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DEPARTIVIENT OF THE INTERIOR 

UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

GEORGE OTIS SMITH, Dibector 

Wateb-Supply Paper 224 



SOME DESERT WATERING PLACES 



IN 



lUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA AND 
SOUTHWESTERN NEVADA 



BT 



WALTER C. IVIEXDENHALL 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1909 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

GEORGE OTIS SMITH, Director 



Water-Supply Paper 224 



^ %. 



SOME DESERT WATERING PLACES 



IN 



SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA AND 
SOUTHWESTERN NEVADA 



BY 



WALTER C. MENDENIIALL 




WASHINGTON 

GOVEKNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1909 



r 30 190D 

D^ o^ 0. . 



(JA^- ■ \K" 



^\ 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 5 

Area considered 5 

Mineral resources and industrial developments 6 

Sources of data 7 

Physical features 8 

General character of the region 8 

Death Valley basin 9 

Soda Lake 10 

Salton Sink 10 

A great trough 10 

Fault lines 11 

Climate 11 

Water supply 13 

Origin ^ 13 

Rivers 13 

Springs 15 

Finding water 16 

Camping places 16 

Mountain springs and tanks : IT 

Dry lakes 17 

Geologic hints 18 

Vegetation as a guide 20 

Hints on desert traveling 21 

Teams, hay, and grain 21 

Tools 22 

Clothing, bedding, etc 22 

Provisions 23 

Water 23 

Fuel 24 

Getting lost 24 

Main routes of travel- '. 25 

Starting points 25 

Fremont's trail 25 

Old Spanish trail 26 

Mohave-Keeler route ._ 26 

Death Valley routes ___. 26 

Bullfrog routes 27 

Searchlight route . 28 

Needles-Parker route . 28 

Amboy-Dale route . 28 

Mecca-Dale route 28 

Victorville routes 28 

Banning-Dale route 29 



4 CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Irrigating and artesian waters 29 

Irrigated areas : 29 

Artesian waters 29 

Description of springs 30 

Symbols used •_ 30 

California . 31 

Nevada 87 

Index : 95 



Page. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

/ ■ 

Plate I. Map of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada, show- 
ing location of watering places In pocket. 

II.' A, Death Valley, looking north toward the Black Mountains; 

B, Out West Well 10 

111! A, Kane's Wells; B, Coyote Well 60 

IY: A, Providence Wells; B, Box S ranch 66 



SOME DESERT WATERING PLACES IN SOUTHEASTERN 
CALIFORNIA AND SOUTHWESTERN NEVADA. 



By Walter C. Mendenhall. 



introductio:n^. 

AREA CONSIDERED. 

This report relates especially to the southwestern part of the Great 
Basin — the portion of it that is bounded on the west by the Sierra 
Nevada and Sierra Madre, on the east by Colorado River, on the 
south by Mexico, and on the north by the parallel between Tps. 4 and 
5 S. of the Mount Diablo base line. It includes the arid portions of 
southeastern California and those adjacent parts of Nevada that are 
most easily reached from California points. This region is known 
generally to the dwellers in the less arid districts west of the Sierra 
as " the desert," but local names are applied to its various subdivi- 
sions. Among the more important of the subdivisions are the Colo- 
rado and Mohave deserts and the Death Valley region. 

The Colorado Desert is that definitely limited arid valley which 
extends from San Gorgonio Pass southward to the Gulf of California, 
and includes the depression known as the " Salton Sink." The Mo- 
have Desert lies farther north and its boundaries are not so definite, 
but it includes much the greater part of San Bernardino County and 
the eastern portions of Los Angeles and Kern counties, Cal. The 
Death Valley region, which lies north of the Mohave Desert, stretches 
eastward from the Sierra Nevada, covering a large part of Inyo 
County, Cal., and extending into Nevada. It is named from its 
central feature, Death Valley, the lowest point on the continent. 

The desert region outlined above and shown on the accompanying 
map (PL I) covers an area of about 68,000 square miles. The wells 
and springs within it are few in number and are very irregularly 
distributed. In some districts watering places occur in groups; in 
other tracts they are 30 to 50 miles apart. So irregular is their dis- 
tribution that it is important that they should be located as definitely 
as possible and described for the benefit of prospectors and other 
travelers. The scarcity of water and the importance of a knowledge 

5 



6 DESEET WATERING PLACES IN CALIFOENIA AND NEVADA. 

of its whereabouts are indicated by its cost in many of the mining 
camps and by the frequency with which the press records instances of 
death from thirst in the more remote parts of the desert. 

MINERAL RESOURCES AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS. 

The mineral resources of the region under discussion are being 
developed with a rapidity that is attracting general attention. The 
most important of these resources is gold, and the present intense 
interest in the desert is in large part due to the discovery and develop- 
ment within it of mines that are heavy producers of this metal. 

The resources of the region, however, are not confined to the precious 
metals, but comprise a wide range of mineral products of economic 
value. Among these may be mentioned several valuable salts, includ- 
ing borax, soda, gypsum, and common salt ; building material, includ- 
ing marble, onyx, brick clays, and cements ; baser metals, like copper, 
iron, and lead ; and gems, among which are turquoise and opal. Just 
west of the desert proper, in the mountains of San Diego and River- 
side counties, precious tourmaline, kunzite, and the rarer garnets have 
been discovered in connection with the pegmatite dikes there. These 
products are widely distributed throughout the desert counties. The 
existence of some of them in commercial quantities and available 
form is as yet problematic, although their occurrence is known, 
while important industries are already based on others. 

The building of railroads in the desert within the last three years 
and the projection of other lines not yet built indicate for the future 
a marked increase in the mineral output of this region. The Atchi- 
son, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, generally known* in the West as 
the Santa Fe, has one branch extending from Goffs, on its main line, 
northward to Ivanpah, a distance of about 50 miles; another from 
Ludlow southward 7 miles to Stedman; and a third running north- 
ward from Kramer to the mining camps at Randsburg and Johannes- 
burg, a distance of 25 miles. A road has also been built from Ludlow 
to Bullfrog, Nev., with a branch to the Lila C. borax mines. 

The Santa Fe is also constructing a road from Wickenberg, Ariz., 
to Parker, on Colorado River, and thence to Bengal, Cal., on the 
main line. This particular Avork is intended to correct the alignment 
of the transcontinental line, and to reduce grades and shorten the 
distance between Los Angeles and Chicago. 

The San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad has com- 
pleted a road from Las Vegas, Nev., to Bullfrog and Goldfield, Nev. 
Its main line is in operation from Daggett northeastward across 
the intervening deserts to Ogden, Utah, and is giving active stimulus 
to gold, silver, and lead mining. The Southern Pacific has a branch 
on the Colorado Desert, running from Imperial Junction southward 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

to the Imperial Irrigation Colony lands, and across the boundary into 
Mexico. 

A line is being built that will unite the Southern Pacific branch 
at Keeler, on the east side of Owens Lake, with Mohave, near the 
southern edge of the Mohave Desert. Other lines are also projected 
which, if constructed, will connect Bullfrog directly with Los 
Angeles. 

This unusual activity in railroad work, due in part to recent min- 
ing developments, has so stimulated prospecting that there is a large 
influx of strangers, many of whom do not fully realize the danger 
of traveling through an arid region in which springs are few and 
far between. The dissemination of information concerning the loca- 
tions of known watering places and the possibilities for locating 
and developing water at other favorable points is therefore an urgent 
need. To meet this need the following report has been written and 
the map that accompanies it has been prepared. 

SOURCES OF DATA. 

The larger part of these data was compiled by Gilbert E. Bailey, 
who for several years has been obliged to traverse repeatedly many of 
the main desert roads and trails. At the outset of each trip it has 
been necessary to select, so far as possible, lines of travel along which 
water could be found, and to decide on springs that would be suitable 
sites for camps from which to penetrate the surrounding region. 

It was not originally expected that the data thus slowly accumu- 
lated for personal use would be assembled for publication. The 
records are therefore by no means complete, nor are they of uniform 
value, for Mr. Bailey's acquaintance with some districts in the desert 
is more intimate than with others. Knowledge of watering places 
in this region is vital, and it is hoped that even the incomplete in- 
formation assembled in the following pages will be useful. 

In making the generalized base map (PI. I) on which the location 
of the wells and springs is shown, data differing greatly in value and 
accuracy have of necessity been used. For the region from Death 
Valley northward and for the southwestern part of the area, includ- 
ing the Colorado Desert, the later topographic sheets of the United 
States Geological Survey are available and furnish satisfactory data. 
For the area along Colorado River from Needles northward old 
reconnaissance maps issued by the Survey were utilized. Of the 
region from the Colorado Desert and the Sierra Madre northward 
to Death Valley no satisfactory surveys have been made, and depend- 
ence has necessarily been placed on Land Office maps, railway surveys, 
and the various general, more or less inaccurate maps that have 
appeared from time to time. Probably the best of these — certainly 



8 DESEET WATERING PLACES IN , CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

the one which is most highly regarded by prospectors and desert 
travelers generally — is the Fred T. Perris map of Riverside and San 
Bernardino counties. With such corrections as it has been found 
possible to make upon it, this map has been largely followed. In the 
desert portions of Riverside County especially, for which almost no 
late data exist, the Perris map is still the best guide. Developments, 
especially railroad surveys and construction, have given the informa- 
tion necessary for some changes in the northern portion of the area 
covered by it. 

A number of the principal roads through the desert are indicated 
on the map. They are not surveyed, so that only approximate loca- 
tions are possible, but these at least indicate the usual routes of travel. 

The descriptions of the springs and watering places have been 
taken largely from the notes of Mr. Bailey. A large proportion of 
them have been visited at various times, but descriptions of others 
have been supplied by other desert travelers. R. H. Chapman, topog- 
rapher. United States Geological Survey, has supplied notes on a 
number of wells and springs in the Amargosa district, with which 
he is familiar; C. A. Pinkham has aided with information concern- 
ing the Colorado Desert region; C. S. Alverson, of San Diego, has 
also contributed notes on this area ; and many miners and prospectors 
have supplied information with which it is not possible to credit 
them individually. 

On the whole, it is believed that fairly adequate and accurate de- 
scriptions are given of most of the better known and more accessible 
springs and wells, and that many of those which are less well 
known are included. Of course, numbers of springs exist in the 
higher mountain ranges of the desert that are known only to pros- 
pectors who are familiar with the details of these ranges. These 
watering places, however, are inaccessible to the casual traveler. The 
valley wells and springs, or at least those accessible from the most 
used highways, are the ones on which he must depend. It is hoped 
that the greater number of these are described in the succeeding 
pages. The data will be found more complete for the northern than 
the southern part of the region mapped (PI. I). 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE REGION. 

The arid region lying between Colorado River and the Sierra of 
California shows a marked contrast in nearly all its physical condi- 
tions and scenic features with the region lying west of the great 
range. 

To the geographer the most striking characteristic of the country 
east of the base of the Sierra Nevada is the fact that it is a region of 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. 9 

interior drainage. For this reason it is known as the " Great Basin." 
No streams that rise within it carry contributions to the ocean, but 
all the snow and rain that falls inside the rim of the basin is returned 
to the atmosphere by evaporation, either directly from the soil or 
after it has found its way into some of the lakes or sinks that occupy 
depressions in the irregular surface. 

Some of the valleys or plains that separate the mountain ranges 
are absolute deserts, totally destitute of water, and treeless for a 
space representing many days' journey, the gray sagebrush alone giv- 
ing life to the landscape. Each of the main desert basins includes a 
large area in which the land slopes toward a central depression, and 
each has a main drainage way through which flows an intermittent 
stream whose bed is dry most of the time along the greater portion of 
its course. 

Many of the valleys have in their lowest depressions playas, or mud 
plains, left by the evaporation of intermittent lakes, and some of 
these are of great extent. Portions of some of the valleys have be- 
come incrusted to a depth of several inches with alkaline salts, which 
cover the surface as an efflorescence and present the appearance of 
drifting snow. Most of the permanent lakes into which some of the 
surface drainage finds its way are saline and alkaline. Their shores 
are desert wastes, shunned by animals and by all forms of life except 
salt-loving plants. The floor of the desert is dotted with many other 
smaller sinks or depressions that have no outlet and no inflow except 
during the rare desert storms. These are known locally as " dry 
lakes," " borax lakes," " salt lakes," " alkali marshes," etc. 

DEATH VALLEY BASIN. 

Death Yalley Basin (PL II, ^) is the sink of the Amargosa (Span- 
ish for " bitter "), a name that was given to the river by Gen. J. C. 
Fremont in 1844. This stream, which is dry for the greater part of 
the time throughout much of its course, rises in a group of springs 
that lie about 17 miles northeast of the town of Bullfrog, Nev., in 
Oasis Valley. Its course is a little east of south until it passes Frank- 
lin Dry Lake ; thence it flows southward through a deep canyon into 
South Death Valley. There it turns to the west and north, and is 
finally lost near Saratoga Springs. The Amargosa is about 140 
miles long. It repeatedly disappears and reappears, flowing a short 
distance and then sinking, its water being absorbed by the sands until 
its channel crosses a ledge of bed rock, when it again emerges to view. 
Its water, which is potable near its source, percolates slowly down- 
stream through the sands and takes up increasing quantities of alka- 
line salts from the soil, so that when it comes to the surface along 
its lower course, the water is charged with these salts, and though to 



10 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN , CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

the eye it may appear potable, is unsafe to drink. This condition 
prevails only along the middle and lower courses of the stream. It 
is worse during flood periods, when quantities of surface alkali from 
along the banks of the stream are taken into solution. Near its 
source, where the water first rises in the springs, it is of excellent 
quality. 

In going toward anj^ point of the compass from Death Yallej'^ it 
is found that the floor of the basin gradually rises. In traveling 
southward one passes over low divides and gradually descends to 
Soda Lake, the sink of Mohave River. From Soda Lake the ground 
rises toward the east to the New York Mountains. Beyond these 
the drainage is toward Colorado River. West of Death Yallev, the 
floor of the desert, above which several high ranges stand, gradually 
rises to the foot of the Sierra Nevada. 

SODA LAKE. 

Soda Lake is the sink of Mohave River, whch rises in the San 
Bernardino Mountains and flows to Barstow, and thence northeast- 
ward to this sink. The river is over 100 miles long, but except dur- 
the flood season there is little surface flow save where ledges of rock 
athwart its course force the water to the surface. 

SALTON SINK. 

The Salton Sink, the lowest point of the Colorado Desert, was a 
part of the Gulf of California in comparatively recent geologic 
time, but it has been separated from the present gulf by the growth 
of the delta of Colorado River. Normally it receives only the 
occasional overflow from distributaries of this river, but in 1904 
the Colorado Avas largely diverted to it, and only recentl}^ (1907) 
has that river been confined to its proper channel. The sink, there- 
fore, is now partially filled b}^ a lake with an area of nearly 500 
square miles, which will probably not dry away completely for fif- 
teen or twenty years. 

A GREAT TROUGH. 

The most important sinks of the desert form a more or less con- 
tinuous group along a northwest-southeast line, which may be spoken 
of as the Great Trough. 

The Death Yalley axis is about 150 miles long, and extends from 
the north end of the valley southeastward to Silurian Dry Lake. 
There begins the sink of the Mohave Basin, which extends southward 
through Soda Lake and the Devil's Playground to Bristol, Cadiz, 
and Danb}^ dry lakes, a distance of over 125 miles. It is separated 
from the Death Yalley trough only by the low divide between Silu- 
rian Lake and Silver Lake, which are less than 15 miles apart. 



CLIMATE. 11 

The trough of the Colorado Desert extends from San Gorgonio 
Pass southeastward through the Salton Sink to the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. It is separated from the Mohave Basin by the San Ber- 
nardino, Cottonwood, Chuckwalla, and Chocolate mountains, and so 
forms an overlapping parallel axis of depression. This great axis is 
known to be closely related to widely extended geologic structures, 
and it is probable that the Death Valley axis has been similarly 
determined. 

In addition to these major controlling depressions, the entire desert 
area consists of a series of more or less nearly parallel ranges and 
intervening minor desert valleys. In the northern part of the area 
the trend of these features is nearly north and south, and in the 
southern part the trend swings to the southeast; but in ^he inter- 
mediate region there is an area of confused, broken ranges in which 
definite trends seem to be lacking. 

FAULT LINES. 

It is well known that the eastern front of the Sierra Nevada is a 
great fault scarp, but it is perhaps less generally known that the 
north face of the San Gabriel Mountains is a similar structural line, 
which extends southeastward through Cajon and San Gorgonio 
passes and into the Colorado Desert. It is regarded as probable, too, 
that the great trough which has been described as extending north- 
west and southeast through the desert, along the line of the greater 
sinks, owes its origin to crustal movement. The basin-range type of 
structure, the tilted block first recognized by Gilbert, involves fault- 
ing along the uplifted edge, and recent geologic work in the desert 
has proven the existence of much faulting of the block type in the 
Bullfrog district.'^ It is not unlikely that when structural details 
shall have been worked out many of the strongest of the desert 
springs will be found along these fault lines, and that their waters 
Avill prove to be of deep origin and independent of local rainfall and 
local drainage. It is difficult otherwise to account for many of the 
springs. 

ClilMATE. 

The physical feature that exercises the greatest control over the 
climate of the Southwest is the great Sierra, which gives rain to the 
lands that lie west of it and withholds it from the desert to the east. 
The winds, which are moist and cool along the coast, shed their 
moisture upon the high mountains, and are dry when they reach the 
interior, where they absorb moisture from both the soil and the 
vegetation. 

° Ball. U. S. Geol. Survey No. 808, 1907, pp. 50-52. 



12 



DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 



The climatic characteristics of the desert are its excessive summer 
heat and its dryness. The temperature rises occasionally to 125° F. 
in the shade, rarely falls beloAV 70° at any time during the five hot 
months, and will average over 90° during this period. Exceptionally 
in the lowest points, as at Salton and in Death Valley, the shade tem- 
perature reaches 129° or 130°. During these periods of excessive 
heat men exposed to the sun's rays without water quickly perish. 

The air is usually not stagnant, but is in active motion. Gales of 
a few hours' duration are common, and some of them bring sand 
storms. Eain may fall frequently in the mountains and occasion- 
ally in the valleys, and clouds are by no means rare, yet the heat 
and the wind together keep the surface very dry and the relative 
humidity low. 

Cloud-bursts — concentrated storms of great severity — sometimes 
take place suddenly in the mountains, in the hottest weather. A 
cloud may form about a peak, quickly grow dense and black, and give 
a terrifying electric display. The lightning is followed by a torrent 
of rain, the character of the resulting flood depending on the relation 
of the storm to the topography. If it is concentrated in a canyon 
the result is a violent and spectacular flood wave, of great erosive 
and transporting power. If it is spread over an open slope, a slower 
moving and less destructive sheet flood follows the rain. Practically 
all of the desert erosion is accomplished during brief storms of this 
kind. Passengers on the railroads through New Mexico, Arizona, 
and eastern California have occasionally had experience with these 
cloud-bursts, and have appreciated the force and violence of the 
floods that result. 

At a few points on the desert meteorological observations are made 
by volunteer observers for the United States Weather Bureau. The 
following tables will give an idea of the annual temperature and 
rainfall at a number of widely scattered points. 



Temperature at 10 stations in California. 





1903. a 


1904. 6 


1905. c 




Annual 
mean. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Annual 
mean. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Annual 
mean. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Bagdad 


°F. 

72.6 

62.4 

55.1 

74.6 


op 

113 
110 
98 
124 
118 
110 
106 


op 
25 
24 
4 
26 
28 
14 
15 


°F. 
71.6 
66.8 
56.1 


op 

lio 

109 

97 

115 


op 
30 
30 
12 
28 


°F. 

""d'.2 
55.0 
71.5 


op 
119 
111 
99 
124 
125 
112 
114 
114 
122 
128 


°F. 
33 


Barstow 


18 


Bishop 


8 


Imperial 


22 


Indio 


20 


Keeler 


64.2 
62.7 


64.6 
67.6 
75.7 
75.6 
73.1 


112 
107 
111 
113 
117 


23 
23 
35 
32 
22 


61.8 
66.2 
57.3 
70.4 
73.6 


17 


Mohave 


20 


Needles 


26 


Palm Springs 


70.4 
74.6 


117 
120 


32 
25 


28 


Volcano 


24 







" California section of the climate and crop service of the Weather Bureau, annual 
summary, 1{)()8, pp. 8-9. 
Mdem, 1904, pp. 8-9. 
« Idem, 1905, pp. 8-9. 



WATER SUPPLY. 
Rainfall, in inches, at 10 stations in California. 



13 





Mean annual. a 


Annual 
1903. b 


Annual 
1904. c 


Annual 
1905. d 


- 


Years in- 
cluded. 


Amount. 


Bagdad 






2.32 
2.65 
1.56 
0.34 


2.30 
0.80 
7.61 


9.90 


Barstow 






6.40 


Bishop 


1884-1900 


4.27 


5.19 


Imperial . 


10.06 


Indio 


1878-1900 
1884-1900 
1877-1900 
1892-1900 
1889-1900 
1889-1900 


2.43 
2.76 
4.79 
2.79 
3.53 
1.70 






Keeler . 


0.10 

1.87 


3.50 
2.86 
1.24 


6.80 


Mohave 


6.45 


Needles 


11.36 


Palm Springs 


0.70 
0.20 


9.36 


Volcano 


1.90 


6.18 







« Monthly Weather Review, vol. 30, No. 4, April, 1902, pp. 208-209. 

* California section of the Climate and Crop Service of the Weather Bureau, Annual 
Summary, 1903, pp. 16-17. 
« Idem, 1904, pp. 16-17. 
<*Idem, 1905, pp. 16-17. 

The average rainfall for six years at Bishop, Inyo County, was 3.64 
inches ; at Camp Cady, on Mohave River, an average of 3.08 inches for 
two years is recorded. Daggett, San Bernardino County, had an aver- 
age of 4 inches for three years. At Yuma, Ariz., a twenty-eight year 
record gives an average of 3.16 inches. It is probably safe to say that 
the normal rainfall for the desert is between 3 and 4 inches annually, 
but this average is derived from annual extremes ranging from sea- 
sons of no rainfall to those haAdng as much as 10 inches. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

ORIGIN. 

A portion of the rainfall in this region is carried off by evaporation 
as soon as it falls; another portion soon sinks and joins the ground 
water, which permanently saturates the rocks below a certain level; 
still another portion finds its way directly to the streams, which 
carry it to sinks or lakes to be again evaporated. The moisture 
that has been evaporated from the surface of the Pacific to float inland 
as vapor and be condensed again to w^ater the earth is the original 
source from which practically all of the meager supply of the desert 
comes, but this does not mean that each spring is dependent on the 
rainfall in the region immediately around it. Many of the springs of 
the desert are of deep origin and are not fed by local rains, and the 
waters that supply them fall on mountains far from the points where 
they issue. 

RIVERS. 

Only four of the streams that flow toward the Great Basin from 
the Sierra Nevada and Sierra Madre extend bej^ond the base of the 
mountains. The others sink at once into the sands of the desert. 



14 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

The waters of Owens River, which heads in the Sierra Nevada 
north of Mount Whitney, have been secured in part by Los Angeles, 
and are to be conducted across the desert to supply that city and the 
surrounding region with pure mountain water. For years a part of 
the waters that feed this river have been utilized on the fields of stock- 
men and farmers along its course, but the greater portion has been 
wasted in Owens Lake, a soda lake that has no outlet. 

Amargosa River rises in springs in the mountains northeast of 
Bullfrog and flows southward intermittently across the desert through 
Franklin Lake to Resting Springs Dry Lake. On leaving this lake it 
enters a canyon^ about 10 miles long, between Black and Kings- 
ton mountains. From this canyon it emerges into the south end of 
Death Yalley and turns westward to Saratoga Springs, whence it 
flows northwestAvard to the sink of Death Valley. The north end 
of Death Valley lies nearly due west of the head of this river, so that 
the depression as a whole has the form of a long and narrow U. Ordi- 
narily there is water at only a few places along the Amargosa channel, 
but when a cloud-burst occurs within its drainage area it mav become 
for a few hours a raging torrent. At Resting Springs Dry Lake the 
stream at such a time has been over a mile wide and several feet deep. 
But since 1850 the river has not been known to carry enough water to 
flow on the surface as far as the lowest depression of Death Valley; 
and in its heaviest floods it rarely extends more than 4 or 5 miles be- 
low Saratoga Springs. 

The Waters of the Amargosa are briny along its lower course. 
Where it widens out into the large playa at Resting Springs Dry Lake 
it leaves fields of salt as well as of borax and niter. The desert for 
many miles on either side of the river is dotted with spots and patches 
of salt. Hot springs discharge into it at a number of places. 

A dry wash marks the channel of the South Amargosa, which rises 
in Silurian Dry Lake, at the east end of the Avawatz Mountains, and 
runs northward to Salt Spring. Here it turns northwestward and 
joins the main river in South Death Valley, a few miles east of Sara- 
toga Springs. 

Mohave River rises in the San Bernardino Mountains and flows 
northward. The Santa Fe Railway follows approximately its course 
to Daggett. There the river turns northeastward and is followed by 
the line of the San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad until 
it passes through the canyon at the Caves. East of this canj^on it 
sinks finally in Soda Lake. The divide between Silver Lake, in the 
Mohave drainage basin, and Silurian Dry Lake, the source of the 
South Fork of the Amargosa, is but eSO feet high, and consists only 
of sand. Thus the two river systems are separated by a very low and 
frail barrier. 



WATER SUPPLY. 15 

Soda Lake, into which the Mohave finally disappears, is known 
also as Mohave Sink. During the wet season the Avaters of this lake 
range from a solution approaching saturation to one containing but 
282 parts of solids in 100,000. In the dry season the greater part of 
the depression is covered with a heavy mineral crust, rich in various 
salts. 

New River rises in Mexico, on the delta of Colorado River, whose 
overfloAv Avaters feed it, and flows northward into the Salton Sink. 
Other channels across the Colorado Desert haA^e a similar origin and 
direction. One of these is Salton or Alamo River, which is almost 
equal in importance to New River. Salton Sink is normally a salt- 
incrusted depression, whose lowest point is 273^ feet below sea level. 
For years it was the source of supply of salt for the New Liverpool 
Salt Company, but it now contains a lake, caused by diversion of the 
waters of the Colorado to it through the New and Salton channels. 

SPRINGS. 

In the higher mountains of the desert there are many " hillside " 
springs, Avhose source' is the rainfall of the immediate neighborhood, 
but many of these springs are not permanent and are not to be 
depended on by travelers. 

The greater permanent springs are deep seated and many of them 
probably lie along fault lines. Among the springs of this type whose 
floAY seems to be too strong to be accounted for by local rainfall are 
those at Pahrump, Manse, and Saratoga. 

Probably because of the depth to which the waters of these springs 
descend during their long subterranean passage, and the heat and 
pressure to which they are subject, they become active solvents of 
mineral matter, and issue along the fractures as heated springs, 
carrying a large percentage of solids in solution. 

The Avaters of many of the desert springs presumably possess valu- 
able therapeutic qualities, and complete quantitative analyses of 
them are warranted. Other springs furnish only ordinarily whole- 
some Avaters, that haA^e acquired a local reputation for the treatment 
of disease. " Poison springs," said to contain arsenic, have been 
reported from many parts of the desert. The Avriter has examined 
the waters of several of these, but has failed to find any arsenic or 
similar poison, though he has found large quantities of sulphate of 
soda (Glaubers salt) and some sulphate of magnesia (Epsom salts). 
Salt Spring, in South Death Valley, is of this character, and pros- 
pectors are known to have perished there, so that the spring is called 
" poison " by many, but it contains only sodium and magnesium salts, 
and no arsenic or copper. 



16 DESEKT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

The intense heat of the summer, the exhausted condition of the 
famished prospector, and the abundance of these harmful salts in the 
waters are sufficient explanation of the deaths that have occurred. 
Such waters are dangerous to a hearty, healthy man who uses them 
with the greatest moderation, and they may be quickly fatal to the 
thirst-tormented sufferer who drinks them without restraint. 

FINDING WATER. 
CAMPING PLACES. 

V 

Many of the springs and wells in the desert may be located without 
special description, particularly those that are near a main route of 
travel. Prospectors and mine owners usually enter the field each 
fall to do assessment work on their mining claims. On these journeys 
they follow well-established roads or trails and so plan the trip as to 
stop at the springs where they will find the best water. As fuel is 
scarce, the ground in the immediate vicinity of the springs is usually 
so thoroughly cleared of brush as to be practically bare. Near these 
permanent and Avell-known springs, piles of tin cans and other debris 
left by campers are always to be seen. Where' the location of such 
springs is sufficiently obvious, no detailed description of the surround- 
ings is given in the following pages. 

The traveler who is unacquainted with the route over which he is 
journeying should stop at places Avhere the ground has been cleared 
of brush and where there is other ample evidence of the presence 
of many visitors, and satisfy himself as to the nature of the camp. 
It may be a " dry camp," such as are made on long stretches between 
springs, or there may be a spring or well in the vicinity, which is 
covered over to keep out animals, and is hidden by drifting sand. 
Experienced men will have no difficulty in quickly determining the 
nature of the camp. An inexperienced traveler should not enter 
the desert alone. If he can not find an experienced companion, he 
should proceed with the greatest caution, gathering all j^ossible 
information about his route in advance, keeping himself abundantly 
supplied with water and food, and never leaving one water station 
Avithout a definite idea as to the location of the next. 

A traveler can rarely see exactly where water is to be found, except 
by going over the camp ground and looking carefully for wells. 
Many of the wells are mere shafts, 20 to 40 feet deep, rectangular in 
shape and covered with a few boards, which may in turn be buried 
by drifting sand. Only a few wells are equipped with a windlass 
or pump. These conveniences, even if originally supplied, quickly 
disappear as fuel for some traveler in need on a cold winter night. 
He uses them to maintain his camp fire, justifying himself in the 
belief that self-preservation is the first law. 



WATER SUPPLY. . 17 

Prospectors and mine owners often wish to find water in new 
districts, away from the main lines of travel. In their search for it 
they must be guided by geologic and topographic conditions and by 
the vegetation, which is often a useful guide. 

MOUNTAIN SPRINGS AND TANKS. 

As a rule the water found at high elevations comes from rocks 
free from alkalies and is pure and sweet. In hunting for these higher 
springs one must go up to the bare, rocky gulches, above the loose 
material into which the rain waters sink so readily and are lost. 
The mountain springs are small and the majority of them disappear 
during the drier periods, but for a short time after a storm they may 
be abundant and furnish strong flows. 

