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/ V 



THE 



Southern States. 



MARCH, 1896. 



AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 

VII.— SHEEP RAISING (Continued.) 
By M. B. Hillyard. 



I have seldom found more interest- 
ing reading- on agriculture and kin- 
dred topics than is found in old books 
such as the United States Agricultural 
Reports prior to the war, De Bow's 
Review, etc. If one wants to know 
how the South was forging ahead, in 
many lines, he can there find surpris- 
ing facts. The pace of progress in the 
South, from 1840 to i860, was surpris- 
ing in most lines cognate to agricul- 
ture. The RufTfins, Ravenals, Afflecks, 
Phillips and others had agitated and 
aroused, so that there was a keen ap- 
petite for progress. Agricultural so- 
cieties were doing much. A friendly 
competition in raising large crops, fine 
stock, and all that, had become rife. 
And it was free from a sordid and mer- 
cenary spirit. There was only a gen- 
erous emulation, a beneficent pride in 
success. In no lines did this spirit of 
progress find such notable illustration 
as in raising the finest blooded or 
thoroughbred stock. This ambition 
laid the foundation for the South's be- 
ing the seed-bed, as it were, of, and the 
incentive to, raising the finest stock in 
the . country. The race-tracks of 
Southern States made running horses 
to be bred. The wealth and pride of 
Southern planters incited them to pur- 
chase and propagate fine sheep and 
cattle. As a rule, most planters were 
rich, especially sugar and cotton plant- 
ers. They were lavish in hospitality 
and extravaeant. And then extrava- 



gance took the bent often in investing 
in fancy-bred sheep and cattle. The 
farmers North and West could not 
afford, and would not have indulged 
in, the extravagance of paying such 
fancy prices for horses, cattle and 
sheep as was not uncommon South. 
Eet me not be misunderstood. I do 
not mean to say that there were not 
farmers North and West who had not 
fine sheep, cattle, horses. What I 
mean is, that the breeding of fancy 
stock was far less diffused there than 
South (of course I include Kentucky 
in the South). 

I have not gone into this excursion 
into the past without a motive. Of 
course so many persons South raising 
fine stock gave them a chance to test 
their adaptation to the South; whether 
they deteriorated or advanced; 
whether race^horses had better or 
worse bottom; whether short-horns 
improved or declined in size and qual- 
ity of beef; whether wool got coarser 
or finer; whether mutton improved in 
or lost flavor. Another point: As is 
well known, the wealthy class in the 
South before the war traveled a great 
deal. Their summers were almost 
universally spent either in Europe or 
north of Mason and Dixon's line. A 
few halted at the Virginia springs; but 
mostly the summer visitors, who spent 
that season on this side the Atlantic, 
went to Bedford Springs, Pa.; New- 
port. R. I. : Saratoga, N. Y. ; Cape 



AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 



May, N. J. Those who went to Eu- 
rope, went to England, Scotland, 
France, Switzerland. And parts of 
the South sent a large infusion of per- 
sons of French and Scotch descent. 
Thus these planters and their families, 
spending their summers in this coun- 
try at the fashionable hotels of Sara- 
toga, Newport and the other places in 
this country, where they found the 
best lamb, mutton, beef this country 
could afford, had a chance to compare 
the South with these meats. Those 
who went to England could compare 
their Southern short-horns with the 
English beef. Those who went to 
France, Switzerland, Scotland, could 
compare their Southern mutton with 
the "mountain mutton." Thus it 
came that these Southerners, as a class, 
were the very best judges of what was 
good — the best — beef and mutton. I 
should hesitate to assert that the 
South can produce the best beef and 
mutton in the world ; but I should say 
that anyone who is not satisfied with 
the best mutton and beef the South 
can produce is a greatly affected or 
greatly spoiled epicure. 

Nearly or quite quarter of a century 
ago Col. Thomas C. Dabney, of Hinds 
county, Mississippi, told me that Gen- 
eral John C. Breckenridge. of Ken- 
tucky, had been his^guest in Missis- 
sippi, and had told l^m that his South- 
down lambs and mutton had as fine a 
flavor as the best he had ever eaten in 
Kentucky. Will that test do for Mis- 
sissippi mutton? Col. Dabney was 
born and raised in the mountain coun- 
try of Virginia; hence he could com- 
pare the States of Mississippi and A^ir- 
ginia. 

On page 366, Agricultural Report, 
1850, is a repoi't from Hon. A. G. 
Brown, a former governor of Missis- 
sippi, a Senator of the United States 
from that State before the war, and a 
Senator from the same State of the 
Southern Confederacy. It so hap- 
pened that he was a neighbor of Col. 
Tom. Dabney, just quoted. He says: 
'Tn my district we have the South- 
down, Bakewell, Merino and other 
blooded sheep. * * :)< Mutton 
equal to any in the world. Planters 



do not raise any more than needed 
for family use. South Mississippi fine 
sheep country." I want to make a 
double point with his authority: First, 
no one can doubt that such a man as 
Governor Brown was a judge of good 
mutton. He had not spent so large 
a part of his life in Washington — to 
say nothing of travel — without knoA\-- 
in'g what he was talking about, in 
comparing Mississippi mutton with 
any in the world. The second point 
is, the general diffusion of blooded 
sheep among the planters. 

A writer from Berkley county, Vir- 
ginia, on pp. 334-335> Agr. Rep.. 1850, 
says: "Berkley county great market 
for sheep. Sent 6000 annually to Bal- 
timore. High reputation for flavor."" 

To illustrate the prevalence of sheep 
raising, I quote from page 448, Agr. 
Rep., 1850, from a writer from Dun- 
lapville. South Carolina: "Almost 
every fanner has a small flock of sheep 
to supply winter clothing." 

Hon. E. Crawford, of Early county, 
Georgia, says, on page 28, Agr. Rep., 
1853: "Horses and mules, as well as 
cows, hogs and sheep, are raised by 
every judicious planter in all South- 
western Georgia." (I have italicized 
the word "all" to emphasize the fact of 
liow almost everybody raised more or 
less sheep.) 

Here is a note I make from a noted 
name in Georgia. It is from Wm. C. 
Dickson, Milledgeville, on page 393, 
Agr. Rep., 1850: "Wool-growing 
profitable, but dogs scare off the busi- 
ness. Most farmers raise wool 
enough for their own use." (The 
pointers and setters, fox and deer 
hounds of the planters' sons were a 
great drawback.) 

From Fort Jessup, Louisiana: 
"Sheep here are Merino, Saxon and 
native. Very fine wool." Page 398, 
Agr. Rep., 1850. (Fort Jessup is in 
Northwest Louisiana. I beg the 
reader to note the threefold points of 
Saxon sheep, fine wool and no feed.) 

From Macon county, Tennessee, on 
page 353, Agr. Rep., 185 1, is the re- 
port of sheep and wool for family use. 
(The commonness of the business in a 
small way is the point.) 



AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 



From Laurensville, South Carolina, 
comes the report: "Sheep and wool 
only for home consumption" (p. 89, 
1852). 

Robert W. Baylor, Jefferson county, 
Virginia, says, on page 53, Agr. Rep., 
1855: "Sheep very profitably raised 
here, especially improved breeds ; com- 
manding at home $8 to $10 each. We 
have as good imported Cotswolds and 
Southdowns as England can produce." 

Thomas Aftieck, a great name in 
Mississippi then, says, in Agr. Rep., 
1849: "Few planters keep more sheep 
than enough to supply their own 
tables with that most excellent dish, a 
saddle of Mississippi mutton, which 
compares favorably with the mountain 
mutton of Scotland and Wales. They 
suffer at times severely from dogs." 
(Mr. Affleck was quite an importer of 
fine sheep.) 

A writer from Amherst county, Vir- 
ginia, in Agr. Rep. for 1850, says: 
"Enough sheep to clothe our families 
and to furnish mutton and lambs." 

In same report a writer in Granville 
county, North Carolina, says: "Much 
more attention is now paid to wool- 
growing than formerly. The number 
of sheep in this neighborhood has 
doubled during the last five years. 
Wool is now becoming an article of 
export. Most of our winter clothing 
is now made at home; and in our 
dwellings you may see some carpets 
as nice as can be found anywhere." 

As an interesting corroboration of 
the point I have so often made, how 
the South was moving up before the 
war on various lines, I quote an ex- 
tract (although aside from the points 
I am particularly enforcing) from a 
writer on page 287, Agr. Rep., 1850: 
"In Columbus, Ga., forty-five miles 
north, are several large woolen fac- 
tories lately established, and others 
are being erected, which will cause a 
demand for wool." 

Here is an" interesting page from 
Agr. Rep. of 1850. My note fails to 
give the State: 

"Sheep might certainly be raised 
with profit, both for mutton and wool ; 
but, again, we have no market for 
either. My neighbors generally will 



not eat mutton, and as there are yet 
but few manufactories that use wool, 
scarcely more is produced than what 
is required for domestic use. I have 
made all my negroes winter clothes 
and blankets for thirty years. I long 
kept a little flock of grade Merinoes 
and wool for family use, and have 
raised full-blood quite as fine as my 
original Escurial stock; but found the 
full-blood too fine for our farmers" 
use; they cannot card it. I now keep 
from eighty to 100. Price for wool 
just the same, fine or coarse — twenty- 
five cents per pound. Sheep very 
little expense. A market for wool 
rising up in the manufactories that are 
rapicih' growing in the Southern 
vStates, and it will, ere long, become an 
important branch of Southern hus- 
bandry. For twenty years I raised as 
fine wool as Spanish stock or any 
samples I could obtain from the 
North ; sold in Philadelphia at fifty and 
sixty cents." — Wilmot I. Gibbs, p. 263. 

l>ut I must hasten on. I could give 
numberless quotations further, par- 
ticularly as to the almost universality 
of the production of enough mutton 
for family use by the planters. I have 
surely said enough to convince any- 
one as to that point and as to the 
quality of Southern mutton. I would, 
liowever, recommend the reader who 
is still skeptical or critical to a valuable 
article on sheep-raising South by 
George C. Patterson, of Hopkins 
county, Tennessee, page 53, Agr. Rep., 
1849; ^Iso an article, page 33, same 
report, on the climatic advantages 
South ; also to the extraordinary sheep 
raised by Josiah W^. Ware, of Clarke 
county, Virginia, narrated on page 16 
of Agr. Rep., 1849. 

I had intended to say something of 
the wonderful stimulus giving to 
sheep-raising by the numerous agri- 
cultural societies that sprung up in ithe 
South from 1850 on; but I must pass 
to other points. 

There is a niost interesting field for 
exposition as to the future of the 
South in manufacturing fabrics from 
the Saxony wools. To silence all 
doubt, I must be allowed to quote from 
Mr. John L. Havs's great work: "The 



AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 



Electoral wools cannot be grown in 
the North, because of the extreme 
delicacy of the sheep. In the mild cli- 
mate of the South their successful cul- 
ture is assured beyond all question." — 
P. 13. 

W' ere I a younger man, and did I 
^vish to signalize my life by a great 
achievement, or the advocacy of a 
great scheme, to nothing would I turn 
my attention with the assurance that I 
had wrought, if successful, a great in- 
dustrial revolution, as by making the 
South the centre of the production of 
these Electoral wools, As the South 
is destined, in the next fitty years, to 
be the centre of cotton manufacture, 
shutting up the English mills, and 
closing or transferring the New Eng- 
land mills South, so the South ought 
to shut up the manufacture in France 
and England of the fabrics from Elec- 
toral wools! With the cheap land, 
the cheap labor and the climate of the 
South, neither France nor England 
ought to be able to run a spindle in the 
manufacture of these fabrics. But it 
will take a campaign of education, of 
stupendous activity and persistence. 
The South starts so late in favor of 
protection that she is endangered by 
the probability of a revolution of sen- 
timent in favor of free trade in the very 
strongholds of protection. Iron man- 
ufacturers are in favor of free iron ore, 
North and East, who are near the 
coast, so as to import ore dug by 
cheap labor; New England wants free 
coal, to offset the competition of the 
advantages in favor of Southern cot- 
ton manufacture: pig iron manufac- 
turers East want railroads to raise 
rates upon pig iron from Southern fur- 
naces, lest their own furnaces mav 
have to go out of blast; woolen manu- 
facturers want a low tariff on wool, so 
as to import foreign wools. And if 
ever the South gets fairly agoing on 



sheep-raising the wool-raisers in Ohio 
and other great wool-raising States 
North and West will be in favor of 
free wool, because they can't prodttce 
it in competition with the South. 

When the Nicaragua canal comes, 
and the Australian wools begin to pour 
in, we shall have some aspects that will 
be surprising. But we have never yet 
stripped for the fight. But the con- 
flict is coming. Years ago I foretold 
it. The negro wall drift from the field 
to the factory. W^e shall not only find 
that race in the mines, but elsewhere. 
As the cotton area narroAvs, the race 
will find employment. We have him 
here in a variety of ways — almost mas- 
ter of the situation at times. Soon 
capitalists East will be puttmg the col- 
ored graduates of the female colleges 
in the cotton factories. They won't 
go to the cotton-fields. They can't all 
teach school and play house servants. 
Then will come competition with our 
Southern white labor in the cotton fac- 
tories. No man ever dreamed the re- 
serve force the South has in this aspect 
of cheap labor. 

So I think, with our climate and 
cheap land for sheep, and our cheap 
labor (and we have never yet got any- 
thing like the productive capacitv of 
our white labor in operation), the 
South will be able to stand the racket 
of free trade, if worse comes to worse. 
But if our country prospers as it 
ought, we ought to have protection 
for it, and for the South particularly — 
a good while yet. 

I had intended to say considerable 
as to the opening for raising early 
lambs South for the markets North 
and West; but my letter is too long 
already. 

Then there is the all-important topic 
of the superior healthfulness of sheep 
South over the North and West; but 
that is impossible now. 



AN INSIDE VIEW OF SOUTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



By Arnot CJiesier 



The "inside history" of South Caro- 
lina is not generally "understanded of 
the people" beyond her own borders, 
yet this history it is which has molded 
the State character and powerfully in- 
fluenced State politics. Indeed, it is 
the key without which it would be im- 
possible to explain many anomalies of 
State history. Presenting an un- 
broken front to the outside world, a" 
unit on all questions of national poli- 
tics, South Carolina has nevertheless 
always been divided within herself into 
two jarring and irreconcilable factions. 
Hov/ this sectional antagonism origi- 
nated, or when it first developed itself, 
it is impossible to say; as far back as it 
can be traced it is found existing in 
full force. But this unnatural and 
unfortunate animosity once started, it 
is easy to understand how the peculiar 
circumstances and conditions which 
prevailed should have perpetrated and 
aggravated it. Unlike her more fav- 
ored sister, Virginia, in the South Car- 
olina of ante-bellum days the wealth 
and culture of the State were confined 
to a single section, instead of being dis- 
tributed throughout. 

This section was the seaboard, or 
"low country," as it was called. 

In the days of which I write, King- 
Rice divided with King Cotton the 
sovereignty of the State of South Car- 
olina. And King Rice held his court 
exclusively along the coast. 

There lay the great plantations, con- 
taining thousands of acres and worked 
b)^ hundreds of slaves. Their owners 
belonged to the class which it is now 
the fashion to call "Bourbons," and 
constituted the landed aristocracy of 
the State. 

In this same section, too, were lo- 
cated the largest and most important 
towns and (supreme honor and dis- 
tinction!) Charleston herself, the "city" 
par excellence. 



Xatiu-ally, therefore, it came about 
that the combined advantages of 
wealth, edvication and contact with the 
great outside world wdiich were en- 
jo} ed by the coast-people produced in 
them a grace and refinement of man- 
ner, and a breadth and culture of mind, 
altogether unknovvu to their brethren 
of the "up-country" as the other divi- 
sion of the State was designated. 

This difiference was inevitable; but 
it vcas not inevitable, but most unfor- 
tunate, that instead of regarding these 
superior advantages as privileges nec- 
essarily entailing upon them corres- 
jjonding duties and responsibilities to- 
wards their less favored neighbors, the 
]3eople of the low-country arrogated 
to themselves the position of censors 
and critics, and from their elevation 
looked down with condescension and 
contempt upon the dwellers of the in- 
terior! 

To say that this attitude wa5 bitterly 
resented by these last is simply to say 
that human nature is the same in 
South Carolina as it is elsewhere. 

\'et having so fully and unreserved- 
ly meted out the blame that of right 
belongs to the low-country in this mat- 
ter, justice and honesty alike demand 
the statement that the provocation 
was by no means altogether on its side. 

P^xcept in the matter of politics, it 
had nothing in common with its up- 
country neighbor. 

The manners, the customs, the 
modes of thought, the very intonations 
and inflections of the people were dif- 
ferent. As a class, the people of the 
up-country were rough, uncouth and 
ignorant. Their lack of breeding dis- 
gusted ; their want of culture repelled ; 
their marvelous instinct of thrift and 
money-making fairly bewildered the 
low-country intelligence! How best 
to "turn a penny" seemed the one 
supreme problem of their existence! 



AN INSIDE VIEW OF SOUTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



the end to whicl: their every power 
was to be bent! 

When brought into contact with 
these people, the denizens of the low- 
country naturally felt that they were 
among an alien race, and instinctively 
recoiled. They failed to see, alas! 
that the imperative need of these peo- 
ple was education; and so instead of 
applying the remedy, they withdrew 
themselves and their civilizing influ- 
ences, and stood farther and farther 
aloof from those whom they might 
gradually have raised to their own 
level. This nnitual distrust and aver- 
sion had gone on strengthening for 
generations, until at last, just before 
the civil war, it was a recognized fact 
that in the government of the State 
each faction was determined to legis- 
late solely in its own interests. Nay, 
more, as these interests were felt to be 
conflicting, each endeavored to so 
frame the laws as not only to help its 
own side, but also to hamper and 
cripple the other. 

With the war came, of course, a new 
era in State life. And at its close "old 
things had (indeed) passed away" for- 
ever! So far as material prosperitv 



was concerned, the former conditions 
were now completely reversed. The 
low-country was left beggared, ruined, 
depopulated; while the up-country 
had escaped almost uninjured. For a 
time chaos and confusion reigned, and 
sectional differences were temporarily 
forgotten. But as things gradually 
righted themselves, instead of being 
allowed to die away, the smoldering 
fires of party hate were sedulously 
fanned into new life by artful and un- 
scrupulous politicians, who desired 
thereby both to secure the prizes of 
their personal ambition, and also to 
vent their party spite upon the objects 
of their party animosity. 

Such is the unhappy condition of 
.South Carolina politics today. 

The fair dreams of a united and har- 
monious State which some of us were 
sanguine enough to cherish a few 
}"ears since have receded indefinitely. 
Yet since it is "the impossible which 
comes to pass," we may still hope that 
some day in the dim and distant future 
the State of South Carolina may be- 
come indeed a thoroughly united and 
homog-eneous whole! 



OLD FIELD HOMILETICS. 



PART III.— FACTORY CHEESE AND CREAMERY BUTTER. 

By Charles Hallock. 



Having demonstrated in the initial 
number of these papers that good per- 
manent pasturage* can be provided in 
the Southern tier of States, and that 
gilt-edge dairy products can be ob- 
tained from the grasses and fodder 
crops grown, it will be in order now 
to advance some cogent reasons whv 
dairies ought to be established in the 
South, to show where the values come 
in and what the profits are, and, fi- 
nall\', to present some working figures 
for the service of such as may becomt 

*Seed Formula for Permanent Pasture.— 
Three to five pounds per acre white cloverseed; two 
bushels (twenty-eight pounds) Kentuclcy blue-grass 
seed; cne hushel Bermuda seed: or, sow rhonne-" 
roots raked from the gardens.— T^ri'w Bulletin of 
Kxperiiuent Fartii at Raleigh, \orth Carolina. 



sufticiently interested to undertake 
new ventures. 

Southern farmers have this advan- 
tage at present, that they have no ex- 
perimental tests to make, and those 
who propose to engage in dairying 
have only to see that the soils from 
which they intend to gather food for 
their cows are suitable for the fodder 
to be grown. Everything in the mat- 
ter of food-tests, selection of breeds, 
care of stock, chemical processes and 
liandling of products has already been 
(lone by the various State associa- 
tions, and the experimental farms are 
now engaged in educating experts to 
operate the creameries and cheese fac- 



OLD FIELD HOMILETICS. 



tories A\hich are sure to start up pres- 
ently. The kindergarten lessons have 
been learned, bulletins of information 
have been widely distributed, and 
those who wish to profit thereby have 
only to "read and they will know." 

It is hardly five years since cheese 
factories were introduced into Can- 
ada, and already Canadian cheese has 
a world-wide reputation. Butter- 
making has become a popular and 
universal industry throughout the 
Dominion, notwitlistanding the rigor 
of the climate requires that cows shall 
be hand-fed for six months in the 
year. A uniform method of manufac- 
ture has resulted in a nearly uniform 
quality of product; and with the im- 
provement, prices have advanced. Co- 
operative separator creameries have 
been generally adopted. Provinces 
which formerly were far behind are 
now nearly abreast of the foremost, 
and those which were ahead have all 
been gainers by the general improve- 
ment. The number and quality of 
cattle has increased. Multiplied herds 
of swine are fed on the skim-milk, and 
the lands are protected from exhaus- 
tion by returning" to the soil the ele- 
ments of fertility in the shape of ma- 
nure, instead of shipping away its es- 
sential constituents in bulk year after 
year. In Minnesota, Wisconsm, 
Iowa, Alassachusetts, Vermont, Illi- 
nois and Ohio the results are even 
more marked. The butter product of 
Minnesota for 1895 from creameries 
alone was 28,000,000 pounds, of which 
20,000,000 pounds went out of the 
State, at an average price of twenty 
cents per pound, yielding the hand- 
some revenue of $4,000,000. The 
product of the home dairies is esti- 
mated to be equal to that of the cream- 
eries. The grand total is large, but 
not as large as that of Denmark, for 
instance, a country only one-fourth as 
large as Minnesota, which exported 
$26,000,000 worth of butter in 1894. 

Minnesota has attained her present 
pre-eminence as a dairy State in 
twelve years. Her first premium ex- 
hibits were shown at the New Orleans 
Cotton Exposition in 1884-5. 

It if estimated that a 400-cow 



creamery is worth $40,000 a year to 
the community in which it is located. 
Scores of. poor and impoverished 
communities in New England, known 
as "abandoned towns," could be men- 
tioned which have been made inde- 
pendent and thrifty in five years by 
the location of creameries among 
them and the restoration of the old 
fields. Pastures which wouldn't sup- 
port one starveling sheep to the acre 
now produce three tons of herds-grass 
and timothy. Fine Holsteins and 
Jerseys have supplanted the scrub cat- 
tle. The sight is beautiful! 

That intelligent dairying is a profit- 
able business needs no argument. De- 
monstrated results are more convinc- 
ing than words. Signal success has 
attended the creamery experiments 
lately started in East Tennessee. The 
South has a great advantage over the 
North in climate and cheapness of 
feeding. Cattle do not require to be 
fed for more than three months in the 
year. Where failures have occurred 
they are due to an insufificient number 
of cows, or because the creameries 
were owned by individuals who did 
not pay enough for cream to make it 
an object for farmers to patronize 
them. But wherever separator cream- 
eries have been established on the co- 
operative plan, in localities where 
there are a sufficient number of cows 
within a radius of four miles, they 
have in every instance secured highly 
satisfactory results. Four or five 
miles is about as far as milk can profit- 
ably be hauled. If less than 300 cows 
are secured, it is difficult to make the 
project a success. Jerseys are the 
best for butter, and Holsteins- Fries- 
lands for greatest flow of milk. Men- 
tion is made of a cow belonging to the 
Minnesota Experiment Station, which 
yielded 10,287 pounds of milk in a 
year! A cow belonging to a Mr. 
knupp, of Glencoe, earned $9.43 in 
July, $12.60 in August, $12.56 in Sep- 
tember, $13.93 ill October — making 
a total for the four months of $48.52. 
These are impressive facts which the 
thoughtful farmer will consider. An- 
other consideration in dairy husband- 
rv is that the whole faniilv, male and 



OLD FIELD HO MILE TICS. 



female, find steady employment, each 
member contributing to the success 
of all. 

To have good butter and cheese, 
good milk must be used. It should 
contain no less than 3 per cent, of 
butter-fat. The last annual State in- 
spection for Minnesota showed ari 
average per centage of 3.63, which is 
a higher grade than has been reported 
by any other State. A person nowa- 
days, in selling his milk to the cheese 
factories or creameries, gets what his 
milk is worth in fats, which is found 
to be the only just way of dealing in 
this commodity, and insuring fairness 
to all patrons. 

Some native cows are as good a> 
thoroughbreds, if they are only cared 
for properly. Buying a thorough- 
bred does not insure any more milk, 
unless one is a good judge of her qual- 
ities, which in some bloods are as "orn- 
ary" as in the poorest scrub. The 
cost of keeping a cow depends on how 
much she is fed. By weighing each 
kind of food used, and ascertaining 
the cost of the same per pound, an esti- 
mate of expense can be made. Ex- 
pert dairymen of Norfolk, Va., usually 
feed equal weights of bran and corn 
meal, with two pounds of cottonseed 
meal, adding ground oats sometimes. 
Statistics show that of all the animals 
subjected during the last eight or nine 
years to public test at milking trials, 
those which were over six years old 
gave from 20 to 25 per cent, richer 
milk than those under that age and 
the same per cent, more milk. 

Persons going into the dairy busi- 
ness should endeavor to obtain special 
purpose cows. They should look for 
cows that are large milkers, and which 
can be readily fattened Avhen their 
yield of milk falls below a remunera- 
tive quantity. But if butter is the ob- 
ject, then the quality of the milk is 
more important than the quantity. 

No dairy should be without pigs to 
consume the skim-milk, and no herd 
of cows should carry too many dead 
heads. 

The favorite plan for operating and 
maintaining cheese factories is to have 
a central curing-room in each county, 



with auxiliary branches in each adja- 
cent township, or wherever a large 
enough quota of cows can be secured 
to furnish requisite milk ; each of these 
branches to be fitted with suitable ap- 
paratus for making green cheese, 
which would be hauled once or twice 
a week to the main factory to be cured 
and boxed, preparatory to shipment 
for market. The cost of these auxil- 
iaries, with outfit, ought not to exceed 
$200 apiece. By .having one factory 
in each township or hamlet, each far- 
mer could bring in his own milk, and 
as to the care of this milk and the mak- 
ing of the cheese, there are plenty of 
boys and girls who would be quite 
capable of attending to it. 

Another plan of operation is to have 
the farmers of a district all turn their 
cows into a common herd, and at the 
end of the season, after all expenses 
for labor, etc., are paid, to divide the 
balance among the several owners of 
the cows. 

The best plan to organize a co-oper- 
ative creamery is to call a preliminary 
meeting and obtain the presence of all 
farmers possible within a radius of 
six to ten miles, and after having some 
well-informed person explain to them 
the advantages of such an enterprise, 
have each one sign an agreement 
pledging himself to join the organiza- 
tion and supply milk from a specified 
number of cows. When 300 cows arc 
thus pledged, organize these signers 
into a creamery association under the 
established law of the State, after 
which it is expedient to advertise fc>r 
plans, specifications and prices, and 
contract for a substantial, well- 
equipped plant, with the best appara- 
tus and with a capacity in accordance 
with future prospects. 

A creamery of a capacity of 20,- 
000 pounds of milk daily will cost 
about $2800. To raise this amount, 
borrow the money, if it cannot be 
raised by stock subscriptions. There 
is hardly a community anywhere in 
which someone cannot be found t:, 
loan that amount to an association of 
twenty-five or more reputable farm- 
ers, each one of whom agrees to be 
personally responsible for the loan, or 



OLD FIELD HOMILETICS. 



his share of it. To pay off the loan, 
retain five cents on each lOO pounds 
of milk received at the creamery to 
form a sinking fund, and in a year and 
one-half or two years a 400-cow 
creamery would be clear of debt and 
no one would feel the tax. Such a 
plan, by providing cash at the outset, 
enables the association to buy ma- 
terials for their plant to the best ad- 
vantage. 

As soon as competent and accept- 
al^le officers and operators have been 
selected to take charge of the factory 
or creamery, all should meet together 
to receive practical lessons every day 
for a month from a competent instruc- 
tor, or until they all become fitted to 
carry on the work properly. After- 
wards, during the busy season, occa- 
sional visits would be made by the in- 
structors to see that the work is cor- 
rectly performed. Each farmer 
would turn in his milk to the factory, 
take a daily receipt for same, and at 
the end of each -week be given a certi- 
ficate somewhat as follows: 

Factory No. 

. Certificate for week ending , 

1895. This is to certify that John 
Jones has delivered in good condition 
: pounds of milk, the same hav- 
ing been made into cheese and deliv- 
ered at the central curing room at — . 

Signed, ■ , 

Cheese-Maker Factory No. — . 

Now, it is obvious that these cer- 
tificates would be readily accepted by 
storekeepers in lieu, of cash, for they 
are virtually the same as cash, since 



they are eventually redeemed at the 
factory or creamery treasury for their 
face value. Goods could be sold quite 
as cheep as for currency, and mer- 
chants and farmers would both prefer 
this system to carrying book accounts 
for a year. At least this is the way it 
works in Minnesota. It effectually 
disposes of the creamery question for 
that particular section. 

Dairying is a compensating sys- 
tem. It returns to the earth continu- 
ously what it extracts from it. It 
keeps the cosmic circulation in order. 
It is the cardiac valve which pumps 
the energy through the industrial eco- 
nomy, and returns it with health and 
strength to be disseminated again 
and again. There is no danger for 
generations to come of producing a 
surplus of fine butter. It is altogether 
improbable that the supply will ex- 
ceed the demand for it at profitable 
prices, for cows cannot be bred fast 
enough to produce such a quantity of 
Ijutter as this would require, since, 
with the reduction of the cost that will 
follow increased production, consump- 
tion will increase very rapidly, until 
the whole people will use butter not 
only on their bread, but on all kinds 
of meats, potatoes, and in all kinds of 
cookery, it taking the place of all other 
kinds of fats, as it possesses better 
finalities than any of them do or can. 

The South offers superlative induce- 
ments for practical creamery or dairy- 
men to locate among us and instruct 
and co-operate with our people. 



WEST VIRGINIA'S ATTRACTIONS AND ADVANTAGES. 



By Ernest B. Morris 



The general impression of West 
Virginia is that it is mainly a coal- 
mining, timber and oil State, covered 
with forests, in which possibly a few 
Indians may yet be found, and ' in- 
habited mainly by a few pioneers, oc- 
cupying log cabins. It is true that 
West Virginia's coal area is one and 
one-half times larger than that of 
Great Britain, consisting of nearly 
17,000 square miles of the best coal 
for all purposes known to the world, 
which it is estimated will yield fully 
100,000,000,000 tons of merchantable 
coal, or enough to supply the United 
States, at the present rate of consump- 
tion, for the next thousand years. 
And it is true that about two-thirds 
of the area of the State is covered with 
forests of hemlock, white pine, poplar, 
white oak, walnut, cherry, maple, etc. 
It is also true that one of the- largest 
•bodies of hardwood in the United 
States is still virtually untouched, and 
that the oil belt extends 200 miles 
across the State, yielding a product 
worth near $200,000,000 annually, giv- 
ing employment to hundreds of men 
at good wages, to say nothing of iron 
ores, which are found in inexhaust- 
able quantities. 

West Virginia is "coming out of 
the woods" more rapidly than any 
other State in the Union, as official 
statistics will prove. 

The latest report of the State Mine 
Inspector, issued in 1894, shows that 
at that time 11,110 inside miners and 
nearly 6000 outside laborers and coke 
workers were employed in and about 
the coal mines of the State, which in 
that year produced 10,928,820 tons of 
coal and 1,090,809 tons of coke. 

There are no official statistics of the 
lumber industry at. hand, but there are 
nearly, if not quite, as many people 



employed in that branch of business 
as in coal mining. 

The State's population in 1870 was 
^42,014, and, according to an esti- 
mate made by Governor AlcCorkle, 
the present population is 875,000 — - 
an increase of nearly 98 per cent, in 
twenty-five years, which has not been 
equalled by any State east of the Mis- 
sissippi river, except Florida. Of 
that number, 93 per cent, are native- 
born whites, 4-J per cent, colored and 
2^ per cent, foreign-born whites. 

The number of persons to a family 
is 5.43, which is only exceeded in the 
United States by Texas and Virginia, 
and the death-rate is less than i per 
cent. 

In educational and human institu- 
tions, the progressive spirit of her citi- 
zens may be seen to the best advan- 
tage. The reports show a higher ex- 
penditure per capita for education in 
West Virginia than in Pennsylvania 
and many of the other older States. 

In addition to the natural resources 
of West Virginia, which are enough 
to make a nation wealthy and power- 
ful, its agricultural interests are very 
important and compare favorably, 
when measured in dollars and cents, 
with any other State. With altitudes 
varying from 400 to 4,680 feet, giving 
a climatic range of 14°, with every va- 
riety of land and soil within the con- 
fines of the State, its crops are natur- 
ally of wide variety. 

The mean annual precipitation is 
46.9 inches, and the mean tempera- 
ture for January is 35°, and for July 
74°. 

The soil is adapted to the produc- 
tion of nearly all varieties of grains, 
fruits and vegetables. 

Corn is the principal crop, and new 
ground and river bottoms will vield 



WEST VIRGINIA'S ATTRACTIONS AND ADVANTAGES, ii 



on an average seventy-five bushels of 
shelled corn to the acre, worth fifty 
cents per bushel. In some localities 
as much as i6o bushels have been 
raised, while in a few places the lands 
will not yield over twenty bushels. 
Wheat will yield from fifteen to 
twenty-five bushels to the acre, and 
always finds a ready market at home at 
five to ten cents per bushel over 
Western wheat. Oats grow well on 
almost any land, and, as a rule, yield 
about thirty-five bushels to the acre. 
In the Cheat mountain country fifty 
bushels is a common yield. 

The mountain lands are particu- 
larly well suited to the growth of 
buckwheat, which requires but little 
attention, and ripens rapidly and 
yields about twenty-five bushels to 
the acre. The flour made from it is 
of the best, and sells at three to five 
cents per pound. 

Sugar-cane is largely grown in 
many counties for the manufacture of 
sorghum molasses. A good crop is 
300 gallons to the acre. In a number 
of counties maple syrup is made in 
large quantities; it usually brings $1 
per gallon. 

Another crop well adapted to the 
mountain soil is tobacco, which is the 
principal product in certain portions 
of the State. 

Potatoes do well in nearly every 
part of the State, and yield from 300 
to 400 bushels to the acre, rarely 
worth less than forty cents a bushel, 
and very often bringing $1. 

Vegetables grow in abundance, 
much attention being paid to raising 
cabbage, turnips, tomatoes, celery, 
beets, and the like.. 

Apples, peaches, pears, plums, 
cherries, quinces, as well as strawber- 
ries, raspberries and grapes, are ad- 
mirably suited to this State and are 
produced in large quantities, one 
county alone having shipped 1,500,- 
000 pounds of dried apples to Ger- 
many this season. 

A resident of Clarksburg has a va- 
cant lot in the suburbs containing 
about one-half an acre, which he 
planted in strawberries and raspber- 
ries, and last summer sold from it 



600 quarts of strawberries at twelve 
and one-half cents per quart, and 250 
gallons of raspberries at forty cents 
per gallon. 

The mines and lumber camps af- 
ford a good cash market for nearly all 
of the farm products, giving us a home 
market, with better prices, than are 
paid in many of the cities for every- 
thing raised on our farms. 

