclusion 2: Dacker very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Relley-Landform: Inset fans 
Kelk-Landform: Inset fans 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 
Relley Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 8 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Kelk Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,200 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Very fine sandy loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Relley: Bottlebrush squirreltail 
Kelk: Indian ricegrass, Wyoming big sagebrush, 
bottlebrush squirreltail 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Ecoiogicai Site 

Relley: 024XY012NV 
Kelk: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


165 


3020--Sodhouse-Chiara association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Sodhouse silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-50 percent 
Chiara silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopeS”35 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1; Packer very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes--6 percent 
Inclusion 2: Shalake very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes--5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes-2 percent 
Inclusion 4: Typic Calciorthids, fine-loamy, mixed, 
mesic very gravelly loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes-2 
percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Sodhouse—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Chiara-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: shoulder 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Inset fans 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Major Component Description 
Sodhouse Series 
Elevation: 5,100 to 5,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 8 inches 
Air temperature: About 48 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Chiara Series 

Elevation: 5,100 to 5,300 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from mixed 
rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Sodhouse: Bottlebrush squirreltail, winterfat, winterfat 
Chiara: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 


Inclusion 4: Shadscale 

Ecological Site 

Sodhouse: 024XY059NV 
Chiara: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 024XY002NV 


3030-Deepeek-Alley association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Deepeek very cobbly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-45 
percent 

Alley very cobbly very fine sandy loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes-40 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Haploxerollic Durargids, loamy-skeletal, 
mixed, mesic gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes-9 percent 

Inclusion 2: Wieland cobbly loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes-2 percent 

Inclusion 3: Durixerollic Haplargids, clayey-skeletal, 
montmorillonitic, mesic very cobbly loam, 4 to 8 
percent slopes-2 percent 
Inclusion 4: Puett gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Fan piedmonts 
Deepeek-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: upper part 
Alley-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic position: 
shoulder 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; position on slope: upper part 
Inclusion 4-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: 
south 

Major Component Description 
Deepeek Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 105 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Alluvium and colluvium 
derived from mixed rocks 

Alley Series 

Elevation: 4,800 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 






166 


Soil Survey of 


Air temperature: About 47 degrees 

Frost-free season: About 110 days 

Surface layer texture: Very cobbly very fine sandy loam 

Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Deepeek: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Alley: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 2: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 3: Wyoming big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: Wyoming big sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Deepeek: 025XY019NV 
Alley: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY025NV 


3100“Ratsow-Quarz-Susie Creek association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Ratsow loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--50 percent 
Quarz very cobbly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes--20 
percent 

Susie Creek loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes--15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Lithic Argixerolls, loamy, mixed, frigid very 
gravelly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes--5 percent 
Inclusion 2: Xerollic Durargids, clayey-skeletal, 

montmorillonitic, frigid, shallow gravelly loam, 8 to 
15 percent slopes-5 percent 
Inclusion 3: Lithic Argixerolls, clayey-skeletal, 

montmorillonitic, frigid very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes-3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Rock outcrop-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 
Ratsow-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Quarz-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: summit 
Susie Creek—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper part 
Inclusion 3—Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 


Major Component Description 
Ratsow Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Quarz Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 12 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum and colluvium 
derived from volcanic rocks 

Susie Creek Series 

Elevation: 5,400 to 6,000 feet 
Precipitation: About 11 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 90 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
tuffaceous rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Ratsow: Big sagebrush, bluegrass, bottlebrush 
squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Quarz: Bottlebrush squirreltail 
Susie Creek: Basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, bluegrass, rabbitbrush 
Inclusion 1: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 3: Mountain big sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Ratsow: 025XY014NV 
Quarz: 025XY014NV 
Susie Creek: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY012NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


3510—MIdraw-Troughs-Midraw, strongly 
sloping association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Midraw gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Troughs gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-30 
percent 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


167 


Midraw gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes-20 
percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Chiara very fine sandy loam, 2 to 4 
percent slopes--5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Ratsow loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes-5 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Linkup very cobbly loam, 8 to 1 5 percent 
slopes-5 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 
Midraw-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Troughs-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Midraw-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
footslope 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope; aspect: north 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: north 

Major Component Description 
Midraw Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Troughs Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Midraw Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,600 feet 
Precipitation: About 9 inches 
Air temperature: About 47 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 110 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Midraw: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Troughs: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 


Midraw: Wyoming big sagebrush, bluegrass, 
bottlebrush squirreltail, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 1: Wyoming big sagebrush, bottlebrush 
squirreltail 

Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bottlebrush squirreltail 
Inclusion 3: Low sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Midraw: 025XY019NV 
Troughs: 025XY019NV 
Midraw: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY019NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY014NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY018NV 


3710-Petan-Bulake-Rock outcrop association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Petan extremely stony loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes- 
50 percent 

Bulake gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-20 percent 
Rock outcrop-15 percent 
Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Deunah silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes- 
10 percent 

Inclusion 2: Hatpeak loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes-3 
percent 

Inclusion 3: Rubble land fragmental material-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills 

Petan-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: backslope 
Bulake-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: toeslope 
Rock outcrop-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: upper part 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Hills; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Major Component Description 
Petan Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Extremely stony loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Bulake Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam 





168 


Soil Survey of 


Drainage class: Well drained 

Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Rock outcrop Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,700 feet 
Drainage class: Excessively drained 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Petan: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 

Bulake: Bluegrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, low 
sagebrush 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: Low sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 3: None 

Ecological Site 

Petan: 025XY022NV 
Bulake: 025XY017NV 
Rock outcrop: None 
Inclusion 1: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 3: None 


3715--Petan-Deunah-Hatpeak association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Petan very cobbly loam, 4 to 8 percent slopes-35 
percent 

Deunah silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes--30 percent 

Hatpeak loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes—20 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Durixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes-5 percent 

Inclusion 2: Rubble land fragmental material-5 percent 

Inclusion 3: Bulake gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 4: Rock outcrop-2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 

Petan—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Deunah-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
shoulder 

Hatpeak—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 1—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope; position on slope: lower part 

Inclusion 2—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: upper part 

Inclusion 4-Landform: Plateaus 


Major Component Description 
Petan Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Very cobbly loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Residuum derived from 
volcanic rocks 

Deunah Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Hatpeak Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Petan: Low sagebrush 

Deunah: Idaho fescue, alkali sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Hatpeak: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: Low sagebrush 
Inclusion 4: None 

Ecological Site 

Petan: 025XY022NV 
Deunah: 025XY017NV 
Hatpeak: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 2: None 
Inclusion 3: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 4: None 


3721—Hatpeak-Deunah association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Hatpeak loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes—55 percent 
Deunah silt loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes—30 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Durixerolls, fine-loamy, mixed, frigid 
gravelly loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes—10 percent 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


169 


Inclusion 2: Petan very cobbly loam, 4 to 8 percent 
slopes-3 percent 

Inclusion 3: Bulake gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes--2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Plateaus 
Hatpeak-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
backslope 

Deunah-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 1--Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 

backslope; position on slope: lower part 
Inclusion 2-Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit 

Inclusion 3—Landform: Plateaus; geomorphic position: 
summit; position on slope: upper part 

Major Component Description 
Hatpeak Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Deunah Series 

Elevation: 5,300 to 5,700 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Silt loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Hatpeak: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Deunah: Idaho fescue, alkali sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Basin big sagebrush 
Inclusion 2: Low sagebrush 
inclusion 3: Low sagebrush 

Ecological Site 

Hatpeak: 025XY027NV 
Deunah: 025XY017NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY02.7NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY022NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY017NV 


3722-Hatpeak-Hatpeak, moderately steep 
association 

Composition 

Major Components 

Hatpeak loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes-70 percent 
Hatpeak loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes--15 percent 

Contrasting Inclusions 

Inclusion 1: Typic Argixerolls, fine, montmorillonitic, 
frigid very gravelly loam--7 percent 
Inclusion 2: Gumble very gravelly very fine sandy loam, 
30 to 50 percent slopes--3 percent 
Inclusion 3: Bilbo very gravelly very fine sandy loam, 

30 to 50 percent slopes--3 percent 
Inclusion 4: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, drained, 0 
to 2 percent slopes, rarely flooded--2 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Intermontane basins 
Hatpeak-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: summit 

Hatpeak-'Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope 

Inclusion 1--Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: toeslope; shape of slope: concave; aspect: 
north 

Inclusion 2-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; shape of slope: convex; aspect: 
south 

Inclusion 3-Landform: Fan remnants; geomorphic 
position: backslope; aspect: south 
Inclusion 4—Landform: Flood plains 

Major Component Description 
Hatpeak Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Hatpeak Series 

Elevation: 5,200 to 5,800 feet 
Precipitation: About 14 inches 
Air temperature: About 44 degrees 
Frost-free season: About 85 days 
Surface layer texture: Loam 
Drainage class: Well drained 
Dominant parent material: Alluvium derived from 
volcanic rocks, loess and volcanic ash 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Hatpeak: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Hatpeak: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush, bluebunch 
wheatgrass 

Inclusion 1: Idaho fescue, basin big sagebrush 





170 


Inclusion 2: Big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, 
cheatgrass 

Inclusion 3: Big sagebrush, cheatgrass 
Inclusion 4: Basin big sagebrush, basin wildrye 


Ecological Site 

Hatpeak: 025XY027NV 
Hatpeak: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 1: 025XY027NV 
Inclusion 2: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 3: 025XY015NV 
Inclusion 4: 025XY003NV 


W-Water 


Composition 

Major Components 

Water--100 percent 

Map Unit Setting 

Landscape position: Hills and intermontane basins 
Water-Landform: Depressions 

Major Component Description 
Water Miscellaneous Area 

Elevation: 5,500 to 8,000 feet 

Dominant Present Vegetation 

Water: None 


Water: None 


Ecological Site 




171 


Prime Farmland 


Prime Farmland and Other Important 
Farmland 

In this section, prime farmland and other important 
farmland are defined. The map units in the survey 
area that are considered prime farmland are listed 
under "Prime Farmland Map Units" at the end of this 
section. 

Prime Farmland 

Prime farmland is of major importance in meeting 
the Nation's short- and long-range needs for food and 
fiber. The acreage of high-quality farmland is limited, 
and the U.S. Department of Agriculture recognizes 
that government at local. State, and Federal levels, as 
well as individuals, must encourage and facilitate the 
wise use of our Nation's prime farmland. 

Prime farmland soils, as defined by the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, are soils that are best 
suited to food, seed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops. 
Such soils have properties that favor the economic 
production of sustained high yields of crops. The soils 
need only to be treated and managed by acceptable 
farming methods. An adequate moisture supply and a 
sufficiently long growing season are required. Prime 
farmland soils produce the highest yields with 
minimal expenditure of energy and economic 
resources, and farming these soils results in the least 
damage to the environment. 

Prime farmland soils may presently be used as 
cropland, pasture, woodland, or for other purposes. 
They are used for food and fiber or are available for 
these uses. Urban or built-up land and water areas 
cannot be considered prime farmland. Urban or built- 
up land is any contiguous unit of land 10 acres or 
more in size that is used for such purposes as 
housing, industrial, and commercial sites, sites for 
institutions or public buildings, small parks, golf 
courses, cemeteries, railroad yards, airports, sanitary 
landfills, sewage treatment plants, and water-control 
structures. 

Prime farmland soils commonly receive an adequate 
and dependable supply of moisture from precipitation 
or irrigation. The temperature and growing season are 
favorable, and the level of acidity or alkalinity and the 
content of salts and sodium are acceptable. The soils 
have few, if any, rocks and are permeable to water 
and air. They are not excessively erodible or saturated 
with water for long periods, and they are not 
frequently flooded during the growing season or are 


protected from flooding. Slopes range mainly from 0 
to 6 percent. 

Soils that have a high water table, are subject to 
flooding, or are droughty may qualify as prime 
farmland where these limitations are overcome by 
drainage measures, flood control, or irrigation. Onsite 
evaluation is necessary to determine the effectiveness 
of corrective measures. More information about the 
criteria for prime farmland can be obtained at the 
local office of the Natural Resources Conservation 
Service. 

A recent trend in land use has been the conversion 
of prime farmland to urban and industrial uses. The 
loss of prime farmland to other uses puts pressure on 
lands that are less productive than prime farmland. 

About 80,629 acres, or nearly 4.2 percent of the 
survey area, would meet the requirements for prime 
farmland if an adequate and dependable supply of 
irrigation water were available. 

The map units in the survey area that meet the 
requirements for prime farmland are listed under 
"Prime Farmland Map Units." On some soils included 
in the list, measures that overcome limitations are 
needed. The location of each map unit is shown on 
the detailed soil maps at the back of this publication. 
This list does not constitute a recommendation for a 
particular land use. 

Unique Farmland 

Unique farmland is land other than prime farmland 
that is used for the production of specific high-value 
food and fiber crops. It has the special combination of 
soil qualities, location, growing season, and moisture 
supply needed for the economic production of 
sustained high yields of a specific high-quality crop 
when treated and managed by acceptable farming 
methods. Examples of such crops are citrus, tree 
nuts, olives, cranberries, and vegetables. 

Unique farmland is used for a specific high-value 
food or fiber crop; has an adequate supply of 
available moisture for the specific crop because of 
stored moisture, precipitation, or irrigation; and has a 
combination of soil qualities, growing season, 
temperature, humidity, air drainage, elevation, aspect, 
and other factors, such as nearness to markets, that 
favor the production of a specific food or fiber crop. 

Lists of unique farmland are developed as needed in 
cooperation with conservation districts and other 
entities. There are presently no soils recognized as 
unique farmland in Nevada. 











172 


Additional Farmland of Statewide 
Importance 

Some areas other than areas of prime and unique 
farmland are of statewide importance in the 
production of food, feed, fiber, forage, and oilseed 
crops. The criteria used in defining and delineating 
these areas are determined by the appropriate State 
agency or agencies. Generally, additional farmland of 
statewide importance includes areas that nearly meet 
the criteria for prime farmland and that economically 
produce high yields of crops when treated and 
managed by acceptable farming methods. Some areas 
can produce as high a yield as areas of prime 
farmland if conditions are favorable. In some states, 
additional farmland of statewide importance may 
include tracts of land that have been designated for 
agriculture by State law. 

Nevada has designated any farmland that is irrigated 
to be of statewide importance. 


Prime Farmland Map Units 

The following map units are prime farmland where 
irrigated with an adequate and dependable water 
supply: 

161 Sonoma silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes 

1135 Clementine-Clurde association 
1155 Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes 

2541 Kelk very fine sandy loam, occasionally 
flooded, 0 to 2 percent slopes 
2545 Kelk-Clurde association 

2611 Dacker-Hunnton association 

2612 Dacker-Zevadez association 

2652 Wieland-Dacker-Zevadez association 
2777 Zevadez-Wieland-Clurde association 


173 


Classification of the Soils 


The system of soil classification used by the National 
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories. Beginning 
with the broadest, these categories are the order, 
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series. 
Classification is based on soil properties observed in 
the field or inferred from those observations or from 
laboratory measurements. Table 20, "Classification of 
the Soils," in Part II of this Publication shows the 
classification of the soils in the survey area. The 
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. 

ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The 
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil¬ 
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. 
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An 
example is Mollisol. 

SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders 
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil 
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties 
that reflect the most important variables within the 
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder 
indicates the order. An example is Xeroll (Xer, meaning 
xeric, plus oH, from IVIo/lisol). 

GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great 
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, 
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic 
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and 
base status. Each great group is identified by the name 
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property 
of the soil. An example is Argixeroll. (Argi, meaning 
presence of argii/ic horizon, p/us xero/i, the suborder of 
the Moitisois that have a xeric moisture regime). 

SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. 
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The 
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not 
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are 
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. 
Extragrades have some properties that are not 
representative of the great group but do not indicate 
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each 
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives 
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective 
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great 
group. An example is Typic Argixerolls. 

FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup 
on the basis of physical and chemical properties and 
other characteristics that affect management. 

Generally, the properties are those of horizons below 
plow depth where there is much biological activity. 
Among the properties and characteristics considered 
are particle-size class, mineral content, temperature 
regime, thickness of the root zone, consistence. 


moisture equivalent, slope, and permanent cracks. A 
family name consists of the name of a subgroup 
preceded by terms that indicate soil properties. An 
example is loamy-skeletal, mixed, frigid, Typic 
Argixerolls. 

SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar 
horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in 
color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral 
and chemical composition, and arrangement in the 
profile. The texture of the surface layer or of the 
substratum can differ within a series. 


Taxonomic Units and Their Morphology 

In this section, each taxonomic unit recognized in the 
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged 
in alphabetical order. 

Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it 
formed are identified for each unit. A pedon, a small 
three-dimensional area of soil, that is typical of the unit 
in the survey area is described. The detailed description 
of each soil horizon follow standards in the "Soil 
Survey Manual" (18). Many of the technical terms used 
in the descriptions are defined in "Soil Taxonomy" 

(20). Unless otherwise stated, colors in the 
descriptions are for dry soil. Following the pedon 
description is the range of important characteristics of 
the soils in the unit. 

The map units of each taxonomic unit are described 
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units." 

Akier Series 

The Akier series consists of shallow, well drained 
soils that formed in residuum from tuff. Akier soils are 
on hills and mountains. Slopes are 4 to 15 percent. 

The mean annual precipitation is about 12 inches and 
the mean annual temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey, montmorillonitic, frigid, 
shallow Xerollic Haplargids 

Typical pedon: Akier loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes, is 
located in an area of map unit 308. (Colors are for 
dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A-0 to 4 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) loam, 
dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; weak medium 
platy structure; slightly hard, very friable, sticky and 






174 


Soil Survey of 


plastic, T’any very fine and fine, few medium and 
coarse roots; common very fine vesicular pores and 
few very fine tubular pores; 5 percent pebbles and 5 
percent cobbles; neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (1 to 6 inches thick) 

Bt1-4 to 12 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, brown 
(10YR 4/3) moist; strong coarse prismatic structure; 
very hard, very firm, very sticky and very plastic; 
few very fine and fine roots; common very fine 
tubular pores; many stress surfaces along faces of 
peds; 5 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); clear 
wavy boundary. (6 to 14 inches thick) 

Bt2--12 to 16 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
clay, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; weak 
coarse prismatic structure parting to strong coarse 
subangular blocky; very hard, friable, very sticky 
and very plastic; few very fine and fine roots; 
moderate very fine tubular pores; many stress 
surfaces along faces of peds; 5 percent pebbles; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); clear wavy boundary. (0 to 
6 inches thick) 

Bt3--16 to 18 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
clay, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; moderate 
fine subangular blocky structure; hard, friable, very 
sticky and very plastic; few very fine and fine roots; 
common very fine tubular pores; many stress 
surfaces along faces of peds; 5 percent pebbles; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); clear wavy boundary. (0 to 
4 inches thick) 

Cr—18 inches; fractured weathered tuff; few 

moderately thick clay films, few fine, irregularly 
shaped filaments and threads of lime along fracture 
planes, and few fine and medium roots along 
fracture planes. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 6 
miles southeast of Willow Creek Reservoir; about 
600 feet east and 400 feet south of the northwest 
corner of section 19, T. 38 N., R. 48 E.; 40 
degrees, 09 minutes, 47 seconds north latitude, 

116 degrees, 35 minutes, 12 seconds west 
longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in the winter and 
spring, dry mid June through October 

Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F. 

Depth to paraiithic contact: 14 to 20 inches. 

Reaction: Neutral or mildly alkaline 

Control section: 

Clay content--50 to 60 percent. 

Rock fragments—0 to 1 5 percent, mainly pebbles, 
some pedons near rock outcrops have cobbles in 
their profile. 

A horizon: 

Value—5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 


Bt horizons: 

Hue-2.5Y or 10YR. 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Cr horizon: 

Clay films-Common in upper horizon along fracture 
planes. 

Alley Series 

The Alley series consists of very deep, well drained 
soils that formed in loess over alluvium and colluvium 
from andesite, basalt and tuff with some influence from 
loess. Alley soils are on side slopes and shoulders of 
plateaus, hills and fan piedmont remnants. Slopes are 8 
to 75 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 9 
inches and the mean annual air temperature is about 
47 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Durixerollic 
Haplargids 

Typical pedon: Alley very stony loam, 1 5 to 30 percent 
slopes, is located in an area of map unit 235. 

(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The 
surface is covered with approximately 1 5 percent 
pebbles, 10 percent cobbles and 10 percent stones. 

A1—0 to 3 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very stony 
loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate very thin 
platy structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; many very fine and fine roots; many 
very fine and fine vesicular pores; 15 percent 
pebbles, 10 percent cobbles and 10 percent stones; 
neutral (pH 7.2); clear smooth boundary. (2 to 8 
inches thick) 

A2-3 to 7 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very stony 
loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate very thick 
platy structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; common very fine and fine roots; 
common very fine and fine vesicular pores; 15 
percent pebbles, 10 percent cobbles and 10 percent 
stones; neutral (pH 7.2); clear smooth boundary. (0 
to 5 inches thick) 

Bt1-7 to 11 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
gravelly loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; moderate medium subangular blocky 
structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; few very fine, common fine and 
medium roots; common very fine tubular pores; few 
thin clay films on faces of peds and lining pores; 15 
percent pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; mildly alkaline 
(pH 7.8); clear smooth boundary. 

Bt2—11 to 20 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
gravelly clay loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; moderate medium and coarse subangular 
blocky structure; hard, firm, sticky and slightly 
plastic; common very fine and few fine roots; 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


175 


common very fine tubular pores; common thin clay 
films on faces of peds and lining pores; 20 percent 
pebbles; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); clear smooth 
boundary. (4 to 9 inches thick) 

Bqk1--20 to 28 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) 
gravelly fine sandy loam, yellowish brown (10YR 
5/4) moist; weak fine subangular blocky structure; 
hard, firm and brittle when moist, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; common very fine roots; common 
very fine tubular pores; continuously brittle matrix; 
slightly effervescent, lime is disseminated; 30 
percent pebbles; moderately alkaline (pH 8.4); clear 
smooth boundary. (6 to 10 inches thick) 

Bqk2--28 to 40 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) 
gravelly fine sandy loam, yellowish brown (10YR 
5/4) moist; massive; hard, firm and brittle moist, 
slightly sticky and nonplastic; few very fine roots; 
common very fine tubular pores; continuous brittle 
matrix; strongly effervescent, lime is disseminated; 
25 percent pebbles, 10 percent cobbles; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.2); clear smooth boundary. (0 to 14 
inches thick) 

2Bk-40 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) very 
cobbly fine sandy loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) 
very cobbly fine sandy loam, grayish brown (10YR 
5/2) moist; massive; slightly hard, very friable, 
nonsticky and nonplastic; few very fine roots; few 
very fine tubular pores; strongly effervescent; 25 
percent pebbles; 15 percent cobbles; strongly 
alkaline (pH 8.6); (15 to 30 inches thick) 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 1.5 
miles south of Rock Creek Ranch; about 200 feet 
north and 1,600 feet east of the southwest corner 
of section 25, T. 37 N., R. 46 E.; 41 degrees, 02 
minutes, 57 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 

44 minutes, 02 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in the winter and 
spring months, dry summer and fall 

Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Depth to continuous brittle matrix: 16 to 30 inches. 

Depth to carbonates: 16 to 22 inches. 

Other features: Few to many, fine to coarse lime 
segregations are common in most pedons where 
depth to the Bqk horizon is greater than 22 inches. 

A horizons: 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Reaction—Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Other features—When mixed, the upper 7 inches has 
color values greater than 5.5 dry and 3.5 moist. 

Bt horizons: 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 


Texture-Gravelly loam, gravelly clay loam or 
gravelly sandy clay loam. 

Clay content-20 to 30 percent. 

Rock fragments-15 to 30 percent, mainly pebbles. 
Structure-Weak or moderate, fine to coarse 
subangular blocky. 

Reaction—Mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline. 

Bqk horizons: 

Value-6 through 8 dry, 4 through 6 moist. 

Chroma—1 through 4. 

Texture-Gravelly fine sandy loam, gravelly sandy 
loam, or cobbly fine sandy loam. 

Rock fragments-15 to 35 percent, mainly pebbles 
or cobbles. 

Consistence-Hard or very hard. 
Reaction-Moderately alkaline or strongly alkaline. 
Silica cementation—Few thin, or very thin 

discontinuous silica laminae are common in some 
pedons. Some pedons commonly have durinodes 
in a friable matrix below the continuously brittle 
matrix. 

2Bk horizon (when present): 

Rock fragments-40 to 60 percent, when mixed, 
mostly pebbles and cobbles, few stones in some 
pedons. 

Alyan Series 

The Alyan series consists of moderately deep, well 
drained soils that formed in residuum and colluvium 
from igneous rocks and siliceous tuff. Alyan soils are 
on hills, mountains and plateaus. Slopes are 4 to 50 
percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 12 
inches and the mean annual temperature is about 44 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Aridic 
Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Alyan gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes, located in an area of map unit 2001. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1-0 to 2 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) gravelly 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
weak fine through coarse subangular blocky 
structure; soft, very friable, sticky and plastic; many 
very fine and fine, few medium roots; many very 
fine tubular and irregular pores; 25 percent pebbles; 
neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt smooth boundary. (1 to 5 
inches thick) 

A2-2 to 9 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) 
gravelly loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; 
weak medium subangular blocky structure; soft, 
very friable, sticky and plastic; few very fine and 
fine roots; many very fine, few fine and medium 



176 


Soil Survey of 


rubular pores; 25 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); 
clear wavy boundary. (3 to 12 inches thick) 

Bt1--9 to 16 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, dark 
brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate medium 
subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, very sticky 
and very plastic; few very fine and fine roots; many 
very fine through medium tubular pores; common 
thin clay films bridging sand grains and as colloid 
stains on pebbles; 10 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 
7.2); clear wavy boundary. (3 to 8 inches thick) 

Bt2--16 to 28 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
gravelly clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; moderate medium and coarse subangular 
blocky structure; very hard, firm, very sticky and 
very plastic; few very fine and fine roots; common 
very fine through medium tubular pores; many thin 
and common moderately thick clay films on faces of 
peds, lining pores, bridging sand grains and as 
colloid stains on pebbles; 30 percent pebbles; 
neutral (pH 7.2); clear wavy boundary. (4 to 18 
inches thick) 

Bt3--28 to 32 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
very gravelly clay, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
moist; massive; very hard, firm, very sticky and 
very plastic; few very fine roots; common very fine 
and fine tubular pores; common thick clay films 
bridging sand grains and as colloid stains on 
pebbles; 40 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2). (0 to 
5 inches thick) 

R--32 inches; siliceous tuff. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 1 
mile east of Midas; about 600 feet west and 1,200 
feet north of the southeast corner section 21, T. 39 
N., R. 46 E.; 41 degrees, 14 minutes, 25 seconds 
north latitude, 116 degrees, 46 minutes, 44 
seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry from mid 
June to mid October 

Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F. 

Mollic epipedon thickness: 8 to 18 inches thick, and 
commonly includes the upper part of the argillic 
horizon. 

Depth to bedrock: 20 to 40 inches. 

Thickness of the A & Bt horizons: 20 to 40 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-40 to 55 percent. 

Rock fragments—Average 15 to 35 percent, mainly 
pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Value-4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 


Value-5 through 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist, with 
darker value common only in the upper 
subhorizon. 

Chroma—2 through 4. 

Texture-Clay or gravelly clay with thin subhorizons 
of very gravelly clay overlying the bedrock 
common in most pedons. Thin gravelly clay loam 
subhorizons are common in some pedons. 
Structure—Subangular blocky or is massive. 
Consistence-Friable or firm, moist; sticky or very 
sticky and plastic or very plastic, wet. 
Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Arcia Series 

The Arcia series consists of moderately deep, well 
drained soils that formed in colluvium from tuff and 
basalt. The Arcia soils are on side slopes of hills and 
mountains. Slopes are 15 to 50 percent. The mean 
annual precipitation is about 14 inches and the mean 
annual temperature is about 43 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Pachic 
Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Arcia gravelly silt loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes is located in an area of map unit 
1876. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise 
noted.) 

A1—0 to 2 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt 
loam, very dark brown (lOYR 2/2) moist; moderate 
fine granular structure; slightly hard, very friable, 
sticky and slightly plastic; many very fine and fine 
roots; common very fine interstitial pores; 5 percent 
pebbles; neutral (pH 7.0); clear wavy boundary. (1 
to 12 inches thick) 

A2-2 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
moderate fine granular structure; hard, very friable, 
very sticky and plastic; many very fine, common 
fine and few medium roots; common very fine 
tubular and interstitial pores; 5 percent pebbles; 
neutral (pH 7.0); clear wavy boundary. (2 to 8 
inches thick) 

A3-6 to 15 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; 
hard, very friable, very sticky and plastic; common 
very fine and fine, few medium roots; many very 
fine tubular pores; 5 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 
7.0); clear wavy boundary. (0 to 9 inches thick) 
Bt1-15 to 21 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
moderate coarse subangular blocky structure; hard, 
friable, very sticky and very plastic; common very 
fine and fine, few medium roots; many very fine 
tubular pores; few thin clay films bridging sand 
grains and as colloidal stains on coarse fragments; 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


177 


10 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (5 to 10 inches thick) 

Bt2-21 to 27 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
gravelly clay, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate 
coarse subangular blocky structure; very hard, firm, 
very sticky and very plastic; few very fine and fine 
roots; many very fine and few fine tubular pores; 
continuous moderately thick clay films on faces of 
peds and as colloidal stains on coarse fragments; 20 
percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); clear wavy 
boundary. (6 to 20 inches thick) 

Bt3--27 to 33 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
gravelly clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; moderate medium subangular blocky 
structure; hard, friable, very sticky and very plastic; 
few very fine and fine roots; many very fine and 
few fine tubular pores; common moderately thick 
clay films on faces of peds, lining pores and as 
colloidal stains on coarse fragments; 20 percent 
pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); clear wavy boundary. (0 
to 8 inches thick) 

Bt4-33 to 39 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
gravelly clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; massive; hard, friable, sticky and plastic; few 
very fine roots; many very fine and few fine tubular 
pores; 25 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt 
smooth boundary. (0 to 8 inches thick) 

R—39 inches; hard, rhyolite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; about 3 miles 
south of Deep Creek Reservoir; 530 feet north and 
1,320 feet west of the southwest corner of section 
7, T. 42 N., R. 51 E.; 41 degrees, 32 minutes, 50 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 17 minutes, 

42 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist winter and spring, dry mid July 
through early October 

Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F. 

MoHic epipedon thickness: 20 to 30 inches; includes 
the upper argillic horizon. 

Solum thickness and depth to bedrock: 30 to 40 
inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content—Averages 35 to 50 percent. 

Rock fragments—Averages 5 to 20 percent, mainly 
pebbles with some cobbles. 

A horizons: 

Value-4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-1 through 3. 

Btl horizon: 

Value-4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-1 through 3. 

Texture-Clay loam or gravelly clay loam. 

Clay content—30 to 40 percent. 

Rock fragments-0 to 30 percent, mainly pebbles. 


Lower Bt subhorizons: 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4 with lower chroma typically in 
the upper subhorizons. 

Clay content-40 to 60 percent. 

Rock fragments-Average 5 to 35 percent mainly 
pebbles and cobbles. 

Texture-Clay, gravelly clay, cobbly clay. It is 

common to find a very cobbly clay with 35 to 50 
percent rock fragments in most pedons 
immediately above the lithic contact. 

Bartome Series 

The Bartome series consists of shallow over a 
duripan, well drained soils that formed in alluvium from 
mixed sources with a thin loess cap. Bartome soils are 
on fan piedmont remnants. Slopes are 0 to 4 percent. 
Mean annual precipitation is about 9 inches and mean 
annual temperature is about 47 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy, mixed, mesic, shallow 
Xerollic Durargids 

Typical pedon: Bartome very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, is located in an area of map unit 
2807. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise 
noted.) 

A1-0 to 2 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very fine 
sandy loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate 
coarse and very coarse platy structure; slightly hard, 
very friable, slightly sticky and nonplastic; common 
fine and few very fine roots; common coarse and 
many medium vesicular pores; mildly alkaline (pH 
7.8); clear smooth boundary. (1 to 3 inches thick) 
A2-2 to 5 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very fine 
sandy loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak fine 
platy structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and 
nonplastic; common fine and very fine roots; few 
medium and common fine vesicular pores; mildly 
alkaline (pH 7.8); clear wavy boundary. (1 to 4 
inches thick) 

A3—5 to 7 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt 
loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; weak 
medium subangular blocky structure; soft, friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few medium and 
common fine roots; few medium and common fine 
tubular pores; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); clear 
wavy boundary. (0 to 4 inches thick) 

Bt-7 to 11 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty clay 
loam, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; moderate medium 
and coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly 
hard, firm, sticky and plastic; few medium and fine 
roots; few medium and fine tubular pores; few thin 
clay films on peds, common moderately thick clay 
films lining pores; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); 
gradual wavy boundary. (4 to 7 inches thick) 

Bqk-11 to 14 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty clay 
loam, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; strong 







178 


Soil Survey of 


coarse and very coarse platy structure; hard, firm, 
sticky and plastic; few fine roots; few fine tubular 
pores; 5 percent pebbles; 15 percent brittle 
durinodes; few fine soft masses of lime, strongly 
alkaline (pH 8.6); gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 8 
inches thick) 

Bqkm1-14 to 24 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
fractured indurated duripan, light yellowish brown 
(10YR 6/4) moist; strong coarse platy structure; 
very hard, extremely firm; few fine roots; few fine 
tubular pores; 35 percent brittle durinodes in the 
matrix between fractures; common, fine lime in soft 
masses and seams; strongly effervescent; strongly 
alkaline (pH 9.0); clear smooth boundary. (1 to 10 
inches thick) 

Bqkm2-24 to 28 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
indurated duripan, light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
moist; massive; extremely hard, extremely firm; 
continuous silica laminae are 1/2 to 2 millimeters 
thick; violently effervescent; very strongly alkaline 
(pH 9.2); clear wavy boundary. (4 to 17 inches 
thick) 

Bqkm3--28 to 42 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
strongly cemented duripan, light yellowish brown 
(10YR 6/4) moist; massive; very hard, extremely 
firm; 25 percent brittle durinodes; violently 
effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 8.4) 

Type location: Owyhee Desert, Elko County, Nevada; in 
an unsectionized area, about 3,000 feet north and 
1,800 feet west of the Desert Ranch; 41 degrees, 
44 minutes, 9 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 
33 minutes, 25 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry in summer and early autumn 

Soil temperature: 47 to 51 degrees F. 

