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North Carolina State Library 
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THE 



SOUTHERN STATES, 



An Illustrated Monthly Magazine 
Devoted to the South. 



Vol. hi. 

march, 1895— february, 1896. 



baltimore, md. : 
Manufacturers' Record Publishing Co. 



Alphabetical Index to Third Volume. 



Advertising and Immigration W. L. Glessner 429 

Agricultural Capabilities of the South M. B. Hill yard 

I. Grasses 93 

II. Grasses 149 

III. Grasses 291 

IV. Grasses 357 

V. Hog Raising 421 

VI. Sheep Raising 489 

A South Carolina Rice Plantation of "Ye Olden 'fime"..Arnot Chester 106 

A Southern View of Emancipation Arnot Chester 295 

A Southward Movement from Kansas Frank Y. Anderson 246 

A Southward Slant George B. Cowlam i 

Book and Magazine Notes 181, 272, 416, 453, 558 

Booms West and South Albert Phenis 187 

Correspondence 45, 85, 125. 177, 214, 269, 315, 414, 555 

Crops and Business in the South 237 

Editorial 29, 70, 116, 163, 198, 251, 298, 361, 398, 435, 496, 538 

A Hay Carnival 434 

"And the Last Shall Be First" 70 

An Indiana Editor's Impressions of the South 399 

A Peach Carnival in Georgia 165 

Arkansas and the Atlanta Exposition iiS 

Arkansas and the Railroads 72 

Artesian Wells 302 

A Suggestion to Southern Resorts 366 

Atlanta Exposition 399 

Atlanta and its Expositions 364 

Beginning to Be Felt 252 

California Peaches 251 

Can Armenians Be Colonized in the South? 538 

Competition in Immigration Work 198 

Condition of the Southern Farmer 541 

Corn in the South 498 

Deep Water Harbor on the Texas Coast 30 

Diversified Farming in the South 200 

Effective Instrumentalities in Southern Progress 118 

Experience and Opinions of Northern People who have Moved South 116 

Farmers Can Work All the Year in the South 361 

Farm Villages the Opportunity of the South 164 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 
Editorial — Continued. 

Florida Lands in demand 31 

Foreign Immigration . 401 

From a Norfolk Editor 31 

Fruit Farms in Georgia 253 

Great Industrial Activity in the South 165 

Here's What Advertising in the "Southern States" does 498 

Immigration Does Not Seek Out Localities 361 

Impure Drinking Water 436 

Increasing Diversification of Southern Agriculture 539 

Indiscriminate Foreign Immigration not Wanted . 303 

Italian Immigration in the South 437 

Misleading Descriptions of the South 398 

Mr. Sparks and the Georgia Southern & Florida Railroad . . 401 

Need of Improvement in the Marketing of Fruit and Vegetables 363 

Northern and Southern People Alike 116 

Now is the Time to Work for Immigration 163 

No Wonder They Come South 363 

Opportunities Presented by the South 496 

Prize Farm Contests in "South Carolina 496 

Public School Methods in Louisiana 436 

Rice Growing in Texas , 499 

Summer in the South i65 

Tendency Southward of Great Railroad Operators 198 

That Alleged Florida Letter 71 

The American El Dorado 199 

The Enormous Corn Crop in the South in 1895 497 

The Farm Reform Movement 299 

The Georgia Colony 167 

The One-Crop Policy 497 

The Peanut 439 

The Railroads and Immigration 29S 

The Railroad Immigration Commissioners Should Have a Meeting 302 

The South's Great Opportunity 164 

The Southward Movement 29 

They Are All Moving South 253 

Tobacco in Florida 499 

Truck on the Brain 253 

What Can Be Grown in the South ... 117 

Year Book of the Agricultural Department 365 

Farm Reform and the South Francis B. Livezey 183 

General Notes 36, 82, 123, 174, 210, 258, 30S, 370, 405, 445, 502, 548 

Georgia Fruit Fairs W. L. Glessner 231 

Georgia Peaches 109 

Hog Raising in South Carolina Carlyle McKinley 532 

Hunting Gold Mines in West Virginia D. Allen Willey 155 

Immigration Notes 32, 74, 120, 168, 202, 255, 305, 367, 492, 441, 500, 543 

Items about Farms and Farmers 68 

Letters from Northern and Western Farmers Giving their Experience in the South. 26, 64 

Let Us Have the Truth About the South Wm. H. Edmonds 391 

Lumber and Rice in Southeastern Texas 221 

Miller Manual Labor School of Virginia D. Allen Willey 4 

Miscellaneous ...46, 88, 132, 219, 274, 321, 376, 41S, 457, 512, 559 

Newspaper Comment 218, 270, 374, 152, 556 

Old Field Homiletics Charles Hallock 

I. Grasses and Pasture 493 

II. Good Beef vs. Reed Beef 536 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 

Possibilities of the Peanut Edward Atkinson 427 

Real Estate Notes 34, 77, 172, 207 

Sales of Farm Property in the South to Northern Farmers 7 

Some Later Facts about Northwest Louisiana M. B. Hillyard 59 

Some Notable Features of the Atlanta Exposition Gen. L W. Avery 379 

Southern Farmers in Better Condition Financially than for Many Years Past 459 

Southward Tendency of Immigration J. B. Killebrew, A. M., Ph.D. . 47 

Tennessee River Improvement Thurston H. Allen....... 53 

Territory of the San Antonio & Aransas Pass Railroad 517 

The Distribution of Population Chas. A. Choate 383 

The G. A. R.'s in Georgia Geo. A. K. Stevens 296 

The Gulf Coast 432 

The Peanut : Its Culture and Uses 385 

The Pen and the Plough Carlyle McKinley 99 

The Plant System Gen. I. W. Avery. 323 

The South and the Northwest Wm. H. Edmonds 135 

Truck Farming and Fruit Growing Around Mobile D, Allen Willey. 277 

What of the New South Frederick B. Gordon 103 

What They Think of the South iii, 157, 193, 247 

Western Interest in Southern Growth 191 




THE 



Southern States. 



MARCH, 1895. 



A SOUTHWARD SLANT. 

By George B. Coiclaiii. 



For two generations past the people 
of New York and New England have 
been exceedingly busy and prosperous. 
They have been reaping a rich harvest 
from seed sown by wise predecessors, 
from skillful ability growing out of en- 
forced conditions of industry and econ- 
omy, and from taking hold, with both 
hands, of the great good fortune that 
came their way owing to circumstances 
beyond their control, but which they 
were prepared to grapple to. 

The baker's dozen of millions who 
make up the population of those States 
— a little more than a- sixth of our total 
population — have created and accumu- 
lated wealth, and skill, power and appli- 
ances to create wealth, altogether out of 
proportion to any like number of our 
people, and while they have in the high- 
est degree those qualities of skillful 
application, strong organization, steady 
industry and tireless energy which are 
at the bottom of great results in all 
fields, yet this will not fully account for 
the exceptional character of their suc- 
cess. Certainly it has not come from 
any advantages of soil or climate, or 
mineral or forest wealth — of abundant 
natural resources — for in all these their 
section is more lacking than any like 
area that can be found in any part of 
our territory east of the Rocky mount- 
ains. How, then, has this result come 
about ? 

It is a plain enough tale, though mar- 
velous withal ! 

The hard conditions under which the 
people of New England lived compelled 
and trained them to make the best of 



their resources — to supplement their 
lack of natural resources with their 
utmost skill and constant industry. 
They became skillful in a great variety 
of arts. They worked the meagre 
wealth of their land and the wealth of 
their stormy seas for all they were 
worth. In New York the wisdom of a 
few of the early leading men connected 
the Hudson with the Great Lakes by 
the Erie canal, and this was followed up 
by railroads. The Westward movement 
had progressed enough to advertise to 
the world the great extent and riches of 
the Western States at the time when, a 
couple of generations back, the employ- 
ing classes of Europe, led by England, 
conceived the plan of keeping shop for 
the rest of the world and began to con- 
centrate their capital in ships on the sea 
to gather materials and deliver prod- 
ucts, and in machinery on the land, to 
be run by skilled labor, to convert raw 
materials into finished products. 

This involved the sacrifice of the 
land-holder and agricultural laborer in 
countries where land and taxes were 
high. On our side we had land of the 
richest, in the West, to give away, and 
we did give it away with royal lavish- 
ness. This brought immigrants from 
across the sea by millions. New York 
and New England were prepared to 
transport them to the West and to outfit 
them when they got there ; also to bring 
back, for consumption and export, their 
products of the soil. This was a long- 
contract. It was so gigantic that it em- 
ployed every man, machine and dollar 
in the East, at big prices, for a long 



A SOUTHWARD SLANT. 



time. But it has been pretty nearly 
worked out. It has been growing less 
and less profitable year by year for a 
dozen years past. The West is pre- 
pared, in large part, to do her own 
manufacturing, and her ability in this 
direction is increasing. Her lines ot 
exchange are swinging Southward to 
the rich coal field and forest wealth and 
to the mineral resources of the Southern 
mountains. 

A big deflection of her grain exports, 
by shorter haul to tidewater at Balti- 
more, is a sign of the trend of trade. 
She realizes that foreign markets can- 
not be depended upon and that the 
mountains of the central South contain 
inexhaustible stores on which to build 
up a permanent and unlimited home 
market. She is turning attention to this 
new field as the region of her future 
largest exchange of products. Well she 
may, too, when it is remembered that 
this 140,000 square miles of mountain 
country, which is capable of sustaining a 
denser population than any other region 
in the world of like area, would, were it 
settled up like Saxony, hold eighty-five 
million people. Besides, the States 
lying around it can sustain enormous 
populations, who can prosper from their 
own productions and the exchange of 
surplus with their mountain neighbors. 
Population is slanting Southward, and 
the movement must go on. 

Great Britain, with her ''tight little 
isle" for a workshop and wharf and the 
sea for a highway, with almost a monop- 
oly in carrying trade and commercial 
connections, with unlimited capital in 
skilled labor and machinery, in money 
and credit, has been fighting a losing 
fight. Great Britain's growing exports 
now are coal and v chinery — clubs to 
break her own heaa with — to countries 
seeking to do their own manufacturing 
and to train their people to skill in the 
arts. Her most rapidly growing articles 
of import are food products. Her great 
carrying trade, once the highest source 
of her profit from commerce, is now, 
because of competition in manufactures 
in other countries, reduced to a free col- 
lection and delivery system run at the 
expense of her manufacturers, mer- 
chants and bankers. They pay the 



freight. Consequently they are com- 
bined in an efibrt to check manufactur- 
ing development in new countries by the 
spread of monometallism, and to hold 
trade to old channels. It is a "last 
ditch" fight with them. 

But, coming back to our own country, 
the great emergency contract for build- 
ing up the country between the Alle- 
ghanies and the Rocky mountains is 
about worked out. Work now is hardly 
paying expenses. New York's great 
job of transportation is in like poor 
fix. 

Nor can the capital, machinery and 
skill of New England and the money, 
transportation and connections of New 
York combined do, by a long railway 
haul, what England has been so long 
doing, with steadily decreasing profit, 
by long haul by sea — collect raw and 
crude materials for manufactures, make 
them up and distribute them, and at the 
same time buy and haul food, fuel, lum- 
ber, etc., for living. They have no 
longer a monopoly. Other sections 
have skilled labor, machinery, capital 
and the materials to work up and prod- 
ucts to live on at hand. These facts 
settle the question. The mountain can- 
not be hauled to them. They must 
come to the mountain. 

The big concerns in New England — 
cotton-mill chaps and such like — know 
what is going on and they are preparing 
for migration and looking up good 
spots, and they will be followed by the 
workers in wood, in leather, in metals 
and in the innumerable smaller indus- 
tries of New York and New England. 

They are fixed to take care of them- 
selves. But that Eastern country is full 
of the same kind of splendid men and 
women and boys and girls as used to 
come into the West when I was a boy, 
and they are thinking of some new 
home where conditions are less hard 
and the promise of reward for labor is 
fairer and surer than it can be in the 
East from now on — some region where 
the foundation is capable of expansion 
for the children and grandchildren com- 
ing along — such locations as the people 
from York State and Yankee Land used 
to find in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana or 
Illinois in the early days, and where 



A SOUTHWARD SLANT. 



their descendants are prosperous people 
now. 

To these people I wish to say that I 
went South in a New York city regi- 
ment in April, 1861. I have lived in 
the South most of the time since. My 
business has made me reasonably famil- 
iar with all parts of it, but particularly 
those States lying east of the Mississippi 
river. I have met and known intimately 
all classes of people, from the mount- 
aineers to the people of the coast, from 
the poorer classes to those at the top 
socially and in business or professional 
circles. I think that the States lying 
east of the Mississippi constitute, be- 
cause of their great natural storehouse 
and workshop of central mountain 
wealth, surrounded by rich States, the 
richest and the finest half million square 
miles in the world. While I am partial 
to its mountains, yet there is variety of 
country to suit any one. The fisherman 
of Cape Cod or Cape Ann can find all 
he wants in the bays and harbors and 
sounds, and "outside," in Maryland, 
Virginia and the Carolinas. The tide- 
water man, the truck gardener, the fruit 
grower, the dairyman, the man who 
raises chickens, the farmer, cattle 
breeder, drover, the carpenter, mason, 
blacksmith, shoemaker, the "all-around" 
man, any kind of a man worth his salt, 
can make a living for himself anywhere 
between the sea and the mountains from 
the Susquehanna to the Carolinas, and 
he can take tidewater, middle country. 
Piedmont or mountain country to suit 
his taste, and get any variety he can 
find in New England, but get it with a 
sunnier side to it than at home. 

The men who have taken bleak and 
bare New England and made it the 
beautiful land it is to the eye can make 
a paradise in the South. 

If it were a question of moving, sim- 
ply for moving's sake, I would not rec- 
ommend it to any one. Every old 
home has its advantages and endear- 
ments. But to many it is not such a 
question. Relocation is a necessity. 
When we know, as we do now, that our 
railways are hauling an a\'erage of 



eleven and a-half tons of freight per 
annum per capita, and hauling each ton 
an average distance of 119 miles, while 
all Europe moves only about the same 
quantity and an average of less than 
two tons per capita, and only an average 
of thirty miles — when our roads are 
hauling twenty-four times as much per 
capita as is necessary for poorer but 
better located European peoples — then 
we can realize how very badly located 
our people are. They must relocate, 
moving from where that haul is highest, 
and it is highest in New York and New 
England, where everything pretty much 
has to be hauled, and hauled a long 
way, and hauled back. 

Year by year this will be borne in on 
hundreds of thousands of New England 
people. The causes have long been at 
work. On the other hand, the condi- 
tions in the South, the social conditions 
particularly, have been steadily prepar- 
ing for a big migration from the North, 
and it will be welcomed and made at 
home, as it was in the West in early 
days. Avoid booms and boom towns. 
Don't look for immediate riches. Settle 
down in a good healthy neighborhood, 
go to work and grow up with the coun- 
try. It will grow as surely and as rap- 
idly as the West did in the flush days 
of old. I have said to my Southern 
friends — and that includes about every- 
body I know in the South — that they 
might naturally expect that a people 
who had done the work and had the 
luck of the Yankees might be expected 
to be in pretty good conceit with them- 
selves, as all people good for anything 
are, but that at bottom they had the 
manhood and strength of true men and 
plenty of good sense and humor to 
enjoy a joke at their own expense ; 
that I had grown up among them in 
the West and could wish no country 
any better luck than to be full of them. 
And I can say to my Northern country- 
men that they will find nowhere in the 
world better people or better neighbors 
than the average citizens of the South- 
ern States. 



THE MILLER MANUAL LABOR SCHOOL OF VIRGLNIA. 



By D. Allen Willey. 



Million- dollar fortunes are started in 
various ways, but few millionaires ever 
earned their first dollar selling stock- 
ings which their mothers had knitted. 
The State of Virginia, however, boasts 
just such a man. 

On a wall in the reception-room of 
the Female Orphan Asylum at Lynch- 
burg is a portrait of a man about fifty 
years of age, with strong but otherwise 
unattractive features. One might notice 
it principally because it is the only pic- 
ture in the room. Why is it there ? 
Because this asylum, which is one of 
the finest in this country, by the way, 
owes its existence to the original of the 
picture, whose name was Samuel Miller. 

Mr. Miller's money paid for the most 
of it, and his money — $100,000 of it — 
pays more than one-half the cost of 
maintaining it today. 

His greatest work, however, and the 
one that will perpetuate his name, is the 
Miller Manual Labor School, of Albe- 
marle county. Mr. Miller was a quiet 
man in his ways and disliked notoriety ; 
hence it is that he was known but little 
outside of this section of the Old Do- 
minion, and with the younger generation 
he is remembered only by this great 
work in brick and stone, most of which 
was reared years after his funeral sermon 
had been preached. 

Old Mrs. Miller had been left at the 
death of her husband in moderate cir- 
cumstances, with two growing boys to 
provide for. Samuel had had consider- 
able experience in agriculture, and had 
spent much time on the plantations near 
Lynchburg, but he was too young to 
secure an appointment as overseer, and 
the field labor was entirely performed 
by slaves. Sheep-raising was at that 
time extensively carried on in this sec- 
tion, and the boy manifested much in- 
terest in the annual shearing process. 
In packing and carrying the wool to 



the town merchants, more or less was 
dropped around the shearing pens. A 
friend of his told him that he could 
have this wool if he would pick it up 
clean. He accepted the offer, and one 
morning surprised his mother by ap- 
pearing at the door of their Lynchburg 
home with a large bundle of Southdown 
fleece. Even then, so his friends say, 
he had no idea about disposing of it — 
he simply thought it worth saving. 
Woman's wit, however, suggested a 
source of profit. His mother offered to 
turn the wool into stockings if he would 
sell them. Here was an idea, and he 
took it up quickly. Had he sold the 
wool as it was, he would not have real- 
ized fifty cents for it. The stockings 
his mother made he sold around Lynch- 
burg for four times that sum. 

Such was young Miller's start in life. 
He developed an extensive house-to- 
house trade in stockings, then began 
buying wool, and hired several women 
to assist his mother in knitting. Other 
things besides stockings were made, 
and his natural talent for mak- 
ing money showed itself in a half 
dozen ways. He took his brother into 
business with him, established a branch 
house in New York, began investing his 
money in gilt-edge bonds, and bought 
his mother one of the finest plantations 
in Virginia, near Charlottesville, where 
she continued to knit stockings — but 
only for Samuel and his brother John. 
John, however, died some years before 
Samuel, and the latter continued in a 
general mercantile business in Lynch- 
burg until about the beginning of the 
war, when he retired to another planta- 
tion that he had purchased. The year 
1 869 was the year that friends gathered 
at his deathbed, and learned for the first 
time that in the seventy-six years of 
his career he had earned a fortune of 
nearly $2,000,000. It was generally re- 



THE MILLER MANUAL LABOR SCHOOL OF VIRGINIA. 



puted that he was worth $100,000 or 
$200,000, but no one imagined that his 
wealth had reached the milhon mark. 

By the terms of his will the bulk of 
his fortune was left practically to Albe- 
marle county to build a "school for 
educating boys and girls in manual 
labor." Such were the few words that 
created the group of institutions now 
termed the "Miller Manual Labor 
School," near Charlottesville. Owing to 
several law suits brought by relatives 
to break the will, the executors could 
not begin to carry out its provisions 
until 1874. From that time until about 
1890 — sixteen years — the work of carry- 
ing out Mr. Miller's plans continued 
until the "school" is one of the largest 
educational institutions in this country, 
the most extensive technical school in 
the South, and, taking the size of its 
buildings and their cost into con- 
sideration, one of the best of its 
character in the world. Altogether the 
several structures and their equipment 
have cost a little less than $1,000,000. 
The expenses of their maintenance and 
of caring for the pupils are defrayed by 
a fund of $1,300,000, from which an 
income of nearly $75,000 is received. 

The site for the institution comprises 
1000 acres of land, five miles from 
Charlottesville, Va., on the Chesapeake 
& Ohio Railroad, and in a beautiful val- 
ley not far from "Monticello," Jefferson's 
famous home. This acreage provides 
for a farm, which occupies nearly half of 
it, where the pupils are taught every 
branch of this industry from milking a 
cow to corn cultivation. They do their 
own plowing, planting, cultivating, ferti- 
lizing, harvesting, gardening, etc., and the 
farm is one of the most productive in the 
South. Wheat, oats, corn, garden veg- 
etables, small fruits, poultry, pigs, cattle 
and sheep are some of the products 
sold annually from it in nearby markets. 
Upon it is a model farm-house, where 
the girls are taught household duties, 
such as cooking, etc., and trained to 
become farmers' wives, if they should so 
choose. Right here I might say that a 
great many of them have become heads 
of such households, which is a good in- 
dication of how the Virginia planters 
appreciate practical education. But to 



return to the farm proper, the observer 
notices that the fencing is of the highest 
order, the field ditches for drainage are 
dug in straight lines and are of regular 
depth ; many of the roadways about 
the place would do credit to the streets 
of a large city, while you reach the farm 
from the city of Charlottesville by a 
wide, level road perfectly drained and 
macadamized so well that in the dryest 
weather it is comparatively free from 
dust. Most of this road was built by 
the students and laid out by boy sur- 
veyors. 

The main building of the school, like 
most of the others, is built of brick 
with stone trimming. It was seven 
years in course of construction and cost 
$150,000. It contains a chapel, the 
main dining rooms and dormitories and 
recitation rooms. The two machine 
shops nearby cost over $75,000 with 
their contents. They contain two steam 
engines, built by the students, and over 
100 horse-power can be generated by 
the boiler. These engines operate 
lathes, punches, drills, planers, saws, 
punchers, wood turners and other de- 
vices for working wood and metal of all 
kinds. The visitor then enters the 
brass and iron foundries, adjacent to 
the shops, and finds a cupola which 
will turn out a ton of molten metal per 
hour for casting into pigs, shafting, 
grates or any other form required. 
The blacksmith shop has the regulation 
outfit of anvils and tools. All of the 
forty horses on the place are shod here 
by the boys, and most of the shoes 
made also. The patterns from which 
the young molders, machinists and car- 
penters work are made in the drawing 
department, which includes a branch in 
architectural drawing. The electrical 
department is a feature of the institu- 
tion. Chemical batteries and a large 
dynamo worked by steam generates 
the currents, with which fans are turned, 
also sewing and small farm machines, 
while the entire place is lighted by 
incandescent lamps. Most of this work 
was done by the boys, who have also 
installed an electric-bell system to the 
farm house, stables and the various 
buildings of the school proper. A 
large amount of the fund has been spent 



THE MILLER MANUAL LABOR SCHOOL OF VIRGINL4. 



in this electrical department, which 
contains the most modern apparatus. 

Turning to the door of another four- 
story brick and stone structure the 
visitor enters what is familarly called the 
"school." This like the main building 
contains recitation and study rooms, but 
unlike the other is devoted entirely to 
educational purposes. It is, in fact, a 
graded school with the several depart- 
ments, where reading, spelling, writing, 
drawing, grammar, geography, arithme- 
tic, composition, algebra, geometry, 
rhetoric, trigonometry, Latin, Greek, 
French and German are taught. The 
musical department is in another build- 
ing, where one finds also instructors in 
botany, geology, mineralogy and zoolo- 
gy. And still another interesting series 
of rooms is occupied by the chemical 
laboratory, where the usual course in 
chemistry is covered and where conspic- 
uous attention is given to instruction in 
analysis of soils and in the kinds of 
fertilizers suited to particular soils, etc. 

Mr. Miller's idea was to establish a 
school where Virginia boys and girls 
could be educated in a general way, and 
receive practical instruction in any voca- 
tion they might desire to pursue. It was 
a very broad and comprehensive plan 
which was outlined in the old merchant's 
will, and how well the executors have 
followed his instructions can be under- 
stood when the reader learns that a boy 
who enters these doors can leave them 
as a carpenter, blacksmith, general ma- 
chinist, stationary engineer, draughts- 
man, civil engineer, painter, shoemaker, 
moulder, telegraph operator, electrician, 
chemist, mining engineer, geologist, bot- 
anist, bricklayer, school teacher, printer, 
florist, cabinet maker, tailor or farmer. 
A girl may be fitted lor a dressmaker, 
school or music teacher, nurse, cook, 
governess, or, above all, a practical help- 



mate for life to the man who is fortunate 
enough to marry her. And this course 
of instruction is provided for in fifteen 
buildings, ranging in cost from $250,000 
to $250 each. One of the smallest is a 
conservatory, where all who desire are 
taught how to raise and care for rare 
plants and bouquet-flowers as a business. 
To teach these various branches a staff 
of thirty-four men and women, besides 
the superintendent, is employed by the 
executors. 

So much has been said about the 
executors that I should explain more 
fully how Mr. Miller arranged this part 
of his will. The Albemarle county 
court has charge of the disposal of the 
Miller fund. A committee of two citi- 
zens makes all appointments of teachers 
when it becomes necessary, and reports 
to the court. A report of all money to 
be expended for improvements to the 
school is also made, and no appoint- 
ments can be made or money expended 
until the court signs an order giving its 
sanction. The Virginia Board of Edu- 
cation is trustee of the fund, and collects 
all interest, etc., on the securities com- 
prising it, but is subject to the Albe- 
marle court in all cases where any part 
of the money is to be spent. 

It is to be noted that only children 
who are residents of the county of 
Albemarle can be appointed to the 
school. They must be under fourteen 
years of age when they enter, and can- 
not remain after they are eighteen. The 
school is for white children exclusively. 
It is tucked away, so to speak, back in 
the Virginia foothills of the Blue Ridge, 
never heard of or thought of by the 
world at large, but doing a great work 
in educating boys and girls in a practical 
way, who otherwise might become a 
curse instead of what this institution will 
make them — a blessing to society. 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH TO 
NORTHERN FARMERS. 



The Southern States recently sent 
to a number of real estate agents in dif- 
ferent parts of the South a request for 
a statement of real estate conditions in 
their respective localities, with reference 
more particularly to farm property. 
The letters given below have been re- 
ceived in answer. 

These letters make interesting read- 
ing. They show graphically how the 
South is filling up with agriculturists 
from the North. Here are statements 
of actual sales of farms to Northern 
buyers — not mere generalizations as to 
immigration. In no other part of the 
country does there exist such activity in 
farm property. In fact the greatest obsta- 
cle to a more rapid and enlarged flow of 
population to the South is the impossi- 
bility of finding purchasers for farms in 
other sections. Thousands of farmers 
who want to move South are prevented 
from doing so by their inability to sell 
their present holdings. In several of the 
letters on the following pages this fact 
is referred to. It is conspicuous in the 
great volume of correspondence that 
comes to the Southern States from 
the North and Northwest. 

The sales made in recent months by 
these few agents furnish a basis on which 
to speculate as to the total sales in all 
the South. These letters do not of 
course make possible any sort of a gen- 
eral review or summary of land sales. 
As specific cases here and there, how- 
ever, they illustrate and demonstrate 
the fact that the movement of agricul- 
tural population to the South in large 
and increasing numbers is an actual, 
tangible reality. 

One firm in Atlanta has sold in ninety 
days an aggregate of 2740 acres of farm 
property for $30,700. The same firm 
has an order for a tract of 50,000 to 
100,000 acres for colonies of Swedes, 
and similar orders from Nebraska, Penn- 



sylvania and Ohio for smaller tracts for 
colonization. Another Atlanta agent 
writes that new settlers are coming in 
every week. 

An agent at Crowley, La., writes that 
his entire office force is kept so busy 
showing lands to homeseekers and mak- 
ing sales that his correspondence and 
clerical work has to be done at night. 

A Memphis firm has sold since Sep- 
tember I St 21,625 acres of farm lands in 
Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana for 
$195,350, the purchasers, who were in 
part from Iowa, Dakota, Nebraska and 
Illinois, buying for immediate occupancy 
and cultivation. A Chattanooga dealer 
reports having sold 'in the past twelve 
months thirty farms, aggregating 4300 
acres, to Northerners, and says he has 
received in the last two months at least 
1500 inquiries from prospective immi- 
grants. A company in Western North 
Carolina reports the sale of a 5000-acre 
tract and a number of farms. An agent 
in Fairfax county, Va., sold farms in 
1894 to persons from six Northern and 
Western States. An agency at Lynch- 
burg, Va., sold 9 1 87 acres of farms to 
Northern farmers in 1894. A firm in 
Richmond, Va., has in the last six 
months sold sex'eral large tracts to 
Northern capitalists at prices aggregat- 
ing $150,000, and has in hand now an 
application for 25,000 acres for a number 
of New England farmers. The Commis- 
sioner of Immigration for Arkansas states 
that not less than 100,000 immigrants 
have settled in that State within the past 
year. An agent at Columbia, S. C, has 
sold se\eral large farms since January i , 
including one of 12S0 acres to a New 
Yorker. An agent at Cambridge, Md., 
settled in 1S94 twenty families of Ger- 
mans from the West, and says that 
many others ha\e come in and rented 
farms with privilege of buying. In 
Haralson county, Ga., over 3000 acres 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



have been bought in small tracts for 
orchards and vineyards by over 200 
persons from other States. A corre- 
spondent in Halifax county, N. C, states 
that the county records show a consid- 
erable increase in farm sales in 1894 
over 1893, ^'ith a decrease of 20 per 
cent, in the number of mortgages and 
more existing mortgages released. At 
Centreville, Miss., twenty-two farms 
were sold to buyers from Illinois, Kan- 
sas and Pennsylvania. 

A correspondent at Gillett, Ark., says 
that over 100 families settled in that 
county in 1894, and that a large number 
have come in since, including one colony 
of eighteen families from Iowa. 

An agent at Richmond, \'a., reports 
that he has had in sixty days 1200 in- 
quiries for farm lands coming from every 
Northern and Western State and from 
Canada, England, France and Sweden. 
Fifteen per cent., or 180, of the inquiries 
were from Pennsylvania, about 10 per 
cent, each from New York and Ohio, the 
numbers, respectively, being 121 and 
128. The next highest State, 69, was 
Michigan, and the next Iowa and Illi- 
nois, 58 each. From this it will be seen 
that it is not only from the remote and 
destitute Northwest that farmers are 
seeking to move South, but from the 
older and wealthier and presumably 
more contented East. 

An agent at Pocomoke City, Md., re- 
ports having sold in 1894 fifty farms to 
families from South Dakota, Kansas, 
Nebraska, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New 
York. A firm in Petersburg. Va., sold 
forty-three farms in 1S94, the purchasers 
coming from Michigan, Wisconsin, New 
York, Indiana, South Dakota, North 
Dakota, Ohio, Illinois, Nebraska, Kan- 
sas, Pennsylvania, Germany. 

Several agents in Southern Texas re- 
port sales of about 400 farms since Jan- 
uary, 1S94, and the sales of fi\'e agents 
in Southern Missouri count up 141. 

The writers of nearl}' all the letters 
have much to say about the remarkable 
increase in the last few months in the 
number of letters of inquiry from the 
North. 

But no synopsis of these letters can 
give any adequate idea of the condi- 
tions they disclose. The letters them- 



selves should be read. It will be seen 
from them that in the purchasers of 
Southern farms every State outside of 
the South is represented. The North- 
western States — Nebraska, the Dakotas, 
Iowa. Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota — 
seem to send the largest number. Then 
come Kansas, Illinois, Ohio, Indiana, 
and then New \'ork, Pennsylvania and 
other Eastern States. 

Activity and improved Outlool< in 
Georgia. 

Saml. W. Goode & Co., Atlanta, Ga. 
— The real estate market about Atlanta 
was exceedingly inactive for more than 
a year prior to November last but, 
judged by actual sales and exchanges 
by our own agency of property valued 
in these deals at more than $200,000 
within the last ninety days, there is a 
decided improvement in the demand. 
These transactions included the follow- 
ing classes of property, to wit : 2740 
acres of farm lands at $30,700 ; 9 homes 
in Atlanta at $87,200; vacant property 
in Atlanta at $22,500 ; business property 
in Atlanta at $48,000 ; strictly suburban 
propert}' $5000 ; small cottages — renting 
purposes, $7800; but these actual sales 
and exchanges are no more significant 
than the recent and unprecedented in- 
quiries which are made by persons from 
all parts of the country about the climate, 
water, health, rainfall, soil, products, so- 
cial condition, schools, etc., in this city 
and State. This very week we have 
been asked to furnish a tract of from 
50,000 to 100,000 acres of farming lands 
in Georgia, Tennessee, or Carolina, for 
a colony of Swedes. Similar orders are 
in hand for smaller tracts for colonies — 
one from Nebraska, one from Pennsyl- 
vania, and another from Ohio. Many 
letters come from individuals seeking 
farm homes, from others wishing lands 
for special business, such as trucking, 
dairying, fruit-growing and the like. 
Besides the demand for large tracts of 
farming lands, there has been a very 
perceptible interest manifested in pine 
timber lands, and we are now about con- 
cluding the sale of over 150,000 acres. 

The gold properties of North Georgia 
have excited much interest recently, and 
it is said that there are more stamp mills 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



in operation in the State today than 
ever before. Other minerals have been 
Httle sought after by speculators for 
sometime, but there is considerable 
actual development in progress in mica, 
asbestos, pyrites, etc. Prospective buy- 
ers and manufacturers are quietly ex- 
amining the very \'aluable water-powers 
on the different streams in Georgia, and 
eligible and desirable manufacturing 
sites about Atlanta and other cities and 
towns are being in\'estigated by people 
from the New England and Middle 
States. 

There has been almost a "boom" in 
what is called "the great peach -growing 
district of Georgia," and your widely 
read magazine has had a great deal to 
do with calling attention to that particu- 
lar district about Tifton, Fort \'alley, 
Lee Pope, and Cycloneta. That is cer- 
tainly a favored section for home com- 
fort and fruit growing, and for many 
general crops, but Griflin, Americus, 
Newnan, La Grange, Cuthbert, Dawson, 
Georgetown, Lumpkin, Barnesville, 
Forsyth, and many other towns, and the 
lands surrounding these towns for many 
miles, offer equal inducements to home- 
seekers and investors. 

Your magazine is certainly covering 
a wide range of country. In response 
to our advertisement in it, letters come 
to us from every section — if not from 
every State — in the North and West. 
No more convincing proof is needed 
that there is a general desire to gain in- 
formation about Georgia and the South 
and that the Southern States is doing 
a great work in distributing facts about 
this part of the Union. 

Crowded With Homeseekers. 

W. W. DusoN & Bro., Crowley, La. 
— We can hardly find a moment's time 
to write a letter in answer to your in- 
quiry about the condition of real estate 
here. For the last two or three months 
our office has been so crowded with 
homeseekers and settlers, and we have 
been so busy showing lands and making 
sales, that our entire force is kept en- 
gaged through the day, and our corre- 
spondence and clerical work has to be 
done mostly at night. Farmers from 
other States ha\e been crowding- into 



this section to such an extent that it has 
been almost impossible to take care of 
them. 

The great business here has been rice 
growing, and for the last two or three 
years farmers ha\'e been able in most 
cases to pay for their lands out of the 
first crop. As grown here it is one of 
the easiest crops in the world to raise. 
Those farmers who have depended en- 
tirely on rainfall have had occasional 
short crops on account of lack of suffi- 
cient rain, but where irrigation has been 
practiced there is no such thing as fail- 
ure or short crops. Irrigation, how- 
ever, here is the simplest and most 
inexpensive thing imaginable. This is 
as fine a prairie country as there is in 
the world. We are beginning now to 
diversify our products. This parish will 
probably plant more oats this year than 
the whole State of Louisiana has done 
for many years before. A larger area 
will also be planted in corn than form- 
erly. The growing of fruits, such as 
peaches, pears, figs, plums. &c., is also 
coming more and more into prominence. 
This is a magnificent country for all 
fruits of this sort. The cultivation of 
small fruits and \'egetables is also ex- 
tending rapidly. 

We are selling farms to persons from 
all parts of the North and West, some 
of them paying all cash, some paying 
one-third or one-quarter cash, and many 
who are not able to make any payment 
are renting. 

The year 1S94 was a very good one, 
and there has been increased activity 
during the last two or three months. 

Promising Outlook. 

A. W. SiDEBoTTOM, Chattanooga, 
Tenn. — In reply to your letter of inquiry 
I will ask the privilege of first express- 
ing my high appreciation of the manner 
in which you ha\'e prosecuted your work 
in behalf of the South. I ha\'e been a 
subscriber to your magazine almost 
from the beginning of its publication, 
and ha\'e read with unusual interest 
each succeeding number. I feel that I 
am sufficiently acquainted with the 
South, being native born and for six- 
teen years constantl}- tra\eling over the 
larger part of it, to justify me in saying 



lO 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



that your writers and correspondents, in 
describing the different sections of the 
South and its varied resources, also let- 
ters from Northern and Western farmers 
giving their experience in the South, 
with which your columns have con- 
stantly been filled, have not overdrawn 
the picture. 

With regard to real estate, and par- 
ticularly farm propertv, no special effort 
was made by Chattanooga to bring 
immigration our way until the latter part 
of last summer, but speaking for myself 
alone the four or five months' work 
done in that direction promises very 
satisfactory results. Over two hundred 
persons have written to me for descrip- 
tive property list and information of 
various kinds in reference to the Chat- 
tanooga District, which comprises parts 
of Middle and East Tennessee, Western 
North Carolina, North Georgia and 
North Alabama, than which there is no 
more healthful section, no finer climate, 
no more hospitable people and, all 
things considered, no section offering 
greater reward to intelligent and well- 
directed toil. I am advised that quite a 
number will take advantage of the re- 
duced rates offered by the railroads and 
come South with the opening of spring, 
as the representative of five to ten fami- 
lies each, wanting homes in our section. 
I wish you the greatest success in the 
work you have so well in hand. 

Sold Farms Aggregating 3000 Acres. 

W. A. & L. H. RowAX, Alvin, 
Texas. — In this section there has never 
been a boom. The purchasers here 
are all homeseekers, buying mostly ten 
to forty-acre tracts, setting out the var- 
ious kinds of fruit adapted to this 
county. The outlook for farm property 
is good. Many are deterred from com- 
ing by their inability to sell out their 
holdings in the old States. We have 
sold farms ranging from forty to 640 
acres to twenty-nine residents of Iowa, 
and several others to residents of 
Nebraska, Missouri and other States 
aggregating 3000 acres. 

New Settlers Every Week. 

T. H. Leslie, (nllett, Ark.— Farm 
property in this section has been selling 



well for a year or more, and recently 
there has been a considerably increased 
activity. This is a prairie section, 
Arkansas county making up a large 
part of what is known as "Grand 
Prairie." It differs, however, from the 
Northwestern prairies in that there is 
an abundance of water and that at 
intervals of every few miles there are 
strips of timber. Commencing at the 
southern edge of Grand Prairie there 
are vast forests of untouched hardwood 
timber. During 1894 there were 100 
or more families from the North and 
West who setded in this county and 
bought farms. Recently a colony of 
seventeen families from Iowa settled on 
lands that had been bought* near 
Almyra, in this county. Inquiries are 
coming to me from all parts of the 
West and Northwest, and new people 
are settling in this section every week. 

Fifty Farms Sold in 1894. 

F. H. Drvden, Pocomoke City, Md. 
I have never known the demand for farm 
lands in this section so great as at present. 
During the year which has just closed I 
sold about fifty farms. My customers 
came from various sections, principally, 
however, from South Dakota, Kansas, 
Nebraska, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New 
York. The farms sold range in price 
from $10 to $35 per acre ; the average 
acreage was about 125. Within the last 
few years I have settled over 200 families. 
My sales are confined principally to 
Worcester and Somerset counties, Mary- 
land and Accomac and Northampton 
counties, Virginia. This is a section of 
country lying between the Chesapeake 
bay on the west, and the Atlantic ocean 
on the east, which locality is especially 
noted for its mild and agreeable climate. 

Twenty Northern Buyers of Farms. 

J. F. KiNDRiCK. Seymour, Mo. — 
The stream of homeseekers from other 
States to this section has within the past 
year attained a magnitude undreamed 
of before. They come almost exclu- 
sively from the West and Northwest. 

Few yet realize the magnitude of the 
exodus from the Northwest. Already 
they are numbered by thousands, and 
will be by tens of thousands. Manv 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



families from the West are very poor, 
almost wholly destitute of means, but 
others are coming well provided with 
money, and many of our best farms are 
being bought for cash. 

In last twelve or fourteen months, 
counting up sales in this immediate 
vicinity that I can recall as I write, I 
find that twenty farms, aggregating 2775 
acres, have been sold to persons from 
other States — nine of them being from 
Iowa, six from Nebraska, two from 
Kansas and three from Colorado. 

No doubt other States were repre- 
sented by settlers in the same territory, 
but in smaller numbers. Only two of 
the farms named are more than five or 
six miles from Seymour. The sales 
mentioned represent only a small part 
of our new citizens. Those who locate 
in town and who rent farms outnumber 
the purchasers. 

Now take into account the vast terri- 
tory that has been receiving these re- 
cruits and the further fact that many 
communities of equal extent have re- 
ceived far more than this, and you may 
begin to understand the magnitude of 
the movement, and the tide is not yet at 
the flood. 

This question is of sufficient interest 
and importance to justify further discus- 
sion, but I will only add that I consider 
the movement of a permanent nature, 
and that it means the more rapid set- 
tlement and better developmont of 
Southern Missouri, Arkansas, Tennes- 
see, Mississippi, Georgia and adjacent 
States of the South, the best portion of 
the United States for a healthy, con- 
tented and prosperous rural population. 

Farm Sales Since ist September 
Aggregating 21,625 Acres. 

Caldwell & Smith, Memphis, 
Tenn. — We are not in the real estate 
business. Our occupation consists prin- 
cipally in the investment of funds of 
foreign mortgage companies in first 
mortgages on cultivated land in the 
States of Mississippi, Arkansas and 
Louisiana. 

As a result of the hard times and the 
low price of cotton we have come into 
control of a large amount of real estate 
in this section. 



Since the first of September we have 
disposed in one way or another of 
21,625 acres at a price of $195,350, 
divided amongst the States of Missis- 
sippi, Arkansas and Louisiana, as fol- 
lows : Mississippi, 14,969 acres for $145, 
950 ; Arkansas, 4734 acres for $34,400 ; 
Louisiana, 1922 acres for $15,000. 

People from Iowa, Dakota, Nebraska 
and Illinois purchased 8376 acres of the 
above at prices aggregating $69,100. 
We do not remember any of these pro- 
perties being purchased for speculati\'e 
purposes, and we know that in nearly 
every case the purchaser has moved 
upon the property purchased, apparently 
with the intention of making it his home, 
certainly with the purpose of personally 
conducting its operations. 

While the bulk of sales to people 
from the North have been of land in the 
uplands of Mississippi, yet we have re- 
cently sold a considerable body of land 
located in the Yazoo and Mississippi 
Delta to a colony from Iowa. These 
people seem delighted with the country. 

There is an impression that a white 
man cannot retain his health if he does 
manual labor in this alluvial region; 
this impression has doubtless arisen 
from the fact that, in the past, those 
white men who have come to the bot- 
toms with the intention of working 
themselves have come from an exceed- 
ingly poverty stricken class and one en- 
tirely unaccustomed to the care of their 
health and do not live in a proper and 
hygenic manner — a class which even 
the air of the mountains of North Caro- 
lina would leave cadaverous and un- 
healthy. As a result of our experience 
we believe that where white people set- 
tle upon cleared and well-drained lands 
in this region we have nothing to fear in 
the matter of health. 

The members of this firm came to the 
South from Indiana in 1882 largely as a 
result of the interest which the Atlanta 
Exposition caused. We are glad to 
find that men from the North are at last 
coming to realize the undoubted advan- 
tages which the South presents. The 
normal trend of immigration for many 
years should have been South instead 
of West, and we have no doubt but that 
the natural ad\'antages of the South 



12 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



would have made it so, but for slavery 
and feelings aroused by the war. 

One of the best evidences of the ex- 
tent of this immigration movement at 
present is the large number of real 
estate firms that are being organized for 
the purpose of assisting it. Scarcely a 
day passes that some one does not call 
to see us with a view to forming a con- 
nection of this character, and our mail 
has for months been loaded with letters 
from Northern real estate agents wish- 
ing to list our lands. 

Among Southern men of our ac- 
quaintance there is but one feeling in 
regard to this immigration. It is wel- 
comed with the strength which it would, 
perhaps, be difficult for the immigrants 
themselves to understand, for in this 
immigration the South sees the promise 
of an improved system of agriculture 
and of a large increase of white popula- 
tion, drawn from races germane to ours 
and who have the instincts of our own 
people. 

Each section of the Union has had its 
special time of prosperity. The South 
has for more than a generation been 
visited with trial after trial, but it looks 
now as if the time of the South had 
come at last. 

The work that your magazine is do- 
ing is one of great value to the South, 
and we will always take pleasure in re- 
sponding to any request for information. 

Large Number of Immigrants from the 
West. 

Lane, Kent & Kelley, Fort Smith, 
Ark. — There is an excellent demand 
here for farms to rent occasioned by the 
moving into this vicinity of a large 
number of people from Western Kan- 
sas, Nebraska, Colorado and the Dako- 
tas. As a rule these people have no 
money to buy land but they have a 
proper amount of energy, and intelli- 
gence to succeed well in this country. 

Sold Twenty=Eight Farms in One Month 
to Northern Buyers, 

Dickinson Land Co., Galveston, 
Texas. — The condition of our real estate 
market is healthy. We anticipate dur- 
ing March very considerable inquiry 
and purchases, owing to the active 



movement of Western farmers to the 
South, and particularly to this coast 
country, as great interest in the culture 
of fruit in this region is being mani- 
fested, owing to the success in that line 
in this county in the raising of the Keifer 
and Le Conte pears. When a 13-acre 
orchard will realize (as was done in 1893 
and 1894) over $10,000 in cash sales of 
fruit and young trees, it should not be 
surprising that an onward movement 
from the West to the South is a fact. 

This company sold in 1894 twenty- 
nine farms to persons outside of Texas. 
The majority of the buyers were Swedes. 
Fourteen of the buyers came from Illi- 
nois, six from Iowa, four from Nebraska, 
two from Missouri, one from Colorado, 
one from Kansas, and one from Dakota. 
This of course does not include the 
sales made to home folks and persons 
in other parts of Texas. Most of these 
sales were made in the latter part of the 
year. Of the twenty-nine farms, twenty- 
eight were sold in the month of De- 
cember. 

Located Nearly Two Hundred Families. 

Richards & Raymond, Birch Tree, 
Shannon county, Missouri. — During the 
past four years we have located nearly 
200 families in happy and prosperous 
homes in this east Missouri section. In 
1S94 '^^'S sold several improved farms 
and two thousand acres of unimproved 
land. The homeseekers coming here 
are from the prairies of Kansas, Ne- 
braska, Iowa and the Dakotas, and 
quite a large number from IlHnois, 
Indiana and Ohio. Here they find 
good soil and timber ; the price is very 
low and the climate is mild and healthy. 

Good Demand for Farm Lands. 

B. M. McGee, Greenville, S. C— I 
have found the demand for farming 
lands quite equal in past year to any 
years previous, and have realized fair 
prices on all sales by giving long time. 
Where forced sales have been made for 
cash prices have ranged very low and 
some rare bargains have been had. 
None of my sales have been to others 
than those who have lived among us 
for a long time. We find those who 
come here from North and East slow to 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



take hold of farming lands, and that is 
where they make a mistake. We have 
fine farming land, three to five miles of 
city, being sold at $12.50 to $15 per 
acre, worth almost double that amount 
when times were more settled. We 
have quite a number of families here 
in and around the city from North 
and East that seem to be delighted with 
our climate. We have had about a mil- 
lion dollars subscribed here in past 
ninety days to build cotton mills, a 
great deal of it from distant cities. We 
are sure of three mills, possibly five, 
during next six months. We invite 
those seeking health, wealth and invest- 
ments generally to visit our city. We 
open wide our arms welcoming such to 
cast their lots with us. 

Farms Sold to Thirty Good Families. 

W, R. Crabtree, Chattanooga, 
Tenn. — Our mail is daily burdened with 
inquiries from the North in regard to 
prices of land and general conditions in 
this section. During the last two months 
we have received letters ot inquiry from 
at least 1500 prospective settlers. We 
have made sales of farms to about thirty 
good families during the past twelve 
months amounting to 4300 acres, in 
value $52,000. Many others have been 
here prospecting, but have failed to 
locate either from lack of funds with 
which to buy or on account of property 
interests elsewhere, which they cannot 
afford to leave and upon which they 
cannot realize just now. Many of these 
people will, however, become settlers in 
the future. 

Probably the greatest need of this 
section with reference to securing im- 
migration has been the lack of small, 
cheap tracts of land for sale upon suffi- 
ciently easy terms of payment to meet 
the requirements of the small farmers 
from the Northwest, who are impover- 
ished by continued drought and crop 
failures. 

Stream of Homeseekers increasing. 

G. W. Sappington, Little Rock, 
Ark. — In the last six months 500 fami- 
lies have settled in Mississippi county in 
this State. Several hundred families 
have settled in Lonoke, Prairie, Arkan- 



sas, Monroe, Crawford, Washington, 
Benton, Madison, Carroll, Boone, Ful- 
ton, Independence, Cleburn, Vancouver. 
These are principally homeseekers who 
have settled as farmers. Several syndi- 
cates from the West and Northwest are 
investing in cypress, oak, ash and pine 
timbers, and mills being established. 
The principal purchases of land are for 
farms, fruit orchards and grazing pur- 
poses. There is scarcely a week that 
excursionists are not here, and a large 
percentage of them settle, and at an 
early day the prairie lands will all be 
occupied. The stream of homeseekers 
is increasing from all parts of the North 
and Northwest. Our properties are 
lower perhaps than they will ever be 
again. Prairie lands that could have 
been bought three years ago at $1, $2 
and $3 per acre now command from $4 
to $10 per acre. 

Tliirty Farms Sold Since September i. 

The Dade County Land ^' In- 
vestment Co., Greenfield, Mo. — The 
immigration to Southwest Missouri has 
been immense for the past six months. 
This company has sold since Septem- 
ber I, 1894, thirty farms to parties from 
Kansas City, from Nebraska, Iowa, 
Wisconsin and other Western States. 
We expect to sell as many more this 
spring and look for a larger rush next 
fall. 

Immigration Would Be Much Larger if 

Western Farmers Could Sell 

Their Property, 

D. McCoRMiCK & Co., Norfolk, \'a. 
Our advertising has brought us a very 
large number of inquiries for farming 
lands, principally from the Middle, 
Western and the Northwestern States. 
The trunk lines centering here are 
constantly bringing in homeseekers, 
many of whom are being located in 
this section. As you are well aware, 
the trucking interests of this particular 
locality have given it a widespread 
reputation, and our lands are held at 
higher figures than the average of 
Virginia lands on account of the greater 
value per acre of our products, the 
feasibility of a quick succession of 
crops in one season from the same kmd, 



14 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



superior transportation facilities to 
Northern markets in the large cities 
and the uniform success of our truckers. 
Present business has been greatly 
checked by the weather of the past 
weeks, which has so completely broken 
up communication. The outlook is, 
however, good for a large influx in the 
spring, and would be much better if 
those in the sections above referred to, 
who desire to move South, could 
dispose of their present holdings. 

Hore Sales in 1894 Than in Any Three 
Years Previous. 

Damon, Beaton & Co., Corsicana, 
Texas, — The real estate market, both in 
our State and county, is much firmer 
than ever before. The demand for 
farming lands in this and adjoining 
counties really began in the fall of 1893, 
and increased so much that by the sum- 
mer of 1894 prices advanced fully 20 
per cent., and during 1894 more such 
sales were made to actual settlers than 
in any three years previous. The low 
price of cotton, however, had a depres- 
sing effect and caused a slight reduction 
in prices. The immense immigration 
from every quarter counteracted this 
effect to a great degree, and the result 
is that a most healthy feeling prevails 
both in our city, county and all the 
smaller towns surrounding Corsicana. 
The demand for farms to rent could not 
be half supplied, and this, together with 
our good crops, has convinced the 
owners of large pastures that these will 
pay better in farms, and hence many 
such have been subdivided and offered 
for sale. The tendency is for smaller 
farms, and we consider this a very 
healthy sign. As a rule all purchasers 
are well assured they can meet their 
payments. There is not a vacant busi- 
ness house or residence in Corsicana, 
notwithstanding over $150,000 went into 
such improvements during 1894, and 
possibly as much or more will be so 
expended during this year. 

Recent Settlers Well Pleased. 

Thos. C.Watson, Pensacola, Fla. — 
There has been quite a considerable 
moxement of late from the Northwest, 
and numbers of families have located on 



farms within a radius of twenty or thirty 
miles of this point. I do not know the 
exact number, but should estimate not 
less than twenty-five or thirty families 
have located in this vicinity within the 
past year. It is a matter of gratification 
to know that they all appear to be well 
satisfied with the change, and some 
sound loud praises of the land of their 
adoption. The land in the Northern 
part of this county is a good clay, sub- 
soil and well adapted for fruits, vegeta- 
bles, &c. 

The recent "cold snap" has not hurt 
our fruit crop, as the sap was all down, 
and our people look forward with con- 
fidence to a splendid crop this year. I 
might explain that we do not attempt 
to grow oranges for profit, as we are a 
little above the frost line, but we have 
found orchards of Le Conte pears to 
pay well and much less risk. 

Real Estate Outlook Very Qocd. 

Neukirk & Co., Mountain Grove, 
Mo. — The present outlook for real estate 
is very good. We have sold to Iowa 
men nine farms, with a total of 1580 
acres ; to Nebraska people eleven farms, 
1600 acres; to Kansas people four 
farms, 760 acres. 

A Great Many Inquiries from Northwest. 

Ledbetter & Crabb, Cedartown, 
Ga. — We are having a great many in- 
quiries from parties in the far Northwest 
as to farming lands, and expect to sell 
some land in 1895. We made splendid 
crops in 1894. We made more than 
corn enough to supply the demand. 
Made a very good wheat crop. Made 
a large crop of sweet potatoes and killed 
more hogs than we have killed in any 
three years prior to this. If the people 
in the North and Northwest could only 
visit this part of the country they would 
not hesitate to locate here. 

Colony of Thirty Families. 

L. L. Munsell, Birch Tree, Shannon 
county. Mo. — Relative to sale of farm 
lands in the Ozarks in 1894, will say that 
money was \'ery scarce, caused by the 
panic and the crop failures throughout 
the Western States, and there was but 
little done last year in the wav of sales, 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



15 



yet a few were made. I sold fifteen 
farms to parties from Michigan, Illinois, 
Kansas, Nebraska and North Missouri, 
who have moved on the lands and are 
improA'ing them. 

I am now recei\'ing a great many in- 
quiries about lands, and expect to make 
a good many sales this spring. Have 
already made arrangements for a colony 
of thirty families and probably more, 
who will be here in April. They will 
go on wild lands and open them up, and 
as fast as possible will set them to fruits. 

There have been 56,000 fruit trees set 
out in past three years within six miles 
of this place, and a good many more 
will be set this spring. 

Good Demand for Farms. 

P. A. Hoffman & Co., Fort Worth, 
Texas. — We sold in 1894 a number of 
farms in Tarrant county to buyers from 
Nebraska, Ohio, Missouri and Indian 
Territory, all men of ample means, who 
took possession of the farms as homes. 
They propose to raise grain and engage 
in diversified agriculture. As we have 
a large meat-packing establishment here 
they will raise and fatten hogs, cattle 
and sheep for this market. We also 
sold fruit and garden lands in this 
county. 

The demand for farms is good, and 
we have done much better this year so 
far than during the same time in 1894. 

Our inquiry list by mail from other 
States is simply awful ; awful in extent, 
awful in contents. In our mail today 
there is a letter from a gentleman, an 
Indiana man, who writes an intelligent 
letter, but asks if there is any likelihood 
of the settlement at this point being 
made permanent ? Now when we write 
him that we have a city of 35,000 
people, with all modern conveniences, 
twelve railroads, and that the farmers 
within a radius of thirty miles produce 
over $10,000,000 annually in agricul- 
tural products, he will simply put us 
down as prevaricators. 

Another class wish to know all about 
Texas, and then fire at us a list of ques- 
tions that bring up every known science 
on earth, and such as they could not 
answer themselves about the country 
where they have li\ed all their lives. 



Real Estate flarket Shows More Anima= 
tion Than in Several Years. 

W. C. Perrin, Shreveport, La. — The 
real estate market in this locality at 
the present time shows more animation 
than it has for several years. I have 
had inquiries from Missouri, Kansas, 
North and South Dakota, Nebraska, 
Iowa, Ohio, Illinois, Pennsylvania and 
Michigan. My sales of pine and farm 
lands for 1894 were very small and 
confined mostly to local purchasers. If 
there is anything in inquiries I will 
have a large business with non-residents 
this year. 

Over 1200 Inquiries in Sixty Days. 

J. Thompson Brown & Co., Rich- 
mond, Va. — We have been in business 
here for twenty-two years, during which 
time we never had a movement of such 
magnitude as we now have from the 
great North and Northwest in the 
direction of X'irginia for farming lands. 
We knew all the time that the central 
position of our State, its temperate 
climate, its locati'on at the doorway of 
the great ocean traffic placing us in 
close touch with not only the markets 
of our country, but of the world, would 
render this present state of affairs only 
a question of time. 

The condition of the real estate 
market has been dull and flat, but is 
daily becoming better. We are now 
negotiating with a Northern gentleman 
a sale of a farm within twelve miles of 
Richmond — the capital of X'irginia — a 
city of 100,000 inhabitants, for only $8.00 
per acre. 

We enclose you slip from our last 
catalogue showing that in the sixty 
days preceding its issue we received 
over 1200 inquiries about Virginia 
lands, the majority of them coming 
from California, Connecticut, Colorado, 
Dakota, Delaware, District of Columbia, 
Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Kansas, 
Massachusetts, Maine, Michigan, Minne- 
sota, Nebraska, New York, New Jersey, 
New Hampshire, Oregon, Ohio, Okla- 
homa, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, 
Utah, Vermont, Washington, W'iscon- 
sin, Wyoming. 180 of the inquiries 
came from Pennsylvania, 12S from Ohio, 
121 from New York, 69 from Michigan, 



i6 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



58 each from Illinois and Iowa, 33 each 
from Minnesota and Indiana, 48 were 
from Canada. There were some from 
England, France and Sweden. 

Many of these correspondents desire 
to trade their lands for Virginia farms, 
and we are impressed with the fact that 
nearly all of the applicants state that 
they would come to Virginia if they 
could dispose of their farms. 

We congratulate you upon the good 
work being done by your magazine, the 
Southern States, and hope that 
success may attend your most worthy 
efforts. 

Swedish Colonies in Texas. 

Seabrook & KiNSELL, Port Lavaca, 
Texas. — We have been doing business 
in Calhoun county, on the immediate 
Texas coast, for three years as colonizers. 
In that time the great bulk of the 
immigration has been from the North. 
There was a big falling off in 1 894, due 
in a great measure to the hard times in 
States like Kansas and Nebraska, but 
the indications are that the tide from 
the North has again set in and we look 
for a large number from States like 
Iowa, Illinois and Minnesota. There 
is one Swedish colony in Calhoun 
county comprising sixty-three families, 
and 250 farms have been sold to them. 
There is another colony of Swedes 
near Port Lavaca, of whom twenty-one 
have bought land. The Swedes also 
own a good deal of other land in the 
county. We also have a large number 
of native American farming families 
from the North, one being from New 
Hampshire. A Northern syndicate has 
lately opened for settlement 6134 acres 
above Port Lavaca, and on this a good 
many families have already located. 
The land around Port Lavaca, and 
much of the lot property of the town, 
has passed into Northern hands, and is 
figuratively called the "Yankee Town 
of the Texas Coast." 

New Yorkers Buying Farms in North 
Carolina. 

W. C. Ervin, Secretary The Mor- 
ganton Land & Impro\'ement Co., Mor- 
ganton, N. C. — A tract of land embrac- 
ing 5000 acres and lying on both sides 



of the Western North Carolina branch 
of the Southern Railway, in this county, 
has been divided up into farms averag- 
ing about eighty acres and sold to a 
colony of Waldenses, from the Italian 
Alps, most of whom reached the L'nited 
States in the fall of 1893. These people 
spent last year in building houses and 
clearing land. They are now setting 
out vineyards and orchards, and expect 
to make wine and ship grapes, apples 
and other fruits to the city markets. 

A 5000 -acre tract of timber land in 
South Mountain section of this county 
was sold to New York parties last year. 

Mr. Norman Astley, of the New York 
School of Expression, New York City, 
purchased last year two farms of 200 
acres each in the very picturesque \alley 
lying at the base of the Linville moun- 
tains, in this county. One of these he 
is improving for his own use, and the 
other he purchased for a friend. He is 
now negotiating for the purchase of 
other farms in the same locality. 

Mr. James G. Vail, of Rochester, N. 
v., and F. S. Miller, of Griswold, Iowa, 
are among those who purchased farms 
in this vicinity during 1894. Mr. H. 
B. Maney, of Philadelphia, purchased 
through our company a beautiful farm 
on Linville river, in this county, a fe\v 
years since, and is now one of our most 
successful farmers and stock breeders. 

The outlook for 1895 is that we will 
have a more active real estate market 
and a greater influx of immigration to 
this healthful Piedmont country than 
ever before. 

The work which the "Southern 
States" is doing in directing attention 
to the South and its resources ought to 
bring it a generous support from the 
section to whose interest it is devoted. 

Over 200 Non=resident Buyers in 1894. 

S. S. Rambo, Tallapoosa, Ga. — There 
is a good demand for farms and fruit 
lands in this section, each monthly ex- 
cursion bringing from twenty-li\e to 
forty prospectors. During the past vear 
several thousand acres have changed 
hands in tracts of five to 300 acres, rep- 
resenting over 200 non-resident buyers 
and nearly every State of the Union. 
1200 to 1500 acres of these purchases 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



17 



have been planted to grapes, and several 
hundred acres more are under contract 
to be planted this spring. Several hun- 
dred acres more have been planted 
to strawberries, apples, peaches and 
quinces. A number of purchasers have 
improved their farms and are living on 
them. Others who have bought near 
the city have also bought city houses, 
so as to have the advantage of our 
excellent free school. 

Personally, I have sold tracts of five 
to 150 acres to residents of Wiscon- 
sin, District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, 
Kansas, New Hampshire, Iowa, Ohio, 
Michigan, Illinois, Minnesota and Indi- 
ana, ranging from $5 to $20 per acre for 
farms and $10 to $25 per acre for five 
and ten acre tracts. 

Conditions in Texas. 

Robertson & Kennedy, San An- 
tonio, Texas. — The large number of 
recent excursions of capitalists and pro- 
spectors from the North and East has 
been a stimulus to this section. The 
recent agitation of the question of irri- 
gation by the State Irrigation Conven- 
tion recently assembled here and the 
steps taken to have the legislature now 
in session pass laws encouraging and 
protecting all stock companies formed 
for that purpose, has drawn public 
attention to the great value of these 
lands. The ease with which the lands 
can be irrigated and placed on a basis 
independent of the season at a compara- 
tively small cost, has created a demand 
for them that is rapidly growing and 
will soon bring them up to their true 
value. 

A Chicago company near here is put- 
ting in a dam and making ditches to 
irrigate 30,000 acres, and numerous 
smaller companies and individuals are 
doing the same on a smaller scale. 

Large Number of Settlers. 

Jas. M. Hessey & Co., Cambridge, 
Md. — The outlook is very bright for a 
large number of new settlers in this 
county during the present year. Dur- 
ing 1894 we sold a considerable num- 
ber of farms, the buyers being from 
Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio and other 
Western States, the majority being frprn 

^orlh Carolina btaie 
BAleiah 



Illinois. One purchaser came from 
Hungary. We have also located in the 
past year about twenty to thirty families 
of Germans coming from Kansas, Wis- 
consin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, North 
and South Dakota, Ohio and many other 
Western and Eastern States. Many 
families have settled here to rent land 
for this year, with the privilege of pur- 
chasing next year. We are receiving 
daily many inquiries in regard to land 
from parties all over the United States 
and Europe who desire to settle on the 
Eastern Shore of Maryland and else- 
where in the Southern States. Many 
people are in correspondence with us 
from the Eastern States, and they seem 
to be desirous of settling on the East- 
ern Shore on account of its cheap lands 
and great advantages for farming, oyster 
industry, gunning and general healthful - 
ness of the climate, etc. 

Real Estate Market Improving. 

J. T. Bernard & Son, Tallahassee, 
Fla. — The real estate market in this 
section is improving. The prospects for 
immigration of farmers from other sec- 
tions is better now than it has been for 
years. We have received more letters 
from farmers from Western States than 
ever before — all complain of the severity 
of the winter, and express a desire to 
come further South. 

During the year 1894 farms in this 
county (Leon) were sold to persons 
from Minnesota, Pennsylvania, New 
York and other States. Three were 
sold to farmers from Scotland. There 
are twenty-three dairy farms in operation 
in this county, nearly all having separa- 
tors and all the modern appliances ; one 
has a creamery worked by steam. 

Thousands of Acres in One County Sold 
to Settlers. 

C. T. WooLDRiDGE, Carthage, Mo. — 
The present condition of the real estate 
market, more particularly farm property, 
is very bright, and the future outlook for 
a big immigration to Southwest Missouri 
was never better. An all-purpose coun- 
try seems to be the principal demand of 
the majority of the homeseekers. This 
we have with far more advantages in 
BOm^je^er respects than is possible to 



i8 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



find in the Northern States. During 
the year 1S94 thousands of acres of fine 
farm land in Jasper county were sold to 
people from all over the North, princi- 
pally from Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota 
and Illinois. There are certainly great 
inducements being offered here as well 
as in other sections of the South, and 
the Southern States will doubtless 
be a blessing to many a weather-beaten 
soul. 

Many Sales and a Flood of Inquiries. 

Shannon & Co., Houston, Texas. — 
The outlook for real estate in this sec- 
tion, particularly for farming lands, was 
never so encouraging as at present. 

During the past year we have made 
many sales to parties from Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska and 
South Dakota, and recently have been 
flooded with inquiries from others in 
those States who propose to come South 
and locate. All the indications point to 
a verv large immigration Southward 
during the present year. Prices for 
desirable lands are yet very low, but the 
active demand of late is causing a rapid 
advance. 

More Sales — Fewer Mortgages. 

E. E. HiLLiARD, Scotland Neck, N. 
C. — Just now tobacco lands are more in 
demand than any other. Experiments 
by a few farmers here during the past 
three years have shown that the tobacco 
raised here is of a high grade, and this 
is bringing tobacco land into great de- 
mand. Truck lands are also more in 
demand than a few years ago. 

The market for real estate has been 
more active for the past few months 
than it has been in several years, though 
lands are cheap by reason of the scar- 
city of money among farmers. This is 
due to the very low price of cotton, 
which has heretofore been the chief 
money crop here. 

I have made examination of the rec- 
ords in the office of the register of deeds 
for this county, and find that there was 
considerable increase in real estate trans- 
fers in this county for 1894 over 1893. 
The number of mortgages given on real 
estate in this county in 1894 ^^'^s 20 per 
cent, less than for 1893, and more mort- 



gages were cancelled. Many persons 
who have not owned any land at all 
before are now making purchases of 
real estate. The most of the purchases 
made here during 1894 were by our 
own people, though there were some 
purchases made by persons out of the 
State. 

Twenty =T wo Farms Sold to Persons 
From the North. 

J. C. Robert, Centreville, Miss. — The 
condition of our real estate market has 
improved greatly in the past twelve 
months. I have sold farms to twenty- 
two persons from Illinois, Kansas and 
Pennsylvania. The number of inquiries 
from persons desiring to make homes 
in the South is far greater than ever 
before. 

Farm Property Advanced and Many 

Buyers— Thirty=Seven Farms 

Sold in 1894. 

Day & Peterson, Mansfield, Mo. 
Real estate is moving nicely here. We 
are having a large immigration from 
the North and West, and people coming 
are well satisfied with our country. 
Farm .property has increased in value 
about 15 per cent, in last twelve months, 
and we find plenty of buyers. The last 
month we have have had a very lively 
business ; the future prospect of South 
Missouri is certainly very bright. In 
1894 we made thirty-seven sales of 
farms, aggregating 7543 acres. 

Sold Seventy =eight Farms in 1894 to 
Northern Buyers. 

Wm. Reppen & Co., Galveston, 
Texas. — The real estate market, notably 
that branch applying to farm lands in 
the coast country, comprising Galves- 
ton, Brazoria. Harris, Chambers and 
Jefferson counties, is improving daily, 
and the spring and summer sales will, 
in our opinion, surprise the "unsuspect- 
ing public." 

The manifest destiny of this coast 
country is to be converted into orchards, 
vineyards, gardens and rice farms. The 
coast country is the natural home of 
the pear, grape, fig and strawberry. 
In 1894 we sold seventy-eight farms, 
improved and unimproved, from twenty 



S.-4LES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



19 



to 320 acres per farm, at prices rang- 
ing from $10.00 to $30.00 per acre 
to parties outside of our State, prin- 
cipally from Iowa, Indiana, Nebraska, 
Kansas, Illinois, Missouri, Colorado, 
Louisiana and even New York. 

Inquiries Never Before so Numerous. 

H. P. Chambers, Federalsburg, Md. 
In all the past twenty years in which I 
have been engaged m selling farm prop- 
erty in Caroline and Dorchester counties 
of the Eastcan Shore of Maryland, 
"The New South," the inquiry for infor- 
mation, and the oft-expressed intention 
of correspondents to locate South in the 
coming spring, never were so numerous. 
My inquiries are from every State Irom 
Maine to Dakota north of Mason and 
Dixon's line. 

Values here have evidently touched 
the lowest limit, from $10 to $20 per 
acre, and the general feeling is that 
higher rates will rule in the near future. 

While cotton and oranges do not 
grow here, all the cereals, grasses, fruits 
and vegetables, under intelligent cultiva- 
tion do, as well as in any Northern or 
Western' State. 

In the grades of livestock and poultry 
now produced here, there is a great 
improvement over former times, and 
they too will equal any raised in the 
North. 

A Number of Sales to Western Buyers. 

T. F. Rogers, Norfolk, Va.— We 
have had the severest winter in Norfolk 
for many years, and now that it is pretty 
well over real estate is beginning to 
move. While it cannot be said that we 
have an active market, yet the transac- 
tions have increased weekly and real 
estate values have held their own to a 
remarkable degree. 

In regard to farm property, I have 
heard of quite a number ot sales to 
Western buyers, and at this time Ohio 
is well represented in Norfolk, for seve- 
ral delegations are seeking farm lands 
in Eastern Virginia, and especially 
around and about our city. 

New Settlers Coming Every Week. 

Anslev Bros., Atlanta, Ga. — The 
indications are for a better trade than 



has existed for at least three years, and 
we base this opinion on the increased 
inquiry and purchases. Our business 
does not embrace farm lands to any 
extent outside of a radius of twenty 
miles of Atlanta, except occasionally. 
We ■ are not in a position to gi\e you 
any satisfactory personal knowledge of 
new-comers buying farm lands, but we 
know from reliable parties that the 
influx has been very considerable in the 
last twelve months, and from almost 
every State in the Union. We could 
mention many places where these parties 
have located. We have had inquiries 
from Dakota to Massachusetts from 
parties wanting to locate near Atlanta 
or in Georgia, and we find a great many 
of them ready to come if they can make 
a sale of their property or exchange 
with parties owning lands in Georgia, 
which, of course, can't be done. We 
know of scAeral parties recently buying 
small tracts near the city from Eastern 
States, and quite a number from East- 
ern and Western States are coming 
here every week to locate and some of 
them buying. 

7000 Acres Sold to Settlers in 1894. 

J. C. McBride, Alvin, Texas. — Dur- 
ing 1S94 we sold generally to settlers in 
small tracts about 7000 acres in Brazoria 
and Galveston counties. 

Our buyers were generally from the 
Northwest — Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas 
and Missouri. Quite a respectable num- 
ber came from the Dakotas, Minnesota, 
Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana and Ohio, 
with quite a sprinkling from Mississippi, 
Alabama and Tennessee. 

We are having probably more than 
our share of visitors, who are prospect- 
ing for new homes. The market con- 
tinues good despite the hard times, and 
prospects are good for greater activity 
in the real estate market than we expe- 
rienced in the past year. 

Northwestern Farmers Buying in 
Arkansas. 

The Gregory & McCoy Co., Har- 
rison, Ark. — We have only recently 
located in Northwestern Arkansas, at- 
tracted here by the fine climate, magni- 
ficent springs, vegetable, fruit and min- 



20 



SALES OF FARM FROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



eral lands. We have within the last 
three months sold some 720 acres farm 
and fruit lands, principally small tracts, 
to Kansas, Nebraska and Dakota peo- 
ple ; also numerous pieces of city prop- 
erty. We have many offers of exchange 
from Northern and Western States, but 
not many want to go North. 

Western Interest in the South, 

J. F. WiNGFiELD, Roanoke, \'a. — 
We have a large list of correspondents 
inquiring about the price of land, the 
products of this section, climate, mar- 
kets, transportation facilities and all 
other matters of interest to farmers. 
The most of the inquiries we have come 
from the State of Ohio, though we have 
many from further West ?ind Northwest. 
Those from the latter say the winters 
are so long and severe they are unable 
to live in the rigorous Western climate 
and are seeking more congenial climate 
in the South. 

I have every reason to believe we will 
do a good business this year selling 
farms. 

Real Estate Outlook Very fluch Brighter. 

Wm. Barnwell, Columbia, S. C. — 
The real estate outlook is very much 
brighter today than twelve months ago, 
especially for farming lands. Many in- 
quiries are coming in asking for partic- 
ulars as to prices, etc., of agricultural 
lands, and I have sold several large 
farms during the past month, nota- 
bly one of 1280 acres to a New York 
party and another to a Virginian of 
1630 acres, but we still have room for 
many more thrifty farmers. 

In this State there are thousands of 
acres of fertile lands that can be bought 
very low, say from $2 to $10 per acre, 
waiting the hands of enterprising and 
thrifty immigrants. 

Taking all things into consideration, 
I consider the outlook in the real estate 
market very bright, and expect to see 
many newcomers in our State before 
the end of 1895. 

Eighty New Families. 

T. J. Skaggs Real Estate Co., 
Beeville, Texas. — We have received 
since January, 1894, over 3500 letters 



inquiring about Southern Texas, most 
of them from Northern and North- 
western farmers. There have been some- 
thing like eighty families from Northern 
States settled in this vicinity, most of 
them purchasing tracts of land varying 
in size from eighty to 300 acres. Among 
the lot are a few who purchased ten to 
forty-acre tracts for trucking and bee- 
raising purposes. Our books show sev- 
eral contracts with Northern parties for 
land, to which the titles have not passed. 
Some good sales have been made of 
large bodies of land to Northern specu- 
lators, who themselves will bring in 
Northern immigrants. Our correspond- 
ence indicates that had our Northern 
and Northwestern friends been able to 
realize on their properties up there, the 
tide of immigration Southward would 
have been heavier in 1894. 

Activity in City and Farm Property. 

W. H. H. Trice «& Co., Norfolk, 
Va. — We have made some large sales 
of city property recently, sales for one 
week in February amounting to $25,000. 
Business is increasing in real estate 
here. We have just finished $30,000 
worth of buildings for some Northern 
investors. We sold recently a farm of 
Soo acres for $12,500, the buyer being 
from New Jersey, and are now nego- 
tiating for the sale of several other 
farms to parties from distant States. 
There are very many inquiries from the 
North and West for farming lands. 
Many Northern and Western people are 
settling in Virginia and other Southern 
States. 

Sold to Western Buyers in 1894, 68 

WelUlmproved Farms, Covering 

12,692 Acres, for $180,269. 

G. M. Brass, Austin, Texas. — I find 
that there is at present all over the State 
a growing demand for farms and im- 
proved farm lands, and that the tide of 
immigration drifts more and more to 
the South. There is only one opinion 
amongst farmers from other States who 
during the last two years have made 
their nice and comfortable homes within 
the boundaries of Texas, and that is if 
the people of the Northern States knew 
of the vast resources, the fertile soil, the 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



21 



excellent school system of this State and 
the easy way of making a comfortable 
living, there would be within a few years 
not an acre of farm land unoccupied in 
Texas. 

I sold during the year 1S94, to per- 
sons from other States, sixty- eight well- 
improved farms, the purchasers being 
from Wisconsin, Nebraska, Iowa, Illi- 
nois, Missouri, Colorado, Ohio, Indiana, 
Kentucky and Pennsylvania. The total 
acreage of these farms is 12,692 acres, 
at a value of $180,269. 

Outlook Never Better. 

W. C. Battey, Fort Myers, Fla. — I 
have never seen a better outlook for 
business in this county than at present. 
Calls frequent for acre tracts suitable 
for growth of oranges, grape fruit, 
lemons and pineapples. The fact that 
the late severe freezes, so disastrous 
elsewhere, did not injure our citrus 
fruit, not even causing the green leaves 
or fruit to fall, caused an active demand 
for Lee county land. I have letters 
from all sections. I have made recent 
sales to several parties in New York, 
Chicago and Connecticut each and else- 
where. 

One Hundred New Families in One 
County in 1894. 

Feris & KiRKLAND, Richmond, 
Texas. — There were a good many sales 
of land in this county during 1S94 
mostly to parties of other States, and 
the outlook for 1895 is fair, judging 
from the number of prospectors here 
looking for locations. Our large land 
owners' eyes are now opened and they 
will cut up their lands into small tracts to 
suit the purchasers and will sell on good 
terms. The people coming in are from 
the States of Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska 
and the other Western States. Possibly 
over 100 families have settled in this 
county since January ist, 1894. 

Greatly improving. 

Nelms, Mexefee cSi Co., Newport 
News, Va. — During the year 1894 we 
made no sales of farms, but since Decem- 
ber I St, we have had numerous inquiries 
from the North, Northwest and West in 
regard to farm lands in this vicinity. 



many of whom we expect to accommo- 
date before the year passes. The signs 
of the times are very greatly improving 
here and real estate is again beginning 
to move, many inquiries being made 
and some purchases, the purchasers 
generally erecting homes. 

Our shipyard here has increased its 
force since last year from about 500 to 
2000 workmen, with a pay roll, say 
$75,000 per month, and work enough 
ahead to last two years, even if no fur- 
ther contracts are secured. The pay 
rolls along our docks amount to the 
handsome sum of about $50,000 per 
month. With this great increase here 
the outlook for the present year is 
exceedingly encouraging. 

Improved Outlook for 1895. 

Webb & Webb, Baird, Callahan 
county, Texas. — The year 1S94 was 
the worst year since the farmers first 
began settling up this part of Texas. 
Most of our business was in unimproved 
lands bought, as a rule, by stock far- 
mers for grazing purposes. Some farms 
were sold, traded or exchanged for 
other properties, but most of this busi- 
ness was done with resident citizens. 
The outlook for 1895, however, is much 
better. The bulk of our sales heretofore 
have been to settlers from nearly all the 
Middle and Northern States, and from 
England, Scotland, Germany and Por- 
tugal. Land values have changed very 
little with us for three years past. Un- 
improved lands are held at $3.00 to 
$5.00 per acre, improved farms at $7.50 
to $12.50 per acre; usually on easy 
terms. 

Buying Small Orchards and Vineyards. 

Southern Fruit Growing & Col- 
ONiziNO Co., Bremen, Haralson county, 
Ga. — Owing to the general depression 
of business the real estate market in 
this locality is not as active as it doubt- 
less would be under ordinary conditions. 
Notwithstanding the extraordinary con- 
ditions by which we are surrounded and 
hampered, some land is sold in this 
county every week. 

The lands of this company are cut 
up into five and ten-acre vineyard and 
orchard tracts to be planted, cared for 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



and product marketed if owners are 
non-resident. 

Including the planting yet to be done 
this spring, we will ha\'e 3000 acres in 
fruits in this county held and owned 
. almost exclusively by men and women 
from the States of New York, Michigan, 
Ohio, \'ermont, Wisconsin, Massachu- 
setts, Tennessee, Minnesota, Kansas, 
and New Brunswick, Canada, who, after 
coming here and investigating, have 
in\'ested in fi\'e, ten or fifteen-acre tracts, 
and are acti\'ely engaged in fruit culture. 
The example thus set by Northern 
people has had a happy eftect, as many 
of the natives are paying more attention 
to fruit growing, and di\'ersified farm- 
ing is taking the place of "King 
Cotton." A number of the purchasers 
will build residences on their tracts the 
coming summer and fall to escape the 
cold winter North. 

Several Families of Well=to=do Settlers. 

John F. Rixev, Culpeper, Va. — The 
real estate market in this section is 
quiet, owing, I think, to the general 
depression existing throughout the 
country. There is, however, consid- 
erable inquiry for farms, especially 
near the railroad. Several families have 
moved into this county, and so far as I 
know they are all well-to-do settlers ; 
one family from Pennsylvania, one 
from Illinois ; other farms have been 
sold to non-residents but I do not know, 
the point from which they came. A 
gentleman from Colorado, now residing 
at the county seat of this county, has 
recently bought three farms and is 
engaged quite extensively in the stock 
business, making a specialty of riding 
horses ; there are other stock farms. 
Within the last month one of the 
largest dairymen of Washington has 
rented, with the privilege of purchasing, 
one of the best dairy farms of the 
county. More milk is shipped from 
this county, it is thought, than any 
other on the Southern Railway. 

Large Tracts for Colonization. 

Mrs.Coka Hacox FosiKR, Houston, 
Texas. — I hardh- think as much land 
has been sold in this part of Texas as 
during the preceding two years, but 



more settlers have come in. This year 
the man who buys a small tract of land 
immediately commences his improve- 
ments, often living in his wagon until 
he can erect a shelter. Many families 
have driven from the Northern States, 
even from far Dakota, in their own con- 
veyances. During the past month 
quite a number of large tracts have 
been sold to parties from Chicago, who 
are subdividing lor the small farmer. I 
am chiefly interested in the Pasadena 
lands, ten miles east of Houston, on 
Buffalo Bayou and the La Porte Rail- 
road. 

Sold Several Farms. 

J. W. RiDGAA\'AV, West Point, Va.: — 
The real estate business, like every 
other kind of business, has not been 
quite as brisk for the last year owing to 
the financial question. I have had the 
pleasure of introducing many Northern 
farmers to Southern farmers, and have 
sold them several* farms, with which 
they are highly pleased so far. They 
like the soil, climate and the people, and 
have no desire to return. All parties 
purchasing are well pleased. 

Activity in Southeast Texas. 

B. P. Greene, Cor. Sec. Board of 
Trade, Orange, Texas. — The population 
of Orange county has almost doubled 
in four years with scarcely any effort to 
advertise resources or induce immigra- 
tion, except on the part of individual 
citizens who quietly advised their friends 
to come here and share in the benefits 
of their discovery. The Northern and 
Western elements ha\'e always predom- 
inated in Orange county, and examina- 
tion of the records shows that most of 
the transfers of farm and city property 
ha\'e been made to settlers from Iowa, 
Illinois, Nebraska, Wisconsin, Michigan, 
Missouri, Minnesota, the Dakotas, and 
some from New "S^ork, Maine, Pennsyl- 
vania and Ohio. Rice, fruit, vege- 
table and grain farms aggregating 2163 
acres were broken and cropped last year 
principally by new settlers from these 
States. The amount of rented land 
could only be approximated, as the 
leases are not recorded. A long list of 
city business and residence property 
appears, and a number of residences 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



23 



and brick business buildings built during 
the year. No sales of large tracts ap- 
pear as formerly. The tendency is to 
buy no more land than can be cultivated. 
The Northern settler as a rule makes 
more money out of 100 acres than the 
"old timer" does out of 1000, and the 
latter is "catching on." 

Several Large Tracts Sold to Northern 
Capitalists. 

Jacksox Brandt & Co., Richmond, 
\'a. — One good sign of the future im- 
provement in real estate is that North- 
ern capital is beginning to seek invest- 
ment in Southern enterprises. 

We have sold several large tracts 
during the past six months to Northern 
capitalists, amounting to about $150,000, 
and we are now corresponding with 
other Northern capitalists to induce them 
to locate near this city. 

We have now an application for a 
tract of land of not less than 25,000 
acres by. one body of thrifty New Eng- 
land farmers, who wish to locate in the 
Southern States, and we trust to get 
them located in the State of Virginia. 

Outlook Very Encouraging. 

H. M. Truehart & Co., Galveston, 
Texas. — The outlook for real estate in 
and around Galveston is very encourag- 
ing. Railroads are running in excur- 
sions and bringing large numbers of 
homeseekers, mostly from Illinois, Ohio, 
Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota and Minne- 
sota. Many of them have bought in 
the past year and many are buying 
now. We sold a large amount of land 
in 1894 to be subdivided into small 
farms of forty to eighty acres. 

Hundreds of Families Have Moved to 
Virginia. 

James H. Barton, Richmond, Va. 
From all the information that I have 
been able to get, I am satisfied that the 
present year will usher in quite a little 
stamped of farmers to Virginia from the 
North and Northwest. Already hun- 
dreds of families ha\e arrived, and in- 
quiries are coming in from many quar- 
ters, and applications for exchange of 
farms in the Northwest and North for 
Virginia farms are very abundant. Sev- 



eral hundred such applications have 
been recei\'ed here by the real estate 
men within the last two months. The 
recent immigration convention here and 
the formation of immigration societies 
in very many counties throughout the 
State, have stimulated renewed interest 
in the development of the State. 

The growth and improvement in 
Richmond during the last four years has 
been unprecedented and most wonder- 
ful, and the indications are that the State 
will be recipient of a like growth, and 
that the efforts of the press and the 
railroads and the people now being put 
forth will pour a large tide of immi- 
grants from the North into the State. 

Large Immigration to Arkansas. 

G. A. A. Deane, Land Commissioner, 
Little Rock, Ark. — The large immigra- 
tion now coming to Arkansas is of a 
splendid character, many of the people 
being from Illinois, Indiana and Iowa, 
with a considerable number from the 
Dakotas, Nebraska and Kansas. 

These people are concentrating in 
four or five different districts in this 
State, such as that about Stuttgart in 
the central prairie region ; the eastern 
peach district in Jeft'erson, Lincoln and 
Drew counties ; the southwestern, on the 
rich lands and fine peach country of 
Hempstead and Clark counties ; the 
great strawberry' and early vegetable 
districts in White county ; and last, but 
not least, the great movement into the 
northwestern portion of the State in 
the upper valley of the Arkansas river 
and on the plateaus of the Boston 
range in our great apple and potato 
belts. 

At a point just north of the pretty 
little town of Alma, in Crawford county, 
fifty families from Illinois and Indiana 
have bought homes or taken up home- 
steads within the past three months, 
and have laid off a new town which 
they have named "Pomona," which 
seems a pretty and wise selection ot 
name, as the site is in one of the best 
counties of the Arkansas apple region. 

The Hon. W. G. Vincenheller, Com- 
missioner of Immigration of the State, 
in a lately-published interxiew, states 
that in his opinion not less than 100,000 



24 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



immigrants have settled in this State 
within the past year, and have brought 
with them an added wealth of at least 
$3,000,000, if not $5,000,000. Large 
colonizing companies are at work here, 
doing good service. 

Sold 9187 Acres in 1894 to Northern 
Farmers. 

Otey, Walker & Bowyer, Lynch- 
burg, Va. — As to inquiries and parties 
from outside the State prospecting with 
view of buying farm lands, the number 
is so large that if they all could sell their 
lands that desire to do so in order to 
buy Southern farm lands, the entire 
South would soon be thickly settled up, 
as they tell us our lands compare most 
favorable with theirs, and we have the 
advantage of them in climate, near good 
home markets, good fruit, hay and grain 
lands and good schools and churches, 
and we take them to see the parties who 
have bought around here and they are 
all doing well and satisfied. Our firm 
sold in 1894, 9187 acres to parties from 
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Michigan and other Western States, 
and we expect many more to settle in 
our section this year. 

Eighteen Families in 1894. 

W. B. Slosson, Houston, Texas. — 
The prospect for a large immigration to 
the coast country of Texas from the 
Northern States for 1895 is certainly 
excellent as to both numbers and quality. 
The tide of immigration has turned this 
way and each years brings to us those 
who are more able to develop the coun- 
try and those who wish to avoid longer 
the rigors of Northern winters. Dur- 
ing 1894 we have located at Webster in 
this (Harris) county about eighteen 
families from the North mostly on fruit 
and vegetable farms. These enterprising 
people come from the States of Nebraska, 
Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, Illinois, Ohio, 
New York and Pennsylvania. More 
than one-half of those who located with 
us during 1893 and 1894, numbering sev- 
enty-four families, are from the States 
of Nebraska, Iowa and Kansas. As a 
rule they are comfortably well off — able 
on arrival to open out farms, set out 
orchards of pears, peaches, plums, figs, 



apricots, grapes, strawberries, etc., and 
while the trees are growing raise vege- 
tables, melons, etc. 

There is only one thing that prevents 
a wonderful exodus from the North- 
western States, and that is the present 
stringency in the money market almost 
forbidding sales of lands or collection of 
debts in that locality. When this objec- 
tion is removed, which 1895 is expected 
to accomplish, the people will not wait 
for excursion trains and days, but come 
at once with household goods and stock 
ready for active life in a climate where, 
as a rule, winter is unknown and vegeta- 
bles and flowers as plentiful in January 
as June. 

Sold Forty =Three Farms in 1894 to Per= 

sons from the North and Doing 

Much Better in 1895. 

Pyle & DeHaven, Petersburg, Va. 
We sold to parties outside of the State 
of Virginia during the year 1894 forty- 
three (43) farms, aggregating nearly 
7000 acres of land, divided as follows 
as to States from which the purchasers 
came : Michigan, twelve ; Wisconsin, 
one : West Virginia, two ; New York, 
four ; Indiana, two ; South Dakota, six ; 
Ohio, three ; Germany, two ; Illinois, 
four ; Nebraska, two ; Kansas, two ; 
North Dakota, one ; Pennsylvania, two. 

The outlook with us for 1 895 is ex- 
ceedingly encouraging. During the two 
months of 1895 already past we have 
more than doubled the business of any 
preceding year of the eighteen years 
we have been in the real estate business. 

Outlook Brightening. 

O. E. Hine, Vienna, Fairfax county, 
Va. — Real estate in this section of 
Virginia was dull in 1894. I made a 
few sales of small tracts to people from 
nine States, viz: Maine, New York, 
Pennsylvania, District of Columbia, 
Utah, Kansas, Wisconsin, Virginia and 
West Virginia, and with two exceptions 
the buyers have or will in the near 
future become permanent residents of 
this vicinity. 

The outlook for the future is bright- 
ening, prices are steady for well-located 
property with a tendency upward, and 
the daily inquiries I am receiving are 



SALES OF FARM PROPERTY IN THE SOUTH. 



25 



from the better class of farmers, largely 
from the Northwest, and many of them 
from stockmen and large farmers who 
seek homes in a milder climate. 

I am convinced that there is a bright 
future for the farmers in the whole 
country, and especially in the Southern 
States. As soon as the manufacturing 
industries of the country shall revive 
so as to employ all of the idle labor it 



will be found that the consumption of 
farm products is just about equal to 
production, and the moment the equi- 
librium is reached (and we are nearer to 
it than many suppose), there must be an 
advance in prices all along the line, 
which will immediately • stimulate land 
values, and the lower-priced lands in 
this region will naturally first feel the 
advance. 




LETTERS FROM NORTHERN AND WESTERN FARMERS, 
GIVING THEIR EXPERIENCE IN THE SOUTH— XVIII. 

[The letters published in this issue form the eighteenth instalment in the series. 
These communications are published in response to numerous mquiries 
from Northern people who desire to know more about agricultural conditions 
in the South, and what is being accomplished by settlers from other sections 
of the country. These letters were written for the most part by practical 
farmers and fruit-growers, chiefly Northern and Western people who have 
made their homes in the South. The actual experiences of these settlers, 
as set forth in these letters, are both interesting and instructive to those 
whose minds are turned Southward. — Editor.] 



Southwest Louisiana. 

L. L. Morse, Jennings, La. — My 
early life was spent in New England, 
but farming there had few attractions, 
and acting upon the advice that Horace 
Greely was then urging upon young 
men, I moved West. In connection 
with other members of my family I 
settled in Iowa to "grow up with the 
country." I farmed there twenty-eight 
years, that is in the summer time. In 
the winter time six or seven months we 
used up what we produced in the sum- 
mer, and before the era of coal we cut 
and hauled wood for the year's supply. 
For a variety, we could freeze our feet 
and our faces sometimes, but then they 
would be all right before the next winter 
came around. As we grew in years we 
longed for a better climate, and one 
winter losing my orchard of apples just 
as it was old enough to bear, I con- 
cluded to investigate for myself Look- 
ing over different parts of the South, I 
came to this section in June and 
August, as we had the impression it was 
so hot and unhealthy we could not live 
here. We were agreeably surprised on 
finding an equable chmate, much more 
so than at the North ; conditions of life 
easier in all respects ; beautiful prairie 
lands, bordered by navigable rivers with 
all kinds of timber ; lands cheap with 
colonies of Northern people settling on, 
and near the line of the railroad with 
large saw mills at the parish seat. This 
was six years ago. Of course I located, 
securing land in and near Jennings, 



selling out in Iowa, bringing down my 
family with cars of emigrant movables, 
consisting of horses, cows, farming im- 
plements, household goods, etc. 

I have been engaged in farming since, 
mostly rice-raising, a new industry here 
which is a success. We use twine 
binders in har\'esting. My largest crop 
was raised two years ago, 6000 bushels. 
Have raised sugar cane to some extent, 
which does well, but being a new coun- 
try have not enough mills to work up 
large quantities. Our orchard of six- 
teen acres is in bearing, consisting of 
pears, peaches, plums, figs, grapes, 
some oranges. Oranges some seasons 
are subject to frosts on the prairies, but 
do well in the timber, on riv^ers or lakes. 
Irish and sweet potatoes do well. We 
have not been without milk summer or 
winter since we came here. Stock do 
well. 

I am glad to see sectional feeling 
disappearing, that we are thereby be- 
coming one country in spirit and aims. 
Glad to see the advance made in th^ 
eastern part of the South, and that now 
it is in the North, "Go South," instead 
of so much of "Go West," as it was in 
my young days. 

A Pennsylvanian in Virginia. 

William Raker, Blue Wing, N. C. 
Every farm here containing from fifty 
to 500 acres has both an abundance of 
timber and water, while the soil is well 
adapted to our farm crops of corn, oats, 
wheat and tobacco. I ha\'e seen as fine 



LETTERS EROM NOR THERN AND WESTERN EARMERS. 27 



clo\'er fields here as I ever saw in Penn- 
sylvania and many fine orchards and 
vineyards. Prices of these farms vary, 
according- to improvements, from $5.00 
to $10.00 per acre, and they can be 
bought on very favorable terms. 

Owing to our short winters, fruit frees 
and \'ines attain maturity in a shorter 
period of years than they do in the 
Northern and Western States, and the 
very early maturity of both fruits and 
vegetables gives immense ad\'antage to 
the producer in the markets of the 
country. 

The climate is healthy in all parts of 
the State, but especially here in Gran- 
ville and Person counties, where there 
is almost an entire absence of consump- 
tion and no malaria. 

Politics Not Considered. 

Philo Adams, Okolona, Miss. — I 
have resided here four years ; during 
that time have voted as I pleased, no 
•questions being asked as to my political 
views. A more health}' climate I ne\'er 
lived in and the society is good, also 
plenty of churches and schools. 

The soil in its virgin state, I think, 
must have been very productive, for 
most of it now with a fair season and 
fair cultivation produces fair crops of 
cotton, corn, oats, peas, potatoes of 
both sweet and Irish ; and small fruits of 
all kinds have done well. I think it can 
be made the very best of a stock country. 

For nine years before coming here I 
resided in the Eastern Nebraska town of 
Beemer, Cuming county. 

A Historic Railway Route. 

Benjamin W. Hunt, Eaton, Ga.— I 
came from New \'ork twenty-five 
years ago, and have been engaged in 
banking, in mercantile business and in 
•dairying and stock farming here in 
Middle Georgia, a country blessed with 
fertile soil, healthful cUmate, abundant 
pure water, capable of supporting a vast 
population and vast and varied indus- 
tries. The land in this section is of 
varied character, repaying intelligent 
husbandry as well as the soil of the 
Northern States, and it is specially 
adapted to the growth and perfection of 
all kinds of fruits, including grapes and 



melons. With the same manuring and 
tillage gi\en as in Ohio it has been 
found by actual experiment that oats 
and wheat make the same yield as in 
Ohio. Cotton has been the leading crop, 
but owing to the low price is being 
abandoned for cereals, fruit, vegetables 
and dairving, the soil and climate being 
pre-eminently adapted to all. In regard 
to the last a new era has opened for this 
section of late vears. It now having 
been demonstrated that owing to the 
mild winters, cheapness of food and 
freedom from disease, cattle can be more 
easily and cheaply reared here than in 
the Northern States, and butter is now 
being exported from Middle Georgia in 
competition with the Northern and 
Western daiiy farms. 

A most mistaken idea has prevailed 
among the Northern people that the 
lands of the South will produce nothing 
but the great staple, cotton. Experi- 
ence and experiment have demonstrated 
again and again that the conditions ot 
soil and climate favorable to the growth 
of the cotton plant are not inimical to 
other products. On the contrary, both 
subtropical and temperate \'egetation 
flourish in central Georgia signally well. 
The New York apple and the Georgia 
peach grow side by side, as do the 
Northern pear and the Southern fig. The 
Irish potato and the sweet yellow yam, 
the grapes of California and those from 
Lake Erie, the wheat of Minnesota and 
the sugar-cane of Louisiana, the rice of 
Carolina and the corn of Ohio, find all 
a congenial home and habitat, either on 
the sunny hills or in the fertile, shel- 
tered valleys of Middle Georgia. 

These rich and desirable lands are 
now held at from fi\'e to fifteen dollars 
per acre. 

It should be realized, also, that in 
addition to the attractions which this 
section offers from a business point of 
\iew, it is nature's sanitarium for the 
cure of pulmonary complaints. The 
odor of its pine forests, forever stirred 
by pure breezes, furnishing the balm 
necessary for the cure of lung diseases, 
and this, reinforced by almost perpetual 
sunshine and the possibility of life out 
of doors the year round, will attract 
here thousands of those im-alids who 



28 LETTERS FROM NOR THERN AND WESTERN FARMERS. 



cannot live elsewhere or in more rigor- 
ous climates. 

This land of ever-blooming flowers, 
whose air is the elixir of life, lies within 
twenty-four hours' ride of the ice-bound 
rivers and snow-drifts of the North. 
Who that reads these lines can resist 
the temptation to investigate and see if 
these things be so ? 

To the manufacturer, also, the water 
power of this region must ofter sig- 
nal advantages over the Northern 
States for cotton mills. Here in the 
very heart of the cotton belt, where the 
greatest amount of the staple is grown 
in the State, this vast power for turning 
the raw material into goods is practi- 
cally unused. 

This region is traversed by the Mid- 
dle Georgia & Atlantic Railroad, the 
brilliant originator of which, Colonel 
E. C. Machen, conceived the idea of 
building a railroad over General Sher- 
man's historic march to the sea, taking 
his straight line from Atlanta to Savan- 
nah as the roadbed, thereby connecting 
the mountains of Georgia with the 
ocean by the most direct route known 
to military engineering. In the very 
ruts made by the wheels of war's grim 
engines of death, as they rolled through 
Georgia on their mission of destruction 
and devastation now roll the grand 
engines forged by peace, whose mission 
is prosperity, plenty and benefaction. 

Health Restored in Arkansas. 

T. H. Leslie, Gillett, Arkansas Co., 
Ark. — I with eight other families 
moved to this section of Arkansas thir- 
teen years ago, coming from near Peoria, 
111. We found but a few houses on this 
prairie, not over six or eight, in a drive 
of eighty miles. It was covered with a 
dense growth of wild grass (blue stem) 
and weeds ; was only used as a great 



pasture and meadow to carry through 
great herds of cattle and horses, and 
was supposed to be of little value for 
other purposes, but our colony and 
others following tested its value for 
agriculture and it is well adapted to 
nearly all Northern crops and is a great 
fruit country. Every person seeing this 
prairie is amazed at its beauty and great 
natural advantages and wonder why it 
was not settled up long ago. There are 
reasons for this too numerous to mention 
in this letter, but the principal reason 
was its isolation from railroads until 
recently; since that need was supplied 
it is being settled up rapidly with people 
from every section almost of the United 
States. 

I was suftering from badly diseased 
lungs caused by exposure at Donaldson 
and a member of my family was in \ery 
bad health w'hen we came here ; today 
we are both well. I have a relative who 
was bad with asthma and is virtually 
well of it. The health of our colony 
is and has been all the while exceed- 
ingly good, much better than in Illinois. 

The timber is extra fine and so inter- 
spersed by groves in the prairie and 
borders of the streams that it is conven- 
ient for the improvement of the lands, 
with millions of feet for export each 
year. Here we have a medium climate 
that is very gratifying to the Northern 
man. This prairie cannot be excelled 
for fruit growing and market gardening, 
and its short mild winters and abundance 
of grass makes it a fine stock countrv. 
Water is pure and wholesome. Land 
is cheap'; the people are cordial and 
hospitable, and greatly desire to see 
settlers coming in and developing their 
beautiful and favored country. A warm 
and hearty welcome awaits all who will 
come to make homes and better their 
condition. 



THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



THE 

Southern States. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY MAGAZINL 
DEVOTEO TO THE SOUTH. 

Published by the 

Manufacturers' Record Publishing Co. 

Maiiutacturers' Record Building, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

SUBSCRIPTION, =■ = - $1.50 a Year. 

WILLIAM H. EDMONDS, 

Editor and Manager. 



BALTIMORE, MARCH, 1895. 

Tlie SOUTHERN STATES is an exponent of the 
immigration and Real Estate Interests and 
general advancement of the South, and a journal 
of accurate and comprehensive information 
about Southern resources and progress. 

Its purpose is to set forth accurately and 
conservatively from month to month the reasons 
why the South is, for the farmer, the settler, the 
home seeker, the investor, incomparably the 
most attractive section of this country. 



The Southward riovement. 

One of the most pronounced and note- 
worthy features of the Southern immigra- 
tion movement is the growing tendency 
among real estate operators and coloniza- 
tion companies of the North and West to 
transfer their operations to the South. 
Many of the agencies that have been 
instrumental in populating the West and 
Northwest in recent years are now at work 
in behalf of the South. And from as far 
west as California the real estate and 
colonization agents are coming South and 
buying up tracts of land to be cut up into 
small farms and orchards. Several in- 
stances of this were given in the last issue 
of the Southern States, and since then 



there have been other developments in 
the same direction. 

As related on another page, a firm of 
New York and Bremen bankers has bought 
20,000 acres of land in Georgia, to be 
settled with colonies of German farmers. 
Among the letters from real estate agents 
published in this issue there is one from 
Atlanta, in which the writer says : "This 
week I have been asked to furnish a tract 
of 50,000 to 100,000 acres of farming lands 
in Georgia, Tennessee or the Carolinas 
for Swedish colonization. Similar orders 
are on hand for smaller tracts for colonies; 
one from Nebraska, one from Pennsyl- 
vania, one from Ohio." 

Another, writing from Richmond, says : 
"We have now an application for a tract 
of not less than 25,000 acres for one body 
of thrifty New England farmers who wish 
to locate in the South. During the last 
six months we have sold several large 
tracts to Northern capitalists, aggregating 
in value about 1150,000." 

The editor of the Southern States 
has been asked to suggest the most 
desirable locality for the purchase of a 
large tract on which to settle colonies of 
French Canadian farmers. 

The passenger agent of the Mobile & 
Ohio Railroad writes : "What pleases me 
most in this movement is the fact that a 
large number of capitalists are purchasing 
good-sized tracts of land for the purpose 
of colonization. These men see that im- 
migration has turned southward, and are 
getting into shape to profit by it." 

Besides these inquiries of colonization 
agents and capitalists for large tracts of 



29 



30 



EDITORIAL. 



land almost everybody whose name be- 
comes in any way prominent as bemg 
identified with Southern immigration or 
Southern farm development, is over- 



in the North and West between the Atlan- 
and Pacific. 

And so we might go on indefinitely 
enumerating the multiplied manifestations 



whelmed with letters of inquiry, requests of the rapidly spreading Southward move- 
for prices and for specific information of ment. 
all sorts from farmers, merchants, bankers 



and others from every part of the country. 
The mail of the Southern States is 
burdened with correspondence of this 
kind. 

A real estate agent in Richmond, \'a., 
states that he has had in sixty days over 



Deep= Water Harbor on the Texas Coast. 

For many years the whole West and 
Northwest have been manifesting a deep 
and growing interest in the matter of a 
deep-water harbor on the Gulf Coast of 
Texas. The interest in this has not at all 



1200 applications for prices of Virginia been confined to the State of Texas. All 
lands. The inquiries are from California, business men in the West have recognized 
Connecticut, Colorado, Dakota, Idaho, the need of an outlet at the nearest possi- 



Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Kansas, iMassachu- 
setts, Maine, Mississippi, Michigan, Min- 
nesota, Nebraska, New "S'ork, New Jersey, 
New Hampshire, Oregon, Ohio, Pennsyl- 
vania, Rhode Island, Vermont, W^ashing- 
ton, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Canada, Eng- 
land, France, Sweden. 



ble point for the manufactured and agri- 
cultural products of that section. 

Congress a few years ago authorized 
the expenditure of |6, 000,000 to give Gal- 
veston deep water, and the work there 
has been progressing favorably. 

A number of capitalists undertook as a 



Fifteen per cent., or iSo. of the inquiries private enterprise the work of securing 

were from Pennsylvania: about 10 per deep water at the mouth of the Brazos 

cent, each were from New York and Ohio, river. The work, though partly success- 

the numbers being, respectively, 121 and <""!. was restricted by the general financial 

128; the next highest State was Michigan, and business collapse of three years ago. 

with 69; then Iowa and Illinois, 58 each. Another promising effort in this direction 

From this it will be seen that it is not only \vas the project for constructing harbor 

from the remote and destitute Northwest works at Aransas Pass. A i&sN years ago 

that farmers are seeking to move South, a company was formed and a good deal of 

but from the older and wealthier and pre- money spent in dredging and jetty con- 

sumably more contented East. There struction, but the "panic" put an end tem- 

were 48 inquiries from Canada, and some porarily to this also, as it did to thousands 

from England, France and Sweden. of other well-conceived undertakings. 

A farm land agency in the rich Tennes- Recently the Aransas Pass enterprise 

see Valley section of North Alabama had has been revived and has been taken in 

over 500 inquiries, and has sold a large hand by the banking house of Alexander 

number of farms as the result of a small Brown & Sons, of Baltimore. This means 

advertisement published twice in the of course, that all the money necessary 

Southern States, and a dealer in farm for the work will be- provided, and that 

lands writes from Shreveport, La., that he the scheme will be carried through in the 

advertised in a small way in the Southern best and most thorough manner and on 

States and has been utterly amazed at the broadest and most comprehensive and 

the overwhelming volume of correspond- permanent scale, 

ence it has brought him from every State With deep water at Aransas Pass, capa- 



EDITORIAL. 



ble of accommodating the largest ship- 
ping, there would necessarily grow up 
around the harbor a great commercial and 
manufacturing city, and the Southern 
States expects to be published long 
enough to see at this point one of the 
notable cities of the country. 

Florida Lands in Demand. 

The value of Florida lands is indicated 
by the interest of people who are awaiting 
the opening to settlers of the Fort Jupiter 
reservation. It is one of several which 
have been ordered thrown open to settlers 
by act of Congress. The tract comprises 
about 6000 acres, and is situated on the 
east side of the peninsula, near the Laxa- 
hatchie river. Already nearly every acre 
has been claimed by a would-be settler, 
although the territory as yet is compar- 
atively isolated, having little communica- 
tion with the rest of the State by rail or 
water routes. 

From a Norfolk Editor. 

Mr. A. Jeffers, editor of the Cornucopia, 
Norfolk, Va., writes to the editor of the 
Southern States as follows: 

In behalf of the South in general, and 
of Southeastern Virginia in particular, I 
desire to express my most hearty sympa- 
thy, gratitude and goodwill to you for the 
splendid series of articles on the South 
appearing in your journal. 

Your article with reference to the "Sum- 
mer Temperature of the South" will open 
the eyes of thousands to a vital point and 
a most important one, of which most peo- 
ple are entirely ignorant. The truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, is 
all that the South wants to have known to 
the world respecting her resources and 
advantages. Great as is the wealth of the 
South in her forests, fields, fisheries and 
mines, her climatic advantage is still 
greater. 

The publishers of the Atlanta Journal 
offered to turn over to the Woman's Board 
of the Atlanta Exposition one edition of 
their paper. The offer was eagerly ac- 
cepted and the members of this board, 
constituting themselves editors, managing 
editors, associate editors, telegraph edi- 



tors, news editors, society editors, dra- 
matic editors, religious editors and editors 
of various other sorts, got out on February 
i6th a "Valentine Number" of the journal. 
It was a superb paper of forty pages, and 
its numerous editors have ample reason to 
feel proud of it. Atlanta and Georgia 
ought to be proud of it and of the skill 
and ability of the ladies who got it up. 
We trust we shall not hurt the feelings of 
the regular editors of the Journal if we 
say that they never printed a better edition 
themselves. 