As a grazing State, West Virginia 
cannot be excelled. Ex-Governor A. 
B. Fleming, in a speech made while 
he was governor, said: "Kentucky is 
called 'the blue-grass State,' and it is 
generally believed that blue grass no- 
where else abounds as in Kentucky. 
I would not detract from our neigh- 
bor, or seek to diminish the just pride 
every Kentuckian feels in that which 
has made his State famous, but I as- 
sert upon information and belief that 
there are more acres of blue-grass 
sod in West Virginia than there are 
in Kentucky. It is the predominant 
grass, though not our chief reliance. 
Clover flourishes everywhere, timo- 
thy grows in rank luxuriance on our 
limestone and other soils, while on 
our light lands orchard and mixed 
grasses come almost as a special gift 
from Providence, affording an excel- 
lent hay and abundant pasturage. 
Thus the entire State is particularly 
adapted to stock-raising, which af- 
fords a most delightful and usually a 
most profitable pursuit to our land- 
owners. West Virginia's live stock, 
horses, cattle and sheep, command 
the highest prices; her wool is at the 
top of the market, and her dairy prod- 
ucts are sought after by those of the 
most epicurean tastes." 

The State is splendidly watered, 
great streams of purest water flowing- 
through nearly all the counties keep 
fresh and green the pasture lands. 
The excellent grass, the pure, fresh 
air and sparkling water are conditions 
unexcelled for raising stock, and this 
should become one of the greatest 
stock-raising States in the Union. 

Harrison county, of which Clarks- 
burg is the county seat, is the leading 
stock-raising county of the State, hav- 
ing, according to the auditor's report, 



12 WEST VIRGINIA'S ATTRACTIONS AND ADVANTAGES. 



2000 more horses, 6000 more cattle 
and over $100,000 more value in farm 
products than any other county in 
West \'irginia, while its taxable land 
A-alue, excluding buildings, is $815,- 
000 more than that of any other 
count}'. 

An idea of our proximity to the 
markets may be had from the fact that 
Clarksburg, a central point in the 
State, is only about one-half day's ride 
to Washington, Baltimore. Cincinnati 
or Pittsburg. 

Governor ^^'m. A. AlcCorkle, in 



his inaugural address, delivered 
March 4, 1893, said: "The great area 
and richness of our coal and hard- 
wood timber, in both of which we are 
first in this great country; the produc- 
tion of coke, in which we are second 
and soon will be first ; the great devel- 
opment of railroads, in which last year 
we were first in the United States ; our 
splendid soil, equitable climate and 
good school system, all offer unparal- 
leled inducements to incoming citi- 



THE STEADY IMPROVEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL 
CONDITIONS SOUTH. 

Bv Dunbar Rowlaiid* 



The Southern cotton planter is con- 
fronted with the so-called cotton 
problem as it exists today, and its so- 
lution carries with it the Avell-being 
and prosperity of the cotton belt. It 
is my purpose to discuss industrial 
conditions here from knowledge 
gained from the cotton farmers them- 
selves, not from elaborate bulletins 
prepared by Xew York bankers. Be- 
fore entering upon a description of 
the agricultural system now in opera- 
tion in the South, it may help to set 
matters in a clearer light if we take just 
enough of a backward view to enable 
us to appreciate and understand pres- 
ent conditions. Farming is an indus- 
try for the production of animal and 
vegetable products, and to be success- 
ful it must be conducted on business 
principles and according to practical 
methods. Farming in the South has 
been carried on in a very unscientific 
way for the past twenty-five vears. At 
the close of the war the Southern plan- 
ter found himself confronted with a 
state of aft'airs that was new and novel 
to him. He had been accustomed to 
•have entire control of human will and 
actions; he had reduced his farming- 
operations to a system, and that sys- 
tem rested on the profits derived from 
crops gathered from the fields and 

*From Memphis Commercial .Appeal. 



from the far greater profits to be de- 
rived from the increase in the value of 
slave property. It is a mistaken idea 
to suppose for a moment that the great 
agricultural wealth of the South pre- 
vious to i860 was dug from the 
ground in the shape of agricultural 
products. Immediately after the 
war the growth of cotton was unnat- 
urally stimulated, and the same pro- 
cess has been going on for the past 
twenty-five years. The planters are 
largely responsible for that them- 
selves, and the merchants and business 
men of the country have aided and 
abetted the farmers in devoting their 
entire time and attention to the growth 
of cotton at the expense of every other 
agricultural product. Thirty years 
ago cotton was worth $1 per pound. 
This enormous price set the farmers 
of the cotton-growing belt wild. The 
farmer could afford to devote every 
acre of his land to the cultivation of 
cotton at such prices. He could afiford 
to buy corn, wool, meal, flour, mo- 
lasses, and, in fact, all the foodstuffs 
that his family and his stock con- 
sumed, and pay for it in cotton at $i 
per pound. The crop was raised on 
the most expensive scale, economy was 
lost sight of, and there was a mad rush 
among the farmers of the South to see 



STEADY IMPROVEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS, i 



wiio could make the greatest number 
of bales of cotton. It was at that time 
that the system of growing nothing 
but cotton, and buying all foodstuffs 
took firm hold on the South, and that 
system has been one of the causes that 
has brought about the present low 
price of cotton. A few far-sighted, 
intelligent farmers have always made 
their own foodstufifs on their own 
farms; and these men have been inva- 
riably successful in their farming op- 
erations. The results obtained from 
such a scientific diversification of 
crops should be an object-lesson for 
Southern agriculturists, for it is in that 
system that the future prosperity of 
the South lies. The time has come 
for a readjustment of all values, 
and this is especially true of all agri- 
cultural products. All products of the 
field and farm are low, and it cannot 
be expected that cotton will bring a 
good price when all food products are 
low. The Southern farmer must 
make up his mind to bid farewell to 
high-priced cotton. Ten-cent cotton 
has gone, never to return, and the 
sooner the farmers of the country re- 
alize that fact, the better it will be for 
them. The question naturally arises. 
How is the planter to meet these low 
prices and make a living? Is he to 
decrease his acreage? Is he to stop 
growing cotton? By no means. Let 
him grow more cotton than ever, but 
at the same time let him reduce the 
cost of production by following an 
intelligent system of diversified farm- 
ing. Let him raise all his foodstuffs 
at home, and then he will have his cot- 
ton as a surplus crop, and he can make 
money by growing cotton at five cents 
per pound. The Southern farmer 
must raise the necessaries of life on 
his own farm, and when he does that 
he will have solved the problem of 
how to improve his condition. When 
the Southern planter recognizes the 
inflexible logic of the situation, the 
cotton problem will be solved for all 
time, and prosperity will return. To 
make any business enterprise a suc- 
cess the expenses necessary to run that 
business must be reduced to the low- 
est possible limit. To make a success 



of farming crops must be made on the 
most economical basis possible, and 
when the Southern planter gets that 
idea firmly fixed in his mind he will 
make money raising cotton. The 
present agricultural depression is not 
due to over-production of cotton, but 
it was directly brought about by 
spending too much to make the cot- 
ton and place it on the market. Sup- 
pose that cotton is worth five cents 
per pound in the markets of the world 
— it is possible for the farmer to raise 
and market his cotton at two and one- 
half cents per pound; but he gets it 
ready for market at a cost of four and 
one-half cents per pound. It will be 
seen at once that such a system could 
only end in one way, and that would 
be inevitable ruin and failure. The 
planter cannot grow too much cotton 
if he follows a system of diversified 
farming and makes it his surplus crop. 
The more he makes and gathers the 
better it will be for him. No matter 
how low the price goes, if he has a liv- 
ing out of his other crops, the money 
he gets for his cotton will be so much 
surplus, so much clear money to his 
credit. The system of agriculture 
that depends for its success upon one 
crop alone will be a failure, no matter 
what that crop is or where it is raised. 
The present low price of cotton will 
revolutionize the system of agriculture 
in the South, and it will compel cotton- 
planters to make their crops on a 
cheaper basis. Can this be done? 
Can the South compete with the world 
in raising cotton? We can make cot- 
ton here in the South cheaper and bet- 
ter than any other country on the 
globe, ^^^e have the labor to make it 
on a cheap basis and it can be done. 
But aside from the low price of cotton, 
the South is in a better condition than 
she has been since the war, and the 
cotton crop will bring as much as it 
did last year. 

The farmers of the South have been 
very prudent in buying; they have only 
bought what they could pay for, and 
this falling off of the demands of the 
farmers upon the merchants is one of 
the most hopeful signs of the times. 
It means that the farmers of the South 



14 STEADY IMPROVEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS. 



have made up their minds to live at 
home; to grow their foodstuffs on their 
own farms, and to stop the ruinous 
course of looking to the merchants 
for their supplies. The South is in a 
better condition today than it has been 
for thirty years. The farmer is more 
independent than he has been for a 
score of years. The debts that the 
farmers owe were contracted more 
than five years ago, when they were 
wedded to the system of raising cotton 
to pay for everything used on the 
farm. A habit has grown up in the 
country of complaining and railing 
about hard times, and that feeling will 
depress any section of country, and 
have a bad effect on its industries. 
Why should agriculture be depressed 
this year of all others? The most re- 
markable crops have been made that 
ever delighted the eyes of the farmer, 
and the planters owe less than they did 
when cotton was selling at ten cents 
per pound. The farmers of the South 
have diversified their crops this year 
more than ever before, and they are 
in better condition than the Western 
farmer who sold his wheat crop at 
fifty cents per bushel. 

It is true that cotton is the money 
crop of the South, but the latest gov- 
ernment statistics show that the value 
of the grain crops grown in the South 
far exceed in value the cotton crop. It 
is a well-known fact that the South 
can grow a greater variety of crops 
than any other section of the country. 
Almost everything that grows under 
the sun can be grown right here. The 
South is the best hay-growing section 
in the United States. The Northern 
and Western farmers are satisfied if 
they can make five tons of hay per 
acre. Here in the South ten tons can 
be made from native grasses without 
cultivation. The South is the best 
stock-raising section in the Union. In 
the North and West, stock have t-o be 
housed and fed seven months in the 
year; in the South they are housed and 
fed throughout the year on the open 
pasture. The lands of the South can- 
not be surpassed in fertility and fruit- 
fulness by the valley of the'Nile. The 
Yazoo Delta of Mississippi is the finest 



cotton-growing section in the world, 
and that section can produce 5,000,000 
bales alone if all the land was in culti- 
vation. The finest and best timber in 
the world is today standing in the 
Southern forests, and the possible de- 
velopments of the future along this 
line cannot be estimated. The growth 
of early vegetables for Northern mar- 
kets is becoming a money-making in- 
dustry in the South, and in the future 
truck farming will occupy the atten- 
tion of farmers. With such condi- 
tions surrounding the people of the 
South, how can they become grumb- 
lers and pessimists? The cry of hard 
times has become chronic with certain 
classes. It is heard on every hand, it 
is seen in every face and it is brushed 
up against in every business transac- 
tion. If there is one section of the 
Union that has been blessed with 
abundant harvests, it is the South. 
The barns and storehouses of South- 
ern farmers are bursting with corn, 
their pens are filled with fat hogs and 
evidences of plenty are seen on every 
hand. There is more corn, potatoes, 
peas, cotton seed and sorghum in the 
South this year than there has been in 
any other year of its history. Another 
great drawback that has delayed and 
retarded the agricultural development 
of the South is the ruinous credit sys- 
tem that has kept the farmers con- 
stantly in debt. That system is rap- 
idly falling away. The farmers see 
that they cannot pay credit prices for 
what they need and make a living. 
The country is going practically on a 
cash basis now, and another year will 
see the credit system wiped out of ex- 
istence. The fall of the credit system 
will cause the farmer to be more pru- 
dent in his purchases; he will not 
spend so much when he has to go 
down into his pocket and pay cash for 
everything he buys. The growth of 
cotton manufactories in the South will 
help to solve the cotton problem. 
When the time comes for the South 
to manufacture into cotton goods the 
cotton raised in its fields, then will 
come a time of unexampled pros- 
perity for Southern industries and 
Southern farming. The growth of 



STEADY IMPROVEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS. 15 



the manufacture of cotton goods in 
the South is wonderful. It has, in 
round numbers, 3,000,000 spindles, 
with a capital of $100,000,000 in- 
vested. The Southern mills are con- 
trolling the coarse cotton goods trade, 
and they are rapidly forging to the 
front and competing with New Eng- 
land in finer cotton goods. 

If any painstaking, intelligent man 
will compare the present condition of 
Southern agriculture with what it was 
fifteen years ago, he will find a change 
for the better all along the line. There 
are many indications now pointing to 
a still greater improvement in the fu- 
ture than there has been in the past. 
New methods are being introduced, 
new theories are being advanced, and 
there is a spirit of . inquiry existing 
among farmers that goes to show 
that they are seeking for better things. 
The farmer no longer despises what 
he calls book farming; he has opened 
his eyes to the fact that a knowledge 
of science as applied to agriculture is 
necessary to the successful operation 
of his farm. Practical men no longer 
sneer at the experiments being car- 
ried on at the experimental stations 
all over the South ; they are now seek- 
ing after the bulletins sent out by 
these stations, and they are gaining 
jjractical advantages from these ex- 
periments in farming. A better 
knowledge of soils, of food necessary 
for plants, of drainage, fertilizing and 
other important matters of farm econ- 
omy are receiving more attention 
every day. The farmer is beginning 
to understand that he must know 



something of agricultural chemistry, 
something of botany and other prac- 
tical sciences if he would be success- 
ful in his chosen calling. A more in- 
tensive system of farming is gradually 
making its way among the farmers of 
•the South. . They realize that they 
have been attempting to cultivate too 
much land, and have done so at the 
expense of the proper preparation of 
the soil for planting. Farmers will in 
the future cultivate less land and cul- 
tivate it better; they will pay more at- 
tention to drainage, fertilizing and the 
saving of manure than they have done 
in the past. Fertilizing is now receiv- 
ing more attention, and it will build 
up the waste places of the South as 
nothing else will. It is by the adop- 
tion of scientific methods that the 
Southern farmer is to work out his in- 
dustrial salvation. Combinations and 
syndicates composed of farmers 
banded together for the purpose of 
controlling the price of cotton are 
fruitless and foolish, and such 
schemes are only the dreams of vis- 
ionary enthusiasts. The condition of 
the South is better than any other 
portion of the country. She has 
stood the financial depression much 
better than the North and West. 
While the Western farmer is dissatis- 
fied, and is selling out and leaving his 
home, the Southern farmer is sur- 
rounded with an abundance of agri- 
cultural products, and he is filled with 
hope for the future. A new era is 
dawning for the Southern farmer, and 
he has only to reach forth his hand to 
claim its benefits. 



SOME SOUTHERN OPPORTUNITIES. 



By James R. Randall. 



About two miles from Augusta, on 
the Savannah river, is the Goodale 
plantation, which has been a famous 
place since the beginning of the cen- 
tur^^ It was alternately owned by 
the Fitzsimons, the Hampton and the 
Miller families. For a number of 
vears it has been in possession of Mr. 
H. H. Hickman, president of the cele- 
brated Graniteville mills, of South 
Carolina, whose dividends are large, 
reserves ample and stock above par. 
Mr. George O. W^alker, an expert and 
energetic planter, manages this place. 
There is one field of about lOO acres 
on this great estate that can produce 
without manure about 10,000 bushels 
of corn; but unfortunately, in too 
many cases annually, this magnificent 
crop has been ruined partially or 
wholly by inundation. It occurred to 
Mr. Hickman and Mr. Walker that 
sugar-cane might be profitably sub- 
stituted for corn. The requisite in- 
formation was procured b}^ the writer, 
from Senator CafTery, of Louisiana. 
He substantially said: ''The water that 
ruins or injures corn in the Georgia 
river swamp will not hurt cane. I 
would prefer that the water should be 
kept out, but the brief submergence 
such as vou mention will not affect the 
cane. Frost does not hurt it either, 
and windrowing mitigates even 
freezes, which rarely come before har- 
vest time in November. I should 
think that great cane crops might be 
raised and gathered on the Savannah 
river plantations, and that sugar and 
molasses production, according to cir- 
cumstances, would pay. At any rate, 
you ordinarily lose your swamp corn, 
and can save your swamp cane. There 
is no better forage for fattening stock, 
especially hogs, than sugar-cane 
ground up in the ordinary fashion." 

Major S. A. Jonas, who has done so 



much for agriculture, politics and 
everything else valuable in Missis- 
sippi, said in effect: 'T think well of 
the Georgia swamp cane culture. 
Never was there a better time for ex- 
periment. There will never more be 
free sugar legislation in this country. 
Cuba will be crippled for a long time. 
Besides, as Senator Cafifery says, and 
as the Louisiana planters have found 
out, at a saving of many thousands of 
dollars, the foodstuff of cane is im- 
mense. In Louisiana, mtiles are fed 
upon molasses. In our town of Aber- 
deen one gentleman fattens about 
1000 head of cattle habitually, and his 
food is molasses at eight cents a gal- 
lon and cottonseed meal. We dilute 
the molasses at the rate of one gallon 
to two gallons of water, and then spray 
it over or mix with meal. The cattle 
'lick the platter clean,' and no doubt, 
if gifted with articulate language 
would, like Oliver Twist or the aver- 
age schoolboy, ask for more." 

As the News and Courier, with 
characteristic enterprise, which has 
been so valuable to South Carolina 
hygienically, agriculturally and eco- 
nomically, is just now debating the 
horse and mule question with a cor- 
respondent, the writer asked Major 
Jonas what he thought about it. He 
answered : 

"I w^ould advise South Carolina to 
imitate Mississippi, if she can. We 
had a great advantage, in my section 
of the State, of living alongside of or in 
close proximity to the Illinois Central 
and Kansas City & Birmingham rail- 
ways. Poverty and protracted 
drouths among farmers of the North- 
west compelled them to part with 
many thoiisands of their horses, most 
of them being of fine blood from splen- 
did imported or domestic thorough- 
bred stock. Horses became cheap — 



SOME SOUTHERN OPPORTUNITIES. 



17 



in many Western parts too cheap for 
anything bnt kiUing and canning. But 
vast droves came sonthward to the 
only market where, as happened this 
year, farmers had money to purchase 
bargains. And they got them. What 
our farmers chiefly wanted were mares 
for breeding purposes, as well as use. 
As Mississippi has become a great 
grazing country, she is preparing also 
to become a great horse, mule and cat- 
tle grower, not only to maintain a 
home supply, but a surplus for sale 
abroad. Instead of deploring the ad- 
vent of Western horses. South Caro- 
lina should, if of a business turn, avail 
herself of the Western animals, at a 
bargain, and prepare, as Mississippi 
has done, to turn the advantage to ac- 
count for future usufruct. She can- 
not raise horses and mules sufficiently 
without the stock, and Providence has 
delivered that into her hands. At 
least that has been the case in ^lissis- 
sippi." 

If the Savannah valley shall become 
a sure and great sugar-cane producer, 



instead of periodical corn-loser, the 
problem will be solved profitably for 
many people, and lands will rise in 
value millions of dollars. Along with 
cane culture, the possibilities of stock- 
raising are shown to be most flatter- 
ing. 

I will watch these experiments, if 
made by Messrs. Hickman, Walker 
and others, with great interest, and I 
trust that magnificent success awaits 
this new departure in the Savannah 
river swamp, which, when furnished 
with artesian water, easily and cheaplv 
procured, is one of the healthiest 
places in the world, as it is one of the 
most fertile. 

The conditions of sugar-cane plant- 
ing are more particularly treated of in 
connection with the Savannah river 
plantations, because the movement 
originated there in its present shape 
experimentally. Xo doubt what is 
sup]:)Osed to be true of the Georgia 
river l^ottoms is relatively true of those 
in portions of xA.labama and, of course, 
South Carolina. 



THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



THE 

Southern States. 

»N ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY MAGAZINt 
DEVOTED TO THE SOOTH. 

Published by the 

Manufacturers' Record Publishing Co. 

Manufacturers' Record Building, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

SUBSCRIPTION, - - - $1.50 a Year 

WILLIAM H. EDMONDS, 

Editor and Manager. 



BALTIMORE, MARCH, 1896. 



The SOUTHERN STATES is an exponent of the 
Immigration and Real Estate Interests and 
general advancement of the South, and a journal 
of accurate and comprehensive information 
about Southern resources and progress. 

Its purpose is to set forth accurately and 
conservatively from month to month the reasons 
why the South is, for the farmer, the settler, the 
home seeker, the investor, incomparably the 
most attractive section of this country. 



Value of Southern Agricultural Products 

The Bulletin of the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, giving the princi- 
pal crops of the country for 1895, presents 
some very interesting statistics which 
should be carefully studied by all who want 
to understand something of the advantages 
of this section for diversified farming as 
compared with other sections. 

The grain, hay and Irish potato crops 
for 1895 in the South were as follows: 

Bushels. Value. 

Corn (508,665,017 .i;204, 140,452 

Wheat 44,760,361 29,379,611 

Oats 87..338,230 28,435,360 

Rye 2.412,070 1,437,791 

Barley 200,174 91,556 

Buckwheat 4.52,204 2.52,665 

Irish potatoes 20,786,782 9,738,965 

Hay *4. 689,282 48,027, .531 

•Tons. 



The South gives more attention to the 
production of sweet potatoes than Irish, 
but as the Agricultural Department has not 
compiled any record of the sweet potato 
crop, we are unable to give the figures of 
that. 

These statistics show the magnitude of 
the grain crops of the South. The total 
production of grain for 1895 in that section 
was 747,600,000 bushels. Contrary to the 
supposition of many farmers in the North 
and West, who do not understand the ex- 
tent and variety of the South's diversified 
farming, its production of hay was 4,600,000 
tons, valued at $48,000,000, and this not- 
withstanding the fact that owing to the 
open winter season the length of time which 
live-stock can graze is very much greater 
than in other sections, and hence the 
amount of hay cut is comparatively small 
when contrasted with the consumption of 
grass in the open field by live-stock. The 
total value of the cotton, rice, sugar, to- 
bacco, fruit and other productions not in- 
cluded in the above table, added to these 
figures, makes an aggregate value of all 
Southern farm products for 1895 of ovei 
$800,000,000. 

One of the most interesting features ot 
the crop reports is exhibited by working 
out a comparison of the relative value of 
farm products in the South and in other sec- 
tions. According to this the average value 
to the farmers of the South of corn for the 
year was thirty-four cents a bushel; in the 
remainder of the country the average was 
twenty-three cents a bushel. Thus the 
Southern farmers received on an average 
eleven cents a bushel more for their corn 
than the Western farmers. The average 
value of wheat was sixty-six cents in the 



EDITORIAL. 



19 



South and forty-nine cents in the remaindet 
of the country, showing a difference in favor 
of the Southern farmers during the year ot 
an average of seventeen cents a bushel. 
Oats were worth to the Southern farmers 
an average of thirty-two cents a bushel, and 
to the farmers of other sections eighteen 
cents, a difference of fourteen cents a bushel 
in favor of the former. Potatoes yielded 
to Southern farmers an average of forty-six 
cents a bushel for the year, and to the farm- 
ers of other sections twenty-five cents a 
bushel, the difference in this case being 
nearly 50 per cent. The South's hay crop 
was worth to its producers an average ot 
$10.24 a ton, and the hay crop of other sec- 
tions an average of $8.14 a ton, or a dififer- 
<ence of $2.10 a ton in favor of the South. 

Thus the Southern farmers not only have 
the advantage of a lower cost of living by 
reason of the ease and cheapness with 
v.'hich they can raise their own foodstuffs 
for their families, because of the low cost 
ot clothing and the small supply of fuel 
needed, but they also have an advantage in 
the selling price of their productions of 
from 20 to 50 per cent, higher value than 
the Western farmers. Their nearness to 
the consuming markets of the country and 
the cheapness with which their products 
can reach the seaboard and the large cities 
of the East give an enhanced value to their 
productions as compared with the agricul- 
tural products of the West. Moreover, the 
rapid growth of manufacturing interests in 
the South, which is fast extending the home 
consumption of farm crops, must result in 
maintaining this very material difference in 
favor of the Southern farmer. 

Sugar. 

The vast impetus recently given to the 
production of cotton goods and other man- 
ufactured articles in the South, which has, 
until recent years, had the reputation of 
being almost exclusively an agricultural 
.section, has had the momentary effect of 



withdrawing the attention of the commu- 
nity from what was at one time the only 
manufacturing industry of any magnitude 
in the lower tier of States — the production 
01 sugar. 

It has taken thirty years of peace since 
the turmoil of the sixties to bring the cotton 
mills to the cotton-fields, whereas the sugar 
planter, even in the ante-bellum days of easy 
satisfaction, erected his sugar mill just as 
close to his canefield as it was possible to 
get it, and then grumbled because he had 
to haul his cane across the expanse of his 
own demesne. That he was driven to this 
by the uncouth bulk and weight of his cane, 
as contrasted to the light and compressible 
nature of cotton, is undoubtedly true, yet it 
is a matter of more than usual significance 
that he was not at all discouraged by the 
grave conditions with which he was thus 
confronted, but pursued at once a line of 
policy which is now being inaugurated in 
the cotton industry with such marked 
success. 

The school of adversity, once graduated 
from, confers a diploma which is an "open 
sesame" to most of the boulders strewing 
the path of human existence, and thus the 
sugar planter, early educated to combat 
opposition, to surmount difficulties, and to 
extricate himself from precarious situations, 
is now emerging at least temporarily vic- 
torious from one of the severest ordeals to 
which any industry was ever subjected — an 
ordeal all the more severe because he was 
in a measure deprived of sympathy, and his 
misfortunes generally looked on as being 
either merited or fictitious. The end of the 
grinding season of 1894-95 found him in a 
deplorable situation. Stimulated by a 
bounty, the defects or virtues of which will 
not be here discussed, he had expanded his 
operations to the fullest possible extent, 
spending not only all his available cash, but 
all the additional funds that his credit would 
enable him to borrow, on the improve- 



EDITORIAL. 



mcnt of his apparatus and the extension of 
his domains. 

On the crop of 1894-95 no bounty proved 
to be forthcoming, and although a special 
appropriation was passed to cover a por- 
tion of it at the last session of Congress, 
nothing has yet been actually paid, owing 
to the obstacle interposed by the comp- 
troller of the treasury, Mr. Bowler. In 
addition to this totally unexpected depriva- 
tion, the prices for sugar on the world's 
markets last year showed an unprecedent- 
edly low range of values, and this unfortu- 
nate combination of circumstances left the 
sugar industry of the United States pros- 
trate and helpless, encumbered with debts 
and on the verge of complete extinction. 

It is questionable if there is any other 
class of men in the world today who could 
have looked misfortune in the face so boldly 
as did the sugar planters of the South at the 
close of that disastrous campaign. It is 
questionable if any other class of men ever 
so universally and systematically borrowed 
enormous sums and then found their antici- 
pated means of payment swept out of exisi- 
ence. And yet he who travels through 
Louisiana today will find the canefields 
alive with the busy panoply of toil, will hear 
the hum of industry, and will see the people 
with their shoulders to the wheel, deter- 
mined to retrieve, in such measure as they 
may, the losses they have undergone. 

Just as by the wise dispensation of nature 
sunshine follows the shower, so have the 
people in the sugar belt been encouraged 
this year by a marked and gratifying in- 
crease in the price of their product, owing 
to the destroyed crop of Cuba and the con;- 
paratively short output of the European 
beet hotises. Prime yellow clarified sugar, 
that sold last year for less than three cents, 
is now bringing four and one-quarter cents, 
imd the naturally hopeful disposition of the 
sugar planters is assisted by something of 
practical value. 

Though still suffering from the ruinous 



losses of 1894-95 in a way that is privately- 
understood and publicly ignored, and 
though there is scarcely reason to hope that 
the fair values now prevailing will continue 
through succeeding seasons unless some 
adequate protection is afforded the indus- 
try, the erection of new sugar-houses is. 
being pushed forward, the installation of 
additional and improved apparatus fills the 
country side with the clang of steel, and the 
rich alluvial soil reels off long, clean fur- 
rows from the keen edge of the plow. 
Hundreds of small farmers are growing 
cane for the central factories, and it is on. 
these that the future of the industry must 
rest. The days of the manorial system,, 
beautiful in itself, but incompatible with 
present conditions, are drawing to a close., 
and the destiny of sugar, w^hether good or 
ill, bears with it the fortunes of the many 
instead of the few. 

The Importance of Advertising. 

A few months ago the Messenger printed 
an editorial on the subject of dividing some 
of the unused lands in this county by the 
large landholders and advertising them.. 
This article was copied in the "Southern 
States" magazine, which has a wide circula- 
tion in the South and is seen and read by a 
good many Westerners who contemplate 
moving to the South. 

Last week we received a letter from a 
gentleman from Nebraska, who is now in 
North Carolina looking out for land. He 
said he had seen the article in the "Southern 
States," and wrote to us asking for infor- 
mation concerning the countJ^ its popula- 
tion, schools, churches, etc. He wanted 
to know if this was a good place for him to 
act as real estate agent in selling lands to 
Westerners. He said there was wonderful 
unrest in the West, and that many people 
are looking out for a better place to which 
to emigrate. This gentleman's letter was 
answered by the editor and by two other 
citizens, and the editor has received a card 
in reply saying that the gentleman wanted 
to come to Christiansburg to look about 
for himself, and would likely come in April. 
— Christiansburg (Va.) j\Iessenger. 

This merely goes to show the value oT 



EDITORIAL, 



21 



publicity through the "Southern States." 
Sijuthern land owners or agents, railroad 
■companies and all others who want to reach 
the people of the North and West who con- 
template coming South find that the 
"Southern States" is an invaluable adver- 
tising medium. 

The Importance of Good Locations for 
Settlers. 

The Journal, of Fort Payne, Ala., refer- 
ring to the great movement of population 
to the Fitzgerald (Ga.) locality, seeks vervy 
wisely to impress upon the South the im- 
portance of striving to locate the incoming 
settlers who are crowding into this sectioii 
in attractive and desirable regions. The 
Journal very rightly says: 

"Of course, everybody is glad to see good 
farmers and others from the North and 
Northwest come into our Southern States, 
and, of course, everyone accords to them a 
hearty welcome. But something more is 
desired than to see them come and settle. 
We want to see them prosper after they be- 
come settled. One man who comes down 
and betters his condition and prospers in 
his tindertakings is better than ten who 
make failures, lose all they brought and go 
back to abuse the country and its people." 

It is hardly necessary to emphasize the 
importance of this advice. The people of 
the South cannot afford to see any decep- 
tion practiced in drawing population to un- 
desirable localities. Upon the good health 
and the success of the thousands who are 
now coming to the South must necessarily 
depend to a considerable extent the magni- 
tude of immigration for some years. It is 
inevitable that there will be some dissatis- 
fied settlers. We can never hope in this 
world to find a locality where there are not 
some cranks and not some failures, but 
•earnest and persistent efforts must be made 
h)y railroads, who have so much at stake, 
to see that land agents operating along their 
line seek to secure the best locations, and 
not simply the localities where land can be 
bought at the lowest price. 



."Ynd yet as true as all this is, one cannot 
study the South and what has been accom- 
plished without sometimes doubting all of 
h/s own preconceived notions as to the best 
and most favorable locations for settlers. 
About eight or ten years ago, when an efifort 
was made to attract Northern people to the 
Southern Pines locality, in North Carolina, 
it called forth very general criticism. The 
officers of the railroad were opposed to the 
work, believing that the locality was abso- 
lutely unfitted for outside people. The 
writer, with the very best light that he could 
get on the subject, and nearly every paper in 
North Carolina, opposed the work that was 
being done and criticised it as liable to 
prove a failure, to mislead the people who 
settled in that region and of great disadvan- 
tage to the whole South. As is generally 
known, the Southern Pines territory at that 
time presented simply a barren,, sandy re- 
gion in which nothing but pine seemed to 
grow. That district looked to the traveler 
as though there was no possible hope for 
its ever being improved or ever being any- 
thing but a dreary waste of sandy land. 
There was one man, however, who had faith 
in the work, faith in the climate, faith in the 
possibilities of this sandy region producing 
fruits, and so year after year, against the 
protestations of many of the best people of 
North Carolina, he kept on untiringly 
working in his own way and going contrary 
to all the advice given by the newspapers, 
which had at heart the best interests of the 
South. A few years ago, however, it was 
recognized that this man had been wiser 
than his critics, and the press and public 
were compelled to admit that Southern 
Pines was a success. It is needless to re- 
count the very remarkable attention which 
that territory has been attracting for several 
years, the success of grape and peach grow- 
ing, the delight of the several thousand 
Northern people who have settled there 
because of its climate and the recent won- 
derful development which is being made by 



22 



EDITORIAL. 



a Boston man, who has already spent since 
last June over $1,000,000 in laying out a few 
miles away a town, in building a hotel and 
in constructing dwellings for rent, with all 
modern improvements, designed to meet 
the needs of people who may desire com- 
fortable accommodations in a climate such 
as Southern Pines enjoys. 

In some South Georgia districts where 
but a few years ago there was little outlook 
for any improvement or any advancement 
in the agricultural interests, a most won- 
derful success has attended the growing of 
fruits, and that section promises to take 



rank with California as a fruit-producing 
region. Like the Southern Pines territory, 
its success has been contrary to the expecta- 
tions of all who had long regarded it as 
forever destined to be but a poor and unat- 
tractive wire grass section. 

There are many other places throughout 
the South where the same conditions have 
prevailed, and where facts have set aside 
the preconceived notions of people who 
thought they tmderstood the climate and 
soil of those regions, but this does not les- 
sen the importance of great care in select- 
ing land for colonization purposes. 




Immigration Notes. 



1600 Letters a Week From Prospective 
Settlers. 

It is doubtful if any section of any coun- 
try ever commanded such universal atten- 
tion as the South is now attracting. Farm- 
ers, merchants, manufacturers and capital- 
ists of the North and West are seeking for 
information about the South in a way to 
indicate something of the marvelous change 
which is destined to come about by this 
great movement of population southward. 

During the past twelve months the 
Sotithern Railway Co. has been doing some 
progressive work in presenting to the peo- 
ple of the North and West the attractions of 
the country tributary to that system. One 
of its methods has, of course, been by ad- 
vertising in the "Southern States." Mr. 
M. V. Richards, of Washington, the land 
and immigration agent of the Southern 
Railway, in an interview with the "South- 
ern States," says that he is receiving an 
average of over 1600 letters a week from 
people inquiring about the South. These 
letters come from all parts of the North 
and West, and from farmers, all classes of 
people, from merchants and manufacturers, 
from rich and poor, all seeking information 
about the most attractive points of the 
South for location. There are hundreds 
also from people who are anxious to get 
away from the Northwest on account of its 
climate, and who want to know more of the 
genial, healthy, invigorating climate of this 
section. 

A prominent business man of a little New 
England town, in talking of this feature of 
the southward movement a few days ago, 
stated to the "Southern States" that a year 
or two ago an invalid from his town settled 
in a spot in North Carolina which had at- 
tracted his attention because of its excellent 
climate, and as a result of his satisfaction 
with his new home some twelve or fifteen 
people from that one little town had already 
settled in that one place. None of them 
are what could be classed as invalids, but 
all were men anxious to get away from the 



rigors of the winter climate of Northern 
New England, and anxious to build homes 
in a section which possesses so many ad- 
vantages as the South. 

Delighted With Western Carolina. 

The Herald, of Morganton, N. C, fol- 
lowing the good work of the "Southern 
States" in publishing from time to time 
letters from Northern and Western people 
who have settled in the South and who are 
anxious to tell the world of the attractions 
which this section presents to them, gives 
in a recent issue a number of letters from 
former residents of Michigan, Illinois. New 
Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and other 
States, stating their impressions of the re- 
gion around Morganton. As illustrating 
the strong hold which the South takes upon 
the people from other sections who settle 
there, we take the following e.^tracts from 
the letters in the Herald: 

Col. C. R. Miller, of Adrian, Mich., says: 
■'The region about Morganton is fertile; 
anything that grows North grows there; 
the people friendly, frank and cordial. I 
advise people who are going South to 
locate farms and expect to stay there to pay 
a visit to Burke county. North Carolina." 