Depth to base of Bt horizon: 10 to 14 inches. 

Reaction: Neutral to strongly alkaline in solum. 

Depth to indurated duripan: 14 to 20 inches. 

Depth to bedrock: Greater than 60 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content--18 to 26 percent. 

Rock fragments-0 to 1 5 percent, mainly pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Value—5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Bt horizon: 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 

Clay content—27 to 35 percent. 

Structure-Weak or moderate, fine, medium or 
coarse subangular blocky. 

Consistence-Friable or firm moist. 


Bqk horizons (when present): 

Value—6 or 7 dry, 4 through 6 moist. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 

Texture-Silt loam, loam, silty clay loam, sandy 
loam. 

Rock fragments-5 to 25 percent. 
Consistence-Slightly hard or hard dry, friable or 
firm moist, slightly sticky or sticky and slightly 
plastic or plastic wet. 

Bilbo Series 

The Bilbo series consists of very deep, well drained 
soils that formed in alluvium from mixed rock sources. 
Bilbo soils occur on side slopes of fan piedmont 
remnants and plateaus. Slopes are 4 to 50 percent. 

The mean annual precipitation is about 10 inches and 
the mean annual temperature is about 47 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey-skeletal, montmorillonitic, 
mesic Xerollic Haplargids 

Typical pedon: Bilbo very gravelly very fine sandy 
loam, 15 to 50 percent slopes, is located in map 
unit 2514. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise 
noted.) The soil surface is partially covered with 10 
percent cobbles and 30 percent pebbles. 

A1-0 to 3 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very gravelly 
very fine sandy loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; 
weak thick platy structure; soft, very friable, 
nonsticky and nonplastic; common fine and very 
fine vesicular pores; common fine and very fine 
roots; 10 percent cobbles, 30 percent pebbles; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); clear wavy boundary. (2 to 
4 inches thick) 

A2-3 to 5 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very gravelly 
very fine sandy loam, dark brown (lOYr 3/3) moist; 
weak medium platy structure; soft, very friable, 
nonsticky and nonplastic; common fine and very 
fine, few medium roots; common fine and very fine 
vesicular and few medium tubular pores; 10 percent 
cobbles, 25 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 
7.8); clear wavy boundary. (2 to 4 inches thick) 
Bt1-5 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very gravelly 
sandy clay, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate fine 
subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, firm, 
sticky and plastic; common fine, few very fine 
roots; common fine, few very fine interstitial pores; 
common thin clay films on faces of peds and as 
bridges; 15 percent cobbles, 40 percent pebbles; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); gradual wavy boundary. (0 
to 6 inches thick) 

Bt2-10 to 20 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very 
gravelly sandy clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 
4/4) moist; moderate fine prismatic parting to 
moderate fine subangular blocky structure; hard, 
very firm, very sticky and very plastic; common fine 
roots; common fine interstitial pores; common 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


179 


moderately thick clay films on faces of peds and as 
bridges; 15 percent cobbles, 30 percent pebbles; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); gradual wavy boundary. (6 
to 12 inches thick) 

Bt3--20 to 32 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very 
gravelly sandy clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 
4/4) moist; moderate fine subangular blocky 
structure; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; few fine 
roots; few fine pores; common thin clay films on 
faces of peds and as bridges; 15 percent cobbles, 

35 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); gradual 
wavy boundary. (4 to 12 inches thick) 

Bt4-32 to 40 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
very gravelly sandy clay loam, dark yellowish brown 
(10YR 4/4) moist; weak fine subangular blocky 
structure; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; few fine 
roots; few fine interstitial pores; few thin clay films 
lining pores and as bridges; 15 percent cobbles; 40 
percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); gradual 
wavy boundary. (0 to 20 inches thick) 

Bk—40 to 60 inches; pale brown (lOYR 6/3) very 
gravelly sandy loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 
4/4) moist; massive; soft, friable, nonsticky and 
nonplastic; 35 percent pebbles; strongly 
effervescent with lime as fine soft masses; 
moderately alkaline (pH 8.0). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; in an 

unsectionized area, about 3 miles west of IL Ranch; 
41 degrees, 34 minutes, 10 seconds north latitude, 
116 degrees, 27 minutes, 20 seconds west 
longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry June 
through October 

Soil temperature: 47 to 51 degrees F. 

Combined thickness of A and Bt horizons: 20 to 40 
inches. 

Depth to carbonates: 20 to 40 inches. 

Reaction: Neutral to moderately alkaline, normally 
increasing with depth. 

Other features: Transitional A/B or E/B horizons are in 
some pedons. 

Control section: 

Clay content--35 to 50 percent. 

Rock fragments—35 to 60 percent, mainly pebbles 
with up to 20 percent cobbles in some pedons. 

A horizons: 

Value—5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10YR. 

Value—5 or 6 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 

Chroma—2 through 4. 


Texture-Very gravelly clay, very gravelly sandy clay 
loam, very gravelly sandy clay, very gravelly clay 
loam. 

Structure-Prismatic, subangular or angular blocky 
or is massive in the lower part. 
Consistence-Slightly hard to very hard dry; friable 
to very firm moist; sticky or very sticky and 
plastic or very plastic, wet. 

Bk horizon: 

Value—5 through 8 dry, 4 through 6 moist. 
Chroma-2 through 4. 

Texture-Extremely gravelly loamy sand or very 
gravelly sandy loam. 

Rock fragments—35 to 75 percent, mainly pebbles. 
Consistence-Loose to slightly hard, dry; loose to 
firm, moist. 

Bioya Series 

The Bioya series consists of moderately deep, well 
drained soils formed in loess over alluvium from 
volcanic rock sources. They are on summits and side 
slopes of fan piedmont remnants and plateaus. Slopes 
are 0 to 15 percent. The mean annual precipitation is 
about 9 inches and the mean annual temperature is 
about 47 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Xerollic 
Durorthids 

Typical pedon: Bioya very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes located in an area of map unit 236. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 
Approximately 2 percent pebbles covers the 
surface. 

A1-0 to 6 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very fine 
sandy loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; strong very 
fine platy structure; soft, very friable, nonsticky and 
slightly plastic; common very fine and few fine 
roots; many very fine and few fine vesicular pores; 

2 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); clear 
smooth boundary. (3 to 7 inches thick) 

A2—6 to 10 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
silt loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; strong very fine 
platy structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; common very fine roots; few 
very fine tubular pores; 2 percent pebbles; mildly 
alkaline (pH 7.6); clear smooth boundary. (2 to 10 
inches thick) 

Bql—10 to 14 inches; light yellowish brown (lOYR 
6/4) silt loam, dark brown (lOYR 3/3) moist; 
massive; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; few fine and medium roots; common 
very fine tubular pores; few thin silica coatings on 
faces of peds; 2 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 
7.8); gradual smooth boundary. (0 to 5 inches thick) 
Bq2-14 to 19 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) silt loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; 



180 


Soil Survey of 


massive; hard, firm slightly sticky and slightly 
plastic; few very fine roots; few very fine and fine 
tubular pores; common thin silica coatings on faces 
of peds; 30 percent hard firm 5 to 10 millimeter 
durinodes; 1 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 
7.8); clear smooth boundary. (0 to 7 inches thick) 

Bqk1--19 to 31 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) silt loam, dark yellowish brown (lOYR 4/4) 
moist; massive; hard, firm, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; few very fine roots; few very fine 
tubular pores; common thin silica coatings on faces 
of peds; 30 percent hard, firm 5 to 
10millimeterdurinodes; slightly effervescent with 
disseminated lime; 1 percent pebbles; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.0); clear smooth boundary. (9 to 20 
inches thick) 

Bqk2-31 to 36 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
loam, light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) moist; 
massive; very hard, very firm, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; few very fine tubular pores; weak 
discontinuous silica cementation; many thin silica 
coatings on faces of peds, 30 percent firm 5 to 
10millimeterdurinodes; strongly effervescent; many 
fine lime filaments; 1 percent pebbles; strongly 
alkaline (pH 8.6) abrupt smooth boundary. (4 to 8 
inches thick) 

Bqkm--36 to 60 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3); 
indurated duripan, massive. 

Type location; Elko County, Nevada; approximately 4.5 
miles south of Midas; about 650 feet north and 
1,600 feet east of the southwest corner of Section 
10, T. 38 N., R 46 E,; 41 degrees, 10 minutes, 43 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 46 minutes, 

17 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry from mid June to November 

Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Depth to Bqk horizons: 8 to 19 inches. 

Depth to indurated duripan: 20 to 40 inches. 

Other features: Some pedons have a Bq horizons that 
lack carbonates and have value of 6 through 8 dry. 

Control section: 

Clay content-18 to 27 percent. 

A horizons: 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 through 5 moist. (More than 
5.5 dry and 3.5 moist when the surface 7 inches 
are mixed.) 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Reaction—Mildly alkaline to moderately alkaline. 

Bqk horizons: 

Value-6 through 8 dry, 4 through 6 moist. 
Chroma-3 through 6. 

Texture-Silt loam, or loam. 

Structure—Subangular blocky or is massive. 


Reaction—Mildly alkaline to very strongly alkaline. 
Other features-20 to 50 percent durinodes or is 
discontinuously weakly silica cemented. 

Bqkm horizons: 

Structure-Thick or very thick platy, or is massive. 

Blitzen Series 

The Blitzen series consists of moderately deep, well 
drained soils that formed in residuum and colluvium 
from mixed rocks. Blitzen soils are on south facing hill 
and mountain side slopes. Slopes are 15 to 75 percent. 
Mean annual precipitation is about 13 inches and mean 
annual temperature is about 43 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey-skeletal, montmorillonitic, 
frigid Aridic Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Blitzen gravelly clay loam, 15 to 50 
percent slopes, located in an area of map unit 1881. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

AI-0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (lOYR 5/2) gravelly 
clay loam, very dark gray (lOYR 3/1) moist; 
moderate fine and medium subangular blocky 
structure; soft, very friable, sticky and plastic; 
common very fine, fine and few medium roots; 
many very fine and fine vesicular and common fine 
tubular pores; 20 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); 
clear smooth boundary. (3 to 4 inches thick) 

A2-4 to 10 inches; brown (lOYR 5/3) gravelly clay 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
moderate medium and coarse subangular blocky 
structure; slightly hard, very friable, sticky and 
plastic; many very fine and fine roots; common very 
fine, fine and few medium tubular pores; 30 percent 
pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); clear smooth 
boundary. (4 to 6 inches thick) 

Btl—10 to 1 7 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very 
gravelly clay, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate 
medium and coarse subangular blocky structure; 
slightly hard, friable, very sticky and plastic; 
common very fine, fine and few medium roots; 
many very fine and fine tubular pores; common thin 
clay films on faces of peds and lining pores; 35 
percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); clear 
smooth boundary. (5 to 10 inches thick) 

Bt2-17 to 24 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
very gravelly clay, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; strong, 
medium and coarse subangular blocky structure; 
hard, firm, very sticky and very plastic; few fine 
roots; many very fine and fine tubular pores; many 
thin clay films on faces of peds; many colloidal 
stains on mineral grains; 45 percent pebbles; neutral 
(pH 7.2); clear irregular boundary. (4 to 9 inches 
thick) 

Bt3-24 to 33 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very 
gravelly clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


181 


moist; strong medium and coarse angular blocky 
structure; hard, firm, very sticky and very plastic; 
few fine roots; common fine tubular pores; many 
pressure faces, common thick clay films lining 
pores; 55 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); 
abrupt wavy boundary. (4 to 11 inches thick) 

Cr—33 inches; soft weathered tuff. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 13 
miles north of Tuscarora, adjacent to the south fork 
of the Owyhee River; about 300 feet south and 500 
feet west of the northeast corner of section 12, T. 
41 N., R. 51 E.; 41 degrees, 28 minutes, 15 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 11 minutes, 5 
seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry mid-July 
through October 

Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F. 

Mollic epipedon thickness: 1 to 10 inches. 

Reaction: Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Soil thickness and depth to paraiithic contact: 20 to 40 
inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-35 to 60 percent. 

Rock fragments-35 to 60 percent, mainly pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Value—4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3 dry, 1 or 2 moist. 

Bt horizons: 

Value-4 through 6 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 

Chroma—3 or 4. 

Texture—Very gravelly clay or very gravelly clay 
loam. 


Booford Series 

The Booford series consists of moderately deep, 
well drained soils on hills. These soils formed in 
colluvium and residuum derived mainly from andesitic 
volcanic ash and tuff and minor amounts of tuffaceous 
sedimentary rocks. Slopes are 0 to 50 percent. The 
mean annual precipitation is about 16 inches and the 
mean annual temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Typic 
Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Booford silt loam, 1 5 to 50 percent 
slopes, is located in an area of map unit 1746. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A-0 to 10 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam, 
black (10YR 2/1) moist; weak medium and coarse 
subangular blocky structure; soft, very friable. 


slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common very fine 
and fine, few medium and coarse roots; many very 
fine and common fine tubular pores; 5 percent 
pebbles; neutral (pH 6.8); clear wavy boundary. (6 
to 11 inches thick) 

Btl —10 to 1 9 inches; dark grayish brown (1OYR 4/2) 
silty clay loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; moderate medium prismatic parting to 
moderate coarse subangular blocky structure; 
slightly hard, friable, sticky and plastic; common 
very fine and few fine, medium and coarse roots; 
common very fine and fine tubular pores; common 
thin clay films lining pores; 5 percent pebbles; 
neutral (pH 6.8); clear wavy boundary. (3 to 10 
inches thick) 

Bt2-19 to 36 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, dark 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; massive; very hard, firm, 
very sticky and very plastic; few very fine and fine 
roots; few very fine tubular pores; few thin clay 
films lining pores; 10 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 
6.6); clear smooth boundary. (12 to 20 inches 
thick) 

Cr-36 to 52 inches; highly fractured sandstone with 
few thin clay films on fractures, few fine iron and 
manganese coating on rock fragments; few very 
fine and fine roots in fractures. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; about 600 feet 
west and 1,000 feet north of the southeast corner 
of section 5, T. 42 N.; R. 52 E.; 41 degrees, 33 
minutes, 50 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 

08 minutes, 50 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually moist; moist in winter and 
spring, dry in late summer and fall 

Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F. 

MoiUc epipedon thickness: 7 to 1 9 inches thick; 
includes the upper part of the argillic horizon. 

So/um thickness and depth to weathered bedrock: 20 
to 40 inches. 

Reaction of profile: Slightly acid or neutral. 

A horizon: 

Value—3 through 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-1 or 2. 

Btl horizon: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 

Value-4 or 5 dry. 

Chroma—2 or 3. 

Texture-Silty clay loam clay loam or clay. 

Clay content-35 to 45 percent clay. 

Rock fragments-5 to 25 percent. 

Structure—Subangular blocky, angular blocky or 
prismatic. 

Bt2 horizon: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 



182 


Soil Survey of 


Value' 4 through 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 
Chroma--3 or 4. 

Texture--Clay, silty clay or clay loam. 
Clay content—45 to 60 percent. 

Rock fragment-0 to 25 percent. 
Structure-Prismatic or is massive. 


Bregar Series 

The Bregar series consists of very shallow and 
shallow, well drained soils that formed in residuum and 
colluvium from igneous flow rocks, tuff and quartzite. 
The Bregar soils are on hills, plateaus and mountains. 
Slopes are 2 to 75 percent. The mean annual 
precipitation is about 13 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is about 42 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, frigid Lithic 
Xerollic Haplargids 

Typical pedon: Bregar extremely cobbly loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes, located in an area of map unit 1805. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The 
soil surface is covered with 45 percent cobbles and 
20 percent pebbles. 

A1-0 to 2 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) extremely 
cobbly loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak 
medium platy structure; soft, friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; common very fine roots; 
common very fine vesicular pores; 20 percent 
pebbles, 45 percent cobbles, 15 percent stones; 
neutral (pH 7.2); clear smooth boundary. (2 to 6 
inches thick) 

A2-2 to 6 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very gravelly 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak fine 
subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few very fine 
roots; few very fine tubular pores; 35 percent 
pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 7.2); clear 
smooth boundary. (0 to 5 inches thick) 

Bt-6 to 11 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very gravelly 
clay loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate 
fine subangular blocky structure; very hard, very 
firm, very sticky and very plastic; few very fine 
roots; few very fine tubular pores; many thin clay 
films lining pores and on faces of peds; 40 percent 
pebbles, 10 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 7.2) abrupt 
wavy boundary. (2 to 6 inches thick) 

R-11 inches; consolidated rhyolite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; in an 

unsectionized area, about 5 miles east and 1.5 miles 
south of Lake Creek Reservoir; 41 degrees, 55 
minutes, 8 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 50 
minutes, 13 seconds west longitude. 


Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry late June through October 
Soil temperature: 41 to 46 degrees F. 

Depth to bedrock: 5 to 1 2 inches. 

Reaction: Slightly acid through mildly alkaline. 

Other features: The upper 3 inches of bedrock is 
weathered to various degrees in some pedons. 
Control section: 

Clay Content-Average 18 to 30 percent 
Rock fragments-Average 35 to 70 percent. 

A horizons: 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Texture—Very gravelly clay loam, extremely cobbly 
clay loam, very cobbly clay loam, very gravelly 
sandy clay loam or extremely cobbly sandy clay 
loam. Extremely gravelly loam or extremely 
cobbly loam is common in some pedons. 

Clay content-25 to 35 percent. 

Rock fragments-50 to 75 percent, mainly pebbles 
and cobbles with up to 15 percent stones. 
Structure-Weak or moderate, fine or medium, 
angular or subangular blocky, or it is massive. 
Consistence-Slightly hard to very hard dry, friable 
to very firm, moist; slightly sticky to very sticky, 
slightly plastic or very plastic wet. 

Other features-Lower boundary is broken, irregular, 
or wavy. 

Buffaran Series 

The Buffaran series consists of shallow to a duripan, 
well drained soils that formed in alluvium derived from 
mixed rock sources. Buffaran soils are on fan 
piedmonts, mountain valley fans, and ballenas. Slopes 
are 0 to 30 percent. The mean annual precipitation is 
about 10 inches and the mean annual temperature is 
about 46 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey, montmorillonitic, mesic, 
shallow Xerollic Durargids 

Typical pedon: Buffaran very fine sandy loam, 0 to 4 
percent slopes, is located in an area of map unit 
2505. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise 
noted.) 

A1-0 to 2 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very fine 
sandy loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; 
moderate medium platy structure; slightly hard, very 
friable, nonsticky and slightly plastic; many fine and 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


183 


common very fine roots; many fine and medium 
vesicular pores; 5 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline 
(pH 7.4); clear smooth boundary. (1 to 5 inches 
thick) 

A2-2 to 5 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very fine 
sandy loam; dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak 
medium and thin platy structure; soft, very friable, 
nonsticky and nonplastic; few medium, common 
fine and very fine roots; common fine vesicular and 
irregular pores; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); clear 
wavy boundary. (0 to 4 inches thick) 

Btl—5 to 9 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay 
loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; weak 
fine subangular blocky structure; hard, friable, 
sticky and plastic; common medium and fine roots; 
few medium tubular and common irregular pores; 
few thin clay films on faces of peds and lining 
pores; 10 percent pebbles; moderately alkaline (pH 
8.2); gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 4 inches thick) 
Bt2--9 to 18 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay, 
yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; moderate 
medium subangular blocky structure; very hard, 
very firm, very sticky and very plastic; few medium 
and fine roots; common medium tubular and few 
fine irregular pores; common moderately thick clay 
films on faces of peds and lining pores; 5 percent 
pebbles; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); clear smooth 
boundary. (3 to 14 inches thick) 

Bqkm1-18 to 25 inches; indurated duripan, 2 
millimeter thick silica laminar cap; massive; very 
hard, very firm; few fine roots; strongly 
effervescent; lime is in soft masses and coating 
pebbles; moderately alkaline (pH 8.4); gradual wavy 
boundary. (6 to 15 inches thick) 

Bqkm2--25 to 60 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
alternating layers of indurated and strongly 
cemented duripan; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
moist; massive; extremely hard; few fine roots; 
violently effervescent; strongly alkaline (pH 9.0) 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; in an 

unsectionized area, about 2 miles southeast of 
Desert Ranch Reservoir; 41 degrees, 40 minutes, 

04 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 30 
minutes, 27 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry early June through October 
Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Depth to duripan: 14 to 20 inches. 

A horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist, (after mixing upper 
7 inches value is greater than 5.5 dry). 
Chroma-2 or 3. 

Reaction-Neutral to moderately alkaline. 


Bt horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 

Value—5 or 6 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 

Chroma—2 through 6. 

Texture-Clay or clay loam (35 to 50 percent clay). 
Rock fragments-5 to 30 percent, mostly pebbles. 
Reaction-Neutral through moderately alkaline. 

Bq horizons: (when present): 

Texture-Loam or clay loam. 

Rock fragments-20 to 40 percent strongly 
cemented duripan fragments. 

Reaction-Neutral through moderately alkaline, 
noneffervescent to strongly effervescent. 

Bulake Series 

The Bulake series consists of shallow, well drained 
soils that formed in residuum from basalt and rhyolite. 
Bulake soils are on plateaus and hills. Slopes are 2 to 8 
percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 14 inches 
and mean annual temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey, montmorillonitic, frigid Lithic 
Mollic Haploxeralfs 

Typical pedon: Bulake gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes, located in an area of map unit 2310. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The soil 
surface is covered with 20 percent pebbles, 20 
percent cobbles and a few stones. 

A1-0 to 2 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak thin platy 
structure; slightly hard, very friable, nonsticky and 
nonplastic; common fine and very fine roots; 
common medium and fine tubular pores; 15 percent 
pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 6.8); clear 
smooth boundary. (2 to 4 inches thick) 

A2-2 to 7 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak fine 
granular structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly 
sticky and slightly plastic; many fine and very fine 
roots; few fine tubular pores; 15 percent pebbles; 
neutral (pH 6.8); abrupt wavy boundary. (3 to 6 
inches thick) 

Btl—7 to 1 3 inches; yellowish brown (10R 5/4) clay, 
dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; moderate 
fine and medium subangular blocky structure; hard, 
firm, sticky and plastic; few fine and very fine roots; 
few fine and very fine tubular pores; 5 percent 
pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; common moderately 
thick clay films on faces of peds and lining pores; 
neutral (pH 6.8); abrupt wavy boundary. (5 to 9 
inches thick) 

Bt2-13 to 19 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; 
moderate medium and coarse prismatic structure 
parting to strong medium subangular blocky; very 





184 


Soil Survey of 


hard, very firm, very sticky and very plastic; few 
very fine roots; few fine and very fine tubular pores; 

5 percent pebbles; many thick clay films on faces of 
peds; neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 

6 inches thick) 

R--19 inches; rhyolite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; Owyhee Desert, 
about 3.5 miles east and .5 mile south of the 
Josephine Reservoir Dam; 41 degrees, 53 minutes, 
40 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 23 
minutes, 15 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry late July through October 
Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F. 

Depth to bedrock: 14 to 20 inches. 

Thickness of solum: 14 to 20 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-40 to 50 percent. 

Rock fragments-5 to 35 percent, mainly pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Structure—Thin to thick platy or is granular. 

Bt horizons: 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-3 through 6. 

Texture-Clay or gravelly clay. 

Structure-Moderate or strong, fine or medium, 
angular or subangular blocky; medium or coarse 
prismatic. 

Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Bullump Series 

The Bullump series consists of deep, well drained 
soils that formed in colluvium from welded tuff, 
quartzite, chert, argillite, shale, conglomerate and 
rhyolitic rocks with a component of loess. Bullump 
soils are on side slopes of hills and mountains. Slopes 
are 15 to 50 percent. Mean annual precipitation is 
about 15 inches, and the mean annual temperature is 
about 43 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, frigid Pachic 
Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Bullump very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes, is located in an area of map unit 
921. (Colors are for dry soils unless otherwise 
noted.) 

A1-0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) very 
gravelly loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; 
moderate medium subangular blocky structure 


parting to moderate fine granular; slightly hard, very 
friable, slightly sticky and plastic; common very fine 
and fine, few medium roots; many very fine, few 
fine tubular and few fine interstitial pores; 35 
percent pebbles; slightly acid (pH 6.1); clear smooth 
boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick) 

A2-4 to 12 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) 
very gravelly loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) 
moist; moderate medium subangular blocky 
structure; slightly hard, very friable, sticky and 
plastic; common very fine and fine, few medium 
roots; many very fine tubular pores; 45 percent 
pebbles; neutral (pH 6.8); clear wavy boundary. (3 
to 1 2 inches thick) 

Btl—12 to 22 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) very gravelly 
clay loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; 
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; 
hard, friable, sticky and plastic; many very fine and 
fine, common medium and few coarse roots; many 
very fine, few fine and medium tubular pores; many 
thick clay films bridging sand grains and lining 
pores, few thin on faces of peds; 45 percent 
pebbles, 10 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 6.8); clear 
broken boundary. (7 to 12 inches thick) 

Bt2—22 to 32 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very gravelly 
clay loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; moderate medium subangular blocky 
structure; hard, very friable, sticky and plastic; 
many very fine, common fine, few fine and coarse 
roots; many very fine, common fine tubular pores; 
many thin clay films bridging sand grains and lining 
pores, common thin on faces of peds; 50 percent 
pebbles and 5 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 6.8); 
clear wavy boundary. (8 to 30 inches thick) 

Bt3-32 to 41 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very 
gravelly loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; 
moderate medium subangular blocky structure 
parting to moderate fine subangular blocky; slightly 
hard, very friable, sticky and plastic; common very 
fine and fine, few medium roots; many very fine, 
common fine and medium and few coarse tubular 
pores; few thin clay films bridging sand grains and 
lining pores; 45 percent pebbles and 10 percent 
cobbles; neutral (pH 6.8); clear wavy boundary. (0 
to 10 inches thick) 

C-41 to 46 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
very gravelly loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 
4/4) moist; massive; hard, very friable, slightly 
sticky and plastic; few very fine and fine roots; 
many very fine, common fine and few medium 
tubular pores; 50 percent pebbles and 5 percent 
cobbles; neutral (pH 6.6); abrupt wavy boundary. 
R-46 inches; welded tuff. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately .5 
mile east and .25 mile south of Dry Creek Mountain; 
about 1,800 feet east and 600 feet south of the 
northwest corner of section 8, T. 40 N., R. 50 E.; 

41 degrees, 21 minutes, 59 seconds north latitude. 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


185 


116 degrees, 21 minutes, 12 seconds west 
longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and early summer, dry 
late July to early October. Additional soil moisture 
may be supplied by lateral water movement in the 
lower part of the profile 
Soil temperature: 43 to 47 degrees F. 

MoHic epipedon thickness: 20 to 40 inches and may 
include the upper part of the argillic horizon. 

Profile reaction: Slightly acid through mildly alkaline. 
Other features: Some pedons lack C horizons that are 
below 40 inches. 

Depth to bedrock: 40 to 80 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content—25 to 35 percent. 

Rock fragments—35 to 55 percent, mainly pebbles 
with some cobbles. 

A horizons: 

Value-3 through 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-1 through 3. 

Other features-Organic matter 2 to 6 percent. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10YR. 

Value—4 through 6 dry, 2 through 4 moist. 
Chroma-2 through 6. 

Texture—Very gravelly loam or very gravelly clay 
loam. 

Clay content—25 to 35 percent. 

Rock fragments—35 to 55 percent, mainly pebbles. 
Structure-Subangular blocky or angular blocky. 
Consistence—Slightly sticky or sticky and slightly 
plastic or plastic, wet. 

Carstump Series 

The Carstump series consists of moderately deep, 
well drained soils that formed in residuum from 
volcanic rocks. Carstump soils are on side slopes of 
mountains and hills. Slopes are 4 to 50 percent. The 
mean annual precipitation is about 11 inches and the 
mean annual temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey-skeletal, montmorillonitic, 
frigid Aridic Calcic Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Carstump gravelly loam, 8 to 30 

percent slopes, located in an area of map unit 1659. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1-0 to 3 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly loam, 
very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; weak 
medium platy structure; soft, friable, slightly sticky 
and plastic; common very fine roots; few fine 
tubular pores; 10 percent pebbles, 5 percent 


cobbles; neutral (pH 7.0); clear smooth boundary. 

(3 to 7 inches thick) 

A2-3 to 7 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly loam, 
very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; weak 
medium subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, 
friable, slightly sticky and plastic; few medium, fine 
and very fine roots; few fine tubular pores; 10 
percent pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 
7.0); clear wavy boundary. (4 to 14 inches thick) 

A3-7 to 14 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) cobbly loam, 
dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate medium 
subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, sticky and 
very plastic; few fine and very fine roots; few 
medium and fine tubular pores; 5 percent pebbles, 
25 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 7.0); clear wavy 
boundary. (0 to 7 inches thick) 

Bt1-14 to 22 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very 
cobbly clay, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; 
strong medium angular blocky structure; extremely 
hard, extremely firm, very sticky and very plastic; 
few fine and very fine roots; many moderately thick 
stress surfaces on peds; 10 percent pebbles, 35 
percent cobbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); clear 
smooth boundary. (3 to 10 inches thick) 

Btk-22 to 35 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very 
cobbly clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; strong medium angular blocky structure; 
extremely hard, extremely firm, very sticky and very 
plastic; few fine and very fine roots; common 
moderately thick stress surfaces on peds; 10 
percent pebbles, 35 percent cobbles; strongly 
effervescent; lime is in common soft masses; 
moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); clear wavy boundary. 
(5 to 18 inches thick) 

Bk-35 to 36 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) soft 
lime coatings on bedrock; violently effervescent; 
moderately alkaline (pH 8.4); abrupt smooth 
boundary. (0 to 3 inches thick) 

R-36 inches; consolidated rhyolite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; in an 

unsectionized area, about 3 miles southwest of 
Rodear Flat; 41 degrees, 25 minutes, 25 seconds 
north latitude, 116 degrees, 58 minutes, 23 
seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually moist November to June; usually 
dry July through October 

Soil temperature: 45 to 47 degrees. 

MoHic epipedon thickness: 7 to 1 5 inches, includes the 
upper part of the argillic horizons in some pedons. 

Depth to secondary time: 20 to 35 inches. 

Depth to bedrock: 20 to 40 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-40 to 55 percent. 

Rock fragments-35 to 50 percent, mainly pebbles 
and cobbles. 





186 


Soil Survey of 


A horizons: 

Chroma—2 or 3. 

Bt and Btk horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 

Structure-Angular blocky or subangular blocky. 

Texture-Very gravelly clay, very cobbly clay. 
Subhorizons of very gravelly silty clay loam or 
clay loam are in some pedons. 

Consistence-Slightly hard to extremely hard, dry; 
friable to extremely firm moist; sticky or very 
sticky and plastic or very plastic; wet. 

Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline in the 

noncalcareous upper part; moderately alkaline to 
strongly alkaline in the lower part. 

Other features—Soft powdery lime in filaments or 
soft masses is in the Btk horizon. The Bt 
horizons are noneffervescent and the Btk 
horizons are slightly effervescent to violently 
effervescent. 


Cavanaugh Series 

The Cavanaugh series consists of moderately deep, 
well drained soils that formed in colluvium from 
rhyolite. Cavanaugh soils are on side slopes of hills. 
Slopes are 15 to 50 percent. The mean annual 
precipitation is about 14 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey-skeletal, montmorillonitic, 
frigid Ultic Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Cavanaugh very stony loam, 1 5 to 50 
percent slopes, located in an area of map unit 221. 
(Colors are for dry soils unless otherwise noted.) 

The soil surface is partially covered with 
approximately 5 percent stones, 5 percent cobbles 
and 20 percent pebbles. 

A-0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) very stony 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
moderate coarse platy structure; slightly hard, very 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many very 
fine roots; many very fine and fine tubular pores; 20 
percent pebbles, 15 percent cobbles and 5 percent 
stones; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt wavy boundary. (2 
to 11 inches thick) 

Btl—5 to 9 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) cobbly 
clay loam; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; weak medium subangular blocky structure; 
hard, friable, sticky and plastic; common very fine 
and fine roots; few very fine and fine tubular pores; 
common moderately thick clay films bridging sand 
grains; 10 percent pebbles, 20 percent cobbles; 
neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt wavy boundary. (2 to 11 
inches thick) 


Btl—9 to 21 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very 
cobbly clay, dark grayish brown (10YR 3/4) moist; 
massive; hard, very firm, very sticky and very 
plastic; common very fine and fine roots; few very 
fine and fine tubular pores; common moderately 
thick clay films bridging sand grains; 30 percent 
pebbles, 25 percent cobbles; neutral (7.0); abrupt 
wavy boundary. (8 to 15 inches thick) 

R-21 inches; fractured rhyolite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 13 
miles southwest of Owyhee; about 3,000 feet north 
and 1,000 feet west of the southeast corner of 
section 34, T. 46 N., R. 51 E.; 41 degrees, 50 
minutes, 19 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 

14 minutes, 17 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually moist; dry late July through mid 
October 

Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F. 

Thickness of solum and depth to bedrock: 20 to 40 
inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-35 to 50. 

Rock fragments-35 to 65 percent. 

Base saturation by sum of cations-50 to 75 
percent. (In part or all of the upper 75 cm) 

A horizon: 

Chroma-2 or 3, moist or dry. 

Reaction-Slightly acid or neutral. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 

Value—5 or 6 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Texture-Cobbly clay loam or cobbly clay in the 
upper subhorizons and very cobbly clay loam, 
very cobbly clay or very gravelly clay loam in the 
lower subhorizons. 