Elsewhere in this issue is a letter from 
Mr. R. A. Rockwell, of Yineland, X. C, on 
the question of drinking water. Mr. 
Rockwell's testimony is striking and con- 
clusive. He says that formerly quinine as 
malaria antidote was almost an article of 
diet in that locality and that it formed a 
large part of every merchant's stock in 
trade. Since the introduction of artesian 
water, however, there is no longer a 
demand for quinine and all traces of 
malaria have disappeared with a coinci- 
dent and marvelous change in the appear- 
ance and general health of the people. 

Among those whose names were urged 
upon the President as Minister to Mexico 
was Col. B. H. Richardson, editor of the 
Columbus Enquirer-Sun. Col. Richard- 
son would have ably represented the 
country at Mexico, and if there is any- 
body who deserves consideration at the 
hands of the present administration cer- 
tainly he does. 

The latest contribution to the literature 
of the relation of drinking water to 
malaria is the February Bulletin of the 
North Carolina Board of Health, which is 
edited by Dr. R. H. Lewis, of Raleigh, N. 
C. This issue of the Bulletin contains a 
number of new and convincing articles 
and letters in support of the theory that 
malaria is caused by bad water and not by 
bad air. 



Immigration Notes. 



Seeking Homes in Southwest Louisiana. 

A party of (ifly farmers from Iowa, under 
the direction of Mr. S. L. Carey, of the 
Southern Pacific Railroad Company, vis- 
ited Southwest Louisiana the hist week in 
February. The members of the party 
were all well-to-do farmers, able to pur- 
chase all the land they might need. 

A Georgia immigration Enterprise. 

A firm of Germans, with offices in 
Bremen and New York, conducting a 
banking house and a railroad and steam- 
ship agency, for many years engaged 
largely in directing immigration to the 
West, has undertaken an enterprise of the 
same sort in the South on a large scale. 
Land has been bought in Georgia, between 
Macon and Brunswick, aggregating about 
20,000 acres, and will be colonized with 
farmers from other parts of the country 
and abroad. The firm, F. Missler, Krim- 
mert & Co., has sent a good many thou- 
sands of farmers from Germany and other 
European countries into the Northwest in 
the last few years, and has agencies and 
connections in all parts of Europe. It is 
claimed that none but educated, expe- 
rienced and enterprising farmers and those 
who are well-to-do financially will be 
brought to the South. A contract has 
been made with the Mallory Steamship 
Company for the transportation of immi- 
grants from New York to Brunswick. The 
locality is suited to general farming and to 
the growing of fruits and early vegetables. 

A Norihern Governor on the South. 

K.x-Governor Hoard, of Wisconsin, was 
in New Orleans recently and said to a 
reporter of the Picayune: "The question 
of sectional feeling is not any more a 
hindrance to Southern development, as 
far as the Northern immigrant may con- 
tribute to it. The people North realize 
that there is every advantage in the South, 
and they are coming here every year. All 



through Mississippi but few sections can be 
found where there has not within the last 
few months settled an Eastern farmer. 
They are buying the poor sections of the 
State where land is ciieap, and are turning 
the old worn-out hills to productive farms. 
It is but a question of time when there 
will be many more of our Northern people 
located in the South. Just such meetings 
as that held at Vicksburg last week, 
meetings where the Northern and the 
Southern farmers get together and not 
only get accjuainted, but learn to like one 
another, is doing more and will continue 
to do more to bring the Northern people 
South than anything else." 

A Florida Colonization Enterprise. 

Messrs. Christian Ax, H. C. Turnbull, 
Jr., and others of Baltimore, are owners 
of a tract of 15,000 acres of land in Florida 
which have been reclaimed by draining 
and will be colonized. The draining has 
been accomplished by dredging a canal 
nine miles long, emptying into the Ockla- 
waha river, with branches aggregating 
fifteen miles. 

The lands to be thus opened for cultiva- 
tion are in a very rich fruit and vegetable- 
growing section tributary to the towns of 
Citra, Sparr and Fort McCoy, and the head 
of the canal is within a half-mile of the 
Florida Central and Peninsula Railroad, 
midway between Sparr and Citra. A fall 
of sixteen feet is provided for in the survey 
of the canal, and a water-power equal to 600 
horse-power will be developed and util- 
ized for manufacturing purposes. Locks 
will be required and the canal will be 
navigable for small boats, affording a 
cheap mode of transportation for the tim- 
ber and fruit interests through to the 
Ocklawaha river, and thence to the St. 
John's. 

The Jacksonville, St. Augustine & 
Indian River Railroad and the East Coast 
Canal & Transportation Co., Florida, will 



-V KOTES, 



ti*S. i -JSLi^ cv/i-'^u. t 



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compaines. 

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The iolOamm^is : 
tkms adapted bjr :: 










Real Estate Notes. 



Baltimore Suburban Real Estate. 

The next great real estate movement in 
this country will be in property in and 
around Baltimore. 

Some of the reasons for this have been 
heretofore pointed out. 

Baltimore has a population now of over 
500,000, which has up to the present time 
lived almost entirely in solid, compact 
rows of brick houses. Unlike other cities 
and towns it has had no suburban villages. 
This condition is being changed. The in- 
auguration of rapid transit and its exten- 
sion into the country have revolutionized 
public sentiment in this regard. Until a 
year or two ago there were no means of 
quick access to the beautiful and healthful 
hills and plateaus that surround Baltimore, 
and even if these could have been quickly 
and cheaply reached there was no provi- 
sion against discomforts and deprivations 
of country life. 

At the rate at which the population is 
increasing now there will be added during 
the next five years not less than 125,000 to 
150,000 people. The increase within the 
next ten years will be certainly not less 
than 250,000. To provide homes for this 
increase in population will necessitate the 
building within the next ten years of be- 
tween 40,000 and 50,000 houses. As there 
are now in Baltimore less than 100,000 
houses, including dwellings, stores and 
buildings of every sort, this means that it 
will be necessary to add at least one-half 
to the present number of homes. A very 
large proportionate number of these 
houses will be built in the suburbs. 

A conspicuous feature of this suburban 
development will be the creation of small 
manufacturing towns around the city. No 
enterprise of this sort has ever been 
undertaken here. This is another particu- 
lar in which Baltimore differs from all 
other cities. And yet no other place in 
America offers better opportunities for 
development operations of this kind. 



Baltimore is becoming every day more 
and more important as a manufacturing 
centre. Its manufacturing capital in- 
creased from 138,000,000 in 18S0 to |ioo,- 
000,000 in 1890. The present manufactur- 
ing capital is not less than |i2o, 000,000. 
In 1890 it had, according to the United 
States Census, more money invested in 
manufactures than the whole State of 
Alabama with all its iron and coal mining 
industries ; more than Virginia and West 
Virginia combined, including the great 
tobacco and other manufacturing interests 
of Richmond, Danville, Roanoke, Norfolk 
and other places, and the enormous iron 
and steel interests of Wheeling, and the 
great coal mining industries of West 
Virginia. In the whole State of Rhode 
Island, which is hardly anything more than 
a big aggregation of factories, the number 
of hands employed in factories in 1890 was 
only 2000 more than was employed in 
Baltimore factories, and the value of the 
manufactured product in that State only 
17,000,000 more than the value of the 
product of the city of Baltimore. The 
whole State of New Hampshire had in 
1890 113,000,000 less invested m factories 
than Baltimore had, and employed 20,000 
fewer hands than Baltimore did, and paid 
|ii, 000,000 less in wages. Baltimore had 
in 1890 115,000,000 more manufacturing cap- 
ital than the State of Iowa, which is one of 
the largest manufacturing States of the 
West. Its factories employed 23,000 more 
hands than were employed in Iowa, and 
wages paid them amounted to |io,ooo,ooo 
more. It will be seen, therefore, that Bal- 
timore is growing rapidly as a manufactur- 
ing city. New industries are being started 
here continually. 

Among the more important of recent 
industries are three large tinplate mills 
that will cost in the aggregate nearly 
|i,ooo,ooo. One company, organized by 
Norton Bros., of Chicago, who are among 
the largest manufacturers of tin cans in 



REAL ESTATE NOTES. 



the United States, is reported as having a 
paid-up capital for the Baltimore concern 
of |6oo,ooo. The other mills will be built 
by local companies, and contracts for the 
machinery have been let. The fourth 
company will probably be established, and 
negotiations are pending for this. The 
million-dollar sugar refinery which was 
built a few years ago and was burned just 
as it was getting ready to start up will be 
immediately rebuilt. The delay in rebuild- 
ing has been due to uncertainty as to 
Congressional action on the tariVf. Con- 
gress now being out of the way contracts 
will be let at once for the rebuilding of 
this great plant. A company has been 
organized to build an immense power 
plant on the Susquehana river, thirty-five 
miles from Baltimore, and transmit the 
electricity to this city. The property 
along the river bank for a mile or more 
has been purchased and arrangements are 
being completed for early construction of 
the dam and power-house. It is estimated 
that this plant will represent an investment 
of |6,ooo,ooo, and that about thirty to forty 
thousand horse-power will be developed, 
making this the greatest electric power 
plant in the United States next to that at 
Niagara. Several large power plants are 
being built in the city for the extension of 
street railway facilities; one of these, 
which is well under way, will cost 1500,000 
and will be one of the most complete 
railway power plants in America. Among 
new industrial enterprises are a $50,000 
power company for furnishing power to 
small manufacturers, a $50,000 electrical 
construction company, a $250,000 car-fender 
manufacturing company, a $100,000 com- 
pany to manufacture clay pigeons and 
electrical apparatus, a new canning factory 
to employ from five hundred to a thousand 
hands, and a dozen or more small con- 
cerns representing investments of from ten 
to fifty thousand dollars. 

This rapid and continued growth of 
manufactures will necessitate the utiliza- 
tion for manufacturing purposes of all sub- 
urban property in localities suitable for 
factory villages. Such property must in- 
crease in value, and this reduction in the 
area of land available for residence addi- 
tions exclusively will give a further stimu- 
lus to prices of the latter. 

The street railway companies are ex- 



tending their lines and reaching out more 
and more into the surrounding country. 
Contracts have been let for a part of the 
double-track electric railroad between Bal- 
timore and Washington, and it is under- 
stood that this line will be pushed through 
as rapidly as possible. Considerable build- 
ing has been done on the projected line 
between Baltimore and Gettysburg, and 
some miles of work have been let at both 
ends of the line, with a probability that 
these will be extended and become parts 
of a through line from Baltimore to Gettys- 
burg. Contracts have been let within the 
last few weeks for a new electric line of 
about twenty-five miles from Baltimore to 
Annapolis, and a number of electric lines 
in the city are being extended and branch 
roads built to various points of the city 
limits. 

The Baltimore Centennial Exposition of 
1S97 has selected as a site a-3oo-acre tract 
of land within three miles of the centre of 
the city. This exposition is expected to 
be the most important one ever held in 
this country, next to the Philadelphia Cen- 
tennial and the Chicago World's Fair. 
It will enormously stimulate real estate 
operations. 

Taking everything into account it would 
seem reasonable and conservative to ex- 
pect that before the end of 1S95 Baltimore 
suburban property will have greatly ad- 
vanced in value, and that before the end 
of 1897, the exposition year, every acre of 
undeveloped land within five or six miles 
of the centre of the city will be worth two 
to three times as much as it can be boiight 
for now. while in some favored localities 
the advance will be greater than this. 

The Disston Land Co., whose head- 
quarters are in Philiadelphia, has sold a 
tract of 7,000 acres of Land in Southern 
Florida near Kissimmee to Northern 
settlers. The purchasers are practical 
agriculturists, and will for the most part 
cultivate early vegetables. The same 
company has other sales pending amount- 
ing in the aggregate to about 25,000 acres. 
It is significant that the sale just mentioned 
has been made since the freeze of Feb- 
ruary. 

M. C. S.ALSO, of Elgin, Neb., has bought 
a plantation of 1400 acres in Louisiana 
near Baton Rogue. 



General Notes. 



Northwestern Lumbermen on the South. 

As stated in a recent issue of the South- 
ern States, a number of the wealthiest 
and most prominent lumbermen of the 
Northwest made a trip to the South over 
the Illinois Central Railroad to examine 
the hardwood timber sections traversed 
by the road. On their return to the North 
a meeting was held and they adopted a 
series of resolutions, among which are the 
following : 

"That owing to the special facilities af- 
forded we feel competent to form some 
reliable conclusions regarding the prob- 
able development of the Southern sections 
visited, and that we have been favorably 
impressed with the possibilities this por- 
tion of the country aftbrds, and in general 
predict more rapid improvement than any 
other section of our broad domain. 

"In the magnificent pine, cypress and 
hardwood forests tributary to the Illinois 
Central Railroad in Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Mississippi and Louisiana, we find abund- 
ant opportunity, in our judgment, for 
profitable employment of capital and enter- 
prise, and in the lighter soils bordering 
on the main line of the Illinois Central 
Railroad south of the Ohio river, by reason 
of particularly prompt railroad service 
and direct connection with Chicago and 
other large Northern cities, there is a field 
for the truck farmer and small fruit grower. 

"That we were especially impressed 
with what is known as the Ydzoo Delta, or 
a district of rich alluvial bottom lands 
extending from Memphis to Yicksburg, a 
distance of about 200 miles, of an average 
breadth of some forty miles or more. 
Here we found primeval forests of solemn 
grandeur, consisting of oak, hickory, ash 
and gum of lofty height and dense profu- 
sion, grown on soil of inexhaustible fer- 
tility, that will produce equally well the 
cotton and sweet potato of the South and 
the corn and oats of the North. In fact, 
we found a future empire in the heart of 



our country, readily accessible in all its 
parts by rail and water, and yet but little 
known today, but which in our judgment 
is destined to support a rural population 
more dense than any similar area from 
ocean to ocean, and where exists a wealth 
of timber that would supply the waste of 
all other hardwood forests of our land if 
alone drawn on for a generation, and a 
wealth of soil when the timber is removed 
that would feed the nation of today." 

Progress in Arkansas. 

The Stuttgart & Arkansas River Railroad 
Co., Gillett, Ark., which owns several 
thousand acres of fine prairie, farm and 
fruit lands and several thousand acres of 
hardwood timber lands, is doing a good 
work in getting settlers, manufacturers 
and others into its territory. A contract 
has just been closed with persons in 
Nebraska to establish a large mercantile 
house in Gillett with warehouse attached. 
Negotiations are pending also, with pros- 
pect of being closed, with a furniture 
factory and a basket and box factory. It 
is expected that not less than 100 houses 
will be built at Gillett during the spring 
and summer. Some weeks ago the com- 
pany advertised that it would give away a 
number of five-acre tracts near Gillett on 
condition that they should be fenced in 
and inproved. Thirty-two tracts have 
been given away under this off'er, and the 
owners are now building on them and 
setting them out in fruit. 

Mr. F. W. Kahler, Velasco, Texas, 
representing a Boston company, is cutting 
up a 3000-acre plantation into fifty-acre 
tracts to be sold to settlers. 

Southern and Western Farmers Meet. 

An Interstate Farmers' Institute was 
held at \^icksburg. Miss., February 20, 21 
and 22. Its purpose was to bring together 
farmers of the West and South for an 
interchange of ideas and experiences. 



36 



GENERAL NOTES. 



37 



The thought was that Western farmers 
who might be present would have an 
opportunity of learning something about 
Southern agricultural resources, and South- 
ern farmers would have an opportunity of 
learning from them something of Western 
agricultural methods. 

Hon. John M. Stone, governor of Mis- 
sissippi, in an address before the conven- 
tion, reviewed comprehensively the varied 
attractions and agricultural capabilities of 
the State. 

Professor W. C. Stubbs, director of the 
Louisiana Experiment Station, New Or- 
leans, read an elaborate and able paper 
on "The Alluvial Lands of the Missis- 
sippi Valley Adapted to Diversified 
Farming." 

Other papers and addresses were as 
follows : "Can Cotton be Profitably Grown 
in Mississippi at Five Cents per Pound, and 
How?" by Hon. J. B. Wilson, Yazoo City, 
Miss. "Profitable Sheep Husbandry," by 
Mrs. Virginia C. ^leredith, Cambridge 
City, Indiana, member of the Board of 
Lady Managers of the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition. "Can Hogs be Profit- 
ably Grown in the South?" by Professor 
James Wilson, Agricultural College, 
Ames, Iowa. "Enemies to Farm Crops 
and How to Subdue Them," by Pro- 
fessor H. A. Morgan, Baton Rouge, La., 
etomologist Louisiana State University. 
"Horticulture in the South," by Hon. J. 
M. Samuels, Clinton, Ky., superintendent 
Department of Agriculture, World's Colum- 
bian Exposition. "Vegetable Gardening," 
by George B. Smith, Green Bay, Wis. 
"Grasses Adapted to the Mississippi 
Delta," by Prof. S. M. Tracy, director of 
the Mississippi Agricultural Experiment 
Station. "Stock Raising in the South," 
by Dr. Tait Butler, veterinarian, Agricul- • 
tural College, Mississippi. "Dairying in 
Mississippi," by Prof. W^ C. Welborn, 
Agricultural College, Mississippi. "The 
Value of a Specific Dairy Education," by 
ex-Governor W. D. Hoard, Fort Atkinson, 
Wis., editor of "Hoard's Dairyman." 
"The American Farmers' Competitors," 
by Prof. James W^ilson, Agricultural Col- 
lege, Ames, Iowa. "The Etfect of Immi- 
gration on Diversified Farming in the 
South," by S. L. Cary, Jennings, La. 
"The Farm of the American and the 
American of the Farm," bv Prof. W. M. 



Beardshear, president of the Iowa Agri- 
cultural College. 

Negroes Going to Mexico. 

Considerable interest has been aroused 
by the reports in the daily newspapers 
that a sort of colored exodus from the 
South has begun, with Mexico as the 
objective point. From time to time com- 
panies have been formed for the purpose 
of colonizing negroes at different points 
in Africa, the West Indies and in States 
outside the Southern limit. Through the 
efforts of these companies a few hundred ' 
negroes have migrated from the Soutliern 
States, but as the colored population in 
the South is over 6,000,000, the movements 
have had no appreciable effect upon it. 
The latest company formed for this pur- 
pose has succeeded in inducing about 500 
people to move from Mississippi, Alabama 
and Georgia to Mapimi, in Mexico, where 
it is stated that what is known as the Mex- 
ican Colonization Co. has secured a con- 
cession of land from the government large 
enough for 10,000 families. This company 
secures the people by advancing their fare 
to the colony, where they are to be allotted 
small farms to be cultivated on shares. Of 
those taken to Mexico several have already 
returned, disgusted with their new home. 

Some Facts About Southern Agriculture 
that Deserve Attention. 

The following is an editorial in a recent 
number of the Manufacturers' Record : 

The South annually spends for meat — 
hog and beef products — made in other 
sections about 150,000,000. Most of this 
enormous sum goes West. For grain, 
mules and horses purchased of other sec- 
tions it probably pays out equally as much. 
Here is a total annual expenditure of 
|ioo,ooo,ooo for things that can be raised 
with greater profit in the South than any- 
where else, and with greater profit than 
cotton, to which Southern farmers devote 
so much attention. By increase of energy 
and improvement in cultivation every dol- 
lar's worth of stuff represented in this 
fioo,ooo,ooo could be raised by tlie very 
farmers who now produce tlie -South's 
crops. In other words, it is possible for 
this to be done even without any increase 
in the number of Southern farmers. Such 
a gain as this, representing a saving to the 



?8 



GENERAL NOTES. 



South of $100,000,000 a year and keeping 
at home this enormous sum. would soon 
solve the question of abundant capital for 
industrial enterprises. 

Let the South this year return to its 
ante-bellum custom of raising its own corn 
and provisions. In 1S60, with a population 
of about 10,000,000, it raised 358,000,000 
bushels of corn, 45,000,000 bushels of 
wheat, 351,000,000 pounds of tobacco, 1S7.- 
000,000 pounds of rice, 600,000,000 pounds 
of sugar. Last year, with a population of 
about 20,000,000, or double that of 1S60, it 
raised 483,000,000 bushels of corn; whereas, 
based on increase in population, the South 
ought now to be producing over 716,000,000 
bushels of corn a year. On the same basis 
it is interesting to compare what the 
South's crops for 1S94 should have been 
and what they really were : 





What the South ought 
to have produced in 
1S94 based on the 
crops of 1S60 and the 
increase in popula- 
t.on since then. 


What the 

crops of 

1S94 

really were. 


Corn, bus 

Wheat, bus 


716,000,030 
90,000,000 
374,000,000 
702 000,000 
1,200,000,000 
10,392 000 


483,000,000 
50,700,000 
135,000.000 
370,000,000 
506,000,000 
19,500.000 


Tobacco, lbs 

Sugar, lbs 

Cotton, ba es 



fEstiniated. 

Comparing the South's crops of 1S94 
with what they should have been, based 
on the yield of i860, taking into account 
the difference in population, there was a 
shortage of 233,000,000 bushels of corn, 
40,000,000 bushels of wheat, 340,000,000 
pounds of rice, 430,000,000 pounds of to- 
bacco and 600,000,000 pounds of sugar. 
About the same rate of shortage existed 
in other crops. Thus, basing an estimate 
on what the farmers of the South did in 
1894 as compared with 1S60, here is a fall- 
ing off from what they ought to have pro- 
duced of over $250,000,000, even at the 
present depressed prices. This cannot be 
wholly charged to a larger proportion of 
Southern people being engaged in indus- 
trial pursuits. That may account for some 
slight difference, but that would be largely 
offset by other questions that need not be 
elaborated here. The riiain cause of this 
must be less thrift in cultivation and steady 
work on the part of thousands of tenant 
farmers, especially negroes, who are not 



producing in agriculture as much per 
capita as in 1S60. This is due, of course, 
to the easy-going ways of a majority of 
the negroes, who, unfortunately, are con- 
tent to work a few days and loaf a few. 
In time, stimulated by a desire for im- 
provement and for better homes, the race 
will doubtless outgrow this. 

In the meantime, however, the South is 
sending to the West over 1 100,000,000 a 
year for foodstuffs, and is producing $250,- 
000,000 a year less in agriculture than the 
increase in population since i860 ought to 
have brought about. It is doing this de- 
spite the enormous progress made of late 
years — a progress that is gradually bring- 
ing Southern agriculture back to its ante- 
bellum condition — but there is great room 
for advancement. 

Kansas City Buying Mississippi Corn. 

Mr. J. J. Richardson, of Hollandale, 
Miss., in a letter to the Manufacturers' 
Record says : 

"Corn has not until this year been 
shipped out of the State. This year, how- 
ever, Kansas City has entered Mississippi 
as a buyer, and a Kansas City grain house 
has an agent stationed at Greenville pur- 
chasing corn. As no facilities have existed 
here for selling corn for the market, the 
Kansas City people have had to take it in 
the shuck. In this immediate neighbor- 
hood I think there are about 5000 bushels 
for sale. The price is fifty cents per bushel 
f. o. b., but Kansas City offers only forty 
cents at present. Our best farmers can 
average fifty bushels per acre. Corn can be 
raised at a cost of twelve cents per bushel, 
and at twenty-five cents a bushel it will 
pay better than cotton at five cents. If we 
can get small elevators at the railroad 
stations we will raise corn instead of cotton 
in this section of the country." 

Pork Packing in the South. 

The new pork-packing establishment at 
\'aldosta, Ga., has contracted for 3000 hogs 
to be delivered next season. They will 
be supplied by farmers within a radius of 
eight miles. The price to be paid is three 
to four cents gross. The \'aldosta Times 
estimates that the 3000 hogs will average 
200 pounds each, and that at three and a- 
half cents a pound they will bring the 
farmers in money not less than $21,000 



GENERAL NOTES. 



39 



The raising of the hogs will involve very 
little additional expense on the part of the 
farmers, so that the cash they receive for 
them will be so much extra money put into 
circulation in the neighborhood. 

Another Georgia Enterprise. 

A party of Western people have organ- 
ized what is termed the Indiana Fruit Co., 
and have secured nearly looo acres of land 
in the vicinity of Montezuma, Ga. While 
the company expects to engage in fruit- 
growing extensively, and has already 
planted peach and pear trees on 125 acres, 
it proposes to engage in manufacturing 
also, and intends erecting a crate factory, 
fruit-packing plant, cotton and cotton-oil 
mills, a grist mill and a fertilizer factory. 
In this way it can make use of all the 
products of its land. The capital is fioo,- 
•000. Among those interested are Charles 
T. Kramer, B. F. Nyeswander and A. D. 
Maxwell. 

A New Hethod of Baling Cotton. 

The Manufacturers' Record publishes a 
description of the recently patented Besson- 
ette naethod of baling cotton, about which 
so much interest has been aroused among 
cotton people — growers, manufacturers, 
dealers and handlers. The Bessonette 
process is the invention of a Texas man, 
and has been for some time in experimental 
operation at Waco, Texas. 

The present method of baling and com- 
pressing cotton has been characterized by 
Mr. Edward Atkinson as "the most 
atrocious, barbarous, unsafe, wasteful and 
unsuitable package in which any great 
staple of commerce is put up anywhere in 
the world." 

The Manufacturers' Record says: This 
Bessonette system has been fully tested, 
and one of the most satisfactory indications 
of its merit is the fact that Mr. Jerome 
Hill, of St. Louis, one of the largest cotton 
factors of the country, who is heavily 
interested in a number of large compresses, 
after a careful study of the whole situation, 
has become so convinced of the value of 
the Bessonette system that he has agreed 
to take the exclusive management of the 
company east of the Mississippi river. 
Some months ago Mr. Hill, in an interview 
with the editor of the Manufacturers' 
Record, expressed his deep concern in 
regard to the value of his present compress 



interests because of the Bessonette system. 
He determined to make a careful investi- 
gation of it, and the result is that he has 
now identified himself with this new 
system. 

The new process consists in the winding 
up of raw cotton in one long lap, which 
makes a bale, or rather roll, of cotton of 
great density, almost as solid as a log of 
wood, but in such a way that the fibre is 
in nowise injured. This compress, or 
rather this system, is very simple and 
inexpensive. It can be attached at a 
small cost to an ordinary country gin. As 
the cotton comes from the gin it passes 
between heavy rollers and is wound on a 
cylinder, making a bale of uniform weight 
which looks exactly like the rolls of paper 
used on modern printing presses. The 
machinery is set to act automatically when 
the limit of weight of the bale is reached, 
and then a good covering of stout cotton 
cloth is wound around the bale, also 
covering the ends. In this condition it is 
almost impossible for the cotton to be 
injured either by mud, water or fire. The 
Waco plant consists of four stands of 80- 
saw gins to begin with. From these the 
cotton on coming out is blown into a con- 
denser and thence fed in a lap or "bat" on 
a small iron pipe, which serves as bobbin 
or spool (all the dirt and dust dropping 
out between the condenser and the spool), 
the spool being kept revolving between 
two iron cylinders, which may be regulated 
to any desired pressure, until a bale as 
heavy as may be required is produced. 
While the "bat" is being rolled on or 
wound up the air is excluded behind the 
line of contact, thus rendering the cylin- 
drical bale practically non-combustible. 
In th« old bale the air is not entirely 
excluded, but with the dust and dirt is 
compressed so as to break the fibre and 
make the bale begin to swell the moment 
the enormous pressure begins to ease up, 
but the new bale never budges from its 
first estate. 

By this system there is a saving in hand- 
ling, in labor, in bagging, and in ties, as 
no ties whatever are used. It also does 
away entirely with the present compress- 
ing system, thus saving on this about fifty 
cents a bale, and saving probably even 
more in waste, dirt and grease, due to 
inadequate covering of the old bale. There 



40 



GENERAL NOTES. 



is also a large saving in insurance and 
freight, and a careful calculation shows 
that the aggregate saving by the Bes- 
sonette system ought to be from $3 to I5 
a bale, or say from 130,000 to |4o,ooo a 
year. This saving ought to be almost 
wholly in the interest of the planter, and 
it is to be hoped that if the Bessonette 
system is generally introduced, as it doubt- 
less will be, the planter will get the benefit 
of this enormous difiference. 

Moreover, the cost of a plant is so small 
that it can be established in connection 
with any country gin of sufficient capacity 
to handle 2000 or 3000 bales of cotton. It 
is the intention of the managers of this 
enterprise to secure the organization of sub- 
ordinate companies throughout the entire 
South, and the establishment of the Bes- 
sonette baling system in connection with 
gins wherever there is a point at which a 
few thousand bales of cotton can be 
centred. 

It is believed by some that ultimately, 
under this system, the present method of 
sampling will be done away with when the 
Bessonette combination gins and presses 
shall be in general operation. According 
to this view, each press will then certify to 
the grade of its outfit, and self-interest will 
lead to fairness and honesty in classing 
cotton, just as self-interest and the laws of 
trade lead the great flouring mills to brand 
each barrel as it ought to be. While this 
view seems rather too much to look for, 
there are some leading cotton men who 
believe it. They claim that the entire 
cotton-handling business will be so com- 
pletely revolutionized as to bring about 
such sweeping changes as this. 

A few months ago a shipment of 112 
bales, aggregating 57,000 pounds, was 
made to Boston. This entire amount was 
put in the ordinary freight car, and is 
about 50 per cent, more than the amount 
of averaged compressed cotton that can be 
packed in a car. The bales were carefully 
studied by New England cotton-mill 
people, the system was warmly endorsed, 
and it was generally predicted that this 
was the beginning of an absolute revolu- 
tion in the handling of cotton. 

The West Virginia & Pittsburg Railroad, 
of which Senator J. N. Camden is presi- 
dent, has created a "Land and Immigration 



Department" and has put Mr. A. H. Win- 
chester, of Buckhannon, W. Va., in charge 
of it. 

The Habitations of the Pioneers in the 
Northwest. 

In most of the prairie country of Western 
Kansas and much of Nebraska and the 
Dakotas, the farmers live for the most part 
in houses made of sod. The following 
description of these houses is from the 
Kansas City Star. With no better habita- 
tions than these possible, the conditions of 
life would be but little above barbarism, 
no matter what the climate and rainfall 
and crops might be. 

"The 'sod houses' peculiar to Western 
Kansas in which thousands of farmers are 
braving the cold wave, are in a long way 
as suitable to the conditions of the treeless 
plains as adobe structures are suitable to 
the climate of Mexico and Central 
America. They are the warmest dwell- 
ings in winter and the coldest in summer 
which the farmer can construct with his 
own hands. The frame houses look far 
better, but put together as they usually are 
by unskilled hands, are anything but 
weather proof. The country not affording 
lumber the expense is comparatively large. 
In some places a sort of yellowish white 
magnesia stone may be quarried, but haul- 
ing it long distances and lack of quarrying 
facilities precludes its use by the farmer. 

"The farmer cuts the slabs of sod for 
building purposes just as sod is cut for 
transplanting grass. The buffalo grass in- 
digenous to the Western Kansas country 
grows like a thick mat of closely curling 
tough herbage, reminding one of the kinky 
hair of a Guinea negro. The slabs of this 
sod, about 15x24 inches and 4 inches thick, 
hold together like rolls of thick felt. 

"They are laid in courses like building 
stone and pressed closely together and 
the roof is made of timbers and frequently 
thatched. The inside is then smoothed 
with the native lime which makes an ex- 
cellent plaster. This coat of lime is some- 
times applied outside also, but usually 
these sod houses present a natural dun 
color like the winter prairie. In some 
cases the floor is made by excavating a 
few feet and tramping the ground solid 
with horses; otherwise a regular wood floor 
is laid. The window and door frames are 



GENERAL NOTES. 



41 



fitted as in building stone houses. The sod 
house contains frequently only one room, 
but some have two and even three rooms. 

"The elements tend to make one mass 
of the sod rather than dissipate and crum- 
ble it. They last about five years, but 
when the roof is gone they crumble quick- 
ly, and deserted houses are soon reduced 
to a mere pile of earth. A fire of cow 
chips in an iron cook stove will keep a 
good sod house habitable even in zero 
weather. The failure to brave severe 
weather is commonly caused by the poorly 
set doors and windows, through which the 
blizzard winds stream triumphantly. A 
frolicsome horse is also liable to kick a 
hole in them, and when 'thump!' 'thump !' 
sounds against the wall the inmates rush 
out like the city folk when the fire alarm is 
sounded. 

"The 'dug out' is quite different, and 
consists of an excavation, the walls of sod 
rising about three feet above the surface of 
the prairie and supporting the roof. They 
may be kept quite warm if well made, but 
as they are the dernier resort of the poor- 
est settlers, contain no flooring and little 
timber of any kind. These 'dug outs' are 
not discernible to the eye of any except 
the practiced traveler, and appear like 
tiny warts on the surface of the undulating 
plain." 

An Important Carolina Enterprise. 

The Carolina Sulphuric Acid Co., of 
Blacksburg, S. C, is adding largely to its 
capacity. This company, after a year or 
more of experimental work in the reduc- 
tion of gold and pyrites ores, is so well 
satisfied with the results that it is now 
busily at work enlarging its plant suffi- 
ciently to enable it to handle thirty or 
more tons of ore a day. By this system 
all the bi-products are saved. The Dur- 
ham Fertilizer Co., of Durham, has made 
a contract with the acid company to build 
a large phosphate plant adjoining tlie acid 
company's works, agreeing to take a 
minimum of twentv tons of sulphuric acid 
a day delivered direct by pipe from the 
acid company's works into the phosphate 
works. The Durham Fertilizer Co. is one 
of the leading fertilizer concerns of the 
South, having large works at Durham, and 
have recently built an extensive plant at 
Norfolk at a cost of probably 1250,000. 



Its Blacksburg plant will probably have a 
capacity of about sixty tons of phosphate 
a day. The reduction of these Southern 
ores by this new system, saving the gold, 
the sulphuric acid and all other bi-pro- 
ducts, promises to become of enormous 
value to the entire South. It means, when 
in full and successful operation, the utiliz- 
ation of ores that have heretofore been 
without value because they could not be 
handled by any Southern concern, the re- 
duction in the cost of sulphuric acid for 
the manufacture of fertilizers, and thus 
possibly a reduction in fertilizers. 

Actual Effect of the Florida "Freeze." 

Florida had during the past winter two 
disastrous cold waves. As was shown in 
the January number of the Southern 
States, by the reports of experts, the 
effects of the December freeze were not 
as bad as was commonly believed. 

The last period of freezing weather, 
that of February 8, was marked by 
sudden and great changes in tempera- 
ture, and was notable for the extent 
of territory it affected. At Winter Haven 
the mercury fell from eighty degrees 
to eighteen degrees in twenty-four hours. 
Apparently all vegetation was blighted 
over hundreds of miles of country, 
extending from a line drawn east and 
west across the peninsula in the lake 
region to the northern boundary of the 
State. The dispatches sent out by news- 
paper correspondents estimated the dam- 
age at from $5,000,000 to |io,ooo,ooo, and 
in some cases went so far as to state that 
the entire orange crop for next season, as 
well as the present vegetable crop, was a 
total loss. 

These accounts, however, are far from 
being accurate, as proved by more recent 
statements from better authority. Expe- 
rienced fruitgrowers who have been mak- 
ing examinations of orange groves in the 
frost-visited districts are of the opinion 
that the older trees in bearing are unhurt 
as to trunks and roots, and that though 
the leaves and branches may be blighted, 
the trees will again be in bearing within a 
year. 

It has been noticed also that certain 
localities did not suffer as severely as 
others. Groves near bodies of water 
in numerous instances escaped with the 



42 



GENERAL NOTES. 



loss of comparatively few trees. One 
observer, in estimating the extent of the 
damage done to the groves, gives the 
opinion that few of the trees over five 
years old have been seriously injured and 
that the damage in a great measure has 
been confined to the budding trees. In- 
cluding the section which escaped frost 
blight, a conservative estimate of next 
year's harvest places it at from 1,250,000 
to 1,500,000 boxes of oranges. But the 
cold wave brought with it good as well as 
evil. Two of the greatest drawbacks to 
the work of Florida orange-growers have 
been insects known as the red scale and 
white fly. Entomologists state that the 
latter has been practically "frozen out," 
and can now be exterminated with com- 
paratively little effort on the part of the 
people. 

In one sense of the word the vegetables 
were destroyed on many of the farms — 
that is, it became necessary to plant again. 
Planters affected by the first cold wave 
were obliged in numerous instances to 
put in a new supply of potatoes, lettuce, 
spinach, beans and tomatoes in plants or 
seeds. During the interval of a few weeks 
these vegetables had obtained a fair start ; 
the second fall in temperature compelled 
them to plant again, but in spite of this 
series of drawbacks it is stated that their 
crops will be ripe and ready. to ship to the 
Northern market from twenty to twenty- 
five days before the truck farmers along 
the Atlantic coast in the Carolinas and 
Virginia will have theirs matured. At 
this point a statement made by Dr. F. W. 
Inman, of Winter Haven, one of the most 
extensive vegetable growers in Florida, 
is timely: 

"Twice within forty days we have been 
completely frozen out, but by a week from 
today you w'ill see our fields green again 
from the third planting. You see, we do 
not use your Northern systems of planting. 
If we raised tomato plants and set them 
out a freeze would hurt us verv much, 
because we should have no more plants. 
But we plant tomatoes precisely as you 
plant corn. We plow up the field and 
fertilize it, mark it out and plant five or 
six tomato seeds in each hill. When they 
are well up we thin them down to one 
vine in each hill. After this freeze our 
fields are still in good condition, the hills 



are fertilized, and we have only to drop in 
more seeds. It delays us a few weeks, 
but it really does us very little harm." 

As indicating how quickly the "cold 
spell" passed away, the following from a 
Florida correspondent will be interesting: 
"The thermometer freeze went up to sixty- 
five in the shade and eighty in the sun, 
and every field was alive with men putting 
in new seeds. The second freeze of the 
season was over and warm weather had 
come again. The new planting is all fin- 
ished, and already there is a green tinge 
on some of the fields. By April 20 ripe 
tomatoes and onions and other vegetables 
will be going from here by the carload. 
Last vear they shipped 150,000 crates of 
winter vegetables from here. This year's 
shipments will be about the same." 

A large section of the State escaped 
with practically no damage. This was 
the country south of Lake county, espe- 
cially on the west coast, near Fort Myers, 
and along the Calooshatchie river. Grov«s 
of budding trees in that vicinity escaped 
uninjured, while the fruit was unharmed. 
By a comparison of the weather records it 
is to be seen that the Gulf coast, the 
southwestern part of Florida, was the 
warmest portion, the thermometer at San- 
ibel island having registered only thirty- 
two degrees, and at Fort Myers it was 
thirty degrees. In Lee county it was six 
degrees warmer than the December freeze, 
a temperature which did not damage the 
oranges. It never has snowed in Lee 
county. 

On the coldest day at Fort Myers there 
were growing in one garden English peas, 
lettuce, rutabaga turnips, Irish potatoes, 
radishes, beets, pumpkins, onions, cab- 
bage, Japanese cabbage, purple top turnip, 
peppers, corn, six inches high, ripe 
strawberries. Cocoanut palms and other 
tropical fruits that had been put out since 
the December Ireeze were not hurt in the 
least. The same conditions are to be 
found all over that strip of the State, and 
the weather is fine. One enterprising 
passenger agent of a railroad entering Fort 
Myers has offered to pay the fare of any- 
body from Jacksonville to Fort Myers if, on 
arriving there, the person should not find 
the fruits in sound condition. 

In the following conservative and well- 
considered letter to the Southern States 



GENERAL NOTES. 



43 



the writer, Mr. John W. Wellington, of 
Sanford, states very clearly the present 
conditions in Florida : 

"The great profit in a bearing orange 
grove has enticed a large majority from 
self-sustaining farming, and ihey have 
concentrated their efforts and money in 
that single crop. The immense returns 
received from several growers in this 
immediate neighborhood, which have been 
a net annual receipt of from one to two 
thousand dollars per acre, has been the 
cause of bringing people here from all 
parts of the world with varying amounts 
of money, from a few hundred dollars to 
half a million, to embark in an industry of 
which they knew nothing; and when a 
calamity, as the two great freezes of 
December 29, 1894, and February S, 1S95, 
leaves the evergreen orange grove as bare 
of leaves as a beech forest in Maine, it is 
necessarily attended with mental and 
financial depression. 

"General farming, even on a small scale, 
is profitable here when carried on with a 
fair amount of industry. Beef, butter and 
milk, pork, chickens and eggs, sheep and 
bees all pay, and pay well. In the winter 
the raising of a vegetable garden of the 
Northern-grown varieties, and in the sum- 
mer cane, corn and rice, sweet potatoes, 
peanuts and pumpkins are all grown with 
less effort than in the States North, and 
are much more profitable, on account of 
the local demand, the facility of shipping 
and the average yield. 

"Within the last decade a few men have 
settled here, some from New England, 
some from the Middle States, a few from 
the Northwest and many from elsewhere, 
who have undertaken general farming in 
order to meet the expenses of making an 
orange grove. These have followed the 
manner of the early settlers of before the 
war, when the county was self-sustaining. 

"From 1842, the time of the first settle- 
ment, to 1869, at which time the orange 
fever began to develop, the majority of 
the immigrants made more than a good 
living, as they accumulated enough sur- 
plus money to enable them to make fre- 
quent visits to their old homes in the 
North and give their sons and daughters 
■collegiate and boarding-school education, 
nearly all being made on small places, 
with very few depending on slave labor. 



"During the business depression at the 
North of the past two years, we have made 
less than the average sales of property as 
heretofore ; a large part of the transfer^, 
were to men who sought an investment 
or a winter home more than a permanent 
residence. 

"Within the past year not more than fifty 
families have settled here as exclusive 
agriculturists, and all but one or two have 
gone into making or buying orange groves, 
using money made in other States north of 
here to buy hundreds of articles absolutely 
necessary to the grove or farm, which 
could have been raised with less expense 
at home. Notable examples of this bad 
economy are that of hay and grain for 
stock and vegetables for the table. 

"Regarding the near future of this coun- 
try it is easily predicted, notwithstanding 
the awful disasters of the past sixty days. 
Though the soil seems thin and poor, and 
though the country is subject to a dry 
time in March, yet so much can be raised 
on a small piece of ground that prosperity 
will result from the present misfortune. 
All the hay needed can be raised on two 
acres for the support of four head of stock ; 
one acre in vegetables, rice and corn will 
furnish all that can be used by a small 
family; all the grazing required can be had 
in a two-acre orange grove of seedling 
trees (it has been proved that the seedling 
grove is better paying than trees budded 
to fancy citrus fruits); therefore, a small 
piece of ground of five acres, which would 
be easy work for one man, will furnish 
support for a family. When the area is 
extended within judicious limits and the 
crops diversified, the orange grove being 
made the adjunct to the farm as the apple 
orchard is to the New England homestead, 
then this section will be not only self-sus- 
taining as an agricultural country, but rich 
and prosperous. 

"The lesson of 1SS6 was not as severe as 
that of 1S95. Then it was thought, as it 
had been several decades since the histori- 
cal calamity of 1S35, it would undoubtedly 
be as great a lapse of time before we 
should have another visitation, and it 
required the present lesson to solve the 
question of overproduction of oranges 
and to compel all the exclusive orange- 
growers to change their methods and return 
to methods similar to the farming adopted 



44 



GENERAL NOTES. 



by the first settlers when corn and cotton 
were the staple crops, but when every- 
thing that could be raised was planted. 

"Though the trees are bare of leaves at 
the present time of writing, by the time of 
publication the trees will have appeared in 
full green with fair amount of blossom and 
prospect of a crop of oranges the coming 
winter. Similar freezes have frequently 
happened in Italy and Spain, yet oranges 
and lemons have been cultivated there for 
hundreds of years ; but in these countries 
the farmers do not depend exclusively on 
citrus culture. The Northern or foreign 
farmer coming to Florida to make his 
home, either to better his condition as a 
farmer, for the sake of a warmer climate 
or to relieve and cure bronchial or pulmo- 
nary disease, should bring with him his 
childhood methods to be adapted to a 
smaller area than in more Northern 
places." 

Messrs. Beckwith & Anderson, Tampa, 
in a letter to the Southern St.-vtes say: 

"Just what the damage to the orange 
groves will be cannot be known for a 
month or two to come, as we have not had 
warm weather enough to start new growth. 
There has been no such cold since 1835. 
The general result will no doubt be that 
many groves will be abandoned, or sold 
for a mere pittance, as many will be dis- 
couraged and seek other means of living. 
The freeze of 18S6 had the tendency to 
compel many to change from raising or- 
anges exclusively to raising diversified 
crops, and the State generally was the 
better for it, and we believe the last dis- 
aster will be an ultimate benefit to the 
State at large. 

"We still believe in oranges and orange 
groves, but we do not believe in them 
exclusively. We do not believe there is 
any better place than this county for those 
seeking homes." 

A NUMBER of prospectors from the West 
have been investigating lands in the 
neighborhood of Scotisville, Va. 

A PROMINENT fruit-grower of Michigan 
has been engaged to take charge of the 
fruit interests along the line of the Stutt- 
gart & Arkansas River Railroad, between 
Stuttgart and Gillett, .Ark. Me will plant 



out for the company and grow a model 
orchard and fruit farm. Fruit-growing 
and truck farming will be given great 
attention by Vice-President Leslie, of Gil- 
lett, who was a fruit-grower of Illinois 
fifteen years ago, and has great faith in 
the fruit-growing possibilities of this region. 
Many farmers and fruit-growers have been 
settling near Gillett all fall and winter. 

The Runnymede Pineapple Co., neai 
Kissimmee, has over forty acres in vegeta- 
bles, planted since the cold wave, and 
expects to have a large crop and to be in 
the market before any other section. 

Dr. E. H. Baylis, a physician of Dayton, 
has been negotiating for the purchase of 
a 200-acre peach orchard near Fort A'alley, 
Georgia. 

Dr. J. Prewitt Frazer, a wealthy and 
progressive citizen of Canton, Miss., writes 
to the Southern States: "I came here 
thirteen years ago on account of the cli- 
mate and do not in any way regret the 
move. The people are hospitable, intelli- 
gent and reliable. We have quite a num- 
ber of Northwestern people here, and so 
far as I know they are doing well and are 
satisfied." 

A CORRESPONDENT at Gillett, Arkansas, 
writes: "Indications all promise consid- 
erable activity in this section of country in 
the near future. The large band-saw mill 
of Wisdom & Canon, employing 100 men, 
is in full operation. This firm has 6,000,000 
feet of logs — cypress, ash, cottonwood and 
oak — ready to float to their mill tramway. 
The prospects for house-building are good, 
and a hundred or more new houses will 
probably be erected this summer. 

The Educator Company, Durham, N. 
C, has issued in attractive form a very 
complete Hand-Book of Durham, describ- 
ing its industries, its public institutions, 
its prominent people, its buildings and its 
varied advantages. The book is very 
liberally illustrated. 

The Prairie Belt Land Co. has been 
organized at West Point, Miss., for the 
purpose of promoting the agricultural and 
industrial development of that locality. 



GENERAL NOTES. 



45 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Progress in flississippi. 

Editor Southern States : 

Recently a party of wealthy Hollanders 
from Iowa were here looking over the 
South, including parts of Tennessee and 
Louisiana, and after seeing the lands near 
Jackson, Miss., expressed themselves as 
being very much pleased, and it is very 
likely that a purchase of some 5000 or 
10,000 acres for a colony will be made. 
There is scarcely a day that Northern 
prospectors are not in my office looking 
for lands and asking for information 
about Mississippi. A mill plant and other 
property four miles south of Jackson has 
been sold for |i 1,500 to parties from La 
Crosse, Wis., who will increase the ca- 
pacity of the mill, cut the timber away from 
the land and sell it out to settlers on time 
payments. I get more correspondence 
coming north of the Ohio in one week's 
time now than 1 got for a whole year two 
or three years ago. The tide is starting 
Southward. There is no doubt about it. 
In this connection allow me frankly to say 
that no one party or organization has done 
more to bring this about than the paper 
you publish. Geo. W. Carlisle. 

Jackson, Miss. 

Pure Drinking Water Banishes Malaria. 

Editor Southern States : 

I have been reading with a great deal of 
interest the articles that have been written 
by Mr. Jas. R. Randall on the "Water 
Problem." Mr. Randall is a great bene- 
factor to mankind. His work deserves 
the appreciation of every one who values 
health. The Southern States deserves 
praise for giving its space to so worthy a 
cause. If some of our large dailies would 
give more space to questions of this char- 
acter, instead of long columns to "base- 
ball," "prize fights" and the like, they 
would no doubt be the means of doing 
more lasting good. The water problem 
is, indeed, "the great question of the 
South." 

The theory that bad water and not bad 
air is the cause of so much disease, and 
especially of what we call malaria, has 
been proven true in every instance where 
a test has been made. Until recently the 
people in this section used only surface 



water. Malaria was prevalent, and was 
attributed by physicians and all alike to 
impure air. Quinine was prescribed, and 
it was more important that the morning 
dose of quinine should not be missed than 
it was to eat breakfast. The sale of this 
article had become so large that it was 
made a "leader" in many stores, a very 
low price put on it to attract attention, and 
when the customer came after quinine 
other goods would be sold to him. But 
this state of things has changed. There is 
no more sale for quinine in any quantity. 
Pure water has done the work. Here in 
our town we have an artesian well. All 
traces of malaria have disappeared. The 
change in the appearance and feelings of 
the inhabitants is marvelous. Of course 
there always will be some sickness, but 
the amount can be considerably reduced. 
Mneland is not the only place in the 
county where the water question is re- 
ceiving attention ; it is so all over the 
county. Good water can be found almost 
anywhere you go. R. A. Rockwell. 
Vineland, N. C. 

Progress in Southwest Texas. 

Editor Southern States : 

My last mail brought my copy of the 
latest number of the Southern States^ 
the reading of which has been interesting 
and profitable to me. In my extended 
travels in Southern and Southwest Texas 
I frequently come across a copy of the 
Southern States, the sight of which 
does me good like meeting an old ac- 
quaintance. 

Our Northern friends coming down to 
settle among us express themselves as 
being agreeably surprised at the conditions 
of the masses of the people in Texas. 
They say that we are not yet acquainted 
with hard times and distress, and judging 
from press dispatches the last few days I 
suppose they are correct in saying that 
the people are having hard times in the 
North and Northwest. Texas will, of 
course, contribute her portion to the relief 
of the suffering in Dakota and Nebraska, 
whose appeals for relief have gone out to 
the world. I might say something of what 
is being done away otf down here in 
Southwest Texas, in the way of progress 
and public improvements. 

The deep-water problem for Aransas 
Pass seems now to be assuming tangible 



46 



GENERAL NOTES. 



form in the way of contracts, bonus, &c. 
Messrs. Brown Bros., of Baltimore, New 
York and London, have taken the matter 
in hand, and as bankers assure our people 
so soon as the required bonus is raised the 
work will be begun and pushed to com- 
pletion. This enterprise within itself will 
serve to stimulate the business pulse of 
Southwest Texas, in fact the entire State. 
This gigantic undertaking of course ope- 
rates to overshadow the many smaller 
enterprises, but a few will be named to 
illustrate what the small fry are about. 

In the town of Goliad a $75,000 court- 
house has just been completed ; a $60,000 
courthouse and a fine jail are under con- 
struction at Sinton, the new county seat of 
San Patricio county ; a $22,000 public 
school building has just been completed 
at Beeville, and private improvements, 
such as a bank building to cost $8000, &c., 
are going up; one $20,000 and one $18,000 
brick business block ; one brick business 
house just completed at a cost of $7000 ; a 
new Holly system of water works has been 
put in and water mains are being extended 
throughout all the principal streets. The 
largest apiary business in the world is 
established here. All public roads and 
thoroughfares are being graded and put in 
thorough order. A small planing mill and 
box factory has been opened, and a candy 
and a broom factory established. The 
flag stations along the San Antonio & 
Aransas Pass Railway are growing into 
respectable tow-ns, and most of them are 
already supplied with fine cotton gin and 
mills, schools, churches, business houses, 
&c., and the back country is fast filling up 
with a thrifty class of farmers. Many 
other equally important improvements 
are being made in town and country 
throughout this great scope of heretofore 
unpopulated territory, for all of which we 
are thankful and have cause to be proud. 

Beeville, Texas. T. J. Scaggs. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Beaumont, Texas, is taking acti\e steps in the 
development of industries and the encouragement of 
immigration. The city has a number of progressive 
people who are alive to its possibilities and they are 
men who work together to build up the town and 
surrounding country. It is singularly free from pe ty 
jealousies, and everybody works together for its 
advancement. Early in January the ofificials of the 



Kansas City, Pittsburg & Gulf Railroad Co. visited 
Beaumont, and Sabine Pass, for the purpose of looking 
over the facilities for extending their road to the 
Gulf of Mexico, and to deep water. Careful inquiries 
were made by some gentlemen accompanying the 
party regarding the adaptability of the lands around 
Beaumont for Western immigration. It was stated 
by one of these gentlemen that the Southward trend 
of immigration was stronger than ever throughout 
the West, and a very large number of settlers would 
go South during 1895. 

Mr. W. B. Slosson, manager Texas Immigration 
Association, Houston, Texas, writes: "Perhaps I 
could give no better or marked example of the change 
that is taking place in this section than the new 
Xorthern town of Webster, midway between Houston 
and Galveston. Eighteen months ago this e.xpanse 
of prairie land was a cattle ranch with only a lonely 
railroad station on it. Today it is a brisk town wiih its 
homes and business houses. More than eighty families 
are occupying fruit and vegetable farms adjacent to it, 
and nearly every family has its peach, pear, plum, 
apple and fig trees, grape vines and strawberry plants 
well advanced, and is raising on the same land three 
crops of vegetables a year." 

A PAMPHLET decribing the coast country of Texas, 
and illustrated with engravings of farm and orchard 
views, may be had free by writing for it to Warren 
Reed, 310}^ Main street, Houston, Texas. 



Charles E. Semfle & Co , Houston, Tex., say in 
reference to the section in which their lands are sit- 
uated : "Climate, soil, health and markets good." 
That is a taking combination. 

The Real Estate & Immigration Agency of Vir- 
ginia, Roanoke, \'a , has in this issue an advertise- 
ment of Virginia lands for sale, which it will pay to 
read. 

A. H. Agnew, Kendrick, Fla., is selling at low 
prices and on easy terms land suitable for small 
fruits and vegetables, tobacco growing and general 
farming. 

Persons who think of moving South can get some 
valuable information about Eastern Virginia and 
North Carolina from Parke L. Poindexter, Norfolk, 
Va. 

W. B. Bair, real estate agent, Alvin, Texas, invites 
all persons who may want to know about the re- 
sources and attractions of the Gulf Coast country of 
Texas to write to him for informaiion. He will be 
glad to answer questions. 

Orange, Texas, another thriving city in the ex- 
treme southeastern part of the State, and situated 
on the Sabine river, the dividing line of Louisiana 
and Texas is making an organized effort to attract 
immigration to the rich lands surrounding it. There 
is perhaps no more beautifully situated little city in 
Texas than Orange, the Sabine river winding around 
it, on its way to the Gulf of Mexico only twenty 
miles away to the southward. 



MISCELLANEO US. 



Noted at lists occasionally condescend to lend their 
aid to make a trade catalogue beautiful, and this has 
evidently been the case with the new handbook of 
Columbia bicycles just issued. From the rich and 
striking cover to the last of the dainty sketches that 
adorn the broad margins, the tell-tale marks that 
show the hand of well-known contributors to Life, 
Vogue and the leading magazines are everywhere 
apparent. The idea skillfully carried out in the 
illustrations is that of sport and travel. It is as 
little like the ordinary trade catalogue as well can be, 
and yet it cleverly tells of the merits of Columbia 
bicycles for 1895, and also of lower-priced machines — 
Hartfords. No lover of bicycling or of beautiful 
books should neglect sending for the Columbia cata- 
logue. It can be had by calling upon Columbia 
agents, or it will be sent by mail for two two-cent 
stamps. Address Publishing Department, Pope Man- 
ufacturing Co., Hartford, Conn. 



J. F. DuRANT & Co., Alvin, Texas, advertise that 
they have some special bargains in fruit farms in the 
Gulf Coast fruit belt of Texas. The}- may be written 
to for particulars. 

The Pittsburg & Georgia Land Co., of La Grange, 
Ga., has issued a pamphlet describing the town and 
adjacent country and giving a descriptive list of 
farms for sale. 



The Southern Fru!t-Growing & Colonizing Co., of 
Bremen, Ga., is selling a large number of small tracts 



to persons in the North to be planted in grape vines 
and fruit trees. Some of the buyers expect to hold 
their vineyards and orchards simply for the revenue 
they will produce; others expect to move down and 
live on them, making a living raising vegetables and 
small fruits until their trees and vines come into 
bearing. 

Thk February number of ."Southern Facts for 
Homeseekers and Travelers" contains a number of 
illustrations of farm scenes in Alabama and Mississ- 
ippi. One interesting illustration is that made from 
a photograph of a field of 6J^ acres from which ten 
tons of crab-grass hay had just been cut and racked 
up into piles. In October, 1893, this field was plowed 
for cabbage, a crop of which was grown and 
marketed. This was followed by a crop of Irish 
potatoes, and after these were dug the crab grass 
was allowed to grow. The ten tons of hay were 
cut September 28, 1894, the three crops having been 
produced within a year. Crab grass seeds itself 
annually following other crops, and makes, it is said, 
a richer haj- than timothy. 

The southwestern corner of Tennessee is a region 
of magnificent agricultural capabilities, and it is 
receiving a large share of the present flow < f immi- 
gration to the South. In Fayette county, in this 
section, a Southern homeseeke s' land company has 
been organized by a number of progressive citizens, 
with office at Somerville, the county seat. This 
company will be glad to send printed matter and 
furnish any information desired about the county. 



lO 



AD VER TISEMENTS. 



SOUTHERN LANDS 

FOR SALE. 

ALABAMA. 



FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE.— A magnificent plantation 
on the Chattahoochee river, in Russell county Ala , con- 
taining 2669 acres. Splendidly improved and watered 
lands, level and very fertile, and yielding handsome in- 
come. Public boat landing on place, and only a few 
miles to railroad station. Neighborhood unsurpassed ; 
labor abundant and efficient. Prefer selling a part to all, 
and would take in exchange (as part pay) a small, well 
located farm to suit, or good city real estate that is con- 
vertible. Best reasons can be given for offering to sell 
this magnificent piece of property. J. H. Chambers, 
Oswichee, Ala. 



FLORIDA. 

FRUIT AND FARM LANDS.— Farms with bearing orange 
groves and timber. Also high rolling wild land in the 
famous "Frost-Proof Lake Region" of Polk county, free 
from frost and suited to tropical fruits and winter gar- 
den. Finest lake fronts $25.00 per acre; back lands $5.00 
to $10.00. The Frost-Proof Land Co., Frost-Proof, Fla. 

FROST-PROOF fruit, pineapple and vegetable lands, 
from $2 50 per acre in our healthy highland lake region, 
Polk county. Tomatoes yield net returns $200 per acre. 
Irving Page, Auburndale, Fla. 



GEORGIA. 

ONE OF THE BEST equipped Farms in Georgia, half 
mile from Fairburn and 18 miles from Atlanta, Ga.. on the 
A. & W. Pt. Railroad, for sale cheap. Write for informa- 
tion to W. P. Jones, Fairburn, Ga. 



TEXAS. 

THE GULF COAST COUNTRY.— Folders with full infor- 
mation of this country, with prices of land mailed upon 
application. Send your address on postal card to R. 
B. Gaut, Real Estate, H 3io>4 Main street, Houston, 
Texas. 

TEXAS FARM AND FRUIT LANDS, equal to the best in 
the world, $5 00 per acre up. Buy a home near Houston, 
the great railroad centre, and convenient to Galves- 
ton, "the growing port of entry. You will be sure to 
realize the greatest and most rapid advance, and have 
an unexcelled market at your door. For maps and 
further particulars call on or write to Cash & Luckel, 
30634 M-.'in street, Houston, or 421 Tremont street, Gal- 
veston, Texas. 



VIRGINIA. 

GO TO ALBEMARLE COUNTY, VIRGINIA, AND BUY A 

HOME.— Good Lands, Fine Climate, Cheap Homes, Low 
Taxes, Excellent Graded Schools, Boarding Schools for 
Boys and Girls. Seat of University of Virginia. No 
place offers equal inducements. Address J. C. Mc- 
KENNIE, Charlottesville, Va. 

FARM OF 1500 ACRES, within eight miles of Char- 
lottesville, half in timber; twelve-room brick dwelling on 
place. Can be bought for $15,000. 

CITY PROPERTY AND FARMS FOR SALE.— All property 
shown free. Correspondence solicited. C. L. Carver & 
Co., real estate agents, Charlottesville, Va. 

SUFFOLK has cheapest and best transportation facilities 
in the South. Six railroads, and deep water route to the 
ocean. The great tidewater farming section of Virginia. 
A long list of farms. Come and see. Fine grass and 
stock farms. A splendid manufacturing center. Factory 
sites triven away. Write or see J. Walter Hosier, Suf- 
folk, \"a. 



Maryland Trust 

COMPANY. 

Cor. South and German Streets, 
BALTinORE. 



CAPITAL, 



$1,000,000. 



A LEGAL DEPOSITORY FOR COURT 
AND TRUST FUNDS. 

Acts as Financial Ag;ent for States, Cities, 
Towns, Railroads and other Corporations. 
Transacts a general trust business. Lends 
money on approved security. Allows interest 
on special deposits. Acts as Trustee under 
Mortgages, Assignments and Deeds of Trust; 
as Agent for the Transfer or Registration of 
Stocks and Bonds, and for the payment of 
coupons, interest and dividends. 

J. WILLCO.X BROWN, President. 

LLOYD L. JACKSON, Vice=Prest. 
J. BERNARD SCOTT, Sec. and Treas. 



DIRI 

J. Willcox Brown, 
Wm. A. Marburg, 
H. J. Bowdoin, 
Basil B Gordon, 
Lloyd L. Jackson, 
Fred. M. Colston, 
Joshua Levering, 
Frank Brown, 
W. B. Brooks, Jr., 
Frederick W. Wood, 



sCXORS. 

Leopold Strouse, 
Charles Marshall, 

H. A. Parr, 
B. N. Baker, 
Andrew D.Jones, 
James Bond, 
Alexander Brown, 
T. K. Worthington, 
Clayton C. Hall, 



OF BALTIMORE. 

J. D. Baker, Frederick, Md. Walter S. Johnson, N. Y. 
August Belmont, N V. John B. Garrett, Phila. 

A. A. H. Boissevain, London. 



J. Rhodes Browne, Prest. Wm. Slade, Cashier. 

Capital, $100,000 Surplus, $90,000 

The National Bank of Columbus, Ga. 

Established 1876. DEPOSITS INVITED. 

COLLECTIONS SOLICITED. 



Is the place for 

a 
Winter Home. 



Charleston, S. C. 

pOR SALE.— In the City of Charleston, South Carolina, 
■ (The Nice of America), a Handsome, Large Modern 
Residence, and a Beautiful Old Colonial Residence with 
modern conveniences, both in choice locations. Imme- 
diate possession can be given. Charleston is the loveliest 
place ill the South for winter homes. Both of these resi- 
dences aresurplied with water from the Artesian wells 
of the City Water Works, which has recently proved a 
great dyspeptic and rheumatic cure. Also for sale, Timber 
and Farming Lands and Rice Plantations in Colleton and 
Berkeley Counties, S. C. For detail information apply to 

EXCHANGE BANKING & TRUST CO. 

CHARLESTON, S. C. 

tl Beautiful Country Seat Tnlont fhe^ nS= 

ains of Western North Carolina. For health, rest, 
or recreation it would be hard to find a more perfect 
place. Address F. C. ABBOTT. Hendersonville, N. C. 



THE 



Southern States. 



APRIL, 1895. 



THE SOUTHWARD TENDENCY OF EMIGRATION. 

By J. B. Killebreii\ A. M., Ph. D. 



No fact of the present decade is more 
pronounced than the tendency of migra- 
tion Southward. For more than fifty 
years the great Western prairies, with 
their infinite expanse of virgin soils, 
rich in all the elements of plant nutriti- 
tion, have presented the greatest attrac- 
tion to this class. And this attraction 
was intensified by the fact that govern- 
ment lands and railroad lands were 
offered to actual settlers upon the most 
easy conditions of payment. The pas- 
sage of the homestead law and the 
timber act and the opening of the terri- 
tories for settlement, increased still more 
the eagerness of homeseekers to occupy 
that vast region where the bread grains 
could be produced at a minimum cost, 
and where markets were good and made 
easily and cheaply accessible by the 
numerous railroads. Railway lines also 
lent their powerful influence to swell 
the current of immigration by giving 
exceedingly low rates to all who desired 
to move West, and by offering their 
donatives or grants of land at low prices 
and on long payments to actual settlers. 

After the stream of immigration in 
great volume had set in from the old 
world to the new States of Iowa, Kansas 
and Minnesota, there ceased to be any 
necessity for advertising agents, for 
every well satisfied immigrant became 
himself the most effective agent. And 
so the current swelled from year to year, 
first filling up Illinois, then Iowa, then 
Kansas and Minnesota, and finally sent 
its living flood over the Dakotas and 
Nebraska. Striking the arid regions of 
these States, the flood was diverted 



Southward, and it is destined to overflow 
the fairest regions of the Southern 
States fertilizing them with fresh thought 
and bringing about a grand development. 

The general thrift and prosperity that 
marked the regions these immigrants 
first populated, made the West the 
granary of the world, as it still is, and 
also made it the point of the greatest 
attraction to immigrants. But when the 
grain products, by reason of the compe- 
tition of the grain growers of Russia, 
India, the Argentine Confederation and 
other countries, fell to a price so low 
that they ceased to be profitable in the 
West, the farmers were compelled to 
resort to mortgages on their farms to 
keep even. The days of their pros- 
perity then vanished. After this the 
struggle came to maintain a comfortable 
existence and to meet the interest on 
mortgages. 

And this struggle every year grows 
harder and harder until thousands, losing 
all hope, are leaving their homes to be 
taken in possession by the mortgagee. 

The following comparative statement 
will show how burdensome these mort- 
gages must be on the farmers of the 
Northwest, and how much lighter they 
rest upon the people of the Southern 
States. These mortgages were in force 
January ist, 1890 : 



State. 


No. of farm 
Mortgages. 

50,151 
107,175 
203,306 
97,078 
33.734 


Amount of 
Mortgages 


South Dakota 

Nebraska 


$ 29,356 S65 
90,506,968 
174,720,071 
75.355.562 
22,098,092 




North Dakota 


Total 


491,444 


392,037.558 



47 



THE SOUTHWARD TENDENCY OE EMIGRATION. 



The following exhibit shows the num- 
ber and amount of mortgages in force 
at the same period for the five Central 
Southern States : 



Tennessee 
Kentucky.. 
Mississippi 
Alabama.. . 
Georgia.... 

Total,... 




These tables do not include the mort- 
gages on town lots. Were these 
embraced the difference between the 
two groups of States would be much 
more marked. The total population in 
the five Northwestern States in 1890 
was 4,298,759, and the number of farm 
mortgages 491,444. This gives one 
mortgage for every 8.7 persons, and 
$91 of farm mortgage indebtedness 
for each person in these States. 
The population of the five Central 
Southern States at the same time was 
8,266,723, and the number of farm 
mortgages 140,149, showing one mort- 
gage for every fifty- eight persons and a 
farm mortgage indebtedness of a little 
over $12 per capita. 

Suppose we deduct the urban population 
of these five Northwestern States, which 
in 1 890 was 804,4 1 9 persons, from the total 
population ; we shall have 3,494,340 
persons living in the country or in small 
villages. The mortgage indebtedness 
on the farms of the Northwestern States 
divided equally between the persons 
constituting the rural population would 
giv^e a mortgage debt of $112 for each 
person, man, woman and child, living in 
the country. Taking the number of 
farms as reported by the census of 1890 
for these States at 563,140, and dividing 
the amount of the rural mortgage 
indebtedness equally between them, it 
will show an incumbrance upon each 
farm of $696. 

Now take the urban population of the 
five Southern States selected for com- 
parison, which was in 1890 801,185, and 
deduct this number from the total pop- 
ulation of these States, and it will appear 
that the rural population is 7,465,538. 



Now divide among this rural population; 
the farm mortgage indebtedness of these 
five Southern States, and it will show a 
per capita obligation of only $13.63. 
The number of farms in these 
Southern States in 1890 was 826,837. 
Divide the rural mortgage debt equally 
between these and each farm will be 
chargable with $123. 

These results show that the farm mort- 
gage debt of the five Northwestern States 
as compared with the same character of 
indebtedness in the five Southern States is 
per capita in the proportion of 1 1 2 to 
13.6, or more than eight times as great. 
The rural debt apportioned among the 
farms shows that in the five North- 
western States each farm carries nearly 
six times as much indebtedness as each 
farm does in the five Southern States. 

Taking the number of acres in farms 
and the number of acres mortgaged in 
each of the ten States under considera- 
tion, we find : 



Tennessee has cne acre mortgaged in 

Georgia " " " " 

Kentucky " " " " 

Mississippi " " " " 

Alabama " " " " 

Iowa " " " " 

Kansas " " " " 

Minnesota " " " " 

North Dakota" " " " 

South Dakota " " " " 



6.7 
3-2,S 
6.2 
3 2 
3-2 
1-9 
1. 14 
1.8 
I 8 



This table is significant and clearly 
indicates the comparative degree of 
prosperity in the two sections. The 
South, especially the States practic- 
ing a diversified agriculture, are highly 
prosperous, and the people generally 
are out of debt. Thousands of farmers 
living in the Northwest who, when 
wheat was worth $1 per bushel, reveled 
in extravagance and luxury, are now 
forced to the wall when wheat is selling 
at thirty to forty cents per bushel in the 
home markets. 

The peculiar conditions of the West- 
ern climate in the prairie regions make 
it impossible to greatly diversify crops. 
The high winds of the prairies are fatal 
to the fruit crops and to the tobacco 
crop. The lateness of maturity makes 
the vegetable crops almost worthless 
when they enter full markets after a 
long and expensive haul. Cotton, pea- 
nuts, rice, sugar, hemp, sweet potatoes 
and other Southern products cannot 
mature in such a short season or flourish 



THE SOUTHWARD TENDENCY OF EMIGRATION 



49 



in such a rigorous climate as that of the 
Northwest. 

The exceedingly long and hard 
winters have pressed with unusual 
severity upon the inhabitants of these 
woodless regions and require large ex- 
penditures to be made for fuel and a 
heavy outlay for clothing. While the 
cost for these two items, almost indis- 
pensable to human existence in that 
latitude, was scarcely felt when wheat 
was worth %\ per bushel, it has now 
become a positive burden, so onerous 
that it cannot be borne. 

Hundreds of families in South Dakota 
and Nebraska, owing to the failure of 
crops or the low price of grain, are 
unable to buy either coal or wood and 
are dependent upon "cow chips" and 
straw or hay for fuel. The distress 
resulting from the extreme cold by 
reason of this privation is scarcely con- 
ceivable by the inhabitants of a milder 
climate. 

The blizzards that sweep over the 
country in winter are accounted among 
the most terrible phenomena of nature 
and rank in their destructive power with 
earthquakes. With the thermometer at 
forty below zero, the wind blowing at the 
rate of sixty miles an hour, and the 
snow filling the air so completely that 
one cannot see ten feet before him, it 
becomes dangerous even to go a rod 
from one's door. In such blizzards, 
stock perish by the thousands. There 
is no safe refuge from them in the open 
prairie. These storms sweep the country 
like an avenging angel and bring misery, 
suffering and destruction everywhere. 
The writer of this in November last 
drove out in a close vehicle through the 
prairie fifteen miles when the thermom- 
eter marked six below zero and the wind 
was blowing at a high velocity. 
Although he had on three coats, one of 
them fur, and had three blankets and 
two fur rugs over his lap, and a lighted 
lantern between his feet, he suffered 
most intensely. If the thermometer had 
fallen to 40° below zero and the wind 
had increased in velocity to sixty miles 
an hour he could not have survived the 
cold. 

Nor are the winters more to be 
dreaded than the hot winds that some- 



times prevail in summer, when the ther- 
mometer rises as high as 115°. Such 
heat accompanied by hot winds last 
July parched up (as with the flame of a 
fire) nearly all kinds of vegetation. In 
the counties of Brule, Charles Mix, 
Douglass, Aurora, Davidson, Hughes, 
Hind, Hide, Buffalo, Jerauld, Beadle, 
Spink, Brown, Marshall and many more 
in central South Dakota, tens of thou- 
sands of acres of corn were literally 
destroyed, burnt up, with scarcely a 
single ear that matured or even formed. 

This corn was planted upon land as 
fertile as can be found anywhere on the 
American continent. It has a rich, 
black, loamy soil belonging to the cre- 
taceous alluvium, and in all the elements 
that enter into the nutrition of plants, it 
has no superior anywhere. With suffi- 
cient moisture. South Dakota and 
Nebraska would yield grain enough to 
supply all the markets of the world. 
Without moisture, the country becomes 
as barren as the desert of Sahara, except 
for the bunch grasses of the prairies. 
Moisture is an indispensable element of 
civilization. There can be no substitute 
for it. Poor soil may be enriched ; fuel 
may be brought in ; markets may be 
produced, but without water there can 
be no development in any desirable 
direction. 

The scarcity of water is a great hard- 
ship upon the people. Many farmers 
haul water from two to eight miles to 
supply their stock and for other domestic 
purposes. Wherever artesian wells 
have been bored the supply of water, 
though hard and unpalatable, is ample, 
but there are comparatively few of these, 
probably not an average of one for 
every twenty square miles in the arid 
regions of South Dakota and Nebraska. 
Some water is supplied by ordinary 
wells, but when it becomes low in winter 
it is putrid, slimy, offensive to the taste 
and nauseating to the stomach, and 
utterly unfit for any purpose. Cisterns 
are out of the question because of the 
small precipitation. Some few farmers, 
however, take advantage of heavy 
snowfalls and fill their cisterns with 
snow which makes good drinking water 
the following summer. 

The calamities of the people in Ne- 



50 



THE SOUTHWARD TENDENCY OF EMIGRATION. 



braska and South Dakota do not stop 
here. The dread of prairie fires hangs 
like the sword of Damocles over them 
whenever the grasses are at all dry, 
which for several years past has been 
fully half the time. When these fires 
break out every human being, in the 
vicinity, turns out and fights them. 
They are very much dreaded, and 
justly so, for dwelling-houses, barns, 
hay-ricks, stock and everything com- 
bustible are destroyed withoiit an hour's 
notice. Human beings often perish in 
these conflagrations. 

The Russian thistle, a recent impor- 
tation from Russia, is a most trouble- 
some pest. It takes possession of every 
cultivated field, and when not very thick 
on the ground grows to the size of a 
half barrel, with rounded outlines, some- 
thing in shape like a large kettle turned 
bottom upwards. It has a single tap 
root and is armed with short spines that 
make it much dreaded by stock. Dur- 
ing the prevalence of the high winds in 
autumn and winter, these thistles are 
detached from the earth and go bound- 
ing along like great elastic balls over 
the earth, going from fifty to one hun- 
dred miles or more in a day through 
the unobstructed prairies.* 

Where fences impede their progress 
they will pile up on the windward side 
until an incline plane is formed, up 
which they climb and go on their way. 
Frequently during a windy night they 
will invade the towns, piling themselves 
against the houses until they reach a 
height above the doors. The next day 
they have to be removed before traffic 
can be resumed. 

The Russian thistle will not flourish 
in the uncultivated prairie, and therefore 



*It is really animating and entertaining: to drive 
through the prairies in the month of November dur- 
ing a windy day and see the Russian thistles of all 
sizes from that of an ordinary base-ball to that of one 
three feet in diameter racing apparently with one 
another over the surface of the prairie— little, big, 
young and old, as though endowed with life, each in 
an apparently frolicsome humor, elastic, bounding 
and jumping high in the air and looking for all the 
world like a race of thousands of live animals To 
look at such a spectacle as this produces the same 
exhilarating effects in the beholder as a horse race. 
One feels like hallooing, cheering and clapping his 
hands in joyful ecstacy. Some of tlie smaller thistles 
look like balls of cobwebs, and are as ethereal as the 
spirits of the air ?s they go scudding along; others 
are compact, and roll along in dignity and majesty. 
Cowboys often amuse themselves by betting on 
these races. 



it does not impair the value of the graz- 
ing privileges. It may prove the best 
wisdom in the future to turn back all 
this arid region into grazing grounds 
and look to artesian wells for the water 
supply. An artesian well bored in the 
centre of every township would give 
water to every locality within the distance 
of four and a quarter miles. 

These drawbacks to portions of the 
West have brought many people South, 
and this movement is increasing in vol- 
ume and momentum every day. In the 
South fuel and water are abundant 
everywhere. Vegetable life flourishes 
as it does no where else in the United 
States. There are seventeen field crops 
grown successfully in some of the 
Southern States, twenty-seven vegetable 
crops, and all the fruits and berries 
known to the United States. While the 
soils of the Southern States are not gen- 
erally so rich in plant nutrition, they are 
for the most part more certain in the 
production and more uniform in the 
yield of crops. The amount of rainfall 
averages over fifty inches in all the 
States south of the Ohio river, west of 
the Alleghany mountains and east of the 
Mississippi river. 

Take Tennessee as a type of this 
region and the average rainfall for the 
past twenty-two years has been fifty-two 
inches. In that State both the crops 
of the North and South overlap and 
commingle. There are sixty varieties 
of trees in the forests ; living streams of 
water glide everywhere in peerless 
beauty through the State and great 
rivers flow in every direction, giving 
natural outlets for the products of soil, 
mine and forest. 

Coal is abundant and cheap. The 
markets for the vegetable products of 
the South are good and are found both 
in the North and in the South. Two 
crops of Irish potatoes are grown in one 
season upon the same land. The early 
crop is placed in Chicago and other 
Northwestern cities upon a bare market. 
Early peas, snap beans, tomatoes, 
strawberries, early apples, plums, as- 
paragus, onions, squash, cucumbers, 
okra, eggplant, cantaloupes, water- 
melons, peaches, pears and various other 
fruits and vegetables are shipped from 



THE SOUTHWARD TENDENCY OF EMIGRATION. 



51 



many places in the State by the carload 
to Northern markets. 

This fruit and truck-garden industry 
is supplemented by creameries in many 
places. The great number of wild and 
cultivated grasses and forage plants that 
grow profusely makes dairying very 
profitable. One dairy in the vicinity of 
Nashville sells from $12,000 to $18,000 
worth of butter and milk annually. 

Such diversified agriculture requires 
a high degree of intelligence. The 
people of the Northwest who are looking 
to the South for homes are among the 
best in the United States and rank high 
in intelligence, morality, energy and in- 
dustry. They make very dc'-irable citi- 
zens. They would soon reclaim those 
regions in the South that have been run 
down with cotton and tobacco, and they 
would find their thrift and profit in this 
work. Large plantations on which cot- 
ton has been grown for generations may 
be bought for $6 to $10 per acre. 
. These may be easily reclaimed and 
made fertile by sowing clover and the 
grasses and by establishing upon them 
truck and dairy farms. This has been 
so often done by the intelligent immi- 
grant from the North that it is no longer 
an experiment. Belvidere, in Franklin 
county, is an illustrious example of how 
quickly and profitably this may be done. 
This land, once filled with deep, red 
gullies, was almost worthless. It was 
bought in its worn down condition by 
some American Germans and Swiss at 
prices varying from $5 to $10 per acre. 
These farms are now worth from $50 to 
$75 per acre, while the old cotton plan- 
tations immediately surrounding them 
are scarcely worth one-tenth as much, 
though the soils were originally the 
same. 

Nothing will aid this movement of 
bringing population from the North to 
the South more rapidly than the success 
of the expositions which are proposed 
to be held in Atlanta in 1895 and in 
Nashville in 1896 Immigration always 
moves on the lines of the least resist- 
ance. Expositions not only furnish 
object lessons where the State and its 
products may be studied in detail, but 
they assure very low fares on the rail- 
roads, so that the cost of studying and 



inspecting the country is reduced to a 
minimum. Everything, therefore, which 
is done to encourage these industrial 
expositions in the South is an aid to 
immigration. 

But there is a duty which rests upon 
the people of the Southern States. 
They must not only receive and treat 
the homeseekers as countrymen and 
equals, entitled to all the rights, privi- 
leges and benefits that belong to the 
native inhabitants, but they must see to 
it that they are not imposed upon by 
sharpers or confidence men. They must 
be permitted to enjoy their own religion 
and their own politics without let or 
hindrance. Their votes must count for 
as much as those of the native citizens. 
It is an unwritten law that a man who 
does not exercise his right of suffrage 
according to his own sense of right and 
duty makes a poor citizen. Freedom 
of thought is what moves the world 
forward and gives strength to society. 

Hospitality to strangers was a princi- 
ple of public life among the Athenians, 
and was said to be the most productive 
germ of the greatness of Attica. She 
attracted and carefully nurtured within 
her limits the genius and enterprise ol 
every commercial and enlightened na- 
tion with which she had intercourse. 
Those of the highest skill in every art 
flocked to Athens with the certainty that 
there merit would meet the readiest 
recognition, and labor would find its 
best reward. Under these conditions 
learning was fostered and encouraged, 
manufactories flourished, arts multiplied, 
inventions increased and aroused the 
envious rivalry of the world. The use- 
ful trades and the fine arts rose to a 
splendor never witnessed before, and 
which still makes Athens the best known 
city of the ancient world. Such a state 
of society is the grandest ci\ilization. 

Common sense alone would dictate 
the policy of encouraging immigrant 
laborers in the fields and skilled me- 
chanics in the workshops from abroad 
to settle in our midst, and gi\e new 
directions to labor and new investments 
to capital. The \ery tact that such men 
have been reared and educated by other 
communities at a cost of not less than 
$iooo each shows how great is the gain 



52 



THE SOUTHWARD TENDENCY OF EMIGRATION. 



to the community that secures them. 

This enormous saving by the State is 
what built up the West so rapidly. 
Notwithstanding these advantages re- 
sulting from the advent of new people, 
now and then we find men who still 
oppose immigration and linger in the 
mists of fogs and prejudice — men who 
have not advanced in thirty years in any 
direction, who nurse prejudice for pa- 
triotism and find nothing in the present 
and everything in the past to commend. 
Such men are a drag upon the commu- 
nities in which they live. They check 
all progress either in education, agricul- 
ture, mining or manufactures. They 
have intense hatred for everyone who 
was not born under the shadow of their 
own mountains. 

State, local or international prejudice 
is at war with the very laws of civilized 
progress and obstructs every avenue of 
prosperity. 

Adepts should be encouraged to come 
from every quarter as teachers of our 
native population in new staples of pro- 
duction and new branches of art. The 
Southern people do not desire, how- 
ever, to introduce, nor would they 
welcome any class of socialists or 
anarchists. There is a conservative 
influence pervading every community 
in the South that would resist with the 
sternest resolution any attempt to upset 
the established order of things. 

The new doctrine that laborers may 
justly control the capital of their em- 
ployers is obnoxious to all of the 
traditions of the South. Such a doc- 
trine would meet with the most resolute 
opposition and be rejected with the 
greatest abhorrence and disdain. The 
old-fashioned idea is still prevalent that 
no laborer has the moral right to pre- 
vent another laborer from working 
when work is afforded to him at satis- 
factory prices. The general concurrence 
of opinion on this point throughout the 



Southern States will do much to attract 
the most conservative laborers and 
repel those of radical ideas. The latter 
when they come South remain but a 
short time. 

In order that immigration may be 
encouraged, protected and made suc- 
cessful, there should be organizations 
formed in every county in the South, 
the objects of which shall be : 

First. — To secure lands on long op- 
tions for immigrants. 

Second. — To have the prices on these 
lands fixed for a given length of time, 
say twelve months, so that immigration 
will not be checked by any boom 
growing out of, and created by, the 
movement. 

Third. — To provide ways and means 
for showing these lands to immigrants 
when they arrive. 

Fourth. — To print truthful descrip- 
tions of the resources of the counties 
in pamphlet form in which also there 
shall be short descriptions of each tract 
of land held for sale with the prices 
and terms of payment. Arrangements 
should be made with the railway officials 
to distribute these pamphlets through 
their agents in the Northwest or else- 
where. There should be some trust- 
worthy railway employe in all the great 
centers to whom the immigrants could 
apply for information as to passenger 
and freight rates, and these rates should 
be made very low. Such an employe 
should have no profits, directly or 
indirectly, in the sale of lands. 

By pursuing such a policy as I have out- 
lined, and by getting up expositions all 
over the South, I have no doubt that 
millions of most excellent people, 
trained in the arts and reared in the 
influences of an enlightened civilization, 
may be induced to seek homes where 
the climate is so happy and the earth 
so fruitful that the pleasure of existence 
is doubled. 



TENNESSEE RIVER IMPROVEMENT. 



By T/mrsto)i H. Allen. 



The Tennessee river takes its rise far 
tip among the ice-cold mountain springs 
and trout brooks of the Blue Ridge, 
where the Holston and Little Tennessee 
have their sources, and finding their 
way down through the passes which the 
finger of God has traced for them, rein- 
forced by many a limpid spring and 
many a mountain torrent, at last unite 
in one great flood, surpassing its sister 
and commercial rival, the Ohio, both in 
volume of water and in navigable mile- 
age. 

Beside its claims to consideration by 
reason of dignity of size, the Tennessee 
challenges admiration as being by far 
the most beautiful river of the South. 

For a distance of 600 miles and from 
the time when it becomes the Tennessee 
until it reaches the Ohio, some forty 
miles from the junction of that river 
with the great "Father of Waters," the 
river flows in majestic curves and 
stretches over a never-changing bottom 
of rock, with banks that are, here, a 
perpendicular cliff of limestone, there, a 
range of craggy hills and, here again, 
wide- stretching plains of alluvial soil or 
forest lands, clothing the banks with 
verdure to the water's edge. This foun- 
dation of rock over which the river flows 
g'ives it a channel which never changes 
and its pilots fear neither the sand bar, 
mud flat or "sawyer" of the Mississippi 
and its other tributaries. 

In North Alabama, 300 miles by river 
from Ohio, reaching from Florence to 
the upper part of Brown's Island, thirty- 
seven miles, nature had placed a barrier 
to commerce which cut the river into 
two almost equal parts, — the lower con- 
nected through the Ohio and Mississippi 
with the Gulf of Mexico, while the upper 
half was practically a long, narrow lake. 
This natural obstruction is called the 
Muscle Shoals, and it was to join these 



two sections of the river, thus giving 
this upper section a commercial vent, 
that the Federal Government has, at a 
cost of several millions of dollars, con- 
structed the Muscle Shoals Canal, with 
its supplementary channel work. 

From the foot of Brown's Island to 
Bainbridge, a distance of twenty-five 
and one-half miles, the river has a fall of 
one hundred and seven and four- tenths 
feet, and of this fall there are in the first 
fourteen miles above Bainbridge eighty- 
four and six- tenths feet. It was around 
this section that the first canal, of years 
ago, was built. During the first quarter 
of the present century there was a great 
influx of settlers into the Tennessee 
valley. Among these were some enter- 
prising and far seeing men, who by their 
personal efforts interested their Con- 
gressional representatives and, through 
them, the Federal Government in the 
construction of a canal around the shoals 
of the Tennessee. In 1824 Mr. Calhoun, 
then Secretary of War, urged that this 
was a matter of paramount importance 
and demanding equal attention with that 
given to the Great Lakes and to the 
Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Four 
years later four hundred thousand acres 
of the public lands in Alabama were ap- 
propriated for this work and, in the 
same year, the first survey of the shoals 
was begun, which resulted in a project 
for improvement being submitted in 
1830. In 1 83 1 the State of Alabama 
began the construction of the canal. 
After five years of work and an expen- 
diture of $700,000 a canal fourteen and 
a quarter miles long, sixty feet wide and 
six feet deep, with seventeen locks with 
an average lift for each lock of six feet, 
was completed. Water was first ad- 
mitted in 1836 and soon afterwards the 
canal was opened to navigation. Only 
a very few boats passed through it, how- 




TENNESSEE RIVER IMPROVEMENT. 



7'ENNESSEE RIVER IMPROVEMENT. 



55 



ever, before it was abandoned. This 
abandonment was due to two causes ; 
one, that no money was appropriated by 
the State for operating purposes and the 
other that, while the canal was a success 
as far as it went, it did not go far enough, 
the shoals presenting thirty-seven miles 
of obstructions, of which but fourteen 
and one fourth miles, extending upward 
from Bainbridge, were obviated. 

For the next thirty years or more the 
matter of renewing and extending the 
work received but little attention. After 
the war, however, the subject was re- 
vived. 

Knoxville, Chattanooga and other 
cities, through their commercial organ- 
izations, began urging the importance of 
a canal around Muscle Shoals to open 
the waters of the Tennessee to their true 
commercial use and value. Congress- 
men again brought the matter forward 
in Washington, its importance in a mili- 
tary sense having been realized and 
bought forward during the war. In 1872 
United States engineers made extensive 
surveys, and it was upon the report 
made by these officers that a more com- 
prehensive project of improvement was 
recommended to the Federal Govern- 
ment. The shoals were, for conven- 
nience, divided into three sections : the 
Little Muscle Shoals extending from 
Florence to Bainbridge, the Big Muscle 
Shoals from Bainbridge to a point four- 
teen miles up the river, and the Elk 
River Shoals, beginingsix and one-third 
miles above Big Muscle Shoals and just 
below the mouth of the Elk river and 
extending up stream to the head of 
Brown's Island. The plan of improve- 
ment recommended, and eventually car- 
ried into effect, was to remove obstruc- 
tions; and deepen the channel over Little 
Muscle Shoals, to build a canal of larger 
dimensions and with fewer locks around 
Big Muscle Shoals, along the line of the 
old one, and to overcome Elk River 
Shoals by a short canal with two locks, 
supplemented by channel work at each 
end. The funds appropriated for the 
contemplated work were not deemed 
sufficient to begin operations with until 
1875, by which time additional sums 
had been appropriated and, in Decem- 
ber of that year, the first dirt was broken 



on Big Muscle Shoals. The first lock 
masonry was laid at lock 6 in November, 
1876. In 1877 work was begun on both 
Elk river and Little Muscle Shoals. 

The amount of work done each year 
fluctuated with the sums appropriated 
by Congress and, in some years where 
there was none appropriated, progress 
ceased altogether, a few watchmen to 
look after tools, etc., being the only men 
then employed. Eighteen years, count- 
ing from the time surveys were made in 
1872, passed before the canal was de- 
clared open to navigation, which was in 
November, 1890. 

Ascending the river the improved 
channel is entered with the passage 
through the "draw" of the Memphis and 
Charleston Railroad bridge at Florence 
and, for the seven miles to Bainbridge, the 
boat channel is close to the north bank ot 
the river, being formed by a system ot 
dams connnecting a chain of islands, 
thus forcing into the narrow channel a 
larger volume of water than originally 
flowed there, which is still further nar- 
rowed by fourteen wing dams construct- 
ed for that purpose. Some blasting 
through reef was also done on this divi- 
sion, the total cost of the improvement 
being $126,180, resulting in a permanent 
channel with the requisite depth of water 
but a very swift current which is by no 
means so desirable. However, boats, 
though puffing greatly, stem it. In pas- 
sage thus far, save in winter when the 
tress are leafless, one gets but occas- 
ional glimpses, through vistas in the 
trees, of the broader portion of the river 
flowing to the South of the islands. At 
Bainbridge a promontory jutting far out 
from the south bank narrows the river 
to a width of about a quarter of a mile, 
and just beyond this cape the southern 
bank recedes and the river opens and 
expands into a grand sheet of rushing, 
foaming water a mile and a half broad, 
spangled with islands and "tow-heads" 
and fantastic with the eddies and currents. 

Just here the first and lowest Icck in 
point of location is reached. It is desig- 
nated as lock 9, and has a lift often feet ; 
length, three hundred feet between miter 
sills; width, sixty leet ; depth, five feet 
of water on the sills. 

Two thousand feet turther on lock 8 




TENNESSEE RIVER IMPROVEMENT. 



TENNESSEE RIVER IMPROVEMENT. 



57 



is reached, and this also has a Hft of ten 
feet. Between locks 8 and 7 is a stretch 
of four thousand feet and just beyond 
lock 7 is what is possibly the finest 
piece of engineering work on the entire 
route, viz : Shoal Creek Aqueduct. 
Here Shoal creek pours a small river of 
water into the Tennessee and, over its 
mouth, the canal is carried by an aque- 
duct of iron and steel, seventy-five feet 
wide, supported by twenty- five stone 
piers and two abutments, each seventy- 
five feet long and eleven feet high. In 
shape it is an arc of a large circle, the 
convex side facing up Shoal creek. 
The total weight of iron and steel used 
in its construction was one thousand 
to as, and the total cost of this structure 
was in round numbers $125,000. 

The lift at lock 7 is twelve feet. 
Lock 6 has a lift of thirteen feet (which 
is the highest of them all), is seven 
thousand one hundred feet from lock 7 
and through it the boat passes into the 
longest reach of unobstructed travel on 
the canal. 

The distance between locks 6 and 5 
is twenty-two thousand feet or four and 
one sixth miles. It is on this section that 
the bridges and dams of, first Six Mile 
and then Four Mile creeks, are passed. 

From lock 5 to lock i is seven and 
one-half miles, the five locks being al- 
most equidistant. The lift of each is 
twelve, ten, twelve, six and from nothing 
to ten feet respectively, guard lock i 
having the lift of from nothing to ten 
feet, its lift being regulated by the stage 
of the water in the river. At low water no 
lift is necessary ; as the river rises, water 
is let in to a sufficient height to bring it 
on a level with the surface of the river. 

Emerging from lock i and its en- 
trance, formed by a heavy wing-dam of 
rip-rap masonry half mile in length, the 
•open river is gained at a point fourteen 
and a half miles above lock 9. To this 
point the canal lies under the hills and 
cliffs of the north bank of the river, and 
its bed is excavated through a narrow 
ribbon of land between the hills and the 
river, sav^e here and there where the 
cliffs come sharply against the stream ; 
in such places the south bank of the 
canal is a dike built in the edge of the 
river and protected by rip-rap mason- 



ry. The longest of these dikes extends 
from two miles below to one mile above 
the mouth of Bluewater creek. The 
scenery along this section of the canal is 
simply grand. For its entire length the 
Tennessee is a seething, roaring volume 
of water over a channel of an average 
width of a mile and a half, but here, for 
a distance of six miles and a half, the 
river is calm, broad, deep and placid, 
its farstretching surface only broken by 
the lovely islets that adorn it in every 
varying shape and size and with a pro- 
fusion that suggests the St. Lawrence 
and the Thousand Islands. After a pas- 
sage over this fine natural pool of water 
the point at which the improved chan- 
nel of the approach to the short canal 
on the south side of the Tennessee, and 
opposite the mouth of the Elk river, is 
reached. Passing through this channel 
for a distance of one and a third miles, 
lock B is reached. As the boat enters 
this lock its lower gates are closed and 
water, let in from above, lifts it to a 
level twelve feet higher, enabling it to 
proceed to lock A, one and a fifth miles 
away. Lock A is the last lock going 
up, and is both a lift and a guard lock. 
Its lifting capacity is nine feet, five feet 
being for low water, and the other four 
feet, or whatever portion of it may be re- 
quired, is used to bring the water level 
in the lock to conformity with the height 
of the river. 

From lock A to the foot of Brown's 
Island extends a dam of dry rubble 
masonry which confines the water flow- 
ing to the south of that island to the im- 
proved channel. Between Brown's Is- 
land and the south bank the improve- 
ment consisted in blasting through and 
removing the debris of obstructing reels. 
At the head of this island and thirty- 
seven miles above Florence the open 
water of the upper Tennessee is 
reached. 

Of the above described system of 
locks, the six upper have each four miter 
gates of iron, and the five lower are en- 
tered in coming up through miter gates, 
while the upper end is passed out 
of over drop gates. The gates and 
wickets of lock A are worked by 
hydraulic machinery, power being lur- 
nished by a Jouval turbine wheel. 



58 



TENNESSEE RIVER IMPROVEMENT. 



Those at other locks are operated by 
more simple machinery, worked by 
hand. 

The locks were contracted for at a 
varying cost, ranging from $66,055, the 
lowest, to $148,611, the highest, and ag- 
gregating a total of $1,331,635. The 
entire improvement from 1872 to Sep- 
tember 30, 1890, was made at a cost of 
$2,817,341.18. Since then some further 
sums have been expended in maintain- 
ing and strengthening it. A railroad 
running along the canal furnishes a way 
by which a light locomotive draws 
through barges and boats, other than 
steamers ; the latter propel themselves. 

The following figures will give some 
idea of the magnitude of the work done. 
The masonry of the eleven locks aggre- 
gates 50,600 yards of cut stone and 
this would build a wall eighteen feet 
high, seven feet wide and two miles long. 
The piers of the aqueduct contain 3070 
cubic yards of masonry ; the dams and 
bridges 1000 yards ; the three weirs and 
sluices 3500 yards. From the channel 
through Little Muscle Shoals 47,000 
cubic yards were excavated and in its 
wing-dams 18,448 cubic yards were 
used. Over 270,000 cubic yards of 
solid work were excavated from the chan- 
nel and canal trunk ; over i ,000,000 
cubic yards of earth were exca\'ated 
and 500,000 cubic yards of earth em- 
bankments built, the iron in the entire 
work aggregating 2278 tons, and 80,- 
000 cubic yards of stone were used in 
building dams. 

The result is the connecting of the 
660 miles of navigable water of the Ten- 
nessee and uniting with the lower sec- 
tion 1000 miles of tributary streams. 
Before this work was done it was im- 
possible for boats to ascend the Shoals 
and, at times, the water became too 
shallow for some of the light draft flat- 
boats to pass down and the river could 
be forded at various points. On the 9th 
day of October, 1863, General Joseph 
Wheeler, of Confederate cavalry fame, 
with his entire army forded the Ten- 
nessee at the mouth of Elk river. The 
construction of the Muscle Shoals Canal, 



while it removes the greatest obstruction 
to the navigation of the Tennessee, does 
not make it fully open to the use of the 
boats for the whole year. The Colbert 
Shoals, some twenty miles below Flor- 
ence, is an obstruction during low stages 
of water, and around them an eight 
mile canal is now being made. 

While admiring the grandeur of the 
scenery of the Muscle Shoals section of 
the Tennessee one is impressed with the 
magnificent possibilities that this fall of 
such a huge volume of water presents 
to the progressive engineering and 
manufacturing spirit of the age. Here 
is an immense body of water, the con- 
centration of the tides of hundreds of 
tributary streams into one vast mass, 
rushing down an inclined plane with a 
power that looks to a layman as though 
it would be sufficient to turn the ma- 
chinery of the world. No doubt this is 
an exaggerated impression made on the 
mind of an unscientific observer by the 
sight of such a vast torrent of water, yet 
its actual power must be enormously 
great. In the first mile above lock 9 
the fall is seventeen and nine-tenths feet, 
and this, in a river of such magnitude 
and one free from ice for nineteen out of 
twenty years, with the ice of that twen- 
tieth year small in quantity and lasting 
but a few days at most, must make an 
interesting problem of the conversion of 
so much raw power into applied force. 
The canal now being the boat channel, 
the river itself is left free for utilization 
by enterprising manufacturers. 

Until the past thirty or forty years the 
concentration of capital has not been 
great enough in extent to warrant an indi- 
vidual or company in undertaking an en- 
terprise of such immense proportions as 
is here presented and whose very vastness 
is appalling, but the daring spirit of the 
age, backed by cumulative millions of 
dollars seeking remunerative invest- 
ments, and to which nothing, promising 
dividends, is too large to be attempted, 
will probably at some future day har- 
ness to the uses of man this great force, 
now wholly unutilized. 



SOME LATER FACTS ABOUT NORTHWEST LOUISIANA. 



By M. B. Hillyard. 



It is a friendly criticism of my article 
on Northwest Louisiana, in the June 
number of the Southern States, that 
the praises of that section were sung in 
such a low key as hardly to reach the 
public ear. In justice to myself it 
ought to be stated that the under-state- 
ment and colorlessness of that article was 
deliberate and studied, and a fully-pur- 
posed abstention from stilted and glar- 
ing exaggeration. 

Considering that Northwest Louisiana 
has had no eulogist but myself and is a 
new candidate for attention, and further, 
the sobriety of my article, that section 
is progressing in public regard at a high 
rate of speed ; and this addendum to 
my article is a positive need to enquirers, 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans, 
who are anxious to know of that coun- 
try and have learned of it through the 
weighty and widely disseminated 
Southern States. Hence this arti- 
cle will be very practical and aim to 
answer a few of the many leading- 
questions. 

One of the first misconceptions I 
want to dissipate is that I do not deem 
Northwest Louisiana a good country 
for raising early fruits and vegetables, 
because I used this language in the 
said article : "All this time the reader 
may be wondering why raising early 
vegetables for the West is not sug- 
gested. Beginning over twenty years 
ago, and continuing until a few years 
back, I was a strenuous advocate of 
these. Yea, I was in the business and 
hope I had some part in building it up. 
But I cannot consent to raise false hopes 
by glittering allurements. The writer 
knows how persons engaging in these 
expect to make fortunes in two or three 
years." The above language seems to 
have been taken as a virtual admission 
that I considered those vocations as 



practically unprofitable, and that men 
seeking to embark in them should 
renounce all expectation of pursuing 
them in Northwest Louisiana, and look 
elsewhere. It seems to have totally 
shut out from their apprehension that I 
followed the above language by this: 
"If persons choose, they can do to their 
heart's content. All things considered, I 
consider Northwest Louisiana as good 
a field as any." 

I make no retraction in guarding 
against the delusions still current, and 
sedulously encouraged by many, that 
people are to move South and make 
fortunes in a year or two in raising early 
fruits and vegetables. But, in jus- 
tice to Northwest Louisiana, I want 
to say that I regard that area as one of 
the best fruit, vegetable and melon 
countries in the South, and this is 
enhanced by a fact of immeasurable 
importance, of which I could not speak 
with due assurance when I wrote that 
article that this section is to have a great 
trunk line of railroad on to Kansas City 
and Duluth. This will give competition, 
and fruit and vegetables can seek St. 
Louis and Chicago, or Kansas City and 
other Western cities. Longitude, dis- 
tance and rates of transportation will all 
be in their favor. This railroad is the 
Kansas City, Pittsburg & Gulf, which is 
now under contract to Shreveport, La., 
but which I could only designate as 
promised in my June article. To be 
more specific, I regard this as one of 
the best pear and apple countries not 
only in the South, but in the United 
States. About peaches, I must at pres- 
ent speak with more reserve ; not by 
way of disparagement, but from lack of 
personal observation. Howe\'er, the 
best information is that it is a fine peach 
country and the business very profit- 
able. Reasoning from analogy and from 



6o SOME LATER FACTS ABOUT NORTHWEST LOUISIANA. 



thorough observation in point of lati- 
tude and soil, I think there is a great 
future for the cherry there. I have 
most respected authority as to the 
Delaware grape, but not having seen it 
ripen I cannot vouch for it. However, 
by the erosion of the great gravel 
plateau of Western Arkansas, vast quan- 
tities of this gravel have been trans- 
ported into North and Northwest 
Louisiana and afford the best of reasons 
tor believing what is alleged concerning 
this grape in the above sections of 
Louisiana. 

But as to the apple and pear, I know 
by critical examination that they are a 
great success. The largest pear tree 
ever seen by the writer was discovered 
there in perfect vigor under long neglect 
and over eighteen inches in diameter, 
actual measurement near the ground. 
The writer, communicating his knowl- 
edge to an eminent horticulturist, was 
told by the latter that this was one of 
the best pear countries in the United 
States. And I am pretty confident that 
I have discovered at least four, probably 
five, fine seedling pears in Louisiana, to 
one of which I have given my name. 

As to berries — strawberry, raspberry, 
blackberry, dewberry, whortleberry and 
melons there can be no doubt. Another 
topic by which some have been misled, 
is that I wrote thus in my June article : 
"What I desire to commend Northwest 
Louisiana for especially, is as a land for 
homes." This language seems to have 
been misinterpreted to mean that one 
should not so much expect to make 
money there as to spend it in the 
enjoyment of a fine and healthful climate, 
with good society and church, school 
and railroad facilities, and that money- 
making was at least problematical. This 
last view is an utter misconstruction and 
perversion of my language. I even 
went into some specialties in money- 
making, which we shall here emphasize, 
and superadded home-making as an 
especial attraction. Everyone knows 
now that there are large numbers of 
well-to-do, wealthy and health-impaired 
people. North and West, to whom the 
thought of money-making in agricultural 
life and pursuits cognate to the soil is a 
subordinate consideration and an ulterior 



thought. What they want is not to 
make money, but enjoy life. Many are 
advanced in years, and they desire 

"To husband out life's tape at the close, 
And keep the frame from wasting by repose." 

They want to find climate, educational 
advantages for their children, hospitable 
society, churches and railroads, etc. To 
this class I especially commended North- 
west Louisiana, not dreaming anyone 
could suspect that I meant to deter the 
agriculturist because I sought to invite 
the health and home hunter. 

So, now, in order that no one can 
have any room to misconstrue me 
and thus underrate Louisiana, I wish 
to say that there is no industry or 
vocation, common or possible to the 
farmer tar North and West, that cannot 
as readily and more profitably be fol- 
lowed in the first-named place than in 
either of the last two. Be it raising 
corn, wheat, oats, rye, castor beans, 
buckweat, navy beans, peas, beans, sor- 
ghum, grasses, making hay, dairying, 
raising hogs, sheep, poultry, fattening 
beef, raising thoroughbred cattle, thor- 
oughbred and trotting horses — what 
more can I say ? 

I ought to mention, because it is a 
late demonstration in great part, that 
hops, pie-plant (rhubarb), celery, horse- 
radish, sage, lavender, peppermint and 
hoarhound can be successfully and profit- 
ably raised. 

Nut-growing will some day be a 
vogue. Chestnuts, English and black 
walnuts, chinquapin, butternuts, shell- 
bark, any number of varieties of hickory 
nuts, and pecans most superb are emi- 
nent successes. 

Since I wrote my article there has 
been erected a tobacco factory, predi- 
cated on the thoroughly-demonstrated 
success and profitableness of several 
varieties of tobacco — most notable the 
celebrated light or golden- leaf, for which 
North Carolina is so celebrated. 

I desire to especially stress this region 
for hog-raising. Since I wrote the arti- 
cle for the June number of the South- 
ern States the prominence and profit- 
ableness of pork-packing in the South 
has been demonstrated by an immense 
concern in Texas. Its capacity is 2000 
hogs and 500 beeves per day. It pays 



SOME LATER FACTS ABOUT NORTHWEST LOUISIANA. 6i 



Kansas City prices for hogs. Their 
packed pork is giving satisfaction every- 
where. The Southern hog makes as 
good an article of packed pork as any, 
and the improved breeds bring a cent 
to a cent and a-half per pound over the 
Southern "razor-back," thus offering an 
incentive to "breeding up." They buy 
hogs every day in the year, Sundays 
excepted. This gives the hog-raiser of 
Louisiana the choice to sell in St. Louis, 
Mo., to this pork-packery in Texas or 
to New Orleans for fresh pork. And it 
is pretty certain that a pork-packery 
will soon be in operation in New Or- 
leans, thus giving competition and a 
clear advantage over the Western hog. 
Again, the Kansas City, Pittsburg & 
Gulf Railroad will soon open a direct 
route to Kansas City, Mo. Thus the 
hog-raiser of Louisiana will have the 
pork-packeries of Kansas City, those of 
New Orleans and Texas, those of St. 
Louis, Mo., bidding for his hogs, and 
the consumers of fresh pork in St. Louis 
and New Orleans. 

All breeds of hogs succeed admirably 
except the Irish Grazier and the Chester 
White, The Poland China, Berkshire, 
Duroc or Jersey Red and Essex (either 
thoroughbred or crossed on common 
stock), are wonderfully fecund, healthy 
and rapid in development. Hogs will 
thrive unfed in the many bottoms. They 
find rich and abundant "mast" in the 
many species of hickory, oak and 
pecan, with which these bottoms are tim- 
bered, while many varieties of grasses 
are there, green the whole year. One 
has only to feed hogs thus raised for a 
month or six weeks on corn to whiten 
their fat, when they are ready for 
slaughter. It is now pretty well known 
that one can put twice as much flesh 
upon a hog by red clover in the far 
South as at the North and West. Then, 
one can raise peanuts, artichokes, sweet 
potatoes, field peas, etc., very cheaply 
and readily, which rapidly put flesh and 
fat upon the hog. Everything conspires 
to make it a great hog- raising country, 
the extreme cheapness of land — $3 to 
$10 per acre in plenty of localities — 
greatly emphasizing the advantages of 
the situation. The only problem at one 
time was the question of demand. That 



is now settled, the pork-packery in 
Texas alone afibrding a demand Louisi^ 
ana could not supply in many years. 