Mr. C. W. Pursell. a lumber dealer ol 
Washington C. H.. Ohio, says: "Your 
climate is free from malaria, the air pure 
and bracing, soil good and produces well. 
I prefer that part of North Carolina to any 
place I know of in the South." 

Mr. Geo. O. Baker, assistant engineer. 
General Electric Co., Schenectady. N. Y., 
says: "I have never found a climate as 
equable and salubrious as that of North 
Carolina. The fact that I have invested 
money in Morganton and induced my 
brother to make it his home will attest the 
sincerity of what I have written." 

Mr. John Brook Leavitt, of the law firm 
of Leavitt, Wood & Keith, in Broadway, 
New York, who spent two summers in 
Morganton, says: "Your beautiful county 
1 often recall, and the kindness and hospi- 



23 



24 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



tality with which I was everywhere met 
made a great impression on me. Your 
county ought to attract the best kind of 
emigrants who want to locate either in a 
town or upon farming lands." 

Mr. Serrill Douglass, of Bristol, Pa., in 
speaking of Morganton. says: "With an 
altitude of 1200 feet above sea-level, you 
can claim the finest climate to be found any- 
where. The people are refined, intelligent 
and the most hospitable I ever met with."" 

Mrs. T. W. Marchant. of Washington C. 
H., Ohio, who spent the spring of '95 in 
Morganton, says: "Anyone contemplating 
a home could not but be pleased with i\Ior- 
ganton. It has all that could be desired in 
climate — its people generous, progressive 
and prosperous." 

Italian Agriculturists. 

Mr. C. E. Sessions, of Coahoma, Aliss., 
has some twenty-five families of Italian im- 
migrants on his lands, with whom, as labor- 
ers, he claims to be well .satisfied. He has 
been using this class of labor for about ten 
years, increasing it annually. He says that 
the Italians rent land and never fail to meet 
their obligations promptly. They raise 
everything for home consumption. Mr. 
Sessions considers the natives of Tuscany 
very desirable for our farming interests, as 
that is largely an agricultural country. Mr. 
Austin Corbin. of New York, lately located 
about 350 of these people on his Sunnyside 
plantation, Chicot county, Arkansas, and 
Mr. Corbin's nephew, writing to Mr. Ses- 
sions, states that he is very well pleased 
with them as laborers, and that by their 
thrift and enterprise they are setting a good 
example to the people among whom they 
have located. 

Growing Alarmed. 

People from the cold, bleak and barren 
Northwest for the past two years have been 
coming South in search of a warmer cli- 
mate, richer sell, more equable seasons 
and better conditions. This movement, 
which began soon after the great drought 
in Nebraska, Kansas, the Dakotas and 
other States, which brought suffering and 
ruin to thousands, has swollen gradually 
from a small stream into a most formidable 
tide. It has now become so great as to 
cause alarm among larger property-owners 



in those States, which are being depleted, 
and an effort to stem the tide has been be- 
gun, as the following communication to 
the Chicago Times-Herald indicates: 

"The attempt on the part of the railroads 
centering in Chicago to boom the Southern 
and Southeastern States and to populate 
them at the expense of the Northwestern 
States, with the recent extensive publica- 
tion of this fact by the Times-Herald, has 
aroused the people in the latter region to a 
realization of the situation and stirred them 
to action. In Minnesota and Iowa a coun- 
ter scheme is being agitated for holding to 
their population, while in South Dakota the 
people have alread}^ made a move. 

"An 'immigration convention' has just 
'been concluded at Mitchell, S. D., which 
was attended by several hundred of the 
most prominent people of the State, in- 
cluding Governor Sheldon. The South 
Dakota Immigration Association was or- 
ganized. An executive committee was ap- 
pointed, composed of one member from 
each judicial district, with an auxiliary com- 
mittee made ttp of one man from each 
county. 

"This committee was instructed to pre- 
pare forthwith advertising matter to be dis- 
tributed throughout the East, telling the 
truth about South Dakota's resources. 
Emphasis was laid on the matter of telling 
the exact truth, and to insure this a com- 
mittee of prominent men will edit the ad- 
vertising material before it is printed. The 
convention decided that boomers hereto- 
fore had done inore harm than good by 
claiming for Sovtth Dakota all of the good 
things under the sun. The advertising 
matter to be sent out will tell where the 
region of never-failing crops is; the part of 
the State where a little capital w'ill pay for 
irrigating tracts which by artificial watering 
will invariably produce abundant crops. 
Men interested in stock-raising will be told 
of the portion of the State where nutritious 
grasses cover vast ranges, and the facts 
about the limitless mineral wealth of the 
Black Hills will be set forth for the benefit 
of those interested in mining."" 

No better evidence than this is necessary 
to show how great has become the South- 
ern movement. It cannot be stemmed, 
either. Those who have come South have 
found a veritable Eden for the agriculturist 
and settler and have written back to their 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



25 



friends, who are likewise coming in great 
«umbers. — Birmingham x'Vge-Herald. 

Southern Immigration. 

The next great movement of population 
that the world is to witness will be south- 
ward. The conditions are now all favor- 
able. It has required a qtiarter of a cen- 
tury since the war to bring about the 
changes that were necessary to make the 
South a thoroughly attractive country for 
Northern and Western farmers. All the 
questions relating to possible race troubles 
liad to be settled; the prejudices engendered 
on both sides by the war had to die out, 
•and the fact that the South could produce 
■other things than cotton had to be demon- 
strated. The construction, after the war, 
of railroads through the West and North- 
west by the aid of enormous land grants 
made it absolutely necessary that these 
roads, controlled as they were by the lead- 
ing financial powers of Europe and Amer- 
ica, should bend their energies and unite 
the influences of all the financial forces con- 
centrated in them to turn population west- 
ward. The South was in no condition to 
invite immigration, even if it had been in its 
power to accomplish anything against such 
a combination of forces as were at work in 
tehalf of the West. 

But a great change has come and all the 
disadvantages under which the South has 
labored are being removed. During the 
last five or ten years there have settled here 
and there all over the South a few North- 
ern and Western farmers, whose great suc- 
cess is now being made known to all their 
friends in their former homes. This is 
awakening a direct interest in the South in 
all parts of the West — an interest such as 
could be aroused in no other way. 

From every section of the North, the 
West and Northwest, and even from Cali- 
fornia, requests for information about the 
South and its advantages for settlers are 
being received. Items of news from several 
thousand Southern towns and villages from 
Maryland to Texas pass before the writer 
every day. The most striki'ig feature in 
this mass of news — so pronounced that it 
would impress itself even upon the most 
casual reader — is the number of settlers re- 
ported from day to day as locating in the 
South. 

This is entirely a new thing. A year ago 



items of this kind were rare. Now every 
issue of every Southern paper has some- 
thing in it about immigration matters and 
the incoming of new people, and even now 
thousands of Western and Northern farm- 
ers are settling in the South. — Richard H. 
Edmonds, in The Chautauqtian for March. 

An Alabama Colonization Enterprise. 

Arrangements are being made for the 
purchase of 8000 acres of land near Annis- 
ton, Ala., for colonization purposes. ]Mr. 
W. G. Ledbetter, of Anniston; Mr. R. L. 
Spencer, of Fruithurst, Ala., and others are 
interested. In an interview with the Hot 
Blast Mr. Spencer said: 

"We commenced the cultivation of grapes 
in Tallapoosa two years ago last August, 
and after one year's development of the in- 
terests there, in which about 5000 acres of 
land was sold and 2000 acres planted, a new 
company was organized, known as the Ala- 
bama Fruit Growing and Winery Associa- 
tion, v.'hich purchased 2000 acres in Cle- 
burne county, Alabama, and the new town 
of Fruithurst was established on the latter 
property less than a year ago. Since the 
first of May over 600 lo-acre tracts, or 6000 
acres, of this land have been sold. On this 
more than 400 people have been located 
and 100 residences built. The company has 
erected a fine hotel, established planing 
mills, graded streets, etc., at a cost of about 
$25,000. The new company has on its pay- 
roll upwards of 500 men. and the pay-roll 
amounts to from $8000 to $12,000 per month. 

"The company has done a business since 
last May of about $250,000, has paid two 
dividends of 25 per cent, each and has a sur- 
plus of between $50,000 and $75,000 avail- 
able for future dividends. The business of 
the Southern Railway has increased so rap- 
idly at Fruithurst that it is now the third 
best station on the line between Atlanta and 
Birmingham, paying the Southern Railway 
Co. between $1500 and $2000 monthly. 

"Tracts of land have been sold and are 
now being planted from two to three and 
one-half miles from the centre of the city. 
The cash receipts from sales of tracts of 
land alone for the month of February have 
been $15,000, aggregating sales for probably 
double this amount." 

Mr. Spencer was asked to outline the in- 
tentions of himself and associates as to the 



26 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



Anniston enterprise, and replied very inter- 
estingly as follows: 

"It is the intention of the promoters of 
the Fruithurst enterprise to operate a sim- 
ilar enterprise on the lands about Anniston; 
to locate here a different class of people 
from that at Fruithurst; that is. a certain 
class of Northern people, who, while they 
possess an abundance of means, are looking 
for Southern homes and desire to locate at 
some point where they can enjoy the finest 
educational and church facilities and devote 
their idle time to the fascinating and profit- 
able occupation of grape-culture. 

"While the people that the association 
located at Fruithurst are thrifty Swedes, 
Germans and Americans, excellent citizens, 
with a reasonable amount of means, the 
enterprise is attracting men with large 
means, who, of course, cannot find at Fruit- 
hurst the facilities for educating their chil- 
dren they would like. It is proposed to 
supply this demand with the Anniston prop- 
osition. It is furthermore intended to lo- 
cate here a class of thrifty Scandinavians. 
Germans and Americans, who. while not 
wealthy, as the world goes, have still an 
abundance of means to purchase their vine- 
yards and with the aid of employment, part 
of the time to be given by the new company 
and any work they can secure with the fac- 
tories of Anniston, being skillful mechanics, 
will make them a successful and desirable 
addition to the citizenship of any commu- 
nity. Thus it will be seen that the enter- 
prise at Fruithurst and the proposed enter- 
prise at Anniston will not in any way clash, 
that the tendency will be to assist each other 
as a certain class of Northern people that 
are brought to Fruithurst will be located 
here, and still another class will prefer the 
Fruithurst enterprise to the one at Annis- 
ton for the reason that the lands there will 
be somewhat cheaper than those surround- 
ing the city limits here. 

"It is proposed to organize and colonize 
the Anniston department of the enterprise 
entirely independent of the Fruithurst en- 
terprise, and excursions of Scandinavians. 
Germans, etc.. will be brought to this point 
by an entirely new set of sub-agents, work- 
ing under the supervision of the general 
agents. 

"The Fruithurst syndicate will undertake 
the colonization of these lands at prices 
ranging from $400 to $800 per lo-acre tracts 



with two acres planted to grapes and the- 
profits arising from these sales will be di- 
vided into dividends at the expiration of 
each six months. 

"There will be no salaries in connection 
with the company except the secretary and 
treasurer, who will answer correspond- 
ence and do the clerical work of the com- 
pany. Taking past experience as a basis, 
there should be no difficulty in selling 1000 
acres of these lands every six months. 

"At Fruithurst said Mr. Spencer, we have 
demonstrated not only that the plan of colo- 
nizing is a feasible one, but that the colo- 
nists located are successful. The grapes 
will grow luxuriantly and produce abun- 
dantly in this section, and the advantage of 
two railroads insures fine shipping facilities 
here. 

"I don't believe in cheap lands and salu- 
brious climate as the only arguments in in- 
ducing Northern people to come South. 
We do not encourage parties to buy and 
locate who have not at least $300 for a single 
man and $600 for a married man. and we 
have made this a rule at Fruithurst. as at 
least one-half of the business is what might 
be termed investment, where Northern peo- 
ple purchase tracts for vineyards of the as- 
sociation, send the money to plant them and 
to take care of them, the latter harvesting 
the grapes and returning the net profits to 
the owner. 

"We have located at Fruithurst during 
the last year nearly 500 people, which repre- 
sents only about one-fourth of our sales; 
but my impression is that with the advan- 
tage in many ways of this location we could 
equal or perhaps exceed that record; but it 
is a false impression that population is the 
only thing that is wanted. As a matter of 
fact, we discovirage people of smaller means 
from locating on their vineyards until they 
are bearing, as we prefer to have the com- 
pany care for the vineyards for two years 
before the purchaser locates, and at that 
time the vineyard will furnish him support. 
This, of course, applies only to purchasers 
of small means, but it is probable that pur- 
chasers of vineyards about Anniston would 
be considered people 'well-to-do." who 
would put residences on their vineyards or 
in the city and make this their home: so it 
is very probable that a larger proportion of 
those purchasing vineyards here would lo- 



IMMIGRA TION NO TES. 



27 



cate in Anniston than we have had thus far 
at Fruithurst. 

"A great advantage of an enterprise of 
this character for any section is that 
through its extensive advertising it attracts 
large numbers of people who do not desire 
to purchase vineyards. I presume that at 
Tallapoosa and Fruithurst there are now 
fully 100 families who are living there for 
the winter and did not come to purchase 
vineyards, but were attracted to the places 
as desirable points for spending the winter, 
and are living there either in hotels or pri- 
vate residences. These people, of course, 
have means, and leave a great deal of money 
in the towns." 

Population Moving Southward. 

There is increasing activity in the pur- 
chase of Southern farm lands for coloniza- 
tion purposes. The interest which has been 
aroused throughout the country in the ex- 
tensive colonization work in and around 
Fitzgerald, Ga., has caused great activity 
in that territory, and along the line of the 
Georgia & Alabama Railroad and the Abbe- 
ville & Way Cross branch of that system 
arrangements are being made for very large 
settlements. A dispatch to the "Southern 
States" states that the sale of 10,000 acres of 
land in the vicinity of Forest Glen, a point 
on the Abbeville & Way Cross branch of 
the Georgia & Alabama Railroad eight 
miles from Abbeville, Ga., has been com- 
pleted, titles examined and executed and the 
purchase money paid, and surveys are now 
being made for division and allotments of 
farms are being proceeded with. Arrange- 
ments have been completed for locating on 
this property between 300 and 400 families, 
and they will begin to arrive as soon as the 
surveys of the land have advanced suffi- 
ciently far to divide up the tracts. The to- 
pography of the land, the healthfulness of 
the locality, the soil, the natural timber 
growth, the adaptability for miscellaneous 
crops, the establishment of orchards, fruit 
farms, vineyards, etc., and the proximity 
of the entire tract to the Georgia & Ala- 
bama Railroad, render this purchase an ex- 
tremely desirable location for Western 
settlers. 

The same dispatch states that other col- 
ony locations along this line, embracing 
still larger areas of land, are assuming satis- 
factory shape towards completion and set- 



tlement, and final contracts for these prop- 
erties will probably be closed within a few 
weeks. 

Mr. W. G. Ledbetter, of Anniston, Ala., 
and some associates connected with the Ala- 
bama Fruit Growing and Vinery Associa- 
tion, of Fruithurst, have purchased 8000 
acres of land adjacent to and near Annis- 
ton, and will colonize it with Scandinavian 
and German grape-growers. The organi- 
zation will be known as the Anniston 
Homestead and Fruit Growing Association, 
and will be capitalized at $150,000. It is 
stated that the company will begin planting 
vineyards within the next ten days, and that 
the foreign agency organization of the Ala- 
bama Fruit Growing and Vinery Associa- 
tion, which has for some time been in ope- 
ration at Fruithurst, will be used to bring 
immigrants to this property. 

In other parts of the South contracts are 
being made for large purchases of land for 
similar work, and every day seems to add 
strength to the movement of population 
southward. 

Major G. W. McGinnis, the assistant 
land commissioner of the Yazoo & Missis- 
sippi Valley Railroad, a part of the Illinois 
Central system, in an interview with the 
Memphis Commercial-Appeal, said: "The 
movement of people from the Northwest 
to lands in the Delta and the actual sales of 
a year ago did not amount to 10 per cent, 
of what they do now. The increase is sim- 
ply marvelous, and I am delighted with the 
class of men and women who are coming. 
They represent the advancement of agricul- 
ture in the great States of the Northwest, 
and they will make citizens such as every 
section of our country should have. To 
give you an idea of what the movement is, 
I may say that within the past sixty or sev- 
enty days we have sold about 12,000 acres of 
land, and the purchases will not average 
160 acres each, thus showing how many 
buyers there are. In other words, the sale 
of these 12,000 acres means the coming of at 
least 125 families into the Delta from the 
Northwest." 

Mr. J. E. Fulton, of California, president 
of the Wyoming, Salt Lake & California 
Railroad, is reported to have secured an 
immense tract of land on the Rio Grande 
river, above Brownsville, Texas, which he 



28 



IMMIGRA TION NO TES. 



will cut up into small farms on which to 
locate agriculturists. It is said that he will 
erect a large reservoir in the vicinity of the 
land for irrigating purposes, following the 
California system of irrigation, the water 
being carried to the land through an ex- 
tensive system of ditches. 

Mr. Harris Strong, of West Point, Miss., 
is reported to have located a large colony 
of Germans on sevei-al thousand acres of 
land about four miles south of West Point. 
The colonists expect to plant most of the 
land in strawberries and fruits, the land be- 
ing rich and conveniently located for ship- 
ping. 

Some Iowa families, who bought land 
near IDuncan, Miss., last fall, have moved 
down and are reported working vigorously 
to establish themselves in their new homes. 
They claim that they are the advance guard 
of hundreds of families from their former 
home. 

A party of Western men recently pur- 
chased 10,000 acres of land in Hinds county, 
Mississippi, near Jackson, which will be 
divided up into tracts of twenty acres each 
to be colonized with truckers and fruit- 
growers. 

It is thought probable that Alabama will 
soon have a colony of substantial and in- 
dustrious Northwestern people, similar to 
that of Fitzgerald. Ga. Mr. F. W. Keith, 
of Chicago, under the guidance of Messrs. 
C. P. Atmore and P. Sid. Jones, of the 
Louisville & Nashville Railroad, has lately 
been investigating for a site. Mr. Keith 
claimed to be looking for a large tract of 
agricultural lands, probably between Mont- 
gomery and Mobile, for the purpose of set- 
tling a colony of good farmers from the 
Northwest. 

Mr. C. Erickson, a prominent Scandina- 
vian citizen of Minnehaha county. South 
Dakota, with a companion, has been inves- 
tigating the farm lands of North Alabama. 
They represent six farmers of Northwest- 
ern Iowa and South Dakota, who have en- 
tered into a signed agreement to purchase 
at least 1000 acres of land to locate upon, 
and propose to place also 2000 acres or 
more under option for about twenty-five 



other families in their localities who want 
to obtain homes in the South. 

It is said that thrifty farmers from Dakota 
and Michigan and other Northwestern 
States, who have settled in Athens, Ala., 
are to be seen on the streets every day. 
They express themselves as delighted with 
the climate and soil, and say that hundreds 
of immigrants will move into their neigh- 
borhood as soon as houses can be prepared 
for them. 

The settlement at Fruithurst, in Cleburne 
county, Alabama, is reported to have been 
quite successful, and is attracting a good 
deal of attention. It is estimated that the 
colony will be increased b\' at least 100 set- 
tlers in the near future. 

Mr. M. V. Richards, land and immigra- 
tion agent of the Southern Railway, has 
effected arrangements for settling a colony 
of Bohemian agriculturists between Bir- 
mingham and Anniston. They will engage 
in general farming and fruit-growing. 

State Senator W. D. Chipley, of Pensa- 
cola, Fla., has returned home from his trip 
to Sweden, the object of which was to ar- 
range for bringing to Florida a large col- 
ony of Swedes. In speaking of the matter 
Colonel Chipley said: "If I am not disap- 
pointed beyond all human calculations, I 
have arranged to bring over 100 families 
from Sweden to Florida next fall. An ex- 
amination has already been made by a com- 
mittee of Swedes, who came to Florida for 
the purpose of investigating the country. 
They were highly pleased." 

Mr. F. W. Luschefske, of Hamburg. 
Germany, was in Grove City, Fla., recently 
for the purpose of investigating the neigh- 
borhood with a view to finding a suitable 
location for a large colony of German farm- 
ers. He claimed to be very favorably im- 
pressed with the section. 

■ The Messrs. Schofield Bros., of Chicago, 
having spent two winters in the vicinity of 
Valdosta, Ga., are said to have decided to 
make Lowndes county their permanent 
home, and will establish a large stock farm 
in the southern portion of the county. 
They propose to stock the farm after the 



IMMIGRA TION NO TES. 



29 



approved Western manner, with blooded 
cattle, sheep, hogs and horses. 

Messrs. Pahner Bros., of South Dakota, 
are reported to have purchased from Mr. 
O. T. Hopper, of Boston, Ga., his country 
home of Oakridge. near that town. It is 
said that the Palmer Bros, propose to settle 
a colony from South Dakota on these and 
adjoining lands. 

Blue Ridge, Ga., was recently visited by 
Messrs. Holden and Durpee, working 
under the direction of a colonization bureau 
of New^ York city, who wish to secure 
50,000 acres of land in the neighborhood of 
Blue Ridge for a Scandinavian colony. 

Mr. Michael McQuaid. of Chicago, a 
prominent man in public affairs in that city, 
contemplates making his home in Wilkes 
county, Georgia, and he has stated that if 
he does so it will only be the entering wedge 
of a large colony of thrifty, capable and in- 
dustrious people. 

Messrs. O. L. Winks and Ezra McClaf- 
flin, of Williamsport. Ind., have purchased 
a fine tract of land consisting of 6000 acres 
in Clinch county, Georgia, on the S. V. & 
W. R. R., and they intend locating a small 
colony ot Indiana farmers and fruit-growers 
on the land during the summer and autumn. 
The land is cleared of all heavy timber, and 
is well situated as to the railroad facilities. 

Col. J. B. Killebrew, immigration agent 
of the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis 
Railway, lately received a letter from a very 
prominent gentleman in central Ohio 
stating that he was just on the eve of de- 
parture for the purpose of selecting a site 
for a co-operative colonization scheme. 
The gentleman wrote: "Nothing can com- 
pare with our system. We can get and will 
take only the best people. After we return 
from the South and settle on the location 
for this colony I will then take the lecture 
field. I can assure you I shall have crowded 
houses. We are now receiving letters of in- 
quiry and applications for membership 
from every part of the United States. Many 
of them come from California. We will 
surprise the people of the South as soon as 



we are ready to begin operations. I have 
been suppressing everything and keeping- 
it from the press until we are ready to 
locate. Our committee now is nearly ready 
to leave for the South. We shall take a 
first-class photographer with us, and I shall 
use the views when I am lecturing, and also 
use them in our printed matter. I have had 
much to do with colonization in the West, 
and we are going about this in a business- 
like way.'' 

It is reported that the Italian colonists at 
Sunnyside, Chicot county, Arkansas, will 
be recruited by about forty families to come 
from the neighborhood of Genoa, Italy. 
The newcomers will increase the colony to 
something over 1000 persons. 

]Mr. Howard Cole, of Houston. Texas, 
representing a syndicate organized bj^ 
Houston, Dallas and Fort Worth people, 
recently purchased 100 acres in the western 
suburbs of Shreveport, La. It is stated 
that the property will be subdivided into 
lots, streets and sidewalks laid, and an elec- 
tric car line built. The outlook for pros- 
perity and improvements in Shreveport is 
considered very encouraging. 

Another real-estate deal in Shreveport 
consists of 200 acres of land at the head of 
Wallace Lake, known as the old Redding 
Place. This was purchased from Mr. J. 
Henry Shepherd by Mr. Charles Schaary, 
a German, late of New Mexico, who is a 
practical farmer and intends to work his 
land with the latest improved farming im- 
plements. 

Hon. Hiram C. Wheeler, of Odebolt. 
Iowa, one of the heavy corn growers of 
that State, having last year cultivated 4000 
acres in corn and 2500 in oats, has been 
prospecting in Houston, Texas, with a view 
to making investments. He was accom- 
panied by Mr. John Stevenson, of Odebolt, 
and Dr. C. B. Boardman, of Des Moines, 
Iowa. This is the second visit of these 
gentlemen to Texas. In an interview they 
admitted that very few in the Northwest 
have any conception of the almost bound- 
less resource? of this State. 



General Notes. 



A Southern Exposition in Chicago. 

At a meeting held in Chicago lately it 
was decided to hold in that city next sum- 
mer a Southern exposition in which it is 
planned to make a comprehensive display of 
the South's mineral, timber and agricul- 
tural resources. Mr. Richard H. Edmonds, 
editor of the Manufacturers' Record, being 
unable to accept an invitation to be present, 
sent a letter, from which we take the follow- 
ing extracts: 

"I am profoundly appreciative of the op- 
portunity which the holding of a Southern 
exposition in Chicago afifords, to draw the 
business interests of the South and the 
West into closer connection. 

"I am sure that the more the business 
men of the West study the importance of 
developing trade relations with the South, 
the more deeply will they be interested in 
this great question. A period of wonderful 
prosperity and progress is before the South. 
Of this there can be no question. It is sim- 
ply whether the West shall be identified 
with the South in the development of its 
vast material resources, and thus secure a 
share in the prosperity which this will bring 
aljout, or whether this section shall be left 
to work out its own advancement and up- 
building in connection with what is being 
done by the East. 

"The Manufacturers' Record, as the gen- 
eral industrial exponent of the entire South, 
has for years labored to impress upon the 
West the importance of closer business rela- 
tions with the Southern States. In the 
great territory south of Mason and Dixon's 
line there is latent wealth enough to enrich 
an empire. Upon no other country on 
which the sun shines has nature lavished its 
gifts more abundantly. Here, and nowhere 
else on earth, are found in the same region 
the four great foundation elements of rtearly 
all manufacturing — coal, iron, cotton and 
tnnber; and added to these, agricultural ca- 
p;ibilities which guarantee that this section 
when well populated will yield of agricul- 



tural products a greater total than the en- 
tire country now does. In this great terri- 
tory, covering over 500,000,000 acres, of 
land, there are found elements of wealth 
which can only be realized by those who 
have fully studied the situation. New Eng- 
land, importing its cotton from the South, 
its coal from the South, its iron and its tim- 
ber and its foodstuffs, has built up its vast 
manufacturing interests until in cotton mills 
alone it has nearly $400,000,000 invested. 
Pennsylvania, with coal and iron as the 
foundation, has developed an industrial life 
the magnitude of which amazes everyone 
who studies the subject. That one State 
has nearly $300,000,000 more capital in- 
vested in manufacturing than the entire 
fourteen Southern States, based mainly on 
coal ' and iron, while Alabama alsne has 
more coal and more iron and ten times as 
much standing timber as the State of Penn- 
sylvania. West Virginia has 17,000 square 
miles of coal, against 10,000 square miles in 
Pennsylvania. Even Great Britain has only 
12,000 square miles of coal, or 5000 square 
miles less than the one State of West Vir- 
ginia. 

"In order to free itself from dependence 
upon this country. Great Britain has made 
the most strenuous efforts to encourage the 
cultivation of cotton in Egypt and India; 
but the South's supreme monopoly in this 
industry was never stronger than it is to- 
day. While other countries, after thirty 
years of Great Britain's work in the encour- 
agement of cotton production, have made 
but little advancement, the South is enor- 
mously increasing its yield of cotton and 
each year lessening the cost of production. 
It now produces nearly three-fourths of the 
world's cotton crop, but at the present time 
has only about 5 per cent, of the cotton 
spindles of the world. It has in operation 
3.COO.000 spindles, and the mills now under 
construction will require for equipment 
about 1,000,000 spindles in addition, while 
in the world there are upwards of 85,000,000 



GENERAL NOTES. 



spindles. Here is a field for expansion 
which will tax the investment of capital and 
the building of mills to the utmost for many 
years to come before the South begins to 
manufacture at home one-half of the cotton 
which it produces. In years past the profits 
on manufacturing were sufficiently large to 
justify the shipment of raw materials a thou- 
sand miles or more and the reshipment of 
the finished goods to even more distant 
markets. New England and Great Britain 
could afford to transport their raw cotton 
from looo to 3000 miles, turn it into the fin- 
ished product and find a market throughout 
the world. What was true of cotton manu- 
facturing was equally true of nearly all other 
lines of industry. 

"Of recent years, however, economic 
changes beyond the control of man have 
lessened the margin of profit and thus 
forced the manufacturer to seek the point 
of lowest cost of production. That country 
or that section which has to haul its raw 
materials a long distance has necessarily 
reached the limit of its growth. The iron 
trade of England years ago ceased to ad- 
vance, having made no material increase in 
the last twelve or fifteen years, and so in 
cotton the limit of progress in Great Britain 
has long since been reached. To a large 
extent this is true of New England. That 
section lost its iron business when Pennsyl- 
vania and the West developed their iron- 
making industries based on the proximity 
■of the raw materials. In its textile interests 
it has almost ceased to manufacture the 
lower grades of goods, and while for a few 
years the manufacture of the higher grades 
may be left to that section, the time is inev- 
itably coming when the South, with its un- 
equalled combination of advantages, will 
produce the finer goods as well as the 
coarser. In this vast industry the world 
now has about $2,000,000,000 of capital in- 
vested. 

"The census reports show that over one- 
half of the standing timber of the United 
States is in the South. Of coal and iron 
there is practically no limit. Under such 
conditions it is difficult to forecast the future 
of this section. It may, however, be worth 
while to glance briefly at what has already 
been done since the South, just recovering 
from the effect of the most disastrous war in 
the world's history, undertook without cap- 
ital and under the most discouraging cir- 



cumstances to rebuild its ruined fortunes. 
Ir is but a little more than ten years since 
the South commenced to emerge from the 
disastrous results of the war and the period 
of reconstruction which followed. Dis- 
credited in this country and abroad, with 
few friends and with hundreds of thousands 
of its best people forced to seek an opening 
for their energy in other sections, it took up 
a task such as has rarely fallen to the lot of 
any country. What it has done is but a 
faint indication of what it will do. 

"Twelve years ago the South made 500,- 
000 tons of pig iron; it is now producing 
iron at the rate of 40,000 tons a week, or 
2,000,000 tons a year. Ten years ago it had 
$30,000,000 invested in cotton mills; it now 
has $110,000,000 invested in mills, and $15,- 
000,000 more being added by the mills now 
under construction. It was then producing 
10,000,000 tons of coal a year; it is now pro- 
ducing upwards of 30,000,000 tons a year. 
It then had less than 25,000 miles of rail- 
road, and it now has over 45,000 miles. Its 
total agricultural and manufactured prod- 
ucts in 1880 amounted to about $1,200,000,- 
000 a year; the aggregate now is over 
$2,000,000,000 a year, and rapidly increasing. 
This section is turning out at the present 
time of agricultural and manufactured prod- 
ucts nearly $800,000,000 a j'ear more than it 
was then, and it is a safe assertion to say 
that ten years hence the agricultural and 
manufactured products of the South will be 
at the rate of $4,000,000,000 a year. 

"These facts may illustrate something of 
the future of that section to which Chicago 
is now beginning to turn its attention. 
Here is a field for the employment of en- 
ergy and capital such as even the West in its 
palmiest days scarcely offered to the energy 
and enterprise of the people of this country. 
Here is a field of unequalled opportunities. 
Here is a country of virgin resources — a 
country with mild and equable climate, with 
an even temperature and rainfall, with great 
rivers a^ording transportation to the sea- 
coast, and with magnificent harbors which 
open to the commerce of the world the most 
direct lines for reaching the markets of the 
world. It is an opportunity great enough 
and broad enough to claim the attention of 
the foremost business men of the mighty 
city of the West. The Manufacturers' Rec- 
ord rejoices to know that Chicago is awak- 
ening to the possibilities of this vast region. 



32 



GENERAL NOTES. 



and that it has determined to secure its 
share of the wealth which must be created 
by the upbuilding of a region of such infi- 
nite resources." 

Why He Didn't Go Further. 

An example of what Northern men can 
do and are doing in the Southern country 
is furnished by Mr. J. R. Logie, of New 
York. In December, 1894, Mr. Logie, who 
is a retired merchant, started for Florida for 
the benefit of his health. His ticket allowed 
him to stop off on the way, and one place 
where he exercised this privilege was in 
Charlotte, N. C. He was so well pleased 
with the locality that he went no further. 
but purchased about 650 acres of land near 
the city. A reporter of the Charlotte Ob- 
server thus tells how he regained his health 
by becoming a Southern farmer: 

"At the outset he hired 200 or 300 hands, 
and began ditching, canaling, draining and 
clearing up. The chief work was the canal- 
ing of Brier creek. The canal is two and 
one-quarter miles long, twenty feet wide 
and an average depth of seven feet. It has 
a fall of forty-six feet three inches, and cost 
$7000. Draining the farm into the canal 
are 16,000 feet of underground piping and 
32,000 feet of open ditches. The land 
drained, Mr. Logie hauled dirt to fill up the 
low places. He now drives his buggy over 
places that were last year bogs and quag- 
mires. He cut down 9000 cords of wood, 
and this naturally left a formidable array of 
stumps, but these didn't bother him. He 
got four stump-pullers, and removed the 
stumps at the rate of twenty to forty larger 
ones and 300 to 500 small ones per day. 
Two of the pullers are known as grubbers, 
and work on the principle of the capstan 
and drum. The two pullers for the larger 
stumps are known as the vertical screw 
power. He piles the stumps in great heaps 
and burns them. 

"Mr. Logie will cultivate this year 300 
acres in cotton, forty in wheat, .thirty in 
oats and the balance in corn. When his 
cotton is laid by he will sow the fields in 
clover. Across the centre of his farm will 
be built a roadway, and it will be provided 
with two water gates. By means of these 
gates Mr. Logie will be able to flood the 
upper part of his lowlands from time to time 
allowing the water to deposit upon them 
laver after laver of rich sediment. He will 



eventually stock his farm with fine blooded 
cattle. He employs three overseers and 
from 150 to 200 hands. His largest weekly- 
pay-roll was $564. His regular weekly pay- 
roll is $225. He runs twelve double plows, 
and has five extra mules tor carting. He 
has a wooded tract of 124 acres, which is to 
be enclosed for a deer park, and he has al- 
ready stocked it with pheasants. He has 
had laid out on the plan of the Tuilleries, 
but on a small scale, a flower garden, which 
is in charge of a German gardener. In a 
circle of fifteen feet he has planted $109 
worth of bulbs. He has a bone mill and 
cotton gin, and is to put in a temporary saw 
mill to cut up his great cords of timber. 
His drainage work is expensive, but it is 
a success scientifically and practically." 

He has the balance of his railroad ticket 
to Florida, whicli he keeps as a souvenir. 

Good Roads for Arkansas. 

The question of good roads is now being 
agitated in Arkansas, and a good roads con- 
vention at Little Rock recently attracted 
delegates from nearly all parts of the State. 
Hon. A. C. Millar was selected as chairman. 
Among those who took an active part in 
the proceedings were ex-Governor Eagle 
and Governor Clarke. Resolutions were 
adopted in favor of a two-mill road and 
bridge tax throughout the State, and allow- 
ing convicts to work on public highways. 

Distorting the Facts. 

The movement of people from the Nortli- 
west to the Southern States has assumed 
such immense proportions that the railroad 
companies and persons specially interested 
in promoting the prosperity of the North- 
western States are becoming anxious for 
the future of that section, and are doing all 
they can to check emigration from it. In 
Nebraska and the Dakotas there has not 
been an abundant crop for three years, 
owing to droughts. The crops of 1893 and 
1894 were total failures, while that of last 
year was not much more than an average 
one. Owing to the large corn crop in other 
sections last year, the price of that article is 
very low. Consequently the Northwestern 
farmers have not received enough from last 
year's crop to pay their taxes and live. The 
reason, therefore, why they are seeking 
lionies in the South is apparent. To check 



GENERAL NOTES. 