Reaction-Slightly acid through mildly alkaline. 
Structure-Granular, subangular blocky or is 
massive. 

Chen Series 

The Chen series consists of shallow, well drained 
soils that formed in residuum and colluvium weathered 
from volcanic rocks and other sedimentary rocks. Chen 
soils are on hills and mountains. Slopes are 4 to 50 
percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 12 
inches and the mean annual temperature is about 44 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey-skeletal, montmorillonitic, 
frigid Lithic Argixerolls 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


187 


Typical pedon: Chen very cobbly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent 
slopes, located in an area of map unit 1628. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The soil 
surface is covered with 20 percent pebbles and 20 
percent cobbles. 

A1-0 to 2 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) very 
cobbly loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; moderate medium platy structure; soft, 
friable, slightly sticky and plastic; common very fine 
roots; few medium and fine tubular pores; 2 percent 
stones, 15 percent cobbles, 20 percent pebbles; 
neutral (pH 7.2); clear smooth boundary. (1 to 6 
inches thick) 

A2--2 to 7 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) very 
gravelly loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; 
moderate fine granular structure; slightly hard, 
friable, slightly sticky and plastic; few medium fine 
and very fine roots; few fine tubular pores; 10 
percent cobbles, 25 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 
7.2); abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick) 

Bt—7 to 15 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very cobbly clay, 
dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; strong 
medium angular blocky structure; very hard, very 
firm, very sticky and very plastic; few very fine 
roots; many moderately thick clay films on faces of 
peds; 35 percent cobbles, 10 percent pebbles; 
neutral (pH 7.2); clear smooth boundary. (6 to 12 
inches thick) 

R--15 inches; unweathered rhyolite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; in an 

unsectionized area, about 6 miles south of Rodear 
Flat; 41 degrees, 22 minutes, 25 seconds north 
latitude, 116 degrees, 56 minutes, 57 seconds west 
longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry summer and fall 

Soil temperature: 43 to 47 degrees. 

MoHic epipedon thickness: 7 to 17 inches 

Depth to bedrock: 12 to 20 inches. 

Reaction: Slightly acid through mildly alkaline 
throughout. 

A horizons: 

Value--4 through 6 dry (less than 5.5 when the 
upper 7 inches are mixed), 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3. 

Bt horizon: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10YR with 5YR common in areas 
with high iron concentrations in the parent 
material. 

Value-4 or 5 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Texture—Very gravelly clay, extremely gravelly clay, 
very cobbly clay, extremely cobbly clay; some 


pedons have thin Btl horizon of very gravelly 
clay loam with 35 to 40 percent clay. 

Clay Content-Average 40 to 55 percent. 

Rock fragments—40 to 65 percent pebbles and 
cobbles normally increasing with depth. 
Structure-Weak to strong, fine or medium angular 
or subangular blocky or platy. 

Cherry Spring Series 

The Cherry Spring series consists of well drained soils 
that are moderately deep to a strongly cemented 
duripan. These soils formed in loess with large 
amounts of volcanic ash over mixed alluvium from 
sedimentary and pyroclastic material. The Cherry 
Spring soils are on fan piedmonts. Slopes are 2 to 8 
percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 8 
inches and the mean annual temperature is about 46 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, mixed, mesic 
Haploxerollic Durargids 

Typical pedon: Cherry Spring gravelly loam, 2 to 8 
percent slopes, is located in an area of map unit 
1191. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise 
noted.) The soil surface is covered with 35 percent 
pebbles. 

A1-0 to 3 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) 
gravelly loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; moderately thick platy structure parting to 
moderate very thin platy; soft, very friable, slightly 
sticky and slightly plastic; many very fine, common 
fine roots; many very fine and fine tubular pores; 15 
percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); clear 
smooth boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick) 

A2-3 to 8 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate thin 
platy structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; common very fine and fine roots; 
many very fine tubular pores; 15 percent pebbles; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); clear smooth boundary. (0 
to 6 inches thick) 

Bt-8 to 13 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) clay loam, 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak coarse prismatic 
structure parting to moderate fine and medium 
subangular blocky; slightly hard, friable, sticky and 
plastic; common very fine, few fine and medium 
roots; many very fine tubular pores; common thin 
clay films on faces of peds and lining pores; 10 
percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); clear 
smooth boundary. (4 to 15 inches thick) 

Btqk-13 to 23 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) clay 
loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; 
moderate fine and medium subangular blocky 
structure; slightly hard, friable, sticky and plastic; 
common very fine and fine roots; common very fine 
tubular pores; few thin clay films on faces of peds 




188 


Soil Survey of 


rii-c pores; 20 percent weak durinodes; few 

fine soft lime masses; 10 percent pebbles; 
moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (5 to 10 inches thick) 

2Bqkm--23 to 45 inches; white (10YR 8/2) strongly 
silica and lime cemented duripan, very pale brown 
(10YR 7/3) moist; massive; very hard, very firm; 
violently effervescent; strongly alkaline (pH 8.6). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; in an 

unsectionized area, about 6 miles southwest of 
Winters Ranch; 41 degrees, 26 minutes, 5 seconds 
north latitude, 116 degrees, 38 minutes, 26 
seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in the winter and 
spring, dry early June through October 
Soil temperature: 47 to 51 degrees. 

Combined thickness of A and Bt horizons: 20 to 40 
inches. 

Depth to strongly cemented duripan: 20 to 40 inches. 
Other features: Substrata of contrasting textures are 
present below the duripan in some pedons. 

Control section: 

Clay-20 to 35 percent. 

Rock fragments-0 to 1 5 percent. 

A horizons: 

Value—4 through 7 dry (greater than 5.5 when the 
upper 7 inches are mixed), 2 through 4 moist. 
Chroma-2 or 3. 

Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Bt horizon: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 

Chroma-3 through 6. 

Texture-Loam, silt loam, clay loam, with less than 
35 percent sand. 

Structure-Weak or moderate, fine to coarse 
prismatic and parts to subangular blocky. 
Reaction—Mildly alkaline through strongly alkaline, 
increasing with depth. 

Btqk horizon: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 

Structure-Subangular blocky or it is massive. 
Reaction-Mildly alkaline to strongly alkaline. 
Cementation-Weakly silica cemented or has 20 to 
40 percent durinodes in a friable matrix. 
Carbonates—Few to many lime filaments or soft 
masses. Slightly to violently effervescent. 

Bqkm horizon: 

Reaction-Moderately alkaline through very strongly 
alkaline. 

Other features—Thin, discontinuous silica laminae 
common in some pedons. 


Chiara Series 

The Chiara series consists of shallow to duripan, 
well drained soils that formed in alluvium from mixed 
rock sources with a loess mantle high in volcanic ash. 
The Chiara soils are on fan piedmont remnants and 
plateaus. Slopes are 0 to 1 5 percent. The mean annual 
precipitation is about 9 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is about 47 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy, mixed, mesic, shallow 
Xerollic Durorthids 

Typical pedon: Chiara silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes 
located in an area of map unit 1229. (Colors are for 
dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1—0 to 3 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam, 
dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate medium 
platy structure; slightly hard, very friable, sticky and 
slightly plastic; many very fine and fine, few 
medium roots; many very fine tubular pores; mildly 
alkaline (pH 7.6); clear wavy boundary. (3 to 6 
inches thick) 

A2-3 to 6 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam, 
dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium platy 
structure; slightly hard, very friable, sticky and 
slightly plastic; many very fine through coarse 
roots; common very fine tubular pores; mildly 
alkaline (pH 7.6); clear wavy boundary. (0 to 4 
inches thick) 

Bw—6 to 13 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam, 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium 
subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, very 
friable, sticky and slightly plastic; many very fine 
and fine, common medium and coarse roots; 
common very fine tubular pores; mildly alkaline (pH 
7.6); clear wavy boundary. (4 to 7 inches thick) 
Bqk—13 to 1 7 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) silt 
loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium 
subangular blocky structure; hard, friable, sticky and 
slightly plastic; many very fine and fine, few 
medium roots; many very fine and few fine tubular 
pores; 20 percent .3 to 1 inch in diameter weakly 
cemented and brittle durinodes; violently 
effervescent, lime is disseminated; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.4); abrupt wavy boundary. (4 to 10 
inches thick) 

Bqkm-17 to 40 inches; white (10YR 8/2) indurated 
duripan, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) moist with 1 
to 2 inch continuous bands of fine sandy loam 
containing 35 percent brittle durinodes between 3 
inch thick laminar plates; violently effervescent. (20 
to 50 inches thick) 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; in an 

unsectionized area, about 2 miles north of the IL 
Ranch; 41 degrees, 36 minutes, 38 seconds north 
latitude, 116 degrees, 22 minutes, 18 seconds west 
longitude. 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


189 


Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry from summer and fall 
Soil temperature: 47 to 53 degrees F. 

Depth to duripan: 10 to 20 inches. 

Other features: Depth to lime-7 to 15 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-5 to 18 percent. 

Rock fragments-When mixed, up to 5 percent, 
mainly pebbles, thin subhorizons in some pedons 
have 4 to 25 percent, comprised mainly of 
duripan fragments. 

Sand-Less than 15 percent fine sand and coarser. 

A horizons: 

Value-3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Reaction-Neutral through moderately alkaline. 

Bw horizon: 

Value-6 or 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 

Chroma—3 or 4. 

Texture-Very fine sandy loam, loam, and silt loam. 
Structure-Weak to strong, fine to coarse subangular 
blocky or weak prismatic. 

Consistence—Soft or slightly hard, dry; very friable 
or friable moist; nonsticky to sticky and 
nonplastic or slightly plastic, wet. 
Reaction-Neutral through strongly alkaline. 

Bqk horizon: 

Reaction-Moderately alkaline to strongly alkaline. 
Value-6 or 7 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma—2 through 4. 

Texture—Very fine sandy loam, loam or silt loam 
with 70 to 85 percent silt plus very fine sand. 
Structure-Subangular blocky or is massive. 
Consistence-Slightly hard or hard dry; very friable 
or friable, moist; slightly sticky or nonsticky wet. 
Cementation-Contains from 20 to 60 percent 
weakly cemented and brittle durinodes from 0.3 
to 1 inch in diameter. 

Bqkm horizon: 

Value-6 through 8 dry, 5 through 7 moist. 
Chroma-2 through 4. 

Structure-Massive or weak or moderate thick platy. 

Chime Series 

The Chime series are moderately deep, well drained 
soils that formed in residuum from tuffaceous 
sandstone. Chime soils are on side slopes of fan 
piedmont remnants with a rock core. Slopes are 8 to 
15 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 9 
inches and the mean annual temperature is about 47 
degrees F. 


Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Durixerollic 
Haplargids 

Typical pedon: Chime gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes, located in an area of map unit 2751. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The soil 
surface is covered with about 25 percent pebbles. 

A1-0 to 2 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) 
gravelly loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate 
thin platy structure parting to moderate fine 
granular; slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; few very fine roots; common 
fine and very fine vesicular pores; 15 percent 
pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); clear smooth 
boundary. (2 to 5 inches thick) 

A2-2 to 6 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) 
loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; weak 
thin platy structure parting to moderate fine 
granular; slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; few medium, fine and very fine 
roots; few fine and very fine vesicular pores; 10 
percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); clear 
smooth boundary. (2 to 4 inches thick) 

Bt1-6 to 9 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly clay 
loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate fine 
subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, sticky and 
plastic; few fine and very fine roots; common fine 
tubular pores; common moderately thick clay films 
on faces of peds and lining pores; 15 percent 
pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (3 to 5 inches thick) 

Bt2-9 to 15 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
clay loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; 
moderate medium and coarse angular blocky 
structure; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; few 
medium, fine and very fine roots; common fine 
tubular pores; strong moderately thick clay films on 
faces of peds and lining pores; 10 percent pebbles; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); clear wavy boundary. (5 to 
7 inches thick) 

Bq-15 to 22 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
clay loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; 
weak medium subangular blocky structure; very 
hard, very firm, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 
few fine and very fine roots; few fine tubular pores; 
weak continuous silica cementation; 5 percent 
pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (6 to 10 inches thick) 

Cr-22 inches; weathered tuffaceous sandstone. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; Owyhee Desert, in 
an unsectionized area, about 1.75 miles west of 
McCleary well No 2; 41 degrees, 32 minutes, 22 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 53 minutes, 

34 seconds west longitude. 







190 


Soil Survey of 


Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry mid June through October 
Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F 
Depth to paraiithic contact: 20 to 30 inches. 

Depth to Bq horizons: 14 to 20 inches. 

A horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 2.5Y. 

Value-6 or 7 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-10 YR or 2.5Y. 

Value-5 through 7 dry. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 

Clay content—27 to 35 percent. 

Rock fragments-Up to 20 percent, mainly pebbles. 
Structure-Moderate or strong, fine to coarse 
angular or subangular blocky. 

Bq horizon: 

Hue-1 OYR to 2.5Y. 

Value-6 through 8 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 
Texture-Loam, gravelly loam, clay loam, gravelly 
clay loam. 

Rock fragments-5 to 20 percent, mainly pebbles. 


Cleavage Series 

The Cleavage series consists of shallow, well 
drained soils that formed in residuum or colluvium from 
rhyolite, welded tuff, chert, shale, quartzite, sandstone 
or conglomerate and other igneous or sedimentary 
rocks. Cleavage soils are on hills and mountains. 

Slopes are 4 to 75 percent. The mean annual 
precipitation is about 14 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, frigid Lithic 
Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Cleavage gravelly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes, is located in an area of map unit 1711. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted). The 
soil surface is covered with 15 percent pebbles and 
5 percent cobbles. 

A1-0 to 1 inch; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) gravelly 
loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; moderate 
very fine platy structure; soft, very friable, slightly 
sticky and slightly plastic; many very fine roots; 
common very fine and fine vesicular pores; 15 
percent pebbles, 5 percent cobbles, mildly alkaline 
(pH 7.4); clear smooth boundary. (1 to 9 inches 
thick) 

A2-1 to 4 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) gravelly 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 


weak very fine platy structure; slightly hard, friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many very fine, 
few fine and medium roots; common very fine and 
few fine tubular pores; 10 percent pebbles, 5 
percent cobbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); clear 
smooth boundary. (0 to 8 inches thick) 

BA-4 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very cobbly loam, 
very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
moderate fine and medium subangular blocky 
structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and 
plastic; common very fine, few fine and medium 
roots; common very fine tubular pores; 5 percent 
pebbles, 30 percent cobbles, 5 percent stones; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); clear smooth boundary. (0 
to 6 inches thick) 

Bt-9 to 18 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
very cobbly clay loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; 
moderate fine and medium subangular blocky 
structure; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; common 
very fine, few fine and thin clay films on faces of 
peds and lining pores; 30 percent pebbles, 25 
percent cobbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); abrupt 
wavy boundary. (6 to 12 inches thick) 

R-18 inches; rhyolite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; about 5 miles 
west of Midas; about 100 feet east and 2,700 feet 
south of the northwest corner of section 24, T. 39 
N., R. 45 E.; 41 degrees, 14 minutes, 33 seconds 
north latitude, 116 degrees, 51 minutes, 12 
seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry from July 
through October for 70 to 120 consecutive days 
Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F.and ranges down 
to 39 degrees F.in parts of Idaho. 

MoHic epipedon thickness: 7 to 10 inches, does not 
include Bt horizon. 

Depth to bedrock: 14 to 20 inches. 

Reaction: Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Control section: 

Clay content-20 to 35 percent. 

Rock fragments-50 to 80 percent, mostly pebbles 
or cobbles. 

A horizons: 

Value-4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3 

BA horizon: 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Texture-Very cobbly loam or very gravelly loam. 
Consistence-Slightly plastic or plastic, wet. 

Bt horizon: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10YR. 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


191 


Texture--Very cobbly, extremely cobbly, very 
gravelly or extremely gravelly clay loam, very 
gravelly sandy clay loam, 

Structure-Subangular blocky or angular blocky or it 
is massive. 

Consistence-Friable or firm, moist. 

Clementine Series 

The Clementine series consists of very deep, poorly 
drained soils that formed in alluvium derived from 
mixed rock sources with influence from loess. The 
Clementine soils are on floodplains, stream terraces 
and inset fans. Slopes are 0 to 8 percent. The mean 
annual precipitation is about 9 inches and the mean 
annual temperature is about 50 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, mesic Cumulic 
Haplaquolls 

Typical pedon: Clementine silt loam, drained, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, located in an area of map unit 1130. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1-0 to 3 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt loam, 
very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
moderate medium platy structure; slightly hard, very 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many very 
fine and few fine roots; few very fine tubular and 
common very fine interstitial pores; neutral (pH 

6.6) ; abrupt wavy boundary. (2 to 4 inches thick) 
A2—3 to 1 2 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty 

clay loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; moderate coarse subangular blocky structure; 
hard, friable, sticky and slightly plastic; many very 
fine and fine, few medium and coarse roots; 
common very fine tubular and interstitial pores; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); abrupt wavy boundary. (8 
to 12 inches thick) 

A3—12 to 20 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) 
silty clay loam, black (10YR 2/1) moist; few fine 
distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) iron mottles; 
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; 
hard, friable, sticky and plastic; many very fine, 
fine, medium and coarse roots; common very fine 
tubular and interstitial pores; mildly alkaline (pH 

7.6) ; clear wavy boundary. (6 to 10 inches thick) 
Bk-20 to 27 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt 

loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
common fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) iron 
mottles; few, fine manganese stains; moderate 
medium subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, 
friable, sticky and plastic; common very fine and 
fine, few medium and coarse roots; many very fine, 
few fine tubular pores; few fine soft lime masses; 
slightly effervescent matrix; moderately alkaline (pH 
8.2); clear wavy boundary. (5 to 9 inches thick) 
Bk1-27 to 33 inches; light brownish gray(2.5Y 6/2) 
silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) 


moist; few, fine distinct, strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) 
iron mottles; few fine manganese stains on faces of 
peds; moderate medium subangular blocky 
structure; hard, friable, sticky and plastic; few very 
fine and fine roots; many very fine tubular pores; 
common fine soft lime masses; slightly effervescent; 
moderately alkaline (pH 8.4); clear wavy boundary. 
(5 to 8 inches thick) 

Bk3-33 to 44 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) 
silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) 
moist; few, fine, distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) 
iron mottles; weak medium subangular blocky 
structure; hard, friable, sticky and plastic; few very 
fine and fine roots; many very fine tubular pores; 
many fine soft lime masses; strongly effervescent; 
moderately alkaline (pH 8.4); clear wavy boundary. 
(8 to 12 inches thick) 

Bk3-44 to 58 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) 
clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; 
common fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) iron 
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; 
hard, friable, sticky and plastic; few very fine and 
fine roots; many very fine tubular pores; few fine 
lime filaments; noneffervescent matrix; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.4); clear wavy boundary. (10 to 20 
inches thick) 

Bk4-58 to 60 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7.2) loam, 
grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; common fine 
distinct strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) iron mottles; few 
fine manganese stains; massive; slightly hard, 
friable, sticky and slightly plastic; few very fine 
roots; many very fine interstitial and few very fine 
tubular pores; slightly effervescent; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.4) 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 8 
miles northeast of Squaw Valley Ranch; about 900 
feet west and 1,700 feet south of the northeast 
corner of section 11, T. 39 N., R. 47 E.; 41 
degrees, 16 minutes, 29 seconds north latitude, 

116 degrees, 37 minutes, 42 seconds west 
longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Saturated at or near the surface for one 
month or more during February through July. 

Drained phases are recognized 

Soil temperature: 47 to 53 degrees F. 

Mollic epipedon thickness: 24 to 30 inches. 

Depth to carbonates: 1 2 to 40 inches. 

Other features: Few to common, fine, redox 

concentrations occur below depths of 1 2 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-25 to 35 percent. 

A horizons: 

Value-4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-1 through 3 dry or moist. 

Reaction-Neutral to strongly alkaline. 




192 


Soil Survey of 


Bk horizons: 

Hue-lOYR or 2.5Y. 

Value--5 through 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 
Chroma-1 through 3 dry or moist. 

Texture-Stratified silt loam or silty clay loam. Strata 
of loam or clay loam are below depths of 40 
inches in some pedons. 

Structure-Subangular blocky or is massive. 
Consistence-Friable or firm, moist, slightly sticky or 
sticky, wet. 

Reaction-Moderately alkaline or strongly alkaline. 
Other features-Few fine manganese stains are on 
peds in most pedons. 

Clurde Series 

The Clurde series consists of very deep, well 
drained soils that formed in loess and volcanic ash over 
alluvium from mixed rock sources. Clurde soils are on 
alluvial fans, fan skirts, inset fans and dissected 
terraces. Slopes are 0 to 1 5 percent. The mean annual 
precipitation is about 8 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is about 45 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class; Fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Durixerollic 
Camborthids 

Typical pedon: Clurde very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, located in an area of map unit 1155. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1-0 to 3 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very fine 
sandy loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak 
thick platy structure; soft, very friable, slightly 
sticky and slightly plastic; few very fine roots; many 
fine vesicular pores; 5 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 
7.2); abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick) 
A2-3 to 6 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very fine 
sandy loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate thin 
platy structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; few fine and very fine roots; 
few very fine tubular pores; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); 
clear smooth boundary. (0 to 4 inches thick) 

BA-6 to 10 inches; pale brown (10R 6/3) loam, brown 
(10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium subangular 
blocky structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky 
and plastic; few fine and very fine roots; few very 
fine tubular pores; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); 
clear smooth boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick) 

Bw-10 to 20 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist, weak 
coarse subangular blocky structure; hard, friable, 
slightly sticky and plastic; few thin clay films lining 
pores; 5 percent pebbles; moderately alkaline (pH 
8.0); clear smooth boundary. (4 to 10 inches thick) 
Bqk1-20 to 29 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; 
massive; very hard, friable, sticky and plastic; 20 


percent durinodes; lime is in common fine threads 
and filaments; strongly effervescent; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.2); gradual wavy boundary. (7 to 13 
inches thick) 

2Bqk2-29 to 43 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
coarse sandy loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; 
massive; very hard, friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; 10 percent pebbles; 15 percent 
durinodes; lime is in common fine soft masses; 
strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); 
gradual wavy boundary. (12 to 14 inches thick) 
2Bqk3-43 to 60 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loamy 
sand, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; massive; hard, very 
friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; weakly cemented 
with silica and lime; 20 percent durinodes; 10 
percent pebbles; lime is in common fine soft 
masses; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline 
(pH 8.4). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; in an 

unsectionized area, about 11/8 miles south and 7/8 
mile west of McCleary Well No. 1; 41 degrees, 35 
minutes, 45 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 

52 minutes, 01 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

So// moisture: Usually dry; moist for short periods, 
December through March 
Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Depth to base of Bw horizon: 12 to 20 inches. 

Depth to carbonates: 12 to 24 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-18 to 30 percent. 

A horizons: 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 3 or 4 moist; when mixed 
values are greater than 5 dry and 3 moist. 
Chroma—2 or 3. 

Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Other features-Pedons with transitional BA horizons 
are common. 

Bw horizon: 

Texture-Clay loam, loam, silt loam. 

Clay content-18 to 30 percent 
Rock fragments-0 to 15 percent, mainly pebbles. 
Structure-Weak or moderate subangular blocky. 
Consistence-Slightly hard or hard, dry; friable or 
very friable, moist; slightly sticky or sticky and 
slightly plastic or plastic, wet. 
Reaction-Moderately alkaline or strongly alkaline. 

Bq and Bqk horizons: 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 4 through 6 moist. 
Chroma-2 or 4. 

Texture-Stratified gravelly sandy loam to clay loam. 
Some pedons have horizons with texture of 
loamy sand below 40 inches. 

Clay content-15 to 25 percent. 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


193 


Rock fragnnents-5 to 30 percent, mainly pebbles. 
Structure-Weak or medium subangular blocky or 
platy or is massive. 

Consistence-Very friable to firm, moist; nonsticky 
to sticky and nonplastic to plastic, wet 
Reaction-Moderately alkaline through very strongly 
alkaline. 

Effervescence (Bqk horizons)-Slightly effervescent 
through violently effervescent. 

Cementation-20 to 60 percent durinodes. Thin 
layers with continuous brittle matrix are in some 
pedons. 

Other features-Thin Bq horizons are above Bqk 
horizons in some pedons. 

Clurde Variant 

The Clurde variant consists of moderately deep, well 
drained soils that formed in mixed alluvium. Clurde 
variant soils are on inset fans. Slopes are 0 to 2 
percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 9 
inches and the mean annual temperature is about 47 
degrees F. 

Taxanomic class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, mesic 
Durixerollic Camborthids 

Typical pedon: Clurde variant loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, located in an area of map unit 2531. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1—0 to 3 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam, dark 
brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate medium platy 
structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; few very fine roots; common fine 
vesicular pores; 5 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); 
abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to 3 inches thick) 

A2—3 to 7 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam, dark 
brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium platy 
structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and 
plastic; few very fine roots; few fine tubular pores; 
10 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); clear smooth 
boundary. (3 to 7 inches thick) 

Bw—7 to 1 3 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam, 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium 
subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, firm, 
sticky and plastic; few medium, fine and very fine 
roots; few fine tubular pores; 15 percent pebbles; 
neutral (pH 7.2); gradual wavy boundary. (6 to 7 
inches thick) 

Bql—13 to 19 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) gravelly sandy clay loam, yellowish brown 
(10YR 5/4) moist; moderate medium subangular 
blocky structure; hard, firm, and brittle, sticky and 
plastic; 25 percent pebbles; continuous brittle 
matrix; neutral (pH 7.2); clear wavy boundary. (6 to 
7 inches thick) 

Bq2—19 to 30 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) very gravelly sandy loam, yellowish brown 


(10YR 5/4) moist; massive; hard, firm, and brittle, 
nonsticky and nonplastic; 55 percent pebbles; 
continuous brittle matrix; neutral (pH 7.2); clear 
wavy boundary. (5 to 11 inches thick) 

Bq3—30 to 32 inches; lightly yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) gravelly clay, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
moist; massive; very hard, very firm, very sticky 
and very plastic; 20 percent pebbles; weak 
continuous silica cementation; mildly alkaline (pH 
7.4); abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 2 inches thick) 
R-32 inches; consolidated basalt. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; in an 

unsectionized area, about 1.5 miles south of Silver 
Lake; 41 degrees, 38 minutes, 28 seconds north 
latitude, 116 degrees, 39 minutes, 19 seconds west 
longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry June 
through October 

Soil temperature: 47 to 51 degrees F. 

Depth to continuous brittle matrix: 1 2 to 17 inches. 
Depth to bedrock: 24 to 32 inches. 

Control section: 

Coarse fragments: 35 to 50 average. 

Bw horizon: 

Chroma—3 or 4. 

Clay content-20 to 25 percent. 

Rock fragments-15 to 35 percent, mostly pebbles. 

Bq horizons: 

Value—4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma—3 or 4. 

Rock fragments-20 to 60 percent. 

Coltroop Series 

The Coltroop series consists of shallow, well 
drained soils that formed in a thin loess mantle over 
alluvium from rhyolite and basalt. The Coltroop soils 
are the plateaus and fan piedmont remnants. Slopes 
are 0 to 4 percent. The mean annual precipitation is 
about 9 inches and the mean annual temperature is 
about 47 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy, mixed, mesic, shallow 
Xerollic Durorthids 

Typical pedon: Coltroop very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes located in an area of map unit 2205. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1-0 to 2 inches; light brownish gray (6/2) very fine 
sandy loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; 
weak medium platy structure; slightly hard, very 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few fine 



194 


Soil Survey of 


and very fine roots; common medium, many fine 
and very fine pores; 5 percent pebbles; mildly 
alkaline (pH 7.4); clear smooth boundary. (2 to 3 
inches thick) 

A2--2 to 5 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silt 
loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; weak 
thin platy structure parting to moderate fine 
granular; slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; few medium, many fine and 
very fine roots; few fine tubular pores; 5 percent 
pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (2 to 4 inches thick) 

Bw--5 to 10 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam, 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak medium subangular 
blocky structure; hard, friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; common medium, fine and very fine 
roots; few fine tubular pores; 5 percent pebbles; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); abrupt wavy boundary. (5 
to 11 inches thick) 

Bqk--10 to 17 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam, 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak fine and medium 
subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, slightly 
sticky and slightly plastic; few medium pebbles; 
weakly cemented with silica and lime; 40 percent 
durinodes; slightly effervescent; mildly alkaline (pH 
7.8); abrupt wavy boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick) 

2Bqkm—17 to 27 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/4) 
continuous indurated duripan; very pale brown 
(10YR 7/4) moist; strong thick platy structure; 
extremely hard, very firm; few very fine roots along 
plate surfaces; violently effervescent; abrupt wavy 
boundary. (9 to 10 inches thick) 

2Ck--27 to 32 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) 
sandy loam, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; 
massive; loose, nonsticky and nonplastic; common 
very fine roots; 10 percent pebbles; violently 
effervescent; lime is disseminated; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.4); abrupt wavy boundary (0 to 5 
inches thick) 

R--32 inches; rhyolite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; in a unsectionized 
area, about 4.75 miles northeast of Lake Creek 
Reservoir, near the Little Owyhee River; 41 degrees, 
59 minutes, 22 seconds north latitude, 116 
degrees, 52 minutes, 12 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry June 
through October 

Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Depth to duripan: 14 to 20 inches. 

Depth to bedrock: 30 to 35 inches. 

Depth to Bqk horizons: 10 to 16 inches. 


Control section: 

Clay content--20 to 30 percent. 

Rock fragments-0 to 15 percent. 

A horizons: 

Chroma--2 or 3. 

Bw horizon: 

Chroma--3 or 4. 

Clay content—18 to 27 percent. 

Bqk horizons: 

Value-4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma—3 or 4. 

Texture-Silt loam or silty clay loam. 

Clay content-20 to 30 percent. 

Durinodes-20 to 40 percent. 

Reaction-Mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline. 

Bqkm horizon: 

Structure-Thick platy or is massive. 

Cotant Series 

The Cotant series consists of shallow, well-drained 
soils formed in residuum from tuff and mixed 
sedimentary rocks. Cotant soils are on hills. Slopes are 
2 to 50 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 
14 inches and the mean annual temperature is about 
44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey, montmorillonitic, frigid, 
shallow Aridic Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Cotant cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes located in an area of map unit 308. (Colors 
are for dry soils unless otherwise noted.) The 
surface is covered by 5 percent pebbles, 15 percent 
cobbles and 5 percent stones. 

A-0 to 3 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) 
cobbly loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; weak thick platy structure; soft, very friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many very fine 
and fine roots; common very fine vesicular pores; 5 
percent pebbles, 15 percent cobbles; neutral (7.0); 
clear wavy boundary. (2 to 5 inches thick) 

Bt1-3 to 7 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) cobbly clay, dark 
brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium subangular 
blocky structure; soft, very friable, very sticky and 
very plastic; many very fine and fine, common 
medium, few coarse roots; common very fine 
tubular pores; few moderately thick clay films 
coating and bridging sand grains; many stress 
surfaces on faces of peds; 5 percent pebbles, 1 5 
percent cobbles; neutral (pH 7.0); clear wavy 
boundary. (4 to 12 inches thick) 

Bt2-7 to 20 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, dark 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; strong coarse prismatic 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


195 


structure; very hard, very firm, very sticky and very 
plastic; few very fine and fine roots; common very 
fine tubular pores; continuous stress surfaces on 
faces of peds; 5 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 
7.4); clear wavy boundary. ( 5 to 13 inches thick) 
Cr1-20 to 24 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) 

weathered tuff bedrock with common moderately 
thick clay films coating fracture planes; few very 
fine roots in fractures. (4 to 12 inches thick) 

Cr2--24 inches; very pale brown weathered tuff 
bedrock with few thin clay films coating fracture 
planes; few very fine roots in fractures. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 3.5 
miles south of Willow Creek Reservoir; about 1,200 
feet north and 1,700 feet west of the southeast 
corner of section 16, T. 38 N., R 48 E.; 41 degrees, 
09 minutes, 56 seconds north latitude, 116 
degrees, 33 minutes, 05 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually moist; moist in winter and 
spring, dry July through October 
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F. 

Mollic epipedon thickness: 7 to 14 inches, including 
upper part of argillic horizons. 

Solum thickness and depth to paralithic contact: 12 to 
20 inches. 

Profile reaction: Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

A horizon: 

Value—5 or 6 dry, 5.5 or darker when upper 7 
inches are mixed. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Bt horizons: 

Value-4 through 6 dry, 3 through 5 moist. The 
upper subhorizons is 4 or 5 dry and 3 moist. 
Chroma-2 through 4, with 4 only in the lower 
subhorizons. 

Texture-Dominantly clay, cobbly clay, gravelly clay 
or gravelly clay loam common in some 
subhorizons. 

Clay content-40 to 60 percent. 

Rock fragments-0 to 1 5 percent, mainly pebbles 
and cobbles; up to 25 percent common in some 
subhorizons. 

Structure—Prismatic, angular blocky or subangular 
blocky. 

Other features-Darker crushed matrix values 
common in upper part of horizons. 
Consistence-Soft to very hard, dry; very friable to 
very firm, moist; sticky or very sticky and plastic 
or very plastic, wet. 

Cr horizons: 

Clay films-Some pedons lack clay films. 