In the lava or granite ranges water from the winter rains often 
collects in rock bowls. Where these are in the shade and are pro- 
tected from the wind, water may remain in them for months after a 
storm. Such natural. reservoirs are known as " tanks." After rains 
they may be valuable sources of supply for prospectors, but after a 
series of long, dry seasons they are not to be depended on. Some of 
these tanks are of large capacity and are very valuable to mining 
camps. They are so rare, however, that travelers can not expect to 
find them in an emergency without knowing their whereabouts or 
their character. 

DRY LAKES. 

In the vicinity of the dry lakes — the sinks of the desert — water 
may generally be found by digging or boring wells. These playas 
are the lowest points in local drainage basins. When the rains in 
such a drainage basin are heavy enough to induce a surface flow to 
the depression the waters collect there to sink gradually or to be 
evaporated. These sinks have no surface outlet, and some of them 
are rock- floored and have no underground outlet. All of the surplus 
water of the local watershed is, therefore, impounded in them. Al- 
though it may not accumulate at the surface, its quantity is usually 
sufficient so that comparatively shallow digging will reveal its pres- 
ence. The supply in such a basin does not depend entirely on the 
amount of water that reaches the depression over the surface. An 
important percentage of the lighter rains is absorbed by the debris 
along the flanks of the desert ranges and percolates slowly through 
the sand and gravel to the playa. A part of the floods resulting 
from the rare cloud-bursts and heavier storms is also absorbed in the 
same Avay and seeks the lowest point in the basin by passage under- 
ground through the pores of the gravel. 

72945— >:o. 224—09 2 



18 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

These accumulated waters may usually be developed by the mining 
community or by the prospector who wishes to establish a permanent 
camp. The favorable place for undertaking such development, how- 
ever, is not in the mud flat — the play a itself — but around its borders. 
All flowing and percolating waters dissolve alkalies from the rocks, 
sands, and gravels OA^er and through which they flow. At the point 
Avhere the waters are evaporated these salts are left behind as saline 
deposits. As the bottoms of these sinks are merely great evaporating 
pans, accumulated surface waters and rising subterranean Avaters 
both passing into the air there, they are almost iuA^ariably alkaline, 
and usually the alkalies extend to considerable depths. The Avaters 
in the center of the sink are impregnated Avith these salts and are 
generally not usable. But as the ground Avaters ahvays percolate 
toward the loAvest point, the Avaters found about the borders and at 
short distances back from the playa are relatiA^ely pure, since they 
have not yet entered the highly alkaline area. To reach the Avater 
plane at these points about the borders of the sink it may be necessary 
to penetrate to a greater depth than would be required nearer its 
center, but usually this is the only way in which potable waters can 
be developed at such places. 

GEOLOGIC HINTS. 

As already stated, pure water may be found in springs, pools, and 
tanks in the areas of granite, lava, or other compact rock. The 
favorable time to find such Avater is immediately after the rains or 
snows of Avinter. Many of these springs and pools are short-liA^ed, 
but they furnish water of the best quality, and even immediately 
after rains no Avater can be found in the desert A^alleys, for their sands 
and graA'cls absorb the rain as fast as it falls. 

Many inquiries are made as to the value of tunneling along a 
crevice from which a slight seepage escapes, in order to develop a 
greater supply. Of course it is well to clean out the opening from 
which the Avater comes, so that it may flow freely, and to go deep 
enough to see that none escapes by side channels, but more extensiA^e 
dcA^elopment Avork is usually disappointing. If the A\^ater of the 
spring is derived from a saturated body of graA^el, tunneling Avill 
result in a temporary increase of floAA\ as the drainage of the graA^el 
body is improA'ed. But in rock even a temporary increase is often 
not procured, so that there is no return for the expense. A bed-rock 
tunnel to develop water in arid regions is in the majority of cases a 
failure. The experience of miners in developing their prospects 
shows that most of the tunnels that are run into the desert mountains 
are dry, at least until they have been driven a great distance, and 
that they develop water only under exceptional conditions. 



WATER SUPPLY. 19 

Next to unconsolidated deposits, the rocks that present the condi- 
tions most favorable for direct absorption are uncemented sandstones 
and certain porons limestones. In granites, slates, and other compact 
rocks the direct absorption is very slight. 

Sandstone is on the whole the best water-bearer among the solid 
rocks. Under the most favorable conditions the rock is saturated 
throughout its extent below the regular ground-water level, and water 
is yielded wherever the sandstone is struck by the drill below this 
limit. 

Conglomerates sometimes furnish water in considerable quantity, 
although as a rule their absorptive capacity is not so great as that 
of sandstones, and they are much less commonly encountered. 

Sands and gravels are very porous, the free space between the 
grains occupying from 30 to 40 per cent of the total volume. A 
mass of such materials is saturated below the permanent water 
level, and when penetrated by wells yields copious supplies. The 
waters are generally of good quality, but are at some places mineral- 
ized, the mineral matter being derived from the more soluble frag- 
ments and particles of the deposits. 

Clay is very impervious to water, and usually contains little or 
none that can be utilized as a source of supply. The water that is fre- 
quenth^ reported in clays usually comes from layers that are more or 
less sandy. Some sands which approach clay in finenass, and which 
are at times mistaken for it, yield considerable amounts of water. 
Clay is of the greatest importance, however, in connection with water 
supply, not as a direct water-bearer, but as a confining layer to por- 
ous sands, from which it prevents water from escaping. 

Shale, like clay, is a poor medium for the storage and transmission 
of water, but may yield it from bedding, joint, or cleavage planes. 
Its most important use is as a confining mass to prevent the escape of 
water from porous layers which may be interbedded with it. 

The water derived from limestones occurs mainly in open channels 
dissolved in the rock by the Avater itself. Probably the water orig- 
inally followed joint or bedding planes, which were gradually en- 
larged by solution into the caverns noAV found. The occurrence of 
caverns and passages within limestone is very irregular and their 
location can not be predicted. Wells that are sunk in limestone 
only a few feet apart may show very different results, for a difference 
of a foot or two in the position of the boring may mean the missing 
of a particular channel. 

Granites and gneisses are dense and possess small pore spaces, and 
hence hold Aery little water. Schists, howeA^er, may carry Avater 
along the foliation planes, but give it up A^ery slowly, and are not, 
therefore, important sources of supply. The largest supplies from 



20 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

schists are obtained along joints. These joints are most common 
near the surface, diminishing in number and in definiteness as depth 
increases. 

VEGETATION AS A GUIDE. 

The flora of the usual thoroughly arid sections of the desert varies 
but little in character. Tracts for miles in extent are covered by an 
almost uniform vegetation consisting of but a few species that show 
only here and there slight variations, due to the local differences in 
the physical or chemical nature of the soil. The presence of water, 
however, produces marked changes, hence the character of the vegeta- 
tion is an excellent indication of the possibility of obtaining water 
near the surface. 

At scattered points in the broader valleys or in the more restricted 
gulches are numbers of dead sycamores or cottonwoods. Their pres- 
ence usually indicates the lowering of the water table in that region, 
and it is not likely that a supply will be found within 20 feet of the 
surface. 

The dry lakes are nearly all absolutely free from vegetation. This 
lack is probably due to the intermittent flooding of the surface, to the 
frequently renewed deposits of mud, and to the excess of alkali 
present. 

Although mesquite (Prosopis juUfiora) grows luxuriantly Avhere 
water is abundant, its presence is not a good guide to water, for its 
growth may depend on either the proximity of the ground w^ater or 
the periodical flooding of a small area. Where its growth is due to 
ground water it furnishes no suggestion as to the depth to the water. 
It may lie within a few feet of the surface or it may be 50 feet below. 
Where its life is sustained, as in restricted gulches, b}^ occasional 
floods, obviously Avater will not be found by digging during the 
drier periods. 

Tules, or bullrushes, always indicate water at or very near the sur- 
face, and generally Avater of good quality. 

LoAvland purslane {Siiseviuiii portulacastrum) is a plant that 
groAvs on moist alkaline soils. It indicates Avater, but usually AA^ater 
of poor quality. 

Wild heliotrope {Heliotropium curassavicum) ^ sometimes called 
'" Chinese pusley," is one of the rarer plants. It groAA^s only in 
moist soil, but since it has strong alkali-resisting powers the Avater 
near it may be brackish. 

Arrowweed {Pluchea sericea) is another moisture-loving plant 
found in the desert. Where it grows to a height of G or 8 feet in a 
dense tangle it is reasonably certain that the ground water lies Avithin 
20 feet of the surface and that its quality is at least fair. 



HINTS ON DESERT TRAVELING. 21 

Salt grass {Distichlis spicata) indicates water very near the sur- 
face, but this plant prefers alkaline areas, although not confined to 
them ; hence the water indicated by it may be very brackish. 

Creosote {Larrea rtiexicand) and the numerous shrubs {Sarcohatus^ 
Grayia^ etc.) of the greasewood group, which are widely distributed 
over the deserts, grow in the driest of soils, and although some of 
J:hem, like creosote, flourish better with a moderate amount of water 
their presence may generally be taken as an unfavorable indication. 

HIKTS ON DESERT TRAYEI^HSTG. 

TEAMS. HAY, AND GRAIN. 

Where teams are used animals accustomed to the desert should be 
procured, if possible, for horses or mules that are unused to desert 
conditions fret on the sandy roads and rapidly weaken from drinking 
the saline waters. They are also in danger of pneumonia from the 
cold of the winter nights and the wide extremes of temperature. 
During winter journeys blankets should be provided to protect the 
animals at night. 

Travel in the desert far from the railroads and from food supplies 
is, of course, more expensive than in other regions. A party leaving 
a supply station to go 100 miles or more into an uninhabited part of 
the desert must take along everything needed, even to the most minute 
detail. This means that if the trip is to last for two weeks enough 
hay and grain for each animal and enough provisions to last each 
man that length of time must be taken. For four horses, drawing a 
wagon that carries four persons and their bedding, provisions, and 
tools, another team of four horses must also be taken to haul sufficient 
hay and grain to feed the eight horses for two weeks. There are but 
few places in the desert, away from the railroads, where grain or hay 
of any kind can be procured. As the teams are rarely able to travel 
faster than a Avalk, heavy horses that are good walkers should be 
selected. The tires should be as wide as can be procured. Desirable 
widths of tires for freight wagons are 6 to 9 inches ; for light wagons 
3 inches. 

A good feed trough may be made as follows: Take two pieces of 
surfaced 2 by 4 lumber, about 4 feet long. Cross them in the form 
of an X and fasten them together with a bolt, so that they can be 
folded for packing in the wagon. Near the top of each arm of the X 
fasten a heavy hook to which a canvas may be attached. This X 
should be fastened to the end of the wagon tongue, and a piece of 
canvas properly shaped should be stretched from it to the front 
wheels of the wagon to form a broad trough. The tops of the cross- 
bars should be fastened together with rope to keep them from spread- 



22 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

ing; the bottoms should rest on the ground. Both hay and grain 
should be fed from such a trough, which saves waste and provides a 
more healthful mode of feeding than eating out of the dirt. Nose 
bags may be carried for feeding grain during the short stops at noon. 
For packing trips experienced prospectors select burros on account 
of their endurance of heat and thirst, their foraging abilities, and the 
slight amount of care they require. They are slow and too light to 
carry heavy packs, so that on expeditions where speed is essential, 
or heavy freight is to be moved and feed is available, horses or mules 
are to be preferred. 

TOOLS. 

Travelers will often find springs choked by debris washed in by 
rain storms or contaminated by the bodies of desert animals that 
have fallen in and drowned. It is therefore necessary to provide a 
pick, shovel, bucket, and rope for cleaning the wells. 

CLOTHING, BEDDING, ETC. 

At all times except in midsummer — when the desert should be 
avoided — the traveler must be provided with clothing suitable for 
both extreme heat and extreme cold. His route over a part of the 
journey may extend through heated valleys that lie near sea level, 
or he may have to camp in the mountains, at elevations of 3,000 to 
6,000 feet, where the temperature may fall nearly to the freezing 
point before morning. For protection during the early morning 
hours he must therefore have Avarm, heavy blankets and a heavy 
overcoat or its equivalent. Many cases of pneumonia and " mountain 
fever " have been caused by extremes of temperature for which no 
adequate provision had been made. In winter the temperature 
in this region may reach 85° or 95° during the day and fall to the 
freezing point before midnight. The traveler should be provided 
with a canvas sheet that is long enough to lay under his bedding and 
fold back over it, as well as to cover his head in case of sand storms. 
Folding cots and air mattresses are luxuries that may be taken if the 
financial resources of the party are sufficient to provide such supplies 
and ample means of transportation. 

The outer clothing should be of a color that will reflect as much 
heat as possible — that is, white, gray, or yellow — and the under- 
clothing should be of wool. The hat should have a Avide brim and 
be thick enough to exclude all rays of the sun. The proper headgear 
is a broad-brimmed gray felt, or, for summer wear, a big ojDaque hel- 
met of white or khaki color, the bigger the better. The hair should 
not be cut very short, as it is a natural means of protection. 

Travelers with their own outfits and a minimum means of transpor- 
tation will find that they must walk much of the time, for teams with 



HINTS ON DESERT TRAVELING. 23 

heavy loads can only crawl through the sands at the rate of 2 to 3 
miles an hour. Sand and sharp flints will wear out the soles of boots 
and shoes very rapidly. Hence stout hobnailed footwear should be 
worn. 

PROVISIONS. 

In the more important mining camps and at the principal railroad 
points there are eating houses, where the traveler who follows railway 
and stage lines may procure food; but in actual desert travel in 
regions far away from these few local points full provision must be 
made at the outset for the entire period to be occupied in the journey. 
The staples of camp supplies, such as flour, sugar, tea, coffee, rice, 
bacon, beans, breakfast foods, etc., are well known, but means and 
personal taste will to a great extent dictate the further choice. The 
monuments of tin cans at the various camping places testify to the 
popularity of the various foods preserved in tin. The better brands 
of canned meats, fruits, and vegetables are excellent and will form 
an important and most refreshing part of the menu of the more elab- 
orately equipped parties. A¥here long journeys are planned and 
transportation facilities are limited, canned goods must be eliminated, 
largely because of their weight, and dried foods substituted. Soups, 
meats, potatoes, and other vegetables, as well as fruits, may be had 
in dried form, and a considerable range of choice is possible. Con- 
densed cream is recommended, even where it is necessary to econo- 
mize in weight, for it not only makes possible a much wider range in 
cooking, but it counteracts in great measure the irritation produced 
in the digestive tract by the alkaline desert waters, and is therefore 
especially desirable. 

WATER. 

Owing to the intense heat of the desert there is a rapid and abun- 
dant growth of minute forms of animal and vegetable life in waters 
that are not too saline. All water should therefore be boiled before 
drinking. Filters form a part of the more elaborate outfits. There 
are now on the market several small, compact filters from which the 
traveler may select such as he may think desirable. It is not prac- 
ticable to distill water except for mining camps or for large parties. 

It is advisable to drink heartily in the morning and at night and 
as little as possible during the day. The practice of drinking water 
in excess of the amount necessary to relieve thirst may easily become 
a habit and should be avoided. At best it places an unnecessary tax 
on the system, and, when alkaline waters are used, may easily result 
in illness that could have been prevented by the exercise of greater 
foresight and self-control. It has been recommended that raw oat- 
meal be placed in the canteens, and some travelers even add to this a 



24 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

small quantity of chocolate and' sugar. When the water becomes 
tepid, additions of this kind make it more palatable to some, and 
there is less temptation to drink too much. It is well, also, during 
periods of extreme heat to wrap a wet cloth around the wrists and 
to put a water-soaked handkerchief in the hat. These are old- 
fashioned but effective devices. Each person in a party should be 
supplied with a large canteen, and extra ones should be taken along 
in the wagons to provide for leaks and accidents. An ample supply 
of water barrels and kegs should also be carried for use at dry camps 
and during prospecting trips, the number depending on the amount 
of stock taken and the route followed. 

FUEL. 

Fuel is scarce in the desert, especially in the vicinity of the better- 
known springs, where it has been entirely cleared away. The trav- 
eler therefore usually finds it necessary to begin gathering brush and 
mesquite roots long before he reaches a spring, so as to provide fuel 
for cooking. Camp fires are luxuries that can be indulged in only 
among heavy mesquite and cottonwood timber, or off the beaten lines 
of travel. 

GETTING LOST. 

One unacquainted with the desert should accustom himself to its 
clear air and the resulting exaggerated detail, which makes distant 
objects look near. No walks without water or provisions to what 
appears to be a near-by hill should be undertaken without definite 
knowledge of its distance. Landmarks should be studied, so that 
they will be recognized from any point of view, that they may be 
known when they are reached again. Before he begins a journey 
that does not follow a beaten and unmistakable track, the traveler 
should determine his general direction by compass or map or inquiry, 
and should adhere to that direction. The inexperienced traveler 
often gets at once into a panic on losing his way, and wastes his 
remaining energy in frantic rushes in one direction and another. 
This tendency to become panic-stricken should be controlled, if pos- 
sible. Sit down, get out your map and compass — if you are pro- 
vided with them, as you should be — and study the situation carefully 
before acting. At least, rest a little and think it over. If it is hot 
and you are far from camp, get your head into the shade of a bush 
or rock, and wait till night. Thirst will be less intolerable then and 
endurance greater. If you have camp companions who are likely to 
look for you, start a signal fire by night or a smoke by day from 
some little eminence, and then stay by it until help comes. If you 
must depend on your own exertions, think carefully over all the possi- 
bilities and adopt a plan of action and adhere to it. Remember the 
proneness of the lost person to exaggerate the distance he has trav- 



MAIN ROUTES OF TRAVEL. 25 

eled. It is well to count paces and to remember that about 2,000 
make a mile. You will thus have a good check on the distance that 
you go, and at the same time will keep your mind occupied. Keep 
your direction true by traveling toward or from some selected land- 
mark, or by the sun during the day or a star at night, or by keeping 
with or against or in some fixed direction in relation to tha wind. If 
you think these things out and have studied the country beforehand, 
so that you know the relation of a road, or a ranch, or a spring, or a 
river to a given landmark or to the points of the compass, you should 
have no difficulty in finding your way again. With some persons, 
however, the faculty of getting lost amounts to genius. They are 
able to accomplish it wherever they are. The only suitable advice 
for them is to keep out of the desert. There are safer places in 
which to exercise their talent. Still others have a geographic in- 
stinct and a power of geographic observation which defies time and 
place. They can not be lost anywhere. For such these lines are not 
written. 

MAIN ROUTES OF TRAVEL. 

STARTING POINTS. 

Most of the main routes of travel in the desert are by no means 
straight, but make long detours, their courses having been determined 
either by the location of watering places or by the desire to avoid 
crossing desert ranges. A long way round to a given place on the 
desert may be not only easier but safer than a more direct line. 
Nearly all the travel into these regions starts from the Santa Fe, 
Salt Lake, or Southern Pacific Railroad, and the descriptions that 
follow are given accordingly. In returning from his destination 
the traveler has only to retrace his steps. 

FREMONT'S TRAIL. 

Gen. J. C. Fremont, in April, 1844, entered the Mohave Desert 
at Cameron Salt Lake, about 22 miles northwest of the modern town 
of Mohave. From that point he followed the east base of the Sierra 
southward to what is now known as Water station. Thence his 
course was southeastward past the Desert Buttes, until he reached 
Mohave River at " Point of Rocks," . near what is now known as 
Cottonwood station, on the Santa Fe. There he turned down the 
Mohave to the point where the old Spanish trail left it, about 10 miles 
east of Otis. From that point he followed the old Spanish trail 
northeastward to Tomaso Springs; thence northward past the east 
edge of the Avawatz Mountains to Salt Spring and the canyon of 
the Amargosa, which he followed up to China Ranch Springs, on 
Willow Creek. From China Ranch Springs he journeyed to Resting 



26 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

Springs, where his course was aUered to the northeast toward Vegas 
Warm Springs, in Nevada. This route between Cottonwood, Otis, 
and Eesting Springs is still used. 

OLD SPANISH TRAIL. 

When C'alifornia belonged to Mexico, caravans made regular trips 
over a well-defined trail that connected Los Angeles with points in 
Utah. This trail crossed the mountains north of San Bernardino by 
the Cajon Pass, and followed Mohave River down to a point east 
of the Calico Mountains. There the trail forked, one branch leading 
across the east edge of Alvord Mountain to Bitter Spring and To- 
maso Springs and thence northward along the east edge of the 
Avawatz Mountains to Salt Spring, the other branch continuing 
down the Mohave to its sink, then crossing Soda Lake and Silver 
Dry Lake and joining the first branch in the pass between the 
Avawatz and Shadow mountains. From Salt Spring the trail led 
northward through the canyon of the Amargosa to Resting Springs, 
then eastward by way of Stump and Crystal Springs to Las Vegas 
Warm Springs, where it turned northeastward to Virgin River. This 
route was used later as the mail route from Los Angeles to Salt 
Lake City, mail being carried over it once a month for many years. 

These roads are still used by travelers from Daggett to Shadow 
and Silurian mountains or to Soda Lake. 

MOHAVE-KEELER ROUTE: 

Those who desire to reach points in the western part of Inyo 
County will find the stage road from Mohave to Keeler the best route. 
It is an old-established, easily followed road, and watering places and 
road houses are distributed along it. It follows close to the foot of 
the Sierra Nevada from Mohave station on the Santa Fe and South- 
ern Pacific railroads, northward to Water station, whence it passes 
through Redrock Canyon, at the west end of the El Paso Range, and 
on northward to Freeman, Indian Wells, Little Lake, Haiwee, and 
Olancha. From Olancha one road skirts the west side of Owens 
Lake to Lone Pine and Independence, the county seat of Inyo County. 
From this route, as shown by the map (PI. I), other roads lead east- 
ward to most of the mining districts. 

DEATH VALLEY ROUTES. 

There are three main routes by which Death Valley may be reached 
from the south. One starts from Johannesburg, another from Dag- 
gett, and a third from Barnwell. 

The Johannesburg route runs by way of Blackwater and Granite 
Wells. A heavily laden team can leave Johannesburg late in the 



MAIN ROUTES OF TRAVEL. 27 

morning and reach either of these camping places in the evening. A 
dry camp should be made between Granite Wells and Leach's Spring, 
the next watering place, as the distance is 45 miles, and pulling is 
hard over the last 6 miles on account of deep sand and heavy grades. 
From Leach's Spring the route leads to Owl Springs, Saratoga 
Springs, the China ranch, and thence to Resting Springs. At Rest- 
ing Springs directions should be obtained for going to the head of 
Furnace Creek, whence the route follows down Furnace Creek to the 
Borax AYorks at Coleman, in Death Valley. 

The Daggett route is a favorite with many. This road runs from 
Daggett to Otis, thence east of the Calico Mountains to Coyote Well, 
and across the dry lake to Langford Well and Garlic Spring. From 
this spring the road passes to the east of the Granite Mountains and 
climbs the Avawatz Mountains to Cave Springs. From Cave Springs 
it leads to Saratoga Springs and thence to Resting Springs. 

The Barnwell route was for a number of years traveled by a daily 
stage running from Barnwell, Cal., to Manse, Nev., but the stage has 
been abandoned since the construction of the Salt Lake Railroad. 
This route is still preferred by some travelers, who obtain their sup- 
plies at Barnwell or at Ivanpah. From Ivanpah the road extends 
across the dry lake to the north, thence through the State Line Pass 
to Mesquite Dry Lake and Sandy; from Sandy northwestward to 
Stump Spring and Manse; thence to Pahrump and Johnnie and 
Miller Well No. 2, where it joins the stage road from Las Vegas to 
Bullfrog. 

Outfits may also start from Roach or Jean, Nev., and go westward 
to Sandy. At Pahrump, on this line, roads branch to the Fairbanks 
ranch at Ash Meadows, but it is advisable to go by way of Johnnie 
to Miller Well No. 2, and thence to the Fairbanks ranch, where there 
are springs. A number of recent changes and improvements in the 
roads give good routes to the head of Death Valley. Travelers can 
obtain all information regarding these changes at Pahrump and at 
the Fairbanks ranch. 

BULLFROG ROUTES. 

Three main routes lead to the Bullfrog mining district, from Las 
Vegas, Ivanpah, and Goldfield. Travelers over the Death Valley 
routes can connect with the Bullfrog roads by driving from Resting 
Springs to Manse, Pahrump, or the Fairbanks ranch. 

A wagon road runs from Las Vegas, Nev., northwestward by 
way of Tule Spring to Indian Springs, thence westward to Miller 
Wells Nos. 2 and 1, and northward to Beatty, Rhyolite, and Bullfrog. 
This route is 130 miles long. 

Ivanpah is the terminus of a branch of the Santa Fe Railway 
which leaves the main line at Goffs (Blake post-office), Cal. From 



28 DESEKT WATERING PLACES iN CALlEORNlA AND NEVADA. 

Ivanpah a stage line runs northward by way of Sandy, Manse, and 
Pahrump to Miller Well No. 2, where it connects with the Las Vegas 
road. This route is highly regarded, as the water supply is excellent, 
and hay and grain can be obtained at the four stations mentioned. 
Bullfrog is about 135 miles in air line northwest from Ivanpah. 

A wagon road runs from Goldfield to Bullfrog by way of Cuprite 
and Bonnie Claire station, which lies on the west side of Sarcobatus 
Flat. From Bonnie Claire station the stage follows the east foot of 
the Grapevine Mountains, by way of the Tonopah Well, Seattle 
Well, and the old town of Bullfrog, entering the new town of Bull- 
frog from the west. This route is about 80 miles long. 

SEARCHLIGHT ROUTE. 

The Searchlight mining district is best reached by a branch of the 
Santa Fe that leaves the main line at Barnwell. 

NEEDLES-PARKER ROUTE. 

The southeastern portion of the Mohave Desert is best reached 
by the road running from Needles southward to Parker. Two wells, 
dug by the county, and known as the " old " and the " new " West 
wells, furnish water to the traveler. There are no settlements on the 
route. The completion of the Santa Fe line now under construction 
from Bengal to Parker will give easier access to this district. 

AMBOY-DALE ROUTE. 

A stage line connects Amboy, on the Santa Fe Railway with the 
Dale mining region to the south. Water can be had at the stage 
station along the line. 

MECCA-DALE ROUTE. 

An excellent road starts from Mecca, in the Coachella Valley, 
on the Southern Pacific Railroad, and runs northeastward to Shaver 
well, thence along the west flank of Eagle Mountains and the east side 
of Pinto Mountain to Dale. This road is well supplied with good 
water, and is the main route into this region from the south. 

VICTORVILLE ROUTES. 

Victorville station, on the Santa Fe Railway, is the starting place 
for points in the southern portion of the Mohave Desert east of the 
Santa Fe. A county road crosses Mohave River here by a good 
bridge, and branches of this road run along the east side of the river 
to the various mining camps. The main county road runs eastward 
by way of Dead Man's Point, at the south end of Granite Mountain, to 
Box S ranch. At this ranch the road forks, a northern branch lead- 



IRRIGATING AND ARTESIAN WATERS. 29 

ing eastward by way of Old Woman Springs. Mean's Well, and 
Surprise Spring to Twenty-nine Palms Springs and Dale. The 
southern road goes by way of Box S Springs, Cushenbury Springs, 
and the Rose Mine to Twenty-nine Palms Springs. This road crosses 
the northern edge of the San Bernardino Range, rises to high alti- 
tudes, and has heavy grades. The northern route is the better. 

BANNING-DALE ROUTE. 

From Banning a wagon road runs by way of Warren's Ranch. 
Warren's Well, Coyote Holes, and Twenty-nine Palms Springs to 
Dale. 

IRRIGATING AXD ARTESIAN WATERS. 

IRRIGATED AREAS. 

The arid region shown on Plate I is bounded on the east, west, and 
south, respectively, by Colorado River, the Sierra Xevada, aiKLthe 
Sierre Madre. The only places in this wide area where irrigation 
is generally practiced are found along the east base of the Sierra 
Xevada in Inyo County; in the Elizabeth Lake, Palmclale, and 
Little Rock districts north of the Sierra Madre in Los Angeles 
County; in a few small tracts along Mohave River in San Bernar- 
dino County ; . in the Imperial district in Imperial County ; the 
Indio section in Riverside County, and at a few points along Colo- 
rado River. In the desert proper the patches reclaimed by irrigation 
vary in size from 4 or 5 acres to 160 acres, and are isolated and 
exceptional, serving only to emphasize the barrenness of the rest of 
the region. These oases are all watered from springs and will be 
mentioned in the detailed descriptions. 

ARTESIAN WATERS. 

Certain areas give evidence of having a supply of artesian water 
as yet undeveloped or but parti}'- developed, but their exact limits and 
the amount of water available in them can be ascertained only by 
special stud3^ The writer desires to call attention to the fact that 
they exist and that some of them are worthy of detailed investigation. 

Artesian zones border some of the larger playas or dry lakes which 
have a relatively abundant water supply.' Near the southern and 
western limits of the ^lohave Desert there are several such basins 
whose waters are supplied by the run-off from the Sierra Madre and 
Sierra Xevada. An important basin of this type exists also in the 
northwest arm of the Colorado Desert, about Indio, where several 
thousand acres of land are under irrigation by the use of artesian 
waters. 



30 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

In addition to water in sufficient quantity to give the necessary 
head, certain mechanical conditions, such as a proper alternation of 
pervious and impervious strata, are necessar}^ to establish and main- 
tain artesian conditions. Furthermore, such basins in the desert are 
usually readily exhausted, because the amount of water available to 
replenish that drawn out for irrigation or other uses is small. In 
planning municipalities, large mining camps, or extensive irrigation 
from such waters, care must be taken that their quantity is not over- 
estimated. 

Artesian waters have been obtained near Haiwee, in Inyo County, 
between the Sierra and the Coso mountains ; at the head of the Salt 
Wells Valley between the El Paso Range and the Sierra; and west 
of Kane Dry Lake in Kern County. Another belt in which artesian 
waters have been developed lies along the north edge of the Sierra 
Madre in Los Angeles County, in the vicinity of Lancaster. Other 
artesian belts lie east of the latter zone along the north front of the 
San Bernardino Range, in the neighborhod of Victorville and farther 
east in what is known locally as the Lucerne Valley district. The 
principal wells drilled in this valley are mentioned under the heading 
"" Box S ranch." 

Artesian waters have been tapped in the northeast corner of River- 
side County, in T. 2 S., R. 19 E., San Bernardino meridian. They 
have been found also on the northeast edge of the basin, of which 
Rodriguez Dry Lake is the sink, at the Flowing Wells. 

BESCRIPTIOISS OF SPKINGS.a 

SYMBOLS USED. 

Springs, wells, flowing wells, and pumping plants are represented 
on the map by appropriate symbols, and those described in the text 
are given numbers ; others, whose locations are known but for which 
no descriptions are available, are indicated by symbols only. 