I have been so explicit because of 
enquiries about hog-raising, even in 
far-off Oregon. 

Another very important specialty for 
which I would commend this section is 
for raising early lambs for the Northern 
and Western market. I did this in my 
June article, but the allusion was so 
cursory as to fail to duly impress, 
especially as it was buried in a mass of 
other recommendations. The topic has 
been brought to the front very promi- 
nently in the last two or three months, 
and constitutes one of the most startling 
innovations of the day as contemplated 
at the North. It seems that there is a 
movement on foot to erect large and 
expensive buildings to raise hot-house 
lambs. The scheme seems to have 
hatched out of the occasional success in 
raising early-born lambs indoors in some 
of the Northern States. These lambs 
have sold at the most amazing prices — 
none at less than $20 each, some much 
higher. The scheme evoked a letter 
or two of mine to some of the North- 
ern newspapers in which I divulged a 
plan of which I was well informed 
nearly or quite twenty years — having 
hunted it up in my early forecasts of 
the then future New South. I found 
that some thoroughly reliable and 
inventive sheep raisers in Tennessee 
had devised a scheme for ha^■ing "some- 
thing fancy" in early lambs to sell, 
getting for them $6 or more each. 
They fed their ewes wheat daily, mixed 
with a little cayenne pepper, in May. 
This threw them in "heat," and lambs 
were dropped in October and November. 
I was so impressed with this as one of the 
future factors in Southern prosperity that 
I briefly alluded to it in my book, "The 
New South," published by the Manu- 
facturers' Record Co., in 1887. Sheep 
are wonderfully fecund and healthful 
there, and have the finest "foot" there 
possible. They will cost nothing in 
the usual way, and produce the finest 
wool and free from burrs in the pine 
woods — the ideal locality for sheep- 
raising. 

Enquirers still insist on the mys- 



62 SOME LATER FACTS ABOUT NORTHWEST LOUISIANA. 



tery of land being so cheap in 
Louisiana if it is good for anything. 
The answer is lack of demand. The 
large plantations used to have ample 
labor in the slaves the old owners used 
to possess. The former slaves are dis- 
persed and vast bodies of land are 
unworked. I could name any number 
of places South that a few years ago 
were in precisely the same fix, but 
immigrants have come in, and the land 
has gone up from $i.oo or less per acre 
to $30.00, $40.00 and $50.00 per acre 
and even more. The same queries about 
these lands were made eight to ten 
years ago that are now made about 
Northwest Louisiana. Plenty of peo- 
ple said those former lands could 
not be worth anything, because they 
were so low-priced. Let immigra- 
tion come in, and these lands that 
now sell at $2.00 to $5.00 per acre 
will bring the same price and do better 
than they brought before the war — 
$30.00 to $60.00 per acre. Another 
reason why these lands are so cheap is 
that the plantations are mostly large ; 
seldom less than 1000 acres, generally 
more ; sometimes 4000 to 6000 acres. 
The owners want to sell all or none in 
most cases, and no one man wants to and 
seldom can buy so much. Now, very 
little of this land is in cultivation, and 
to pay taxes on all is a heavy burden 
from which the owner wants to escape, 
and will almost give away his land to do 
so. I do not mean to say that there 
are no smaller farms ; they can be found 
by hunting, but they are not numerous, 
even rare, except near towns and 
villages. 

I said in my June article that many 
of these old plantations are worn out, 
"but they can easily be resuscitated by 
the field pea." It seems to have been 
thought that almost the whole area is in 
that plight ; by no means. Plenty of 
plantations can be found that were 
freshly or just opened in 1865, and their 
fertility is not only unimpaired, but in 
almost all their arable area the soil has 
had thirty years or more of unbroken 
rest. And even the "worn-out" planta- 
tions have had this same rest, and are 
now in far better condition of fertility 
than when their cultivation was virtually 



suspended by the dispersion of the 
slaves, their quondam cultivators. 

But the two classes of plantations, 
those of the unimpaired soil and those 
with the soil once worn, look much alike 
to the superficial observer. In both the 
houses are frequently in bad repair, as 
are the fences. The' fields are more or 
less upgrown in field pine and patched 
over with sumach, sassafras and black- 
berry. They are thus often unsightly 
and forbidding, but they are easily and 
cheaply cleared, and the young pines 
afford a near-at-hand and very cheap 
resource for rails for "worm" fence, and 
are a very trifling impediment to crop- 
making. I do not care to be misunder- 
stood again and so will qualify by saying 
that there are numerous pretty planta- 
tions in excellent tilth, with neat cottages 
and well-kept fences, fine stock, orchards, 
etc. My remarks must apply to much 
of the area as a whole. 

I desire to say, too, that in most areas 
fully from one-third to one-half or more 
of these plantations are in timber of 
valuable character, pine, oaks, hickory, 
many with clear perennial brooks purl- 
ing through them. In many localities, 
if one wants to build or repair houses 
they can cut their pines, haul the logs 
to the near-by saw mill and trade them 
very profitably for lumber, the best in 
the world. This makes dwelling-houses 
and outhouses a matter of next to no 
cost. 

I wish I knew how to say something 
particularly persuasive as to that area 
for dairying. I regard it as unexcelled 
in the United States. Fine grass coun- 
try, beautifully watered, grasses green 
the whole year, large demand and 
high prices for butter, health of cattle, 
etc. 

Some ooe wants to know cost ot corn 
per acre. One of the best agriculturists 
there puts it at ninety cents an acre. 
His corn costs him less than four cents 
per bushel. 

How much one raises depends on too 
many contingencies — season, the man, 
the variety, the soil. In plenty of places, 
with soil naturally not so good, over 
100 bushels per acre have been raised 
by "intensive culture." Fifteen to twenty 
bushels is a pretty good average crop 



SOME LATER FACTS ABOUT NORTHWEST LOUISIANA. 6- 



under the slipshod cultivation. It can 
be easily and greatly surpassed. 

Information is desired as to that 
country about the number of foreigners 
there. The number is incredibly small. 
In the eight parishes that make up the 
area I have described, namely, Bien- 
ville, Bossier, Caddo, Claiborne, De 
Soto, Red River, Natchitoches and 
Sabine, the foreign proportion is not 
over I per cent., and excluding the 
towns it is virtually nothing. 

It is not difficult to foresee that when 
the merits of the climate of this region 
shall be known it will become one of 
the most renowned health and pleasure 
resorts in the United States. I should 
like to dwell on its advantages to the 
sufferer from rheumatism, nasal catarrh, 
neurotic troubles, bronchial and pul- 
monary complaints. I should like to 
paint its charms for the lover of sports, 
the fish in its sparkling and numerous 
pellucid streams, the quail, squirrel, 
rabbits, wild turkey and deer in its 
forests. 



But I must say that the environment 
is charming of some of its picturesque 
areas in vast undespoiled tracts of pine, 
where the woodsman has never heaved 
his axe. Imagination 

"Scents the air, 
Of blessings when it comes but near," 

in contemplating the possible loveliness 
and feasible affluence of the garden of 
delights a little money and taste could 
make out of that area. Soon some 
sumptuous sanitarium will rise deep in 
the "secret shades" of these "inmost 
groves," where little else is now heard 
but the whirr of the partridge, the gob- 
ble of the wild turkey, the patter of the 
deer's foot, the sweet "inner voice" of 
the prattling brook, the soft, pathetic 
•monotone of the pine with its "soul-like 
sounds." There among the dome- 
crowned pines, "old patrician trees so 
great and good," that bring healing in 
their breath, the invalid will find health 
and the aged rejuvenation. Fain would 
I draw a large picture of the loveliness 
and beauty awaiting that happy "clime," 
but this is not the occasion. 




LETTERS FROM NORTHERN AND WESTERN FARMERS, 
GIVING THEIR EXPERIENCE IN THE SOUTH— XIX. 

[The letters published in this issue form the nineteenth instalment in the series. 
These communications are published in response to numerous mquiries 
from Northern people who desire to know more about agricultural conditions 
in the South, and what is being accomplished by settlers from other sections 
of the country. These letters were written for the most part by practical 
farmers and fruit-growers, chiefly Northern and Western people who have 
made their homes in the South. The actual experiences of these settlers, 
as set forth in these letters, are both interesting and instructive to those 
whose minds are turned Southward. — Editor.] 



The South the Place for the Man of 
Limited fleans, 

George Whitfield, Abbeville,Wil- 
cox county, Ga. — The fairplay attitude 
of your magazine in all matters pertain- 
ing to Southern improvement is appre- 
ciated in this section. Truth and consis- 
tency have made the Southern States 
a household term. Two years ago I 
came to this county (Wilcox) in search 
of a saw-mill location. I found plenty 
of timber and plenty of inducements to 
operate a mill, but my attention was 
attracted by the farming and fruit pos- 
sibilities of this section, it being situated 
between the two most noted fruit 
sections of Georgia ; Marshallville twenty 
miles north, and Tifton about the same 
distance south. Lands at Marshallville 
$50 per acre ; Tifton, $5 to $25 ; here, 
$4 to $10. Coming from a section 
where there is little or no farming done, 
(Pottsville, Pa.,) I concluded it would 
be advisable for me to gather some 
experience before entering into a busi- 
ness where all the conditions were so 
different from anything I had been 
accustomed to, and being fifty years 
old new methods were not easily 
learned. Now for my impressions ; 
climate unexceptional ; healthv as the 
mountains of Pennsylvania ; to make a 
living requires about one-half the ex- 
ertion required to exist where I was 
raised ; kindness and hospitality of the 
people proverbial ; school and church 
facilities rather limited, but improving ; 
labor plenty and cheap (or by compari- 



son with the North 50 per cent, cheaper). 
As to the money-making features of farm- 
ing, I will relate the experience of a near 
neighbor, Capt. A. K. Fisher, formerly 
of (near) Hamilton City, Canada. He 
clears $15 per acre on German millet 
hay ; he assures me that he can raise 
pork profitably at two and a- half cents 
per pound ; beef, three cents ; average 
forty bushels corn per acre, market 
price seventy-five cents. Peas, potatoes 
and all the melon family grow to per- 
fection. As a stock country it is 
unsurpassed ; but few people ever think 
of feeding anything but work stock, 
although I think from observation that 
it would be profitable to feed and 
shelter during February and March. 
Game and fish abound. I wish it was 
in my power to move and settle here 
people who are toiling in the mines of 
Pennsylvania barely maintaining them- 
selves. For my part the mineral lands 
of old Pennsylvania may be the place 
for the "baron;" but Georgia, in my 
estimation, all things considered, is the 
country for the man of limited means. 

Better Tlian the Choicest Localities 
at the North. 

W. L. Barnes, Chase City, Va. — I 
have always been a resident of Ulster 
county, New York, in the famous fruit- 
growing section on the Hudson river, 
and this winter has been my first 
experience living in the balmy South. 
I have been connected with a paper in 
the North for years, also an owner of 



LETTERS FROM NOR THERN AND WESTERN FARMERS. 65 



land, which has placed me in a position 
to get a pretty thorough knowledge of 
the different localities. I have been 
privileged to read several copies of the 
Southern States, both in the North 
and while here, and have been greatly 
interested in their perusal. It is my 
■ intention to become a permanent resi- 
dent of the South, for I find so many 
things here that are more conducive to 
one's health and happiness than even in 
the lovely fruit region of the Hudson 
River Valley. 

I have talked with several from the 
North who arrived here five months 
since, suffering almost to the verge of 
insanity from kidney trouble and 
nervous prostration, and today they are 
to all outward appearances well. Some 
of these parties are going to return to 
their homes, settle their affairs and 
return to this section to remain perma- 
nently. There are many fine farms in 
this locality for sale cheap, and anyone 
settling here will make no mistake. 

A Minnesota Man Tells About South = 
west Louisiana. 

C. S. Crippen, Crowley, La. — I came 
to Southwest Louisiana from Edgerton, 
Minn., in the fall of 1887. Leaving the 
former place in October, just after a terri- 
ble blizzard, it was an agreeable surprise 
to me to find on my arriv^al here that it 
was still summer time. The town of 
Crowley had just been laid out, and 
there were but few Northern people in 
the parish ; but some good seed had 
already been sown in the way of calling 
the attention of Northern families seek- 
ing new homes by the distribution of 
a large amount of printed matter 
descriptive of this section, the result of 
whicn soon began to be felt in both the 
parish and the town. From that time 
until the present the development of 
Acadia parish has been something won- 
derful, nor has the growth and develop- 
ment of Crowley been less marvelous. 

It is a noticeable fact in this connec- 
tion that, of the thousands of Northern 
immigrants who have settled here dur- 
ing the past seven years, all are better 
off today than when they came, and it 
would be a hard task indeed to find 
one who would be willing to go back 



to his Northern home and engage again 
in farming. While rice is the principal 
crop throughout this section, the plan- 
ters each year are giving more of their 
time and attention to diversified farming ; 
they are living more- at home, raising 
their own corn, oats, beef, pork, poultry, 
fruit, potatoes and other vegetables, 
making themselves almost entirely in- 
dependent of other sections. 

This is a most excellent fruit country, 
and the time is not far distant when 
every farmer will have his own peach, 
pear and fig orchard, with pomegran- 
ates, quinces, nectarines, and all of the 
small fruits in abundance. It is also an 
excellent stock country, as stock does 
not have to be fed at any time of the 
year. Seven years ago it would have 
been hard to find a horse in the parish 
that weighed Soo pounds ; today the 
work stock of Acadia parish will com- 
pare favorably with that of any of the 
Northern States. There have been 
shipped into the town of Crowley alone, 
and sold during the past three months, 
over 1500 head of good horses and 
mules. 

Seven years ago lands were a drug 
on the market at from $1.50 to $2 per 
acre; today the same men who came 
here a few years ago with hardly any- 
thing are buying additional farms and 
paying for them from $10 to $20 per 
acre, paying hundreds of dollars for 
new and improved machinery and build- 
ing comfortable dwelling houses out of 
the profits of their farming for the past 
few years. Surely there must be a 
large intrinsic value in these lands, and 
connected with the conditions that make 
it possible for one to accomplish so 
much in so short a time. Especially is 
this idea impressed upon one when we 
compare the results of farming here 
with results in the Northern States for 
the past fi\e years, where only the most 
thrifty have been able to hold their own. 
The soil of Southwest Louisiana is a 
rich, dark loam mixed with a little sand 
which renders it tractable and easily 
cultivated and is underlaid with a heavy 
clay sub-soil which prevents any ferti- 
lizer applied from seeping through, and 
makes this country the rice planters' 
paradise. Rice is raised at about the 



66 LETTERS FROM NORTHERN AND WESTERN FARMERS. 



same expense as wheat in the North 
and produces from eight to eighteen 
barrels per acre, the average price for 
which has been for the past five years 
$3.00 per barrel. I have many times 
seen twenty barrels per acre raised and 
the product sold at $5 to $5.25 per 
barrel, but these are exceptional cases 
and should not be taken as a basis on 
which to figure. 

One fact has been thoroughly demon- 
strated by the prosperity of the farmers 
in Southwest Louisiana during the past 
seven years, that is, that there is no 
general farm crop raised in the United 
States that yields such large returns to 
the farmer and will so quickly place the 
agriculturist in an independent position 
as rice raising. But the possibility of 
securing a comfortable home and amass- 
ing a competency are not alone confined 
to rice raising, as all kinds of general 
farming yields much larger returns in 
the South than in the North. This is 
fairly due to the cheapness of labor, 
cheap fuel, less and inexpensive clothing 
in winter, cheaper building material. 
Among the many industries and pro- 
ducts that are paying large returns may 
be mentioned, the raising of hogs, poul- 
try, corn, oats, millet, vegetables, milk 
and fruit. I am of the opinion that 
there is no section of the country North, 
East or West that ofier as many advan- 
tages to the poor man seeking a home, 
or to the capitalist for the profitable 
investment of his money, as does 
Southwest Louisiana, and Acadia parish 
in particular. 

The climate of Southwest Louisiana 
is unsurpassed by any section of the 
United States. It is a mild and even 
climate, having the benefit of the gulf 
breeze the entire year ; the thermometer 
seldom ever indicates above ninety in 
the summer or below thirty in the 
winter. To those wishing to find a new 
home where they will be free from the 
extreme cold in winter and excessive 
heat and droughts in summer. South- 
west Louisiana offers the most flattering 
inducements. You need not be afraid 
■of its climate, as it is one of the health- 
iest in America ; you need not be afraid 
of your reception at the hands of the 
Southern people, for they are among 



the most hospitable people in the coun- 
try, and extend a warm and hearty 
welcome to all new-comers ; you need 
not be afraid but that you will succeed, 
for there are more and better oppor- 
tunities in the South today than in any 
of the Northern States, and whether 
you succeed or not will depend wholly 
upon your own exertions. And you 
need not be afraid to invest your money 
in lands here, as they can hardly de- 
preciate in value. Fortunately for this 
section the rice industry is one that can 
be carried on only in a limited scope of 
country. Northern farm products can 
be raised in nearly every State in the 
Union, but not so with rice. The 
American people are only beginning 
to be consumers of this valuable pro- 
duct, and the consumption of rice is 
increasing very rapidly, but the terri- 
tory in which it is raised can never be 
enlarged owing to climatic conditions 
and peculiarities of soil, hence it would 
seem that as the demand for this food 
increases, the land that produces it, 
owing to its limited area, must increase 
in value. 

Were it necessary I could give the 
names of fifty different Northern men 
who have settled here with less than 
$500 who are today worth from $5000 
to $20,000. 

Inaccurate Impressions About the 
South. 

B. P. Greene, Orange, Texas. — * * * 
In this connection I cannot conclude 
without some reference to the dreamy 
theories in which Northern people — 
eminently practical in other respects — 
indulge in regard to the climatic and 
sanitary conditions of the South. Mis- 
representation seems to be infectious, 
which is probably attributable to the 
extensive circulation of old sterotyped 
yarns designed to prejudice the people 
and di\'ert the trend of immigration 
from the South long enough to enable 
Wall street to withdraw its investments 
from the Northwest (which it is gradually 
doing). These "yarns" seem to hold 
people in check and create impressions 
which incline them to listen incredu- 
lously to facts and information to the 
contrary emanating from the most relia- 



LETTERS FROM NORTHERN AND WESTERN FARMERS. 67 



ble sources — even to government statis- 
tics. This condition of mind is the first 
disease of which the new comer is cured. 
The truth is a revelation to him, and his 
principal regret is that he did not dis- 
cover it sooner. The writer is a 
Northern man who has lived five years 
in this section, not only enjoying the 
best of health, but reheved of throat 
trouble superinduced by the extreme 
cold of the North. The experience of 
thousands whose names I could mention, 
if space permitted, is similar. The 
general health of the citizens of this 
section is exceptionally good. Cases of 
sickness, unless hereditary or imported, 
can be traced to individual carelessness 
or too much dependence on the climate 
alone. While winter exists only in 
name, still the name covers a season, 
during some days and even months of 
which it is foolish, if not suicidal, to 
rely upon a neglige shirt and overalls as 
health preservers. 

In conclusion I beg to suggest that 
people contemplating to move South 
should not begin by selling or giving 
things away. The South needs North- 
ern implements, Northern stock. North- 
ern methods, Northern energy and 
industry, all of which can be used in 
Orange county, Texas, twelve months 
in the year without fear of frost, hail, 
drouth or running any of the gaunt- 
lets that make life a burden to the 
farmer in the North. Let them live 
and farm here just as they would live 
and farm in the North, and they will 
enjoy better health and make twice as 
much money in a year as the old-timer 
on the adjoining "league." 

flakes a Living and Gets One=Fifth of 
His Money Back the First Year. 

John Cramer, Wolf Trap, Va. — I 
came from Platte county, Neb., in the 
spring of 1894 and bought a farm on 
the Dan river, in Halifax county, Va., of 
535 acres, and commenced work right 
away, without any Southern experience 
and no fertilizer. I have raised a large 
crop of corn this first year from which 
I expect to clear a profit of 20 per 
cent, on my investment. I have now a 
lovely home, pure water, fruit and fine 
climate, and the section from which I 



came is one of the best in Nebraska, 
and in comparing my crops here with 
those raised there I take a high stand- 
ard as can be found in this country. I 
expect a large German settlement to be 
made here in a short time by people 
from Nebraska and Iowa. 

Fully Equal in Soil to Most Noted 

Northern Sections, With Betttr 

Climate and Other Advantages. 

R. S. Rhett, Bedford City, Va. — I 
came to Bedford county on the first of 
December, 1893. From that time I 
have found the climate and the people 
all that could be desired, healthy bracing 
atmosphere with but few stormy and 
disagreeable days even in winter. The 
grasses — clover and timothy — grew 
more or less during the entire winter, 
furnishing grazing for my stock for the 
whole time, except while horses were at 
work, the cows not receiving any hay or 
grain and keeping up their flesh and full 
flow of milk. This section has been no 
exception to the severe drought that has 
been so widespread this year, (1894,) 
but in spite of it wheat has made a 
good yield, while corn is fully up to the 
average ; oats and hay have been the 
principal sufferers. I was surprised at 
the quantity of hay cut from my low 
grounds, being quite up to what I have 
cut in Duchess county, N. Y., in a favor- 
able season. The soil seems to have 
great drought-resisting qualities. Have 
farmed in Baltimore county, Md., and 
Duchess county, N. Y., and consider 
this section fully equal to those well- 
known farming districts as far as soil 
goes and far superior as to climate, the 
winters being milder and pleasant and 
the summers no warmer. Church and 
educational advantages are excellent. 

Ex=FederaI Soldiers in Texas. 

J. C. McBride, Alvin, Texas. — 
Northern people predominate in this 
community, and all admit (the writer 
among them ) that they have received 
nothing but the kindest attention and 
consideration from the Southern people 
here. We, old ex- Federal soldiers re- 
sident here, have a G. A. R. post here 
in the midst of these old ex-Confeder- 
ates, and thev accord to us the same 



68 LETTERS FROM NORTHERN AND WESTERN FARMERS. 



rights they reserve to themselves. At 
our decoration services the local camp 
joined us in a very pleasant manner. 
We are often asked whether we are 
allowed to vote as we choose, and 
whether we are free to act as we please 
politically. To all such we answer in 
the affirmative. No one questions our 
rights in this respect, but, on the con- 
trary, they who oppose us politically are 
glad to see us at the polls, as well as at 
conventions. 

In regard to prices of real estate in 
the Gulf Coast country, we are often 
visited by prospectors who have imbibed 
the idea that Texas lands can be bought 
for a trifle, and they express surprise 
that they are asked to pay from $10.00 



to $50.00 per acre for land. There are 
millions of acres of cheap lands in Texas, 
but they are not all desirable for agricul- 
tural purposes, being dry or rough. 
Here we have a limited tract about the 
size of the State of Connecticut that is 
the fruit and vegetable grower's para- 
dise, the home of the pear, plum, fig 
and strawberry, where small tracts can 
be made to yield more money than ten 
times the same area in the North and 
West. Such land has an intrinsic value 
and does sell for better prices than the 
wild lands of any other country I know 
of We are blessed with a mild, health- 
ful climate, an abundance of rainfall and 
a good soil which leaves nothing lack- 
ing but energy. 



ITEMS ABOUT FARMS AND FARMERS. 



Profit in Cotton at Less Than Five Cents. 

Here is a recital of the methods used 
by one successful cotton grower as given 
by himself Mr. A. H. White, of Rock 
Hill, S. C, in the following letter to the 
News and Courier tells how he raised 
twenty-one bales of cotton on twelve 
acres at a net profit of $518: 

"The twelve acres of land from which 
I gathered the twenty-one bales of cotton 
averaging 451 pounds last year, is a 
part of a tract of land formerly consist- 
ing of thirty-two acres. When I com- 
menced farming on it several years ago 
I suppose it would grow not more than 
600 pounds of seed cotton per acre. I 
divided it into tracts of sixteen acres 
each and at once I commenced a rota- 
tion of crops, viz, first cotton, followed 
by oats, then peas, then cotton again, 
always and only manuring the cotton 
crop with a compost consisting of stable 
manure, cottonseed, acid and kainit, 
until I had worked it up to producing 
very easily with ordinary seasons a bale 
per acre. Of this land I only had the 
twelve acres cultivated in cotton. 

'T commenced in the month of Feb- 
ruary by ploughing out the stalks 
of the vear before with a one- 



horse straight shovel plough, going 
twice in each row, forward and back 
again ; into this furrow I put my stable 
manure, three two-horse loads per acre, 
no other fertilizer being used, except on 
one acre, on which I used a sack of 
soluble guano, the stable manure supply 
being exhausted. I used manure from 
my own stable as far as it would go, 
then bought from livery stables. I listed 
upon this as soon as possible. It was 
about the 15th of March. I finished 
the entire preparation of the land about 
the middle of April and commenced 
planting about the 20th of the month. 
"I had a pretty fair stand on all of it 
except one acre which had some skips. 
We had very little rain from the time of 
planting until the ist of July, but enough 
for the cotton to come up and p;row 
slowly, consequently had very little 
trouble with grass. Only one hoeing 
was necessary, except chopping out 
bunches of grass after laying by the 
crop with the plow. The rains began 
in earnest about the ist of July and 
were seasonable until in September. 
Commenced picking on the ist of Sep- 
tember and finished on the 15th of 
December. In ploughing the crop I 



ITEMS ABOUT FARMS AND FARMERS. 



69 



used a side harrow first, the other 
ploughings with a straight shovel with a 
bow, two furrows to the row, ploughing 
out the row at the last ploughing. 
"Expenses as follows : 

Manurins: % 5000 

Preparation 15 00 

Planting 2 00 

Seed 6 00 

Hoeing 700 

Ploughing 6 00 

Picking . ; 85 00 

Ginning 2000 

Bagging and ties 800 

Total ;^ 1 99 00 

CROP. 

Twenty-one bale, 457 pounds each, $4.80 S454 60 

525 bushels cottonseed, 50 cents per bushel 262 50 

$717 10 
Deducting expenses igg 00 

Balance $518 10 

"I am not a large farmer, but try to 
be a large producer. I am a firm 
believer in the intensive system of farm- 
ing, which means making larger crops 
every year and leaving the land in 
better condition than before the crop 
was made." 

Making Money on Five=Cent Cotton. 

While farmers are calling mass-meet- 
ings all over the South to try to reduce 
the acreage to keep from losing money 
raising five-cent cDtton, a Sumter county 
farmer, W. E. Mitchell by name, is mak- 
ing good money raising cotton at five 
cents, and expects to plant a larger crop 
this year than ever before. 

He raised nineteen bales of cotton last 
year that were about all clear profit, and 
the way he did it was this : 

He raises plenty of meat, corn and 
farm produce at home, never stops his 
mules from farm work except to go to 
mill, don't lose any time hauling pro- 
visions from town with his teams, and 
instead of attending conventions to be 



told by others how much cotton to plant, 
he spends the time on his farm look- 
ing after his hands. — Times-Recorder, 
Americus, Ga. 

Crab Grass at the South. 

I was recentl}' struck with the great 
value of crab grass ( Panicum sanguinale) 
in the market garden farms about New- 
bern, N. C, where on lands lavishly 
manured for early vegetables it, late in 
season, attains a luxuriance which is 
amazing to anyone who only knows it 
as a troublesome weed North. Here, 
when the early truck crops are shipped, 
the land is plowed and harrowed smooth. 
Only this and nothing more, and at 
once the crab grass starts as thickly as 
a new-sown oat field, and easily cuts 
two and one-half tons of hay per acre, 
on land which the same season has given 
large crops of vegetables. Cut as soon 
as in bloom, it cures easily and makes a 
sweet and nutritious food. One market 
gardener at Newbern told me he cut 
400 tons last season worth there $io 
per ton, but mainly fed on the place, as 
he is also a large dairyman. On fertile 
sandy soils wherever cow peas are sown 
for forage, this valuable annual grass 
comes in thickly among the peas, and 
its vines are more easily cured into hay, 
and adding to its bulk matter which 
balances to some extent its too highly 
nitrogenous character. In the improv- 
ing agriculture of the South this much- 
abused grass is destined to take a high 
place. — American Agriculturist. 

Georgia has one planter who never 
plants cotton and is prosperous. He is 
Mr. Mark Rawlins, of McRea, Ga. He 
raises corn, hogs, hay, sorghum, vege- 
tables and buys no tbod whate\er. 



THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



Southern States. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY MAGAZINL 
DEVOTED TO THE SOUTH. 

Published by the 

Manufacturers' Record Publishing Co. 

Manutacturers' Record Building, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

SUBSCRIPTION, = = - $1.50 a Year. 

WILLIAM H. EDMONDS, 

Editor and Manager. 

BALTIMORE, APRIL, 1895. 

The SOUTHERN STATES is an exponent of the 
Immigration and Real Estate Interests and 
general advancement of the South, and a journal 
of accurate and comprehensive information 
about Southern resources and progress. 

its purpose is to set forth accurately and 
conservatively from month to month the reasons 
why the South is, for the farmer, the settler, the 
home seeker, the investor, incomparably the 
most attractive section of this country. 



"And the Last Shall Be First." 

As to this averment of holy writ 
there are three notable and conspicuous 
demonstrations in widely separated parts 
of the South. 

In the south central part of the State of 
North Carolina there is a region of country 
that has been known for generations as 
the Sand Hills. The soil is nothing but 
sand, and the sand goes in most localities 
to a depth of forty or fifty feet. The whole 
region was covered by a splendid pine 
growth and it was never supposed to be 
worth anything except for its timber. 
The man who would have suggested the 
idea of cultivating any part of it would 
have been laughed at. It was held in 



utter disrepute as to all agricultural uses 
or possiblities. The term by which the 
region was known was in the minds of 
North Carolinians synonymous with utter 
barrenness. Today no part of the State 
is more highly regarded than this same 
sand hill region, and even the enormously 
productive lands of the richest and most 
fertile parts of the State used in the pro- 
duction of farm crops do not yield any- 
thing like so large a revenue per acre as 
these sand hill lands do, cultivated in 
peaches, grapes and other fruits. The 
remarkable development that has taken 
place at Southern Pines and the adjoining 
country is but a faint indication of what 
will be seen in this whole region when it 
shall have become a great aggregation of 
orchards and vineyards. 

Another of the three localities referred 
to is a part of the "wire grass" section of 
Georgia. Between Macon and Valdosta 
there is a region of country formerly cov- 
ered with immense pine forests. The 
pine growth is not dense and there was an 
almost complete absence of undergrowth. 
Over almost the whole area there grew 
with profuse luxuriance a dense and tall 
grass, which furnished grazing for stock 
in summer and winter. The land was 
everywhere, even by the natives, thought 
to be worthless for agricultural purposes. 
It was bought and sold only for its timber. 
Nobody would have paid a dollar a square 
mile for it for farm purposes. It was 
owned in large areas and was sold in tracts 
of 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000 acres and more. 
There were few people living in this area 
and they were for the most part squatters 
who lived in huts and fenced in an acre 



EDITORIAL. 



71 



or two of land on which they grew in 
primitive fashion a little scrub corn and 
such other products as they could get to 
grow by meagre cultivation, depending 
mostly for a living on raising stock in a 
small way. At the present time this 
section is having a marvelous develop- 
ment in agriculture and fruit-growing. It 
is a part of what is now known as the 
great "peach belt" of Georgia, which 
promises to become as noted as a fruit- 
producing area as Southern California. 
Where there was a few years ago a 
wilderness, there are now hundreds of 
farms and orchards, and thrifty and pros- 
perous towns have taken the place of 
logging camps. 

The third locality had in mind is a 
section of Southwest Louisiana, with Crow- 
ley as a centre. Here only a few years 
ago were millions of acres of public lands 
given over to the uses of the cattle-raiser, 
almost without value and universally 
supposed to be unsuited wholly to any 
agricultural pursuit. Besides the lands 
owned by the United States Government 
and the State, which could be had for 
nominal prices, there were hundreds of 
thousands of acres owned by individuals 
who would have been glad to sell for 
a dollar an acre, and in most cases for half 
that. Now the greatest agricultural activ- 
ity seen probably anywhere in this country 
is in progress in this section. Lands that 
formerly could have been bought for a 
song, and were supposed to be useful for 
no good purpose, are now producing 120 
and $30 an acre in revenue every year to 
the rice-grower. And not only rice, but 
all ordinary farm products, are found to 
yield here sure and ample returns. All 
fruits and vegetables are produced bounti- 
fully, and if there is any one locality more 
conspicuous than others for its wide 
diversity of products and the revenue pro- 
ducing capabilities of the soil, it is here, 
where until a few years ago, according to 



popular belief, nothing could be made to 
grow. 

These three cases show that even in 
the least regarded parts of the South there 
may lie possibilities of the highest devel- 
opment. 

Here is a specimen of letters that come 

to the Southern States. A gentleman 

in Colorado, writing that he and others 

want to go South and engage in fruit 

farming, adds: 

"We are not farmers in any sense, but 
believe in the great future of the South, 
when capital goes there, and are anxious 
to start m and 'grow up' with the country. 
We have a few thousand dollars and shall 
have more when we can pull it out of in- 
vestments here. We want to go into fruit- 
raising, and would like good advice, etc. 
We are willing to go to any favorable lo- 
cality. What can you tell us, or to whom 
recommend us." 

That Alleged Florida Letter. 

In the matter of flagrant, unblushing 
mendacity the Farm Department of the 
Pittsburg Dispatch is beyond competition, 
unapproachable, supreme. It will be re- 
membered that in the February number 
we showed the absurdity and falsity of 
statements made by this paper in its efforts 
to stem the tide of agricultural emigration 
from Pennsylvania to the South. A small 
part of the matter quoted from the Dis- 
patch was a silly and exaggerated letter 
about the results of the December freeze 
in Florida written, it was alleged, by a 
certain A. L. Brantley. We pointed out 
the significant fact that there was no post- 
office given or any other clew by which 
the identity of the writer of this letter 
might be traced, and that there seemed 
reason to suspect that this Munchausen 
letter-writer had no other existence than 
in the brain of the editor of this Farm 
Department of the Dispatch. And now 
the latter, unable to squirm out of the hole 
into which he has gotten himself, with an 
efTrontery that would have put Ananias to 
shame and which the reputed "Father of 



72 



EDITORIAL. 



Lies" himself would view with envy, seeks 

to set himself right with his readers by 

publishing the following : 

"Some of our Southern exchanges, not- 
ably a 'boom' magazine in Baltimore, are 
unhappy, because the Dispatch in the ex- 
ercise of its judgment has advised the un- 
employed in Pennsylvania cities to try 
farming in Pennsylvania. * * * As a 
specimen of the reckless and brazen ignor- 
ance of the magazine referred to, it takes 
occasion to doubt the genuineness of the 
A. L. Brantley letter, in the Dispatch 
which, by the way, was copied from the 
Manufacturers' Record, which is edited 
and controlled by the same parties who 
are conducting the aforesaid 'boom' mag- 
azine." 

Of course everybody who reads the 
Manufacturers' Record knows that no such 
letter was ever published in it. The 
Manufacturers' Record has not at any 
time since the freeze published a letter 
from anybody in Florida or anywhere 
else bearing on the results of the freeze. 
The statement that the Brantley letter 
was copied from the Manufacturers' Record 
is a pure, unadulterated falsehood. More- 
over, when this reckless prevaricator 
wrote the paragraph that we have quoted, 
he forgot that when he published the al- 
leged Florida letter he had spoken of it as 
"a private letter from the Florida orange 
belt." 

It is not worth while to take any account 
of his effort to divert attention from 
himself in his embarrassment and shame 
by his silly characterization of the 
Southern States as a boom magazine. 
"Boom" was a bad word for him to use. 
It quite naturally suggests to the mind of 
the reader the "boomerang" that he con- 
structed when he published his so called 
Florida letter. 

We publish in this issue an interesting 
and able article on the Southward move- 
ment of population, by Col. J. B. Killebrew, 
of Nashville, Tenn. Col. Killebrew is em- 
inently qualified to write intelligently and 
interestingly on this topic, and whatever 
he writes is sure to be well worth reading. 



Col. Killebrew was for some time Com- 
missioner of Agriculture for the State of 
Tennessee. He is now Commissioner of 
Immigration of the Nashville, Chattanooga 
& St. Louis Railroad. He is thoroughly 
familiar with the agricultural and general 
conditions in the South, and in his capac- 
ity as Immigration Commissioner he has 
made extended trips through the West 
and Northwest. He is a close observer, a 
careful student and a man of sound judg- 
ment, and his utterances have a value that 
would not attach to those of a less well 
informed or less careful writer. 

Arkansas and the Railroads. 

The Memphis Commercial Appeal is 
urging upon the Legislature of Arkansas 
the appointment of a State railroad com- 
mission in order that the management of 
the railroads traversing that State may be 
taken out of the hands of their owners and 
turned over to a body of politicians. Of 
all the States of the Union there are few 
that owe more than Arkansas to railroads. 
In mineral and agricultural wealth, in 
climate and healthfalness Arkansas is, as 
to the greater part of its territory, one of 
the richest States in the Union, and it is 
having just now a larger share of immi- 
gration from other parts of the country 
probably than any other State, but this 
flow of pi>pulation and capital to the State 
is due more largely to the efforts of rail- 
roads than to all other causes combined. 
But for the hundreds of thousands of 
dollars that the St. Louis Southwestern, 
the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, 
the Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham 
and other roads have spent in advertising 
the resources and attractions of the State 
these would have remained to this day 
practically unknown, and but for the 
liberal policy that has been pursued by 
these roads in matters of immigration and 
development these resources and advan- 
tages would have remained unutilized. 



EDITORIAL. 



73 



The more important railroads running 
through Arkansas, those that are in par- 
ticular the objects of attack on the part of 
the advocates of a railroad commission, 
are spending now thousands of dollars in 
making known to the rest of the world, 
by the distribution of printed matter and 
through traveling agents, the advantages 
that Arkansas has to offer to the immigrant 
and investor, and these efforts are fol- 
lowed up and supplemented by every 



reasonable aid and facility that a railroad 
can extend to people who move into its 
territory. 

If the Arkansas legislature wants to 
strike a blow at the State and to hinder 
and impede its progress and development 
and building up, it can adopt no surer 
means to accomplish this end than by 
following out the views of those who are 
clamoring for anti-railroad legislation. 




Immigration Notes. 



10,000 Veterans for the South. 

Negotiations are now under way for the 
establishment of a colony in the South 
which will give a world-wide advertise- 
ment to its advantages and resources. 
Mr. P. H. Fitzgerald, editor of the Ameri- 
can Tribune, of Indianapolis, Ind., has 
been arousing interest in the South among 
veteran Northern soldiers who are dis- 
satisfied with their present homes. Such 
success has attended his efforts that it is 
believed nearly 10,000 of them will decide 
to locate at some point in the Southern 
States. The plan is to form a city of their 
own, surrounded by small farms to be 
worked by those who prefer country to 
city life. Hon. W. J. Northen, head of 
the Georgia Immigration & Investment 
Bureau, has given much attention to the 
scheme and has offered desirable prop- 
erties in that State, one of which may be 
accepted. The colonists will send repre- 
sentatives through the South, to make an 
exhaustive investigation before deciding 
where to go. To show the magnitude of 
this enterprise it may be stated that 
100,000 acres of land will be needed for 
the colony, which is estimated will com- 
prise 40,000 people in all. 

Scandinavians in Florida. 

A number of Scandinavians, living near 
West Superior, Wis., sent down to Florida 
a few months ago representatives from 
their number to "spy out the land," these 
representatives, if satisfied, to settle in 
such locality in Florida as might best suit 
them, and to report to those by whom 
they had been sent. Those who went 
down to make investigation, after a gen- 
eral examination, fixed upon a locality 
near Sarasota. They bought land in ten 
acre lots from the Florida Mortgage & 
Investment Company of Sarasota, 150 
acres having so far been purchased. 
Those who have settled say that the colo- 
ny they represent numbers about 500 fami- 



lies, nearly all of whom will undoubtedly' 
they say, move to Florida. The land that 
has been bought is rich alluvial muck soil. 
The purchaser of a ten-acre lot of this land 
has the privilege of buying from the same 
company one-acre lots of high pine land 
adjoining this for a residence at the same 
price per acre. Mr. J. Hamilton Gillespie, 
manager of the Florida Mortgage & In- 
vestment Co , writes that the settlers seem 
to be all greatly pleased with their new 
home. 

What Some Northern Papers Say About 
the Southward flovement. 

The Chicago Record published the fol- 
lowing from a special correspondent : 

"On any train coming Southward over 
the trunk lines will be found families and 
often colonies from some of the Northern 
States. They are invariably bound for 
some settlement in the sunny South, where 
they expect to begin life over again. This 
is a different kind of immigration from 
that which pours in at the Atlantic sea- 
board and moves mainly on parallels of 
latitute Westward. The immigration into 
the South is almost exclusively made up 
of American citizens. The foreign ele- 
ment is an insignificant part of the whole. 
Most of the immigrants come hither to 
escape long winters, but there is also a 
strong attraction in the comparative cheap- 
ness of land. There is the usual propor- 
tion of restless adventurers and specula- 
tors in the tide of Southern immigration, 
but probably not more than falls to the lot 
of every new country. The bulk of the 
immigration is of a thrifty, experienced 
farming type that augurs well for the 
future of this Southwestern section. The 
Record correspondent has talked with 
hundreds of citizens in the Southwest 
whose former homes were in the North. 
There is a universal negative to the query 
as to whether a Northern person is ener- 
vated by the protracted heat of the South- 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



75 



ern summer. Although the summers are 
longer here it is the testimony of ninety- 
nine out of a hundred acclimated North- 
erners that there is less oppressiveness in 
the heat of the Southern summer than 
there is in the same degree of torridity in 
Wisconsin, Minnesota or the Dakotas. 
Cool nights and the absence of sunstroke 
are the particular boast of the Southwest 
in summer, while the shortness and mild- 
ness of the winters make this region eco- 
nomical for stock men and farmers." 

The Chicago Mail said recently : 

"Never since the war has the South been 
so much talked of as during the last six 
months. From all over the country, partic- 
ularly from the Western States, such as 
Nebraska, Kansas and Dakota, and even as 
far north as Canada and the Middle and 
New England States, there seems to be a 
tendency toward the emigration of the 
homeseeker and farmer to the South. 

"The South undoubtedly today offers as 
many advantages for the thrifty farmer 
with moderate or little capital as any 
other section in the United States. Good 
farms can be purchased in the South for 
from $5 to ^15 an acre in close proximity 
to large and thriving cities. The railroads 
of the South are making a strong effort, 
the strongest in their lives, to induce 
Northern farm immigration, for they at 
last realize the importance of such im.mi- 
gration, and have seen by actual expe- 
rience what immigration has done for the 
big Western railroads. * * * 

"The Northern farmer can take forty 
acres of land and make more money off it 
than he can with much more land in the 
North or Northwest." 

A COLONY, which is carrying out the 
socialistic ideas of equality in land owner- 
ship, has been established near Tennessee 
City, Tenn., with J. A. Wayland of Greens- 
boro, Ind., as one of its main promoters. 
It has increased from twelve to forty mem- 
bers since October, 1894, and owns 500 
acres of land. 

A SETTLEMENT of about loo German 
families is to be established at Zidonia, 
Cleburne county, Ala., near the Georgia 
line. Most of the new-comers are from 
Iowa and Illinois. This colony is the re- 
sult of the operations of the Georgia Fruit 
Growing and Winery Association of Tal- 



lapoosa, Ga. This company has sold sev- 
eral thousand acres of land on the instal- 
ment plan in that section of Georgia, 
which has been planted with grape vines. 
The country around Zidona is also well 
adapted to fruit growing, and wine grapes 
will be raised extensively. 

Major Frank T. Anderson, whose 
successful work in securing homeseekers 
for the South has been frequently re- 
ferred to by the Southern States, has 
recently located parties from South 
Dakota, Ohio and Wisconsin in DeKalb 
county, Ala. They purchased nearly 1000 
acres in all. 

One of the largest parties of home- 
seekers which have arrived in the South 
this year consisted of 250 brought to New 
Orleans recently over the Illinois Central 
Railroad. From that city they have scat- 
tered over Louisiana and Mississippi 
examining farm lands. 

A DISPATCH from Chicago revives the 
report that about 200 former employes of 
the Pullman Palace Car Co. have decided 
to locate at some point in the .South. The 
last report is that a plantation of 16,500 
acres near Sullivan, La., has been offered 
to them, and they may purchase it and 
divide it into small farms. 

A recent colony to locate in the vicinity 
of Chester, Texas, comprised twenty-six 
settlers from the Northwest. 

The people of Caddo parish, La., have 
decided to make an organized effort to 
attract immigrants to that section of the 
South. Among the prominent citizens of 
Shreveport who have become interested 
are Messrs. H. Florsheim, J. H. Shepherd, 
W. B. Jacobs, W. W. Sebastian and W. F. 
Taylor. This section, which is in the "Red 
river country," is very fertile and produces 
a great diversity of crops. 

A settlement of German families has 
been located near Avon Park, Fla., under 
the name of Zandertown. 

At Chattanooga, Tenn., the Southern Bu- 
reau of Inmiigration announces that nine 
colonies of people from the West will be 
located in the Soutli witliin the next few 
months. The advantages of North Georgia 
have attracted the attention of some of 



76 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



the settlers, and a number of families will 
locate in Floyd county. 

The Louisiana Land & Improvement 
Co. of Abbeville, La., has secured a party 
of settlers from the vicinity of Canby, 
Minn., who have purchased farms from 
the company. 

A COLONY of twelve families of farmers 
from the vicinity of Avery and Frederic, 
Iowa, have decided to locate in Southwest 
Louisiana. They have secured. options on 
land near Jennings. 

As an indication of the Southward 
movement, the Kansas City, Fort Scott & 
Memphis Railroad Co. is carrying fifteen 
carloads of household goods daily into 
Southern Missouri and Arkansas from 
points in the West. 

The people of Wisconsin have become 
attracted to the advantages of Maryland, 
and several families have just located in 
St. Mary's county near Millstone Landing. 
They brought their horses, wagons and 
household furniture with them. 

Arrangements are being made to en- 
courage the immigration movement to 
Alabama by a convention to be held at 
Florence on July 4th. A representation 



from each county is expected to be present 
and the Florence Business League is mak- 
ing efforts to secure a large attendance. 
Plans for inducing more immigration will 
be discussed. 

George Wallace, of Ocala, Fla., is 
securing several families of settlers on 
land he has secured near that town. 

The Normandale Colony & Improve- 
ment Co., which was referred to in the 
March number of the Southern States, 
has sub-divided its property into small 
farms. A carload of seed has been pur- 
chased for TOO acres, on which various 
crops will be raised with the' view of 
securing the greatest diversity possible. 
This is the enterprise in which F. Missler & 
Krimmert, the New York bankers, are 
interested. 

Four representatives of a colony of 
eighty-nine families in South Dakota have 
been examining lands in the vicinity of 
Jackson, Miss., with the view of settling 
the families in that part of the State. 

Among the newcomers to Effingham 
county, Ga., is a colony of Greeks who 
have secured land and intend planting 
on a small scale. 




REAL Estate Notes. 



More Letters from Real Estate Agents. 

The letters from real estate agents in 
different parts of the South, published in 
the March number, have attracted wide- 
spread attention. The general public has 
had no conception of the magnitude of 
the Southward movement of population 
as shown by these reports of farm sales to 
Northern buyers. 

It was impossible to make room for all 
the letters received. A few of these, un- 
avoidably omitted from the March num- 
ber, are printed below. 

Settling Up the Arkansas Prairie Lands. 

C. H. Lewis, Little Rock, Ark.— The 
outlook for real estate market in Little 
Rock is very flattering. The United States 
Government is building a large Army 
Post here, and making an $85,000 addition 
to the custom-house and postoffice. 

Work has just commenced on the 
Little Rock & Pacific Railroad, and the 
"dirt is flying." This line is to run from 
Little Rock to Fort Smith, thence west. 

A new railroad bridge is soon to be built 
across the Arkansas river here, making 
three railroad bridges. The same com- 
pany will also build a belt line around the 
city. 

In regard to farm property, will say: 
Such an influx of people from Iowa, 
Nebraska and Kansas was never known 
before. They are settling mostly on our 
fine prairie lands in Eastern Arkansas. 
Some few are locating in Northwest Ar- 
kansas, where the "big red apples" grow. 
Just recently I sold a big bottom land 
plantation near this city to a gentleman 
from San Antonio, Texas. A large num- 
ber of the poorer class of immigrants are 
homesteading United States Government 
lands, and taking up donation lands from 
the State. 

In conclusion, will say tliat the 
Southern States Magazine and the 
Manufacturers' Record are both a power 



in the land in setting forth the advantages 
of the South, and should receive the 
hearty support of every business man in 
the South. 

Sales in 1894 Greater Than for Twenty = 
Five Years. 

Jas. K. Glennon & Co., Mobile, Ala. — 
There are a great many Western people 
coming down to Southwestern Alabama, 
and especially along the line of the Mobile 
& Ohio Railroad at Citronelle, Deer Park 
and State Lme. A good many Western 
people in this section have made quite an 
addition in the Southwestern part of the 
city, and are building a number of nice 
houses for dwellings to be occupied by 
themselves as homes. They are delighted 
with the people, the climate and the local- 
ity, and say there are others to follow. 

We do not handle outside property, 
dealing almost altogether in city real 
estate and property in the immediate 
vicinity of Mobile, but the sales for 1S94 
exceeded those of any other year since 
we have been in business, which is since 
1S69. There are no boom prices, but 
there has been a steady, gradual increase 
in prices since 18S4. 

Sold Twenty=Eight Farms in 1894 to 
Northern Buyers. 

Osce Goodwin, casliier Texas Mort- 
gage Banking Company, Waxahachie, 
Texas. — During the year 1894 we sold 
in this and another county having 
the same character of soil twenty-eight 
farms to parties from Illinois, Kansas and 
other States. The number of acres con- 
tained in the twenty-eight farms was 3260. 
I iiave had more inquiry from all portion^ 
of the North, Northwest and Northeast 
during the last three months than I have 
ever had for the same time since I have 
been in business in this place, and from 
present indications I believe that we will 
have a great many people from other 
States to come to our county. We have a 



78 



REAL ESTATE NOTES. 



great many people in our county who 
came here with nothing- and now have 
beautiful homes, owe nothing and are in 
good condition; these lands, too, will last 
for all time to come. A man and his 
family can live better and on less money 
here than farther North. 

Sold Twenty=Four Farms in 1894. 

S. F. Hurt & Son, Stockton, Mo.— We 
sold during 1894 twenty-four farms, aggre- 
gating 2780 acres, the buyers being from 
Colorado, Kansas, Iowa, and Nebraska. 
Business is improving all the time. 

Arkansas Immigration Greater Last Four 

or Five Months Than in Previous 

Four or Five Years. 

Braddock Land & Granite Co., Little 
Rock, Ark.— The real estate market for 
1894 in this locality was very good, and 
for the past four or five months the immi- 
gration to this State of Northern farmers 
has been more than for four or five years 
previous to that time. They are coming 
here from Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Illi- 
nois, Indiana, Ohio and other States in 
large numbers. They come from the sev- 
eral States, as to numbers, in the same 
order I have named the States. The 
larger portion of them have settled in the 
prairie counties a few miles east of this 
city. I have not sold many farms myself, 
for the reason that I make a specialty of 
city property, and of the 450 lots I have 
sold in the past three years the majority 
of them have been to non-residents, or 
rather, to immigrants who are now resi- 
dents. Considering that this is a State 
capital, with from 40,000 to 45,000 popula- 
tion and growing rapidly, it is remarkable 
that good lands can be purchased so cheap 
within ten to fifteen miles. 

Prices for unimproved timber lands 
range from $1 25 to $7 per acre; improved 
farms at from $15 to I50 per acre, accord- 
ing to the improvement. A long distance 
out lands can be bought much cheaper 
than this. The outlook is good for a rapid 
advance in lands throughout this country. 
Arkansas is among the wealthiest States 
in the Union in undeveloped resources. 
It has whole mountains of zinc, whole 
mountains of marble and of granite, and 
2000 square miles of coal, manganese, 
iron, lead, all the various clays and other 



minerals in inexhaustible quantities and of 
the very best quality, and the timber and 
lumber interests are unsurpassed by any 
other State; and, added to all of this min- 
eral and timber wealth, Arkansas pos- 
sesses as fine agricultural lands as can be 
found in any other State. 

I came here from Ohio and made invest- 
ments eight years ago, and commenced 
business here five years ago, and have 
accomplished more in that five years than 
I accomplished in twenty in Ohio. There 
is a great field here for the investment of 
capital, and that is about the only thing 
that this country lacks. The prejudices 
that have existed against Arkansas for the 
past half century are rapidly passing away, 
and I predict that the next census Arkan- 
sas will show a greater increase in popula- 
tion and wealth than any other State. 

30,000 Acres Sold to Settlers in 
Last Twelve Months. 

Cash & Luckel, Houston, Texas. — The 
real estate market, especially in good 
cheap lands, has never been so good or so 
promising as at present. During the past 
twelve months we have sold not less than 
30,000 acres, and a great deal of this to 
actual settlers who are on the ground. 

To illustrate the success of our work, 
we point with pride to Missouri City, 
located some fifteen miles west o^ 
Houston on the Southern Pacific road, 
where we have built up a nice town and 
agricultural community within the past 
eight months, having located at that place 
about fifty families, all of them good, 
thrifty farmers from various parts of the 
North, who came prepared to erect first- 
class homes and cultivate their land as 
they are accustomed to do in the North. 
In and around this little town we have 
sold about 20,000 acres at prices ranging 
from 75 to 100 per cent, higher than they 
were twelve months ago, and yet this 
rich prairie land can be had, convenient to 
this station, at from $S to |;io per acre. 
These properties do not include more than 
half the number we have located in our 
towns and cities. 

From every source of information we 
learn that the movement South has only 
just begun, and we are confident that next 
winter will see such a movement from the 
North and West into South Texas as 



REAL ESTATE NOTES. 



79 



was never witnessed in any part of the 
great West during its period of develop- 
ment. 

We appreciate the great work being 
done by the Southern States and the 
Manufacturers' Record, and are sure that 
the thousands of homeseekers looking for 
information will also appreciate it. 

Sold Over 20,000 Acres in Last Two 
Years. 

Union Land Company, 163 Wash- 
ington street, Chicago. — Since the best 
lands in the Northern States have 
been apparently taken up and occupied 
for actual farming, the people North 
begin to realize that there is another 
empire, which has been long neglected. 
Change of conditions has turned the tide 
from the North to the South. Much of 
the richest land in the United States has 
been lying idle in the South for a period 
of more than twenty-five years on account 
of lack of hands to till it. A change has 
also come over the ideas of the Southern 
planter. He no longer holds tenaciously 
to land he originally possessed, and which 
without labor has proven an entirely 
unproductive burden to himself and of 
benefit to none. He is today willing to 
sell his land to settlers who will cultivate 
it, and by such division he benefits the 
newcomer as well as himself. Lately the 
Union Land Company, of Chicago, hither- 
to doing business solely in the Northern 
States, found that people of the North 
recognized these facts and were willing 
and ready to try their fortunes South, if 
only they found conditions compatible 
with their former mode of living in the 
North. In looking over the ground 
they found a large area of most 
excellent prairie lands right in the 
heart of the State of Arkansas — 
prairie land that not only compares 
favorably with any of the finest prairie 
land in the Northern States, but lacks all 
the drawbacks of a long and idle winter. 
They found that the hardy Northern 
farmer can plan his work there during the 
year to his better advantage, that he can 
start farming with less capital, that he can 
raise there any crop that is raised North 
at present with equal success, that aside 
from this he can raise any Southern crop 
belonging to that region as well as any- 



where else, that he does not need to sit 
idle at home for six months in the year 
because of the severity of the weather (as 
is the case in the North), that even during 
the cold weather he will find an abundant 
supply of fuel right on the borders of the 
prairie, that he , will find riches in the 
timber surrounding the prairie. 

The Union Land Company bringing 
these facts to the public notice found a 
ready response, and there began an influx 
of good farmers from the best farming 
countries North. The thrifty American 
from the prairie States, unused to experi- 
menting, satisfied himself as to the 
truth of these assertions. Next came 
the industrious German, Hollander, 
Scandinavian, Bohemian, Slavonian, Li- 
thuanian, all of whom, willing to 
work, embraced the opportunity and 
followed in such numbers that the Grand 
Prairie, as it is called in Prairie, Lonoke 
and Arkansas counties of Arkansas, should 
in the short space of the next two years, 
change its name and be rechristened 
the Grand Farm, since no vestige of 
"prairie will remain. The L^nion Land Co. 
but two years ago commenced with a small 
settlement, but now has sold out to actual 
farmers more than one-half of the lands it 
had acquired. These lands owned by the 
company are not a section or two, but over 
40,000 acres. They sold to Slavonians, to 
name one instance alone, within the last 
year over 11,000 acres of land in Prairie 
county where the colony has founded a 
new town and sold more than one-half of 
lots within the space of six months. 
Another German colony started by 
them but six months ago in Lonoke 
county is thrifty and prosperous. A Hol- 
land colony near the town of Stuttgart, 
started but a few months ago is growing 
rapidly and you will find among these 
settlers most prosperous farmers from 
Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Nebraska and 
other States. 

Real Estate in Baltimore. 

The Baltimore Daily Herald, in an 
editorial on real estate conditions in Balti- 
more, says : 

"Despite the hard times, building opera- 
tions have been carried forward at a rapid 
rate ; sales in real estate have been fre- 
quent, and investments in ground rents 
and mortgages have attracted no small 



8o 



REAL ESTATE NOTES. 



degree of attention. The truth seems to 
be that capitalists have confidence in the 
expansion of the city, in the extension of 
its business and the multiplication of its 
industries. As a consequence they are 
investing in available ground for building 
purposes, buying houses in fee simple to 
hold for rental, or putting money into first 
mortgages in the belief that their holdings 
will not depreciate as time goes on. 

"This condition of affairs is suggestive 
of a brilliant destiny for our city. Those 
who are investing their money will not fail 
to labor for the improvement of property 
and its enhanced value. To this end 
rapid-transit facilities will be kept at a 
high grade of excellence, and lines will be 
extended to satisfy the needs of rapidly- 
growing suburbs. All arrangements for 
the comfort and convenience of the people 
will be looked after, and trade may be ex- 
pected to keep pace with the growth of 
population. 

"In this view of the case activity in real 
estate lies at the foundation of prosperity, 
and the hope may be expressed that indus- 
try and business may soon feel the inspira- 
tion of that confidence which has actuated 
extensive transactions in land and build- 
ings within the last two years." 

A RECENT transfer of property in the 
suburbs of San Antonio, Texas, amounted 
to |75,ooo. The Lake View Land Co. 
made the sale. The property comprised 
eighteen acres, upon which a convent will 
be erected. 

A $7,000,000 Washington Syndicate. 

A company with I7, 000, 000 capital has 
been organized under the laws of Virginia 
to operate extensively in suburban real 
estate in the District of Columbia. The 
intention of the company is understood to 
be the purchase of about 400 acres of land, 
lying between^Massachusetts and Connec- 
ticut avenues extended. This includes 
the tracts owned by the Thompson, New- 
ton and Waggaman families of Washington, 
and by other persons. The officers of the 
company are Hon. John T. Hemphill, late 
chairman of the congressional district 
committee ; vice-president, Alexander S. 
Porter, president of the Boston real estate 
exchange ; treasurer, A. Marcus, one of 
the former directors of the Louisville & 
Nashville Railroad Co. In the directory 



is E. Rollins Morse, of the New York 
banking firm of J. P. Morgan & Co. It is 
stated that the Woodley Land Co., the 
new corporation, will convert the property 
into lots for suburban residences with 
parked streets and all city improvements. 

A REPORT from Fernandina, Fla., is to 
the effect that real estate in and near the 
city is attracting more attention since the 
project has been made public to build a 
new railroad into the town. Wharf prop- 
erty especially has appreciated consider- 
ably in value. 

There is a good demand from Western 
people for timber as well as farm lands in 
Dinwiddie county, Va. Mr. A. T. Stewart 
has recently negotiated sales of several 
tracts of timber and cleared lands to Ohio 
parties. 

Messrs. H. C. and A. J. Dotger, of 
Philadelphia, have purchased a plantation 
near Charlotte, N. C, and propose to con- 
vert it into an "all-the-year-round" truck 
farm, using the most improved methods of 
cultivation. They are experienced vege- 
table growers. 

Mr. Walter J. Suthon, a New Orleans 
merchant, has bought the Cote Blanche 
plantation, in the Louisiana sugar district, 
for 140,000. The plantation is one of the 
best in the State. 

A recent purchase of land near Bucha- 
nan, Va., was made by Edmund C. Pechin, 
who has decided to locate permanently. 
Mr. Pechin is an iron expert who has been 
prominently identified with the develop- 
ment of Southwest Virginia. He is a 
Northern man by birth, but has become a 
firm friend of the South through a close 
acquaintance with its resources. 

Among the recent land sales in the 
vicinity of Alexandria, La., was the Rhodes 
plantation in Avoyelles and Rapides par- 
ishes, which sold for $16,368. 

Chicago parties have become interested 
in lands in Manatee county, Fla. Mr. 
George N. Benjamin of Tampa recently 
sold 153 acres, located near Braidentown 
to C. N. Thompson of Chicago. Several 
winter residences are to be built upon it. 

A pear orchard of forty acres, two and 



REAL ESTATE NOTES. 



a-half miles from Alvin, Texas, recently 
sold for $13,000. A farm of fifty-one acres 
near the same town sold for $8000. A 
twelve-acre pear orchard near Hitchcock, 
Texas, sold for |i2,ooo. 

Within a few weeks several parties of 
Western prospectors have been visiting 
sections of Virginia, near Petersburg and 
Lynchburg, with the view of buying farms. 
Mr. John Moore, of Findlay, Ohio, agent 
of the Ohio Central Railroad, has con- 
ducted a number of these prospectors. 

The Marlboro, Md., Gazette states ed- 
itorially that many letters are being re- 



ceived in that section from would-be-set- 
tlers inquiring the prices of small farms. 
Many of the writers limit the area of land 
wanted to fifty acres. 

The growth of Atlanta is indicated by 
the demand for houses to rent and pur- 
chase. A real estate agent who rents 3500 
houses in the city says that he has but a 
few vacant. A large number have been 
taken since March ist. 

Property sales in Frostburg, Md., are 
increasing. Real estate to the amount of 
|i5'775 recently changed hands in one day 
in that town. 



General Notes. 



An Attractive Country. 

The completion of the canal which is to 
afford a continuous inland waterway from 
St. Augustine to Biscayne Bay, Fla., by 
way of the Indian river and Lake Worth, 
will give transportation facilities to a large 
section of fertile country adjacent to it. 
Dade and adjoining counties are capable 
of producing abundant crops of fruit and 
vegetables, but much of the land hitherto 
has been unsettled owing to the difficulty 
of shipping to market. The entire length 
of the waterway, which parallels the east 
coast line, is 350 miles. The channel will 
be sixty feet wide and at least six feet 
deep. Mr. George F. Miles, at St. Augus- 
tine, is manager of the Coast Canal & 
Transportation Co., which is carrying out 
the work. 

Early Florida Crops. 

As a proof that the cold weather in 
Florida only affected a portion of the fruit 
and vegetable crop, it may be stated that 
the tomato crop near Lake Worth will be 
one of the largest ever raised in that 
section. The tomatoes will be ready to 
ship by May i. 

In the truck-raising section around 
Gainesville, Fla., growers state that many 
of the crops will be ready to ship two 
weeks ahead of the usual time in spite of 
the February freeze. One of the largest 
crops will be cucumbers, which are about 
ready for shipment. Another heavy crop 
will be basket melons. Squash, both 
Boston and patty-pan varieties, are exten- 
sively cultivated. Other crops are egg- 
plants, beans, peas and tomatoes. Straw- 
berry fields are now covered with blooms. 
There is much green fruit, which is rapidly 
maturing. 

Florida at the Exposition. 

The Cotton States and International 
Exposition will be an important factor in 
showing people from outside what the 



South can produce from its fields, gar- 
dens, orchards and groves. Florida will 
be well represented by exhibits of the 
Plant Investment Co., Dr. F. W. Inman of 
Winter Haven and others. The Plant In- 
vestment Co. will erect a large pyramid- 
shaped building one hundred feet square, 
of phosphate rock, on one of most conspic- 
uous points in the grounds, and Dr. Inman 
has secured one fourth of the inside space 
for Polk county's display of fruit, vege- 
tables and grains. 

Good Fruit Prospects. 

The latest reports from the fruit section 
of Georgia are to the effect that the fruit 
crop this year will be unusually large, with 
favorable conditions. Peaches, pears, 
plums and small fruits, to use a horticul- 
tural phrase, are "looking unusually well." 
Among those who verify these statements 
are Dr. Hollifield, who has several fruit 
farms near Sandersville, Ga., and S. H. 
Rumph, of Marshallville, in Southwest 
Georgia. 

A New York Lawyer's Experience 
in ttie South. 

A lawyer from Indiana, living in Atlanta, 
recently wrote to some friends in the 
former State that he had been treated 
with incivility and inhospitality in the 
South, and advising his friends not to 
move South. His letter was made public 
and copied in the Atlanta papers. North- 
ern residents in Atlanta immediately pub- 
lished emphatic and indignant denials of 
the statements made in the letter. Among 
interviews with persons from the North 
and letters from them was the following 
letter published in the Constitution. It 
was learned that the writer was Mr. J. W. 
Uppercut, of New York, now practising 
law in Atlanta : 

"Editor Constitution : It is not my in- 
tention to answer the letter of Mr. F. F. 
Moore, referred to in your columns to-day. 



GENERAL NOTES. 



83 



or in any way to criticise that gentleman, 
but it would be base ingratitude of me to 
remain silent under the circumstances. 

"I am a lawyer, recently from New York 
city, and it is not with the slightest desire 
to popularize myself with the people here, 
or to gain gratuitous advertising, that I 
ask for your valuable space. That I may 
not be misunderstood in this respect I will 
use a 7ioni de plume. 

"Permit me to give my experience here, 
and the reader can draw his own conclu- 
sions : I came to Atlanta the 22d day of 
last November an entire stranger, for the 
benefit of my health, and seeking a place 
to practice my profession. I had no idea 
of locating m this city when I first came 
to it. In fact, my first impressions imme- 
diately on arrival here were not inspiring. 
I thought I would remain only a day or 
two and then go further South. 

"I was here but a day when I saw that 
Atlanta was unlike any other city of the 
South I had ever visited. I soon became 
fascinated by the thrift and enterprise of 
the business community. I attended vari- 
ous courts and found the judges to be 
men of ability, pre-eminently fair and 
painstaking. I met with a few lawyers 
while I was in court, and they received 
me very kindly. I was "invited to their 
offices and. availed myself of the invita- 
tion. I stated plainly my object in coming 
South, and did not conceal the fact of it 
being just as necessary that I earn a liv- 
ing as it was that I recover my health. I 
asked them to tell me frankly just 'what 
opportunities, if any, were open to me 
here. I told them that I did not want to 
crowd myself into the profession and 
would not locate here if I had to do so at 
another's expense. 

"These gentlemen, to a man, gave me a 
most hearty welcome; they advised me 
most unselfishly and proffered me the ser- 
vices of their offices while I was deliberat- 
ing on what I would do. They were all so 
exceedingly kind to me that I admired 
their hospitality so much that I concluded 
not to make use of it. They even wanted 
to take me around and introduce me to 
their clients. This I, of course, avoided 
without the appearance of declining. Let 
my future here be a success or a failure, 
my gratitude to these gentlemen will never 
change. 



"So much for the lawyer of Atlanta. 
Now for my experience with the business 
men here as I have met them: The first 
thing I expected was that they were going 
to ask me what were my politics, and I 
was prepared to let off my political senti- 
ments with a bang. The next inquiry I 
looked for was as to who were my ances- 
tors, my cousins and my aunts. Well, sir, 
not one of my acquaintances, I may say 
friends, has to this day asked me either of 
these questions. I have had to volunteer 
them the information as to my political 
sentiments, and to my surprise I meet 
with many who agreed with me, and when 
they differed from me they did so in a 
magnanimous and patriotic way. There 
is none of that every-man-for-himself feel- 
ing among the business men of Atlanta, 
and a Yankee is treated as kindly as 
though he were a native of the South. 
Business men here, even in the same line, 
are desirous of seeing others succeed and 
are always glad to give friendly advice to 
a newcomer and aid him in starting in 
business. 

"It has been my pleasure to spend a 
large part of my student life in the East, 
to reside in New York city, to experience 
the rough and ready cordiality of the West, 
and to know something of society in the 
educational centers of Europe, but in no 
place I have ever been have I enjoyed the 
open-hearted and fervent welcome I have 
here. It is worth the expense of a trip 
from the North and East to Atlanta just to 
shake hands with the people here. It ex- 
ceeds anything I have ever enjoyed, and 
my experience is not very circumscribed. 

"It seems to me, Mr. Editor, that any 
one coming to Georgia with a desire to 
produce a living rather than consume it, 
cannot help but succeed here. I "was 
brought up to be a practical farmer, and 
know farm work from the grubbing hoe to 
the plow handles, and I know that there is 
no country I have ever seen that offers so 
many inducements to diversified farming 
as the State of Georgia. The Georgia 
Cracker has been brought up to produce 
nothing but cotton, hog and hominy on his 
farm, and he seems to know nothing about 
growing vegetables and rotating his crops, 
and for that reason some of them are 
making but a hand-to-mouth living on land 
that should make them a generous living. 



84 



GENERAL NOTES. 



This is the country for a thoroughgoing 
farmer, and he cannot help but do well 
here if he puts forth but a moderate effort 
to make a living. 

"People coming to the South should 
address themselves to the changed condi- 
tion of things as they will find them here, 
and go to work with a will to produce two 
blades of grass where now but one grows. 
It is such people that Georgia welcomes, 
and they will soon learn to love this State 
as dearly as their native home." 

Sheep in Florida. 

Certain sections of Florida are especially 
suited to sheep raising by reason of the 
abundance of pasture land and the topo- 
graphy of the country. The principal 
sheep-producing counties of the State are 
Walton, Santa Rosa, Escambia, Holmes, 
Calhoun and Washington. The number 
of sheep in these several counties ranges 
from 32,798 in Walton to 7607 in Washing- 
ton county. The varieties which have 
proven most profitable are the Cotswold 
and the Southdown. The Merino, also, 
has met with considerable favor. 

Home=nade Corn Harket. 

Near Sandy Point, Brazoria county, 
Texas., is a hog raising farm which is con- 
ducted by Mr. L. B. Shepherd a Nebraska 
immigrant to Texas. About 300 acres of 
timber land have been inclosed with hog 
proof fence for breeding and raising pur- 
poses. The hogs that are being prepared 
for market are in pens or lots within 300 
feet of the railroad depot and are classi- 
fied; that is, they are graded according to 
age, size, condition, etc., and each pen 
receives the attention peculiar to its own 
needs. Last fall but 200 hogs were on the 
place, but they have been increased to 
over 700 by breeding. Mr. Shepherd has 
fattened 300 hogs and is killing for the 
Houston market four to six per day. 

This enterprise also results in a home 
market for corn. Mr. Shepherd bought 
1600 bushels of corn last fall and paid the 
farmers 40 to 45 cents per bushel. He 
has opened up 150 acres of new land and 
is planting it in corn. Mr. Shepherd states 
that he has on the way a horse-power 
corn sheller of a daily capacity of 1000 
bushels and also a feed mill for grinding 
meal, etc. He is now ready to contract 



for all the corn that can be marketed at 
this point the coming season. 

Growth of Peach Culture. 

During the last three years over 10,822 
acres of land have been planted with 600,- 
000 peach trees in three counties in Geor- 
gia by twelve companies, the most of them 
organized in the North. This does not in- 
clude small orchards set out by individuals. 
It takes two days for a car of Georgia 
peaches to reach New York and three 
days to reach Chicago. The freight to the 
former city is |i6o a car, and to the latter 
$185, while the distance from California is 
seven and nine days, and the freight char- 
ges I275 and I320 respectively. 

Visitors to the Agricultural Depart- 
ment of North Carolina, Raleigh, which 
by the way is one of the most perfectly 
equipped and best managed departments 
of the kind in the country, will miss the 
kindly face and cordial reception of Com- 
missioner John Robinson, who has resigned 
and returned to his farm near Raleigh. 
The Commissioner's office is now in 
charge of Mr. T. K. Bruner, secretary of 
the Department. Mr. Bruner has always 
been devoted to his work and enthu- 
siastic in his efforts to develop the effi- 
ciency of the department. He is probablv 
better informed as to the resources of 
North Carolina than any other man in the 
State, and having a happy faculty of im- 
parting information, he is a veritable 
"hand book" of practical information 
about" the opportunities and possibilities 
for development. It was owing largely to 
Mr. Bruner's skill and untiring zeal that 
the State of North Carolina made such a 
handsome and interesting exhibit at the 
World's Fair, which now comprises the 
State museum and is the pride of her 
citizens and the admiration of all visitors. 

Messrs. Cash & Luckel, of Houston, 
Texas, have purchased a controlling inter- 
est in the town and surrounding country 
at La Porte, located at the head of Galves- 
ton Bay, Texas, overlooking the bay, with 
high banks and beautiful grounds and sur- 
rounded by a rich prairie country. Messrs. 
B. F. Hammett & Son, of St. Louis, have 
also purchased a large interest there and 
are now building the La Porte, Houston 
& Northern Railroad, to run from Hous- 



GENERAL NOTES, 



85 



ton through La Porte to Galveston. More 
than half of this is now finished and in 
operation, and it is expected that trains 
will run from Houston to Galveston on 
this road within the next five or six 
months. 

A STIMULUS will be given to orange 
growing in Florida by the reduction of the 
tax assessment in certain districts. In 
Hernando county the assessments will be 
reduced 50 per cent, this year. 

The East Texas fruit belt, as it is termed, 
is to be liberally advertised by the pro- 
posed "Fruit Palace" to be built at Tyler 
this coming summer. It is proposed to 
exhibit the many varieties of fruit which 
grow in abundance in this section. 

Hugh Boyde of Gadsden, Tenn , has a 
hog twenty-three years old. He has care- 
fully estimated what her progeny have 
realized in weight and cash, and find that 
she has been the mother of 300 pigs, 
weighing 82,500 pounds in all, and worth 
I4125. 

O. H. Jordan, who lives near Dawson, 
Ga., sold last year enough field and ground 
peas to pay the expenses of operating his 
farm, selling over ^150 worth of ground 
peas alone. Besides what he sold, he 
saved enough to fatten his meat and for 
seed. 

Strawberry shipments are being made 
to the North from the vicinity of Lawtey, 
Fla. One grower who covered his vines 
during the cold weather sold twenty 
quarts at a profit of nearly I1.50 per quart. 
They ripened unusually early. 

Reports from Albemarle county, Vir- 
ginia, are to the effect that this year's 
peach and apple crops promise to be very 
abundant. This is one of the noted apple- 
growing localities. The famous Albemarle 
Pippin brings a higher price in England 
than any other apple. 

The cattle breeders of Kentucky have 
organized an association for encouraging 
this industry. Special attention will be 
given to raising Jersey cattle. The follow- 
ing named officers have been selected : 
President, G. V. Green; vice-president, J. 
A. Middleton ; J. H. Muir, secretary and 



treasurer. Meetings will be held at Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

A HuNTSviLLE, Ala., merchant made a 
recent shipment of 6000 dozen eggs, all 
bought from the farmers of Madison 
county. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

Development in Arkansas. 

Editor Southerft States: 

I noticed recently in an issue of the 
Southern States a short item from a 
gentleman who had visited the section 
of Arkansas known as Grand Prairie, 
and mentioning some of its good features 
and the immigration the section is attract- 
ing. The writer is a recent arrival in Grand 
Prairie and must say it is a truly beautiful 
section, and one the average Northern 
man is very much surprised to find in the 
much maligned State of Arkansas. Some 
eff"ort has been put forth to place the 
advantages of its climate and cheap land 
before those of the blizzard and drouth 
affected regions, and a large immigration 
of Northerners is the result. The Grand 
Prairie & Arkansas River Railroad, a 
short line of road from the Cotton Belt 
Line, has been built through the prairie in 
the last few years and about completed to 
the Arkansas river where through connec- 
tion with New Orleans can be had. The 
road is the property of an enterprising 
local man, Mr. T. H. Leslie, who has 
interested with him a small amount of 
Eastern capital. The beauty of Grand 
Prairie, and the advantages of opening it 
up given by this gentleman's enterprise in 
building the railway and advertising the 
locality, is filling it up with a new and en- 
ergetic class glad to find such a place free 
from the objectionable features they had 
conceived of the South and tempered by 
more sunshine and less rigorous winters. 
Grand Prairie is a good agricultural and 
fruit section, and stock thrive well and are 
easily cared for through the mild winter. 
The Arkansas and White rivers and their 
small tributaries line this prairie on all 
sides with a dense growth of the finest 
of cypress, oak, ash, gum, cotton wood, 
hickory and pecan timber, that give the 
locality a timber and lumber interest that 
is being developed. The Arkansas Supply 
Co., incorporated under the laws of the 



86 



GENERAL NOTES. 



State as an auxiliary to the railway, and 
owning 75,000 acres of fine timber and 
prairie land, is donating large tracts to 
induce the location of manufacturing 
plants at one of the company's towns on 
the line of the road, Gillett, a favorite 
town named for F. M. Gillett, of New 
York, president of the railway, and which 
point will have the additional advantage 
of railway shops and general offices, and is 
having a rapid growth. Liberal induce- 
ments are held out for the location of 
factories into which wood as the material 
of the product enters. The telegraph line 
has been extended into Gillett and com- 
munication with the outside world is thus 
established. 

This is undoubtedly one of the finest 
agricultural regions in America. Compar- 
tively little cotton is grown here, the chief 
products being corn, oats and all the ordi- 
nary farm crops, and fruits, vegetables, &c. 

Gillett, Ark. S. W. Kelly. 

Adopted Citizens as Farm and Home 
Owners. 

Mr. Olaf Ellison, of Chicago, whose arti- 
cle on Scandinavian Immigration in a 
former number of the Southern States 
will be remembered, writes to the South- 
ern States as follows : 
Editor Southern States : 

The following deductions from the im- 
portant census bulletin referred to is wor- 
thy of serious consideration on the part of 
the enterprising Southern men and com- 
munities engaged in the laudable work of 
securing new settlers in their midst. 

The article appears as an editorial in the 
"Skandinaven" of Chicago, the leading 
journal published in the Danish Norse lan- 
guage in the United States. Men and 
women whose chief ambition consists in 
an overmastering desire to establish their 
own homestead, no matter at what per- 
sonal sacrifice and labor, are not to be 
dreaded in any locality ; yet unreasonable 
fears and apprehensions are systematically 
fostered by parties who might use their 
energy to better purpose. 

A small proportion of the unlettered 
foreigners, hailing chiefly from Southeast- 
ern Europe, do create trouble where they 
congregate in large numbers around mines 
and kindred surroundings. Unfortunately 
the public at large learns only of the mis- 



deeds of these men ; the preceding chap- 
ter containing the wrong that led up to 
them is a sealed book. But admitting the 
undesirability of a greater influx of this 
latter and very limited class, it certamly 
forms a totally inadequate base on which 
to rear that most un-American prejudice 
against all foreigners which a certain class 
of would-be public men deliberately en- 
genders. 

The census is not a very romantic publi- 
cation, but it is extremely useful as a bat- 
teringram against unfounded aspersions 
and preconceived opinions. It is certainly 
one of the most effectual weapons imagi- 
nable. 

The article referred to is as follows : 

"If a proprietary interest in the country 
goes for aught, there is very little differ- 
ence between our native white citizens and 
those of foreign birth or blood. Accord- 
ing to Extra Census Bulletin 98, ownership 
of farms and homes is nearly as prevalent 
among the latter class of citizens as those 
to the manor born, and in some instances 
even more so. 

"Grouping farms and homes together, it 
appears that 51.48 per cent, of the white 
proprietors of the country are owners, 
while the percentage of tenantry is 48.12 
per cent. With respect to place of birth 
the proprietors are divided into thirteen 
classes, showing respectively the following 
percentages of ownership : 

"Scandinavians (Norwegians, Swedes 
and Danes), 60.64 ; native white Americans, 
52.99; German, 52.47; Frenchmen, 47.46 ; 
"other countries," 47.43; English Cana- 
dians, 46.73; Englishmen and Welshmen, 
45.79; Scotchmen, 44.88 ; Irishmen, 43.53 ; 
Austrians and Hungarians, 41. 11 ; French 
Canadians, 31.41; Russians and Poles> 
31.38; Italians, 14.51. 

"As will be seen, the average percentage 
of ownership for the whole country is 
exceeded by only three classes, viz : Scan- 
dinavians, native Americans and Germans. 
The Scandinavians head the list, outrank- 
ing even the native Americans. Among 
the Italians only 14.51 per cent, of proprie- 
tors are owners. 

"Considering "homes" and "farms"' 
separately the result will be slightly differ- 
ent. The percentage of owners of homes 
for the \vhole country is 39.41, and that of 
renters 60.59 P^r cent., and the percentage 



GENERAL NOTES. 



87 



of ownership for each of the thirteen 
classes is as follows : 

"German, 42.76; Scandinavians, 41.83; 
native white Americans, 40.52 ; "other 
countries," 37.68; Frenchmen, 36.87 ; Eng- 
lishmen, 36.74; Welshmen, 36.66; Irish- 
men, 36.42; Scotchmen, 35.15; English 
Canadians, 34.09 ; Austrians and Hunga- 
rians, 28.19; French Canadians, 23.01; 
Russians and Poles, 21.71 ; Italians, 12.14. 

"The average percentage of ownership 
of homes is exceeded by three classes, viz: 
Germans, Scandinavians and native 
Americans. 

"As regards farms the percentage of 
ownership for the whole country is 71.65 
per cent. The native farm proprietors are 
exceeded in ownership by nearly all other 
nationalities, the figures for the various 
groups being : Irishmen, 86.93; Scan- 
dinavians, 84.97; Scotchmen, 84.85; Rus- 
sians and Poles, 84.03; Frenchmen, 83.94; 
French Canadians, 82.82; Englishmen and 
Welshmen, 82.15; Austrians and Hungar- 
ians, 81.18; Germans, 80.93; English Cana- 
dians, 80.29; "other countries," 74.86; 
native Americans, 69.35; Italians, 67.57. 

"The Scandinavians are pre-eminently a 
"home" people. To build a home upon 
his own ground is the ambition of the 
Norseman, whether he be a farmer or a 
city man. From time immemorial the 
Northmen have been a race of home- 
seekers and land owners. The statistics 
given above clearly illustrate the predomi- 
nating trait of their character. Although 
Scandinavian immigration is of recent 
origin, comparatively speaking — although 
the Scandinavians in the United States are 
newcomers compai'ed with the English- 
men, Scotchmen, Irishmen, Frenchmen, 
Canadians, etc. — they already outrank all 
other groups of citizens as farm and home 
owners, not excepting the native Ameri- 
cans. 

"Our population of foreign birth or 
blood makes on the whole, a very satis- 
factory showing. The country has nothing 
to fear from citizens who are so firmly 
rooted in the soil." 

"Pineapple Culture in Florida." 

Editor Southern States : 

The February number of the Southern 
States has a lengthly article on "Pine- 



apple Culture in Florida," from the pen of 
Dr. Jay Shrader, which gives some valu- 
able information to the readers of your 
excellent magazine. But there is one 
paragraph in it which would probably not 
have been writen had not the article been 
prepared, as it evidently was, before the 
December and February freezes. He 
writes that "the plant is very sensitive to 
cold. True, its vitality is not materially 
affected by havmg the outer leaves slightly 
nipped, for the seat of life is in the closely- 
sheathed central bud, but ifi this vulner- 
able spot one touch of the icy finger of frost 
means deaths The italics are my own. 

As I write (in the middle of March) I 
look out of my window and see, here and 
there, in a patch of 4000 pineapples set at 
Pabor Lake in the fall of 1894, the crimson 
crown of fruit bloom, shooting up above 
the drooping, dead leaves that succumbed 
to the 10° of temperature in the two calam- 
itous winter months ; and all over the 
patch the young, new leaf, can be seen start- 
ing up as evidence that is very conclusive. 
One — nay a second, touch of "the icy finger- 
of frost" does wc/mean death to the pine- 
apple plant, at least not in the sandy soil 
of the lake region of Polk and De Soto 
counties. So I rejoice that I am able to 
ask the editor of the Southern States 
to give this note of information the same 
widespread circulation the article had 
which calls it forth. We have over 200,000 
pineapples planted about here, and I be- 
lieve that ninety per cent, are alive and 
with proper care and fertilization will yield 
a crop next year ; possibly ten percent- 
this fall. This is very encouraging. It 
proves the wonderful vitality of what we 
have supposed to be a purely tropical fruit 
and its resistance to frost ; yes, to freezing. 
I am inclined to believe that our sandy 
soil, being somewhat dry for an inch or two 
on the surface during the winter months, 
should have the credit ; had the ground 
frozen down that distance then "the icy 
finger" would indeed have been fatal. 
So, to those interested in the culture of 
this delicious fruit, I can safely say, come 
and engage in growing the pineapple for 
the risk is far less than was formerly sup- 
posed. 

Wm. E. Pabor, 

Editor "The Pineapple," 
Pabor Lake, Florida. 



GENERAL NOTES. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Charleston, S. C, has always been known as 
being socially one of the most charming cities in the 
world. The winter climate of Charleston is superb. 
It has been not inaptly called the Nice of America. 
The Exchange Banking & Trust Co., of Charleston, 
advertises elsewhere a handsome modern residence 
and one of the magnificent old colonial homes of 
Charleston for sale. Both of these homes are sup- 
plied with water from the new artesian wells, which 
has been found to be not only a pure drinking water, 
but a valuable remedial agency in dyspepsia, rheu- 
matism and some other maladies. The same com- 
pany has for sale timber and farming lands and rice 
plantations in South Carolina. 

Few people who have not personally visited the 
city of Birmingham, Ala., have any idea of what a 
fine and substantial city it is. Most people think of 
it only as an iron making town or as a place where 
there was some years ago a great real estate boom. 
Since the subsidence of this so-called real estate 
boom seven or eight years ago^ Birmingham has had 
a remarkable growth. It is one of the great iron 
making centres of America and will undoubtedly 
become in time equally noted for the production of 
steel. But not only is it a great iron making centre. 
It has a large number and a great diversity of indus- 
tries using iron and wood as raw material. It is also 
an important business and financial centre. During 
the last six or eight years there has been no specula- 
. t'ion in real estate, but the town has been giving 
attention to self improvement and development. 
Handsome homes have been built on the surrounding 
hills, large and costly stores, bank bu Idings and 
office buildings have been erected, the finest pave- 
ments have been put down, splendid water and 
sewerage systems provided, so that Birmingham is 
now a city of widely diversified manufacturing 
interests, an important financial and commeri.ial cen- 
tre and a place of beautiful homes. The Elyton Land 
Co. originated Birmingham and made possible its 
extraordinary growth and development. The exten- 
sion of the city and the general increase in building 
and the demands for lots have led the Elyton Land 
Co. to decide to offer for sale at auction on the first 
of May 500 lots in Birmingham. This sale will offer 
an attractive opportunity to real estate investors and 
operators. Particulars may be had from the adver- 
tisement of the sale which will be found on another 
psge. 

Rice lands in the great rice-growing section of 
Southwest Louisiana are becoming more and more 
valuable every day. Mr. E F. Rowson, of Jennings, 
La , controls large tracts of land suitable not only for 
growing rice but nearly all other farm products as 
well as fruits and vegetables He is selling land in 
large or small tracts as may be desired and on easy 
terras. 

The Tennessee Land & Improvement Co., of Nash- 
ville, Tenn., has formulated a plan of a colony of 
ex-Union soldiers to be settled in Tennessee. The 
company proposes to issue 30CO land certificate shares 
of the par value of f^a each, the proceeds of which, 
when sold, will be used for the purchase of 30,000 
acres of land suitable for the purposes of the colony. 
Each purchaser of one or more shares becomes a 



member of the colony. Of the 30,000 acres of land to 
be bought about 300 acres will be laid out as a town 
site, and the remainder will be cut up into small farm 
tracts of five, ten and twenty acres. The alternate 
lots in the town site and the alternate farm tracts will 
be allotted to the members of the colony, and the lots 
and tracts remaining will be reserved for future sale 
to other persons. The idea is to give each member a 
small farm and an opportunity to participate in the 
profits arising from the sale of half of the 30,000 acres. 
Major A. W. Wills, an ex-Union soldier of Pennsyl- 
vania, is president of the company A pamphlet 
giving details of the plan and other information will 
be sent to persons who maj' be interested. Besides 
this colony of ex-Union soldiers, the Tennessee Land 
& Immigration Co. controls other agricultural, min- 
eral and timber lands in the State for sale. 

Mr. H. J. LuTCHER, of Orange, Texas, offers for 
sale in tracts of any size 50,000 acres of farm lands in 
Southeastern Texas. This section, like Southwest 
Louisiana, is becoming noted as a rice and fruit- 
growing country. 

The Pabor Lake Colony, of Pabor Lake, Fla., 
offers an attractive opportunity to persons who may 
want to engage in fruit-culture and yet have not 
sufficient capital to take it up immediately or are not 
able to give up at once their present business. The 
managers of the Pabor Lake Colony will sell a small 
tract and plant it in pineapples and other fiuits to be 
taken care of until the plants or trees shall have 
reached bearing, the cost of the land and of care and 
maintenance to be paid ,n small monthly instalments. 
Complete information as to the plans of the com- 
pany and its lands may be had upon application to 
W. E. Pabor, Pabor Lake, Florida. 

Seven years ago W. W. Duson, a native of Louisi- 
ana, living on the line of the Southern Pacific road, 
induced the managers of the Southern Pacific to 
establish a station at a point where there was none 
at that time. The new station was called Crowley, 
and Mr. Duson, as soon as the road agreed to make 
it a stopping-place, put up a small temporary build- 
ing to be used as a business and real estate office. 
Around that temporary structure there has grown up 
since that time a town of 2500 people. The popula- 
tion of Crowley is growing rapidly, and it is the 
centre of a section that is having a substantial agri- 
cultural growth. On another page will be found an 
advert'sement of the town, with cards of some of the 
principal business houses. 

The wide alternating valleys of the mountain sec- 
tion of Virginia are noted the world over for their 
productive so 1, their delightful climate, their health- 
fulness ani for the innumerable mineral springs that 
burst from every hill. Messrs. Wm. M. and J. T. 
McAllister, who have offices at Warm Springs and at 
Covington Va , advertise that they have for sale an 
aggregate of 10,000 acres of land in Bath, Alleghany, 
Pocal ontas and adjacent counties, at prices ranging 
from $'S to $ico per acre. They will be glad to send 
particulars to applicants. 

Mr J E. Bennett, of the J. E. Bennett Land Co., 
of West Point, Miss., states that his company has sold 
in the last six months 100,000 acres of land to North- 
ern farmers in small tracts for immediate settlement. 
There must be some extraordinary attraction and 



GENERAL NOTES. 



89 



value in that section to have made this possible. 
West Point is in the prairie section of Eastern Mis- 
sissippi. The land is a heavy, black, rich soil, equal 
to the best, it is said, in the central West. 

Mr. L. Miller, of Orange, Texas, controls a large 
area of rice and farm lands in Southeastern Texas, 
and has 2000 acres of truck farming lands near the 
town of Orange, Texas, which he will be glad to 
send particulars about. 

Mr. O. S. Dolby, Lake Charles, La., states in his 
advertisement that the rice lands of Southwest Lou- 
isiana are the most profitable agricultural lands in the 
United States. Estimating the relation of immediate 
revenue to cost of lands, this is probably not an 
exaggeration, for, as he savs, these lands often yield a 
net profit the first year of more than the original cost- 
Mr. Dolby states that he controls 50,000 acres of such 
land. 

Messrs. V. C. Horine & Co., managers of the 
Souihern Fruit Growing & Colonizing Co , of Bremen^ 
Ga , write to the Southern States as follows : 
"It is gratifying to be able to report that since our 
last letter to you there has been a continued increase 
in our business. Not only have we had more re- 
quests for literature and information concerning our 
vineyards, plans, etc., but there have been a number 
of people from the North and West with us investi- 
gating for themselves, and some important sales 
have been made within the past few days. It is also 
gratifying to report that all to whom we have shown 
vineyard and orchard properly and explained our 
plans speak in commendatory terms of both, and are 
enthusiastic in their praise pf this particular point 
for fruit culture. In fact some have lost no time in 
informing their friends by letter of our peculiar 
advantages over anything they had seen in this 
entire section, and will all become good "mission- 
aries" when they return to their homes. Those who 
have bought will return in the early fall to build 
homes on their tracts, and say they will bring many 
of their friends with them who will buy vineyard 
tracts and make this their home. Thus the good 
work goes on v/hen people once visit and inspect for 
themselves our town and lands. Business has in- 
creased so that we cannot accept any more orders 
for spring planting, having assumed as much as we 
will be able to plant; but those who order now will 
have choice of tracts and preference in turn for fall 
planting, which will begin in August next. We will 
be glad to answer all questions from all inquirers." 

Mr. W. a. Ward, of Beaumont, Texas, advertises 
that he "acts as investors' and manufacturers' agent 
and answers questions about the coast country." The 
coast country of Texas has so much to be said for it 
that the man who undertakes to "answer questions" 
about it takes upon himself a heavy task. However, 
that is his lookout, and persons who want to know 
about that attractive region need have no hesitation 
about seeking such information from Mr. Ward. He 
will be glad to answer any letters. 

Messrs. Joel Gutman & Co , Baltimore, ha\e pub- 
lished in a very dainty pamphlet a "History of Fem- 
inine Costume." Styles of feminine attire from the 
early Egyptian down to the present time are de- 
scribed and illustrated. It is intended for free dis- 
tribution among their customers. Messrs. Gutman & 



Co., as is well known, carry a larger and more varied 
stock of silks and dress goods than any other house 
in the South They do a large business in mail 
orders, and are giving special attention now to the 
development of this branch of their business. 

Messrs W. W. Duson & Bro., Crowley, La., have 
in their advertisement the following very striking 
statement: "We will locate you on lands that will 
pay for themselves every year you own them." There 
are not many sections where a farmer can buy land 
and make enough on it every year to pay for it The 
experience, however, of hundreds of Northern and 
Western farmers who have moved into this locality 
seems to justify this proposition of Messrs. Duson & 
Bro. 

The desirability of the South as a location for cot- 
ton mills is now attracting attention throughout the 
country. Near Kensington, Ga., on the Chattanooga 
Southern Railroad, is what is considered an ideal 
spot for cotton manufacturing, within seven miles of 
a coal mine, with excellent power and an elevation of 
850 feet above sea level. The land in the vicinity is 
also well adapted for trucking or other farming pur- 
poses. C. E. Buek, of Richmond, Va., has 2000 acres 
of this property for sale in small lots or as a whole. 

Messrs. Broocks & Polk, of Beaumont, Texas, are 
among the large real estate firms of that State. They 
sell lands 'in different parts of the State, but give 
attenfon more particularly to the coast country. 
Beaumont is in the centre of the great pine region of 
Texas, and is one of the most important lumber 
towns in the South. As the pine forests immediately 
around the city have been cleared away, thousands 
of acres have been devoted to farming, and more 
particularly to rice and vegetable growing Messrs. , 
Broocks & Polk advertise that they have 100,000 acres 
of pine land for sale, besides exceptionally attractive 
farm land. 

"Facts for Emigrants— The Cumberland table 
land in Tennessee and the Sand mountan in Alabama" 
is the title of an attractive litttle brochure by Col. J. 
B. Killebrew, which has been issued for general 
distribution in the Northwest. It is a general 
description of the Cumberland plateau and its 
resources ; its soils and timber, its grasses, it cereals, 
its garden vegetables, its fruits, its tobacco, its honey 
and poultry, its facilities for raising sheep, swine and 
cattle, and other resources of revenue, also its climate 
and healthfulness. The author is one of the best 
authorities on this subject in the South. 

Mr. Patillo Higgins, general manager of the 
Real Estate Exchange, Beaumont, Texas, will furnish 
to inquirers information about Southeast Texas for 
investment or development operations, for manufac- 
turing industries, for special business undertakings 
and with reference to all branches of farming and 
truit growing. Southeast Texas is having a remark- 
able development, and Mr. Higgins can furnish in- 
teresting and important information about this sec- 
tion. 

A VERY valuable and instructive little pamphlet has 
just been issued by the Southern Immigration & Im- 
provement Co, of Atlanta, entitled "The Piedmont 
Region." The book is written and compiled by Mr. 
Wa\ter G. Cooper, chief of the department of Public- 



90 



GENERAL NOTES. 



ity and Promotion of the Atlanta Exposition. It 
deals with the mineral, agricultural and industrial 
resources of the Piedmont section, and gives much 
valuable information on these subjects, based on gov- 
ernment reports and investigations of the State ex- 
periment stations and surveys. The same company 
sends out an extensive list of farm property it has 
for sale in different parts of the Piedmont region. 

The "Queen of the Neches," as Beaumont is 
called, promises to advance steadily and become 
one of the best agricultural centres in Southeast 
Texas within a few years, as it is already a great 
lumber centre. Already many farms have been pur- 
chased and recently several families from Iowa 
arrived by wagon train. A correspondent of the 
Southern States recently spent a week in this por- 
tion of Texas, and saw lands of great value as 5'et 
uncultivated and offered for sale at very low figures 
andon easy terms. 

The Commercial Club of Mobile has published an 
illustrated pamphlet on Mobile, in which the facts 
about that city and the surrounding country are 
conservatively set forth. 

Messrs. Hahl & Pudor, land and immigration 
agents, Houston, Texas, have just published a pam- 
phlet about the coast country of Texas. It will fur- 
nish an answer to almost every question" that can 
arise conce.ning that attractive and rapidly-growing 
region. 

The Passenger Department of the Queen & Cres- 
cent System has issued some new and interesting 
printed matter relating to the territory of the line in 
Kentucky, Alabama, Louisiana, Tennessee, Georgia 
and Mississippi. Copies may be had from W. C. 
Rinearson, general passenger agent, Cincinnati, O 
This company owns over a million acres of timber, 
farming and mineral lands in the South. It is selling 
lands to Northein farmers at fo to $5 an acre on 
long p yments. 

The Louisiana Immigration Associatiuii has pre- 
pared an attractive pamphlet which contains a map if 
the Sate and some fif,.v odd pages, giving a dt- 
scription of the lands and agricultural products, the 
forests, fisheries, climate ani general weather condi- 
tions, the chief industries of the State, its navigab e 
waters, railways, cities and towns, educational facili- 
ties and institutions, besides special accounts of the 
various districts of the State, taken in detail by par- 
ishes, etc It is largely the work of President Harry 
Allen. 

The Central Railroad of Georgia has issued a very 
useful and interesting pamphlet containing a de- 
scriptive list of farms for sale in the territory of the 
road, with prices, etc. The passenger department 
will distribute 50,000 copies throughout the North, 
West and Northwest. 

The lands in the vicinity of Orange, Texas, 
are excellent f^r garden t:uck and fruits, and 
there is a promising future for the farmer who 
engages in this class of agriculture near Orange. 
A farmer in this vicinity raised three crops of Irish 
potatoes in one year on the same land. Re.entlj' 
the citizens hav« jnited in and organized effort 
to attract immigration to lize these resources. 



Railroad and colonizing companies who may want 
to undertake in a large way the securing of Scandi- 
navian and German immigration are referred to an 
advertisement in another part of this number; signed 
"Opportunity." The advertiser, who is personally 
known to the editor of the Southern States, has 
been engaged in work of this sort in the West. 

Mr. J, T. KiNDRiCK, Seymour, Mo., deals in lands 
in the famous fruit and farm section of Southern Mis- 
Pouri and Northern Arkansas, known as the Ozark 
Fruit Belt. 

What is known as the Bluff Formation of South 
Mississippi and Louisiana is showing by the abund- 
ance of its crops the fertility of its soil. Mr. J. Bur- 
russ McGehee, at Laurel Hill Postoifice, La., has for 
sale 6000 acres of land in this region, where a great 
variety of crops may be grown, and where farmin); 
and gardening may be Carried on almost the whole 
year. 

The Frost Proof Land Co., Frost Proof, Fla., would 
like to correspond with farmers, fruit growers' 
truckers and others who have any idea of moving 
South. 

Fort Valley is the centre of the famous peach 
belt of Georgia Not only peaches, but all fruits, 
vegetables and melons grow to perfection here. This 
is the home of the Georgia watermelon. Mr. W. P. 
Blasingame of Fort Valley has for sale some fine 
farms and fruit lands in this section 

Mr. G. W. Leesnitzer, Sou'hwest Station, Wash- 
ington, D. C, offers in an advertisement elsewhere 
what would seem to be a bargain in fort}' acres of 
vegetable and fruit lands in Citrus county, Fla., to 
be sold either as a whole or in five and ten-acre 
tracts. 

Southeastern Virginia is getting a very consider- 
able share of the flow of immigration to the South. 
The region of country about Norfolk and Hampton 
Roads is coming particularly into prominence and 
favor as a trucking region. Ail of what is known as 
tidewater Virginia is a section of many attractions ; 
the niild climate, the abundance of fish and oysters 
and game, soil suited to general farming and to fruit 
and vegetable growing, low prices of land; these 
and other attractions are bringing this sect on more 
and more into favor as it becomes bet er known. 
Mr. Carter M. Braxton, at Newport News, Va , has 
for sale lands on the peninsula between James and 
York rivers. The low prices of farm land in this 
section do not m&an at all that the land is of little 
value, but simply that there is more land than there 
are people to cultivate it For particulars about this 
locality persons who may be interested should write 
to Mr. Braxton. 

The Prairie Belt Land Co , of West Point Miss., 
makes in its advertisement, which will be found on 
another page, a very taking summary of the princi- 
pal points of advantage possessed by that section. 
The prairie region of Eastern Mississippi has many 
things to recommend it The land is a rich b ack 
soil of great fertility and productiveness, and the 
climate and soil are suited 10 the growth of almost 
everything that can be grown anywhere e.xcept tropi- 
cal fvuits. It is a fine stock country and is well suited 



BOOKS AND MAGAZINES. 



91 



to general farming and to truck farming and fruit 
growing as well. 

The increasing influx of population in Southwest 
Tennessee has led to the organization in Fayttte 
county of the Southern Home-seekers' Land Com- 
pany, at Somerville, the county seat. This company 
has been organized with a capital of gioo.ooo Its 
president, secretary and treasurer are lespeclively 
president and cashier of the Fayette County Bank of 
Somerville. Its general manager is an experienced 
real estate man and its directors are among the lead- 
ing citizens of the county. Land in this section has 
heretofore been given up largely to the growing of 
cotton, but in consequence of the low price of cotton 
much of the land can now be bought at exceedingly 
low prices. This is a country of great capabilities in 
general farming. 



BOOKS AND MAGAZINES. 

Reminiscences OF a Portrait Painter. 

By George A. P. Healy. A. C. McClurg 

& Co., Chicago. Price $1.50. 

A perfect autobiography, modest, sim- 
ple, unaffected, and yet full of interesting 
reminiscence. It is the record of a noble, 
useful life, that all, young and old, may 
profit in perusing. Healy was a born 
painter, but came to that knowledge of 
himself by providential accidents, if that 
term be permissible. He rose from pov- 
erty to distinction. In his youth he strug- 
gled for existence. In early manhood and 
until extreme old age this illustrious artist 
had familiar intercourse with the mightiest 
men in church 'and State in two hemi- 
spheres. His anecdotes of them are 
breezy and characteristic — true verbal 
portraits. While still untaught young 
Healy copied Murillo's "Ecce Homo" 
and displayed it for sale in a bookseller's 
window. A poor priest bought it for |io 
to adorn his little church. Many years 
afterward the good father accosted the 
then celebrated artist and reminded him 
of this transaction, adding that perhaps a 
blessing had come from the first patron 
who consecrated the boy's picture. It was 
always a source of regret to Healy that 
he forgot to ask the name of the priest 
who had started him on a career of glory. 

Mr. Healy's life was uncommonly bliss- 
ful in a domestic sense. This was due, 
first, to a temperament that resisted dis- 
couragement, and secondly, to a happy 
marriage. Gifted as he was, he knew the 
value of labor, perseverance and temper- 
ance. He strove to be at peace within 



himself and radiated happiness all around 
him. Few men so singularly endowed 
and environed ever passed through this 
"vale of tears" with so much genuine 
enjoyment, so much brillant bliss. He 
had sorrows and trials, but bore them in a 
Christian spirit and with cheerful resigna- 
tion. 

The book will nerve many a young heart, 
tempted to despair, to begin again the bat- 
tle of life with a hopeful and undaunted 
front, trustful of God's blessing upon in- 
vincible perseverance. 

In Maiden Meditation. By E. V. A. 
A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. Price 

$1.00. 

Men are said never completely to under- 
stand women ; so we must go to the fair 
sex themselves for solutions of the mys- 
tery. The author of this delightful little 
volume has remarkable powers of express- 
ing daintiest and subtlest ideas in precise, 
picturesque language. The essays are 
"After the Ball," "After Dinner," "After 
Church," "After a Wedding" and "After 
One Summer." These topics are all 
treated with sparkling wisdom and insight. 
To our masculine mind the "After Church" 
theme is the most searching, opportune 
and powerful. Many lady readers v.ill 
probablv differ in opinion, but where 
every thing is so thoroughly well wrought 
out there may be really no difference in 
the treatment, except as the mind of the 
reader is insensibly swayed by individual 
circumstance. The publishers may con- 
gratulate themselves on this dainty speci- 
men of their art. 

The Land of the Sun. By Christian 
Reid. D. Appleton & Co., New York 
Price I1.50. 

Any production by so sincere and cele- 
brated an author as Christian Reid is sure 
of public approbation. As a novelist and 
intellectual artist she is deservedly re- 
nowned. Few other writers are more 
felicitous in description of the beautiful 
and sublime in nature. Through all of 
her works there 'is a reverent spirit which 
appeals to the higher life in true prose- 
poetry. Her latest literary venture will 
add to her enviable reputation. We 
doubt if the grand scenery, the natural 
advantages and tiie real character of the 



92 



BOOKS AND MAGAZINES. 



Mexicans have ever been more accurately, 
charmingly and popularly portrayed. The 
reader is carried along panoramically, and 
the instant impulse is to make preparation 
for a visit to the scenes so wonderfully 
depicted. Americans who have never 
visited the neighboring republic ordinarily 
are densely ignorant of its marvels, its 
progress and the peculiarly great gifts of 
its inhabitants. To this extent Christian 
Reid's book is a genuine revelation. A 
peculiar feature of the book is that a 
delicious love story ingeniously percolates 
through the whole narrative and accentu- 
ates its charm. 

The Education of Girls in the United 

States. By Sara A. Burstall. McMillan 

& Co., New York. Price |i.oo. 

This work is the outcome of an English 

commission of five women teachers sent to 

the United States for the purpose of 

expertly examining and reporting upon 

secondary schools for girls and training 

colleges in the United States. 

Miss Burstall's report is an evidence of 
what a highly educated woman can accom- 
plish in this enterprising age. It is a prod- 
igy of mental effort in a complex specialty. 
We are exactly, critically and amiably 
informed as to the comparative merits of 
the British and American systems of 
instruction. The general, almost the pre- 
vailing, tenor of the work is eulogistic of 
our school system. The suggestions as to 
improvement are delicately made and con- 
scientiously presented. 

Advanced Agriculture. By Henry J. 

Webb, Ph. D., B. Sc. New York. 

Longmans, Green & Co. 

The farmer of the present day does not 
hold in such scorn as his ancestors did 
what has been called "book farming." 
More than ever before, books on agricul- 
ture, agricultural papers and the bulletins 
issued by the various experiment stations 
are read by those who have all their lives 
been practical farmers. Such sources of 
information as to farm methods are also 
more needed now than formerly, because 
more than ever before persons who are not 
practical farmers are abandoning other 
lines of business for agricultural and horti- 
cultural pursuits. One of the most recent 
and most comprehensive and valuable 
books on farming is "Advanced Agricul- 



ture," by Dr. Henry J. Webb, of London. 
With this book almost any novice having 
good business sense and good judgment 
and power of application can become a 
successful farmer, and there is no practical 
farmer who would not find it of enormous 
value and benefit to him. It treats elabo- 
rately and simply of every topic within the 
scope of agricultural pursuits. It might 
be called an encyclopedia of farm knowl- 
edge. Every farmer in the country should 
have a copy. It is not written for scientists 
• or theorists or "fancy farmers" simply, but 
for men who make a living out of the soil. 