Creemon Series 

The Creemon series consists of very deep, well 
drained soils that formed in silty alluvium from mixed 
rock sources with a component of volcanic ash and 
loess. Creemon soils are on stream terraces. Slopes are 
0 to 2 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 
7 inches and the mean annual temperature is about 47 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Coarse-silty, mixed, mesic Duric 
Camborthids 

Typical pedon: Creemon silt loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes located in an area of map unit 1530. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1—0 to 3 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silt 
loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; 
moderate very thick platy parting to moderate very 
fine platy structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; common very fine, few fine 
roots; many very fine vesicular pores; 1 percent 
gravel; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); clear smooth 
boundary. (3 to 7 inches thick) 

A2-3 to 8 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silt 
loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; 
moderate very thin platy structure; soft, very friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common very 
fine, few fine and medium roots; common very fine 
tubular pores; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); clear 
smooth boundary. (0 to 8 inches thick) 

Bw-8 to 14 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam, 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium and 
thick platy structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly 
sticky and slightly plastic; common very fine, few 
fine and medium roots; common very fine, few fine 
tubular pores; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); clear 
smooth boundary. (4 to 8 inches thick) 

Bq-14 to 25 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
weakly stratified silt loam, dark yellowish brown 
(10YR 4/4) moist; massive; slightly hard, friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common very 
fine, few fine and medium roots; few very fine and 
fine tubular pores; 10 percent durinodes; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.4); clear smooth boundary. (0 to 12 
inches thick) 

Bqk—25 to 47 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
silt loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; 
massive; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; common very fine, few medium 
roots; few very fine tubular pores; 20 percent 
discontinuous weak silica cementation; 20 percent 
durinodes; few fine irregular lime filaments; strongly 
effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); clear 
smooth boundary. (15 to 30 inches thick) 

Ck-47 to 60 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
stratified very fine sandy loam and fine sandy loam, 
dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) moist; massive; 
slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly 









196 


Soil Survey of 


plastic; common very fine roots; common very fine 
tubular pores; common fine irregular lime filaments 
and seams; strongly effervescent; strongly alkaline 
(pH 8.5). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 3 
miles southeast of the Upper Clover Ranch; about 
2,200 feet west and 2,000 feet north of the 
southeast corner of section 26, T. 38 N., R. 44 E.; 
41 degrees, 08 minutes, 33 seconds north latitude, 

116 degrees, 58 minutes, 45 seconds west 
longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in some part for short 
periods from October through May 
Soil temperature: 48 to 52 degrees F. 

Thickness of A and Bw horizons: 11 to 1 5 inches. 
Control section: 

Clay content-8 to 18 percent. 

Texture-Stratified silt loam to very fine sandy loam. 
Depth to Bq or Bqk horizons: 11 to 20 inches. 

Reaction: Moderately alkaline or strongly alkaline 
throughout. 

Other features: Some pedons have lenses of volcanic 
ash in their lower profiles; some pedons have up to 
20 percent pebbles at depths below 40 inches, and 
a continuous brittle matrix layer at depths between 
40 to 55 inches, these soils are normally moderately 
or strongly salt and sodium affected below depths 
of 20 to 30 inches, but some pedons are 
moderately or strongly affected throughout. 

A horizons: 

Value—6 or 7 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3. 

Other features-Noneffervescent or slightly 
effervescent. 

Bw horizon: 

Value—6 or 7 dry. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Structure-Thin to thick platy or it is weak medium 
subangular blocky. 

Consistence-Soft or slightly hard, very friable or 
friable, moist; nonsticky or slightly sticky, 
nonplastic or slightly plastic. 

Bq and Bqk horizons: 

Value—5 through 7 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Consistence—Soft or slightly hard, dry; very friable 
or friable moist; nonsticky or slightly sticky. 

Other features-Strongly or violently effervescent in 
Bqk horizons; 20 to 40 percent durinodes; many 
pedons between depths of 11 to 29 inches have 
a 3 to 10 inch thick horizon with 20 to 60 
percent discontinuous weakly silica cemented 
lenses. 


Crooked Creek Series 

The Crooked Creek series consists of very deep, 
poorly drained soils that formed in alluvium from mixed 
sedimentary and igneous rocks. Crooked Creek soils 
are on axial stream flood-plains, stream terraces and 
localized seeps. Slopes are 0 to 4 percent. The mean 
annual precipitation is about 14 inches and the mean 
annual temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Cumulic 
Haplaquolls 

Typical pedon: Crooked Creek silty clay loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes in an area of map unit 184. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silty clay 
loam, black (10YR 2/1) moist; strong fine and 
medium subangular blocky structure; hard, friable, 
sticky and plastic; many very fine, fine and medium 
roots; many very fine interstitial pores; neutral (pH 
7.2); abrupt smooth boundary. (1 to 3 inches thick) 
A2-3 to 1 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silty 
clay, black (10YR 2/1) moist; few fine distinct 
brown (10YR 5/3) mottles; strong medium prismatic 
structure parting to strong fine angular blocky; very 
hard, firm, very sticky and very plastic; common 
very fine and fine roots; few very fine tubular pores; 
few clean sand grains on faces of peds; neutral (pH 
7.0); clear smooth boundary. (3 to 10 inches thick) 
A3-13 to 28 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silty 
clay, black (10YR 2/1) moist; common fine 
prominent yellowish red (5YR 4/6) and medium 
distinct brown (10 YR5/3) mottles and common 
manganese stains; strong medium prismatic 
structure parting to strong fine angular blocky; very 
hard, firm, very sticky and very plastic; common 
very fine and fine roots; common very fine tubular 
pores; common fine and medium clean sand grains 
within peds; neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt smooth 
boundary. (4 to 15 inches thick) 

A4-28 to 37 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) silty clay, 
very dark gray (10YR 3/1) moist; common fine 
prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and many 
large distinct browndOYR 5/3) mottles and 
common fine manganese stains; strong medium 
prismatic structure parting to strong fine angular 
blocky; very hard, firm, very sticky and very plastic; 
common very fine and fine roots; common very fine 
and fine tubular pores; few thin clay films lining 
pores; neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt smooth boundary. (3 
to 14 inches thick) 

Cl—37 to 45 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) 
silty clay loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; common fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 
5/6) and few fine prominent yellowish red (5YR 4/6) 
and many medium distinct brown (10YR 5/3) 
mottles and few fine manganese stains; massive; 
hard, friable, very sticky and plastic; few very fine 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


197 


and fine roots; common very fine tubular pores; 
neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt smooth boundary. (0 to 14 
inches thick) 

C2--45 to 60 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) 
silty clay loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; common fine and medium prominent strong 
brown (7.5YR 5/6) and few fine prominent 
yellowish red (5YR 4/6) and few large distinct black 
(10YR 2/1) and many medium distinct brown (10YR 
5/3) mottles and common fine manganese stains; 
massive; very hard, firm, very sticky and very 
plastic; few very fine roots; few very fine tubular 
pores; common thin silt coating lining pores and 
bridging mineral grains; neutral (pH 7.2). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; about 4 miles east 
of Deep Creek Reservoir; 2,500 feet west and 
1,300 feet south of the northeast corner of section 
34, T. 43 N., R. 51 E.; 41 degrees, 35 minutes, 07 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 13 minutes, 

55 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: The soil is saturated at or near the 
surface for at least one month during most years 
Soil temperature: 43 to 47 degrees F. 

Mollic epipedon thickness: Greater than 24 inches. 
Profile reaction: Neutral to moderately alkaline. 

Control section: 

Percent clay-Averages 35 to 50. 

Texture-Mostly clay loam, silty clay loam, clay or 
silty clay with thin lenses of loam or silt loam. 
Rock fragments—Averages 0 to 10 percent. 

A horizons; 

Value-3 through 5 dry, 1 through 3 moist. 
Chroma-1 or 2. 

Other features-Most subhorizons have faint to 
distinct mottles. 

C horizons: 

Hue-lOYR, 7.5YR, 5Y or 2.5Y. 

Value—3 through 6 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 

Chroma—1 to 4. 

Texture-Clay loam, silty clay loam, or silt loam. 

Clay Content-Averages 30 to 40 percent. 

Rock fragments-Averages 0 to 10 percent. Some 
pedons may have up to 75 percent rock 
fragments in the subhorizons below 36 inches, 
but these are not consistent or continuous. 
Structure-Subangular blocky or prismatic or it is 
massive. 

Other features—These horizons have distinct or 
prominent mottles with hues of 7.5YR to 5G. 


Dacker Series 

The Dacker series consists of moderately deep over 
duripan, well drained soils that formed in silty 
alluvium from mixed rock sources with a component 
of loess and volcanic ash. The Dacker soils are on 
fan piedmont remnants. Slopes are 0 to 8 percent. 
The mean annual precipitation is about 9 inches and 
the mean annual temperature is about 47 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Xerollic 
Durargids 

Typical pedon: Dacker silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, 
is located in an area of map unit 2809. (Colors are 
for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1—0 to 3 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam, 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate thin platy 
structure; soft, friable, slightly sticky and slightly 
plastic; few very fine roots; common fine vesicular 
pores; 5 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 6.6); abrupt 
smooth boundary. (2 to 4 inches thick) 

A2-3 to 6 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam, dark 
brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate very fine 
subangular blocky structure; soft, friable, slightly 
sticky and slightly plastic; few very fine roots; 
common fine vesicular pores; neutral (pH 6.8); clear 
smooth boundary. (2 to 4 inches thick) 

Bt1-6 to 11 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty 
clay loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate 
medium subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common very fine 
roots; few very fine tubular pores; common 
moderately thick clay films on faces of peds; mildly 
alkaline (pH 7.8); gradual smooth boundary. (4 to 
13 inches thick) 

Bt2-11 to 25 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
silty clay loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; moderate medium subangular blocky 
structure; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; few 
medium, fine and very fine roots; few very fine 
tubular pores; common moderately thick clay films 
on faces of peds; 10 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline 
(pH 7.8); clear smooth boundary. (5 to 14 inches 
thick) 

Bqk-25 to 32 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam, 
dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; moderate 
medium subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, 
sticky and plastic; few fine and very fine roots; few 
fine tubular pores; 10 percent pebbles; weakly 
cemented with silica; 20 percent durinodes; strongly 
effervescent, lime is disseminated; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.0); abrupt wavy boundary. (5 to 12 
inches thick) 

Bqkml—32 to 52 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) 
continuous indurated duripan with opal laminae 1/8 
to 1/4 inches thick; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
moist; massive; extremely hard; violently 
effervescent; clear wavy boundary. 



198 


Soil Survey of 


Bqkm2-52 to 60 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
strongly cemented fractured duripan, pale brown 
(10YR 6/3) moist; massive; very hard dry 
consistence; violently effervescent. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; in an 

unsectionized area, about 6.5 miles northwest of 
Josephine Reservoir; 41 degrees, 58 minutes, 30 
seconds north latitude; 116 degrees, 31 minutes, 

42 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in the winter and 
spring, dry June through October 
Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Combined thickness of A and Bt: 17 to 25 inches. 
Depth to carbonates: 15 to 25 inches. 

Depth to duripan: 20 to 35 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-27 to 35 percent. 

Rock fragments-5 to 35 percent, mainly pebbles. 
Other features: Very gravelly loamy sand substrata are 
common in some pedons below a depth of 40 
inches. 

A horizons: 

Value—5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3. 

Reaction—Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Bt horizons: 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 
Chroma-3 or 4. 

Texture—Upper subhorizons: is silty clay loam or 
gravelly silty clay loam. Lower subhorizons: is silt 
loam, silty clay loam or gravelly silt loam. 

Clay content-Upper subhorizons 27 to 35 percent, 
lower subhorizons 25 to 33 percent. 

Rock fragments-Upper subhorizons 0 to 20 
percent, lower subhorizons 5 to 35 percent. 
Structure—Prismatic, subangular blocky or may be 
massive in the lower part. 

Consistence-Usually hard, slightly hard in 

subhorizons, very friable to firm, moist; slightly 
sticky or sticky and slightly plastic or plastic, 
wet. 

Reaction-Mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline. 

Bqk horizon: 

Value-6 or 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 

Texture-Silt loam or loam, some pedons have 
gravelly silt loam or gravelly loam. 

Clay content—20 to 25 percent. 

Consistence-Slightly hard or hard, dry; very friable 
to firm, moist; slightly sticky or sticky and 
slightly plastic or plastic, wet. 

Rock fragments-5 to 35 percent, mainly pebbles. 


Other features-20 to 50 percent, 5 to 30 millimeter 
durinodes or pan fragments. 

Bqkm horizons: 

Value-6 through 8 dry, 4 through 7 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Other features-Commonly has variable thickness of 
alternating layers of weak, strong or indurated 
silica-lime cemented material below. 


Deepeek Series 

The Deepeek series consists of shallow, well 
drained soils that formed in mixed alluvium and 
colluvium. Deepeek soils are on fan piedmont 
remnants, plateaus and hills. Slopes are 8 to 50 
percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 9 inches 
and the mean annual temperature is about 47 degrees 
F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, mesic, 
shallow Xerollic Durargids 

Typical pedon: Deepeek very cobbly loam, 8 to 15 
percent slopes located in an area of map unit 3030. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The 
soil surface is partially covered with approximately 
20 percent pebbles and 10 percent cobbles. 

AI-0 to 2 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very cobbly 
loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate thick platy 
structure parting to weak fine granular; slightly 
hard, very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 
many fine and common very fine roots; common 
medium vesicular and common fine tubular pores; 

25 percent pebbles, 15 percent cobbles, 2 percent 
stones; mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); clear smooth 
boundary. (2 to 3 inches thick) 

A2-2 to 5 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very cobbly 
loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak thin platy 
structure parting to weak very fine granular; soft, 
very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few 
medium, common fine and very fine roots; common 
fine and very fine tubular pores; 25 percent pebbles, 
15 percent cobbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); gradual 
wavy boundary (2 to 3 inches thick) 

Bt1-5 to 8 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very cobbly 
loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak medium 
subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few medium and 
common fine roots; few medium and common fine 
tubular pores; few thin clay films on faces of peds 
and lining pores; 15 percent pebbles, 20 percent 
cobbles; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); clear wavy 
boundary. (3 to 5 inches thick) 

Bt2-8 to 14 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) very 
cobbly silty clay loam, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
moist; moderate medium and fine subangular blocky 
structure; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; common 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


199 


medium and fine roots; common medium and fine 
tubular pores; common thin clay films on peds, 
common moderately thick clay films lining pores; 20 
percent pebbles; 30 percent cobbles; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.4); clear smooth boundary. (5 to 9 
inches thick) 

Bqk--14 to 18 inches; white (10YR 8/2) very gravelly 
silt loam, pale brown (10YR 6/3) moist; massive; 
hard, firm, and brittle slightly sticky and slightly 
plastic; few medium and fine roots; few fine tubular 
pores; 40 percent pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; 
continuous brittle matrix, 25 percent brittle 
durinodes; strongly effervescent; lime is 
disseminated; strongly alkaline (pH 8.6); abrupt 
smooth boundary. (0 to 5 inches thick) 

Bqkm--18 to 24 inches; white (10YR 8/2) indurated 
duripan, pale brown (10YR 6/3) moist; massive; 
extremely hard, extremely firm; few fine roots in 
fractures; silica laminae are 1/2 to 2 millimeters 
thick; violently effervescent; strongly alkaline (pH 
8.8); clear smooth boundary. (5 to 8 inches thick) 

Cqk--24 to 42 inches; white (10YR 8/2) gravelly silt 
loam, pale brown (10YR 6/3) moist; massive; hard, 
firm, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few fine 
roots; 20 percent pebbles; continuous brittle matrix, 
30 percent durinodes; 15 percent pebbles; strongly 
effervescent; lime is disseminated; strongly alkaline 
(pH 8.6). 

Type location; Elko County, Nevada; Owyhee Desert, in 
an unsectionized area, about 14 miles northwest of 
Wilson Reservoir; 41 degrees, 47 minutes, 40 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 34 minutes, 

00 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry in summer and early autumn 

Soil temperature: 47 to 51 degrees F. 

Solum thickness: 14 to 20 inches. 

Depth to duripan: 14 to 20 inches. 

Depth to bedrock: 40 to over 60 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-25 to 35 percent. 

Rock fragments—35 to 50 percent, mainly pebbles 
and cobbles. 

Bt horizons: 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 

Texture—Very cobbly silt loam, very cobbly loam, 
and very cobbly silty clay loam. 

Bqk horizons: 

Value—7 or 8 dry, 6 or 7 moist. 

Chroma—2 through 4. 

Durinodes—20 to 50 percent, inbedded in 
continuously brittle matrix. 


Deseed Series 

The Deseed series consists of moderately deep, well 
drained soils that formed in residuum and colluvium 
from rhyolite, tuff and basalt. Deseed soils are on side 
slopes of hills and mountains. Slopes are 2 to 50 
percent. Mean annual precipitation is 11 inches and the 
mean annual temperature is about 45 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Xerollic 
Haplargids 

Typical pedon: Deseed gravelly loam, 15 to 30 percent 
slopes, located in map unit 2173. (Colors are for dry 
soil unless otherwise noted.) The soil surface is 
covered with 30 percent pebbles and 5 percent 
cobbles. 

A-0 to 4 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly loam, 
dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate thick platy 
structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; few fine and very fine roots; 
common very fine vesicular pores; 15 percent 
pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 7.0); clear 
smooth boundary. (3 to 5 inches thick) 

Bt1-4 to 10 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly 
clay loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate 
fine subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, firm, 
sticky and plastic; few fine and very fine roots; few 
fine tubular pores; few thin clay films on peds and 
lining pores; 20 percent pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; 
neutral (pH 7.0); clear smooth boundary. (4 to 7 
inches thick) 

Bt2-10to 17 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
gravelly clay, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate 
medium subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, 
sticky and plastic; few very fine roots; few fine 
tubular pores; common moderately thick clay films 
on peds; 25 percent pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; 
neutral (pH 7.0); clear smooth boundary. (6 to 8 
inches thick) 

Bt3-17 to 26 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly clay, 
yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; strong medium 
subangular blocky structure; very hard, very firm, 
very sticky and very plastic; few very fine roots; 
few fine and very fine tubular pores; many 
moderately thick clay films on peds; 20 percent 
pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt 
smooth boundary. (4 to 11 inches thick) 

R-26 inches; rhyolite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; Owyhee Desert, in 
an unsectionized area, about 2 miles west of 
Haystack Peak; 41 degrees, 25 minutes, 45 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 23 minutes, 

27 seconds west longitude. 



200 


Soil Survey of 


Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry late June through October 
Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F. 

Depth to bedrock: 20 to 40 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay Content-Average 35 to 45 percent. 

Rock fragments-5 to 35 percent, mainly pebbles. 

A horizon: 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3 moist or dry. 

Bt1 horizon: 

Clay content-30 to 35 percent. 

Texture-Silty clay loam or clay loam 
Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Bt2 and Bt3 horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 

Value-4 through 6 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-3 through 6. 

Structure—Weak to strong, medium or coarse 

angular or subangular blocky, or weak prismatic. 
Texture-Gravelly clay, gravelly clay loam, clay or 
clay loam. 

Clay content—35 to 50 percent 
Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Deunah Series 

The Deunah series consists of moderately deep to a 
duripan, well drained soils that formed in alluvium and 
eolian material mainly from basalt and volcanic ash. 
Deunah soils are on plateaus and summits of hills. 
Slopes are 2 to 4 percent. The average annual 
precipitation is about 14 inches and the average annual 
temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Very-fine, montmorillonitic, frigid 
Abruptic Durixeralfs 

Typical pedon: Deunah stony loam, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, located in an area of map unit 2310. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The soil 
surface is covered with 5 percent pebbles. 

El-0 to 2 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam, dark 
brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak thin platy structure; 
slightly hard, very friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; 
common fine and very fine roots; few medium, 
many fine and very fine vesicular pores; 5 percent 
pebbles; slightly acid (pH 6.2); abrupt smooth 
boundary. (2 to 10 inches thick) 

E2-2 to 9 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam, dark 
brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak thin platy structure 
parting to moderate fine granular; slightly hard, very 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many fine 


and very fine roots; few fine and very fine tubular 
pores; 5 percent pebbles; slightly acid (pH 6.2); 
abrupt smooth boundary. (0 to 8 inches thick) 
2Bt1-9 to 13 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, dark 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium 
subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, sticky and 
plastic; common medium, fine and very fine roots; 
many fine and very fine tubular pores; common thin 
clay films on faces of peds and lining pores; 5 
percent pebbles; slightly acid (pH 6.4); clear wavy 
boundary. (0 to 6 inches thick) 

2Bt2-13 to 22 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) clay, dark 
brown (7.5YR 4/4) moist; moderate medium angular 
blocky structure; very hard, very firm, sticky and 
plastic; few medium fine and very fine roots; 
common fine and very fine tubular pores; many 
moderately thick clay films on faces of peds and 
lining pores; 10 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 6.6); 
abrupt wavy boundary. (4 to 20 inches thick) 
2Bt3-22 to 26 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) clay, dark 
brown (7.5YR 4/4) moist; moderate medium and 
coarse prismatic structure parting to strong medium 
angular blocky; very hard, very firm, sticky and 
plastic; few fine and very fine roots; few very fine 
tubular pores; continuous moderately thick clay 
films on faces of peds and lining pores; many 
moderately thick stress surfaces; 10 percent 
pebbles; neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt wavy boundary. (0 
to 4 inches thick) 

2Bqm1—26 to 30 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) indurated 
duripan, brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) moist; strong 
thick platy structure; very hard, very firm; few very 
fine roots; 10 percent pebbles; abrupt wavy 
boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick) 

2Bqm2-30 to 33 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/6) 
continuous indurated duripan, light brown (7.5YR 
6/4) moist; strong thick platy structure; extremely 
hard, extremely firm; 10 percent pebbles; abrupt 
wavy boundary. ( 0 to 5 inches thick) 

R-33 inches; consolidated rhyolite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 1 
mile south of Hatpeak; about 2,640 feet south and 
2,150 feet west of the northeast corner of section 
17, T. 46 N., R. 50 E.; 41 degrees, 53 minutes, 30 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 23 minutes, 

10 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F. 

Rock fragments in solum: 0 to 1 5 percent 
Depth to duripan: 20 to 34 inches 
Depth to bedrock: 22 to 40 inches 

E horizons: 

Value-5 or 6 dry (more than 5.5 mixed), 3 or 4 
moist 

Chroma-2 or 3 moist and dry 
Reaction-Moderately acid through neutral 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


201 


2Bt horizons: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10YR 
Value-4 through 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist 
Chroma-3 through 6 moist and dry 
Clay content—60 to 70 percent 
Reaction-Slightly acid to mildly alkaline 

2Bqm horizons: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10YR 
Value-5 through 8 dry, 5 or 6 moist 
Chroma—2 through 8 moist or dry 
Rock fragments-10 to 80 percent 
Effervescence-None or slight 

Dewar Series 

The Dewar series consists of well drained soils that 
are shallow to a duripan and formed in loess and silty 
alluvium from mixed rock sources with a component of 
volcanic ash. Dewar soils are on fan piedmont 
remnants. Slopes are 4 to 15 percent. The mean 
annual precipitation is about 9 inches and the mean 
annual temperature is about 47 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy, mixed, mesic, shallow 
Xerollic Durargids 

Typical pedon: Dewar very cobbly very fine sandy 
loam, 8 to 1 5 percent slopes, located in an area of 
map unit 2521. (Colors are for dry soil unless 
otherwise noted.) The soil surface is covered with 5 
percent pebbles and 30 percent cobbles. 

A1-0 to 2 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very cobbly 
very fine sandy loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; 
weak thick platy structure; soft, very friable, slightly 
sticky and slightly plastic; few very fine roots; 
common fine vesicular pores; 5 percent pebbles and 
30 percent cobbles; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); 
abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to 5 inches thick) 

A2-2 to 4 inches; pale brown (lOYR 6/3) very cobbly 
silt loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate 
thin platy structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; few very fine roots; few very 
fine tubular pores; 15 percent pebbles; 25 percent 
cobbles; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); clear smooth 
boundary. (0 to 3 inches thick) 

Btl—4 to 10 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) cobbly 
silty clay loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; 
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; 
slightly hard, firm, sticky and plastic; few medium, 
fine and very fine roots; few fine tubular pores; few 
moderately thick clay films on faces of peds; 15 
percent pebbles, 1 5 percent cobbles; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.2); clear smooth boundary. (3 to 14 
inches thick) 

Bt2-10 to 14 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
cobbly silty clay loam, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 


moist; moderate medium subangular blocky 
structure; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; few fine 
and very fine roots; few very fine tubular pores; few 
moderately thick clay films on faces of peds; 5 
percent pebbles, 1 5 percent cobbles; slightly 
effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); clear 
smooth boundary. (0 to 5 inches thick) 

Btqk-14 to 19 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
very cobbly silt loam, light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) moist; massive; hard, firm, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; few very fine roots; continuous 
brittle matrix, few thin clay films lining pores; 15 
percent pebbles, 25 percent cobbles; violently 
effervescent; common fine soft masses of lime; 
strongly alkaline (pH 8.8); abrupt smooth boundary. 
(0 to 8 inches thick) 

Bqkm1-19 to 22 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) 
continuous fractured indurated duripan, very pale 
brown (10YR 7/3) moist; massive; extremely hard, 
extremely firm; violently effervescent; strongly 
alkaline (pH 8.8); abrupt smooth boundary. (3 to 5 
inches thick) 

Bqkm2-22 to 32 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) 
continuous indurated duripan with 1/8 inch opal 
laminae, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) moist; 
massive; extremely hard, extremely firm; violently 
effervescent; strongly alkaline (pH 8.8); abrupt 
smooth boundary. (6 to 11 inches thick) 

Ckl—32 to 42 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
gravelly sandy loam, light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) moist; massive; soft, very friable, nonsticky 
and nonplastic; 30 percent pebbles; violently 
effervescent, lime is disseminated; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.2); gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 20 
inches thick) 

Ck2-42 to 60 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
gravelly sandy loam, light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) moist; massive; soft, very friable, nonsticky 
and nonplastic; 25 percent pebbles; violently 
effervescent, lime is disseminated; very strongly 
alkaline (pH 9.2). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; in an 

unsectionized area, about 3 miles northwest of 
Winters Ranch Reservoir; 41 degrees, 34 minutes, 
45 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 40 
minutes, 17 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry early June through October 

Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Depth to indurated duripan: 14 to 20 inches. 

Reaction: A and Bt horizons are neutral to moderately 
alkaline. 

Control section: 

Clay content-27 to 35. 

Rock fragments-15 to 35 percent dominantly 
pebbles and cobbles. 



202 


Soil Survey of 


A horizons: 

Value—3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Bt horizons: 

Value—6 through 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 
Chroma-2 through 4 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 
Texture-Gravelly silty clay loam or gravelly clay 
loam or cobbly silty clay loam. 

Clay content-27 to 35 percent. 

Rock fragments-15 to 35 percent, mainly pebbles 
and cobbles. 

Structure-Weak through strong, fine through coarse 
subangular blocky. 

Consistence-Slightly hard or hard, dry; very friable 
or friable, moist. 

Btqk horizon: (when present): 

Value-6 or 7 dry, 4 through 6 moist. 

Clay content-25 to 30 percent. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 

Durinodes-Weak or very weak, less than 30 
percent. 

Silica cementation-Few thin pendants on pebbles or 
continuous brittle matrix. 

Bqkm horizons: 

Structure-Massive or moderately thick or very thick 
plate like layers. 

Cementation—Some pedons are alternately strongly 
cemented or discontinuously indurated horizons 
below the duripan. 

Other features—In some pedons, a 1 to 3 inch zone 
of degraded duripan material is common along 
the upper horizon boundary. 

Donna Series 

The Donna series consists of well drained soils that 
are moderately deep to a duripan. These soils formed in 
alluvium from mixed rock sources with a component of 
loess high in volcanic ash. Donna soils are on fan 
piedmont remnants. Slopes are 2 to 8 percent. The 
mean annual precipitation is about 11 inches and the 
mean annual temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Very-fine, montmorillonitic, frigid 
Abruptic Aridic Durixerolls 

Typical pedon: Donna gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes, is located in an area of map unit 458. 

(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1—0 to 2 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) 
gravelly loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; weak thin platy structure; slightly hard, very 
friable, sticky and slightly plastic; common very fine 
and fine roots; common very fine tubular pores; 15 


percent pebbles; neutral (pFI 7.2); abrupt smooth 
boundary. (1 to 3 inches thick) 

A2-2 to 7 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) gravelly 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
weak medium subangular blocky structure; slightly 
hard, very friable, sticky and plastic; common very 
fine and fine roots; common very fine tubular pores; 
15 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); clear smooth 
boundary. (1 to 5 inches thick) 

A3—7 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam, dark 
brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate fine subangular 
blocky structure; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; 
common very fine and fine roots; common very fine 
tubular pores; few thin clay films lining pores in the 
lower part; many uncoated sand grains; 10 percent 
pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt smooth boundary. 
(0 to 5 inches thick) 

Bt1-10 to 19 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, brown 
(10YR 4/3) moist; strong medium prismatic 
structure parting to strong angular blocky; very 
hard, very firm, very sticky and very plastic; few 
very fine and fine roots mainly along faces of peds; 
few very fine tubular pores; continuous stress 
surfaces on faces of peds; tops of prisms 
continuously covered with uncoated sand grains; 10 
percent duripan fragments; neutral (pH 7.2); clear 
smooth boundary. (3 to 13 inches thick) 

Bt2—19 to 24 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, brown 
(10YR 4/3) moist; strong medium prismatic 
structure parting to strong medium angular blocky; 
very hard, very firm, very sticky and very plastic; 
few very fine roots mainly along faces of peds; few 
very fine tubular pores; continuous stress surfaces 
oh faces of peds; 10 percent duripan fragments; 
neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt smooth boundary. (1 to 12 
inches thick) 

Bt3-24 to 30 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; 
massive; very hard, firm, very sticky and very 
plastic; few very fine roots; common very fine 
tubular pores; many thin and moderately thick clay 
films bridging sand grains and lining pores; few 
uncoated sand grains throughout; 10 percent coarse 
fragments 1/2 of which are duripan fragments, 1/2 
of which are pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); 
abrupt smooth boundary. (0 to 7 inches thick) 

Bqkm-30 to 48 inches; indurated duripan with 2 to 5 
millimeter silica laminar cap; multiple laminar 
throughout; strong thick platy structure; extremely 
hard and brittle; common fine soft lime seams along 
fracture planes; violently effervescent; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.2); abrupt smooth boundary. (8 to 20 
inches thick) 

Cqk-48 to 60 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) weakly stratified very gravelly sandy loam, 
yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; massive; hard, 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 
continuous brittle matrix; strongly effervescent, lime 
is disseminated; 55 percent pebbles; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.2). 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


203 


Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 1/4 
mile east of Tuscarora; about 800 feet north and 
400 feet east of the southwest corner of section 
35, T. 40 N., R. 51 E.; 41 degrees, 19 minutes, 00 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 15 minutes, 

05 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry mid June through October 
Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F. 

Mollic epipedon thickness: 7 to 1 2 inches. 

Depth to duripan: 20 to 36 inches. 

Thickness of duripan: 10 to 20 inches. 

Other features: There is an increase of 1 5 to 30 
percent clay at the upper boundary of the Bt 
horizon. 

Control section: 

Clay content—60 to 70 percent. 

Rock fragments—0 to 1 5 percent, mainly pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist; 6 dry and 4 moist 
only in the upper 1 to 3 inches. After mixing the 
upper 7 inches the soil meets the 5.5 dry and 
3.5 moist color requirements for mollic. 
Chroma-2 or 3. 

Reaction-Slightly acid or neutral. 

Bt horizons; 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 

Structure-Weak through strong medium or coarse 
prismatic, parting to angular blocky, massive in 
the lower part. 

Consistence—Very hard or extremely hard, dry. 
Reaction-Slightly acid or neutral. Some pedons are 
mildly alkaline in the subhorizon above the 
duripan. 

Bqkm horizon: 

Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline where the upper 
subhorizons lack carbonates; moderately alkaline 
or strongly alkaline in the calcareous portions. 
Other features-Commonly noncalcareous in the 
upper part but few or common fine soft lime 
seams are along fracture planes in some pedons. 

Enko Series 

The Enko series consists of very deep, well drained 
soils that formed in loamy alluvium weathered mainly 
from mixed rock sources with a component of loess 
and volcanic ash. Enko soils are on fan piedmont 
remnants. Slopes are 0 to 1 5 percent. The mean 


annual precipitation is about 9 inches and the mean 
annual temperature is about 47 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Coarse-loamy, mixed, mesic 
Durixerollic Camborthids 

Typical pedon; Enko fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes, is located in an area of map unit 1241. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1-0 to 4 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine 
sandy loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; moderate very thin platy structure; soft, very 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many very 
fine roots; many very fine vesicular pores; 
moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); clear smooth 
boundary. (2 to 7 inches thick) 

A2-4 to 8 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine 
sandy loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; moderate very thin platy structure; slightly 
hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 
common very fine and fine roots; common very fine 
vesicular and tubular pores; moderately alkaline (pH 
8.2); clear smooth boundary. (0 to 5 inches thick) 
Bw-8 to 15 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam, dark 
brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate very fine and 
fine subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common 
very fine and fine roots; many very fine and fine 
tubular pores; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); clear 
smooth boundary. (6 to 14 inches thick) 

Bqk1-15 to 26 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam, 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; massive; hard, firm, 
brittle, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few very 
fine and fine roots; common very fine tubular pores; 
continuous brittle matrix; slightly effervescent, lime 
is disseminated; moderately alkaline (pH 8.4); clear 
smooth boundary. (5 to 12 inches thick) 

Bqk2-26 to 38 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) fine sandy loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 
4/4) moist; massive; very hard, firm, brittle, slightly 
sticky and slightly plastic; few very fine roots; 
common very fine tubular pores; continuous brittle 
matrix; strongly effervescent, lime is disseminated; 
10 percent pebbles; strongly alkaline (pH 9.0); clear 
smooth boundary. (8 to 15 inches thick) 

Bqk3-38 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
fine sandy loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; massive; hard, firm, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; few very fine roots; common very 
fine tubular pores; 50 percent discontinuous weak 
silica cementation; strongly effervescent, lime is 
disseminated; 10 percent pebbles; strongly alkaline 
(pH 9.0). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 16 
miles south of Midas; about 2,100 feet north and 
1,300 feet west of the southeast corner of section 
2, T. 36 N., R 44 E.; 41 degrees, 01 minutes, 30 








204 


Soil Survey of 


seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 58 minutes, 

28 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry June through October 

Soil temperature: 49 to 54 degrees F. 