In the arrangement of the descriptive matter the plan adopted is 
to divide the map into rectangles, each covering an area of approxi- 
mately four townships. These rectangles are identified by letters and 
numbers along the margins of the map. The numbers and the cor- 
responding descriptions in the text begin at the northwest corner of 
the map and follow the first row of rectangles eastward to the Ne- 
vada line. They then begin in the next row of rectangles to the 
south and follow it eastward. AATien all of the descriptions avail- 
able for California have been given in this order, the same plan is 
adopted for that part of Nevada described, but the California and 
Nevada numbering is continuous. Locations can not be given by land 
lines, because there are many unsurveyed areas in the desert, and even 

"Arranged by map numbers. References to positions on the map, in parentheses, follow 
the headings. 



SPKINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 31 

where surveys have been made they are old, much of the work hav- 
ing been done between 1852 and 1860, and corners are usually missing. 
Both on this account and because of the very general way in Avhich 
many of the springs have been located it is not possible to give the 
section within wdiich they are found. 

CALIFORNIA. 

1. Oasis, Mono Coimty (A-2). — Oasis is a settlement near the Cali- 
fornia-Nevada line Avest of the Palmetto Range. It is about 30 
miles northeast of Alvord station, on the Southern Pacific Railroad, 
and about 15 miles northeast of Deep Springs (No. 2). . Oasis serves 
as a general outfitting point for prospectors in the Palmetto Range. 
It is well supplied with water from both springs and wells. 

2. Deep Springs^ Inyo Coimty (A-2). — At the south end of Deep 
Springs Valley there are large flowing springs that have been known 
since the earliest settlement of the north end of Inyo County, and 
that have given a name to the settlement and to the valley. They are 
13 miles east of Poleta station and about 18 miles northeast of Alvord 
station, on the Southern Pacific Railroad. They furnish sufficient 
water to irrigate about 600 acres. The settlement is the principal 
stopping place between Alvord and Oasis. 

3. Sand Springs^ Inyo County (B-3). — Sand Springs are about 19 
miles west of south, in an air line, from Lida, Nev., on the west side 
of the north end of Grapevine Mountains. They are in Termination 
Valley near its north end, about 16 miles northwest from Staininger's 
ranch (No. 5). The water is good, and the site of the springs is 
marked by the debris left by many campers. 

4. Grapevine Springs^ Lnyo County (B-3). — This is a group of 
springs on the bench above the floor of Death Valley, about 3 miles 
by trail due west of Stainingeip's ranch. There is plenty of water. 

5. Staininger^s raiich, or Grapevine ranch^ Inyo Coimty (B-4). — 
This ranch is in Grapevine Canyon, which drains into Death Valley, 
about 22 miles southwest from Bonnie Claire station, on the Las 
Vegas and Tonopah Railroad. It is about 11 J miles, air line, north- 
west of Grapevine Peak. There is an unlimited supply of good 
water. 

6. Barrel Springs^ Inyo County (C-1). — There are springs of ex- 
cellent water in Mazourka Canyon in the Inyo Mountains, about 10 
miles northeast of Independence and 6 miles north of Citrus station, 
on the Southern Pacific Railroad. 

7. Cold Springs^ Inyo County (C-3). — There are two groups of 
springs near together in the northeast portion of T. 13 S., R. 39 E., 
about 10 miles northeast of the Saline Valley borax works (No. 13). 
The springs of one group yield hot water, those of the other cold 
water. The hot springs lie farther south than the cold. The water 



32 DESEET WATEKING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

from the springs of both groups is of good quality, and there is a 
sufficient quantity, if developed and conserved, to irrigate several 
acres. 

8. Rest SfHng and Burro Spring^ Inyo County (C-3). — Rest 
Spring is in a shallow gulch at the head of a canyon draining south- 
ward and westward into Butte Valley. It is one-half mile west of the 
summit of the Panamint Range and 15 miles north of Goldbelt 
Spring (No. 15), to which there is a plain trail. It is 6 J miles south 
of Tin Mountain, the northernmost peak of the range. The flow is 
about 3 barrels of water daily. A trail running due north leads to 
Burro Spring, 1^ miles distant. This spring is in a shallow gulch at 
the head of a canyon draining southward and eastward into Death 
Valley, one-fourth of a mile east of the divide. This spring also 
yields about 3 barrels of good water per day. 

9. Mesquite Spring^ Inyo County (C-4). — This spring is in the east 
bank of the wash in Death Valley, one-half mile from the bottom. 
It is 6 miles southwest of Staininger's ranch, 19 miles southeast of 
Sand Springs, and 11 miles northwest of the locality knoAvn as Lost 
Wagons. There are other springs in the desert portion of Cali- 
fornia and Nevada that are also known as " Mesquite " springs. - 

10. Indian Springs^ Inyo County (C-4). — ^Like "Mesquite," the 
name " Indian " is applied to several desert springs. Those here re- 
ferred to are near the northeast end of the great Panamint Range and 
near the south end and west side of Termination Valley on an old 
and little-used trail that runs southward from Lida, Nev., by way 
of Sand Springs to the north end of Death Valley. They are marked 
by remains of Indian tepees. There are said to be other springs in 
this vicinity, but their location is unknown except to local pros- 
pectors. 

11. Tule Spring^ Inyo County (C-5). — This spring is about 3 miles 
south of west, air line, from Willow Spring (No. 12) and 12 miles 
southwest of Bullfrog, Nev. It is on the north side of the east branch 
of a canyon at the foot of a cliff, If miles southeast of the high, sharp, 
rocky Thimble Peak. It is about 500 yards east of the trail from 
Bullfrog to Surveyors' Well (No. 18) by way of Willow Spring 
(No. 12). There is a very small quantity of excellent water. There 
is another Tule Spring to the southeast, near Tecopa. 

12. Willow Spmng^ Inyo County (C-5). — This spring is on the east 
slope of the Grapevine Range, 9 miles southwest of Bullfrog, Nev., 
and 3 miles north of the Boundary Canyon road at the pass. The 
flow is 10 barrels of good water daily. There are at least 8 watering 
places in the desert region with which this paper deals that are known 
as Willow Spring or Willow Springs ; so this is by no means a deter- 
minate name. 



SPKINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 33 

13. Saline Valley Well, Inyo County (D-2). — Twenty years ago 
Conn & Trudo manufactured borax on an old dry lake in Saline Val- 
ley, and dug a well near the works that furnished a good supply of 
water of fair quality. The well is still used by prospectors on their 
way to the copper regions on the eastern side of Saline Valley. 

14. Bird Spring, Inyo County (D-3). — There is a spring of pure 
water on the trail from Keeler to North Death Valley near the mouth 
of a canyon on the east side of the Pinto Mountains. 

15. Goldhelt Spring, Inyo County (D-4). — Goldbelt Spring is near 
the head of a western branch of Cottonwood Canyon, known as 
Marble Canyon. It is 8 miles by trail northwest of the head of 
Cottonwood Creek, 4 miles northeast of the crest of the Panamint 
Range, and nearly 25 miles southwest of Surveyor's Well (No. 18) 
in Death Valley. The spring, which is surrounded by bushes, is on 
the south bank of the canyon, about 100 feet above the bottom of the 
wash. It flows about 20 barrels per day. 

Two miles east of Goldbelt Spring, and down the canyon from it, 
is a small spring in a clay bank on the south side of the wash. It 
yields perhaps 3 barrels per day. 

16. Well, Inyo County (D-4). — This well is 7 miles southwest of 
Surveyor's Well, on the southwest edge of Mesquite Flat, south of 
the trail from Surveyor's Well to Cottonwood Canyon. The trail 
is often buried in sand and obscure, and the water is not always easy 
to find. 

IT. Ring or Ruiz Well, Inyo County (D-4). — This well is 2 miles 
southwest of Surveyor's Well, in the Mesquite Flat that occupies this 
portion of Death Valley. The trail to it may be buried in sand, and 
the water difficult to find. The well is 4 feet deep, and the w^ater 
good, although slightly brackish. 

18. Surveyor's Well, Inyo County (D-4). — This well is at the north- 
east corner of Mesquite Flat, on the main road from Staininger's 
ranch to Furnace Creek. It is 19 miles southeast of Mesquite Spring, 
8 miles southeast of the locality known as Lost Wagons, and 20 
miles southwest of Bullfrog in an air line. The position of the 
well is clearly marked by camp debris. The well is 5 feet deep and 
the water obtained from it is good, although slightly brackish. A 

-trail leads from it southwestward to Marble Canyon. 

19. Triangle Spring, Inyo County (D-4). — This spring is 3 miles 
southeast of Surveyor's Well, on the road from Staininger's ranch to 
Coleman (Furnace Creek ranch), 5 miles northwest of Stovepipe 
Wells (No. 20), and one-half mile east of Sandy Flat. It is in a 
clay bank, marked by a growth of mesquite. There is a small quan- 
tity of good water. 

72945— No. 224—09 ^3 



34 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

20. Stovepipe Wells^ Inyo County (D-4). — These wells are near the 
intersection of the Bullfrog-Ballarat and Staininger-Furnace Creek 
roads, 25 miles southwest of Bullfrog. They are on the eastern edge 
and near the south end of Mesquite Flat, 6 miles southwest of Death 
Valley Buttes. The main road southeastward from them leads to 
Furnace Creek; the one to the northwest to Grapevine Canyon; the 
one to the northeast to Rhyolite, Nev., by way of Boundary Canyon; 
and the one to the southwest to Keeler, by way of Emigrant Canyon. 
There are two wells about 5 feet deep that yield an abundance of 
good water. 

21. Daylight Spring^ Inyo County (D-5). — This spring is just north 
of the pass in the Grapevine Kange, on the wagon road from Bull- 
frog, Nev., to Furnace Creek and Ballarat, Cal. It is about 10 miles 
southwest of Bullfrog. The spring is 300 yards west of the road, on 
the side of the hill. The flow is about 8 barrels of good water per day. 

22. Keane Spring, Inyo County (D-5). — This spring is on the west 
slope of the Grapevine Range, about 3 miles a little east of south of 
Daylight Spring and 4 miles northwest of the Chloride Cliif mine. 
It is accessible by wagon from Boundary Canyon by the road turning 
east up the first large wash south of Daylight Spring. The flow is 
30 barrels of good water per day. 

23. Hole in the Rock Spring^ Inyo County (D-5). — This is a seep in 
a hole which may contain 6 or 8 gallons of water. It is about 5 miles 
southwest of Daylight Spring, one-half mile north of the wagon road 
in Boundary Canyon, and 3 miles northeast of Death A^alley Buttes. 

24. Salt Creek Wells, Inyo County (D-5). — These are two small 
Avells in sand}^ earth at the foot of a low hill near the east edge of 
Salt Flat. They are about 5 miles southeast of Stovepipe Wells on 
the road to Furnace Creek ranch. The road to Ballarat turns west 
and crosses Salt Creek here. The water in the creek is very salty; 
that in the wells is brackish, but usable. 

25. Poison Spring, Inyo County (D-5). — This spring is 11 miles 
east of north of the Furnace Creek ranch (Coleman) in the bottom 
of a very narrow limestone canyon, the deepest in the vicinity. It is 
250 yards northeast of the trail from Furnace Creek ranch to Bull- 
frog via Indian Pass and Amargosa Desert, and is difficult to find. 
There is a small seep of water--, which may be used in limited quantities. 

26. Springs {no name), Inyo County (E-2). — There are a number 
of springs near the southeast edge of Owens Lake, which have long 
been known to the stockmen of that region. The springs rise from 
the alluvium that surrounds the lake, and the water is brackish. It 
is too full of mineral matter to be palatable, but serves for stock, and 
is a watering place on the Mohave-Keeler stage road. 

27. Cottonwood Creek, Inyo County (E-4). — Cottonwood Creek, a 
stream of fine, clear water, rises in a large spring about 10 miles above 



SPRINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 35 

the mouth of Cottonwood Canyon and flows about 2 miles before dis- 
appearing. The canyon opens into Death Valley 11 miles southwest 
of Surveyor's Well and 11 miles almost due west of Stovepipe Wells. 
The main trail from Death Valley to Keeler via Bird Springs and 
Cerro Gordo follows it. 

There are a number of small springs in the upper branches of Cot- 
tonwood Canyon. One is 3^ miles west of the head of Cottonwood 
Creek, in a side canyon just south of the main western branch. An- 
other is 5 miles above the head of Cottonwood Creek, in the main 
canyon, on .the main trail from Death Valley to Keeler. Still an- 
other is IJ miles northwest of the last, across the divide, 300 yards 
from the trail, in a small flat. 

28. Emigrant Springs^ Inyo County (E-4). — Emigrant Springs, 
which have been used since 1852, are in the northern portion of the 
Panamint Mountains, nearly opposite the north end of the sink of 
Death Valley, and about 20 miles w^est of the mouth of Furnace 
Creek. They are in Emigrant Canyon, the main pass through the 
Panamint Kange, on the wagon road from Ballarat to Death Valley, 
Chloride, and Bullfrog. This road also passes AVild Rose Spring 
(Xo. 42), which is about 14 miles south of Emigrant Springs. Emi- 
grant Springs receive their name from the fact that they were used 
by the early emigrants from Salt Lake City, who^ entered Panamint 
Valley by this route. They are in a canyon draining northward into 
Death Valley, at the north end of Tucki or Sheep Mountain, 19 miles 
from Surveyor's Well, in a wash at the foot of a limestone wall 20 
feet high, 25 j^ards west of the wagon road. The supply is about 
50 barrels of good water per day. 

29. Spring {no name)^ Inyo County (E-4). — This is a small spring 
in the mountains about 3 miles east of Wild Rose Spring. It is in 
a canyon off the main road that passes Wild Rose Spring, about 2 
miles from the road. There are a number of other springs, knov>^n to 
prospectors, on the west side of the Panamint Range, but they are 
away from traveled routes. 

31. Salt Well, Inyo County (E-5). — This well is on the road from 
Furnace Creek ranch to Stovepipe Wells. It is 10 miles northwest 
of the ranch and 4 miles southeast of Stovepipe AYells. The water, 
which is too salt for human beings, but may be used by stock, is ob- 
tained from a hole in a clay bank 100 yards west of the main road. 
Well No. 61 is another " salt well," about 10 miles northeast of 
Searles, on the road between Johannesburg and' Ballarat. Salt 
Spring (No. 75) is in the extreme southeastern end of Death Valley. 

32. Fountain Springs, Inyo County (E-5). — There are small 
springs at the east edge of the butte that lies just east of the sink of 
Death Valley, about 6 miles north of Coleman. They are used by 
prospectors and miners in the Amargosa Range. 



36 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

33. Coleman Springs^ Inyo County (E-5). — Coleman was orig- 
inally known as the Greenland ranch. It is now better known as 
the borax camp of the Pacific Coast Borax Company, and is the point 
from which the much advertised " 20-mule teams " once hauled borax 
across the desert to Mohave. The springs are near the northeast end 
of the sink of Death Valley, at the mouth of Furnace Creek, about 50 
miles by wagon road via Boundary Canyon south of Bullfrog. The 
water, which is abundant, is used to irrigate over 100 acres of alfalfa. 
It contains some saline matter, but is not unpleasant to taste and is 
used without injurious effects during the winter season, the only time 
when work is carried on in Death Valley. 

The springs are about 200 feet above sea level, and are reached by 
two roads from Fairbanks Ranch, Nev., one running nearly due west 
across the Funeral Mountains to Furnace Creek and down its canyon ; 
the other passing south of the Funeral Mountains, by way of Frank- 
lin Dry Lake, to the head of Furnace Creek Canyon. 

The old route from Coleman to Mohave crosses the sink of Death 
Valley to Bennet's Wells (No. 44) by a road formed by crushing the 
hummocks of saH that cover the valley floor. From Bennet's Wells 
this road follows the Avest side of the valley to the south end of the 
sink, then turns southwest through Windy Gap to Lone WilloAV 
Spring (No. 65) and passes on by way of Granite Wells (No. 96) 
and across Willard Dry Lake to Mohave. This road is in many 
respects the best through Death Valley. The chief objection to it is 
the long drive of over 50 miles to Bennet's Wells from Lone WilloAV 
Spring Avithout water. 

Travelers are cautioned not to attempt to reach Coleman from 
Saratoga Springs (No. 74) by traveling down the valley of the Amar- 
gosa, unless they have a guide who knows just where to find the 
Confidence Springs (No. 49) in the Amargosa Range near the Nar- 
roAvs. These springs are 7 miles north of the ruins of the old Confi- 
dence Mill. Tavo trails run northward from this mill; the one that 
branches to the east goes to the old mines and the one to the north- 
west goes to the springs. As this is the only Avater for nearly 70 
miles on a poor road the trip is a dangerous one, to be aA^oided under 
all ordinary conditions. (See " Death Valley routes.") 

34. Cow Creeh^ Inyo County (E-5). — This stream, formed by the 
flow from constant springs, is in the canyon on the west slope of the 
Funeral Range, 8 miles northeast of Furnace Creek ranch. It is 
accessible from Death Valley and by trail from the Amargosa Desert 
by Avay of Lee's camp. There is an abundance of good Avater. There 
are springs known as Cow Springs (No. 47) on the Avestern edge of 
OAvens Valley. 

35. Franklin Well, Inyo County (E-6). — A Avell Avas dug in 1852 
by a Mr. Franklin near the north edge of Franklin Dry Lake, at the 



SPEINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 37 

foot of the south end of the Funeral Mountains, to supply water 
for surveying parties at work on the boundary line between Cali- 
fornia and Nevada. The old road from Furnace Creek to Fairbanks 
Ranch (Ash Meadows) passed this well, which was in existence in 
1901, but other wells have been dug recently on the east side of Frank- 
lin Lake south of Fairbanks Ranch, so that travelers now rarely have 
occasion to hunt for the old well. It was originally about 20 feet 
deep, and its position is marked by the debris of campers. 

36. Rose Springs^ Inyo County (F-2). — These are well-known 
springs between Haiwee and Owens Lake and about 8 miles west of 
Coso Peak. The water is of excellent quality. 

37. Arab SpHng^ Inyo County (F-2). — Arab Spring is on the east 
side of the Coso Mountains, about 9 miles southeast of Owens Lake 
in an air line. It is about 6 miles south of Omes, on the road to Coso, 
and about 11 miles due west of Darwin. The spring has long been 
used and is well known and easily found. 

38. Crystal Spying s^ Inyo County (F-3). — Springs of excellent 
water are located about 6 miles north of Coso and 8 miles southwest 
of Darwin, on the road between the two settlements. The road from 
Keeler to Junction by way of Omes and Arab Spring also passes them. 
They have been known and used for more than forty years. There 
are other Crystal Springs (No. 316) eastward, in Nevada. 

39. Coso^ Inyo County (F-3). — Coso is a mining and agricultural 
settlement on the southeast side of the Coso Mountains. It is reached 
from Keeler by way of Omes, Arab Spring, and Crystal Springs, or 
by way of Omes, Darwin, and Crystal Springs. It is well supplied 
with water, and supplies for travelers can be obtained there. The 
water comes from granite and is of characteristic purity. 

40. Willoic Springs, Inyo County (F-3). — These springs are away 
from the main roads and trails, in Darwin Canyon, about 4 miles 
northeast of Darwin post-office, at an elevation of 3,600 feet. Their 
exact location can best be ascertained by inquiring at the post-office. 
The water is said to be excellent. There are other springs of the same 
name (No. 87) about 10 miles northwest of Randsburg. 

41. Spring {no name), Inyo County (F-3). — This spring is in the 
pass at the north end of the Argus Mountains, on the road from Dar- 
win to Junction. It has long been a camping place and is therefore 
clearly marked. The water, like that at Coso, comes from granite and 
is of excellent quality. 

42. Wild Rose Spring, Inyo County (F-4). — This is a well-known 
spring and one of the principal stopping places on the road from 
Ballarat to the Panamint Valley and the north end of Death Valley. 
It is situated in Wild Rose Canyon, on the west side of the Panamint 
Range, about 20 miles north of Ballarat. There is also a road to it 
from Owens Lake, by way of Darwin. The water is excellent and 



38 DESEKT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

abundant. The spring has been a camping place for years and is 
easily found. 

43. Tule SfHngs^ Inyo County {F-5). — Tule Springs are on the 
western edge of the sink of Death Valley, about 5 miles north of 
Bennet's Wells. They are by the side of the only road that traverses 
the west side of the valley and are marked by small clumps of tules. 
The yield is small and the springs are usually partially choked with 
mud. The water is brackish and not so good as that at Bennet's 
Wells. 

44. Bennefs W ells ^ Inyo County (F-5). — These watering places are 
on the west side of the sink of Death Valley, about halfway between 
its south end and the mouth of Furnace Creek, at 260 feet below sea 
level. They lie west of the lowest point in the sink, which is about 
276 feet below sea level. A wagon road from the south end of the 
valley passes the wells, whose position is marked by a growth of tules, 
by many evidences of former camps, and by the ruins of the works 
of the Eagle Borax Company, which at one time operated there. 
The " wells," so called, are springs that were dug out and protected 
by barrels many years ago, and were used, until about twelve years 
ago, by the mule teams that hauled borax from the north end of 
Death Valley. 

The Panamint Range is precipitous along its eastern edge, and 
there is but little room for a road between the foot of the range and 
the edge of the sink. The whole surface of the sink is covered with 
heavy saline deposits, which can be crossed at only a few places. 
The water from the old wells contains much mineral matter, mainly 
salt and sulphate of soda. ^~ 

As there are few travelers over this route now, the springs are 
apt to be choked with drifting sand and must be cleaned out before a 
supply of water can be obtained. When the springs are cleaned the 
water can be used by men as well as by animals, but is not very pal- 
atable. 

45. Springs^ Inyo County (F-6). — There are a number of springs 
on the west side of the Black Mountains, near the summit, that give a 
small amount of water for several months of the j^ear, but are gen- 
erally dry during the summer. They are called springs by the pros- 
pectors, but are not to be depended on for a steady water supply. 

46. Greenwater^ Inyo County (F-6) . — This is the business center of 
the Greenwater district. It is reached by stage or by automobile 
from Zabriskie, on the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad, or from 
Amargosa, on the Las Vegas and Tonopah Railroad. Water is 
hauled to the district at present, but pipe lines are being put in. 

47. Cow Springs^ Inyo Coiinty (G-2). — These are small springs 
about 5 miles Avest of Little Lake, and are used by prospectors in 
that region. Thev are not on any main road. 



SPRINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 39 

48. Spring {no name), Inyo County (G-3). — This spring is in a 
pass at the north end of the Argus Mountains, on the road from 
Argus by way of Junction to Ballarat. As it has been used for years, 
it is plainly marked by the debris of camps. A road turns northward 
here toward Darwin and to Modoc. The water is good. 

49. Confidence Springs, Inyo County (G-6). — These springs are 
about 7 miles north of the ruins of the old Confidence gold mill in 
the Amargosa Range, near what is called the Narrows, in South 
Death Valley. The old mill is about 20 miles northwest of Saratoga 
Springs. It was operated by the Mormons more than twenty-five 
years ago on silver ores taken from a mine in the mountains 7 miles 
north of the mill. Its situation is marked by the ruins of adobe 
houses that can be seen for 5 or 6 miles. These houses are on the 
north side of the valley, by the old wagon road. In 1903 there 
remained also some old feeding troughs and the wreck of the stables. 
TJiere is a shaft near the ruins of the stables that is about 100 feet 
deep, but it contains only a heavy brine. 

A trail leads from the mill northward into the mountains for 3 
miles and then branches, one branch leading to the right, or east, 
across to the mines, where there is no water, the other to the left, or 
west, to the springs. This trail is obscure and the springs are small 
and not easily found. The water was at one time piped to the old 
mill and remnants of this pipe aid in finding the trail. 

Between the springs and Bennet's Wells, a distance of more than 
30 miles to the northwest, there are no other springs known near the 
road, so that the long trip from Saratoga Springs into the sink of 
Death Valley by this route is dangerous. (See Coleman Springs, 
No. 33.) 

50. Hot Springs, Inyo County (G-7). — There are two hot springs 
on the eastern edge of Resting Springs Dry Lake, about 3 miles 
southeast of Zabriskie. These springs yield about 200 gallons per 
minute of water which contains, according to qualitative determina- 
tions, sulphates of soda and magnesia, some borax, and some niter. 
In the fall of 1908 there was an old tent at the springs, which are 
occasionally used for bathing purposes. The temperature of the 
water is about 107° F. They are about one-half mile northeast of 
the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad, and a ditch and pipe leads 
part of the water to a watering tank beside the track. 

51. Besting Springs, Inyo County (G-7). — Resting Springs, eleva- 
tion 1,750 feet, are a well-known stopping place for all who travel in 
the northern part of the desert. Philander Lee has made his home 
here for thirty years, and his ranch of 200 acres, with shade trees, 
fruits, garden, and alfalfa fields, is a veritable oasis. These springs, 
the China ranch, and Coleman are the only places in the Death Valley 
region where hay can be procured. The ranch and springs are at 



40 DESEKT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

the south end of the Resting Springs Mountains. The waters well 
up from sandstone and are clear and wholesome. The Lee ranch is 
about 8 miles east of Zabriskie, a station on the Tonopah and Tide- 
water Railroad. 

There are wagon roads to these springs from the east by way of 
Ivanpah, on the Santa Fe Railway, and thence northward to Sandy ; 
or from Jean, Nev., on the Salt Lake road, westward to Sandy. 
At Sandy travelers can procure hay, grain, and other supplies. 
From Sandy the best route is northward by way of Manse where 
directions may be obtained for going to Resting Springs, about 
35 miles to the southwest. There is also a road from Stump Spring 
directly west to Resting Springs, but it is rocky, and because of the 
drifting sands is apt to be dim and not easily followed. 

There is an old trail from Sandy to Horsethief Spring (No. 79), 
thence along the north edge of the Kingston Mountains to Tecopa, 
and on to these springs, but it is unwise to attempt to follow this 
road without an experienced guide. 

From Resting Springs a road runs westward across Resting 
Springs Dry Lake to the buildings of the old Amargosa Borax ComT 
pany. There one road turns southward by way of the Ibex mine to 
Saratoga Springs, and another turns northward to the head of Fur- 
nace .Creek. Formerly no water was procurable along the latter 
route between Resting Springs and Coleman, a distance of 50 miles, 
but conditions have been altered since the Greenwater mining camp 
was established. 

The old San Bernardino and Salt Lake emigrant road passes these 
springs and goes through Emigrant Pass, just north of the ranch, and 
thence eastward by way of Stump Spring to Las Vegas. In the days 
of the old " Spanish trail " these springs were known as the Archilette. 
J. C. Fremont camped by them April 29, 1844^ and named them 
"Agua de Hernandez," for the survivor of a party of emigrants aa4io 
were murdered there. Fremont rescued Hernandez and buried his 
companions. He described the place as '' a grassy spot, with springs 
and bushes, which make a camping place." 

52. China ranch^ Inyo County (G-T) .' — China ranch, elevation 1,357 
feet, also known as Morrison ranch and Willow Creek ranch, is on 
the main road from Daggett to Resting Springs. On leaving Cave 
Springs (No. 73) and passing down the north side of the Avawatz 
Mountains into the bottom of Death Valley, the road branches, one fork 
turning to the northwest, to Saratoga Springs (No. 74), and the other 
continuing a little east of north, across the flat, and to China ranch. 
This road is frequently obscure, as it is not often traveled and the 
sand drifts over it. Nearly all travelers go to Saratoga Springs and 
stay there over night, as the road across Death Valley is very sandy. 
It is about 30 miles to China ranch from Cave Springs direct, and 



SPRINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 41 

about 20 miles by road from Saratoga Springs. To find the ranch 
from Saratoga Springs one may either travel eastward past the foot 
of the Black Mountains, and then northeastward through a pass in 
the lower ridge ahead, passing along the south edge of the sand dunes, 
or may take the road around the southern end of this lower ridge. 

Travel is difficult for 1| miles through the sand dunes and across 
the pass, but the route is shorter than that to the south around the 
ridge. From the east side of the divide the road bears sharply north- 
eastward to the mouth of Amargosa Canyon, which can be seen from 
a distance. When the mouth of the canyon is reached water can be 
had from the river. Stock will drink it, but it is strongly alkaline. 
The road then runs up the canyon for about 9 miles, passing under 
two trestle bridges of the Tonopah and Tidewater Eailroad, 2 or 3 
miles north of Sperry station, then crosses the track and turns east- 
ward to the ranch, about 5 miles above Sperry. The road thence keeps 
a straight course northward up Willow Creek, from which the ranch 
derives its water supply. The springs that furnish this water rise in 
Tertiary rocks, which outcrop around the ranch to a height of 500 to 
600 feet. 

Good hay can be obtained here, the first to be had after leaving 
Daggett, 110 miles south. WilloAv Creek furnishes sufficient water 
to irrigate about 100 acres of land. This ranch is one of the real 
oases of the desert, and travelers appreciate the cool water, the supply 
of alfalfa, and the shade of the fig trees. 

Resting Springs are about 6 miles northeast of this ranch and 
Tecopa is about 7 miles east. The old emigrant road from Salt Lake 
passed here on its way south by way of Soda Lake and Salt Spring 
(No. 75) to Cajon Pass. 

J. C. Fremont passed this spot April 29, 1844, on his way from 
Tomaso Springs (No. 103) to Resting Springs. He says of it: " The 
ravine [Amargosa Canyon] opened into a valley [Willow Creek], 
where there were springs of excellent water." 

53. Tule Spring^ Inyo County (G-7). — This spring is about 3 miles 
northeast of Tecopa along the roadside on the north slope of the rise 
near Dry Lake, between Tecopa and Manse. It has been roofed over 
to protect the water from cattle. The supply is not large, but the 
water is of fair quality. From 1 to 2 barrels at a time may be dipped 
from the springs. 

54. Tecopa Well, Inyo County (G-7). — Tecopa is an old lead- 
mining camp at the head of Willow Creek, on the north side of the 
Kingston Mountains. When silver mining was active this was a 
large camp, with a lead smelter and many adobe houses. In the fall 
of 1908 mining was resumed and the locality is again a center of 
activity. The place is supplied with a well which stands by the 



42 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

roadside about 100 yards east of the old smelter. The water is 
excellent, and is usually 7 or 8 feet deep. 

Tecopa is about 7 miles east of China ranch^ on the main road from 
that place to Manse, Nev. It is easily found by following the road 
directly up Willow Creek from China ranch to the smelter. There is 
also a wagon road from Tecopa to Resting Springs, which lie about 5 
miles north. It is 7 miles southeast of Tecopa station, on the Tonopah 
and Tidewater Railroad. 

55. Grapevine Sfrings^ Kern County (II-2). — These springs are 4 
miles north of Indian Wells station, on the road to Owens Lake. 
They lie near the edge of the road at the foot of the Sierra Nevada. 
A short distance above the springs in Grapevine Canyon running 
water is always to be found. The wild grapes which grow in the 
canyon have given it its name. The water is of excellent quality and 
the supply is ample for camping parties. There are other springs 
known by the same name near the Staininger ranch, in the Grape- 
vine Mountains. 