33 



the movement to the South the Northwest- 
ern newspapers are printing letters from 
people in the South who emigrated from 
the Northwest. All of the letters are in- 
tended to show that the conditions in the 
South for getting a living are not more 
favorable than they are in the Northwest. 

Some of these letters are doubtless gen- 
uine. It may be that all of them are. We 
do not know anything about them. It 
w^ould not be a diffictilt matter to find West- 
ern people in this part of the South who, 
for a consideration, would write for West- 
ern papers letters intended to discourage 
people from coming here. Such people do 
not write intelligently of the country or of 
the opportunities for acquiring homes. 
They write of their own experiences, and 
as they have not succeeded they conclude 
that nobody else succeeds. But it would 
be well to inquire whether such people 
would succeed anywhere. We do not think 
they would. They are either too indolent 
to work or they are bad managers. If they 
were given the finest land in the world they 
would not succeed in making a living. As 
a rule, they are the people who are dissatis- 
fied, and who put their letters into the news- 
papers with the view of deterring others 
from coming to the South. 

But where there is one immigrant who is 
dissatisfied with the South there are many 
who are satisfied — so well satisfied, in fact, 
that they spare no efforts to induce their 
friends in the North and West to join them. 
The)' are industrious and frugal and are 
succeeding. 

The conditions for success that are re- 
quired in the North are also required in 
the South, but there are better returns for 
farmers and capitalists in the South than in 
the North. Crops are certain, the land is 
good and the climate is excellent. It is 
true there are localities in the South where 
the advantages for making a living are not 
nearly so great as they are in other sec- 
tions, and immigrants who locate in those 
places are likely to be disappointed, and 
disappointed immigrants lose little time in 
making their disappointment known. They 
are likely to do harm to the State or sec- 
tions of the State in which they reside. 

But the few who do not succeed will not 
check the movement of immigrants to the 
South. It is pretty well understood that 
they would not succeed anywhere and that 



their failure lo succeed is wliolly their own 
misfortune. 

The movement of immigrants to the 
South is not going to stop because the 
Northwestern railroads want it to stop or 
because a few of those of the West who have 
settled in the South write letters to Western 
papers advising Western people not to 
come South. The South has advantages 
over every other section, and the Western 
people are beginning to discover that it has. 
With homeseekers and investors, therefore, 
the South is certain to enjoy an increasing 
popularity. — Savannah News. 

Profits in Truck Growing. 

The profits of early vegetable-raising in 
Florida have been unusually large this year. 
A grower near Gainesville, Fla., will realize 
about $12,000 profit from lettuce alone, so 
it is estimated. It is calculated that in 
Alachua county alone $250,000 will be the 
profit to truck-growers. 

Best Opportunities of any Section in 
the Country. 

Mr. Wm. A. Paine, a prominent banker 
of Boston, recently made an extended trip 
through the South, and in reply to a letter 
from the "Southern States" asking for his 
views on that section, he wrote as follows: 

"In reply to your request for some opin- 
ions of mine for publication as to the capa- 
bilities and possibilities of the section 
through which I made my recent trip, will 
say: 

"The best opportunities for observation 
of the character of the country, etc., were 
afforded me in traveling through the east- 
ern edge of the Indian Territory, Western 
Arkansas, Northern Texas and Western 
Louisiana. Western Arkansas and Eastern 
Indian Territory is a country almost en- 
tirely undeveloped. The land is dry, almost 
entirely free from swamp, but generally fer- 
tile and with the excellent climatic condi- 
tions there prevailing capable of a high de- 
gree of cultivation and development. The 
land is rolling, there is plenty of timber, 
oak, black walnut, etc., is well watered and 
affords good pasturage all the year round. 
In my opinion this section offers the best 
opportunities for new settlers, of any sec- 
tion in the country at the present time. I 
found also a considerable tide of emigra- 
tion settling into that section, coming 



34 



GENERAL NOTES. 



largely from people who had settled in the 
West and Northwest, but who had become 
discouraged by the long winters, tlie failure 
of the crops and the low prices of their farm 
products. In Western Arkansas the farm- 
ers are giving up the cultivation of cotton 
and are having great success in raising 
potatoes (of which they produce two crops 
in a year) and other early vegetaibles for the 
Chicago and St. Louis market. In North- 
ern Texas, and particularly in Western 
Louisiana, we passed through some of the 
finest timber country that could be found 
anywhere. In Texas the short-leaved pine, 
and in Louisiana the forests of long-leaved 
yellow pine, are almost inexhaustible. We 
found that the men operating in lumber in 
that section were many of them lumbermen 
who had formerly operated in Alichigan. In 
my judgment, lumber can be produced very 
much cheaper there than in any other sec- 
tion of the United States, pine lumber. 
The only thing needed is opportunity to 
take it to market. 

"In a general way my impressions are 
that the development so necessary for that 
country has already begun, and will con- 
tinue to increase in a remarkable degree in 
the next five years." 

Ralph Peverley, president of the Com- 
mercial Wood & Cement Co., of Philadel- 
phia, who was on the same trip, wrote as 
follows : 

"There is no doubt in my mind that there 
is a large field for capital in that section of 
the country, and a large amount of capital 
is quietly going in there to develop it. 
What with the finest body of timber now 
standing in this country and the vast quan- 
tities of iron and coal, to say nothing of the 
zinc, chalk and a score of other valuable 
minerals, with two and three crops per 
annum from the rich soil, Northern invest- 
ors hardly realize the richness of the South- 
ern country and the great field there is for 
capital, if judiciously invested." 

Hop Raising in North Carolina. 

Mr. A. L. Jones, formerly a prominent 
hop-grower of New York State, has made 
a success of hop-vine yards in North Caro- 
lina. He claims that this State is adapted 
to raising the finest grade of hops that can 
be raised in the United States. According 
1i, his statement, what is known as the E. C. 
variety, grown in North Carolina, is richest 



in lupulin and the strongest of all American 
hops, and its aroma is pronounced equal to 
that of the Bohemian, which is the best hop 
grown in Eui'ope, and one that sells in this 
country and England for more than double 
the price paid for New York or Western 
hops. The cost of establishing and main- 
taining a hop yard in this State, he claims. 
is less than for a grape vineyard of like 
acreage, and not one-fourth of what it is in 
the hop regions of the North and West. 

To Protect Plants From Weather. 

Vegetable and fruit growers in the South 
will be interested in an invention which, if 
practical, will be of great value in bringing 
crops to maturity without injur}- from the 
weather. It is termed a plant protector, 
and is the idea of Mr. George A. Smith, of 
Atlanta. The protector is made of a trans- 
lucent water-proof material, and is finished 
in two shapes — one is that of a cone, and the 
other of the letter V. By placing the device 
over beds of early vegetables the plants will 
be protected from the extreme heat of the 
sun or from early frosts. As a crop may 
be damaged to the extent of thousands of 
dollars by one night's exposure, the value 
of this idea can be appreciated. Mr. Smith 
has formed a company at Atlanta to manu- 
facture the protectors. 

Milwaukee People to Establish an Indus= 
trial School for Negroes in the South. 

A dispatch from Milwaukee says: 
"The two big brewing companies of this 
city have decided to establish several col- 
leges in Tallahatchie county. Miss., where 
the negro can be given an industrial educa- 
tion and be taught to be a good mechanic. 
Some time ago these companies, requiring 
timber for barrels, etc., co-operated in the 
purchase of a large tract of land in Talla- 
hatchie county, Mississippi. This land was 
heavily timbered, and not only yielded suffi- 
cient lumber for their own purposes, but 
for a general lumbering business, which 
the}^ thereupon engaged in. The town of 
Phillip was started, being named after the 
^Milwaukee man, who has charge of the en- 
terprise, and a railroad was built. 

"It is proposed to colonize this land with 
colored people only. This is considered 
necessary for the best results to educate 
colored labor. Schools are to be estab- 
lished bv the svndicate. These schools arc 



GENERAL NOTES. 



to be of an industrial character, and fash- 
ioned after the system of Booker Washing- 
ton's institution at Tuskegee, Ala. 

"Washington's interest has already been 
enlisted in the enterprise. During his re- 
cent visit to Milwaukee he learned of the 
investment of Milwaukee capital in North- 
ern INIississippi, and the plans of the men 
interested in the promotion of a negro col- 
ony there and the practical education of its 
members. He heartily indorsed the idea, 
and his suggestions and advice as to the 
best means of carrying it out were sought. 
The schools will be built at once." 

What One Family Made by Moving 
South. 

Four brothers named Abbott went from 
one of the Western States to Crowley, La., 
in 1888. They all had families (comprising 
over twenty children), and they had among 
them $800 in money. They bought a farm 
on- credit and planted it in rice. At such 
times as they were not needed on the farm 
they worked at day labor for $1.25 a day. 
At the present time (Alarch, 1896,) these 
four brothers own 3000 acres of land that 
has an average value of $.^0 an acre. They 
own lorty mules, fifty yoke of o.xen and a 
large equipment of reapers, separators, 
threshers, engines, wagons and other agri- 
cultural implements. They have an irri- 
gating canal eleven miles long and eighteen 
feet wide. They own and operate a big 
saw-mill plant, and have a rice ware- 
house of their own 400 feet long. They 
own a telephone line twelve miles long, 
connecting their farms, saw mill, ware- 
liouse. etc. They arc part owners in a rice 
null and in the bank at Crowley. They 
have some obligations, but tliey have rice 
on hand and well-secured notes due them, 
enough to pay all they owe, leaving their 
land and other properties as a clear 
aggregate of the profits of their farm- 
ing operations during the last eight years. 
They believe that if they had remained in 
the West they would have been f(irtunate 
lo have made a living and saved the original 
$800. There are many other almost eciuallx' 
noteworthy instances of rapid accmnulation 
nf money in this section of Louisiana. Un- 
fortunately, because of the enormotis ])rotits 
in rice-growing, farmers have raised rice 
exclusively and bou,ght everything else, and 
have grown extravagant in their l.irniing 



methods. This year rice, like all other 
agricultural products, is selling for much 
less than it ever brought before, and the 
growers must either carry their rice over or 
sell it for less than it has cost — not less than 
it can be grown for, but less than it has been 
grown for. This condition, while entailing 
individual losses and much hardship, will 
ultimately prove to have been a blessiiig. 
It is already having good results. Farmers 
are taking up the raising of cofn, oats, hay, 
sugar-cane and other crops. They are go- 
ing largely in hog-raising, for which the 
country is admirably adapted. Every 
farmer can support a good drove of hogs on 
inferior and shattered rice that has hereto- 
fore gone to waste. They are taking up in 
a small way winter vegetable gardening, 
fruit-growing, etc. Tomatoes, egg plants, 
cabbage and other vegetables may be 
brought to maturity almost any month in 
the year. Furthermore, they are beginning 
to give attention to the raising of better 
grades of rice and raising it at a lower cost. 
They will soon be making as much money 
as they ever did, and will be in sugh condi- 
tion as to be less disastrously atifected by 
any occasional bad year such as the present. 

A Seitiera' Convention. 

A special dispatch to the "Southern 
States" gives particulars of a Northern and 
Western settlers' convention which will be 
held at Southern Pines, N. C, on May 5, 
to be composed of persons from Northern 
and Western States and foreign countries 
who have settled in the Southern States of 
recent years, the object being to enable 
leading men from other sections, now livmg 
in the South, to express thi-ough a public 
convention their opinion as to the South 
and its advantages and attractions and the 
opportunities for people from elsewhere. 
The governors of the Southern States are 
taking a deep interest in the matter, and the 
delegates to the convention will be ap- 
pointed by the governors, by county com- 
missioners, by mayors of the cities and 
towns and l)y presidents ol trade' organiza- 
tions throughout the South. .Vrrange- 
nients have also been made to insure a lar.ge 
attendance of representatives from influ- 
etitial journals in the Northern and Western 
.■^tates. Low I'ailro.id rates ;ire gnaraiUeed, 
and special etiorts \\\\\ he made, not only 
lo lia\e the most n(.)tcd gathering of North- 



36 



GENERAL NOTES. 



ern and Western people now living in the 
South which has ever been held, but also to 
draw to the convention many people from 
the North in order that they may fully 
understand the South as presented by the 
delegates to the convention. It is expected 
that this will be one of the most important 
conventions ever held in the South as re- 
gards the influence which its deliberations 
will have in attracting the widest possible 
attention to the advantages of this section as 
told to the world not by Southern people, 
but by Northern and Western people who 
have made their homes in the South. Mr. 
John T. Patrick, of Southern Pines, is ar- 
ranging the local details for the convention. 
The "Southern States" would suggest that 
the Northern visitors be given excursions 
to noted scenic and industrial points in the 
Carolinas and Georgia. 

Rapid Growth of Vegetables in Souths 
east Florida. 

To illustrate the rapidity of the growth of 
vegetables along the southern east coast of 
Florida, Mr. J. E. Ingraham, land com- 
missioner of the Florida East Coast Rail- 
way and the Florida Coast Line Canal & 
Transportation Co., cites the following in- 
stance : During a trip taken over a month 
ago he ate tomatoes that were taken fresh 
from new marsh land just south of Lake 
Worth, that was eighteen inches under 
water last October. On February 3 Mr. 
Ingraham visited a muck vegetable farm 
south of New river, and saw beans and peas 
in bloom that were planted on January 15, 
only sixteen days intervening between the 
]ilanting and blossoming period. Vegeta- 
bles will be gathered within six weeks of 
planting. There are many similar instan- 
ces, as Mr. Ingraham reports that farmers 
in the Miami and New River country were 
over a month ago engaged in shipping veg~ 
etables from lands that were cleared in 
December. 

In addition to suiKTintending the Inyinp 
out of the "future city" of Miami, the pros- 
pootivo terminus of tlic Florida East Coast 
Railway, and the inspection of farming and 
fruit lands. Air. ingraham selected tlie site 
lor the town of Modelo. in ;md about which 
lie expects to lorntc a large German colony. 

Mr Fred. Mauloti. of A<]a. Ohio, hns 
bouglit Xhe large river farm known as "Pip- 



sico," near Surry, Va. The farm was 
owned by Mr. Charles F. Diggs. of Balti- 
more. It contains I037]?4 acres, and was 
sold for $6500. It is said to have over a 
mile of river frontage, and is directly oppo- 
site the mouth of the Chickahominy river. 

A Big Land Purchase. 

Some months ago the "Southern States'" 
referred to the purchase by Mr. W. W. Rus- 
sell, of Cincinnati, and Mr. A. O. Russell, 
of the same city, of 115,000 acres of land in 
Florida lying in Brevard county, on the 
Indian river. As stated at the time, the 
purchasers of this property intend to drain 
it by the construction of a very extensive 
canal some fifty or sixty miles long, and to 
open it up to railroad connections by build- 
ing a railroad from Sebastian, on the Flor- 
ida East Coast Railway, to the centre of this 
purchase, a distance of about ten miles. 

The .Southern Florida Co-operative Fruit 
Growing Association has been formed to 
plant a large orange grove, also 100 acres 
of grape fruit, in the vicinity of Venice. 
Fla. Hon. L. B. Wombwell. of Tallahas- 
see; S. Powers, of Jacksonville, and James 
Mott. of Orlando, are interested. The cap- 
ital is $50,000. 

The reputation of Hancock county. Geor- 
gia, for fruit-culture is growing rapidly. 
Mr. W. N. Coleman, who had 10,000 peach 
trees in bearing last year, adds 5000 more; 
Mr. Frank White had 1000, and adds 1800 
this spring: ]\lr. R. H. Moore had 1400, 
and adds 1800 more. INIessrs. J. T. Middle- 
brooks, T. T. Waller. Hon. Jno. L. Culver. 
A. S. Long and J. T. Rliodes are plant- 
ing out thou.sands of trees. These gentle- 
men are contiguous to Culverton, and will 
ship from that point. 

Messrs. ■\Iiller Bros., packers and dealers 
in leaf tobacco at Dayton. Ohio, have 
rented a brick warehouse at Bainbridge, 
Ga., owned by A. Cohen & Co., and are 
going to assort and ]iack therein their i)uv- 
cliases ot leaf tobacco in Decatur county. 
Georgia, and Gadsden county, Florida. It 
is claimed that they have purchased 60,000 
])oun(ls of leaf tobacco from farmers. 

Messrs. Higgs Bros., of Rocky Ridgf, 
Aid., recently purchased from Air. F. Al. 



GENERAL NOTES. 



37 



Perrj', of Florence, Ala., 1600 acres of land 
for $24,000 cash, $15 an acre. The land is 
situated eight miles from Florence, in Lau- 
derdale county. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Value of Immigration and How to 
Secure It. 

KiJitor Southern States: 

I am always pleased to discuss matters 
jiertaining to immigration, to devise plans 
for securing immigrants and to convince 
them that it is to their advantage to settle 
in the South. The first effort to secure for- 
eign settlers for the South must be directed 
towards convincing them that this section 
is better than the North and Northwest; 
that they will find in the South more advan- 
tages and fewer disadvantages than they 
will have to confront in the Northwest. 
The American public has long since been 
convinced of the material gain arising from 
the inflow of foreign capital and labor. 
The doctrines of Know-Nothingism, which 
had such a stronghold in political circles 
over the entire countrj' and largely devel- 
oped in some Southern States some thirty 
years ago, has become thoroughly eradi- 
cated. There is no opposition to immigra- 
tion except of those from one source, the 
inflow of the Mongolian race, the Chinese 
and kindred races. There is, of course, a 
just opposition to the incoming of some of 
the lower classes of Europeans, just as there 
would be against criminals from any place. 
The earnest wish seems to be to secure as 
many immigrants as possible in the shortest 
sp.ice of time. But tliere is a difference in 
the various races, nationalities and indi- 
viduals. As in the same town or village you 
find neighbors li\ing side by side, one in- 
dustrious and the other indolent, so you 
will find among the immigrants some very 
excellent people and some worthless. As 
a general thing, however, none but the 
workers, who are ambitious to accumulate 
a property, come to this country. The 
drones usually remain at home, where, by 
shifting, they manage to spvonge their living 
out of the community. Then again some 
nationalities are better than others. From 
the agricultural districts of FIngland come 
.good grain and live-stock farmers. Very 
few^ come from France, as the French have 
an inordinate love (if home and their gav 



capital, Paris. They are a frugal people, 
and the peasants of Normandy and Prov- 
ence are very skilful vine-growers. The 
Italians, of whom a large class are coming 
to this country, monopolize the fruit trade 
in the cities. They live poorly and are 
very saving, and as a class do not like farm- 
ing. Large numbers are very efficient in 
railroad construction, being competitors in 
that vocation with the Irish. The Scotch 
are good farmers and shepherds, very strict 
in the conduct of life and make valuable citi- 
zens. Most of these people, when coming 
to this country from their old European 
homes, do so in the anticipation, after hav- 
ing accumulated a fortune here either by 
profitable labor, legitimate investments or 
speculation, of returning and under the 
ancestral roof-tree pass the closing years of 
life and be buried in the same churchyard 
with their forefathers. Not so with the 
Germans and the Scandinavians. From 
that prolific hive of Northern Europe, for 
more than a thousand years, swarms have 
gone forth to ever}^ quarter of the globe 
and become a fixture. When they leave 
their native country, with their families, 
they carry their home with them. They 
expatriate themselves, casting ofif allegiance 
to the old, and taking the oath of fealty to 
the new government. They never expect 
to return to their old homes, but resolutely 
determine to build permanent homes for 
th.emselves and their children to come after 
them. It seems to me that the citizen who 
comes to stay, all else being ecjual, is the 
one whose presence will be of most advan- 

ta crp 

All are aware of the fact that the Scandi- 
navians are from Northern Europe. They 
occupy Norway and Sweden, which form 
one kingdom, and Denmark, a separate 
countiy. The North German people be- 
long to the same race. The Hollanders, 
too, are of this race, though living for cen- 
turies in a country of widely dififerent phys- 
ical features, and intermarrying with the 
])eople of the more Southern countries, 
they exhibit a marked dififerrnce in char- 
acter and habits. Some men of promi- 
nence have become interested in a move- 
ment for changing the current of capital 
and labor from the Northwest to the South- 
ern States because they believe we :\vr .u 
the beginning of a more prosperous era 
for the South, and because thev believe that 



GENERAL NOTES, 



the South offers the greatest opportunities 
to our Scandinavian people. This move- 
ment, so quietly inaugurated by a few far- 
seeing and practical men, is expanding into 
vast proportions. It was the saying of the 
distinguished political economist of Eng- 
land. John Stuart Mill, that "there need be 
no hesitation in affirming that colonization 
in the present state of the world is the very 
best affair of business in which the capita! 
of an old and wealthy country can possibly 
engage." 

The need of our Scandinavian people is 
small farms, averaging from fifty to i6o 
acres. They will have money to make a 
reasonable first payment on the purchase 
and something with which to purchase 
teams and farming utensils and provisions 
for living until they can raise a crop. The 
South's large plantations and vast tracts 
"of uncultivated lands will afford ample 
measure out of which to farm these minia- 
ture farms. I take it that all agree that it 
is well for the immigrant to come to the 
South, and if of the right class, that he will 
be of permanent advantage to the country. 

The important question to determine is 
this: How shall these people be secured? 
What is necessary to be done to get the 
European immigrants to come to the 
Southwest and South instead of going to 
the Northwest? Here is the country, but 
tlic European farmers know little or noth- 
ing of the South. What they have been 
told was by agents of Northwestern rail- 
road companies, who do not hesitate to 
malign the South and exaggerate m glow- 
ing terms the Nortliwcst. They are told 
tliat lawlessness and homicide . prevail 
tlircMighout the South, and tlnat a stranger's 
life is unsafe: that the Southern people com- 
prise two classes, the colored people, for- 
merly slaves, and the white peo])le, who do 
not l.-ibor in the fields, and that luiropean 
laborers will be treated with indiff'erence. 
These talse im])ressioiis nuist be eradicated 
by ,-in honest and ean<h<l presentation of the 
Irutli. The eon(iiti<in ol" tlie country must 
be portrayed in earel'nlly-written ])amphlets 
and c-ircnlars. At tirst a few families will 
come. ,in<l if they succeed, friends and ac- 
(|uaintances will follow. Then front New 
York. Chicago, St. Lonis and all the cities 
.■ind towns and coniUics of the Northwest 
will come nian.\ Sc;indiii.i\ i;ins, ;is well as 
from various |)arls of Ij^urope. The great 



and populous States of New York, Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio and Illinois possess no supe- 
rior natural advantages to the Southern 
States. The accumulation of capital, the 
multiplication of industries, the establish- 
ment of manufactures, the improved culti- 
vation of the soil and the increase of an 
intelligent, frugal and industrious popula- 
tion create the present difference only. All 
the conditions of a rapid, healthy and broad 
expansion of wealth, power and population 
exist in the South, with the most favorable 
conditions for utilization. It then rests 
with the citizens of the South to determine 
what effort shall be made to secure settlers. 
The great Northwest, daily and weekly re- 
ceiving the rich tide of humanity and capital 
as it has run in an unbroken channel from 
Europe, is swift in the race and is expand- 
ing grandly in each succeeding year. What 
has been and is being done there may be 
done in the South with -equal prospect of 
success. But the- same system of work to 
secure the immigration and the inflow of 
capital must be adopted in the Southern 
States. The people to come must be 
sought for in their European homes; at the 
entry ports where they disembark from 
shipboard; in the towns, cities and counties 
of the West and Northwest; in the cold and 
bleak provinces of Canada; among the hills 
and mountains of New England and the 
farming districts of the Middle States. All 
these people must be invited in no uncer- 
tain terms and cordiallj'' welcomed to this 
banquet of plenty. In the South are homes 
for all who may come. The South has 
ample room for many million people. To 
effect this transformation reciuires patient 
and persistent and well-directed labor. It 
will cost much of botli time and money and 
well-directed labor, but it will be a i)roiitable 
iuA'cstment. 

E. LINDBERG. 
New York. 

Agricultural Development of Arkansas. 

Editor Snvtlirni States: 

.\rkansas. and particularly the northwest 
counties, are receiving a steady, strong and 
health}' emigration, and of a good class, 
comprising mostly agriculturists, who pur 
chase lands and proceed promptly with llu- 
x.irions and necessary iini)rovements. 'Flie 
major \)ortion is from K.ms.as, Nebraska, 
the Dakotas, Iowa, \\illi a good sprinkling 



GENERAL NOTES. 



39 



from Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, etc., 
with some from far-off Wyoming and vicin- 
ity. The vigorous and scurrilous attacks 
on the South in general, and Arkansas in 
particular, by prominent Northwest jou'- 
nals, in the interest of the great East and 
West railroads, who have large landed in- 
terests in that section, to stem the tide of 
emigration South and retain it within their 
l)(jrders has had a clearly direct opposite 
result than that designed, and increased in- 
stead of retarding the migration South. It 
is useless for these papers to longer deny 
the fact that emigration from the East to 
the West practically ended, for the present, 
at least, and emigration and capital are 
turned South and to the great Southwest in 
such a strong current that no earthly power- 
can .stay the movement. The wornout 
bloody shirt ceased long ago to wave, and 
the old war veterans of both contending 
factions are the earliest to welcome and 
fraternise even more cordially, if that were 
l)ossible, than the non-combatants. "We 
are all Americans," is the motto here. Cul- 
tivated lands are held stronger than one 
year ago, and with a gradual upward ten- 
dency plainly manifest, even at this early 
date. Unimproved lands are in sympathy 
to a certain degree with the upward ten- 
dency. Yet lands are cheap. Improved 
lands range in value from $15 to $150 per 
acre, the latter for highly improved and 
well-cared-for orchards in bearing. Wild 
lands range from $3 to $7 per acre, accord- 
ing to location, etc. The prospects are for 
much higher prices in the near future. 
With a soil of unsurpassed fertility, little, 
if anj', land but what can be utilized, suited 
to nearly all crops, but especially adapted 
to growing of all fruits and vegetables ex- 
cept those of the tropics. A delightful, at- 
tractive and healthful climate. The finesc 
of pure clear running streams and springs 
without number bursting from the hillsides 
of clear pure cold water. Ample and mag- 
nificent timber, comprising a large variety 
of hard and soft woods, with rich and varied 
mineral deposits, etc. Free from any State 
or municipal debt whatever, but lightly 
taxed, we are well started on the high road 
to prosperity. 

The lumber interests have become an im- 
portant factor in our trade, and especially so 
as to our hardwoods, our saw m.ills being 
i>\(.Tta\ed and unable at present in many 



cases to meet the demand for shipment tv 
the North. In no portion of the United 
States today is there more activity displayed 
in the way of railroad construction, new 
lines building, others being surveyed and 
lines projected, and this, too. entirel_, 
through private enterprise, for the amend 
nient to the State constitution of 1873 ahso 
Intely prohibits the bonding or incurrence 
of debt for any purpose whatsoever by the 
State, county, municii)ality, town, exce])t 
that for school purposes a district mas 
vole a tax not to exceed five mills per an- 
num. The consequence is we are free from 
debt and our taxes light — in striking con- 
trast in this particular with our sister States 
to the north and west of us, in many of 
which the people are burdened by exhorbi 
tant taxes and by a stupendous bonded and 
floating indebtedness. 

A new organization was recently formed 
and has commenced operations, known a< 
tiie St. Paul & Galveston Railroad Co., t-) 
construct the connecting link between Alar 
shall. Mo., via Sedalia and Springfield t.. 
Texarkana, made up of and will absorb 
lines already built north of Marshall to Si. 
Paul, Alinn., and south of Texarkana t< 
Galveston, giving us a deep-water port on 
the gulf. This line will open up to settle 
rnent and development a vast i-egion rich 
in agricultural, forest and mineral wealth. 

With the completion of the Kansas City. 
Pittsburg & Gulf Railroad about August t 
1896, to the Sabine Pass on the gulf coasL. 
now in operation to Fort Smith, the head 
of navigation on the Arkansas river, ami 
being pushed to completion as fast as men 
and money can do it, St. Paul and the 
Northwest will have two competing lines 
through Arkansas to the gulf ports, divert- 
uig largely the foreign traffic from and t.^ 
the present Eastern ports south to the more 
convenient points on the Gulf of Mexico. 
The great East and West through lines 
have already observed the "handwriting on 
the wall,"' and have anticipated the result 
by liberally reducing rates to and from the 
East and West. We will then occupy an 
independent position, and be placed in di- 
rect connection with the gulf ports. Mexico. 
Central, South America and West Indies 
The leading industry of this, the grear 
(.»zark country, is to be the growing o'' 
fruits and the utilization of the same in 
divers ways. Grape culture is now attr;ict- 



40 



GENERAL NOTES. 



ing; luucli interest and littentioa. Wines 
produced in this (Benton) county were 
awarded the "sweepstakes" and first prize 
at the Vienna World's Exposition in 1890. 
y\l the World's Fair. Chicago, at New Or- 
leans, at San Francisco, at Philadelphia, and 
at Atlanta recently we swept the board, 
and Arkansas was awarded first honors on 
apples, pears, etc., cotton, corn and mam- 
displays of field and garden crops, as well 
as on .samples of flour, ores, timber, nativr' 
and cultivated grasses, etc. 

yVustin Corbin. a prominent New York- 
banker, has at his own expense brought 
700 Italians, adepts in fruit culture and the. 
production of wines, etc., to this country 
and located them in the southwest county 
of this State as a basis for a larger follow- 
ing, and will make the culture of the grape 
and its products a special feature. 

Fiom Holland. Germany and elsewhere 
ha.-e come, are now on the ground and to 
come representatives seeking for locations 
for colonies in diversified farming. 

Between 1880 and 1890 Arkansas double^l 
its population, and if an accounting could 
be had today would, it is estimated, show 
that we had increased over 50 per cent, from 
the census of 1890. Arkansas is and wih 
be a country of small farms. Northern 
farmers are unanimous in the belief that 
forty acres here, well cultivated, will give 
better results than any 160 acres in the 
North. J. A. C. BLACKBURN. 

Ro.gers, Arkansas. 

Some Questions About Southern Grasses 

Mr. C. E. Buek. of Richmond. Va., hav- 
ing asked of our contributor. Col. M. E. 
Hillyard, some questions regarding grasses, 
the "Southern States" publishes the corre- 
spondence, as these questions and the re- 
plies may be of interest to many others: 

Richmond. Va.. February 10, 1896. 
Col. M. B. Hillyard, care of 

"Southern States," Baltimore, Md. : 

Dear Sir. — I have read with unusual in- 
terest all of your articles in the "Southern 
States," and. as I own over 500 acres of 
land in a very rich valley in North Georgia, 
twenty miles below Chattanooga, and being 
very much impressed with your sugges- 
tions to try raising blue grass. I write to 
ask whether you will not kindly let mo 
l<nt>\v where I can buy books on Southern 
grasses published by Howard & Phares. 



You speak of these on page 97 of the May 
number. You also on the same page speak 
of an address delivered by S. M. Tracey. 
director of the State Experiment Station n," 
Mississippi, which you say ought to be dis- 
tributed. Could I get one by applying to 
him. or the publishers elsewhere? I know 
\ory little about farming, but have a verv 
intelligent man in charge; but he knows 
nothing at all about grass, and I would, 
therefore, thank you to give me the name 01 
any publication in addition to those men • 
tioned above that would give full and ex- 
plicit directions as to how and when to sow 
the seed, and all about the preparation and 
cultivation of the soil. I have splendid 
limestone ledges and a great deal of shade, 
and from what you write I am satisfied that 
it is an ideal place for the successful raising 
of blue grass. I already have about 100 
acres in clover meadows. 

You speak of a letter from Col. W. B. 
]\Iontgomery, written in 1873, as being the 
veteran Jersey breeder. Is he still in the 
business, and what is his address? I would 
like very much to write to him. 

On page 96 of the May number you speak 
of Dr. D. L Phares having written a book 
that ought to be in the hands of every man 
who is thinking- of moving South. Where 
can I get this? 

I am under the impression that too much 
sun will kill blue grass in the South, and 
that on the other hand it will thrive well 
without almost any sun at all and in thickly 
wooded groves. I have, therefore, jusc 
picked out about fifteen acres of woodland 
and instructed my superintendent to have 
only the underbrush cut out. and as it is on 
limestone ledges. I thought I would try i(. 
without hardly any exposure to the sun. I 
see that you advise people not to sow blue 
grass in the winter or spring, and if they 
do the chances are good for failure. Does 
this refer to North Georgia, or farther 
South? I am very particular to make no 
mistake, and I ask these questions because 
my superintendent has arranged to sow blue 
grass seed this spring. Is it necessary m 
fertilize the land? He thinks not. but I am 
of the opinion that it would be better. 

In the September number of the "Soutii- 
ern States," on page 291. you speak of .-i 
book on certain grasses called the "Farm-. 
ers' Book on Grasses." Can a copy of this 
be had? 

T have also read with a good deal of in- 



GENERAL NOTES. 



41 



terest 3'our remarks in regard to Bermuda 
■orchard grass and alfalfa. Anything on this 
subject I would like very much to get. 

Pardon my trespassing upon your time 
with such a lengthy epistle, but I am mak- 
ing all sorts of experiments, and have al- 
ready sent some Jersey cattle South to see 
how they would stand the change in cli- 
mate. 

Thanking you in anticipation of a com- 
pliance with ni}' request, I remain. 
Yours very truly, 

C. E. BUEK. 

Answering Mr. Buck's questions seri- 
atim, I do not know where Howard's book 
on grasses can be got. Doubtless it is now 
very rare. 

Dr. D. L. Phares' book is now very 
scarce, but I think his son — I do not re- 
member his initials — at Madison Station, 
Madison county, Mississippi, has a few 
copies. And Col. W. B. Montgomery has 
(or had a year or so ago) fifty or more 
copies. His address is Starkville, Miss. 
JSTo one needs any other book on Southern 
grasses than that of Doctor Phares. I 
wish some publisher would strike another 
edition. Such a book will be of unspeak- 
able advantage, and a great need in the 
rapidly-developing sentiment in the Soutli 
in favor of grass and stock-raising. The 
Northern and Western immigrants will be 
clamorous for such a book. It can be im- 
proved a little, but is the great book for the 
South. 

Professor S. M. Tracey's address on 
grasses is not in pamphlet form, unless he 
has so put it since he sent me an analysis 
or abstract printed in a newspaper. It 
ought to be accessible. It is particularly 
forcible with Northern men, as being the 
testimony of a Northern man; also for the 
reason that this gentleman takes far higher 
ground in favor of the South as a great 
grass country than he did a few years ago. 
He is at Starkville, Miss., at the A. and M. 
•college of that State. 

I think Col. W. B. Montgomery is still 
in. the business of breeding Jerseys. His 
-address is Starkville, Miss. 

I have never known Kentucky blue grass 
killed South by the sun after it had got a 
good start. That is the great reason for 
sowing in the fall, so that by the succeeding 
summer it has got enough growth. 

Undoubtedly it will thrive in the shade. 



and hardly any shade too dense for it in the 
South. Nor should I hesitate to sow it 
there in the spring, as soon as all danger 
of its being killed by heavy frosts is passed. 
Only don't let sheep run on it, or any young 
blue grass. Of course, I assume Mr. 
Buck's fifteen acres to be a thickly-wooded 
grove in these suggestions. 

There are very few places South where I 
would advise sowing any grass-seed in"the 
open" except in the fall, unless, of course. 
Southern grasses such as Bermuda, Lespe- 
deza, Paspalums, Mexican clover, etc. 