President Andrews' "History of the 
Last Quarter-Century in the United States, ' ' 
begun in the March number of Scribner's 
Magazine, sustains in the April number the 
great popular interest of the first instal- 
ment. This chapter deals particularly 
with the Greeley campaign, with some 
very interesting pictures of the notable 
men who made the Tribune — one of them 
a group of Dana, Hicks and Curtis taken 
more than forty years ago. Other episodes 
are the Geneva Arbitration, the Credit- 
Mobilier scandal, and the anarchy in Lou- 
isiana during the Pinchback troubles. 
Some of the historical drawings in this 
issue are striking reproductions of scenes 
that have not heretofore appeared in 
pictures. This history is proving of the 
most intense interest to those who are old 
enough to have lived through the scenes, 
and also to those who are so young that 
they have only heard of them as familiar 
facts without understanding them. The 
publishers believe that it will score the 
greatest success of any of their magazine 
enterprises. 

An account of remarkable frauds that 
have been practiced on the Bank of Eng- 
land and of the grave crises through which 
it has passed, along with a description of 
the bank and- of its methods of busi- 
ness, appears, with numerous pictures, in 
McClure's Magazine for April. 

That rural communities and small towns 
in the New England and other Eastern 
States have declined in population, and 
shrunk in their industrial activity, is gen- 
ally known. It will be surprising to most 
people, however, to be informed that the 
same sort of communities in the middle- 



BOOKS AND MAGAZINES. 



Western States have suffered a similar 
decline. In the April number of The 
Forum Mr. Henry J. Fletcher, of Minne- 
apolis, shows definitely how there has been 
.a decline in population and industry ill 
many towns in Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, 
Iowa, and how rich townships have abso- 
lutely retrograded in population. This is 
an interesting study of the great forces 
which work changes in our population and 
our social condition. 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co., the publish- 
ers of the Atlantic Monthly, make an im- 
portant announcement in regard to four 
papers upon Mars, by Percival Lowell, 
which are to appear in that periodical. 
Mr. Lowell made exhaustive observations 
at Flagstaff, Arizona, and these papers 
give- the most recent information in regard 
to this remarkable planet. The first arti- 
cle is to appear in the May issue of the 
Atlantic, and is entitled The Atmosphere 
of Mars. 

Bulletin No. no of the North Carolina 
Agricultural Experiment Station, contain- 
ing ninety-five pages, is devoted entirely to 
"Trucking in the South." The growing 
interest in this industry will be stimulated 
and direcred into proper channels by this 
valuable publication. Prof. W. F. Massey, 
horticulturist of the experiment station, is 
the author. 

The Ladies' Home Journal for April is a 
superb number. • The Journal is a remarka- 
ble periodical. Every number might be 
thought to have reached the superlative of 
excellence, but the succeeding number is 
likely to surpass it. One of the marvels 
about this magazine is that the price is only 
ten cents, the yearly subscription being a 
dollar. 

Mr. S. H. Owens, of Augusta, Ga., has 
published "A New and Original Method 
of Solving, Quickly and Easily, Problems 
in Annuities, Equal Periodic Partial Pay- 
ments, Bonds, Stocks, &c." The book 
will be found valuable to lawyers, real 
estate agents, insurance companies, build- 
ing and loan associations, and in fact to all 
persons who are engaged in business in- 
volving financial transactions. The author 
has formulated an important method that 
makes possible the avoidance of the long, 
complicated and uncertain calculations 



heretofore necessary in many financial 
operations. The book is not merely a 
system of rules and tables; it is besides a 
scientific exposition of some new ideas in 
mathematics. 

The more important speeches and 
papers on the money question by Hon. 
Henry A. Coffeen, member of Congress 
from Wyoming, have been collected and 
published in one volume. Mr. Coffeen is 
one of the foremost advocates of bimet- 
allism, and his contributions to the litera- 
ture of finance are among the most clear, 
comprehensive and intelligible expositions 
of this subject. He understands the money 
question himself and he makes his 
readers understand it. 

The Illustrated American, of New York, 
is a unique publication. There is nothing 
else like it. It follows no model. It de- 
serves, and probably has, a big circulation. 

The April numbers of McDowell Fash- 
ion Journals, La Mode de Paris and Paris 
Album of Fashion, contain many novelties 
of the season, and moreover in order to 
furnish further assistance to their readers 
they offer special patterns of the latest and 
most practical styles. They are published 
by Messrs. McDowell & Co., 4 West 14th 
street, New York. 

In the Review of Reviews for April the 
editor discusses recent political events, 
especially the doings of the Fifty-third 
Congress, the appointment of delegates to 
an international monetary conference, the 
election of U. S. senators by various State 
legislatures, the deadlock in Delaware, 
the constitutional convention in Utah, the 
arguments before the Supreme Court on 
the constitutionality of the income tax, 
the change in the administration of the 
postoffice department, and other incidents 
of the month under review 

Peterson's Magazine for April con- 
tains an illustrated article on Nicaragua 
and the Nicaragua Canal, by Hon. Warner 
Miller. The transcendent importance of 
this great work to the commerce, indus- 
tries and agriculture of the United States 
gives value and interest to any authentic 
and authoritative facts about the canal and 
about the country from which it gets its 
name. 



lO 



AD VER TISEMENTS. 



SOUTHERN LANDS 



FOR SALE. 



ALABAMA. 



FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE— A magnificent plantation 
on the Chattahoochee river, in Russell county, Ala., con- 
taining 2669 acres. Splendidly improved and watered 
lands, level and very fertile, and yielding handsome in- 
come. Public boat landing on place, and only a few 
miles to railroad station. Neighborhood unsurpassed; 
labor abundant and efficient. Prefer selling a part to all, 
and would take in exchange (as part pay) a small, well 
located farm to suit, or good city real estate that is con- 
vertible. Best reasons can be given for offering to sell 
this magnificent piece of property. J. H. Chambers, 
Oswichee, Ala. 



FLORIDA. 



FRUIT AND FARM LANDS.— Farms with bearing orange 
grovf ' and timber. Also high rolling wild land in the 
famous "Frost-Proof Lake Region" of Polk county, free 
from frost and suited to tropical fruits and winter gar- 
den. Finest lake fronts $25.00 per acre; back lands fo.oo 
to Jig. 00. The Frost-Proof Land Co., Frost-Proof, Fla. 

FROST-PROOF fruit, pineapple and vegetable lands, 
from ^2.50 per acre in our healthy highland lake region, 
Polk county. Tomatoes yield net returns $200 per acre. 
Irving Page, Auburndale, Fla. 

FORTY ACRES PINE LAND, high and rolling, in Citrus 
county, Fla. Midway' of Peninsula; near the Gulf; de- 
liijhtful climate; close to vi lage; good markets; fertile 
soil; will raise abundance of early vegetables; much as 
$200 an acre on tomatoes has been made in vicinity; 
well adapted for oranges and o her fruits ; fish and 
game abundant; five and ten-acre tracts at $15, or the 
whole at $\o an acre. Address G. W. LEESNITZER, 
Southwest Station, Washington, D. C 



GEORGIA. 



ONE OF THE BEST equipped Farms in Georgia, half 
mile from Fairburn and 18 miles from Atlanta, Ga,, on the 
A. & W. Pt. Railroad, for sale cheap. Write for informa- 
tion to W. P.Jones, Fairburn, Ga. 

SUNNY SOUTHLAND-FREE. 

The Southern Immigration & Improvement Co. 

Atlanta, Ga. 

has issued a hand-book of 

Georgia and the South, setting forth the 

advantages regarding agriculture, fruit-growing, 

dairying, mining, manufacturing 

and lumbering. 

Send your address to 

4.5 North Broad Street, Atlanta, Ga., 

and a copy will be mailed you FREE, 

with a list of properties for sale. 



MISSOURI. 



J. F. KINDRICK, Seymour, Mo., has a list of bargains 
in farms and fruit lands in the Ozark fruit belt. 



TEXAS. 



THE GULF COAST COUNTRY.— Folders with full infor- 
mation of this country, with prices of land mailed upon 
application. Send your address on postal card to R. 
B. Gaut, Real Estate, H 310}^ Main street, Houston, 
Texas. 

TEXAS FARM AND FRUIT LANDS, equal to the best in 
the world, J5 00 per acre up. Buy a home near Houston, 
the great railroad centre, and convenient to Galves- 
ton, the growing port of entry. You will be sure to 
realize the greatest and most rapid advance, and have 
an unexcelled market at your door, t-or maps and 
further particulars call on or write to Cash & Luckel, 
3o6>^ M<in street, Houston, or 421 Tremont street, Gal- 
veston, Texas. 



VIRGINIA. 



GO TO ALBEMARLE COUNTY, VIRGINIA, AND BUY A 

HOME.— Good Lands, Fine Climate, Cheap Homes, Low 
Taxes, Excellent Graded Schools, Boarding Schools for 
Boys and Girls. Seat of University of Virginia. No 
place offers equal inducements. Address J. C. Mc- 
KENNIE, Charlottesville, Va. 

SUFFOLK has cheapest and best transportation facUities 
in the South, Six railroads, and deep water route to the 
ocean. The great tidewater farrhing section of Virginia. 
A long list of farms. Come and see. Fine grass and 
stock farms. A splendid manufacturing center. Factory 
sites given away. Write or see J. Walter Hosier, Suf- 
folk. Va. 

WM M. and J. T. MCALLISTER, Attorneys at Law and 
dealers in Real Estate. Address Warm Springs, Bath 
county, Va., or Covingion, Alleghany county, Va Lands 
bought and sold. We have for sale in the aggregate 
10,000 acres of land; some lying near Covington, Va , 
some near Hot Springs, Va , and some in Pocahontas 
county, W. Va. In the great health-giving region of 
Virginia; fertile river bottoms; splendid grazing farms; 
good gardening land; good markets; public schools; 
good roads. Prices ranging from JS5 to $100 per acre. 
Particular information given on application. 

flaryland Trust 

COMPANY. 

Cor. 5outh and German Streets, 
BALTinORE. 



CAPITAL, 



$1,000,000. 



A LEGAL DEPOSITORY FOR COURT 
AND TRUST FUNDS. 

Acts as Financial A^fent for States, .Cities, 
Towns, Railroads and other Corporations. 
Transacts a general trust business. Lends 
money on approved security. Allows interest 
on special deposits. Acts' as Trustee under 
Mortgages, Assignments. and Deeds of Trust ; 
as Agent f)rthe Transfer or Registration of 
Stocks and Bonds, and for the payment of 
coupons, interest and dividends. 

J. WILLCOX BROWN, President. 

LLOYD L. JACKSON, Vice=Prest. 
J. BERNARD SCOTT, Sec. and Treas. 



DIRECTORS. 



J. Willcox Brown, 
Wm. A. Marburg, 
H. J. Bowdoin, 
Basil B Gordon, 
Lloyd L. lackson, 
Fred. M. Colston, 
Joshua Levering, 
Frank Brown, 
W. B. Brooks, Jr , 
Frederick W. Wood, 



Leopold Strouse, 
Charles Marshall, 
H. A. Parr, 
B. N. Baker, 
Andrew D.Jones, 
James Bond, 
Alexander Brown, 
T. K. Worthington, 
Clayton C. Hall, 



OF BALTIMORE. 

J. D. Baker, Frederick, Md. Walter S. Johnson, N. Y. 
August Belmont, N Y. John B. Garrett, Phila. 

A. A. H Boissevaiii, London. 

J. Rhodes Browne, Brest. Wm. Slade, Cashier. 

Capital, $100,000 Surplus, $90,000 

The National Bank of Columbus, Ga. 

Established 1876. DEPOSITS INVITED. 

COLLECTIONS SOLICITED. 



THE 



Southern States. 



MAY, 1895. 



AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 

I.— GRASSES. 
By M. B. Hillyard. 



The trite aphorism "revolutions 
never go backward " would hardly find 
illustration or exemplification in some 
aspects of the South. There are few 
fields of research so surprising and in- 
teresting as the condition of the South 
at large from the forties down to the in- 
ception of the late civil war. Of course 
this reseach pertains to agricultural and 
cognate life, for that life infinitely domi- 
nated all others. By the study of this 
and that agricultural literature, now 
worm-eaten and dust-covered in libra- 
ries here and there, one finds that a 
little after 1840 there began an awaken- 
ing in the South that, by the beginning 
of the war, or a while before, had in- 
augurated a greatly modified state of 
affairs in much of its area. The early 
agitation of Rufiftn in Virginia, of Ra- 
venal in South Carolina, of Phillips in 
Mississippi and other leaders in agri- 
culture in other Southern States, had 
produced, in some places, an almost 
total change of agriculture, and in oth- 
ers a distinct addition to its products. 
The old fields of the Middle and South 
Atlantic States were being restored by 
marl and clover and lime and Peruvian 
guano. Fine stock was being brought 
in — horses, cattle, sheep, hogs. Agri- 
cultural associations were being organ- 
ized and improvements in agriculture 
were rife. Immense numbers of hogs 
and cattle were raised. Planters vied 
with each other here and there in pro- 
ducing large crops of wheat, corn, oats, 
in high-priced and fancy strains of 



thoroughbred farm animals, and a 
widely diffused and powerful leaven of 
advancement in agriculture was at work 
in a many sided aspect of experimenta- 
tion. Almost every Southern State had 
doubled its product of hay from 1S50 
to i860, and some had quadrupled it, 
while the great hay mows of the South 
— pea- vines and crab-grass — had prob- 
ably no consideration in the census. 
Almost every Southern State produced 
clover seed, and North Carolina alone, 
contributed eleven per cent, of the 
clover seed of the country that figured 
in the census of i860. If such a state 
of affairs was not a revolution in the 
South, prior to i860 for several years, 
it was an immense modification of the 
one crop style of agriculture commonly 
and falsely attributed to the South ; 
were it revolution or not, it went back. 
In the awful oscillation of e\'ents after 
the late war, the path of retrogression 
was marked by almost universal finan- 
cial ruin, and a paralysis of all progress. 
And indeed, as paralysis of a human 
being sometimes atfects the brain, and 
makes the most scholarly totally forget 
their lore, and the artist his cunning, 
so this paralysis seems to have made 
the South lo these many years, forget- 
ful that her fields were once green with 
verdure of the choicest grasses, where 
the finest breeds of farm animals grazed 
— herds and fiocks that ha\e contributed 
greatly as nuclei to the countrv at 
large. 

Had I, who became a citizen of the 



93 



94 



AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 



South in 1873, been aware of what had 
been done before the war in the South 
in the way of stock raising and the pro- 
duction of the various grasses, I would 
have been saved a deal of time, trouble, 
travel and expense. But I had not 
then been a plodding delver into the 
musty, moth-eaten agricultural literature 
entombed in the unsought crypts of an 
occasional library. I was sent South 
from Delaware by the Mississippi Val- 
ley Company, of which Col. H. S. Mc- 
Comb, president of the Jackson Rail- 
road (now southern branch of the Illi- 
nois Central), Thos. A. Scott and J. 
Edgar Thompson — then president Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company — were the 
principal and almost sole stockholders. 
As secretary of that company it was my 
primary mission to build McComb City, 
Miss., then "a hole in the woods," with- 
out any hotel and with about a dozen 
houses. I was soon after elected Immi- 
gration Commissioner of the railroad 
and charged with the work of building 
up the fruit and vegetable, grass and 
stock raising and the material interests 
of the country at large along the line. 
One of my first movements was to find 
out what had been done. And the only 
field of grass I found along the line 
was a small patch of red clover at Holly 
Springs, Miss., of three to five acres. 
I do not say there were no others. 
After I had got on the track of the 
grasses, by public enquiry through the 
newspapers, by sending out circular let- 
ters, etc., I got on the trail of men who 
had raised one and another grass and 
hunted them down. 

In a short time I was sending out a 
copy of a huge circular letter to every 
man I could find, who had done (or 
knew of anyone who had), anything 
worth mentioning. This letter was full of 
enquiries about fruits, grasses, stock, 
climate, health, cereals, I know not 
what. When my returns came in I had 
a basis for examination and study. 

In that day I had so many good and 
incredible things to say about the 
South, and I was so obscure and my 
name of so little weight, that I had to 
enlist the services of eminent journal- 
ists and agriculturists. North and West, 
.to assist me in commending the coun- 



try I was developing to the home- 
hunter, fruit and vegetable raiser, 
health-seeker and the immigrant gener- 
ally. Among those who visited me 
were (among hundreds of others) : Dr. 
M. L. Dunlap, (" Rural ") Agricultural 
Editor Chicago Tribune ; Thomas 
Meehan, then editor of the Gardeners' 
Monthly ; Prof. R. P. Eaton, editor New 
England Farmer, Boston, Mass.; Dr. A. 
C. Stevenson, Greencastle, Ind., Presi- 
dent American Short Horn Growers' 
Association, who wrote for several 
journals — among them the National 
Live Stock Journal, Chicago, 111.; 
Messrs. Kingsbury and Conner, then 
(and still) editors of the Indiana Farmer, 
Indianapolis ; Parker Earle, President 
Mississippi Valley Horticultural So- 
ciety, and many others. As these 
journalists would visit me at Mc- 
Comb City, Miss., as my guests, 
I would show them my circular 
letters and then take them off on trips to 
see this and that. Hence you will find, at 
the early day of nearly a quarter of a 
century ago, these eminent agricultural 
writers in their journals telling of what 
had been done and prophesying the 
future of the South in that and this. 
The editors of the. Indiana Farmer 
were so impressed with my points on 
the grasses that they asked me to write 
a series of letters for them, which I did, 
nearly, or quite twenty years ago. 
These, with many others, I had bound 
in a pamphlet which I now have before 
me. Dr. Dunlap, editor Chicago Trib- 
une, in a letter from McComb City, 
Miss., dated December 21, 1874, and 
published in that paper, says: "The 
mayor of this city, Colonel Hillyard, 
has shown me a large collection of let- 
ters from planters in regard to the 
products of this country. These were 
in reply to tabulated questions sent out 
for the purpose of drawing out the true 
state of facts. Clover sown at the close 
of the summer, and having the advantage 
of the wet season, does remarkably 
well, and when treated with plaster is 
particularly luxuriant — in some cases 
cutting three or four tons to the acre 
during the season. On the lawn of the 
De Soto House is a patch of red clover 
sown last May. — [Really May, 1873. 



AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 



95 



M. B. H.] — That is doing very finely." 
Afterwards, this veteran editor, on a 
trip with me, writes to the same paper 
from Jackson, Miss., December 22, 
1874: "Mr. Musgrove (a gentleman 
then lately arrived from Indiana) showed 
me on his grounds red clover, Bermuda 
grass, white clover, timothy and orchard 
grass all looking well. The barn of 
Mr. Musgrove was filled with clover hay 
and oats of his own growing, and the 
hay was selling at $45 per ton to those 
who knew that clover would not grow 
in the State of Mississippi. And yet 
here is the evidence that red and white 
clover will grow as finely as in Illinois." 
Afterwards he writes from Canton, Miss., 
December 23, 1874, in same paper, of 
a visit to Colonel John Handy — ; 
"He has been very successful in grow- 
ing clover for hay and pasturage ; also 
white and Alsike clover. Strange as it 
may appear, this latter clover is of 
thrifty growth." 

In a letter from Canton, Miss., to 
Forney's Press, Philadelphia (I was 
then corresponding for it), found in the 
Press, January 16, 1875, I said: "The 
general opinion that the South is not a 
good grass country^ is absurd. I have 
bales of information to show that it is 
a very extraordinary grass country. 
Mr. Dunlap (" Rural " ), of the Chicago 
Tribune, is thoroughly satisfied of that 
fact already ; and no man in his senses 
can doubt it. In the Chicago Tribune 
of February 3, 1875, Dr. Dunlap 
writes : "There is no reason why the 
planters of Mississippi and Louisiana 
should purchase a ton of hay, as they 
can grow it themselves ; but as they 
have not been accustomed to its growth 
it will be a long time before they will 
have a full home supply." (About 
which something after awhile.) 

Take an extract from a letter of Rev. 
Alexander Clark, D. D., in Pittsburg 
Evening Chronicle, April 15, 1875: 
"Our friend. Col. M. B. Hillyard, lately 
from Delaware, now located at McComb 
City, Miss., has made it a special busi- 
ness to study the grasses and has 
wrought some significant results. Within 
a year or two the planters have seen the 
necessity of cultivating hay. By more 
than one hundred letters from various 



portions of Mississippi, the testimony is 
that meadows are soon to become a 
prominent feature of the Southern land- 
scape. We have seen clover a foot 
high in Pike county, Mississippi, the 
last week in March. We have walked 
over as splendid a sward in the same 
vicinity as ever greened the Miami 
Valley," etc. 

Mr. Thomas Meehan, says in Phila- 
delphia Press, of which he was then 
agricultural editor, in speaking of a 
visit with me to a prominent dairyman 
in Mississippi, "Old William Cob- 
bett once said, that a grain of good 
practice was worth a whole ton of the- 
ory ; but here tons of practice in the 
shape of grass may satisfy those whose 
theories lead them to think that grass 
will not grow^ South." 

In the Indiana Farmer of December 
18, 1875, Mr. J. G. Kingsbury, one of 
its editors, says, w'Hting from Missis- 
sippi : "As to the adaptation of this re- 
gion to the growth of our cultivated 
grasses, Colonel Hillyard has already 
given sufficient testimony in his letters 
on the subject in our columns. We 
saw bluegrass, timothv and clo\'er all 
growing thriftily." 

I will give a quotation from Dr. A. C. 
Stevenson, of Greencastle, Ind., in Na- 
tional Live Stock Journal, March, 1876 : 
"The orchard grass does well, and will 
here make the best of pasture. I have 
seen a i&-^ fields of red clover and I 
have just cut branches nine inches long. 
Herds grass also is a sure crop. Timo- 
thy I have seen looking well in special 
localities. * * * * While clover 
seems to grow spontaneously, it may 
be seen on every cleared spot not in 
cultivation." 

Dr. Stevenson visited me three 
winters, and spent his time as my guest, 
looking up the grass question. The older 
generation of Short Horn breeders will, 
many of them, remember him well. 

Prof. R. P. Eaton, who visited me, 
wrote to his paper, the New England 
Farmer, several letters. I quote from 
the issue of April 15, 1876: "It has 
been thought that the grasses and 
clover would not do here, but it has 
been demonstrated that the idea is a 
mistaken one." 



96 



AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 



Let these eminent authorities and in- 
vestigators of twenty years ago, suffice 
as witnesses. I have given them for 
several reasons : One great one being 
to show that authorities settled the fact 
that the South could raise grasses long 
ago. Another reason has been to show- 
to readers of the Southern States 
that I know what I am talking about 
and have been in touch with this grass 
business South nearly a quarter of a 
century. I now proceed to something 
more explicit — m}^ own statements gath- 
ered from testimony, my own observa- 
tion and experiments, etc. It will be 
only necessary to quote a few names 
from the many from whose letters I 
compiled my letters to the Indiana 
Farmer of over twenty years ago. Mr. 
W. L. Noel, of Holmes county, Missis- 
sippi, writes me January 8, 1874: "The 
opinions and assertions of many to the 
contrary, I do not hesitate to state that 
red clover can be as successfully raised 
here as in the Middle States. In 1850 
I plowed up ten acres of old hill land, 
and, in February seeded it to clover. 
It remained as a stock-lot until 1865. 
I then planted it in cultivation to kill 
out the curse of this country, broom- 
straw, which was beginning to make its 
appearance in the land. It is growing 
here now, luxuriously, on the ditches on 
the edge of the woods." Col. Thos. 
H. Dabney, of Hinds county, Missis- 
sippi, writes : " I have sown red clover 
two or three times, but without using 
gypsum or any other fertilizer or pro- 
moter, throwing the seed on land that 
had never had an ounce of manure ap- 
plied to it, and yet the clover would 
grow four feet long (not high, as it laid 
flat down, and so thick that I could not 
cut it at all). The clover would have 
been esteemed anywhere, from the best 
of the tide-water country of Virginia." 

Here is a letter in 1873, from Col. 
W. B. Montgomery, the veteran Jersey 
breeder of Mississippi : "I have prob- 
ably two hundred acres in grass, con- 
sisting of clover, Timothy, Red Top or 
Herds, Kentucky Blue, and orchard. 
Every day this winter, the grazing on 
my Mahoon place has been good, and 
most of my cattle have had no other 
feed than grazing, and many of them 



are in good beef order." Mr. H. O. 
Dixon writes January 2, 1874, from 
Hinds county, Mississippi : " Have 
experimented with clover and several 
variety of grasses. Have succeeded 
fully and profitably, but particularlv 
with clover, having the ist of July last 
cut it four feet high, and getting three 
tons to the acre." 

I have a letter written over twent}' 
years ago by Dr. D. L. Phares, who af- 
terwards wrote a most excellent work on 
Southern grasses, and which, indeed, is 
now the standard authority. With a 
considerable experience in grass-raising, 
he wrote his work on Southern grasses 
after he became professor of botany in 
the Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege of Mississippi, about 1880. It at 
once made him a towering name. This 
book ought to be in the hands of every 
man who is thinking of moving South, 
or who wants the most conclusi\'e e\'i- 
dence as to the adaptation of the South 
for grasses innumerable. In this letter 
Dr. Phares informed me that he had cut 
over nine tons of hay per acre from red 
clover in one season. This was not at 
one mowing— two or more, and it was 
extra cured hay, too. He also wrote at 
that time (about 1874), he had a patch 
of clover (continuously) forty-three 
years old. At that time I confess to 
having been much staggered at this, but 
I afterwards found (on another sphere 
of operations), several virtual corrobo- 
rations of this remarkable fact. 

As I am writing currente calamo and 
in a very rambling fashion, I will give 
something that shows amazing presci- 
ence in one then deemed rather vision- 
ary. 

" I know Northern men will not be 
more incredulous than Southern men, 
when I assert that with the same quality of 
land and same preparation, Mississippi 
can make first-class hay at less cost than 
Ohio or Pennsylvania, and that in 
twenty-five years Mississippi will make 
hay for export." 

The writer of this was then professor 
of Agriculture of the Mississippi State 
University. He had been editor of the 
Tennessee Farmer of Memphis, Tenn., 
years before, and was always found at 
an early day sounding a note against 



AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 



97 



too much cotton and in favor of home- 
support and advanced agriculture. 
Well, advancement is ahead of its pre- 
dicted hour. I have a letter, received 
only a few days ago, from Prof F". W. 
Tracy, director of the Mississippi Ex- 
periment Station, that the export of hay 
from Mississippi is now very considera- 
ble to various places. And Hon. E. 
Burruss McGehee, of Bayou Sara, La., 
has long ago run out pretty much all 
the Western hay from his neighbor- 
hood, with his Lespedeza (Japan clover) 
hay. And before the southwest Louis- 
iana rice fever broke out among the 
people there who have come from the 
West, vast quantities of hay were made 
from gazon (carpet grass), sent to 
Texas, brought to New Orleans, and 
most likely sent by sea to New York. 
To be sure, Prof. Phillips forecasted for 
timothy, for he was an ardent believer 
in that grass, as I shall hereafter show. 
But, fully ten years ago, timothy hay 
was made and baled by Capt. W. W. 
Howard, of Aberdeen, Miss., who was 
one of my converts to grass when I 
went on the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, 
(some fifteen years ago), to promote 
immigration, stock raising, grass grow- 
ing and such. It was in that superb 
east Mississippi rotten limestone coun- 
try, that I particularly devoted myself 
to a "campaign of education." I gave 
away a great deal of grass seed to in- 
duce people to try it, and I sowed Ken- 
tucky bluegrass out the car windows 
from Verona, Miss., to Shuqualak, and 
several varieties on the same and other 
parts of the railroad. Had I never had 
any other experience, my observations 
there would have settled all doubts as 
to a dozen or more grasses. There I 
saw Dr. Phares' statements as to the 
long continuance of red clover without 
reseeding. There I saw Simeon Orr's 
original clover patch, where the Duke 
of Noxuber once grazed — a field that 
had been in clover then for nearly or 
quite fifty years. There I saw an old 
field in Bermuda, and red clover on the 
farm of a Mr. Clay, nearMuldoon, Miss., 
the clover sowed before the war. There 
I saw a fragment of a 300-acre field 
that Col. W. F. Sherrod had sown, un- 
der the stimulus of Simeon Orr's en- 



treaty and example, away before the 
war, but which the cotton planters had 
ridiculed him into turning under — unless 
my recollection is at fault. And, to-day 
(unless things have changed since I 
used to haunt that locality), you may 
find all about the highways near the lo- 
calities where Simeon Orr and Colonel 
Sherrod sowed their clover fifty years 
or more ago, red clover more common 
than a wayside weed. 

I have studied the grasses from 
the Atlantic ocean into the heart of the 
" Rockies," and from the Southern 
shores of Lake Superior to the Gulf of 
Mexico, and I have found the South, as 
a whole, a superb clover country. In 
Louisiana, you may find along the Red 
River valley, and into Northwest Louis- 
iana, red clover catching abundantly. 
In the rich, fat lands of Louisiana, I 
have seen white clover as tall as much 
red clover in the West. And there is 
hardly any clover that will not do well 
in much of the South. 

When one remembers that Howard 
and Phares have written, years ago, a 
book each on Southern grasses, that 
journalists (such as I have quoted), 
twenty years ago, said their say ; that 
the old agricultural reports before the 
war teem with attestations as to clover 
South ; that a man with any eyes can 
hardly fail to find in any State from the 
Potomac river to the Gulf of Mexico 
" broad acres " of clover and fine herds 
of thoroughbred cattle ; when we 
remember how the United States 
Government has set its seal to the 
fact of clover being a great success 
South — when all this is considered, how 
cane a sane man doubt? Prof. S. M. 
Tracy, Director of the State Experi- 
ment Station of Mississippi, Starkville, 
Miss., has lately delivered an address 
that ought to be distributed by the 
hundred thousands. His information is 
no news to many of us, but he is a sort 
of Martin Luther of the grass reforma- 
tion, and shows conclusively how the 
South beats the North and West on 
raising clover, etc. And he is the au- 
thoritatixe exponent on Southern grasses 
of the United States, and is a Northern 
man — a new and great accession to 
Mississippi. I wish I could be a little 



AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 



more practical, by telling how to sow 
clover seed in early October — well 
South every time if you want success ; 
never to sow with small grain, and ex- 
pect success, if the crop be gathered ; 
that sowing right on a Bermuda sod is 
the best way known to me — I have tried 
the silk stocking style — that clover 
with Bermuda will (probably) run to 
the end of the world without reseeding 
if not overpastured. 

This article is too long to particular- 
ize other clovers — Mexican, alfalfa, bur 
and others. All are successes in proper 
soils. And white clover (many species) 
is one of the commonest and hardiest 
of Southern grasses. And, by actual 
measurement, I have known Alfalfa to 
grow thirty-six inches in thirty days 
in Mississippi. You may count, as a 
general thing, on pretty good late fall, 
winter and spring pasture, on red and 
white clover, from the north line of 
Georgia down. 

In rich land (in Mississippi and 
Louisiana, Alabama for instance,) you 
will frequendy find clover four feet and 



more high. The crops are prodigious. 
And the hog pastures they make ! 
From latitude 32° (possibly higher), 
and down to 30° or below, you will find 
red clover bearing three crops of seed. 

After all, I do not consider clover 
nearly so great for the South as the 
field-pea ; but I am writing for many 
Northern and Western readers, who 
think red clover is all in all. 

In my next article I shall treat of 
Kentucky Bluegrass, Timothy, Red 
Top and Orchard. In growhig into 
grass-raising, the South is merely 
" coming by its own." Warm sunshine, 
abundance of rainfall in frequent and 
year-round equable distribution ; boun- 
tiful dews, mild winters — ail these, and 
more, make grass-growing a laborious 
thing to prevent. South. All cotton 
agriculture has been a most laborious 
and expensive job, in the mere labor of 
keeping down grass. Sow your grass 
seed, and nature will revel in gratitude 
for the privilege of the expression of 
her heart, in the gladdening green of 
perpetual verdure. 




THE PEN AND THE PLOUGH. 



Book-Keepixg the Most Important Work ox the Farm. 
By Carlyle ilIcKinley. 



The most important question, per- 
haps, that confronts the farmers of the 
South today is, what is the lowest price 
at which they can afford to grow cotton, 
and the purpose of this article is to em- 
phasize the all-important fact that it is a 
question which every farmer must 
answer for himself, and answer intelli- 
gently and accurately, as mistakes in 
the matter are all at his expense. It is 
a problem which he must study and 
solve as an individual, not as a member 
of a class. 

It must be solved on each farm — not 
in "the South" as a whole. It will not 
be solved for any farmer until he solves 
it in his own case. It will be solved 
finally for him as soon as it is so solved. 
Congress, or conventions, or meetings 
of other farmers cannot solve it for him. 
No other farmer can solve it for him. 
Every other farmer in his neighborhood, 
and in the South, might solve it, haply, 
without helping him if he did not learn 
their secret and employ it for his own 
benefit. The one question for him, at 
last, is whether he can grow cotton at so 
low a cost as to yield him a fair and reas- 
onable profit at the current price in any 
year; and, if not, what product or pro- 
ducts he can substitute for it that will 
produce such profit. 

It is not a question for conventions of 
farmers to settle, because the conditions 
of all farmers are not the same. A large 
farmer may be able to produce cotton 
for sale at a profit at five cents a pound, 
when his neighbor with a smaller farm 
and smaller means at his command, can 
not produce it at a cost of less than ten 
cents a pound. Some farmers of my 
acquaintance bankrupted themselves 
growing cotton when the selling price 
ranged from fifteen to twenty cents a 



pound ! Others report that they have 
made money growing it for sale at four 
cents a pound. The question of its 
profitableness or unprofitableness in any 
case depends solely on the margin 
between the cost and the selling price of 
the product ; and that question each far- 
mer must decide for himself No one 
can decide it for him, whatever the sell- 
ing price may be — whether fifty cents 
a pound or five cents a pound, or less. 

These are truisms, no doubt, but that 
their truth is not so well appreciated 
by the average cotton farmer as to con- 
stitute them an active factor in the regu- 
lation of his business, will plainly appear 
to any one who seeks, as the writer has 
done, to obtain from cotton growers 
accurate, or approximately accurate 
statements of the "cost" of producing 
cotton. The variations in the estimates 
so obtained, even from growers living in 
sight of each other, are truly astonishing, 
and can only be explained on the 
grounds already indicated — either the 
difference in the conditions and man- 
agement of the estimators, or their fail- 
ure to keep close accounts. I have a 
number of such estimates before me, but 
need cite only a few to make the point 
plain. 

The Commissioner of Agriculture for 
the State of Georgia, in iS86, estimated 
the cost of producing cotton in that State 
in 1 885, after deducting the value of the 
seed, at nine cents a pound. 

The Commissioner for South Carolina 
in the same year approved an estimate 
of about twelve cents a pound. 

As this difterence was too great to be 
reconciled, and discredited both esti- 
mates, the writer prepared a circular 
letter which was sent to correspondents 
in everv countv in one ot the cotton 



lOO 



THE PEN AND THE PLOUGH 



States, requesting them to obtain definite 
answers to a number of inquiries cover- 
ing the subject very carefully, and to 
obtain them only from farmers who kept 
close accounts, so far as was practicable. 
A large number of "estimates" were 
received in response to this application, 
but very few proved available for use. 
One correspondent reported : 

"I sent the circular to several of our 
planters, and they were all returned with 
the answer that they 'did not bother to 
keep any account as to what it cost to 
raise cotton,' and that they could not by 
any means answer the questions." 

Another reported that a large farmer 
who rented to tenants on the share sys- 
tem, answered by letter: 

"Several of the questions are well nigh 
unanswerable; for instance: 'Number of 
pounds of seed made?' Nobody weighs 
their seed. It is impossible to state the 
'cost of the labor', as I do not know how 
many hands worked in my field. The 
fewest number of farmers keep accounts 
of any character." 

These replies were made by leading 
and representative farmers, and are a 
tair example of the greater part of the 
replies that were received. In others, 
the answers to some of the questions 
were either indefinite, or the items of 
cost were combined in some cases, so 
that they could not be separated and 
properly distributed. The net result 
was that clear and satisfactory statements 
were found representing 2516 acres of 
cotton, scattered over eleven counties, in 
all parts of the State, the farms ranging 
in size from 1 3 to 600 acres, the number 
of hands employed on each ranging 
from two to forty-five, and the number 
of mules employed ranging from one to 
twenty -five. The averages obtained 
under these diversified conditions, it is 
believed, were exceptionally safe, and 
were accepted without challenge when 
published. Without giving all the 
details here, the following general results 
were tabulated: 

Number of acres 2i;i6 

Number of bnles (500 lbs ) 1131 

Average acres to bale 2y^ 

Average bales to acre, 45 per cent, or nearby. . . J4 

Average bales per hand 57^ 

Avei age bales per mule / S>3 

Average acres per hand 12. 58 

Average acres per mule iS 63 

Average lint per acre, pounds 225 

Average seed per acre, pounds 666 . 



COST OF PRODUCTION OF LINT COTTON PER ACRE. 

Average cost of bagging, ties, extra picking, 
ginning, baling, hauling, commissions for 

selling, etc $4 90 

Average cost of fertilizers, including interest if 

bought on credit, hauling, distribution, etc. 3 17 

Average cost of seed 29 

Average wages 6 67 

Avei'age cost cf mule 4 33 

Average interest on land cultivated; or rent, 

if rented . i 70 

Average cost of repairs, fencing, incidental 

expenses, etc 93 



Total cost per acre 



21 99 



An independent question on the list 
elicited the following additional and im- 
portant statement: 

Value of crops made, exclusive of cotton, by 
the force employed in cultivatmg cotton, 
per acre $6 32 

Value of cotton seed (15 bushels at 25 cents a 

bushel) per acre 3 75 

Total jSio 08 

From all of which we obtain the fol- 
lowing final results: 

Total cost of producing 225 lbs. of lint cctton, 

peracre $2199 

If whole cost of producing the cotton and 
other crops be charged to the cotton, the 
cost per iiound would be cg^ 

If the value of the other crops and the cotton 
seed be deducted from the cost of produc 
ing the cotton, the cost per pound would be 05.3 

It was found necessary to put the final 
statement in this form because it was 
impossible to apportion the relative cost 
of the cotton and the "other crops" with 
any degree of accuracy. Taking the 
calculation as it stands, and adding the 
fact that the average price of cotton at 
the time (1885) was eight and one-half 
cents a pound, the questions are pre- 
sented at once, what was the actual cost 
of the cotton; whether it was grown at 
a profit or not; and, if at a profit, whether 
the profit was probably increased or 
diminished by the employment on "other 
crops" of the force engaged in the culti- 
vation of the cotton. Otherwise stated, 
whether the same capital, land, labor, 
etc., could have been more advantage- 
ously employed — to better profit — in the 
cultivation of cotton alone, or of "other 
crops" alone, or of both cotton and 
"other crops" in different proportions 
from those adopted. 

I shall not discuss these questions 
here. They arise naturally out of the 
statements which precede them, and the 
main purpose in presenting the state- 
ments has been to bring these questions 
to the front for the sake of the important 
lesson they must convey to the mind of 
every thoughtful cotton farmer. That 
lesson, it is needless to say, is the im- 



THE PEN AND THE PLOUGH. 



lOI 



portance to the farmer of keeping 
accounts, and very close accounts, of the 
conduct of his business, for his own in- 
struction and guidance. 

It was commonly asserted by cotton 
farmers in 1885-86 that they "could not 
grow cotton at a profit" at the price 
average of that season — about eight and 
one-half cents — and, as we have seen, 
their assertion was sustained by high 
official and agricultural authority. We 
have also seen, however, from the testi- 
mony of some practical and careful 
farmers, based on accurate notes of actual 
results, that they produced cotton in the 
year in question at a cost of three cents 
a pound lower than the estimate of one 
of these authorities, and at less than half 
the estimate of the other — leaving a 
profit of more than three and one-half 
cents a pound in the one case, and ot 
more than six cents a pound in the other. 
The value of such knowledge of the con- 
ditions of his business to any and every 
prudent farmer cannot well be over- 
estimated; and for that reason too much 
stress cannot well be laid on the utility, 
importance and advantage to him of the 
only means whereby he can obtain such 
knowledge — the resort to systematic and 
careful bookkeeping, or account-keeping, 
covering every detail of expenditure and 
income on his farm. 

The several items of "cost" presented 
in the foregoing statements have changed 
since 1886, and have been considerably 
reduced in some instances. The value 
of cotton and seed has also been materi- 
ally reduced. Is it possible, then, to 
grow cotton now at so much less than 
the apparent cost then (five and three- 
tenths cents a pound), as to make any 
profit now when it is sold at five cents a 
pound ? 

This is a vital question to all cotton 
growers, and most of them answer it in 
the negative. How many can answer 
it intelligently, having facts and figures 
to support their answer? No conven- 
vention can answer it for a single one. 
He must answer it for himself, from his 
accounts, or remain in ignorance of his 
most important affairs, and grope his 
way in doubt, if not in debt, until he can 
so answer it. 

How many can answer it approxi- 



mately — or so nearly that the answer 
may be taken as a safe guide to their 
business conduct ? I have before me a 
number of recently published answers, 
of which the following are fair examples. 

A farmer writing to the New Orleans 
Times-Democrat from Amite City, La., 
under date of October 22 ult., says: 

"The cost of raising cotton in the hills, 
estimating one bale of 500 pounds to 
three acres, is at the most moderate 
estimate about as follows: 

Breaking three acres S3 75 

300 pounds fertilizer 375 

Planting and seed i 50 

Cultivatnig — plowing and hoeing 7 50 

Picking 1500 pounds, at 40c per 100 6 00 

Ginning i 50 

Bagging and ties i 50 

Rent and taxes 600 

Hauling to gin and market i co 

Total cost 500 pounds lint . . .J32 50 

"At five cents per pound for the cot- 
ton, present price, and $3.50 for the 
seed, the planter receives $28.50, and is, 
therefore, $4 loser. In this estimate no 
account is taken of the expense of re- 
pairing fences, cost of tools, preparing 
land for the plow, services of overseer 
or manager, nor investment in live stock; 
It will be plainly seen that the cotton 
planter is bankrupt, and, of course, many 
of the cotton factors and furnishers of 
supplies will go down with him in the 
general wreck." 

The cost of raising cotton, according 
to this estimate, and counting the value 
of the seed with that of the lint, is five and 
seven-tenths cents per pound — without 
taking into account the several import- 
ant items of expense which are excluded. 
What it would be with these items in- 
cluded, we cannot guess; but it would 
be considerably more than five and 
seven-tenths. 

A writer in the Liverpool Daily Post 
says the following items were collected 
by himself in Central Texas last season. 

"Cost of production in Texas per acre 
to yield on an average, say 250 pounds 
lint: 

EXPENSES. 

Rent per acre ;?4 0° 

December and February breaking 275 

Planting and cotton seed 50 

Plowing four times 2 co 

Chopping after second plowing 62 

Hoeing out after chopping 50 

For picking 750 lbs. seed cotton at 60c per 100 lbs. 4 50 

Marketing 75 

Ginning, baling, bagging and ties 1 5° 

I17 12 

Less proceeds of cotton seed sales 3 00 

Cost per pound 5.65 cents =|i4 i* 



I02 



THE PEN AND THE PLOUGH. 



Without using any fertilizers. 



The Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege of Texas, published in March last 
year the following statements from "five 
cotton farmers," as to the cost of pro- 
duction per pound for cotton sold at 
home or in the local market, and "no 
charge made for shipping or handling:" 

CENTS. 

\%o o 62 

I 0547 
-I 05 24 

L 05.66 
Average 5.20 cents per pound =$0 25.99 

In none of these cases, it is' seen, is 
any account taken, so far as stated, of 
the work done on other crops on the 
same farm, or of the value of such crops 
or other products, in relation to the cot- 
ton crop. Nor is the effect of such 
values in determining the question of 
the profitableness or unprofitableness of 
cotton growing considered in any of the 
numerous "estimates" which I have, or 
in any I have seen. 

I regard these omissions as fatal to 
the value of all such estimates, and to 
enforce this view on the attention, if not 
the acceptance, of persons interested in 
the question of the "cost of cotton pro- 
duction," refer them again to the state- 
ments presented in the early part of this 
article and the very important difference 
in the results exhibited by them accord- 
ing as the value of other crops is in- 
cluded in the calculation, or excluded 
from it. In the one case the cotton 
"costs" nine and three-quarter cents; in 
the other it "costs" five and three-tenth 
cents. In the one case the farmer grows 
cotton at a profit; in the other he grows 
it at a loss. 

Which is the true result? What 
farmer can answer? Certainly it is 
proper to add the value of the cotton 
seed to the value of the lint in determin- 
ing the cost of producing the lint. 
Why is it not equally proper to add the 
value of all other products and crops of 
a cotton farm for the same purpose? 
By so adding them cotton is shown to 
have been grown at a good profit when 
it sold at eight and one-half cents a 
pound. Can it be grown at a profit 
now, under the same conditions, when 
it is selling at five cents a pound ? It is 
an eminently practical question. 

And the consideration of it raises 



other practical and important questions. 
Under the conditions stated, is the profit 
wholly or mainly from the cotton crop, 
or from the "other crops" and products? 
Would the profit be increased or dimin- 
ished by growing cotton alone ? Would 
it be increased or diminished by growing 
the other crops and products alone ? Or 
is it due to growing cotton and "other 
crops" together. 

The solution of the important and 
vital problem which now confronts every 
cotton farmer is to be found in the cor- 
rect answer to these questions. Blessed 
is he who can answer them correctly. I 
am inclined to think that the true answer 
is indicated by the last question; that is 
to say, that the profit is due to growing 
cotton and other crops together on the 
same farm, at the same time, by the 
same force — thereby giving full employ- 
ment to the force, at all times and sea- 
sons, permiting the conduct of various 
small and incidental, but profitable, ven- 
tures which otherwise could not be 
undertaken, and so obtaining the largest 
possible measure of returns from the 
capital, land and labor actually em- 
ployed. 

I shall not undertake, however, to 
give the true answer. The data from 
which to derive it is wanting. The 
question is a practical one, and must be 
answered in a practical way, by practical 
means. Probably, it can only be answered 
certainly and satisfactorily by careful 
experimentation ; the best way to an- 
swer it, perhaps. There is nothing 
to prevent any farmer from trying the 
experiment for himself on his own farm 
in three successive years. Most farmers 
have tried the first plan pretty fully 
already, and found that it does not pay 
at any rate. It would be enough, there- 
fore, for one who has not done so 
already, to try the other two. 

But whether the plan is tried or not, 
and whatever plan is tried, I submit 
again that the only possible way in which 
any farmer can hope to farm successfully 
and avoid mistakes and losses and mys- 
terious, but wasteful leaks, is to keep 
accurate accounts of the conduct and 
condition of his business from day to 
day, so that he maybe able to determine 
which crops pay for the labor and care 



THE PEN AND THE PLOUGH 



and money expended on them, and 
which do not; which pay most and 
which least, and to regulate his business 
accordingly — like any other business 
man. This involves some trouble, of 



course, but it is better on the whole to 
spend a few minutes every night in 
"keeping books" than to spend whole 
days and months in hard and unprofita- 
ble labor. 



WHAT OF THE NEW SOUTH ? 

Some Views of a Reconstructed Yankee. 



By Frederick B. Gordon. 



■ — The eyes of the investment world are 
to-day turned more inquiringly than 
ever before to the South, materially the 
richest section of North America. 
With the markets of Christendom open 
and with the competition of all countries 
to meet, the manufacturers of the United 
States plainly see that good dividends 
now depend on the close proximity of 
the factory to the raw material and 
cheap power. Furniture factories seek 
the forests ; flour mills travel Westward 
with the wheat fields ; metals will be 
worked near the mines ; and those who 
spin cotton will inevitably spin it where 
it grows. 

So the South, rich in cotton, coal, 
wood and iron, with equable climate 
and the minimum of living expense, 
becomes the cynosure of the manufac- 
turer and the capitalist. 

To the Northern man, however, an 
admission of the South's material ad- 
vantage is one thing ; the question of 
investment or residence there is quite 
another. The latter proposition in- 
volves so much relating to his personal 
comfort, his health, and to many other 
points of peculiar and important con- 
sideration, that it is the wa'iter's object 
to briefly touch on some phases of a 
Southern experience and to incidentally 
enlighten any inquirer who may be 
looking Southward. 

northern view of southern life. 

How well I remember some fifteen 
years ago when contemplating going 
South I was solemnly warned by a 
Boston friend (of average information 
on other subjects) that it would be a 



question of a few weeks before I would 
be assassinated, and that if I should 
escape a violent death it would be only to 
suffer a lingering one from malarial 
fever, as quinine was "regularly served 
three times a day on all Southern 
tables." While this statement could 
have been as truthfully made regarding 
any New England State as about the 
South (so utterly absurd was it in fact), 
yet the average Northern mind is filled 
with a vague fear of Southern unhealth- 
fulness. 

Picture a swamp alive with alligators, 
throw into the foreground a couple of 
long-haired "Crackers" of the Thos. 
Nast stripe, Bowie knives and all, and 
you have the usual New England ideal 
of the Sunny South. 

Come South, young man, and you 
can find scene after scene that is as 
typically "up-to-date" in point of civili- 
zation, education and culture, as you 
can find in Maine or Minnesota, in 
Connecticut or California. In any 
Southern town of fair size you will find 
the same sort of factories, stores and 
shops ; the same schools, churches and 
libraries : the same organization de\-oted 
to the study of literature, music and 
art. 

In the country you will see prosperous 
farmers culti\ating the most generous 
and prolific soil in this wide country 
and living peaceably with the negroes, 
the best-cared-for laboring and tenant 
class on the face of the globe. 

as to social and political 
ostracism. 

One approaches this phase of the 
Northerner's life South with a faltering 



I04 



WHAT OF THE NEW SOUTH? 



pen. To disabuse the Northern mind 
of its ingrained error on this subject 
would probably take, in most cases, a 
course of local treatment of many 
months duration. 

Probably more absurdities have been 
written on this subject by people who 
came South on fool's errands than on 
any other sectional question in the 
history of this country. 

The true Southerner is nothing if not 
a gentleman, and he treats his Northern 
brother who becomes his near neighbor 
just as he would expect to be treated 
were the situations reversed. Much 
that has been written about social ostra- 
cism South has sprung not from the 
political faith of the one who felt ostra- 
cized but because in many cases the 
new-comer, perhaps of indifferent social 
status in his old home, seemed to be 
very much of the opinion that because 
he was from the North he should at 
once be welcomed to the inner circle of 
society, no matter how exclusive, or 
taken to the bosom of the first family 
he ran across. 

The Southerner naturally draws the 
line on the Northern-born politician who 
hobnobs with the colored brother for 
revenue only ; but for the Northern 
business man, farmer or tourist, no mat- 
ter how ardent his republicanism, he has 
a hearty welcome and a respectful consid- 
eration. 

EFFECTS OF THE CLIMATE. 

Any young Bostonian or New Yorker 
who will come to Georgia and invest 
his money in manufacturing or selling 
merchandise in competition with the 
young man of the New South, and 
succeed will not have time to consider 
whether the climate is enervating or 
not ; he will simply have to be everlast- 
ingly up and doing. His health will 
take care of itself and he will find a 
climate excellent and charming in many 
respects. The summers are longer 
than those of the North, but not so 
extreme. The winters are — well New 
York's October six months long — think 
of it — Indian summer for half the year. 
Just one taste of a genuine Southern 
winter and you will make up your mind 
to stay here all the year around rather 



than miss it. If the farmers of the 
Northwest were fully posted as to the 
advantages of the Southern climate and 
soil there would hardly be land enough 
to go around. There has not been a 
Georgia crop burnt up by the sun in the 
memory of the oldest inhabitant, and as 
for the other extreme of temperature, all 
Southern thermometers might as well 
be constructed without a zero point, for 
the mercury was never known to go 
that low. 

THE NEGRO OF THE SOUTH. 

Of this "bone of contention" volumes 
have been and probably are yet to be 
written. As a psychological study the 
negro is past comprehension. How a 
well-informed Georgia darkey does love 
to get hold of a fat subject (sympathet- 
ically speaking) from the heart of New 
England, and draw him out and assist 
in coloring his inherited ideas of the 
aforesaid darkey's state of woe ! 

To one who has lived South and un- 
derstands the true relations between the 
races, the demeanor of our colored 
friend under these circumstances has a 
flavor of irresistible humor. 

The well-fed country darkey, whether 
working for "standing wages" or "on 
shares," always manages to eat up and 
frolic away his income before it comes 
in. He keeps no accounts ; and with 
the balance against him at the end of 
the year, he naturally attributes his 
position to the dishonesty of his em- 
ployer or landlord. Wicked men every- 
where take advantage of the ignorant, but 
my observation and experience has been 
that the large majority of Southern plan- 
ters treat their help fairly and get little 
credit for it. 

The ex-slave holder is the best friend 
the Southern darkey has, and under- 
stands him better than anyone else can. 
Repeatedly have I seen the old and 
infirm negro tenderly cared for and de- 
cently buried by his "Ole Marster," 
who was actuated solely by a kindly 
feeling for his former slave. 

Many of the colored race have two 
unfortunate failings, which are charac- 
teristic of all ignorant races. One, a 
lack of ability to adhere to the truth, 
and the other a marked ability to ad- 



WHAT OF THE NEW SOUTH? 



lO- 



here to the small belongings of their 
white neighbors. As laborers and ser- 
vants they are peaceable, faithful, docile 
and warm-hearted. 

They are emotional and immoral ; 
ambitious to attend school and ardent 
in religious worship ; have a wondeful 
gift for melody ; and when chickens and 
watermelons are ripe are never known 
to starve. The "race question," so call- 
ed, is working itself out in a practical 
common sense way, just as it would be 
in Massachusetts if half the population 
were composed of negroes. 

I have only one suggestion to make 
to any one wishing to swell the fund so 
nobly contributed by the philanthropists 
of the North towards the advancement 
of the colored race, and that is — spend 
one year South in actual observation be- 
fore you contribute a dollar. 

SOUTHERN HOSPITALITY, 

A hackeneyed phrase, perhaps you 
will say (with a laughing sneer about 
provincialism), and if you do I will know 
that you bought your "Southern hos- 
pitality" at so much a day in a Florida 
hotel. You have never been waked by 
an old Southern cook "beating" biscuit 
for breakfast, or eaten hot waffles with 
"native" syrup in a genuine Southern 
home. The Southerners have the 
politeness of the French without any in- 
sincerity, and when a Georgian opens 
his heart 'and home to you, you get 
everything that makes one man love an- 
other. He may candidly admit that 
Sherman is not his patron saint, but he 
will not discount his hospitality if he 
finds you served under him. No color- 
ing of words can be an exaggeration of 
this Southern characteristic. To be 
realized it must be enjoyed — once en- 
joyed, all prejudice will be melted out of 
your "opinions" and you will realize 
that in this blessed union of States we 
are all one, and that the accident of 
your nativity in a Northern State is not 
a birthright of superiority after all. 

CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS. 

Here are two surprises for you, es- 
pecially if your life has been spent in 
one of the Eastern cities largely popu- 
lated by foreigners. First, the ortho- 



doxy and Sabbath observance of the 
people; and second, the progress of 
general education. The many "isms" 
of liberal thought in religious matters 
are comparatively unknown e\'en in the 
larger cities of the South. The denom- 
inations are few and the churches ad- 
here to the simple faith and service of 
the New England churches of fifty years 
ago. Church attendance is remarkably 
large in view -of the temptations of the 
climate to out-door pleasures on the day 
of rest. 

Of the progress of the schools in the 
South the North is not well informed. 
The public school system, well organ- 
ized and well equipped, prevails in all 
the principal cities and towns. The 
common schools of the country are bet- 
ter cared for each year by the \arious 
States and at the last census will show 
the remarkable progress made. One 
point in the problem of education at the 
South is little noted by the North, and 
that is the double burden placed on 
nearly all Southern communities to pro- 
vide equally for both white and colored 
pupils, the percentage of non-taxpayers 
who enjoy school privileges thus being 
very much larger in a Southern town 
than in one of equal size at the North. 

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT. 

The industrial development of the 
South is the wonder of the nineteenth 
century. That the States devastated by 
war should within less than two score 
years regain their capitalization is with- 
out a parallel in history. Energy de- 
veloped by necessity, coupled with \ ast 
natural resources, have sa\-ed the South. 
Cotton, the former king, now shares his 
throne with coal and iron. The South 
is in the saddle — commercially speak- 
ing. If you doubt it, consult the statis- 
tics of the last census. No section of 
this country withstood the panic of '91- 
'92 like the South. If you doubt it, ask 
the bankers and merchants of New 
York city. Misrepresentations by North- 
ern politicians no longer prove a 
stumbling block to Southern progress. 
Business men look at facts, and facts are 
favorable to the coming section of the 
United States. 



A SOUTH CAROLINA RICE PLANTATION OF 

OLDEN TIME." 



'YE 



By Arnot Chester. 



The culture of rice, in common with 
all other branches of agriculture, has 
undergone such radical changes within 
recent years that a brief description of 
the primitive methods in vogue in "the 
fifties" may not be without interest to 
the readers of today ? 

Such a description will at least serve 
to show that the attainment of the best 
results is not necessarily dependent upon 
the use of the complicated modern ap- 
pliances now considered essential, but 
that our fathers in their own time and 
way (rude as that "way" may seem to 
us ! ) managed to achieve success and to 
reap literally and figuratively a "golden 
harvest" from the soil! 

Let me then begin by confessing that., 
in the days of which I speak, the 
numerous labor-saving machines, so 
common at the North, if not quite 
unknown, were yet rarely to be found 
on the rice plantations of the Carolina 
coast, the only agricultural implements 
in general use being the hoe, rake, 
spade, plough and harrow ; nor did even 
the ploughing conform to conventional 
methods, for the rich, black, alluvial 
soil of the rice fields was so heavy that 
mercifully-inclined planters employed 
oxen instead of mules to draw (or more 
accurately to drag) their ploughs through 
the stift loam. 

This peculiarity of soil is easily under- 
stood by those acquainted with the 
topography of the tidewater rice planta- 
tions, where the fields always lie in 
bottom land below the level of the 
adjacent water- courses, from the over- 
flow of which they are protected by 
high dikes, or "banks," as they are 
called in Carolina. These banks are 
provided at convenient distances with 
"trunks" (sluice gates), by means of 
which the fields were irrio-ated at certain 



stages of the crop's growth, the system 
of culture pursued being exclusively the 
water culture. The fields were inter- 
sected by ditches, large and small, 
running at right angles with each other. 
Through the broadest of these, the 
"trunk docks," they were called, which 
constituted the "main arteries" of the 
system of irrigation, boats passed from 
the river or creek outside the banks 
into the fields within at harvest time to 
collect the cut rice and convey it to the 
distant barn-yard. These boats, known 
in Carolina as "flats," were very large 
bateaus, possessing neither keel nor 
bow, and were propelled by long, heavy 
oars, with which the flat was either 
rowed or poled along, according as it 
was navigating the inland or the outside 
water. But I seem to have begun 
backwards somehow, for I am harvesting 
the crop before I have planted it ! 

To call a halt and begin at the begin- 
ning, the first step then each season in 
preparing for the next year's crop was 
"burning the trash," which was done in 
the late autumn or early winter ; not 
only the stubble remaining in the fields 
had to be got rid of, but a large col- 
lection of drift debris deposited upon 
the banks by the successive inundations. 
This was raked together in heaps and 
set on fire, and for several weeks an 
atmosphere of smoke hung over each 
plantation. Though somewhat unpleas- 
ant, however, these fires were never 
dangerous, for they were confined to 
the fields and banks, from which the 
buildings on a rice plantation were 
always far removed, these standing upon 
firm, high ground — generally speaking, 
upon a clay bluff" or a sand hill. After 
the trash burning came the ploughing, 
and pretty stift" work it was, e\en for the 
oxen. Had Cincinnatus been obliged 



A CAROLINA RICE PLANTA TION OF " YE OLDEN TIME:' 107 



to drive his longed-for plough through 
rice-field mud, he would probably have 
thought a second time before abandon- 
ing his civic honors to return to it. 
Patience and perseverance accomplish all 
things, however, and in the course of the 
winter the ploughing was done, and thor- 
oughly well done, too ! Next came the 
breaking of the clods, first by the harrow 
and then by the hoe. By this time it was 
March, the planting season. The modus 
operandi of this process was as follows : 
The "drivers," as the leaders or "bosses" 
of the negroes were called, with stakes 
and line marked out the furrows and 
the hands hoed them. To each worker 
were apportioned so many "rows." They 
were very shallow depressions about 
five or six inches apart running the 
whole length of the field. When this 
part of the work was completed the next 
step was to prepare the grain. The 
seed rice was carefully dipped in wet 
clay to make it heavy and sticky, and to 
prevent its rising to the surface when 
the water was turned on (or to use the 
plantation diction, "when the fields were 
flowed.") This "claying" being accom- 
plished, the "hands" were divided into 
two "gangs;" the first gang went 
through the fields scattering the grain, 
which was carried in great rush baskets, 
by handfuls into the furrows, and im- 
mediately behind came the second gang 
armed with hoes to cover the rice before 
it could be seized upon by the ever- 
watchful birds, who seemed to be as 
well informed as the planters themselves 
on the subject of seed time and harvest. 
As soon as the grain was planted the 
sluice gates were opened and the fields 
inundated, the water being allowed to 
remain on them till the rice sprouted. 
This flowing of the fields was called 
"the short water" to distinguish it from 
"the long water," which came later in 
the season, generally about the end ol 
May or the first of June, and was 
allowed to cover the rice for six weeks. 
It was when this "long water" was 
drawn off that the miasma from the 
fields was considered dangerous. Until 
the end of May families could remain 
on their rice plantations with impunity, 
and, indeed, these old plantations were 
pictures of loveliness during the spring- 



months. Over the lowlands was spread 
a carpet of the most vivid emerald, for 
nothing could be more brilliantly green 
than the rice fields when they emerged 
from their "short-water" bath, while 
the woods of the highlands were gay 
with wild flowers and the gardens were 
one mass of bloom ! 

This, however, is an aside ! 

From the time the first water was 
drawn oft' to that when the second was 
turned on, the only labor to be per- 
formed in the field was to keep the 
rice free from grass. Constant hoeing 
between the rows and weeding by hand 
among the rows was necessary ; "pulling 
grass" the negroes called it. After the 
"long water" the need was the same, 
but by that time the plant was stronger 
and required less delicate manipulation. 
From then on till harvest time the work 
was light ; but with the ripening of the 
grain, incessant vigilance was necessary 
to prevent the wholesale depredations 
of those most rapacious marauders, the 
rice birds. It seems absurd to say 
that the planters dreaded these tiny 
foes, but those who ha\e ever watched 
a cloud of rice birds ho\ering over a 
field of ripe rice will understand that 
this bird pest is only second in dis- 
tructiveness to the "locust plague" of 
Egypt. 

With the harvest season began, by 
long odds, the heaviest work of the 
plantation, the entire force was turned 
out, and each able-bodied man and 
woman was expected to do a "full task," 
as the day's appointed labor was called. 
The men went ahead with their reaping 
hooks, and close behind followed the 
women, who deftly spread the cut rice 
upon the stubble to dry ; it was not 
left there long, however, the danger 
from bad weather was too great. As 
soon as possible the grain was bound 
into sheaxes and removed trom the low- 
lying fields to the great security of the 
high and dry barnyard. There it was 
stacked into ricks some ten feet high, 
there to await the process of threshing. 

Now I am not depicting an Eastern 
scene, but describing an ordinary South 
Carolina rice plantation when I say that 
this threshing was done by men and 
women with flails, the grain being spread 



io8 A CAROLINA RICE PLANTATION OF ''YE OLDEN TIME." 



out before them on a floor of asphalt ! 
(As some of my readers may be too 
"modern" even to know what a flail is, 
I shall describe one. The flail is com- 
posed of two long, stout sticks fastened 
together by a strong hinge of leather, 
and its use consists in beating the grain 
loose from the straw by a series of 
vigorous strokes.) After the rice had 
been separated in this way, however, 
there was still a large admixture of chaff 
adhering to it, from which it had to be 
freed by winnowing. 

On every plantation stood an odd- 
looking building resembling a large, 
square room on stilts some twenty feet 
high ; this was the "winnowing house." 
A high flight of open, outside steps led 
up to it, and in the centre of the floor 
was a large trap-door. There the rice 
was brought as it was threshed out, and 
on windy days it was thrown through 
the trap to the threshing floor beneath, 
where, as it fell, it was carefully swept 
up into heaps with "brooms," composed 
of bundles of dog fennel twigs, by the 
old women of the plantation on whom 
this light duty devolved. Then the 
younger women shoveled it back again 
into baskets and carried it to the barn, 
where it remained until shipped to the 
pounding mill, there to undergo the 
final process of separating the husk 



from the grain, or, in other words, to be 
converted from the "rough rice" of the 
plantation into the "clean rice" of com- 
merce. In very early days even the 
pounding of the rice was done by hand 
in a mortar on the plantation, but that 
was generations before the time of which 
I write. 

Very primitive, almost barbarous all 
this sounds, no doubt, to modern ears, 
and yet these old planters managed 
somehow to make such handsome in- 
comes as quite to excite the wonder and 
the envy of their "progressive and "ad- 
vanced" successors; and the rice they 
made was noted in the rice market both 
for its abundant yield and for its superior 
quality. 

In spite of Carlyle's assertion that 
"there are no such liars as figures, 
except facts," statistics still continue to 
carry weight. I therefore append the 
following tabulated statement (for the 
accuracy of which I can vouch) in proof 
of my assertion that rice-planting was a 
profitable industry in the days of our 
fathers and grandfathers. 

Extract from the private account book of a South 
Carohna rice planter for the years '43, '44 and '45 



1843. 
Acres. 
356 
1844. 
352 
1845. 
352 



Bushels. 
Per Acre. 

52.46 

55 13 
46.219 



Bushels 
18,55s 



19.373 
16,411 



Net. 
$i3.o.^9-i3 

?i5.335-iS 

^19,297.97 



Cents. 
Per Bus. 

70.48 

7930 
117.97 



GEORGIA PEACHES. 



The peach crop of Georgia promises 
to be the greatest ever produced in the 
State. All indications point to an enor- 
mous yield. Moreover the industry has 
been greatly extended within the last 
few years, and many thousands of 
young trees will come into bearing this 
year. 

Georgia is becoming as celebrated for 
its peaches as Florida for its oranges. 

The center of the most noted peach 
growing area is Fort Valley. In the 
immediate vicinity of Fort Valley there 
are a million and a quarter peach trees, 
of which probably three-fourths will be 
in bearing this year. The largest single 
orchard is that of the Hale-Georgia 
Orchard Co., of which Mr. J. H. Hale, 
a celebrated Connecticut peach grower, 
is president. This orchard contains 
100,000 bearing trees. Mr. Hale, in a 
letter to the Southern States, esti- 
mates that if no serious injury comes to 
the crop now in sight, there should be 
shipped from Fort Valley Station this 
year at least one million crates, each 
holding six lour-quart baskets; five to 
six hundred crates to a car. This 
would make 1600 to 2000 car loads 
from Fort Valley alone. 

Mr. B. J. James, of Fort Valley, be- 
sides being one of the largest growers 
in the peach belt, is superintendent of 
eleven orchard companies whose stock- 
holders live mostly in Ohio. These 
companies, with an aggregate capital of 
$300,000, own 8268 acres of fruit land, 
on which there are 534,000 peach trees, 
10,000 pear trees, 3000 plum trees, 
36,000 grape vines and 500 apple trees. 

In a recent interview with a corres- 
pondent of the Constitution, Mr. James 
said : 

" A horn blown at my house will be 
taken up in orchard after orchard until 
the sound travels twenty-two miles, and 
still you are not out of sight of peaches. 
My telephone system, which I have put 



in this year, makes a circuit of fif- 
teen miles, reaching the headquarters of 
each orchard. By this means I am in 
communication with the entire property, 
and by an ingeniously arranged map, 
on which the orchards are divided off 
into blocks of 5000 trees each, each 
row numbered, I can by telephoning di- 
rect attention instantly to any tree I 
want attended to." 

Marshalville is another important 
centre of the peach industry. This is 
the shipping point of the Rumph or- 
chard, owned by Mr. Samuel H. 
Rumph, who is really the originator of 
peach growing as a business in Geor- 
gia. Mr. Rumph was born in Georgia 
forty-three years ago. His orchard 
contains 60,000 peach trees, 15,000 
plum trees and 30,000 raspberry bushes. 
He has just started another orchard 
with 60,000 peach trees. He has sold 
one year's crop of peaches for $52,000, 
another for $64,000. And this was 
when his orchard was much smaller 
than it is now. Many of his trees will 
bear fruit this year for the first time. 
He has refused an advance offer of 
$90,000 for this year's crop. It is not 
from the sale of peaches alone, how- 
ever, that these growers make money. 
The sale of nursery stock adds enor- 
mously to their revenue. Mr. Rumph, 
for example, has on hand plum, peach 
and pear slips from which he will real- 
ize this year not less than $70,000. 
These will be shipped to e\ery part of 
the country, from Canada to Texas, and 
from Maryland to Oregon. Some of 
the other growers do an equally large 
nursery business relatively. 

The country about Tifton, in the 
wire-grass region, is coming to be one 
of the conspicuous fruit growing areas. 
Last year when the crop was a failure 
almost everywhere, Tipton had peaches 
for shipment and sold them as high as 
$Q.oo a crate. 



109 



no 



GEORGIA PEACHES. 



The Georgia peach has no superior 
in America in point of flavor. A vari- 
ety known as the Elberta, which was 
propagated by Mr. Samuel H. Rumph, 
and is of comparatively recent origin, 
combines in a remarkable degree, size, 
color, flavor and shipping qualities, 
equalling the best California fruit in the 
two first-named particulars, while being 
much finer in flavor than anything 
grown in California. 

This section promises to rival Cali- 
fornia as a fruit country. It has been 
visited by many of the best known 
fruit growers of the North. Two years 
ago a delegation from the American 
Association of Nurserymen went down 
there, and after investigation declared 
that they had never seen anywhere in 
the United States such a country for 
fruit. Mr. J. H. Hale, of South Glas- 
tonbury, Conn., president of the Hale- 
Georgia Orchard Co., who is generally 
considered the best informed peach man 
in the country, and who was in charge 
of the horticultural department of the last 
United States census, in a speech at a 
meeting of the American Association of 
Nurserymen at Minneapolis, said : 

" Having visited every fruit section in 
the United States — every fruit-growing 
section in every State in the Union, 
and had my peach eye open, because I 
love peaches and peach culture — I just 
lost my head when I got in that section 
of Georgia, and I do not think that, 
California excepted, there is another 
such district in the United States for 
the growing of fruit. If you go right 
south thirty miles from Macon you will 
find brown, chocolate-colored, loamy 
soil, with a splendid clay bottom. It is 
a magnificent soil, easy to work, and 
the peach trees going down into that 
red clay, it does produce fine colored 
peaches, and they look better and taste 
better than those of California." 

Here is an extract also from the New 
York Tribune: "There is nothing at 
the fancy fruit stores on Broadway at 
present more attractive and refreshing 
than the beautiful dark, red-cheeked 
Elberta peaches from the orchards of 



Georgia. They are larger than the 
peaches produced for this market on 
the Delaware peninsula and New Jersey, 
and by universal consent much more 
delicious than the Northern fruit." 

Before and during the season buyers 
from all parts of the country gather at 
the peach centres, and the competition 
between them ensures honest prices to 
the growers. Some growers gather, 
pack and ship their fruit themselves, 
consigning it to commission merchants 
in Northern cities ; others gather and 
pack their fruit, but sell it to buyers at 
the nearest railroad station. Another 
custom is to sell the crop on the trees at 
so much per crate, whatever the yield 
may be, the buyer to pick the fruit. 
Still another plan is to sell the crop on 
the trees at a stipulated price for the 
whole. The profits in peach-growing 
are enormous. The trees in this section 
will begin bearing two years after plant- 
ing. At four years old they ought to 
bring $150 to $200 an acre net. The 
small growers have done as well propor- 
tionately as the owners of large orchards. 
Small orchards of one to ten acres have 
brought the owners from $300 to $500 
and more per acre. 

The great profitableness of the busi- 
ness is due to the fact that the fruit from 
this section gets into the Northern 
markets several weeks earlier than the 
product of more northern orchards, 
and the prices received are many times 
greater than can be had later in the 
season, when the fruit has become more 
plentiful. 

The ownership of peach orchards by 
persons living elsewhere and engaged 
in other business, promises to become a 
favorite channel for investment as it be- 
comes generally known that an orchard 
of any size, from five acres up, need 
not cost, including price of land, plant- 
ing trees and cost of care and cultiva- 
tion up to time of bearing, more than 
$75.00 to $100 an acre, and that it will 
begin in four years yielding a net 
revenue of $100 to $300 and more per 
acre, according to the condition of the 
crop. 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH. 

A Continuation of the Series of Letters from Northern and Western 
Farmers and Btisiness Men who have Settled in the South. 



What an Illinois Han Thinks of Arkansas. 

E. M. Phillips, Little Rock, Ark.— 
Having recently completed a trip by- 
private conveyance of three hundred 
miles through a portion of the upland 
region of Arkansas, the writer feels bet- 
ter equipped than ever before to write 
understandingly of the inducements this 
State has to offer to the immigrant, and 
to weigh its advantages against its draw- 
backs. Coming from Illinois twenty-six 
years ago, leaving Chicago in a heavy 
snow-storm in March, and in a week — 
the time it then took to make the 
trip — finding fine summer-like weather 
here in Central Arkansas, with peach 
trees showing their fruit, such a favora- 
ble impression was made that this has 
been my chosen home ever since. 

Now one can take a train at St. Louis 
and in twelve hours he is in Central 
Arkansas, leaving the horrors of long, 
cold winters behind him. 

But to come back to my late inland 
Arkansas trip and what it revealed of 
opportunities for home-seekers. "What 
about the people?" you ask. Every 
night a stop was made at a farm-house 
and we were welcomed; they fed us with 
the best they had; salt meat of their own 
curing, corn and wheat -bread from grain 
of their own raising, potatoes, onions, 
cabbages, butter, chickens, eggs and 
fruit — the products of their own farms. 

This ])ortion of the State is a timbered 
country, and most of the houses are 
hewn logs with stone chimneys at 
either end; substantial and comfortable 
structures built by the settlers them- 
selves. 

Apple, peach and plum trees flourish 
and bear abundant crops almost every 
year, and near each house is a perennial 
spring or well of excellent water. Corn- 
cribs were full, hogs were fat, cattle 



sleek, horses and mules full-fed and 
frisky. On the road we met a drove oi 
fine fat Poland-China hogs, nearly two 
hundred in the lot, being driven to the 
railroad for shipment to St. Louis. 
Another day we passed a herd of fat 
cattle on their way to Little Rock, the 
capital of the state. Every day on the 
road out two-horse wagon loads of live 
chickens or apples hove in sight, bound 
for the market. 

"But did you not see any desperadoes, 
any wild-eyed, long-haired cut-throats 
with bowie knives and pistols ?" Not 
one, Mr. Editor, in all the long trip; not 
one person did we meet who was not a 
quiet, orderly, law-abiding citizen. 

We saw plenty of children with books 
and slates going to school, but not a 
single hoodlum or rowdy; and in not one 
of the towns we passed through, five or 
six in number, is there any saloon or 
place where liquor is sold. Where there 
is no liquor there is very little crime; 
and of the seventy-five counties of this 
State, over forty have adopted the State 
local option law, and have peace and 
good order. 

In all our trip, which was in the cen- 
tral and northern parts of the State, and 
away from railroads, we saw but two or 
three negroes. This being what is 
known as a white man's country, the 
negro question cuts no figure here; the 
black population is to be found on the 
flatter, alluvial and more exclusively cot- 
ton lands. 

But about the immigration movement 
to this State. At St. Louis, at the ex- 
position, in the months of September 
and October of last year. I interviewed 
hundreds of persons who were or had 
lately been trying to make a living as 
farmers in the Northwestern States. 
They all spoke of the great exodus of 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH 



people from the arid parts of those 
States, where crops have failed year after 
year for want of seasonable rains, and 
they expressed themselves as delighted 
with the samples of wheat, corn, clover, 
hay, sorghum, hill rice, Irish and sweet 
potatoes, beets, onions, pumpkins, apples, 
peaches, pears, grapes, etc., on exhibi- 
tion there from this State. 

They could hardly believe their eyes, 
but when told the counties, and even the 
names of the farmers who raised the dif- 
ferent products, their incredulity was 
changed into wonder and admiration, 
and many of them at once bought ex- 
cursion tickets and went southward to 
visit our favored State. 

They asked many questions, however, 
one of which was: "Is not the weather 
very hot in Arkansas in the summer?" 
and when we showed them by the official 
returns of the U. S. Signal Service that 
the thermometer neither rose or aver- 
aged so high in the summer months in 
Central Arkansas as in Wisconsin or 
New York, they gave up their erroneous 
ideas. 

In regard to healthfulness I quoted 
my own experience during twenty-six 
years residence, and the returns of the 
U. S. Military Stations which prove that 
Arkansas is the most healthful of all 
posts at which troops are quartered. 
"But you have swamps that are not 
healthful," said some. Yes, I answered, 
but you need not live in or near them. 
We have in the State millions of acres 
of good lands subject to homestead 
entry, or that can be purchased at low 
prices and on easy terms from our rail- 
road companies, lands similar to those of 
Western New York, Pennsylvania and 
Ohio, and just as healthful, that invite 
industrious immigrants to settle upon 
them. I can safely say I know of no 
State or Territory in the Union where 
so many natural advantages exist. 

"What are they?" Let us recapitu- 
late them. Good health; delightful sum- 
mer and winter climate; excellent water; 
plentiful supply of fine timber for build- 
ing, fencing and fuel; unsurpassed build- 
ing stone; rains well distributed through 
the year so that success in agriculture is 
assured and stock never suffer for water; 
the finest of fruit; excellent water power 



fed by perennial springs; an early spring 
in which to sow and plant and a late fall 
in which to mature and gather the pro- 
ducts of field and orchard; a peaceful, 
law-abiding people who welcome immi- 
gration; an efficient school system, pat- 
terned after that of the most advanced 
Northern States; good temperance laws, 
well sustained by the people; a stringent 
law against the carrying of concealed 
weapons, which is enforced. 

With these advantages it is no won- 
der that great armies of immigrants are 
pouring into this State by railroad and 
wagon, coming mostly from the regions 
of the Northwest, where they have been 
almost frozen to death in the long cold 
winters, and parched and burnt up in 
the dry summers. From St. Louis, 
Chicago and Kansas City, twice per 
month, special excursion trains are run 
with low ticket rates, and these are 
crowded with anxious home-seekers, 
who, when they have seen with their 
own eyes that "the land is very good, a 
place where there is no want of anything 
that is in the earth," buy lands and 
farms; and these are certainly but the 
advanced guard of the hosts to follow. 
The people are coming by thousands 
and hundreds of thousands, and the 
result can hardly be otherwise than that 
the population, which now numbers 
something over one and a quarter mil- 
lions, will in the next ten years be 
doubled, and prices of lands here greatly 
advanced. 

In addition to its agricultural resources 
this State has most wonderful mineral 
wealth, great forests of pine, oak, hick- 
ory, ash, gum, elm, walnut, cedar, 
cypress, and other valuable timbers, and 
a fine system of railroads, but of these 
latter advantages I have not room to 
enlarge upon in this letter. 

The Climate Makes Life a Luxury. 

J. H. Best, Barium Springs, Iredell 
county, N. C. — I came here for health 
from Rensselaer county, N. Y., in the 
fall of 1870. I did not expect to Hve 
long, but I am 73 now and have neither 
pain nor ache. I walked 15 miles yes- 
terday and could do it again to-day. 
When I came five miles would have 
been too many. I cordially endorse the 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH 



remark of a very intelligent New York 
lady now living in Western North Caro- 
lina. " The climate is simply delight- 
ful," and this after a residence in Italy ! 
The Presbyterian Orphan's Home is 
located here on the highest point of land 
between Charlotte and Statesville. The 
infirmary has not been occupied by the 
sick because they have not had any. 
There are two or three springs that seem 
to heal nearly all manner of skin disease. 
People come with horrible looking sores 
and in two or three months go home 
perfectly well, but there are no hotel ac- 
commodations any nearer than States- 
ville, four miles. The land varies from 
sand to clay, some rough, some smooth, 
as it is in all this Piedmont region. 
Clover and orchard grass will grow well 
on any of this land. I sold my farm of 
130 acres in New York, just five miles 
from the city of Albany, for $10,000, 
and I have no hesitation in saying that 
the land here that can be bought for $10 
or $15 per acre is much better than land 
that I have seen sold for more than a 
$100 per acre and then, the delightfid 
clhnaie makes life a luxury. 

How a Wisconsin Man is Pleased in 
Texas. 

Oren B. Gerrells, Corpus Christi, 
Tex. — I have lived in Sheboygan 
county, Wisconsin, forty years ; followed 
all manner of farming, also milling. 
In 1876 I came to Texas and roamed 
over the best portions of the State on 
horseback, as there were then few rail- 
roads. 

In 1890 I sold out my Wisconsin 
home and moved direct to this county. 
So far I have succeeded well and am 
well satisfied. I am located on eighty 
acres three miles south of the city of 
Corpus Christi, on what is known as the 
"elevated level sandy prairie." This 
belt is apparently a dead level, yet it is 
a little undulating so as to run oif sur- 
plus rainfall. 

I am cultivating thirty acres only, as 
that is all I have broken. This is fine 
garden land and so level I could roll a 
ball from one end to the other if it were 
hard enough. 

We are considerably south of the 
line of Tampa, Fla., so, of course, are 



in nearly the most southern part of the 
United States possible to live in. Our 
land is thirty to forty feet above the sea, 
and as rich as land can be. Some is 
black, sticky, some black, sandy, other 
all sand, and it is possible to select an 
eighty acre piece with all three kinds 
nearly equal, yet not have a waste spot 
as large as your hand on any of it. 
We do not raise grain here for our land 
is better adapted to gardening. While 
the elements of our soil are exactly right 
for the production of small grain, yet 
the heavy dews and salt atmosphere are 
apt to rust it if allowed to mature. One 
grain of barley, which accidentally grew 
here last year, yielded 124 stalks 3 feet 
high, all with long handsome heads. 
However, we do not want to raise grain, 
even at that rate, for we can make a better 
profit out of such things as cabbage, cauli- 
flower, onions, cantaloupes, watermelons, 
cucumbers, tomatoes, etc. We regularly 
depend on two crops a year — vines in 
spring and plants in fall on same land. 
The delicate yams, sweet potatoes, 
cassava or manioc do their best on sandy 
soil. We may have our crops on the 
market earlier than any other portion of 
the United States. We never have .1 
frost hard enough to kill cabbage, cauli- 
flower, onions, etc , if well started in 
September or October. Our harvest 
comes in May and June and December, 
January and February. This gives us 
July and August for pleasure and it is 
then the tarpon bites best. We either 
sail or drive out to the great Gulf ot 
Mexico, about twenty miles distant, and 
camp a week or so, taking our families 
along. The children may play alone, 
as there are no steep banks or sudden 
deep places, no stones or rocks, no 
dangerous insects or reptiles, but pretty 
shells, sand crabs, sea birds, kangaroo 
rats, etc. The impatient man may 
walk down the shore and \iew the 
wrecks ; many prefer to stand on the 
beautiful shore and cast out a line a 100 
feet and draw in fine red fish, sea pike, 
speckled sea trout, tarpon or great silver 
king, gar, stingray and many other cu- 
rious specimens of the finny tribe. 
Yes, it is fun — exciting, too. I like it 
much better than standing behind a 
dusty threshing machine on a hot day. 



114 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH. 



We may spare a da}^ or two in winter 
now and then to hunt the geese and 
ducks, the cat or javeHnes. Some deer 
remain, but they are not very numer- 
ous. 

In the North our dollars are made 
very hard. It does not pay to raise 
grain or to sell milk at 55 cents a 100 
pounds, neither does it pay to cut hay 
and save fodder all summer to feed to 
cows in winter, buying additional feed 
to mix with it. It does not pay to get 
six men together on a zero day, shovel 
out the horse power from a six foot 
snow bank, heat the oil, then hitch on 
an uneasy, shivering team, which go so 
fast it makes all hands perspire, get in a 
hurry, run the wrench through the $100 
feed cutter, have a general smash-up 
and suddenly cool off too sudden, catch 
a severe cold, get the la grippe, then 
consumption, then believe it is time 
to go South. Perhaps the same day we 
here are running our improved planet, 
jr., and garden tools in soil that is rich 
and black, with no stone or gravel as 
large as a peach pit, no lump of clay, no 
stump or stick to interfere, going along 
so smooth we forget the labor in it. 
Our long rows are so straight that not a 
deviation can be detected. No, my 
Northern brother, we here do not spend 
our lives turning round in a half bushel. 
We have room, and one of the finest 
climates on earth. No one need get 
sick here if he comes here well. When 
I came I had catarrh, cough, dyspepsia, 
rheumatism and what not. Every spring 
I had the influenza, or grip, and my 
children were fast getting the catarrh. 
It has only been a little over three years 
now, and all our chronic ailments have 
disappeared. We have not had a sick 
day nor have we missed a meal. No 
lame leg, but perfect health, and sound 
sleep at night. However, if you are 
well-to-do, have good health, you could 
not, in my opinion, move anywhere to 
ad\'antage. After one gets fifty years 
old, and accustomed to a home, even 
were it in Siberia, it is then hard to adopt 
one's self to new surroundings, new 
farming, etc. 

Yes, we are glad we came here. We 
are glad we swapped our high-priced 
land in Wisconsin for ten dollar an acre 



land here, within three miles of the 
county seat, on the beautiful shores of 
Corpus Christi bay. Come and see us. 
Come and hear us sing our song. 

Can Make More rioney Farming in the 
South than in the North. 

John Acton, Wolf Trap, Va. — We 
bought a farm here in South Virginia in 
the fall of 1893 and are very well pleased 
with the conditions. We raised last 
year a splendid crop of corn, although 
the summer was very dry. The soil 
here on the Dan River is fully as good 
as the soil on the Scioto bottoms of 
Ohio and will raise just as good crops 
with the same care and cultivation. I 
think the climate is better here than in 
Ohio, the summers are not so hot as in 
Ohio and the winters pleasanter and 
shorter, therefore not requiring so much 
feed for stock. Another important thing 
is that labor is cheaper than in the 
Northern and Western States, costing 
about one half. Also we can get more 
for our crops here than in the North. 
As to the people we like them well, they 
are very kind and hospitable, and in 
conclusion would say that I think the 
people can make more money here 
farming than in the North. 

A New York Farmer's flethods and Suc= 
cess in Virginia. 

O. Hand, Randolph Station, Va. — 
In April, 1890, coming from Bridge- 
hampton, L. I., N. Y., I bought 1000 
acres of land lying on the Staunton 
River in Charlotte county, Va. 

Some 350 acres of this were fertile 
river bottoms, and about an equal por- 
tion were cleared up-lands, much of it in 
cultivation. 

The whole of this estate had been 
what in Virginia is called " well kept 
up," but the system employed was that 
which obtains so universally in Virginia 
of corn and tobacco on the lowlands, 
the corn was occasionally varied by a 
crop of wheat, oats again to be suceeded 
by corn. I planted 100 acres of corn 
and 20 acres of Irish potatoes on the 
low ground in the spring. Both crops 
were good. The potatoes yielded from 
50 to 60 barrels per acre and netted 
$2.00 per barrel in Providence, R. I. 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH 



"5 



In the spring I seeded 120 acres to 
timothy and clover, and the following- 
spring seeded 100 acres more of the 
low grounds to oats, sowing half bushel 
of timothy and 10 pounds of clover per 
acre on the ground after the oats had 
been sown and harrowed it in. The re- 
sult proved satisfactory and the hay 
crop averaged, I think, some 2 tons 
per acre, and commanded about $14 per 
ton on the premises. 

By this treatment of the low lands I 
saved my crops while others following 
the old rule of corn on the low lands 
would lose theirs. I cut my low lands 
over twice in the season, not having suf- 
ficient stock to consume the aftergrowth. 
I also wintered iioo sheep in the winter 
of '90 and '91 for a man who had 
bought a plantation on the opposite of 
the river. I believe that sheep should 
be a factor in Virginia farming in order 



to clean the lands of weeds and briers, 
and provide manure for the crops by 
folding and feeding them at night in 
well beddfed and sheltered yards. There 
is no doubt in my mind that the low 
priced uplands of the South can be re- 
claimed from the ruined condition 
many of them are now in through the 
ruinous practice of raising corn and 
tobacco on them, by seeding them to 
grass and pasturing them with sheep 
more largely than has ever been done. 
Southern men seem slow to learn the 
fact that land they use to feed them- 
selves must be fed itself, and if they 
would put the value of half the mules 
and plows into stock, either sheep or 
cattle, and provide good grass for them 
and raise liberally on their low grounds 
hay for the markets which exists at their 
doors, I believe a new era would dawn 
for the South. 




THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



Southern States. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY MAGAZINL 
DEVOTED TO THE SOUTH, 

Published by 1he 

Manufacturers' Record Publishing Co. 

Manufacturers' Record Building, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

SUBSCRIPTION, = = = $1.50 a Year. 

WILLIAM H. EDMONDS, 

Editor and Manager. 



BALTIMORE, MAY, 1895. 

The SOUTHERN STATES is an exponent of the 
Immigration and Real Estate Interests and 
general advancement of the South, and a journal 
of accurate and comprehensive information 
about Southern resources and progress. 

Its purpose is to set forth accurately and 
conservatively from month to month the reasons 
why the South is, for the farmer, the settler, the 
home seeker, the investor, incomparably the 
most attractive section of this country. 



Experience and Opinions of Northern 
People Who Have Moved South. 

For a year and a-half or more the South- 
ern States has been pubUshing in every 
issue a number of letters from farmers and 
business men who have moved to the 
South from other parts of the country. 
These letters have been interesting and 
valuable as showing the difference between 
the South as it is actually found to be by 
Northern people who have lived in the 
South and studied it, and the South that is 
described by some newspaper writers and 
others who have no personal knowledge 
of it. These letters are conspicuous for the 
remarkable unanimity with which they 
emphasize the freedom of the South from 



sectional prejudice, and its healthful and 
pleasant climate. It is on these points that 
the South is most misunderstood. It is diffi- 
cult to make people who have not been 
South understand that the climate is 
plaesant in summer as well as in winter; 
that there is no more sickness in the South 
than in the North, and that Northern people 
are eagerly welcomed and are treated with 
more cordiality and hospitality than would 
be shown them in any Northern community 
into which they might move as strangers. 
Nearly every letter in the series has had 
something to say on these points. The 
writers of them went South with the usual 
notions that people at the North held, and 
have been surprised to see how wholly 
incorrect their impressions were. In 
nearly every case the Northern man who 
moves to the South becomes in time a 
more enthusiastic advocate of the advan- 
tages and attractions of the South than the 
Southern people themselves. 

A NUMBER of farmers in Florida have 
been experimenting with the camphor 
tree. A small quantity of camphor made 
from Florida trees has recently been sent 
to the Agricultural Department, Washing- 
ton. 

Northern and Southern People Alike. 

A Southern lady who during the past 
few years has several times made long 
visits in Massachusetts and Connecticut, 
and been on terms of intimacy with many 
of their best native-born families, says that 
she was surprised to find how slight was 
the difference between those whom she 
met and the people among whom her life 



EDITORIAL. 



117 



had been passed. "The points of resem- 
blance were so many and the differences 
^o few and so slight," she recently re- 
marked, "that before I had been a week in 
New England I felt as if I were among 
home folks, and I soon found I had made 
a similar impression upon my new friends. 
One dear old lady naively said to me, 'Why, 
Mrs. B., I cannot believe you were born 
and brought up in Georgia; I can see no 
difference between you and us. You are 
as like us as peas in a pod.' And, bless 
the sweet old lady, she was as like my 
dear grandmother of blessed memory as 
two women not kin to each other could 
possibly be." This Georgia woman's dis- 
covery has been made by thousands of 
people of both Northern and Southern 
birth within a few years. And there is no 
mystery about it. Our colonial ancestors 
were largely of a common stock. In the 
settlement of a new country they endured 
similar vicissitudes and hardships while 
making their homes in the American wil- 
derness, defending themselves from its sav- 
ages and laying the foundations of their re- 
spective commonwealths. The union of the 
colonies in the war for independence pre- 
pared the way for the establishment of that 
national government under which we now 
live, and made us a homogeneous people. 
Since the rancors of the late war between 
the States have been in large part obliter- 
ated, the people of the old stock of both 
sections have come together again with a 
renewed sentiment of fraternity that is all 
the stronger because of the years of mis- 
understanding and strife that kept them 
apart. The Southerner is as much at 
home in Boston, New York or Chicago as 
in Baltimore, Columbia or Montgomery, 
and Northern men and women find as good 
and pleasant neighbors and friends in the 
South as those from whom they parted at 
their birthplaces. All these things are 
working towards swelling the tide of immi- 
gration of American families to the South. 



The old cry "go West" is rapidly changing 
to "go South." We see evidences of this 
in our Northern exchanges, in the letters 
pouring in upon the Southern States, in 
the reports of real estate agents of sales to 
Northern buyers, and in the accounts given 
by railroad passenger agents of the increas- 
ing numbers of home-seekers on their 
lines. To the great natural advantages 
the South offers to her thrifty and enter- 
prising Northern friends, there is the addi- 
tional attraction which they discover as 
they come and visit us, that they are not 
coming among a strange people, but among 
"home folks," and this is the crowning 
reason for the increasing tide of immigra- 
tion from the North to the South. 

'•What Can Be Grown in the South?" 

We begin in this issue a series of articles 
on the agricultural capabilities of the 
South, by Col. M. B. Hillyard, of New 
Orleans, La. These articles will deal with 
grasses, with stock raising and dairying, 
with fruit growing and truck farming, and 
with other branches of Southern agricul- 
ture. The first two articles will treat of 
grasses. These articles will embrace the 
results of nearly a quarter of a century of 
observation and study of Col. Hillyard in 
the South, with considerable practical ex- 
perience there as well as at his former 
home in Delaware. They will answer 
practically such questions as arise in the 
mind of a farmer whose attention is directed 
to the South. Col. Hillyard has written 
much for agricultural and other periodicals 
in every part of the country, and is every- 
where recognized as being thoroughly well 
informed in all matters about which he 
writes, and as being a conscientious and 
reliable and conservative writer. 

In an article published in a recent issue 
of the Manufacturers' Record, it is shown 
that the South has been paying not less 
than |ioo,ooo,ooo a year for meat, stock 
feed and breadstuffs brought from the 



ii8 



EDITORIAL. 



West. The South ought to produce meat, 
cereals and hay sufficient for all its own 
needs and have a large surplus for export. 
With such a market for his products, it is 
not surprising that the Western farmer has 
imagined that the South could not grow 
these things. Happily this condition is 
rapidly changing. The South is more and 
more, every year, raising its own food sup- 
plies, and becoming less and less a con- 
sumer of Western corn, wheat and pork. 

Arkansas and the Atlanta Exposition. 

The Legislature of Arkansas has voted 
an appropriation of |io,ooo for an exhibit 
of the State's resources and attractions at 
the Atlanta Exposition. This exposition 
will afford an opportunity that every South- 
ern State should avail itself of on the most 
liberal scale. There has never before been 
so general and widespread an interest in 
the South as now, never before such an 
eager seeking after information about the 
South. The Atlanta Exposition will be 
visited by many thousands of persons from 
other parts of the country who are looking 
to the South as a possible future home, 
and who will avail themselves of this 
opportunity to study the whole South in 
epitome. Every Southern State should 
make the amplest provision for showing 
these visitors what they possess in the way 
of mineral, timber and soil resources and 
capabilities. 

The writer of the article in this issue en- 
titled "What of the New South?", Mr. F. 
B. Gordon, who calls himself "a recon- 
structed Yankee," is a prominent merchant 
of Columbus, Ga. Mr. Gordon went South 
from New England fifteen years ago, and 
as a Northern man who has lived long 
enough in the South to understand it, his 
views as set forth in his article are specially 
valuable. 

Mr. A. S. CoRBLY, of Chattanooga, Tenn., 
president of the Hamilton County Fruit 



Growers' Association, after a careiul and 
exhaustive investigation, estimates that the 
value of this year's crop of fruit within a 
radius often miles of Chattanooga will be 
$500,000. 

Mr. Carlyle McKinley, who has writ- 
ten for this issue of the Southern States 
an article on the need of bookkeeping on 
the farm, is a journalist of Charleston, S. 
C. His advice to farmers is timely and 
valuable. A merchant who should under- 
take to do business without keeping any 
record of his business, without knowing 
what departments were paying a profit, 
would be thought so certain of failure that 
no manufacturer or banker would be willing 
to credit him. It is just as necessary that 
a farmer should know what products are 
paying him and what are a source of loss, 
as that a merchant should know on what 
things he is making money and on what 
he is losing. 

Messrs. Slosson & Wilson, of Hous- 
ton, Texas, sending a check to pay for an 
advertisement in the Southern States, 
say : "The ad. was a good one. We have 
already heard from it from, at least eight 
Northern States. You are doing a good 
work for the South that should be, and is, 
highly appreciated." 

Effective instrumentalities in Soutliern 
Progress. 

The now widely-known and profoundly- 
appreciated editors of the Manufacturers'' 
Record do not weary at all in their mission 
of promoting Southern development and 
progress. They were not content with that 
powerful factor, the Mamifacturers' Record 
in forwarding these ends, but a year or so 
since they established the Southern 
States, a monthly magazine, as a special 
instrumentality in promoting immigration 
and agricultural development. 

The success of this magazine is no less 
remarkable than that of the Manufacturers' 
Record, and the effectiveness for its pur- 
pose is no less striking. While the Manu- 
facturers' Record is a standard among 
manufacturers and capitalists of the coun- 
try, among the masters and devotees of 
our great industries, the Southern States 



EDITORIAL. 



119 



is looked upon and regarded as authorita- 
tive and strictly reliable in its presentation 
of the resources of soil and climate and 
opportunity in the South. 

A specially effective, practical and at- 
tractive feature of the Southern States 
is the publication in each issue of the ex- 
periences of immigrants to the South in 
letters shewing results and comparisons, 
telling of the soil, climate, products, social 
and political conditions, presenting facts 
as they are, and invariably the experience 
of the immigrant is in favor of the South, 
not only in strict business interest, but as 
a pleasant and attractive home. 

Nothing can be more potential in favora- 
bly influencing immigration than this 
testimony of those who have gone before 
and viewed out the land. The prospective 
Northern and Western immigrant will take 
the word of- a whilom neighbor in prefer- 



ence to the most glowing treatise, and so 
these letters, coming from every section 
where immigration has found location, 
telling of practical experience, just how 
they found things, of the capabilities of the 
soil, the healthfulness of climate, the kind- 
ness and hospitality of the people, are ex- 
erting a most powerful influence in peo- 
pling our waste places and adding to our 
sturdy citizenship. 

The field for this good work is illimita- 
ble, and the history of this age will record 
the fact that the Southern States maga- 
zine and the Blamcfacturers^ Record, under 
the sagacious, comprehensive and brilliant 
management of R. H. and W. H. Edmonds, 
have been the mosteflTective instrumentali- 
ties in preparing it for the grand harvest of 
immigration and development which it is 
now rapidly disclosing. — Bessemer (Ala.) 
Weekly. 



Immigration Notes. 



Western Farmers in North Carolina. 

A party of 120 farmers from the North 
and West, including some from as far West 
as the Pacific coast and as far North as the 
Province of Ontario, recently arrived at 
Norfolk, Va., and from there started on a 
tour which included the trucking lands in 
the vicinity of Norfolk and Portsmouth, 
and the country along portions of the At- 
lantic Coast Line and especially Columbus 
county, N. C. As a result of the trip over 
fifty of the party decided to purchase 
farms in the vicinity of Chadbourne, where 
they will engage in general farming and 
in trucking and fruit growing. This sec- 
tion of the country has been described in 
previous numbers of The Southern 
States. In addition to the purchase of 
farm land a number of the visitors bought 
town lots in Chadbourne. 

Large Colony for Arkansas. 

What is known as the Home Coloniza- 
tion Company, of Redfield, South Dakota, 
informs The Southern States that it has 
arranged to place about 5000 families from 
the Dakotas on 50,000 acres of land lying 
along the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and 
Southern Railroad in Hempstead county. 
Ark., where they will engage not only in 
farming, but in stock-raising on an exten- 
sive scale, as much of the territory is 
especially adapted to that purpose. This 
company reports that a great many people 
in the Northwest are preparing to move 
South. F. E. Goodall is president, and 
W. A. Morris secretary of this company. 

Ex-Governor W. J. Northen, of Geor- 
gia, manager of the Immigration and In- 
vestment Bureau of that State, has sold 
100,000 acres of land in South Georgia to 
be colonized. 

The settlers will come principally from 
the States north of the Ohio river and the 
Northwest. They have been organized 
into an association by P. H. Fitzgerald, of 



Indianapolis, Ind., and, while a large 
number of soldiers of the late war are 
members, professional men, merctiants, 
clerks, mechanics and farmers, and others 
who are not ex-soldiers have joined 
the movement. The property to be 
purchased will be from the territory com- 
prised in Montgomery and Wilcox coun- 
ties, on the line of the Savannah, Ameri- 
cus & Montgomery Railroad. One tract 
of land approved consists of 116,000 acres, 
and the other of about 100,000 acres. The 
Montgomery site is about 100 miles directly 
west of Savannah and 140 miles southeast 
of Atlanta, while the Wilcox tract is forty 
miles west of the Montgomery land, which 
is located near Mount Vernon, the county- 
seat. The land is in the vincinity of the 
famous Georgia fruit belt, and is in what 
is termed the wire-grass section. Many 
Northern people have come to this part of 
the State, and have demonstrated by their 
success that large crops of grain and vege- 
tables can be raised, while the principle 
tree and bush fruits grow in abundance, as 
shown by the many farms and orchards 
along the line of the Georgia Southern & 
Florida Railroad. 

One of the tracts referred to will be 
bought. The colony will reserve 1000 
acres about the centre for a city, and June 
I they will begin the division of the lands 
by survey into city lots and farms. The 
farm lands nearest the city will be divided 
into five acre lots, the next adjacent will 
contain ten acres, thus gradually increas- 
ing until the loo-acre farm is reached. 

Governor Northen states that already 
over 1400,000 worth of the capital stock 
has been taken. In a letter to the Manu- 
facturers' Record he writes as follows: 

" The latter part of March I induced Mr. 
Fitzgerald to come to the State and look 
over properties upon which I had secured 
options and report to his people upon gen- 
eral conditions in Georgia. When he re- 
turned to Indianapolis he gave an elabo- 



IMMIGRA TION NO TES. 



121 



rate account of what he had seen and what 
is possible in this State. He then asked 
the membership to vote by postal card 
upon the selection for location. Up to 
date of his last issue the vote recorded 
was 7000 for Georgia and seventy-five for 
some one of the other Southern States. 
The vote was so overwhelmingly in favor 
of this State that Mr. Fitzgerald, in order 
to have his statements confirmed, ap- 
pointed a committee, who visited Georgia 
and decided on the locality indicated." 

The part of Georgia referred to has been 
described in a previous number of The 
Southern States and the magazine con- 
taining the article has been widely circu- 
lated in all the States from which this 
colony is made up. 

Purchase of 15,000 Acres in Georgia. 

Georgia has been selected as the locality 
for another important settlement. Ex- 
Governor Northen has sold 15,000 acres in 
Twiggs county, on the Ocmulgee river, 
about twenty-five miles from Macon, to a 
syndicate known as the Penn-Georgia 
colony. 

German Colony for North Carolina. 

A committee representing a colony of 
Germans recently accompanied M. V. 
Richards, Land and Immigration Agent, 
Southern Railway, Washington, D. C, on 
a trip through North Carolina, and has re- 
ported favorably upon a location in Stan- 
ley county, near Albemarle, the county 
seat. Negotiations are being made for 
5000 acres of land, a portion of which is 
under cultivation. 

Another Immigration Convention in 
Louisiana. 

An immigration convention recently 
held at Shreveport was attended by the 
wealthiest land owners, as well as real 
estate and railroad representatives from 
many sections of the State. It was decided 
to open headquarters at Shreveport and to 
employ agents to secure options on salable 
lands, which will be listed and representa- 
tives sent into the Northwest to secure 
purchasers. Resolutions were adopted 
favoring desirable immigration and ap- 
pointing a committee of 15 to take imme- 
diate charge of the immigration move- 
ment. Among those interested are Hon. 



J. Shepperd, E. W. LaBeaume, General 
Passenger Agent of the St. Louis South- 
western Railway, and Hon. Charles E. 
Shuler. A feature of the meeting was an 
address by Major F. Y. Anderson, Land 
Commissioner of the Queen & Crescent 
System, of Birmingham, Ala., who has 
been so successful in securing settlers for 
the territory along his line. 

Hon. Wm. S. Linton, Member of Con- 
gress from Saginaw, Mich., Hon. Henry F. 
Thomas, Member of Congress from Alle- 
gan, Mich., and Mr. E. C. Linton, manu- 
facturer from Saginaw, Mich., recently 
visited Florida for the purpose, it is said, 
of securing a million acres of land to be 
colonized with farmers and fruit-growers 
from the Northwest. 

A PARTY of 15 families from Le Mars, 
Iowa, will settle at Jennings, La. 

A PARTY of Holland families who sent 
representatives to examine land in the 
vicinity of Beaumont, Texas, have de- 
cided to purchase a tract and locate in that 
part of the State. 

A RECENT visitor to the Commissioner 
of Agriculture, of Tennessee, at Nashville, 
was Mr. T. V. Horton, of Minneapolis, 
who represents a Northwestern colony 
which desires 40,000 acres of land. 

Mr. J. N. Eberly, immigration agent of 
the Illinois Central Railroad, recently car- 
ried a party of fifty prospectors from In- 
diana, Iowa and Illinois to examine lands 
along the line of his road. 

Homeseekers with household goods 
and stock are moving every day into 
"Grand Prairie," Arkansas, from the 
Northwest. 

A COLONY of German farmers, recently 
placed near Lunenburg, Va., are reported 
to be prospering and making a success of 
farming in that locality. 

Mr. W. W. Jones, the enterprising rep- 
resentative of the Queen & Crescent 
Route, at Port Huron, Mich., has been 
visiting Chattanooga, Tenn., with a view 
to placing a settlement of 150 Scan- 
dinavian families. 

Mr. S. L. Cary, agent of the Southern 



122 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



Pacific Company, recently took South a 
party of 50 of the better class of farmers 
from the Northwest, who expect to settle 
in Southwest Louisiana in the vicinity of 
Jennings. 

Another Colonization Company. 

An enterprise which will doubtless re- 
sult in attracting many more immigrants 
to Georgia is the formation of a coloniza- 
tion company in Augusta, of which Dr. O. 
C. Pope is the head. The company has 
attracted the notice of a number of promi- 
nent men in that State who are subscrib- 
ing liberally to its stock. Dr. Pope is 
well known from his previous immigration 
work in other localities, and is highly en- 
dorsed by Hon. Patrick Walsh and others, 
who are conversant with his methods of 
work. Arrangements have been nearly 
completed to purchase 10,000 acres of land 
in Southern Georgia on which Dr. Pope 
expects to locate a settlement of Scandi- 
navians. He will go abroad in a few 
weeks and expects to secure about 
|2oo,ooo in stock subscriptions to the com- 
pany from European capitalists, also to 
make arrangements for obtaining a colony 
of a desirable class of European immi- 
grants. 

Western people continue to invest in 
Virginia land as is shown by the sale of 
what is known as the Dunn farm in Sus- 
sex county, also the Cocker farm in Din- 
widdle county. Purchasers were William 
H. Edwards, of Michigan, and Brown & 
Rizar, of Ohio. 

A COLONY of 16 persons from Steirer. 
mark, Germany, will settle in the vicinity 
of Blocton, Alabama, and engage in truck 
farming. Twelve other families are ex- 
pected to join them within a few weeks. 

Several Nebraska farmers have been 
prospecting in the neighborhood of Rome, 
Ga., with a view to purchasing land. 

The citizens of Shelbyviile, Tenn., have 
decided to form an organization to en- 
courage immigration to that section. W. 
G. Evans is acting as president, and Lee 
H. Russ as secretary. 

The State of West Virginia is going to 
make a systematic and energetic effon to 



secure a proper share of the immigration 
to the South. The Board of Public Works 
of the State has appointed Mr. Thomas 
Popp, of Charleston, W. Va., Commis- 
sioner of Immigration to the State. 

A number of French capitalists who have 
large interests in Florida, and are engaged 
in the mining and shipping of phosphate 
rock on a large scale, have organized a 
company to develop agricultural lands. 
They have recently bought 20,000 acres of 
land on which they propose to settle 
French peasant families. 

A considerable number of farmers 
from Ohio and elsewhere in the West have 
visited Dinwiddle county, Va., recently, 
and several of them have bought farms. 

A RECENT addition to the German 
colony at Zidonia, Ala., consists of a num 
ber of German families from Iowa, Illinois 
and other Northwestern States. They 
will follow the example of the present set- 
tlers in cultivating fruit and vegetables. 