56. Freeman post-ofjice^ Kern County (H-2). — Freeman post-office, 
elevation about 3,370 feet, is a well-known camping place at the point 
where the old emigrant road from Bakersfield, by way of Walkers 
Pass, reaches the desert. Here there are a number of buildings, 
including a post-office and a small supply store. Meals and accom- 
modations for the night may also be obtained here. There is a fair 
supply of water. Roads lead from this point in several directions. 
One passes southward by way of Redrock Canyon to Mohave, and 
one by way of Haggin Well (No. 86) and Willow Springs (No. 87) 
to Randsburg, while another runs eastward to Searles. 

57. China Well, San Bernardino County (H-3). — An old well was 
dug at the Chinese camp north of China Dry Lake when the borax 
deposits were worked in 1890-91. There is a road leading to it 
by way of Lander Well (No. 58) from Gardners station (Searles 
post-office). At it the roads branch, one branch leading westward 
to Indian Wells and Little Lake, and the other northward to Argus. 
The well is not kept cleaned and the water is of only fair quality. 

58. Lander Well, Kern County (H-3). — This is an old well on the 
road from Randsburg by way of Searles post-office (Gardners sta- 
tion) to China Lake, thence northward to Argus and other points in 
Inyo County. The well is about 6 miles northwest of Searles, near 
a vacant house. The water is slightly alkaline, but of fair quality. 
The next water toward the north is found at China Well, 14 miles 
away. 

59. Searles Springs, Kern County (H-3). — These springs are about 
5 miles southwest of Searles post-office. They supply that stage sta- 
tion with water. 



SPRINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 43 

60. Searles post-office^ San Bernardino County (H-3). — Searles 
post-office, locally known as Gardners station, is a well-known stage 
station 18 miles north of Johannesburg, on the road to Ballarat. 
Water is piped to it from springs about 5 miles southwest, and is sold 
to travelers. The water is of excellent quality, but the supply is 
meager. In addition to the post-office and stage station there are, at 
this point, a store, a telephone station, and a corral. 

61. Salt Well, San Bernardino County (H-3). — This is a well sunk 
by the stage company on the road from Johannesburg to Ballarat at 
an elevation of 2,200 feet. On reaching the divide north of Searles 
post-office the traveler will see, at the foot of the grade, a dry lake 
covered Avith a white crust of borax. The well is about half a mile 
south of this lake, on the west side of the road. Its position is indi- 
cated by a new adobe building and by the ruins of an old adobe 
building and a stamp mill. The water is brackish but drinkable, and 
the well is supplied with a good iron pump. In Death Valley there 
is another " salt well," No. 31, in which the water is stronger than 
at this one near Searks. 

62. Quail Springs, San Bernardino County (II-3). — These small 
springs are in the broken country about 8 miles east of Searles post- 
office. They are distant from all roads and trails and are used only 
by prospectors who are thoroughly familiar with the region. Other 
unimportant springs of the same name (No. 67) lie in the Quail 
Mountains, about 35 miles to the east ; while at the north base of San 
Bernardino Mountains there is a third group of the same name 
(No. 210). 

63. Borax works at Searles Lahe, San Bernardino County (H-4). — 
Water can be obtained at the stage station at the old borax works on 
Searles Borax Lake, on the stage road from Randsburg to Balla- 
rat. Water is piped to the station from springs several miles away, 
in the Argus Range. 

64. Slate Range gold mine, San Bernardino County (H-4). — This 
mine is on the west side of the Slate Mountains and on the east side 
of Searles Borax Lake. Where the stage road from Johannesburg to 
Ballarat reaches the southwest corner of Searles Lake a w^ell-traveled 
road turns eastward across the lake. TJiis road is cut deep into the 
borax crusts and leads directly to the mine, whose buildings can be 
seen from a distance of several miles. The mining company has a 
number of wells that supply the camp and mill, and the miners at the 
camp can direct travelers to other springs in the mountains farther 
north. 

Near the east side of the dry lake a dim road turns southward up a 
canyon at the foot of the range. It branches southward to Granite 
Wells (No. 96) and eastward to Leach's Spring (No. 69). 



44 DESEET WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

65. Lone Willow Spring^ San Bernardino County (H-4). — This 
spring has long been known to desert travelers, as it is the first water- 
ing place north of Granite AYells (Xo. 96) on the road to Panamint 
Valley. It is about 25 miles north and a little east of Granite AYells. 
The spring is in a canyon in the pass between the Slate Range and 
Brown Mountain. It was at one time one of the stations for the 
" 20-mule teams " hauling borax from Death Valley to Mohave, and 
the site of the station is indicated by old troughs and by the pipe that 
carries the water, whose quality is excellent, from the springs to the 
road. The spring was named from a lone willow that once stood 
near it. A short distance north of it the road branches, the eastern 
branch leading to the sink of Death Valley. There is no water on 
this road for about 38 miles, until Bennet's Wells are reached, but 
water may be obtained at mining camps at several points on the 
northern road, which leads to Ballarat. 

66. Hidden Spiings^ San Bernardino County (H-5). — These 
springs are near the crest of the Quail Mountains, a range about 12 
miles long, lying east of Brown Mountain and north of Leach Moun- 
tain. The springs are on trails known only to prospectors. They are 
found by following the trails of wild burros that go to them to drink. 

67. Quail Spriyigs^ San Bernardino County (H-5). — These small 
springs are also in the Quail Mountains, almost due north of Leach's 
Spring (No. 69). They are high up in the range, awa}^ from all 
roads and trails, and are visited only by prospectors. The water is 
cold and good. They should not be confused with No. 62, Avhich is 
another group of small springs of the same name, about 35 miles to 
the west. 

68. Fourth of July Springs^ San Bernardino County (II-5). — These 
form the third group of springs reported to exist in Quail Mountains. 
They are on the north side of the range, about 7 miles north of Leach's 
Spring. There is no road and no well-defined trail to them, but it 
is said that prospectors are able to get water for themselves and their 
pack animals here. 

69. Leachh Spring^ San Bernardino County (H-5). — Leach's 
Spring (elevation about 3,534 feet) is one of the most important camp- 
ing places on the road from Randsburg to South Death Valley and to 
points in Nevada by way of Saratoga Springs to Resting Springs, 
and its Avater is the best to be found between Saratoga Springs and 
Granite Wells. Travelers are advised to make a dry camp for one 
night between Granite Wells and Leach's Spring. In approaching 
the spring from the west one ascends a steep grade through deep sand, 
where teams often have to double for 3 miles or more. When the sum- 
mit of this grade is reached a plain road is seen leading to the right — 
that is, to the south — into the mountains. This road ascends steeply 
nearly to the main summit. At the foot of the granite pinnacles that 
form the axis of the range there are a few. acres covered with camp 



' SPKINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 45 

debris. Directly south of the camp is a granite bowlder over 60 feet 
high, which bears a striking resemblance to an elephant's head, trunk, 
and forefeet, stationed as if the animal were looking directly north. 
The locality may be further identified by the Indian arrowheads of 
flint and obsidian that strew th€ ground. The spring is in a little 
canyon to the west, perhaps 60 feet lower than the camping place and 
about 100 yards from it. Its position Avas once marked by a lone 
Cottonwood tree, but this has been cut down. Four or five barrels 
may easily be filled in one night from this spring, and other springs 
are to be found for a distance of about 500 feet up the canyon. Water 
was once piped from the spring down to the main road for the use of 
the borax teams from Death Valley, and there are ruins of two corrals 
along this old pipe line, but there is no water near them. 

On leaving the spring eastbound toAvard Death Valley, the traveler 
should folloAv the road down a dry Avash to a dry lake, AAdiere he 
should turn nortliAvard along the Avest side of the lake, until he reaches 
a low divide. Owl Springs (No. 70) lie about 2 miles north of this 
diAdde. On approaching OavI Springs from the south he should keep 
to the main road. Several persons have been lost by turning east- 
ward at the summit, on a road that is less plain than the one that 
leads to the springs. 

70. Oivl Spinngs^ San Bernardino County (H-6). — OavI Springs 
are about 2 miles north of the pass betAveen the Owl Mountains and 
the Avawatz Mountains. They are about 17 miles by road from 
Leach's Spring and about 18 miles southwest of Saratoga Springs 
(No. 74), ^nd furnish the only Avater to be obtained betAveen these 
two places. On leaA^ng Leach's Spring the road passes along the 
west edge of a dry lake, beyond Avhich it climbs a low divide at the 
Avest end of the Avawatz Range. On reaching the summit the road 
starts cloAA^n the main wash to the north, and folloAvs it nearly to the 
springs, turning to the left, or west, at the foot of the Owl Moun- 
tains proper. The springs are easily found, as they are at the foot 
of a monument of stones about 3 feet high, placed to mark the cor- 
ners of mineral claims, and the area round about them is littered by 
the debris of many camps. The springs are about 6 feet deep, and 
the water is not too saline for comfort. A short distance to the Avest 
is a trench about 25 feet long and 10 feet deep at the deeper end. 
The water from this trench is in larger amount and of better quality 
than that of the original springs. Water can be had almost any- 
AA^here around this point, for a distance of at least 300 feet north 
and south, by digging shallow wells. 

The road northeastward to Saratoga Springs is sometimes obscured 
by washouts. Death Valley is in plain sight, however, and if, after 
folloAving the wash for about 10 miles, the traveler can not find the 
road, he should keep to the right-hand side of it until he finds a 



46 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

road running directly east. This road crosses a low spur of the 
mountains and is the best route to Saratoga Springs. The traveler 
may keep on down the wash to the main valley, but will find very 
heavy sand and rough driving, and may be compelled to return to 
the southeast along the foot of the Avawatz Range until he finds the 
right road. In attempting to cross the Amargosa River directly 
below this road the traveler is in danger of getting into soft and 
treacherous ground. 

71. Brook Spring^ San Bernardino County (H-6). — There is a 
small spring at the north end of the pass between the Avawatz 
Mountains and Leach Mountain, to which there is no road. A 
Avagon can be driven to it from the Leach Spring and Owl Springs 
road by turning off at the dry lake and going southeastward up the 
wash. The spring is plainly marked b}^ the litter of prospectors' 
camps. 

72. Y alley Springs (South Death Valley), San Bernardino County 
(H-6). — Strong springs boil up in a marsh about 8 miles northwest 
of Saratoga Springs. Their waters are so salt as to be unfit for 
use. As the springs form a clear, sparkling stream for a short dis- 
tance before the waters sink again, travelers are inclined to let their 
stock drink from them. These springs can be seen from the road 
that leads from Death Valley toward the sink. The ground about 
them appears to be firm, and in most places will support a light 
wagon, but it is really only a crust underlain by a deep ooze in which 
both men and teams may sink. There is nothing in the appearance 
of the ground about these dangerous spots to give warning of their 
nature, hence the only safe rule, when traveling in the valley away 
from the main trails, is to test carefully all moist areas and all 
ground near springs with some sort of sounding rod before walking 
or driving upon it. 

The springs are probably nothing more than a part of Amargosa 
River coming to the surface, as a rock reef extends across the valley 
half a mile below them. The volume of water supports this view. 

An analysis of the Avater made by Thomas Price, of San Fran- 
cisco, gives the folloAving results: 

Analysis of icater from Valley Springs.^ 

Sodium (Na) 29,313 

Potassium (K) 1,198 

Chlorine (CI) 20, 182 

Carbomite radicle (COs) 16,690 

Sulphate radicle (SO4) 7,532 

Hydrogen sulphide (H,S) 346 

Silica 240 

Organic matter 223 

" Expressed by analyst in grains per gallon and hypothetical combinations ; recom- 
puted to parts per million and ionic form at U. S. Geol. Survey. 



SPEINGS IX CALIFORNIA. 47 

73. Cave Springs^ San Bernardino County (H-6). — Cave Springs 
(elevation about 6,290 feet) are a well-known stopping place on the 

road from Daggett to Death Valley, and the water here is the last 
to be had before going down into the valley. The springs are near 
the summit of the Avawatz Mountains, and, as their name indicates, 
they are found in large grottos or caves. As all travelers stop here, 
the majority of them camping over night, the place is clearly marked 
b}^ camp litter. There are two springs, each about 5 feet across 
and each containing about 5 feet of water. They have been cleaned 
out and boarded up, but are not provided with a pump. The water 
is excellent. 

It is about 12 miles by road north from Cave Springs to Saratoga 
Springs in Death Valley and about 30 miles south to Garlic Spring 
(Xo. 135). 

74. Saratoga Springs, San Bernardino County (H7). — Saratoga 
Springs (elevation 362 feet), situated about 20 miles Avest of Dumont, 
on the Tonopah and TideAvater Kailroad, are well known to every 
traveler to Death Valley, as their site is the principal camping point 
each winter for prospectors who have claims in the vicinity. They 
are at the soutliAAest edge of a black point of the Black Mountains 
that projects southward into the A^alley. The slope of the moun- 
tains east of this point is covered with sand and recedes to the north 
in a large cove, but part of the range that lies immediately back 
(northeast) of the springs is rugged and rocky. The springs can 
not easily be distinguished at a distance, for their location is marked 
mainly by the tules growing around them, and by prospectors' stone 
houses, which are nearly of the color of the surrounding rocks, and 
on approaching from the south they are hidden by a point of rocks 
until one is within a few yards of them. 

The springs proper form a pool about 25 feet in diameter and 4 
feet deep. The bottom is of white sand, which is kept in constant 
motion by the rising water. The overflow from the pool forms a 
little stream that runs northward into shallow lakes, coA^ering 10 or 
15 acres, and surrounded by tules. One might traA^el along the road 
leading from the springs nortliAvestAvard to the Old Ibex mine Avith- 
out suspecting the existence of these lakes, as they are concealed by 
ridges of sand. In winter many ducks and geese may be found 
here, a fact appreciated by prospectors. 

Even in the coldest weather the water of Saratoga Springs has a 
temperature of 80° or 85° ; hence the springs make a bathing 
pool that is delightfully refreshing after long daA's of weary traA'el 
over the desert. It is Avorthy of note that the water is full of small 
fish, up to about 2^ inches long, of a grayish-black color. Similar 
fish are found at Pahrump and in other desert springs. 



48 DESEET WATEKING PLACES IN" CALIFOENIA AND NEVADA. 

The road from Daggett by way of Cave Springs enters Death 
Valley about 5 miles southeast of Saratoga. The road from Jo- 
hannesburg comes in from the west, crossing the west end of the 
niter beds that lie along the north flank of the Avawatz Mountains. 
The road to Resting Springs leads from Saratoga southeastw^ard 
toward Cave Springs for about 1 mile, then turns eastward past a 
little lava knob in the bottom of the valley and continues in this 
direction toward a long spur of the Black Mountains that juts into 
the valley. The traveler may cross the south end of the sand dunes 
and climb the short grade through the low sandy pass just east of 
the dunes, or he may go around this spur to the south. It is a steep 
and hard pull through the sand to the top of the pass, but beyond 
the top the trail northeastward across the flat to Amargosa River is 
firm and no rougher than the rest of the valley. The right-hand road 
has no grades, as it passes around the southern end of the ridge. It 
crosses the Amargosa River where the latter passes close between 
the point of the ridge and a black butte that lies as a southeastern 
extension of the ridge. Thence the road swings northeastward and 
joins the other branch. When Amargosa River is reached it should 
be followed up to the canyon, where the roads are plainly marked, 
and thence past Sperry to the China ranch. Another road leads 
from Saratoga Springs northward to the summit of the Black Moun- 
tains, passing the Ibex mine, and then turning east to Resting 
Springs; but this road has steep grades, is very rocky in places, and 
in other places is covered with deep sand. The road up Amargosa 
Canyon is to be preferred. There is also a dim trail along the south 
flank of the Black Mountains, leading to the sink of Death Valley, 
but no water is to be had on it, except at Confidence Springs (No. 49), 
until one reaches Bennet's Wells, a distance of about 50 miles. 

75. Salt Spring^ San Bernardino County (H-7). — This spring of 
nonpotable water is in the canyon of the south branch of Amargosa 
River, at the east end of South Death Valley, at an elevation of 300 
feet, 5 miles southAvest of Dumont, on the Tonopah and Tidewater 
Railroad. This canyon is the pass between the Kingston and Ava- 
watz mountains, about 14 miles southeast of Saratoga Springs. On 
the south side of a spur of the Kingston Mountains are the ruins of 
the camp of the old Amargosa gold mine, in plain view of travelers 
approaching from the south. 

At the old mine there is a little canyon that descends sharply to the 
north, in which there are the ruins of a 20-stamp mill. Near the 
mill are two wells, protected by curbing and covered, from which 
water of fairly good quality may be had. This is an important thing 
to know, for the waters of Salt Spring are unsafe and several per- 
sons have perished from drinking them. They are supposed by 
miners to contain arsenic, An analysis shows, however^ that al- 



SPRINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 49 

though they contain no arsenic they do contain very large amounts 
of sodium and magnesium sulphates, being in fact an almost saturated 
solution of Glauber and Epsom salts. Men delirious from thirst, 
whose sense of taste is nearly lost, may easily drink so heartily of 
these waters as to produce fatal results. Several other springs on 
the desert that are reputed to contain arsenic are similar in character. 

The road from Salt Spring northward to the canyon of the Amar- 
gosa and to China ranch is covered with deep sand, very difficult 
to cross. The only water to be had along it is that of the Amargosa 
River, when it flows this far south, or at Sperry railroad station, 
until the ranch is reached, a drive of 16 miles. The road running 
westward to Saratoga Springs is rough, but the writer has always 
preferred to go there for a night camp, returning thence to China 
ranch rather than to cross the heavy sands north of Salt Spring. 

J. C. Fremont camped there April 28, 1844, and speaks of the place 
as folloAvs : " A very poor camping place — a swamp}^, salty spot, 
with a very little unwholesome grass. The water rose in the springs 
entirely too salt to drink." He says also that they found " a spring 
of good water a few hundred yards away in the hill." This good 
spring is north of Salt Spring. 

76. Sweetwater Springs^ San Bernardino County (H-7). — These 
springs are about 9 miles northwest of Williams Well (No. 105), 
at the east end of the Avawatz Mountains. They are not on a main 
line of travel, but are used by prospectors in the Avawatz Moun- 
tains, who are said to have recentlj^ so marked their location that they 
can be found by others. 

77. Kingston Springs^ San Bernardino County (H-8). — These are 
small springs at the north end of the Shadow Mountains, about 2 
miles south of Coyote Holes (No. 78). They are not on any road 
and there is no well-defined trail to them. The amount of water 
available is small, but its quality is good. 

78. CoyoteHoles^ San Bernardino County (H-8). — These are brack- 
ish springs at the north end of the Shadow Mountains near the head 
of the divide between these mountains and the Kingston Mountains, 
on the road from Death Valley to Ivanpah, by way of Clark Moun- 
tain, and on the road from Daggett to Sandy, Nev., by way of 
Bitter Spring (Xo. 136) . The nearest water to the southwest is at the 
Riggs mine (Xo. 106), in Silurian Mountain, about 20 miles distant. 
Horsethief Spring (Xo. 79) is west of the road at the north end of 
the pass through the Kingston Mountains. There are also springs 
(Xo. 77) about 2 miles south, near the north end of the Shadow 
Mountains, but they are difficult to find. There is still another spring 
about 7 miles to the southeast, which may be reached by a dim road 
along the north side of the Shadow Mountains. Another watering 

72945— Xo. 224—09 4 



50 DESEET WATERING- PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

place of the same name, now seldom used (No. 209), lies far to the 
south at the east base of the San Bernardino Mountains. 

79. Horsethief Spring^ San Bernardino County (H-8). — This 
spring, elevation 5,600 feet, is located in the pass between the King- 
ston Mountains and Clark Mountain, on the road that runs from 
the Williams Well (No. 105) past Coyote Holes. At Coyote Holes 
the roads branch, one branch leading northeastward by way of 
Horsethief Spring to points in Nevada, the other going south of 
Clark Mountain to the town of Ivanpah. The road that passes 
this spring is very stony and rarely traveled, but the position of the 
spring is clearly indicated by camp litter. The spring is in shale 
and the water is of good quality. 

80. Cunningham Spring^ San Bernardino County (H-8). — This is 
a small spring on the northeast border of the Shadow Mountains, 
about 6 miles southeast of Coyote Holes, on the road from the latter, 
by way of Clark Mountain, to Ivanpah. The water is good and the 
location is marked by the evidences of old camps. 

81. Pachanca Springs^ San Bernardino County (H-9). — These are 
small springs along the northwest base of Clark Mountain. They 
are away from all main roads and are used only by prospectors in 
that range. They are not easily found without a guide. 

82. Ricardo^ Kern County (I-l). — Ricardo is the Spanish name of 
a ranch in Redrock Canyon on the road from Mohave to Owens 
Lake, where travelers sometimes stop for water. 

84. Kane Springs^ Kern County (1-2). — Kane Springs are on the 
west side of Kane Dry Lake and appear on some maps as the Keehn 
Well. The locality is a station on the stage road from Mohave to 
Randsburg, by way of Water station, which is about 15 miles south- 
west. Garlock station is about 9 miles northeast. The water of Kane 
Springs is slightly brackish. Kane's Wells lie south of east from 
these springs on a road between Barstow and Coolgardie. 

85. Garlock^ Kern County (1-2). — Garlock post-office is at the south 
end of the El Paso Range on the stage road from Mohave to Rands- 
burg, by way of Water station and Kane Lake. It is a general supply 
point for travelers and prospectors. From this point the road begins 
to ascend heavy grades to Randsburg, 12 miles distant. It is there- 
fore a favorite camping place for those with heavy loads. The water 
is abundant, and supplies can be obtained at the ranch. Kane Springs 
and Kane Dry Lake are about 9 miles southwest. 

86. Haggin Well, Kern County (1-2). — The Haggin ranch is on 
the wagon road from Randsburg northwest to Freeman, about 10 
miles northwest of Johannesburg, 15 miles southeast of Freeman, 
and 1 mile northwest of Willow Springs (No. 87), at an elevation of 
about 3,350 feet (U. S. Geological Survey). On this ranch there is a 
well that supplies good water. 



SPRINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 51 

87. Willow Springs^ Kern County (1-2). — These springs are at the 
east end of the El Paso ^lountains, about 1 mile southeast of Haggin 
Well and about 10 miles northwest from Randsburg, on the road to 
Freeman, at an elevation of about 3,850 feet (U. 8. Geological Sur- 
vey). On account of their proximity to the Haggin ranch, the usual 
stopping place for travelers in this vicinity, the springs are unimpor- 
tant except to local prospectors. 

88. Summit Diggings, San Bernardino County (1-3). — This is a 
small placer camp about 6 miles north of Johannesburg, on the stage 
road to the Panamint Valley. The camp is well supplied with water 
by local springs. 

89. Shilling Wells, San Bernardino County (1-3). — This is a 
group of privately owned wells about 4 miles northeast of Johannes- 
burg, near the City Wells. The water is used to supply Johannes- 
burg and Randsburg. 

90. City Wells, Sa7i Bernardino County (1-3). — This is a group of 
drilled wells on the southwest flank of Klinker Mountain, about 5 
miles northeast of Johannesburg, at an elevation of 3,400 feet. Some 
of the wells are supplied with windmills, others have steam pumps, 
and the water forms the principal part of the supply for Johannes- 
burg and Randsburg. The house and windmills make a prominent 
landmark, which can be seen for 3 or 4 miles. A telephone line con- 
nects the city and the wells. The stage road from Johannesburg 
north to Ballarat passes nearly 3 miles west of the wells. The road 
from Johannesburg to Pilot Peak approaches within half a mile of 
them, then turns down a canyon to the southeast toward Willard 
Dry Lake. (See Blackwater Well, No. 95.) 

91. Squaw Spring, San Bernardino County (1-3). — This spring 
is about 4 miles due east of Johannesburg, at an elevation of 3,475 
feet, and is most easily reached by going from Johannesburg east- 
ward to the City Wells, then southeastward on the Pilot Peak road 
to the head of the can^^on just below tne City Wells. There a plain 
road skirting the side of the mountain to the south leads to the 
Squaw Spring. It is not on a main line of travel and is used only 
by local prospectors. The water is good. 

92. Blackhawk Well, San Bernardino County (1-3). — Blackhawk 
Well, elevation 2,665 feet (U. S. Geological Survey), lies at the south 
end of Red Mountain, about 6^ miles northeast of St. Elmo and about 
11 miles by road southeast of Johannesburg. After leaving Johan- 
nesburg, on the Pilot Peak road, a road that leads to Blackhawk 
Well turns to the south beyond the City Wells. The well is not in 
general use by travelers, because it is not on a main road, but it is 
occasionally used by those who go from Johannesburg to Barstow 
by way of Fremont's Peak and the Black Range. The water is ex- 
cellent, and miners haul it to their camps. 



52 DESEKT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

93. Bedrock Spring^ San Bernardino County (1-3). — This small 
but excellent spring is on the north side of Klinker Mountain on the 
old wagon road from Johannesburg through Bedrock Canyon to 
Searles Lake, about 10 miles northeast of Johannesburg, at an eleva- 
tion of 3,225 feet (U. S. Geological Survey). This road is rarely used 
except by freighters who are well acquainted with the country, because 
no water can be obtained along it for a stretch of 30 miles or more. 
Travelers are advised to follow the main road by way of Searles 
post-office. 

94. Well at Willard Lake^ San Bernardino County (1-3) . — This is a 
well that was dug years ago at the northeast end of Willard Dry Lake, 
alongside the old Death Valley borax road, at an elevation of about 
2,520 feet. It gave a good supply of slightly brackish water.' The 
well is now partially caved in and should be cleaned out. It is not on 
any of the main lines of travel, but is some distance south of the road 
from Johannesburg to Blackwater well. 

95. Blackwater Well, San Bernardino County (1-4). — This well is 
one of the important camping and watering places on the main road 
from Johannesburg to Death Valley and Resting Springs. It is on a 
divide about 18 miles east of Johannesburg. The road eastward from 
the town runs past the railroad roundhouse toward the City Wells, 
which can be seen toward the northeast. About 2 miles from Johan- 
nesburg it f orl^s ; the left branch, bearing to the north, goes to Ballarat 
via Searles Lake; the right-hand branch runs directly toward the 
City Wells, and when nearly south of them turns down the canyon to 
the southeast. At the foot of the hill this road runs eastward to the 
base of Lava Mountain and north of Willard Dry Lake. In the dis- 
tance a low ridge is seen, lying at right angles to the road — that is, in 
a north-south direction. Blackwater Well lies nearly at the crest of 
this ridge. The main road crosses several of the old Death Valley 
borax-works roads, which come in from the south in the direction of 
the dry lake, and these roads must be avoided, as there is no water 
on them for 25 miles in either direction. When the summit is reached 
the well can be located by the bare ground in its neighborhood, from 
which campers have stripped all vegetation. The well, Avhich was 
dug years ago by government troops, is about 15 feet deep and is in 
the form of a shaft, 5 by 7 feet. The water in it is usually from 2 to 3 
feet deep. When the well has not been used for a long time the 
water becomes dark colored and ill smelling and is often foul from 
the bodies of desert rats and rabbits, but when freshly cleaned it is 
sweet and wholesome and free from alkali. It is probable that if the 
well were deepened a much more abundant supply would be procured. 
Water was at one time piped down the slope for a distance of one- 
half mile to the old Death Valley borax-works road. The remnants 
of the trenches and pipes aid in locating the well. 



SPRINGS IN" CALIFORNIA. 53 

A road that turns off at the wells crosses the divide to the east and 
extends to Copper City, a small mining camp. The road to Death 
Valley starts northward from the well, reaching the summit in about 
one-half mile, and the north end of a black lava ridge in about 3 
miles. There it turns east directly toward Pilot Peak. From the 
foot of the lava point it is a heavy climb for 6 miles up the mountain 
to the base of Pilot Peak, where Granite Wells are located. 

96. Granite Wells, San Bernardino County (1-4). — One of the 
best-known camping and watering places on the road to Panamint 
and Death Valley is at Granite Wells, just west of Pilot Peak, a very 
prominent landmark in the Mohave Desert. At the base of the peak 
is a knob of gray granite, north of which are a frame house and the 
remnants of several stone structures. The best water is found in 
a short tunnel run into the granite 50 feet northeast of the cabin. 
At the end of this tunnel is a sump hole, about 3 feet deep, in which 
the water collects. This water, coming from the granite, is cool and 
pure, but the sump often needs cleaning out. About 2 barrels can 
be got here in twenty- four hours. A quarter of a mile down the hill 
southeast of the granite knob are an old well and an open earth cut 
that was made to develop water. This cut is just east of the well and 
may be clogged with sand, but it can be cleaned out in a few hours, 
and several barrels of water sufficiently good for stock will collect 
during the night. 

From the wells the road passes northward over a low divide and 
then down to the foot of the Slate Range, meanwhile keeping just 
west of a long ridge formed by a flow of lava. At the north end of 
this ridge, which is known as Black Point, the road turns eastward 
to Slate Range Dry Lake. There the Panamint road branches north- 
ward to Lone Willow Spring, while the road to Nevada and South 
Death Valley runs eastward to Leach's Spring. 

There are many dim roads that turn off westward toward the Slate 
Range and Searles Lake, but no water is to be found along them 
and they are not plainly marked, whereas the main roads described 
are well marked. 

On the road to Ballarat and the Panamint Valley there is no 
water to be had until Lone Willow Spring is reached, high up in 
the pass between the Slate Mountains and Brown Mountain, a dis- 
tance of nearly 30 miles over a road that is both sandy and rocky. 

The road to Death Valley by Leach's Spring is good up to a point 
within 6 miles of the spring, but this last 6 miles is all upgrade 
through exceptionally deep sand. Therefore one should travel as 
far as possible from Granite Wells, make a dry camp, and pull up 
the grade to the spring early in the morning. 

97. Pilot Spring, San Bernardino County (1-4); — This spring is 
between 3 and 4 miles southeast of Granite Wells, near the top of the 



54 DESEKT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFOENTA AND NEVADA. 

hill on the old road to Copper City. The Avater supply is small and 
the spring is often choked up, because it is rarely used. 

98. Lead Spring^ San Bernardino County (1-4). — This is a small 
spring discovered by prospectors who found outcrops of lead ore near 
it. It is about 4 miles southeast of Black Point, a dark lava knob at 
the north end of the Pilot Peak Range, where the road from Granite 
Wells to Leach's Spring turns to the east. In 1904 there Avas at this 
point a guideboard that gave directions for finding the spring. 