I do not think it necessary to fertilize the 
limestone ledges if they have any soil on 
them worth while, so far as getting a 
'"catch" of blue grass is concerned. But 
while blue grass will grow on compara- 
tively poor land, it and any other grass I 
know of will do better on rich soil. 

Dr. Phares' book on Southern grasses is 
entitled "The Farmers' Book of Grasses." 
At least, that is my recollection. Anyhow, 
when I so quote it, I mean Dr. Phares' 
book. 

I would advise Mr. Buck to sow Bermuda 
grass this spring. I have bought it of late 
years here. It could not be got a few years 
ago. and I suppose it is for sale nowhere 
else than here — New Orlean.s — in the 
United States. I bought my seed some 
years ago of Richard Frotschen, seedsman. 
New Orleans, La. If this seed be sown. 
you can have by next fall a fine area on 
which to sow Kentucky blue grass an>l 
white clover — the ideal combination. You 
might mix some orchard grass, too. It 
beats blue grass in standing drought and 
in growing more rapidly. Indeed, unless 
you are familiar with blue grass, you will 
be mightily disgusted at its apparent noth- 
ingness for a good while, although it grows 
much more rapidly South than North and 
West. And be very sure to get thoroughly 
ripe blue grass-seed, or you will fail. This 
is one great reason why blue grass is 30 
largely regarded a failure South. It is 
stripped before ripe, and won't germinate. 
Buy thoroughly cleaned seed, and sprout 
before you sow, so as to test the seed. No 
apology is needed for enquiries. I am only 
too glad to serve. I wish Mr. Buek may 
have many imitators. But blue grass is no 
new thing in North Georgia. I know not 
how many fine blue-grass pastures I have 
seen there in visiting the great stock farms 



42 



GENERAL NOTES. 



of such men as Messrs. Peters, Wade, 
Crook and others, where I spent days in 
visiting their fine herds. 

Mr. Buek will probably lose his Jerseys— 
to the proportion of one-half — he sent from 
Virginia to Georgia. Some of the best 
Jerseys in the world are to be found in 
Georgia already acclimated. Even Jerseys 
from Nashville to central Mississippi are 
subject to acclimation fever. 

M. B. 'hILLYARD. 



A Distinguished Journalist. 

Among the arrivals at the Hoyt Saturday 
night was Mr. Wm. H. Edmonds, editor of 
the "Southern States" magazine, of Balti- 
more. Md. This gentleman and his brother 
are publishers of both the "Southern 
States" and the Manufacturers' Record, 
which is one of the greatest American in- 
dustrial journals. These two publications 
are undoubtedly doing more to promote 
Southern interests and development of the 
South than any other agencies. Almost 
every important evolution in the South may 
be traced to those journals, or to their pub- 
lishers individually. The shipment of corn 
from the South to the sufferers in Nebraska 
was due to the Edmonds brothers. That in 
turn brought about the establishment of the 
great Grand Army colony of 40,000 souls in 
Georgia. The Edmonds brothers have had 
a great deal to do with the growth of cotton 
manufacturing in the South. They have 
brought the advantages of the South to the 
favorable notice of Northern manufacturers 
a-nd capitalists as it could not have been 
done otherwise. It was they who origi- 
nated and arranged the excursion of New 
England cotton manufacturers to the At- 
lanta Exposition. These are but a few out 
of hundreds of such good works to be cred- 
ited to the Edmonds brothers, besides the 
continuous and powerful influence of 
their publications. — Aransas Pass (Texas) 
Herald. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Mr. Fred. Johannes, of Rich Hill, Missouri, in an 
advertisement elsewhere in this issue, offers to go 
South with a colony and start a newspaper, or wou'd 
lease a paper already established in a Southern City. 

Mr. A. Duncan M. Osborne, of Charlotte, N. C , 
advertises in this issue a 318 acre stock and truck 



farm, adjoining the main line of the Southern Rail- 
way, fully equipped with all modern dairy and farm 
appliances, convenient to market. Mr. Osborne 
tales that he has also made arrangement to secure a 
large tract of land, which is to be plotted off in con- 
venient tracts for selling to a good class of immi- 
grants. The soil of the country about Charlotte is 
very productive and is well, adapted to truckings 
Good roads facilitate the work of the farmer, and 
railroads radiate from Charlotte in all directions. 

An attractive pamphlet, entitled "Snap Shots in 
Southern Missouri," showing the varied scenery of 
that State and giving valuable information as to its 
advantages to immigrants, will be mailed to any 
address upon receipt of four cents for postage, by J, 
E. Lockwood, Kansas City, Mo. 

Messrs. H. Ruge & Sons, Apalachicola, Fla., offer 
for sale at a low price some very desirable land in 
Citrus and Hillsborou|,h counties, on the south coast 
of Florida. 

Mr Irving Page, of Auburndale, Fla., has for sale 
many thousands of acres of land in Polk county, a 
noted truck region, where crops may be grown almost 
the whole year round. 

The exceedingly fertile valleys of the mountain 
section of Virginia produce grass and grain luxu- 
riantly ; even in the mountains there is good grazng. 
Alleghany and Bath counties, in this area, are ex- 
cellent stock-raising counties, abundantly watered by 
clear mountain streams. The land along the rivers, 
and creeks is very productive. The climate is health, 
ful. Messrs. Wm. M. and J T. McAllister, whose 
address is Warm Springs, Bath county, Va, advertise 
elsewhere in this issue that they have for sale io,ooc 
acres of land, some lying near Covirgton in Alle- 
ghany county and some near Hot Springs, Bath 
county, at prices ranging from $5 to fcco per acre. 
They will ht glad to fuinish full particulars to in- 
quirers. 

Fertile farms of 10 to 12 acres each, partly cleared 
and partly wooded, about fifteen miles from the city 
of Charleston, S. C, may be obtained at reasonable 
prices by applying to S. R. Marshall, 207 Meeting 
street, Charleston, S. C, whose advertisement appears 
on another page. The country has convenient trans- 
portation facilities. 

Mr. Irving Page, of Auburndale, Fla., advertises 
that he wishes to unite with some one who has capi^^ 
tal to aid him in the colonization of 400,000 acres of 
land in Florida. 

There is apparently an attractive opportunity 
offered to timber dealers in the advertisement of W, 
k. Wilcox, Darien, Ga., who has for sale 7000 acres of 
virgin pine forest in Mcintosh county, Ga., at Jio 
per acre. 

The supreme necessity in selecting a locality for 
an educational institution is that the climate be 
healthful. There is no difficulty in this regard with 
reference to the female college at Thomasville, N, 
C, which is advertised for sale by H. W. Reinhart^ 
Morehead Citv, N. C. 



THE 



Southern States. 



APRIL, 1896. 



SOME BITS OF EAST TENNESSEE SCENERY. 



Along the eastern border of Tennes- 
see, stretching northeast and south- 
west, He the Great Smoky mountains, 
their steep and rugged sides bearing 
witness to the terrific upheaval which 
raised them and formed the series of 
irregular peaks and ridges. Standing 
on these mountains at almost any point 
in the State and looking to the north- 
west, the eye first passes over a broad 
rolling valley; beyond it broken foot- 
hills, and still further on, at the hori- 
zon, another range of mountains 
which, in their blue distance, seem al- 
most like a combination of sky and 
earth to form a barrier from the world 
beyond. 

This is the Cumberland mountain 
range, and is the result of one of those 
strange freaks which nature has played 
with the earth's surface when contrac- 
tion took place as the crust cooled. The 
range varies from five to thirty miles 
in width, and on both sides the strata 
has, through a great fault, been forced 
into an almost vertical position. In 
the middle it is almost horizontal, and 
forms tablelands with steep sides and 
level tops. The remarkable continuity 
of this range, together with the wealth 
of coal, timber and iron ores which ac- 
company it throughout its length from 
Pennsylvania to Alabama, have made 
it famous in the industries, and the 
wildness of its heavily wooded slopes 
and abrupt clififs have made it as well 
known among the lovers of the beau- 
tiful. 

As wild a tangle of woods and rocks 
as may be found anywhere occurs 



along what is known as the "Clear 
Fork" of the Cumberland river in the 
"Narrows," near Jellico, Tenn. This 
branch of the river passes here between 
Pine mountain, the western edge of the 
Cumberlands, and the abrupt cliffs of 
the tablelands. For three miles the 
stream is buried almost out of sight 
beneath the high bluffs and overhang- 
ing trees, and its bed is a series of cas- 
cades and rapids filled with rocks of all 
sizes and shapes. A climb through 
here is no small undertaking, as no 
sign of path or trail can be found. It 
is a struggle through thickets of laurel 
and brush, over fallen timber and 
around boulders from the cliffs above. 
Often the sides are so precipitous that 
it is necessary to cling to the under- 
brush, and woe betide the unfortunate 
who has hold of a rotten root. The 
danger brings an additional apprecia- 
tion of the wild beauty of the place. 
Below, the stream rushes along its 
rocky bed singing a fierce song of free- 
dom, and above it tower the grim clififs, 
only half hidden by the trees on the 
steep slope below and the few bushes 
which, in some mysterious manner, 
seem to grow out of the rocks them- 
selves. 

Near the head of the "Narrows" the 
surroundings change. The bed of the 
stream here is nearer the top of the 
mountain and the water flows along 
more gently before taking its wild 
plunge below. The woods are thicker, 
too, and the thickest of laurel and rho- 
dodendron almost impassable. It is 
not unusual to hear an old gobbler 




NEAR THE HEAD OF THE "NARROWS. 



SOME BITS OF EAST TENNESSEE SCENERY. 



45 



calling his charges together here, and 
maybe the flock will start out of the 
woods almost in front of the traveller, 
flying up the creek with a rush of wings 
that is startling. Deer may be seen 
sometimes timidly peering up and 
down the stream before stooping over 
to drink. The country is so rough that 
few huntsmen venture in, and conse- 
quently game driven from other parts 
of the mountains seek shelter here. It 
is not always the game the hunter goes 
to search for, either, as both wild-cats 
and bear may be met, and they are 



unusual size, and one cannot help but 
be thankful that the difificulties in the 
way of cutting and removing them 
have kept the lumbering vandals away. 
Along the sides of the hollows, and in 
the bottom, where there are stream 
beds, rushing torrents in the wet sea- 
son, the laurel grows in an impene- 
trable thicket. In May, when this and 
the rhodendrons, which are plentiful, 
bud and bloom, the scene is indescrib- 
ably lovely. The beautiful white and 
pink flowers against the dark green of 
the laurel leaves and still darker pine. 




ACROSS POWELL'S VALLEY FROM CUMBERLAND MOUNTAIN. 



usually found in most inauspicious 
places. 

From the "Narrows" over the Cum- 
berland plateau or tableland there is an 
apology for a road, which passes 
through hollows and along small 
ridges. The greater part of the dis- 
tance is through virgin forest, where 
magnificent trees, centuries old, cast 
heavy shadows and even at noonday 
give- a sombre and gloomy depth to 
the woods. Some of these trees are of 



and all other shades of green in the 
budding trees makes it almost fairy- 
like. So much so, indeed, that those 
who see it for the first time instinct- 
ively hold their breath lest a change 
should come. 

One of the most beautiful of these 
places is the approach to Big Creek 
Gap down the valley from the plateau. 
Standing in there and looking out to- 
ward Powell's valley, the clififs rise al- 
most perpendicularly on each side 



46 



SOME BITS OF EAST TENNESSEE SCENERY. 



from the creek bed and show only a 
narrow space through which one sees 
the valley and hills beyond it. For- 
merly there was only a rough, narrow 
country road passing through the Gap, 
and this was overhung with old forest 




ing in the Gap and looking north in 
the direction of the "Narrows," which 
are eighteen miles distant, a high clifif 
rises to the right, while on the left there 
is a steep slope covered by rocks of all 
sizes weathered from the bluff above 
and sparsely grown over 
with trees. Beyond lie the 
Cumberland tablelands, high 
and rugged. Through this 
Gap there seems to be blow- 
ing a constant current of 
cool air. No matter how 
hot it may be on the out- 
side, here in the shade it is 
always cool, and often cold. 
The creek, which divides in- 
to a north and west branch at 
the upper end of the Gap, is 
as clear as crystal and usu- 
ally very cold. After heavy 



trees, massive rocks on one 
side and the creek, almost 
hidden from view by the 
laurel, on the other. This 
place was w o n d e r f u 1 1 y 
beautiful before the so- 
called "improvements" be- 
gan. Now the trees have 
been cut down, a broad 
road built on one side, 
a railroad on the other 
and a limestone quarry in 
the middle. Even with 
these destroyers of beauty 
it presents a wonderfully 
fine combination of the 
massive grandeur of tall, 
solemn gray rock cliffs 
with stunted trees growing like bristles 
on their tops, and the softer beauty of 
the trees and shrubbery at their sides 
and on the mountains beyond. Stand- 




THKOI'GH THE "NARROWS." 



rains, in the usual fashion of mountain 
streams it changes its soft ripple for a 
surging roar, overflows its banks and 
rushes through the Gap, washing away 



SOME BITS OF EAST TENNESSEE SCENERY. 



47 



all obstructions and carrying on its 
then turbid, yellow waters, logs, roots 
and debris washed out of the woods. 

Beyond the Gap lies Powell's valley, 
a soft and peaceful contrast to the wild- 
ness of the mountain and forest so 
close by. This valley is as widely 
known by its fertility as are the moun- 
tains for their rich mineral wealth. 
For miles along the sides of the Cum- 
berlands there is farm after farm, culti- 
vated by a fairly thrifty class of people 



long and high ridge at right angles to 
the direction of Cumberland moun- 
tam. South, across the valley, Big 
creek can be seen winding its way 
around the succession of hills and 
ridges that lie between here and Pow- 
ell's river, several miles distant. 

This Gap was quite famous during 
the stirring days of 1862-65, and many 
an adventure took place within sight of 
it. The region was noted for the num- 
ber and vindictiveness of the busli- 




TIIKorGH BIG CKEEK GAP. 



who, while probably none have gained 
great wealth, have at least made a com- 
fortable living and good homes. A 
fine view of the valley is obtained from 
the top of the cliffs at the Gap. To 
the northeast and southwest it stretches 
out like a great wide trough, rolling 
gently in small hills and hollows, 
nearly all under cultivation. To the 
sovithwest one can see Cross mountain, 
a singular geological phenomenon, 
cutting the valley off and forming a 



whackers that infested it, and the Con- 
federate fort, which lies just beneath 
the clififs, and is still in a good state of 
preservation, was anything but a pleas- 
ant post to occupy. Sentry duty was 
looked upon with the same sense of 
keen enjoyment that one would feel in 
walking over the barely cooled surface 
of a bed of lava, expecting at any mo- 
ment to drop through, for there was no 
telling when the whirr of a bullet would 
sound the final roll-call. The pass Avas 



48 



SOME BITS OF EAST TENNESSEE SCENERY. 



^--•^. 



If 




/ vs 



THE RUINS OF AN OLD FORGE, NEAR LA FOLLETTB, TENN. 



an important one to hold, since it pro- 
vided easier access into Kentucky than 
at any other within many miles. 

Lying in the valley just opposite the 
Gap and stretching across it are the 
streets and homes of a growing town, 
an embroyo city known as La Follette. 
It has been eminently well selected as 
regards beauty of surroundings, for it 
would be hard to find any place where 
a more pleasing combination could be 
found. The ground on which it is lo- 



cated is rolling, and at its south side 
are the hills that form the southeastern 
edge of the valley. Here almost ideal 
spots for homes can be had, high above 
the town and commanding a superb 
view up and down and of the mount- 
ains across the valley. 

While the location is all that could 
be asked as to beautiful surroundings, 
there is more to be expected of it than 
this or dependence on agricultural 
pursuits. Under the Cumberland pla- 



SOME BITS OF EAST TENNESSEE SCENERR. 



49 



teau lie extensive beds of bituminous 
coal, and on the top and sides are for- 
ests of many varieties of timber. These 
have been standing for centuries await- 
ing the wakening touch of industry to 
put them to the uses for which they 
were created. Lying here many miles 
from any rail transportation they have 
been dormant stores of wealth that will 
now be opened by a railroad that is be- 
ing built through them, up Big Creek 
Gap, across the plateau and down 
through the "Narrows" on the Ken- 
tucky side of the mountains. This will 
place the town in direct railroad com- 
munication with two of the leading 
trunk lines in the South, the Louisville 
& Nashville and Southern Railway, 
and open a market for the product of 
the mines and mills that may be 
erected. 

Running immediately along the 
outer edge of the Cumberland moun- 
tain on its southeast slope in Powell's 
valley, there is a vein of iron ore which 
in past years was smelted in small 
forges. The remains of many of these 
can still be seen, one of them just in 
front of the Gap on Big Creek, and 
while their operations were not exten- 
sive, seldom producing over two or 
three tons a day at the outside, they 
must have been operated over a con- 
siderable period if one may judge by 
the size of the openings left where they 
mined their ore. The nearness of this 
vein of iron ore to the coal and the 
close proximity of limestone give 
within an unusually small radius all 
the raw materials required in the man- 
ufacture of pig iron and should, con- 



secjuently, prove a satisfactory point 
for its cheap production. In the ridges 
south of Powells' valley other varieties 
of iron ore have been found, and from 
some places were hauled to the old 
forges near the movmtain. 

With these valuable resources near 
at hand and clays and stones for build- 
ing and other purposes, as well as an 
abundance of pure water, the indus- 
trial features of the place would seem 
most encouraging, and it is possible 
that some day its noisy whistles and 
the hum of wheels may be heard re- 
sounding through the Gap, instead of 
the whispered song of the trees and 
stream that now make it so beautiful. 
In many parts of this most beautiful 
mountain region where nature now 
reigns almost supreme, industrial 
progress will soon open up to the 
needs of advancing civilization the 
rich treasures of earth and the smoke 
of furnaces and factories will to some 
extent obscure the beauties of nature, 
but this all means the creation of 
wealth, the improvement of the agri- 
cultural interests, the construction of 
better roads and the establishment of 
more schools. The change is not, 
therefore, to be regretted, but rather to 
h^ welcomed, and if the pioneers who 
are projecting the development of a 
town at La Follette and the building 
of industrial enterprises give employ- 
ment to men where there is none now, 
the}^ will certainly be entitled to as 
much praise as he who makes "two 
blades of grass to grow where only one 
srrew before." 




A POWELL'S VALLEY DWELLING. 



THE DAIRY INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND 
THEIR RELATION TO THE SOUTH. 

By B. S. Pardee. 



The Dairy Division in the Bureau of 
Animal Industry of the United States 
Department of Agriculture began ope- 
rations July I, 1895, on an order pre- 
scribing that "the object and purpose 
of this division will be to collect and 
disseminate information relating to 
the dairy industry of the United States, 
in such manner and to such extent as 
may be deemed most expedient and 
beneficial." As will be seen, this gen- 
eral order comprised a vast and varied 
field that furnished almost illimitable 
subjects of much importance for inves- 
tigation, and that would afford to a 
man qualified to direct them ample 
scope for the employment of all his 
powers. Fortunately, from among 
those citizens of the United States 
who, by study, tastes and practical ex- 
perience, were fitted for this new posi- 
tion, one was chosen whose name was 
as well known to the dairymen of the 
country as it was to the scientists and 
professors of our colleges and the 
heads of the various State agricultural 
experiment stations. 

Major Henry E. Alvord, C. E., en- 
tered upon his duties with a zeal born 
of knowledge and years of practical 
experience, and soon outlined his plans 
for giving the greatest possible utility 
to the Dairy Division. These plans, 
as set forth in the introductory chapter 
of Bulletin No. i of the Dairy Division, 
which the Department of Agriculture 
has recently issued, are to collect in- 
formation bearing upon dairying from 
all reliable sources available, and to 
classify and arrange them at the ofifice 
for future use. It is proposed to pre- 
pare publications of three classes: i. 
Leaflets upon points in dairy practice, 
farm dairying, co-operative effort, or- 
ganization, equipment and manage- 



ment of creameries and cheese facto- 
ries, and facilities for transportation 
and marketing. 2. Bulletins upon 
dairy topics somewhat more extended, 
giving latest information and most ap- 
proved methods, gathered at home 
and abroad from expert dairymen, 
creameries, organizations and the ex- 
periment stations and dairy schools; 
also as to condition, changes and needs 
of the dairy markets. 3. Reports 
upon the results of special inquiries 
and investigations. 

Among the subjects which will re- 
ceive early attention and require con- 
siderable time are these : (i) The con- 
dition and demands of domestic mar- 
kets for dairy products; (2) the milk 
trade — production and service for 
cities and towns; (3) imitations and 
substitutes for dairy products, and (4) 
the number and distribution of pure- 
bred dairy cattle and of grades, with 
their effects upon products and mar- 
kets. 

As a basis for intelligent work in the 
various lines indicated, it became nec- 
essary to gather and arrange the gen- 
eral facts as to dairying in statistical 
form, and the bulletin from which the 
foregoing is quoted is the result. This 
bulletin contains most of the statistics 
which are available relating to the 
dairy in the United States, and some 
upon the cattle and products of foreign 
countries. Some general farm statis- 
tics are also added which have a bear- 
ing upon the dairy industry or show 
its position with relation to other 
branches of agriculture. The bulletin 
has also extracts from a report by Mr. 
John Hyde, now of the Department of 
Agriculture, late expert special agent 
in charge of agriculture of the eleventh 
census. These extracts, from the 



THE DAIRY INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 51 



original manviscript of the statistical 
analysis, Mr. Hyde prepared for the 
forthcoming agricultural volume of 
the census, were made by permission. 
Major Alvord does not claim that 
the census statistics are more than ap- 
proximately correct, for the enumera- 
tors found it impossible to get abso- 
lutely correct returns from the wide 
Western areas of "range country," but 
as a very insignificant part of these 
more than 6,000,000 animals, distrib- 
uted through ten States and territories, 
could be properly called milch cows or 
dairy cows, the omission of these range 
cattle from the general tables has no 
appreciable efifect upon the statistics 
of the dairy. The cows on farms are 
not all dairy cattle. A large propor- 
tion of those in Texas are beef-breed- 



THE ENORMOUS VALUE 

of the cows, which may properly be 
regarded as dairy animals, and which 
at the end of the year 1895 were esti- 
mated to number about 17,000,000 and 
to constitute about one-third of all 
the neat cattle of the country, is ap- 
proximately shown by the following 
estimates. Dividing these 17,000,000- 
according to their principal products, 
there are in round numbers 11,000,000 
cows that are primarily butter pro- 
ducers, 1,000,000 produce all our 
cheese, and the milk of 5,000,000 is 
consumed by the families of their own- 
ers, or on the farms where produced, 
or is sold to be consumed as milk, fresh 
or condensed. These estimates, with 
products and values added, may be 
tabulated as follows: 



Cows. 


Product. 


Rate of Product. 


Total product. 


Rate of value. 


Total value. 


Millions. 
II 

I 
5 


Butter 

Cheese 

Milk 


125 pounds 

280 pounds 

350 galloi s 


ii375iOoo,ooo pounds 

280,000,000 pounds 

1,750 000,000 gallons 


20 cents 

8 cents 

9 cents 


Dollars . 
275,000,000 
22,400,000 
157.500,0:0 





ing animals, and so in a much smaller 
proportion in several States. For cen- 
sus purposes the farm was fixed at a 
minimum of three acres, consequently 
there was no enumeration of domestic 
animals in cities, towns and villages. 
Many large milk-producing herds 
kept in town and city stables would be 
in this excluded class. There is no 
basis for any close estimate of the 
number of these animals or of the 
quantity and value of their dairy prod- 
ucts. But take it all in all, the figures 
of the census as they are given are the 
only safe ones to use in any computa- 
tion. 

In a classification of the various an- 
nual farm products of this country by 
values, meats and closely related prod- 
ucts stand first in order, the corn 
crop second, dairy products and 
the hay crop alternate in the 
third and fourth places, and wheat oc- 
cupies the fifth. Hay and corn are so 
largely tributary to the dairy as raw 
materials for its support, that it is fair 
to place dairy products as second only 
to meet products in the general list. 



This gives the grand total value of 
the dairy products of the country as 
$454,900,000. If to this be added the 
skim milk, buttermilk and whey, at 
their proper feeding value, and the 
calves yearly dropped, the annual ag- 
gregate value of the products of our 
dairy cows exceeds $500,000,000. This 
is regarded as a conservative estimate, 
and does not include the manure prod- 
uct, which has a very large but quite 
uncertain value. 

If the value, per head, estimated for 
cows in this country, viz, $22 to $25, is 
accepted, these animals produce nearly 
50 per cent, more than their own value 
annually. But there is an old farm 
rule, which has reasonable basis, that 
a cow is worth whatever she will pro- 
duce in a year, including her calf. At 
this rate the average value of the dairy 
cow in the United States must be 
about $30. 

The foregoing estimates are based 
upon an average yield of 350 gallons, 
or about 3000 pounds of milk, yearly 
by each cow. This is rather more than 
shown by the census tables, but those 



-52 



THE DAIRY INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES 



exclude the large number of town 
cows, which would materially raise the 
average milk product. This rate of 
yield provides for butter and cheese 
product estimated and for consump- 
tion, besides the skim milk and butter- 
milk residue from the butter cows, 
about twenty-five and one-half gallons 
of whole milk per annum per capita of 
our population. Two hundred and 
twenty pounds of milk for 365 days 
(rather more than one-half pint a day) 
is by no means an excessive allowance, 
but many people do not, in fact, ap- 
proach that rate of consumption. 

THE NEAT CATTLE OP THE UNITED 
STATES, 

according to Mr. Hyde's analysis of 
the census statistics, constitute a 
mighty herd. He says: 

On June 1,1890, the 4,564,641 farms 
in the United States contained 1,117,- 
494 working oxen, 16,511,950 milch 
cows and 33,734,128 other cattle — a 
total of 51,363,572. 

On June i, 1880, the 4,008,907 farms 
contained 993,341 working oxen, 12,- 
443,120 milch cows and 22,488,550 
other cattle — a total of 35,925,011. 

There is, therefore, an increase of 
124,153, or 12.44 pel" cent., in the num- 
ber of working oxen; of 4,068,830, or 
32.70 per cent., in the number of milch 
cows, and of 11,245,578, or 50.01 per 
cent., in the number of other cattle, the 
increase in the total number of neat 
cattle on farms being 15,438,561, or 
42.97 per cent. 

On June i, 1890, there were also 
5,851,640 neat cattle on ranges (not in- 
cluding 433,580 in Indian Territory), 
of which 1,959,888 were cows and 
calves. On June i, 1880, there was an 
estimated total of 3,750,022 neat cattle 
on ranges. 

There is thus an apparent increase 
of 2,535,198, or 67.60 per cent., in the 
total number of neat cattle on ranges, 
and of 17,973,759, or 45.30 per cent., 
in the total number of neat cattle in 
the United States. 

THERE IS AN IMMENSE DISPROPORTION 

in the holdings of neat cattle by the 
various States and Territories. Iowa 
has the largest number on its farms to 



every square mile of area, her average 
being 88.25; Illinois comes second, 
with an average of 54-70; Vermont, 
Connecticut, New York, Ohio, Indi- 
ana and Missouri have between 40 and 
50; Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Kansas and 
Oklahoma, between 30 and 40; New 
Hampshire, New Jersey, Delaware, 
Maryland, West Virginia, Nebraska, 
Kentucky, Tennessee and Texas, be- 
tween 20 and 30 ; Maine, the District 
of Columbia, Virginia, North Carolina, 
Georgia, Michigan, Minnesota, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Ar- 
kansas, between 10 and 20, and South 
Carolina, Florida, North Dakota, 
South Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, 
Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, 
Utah, Nevada, Idaho, Washington, 
Oregon and California, under 10. 

IN THE QUALITY OF STOCK 

there is a great range from the pure- 
bred down to the "piney wood crit- 
ters." Prior to 1890 no statistics of 
qualities were collected, so that there 
is no date for comparison between the 
past and present conditions. In that 
vear, taking the country as a whole, 
0.99 per cent, of neat cattle on farms 
were pure-bred, 16.08 per cent, were 
grades — one-half blood or higher — • 
and 82.93 per cent, were common or 
native, including grades less than one- 
half blood. The statistics of quality 
by States and Territories show that the 
District of Columbia has the highest 
percentage of pure-bred, Iowa and 
Rhode Island coming next. Connec- 
ticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts 
and New Jersey have all over 3 per 
cent, of pure-bred, and, except New 
Jersey, they have a very high percent- 
age of grades. In the South Atlantic 
States the percentage of pure-bred 
ranges from 2.33 in Maryland to 0.45 
in Georgia and 0.25 in Florida, while 
the percentage of grades ranges from 
23.58 in the District of Columbia to 
3.22 in Georgia and 1.24 in Florida. 
The last has apparently the smallest 
number of improved stock in propor- 
tion to the number of its neat cattle on 
farms of any State or Territory in the 
entire country. The percentage in the 



THE DAIRY INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 53 



Carolinas and Georgia is also exceed- 
ingly low. There is a wide difference 
between the percentages in the various 
States composing the South Central 
Division — Kentucky having 1.52 per 
cent, of pure-bred and 14.77 per cent, 
of grades, while Louisiana has only 
1.98 per cent, of pure-bred and grades 
combined, the percentage in Arkansas, 
Alabama and Mississippi being almost 
equally low. 

MILCH cows ON FARMS. 

The increase between 1880 and 1890 
of the number of milch cows on farms 
was the greatest on record. Under 
normal conditions this increase may 
be expected to keep pace with the in- 
crease of population, as the census fig- 
ures prove, for out of forty-nine States 
and Territories, forty-three show an 
increase and only six a decrease. In 
the South Atlantic division the largest 
increase is in Florida, which had 269 
cows in 1890 for every 100 she had in 
1880. West Virginia, Virginia, ^Nlary- 
land and Delaware also show an 
increase, while South Carolina and 
Georgia show a considerable de- 
crease, especially the former State. 
The decrease in South Carolina and 
Georgia, and to a less degree in North 
Carolina, is especially noteworthy, 
not merely because the decline is con- 
siderable, but because these States 
form the only important exceptions 
to that increase in the number of milch 
cows which is reported from almost 
every part of the country. That this 
decrease was more or less general is 
evident from the fact that in Georgia 
seventy-seven counties show a de- 
crease as compared with sixty show- 
ing an increase; in North Carolina 
fifty-five show a decrease as against 
forty showing an increase, while in 
South Carolina twenty-six show a de- 
crease and only six an increase. Tak- 
ing the South Atlantic division as a 
whole, there is an increase. 

In the South Central division every 
State shows an increase, the additions 
since 1880 ranging from 20,645 i^ 
Alabama and 20,769 in Louisiana to 
397,263 in Texas. In Tennessee, Ala- 
bama, Louisiana and Arkansas the in- 



crease has failed to keep pace with the 
growth of population, and that such 
has not been the case with the division 
as a whole is due to the very large in- 
crease (65.54 per cent.) in Texas. A 
noteworthy feature of the statistics 
for this division is the comparative 
uniformity in the number of milch 
cows to every 1000 of the population 
in three of the principal States, Ken- 
tucky having 196, Tennessee 195 and 
Alabama 193 milch cows for every 
1000 of their inhabitants. In Texas 
the average is as high as 449 per thou- 
sand, while in Louisiana it is only 149 
per thousand. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS. 

The total production of milk on 
farms in the L^nited States in the year 
ending December 31, 1889 (not inclu- 
ding farms of less than three acres, ex- 
cept where $500 worth of the produce 
of the farm had been actually sold dur- 
ing the year), was 5,209,125,567 gal- 
lons, equivalent to 315^ gallons for 
each milch cow reported on June i, 
1890, and to eighty-three gallons per 
liead of population. 

The total production of butter on 
farms (as above defined) in the year 
ending December 31, 1889, was 
1,024,223,468 pounds, as compared 
with a total of 777,250,287 pounds in 
1879, and the total production of 
cheese 18,726,818 pounds, as com- 
pared with a total of 27,272,489 
pounds in 1879, an increase of 246,- 
973,181 pounds, or 31.78 per cent., in 
the production of butter on farms, and 
a decrease of 8,545,671 pounds, or 3 
per cent., in the production of cheese 
on farms. 

The total for States of the South 
and Central divisions was of milch 
cows 4,199,123, or about 25 per cent, 
of all in the country. Of milk pro- 
duced on farms there was a total of 
851,422,340 gallons, or about 16 per 
cent, of the total product. 

Of butter made on farms the total 
was 213,463,183 pounds, or about 20 
per cent, of the whole output. 

Of butter made at creameries the 
total output was 2,254,607 pounds, or 
about i^ per cent, of the country's 



54 



THE DAIRY INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



product. Of cheese made on farms 
the total weight was 589,658 pounds, 
against a national output of nearly 
19,000,000 pounds. 

Of factory cheese the Southern 
product was but 175,300 pounds, an 
infinitesimal fraction of the 238,000,- 
000 pounds made in the United States. 

The following statistics from the 
eleventh census tell their own story 
by giving the total of cows and dairy 
products for the entire country, and 
for the Southern States : 



that the total production of butter 
averaged no less than 19.24 pounds 
per unit of the population. 

These statistics show that while 
there was a smaller production of 
farm butter in the States of the North 
Atlantic group than in 1880, there was 
an increase in all others, and that the 
latter was greatest in those States in 
which there had been the largest ex- 
pansion of the creamery system. Con- 
centration of production, says Mr. 
Hyde, has always been a distinguish- 



States and Territories. 


Milch 
cows. 


Milk 

all produced 

on farms. 


Butter 

made on 

farms. 


Butter 

made at 

creameries. 


Cheese Cheese 
made on ! made at 
farms. i factories 


The United States... 


Nutnber. 
16,511,950 


Gallons. 
5,209,125,567 


Pounds. 
1,024,223,468 


Pounds. 
181,2849x6 


Pounds. 
18 726,818 


Poimds. 
238,035,165 


South Atlantic Division. 


1,369,466 


331,728,677 


79,270911 


2,143,928 


271,291 


144,000- 




32,574 
142,198 
863 
273.634 
1S8 492 
223 416 
107,184 
287,717 
113,388 


10,699,362 
46,601,218 
459 978 
78,143,459 
59 449,066 
55,250,665 
23 833,631 
52,234,508 
5,056,790 


2,026 498 
9,999,602 
13,769 
17.919,966 
14,063,627 
13.129.374 
5 737.557 
14,483,323 

867,195 


466,761 


359 






14, oco 


District of Columbia . . 




811,890 
18,000 


109,187 \ 100, oco 




74,372 

60.760 

2,476 

12,833 
1,731 


21,000 


North Carolina 








Georgia 
















South Central Division. 


2,829,657 


519,693,663 


135,192,272 


110,679 


318,367 


3I.3CO 


Kentucky 


364,516 
345,3" 
292,088 

310,159 
167,223 

1,003,439 

16,756 

330,165 


118,497,289 
107,657,116 
55,508,687 
50,803,371 
12,881,927 
118,475 320 
1,544,280 
54,325 673 


29,038,406 
28,314,387 
14.548,435 
12 988,637 
2,089 774 
32,100,560 
387,920 
15.724,144 




64,822 
69.919 
6,131 

4,898 

3,939 

145,730 

1,600 

21,328 




65.990 


31,300 




Mississippi 






44.689 




Texas 



















MORE FARM-MADE BUTTER. 