Nearly seven thousand acres of land 
have changed hands in Columbia county, 
Florida, within the past month. It is 
understood that much of the land will be 
settled by fruit and vegetable growers from 
outside of the State. 

Among the real estate sales in Queen 
Anne's county on the Eastern Shore of 
Maryland, were three farms aggregating 
118,876, and wh tt is known as Darland 
Manor for $6,675. The purchasers were 
the First National Bank of Centreville, 
Md., and Mrs. Eliza MuUikin. 

Dk. J. M. Tinsley, also E. Fithian, of 
Champaign, 111., have purchased two farms 
aggregating 3400 acres of land in the 
vicinity of Canton, Miss. 

A three hundred and thirty acre 
farm in Norfolk county has been sold for 
$7,000 to a Mr. Carliss of Illinois, who will 
locate upon it and engage in vegetable 
growing on an extended scale. Mr. Car- 
liss accompanied the Western excursion 
which is described elsewhere in this issue, 
and selected Virginia for his home. 



General Notes. 



The Value of Expositions. 

Col. J. B. Killebrew, of Nashville, Tenn., 
whose article in the April number of The 
Southern States on "The Southward 
Tendency of Emigration" has been widely 
commented on and commended, recently 
delivered an address before the General 
Assembly of Tennessee on the necessity 
and advantages of the proposed Centen- 
'nial Exposition to be held at Nashville in 
1896. The address was not only an able 
advocacy of the Nashville Exposition, but 
was a convincing argument in behalf of the 
value and advantage of expositions in gen- 
eral. The following is an extract from 
the address: 

"The powerful and beneficent influence 
of expositions in shaping and developing 
new industries, and in giving profitable 
and certain employment to labor, is one of 
the marked features of the latter half of 
the nineteenth century, and is now recog- 
nized by all civilized nations. Their great 
value as object lessons, in which are as- 
sembled all the raw materials, all indus- 
trial inventions and appliances, all artistic 
and educational work, and all new discov- 
eries in science, constantly grows upon 
enlightened communities. 

The concensus of opinion now is that no 
agency hitherto made known is so effective 
m bringing about good and great results 
to the world as expositions, and nothing 
teaches so rapidly or so forcefully. In 
communities whose growth has been slow 
and development tardy, expositions have 
done more to drive away stagnation and 
quicken into new and vigorous life such 
communities than schools, the public 
press, railways, or any other educational 
agency whatever. 

However great the amount expended in 
such enterprises, it is repaid many fold in 
the increased value of property, in the in- 
flux of capital and labor, in the awakening 
of fresh intelligence, enterprise, and in- 
dustry, and in the general elevation and 



education of the people. Besides all these, 
there is an actual return of money, in a 
majority of instances, to the contributors 
to such enterprise, and so they practically 
cost nothing to the projectors. 

Fruit Crops in the South. 

A summary of reports from the more 
important fruit producing sections of 
the South indicates that the harvests this 
year will be more than usually abundant. 
The melon crop in Florida, for example, 
it is calculated will aggregate S,ooo car- 
loads coming from an area of 11,000 acres. 
In the pear growing counties, especially 
Escambia, the pear crop will be one of the 
largest ever picked. Already the Florida 
strawberries have been shipped extensively 
to New York, while in Georgia and the 
Carolinas an unusual yield is certain. Ex- 
perts who have been examining the 
orchards in West Tenessee, North Missis- 
sippi and Eastern Arkansas, report a good 
outlook, especially for apples and peaches. 
The indications for a remarkably large 
harvest of peaches has attracted special 
attention to the Geo'rgia fruit belt. From 
the Fort Valley peach district, from along 
the Georgia, Southern Florida railroad, 
and from many other points, come the 
same statements that the crop will be the 
largest in years. It is estimated that fully 
500 carloads will be shipped from Fort 
Valley alone. The Ohio fruit companies 
in this section have already given an order 
for 50,000 crates or 300,000 baskets for their 
crop, and expect to spend from ^,000 to 
|8,ooo per month in labor during the har- 
vesting season. 

A STAVE mill is to be put up at Gillett, 
Ark. A large brick school house has just 
been built at the same place. 

A Dakota flan's Opinion of Qeorgia. 

Mr. N. C. Lawrence, formerly member 
of the Legislature of North Dakota, has 
been investigating the attractions and 



124 



GENERAL NOTES. 



capabilities of South Georgia. In an inter- 
view with a reporter of the Macon Tele- 
graph he said : 

"There is a feeling in some parts of the 
North that the people of the South are not 
as friendly as they should be and that the 
people of the North will not be welcomed 
among them. I have found that in this 
opinion they are badly mistaken. I never 
met a more friendly or hospitable people 
than those of the South, and I find that 
there is always a welcome to honest, indus- 
trious men to come among them and bring 
their families. I find that not as much at- 
tention is given to stock raising as there 
should be, as this country is adapted to 
that kind of business, and I believe it 
would pay handsomely if pursued. I find 
that the reports given out as to the im- 
mense acreage in fruit lands is by no means 
exaggerated. I have found that those par- 
ties who have invested in lands here are 
well pleased with their investments. 1 
have found that those people who have 
come here from the North and are living 
here, are perfectly satisfied with all of their 
surroundings. I am indeed well pleased 
and shall advise my friends to come 
South." 

A CORRESPONDENT writmg from Van 
Buren, Ark., May 2d, says: "I noticed 
at the station here wagon after wagon load 
of strawberries being unloaded for ship- 
ment. Not less than 47 car loads of straw- 
berries have already been shipped from 
this point to places outside of the State. 
They have been sent to St. Louis, Denver, 
Des Moines, St. Paul and elsewhere." 

In the vicinity of Charlotte Harbor, 
Florida, rutabaga and other turnips have 
been grown this year, which range from 
26 to 34 inches m circumference In the 
same locality, Mr. M. F. Gidde s has har- 
vested a crop of onions from three-quar- 
ters of an acre, planted in November, the 
result of which will net him a profit of 
nearly I500. 

The Riverside Land and Irrigation 
Company, which has recently been organ- 
ized at Jennmgs, La , will open up a large 
tract of property for rice culture. Presi- 
dent O. S. Dolby, of Lake Charles, states 
that the company will put in about 400 
acres of rice this year, and will also fur- 



nish water for irrigating 1500 to 1800 acres 
of rice for others. 

Mr. J. C. Haile, general passenger 
agent of the Central railroad of Georgia 
and the Ocean Steamphip Company of 
Savannah, has issued an elaborately illus- 
trated folder, giving a general and com- 
plete e.xposition of the Cotton States and 
International Exposition, which is to open 
at Atlanta in September. 

Mr. p. B. Tobin, of Augusta, Ga., has 
been elected president of the Exchangeand 
Board of Trade of that city. Mr. Tobin is 
an energetic and progressive business 
man, and under his presidency the Ex- 
change will undoubtedly become a valua- 
ble and effective agent in promoting the 
continued advancement and development 
of Augusta and the territory tributary to it. 

The present year is witnessing a remark- 
able reversal of former conditions. We 
have published in recent issues accounts 
of the shipments of corn from Alabama 
and Mississippi to the West, and now Ala- 
bama and Georgia are shipping beef cattle. 
Recently, eleven car loads were shipped 
from Tuscaloosa, Ala., to Chicago. Several 
carloads have been shipped from North- 
western Georgia to Cincinnati and else- 
where. 

Negotiations are pending for the 
establishment of an ice factory, a handle 
factory and a machine shop at Gillett, 
Ark. 

The Southern Farm Agency, at Lynch- 
burg, Va., has had several large excursion 
parties of farmers and others from the 
Northwest looking over Virginia, and a 
great many of them have bought farms. 

The Young Men's Business League of 
Augusta, Ga., has recently issued two or 
three pamphlets with information concern- 
ing Augusta and the surrounding country. 
One of them contains the articles written 
for the Southern States in 1894 by Col. 
D. B. Dyer, a Northern man who has set- 
tled at Augusta. 

The Young Men's Business League, of 
Macon, Ga., is preparing to hold a peach 
carnival in June. 

A Business Men's Association has 



GENERAL NOTES. 



125 



been organized at Suffolk, Va., with L. P. 
Harper as president, and P. L. Pruden as 
secretary. The purpose of the association 
is to promote the development of Suffolk 
and the surrounding country. 

A DISPATCH from Houston, Texas, states 
that the Stafford Smith farm, seventeen 
miles west of the city and containing 14,000 
acres, has been sold to Chicago and St. 
Louis parties for |ioo,ooo. 

The Times-Union gives the following 
dimensions of vegetables grown this sea- 
son at White City, Fla.: "Onions, 5 inches 
in diameter; celery, 18 inches high; cucum- 
bers, 9 inches long; parsnips, 2^ inches in 
diameter; tomatoes, 4 inches in diameter; 
strawberries, i inch in diameter; turnips, 
4 inches in diameter; cabbage, 10 inches in 
diameter; buckwheat, 30 inches high; 
sweet corn, 90 inches high; oats, 56 inches 
high; red clover, 20 inches high; cauli- 
flower, 6 inches in diameter; Irish potatoes, 
weighing 9 ounces each; growth of grape 
vines since February, 48 inches; canta- 
loupes nearly ripe." 

Building lots at Portsmouth, Va., to the 
amount of 130,000 were sold recently at an 
auction sale. 

Farmers from New York and Pennsyl- 
vania have been visiting King George 
county, Va., with a view to purchasing 
land for sheep raising. 

The completion of the Stuttgart and 
Arkansas River Railroad was elaborately 
celebrated on April 19th at Gillett, the 
point towards which the road has been 
building. 

Mr. Richard Bell, of Brule, Douglas 
county. Wis., purchased a far n near 
Greensboro, N. C, and said lu a cor- 
respondent of The Southern States: 
"North Carolina is far ahead of what I ex- 
pected to find. The land is superior to the 
land in Wisconsin, and almost any char- 
acter of crop can be produced. I am 
pleased with the people and appreciate the 
cordial reception given myself and family. 
Several of my old neighbors will follow me 
to North Carolina this fall. 

The North Alabama Industrial and 
Colonization Company is the name of a 



new organization at Gadsden, Ala., formed 
for the purpose of buying and selling farm 
lands along the line of the Southern Rail- 
way. Negotiations are already in progress 
for settling up about 30,000 acres of land 
with farmers from the North and West. 
W. G. Brockway, a prominent business 
man of Gad den, is manager. The North- 
ern interests of the company will be 
represented by M. V. Richards, land and 
immigration agent Southern Railway, 
Washington, D. C. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

flalaria and Drinking Water. 

Editor Southern States : 

About one year ago, and before I had 
seen Mr. Randall's article on malaria, etc., 
in your magazine, I wrote a series of ques- 
tions to our most widely-circulated South- 
ern agricultural paper on the subject of 
preventing and avoiding malaria, remark- 
ing that the first element of success in 
farming was health. I suggested that my 
inquiries be submitted to an expert for 
reply. Several months later the questions 
appeared, but answer — never. Then I 
addressed letters to many of the public 
scientific institutions in the far South — 
agricultural-experiment stations, medical 
colleges, State universities, etc. In sev- 
eral instances very courteous and sympa- 
thetic replies came back, but no scientific 
information of value. One "savant," 
writing on official paper from Georgia's 
"centre of sweetness and light," jocosely 
advised me to sell out and move into 
North Georgia. Having deliberately se- 
lected Southwest Georgia as my residence, 
and having thoroughly tried it and never 
having had malaria in my family, I have 
not taken his advice. 

At last I have found in Parkes' Hygiene 
(the great English work on this subject) 
considerable matter highly confirmatory 
of Mr. Randall's view. I condense the 
following from pages 21 to 49, vol. i, 
American edition : 

Hippocrates states that the spleens of 
those who drink the water of marshes be- 
come hard and enlarged. Rhazes aflirmed 
that it generated fevers. Little attention 
seems to have been paid to this remark, 
and in modern times the opinions of Lauciri, 
that the air of marshes is the sole cause of 



126 



GENERAL NOTES. 



intermittents, has been so generally 
adopted that the possibility of the intro- 
duction of the cause by means of water as 
well as air was overlooked. Still it has 
been a very general belief among the in- 
habitants of marshy countries that water 
could produce fever. 

In the south of India, Mr. Bettington, of 
the Civil Service, says: "It is notorious 
that the water produces fevers and affec- 
tions of the spleen." There is strong 
proof of the truth of this, both in his own 
and other reports. He refers to villages 
placed under the same conditions as to 
marsh air but in some of which fevers are 
prevalent, in others not ; the only differ- 
ence is that the latter are supplied with 
pure water, the former with marsh or 
"nullah" water, full of vegetable debris. 
In one village there were two sources of 
supply — a tank fed by surface and marsh 
water and a spring. Those only who 
drank the tank water got fever. 

In another notoriously unhealthy village 
(Tamtatz) a well was dug, and the in- 
habitants became healthy. 

People who use the water of streams 
draining forest lands and ricefields suffer 
more severely from fever and ague than 
those inhabitants of the open plain, who 
get their water from a soil on which wheat 
grows. In the former case there is far 
more vegetable matter in the water. Even 
where there are no marshes fever and ague 
may be very bad, if the water used drains 
forest land. Where a sandy soil is malari- 
ous, as in the lands of Southern France, 
it is found on analysis that the sand con- 
tains much vegetable matter. The same 
facts obtain in England and other coun- 
tries. In many instances digging wells 
where the inhabitants have been using 
ditch water has done away with malarial 
fevers. The cases can be greatly multi- 
plied. Military and naval reports are full 
of examples of malarial fevers among 
soldiers that are forced to use surface 
waters, or water containing decaying 
vegetable matter. 

The case of the ship Argo is an ex- 
extremely strong one, for it is a case where 
the air could not have affected the ques- 
tion at all. The ship sailed with two 
others from Algiers to France, bearing 
soldiers that had had the same environ- 
ment, food and water before embarking. 



The soldiers on the Argo were supplied 
with marsh water and fever raged among 
them, killing thirteen among them during 
the short voyage. The crew on the same 
ship drank pure water and were well. 
The soldiers on the other two ships did 
not suffer from any disease. 

It seems as if the nature of the soil were 
of little consequence in regard to the 
healthfulness. Chalk, limestone, sand, 
even granite soils are infested, wherever 
analysis shows a large percentage of 
organic matter. Some sands, which ap- 
pear quite free from such admixture to 
the eye, are nevertheless proved full of 
decaying vegetable substance. 

Curiously, the American Supplement to 
Parkes' Hygiene, of over one hundred 
pages, contains nothing about malaria. 

The great work on this subject, I learn 
from Dr. Billings, surgeon-general of 
U. S. A., is by Dr. G. M. Sternberg, 
"Malaria and Malarial Diseases," William 
Wood & Co., New York City, 1S94. Some 
notes from this would, I am sure, interest 
your readers, but I have not access to it. 
It is probably too technical for a layman. 

Although the above citations from Dr. 
Parkes' Hygiene do not prove that malaria 
is not communicated through the air, they 
do prove it is often, perhaps, generally, 
communicated through drinking water, 
especially that containing organic matter, 
such as would be found in tanks, cisterns, 
shallow wells, wells lined with plank, wells 
contiguous to buildings, more dangerous 
if on the lower side, etc. 

Artesian well water, the water from deep 
dug wells or springs, especially if isolated, 
and from wells lined with brick or stone 
or earthen pipe is best. If suspected 
water must be temporarily used, it should 
be boiled and cooled before being drunk. 
The Chinese always boil water before 
drinking it. Dr. M. Nicholson, of this 
county, informs me that recent medical 
magazines contain well authenticated 
instances of malaria induced by drinking 
water. 

Whether the germs producing malaria 
enter the body through the lungs as well 
as the stomach is a question for bacteriol- 
ogists. If Dr. Sternberg or others have 
proved this they may suggest additional 
precautions. T. Benton Brooks. 

Bainbridge, Ga. 



GENERAL NOTES. 



127 



A New Yorker's Opinion of the South. 

Editor Southern States: 

I have derived great pleasure from the 
perusal of a couple of numbers of your 
ably edited magazine. Its purpose, that 
of directing public attention to the un- 
equalled resources of the various sections 
of the Southern States, is a work in which 
I take the deepest interest. 

Several years ago a tentative effort was 
made in New Orleans in the same direc- 
tion. An association was formed by a 
large number of prominent business men, 
and money liberally subscribed. For a 
short period I acted (involuntarily) as its 
chairman, but I thought the time was not 
propitious, and soon retired from active 
participation in the work. Wheat at |i 
a bushel was, in my opinion, a reward for 
agricultural labor too attractive to be dis- 
cussed by epistolary arguments. 

Our labor, however, was not wholly in 
vain. Circulars were invariably acknowl- 
edged with expressions of pleasure, and 
in many instances Western farmers re- 
sponded in person, with what result I am 
unable to state. 

The conditions then existing have under- 
gone a radical change. Wheat cannot be 
sold for %\ a bushel, and I regret having 
to express the belief that it will be many 
years, if ever, before it will approximate 
that price again. 

Diversity of crops is the paying policy 
now, selecting such as are best suited to 
the situation, climate, soil and the readiest 
and cheapest means of transportation to 
market. 

That cruel tyrant, stern necessity, will 
compel the cotton planters to abandon, so 
soon as circumstances will permit, the old- 
fashioned one-crop plan. In the past, 
when cotton enjoyed the title of king, 
Europe could easily consume all of our 
surplus crop. But there is reason to fear, 
notwithstanding the annual increase of de- 
mand for spinning, that the addition of 
foreign grown crops to our enormous pro- 
duction will continue to overstock the 
markets of the world, and leave the plan- 
ter at the tender mercy of the spinner. 

Wedded, as the old-fashioned cotton 
planter is, to the ways of his progenitor, 
there has come to him a voice proclaiming 
in trumpet tones : Diversify your crop, or 
be inextricably ruined ; abandon your 



smokehouse and corn-crib in the West ; 
rely upon the fertility of your soil and 
your unexampled climate for all the "hog 
and hominy" needed by your family, and 
grow on your own land every bushel of 
corn requisite for your stock. 

Cotton can be successfully grown, with 
the stimulus of fertilizers, in certain sec- 
tions of the Southern States where cereals 
find their natural soil. Therefore, to grow 
sparingly of cotton for a money crop, and 
wheat, corn, oats and hay in excess of 
home requirements, will promote the gen- 
eral interest in an advanced price of cotton. 
The Western farmer, however comfort- 
ably he may be settled on his broad acres, 
from which, as things are, there cannot be 
gained any profit over cost of production, 
with nothing to show for hard work but a 
mere subsistence, and deprived, by cir- 
cumstances beyond his control, of the 
comforting hope that present conditions 
are but transient, may well consider 
whether it would not be better to seek a 
home in the genial South, where work of 
profit can be pleasurably done during nine 
months of summer, and in the end prove 
more profitable, as it certainly will be 
more comfortable, healthful and promo, 
tive of happiness. 

That the affairs of men are in an ab- 
normally transition state, no intelligent 
observer will deny. Nor will it be dis- 
puted that it requires prevision to lessen 
the effect of evils as they fall to our lot. 
What course to pursue must be solved by 
each individual in accordance with special 
conditions, and the belief accorded to the 
views I have attempted to express. 

Although I am a Northern man, but 'i^w 
have had a wider experience with Southern 
people, nor enjoyed a better opportunity 
to observe their system of agriculture. 

For over half a century I have been en- 
gaged exclusively in commerce with the 
South, traveling from Virginia to Texas - 
residing four years in Mobile and thirty 
years in New Orleans. As to the character 
of the people I have come in contact with, 
I can assert that I have found them hos- 
pitable, courteous and kind-hearted. As 
friends, most reliable. In the long jieriod 
of my intercourse and residence among 
them, I cannot recall a single instance of 
incivility. 

Of their system of agriculture, 1 cannot 



128 



GENERAL NOTES. 



speak in terms of commendation. In such 
a climate, all that is needed to make the 
farm self-sustaining can be easily grown. 
In Louisiana two crops of hay and vege- 
tables will come to perfection in the long 
summer. 

Planting for one crop, taking all the risk 
of a failure, or an overproduction, to be 
sold at low prices, which is worse, and 
buying all supplies, from corn and hogs to 
vegetables, is simply traveling on the high 
road to poverty. 

Without statistics of longevity to refer 
to, but judging from my own experience 
and observation, people of ordinary pru- 
dence in eating and drinking are as little 
subject to sickness in any one of the 
Southern States as elsewhere, if not less 
so. Louisiana abounds in old people. 

Come what may of good or bad luck, 
resultant, as the case may be, from good 
or bad management, and rarely from bad 
reasons, the Southern man seldom deserts 
the ship. He loves his State, his home, 
his neighbors, and has, as well he may, 
abounding faith that his land will repay all 
losses. 

Children seldom desert the old neigh- 
borhood to go East or West, and never do 
large bodies of people leave the Sunny 
South, and in that they are supremely 
wise. The injunction "Go West, Young 
Man," will still be heard from land boom- 
ers and railroad agents, but never again 
from "Printing House Square." 

Edward Fenner. 

Center Moriches, N. Y. 

Causes of Immigration to the South. 

Editor Southern States : 

Seven years ago a small immigration 
movement struck this section, and has 
continued to grow and develop each year, 
until the present time, when it has become 
of such magnitude as to far exceed our 
utmost expectations. We may add that 
we have given the matter of the cause of 
this movement a good deal of thought. 
Of one thing we may rest assured, it is not 
because there is no longer room in the 
Western and Northern States. It is not 
because property has gone above the 
reach of the immigrant, as it is a well 
established fact that property has been 
depreciating in value in most of the 
Western States and Territories for several 



years. Hence we must look in other 
directions for the real cause of the unpre- 
cedented flow of capital and immigration 
mto the Southern States. 

In our opinion one of the chief primary 
causes of this movement is to be found in 
the great awakening of the business public 
itself of the South, in the new activity and 
energy displayed by our immigration 
bureaus, our business leagues, boards of 
trade and real estate dealers in bringing 
to the attention of the middle classes of 
the Northern, Eastern and Western States 
the many advantages that the South offers, 
both to the capitalist seeking investments 
and the poor man who is looking for a 
home where the conditions of life are less 
unfavorable than in many of the Western 
States that are so subject to droughts and 
cyclones in summer and blizzards iri 
winter. To this activity on the part of the 
interested agencies of the South's develop- 
ment may be added the terrible drouths 
with their consequent crop failures, which 
have been general throughout the Western 
States during the past few years, as well 
as the general depression in business 
circles, which are always most severe in 
sections where large booms have been the 
means adopted for the inflation of prices. 
These diff'erent agencies have been a 
potent factor in creating a widespread 
feeling of unrest and dissatisfaction among 
all classess, from the day laborer to the 
capitalist, coming, as they have, just on 
the eve of a grand awakening of the 
Southern States to a realization of their 
own greatness, and when they are so well 
prepared and able to demonstrate and 
prove by actual results the many advan- 
tages and opportunities which they have 
to off'er. 

The continual good reports going out 
from the Northern colonies who have 
located in the South, aided by such staunch 
friends to Southern interest and industries 
as the Manufacturers'' Record, the 
Southern States magazine and other 
publications, To all these agencies rather 
than to any one fact in particular may be 
attributed the wonderful revolution that 
has taken place in the direction which 
immigration has taken during the last 
five years. 

Probably no section of the South has 
enjoyed a larger share of the benefit from 



GENERAL NOTES. 



129 



this immigration movement than has 
Southwest Louisiana, and Acadia Parish 
in particular. A conservative estimate 
would place the number of Northern 
people who have settled in this prairie 
district of the State in the past few years 
at from 8000 to 10,000 people. They come 
from no one particular section, but from 
all over the United States, their custom 
being to visit this country during the 
winter months, go home and dispose of 
their property and return and settle the 
following fall. Last winter there were 
more than double as many land seekers 
in Crowley investigating this section as 
any other season in the history of the 
place. So great has been this movement 
that at times it has been a serious question 
to provide for the people. Hotels have 
been crowded, with not a vacant dwelling, 
barn or shed in the place. 

If the past five years are any criterion by 
which to judge, from the number of people 
we have had here this winter, next fall will 
witness the utmost activity in the real 
estate market. We find there is a vast 
difference between the class of immigrants 
that are now locating in our section and 
the first ones that came five or six years 
ago. If we sold a man eighty acres or a 
quarter of a section of land at from $1.25 
to I2.50 per acre it was all we hoped to do, 
while at the present time it is no un- 
common thing for a man to purchase one 
or more whole sections of land, and one 
instance we recall of a sale of 2200 acres 
in one body. From this amount down to 
small farms of 160 acres each, ranging in 
prices from |8.oo to I35.00 per acre, thus 
showing that it is the middle classes that 
are now making their homes here, or those 
men who have been able to save some- 
thing after paying their debts and bringing 
their families here, demonstrating the fact 
that they are a thrifty, saving class of 
people and that they have faith enough in 
the country after once investigating its 
advantages to invest the savings of a 
lifetime in Louisiana soil. 

We are daily in receipt of scores of 
inquiries from every corner of the United 
States asking for maps and descriptive 
matter relative to this section. We have 
several requests on hand now from colo- 
nies of from fifty to 200 families who wish 
to locate in the South. 

Crowley, La. W. W. Duson & Bro. 



Pennsylvanians Delighted with Georgia. 

Editor Southern States : 

As one of a partv of excursionists who re- 
cently went from Pennsylvania to inspect 
the country about La Grange and elsewhere 
in the State of Georgia, I want to give 
expression briefly through your magazine 
to the high estimate that we formed of the 
attractions and advantages and capabili- 
ties of that section of the South. For 
myself let me say that it is difficult to find 
in the North and East among railroad 
employes anything like the consideration 
shown towards travelers that I have 
unifornily observed and experienced dur- 
ing my visits to the South, and in this 
respect I want to particularly emphasize the 
Atlanta & West Point road, on which we 
traveled from Atlanta to La Grange, which 
was the chief objective point of the excur- 
sion. All the members of the party were 
delighted with the country and were 
amazed at its fertility and its general adap- 
tability to agriculture and fruit growing, as 
well as its advantages for successful stock 
raising and dairying. One member of the 
party, who is an enterprising farmer in the 
East, said in my hearing that he had not 
passed through a finer section of country 
where there was so much evidence 
of thrift and prosperity, and that it 
reminded him of the rich valleys 
of Eastern Pennsylvania and the fam- 
ous Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. 
All were charmed with the generous hos- 
pitality extended by the Georgia people, 
and returned home one and all bearing 
with them golden opinions of the kindness 
of the Southern people. Many of them 
said that they, and very likely some of 
their friends, would return in the near 
future to stay. Some of the excursionists 
bought land and selected other tracts for 
some of their friends, who are expected to 
accompany another excursion party from 
the same section. James L. Drai»k. 

Pittsburg, Pa. 

Immigration Prospects. 

Editor Southern States: 

I am negotiating with several parties in 
South Dakota, Oiiio, Nebraska, Indiana 
and Ohio, for the sale of farm lands, and 
feel positive that most, if not all of them, 
will buy later on, in the autumn, as it is 
too late now to start farmin>; in this sec- 



I30 



GENERAL NOTES. 



tion, and those who have "pitched" their 
crops would not be willing to give up their 
farms until another crop is made. Those 
who have visited this section went back 
home well pleased, and it keeps me busy 
answering their letters. I sold a place to 
an Ohio party this spring and he is hard at 
work, and already has a nice crop in the 
ground and is well pleased and will be in- 
strumental in bringing many others to buy 
next fall. A great many write, wanting to 
trade, but I cannot do that unless they 
"throw in" their places, and agree to pay 
taxes on them for ten years. An electric car 
line is contemplated from Norfolk to this 
town, and I expect to sell quite a number 
of farms along this contemplated road as 
well as numbers of residence lots to the 
business men of Norfolk. I have just re- 
ceived a letter trom a party in Pennsyl- 
vania who was here looking around about 
two months ago, and he says that he will 
be back in October and bring several 
friends with him, and will buy a certain 
farm he thought well of when here, pro- 
vided I have not got another one that will 
suit him better. 

The crops so far are looking well in this 
section. There will be a good fruit crop 
also this year. 

Suffolk, Va. J. Walter Hosier. 

A Northerner's Impressions of a South= 
ern City. 

Editor Sotiihern States : 

Ordinarily it would not naturally be ex- 
pected that one could give a very graphic 
account of a city in which he had spent 
but ten days, yet when a New Englander, 
thoroughly imbued with New England 
prejudices against everything pertaining 
to those States which a third of a century 
ago belonged to the Southern Confed- 
eracy, visits one of those States for the 
express purpose of investigating its insti- 
tutions and comparing them with Northern 
institutions of the same class, he will be 
able, even after so brief a stay, to write 
much that will possess more interest to 
those people who reside north of Mason 
and Dixon's line than anything that could 
be written by a resident, no matter how 
well he might be informed or how impar- 
tial a judge he might be. 

If one will examine a topographical map 
of North Carolina he will notice that the 



State is naturally divided into three dis- 
tinct sections, each varying in elevation. 
The first of these sections, and lowest in 
point of elevation, comprises that portion 
of the State which lies along the seacoast. 
It extends back from the ocean, from fifty 
to 150 miles, and gradually rises to an ele- 
vation of 300 feet. The second extends to 
the base of the mountains, and attains an 
elevation of 1000 feet. The third section 
comprises the Western and mountainous 
portion of the State, and is traversed by 
two ranges of mountains, some of the 
peaks of which have an altitude of nearly 
7000 feet. Nearly in the centre of the mid- 
dle section, and oractically in the centre 
of the State, is the city of Raleigh, which 
is the capital of the State, and also the 
capital of the county of Wake, in which it 
is situated. 

Naturally one of the first inquiries which 
the capitalist or investor makes is in 
relation to the amount of taxation. This 
of course varies from year to year, but the 
variation is so small that a tolerably accu- 
rate estimate may be made. The munici- 
pal tax will generally amount to about 
|i.2o on each |ioo of assessed valuation. 
In addition to this there is a county tax of 
about 20 per cent., and a State tax of about 
25 per cent. Besides these there is a 
general school tax of about 16 per cent., 
a graded school tax of about 20 per cent., 
and a special road tax of 6^ per cent.; 
thus making a total of about $2.08 upon 
every |ioo of assessed valuation. These 
figures are merely approximate, but it 
may be stated in general that the amount 
of taxation varies from $2 to I2.20. This 
seems to be a rather light rate when com- 
pared with that of some of our Northern 
cities, but it is partially offset by the 
prevalent custom of assessing at only one- 
half of the actual value. Thus the 
amount of taxation is really less than in 
most Northern cities. The assessed valu- 
ation of Raleigh is |4,8oo,ooo, which rep- 
resents an actual value of nearly |io,ooo,- 
000, which is divided among a population 
of 16,000 souls, giving an average of over 
$600 to every man, woman and child in 
the city. The funded indebtedness is less 
than |2oo,ooo — a showing with which, it is 
believed, but few Northern cities can well 
compare. 

Manufacturing interests are by no means 



GENERAL NOTES. 



131 



neglected, but in the list of manufacturing 
cities, Raleigh would take a very low rank. 
Its inhabitants, however, are thoroughly 
aroused as to the desirability of increasing 
and extending its industries, and we may 
expect that in the near future Raleigh 
will be the centre of a considerable manu- 
facturing trade. Meanwhile, the manu- 
facturer looking for a location in which to 
establish a plant, may be assured of a 
cordial reception and a hearty support 
from the whole community. Raleigh is 
the centre of an extensive agricultural 
region, the chief staples of which are 
cotton and tobacco ; but the practice, 
which, until recently has been persistently 
followed, of taking crop after crop and 
returning nothing to the land, has so 
exhausted the soil, that at present the 
yield per acre is but half that of former 
years. Wake county now produces about 
half a million pounds of tobacco and about 
twenty thousand bales of cotton, all of 
which, as well as some from adjoining 
counties, is handled by Raleigh merchants. 
Of late years considerable attention has 
been given to fruit-growing and stock- 
raising, but these industries are as yet in 
a too immature condition to be fully 
described. 

The most important element in the 
prosperity of Raleigh seems to arise from 
the patronage which is given to its public 
institutions, yet compared with the popu- 
lation, there are very few hotels, and it 
seems as though during a session of the 
legislature, or any important event, they 
would be taxed to the utmost to provide 
suitable accommodation for all guests. 

Among the public buildings may be 
noticed the State capitol, a handsome 
structure built of granite taken from a 
quarry in the immediate vicinity of the 
city. Supplementary to this is the gov- 
ernor's mansion, an elegant structure of 
brick and marble. The postoffice building 
was built by the United States Government 
at a cost of half a million dollars. It is 
built of granite. The Supreme court 
building faces Capitol square. Externally, 
it is plain and unattractive, but the interior 
is elaborately finished. It contains not 
only the rooms occupied by the court, but 
the offices of the many public officials as 
well. It also contains both the Supreme 
court library and the State library which 



consists of nearly fifty thousand volumes. 
Besides these there is the North Carolina 
Insane Asylum, the North Carolina Insti- 
tution for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind, the 
State penitentiary and the Agricultural 
Experiment Station, with a complete 
equipmen*^ of buildings. 

Passing mention should also be made of 
the City Hall and the Wake County 
Courthouse. Nor should an account of 
the beautiful parks, of which there are 
four within the city limits, be omitted. 
Then the State Fair Grounds, with elegant 
buildings, and a very fine race course are 
located but two miles from the city, and 
just beyond the State Experiment Earm. 
While just east of the city are both the 
Federal and Confederate cemeteries. He 
who imagines that adequate provision for 
public instruction is not made in the 
South will be much surprised if he visit 
Raleigh. Besides the fine graded schools 
of which the city boasts, and each of 
which is conducted in the most admirable 
manner, there are six institutions where a 
higher education is given. Space prevents 
any attempt at a detailed description. 
The North Carolina College and the 
Raleigh Male Academy are for boys, 
and St. Mary's School and Peace Institute 
are for girls. The former is under the 
patronage of the Episcopal church, and 
the latter is controlled by the Presby- 
terians. The colored population also 
boasts of Shaw University, which includes 
the Leonard Medical College and the 
Estey Seminary, the latter of which is for 
females exclusively. The St. Augustine 
Normal School educates both sexes, and 
is the principal divinity school for colored 
people in the United States. Besides 
these, the Baptist denomination has ar- 
ranged to build a seminary for young 
ladies which shall cost when completed 
not less than |ioo,ooo. 

Nor is Raleigh less liberally supplied 
with churches. There are no less than 
fifteen church edifices, besides an almost 
unlimited number of missions of various 
denominations. The number of members 
whose names are enrolled upon the church 
books approaches 10,000. 

An account of Raleigh's people and their 
character would be highly interesting to 
the inhabitants of the Nortiiern and East- 
ern States, as would also a description of 



132 



GENERAL NOTES. 



Its road system, which with scarcely a 
doubt is the best in the United States. Its 
waterworks, its electric lights, its street- 
car system, its railroads, its banks, its 
drainage, its climate and temperature — all 
highly important subjects — might justly 
be elaborated. C. O. Ormsbee. 

Montpelier, Vt. 

Surprising Ignorance About the South. 

Editor Southern States : 

It seems surprising at this late date that 
there are people in the North so ignorant 
of the conditions existing here, as is evi- 
denced by the various questions asked in 
their letters of inquiry. Some ask in all 
seriousness if Northern people are ostra- 
cised in this section, if their lives and 
property will be safe, if the lynching feel- 
ing is increasing or diminishing, if the 
negro element is troublesome and many 
other questions ridiculous to us who 
reside here. 

The reports of alleged Southern out- 
rages printed by partisan political news- 
papers in the North for political effect, 
which are seen and read by the people, 
not unnaturally give the impression to the 
people there that the South is a hot bed 
of lawlessness. It is not surprising, there- 
fore, that many who may desire to change 
their home will look upon a change with 
some misgivings, for people rightly desire 
to live in a land where quiet reigns and 
where they can enjoy the comforts of 
home in peace. To all such I desire to 
say emphatically that no section of the 
country enjoys more tranquility or has 
more respect for the laws or the rights of 
citizens than the South. 

It is true that some lynchings occur; so 
they do north of the Ohio river. The 
people of the South are notably law- 
abiding citizens, and a smaller proportion 
of them are violaters of law than in any 
portion of the United States. There are 
no socialists or anarchists in the South ; 
neither have we been cursed with strikes 
or contests of labor and capital that have 
been so injurious to the business interests 
North. Our people are the pure typical 
Americans, honest, brave, cordial, open- 
hearted, kind, and they extend a hearty 
welcome to any man who comes among 
us, no matter from what section, who 
desires to make a home with them. In 



fact we urgently invite all good people 
to come and dwell with us. We do not 
desire outlaws or tramps or anarchists, 
but any man who behaves himself will not 
only be welcomed, but assisted in every 
way. 

We have the finest country for peaceful, 
happy homes on earth. Delightful climate, 
balmy weather, productive soils, good mar- 
kets, churches and schools, moral people. 
Our lands yield hne crops; they bring 
more in the markets than in the North, 
because of earlier maturity, and the 
weather is so mild outdoor work can be 
done all winter. Two crops can be grown 
on same land in one season. 

It is strange people will settle in a 
country where winter houses them up a 
considerable part of the year, during which 
time they and their stock eat up all they 
have produced, when by settling here they 
can be comfortable all the year and live at 
half the expense. For the general farming 
crops, and especially dairying, fruits, 
berries and vegetables, this section is a 
peculiarly fitting one. The lands are 
cheap, they are very productive and mar- 
kets the very best. 

Lands in this section can be bought for 
$5.00 to I15.00 per acre, improved farms 
that will grow two crops per year and pay 
for themselves the first crop. So also 
with regard to other lines of business. 
Manufactures, canneries, creameries, 
woodenware, saw mills, in fact all lines of 
business cannot but be profitable in this 
section if conducted in an intelligent 
manner. This city has a population of 
some 50,000 and is surrounded by a varied, 
rich and populous country, a social, moral, 
well-to-do people. N. I. Mayes. 

Chattanooga, Tenn. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Dr. Richard H. Lewis, of Raleigh, N. C, Secre- 
tary of the State Board of Health, has published an 
interesting and comprehensive pamphlet on "Drink- 
ing Water in Its Relation to Malarial Diseases." 
Besides his own presentation of the case Dr. Lewis 
has gathered statements from physicians in all parts 
of North Carolina as well as articles from medical 
journals in support of the theorj- that malaria and 
kindred diseases are due in a large part to impure 
drinking water. 

The Seaboard Air Line has begun the publication 
of a monthly paper devoted to the agricultural and 
industrial interests of the territory of the line. The 



GENERAL NOTES. 



^Z2> 



paper has the unique name of S.A.L. MAGUXDI, the 
first three letters of the name constituting the iiiitiaj 
letters of the name Seaboard Air Line. The paper is 
well edited and is a comprehensive presentation of 
the resources and progress of that part of the South 
in which the Seaboard Air Line is interested. 

The Ledger, of Orange, Texas, published an elab- 
orate special edition designed to set forth the ad- 
vantages and attractions of Orange and the sur- 
rounding country. The paper is illustrated with 
maps and with cuts of public buildings, factories, 
&c. Or-nge is a progressive and rap.dly growing 
town on the Sabine River, in the rice and lumber 
country of Eastern Texas. 

Many interesting things about Francis Scott Key — 
the author of the Star Spangled Banner — are con- 
tained in a pamphlet, which may be obtained free, 
from the Key Monument Association of Frederick 
City, Maryland, by se iding one 2 cent stamp for 
postage. This Association is raising funds for a 
suitable monument to the poet, and they suggest that 
in the schools and everywhere, upon or before Flag 
Day (June 14th), this subject be suitably recognized. 
Contributions, however small, are asked for. Every 
one who loves the flag ought to have some small 
share in building this monument. The Governor of 
Maryland has strongly endorsed the movement. The 
names of all contributors will be p:eserved in the 
crypt of the monument, and published (without 
amount) in the liistory of the monument when com- 
pleted. 

Mr. W. B. Bair, a real estate agent of Alvin, Te.xas, 
advertises town lots and lands of all kinds and all 
sized tracts in South Texas, a country desirable alike 
to the agriculturist and manufacturer. He invites 
prospectors to investigate and write for particulars, 

Land in Fayette county, Tenn., offers great capa- 
bilities in general farming, and a great many farmers 
have been brought by settlers from the North who 
express the highest satisfaction with the fertility of 
the land, the climate and people. The Southern 
Homeseekers' Land Co., Somerville, Tenn., oiler for 
sale farms near Somerville, soil suitable for all kinds 
of fruits and vegetables, corn, wheat, oats, cotton, 
&c., and invite prospective settlers to send to them 
for pamphlets, maps, &c. 

The adaptability of parts of North Carolina for the 
growing of hops has attracted attention among 
Northern growers. Mr. A. L. Jones, formerly of 
Hamilton, N. Y., has been conducting a series of ex- 
periments which have resulted so well that he has 
disposed of his interests in New York State and will 
settle permanently in North Carolina. In his opinion 
it costs to prepare a hop yard in the South about one- 
fifih of the amount necessary in the North, while 
farm labor is 50 per cent. less. 

The famous resorts, Deer Park and Oakland, on 
the crest of the Alleghanies, in Garrett county, Md.^ 
on the main line of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, 
have always given satisfaction to those who have 
experienced their manifold comforts and attractions. 
The houses and grounds are lighted by electricity and 
provided with all the necessary adjuncts to the com- 
fort, health and pleasure of patrons. Being the 
highest section in the State, Garrett county is excep- 



tionally hea'thy. Malari .1 diseases are unknown, and 
invalids find the invigorating mountain air of great 

benefit. 

Messrs J.F.Durant & Co., of Alvin, Texas, offers 
special bargains in fruit farms in the Gulf Coast Fruit 
Belt of Texas, set in pear trees from one year old to 
bearing orcha ds, besides raw lands in any size tracts 
from ten to 1000 acres. 

The Populous and thriving town of Crowley, La., 
not only offers splendid opportunities to the mer hant, 
manufacturer, banktr and the professional man to 
pursue his chosen calling with success, but parents 
who might be deterred from leaving larg - cit'es on 
account of the educational advantages desired for 
their sons, will find the Acadia Commercial and 
Literary College of Crowley equipped with every 
requisite for acquiring a commercial and literary 
education upon low erms. 

One of the most important lumber towns ia the 
South is Beaumont, Texas, and farming operations 
have been progressing for some time in the surround- 
ing country. Messrs. Broocks & Polk, who are among 
the large real estate firms of the State, sell lands in 
different localities, but give particular attention to the 
coast country. They advertise that they have 100,000 
acres of pine land for sale, besides valuable farm 
lands. 

Lands in Southwest X'irginia, the blue grass section 
of the State, are mostly very productive, well adapted 
for cattle grazing and general farming. The climate 
is delightful, and a most cordial welcome is always 
extended to the farmers from the bleak and cold 
North and Northwest. The Pryor Farm Agency, 
Bristol, Tennessee- Virginia, has for sale a large num- 
ber of farms all over Southwest Virginia, and offer to 
send an exhaustive description of any farm it con- 
trols. They also offer coal, iron and timber lands in 
Tennessee and North Carolina. The city of Bristol, 
Tenn., the headquarters of the Prj-or Farm Agency, 
is a growing and prosperous city, situated on the 
State line that divides Virginia and Tennessee, and 
offers a good market for country produce. 

No other portion of the State of Maryland is better 
adapted to agricultural, horticultural or industrial 
development than the old section known as Southern 
Maryland, which was at one time known as the Gar- 
den Spot of the State. Its climate is delightful and 
healthy, and it has been the home of some of the old- 
est and wealthiest families of Maryland. Persons 
desiring to purchase a fine property in this locality 
will find a rare opportunity offered in the advertise- 
ment of L. M. L. in this issue of thejSouTHERN 
Statbc, who also offers for sale fine tobacco land in 
North Carolina, some choice suburban landjiear Bal- 
timore, Md , and well located lots in the growing 
town of Berkeley, \'a. 

Besides its importance as a lumber center, Beau- 
mont, Texas, is advancing steadily in agricultural 
prominence, as lands in the vicinity are fertile, 
adapted especially to rice and vegetable growing. 
A considerable amount of the immigration to Texas is 
shared by Beaumont. 

It is not often that anyone in the South wishes to 
exchange his land for Western property, but for any- 



134 



GENERAL NOTES. 



one so inclined there is an opportunity offered by 
A. D. Hostermann, Springfield, Ohio, who wants to 
exchange property near Sioux City, Iowa, and a tract 
in the suburbs of Los Angeles, Cal., for Southern 
fruit lands. 

Farmers who locate in the great valley of Virginia 
may confidently expect success; Botetourt county is 
an especially favorite portion of this region; the land 
is set naturally in blue grass; it is in the area of heavy 
rainfall; there are good churches and schools conven- 
ient to all parts of the country, and the people are 
cordial and public spirited. Good farm lands in this 
section in large or small tracts are offered for sale on 
reasonable terms by Messrs. O. E. Obenshain & Co., 
Buchanan, Va., who also control mills, timber and 
quarry property. A farm in Southwest Virginia, pur- 
chased by Hon. E. C. Pechin, of Cleveland, Ohio, as 
noted in the April number of the Southern States, 
was sold through Messrs. Obenshain & Co. Messrs. 
Obenshain & Co. are careful and conservative in all 
their statements, and as an illustration of how careful 
they are, and how entirely they may be relied upon, 
it is worth mentioning that in their letter to the 
Southern States, sending an advertisement, they 
wrote: "We have in our advertisement set forth the 
advantages of this country, and if in your judgment 
it is a whit overdrawn you will please modify it." A 
firm that so carefully guards against exaggeration 
is a safe one to do business with. 

Rice culture in Southeast Texas offers an attractive 
opportunity to parties wishing to engage in that in- 
dustry. Mr. L. Millet , of Orange, Texas, controls a 
large area of rice and farming lands theie, and 2000 
acres of truck farming lands near the town of Orange. 

Acadia Parish is aptly called the garden spot of 
Southwestern Louisiana. This is also the famous 
rice and sugar cane country, where fortunes have 
been made in the last few years. The Attakapas 
Land and Investment Co., Rayne, La., offers for sale 
here lands in any sizes from town lots to tracts of 
3,000 acres, and several hundred acres of hardwood 
timber, besides long leaf pine lands. 

There are few sections more attractive to the pros- 
pective settler than the country known as Tidewater 
Virginia, noted for its mild and healthful climate, 
the abundance of fish and oysters and game, and the 
capabilities of the soil for general farming, fruit and 
vegetable growing. Mr. Carter M. Braxton, of New- 
port News, Va , controls desirableland in this favored 
country, which he offers for sale at low prices, and 
invites correspondence in regard to it. 

Fifty thousand acres of farm lands in Southeast- 
ern Texas are offered for sale by Mr H J. Lutcher, 
of Orange, Te.xas. This section is rapidly coming 
into prominence as a rice and fruit growing country. 

In a notice in the April number of the J. E. Bennett 
Land Co , of West Point, Miss., it was stated that this 
firm had sold 100,000 acres of land to Northern 
farmers. It should have been Jioo,ooo worth of land. 
The land this company is selling in the prairie 
country of Mississippi is equal in almost every respect, 
and in some particulars superior, to land in Indiana 
and Illinois, where the purchasers have largely come 
from. The prices have ranged from Jio to jiy per 
acre. 

Sett-lers with moderate capital are offered an ex- 
cellent opportunity in lands for sale rear the town of 
Oakman, Ala., which is near Birmingham, in the 
center of the famous Warrior coal field. Oakman is 
a thriving town on the Southern Railroad, where 
lands may now be had at low prices A great deal of 
this valuable property is controlled by Mr. G. M. Mas- 
terson, Oakman, Ala., who will cheerfully send full 
particulars on application. 



The citizens of Orange, Texas, are working to 
attract immigration to their city and the surrounding 
country. The city offers extensive opportuniy for 
manufacturing industries, as it is an important centre 
in the pine and cypress district of Louisiana and 
Texas, while the farming lands near Orange are 
admirably adapted to the raising of garden truck and 
fruits. Farmers seeking new fields of labor would 
be wise to investigate this territory. 

It is hardly necessary to call attention to the city of 
Atlanta, Ga., its many superior attractions are so 
widely known; almost the same may be said of any 
part of Georgia. Messrs Samuel W. Goode & Co., 
Atlanta, Ga , will send information about property in 
Atlanta and Georgia to suit the merchant, manufac- 
turer or farmer. See their advertisement in this issue. 

Mr. Patillo Higgins, Beaumont, Texas, is anxious 
to impart information concerning Southeast Texas. 
He controls valuable farm and fruit and rice land, as 
well as city property suitable to the manufacturer or 
business man. 

The country lying about Houston, Galveston and 
Velasco, Texas, is widely noted for its fertility. Far- 
mers will find this a rich field for their labors in agri- 
culture and fruit growing. Mr. L. M. Disney, of 
Houston, Texas, advertises that he has exclusive 
control of ico.ooo acres of lands lying between 
Houston and Galveston and Velasco, concerning 
which he is anxious to give all desired information to 
inquirers. 

The idea of a home in The Felicianas ("Happy 
Lands") of Louisiana is especially attractive, and the 
homeseeker from the blizzard wrecked localities of 
the Northwest must feel that he learns of a haven of 
rest as he reads the advertisement of Mr. J. Burruss 
McGeehee, Laurel Hill P. O., La. 

The country adjacent to Beaumont is rich in timber 
and agricultural resources. Investors and home- 
seekers are requested to write for information to 
Messrs. O'Brien, Bordages & O'Brien, Beaumont, 
Texas. 

Farmers with capital at hand will find an attrac- 
tive opportunity in the advertisement signed 
"Owner," Petersburg, Va., who offers two splendid 
farms for sale, twenty miles from Petersburg, on the 
Roanoke river, in North Carolina. 

For agricultural and industrial enterprise, the 
property offered by the American Advertising 
Agency, West Point, Ga., should not be lost sight of. 
City property, valuable water power, and elegant 
farms in Georgia and Alabama are mentioned as for 
sale cheap on accommodating terms, and correspond- 
ence is solicited. 

Much has been written about pineapple growing in 
Florida, which is now generally acknowledged to be 
one of the most profitable of agricultural pursuits 
Good opportunities are offered by the Lee County 
Real Estate Agency, Fort Myers, Fla., who advertise 
not only a pineapple plantation on reasonable terms, 
but bearing lime and cocoanut trees, a bearing orange 
grove of ten acres in a tract of 421 acres with three 
miles of river front. They also control small and 
large orange groves, homes and lands in tracts to 
suit. 

Mr. H. W. Wilkes, of Louisville, Ky., a "Florida 
Specialist," advertises a compulsory sale of several 
hundreds of acres of land in De Soto and Lee coun- 
ties, Fla., with railway and steamer facilities conven- 
ient. He invites correspondence. 

Mr. W. a. Ward, Beaumont, Texas, represents 
investors and manufacturers in Beaumont, Texas, and 
invites correspondence concerning the coast country 
of Texas. 



THE 



Southern States. 



JUNE, 1895. 



THE SOUTH AND THE NORTHWEST. 

By Williavi H. Edmonds. 



In a recent issue, a paper published 
at Hastings, Neb., called the Adams 
County Democrat, in an editorial on an 
article in the New York Sun, has the 
following: "What advantage does the 
South offer to farmers? Certainly no 
such soil as Nebraska. No such climate. 
No such social surroundings. No such 
schools. No such churches. No such 
enterprise or industry. Nebraska 
wouldn't swap this for all the coons, 
possums and paw-paws of the Southern 
States. The Sun speaks of a Nebraska 
blizzard. Who cares for it? There are 
no ten story stone buildmgs to blow 
down and kill people out here when a 
blizzard comes along like they do in 
New York. You can escape a blizzard 
if there is a post-hole handy, but you 
can't escape the malarial pestilence in 
the Southern States if you eat a barrel 
of quinine." 

The writer of this has apparently 
written simply out of pure ignorance. 
It is doubtful if he has investigated 
the South, or has ever been South, 
or knows anything in the world about 
the South. He believes that what he 
says is true. 

This charitable excuse, however, can- 
not be made for the writer of an article 
in the Sioux Falls (South Dakota) Press 
from which the following extracts are 
taken : 

"The Press yesterday cnjfn-ed a very 



interesting interview with Mr. L. O. 
Myrick, one of Mapleton Township's 
most reliable farmers, and who has been 
a citizen here for the past twelve vears. 
The gentleman has but recently returned 
from a trip throughout the South, and 
wishes to give his friends and neighbors 
some of tlie knowledge he acquired by 
a very careful inspection of the country 
south of the Mason and Dixon line. 
Mr. Myrick went South upon his own 
notion, uninfluenced by railroad land 
agents, and by so doing was permitted 
to make his investigations without the 
assistance of the land agents that infest 
the country. Said the gentleman : T 
do not want to say anything that might 
lead one to think my statement exag- 
gerated. If I tell the whole truth I 
shall be accused of overstating the con- 
dition that exists in the 'Sunny South.' 
The first thing to impress me as I 
reached points east and south of Mem- 
phis was the absence of loam. For two 
decades I have lived in Dakota where 
the soil is black as your hat and fi\e or 
six feet deep. It was a general thing 
on my trip to notice that the earth 
seemed gray or white. Other pilgrims 
on the train remarked about it. I 
thought at times that the fields were cov- 
ered with alkali or salt. Finally we side- 
tracked to wait for a train. I impro\ed 
the opportunity to examine the dirt in 
an adjoining field. Jumping o\er the 



136 



THE SOUTH AND THE NORTHWEST. 



rickety rail fence I gathered up a few 
handfulls of dirt. It was almost pure 
white sand. Here and there would 
appear a small bunch of wire grass, but 
the greater part of the field was desti- 
tute of all vegetation. A native on the 
train explained the matter by saying 
that close cultivation kept all vegetation, 
except that planted, out of the ground. 
He did not say whether they planted 
wire grass. At a point along the line 
between Tennessee and Mississippi I 
stopped at a small junction for a few 
hours. A darky was plowing in a field. 
He had a small single shovel plow drawn 
by a small mule. I thought of our big 
sub soil and traction plows and asked 
the colored man why he didn't get a 
bigger plow and plow deeper. He 
replied by bearing down on the handles 
of his jumper and said : 'See dat boss ?' 
His plow had cut in about eight inches 
and brought up a dirty blue clay. I 
understood then why he didn't plow 
deeper. This character of soil prevails 
generally throughout the whole South. 
Here and there are isolated patches of 
ground in hollows where the debris of 
higher lands has washed down and 
made it comparatively productive. 
There are only two crops — I don't care 
what the land agents say — and they are 
corn and cotton. In either case, as soon 
as the plant is a few inches high, the 
farmer or his help takes a hoe and goes 
through the field chopping out of each 
hill all over two stalks. Slung across 
his shoulder, just as our fathers carried 
sacks before we got machine planters 
and drillers, the Southern fanner car- 
ries a sack filled with bird guano — the 
stinking fertilizer from the Southern 
seas — or the crushed bone and animal 
matter made in large cities by the 
scavenger. After chopping out the 
extra plants the fanner drops a handful 
of guano on the hill. 

"By this slow and painful method 
the Southern-born farmer makes a poor 
living; the Northern immigrant doesn't 
do so well. The slow pace is all the 
country will stand. I will illustrate. A 
farmer from Minnesota came down into 
Georgia. He saw their method. Put- 
ting in fertilizer by hand was too slow 
for him. He rigged up a seeder in 



such a way as to deposit seed and guano 
at the same time. The fertilizer gene- 
rated its greatest heat just as the seed 
began to germinate. The result was 
that all the seed was burned out and 
not a single sprout appeared. The next 
season he tried two experiments. In 
one field he drilled the fertilizer first, 
intending to put in the seed a week 
later. Wet weather made it two weeks 
before the seeding was done. The re- 
sult was the sandy shallow soil had 
given all of its vitality to the winds be- 
fore the seed germinated. In another 
field he turned up the clay and put in no 
guano. The corn never got higher than 
two feet in either field. The man is 
now following the approved method and 
seeking an opportunity to come back to 
the North. Work horses cannot stand 
the great heat, and a resort to mules is 
necessary. There are parts of the 
South where fruit can be raised to the 
best advantage, but it is a precarious 
crop. It must be harvested in haste 
and rushed to the market just at the 
time there is a glut, and so many a 
farmer sees a year's labor go into freight 
rate and commissions in less than a week. 
You cannot hold it for a raise. Another 
thing that impressed me is the fact 
that all seed must come from the North, 
except cotton. It is also a fact that 
Southern oak and hickory is of no mar- 
ket value. No manufactories use it as 
it is too brash. Even in the far South, 
Northern oak is shipped in for wagon 
timber. 

"I have visited the whole Southern 
country and given it close attention. I 
want to say that I feel that here in 
South Dakota a farmer finds the most 
conditions that make possible success. 
I have been here twelve years and I 
have done well. I would advise any 
friends of mine to stay here. I could 
point out many more defects that exist 
in the South, but I do not think it 
necessary." 

The impulse is to ignore these sland- 
erous assaults upon the South. The 
majority of people have too much 
common sense and too much intelli- 
gence to attach any importance to state- 
ments so rabid and so glaringly false, 
and vet the articles from which I have 



THE SOUTH AND THE NORTHWEST. 



137 



quoted will be read and undoubtedly 
will be believed by large numbers of 
people. A lie travels infinitely faster 
than the truth. Owners of real estate 
who see the value of their property 
constantly declining because of loss of 
population are resorting to the most 
desperate methods to stem this flow of 
population Southward. Articles such 
as I have quoted from are eagerly 
seized upon and scattered far and wide. 
While it may seem to most people a 
waste of time and energy to contradict 
these absurd falsehoods, it is neverthe- 
less quite important to show their 
absurdity. Many persons wall read and 
believe these things and other like men- 
dacious publications, strange as it may 
seem. There is no falsehood so pal- 
pable that it will not find credence 
somewhere. People who are familiar 
with the South would naturally assume 
that all intelligent persons know that 
the South has millions of acres of land 
as rich as any in the world, that a 
farmer can make a living in the South 
easier than anywhere else in the United 
States, and with the same amount of 
eftbrt can make more money in the 
South than anywhere else, and that 
the South is naturally a more healthful 
section than any other part of the 
country ; but there are hundreds of 
thousands of otherwise mtelligent peo- 
ple who do not know^ these facts. 
Many of them are likely to be misled 
by such articles as these in which the 
writers either display the most absolute 
ignorance about Southern conditions or 
seek wilfully and maliciously to misrep- 
resent the South. It is a good oppor- 
tunity, moreover, to present in contrast 
the sort of statements about the South 
that some Northern papers are furnish- 
ing their readers, and the real facts 
about the South as gathered from 
official and other authentic sources. 

Take the matter of soil. There is 
nothing to be said in disparagement ot 
the soil of Nebraska and the Dakotas 
on the score of fertility. I am quite 
ready to concede all that is claimed lor 
it in this regard ; but, w'hile it is true 
that the soil of much of these and of 
other Northern and Western States is 
capable of producing enormous crops ot 



certain products, it is quite true that in 
the South there are millions of acres 
that will yield as largely of the same 
crops while capable of producing an 
infinitely wider range of products. 
Moreover, the value of any soil is not to 
be determined by the possible yield of 
a certain product when all atmospheric 
and other conditions are favorable, but 
by the amount of money that it may be 
counted on to produce from year to 
year, with the varying conditions of 
temperature, rainfall and markets. Some 
of the Northern and Western States 
have produced at times almost phe- 
nomenal crops of corn and wheat. The 
soil is not lacking in capabilities so far 
as three or four products are concerned, 
but experience has demonstrated that as 
to most of the Northwest a good crop 
cannot be counted on oflener than once 
in several years, and w'hen there is a 
failure of the staple products there is 
nothing else to fall back on, and as the 
growing season, moreoA"er, is short, when 
a crop has been destroyed it is too late 
to plant anything more until the next 
year. 

Now let us see what a few recognized 
authorities have to say as to Southern 
soils in the matter of productiveness and 
variety of products. 

Dr. Robert Peter, at one time chemist 
of the Kentucky Geological Survey, an 
agricultural chemist and practical agri- 
culturist of much experience, says : 

" All scientific writers on soils attach 
the greatest importance to the relative 
fineness of the particles which form 
them. In this important particular our 
Kentucky soils are more valuable than 
the great body of those of the great 
Northwest ; not only are their constitu- 
ent particles very minutely divided, but 
even these, fine enough to pass through 
the meshes of the finest sieve, are not 
entirely fine sand of silica, but contain 
a considerable proportion of fine par- 
ticles of decomposable silicates, which 
in the process of weathering help to 
keep up the supply of essential plant 
food and make the soils very durable. 
The late Dr. David Dale Owen, former 
director of the Kentucky Geological 
.Survey, placed in the writer's posses- 
sion a series of samples of soils which 



138 



THE SOUTH AND THE NORTHWEST. 



he had collected during his celebrated 
exploration of the great Northwestern 
territory for the United States Govern- 
ment, some of which the writer analyzed. 
These soils, characteristic of the best of 
this great prairie region, are mostly 
dark colored, sometimes almost black, 
from the presence of a large proportion 
of organic matter, some of which is 
peaty or semi-bituminous — of little value 
for plant food — derived from the decom- 
posing remains of many successive 
growths of grasses or aquatic plants in 
recent or former ages ; but in them all, 
and in some of them in very large pro- 
portion, are visible grains of quartzose 
sand, reducing materially the quantity 
of ' fine earth,' and consequently the 
durability of these soils. While the 
organic matters— -the dark vegetable 
mould — give to such soils great fertihty 
at first, and cultivation is facilitated by 
the sandy ingredient, the durability of 
such soils without the aid of artificial 
fertilizers would be much less than that 
of our best Kentucky soils, which con- 
tain no coarse sand, but are altogether 
'fine earth,' made up partly of decom- 
posable silicates. By reliable accounts 
the older prairie farmers find it neces- 
sary even now to resort to artificial 
fertilizers, while on the best lands of 
Kentucky cropping for a hundred years 
has not brought about this necessity, 
nor will it perhaps for hundreds of years 
more. The great wheat growing region 
of the Northwest, known as the Red 
River Valley, is unmodified glacial drift, 
and the exhaustion by the present 
system of culture may be confidently 
predicted." 

This is from a scientist of universally 
recognized ability and probity. 

Here are some extracts from a de- 
scription of the three civil divisions of 
Tennessee by Hon. A. J. McWhirter : 

"The agricultural interest of East 
Tennessee is diversified and progressive. 
Improved breeds of cattle, sheep and 
hogs, and better methods of cultivation, 
have been pretty generally introduced. 
All the cereals flourish here, and all the 
grasses of the temperate zone, including 
blue grass. All the fruits common to 
the Middle States are successfully grown, 
especially apples, pears, cherries, plums 



and grapes. It is urged by those who, 
from experience and study, are best 
acquainted with the industry, that this 
is the finest grape region on the conti- 
nent, California not excepted. 

The middle division of the State of 
Tennessee is remarkable for the variety 
and beauty of its topography. Extend- 
ing from the Cumberland mountains on 
the east to the Tennessee river on the 
West, its landscape partakes of all the 
variety of mountains, plains, hills and 
valleys ; of extensive forests ; of numer- 
ous streams, large and small, some 
deep and quiet, others noisy and swift, 
but all bright and pleasant lines in a 
charming picture. There is not on 
earth a country that fills more com- 
pletely the measure of the beautiful. 
This section resembles a vast plain 
interspersed with hills and lofty knobs, 
sunny streams and waving forests, sur- 
rounded by elevated plateaus that in the 
east swell into mountains, and in the 
west and north to picturesque high- 
lands. The valleys, and here and there 
dips in the plateau, are very fertile, and 
contain many valuable farms and much 
valuable farming lands. The plateaus 
seem marked by nature for sheep 
husbandry, possessing in remarkable 
abundance the best known food for these 
useful animals. It is also an inviting 
field for fruit industry, especially apples, 
peaches, pears and grapes. The valleys 
are all rich and well watered, and much 
of the plateau contains valuable farming 
lands. The lands of the Elk, Duck and 
Buffalo rivers are among the finest in the 
world. Here again is a splendid region 
for sheep and every variety of live stock. 
These uplands bordering the valleys of 
these rivers are unsurpassed in the pro- 
duction of the native grasses, and are so 
extensive that millions of animals may 
roam uncrowded and fatten without let 
or hindrance. The valley lands are 
comparatively high-priced and contain 
many of the finest farms in the State. 
The northern rim, or the highlands 
proper, embraces some of the best tarm- 
ing lands in Tennessee. The scenery 
is bold and broad, the water clear and 
pure, and the forests in many places ex- 
tensive and valuable. This is also a fine 
fruit region, particularly for apples. 



THE SOUTH AND THE NORTHWEST 



139 



peaches, crrapes and berries. It is also 
a superb stock country and the home of 
plenty. The basin of Middle Tennessee 
is a lake-like plain of beautiful farms 
dotted with island summits of green and 
groves, and seamed with brooks and 
rivers that glisten like silver in the genial 
sunshine. It teems with herds of lordly 
cattle, with whitening flocks on a thou- 
sand hills, and with royal blooded horses. 
In summer, miles of waving grain, miles 
of green pastures threaded with mur- 
muring bro'iks, miles of nodding forests, 
and an archipelago of baronial homes 
in the highest state of comfort and 
beauty, greet the gazer from every sum- 
mit in this broad and matchless land- 
scape. As a grain and stock country 
Middle Tennessee is unequaled. The 
lands of the basin are uniformly rich and 
the fruit unsurpassed ; the world can't 
beat it for grain and grass and stock. 
For exquisite landscapes that embrace 
every phase of hill, valley, plain, moun- 
tain, forest and stream that the artist 
could choose for a perfect picture, it 
stands unrivalled. For homes where all 
the conditions unite to satisfy, refine 
and liberalize, while they stimulate to 
high bred achievements and lordl}' 
hospitality, it is unsurpassed. The lands 
of this matchless region are high-priced, 
but worth the money. 

" The twenty-two counties composing 
West Tennessee lie between the Ten- 
nessee and Mississippi rivers. Much 
fine stock is raised, and abundant crops 
of corn, wheat, hay and fruit. Peanuts 
are a staple crop in several counties, and 
are grown with great success. Tobacco 
is extensively grown on the northern 
border, and is of superior quality. All 
this region is finely adapted for Iruit 
growing, and possesses superior advan- 
tages for catde and sheep culture on a 
large scale. It is, beyond any section 
known to the writer, the home of diver- 
sified production. For fruit it stands 
unsurpassed. Nowhere are peaches, 
strawberries, raspberries, dewberries and 
blackberries more successfully or profit- 
ably grown, and nowhere is the quality 
of the fruit surpassed. Nor should its 
fine ad\'antages for stock raising be 
overlooked. It grows everything neces- 
sary to successful stock raising. It has 



miles of wild cane upon which catde 
feed in winter ; its grasses are green 
from seven to nine months in the year ; 
it is almost literally quilted with running 
streams, and nowhere on earth does the 
soil respond more gratefully to kind 
treatment. The lowlands and the bot- 
toms of the Mississippi river region 
are magnificently timbered. The world 
can't beat it for variety, size and mer- 
chantable value of its forests. Its lands 
are as rich as those of the Nile, and in 
the parts free from overflow, or where 
the overflows are not frequent, there are 
many farms of unequaled productive- 
ness." 

Dr. David Dale Owen, who has 
already been referred to as having made 
an exploration of the Northwestern 
territory for the United States Govern- 
ment, says of the soils of Arkansas : 
"A comparison of Arkansas soils, so far 
as made with a few soils collected in 
Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota, shows 
that her soils generally are equally rich 
in fertilizing ingredients with those of the 
said States, and that her bottom lands 
are, in truth, richer." 

At the Atlanta Exposition in 1S81, 
Arkansas received the first premium for 
corn and cotton, competing with all the 
States, including Kansas. At the Tri- 
State Fair, held later at Toledo, Ohio, 
(embracing parts of Ohio, Indiana and 
Michigan) a collection of grains, fruits, 
etc., from Arkansas was awarded a 
diploma for the best display of corn and 
fruit over all competitors. 

Col. M. B. Hillyard, of New Orleans, 
a Northern man, a \ery distinguished and 
a \ery conserA'ati\e and conscientious 
writer on Southern agricultural topics, 
formerly himself an agriculturist and 
fruit-grower in Delaware, in a book, 
published some years ago, entitled "The 
New South," says of Arkansas : 

"The geographical position of Arkan- 
sas is such that, with her topography, 
she produces a wonderful variet\- of 
crops. With an altitude of nearly 3000 
feet above the level of the Gulf of 
Mexico, and nearly 3^2° of latitude, she 
yields the products of nearly 10°. 
There can be produced the buckwheat 
of New P^ngland and the rice of South 
Carolina ; the corn of Iowa or Illinois — 



140 



THE SOUTH AND THE NORTHWEST 



only better— and the sugar cane of 
Louisiana, the wheat of Minnesota, and 
the spelts of Germany ; the flax and 
hemp of Europe, and her own unsur- 
passed cotton ; the fig of the semi-tropics 
and the apple of the temperate zone ; 
rye, barley and oats as good as any- 
where, and the last pre-eminently ; 
clovers, red top, timothy, orchard grass 
and other favored grasses of the North 
and West, equal if not superior to those 
of the latter two areas, and many grasses 
these cannot produce ; superb Irish and 
sweet potatoes, turnips, cabbage, beets, 
peas, beans, onions, radish, celery, 
oysterplant, eggplant, squash, pumpkin, 
okra, lettuce, tomatoes, etc.; melons of 
most delicious quality and great size — 
even becoming celebrated for these ; 
tobacco, hops ; fruits away beyond 
enumeration. What an array of prod- 
ucts is this only cursory enumeration ! 
There the grasshopper and the locust 
come not ; the potato bug is unknown, 
and the chinch bug almost a stranger. 
The textile fabrics — silk, cotton, wool, 
mohair, flax, hemp, jute, ramie — can all 
be produced there, and can nearly all, 
if not quite, be shown. All the comforts 
and luxuries needed can be raised in the 
State." 

The same writer says of Louisiana : 

" There is probably no other State in 
the Union possessing so much land of 
such marvelous fertility, capable of such 
continuous cultivation without exhaus- 
tion, and adapted to such a wide range 
of products." 

On the same subject. Dr. Joseph 
Jones, in a book on " Climate and 
Health of Louisiana," which has been 
pronounced one of the most satisfactory 
works ever written about any country, 
says : 

" The soil of this State, in virtue of 
its variations in composition and eleva- 
tion, is adapted to the successful cultiva- 
tion of sugar cane, rice, cotton, corn, 
wheat, rye, barley, oats, and all the 
fruits common to the temperate and 
sub-tropical zones. Louisiana possesses 
perhaps the most fertile soil of any of 
the States of this Union, in virtue of 
the large proportions of the alluvium of 
the Mississippi valley enclosed within 
her borders. As is well known a wide 



belt of recent alluvium borders the 
Mississippi river from the mouth ot the 
Ohio to the Gulf, seventy-five miles 
wide in the greatest expansion, and 
twenty-five miles wide in its greatest 
contraction. The area of the alluvial 
tract above the delta is 19,450 square 
miles [12,448,000 acres]. The depth 
of the alluvial deposits, from the mouth 
of the Ohio to New Orleans, ranges 
from twenty-five to forty feet. The 
area of the delta of the Mississippi river, 
which lies almost wholly within the 
borders of Louisiana, is estimated at 
12,300 square miles [7,882,000 acres]. 
The entire delta is elevated but a few 
feet above the level of the Gulf of 
Mexico, and from its fertile soil and 
proximity to the Mississippi river and 
bayous, is perhaps as fertile as any body 
of land in this or any other continent." 

Eugene W. Hilgard, Ph. D., profes- 
sor of agriculture at the University of 
California, whose report on cotton pro- 
duction in the United States and the 
agricultural and physio- geographical 
conditions of the cotton States, consti- 
tutes volumes 5 and 6 of the tenth 
census report, says, in his " preliminary 
report of a geological survey of Wes- 
tern Louisiana" : 

" Few sections of the United States, 
indeed, can offer such inducements to 
settlers as the prairie region between 
the Mississippi bottoms, the Nez Pique 
and Merm entail. Healthier by far than 
the prairies of the Northwest ; fanned 
by the sea breeze ; well watered ; the 
scarcity of wood rendered of less 
moment by the blandness of the cli- 
mate, and the extraordinary rapidity 
with which natural hedges can be grown 
for fences ; while the exuberantly fertile 
soil produces both sugar-cane and cotton 
in profusion, continuing to do so in 
many cases after seventy years' exhaus- 
tive culture — well may the Teche coun- 
try be styled by its enthusiastic inhabit- 
ants the garden of Louisiana." 

Of the same section. Col. Daniel 
Dennett, for many years agricultural 
editor of the New Orleans Picayune, in 
a book entitled "Louisiana As It Is," 
says: 

"These six parishes [referring to 
Southwestern Louisiana] contain more 



THE SOUTH AND THE NORTHWEST. 



141 



than 3,000,000 acres of tillable land, 
most of il of inexhaustible fertility. On 
thousands of acres the grass grows on a 
smooth surface under the waving 
branches of noble trees. The soil is 
rich beyond anything we ever saw in 
the great West. The beautiful smooth 
prairies look as though they had just 
been washed. The fat herds grazing 
upon these green prairies help in giving 
the finishing touch to this magnificent 
landscape scenery. Plums, figs, quinces, 
pears, cherries, grape, papaws, persim- 
mons, pecans, hickory nuts, walnuts, 
blackberries, dewberries. May apples, 
mulberries, crab apples, black and red 
haws, chinquapins, strawberries and 
some other fruits of little importance 
thrive and mature well in these parishes. 
In St. Mary and along the coast to the 
Mcrmentau, oranges are raised yearly in 
great abundance ; and the mespilus or 
Japan plum, lemons, limes, bananas and 
pineapples may be produced in the 
open air as high up as Franklin, by 
giving them a little extra protection in 
the winter. Turnips, cabbages, beets 
and all the other garden vegetables and 
melons grow as well in these parishes as 
they do north of the Ohio River. The 
best winter gardens contain large white- 
head cabbages, rutabaga and flat turnips, 
onions, eschallots, garlic, mustard, ro- 
quette, radishes, cauliflower, beets, cress, 
lettuce, parsley, leeks, English peas, 
celery, endive, etc., etc. These thrive 
well in the gardens all winter, except in 
very cold winters, back from the coast, 
when a part of the list give way before 
the frosts." 

From a report on Southwest Louisi- 
ana issued by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, the following is 
taken : 

"The prairie and all the alluvial lands 
I visited in this locality are of alluvial 
origin, with a surface of soil ot from 
three to four feet of almost inexhaustible 
fertility, formed and kept up by the 
annual decay of vegetable matter and 
overflows from higher altitudes. Some 
of this land will produce four crops of 
hay a year. I allude to Bermuda grass 
which makes the best hay that is made 
in this section. A slight variation is 
found in the sub soil. In this vast 



prairie, containing three or four million 
acres, there is a series of islands that are 
not surrounded by large and distinct 
rivers but by bayous, which are simply 
little streams that drain them and part 
of the adjacent prairies. On these islands 
the soil is good and easy to cultivate, 
but of course not so rich or so deep as 
that of the prairies. As a general rule 
the soil runs as follows : first, rich \ ege- 
table mold from four to six inches deep, 
next loam, then sand, and lastly clay. 
So far as the soil is concerned I know ot 
nothing that could not be raised here, 
except timothy and some small fruits 
that fail in midsummer if the season be 
dry." 

Prof W. C. Stubbs, of New Orleans, 
director of one of the United States 
Agricultural Experiment Stations in 
Louisiana, in a paper on Southern Soils 
read before the Farmers' Institute at 
Vicksburg, Miss., in February last, says 
by way of summarizing the lands of the 
Mississippi Valley below the mouth of 
the Ohio : 

"Thus we have a total of 28,986 
square miles [18,551,040 acres] of the 
richest lands on earth, much the larger 
proportion of which is susceptible of 
excellent drainage, in a high stale ot 
cultivation." 

The lands referred to in this quotation 
are in Mississippi, Arkansas, Kentucky 
and Tennessee. In the same paper 
Prot". Stubs says : 

"To appreciate the nature of our tVont 
lands, one has but to watch the turbid 
waters of our stream in spring, hurry- 
ing past us, with a freight of sediment 
stolen from o\'er a thousand townships. 
Remove a glassful of it and set it aside 
to settle and you have in the deposit a 
pertect museum of soils, gathered trom 
the fertile farms of New York or Penn- 
sylvania, from the sandy clitTs of the 
great Kanawha, from the clayey slopes 
of Cincinnati, from the corn prairies of 
Illinois and Iowa, from the melon 
patches of a Cheyenne squaw, or trom 
the canons of the far-ofl" \'ellowst(>ne. 
Thus nature is robbing the Northern 
States of their finer soil material tor the 
benefit of the Southern, and we are 
happy to announce that many Northern 
men are following it, recognizing that 



142 



THE SOUTH AND THE NORTHWEST. 



when it is thus triturated, mixed and de- 
posited under Southern skies it has a 
double productiv^e capacity. 

"After the war a prominent poHtician 
came to Louisiana from lUinois. When 
charged with being- a carpet-bagger he 
indignantly denied it, and replied that 
his father's farm in Illinois had long 
since washed away and had been rede- 
posited upon the sugar lands of Louis- 
iana and he had simply followed it, 
claiming his own, and was therefore a 
native to this soil. This course that 
nature is pursuing of transporting the 
fmer material of soil from the North to 
the South will, we hope, be an example 
to induce the 'finer' farmers of that 
same section to follov/ it, not with 'car- 
pet-bags' but with 'full sole-leather 
trunks,' prepared to spend their lives 
and ■ ultimately to mingle their ashes 
with the Southern soils." 

William M. Fontaine, Professor of natu- 
ral history, etc., at the University of West 
Virginia, in a book on that State, says : 

"West Virginia is fortunate in having 
a large proportion of loam lands. In- 
deed they may be said to be the charac- 
teristic soils of the country and to form 
the larger part of the surface. These 
make usually the most fertile lands 
known since they contain all the ele- 
ments needed by the plant combined 
with the best physical condition, uniting 
as they do the good qualities of sandy 
and clay soils so far as these arise from 
the texture and condition of the land. 
Magnificent alluvium soils are found in 
this State. The bottom lands along the 
principal ri\ers are widely celebrated 
for their productiveness and for the great 
length of time during which they have 
been cultivated. Some of these have 
continued without intermission for more 
than one hundred years to make heavy 
yields of that most exhausting of all 
crops, Indian corn. From the immense 
number of hills in this State the amount 
of bottom lands is very large, that of 
the streams and uplands together being' 
put by some at 30 per cent, of the entire 
area." 

Hon. Thomas Whitehead, commis- 
sioner of agriculture for Virginia, sum- 
ming up the characteristics of the soils 
of that State, says : 



"In Tidewater ; Peat-bottom, or 
swamp and Savanna lands, for cranberry 
culture ; salt marshes and meadows for 
grass and cheap grazing ; river marshes 
that reclaimed are fine hemp lands ; 
plains, with soft and warm soil, for great 
market gardens and the rearing of deli- 
cate fruits ; river bottoms — nearly allu- 
vial lands — excellent for cotton, corn, 
wheat, oats or meadows ; thin sandy 
uplands for great sheep pastures and for 
forest planting. 

"In Middle: Clay soils that produce 
the finest of wheat ; mixed sand and 
clay, well suited to general agriculture ; 
thin lands, where fruit-growing would be 
remunerative ; rich low grounds where 
great crops of Indian corn and rank 
tobacco grow from year to year without 
exhausting their ferility ; light soils, 
where the finer kinds of tobacco are 
produced ; lands for swedes, mangolds, 
etc., and improved sheep husbandry. 

"In Piedmont: Rich upland loams 
unsurpassed as wheat or tobacco lands, 
and producing heavy crops of cultivated 
grasses ; low grounds, where the corn 
crop is always good, and where heavy 
shipping tobacco comes to perfection ; 
lighter soils, where the vine and the 
apple produce abundantly; the best of 
lands for dairies and for sheep and cat- 
tle rearing. 

"In the Blue Ridge, where the natural 
grasses invite to sheep and cattle graz- 
ing, and the rich, warm soil and sunny 
exposures are adapted to fruit culture 
on lands that would elsewhere be too 
valuable for the plow. 

"In the \'alley the natural blue-grass 
lands, the home of the stock-raiser and 
dairyman ; the heavy clay lands, fat in 
fertilizing ingredients, always repaying 
the labor spent on them in crops of 
corn and wheat ; the lighter slaty lands, 
famous for wheat crops ; the poorer 
ridge lands, where sheep- raising should 
be followed. 

"In the mountain region are great 
cattle ranges, lands where grass grows 
naturally as soon as the trees are cleared 
away and the sunlight admitted ; rich 
meadow lands in the valleys well suited 
to dairying; fat corn or tobacco lands 
along the streams ; lands for root crops 
along the slopes and on the plateaus." 



THE SOUTH AND THE NORTHWEST. 



143 



And so as to all the other Southern 
States, the writings of expert and unim- 
peachable authorities might be drawn 
upon in demonstration of the great 
capabilities of their soils in production 
and in diversity of crops. 

It is well known that in Maryland, 
particularly the Western part of the 
State, there are wide valleys possessing 
a most fertile soil in the highest state of 
cultivation. Washington and Fred- 
erick counties, in this State, can boast 
of some of the most highly improved 
and productive farms in America. The 
central part of the State, including Car- 
roll, Howard and Montgomery counties 
and parts of Baltimore and Harford 
counties, contain rich and productive 
valleys that can hardly be surpassed 
anywhere. 

North Carolina has in its eastern 
counties extensive areas of alluvial soil 
not surpassed anywhere in fertility and 
durability. In the mountains, valleys 
and river basins of its western section 
there are lands capable of yielding as 
large crops of cereals and grasses as the 
best lands in any Northern State. This 
State, like South Carolina, has consid- 
erable areas of sandy soil, but both have 
hundreds of thousands of acres of rich, 
heavy, deep loam and alknial soils, capa- 
ble of producing the largest yields under 
continuous cultivation. And even most 
of the sandy soils, if judiciously culti- 
vated in such fruits, vegetables or other 
products as they are suited to, can be 
made to yield an average annual revenue 
greater than can be gotten out of Ne- 
braska and Dakota lands in any consecu- 
tive period of five years. 

Georgia is everywhere known for the 
fertility of the soils of much of its area, 
for the great diversity of its products, 
and for its advanced and successful and 
prosperous farmers. 

In the central and southern part of 
Florida there are several million acres ot 
land that have been reclaimed trom 
overflow by canals and other drainage 
works. These lands are formed of de- 
cayed vegetable matter to an extraordi- 
nary depth and are enormously produc- 
tive. There are no such lands anywhere 
in the Northwest. In the western j^art 
of the State, between the Gulf and the 



Georgia line, there are lands equal to the 
best in Ohio for general farming, with 
fruit-growing capabilities equal to those 
of California (except as to tropical fruits, 
oranges, lemons, etc.). 

In Alabama the fimous "\'alley of the 
Tennessee," comprising the northern 
tier of counties, is one of the finest farm- 
ing regions in America. The rich val- 
leys of the central mountain region, the 
prairie section farther south, and the 
heavy lands of the "black belt" are like- 
wise noted for the productiveness of the 
soil and the great variety of products 
that can be grown. 

Hon. J. R. Dodge, M. A., formerly 
statistician of the Department of Agri- 
culture of the United States, in a publi- 
cation entitled "Farm and Factory; Aids 
to Agriculture from Other Industries," 
has something to say about the South ; 
and if has been pertinently said of Mr. 
Dodge that "Rhetoric and exaggeration 
are aloof from his style and habit ; he is 
used to dry facts and cautious state- 
ments ; he enumerates rather than 
describes ; he is used to a sober and 
staid style of writing : his habits of 
investigation are most careful ; he finds, 
and does not invent." Here is a part 
of what he says about the South in his 
book. Farm and Factory : 

"The territory lying between the 
Potomac and the Rio Grande, including 
eleven States, is eighteen times as large 
as the State of Ohio, and fully three 
and a-half times the size of France or 
Germany. Its surface is diversified by 
mountains with extreme elevation above 
6000 feet. Its soil is of great variety — 
from light sandy to heavy clays — and 
unfathomed alknial deposits. The rain- 
fall is abundant and seasonable — from 
forty to sixty inches per annum : springs 
of pure water are so numerous as to 
supply largely the place of wells in 
farm economy, and rivers furnish a 
perennial supply of power for possible 
manufactures. It is a healthful and 
beautiUil land redolent of flowers and 
surfeited with wild fruits, while culti- 
vated fruits of the temi^erate and sub- 
tropical zones grow profusely with little 
care or cultivation. The dweller in a 
forest cabin can subsist in luxury on 
fish and flesh and fruits, with \enison, 



144 



THE SOUTH AND THE NORTHWEST. 



turkey or duck upon his table daily, 
with no labor beyond that of the angler 
or huntsman. The climate is so mild 
that his house could be constructed 
with a few days' labor in the primitive 
forest, and the fuel for his cuisine and 
comfort could be gathered within a 
furlong of his door. Though the rain- 
fall is distributed through the summer, 
it comes in showers, and not in long 
seasons of drizzling mist, leaving the 
landscape bathed in sunshine through 
nearly all the hours of daylight. While 
the temperature is high, the heats are 
abated by breezes from the gulf and 
ocean, and the lowest latitudes have 
cool and comfortable nights, favoring 
sleep and recuperation. Evaporation 
of heavy rainfall cools the earth, and 
abundant shade subdues the noonday 
heat, for it is a country wooded as well 
as watered, the farm lands having an 
average of 54 per cent, of their area in 
forest. It is a country favorable to 
health and conducive to high physical 
comfort. Life is rich and full and joy- 
ous in this sunny land. In the summer 
days a vacation in the mountains, to the 
dwellers of the cotton belt, is a physical 
luxury, and the variety and purity of the 
thermal and mineral waters of the slopes 
and plateaus of the Alleghanies are 
among the wonders of nature." 

This "Mapleton township" fellow who 
"went South on his own notion," and 
who avers that he has "visited the 
whole Southern country and given it 
.close attention," says "there are only 
two crops in the South, corn and cot- 
ton." According to reports of the 
Census and United States Agricultural 
Department, however, the South does 
produce a {^\m things besides corn and 
cotton. It may be worth while to note 
some of them. 

The statements that we have quoted 
as to the soils and products of the South 
come from Nebraska and the Dakotas. 
The most important cereals of these 
three States, besides corn, are wheat and 
oats. The wheat crop of these States 
in 1889, the year for which the census 
figures were compiled, was 53,500,652 
bushels. The wheat crop of the South 
in the same year was 50,388,891 bushels, 
or 95 per cent, of the crop of this great 



wheat region, which includes the famous 
Red River Valley and the widely noted 
Dakota wheat farms. In the same year 
these three States produced 60,083,010 
bushels of oats. The crop of the South- 
ern States was two-thirds as great, being 
40,131,981 bushels. 

According to this, "one of Mapleton 
township's most reliable farmers," the 
methods practised in the growing of 
corn in the South are such that the 
aggregate crop must be insignificant ; 
but according to the census the corn 
crop in the South in 1889 was 442,705,- 
149 bushels. This was nearly double 
the entire crop of these three great corn 
States, which together produced only 
229,231,933 bushels. 

But, lest it may be said that the year 
1889 was probably a bad crop year in 
the Northwest and that the comparison 
is unfair, suppose we take the average 
in both the South and these States for 
a period of years. Take, say, the last 
six years (1889-1894). According to 
the reports of the Agricultural Depart- 
ment, the average annual yield of the 
three leading cereals in this period has 
been as follows : 







Wheat, 
bus. 


Corn, 
bus 


Oats 
bus. 


The South 


54,805,062 
68 755,38s 


488,662,125 
14S, 373,408 


76,157,847 
59,170,292 


Nebraska and 
Dakotas. .. 


the 



That is, the South, which has nothing 
but a barren sandy soil, and raises corn 
in a most primitive fashion, has pro- 
duced in the last six years an a\'erage 
annual crop of corn three and one-half 
times as great as the average crop of 
these three corn producing States ; and 
a section which grows nothing but corn 
and cotton has produced an average 
annual crop of wheat of 54,805,062 
bushels, against an average annual crop 
of 68,755,388 in these wonderful wheat 
producing States, besides 76,157,847 
bushels of oats against an average 
annual crop of 59,170,292 bushels in 
these three States noted for cereal pro- 
duction. 

The largest crop of corn produced in 
the South in any one of these six years 
was 535,942,000 bushels. The largest 



THE SOUTH AND THE NORTHWEST. 



145 



crop produced in these three North- 
western States was 189,371,000 bushels. 
The lowest crop produced in the South 
was 444,690,000. The lowest crop pro- 
duced in these three States was 15,- 
809,933. 

Besides corn, wheat and oats, the 
South produced last year 631,358 
bushels of buckwheat and 2,363,161 
bushels of rye. 

But there are yet other things grown 
in the South. The Southern States 
produced in 1894, ^^^ shown by reports 
of the United States Agricultural 
Department, 73 per cent, of all the 
tobacco grown in the United States, the 
South's crop being 298,820,902 pounds, 
against 107,857,483 pounds produced 
in all the rest of the country. The 
South grew in 1894, 16,397,596 bushels 
of potatoes. The crop in Nebraska and 
the Dakotas was 6,268,916 bushels. 
According to the eleventh census the 
South produced in 18S9 128,590,934 
pounds of rice and 3,530,492 bushels 
of peanuts. 

This careful and conscientious explorer 
of the South lost sight of the fact that 
there is a large truck farming industry, 
in which thousands of men along the 
South Atlantic coast and in the Gulf 
States have made fortunes in the last 
few years. According to a bulletin 
issued by the eleventh census the value 
of products raised by the truck farmers 
of the South in 1889 exceeded 
$30,000,000. This has probably grown 
now to more than $50,000,000 a year. 

He admits that the South has some 
advantages in fruit growing, but claims 
that the business doesn't amount to 
anything. If he had taken the trouble 
to study the census reports he might 
have learned ' that the principal fruits 
produced in the South in 1889 were as 
follows : 

Bushels. 

Apples 47.<)67.029 

Peaches 26,813.100 

Pears 5S2.716 

Cherries 311.46s 

Apricots 14.926 

Plums 721,102 

The apples produced in the South 
constituted one-third of the entire crop 
of the United States ; the peaches more 
than two-thirds of the whole product of 
the United States, the yield of these 



two fruits for all the States and Terri- 
tories having been respectively 143,- 
105,689 bushels and 36,367,747 bushels. 

Fruit growing is much more profitable 
in the South than elsewhere, for the 
reason that on account of early maturity 
the fruit gets into market many weeks 
in advance of the Northern crops, and 
commands prices many times higher. 

Then there are the tropical and semi- 
tropical fruits and nuts. In 1889 Florida 
alone produced oranges worth $4,298,- 
014. This was nearly double the value 
oi the orange crop of California, which 
amounted to $2,271,616. The value of 
nuts and citrus fruits other than oranges 
was $3,556,627 ; the value of such nuts 
and fruits in California was $3,989,968. 

The South did some little business in 
the way of grape growing. The pro- 
duction of table grapes in 1889 in four 
States, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia 
and Tennessee, was 29,078,000 pounds. 
The wine produced in these four States 
from nati\e grapes amounted to 1,165,- 
832 gallons. 

It is claimed that all seeds except 
cotton must be brought from the North. 
This gives rise to an interesting ques- 
tion. What becomes of the seed pro- 
duced for sale in the Southern States ? 
According to a bulletin issued by the 
Census Department, of the 596 seed 
farms in the United States 146 were in 
the South. There were only 19 in Ne- 
braska and the Dakotas. There were 
636 nurseries in the South with an in- 
vested capital of $6,094,504, occupying 
land valued at $4,117,891. 

This Mapleton township investigator 
in his careful scrutiny of the whole South 
could find no horses there, only mules, he 
says, being able to stand the heat. The 
last report of the statistician of the Agri- 
cultural Department at Washington, 
issued April, 1895, ^^ <^'"' enumeration 
of live stock in the country, puts the 
number of horses in the Southern States 
at 3,536,497 ; this is more than three 
times as many as are reported for Ne- 
braska and the Dakotas. 

Let us see about other live stock. 
The same report of the Agricultural 
Department statistician puts the number 
of milch cows, oxen, (S:c., in the South 
at 15,354,407 ; the number of sheep at 



146 



THE SOUTH AND THE NORTHWEST. 



8,560,821 ; the number of swine at 18,- 
450,796. The number of these animals 
in Nebraska and the Dakotas is given 
as follows: Milch cows, oxen, &c., 
2,864,771, about one-sixth of the num- 
ber in the South ; sheep 874,101, about 
one-tenth of the number in the South ; 
swine 1,598,240, about one-twelfth of 
the number in the South. The wool 
clip in the South in 1894 is given as 
49,244,906 pounds. The clip of the 
three Northwestern States, with which 
these comparisons have been made, was 
6,581,975 pounds. 

Of poultry and &<gg products the 
census I'eport shows that in 1890 there 
were in the South 100,248,382 domestic 
fowls, and the &<g^ production of 1889 
was 184,344,734 dozens. According to 
the census report the number of pounds 
of butter produced in the Southern 
States in 1889 was 221,003,954. 

The Adams County Democrat, quoted 
from above, says the South has no such 
climate as Nebraska. Happily it has 
not. It has already been shown in these 
pages (editorial on "The Summer Tem- 
perature of the South" in issue for Feb- 
ruary, 1895) that through summer the 
South suffers but little more than the 
North from heat, and that it never gets 
as hot in the South as it does in the 
Northwest. From the reports of the 
Weather Bureau of the United States it 
is found that the July normal tempera- 
ture is 79.2 for Norfolk, Va., 78.4 for 
Atlanta, Ga., 81.4 for Memphis. The 
normal July mean for Omaha is 76.4 ; 
for Des Moines, la., 75.4 ; for Leaven- 
worth, Kan., 78. According to the 
temperature maps issued by the Census 
Department, the highest temperature 
known in the South is 105°. Nebraska, 
the Dakotas and other Northern and 
Northwestern States are in a belt of 
country in which the temperature goes 
5° higher than in the South, the maxi- 
mum being 110°. The normal mean 
temperature for January is 41.3 for 
Norfolk, Va., 43.4 at Atlanta, 43.4 at 
Memphis. The normal mean tempera- 
ture for January at Omaha, Neb., is 
18.9. Des Moines, la., 17.7 ; so that 
while the South has an equable climate 
with but a comparatively slight range of 
temperature, these Northern States are 



subject to a degree of heat that is never 
known in the South, and a winter tem- 
perature that goes to the other extreme. 
There cannot be much physical comfoit 
in a country where the mercury goes to 
110° in summer and falls to 40° below 
zero in winter, a range of 150°. 

"No such social surroundings." That 
too is quite true. The social conditions 
in the South are as much higher than 
those of the Northwest as the climate is 
better. Nowhere in the world is there 
a higher grade of civilization and more 
delightful social life than in the South. 
This fact is univei sally recognized and 
acknowledged by people who travel and 
see things. 

"No such schools !" It is true that 
the common school systems of the dif- 
ferent Southern States have not been 
on as high a plane as those of most 
of the Northern and Western States, 
but there has been a stupendous im- 
provement in this regard in the last ten 
years. No other State in the Union has 
a public school system so well endowed 
as that of the State of Texas No other 
State in the Union, not even in New 
England, is educating a larger propor- 
tionate number of its children than the 
State of Arkansas. There has been in 
the South in the last ten years much 
more rapid advance in school methods 
and in the proportion of children in 
schools to the population of school age 
than in any other part of the country. 

"No such churches ! " One of the 
distinctive and most striking character- 
istics of the South is the high degree of 
religious and moral life. , In this regard 
it is infinitely in advance of any part of 
the West and Northwest. According 
to the census of 1890 the percentage of 
church members to population in the 
Southern States was 34.42. The per- 
centage for Nebraska was 18.36. 

"No such enterprise or industry." 
No people of anv country in the history 
of the world have ever shown a more 
remarkable energy and enterprise and 
industry than the Southern people have 
exhibited in the progress they have 
made in the last thirty years, after the 
devastation and demoralization of the 
war. The j^revalent idea that this pro- 
gress and development have been 



THE SOUTH AXD THE NORTHWEST 



I 4; 



brought about wholly by Northern 
money and energy is wrong. The 
greater part of it has been accomplished 
by the people of the South. 

"You can escape the blizzard if there 
is a post hole handy, but you cannot 
escape the malarial pestilence of the 
Southern States if you eat a barrel of 
quinine." True, possibly, as to the first 
clause in this sentence, but people can't 
carry post holes around with them to be 
prepared for blizzards, while it is possi- 
ble to escape malaria in any part of the 
South. The South has never suffered 
from malaria any more than the Western 
States have in their early settlement, and 
is not troubled with malaria now any 
more than they. It has been amply de- 
monstrated within the past few years that 
malaria in the South may be entirely 
escaped by the drinking of pure water 
which may be had in abundance. 
Wherever in any part of the South, even 
in sections adjacent to the most sickly 
swamps, artesian or other pure water has 
been introduced, malaria has entirely 
disappeared. The testimony on this 
point is absolute. Malaria, with all its 
kindred diseases, has been proved to be 
entirely avoidable in any part of the 
South, or any other section of the coun- 
try for that matter. 

Probably one of the silliest things in 
the article from the Sioux Falls Press 
is the statement that Southern oak and 
hickory are of no value ; that no manu- 
facturers use it, and that even in the 
far South Northern oak is shipped in 
for wagons and wagon timber. There 
are millions of dollars invested in hard- 
wood industries in the South — wagon 
factories, spoke and handle factories, 
and others using hardwoods, whose raw 
material comes wholly from Southern 
forests. No Northern oak is shipped 
to Southern factories. Many factories 
needing hickory and oak have moved 
to the South from Northern localities 
because of the more abundant supply 
and the better quality of the wood. 

In a report on the forests of North 
America, prepared for the census by 
Charles S. Sargent, professor of arbori- 
culture in Harvard College, there may 
be found such statements as this : "Two 
great bodies of hardwood timber remain, 



upon which comparatively small inroads 
have yet been made. The most im- 
portant of these forests covers the 
region occupied by the Southern Alle- 
ghany mountain system, embracing 
Southwestern Virginia, Western Virginia, 
Western North and South Carolina 
and Eastern Kentucky and Tennessee. 
Here oak unequaled in quality abounds. 
* * * The second great body of hard- 
wood, largely oak, is found west of the 
Mississippi river, extending from Cen- 
tral Missouri to Western Louisiana. 

Writing of Mississippi, he says : 
"White oak timber of the finest quality 
is found here in the greatest abundance 
and perfection," And again: "The 
region covered by these splendid forests 
of hard woods possesses a wealth of 
timber of the most valuable kinds and 
in surprising variety." Of Louisiana, 
he says : "The magnificent hard woods 
in every part of the State can supply 
abundant material for many important 
industries which already at the North 
suffer from the exhaustion and deterior- 
ation of the local timber supply." Of 
Arkansas, he says: "The hard-wood 
forests of the State are hardly surpassed 
in variety and richness, and contain in- 
estimable bodies of finest oak, walnut, 
hickory and ash timber. "^ * * Indus- 
tries consuming hard woods are still in 
their infancy in Arkansas, although des- 
tined doubtless to achieve important 
development." 

Judge Pitkin C. Wright, of Memphis, 
Tenn., in a recent article on Southern 
timbers, says : 

"For some time past the great agri- 
cultural implement firms of Illinois and 
Indiana have been turning to the 
South to seek the material for their 
machines. '' * '■' 

"The lumber from the forests of the 
Southern States of the L^nited States 
has a firmer, closer grain and a texture 
susceptible of a finer polish than the 
average wood of the Northern forests 
of the same grade, will hold nails better 
and is more lasting. As these lacts 
have come to be realized, the Southern 
timber has come more and more to be 
sought for for furniture, for interior 
finish or any other uses where a smooth 
surface and a high state of polish is 



1 48 



THE SOUTH AND THE NORTHWEST. 



desirable as well as where toughness 
and textile strength are required. * * * 

"There have been during this past 
fall and earl}- winter, several parties of 
manufacturers interested in the furniture 
factories of Michigan and Illinois visit- 
ing the South examining the timber 
supply and seeking timber locations, 
rhey say that they find the Southern 
timber of the same grades and qualities 
much better for their business than the 
Northern timbers ; better texture, closer 
grain, susceptible of a much higher 
polish and a finer finish. * * * Yhe 
agricultural implement makers say the 
same thing of the Southern oak and 
ash as compared with that of the North. 

"The Southern woods are also, as a 
rule, being of a finer texture than the 
Northern ones, more durable when put 
in work. The equableness of the cli- 
mate, being between the extremes of 
heat or cold of the North, renders the 
fibre of the wood more uniform and its 
growth and grain more firm. Another 
good quality of the lumber of the 
South is its greater width and better 
grade, as being cut from larger logs, 
from trees that have acquired more age 
and strength of fibre." 

It is useless to go on multiplying tes- 



timony. This paper is already much 
too long. If any further demonstration 
be needed it may be found in the hun- 
dreds of letters from all parts of the 
South that have been published in" the 
Southern States in the last two 
years, written by persons from the North 
who have moved to the South, and in 
the conclusive and unanswerable tacts 
that a constantly-growing volume of 
immigration is pouring into the South 
from other parts of the country ; that 
every week hundreds of farmers from 
the North and West and North- 
west are buying land and establish- 
ing homes in the South, after the 
most careful and exacting investigation ; 
that the settlement of one or more fami- 
lies in any Southern locality is in nearly 
every case followed by the removal to 
the same locality of former triends and 
neighbors of the first comers, an evidence 
that the latter have sent back favorable 
reports of their new homes ; and that 
the longer these settlers from the North 
live in the South, the more convinced of 
its greater advantages and attractions 
do they become, and the more earnest 
and enthusiastic in their advocac)^ of it 
and claims for it. 



AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 



II.— GRASSES (Continued). 
By M. B. Hillyard. 



I have never been able to fathom the 
explanation of the feehng a Kentuckian 
from the blue-grass region has for the 
grass that gives that area its name. 
I surely can't be mistaken when I say 
that many of them fancy that a certain 
belt of that State has a monopoly of 
claim to a m}'-sterious virtue, imagined 
to attach to it. It is astonishing how 
many residents of that area will repel, 
with scorn, any supposition or assertion 
of one that any other part of the State 
than that pretty well defined by geo- 
graphical line, is a blue-grass country. 
And I have found Kentuckians, in other 
States, proud of having come from the 
blue-grass region. But, while I notice 
their devotion to the grass, it is very 
observable that they soon lose their 
notion that no other location will produce 
that grass well but their own Kentucky 
home. They love the grass so well that 
they are very soon trying it in their new 
hom'es, even if it be in droughty Kansas, 
where I saw some years ago a man who 
had been trying to get a sod of blue 
grass for nearly twenty years, without 
eftect, on his farm in Southwest Kansas. 
This man was from Bourbon county, 
Kentucky, and it was astonishing to see 
his tenacity of endeavor to ha\'e under 
his eye the favorite grass of his old home. 

Some years ago, when I was the 
guest of Doctor A. C. Stevenson, (now 
deceased), of Greencastle, Indiana, he 
took me out to the fields of his ample 
acres near there to show me his blue 
grass. And a fine sight they were ! He 
told me that many years before he had 
moved to Greencastle from Bourbon 
county, Kentucky, and bought a large 
area — 2000 or more acres — of what were 
then very poor and cheap lands, and 
seeded them down to Kentucky blue 



grass. He hoped it would be a success. 
Anyhow, the passion for the grass was 
so strong he resolved to try. At that 
early day the idea seemed rather pre- 
posterous to the doctor's neighbors, for 
the grass seemed peculiarly confined, 
by popular estimation, to a certain area 
in Kentucky. 

I remember an instance of a distant 
connection of mine, one of the children 
of a very celebrated and wealthy short- 
horn breeder in the very heart of the 
Kentucky blue-grass region. In a par- 
tial disposition of the parental estate, so 
as to "set up" the children as they came 
of age, this son had been alloted several 
thousands acres of very rich land in 
Missouri, while one or more of the other 
children had been given a very much 
less area of high-priced land in Ken- 
tucky, because it would raise blue grass, 
you know ! At that date his broad 
acres in Missouri were well set in Ken- 
tuckv blue grass, on which were grazing 
a large herd of a superb strain of short- 
horns. And he seemed to take a great 
pleasure in enjoying the thought of how 
he was supposed to be martyrized in 
being deprived of a small area of Ken- 
tucky blue grass land, in consideration 
of a very large slice of Missouri blue 
grass land. 

I have made this little excursion into 
narrati\e to show the estimation in which 
this grass is held by all persons who 
have been raised in the Kentucky blue 
grass belt, and that they have their 
minds changed and find other places 
will produce excellent blue qrass. And 
it is a blessed thing that it is held in 
sucli hi.uh esteem by Kentuckians of 
that blessed belt. For wherever they 
go thev carrv it, if soil and climate will 
suit. And wherever it is introduced it 



I50 AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 



commends greatly the area to all well 
informed men, redeems it from popular 
inconsideration, and brings in a factor of 
sustenance for live stock of incomputa- 
ble value. It is very certain that almost 
every one has to receive a sort of quasi- 
education to estimate the true poten- 
tiality of a first-class blue-grass region. 
In many places the grass is held in dis- 
esteem and virtual contempt. This 
springs from a number of reasons. 
Sometimes from the stolidity of people 
who have a very good thing, and not 
knowing its value. I have met people 
at the West who were enjoying the 
benefits of a well disseminated and good 
blue-grass sod, who did not appreciate 
its value and literally trampled it under 
foot, reminding one of the "bright golden 
flower" in Comus : 

"Unknown, and like esteemed, and the dull swain 
Treads on it daily with his clouted shoon." 

But, so soon as one tells them it is 
Kentucky blue grass, they awake to 
estimation, — like one who finds he 
has a gold mine on his farm of which he 
had no suspicion. Then again there is 
a considerable tract of country where 
the grass is known as "June grass," and 
where it does not plav anything like so 
prominent or useful a part as other 
grasses, particularly red clover. And it 
receives the name of "June grass" be- 
cause that month represents the period 
or duration of time at which the grass is 
at his best' — certainly its vigor of 
verdure — or commonly supposed best 
condition. The reader must not have 
failed to be impressed with the qualifi- 
cation of my language. I was much 
enlightened on this point some years 
ago on a visit to a noted stock-raiser. He 
called my attention to the fact that the 
cattle were eating the dried up (cured) 
blue grass in the open field to the utter 
neglect of the green and succulent grass 
in the shade. It was sweeter and more 
nutritious he remarked, and certainly 
the preference of the cattle. So that, 
while there is much in the grass vir- 
tually passing in June, its dried up con- 
dition is not so really meaningless as it 
seems. 

I reallv do not know any bar to Ken- 
tucky blue grass, but lack of rainfall. 
I was born and raised in Central Dela- 



ware, where we have a sandy (very, in 
places) soil, and sandy loam, underlaid 
at ten to fifteen inches with clay. Our 
soil there has so little lime in it that it is 
the usage to top dress it every seven 
years, at least, with forty to fifty bushels 
of slaked lime to the acre, on a clover 
sod turned under. There, a pretty 
good sod of blue grass is verv common. 
I have seen the grass "catching" 
in the gorges of the Rocky 
mountains, at lofty altitudes. I have 
seen it on the southern shores of 
Lake Superior, and have sown it at 
Mobile, Alabama. So, from the East 
in Delaware— virtually the Atlantic — 
West to the Rocky Mountains, and 
from the northern boundary of the 
United States — southern shore of Lake 
Superior — to the extreme boundary 
south — the Gulf of Mexico, at Mobile — 
this grass will grow — given enough 
rainfall, properly distributed. I do not 
believe much can be done with it except 
by irrigation, much beyond an area a 
little west of the Missouri river. 

It takes a good many years for any 
country to get pretty well-taken in this 
grass, unless especial attention is paid 
to it by making grazing the feature of 
agriculture and seeding this grass as the 
basis of pasture. I have been especially 
interested irt watching along- railroads in 
a new-opened country how this grass 
works in. It always thickens up with 
increasing population, unless in some 
areas, as South, where killing grass has 
been the great achievement of first-class 
agriculture. 

I regard the South (as a whole), one 
of the best Kentucky blue-grass regions 
in the country. Of course, soil and 
rainfall must play their part. But the 
South (as a whole) has these, and gen- 
erally surpassing much of the country- 
at-large. 

I have seen this grass as a force and 
factor at various places South, and if you 
were to question the capabilities of many 
places South raising blue grass, what a 
swarm of hornets would be about your 
ears! Where have I not seen it South? 
It is plentiful on the mountains of North 
and South Carolina, of East Tennessee, 
the lovely hills and valleys of Central 
Tennessee. In North Georgia they sod 



AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 



i^i 



their lawns with the grass about Atlanta, 
in Alabama, on the prairies of East Mis- 
sissippi; even on its pine hills, where I 
have sown it in numberless places; on 
the prairies and hills of Louisiana. In 
fact, until two or three years ago, the 
finest sod of Kentucky blue grass I ever 
saw in my life was at Okolona, Miss. 
But this Okolona sod was surpassed by 
one I saw in Louisiana about two years 
ago. 