99. Wheeler Spring^ San Bernardino County (1-6). — This spring 
is at the south end of Leach Mountain, in the pass between this moun- 
tain and the Avawatz Mountains. Brook Spring is 3 miles to the 
north and Whitney Spring (No. 100) is 5 miles to the southeast. 
None of these springs is on a main road. They are used only by pros- 
pectors and can be located only by the debris of former camps near 
the dim trail that runs through this pass. 

100. Whitney Spmng^ San Bernardino County (1-6). — This spring 
lies about 5 miles southeast of the pass betAveen Leach Mountain and 
the AvaAvatz Range. It is on the north side of Granite Mountains 
near their base, and the Avater rises from the granite. The supply is 
not large but the quality is excellent. Wheeler Spring is about 5 
miles northwest and Cave Springs are about 12 miles northeast. 
There are no good roads or trails to this spring, but it may be found 
by following the dim trail that leads through the pass at the east 
end of Leach Mountain. 

101. Government well at Tiefort Mountain^ San Bernardino 
County (1-6). — It is said that there is still in existence an old Avell 
dug by gOA^ernment troops years ago, near the northeast edge of 
" No. 4 Dry Lake," about 9 miles north of Langford Well (No. 134) 
and about 5 miles northeast of Garlic Spring (No. 135). This old 
well is on the road from Daggett to Death Valley, at the soutliAvest 
end of Tiefort Mountain, and is the only Avatering place the traveler 
finds along this road until he reaches CaA^e Springs, a distance of 
about 25 miles. The Avell is reported by recent travelers to have 
been partly filled by Avash carried over it during cloud-bursts, so that 
Avater can not be obtained without practically redigging it. 

102. Harper\s carnps^ San Bernardino County (1-7). — These min- 
ing camps are in the south end of the Avawatz Range. A well- 
traveled road leads to them, branching off the Silver Lake road to 
Cracker] ack, AAdiere it crosses the old Mormon trail. This point is 
about 7 miles northAV^est of Silver Lake, and is marked by a plain sign- 
board. The road runs nortliAA^estAvard up the fiank of the mountain 
to the largest canyon, and follows up this canyon to the north. 

About 4 miles up the canyon the road forks again, the point being 
marked by a sign reading " Harper's south camj:) 1 mile " and " Har- 



SPRINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 55 

per's north camp 4 miles." Arrows on the signboard indicate the 
roads. 

At the south camp water has been developed by tunneling into the 
granite. The supply is about 4 miner's inches and is excellent 
in quality. The north camp is in Arrastre Gulch, where there is a 
large supply bubbling up from beneath limestones. Arrastre Gulch 
is the main canyon opening onto the desert at the east end, almost due 
west of the siding at Riggs, on the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad. 

103. Tomaso Springs^ San Bernardino County (1-7). — This group 
of springs lies at the northwest end of the Soda Lake Mountains, 
about 10 miles northeast of Bitter Spring (No. 136), on the old emi- 
grant road to Salt Lake. Their permanency is indicated by the 
fact that J. C. Fremont mentions them in his journal. He camped 
here on his homeward journey from California April 25, 1844, and 
reported that he found the springs " dug out by the Indians or trav- 
elers " and " the Avaters cool and refreshing." The site of the springs 
is well marked by camp debris, and the water is good. 

104. Silver Lake^ San Bernardino County (1-8). — This town, on 
the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad, is 40 or 50 miles north of Lud- 
low, on the Santa Fe Railway. It is the supply point for the Cracker- 
jack, Chisholm, Harper, and other mining districts to the east and 
west. Stages and automobiles run to Cracker jack. Silver Lake 
has post-office, express, and telegraph offices. The railroad company 
pumps water from a well about 200 feet deep and pipes it through 
the town. The water is slightly brackish, but is used freely by every- 
one. The lake from which the town takes its name is about one- 
fourth of a mile to the west. It is a shallow, intermittent body of 
water, formed in a bowl in the desert by the overflow of Mohave River 
during seasons of unusually high water. Shallow wells sunk near the 
edge of this lake give an abundant supply of brackish water. 

105. Williams Well^ San Bernardino County (1-8). — There is a 
well at the edge of Silurian Dry Lake, west of the Riggs mine and 
well, on the road that leads from Daggett and Soda Lake northward 
to Death Valley and northeastward to points in Nevada by Avay of the 
Kingston Mountains. From this point it is about 25 miles by road 
southward to Government Well, at Soda Lake (No. 139), and about 
20 miles southwestward to Tomaso Springs. Miners here and at Riggs 
can give information about trails and conditions of water supply far- 
ther north. 

106. Riggs Well, San Berna7'dino County (1-8). — There is an ex- 
cellent well at the Riggs gold mine, 2 miles east of Riggs station, on 
the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad, and near the east end of Silur- 
ian Mountain, a small range lying between the Avawatz and the 
Shadow mountains. The mine has been in operation for some time 



66 DESEKT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFOENIA AND NEVADA. 

and the camp is a stopping place for all travelers. The road to this 
camp from Daggett, instead of going by way of Coyote Lake, crosses 
the east end of Alvord Mountain and goes on by way of Bitter Spring 
to the east end of the Avawatz Mountains, where it joins the road 
from Balch on the Salt Lake route. The latter road runs north- 
ward from Balch, past Government Well at Soda Lake. 

107. Toltec^ San Bernardino County _ (1-8). — This is a camp occu- 
pied by some turquoise miners. It is at the south end of Shadow 
Mountains, and about 6 miles northeast of Halloran Springs. Tlie 
camp is supplied with good water, which comes from springs in the 
mountains near by. 

108. Halloran Springs^ San Bernardino County (1-8). — Halloran 
Springs have been for years a camping place for travelers en route 
from Soda Lake to Ivanpah Mountain and Clark Mountain over the 
old Ivanpah trail. The springs are near the north end of a little 
unnamed butte that lies about 10 miles northeast of Dante Springs 
(No. 140), and are readily located by the quantities of camp rubbish 
in the vicinity. ^ 

109. Spring^ San Bernardino County (1-8). — Several desert pros- 
pectors have reported that there is a spring about 8 miles southeast 
of Halloran Springs, and that the water is good, but there are no 
traveled roads or trails to it. 

110. Crater Spring^ San Bernardino County (1-9). — There are said 
to be springs at the Three Ash Craters, a prominent group of extinct 
volcanoes in the desert at this point. They are not near the main- 
traveled roads and are visited only by prospectors. No accurate 
description of them has been obtained. 

111. Valley Wells, San Bernardino County (1-9). — Valley Wells, 
known also as Rosalie AYells, are situated near the border of Ivanpah 
Mountain, on the main road from Soda Lake and from Kessler 
Springs (No. 112) to the old copper mine in Ivanpah Mountain. The 
wells were dug by a mining company and supplied enough water to 
operate the smelters that were once in use on the copper ores of this 
district. 

112. Kessler Springs, San Bernardino County (1-9). — Kessler 
Springs, elevation 5,500 feet, are well known to most desert travelers, 
as they are on the old road from Daggett by way of Soda Lake to 
the New York Mountains. They are at the south end of Ivanpah 
Mountain, about 6 miles northwest of Cima station, on the Salt Lake 
Railroad. A road leads from them to the town of Ivanpah, about 10 
miles northeast, and to Rosalie, about 12 miles northwest. The water 
is abundant and excellent. 

113. Cottonwood Spring, San Bernardino County (I-IO). — This 
spring is on the north side of the New York Mountains, near the 
Salt Lake Railroad, and is used principally by miners and pros- 



SPRINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 57 

pectors in this region, as it is not on any main line of desert travel. 
There are several springs of this name in the area discussed, so that 
the name alone is not distinctive. About 30 miles to the southwest 
are Cottonwood Springs (No. 162), which are also used as a watering 
place. 

115. Ivanpah Well, San Bernardino County (I-IO). — A well has 
been dug in the bottom of the south end of Ivanpah Dry Lake, about 
a mile east of the town of Ivanpah, at an elevation of 4,230 feet 
(Santa Fe Railway). The town is the present terminus of the 
Santa Fe branch road from Goffs. This Avell formerly supplied a 
stage station on the old road from Barnwell, Cal., to Manse, Nev. 
It is about 140 feet deep and is provided with a windlass for dravv'- 
ing water. The water is only slightly saline. It is still used by 
those who drive north from Barnwell. 

116. Saccatone Springs, San Bernardino County (I-IO). — These 
are small springs on the north side of the New York Mountains and 
are of importance only to local prospectors and miners, as this region 
is so thickly settled now as to offer no difficulties to the traveler. 

117. Water Station, Kern County (J-1). — This is a well-known 
road ranch and old stage station, about 9 miles northeast of Mohave, 
on the road from Mohave to Keeler. Good ranch houses, an abun- 
dance of water, and accommodations for travelers will be found at 
the station. 

Fremont stopped at the springs here early in April, 1844, on his 
way from Cameron Salt Lake east by way of the " Desert Buttes " 
to Mohave River. 

118. Desert Wells, Kern County (J-2). — This is an old stage sta- 
tion on the Mohave and Randsburg stage road about 6 miles north- 
east of Water station, and 15 miles from Mohave, the junction 
of the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe railroads. A road runs east- 
ward from these wells to Francis Well (No. 1J.9), on the railroad 
from Kramer to Randsburg. 

119. Francis Well, San Bernardino County (J-3). — This is a drilled 
well, equipped with a pumping plant, on the railroad between Kra- 
mer and Johannesburg, about 12 miles north of Kramer, at an ele- 
vation of 4,220 feet (Santa Fe Railway). It is a watering place for 
travelers from Mohave by way of Desert Wells and for those going 
by team from Kramer to the mines farther north. 

120. Goleta Spring, San Bernar^dino County (J-3). — At the south- 
east base of Fremont Peak there is a spring whose name dates back 
to the time of Fremont's last homeward trip across the Mohave 
Desert. It is just west of the old road that runs from Randsburg to 
Barstow by way of Harper Dry Lake and Black ranch (No. 123). 
Another old road branches from this main road about 3 miles west of 
Harper Lake and runs southward to Harper station, on the Santa Fe 



58 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

Railway. There has been very little travel over any of these roads 
for a number of years. 

121. Star Springs^ San Bernardino County ( J-4) . — These springs 
are about 3 miles east of the south end of Fremont Peak, on the east 
side of the pass through which the road from St. Elmo to Harper 
runs. They are along the west base of the Black Range. As there 
is good water at Goleta Springy on the wagon road directly west, the 
Star Springs are not important to travelers. 

122. Grant Springs^ San Bernardino County (J-4). — There are re- 
ported to be good springs at the Grant Corral, 1\ miles northwest of 
the Black ranch, on the old San Bernardino and Panamint road, at 
the point where it passes Harper Lake. The springs are between 
Harper Lake and the low range of mountains to the north. As there 
is a good supply of water at Black's Well (No. 123) , these springs are 
not important. 

123. BlacJc's Well, San Bernardino County (J-4:). — This well is 
about 7 miles northwest of Hinkley, at the east end of Harper 
Lake, on the old road from Yictorville and Hinkley stations to Death 
Valley formerly known as the San Bernardino and Panamint road. 
An adobe house, which served as the headquarters of an old cattle 
ranch, is still standing near the well and is in good condition. The 
well is covered with a platform and the water stands within a few 
feet of the top. It is dark colored, but nearly free from saline matter. 

The Cottonwood trees that surround the well and house can be seen 
from a distance of several miles and serve to guide the traveler to the 
water. To the northwest, across Harper Lake, no water is to be had 
until one reaches Fremont Peak, but toward the north water may be 
obtained at the mining camps in the Black Mountains. 

124. Murphy^s Well, San Bernardino County (J-4). — This well is 
at the Murphy Dry-Placer Camp, about 15 miles northwest of Bar- 
stow and about 6 miles southwest of Coolgardie. Directions for find- 
ing it are not easily given, because this region for miles around has 
been gridironed with roads and trails over which the miners haul 
water to their placer camps. It is on one of the roads from Barstow 
to Copper City, and usually there are miners at some of the placer 
workings who can direct travelers to the well. 

126. Coolgardie, San Bernardino County (J-5). — Coolgardie is the 
name of a small mining settlement, the cabins of the miners being 
scattered over several square miles of dry-placer workings. Water 
may be procured at the camp from the miners, who bring it in from 
the springs near by. The road to Coolgardie is the left-hand or west 
branch on the second summit north of Barstow and west of Kane's 
Wells (No. 129). The right-hand road at this point leads east to 
Kane's Wells. 



SPRINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 59 

127. Well, San Bernardino County (J-5). — This well is at the 
southAvest end of Coolgardie Lake, the easternmost of the three dry 
lakes in this township. It is by the side of the road to Copper City 
and is readily found. The well is dug in the playa deposits and the 
water is of fair quality, being only slightly brackish. 

128. Indian Spring, San Beinardino County (J-5). — This spring 
is about 12 miles north of Kane's Wells (Xo. 129) and about 4 miles 
north of some dry-placer mines. A road leads northward to it from 
Kane's Wells and thence westward by way of Coolgardie Dry Lake 
to Copper City, but it is a road over which there is but little travel. 
The spring is utilized by miners who work the dry gold placers of 
that region. The water is better than that along the dry lakes to the 
southwest, as it flows from granite. Another Indian Spring (Xo. 
150) lies about 75 miles Avestward, near Rosamond Station, on the 
Southern Pacific Railroad. 

129. Kane's Wells, San Bernardino County (J-5). — These wells 
(PL III, A) are about 22 miles north of Barstow on the road to 
Coolgardie and Copper City. After leaving Barstow the road crosses 
two divides, and a short distance beyond the second divide turns north- 
eastward to the head of a little canyon that runs eastward. Kane's 
stamp mill and wells are about one-fourth mile down this canyon 
and can not be seen by the traveler until he is near the house and the 
mill. There are two good wells here, both boarded up and supplied 
with pumps. 

On looking down the canyon from the mill the traveler may see 
Coyote Dry Lake in the desert below, but to reach this lake or to go 
northward he should return to the head of the canyon. The main 
road leads northward from this point past the placer camps to Indian 
Spring and Copper City ; the middle road at the summit leads north- 
westward to Coolgardie, about 7 miles distant. On continuing north- 
ward and following the crest of the divide on the easternmost trail, 
the traveler will find a road that turns eastward down the canyon. 
This road leads to Coyote Dry Lake. On the main Copper City road 
to the north, beyond the dry placer works, another road turns off 
toward the east, running to Paradise Springs (Xo. 130), but it was 
so badly washed out by cloud-bursts in 1905 as to make these springs 
difficult to find. Kane Springs (Xo. 84) lie west of Randsburg, while 
Kane's Spring (Xo. 176) is about 9 miles southeast of Xewberry 
Station. 

130. Paradise Spnngs, San Bernardino County (J-5). — Paradise 
Springs are a favorite stopping place Avith prospectors who know the 
Avay to them, as there is generally sufficient grass around them to 
afford good grazing. The best way to reach them from Kane's Wells 
is to follow the road from that place directly north for about 3 



60 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

miles — that is, to a point about 1 mile north of the dry-placer camp. 
The road then turns to the east and descends along a dry wash to the 
foot of the main range. Here it turns to the north across a wide flat 
and curves finally into a large cove, in which the springs are found. 
The water is clear, pure, and warm, and the developed supply 
amounts to 2 or 3 miner's inches. 

A water appropriation has been filed on the springs by the Para- 
dise Mountain Mining and Milling Company, and a gravity pipe line 
laid to their workings, about 2 miles southwest. 

131. Canyon Spring^ San Bernardino County (J-5). — This spring 
is in a main canyon on the east side of an unnamed mountain north- 
west of Coyote Dry Lake. It can not be located by land lines with 
certainty, but it is probably in the NE. J sec. 7. It is not on a main 
line of travel, but is near what is known as the old trail from Bar- 
stow by way of Paradise Springs to Death Valley. It is 6 miles east 
of Paradise Springs and about 5 miles northwest of the north end of 
Coyote Lake. There was once a road from Daggett along the west 
side of Coyote Dry Lake, which led to Canyon Spring and to Garlic 
Spring (No. 135). These roads are rarely traveled now by wagon 
and are probably obliterated for long distances by drifted- sand. 
Usually they are less obscure near the spring than at greater distances 
from it. The supply of water is not large, but the quality is good. 

132. Willow Spring^ San Bernardino County (J-5). — There is a 
small spring of brackish water in the foothills at the north end of 
Coyote Lake. In 1900 water was running there in some quantity, but 
early in 1905 the spxing could not be found, because of the effects of a 
storm in the vicinity some time before. It should be about 2 miles 
west of the main road that crosses Coyote Lake en route from Daggett 
to Death Valley. Its position is noted, in order that prospectors and 
others who traverse this country may be on the lookout for it. It 
often happens that springs are covered by the wash of storms and 
disappear temporarily, but later reappear near the old location. 

133. Coyote Well^ San Bernardino County (J-5). — Coyote Well, 
the first camping place on the road from Daggett to Death Valley, is 
about 17 miles northeast of Daggett. The traveler may go from Dag- 
gett by way of Otis and pass east of the Calico Range to the well, 
keeping in the open country all the way, or he may take another road 
which leads from Daggett northward by way of Borate. From 
Borate this road follows the narrow-gage railroad of the Pacific 
Borax Company to the divide of the Calico Mountains, then con- 
tinues down the mountain slope to the main valley, where it turns 
eastward, following the valley to the open country, and thence north- 
eastward to the well. 

The well (PI. Ill, B) is easily found, as it stands by the roadside 
at the south end of Coyote Dry Lake. It is about 15 feet deep and 



U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



WATER-SUPPLY PAPER 224 PLATE III 




A. KANE'S WELL. 




B. COYOTE WELL, 



SPKINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 61 

is covered with a platform. There is a windlass and an iron pump 
at the well, but the pump handle was broken some time in the spring 
of 1905 by vandals. The water is abundant but it is slightly brack- 
ish. Small sulphur springs issue from the hills about 2 miles west 
of this well, but the water is small in quantity and is fit only for 
stock. The next water to be found on this road is about 14 miles 
farther north, at Langford Well (No. 134). Two other watering- 
places, known as Coyote Holes (Nos. 78 and 209), lie about TO miles 
to the northeast and to the southeast, respectively. 

134. Langford V/ell, San Bernardino County (J-6). — One of the 
important watering places on the road from Daggett to Death Val- 
ley is a well at the southwest corner of Langford Dry Lake, about 14 
miles north of Coyote Well. The water here is the best to be had be- 
tween Daggett and Cave Springs. The well is about 40 feet deep 
and is protected by board covering. A good iron pump was put in 
early in 1904, but was broken in the fall of the same year by vandals. 
The well is readily found, as it is close by the roadside and is sur- 
rounded by the debris left by numerous camping parties. 

135. Garlic Spring^ San Bernardino County (J-6). — This is a well- 
known spring on the road from Daggett northward to Death Val- 
ley. It is at the west edge of the range of mountains that lies next 
north of Langford Dry Lake and south of Tiefort Mountain, at an 
elevation of about 2,455 feet. The majority of campers stop at Lang- 
ford Well and do not stop at Garlic Spring, because the water there 
is strong with sulphur, and sodium and magnesium sulphates. 

136. Bitter Spring^ San Bernardino County (J-7). — This spring is 
near the southeast end of Bitter Lake, on the old emigrant road to 
Salt Lake City. It is the first watering place the traveler reaches 
on this road after passing Alvord Mountain. It is also on the road 
from Daggett to the Shadow Mountains, and is one of the principal 
stopping places on that road. It has been known since 1852. The 
water contains too much sodium sulphate to be wholesome, but it 
can be used. 

137. Cronese Spring^ San Bernardino County (J-7). — This spring 
is at the southeast end of Cronese Dry Lake, at the southwest base of 
the Soda Lake Mountains. It is well known to desert prospectors, 
but not being near one of the principal routes is not known to 
casual travelers. The water is slightly brackish but not unwhole- 
some. By digging a shallow Avell here enough water could probably 
be developed to irrigate a few acres. 

138. Barrel Spring^ San Bernardino County (J-7). — This spring, 
at one time an important point on the old emigrant road to Salt 
Lake, is near the south end of the Soda Lake Mountains, about 15 
miles east of Afton and 10 miles southwest of Government Well, at 



62 DESEET WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

Soda Lake (No. 139)'. It is near a rocky point where the road from 
Daggett north to Government Well rounds a spur of the Soda Lake 
range. It is a small spring, protected by a barrel sunk in the ground. 
Since the building of the Salt Lake Railroad it has lost its importance 
to travelers. 

139. Government Well at Soda Lake^ San Bernardino County 
(J-8). — At Soda Lake, a station on the Tonopah and Tidewater 
Railroad, is one of the wells dug by government troops forty or 
fifty years ago. It is on the eastern branch of the old emigrant 
road from San Bernardino to Salt Lake City by way of Mohave 
River, and is near the west edge of the sink of the Mohave, at the 
eastern base of the Soda Lake Mountains. The well is easily found, 
because its position is marked by the ruins of the old adobe and 
stone buildings erected by the troops. The water is a part of the 
underflow of Mohave River, and is of fair quality, in spite of the 
heavy deposits of soda that whiten the surface all about it. 

The well is a pool lined with stone, about 5 by 8 feet in dimensions 
and 3 feet deep. It is near the edge of some tules about 150 feet 
southeast of the largest stone building. The buildings are on the 
north side of a limestone knob, and the traveler can not see them 
from the road until he is within 100 yards of them. This knob, 
however, near the middle of the western edge of Soda Lake, serves 
as a guide to their position. The tules, which can be seen from a 
distance as one approaches the well, also aid in finding it. 

The next water north is at Dante Springs (No. 140), on the road 
to Halloran Springs and Ivanpah. 

A road leads northward from Government Well by way of Silver 
Dry Lake to Death Valley. It passes between the Avawatz and 
Shadow mountains, but there is no Avater to be had along it until 
one reaches Williams Well, at the west end of Silurian Mountain, a 
distance of about 25 miles, unless one turns off to Berry or to Silver 
Lake. 

140. Dante Springs^ San Bernardino County (J-8). — These springs 
are, as near as can be determined, in the southeast quarter of section 
28. They are on the north side of the butte that stands at the north- 
east end of Soda Lake, on the road from Government Well, at Soda 
Lake, to Halloran Springs and Valley Wells (Rosalie). It is about 
12 miles from Dante Springs to Halloran Springs. The water is of 
good quality, but its quantity is not large. 

141. Borax Well, San Bernardino County (J-8). — This is a well 
dug by miners on the east side of Soda Lake, about 7 miles nearly 
due east of Soda Lake station. A road leading from Balch, on the 
Salt Lake Railroad, to Dante Springs passes it. The well is about 
20 feet deep and the water is soft and of fair quality. Analysis 



SPKINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 63 

shows the presence of borax and of a small amount of sodium 
sulphate. 

142. Well near Soda Lake^ San Bernardino County ( J-8). — A well 
is reported to exist near the south end of Soda Lake, 2^ miles south- 
east of Epsom station, on the Salt Lake Railroad. The supply of 
water is said to be good, but the well is not of great importance, 
because travelers can obtain water at a more convenient point, Balch 
station, where most of the desert wagon roads leave the Salt Lake 
Kailroad. 

143. Spring near Soda Lake^ San Bernardino County (J-8). — Pros- 
pectors report that there is a good spring at the north end of Old 
Dad Mountains, about 4 miles southeast of Balch. 

144. Marl Springs^ San Bernardino County (J-9). — There are 
springs of good water at the north end of a small butte about 9 miles 
southwest of Cima station, on the Salt Lake Railroad. They are on 
the old road from Kessler Springs to Soda Lake. They have been 
used for years by prospectors, and are marked by the traces of old 
camps beside the road. 

145. Government Holes^ San Bernardino County (J-10). — This 
watering place is 5 miles northeast of Elora, on the Salt Lake Rail- 
road. More than forty years ago a military road extended from Fort 
Mohave, Ariz., across the desert to Mohave Sink and up Mohave 
River. This supply road passed the old Piute Springs (No. 149), 
the Mid Hills, and Soda Lake, and at old Camp Cady on Mohave 
River joined the emigrant trail from San Bernardino to Salt Lake. 

One of the wells dug along this road by the troops, years ago, is 
known as Government Holes. The well stands at an elevation of 
5,100 feet, on the west side of the Mid Hills, a range of low buttes 
just east of the north end of the Providence Mountains and south of 
the west end of the New York Mountains. The tops of the Mid 
Hills show granite pinnacles, and the well at their base is plainly 
marked, as various desert roads converge to it. The well is protected 
by a corral, and a ranch house stands near it. The water is very 
good. 

146. Out West Well, San Bernardino County (J-10). — This is a 
well dug at the camp of the Out West Mining Company along the 
west side of the Mid Hills, about 4 miles in an air line southwest of 
Government Holes (PI. II, B). A well-traveled wagon road leads 
westward from Government Holes to the head of Black Canyon and 
down the canyon for about 1 mile. It then turns back toward the 
east for a few rods and northward to the Out West camp. The 
camp is marked by a stone house and by the old frames of tent 
houses. The well is dug in granite and is protected by curbing. It 
is about 40 feet deep and usually contains 15 feet or more of sweety 
pure water. 



64 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

There is no other water to be had along a road that runs southward 
through Black Canyon until the old mining camp of Providence (No. 
164) is reached, about 25 miles northwest of Fenner. 

147. Roch Springs^ Sail Bernardino County ( J-10). — These springs 
lie 6 miles southeast of Government Holes, on the old government 
road running to Fort Mohave, Ariz. They are easily found and the 
water is of good quality, although the quantity is not large. 

148. Vontreger Springs^ San Bernardino County (J-11). — These 
springs are about 9 miles north of Goffs Station (Blake post-office), 
on the Santa Fe Railway, in the low hills east of the branch line that 
runs from Goffs to Barnwell, in a canyon on the south side of the sum- 
mit of the hills. They are easily found, and their water is abundant 
and good. There is no other water on the road north of these springs 
until Barnwell is reached. 

149. Piute Springs, San Bernardino County (J-11). — These are 
well-known springs in Piute Pass, about 15 miles north of Goffs Sta- 
tion, on the Santa Fe Kailway. They are on the old military road 
that leads from Fort Mohave to Government Holes, and roads lead 
to them from Goffs, Ibis, and Blackburn Siding. There are other 
springs of the same name, about 20 miles northward, just across the 
state line in Nevada. 

150. Indian Spring^ Kern County (K-1). — This is a strongly flow- 
ing spring, about 3 miles northeast of Rosamond Station, on the 
Southern Pacific Railroad. It is near the northwest edge of Rosa- 
mond Dry Lake, on the wagon road that runs from the railroad to 
Buckhorn Spring (No. 152). Water fit for stock can be obtained 
here. There is another spring (No. 128) of the same name, on a little- 
traveled road between Daggett and Copper City. 

151. Rodriguez^ Kern County (K-2). — This is a pumping station 
on the Santa Fe Railway, 18 miles east of Mohave. The railway 
company has sunk a well 40 feet deep at the west edge of Rodriguez 
Dry Lake, and procured an abundant supply of water of fair quality. 

152. Buckhorn Spring^ Kern County (K-2). — Buckhorn Spring 
has been well known to desert travelers for over thirty years. It is on 
the Avest side of Rodriguez Dry Lake, about 7 miles south of Rodri- 
guez Station, on the Santa Fe Railway, and about 15 miles east of 
Rosamond Station, on the Southern Pacific. A cabin belonging to a 
prospector who has lived there for years stands near the spring, which 
is therefore easily found. The water, although slightly brackish, is 
of fair quality. There are other springs about the lake border. One 
of these is about 6 miles southeast of the wells, on the east edge of the 
lake, the road to it passing around the margin, and another is about 
3 miles north. 

153. Spring at Rodriguez Lake^ Kern County (K-2). — A spring 
exists on the west edge of Rodriguez Lake, about 4 miles northeast of 



SPRINGS IN CALirOENIA. 65 

Buckhorn Spring. It is said to be a little salty, but it can be used by 
men as well as animals. It is not important, however, because Buck- 
horn Spring is near by. 

154. Flowing Wells, Kem County (K-2). — Artesian wells were 
drilled several years ago on the east side of Rodriguez Dry Lake, 7 
miles east of the Santa Fe station of the same name, about 15 miles 
by road southwest of Kramer, and about 7 miles northeast of Buck- 
horn Spring. The water is reported to be abundant and of excellent 
quality, and the wells are at the northeast end of a considerable area 
in Avhich artesian waters have been developed. 

155. Kramer, San Bernardino County (K-3). — Kramer (elevation 
2,479 feet, according to Santa Fe Railway) is the junction point of 
the Santa Fe main line and the branch leading north to Randsburg 
and Johannesburg. It is about 174 miles from Los Angeles by Avay 
of Barstow, and 38 miles east of MohaA^e. The railway company has 
recently drilled a well at this point, and water can now be procured 
here by travelers. A good wagon road parallels the railway to Rands- 
burg, on which water may be obtained at Fremont station, Francis 
Well, and St. Elmo. A wagon road also leads from Kramer to Vic- 
torville, about 35 miles southeast. 

156. Well at Harper Lake, San Bernardino County (K-4). — There 
is a well about 1^ miles south of Black's ranch and about one-half 
mile east of the road from Hinkley to Black's. The well is in an 
open alkali flat and was once used for watering the ranch stock. The 
water is brackish and the watering place is not important, for Black's 
Well is near by. 

157. HinMey Well, San Bernardino County (K-4). — Hinkley is a 
pumping station on the Santa Fe Railway about 10 miles west of 
Barstow. There is no town at this point, but the site is marked by 
the pump and section houses. The company has a well 70 feet deep 
from which to fill its tanks. The traveler may procure a supply 
from these. 

158. Xewherry Springs, San Bernardino County (K-6). — There are 
large warm springs about 600 yards south of Xewberry station on 
the Santa Fe Railway. The water is clear and pure and is used by 
prospectors en route to the mountains farther south. The Santa Fe 
company has built a circular masonry reservoir about the springs and 
pumps from them through an 8-inch pipe line. The water is hauled 
in tank cars to supply locomotives at Ludlow and Bagdad. 

160. Willow Springs, San Bernardino County (K-9). — These 
springs are at the southwest end of Granite Mountain and are marked 
by a clump of willow trees. They are about 20 miles northwest of 
Cadiz station on the Santa Fe Railway and at about the same dis- 
tance southwest of Kelso station on the Salt Lake Railroad. A pros- 

72945— No. 224—09 5 



66 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

pector's trail leads to them from Kelso along the east side of Granite 
Mountain. 

161. Cove Springs^ San Bernardino County (K-9). — These springs 
are at the southeast edge of Granite Mountain, about 6 miles south 
of Cottonwood Springs (No. 162). There is a road from them to 
Kelso station on the Salt Lake Railroad. The quantity of water is 
limited, but the quality is excellent, as the springs have their source 
in granite. They should not be confused with Cave Springs (No. 73) 
in the Avawatz Mountains. 