Thickness of A and Bw horizons: 1 2 to 30 inches. 

Depth to continuous brittle matrix: 14 to 32 inches. 

Other features: Below 40 inches some pedons have 
gravelly or sandy substrata, or substrata containing 
gypsum crystals. Some pedons have 
noneffervescent Bq horizons above the Bqk horizon. 

Control section: 

Clay content-10 to 18 percent. 

Rock fragments-0 to 1 5 percent pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 2.5Y. 

Value-Commonly 6 or 7 dry, with 5 dry in some 
subhorizons of some pedons, 3 or 4 moist. 
Chroma-2 or 3. 

Reaction-Neutral through moderately alkaline. 

Bw horizon: 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 
Chroma—2 through 4. 

Texture-Mainly loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy 
loam; some pedons have strata of silt loam or 
clay loam in the upper part where stratified. 
Structure-Prismatic, angular blocky, subangular 
blocky or it is massive. 

Consistence—Nonsticky to sticky, nonplastic to 
plastic, wet. 

Reaction-Neutral through moderately alkaline, 
increasing with depth. 

Carbonates-Some pedons are calcareous in the 
lower portion of the horizon. 

Bqk horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR, 2.5Y, 5Y. 

Value-4 through 7 moist, 6 through 8 dry. 
Chroma-1 through 4 dry, 2 through 4 moist. 
Texture—Loam, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, 
gravelly sandy loam, or very fine sandy loam. 
Silica Cementation-Continuous brittle matrix that 
has at least firm consistence when moist, 
horizons 10 to 40 inches thick. Subhorizons not 
continuously brittle contain 20 to 50 percent 
durinodes or are 20 to 75 percent discontinuous 
weakly silica-cemented. 

Structure—Platy or is massive. 

Consistence—Slightly hard to very hard, dry; 
nonsticky or slightly sticky and nonplastic or 
slightly plastic or brittle when wet. Substrata 
that are very friable, moist are in some pedons. 
Reaction-Mildly alkaline through strongly alkaline 
increasing with depth. 


Other features-Relict iron mottles or mica particles 
are common in many pedons. Very gravelly or 
extremely gravelly substratum phases are 
common below depths of 40 inches in some 
pedons. 

Erakatak Series 

The Erakatak series consists of moderately deep, 
well drained soil that formed in residuum and colluvium 
from sedimentary and igneous rocks. Erakatak soils are 
mainly on south facing side slopes of hills and 
mountains. Slopes are 15 to 50 percent. The mean 
annual precipitation is about 16 inches and the mean 
annual temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey-skeletal, montmorillonitic, 
frigid Typic Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Erakatak gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 
percent slopes, is located in an area of map unit 
1742. (Colors are for dry soils unless otherwise 
noted.) The soil surface is covered with 15 percent 
pebbles. 

A-0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) 

gravelly loam, black (10YR 2/1) moist; weak coarse 
subangular blocky structure; soft, very friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common very 
fine, fine and medium roots; common very fine and 
fine tubular pores; 15 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 
7.2); clear smooth boundary. (1 to 8 inches thick) 
Bt1-4 to 19 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) very 
cobbly clay loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) 
moist; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; 
soft, very friable, sticky and plastic; common very 
fine, fine, medium and few coarse roots; common 
very fine and fine tubular pores; 15 percent pebbles 
and 25 percent cobbles; small pockets of dark 
yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) moist clay distributed 
randomly throughout; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (6 to 15 inches thick) 

Bt2—19 to 32 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
very cobbly clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) 
moist, brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) moist, and 
strong brown (7.5YR 4/6 and 5/8) moist iron 
mottles; strong coarse and very coarse angular 
blocky structure; hard, firm, very sticky and very 
plastic; few very fine and fine roots; many very fine 
and fine tubular pores; many small iron-manganese 
concretions; many stress surfaces on faces of peds; 
20 percent pebbles and 35 percent cobbles; neutral 
(pH 7.0); abrupt wavy boundary. (12 to 22 inches 
thick) 

Cr—32 to 35 inches; soft weathered siltstone; neutral 
(pH 6.8). (2 to 5 inches thick) 

R-35 inches; hard, fractured siltstone. 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


205 


Type location: Elko County, Nevada; about 2 miles 
south of Bull Run Reservoir; approximately 1,800 
feet east and 1,800 feet north of the southwest 
corner of section 20, T. 43 N., R. 52 E.; 41 
degrees, 36 minutes, 30 seconds north latitude, 

116 degrees, 9 minutes, 30 seconds west 
longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually moist winter and spring, dry late 
July through late October 
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F. 

Mollic epipedon thickness: 7 to 19 inches and includes 
the upper part of the argillic horizon. 

Soil thickness and depth to paraiithic contact: 20 to 35 
inches. 

Depth to lithic contact: 20 to 40 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-35 to 55 percent. 

Rock fragments—35 to 60 percent, mainly cobbles. 

A horizon: 

Value-4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-1 through 3 dry or moist. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 

Value—4 through 6 dry, 2 through 4 moist with 
darker value in the upper subhorizon. 

Chroma—2 through 4. 

Texture—Very cobbly clay loam in the upper 
subhorizon and very cobbly clay in the lower 
subhorizon. 

Consistence-Slightly sticky through very sticky and 
slightly plastic through very plastic, wet. 
Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Stress surfaces-Many present in at least part of the 
horizon. 

Silica coats-Are present in some pedons. 

Iron mottles-Common in the lower subhorizon of 
most pedons. 

Cr horizon: 

Normally contains 2 to 5 inches of weathered 
bedrock. 


Fulstone Series 

The Fulstone series consists of shallow over a 
duripan, well drained soils that formed in alluvium from 
mixed rocks. Fulstone soils are on fan piedmonts 
remnants. Slopes are 2 to 30 percent. The mean 
annual precipitation is about 9 inches and the mean 
annual temperature is about 47 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey, montmorillonitic, mesic, 
shallow Abruptic Xerollic Durargids 


Typical pedon: Fulstone gravelly loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes, located in an area of map unit 1230. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 
Approximately 35 percent pebbles and 5 percent 
cobbles cover the soil surface. 

A1-0 to 2 inches; light brownish gray (lOYR 6/2) 
gravelly loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; 
moderate very fine platy structure; slightly hard, 
very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 
common very fine and fine roots; many fine 
vesicular pores; 25 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 
7.0); clear smooth boundary. (1 to 4 inches thick) 

A2-2 to 5 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly 
loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; strong very 
fine platy structure; slightly hard, very friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common very fine 
and fine roots; common very fine and fine tubular 
pores; 15 percent pebbles, 2 percent cobbles; 
neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to 4 
inches thick) 

Bt-5 to 17 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, dark brown 
(10YR 4/3) moist; strong fine and coarse prismatic 
structure; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; few very 
fine and fine roots in mat; 5 percent pebbles, 2 
percent cobbles; continuous thin clay films on faces 
of peds and lining pores; neutral (pH 7.3); abrupt 
smooth boundary. (6 to 20 inches thick) 

Bqkm-17 to 40 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) indurated silica and lime cemented duripan, 
dark yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) moist; massive; 
strongly effervescent. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 9 
miles northeast of Midas; about 1,700 feet west 
and 650 feet south of the northeast corner of 
section 28, T. 39 N., R. 47 E.; 41 degrees, 19 
minutes, 18 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 

39 minutes, 55 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry from June through October 

Soil temperature: 53 to 59 degrees F. 

Depth to indurated duripan: 14 to 20 inches. 

Other features: Some pedons have a thin Bt3 horizon 
with clay or clay loam textures. 

A horizons: 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-1 through 3. 

Structure-Granular or platy. 

Reaction-Slightly acid or neutral. 

Bt horizon: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10YR. 

Value-4 through 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 6. 





206 


Soil Survey of 


Structure-Prismatic, angular blocky or subangular 
blocky. 

Clay content—45 to 60 percent. 

Rock fragments-Usually free of rock fragments, but 
some pedons average up to 20 percent pebbles 
or cobbles due to mixing by burrowing animals. 
Reaction-Neutral through moderately alkaline. 

Bqkm horizon: 

Other features-Essentially continuously cemented, 
but broken in some places by burrowing animals. 

Gando Series 

The Gando series consists of very shallow and 
shallow, well drained soils that formed in residuum and 
colluvium from chert, argillite, shale, quartzite, rhyolite 
or tuffaceous sandstone. Gando soils are on crests and 
side slopes of mountains. Slopes are 8 to 30 percent. 
The mean annual precipitation is about 16 inches and 
the mean annual temperature is about 42 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, frigid Lithic 
Haploxerolls 

Typical pedon: Gando very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 30 
percent slopes, from adjoining Elko County, Central 
Part soil survey. (Colors are for dry soil unless 
otherwise noted.) The surface is covered with 
approximately 70 percent pebbles. 

A1-0 to 2 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) very 
gravelly loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; weak very thin platy structure; soft, very 
friable, slightly sticky and nonplastic; common very 
fine roots; common very fine interstitial pores; 40 
percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); clear wavy 
boundary. (2 to 7 inches thick) 

A2—2 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very gravelly 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate 
medium subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, 
very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 
common very fine and few fine roots; common very 
fine and few fine tubular pores; 45 percent pebbles; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); clear wavy boundary. (4 to 
8 inches thick) 

Bk-9 to 17 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) extremely 
gravelly loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; massive; 
slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky and slightly 
plastic; few fine and very fine roots; few very fine 
tubular pores; common thin lime pendants on 
pebbles; 60 percent pebbles; slightly effervescent; 
moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (4 to 10 inches thick) 

R—17 inches; very fractured tuffaceous sandstone with 
lime pendants along rock surfaces. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 8 
miles northeast of Elko; about 1,000 feet south and 


1,900 feet west of the northeast corner of section 
26, T. 35 N., R. 56 E.; 40 degrees, 53 minutes, 43 
seconds north latitude, 115 degrees, 37 minutes, 

44 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter through early summer, 
dry early July through mid October 
Soil temperature: 43 to 46 degrees F. 

MoHic epip^don thickness: 7 to 14 inches. 

Depth to bedrock: 10 to 20 inches. 

Depth to carbonates: 7 to 14 inches. 

Reaction: Mildly or moderately alkaline, normally 
increasing with depth. 

Control section: 

Clay content—10 to 18 percent. 

Rock fragments-50 to 70 percent, mainly pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Value-4 or 5 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3. 

Consistence—Soft or slightly hard dry, slightly sticky 
to sticky and nonplastic to plastic moist. 

Bk horizon: 

Value—5 or 6 dry, 3 througn 5 moist. 

Chroma—3 or 4. 

Structure-Subangular blocky, granular or is 
massive. 

Consistence—Soft or slightly hard dry, slightly sticky 
to sticky and slightly plastic to plastic. 
Texture-Extremely gravelly loam, extremely gravelly 
sandy loam or very gravelly loam. 

Rock fragments—50 to 70 percent, mainly pebbles 
with up to 20 percent cobbles. 

Carbonates—Slightly effervescent to strongly 
effervescent. 


Gochea Series 

The Gochea series consists of very deep, well 
drained soils that formed in alluvium from mixed rock 
sources. The Gochea soils are on fan piedmont 
remnants. Slopes are 2 to 8 percent. The mean annual 
precipitation is about 12 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is about 45 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, mixed, frigid Durargidic 
Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Gochea gravelly loam, 2 to 4 percent 
slopes, is located in an area of map unit 150. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1-0 to 2 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) gravelly 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
weak medium subangular blocky structure; slightly 
hard, very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


207 


many very fine roots; common very fine tubular 
pores; 20 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.0); clear 
smooth boundary. (2 to 5 inches thick) 

A2-2 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly loam, 
dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium 
subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, very 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common 
very fine roots; common very fine tubular pores; 15 
percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); clear 
smooth boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick) 

Bt1-9 to 15 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly clay 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium 
subangular blocky structure; hard, friable sticky and 
plastic; common very fine roots; common very fine 
tubular pores; few thin clay films lining pores; 25 
percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); abrupt 
smooth boundary. (4 to 9 inches thick) 

Bt2--15 to 25 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly clay 
loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium 
subangular blocky structure; hard, friable, sticky and 
plastic; few very fine roots; few very fine tubular 
pores; few thin clay films lining pores; 30 percent 
pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); clear smooth 
boundary. (5 to 15 inches) 

Bql—25 to 30 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly 
loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium 
subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, slightly 
sticky and slightly plastic; few very fine roots; 
common very fine tubular pores; 40 percent 
discontinuous weakly silica cemented lenses; 25 
percent pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; mildly alkaline 
(pH 7.4); clear smooth boundary. (5 to 28 inches 
thick) 

2Bq2-30 to 46 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) 
extremely gravelly sand, dark grayish brown (10YR 
4/2) moist; massive; slightly hard, very friable, 
nonsticky and nonplastic; few very fine roots; few 
very fine tubular pores; 50 percent weak 
discontinuous silica cementation; 20 percent 
durinodes; 75 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 
7.4); clear smooth boundary. (12 to 28 inches 
thick) 

2Bq3-46 to 60 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) 
extremely gravelly sand, dark grayish brown (10YR 
4/2) moist; massive; slightly hard, very friable, 
nonsticky and nonplastic; few very fine roots; few 
very fine tubular pores; 80 percent weak 
discontinuous silica cementation; 65 percent 
pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 6 
miles east of Tuscarora; about 1,000 feet north of 
the southeast corner of section 27, T. 40 N., R. 52 
E.; 41 degrees, 19 minutes, 45 seconds north 
latitude, 116 degrees, 6 minutes, 10 seconds west 
longitude. 


Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist winter and spring, dry 
mid June through October 
Soil temperature: 43 to 47 degrees F. 

Mollic epipedon thickness: 10 to 15 inches which 
commonly includes the upper part of the argillic 
horizon. 

Depth to Bq horizons: 18 to 25 inches. 

Other features: 2Bk horizons are in some pedons. 
Control section: 

Clay content averages 25 to 35 percent. 

Rock fragment-5 to 35 percent, mainly pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Value-4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Bt horizons: 

Value—5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Texture-Clay loam or sandy clay loam. 

Clay content-25 to 35 percent. 

Rock fragments-5 to 35 percent, mainly pebbles. 
Structure-Subangular or angular blocky. 
Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Bq horizons: 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 
Chroma-2 through 4. 

Texture-Sandy loam or loam. 

Structure-Subangular blocky or massive. 

Rock fragments-0 to 30 percent, mainly pebbles 
and cobbles. 

Consistence-Slightly hard or hard; dry; friable or 
firm, moist. 

Silica cementation—20 to 80 percent durinodes or 
has up to 50 percent weak discontinuous 
cementation. 

Reaction-Mildly alkaline to strongly alkaline. 

2Bq horizons: 

Value-4 or 5 moist. 

Texture-Very gravelly or extremely gravelly sand. 
Clay content—2 to 8 percent. 

Rock fragments—50 to 75 percent, mainly pebbles. 
Consistence-Slightly hard or hard, dry; very friable 
through firm, moist. Layers with secondary silica 
are continuously brittle in some pedons. 

Silica cementation-Up to 80 percent weak 
discontinuous cementation. 

Secondary carbonates-None to many lime coats on 
rock fragments. 

Effervescence-None to slight. 




208 


Soil Survey of 


Grafey Series 

The Graley series consists of shallow, well drained 
soils that formed in residuum from mixed rock sources. 
Graley soils are on side slopes of mountains and hills. 
Slopes are 4 to 50 percent. The mean annual 
precipitation is about 14 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey-skeletal, montmorillonitic, 
frigid Lithic Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Graley stony loam, 4 to 1 5 percent 
slopes, is located in an area of map unit 1621. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The 
soil surface is covered with 5 percent pebbles, 5 
percent cobbles and 2 percent stones. 

A1-0 to 7 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) stony 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
moderate fine granular structure; soft, very friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many very fine 
roots; many very fine tubular pores; 5 percent 
pebbles, 5 percent cobbles, 2 percent stones; mildly 
alkaline (pH 7.6); clear smooth boundary. (1 to 7 
inches thick) 

A2-7 to 12 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly loam, 
dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate fine 
subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, very 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many very 
fine and few fine roots; many very fine tubular 
pores; 15 percent pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; mildly 
alkaline (pH 7.6); clear smooth boundary. (2 to 8 
inches thick) 

Bt-12 to 17 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) very gravelly 
clay loam, dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) moist; moderate 
medium subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, 
sticky and plastic; common very fine roots; common 
very fine tubular pores; continuous thin clay films 
on faces of peds and lining pores; 40 percent 
pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); abrupt smooth 
boundary. (5 to 10 inches thick) 

R-17 inches; consolidated bedrock. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 7 
miles northeast of Midas; about 1,800 feet west 
and 3,400 feet north of the southeast corner of 
section 24, T. 39 N., R. 46 E.; 41 degrees, 19 
minutes, 55 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 

43 minutes, 30 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually moist; moist in winter and 
spring, dry mid July through late October 
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F. 

MoHic epipedon thickness: 7 to 1 2 inches, does not 
include the argillic horizon. 

Depth to bedrock: 14 to 20 inches. 

Reaction: Neutral or mildly alkaline. 


Control section: 

Clay content-35 to 50 percent. 

Rock fragments-35 to 60 percent, mainly pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Value-4 or 5 dry. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Bt horizon: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10YR. 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 

Texture—Very gravelly clay loam, or very gravelly 
clay. 

Structure-Angular or subangular blocky. 
Consistence-Very hard or hard, dry, sticky or very 
sticky and plastic or very plastic, wet. 

Gumble Series 

The Gumble series consists of shallow, well drained 
soils that formed in residuum from tuff. Gumble soils 
are on fan piedmont remnants and hill side slopes. 
Slopes are 4 to 50 percent. The mean annual 
precipitation is about 9 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is about 47 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey, montmorillonitic, mesic, 
shallow Xerollic Haplargids 

Typical pedon: Gumble very gravelly sandy loam, 2 to 
8 percent slopes, is located in an area of map unit 
1853. (Colors are for dry soils unless otherwise 
noted.) The surface is partially covered with 30 
percent pebbles. 

AI-0 to 2 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) very 
gravelly sandy loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 
3/2) moist; weak thick platy structure; slightly hard, 
very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 
common very fine roots; many very fine and 
common fine interstitial pores; 35 percent pebbles; 
neutral (pH 7.2); clear wavy boundary. (2 to 4 
inches thick) 

A2-2 to 4 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) gravelly loam, 
dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; moderate 
thick platy structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly 
sticky and plastic; many very fine and common fine 
roots; many very fine interstitial and few fine 
tubular pores; 25 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.0); 
abrupt wavy boundary. (2 to 6 inches thick) 

Bt1-4 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, dark brown 
(10YR 3/3) moist; strong medium prismatic 
structure parting to strong medium angular blocky; 
very hard, very firm, very sticky and very plastic; 
common very fine roots; few very fine interstitial 
pores; continuous distinct stress surfaces on faces 
of peds; 5 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); 
clear wavy boundary. (5 to 7 inches thick) 





Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


209 


Bt2-9 to 13 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, brown 
(10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium prismatic 
parting to strong medium angular blocky; very hard, 
very firm, very sticky and very plastic; common 
very fine exped roots; common very fine interstitial 
pores; many moderately thick clay films on faces of 
peds and lining pores; 5 percent pebbles; mildly 
alkaline (pH 7.5); clear wavy boundary. (2 to 6 
inches thick) 

Btk-13 to 18 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty clay, 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak medium prismatic 
structure; very hard, firm, very sticky and very 
plastic; few very fine roots; common very fine 
interstitial and few fine tubular pores; few 
moderately thick clay films on faces of peds; 
common fine irregularly shaped lime filaments; 5 
percent pebbles; strongly effervescent; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.0); clear wavy boundary. (0 to 3 
inches thick) 

Cr—18 to 24 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) soft 
siltstone, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; few fine 
prominent dark yellowish brown mottles. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 5 
miles south of Wilson Reservoir; about 2,640 feet 
north and 530 feet east of the southwest corner of 
section 28, T. 43 N., R. 60 E.; 41 degrees, 35 
minutes, 45 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 

22 minutes, 30 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soi7 moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring 
Soil temperature: 47 to 50 degrees F. 

Solum thickness: 14 to 20 inches. 

Depth to paraiithic contact: 14 to 20 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content 40 to 60 percent. 

Rock fragments--5 to 35 percent, mostly pebbles 
with up to 10 percent cobbles in some pedons. 
Reaction—Neutral to mildly alkaline in the upper 
solum and mildly to moderately alkaline in the 
lower part. 

A horizons: 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Btl and Bt2 horizons: 

Value 5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma—3 or 4. 

Texture-Clay or gravelly clay. 

Sand fraction-More than 15 percent sand coarser 
than very fine sand. 

Btk horizons: 

Value-4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 

Texture-Silty clay loam or silty clay. 

Rock fragments—0 to 5 percent. 


Hackwood Series 

The Hackwood series consists of very deep, 
moderately well drained soils that formed in colluvium 
derived from volcanic quartzite and conglomerate 
rocks. Hackwood soils are on side slopes of hills and 
mountains. Slopes are 4 to 50 percent. The mean 
annual precipitation is about 18 inches and the mean 
annual temperature is about 42 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, mixed Pachic Cryoborolls 

Typical pedon: Hackwood silt loam, 4 to 1 5 percent 
slopes, located in an area of map unit 1640. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1—0 to 4 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, black 
(10YR 2/1) moist; moderate very thin platy 
structure; soft, friable, slightly sticky and slightly 
plastic; many coarse and common very fine roots; 
common very fine tubular pores; 5 percent pebbles; 
neutral (pH 7.0); clear smooth boundary. (2 to 12 
inches thick) 

A2-4 to 12 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam, very 
dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; weak fine subangular 
blocky structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; common very fine, many fine, 
medium and coarse roots; many very fine tubular 
pores; 10 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 6.8); clear 
smooth boundary. (7 to 25 inches thick) 

A3-12 to 26 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loam, very 
dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; weak fine and 
medium subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many fine 
and medium, common very fine roots; common very 
fine tubular pores; 15 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 
6.8); abrupt irregular boundary. (0 to 9 inches thick) 
A4-26 to 34 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly loam, 
very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; weak 
fine subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many fine 
and medium, common very fine roots; common very 
fine tubular pores; 15 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 
6.8); abrupt irregular boundary. (0 to 9 inches thick) 
2C—34 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) very 
gravelly loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) moist; 
massive; hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly 
plastic; few fine roots; common fine tubular pores; 
60 percent pebbles; silt coatings lining pores; 
neutral (pH 6.8). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada, in an 

unsectionized area, approximately 7 miles west of 
Midas; 41 degrees, 15 minutes, 07 seconds north 
latitude, 116 degrees, 54 minutes, 53 seconds west 
longitude. 








210 


Soil Survey of 


Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually moist late fall through mid¬ 
summer, dry late summer through mid fall. 

Additional soil moisture supplied by lateral water 
movement in lower part of the control section or 
substratum 

Average soil temperature: 38 to 44 degrees F. 

Average summer soil temperature: 43 to 47 degrees F. 
Mollic epipedon thickness: 16 to 35 inches. 

Depth to the 2C horizons: 30 to 49 inches. 

Reaction: Neutral or slightly acid, decreasing with 
depth. 

Control section: 

Clay content“Averages 1 8 to 30 percent. 

Rock fragments—Averages 15 to 35 percent, mainly 
pebbles. 

Texture-silt loam, gravelly silt loam and gravelly 
loam, lower part commonly very gravelly loam to 
very gravelly silty clay loam. 

A horizons: 

Value-4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-1 through 3 dry, 1 or 2 moist. 

2C horizon: 

Hue-2.5Y or 10YR. 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Texture—Very gravelly loam to very gravelly silty 
clay loam. 

Structure-Subangular blocky or is massive. 
Consistence-Slightly hard or hard, dry; very friable 
or friable, moist; slightly sticky or sticky and 
slightly plastic or plastic, wet. 

Other features-Lower C horizons: Pores lined with 
very thin silt coats or uncoated sand grains. 

Some pedons have few to common fine distinct 
10YR 5/6 dry and 4/4 moist mottles. Some 
pedons have few manganese stains coating 
pebbles and lining pores. 

Handy Series 

The Handy series consists of very deep, well 
drained soils that formed in alluvium and colluvium 
from igneous rocks with some influence from limestone 
and dolomite. Handy soils are on hills, fan piedmonts 
and mountain valley fans. Slopes are 2 to 50 percent. 
The mean annual precipitation is about 11 inches and 
the mean annual temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Xerollic 
Haplargids 

Typical pedon: Handy loam, 1 5 to 30 percent slopes, 
located in an area of map unit 3000. (Colors are for 
dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 


A1-0 to 2 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam, dark 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak thin platy structure; 
soft, very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 
common fine and very fine roots; few fine vesicular 
pores; 10 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); clear 
smooth boundary. (2 to 6 inches thick) 

A2-2 to 5 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loam, dark brown 
(10YR 4/3) moist; weak medium platy structure; 
soft very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 
common fine and very fine roots; few fine tubular 
pores; 5 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); clear 
smooth boundary. (0 to 4 inches thick) 

BA-5 to 10 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam, dark 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak medium subangular 
blocky structure; slightly hard, friable, sticky and 
plastic; few fine and very fine roots; few fine 
tubular pores; 10 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); 
clear smooth boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick) 

Bt—10 to 22 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay, 
dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; moderate 
coarse prismatic structure parting to strong medium 
and fine angular blocky; extremely hard, extremely 
firm, very sticky and very plastic; few fine roots; 
few fine tubular pores; many moderately thick clay 
films on faces of peds; 10 percent pebbles; neutral 
(pH 7.2); clear smooth boundary. (4 to 14 inches 
thick) 

Btk-22 to 28 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR4/4) moist; 
moderate medium angular blocky structure; hard, 
firm, sticky and plastic; few fine roots; few fine 
tubular pores; common moderately thick clay films 
on faces of peds; 10 percent pebbles; strongly 
effervescent in few thin filaments of lime, 
noneffervescent matrix; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); 
clear smooth boundary. (0 to 15 inches thick) 
Bk1-28 to 40 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) gravelly loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; weak medium subangular blocky structure; 
hard, firm, sticky and plastic; few fine tubular pores; 
15 percent pebbles; lime is disseminated, strongly 
effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 7.6); clear 
smooth boundary. (0 to 12 inches thick) 

Bk2-40 to 47 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly 
loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; massive; hard, 
firm, slightly sticky and plastic; few fine tubular 
pores; 15 percent pebbles; lime is disseminated, 
strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 7.6); 
clear smooth boundary. (5 to 9 inches thick) 

Bk3-47 to 60 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly 
loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; massive; hard, 
firm, slightly sticky and plastic; few fine tubular 
pores; 15 percent pebbles; lime is disseminated, 
strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 7.6). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 18 
miles north of Midas; 41 degrees, 28 minutes, 58 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 39 minutes, 

25 seconds west longitude. 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


211 


Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry June through October 
Soil temperature: 45 to 47 degrees F. 

Depth to lime: 12 to 23 inches. 

Depth to Bk horizon: 20 to 40 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content—40 to 50 percent. 

Rock fragments—0 to 30 percent, mainly pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Value-4 to 6 dry (greater than 5.5 when the 
surface 7 inches are mixed), 3 or 4 moist. 
Chroma-2 or 3. 

BA horizon: 

Value-5 or 6 dry 

Texture-Loam or gravelly clay loam. 
Structure-Granular or subangular blocky. 

Bt and Btk horizons: 

Hue—10YR or 7.5YR, with 5YR in some pedons. 
Value-5 or 6 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-2 to 4. 

Texture-Clay or gravelly clay. 

Structure-Moderate or strong angular blocky or 
prismatic. 

Reaction—Neutral through moderately alkaline, 
commonly increasing with depth. 

Bk horizons: 

Texture-Stratified gravelly loam to very gravelly 
loamy sand. 

Rock fragments-15 to 60 percent, mainly pebbles. 
Other features-Slightly to violently effervescent. 
Reaction-Moderately alkaline to strongly alkaline. 

Hapgood Series 

The Hapgood series consists of deep and very deep, 
well drained soils that formed in alluvium and colluvium 
from mixed rocks. Hapgood soils are on hills and 
mountain side slopes. Slopes are 15 to 75 percent. The 
mean annual precipitation is about 18 inches and the 
mean annual temperature is about 42 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed Pachic 
Cryoborolls 

Typical pedon: Hapgood very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes, is located in an area of map unit 
570. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise 
noted.) 

A1-0 to 3 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) very 
gravelly loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; 
weak thin platy structure; soft, very friable, slightly 


sticky and slightly plastic; many very fine roots; 
many very fine interstitial pores; 40 percent 
pebbles; slightly acid (pH 6.4); clear wavy 
boundary. (0 to 7 inches thick) 

A2—3 to 13 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) 
very gravelly loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) 
moist; weak fine subangular blocky structure; soft, 
very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many 
very fine, common fine, few medium and coarse 
roots; many very fine tubular pores; 40 percent 
pebbles; neutral (pH 6.2); gradual wavy boundary. 

(4 to 10 inches thick) 

A3-13 to 21 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very gravelly 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak fine 
subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, very 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many very 
fine, common fine and few medium roots; many 
very fine tubular pores; 40 percent pebbles; neutral 
(6.6); clear wavy boundary. (6 to 20 inches thick) 

C1-21 to 41 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very 
gravelly loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; massive; slightly hard, very friable, slightly 
sticky and slightly plastic; few very fine roots; 
common very fine tubular pores; 45 percent 
pebbles; slightly acid (pH 6.2); clear smooth 
boundary. (10 to 25 inches thick) 

C2-41 to 55 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very 
gravelly sandy loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; 
massive; slightly hard, very friable, nonsticky and 
slightly plastic; few very fine roots; few very fine 
tubular pores; 30 percent pebbles, 10 percent 
cobbles; slightly acid (pH 6.4). 

R-55 inches; hard quartzite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 7 
miles west of Tuscarora, about 800 feet east and 
1,600 feet north of the southeast corner of section 
02, T 39 N., R. 50 E.; 41 degrees, 17 minutes, 55 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 20 minutes, 

10 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry late July 
through early October 

Soil temperature: 38 to 47 degrees F. 

Average summer soil temperature: 55 to 59 degrees F. 

MoHic epipedon thickness: 16 to 60 inches. 

Depth to bedrock: 40 to more than 80 inches. 

Reaction: Slightly acid or neutral. 

Control section: 

Clay content-18 to 27 percent. 

Rock fragments—35 to 50 percent, dominantly 
pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR 

Value-2 through 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 






212 


Soil Survey of 


Chroma--1 through 3 in most pedons, chroma of 1 
is common only in A1 horizon and chroma of 3 is 
common only in A3 horizon or below. 

Base saturation--50 to 75 percent in upper part. 

C horizons: 

Hue-lOYR or 7.5YR. 

Value--4 through 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 
Chroma--2 through 6. 

Texture-Predominantly loam, but strata of fine 
sandy loam, sandy loam, silt loam or clay loam 
are permissible. 

Consistence-Very friable or friable, moist. 

Other features-Some pedons lack C horizons where 
the mollic epipedon rests on the bedrock at 
depths less than 48 inches. 

Hatpeak Series 

The Hatpeak series consists of moderately deep, 
well drained soils that formed in alluvium from basalt, 
rhyolite and tuff with a small component of loess. 
Hatpeak soils are on fan piedmont remnants and on 
plateaus. Slopes are 2 to 15 percent. Mean annual 
precipitation is about 14 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Typic 
Durixerolls 

Typical pedon: Hatpeak loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes, 
located in an area of map unit 3715. (Colors are for 
dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1-0 to 3 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loam, dark brown 
(10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium subangular blocky 
structure parting to moderate very fine subangular 
blocky; soft, friable, slightly sticky and slightly 
plastic; many very fine roots; common very fine 
tubular pores; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt smooth 
boundary. (3 to 4 inches thick) 

A2-3 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loam, dark 
brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate very fine 
subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common very fine 
roots; common very fine tubular pores; neutral (pH 
7.2); clear smooth boundary. (3 to 7 inches thick) 
Btl—10 to 1 2 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty clay 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate 
medium subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, 
sticky and plastic; few fine and very fine roots; few 
thin clay films on faces of peds; 5 percent cobbles; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); clear smooth boundary. (2 
to 9 inches thick) 

Bt2-12 to 19 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty clay, 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; strong fine angular blocky 
structure; very hard, very firm, very sticky and very 
plastic; few fine and very fine roots; few fine and 
very fine tubular pores; common moderately thick 


clay films on faces of peds; 5 percent cobbles; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); clear smooth boundary. (5 
to 7 inches thick) 

Bt3—19 to 30 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty 
clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) moist; strong 
medium prismatic structure; extremely hard, very 
firm, very sticky and very plastic; few very fine 
roots; many moderately thick clay films on faces of 
peds; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); gradual wavy 
boundary. (4 to 11 inches thick) 

Bqkm1-30 to 38 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) fractured indurated duripan, dark yellowish 
brown (10YR 4/4) moist; strong thick and very thick 
platy structure; very hard, very firm, strongly 
effervescent; strongly alkaline (pH 9.0); gradual 
wavy boundary. (0 to 8 inches thick) 

Bqkm2-38 to 60 inches; white (10YR 8/2) continuous 
indurated duripan, light gray (10YR 7/2) moist; 
massive; extremely hard, extremely firm; opal 
laminae 1/8 to 1/4 inch thick; strongly effervescent. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; Owyhee Desert, in 
an unsectionized area, approximately 20 miles north 
of Wilson Reservoir; 41 degrees, 59 minutes, 25 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 27 minutes, 

05 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry from mid 
July through October 
Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F. 

MoHic epipedon thickness: 8 to 1 5 inches. 

Depth to duripan:20 to 34 inches. 

Depth to bedrock:40 to over 60 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-35 to 50 percent. 

Rock fragments-Up to 15 percent, mainly cobbles. 

A horizons: 

Value-2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3. 

Bt horizons: 

Value-3 or 4 moist. 

Texture-Silty clay loam, silty clay, clay loam and 
clay. 