Some years ago it was my especial 
mission on behalf of the Mobile & Ohio 
Railroad to foster immigration, promot- 
ing stock-breeding, grass-raising, etc. 

In 1879 or 1880, at an approaching 
organization of a stock breeders' asso- 
ciation at West Point, Mississippi, I was 
booked for an address. I thought it 
would be a pretty part of the affair to 
have Dr. A. C. Stevenson present to 
address it. I wrote him, and he prom- 
ised to, and did come, but got down too 
late for the organization, I resolved 
while he was down to utilize him in 
making a campaign of education in be- 
half of raising stock and grass in East 
Mississippi. So I left my home in 
Mobile with him and went up to the 
Mobile & Ohio Railroad, intending to 
induce him, especially, to commend Ken- 
tucky blue grass. I found that, while 
he would say good words about clover, 
timothy, orchard and other grasses, he 
would say nothing in favor of blue grass. 
He had visited me twice before, spending 
much of two winters as my guest, and 
had then seen these grasses, but blue 
grass only in the shade — as he wrote to 
the Northern papers. I was nearly in 
despair. Here was my great ally, whom 
I had brought South to help me agitate 
in favor of grass raising, and he took 
ground against me on my chosen 
ground — Kentucky blue grass. At 
length I remarked to him his utter 
obstinance in commending this grass. 
He said : "Hillyard, you can't raise blue 
grass here !" I said, "Doctor we can ; I 
have seen plenty of it." "Well," he 
said, "where is it? If it would succeed, 
you would find it all about." I said, 
"but, Doctor, how would it get here? 
Everybody is killing grass, and nobody 
sows it." "Well," he replied, "it would 
get here if it suited the country." I was 



badly posed for awhile. Then I thought 
of Starkville, Miss., where Col. W."b. 
Montgomery lived. He had a large 
farm near town where were several hun- 
dred acres in blue grass ; and it was 
spreading so rapidly that he had ceased 
to sow it, and trusted to its "catching" 
from "droppings" from catde, etc. I 
went to Starkville, told him of my di- 
lemma. He said : "You can never talk 
Dr. Stevenson into a belief in blue grass. 
Let me have him for a day or two ; I will 
convert him." So in a day or two the 
Doctor and Montgomery started in the 
morning for Mhoon place of the latter, 
where was then the largest herd of 
thoroughbred registered Jerseys in the 
country (if not the world), about ten 
miles from Starkville. The Doctor saw 
the cattle pasturing (it was in February ), 
on the blue grass and fine sod. He 
remained one night and saw the milking 
of the herd. They pastured every day, 
winter and summer, on that same sod. 
The next day, I saw him ; I was anxious, 
you may be sure. "Well, Doctor," said 
I, "what of blue grass?" Very slowly, 
as if almost crushed, he replied : "You 
can raise it." I saw through it all. The 
man had been stunned, but convinced 
by the overwhelming testimony. Full 
of elation, I left him in Starkville await- 
ing his pleasure to go with me on our 
round of persuasion to commend blue 
grass to the people of East Mississippi. 
At Starkville it could be found in scores 
of places, under the influence of the 
inspiriting example of Col. Montgomery, 
who had begun its use nearly or quite a 
decade before. After the Doctor had 
been satisfied to his heart's content that 
we could raise the grass and others suc- 
essfully, he sent me this letter : 

Starkville, Miss., Feb. 10, 1S79. 
Col. M. B. Hillyard: 

After Wednesday I shall be ready to 
serve you in any way that you may 
think best to promote the grass and 
stock-raising interests of the country, or 
any other service that will be likely to 
promote immigration to your State. I 
was thinking of addresses at the most 
suitable points along the line of the 
road. Small bunches in the sod could 
be carried in a very small box. sufiicient 
to show to a demonstration that thev 



152 AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 



■can be grown. I merely suggest this 
for your consideration. Very truly 
yours, A. C. Stevenson. 

He opened his addresses at Starkville. 
I remember that at that address he re- 
marked, holding up a sod of blue grass 
recently dug up: "Here is a sample of 
Kentucky blue grass, found growing at 
this time, with blades twelve inches 
long." Now it happened that 1 had 
measured these blades, and knew them 
to be sixteen or eighteen inches long. 
So I told the Doctor about it after the 
lecture. He remarked: "Well that's 
good enough. The people (meaning 
those North and West), wont believe 
even what I have said." I made quite 
a round with this venerable man, he and 
I delivering grass-talks, showing sods, 
etc. The Doctor grew more and more 
enthusiastic, and finally went home, 
Greencastle, Ind., declaring that if he 
were a younger man he would come 
South and go into short-horn raising. 

I might simply rest my case as to 
whether we can raise Kentucky blue 
grass, upon the words and conduct of 
Doctor Stevenson ; the more especially 
as he at first was such an opponent. 
But, someone might say, "the argument 
applies only to East Mississippi." Well, 
I have mentioned various other States, 
and I will particularize a little more. 
Under the auspices of the late Cotton 
Centennial (1884-85), I was commis- 
sioned to visit the breeders of registered 
stock in the Gulf States, and solicit a 
display from them. In this behalf I 
visited I know not how many breeders 
in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and 
Louisiana. I particularly remember 
visiting the stock farm of Col. Richard 
Peters, of Georgia, and Mr. Wade (of 
Tenella fame), of same State. The 
latter I found sowing Kentucky blue 
grass seed. I jocularly remarked, "Mr. 
Wade you must believe in blue grass." 
Seeing his fields green and cattle pas- 
turing in them (and not believing in the 
necessity for silos far South), I re- 
marked, "why, Mr. Wade, where is 
your silo?" "Here is my silo," replied 
he, waiving his hand at his verdure-clad 
fields, with his Jerseys browsing orchard 
grass, blue grass- and others. 

In 1886-87, I had been at a pretty 



lively campaign in behalf of Southwest 
Louisiana. It was an untaken country 
then, where one could get 480 acres 
as a gift, and it was very hard work 
to get people to move in there. Their 
argument was, "if that country was 
such a good one, why don't some- 
body take it?" (Wise men are so 
smart, you know. You can't fool them.) 
Well, I saw here and there a "catch" of 
blue grass and timothy hay, and I made 
up my mind to try to push them. I 
was seeing (or forseeing) a good deal 
more in that country than most people 
in that time, and the question whether 
I was venal or crazy was quite an open 
one. However, I wanted a large 
demonstration to incite the coming 
immigrant (who I knew would soon 
be following fast, and following faster) 
to sow the grasses. So I said to a 
friend whom my pen had helped con- 
siderably, "I wish you would sow some 
blue grass and white clover on your 
ranches. It would be a great demon- 
stration and help you in the end." His 
brother immediately opposed, and said, 
"I wouldn't do it. They say it won't 
do. Won't succeed." I said, "if you 
will buy $100 worth of Kentucky blue 
grass seed, white clover, etc., and sow 
it on your ranch in October, and it fails, 
I will pay the bill." This staggered 
him, and he said he would do it. He 
did, but let the seed stay in the ware- 
house at the depot for a year, at the 
mercy of mice and rats. But what nice 
"catches" of grass around the warehouse. 
A few old bags, in which were the seed, 
got carried over to Crowley, and what 
fine "catches" of the grass in that town, 
besides some in the public square, where 
I sowed some seed in 1888. Then at 
Jennings there are some superb plots of 
blue grass. And it was in Southwest 
Louisiana that I saw the most compact 
blue grass sod it was e\'er my fortune to 
meet. 

A little while ago I had a letter from 
Shreveport, La., which tells me of an 
acre or more of blue grass near there 
that has spread from a small sod planted 
a few years ago. Nothing could be 
more conclusive than such a demonstra- 
tion. Several years ago, from what I 
saw in Northwest Louisiana, after a 



AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 153 



journalistic tour, I made up my mind 
that that area was destined to be a great 
stock-raising and dairying country from 
the way the grasses (particularly blue 
grass) succeeded there. 

Shall I endeavor to commend this 
great grass ? I deem it supererogatory 
to attempt it. It has made Kentucky 
both rich and famous, and we can have 
it South. No doubt of that, given a 
proper soil, and adequate rainfall, and, 
after a fashion in any soil (for I have 
sown it and found it growing on the 
sandy land of the coast of the Gulf of 
Mexico, between New Orleans and 
Mobile) provided you have rainfall 
enough. You can have it South longer 
than in the North — a longer season, 
I mean. You can have it combined 
with the best grass in the world, Ber- 
muda, and another most superb grass, 
white clover. This is the ideal pas- 
ture for year-round, year-long pas- 
ture. From at or below the latitude 
33° parallel, you may count on this 
being green the whole year. From 
the last of May or the middle of June, 
under close pasturage and a rather dry 
time, you would be apt to say your blue 
grass and white clover are gone. F>om 
November to mid-April, you would 
think that the white clover and blue 
grass had exterminated your Bermuda. 
And so they go, supplementing each 
other in their season, never failing and 
enduring — who can tell how long they 
won't last ? without anything more than 
being let alone, save by those animals 
they support. And the best of all ways 
to get a "catch" for your blue grass and 
white clover is to sow rather thinly on 
top the sod, never breaking nor harrow- 
ing, nor scarifying the soil. Sow early 
enough to be out of killing frost on 
your tender grass, and late enough to 
be safe from sprouting and a hot, dry 
fall. From mid-September to mid- 
October is a good time to sow where I 
best know the country. Be sure not to 
sow in winter or in spring. You may 
succeed. The chances are you will 
fail. If you want to try the "silk stock- 
ing" style of pretty tilth and sowing as 
in a hot bed, do so — and probably fail. 
I used to try that ; learned better. 
Thought the best plan very lazy and 



shiftless : but I found out that others 
knew more than I. Anyhow, it is a 
cheap and easy way to get the best 
pastures on earth, and a perpetual one. 

In my article in the May number of 
the Southern States there were many 
quotations from letters I received nearly 
a quarter of a century ago from one 
and another grass raiser. In this article 
it will be observed that I have given 
none. One reason is that there were few 
allusions to Kentucky blue grass. In 
my circular letter to grass raisers, I made 
no enquiry as to this grass ; hence, the 
references are few and incidental, but 
strongly commendatory. Then, too, at 
that day, I doubt if there were a half 
dozen men in as many Southern States, 
who had ever experimented with or 
given a thought to this grass. I, myself 
was never so very much impressed with 
Kentucky blue grass until I had \isited 
again and again that country and gotten 
saturated with the Kentuckian's estimate 
of it. But at this day, with more or less 
Kentucky blue grass in every Southern 
State — many areas almost given over to 
it — East Tennessee, North Georgia, in 
places, and East Mississippi, for instance, 
there is little need of giving authorities. 
However, as there might be more or 
less carping at such a departure from 
the methods of my last letter, I will 
refer to Professor Killebrew, of Tennes- 
see, who years ago wrote most authori- 
tatively of this grass, and Professor D. 
L. Phares, deceased, author of a book 
on grasses. Both these distinguished 
gentlemen are endorsed by the United 
States in Dr. George Casey's publication, 
"The Agricultural Grasses of the United 
States," published by the Department 
of Agriculture in 1SS4. 

On page 95, Professor Killebrew is 
thus quoted : "It would seem a work 
of supererogation to argue as to the 
advantages of cultivating this grass. AH 
know its benefits, and all see around 
them the great increase in the value of 
the lands covered by it. It grows 
readily in all parts of the United States 
north of 40°, and lower down on suita- 
ble soils. It flowers in the earliest sum- 
mer, and gives rich pasturage, except m 
the driest months, all the year. It varits 
in size in ditiferent localities, according 



154 AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 



to soil and climate." On the same 
page, Professor Phares is quoted thus : 
"Kentucky blue grass, known also in the 
Eastern States as June grass, although 
esteemed in some parts of America as 
the best of all pasture grasses, seems not 
to be considered very valuable among 
English farmers, except in mixtures. It 
is certainly a very desirable grass, how- 
ever. Its very narrow leaves — one, two 
or more feet long — are in such profusion 
and cover the ground to such depth 
with their luxuriant growth that a mere 
description could give no one an ade- 
quate idea of its beauty, quantity or 
value ; that is, on rich land. On poor, 
sandy land^ it degenerates sadly, as do 
other things uncongenially located. 
Perennial, and bearing cold and drought 
well, it furnishes grazing a large part of 
the year. It is specially valuable as a 
winter and spring grass for the South. 
In prolonged summer drought it dries 
completely, so that if fired it would burn 
off cleanly. But this occurs even in 
Kentucky, where indeed it has seemed 
without fire to disappear utterly; yet 
when rain came the bright, green spears 
promptly recarpeted the earth." 

I will close with a warning and sug- 
gestion to those who live in hilly or 



rolling, sandy (or light loam) soils South. 
If your pine lands are not broken, seed 
them down in Kentucky blue grass and 
white clover. You really need not fear 
to sow Bermuda seed therewith. You 
can now buy the seed. This will pre- 
vent the hills from washing, and give 
you good pasturage for sheep, cattle 
and hogs. Of course, you can't expect 
as good grass on these lands as rich 
ones, but you can get very good pas- 
ture, and it will improve. I know 
whereof I speak. I have sown blue 
grass in numberless places in the pine 
lands, particularly of Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi, and I know these give very 
good pastures, especially with fertility 
and lime or marl. But the great point 
I seek to make is that if you don't so 
treat your rolling pine lands, but break 
them for crops, they will start to wash- 
ing and cover the fertile little valleys 
with sand, and ruin both hills and valle> s. 
I especially commend this thought to 
the man who expects to make a home 
in the rolling "piney woods" South, 
especially the "orange land" formation. 
Don't let anyone fear Bermuda grass. 
You can soon shade it out with Japan 
clover. 



HUNTING GOLD MINES IN VIRGINIA. 

By D. Allen Willey. 



There are several things that you can 
hunt on horseback in the Virginia foot 
hills of the Blue Ridge mountains. 
Among them are deer, foxes and gold 
mines. You don't use a gun and dogs 
to bag the latter game, but you have to 
hunt for it much as you would locate a 
fox den. 

In the happy days "befo' de wah," 
many of the farmers in Albemarle, Nel- 
son and Buckingham counties, added to 
their income from the sale of agricultural 
products by mining gold on a limited 
scale and in a very crude way. In the 
old Revolutionary days gold was known 
to exist in this region and some fabu- 
lous stories were told of "pockets" 
which possessed fortunes in the yellow 
metal. It was \'ery hard, however, to 
find the man who had ever seen one of 
the pockets. He had heard Maj. John- 
son or Capt. Brown tell about 'em. 
Between 1850 and i860, however, fully 
a dozen deposits containing more or 
less gold were worked by slave labor in 
the valleys or near the valleys of the 
Rockfish and Slate rivers. "Working" 
meant that two or three slaves dug out 
the gold bearing material and flung it 
into a trough of wood through which 
water was poured. The farm.er himself 
washed out th-e metal by the "placer" 
method, and it is a fact that some of 
these workings yielded from $5 to $10 
per day in free gold. 

The war, however, stopped the work 
and the location of most of the deposits 
has been lost altogether, especially on 
plantations which are practically aban- 
doned. 

Within the last year, however, one or 
two old mines have been located, and 
this has encouraged prospectors to 
hunt for others. The writer happened 
to be in this country last summer and 



was invited to join one of the native 
prospectors in such a hunt. 

Charles Jackson is one of the characters 
of the James river country. Most of 
his time is spent in field and forest, and 
while he has a little farm a few miles 
from the Chesapeake & Ohio railroad, 
his main occupation is hunting and pros- 
pecting. He is a geologist from instinct, 
and experience enables him to trace 
gold and iron bearing ledges, just as he 
discovers the places where the deer in 
this section have their salt licks, where 
they ford streams, and their breeding 
places. He is an expert mountain 
climber and, though past sixty, is as 
vigorous as a man of thirty, while out- 
door exposure has given him such a 
color that you may doubt at first 
whether he is white or colored. 

This was the man with whom I started 
mine-hunting before six o'clock one hot 
August morning. The digging that we 
wanted to find was on an abandoned 
plantation, about nine miles from the 
starting point, but he had no idea of its 
exact locality. A ride of hall an hour at a 
box trot brought us to Mount Alto 
ridge, the first range of Blue Ridge 
foot hills which separate the James ri\-er 
\'alley from the mountains proper. 
Chunks of quartz and flintstone, also 
iron ore, indicated the mineral character 
of the region, while the bkickened tree 
trunks and brown tint of the underbrush 
showed how the forest fires had swept 
over the hills. An hour's ride through 
the woods and we reached a small cabin 
in a clearing. 

"Which is the nearest way to the 
Chadbourne plantation ?" incjuired the 
prospector of an old darkey who came 
to the' door. 

" 'Deed, Marse, I dunno fur sartain. 
Reckon vo' take fust road to de rii^ht 



156 



HUNTING GOLD MINES IN VIRGINIA. 



an' keep it to de ole mill. Then ask 
somebody. I know it's dat way." 

We followed the old man's direction, 
which took us across Green Mountain, 
the next ridge of foothills, and sure 
enough, came to the old mill, where we 
had to swim a forty-foot creek. But 
Virginia horses are good swimmers as 
well as good travelers, and a man on the 
other side told how to complete the trip. 
Nobody was living on the place, though, 
said the man, but Miss Chadbourne and 
a colored woman. 

"How long has the colored woman 
been here?" asked Jackson. 

"Ever since she was born. She was 
a slave then," was the reply. 

That was the woman we wanted to 
find, as every darkey within five miles 
of a supposed gold deposit knows some 
story about it. And when we reached 
the place and rode between the old posts 
which once supported the main gate 
and saw the old woman come out 
with a red handkerchief bound around 
her head, we saw the man had not been 
given a plug of tobacco for nothing. 
Yes, she said, there was a gold mine 
somewhere down near the creek. It 
hadn't been touched though since she 
was a girl. She reckoned Col. Chad- 
bourne had taken heaps of gold from 
it, but that was before the war. There 
was another place where they had found 
gold but never worked it, but that place 
she was not sure enough about. 

The outlook was not encouraging. 
Here was an 8oo-acre plantation through 
which a creek flowed nearly a mile. 
The banks of the creek were covered 
with weeds and underbrush, and the 
trees were so thick that they hid the 
stream from view. The place had evi- 
dently been a well-kept plantation in its 
day. It was beautifully situated in a 
valley, with the mountains on either side 
only about three miles away. Young 
trees were now growing on many of the 
fields ; the fences and help quarters 
were gone, except two tumble-down 
cabins, and the house had lost most of 
the glass from the windows, and in 
places you could see daylight through 
the decayed spots in the roof It had 
once been a fine house, but with its sur- 
roundings it was an object lesson of what 



the war had done for this once pros- 
perous country. The only cultivated 
land on this 800 acres was a patch 
of about twenty acres in corn and a 
small garden. 

Now we had to hunt in earnest and 
here Jackson displayed his expert 
knowledge. He carefully scanned the 
sides of the valley, noted the direction 
of the creek and the rock strata, exam- 
ined the soil in the cornfield which was 
nearest the creek. Finally we began 
forcing the horses through the weeds 
and underbrush. Every few moments 
he would dismount and examine the 
locality. Well, we worked along for an 
hour slowly and cautiously, just as hun- 
ters do for game, when Jackson ex- 
claimed "If there's gold on this place, 
we are near it." He didn't say how he 
could tell and I felt very skeptical, as so 
far there was not the slightest indication 
of a mine. The growth of bushes had 
become so dense that we were forced to 
"foot it" the rest of the way, and tied 
the horses to a tree. Once in a while 
we got a glimpse of the water, but it was 
seldom we could go near enough. Ap- 
parently the place had not been visited 
by human beings in twenty years. Sud- 
denly I heard a crashing sound and 
Jackson disappeared. 

We had found the "mine" and he 
had fallen into it, but it was only about 
four feet deep and the tumble was not 
serious. For a space of thirty or forty 
feet square the earth or rather a ledge 
of sandy shale and loose quartz had 
been dug away near the side of the creek. 
Ends of rotten timbers showed where 
the trough had been placed and we also 
found where the water of the creek had 
been partly diverted through an arti- 
ficial channel to the troughs. Much 
of the excavation was choked with 
weeds, but we found a few clear spots 
and began scraping and sifting the sand 
washed down from recent rains. Soon 
our fingers were stained with minute 
gold scales. 

Yes, it was indeed gold, and when a 
few moments later I saw the metal glitter 
in some fragments of quartz, I showed 
them to Jackson. ■ We collected some 
of the sand and some of the specimens, 
and when he had traced the gold-bearing 



HUNTING GOLD MINES IN VIRGINIA. 



157 



stratum over 500 feet along the creek, 
we started homeward. 

How did it result ? The analysis of the 
quartz showed that the gold in it was 



worth about $20 per ton — worth develop- 
ing ; the sand did not "pan out" so 
well, but we were entirely satisfied with 
the result of the hunt. 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH. 

A Contvmation of the Scries of Letters from Northern and Western 
Farmers and Business Men zvho have Settled in the South. 



A German Preacher's Opinion of 
Arkansas. 

A. BuRKLE, Lutheran pastor, Stutt- 
gart, Ark. — Nearly seventeen years have 
elapsed since your correspondent and 
his friend, Pastor F. Grassle, now de- 
ceased, moved from Ohio to Arkansas 
to search for a suitable place for settle- 
ment. We investigated a great part of 
the State, and particularly that part be- 
tween Little Rock and Fort Smith, but 
found no desirable place. When we 
came to Grand Prairie, which was much 
denounced at that time, we exclaimed : 
"Here is the place to stay and settle." 

My experiences in these many years 
confirm that the impression made upon 
us by the appearance of the country was 
correct. In the fall of 1S78 I brought 
the first family to this place and founded 
the settlement of "Stuttgart," named 
after my old home in Germany. 

Soon after. Pastor O., (now in St. 
Louis), one of the co-operators of said 
journal, came here, and exclaimed : 
"Verily, a paradise." Yes, indeed, it 
cost me much labor, trouble, money and 
land to make Stuttgart a railroad sta- 
tion and to lay the corner stone to its 
solid growth, of which the most people, 
who acted in their own interest, know 
nothing or do not like to be reminded 
of For those who desire to build up a 
home, I wish to say in short the lol- 
lowing : 

Grand Prairie extends from south to 
north, changing in width from ten to 
twenty miles. It is a slightly undulating 
prairie, in which are small and larger 
forests from one to 1000 acres in size. 



They are like islands in the ocean, there- 
fore are called "islands." Grand Prairie 
is entitled to, and bears to, name "Gar- 
den of America," for a more beautiful 
country is hard to find. 

The soil is generally a fertile mixture 
of clay and sand, with good soil below. 
The water, as a rule, has its natural out- 
let, or can otherwise be easily drained, 
which is done under the ditch law, to 
the great benefit of the country. 

The roads are in good condition dur- 
ing the greater part of the year : stone 
is seldom found. The prairie is sur- 
rounded by large forests, which, like 
the islands, belong to the best in the 
United States, and consist of the best 
timber. By careful attention there can 
never be want of timber. Large and 
small creeks cross Grand Prairie ; some 
of them are dry several months during 
the summer. Excellent well water is 
found everywhere in abundance. Wells 
are 30 to 40 feet deep and bored 100 
feet deep, and are inexhaustible. 

The water is very healthy, generally 
soft, so that it can be used for washing. 

The climate is exceedingly beautiful. 
In the month of M^rch the forests and 
fields begin to grow green and remain 
so to the end of November. The win- 
ters are usually short and mild : the 
summers long and pleasant, so that the 
fields may be cultivated with little inter- 
ruption. A Gulf wind is blowing nearly 
all day. The nights are cool and dewy. 

Being reporter to the Weather Bu- 
reau in Washington, I am posted in the 
changes of the weather, and receive a 
journal which contains the reports ot 



158 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH. 



nearly 3500 weather stations, which en- 
ables me to compare with other parts of 
the country. The highest temperature 
seldom exceeds 95° fahrenheit, and the 
severest cold we experienced was last 
winter, (one of the coldest in the mem- 
ory of the people) — 1° above zero. 

Rainfall is rather equally divided dur- 
ing the year, and amounts to from 50 
to 60 inches annually. The longest 
dryness, which I remember, lasted 
about four weeks. 

Sunstrokes never occur on Grand 
Prairie. A German physician told me 
that the health is such that he is com- 
pelled to move North, because he could 
not make a livelihood here. 

Serious illness is seldom heard of. 
Many persons who came here, and were 
suffering from the rough and changeable 
climate of the North, have found relief, 
or were cured. The mortality list is 
most favorable. 

All plants of the moderate, and some 
of the tropical zones, prosper here. 
The soil, when properly worked, yields 
good harvest. In some instances two 
crops are raised on the same land. 
Our country is excellent for horticulture. 
I have never experienced a failure of 
good harvest. 

Last summer I harvested from one- 
eighth of an acre, — two crops, fully 100 
bushels of potatoes and corn, about 
eighty bushels per acre. Both places 
are of very good soil. It is difficult to 
find a more suitable country for fruit- 
growing than this. 

Arkansas fruit, particularly apples, 
received the first premium at the 
World's Expositions. We are not ad- 
vanced in the culture of grapes, but 
have the best prospects of success. My 
vineyard of two and a-half acres yielded 
1700 gallons of wine. It is very favora- 
ble for the cultivation of bees, for our 
prairie is covered with flowers during 
spring, summer and autumn. I had 
one bee-hive which increased to six 
hiv^es in one summer, and from thirty- 
five hives I realized 4000 pounds of 
honey. 

Our prairie is unsurpassable for 
breeding cattle ; the cattle is fattened for 
the market in a very short time. Hunt- 
ing and fishing is plentiful, although 



game is getting scarce since the growing 
of the population. 

Our products are partly sold here in 
Stuttgart and the neighboring towns ; 
for instance, milk is sold to our butter 
and cheese factory ; fruit, berries and 
vegetables are sold to our preserving 
establishments. All other products are 
shipped by rail and boat to the markets 
of the world — without the rates of freight 
consuming the profits of the producer, 
as is often the case in the North and 
Northwest. 

Not to forget our prairie hay, which 
is shipped by thousands of tons from 
Stuttgart and yields a great revenue. 
The price of land is according to its 
value. Some lands are cheap, so with 
the blessings of God an industrious and 
economical man can soon be prosperous. 

Whosoever cannot make a living here 
is not able to make it elsewhere. Dis- 
content, of course, exists everywhere. 
People who idly open their mouth after 
fried pigeons, or want to get rich at 
once, had better stay away and make 
another part of the country happy. 

There is room here for good indus- 
trious people, regardless of religion, 
politics or nationality, although the 
country is building up rapidly. Within 
the last six months over 600 families 
have settled in and around Stuttgart, 
which raises the price of land which 
heretofore was very low. Government 
land is not to be had any more, which 
proves that the land is good. 

Stuttgart is a little over ten years old, 
and claims about 1700 inhabitants. It 
is situated in the most beautiful and 
best part of Grand Prairie, near the 
center of the same. Experienced trav- 
elers say : "It is the most attractive 
place on the Cotton Belt Road, even one 
of the prettiest little towns in America." 

We have good schools and many 
churches of different denominations ; 
between thirty and forty stores, which 
generally do a lively business. Three 
railroads — the Cotton Belt, Stuttgart & 
Arkansas River, and Kansas City, Ar- 
kansas & New Orleans Railroad — now 
in course of construction. 

The Germans in and about Stuttgart 
made up several car-loads of provisions 
for the sufferers in the Northwest; also 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH 



159 



clothing and some money, but as the 
Cotton Belt is the only road which 
would transport it free of charge, the 
roads beyond being so heartless and 
refused, only clothing and money was 
sent. 

Immigration to Arkansas is considera- 
ble, although the State was spoken of 
as unhealthy and unfertile. Now it is 
widely known that no State otfers as 
many advantages as Arkansas, and in 
preference to all is our delightful Grand 
Prairie. 

This is my experience after seventeen 
years in this country, and formerly living 
twenty-six years in the North of the 
United States. All in all, I say "Grand 
Prairie is the best place of all." 

Experiences of a Prominent Educator. 

L. S. Packard, Pine Bluft; N. C, 
formerly Superintendent of Public In- 
struction at Saratoga Springs, N. Y. — 
Without formulating into words my 
opinion of this section, it may be indi- 
cated by placing side by side a brief 
description of the condition of the coun- 
try when I came herfe, and a brief de- 
scription of its present condition. A 
few years ago I was compelled by ill 
health to seek a home in the South. 
Whether instinct, Divine inspiration, or 
some other influence not to be described, 
induced me to select this spot I know 
not. Of one thing I am sure, I made 
no mistake in the selection for health. 

And now for the contrasts — individu- 
ally, locally and generally. When I 
came here I found the indescribable and 
chaotic destruction which the saw mill 
makes and leaves. Today I have an 
enclosed space five hundred feet square. 
Within, beautiful shade trees and pines ; 
good buildings for all the wants of life ; 
a bountiful garden ; berries and prolific 
grape vines ; and promising fruit trees 
in bearing condition. In short, a home 
whose comfort and attractions grow with 
each year. When I came to Pine Bluff 
it had a name and a promise of existence 
only. Today we have railroad station, 
postofifice, telegraph and express office. 
Then, within a radius of three miles, 
there were four saw mills cutting rough 
lumber only, and with a combined ca- 
pacity of not over thirty thousand feet 



per day. By improved methods and 
increased "hustle" the same number of 
mills can cut fifty thousand feet per dav. 
Then I could buy no dressed lumber 
nearer than Raleigh, seventy-five miles 
away. Today there are five large mills 
in the above-named radius of three 
miles manufacturing lumber, and ready 
to make contracts to deliver dressed 
lumber at any point by the millions of 
feet. Then all of the moving of logs 
and lumber was done by mules, and the 
only steam railroad of any kind known 
here was the Raleigh & Augusta Air 
Line. Now, within the radius of three 
miles, there are several steam tramways, 
and three fully built and fully equipped 
steam railroads, all centering in one 
point; all built for the lumber business, 
and all built by individual enterprise, 
and all contributing a large volume of 
businers to the Raleigh & Augusta Air 
Line Railroad, which is now a part of 
the Seaboard Air Line. Then there was 
only one small vineyard in this vicinity, 
which demonstrated the remarkable 
possibilities of this region for the cul- 
ture of grapes. Now vineyards, from 
five acres to hundreds of acres in size, 
are paying large profits to their owners. 
Then, as I looked eastward from my 
grounds, I could see only saw mills 
leavings. Today I can see those same 
grounds, the property of a thorough- 
going, pushing business man from the 
North, covered with fruit trees and vine- 
yards, upon which not less than ten 
thousand dollars have been spent within 
one year. Then, one wire on the tele- 
graph poles along the railway did the 
business. Now, tour wires are needed, 
and private and public wires for tele- 
graphs and telephones connect the vil- 
lages and reach out to the saw mills in 
the woods. 

Then the group of railways now 
known as the Seaboard Air Line ran one 
mail and passenger train, not the best, 
and with change at Raleigh, from Ports- 
mouth, \'a., to this point in fourteen 
hours. Its freight business was done by 
one light local train. Now, under the 
wise and progressive management of the 
Seaboard Air Line, heavy local and 
through freight trains are run : a first- 
class train, with Pullman cars, runs solid 



i6o 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH. 



from Portsmouth to Atlanta, bringing 
passengers and mail from Portsmouth to 
this point in nine hours, and a vestibule 
train runs solid from Washington, D, C, 
to Atlanta, Ga. To these contracts I 
add the statement, that as far as I know 
the purchases of land have been made 
for cash and the improvement paid for 
when done. Three or five years from 
date will not show a stagnant and ruin- 
ous financial atmosphere, loaded with 
unsalable mortgages. There is no boom 
here, with hinged bottom ready to drop, 
when some unscrupulous operator sees 
fit to pull the pin. There are honest 
growth and development resting on a 
good foundation. 

In the light of the above-stated facts, 
what is the only opinion one can enter- 
tain concerning the future of this section 
of the South ? 

Health Restored and Making More Money 
Than Made in the North. 

E. R. Burr, Nameless P. O., Camp- 
bell county, Va. — I came down here in 
the spring of 1894 broken down in 
health and bought a broken-down farm 
about six miles from Lynchburg which 
had not been worked since the war. I 
was very unwell and could not do much 
work at first, but notwithstanding that 
I made a fairly good crop and sold off" 
a large quantity of bark and wood and 
made more than I would have done at 
home. There is a ready and good 
market for all you can raise and the 
prices are good. The people are glad 
to see you and aid you in every way in 
their power. There are good schools 
and Sunday schools and churches, and 
I have never received more attention or 
been better entertained than I have been 
by some of the old rebels I fought 
against in the late war. My health is 
good and I feel like a new man and 
would not sell my place at 25 per cent, 
advance, and I can say that if Northern 
people come down here and attend to 
their business, they will be received with 
open arms and can do well. 

How Northerners Are Treated in Texas. 

J. M. Magill, Bay City, Matagorda 
county, Texas.^I am very much inter- 
ested in the information given by your 



valuable journal as to the advantages of 
the South by comparison with the North 
from actual experience of people who 
have lived in both sections of our grand 
union. It is also a source of much 
satisfaction to know that there is no 
longer any sectional North or South. 
The issues and prejudices of the war 
are dead and buried. The new genera- 
tion know nothing of it. The people 
of the New South are anxious to wel- 
come good citizens from any nation or 
clime. They are especially friendly to 
the Yankee, as they call him, for the 
reason that he is up-to-date, he is full of 
push and pluck, he has improved 
methods of doing things, in fact he is a 
great hustler and brings his Northern 
energy and ambition into our Southern 
clime and he accomplishes wonders. 
He lends inspiration to our Southern 
blood, he is all business, he is sociable, 
he is kind, and the great warm hearts of 
our Southern hospitality go out to him 
and he is given a warm welcome in 
truth and in fact. 

The writer has lived in Bates county, 
Mo., in Miami and Sumner counties in 
Kansas, and in Bent county, Colorado. 
In Missouri and Kansas regular farming 
districts ; in Colorado an irrigation dis- 
trict ; so I speak advisedly. And I have 
not one word to say against the good 
farming districts of those States. They 
are grand States, full of advantages pe- 
culiar to themselves, but fortunately this 
grand country oi ours is full of re- 
sources from one end to the other. Na- 
ture has made a bounteous provision, 
only awaiting man's touch to make it 
bud and blossom as the rose. 

By comparison the greatest change 
between that country and this is in cli- 
mate. There stock has to be fed from 
six to eight months in the year. Here, 
range cattle live all the year on the 
range, grass remaining green almost the 
entire winter. There, fuel and heavy 
clothing and shelter must be provided 
in abundance and at great expense. 
Here, poor children may go barefooted 
and roses bloom in the open yard 
almost all winter. 

Matagorda is a coast country, about 
seventy-five miles southwest of Galves- 
ton, where the government is spending 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH. 



i6i 



six million dollars to secure a deep water 
port, and twenty-five miles west of 
Velasco, at the mouth of the Brazos, 
where private capital is working- to 
secure a deep water port ; so we are in 
a new county and country that is full of 
development and promise. 

The crops of this country are sugar 
cane, cotton, corn, fruits and vegetables. 
It is naturally a fine range stock country. 
Oats do well, but wheat and apples do 
not, — too far South for either. The soil 
is very deep and rich and makes from 
one to two bales of cotton per acre, and 
from 30 to 100 bushels of corn, and 
other crops in proportion. Seasons are 
good, rain is abundant, health is good, 
the heat of summer being tempered by 
the cool, salt sea breezes, always re- 
freshing and healthful. The raising of 
winter and early spring vegetables is one 
of the coming great industries of this 
county. Also such fruit as pears, 
peaches, figs, grapes, strawberries, and 
everything that grows on a vine. We 
are several weeks earlier than California. 
We are not tropical enough for oranges 
and bananas, at least not of ordinary 
varieties. 

Another feature that the writer ap- 
preciates very much is that this is the 
winter home of the birds of flight, ducks, 
geese, levant, smart, crane, etc. Fish 
and oysters are also abundant in our 
bays and streams. It is indeed a sports- 
man's paradise. Bathing and boating 
are favorite pastimes. All these things, 
with the winter vegetables and roses and 
the early spring fruits, we enjoy here 
that we were deprived of in the three 
Northern States named. The only thing 
that I find fault with is that nature has 
done so much here, man has to do so 
little in this sub-tropical climate that he 
gets indolent and doesn't half try. The 
leisure-loving native will good humor- 
edly tell you that he lives in such a good 
country that he doesn't have to rustle 
like you overcrowded fellows up North, 
and it's true. 

Matagorda is an old stock countyjust 
now opening up to settlement. Raw 
prairie lands, $5 to $10 per acre. While 
the country has water transportation, it 
has no railroad yet, but will soon. It 
contains alluvial land, soil ten to thirty 



feet deep, before the war famous for its 
sugar plantations. Prairie lands of 
county range from a light sandy to a 
black hogmollow. 

As an illustration of the warm welcome 
here awaiting Northern enterprise, a 
company composed of all Northern 
men from the States of Colorado, Kan- 
sas, Illinois and Indiana, came into this 
county last fall and proposed to build a 
town near the centre of the county and 
to help develop the county, provided 
the people would by vote remove the 
county seat from old Matagorda on the 
bay on one side of the county to Bay 
City, the proposed central location, 
owned exclusively by the Northern 
company. The result was that Bay 
City got 778 votes to 141 for Matagorda, 
less than the local vote of the old town. 
Then the county let the contract for a 
$30,000 brick courthouse and an $8500 
brick jail for Bay City, both now under 
construction, and many home people 
invested and improved property in the 
new town. The new company put in a 
newspaper — the Bay City Breeze — and 
all are now working in harmony for 
railroads, deep water and rapid develop- 
ment of this rich county. 

Doctors' Bills For Twenty=Five Years 

in the South Less Than Was Paid 

Every Year in the North. 

B. B. DuNViLLE, SuiTtblk, Va.— I 
moved to this place from the city of 
New York twenty-five years ago. I had 
a wife and seven children, one of whom 
I lost, being very delicate, the first year. 
My doctor's bill for the twenty-five years 
I have been here has not amounted to 
as much altogether as I paid in one 
year in the city of New York. I now 
have nine healthy and robust grandchil- 
dren. My wife's health, also my own, 
is excellent, each being over sixty years 
old. I would add that three other 
families moved here from the same 
location about the same time ; all of them 
are still living here and are in excellent 
health, attending to their farm duties 
every day. This is all I have to say as 
to the healthfulness of this part of Tide- 
water \'irginia. The climate is mild, the 
thermometer having gone as low as 10° 
onlv three times since I have been here. 



l62 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH 



It is not as hot in summer liere as it is 
in New York. A person used to farm 
work can have at least two months more 
work here than he can in the North. 
Many of the farms are very productive, 
some have been neglected and "run 
down," yet all are susceptible of im- 
provement and will produce as good or 
better than the New York State farms. 
We have direct communications with 
every city on the Atlantic coast from 
Boston to New Orleans by rail or boat, 
also all the Western cities by rail as we 
have four trunk lines that run through 
the town of Suffolk. The freight rates 
here are much lower than other points 
on account of the competing lines, and 
this is very advantageous to the farmer, 
and far more so to the manufacturer, 
and I see no reason why this place 
should not be one of the best manufac- 
turing centers in the United States. 
The farm lands here are cheap and easy 
to cultivate, and great many are looking 
in this direction for a future home. 

No End to What a Farmer May 
Accomplish. 

W. H. Chesbro, Suffolk, Va.— I 
came from Cattarangus county, N. Y., 
thirteen years ago, located at Clairmont, 
on the James river, but am now living 
at Suffolk, on the Nansemond river. I 
have had varied experience and more 
or less success in merchandise and 
manufacturing. Merchandising here, as 
everywhere, is overdone. The manu- 
facturing interest is good here, and there 
is a 'good opening for others. As to 
farming, there is no end to what a farmer 
may accomplish. The seasons here are 
very advantageous to the farmer, as he 
can work all the year round. Of course 
the methods are different here and not 



what a Northern man is accustomed to, 
and many men coming here from the 
North have failed because they have 
not seen fit to cultivate the soil here as 
their neighbors do, thinking that their 
Northern plan was the best, when they 
might have been successful had they 
adopted their neighbor's plans. For 
example : One man came here, planted 
a field of corn with from two to five 
stalks in the hill and expected to culti- 
vate it that way and make a good crop; 
his neighbor told him that he would 
not make "seed," yet he still thought 
that he could raise a good crop and 
allowed it to stand that way, save 
about an acre in one corner of the 
field which he thought he would try. 
Result : He got more corn from that 
one acre than he did from the remainder 
of his crop. The acre where there was 
only one stalk to the hill was nice long 
corn, and that which had from two to 
five stalks in the hill only had a few 
"nubbins." The Northerner was con- 
vinced, and is now doing well and makes 
good crops every year and has no idea 
of going back North. 

I came South on account of the cli- 
mate of this section, otherwise I was 
well enough off at the North. I like 
the climate and the people in general, 
and I have some very kind friends 
among the Southern people with whom 
I have done business, notwithstanding I 
am a Republican and always have been. 
Farming is much easier here than at the 
North, and there is no end to the good 
living and good times a farmer can have 
from a farm here properly conducted. 

Here we have good schools, both 
private and public, that will compare 
favorably with any schools in the North 
for a town this s ze. 



THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



THE 

Southern States. 

RATED MONTHLY 
>TED TO THE SOI 

Published by the 

Manufacturers' Record Publishing Co. 

Manutacturers' Record Building, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

SUBSCRIPriON, = = = $1.50 a Year. 

WILLIAM H. EDMONDS, 

Editor and Manager. 

BALTIMORE, JUNE, 1895. 

The SOUTHERN STATES is an exponent of the 
Immigration and Real Estate Interests and 
general advancement of the South, and a journal 
of accurate and comprehensive information 
about Southern resources and progress. 

Its purpose is to set forth accurately and 
conservatiTely from month to month the reasons 
why the South is, for the farmer, the settler, the 
home seeker, the investor, incomparably the 
most attractive section of this country. 



Now is the Time to Work for 
Immigration. 

No one who sees the South at present, 
for the first time, can fail to be attracted 
by the opportunity it presents to settlers 
from other sections, and to farmers and 
fruit growers especially. With its orchards 
burdened with fruits, and its trucking farms 
blessed with great crops of watermelons, 
berries and vegetables of which thous- 
ands of car loads are moving to North- 
ern markets, a Western man seeing this 
section would feel that it is a veritable 
garden of Eden as compared with his own 
country. Moreover a visit just now would 
dispel the false notions about the South's 
climate, and prove the truth of the claims 



that the summer climate of the South *is 
infinitely preferable to that of the West. 
The belief that the South is mainly suited 
to cotton production and that the climate 
is hot and enervating are the two greatest 
barriers in the way of a larger movement of 
population Southward. 

Object lessons furnish the most forci- 
ble way of impressing truth. A visit to 
the South at this season would be a great 
object lesson which would open the eyes 
of those who do not know the South, to its 
varied attractions. 

Every railroad in the South ought to 
make a special effort to bring thousands of 
Western and Northern visitors to spy out 
the land now while the growing crops ami 
the burdened fruit trees show as nothing 
else could do the wonderful agricultural 
capabilities of this section. Trade organi- 
zations, land and immigration companies 
ought to combine with the railroads in 
seeking to awaken the widest possible 
interest throughout the North and West in 
a visit to the South. Special excursions 
at cheap rates ought to be worked up and 
strong inducements offered the people to 
see the South in the glory of its great fruit 
crops and in the promise of large grain and 
general crops. Now is the time to act. 

This suggestion is emphasized by the 

following letter from Stock ville. Neb., to a 

gentleman in Kentucky, written May 24th : 

"One of the most direful drouths that 
have ever visited the Northwest seems ap- 
parently to be upon us. ALiny of tiie most 
enthusiastic men ot our country have des- 
paired and given up all hopes of raising 
any crop this year We had a failure in 
1S93 and 1S94 also, and now our people are 
placed in the most deplorable condition 
known in the history of our State- Our 
people are leaving as fast as due prepara- 



164 



EDITORIAL. 



tions can be made Most of them are 
going Southwest. There is a large sol- 
diers' colony organization going into 
Georgia, that has a membership of several 
thousand, from this State; another of the 
same character going into Utah, starting 
from here in September or October next; 
while a third is just being formulated, 
going into Alabama and Mississippi A 
representative of the last-named colony 
left our county only a few days ago, to 
view the lands offered and if possible make 
a permanent organization. 

Our people are mostly all Northern peo- 
ple, and are abreast of the time; many of 
them through all these years of drouth 
have been self-sustaining, until now they 
are almost penniless — the most wealth}^ 
have nearly come to a level with the 
poorest. As an agent in the sale of all 
kinds of school supplies I can safely say 
that you could not, from a personal knowl- 
edge, induce a better class into your coun- 
try for the advancement of the public 
schools and the State generally. 

"I have been requested b}- several citi- 
zens to write you at once and see what in- 
ducements you could be able with short 
notice to give a few hundred, or as many 
as might wish to join in moving to your 
State, with reference to land, free trans- 
portation for families, household goods, 
stock, etc. Also free transportation for 
an investigating committee to go and re- 
turn, etc. As a representative, in part, I 
am acting in behalf of many who must soon 
mov^e to some other portion of the United 
States. Most of our people are farmers, 
while we have a few of vaiious trades. If 
possible, they want a healthy climate and 
good water. Their knowledge of farming 
would reclaim with proper cultivation and 
care almost any of the so-called worn-out 
farms of your State. I wish to know the 
prospect for fruit and farm products this 
year, also the price of improved and wild 
lands. 

Farm Villages the Opportunity of the 
South. 

A letter from Mr. H. A. Wrench, pub- 
lished in this issue of the Southern 
States, points out a great opportunity 
presented by the flow of immigration to 
the South. Mr. Wrench suggests the pur- 
chase of large tracts of land on which to 
establish self-supporting colonies, with 
central villages or towns, in which all the 
colonists within a certain radius of them 
should live. One of the most marked 
features of the phenomenal progress in 
material affairs made by the Mormons of 
Utah has been the establishment of farm 



villages. In these well-located, substan- 
tially-built villages the farmers live in 
comfort, enjoying school, church and social 
advantages, while the farms may be from 
a mile to several miles away from the vil- 
lage. In this way the isolation of ordinary 
farm life is avoided, and the prevalent ten- 
dency of the 3'oung people to leave home 
and move to the cities is greatly lessened. 
The farm village plan should be widely 
adopted in the South. With the exper- 
ience that has been gained in the develop- 
ment of the West through immigration, 
and the successful outcome of the farm 
village idea in Utah, the South has the 
opportunity of learning by the expe- 
rience of others. Now that population 
is tending Southward so largely, it is fea- 
sible to organize many colonization en- 
terprises, securing for each colony a suffi- 
cient tract of land to justify the establish- 
ment of one or more villages as central 
points for the colony. As in Utah, this 
could be made the residence place for all 
farmers whose land might come within 
a circle of several miles of the village. 
The small loss of time in going back and 
forth to farm work would be more than 
counterbalanced by the added attractive- 
ness of life in the village and the better 
social and educational facilities which 
could be furnished to the families. There 
is a great opportunity in the South for 
the utilization in its new period of devel- 
ment of all the experience gained in other 
sections, and this idea is one worthy of 
consideration. 

The South's Superiority. 

A correspondent of the Malvern {la ) 
Leader recently made a tour of the South 
which included the country along the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Eastern 
North Carolina, South Carolina and tide- 
water Virginia Although he spent but a 
comparatively short time on the trip, the 
advantages of the country he visited over 



EDITORIAL. 



16: 



the West were so plainly to be seen that 

he summarizes a two-column article on 

his observations in this way : 

"To cut a long story short, we think the 
South the best field now open for invest- 
ments by Northern people. The produc- 
tive soil, cheap labor, mild climate, and 
nearness to the great markets of tlie 
world, gives that section many advantages 
over the wild and woolly West, with its 
drouths, severe winters, and dust-charged 
storms. The South has everything we 
have not. * * * Your property will be 
as safe, your opinions respected, your votes 
counted, your banks will not be robbed." 

Great Industrial Activity South. 

Throughout the entire South there is a 
very marked increase in industrial activity. 
Cotton mill building is being vigorously 
pushed. The mills under construction or 
definitely decided upon, and not including 
many projected ones, will involve an 
investment of some $12,000,000 or ;fi5,ooo,- 
000, representing about 600,000 spindles. 
This will give the South a total of 3,600,000 
spindles, against 1,700,000 in 1S90, show- 
ing a doubling of this industry in five 
years. In iron and steel there is also 
a very decided improvement, and a num- 
ber of furnaces which have been idle for 
the last year or two have recently gone 
into blast. Two large steel plants are to 
be built at Birmingham, and the great 
iron and steel plant built three years ago 
at Middlesborough, Ky., by English iron 
masters at a cost of $2,500,000, will start 
up into full operation in July for the first 
time. In other industries, including gold 
mining and lumbering, the same increasing- 
activity is seen. The South seems to be 
leading the whole country in industrial 
revival, and adding to this the great tide 
of population which is now flowing South- 
ward, this sec'ion bids fair soon to enjoy a 
greater prosperity than any other part of 
our country. This means a better home 
market for farm products, more towns and 
cities, more steady employment for work- 
ing people and a great advance in land 
values both in city and country. Now is 



the opportunity to move South and grow 
up with this rising tide of prosperity. 

A Peach Carnival in Georgia. 

A Georgia peach carnival is to be held 
at Macon from the first to the twentieth of 
July. It will be a great occasion. The 
development of the peach growing indus- 
try of the State within the last few years 
has aroused the interest of horticulturists 
and fruit handlers all over the country. 
In point of flavor no part of the United 
States produces finer peaches than those 
of the "peach belt" of Georgia. They 
are incomparatively superior to anythirg 
that comes from California. The industry 
yields enormous profits. Men are growing 
rich at it. Farmers who have been raising 
cotton all their lives, barely making a 
living, have put out peach orchards, and 
from the first two or three crops have paid 
themselves out of debt, lived well and 
saved money. The fruit ripens in Middle 
Georgia earlierthan in California, and gets 
into the Northern markets at a time when 
it has no competition. Moreover, it takes 
less than one-fourth of the time to get to 
the markets, with a corresponding saving 
in freights. 

This peach carnival at Macon will aftbrd 
an opportunity to study the industry in all 
its phases. There will be e.xhibits of the 
difl^erent varieties of the peach grown in 
the State and of everything connected 
with the business. Macon is the largest 
city in the peach belt and handles a large 
part of the crop. Fort X'alley, Marshall- 
ville and Tifton, the most noted peach 
growing centres, are but a short distance 
from Macon, and those who go to the 
carnival can go out to these places and see 
the largest peach orchards in the world. 
The season will be at its iieight and the 
whole process of picking, packing and 
shipping may be studied. There will be 
elaborate displays also of watermelons, 
cantaloupes, pears, grapes, plums, apricots 



EDITORIAL. 



and other products of the Georg-ia fruit 
region. 

During a part of the time that this car- 
nival is in progress there will be a Mid- 
summer Fair at Tifton, on the Georgia 
Southern & Florida road. A similar fair 
was held last year and was a great success. 
The great variety and the size and quality 
of the fruits, vegetables and farm products 
exhibited were a revelation to amazed 
visitors from the North. 

Summer in the South. 

The Southern States for February 
contained an article on "The Summer 
Temperature of the South," in which it 
was shown, by statistics from the United 
States Census Reports and from reports of 
the United States weather Bureau, that 
the maximum temperature of the South is 
very little higher than that of the North, 
and that there is also but a slight differ- 
ence between the mean summer tempera- 
ture of the two sections. A comparison 
was made between a number of Northern 
and Southern representative localities, as 
follows : 



Norfolk 

< harlotte 

Charleston. . . 

Atlanta , 

Savannah 

Jacksonville. . 

Mobile 

New Orleans 
San Antonio. 

Memphis 

Little Rock.. 
Chattanooga. 
Lynchburg . . 
Knoxville.... 



St. Louis 

Leavenworth 
Philadelphia 

Omaha 

Chicago 

1 )es Moines. . . 

Detroit 

Indianapolis-. 

Boston 

New York 

Pittsburg 

<"incinnati 

St. Paul 

Cairo 



Mean 
for June, 

July, 

August. 



76 



Of the Southern group it will be noticed 



that a larger number are in the extreme 
South than either the middle or upper part 
of the South — New Orleans, Mobile, San 
Antonio, Savannah, Jacksonville, Mem- 
phis, Atlanta. The Northern group com- 
prises many that are in the far North, some 
being on the lakes and the Atlantic Coast — 
Chicago, Boston, Detroit, St. Paul. The 
average of the July means for these four- 
teen Southern cities is 80.5 degrees ; the 
average for the fourteen Northern cities is 
75.3 — a difference of only 5.2 degrees. 
Considering even the whole period of the 
three summer months, the differences be- 
tween the averages of the means for each 
of the cities in the two groups is only 5.8 
degrees ; the June, July and August means 
for the Northern group averaging 73.2, 
and for the Southern, 79. Between the 
mean June, July and August temperature 
of San Antonio, 82.5, which is the highest 
in the Southern group, and that of Boston, 
69.4, which is the lowest in the Northern 
group, the difference is only 13. i. This 
difference between extremes, Boston and 
San Antonio, it should be noticed, is not 
for July only, but for the whole three 
months of summer, from the first of June 
to the last of August, and is the difference 
between the mean or average temperature 
for that period. 

These figures are repeated here and 
elaborated because of the emphasis that 
is given them by the recent "hot spell" 
under which the whole country has been 
sweltering. This article is written in 
Atlanta on June 3d. The writer has spent 
the last few days in Georgia, and has not 
been able to learn of a single case of 
sunstroke or heat prostration in Savannali, 
Macon, Augusta, Atlanta or anywhere in 
Georgia, or the far South, while the news 
dispatches are telling of scores overcome 
with heat, many of them fatally, in nearly 
all the Northern cities. There has not 
been a night too warm for refreshing sleep. 
He has met down here numerous Northern 



EDITORIAL. 



167 



people who, without exception, assert that 
they suffer less from heat here than at the 
North. 

The thermometer may indicate as high 
a degree of temperature or even possibly 
a little higher, but there is but little 
humidity in the atmosphere and there is 
hardly ever a day during which there is 
not a good breeze blowing. Farmers 
down here who have come from the North 
state that they can work outdoors in mid- 
summer much more readily than they 
could at the North. 

Nobody need be afraid of the summer 
heat of the South. 

The Georgia Colony. 

We publish elsewhere a letter from Mr. 
P. H. Fitzgerald, of Indianapolis, which 
gives the present status of the movement 
for settling a colony of 40,000 to 50,000 
persons in the South. Through the efforts 
of ex-Governor Northen, of Georgia, that 
State was selected by the promoters of the 
colony. The lands first secured for the 
purpose were found to have defective titles, 
and there has been unavoidable delay in 
finding elsewhere in the .State a sufficiently 
large area of suitable land eligibly situated. 
This has finally been accomplished, how- 
ever, the lands now selected being in Wil- 
cox and Irwin counties, in what is known 
as the "wire grass" region of Georgia, and 
in the territory of the Georgia Southern & 
Florida and Savannah, Americus & Mont- 
gomery railroads. 

A significant and important statement in 
the letter is that some of the members of 



the colony who are ex-federal soldiers 
receive in the aggregate 1900,000 a year in 
pensions. This amount of money put into 
circulation, in addition to proceeds of the 
industrial and farming operations the 
members of the colony will carry on, will 
make a very prosperous community. 

Strawberries by the train load have 
been moving North for several weeks. 
Now peaches and watermelons are starting 
and thousands of carloads will go North 
and West. The South has peaches "for the 
world," as one Alabama correspondent 
writes, and as for watermelons, one rail- 
road company, the Plant system, expects 
to handle 10,000 carloads, or over 12,000,000 
melons. 

Col. Oliver A. Patton, of Charleston, 
who is himself devoted to the development 
of the boundless resources of the South, in 
a recent letter savs of the Manufacturers' 
Record and the Southern States maga- 
zine : * * * 'There is not a newpaper 
in the United States or any other moral 
influence in the world at work for the pro- 
motion of the truth concerning the South 
half so potent as those of the heroic and 
defiant as well as courteous and chivalrous 
Edmonds brothers, of the Manufacturers' 
Record and the Southern States maga- 
zine, published at Baltimore. The advan- 
tages of the South over all parts of the 
globe are being made manifest to all men 
through their honest and uncompromising 
espousal of its cause, and ere loug our 
noble people in every quarter of the glori- 
ous Southland will delight to rise up as 
one man and call these men blessed. * * * 
Their love for their country almost sur- 
passes understanding, and the result of 
their researches into the industrial, social 
and economical condition and possibilities 
of the South are as surprising as they are 
accurate and gratifying. * * * y^e 
South is the theme of their song and the 
burthen of their prayers." — Hinton (\V. 
Va.) Free Lance. 



Immigration Notes. 



The Seaboard Air Line Makes an Impor= 

tant Move in Behalf of Foreign 

Immigration. 

One of the greatest foreign immigration 
agencies in the United States is that of A. 
E. Johnson & Co., of New York, Chicago 
and Boston. This concern is largely inter- 
ested in foreign steamship lines, and is 
agent for the Thingvala Steamship Co. — 
the Scandinavian line which has brought 
thousands of settlers from Norway and 
Sweden to the United States. Mr. John- 
son and his associates recently took a trip 
over the Seaboard Air Line, and after 
thoroughly investigating that country and 
its attractions for settlers has made a con- 
tract with the Seaboard people by which 
for five years his firm becomes the official 
representative of the Seaboard system in 
the eff"orts that are now being made to 
secure thrifty settlers from abroad. In a 
letter to the Southern States, Mr. St. 
John says : 

"Of course it takes time for Mr. Johnson 
to complete all arrangements with the 
hundreds of agents which he has scattered 
throughout Europe and to arrange for the 
consignment of that class of emigrants, 
and that class only, which will prove a 
desirable addition to the population of the 
South. We want good and intelligent 
farmers and manufacturers, and I have an 
idea that before twelve months have rolled 
around we shall see very material results 
coming from the establishment of this 
agency." 

It would be almost impossible to secure 
for the South a better class of settlers than 
the Scandinavians. Wherever they have 
located they have made the country to 
blossom as the rose. They are thrifty, in- 
telligent, home-loving people, and among 
them no anarchists or socialists are found. 
The South may well welcome this move- 
ment on the part of Mr. St. John and his 
associates in bringing in this class of 
foreigners. Scandinavians are settled 



throughout the Northwest to the extent of 
probably 2,000,000, and much of the re- 
markable agricultural progress of that 
section has been due to their work. 
Several years ago when a "Harvest 
Home" was held at Milwaukee an eff"ort 
was made to find out the particulars in re- 
gard to all the grain produced in the terri- 
tory tributary to that city. It was learned 
by this investigation that of the 175,000,- 
000 bushels produced in that district that 
year, 125,000,000 bushels were grown by 
Scandinavian farmers. The work of these 
people, in a large part, constituted the 
foundation of, and has sustained St. Paul, 
Milwaukee, Minneapolis and other cities of 
the Northwest. Their coming to the South 
will be a great blessing to this section. 

Members of the Big Georgia Colony 
Receive $900,000 a Year in Pensions. 

Mr. P. H. Fitzgerald, of Indianapolis, 
originator and manager of the colony that 
is to be settled in Central Georgia, writes 
to the Southern States as follows : 

"We have had some very difficult matters 
to contend with. We have at last made 
the location and titles are good. 

"We now number eleven thousand heads 
of families which I think will, at least, av- 
erage four, making in the neighborhood of 
fifty thousand people. Our people are not 
of the poor class. The farming element 
comes from a first-class one of the North- 
western farmers, who, by reason of 
droughts, blizzards and hard winters and 
constant failures of crops, have concluded 
to make a change. Many will go with 
their complete farming outfit, including 
live stock. 

"As to our city, we have members of 
various kinds of business, even to three 
banks promising to locate with us, various 
manufacturing industries and a club of two 
hundred and twenty-five families from 
Pullman, 111., whose intentions are to build 
flat and box railroad cars. In fact, we 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



169 



shall soon blossom out into a very active 
industrial city. 

"We shall pay $350,000 for our land, and 
expend of colony funds $200,000 in prepar- 
ing our city the first year, and more as we 
find sales for our reserved lands. 

"Our object is to locate in a mild country 
and to form a community of good thrifty 
people that will be an honor to the State. 

"We are not made up exclusively of ex- 
soldiers. Not over one-third are ex- 
soldiers, the rest being young men, active, 
intelligent people seeking homes. We 
have, however, estimated that the soldier 
element will bring to the colony something 
like $900,000 each year in pension pay- 
ments, which, in itself, will be quite an 
object and be of great assistance in build- 
ing their homes. 

"Our object is not gain for a few of the 
promoters ; it is purely a mutual concern, 
all working for the best interests of all 
members. 

"We expect to begin work within the 
next three weeks preparing the lands and 
getting out lumber so that the families can 
be provided for when they come, which 
will be on and after September loth, and 
we think within a year our entire member- 
ship will be located in their new homes. 

"We do not touch upon the politics or 
religion of any member. The life of the 
colony as an organization will be six 
years. For so large an undertaking, I 
have kept the matter well in hand and 
everything points to a grand success." 

Mr. Fitzgerald recently wrote to Messrs. 
J. W. Middendorf, of Baltimore, and John 
Skelton Williams, of Richmond, as fol- 
lows : 

"1 havenoticed thesaleof the Savannah, 
Americus & Montgomery Railroad to you 
and syndicate. I have been hard at work 
upon a colony plan during the past year, 
and now have it on the eve of completion. 
We shall settle on the line of your railroad 
near a place called Abbeville. We now 
have a membership of a little over 10,000 
heads of families, aggregating about 50,000 
people, all of a good class of Northwestern 
farmers. We have purchased the lands 
upon which we shall locate. The tract 
contains 100,000 acres at present. Abbe- 
ville and Rochelle would be our nearest 
points on your line, while Tifton, on the 
Southern road, would be nearest on the 



southern side. We would be in the lower 
part of Wilcox and northern part of Irwin 
counties. 

"My object in addressing you is to know 
if you would consider the proposition to 
extend a branch from Rochelle, sixteen 
miles, down to our city? We expect to 
form a city of over 20,000 the first year, 
and would prefer our outlet to the north 
than to have to go to Tifton, on our south. 
I have had associated with me in selecting 
the location Gov. W. J. Northen, of At- 
lanta, Ga., to whom I would respectfully 
refer you. The majority of our present 
membership are farmers and fruit raisers, 
who go to make homes for themselves and 
families. They are not a poor class of 
people, but are all in shape to at once erect 
houses and improve their lands. We shall 
close our membership by the loth of June, 
at which time we expect 12,000 families." 

Mr. C. p. Camp, a Northern immigration 
promotor, has been visiting Abbeville, 
La., with the view of inducing immi- 
grants to locate on property in this section. 

Reduced Rates to Homeseekers. 

The Southern railway lines will continue 
the present schedule of home-seekers' ex- 
cursion rates, as follows : 

To all points in Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Florida and return from 
Ohio and Mississippi river gateways, a 
rate of one fare for the round trip, limited 
to continuous passage in both directions, 
to be sold June nth, July 5th, August 7th, 
September 4th and October 2d, limited to 
twenty days for return, tickets to be good 
for going passage on initial lines on date 
of sale only. 

Another rate of interest to those coming 
Southward has been agreed upon : To all 
points in Kentucky south of Bowling Green 
and Somerset and to all points in Tennes- 
see, Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Louisiana, Mississippi and 
Florida from Ohio and Mississippi river 
gateways, for one-way settlers' excursions, 
a rate of one and one-half cents per mile, 
short line mileage, with arbitraries added, 
closely limited to continuous passage ; 
these tickets to be sold on the first Tues- 
day of each month, except in rnonths 
when home-seekers' rates have been 
authorized, during which their sale sliall 



lyo 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



be restricted to the date authorized for 
home-seekers' excursions, and to be good 
for passage on initial lines on dates of 
sale only. 

For Southern Immigration. 

A meeting was held in Chicago a {^w^ days 
ago in the interest of immigration to the 
South, which will doubtless tend to in- 
crease greatly the number of homeseekers 
in this direction. Among the companies 
represented at the meeting v/ere, the Cen- 
tral of Georgia ; Cincinnati, Hamilton & 
Dayton, "Big Four," Florida Central & 
Peninsular, Seaboard Air Line, Georgia 
Southern & Florida, Mobile & Ohio, Louis- 
ville & Nashville, Southern, Southern 
Pacific, Queen & Crescent, Plant system 
and others. 

The call for the meeting was signed by 
Northwestern agents of several Southern 
lines and General Passenger Agent C. L. 
Stone, of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois. 
The main object of the meeting was to 
unite on some system for inducing immi- 
grants to come South, the sentiment being 
that the Southern section of this country 
today occupies relatively the same position 
held by the great Northwest twenty-five 
and thirty years ago. 

The meeting was held at the Auditorium 
hotel. Mr. C. L. Stone was made chairman. 
Addresses were made by Mr. C. P. Atmore, 
general passenger agent of the Louisville 
& Nashville Railway Co.; Mr. E. E. Posey, 
of the Mobile & Ohio ; General Manager 
W. A. Simmons, of the Clark Syndicate, 
and Mr. J. F. Merry, of the Illinois Cen- 
tral. A committee of twenty, headed by 
Mr. C. P. Atmore, was appointed to sug- 
gest the best methods of interesting 
other sections of the country in the South. 
A sub-committee was appointed to con- 
sider and offer plans for bringing about 
an arrangement with the railroads. This 
committee adopted a resolution to the 
effect that the roads running between 
Chicago and the Ohio river should be 
advised to make the same rates of fare as 
those to be agreed upon by the lines south 
of the Ohio. 

Mr. Charles Peterson, manager of 
the Rock Island Colony & Land Co., 
which represents the Chicago, Rock Island 
& Texas Railroad in immigration matters, 
is arranging to locate another colony of 



Western people in Texas, and a committee 
from West Point, Neb., has been selecting 
a suitable location. The committee in- 
cludes A. J. Langer, ex-postmaster and 
publisher of the West Point Republican; 
F. Koch, president West Point Brewing 
Co.; Jno. Gaster, banker ; Wm. Breitinger, 
wholesale liquor dealer; John Melcher, 
wholesale implements ; Henry Schinstock, 
stock farmer and the largest stock shipper 
in Nebraska, and Herman Koch, farmer. 

The people of Mansfield, La., have 
formed an organization to encourage 
immigration to that section of the State. 
Hon. Charles Schuler has been chosen 
president, and C. W. Page, secretary. 

Mr. a. Spies, vice-president of the First 
National Bank of Menominee, Mich., and 
F. W. Humphrey, of Sharvona, Wis., have 
been examining lands near Alexandria, 
La., and intend locating a number of 
Western families in that vicinity. These 
gentlemen expect to remove to Alexandria 
themselves. 

The vicinity of Clanton, Ala., is attract- 
ing much attention from Northern people. 
Nearly loo families have located there 
this year. 

The colony of Northwestern people 
which Hon. W. S Linton of Saginaw, 
Mich., and others have organized to settle 
on the east coast of Florida, will adopt 
what is known as "ribbon farming." The 
idea is to cut a road, loo feet in width, 
directly through the center of the tract, 
then lay off the farm lots on either side of 
this road. The farms will be narrow and 
quite long, hence the name. This plan 
contains several commendable features. 
It brings the farm houses close together, 
and each farmer will have only a small 
portion of the road to keep in repair. Mr. 
J. E. Ingraham, of St. Augustine, Fla., 
land commissioner of the Jacksonville, 
St. Augustine & Indian River Railroad, 
was instrumental in securing this colony. 

The German Immigration Society, at a 
recent meeting in Birmingham, Ala., de- 
cided to show, by the distribution of suita- 
ble literature, that to the farmer and gar- 
dener Alabama offers special advantages. 
It also decided to furnish advice and in- 
formation to those contemplating the pur- 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



chase of land, regarding the value and 
adaptability of such land ; to furnish infor- 
mation regarding agricultural and indus- 
trial conditions, churches, schools, freight 
rates and other matters of interest to the 
intending settler; to labor in conjunction 
with other similar bodies about to be 
formed for an organized immigration to 
this State, and to assist the individual 
immigrant by counsel and material aid. 
Emil Lesser is president of the society, 
and L. Braun, secretary. 

Messrs. E. G. and L. E. Jay and C. 
Grabenstein, of Frontier county, Neb., are 
examining land in Tennessee and state that 
they represent loo Nebraska families who 
will move to that State this year. 

A COMMITTEE of the religious denomi- 
nation known as Dunkards is preparing 
to locate a colony of these people on a 
tract of 5000 acres of land on the Eastern 
Shore of the Chesapeake bay. The com- 
mittee favors the vicinity of Cape Charles. 
Mr. C. W. Reiff, traveling passenger agent 
of the New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk 
Railroad, is interested in the proposed 
colony. 

The pioneers who plunged into Nebraska 
and the Dakotas, had, or rather thought 
they had, nowhere else to turn. Lands 
were too high-priced for them to cultivate 
in the Central Western States, and they 
practically knew nothing about the South. 
For the past ten years, however, a great 
many of them have been coming in this 
direction. They have done well here, 
have prospered agriculturally ; but what 
seems to have touched them most is the 
mildness of the climate. News of this has 
gone North, and as is to be e.xpected, 
thousands of immigrants promise to come 



here. "We cannot stand the cold weather 
of the Western States," one of them re- 
marked the other day, "and we will move 
at once to where the climate and soil have 
everything to suit those who have been 
tormented by blizzards. — New Orleans 
Times-Democrat. 

The Tennessee farmers are becoming 
more and more interested in immigration, 
and at their convention recently held in 
Knoxville discussed the subject at length, 
and listened to an address by Mr. J. W. 
Ayres of Harriman, who pointed out how 
they could benefit the movement by adopt- 
ing modern modes of agriculture and 
showing what can really be accomplished 
in crop production. 

Mr. W. H. Hunter, chairman of the 
Grand Army of the Republic Immigration 
Committee at Birmingham, Ala., states 
that he has received advices from Lincoln, 
Nebraska, that 500 families of soldiers in 
that section of the State desire to come 
South. 

The Central Railroad of Georgia has 
been turning its attention to the import- 
ance of Southern immigration more closely 
of late, and it is reported intends making 
a systematic effort to secure colonists 
along its line. 

Mr. J. F. Lediker, editor of the Camp 
Fire of Lincoln, Neb., is looking at land 
in Alabama with a view to locating a colony 
in that State. 

Mr. J. S. Lyons of Chicago, who is 
interested in Louisiana sugar lands, has 
organized a colony of forty people from 
Rockford, who will settle in Louisiana or 
Mississippi at some point near the Gulf 
coast. 



REAL Estate Notes. 



Sales in Baltimore Suburbs. 

The remarkably large number of prop- 
erty transfers in and near Baltimore this 
season is attracting much attention from 
real estate operators at home and in other 
cities. The suburbs of Baltimore have 
long been noted for their natural beauty 
and many advantages for residence sites, 
but suburban development so far is still 
in its infancy. In fact, so little has thus far 
been accomplished in this direction, and 
so great is the field opened to the real 
estate operator, that Baltimore is begin- 
ning to attract the attention of develop- 
ment companies at a distance, while quite 
a number of its old residents have been 
tempted to purchase tracts of property 
on the line of electric and steam railways 
leading out of the city. 

Those who have been so fortunate as 
to study the topography of other large 
cities are astonished that Baltimoreans 
have taken so little advantage of the 
opportunities in the direction mentioned. 
The signs that the city is about to enter 
upon an era of remarkable suburban de- 
velopments are very pronounced. One 
indication is that the city is being forced 
by increase in population to extend over a 
greater area of unimproved territory. 
House builders have not been slow to per- 
ceive this movement, and as a result 
houses have sprung up, covering what 
were pastures and vacant lots two years 
ago. Most of the vacant ground which 
could be purchased within two miles 
of the center of the city at a reasonable 
figure has been purchased or leased and 
improved with buildings ranging in price 
from f looo to 120,000, which have readily 
been rented or sold. 

As a result of the attention which im- 
provement and land companies as well as 
individuals are giving the territory on the 
outskirts since March ist of this year, the 
Manufacturers' Record notes sales aggre- 



gating S50 acres and amounting to fully 
11,500,000. Some of the most important 
sales were the following : 

One hundred acres of Garrett estate near 
Roland Park to Richard J. Capron, over 
lioo.ooo. 

Peabody Heights in North Baltimore, 
about 33 acres, to Francis E. Yewell, $420,- 
000. 

Lyndhurst estate near Catonsville to 
Lyndhurst Land Co., about 286 acres, $125,- 
oco. 

Mount Carroll Tract in Western Suburbs 
46 acres to H. Webster Crowl and others, 
fiyijooo. 

Park avenue extended, one lot 1000 feet 
front to Joseph M. Cone, $60,000. 

Evesham estate in Govanstown suburb, 
58 acres, to A. D. Clemens Jr., 140,000. 

Hampden suburb, 13 acres, to Charles 
E. Cunningham, $65,000. 

These figures may seem small, but com- 
pared with what has been done in Balti- 
more in former years, they have the ut- 
most significance. It may be said that 
such an amount of money is held in the 
city awaiting a safe investment that when 
those controlling it realize the future de- 
mand for outside homes, millions of it will 
be placed in this beautiful country, which 
nearly surrounds the city. 

Another cause for the activity in subur- 
ban transfers is the success of companies 
which have already put their faith and 
money in such investments. 

The Roland Park Co. which, financed by 
the Jarvis-Conklin Mortgage Trust Co., 
developed Roland Park, one of the model 
suburban towns of the country, and the 
West Boundary Real Estate Co., which de- 
veloped Walbrook a suburb similar to but 
smaller than Roland Park, are two instan- 
ces of these ventures. 

Recent purchases of land in the vicinity 
of Bartow, Fla., were made by Rev. J. A. 



172 



REAL ESTATE NOTES. 



173 



Sanford, of Indiana, and E. B. Milane, of 
Vincennes, Ind. 

A 11,000 Acre Sale. 

The Disston Land Co. in a letter to tlie 
Southern States announces that the 
company has just concluded the sale of 
11,000 acres of land in the upper part of 
Kissimmee Valley, Fla., to a company 
termed the Florida Home & Plantation 
Co. whose headquarters are in the Wash- 
ington Loan & Trust Co.'s building at 
Washington, D. C. 

Buying Land in Georgia. 

Reports from Macon, Ga., state that 
there is a decided increase in the activity 
of real estate, which is taken as an indica- 
tion of returning prosperity in general busi- 
ness affairs. The Macon Telegraph re- 
ports that suburban farm land, suitable for 
fruit and vegetable culture, seems to be in 
the greatest demand. The purchasers of 
this kind of real estate are principally peo- 
ple from the North and West. There is 
also a good demand reported for city 
property, and during the last three months 
one agent, Mr. Legare, of Walker, has 
sold over |6o,ooo worth of real estate to 
local people. 

The town of Kuttawa, Ky., has been 
the scene of several important realty sales 
within a short time. About 200 town lots 
have been placed i.n the market, and over 
100 have been disposed of. 

Mr. M. p. Levy, of New York, has pur- 
chased a block of three-story buildings in 
New Orleans, paying $65,000 for it. The 
block was put up at auction and several 
other offers ranging from |4o,ooo to $60,000 
were made besides Mr. Levy's. He states 
he has purchased it for an investment 
solely. 

The steadily increasing value of prop- 
erty in Atlanta, Ga., is indicated by a 



recent sale of a hotel in that city. It was 
purchased by Mr. G. S. Chase, of Boston, 
Mass., for $545 per f.'-ont foot. The seller 
bought it but three weeks previous to the 
last sale at $430 per front foot. 



A recent sale of farming property near 
Augusta, Ga., was made by Mr. D. B. 
Dyer to Mr. Aneberg, a late resident of 
South Dakota. Mr. Aneburg has been 
examing the land in the locality noted and 
has decided to engage in vegetable raising. 
He will make a specialty of growing celery 
for market. 

The land in the vicinity of INIontgomery, 
Ala., as well as lots within the city limits, 
have appreciated considerably in value. 
The sales of realty in the city during the 
past year amounted to $1,095,000, while 
over $300,000 worth of building, principally 
dwellings, were erected. Farming lands, 
so real estate agents say, are selling at 
better prices than at any time in twenty 
years. 

A COMPANY has been organized at Bay 
St. Louis, Miss., to develop a tract of land 
near that town and sell it for building lots 
and manufacturing sites. The company is 
entitled the Bay St. Louis Improvement 
Company. 

Mr. H. M. Atkinson, of Atlanta, has 
recently made several large purchases of 
down town real estate, aegregating prob- 
ably $75,000 or $100,000. There are rumors 
that these purchases are made in the inter- 
est of the Southern Railway, although .Mr. 
Atkinson makes large investments in 
Atlanta for Hon. T. Jefferson Coolidge, of 
Boston, and it is possible that this property 
has been bought for him. There have 
been quite a number of other large sales at 
Atlanta recently, one being the property 
of the Manchester Investment Co., which 
brought $25,000 at public sale. 



General Notes. 



A Great Population Movement 
Southward. 

The Chicago Tribune says, in a recently 
published article on manufacturing and 
agricultural development in the South : 

"Not only has the attention of investors 
been attracted to the South, but a tide of 
immigration has set in in that direction 
greater than in any year of its history. It 
is said to equal Western immigration in 
the days when the mining sections of the 
Rocky mountains and the agricultural 
States of Kansas and Nebraska were pass- 
ing through the period known as the 
"boom." Much of the capital heretofore 
seeking investment each spring in the 
mines, lands and cattle of the West is 
being diverted to the South this year, 
financial observers say, and they give nu- 
merous reasons for the change. In the 
first place, the people of the South, they 
say, are making greater eftbrt this year to 
attract capital and immigration than ever 
before. The Southern railroads have ex- 
tended them more assistance than formerly 
in advertising the advantages of their ter- 
ritory and by making unusually low rates 
to immigrants." 

Benefits of Immigration. 

The Commercial Club of Birmingham, 
Ala., has a sort of "Publicity and Promo- 
tion Department" which Mr. N. F. Thomp- 
son, its energetic secretary, conducts in 
one of the city papers. The success of 
Georgia in securing the colony of 10,000 
families has given Mr. Thompson an op- 
portunity to arouse the Alabama people, 
which he tries to do as follows: 

"There has simply never before been 
such an interest in the South as is now 
manifest. It is fast crystallizing, and be- 
fore another year rolls around it will be 
populating those portions that show the 
most advantages and exhibit the strongest 
desire to have them. Anyone who doubts 



this is either strangely blinded by preju- 
dice or mentally an ignoramus. If there 
are stronger words to be used, this is the 
occasion and the moment to use them. 
The people of Alabama must be made to 
seethat 'hustling' pays. Here is a little 
common sense on the subject from yester- 
day's Atlanta Constitution: 

" 'When somebody asked Mr. P. H. Fitz- 
gerald, of Indianapolis, why he did not 
locate his colony, of 40,000 settlers in Ala- 
bama instead of Georgia, he replied that 
Georgia did more "hustling" than Ala- 
bama, and for that reason she got the 
colony. There is a good deal of signifi- 
cance in this off-hand remark. The "hus- 
tlers" get there as a rule. Alabama and 
other Southern States offer fine induce- 
ments to homeseekers, but it is natural 
that when the first wave of immigration 
comes in this direction it should be at- 
tracted to the localities where there is the 
most conspicuous display of active and 
public spirit. In the near future our sister 
States will draw outside capital and enter- 
prise, but it will not do for them to hide 
their light under a bushel. 

" 'If you have a good thing let it be 
known. Advertise it. Blow your own 
horn, as the saying goes. Outsiders will 
never hunt up absolutely unknown locali- 
ties. They expect in this age of printer's 
ink to see the advantages of every com- 
munity properly presented to the public. 

" 'And this applies to individuals as well 
as cities and States. Publicity is the thing. 
Go to work, "hustle" and let the world 
know what you are doing. An attempt to 
do business without plenty of judicious ad- 
vertising will have no more effect than 
winking at a pretty girl in the dark. 

" 'Forty thousand colonists in one lump 
as the result of "hustling" is a pretty good 
thing, and we had better stick to that 
policy.' " 

The proper way to secure "publicity" 



174 



GENERAL NOTES. 



and to "hustle," is to advertise in the 
Southern States magazine Thousands 
of Northern and Western people are con- 
sulting its pages in order to decide on the 
best locations South. 

Building Towns in The North. 

The founding of towns and the invest- 
ment in town company stocks seems to be 
coming into favor with the rich manufac- 
turers and the capitalists of the North 
Messrs. H. Walter Webb, John Jacob 
Astor, Ch^uncey M. Depew and others 
have purchased for 1728,000 a controlling 
interest in the Depew Improvement Com- 
pany, which has laid out the town of 
Depew near Buffalo. It is proposd to es- 
tablish industrial enterprises as a basis of 
town development. In Pennsylvania the 
Apollo Iron & Steel Company, a strong 
Pittsburg Company, proposes to build a 
model town to be known as Vandergrift. 
M. Frederick Law Olmstead, the celebrated 
landscape architect, has been engaged to 
lay out the grounds. It is the intention of 
the Apollo Company in starting th's town 
to thoroughly drain it, lay brick and as- 
phalt pavements, sidewalks, gas pipes and 
water pipes, and make other improvements 
before the property is opened to the public 
for sale. To this town the company pro- 
poses to remove its large manufacturing 
business, making its industrial interests 
the foundation of the town. 

$100,000,000 a Year from Fruit and 
Truck. 

Mr. Lee McLenden, of the Plant sys- 
tem, Montgomery, Ala., has furnished the 
Manufacturers' Record with a de- 
tailed statement of the probable shipments 
of watermelons over that road and its 
branches this season, showing that the 
present outlook indicates a total of over 
10,000 carloads. There are 21,900 acres 
along that line in watermelons this season, 
the largest acreage ever reported. These 
10,000 carloads will represent about 12,000,- 
000 melons. These facts give some idea 
of the development of the trucking busi- 
ness in the South and its relation to rail- 
road traffic. In hauling cotton 10,000 
carloads would represent about 500,000 
bales, or the product of 1,000,000 to 1,500,- 
000 acres on the general average of about 
one-third to one-half a bale per acre; or, 



in other words, 22,000 acres in watermelons 
yield as many cars of freight as 1,000,000 
to 1,500,000 acres in cotton. 

Add to the 10,000 cars along this one 
system the production of watermelons 
at other points, the thousands of cars of 
peaches which will go North from Georgia 
this year, the solid trainloads day after day 
of strawberries and other fruits and vege- 
tables from many parts of the South, and 
the magnitude of this industry — a growth 
of recent years — can be appreciated. This 
business means that within the next few- 
years the fruit and market-garden business 
of the South, now bringing into this section 
at least 150,000,000 a year, will amount to 
$100,000,000 or more, with a steady increase 
year after year. — Manufacturers' Record. 

Says the Southern Lumberman : "For 
twenty-five years past there has been a 
quiet but steady movement of population 
Southward, and it is plain now that this 
movement will assume a rush nearly equal 
to that Westward some years ago. The 
only opposition to it now comes from 
interested parties in the West, who see in 
it a depreciation of Western lands and a 
depopulation of that country." 

Fruit=Qrowing Along the Georgia, 
Southern & Florida Railroad. 

The Georgia Southern and Florida rail- 
way has issued a circular giving the names , 
addresses, shipping points and number ot 
acres of melons and cantaloupes, and esti- 
mated number of crates of peaches and 
pears and other fruits grown along the 
line of that road from Macon south to 
Palatka, a distance of 2S5 miles. 

There are along the line of the road and 
tributary to it about 225 fruit growers. 
The peach crop is estimated at 90,477 
crates, and the pear crop at 25,660 crates. 
The largest average of melons of any 
one grower is 125 acres, by R. H. Sut- 
ton, of Sycamore, Ga. ; H. N. Feagin. of 
Tobesofkee, and S. P. Jones, of Cordele. 
have one hundred acres each. Tifton is 
the greatest peach growing section on the 
line of the road south of the Perry and 
Macon territory. The product of Tifton is 
estimated at 15,500 crates. Tift and Snow 
are the largest growers. Their crop is es- 
timated at 10,000 crates of peaches and 
2500 crates of pears. The Cycloneta farm, 



176 



GENERAL NOTSE. 



at Cycloneta, expects to market 5000 crates 
of peaches and about 60,000 pounds of 
grapes. E. H. and H. H. & W. O. Tift are 
great grape growers. They estimate their 
yield at 100,000 pounds. The Elberta 
Orchard Company, of Eiberta, near 
Macon, will market 40,000 crates. The 
Oak Bridge Orchard Company, of Perry, 
expects to market 20,000 crates. T. N. 
Bohner and F. H. Bland, of Cordele, will 
have about 1500 crates each. 

Around Adel, Cecil and Valdosta, Ga., 
and Hampton, Fla , are the principal pear 
sections. Valdosta will market about 
14,000 crates and the Adel and Cecil sec- 
tions about 7000 crates. Hampton will 
market about 900 crates. 

riarket for Southern Fruit. 

Mr. E. M. Rumph, one of the largest 
fruit growers in Georgia, has been to 
Chicago looking over the marketing ad- 
vantages that city possesses. In a letter 
to a Southern paper he writes : "The out- 
look is bright for good prices, while trans- 
portation is sure to be lower. There is no 
reason why Georgia should not have equal 
advantages with California. I find num- 
bers of people throughout the West who 
are desirous of coming to Georgia to 
invest in farm lands. This is a very 
important matter that should be attended 
to by the various railroads, whose profits 
would be much larger at a low rate of 
freight, as four times the amount of fruit 
and produce would be grown. Chicago, 
with a population of 2,000,000, should be 
made the distributing point for the West 
and Northwest. There are more than fifty 
cities with a population of from 50,000 to 
500,000 ranging from ten to three hundred 
miles of Chicago, which can consume very 
easily at paying prices from one to five 
cars each day during the season. In this 
part of the West, not over 400 miles of 
Chicago, with the greatest ease and at 
good prices an average of from fifty to 
seventy-five cars of sound fruit can be con- 
sumed per day." 

Farmers in the vicinity of Cheneyville, 
La., have organized the Cheneyville Far- 
mers' and Truck Growers' Association. 
Its object is to promote the growing and 
shipping of fruits and vegetables North and 
West. Also to induce all localities on the 



Texas Pacific and Southern Pacific Rail- 
roads to form like associations to develop 
the industry. John J. Swann is president. 

The Kentucky Beet Sugar Co. has been 
organized at Bowling Green, Ky., by Ger- 
man capitalists. The stock of the com- 
pany will be $1,000,000. A site has been 
selected, and arrangements are being 
made for the immediate construction of a 
plant to cost about $350,000 and to have a 
capacity of 500 tons of beets in twenty-four 
hours. It is estimated that this plant will 
require beets from several thousand acres. 
A $500,000 cane sugar mill is being built in 
Louisiana, the largest ever put up in the 
State. 

The farmers of Montgomery county, 
Ala., according to the Montgomery Ad- 
vertiser, are abandoning the growing of 
cotton solely and instead are devotii^g their 
money, time and attention and concen- 
trating their efforts and energies in the 
direction of a diversity of pursuits. Ample 
evidence of this fact is found in the num- 
ber of successful truck-gardens, dairies, 
stock-raising farms and the like through- 
out the county. Every year some convert 
starts out in one of these occupations as a 
means of recouping what he has lost on 
cotton of late years. 

James H. Elms of Mecklenburg county, 
N. C, marketed thirty-two bales of cotton 
this season, averaging 500 pounds to the 
bale, all of which was grown on twenty-six 
acres. 

W. W. Fitzgerald, of Stewart county, 
Ga., has just finished planting sixty acres 
of cleared bottom land in pecans. The 
young trees are planted in check rows, 
forty feet apart, and will begin bearing in 
seven years. 

Mr. J. E. Ingraham, of the Land De- 
partment of the Jacksonville, St. Augus- 
tine & Indian River Railway, has decided 
to encourage the cultivation of ramie. 
The east coast of Florida is said to be 
specially adapted to its cultivation. Mr. 
Ingraham says: "The average yield of 
ramie can be safely estimated at 2000 
pounds per acre after the first j^ear, and, 
putting the ribbon at four cents per pound, 
the amount realized would be $80, leaving 



GENERAL NOTES. 



^11 



a clear profit of $55 after the cost of culti- 
vation was deducted. Among the prod- 
ucts made from ramie are ropes and cables, 
tablecloths, lace, plushes, velvets, dam- 
asks and brocades. It is also combined 
with cotton, linen, wool and silk in the 
manufacture of handkerchiefs, cravats, 
hosiery, cambrics, alpacas, and all kinds 
of draperies." 

Dairy products are finding increased 
favor among Southern farmers, and the 
number of creameries and cheese factories 
is steadily increasing. In West Georgia 
three creameries have recently been com- 
pleted. Butter and cheese making should 
become one of the most important indus- 
tries of the South. 

E. M. Hunter, of Noah, Ga., about 
thirty miles from Augusta, has about 
10.000 silk worms which he feeds on mul- 
berry trees grown in his own yard. From 
this number he makes fishing line silk, and 
it is claimed realizes about $200 per year 
from the industry. 

Mr. Jesse Willia^is, of Philadelphia, 
has decided to engage in lemon growing 
in Florida, and has laid out twelve acres of 
land near Palm Beach for that purpose. 

In the canal of the \'ermillion Canal 
Co., recently completed. Southwestern 
Louisiana possesses what is claimed to be 
the largest rice irrigating plant in the 
world. The plant will this season supply 
waier to about 7000 acres, with a proba- 
bility of increasing next season to 14,000 
or 15,000 acres. This canal was built by a 
company of business men of Crowley, La., 
and vicinity. 

A number of Northern men are now in 
North Carolina contracting to purchase the 
grape crop. The crop is very large and 
promising in this section. 

The Alabama Wine and Fruit-Growing 
Co., whose operations at Winehurst, Ala., 
have been mentioned in previous numbers 
of the Southern States, will take down 
an e.xcursion train of prospectors from 
Chicago in July. 

On a lot near Monroe. N. C, is a patch 
of strawberries which was planted and 
prepared by Mr. W. J. Boylin. The largest 
one found measured four and three-quarter 



inches in circumference. Numbers of them 
measured from three to four inches. These 
figures are testified to by several persons 
who examined the fruit. Monroe is a town 
on the Seaboard Air Line of railway near 
the South Carolina boundary. 

The raising of potatoes on the truck 
lands around Norfolk, Va., has assumed 
such proportions that this season it is esti- 
mated that 8000 acres have been planted 
to this vegetable. 

The vegetable crops in the vicinity of 
Charleston, S. C , have proved very profit- 
able this season, and the growers are much 
encouraged. One of the farmers expresses 
the situation in this way : "I should say 
that the farmer should make about $300 an 
acre on his cucumbers this year. It is the 
same thing over again with potatoes. Our 
lands average us about seventy-hve barrels 
of potatoes per acre. We have been get- 
ting $5 per barrel for them, and the market 
stands up to I4, and if this holds for a few 
days longer there must be good money in 
every acre of potatoes in and around 
Charleston." 

A dispatch from Stillmore, Ga., states 
that the farms in that section are in fine 
condition. The season so far has been 
almost perfect. The fruit crop is more 
promising than in any year for the last ten 
years 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

Fruit and Truck Growing in Tidewater 
Texas. 

Editor Souther)! States: 

Arcadia is a new town, about two years 
old, with a population of 400 to 500 intelli- 
gent, prosperous fruit and truck growers. 
It is distant from Galveston twenty-one 
miles, and from Houston thirty-two miles. 
It is on the main line of the Gulf, Colorado 
& Santa Fe Railway. The country is 
prairie, thirty-eight feet above sea level, 
with a gradual slope to the bay ten miles 
south from the town. There is timber in- 
tervening between the town and the bay, 
and hence we have a perfect circulation of 
pure ozone from bay and gulf, making 
malaria an impossibility. Pure water is 
obtained at twelve to twenty feet in wells, 
while the finest of artesian water is reached 



178 



GENERAL NOTES, 



at 400 to 600 feet. There are thirty-two 
artesian wells within two miles of Arcadia, 
which supply fresh water for Galveston. 
It is claimed that these wells flow 400,000 
gallons each every twenty-four hours. 

The principal industry of this country is 
fruit and truck growing, and the success 
attained by the intelligent horticulturist 
and truck farmer is wonderful. The lead- 
ing fruits thus far are pears, plums, figs 
and strawberries. Young apple, peach and 
cherry orchards promise well, but are too 
small to determine as to what their crop 
will be. Of the strawberry crop, 10,000 
quarts to the acre is about the average 
where properly treated, and with the 
strawberry crop we reach the Chicago, 
St. Louis, Kansas City, Omaha, Salt Lake 
and other Western markets. With ordi- 
nary seasons, shipments are in full blast by 
the middle of July. The pear is found to 
grow here with great vigor and perfection, 
and the trees are clear of all blight and 
other diseases. Of the many varieties 
grown here, the Le Conte, Keiffer and Gar- 
ber are the leaders, but all the other varie- 
ties grafted on the Leconte stock do equally 
well. From $500 to fSoo per acre has 
been realized here on eight to ten year old 
orchards. The Keiffer bears a paying 
crop at five, while the Le Conte and Garber 
come in about the sixth and seventh year. 
The fig is in its natural home here. They 
generally bear from cuttings the first year 
and give a paying crop the second year. 
From |2oo to $300 per acre is realized 
from an acre of three-year old fig trees. 
The Japanese varieties of plums grow and 
bear to perfection, and come into paying 
bearing the third year, giving a yield of 
I200 to $400 per acre at three years old. 
Truck and berry farming is carried on in 
orchards between the rows, and from|i5o 
to I500 per acre is often secured from an 
acre of truck, such as tomatoes, potatoes, 
cabbage, lettuce, onions, celery, &c. Two 
crops of potatoes, beans, peas, cabbage, 
cucumbers, &c., are sometimes grown on 
some land in the spring and one crop in the 
fall. We have a splendid home market at 
Galveston and Houston for our truck. 

The health of the coast country is 
perfect, and the climate, both summer 
and winter, delightful. The country be- 
tween Galveston and Houston on the 
Gulf, Colorada & Santa Fe Railroad is 



well adapted to fruit and truck-growing. 
Lands in this (Arcadia) county are still 
cheap, when the yield per acre is con- 
sidered. Lands one to three miles of 
depot range from |2o to foo per acre, 
while from three to ten miles out it runs 
from $8 to $20. 

This is a good stock country for hogs, 
cattle, goats, horses and mules, but is 
rather wet for sheep. The annual rainfall 
is about fifty-two inches, usually well dis- 
tributed through the season. The maxi- 
mum temperature is 92° and the minimum 
20° above zero. 

This country is being rapidly settled and 
developed by good people from every 
State in the Union, and all are happy and 
contented. There is a fine opening at 
Arcadia for a practical nursery man with 
means sufficient to run a large business. 

The Southern States is appreciated 
by all who read it in this county, and I 
find its circulation increasing. 

Arcadia, Texas. Alf. H. H. Tolan. 

A Great Opportunity for Real Estate flen 
in Connection With Immigration. 

Editor Southern States : 

I have studied the matter of Southern 
settlement for nearly twenty years, and for 
fifteen years have advocated community 
or village farming as possessing the great- 
est possibilities of advantage to the new 
settler. There has been one drawback to 
the inauguration of this plan — the secure- 
ment of sufficient bodies of land, unob- 
structed by other settlers, to accommodate 
an entirely new community of people with 
fixed plans or innovations over old and 
solidly implanted customs, common to the 
country. On the other hand, the barrier of 
mountains and isolation existed where 
such bodies of lands could be had. 

Three years ago I came to this section 
impressed with the idea that its unbroken 
acres would become the means of its most 
rapid development. A climate superb in 
every essential, and the means through 
cheaply bored artesian wells of securing 
the finest of water, the essential of best 
health. The first great desideratum of 
any section to which large bodies of people 
are invited is as to how they may sustain 
themselves from the beginning of their 
labors in new homes. 

Here is a section of immense bodies of 



GENERAL NOTES. 



179 



land of from ten to fifty thousand acres 
along the great trunk lines of railway of 
the South, already running rapid special 
trains for fruits and vegetables to the 
large city markets of the North. 

The fruit lands of Southern Georgia are 
already known to be the finest in actual 
results of profit and regularity of yield in 
the United States. The production of 
vegetables for early market is assuming 
large proportions, and the shipment of 
Irish potatoes, early peas, beans, cabbage, 
strawberries, etc., have been wonderfully 
successful. Irish potatoes are gathered 
here for market by the first of May, and as 
many as one hundred barrels are easily 
grown to the acre. So here is the first 
necessary condition to the new home-comer 
— a handsome income from his own efforts. 
These lands have not been opened to the 
small buyer only at high rates, but in the 
community of a number of home-seekers 
large bodies may be bought at from I2.00 
to $3.00 per acre, and then subdivided as to 
make each shareholder equal in his pos- 
sessions. The new depot and the new 
village becomes a central necessity, and 
schools, churches, etc., are supplied with 
every social privilege of older towns. 
Under such plans Southeast Georgia is 
attracting the attention of the country at 
large, and in its essentially new organiza- 
tion must soon become the modern farming 
country of the world, as it is unquestionably 
the best for fruit and trucking growing. 
That real estate men do not realize the 
actual wants of the people and take more 
actively to this line of work is one of the 
wonders. There is certainly a big opening 
for them. H. A. Wrench. 

Brunswick, Ga. 

Crops in Bee County, Texas. 

Editor Southern States : 

On this the first of June early corn is in 
roasting ear, cotton is blooming and water- 
melons are beginning to ripen. We have 
had good rains, and all these crops are 
assured, also fruit ; and everybody who 
tried has an abundance of vegetables this 
year. The stock-men, too, are strictly in 
the swim, with plenty of good grass, stock, 
water and an advancing market. 

Bee county is a gentle, rolling prairie 
country; some open, some brush ; timber 
enough for posts and fuel. The soil is a 



sandy loam, very fertile, resting on a red 
clay subsoil. The county has two rail- 
roads. Beeville is the county seat, and 
has a population of 2500, and excellent 
schools and churches. 

Large pasture tracts can now be bought 
at from $3 to $5 per acre. L'nimproved 
farm lands in small tracts are offered to 
farmers — fine lands at from $5 to $10 per 
acre, on easy payments. 

Our climate is very mild and desirable, 
with breezes fresh from the gulf. Many 
people with throat and lung troubles come 
here to get a new lease on life. 

Beeville, Texas. J. W. Magill. 

A Highly Favored Region. 

Editor Southerji States: 

Every visitor to Mount Vernon must 
have admired the beauty of the Potomac 
river. Contrary to the impression given 
by the flats when one gets a first view of 
the river at Washington, the shores are 
mostly bluff and high, with narrow strips 
of beach and only here and there a stretch 
of low land. Here and there, adorning 
some hillside or crowning a bluff, are 
great roomy, rambling old mansions, 
embowered in stately trees, with generous 
space of lawn in front and a breadth of 
orchard and garden behind. Some of these 
mansions date back to the early colonial 
days. 

Time was when this part of Maryland 
and Virginia was the garden spot of 
America, where lived some of the wealth- 
iest and most distinguished families of 
the nation. But the war brought poverty 
and ruin to these princely homes ; the 
demoralization of the laborer during re- 
construction times paralyzed agriculture 
and drove many families to the cities and 
towns. Those who remained generally 
found their lack of means, together with 
the difficulty of adjusting themselves to 
the changed conditions, a constant hin- 
drance to advancement, and gradually 
drifted into an indifference to the march of 
progress all about them. So, while the 
great tide of immigration has swept by to 
develop the Central and Western States 
to the utmost limit, this incomparable 
region has been forgotten. It is impossi- 
ble, however, that a section possessing so 
many and such great advantages and 
attractions can much longer escape the 



i8o 



GENERAL NOTES. 



attention of agriculturists and pleasure 
seekers. 

The fruit and truck industry has already 
developed into enormous proportions in 
much less favored sections, and it only 
wants the touch of enterprise and the intro- 
duction of new and modern methods to 
make this one vast garden of vegetables, 
fruits and flowers., I am speaking now of 
the country bordering on the lower end of 
the Potomac river, for about eighty miles, 
where the tempering winds from the salt 
water make the average temperature of 
summer 77° and of winter 39°. With this 
Italian climate and a variety of the most 
desirable soils there is not a more favored 
section for the stock-raiser, the fruit- 
grower, the trucker and the florist. 

An important factor in the sum of ad- 
vantages of this region is the abundance 
of cheap and convenient transportation 
furnished by several lines of steamers run- 
ning from Washington and Baltimore. To 
the farmer who grows early vegetables, 
fruits, flowers and poultry, the advantages 
of nearby markets and quick, cheap trans- 
portation is very great, and where he has 
the advantage, as the lower Potomac 
river farmers have of nearly four weeks' 
advance in seasons over competing sec- 
tions, the value is incalculable. 

One of the most notable features of this 
country is the great variety, large size, 
fine flavor and general excellence of the 
fruits. The mildness of the climate per- 
mits trees and plants to grow with great 
rapidity, to bear early and to be practically 
exempt from late-killing frosts, while the 
presence of saline articles in the air seems 
not only to carry destruction to many spe- 
cies of fruit-infesting insects, but furnishes 
to the trees that fruitful, vivifying quality 
which enables them to bear abundantly 
and to endure to a great age. In many of 
the old gardens along the river can be 
found orchards of apples, pears and plums 
that were planted fifty years ago and 
are still vigorous and unfailing in their 
yield. This is particularly true of apples, 
of which there are many choice varieties. 
In these same gardens, planted later, but 
still of ante-bellum date, are flourishing 
peach, apricot, nectarine, almond and fig 
trees. All these, and others, attain their 
maximum of quality and quantity here. 
It goes without saying that all small fruits 



and vegetables' flourish in"^ this section, 
coming to maturity, in the lighter soils, 
weeks in advance of any other part of 
Maryland or of Virginia north of Norfolk. 
Beginning with the winter grown crops of 
cabbage, kale and spinach, and extending 
the list through all the season, every vege- 
table and small fruit sold in the markets 
will grow here profitably. 

There are three principal varieties of 
soil, clay, gravel and sand, all mixed with 
loam. 

Strangely enough, the heavier clay lands 
lie directly on the river, the soils becom- 
ing more sandy as you go inland. Gravel 
deposits are found mostly on the Virginia 
side. 

The clay loam is particularly well suited 
to grass. The lighter soils are best for 
truck and fruit. Nearly every large farm 
upon the river has a variety of soils upon 
it, which admits of the owners diversifying 
crops, a most desirable thing even in 
trucking. 

Dairying and stock-raising must eventu- 
ally be a marked and highly profitable 
feature of farming along these shores, the 
heavier soils and the climate being perfectly 
fitted for the economical production, nur- 
ture and growth of cattle, particularly 
Jersey, Alderny and Holstein. 

Not only has nature been most kind in 
the distribution of soils and in the climate 
of this favored region, but, in ttie bestowal 
of her special bounties, most lavish. The 
waters are supplied with oysters, fish, terra- 
pin and crabs, and the shores and inland 
woods swarm with choicest game birds. 
Every farm upon the river can have an 
oyster bed, and terrapin, crabs, clams and 
wild fowl can be secured with little effort. 
The choicest salt water fish sold in the 
markets can be secured at any time at 
trifling cost. At present the water, much 
more than the land, yields tribute to the 
dwellers along the shore, hundreds of men 
being engaged in oystering, claming, crab- 
bing and fishing throughout the year, their 
families furnishing a large class of con- 
sumers for the products of nearby farms. 

Considering the convenience of access 
and the many natural advantages and at- 
tractions it is surprising that the lower 
Potomac shores have not been more gen- 
erally resorted to by outing seekers from 
Washington and Alexandria. Without the 



GENERAL NOTES. 



i8i 



ever present dangers and inconvenieiaces 
of the ocean shore there are all the advan- 
tages of salt water resorts, boating, bath- 
ing, fishing and hunting, cool salt breezes 
and freedom from insect pests. 

Several small resorts have sprung up of 
late, notably Colonial Beach and Colton's 
Point, but they seem to be little known to 
the general public and are nothing to what 
they probably would be if their advan- 
tages were more fully known. 

Colton's Point is a jet of land running 
out into the river in such a way as to com- 
mand a sweep of the river both ways as 
far as the eye can reach. 

To men of means seeking rural homes 
there can scarcely be a more tempting 
field than the verdant shores of this his- 
toric river. All that nature can contribute 
towards making an ideal country home is 
here. Healthfulness, climate, scenery and 
a rare abundance of her choicest dainties. 
A delightful society is also insured in the 
fine old families still remaining, and con- 
venient access to Washington and Balti- 
more at all times. And then the exquisite 
beauty of the ever changing river scenes, 
whether it be when the foliage is in the 
bright sappy verdurousness of spring, or 
in the mellower tints of summer, or when 
the warm summer skies have lost them- 
selves in chilly gray, there is still a charm 
and beauty all her own. In June it is en- 
chanting and in January enchanting still. 
Bennett Dobbin. 

Washington, D. C. 



BOOKS AND MAGAZINES, 

Tales from the /Egean. By Demetrios 
Bikelas. Translated by Leonard Eck- 
stein Opdyck. A. C. McClurg & Co., 
Chicago. Price |i.oo. 
Our people have not had much famili- 
arity with Greek literature, although a 
British author, in the beginning of the cen- 
tury, made a great stir with "Anastasius," 
which extorted from Lord Byron the high- 
est commendation. These tales of Bik- 
tlas fill our fancies with romantic gales 
blowing from "The Islands of the Blest." 
They are masterpieces of their kind, and 
while the minor chord running all through 
them is pathetic, a most delicate humor 
plays like lightning through a thunder- 
cloud. The author, while possessing the 



old Greek commercial spirit, also rejoiced 
in the old Greek genius for letters. The 
mingling of real and ideal, the practical 
and the psychologic, emphasizes the gitt 
of the story-teller and must make him 
acceptable to the widest audience. These 
Tales come, therefore, with "freshness of 
novelty," and with an exalted purpose as 
well as consummate skill. They come, 
too, as salubrious breezes after the world 
has been tormented, surfeited and demor- 
alized by so much leprous and unworthy 
fiction. As such they are to be welcomed 
and commended to the public. 

A NEW art editor, William Martin John- 
son, who illustrated the "Garfield" edi- 
tion of "Ben Hur" for the Harpers, and 
also their editions of "The Cloister and 
the Hearth" and "Hypatia," becomes the 
art editor of The Ladies' Hom.e Journal 
on June i, leaving New York to reside per- 
manently in Philadelphia. Air. Barton 
Cheyney, a clever newspaperman who has 
been attached to the press of Delaware 
and Pennsylvania, is also added to the 
Journal's editorial staff as one of Mr. Bok's 
principal associates. 

The "Paris Album of Fashion," "La 
Mode de Paris," "The French Dress- 
maker" and "La Mode," published by 
A. McDowell & Co., 4 West Fourteenth 
street. New York, are probably the most 
elaborate fashion magazines published. 

There comes to us from The Ladies" 
Home Journal a very artistically-gotten-up 
illustrated booklet of over 250 pages, 
called "5000 Books," which serves as an 
easy guide to the best books in any depart- 
ment of reading. This guide is very well 
done. The best literary experts of New 
York, Boston and Philadelphia were en- 
gaged by the Journal to select the five- 
thousand books which it presents as the 
most-desirable for a home library, and 
their work has been admirably carried out. 
Very clear, explanatory comments are 
given by these men of books, and besides 
there are given not less than 160 portraits 
of leading authors. No book will, perhaps, 
do so much to extend good reading as this 
guide, so carefully gotten up, so beautifully 
printed, and so generously ofiered, free of 
any charge, by the publishers of The 
Ladies Home Journal. "5000 books" is 



Ib2 



GENERAL NOTES. 



unquestionably the best and easiest guide 
to a wise selection of books that has been 
issued for a long time. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

A Pushing East Tennessee Town. 

A correspondent of the Xew York Daily Mercury, 
in a letter to that paper about the development of 
East Tennessee, says: 

"The town of La FoUette is situated in the beauti- 
ful Powell's valley, 1200 feet above sea level, sur- 
rounded with park-like forests and fertile valley lands, 
having an abundance of purest water and perfect 
drainage, with the great property of the La Follette 
Coal & Iron Co. at its door; and a low-water gap, 
giving easy passage for railroads, develops peculiar 
strength and possibilities of importance when its 
relation is shown to those c ties which will be its 
natural market and the system of railroads of which 
it will be the inevitable outlet. 

A year ago, perhaps, twelve or fifteen persons com- 
prised the entire population of this place The 
change since then has been remarkable. A thousand 
busy people are here, miles of graded and macada- 
mized streets ex st, houses are going up on all sides, 
and the bustle and activity is indicative of the en- 
thusiasm, earnestness and confidence that is backed 
by a determination which, when considered in the light 
of the great storehouse of wealth from which it may 
draw supplies for every form of manufactu e insures 
to La Follette a great future." 

A Prosperous Arkansas Section. 