162. Cottonwood Sjyrings^ San Bernardino County (K-9). — These 
springs, which jneld good water, are at the southwest end of the Provi- 
dence Range, in the pass between that range and Granite Mountain. 
There is a road from Kelso station, on the Salt Lake Railroad, south- 
ward to the springs, which are about 15 miles by road from the sta- 
tion. 

163. Bonanza Well, San Bernardino County (K-9). — This is a 
well sunk by the Bonanza King Mining Company about one- fourth 
mile northeast of the mine hoist. It is known also as the Providence 
Well. It is on the east side of the Providence Mountains, near the 
base of the principal peak of the range, about 25 miles northwest 
of Fenner station, on the Santa Fe Railway. The well was drilled to 
a depth of 250 feet, the water rising within 100 feet of the surface. 
It has its source, apparently, in a porous limestone. The water is of 
fair quality. There is no water on the road from Fenner to this well, 
and there is only one other watering place in the vicinity, the old 
Providence Wells (No. 164), at the mill, 2^ miles to the northeast. 

It is probable that a considerable water supply could be obtained 
along the east edge of this range, and that a small area might be 
irrigated with it by the use of pumping machinery. 

There are springs of the same name at No. 180, about 18 miles to 
the south. 

164. Providence Wells, San Bernardino County (K-9). — These are 
old wells near the east edge of Providence Mountains. Their position 
is marked by the ruins of a little settlement and the old silver mill 
of the Providence Mining Company (PL IV, A). Usually there 
are miners stopping at one of the houses of the old camp. The water 
from the wells is excellent, and the evidences of former rather ex- 
tensive cultivation indicate that it must be present in some quantity. 

165. Fenner, San Bernardino County (K-11). — Fenner (eleva- 
tion 2,084 feet) is a settlement on the Santa Fe Railway, 269 miles 
east of Los Angeles. The railway company has drilled a well 800 
feet deep at the station and installed a large pumping plant. The 
water is of good quality and the supply is large. 

Fenner is the trading and supply point for the Providence Moun- 
tain and adjacent mining districts. A road leads from it north- 



SPKINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 67 

westward to the camp of the Bonanza Mining Company. This road, 
which may be seen from the station, crosses the desert in a straight 
line directly toward the prominent Providence Range. About 12 
miles from the railway an obscure road branches from it toward 
the north, going past the east spur of the range. It leads up Black 
Canyon to Government Holes (No. 145). Near the head of Black 
Canyon, about 26 miles north of Fenner, on the east side of the road, 
can be seen the shaft houses of the Out West Gold Mining Com- 
pany and the road to them. A well-defined trail leads from the 
shafts eastward across the ridge about a quarter of a mile, to the 
mining company's camp. There is no water on the main road be- 
tween Fenner and Government Holes. 

166. Goffsy San Bernardino County (K-11). — Goffs (Blake post- 
office) is a station on the Santa Fe Railway 279 miles east of Los 
Angeles. It is the junction point from which a line runs northward 
to Ivanpah, crossing the* Salt Lake Railroad at Leastalk. The rail- 
way company has drilled a well at Goffs and has installed a pumping 
plant, from which water may be obtained by the traveler. A good 
wagon road leads from Goffs northward along the railway. Water 
may be obtained on this road at Vontreger Springs, about 9 miles 
north of Goffs. 

167. Ihis^ San Bernardino County (K-12). — Ibis is a station on 
the Santa Fe Railway about 296 miles from Los Angeles, just east 
of the summit that the railway crosses before descending to Needles. 
A wagon road leads northward from the station to Searchlight, 
and to Eldorado, Callville, and other points on Colorado River in 
Nevada. The railway company has drilled a w^ell here 300 feet 
deep and installed a pumping plant. The water is found in cemented 
gravel and is of excellent quality. Ibis is merely a siding and 
watering station, and those who need supplies must procure them at 
Needles. 

168. Klinefelter^ San Bernardino County (K-12). — Klinefelter 
(elevation 1,445 feet, according to the Santa Fe Railway) is a station 
on the Santa Fe 299 miles east of Los Angeles. The raihvay com- 
pany has installed a large pumping plant here to supply its locomo- 
tives. The water is taken from large springs that rise in the deep 
gravels of the Sacramento AA^ash. This station is the main source 
of supply for miners prospecting in the Sacramento Mountains, 
and travelers can always find water here. 

169. Needles^ San Bernardino County (K-12). — Needles (elevation 
491 feet, according to the Santa Fe Railway) is in the valley of 
Colorado River. This city is the principal supply point for miners 
and prospectors in the eastern end of the Mohave Desert. The rail- 
way company has large machine shops here, and wholesale stores 
carry an abundance of supplies of all kinds. The water, which is 



68 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

easily obtained from shallow wells, is of excellent quality, and miners 
going into the mountains to the north and west are advised to start 
from Needles with an ample supply, as there is A^ery little to be found 
within a radius of 20 miles or more except along the railway and the 
river. 

170. Victorville, San Bernardino County (L-4). — Victorville is 
on the main line of the Santa Fe Kailway and is the starting point 
for the most important county roads running east and west along the 
north base of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino mountains. 
Mohave River, which flows through the town, is crossed here by 
means of a bridge, but at other points above and below it must be 
forded. Ordinarily this is a simple matter, but occasionally, in fall 
and winter, when travel on the desert is at its maximum, heavy storms 
in the mountains so increase the flow in the river as to render it 
unfordable. 

The railway company has a well and pumping plant at Victorville, 
and artesian wells haA^e been developed in the vicinity, so that there 
is always an abundance of water to be had here. The town is also 
an outfitting point where teams and supplies of all kinds may be 
procured. 

171. Colony Well, San Bernardino County (L-4). — This well is 
about 9 miles east of Victorville and about 4J miles north of the 
county road that runs southeastward from the town. It was dug to 
supply an agricultural settlement that has recently been established 
in the desert. The well is about 50 feet deep and yields a limited 
supply of water of poor quality. 

172. SpH7ig {no name) ^ San Bernardino County (L-4). — This is 
a spring on the south side of a western spur of Granite Mountain, 
about 14 miles northeast of Victorville, on the main road from Victor- 
ville to Daggett. The water is good and the place is Avell marked 
by debris left by numerous camping parties. This spring furnishes 
the only water to be obtained on this road between Victorville and 
Daggett. The main trend of Granite Mountain is north and south, 
but at the north end a cross ridge runs east and west. This spring 
is along the south edge of the western extension of this ridge. 

173. Ord Spring^ San Bernardino County (L-5). — This spring is 
located at the western edge of Ord Mountain, on the road that leads 
southward from Daggett between Ord and Granite mountains. It 
is an old camping place and is readily found. A road runs south- 
ward from it along the east side of Granite Mountain to the county 
road at Dead Man's Point, and another connects with the county 
road from Victorville to Daggett. The Avater is of good quality. 

174. Le Coiite Spring^^ San Bernardino County (L-5). — These 
springs are at the east end of Ord Mountain, about 35 miles east of 
Victorville and 22 miles southwest of Newberry, on the road that con- 



SPRINGS IX CALIFORXIA. 69 

nects these two points. The road is Avell traveled and the springs 
are plainly marked b}^ the rubbish left by campers. 

175. Willoiv Springs^ San- Bernardino County (L-5). — These 
springs are at the north end of Ord ^fountain, about 5 miles in an 
air line north of Le Conte Springs, and about 15 miles south-south- 
east of Daggett. There is no road or trail leading directh^ to them 
and they are used only by prospectors who know of their location. 
The water is of good qualit}^ Travelers from Victorville to Xew- 
berry Springs can obtain a supply of water at Le Conte Springs, 
which are much more easily found. 

176. Kane's Spnng, San Bernardino County (L-6). — There is a 
spring of good water at the east base of Kane Mountain, about 6J 
miles southwest of Troy station and about 9 miles by road southeast 
of Xewberry station, on the Santa Fe Railway. The spring is on 
the wagon road from Victorville to Xewberry by way of Dead Man's 
Point and Le Conte Springs. 

177. Spring {no nanie)^ San Bernardino County (L-16). — This 
spring is in the pass between Bessemer Mountain and a western 
extension of the Bullion Mountains, about 12 miles south of Hector 
siding, on the Santa Fe Railway, and about 6 miles south of the 
road from Xewberry station to Mean's Well (Xo. 198). It is not on 
any main road. The water is slightly brackish, but is used by the 
miners who are developing the iron deposits in Bessemer ^lountain. 

178. Peacock Spring^ San Bernardino County (L-7). — This spring 
is at the northwest end of the Bullion ^fountains, south of a dry 
lake. It is about 10 miles from Lavic station, on the Santa Fe Rail- 
way, by a wagon road that leads southward from Lavic to Mean's 
Well (Xo. 198) and the San Bernardino Mountains. Xo other water 
is to be had along this road until Mean's Well is reached, 15 or 20 
miles farther to the southwest. The position of the spring is marked 
by the dry lake and by rubbish of the kind usually found at all old 
desert camping places. 

179. Mascot Spring^ San Bernardino County (L-8). — There is said 
to be a spring at the base of the lava flow near the northwest edge of 
Bristol Dry Lake, about 4J miles south of Bagdad station. 

180. Bonanza Spnngs^ San Bernardino County (L-10). — There are 
springs of good water at the south edge of Clipper ^fountain, about 
6 miles northwest of Danby station, on the Santa Fe Railway. A 
local road from Danby leads to them. They are used chiefly by 
prospectors in Clipper Mountain. 

Bonanza well and Providence wells lie about 18 miles north of 
these springs. 

181. Siajn. Sa)i Beimardino County (L-10). — This is a pmnping 
station on the Santa Fe Railway about 6 miles southwest of Danby, in 
a little pass at the north end of Ship Mountain through which the 



70 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

railway runs. It is the first station east of Cadiz. The wells sunk 
by the raihvay company at this point are not deep, but they supply 
a large amount of excellent water, which is procured from underlying 
gravels. 

182. Danby^ San Bernardino County (L-10). — Danby (elevation 
3,024 feet, according to the Santa Fe Railway) is a settlement on the 
line of the Santa Fe 253 miles east of Los Angeles. It is a local 
supply point for miners operating in Old Woman Mountain, Clipper 
Mountain, Danby Dry Lake, and at other places in the region. The 
railway comj^any has drilled a well 637 feet deep and installed a 
good pumping plant, at which travelers can fill their barrels and 
canteens. The water is of excellent quality. A good road runs 
from Danby southward on the west side of Old Woman Mountain 
to the house built of rock salt on Danby Dry Lake, thence southward 
to Miller's well (No. 216), at the southwest end of the lake. From 
Miller's Well the road leads to the Maria Mountains, where there are 
mining settlements, and thence to Ehrenberg, Ariz. This is the only 
road southward from Danby. In 1908 a well 60 feet deep was sunk 
by the side of the road at the north end of Danby Lake, about 2 miles 
northeast of the Salt House. This well is equipped Avith a windlass 
and yields excellent water. The water of Miller's Well is not of good 
quality, but will serve for animals. Water is next found 15 or 20 
miles beyond Miller's well at Brown's well (No. 232). 

183. Old Woman Springs^ San Bernardino County (L-11). — There 
are large springs in the main canyon on the east side of Old Woman 
Mountain, named, as is the mountain itself, from a granite pinnacle 
at the crest of the range. There is no regularly traveled route along 
the east base of this mountain, nearly all of the travel being by way 
of the Danby road on the west side. There is, however, a dim trail, 
washed out in many places, from Danby Dry Lake on the south along 
the base of the mountain to these springs. The water in the springs 
rises from granite and is pure and sweet. These springs should not 
be confused with those of the same name (No. 196) about 35 miles 
east of Victorville. 

184. Sun-flower Springs^ San Bernardino County (L-11). — These 
springs are on the eastern border of a northern extension of Old 
Woman Mountain, about 1.2 miles in an air line southeast of Fenner. 
The springs are in a cove about half a mile up a canyon which in- 
tersects the mountain. There are neither roads nor regular trails 
to them, but they may be found by the cattle paths that lead to them. 
The water comes from limestone and is of good quality. 

185. Mellen^ San Bernardino County (L-13). — Mellen (elevation 
420 feet J according to the Santa Fe Railway) is a station on the 
Santa Fe, about 9 miles southeast of Needles, near Colorado River. 
The railway company has sunk a well in the alluvium of the valley 



SPKtNGS IN CALIFORNIA. 71 

and installed a pumping plant over it. It is the water-supply point 
for prospectors in the near-by points of the Mohave Mountains to the 
south and the Sacramento Mountains to the west. 

186. Burcham ranch^ San Bernardino County (M-4). — This is a 
well-known ranch near the head of Mohave River, in San Bernardino 
County, about 7 miles in an air line east of Summit station, on the 
Santa Fe Railway. It is reached by a road from Cajon Pass that 
runs through Horsethief Canyon and thence down the river. There 
is a horseback trail from this ranch to the head of the river and an- 
other southward into the San Bernardino Mountains. There is al- 
ways flowing water in the Mohave River at the ranch. 

187. Dead Man's Lake Well^SanBeimardino County (M-5). — Dead 
Man's Lake is the first dry lake on the county road that leads from 
Victorville eastward to the Rose mine, in the San Bernardino Moun- 
tains. It is about 18 miles east of Victorville, just beyond a granite 
spur that projects toward the road from a group of mountains to the 
north. Near the north edge of this dry lake miners are reported to 
have drilled a 300-foot well, in which the water rises within 150 feet 
of the surface. The well is not on the road and can not be seen from 
it, but a dim trail goes northward across the dry lake to it. The next 
water is at the Box S Ranch, about 6 miles southeast of this point. 

188. Rahhit Springs^ San Bernardino County (M-5). — Rabbit 
Springs (elevation about 2,900 feet) have for years been a favorite 
camping place for parties traveling eastward from Victorville along 
the north flank of the San Bernardino Range. The springs are about 
2 miles north of Box S ranch, on the northwest edge of Rabbit Dry 
Lake, and are marked by a clump of cottonwood trees that can be 
seen from the low divide 3 miles west. Since artesian water was 
found at Box S ranch, travelers have generally followed the road 
that passes it. At the east edge of the dry lake just west of Box S 
ranch a road turns to the left (northward) from the main road and 
crosses a saddle in a rocky point just ahead, while the main road 
passes south of this point. This left-hand road leads to Rabbit 
Springs. Some freight teams follow it as the distance is a little less 
to Copper Well (Xo. 195), Old Woman Springs (No. 196), and 
Mean's Well (No. 198) than by way of Box S ranch. 

The waters of Rabbit Springs are presumably artesian, and derived 
from the same source as are those of the Box S wells. The supply is 
sufficient to irrigate a section or more of land. 

189. Box S ranch^ San Bernardino County (M-5). — Box S ranch 
(PL IV, B)^ elevation 2,935 feet according to U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey), should not be confused with Box S Springs (No. 192), which 
are about 6 miles southeast of the ranch. The ranch receives its name 
from the cattle brand of the company that owns it, the brand being 
a square inclosing the letter S. The ranch is about 24 miles east of 



72 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

Victorville, on the county road that leads to the mines in the San Ber- 
nardino Mountains, and eastward into the desert. Several wells 
have recently been drilled at the ranch and in its vicinity, some of 
which yield flowing water, so that an abundant supply is now avail- 
able. The locality is easily recognized because of the ranch build- 
ings, the first to be seen by the traveler after he leaves Mohave River 
at Victorville. It is an important point for desert travelers, because 
the water is the first to be had along this road east of the river. 
Meals also may be obtained here. 

190. Spring {no name)^ San Bernardino County (M-5). — This is a 
small spring along the north face of the San Bernardino Mountains, 
almost due south of Dead Man's Point. It supplies miners who are 
developing copper prospects in the vicinity. Their tent houses may 
be seen to the south from the county road that extends from Victor- 
ville east. 

191. Lucerne Valley Well, San Bernardino County (M-5). — In the 
winter of 1905-6 a well was drilled at the Lucerne Valley ranch, 
which is about one-half mile north of the wagon road from Rabbit 
Springs to Old Woman Springs (No. 196). The site, like that of 
Box S ranch, is marked by buildings. 

192. Box S Springs, San Bernardino County {M-5). — These springs 
issue at the base of a low alkaline terrace just north of the road that 
leads from the Box S ranch southeastward to the Rose mine, in the 
San Bernardino Mountains. A trough stands by the roadside, and 
the water is conducted to it by an iron pipe. There is a small but 
constant flow, and the water is sufficiently free from salts for all 
purposes. Cushenbury Springs (No. 193) are only about 3 miles dis- 
tant to the southeast, and the Box S ranch is about 6 miles northwest. 

193. Cushenbury Springs, San Bernardino County (M-5). — Cush- 
enbury Springs are on the county road that runs from Victorville 
to Gold Mountain, Doble, Holcomb Valley, and the Rose mine, which 
are all in the San Bernardino Mountains near Bear Lake. The 
springs are at the base of the San Bernardino Range near the mouth 
of a canyon at an elevation of 4,042 feet (U. S. Geological Survey) 
and are 9 or 10 miles southeast of Box S ranch and about 3 miles be- 
yond Box S Springs. They are marked by a clump of tall cottonwood 
trees, with alfalfa fields to the south and east and a dwelling among 
the cottonwoods. There is a good corral and a watering trough by 
the roadside, to which the water is piped. The yield of the springs is 
from 3 to 4 miner's inches. 

194. Cactus Flat Springs, San Beriiardino County (M-5). — Cactus 
Flat Springs (elevation about 5,900 feet) are near the northern crest 
of the San Bernardino Mountains on the fruit ranch of Mr. J. C. 
Johnson, who has lived here many years and is the postmaster of Cac- 
tus Flat. The ranch and springs are about 6 miles southeast of Cush- 



SPRINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 73 

enbur}^ Springs, on the county road from Victorville to Gold ^foun- 
tain, Holcomb Valley, and the Eose mine. The place is very readily 
found, as the road, which is \Yell graded and well traveled, runs near 
the orchard, the house, and the corrals. Troughs are built by the side 
of the road for watering horses. The springs yield sufficient water to 
irrigate a number of acres of fruit land. A small stock of canned 
goods and other supplies is kept by the postmaster, so that travelers 
may replenish a depleted larder here. 

195. Coirper Well, San Bernardino County (M-5). — This is a new 
well, recently sunk by miners who are at work on some gold and cop- 
per prospects at the east end of Lucerne Valley. It is on the road 
from Box S ranch to Old Woman Springs (No. 196) and is marked 
by the miners' buildings. 

196. Old Woman Springs, San Bernardino County (M-6). — These 
large springs are at the north base of the San Bernardino Mountains, 
about 12 miles east of Box S Springs, on the north road from Victor- 
ville to Dale, at an elevation of 3,186 feet (U. S. Geological Survey). 
They should not be confused with the other Old Woman Springs 
(No. 183) about 90 miles farther east. The water is somewhat 
alkaline, like that at Box S Springs. The site is marked by a 
group of Cottonwood trees, a ranch house, an orchard, and an alfalfa 
field. The springs are said to yield from 8 to 30 miner's inches, vary- 
ing with the season. Hay may be purchased and other accommoda- 
tions may be had at the ranch at these springs. 

197. Rock Corral, San Bernardino County (M-6). — A well-known 
spring, marked by an old rock corral, is situated at the north edge 
of the San Bernardino Range, about 9 miles west of south from 
Mean's Well (No. 198), at an elevation of 3,600 feet. The water is 
abundant and good. 

198. Mean's Well, San Bernardino County (M-6). — The Gold Pin 
Mining Company has dug a w^ell 26 feet deep at the northwest edge 
of Mean's Dry Lake. The water rises Avithin 12 feet of the surface. 
The company has installed a 12-horsepower gasoline engine to pump 
the water to its mine, which is in the mountains directly north of the 
lake. The next water on the west is at Old Woman Springs, about 12 
miles distant, but there is another well (No. 199) about 6 miles 
southeast of Mean's Well on the road to Dale. 

199. Wilbur Well, San Bernardino County (M-6). — This well is 
about 6 miles southeast of Mean's Well and about 16 miles west of 
Surprise Spring (No. 200) on the country road from Victorville by 
w^a}^ of Mean's Well to Dale. The water is of good quality, and the 
well is easily found, as it is close by the roadside. 

200. Surprise Spring, San Bernardino County (M-7). — This spring 
is on the county road from Victorville to Dale by way of Mean's 
Well, about 6 miles west of Mesquite Dry Lake, about 16 miles east of 



74 DESEET WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

Mean's Well, and about 12 miles north of Mesqiiite Spring. (Xo. 
211). The spring receives its name from the fact that it is in the 
open desert where one would least expect to find water. It is close 
to the roadside, and the location is clearly marked by camp debris. 
The water is of fair quality. 

201. Dead Man's Ilole^ San Bernardino County (M-7). — The 
springs known under this name are on the west side of Mesquite Dry 
Lake and east of the county road. They are little more than mud 
holes in the playa deposits around the lake. The water is full of 
magnesia and soda salts and is very laxative, but can be used by 
animals. 

202. Spring {no name)^ San Bernardino County (M-8). — This is a 
spring at the northeast side of the Bullion Mountains, near some old 
mine workings about 4 miles Avest of Bristol Lake and about 8 miles 
southwest of Bagdad station, on the Santa Fe Railway. A trail 
leads from the station to the spring, which is used only by local 
prospectors. 

203. Spring (no name), San Bernardino County (M-10). — This 
spring is on the west side of Old Woman Mountain, on an old road 
that runs from Dale northward to a point about 9 miles south of 
Cadiz, where it turns eastward and crosses the road from Danby sta- 
tion to Danby Lake. It is the first road crossed in driving south from 
the railway at Danb}^ The spring is about 6 miles east of the Danby 
road, in the main canyon of the mountain, and is marked by the 
ruins of a mining camp. A mill stood near the spring at one time. 
The supply of water is not large, but the quality is excellent. 

204. Springs (7io name), San Bernardino County (M-10). — These 
are small springs in the southern end of Old Woman Mountain, 
about 6 miles north of Danby Lake and about 3 miles east of the road 
from Danby station to the lake. This road crosses a dry wash con- 
taining Cottonwood trees, and the springs are found by following this 
wash into the mountains. They are not on a main road and are not 
particularly well known, but are used by prospectors. The water 
flows from granite and is of good quality. 

205. West Well (new), San Bernardino County (M-13) . — This well 
is on the county road from Needles, Cal., to Parker, Ariz., and is 
about 30 miles south of Needles, 4 miles southwest of the old West 
Well (No. 206), and 25 miles northwest of Parker. It is close by the 
roadside, is protected by curbing, and is provided with a pump and a 
covered watering trough. The supply of water is sufficient for all 
needs. 

206. West Well {old) ^ San Bernardino County (M-13).— This well 
is near the head of the Chemehuevis Wash, on the county road that 
runs from Needles, Cal., to Parker, Ariz. It is about 40 feet deep and 
stands in a clump of cottonwood trees. It is protected by curbing and 



SPRINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 75 

provided with an iron pump and a good watering trough with cover. 
The water rises within about 6 feet of the surface and is of excellent 
quality. 

Since this w^ell was dug the county road has been straightened. 
The main road now diverges from the old road about 3 miles west of 
this well and continues southward into the next township, where a 
new well has been dug. The old well is convenient for prospecting 
parties in the Chemehuevis Wash. 

207. Warren''s ranch^ 8 cm Bernardiiio County (N-6).^This well- 
known ranch is 28 miles northeast of Banning, at the highest point 
along the road from Banning to Dale, its elevation being 2,500 feet. 
It is the usual stopping place for all travelers bound from the north 
end of the Colorado Desert or from San Gorgonio Pass northeast- 
ward by way of Morongo Pass. It is a road ranch and provides trav- 
elers with meals, ha}^, grain, and other supplies. The water used 
flows from large springs and is pumped to the ranch by a gasoline 
engine. 

208. Warren's Well, San Bernardino County (N-G). — This well is 
10 or 12 miles east of Warren's ranch. It is 150 feet deep, and the 
water is pumped by a windmill into a cemented reservoir about 18 
feet long, 10 feet wide, and 4 feet deep. Fifteen cents is charged for 
each team watered here. It is 27 miles by road from the well to 
Twenty-nine Palms Springs (No. 213). 

209. Coyote Holes, San Bernardino County (N-7). — This watering 
place, originally of some importance but now fallen into disuse, is 
about 7 miles east of Morongo Pass, at the junction of the wagon 
roads from Victorville, on the Santa Fe, and Banning, on the South- 
ern Pacific. It is about 18 miles by road from Coyote Holes eastward 
to Twenty-nine Palms Springs and about 9 miles west to Warren's 
Well. Warren's Well and the springs at Warren's ranch now supply 
travelers with water, so that Coyote Holes are no longer used and 
have become badly choked with sand. K slight seepage, however, may 
be found in a canyon about 1 mile south of the road junction. 

210. Quail Springs, San Bernardino County (N-7). — These springs 
are at the north edge of the San Bernardino Range, about G miles 
southeast of Coyote Holes. The water is excellent and the supply can 
no doubt be increased. 

211. Mesquite Spring, San Bernardino County (N-7). — ^Mesquite 
Spring is on the road from Victorville to Dale by way of Mean's 
Well, about 3 miles south of Mesquite Dry Lake and 7 miles north- 
west of Twenty-nine Palms Dry Lake. Its site is marked by granite 
outcrops, a mesquite grove, and the debris of old camps. The Avater 
is of good quality and the supply is ample for travelers. 

212. Sulphur Springs, San Bernardino County (N-8).-^These 
springs are about 2 miles south of Mesquite Springs, on the county 



76 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

road from Victorville to Dale. The water is abundant, but tastes 
strongly of sulphur ; and as it is but a feAA^ miles southward to other 
and better springs these are rarely used by travelers. 

213. Twenty-nine Palms Springs^ San Bernardino County (N-8). — 
The Twenty-nine Palms Springs are scattered for a distance of a 
mile along the southwest edge of Twenty-nine Palms Dry Lake, about 
6 miles south of the south end of the Bullion Mountains, on the roads 
from Victorville and Banning to Dale and 27 miles east of Warren's 
Well. They receive their name from the clumps of native palms 
growing about them. An adobe building stands near the camping 
place. The water at the springs is abundant enough to supply a 
number of mining camps in the vicinity. There are several shallow 
Avells near the springs, from which water may also be procured. 

214. Dale Pump^ San Bernardino County (N-9). — A pumping 
plant has recently been installed at the south edge of Dale Dry Lake, 
in T. 1 N., R. 12 E., the well, however, being just over the township 
line to the south. This plant supplies water to Dale, a mining set- 
tlement about 5 miles farther south. Dale, long known as Virginia 
Dale, is the post-office and trading center for the prospectors in the 
mountains around it. The location of this settlement has been 
changed several times during the last ten years, but with the devel- 
opment of water its present position will probably prove permanent. 
The well is reported to furnish an abundant supply of water of good 
quality. 

215. Desert Well, San Bernardino County (N-11). — This well is 
reported to have been drilled near the southeast edge of Iron Moun- 
tain, about 4 miles southwest of Miller's Well (No. 216). The writer 
searched for it recently, but was unable to find it, although it is said 
to be in the SW. J sec. 3, T. 1 S., R. 18 E., San Bernardino meridian. 
From the abundance of water plants, however, it is evident that water 
can be procured without much difficulty in that vicinity. 

"2.1^. Millers Well, San Bernardvno County (N-11).— Miller's Well 
is situated on the southwest edge of Danby Dry Lake, among the 
gypsum knobs at the east base of Iron Mountain. It is beside the 
road that runs southeastward from Danby station, on the Santa Fe 
Railway, to the Maria Mountains. The well is about 35 or 40 
miles south-southeast of Danby. Brown's Well (No. 232) is 20 miles 
southeast. The water is dark colored and very salty, and only thirsty 
animals will drink it. Travelers, therefore, should carry with them 
from Danby an ample supply for men and teams. It is reported that 
there is another well on the southwest side of Iron Mountain, but the 
writer was unable to find it. There are two other Miller wells (Nos. 
299 and 301) in Nevada, but this well is not likely to be confused with 
them. 



SPKINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 77 

217. Spring^ San Bernardino County (X-12). — There is a spring 
near the southeast end of the Turtle Mountains, about 15 miles north- 
east of Brown's Well (No. 232) on the road to the West Well (No. 
205). The water is good. 

218. Palm Springs station^ Riverside County (0-6). — Palm 
Springs is a station on the Southern Pacific Railroad in the upper 
end of the Colorado Desert. It is supplied with water from wells. 
This station should not be confused with Palm Springs proper, which 
lies at the base of San Jacinto Peak, 6 miles due south. (See No. 219.) 

219. Palm Springs. Riverside County (0-6). — This is an agricul- 
tural settlement and health resort in the upper end of the Coachella 
Valley, about 6 miles south of Palm Springs station on the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, at an elevation of 455 feet (U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey). The lands of the settlement are irrigated in part from these 
rather large springs, and in part from Whitewater River and the 
near-by canyons of the San Jacinto Mountains. There are a number 
of springs here, and some of them are thermal and medicinal. The 
settlement is named from the wild palms which grow in the vicinit}^ 
It is one of the most northerly points in the United States at which 
these plants are found native. 

220. Palmdale^ Riverside County (0-6). — This agricultural settle- 
ment, now largely abandoned, is about 2J miles southeast of Palm 
Springs, at an elevation of about 450 feet. Its irrigation was accom- 
plished by utilizing a group of springs that give a good supply of 
water. 

221. Magnesia Spring^ Riverside County (0-6). — This is a spring 
of effervescing magnesia water in Magnesia Spring Canyon, about 15 
miles west of Indio. The mouth of the canyon is about 2 miles south- 
west of the Indio road, which passes along the south side of Coachella 
Valley. A dim trail turns to the southwest from this main road at 
a point about 6 miles west of Indian Well (No. 234) and leads up to 
the spring. 

222. Stuhhy Springs^ Riverside County (0-7). — These springs are 
on a trail from Palm Springs station to what is known locally as the 
Thousand Palms Canyon. This canyon is at the southwest edge of 
the San Bernardino Range, about 18 miles north of Indio. The 
springs were opened by a freighter known locally by the nickname 
" Stubby," who made the trail into the canyon. 

223. Lost Horse Spring^ Riverside County (0-7). — This is a spring 
near the summit of the San Bernardino Mountains, about 6 miles 
east of the Thousand Palms Canyon. A pack trail leads to it. The 
spring takes its name from a mining company that at one time oper- 
ated a 2-stamp mill there, using the w^ater from the spring for the 
purpose. 