Structure-Prismatic, angular or subangular blocky. 
Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Bqkm horizons: 

Value-4 through 7 moist. 

Chroma—2 through 4. 

Consistence-Very hard or extremely hard, dry. 

Other features—Some pedons have a strongly silica 
cemented duripan below the indurated duripan. 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada--Part I 


213 


Heechee Series 

The Heechee series consists of very deep, well 
drained soils that formed in alluvium from mixed rock 
sources. They are on fan piedmont remnants. Slopes 
are 4 to 15 percent. The mean annual precipitation is 
about 14 inches; the mean annual temperature is about 
43 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, frigid Typic 
Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Heechee cobbly loam, 4 to 1 5 percent 
slopes is in an area of map unit 1261. (Colors are 
for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The soil surface 
is partially covered with 15 percent pebbles and 10 
percent cobbles. 

A1-0 to 3 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) cobbly 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
weak coarse platy structure parting to moderate 
medium subangular blockly; slightly hard, friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many very fine 
and fine roots; many fine, common very fine tubular 
pores; 10 percent pebbles and 10 percent cobbles; 
neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to 5 
inches thick) 

A2—3 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) 
cobbly loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; strong coarse subangular blocky structure; 
hard, friable, sticky and plastic; common very fine 
and fine, few medium tubular pores; 10 percent 
pebbles and 5 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 7.0); 
abrupt smooth boundary. (4 to 12 inches) 

2Bt1—7 to 14 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very cobbly 
clay loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak 
coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate 
medium angular blocky; hard, friable, sticky and 
plastic; few very fine through medium roots; 
common very fine, few fine tubular pores; few thin 
clay films lining pores; 20 percent pebbles and 15 
percent cobbles; neutral (pH 7.0); clear smooth 
boundary. (5 to 12 inches thick) 

2Bt2-14 to 27 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) very cobbly 
clay loam, dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) moist; moderate 
medium angular blocky structure; hard, friable, 
sticky and plastic; few very fine through medium 
roots; common very fine, few fine and medium 
tubular pores; few thin clay films lining pores; 20 
percent pebbles and 15 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 
6.8); clear smooth boundary. (10 to 18 inches 
thick) 

2C-27 to 61 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) extremely 
cobbly sandy loam, dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) moist; 
weak medium subangular blocky structure; soft, 
very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few 
very fine through medium roots; few very fine 
tubular pores; 25 percent pebbles, 35 percent 
cobbles, 5 percent stones; neutral (pH 6.8) 


Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 12 
miles northeast of Tuscarora; about 2,300 feet east 
and 800 feet north of the southwest corner of 
section 13, T. 41 N., R. 52 E.; 41 degrees, 26 
minutes, 45 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 4 
minutes, 35 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually moist; moist in winter and 
spring, dry mid July through early October 
Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F. 

MoHic epipedon thickness: 12 to 20 inches, includes 
the upper part of the argillic horizon. 

Depth to base of argillic horizons: 27 to 40 inches. 
Other features: In some small areas on plateaus, some 
pedons are recognized with a paralithic contact at 
50 to 60 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-25 to 35 percent. 

Rock fragments-35 to 60 percent; 20 to 45 percent 
pebbles, 15 to 25 percent cobbles, 0 to 10 
percent stones. 

A horizons: 

Value-4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-1 through 3. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10 YR. 

Value-4 through 6 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 
Chroma-2 through 4. 

Texture-Very cobbly clay loam, very gravelly sandy 
clay loam or very cobbly loam. 
Structure-Prismatic or angular blocky. 

C horizon: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10 YR. 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-4 through 6. 

Texture—Extremely cobbly loam, extremely cobbly 
sandy loam; extremely cobbly coarse sandy loam 
and coarser textures are common in some 
pedons below 40 inches. 

Rock fragments-60 to 80 percent, mainly cobbles 
and stones. 

Structure—Subangular blocky or is massive. 

Humboldt Series 

The Humboldt series consists of very deep, poorly 
drained soils that formed in silty alluvium from mixed 
rock sources with a component of volcanic ash. 
Humboldt soils are on flood plains. Slopes are 0 to 2 
percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 7 
inches and the mean annual temperature is about 50 
degrees F. 







214 


Soil Survey of 


Taxoncmu; class: Fine, montmorillonitic (calcareous), 
mesic Fluvaquentic Haplaquolls 

Typical pedon: Flumboldt silty clay loam, located in an 
area of map unit 280. (Colors are for dry soil unless 
otherwise noted.) 

Ap--0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silty 
clay loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; weak 
medium subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, 
friable, sticky and plastic; many very fine and fine 
roots; many very fine and fine tubular pores; 
strongly effervescent; strongly alkaline (pH 8.6); 
clear smooth boundary. (2 to 12 inches thick) 

A-6 to 12 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty clay 
loam, very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2) moist; 
few fine distinct light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
mottles; moderate fine and medium subangular 
blocky structure; hard, friable, sticky and plastic; 
many very fine and fine roots; many very fine 
tubular and interstitial pores; strongly effervescent; 
strongly alkaline (pH 8.7); abrupt wavy boundary. (5 
to 9 inches thick) 

C-12 to 20 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silty 
clay, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; few fine 
distinct light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) mottles; 
strong fine and medium angular blocky structure; 
hard, firm, very sticky and very plastic; many very 
fine and common fine roots; common very fine 
tubular and interstitial pores; strongly effervescent; 
strongly alkaline (pH 8.8); abrupt smooth boundary. 
(0 to 10 inches thick) 

Ck1-20 to 30 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) silty clay 
loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; moderate 
medium angular blocky structure; hard, firm, sticky 
and plastic; common very fine and few medium 
roots; common very fine tubular and interstitial 
pores; few fine filaments and threads of lime; 
strongly effervescent; strongly alkaline (pH 9.0); 
abrupt wavy boundary. (2 to 20 inches thick) 

Ck2—30 to 52 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) silty clay, 
grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist, thin lenses of dark 
silt loam are common; massive; hard, firm, very 
sticky and very plastic; common very fine and few 
medium roots; common very fine tubular and 
interstitial pores; few fine soft masses of lime; 
strongly effervescent; strongly alkaline (pH 9.0); 
abrupt smooth boundary. (15 to 30 inches) 

Ab-52 to 60 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) crudely 
stratified silt loam, very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 
3/2) moist; massive; slightly hard, friable, slightly 
sticky and very plastic; few very fine roots; many 
very fine interstitial pores; strongly alkaline (pH 
8 . 8 ). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 14 
miles southwest of Midas; about 150 feet east and 
600 feet south of the northwest corner of section 
3, T. 37 N., R. 44 E.; 41 degrees, 7 minutes, 10 


seconds north latitude, 117 degrees, 00 minutes, 

31 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

So/7 moisture: Usually saturated for one month or more 
during most years unless drained 
Soil temperature: 50 to 54 degrees F. 

Mollic epipedon thickness: 10 to 24 inches. 

Reaction: Mildly alkaline to very strongly alkaline, the 
higher values being only in sodium affected areas. 
Carbonates: Slightly effervescent to strongly 
effervescent throughout; some strata below 20 
inches in some pedons are noneffervescent. The 
calcium carbonate equivalent is less than 15 
percent. 

Iron mottles: Distinct or prominent iron mottles are on 
the lower part of the mollic epipedon or immediately 
below; or if no mottles, matrix chroma is 1 or less. 
Other features: Some pedons have stratified silt loam 
to fine sand below 30 inches. Buried A horizons 
common. 

Control section: 

Clay content—35 to 45 percent. 

Texture-Stratified silty clay loam to clay with minor 
substrata of silt loam in some pedons. 

A horizons: 

Hue-lOYR or 2.5Y or N. 

Value—4 or 5 dry, 6 on surface of some pedons due 
to deposition, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-0 through 2. 

C and Ck horizons: 

Hue-lOYR to 5GY or N. 

Value-6 or 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. Volcanic ash 
layers are 8 dry, 6 moist. 

Chroma—0 through 3. 

Structure-Moderate or strong prismatic or blocky in 
the upper part; weak medium and coarse 
subangular blocky structure in the lower part, or 
it is massive. 

Carbonates—Few to many very fine to medium lime 
concretions or soft segregations in some 
subhorizons. 

Hunnton Series 

The Hunnton series consists of moderately deep 
over a duripan, well drained soils that formed in 
alluvium from mixed rock sources with a component of 
loess and volcanic ash. The Hunnton soils are on 
summits, side slopes and foot slopes of fan piedmont 
remnants, partial ballenas and plateaus. Slopes are 1 to 
30 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 9 
inches and the mean annual air temperature is about 
48 degrees F. 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part 1 


215 


Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Xerollic 
Durargids 

Typical pedon: Hunnton silt loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes, is located in an area of map unit 1229. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The 
soil surface is partially covered with 20 percent 
pebbles. 

A-0 to 3 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam, 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate very thin platy 
structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; many very fine and fine, and few 
medium roots; many very fine and fine interstitial 
pores; 5 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); 
clear smooth boundary. (2 to 6 inches thick) 

Bt1--3 to 6 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silty 
clay loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate 
medium subangular blocky structure; hard, friable, 
very sticky and very plastic; common very fine 
roots; common very fine tubular pores; 5 percent 
pebbles; few moderately thick clay films; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.0); clear smooth boundary. (3 to 7 
inches thick) 

Bt2--6 to 13 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
clay, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate fine 
prismatic structure parting to strong medium 
angular blocky; hard, firm, very sticky and very 
plastic; common very fine roots; few very fine 
tubular pores; 5 percent pebbles; many thick clay 
films on faces of peds and lining pores; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.2); clear smooth boundary. (5 to 10 
inches thick) 

Bt3--13 to 23 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; 
moderate very coarse angular blocky structure; 
hard, firm, sticky and plastic; few very fine roots; 
few very fine tubular pores; many stress surfaces; 
few thin and moderately thick clay films lining pores 
and bridging sand grains; 5 percent pebbles; 
moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (0 to 12 inches thick) 

Btqk--23 to 36 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) clay, 
dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate coarse 
angular blocky structure; hard, firm, sticky and 
plastic; few very fine roots; few very fine tubular 
pores; few moderately thick clay films lining pores 
and on face of peds; 1 5 percent durinodes in a 
friable matrix; common silica coats on peds; 
common fine, irregularly shaped soft masses of 
lime; slightly effervescent; 5 percent pebbles; 
moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (0 to 15 inches thick) 

Bqkm-36 to 44 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) 
indurated duripan pale brown (10YR 6/3) moist; 
continuous laminar capping 2 to 4 millimeter thick; 
strongly effervescent. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 1 
mile South of Wilson Reservoir; about 600 feet 


south and 6,300 feet west of the northwest corner 
of section 7, T. 43 N., R. 50 E.; 41 degrees, 32 
minutes, 45 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 

19 minutes, 25 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry, moist mid fall through 
spring, dry from summer through early fall 
Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Depth to duripan: 20 to 40 inches. 

Depth to lime: 19 to 32 inches. 

Other features: Some pedons have a 4 to 11 inch thick 
Bq horizon above the duripan that is brittle or 
discontinuous weakly silica cemented. 

Control section: 

Clay content-40 to 55 percent 

Rock fragments-Average 5 to 25 percent 

A horizons: 

Value—5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Reaction-Neutral through moderately alkaline. 

Bt horizons; 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 

Value—5 through 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 

Chroma—2 through 4. 

Texture-Clay or gravelly clay. 

Clay content-40 to 55 percent. 

Rock fragments-Up to 25 percent, mainly pebbles. 
Structure-Weak or moderate, very fine to very 
coarse subangular or angular blocky or prismatic. 
Consistence-Slightly hard or very hard dry; sticky 
or very sticky and plastic or very plastic, wet. 
Reaction-Neutral through moderately alkaline. 
Effervescence-Noneffervescent in the upper 
subhorizons, noneffervescent to strongly 
effervescent in the lower subhorizons. 

Other features—Some pedons have a 4 to 7 inch 
thick loam, silty clay loam or clay loam 
Btl horizon with few thin clay films. Some pedons 
have lime masses and silica concretions in the 
lower portion of the horizon. 

Bqkm horizon: 

Value-7 or 8 dry, 4 through 7 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 
Structure-Massive, or has weak medium to very 
thick platy structure. 

Other features-Some pedons have strongly silica 
cemented horizons with 40 to 60 percent 
pebbles below the indurated duripan. 

Kelk Series 

The Kelk series consists of very deep, well drained 
soils that formed in loess with some influence from 
volcanic ash and mixed silty alluvium derived mainly 



216 


Soil Survey of 


from mixed rock sources. The Kelk soils are on inset 
fans, inset fan remnants, fan piedmont remnants, 
partial ballenas, stream terraces, drainage channels, 
alluvial plains, axial stream floodplains and fan skirts. 
Slopes are 0 to 15 percent. The mean annual 
precipitation is about 8 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is 48 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed, mesic Durixerollic 
Camborthids 

Typical pedon; Kelk very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 

percent slopes, located in an area of map unit 2545. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1-0 to 2 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very fine 
sandy loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak 
thin platy structure; slightly hard, very friable, sticky 
and plastic; few very fine roots; few coarse and 
medium, many fine and very fine tubular pores; 
neutral (pH 6.8); abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to 4 
inches thick) 

A2-2 to 4 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam, 
dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate thin platy 
structure; slightly hard, very friable, sticky and 
plastic; few very fine roots; few very fine tubular 
pores; neutral (pH 6.8); abrupt smooth boundary. (0 
to 4 inches thick) 

Bw-4 to 13 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam, 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium 
subangular blocky structure; hard, friable, sticky and 
plastic; few fine and very fine roots; few fine and 
very fine tubular pores; neutral (pH 7.2); clear 
smooth boundary. (6 to 28 inches thick) 

Bq-13 to 25 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
silt loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; 
moderate medium angular blocky structure; hard, 
firm and brittle, sticky and plastic; few fine and very 
fine roots; few fine and very fine tubular pores; 
continuous brittle matrix; strongly effervescent; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); gradual wavy boundary. (0 
to 1 5 inches thick) 

Bqk1-25 to 36 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) silt loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; moderate medium angular blocky structure; 
hard, firm and brittle, sticky and plastic; few very 
fine roots; few very fine tubular pores; continuous 
brittle matrix; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); gradual wavy 
boundary. (10 to 34 inches thick) 

Bqk2—36 to 48 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) silt loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; massive; hard, friable, sticky and plastic; few 
very fine roots; few very fine tubular pores; 30 
percent brittle durinodes; strongly effervescent; lime 
is in few fine seams and filaments; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.4); gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 13 
inches thick) 

Bk-48 to 60 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
silt loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; 
massive; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; common 


very fine tubular pores; violently effervescent; lime 
is in few fine seams and filaments; strongly alkaline 
(pH 8.6) 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; in an 

unsectionized area, about 30 miles north of Midas; 
41 degrees, 40 minutes, 23 seconds north latitude, 
116 degrees, 53 minutes, 55 seconds west 
longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in the winter and 
spring, dry from early June through October 

Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Depth to base of Bw horizons: 10 to 35 inches. 

Depth to continuous brittle matrix: 13 to 35 inches. 

Depth to carbonates: 12 to 35 inches. 

Other features: These soils are normally slightly or 
moderately salt affected below 24 to 48 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-18 to 27 percent. 

A horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 2.5Y. 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3. 

Effervescence—Noneffervescent or slightly 
effervescent. 

Bw horizons: 

Value-6 or 7 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3. 

Structure—Blocky or prismatic or it is massive. 
Consistence-Very friable or friable, moist; sticky or 
slightly plastic or plastic, wet. 

Reaction-Neutral to moderately alkaline. It is 
strongly alkaline when affected by salts and 
sodium. 

Effervescence-Noneffervescent or slightly 
effervescent. 

Other features-There are 10 to 20 percent weak 
durinodes near the lower horizon boundary in 
some pedons. 

Bq and Bqk horizons: 

Value-6 through 8 dry, and 3 through 6 moist. 
Chroma—2 through 4. 

Texture-Dominantly silt loam with thin strata of 
silty clay loam common in some pedons below 
30 inches. 

Structure-Moderate fine and medium subangular 
blocky or massive. 

Consistence-Very friable to firm and brittle, moist; 
slightly sticky or sticky and slightly plastic or 
plastic, wet. 

Reaction-Neutral through strongly alkaline, 
increasing with depth. 

Effervescence—Slightly effervescent through 
violently effervescent in the Bqk horizon. 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


217 


Cementation-Subhorizons without continuously 
brittle matrix contain 30 to 90 percent durinodes 
or are 20 to 50 percent discontinuous weakly 
silica cemented. 

Other features: Some pedons have lenses of 5 to 15 
percent pebbles in some Bqk subhorizon or 
extremely gravelly substrata below 42 inches. 
Some pedons have silty clay loam 2Bk horizons 
below 39 inches. 


Kleckner Series 

The Kleckner series consists of very deep, well 
drained soils that formed in alluvium from mixed rock 
sources and in some areas colluvium from welded tuff 
or rhyolite. Kleckner soils are on fan piedmont 
remnants and mountain valley fan remnants and hills. 
Slopes are 2 to 50 percent. The mean annual 
precipitation is about 11 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is about 43 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey-skeletal, montmorillonitic, 
frigid Aridic Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Kleckner silt loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes, is located in map unit 141. (Colors are for 
dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The soil surface is 
partially covered with 10 percent pebbles. 

A1-0 to 2 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly loam, 
dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate very fine 
platy structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; many very fine roots; many very fine 
vesicular pores; 15 percent pebbles; slightly acid 
(pH 6.2); clear smooth boundary. (2 to 4 inches 
thick) 

A2-2 to 8 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly loam, 
dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate very fine 
platy structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and 
plastic; common very fine roots; few very fine 
tubular pores; 20 percent pebbles; slightly acid (pH 
6.4); clear smooth boundary. (4 to 8 inches thick) 
Bt1-8 to 13 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very gravelly 
clay loam, dark bown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate 
fine and medium subangular blocky structure; 
slightly hard, friable, sticky and plastic; common 
very fine roots; few very fine and fine tubular pores; 
few thin clay films lining pores; 30 percent pebbles, 
10 percent cobbles; slightly acid (pH 6.4) clear 
smooth boundary. (2 to 5 inches thick) 

Bt2-13 to 20 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
very gravelly clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; moderate fine and medium subangular blocky 
structure; hard, firm, very sticky and very plastic; 
common very fine and few medium roots; few very 
fine and fine tubular pores; 30 percent pebbles, 10 
percent cobbles; neutral (pH 6.6); clear smooth 
boundary. (10 to 20 inches thick) 


Bt3-20 to 42 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
very cobbly clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; 
hard, firm, very sticky and very plastic; common 
very fine and fine roots; few very fine tubular pores; 
many moderately thick clay films on faces of peds 
and lining pores; 30 percent pebbles, 20 percent 
cobbles; neutral (pH 7.0); gradual smooth boundary. 
(10 to 25 inches thick) 

Bq—42 to 60 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
extremely gravelly sandy loam, dark yellowish 
brown (10YR 4/4) moist; massive; slightly hard, 
very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 
common very fine roots; common cobbles, few fine 
silica coats on pebbles; neutral (pH 7.0) 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 5 
miles southeast of Midas; about 1,600 feet west 
and 1,200 feet south of the northeast corner of 
section 3, T. 38 N., R. 45 E.; 41 degrees, 12 
minutes, 12 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 

52 minutes, 42 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry early July 
through October 

Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F. 

Mollic epipedon thickness: 10 to 16 inches. It includes 
the upper part of the argillic horizon. 

Depth to Bq horizons: 40 to 60 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-35 to 50 percent. 

Rock fragments-35 to 60 percent; mainly pebbles 
or cobbles. 

A horizons: 

Value-4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Reaction-Slightly acid to mildly alkaline. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10YR. 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. Darker 
values are common only in the upper 
subhorizons. 

Chroma-3 through 6. 

Texture-Very cobbly clay, very cobbly clay loam, 
very gravelly clay loam, loam or very gravelly 
clay in the upper part and gravelly clay loam, 
very gravelly clay or very cobbly clay in the 
lower part. Loam is common in some pedons at 
depths below 35 inches. 

Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Bq horizon: 

Cementation-Contain 20 to 40 percent durinodes or 
has continuous brittle matrix that is hard and 
firm. 

Reaction-Neutral to moderately alkaline. 





218 


Soil Survey of 


Other features--Some pedons have lime in the lower 
subhorizons. Some pedons lack durinodes or 
weak silica cementation, but have silica coats or 
pendents on rock fragments. 


Kortty Series 

The Kortty series consists of deep, well drained 
soils that formed in alluvium and loess from mixed 
sources. Kortty soils are on fan piedmont remnants. 
Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. Mean annual precipitation is 
about 9 inches and the mean annual temperature is 
about 47 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Duric 
Haplargids 

Typical pedon: Kortty silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, 
located in an area of map unit 1156. (Colors are for 
dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1-0 to 3 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) silt 
loam, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; weak coarse platy 
structure; slightly hard, very friable, nonsticky and 
nonplastic; few fine roots; few coarse and medium, 
many fine and very fine vesicular pores; 5 percent 
pebbles; strongly alkaline (pH 8.8); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (2 to 4 inches thick) 

A2-3 to 6 inches; light gray (lOYR 7/2) silt loam, 
brown (10YR 5/3) moist; moderate fine platy 
structure, slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; common fine and few very fine 
roots; few fine vesicular and tubular pores; 5 
percent pebbles; moderately alkaline (ph 8.4); 
abrupt wavy boundary. (2 to 7 inches thick) 

Bt-6 to 12 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
clay loam, dark yellowish brown (lOYR 4/4) moist; 
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; 
hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few 
fine and very fine roots; few fine tubular pores; 
common thin clay films on faces of peds and lining 
pores; 5 percent pebbles; strongly alkaline (pH 8.6); 
abrupt wavy boundary. (5 to 7 inches thick) 

Bq-12 to 15 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) loam, 
yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; weak medium 
subangular blocky structure; hard, firm and brittle, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few fine and very 
fine roots; few very fine tubular pores; 5 percent 
pebbles; continuous brittle matrix, 5 percent brittle 
durinodes; strongly alkaline (pH 8.8); clear wavy 
boundary. (0 to 4 inches thick) 

Bqk1-15 to 30 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) 
loam, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; massive; 
hard, firm, and brittle; slightly sticky and slightly 
plastic; few fine and very fine roots; few very fine 
tubular pores; 5 percent pebbles; continuous brittle 
matrix, 25 percent brittle durinodes; strongly 


effervescent; strongly alkaline (pH 8.8); abrupt 
wavy boundary. (4 to 17 inches thick) 

Bqk2-30 to 42 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
gravelly silt loam, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; 
massive; slightly hard, very friable, nonsticky and 
nonplastic; few fine and very fine roots; 15 percent 
pebbles; 10 percent brittle durinodes; common fine 
lime filaments; violently effervescent; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.4); gradual wavy boundary. (11 to 14 
inches thick) 

2Bqk3-42 to 55 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
very gravelly sandy loam, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; 
massive; hard, firm, nonsticky and nonplastic; few 
very fine roots; 40 percent pebbles; continuous 
brittle matrix; common fine lime filaments; violently 
effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); clear 
wavy boundary. (10 to 20 inches thick) 

2Bqkm-55 to 60 inches; white (10YR 8/2) strong silica 
cemented duripan, light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
moist; massive; extremely hard, very firm; violently 
effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; Owyhee Desert, in 
an unsectionized area, approximately 28 miles west 
of Josephine Reservoir; 41 degrees, 55 minutes, 40 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 58 minutes, 

23 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry in summer and autumn 
Soil temperature: 47 to 53 degrees F. 

Solum thickness and depth to silica cementation: 9 to 
18 inches. 

Depth to time: 12 to 22 inches. 

Depth to 2Bqk horizons: 32 to 50 inches. 

Depth to duripan: 50 to 60 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-25 to 35 percent. 

Rock fragments-0 to 1 5 percent, mainly pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Value-6 or 7 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Consistence-Very friable or friable, moist. 

Bt horizon: 

Texture-Loam or clay loam. 

Structure—Subangular or angular blocky. 

Reaction—Moderately alkaline or strongly alkaline. 
Consistence-Slightly hard or hard, dry; slightly 
sticky or sticky and slightly plastic or plastic wet. 

Bq and Bqk horizons: 

Value-7 or 8 dry, 5 or 6 moist. 

Chroma-2 to 4. 

Texture-Loam, gravelly loam, gravelly silt loam or 
gravelly fine sandy loam. 

Rock fragments—5 to 20 percent 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


219 


Other features-Commonly slightly saline affected at 
some depth below 30 inches. 

2Bqk horizons: 

Rock fragments-35 to 50 percent, mainly pebbles. 

Consistence-Slightly hard or hard, dry; very friable 
through firm, moist. 

Cementation-20 to 40 percent weakly silica 
cemented durinodes or has continuous brittle 
matrix. 


Lerrow Series 

The Lerrow series consists of moderately deep, well 
drained soils that formed in residuum and colluvium 
from welded tuff, andesite, rhyolite, shale, quartzite or 
chert. Lerrow soils are on hills, mountains and side 
slopes of fan piedmont remnants with rock core. 

Slopes are 4 to 50 percent. The mean annual 
precipitation is about 12 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Aridic 
Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Lerrow cobbly loam, 15 to 50 percent 
slopes, is located in an area of the map unit 126. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The 
surface is partially covered with 30 percent pebbles. 

A1-0 to 3 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) cobbly loam, 
dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium platy 
structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; few medium, common very fine and 
fine roots; common fine and medium vesicular 
pores; 20 percent cobbles, 10 percent pebbles; 
neutral (pH 7.0); clear smooth boundary. (1 to 3 
inches thick) 

A2-3 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loam; dark brown 
(10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium platy structure; 
hard, firm, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 
common very fine and fine roots; common very fine 
and fine tubular pores; 10 percent pebbles; neutral 
(pH 7.2); clear smooth boundary. (1 to 7 inches 
thick) 

Bt1-9 to 14 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly clay 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium 
platy structure; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; 
common very fine and fine roots; few very fine 
tubular pores; few thin clay films lining pores; 20 
percent pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; mildly alkaline 
(pH 7.4); clear smooth boundary. (4 to 11 inches 
thick) 

Bt2-14 to 19 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly clay, 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak medium subangular 
blocky structure; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; few 
very fine and fine roots; common very fine and fine 
tubular pores; common moderately thick clay films 
lining pores and on faces of peds; 15 percent 


pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); 
clear smooth boundary. (5 to 11 inches thick) 
Bt3-19 to 27 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; weak 
medium prismatic structure; hard, firm, sticky and 
plastic; few very fine and few fine roots; few very 
fine tubular pores; common thin clay films lining 
pores and on faces of peds; 5 percent pebbles and 
5 percent cobbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); abrupt 
smooth boundary. (0 to 9 inches thick) 

2Crl—27 to 44 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) 
weathered tuff bedrock that retains primary rock 
structure and textures to a clay; disseminated lime; 
common thin clay films lining pores and on faces of 
peds; few very fine and fine roots; few fine tubular 
pores; abrupt smooth boundary. 

2Cr2-44 to 60 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) 
weathered tuff bedrock that retains primary rock 
structure and textures to a clay; disseminated lime. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 14 
miles southeast of Tuscarora; about 2,250 feet 
south and 1,100 feet east of the northwest corner 
of section 3, T. 38 N., R. 53 E.; 41 degrees, 12 
minutes, 48 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 

00 minutes, 13 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist late fall through 
spring, dry late June through October 
Soil temperature: 45 to 47 degrees F. 

MoHic epipedon thickness: 10 to 17 inches, includes 
the upper argillic horizon. 

Depth to paraiithic contact: 20 to 40 inches. 

Reaction: Neutral to mildly alkaline increasing with 
depth. 

Control section: 

Clay content-35 to 50 percent. 

Rock fragments-15 to 35 percent, mainly cobbles 
and pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Btl horizon: 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Texture-Clay loam or gravelly clay loam. 

Clay content-30 to 40 percent 
Rock fragments-10 to 35 percent average, mainly 
pebbles. 

Structure-Weak or moderate subangular blocky, or 
is platy. 

Bt2 and Bt3 horizons: 

Chroma-3 or 4 moist. 

Clay content—40 to 55 percent. 

Texture—Clay, gravelly clay or cobbly clay. 








220 


Soil Survey of 


Rock frag merits-10 to 20 percent pebbles, 0 to 5 
percent stones and 5 to 1 5 percent cobbles. 
Structure-Subangular or angular blocky in the upper 
subhorizon, weak to strong, fine to coarse 
prismatic in the lower subhorizons. 

Cr horizons: 

Effervescence-Noneffervescence to slightly 
effervescent. 

Linkup Series 

The Linkup series consists of shallow, well drained 
soils that formed in residuum and colluvium from 
basalt, andesite, rhyolite and tuff. Linkup soils are on 
summits or crests and side slopes of plateaus, hills and 
mountains. Slopes are 2 to 50 percent. Mean annual 
precipitation is about 11 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey, montmorillonitic, frigid Lithic 
Xerollic Haplargids 

Typical pedon: Linkup gravelly clay loam, 4 to 1 5 

percent slopes, located in an area of map unit 1675. 
(Colors are for dry soils unless otherwise noted.) 

The surface is partially covered with 15 percent 
pebbles and 5 percent cobbles. 

A1-0 to 3 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) 
gravelly clay loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) 
moist; moderate thin platy structure; slightly hard, 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common 
fine and very fine roots; few medium, many fine and 
very fine vesicular pores; 5 percent cobbles, 15 
percent pebbles; neutral (pH 6.6); abrupt smooth 
boundary. (3 to 4 inches thick) 

A2—3 to 5 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam, dark 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak fine subangular 
blocky structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; common medium, many fine 
and very fine roots; few fine and very fine vesicular 
and interstitial pores; 5 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 
7.2); abrupt smooth boundary. (0 to 4 inches thick) 
Bt1-5 to 9 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) gravelly 
clay, dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) moist; moderate fine 
and medium subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, 
sticky and plastic; common medium and fine roots; 
common fine and very fine interstitial pores; many 
moderately thick clay films on faces of ped and 
lining pores; 5 percent cobbles, 10 percent pebbles; 
neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt wavy boundary. (4 to 7 
inches thick) 

Bt2-9 to 17 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay, dark 
brown (7.5YR 4/4) moist; moderate medium and 
coarse prismatic structure parting to coarse and 
medium angular blocky; very hard, firm, sticky and 
plastic; few medium and fine roots; few very fine 
interstitial pores; continuous thick clay films on 


faces of peds and lining pores, 5 percent cobbles, 5 
percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (5 to 8 inches thick) 

R-17 inches; rhyolite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 9 
miles west of Midas; in an unsectionized area, about 
1,800 feet north and 1,900 feet west of the 
southeast corner of the estimated section 2, T. 46 
N., R. 46 E.; 41 degrees, 55 minutes, 10 seconds 
north latitude, 116 degrees, 47 minutes, 40 
seconds west longitude. 


Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in the winter and 
spring, dry mid-June through early November 
Soil temperature: 45 to 47 degrees F. 

Soil thickness and depth to bedrock: 14 to 20 inches. 
Sand content:20 to 45 percent. 

Reaction: Slightly acid through mildly alkaline, usually 
increasing with depth. 

Control section: 

Clay content—35 to 50 percent. 

Rock fragments-10 to 35 percent, mainly pebbles 
and cobbles. 

A horizons: 

Value-3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10YR. 

Value-4 through 6 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 
Chroma-3 through 6. 

Texture-Gravelly clay, clay loam, gravelly clay loam 
or cobbly clay loam with very cobbly clay loam 
common in some pedons in the upper part. Clay, 
gravelly clay or cobbly clay in the lower part. 

Clay content-27 to 45 percent in the upper part, 40 
to 55 percent in the lower part. 

Structure-Fine through coarse prismatic subangular 
blocky, or angular blocky. 

Consistence-Hard or very hard dry. 

Other features-The lower Bt subhorizons of some 
pedons have lime coats on rock fragments. 

Loncan Series 

The Loncan series consists of moderately deep, well 
drained soils that formed in residuum and colluvium 
derived mainly from chert or sedimentary and volcanic 
rock sources. Loncan soils are on side slopes of hills 
and mountains. Slopes are 4 to 75 percent. The mean 
annual precipitation is about 14 inches and the mean 
annual air temperature is 42 degrees F. 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


221 


Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, frigid Aridic 
Haploxerolls 

Typical pedon: Loncan very gravelly loam, 1 5 to 50 
percent slopes, located in an area of map unit 586. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A1-0 to 3 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) very 
gravelly loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; moderate medium platy structure; slightly 
hard, firm, slightly sticky and nonplastic; common 
fine and very fine roots; many medium vesicular and 
common fine tubular pores; 35 percent pebbles, 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); clear smooth boundary. (1 
to 5 inches thick) 

A2—3 to 7 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very gravelly 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium 
subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, very 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many very 
fine roots; common fine and very fine tubular pores; 
55 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); clear 
smooth boundary. (3 to 7 inches thick) 

A3—7 to 1 7 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very gravelly 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium 
subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many very fine 
and fine roots; common very fine tubular pores; 55 
percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); clear smooth 
boundary. (3 to 12 inches thick) 

C-17 to 30 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very 
gravelly sandy clay loam, dark yellowish brown 
(10YR 3/4) moist; weak medium subangular blocky 
structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; common very fine and fine roots; 
common very fine and fine tubular pores; 55 
percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); clear 
smooth boundary. (10 to 22 inches thick) 

R-30 inches; hard fractured chert. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 35 
miles north of Elko; about 1,830 feet south and 
1,420 feet west of the northeast corner of section 
28, T. 39 N., R. 53 E.; 41 degrees, 14 minutes, 37 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 00 minutes, 

32 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry late June through mid-October 

Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F. 

Mollic epipedon thickness: 10 to 17 inches. 

Depth to bedrock: 21 to 38 inches. 

Other features: Some pedons have AC horizons. 

Control section: 

Clay content—18 to 27 percent. 