The great increase in the number of 
milch cows during the decade of 1880- 
1890, already noted, has been more 
than equalled by the production of 
farm butter, which, notwithstanding 
the great extension of the creamery 
system and the decline in the quanti- 
ties annually exported, has increased 
even more rapidly than population. 
In 1880 the production of farm butter 
by the whole country averaged 15.50 
pounds for each inhabitant, and that 
of creamery butter 0.58 pound for 
each inhabitant, the total average be- 
ing thus 16.08 pounds. At the ekv- 
enth census, however, the production 
of butter on farms alone averaged 16.33 
pounds per capita of the population, 
and such had been the increase in the 
production of butter in creameries 



ing feature of American agriculture, 
and this is exemplified by the butter 
industry, for while its production is 
about as general as its consumption, 
yet more than one-half of the total 
production of the United States has 
to be credited to seven States, and 
almost one-fourth more to seven 
others. It is worthy of note that the 
States of principal production are, 
with few exceptions, those in which 
the creamery industry has attained its 
largest development. Commenting 
upon this, Mr. Hyde says: 

The increase in the production of 
butter per capita of population is due 
not alone to the increase in the num- 
ber of cows, but in no inconsiderable 
degree to the general stimulus that 
not only the creamery system, but also 
the dairy industry, as distinguished 



THE DAIRY INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



55 



from the creamery, is known to have 
received during the decade ending 
with 1890, and the result of which is 
seen in the fact that, while the aver- 
age production of butter on farms and 
in factories at the tenth census was 
64.83 pounds for each milch cow, the 
average production at the eleventh 
census was 72.98 pounds, an increase 
of 12.57 per cent. That this is not 
due directly, if at all, to the extension 
of the creamery system is shown by 
the fact that nearly all the States that 
have witnessed the greatest extension 
of that system during the decade end- 
ing with 1890 show a smaller average 
production of butter per milch cow 
than at the tenth census, and that 
many of the leading Southern States 
that contain no creameries whatever 
show a remarkable increase in the 
average production of butter per 
milch cow, such increase ranging 
from 50.36 per cent, in Mississippi and 
52.56 per cent, in Arkansas to the in- 
crease in Louisiana, where the aver- 
age production has almost doubled, 
and in South Carolina and Georgia, 
w^iere it has more than doubled. In 
this connection, however, it is impor- 
tant to note that from a considerable 
number of counties in the South, espe- 
cially in Georgia, a butter production 
is reported far in excess of the maxi- 
mum butter-producing capabilities of 
the entire milk production of such 
counties. While this apparent error 
on the part of enumerators cannot but 
afifect, to a greater or less extent, both 
the total production, either of milk or 
of butter and the averages for such 
counties and even for the States in 
which they are contained, it is not suf- 
ficiently general to alter the fact that 
there has been an increase in the pro- 
duction of butter on the farms and 
plantations of the Southern States far 
out of proportion to the increase in 
the number of milch cows. 

THE SOUTH A DAIRY REGION. 

In quoting thus extensively from 
this valuable bulletin, the writer has 
aimed to spread before the readers of 
"Southern States" the most notewor- 
thy facts concerning this immense and 



ever-increasing department of agri- 
cultural industry, both because of its 
general interest and importance, and 
also because he hopes thus to call at- 
tention to the fact that of the five 
grand divisions into which the census 
office, for its convenience, grouped 
the States and Territories on geo- 
graphical lines, the two divisions with- 
in which are all the Southern States 
constitute a dairy region equal in 
every respect to any other in the coun- 
try, and possessing natural advan- 
tages peculiarly its own. In fact, it 
can be proved to the satisfaction of 
even the most skeptical minds that the 
several branches of the dairy industry 
can be conducted on an immense scale 
in a large part of the South, under 
conditions more favorable to uniform 
success and to greater net profits than 
can be found in any equal area of the 
United States. This assertion is 
made, although the census statistics 
show that the Southern States are 
very far behind many of the others in 
their attention to this exceedingly im- 
portant farm industry. And yet the 
very statistics that demonstrate the 
present inferiority of the dairy indus- 
try of the South carry with them, if 
rightly interpreted, evidences of the 
immense development that would 
speedily follow the application of in- 
telligent enterprise to this business. 
In the comments made by Mr. Hyde 
upon the remarkable increase in the 
average production of butter per 
milch cow in the leading Southern 
States we have noteworthy evidence 
of one of the natural advantages the 
South has for the dairy business. 

After stating that this increase 
ranges from 50.36 per cent, in Missis- 
sippi and 52.56 per cent, in Arkansas 
to nearly 100 per cent, in Louisiana 
and to more than 100 per cent, in 
Georgia and South Carolina, he adds 
that in many counties in the South, 
especially in Georgia, a butter produc- 
tion is reported far in excess of the 
maximum butter-producing capabili- 
ties of the entire milk production of 
such counties. This Mr. Hyde re- 
gards as "an apparent error on the 
part of enumerators," although he 



56 THE DAIRY INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



says it was not general enough to alter 
the fact that there has been an increase 
in the production of butter on the 
farms and plantations of the Southern 
States far out of proportion to the in- 
crease in the number of milch cows. 

These statements of Mr. Hyde were 
prepared for the census report. Had 
they been made for the Department 
of Agriculture and been edited by 
either Assistant Secretary Dabney or 
by Major Alvord prior to publication, 
either of these practical scientists 
would probably have convinced Mr. 
Hyde that the enumerators had made 
no mistake, but that the reported in- 
crease which was to him so remark- 
able as to seem to be an error, was due 
to the fact that in Mississippi and the 
other States named the dairy farmers 
had been taught the value of cotton- 
seed meal and hulls for their cows, 
both as nourishing food and as milk 
and cream producers. These did not 
count among the staples of cattle feed 
prior to 1880, and it was during the 
next decade that tests made by prac- 
tical men in all parts of the Southern 
States, and by the experts of agricul- 
tural experiment stations, furnished 
the necessary data on which the pro- 
portion of this kind of provender to 
be fed daily to milch cows was given 
general publicity. 

Early in the spring of 1884 the 
writer was making a tour through the 
counties of Eastern North Carolina. 
Near Tarboro he saw a small cotton- 
seed-oil mill and a dairy farm on 
which were milch cows of various 
grades and a pure-blood bull. The 
proprietor of these, a young physician 
to the manner born, was an educated 
man of practical mind and much en- 
terprise, who by this combination of 
farm, pasture fields, herd and oil mill, 
was conducting quietly a series of ex- 
periments that paid him a nice annual 
profit and were accumulating valuable 
facts for the general information. 

To the work of such public-spirited 
and practical Southerners as was this 
Tarboro physician, and to the bulle- 
tins sent out by such admirably man- 
aged State institutions as the North 
Carolina experiment station, is largely 



due the increase in butter production 
in many Southern counties that 
amazed Expert Hyde. 

THE SOUTH'S DAIRYING ADVANTAGES. 

Foremost among the South's supe- 
rior advantages as a dairy region are 
the many natural economic condi- 
tions. These comprise in part the 
shortness of the season of inclemency 
and the cheapness and abundance of 
materials for barns and sheds; the 
long grazing season — in some sec- 
tions continuous through the year; 
the low prices at which desirably lo- 
cated farm lands can be purchased, 
and the generally low rates of assess- 
ment and taxation in the agricultural 
districts; the abundance of laborers 
and the low rate of wages. As for 
necessary household expenses, the 
Southern dairy farmer can live with 
equal comfort at not exceeding one- 
half of what it costs a New England 
or Northwestern farmer. This is not 
guess-work, but the testimony of 
many who during the past twenty 
years have migrated from the North 
to the South and have found the 
change all that they hoped for, and 
more, as many have voluntarily stated 
in communications published in the 
"Southern States" during the past 
eighteen months. 

Another advantage the South offers 
to the milk and butter farmer is that 
in nearly every city, town and village 
of any size there is a demand much 
greater than the present supply of 
these articles, so that the dairy located 
within short transportation distance 
of such a place is certain of having 
paying customers for its entire prod- 
uct. There are many Southern dis- 
tricts in which large tracts of land can 
be bought at low figures, that would 
delight those Minnesota dairy farm- 
ers, numbering 30,000, who supply 
milk to its 253 creameries, because of 
the nutritious natural pasturage, 
shade, pure water, phenomenally pure 
air, short winters, summers not over- 
hot and a soil that will produce every- 
thing grown in the temperate zone. 
If these districts, now sparsely settled, 
were peopled by families like those 



THE DAIRY INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 57 



that have made Vermont famous for 
its flocks of Merinoes, its herds of 
pure-blood neat cattle and its farm 
and creamery products of butter and 
cheese; or like those of Iowa, that 
"have wrested from New York that 
primacy of position with respect to the 
number of milch cows and the total 
production on farms and in factories 
which the latter State had so long- 
maintained," they would surpass in all 
that constitutes the comfort and hap- 
piness of rural life any other farming 
section of the United States. 

One inducement to Southern farm- 
ers to pay more attention to dairying 
than they have done in the past, and 
an aid to Northern farmers who may 
be homeseeking in the South to de- 
cide upon their locations, is that the 
building of numerous cotton mills and 
other large manufacturing establish- 
ments is every year making thousands 
of new customers for dairy and truck- 
farm products, from a class of popula- 
tion that in the past had no money to 
pay for such things. Every new cot- 
ton mill that employs a hundred ope- 
ratives pays to its wage-earners 
money that is expended for the main- 
tenance of at least three times that 
number. Every industrial city and 
town in the South makes a market for 
the milk, cream and butter, the eggs 
and poultry, and like foodstuff pro- 
duced in its vicinity, and the greater 
the number of its wage-earners the 
more extended must be the radius 
from which such supplies are ob- 
tained. It is because these industrial 
centres increase in number every 
month, and that the populations of 
those already established are as a rule 
growing steadily, that the South ofTers 
today any number of good markets to 
its local dairymen, while at the same 
time it buys vast quantities of salted 
butter from the North and Northwest. 

NP^BDED IMPROVEMENT IN DAIRY 
CATTLE. 

In his introduction to the bulletin 
Major Alvord notes the fact shown by 
the census, that the different products 
of the average dairy cow in the United 
States demonstrate that this average 



cow "is far below a standard which is 
desirable and entirely practicable." 
The statistics prove that there has 
been a gradual improvement for sev- 
eral decades in the average cow prod- 
uct, but the progress has been far too 
slow. He says that a very good an- 
nual average yield of milk is 5000 
pounds, instead of 3000, and 200 to 
225 pounds of butter per cow, instead 
of 125 pounds. Many herds kept in a 
plain, practical farm fashion attain still 
better results. There are manifestly 
many cows in the country, probably 
some millions, that do not produce 
the value of their annual cost, however 
cheap and wastefully poor their keep- 
ing may be. It is apparent that if but 
two cows were kept, of the suggested 
standard of production, in place of 
every three of the existing average 
quality, the aggregate products of the 
dairy industry of the country would 
be increased more than 10 per cent., 
while the aggregate cost to their own- 
ers ought to be less, and probably 
would be. This being true. Major 
Alvord makes the practical sugges- 
tions that every possible influence 
should be exerted to induce dairy 
farmers to weed out their herds and 
keep fewer cows and better ones. At 
least the average quality of cows kept 
for dairy purposes should be brought 
up to the highest attainable, profitable 
standard. If the Southern dairy farm- 
ers would comply with these sugges- 
tions and commence improving their 
stock, they would very soon discover 
that they were profiting by the change 
not only in their greater receipts for 
their dairy products, but also in the 
steadily-enhancing value of their neat 
cattle. 

During the past quarter of a cen- 
tury, especially during the last decade, 
numbers of Southern men have given 
much attention to the improvement of 
Southern neat cattle, and have by 
their examples considerably raised the 
cattle standard of their localities. The 
late Col. Richard Peters, of Atlanta, 
and Major Rufus Tucker, of Raleigh, 
may be named as representatives of 
the public-spirited Southern citizens 
who have spent much money in fur- 



.58 THE DAIRY INTERESTS OE THE UNITED STATES. 



nishing these living object-lessons to 
their people, and it is quite within 
bounds to say that they and their class 
have created a demand in the South 
for pure-blood and high-grade stock, 
the large effects of which will be seen 
when the statistics of Southern dairy 
industries shall be published, soon 
after the opening of the twentieth cen- 
tury. It will then be evident that 
many of the best Southern dairy farm- 
ers have found that the breeding and 
sale of high-grade milch cows was a 
very profitable feature of their indus- 
try. Northern stock-breeders will 
readily understand why this should 
1)6, for they do not need to be told that 
high-grade or pure-blood animals 
born and reared in the home climate 
are of much more value to their own- 
ers than animals of precisely the same 
blood or grade would be if brought 
from where all climatic conditions 
were quite unlike their new ones. The 
general statistics of neat cattle on 
farms, as shown by the aggregates of 
the five geographical divisions, and 
by the totals that comprise the entire 
country, are given in the following 
table, and enable those interested to 
see at a glance the relative conditions 
as to quality or breeding of the neat 
cattle on the farms of the United 
States on Jwne i, 1890: 



what extent they differ. And because 
of the great superiority of the South- 
ern over all other sections of the 
Union in natural fatness for the dairy 
industry, it is but reasonable that an 
honest and entirely unprejudiced ex- 
amination of all attainable statistics 
and well authenticated testimonies 
should lead to the conviction that 
within a very few years at most the 
South will be as noted for its dairy 
products, and for its pure-bred and 
high-grade cattle, as it is now for its 
cotton, naval stores and early market 
garden and orchard products. 

Mr. R. A. Pearson, B. S., assistant 
chief of the Dairy Division, in a chap- 
ter on "the cows and cattle of foreign 
countries," that is published in this 
bulletin, says: 

"Considering the large amounts of 
our dairy products, the development 
of our dairy cattle and the intensity of 
the industry in many sections, the 
United States is the leading dairy as 
well as stock-raising country." 

Mr. Pearson might have added, 
"and, considering the natural fitness 
of the South for this industry, and the 
great interest its own people and those 
of other sections are taking in the de- 
velopment of its agriculture on all 
lines, it is no optimism, but reasonably 
good judgment, to expect that as the 





Neat cattle on farms, June i, 1890. 


Percentage according to 




Total oxen, 

cows, and 

other cattle 


Quality or breeding. 


quality or breeding. 


States and Territories 


Pure hreH Grade one- 
■rllT.A^A ;half blood or 
recorded. ^j^j^^^. 


Cotnmon 
native or 
low-grade. 


Pure 
bred. 


Grades 
one-half 
or over. 


Common 
cr 

native. 


The United States 


51,3^3.572 


506,060 


8,257,989 


42,.599 523 


99 


16.08 


8293 


North Atlantic Division. 
South Atlantic Division. 
North Central Division . 
South Central Division.. 
Western Division 


5461,724 
3,890 107 
24,572,400 
11,724,483 
5 714,858 


96,661 ' 896,.i52S 
28,293 ; 2S8 420 
297,303 5,457,320 
54,260 793.609 
29,543 ' 822,112 


4,468,535 

3.573.394 
18,817,777 
10,876,614 

4,863,203 


177 
73 

I 21 
46 
•52 


16.41 
7.41 

22 21 
6.77 

1439 


8182 
9186 
7658 
92.77 
8509 



By comparing the figures for the 
South Atlantic and South Central 
divisions with those of the corre- 
sponding Northern divisions it is easy 
to ascertain in what respects and to 



United States is the leading dairy as 
well as stock-raising country of the 
world, so the South will be eventually 
the centre of those great interests." 



SOME OF THE CAUSES WHICH IMPEL IMMIGRATION 

SOUTHWARD. 



By J. B. Killebrezv, A. M., Ph. D. 



Nearly all the movements of popu- 
lation during the present decade have 
been Southward. The long and severe 
winters in the North and Northwest, 
the low prices of grain, the frequent 
failures of crops caused by droughts 
and hot winds, the small amount real- 
ized on investments in agriculture, all 
have conspired to produce a feeling 
of restlessness and dissatisfaction 
among the farmers of the North 
greater than has ever been known be- 
fore. 

In the meantime, the advantages of 
the South have been industriously and 
intelligently presented to the dissatis- 
fied element through such publica- 
tions as the "Southern States" maga- 
zine and other periodicals and pam- 
phlets, until now the stream of immi- 
gration is swelling into an inundation 
which will overflow the whole South. 
There is no reason to doubt that b}' 
the beginning of the twentieth century 
the South will be by far the most at- 
tractive part of America to the best 
class of immigrants, and in time it will 
become the most populous and the 
most opulent. 

There have been many active and 
powerful causes during the past twelve 
years, in addition to those already 
named, to bring about this favorable 
condition of things, which was long 
delayed by the erroneous impressions 
and unreasoning prejudices enter- 
tained by the people of the North to- 
wards the people of the South, and 
kept alive by petty politicians, who 
wished rather to retain possession of 
the political offices through misrepre- 
sentations and abuse than to awaken 
a lofty patriotism among all the citi- 
zens of the country by telling the truth 
without passion or prejudice. For it 



is a fact, fully attested by the history of 
all nations, that the people of any por- 
tion of a country who are kept under 
suspicion by the government can never 
become very ardent supporters of that 
government. Until recently the South 
has been regarded by the government 
of the United States as England re- 
gards Ireland, as Spain regards Cuba, 
as Germany regards Alsace-Lorraine. 
Happily for the country, the election 
of Cleveland in 1884 showed that pa- 
triotism is not sectional, and that no 
people of the United States are more 
loyal or more devoted to the best in- 
terests of the country than the people 
of the South. 

The main reason why the Northern 
people nursed their prejudices against 
the South for so long a period after 
the war was the lack of correct infor- 
mation. While one may go to fifty 
cities and towns in the South and buy 
from a dozen to a thousand daily 
Northern papers, it is difficult to find 
Southern papers for sale at any news- 
stand in the North. The consequence 
is that the intelligent Southern people 
are much better informed about the 
entire country than are the intelligent 
Northern people. And still further, 
the intelligent Southern citizen visits 
the North as often or oftener than he 
visits points in his own State. He 
never upon his return feels that he has 
been in a foreign or in any coun- 
try, but his own. On the other hand,, 
until recently, and since the distribu- 
tion of much Southern literature 
throughout the North, if a man from 
that section visited the South, and re- 
turned home, his neighbors would 
gather around him as though he had 
been on a visit to Africa, Kamskatka, 
Nova Zembla, or to some other bar- 



6o CAUSES WHICH IMPEL IMMIGRATION SOUTHWARD. 



barous region, and ask him all manner 
of questions, not impertinent, it is 
true, but displaying a total lack of 
knowledge concerning the resources, 
capabilities and aptitudes of the South 
and the social condition of its people. 
Not infrequently he was looked upon 
as a man who had been in a den of 
lions and escaped with his life. The 
old soldiers, as a general rule, have al- 
ways been friendly to the South and 
its opportunities, because they learned 
much about them during their cam- 
paigns. The prejudices, for the most 
part, were confined to those who had 
never seen the Southern country or 
studied its advantages. There has been 
in this respect a very rapid change for 
the better. Good feeling, fairminded- 
ness and an earnest desire to learn the 
true condition of things now distin- 
guish seven-eighths of the prospec- 
tors who come South. For the most 
part, these prospectors return with 
nothing but praises on their lips for 
the courtesies they have received and 
high commendations of the climatic 
superiority, varied capabilities and 
striking advantages of the country. 

As this ignorance is dissipated by a 
more frequent intercourse and by the 
distribution of literature descriptive of 
the resources and social conditions of 
the South, the stream of good immi- 
grants broadens and deepens, and 
the country is soon destined to receive 
a greatly increased population and to 
build up a more durable prosperity. 

And there are good reasons why the 
intelligent and progressive farmers of 
the North should come South. They 
can do better on a smaller amount of 
money invested, and farm work is less 
exacting. The conditions of life are 
far more favorable. There is no crop 
grown North that may not be grown 
under more favorable circumstances 
and conditions in the South. 

Instituting a comparison between 
the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois. 
Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota. 
Iowa, Missouri, North and South Da- 
kota, Nebraska and Kansas, known as 
the North Central States, on the one 
liand, and the States of Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, 



Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma and Ar- 
kansas, known as the South Central 
States, on the other, some significant 
facts will appear and some startling- 
conclusions reached. The figures used 
are from the census of 1890. 

The value of land, fences and build- 
ings belonging to the 1,923,822 farms 
of the North Central States was, in 
1890, $7,069,767,154. The returned 
value of the farm products for the pre- 
ceding year in these States was $1,- 
112,949,820. or 15.7 per cent, of the 
value of farms and improvements. 
Now take the South Central States, 
and we shall find that the value of the 
land, fences and buildings on the i,- 
080,772 farms embraced in this group 
of States during the year 1890 was 
$1,440,022,598, while tile value of the 
farm products in 1889 was $480,337,- 
764, which is 33^ per cent, of the total 
valuation of the farms and improve- 
ments. 

The conclusion drawn from these 
figures is inevitable, viz: That the 
same amount of capital invested in 
farms and farm improvements in the 
South Central States will yield more 
than twice the per cent, on the invest- 
ment as it would if invested in the 
North Central States. Nor is this all. 
A very large proportion of the crops 
grown on the farms in the North Cen- 
tral States must be consumed in pro- 
viding for the exigencies of long win- 
ters. Stock must be cared for and fed 
six months, as against an average of 
three months in the South Central 
States. 

There is, however, a still more pow- 
erful argument in favor of the South 
Central States. Fuel for winter does 
not cost half as much, nor are there 
any blizzards to battle with in winter, 
or dreadful simoons in summer to de- 
stroy the products of farm labor. The 
enjoyments of life are more than 
doubled by the amenity of the climate 
and the fruitfulness of the country in 
tlie South Central States. If a com- 
parison be established between the 
sanitary conditions of Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky, Alabama and Georgia, and 
those of Indiana, Illinois, Kansas 
and Wisconsin, it will be seen that the 



CAUSES WHICH IMPEL IMMIGRATION SOUTHWARD. 6i 



superiority is decidedly in favor of the 
first group of States, especially when 
we take into consideration the much 
larger mortality among the ignorant 
negroes than among the whites. 

It may be that in a comparison of 
the natural fertility of the soil the 
North Central States are superior. On 
the other hand, the regularity and 
abundance of the rainfalls, and the 
great variety of the crops and versa- 
tility of the soil in the South Central 
States far outweigh the advantages re- 
sulting from the natural fertility of the 
soil in the Northern group. 

Experience the world over has long 
since demonstrated the fact that fer- 
tility of the soil alone never make a 
prosperous people. And this fact with 
reference to the North Central States 
is abundantly shown in the large num- 
ber of mortgages in operation upon 
the farms of that region, and the small 
number comparatively on the farms in 
the group comprising the South Cen- 
tral States. In 1890 there were 1,376,- 
666 mortgages on the 1,923,822 farms 
in the North Central States, carrying 
a mortgage indebtedness of $1,194,- 
352,052. This shows 70 per cent, of 
the farms mortgaged. 

In the South Central States at the 
same time there were 207,510 mort- 
gages on the 1,080,772 farms, involv- 
ing a mortgage indebtedness of $184,- 
729,981, thus showing only about one- 
fifth, or 20 per cent., of the farms in 
the South Central States mortgaged, 
as against 70 per cent, of the farms in 
the North Central States. 

Time and space will not permit of a 
further inquiry in this most interest- 
ing field, but these facts stand out with 
prominence, that, though the Southern 
States are employing only the most 
ignorant labor, as against the most in- 
telligent in the Northern States, yet 
the farmers owe less, make a larger 
return on their investments, and enjov 
more of the comforts of life by reason 
of the happy climate and the wonder- 
ful variety of products, and this they 
do with far less toil than their breth- 
ren of the North. 

It was a fortunate thing for the 
Southern people that at the termina- 



tion of the civil war they had no credit. 
Stripped of every species of property 
except their- lands; without money, 
without stock, and without sympathy, 
they appeared to be the sport of ma- 
lignant fate. To all their calamities 
was added the seeming calamity of the 
want of credit. But the Pandora box 
had hope left and faith in the destiny 
of the land which they loved and in 
whose defense they had poured out 
their best blood. They had also brave 
hearts and willing mind to go forward 
in the restoration of their lost fortunes. 
The result is, that though $5,000,000,- 
000 of property was destroyed by the 
operations of war, more than this 
amount has been added since to the 
wealth of the South, and the people 
are comparatively free from debt. If 
this has been done with ignorant la- 
bor, what may not be done within the 
next score of years with intelligent 
labor and a wise management? 

Prejudices which war against the 
very laws of civilized progress have 
vanished from among the Southern 
people, and today they welcome the 
Northern immigrant with the same 
heartiness, hospitality and sincerity 
that they would give to old friends. 
It is the greatest of folly to tell any- 
thing but the truth concerning the 
South and the Southern people. The 
good and the bad should be told to- 
gether, and this is all we ask our visi- 
tors from the North to do. No coun- 
try is perfect in everything, and he who 
makes such representations writes 
himself down as an unwise man, and 
he deserves and should receive no con- 
fidence from any one. Writers who 
exaggerate the advantages of the 
South are more to be dreaded than 
that scurrilous class of persons in the 
North who defame everything South 
as though it were no part of their own 
country. This latter class soon re- 
ceives its merited reward in the con- 
tempt of all fair-minded citizens from 
both sections. The former class of 
writers engenders suspicion and de- 
stroys faith even among ourselves. 
The South should rise or fall on its 
own merits. Every sensible South- 



62 CA USES WHICH IMPEL IMMIGRA TION SO UTHWARD. 



ern man recognizes the fact that the 
South needs many things which it has 
not yet, but which population will 
bring. The South needs better 
schools, better roads. smaUer farms. 
a more careful cultivation of the 
soil, a better system of fertilization and 
better markets. A good class of im- 
migrants will remedy all these defi- 
ciencies. 

Nature has given to this section a 
happy climate, generous soils, an 
abundance of timber and water, and 
rich deposits of various minerals. We 
have health in the breeze, and beauty 
in the landscape. Intelligent labor 
will in time make the South the garden 
spot of all the land. 

In conclusion, I desire to say that 
the people now coming from the 
North to Tennessee and Alabama are 
of the highest character. These new- 
comers are men of energy, strength 
of purpose, and of first-rate intelli- 
gence. They come to the South to 
help reconstruct its prosperity and to 
add to their own fortunes. They 
generally have means sufficient to se- 
cure homes and go into business for 
themselves. Wherever they have set- 
tled they have added to the wealth of 
the community and to the beauty of 
the country. Our people are receiv- 
ing them with the greatest kindness, 
and treating them with the most 
marked consideration. They must be 
made to feel that they are at home, and 
this is an important duty devolving 
upon the people of the South. These 
new citizens must not only be re- 
ceived and treated as countrymen and 
as fellow-citizens, but they must be ac- 
corded all the rights and privileges, be 
made partakers of all the benefits and 
advantages that the native-born in- 
habitants enjoy, and they must be pro- 
tected by all means against the sharks 
and confidence men that always march 
with an equal pace along with a body 
of homeseekers. 



These new citizens must also be per- 
mitted to enjoy their own religion and 
their own pohtics without let or hin- 
drance. Their rights at the ballot- 
boxes, and in the sanctuaries of re- 
ligion must be upheld, shielded, pro- 
tected, and if need be, defended by the 
strong arm of the State. 

No man who does not exercise his 
rights as a freeman can make a good 
citizen or become a true lover of his 
country. A man is a slave already 
who has not the courage of his convic- 
tions, and a nation composed of such 
men makes the government of a tyrant 
possible, and the early destruction of 
freedom probable. However much 
we may differ as to the political issues 
or religious questions, no calamity is so 
much to be deplored as the servitude 
to a clique, or party, or church so great 
and so controlling that freedom of 
thought is not tolerated and encour- 
aged by the best class of citizens. Re- 
pression of thought or of honest con- 
victions checks the growth of society 
and obstructs every avenue to prog- 
ress. 

Justice and kindness to the new- 
comers will do more to forward the 
cause of immigration than millions of 
dollars expended in any other way. 
Land should be sold to them at the 
same prices that our own people would 
have to pay. No deception should be 
practiced. Everything possible 

should be done to make the immi- 
grant satisfied with his new surround- 
ings. To epitomize and appropriate 
one of Edmund Burke's beautiful sim- 
iles: One grasshopper sitting upon 
the fence in the sunshine will make 
more noise than a hundred bullocks 
reclining under the shade after graz- 
ing upon the rich grasses of the mead- 
ow. So one dissatisfied or deceived 
immigrant will do more injury by his 
chattering to the cause of immigration 
than a hundred satisfied ones will do 
good. 



THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



Southern States. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY MAGAZINL 
DEVOTED TO THE SOUTH. 

Published by the 

Manufacturers' Record Publishing Co. 

Manufacturers' Record Building, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

SUBSCRIPTION, - - - $1.50 a Year. 

WILLIAM H. EDMONDS, 

Editor and Manager. 

BALTIMORE, APRIL, 1896. 



The SOUTHERN STATES is an exponent of the 
Immigration and Real Estate Interests and 
general advancement of the South, and a journal 
of accurate and comprehensive information 
about Southern resources and progress. 

Its purpose is to set forth accurately and 
conservatively from month to month the reasons 
why the South is, for the farmer, the settler, the 
home seeker, the investor, incomparably the 
most attractive section of this country. 



The Value to the South of Immigration. 

A dispatch from Portland, Ore., states 
that that city "has raised $32,000 to pro- 
mote immigration, and that it has invited 
the State of Washington to join with Ore- 
gon in the work of bringing settlers to the 
Pacific Northwest instead of each State 
laboring separately." 

The "Sonthern wStates" has repeatedly 
pointed out how remiss the people of the 
South are in spending money to attract 
immigration. With the exception of a few 
railroads, which are doing something in 
this line, although very few of them are 
carrying out this work as comprehensively 
as Western roads do, the South itself is 
practically doing nothing. Here is one 
town of moderate population which has 
raised $32,000 for immigration work, or 



probably more than the whole fourteen 
Southern States in their official capacity 
have put up for such a purpose during the 
last five years. If the South wants to get 
the people it must use the same means 
which other sections have found profitable. 
That population is coming South rapidly is 
true; but this is being done because of the 
South's advantages and despite the utter 
failure of the South to do its part. Did the 
Western States possess such advantages as 
the South has, they would double their 
population in ten years. Every village in 
the whole country wotild be flooded with 
literature, and ever}-- man, woman and child 
would hear of their advantages. L'nfortu- 
nately, the people of the South have not j^et 
learned the value of advertising, whether 
that advertising be through newspapers or 
by other means, nor have they fully appre- 
ciated that to get immigration they must 
exercise broadminded liberality, backed by 
untiring energy. 

The Pacific Coast recognizes the value of 
immigration. It recognizes that the in- 
coming of new people builds up a country, 
enhances the value of its property, gives 
opportunity for the creation of wealth, op- 
portunity for social and industrial advance- 
n:ent. opportunity for the building of 

churches, the establishment of schools, the 

* 

improvement of roads and the general ad- 
vancement of civilization. 

The most important question before the 
South — the one upon which its future more 
largely depends than anything else — is im- 
migration. The incoming of new people 
in great numbers will settle all the perplex- 
ing problems that have confronted this sec- 
tion. It will sweep away all troublesome 
questions relating to possible race difficul- 



63 



64 



EDITORIAL. 



ties; it will open to the rising generation of 
the South opportunities for advancement 
scarcely dreamed of now; it will bring 
about the establishment of more schools, 
more churches and the building of better 
roads, thus increasing the facilities of 
tiavel, and it will give to this section all 
of the comforts and conveniences of the 
most advanced civilization and develop- 
ment possessed by the North, added to and 
increased in proportion as the natural ad- 
vantages of the South exceed the natural 
advantages of the North. In view of these 
facts, it is well worth while for the South to 
give its attention to immigration, to spend 
its money, to give its time and energy in 
seeking to draw people from other sections 
into this favored region. 

The Wines of Medoc. 

A recent issue of Chambers's Journal has 
the following concerning the Medoc vine- 
yards: 

"Only by a journey to the very head of 
the long promontory between the Atlantic 
and the Gironde can one form an idea of 
the prodigious quantity of the Medoc 
wines. For fifty miles you are never quite 
out of sight of vineyards. Here and there 
they absorb the horizon on both sides. 
They are strikingly different in quality, 
however, as has been said. A patch of 
wizened, shriveled plants, with a few leaves 
and no alluring clusters, may be seen ab- 
solutely contiguous to a vineyard full of 
fine, healthy fruit. It is, of course, an affair 
of cultivation and soil. Like other things, 
the Medoc grape responds eagerly to lov- 
ing care. You may have plants of the first 
pedigree, and the soil that suits them best, 
and yet fail to produce a distinguished wine 
if your cultivators are not of as good qual- 
ity as your plans. Like hops in England, 
the vines are most sensitive to human at- 
tention. 

"One marvels a little at the apparently 
rude nature of the soil to the vines on 
which labels with famous names are af- 
fixed. But the truth is, the Medoc vine 
does not want to be excessively pampered. 
Give it a good, rough, gravelly soil, with a 



fair proportion of sand underneath, for su- 
perfluous rains to vanish readily into, and 
it will be as grateful to you as it well knows 
how to be. A gravelly subsoil yields wine 
remarkable for delicacy, but if there be a 
preponderance of stones in the subsoil the 
wine will be strong rather than delicate, ap- 
pealing to the brain more than to the pal- 
ate." 

Medoc is that district in the French de- 
partment of the Gironde that has long been 
noted for the quantity and excellence of the 
wines it produces. These include the most 
famous of Bordeaux wines, such as Cha- 
teau-Margaux, Chateau-Lafitte and Cha- 
teau-Latour. This district lies on the left 
bank of the estuary of the Gironde. 

There is a suggestion in this statement 
that some of our Southern friends will find 
well worthy their attention. In the line of 
sand-hill country that extends from Cam- 
eron, on the Seaboard Air Line in North 
Carolina, down to the highlands opposite 
Augusta, Ga., and at various places on the 
Atlantic Coast Line in North Carolina, 
much the same conditions exist that Cham.- 
bers's Journal says produce the choice ]\Ie- 
doc vintages. Will it not pay then to expe- 
riment with the vines of Medoc and ascer- 
tain whether they will flourish as luxuri- 
antly as they do in France, and produce 
grapes equally suited to the production of 
these valuable wines? 

Possibly someone has already tried this 
experiment. If so, the "Southern States" 
would be glad to hear from him of the re- 
sults he has obtained. 

The wines of Medoc are in demand in all 
civilized countries and command high 
prices. It is more than probable that they 
could be reproduced in those parts of the 
South which have a similar climate and 
soil. If so, those sections could ultimately 
command the American market and later 
compete with the wine-makers of the Gi- 
ronde in the markets of the world. 

While wine-making in this country is yet 
in its infancy as compared with the great 



EDITORIAL. 



65 



vintage districts of Europe, still it has be- 
come an established and profitable indus- 
try in many localities, and the time is com- 
ing when pure American wine will be pre- 
ferred to many of the "doctored" products 
that are imported and are sold because of 
their famous names, when they are but base 
imitations of the genuine products of these 
foreign vineyards. 

"Malaqua," 

The Journal of Hygiene says: 
" 'Malaqua:' this is a newly-coined word 
of apt significance by Dr. Irvine H. Bach- 
man, Ph. D., in Medical Bulletin (mal, bad; 
aqua, water). The reason why this schol- 
arly professor prefers this word to malaria 
commonly used (mal, bad; aria, air) is from 
data of his experimentation, that 'water is 
the primary cause of infection, that it acts 
as the direct carrier of the germ into the 
system through the intestinal tract." This 
deductive conclusion is contrary to the re- 
ceived opinion, that the source of malaria 
is in the air. He demonstrates, experimen- 
tally, that svirface water is the nest, so to 
speak, in which the germs of fevers are in- 
cubated; that, as a rule, artesian water, or 
water from deep wells, contains less or no 
disease-producing germs; that 'the exclu- 
sive use of pure, deep-seated water afifords 
entire immunity against malaria in sections 
of country where no white man can live us- 
ing surface water.' " 

Dr. Irvine H. Bachman, Ph. D., has 
stolen the thunder of Mr. James R. Ran- 
dall, who, for the last ten years, employed 
that term, used th^t very word, and, in sea- 
son and out of season, in public writings 
and private conversation, maintained and 
demonstrated this theory. We have rea- 
son to know that Dr. Bachman was well 
acquainted with Mr. Randall's writings on 
this subject, and that he even communi- 
cated with that gentleman for the purpose 
of possessing his views. At least eight 
3'ears ago, in the Manufacturers' Record, 
Mr. Randall developed this theory of "Mal- 
aqua," and followed it up by several elab- 
orate contributions in the "Southern 
States" magazine. Dr. Bachman should at 
least have given Mr. Randall credit for what 
he had done as a pioneer and for the inven- 



tion of the "newly-coined word," malaqua. 
— Augusta Chronicle. 