78 DESEKT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

224. Pinon Pine Well, Riverside County (0-8) . — This well is about 
25 miles northeast of Indio, on the new wagon road to Twenty-nine 
Palms Springs. The air-line distance is perhaps 15 miles. A mining 
company has erected a 2-stamp mill here and sunk a well from which 
a good supply of pure water is derived. The well receives its name 
from the piiion trees around it. 

About 3 miles southeast of this camp, away from the main road 
or trails, are the Red Tanks, where water collects in a bowl in the 
granite. The writer has no information as to the permanency of 
this supply or the quality of the water. 

225. Stirrup Tanks, Riverside County (0-8). — These tanks or nat- 
ural rock basins are in the granite of an unnamed range, the one next 
west of Pinto Mountain. They are on the road from Indio to 
Twenty-nine Palms Springs, and have not been known to be dry 
during the last ten j^ears, a period of exceptionally low rainfall in 
the Southwest. The water is of excellent quality. Travelers may 
learn the route to them at Indio or Twenty-nine Palms Springs. 

226. Washington Tank, Riverside County (0-8). — This tank is in 
the San Bernardino Range, about 16 miles west of Cottonwood 
Springs (No. 227). The water is said to be of excellent quality and 
a fair supply may be depended on in ordinary seasons. Travelers 
will have to make local inquiries in order to find the tank. 

227. Cottonwood Springs, Riverside County (0-9). — These springs 
are in Cottonwood Pass, 26 miles northeast from Mecca, on the main 
road to Dale. They are 14 miles northeast of Shaver Well (No. 241). 
The springs are readily found, their site being marked by the ruins 
of a concrete reservoir and by the corral, water troughs, and engine 
house of the Iron Chief Mining Company. The water, which is of 
good quality, is usually flowing, but more or less debris often obscures 
or obstructs the springs during the winter rains, so that the first trav- 
elers in the early spring are obliged to clean them out. About 3^ 
miles east, on a trail on the south slope of Cottonwood Mountains, 
are many large native palms growing in the canyons, where water 
is always standing exposed or close to the surface. At the southAvest 
end of the Providence Range, 75 miles northward, are other springs 
of the same name (No. 162). 

228. Iron Chief Well, Riverside County (0-9). — This well is in 
the northeast end of Eagle Mountains. It is reached by a side road 
from Cottonwood Springs, which lies about 8 miles southwest. The 
water is good. 

229. Light foot or Bowlder Well, Riverside County (O-IO). — About 
6 miles west of Palen Dry Lake a well has been sunk by Light- 
foot Brothers, who have erected over it a windmill which is visible 
for a number of miles. This windmill and pump are usually out of 
order. 



SPRINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 79 

230. Palen Wells, Riverside County (O-IO). — There are two old 
wells, 14 feet deep, at the southwest edge of Palen Dry Lake, a few 
miles east of the Lightfoot well. The water is brackish but potable. 
In 1905 it was reported that Mr. H. R. Adams drilled a new Avell 
near the old ones. 

231. Packard Well, Riverside County (0-11).— The Packard Well 
is about 21 miles northeast of the Lightfoot Well, in the Palen Moun- 
tains. It is near the bottom of a small arroyo and is surrounded by 
mesquite trees. The well is not covered, so that the water is often 
contaminated by the bodies of desert animals. A ridge of limestone 
south of the well serves as a landmark. 

232. BrowrCs Well, Riverside County (O-ll). — This is a drilled 
well, 300 feet deep, near the junction of the roads from Mecca and 
from Danby Lake to Ehrenberg, Ariz. Its location is plainly de- 
terminable from the road^ as there are two adobe buildings and a 
corral near it. It is owned by Floyd Brown, who lives there. Xo 
charge is made for water. 

234. Indian Well, Riverside County (P-7). — This well is situated 
among the sand hills about 6 miles west of Indio, at an elevation of 
97 feet (U. S. Geological Survey). It is on the road along the south- 
west side of the Coachella Valley, connecting Palm Springs with the 
settlements about Indio, and is just north of a rough spur of the 
Santa Rosa Range that extends northAvestward for some miles into 
the desert. The well is 30 or 40 feet deep and is an open shaft in 
which a pump has been placed. 

235. Indio, Riverside County (P-7). — Indio (15 feet below sea 
level), the end of a division on the Southern Pacific Railroad, is well 
known as a health resort and as the shipping point for a thriving 
agricultural district. The railroad company has wells here and a 
pumping plant for suppljdng the settlement and the road. In this 
vicinity there are also many other pumping plants that supply water 
of the finest quality in considerable volume for irrigation and other 
purposes. 

236. Coachella pumping plant. Riverside County (P-7). — The 
Southern Pacific Railroad Company has installed a pumping plant 
at Coachella station, which is between Indio and Mecca. The water 
comes from the deep gravels that underlie the Coachella Valley. 
Throughout this valley from Indio to Mecca there has been rapid 
development since 1900 by the utilization of underground waters. 
There are now several hundred wells bored, most of them yielding 
artesian water of the finest quality. Their use is rapidly transform- 
ing this part of the desert into a rich agricultural district. 

237. Toro Springs, Riverside County (P-7). — This group of springs 
and the one next to be described are two among a number of cienagas 
in which the artesian waters under this part of the desert rise to the 



80 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

surface. Indian settlements are grouped about these watering places, 
which were formerly of much importance, but are now less valuable 
because of the numerous artesian wells in the vicinity. Toro is about 
9 miles south of Indioj at 111 feet below sea level, on the old wagon 
road that follows the western edge of the Colorado Desert. 

238. Alamo Bonito Springs^ Riverside County (P-7). — These 
springs, which are similar to those at Toro, just described, are about 
5 miles southwest of Mecca, at 186 feet below sea level (U. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey). The name is Spanish, and signifies "good poplar." 
Cottonwood trees are abundant in this vicinity. 

289. Agua Diilce^ Riverside County (P-8). — This is a cluster of 
strong springs of " sweet water," as the Spanish name indicates, on 
the west side of the Colorado Desert, about 7 miles south of Mecca, 
on the road from Mecca to ScA^enteen Palms Springs (No. 254). 
They lie 183 feet below sea level (U. S. Geological Survey). The 
springs are due to the up-welling of artesian waters that are imper- 
fectly confined by the clay strata underlying this part of the Colo- 
rado Desert. There are a number of springs in the group, and several 
Indian habitations are scattered around them. The flow is constant, 
so that water may be obtained here at any time. Originally they 
were of much importance, but the settlement of this particular 
region and the boring of artesian wells in the vicinity have lessened 
the value of the natural springs. 

240. Mecca^ Riverside County (P-8). — Two artesian wells bored at 
Mecca station b}^ the Southern Pacific Railroad Company were 
among the first successful wells in the Coachella Valley. They have 
a strong flow, and besides furnishing a supply for the locomotives 
and tank cars of the Southern Pacific system, are utilized by some of 
the settlers in the village. 

241. Shaver Well, Riverside County (P-8). — This well is about 12 
miles northeast of Mecca, on the road to Dale. It is at the upper end 
of a box canyon, within sight of the road, and is easily found. It is 
about 30 feet deep, well timbered and protected. There is a rope, 
bucket, and pulley, so that it is easy to get the water, which is of 
superior quality. The well is surrmmded by mesquite shrubs and 
palo verde. Three miles southwest of Shaver Well, in a canyon that 
opens to the south, over a ridge, half a mile south of the county road, 
is water surrounded by a few burnt palms, and about 2 miles farther 
to the southeast, up another canyon in a little side glen, is a beautiful 
clump of palms with a spring of pure water beneath them. 

242. Dos Palmas, Riverside County (P-8). — Dos Palmas is a well- 
known stopj)ing place on the old San Bernardino and Yuma road, 
about G miles east of new Salton station, on the Southern Pacific 
Railroad, near the clearly defined old beach line that stands 40 feet 
above sea level in the Colorado Desert. The position of the springs 



SPRINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 81 

is marked by two large desert palms, which give the name to the 
place. The springs yield a large quantity of tepid and slightly salty 
but drinkable water, the first to be found on this old road southeast 
of Mecca, which is about 16 miles distant. The next water to the 
southeast is at Frinks Springs (No. 258), 12 miles away. Since the 
building of the Southern Pacific Railroad the old wagon road is only 
occasionally used. 

The Orocopia Mining Company has established a pumping plant 
at the springs, by means of which the water is pumped to its mines,, 
12 miles farther north. 

243. Canyon Springs^ Riverside County (P-9). — These springs,, 
which yield a small supply of poor water, are in a side canyon north 
of the road that runs from Mecca via Salton to Palen Dry Lake. 
South of the springs the road branches, one fork crossing the pass in 
the Chuckwalla Mountains to the north and the other fork turning 
southeastward across the divide to the Ironwood Mountains. Water 
is again found on the northern road, near the southwest edge of 
Palen Dry Lake, about 25 miles away. 

244. Mill Camp^ Riverside County (P-10). — This is a mining camp 
about 30 miles east of Salton, on the Ehrenberg road. There are 
buildings at the springs, which furnish plenty of good water. 

245. Aztec Well, Riverside County (P-10). — This well is about 
9 miles east of Mill Camp on the road to Ehrenberg. There is an 
abundance of good water. 

246. Granite Tanks, Riverside County (P-10). — These tanks or 
natural basins in the granite are at the northeastern edge of the 
Chuckwalla Mountains. The water, which is of fine quality, rises 
at the foot of a granite outcrop in a little cienaga about 25 feet 
across, and flows over the surface for a short distance before it sinks 
into the sand. More water could probably be procured here by de- 
velopment. The tanks are on the road from Mecca station to the 
Ironwood Mountains, about 6 miles southwest of Long Tanks, another 
watering place of similar character, and about 10 miles south of the 
Palen Wells (No. 230). Light foot or Bowlder Well (No. 229) is 
about 14 miles northward by road. The first water to be obtained 
to the east is at McCoy Spring (No. 249), in the Ironwood Moun- 
tains, 25 miles distant. 

247. Corn Springs, Riverside County (P-10). — These springs are 
situated on the east side of the Chuckwalla Mountains, about 6 
miles south of Granite Tanks. The water, which amounts to 8 or 10 
miner's inches, rises in a local cienaga. It is probable that careful 
development would increase the flow and furnish water enough for 
the irrigation of a number of acres. 

72945— No. 224—09 6 



S2 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

248. Chuckioalla Spring^ Riverside County (P-10). — This spring 
is on the south road from Mecca to Palo Verde, near the southwest 
edge of the Chuckwalla Mountains, in a pass that separates this 
range and the Chocolate Mountains. The water is of excellent qual- 
ity and is fairly abundant. 

249. McCoy Spring^ Riverside County (P-11). — This spring is on 
the west edge of the McCoy or Ironwood Mountains, about 25 miles 
east of Granite Tanks, on the road from Mecca to Ehrenberg. The 
water is excellent, but the supply is small, the springs yielding only 
about 4 barrels a day. 

250. Springs {no name) ^ Riverside County (P-12). — These springs 
are at the east edge and near the north end of the Palo Verde Moun- 
tains, about T miles northwest of the town of Palo Verde, and are 
used by stockmen. 

251. Spring {no na?ne), Riverside County (P-12). — There is re- 
ported to be a good spring on the old Ehrenberg road to Mecca, about 
5 miles northwest of Colorado River, but the writer has no further 
information concerning it. 

252. Borego Spring^ San Diego County (Q-T). — Borego Spring is 
on the west bank of the broad Borego Wash, at an elevation of 452 
feet (U. S. Geological Survey). Its distance by wagon road from 
Julian is about 33 miles. The water of this spring, although some- 
what alkaline, is entirely usable. Mesquite trees grow near the spring 
and in the valley, and salt grass, willow, and rushes are abundant. 
An old cabin stands on the bank about 50 feet from the spring and 
serves to mark its position. 

From Borego Spring the wagon road runs down the Borego Wash 
about 2| miles to its junction with the San Felipe Wash, which comes 
in from the southwest. Just beyond the junction of the two washes 
the road forks, one branch continuing down the San Felipe, the other 
turning to the left and crossing the mesa and the clay hills toward 
Seventeen Palms Springs (No. 254). Neither road is much used, and 
after rains both are dim and difficult to follow. 

253. Clark Well, San Diego County (Q-7). — This well is about 
three-fourths of a mile north of the northeast end of Clark Dry Lake, 
at an elevation of 555 feet (U. S. Geological Survey). Trails lead 
to it from Rock House Canyon and from Coyote Creek valley, and a 
little-used wagon road connects near Borego Spring with the road 
from Seventeen Palms Springs to Julian. The well can be easily 
found from its position north of the dry lake. The water is good. 

254. Seventeen Palms Springs, San Diego County (Q-7). — Seven- 
teen Palms Springs lie at an elevation of 410 feet (U. S. Geological 
Survey), near the junction of three washes in the clay hills, south of 
the Santa Rosa Mountains. At present only eight or nine palm trees 
stand near them, the remainder of the seventeen, from which the 



SPKINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 83 

springs were named, having been destroyed by fire. The springs are 
about 12 miles by wagon road east from Borego Spring, or 45 miles 
from Julian, but the road is little used, is dim, and may be difficult to 
follow, particularly after the winter rains. Broken clay hills and 
deep washes surround the springs. Grass and wood in small quanti- 
ties may be found near them. When they are kept open the water is 
fairly good, but it becomes bitter and bad by neglect and disuse. The 
soil is impregnated with alkaline salts. 

255. Soda Springs^ Imperial County (Q-8). — Soda Springs are 
located about 15 miles southeast of Fish Springs (No. 256), on the 
road from Mecca down the west side of the Colorado Desert. The 
water is so salty as to be scarcely potable and near by are other 
springs whose water is entirely undrinkable. Soda Springs are at the 
base of a low barren knoll, one-half or three-fourths of a mile south 
of Clay Point, marked by a government bench mark, around which 
the road turns on the way from Mecca to Seventeen Palms Springs. 
The road from Clay Point south toward Harper Well (No. 264) 
is very little traveled and is difficult to find. 

256. Fish Springs^ Imperial County (Q-8). — Fish Springs (230 
feet below sea level), now (1908) submerged to a depth of about 25 
feet beneath Salton sea, are a group of strong natural springs whose 
aggregate yield is several miner's inches. The waters are tepid and 
slightly saline, but of sufficiently good quality to be used by men or 
animals without injurious effects. Before their submergence these 
springs were especially important to travelers because they are at 
the southernmost point at which water of fair quality can be pro- 
cured in abundance along the west side of the desert until Harper 
(Mesquite) Well is reached. They will emerge again as the lake 
shrinks by evaporation, and when the lake water has become too 
saline for use they will again become important. Their position 
is indicated by a prominent rocky point which stands out in the 
desert about 1 mile east of the base of the Santa Rosa Mountains, 
and which is conspicuous not only because of its position but be- 
cause of the distinct water line that encircles it 10 or 15 feet below 
its summit. This point is about 2 miles northeast of the springs. 

257j Figtree Johi's Spynngs^ Riverside County (Q-8). — This small 
group of springs is about 12 miles south of Mecca station, and about 
3 miles southeast of Agua Dulce, at 197 feet below sea level (U. S. 
Geological Survey). About the springs are clustered the huts of 
the famil}^ of Figtree John, one of the Coahuila Indians. The wa- 
ter is tepid but is abundant and of excellent quality. The position 
of the springs is marked by a number of large fig trees. They are 
about 1 mile east of north of a rocky outlier of the Santa Rosa 
Mountains, which also serves as a landmark for the location of 
Fish Springs, about 3 miles farther south. Figtree John's Springs 



84 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

were submerged during the winter of 1906-T by the rising waters of 
Salton Sea, but will reappear as the water subsides. 

258. F rinks Springs^ Imperial County (Q-9). — These springs are 
about 6 miles northwest of Frinks station, on the Southern Pacific 
Railroad. They are on one of the old wagon roads from San Ber- 
nardino to Yuma, near the old beach line that stands about 40 feet 
above sea level in the Colorado Desert. The water is of good quality 
and in fair quantity. 

259. Spring {no name), Riverside County (Q-ll).^-This spring is 
at the south base of a western outlier of the Palo Verde Mountains, 
about 6 miles northeast of the Chuckwalla settlement, on the road 
thence to Ehrenberg, Ariz. The spring is near the road, has long 
been known and used, and is readily found. The quality of the 
water is good and the supply is fair. 

260. Mule Springs, Riverside County (Q-11). — These springs are 
in the main pass on the west side of the Palo Verde Mountains, on 
the road from Mecca to Palo Verde, by way of Chuckwalla, and 
about 8 miles northeast of the Chuckwalla settlement, which itself 
lies at the east base of the Chuckwalla Mountains. The position of the 
springs is marked by a grove of timber. The water is good and the 
supply abundant. 

261. Vallecito Springs, San Diego County (S-T). — Vallecito 
Springs are located in the valley of Vallecito Creek, about 33 miles 
east of Julian, on the wagon road to Carrizo station (No. 270), at an 
elevation of about 1,600 feet. The old adobe stage station, in use 
when this road was a part of one of the transcontinental stage routes, 
still stands and is in fairly good condition. A watering trough 
stands near the building, and there are mesquite and cottonwood 
trees in the vicinity. The quality of the water is fair. 

262. Hanna Well, San Diego County (K-T). — This well is at the 
base of the north slope of Black or Fish Creek Mountain, 15 or 18 
miles southeast of Borego Spring, and 10 or 12 hiiles southwest of 
Harper (or Mesquite) Well (No. 264). It is not on a main road, 
but is near the mouth of a canyon heading in a pass that leads to the 
valley of Carrizo Creek. The water is good. 

263. McCain Springs, Imperial County (R-8). — McCain Springs 
are about 5 miles somewhat east of south of Clay Point, mentioned 
in the description of Soda Springs (No. 255). They are in the center 
of a broad wash, locally called the Arroyo Grande, and are marked 
by three large sand dunes from a quarter to half a mile southwest. 
The surrounding country is traversed by numerous gulches from 6 to 
20 feet in depth and often difficult to cross. The springs, which are 
well below sea level, have built up a small mound in the bed of the 
wash. The water appears to be charged with carbonic acid gas and 
is fairly palatable. 



SPRINGS IN CALIFORNIA. 85 

In March, 1901, excellent water was found by digging a hole in the 
sand near the right bank of the wash, about 430 feet upstream from 
the springs. Firewood is scarce in the vicinity, but grass for stock 
may be found some distance away. These springs are about 9 miles 
southeast from Seventeen Palms Springs. 

264. Harper {or Mesquite) W ell ^ Imperial County (R-8). — At the 
junction of Carrizo and San Felipe creeks an attempt was made a few 
years ago to develop oil. No oil was found, but at a depth of about 
300 feet a flow of good water was obtained. The site of the well is 
plainly marked by the derrick, which can be seen for a long distance 
across the desert. There is an abundance of mesquite timber in the 
vicinit}^ 

265. Kane Spring^ Imperial County (R-8). — This spring is 6 miles 
east of Harper Well, on top of a low knoll. It is surrounded by cane, 
salt grass, and arrow weed. The water is full of soda and is very 
poor, being hardly fit for use. 

266. Agua Caliente Springs^ San Diego County (S-T). — About 3f 
miles eastward from Vallecito Springs and about three- fourths of a 
mile southeast of the main wagon road between Julian and Carrizo 
station there are several springs in a natural amphitheater compris- 
ing an area of about 50 acres. The water is tepid and is impregnated 
with sulphur, but is not unpleasant to the taste. The combined flow 
of the springs makes a rather large stream. Grass and wood are 
scarce. 

267. Mountain Palm Springs^ San Diego County (S-7). — These 
springs are at the foot of a high, broken rocky ridge and are several 
miles south of the main wagon road across the Sierra Madre, but can 
be easily reached by a side road that was made a few years ago. The 
water is cool and fairly good. Wild palms and other vegetation make 
the vicinity inviting. 

268. Palm Springs^ San Diego County (S-7). — There are several 
Palm Springs in San Diego County, but those here referred to are 
about 9 miles east of Vallecito Springs, just north of the line between 
sections 25 and 36. The palms that gave the springs their name were 
destroyed long ago, but there are several mesquite trees near by. The 
springs are situated under a clay bank, and digging is sometimes 
necessary in order to obtain water. The water has a temperature of 
about 60° and is somewhat sulphurous. 

269. Mason ranch^ San Diego County (S-7). — Mason ranch is on 
the road from Carrizo Creek to Sentenae and Agua Caliente (War- 
ner's ranch). This is the principal road through this part of the 
desert, and may be easily followed and identified. At the ranch, 
which will be recognized at once by travelers over the road, an excel- 
lent supply of water has been developed. 



86 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

270. Carrizo station^ San Diego County (S-8). — Carrizo station 
(elevation, 450 feet) is near the left bank of Carrizo Creek wash, 
about 9 miles east of Palm Springs, on the main wagon road from 
Julian to the Imperial Valley. There are a number of springs near 
the station, and two of them furnish fairly good water. There is 
also a rather large tule swamp around the station, from which a 
strong stream of alkaline water flows. Rough clay hills of late Ter- 
tiary age, showing typical badland erosional forms, are prominent 
features of this region. Carrizo was originally a stage station on 
one of the old overland lines, but the adobe buildings are now in a 
dilapidated condition, their ruin having been completed by the earth- 
quake of February, 1892. 

271. Coyote Well, Imperial County (S-8). — Coyote well is about 
375 feet above sea level, on the main wagon road from Mountain 
Springs (No. 274) to Silsbee, the southernmost of the wagon roads 
that cross the Sierra Madre from the Imperial Valley to San Diego. 
The old Coyote well was a mere pit curbed up with planks. A new 
well, standing about 100 feet from the old one, was fitted up with a 
pump, but this has been broken recently. The water is rather alka- 
line, but improves after the well has been used for some time. 

272. Yuha Springs, Imperial County (T-8). — Yuha Springs are 
located in a wash near the corner of sections 5, 6, 7, and 8, about 5 
miles southeast of Coyote well and a mile southwest of the derrick 
at the Yuha oil well. The regular wagon road from Campo to Silsbee 
crosses the desert about 2 miles north of the springs. The water 
is impregnated with alkaline matter, but when used continuously is 
not unpleasant or harmful. In 1905 there was a trough and pump at 
the springs. 

273. Sunset Springs, Imperial County (S-10). — These springs, 
which have long been known, are about 13 miles south of east from 
Brawley, below the old beach which is so prominent a feature about 
the borders of the Colorado Desert. It is reported that the paths of 
animals using the springs led to their discovery. They are of less 
importance now than before the reclamation of so large a part of 
the Imperial Valley by the introduction of Colorado River waters. 

274. Mountain Springs, San Diego County (T-7). — Mountain 
Springs are about 9 miles by wagon road from Jacumba Springs 
(No. 275) and 33 miles from Campo, at an elevation of about 2,500 
feet. Forty years ago there was a stage station here on the Butter- 
field stage line that ran from San Diego to Yuma. The ruins of 
the old stone corral and buildings are still visible. The water issues 
from the side of a rocky ravine and a portion of it is carried in an 
inch pipe about 200 feet long to a trough beside the road. Its quality 
is excellent. 



SPKINGS IN NEVADA. 87 

From Mountain Springs the wagon road leading to the desert runs 
through a rocky gorge in Tvhich water can be found a portion of the 
year. From the mouth of the gorge the surface slopes gently east- 
ward to Coyote AVell, 12 miles from Mountain Springs and 45 miles 
from Campo. 

275. Jaciimha Spi^ings^ San Diego County (T-7). — Jacumba 
Springs are about 24 miles east of Campo, near the quarter-section 
corner between sections 7 and 8, T. 18 S., R. 8 E., and about ^ mile 
north of Monument Xo. 233 of the boundary line between the United 
States and Mexico, at an elevation of about 2,825 feet. The}^ are on 
the west side of a long, open valley whose outlet is to the northeast, 
through a deep, narrow gorge. The greater part of this valley, which 
is the head of the Carrizo Creek drainage system, is in Mexico. 
The springs include one of cold water and several that yield waters 
with temperatures ranging from 86° to 98° F. These thermal Avaters 
are regarded as medicinal, and a bath house and other accommoda- 
tions are provided for travelers. 

NEVADA. 

276. Palmetto^ Esmeralda County (A-3). — This is one of the oldest 
settlements in the northern portion of the Palmetto Range, and is 
an outfitting point for prospectors in that region. It is reached by 
a road from Alvord station, on the Southern Pacific Railroad, by 
way of Deep Springs and Oasis, and is well supplied with water from 
both wells and springs. 

277. Indian Spring^ Esmeralda County (A-3). — This spring is 
about 6 miles east of the Palmetto Mountains and about the same dis- 
tance northwest of Barrel Springs (Xo. 278). Parties prospecting in 
the region can obtain full directions for reaching it at Palmetto or 
at Lida. 

278. Barrel Springs. Esmeralda County (A-3). — These springs are 
in the eastern edge of the Palmetto Mountains, about 1 mile northeast 
of Lida and about 5 miles southeast of Indian Spring. As the 
country is comparatively well settled, directions for finding the 
springs can be had at Lida or at Palmetto. 

279. Gold Mountain^ Esmeralda County (A-4). — There is a well 
at this point, 1 mile east of Tokop and 20 miles southeast of Lida. 
that 3^ields a small supph' of good water. There is another well IJ 
miles northeast of this one, across two small ridges. The water is 
good. 

280. Old Camp^ Esmeralda County (B-4). — This is a small spring 
near the summit of Gold Mountain, having a fair supply of good 
water. 



88 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

281. Willotc Spring, Esmeralda County (B-4). — This is a small 
spring on the east side of Gold Mountain, near the summit, IJ miles 
southeast of Old Camp. The supply is scanty, but the water is good. 
There is also a spring of the same name (No. 287) about 20 miles 
southeast, in the Grapevine Range. 

282. Thorp Mill, Nye County (B-5). — This site is marked by an 
old stamp mill. It was originally a stage station and post-office on 
the road from Goldfield to Bullfrog, but the station has been aban- 
doned and the post-office moved to Bonnie Claire station, 2J miles 
farther north. The road between Goldfield and Bullfrog passes the 
mill. A well and a spring supply an abundance of good water here. 

283. Bonnie Claire station, Nye County (B-5). — This station is 
at the northAvest edge of Sarcobatus Flat, about 35 miles south of 
Goldfield, on the stage road from Goldfield to Bullfrog, at an eleva- 
tion of 3,973 feet (U. S. Geological Survey). Several wells that have 
been sunk 12 feet into the playa deposits yield a good supply of 
slightly brackish water. This station has taken the place of the old 
Thorp Mill and Summerville stations, about 2 miles farther south 
and now abandoned. Thorp post-office, originally located at Thorp 
Mill, has been moved to Bonnie Claire station. 

'^^^. Tonopah Well, Nye County (B-5).— This well is about 7^ 
miles southeast of Bonnie Claire station, at the southwest edge of 
Sarcobatus Flat. A well about 20 feet deep has been sunk in the 
playa deposits, but the water is poor. 

285. Seattle Well, Nye County (B-5). — This well is on the road 
from Goldfield to Bullfrog, about IJ miles south of the Tonopah 
Well and about IJ miles southwest of a dry lake bed. It is about 20 
feet deep, but has no pump or windlass. The water is abundant 
and good. 

286. Farmer station, Nye County (B-5). — Farmer station is a half- 
way house between Goldfield and Bullfrog, on the old private road 
of the automobile company. It is on the east side of Sarcobatus 
Flat, about 5 miles east of Bonnie Claire station. Private convey- 
ances use the road by way of Bonnie Claire station, as they can find 
no water on the old automobile road until they reach the head of 
Amargosa River. 

287. Willow Sp7^ng, Nye County (C-l). — This spring is about 4 
miles a little east of north of the highest peak in the Grapevine 
Range, known as Grapevine Peak. It is on the north side of a high 
spur at the end of a wood road. There is another Willow Spring 
(No. 281) about 20 miles northwest, in Gold Mountain. 

288. Brier Spring, Nye County (C-5). — This spring is about 3 
miles south of east of AYahguyhe Peak, on the northwest slope of a 
big spur of the Grapevine Range, about 1 mile northwest of Mexican 
Camp No. 289, and 1 mile north of the Alkali Spring mentioned 



SPRINGS IK^ NEVADA. 89 

below. There is a plentiful supply of good water. There are also 
springs in the first canyon due east of Wahgu^^he Peak, and about 2 
miles a little south of east of the peak. The water is abundant and 
good. 

289. Mexican Camp and Alkali /Spring, Nye County (C-5). — This 
is a wood camp in the Grapevine Range in the first canyon south of 
Wahguyhe Peak that drains into the Amargosa Desert, at the end of 
the wagon road about IJ miles east of the divide. It is about 13 
miles north of west of Bullfrog, and 2J miles northeast of Nevada- 
California boundary post No. 91. The spring is small, with very 
little water. There is a trail from Mexican Camp to Death Valley 
by way of Titus Canyon, and on this trail about If miles southwest 
of the camp, one- fourth mile west of the divide on the north side of 
the trail, there is a small spring called Alkali Spring by some. The 
supply of water is small and its quality is poor. 

290. McDonald Spring, Nye County (C-5). — This spring is on the 
east slope of the Grapevine Range, 10 miles a little north of west 
of Bullfrog, about 2 J miles north of Cave Rock Spring (No. 291), 
and 1 mile south of a wood road on the south side of a small butte. 
The supply of water is small. 

291. Cave Bock Spriiig, Nye County (C-5). — This spring is on 
the east slope of the Grapevine Range, about 10 miles a little south 
of west of Bullfrog, and 2 miles south of east of Nevada-California 
boundary post No. 92. It is well up the slope above the wash and 
accessible to wagons. The flow is about 4 barrels per day. 

292. Currie Wells, Nye County (C-5). — This watering place is 10 
miles northwest of Bullfrog, on the road from Goldfield, at an eleva- 
tion of 4,401 feet (U. S. Geological Survey) . Water is obtained from 
three wells, 10, 12, and 14 feet deep, yielding about 200 barrels of 
excellent water daily. There is a stage station here, at which meals 
and forage for animals can be obtained. 

293. Mud Spring, Nye County (C-5). — These springs are about 10 
miles north of Bullfrog and about 4 miles northeast of Currie Wells, 
on the south edge of Sarcobatus Flat. They have been extensively 
used by freighters and their location is clearly marked by camp 
debris. There is a fair supply of good water. 

294. Oasis Valley, Nye County (C-6). — This is the name given to 
the valley in which Amargosa River rises. In it there are nearly 
100 springs, which constitute the source of the river. These springs 
are scattered along the valley for about 6 miles and yield thermal as 
well as cold waters. Among them are the Oasis Springs, from which 
water is piped to the town of Bullfrog. This valley should not be 
confused Avith Oasis, a settlement in the southeastern corner of Mono 
County, Cal. 