Rock fragments—Averages 50 to 70 percent pebbles 
and cobbles with very few stones. 


A horizons: 

Value-4 or 5 dry. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

C horizon: 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Texture-Very gravelly loam, extremely cobbly loam, 
very gravelly sandy clay loam or extremely 
gravelly loam. 

Rock fragments-40 to 70 percent pebbles and 
cobbles. 


Lynnbow Series 

The Lynnbow series consists of deep, well drained 
soils that formed in thin loess over mixed alluvium and 
residuum from tuff. The Lynnbow soils are on hills and 
fan piedmont remnants with a rock core. Slopes are 2 
to 8 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 14 
inches and the mean annual temperature is about 43 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Typic 
Palexerolls 

Typical pedon: Lynnbow silt loam, 2 to 8 percent 
slopes, located in an area of map unit 200. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The soil 
surface is partially covered with 5 percent pebbles. 

A-0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt loam, 
very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; weak 
medium platy structure; slightly hard, very friable, 
sticky and plastic; many very fine roots; many very 
fine tubular pores; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt smooth 
boundary. (3 to 7 inches thick) 

Bt1-4 to 8 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
silty clay, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; 
moderate fine subangular blocky structure; slightly 
hard, friable, very sticky and very plastic; common 
very fine and fine roots; many very fine tubular 
pores; common thin clay films lining pores, on faces 
of peds and bridging sand grains; common clean 
sand grains throughout; 10 percent pebbles; neutral 
(pH 7.0); clear wavy boundary. (3 to 6 inches thick) 
Bt2-8 to 15 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 
3/2) silty clay, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; 
strong medium subangular blocky structure; hard, 
firm, very sticky and very plastic; common very fine 
and fine roots; many very fine tubular pores; 
common thin clay films on faces of peds and 
bridging sand grains; faces of peds coated with 
clean sand grains; many clean sand grains in peds; 
10 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (6 to 9 inches thick) 

2Bt3-15 to 18 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) silty 
clay, dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) moist; strong medium 
prismatic structure; very hard, very firm, very sticky 


222 


Soil Survey of 


and very plastic; common very fine exped roots; 
few very fine tubular pores; continuous stress 
surfaces on faces of peds; top of prisms coated 
with clean sand grains; 5 percent pebbles; neutral 
(pH 7.2); abrupt wavy boundary. (2 to 4 inches 
thick) 

2Bt4-18 to 26 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) silty clay, 
brown (7.5YR 4/4) moist; strong medium prismatic 
structure; very hard, very firm, very sticky and very 
plastic; few very fine exped roots; few very fine 
tubular pores; continuous stress surfaces on faces 
of peds; 5 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); 
clear wavy boundary. (6 to 10 inches thick) 

2Btqk1-26 to 33 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
silty clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) moist; 
moderate medium prismatic structure parting to 
strong medium and coarse angular blocky; hard, 
firm, very sticky and very plastic; few very fine 
roots; common very fine tubular pores; common 
strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) dry clay films and silica 
coats on faces of peds; 10 percent pebbles; 
common medium soft masses of lime; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.0); clear wavy boundary. (5 to 12 
inches thick) 

2Btqk2--33 to 40 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
silty clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) moist; 
moderate medium angular blocky structure; hard, 
friable, very sticky and very plastic; few very fine 
roots; common very fine tubular pores; common 
strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) dry clay films and silica 
coats on faces of peds; 15 percent pebbles; 
common medium filaments, threads and soft 
masses of lime; slightly effervescent; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.0); clear wavy boundary. (6 to 9 
inches thick) 

3Bqk-40 to 58 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loam, dark 
yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) moist; massive; slightly 
hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few 
very fine roots; common very fine tubular pores; 
weak continuous silica cementation; 10 percent 
pebbles; many medium filaments and threads of 
lime; slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 
8.2); clear smooth boundary. (5 to 20 inches thick) 

Cr--58 inches; soft tuff. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 4 
miles east of Wilson Reservoir; about 1,000 feet 
west and 700 feet north of the southeast corner of 
section 22, T. 44 N., R. 51 E.; 41 degrees, 41 
minutes, 35 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 

13 minutes, 30 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry from mid 
July through October 

Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F. 

MoiUc epipedon thickness: 14 to 19 inches. 

Depth to paralithic: 45 to 60 inches. 

Depth to carbonates and silica coats: 20 to 30 inches. 


Control section: 

Clay content--50 to 60 percent. 

Texture-Silt clay or clay. 

Rock fragments-0 to 15 percent. 

A horizon: 

Value-2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 

Value-3 through 5 dry, 2 through 4 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3. 

Texture-Silty clay or clay. 

Clay content-45 to 65 percent in any one 
subhorizon and averages 50 to 60 percent. 

Rock fragments-0 to 1 5 percent. 
Structure-Subangular blocky, angular blocky or 
prismatic. 

Reaction—Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Btqk horizons: 

Hue-lOYR or 7.5YR. 

Value-4 or 5 dry. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 

Texture-Silty clay or clay. 

Clay content-40 to 55 percent. 

Rock fragments-0 to 1 5 percent. 

Structure-Angular blocky or prismatic. 

Silica coats-Common or many on ped surfaces. 
Secondary carbonates-Common or many 

segregated soft masses, filaments or threads. 

Mahala Series 

The Mahala series consists of moderately deep, well 
drained soils that formed in a thin loess mantle over 
residuum from tuff. Mahala soils are on hills. Slopes 
are 4 to 1 5 percent. The mean annual temperature is 
about 47 degrees F.and the mean annual precipitation 
is about 11 inches. 

Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Xerollic 
Paleargids 

Typical pedon: Mahala silt loam, 4 to 15 percent 

slopes, located in an area of map unit 1910. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A-0 to 4 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) silt loam, dark 
grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; moderate medium 
platy structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; many very fine roots; many very 
fine and fine vesicular pores; 5 percent, 2 to 5 
millimeter pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt smooth 
boundary. (1 to 4 inches thick) 

E-4 to 5 inches thick; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) 
silt loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist with light 
gray (10YR 7/2) bleached sand grains and common 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


223 


fine distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) iron mottles; 
weak medium prismatic structure; hard, friable, 
sticky and slightly plastic; common very fine, fine 
and few medium roots; many very fine and few fine 
tubular pores; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt smooth 
boundary. (0 to 1 inches thick) 

2Bt1--5 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, dark 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist with light gray (10YR 7/2) 
bleached sand grains capping prisms, strong 
medium prismatic structure parting to strong coarse 
angular blocky, very hard, firm, very sticky and very 
plastic; common very fine roots; many very fine 
tubular pores; many stress surfaces on faces of 
peds; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); clear smooth 
boundary. (4 to 13 inches thick) 

2Bt2-9 to 14 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
clay, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; weak 
medium prismatic structure parting to moderate 
coarse angular blocky; very hard, firm, very sticky 
and very plastic; common very fine roots; many 
very fine tubular pores; common stress surfaces on 
faces of peds and common moderately thick clay 
films on faces of peds; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); 
clear wavy boundary. (5 to 12 inches thick) 

2Btk-14 to 26 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) clay, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; 
moderate medium subangular blocky structure 
parting to moderate fine subangular blocky; very 
hard, firm, very sticky and plastic; few very fine 
roots; many very fine tubular pores; many thin clay 
films coating sand grains and on faces of peds; lime 
is disseminated; slightly effervescent; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.4); clear wavy boundary. (7 to 20 
inches thick) 

Cr-26 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) weathered 
tuff bedrock with few fine discontinuous lime 
coatings in fractures. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 10 
miles west of Jack Creek; about 2,312 feet north 
and 100 feet west of the southeast corner of 
section 19, T. 43 N., R. 51 E.; 41 degrees, 36 
minutes, 35 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 

16 minutes, 50 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry late June through October 

Soil temperature: 47 to 50 degrees F. 

Depth to carbonates: 14 to 30 inches. 

Solum thickness and depth to weathered bedrock: 20 
to 40 inches. 

Reaction: Neutral through moderately alkaline, normally 
increasing with depth. 

Control section: 

Clay content-40 to 60 percent average. 

Rock fragments-0 to 20 percent mainly pebbles. 


A horizon: 

Value—5 through 7 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma—1 through 3. 

E horizon: (when present): 

Value-6 or 7 dry. 

Other features-Commonly has bleached sand grains 
and common fine distinct iron mottles. 

Bt horizons: 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 4 to 6 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 
Texture-Clay or gravelly clay. 

Structure—Weak through strong, medium to coarse 
prismatic,or columnar weak or moderate fine to 
coarse subangular or angular blocky or prismatic 
parting to angular or subangular blocky. 

Other features-Bleached sand grains commonly cap 
prisms. 

Btk horizon: 

Value-6 or 7 dry, 5 or 6 moist. 

Chroma-2 to 4. 

Texture-Clay or clay loam with gravelly clay loam, 
or silty clay loam common in some pedons. 
Reaction—Mildly or moderately alkaline. 
Carbonates-Disseminated but may include filaments 
or threads in some pedons. 

Cr horizons: 

Other features-Few or common, fine or medium, 
lime coats or soft masses and threads on 
fracture planes. 

Effervescence-None to slightly, may be strong in 
areas of visible carbonate accumulation. 

McCleary Series 

The McCleary series consists of very deep, very 
poorly drained soils that formed in alluvium from mixed 
sources with a thin loess cap. McCleary soils are on 
small relict lake plains and fan skirts adjacent to lake 
plains. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. Mean annual 
precipitation is about 9 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is about 47 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, nonacid, 
mesic Aerie Fluvaquents. 

Typical pedon: McCleary silt loam, located in an area of 
map unit 2560. (Colors are for dry soil unless 
otherwise noted.) 

AI-0 to 1 inch; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) silt loam, grayish 
brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; weak medium platy 
structure; soft, friable, slightly sticky and slightly 
plastic; many medium vesicular pores; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.0); abrupt smooth boundary. (I to 2 
inches thick) 


224 


Soil Survey of 


A2--i to 4 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) silt loam, dark 
grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; weak medium 
platy structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; few very fine roots; many 
medium vesicular pores; moderately alkaline (pH 
8.0); abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to 4 inches thick) 

2C1--4 to 13 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) 
clay, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; few fine 
distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) iron mottles; 
strong medium angular blocky structure; very hard, 
very firm, very sticky and very plastic; few fine 
roots, few fine tubular pores; moderately alkaline 
(pH 8.0); clear smooth boundary. (8 to 13 inches 
thick) 

2C2--13 to 22 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) 
clay, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; few fine 
distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) iron mottles; 
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; very 
hard, very firm, very sticky and very plastic; few 
fine roots; few fine tubular pores; few fine 
manganese concretions; moderately alkaline (pH 
8.0); gradual wavy boundary. (8 to 17 inches thick) 

2C3-22 to 56 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) 
clay, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; few fine 
distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) iron 
mottles; massive; very hard, very firm, very sticky 
and very plastic; few fine roots; few fine tubular 
pores; few fine manganese concretions; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.2); gradual wavy boundary. (25 to 35 
inches thick) 

2C--56 to 60 inches; light brown (7.5YR 6/4) clay, 
yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; few fine faint 
brown (7.5YR 5/4) iron mottles; massive; very hard, 
very firm, very sticky and very plastic; few fine 
tubular pores; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; Owyhee Desert, in 
an unsectionized area, about 7 miles west of Desert 
Ranch Reservoir; 41 degrees, 40 minutes, 31 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 40 minutes, 

12 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Seasonal high water table between 4 
and 20 inches between February and May 

Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Other features: Few to many iron manganese 
concretions can occur in any horizon. 

Control section: 

Clay content-40 to 50 percent. 

Rock fragments-0 to 1 5 percent. 

A horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 2.5Y. 

Value—5 through 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3. 

C horizons: 

Texture-Clay or silty clay. 


Mclvey Series 

The Mclvey series consists of very deep, well 
drained soils that formed mainly in colluvium from tuff, 
shale, sandstone, conglomerate, andesite, rhyolite, 
quartzite or welded tuffs. The Mclvey soils are on hills, 
mountains and high fan piedmont remnants and partial 
ballenas bordering hills and mountains. Slopes are 2 to 
75 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 14 
inches and the mean annual temperature is about 43 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey-skeletal, montmorillonitic, 
frigid Typic Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Mclvey gravelly silt loam, 15 to 30 
percent slopes, is located in an area of map unit 
1950. The soil surface is covered by 20 percent 
pebbles and 5 percent cobbles. (Colors are for dry 
soil unless otherwise noted.) 

Al—0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) 
gravelly silt loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) 
moist; weak fine subangular blocky structure; 
slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky and slightly 
plastic; many very fine roots; common very fine 
tubular pores; 20 percent pebbles, 5 percent 
cobbles; neutral (pH 6.8); abrupt wavy boundary. (2 
to 8 inches thick) 

A2—4 to 16 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) gravelly 
silt loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist; strong 
fine subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, very 
friable, sticky and plastic; many very fine and 
common fine roots; many very fine and few fine 
tubular pores; 15 percent pebbles, 5 percent 
cobbles; neutral (pH 6.8); clear wavy boundary. (5 
to 1 2 inches thick) 

Btl—16 to 29 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very 
gravelly clay loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) 
moist; moderate medium subangular blocky 
structure; hard, friable, sticky and plastic; common 
very fine roots; many very fine and common fine 
tubular pores; 30 percent pebbles, 10 percent 
cobbles; few thin clay films lining pores; neutral (pH 
6.8); clear wavy boundary. (3 to 13 inches thick) 
2Bt2-29 to 44 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
very cobbly clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; moderate medium angular blocky structure; 
hard, friable, sticky and plastic; few very fine roots; 
many very fine and common fine tubular pores; 30 
percent pebbles, 20 percent cobbles; many 
moderately thick clay films on faces of peds and 
lining pores; neutral (pH 6.8); clear wavy boundary 
(5 to 18 inches thick) 

2Bt3-44 to 58 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
very cobbly clay, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
moist; strong medium angular blocky structure; 
hard, very firm, very sticky and very plastic; few 
very fine roots; many very fine and few fine tubular 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


225 


pores; 30 percent pebbles, 25 percent cobbles; 
many moderately thick clay films on faces of peds 
and lining pores; (pH 6.8); clear wavy boundary. 

(11 to 16 inches thick) 

3C--58 to 65 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
extremely stony sandy clay loam, yellowish brown 
(10YR 5/4) moist; massive; hard, very firm, sticky 
and plastic; few very fine roots; common very fine 
tubular pores; 25 percent stones, 5 percent 
boulders; many distinct clay films lining pores; 
neutral (pH 7.0). 

Type location; Elko County, Nevada; approximately 1 
mile north of Bull Run Reservoir; about 1,600 feet 
west and 1,600 feet north of the southeast corner 
of section 3, T. 43 N., R. 52 E.; 41 degrees, 39 
minutes, 5 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 06 
minutes, 40 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in the winter and spring, dry mid 
July through October 
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F. 

MoHic epipedon thickness: 1 2 to 20 inches, does not 
include the argillic horizon. 

Control section: 

Clay content-35 to 50 percent. 

Rock fragments-Averages 35 to 60 percent, mainly 
pebbles and cobbles. 

A horizons: 

Value—4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-1 to 3. 

Btl horizon: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10YR. 

Value-3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma—3 or 4. 

Texture-Very gravelly clay loam or gravelly clay 
loam. 

Consistence-Hard or very hard, friable to very firm 
moist. 

Clay content-30 to 40 percent. 

Rock fragments—1 5 to 40 percent pebbles, 0 to 10 
percent cobbles. 

Reaction-Slightly acid to mildly alkaline. 

Other features-Moist and dry colors of this horizon 
do not meet the requirements of a mollic 
epipedon. 

Lower Bt horizons: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10YR. 

Value—5 or 6 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma—3 through 6. 

Texture—Very gravelly clay, very cobbly clay or 
extremely cobbly clay with extremely cobbly clay 
loam or very gravelly clay loam common in some 
subhorizons below 40 inches. 


Clay content-Commonly 40 to 50 percent, but 
some pedons have lower subhorizons with 30 to 
40 percent. 

Rock fragments-35 to 50 percent pebbles, 5 to 25 
percent cobbles, 0 to 15 percent stones. 
Structure-Subangular blocky, angular blocky or 
prismatic throughout the profile but is commonly 
massive in the lower subhorizons. 

Consistence—Hard or very hard, firm or very firm 
moist. 

Reaction-Slightly acid through mildly alkaline. 

Midraw Series 

The Midraw series consists of shallow over an 
indurated duripan, well drained soils that formed in 
residuum from rhyolite. Midraw soils are on plateaus 
and hills. Slopes are 2 to 15 percent. Mean annual 
precipitation is about 9 inches and the mean annual 
temperature is about 47 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey, montmorillonitic, mesic, 
shallow Xerollic Durargids 

Typical pedon: Midraw gravelly loam, 8 to 1 5 percent 
slopes, located in an area of map unit 3510. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The soil 
surface is covered with 10 percent pebbles and 5 
percent cobbles. 

A-0 to 2 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly loam, 
dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate thick platy 
structure; soft, friable, slightly sticky and slightly 
plastic; few very fine roots; common very fine 
vesicular pores; 15 percent pebbles, 5 percent 
cobbles; neutral (pH 6.6); abrupt smooth boundary. 
(2 to 6 inches thick) 

Bt1-2 to 6 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly clay 
loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak medium 
subangular blocky structure parting to moderate 
very fine subangular blocky; slightly hard, firm, 
sticky and plastic; few very fine roots; few very fine 
tubular pores; few thin clay films lining pores; 15 
percent pebbles; neutral (pH 6.6); clear smooth 
boundary. (2 to 5 inches thick) 

Bt2-6 to 13 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
gravelly clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; weak medium prismatic structure parting to 
strong fine angular blocky; very hard, very firm, 
very sticky and very plastic; few fine and very fine 
roots; few fine tubular pores; many moderately thick 
clay films on peds and lining pores; 10 percent 
pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 7.2); 
gradual smooth boundary. (3 to 7 inches thick) 
Bt3-13 to 17 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
gravelly clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; strong fine angular blocky structure; very 
hard, very firm, very sticky and very plastic; few 
very fine roots; few fine tubular pores; many 


226 


Soil Survey of 


moderately thick clay films on peds and lining pores; 
10 percent pebbles; 5 percent cobbles; slightly 
effervescent; neutral (pH 7.2); gradual smooth 
boundary. (0 to 5 inches thick) 

Bqk--17 to 19 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) very 
gravelly clay loam, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) 
moist; massive; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; 50 
percent gravel size duripan fragments; violently 
effervescent, lime is disseminated; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.0); clear smooth boundary (0 to 5 
inches thick) 

Bqkm--19 to 25 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) 
indurated duripan; massive, extremely hard, 
extremely firm; silica laminae are 1/2 to 2 millimeter 
thick; duripan composed of thin to thick alternating 
weakly cemented and indurated layers; abrupt 
smooth boundary. (4 to 15 inches thick) 

R-25 inches; rhyolite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; Owyhee Desert, in 
an unsectionized area, about 27 miles northwest of 
Wilson Reservoir; approximately 1,400 feet west of 
the apparent northeast corner of section 4, T. 46 
N., R. 47 E.; 41 degrees, 55 minutes, 22 seconds 
north latitude, 116 degrees, 42 minutes, 50 
seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry in late June through October 
Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Depth to base of Bt horizons: 14 to 20 inches. 

Depth to duripan: 14 to 20 inches. 

Depth to bedrock: 20 to 35 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content--35 to 45 percent. 

Rock fragments—15 to 35 percent. 

A horizon: 

Value-6 or 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3. 

Reaction-Neutral to moderately alkaline. 

Bt horizon: 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Texture-Gravelly clay loam, gravelly silty clay loam, 
gravelly clay or cobbly clay. 

Consistence-Friable, firm or very firm, moist. 
Structure-Prismatic, subangular blocky or angular 
blocky. 

Rock fragments-15 to 35 percent. 

Reaction-Neutral to moderately alkaline. 

Other features—Some pedons have durinodes or pan 
fragments in the lower subhorizon. 

Bqk horizon: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10YR. 

Value-6 or 7 dry, 3 or 4 moist 


Chroma—3 or 4 . 

Structure-Subangular blocky or is massive 
Consistence-Friable or firm, moist; slightly plastic 
or plastic, wet. 

Bqkm horizon: 

Hue-7.5YR or 10YR. 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 


Ninemile Series 

The Ninemile series consists of shallow, well 
drained soils that formed in residuum from andesite, 
rhyolite, basalt and welded tuff. The Ninemile soils are 
on hills and mountains. Slopes are 4 to 50 percent. 

The mean annual precipitation is about 14 inches and 
the mean annual temperature is about 44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey, montmorillonitic, frigid Lithic 
Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Ninemile cobbly loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes, located in an area of map unit 1653. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The soil 
surface is covered with 10 percent pebbles and 20 
percent cobbles. 

A1-0 to 2 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) cobbly 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
weak thin platy structure; slightly hard, friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common medium, 
fine and very fine roots; common medium and fine 
vesicular pores; 10 percent pebbles, 20 percent 
cobbles; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt smooth boundary. 
(1 to 7 inches thick) 

A2-2 to 4 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) gravelly 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
moderate thin platy parting to strong fine granular 
structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; common medium and fine tubular 
pores; 10 percent pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; 
neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 4 
inches thick) 

Bt1-4 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, dark brown 
(10YR 3/3) moist; strong fine subangular blocky 
structure; very hard, firm, sticky and plastic; few 
medium fine and very fine roots; few fine and very 
fine tubular pores; many moderately thick clay films 
on faces of peds and lining pores; 5 percent 
pebbles, 5 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt 
wavy boundary. (0 to 5 inches thick) 

Bt2-9 to 14 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, dark 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; strong coarse prismatic 
structure; very hard, very firm, very sticky and very 
plastic; few medium, fine and very fine roots; few 
fine and very fine pores; continuous stress surfaces 
on faces of peds; 5 percent pebbles, 5 percent 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


227 


cobbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (3 to 9 inches thick) 

Bt3-14to 19 inches; light yellowish brown (lOYR 6/4) 
gravelly clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; massive; very hard, very firm, very sticky 
and very plastic; 20 percent pebbles; 5 percent 
cobbles, many moderately thick clay films coating 
coarse fragments; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); abrupt 
wavy boundary. (4 to 7 inches thick) 

R--19 inches; rhyolite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; Owyhee Desert, in 
an unsectionized area, about 8 miles north of Midas; 
41 degrees, 20 minutes, 40 seconds north latitude, 

116 degrees, 51 minutes, 08 seconds west 
longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist during the winter and 
spring, dry mainly during late June through early 
October 

Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F. 

Depth to bedrock: 10 to 20 inches. 

Mollic epipedon: 6 to 18 inches; commonly includes 
part or all of the argillic horizon. (Mixed to 7 inches 
will be mollic) 

Control section: 

Clay Content-Averages 40 to 60 percent. 

Rock fragments—0 to 35 percent 

A horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR 

Value—3 through 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-1 through 3. 

Reaction-Slightly acid through moderately alkaline. 
Other features-Surface 1 or 2 inches of some 
pedons have color value of 6 and are massive. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-5YR, 7.5YR or 10YR. 

Value-3 through 6 dry, 2 through 4 moist. 

Chroma—2 through 4, lower subhorizons have 
chroma of 6 in some pedons. 

Clay content—Typically 40 to 60 percent. Some 
subhorizons range to 35 percent. 

Texture-Mainly clay or gravelly clay, but some 
subhorizons range to clay loam. 

Rock fragments-0 to 30 percent pebbles or 
cobbles. 

Structure-Moderate or strong subangular or angular 
blocky or prismatic. Bt3 horizons may be 
massive in some pedons 
Reaction-Neutral through moderately alkaline. 

Other features—Some pedons are slightly hard dry, 
sticky and plastic wet in the Btl horizon. 


R horizons: 

Other features-ln some pedons, where bedrock is 
less than 15 inches deep, the upper 1 to 3 
inches of bedrock is weathered. 


Olac Series 

The Olac series consists of shallow, well drained 
soils that formed in residuum weathered from andesite 
and related rocks. The Olac soils are on hills and 
mountains. Slopes are 4 to 75 percent. Mean annual 
precipitation is about 9 inches, and mean annual 
temperature is about 48 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, mesic Lithic 
Xerollic Haplargids 

Typical pedon: Olac very stony loam, 4 to 15 percent 
slopes, located in an area of map unit 2641. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The soil 
surface is covered with 15 percent pebbles, 20 
percent cobbles and 10 percent stones. 

A1-0 to 2 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very stony 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate 
medium platy structure; slightly hard, friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few fine roots; 
many fine vesicular pores; 15 percent pebbles; 20 
percent cobbles, 10 percent stones; neutral (pH 
7.2); abrupt smooth boundary. (1 to 3 inches thick) 
A2-2 to 4 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very stony 
loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate thin 
platy structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky 
and plastic; few very fine roots; many fine vesicular 
pores; 5 percent pebbles, 20 percent cobbles, 15 
percent stones; mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); clear 
smooth boundary. (1 to 3 inches thick) 

Btl—4 to 9 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) extremely 
gravelly clay loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist, 
moderate fine subangular blocky structure; hard, 
firm, sticky and plastic; few fine and very fine roots; 
few fine tubular pores; common moderately thick 
clay films on faces of peds; 45 percent pebbles, 15 
percent cobbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); clear wavy 
boundary. (4 to 5 inches thick) 

Bt2-9 to 14 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) extremely 
gravelly clay loam, dark, brown (7.5YR 4/4) moist; 
strong fine subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, 
sticky and plastic; few fine roots; many thick clay 
films on faces of peds; 45 percent pebbles, 15 
percent cobbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); abrupt 
smooth boundary. (1 to 5 inches thick) 

R-14 inches; consolidated basalt. 

Type location: Elko, Nevada; Owyhee Desert, in an 
unsectionized area, about 20 miles northeast of 
Midas; 41 degrees, 36 minutes, 35 seconds north 
latitude, 116 degrees, 59 minutes, 37 seconds west 
longitude. 


228 


Soil Survey of 


Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry summer and fall, moist 
November through early June 
Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Depth to bedrock: 8 to 14 inches. 

Reaction: Slightly acid through mildly alkaline. 

Control section: 

Clay content-18 to 27 percent. 

Rock fragments-35 to 60 percent, mainly angular 
pebbles with 0 to 30 percent cobbles or stones 
in the upper part. 

A horizons: 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Rock fragments-20 to 65 percent. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 7.5YR. 

Value-4 through 7 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Texture-Extremely gravelly loam or extremely 
gravelly clay loam. 

Clay content—23 to 30 percent. 

Rock fragments-60 to 75 percent, mainly pebbles. 

Old Camp Series 

The Old Camp series consists of shallow, well 
drained soils that formed in residuum and colluvium 
weathered from tuff, basalt, rhyolite and andesite with 
a minor component of volcanic ash. Old Camp soils are 
on hills, mountains, and plateaus. Slopes are 2 to 75 
percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 10 
inches and the mean annual temperature is about 47 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, mesic Lithic 
Xerollic Haplargids 

Typical pedon: Old Camp extremely stony loam, 1 5 to 
30 percent slopes, located in an area of map unit 
2790. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise 
noted.) The soil surface is covered with 10 percent 
pebbles, 30 percent cobbles and 10 percent stones. 
A1-0 to 3 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very stony 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium 
platy structure; soft, friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; few fine and very fine roots; few 
fine tubular pores; 10 percent pebbles, 25 percent 
cobbles, 10 percent stones; neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt 
smooth boundary. (1 to 4 inches thick) 

A2-3 to 6 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very cobbly 
loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; massive; soft, 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few very 
fine roots; few very fine pores; 20 percent pebbles. 


20 percent cobbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); clear 
smooth boundary. (0 to 3 inches thick) 

Bt-6 to 16 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very cobbly 
clay loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; 
moderate fine subangular blocky structure; hard, 
firm, sticky and plastic; few very fine roots; 
common moderately thick clay films on faces of 
peds; few thin lime and silica coatings on 
undersides of rock fragments next to the bedrock; 

25 percent pebbles, 25 percent cobbles; mildly 
alkaline (pH 7.4); clear wavy boundary. (6 to 13 
inches thick) 

R-16 inches; consolidated rhyolite; many fine and very 
fine matted roots on bedrock. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; in an 

unsectionized area, about 20 miles northwest of 
Midas; 41 degrees, 29 minutes, 2 seconds north 
latitude, 116 degrees, 58 minutes, 44 seconds west 
longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist November through 
May 

Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Depth to bedrock: 10 to 20 inches. 

Control section: 

Rock fragments—50 to 75 percent, dominantly 
cobbles and stones. The upper part has 35 to 50 
percent rock fragments in some pedons. 

A horizons: 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Reaction—Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Bt horizon: 

Hue-1 OYR to 7.5YR 

Value-4 through 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 
Chroma-2 through 4. 

Texture—Clay loam or sandy clay loam, with 

subhorizons in some pedons of loam, modified 
by average of 50 to 75 percent rock fragments, 
mainly cobbles and stones. 

Clay content—27 to 35 percent. 

Structure-Weak or moderate, coarse to fine angular 
or subangular blocky or massive. 
Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline in the upper part, 
neutral to strongly alkaline in the lower part. 
Other features—Few to continuous lime coats on 
rock fragments or bedrock. 

Orovada Series 

The Orovada series consists of very deep, well 
drained soils that formed in loess high in volcanic ash 
over alluvium from mixed rock sources. The Orovada 
soils are on fan skirts, fan aprons, inset fans, partial 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada—Part I 


229 


ballenas, hills and footslopes. Slopes are 0 to 30 
percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 8 
inches and the mean annual temperature is about 47 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Coarse-loamy, mixed, mesic 
Durixerollic Camborthids 

Typical pedon: Orovada very fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 
percent slopes, is located in an area of map unit 
1363. (Colors are for dry soils unless otherwise 
noted.) 

A1-0 to 2 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) very fine 
sandy loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; 
moderate thin platy structure; soft, very friable, 
nonsticky and nonplastic; common very fine and 
few fine, medium and coarse roots; many very fine 
interstitial and vesicular, and few fine tubular pores; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); clear wavy boundary. (2 to 
8 inches thick) 

A2—2 to 5 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) very 
fine sandy loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate 
thin platy structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; common very fine and few fine, 
medium and coarse roots; common very fine 
interstitial and few fine and medium tubular pores; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); abrupt wavy boundary. (0 
to 5 inches thick) 

Bw-5 to 19 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam, 
brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak fine subangular 
blocky structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; few very fine, medium and 
coarse roots; common very fine interstitial and few 
fine and medium tubular pores; moderately alkaline 
(pH 7.8); clear wavy boundary. (4 to 20 inches 
thick) 

Bq-19 to 29 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) very fine 
sandy loam, brown (10YR 5/4) moist; massive; 
slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly 
plastic; few very fine roots; common very fine and 
few fine interstitial and tubular pores; 40 percent 
durinodes; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); clear wavy 
boundary. (0 to 12 inches thick) 

Bqkl—29 to 39 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 
7/2) very fine sandy loam, dark yellowish brown 
(10YR 4/4) moist; massive; hard, friable, nonsticky 
and nonplastic; few very fine roots; common very 
fine interstitial pores; 25 percent durinodes; few 
thin lime filaments slightly effervescent; moderately 
alkaline (pH 8.2); clear wavy boundary. (5 to 12 
inches thick) 

Bqk2-39 to 60 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 
6/4) very fine sandy loam, yellowish brown (10YR 
5/4) moist; massive; hard, friable, slightly sticky and 
nonplastic; few very fine roots; common very fine 
and few fine interstitial pores; 25 percent durinodes; 
few thin filaments and soft masses of lime; slightly 
effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 8.4). 


Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 18 
miles southwest of Midas; about 850 feet west and 
2,400 feet south of the northeast corner of section 
11, T. 37 N., R. 44 E.; 41 degrees, 6 minutes, 00 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 58 minutes, 
20 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry from late June through early November 
Soil temperature: A^l to 52 degrees F. 

Depth to Bq or Bqk horizons: 10 to 28 inches. 

Control section: 

Other features: When mixed, value of the upper 7 
inches is greater than 5.5 dry and 3.5 moist. 

Clay content—5 to 18 percent. 

Rock fragments-0 to 15 percent, mainly pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 2.5Y. 

Value—5 through 7 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Reaction-Neutral through moderately alkaline. 

Bw horizon: 

Hue-1 OYR or 2.5Y. 

Value-6 through 8 dry; 3 through 6 moist. 
Chroma-2 through 6. 

Texture-Fine sandy loam, very fine sandy loam, 
loam, silt loam with strata of loamy fine sand or 
sandy loam in some pedon. 

Clay content-5 to 18 percent. 

Rock fragments-Averages 0 to 15 percent pebbles. 
Structure—Subangular blocky, prismatic, or horizon 
is massive. 

Reaction-Mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline. 

Bq and Bqk horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 2.5Y. 

Value-6 or 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 6. 

Texture—Fine sandy loam, very fine sandy loam, 
loam, silt loam with strata of loamy fine sand or 
sandy loam in some pedon. 

Rock fragments-Up to 30 percent pebbles in some 
subhorizons of some pedons. 

Consistence-Soft to hard, dry and very friable or 
friable, moist, nonsticky or slightly sticky and 
nonplastic or slightly plastic, wet. 
Reaction-Moderately alkaline through very strongly 
alkaline, increasing with depth. 
Cementation-Contains 20 to 80 percent durinodes. 
Other features-Gypsum crystals are below depths 
of 37 inches in some pedons. 