Mr. T. H. Leslie, of Gillett, Ark , writes to the 
Southern States as follows : 

"The completion of the Stuttgart & Arkansas River 
Railroad was celebrated at Gillett on the 19th. A 
train of eight cars came in from Stuttgart, Almyra 
and De Witt to participate. Homeseekers with 
household goods and stock are arriving daily from 
Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Colorado, Illinois and 
Dakota Negotiations are pending for an ice factory, 
a handle factory and a machine shop to be erected at 
Gillett. A large schoolhouse, recently mentioned in 
the Manufacturers' Record as to be built, has been 
completed, while a stave mill is on the way to Gilleit 
from Ohio. Everything in this section is prospering, 
and the outlook indicates rapid progress in and around 
Gillett." There is a great opportunity around Gillett 
for general farming and fruit-growing. 

The finest apples grown in this country come from 
Albemarle county, Virginia, the famous Albemarle 
Pippin. They command a higher price in England 
than any other. This county is one of the greatest 
grape producing sections in the East, and is noted 
also as a great stock-raising and farming section- 
Information about farms in this and adjacent coun- 
ties may be had from C. L Carver & Co., Charlottes- 
ville, Va. 

The first shipment of peaches from the Georgia 
Southern Experimental Farm, Cycloneta, has been 
made already. They were fine specimens of the 
Alexander variety, and were sufficiently ripe for 
shipment. The first lot of peaches were distributed 
at New York, Chicago and other cities. This farm is 



an experimental one conducted by the Georgia 
Southern & Florida Railroad to show what crops can 
be produced in that section. 

A DISPATCH from Willis, Texas, states that Connec- 
ticut is a market for much of the tobacco grown in 
that localitj'. 

Mr. Frank Vaughan, a lawyer of Elizabeth Ci'y^ 
N. C, has published a pamphlet of thirty pages on 
"The Albemarle District of North Carolma." What 
is known as the Albemarle district comprises thirteen 
counties that make up the Northeastern part of the 
State. This is a region that offers unusual induce- 
ments to farmers, truck-growers, dairymen, stock- 
raisers, fruit-growers and to manufacturers and in- 
vestors as well. A very good idea of this country, 
its history, its soil, climate, products, transportation 
facilities, its churches and schools and its people may 
be had from this interesting pamphlet. 

Near Coley's, Ga., a station on the line of the 
Southern Railway, there is a handsome residence 
offered for sale and thirty acres of land, six forest, 
the rest of a Le Conte and Keifier pear orchard of 
560 trees, for S3500 cash. The owner also ofiEers 650 
acres adapted to fruit and vine culture, a magnifice t 
park of 250 aces, and 350 more of highly developed 
land. The owner of the property invites correspond- 
ence The address is Longstreet, care Southern 
States, Baltimore, Md. 

The West Norfolk Land & Improvement Co. oper- 
ates in a country where discontent among investo s 
appears to be unknown. Norfolk's nearness to the 
sea and its unrivalled facilities in rail and water 
transportation to all parts of the world render it an 
unusually attractive location for business operations 
of nearly every kind. The great mineral wealth of 
Virginia is well known. Truck-farming is conducted 
on a very large scale around Norfolk and is a source 
of immense revenue to the truck farmer and to the 
general mercantile community. While this business 
is very extensive at present, it is capable of vast 
additional expansion and development. Truck 
farmers of the North and West will find it advan- 
tageous to correspond with the West Norfolk Land 
& Improvement Co , West Norfolk, Va. 

While there is no abatement of interest in Beaumoi t, 
Texas, on the part of lumber dealers, the attention of 
farmers and fruit-growers is more and more drawn to 
that section. There is considerable demand for rice 
and garden truck lands, and purchasers are well sat- 
isfied with the countO' and its conditions of health, 
climate and social life as well as with the adaptability 
of the soil. 

The people of Orange, Texas, are anxious for immi- 
gration, and hold out attractive offers of cheap lands 
very desirable for fruit, rice and vegetable growing. 
The people of Orange are hospitable and progressive; 
the city is delightfully situated on the Sabine river, 
while the Gulf of Mexico is but a few miles distant. 

The Southern Real Estate Exchange, Clarksburg, 
W. Va., controls some very desirable property, includ- 
ing farms, town lots, hardwood forests, coal and oil 
lands in a country of great possibilities. They invite 
correspondence, and will endeavor to suit e^ch in- 
quirer in size of tract and price. 



THE 



Southern States. 



JULY, 1895. 



FARM REFORM AND THE SOUTH. 

Bv Francis B. Livesev. 



For the last twenty years I have noted 
with anxiety the decadence of agri- 
culture and the growth of cities. I long 
since predicted that such abnormal con- 
ditions would ultimately bring, as their 
recompense, industrial crises approxima- 
ting revolution. I have not been mis- 
taken. Last summer when the Labor 
Commission was organized and called 
for suggestions relative to relief from 
labor troubles, I availed of the oppor- 
tunity to present to that body my long 
cherished ideas under the term of 
Agricultural, or Farm Reform. Since 
then it has also been presented to the 
public through many of the leading and 
minor papers, alike of the East, North 
and West, and has, I am sorry to say, 
received indifferent notice from the press 
of the South. This was owing, un- 
doubtedly, to the fact that the South 
has felt but slightly the tendencies to- 
ward the industrial revolution, and mat- 
ter pertaining to it was made subser- 
vient to more immediate needs. The 
time, however, has now come in which 
the South can no longer fail to recog- 
nize the part it must play patriotically, 
philanthropically and financially in assis- 
ting the troubled East, North and West 
in the solution of the industrial and ag- 
ricultural troubles that hang over them, 
and threaten by their protentiousness 
the stability of our country itself 

THE MEANING OF FARM REFORM. 

Farm Reform in its embrasive sense, 
simply means the carrying out of every 
method that has for its aim the restor- 
ation of the great surplus masses of our 
mining, manufacturing and commercial 



centres to the bosom of old mother 
earth — the soil. Every poor man who 
gathers together his little savings and 
buys or rents a few acres ; every chari- 
table organization that helps a few or 
many to a farm colony ; every business 
colonization scheme that looks to the 
settlement of large bodies on vest tracts, 
and every State or city that assists its 
poor to the land — are all enacting dutiful 
parts in the general programme of Farm 
Reform — are all seeking to relieve our 
conjested centres and bring back to the 
natural and peaceable avocation of man 
the multitudes who are suffering the 
pains resultant from a departure from it. 
Every man in every grade of life has an 
interest in* this undertaking similar to 
that which he has in exercising his right 
of suffage. The occasion demands even 
more thought, more work and more 
worry than any political question or 
combination of questions that are before 
our people. "Give us bread and work," 
has been the cry of leaders in bloody 
revolutions of old. How impotent in 
comparison to it are such cries as "Cleve- 
land for President !" The country is in 
need of business, not politics, and it 
must hew to the line of plain, sterling, 
practical business, in the shape of Farm 
Reform, and let the political chips from 
such a log fall where they may. 

SMALL FARMS FOR THE ^L\SSES. 

There have been books written on 
"Ten acres enough." They are enough. 
A fifty acre farm is a sufficiency. It is 
to such that the masses must be encour- 
aged and assisted to go. A "one horse 
farm" is not beyond the capabilities of 



183 



FARM REFORM AND THE SOUTH. 



a man raised to city employments. All 
that is needed is a gradual introduction 
to the work. Delicate men who strain 
to lift a shovel full of earth and who 
hardly know the difference between bean 
pole and corn stalk have made successful 
small farmers in large numbers. I have 
tried them on farms of my own as farm 
hands and I have pointed letters from 
those who have hied away to small 
farms of their own. The anarchist who 
wants such classes left in the cities to 
swell the ranks of his revolutionists, 
shouts that they will not and cannot go, 
and the socialists and single taxer who 
envy any prospective successful termina- 
tion of our troubles outside of their respec- 
tive hobbies, also say the same. The 
inconsiderate capitalist says the same- 
he wants them starving at his factory 
door that he can secure them on terms 
of his own. All these seek their own 
and not another's — all these know that 
Farm Reform seeks to elevate the poor 
man to the dignity of a self-respecting 
and independent citizen, while it leaves 
the revolutionists declaiming to the wind 
and the capitalist respectfully entertain- 
ing the few who apply at his mill for his 
work. 

GO WEST, OR GO SOUTH. 

As a Farm Reformer, it is my more 
especial province to get the people to 
farms no matter where they be, and 
I have studiously avoided any "boom- 
ing" of one section of the country at the 
expense of another. The agent of one 
of the large Western railroads offered 
me great inducements to assist toward 
getting settlers to its section. I told 
him that I was compelled to decline, as 
I was engaged solely in a patriotic and 
philanthropic work. Since that time 
I have been in correspondence with 
prominent writers and farmers com- 
bined in the West, and the "terrors," as 
they style them, of farming in their 
localities have made me consider it ad- 
visable for the benefit of the people to 
properly enunciate the advantages 
possessed by the South for all who wish 
to attain that reasonable success a duti- 
ful attention to farming ensures. One 
of the gentlemen who have so potently 
described the terms of Western farming- 



is Mr. John S. Maiben, of Palmyra, Neb., 
and another is Mr. J. K. P. Baker, of 
Harlan, Iowa. The latter says : "We 
live between two productive terrors — 
first, that we shall raise no crops (from 
the effects of drought, insects, etc. ), and 
second, that we shall find no market. 
If we escape the first terror then the 
second is more certain." Such state- 
ments do not come from intelligent and 
industrious farmers in any section of the 
South. The Westerners endeavor to 
prove from their experience that farm- 
ing, to use their phrase, is "entirely 
played out." Hence, so many of them 
are allying themselves to various politi- 
cal and revolutionary factions that vainly 
promise some alleviation of their distress 
through the adoption of political meas- 
ures. They are inclined to meet the 
starving laboring men of the cities on 
the same revolutionary ground. In 
reasoning with these disheartened West- 
terners I have endeavored to show them 
that the locality in which they have 
undertaken farming is to blame, and not 
the avocation of farming itself, and that, 
hence, they should betake themselves 
to a more congenial clime, as many 
already have done in coming to Mary- 
land. 

DIVERSITY OF CROPS. 

One of the prolific causes of farm 
failure in the West is that the farmers 
fail to raise a diversity of crops. Al- 
though the land is in many places all 
that could be desired, and that indeed 
has been the West's sole attraction, yet 
the climatic and other conditions are 
such that a diversity of crops has very 
generally been unattempted. Some one 
or few staple crops are attempted and if 
drought or insects destroy them, no 
revenue is derived, and with nothing 
saved, pauperism or mortgages loom 
up as the finale. Despite the prevail- 
ing custom, however, there have been 
farmers in the very sections of the West 
from which complaints have come who 
have boldly attempted every crop, large 
and small, that could under any circum- 
stances be raised, and what has been the 
result ? They said farming was to them 
a success. The same expenditure of 
labor in the South would have brought 



FARM REFORM AND THE SOUTH. 



185 



them a still greater success. It is there- 
fore important that the prospective 
colonists from the overstocked centres 
of population should be impressed both 
with the necessity of a diversity of crops 
and of betaking themselves to a section 
of the country that offers the greatest 
opportunity for diversity. It is by di- 
versity that the small farmer can become 
his own producer and consumer mainly. 
He must raise on his farm every possible 
article that he needs to supply his wants. 
He must not look to the getting ol the 
"Almighty dollar" to live, so much as to 
looking to the land to live. The Dutch 
Boers of South Africa are the finest race 
of agriculturists in the world. They are 
far from markets ; but they are growing- 
rich, solely because every farmer raises 
almost all that he wants himself 

SMALL FARMS IN FRANCE AND JAPAN. 

The small farmers of France constitute 
one of the most interesting features of 
that Republic, as they notably do one 
of its most reliable sources of main- 
tenance. They seem to have received 
their first impetus in the days of the 
first Napoleon. Warrior as he was, he 
was yet sufficiently sagacious to perceive 
that the plow and the pruning hook had 
victories in store for his people more 
lasting than the sword. At a time of 
industrial depression and revolutionarv 
danger, he decreed that the masses 
should betake themselves to the land ; 
they did so, and they have remained 
there ever since. They speedily rose 
from povery to prosperity ; from revolu- 
tionists to patriots, and France as a 
nation became one of the richest nations 
of the earth, almost wholly owing to the 
benefits accruing to her tlarough the lit- 
tle savings of her redeemed common 
people. We never see France going 
abroad for a national loan. Whenever 
she makes known her needs of money, 
we see the common people tending her 
quickly and gladly more than she needs. 
Whenever she wants soldiers they jump 
at her call. She is not altogether edu- 
cating her people away from their farms, 
as we have been doing in this country. 

Of some 350,000 young men recently 
called into her army, the number who 
were not up to the standard of your 



educational idea were many, yet they 
were up and possibly far beyond our 
standard of physical manhood. In 
Japan similar conditions prevail. Her 
little island, no larger than Montana, 
comfortably supports 4 1 ,000,000 persons, 
simply because her rulers have provided 
that her common people shall have 
access to the land. We thus see that a 
nation's prosperity arises from the suc- 
cess of the small individual units of 
which it is composed, and not from the 
thunder of this or that political theory. 

$100,000 FOR THE SOUTH. 

If the country at large wishes to be 
relieved, and if the South wishes to get 
the benefit of the North's ill wind, every- 
thing must be hereafter looked at from 
a practical point of view. The millions 
of dollars that are thrown away in the 
gratification of idle vanity and miscalled 
charity could make comfortable, if 
rightly applied, every destitute person 
in the country. It is strange that men 
who have been reared in the school of 
practical hard knocks should, after be- 
coming rich, develop such a mania for 
having themselves immortalized in mon- 
uments, churches, colleges, libraries, 
museums and art galleries, and leave 
their wealth buried in such structures 
for that purpose. It might be supposed 
that they who struggled from the ranks 
of want would, in their ele\-ation, have 
first in mind their brothers still below — 
not so ! The South has no warmer 
friend than Charles Broadway Rouss, 
the Broadway merchant of New York. 
He recently gave a fortune for some 
practical purpose (water works, perhaps) 
to the town of Winchester, Va. He has 
now ottered to donate $100,000 to a 
fund for the establishment of a perma- 
nent headquarters in which historical 
archives of the Confederacy shall be 
kept. It has been referred to a special 
committee of the Confederate \'eterans' 
Association, which recently held a meet- 
ing at Houston, Texas. Now here is a 
chance for both Mr. Rouss and the 
South to inaugurate a practical reform 
regarding donations from the hands of 
wealth. Mr. Rouss has the opportunity 
of dexoting that sum to assisting some 
of the poor denizens of his city to farms 



i86 



FARM REFORM AND THE SOUTH. 



in the South, and the South has the 
opportunity of informing him that the 
exigencies of the times compel it to 
most respectfully ask him to so devote any 
sum he may wish to bestow for praise- 
worthy objects within its borders. 

FARM REFORM IN WASHINGTON 

The commissioners of the District of 
Columbia became dissatisfied with the 
results attained in the management of 
the poor, and on the i6th of April last 
addressed a note to Judge C. C. Cole, 
chairman of the Central Relief Com- 
mittee, of Washington, requesting him 
to immediately seek to ascertain from 
the press and from individuals if there 
was any method that would give promise 
of permanently solving the question. I 
immediately sent to all the interested 
parties a good amount of Farm Reform 
literature and addressed a letter to Judge 
Cole calling attention to farming for the 
poor and charitable or State assistance 
until the beneficiaries were capable of 
supporting themselves. I also men- 
tioned the Pingree plan as a palliative. 
A word to the wise was sufficient, for, 
according to reports the 200 poor families 
of the District are to be placed on 2000 
acres of land in Maryland or Virginia, 
furnished with shelter, tools and all nec- 
essaries and gradually introduced to 
farm life, with the expectation of ulti- 
mately becoming the owners of their 
own farm homes. Here we have within 
the borders of the South the first ap- 



proximation to State assistance toward 
Farm Reform. The nation's capital 
accepts the nation's remedy. Success 
there bespeaks adoption everywhere. 

THE PINGREE POTATO PATCHES. 

The Pingree plan has furnished some 
admirable stepping stones to Farm 
Reform — thanks to its author. It has 
demonstrated beyond a shadow of 
doubt that under proper manipulation 
the poor of your cities are wiUing and 
capable to work in the truck patch or 
on the farm. It has been said by single 
taxers that the plan demonstrated that 
the poor would work only on land gra- 
tuitously furnished them ; indicating 
that the poor were so impregnated with 
the principles, or rather vagaries of 
single tax that they would never more 
lift a hand over the soil until they had 
free access to it through the machina- 
tions of single tax. The result proved 
differently. Immediately after the potato 
patches closed in Detroit last fall 
many of the poor who had been inspirited 
by their success, immediately betook 
themselves to small boztght and rented 
farms. Twenty-five families located 
near one little village in Detroit county 
alone. With the Pingree plan this year 
in full operation in many of our large 
cities, we may be prepared to see thous- 
ands of poor people very soon inclined 
to betake themselves to farms. Is 
philanthropy preparing for it ? Is the 
South preparing for it ? 




BOOMS WEST AND SOUTH. 



By Albert Phcnis. 



It has been suggested that as a 
witness of "boom" methods in the 
West there might be something of in- 
terest in the comparisons I may draw 
between those methods and the way in 
which real estate operations and immi- 
gration movements are handled in the 
South. 

Without going at all into statistical 
features, or indeed attempting to present 
any other than some random convic- 
tions and crystallized impressions, I may 
say at the outset that I regard such 
differences as exist between methods in 
vogue in the two sections as entirely 
the outgrowth of circumstances. In 
every Southern city I have any knowl- 
edge of a "boom" is today generally 
regarded with about as much horror 
and dread as would be a visitation of 
the yellow fever ; and yet at the height 
of the boom in Western town lots I 
have seen gentlemen from Georgia on a 
hot trail for a real estate bargain outstrip 
the keenest and most eager of Connecti- 
cut yankees, and some of the most 
daring plungers, men who were always 
in the thickest of the boom, were trans- 
plants from regions far below Mason and 
Dixon's line. And I remember the sur- 
prise I felt on first encountering the 
Virginia boom some years ago, the in- 
tensity of which was indicated in a 
manner new to me by a soft-voiced 
young man evidently not long from the 
farm, who accosted me the moment I 
stepped from the train with "can't I 
drive you out and show you some 
real estate?" And ranged along the 
station platform I saw others of his 
enthusiastic kind, reminding one in some 
degree of the scene among the cabmen 
on the arrival of a train at the Cirand 
Central Depot in New York. In evi- 
dence of the ubiquity of the optimist 
when town lots are ripe, on this same 



occasion, before I had gone two feet 
from the train I overheard a man about 
to board the cars hurriedly remark to 
an agent "I just bought lot 4 in Blank's 
addition for $800; cut it up into two 
lots facing on the other street, sell them 
for $700 each and send me the money 
next week at Smithville." "Well !" I 
thought, "how does our little Western 
boom pale its ineffectual rays beside 
such a one as this?" So the disposition 
to speculate whenever there is any 
demand for real estate or any other 
articles (which is the sum and substance 
of a boom) is a universal one, and as in 
the case of every Western city I know 
anything about, wherever the movement 
is on, the temptation to take a hand in 
the game will be found hardly resisti- 
ble by even the most conservative men 
in the most conservative communities. 

I do not pretend to be in sympathy 
with those who decry the operations of 
the boomer. Without his optimism, 
his enthusiasm, his gift of prophecy, 
nature's riches would have remained for 
ages longer in the native hills. The 
march of civilization across this vast 
continent would have proceeded at 
snails' pace, and where now are tower- 
ing smokestacks, majestic palaces of 
trade and busy centres of population 
and industry, there would have re- 
mained for generations further the haunt 
of the hostile and the home of the Buf- 
falo. His is the voice of one crying in 
the wilderness, and not only are paths 
made straight, but broad highways 
opened in a twinkling ; he blazes the 
way through the forest, and vast cities 
spring up in his wake; he shows how 
things can be done noic: he takes a 
short cut across the ages. All hail to 
the boomer, say I, and let us put him 
on a pedestal. 

The man who will sell lots at the 



187 



BOOMS WEST AND SOUTH. 



bottom of a lake, as was once done in 
Chicago ; or on the sand hills, forty 
miles away, "overlooking the city," as 
was done in Denver, deserves a worse 
fote than the imprisonment those ras- 
cals got ; and the unscrupulous individ- 
ual who lays out lots, like the fellow 
made razors, simply to sell, is, of course, 
a detriment to man and progress ; but 
the man who is everlastingly at it, try- 
ing to get you to buy a farm and raise 
fruit, truck, stock or what not ; who 
strives with might and main to persuade 
moneyed men to employ idle capital in 
the development of some resources now- 
untouched ; who induces families to buy 
homes in a section better than the one 
they knew before ; who increases the 
taxable valuation of a farm or a city, 
thereby adding to the country's wealth 
-^whoever is engaged in this work is as 
great a benefactor as the human race 
can have, and he is more or less of a 
boomer in proportion to the energy and 
success which attend his efforts. His 
object is to get people and get some- 
thing to permanently sustain and im- 
prove his town or city, and if he suc- 
ceeds to a large degree in his under- 
takings the result is a movement very 
like the much-terrifying boom. 

Conditions in Kansas City are fre- 
quently pointed out by those who say 
of their own city, "Heaven save us from 
a boom." Well, let us look into Kan- 
sas City. Up to fifteen years ago, it 
had less than 50,000 people ; it had 
a mule-car service, streets of bottomless 
mud, an inadequate sewer system, and 
most of its buildings were makeshifts. 
Its boom was a fierce one, it is true. 
Fortunes were made in a year, and lost 
almost as quickly. The accumulations 
of a lifetime were in some instances 
swept away entirely, and wrecks of 
speculators are strewn far and wide. 
But the candle in which the moths were 
singed still burns on. There is a splen- 
didly built city of more than 150,000 
people, with more miles of cable railway 
than any but two other American cities, 
a perfect sewer system, asphalt and 
stone-paved streets everywhere, build- 
ings which would look well in New 
York and a volume of business which 
gives it rank in the clearing-house 



reports alongside of cities of double its 
population. As in any big undertaking, 
even the construction of a ten-story 
building, at least one life is usually sacri- 
ficed, so in the boom which makes a city 
there must be disaster and financial death 
to the individual, which, while lamentable, 
is nevertheless an apparently unavoid- 
able incident in the rapid or great 
development of any community. 

While it is not my purpose to dis- 
parage prudence and an avoidance of 
the evils which come from an over-dis- 
count of future needs, the almost inevi- 
table accompaniment of great real estate 
activity, at the same time I must affirm 
that worse things than a boom can hap- 
pen to a town. In the struggle for pre- 
cedence, or any measure of public favor, 
in which every live community feels 
bound to enter, there can be no effective 
work done if there is ever present a 
blushing modesty and a fear of being 
ravaged by a boom ; and if a city or a 
hamlet should add ten, twenty or even 
fifty thousand to its population inside of 
a year, which would superinduce real 
estate activity very like a boom, who can 
say that would not be a good and most 
desirable thing ? 

However, I don't know that so much 
of an apology is needed, for booms don't 
go knocking and pleading at anybody's 
gate. They never swoop down on un- 
suspecting communities like the robber 
barons of old. My observation has been 
that the boom is the very shyest of all 
the gods, and I have known whole 
States to sit up many nights waiting 
and watching and praying for a boom 
that never came. It took years of the 
hardest kind of work and the loudest 
kind of shouting to get the tide turned 
to the West in the volume desired. As 
the railroads were built largely on land 
grants and through a sparsely settled 
country, it became of the first impor- 
tance to them to get settlers. The land 
agent was one of the most important 
officials of the company, and varied were 
the devices he employed to draw the 
attention of the public to the lands along 
his line. Buffalo Bill was first intro- 
duced to the amusement world as an ad- 
junct to the land department of the 
Kansas Pacific Railroad, and for years 



BOOMS WEST AND SOUTH. 



his earlier career before the pubUc was 
in a frontier drama, which was inciden- 
tally made to advertise the fact that 
there were buffalo to be shot by- 
excursionists on that railroad, and 
lands to be purchased for settlement. 
This ingenious and colossal scheme for 
advertising was the work of Capt. D. H. 
Elliott, now of the land department of 
the Plant system of railroads, and was 
one of the many devices he successfully 
adopted to make his section well known. 

I take it to be very significant that 
within recent months the railroads of the 
South are all turning their attention to 
the methods which prevailed in the 
West, and the immigration agent, the 
immigration folder and land-seekers' ex- 
cursion tickets are becoming the rule. 'To 
no other agency is the West so greatly in- 
debted for the noise she made in the world 
and the rapidity with which she was set- 
tled up than to the energetic immigra- 
tion agents of the railroads. They pub- 
lished matter with the enthusiasm and 
the ingenuity of a circus press agent ; 
they went into the thickly-settled por- 
tions of the East and almost literally 
carried whole colonies away on their 
backs; they kept agents continually in 
foreign countries organizing colonies, 
who were ticketed through from father- 
land to destination. I see in the advent 
of the immigration agent in the South a 
fact of the greatest moment, and, while 
the same untrammeled conditions do not 
prevail there as did in the West, where 
the railroad owned at least every alter- 
nate section along the line of road, yet 
there are some railroad lands in the 
South and enough vacant lands along 
the lines to make a material difference 
in the revenues of the roads when they 
are settled up. 

So there is plenty of inducement for 
the roads to push the further settlement 
of the South, and recent actions seem to 
indicate that they propose doing so 
along Western lines in so far as they 
may be applied to Southern conditions. 
The Southern immigration agent is, in 
several instances, a man who has suc- 
cessfully held that position on Western 
roads. So he knows the ropes, and it 
is a somewhat amusing thing to see him 
(as he is now doing) go up into the 



Northwest for immigrants whom he him- 
self placed there sometime ago. 

But it will not do for communities to 
rely alone on the development which 
the railroads will bring. While the rail- 
roads advertised the West and made 
possible the growth of the important 
cities there, the work of town building 
and especially the development of any 
particular place was, as it must always be 
everywhere, largely the result of indi- 
vidual effort. Eternal hustling by adver- 
tisingin mediums of demonstrated worth, 
by correspondence and by personal 
solicitation, all are absolute essentials in 
the work of so getting your community 
in the public eye that curiosity may be 
aroused, investigation made and invest- 
ment and immigration secured. One 
good live real estate agent — boomer if 
you choose — is of more value to a place, 
provided he be judicious, honest and 
properly equipped, than half the busi- 
ness leagues, commercial clubs and 
boards of trade in the Union. The 
great difficulty with most of such organ- 
izations, West as South, is the insuffi- 
cient support given them, even if they 
start out with proper equipment. A 
secretary or executive officer of either 
small capacity or little spare time, with 
little salary or none at all, undertakes a 
work which by rights requires more 
faithful care and absorbing attention, 
more ingenuity and patience, more 
knowledge of men and aftairs than are 
necessary for the successful conduct of 
nine-tenths the financial institutions or 
commercial enterprises in the commu- 
nity where he lives. The membership 
of such bodies is usually small, and 
nearly always apathetic, and in the end 
the organization is rather more of a 
detriment than a benefit. If any matter 
of public interest is presented — say an 
advertising proposition or an inquiry 
from a promoter of an industry, the citi- 
zen generally feels that he is absohed 
from personal obligation by reason ot 
the board of trade's existence, and with- 
out giving that organization sufficient ot 
either his time or his means to make it 
a pulsating thing of life, an engine of 
force and power, he expects it to be all 
sufficient for every emergency and to 
relieve him of all responsibility for per- 



I go 



BOOMS WEST AND SOUTH. 



sonal action. Properly officered and 
heartily supported, however, such an 
organization is of inestimable benefit. 
There would be a fund on hand, or 
machinery for raising- one, for every 
occasion when expenditure would be 
clearly of advantage to the community ; 
there would be such printed matter, 
interesting, up to date and complete, as 
would satisfy the inquirer after facts, 
and there would be an administrative 
head who was ever alert, ever vigilant, 
and prepared not only to take advantage 
of offers made, but to go out and create 
opportunities and originate enterprises 
and undertakings which would help to 
swell the importance and promote the 



development of the city and section. 

Cities do not grow by chance. Every 
brick laid, every wheel turned, is the 
direct result of the efforts of a good 
many people. Development is the re- 
sult of persistent, deliberate, premedi- 
tated labor, and South as West, the 
greatest growth will now and always 
come to that community which by every 
means at its command puts before the 
country and keeps there the story of 
what it is itself doing, what there may 
yet be done, and what its desire is in 
the way of inducing the capitalist, the 
industrial worker and the homeseeker 
to sro and dwell within its gates. 



WESTERN INTEREST IN SOUTHERN GROWTH. 



The West and the Northwest, with a 
quick apprehension of advantageous 
conditions and an alertness of action 
characteristic of those sections, are evi- 
dencing a greatly increased interest in 
the commercial and industrial develop- 
ment of the South, and their newspapers 
are voicing the growing impatience of 
those sections with the failure of railway- 
lines to adequately grasp the situation. 
The commercial relations between the 
South and the West have for some time 
been increasing in importance yearly ; 
the growing States beyond the Missis- 
sippi have been large consumers of the 
South's surplus products of fruits, vege- 
tables, rice, sugar and tobacco, while the 
South has relied largely on the West 
for meats, provisions and grain. At- 
tracted by the advantages of great 
waterways, the valleys of the Ohio, the 
Missouri and the Mississippi have 
carried large portions of their export 
business through Southern ports, and 
with the added advantages of shorter 
rail routes to the seaboard, there is no 
natural reason why Southern ports 
should not today be handling a much 
vaster bulk of the export trade of the 
entire West and Northwest. The recent 
extensive immigration movement from 
those sections into the South has served 
to arouse the commercial interests there 
to the importance of securing the most 
favorable transportation arrangements 
with a section in which a great develop- 
ment is so imminent and so certain. 
The exposition at Atlanta this fall will 
advertise the changing conditions of the 
South as they have never been adver- 
tised before, and the commercial bodies 
of Cincinnati and Chicago, notably, have 
already grasped this opportunity to 
more closely cement the trade relations 
between those sections. The visit of the 
Commercial Club, of Cincinnati, to 
Atlanta in May was in this line, and now 
representatives of the entire business 



interests of Chicago propose to visit 
Adanta during October. The co-opera- 
tion of business men, representing over 
$400,000,000, has been secured, and it 
is proposed that the delegation to be 
selected shall be accompanied by the 
directory of the late Columbian Exposi- 
tion, all under escort of the First Regi- 
ment Infantry, Illinois State guard. It 
is proposed that this delegation shall 
meet at Atlanta similar delegations from 
all the Gulf States, with the idea of 
bringing the whole South into the closest 
possible trade relations with the com- 
mercial and industrial interests of 
Chicago. 

It is in connection with this movement 
that the Western and Northwestern 
newspapers have expressed emphatic 
opinions on the refusal or failure of 
most of the Western railroads to give 
favorable rates, schedules, and through 
train service between these sections and 
the South. In some cases there is a 
disposition on the part of railway man- 
agers to grasp the situation as men of 
forethought ought to see it, as witness 
the following expression from General 
Manager Stone, of the Chicago & East- 
ern lUinois Railroad, recently printed in 
the Chicago Times-Herald : 

"We are now especially interested in 
the movement to induce immigration of 
good citizens to the South. No hin- 
drance should be placed on that move- 
ment by the railroads themselves. They 
are as much interested as the people of 
the South in fostering the movement, 
and ought to see it is lor their interests 
to have as good service as can be had 
in any other direction. We have only 
begun to see the vast possibilities of 
trade between the Southeast and North- 
west. There is a better chance of en- 
largement between these two sections 
than between an}- other sections of the 
United States. Our interests are iden- 
tical with those of the people of the 



192 



WESTERN INTEREST IN SOUTHERN GROWTH. 



two sections. As far as the Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois is concerned, it will stop 
at nothing which will help the growing 
trade expand to its utmost limits." 

But of the general disposition on the 
part of the roads of the Northwest, the 
Times- Herald has much caustic com- 
ment to make. The Times-Herald, 
by the way, is not only one of the most 
influential of all the Western news- 
papers, but one which has continually 
shown its appreciation of the magnitude 
and importance of Southern develop- 
ment. In the course of a recent article 
on this subject the following appeared in 
its columns: 

"Southern sentiment has never been 
better crystalized than in the present de- 
termination to make the Atlanta exposi- 
tion second only to the World's Fair in 
magnificence and instructive features. 
Money has been expended with as lavish 
a hand comparatively as in Chicago to 
make the Atlanta exposition a monu- 
ment to the marvelous industrial pro- 
gress of the new South. Bound by a 
growing sentiment of brotherly love, 
and cemented by the fraternal handclasp 
over the confederate dead in Chicago, 
the South as a people wants nothing 
more than an enlargement of the trade 
relations which Southern roads have de- 
clared shall not exist between the South- 
east and the Northwest. It remains to 
be seen whether the Southern roads are 
strong enough to withstand the pressure 
which will be brought to bear to induce 
them to put the Southeast on a parity 
with the rest of the country in train 
service and freight rates from Chicago. 
Except the southerners themselves, the 
people of no other section are as much 
interested in the Atlanta exposition as 
those of Chicago and the Northwest. 
From no other section will there be a 
greater proportionate attendance. It is 
today absolutely the only section which 
does not have through car and train ser- 
vice with the Southeast, and the South- 
east is in turn absolutely the only sec- 
tion which does not have the same 
service from Chicago. To a very large 
extent the success of the exposition 
depends on the way in which railroads 
treat visitors. 
"There is absolutely nothing in the way 



of the full expansion of business relations 
between the two sections except the in- 
adequate train service and discriminating 
freight rates of the roads south of the 
Ohio. The Ciceronian cry of 'How 
long, Oh ! Catiline, will you continue to 
abuse our patience ?' might well be 
taken up by the Southern people and 
applied to their own railroads. In 
many respects their assurance is monu- 
mental. They are securing co-opera- 
tion of all connecting lines in an immi- 
gration plan which may finally result in 
taking thousands of people from the 
Northwest and transplanting them in 
the Southeast. Any plan which will im- 
prove conditions in any section of the 
country has laudable features, but there 
is a fatal objection to the success of the 
present plan. People of the Northwest, 
if they move to the South, will want to 
maintain close relations with their form- 
er friends. 

"With the present system of freight 
rates there can be no trade relations ex - 
cept with the strangers of the East. 
They must content themselves with the 
inferior product of the Eastern loom and 
machine. Except by letter, they will 
be as completely cut ofi' from their old 
friends as if the manufactured products 
of the Northwest were luxuries from a 
foreign country. They can get them if 
they wish, but they must pay extra for 
the privilege. Before the Southern rail- 
roads can get the godspeed of the North- 
west in their immigration plan they must 
establish an equitable basis of rates 
which will allow the manufacturers of 
the Northwest a fair field." 

It is, of course, manifestly true that 
business cannot be conducted largely on 
sentimental reasons, and that shippers 
will in the main adopt those routes 
which are most advantageous. The 
whole question of Southern rates is, 
therefore, one of the greatest interest to 
the South as well as to the West, and it 
is of the utmost importance to Southern 
commercial .development that an equita- 
ble adjustment of the matter be secured 
at the earliest day possible. With equal 
advantages of rates and schedules, a 
tremendous increase in the business 
turned into the South from the North- 
west would follow, for the advantage 



WESTERN INTEREST IN SOUTHERN GROWTH. 193 



would be by no means wholly on the 
side of the latter section. There are 
half a dozen seaboard points from which 
a greatly increased export trade would 
be done if their advantage of greater 
nearness to Western shipping points 
secured for them rates as favorable as 
are given on east bound roads. 

The agitation of this question is not 
confined to the newspapers alone, and it 
is to be hoped that the united efforts 
which are being made will result in the 
relief the situation requires. Protests 



against excessive freight charges between 
Chicago and the South have taken the 
form of a suit in court, the Interstate 
Commerce Commission is considering 
charges of a like nature, and recent 
charges by Georgia fruit-growers are 
likely to make another case for the Inter- 
State Commerce Commission. At the 
beginning of the most important devel- 
opment the South has ever seen, it will 
be well to have this matter of transpor- 
tation facilities settled early, and settled 
rieht. 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH. 

A Continuation of the Series of Letters from NortJiern anei Western 
Farmers and Business Men zvho have Settled in the Soiit/i. 



A Vermonter in Georgia. 

E. A. Hills, Tallapoosa, Ga. — Hail- 
ing from Old Vermont as my native 
State, I have nevertheless lived in other 
States as well, among them being Min- 
nesota and Iowa, but for an all-the-year 
climate for Northern people this section 
is without parallel ; I refer more particu- 
larly to Haralson county, Ga. I am 
located at Tallapoosa, which is situated 
about midway between Atlanta, Ga., on 
the east and Anniston, Ala., on the west, 
on the Georgia Pacific Division of the 
Southern Railway; our altitude is 1200 
feet, which insures perfectly healthy 
climatic conditions, and malaria is 
unknown. Pure, soft water in abun- 
dance is found here in springs and in 
wells at a depth of from thirty to fifty 
feet. Our winters are mild and our 
warmest summer days are tempered by 
a gentle and refreshing breeze ; the 
warmest day last summer (1894) was 
96° and the coldest last winter, which 
was unusually severe, was zero. Our 
summers are long and the coldest part 
of winter is of short duration. There 
are but few days during the year that a 
farmer cannot work on his place with 
comfort. Owing to these climatic con- 
ditions, it is very healthy, and many 



persons afflicted with bronchial troubles, 
catarrh, insomnia, nervous prostration, 
incipient consumption and kindred dis- 
orders are by a few months sojourn 
here, either cured or greatly benefited. 
Our city numbers between 2000 and 
3000 people, a large proportion of them 
coming from the North and West. 

We have a commodious brick school 
building and a fine graded school system, 
with an attendance of over 400 pupils. 
In addition to this we ha\'e numerous 
churches, electric lights, city water 
works and no saloons. 

Strangers coming here and conduct- 
ing themselves with propriety will al\va^•s 
find a cordial welcome. The Southern 
people are kind and hospitable, and if 
you use them well you will receive the 
same treatment in return. Many ques- 
tions are repeatedly asked regarding the 
outlook for a person to make a living 
here. To such of your readers I will 
say, if a man li\'ing elsewhere has a good 
lucrative business and his health t^ill 
admit of his remaining in his present 
location, he better remain there, but if a 
young man finds he is unable to with- 
stand the severe Northern winters and 
has a few hundred dollars with which to 
start himself as a tiller of the soil, he 



194 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH 



can make the change and start as 
cheaply here as anywhere and with 
good prospects of ultimate success. 

I do not advocate anyone coming to 
this or going to any new section without 
some capital, as success depends largely 
upon it, but a young man enjoying good 
health and having a little capital, can 
with economy in a short time become 
independent ; this, of course, cannot be 
accomplished without labor and perse- 
verance, as industry is one of the essen- 
tial features. 

We have seasonable rains throughout 
the summer, so that all crops do well if 
properly cared for. 

At this time much interest is mani- 
fested in the cultivation of grapes and 
fruit, over 2000 acres being already 
planted to grapes alone adjacent to this 
city. 

The South as a whole has a great and 
glorious future in store, and those who 
locate here now will find that they have 
decided wisely and well. Lands and 
city property in this immediate vicinity 
can now be purchased cheaper than in 
all probability they can be in the future. 

The entire North and West is at this 
time greatly agitated over the subject of 
coming Southward, and many are unde- 
cided where to locate. To such, will 
say I have lived here over one year and 
have tried to give your readers nothing 
but facts, and it is my conviction that it 
will pay them well to thoroughly inves- 
tigate this section of country. 

Southern Texas for Health and 
Prosperity. 

Charles Depew, Houston, Texas. — 
I first came to Texas about eighteen 
years ago, and am at present living 
here for the third time. A number of 
years since I went from San Antonio, 
this State, back to Pittsburg, Pa., to 
live. I soon had the grippe and con- 
gestion of the lungs. However, I stuck 
it out for another winter and endeavored 
to 4ceep my feet while suffering from 
another attack of the grippe, which I 
succeeded in doing until the latter part 
of winter, when I was stricken with 
partial paralysis affecting one side and 
my speech. As soon as I was able to 
travel I came here, and after a year got 



into pretty fair health. Today I am 
robust for a man in middle life, as may 
easily be inferred from the fact that I am 
able to shoulder unaided a 175-pound 
sack of mill feed and place it on a stack 
higher than my head. I state this as an 
encouraging evidence in favor of this 
climate to men who have not been 
addicted to severe manual labor — my 
own occupation having been in connec- 
tion with land matters, newspapers and 
iumigration — and I will further state 
that in the North I have a bronch'al 
cough for five months of winter ; here 
none. I know of no such thing as 
malaria in Texas, where people will 
drink water from deep wells or pail 
tank water, live on light mixed diet 
during the hot months and keep the 
pores of the skin open. I state this 
from years of knowledge through 
extensive travel and long residence in 
the State. 

Southern Texas produces everything 
grown in the United States anywhere to 
perfection, except apples and cherries. 
Oranges are not certain, yet where they 
have been planted many trees stood the 
ordeal as well as they did in Florida 
during the past winter. 

I agree with a recent writer in your 
magazine that persons of middle age 
who are well-to-do and in good health 
and are satisfied where they are had 
better stay in their frozen North or 
wherever they may be, as the attach- 
ment of old surroundings, customs, etc., 
are ground in the bone, so that even a 
paradise elsewhere as regards climate, 
range of productions, etc.^ proves little 
enticement. Old people are rarely cos- 
mopolitan ; their predjudices rule them. 
For those who are in broken health and 
have some money; for those who are 
young and energetic, who also must have 
some money, it is a matter of ease as it is a 
pleasure to me as well to prove that 
they can in one case rehabilitate their 
health, and in the other lay the road to 
competence better here than elsewhere 
in the United States. 

We grow everything on cheap land. 
We have fine artesian well water. We 
have fish, oysters, shrimp, green sea 
turtle and a great plenty of winged 
game, and in winter we sit under our 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH. 



195 



vines, breathe the perfumes of the cape 
jessamine and roses, Hsten to the twitter 
of the mocking bird as we bask in the 
sunshine, while they of the frozen North 
shiver by their firesides. This is no 
fanciful picture. It is true. You do 
not need much land to make a livino-. 
You save one-half on clothing and two- 
thirds on fuel. Your cattle grow fat 
largely from the natural grasses, little 
winter feeding is necessary, so you see 
the saving through this advantage there 
must be more than one-half again. The 
race to the South has set in. Land now 
is very cheap indeed. Often you pay 
for it three times over in two years. 
This portion of the South is virgin soil 
and responds to labor with prodigal 
returns. 

Don't come here if you have a trade, 
to work at it ; come here to buy land 
and thereby show your wisdom. Work- 
ing that land you show your manhood, 
and the result of your labor will witness 
your prosperity. 

No Place in the United States More 
Desirable. 

A Converse, Mentone Ala. — I will 
state in short my impressions of this 
country (DeKalb county, Alabama) 
after a residence of four months. With- 
out particularly describing the country, 
I will state that in my opinion, taken all- 
in-all, there is no place in the United 
States more desirable for a man with 
limited means in which to make a home 
than here in this country. We have 
pure air, good water, timber and buil- 
ding stone, with a reasonably produc- 
tive soil. Places of religious service, 
Sabbath schools and common schools, 
convenient in every neighborhood. 

Fruits and vegetables flourish in abun- 
dance wherever the hand of cultivation 
is tendered. In short, everything that 
is produced in the temperate zone is 
produced here. There are less snakes 
and insects to annoy here than in any 
other place where I have ever lived, and 
I have lived in five difiterent States in 
the North. 

I belong to the G. A. R., and meet 
in the post with veterans from almost 
every State, men who fought to pre- 
serve the Union and who now seek to 



strengthen its bonds by kind deeds, and I 
find these with the new-comers especially 
from the North, alike treated with that 
kindly consideration and hearty welcome 
usually extended in the West to the 
new-comers from the East. 

In short, as far as I have been able to 
discover, this is as peaceable, friendly 
and law-abiding section as I have any 
knowledge of In this, as in every 
other place where I am acquainted, there 
are those who want a change, and who, 
when the fit strikes them will sell for 
much less than the true value of their 
property, so that land is very cheap. 

Let no man who desires a home in a 
temperate, healthy and fruitful country, 
hesitate in coming to Alabama, for fear 
of persecution on account of his religious 
or political opinion. All shades of relig- 
ious opinions, and almost all sects of Pro- 
testant religion are found here. All the 
political parties of the United States 
have their advocates here. These meet 
and discuss these questions as friendly 
and as freely as in any part of the world. 
If by accident a copy of this letter 
should fall into the hands of the citizens 
of Vermont, Michigan, Illinois, Iowa or 
South Dakota, its signature might be 
recognized as that of a former fellow - 
citizen, and I would like to say to all in 
those States who have comfortable and 
pleasant homes there and are blessed 
with good health, stay where you are ; 
but to those with whom the climate does 
not agree, or whose home is mortgaged 
or who live upon rented farms, come to 
Alabama. 

His Politics and "Previous Condition" 
Not Inquired Into. 

E. W. King, Goldenrod, Wharton 
county, Texas. — For the benefit of your 
many readers I would like to testify as to 
the experience of one "Yank" more in 
Dixie. I came here four years ago from 
California, where I had resided fourteen 
years, having gone there in 1S76 from 
Oneida county. New "S'ork. I found 
here a genial people and climate, land 
very cheap and fertile. At the first 
election held after I had settled here I 
was elected a justice of the peace, an 
office I vet hold. I was appointed no- 
tary public, school trustee and I received 



ig6 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH. 



a unanimous petition for postmaster of 
Goldenrod.an office established recently. 
I received every vote for justice ; my 
politics, religion or previous condition, 
financially or otherwise, was not inquired 
into. 

What a Canadian Thinks of the South. 

W. J. Petrie, Falls, N. C— If you 
will allow me a brief space in your 
valuable publication I would like to say 
a few words for the South — her present 
indications and future possibilities. I 
do not think I will go very far wide of 
the mark when in all honesty and sin- 
cerity I make the assertion that the 
South is in almost every respect su- 
perior to any other section in the United 
States. She has natural advantages 
that are not to be found elsewhere, she 
has cold sparkling water, rich fruit and 
farming lands, fine facilities for manu- 
facturing purposes, inexhaustible sup- 
phes of the best timber, and mineral 
wealth that has never yet been devel- 
oped. Best of all, she has a climate 
not to be rivaled by any in the world. 

I am a native of Canada, and came 
here two years ago, and it affords me 
great pleasure to say that I am more 
than pleased with the South. I have 
found the people large hearted and 
most kind. Indeed I have never met 
with greater courtesy, and it has fallen 
to my lot to be in many different places. 
It has been a source of wonder to me 
many times during my two years' 
sojourn in the South why there were 
not greater numbers of people here 
from Canada and the Northern States, 
as I am fully persuaded that there can- 
not be a better place for farming on 
the face of the earth. One does meet 
numbers of people from the Northern 
States scattered here and there in the 
different sections, but not so many, I 
am sure, as there would be if they only 
knew the real facts concerning the 
South. Before coming here I was told 
that it was sickly. I have found it the 
very reverse of this, as I never enjoyed 
better health in my life, and have 
never felt more happy or thoroughly 
contented. When we came here Mrs. 
Petrie was almost an invalid, and now 
her health is better than it has been in 



years. If this fact alone does not 
speak well for the healthfulness of the 
section, then I am at a loss to know 
what would be a sufficient evidence. 

At an early date I expect to buy me 
a farm, and then I shall write some of 
my friends in Canada to come and see 
what the South can do in the way of 
producing two crops the same year. I be- 
lieve that the South has a grand future 
opening up for her in many ways — a 
future of which she is highly deserving. 
On every hand new interests are being 
awakened, new developments are being 
looked into, new enterprises put into 
operation, new thoughts, new plans are 
springing into existence, and new waters 
that have never before been touched by 
prow of ship are being steered into by 
strong hands and brave hearts. In 
fact, the new has obliterated the old, 
the great stage curtain has descended, 
and that which stands out in bold relief 
today is a New South, brave, daring, 
energetic and pulsing with life. She 
knows that her resources are great, and 
she is all eagerness to turn them to the 
best advantage. 

The people of the North should know 
more and hear more of the South. The 
truth is, they have heard much that was 
not true, and the real facts of the case 
are comparatively unknown to the great 
majority. 

An Ex=Army Officer's Enthusiasm Over 
North Carolina. 

A. M. Clark, Southern Pines, N. 
C. — While others are expressing their 
opinion of our favored land, its people, 
its climate, its natural advantages and 
wonderful resources, I wish to add my 
name as testimonial if nothing more, to 
my experience "down South." 

I have lived here in the midst of 
North Carolina people for the last nine 
years, and I have found them generous 
and honest in every particular, while 
their hospitality is unexcelled. The}' 
seem to feel that they cannot be too 
kind or too thoughtful to the "stranger 
who is within their gates." In truth, 
the newcomer does not long feel a 
stranger, but very soon settles down in 
his new home with the same satisfaction 
that he would feel in a locality in which 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH 



197 



he had lived all his life. One striking 
feature characteristic of the people is 
that while they are extremely kind they 
have that innate refinement which will 
not allow them to attend to the affairs 
of others, and no better class can be 
found I am sure in the United States. 

In regard' to my opinion of the 
present and future of our country, I am 
free to say that this part of North Caro- 
lina has made rapid strides in the way 
of improvement since I came here, and 
it has improved much more in the last 
two years than it did in the first seven 
of my stay. I feel confident that North 
Carolina and the South generally have 
a glorious future before them. How 
could it be otherwise with her broad 
acres stretching out laden with fruitage, 
which acres bring their owners large in- 
comes annually? It is to fruit culture 
that this section is most particularly 
adapted, as the frost does not retard its 
growth as in the sections either just 
North or farther South. I think I am 
safe in making the assertion that the 
wonderful resources of the Old North 
State will very soon be developed. She 
is fast awaking from her apparent sleep 



to strike with renewed energy. The 
land of the vine and flowers is the com- 
ing country. It is the country for the 
farmer, the fruit-raiser, the manufacturer, 
and indeed for almost every branch of 
industry. People do not go West now 
to be blown away by blizzards, but 
Southward, where indeed they have 
found it to their benefit to look, for here 
they find the best climate in the world, 
and undeveloped riches in abundance. 
I want to say that I am a Pennsyl- 
vanian, and that I love the Northland as 
my native home and love to speak of 
it with its grandeur and developed 
wealth, but I am glad to say that many 
of my friends from Pennsylvania are 
fast becoming acquainted with the facts 
herein stated, and in consequence 
thereof they are moving rapidly in this 
direction, where blizzards, frosts and 
floods are unknown in a damaging way, 
where water is good and land is cheap — 
where there are good schools, good 
churches, good neighbors — everything 
good that an American can wish for. 

"The war is over" and all welcome 
the "Yankee" here with us. 




THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



Southern States. 

RATED MONTHLY 
>TED TO THE SOI 

Published by the 

Manufacturers' Record Publishing Co. 

Manutacturers' Record Building, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

SUBSCRIPTION, = = = $1.50 a Year. 

WILLIAM H. EDMONDS, 

Editor and Manager. 

BALTIMORE, JULY, 1895. 

The SOUTHERN STATES is an exponent of the 
Immigration and Real Estate Interests and 
general advancement of the South, and a journal 
of accurate and comprehensive information 
about Southern resources and progress. 

Its purpose is to set forth accurately and 
conservatively from month to month the reasons 
why the South is, for the farmer, the settler, the 
home seeker, the investor, incomparably the 
most attractive section of this country. 



Competition in Immigration Work. 

It was recently reported that Hon. A. C. 

Frost of Mountain, Wis., a member of the 

State legislature, was interested with a 

number of other people in the proposed 

purchase of 800,000 acres of land in Florida 

for colonization purposes. In a letter to 

the Southern States magazine Mr. Frost 

says : 

"As to the colonization in Florida of 
800,000 acres of land, I have practically 
abandoned or given up the matter, one 
reason being that better inducements have 
been offered in Southern California than 
in Florida. I have a large experience in 
settling new countries. For the past ten 
years I have been engaged in that work." 

This is simply an illustration of what the 
South must meet in working for immi- 
gration. The entire Pacific Coast is bent 



on attracting all of the dissatisfied people 
of the Northwest and the North and is 
putting forth the most vigorous efforts to 
draw population that way. Moreover, the 
Northwestern States, seeing the tendency 
of population away from them, are now or. 
ganizing immigration associations and 
State bureaus for the purpose of carrying 
on a vigorous and comprehensive campaign 
to draw foreign population. The Gov- 
ernor of Wisconsin was recently in 
Baltimore and New York investigating 
the possibility of largely increasing the 
immigration to that State from Europe. 
As the South pushes out for immigration 
it will be met by the most active competi- 
tion of the Northwest trying to retain its 
own population and to draw from Europe, 
and of the Pacific Coast trying to draw 
from all sections. The people and the 
railroads of the South must be alive to the 
situation and push with the same untiring 
energy which is given by the Pacific Coast 
and the Northwestern States to this work. 

Tlie Tendency Southward of Great 
Railroad Operators. 

Mr. J. W. Reinhart, of New York, late 
president of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe Railroad, seeing that the South is to 
be the center of industrial and general 
business activity for the next quarter of a 
century, has organized the Chesapeake & 
Western Railroad to build a line across 
Virginia and West Virginia from tidewater 
on the east to river navigation at 
some point on the Kanawha or Ohio 
river on the West. The work of 
construction is being vigorously pushed 
by the Old Dommion Construction 
Co., of which Mr. E. C. Machen is presi- 



EDITORIAL. 



199 



dent. Mr. Reinhart's long experience in 
railroad affairs and his presidency of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, one of the 
largest systems of the world, will help to 
make him a great power in Southern rail- 
road matters. 

No better illustration of the Southward 
tendency of affairs could be given than 
the coming to this section of so many of 
the great railroad operators who helped to 
create the great Western empire. Mr. E. 
St. John, the noted manager of the Chicago 
& Rock Island, as our readers know, is 
now vice-president of the Seaboard Air 
Line. Mr. W. H. Baldwin, Jr., third vice- 
president of the Southern Railway Co., 
came South from a prominent position in 
the Western railway field. A number of 
others have lately done the same ; and 
now Mr. Reinhart, with all of his influence, 
gives himself to the upbuilding of the 
South. When such men as these, who 
are in a position to fully understand the 
relative advantages of every section, and 
are in a position to select for themselves, 
voluntarily abandon all else in order to 
turn their attention to the South, it is 
hardly necessary to say that thousands 
and even hundreds of thousands are sure 
to follow. This means greater advance- 
ment, more wealth created, more city 
growth and more agricultural prosperity 
than any other section has ever known. 

The American Eldorado. 

Some years ago the late Hon. Wm. D. 
Kelley, of Pennsylvania, generally known 
as "Pig Iron Kelley," because of his per- 
sistent fight for protection to the iron in- 
terests, made a careful study of the South. 
After his return he wrote a series of letters 
for the Manufacturers' Record, enthusi- 
astically praising the attractions of the 
South, its soil and climate and its mineral 
and timber resources. It is, he declared, 
"the coming Eldorado of American adven- 
ture." The same idea was expressed by 



Hon. Chauncey M. Depew in a speech de- 
livered at Nashville, June 18. In referring 
to the South and its great opportunities, 
Mr. Depew said : 

"Columbus sailed for America to find 
Eldorado with its fabulous riches, and De 
Soto explored the Mississippi to discover 
the_ fountain of youth. Eldorado and the 
spring of De Soto's aspirations are in the 
hills and mountains of Tennessee, Ala- 
bama, Kentucky, the Virginias, the Caro- 
linas and Georgia and on the plains of the 
southern belt of States. Every new vein 
of mineral treasure, be it coal, or iron, or 
lead, or silver, or gold ; every new factory 
and furnace which brings the gifts of na- 
ture closer to the service of man, are not 
the agencies of materialism, but the con- 
stituents of patriotism. Patriotism is par- 
alyzed by poverty, while it is fertilized by 
prosperity. The intelligent application of 
trained ability, public spirit and indomita- 
ble energy to the present and future of this 
territory of inexhaustible resources and 
magnificent opportunities will not only 
create happy and growing populations 
within the borders of Southern Common- 
wealths, but add enormously to the wealth 
and power of the United States. 

"The great opportunities of our country 
are in the South. The flood of immigra- 
tion which has been pouring into this 
country for fifty years has sought the 
West, the Northwest and the Pacific coast. 
In these Southern States we find, as no- 
where else in the country, the original 
stock which fought at Cowpens and King's 
Mountain and Yorktown. The composite 
of all races which has developed the con- 
tinent from the great lakes to the Pacific 
has set a standard of progress difiicult to 
surpass. They had the advantage of vir- 
gin soil and uninhabited regions in which 
to locate and build their Commonwealths 
and found their cities. The intelligent 
patriotism of the Southern people in the 
last quarter of a century has overcome 
difficulties which seemed insurmountable. 
A recognition of the assimilating and ele- 
vating power of education has created the 
New South with its hospitable invitation 
and boundless resources. The young men 
of the South have no call to tempt fortune 
in the crowded cities of the North or the 
East. At their doors and within their 
own States are their missions and their 
careers." 

Mr. Depew's statements are but a con- 
servative presentation of the magnificent 
possibilities of this favored land. In these 
Southern States, where every variety of 
climate and soil can be found, where 
nature has placed vaster mineral wealth 
than anywhere else on earth, where one- 



200 



EDITORIAL. 



half of all the standing timber in the 
United States is found, are concentrated 
possibilities for material advancement such 
as cannot be elsewhere in the world paral- 
leled. Because of these facts the South 
offers wonderful opportunities for outside 
people to come in "and possess the land." 

Diversified Farming in the South. 

An article recently published in a 

Western paper, seeking to discourage the 

diversification of agricultural interests in 

the South, says : 

"The big planters must continue to grow 
cotton, for there is no other crop which 
can take its place ; and their laborers, 
teams and tools must be employed. The 
small farmer and the tenant cannot quit it, 
for it is their sole reliance for cash. The 
prosperity of the South is thus bound up 
inextricably with the cotton interests, and 
must continue so for many years." 

It is difficult to conceive of a greater 
piece of stupidity than the writer of the 
foregoing statement has put forth. He 
seems to be unaware of the fact that the 
corn crop of the South alone exceeded in 
value last year the entire value of the 
cotton crop. The fact of the matter is, as 
important as cotton is, and as wonderful 
a wealth-producing crop as it is when all 
branches of this industry are concerned, 
the greatest agricultural progress of the 
South in the future is destined to be in 
diversified farming. All over the South 
fruit-growing, dairying and kindred inter- 
ests are making almost phenomenal 
progress. When Georgia ships, as it is 
doing this year, over 10,000 carloads of 
watermelons, with Texas and other States 
following as good seconds ; when thous- 
ands of carloads of peaches, grapes and 
other fruits are burdening Southern rail- 
roads and bringing to the growers large 
profits, it is rather amusing to see the 
effort of this Western paper to convince 
the world that the South can only raise 
cotton. The South will this year receive 
from the North and West at least 150,000,- 
000 in actual cash for its fruit and vegeta- 



ble crops, and it will be but a very short 
time before this will be doubled. What 
fruit-growing has been to California, it is 
now becoming to the South, and this 
industry will soon vastly exceed all that 
has ever been anticipated for California as 
a fruit-producing region. If there is any 
country in the world which is not confined 
to one crop it is the South. No other 
region under the sun has such a multi- 
plicity of advantages for diversified agri- 
culture, stretching from every line of 
production, from that of the tropical region 
to that of the temperate. 

A DISPATCH from Sacramento, Cal., 
says : "Fruit shippers in this section 
advise all growers not to make any ship- 
ments of peaches East this year, but 
instead to dry them and to sell to the 
best advantage to canners." The leading 
shipper here says ; 

"The refusal to handle peaches at 
Eastern markets is owing to the enor- 
mous crop in Georgia, Maryland, Dela- 
ware and New Jersey. Georgia peaches 
are now coming in in immense quantities 
and reach New York and Chicago in 
better condition than California peaches. 
Again, the freight from Georgia to Chicago 
is fifty-seven cents a hundred, while from 
California it is fi.25. These things make 
it almost impossible to ship peaches East 
at a profit, when there is a good crop in 
the Atlantic States, as there is this year." 

Such is the unfortunate condition in 

which the California fruit growers find 

themselves. Three thousand miles away 

from a market, there is not much chance 

of their competing with fruit growing in 

the South. Taking the central South, 

such as Georgia, Alabama and the Caro- 

linas, where fruit growing is making such 

rapid progress, and there is scarcely a 

point in these States that is not within 

twenty four hours' railroad travel of 

Chicago on one side and New York and 

Boston on the other. This gives about 

three-fourths of the population of the 

United States within a territory that can 

be supplied with fruit from the South. 



EDITORIAL. 



20I 



The advantage of this position can be 
readily appreciated.* 

In the article on "Booms West and 
South" in this issue, the sentence "In evi- 
dence of the ubiquity of the optimist 
when town lots are ripe," the printer 
changed "ubiquity" to "iniquity," but it 
was fortunately detected in the final proof. 
Still the printers's way of looking at it may 
be correct in the estimation of some peo- 
ple. That printer had probably invested 
in "ripe town lots." 

Mr. C. B. Howard, of the Flint River 
Hardware Co., of Clark's Mill, Ga., re- 
cently wrote a letter, which was published 
in the Southern States, pointing out 
some of the attractions of that section. 
Mr. Howard has been so overwhelmed with 
letters from other sections, that he attempts 
to reply to them through this issue of the 
Southern States. In writing to the 
editor, he says: 



"I think it would pay every Southern 
State to subscribe for a thousand copies 
of the Southern States and get you to 
distribute them where they would do the 
most good. I shall call the attention of 
the Georgia Legislature to the suggestion 
as a business move." 

Mr. Howard proves by this that he is 

unquestionably a very level-headed man. 

A recent shipment of 500 crates of 
Alexander peaches from the Cycloneta 
farm, on the Georgia Southern & Florida 
Railroad, sold at I5 per crate, each crate 
containing about three pecks. There are 
about 42,000 peach trees on this farm, and 
Mr. W. B. Sparks, of the Macon Construc- 
tion Co., which owns the property, has re- 
fused |i net per crate for the peaches as 
they hang on the trees. The crop on the 
Elberta peach farm in Houston county, on 
the line of the same road, has been sold 
for |;2o,ooo. This farm has about the 
same number of trees as the Cycloneta 
farm, and is also owned by Macon people. 




Immigration Notes. 



Looking for New Homes. 

Under the heading, "Looking for New 
Homes," the Kansas City Star gives an 
interesting account of the last harvest ex- 
cursion run by the Western roads to the 
South. The Star says : 

"Not since the days of the real estate 
boom has so much legitimate passenger 
traffic been handled at Kansas City. All 
of the trains from the East and North came 
in yesterday and this morning heavily 
loaded. Extra cars were attached to the 
trains, yet many of the passengers were 
compelled to stand in the aisles. The 
depot was crowded with people all day 
yesterday, and this morning there was not 
sufficient seats m all of the commodious 
waiting-rooms to accommodate the travel- 
ers waiting to take trains to the South. It 
looks like old times. We have not seen 
crowds such as we had yesterday and to- 
day for years, except possibly during the 
fall festivities. 

"The majority of the travelers are home- 
seekers from Illinois, Indiana, Iowa and 
Nebraska, on their way to Southwest Mis- 
souri, Texas and other Southern points. 
They are a prosperous and contented-look- 
ing class of people, and appear to have 
sufficient money to start themselves com- 
fortably in the new country they are seek- 
ing. The greatest immigration has been 
from Nebraska. The drouth in that State 
has caused many people to leave, and Mis- 
souri and other Southern States are reap- 
ing the advantage." 

This simply illustrates how rapidly peo- 
ple are beginning to move South. There 
is a great future for every attractive sec- 
tion of the South which will work to secure 
a fair share of this population. Every 
locality in the South should be at work 
seeking to make known its attractions and 
to draw to it some of these thousands who 
are coming from the Northwest. The 
Southern States is in constant receipt 
of letters asking for information as to the 



most desirable localities for settlers, for 
investment purposes and for fruit and 
truck growing. Those who want to reach 
the great Northwest, from which so many 
thousands are coming, can do so through 
the Southern States better than in any 
other possible way. 

Buying Land for Colonization. 

Mr. James W. Tufts, of Boston, who has 
purchased 5000 acres of land near Southern 
Pines, N. C, for colonization purposes, 
writes to the Southern States that 
this land was purchased with a view 
to establishing modest, well-built, winter 
homes, as well as permanent homes for 
persons of moderate means. Mr. Tufts 
expects to have furnished houses, which 
he thinks can be profitably rented at such 
prices as will attract desirable tenants, and 
in connection with this he will clear land 
for vineyards or orchards, which can be 
sold or rented to settlers. The land is 
now being surveyed, and bids are being 
invited for forty or fifty houses to be ready 
for occupancy this winter. 

Wants to Come South. 

Mr. Frank S. Morey, proprietor Western 
Kansas Nursery, Ne$s City, Kansas, writes 
to the Southern States: "I have been 
trying for some time to move some families 
to the South, but it is a difficult matter to 
decide where to go. I am most favorably 
impressed with Eastern Tennessee and 
Central and Western North Carolina, and 
wish information about them." 

"A Land of Pure Delight." 

Major G. W. McGinniss, of the Land 
Department of the Yazoo & Mississippi 
Valley Railway Co., in an interesting in- 
terview in the Memphis Appeal Avalanche, 
gives many facts regarding the success of 
the colonists who have settled along the 
line of this road. Most of these people 
have come from Ohio, Indiana, Illinois 
Michigan, Iowa, Nebraska and Dakota. 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



203 



They are planting a diversity of crops, 
consisting of corn, wiieat, oats, potatoes, 
clover and other grasses. Very few of 
them are giving their attention to cotton. 
In reply to a question as to whether he 
found any trouble growing out of former 
political conditions in inducing people to 
come South, Mr. McGinniss said : 

"No. Of all the revelations that this oc- 
cupation has made to me, this has been 
the most surprising of all. I had supposed 
that there existed in the North a consider- 
able amount of political feeling against 
the South, and when I went away to en- 
gage in this business I supposed that that 
question would more often be pressed and 
urged upon me than any other. But now, 
after six months of continual travel from 
place to place and association with people, 
I am glad to say that in all that time and 
among all those people there has been but 
one man that offered that as a reason why 
Northern people ought not and should not 
come South to make their homes, and any 
idea that I ever had that such a feeling ex- 
isted in the hearts of the people of the 
North is entirely gone. Among my staunch 
friends and supporters in my work every- 
where have been the old Federal soldiers 
that are, to a man, filled with kindness 
and affection for this country and this 
people. 

Referring to the magnitudeof this south- 
ward movement of population Mr. Mc- 
Ginniss added: 

"The whole North is filled with the idea 
that the future lies in the South. Chauncey 
Depew, in his address to the graduating 
class at Vanderbilt University a few days 
ago expressed the opinion of the North 
when he said that the opportunities of the 
present generation lay in the South. The 
newspapers of the North are everywhere 
filled with like sentiments. The people 
up North seem to feel that it is a service 
they are doing humanity, to make known 
the advantages of this country to man- 
kind. The movement is now young, but 
the North and Northwest are practically 
out of the question. The tide of immigra- 
tion is turned from that direction and is 
and will continue to flow Southward with 
constantly increasing momentum. Whole 
districts in the Dakotas and Nebraska and 
some parts of Iowa would be deserted if 
the impoverished people now occupying 



them had the means with which to get 
away. They have been swept by storms, 
burned by droughts and eaten up by 
grasshoppers, scorched with hot winds 
and devastated by cyclones so that 
the lives of the people there are con- 
sidered hopeless. Now that those people 
know that there is a land where storms 
and cyclones and drouth and frost and 
grasshoppers do not visit, they will come, 
and in view of the fact that people there 
have suffered such manifold misfortunes, 
the great tide that has been for years flow- 
ing from the Eastern and Middle States 
will no longer flow in that direction but 
will find its way to sunny Dixie, from 
whence no call ever went for bread or fuel, 
or seed, and where, instead of drouth, the 
average rainfall has been 54.20 inches per 
year for twenty-two years. 

"Where January is the coldest month of 
the year, with an average temperature of 
thirty-seven degrees, or five degress above 
the freezing point, and August the warmest 
month, with eighty-one degrees; where 
men can work out of doors the year round, 
and not freeze with the cold or die with 
the heat, nor perish by the blizzard." The 
colonel walked away humming "There Is 
a Land of Pure Delight." 

What the Illinois Central Is Doing. 

In a recent interview Mr. George C. 
Power, Industrial Commissioner of the 
Illinois Central Raitroad, said: 

"Two years ago the Illinois Central con- 
ceived the idea of making an effort to in- 
duce immigration direct from foreign 
countries, and so had published, in six 
languages, comprehensive pamphlets, tell- 
ing of the Yazoo and Mississippi valley 
lands, and giving a general description of 
the country. Agents were placed in 
England, Germany, France, Flanders, 
Norway and Sweden, each supplied with 
abundant descriptive matter concerning 
the South. As a result of this move on 
the part of the Illinois Central over 100 
families have come direct from these coun- 
tries and settled in the South. There is 
one Flemish colony at Marigold, La., a 
Swedish colony at Woodville, and there 
are many families settled elsewhere. 

"Heretofore," said Mr, Power, "on ac- 
count of the activity manifested by the 
people and the railroads of the Northwest 



204 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



these foreigners, immediately upon their 
arrival at Castle Garden, have been en- 
ticed off to the Northwest, and the South 
has made very little effort to get them. 
The Illinois Central, however, has begun 
this business, and the prospects are that 
we will have hundreds of colonies coming 
South during the next few months. The 
Illinois Central not only has men placed 
in Europe, but in New York, and at the 
landing places in this country agents of 
the company are on hand and assist the 
strangers in getting the run of the country. 
This movement on the part of the Illinois 
Central promises to assume very large 
proportions, as the people of Europe, not 
accustomed to such inducements as are 
being offered them, are taking advantage 
of the opportunity to get homes in a new 
country. 

"In the Northwest there are thousands 
of the most disgusted foreigners you ever 
saw. They were induced to settle there, 
and have for two years in succession had 
crop failures, which have very much dis- 
couraged them. If there is another fail- 
ure in the crops West, as there now seems 
every prospect, the South will have 
emptied into it thousands of these deluded 
foreigners, who will get out of the North 
at any cost. They are even now turning 
their eyes towards the South and many of 
them are making their arrangements to 
come as soon as possible. 

"Mr. Power says that the West has been 
contributing large sums of money to be 
used for the purpose of inducing these 
people there, and if the South would take 
a similar step it would be of great ad- 
vantage. As it is, the Illinois Central is 
undertaking the enterprise without any 
outside assistance." 

Henrv Martin from Leona, Kansas, 
representing twenty families has been seek- 
ing Southern location for the colony, and 
has decided to locate them at Gillett. Ark. 
Mr. T. H. Leslie, of Gillett, has been in- 
strumental in attracting them to that sec- 
tion. 

Hollanders Looking South. 

Mr. J. F. Beijsens, of Rotterdam, Hol- 
land, an agent of an association which 
proposes to locate about 5000 Hollanders 
in this country, has been investigating in 
Maryland and other States with a view to 



finding a tract of about 30,000 acres of land 
suitable for the needs of the proposed 
colony. Mr. Beijsens has been through 
the West, but finding nothing that met his 
views in that section and prefering the 
Eastern country, is looking through Mary- 
land and adjoining States. 

The Soldiers' Colony. 

The Soldiers' Colony, composed of about 
10,000 families, which is to be located in 
Georgia through the combined work of 
ex-Governor Northen, of Atlanta, and Mr. 
P. H. Fitzgerald, of Indianapolis, is now 
arranging to close up the purchase of 
113,000 acres of land in South Georgia. 
The first payment on this land will, the 
Southern States is informed, be made 
during the present month. As recently 
stated in the Southern States, only 
about one-third of the families who are 
members of the proposed colony are 
Grand Army people. This colony, origi- 
nally projected in the interest of Grand 
Army men, has broadened out to include 
all classes and is composed of many active, 
progressive young men from all the West- 
ern and Northwestern States. It is one of 
the greatest colonization movements ever 
made in this country. 

Mr. J. L. Girton, of Winchester, Tenn., 
writes to the Southern States that the 
Tennessee Land, Mining & Railway Co., 
has been organized as a mutual co-opera- 
tive colony enterprise. Land will be sold 
to colonists in five, ten and twenty-acre 
lots. The level table lands on the mount- 
ains are to be devoted entirely to fruit aud 
vegetables, and to gardening purposes. 
It is intended that the fruit and vegetables 
shall not be shipped away, but canned or 
evaporated on the spot. It is also pro- 
posed that a special department of colony 
work shall be given to raising garden and 
flower seeds for sale. As the company 
has large tracts of coal land, it is intended 
that coal mining shall furnish a part 
of the operations of the company. 
Mr. Girton states that the com- 
pany has upwards of 100,000 acres of 
land, on which there are vast tracts of 
fine timber, and that this will also be 
developed by members of the colony. It 
is the intention of those having the matter 
in charge to bind the colonists to the full 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



205 



utilization of all the raw material within the 
boundaries of the property, in order that no 
raw material shall be shipped away, but that 
everything shall be manufactured or de- 
veloped by the settlers themselves. In 
his letter he adds : "People who favor free 
schools and churches are invited. No 
drones, speculators or saloonkeepers need 
apply. We do not want them, neither 
will we have them." If this company can 
carry out all that Mr. Girton has outlined 
it will be a novel undertaking. 

The North Alabama Industrial & Colo- 
nization Co., of Gadsden, Ala., anticipates 
having a number of people from South 
Dakota and Ohio in Gadsden during July. 
Two different colonies are being formed, 
and there is a probability of some purchases 
being made by these people. 

Arrangements are being made by a 
Scandinavian immigration agent to take 
about sixty families from South Dakota to 
some point near Beeville, Texas. A num- 
ber of Norwegian prospectors from South 
Minnesota have also been in that section 
looking for locations. 

The eighteenth monthly excursion given 
by the Immigration Department of the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad took to 
Norfolk twenty Western farmers from 
Michigan, Indiana and Canada prospecting 
for homes. These people were met by a 
dozen or more recent settlers who had 
come from the West and were shown the 
attractions of the country surrounding 
Norfolk. 

Messrs. Manly & Hussey, of Rich- 
mond, Ind., are looking for a good 
healthy location at which to establish 
a colony of about 100 families. Messrs. 
Manly & Hussey say that these people 
have means to locate and to improve each 
a 100 or 200 acre farm. They want to be 
on the line of railroad and where good 
water is abundant. 

Two hundred German farmers living in 
Cullman county, Ala., have sent a lengthy 
letter addressed to farmers in the North- 
west and West, giving a description of 
Alabama and urging the desirability of 
German immigration to that State. The 
German settlers in Cullman county have 
been notedly successful, and their pros- 



perity causes them to desire that their fel- 
low countrymen should come to the same 
favored land; 

Mr. Marion A. Fell, of Garner, Iowa, 
has purchased 4000 acres of land near 
Orange, Texas, and expects to settle this 
property with about 1000 people from Iowa. 
Mr. Fell expects to sell the land in five- 
acre tracts, and to every purchaser who 
will plant five acres in peaches, pears, 
plums and other fruits he will, it is said, 
give five acres more free. Surveyors are 
at work laying out the property, and active 
development is expected. 

The Birmingham Commercial Club re- 
cently passed a resolution suggesting that 
Hon. H. D. Lane, Commissioner of Agri- 
culture for the State, should be well pro- 
vided with suitable advertising matter and 
literature setting forth the advantages of 
Alabama, and then furnished a sufficient 
number of assistants to warrant a thorough 
canvass of the North and West, including 
Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey 
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, 
in behalf of bringing settlers to Alabama. 
The Commercial Club also urged that the 
Governor of Alabama be requested to 
issue a public invitation to homeseekers 
and manufacturers to be distributed by 
Mr. Lane and his associates, extending a 
hearty welcome to all good and worthy 
citizens "to come to Alabama and aid in 
the development of the endless resources 
of that State." 

The Alvin, Texas, Democrat reports 
that a number of Hollanders from Michi- 
gan, Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota, and 
Kansas, have purchased from the Texas 
Colonization Co., of Omaha, Neb., an ag- 
gregate of 3440 acres made up of indi- 
vidual purchases running from eighty to 
640 acres each. All of these people ex- 
cept one are practical farmers. 

Mr. W. J. French, of Iowa, has recently 
been in Fort Worth working up immigra- 
tion matters, and in an interview stated 
that it is surprising to one unacquainted 
with the conditions to note what an in- 
terest is manifested in Iowa in regard to 
Texas. Mr. French said: "A couple of 
months ago I brought down several good 
substantial Danish farmers. They came 
here expecting to see a country inferior in 



2o6 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



resources to Iowa, but after spending a 
week traveling over Texas they went 
home convinced that there was no land in 
Iowa that would compare in productive- 
ness with what they had seen in Texas. 
As a result of their reports a heavy exodus 
of Danes, as well as many others, is ex- 
pected from their locality in Iowa." 

Hon. W. J. NoRTHEN, of Atlanta, in- 
forms the Southern States that he is 
now negotiating with a colony of 2500 or 
more Ohio people, They require for their 
purposes a water-power of from 4000 to 
5000 horse-power and adjacent to and 
immediately surrounding it from 20,000 to 
30,000 acres of land for the building of a 
town and for farm purposes. 

Messrs. Jos. Stover, S. A. and R. A. 
Stuckey, of Wichita, Kan., have been in 
Gillett, Ark., recently looking around 
with a view to investment or settlement. 
Several homeseekers from Kansas, Iowa 
and Nebraska have also been in the same 
locality. Mr. J. H. Sego, of Sioux City, 
la., is reported as investing in land near 
Gillett. 

Messrs. Livingstone & Sheen, of 
West Palm Beach, Fla , have sold 700 acres 
of land to J. H. Jones, of Providence, R. 
I., Fraud Kidder, of Des Moines, la., Paul 



Jacobs, of Brooklyn, N. Y., and others. 
This land will be cut up into five-acre lots, 
all of which will have a v.ater frontage, 
some on the canal and others on New- 
river. Efforts will be made to colonize 
the property at once and to encourage the 
cultivation of vegetables. 

The West Granby Street Land Company 
has been incorporated at Norfolk, Va., with 
a capital stock of |io,ooo. The amount of 
real estate held shall not be more than 5000 
acres. The officers for the first year are 
M. L. T. Davis, president; N. Beaman, 
treasurer; T. S. Southgate, secretary. The 
above officers, with Alfred Von Nyven- 
heim, R. P. Waller, L Clay Kilby and 
John Turner, compose the board of direc- 
tors. 

Mr. W. C. Damon and Mr. Jewett 
Allen have purchased over 1000 acres of 
Valley river lands in Cherokee county, N. 
C, and will colonize the property this 
summer with a high-class of Scandinavian 
immigrants. This region, as is generally 
known to the readers of the Southern 
States, is one of the most picturesque 
and fertile in the mountain district of 
North Carolina. It is an extremely de- 
sirable section for Scandinavians, many of 
whom have been accustomed to a mount- 
ainous country in their old homes. 



REAL Estate Notes. 



Wants Big Tract of Land. 

The Southern States magazine is in 
receipt of an inquiry for a tract of land of 
from 300,000 to 500,000 acres suitable for 
colonization, on which an option can be 
obtained for purchase at a reasonable price 
after investigation. 

Increasing Demand for Southern Farm 
Lands. 

One of the most noticeable features of 
the business interests of the country is the 
purchase of land in the South for coloniza- 
tion purposes. Almost every day brings a 
report of some new transaction of this 
character. Sales are being made in tracts 
of from 1000 acres up, and in one case to 
100,000 acres, while prospective purchasers 
are now looking for from 300,000 to 500,000 
acres in one tract. These sales are mainly 
to Northern and Western men who have 
for years made a business of colonization 
work. They have established connections 
throughout this country and Europe for 
securing settlers, and are now preparing 
to turn to Southern emigration work the 
"plant," if it may be so called, of experi- 
ence and influence gained by many years 
of an active part in the settlement of the 
West. Many of the railroad officials and 
the private individuals who made the most 
noted successes in the Northwest are now 
operating in the South or preparing to 
come to this section. These men are buy- 
ing tracts of land at moderate prices and 
cutting them up into small farms, and are 
now getting ready to bring colonies of 
from half a dozen families to a hundred or 
more. In some cases the work is being 
carried out on a much more extensive 
scale. During the last thirty days the sales 
of land for such purposes have aggregated 
probably nearly 100,000 acres, not includ- 
ing any of the deals previously mentioned. 
The effect of such a movement as this 
upon Southern farm values can readily be 



appreciated. The immigration of thousands 
and tens of thousands of settlers within 
the next year or two must necessarily have 
a marked influence upon all Southern in- 
terests. 

Want Southern Land. 

Messrs. Manley & Hussey, of Richmond, 
Ind., in a letter to the Southern States, 
say: 

"We are making a careful investigation 
of all the information we can get concern- 
ing good locations in the South for a 
colony of not less than 100 families. So 
far we are most favorable to Georgia, 
West Florida, Tennessee and Southeast 
Texas. We want from 30,000 to 40,000 
acres in one body, which must be good 
land for grain and fruit, and in a healthy 
locality with railroad facilities. We wish 
to make selection by September ist so as 
to move this fall. As soon as we find the 
right place we will close the deal and take 
possession of the property." 

Buying Florida Land. 

A dispatch from Orlando, Fla., states 
that Mr. Willis W. Russell, of Cincinnati, 
has purchased an aggregate of 112,000 
acres of Florida land. Of this land the 
expert's report shows that about 78,000 
acres is muck land, most of the remainder 
being pine land of fair quality. This land 
is located between the Indian river and the 
head of the St. John's. It is anticipated 
that the property will be opened up by tiie 
construction of a canal from the sawgrass 
or muck lands eastward to the Sebastian. 

An Iowa Colony for Louisiana. 

Mr. Marion A. Fell, operator in real 
estate. Garner, Iowa, in a letter to the 
Southern States, says : 

"I have purchased 5000 acres of land in 
Calcasieu county, La., on the line between 
that State and Texas, to be colonized with 



207 



208 



REAL ESTATE NOTES. 



fruit growers. As soon as the fruit indus- 
try is developed enough to warrant it, an 
extensive canning factory will be erected 
on the ground. We have begun opera- 
tions by clearing land and building houses, 
which will be sold to small fruit growers 
or farmers on the instalment plan, by their 
making a small payment down, or will be 
leased to them on condition that they raise 
a certain amount of fruits each year, to be 
sold at the market price to the canning 
company." 

Theory of the Boom. 

A writer in the U. S. Investor, of Boston, 
in discussing real estate booms, presents 
some new arguments in favor of the boom 
and the legitimate boomer. He says: 

"Nothing could be of more importance 
to real estate men than a correct knowl- 
edge of the philosophy of booms. The 
world is wont to regard them as epheme- 
ral phenomena, a mere extravagance, 
usually disastrous in the long run to nearly 
everybody concerned with them. On the 
contrary, I am of the opinion that a wide- 
spread and persistent boom town epidemic 
is an infallible symptom of enormous 
natural wealth, peculiar commercial ad- 
vantages, and extensive possibilities in the 
direction of industrial development. 

"No one ever heard of a poor country 
having a boom, a country destitute of 
natural advantages or but moderately 
possessed of them. After the war the 
enormous energies of the North, energies 
which had been evolved by the great 
struggle, poured into the undeveloped 
West, and there ensued what might be 
called a new discovery of its incalculable 
wealth. The result was that men went 
wild over the unimagined, the boundless 
possibilities of growth and increment, 
which, in the succeeding twenty-five years, 
nearly doubled the wealth and population 
of the country. 

"Froni this excess of enthusiasm arose 
the boom. Men clearly saw the vision of 
coming empire, and rushed on to the in- 
toxicating realization of wealth and power, 
impatient of the slower operation of those 
natural laws which govern the march of 
all human events. 

"The South has in more recent years 
been simply repeating the histouy of the 
West, and its town booms are a sure sign 



that in ways quite as numerous and im- 
portant as the West could ever boast, 
nature has endowed her picturesque hills, 
her sublime mountains and beautiful val- 
leys with inexhaustible treasures and 
splendid possibilities which will eventuate 
in results fully as remarkable as those 
which have transformed the Mississippi 
valley into a paradise. 

"The boom, especially this feature which 
takes the form of new town development, 
may be wild and extravagant, may for the 
time being strew the country with dis- 
asters, may give opportunity to unscrupu- 
lous adventurers, but at the same time it 
articulates an instinctive consciousness of 
the potentialities of the section to which it 
belongs. And the section thus bountifully 
blessed must be a wide one as well as a 
very rich one, else the boom would never 
germinate. 

"This instictive persuasion of an extra- 
ordinary natural endowment, whether of 
mineral wealth, or of soil, or of climate, 
or of geographical position, or of a combi- 
nation of these advantages, and the great 
future which they imply, gradually takes 
possession of a whole people, and accumu- 
lates in them for years like electricity in a 
storage battery, or in a cloud, until finally, 
some bold spirit, breaking away from 
time-worn conventionalities and hoary 
conservatisms, some courageous Franklin 
bent on untried and perhaps perilous ad- 
venture, furnishes the crude conductor, 
and immediately the pent-up energies of a 
generation flash forth in astounding mani- 
festations. 

"Through lack of knowledge and exper- 
ience the first energy is often largely 
wasted, but its sources remain intact, and 
after recovery from the initial misdirection, 
with its inevitable disasters, it will pour 
forth in well-appointed channels and ac- 
complish all the ends of enlightened 
progress and advancing civilization, creat- 
ing new worlds within this wonderful old 
one, building a home for new nations, and 
opening wide the doors of a new era. 

"The men who organized these initial 
industrial movements in the West and 
South are really the greatest benefactors 
the country has ever had, and they do not 
receive the credit which is justly due them. 
They have blazed the way into a new world . 
Their own life blood often marks the road. 



REAL ESTATE NOTES. 



209 



They fall and are forgotten. But despite 
all the appearance of failure, their hands 
have planted the beginnings of that great 
industrial development which has made our 
country the wonder of two hemispheres. 

"I draw a distinction, however, between 
the true pioneer and the professional 
boomer. The latter is of little or no value. 
The former is priceless. A moment's 
thought will show the difference. Your 
boomer is a vampire, and when he can 
suck no more he will take wing in search 
of other victims. On the contrary, your 
pioneer will fight out the long battle of 
adversity like a hero, with far more cour- 
age and persistence, with more of the 
heroic instinct than the soldier possesses 
who, under the wild impulse of battle, 
charges for a few brief moments to the 
cannon's mouth or the bristling redoubt. 

"If our premises are correct, it is the 
part of wisdom to take note of that sec- 
tion which has had a big boom, no matter 
how ugly the subsequent collapse may 
have been. It is certain to rise again, and 
the fortunate man will be the owner of the 
properties or the favorite of the opportu- 
nities which this second, this reactionary 
growth will develop. The most promising 
section of the whole country is that which 
has had the latest and the biggest boom." 

Capt. p. S. Jones, Western immigration 
agent of the Louisville & Nashville Rail- 
road, has recently effected the sale of 8000 
acres of land in Shilton county, Ala., and 
since then in connection with Mr. W; H. 
Merritt, of Clanton, Ala., has sold addi- 
tional property, bringing the total acreage 
sold up to 20,000 acres. It is intended to 
lay this property off in farm lots and colo- 
nize it with Northwestern farmers — four or 
five hundred families being expected to 
locate here in the early future. 

Mr. J. W. EcKFORD, real estate agent, 
Aberdeen, Miss., in a letter to the South- 
ern States says : 

"Thousands of Western men have been 
attracted to this immediate section of Mis- 
sissippi. It is estimated that they have 
bought about 20,000 acres in the past twelve 
months in this county (Monroe) and price 
paid estimated at from I2.50 to %-2.o per 
acre. We have all kinds of soil here from 
black prairie to sandy with clay founda- 
tion." 



The Bay St. Louis Land & Improvement 
Co. has recently been organized at Bay St 
Louis, La. This company has purchased 
700 acres of land on the Louisville & 
Nashville road. The property will be 
divided up into small tracts of about two 
and a-quarter-acre lots, with streets at 
regular distances, intersected by avenues 
forty feet wide. All lots will be in easy 
access of the railroad and within about 
ten minutes' drive to the nearest station. 

Col. James B. Merrill, of Edwards- 
ville, Ala., and Mr. R. L. Spencer, of 
Tallapoosa, Ga., and others have recently 
established the town of Fruithurst in 
Cleburne county, Ala. The Alabama 
Fruit-Growing & Winery Association, 
composed of these gentlemen, has pur- 
chased 20,000 acres of land in that section, 
500 of which have been laid off for the town 
and the remainder divided into five and 
ten acre tracts to be sold for vineyards. 
The company has already set to vines and 
fruits, 350 acres, and expects to have 2500 
acres set out by another winter. It is pro- 
posed to run a monthly excursion from the 
Northwest, starting from Chicago. A fifty- 
room hotel called the Fruithurst Inn is 
now being constructed, and there is said 
to be considerable activity in the building 
of dwelling houses. The managers of this 
enterprise are reported as having in view 
the purchase of at least 100,000 acres of 
additional land to be developed for fruit 
growing. 

Mr. J. H. Paschal, of the Forest City 
Land Company of Arkansas, which owns 
40,000 acres of land in Arkansas and 
Louisiana, has recently received several 
offers for a portion of it, and has had one 
offer from Colorado for the entire tract at 
1:3.50 per acre, or about 140,000 ; whereas 
the original cost was I1.25. 

Mr. a. T. Stewart, a real estate agent, 
Ream's Station, Dinwiddle county, Va., 
writes the Southern States that he has 
received a request from some Cleveland 
people to secure for them 10,000 acres of 
land in one tract for the purpose of estab- 
lishing a colony from Ohio, Indiana and 
Michigan. The prospective buyers, he 
says, are wealthy and will pay cash for the 
land. 



General Notes. 



Village Farms and Colony Development. 

In an editorial in the June number of the 
Southern States there was a brief men- 
tion of the village farm system of Utah. 
The power and the advantages of this 
system are described in an interesting 
article entitled "The Conquest of Arid 
America," by William E. Smythe, in the 
June Century. The purpose of the article 
is to show what can be accomplished in 
the arid regions of the West by irrigation. 
The results claimed are possible in the 
South without irrigation, and the South 
may with profit study the theories and 
methods that have prevailed in the devel- 
opment of these areas of reclaimed 
desert. The following is condensed from 
the Century article : 

"The experience of the people of Utah 
over a period of more than forty years fur- 
nishes the best available light for the 
problems of the arid region as a whole. 
This is due to a combination of important 
circumstances. First, it is not the exper- 
ience of a few individuals, or of a single 
colony, but of a whole people. Further. 
more, it is not limited to agriculture, but 
illustrates in a much larger way the devel- 
opment of a commonwealth. 

"On July 14, 1847, President Young and 
his fellow-pioneers passed through the 
picturesque outlet of Emigration Canon 
into the valley of the Great Salt Lake. 
Utah was then Mexican soil, and the leader 
believed he could found whatever charac- 
ter of institutions should suit him and his 
people. 

"He knew that his power, to be endur- 
ing, must rest upon something material 
and tangible ; and this something he dis- 
cerned to be the prosperity of the people 
themselves. Brigham Young was an or- 
ganizer of prosperity. This was the real 
source of his strength. He did not aim at 
mere temporary prosperity. On the con- 
trary, he fought everything that tended to 



that end, going to the length of actually 
forbidding the opening of the rich mines 
in the mountains near at hand, because he 
abhorred the spirit of speculation. He 
chose for the corner-stone of his State the 
principle of industrialism ; and that princi- 
ple lies there yet, at the base of a noble 
edifice of economic fact, reared by human 
toil, and held firmly in place by the aver- 
age prosperity of all who had part in its 
building. 

"The most important principle of his 
commonwealth, was the division of land 
into small holdings. Closely related to 
this is the other twin factor in Mormon 
prosperity — the diversification of farm 
products to the last degree. 

"Brigham Young taught the people that 
no man should own more land than he 
could cultivate to its highest point by his 
own and his family's labor, and that no 
man should go to a store for any article of 
food or clothing that could be profitably 
produced on his own small farm. 

"And here is the first great lesson which 
the Mormon people can teach to the world. 
The time has come when the world is will- 
ing to listen eagerly to the man or people 
who can demonstrate how it is possible 
for an indefinite number to gain a generous 
living by honest labor, not as servants, but 
as masters. Employment, however good 
the wages and certain the tenure, is in its 
last analysis a form of servitude. Pro- 
prietorship, however severe the original 
hardships and however prolonged the 
struggle, is sovereignty. The hired presi- 
dent of the greatest railroad system is a 
servant. The proprietor of twenty un- 
mortgaged acres, planned with a view to 
the production of nearly all that is con- 
sumed, and insured against failure by the 
irrigation canal, is a sovereign. He real- 
izes independence in its best and truest 
sense ; for industrial independence comes 
nearer to the hearthstone of every man 



GENERAL NOTES. 



who loves his family than does indepen- 
dence of pope and king. 

"What are the financial results of this 
policy of home industry, beginning with 
the small diversified farm and leading up 
to stores, factories and banks ? The policy 
has been in force for more than forty years. 
This is long enough for a fair test of the 
princiole. 

EXPENDITURES OF THE MORMON CHURCH. 

"At the writer's request, Mr. A. Milton 
Musser, historian of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints, has made for 
the benefit of the readers of The Century 
a careful calculation. It should be under- 
stood that whatever the Mormon people 
possess came primarily from the soil. 
They had virtually no capital to begin on. 
As a rule, their recruits were drawn from 
classes very poor in worldly goods. They 
toiled across the plains and mountains 
with incredible hardihood and persistence. 
Arriving in Utah, they found themselves 
face to face with the untried conditions 
of the virgin desert. They had no assets 
except their labor and their leader. Every 
expenditure of the last forty years, for all 
classes of improvements, from the first 
shanty to the last turret of the last temple, 
came from the soil. So also the capital for 
stores, factories and banks, and for the 
bands of missionaires who have gone to 
the uttermost parts of the earth. Nothing 
was won by speculation on borrowed capi- 
tal. All is the fruit of honorable toil, ex- 
pended upon raw materials provided by 
nature, but adapted by man. The histor- 
torian's figures of the expenditures of the 
last forty years, calculated upon the basis 
of an average population of 120,000, dis- 
tributed on ten thousand farms, as well as 
in cities and towns, are as follows : 

Cost of establishing the 10,000 farms 

($187.50 per farm per annum) $75,000,000 

Cost of making irrigation canals and 

ditches ($.^7.50 per farm per annum) 15,000,000 

Cost of irrigating 10, 00c farms and gardens 

($24.00 each per annum) 9,600,000 

Building factories 5,000,000 

Building temples 8,000000 

Building churches and schools 4,000,000 

Cost of missionary work 10, 000, coo 

Cost of immigrating and sustaining the 

poor 8 ,000,000 

Living of the farmers ($875 to each family 

per annum) 350,000,000 

Cost of roads and bridges in mountains 

and valleys 4,000,000 

Cost of Indian wars, building forts, stock- 
ades, breaking up settlements, etc 5,000,000 

Cost of feeding and clothing Indians and 
establishing Indian missions, farms, 
schools, etc 2,000,000 



Cost of resisting the invasion of the army 
of 1857, and of the people of Salt Lake 
county and the counties north moving 
south into middle and southern Utah.... 

Loss sustained by crickets, locusts and 
grasshoppers 

Unsuccessful early experiments in making 
iron, sugar, paper, nails, leather, cotton 
raising, mining, etc 

Cost of defense against anti-polygamy leg- 
islation believed to be unconstitutional.. 

Heavy freight rates from the Missouri 
river and the Pacific coast before the rail- 
roads 

Cost of establishing the overland mail 
and express company, purchase of Fort 
Bridger, and establishment of Fort Sup- 
ply, abandoned and afterward absorbed 
by the army of 1857 

Protecting overland travel, succoring and 
feeding, California, Oregon and other 
emigrants 

Cost of colonizing Carson and Green River 
counties, abandoned because of the army 
of 1857 

Cost of establishing colonies on Salmon 
river, in Lower California, and the sugar 
plantation near Honolulu 

Cost of local telegraph and railroad lines. 

Cost of obtaining fuel and building and 
fencing materials from the rugged moun- 
tains and canons many miles away 

Cost of making settlements on the Muddy, 
Call's Landing, Florence, Sunset and 
other localities, afterward abandoned 
because of adverse conditions subse- 
quently developed 

Losses b}' fire ($20,000 per annum) 

Taxes 

Miscellaneous expenditures 



6,000,000 
2,500,000 

6,000,000 
3,000,000 



1,500,000 
3,000,000 



1,000,000 

800,000 

8,000,000 

12,000,000 



$562,900,000 
Less the personal property brought into 
Utah by immigrants, such as cattle, wa- 
gons, cash, etc 20,000,000 

$542,900,000 

"In his note transmitting these figures 
Mr. Musser writes : 'The inclosed has been 
submitted to the inspection of Presidents 
Woodruff's, Cannon and Smith, and Bis- 
hops Preston, Burton and Winder, as well 
as to others conversant with such matters. 
All agree that the estimates are as fair as 
they can be given.' 

"But while these elaborate figures tell 
the story of the prosperity of the common- 
wealth, their true significance may be 
better studied when they are brought 
down to the basis of the individual family. 
The census shows that only 5 per cent, 
of all the American people have any pro- 
prietary interest in the land on which they 
dwell, while 90 per cent, of the Mormon 
people are owners or heirs of the soil. 
Still further, the figures presented by 
the historian show that the average gross 
income of the Mormon farmer over a 
period of forty years has been 1^1357.25, or 
$482.25 above the cost of his living ex- 
penses. It is to be seriously doubted 
whether any other people on the face of 
the earth can make such a showing. 

"Brigham Young sought to found his 



212 



GENERAL NOTES. 



prosperity not only on industrial ethics, 
but also upon the happiness of the people. 
He would not tolerate idleness, and the 
walls of coblestones still standing in the 
older portions of Salt Lake City were in- 
vented that the church might pay for the 
labor of men who would otherwise have 
been temporarily supported by charity. 
As a means of furnishing entertainment, 
various diversions were planned, including 
the Saturday-night dance, led by the bis- 
hops of the wards. The leader's wisdom 
is almost as clearly exhibited in his social 
scheme as in his plan of industry. The 
central idea in it was the farm-village. A 
village site, generally a half-mile square, 
is selected in the midst of a tract of five or 
six thousand acres to be colonized. In 
Utah there aremany small valleys between 
the towering mountains, and the village 
site is generally located near the centre of 
the valley, and near the river from which 
the water is diverted into canals on each 
side at a sufficient elevation to command 
the irrigable lands. The half a square 
mile is then laid out into blocks of four 
acres, with broad avenues between, and 
the blocks are divided into lots of an acre 
each. On these acre lots the farmers have 
their homes. Here also are their commo- 
dious barns. Here they have their poultry 
and swine, while considerable space is 
devoted to a market-garden. The farmer 
then has his farm on the outlying lands, 
which are divided into lots ranging from 
two acres up to twenty acres. There are 
scores of villages of this sort; but, for the 
purpose of illustration, Huntsville, in the 
Ogden valley, has been selected. 

"From the public park in the centre to 
the farthest outlying farm is only two and 
a-half miles. Most farmers traverse a 
much shorter distance to reach the farm 
from their homes. On the other hand, the 
women and children enjoy the important 
advantage of having near neighbors, while 
the church, school-house, stores and post-, 
office are near at hand. Under this system 
the advantages of town life are blended 
to a very considerable degree with the 
charms of rural existence. It is a system 
full of delightful possibilities. The Mor- 
mons have realized its substantial advan- 
tages in neighborhood association; but 
their model will be much improved upon 
by many colonies of more recent establish--^ 



ment. Farm life under the old conditions 
has involved isolation. The hunger for 
human sympathy and company has driven 
thousands from the country to the cities 
already overcrowded. This factor is re- 
sponsible for many a social tragedy, as 
well as for the problems which have arisen 
in congested city populations. There is no 
reason why farm villages paterned after 
those of Utah should not have a social life 
and an outward beauty quite as pleasing 
as, for instance, the suburbs of Boston. 
There the architecture seems almost uni- 
formly pleasing. Attractive lawns, with 
trees, vines and flowers are everywhere. 
People of small means will be able to sur- 
round themselves with similar advantages 
in the farm villages of the arid region, 
while realizing all the benefits of indepen- 
dence and equality inseparable from the 
industrial scheme of irrigation. This is 
due merely to the taste of individuals. 
Men acquired whatever amount of land 
they thought necessary for their support, 
and many of them preferred a very few 
acres. 

"It will be seen that the farm-village had 
an important part in Brigham Young's plan 
of making the people contented after they 
had first been made prosperous. In a 
day's drive of seventy miles the writer 
recently passed through portions of twenty 
of these settlements, including Huntsville. 
This fact furnishes a good idea of the 
density of the population in Northern 
Utah." 

Prosperous Outlook in Arkansas. 

T. H. Leslie, vice-president of the Stutt- 
gart & Arkansas River Railroad and the 
Pine Bluff & Eastern Railroad, writing 
from Gillett, Ark., to the Southen States 
magazine, says : 

"Our railroad business has been on the 
increase for the last year. It has increased 
at least 20 per cent, in that time, and we 
fully expect an increase of 40 to 50 per 
cent, in the next year. 

"The Grand Prairie region of Arkansas 
has suffered but little by the general de- 
pression. Some little immigration has 
been coming in at all times, but the last 
year it has been very satisfactory. We 
have just completed a six-mile extension 
of our Stuttgart & Arkansas River Rail- 
road, and contemplate a twelve-mile ex- 
nsion on the other road in the next four 



GENERAL NOTES. 



213 



months. I consider the business prospects 
of Arkansas, and especially this section, 
very promising in the near future. In my 
fifteen years' residence here I have never 
seen anything to compare with the outlook. 
Fruits are splendid, and all crops promise 
a large yield. Our saw mills have all the 
orders they can fill for months. Farm 
lands have nearly doubled in value in the 
last year. We only hope all sections of 
our great country have the bright pros- 
pects we have for the coming year, and it 
will become a great irresistible wave of 
prosperity throughout the land." 

Abundant Crops Promise Great Pros= 
perity. 

Mr. Herman Strieker, Jr., of Lott, Texas, 
writes: ''Our crops in this district are 
splendid. Cotton crop is about 20 per cent, 
less in acreage, but will make a good yield 
unless the constant wet weather starts the 
worms. Corn crop is a grand success. 
The people will not know what to do with 
it. No settler here remembers when it 
was ever better. There is also a great in- 
crease over last year's acreage. Oat crop 
is a bountiful one, but after being harvested 
has been damaged by rains, which will 
cause mildew before it can be housed. 
Fruit crop is very good. Melons are fine 
and large. Wheat is not much raised 
here. Sorglium is fine. Grass! Well, 
there is no end of grass if it would only 
stay on the prairie, but the farmers are 
having a hard tussel to clean it out from 
crops, as the rains are a great drawback. 
The price of cattle is up and everybody is 
happy." 

A New Idea. 

Several New Orleans capitalists have 
become interested in the idea of systematic 
stock-raising for that market. The pro- 
jectors of the enterprise have secured an 
option on a large tract of land extending 
from the Mississippi river back to the gulf, 
about sixty miles from the city. The land 
in question is well situated for the success- 
ful operation of a stock range, and it is also 
well drained and covered with Bermuda 
grass and other vegetation upon which 
cattle and hogs subsist. It is proposed to 
organize a stock company with a capital 
of from I5000 to |io,ooo, and stock the 
property with cattle and hogs. .Special 
attention will be paid to the raising of 



hogs, for which the land is especially well 
adapted. The promoters estimate that 
they can supply the local markets with 
fresh and cured pork very much more 
cheaply than it can be brought from the 
West, as at present. Mr. F. J. Dreyfous is 
one of the originators of the plan. 

Extensive Irrigation Scheme. 

Mr. J. A. Kemp, of Wichita Falls, Texas, 
and others have engineers at work making 
surveys for a dam across the Wichita river, 
which will secure a water supply to irrigate 
the Wichita valley. By the system it is 
believed that 150,000 acres can be irrigated. 

The blackberry crop of the South is so 
enormous this year that a number of 
Northern firms are reported as contem- 
plating establishing berry presses through- 
out that section. IMessrs. Betterton & 
Co., of Knoxville, have had a number of 
letters from owners of presses, who have 
this in view in order to press the juice 
from the berry for the purpose of selling 
to Northern manufacturers of wines and 
liquors. 

Some months ago the Southern States 
published an article on the value of pecan 
culture as an industry off"ering large profits 
in Texas. The point made by the writer 
of thit article is emphasized by some 
figures given by Mr. F. A. Swinden, of 
Brown county. While in Fort Worth re- 
cently Mr. Swinden stated that he had 600 
acres with 11,000 pecan trees, which he 
estimates will yield him a net profit this 
year of $15,000. 

A CORRESPONDENT of the Nevvs and Ob- 
server, writing from Southern Pines, N. 
C, reports that that community is busy 
gathering, packing and shipping peaches, 
plums, berries and other fruits. The Van 
Lindley Orchard Co. shipped to New York 
recently 200 crates of early peaches, which 
brought from I2.50 to I3. 25 per crate. 
Thirty crates shipped to Washington 
brought I3 per crate. This company now 
has 350 acres in orchard. One hundred 
acres will be cleared and planted this 
winter. The company owns iioo acres of 
land all in one body, which they propose 
to make one great peach orchard. 

TvLEK, Texas, proposes to let the 
world know something of what that sec- 



2Iz| 



GENERAL NOTES. 



tion is doing in the way of fruit-growing 
by opening the Texas Fruit Palace on 
July 17th. This will continue until August 
ist, and during that period cheap excur- 
sion rates will be issued by all the rail- 
roads in the Southwest. 

A DISPATCH from Henrietta, Tex., states 
that within a radius of three miles of that 
town 3000 acres have been planted in 
watermelons this season. It is estimated 
that the production will be not less than 
75 to 100 trainloads, or from 600 to 1000 
carloads. The freight alone will be about 
|75,ooo. These melons are being shipped 
to Denver, Kansas City, Chicago and St. 
Louis. 

Peach and pear crops around Pensa- 
cola, Fla., are said to be the greatest ever 
known, and active shipments are being 
made to Northern markets. Peaches have 
been going forward for some time, and 
pears will be shipped liberally during 
July. 

Mr. M. L. De Malher, of Van Buren, 
Ark., furnishes to the Little Rock Gazette 
a very interesting letter, showing the rapid 
increase of strawberry and potato-raising 
in that section. During the season 521 
carloads of strawberries were shipped 
from points on the Iron Mountain Rail- 
road, 351 carloads going from the Van 
Buren district. It is estimated that this 
represents a total of nearly 5,000,000 
quarts. Mr. De Malher figures up the 
total gross sales at $422,300, and after 
allowing for all expenses shows a margin 
of $163,805, or a fraction over 80 cents net 
profit per crate. 

It is gratifying to all who have watched 
the management of the Georgia Southern 
& Florida Railroad in its effort to develop 
immigration to know that the transfer of 
this road to the Southern Railway Co. is 
not likely to bring about any change in 
officers. Mr. A. B. Andrews, vice-presi- 
dent of the Southern Railway, when in 
Macon lately, stated that there would be 
no change and that the men who are now 
operating the road would be continued. 
It is to be hoped that Mr. Andrews' views 
will be carried out, for Mr. Sparks and 
his associates have been remarkably suc- 
cessful in their work of encouraging 



immigration and the development 01 
diversified farming interests. 

About 350 acres of land adjacent to 
Hefflin, Ala., has been cleared of timber 
and planted in grapes, over 100 different 
varieties being represented. Several acres 
have also been planted in other kinds of 
fruits. 

Dr. Cyrus R. Teed, the head of a re- 
ligious sect known as Koresh, is, it is 
stated, arranging to take a large party 
from Western Pennsylvania to Estero, 
Fla., with a view to starting a communis- 
tic colony on the co-operative plan. It is 
claimed that Dr. Teed has purchased 
sufficient land to accommodate 10,000 
people, and that he anticipates having this 
many in one year. Other than this report 
the Southern States has not been able 
to learn anything on this subject. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Diversifying Crops in Florida. 

Editor Southern States : 

Pineapple raising has been carried on 
quite extensively in the vicinity of Orlando, 
Fla., for the last five or six years, the 
Modela Park Pinery, near Orlando, being 
probably the largest covered pinery in the 
world. The severe cold of last winter of 
course destroyed all the fruit that was 
developing at the time, and it was thought 
that the plants had been so severely in- 
jured that the pineries would yield no fruit 
for about two years. But the plants have 
made a surprising growth during the last 
few weeks, slips and suckers having ap- 
peared on them in great abundance, and a 
large yield of apples is expected within a 
year. The varieties that can be grown 
most profitably in the covered pineries are 
abbika, Enville City, smooth cayenne and 
golden queen. Considerable difference of 
opinion has prevailed as to the best 
method of treating frozen orange trees. 
A small per cent, of the groves have been 
abandoned by their owners. Many grow- 
ers have cut off" the dead tops of their 
trees, transforming their groves into 
stumpy fields, the stumps averaging from 
a few inches to several feet in height. 
The removal of the dead tops costs about 
$10 an acre. The trees of fully half of the 



GENERAL NOTES. 