90 DESEKT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

295. Topopah Spring^ Nye County (C-7). — This is also called 
Black Rock Spring. It is about 15 miles northwest of Cane Spring 
(No. 298), high up on the south slope of Shoshone Mountain, on the 
east side of a basin bounded on the west by low " calico " hills. The 
supply of water is very meager. 

296. Railroad Tank^ Nye County (C-8). — This tank, or natural 
basin, is in the open valley about 20 miles due south of Oak Springs 
Butte, one-half mile west of AVhite Mud Flat (a dry lake), and IB 
miles north from Cane Spring (No. 298). The water is very alka- 
line, and the tank is usually dry in August. 

297. Roseh ^¥ell^ Nye County (D-6). — This well is near a station 
on the Las Yegas and Tonopah Railroad, being about half a mile 
west of the railroad, on the old stage road from Fairbanks Ranch to 
Bullfrog. The well is 210 feet deep and yields about 100 barrels per 
day of good water. 

298. Cane Spring^ Nye County (D-8). — This spring is on the old 
emigrant road from Salt Lake to Los Angeles, about 13 miles south 
of Railroad Tank, about 45 miles south of east from Bullfrog, and 25 
miles northeast of Fairbanks Ranch. It is 30 miles by road north- 
west of Indian Springs station, on the Las Vegas and Tonopah Rail- 
road. The water is good and the supply is about 25 barrels per day. 

299. Miller Well, No. i, lYye County (E-6).— This is a well dug by 
Mr. Miller, on the stage and automobile road from Las Yegas to Bull- 
frog. It is about 8 miles northwest of the Fairbanks Ranch, at an 
elevation of 2,555 feet (U. S. Geological Survey). The well is about 
200 feet deep, and will suppl}^ 200 barrels per day. There is no rope, 
as the well has not been used since 1905. 

300. Fairhanks Ranch, Nye County (E-7). — This is a well-known 
ranch and stopping place for travelers on the roads leading from 
Barnwell to Ivanpah, Cal., and from Roach and Jean, Nev., 
northward by wa}^ of Manse. The ranch is near the north end of 
Ash Meadows, at the southeastern edge of what is known as the 
Amargosa Desert. It has been occupied and cultivated for a number 
of years, and is supplied with an abundance of water from springs 
that suffice to irrigate a large tract. Both grain and provisions may 
be obtained here by travelers. 

Roads lead from Fairbanks Ranch southeastward to Pahrump 
(35 miles away) and to Manse (40 miles away). There are no regu- 
lar watering places between Fairbanks Ranch and Pahrump. Other 
roads toward the northeast and north connect with the main Las 
Yegas-Bullfrog road at Miller Well No. 2, and still other roads lead 
w^estward to Furnace Creek and the north end of Death Yalle}^ 
Specific details as to all these roads can be had at the ranch. 

301. Miller Well No, 2, Nye County (E-7).— This well, now aban- 
doned, was dug by Mr. Miller on the stage and automobile road from 



SPRINGS IN NEVADA. 91 

Las Vegas to Bullfrog and stands at an elevation of 2,490 feet. (U. S. 
Geological Survey.) It is about 6 miles northeast of Fairbanks 
ranch and about the same distance southwest of Amargosa station, 
on the Las Vegas and Tonopah Railroad. There is a building at the 
Avell, and until recently water has been sold to travelers. The well is 
about TO feet deep and can supply 100 barrels per clay. The water is 
brackish, and there is no rope at the well, which has not been in use 
since 1905. 

302. Johnnie^ Nye County (E-8) . — This mining settlement has come 
into existence since 1902. It is about 18 miles west of north from 
Pahrump and about 12 miles southeast of Miller Well No. 2. Water 
is piped to the town from Horseshutem Spring, about 4 miles to the 
east. 

303. Kevichup Spring^ Nye County (E-8). — This spring is near the 
Johnnie mine, 5 or 6 miles northeast of the town of Johnnie. The 
water is used for the mining camp, and is said to be of excellent 
quality. 

304. Tlornet Springs^ Lincoln County (E-9). — These springs are on 
the northeast slope of Spring Mountain, about 7 miles south of Elder- 

* berry and about 20 miles northeast of Manse, on a road from Manse 
to Indian Springs (No. 305). They yield a large supply of water 
of excellent quality. 

305. Indian Springs^ Lincoln County (E-9). — These springs are 
about 20 miles northwest of Corn Creek Spring, 35 miles east of Miller 
Well No. 2, and 45 miles from Las Vegas. They are more than 5 
feet deep and jdeld an abundant supply of water, which issues from 
limestone. This is one of the important camping places on the stage 
and automobile road from Las Vegas to Bullfrog. 

306. Corn Creek Spring^ Lincoln County (E-10). — This spring 
forms another stopping place on the road from Las Vegas to Bull- 
frog. It yields from 1 to 2 miner's inches of excellent water. 

307. Fahrump^Nye County (F-8). — Pahrump, one of the oldest set- 
tlements in the southern portion of Nevada, is about 7 miles north- 
west of Manse, on the road to Fairbanks ranch. It is a large ranch, in 
whose cultivation a number of Indians are employed. Here orchards, 
A'ineyards, and extensive fields of alfalfa flourish, and the Avater used 
in irrigation is supplied by a number of large, deep-seated warm 
springs, similar to those at Manse. Travelers can obtain hay and 
grain here. 

308. Manse Springs^ Nye County (F-8). — The springs at Manse 
have been known for years to travelers going northward from points 
in southern Nevada, and the place has long been the principal stop- 
ping point along this route. By tne use of the water wdiich the 
springs yield, this portion of the desert has been converted into a 
veritable oasis, and the 500 or 600 acres of alfalfa, orchards, and 



92 DESERT WATERING PLACES IN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

vineyards show the capabilities of the desert soil when water can be 
applied to it in sufficient quantity. 

The springs are over 20 feet in diameter and from 5 to 6 feet deep. 
The bottom is of white sand, and warm water boils up through this 
in large volume. These important springs and those of similar 
character at Saratoga Springs, Resting Springs, and Indian Springs, 
all occur along a line that runs nearly northeast and southwest. All 
of them are remarkable for the volume and purity of the water they 
yield. 

311. Mountain Spring^ Lincoln County (F-9). — This spring is 
about 4 miles, air line, southwest of Wilson's ranch, and on the other 
(the western) slope of Spring Mountain. It is about 8 miles north- 
west of Crystal Springs (No. 316), and is but little below the highest 
point on the road from Las Vegas Avestward to tlie Pahrump Val- 
ley. It is close by the roadside and its position is well marked. The 
supply of water is ample. 

There are many springs in Spring Mountain, many of which are 
well known locally and may be reached by roads or trails from 
Pahrump, Manse, Las Vegas, and points on the San Pedro, Los^ 
Angeles and Salt Lake, and Las Vegas and Tonopah railroads. 

312. Tule Springs^ Lincoln County (F-10). — These springs are 
about 12 miles northwest of Las Vegas, on the road from Las Vegas 
to Bullfrog. The waters rise along the edge of a dry lake in the 
northwestern extension of Las Vegas Valley. They are the first 
springs to be found along this road beyond Las Vegas. 

313. Vegas Springs^ Lincoln County (F-10). — These are warm 
springs about 2 miles Avest of the city of Las Vegas. They yield 
a supply that is used locally for irrigation. Fremont stopped here 
MaA^ 3, 1844, and speaks of the waters as " two narrow streams of 
clear Avater, 4 or 5 feet deep, Avith a quick current, from two singu- 
larly large springs." The Av^ater has a pleasant taste, but is rather 
too Avarm to be agreeable, the temperatures being respectively 71° and 
73° in the two springs. 

314. Mesquite Springs^ Lincoln County (F-11). — These springs are 
about 10 miles southeast of Las Vegas, on the south road leading 
thence to Callville. The water supply is reported to be good, and 
the position of the springs is clearly marked by camp rubbish. Mes- 
quite Wells (No. 320) are in Mesquite Dry Lake, aboutf 35 miles 
southAvest, on the Avestern edge of the State. 

315. Stump Spring^ Lincoln County (G-9). — This spring is about 
halfway between Sandy and Manse, on the old stage road from Ivan- 
pah to Manse. It is protected by curbing, and the AA-ater must be 
draAvn by a bucket. Roads from Stump Spring lead westAvard to 
Resting Springs, and eastward to Las Vegas, both by Avay of Crystal 
Springs (No. 316) and by way of Wilson's ranch (No. 317). 



SPRINGS IN NEVADA. 93 

316. Crystal Springs^ Lincoln County (G-9). — These springs are 
in a pass between two ranges that have only local names, about 8 
miles southeast of Wilson's ranch. They are plainly marked, as they 
have been used for many years by the settlers. 

317. Wilsows Spring^ Lincoln County (G-10). — This spring is on 
the well-known Wilson ranch, about 20 miles south of west from Las 
Vegas, on the road from Las Vegas to Stump Spring. The water is 
used for irrigating the ranch. 

318. Cottonwood Spmngs^ Lincoln County (G-10). — These springs 
are 4 miles southeast of Wilson's ranch and about 18 or 20 miles 
southwest of Las Vegas, on the old wagon road from Las Vegas to 
Good Springs or Jean station. The water is good and its amount 
great enough to irrigate a small ranch. 

319. Sandy ^ Lincoln County (H-9). — Sandy, a mining settlement 
and post-office, is on the old stage road from Ivanpah to Manse. It 
is about 1 mile north of Mesquite Dry Lake and about 16 miles west 
of Good Springs or Jean station, on the Salt Lake Railroad. Water 
is to be had at several near-by points east and south, but on the road 
running northward the nearest water is found at Stump Spring, 
about 18 miles away. There are stores in the settlement, where sup- 
plies may be obtained. 

320. Mesquite Wells, Lincoln County (H-9). — These wells are in 
a clump of mesquite trees in Mesquite Dry Lake, about 3 miles 
south of Sandy post-office, on the stage road from Ivanpah to Manse. 
They are protected by curbing, and the water stands so near to the 
surface that it is easily drawn up in a bucket. The quantity is suffi- 
cient and the quality fair. 

321. New England Springs, Lincoln County (H-9). — These springs 
are between Jean and Sandy, on the road connecting the two points. 
At the springs a branch road turns northward to Crystal Springs 
and Wilson's. The flow of the springs is estimated at 1 or 2 miner's 
inches. 

322. Good Springs, Lincoln Comity (H-10). — These springs are on 
the road to Sandy post-office, about 6 miles west of Jean station. 
There are large mines in operation near by, and a settlement has 
grown up around them. The supply of water is large and its quality 
is indicated by the name. 

323. Piute Springs, Lincoln County (I-ll). — These springs are 
about 13 or 14 miles from Barnwell station (Manvel post-office), just 
east of the California-Nevada line, in the Piute Eange. The main 
road from Barnwell to Searchlight runs about 3 miles north of them, 
but there is a dim trail between these places that passes the springs. 
Their exact location can best be ascertained by inquiries at the rail- 
road station. The water issues from the granite that forms the axis 
of this range, and is pure and sweet. Other Piute Springs (No. 149) 
lie in Piute Pass, about 20 miles south. 



INDEX. 



A. 

Agua Caliente Springs, Cal., description of. 85 

Agua Dulce Springs, Cal., description of... 80 

Alamo Bonita Springs, Cal., description of. 80 

Alamo River, description of 15 

Alkali Spring, Nev. , description of 89 

Alverson, C. S., work of 8 

Amargosa River, description of 9-10, 14 

water of 9-10 

Amboy-Dale route, description of 28 

Arab Spring, Cal., description of 37 

Argus Mountains, spring in 39 

Arrowweed, water near 20 

Arsenic springs, nonexistence of 15, 48-49 

Artesian water, development of 29-30 

Aztec Well, Cal., description of 81 

B. 

Bailey, G. E., work of 7 

Banning-Dale route, description of 29 

Barnwell route, description of 27 

Barrel Springs, Inyo Co., Cal., descrip- 
tion of 31 

Barrel Spring, San Bernardino Co., Cal., 

description of 61-62 

Barrel Springs, Nev., description of 87 

Bedding, nature of 22 

Bedrock Spring, Cal., description of 52 

Bennet's Wells, Cal., description of 38 

Bird Spring, Cal., description of 33 

Bitter Spring, Cal., description of 61 

Blackhawk Well, Cal., description of 51 

Black Mountains, Cal. , wells on 38 

Black's Well, Cal., description of 58 

Blackwater Well, Cal., description of 52-53 

Bonanza Springs, Cal., description of 69 

Bonanza Well, Cal., description of 66 

Bonnie Clair, Nev., wells at 88 

Borax Well, Cal., description of 62-63 

Borego Spring, Cal., description of 82 

Bowlder Well, Cal., description of 73 

Box S ranch, Cal., wells at 71-72 

view at 66 

Brier Spring, Nev., description of 88-89 

Brook Spring, Cal., description of 46 

Brown's Well, Cal., description of 79 

Buckhorn Spring, Cal., description of 64 

Bullfrog routes, description of 27-28 

Bullion Mountains, Cal., spring on 74 

Burcham ranch, Cal., water at 71 

Burro Spring, Cal., description of 32 

C. 

Cactus Flat Springs, Cal., description of . .. 72-73 

California, springs in, descriptions of 31-87 

Camps, location of 16-17 

Cane Springs, Nev., description of 90 



Page. 

Canteens, need for 24 

Canyon Springs, Riverside Co., Cal., de- 
scription of 81 

('an yon Springs, San Bernardino Co., Cal., 

description of 60 

Carrijo, Cal., springs at 86 

Cave Rock Springs, Nev., description of ... 89 

Cave Springs, Cal., description of 47 

Chapman, R. H., work of 8 

China ranch, Cal., road to 40^1 

springs at 41 

China Well, Cal., description of 42 

Chinese pusley, water near. . . , 20 

Chuckwalla Spring, Cal., description of 82 

City Wells, Cal., description of 51 

Clark Well, Cal., description of 82 

Clay, water in... 19 

Climate, description of 11-13 

Clothing, nature of 22-23 

Cloudbursts, violence of 12 

Coachella, Cal., wells at 79 

Cold Spring, Cal. , description of 31-32 

Coleman-Mohave route, description of 33 

Coleman Springs, Cal., description of 36 

Colony well, Cal., description of 68 

Colorado desert, description of 11 

location of 6 

Confidence Springs, Cal., description of 39 

Conglomerate, water in 19 

Coolgardie, Cal. , wells near 58, 59 

Copper Wells, Cal. , description of 73 

Corn Creek Springs, Nev., description of... 91 

Corn Springs, Cal., description of 81 

Coso, Cal., springs at 37 

Cottonwood Creek, description of 34-35 

Cottonwood Springs, Riverside Co., Cal., de- 
scription of 78 

Cottonwood Springs, San Bernardino Co., 

Cal., description of 56-57, 66 

Cottonwood Springs, Nev., description of .. 93 

Cove Springs, Cal., description of 66 

Cow Creek, description of 36 

Cow Spring, Cal., description of 38 

Coyote Holes. Cal., springs at 49-50, 75 

Coyote Well, Imperial Co., Cal., description 

of 86 

Coyote Well, San Bernardino Co., Cal., de- 
scription of 60-61 

view of GO 

Crater Spring, Cal., description of 56 

Creosote bush, water near 21 

Cronese Spring, Cal., description of 61 

Crystal Spring, Cal., description of 37 

Crystal Springs, Nev., description of 93 

Culture, extent of 6-7 

Cunningham Spring, Cal., description of . .. 50 

Currie Wells, Nev. , description of 89 

Cushenbury Springs, Cal., description of... 72 

95 



96 



INDEX. 



D. Page. 

Daggett route, description of 27 

Dale-Amboy route, description of 28 

Dale-Banning route, description of 29 

Dale-Mecca route, description of 28 

Dale Pump, Cal., water at 76 

Danby, Cal., wells near 70 

Dante Spring, Cal., description of 62 

Data, accuracy of 7-8 

Daylight Spring, Cal., description of 34 

Dead Man's Hole, Cal., description of 74 

Dead Man's Lake, Cal., well at 71 

Death Valley, view in ". 10 

Death Valley region, description of 9-10 

location of 5 

routes in, description of 26-27 

Deep Springs, Cal., description of 31 

Desert region, area and location of 5 

area and location of, map showing . . Pocket. 

character of 8-9 

industrial development in 6-7 

mineral resources of 6 

watering places in 5-6 

Desert Wells, Kern Co., Cal., description of. 57 
Desert well, San Bernardino Co., Cal., de- 
scription of 76 

Distances, pacing of 25 

Dos Palmas, Cal., springs at .- 80-81 

Drinking, restriction on 23-24 

Dry lakes, occurrence and character of 17-18 

wells at 18 

E. 

Emigrant Springs, ('al . , description of 35 

Epsom, salts, occurrence of 15 

Esmeralda Co., Nev., springs in 87-88 

F. 

Fairbanks ranch, Nev., description of 90 

Farmer, Nev., water at 88 

Faults, occurrence and character of 11 

Feed, provision for 21-22 

Fenner, Cal., wells at 66-67 

Figtree John's Springs, Cal., description of. 83-84 

Fish Springs, Cal., description of 88 

Flowing Wells, Cal., description of 65 

Food, nature of ." . . . 23 

Fountain Springs, Cal., description of 35 

Fourth of July Springs, Cal., description of. 44 

Francis Well, Cal., description of 57 

Franklin Well, Cal., description of 36-37 

Freeman, Cal., springs near 42 

Fremont, J. C, gn Salt Spring 49 

Fremont's trail, description of 25 

Frinks Springs, Cal., description of 84 

Fuel, scarcity of 24 

G. 

Garlic Spring, Cal., description of 61 

Garlock, spring near 50 

Getting lost, precautions concerning 24-25 

Glaubers salt, occurrence of 15 

GoffH, Cal., well at 67 

Goldbelt Spring, Cal., description of 83 

Goldfield route, description of 28 

Gold Mountain, Nev., well at 87 

Goleta Spring, Cal . , description of 57-58 



Page. 

Good Springs, Nev. , description of 93 

Government Holes, Cal., description of 63 

Granite, water in 19 

Granite Mountain, Cal., springs on 68 

Granite Tanks, Cal., description of 81 

Granite Wells, Cal., description of 53 

Grant Springs, Cal., description of ..58 

Grapevine ranch, Cal., springs at 31 

Grapevine Springs, Inyo Co., Cal., descrip- 
tion of 31 

Grapevine Springs, Kem Co., Cal., descrip- 
tion of 42 

Gravel, water in 19 

Great Trough, location and character of .. . 10-11 

Green water, Cal. , springs at 38 

H. 

Haggin Well, Cal., description of .50 

Halloran Springs, Cal., description of 56 

Hanna Well, Cal., description of 84 

Harper Lake, Cal., well'at 65 

Harper's Camps, Cal., wells at 54-55 

Harper Well, Cal., description of 85 

Hector, Cal., spring near 69 

Hidden Springs, Cal., description of 44 

Hinkley Well, Cal., description of 65 

Hole in the Kock Spring, Cal., descrip- 
tion of 34 

Hornet Springs, Nev., description of 91 

Horsethief Spring, Cal., description of 50 

Hot Springs, Cal., description of 39 

I. 

Ibis, Cal., wells at 67 

Imperial Co., Cal., springs in 84-86 

Indian Spring, Esmeralda Co., Nev., descrip- 
tion of 87 

Indian Springs, Inyo Co., Cal., description of 32 
Indian Springs, Kern Co., Cal., descrip- 
tion of 64 

Indian Springs, Lincoln Co., Nev., descrip- 
tion of 91 

Indian Spring, San Bernardino Co., Cal., 

description of 59 

Indian Well, Riverside Co., Cal., descrip- 
tion of 79 

Indio, Cal., wells at 79 

Inyo Co., Cal., springs in 31-42 

Iron Chief Well, Cal., description of 78 

Irrigation, development of 29 

Ivanpah route, description of 27-28 

Ivanpah Well, Cal., description of 57 

J. 

Jacumba Springs, Cal., description of 87 

Johannesburg route, description of 26-27 

Johnnie, Nev., spring near 91 

K. 

Kane Spring. Imperial Co., Cal., description 

of 85 

Kane Springs, Kern Co., Cal., description of. 50 

Kane's Spring, San Bernardino Co., Cal., 

description of 69 

Kane's Wells, Cal., description of 59 

view of 60 

Keane Spring, Cal., description of 34 



INDEX. 



97 



Page. 

Keeler-Mohave route, description of 26 

Kern Co., Cal., springs in 42,57 

Kessler Springs, Cal., description of 56 

Kevidrup Spring, Nev., description of 90 

Kingston Springs, Cal., description of 49 

Klinefelter, Cal. , springs at 67 

Klinker Mountain, wells on 51 

Kramer, Cal., wells near 65 

L. 

Lander Well, Cal., description of 42 

Langford Well, Cal., description of 61 

Las Vegas route, description of 28 

Leacli's Spring, Cal. , description of 44-45 

Lead Spring, Cal., description of 54 

Le Conte Springs, Cal., description of 68-69 

Lightfoot Well, Cal. , description of 78 

Limestone, water in 19 

Lincoln Co. , Ne v. , springs in 92-93 

Lone Willow Spring, Cal., description of... 44 
Lost. See Getting lost. 

Lost Horse Spring, Cal. , description of 77 

Lucerne Valley, well in 72 

M. 

McCain Springs, Cal., description of 84-85 

McCoy Spring, Cal., description of 82 

McDonald Spring, Nev., description of 89 

Magnesia Spring, Cal., description of 77 

Manse Springs, Nev., description of 91-92 

Map of desert region Pocket. 

accuracy of 7 

Marl Spring, Cal., description of 63 

Mascot Spring, Cal. , description of 69 

Mason ranch, Cal., springs at 85 

Mean's Well, Cal., description of 73 

Mecca, Cal., springs at 80 

Mecca-Dale route, description of 28 

Mellen, wells at 70-71 

Mesquite, water near 20 

Mesquite Spring, Inyo Co., Cal., description 

of 32 

Mesquite Spring, San Bernardino, Cal., 

description of 75 

Mesquite Springs, Nev., description of 92 

Mesquite Well, Cal., description of 85 

Mesquite Wells, Nev., description of 93 

Mexican Camp Spring, Nev., description of 89 

Mill Camp, Cal., springs at 81 

Miller's Well, Cal., description of 76 

Miller Wells, Nev., description of 90-91 

Mineral resources, development of 6 

Mohave-Coleman route, description of 36 

Mohave Desert, location of 5 

Mohave-Keeler route, description of 26 

Mohave River, description of 10, 14 

Mono County, Cal., springs in 31 

Mountain Palm. Springs, Cal., description 

of 85 

Mountains, springs and tanks in 17 

Mountain Springs, Cal., description of 86-87 

Mountain Spring, Nev., description of 92 

Mud Springs, Nev., description of 89 

Mule Springs, Cal. , description of 84 

Murphy's Well, Cal., description of 58 

72945— NO. 224—09 7 



N. Page. 

Needles, Cal., wells at 67-68 

Needles- Parker route, description of 28 

Nevada, springs in 87-93 

Newberry Springs, Cal,, description of 65 

New England Springs, Nev., description of. 93 

New River, description of 15 

Nye Co., Nev., springs in 88-92 

O. • 

Oasis, Cal., springs at 31 

Oasis Valley, Cal. , springs in 89 

Old Camp, Nev. , spring at 87 

Old Spanish trail, description of 26 

Old Woman Mountain, Cal., spring on 74 

Old Woman's Springs, Cal., description of. . 70, 73 

Ord Spring, Cal., description of 68 

Out West Well, Cal., description of 63-64 

view of 10 

Owens River, description of 14 

Owl Springs, Cal., description of 45^6 

P. 

Pachanca Springs, Cal., description of . 50 

Packard Well, Cal. , description of 79 

Pahrump, Nev., springs near 91 

Palmdale, Cal., springs at 77 

Palmetto, Nev., water at 87 

Palm Springs, Riverside Co., Cal., wells at. 77 
Palm Springs, San Diego Co., Cal., descrip- 
tion of 85 

Palm Well, Cal., description of 78 

Palo Verde Mountains, Cal., description of. 82,84 

Paradise Springs, Cal., description of 59-60 

Parker-Needles route, description of 28 

Peacock Springs, Cal. , description of 69 

Pilot Springs, Cal. , description of 53-54 

Pinkham, C. A. , Avork of 8 

Pinon Pine Well, Cal., description of 78 

Piute Springs, Cal., description of 64 

Piute Springs, Nev. , description 'of 93 

Poison Spring, Cal. , description of 34 

Poison springs, nonoccurrence of 15, 48-49 

Precipitation, records of 12-13 

Providence Wells, Cal., description of 66 

view of 66 

Provisions, nature of 23 

Purslane, water near 20 

Q. 

Quail Springs, Cal., description of 43, 45, 75 

R. 

Rabbit Springs, Cal., description of 71 

Railroad Tank, Nev., description of 90 

Railroads, construction of 6-7 

Rainfall, records of 12-13 

Rest Spring, Cal., description of 32 

Resting Springs, Cal., description of 39-40,41 

Ricardo, springs near 50 

Riggs Well, Gal., description of 55-56 

Ring Well, Cal., description of 33 

Rivers, description of 13-15 

Riverside Co. , Cal. , springs in 77-84 

Rock Corral, Cal., spring at 73 

Rocks, water in 18-20 



98 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Rock Springs, Cal., description of 64 

Rodriguez, Cal., wells at 64 

Rodriguez Lake, Cal., spring at 64-65 

Rose Springs, Cal., description of 37 

Rose's Well, Nev. , description of 90 

Ruiz Well, Cal. , description of 33 

S. 

Saccatone Springs, Cal., description of 57 

Saline Valley Well, Cal., description of 33 

Salt Creek Wells, Cal. , description of 34 

Salt grass, water near 21 

Sal ton Sink, location and character of 10 

Salt Spring, Cal., description of 48-49 

water from, poison in 48-49 

Salt Well, Inyo Co., Cal., description of 35 

Salt Well, San Bernardino Co., Cal., de- 
scription of 43 

San Bernardino Co., Cal., springs in 43-77 

San Bernardino Mountains, spring on 72 

Sand, water in 18-19 

San Diego Co., springs in 84, 85-87 

Sand Springs, Cal. , description of 31 

Sandstone, water in •. 19 

Sandy, Nev., springs near 93 

Saratoga Springs, Cal. , description of 47 

roads to 48 

Schist, water in 19-20 

Searchlight route, description of 28 

Searles, Cal., springs near 42-43 

Searles Lake, Cal., springs near 43 

Searles Springs, Cal., description of 42 

Seattle Well, Nev. , description of 88 

Seventeen Palms Springs, Cal., description 

of 82-83 

Shale, water in 19 

Shaves Well, Cal. , description of 80 

Siam, Cal., wells near 69-70 

Silver Lake, Cal., wells at 55 

Sinks, occurrence and character of 17-18 

wells at .' : 18 

Skilling Wells, Cal., description of 51 

Slate Range, Cal., springs in 43 

Soda Lake, location and character of ..... . 10, 15 

spring and wells at and near 62, 63 

Soda Springs, Cal., description of 83 

Spanish trail, old; description of 26 

Springs, descriptions of 31-93 

descriptions of, symbols used in 30-31 

location of, map showing Pocket. 

occurrence and character of 15-16, 17 

Squaw Spring, Cal., description of 51 

Staininger's ranch, springs at 31 

Star Springs, Cal., description of 58 

Stirrup Tanks, Cal. , description of 78 

Stovepipe Wells, Cal., description of 34 

Stubby Springs, Cal., description of 77 

Stump Spring, Nev., description of 92 

Sulphur Springs, Cal., description of 75-76 

Summit Diggings, Cal., springs at 51 

Sunflower Spring, Cal., description of 70 

Sunset Springs, Cal., description of 86 

Surprise Spring, Cal., description of 73-74 

Surveyor's Well, Cal., description of 33 

Sweetwater Springs, Cal., description of... 49 
Symbols, use of, for springs shown on map. 30-31 



T. Page. 

Tanks, location of 17 

Teams, choice and care of 1 21 

Tecopa Well, Cal., description of 41-42 

Temperature, records of 12 

Thorp Mill, Nev., description of 88 

Tiefort Mountain, Cal., well at 54 

Toltec, Cal., wells at . 56 

Tomaso Springs, Cal., description of 55 

Tonopah Well, Nev., description of 88 

Tools, need for 22 

Topopah Spring, Nev., description of 90 

Toro Springs, Cal., description of 79-80 

Traveling, hints on 21-25 

routes for 25-29 

Triangle Spring, Cal., description of 33 

Tule Springs, Cal., description of 32, 38, 41 

Tule Springs, Nev., description of 92 

Tules, water near 20 

Tunnels, drainage, uselessness of 18 

Turtle Mountains, Cal. , description of 77 

Twenty-nin'e Palms Spring, Cal., descrip- 
tion of 76 



Vallecito Springs, Cal., description of. 

Valley Spring, Cal., description of 

water from, analysis of 

Valley Wells, Cal., description of 

Vegas Springs, Nev., description of ... 



84 
46 
46 
56 
92 

Vegetation, character of 20, 21 

water near 20-21 

Victorville, Cal., well at 68 

Victorville routes, description of 28-29 

Vontreger Springs, Cal., description of 64 



W. 

Warren's ranch, Cal., springs at 

Warren's Well, Cal., description of 

Washington Tank, Cal., description of. 
Water, boiling of 



76 
75 
78 
23 

discovery of 16-21 

source of 13 

See also Rivers; Springs; Wells. 

Water Station, Cal., wells at 57 

Wells, concealment of 16 

West Wells, Cal., description of 74-75 

Wheeler Spring, Cal., description of 54 

Whitney Spring, Cal., description of 54 

Wilbur Well, Cal., description of 73 

Wild Rose Spring, Cal., description of 37-.38 

WillardLake, Cal., well at 52 

Williams Well, Cal., description of 55 

Willow Spring, Esmeralda Co., Nev., de- 
scription of 88 

Willow Springs, Inyo Co., Cal., description 

of 32,37 

Willow Springs, Kern Co., Cal., description 

of 51 

Willow Spring, Nye Co., Nev., description 

of ."^ 88 

Willow Springs, San Bernardino Co., Cal., 

description of 60, 65-66, 69 

Wilson's Spring, Nev. , description of 93 



Yuba Springs, Cal., description of. 



86 



o 







,Z4-7 





fjlexi cd / _ L-'L Jul— — 



ir- 



10 



WATER-SUPPLY PAPER NO, 224 PL I 



-I 1 ' " I Z I 13 I i JT-ff 

GFNERAL MAP ' j 

SHOWING APPROXIMATE LOCATION OF 

BETTER KNOWN SPRINGb AND WELLS 

IN THE 

MOHAVE AND ADJACENT DESERTS 

SOOTHEASTEPN CALIFORNIA AND 
SOI rHWt'5 TERN NI-\ADA 







LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



019 953 829 ? 




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