Mr. Randall's position on this question, 
first published in the Manvtfacturers" Rec- 
ord and afterwards elaborated in the 
"Southern States" magazine, was for a long 
time vigorously criticized. The Manufac- 
turers' Record urged upon health authori- 
ties the importance of a full investigation, 
because, if Mr. Randall was correct, no part 
of the lowlands of the South^not even the 
swamps of Florida — need suffer from ma- 
laria. Ridiculed at first, this theory is now 
being very generally accepted, and it is 
now admitted that malaria disappears with 
the use of pure water. 

The Tide Towards the South. 

Since the earliest days of the existence of 
the United States as a nation, and, indeed, 
if we chose to go back to a more remote 
period, we might say since the beginnmg 
of human life in the valley of the Euphrates, 
there have been times when a spirit of exo- 
dus seized the people and induced them to 
forsake the conditions with which they 
were familiar and fly to others that they 
knew not of. It has been contended that 
these migrations, especially during the 
earlier ages of the world, were due entirely 
to an innate restlessness which possessed 
the people; that they did not believe, on 
setting out, that any definite reward would 
be won at the end of their journey, nor did 
they, in the majority of instances, have any 
accurate idea as to their ultimate abiding 
place. When we consider the rugged and 
adventurous character of the people of 
these early times as handed down to us by 
history it seems very possible that they 
were actuated in their movements princi- 
pally by a desire to escape from the mo- 
notony of a protracted existence in one 
spot; and yet even in the remotest periods 
there has seldom occurred any concerted 
movement of this character in which the 



66 



EDITORIAL. 



participants did not wrest in some manner 
from their newly-discovered territory its 
natural and artificial wealth. 

Gradually the effects obtained by these 
excursions grew to be the cause of them. 
Instead of the acquisition of wealth being 
merely a natural concomitant and outcome 
of what was originally a restless foray, it 
grew to be the prime incentive leading to 
the movement; and so it is with the migra- 
tory influx and efiflux going on all over the 
world today, the only difference being that 
the advantages are derived through the 
peaceful agency of the plowshare and no 
longer torn from a butchered people at the 
point of the sword. The excellent facilities 
now prevalent for the dissemination of facts 
relative to all parts of the universe have 
contributed greatly to successful and profit- 
able immigration. The traveler no longer 
gropes his way, unconscious whether he 
will find his haven a vale of plenty or a 
desert of salt. He is posted through agents 
— through those who have gone before, and, 
above all, through the press, as to the ex- 
act conditions prevalent in any section; and 
the more thoroughly the advantages of a 
locality are exploited the more constant the 
stream thither of seekers after prosperity 
or after health. The immigrant of today 
has too many places to pick from with which 
he has been made thoroughly familiar 
to explore an unknown region in the devil- 
may-care fashion of his ancestors, with 
their rugged crew. 

And now we have reached the keynote of 
this article, after wliat has, perhaps, been 
a tortuous and unprofitable journey. The 
people are coming South now because they 
are beginning to find out what's there. 
They never knew it before. It has taken a 
long time for the beacon-light kindled by 
the Manufacturers' Record and the 
"Southern States," the flame of which is 
now being eagerly fed by hundreds of their 
tardier brethren, to penetrate the mist of 



obscurity and prejudice and ill-will and 
sectionalism and show to the world that 
this is a fair land and a goodly one. It 
has shown that the agricultural and mineral 
resources of this section are unsurpassed; 
it has shown that the climate is pregnant 
with health ; it has shown that there is room 
for all, and it has shown that 10,000 mem- 
bers of the Grand Army of the Republic 
can pitch their peaceful tents on the soil of 
Georgia, haunted once by the rattle of mus- 
ketry and the shriek of shell, and be re- 
ceived with open arms by the people. 

The zephyrs of the South are singing a 
seductive strain and the echo is rolling and 
booming back and forth from the great 
sounding-board of the press, until it has 
swollen into a sonorous cry: "The South! 
The South!" 

Western Farm Journals Advertising 
the South. 

The Indiana Farmer, of Indianapolis, 
Ind., a leading Western agricultural paper, 
is establishing a colony of Western farmers 
in Florida. In a letter to the "Southern 
States" the publishers say: 

"Our colonization plans in Florida had 
their inception in the demands of a large 
number of our readers in this and other 
States to form a colony for a warmer cli- 
mate. We began investigating last fall, 
and looked for the best locality and lands 
we cottld find for the colony, and last 
month, after a wide personal examination 
in the South, we selected Florida Western 
Highlands as the locality. 

"The lands lie on the railway running 
from Pensacola east to the Apalachicola 
river, about midway between these two 
points. These lands have a good, dark 
sandy loam, lying upon a good clay sub- 
soil, which make them very durable and 
productive. The large body of lands se- 
lected were obtained at a price for the 
colony much lower than the lands were held 
at in small bodies, and will go to the colon- 
ists on very easy terms of payment. We 
find these lands very productive in all 
fruits except the citrus family, and they lie 
too high for the latter. They are equally 



EDITORIAL. 



67 



valuable in the production of a wide range 
of other crops." 

One of the most striking facts in connec- 
tion with the movement of population 
Southward is the attention which nearly all 
leading Northern and Western farm papers 
are giving to the South. Like the Indiana 
Farmer, a number of them are establishing 
colonies in the South. It would be diffi- 
cult to exaggerate the influence for the 
good of the South which such work as this 
by Northern and Western farm papers will 
accomplish. Many thousands of farmers, 
who for years have had implicit faith in 
their favorite farm papers, will see in these 
journals henceforth a cordial endorsement 
of the South, and will thus be led to per- 
sonal investigation. All things seems to be 
combining in favor of the South. 

A Sample of Many Letters. 

Morganton, N. C, March 23, 1896. 
Editor Southern >^tatcs: 

We enclose check to cover bill for adver- 
tising for three months. Our card in your 
magazine has brought inquiries from 
Tampa to Toronto and from Portland, Me., 
to Portland, Ore. 

THE MORGANTON LAND & 

IMPROVEMENT CO.. 
W. C. Ervin, Sec'y- 
[If you want to attract wide attention 
throughout the North and West, advertise 
in the "Southern States."] 

We are in receipt of the March number 
of the Southern Travelers' Railway Guide, 
published by J. R. Watts, Atlanta, Ga. 
AVith this number the Guide begins its 
eleventh year. It is the neatest, most con- 
venient and correct publication of its kind 
extant, combining, as it does, the verv lat- 



est schedules of all the Southern roads, a 
select directory of the hotels and resorts, 
together with much valuable information 
pertaining to railway travel throughout the 
South. Copy of the Guide will be sent by 
the publisher on receipt of twenty cents. 

Galveston From a Foreign Point of View. 

Mr. S. Eaton, of Dublin, Ireland, in re- 
newing his subscription to the "Southern 
States," calls attention to the progress of 
Galveston, Texas, and suggests that the 
public has hardly given sufficient attention 
to the future of that place. In his letter, 
;\Ir. Eaton says: 

"I lived in Galveston, Texas, thirty-seven 
years ago, and would suggest that the late 
developments there are worthy of more 
notice than has been given that port. The 
first item of importance in connection with 
that port is that it now has twenty-two feet 
of water on its bar, against sixteen or 
eighteen feet last year, and as the piers are 
extended the water gets deeper. Look at 
its geographical position. No port in the 
Gulf can exceed it in importance. The rail- 
roads cannot much longer make or even 
keep the rates on 600 iniles the same as for 
1400 miles. At least I judge the American 
people will not long stand such an injustice. 
The development of deep water at Galves- 
ton will help to centre at this place the trade 
of twelve Western States. A study of the 
map clearly demonstrates the geographical 
position of that place, and it is quite clear 
that it will necessarily become the import 
and export point for these twelve Western 
States." 

This is but an illustration of the wide in- 
terest which the development of the South 
is attracting throughout the world, and of 
how the "Southern States" magazine is be- 
ing closely read not only in this country, 
but abroad. 



Immigration Notes. 



The Atmore Colony. 

The Balsmyder-Greene Colony Co. has 
secured about 75,ooo acres of land on the 
line of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, 
part of virhich is situated near Atmore, Ala., 
and the residue near Boiling. The terri- 
tory under their control will, it is thought, 
soon become a paying agricultural district; 
the soil is varied and productive, rainfall 
abundant, making irrigation unnecessary. 
and the water supply is not only unusually 
plentiful, but of the best character, being 
pure freestone, soft, free from organic mat- 
ter and easily obtainable, either from 
springs or wells, the latter seldom exceed- 
ing thirty feet in depth. There are a great 
number of mineral springs scattered 
throughout this region. The climate is 
healthful, and the temperature, moderated 
in summer by the condition of the atmos- 
phere and the Gulf breezes, is far more en- 
durable than the dry, hot, parching heat of 
the North, while in the winter months out- 
door work is possible every day in the 
year. This company has an ofifice in the 
Inter-Ocean Building, Chicago, and at At- 
more, Ala. 

Mr. Paul Scherer, immigration agent of 
the Norfolk & Western Railroad Co., has 
brought several large parties to Virginia, 
and the outlook for immigration to that 
section is said to be very encouraging. 

Settling in North Carolina, 

Mr. R. O. Preyor, Elizabeth City, N. C. 
in a letter to the "Southern States," gives 
the following description of his colony: 

"We started on a looo-acre tract; sold 
that within a few months, and then kept 
adding more farms to the original tract. 
We have quite a number of families here 
from Dakota, Michigan and Pennsylvania. 
all well pleased with their new homes, and 
more are expected to come next fall. These 
colonists are good, Christian people. It is 



a delightful change, after having been 
awakened on Sunday mornings in the 
North by the rattling of wagons and street 
cars, to awake here in this country to the 
song of the mocking-bird. When people 
have realized the attractions and advantages 
of the Southland, they have no desire to re- . 
turn to the North." 

An Extensive Catholic Colonization 
Enterprise. 

Colonization work is often undertaken by 
religious organizations, partly to benefit 
their people needing new homes and partly 
as a means of planting outposts from which 
their own teachings may be more surely ad- 
vanced. A great deal of the emigration to 
the West was a result of this kind of work. 
Seeing the coming power and prosperity 
of the South, several denominations have 
lately commenced to plan for colonization 
work in the South. Recently the Mar- 
quette Colonization Co., under Catholic 
auspices, has been vigorously prosecuting 
its plans for a large settlement in ]\Iis3is- 
sippi. Rev. Thos. F. Cashman is presi- 
dent, and in reply to a letter to him for in- 
formation, the compan}^ writing from its 
office in the Manhattan Building, Chicago, 
to the "Southern States,"' said: 

"The scope of the work has assumed gi- 
gantic proportions. The entire control of 
the company is in charge of Father Cash- 
man. The question of colonization has 
been with him a life study, and the fact that 
the ^larquette Colonization Co. has 'now 
the commendation and endorsement of Car- 
dinal Gibbons, Archbishop Feehan, Arch- 
bishop Ireland, Bishop Gabriels. Bishop 
Heslin and many other dignitaries of the 
Catholic Church fully attest his ability and 
fitness for that responsible position. The 
Alarquette Colonization Co. did not suc- 
ceed in securing its lands and town site un- 
til late last December, and hence the work 
is just beginning. But the prospects to es- 
tablish there one of the largest colonies in 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



69 



the United States are indeed manifest. One 
thought we want to impress is that the pur- 
pose of the Marquette Colonization Co. is 
not to establish colonies composed exclu- 
sively of Catholic people. Good men of 
every creed are solicited to join, and are 
joining the colony. After the most care- 
ful investigation, the company decided to 
establish the first colony at Alerigold, Miss. 
"We believe that the most important ob- 
stacles which stand in the way of inducing 
men from the North and West to settle in 
the South can be removed by the system of 
colonization which we have adopted. The 
reasons for this are manifest. The men 
who have made farming successful in the 
West require one condition to be certain, 
and that is that the land be fertile, and corn 
be one of the staple products. Generally, 
such land in the South, because of several 
existing conditions, can be secured only in 
large bodies and with a very large negro 
population." 

To Grow Qrapes in Alabama. 

In the last issue of the "Southern States" 
some particulars were given regarding a 
deal then pending for the purchase of 8500 
acres of land near Anniston, Ala., intended 
for colonization purposes. This trade has 
since been closed and the organization of 
the Anniston Homestead and Fruit Grow- 
ing Association has been completed by the 
election of the following officers: John H. 
Noble, Frank Nelson, Jr., W. E. Knox and 
W. G. Ledbetter, of Anniston; O. F. Samp- 
son and R. L. Spencer, of Fruithurst, Ala., 
and J. B. Merrill, of Edwardsville, Ala., 
directors; W. G. Ledbetter, president; 
John n. Noble, vice-president; J. B. Mer- 
rill, secretary; Frank Nelson, Jr., treas- 
urer. The compan}', which is capitalized 
at $150,000, has purchased from the Wood- 
stock Iron Works 8500 acres of lands 
northwest of and adjoining the cit3^ and 
will colonize with Swedish, German and 
Scandinavian grape-growers. Two corps 
of engineers are at work now surveying 
and arranging the lands into ten-acre 
tracts. A force of men has been put to 
work clearing off the grounds, and this will 
be followed by others, who will plow and 
set to grapes two acres of each ten-acre 
tract, no tract being sold unless it contains 
at least two acres of growing grapevines. 



It is a little late in the season, but by rush- 
ing matters it is hoped to be able to get 
200 acres, or rather two acres on each one 
of 100 ten-acre tracts, set out in grapevines 
before the planting season is over. The 
association will begin running excursions 
from the Northern States early next month. 
The association will conduct a hotel for the 
e.xclusive use of prospective colonists. 

The Cuban Tobacco Growers' Co., near 
Fort ^Nleade, Florida, propose to start op- 
erations, with about 100 acres, for the cul- 
tivation of Cuban tobacco. The president 
of the company is M. A. Abalo; general 
manager. Sever Recordo Pilota; vice-presi- 
dent. Captain E. Alonzo Cordry. They 
have established a colony of about sixty 
Cubans, and expect to increase the number. 

]\[r. Carl P. Lindholm, of Bowdle, S. D., 
formerly in the employ of the Minnesota 
State Board of Immigration, who, it is said, 
brought more than 2700 people from Nor- 
way and Sweden to Alinnesota and the Da- 
kotas, in an interview recently with Col. J. 
B. Killebrew, of Nashville, Tenn., ex- 
pressed deep regret that he had not gone to 
Tennessee ten years ago, taking those peo- 
ple with him. Though they have thriven 
by patient industry and close economy, he 
believes they would have done far better in 
the South. 

As the result of an excursion to Williams- 
burg. Va., of a party of prospectors from 
the North, the sale of a $25,000 farm on the 
York river and a large tract of land near 
Williamsburg was effected recently. 

It is claimed that the Indiana Farmer's 
Western colonization scheme for West 
Florida is on a more extensive plan even 
than the Fitzgerald colony. Large colo- 
nies of Western farmers are being settled 
around Chipley, Orange Hill, De Funiak 
Springs and other places on the Florida 
Central & Peninsular Railroad in West 
Florida. 

C. W. Van der Hoogt. the general mana- 
ger of the Prudential Land Co., of Talbot 
county. [Maryland, in a letter recently to 
Captain Willard Thomson, general mana- 
ger of the Baltimore, Chesapeake & At- 



70 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



lantic Railway Co., stated that an advance 
guard of Holland emigrants had arrived in 
New York, their ultimate destination being 
the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Those 
who have already arrived will be followed 
by others to the number of about 300. They 
will be thrifty, hardworking agriculturists, 
who will settle on lands acquired and about 
to be acquired by the Prudential Land Co. 
in Caroline, Talbot and Dorchester coun- 
ties. The emigrants will devote their at- 
tention mainly to trucking and fruit cul- 
ture. 

Messrs. Howard & Wilson, publishers of 
the Farm, Field and Fireside, of Chicago, 
111., lately carried a colony excursion of 
sixty people, representing the most sub- 
stantial farming element of the Northwest, 
to Green Cove Springs, Florida. It is 
thought many of these will become perma- 
nent settlers. 

The Swiss Pioneer Union, of which John 
Muehlenbach is central president, recently 
located in Lewis county, Tennessee, will, 
it is stated, make stock-raising a specialty. 
The colony has purchased about 12,000 
acres of land in and around Hohenwald. 
They will have several carloads of blooded 
horses and cattle shipped from Iowa. Mr. 
Muehlenbach says there will be, at the low- 
est estimate, 1000 Swiss settlers in Lewis 
county within the present year, and that 
one of the most gratifying things in con- 
nection with the colony is that nearly ev- 
ery member has enough to live upon for 
twelve months. 

Mr. Max Baum, No. 301 Unity Building, 
Chicago, 111., as the agent of a party of 
German farmers, has been looking up lands 
in Alabama. 



78,000 acres are believed to be fine muck 
lands, suitable for the growing of sugar- 
cane, pineapples, vegetables, etc. The 
owners will probably expend about $300,- 
000 on improvements, such as dykes, a ten- 
mile railroad to connect with the East 
Coast Line, sixty-odd miles of canal, etc. 
These gentlemen are members of the print- 
ing company of Russell & Morgan, of Cin- 
cinnati. 

The representative of a Michigan colony 
has been looking up lands in Florida, near 
Yallaha. 

A party of Iowa home-seekers have been 
inspecting lands in the neighborhood of 
Natchez, Miss., with the intention to pur- 
chase. 

Capt. J. T. Merry, the energetic agent of 
the Illinois Central Railroad, stated recent- 
ly in a public speech at Canton, Miss., that 
since April one year ago there had been 
settled in Madison county, Mississippi, 
seventy-five families from Dakota, Illinois 
and Iowa, 27,000 acres of land having been 
sold to them. He said that the tide of 
emigration had only fairl}' started. 

The Georgia Railroad Land & Coloniza- 
tion Co., Augusta, has completed its or- 
ganization, with a capital of $10,000, privi- 
lege of increasing to $500,000. Col. D. B. 
Dyer is president; Mr. H. H. Stafford, sec- 
retary and treasurer. The directors are 
[Messrs. P. B. Tobin, W. T. Davidson, J. P. 
Verdery, Boykin Wright, Patrick Walsh, 
D. B. Dyer and T. K. Scott. Mr. J. W. 
Crow was appointed Northern agent, with 
headquarters at Chicago. He is said to 
have experience, l)usiness sagacity and 
wide influence. 



Mr. G. W. Lott, of Shepherd. Ga., has 
had several bids by representatives of 
Northern syndicates for a fine body of 
12,000 acres of land fourteen miles east of 
Douglas. 

It is the intention of A. O. and W. W. 
Russell, of Cincinnati, to eventually colon- 
ize a large body of land belonging to them 
in Brevard county, Florida, with farmers 
from the West and from Sweden. About 



Danville, Va., is attracting the attention 
of a Chicago firm representing Swedish 
and German emigrants. 

J. R. Alonroe, of Abbeville, Ga., recently 
closed a deal for 10,000 acres of land near 
Abbeville to a Chicago syndicate. The 
purchasers are beginning to colonize the 
land. They expect to have several hundred 
families, principally farmers. The land will 
be cut up into lift}', 100 and 160-acre tracts. 



IMMIGRA TION NO TES. 



71 



The Abbeville & Waycross branch of the 
Georgia & Alabama Railroad, runs cen- 
trally through the property, and the Oc- 
mulgee river, at this point, is navigable, it 
is said, for sea-faring steamers. Springs 
with mineral properties are to be found. 
The syndicate is said to be composed of 
men of large means, who propose to spare 
no expense necessary to rapid development. 
A large hotel for tourists has been con- 
tracted for by Mrs. J. M. Morris, who has 
also leased one of the mineral springs. A 
town will be established as a central trad- 
ing point. 

Parties representing syndicates to locate 
colonies in the South have been making 
inquiries regarding Glynn county, Georgia, 
the land there, it is said, being well adapted 
to the growth of "Sea Island cotton," the 
proposed industry of the new colonies. 

Colonists around the new town of Thors- 
by, Chilton county, Alabama, will give 
special attention to fruit-raising. The Con- 
cordia and Improvement Association, of 
which Mr. K. E. Foegan is vice-president, 
will, it is claimed, spend $150,000 in the 
building of homes and the preparation of 
lands. Land, which the company owns 
contiguous to the town, is being divided 
into ten-acre tracts. 

The object of an experimental farm of 
the North Carolina Horticultural Society, 
at Southern Pines, N. C, is to determine in 
a thoroughly scientific way the proportions 
of the principal fertilizing ingredients nec- 
essary for the growth of the principal fruits 
and vegetables. There are two farms, one 
for fruits and the other for vegetables. The 
results of the experiments will be watched 
with great interest. One great advantage 
this locality and these experiments have 
over others is that the soil has never before 
been cultivated, and consequently it has 
not been influenced by previous cultiva- 
tion, crops or applications. 

About the middle of March a party of 
thirteen of the Sunny South colonists, of 
Chadbourn, N. C, met at Mount Olive a 
party of excursionists from Chicago, and 
with them inspected the truck farms at that 
place and Wilmington. On the return 



trip, the party visited the lettuce-beds of 
Mr. J. F. Garrell, of Wilmington, who has 
two acres under canvas, prepared at a cost 
of $1000. At the date of their visit he 
claimed to have received $4000 above ex- 
penses. Some of the beds were but par- 
tially emptied, others growing the second 
crop, and still others growing radishes, 
caulitiower and beets. Mr. Garrell ex- 
pects to close the season for these beds with 
from $6000 to $8000 clear profit to their 
credit. 

Mr. Robert S. Stewart, of Jasper, Fla., 
has completed a vineyard of forty acres on 
his father's plantation, near Jasper, the 
vines having been procured from the cele- 
brated vineyard of the Tifts, at Tifton, Ga. 

The Ryals Orchard Co., six miles from 
Tifton, on the Georgia, Southern & Flori- 
da Railroad, has 200 acres in peaches. Ma- 
jor Ryals recently predicted the biggest 
peach crop in Georgia in years. 

The title to the Niagara Co. property, 
Orlando, Fla., has been cleared up, and the 
estate has gone into the hands of a gentle- 
man who is a large vineyardist in New 
York. He has taken hold, it is said, with 
a vim, which promises to restore interest 
in grape-growing in Orange county. The 
present owner is one of the original Niag- 
ara Grape Co. of Western New York, 
'where the Niagara has become famous. 

Mr. T. J. ]\Iurphey, manager of the Hale 
(Ga.) Orchard Co., stated recently that the 
prospects for a good fruit crop were never 
better. The Central Railroad has survey- 
ors at work surveying a railroad from the 
Hale (Ga.) Orchard Co.'s place to Fort 
Valley, so as to be able to handle the crop. 

The members of the Haralson County 
Fruit and Vegetable Growers' Association 
have organized a co-operative branch, un- 
der the title of the "Unfermented Wine & 
Fruit Co. of Tallapoosa, Ga." for the pur- 
pose of shipping and selling the products 
of their vineyards, saving individual ex- 
pense and being enabled by thus combin- 
ing to obtain better prices. A number of 
grape-growers have already joined the 
company. 



General Notes. 



Benefit of Small Canneries. 

The benefit of small canneries is well 
known, but as yet this industry has made 
comparatively little progress in the fruit 
and vegetable-growing districts of the 
South. The idea prevails that a plant for 
preserving fruit and vegetables must of ne- 
cessity be expensive. This is a mistake, 
however, for apparatus of the most mod- 
ern design, including everything necessary 
to preserve the products in excellent condi- 
tion, can be bought at a price which makes 
it possible for an outfit to be purchased by 
individual growers. For instance, a plant 
for preserving 2000 three-pound cans, or 
2750 two-pound cans daily, can be pur- 
chased for $100. This includes process 
and scalding kettles, fire-pot, crane fixtures, 
furnace doors and grate bars, capping ma- 
chines and coppers, tipping coppers, scald- 
ing basket; also files, tongs, thermometer, 
syrup gauge, process and exhaust cages, 
forging stoke and vise. 

Two thousand five hundred bricks would 
be necessary to set kettles of this ma- 
chinery, including chimney, or a ten-horse 
power boiler would furnish steam for these' 
kettles. A ten-horse power boiler, includ- 
ing stack and connections between boiler 
and kettles, would cost $160. A building 
20 by 30 feet would be suitable, or a smaller 
building, with shed attached, would answer 
every purpose. 

A plant for canning 3000 three-pound 
or 4000 two-pound cans daily costs but $150. 
This includes process, scalding and exhaust 
kettles, two fire-pots and a double set of 
capping machines, coppers and the other 
apparatus already specified. If steam is 
used, a twelve-horse power boiler, costing 
$190, would be required, and a building- 
only 20 by 40 feet in size. 

A canning plant of 5000 two-pound cans 
daily capacity costs but $200 in addition to 
a fifteen-horse power boiler, if steam is 
used. The latter would cost $210, making 
a total of $410. 



An outfit to preserve 13,000 two-pound 
cans per day will cost $300; with twenty- 
five-horse power boiler $575. This is what 
is known as the steam kettle outfit, and is 
also adapted for packing peas, beans, corn, 
oysters, fish and all other articles which 
need to be hermetically sealed. 

Taking a 5000-can plant, costing a trifle 
over $400, an extensive grower could readily 
preserve a large portion of his crop in case 
he failed to realize a fair price for his crops, 
and by thus keeping his goods, he could 
place them on the market whenever the 
prices warranted a sale. Anyone of these 
outfits placed in the neighborhood and 
owned by several growers, for instance, 
could be operated at a minimum cost, and 
in one season might save their owners the 
entire cost of the apparatus. 

The improved methods of can-making 
have reduced the price of these goods to a 
very low figure. The same applies to 
solder, soldering f^uid, labels, etc., all of 
which are much cheaper than a few years 



Encouraging More Crops. 

The Florida Central & Peninsular Com- 
pany is carrying out a broad policy in Flor- 
ida by assisting farmers along its lines to 
diversify their crops. It has been encour- 
aging the cultivation of fine grades of to- 
bacco and of Sea Island cotton. Mr. Henry 
Curtis, of Quincy, Fla., has been appointed 
by the company to stimulate interest in 
this direction, and he has met with much 
encouragement in his work. 

As soon as Mr. Curtis's appointment had 
been made known through the press of the 
State, he was flooded with letters of in- 
quiry on the subject of tobacco-raising, all 
of which he answered personally. During 
the latter part of December he made an ex- 
tended trip through that part of South Flor- 
ida that is contiguous to the Florida Cen- 
tral and Peninsular Line. Ocala was his 
first stopping place. There he held a meet- 



GENERAL NOTES. 



73 



ing. under the auspices of the county com- 
missioners of Marion county and the board 
of trade of Ocala, which was largely at- 
tended by the principal planters. They 
were found to be enthusiastic on the sub- 
ject or diversified industries, and chiefly the 
culture of tobacco and Sea Island cotton. 
Both of these great crops were grown prof- 
itably in this county long years ago. With 
the same general results, Mr. Curtis visited 
Plant City, Bushnell, Sumterville, Lees- 
burg, Orlando, Waldo, Gainesville and 
other places. 

!Nluch of the soil in the Florida Central 
& Peninsular Company's territory, with 
proper cultivation, will produce a variety 
of tobacco that is much sought after in 
point of texture, color and flavor. A sam- 
ple was sent to ^Ir. Curtis last season from 
one of the counties named, and after being 
properly sweated, it was found to have both 
flavor and color exceedingly desirable. 
From what he knows of the situation, he 
expresses the opinion that what was known 
as the orange belt will raise this year from 
1200 to 1500 acres of tobacco, and twice as 
great an area of Sea Island cotton. 

In accordance with his duties as agricul- 
tural and immigration agent for the Florida 
Central & Peninsular Company, Mr. Cur- 
tis has issued a series of circulars filled with 
valuable suggestions for tobacco-growers. 
When Cuba seed is to be used, he consid- 
ers it preferable to get the "Vuelta Abajo" 
variety grown one year in the State, only 
sowing enough fresh seed from the island 
to furnish seed plants for the coming year. 

The success of this departure by the Flor- 
ida Central & Peninsular shows what can 
be done by other companies throughout the 
South. Cultivation of fruit, vegetables, the 
raising of live stock and other specialties 
can be greatly increased by such a method. 
It means increased traffic and earnings for 
the railroad, as can be readily seen. 

Mr. John O'Neill, of Greenville. S. C, 
bought in North Carolina in November last 
twenty-three choice young bullocks, which 
he recently sold, having fed them on cot- 
tonseed meal and hulls — 450 pounds of hulls 
and fifty pounds of meal to the feed. The 
cost was a little less than $2 a day for the 
entire bunch. The cattle gained an aver- 
a^re of about 180 pounds for the 100 days, 



and sold at a profit over their original cost. 
The flesh of cattle fattened in this way is 
said to be particularly tender and choice, 
and is sought by the best butchers. 
Mr. O'Neill believes that cottonseed feed- 
ing is rather cheaper than ensilage, al- 
though he will probably adopt the latter 
method later on. While his cattle paid him 
some direct profit, he finds his greatest re- 
turn in fertilizing material. 

Southern Farmers Are Better Off. 

Mr. T. B. Brooks, of Bainbridge, Ga., in 
a letter to the Country Gentleman, gives 
some interesting facts regarding Southern 
farmers. He says: 

"In contrast to the accounts from North- 
ern farmers of their failure to realize profits 
or even pay their way, allow me to call your 
attention to the January number of the 
'Southern States," published in Baltimore, 
setting forth exactly opposite conditions 
here in the South. 

'"This magazine sent the following ques- 
tions to 530 railroad station agents in the 
South, and published their replies: 

" 'i. How does the financial condition of 
farmers in your vicinity compare with that 
of former years?" 

" '2. Are they raising now more food- 
stuffs (as in contradistinction from cotton) 
than formerly?' 

"Excepting about forty answers from 
Florida, which are mostly unfavorable as 
to the first question, on account of the loss 
of orange trees last winter, at least 80 per 
cent, are decidedly favorable and encour- 
aging. 

"My observation confirms it; the South- 
ern farmers are now, as a rule, better off 
than for some years past. It is not alto- 
gether easy to explain this to the Northern 
farmer. In part the small crop (acreage) 
of cotton has brought good prices and a 
fair net gain, because only the best land was 
planted, and therefore not much expended 
in its cultivation. The 'provision crop' 
(food for man and beast) has been varied 
and large and prices correspondingly low. 

"But the Southern farmer rarely has had 
any provisions to sell; he generally buys 
bacon and breadstuf¥s from the West, pay- 
ing with cotton. This year he not only has 
none to buy, but a little to sell. This may 
be either home-made cane syrup or sugar, 



74 



GENERAL NOTES. 



rice, sweet or Irish potatoes, peanuts, oats, 
rye, corn, tobacco, cow peas, forage or 
hog meat. 'Living at home' in the South 
means raising what you eat, and it is quite 
common here now to find families who live 
well, buying only coffee, salt and wheat 
flour. Corn bread, in several forms, is the 
chief bread, but wheaten biscuits are com- 
mon. 

"A greater gain, and, indeed, it is in sub- 
stance an economical revolution, is the new 
method of conducting business, brought 
about by the prevailing low price of cot- 
ton for many years. Merchants were 
obliged for their own protection to stop 
making advances to farmers on the strength 
of their growing cotton. This forced the 
choice; he must pay or go without the 
farmer to pay cash or not buy. He had no 
goods. Tie has done neither wholly; he 
has largely produced the things on his own 
farm, with his own labor, which he used 
to buy. He has also economized in ways 
that his brother in the North cannot and 
will not follow becavise of climate and 
fashion. 

"This mild climate and the simple inex- 
pensive dressing and furnishing make the 
expense of comfortably living greatly less 
than in the North and West. Here nearly 
all are poor, and the best people are often 
the poorest. It is my favorite remark that 
in our South it is both respectable and not 
inconvenient to be poor, to a degree found 
nowhere else in the world. I speak from 
ten half-years' experience here. The South- 
ern farmer, then, is not getting into debt, 
because no one will trust him, and he is 
paying off old debts as he can. He 'lives 
at home.' and sells enough of such staples, 
as cotton, tobacco and rice, with some pro- 
visions, to give him the $ioo to $200 cash 
that the 'one-horse" farmer (he who culti- 
vates about thirty acres) needs to handle in 
money per year to pay his taxes and buy 
the little clothing, additional food, etc., he 
requires. 

"The above money income may seem in- 
credibly small to many Northern farmers 
who call themselves poor; but I know a 
number of respectable men here who have 
not touched the larger figure, $200, in an- 
nual monej' income for years. 

"If the farmer owns land enough to en- 
able him to let one or more 'one-horse' 



farms to negroes for a bale of cotton, each 
worth, say, $30, he may then increase his 
income. His colored tenants are glad to 
work for him at fifty cents per day, or $10 
per month, and take their pay wholly or in 
part in cornmeal, pork and home-made 
syrup. Such a man would probably have 
a small bunch of cattle running on the 
range, and would occasionally sell a grass 
beef for $8, or maybe an ox or milch cow 
at twice that price. Such a farmer, if he 
ran two horses or mules on his home farm 
would be satisfied to handle $1 for each day 
in the year and would here be considered 
'well-to-do.' 

""These men will go to the market-town 
every other Saturday, usually have some 
business in the court, will go 'possum' 
hunting, on fish-fries and picnics, and oc- 
casionally ride after hounds in a fox or 
wild-cat chase. 

"There is no cost for fuel here; it is only 
the labor of getting the wood to be burned 
in open fires. These farmers have, as com- 
pared with those of the North, practically 
no costs for traveling, none for schools or 
amusements or for social entertainments 
or churches or charities; the subscription- 
list rarel)^ goes around, and the cost for 
books and periodicals is from $1 to, say, $5; 
almost no postage, telegraphing or expres- 
sage; no furs or heavy winter clothing or 
bedding; no expense for stoves, for they 
never have but one, and often none. There 
are no carpets, no papers, no paint or var- 
nish; no expensive musical instruments or 
pictures, and low taxes. 

"A double-pen log-house, with stable 
and meat-house, constituting a 'settlement,' 
can be built and furnished, including the 
mule, for $200. One hundred acres of un- 
improved land can be bought for $300, 
making the one-horse farm, plant and stock 
complete, cost, say, $500. 

"You do not have this class of farmers at 
the North, where two horses are ne-eded to 
plow. Here one will break land, there be- 
ing no sod, thus enabling men of very mod- 
erate means to work their own farms, in- 
stead of renting or working by the month, 
as they would have to do in the North. 
This is emphatically the poor man's coun- 
try. 

"A natural inference from the above pic- 
ture is that countr}^ life here is dull and 



GENERAL NOTES. 



75 



scarcely worth living. This is a mistake; 
life here is exceedingly simple and free 
from care and annoyance. We are in close 
contact with nature; we have plenty of glo- 
rious sunshine out of doors and the next 
best source of light and heat in-doors. the 
open wood-tire, which is better than furni- 
ture, doctors or even certain guests. 