230 


Soil Survey of 


Pattani Series 

The Pattani series consists of moderately deep well 
drained soils that formed in residuum from tuff. The 
Pattani soils are on hills and rock pediments. Slopes are 
4 to 1 5 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 
11 inches and the mean annual temperature is about 
44 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Entic 
Chromoxererts 

Typical pedon: Pattani clay, 4 to 15 percent slopes, 
located in an area of map unit 308. (Colors are for 
dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

A--0 to 1 inches; reddish brown (5YR 5/3) clay, 
reddish brown (5YR 5/3) moist; moderate fine 
subangular blocky structure parting to strong very 
fine granular; soft, very friable, very sticky, very 
plastic; few very fine roots; many very fine 
interstitial pores; 5 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline 
(pH 7.6); abrupt wavy boundary. (1 to 2 inches 
thick) 

B--1 to 14 inches; reddish brown (5YR 5/3) clay, 
reddish brown (5YR 4/3) moist; moderate coarse 
subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, very sticky, 
very plastic; few very fine and fine roots; many very 
fine tubular and common very fine interstitial pores; 
moderately thick stress surfaces coating faces of 
peds; 5 percent pebbles; moderately alkaline (pH 
7.6); clear wavy boundary. (4 to 13 inches thick) 
Bk1-14 to 30 inches; reddish brown (5YR 5/3) clay, 
reddish brown (5YR 4/3) moist; moderate coarse 
subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, very sticky, 
very plastic; few very fine and fine roots; many very 
fine tubular, common very fine interstitial pores; 
common slickensides; many stress surfaces on 
faces of peds; 5 percent pebbles; slightly 
effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 8.4); clear 
wavy boundary. (5 to 20 inches thick) 

Bk2--30 to 37 inches; light reddish brown (5YR 6/3) 
clay, light reddish brown (5YR 6/3) moist; weak 
coarse subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, very 
sticky, very plastic; few very fine roots; many very 
fine tubular pores; common slickensides; 5 percent 
decomposing brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) tuff 
pebbles; many stress surfaces on faces of peds, 
disseminated lime with few fine soft masses; 
strongly effervescent; 5 percent pebbles; 
moderately alkaline (pH 8.4); clear wavy boundary. 
(5 to 10 inches thick) 

Cr--37 to 40 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7.2) weathered 
tuff with light reddish brown (5YR 6/3) clay films in 
fractures; strongly effervescent. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 6 
miles southwest of Willow Creek Reservoir; about 
2,500 feet east and 2,400 feet south of the 
northwest corner of section 13, T. 38 N., R. 47 E.; 


41 degrees, 10 minutes, 16 seconds north latitude, 
116 degrees, 36 minutes, 48 seconds west 
longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist winter and spring, dry June 
through October 

Soil temperature: 45 to 47 degrees F. 

Depth to paraiithic contact: 20 to 40 inches. 

Depth to time: 1 2 to 20 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content--35 to 55 percent. 

Other features-The soil has cracks that close when 
the soil becomes moist in late October and opens 
when the soil becomes dry in early June. 

A horizon: 

Hue-lOYR, 7.5YR, 5YR or 2.5Y. 

Value--5 or 6 moist or dry. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

B and Bk horizons: 

Hue-lOYR, 7.5YR, 5YR or 2.5Y. 

Value-5 or 6 dry, 4 through 6 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Texture-Clay, silty clay, or clay loam. 
Structure-Angular blocky, subangular blocky or it is 
massive. 

Reaction-Moderately alkaline or strongly alkaline. 
Other features—Common to many slickensides, has 
cracks in the dry season that extend to the 
surface and range up to 2 inches in width. 

Pequop Series 

The Pequop series consists of deep, well drained 
soils that formed in colluvium and residuum from 
rhyolite, tuff and intrusive igneous rocks. Pequop soils 
are on side slopes of hills, mountains and fan piedmont 
remnants with a bedrock core. Slopes are 8 to 50 
percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 14 
inches and the mean annual temperature is about 43 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, frigid Typic 
Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Pequop gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes in an area of map unit 1691. (Colors are for 
dry soil unless otherwise noted.) 

AI-0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) 

gravelly loam, black (10YR 2/1) moist; moderate fine 
and medium subangular blocky structure; parting to 
weak fine granular, soft, very friable, slightly sticky 
and slightly plastic; many very fine and fine roots; 
many very fine and fine tubular pores; 15 percent 




Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


231 


pebbles; neutral (pH 6.8); clear smooth boundary. 

(3 to 8 inches thick) 

A2-4 to 12 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) gravelly 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
moderate fine and medium subangular blocky 
structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; many very fine and fine roots; many 
very fine, fine, and few medium tubular pores; 25 
percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.0); clear smooth 
boundary. (7 to 12 inches thick) 

Btl--12 to 19 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) extremely 
gravelly sandy clay loam, dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) 
moist; weak very fine and fine subangular blocky 
structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and 
plastic; many very fine, fine, and few medium roots; 
many fine and medium tubular pores; common 
moderately thick clay films on faces of peds and 
lining pores; 65 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.0); 
clear smooth boundary. (5 to 9 inches thick) 

Bt2--19 to 28 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) very 
gravelly sandy clay loam, reddish brown (5YR 4/4) 
moist; moderate fine and medium subangular blocky 
structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and 
plastic; common very fine, fine, and few medium 
roots; many very fine and fine tubular pores; many 
moderately thick clay films on faces of peds and 
lining pores; 50 percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.0); 
abrupt wavy boundary. (7 to 11 inches thick) 

Bt3—28 to 41 inches; reddish brown (5YR 5/4) 

extremely gravelly sandy clay loam, reddish brown 
(5YR 4/4) moist; moderate fine and medium 
subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, slightly 
sticky and plastic; common very fine, fine and 
medium roots; many very fine and fine tubular 
pores; common moderately thick clay films on faces 
of peds and lining pores; 20 percent cobbles, 45 
percent pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (II to 15 inches thick) 

Bt4-41 to 50 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) very gravelly 
clay loam, dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) moist; weak fine 
and medium subangular blocky structure; hard, firm, 
sticky and plastic; few very fine and fine roots; 
common very fine, fine and medium pores; few 
moderately thick clay films on faces of peds and 
lining pores; 10 percent cobbles, 40 percent 
pebbles; neutral (pH 7.2); clear smooth boundary. 

(7 to 11 inches thick) 

Bk-50 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very 
gravelly loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; massive; hard, firm, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; many fine and medium tubular 
pores; common distinct lime coatings on lower 
surfaces of pebbles; few soft fine lime masses and 
filaments; 1 5 percent cobbles, 40 percent pebbles; 
neutral (pH 7.2). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; about 8 miles 
southeast of Midas; approximately 800 feet south 
and 2,500 feet west of the northeast corner of 
section 8, T. 37 N., R. 46 E.; 41 degrees, 06 


minutes, 16 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 
48 minutes, 22 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry mid-July 
through October 

Soil temperature: 43 to 47 degrees F. 

MoiUc epipedon thickness: 10 to 20 inches. 

Depth to base of argillic horizons: 40 to 60 inches. 
Depth to bedrock: 50 to 80 inches. 

Reaction: Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Control section: 

Clay percent-20 to 35. 

Rock fragments—40 to 70 percent, dominantly 
pebbles. 

A horizons: 

Value—3 through 5 dry, 2 through 4 moist. 

Chroma—I to 3. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR, 7.5YR or 5YR. 

Value-3 through 5 moist, 5 or 6 dry. 

Chroma-3 through 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Texture—Very gravelly sandy clay loam, extremely 
gravelly sandy clay loam or very gravelly clay 
loam with less than 35 percent silt. 

Clay content-20 to 35 percent. 

Rock fragments-40 to 70 percent, dominantly 
pebbles. 

Structure-Very fine, fine or medium subangular 
blocky. 

Bk horizon: (When present): 

Value-4 to 5 moist. 

Chroma—3 or 4. 

Rock fragments-40 to 80 percent, dominantly 
pebbles with cobbles dominant in some pedons. 

Pernty Series 

The Pernty series consists of shallow, well drained 
soils that formed in residuum and some colluvium from 
rhyolite, quartzite, sandstone, conglomerate, chert, 
welded tuff and andesite. Pernty soils are on mountain 
and hill crests and side slopes. Slopes are 2 to 75 
percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 11 
inches and the mean annual temperature is about 43 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, frigid Lithic 
Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Pernty very gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes, located in an area of map unit 270. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The 
soil surface is covered with 40 percent pebbles, 10 
percent cobbles. 


232 


Soil Survey of 


A1-0 to 1 inch; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) very 
gravelly loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; weak fine subangular blocky structure; 
slightly hard, friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; 
common very fine roots; many very fine and few 
fine pores; 40 percent pebbles and 5 percent 
cobbles; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt wavy boundary. 

A2--1 to 5 inches; brown (lOYR 5/3) very gravelly 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak fine 
subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, friable, 
nonsticky and nonplastic; common very fine and 
few fine roots; many very fine and few fine tubular 
pores; 30 percent pebbles and 10 percent cobbles; 
neutral (pH 7.2); clear wavy boundary. (Combined 
thickness of A horizons is 2 to 5 inches) 

Bt1--5 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very cobbly 
clay loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate 
fine and medium subangular blocky structure; hard, 
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few very 
fine roots; many very fine and few fine tubular 
pores; many thin clay films on faces of peds; 30 
percent pebbles and 20 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 
7.3); abrupt wavy boundary. (4 to 6 inches thick) 

Bt2-10 to 14 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very 
cobbly clay loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; moderate fine and medium subangular blocky 
structure; hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly 
plastic; few very fine roots; many very fine and few 
fine tubular pores; many thin clay films on faces of 
peds; 30 percent pebbles and 20 percent cobbles, 
neutral (pH 7.3). (4 to 6 inches thick) 

R-14 inches; fractured quartzite. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 40 
miles northwest of Elko; about 2,200 feet south and 
1,850 feet east of the northwest corner of section 
19, T. 39 N., R. 53 E.; 41 degrees, 40 minutes, 00 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 03 minutes, 

25 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in some part from late 
October through early June and is dry for 90 to 1 20 
consecutive days 

Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees. 

Average summer soil temperature: 59 to 64 degrees F. 

MoHic epipedon thickness: 7 to 10 inches, includes the 
upper Bt horizons. 

Depth to base of Bt horizon: 14 to 20 inches. 

Depth to lithic contact: 14 to 20 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content-25 to 35 percent, when mixed. 

Rock fragments-35 to 50 percent when mixed, 
mainly pebbles or cobbles. 

A horizons: 

Chroma—2 or 3. 


Bt horizons: 

Value—5 or 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 

Texture-Very gravelly clay loam, gravelly loam, very 
gravelly loam or very cobbly clay loam, very 
stony clay loam. 

Structure-Weak or moderate subangular blocky or 
is massive. 


Petan Series 

The Petan series consists of shallow, well drained 
soils that formed in residuum from rhyolite and basalt. 
Petan soils are on side slopes of hills, plateaus and fan 
piedmonts and have slopes of 4 to 15 percent. Mean 
annual precipitation is about 14 inches and the mean 
annual temperature is about 43 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey-skeletal, montmorillonitic, 
frigid, shallow Typic Durixerolls 

Typical pedon: Petan extremely stony loam, 4 to 15 
percent slopes, located in an area of map unit 3710. 
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The 
soil surface is covered with 5 percent pebbles, 30 
percent cobbles and 10 percent stones. 

AI-0 to 3 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) extremely 
stony loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) 
moist; moderate thick platy structure; soft, friable, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common very fine 
roots; common very fine tubular pores; 10 percent 
pebbles; 25 percent cobbles, 30 percent stones; 
neutral (pH 7.2); clear smooth boundary. (2 to 4 
inches thick) 

A2-3 to 6 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very stony clay 
loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate fine 
granular structure; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; 
few fine and very fine roots; few very fine tubular 
pores; 5 percent pebbles, 10 percent cobbles, 25 
percent stones; neutral (pH 7.2); abrupt smooth 
boundary. (2 to 6 inches thick) 

Btl-6 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very cobbly 
clay, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate fine 
subangular blocky structure; very hard, very firm, 
very sticky and very plastic; few very fine roots; 
many thin clay films on peds; 15 percent pebbles, 

25 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 7.2); clear smooth 
boundary. (3 to 5 inches thick) 

Bt2"10 to 19 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
very cobbly clay, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; 
moderate medium prismatic structure that parts to 
stong medium angular blocky; extremely hard, 
extremely firm, very sticky and very plastic; many 
moderately thick clay films on peds; 15 percent 
pebbles, 40 percent cobbles; mildly alkaline (pH 
7.4); abrupt smooth boundary. (6 to 9 inches thick) 
Bqkm-19 to 20 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) 
indurated laminae 1/8 to 1/2 inch thick over a 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


233 


degrading duripan; extremely hard, extremely firm; 
strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); 
abrupt smooth boundary. (1/2 to 3 inches thick) 
R--20 inches; basalt 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; Owyhee Desert, in 
an unsectionized area, approximately 6 miles north 
of Josephine Reservoir; 41 degrees, 59 minutes, 35 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 28 minutes, 

05 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry from mid 
July through October 
Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F. 

Thickness of moHic epipedon: 7 to 12 inches, includes 
the upper part of the Bt2 horizon. 

Depth to base of argiHic horizon: 14 to 20 inches. 

Depth to duripan: 14 to 20 inches. 

Depth to bedrock: 15 to 23 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content--40 to 60 percent. 

A horizons: 

Value-5 or 6 dry, thin layers with value of 6 dry, 
when mixed with the upper 7 inches, has a 
dominant value of less than 5.5 dry. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Bt horizons: 

Value—4 to 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 

Rock fragments-35 to 55 percent, mainly cobbles 
or stones. 

Other features-Darker value and chroma in upper 
Bt2 horizon. 

Reaction-Slightly acid to mildly alkaline. 

Pie Creek Series 

The Pie Creek series consists of moderately deep, 
well drained soils that formed in residuum weathered 
from tuff. Pie Creek soils are on rolling low hills and 
mountains. Slopes are 4 to 50 percent. The mean 
annual precipitation is about 11 inches and the mean 
annual air temperature is about 43 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Very-fine, montmorillonitic, frigid 
Aridic Palexerolls 

Typical pedon: Pie Creek very cobbly silt loam, 4 to 15 
percent, located in an area of map unit 580. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The soil 
surface is covered with 30 percent pebbles and 20 
percent cobbles. 

A1-0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) very 
cobbly silt loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 


3/2) moist; weak medium subangular blocky 
structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; many very fine and fine roots; many 
very fine interstitial pores; 30 percent pebbles and 
20 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt smooth 
boundary. (1 to 6 inches thick) 

E-4 to 5 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) very 
cobbly silt loam; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) 
moist; weak medium subangular blocky structure; 
soft, very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 
many very fine and fine, and few medium roots; 
many very fine interstitial pores; 20 percent pebbles 
and 20 percent cobbles, neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt 
smooth boundary. (1 to 3 inches thick) 

Btl—5 to 11 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, dark 

brown (10YR 3/3) moist; strong medium and coarse 
prismatic structure; very hard, very firm, very sticky 
and very plastic; common very fine and few fine 
roots mainly along faces of peds; few very fine 
tubular pores; many stress surfaces on faces of 
peds, and many thick clay films lining pores; 5 
percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); clear 
smooth boundary. (4 to 9 inches thick) 

Bt2—11 to 16 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 
clay, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; strong 
medium prismatic structure; very hard, very firm, 
very sticky and very plastic; common very fine and 
few fine roots mainly along faces of peds; few very 
fine tubular pores; many stress surfaces and 
common thick clay films lining pores; 5 percent 
pebbles; moderately alkaline (pH 8.4); gradual 
smooth boundary. (5 to 12 inches thick) 

Bt3-16 to 23 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) clay, 
yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; moderate 
medium and coarse subangular blocky structure; 
hard, firm, sticky and plastic; few very fine roots; 
common very fine tubular pores; common 
moderately thick clay films on faces of peds and 
lining pores; mildly alkaline (pH 7.4); clear smooth 
boundary. (0 to 10 inches thick) 

R-23 inches; tuff. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 5 
miles southeast of St. John’s Ranch, in an 
unsectionized area, about 1,900 feet north and 
2,700 feet east of Chicken Springs; 41 degrees, 08 
minutes, 30 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 

26 minutes, 35 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry early 
June to early October 
Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F. 

Depth to bedrock: 23 to 40 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content—60 to 70 percent. 

Rock fragments-Less than 5 percent pebbles. 


234 


Soil Survey of 


A horizons: 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Structure-Weak very thin or thin platy, weak to 
strong very fine to medium subangular blocky or 
it is massive. 

E horizon: 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 

Texture—Loam or silt loam. 

Structure—Weak medium prismatic or very fine or 
fine subangular blocky. 

Bt horizons: 

Hue-5YR to lOYR. 

Value-4 through 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-3 or 4. 

Structure-Medium or coarse columnar or prismatic. 
Reaction-Neutral or mildly alkaline. 


Piline Series 

The Piline series consists of very deep, poorly 
drained soils that formed in alluvium from mixed 
sources. Piline soils are on internally drained areas of 
small relict lake plains, alluvial flats and playas. Slopes 
are 0 to 2 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 
9 inches and the mean annual temperature is about 47 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Aquic 
Chromoxererts 

Typical pedon: Piline silty clay loam located in an area 
of map unit 2555. (Colors are for dry soil unless 
otherwise noted.) The soil surface has gilgai that are 
2 to 6 centimeters high. 

A1-0 to 2 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silty 
clay loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; 
moderate fine granular structure; slightly hard, firm, 
sticky and very plastic; few fine, common very fine 
roots; common fine, few very fine tubular pores; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); abrupt smooth boundary. (2 
to 4 inches thick) 

A2-2 to 1 2 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silty 
clay loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; weak 
medium subangular blocky structure parting to 
moderate fine granular; very hard, very firm, sticky 
and very plastic; few fine and very fine roots; few 
fine tubular pores; few iron manganese concretions; 
mildly alkaline (pH 7.8); gradual smooth boundary. 

(6 to 11 inches thick) 

Cl-12 to 1 9 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) 
clay, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; few fine 
distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) mottles; 
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; very 
hard, very firm, very sticky and very plastic; few 
very fine roots; few fine tubular pores; common iron 


manganese concretions; mildly alkaline (pH 7.6); 
gradual wavy boundary. (6 to 17 inches thick) 

C2—19 to 48 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) 
clay, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; common fine 
distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) mottles; 
weak coarse prismatic structure; extremely hard, 
very firm, very sticky and very plastic; few fine 
roots; common iron manganese concretions; mildly 
alkaline (pH 7.6); gradual wavy boundary. (13 to 32 
inches thick) 

C3-48 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) 
clay loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; massive; 
very hard, very firm, very sticky and very plastic; 
common iron manganese concretions; mildly alkaline 
(pH 7.6). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; Owyhee Desert, in 
an unsectionized area, about 7 miles west of Desert 
Ranch Reservoir; 41 degrees, 40 minutes, 19 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 40 minutes, 

28 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry late may through November 
Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Reaction: Neutral to moderately alkaline. 

Control section: 

Clay content-35 to 50 percent. 

Other features: When dry, vertical cracks 1 centimeter 
or more in width, extend to a depth of more than 40 
inches. Gilgai are 2 to 10 centimeters in height. Few 
to many iron-manganese concretions can occur in 
any horizon. 

A horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 2.5Y 

Value—6 or 7 dry, 5 or 6 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3 

Reaction—Neutral to mildly alkaline. 

C horizons: 

Hue-lOYR or 2.5Y 

Value-6 or 7 dry, 5 or 6 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3 

Textures—Dominantly clay or silty clay but contains 
clay loam in the lower substratum. 

Iron mottles—Few to many and fine to medium in 
the lower subhorizons, but common or many or 
distinct or prominent mottles are within 20 
inches of the surface 


Placeritos Series 

The Placeritos series consists of very deep, 
somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in mixed 
alluvium. The Placeritos soils are on floodplains. Slopes 
are 0 to 2 percent. The mean annual precipitation is 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


235 


about 8 inches and the mean annual temperature is 
about 50 degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine-silty, mixed (calcareous), mesic 
Aquic Xerofluvents 

Typical pedoniPlaceritos silt loam, 0 to 2 percent 
slopes, is located in an area of Creemon-Placeritos 
association. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise 
noted.) 

Al-0 to 2 inches; light grayish brown (10YR 6/2) silt 
loam, dark grayish brown (lOYR 4/2) moist; 
moderate very thin platy structure; slightly hard, 
very friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many 
very fine and fine and few medium roots; many very 
fine tubular and vesicular pores; slightly 
effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 8.4); clear 
smooth boundary. (1 to 9 inches thick) 

A2~2 to 8 inches; light gray (lOYR 7/2) silt loam, dark 
grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; moderate medium 
and thick platy structure; slightly hard, very friable, 
slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many very fine and 
fine and few medium roots; many very fine tubular 
and vesicular pores; slightly effervescent; 
moderately alkaline (pH 8.4); clear smooth 
boundary. (0 to 7 inches thick) 

A3--8 to 13 inches; light gray (lOYR 7/2) silt loam, 
dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; moderate thin 
and thick platy structure; slightly hard, very friable, 
slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common very fine 
roots; many fine and common medium tubular 
pores; slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 
8.4); clear smooth boundary. (0 to 6 inches thick) 
Cl—13 to 20 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) silt loam, 
dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; moderate 
medium subangular blocky structure parting to 
moderate very thin platy; slightly hard, very friable, 
slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common very fine 
and fine roots; many very fine and few medium 
tubular pores; slightly effervescent; strongly alkaline 
(pH 8.6); clear smooth boundary. (9 to 20 inches 
thick) 

C2—20 to 32 inches; white (10YR 8/2) silt loam, dark 
grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; massive; slightly 
hard, very friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; 
common very fine roots; common very fine tubular 
pores; ash layer; moderately alkaline (pH 8.4); 
abrupt wavy boundary. (8 to 15 inches thick) 
2A1b-32 to 39 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) silty clay 
loam, very dark gray (lOYR 3/1) moist; few fine 
distinct mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) moist; 
strong medium prismatic structure; hard, friable; 
sticky, plastic; many very fine roots matted on faces 
of peds and within peds; many very fine tubular 
pores; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); abrupt wavy 
boundary. (0 to 10 inches thick) 

2A2b-39 to 50 inches; gray (lOYR 5/1) silty clay 
loam, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) moist; few fine 
distinct mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) moist; 


strong medium prismatic structure parting to 
moderate medium subangular blocky; hard, friable, 
sticky, plastic; common very fine and fine roots; 
common very fine tubular pores; moderately alkaline 
(pH 8.0); abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 15 inches 
thick) 

2Cg-50 to 60 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) clay 
loam, olive gray (5Y 5/2) moist; many medium 
distinct mottles of yellow (5Y 7/6) moist; strong 
medium prismatic structure parting to moderate 
medium subangular blocky; hard, friable, sticky, 
plastic; common very fine and fine roots; common 
very fine tubular pores; moderately alkaline (pH 
7.8). 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 12 
miles southwest of Midas; about 1,600 feet east 
and 100 feet north of the southwest corner of 
section 25, T. 38 N., R. 44 E.; 41 degrees, 08 
minutes, 09 seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 

57 minutes, 46 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually moist in the winter and spring 
months, dry during the summer and fall. 

Soil temperature: 51 to 57 degrees F. 

Control section: 

Clay content-18 to 27 percent. 

Rock fragment—15 percent fine sand and coarser. 

A horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 2.5Y but can be 5Y in the lower 
horizons having color values of 5 dry and 3 
moist are less than 4 inches thick or occur below 
20 inches. 

Value-5 through 7 dry, 3 through 5 moist. 
Chroma-1 through 3 (chromas of 1 are in the 
buried A horizons). 

C horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR, 2.5Y or 5Y 
Value—6 or 7 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma—2 or 3 

Structure-Massive but can have weak or moderate 
coarse to fine subangular blocky, or weak thick 
platy structure. 

Texture-Stratified silt loam, very fine sandy loam, 
and silty clay loam with thin strata of loam, fine 
sandy loam or silty clay can occur in the control 
sections, and textures from clay to sand can 
occur in the substratums. 

Reaction-Moderately alkaline to very strongly 
alkaline. 

Calcium carbonate-1 to 10 percent and is mainly 
disseminated. Few to common fine segregated 
seams and filaments of lime can occur in the C 
horizons of some pedons, and a few small lime 
concretions can occur in the lower substratum. 


236 


Soil Survey of 


Puett Series 

The Puett series consists of shallow, well drained 
soils that formed in residuum and colluvium from 
weathered tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and siltstone. 
Puett soils are on low hills, side slopes of plateaus, 
rock pediments, rock core areas of fan piedmont 
remnants and partial ballenas. Slopes are 4 to 75 
percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 9 
inches and mean annual temperature is about 47 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy, mixed (calcareous), mesic, 
shallow Xeric Torriorthents 

Typical pedon: Puett gravelly loam, 30 to 50 percent 
slopes, is located in an area of the map unit 2668. 
(Colors are for dry soils unless otherwise noted.) 

The soil surface is partially covered with 30 percent 
pebbles and 5 percent cobbles. 

A--0 to 3 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) gravelly 
loam, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; weak thin platy 
structure; soft, friable, slightly sticky and slightly 
plastic; common very fine roots; many very fine and 
fine irregular and vesicular pores; 15 percent 
pebbles; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline 
(pH 8.2); clear wavy boundary. (1 to 7 inches thick) 
C1--3 to 10 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly 
loam, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; massive; 
hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; 
common very fine and fine, few medium roots; 
many very fine irregular pores; 30 percent pebbles; 
violently effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2); 
abrupt wavy boundary. (3 to 15 inches thick) 

Cr--11 to 20 inches; soft weathered tuff. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 8 
miles north of Midas; about 1,685 feet north and 
1,450 feet east of the southwest corner of section 
10, T. 40 N., R. 46 E.; 41 degrees, 21 minutes, 32 
seconds north latitude, 116 degrees, 45 minutes, 

42 seconds west longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Usually dry; moist in winter and spring, 
dry June through October 
Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Depth to bedrock: 10 to 20 inches. 

Reaction: Moderately alkaline or strongly alkaline. 
Carbonates: Strongly or violently effervescent, 

throughout. Lime coats on pebbles in lower part of 
some pedons. 

Control section: 

Clay content-5 to 10 percent. 

Rock fragments-Up to 35 percent pebbles. 

A horizon: 

Hue-1 OYR or 2.5Y. 


Value-6 or 7 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

C horizons: 

Hue-1 OYR or 2.5Y. 

Value-6 through 8 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Chroma-2 through 4. 

Texture-Loamy fine sand to loam but is dominantly 
coarse sandy loam to loam. Gravelly loam or 
gravelly sandy loam is common in some pedons. 
Structure-Subangular blocky or it is massive. 
Consistence-Soft to hard, dry; nonsticky or slightly 
sticky and nonplastic or slightly plastic, wet. 

Puett Variant 

The Puett variant consists of shallow, well drained 
soils that formed in residuum from tuff. The Puett 
variant soils are on side slopes of hills. Slopes are 30 
to 50 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 9 
inches and the mean annual temperature is about 47 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Loamy, mixed (calcareous), mesic 
Lithic Torriorthents. 

Typical pedon: Puett variant gravelly loam, 30 to 50 
percent slopes, located in an area of Map Unit 
1855. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise 
noted.) The soil surface is covered with 20 percent 
pebbles, 5 percent cobbles. 

A1-0 to 2 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) gravelly 
loam, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; strong 
very fine platy structure; soft, very friable, 
nonsticky, slightly plastic; few very fine roots; many 
fine and medium vesicular and common fine tubular 
pores; 15 percent pebbles, 1 percent cobbles; 
strongly effervescent; strongly alkaline (pH 8.6); 
clear smooth boundary. (1 to 4 inches thick) 

A2-2 to 6 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) gravelly 
loam, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; strong 
very fine platy structure; slightly hard, very friable, 
nonsticky, slightly plastic; common very fine roots; 
common very fine tubular pores; 15 percent 
pebbles; strongly effervescent; strongly alkaline (pH 
8.8); abrupt clear smooth . (3 to 5 inches thick) 

C-6 to 17 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) gravelly 
loam, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist; massive; 
slightly hard, very friable, slightly plastic; common 
very fine and fine roots; common very fine and few 
medium tubular pores; 20 percent pebbles, 2 
percent cobbles; strongly effervescent; strongly 


Northwest Elko County Area, Nevada-Part I 


237 


alkaline (pH 8.8); abrupt wavy boundary. (5 to 12 
inches thick) 

R--17 inches; welded tuff. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 13 
miles west of Midas; about 3,800 feet east and 200 
feet north of the southwest corner of section 1 5, T. 
38 N., R. 44 E., 41 degrees, 09 minutes, 58 
seconds north latitude, 117 degrees, 00 minutes, 

05 seconds west longitude. 

Range in characteristics: 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry mid-June 
through October. 

Soil temperature: 47 to 52 degrees F. 

Depth to bedrock: 10 to 20 inches. 

Control section: 

Clay content = 10 to 15 percent. 

Rock fragments = 15 to 35 percent, mainly pebbles. 

A horizon: 

Value = 6 or 7 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

C horizon: 

Value = 6 or 7 dry, 4 or 5 moist. 

Quarz Series 

The Quarz series consists of moderately deep, well 
drained soils that formed in residuum and colluvium 
from sandstone, shale, chert, conglomerate, quartzite, 
quartz latite, welded tuffs, andesite or rhyolite. Quarz 
soils are on low rock pediment remnants, plateaus, low 
hills and mountain side slopes. Slopes are 4 to 50 
percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 12 
inches and the mean annual temperature is about 44 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Clayey-skeletal, montmorillonitic, 
frigid Aridic Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Quarz very stony loam, 1 5 to 50 
percent slopes, is located in an area of map unit 
1725. (Colors are for dry soils unless otherwise 
noted.). The surface is covered with 15 percent 
pebbles and 5 percent cobbles and 5 percent 
stones. 

A1-0 to 4 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very gravelly 
loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; 
weak medium subangular blocky structure; slightly 
hard, very friable, sticky and plastic; many very fine 
and fine roots; many very fine, fine and medium 
vesicular and few fine tubular pores; 30 percent 


pebbles and 10 percent cobbles, 5 percent stones; 
neutral (pH 7.2); clear smooth boundary. (2 to 16 
inches thick) 

Bt1-4 to 12 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very cobbly 
clay loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate, 
medium subangular blocky structure; hard, friable, 
very sticky and plastic; many very fine and fine, and 
few medium roots; many very fine and fine tubular 
pores; common moderately thick clay films in pores, 
bridging sand grains and on faces of peds; 25 
percent pebbles and 15 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 
7.2); clear smooth boundary. (4 to 10 inches thick) 

Bt2-12 to 17 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very 
gravelly clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; moderate, medium subangular blocky 
structure; hard, firm, very sticky and very plastic; 
common very fine and few fine roots; common fine 
tubular pores; many thick clay films in pores, 
bridging sand grains and on faces of peds; 40 
percent pebbles and 10 percent cobbles; neutral (pH 
7.2); clear smooth boundary. (5 to 15 inches thick) 

Bt3-17 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very 
gravelly clay, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) 
moist; massive; hard, firm, very sticky and very 
plastic; few fine roots; common fine tubular pores; 
many thick clay films in pores, bridging sand grains 
and on faces of peds; few medium soft lime masses 
and threads; 40 percent pebbles and 15 percent 
cobbles; neutral (pH 7.0); abrupt wavy boundary. (0 
to 10 inches thick) 

R-26 inches; highly fractured welded tuff. 

Type location: Elko County, Nevada; approximately 2 
miles southeast of Eagle Rock Reservoir; about 
1,500 feet south and 2,000 feet east of the 
northwest corner of section 21, T. 38 N., R. 53 E.; 
41 degrees, 10 minutes, 25 seconds north latitude, 

116 degrees, 08 minutes, 40 seconds west 
longitude. 

Range in Characteristics 

Soil moisture: Moist in winter and spring, dry late July 
through October 

Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F. 

Depth to bedrock: 20 to 40 inches. 

MoHic epipedon thickness: 7 to 16 inches which 
includes the upper part of the argillic horizon in 
some pedons. 

Reaction: Neutral or mildly alkaline. 

Control section: 

Clay content-35 to 55 percent. 

Rock fragments—Averages 35 to 60 percent, mainly 
pebbles with up to 15 percent that are cobbles 
or stones. 

A horizon; 

Value-4 or 5 dry, 2 or 3 moist. 

Chroma-2 or 3. 


238 


Soil Survey of 


Bt horizons: 

Hue-5YR, 7.5YR or 10YR. 

Value-4 through 6 dry, 3 or 4 moist. 

Chroma-3 through 5. 

Texture-Dominantly very gravelly clay loam or very 
gravelly clay with very cobbly clay loam or 
extremely gravelly clay common in some 
subhorizons. 

Structure-Subangular blocky, angular blocky or 
prismatic. 

Ramires Series 

The Ramires series consists of moderately deep, 
well drained soils that formed in residuum from tuff, 
andesite and rhyolite with a component of loess high in 
volcanic ash. Ramires soils are on side slopes of hills 
and mountains and fan piedmonts with a rock core. 
Slopes are 15 to 50 percent. Mean annual precipitation 
is about 11 inches and mean temperature is about 44 
degrees F. 

Taxonomic class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Aridic 
Calcic Argixerolls 

Typical pedon: Ramires silt loam, 8 to 1 5 percent 

slopes, located in an area of map unit 2803. (Colors 
are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.) The soil 
surface is covered with 15 percent pebbles and 5 
percent cobbles. 

A1-0 to 2 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam, dark 
brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium platy 
structure parting to moderate fine and very fine 
granular; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and 
slightly plastic; few medium, many fine and very 
fine roots; common medium, many fine and very 
fine interstitial pores; 10 percent pebbles; mildly 
alkaline (pFI 7.8); gradual wavy boundary. (1 to 4 
inches thick) 

A2-2 to 5 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam, dark 
brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak thin platy structure 
parting to moderate medium and fine granular; soft, 
very friable; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few 
medium, many fine and very fine roots; common 
medium and many fine and very fine interstitial 
pores; 5 percent pebbles; mildly alkaline (pFI 7.8); 
clear wavy boundary. (3 to 9 inches thick) 

Bt1-5 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam, dark 
brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium prismatic 
structure parting to moderate medium and coarse 
subangular blocky; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; 
many fine, common medium and very fine roots; 
many fine, few medium interstitial and tubular 
pores; common moderately thick clay f