215 



groves not abandoned have been left 
untouched by saw or pruning shears. 
The owners claim that the dead tops will 
afford some shade protection to the new 
and tender branches, and protect them 
also against the rupturing action of strong 
winds. 

With the object in view of making the 
most of the situation, many Florida 
farmers have become experimenters and 
have been diligently at work trying to 
discover what fruits besides the orange 
and what other plant products Florida 
soil will produce. Many orange groves are 
planted with corn, which has heretofore 
been grown in these parts only in small 
quantities on low ground ; many extra 
acres have been planted in vegetables 
and hundreds of acres have been planted 
in rice. It is hoped that this kind of work 
will prove a benefit to the State, and 
eventually profitable to those engaged in it. 

Winter Park, Fla. 



Another 



Answer to "a 
Farmer." 



South Dakota 



Editor Southern States: 

I regret to see that in the June issue you 
were compelled to devote considerable 
space of your truly valuable journal to 
refuting the unfair charges made against 
the South by that South Dakota man who 
made a flying trip through the South and 
"knew it all." 

No doubt there are portions of the South 
which may be as poor as that described 
by him, but "one swallow does not make 
a summer," nor will one flying trip through 
any section of country by rail give anything 
like a correct idea of that section. He 
says : "I have visited the whole Southern 
country and given it close attention." 
And then he proceeds to condemn it all. 
At the expense of causing a successful 
farmer friend of mine some trouble and 
annoyance, I am going to state a few facts. 
Some ten years ago Mr. C. B. Lakin, whose 
postoffice address is Norfolk, and who is 
making Jersey butter for this market, 
came to study this part of Virginia, with 
view to making his home here. He came 
here in the spring, then he came again in 
summer; then in the fall, and then in the 
winter. In the meantime he was con- 
nected with a party locating lands in the 



West and came face to face with opportu- 
nities every day to secure the very best 
quarter section of land in the great West. 
Instead of securing his land there, he 
came and bought a home here, and has 
accumulated a choice herd of Jersey cows. 
The other day he stated to a prospector 
from South Dakota that on fifty acres of 
his land he could easily keep fifty head of 
stock, that is he could supply fifty head of 
cows with all the forage they consumed. 
This does not look like "sand, sand, 
sand." There is a belt of country in 
Southeast Virginia and Northeast North 
Carolina, 100 miles long by 40 miles wide, 
bordering on the Atlantic, every acre of 
which is good. Every acre not good is 
better, and the rest of it is best. Our 
Dakota friend did not put foot into this 
belt, even if he "did see the entire South." 
Joseph Wallace, Norfolk, Va., came here 
from Pennsylvania about eight or nine 
years ago. He raises 100 or more tons of 
hay each year and sells it on this market at 
prices ranging from |i2 to |i6 per ton. 
Of his 300 acres, not an acre is bare. It 
all turfs over thick, heavy and strong. Geo. 
A. Wilson, of Great Bridge, Va., raised last 
year 50,000 bushels of first-class shelled 
corn. He has many acres of the choicest 
lands in the United States in Virginia and 
North Carolina. Mr. A. H. Lindsey, of 
Portsmouth, Va., raises as many as 20,000 
barrels of Irish potatoes in a single season, 
besides hundreds of tons of hay and from 
15,000 to 25,000 bushels of fine corn. Capt. 
Wallace, of Wallaceton, Va., also raises 
great quantities of corn, potatoes and 
other farm products. Mr. Thomas R. 
Ballentine, of Norfolk, Va., sells annually 
from his farm in Norfolk county from 
150,000 to 175,000 worth of farm products. 
Stewart Moore, of Norfolk, formerly of 
Toulon, 111., has a farm of 200 acres, every 
acre of which will grow hay, corn or pota- 
toes as well as the best land in Illinois. I 
am sorry to have to mention the names of 
these gentlemen, as it may make them 
.si.)nie trouble in answering a few inquiries, 
but for the good of the cause I hope to 
be forgiven. 

I could go on and mention by name fifty 
truckers on the near-by lands around Nor- 
folk, who raise from #10,000 to ^^40,000 
worth of market vegetables each year. I 
could also name twenty farmers near by 



2l6 



GENERAL NOTES. 



who raise each 10,000 to 25,000 bushels of 
corn annually. 

It is a general feature or trait of charac- 
ter of Western men to be intensely loyal 
to the West. They think well of it and 
always speak well of it, which is laudable 
and right; but the especially intense loy- 
alty of the "South Dakota" man exceeds 
anything I have ever heard of It blinded 
him entirely to the good points about the 
South. 

The South Dakota man you mention 
came South expressly to find fault with the 
South. Here is our challenge to him. If 
he will come to NorfolK, and with us visit 
all the country within easy reach of Nor- 
folk, he will except our section at least 
from his sweeping assertions, and if he is 
a "reliable" farmer, as is stated in the 
Press, we will pay his fare here and back 
to Dakota and board him while here, if he 
can make a single one of his criticisms 
against the South stick, as regards this 
portion of the South. I will convince him 
that his criticisms do not apply here, and 
make him admit it, assuming that he is a 
good reliable farmer, or I will pay his 
expenses here and back. The census 
reports contradict our Dakota friend's 
statements every day in the year, and so 
does the fact that the South has sent corn 
to some of the suffering Western States by 
the train load. A. Jeffers. 

Norfolk, Va. 

The Danger of Writing Letters About 
the South to the Southern States. 

Editor Southern States : 

Some months ago I wrote a short sketch 
for your valuable paper, in which I endeav- 
ored to set forth some of the many advan- 
tages of the South as a home, and espec- 
ially of this particular section. My letter, 
while it claimed for our country hne 
opportunities for investment, with fair 
profits from field, garden and orchard, 
was designed to emphasize the exception- 
ally fine outlook for the peach industry. 
Since that letter was written I have 
received a great number of letters from 
different States, plying me with questions 
in regard to other crops and other indus- 
tries; all of which I have answered as best 
I could. In view of the widespread and 
increasing interest manifested in this im- 



mediate section, aroused by what you have 
published in the "Southern States," and 
the great variety of occupations repre- 
sented as shown by these enquiries, I 
have concluded to extend and enlarge the 
scope of answers as to its possibilities as a 
home for profitable and varied employ- 
ment. While this is par excellence a 
peach country, most other fruits grow 
here to great perfection. Apples, pears, 
plums, melons and grapes are all raised 
successfully and more or less extensively. 
Coincident with these industries and as a 
natural corollary we have crate and 
basket factories, and now come canning 
factories, which are followed by box facto- 
ries, tin shops, etc., which are necessary 
to keep up the business equilibrium. 
There is plenty of room and plenty of 
work for all good citizens, and plenty of 
good land at reasonable figures, and fine 
water power for any kind of machinery or 
manufacturing purposes within a few hun- 
dred yards of a railroad depot. The 
market garden is now assuming good 
proportions and proving very remunera- 
tive. Poultry raising is attracting much 
attention, as it is an adjunct to fruit 
raising, and is both pleasant and profitable. 

Right here an idea occurs to me that I 
desire to urge upon prospective settlers, 
and it it this : 

Arrangements should be made to com- 
mence operations in the fall of the year in- 
stead of in the winter or spring. Many 
people lose a great part of what should be 
their legitimate profits the first year by 
commencing too late. To reap the full 
benefit of their year's work in most lines 
they should commence work in the fall — 
preparing their land, manuring, sowing 
small grain, setting out young orchards, 
planting seeds for early gardens, getting 
ready for the spring market, gettmg their 
poultry to laying, their incubators filled, 
&c., in order to commence the new year 
with something to sell. 

Those coming in the fall will largely dis- 
count those who put off starting until 
spring. Large quantities of seed are 
planted here in the fall, as our winters are 
mild enough to admit of heavy fall seed- 
ing, which gives a corresponding advant- 
age in the spring market. This suggestion 
is given for the benefit of those who are 
unacquainted with our mild winters, and 



GENERAL NOTES. 



217 



who might lose a great deal by not taking 
advantage of this condition. 

All good, law-abiding, hard-working, in- 
dustrious citizens, from whatever State, 
are invited to come and make their homes 
with us, and help us to enjoy and build up 
our heaven-favored country. 

Fruit shipping has just commenced in 
earnest. Wheat and rye crops have been 
harvested, and the oat harvest is now upon 
us. Refreshing rains have been abundant, 
and crops of corn, cotton, sugarcane and 
other crops are very promising. 

Clark's Mill, Ga. C. B. Howard. 

Southern Immigration and Southern 
Development. 

Col. John L. Black, of Greenville, S.C., in 
a letter to the Manufacturers' Record, says: 

"As the great Northwest was filled with 
people principally through the instrumen- 
tality of the railroad lines, which even be- 
fore settlement penetrated into the fertile 
regions that are now so well populated, so 
must the vast area of unoccupied lands in 
the South Atlantic slope between the sea- 
shore and the mountains be peopled mainly 
through the agency of those great railway 
lines which penetrate this belt of country. 
The future success of these great lines of 
travel and their success as common carriers 
depends on their ability to get filled up the 
vacant and unoccupied productive lands 
now lying idle all a'long their roads. It is 
worse than carrying coals to Newcastle for 
these companies to attempt to fill these 
vacant lands with mere bone and muscle 
— common laborers The entire South 
has enough and more than a needful sup- 
ply at hand in its colored population. 
Either thrifty colonies of well-to-do Ger- 
mans or Scandinavians — heads of fam- 
ilies with sufficient capital in hand to not 
only purchase, but to stock and equip a 
farm are needed, or immigrants from cer- 
tain cold and inhospitable climes North- 
west, where, following the popular routes 
of immigration for the last thirty years, 
they have flocked, must be induced to 
come to this more genial climate. In ac- 
complishing this needful filling up of 
vacant and unproductive spaces the rail- 
ways must, as they have in some cases 
wisely undertaken to do, become the 
active agents in promoting the same. 

"Many unjust charges have been made 



against the rural population of the South 
that in the owning of more lands than they 
can utilize they have not sold their surplus 
acreage and thus rendered that portion 
kept in hand more valuable. Pray, to 
whom have they heretofore been able to 
sell off their excess of ownerships, and so 
far the time has not come when they, as 
any other people in their situation, would 
be ready or willing to give them away to 
strangers. It has also been charged that 
they were unwilling to sell, except at ex- 
horbitant prices. Such are not the facts. 
Lands can be purchased with ready cash, 
or more generally on one-third cash and 
two equal deferred payments, anywhere in 
the South, and for less by far than their 
intrinsic worth. In the old countries, 
notably in Great Britain, the established 
price of realty for years past has been to 
rate the purchase at fourteen year's rental. 
Almost anywhere at the South five to 
seven years' rental is equal to the purchase 
money. It is true the prevalent rate of 
interest here is higher than in the old 
countries, but this would not make the 
difference. 

"One charge may be correctly made 
against the land-owners at the South — they 
are seldom either speculators or boomers, 
and in this respect they are, perhaps, to 
blame in not having done more to push 
their surplus lands on the market. And it 
may be charged that they are not adepts 
in advertising, and further, that they in 
many cases are wanting in worldly intelli- 
gence to accomplish much in this direction. 

"If we are to have colonies from abroad, 
the very best plan for them, and most 
especially if they be not English-speaking 
people, is to purchase in a body large 
tracts ol lands, and to subdivide and set- 
tle villages with farms around them on the 
European plan. In many cases these vil- 
lages may be industrial centres on a small 
scale, and in this line an endless number 
of industries may be developed. 

"Immigrants coming from the North- 
west may settle in a body as above or may 
scatter. They will do well to settle around 
manufacturing centres, and to look to 
dairy, fruit and vegetable farming. The 
native farmer is purely a maker of cotton 
and neglects these products, hence the big 
opening in this line. 

"While it devolves on the railuavs to 



2l8 



GENERAL NOTES. 



take the lead in this line, they should not 
be expected to do it all and pay for it all. 
The railways may be aided by middlemen 
— land agents who work for a margin of 
commissions. But would it not be well 
for those owning surplus lands and willing 
to sell, to lock hands with the railways and 
to pay as commission a small percentage 
on lands sold through their agency. 

"As it behooves the railways of this 
region to become promoters of immigra- 
tion as one of the means of ensuring their 
future prosperity, it stands them even 
more in hand by every means in their 
power to promote and encourage the 
building up of manufacturing plants." 

The W. J. Moore Land & Abstract Co., 
Cranberry, Texas, in a letter to the 
Southern States, says : 

"The Brazos river runs its tortuous 
length of about thirty miles through this 
county, giving us quite a good amount of 
river land. The river has, however, no 
swamps nor stagnant lakes nor pools. The 
price of this river land, of course, varies 
with quality, distance from town, railroad 
and improvements. Unimproved farming 
land varies from fe.oo to ficoo per acre. 
Improved farm lands from $5.00 to $20.00 
per acre. Unimproved pasture lands from 
|i.oo to I5.00; and improved pasture from 
$2. 00 to |6.oo per acre. About forty per 
cent, of this county is farming land; 
about ten per cent, in cultivation. This is 
a well-watered section, with living streams 
of pure water every six or eight miles, 
while a good and abundant supply of 
water can be had by digging from twenty 
to fifty feet. Our main crops are corn, 
cotton, oats, potatoes, sorghum, millet, 
garden vegetables and fruits of all kinds." 



NEWSPAPER COMMENT. 

The Editor of a Farm Paper Will Move 

South and Advises Others to 

Do Likewise. 

The editor of Farm News has just re- 
turned from a trip to the South, during 
which we took every pains to get at the 
exact truth, with a view of telling our 
readers our conclusions, whatever they 
might be. It was not our first trip to this 
section of the country, for we had been 



there and staid for months at a time, but 
that was more than fifteen years ago, and 
to say that we were surprised at the change 
is to express our sentiments in a very mild 
manner. We belong to a generation which 
has but little to do with the traditions of 
the fathers, and the old feeling that stood 
a barrier between the North and South 
has no place in our heart. We find it the 
same in the South. There has grown up 
a generation of young men and young 
women who are free from prejudice and 
ready to welcome with a warm greeting 
the stranger and wayfarer who stops with 
them. Not only are the people generously 
inclined and as cordial as possible to those 
who come from the North, but the climate 
is as genial as the inhabitants of this 
country. 

"There are possibilities for farmers in 
the South that can never exist in the 
North. Lands are cheap, easily cultivated 
and fertile. Railroads are accessible in 
every part of the South almost, and enter- 
prise will build them as fast as they are 
needed where they are not now to be 
found. If the reader will take a map of 
the United States and find Macon, Ga., on 
it, and then draw a straight line from there 
to Boston, Mass., thence to Chicago, 111., 
and thence back to Macon, he will find on 
consulting the statistics that the triangle 
thus described will contain half the popu- 
lation of the United States, and also all 
the great manufacturing, coal mining and 
shipping interest. Lines of railroad run 
almost on the lines of this triangle, and it 
is possible to reach one point from another 
within from twenty-four to thirty-six hours. 

"The man who goes there to grow fruits 
has advantages that the fruit grower in no 
other section can have. He ships his fruit 
to the best market by almost direct lines 
of transportation, at express speed. Fruits 
ripen before those of any other part of the 
country do, and this secures the highest 
price for it. Grapes sold last year for 
seventy-five cents per ten-pound baskets 
and peaches at a marvelous price. Land 
can be bought from $5 per acre up, and the 
man who goes there to farm can begin in 
January and be selling his products in May 
in sufficient quantities to pay all his living 
expenses. We shall have more to say 
concerning this country in future numbers. 
To show what our own opinion is, we need 



GENERAL NOTES. 



219 



only to say that we expect to make it our 
home in future. We have a great affec- 
tion for Ohio; it is a grand old State, but 
in the way of material advantages for him 
who tills the soil it is not as good a place 
as the South." — Farm News, Spring- 
field, Ohio. 

Unlimited Possibilities. 

Southern crop prospects are this year 
more favorable than those of any section 
of the country. Crops bid fair to be large 
and money will circulate as a consequence 
in increased volume. The cotton States ex- 
position will be a fitting end to this year 
for the South to show all the world what 
it is doing and to prove that enterprise 
has a home there and that the people of 
that favored portion of the great nation 
are taking advantage of their opportuni- 
ties to make that section a garden spot of 
the world. 

The cotton States and international ex- 
position to be held at Atlanta, Ga., next 
fall and winter promises to show an unex- 
pected development of Southern resources. 
But few people correctly estimate the 
many natural advantages of the South. 
The exposition management will concen- 
trate a show of nature's products that will 
undoubtedly dazzle many a Northern visi- 
tor to the South this coming winter. Un- 
limited possibilities for farming, manufac- 
turing, mining and mercantile life are 
offered to the present generation of Young 
America by the great quantity and loca- 
tion of these essentials for a livelihood. 
The fact is, the South is only a stripling in 
industrial development, but with a con- 
tinuance of the boom of the past few years 
in Southern farming lands and factories, 
the North will have to look well to her 
laurels. — Farm and Home, Springfield, 
Mass. 

Be More Effusive. 

The emigrant from the North or West 
to the South comes here with fear and 
trembling. He has heard so much about 
the prejudice existing against him that he 
is afraid to make any attempt to become 
friendly with his neighbors for fear of being 
rudely repulsed. We of the South know 
how foolish this is, but the newcomer has 
no way of ascertaining our feelings ex- 
cepting by the way we treat him. 

It is necessary, therefore, for the resi- 



dents of any community to make all new 
settlers feel at home, and to take especial 
pains to see that they are treated with full 
courtesy. Under ordinary conditions it 
would do to let matters take their course 
and let acquaintance and friendship come 
gradually through the ordinary casual 
meetings, but so long as this foolish notion 
in regard to Southern prejudice against 
the Northern immigrant prevails, it will be 
necessary for our citizens to make extra 
efforts to prove how unfounded it is, and 
to show the stranger he is heartily wel- 
come regardless of where he is from or 
what his politics may be. 

In Alabama a man's character is his only 
criterion. If he is honorable and straight- 
forward, he will find hosts of friends; if the 
reverse be will be ostracized. As a class 
we are not quick to form strong friend- 
ships, but we are always hospitable and 
courteous to strangers with whom we come 
in contact, and friendships once formed 
are for life. We do not rush into the new- 
comer's arms, greeting him effusively, but 
we are glad to see him, nevertheless, and 
will show it when the opportunity offers 
to do so in a practical way. 

It would be better, however, if our peo- 
ple would be a little more effusive with 
newcomers, and thereby give them no ex- 
cuse for covering themselves with a cloak 
of taciturnity too thick to be penetrated 
by courteous treatment. It is so impor- 
tant that all immigrants should understand 
that we wish them well and want them to 
become part of us, that we must make 
constant endeavors to convince them of it. 
If they were not so biased by prejudice it 
would be unnecessary to do this, but ex- 
isting conditions seem to demand it if we 
would attract large bodies of immigrants 
thither. — The Advertiser, Montgomery, 
Ala. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

An Opportunity to Invest. 

The city of Spartanburg, S. C, is atlractins much 
attention on account of its development as an indus- 
trial centre. Spartanburg county has more coitoii 
spindles than any other county in the South, and the 
business, both in the town and county, is growing 
rapidly. The establishment of cotton and other fac- 
tories is bringing capital and people into the city and 
increasing its wealth and population. Mr. W. E. 
Fowler, of Spartanburg, states that excellent oppor- 
tunities are alTordeil to place capital in safe ventures 
which will insure S and 10 per cent, income. There i 



220 



GENERAL NOTES. 



an active demand for houses and money can be used 
to good profit in building operations. The country 
surrounding Spartanburg is noted for its healthful- 
ness. For fruit-growing, as well as for general farm- 
ing, it "is hard to surpass. Mr. Fowler conducts an 
extensive business in real estate and banking, and is 
in a position to handle investments so as to give the 
best returns. He makes a specialty of not only real 
estate, but of factory and water-power sites, and 
besides is thoroughly conversant with the industrial 
situation. 

Messrs. Broocks & Polk, of Beaumont, Texas, 
control 100,000 acres of pine lands, besides a great 
deal of land in different parts of the State suitable 
for farming, choice fruit, vegetable, rice and mineral 
lands. 

"A Homeseeker's Pamphlet." 

The Pittsburg & Georgia Land Co., of La Grange, 
Ga., controls about 40,000 acres of farm lands adjacent 
to La Grange, which it offers at low prices and on 
easy terms. The officers of the company are among 
the leading and most substantial business men of this 
prosperous and progressive town. La Grange has 
about 4000 inhabitants. It is a place of unusual 
advantages and attractions. Located a' an elevation 
of about 850 feet above the sea level, surrounded by a 
rich and prosperous farming community, with exten- 
sive manufacturing enterprises, excellent colleges, 
it has a combination of advantages to make it an ideal 
home place. Fruit, vegetable and grape-growing 
offer inviting opportunities to people who want to 
engage in diversified farming. For corn and cotton 
proauction the La Grange section has long been 
noted. The taxable property of the town is $2,000,000, 
with a tax rate of six and one-half mills only on the 
dollar. It is a remarkable fact that neither La Grange 
nor the county owes a dollar. The company has 
lately issued a small pamphlet entitled "A Home- 
seeker's Pamphlet," copies of which can be secured 
by writing to Mr. W. J. McClure, secretary, La 
Grange, Ga. 

In the prosperous city of Orange, Texas, the manu- 
facture of lumber and shingles is the engrossing 
pursuit of the people, but there are other industries 
also in a flourishing condition, including an iron 
foundry, an ice factory rice mill, etc. The popula- 
tion numbers about 5000. There are good schools and 
churches, and the people are eagerly encouraging 
the immigration of farmers from less favored sec- 
lions to the fertile lands surrounding this town. 
Much attention is being given to the growing of 
fruits, rice and other vegetables. 

The Commercial & Industrial Association, of 
Selma, Ala., is sending out some leaflets pointing out 
the advantages of that locality, and calling special 
attention to the possibilities of agriculture around 
Selma. 



The attention of investors and capital sts is invited 
to the advertisement of L. M. L., care of Southern 
States, who will sell fine property in Southern 
Maryland, a country of great advantages. 

Homeseekers are invited to correspond with W. 
A. Ward, Beaumont, Texas, for information about 
the Coast Country. 

Information concerning Georgia and other parts 
of the South may be obtained by writing to J. H. 
Mountain, 45 north Broad street, Atlanta, Ga , who 
will send free of charge a hand-book issued by the 
Southern Immigration & Improvement Co , Atlanta, 
Ga. 

Mr. Patii.lo Higgins, of Beaumont, Texas, will 
give detailed information concerning Southern 
Texas, a very desirable agricultural country. 

Southern Missouri is a wonderland of agricultural 
and mineral resources with an assured prosperous fu- 
ture. Mr. W. W. Rulifson, Mountain Lake Park, Md., 
realizing these advantages and desiring to obtain the 
necessary capital to utilize them, advertises in this 
issue for a loan of $6500 on first mortgage at 8 per 
cent to develop inside acreage in one of the best 
cities of this favored country. 

Beaumont, Texas, situated on the Neches river, 
offers splendid opportunities to men who wish to en- 
gage in agricultural pursuits In the past the general 
revenue to the people has been derived from stock- 
raising and from the manufacture of lumber and 
shingles; now, while the growth < f the-e industries 
continues, more and more attention is being attracted 
to the possibilities of the soil for rice and fruit- 
growing, trucking and general farming. 

Messrs. O'Brien, Bordages & O'Brien, Beau- 
mo. t, Texas, advertise at low prices and on easy 
terms, lands adapted to rice growing in the country 
adjacent to Beaumont, besides fruit lands, pine and 
cypress timber lands. 

There is plenty of land near Orange, Texas, to be 
had on reasonable terms. Mr. H.J. Lutcher, of the 
Lutcher & Moore Lumber Co., Orange, advertises 
50,000 acres of farm lands for sale. 

Beaumont is well known as a lumber manufactur- 
ing centre. The Consolidated Export Lumber Co., 
of Beaumont, manufacture long leaf yellow pine lum- 
ber and timber, which they export via Sabine Pass, 
Texas. 

Mr. L Miller, of Orange, Texas, controls rice 
lands in Southeast Texas, on which industrious 
Western farmers would be able to prosper. 



AD VER TISEMENTS. 



SOUTHERN LANDS 

FOR SALE. 

ALABAMA. 

FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE.— A magnificent plantation 
on the Chattahoochee river, in Russell county, Ala., con- 
taining 2669 acres. Splendidly improved and watered 
lands, level and very fertile, and yielding handsome in- 
come. Public boat landing on place, and only a few 
miles to railroad station. Neighborhood unsurpassed ; 
labor abundant and efficient. Prefer selling a part to all, 
and would take in exchange (as part pay) a small, well 
located farm to suit, or good city real estate that is con- 
vertible. Best reasons can be given for offering to sell 
this magnificent piece of property. J. H. Chambers, 
Oswichee, Ala. 

SOUTHERN COLONY.— Alabama farm and fruit lands, 
equal to the best in the world. Buy a home near Bir- 
mingham, the "Magic City" and railroad center, at Oak- 
man, a thriving town; good market at door; in center of 
famous Warrior coal field. 10,000 people at mines in 
neighborhood. The mineral development in this county 
will make land worth ^50 per acre soon. Buy while it is 
cheap. Also valuable town property for sale at Oakman. 
Said lands situated on Southern railroad. Address G. M, 
Masterson, manager, Oakman, Walker Co., Ala. 

FLORIDA. 

FROST-PROOF fruit, pineapple and vegetable lands, 
from ^2.50 per acre in our healthy highland lake region, 
Polk county. Tomatoes yield net returns $200 per acre. 
Irving Page, Auburndale, Fla. 

FLORIDA WANTS —Write definitely where, how much, 
cost limit, etc I have lists for every county, one to 
180,000 acres, 50 cents up. Free homesteads (160 acres) 
located with full instructions for ^10. Expert service on 
assessments, tax matters, delinquent sales and redempt- 
ions at less than half an attorney's charges. Printed 
property lists and Florida maps for postage. Thirteen 
years a Florida deed commissioner and land specialist. 
H. W. Wilkes, Louisville, Ky. 

EXTRAORDINARY BARGAIN— 640 acres near Coast R. R., 
in frost-proof Lee county (will make 64 ten-acre farms). 
Reliable; only ^i per acre. H. W. Wilkes, Louisvi le, ICy. 

5,000,000 ACRES of choice Fruit-growing, Trucking, 
and Tobacco lands; pine, cypress and ha' d wood timber 
lands; phosphate and kaolm lands for sale in F'lorida 
and South Georgia. Low prices and easy terms to actual 
settlers. Titles perfect. All information regarding 
properties or other matters cheerfully given. Write for 
catalogue. Huber & Nicholson, opposite Duval Hotel, 
Jacksonville, Fla., LI. S. A. 

THE SOUTHERN IMMIGRANT, of Arcadia, Florida, and 
any dollar paper one year for $1. Cheap land for cash or 
instalments. Sample Immigrant, 10 cents, with map of 
South Florida. References. John Cross, Arcadia, Fla. 

GEORGIA. 

ONE OF THE BEST equipped Farms in Georgia, half 
mile from Fairburn and 18 miles from Atlanta, Ga., on the 

A. & W. Pt. Railroad, for sale cheap. Write for informa- 
tion to W. P.Jones, Fairburn, Ga. 

MISSOURI. 

J. F. KINDRICK, Seymour, Mo., has a list of bargains 
in farms and fruit lands in the Ozark fruit belt. 

TEXAS. 

THE GULF COAST COUNTRY.— Folders with full infor- 
mation of this country, with prices of land mailed upon 
applicaticm. Send your address on postal card to R. 

B. Gaut, Real PIstate, H 3lo>4 Main street, Houston, 
Texas. 



TEXAS FARM AND FRUIT LANDS, equal to the best in 
the world, $5 00 per acre up. Buy a home near Houston, 
the great railroad centre, and convenient to Galves- 
ton, the growing port of entry. You will be sure to 
realize the greatest and most rapid advance, and have 
an unexcelled market at your door. For maps and 
further particulars call on or write to Cash & Luckel, 
3o6>^ Main street, Houston, or 421 Tremont street, Gal- 
veston, Texas. 



VIRGINIA. 



GO TO ALBEMARLE COUNTY, VIRGINIA, AND BUY A 

HOME.— Good Lands, Fine Climate, Cheap Homes, Low 
Taxes, Excellent Graded Schools, Boarding Schools for 
Boys and Girls. Seat of University of Virginia. No 
place offers equal inducements. Address J. C. Mc- 
KENNIE, Charlottesville, Va. 

SUFFOLK has cheapest and best transportation facilities 
in the South. Six railroads, and deep water route to the 
ocean. The great tidewater farming section of Virginia. 
A long list of farms. Come and see. Fine grass and 
stock farms. A splendid manufacturing center. Factory 
sites given away. Write or see J. Walter Hosier, Suf- 
folk, Va. 

WM M. and J. T. McALLISTER, Attorneys at Law and 
dealers in Real Estate Address Warm Springs, Bath 
county, Va. Lands bought and sold. We have for sale in 
the aggregate 10,000 acres of land; some lying ne^r Coving- 
ton, Va , some near Hot Springs, Va , and some in Poca- 
hontas county, W. Va. In the great health-giving region 
of Virginia; tcrtile river bottoms; splendid gr-zing farms; 
good gardening land; good markets; public schools; 
good roads. Prices ranging from $5 to ^100 per acre. 
Particular information given on application. 



BOTETOURT COUNTY is situated in the great valley of 
Virginia. It has two railroads, giving hast and VVest and 
North and South transportation facilities It has 500 
square miles of territory; all of the land set naturally in 
blue grass; it is in the area of heavy rainfall; her farmers 
are in good finaiuial condition. Nine-tenths of her man- 
ufacturing plants have continued in operation through 
the business depression of the last few years. Forty- 
seven cjiiiiing factories were operated the season of 
1S94. It is the banner tomato section of the Slate. Its 
banking, mining, timber, farming, fruit and stock busi- 
nesses are in good condition. 16,000 population. Good 
schools, and churches representing all the principal de- 
nominations. People public spirted; roads being im- 
proved; taxes low, and the county stands at the head of 
the list for prompt settlement wita the State. Good farm 
lands, improved and unimproved, in large or small tracts 
at reasonable prices and on terms to suit the purchaser. 
If you wish a profitable f ^rm, or simply a summer home, 
pleasant and picturesque, write us or, better, come to see 
us. We can interest you. P'arms, mills, timber and 
quarry properties sold. O. E. Ooenshain & Co., Buch- 
anan, Va. 



The University School for Boys. 

710 and 712 Madison avenue, Baltimore, Md. W. S. 
Marston, A. B. and C. E., Principal. Six Assistants. 
Fits boys for entrance to the Johns Hopkins University 
or any other university or scientific schooi. Over 19 per 
cent, of the undergraduates at the Johns Hopkins in 
1893-94 were from this school. A limited number of boys 
Irom out of town may receive board and supervision in 
the family of one of the teachers. Ci<taiogues furnished 
upon application. For imfoimation address W. S. 
MARSTON, 1021 N. Calvert Street, Baliimore, Md. 



Loyola College. 

Calvert and Madison Streets, Baltimore, lender the 

direction of the Fathers of the Society of Jesus. The 

Collegiate Year commences on the First Tuesday in 
September. For terms apply to 

Rev. John A. Morgan, S. J., President. 



WANTED.— $6500 on first mortgage at 8 per cent, to 
develoj) inside acreage in one of llie hesi cilies in South- 
west Miss uri. W. W. KUl.lKSON, .Mountain Lake 
Park, Md. 



AD VER TISEMENTS. 



BEAUMONT, TEXAS 



THE QUEEN 
OF THE NECHES. 



Beaumont has a population of 6500 ; three large lumber mills, averaging each about 100,000 feet daily ; a large 
sliiiigle mill, daily capacity 175,000 ; an ice and electric-light plant; opera-house, national bank, large foundry and 
machine shop making trnm cais ; furniture factory ; schools and churches, etc., etc. The city is on the Neches 
1 1\ er, thirty-five miles from Sabine Pass The surrounding lands are well adapted to rice, fruits, garden truck and 
f^eneral farming, and are rapidly filling up with settlers. It is in the Coast Country, and is a healthy and rich section. 
Details and furtner information can be obtained by addressing any of the following firms ; 



J. H. Broocks, Jr., Attorney. 



I. D. Polk. 



BROOCKS & POLK, Real Estate, 

BEAUMONT, TEXAS. 
P7|-v|a ^olpk TOO. COO acres Pine Lands; also 

•^^* »-'ClIC choice Fruit, Vegetable. Rice and 
Mineral Lands. Farming lands in d fferent parts of the 
State. Choice lo-acre tracts adjoining the city. Abstracts 
of Jefferso'i, Liberty, San Augustine, Sabine, Shelby, 
Newton, ('hambers, Orange, Hardin and Tyler counties. 

W. A. WARD 

^cts as Investors' and Manufacturers' Agent, 

and answers questions about the 

Coast Country. 

BEAUMONT, TEXAS. 

Gulf, Beaumont & Kansas City l^y. Co. 

RUNNING NORTH FROM BEAUMONT 
THROUGH THE PINERIES. 

This road, penetrating Virgin Pineries, opens fine op- 
portunities for the establishment of New Saw Mills. 

S. A. McNEELY, Genl. Supt. 

Beaumont, Texas. 

Beaumont Iron Works, 

Manufacturers of 

SAW MILLS and TRAM CARS 

O B. GREEVES, 

~-"^ Beai-imont, Te^cas. 



Lake Charles, La. 



50,000 ACRES 



Rice Lands_ 



$3 TO $15 
Per Acre. 



The most pro itable Agricul'ural Lands in the 
U ited States, often yielding, net, in one year more 
than the original cost. 

O. S. DOLBY, Lake Charles, La. 

Fleet, McQiNLEVtS: Co. 

Printers 

Exchange PI. and Commerce 5t. BALTIilORE. 



Kice Lands, Fine Lands, 'bVaumoVt'^I? low 
Cypress Timber k Fruit Lands ^iTxe^s." 

Write for Particulars. 
O'BRIEN, BORDAGES & O'BRIEN, 

Abstractors and Land Agents, 

BEAUMONT, TEXAS. 



Information Free 



CONCERNING 

SOUTHEAST TEXAS. 

General Farm Lands, Fruit Lands, Special Rice Lands, 

City Property, Manufacturing Industries and Special 

Business Locations. Investments for capital and 

general information. Send postage stamp 

for return information. 

REAL ESTATE EXCHANGE, 

Pattillo Higgins, Gen. Mgr., BEAUMONT, TEXAS. 
References— First National Bank of Beaumont ; Beau- 
mont Lumber Co., Beaumont; Long Mfg. Co., Beaumont. 

CONSOLIDATED EXPORT LUMBER CO. 

Manufacturers of 

Long Leaf YelloV Fine Lumber ^nd Timber. 

BEAUh/IONT, TEXAS, U. S. A. 

Lumber Exported via Sabine Pass, Texas. 



Saml. W. Goode. 



J. A. Reynolds. 



Saml. W. Goode & Co. 

REAL ESTATE and 

Real Estate First Mortgage Loans. 

We have For Sale the following Special Properties : 

OK t\i\£\ a /><-/ac LONG LEAF YELLOW PINE 
-COjUUU /iCI CiS TIMBER LANDS in Echols 
County, Georgia, through which the S. F. & W. R. R. 
runs, giving double railroad front; timber averages 2500 
feet merchantable lumber per acre not including "boards." 
Little waste land on the tract. Several slash ponds filled 
with fine cypress timber. Good fee simple title warranted. 
Land suited to growth of long-staple cotton, to trucking 
and vegetables of all kinds, to all small grains except 
wheat, to sweet and Irish potatoes, peas, melons, peaches, 
pears, peanuts, corn and other field crops. Price Sl.OO 
per acre, payable, half cash, remainder in one or two 
years with 7 per cent, interest. 

-i A t\t\€\ Arrpft^^ talbot county, ga., 

I OjUvfVr /\V»I to between Macon and Columbus, 
with various small farms on it. Abundant timber and 
water-powers. A long railroad front; excellent soil; fine 
climate. A choice site for a colony of farmers seeking 
homes. Price S5.00 per acre; half cash. 

9^\H.H. Af*f*PQ^^° miles from Bainbridge, the 
OOt'^ ilLvl vo county site of Decatur County, Ga. 
5800 acres of it in long leaf yellow pine of very fine 
quality; tract fronts four miles on Flint river. There are 
about 3000 acres farm land open; all the land excellent 
soil for general field crops and various fruits — another 
choice tract for a colony. Price S5 per acre; half cash. 

We have also a great variety of small farms all over 
Georgia, and every class of Atlanta property for sale. 

Call on or write to us if you wish investments in Georgia 
or the South. 

SAML. W. GOODE &, CO., 
IS Peachtree Street, ATLANTA, GA. 



THE 



Southern States. 



AUGUST, 1895. 



LUMBER AND RICE IN SOUTHEASTERN TEXAS. 



A development of recent growth, but 
of vast present magnitude and important 
permanent results, is being accomplished 
by the lumbermen of Southeastern Texas. 
Although the salubrious climate and fer- 
tile lands of the Sabine valley early 
attracted the pioneer, and the settlements 
at San Augustine were among the very 
first to be made by the American whites 
in Texas, the lower valley was not pene- 
trated to any extent until the advent of 
the lumbermen, comparatively but a few 
years ago. Difficulties of accessibility 
from lack of railroads and the need of 
improvements in the Sabine Pass un- 
doubtedly contributed to the long neg- 
lect of this lower Sabine region, but it 
is somewhat remarkable that the vast 
timber wealth of the section did not 
earlier attract the attention and the 
capital of the lumberman. Here was, 
until recently, the largest untouched area 
of long-leaf yellow pine forest to be 
found in America, and the lands when 
cleared are worth more for agricultural 
purposes than they cost the lumbermen 
originally. 

With the utilization of these factors of 
development and wealth a great change 
is being wrought in the entire region. 
Cities and towns are being built up, and 
following in the wake of the lumbermen 
are the truck farmer, the fruit raiser and 
the rice grower, the latter an entirely 
new industry to Texas. Railroads have 
been built and more are under way, and 
the permanent improvement of the 
Sabine harbor, which work the govern- 
ment has well nigh completed, will give 
an increased commercial advantage to 
the distributing towns on the Sabine 
and Neches rivers which must add to 



the development and importance of the 
entire section. 

Not that this section has had a mush- 
room growth so far as development is 
concerned. On the contrary, there are 
many towns setded years ago and many 
people who have lived here all their 
lives. But only within a few years, 
comparatively speaking, have the charms 
of this climate and the possibilities of 
this soil been known to the extent of 
attracting inquiry from the outside world. 
At this time it is no uncommon sight to 
see a dozen families of Western home- 
seekers unloading their household goods 
at some railway station and "making 
tracks" for the section of rice land they 
may have purchased. As stated, there 
is, therefore, no mushroom growth, no 
boom, no land sharks with a town lot 
for sale, but a steady influx of immi- 
grants, most of whom have sufiicient 
means to make a payment on their land 
and who will, within a few years, make 
this region blossom with rice crops, 
fruits, garden truck and all the varied 
products ot this semi-tropical region. 

In point of time, as well as the volume 
of capital engaged in the enterprise, the 
lumber interests come easily first and 
constitute an industry of formidable 
proportions. Millions of dollars are 
invested in the lumber industry, and the 
product finds a market not only along 
the lines of railroad and by rail shipment, 
but this section leads in the export 
trade with Mexico, South America, 
the West Indies, etc. At present, ex- 
ports are handled entirely by sailing 
\essels and steamers of light draft, but 
with the completion of the government 
work on the jetties at Sabine Pass, the 




IN THE SOUTHEASTERN TEXAS TIMBER DISTRICT. 



LUMBER AND RICE IN SOUTHEASTERN TEXAS. 223 



facilities for export trade will be equal to 
any demands the magnitude of the 
lumber output will create. 

There are some very interesting fea- 
tures in the development of the district 
under consideration. Taken simpl)^ for 
what it is itself, the lumber interest is of 
sufficiently gigantic proportions to chal- 
lenge the attention of the observer of 
the world's progress, and considered in 
all its bearings as a pioneer of perma- 
nent development and the forerunner of 
all the various industries, arts and em- 
ployments which follow the opening to 
settlement of a new and rich country, it 
will be found to be an important adjunct 
in the somewhat rapid development of a 
section destined to become notable for 
the wealth of its products and the mag- 
nitude of its commerce. The acreage 
of the timber lands in this portion of 
Texas runs up into the millions, and the 
vast forests of the region are famous for 
the quality and quantity of lumber yield 
to the acre. While the mills of Beaumont 
and Orange are the largest in the sec- 
tion, there are others scattered through 
the district, so when it is stated that the 
mills of those two cities have a capacity 
of about a million feet a day, this does 
not give more than a half complete idea 
of the magnitude of the interest in this 
section alone, for the smaller mills of a 
dozen tributary points have a combined 
capacity of about a million feet more. 
It is worth passing notice that these 
mills challenge in equipment those of 
any other mills in the world, and a 
Beaumont mill claims the world's cham- 
pionship for the biggest day's sawing 
on record. 

The following is a list of the principal 
mills of this district, with daily capacity 
of each : 

Feet. 

Lutcher & Moore Lumber Co., Orange 123,000 

T. Bancrofc, Sous & Co , Orange 65,000 

Orange Lumber Co., Orange So 000 

D. R. Wingate Lumber Co., Orange 100,000 

Texas Tram & Lumber Co., Beaumont 100,000 

Reliance Lumber Co , Beaumont go, 000 

Beaumont Lumber Co., Beaumont 85,000 

Aldridge Lumber Co., Rockland 40,000 

Nebraska Lumber Co., Carroll 25,000 

Tyler County Lumber Co., Hillister 30,000 

Warren Lumber Co. (two mill=), Warren 140,000 

J. S. & W. M. Rice, Hyatt 75. 000 

Village Mills Co , Village 80,000 

J. A. Bentley & Co., Plank 65,000 

Olive, Sternenburg & Co., Olive 75. '"'o 

Nona Mills Co., Nona 70,000 

Hooks Lumber Co., Sharon 30,000 

The long-leaf pine belt of Texas 



extends in a somewhat elliptical form 
for about 200 miles northward from 
Beaumont and Orange along each side 
of the Neches and Sabine rivers. The 
ownership of the lands is largely in the 
hands of those interested in their devel- 
opment, and the absence of the speculator 
as a timber land owner is regarded as a 
favorable factor by those who have an 
interest in the section's development. 
The lumbermen are, in fact, active allies 
in the work of inducing immigration to 
the section, and are in some instances 
leaders in the efforts to secure desirable 
settlers on the lands adapted to agricul- 
tural and horticultural purposes. By 
the efforts which are being made a very 
considerable movement in this direction 
has been inaugurated and immigrants 
from the North, West and East have 
settled and are settling in the section. 
It is also noteworthy that Boston capital 
in considerable amounts has been inter- 
ested in the development of the timber 
region, investments in railways being a 
conspicuous example. 

The price of timber lands range from 
$2 to $12 an acre, according to esti- 
mated stumpage, accessibility, etc., and 
the prices for agricultural lands in this 
section are about the same figure, of 
course becoming higher as improve- 
ments have been made. 

Most profitable results ha^'e followed 
the cultivation of these lands where en- 
ergy and intelligence have guided the 
operations. For all kinds of truck farm- 
ing the returns are almost phenomenal. 
Strawberries are also a very profitable 
crop, and great success has attended the 
efforts of the grower of fruits, especi- 
ally pears, the yield of which is very 
prolific. Many other products of the 
soil are found to yield handsome re- 
turns, and on lands adapted to its eco- 
nomical culture, none is more profitable 
than the rice crop. 

The lumber industry and the agricul- 
tural development of this section are 
closely related. The monthly pay rolls 
of these gigantic lumber mills run into 
thousands of dollars paid out in cash 
for labor, and much of this money finds 
its way into the hands of the producer 
of farm products, and most ol it 
remains at home. 



224 LUMBER AND RICE IN SOUTHEASTERN TEXAS. 



The mill interests, therefore, of Beau- 
mont and Orange, with their great pay 
rolls, have an important bearing upon 
the farmer's success in this region. It 
is decidedly to the interest of the lum- 
ber manufacturers to encourage immi- 



ers regarding the soil, climate, rainfall, 
etc. The topography of the farming 
lands is almost entirely prairie, relieved 
by sandy ridges along and between the 
various bayous which penetrate the dis- 
trict. The soil is a quick, sandy loam, 





~ #^ '**^#!^.. 



HARVESTING RICE. 



gration in every possible manner, and 
they are doing it. A thickly settled 
country means much to the mill man. 
As farm lands are purchased and occu- 
pied, new villages and towns spring up, 
and building material is in demand, new 
industries are started and more building 
material is needed. In many cases the 
lumber manufacturers are aiding the 
movement to attract newcomers and 
spending money liberally to get them, 
and in every case they are anxious for 
them to come. 

The agricultural development of 
Southeast Texas received an impetus 
from the successful operations which 
had been previously conducted in South- 
west Louisiana. Especially is this the 
case with reference to rice culture. 

The southern portions of Orange, 
Jefferson and Liberty counties and all 
of Chambers are included in this rice 
and fruit belt. While the popula- 
tion of these counties is yet com- 
paratively small, the lands are in 
good demand and many inquiries 
are being received from Western farm- 



amply watered by almost daily rainfall 
during the summer season. 

An advantage possessed by this sec- 
tion of the State for fruit and rice cul- 
ture is the protection afforded by the 
great pine forests on the north from the 
cold "northers." As a natural conse- 
quence of this forest protection from 
"northers" and the ample rainfall, the 
climate of this section is well adapted to 
rice culture and fruit and vegetable farm- 
ing. Even the more tropical fruits, such 
as sweet oranges and figs, thrive here with 
little care, and no protection save that 
afforded by the forests on the north ; 
while strawberries, vegetables and fruits 
ripen two or three weeks earlier than in 
localities that are without protection. 
The same conditions also make the cul- 
ture of rice successful and profitable. 

No irrigation is required here for fruit 
growing. The lands are sub-irrigated. 
The soil is underlaid with a subsoil of 
joint or pipe clay several feet deep. 
Under this is a stratum of water-bearing 
sand, which keeps the clay subsoil 
always wet, insuring a constant supply 



LUMBER AND RICE IN SOUTHEASTERN TEXAS. 225 



of moisture, a rapid growth and a won- 
derfully prolific and long-lived tree. 
The true statistics of crops of pears and 
other fruits of this locality might seem 
almost incredible to Northern farmers. 
An authority on the subject recently 
wrote : "The manifest destiny of this 
country is its conversion into rice and 
cane lands, orchards, vineyards and gar- 
dens. It is the natural home of the 
pear, grape, fig and strawberry, and the 
phenomenal returns realized from these 
crops, where they have been tried for a 
number of years, as well as the experi- 
ments made with others, together with 
the splendid market and shipping facili- 
ties enjoyed by this Iccalitv, will within 
a few years make every acre of these 
lands worth as much as those of Cali- 
fornia." 

One of the moat profitable of fruits 
grown in this country, as well as the 
one capable of being raised on the 
largest scale and shipped the longest 
distance, is the pear. The two kinds 
that thrive best are the Kiefter and Le 
Conte. They are easily propagated 
from cuttings, and are extremely healthy. 
The trees will begin bearing the third or 
fourth year ; the fifth they will yield a 
profit, and the sixth will net from $400 
to $600 an acre. 

Strawberry growing for market rivals 
the culture of the pear for profit, while 
for the new settler or beginner it has the 
additional advantage of bringing in a 
fair return the first season after planting. 

Experiments have recently been made 
in growing plums, chiefly the Japanese 
varieties, and the results have been such 
as to lead to the belief that this fruit is 
destined to be one of the most profita- 
ble grown in this country. Its splendid 
shipping qualities render the plum a 
most valuable addition to the list of 
products of this favored country. 

Vegetables and truck farming for 
shipment to Northern and Western mar- 
kets is one of the most profitable indus- 
tries in this section, and one that is 
increasing rapidly. The season here 
being from ten days to three weeks 
earlier than any other points, with the 
possible exception of Florida, enables 
the fruit and vegetable grower of this 
section to get his products into market 



\'ery early, and thus obtain the top 
price. Beans, peas, onions, cabbage, 
potatoes, beets, tomatoes, cantaloupes, 
watermelons and sweet potatoes grow to 
perfection in this country, and find a 
ready market in the neighboring cities 
and throughout the North and West. 

In many respects the development of 
the rice-growing industry in this section 
is of great interest and importance. 
Although large numbers of people are 
now engaged in rice growing here, only 
a small percentage of the land adapted 
to its profitable culture has as yet been 
touched by the plow. Owing to the 
small amount of time and care this crop 
requires, and the returns per acre for 
the product, it is a most desirable and 
valuable crop, the farmer being enabled 
to devote all the time necessary to 
truck, fruit and other crops, and yet 
give all required attention to a good- 
sized rice crop. For this reason, and 
because of the fact that only in a few 
sections are lands found that are adapted 
to profitable rice culture, this crop is 
destined to be one of growing import- 
ance in the agricultural development of 
Southeastern Texas. 

The chief towns of this lumber and 
rice section are Beaumont and Orange, 
the former on the Neches and the latter 
on the Sabine. They are but a short 
distance apart and both are growing 
rapidly. 

Beaumont is a thri\ing little city. 
Three railroads pass through it, or have 
a terminus there ; another one, a through 
line from the West, is heading for this 
city. This will give an outlet to the 
North, much needed at Beaumont be- 
cause of the vast quantity of lumber 
always being shipped. Still a fifth rail- 
road is projected, running from Bolivar's 
Point on Galveston Bay. With all these 
lines completed, Beaumont will be 
an important point in the Southwest, 
and will grow rapidly in population and 
material wealth. 

The great interests of this city have 
always been its lumber interests. They 
are immense. Besides the mills in ope- 
ration within the city limits, a territory 
extending 100 miles to the north pays 
tribute to this town, and ships its lumber 
there in transit to its final destination. 



226 LUMBER AND RICE IN SOUTHEASTERN TEXAS. 



while many of Beaumont's own mills 
are up the Sabine & East Texas 
Railroad. 

Orange is but a short distance from 
Beaumont. It is a decided rival of the 
city on the Neches, both in its lumber 
and agricultural interests. 

Recently the people of Orange organ- 
ized themselves into a body to attract 
immigration, and the Western country 
is being filled with pamphlets and other 
matter regarding the advantages of this 
locality. 

To many outside the lowlands of the 
South, the process of rice growing is 



and it is not until it has reached a height 
of six to twelve inches that the water is 
turned on and the field takes on its dis- 
tinguishing characteristic. The depth of 
the water ranges from four to twelve 
inches, and the flooding serves the dou- 
ble purpose of giving the rice the unu- 
sual moisture it must have in some form 
and of killing off weeds and other super- 
fluous vegetation. As rice matures the 
head looks much like oats, but the ker- 
nels more readily resemble barley, being 
more closely packed in the head than 
oats. From thirty to loo straws come 
from one s^ed, and there are from lOO 




almost as much of a mystery as the 
methods employed by the builders of 
the pyramids, and it will surprise some 
fairly well-informed people to know 
what a simple operation it is after 
all. Lands used for rice culture in 
this section are level prairie lands, 
on which water can be held by means 
of low levees during the growing sea- 
son, and which can be easily and 
effectively drained. The ground is 
prepared as for other grain, either old 
or new land being suitable, and the 
rough, unshelled rice is sown at the rate 
of about one bushel to the acre. 
Levees, which should be prepared as 
long before seeding as possible, are con- 
structed to hold the water with which 
the fields are flooded. When the rice 
is young it looks very much like wheat, 



to 400 seeds in a head. It is the only 
small cereal plant that yields the hun- 
dred-fold of scripture. 

The sowing season is from March 10 
to June 10, and the harvesting is done 
in August, September and October. 
And what a prosaic proceeding this 
harvesting is. The water is simply 
turned off, the field gets dry, and a 
twine binder goes in and gathers up the 
crop the same as if it was only an ordi- 
nai-y wheat field. A threshing machine 
turns the grain out ready for market, 
and it is sold as it comes from the 
thresher at varying prices. 

Formerly, outside of Japan and China, 
the Carolinas were the only considerable 
rice-producing sections of the world. 
With the enormous development and 
the great profitableness of the business 



LUMBER AND RICE IN SOUTHEASTERN TEXAS. 



227 



in Louisiana, and the discovery that 
there are large areas of land in 
Texas suited to rice growing, the 
attention given to the crop in that State 
will continue to increase, until Texas 
has gained a conspicuous position in the 
world's list of rice-producing sections. 

The following extract from an article 
on "Rice Growing in Louisiana," pub- 
lished in the Southern States of 
September, 1893, may be quoted here 
as now applying likewise in large part 
to Southeastern Texas : 

"Its introduction into Louisiana is of 
very recent date, no rice having been 
produced there for purpose of sale until 
after the war, and there could be no 
stronger evidence of the success that 
has attended its culture on the prairies 
of Calcasieu than the fact that Louisana 
today produces more rice than Georgia 
and Carolina, the crop for this year 
amounting to 7,500,000 bushels. On 
these broad, fertile lands, innocent of 
windy booms, untrammelled by the 
visionary lines of mythical corner lots, 
undisfigured by those blatant real estate 
signboards that have sprung up all over 
the West, the hand of industry has 
wrought wonders. Where in 1880 
there was only a sparce settlement, a 
lumber camp, perhaps, or a lone settler's 
cabin, there are today busy towns, a 
host of whirring saw mills and — fairly 
miles of rice. 

"The population is composed largely 
ot immigrants from Iowa, Illinois and 
other Western States, men who have 
come into Louisiana because they saw 
the advantages and the wealth that 
awaited them. With the latest and 
most improved machinery they have 
started in to make the southwestern 
part of the State a garden in which 
golden flowers shall grow. Steam plows, 
traction engines, pumps, windmills, all 
the busy panoply that one may see 
amid the wheat fields of Illinois, are 
puffing and whirring away beneath the 
soft blue sky of Dixie. 

"One great advantage possessed by 
the soil is its capability of sustaining the 
weight of the various machines for tilling 
the soil and harvesting the crop, which 
the ground of Georgia and Carolina is 
too soft to bear. Clay predominates, with 



a subsoil of great hardness and consist- 
ency. The general character of the 
land is somewhat similar to the great 
areas devoted to the cultivation of var- 
ious kinds of grain in the Northwest. 
The surface undulations, however, are 
less marked, and the general aspect is 
one of more complete flatness. In their 
primitive state every depression formed 
a pond of slight depth, wherein vege- 
tation of all kinds accumulated and 
decaved, making a deposit of great 
richness and fertility. Such a surface 
arrangement as this, where the water 
was held in natural reservoirs, would 
seem to be an ideal formation for pur- 
poses of rice culture, as the gully could 
be closed at some convenient point and 
the water allowed to run from one 
depression to another, as suited the 
wishes of the rice planter. 

"One great drawback to such an 
arrangement, however, was tound to be 
the superabundance of water which 
would at times accumulate in the basin, 
sufficient in its volume to break any 
ordinary levee erected to hold it in 
check. This danger is obviated, how- 
ever, by an improved system of ditches 
and embankments consisting of a large 
ditch dug through the centre of the 
basin, with a strong gate at both ends, 
so that should any excess of water be 
present it can be safely and rapidly 
passed oft", and prevented from o\'er- 
flowing the adjacent fields. Levees are 
also constructed on the outer edges of 
the field, and the water conducted past 
them and stored for use when required. 
The great central drain has gates open- 
ing from it into each field, and there are 
also openings in the outer levee so that 
water can be let in at any time when it 
is desired, and yet kept away from other 
fields where it is not wanted. The 
separation of difterent sections ot the 
plantation by cross levees, thus cutting- 
it up into plots of convenient size, is 
very necessary, especially at harvest 
time. 

"In order that some idea may be 
obtained of the enormous amount ot 
ditching and leveeing required on a rice 
plantation, it may be stated that Col. 
Screven, of Savannah, Ga., one of the 
best informed rice men in the United 



228 



LUMBER AND RICE IN SOUTHEASTERN TEXAS. 



States, in his testimony before the Ways 
and Means Committee at Washington 
in 1890, calculated that a well- equipped 
place containing 640 acres would have 
drains and embankments footing up to 
115 miles. To make all these levees 
and ditches would be too great a task 
for the spade, and a ditching machine, 
consisting of a huge plow-like arrange- 
ment drawn with a capstan, is used. 
These machines cut a ditch two feet 
deep and three feet wide, and throw the 
dirt out to form the levee, which is com- 
pleted and put into proper shape by a 
man who follows with a spade. Three 
men can thus make levees containing 
six or eight hundred cubic feet of earth 
in a day, and at an expense of about 
two cents for each yard of work. 
Everything is done systematically, and 
with an eye to reducing expenditure in 
every possible way. 

"To obtain the best results rice should 
be planted toward the end of March, 
or in the early part of April, as earlier 
planting sometimes rots in the ground 
or is stunted by cold weather, and later 
planting as a rule does not yield so 
well. Climatic conditions, however, 
maintain a certain margin around every 
rule of this kind. The preparation of 
the soil before the seed is put in is a 
matter of great importance. Mr. R. S. 
Stoddard, of Welsh, La., one of the 
most intelligent and progressive rice 
planters in the State, says in a recent 
letter to the writer that to this imperfect 
preparation of the soil is due to a vast 



amount of loss manifested by under- 
growth, uneven ripening, and failure to 
come up through the ground. The 
soil should be thoroughly pulverized 
after ploughing, and the additional work 
will be amply repaid by the increased 
output. 

"The sowing in Southwest Louisiana 
is mostly accomplished by machinery 
of various makes, drills and broadcast 
seeders being both in extensive use. 
The White Honduras rice is the 
variety most commonly used, although 
the Carolina rice is very popular in 
some sections of the State. On rich 
soil between one and two bushels are 
generally planted to the acre, some 
planters differing from others in their 
opinions about the amount necessary to 
obtain the best results. The prevailing 
tendency now, how"ever, is toward heavy 
sowing, and to endeavor to procure a 
good stand by planting more seed, 
instead of planting sparingly and ex- 
pecting the rice to stool sufficiently to 
make a good stand. Conditions of 
weather and soil are not always favor- 
able to this stool. ng process. 

"The time that elapses after the rice 
has been planted until it makes its 
appearance above ground depends 
largely on the condition of the weather, 
but if all conditions of weather and soil 
are favorable it should show itself in 
about a week. Early planting is often 
slow to appear, while rice that is planted 
in the latter part of May or in June will 
sometimes be above ground in three 






..-.■',•»>- .^r;j* 



LUMBER AND RICE IN SOUTHEASTERN TEXAS. 



days. Water is generally turned on the 
rice soon after it is planted for the pur- 
pose of making it sprout, and for that 
reason this first flooding is called the 
"sprout water." It usually is allowed 
to remain on the field some twenty- four 
hours, and has not only the effect of 
sprouting the rice, giving it an early 
start, but it settles the soil, filling up all 
the cavities and making the young 
plants come up evenly. Another flood- 
ing, known as the "stool" or "stretch 
water," is turned on when the plants are 
about six inches high, and should only 
be about three inches deep to start on, 
being increased in quantity as the rice 
grows. When the growth has reached 
some two feet in height, if the weather 
is warm, deep water should be kept on 
it until the crop begins to get ripe. 

"In Louisiana, owing to the firmness 
of the soil, self-binding harvesting ma- 
chines are used with great success, and 
it is only a few of the small farmers who 
now use the sickle and cradle. An aver- 
age yield per acre is about twelve bar- 
rels. A great deal of trouble is expe- 
rienced from the attacks of "rice birds," 
which devour the grain with the greatest 
avidity, and produce the greatest amount 
of havoc. The damage that is some- 
times wrought by these little pests is 
truly enormous, and all sorts of means 
are resorted to to scare them away. 
Scarecrows answer the purpose after a 
fashion, and animated ones, armed with 
some sort of a firearm, generally succeed 
in dealing death and destruction among 
the pestiferous little creatures. 

"Very few, if any, planters clean their 
own rice. After it has been threshed it 
is shipped to a rice mill, either in New- 
Orleans or some other point, and there 
cleaned. The process of cleaning is one 
requiring great nicety, and the \alue of 
the cleaned product is considerably de- 
pendent on how the milling is done. 
The rice is first screened to remove all 
trash and so forth, and is then conveyed 
to two stones about five or six feet in 
diameter and some eight or twelve inches 
thick, one of which revolves, while the 
other, called the "bed stone," is stationary. 
The distance between these two stones is 
about two-thirds the length of a rice 
grain, and the theory is that the revoh'- 
ing upper stone produces a sort of air 



suction which raises the rice up on end 
at an angle of about forty-five degrees. 
The husk is broken open and the grain 
drops out, the chaft" being blown away by 
means of a fan, and the rice is then taken 
by spiral conveyors to the pounders, 
egg-shaped vessels in which elongated 
cone-shaped upright pestles are continu- 
ally working, and they remove by their 
continual agitation of the grain, the 
yellowish coating which it still retains, 
and impart to it a creamy tinge. The 
stuff" that is removed is known commer- 
cially as "rice bran," and commands a 
price of about ten or twelve dollars a 
ton. After being thoroughly pounded 
the rice is put through a system of 
screening and fanning processes which 
effectually separate the bran from the 
grain proper. The rice is afterwards 
carried to the brush or polishing machine, 
in which, as its name implies, there is a 
rapidly re\-olving brush, which rubs off 
the inner cuticle and imparts a polish to 
the grain itself, the residue being a fine 
powder or flour called "rice polish." A 
combination of graduated screens then 
divides the rice into the several grades 
by which it is known commercially on 
'Change, and it is then ready to be 
barrelled and put on the market. 

"The prices that have prevailed for 
rough rice lately have not been what 
they should be by any means. The 
cause of this lies directly in the want of 
proper facilities for the storage of the 
crop, present conditions bringing about 
an enormous dumping upon the market 
at one time. What is needed are ware- 
houses and elevators in which the rough 
rice can be stored and graded as is done 
with other grains in the North and West. 
This method would have the effect of 
straightening out things at once, and 
there is hardly any doubt but what it 
will be in \ogue before very long, though 
the present tendency among the planters 
seems to be towards securing more mills 
and creating a greater competition for 
the rough product. This is a step in the 
right direction, but a sort of side-long 
one, for were the warehouses and eleva- 
vators to be erected, and the planter thus 
enabled to keep from rushing his crop 
immediately on the market, the mills now 
existing would be found amply sufficient 
for all purposes." 




•'a « N-.'^^-. -.^ 



A MILE OK PEARS. 



GEORGIA FRUIT FAIRS. 



By IV. L. Glessncr. 



Much has been said and written re- 
garding the wonderful advantages pos- 
sessed by Georgia as a fruit growing 
section, and especially as to the perfect 
adaptability of its soil and climate in 
the production of peaches ; but it re- 
mained for the Peach Carnival at Macon 
and the Midsummer Fruit Fair at Tiiton, 
to give a living, glowing illustration ol 
these advantages — a picture painted by 
the hand of the Great Master in nature's 
own colors. No one who saw these 
exhibits could ever after accuse the fruit 
catalogues of exaggeration in color or 
size, for here were peaches twelve and 
fifteen inches in circumference, brilliant 



Note. — The illustrations accompanying this article 
represent exhibits at the Macon Peach Carvinal and 
the Tifton Fruit Fair, and localities from which some 
of the exhibits were tent. The engravings of orchard 
views were made for the Southern States from re- 
cent photographs of places along the Central Railroad 
of Georgia, kindly furnished for that purpose by Mr. 
J.C. Haile, General Passenger Agent of that road. The 
views of exhibits are from photoeraphs furnished 
by the Georgia Southern & Florida Railroad. 



with their red and gold, tempting to 
eye and palate; plums in red, yellow 
and green, large as goose eggs; grapes 
in purple, pink and amber, the bunches 
weighing a pound and o\'er : pears and 
apples in green, yellow and russet ol all 
sizes and \'arieties ; melons weighing 
from fifty to seventy pounds, with great 
red hearts of cooling juiciness. No 
more attractive and powerful advertise- 
ment of Georgia's horticultural advan- 
tages has ever been made. Those to 
the manor born were surprised at the 
rich resources of their native State, 
while the \-isitors from other sections 
were forced to acknowledge that the 
half had not been told in the reports 
which they had heard. 

The Peach Carni\al at Macon was 
designed to show to the world the great 
horticultural resources of the country 
which surrounds that city for a distance 
of a hundred miles in e\ erv direction, 



232 



GEORGIA FRUIT FAIRS. 



and it attained the purpose 
for which it was designed. 
There is probably no other 
city in the South which could 
for twenty continuous days 
have made so fine a display 
of such perishable fruits as 
the peach and the grape. 
The carnival was held in the 
beautiful city park, and 
opened on the first day of 
July and closed on the 
twentieth. It was a great 
object lesson, for here could 
be seen peaches of every 
variety, from the seedling 
to that queen of all fruits, 
the Elberta ; plums of all 
colors and sizes, from the 
product of the thicket to the 
Kelsey ; grapes, from the 
pine and honeyed Delaware 
to the amber-green Niagara. 
In short, the expert and the 
amateur vied with each other 
in their eflbrts to show the 
greatest variety and hand- 
somest fruits. This great 
and beautiful exhibit was 
purely a work of love, pro- 
ceeding from a patriotic 
desire to show to the world 
the rich possibilities of this 
section. No premiums were 
offered and no admission 
was charged. It was a suc- 
cess in that it attracted 
people from every section of 
the Union and gave them a 
beautiful and practical illus- 
tration of what could be and 
was being done in Georgia. 
The carnival was first sug- 
gested by Mr. Theo. W. 
Ellis, and secured the imme- 
diate and urgent advocacy 
of the Macon Telegraph. 
The Telegraph succeeded in 
arousing the interest and en- 
thusiasm of all the public- 
spirited people of the city, 
and the enterprise was taken 
in hand by a number of 
progressive business men, 
who gave to it gratuitously 
their time, thought and en- 




GEORGIA FRUIT FAIRS. 



233 




KXHIBIT AT TIFTO.N I-RIIT FAIR. 



ergies. The Peach Carnival has proba- 
bly established itself as an annually 
recurring event. 

The second annual Midsummer Fruit 
Fair was held at Tifton on the loth, nth 
and 1 2th of July, and some idea of its 
success may be gained from the fact 



that there were 1594 entries. Experi- 
enced fruit growers from other sections 
declared it to be the finest display of 
fruit, in color, size and quality, that they 
had ever seen. Among the exhibits 
were a Chinese cling tree two years old, 
upon which were 115 peaches; a two- 




hXIIIBlT AT TIl-TON KRl'II FAIR 




GRAPES, PLUMS AND WATERMELONS. 



GEORGIA FRUIT FAIRS. 



235 




PICKING PEARS. 



year old Kelsey plum tree with 350 
plums ; a peach seedling five feet ten 
inches high, from a seed planted March 
loth last. The fruit was not only per- 
fect and in almost infinite variety, but it 



was tastefully displayed. Among the 
exhibits were a star-shaped pyramid 
covered with a variety of grapes, the 
base being festooned with grapevines ; a 
pyramid of peaches, with an anchor and 




PEACH CARNIVAL EXHIBIT. 



236 



GEORGIA FRUIT FAIRS. 



diamond in grapes on the side ; a hand- 
some display of canned fruits by the 
Tifton Canning Co. The display at 
this fair is the more remarkable be- 
cause of the fact that five years 
ago this section was an almost un- 
broken pine forest and the oldest 
orchards and vinyards are but four 
years' old. Among the successful ex- 
hibitors were Northern men who have 
settled in this section within the past 
three years. Excursion parties from 
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Dakota 
and other States were in attendance, 
and were so impressed by what they 
saw that many of them purchased land 
and will move down in the fall. 

The initial Midsummer Fruit Fair 
was held in Tifton three years ago at 
the residence of Capt. H. H. Tift. On 
a long table in the dining room was a 
handsome and tastefully arranged dis- 
play of peaches and grapes for a party 
of Northern visitors whom I had brought 
down in July. That little display sug- 
gested the idea of holding a fruit fair, 
and the next year a special building was 
erected and the counties of Berrien, 
Worth and Irwin united in holding a 
fair at which there were over 1000 entries, 
and its success was so marked that an 



additional building was erected this year 
and both were filled. 

These midsummer fruit fairs have 
been productive of much good to Geor- 
gia in two ways. They have attracted 
to Georgia the attention of fruit growers 
throughout the Union, and many have 
moved to this section and planted out 
large orchards and vineyards. These 
fruit growers are intelligent and enter- 
prising men, making the best of citizens. 
Holding these fairs in the hottest sea- 
son of the year, visitors from the North 
are shown that the degree of heat in 
this section at this time of the year is 
no greater than in the North and, in 
fact, not so oppressive, and thus one 
great fear is removed. These Northern 
visitors have also a better opportunity 
of seeing the growing crops and forming 
a better idea of the agricultural capa- 
bilities of our section. 

I believe that the example set by 
Macon and Tifton will be followed by 
other sections of Georgia and by other 
Southern States, and in a few years the 
midsummer fair will be an institution of 
the South, attracting thousands of visitors, 
thus eliminating the idea that the South 
is too hot for a white man to live and 
work in. 



CROPS AND BUSINESS IN THE SOUTH. 



Letters from Bankers and Others Showing that the South is Nozv Raising Its 

Foodstuffs More Largely than Ever Before in Its History ; that Its Crops 

This Year are Unprecedently Large ; that the Farmers are More 

Nearly Out of Debt and are Living Better than at any 

Time Since the War, and that Business in All Its 

Ramifications is Improving. 



In 1894 the South raised nearly 
500,000,000 bushels of corn. That was 
re.a^arded as a very larg^e crop and in 
some of the States the yield was the 
best for years. The great crop of 1894 
will, however, be far surpassed by that 
of 1895. The South is rapidly diversi- 
fying its agriculture. Its acreage in 
corn this year is probably considerably 
more than in any former year. An 
unusually favorable season has produced 
a splendid crop, and the yield will cer- 
tainly be 600,000,000 bushels — probably 
650,000,000 bushels. At fifty cents a 
bushel, the general average price that 
corn commands throughout the South, 
this means a gain of at least $50,000,000 
to Southern farmers over the value of 
their 1894 corn crop. 

A large corn crop is, however, but 
one indication of the diversifying ten- 
dency of Southern agriculture. Fruits 
and vegetables are attracting great 
attention, and the yields this year have 
been unprecedentedly large. The South 
has been blessed as never before in 
every crop except cotton, and though 
that may be smaller in yield than last 
year, its money value promises to be 
larger. It is an interesting story of 
abundant crops, of freedom from debts, 
of increasing prosperity which is told in 
the following letters to the Southern 
States from bankers throughout the 

South : 

Frank Hammond, 

President The People's Bank, 
Greenville, S. C. 

The business outlook for Greenville 
and surrounding country was never so 
bright as at present. Three new cotton 



factories are now building, with good 
prospects for two more ; large sums of 
money being paid out to labor ; crop 
prospects never better, special attention 
being paid to a diversity of crops ; 
cotton a little less in acreage, with an 
immense acreage in corn which promises 
large returns. Oat and wheat crops are 
large and well saved. Apples, peaches, 
grapes, melons and other fruits were 
never so plentiful as this year. No corn 
will be purchased by farmers for another 
year, and none at all will be shipped 
into this county during the next twelve 
months. We have vegetables in abun- 
dance and more attention is paid to 
saving them than formerly. More 
money is now deposited in banks by 
farmers than before in the history of the 
State. There is little immigration as 
yet in this section, but with our wonder- 
ful climate, and located near the mount 
ains, with good water, it is a question of 
a short time when immigration will 
gravitate here with a rush. 

J. Q. Rhea, 

Cashier City National Bank, 
Griffin, Ga. 

Business with us at present is almost 
at a stand still, as is always the case for 
two months prior to opening the cotton 
season. Our merchants and business 
men are stocking up in anticipation of a 
good fall trade. Our farmers report fair 
crops of cotton, and are buoyed up with 
the hope of obtaining higher prices this 
fall. Fanners say they have the best 
corn crop ever known in this section of 
Georgia. The oat crop was almost a 
failure on account of the severe winter 



2-,8 



CROPS AND BUSINESS IN THE SOUTH. 



killing them out. Other small crops, 
such as potatoes, melons, fruits, etc., 
were never better. Our farmers bring 
meat to town to sell now, where they 
had to come to town to buy their meat 
a iew years ago. It is a common thing 
to see farm wagons on our streets loaded 
with corn, fodder and hay to sell, and 
we look upon our farmers as the best off ■ 
and most independent people in the 
world. The whole outlook, from our 
standpoint, is progressive and encour- 
aging. 

A. J. Rooks, 

Cashier Fayette County Bank, 

SOMERVILLE, TeNN. 

Business of every kind has been better 
here by far since January ist than at 
any previous time during the past five 
years. Crops of every kind are in fine 
condition and the prospects are very 
bright indeed. This county is shipping 
corn this year and the crop now grow- 
ing promises to be the largest ever 
grown in this county. The large 
Northern immigration during the past 
eighteen months has had fine effect and 
caused great diversification of crops. 
The movement of Northern people 
into this county continues in ever 
increasing proportions, and the county 
is becoming practically a Northern 
colony. The immigrants are a good 
class of Northern farmers who come 
here with sufficient money to buy farms 
and generally bring their stock with 
them. All are making good crops and 
without exception are well pleased with 
their new homes. The fruit crop is 
immense, and is destined to be a leading 
source of revenue to this county. Our 
people extend to all who come here a 
cordial welcome, and this fact has much 
to do in causing the people to settle 
among us. 

W. E. Ellis, 

Cashihr Crowley State Bank, 
Crowley, La. 

This section of country, which is in 
the heart of the river district, is doing 
fairly well. We have the prospect of 
an average crop, but prices are ruling 
low. Still I hope It will pay the farmer 
better than raising- corn or oats in the 



North. Money is very close and our 
people are making every dollar go as 
far as two did a few years ago. The 
financial depression has been a good 
lesson and the result will be beneficial. 
More corn is being raised this season 
than ever before, and it proves a paying 
crop. More attention is also being paid 
to fine breeds of hogs, which are being 
scattered largely over this section, and 
are found to be a paying investment. 
Fruit trees of nearly all kinds grow 
here luxuriantly, and we have a fine 
crop this season of peaches, pears and 
plums. This country is so new that 
much of our fruit has not yet come into 
bearing. Emigration from the North is 
quite brisk. Strangers are on our streets 
every day and reports of real estate 
sales are frequent. Our beautiful prairie 
lands are being taken up rapidly and 
the price is advancing. The canals 
which are being cut all over this coun- 
try for rice irrigation, several of them 
with a capacity to irrigate from 10,000 
to 20,000 acres of rice each, indicate the 
probable future of Crowley and her sur- 
roundings. 

W. A. Law, 

President Spartanburg Savings Bank 

AND Central National Bank, 

Spartanburg, S. C. 

Both mercantile and agricultural pur- 
suits have been characterized by unu- 
sual economy in Spartanburg county. 
For months we have not had a sin- 
gle business failure. Construction of 
several large cotton mills, an electric 
railroad and numerous small homes, 
ha\'e created a strong demand for labor, 
building material and hardware. These 
conditions and the probable higher price 
for cotton unite to create a much 
brighter outlook in trade circles. Cotton 
is late, poorly fruited and of much 
smaller acreage than last year. Corn 
has been planted much more freely 
than usual, and present appearances 
indicate an excellent yield both on 
uplands and lowlands. Much attention 
has this year been given to the planting 
of peas. Every year witnesses an 
increase in fruit and truck production, 
and the numerous cotton mill towns in 
Spartanburg county furnish a ready 



CROPS AND BUSINESS IN THE SOUTH. 



239 



cash market for such crops. We antici- 
pate a bright future. Over 100,000 
spindles now in course of construction 
show an immense development in our 
most profitable line of business, viz — 
cotton manufacturing. 

John H. Leathers, 

Cashier Louisville Banking Company, 
Louisville, Ky. 

The situation in Kentucky, both finan- 
cially and commercially, is better than 
it has been for a long time past. Ken- 
tucky crops are good with the exception 
of wheat, the yield not being very large. 
Corn, tobacco, rye, oats and vegetables 
of all sorts and fruits of all kinds are 
abundant. Kentucky always has a 
great diversity of crops, and the general 
condition of the crop this year is very 
good. The financial situation is one of 
improvement also. Taking it altogether, 
so far as Kentucky is concerned, the 
outlook is flattering, and we are, we 
believe, on the eve of an era of great 
prosperity. 

Meredith A. Sullivan, 

Cashier The Waco State Bank, 
Waco, Texas. 

Since the panic of 1893, the banks in 
Texas have had a plethora of money. At 
that time they called in all the loans they 
possibly could from every source, and 
since then a great many of them have not 
been able to put it all out again. The 
merchants have been conservative, buy- 
ing and selling cautiously, extending 
credit to only such as deserv'e it, conse- 
quendy we have had fewer failures. 
Business is in a healthy condition ; crop 
prospects were never better. Texas 
has never raised such a grain crop ; 
corn and oats to spare, and as for cotton, 
Texas is strictly in the push. 

The people of Texas have at last dis- 
covered the necessity of diversifiying 
their crops ; they are now planting 
hogs, and propose to raise their own 
meat instead of going to Chicago and 
Kansas City. They are planting fruits 
and vegetables, and propose to take ad- 
\'antage of the resources God Almighty 
has given them. All we need is people 
and money to develop what we have. 



Hon. Sturges E. Jones, 

Mayor of the City of Roanoke, 
Roanoke, Va. 

We-have in this section of Southwest 
Virginia most excellent crops. The 
wheat crop is above the average per 
acre by several bushels. The oat crop 
is also excellent, and the corn crop is 
the most superb one that I have seen 
in many years. There is also a great 
quantity of fruit — apples, peaches and 
other fruits of various kinds ; in fact, 
this year will be a noted one in this sec- 
tion of Virginia in the way of products. 

As to the business outlook, it is im- 
proving and brightening each day. The 
Roanoke Machine Shops have recently 
gone to work on regular time of ten 
hours per day, and are now working 
200 more men than they have for the 
past three years. This is regarded by 
our people as indicative of better times, 
more money, better wages, and, indeed, 
a period of prosperity and happiness. 

The Norwich Lock Manufacturing 
Co., in the western portion of the city, 
has also increased its force recently, and 
is doing considerable work in its line. 
The Castle Rock Mining Co. is negoti- 
ating for the lease of the Roanoke Iron 
Co.'s furnace, with good prospect of 
securing same, and it is belie\ed that 
this furnace will soon be in blast and 
will employ at least 100 men. The two 
furnaces of the Crozer Iron Co. are now 
in operation. 

The strike in the coal fields of South- 
west Virginia materially afiected busi- 
ness of this city, and, in fact, at all 
points of importance along the Norfolk 
& Western Railroad from Lynchburg 
west. This strike, having now been sat- 
isfactorily settled, and the employes of 
the railroad who were laid off on ac- 
count of this strike having gone back to 
their employment, and the prospect for 
the expenditure of considerable money 
in the w^ay of labor for the repairing of 
cars and engines and the building of 
new freight equipment is better j^erhaps 
than it has been for two or three years. 

Confidence is being restored, and we 
have every reason to believe that within 
the next two or three months the City 
of Roanoke will be in better condition 



240 



CROPS AND BUSINESS IN THE SOUTH. 



than it has been for the past eighteen 
months or two years. Idle men will 
find employment, and the wheels of in- 
dustry will be again put in motion and 
all things will move along in that smooth 
way which indicates prosperity, success 
and thrift. 

There has been no immigration of 
farmers from the North and West to 
our section recently, though there has 
been a stiffening of prices for farming 
lands in all this section, and farms are 
selling better and are more in demand 
than city property. 

W. J. Cameron, 

Cashier The First National Bank, 
Birmingham, Ala. 

The business situation is much im- 
proved recently as evidenced by 
increased clearings and renewed activity 
in real estate, though prices for the 
latter are still greatly in favor of the 
purchaser. The advance in iron is 
causing many furnaces to go into blast 
with a considerable consequent increase 
of output for this section and with 
immediate local benefit arising both from 
the larger number of men employed 
and from advancing wages to all 
workmen. 

The past year has been a very good 
one, too, for our farmers. As a rule, 
they have bought no corn this year, and 
all the merchants report much smaller 
demand for advances on crops than 
usual. It has been a remarkable season 
in many respects, but most striking 
perhaps in the vast crops of fruit, 
vegetables and melons raised and 
marketed. This comparatively new 
source of profit to our farmers has 
been assisted materially by good roads 
and a constantly increasing home 
demand. All conditions are favorable 
for good crops and a profitable year in 
this locality. 

W. G. Brockway, 

Cashier First National Bank, 
Gadsden, Ala. 

Business conditions in Gadsden are 
better than they have been for a long- 
period. The Weller Pipe Factory & 
Machine Works is one of the new- 



enterprises for Gadsden which is being 
opened up and will be ready for busi- 
ness within the next ten days, manufac- 
turing a very fine grade of iron soil pipe 
and general machinery, employing from 
thirty to fifty hands, and with ample 
capital to carry this enterprise into a 
successful business. The large cotton 
mill now being built by the Dwight Co., 
of Boston, and located at Gadsden, is 
under roof and will soon be ready for 
the machinery. They will be erecting 
150 houses next week. The factories 
of Gadsden are busy and prospering. 
The bank clearings for the city are 
equal to the busiest period of the year. 
Farmers are borrowing less than usual 
this year and are diversifying their crops 
as never before. This county has been 
favored with fine seasons, and the pros- 
pects for all crops are very fine and 
comparatively safe from any danger. 
Many farmers from the North and West 
are visiting this section and some ha\e 
settled here. 

Geo. B. Edwards, 

Prest. Exchange Banking & Trust Co. 
Charleston, S. C. 

In reply to yours of 3d instant will 
say that for several years past the farm- 
ers in this vicinity have been giving 
special attention to the growing on the 
farm of all the necessary food crops to 
sustain the farm and their households. 
This of course has somewhat reduced 
the volume of the provision trade in 
this section of the country, but has 
increased the business of other branches 
of trade, such as dry goods, groceries, 
boots and shoes, &c., &c. 

Many farmers have gone into the cul- 
tivation of fruits and vegetables with 
wonderfully profitable results ; this is 
particularly the case around Charleston, 
where the annual product of fruits and 
vegetables amount to more than two 
million of dollars in actual cash. 

This location is particularly adaptetl 
for the growing of garden truck for the 
Northern and Eastern markets, for the 
reason that the seasons are sufficiently 
early for the products to command 
good prices, and yet not early enouyli 
to ha\ e the prices affected by the cold 



CROPS AND BUSINESS IN THE SOUTH. 



241 



weather at the North and East, which is 
the case when garden products come 
into market too early, and before 
spring has really opened. 

So far there has been no immigration 
of farmers from the West, for the rea- 
son no doubt that they are not aware of 
the peculiar advantages of this locality 
for truck- farming ; there are, however, , 
a number of farmers from the North 
who have located here and are making 
a fine success of market gardening. 

Jos. A. McCord, 

Cashier Atlanta Trust & Banking Co. 
Atlanta, Ga. 

The extreme panic that has been on 
the country for the last four years has 
been felt to a great extent in this section, 
although I believe it has hurt the South 
less than any other section of the Union, 
with the possible exception of the larger 
cities that continue to grow regardless 
of the financial condition of the country, 
but it is my pleasure to state that, in 
my opinion, the business condition of 
this inimediate section is in a far better 
fix than for several years past. All the 
schemes of promotion and development 
that did not have a sound and safe basis 
have been crushed and have vanished, 
but any enterprise that had real merit in 
it, although suffering from the extreme 
panic, will come out of it in much better 
shape than if the conditions had been 
changed. The business of this institu- 
tion is principally with the merchants, 
as three-fourths of it is with the mercan- 
tile trade. We can see a much better 
state of affairs than for some time past. 
The merchants are selling a smaller 
quantity of the real necessities of life 
than they have for several years. This 
is brought about by the farmer di\-ersi- 
fying his crops and raising more bread- 
stuffs and meat at home than they have 
since the war between the States. 
There is a decided increase in the corn 
production. Some sections of our State 
within a radius of 150 miles of Atlanta 
are giving considerable attention to the 
development of fruits of different kinds. 
The peach crop in this State has been 
finer than it has been for years : more 
of it has been marketed, as the facilities 



for marketing it have been better. The 
competition between the railroads causes 
it to get prompt attention and transpor- 
tation, thereby opening up new markets 
for the entire trade. In reference to the 
farmers coming from the North and 
West, there have been some few colonies 
located in the Southern part of the State. 
We have had an influx from the North 
and West in the middle part of this 
State for several years, and when one of 
them comes another follows. The most 
hopeful sign for the immediate pros- 
perity of this section that I can see is 
that the farmers are learning to econo- 
mize. Last season they only got five 
cents per pound for their cotton — cotton 
being the money-producing product of 
this section. They are now basing their 
expenses on this price. Heretofore 
they have been running their ex- 
penses on a basis of eight cents. In 
this there is a saving of about 40 per 
cent. Then with the increase of busi- 
ness and restoration of confidence, I 
feel sure they will get a better price for 
their crops, and thus what they save by 
economy will enable them to extinguish 
the debts they now owe. 

R. T. Nesbitt, 

Commissioner of Agriculture, 
Atlanta, Ga. 

The prospects for the crops are as 
follows : Corn, very fine all over the 
State, except over some small areas. 
The State will make more corn than 
ever before in her history. Cotton is 
not so good, from ten days to two 
weeks late, and unless we have a late 
and open fall, the crops will be much 
cut oft" in the upper part of the State. 
With favorable weather from this out, I 
hope for a yield of three-fourths of 
last year's. The minor crops, such as 
rice, ground-peas, sugarcane, sorghum, 
field-peas, potatoes, etc., are without 
exception unusually fine, and good 
crops of each are almost assured. 

The fruit crop, which has mosdy 
been saved at home, or shipped to the 
North, was simply phenomenal. Begin- 
ning with strawberries in the early 
spring, and going through the whole 
list of fruits and berries, Georgia has 
raised them all in preat abundance, and 



242 



CROPS AND BUSINESS IN THE SOUTH. 



many of the growers have been well 
rewarded. 

The day of diversified farming has 
reached this State at last, and we are 
no longer slaves to King Cotton. In 
the past five years there has been a 
great deal more attention given to the 
raising of corn and hogs, and the 
grasses and fruits, and in many towns 
where three years ago the surrounding 
farmers bought all their bread and 
meat, now you can daily see home- 
made bacon and lard and corn offered 
for sale. Our people are erecting 
creameries and canning factories, and 
establishments for evaporating fruit, and 
are clearly traveling the road that leads 
to independence and wealth. Not 
many Northern immigrants as yet, but 
the stream has turned this way, and I 
look for a large influx of Northern men 
during the next twelve months. 

John W. Reynolds, 

President First National Bank, 
Rome, Ga. 

The financial situation is much bright- 
er with us. Really, Rome has not suf- 
fered much from the recent panics. Our 
diversified manufacturing interests are 
very large and successful. The crops 
are very fine. The corn crop is about 
made, and it is very large. Diversified 
crops are the order of the day in this 
section. If this is kept up at the pres- 
ent rate, in a few years the cotton crop 
will be our surplus. As yet there is no 
appreciable immigration from the North 
to this section. 

S. Levy, Jr., 

Prest. The Commercial Natl. Bank, 
Shreveport, La. 

The most significant indication of 
restored confidence and prosperity in 
North Louisiana is the very limited 
demand for money at this, our dull 
season of the year ; again, all whole- 
sale houses in this city last season were 
selling goods on long credit, now, as a 
rule, are receiving cash payments. 
Cotton, though late, promises to yield a 
good crop, and as trade conditions 
indicate, a fair price will be received for 
it. The farmers of North Louisiana 



have increased the acreage of corn to 
such an extent, and are raising hogs 
also, that as a rule they will not only 
have a bountiful supply for home con- 
sumption, but hundreds of hogs will be 
shipped to Chicago. 

The fruit and vegetable industry in 
this immediate vicinity has grown to 
such proportions that the growers have 
formed a shipping association. This 
has proved very satisfactory, and in 
this industry the future promises all the 
most sanguine could anticipate. The 
immigration to Western Louisiana from 
the North and West continues in a 
steady stream, and is of a very desira- 
ble character. To a man they are 
self-sustaining. 

In this connection I have to say there 
are still thousands of acres of virgin 
lands here waiting for the man with his 
hoe, and which can be bought very 
cheap and on most any terms. Anyone 
who knows the restlessness and dis- 
satisfaction prevailing among the farmers 
of many parts of the West and North- 
west would be forcibly impressed with 
the wonderfully contented disposition ot 
our farmers. The cause of this is 
simply prosperity. 

J. B. Anderson, 

Cash. The Exchange National Bank, 
Tampa, Fla. 

The principal industry in this section 
up to the freeze of last winter was that 
of growing oranges and lemons, but 
with the exception of the section of the 
country about fifty miles south of us 
the orange and lemon trees were almost 
entirely killed. Many of the groves, 
however, have sprouted out and the 
trees appear to be doing fairly well 
under the circumstances. Down in 
what is known as the Manatee section 
there is a large quantity of vegetables, 
such as cabbages, potatoes, tomatoes, 
etc., raised in abundance. The crop 
this year has been fairly good. We will in 
this immediate locality have no oranges 
to ship next winter. Some few will be 
shipped fro;n the Manatee river coun- 
try. ; 

Our principal industry in Tampa is 
that of the manufacture of clears. We 



CROPS AND BUSINESS IN THE SOUTH. 



^3 



have 140 cigar factories in operation. 
The output per annum is about seven 
milHon cigars. The weekly pay-roll 
averages the year round about eighty 
thousand dollars. 

Tampa is forging ahead, rapidly 
building up. We have had by actual 
count an increase of eight thousand 
population in the past twelve months, 
and still they come. We have the 
finest hotel here in the United States, 
the "Tampa Bay," and one ol the finest 
ports on the Gulf Coast. The custom 
house receipts are nearly as large as 
of any port in the United States. We 
have the best of health and the finest 
climate in the world. 

T. D. Berry, 

President First National Bank, 
Bedford City, Va. 

I think that the business outlook in 
this town and county was never brighter, 
and I believe that the farmers in our 
section are to-day in better fix than for 
some years past. Nearly all of the 
farmers are diversifying their crops, and 
in place of all "tobacco," nearly every 
one has corn, wheat and cattle to sell. 
On the north side of our county mostly 
cattle are to be found, which of course 
means that more grass is grown. The 
cultivation of fruit has of late years been 
pushed hard, and in the fall of 1893 one 
of our farmers sold his apples for $3000 
net on the trees. There is no finer 
apple country in the United States than 
our county, and it promises to become 
a great industry. There are not many 
new settlers coming in our section ; I 
think it due entirely to the lack of ad- 
vertising, for no country in the United 
States can make a better show than old 
Bedford. There are a great many new 
canneries (^tomatoes) being erected all 
through our section. 

J. A. Conway, 

AssT. Cashier Merchants' Natl. Bank, 
VicKSBURG, Miss. 

The low price of cotton for the past 
two years has taught our planters a 
valuable lesson and a ride through some 
of our largest neighboring plantations 
just now would leave the visitor in doubt 



as to whether he was in a cotton or 
corn country. The lumber interest is 
well represented here, as well it should 
be, for our easily-accessible forests 
abound in huge pine, cypress and oak 
trees, the supply being practically 
inexhaustible, and three mills with an 
aggregate capacity of about 135,000 
feet daily keep their saws singing 
merrily in the attempt to supply the 
home and foreign demand. Fruit is 
here in great abundance, and in 
hucksters' carts and at fruit stands fine 
peaches, pears, grapes and watermelons 
of native growth find ready market at 
fair prices, while on the farms sweet 
potatoes, Irish potatoes, peas, rice, oats, 
millet, sugarcane, sorghum and clover 
diversify the fields and bring a better 
revenue per acre than cotton used to 
yield. Our people who are industrious 
are fast becoming independent, and 
while the condition of the cotton crop, 
owing to excessive rains, is not as good 
as it ought to be so near "laying- by 
time," still the outlook for crops and 
business is good, and all we want is 
immigration. 

Frank Roberts, 

Cashier Calcasieu Bank, 
Lake Charles, La. 

Business in Lake Charles and the 
neighboring towns is in a very healthy 
condition now, and the outlook for the 
fall is unusually bright. The rice acre- 
age in this vicinity is the largest it has 
ever been, and it now promises to be ot 
the best yield and quality. The crops 
this year have been made by the 
farmers with less outside help in the 
way of advances by merchants or 
brokers than ever before. As a rule 
our farmers are growing all the corn, 
fruits and vegetables they need for their 
own use, and in many cases they have 
a surplus for sale. A leading wholesale 
grocer told me a iew days ago that he 
would not place an order this year for 
canned fruits, as his sale of fruit jars 
indicated that there would be as large a 
quantity of home fruits put up this year 
as had heretofore been consumed in a 
year. This section of the State is 
attracting the attention of Northern 
homeseekers and Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, 



244 



CROPS AND BUSINESS IN THE SOUTH. 



Kansas and Nebraska can each count 
their scores of sons and daughters who 
are now glad to call Southwest Louisiana 
home. 

W. S. Davidson, 

President First National Bank, 
Beaumont, Texas. 

The business conditions are improv- 
ing in this section. This is a large yel- 
low pine lumber producing district, and 
while production is yet restricted to two- 
thirds output, demand is increasing and 
prices are advanced and advancing. A 
hard -wood mill is being built as a result 
of the inexhaustible quantities of oak, 
ash and other woods in close proximity 
to this point to be had at very low prices. 
It is thought large quantities will be ex- 
ported. Farmers in this county raise little 
cotton or corn. Rice is the principal 
crop, while fruits and vegetables receive 
their share of attention. The rice crop 
is excellent, and with an abundance 
of cheap lands, the large profits realized 
from its culture have attracted quite a 
flow of immigration from the North and 
Northwest, and the country is rapidly 
filling up with worthy people. Stimu- 
lated by the large and profitable crops 
now assured, no doubt this inward flow 
will receive additional impetus during 
the coming fall and winter, resulting in 
a much increased population. 

Arthur Totig, 

Cashier Bank of Hammond, 
Hammond, La. 

The merchants of our section are 
doing good business on small margins. 
Times are close, but collections good. 
The diversity of crops is greater than 
ever before, corn taking place of cotton. 
Crop prospects are good. Fruits and 
vegetables are a specialty with us. 
There has been a steady incoming of 
people from the North and West and 
we look for more during coming winter. 

T. J. Cornwell, 

V.-Prest. The Bessemer Savings Bank, 
Bessemer, Ala. 

A permanent revival of business 
seems to have set in for our section. 
Wages generally have been increased 



from lo to 20 per cent, during the last 
sixty days, and everyone feels more 
hopeful for the future. Our furnaces, 
cast-iron pipe and foundry works, coal 
and ore mines and lumber industries are 
all working full capacity. The farmers 
in our section have for the last few 
years given their attention to a greater 
diversity of crops and with much 
success. They have little trouble in 
disposing of their product, almost right 
at their doors, on account of the num- 
ber of people who work in our mines 
and other industries. For this reason 
our producers are not troubled with the 
expense and loss attached to shipping 
their products away from home. There 
have been a few, though not many, 
immigrants to our section of farmers 
from the North and West, yet we have 
a fine soil well suited for growing most 
any crop, fruit or vegetable, and our 
climate is unsurpassed. 

J. W. Burke, 

Receiver Chattanooga Southern R'v, 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 

In an experience of nearly thirty years' 
residence in the South, the prospects of 
plenty, prosperity and contentment were 
never known to be as good as they are 
to-day. First of all, the people of this 
section are blessed this year with the 
most bountiful crops they have had in 
many years. The rains have been seas- 
onable and abundant, and the weather 
so propitious that the entire land looks 
like a green garden. 

The enormous increase in the area of 
the cereals, corn, wheat, oats, rye, etc., 
and the decrease in that of cotton, the 
unprecedented supply of all kinds of 
fruits and early vegetables liken this 
country to-day to the most prosperous 
parts of the great West thirty years ago. 
The system of farming is undergoing a 
great and healthy change. The South 
is raising what she needs. The last five 
years' experience have inculcated practi- 
cal lessons of economy in the South that 
have proved real blessings. Considera- 
ble inquiry is being made for lands in 
this region. 

I wonder how it is that the dweller in 
the far West will fight it out there, 



CROPS AND BUSINESS IN THE SOUTH. 



^45 



amidst blizzards, and cyclones, and 
droughts and floods, and turn his back 
on the glorious regions of North Ala- 
bama and Georgia and East and West 
Tennessee, with their genial climate and 
producing soils. All along the line of 
this road, from Chattanooga to Gadsden, 
on the slopes of Lookout mountain, and 
the fertile valley at its base, every crop, 
every fruit, every vegetable may be 
raised in the proper seasons. It is a 
'veritable garden" at present writing. 
Hundreds of acres of strawberries and 
thousands of acres of peach trees are 
being planted at various points along 
the line by Northern settlers, who, "know- 
ing a good thing," have settled there. 

But the best and most hopeful sign 
of the times is "the new era" in political 
matters. The farmers pay more atten- 
tion to their crops and domestic affairs, 
and have assumed an air of individuality 
and independence that argues well for 
the prosperity of this section. In mat- 
ters of government, finance, tariff and 
many other public affairs, the Southern 
farmer is beginning to think for himself 
and vote accordingly. 

We no longer are menaced with the 
"negro question," that baleful subject 
that has kept the South in political 
thraldom since the days of the war. 
The negroes are contented and peace- 
ful, and the best and cheapest set of la- 
borers for this section on the face of the 
earth. Another cheering fact is that the 
South is practically out of debt. With 
the present large crop harvested the 
farmers will owe practically nothing. 

The old practice of mortgaging the 
crop for advances is going out of exist- 
ence. The immigrants are examining, 
seeking, coming. The railroads are 
plied with inquiries from the West. 

The fruit raiser is the pioneer in this 
healthy invasion of our Southern high- 



lands ; but the farmer and the stock 
raiser are soon going to find out the 
splendid natural advantages of the soil 
and climate, and the rush will be great. 
If he who still doubts the capacity 
and future of the South will come to 
Chattanooga or Atlanta and watch the 
special trains that daily leave these cities 
by the score, freighted with early vege- 
table and fruits, he will change his mind 
as to the destiny of this section. We 
are in the middle of the road, and "get- 
ting there" as rapidly as healthy prog- 
ress requires. 

O. W. Steffins, 

President First National Bank, 
Abilene, Texas. 

The conditions in the Abilene country 
are better than for several years. A 
large forage crop is being grown, which 
being utilized as cattle feeding, insures 
good returns, while the grass on the 
range is beyond question far superior 
than it has been for six or eight years. 
The cotton crop is very promising : 
more so than for many years past. 
The business outlook for a fall trade 
was never better : neither was the crop 
so much diversified as it is this year. 
The most of our farmers are also raising 
more hogs than ever before, and in 
nearly every instance enough hog 
product will be made for home con- 
sumption, as the corn crop is very good. 
The fruit crop is very large, especially 
peaches, plums and vine crops. Like 
watermelons, peaches, large, (three 
weighing two pounds) are constantly 
seen on our streets and sold at fifteen 
cents per bucket, while watermelons 
weighing fifty to eighty pounds can be 
purchased at from ten to fifteen cents. 
Nearly all vegetables in like proportion. 
Some immigration coming in. 



A SOUTHWARD MOVEMENT FROM KANSAS. 



By Frank Y. Anderson. 



A movement of much significance 
and importance in a number of counties in 
Northern and Western Kansas is attrac- 
ting attention. It originated with a in- 
surance firm at Clay Centre, Kansas, 
whose business requires them to travel 
over seven counties. 

In doing this they discovered a gen- 
eral and growing dissatisfaction among 
farmers with the conditions existing in 
that section and a disposition to move 
to the South. Recently they set out 
to organize an immigration club, in 
whose ranks should be enrolled all those 
wishing location for a home in the 
Southern States. The idea was heartily 
received and in less than ninety days the 
heads of some four hundred families 
had become members of the club. 

As soon as the promoters of the 
scheme realized the magnitude of the 
movement, a feeling of responsibility 
came upon them as to the proper place 
in the South to locate these families, and 
in order to be relieved of this burden 
they concluded to call a meeting of the 
members of the club and invite rep- 
resentatives of railroads and land com- 
panies from different Southern States to 
address them. 

This meeting was held on the 17 th 
day of June at Clay Centre. The peo- 
ple came from the surrounding counties, 
and the large -hall was packed with an 
immense crowd anxious to be informed 
as to the best attractions of different 
parts of the South. 

The meeting resulted in the appoint- 
ment of a committee from different 
counties to investigate, by personal ex- 
amination, the different localities repre- 
sented, the club to be guided by their 
report. 

The writer was one of the persons 
who addressed this committee. He has 
been a resident of the South all his life 



and never was as far West as Kan- 
sas before taking this trip. 

From a farmer's standpoint, the coun- 
try in the neighborhood of Clay Centre, 
Kan., is apparently one of the finest he 
had ever seen. The soil is black and 
loamy and capable of producing large 
yields ; the country is level and presents 
many attractions to the farmer ; yet, 
strange to say, the constant thought of 
the inhabitants is how to get away to 
some other section of the country. The 
reason of this is, that no matter how fine 
the crops may be, they are liable to be 
cut down and ruined in twenty-four 
hours by the hot winds which prevail 
during the summer ; sand-storms also 
invade the country, and have been 
known to almost ruin entire crops in 
one night. The hot winds, however, 
are the most prevalent and scorch and 
burn up the entire crop of a vast terri- 
tory inside of thirty-six hours and cut 
the shorter and weaker crops down as if 
mowed with a sickle. The country, 
being devoid of timber, presents no 
obstacle to the bleak winds of winter, 
and as wood is exceedingly scarce, the 
home comforts, for want of heat, are 
very meagre, making life a constant 
battle for the few luxuries received. 

The concensus of opinion seems to 
be that a large number of those who 
can will leave Northern and Western 
Kansas for the South this fall. If 
Providence should smile on this country 
and keep the hot winds from blowing 
this year, so as to enable the farmers to 
cure a resonable amount of crops and 
thus realize sufficient money to leave on, 
the exodus will be immense. Should, 
however, the hot winds prevail this 
year as they have been doing for the 
past three or four, want of means will 
compel large numbers to remain until 
some off-year when the hot winds will 



246 



A SOUTHWARD MO VEMENT FROM KANSAS. 



247 



not blow and nature blesses them with 
some rain. 

When you come to understand the 
misfortunes that prevail in that section 
of the country, it is strange that it has 
any inhabitants at all ; and could these 
people realize the great advantages 
which the South has to offer in the 
shape of cheap lands, productive soil, 
never-failing crops, an annual rainfall 



equal to the necessities of the farmer, 
constantly flowing streams of clear 
water in all sections, and climate une- 
qualled for its uniformity of temperature 
and healthfulness, they would lose no 
time in moving into this section of the 
country, and thus enjoy renewed health, 
better financial condition and peaceful 
and happy homes. 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH. 

A Continuation of the Series of Letters front Northern and Western 
Farmers and Business Men who have Settled in the Sonth. 



"Enjoying the Happiness that Comes 
from Contentment." 

B. C. OuAM, Hammond, La. — I came 
here from Hastings, Minn., in the fall of 
1889. My means were limited, and I 
bought ten acres of ground, mostly on 
credit, with easy terms. In November 
I planted my first crop of strawberries 
and marketed them the next April. I 
am a painter and for the most part worked 
at my trade, giving my crop but little 
time, deriving but little profit, but valu- 
able experience. Continuing my trade, 
at which I found a plenty to do, the 
next season I planted two acres of ber- 
ries, shipped to New Orleans and Chi- 
cago, resulting in a profit of $500. I 
have continued this amount of straw- 
berries each season since with variable 
results, sometimes more than the above, 
once a little less. Meantime I have 
planted other fruits, several varieties of 
plums and pears, My Kelsey plums 
fruited in three years, growing the finest 
fruit, some of it measuring eight inches 
in circumference. Some other variety 
of plums fruited the second year from 
planting. Keifer pears grafted on Le 
Conte stock fruited in three years from 
planting. 

In the way of vegetables, I have been 
successful in growing shallots, beets and 
lettuce, all of which have brought satis- 
factory revenue ; on one-eighth acre of 
beets last year, I took notice of the cost 
of everything pertaining to their growth 



and cleared $50. Please understand 
during all of this time I have worked 
for the most part at my trade, and being 
unable to give the fruit growing proper 
attention, have not attained near the 
results that were possible. 

I am a Norwegian. My family com- 
prises self, wife and four children, and 
we have never been as well as since we 
came here. The climate seems as nearly 
perfect as can be — neither too warm in 
summer for me to work at my trade 
every day, and in winter I have never 
experienced the slightest discomfort 
from cold. The sum of the whole mat- 
ter is, I am enjoying the happiness that 
comes from contentment, and can truly 
say to my countrymen that I am no 
exception. What I have attained can 
be reached by anyone, or better by 
ordinary industry. 

Climate, Health, Soil, Products and Social 
Conditions in Alabarra. 

J. A. Hall, Collinsville, DeKalb 
county, Ala. — The writer has been a 
citizen of this locality for twenty years. 
Extending over that period, the lowest 
fall of the thermometer noted is fifteen 
degrees above zero. The summer heat, 
though of long duration, is not so in- 
tense as most persons would be led to 
suppose. On no occasion ha\e I seen 
the thermometer register a hundred in 
the shade — yet it passes up to eighty- 
five, and from that to ninety-five, many 



248 



WHAT THEY THINK OF THE SOUTH. 



days in succession. Snowfall in winter 
is the exception, not the rule. As to 
health, we compare most favorably with 
any region in America. 

There are many old people in this 
vicinity, and I point to them as evi- 
dence of health and prolonged life. 
The water here is of good quality and 
abundant supply. It not only runs out, 
but gushes from numberless springs 
which feed the small and larger brooks 
that plow our valleys. Water is one 
thing of which we boast, and we can 
show what we proclaim. 

As to schools, we hope for an im- 
provement — yet even now they are 
within the reach of all, and a rudimen- 
tary education can be inexpensively se- 
cured. Churches are located in such 
numbers as to be accessible, and denom- 
inational choice need not be ignored on 
the score of remoteness. 

As to social standards, we have, like 
all other localities, the grades incident 
to small town and rural life. Of the 
colored race, there are but few here, 
and contact with them need not fill 
one's mind with fear or doubt. They 
prefer, and usually do live, in a settle- 
ment of their own. They also have 
their own schools and churches. As to 
political creeds, talk and believe as you 
like ; vote as you choose. You will 
not be ostracized for it. 

As a home for those who wish to en- 
gage in agriculture, there is no country 
in all this vast American domain in all 
respects superior to Alabama. The 
soil and climate respond with prompt- 
ness to the touch of the husbandman, 
in the full and complete development of 
such small grain as wheat, rye, barley 
and oats. If one will plant and work, 
one will be obliged to reap. Corn and 
cotton at present rank first in import- 
ance. The former grows and matures 
here in a most perfect state. Cotton 
(upland) is raised here quite extensively, 
and connected with other farm products, 
will leave some margin after deducting 
expense. The soil is so varied in its 
nature that almost any kind or variety 
can be secured. 

The cost of lands in large bodies has 
quite a range in price. It is worth from 
$3 to $25 per acre. Many varieties of 



grass grow nicely here, which can Idc 
consumed as pasture or cut for hay. 
This is a country and State with a great 
future. 

In years to come, when these United 
States will count two hundred million as 
her population, Alabama will be ready 
to present her fiftieth part. You who 
struggle in the oft snow-bound East for 
your own and families' needs without a 
margin, come to us. You that dread 
the terrors of a Northwest blizzard, 
come down here ; you that have small 
means and want a home, buy it here ; 
you that have means and leisure, come 
and search us out, and then determine 
for yourself if this is not a land of great 
promise — a land that will in the near 
future have in operation its thousand- 
wheeled industry and send over its 
borders its fabrics and its wealth. 

We need immigration, and those who 
wish to emigrate can find that for which 
they seek right here. 

As Fine a Country as There is in the 
World. 

Dr. S. E. Wheeler, Greenfield, 
Tenn. — I was raised in Michigan and 
have lived in Kansas, Indian Territory, 
Illinois and other States, and will say 
that we have as fine a country here as there 
is in the world, for any kind of fruits, 
grain, hay and stock of all kinds. Hay 
can be raised in abundance, and it is 
ready sale. Corn will average with any 
State. It grows fine wheat, and lots of 
it, to the acre. Any kind of grass does 
well. It is one of the finest sheep 
regions I ever saw. Hogs do first-class ; 
in fact this is the country for any kind 
of stock, because the winters are light. 
Instead of having your money tied up 
in houses and barns, you can invest it in 
good stock and let them run most of 
the winter without shelter, but a cheap 
shelter is an advantage, as any stock 
raiser knows. 

The country is rolling ; sandy and 
clay loam ; fine springs and rivers. 
Timber — poplar,