"Some idea of the extent and variety of 
climate and products of our whole country 
is indicated by the fact that while in one 
great section the farming industry is seri- 
ously depressed, with no immediate pros- 
pect of improvement, in another almost 
equal area the farmers are fairly prosper- 
ous and the outlook is promising. 

"The fact that Southern farmers are buy- 
ing less from the West than ever before is 
one of the minor reasons why prices of 
farm products are low there. This will 
prob::'bly always be true in the future. 

"T, B. BROOKS. 

"Decatur County, Ga." 

American Pineapple Cultrre in Florida. 

While most of the pineapples sold in the 
United States have, within recent years, 
come from Cuba, the cultivation of this 
iruit in Florida has rapidly increased, and 
last season 50,000 crates were shipped from 
sections in that State other than the Keys. 
The output from the central and northern 
part of the State this year is estimated at 
35,000 crates, while, but for the damage to 
new plantations by freezing a year ago, a 
crop amounting to 250,000 crates was 
counted upon for the next few months. 

The Bahamas formerly furnished the 
main supply, which w"as carried in small 
sailing vessels taking four to live days to 
reach this port, while unfavorable winds 
made a voyage of twenty days not unusual. 
'\lost of the pineapples now^ coming from 
Nassau and other ports of this group are 
consigned to Baltimore, where they are 
canned. As many as 5,500,000 of these 
pineapples have reached that city within 
the past four years, and large quantities 
are canned on the island. Nearly all the 
Cuban pineapples come to New York, 200,- 
000 barrels and more constituting the im- 
ports for a year. These pineapples are all 
grown near Havana, and shipments con- 
tinue throughout the entire year. The sea- 
son begins, however, in the middle of 



March and continues at its height for four 
months, while the Bahama season is a 
month later in opening". Some of the 
choicest pineapples have in recent years 
come from the Indian River section of 
Florida, and exceptionally large and high- 
grade fruit comes from Porto Rico. The 
comparatively small supplies from Jamaica 
include some excellent varieties, which are 
in special demand. 

The delay of a day in the transportation 
of this perishable fruit may mean a heavy 
loss, and twenty-four hours of warm, damp 
weather may injure a cargo to the extent 
of 50 per cent, of its original value. No 
vessels specially fitted for carrying pine- 
apples are yet in service, and this tender 
fruit is closely packed in steamers carrying 
sugar and other heating articles. Quick 
transportation in steamers equipped with 
improved ventilation and the best storage 
facilities, as are already in regular use in 
the banana trade, would open up new pos- 
sibilities for this department of the fruit 
trade. At this time when, besides the short- 
age caused by the loss in Florida, the trade 
in Cuba is affected by war, prices have been 
high. The grade known to wholesale mer- 
chants as Havana xx, thirty-five pineap- 
ples being required to fill a barrel, now 
commands $9 a barrel, and this is also the 
importers' price to wholesale buyers for 
barrels holding forty-five and ninety of the 
fruits. — Garden and Forest. 

Mr. Charles Adamson, 119 S. 4th street, 
Philadelphia, has been appointed indus- 
trial and immigration agent for the East 
& West Railroad Co. The line of this road 
passes through one of the richest mineral 
and agricultural sections of the entire 
South — one having many advantages for 
almost every line of industry, as well as 
for diversified agriculture. The country 
tributary to the road is notedly healthy, 
with an unusually invigorating climate. 

Hop Growing in the South, 

It is reported that hop-growing is to be 
greatly increased in North Carolina, owing 
to the success of the experiments already 
made. A large area is being planted in 
hops in Warren county. In Richmond 
county several farmers are planting hops, 
and buildings will soon be erected to cure 



76 



GENERAL NOTES. 



the hops right in the field where they are 
grown. In the Southern Pines section the 
farmers are preparing to go into the indus- 
try quite largely. They will not plant this 
spring, but are preparing for planting next 
fall. Some of the grape-growers in that 
region are contemplating going into the 
business of raising hops. 

To Encourage Agriculture. 

The "Southern States" has several times 
referred to the commendable efforts of the 
Charleston News and Courier to encour- 
age diversified farming in South Carolina 
by offering prizes. The following is its 
list for 1896: 

Fifty dollars for the most profitable to- 
bacco crop grown from one acre. 

Fifty dollars for the most profitable to- 
bacco crop made by a person who has 
never raised over 100 pounds before. 

Fifty dollars for the hog raised at lowest 
cost in 300 days after March i. 

Fifty dollars for the best smoke-cured 
hams made from hogs raised since Novem- 
ber I, 1895. 

Fifty dollars for the heaviest ten fleeces 
from one flock of sheep. 

Twenty-five dollars for the ten heaviest 
sheep in any one flock. 

Twenty-five dollars for ten ewes breeding 
the most profitable number of lambs. 

Gold medal for the most valuable acre of 
hay, and silver medal for the next. 

One hundred dollars for the best record 
of "all-round" farming made with any four 
crops or live stock. 

One hundred dollars to the woman who 
personally makes the best record in raising 
dairy or other products. 

South Carolina Tobacco. 

The success of tobacco-planters in South 
Carolina is attracting much ateention on 
account of the profits they are realizing. 
Mr. C. S. McCullough, near Darlington, 
S. C, obtained a total yield from nineteen 
acres of 27,000 pounds, and this entire lot 
sold ungraded at twelve and one-half cents 
per pound, making a net sale of $3375 from 
the nineteen acres. 

Mr. McGill, in the same section, gath- 
ered and sold i486 pounds of tobacco from 
one acre at twenty cents per pound, mak- 
ing the proceeds $297.20. The expense of 



cultivating and gathering this acre did not 
cost over $35. 

Mr. W. J. Williams, of Nichols, planted 
two and three-quarters acres in tobacco last 
year, and sold his entire crop to Mr. Crox- 
ton for $874.54. This makes a showing of 
$318.01 per acre. 

Yet tobacco cultivation is in its infancy 
in South Carolina, and the industry — for it 
is an industry — might be termed in an ex- 
perimental state. 

Mr. T. W. Mcintosh, of Darlington 
county, S. C, has given to the Charleston 
News and Courier the results of his ex- 
periment in the cultivation of tobacco. He 
says he planted one acre last year, from 
which he gathered 1240 pounds of cured 
tobacco, which cost $40, and netted him, 
when sold, $115.35. This gave him a profit 
of $75-35 per acre. Yet it was the first to- 
bacco he has ever raised. 

Railways as Developers. 

The arrangement of the Georgia & Ala- 
bama Railroad Co., by which it extends its 
train service between Montgomery, Ala., 
and Savannah, Ga., means much for the de- 
velopment of Sovtth Georgia and that sec- 
tion of Alabama traversed by this system. 
As the map, herewith produced, indicates, 
it forms the shortest route between two of 
the most important Southern cities, and 
gives an outlet to the seaboard for the pro- 
ductive section which depends upon it for 
transportation facilities. The arrangement 
was made by leasing a section of the Cen- 
tral Railroad, of Georgia, nearly seventy 
miles in length; also by a contract securing 
the right of use of the terminal tracks, de- 
pots and steamship wharves of the same 
company at Savannah. In this way the 
Georgia & Alabama secures direct connec- 
tion with the Merchants and Miners' Steam- 
ship lines for Baltimore, Norfolk and 
Portsmouth, Va., and with the Ocean 
Steamship Co.'s service to New York, Phil- 
adelphia and Boston, thus giving manufac- 
turers, farmers and fruit-growers along its 
route facilities for reaching the great mar- 
kets of the North by water, or freight can 
be handled all rail, to the North over the 
Plant system or Florida Central & Penin- 
sular, with which it connects at Savannah. 
Its Western terminus, Montgomery, is an 
important railroad centre on the main line 



GENERAL NOTES. 



77 



of the Louisville & Nashville Railway. By 
intimate traffic relations, the Georgia & 
Alabama can make freight and passenger 
rates to any point in the North and West 
reached by the Louisville & Nashville and 
its connections. The advantage of this is 
manifest, and shows what broad opportu- 
nities are offered to market products in 
Chicago, St. Louis or other large cities 
north of the Ohio river. 

The country tributary to the Georgia & 
Alabama has been attracting much atten- 
tion from all parts of the United States ow- 
ing to the remarkably extensive immigra- 
tion movements to it, as well as the growth 
of the long-established towns." Along its 
route are several very prosperous commu- 
nities, among them Americus, a city of 
nearly 7000 people, and an important rail- 
road junction; Cordele, at the junction of 
the Georgia & Alabama and the Georgia 



Fitzgerald four weeks ago. At this date we 
have within the city limits, built and under 
construction, 840 buildings. These include 
store houses and residences. We now have 
under contract eleven first-class brick and 
stone buildings. The large Colony Hotel 
will be built by the colony itself, and will 
cover the space of 170 by 175 feet, three 
stories high. Mr. P. H. Fitzgerald will be- 
gin the erection of a business block, two 
stories high, with twelve storerooms below, 
office rooms above. Capt. W. O. Tift will 
erect a marble-front brick bank building. J. 
O. Shepherd and Wm. R. Bowen have un- 
der contract a business block of brick and 
stone, containing four storerooms below, 
with hall above. The G. & A. Railroad is 
now completing a freight depot, 40 by 200 
feet, also a passenger depot. The Tifton & 
Northeastern Railroad is being extended to 
the city. We have eleven saw mills, two 




GEORGIA & ALABAMA RAILROAD AND CONNECTIONS. 



Southern & Florida roads, a thriving place 
of about 3000 people, and Abbeville, an- 
other railroad junction, where the Abbeville 
& Way Cross division of the road extends 
to the colony city of Fitzgerald. The latter 
has become famous by reason of its rapid 
growth. It was selected as a site by the 
Old Soldiers' Colony, as it is popularly 
termed, of which Mr. P. H. Fitzgerald, of 
Indianapolis, Ind., is at the head. About 
120,000 acres of land have been purchased 
through Hon. W. J. Northen, of Atlanta. 
In September last the locality contained 
only a half-dozen small huts. Its condition 
today is best described by Mr. Fitzgerald 
in a letter to the Manufacturers' Record, in 
which he says: 

"Our colony now numbers over 9000 peo- 
ple. Our first railroad reached the city of 



shingle mills and two ice plants under way. 
The Standard Oil Co. has leased grounds 
for its building. The Armour Packing Co. 
is seeking a location. We are putting in 
twenty-four artesian wells, ranging from 
loi to 250 feet deep. Our members are fast 
settling upon their lands and building 
homes." 

Several other colonies, attracted by the 
low price of lands along the Georgia & Ala- 
bama, the desirable location and other feat- 
ures, are preparing to move to the same sec- 
tion of the South. 

The present management of the Georgia 
& Alabama, which has succeeded in placing 
the line upon such a substantial basis, is 
composed as follows: President, John Skel- 
ton Williams, Richmond, Va. ; vice-presi- 
dent and general manager, Cecil Gabbett, 



78 



GENERAL NOTES. 



Americus, Ga. ; treasurer. J. Willcox 
Brown. Baltimore; secretary, W. W. Mack- 
all. Savannah: general freight and passenger 
agent. A. Pope, Americus. 

It is becoming more noticeable every day 
that the tide of emigration is turning South- 
ward. Frequent excursions for home- 
seekers at reduced rates induce many hun- 
dreds to look thither for their future home, 
and of all the countries visited in the South, 
none produce such unqualified satisfaction 
as that great Yazoo valley in Mississippi. 
An outlook from the trains passing over the 
railroads in this covintry presents such a 
prospect as meets the eye only elsewhere on 
the vast prairies of Illinois. Extensive 
tracts of land have been cleared in the last 
few years, so that now, almost continuously 
along the lines of the Yazoo & Mississippi 
Valley Railroad and its branches, great 
plantations open up to the view of the pros- 
pectors such scenes as appear only on the 
great prairies of other States. 

More than 20.000 acres of these timber 
lands have been sold by this railroad in the 
past year, most of the purchasers being from 
the prairie counties of Illinois, Iowa and 
Nebraska. Improvements are constantly 
being made in buildings: the old planters 
are buying new machinery and adopting 
advanced methods of cultivating their plan- 
tations. Extensive ditching and tile drain- 
ing, which have produced such profitable 
results in the Northern States, is being 
widely advocated, and already there are 
companies in this business in Illinois who 
are preparing to move there with ma- 
chinery for this purpose, and demonstrate 
to the people that their lands can be tiled at 
a small cost that will produce such great 
results as neither they nor any Northern 
farmers have yet dreamed could be ever ac- 
complished in farming. 

There are a number of farmers from Illi- 
nois and Iowa who have moved onto the 
lands they have bought, and are preparing 
to raise a high grade of cattle, hogs, horses 
and mules, being convinced, as soon as they 
saw the lands, that they could raise stock 
at the least cost and greatest profit in the 
Yazoo valley. Many other purchasers are 
engaged in raising potatoes and other vege- 
tables for the early markets. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Some Facts About North Alabama. 

iUlltor Soiithmi States: 

At this period of our history, when the 
droughts of crop annihilation and the 
freezing winters, of the Northwest, the bar- 
renness of the worn-out farms of New Eng- 
land and the general promise of better con- 
ditions somewhere are together forcing 
the farmers and industrial workers of those 
sections to pull up the anchors which have 
for years fastened them down to precincts 
where unrequited toil has been their por- 
tion and to seek another abiding place for 
themselves and children, no portion of the 
United States offers more excellent advan- 
tages to these forced emigrants than North 
Alabama. 

Now the lirst thing that a person who is 
intending to select for himself a new home 
wishes to know is. "Where can I find a 
healthy location — a place where all the 
l)rofits of my labor and business prudence 
will not find their way into the till of the 
apothecary or the purse of the physician?" 
Every man wishes to see the ruddy glow 
of health mantling the cheeks of his chil- 
dren, and to know that he is living in a re- 
gion where pure water and lung-invigorat- 
ing air will place a wall against the prowl- 
ing bacteria of fever and murky malaria. 
This question is answered in two words: 
North Alabama. 

Almost every hillside has an eternal res- 
ervoir of crystal water, which even in the 
long, dry spells of summer are the head- 
springs of a little branch or larger brook 
to furnish water to the panting kine. It 
never occurs in the neighborhood history 
that water has to be hauled for many miles 
for the stock, or that they, desperate with 
thirst, have to be driven miles and miles 
lor this essential feature of all animal life. 
The Almighty irrigates every pasture and 
l)arnyard in North Alabama. In this con- 
nection. I feel constrained to make mention 
of the wonderful limestone spring at 
Tluntsville. It comes right out of the solid 
rock bluff and in a volume that is a marvel 
to those whose prime conception of a spring 
is that of a cut-ofT gum tree stuck into the 
earth. In former days the stream that 
owes its birth to this master bubbler was 
used to barge cotton upon down to the 
Tennessee river. The water is as clear as 



GENERAL NOTES: 



79 



the absence of foreign matter can make it, 
and is the pride and joy of every household 
in the city. But I have diverted from my 
emigrant. He can find his heahhy loca- 
tion in almost any county in this section, 
the doctors being the most unprosperous 
of our citizens. The next thing he wishes 
ro know are the possibilities that are of- 
fered in the new settler-claiming sections 
for material prosperity, for the investment 
of his capital, large or small, as the case 
may be. for the demand for laborers or for 
the ptirchase of lands upon which to farm 
and build up his new home. The Tennes- 
see valley of this State is famed for the ex- 
treme fructility of its soil and for the large 
returns from a small amount of labor ex- 
pended. Nature was in a lavish mood 
when she fashioned this part of the geog- 
raphy. 

This farm land, that will produce all the 
fruits, vegetables and cereals, can be bought 
very cheap. Such land, upon which the 
same amount of stufT could be raised, in 
other sections would cost from $50 to $100 
per acre. It can be bought in North Ala- 
bama for from $6 to $10, in unlimited 
r;uantities, ready for the plow. It is no 
wonder that a healthy stream of movers 
has turned from the North and Northwest 
to this promising region. The advantages 
of cheap, good land, healthy climate, pure 
and abundant water supply, mild wnnters, 
good society and laws well enforced are 
not to be treated with indifference by men 
who live in a section of high-selling land, 
interminable summer-drought and arctic 
winters, and who wish to better their con- 
ditions. 

Lands upon which the most prosperous 
cattle or sheep-raising could be compassed 
can be bought almost for a song. Sheep 
upon these ranges can be raised at a mere 
nominal expense. The onlj' thing neces- 
sary is to turn them upon the range. 

At Cullman there is the highest evidence 
of the adaptability of this region to grape 
culture and wine production. A small 
colony of thrifty Germans, under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Cullman — for whom the town 
was named— settled there some years ago 
with a view to raising grapes and making 
wine. The prospect at first was sterile 
enough, but by diligence and frugality, 
coupled with the natural advantages around 



them, a great industry has been built up, 
and thousands have found thrift and happi- 
ness pursuing this congenial business. 

There are hundreds of places in North 
Alabama as well suited to grape culture as 
Cullman, waiting to be possessed and 
turned into fruitful vineyards. 

To those who are looking for a location 
to engage in fruit-raising, or the nursery 
business, this portion of Alabama especi- 
ally commends itself. The Morse nursery, 
eleven miles out from Huntsville, is the 
largest in the world. A few years ago the 
site upon which this magnificent industry 
now stands was barren old fields that had 
been deserted, as unfit for cultivation. But 
a little expeditious and intelligent 'rehabili- 
tation has brought about the most mar- 
velous transformation. The old clay fields 
have become garden spots — no longer the 
browsing place of vagrant cattle, but the 
home of a great wealth-creating industry. 

The canning industry, which has been 
grievously neglected until within recent 
times, offers an unsurpassed field for the 
investment of limited capital. The people 
of Alabama are beginning to see the folly 
of sending a thousand miles for their 
canned stuffs, with the added freight and 
jobbers' profit, when the same goods can 
be turned out in their own State. These 
factories, whether large or small, always 
pay excellent dividends. I have never 
heard of one in this section that ceased 
operations or went into bankruptcy. 

While it is true that there are times when 
the fruit crop is not a success, yet the vege- 
table crop of beans, tomatoes, onions, okra, 
etc., and the berry crop can always be de- 
pended on to furnish ample material for 
the plants in off fruit years. 

In matters of larger moment, the cotton- 
mill industry is occupying the most atten- 
tion of the press and the people. In Hunts- 
ville there are three cotton and yarn mills, 
all running on full time, but still a long 
way behind with their orders. The Dallas 
!Mills, which is one of the largest in the 
South, commenced operations in 1892; it 
has 25,000 spindles and 750 looms, manu- 
facturing fine sheeting, from thirty-six to 
108 inches in width. This mill employs 
about 500 hands. The directors are con- 
templating making extensive additions to 
the plant. 



8o 



GENERAL NOTES. 



The West Huntsville Cotton Mill, in the 
same city, though not so large as the Dal- 
las, is nevertheless a most prosperous and 
paying institution. It was erected in the 
fall of 1892. It has the capacity of 6000 
pounds of yarn a day. It also manufac- 
tures large quantities of ball twine, about 
700 pounds per day, and also knitting yarn 
for underwear and hosiery. About 150 
hands are employed. 

I have not been able to obtain the statis- 
tics from the other Huntsville mill. 

z\ll of the features that I have mentioned 
as existing in North Alabama, besides 
many of which I have not mentioned, af- 
ford the most excellent prospects for se- 
curing to this section at an early date a 
very large influx of home-seekers. Besides 
the natural advantages afforded by this sec- 
tion, the cleverness and hospitality of the 
people should have large consideration by 
those whose wish it is to establish them- 
selves in a congenial atmosphere. 

WILLIAM B. BANKHEAD. 
Huntsville, Ala. 

The South As It Is. 

Editor Southern States: 

Although the publishing operations of 
Edward H. Phelps, of Springfield, Mass.. 
the founder of Farm and Home and the 
New England Homestead, have been pretty 
fully described, what Southerners know 
concerning him has been chiefly derived 
in the past from his apparent enmity to the 
South and Southern interests : consequently 
Mr. Phelps's ideas at present will be re- 
garded with special interest by our South- 
ern readers and those in the North who are 
giving attention to the history of our in- 
dustrial development and social changes. 
Mr. Phelps was a visitor to many of the 
cities on the line of the Southern Railway 
recently, and while we but give a bare out- 
line of Mr. Phelps's able and useful dis- 
course on Southern people and Southern 
institutions, yet it gives an idea of facts as 
they are and presented by a man who, un- 
der any circumstances, could not be imag- 
ined to be prejudiced in our favor. Mr. 
Phelps says : 

"Our Southward flight brought up many 
a memory of the civil war, as the train sped 
past Alexandria, Fairfax, Manassas, Cul- 
peper and other historic places, so dull 



and peaceful, but occupied by the great 
armies thirty years ago. The recollection 
of those days is fast fading away. The 
papers retell the stories of the war, and 
here and there a fire-eating orator pretends 
to be as .bitter a secessionist as ever; but 
these inflammatory spouters misrepresent 
the Southern people. After taking much 
pains to sample public opinion, I am con- 
vinced that the South is today as loyal as 
the North. The past is dead and buried. 
The faces of the Southern people are to- 
ward the future, and it is a future bright 
with hope and a career of prosperity such 
as the South has never known before. 
There is nowhere a cold shoulder for 
Northern men, but a hearty welcome for 
Northern enterprise and capital. The 
large and steady growth of Norfolk, At- 
lanta and Charlotte, the three most push- 
ing cities of the South, in the very teeth of 
the hard times, which have been severely 
felt through the South, shows what the 
future will bring forth. Already North 
Carolina has 175 cotton mills, and there are 
more to follow. South Carolina, Georgia 
and .Alabama are making powerful strides 
in the same direction. It is true that the 
one Massachusetts city of Fall River can 
tally more spindles than the entire South, 
and that the growth of cotton-spinning in 
Massachusetts this year will exceed that of 
the entire South ; but never mind all that — 
cotton-spinning is still an infant industry 
in the South, and give it time to grow. 
Grow it will when the Southern mills pay 
15 to 20 per cent, on the Eastern capital put 
into them, as some of them have done dur- 
ing the past year. This compares very well 
with the 6 and 7 per cent, paid in Fall River. 
Why should not these Southern cotton 
mills make big returns to their stockhold- 
ers? To begin with, they have a thorough- 
ly modern ec|uipment, wnth every mechani- 
cal facility for doing their work well and 
cheaply. Thus their power is marvelously 
cheap. Some of the mills run by water, 
and some of them by steam made with coal 
which costs only $1.25 to $1.50 delivered at 
the mill, much less than one-third what coal 
costs in Massachusetts. Then labor is far 
cheaper than in the North. The mill hands 
are girls who never had work before, and 
are glad to work for the wages offered. 
They are good girls, too, from religious 
communities, .^ny girl who bears a bad 



GENERAL NOTES. 



name is promptly discharged, for the jnill 
managers do not want that class of help 
and the other girls will not work with fe- 
males of loose character. Another linan- 
cial advantage is the nearness of these mills 
to the cotton-helds. Where the farmers 
can unload their cotton direct from their 
wagons at the mill, as is done at the new 
Dwight Mills in Alabama, this saves a frac- 
tion of a cent per pound on the cost of the 
cotton. The selling price of the manufac- 
tured product is fixed by the sales in Fall 
River and Providence, and the Southern 
millmen are only too glad that such is the 
case, for that means all the more profit to 
them, as every line of goods made in the 
South can be manufactured much cheaper 
than Fall River can possibly produce it, 
and a small profit for Fall River means, at 
the same price, a big profit for Southern 
mills. Then there is no disposition in any 
part of the South to hamper manufacturers 
with employers'- liability laws or the like. 

"The Southern railroads no longer run 
the poky, crawling trains of former days," 
continues Mr. Phelps. "The Southern 
Railway, at least, has luxurious stateroom 
cars, and its trains run as fast as the ex- 
press trains of the North. So far as atten- 
tion to passengers is concerned. Northern 
conductors should be sent to school in the 
South. I noticed on our train a poorly- 
dressed woman, with a sick child in her 
arms and some heavy hand-baggage. She 
was traveling alone. When she reached 
the little way-station which was her desti- 
nation, the conductor took up the baby as 
tenderly as if it had been his own, and the 
colored porter carried out the woman's 
baggage. I could not help thinking that 
anywhere in the North the poor woman 
would have been left to shift for herself." 
FRANK A. HEYWOOD. 

Woodbury, N. J. 

Cattle Breeding in the South. 

New Orleans, La., March 27, 1895. 
hUlitor Southern fitatcs: 

I presume that, to the man of average can- 
dor, under ordinary circumstances, all that 
would be necessary to convince him that a 
country is a fine stock-raising area would be 
to convince him that it is a great grass coun- 
try. And reasoning in this truly logical 
style, it would be fair to assume, under ordi- 



nary circumstances, that very little would 
need to be said to prove that the South is a 
most superb stock-raising country, after all 
I have said about the grasses in your col- 
umns during the last year. 

But to many of your readers. North and 
West, "ordinary circumstances ' and reason- 
ing by analogy won't answer. All things 
are to be presumed against the South with 
such. You must fight at every step for 
your conquests. Every assertion must be 
proved. And what a time I have had, for 
the last quarter of a century, fighting 
against Southern disparagement! Look at 
some of them. No white man could stand 
field-labor South. Sun too hot. The 
South could not raise her own corn and 
hogs and make hay. She is doing all three 
with a vengeance; is absolutely selling corn 
West; maybe, hay and pork; certainly bal- 
ing hay and packing pork. The South 
could never raise fine wool. I think I have 
settled that, lately, in your columns. The 
South could never make good cheese and 
butter. That has been settled nearly ten 
years ago. The South could not raise fruits 
and vegetables. Sometimes as high as 
seventy-five carloads of tomatoes in one day 
from one station on the Southern branch of 
the Illinois Central Railroad in Mississippi 
shall be my answer as to vegetables: and let 
the Georgia Alberta peach-trains reply as 
to fruit. The South could never be a great 
cotton manufacturing country. Too hot. 
Your operatives would die. You never 
could send corn out of the Mississippi 
river; it would heat. New Orleans is now 
badly distancing New York. You never 
can raise fine cattle South; they will dete- 
riorate; climate too hot; sun and drought 
forbid grass raising. This last objection I 
shall meet in this letter, and although I have 
treated the subject more or less at various 
times in the press of the country, I shall 
treat it now in a way, I hope, to make con- 
clusive. 

Before doing so, however, I want to em- 
phasize the weight of misconception and 
slander under which the South has weltered, 
as in a very sea of detraction and dispar- 
agement, before she got to the shore of the 
world's enlightenment. I have more than 
the motive of mere retrospect. Slowly and 
surely is there building up (what I pre- 
dicted, after gauging the Western mind on 
the spot) a campaign of detraction of the 



82 



GENERAL NOTES, 



South, in order to countervail the enormous 
exodus of Western farmers to the South. 
It is well, therefore, that I should give 
somewhat of a list of popular fallacies and 
detractions the South has lived down and 
delivered herself from in the last quarter of 
a century. Once there was great plausi- 
bility in the reply the Western and North- 
ern farmers made to one's assertions that 
the South would some day raise her own 
corn, hay. pork, cattle, and manufacture cot- 
ton, make cheese and butter. "If she can. 
why don't she do it?" How often, years ago, 
have I encountered this taunt in lecturing 
West in behalf of immigration! Many 
who used it were sincere. It seemed the 
height of absurdity for the South to pay 
$1.50 per bushel for corn, $30 per ton for 
hay, thirty cents per pound for bacon to 
the West, if the South could raise these 
herself. But that argument is now obso- 
lete. The South is now (or nearly) quite 
self-supporting, and is going to send corn, 
pork and hay of her own production to 
Europe and North and West ere long. 

And, now to my topic again: I shall not 
go into a treatment of the theme in any de- 
cided attention to the different breeds of 
cattle that the South can and does produce 
— thoroughbreds of Holsteins, Polled An- 
gus, Devons, Ayrshires, Herefords, Jer- 
seys, Shorthorns. About ten years ago I 
made a most laborious and exhaustive re- 
search into the subject of raising thorough- 
bred cattle, in the interest of journalism for 
one of our New Orleans daily newspapers. 
The investigation covered the whole South. 
And the raisers of thoroughbred cattle, of 
one and another breed, were numbered by 
thousands, and the cattle were innumer- 
able. And there has been no diminution, 
of course. And I may say, as to one breed 
— Jerseys — that there is no place in the 
world, except, perhaps, the Isle of Jersey, 
where there are as many thoroughbred Jer- 
seys as in East Mississippi, West Alabama 
and North Georgia. 

But I have selected the Shorthorn for the 
main topic for this paper for several rea- 
sons. It is a breed that is a poor "rustler." 
It requires higher feed and more attention 
than any other. If the breed can be suc- 
cessfully raised South, a fortiori, can any 
other be raised? As a scholar might say, 
Ex pede Herculem. You may decide upon 
whether you can raise thoroughbred cattle 



South, if you can raise Shorthorns. And 
now I am going to submit a document that, 
to every candid reader, will be conclusive: 

"Greencastle, Ind., Jan., 30, 1877. 
"Col. M. B. Hillyard, McComb City, Miss.: 

"I have but just received from the secre- 
tary of the American Association of Short- 
horn Breeders a copy of the resolution 
adopted at the late meeting held at St. 
Louis, which I enclose. I should be 
pleased to send you the remarks made up- 
on its adoption, but they are in the hands 
of the publishers of the proceedings. * * * 
"Yours truly, 
"A. C. STEVENSON." 

Dr. Stevenson's resolution on cattle-rais- 
ing in the Southern States: 

"Resolved, That the idea, too common, 
that Shorthorns cannot be bred in our 
Southern States, is erroneous. But, on the 
contrary, that the climate, and the grass 
and grain products, are well adapted to the 
growth and breeding of improved breeds 
of cattle, and that their cheap lands and 
their cleared and uncultivated fields offer a 
fine and profitable opportunity for breeders 
of Shorthorn cattle." 

At the conclusion — in the hand of the 
secretary, I presume^ — is this note: "Offered 
by Dr. Stevenson at the St. Louis Conven- 
tion of Breeders of Shorthorns, and unani- 
mously adopted." 

Could anything be more conclusive or 
authoritative than that? Dr. Stevenson 
subsequently told me that the resolution 
was seconded by one of the (then) greatest 
authorities of the day on Shorthorns, whose 
name I just now forget. 

Dr. Stevenson had been my guest the two 
preceding winters — 1875-1876 — at McComb 
City. Miss., and I had busied myself in 
making trips with him, in securing for him 
the data on which he based this resolution. 
In the early part of 1879 he visited me at 
Mobile, Ala. I was then seeking to develop 
East Mississippi for the Mobile & Ohio 
Railroad, in the line of grass-raising and 
stock-breeding, and wanted his powerful 
help in that behalf. I have, in my letter on 
Kentucky blue-grass, shown how hard a 
time I had to convince him that we could 
successfully raise that grass. As soon as 
he was convinced that we could raise that 
grass — his previous visits had satisfied him 
as to clover, orchard, red top and other 
grasses — he went back to his home at 



GENERAL NOTES. 



83 



Greencastle, Ind., sent down one of his 
sons and two of his sons-in-law, with the 
hope that they would buy land and embark 
in Shorthorn raising. But a yellow fever 
scare frightened them home. 

Every Shorthorn raiser knows who Dr. 
Stevenson was : the organizer, I believe, of 
the American Association of Shorthorn 
Breeders, and, for a time, its president — I 
believe its first, and an early importer of 
that breed of cattle from England, and per- 
haps the best — certainly among the best — 
Shorthorn users of that day. 

After I had felt thoroughly assured of 
my ground, I made up my mind to make a 
strong move in behalf of Shorthorn breed- 
ing on the Mobile & Ohio Railroad. So, 
in 1880, I invited two of the prominent citi- 
zents of East Mississippi to be my guests 
to the blue-grass region of Kentucky, to 
inspect the situation. We started from 
Lexington, and drove to the Blue Lick 
Springs, taking in all the noted stock- 
raisers. Returning, we visited the Hamil- 
tons — James and William — at Mount Ster- 
ling, Kentucky. It so chanced that one 
of the sons of one of these Hamiltons 
had married a relative of mine, and 
this gave me a "touch" with them. At 
the time of my visit there was a banquet 
given at Winchester, after the regal fashion 
of those rich and hospitable people. 

"Archie" Hamilton — generally master of 
ceremonies — had put me forward to reply 
to one of the toasts — "The Cow." Fortu- 
nately for me, I knew some great things 
about Shorthorn breeding South. I had 
had some pretty hot discussions with these 
Kentucky breeders as to the possibility of 
raising Shorthorns South; but I had the 
facts. 

"Where," said I, "did Mr. Hamilton get 
his 'Duke of Noxubee?' " The enquirer 
was nonplussed. 

"He got him of Simeon Orr, of Missis- 
sippi, and he was named the Duke of Nox- 
ubee for the county of that name in that 
State," I replied. No need to tell a Short- 
horn breeder what the Duke of Noxubee 
was. "Archie" Hamilton knew well, and 
many a Shorthorn breeder paid fabulous 
prices for his "get." 

"Where," I asked, "were the highest- 
priced Shorthorns ever sold raised?" No 
answer. 

"By Simeon Orr, of Noxubee county. 



Mississippi," said L Then there was a hub- 
bub, to be sure. Contradictions came fast. 
But the veteran, Abe Renwick, a guest of 
the occasion, the proprietor of the "Red 
Rose of Sharon" strain, one of the greatest 
authorities living in his day, said: "Mr. 
Hillyard is right. The sale was at Mill- 
brook, Duchess county, New York. The 
cow — I forget her name — brought $39,000, 
if my memory be not at fault." 

Now, I do not assert that this cow was 
born in Noxubee county. I forget. But 
she was raised there, if not born. Sold by 
Orr to the gentleman there, and resold by 
him at the price named. But the point is 
just as good, as against those who hold that 
Shorthorns bred or raised South deterior- 
ate. 

So triumphant was my work in behalf of 
raising Shorthorns South that "Archie" 
Hamilton, the son of the owner of the 
"Duke of Noxubee," wrote me that he in- 
tended to visit East Mississippi, with the 
view of raising Shorthorns there; but the 
failure of his health compelled him to sell 
his precious herd, and I lost sight of him. 

Right near the spot where Simeon Orr 
raised his celebrated Shorthorns, the breed 
is still raised. Only a day or two ago I 
had a letter from a noted breeder there, 
telling of his choice blue-grass pastures, 
and how he was renting some of them for 
grazing. Think of that, ye who say we 
can't raise Kentucky blue-grass South! 

If I do not mention other States South as 
raising Shorthorns it is for want of space 
for my letter. Forty years or more ago 
magnificent Shorthorns were raised here 
(Louisiana), and there is no difificulty in any 
Southern State. I could fill a large letter 
with references to superb Shorthorns South 
in ante bellum times from the agricultural 
reports, from which I have so largely 
quoted in my articles on sheep-raising. 

I have preferred to give what I have writ- 
ten, because it is so authoritative and irre- 
sistible. 

M. B. HILLYARD. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Mr. A. D. M. Osborne, of Charlotte, N. C, 
who had a small advertisement in the "South- 
ern States" for February and March, writes as 
follows: 

"Your magazine is certainly read very closel.v 
by the people of the North and Bast. I do not 
think I have ever seen such response to a small 



84 



GENERAL NOTES. 



advertlsemeut. (My stenographer has 'struck 
for higher wages.')" 

It is the mission of Littell's Living Age to se- 
lect the very best of all the literature published 
in British magazines and reviews and serve it 
fresh to its readers every week. This thin, 
modest, fawn-covered weekly volume of sixty- 
four pages is, in fact, the largest as well as the 
richest of American magazines. The March is- 
sues gave the usual feast of good things, brought 
from the fields of history, biography, discovery, 
travel, romance and poetry. Among the valu- 
able papers which appear in these numbers may 
be mentioned "John Stuart Blackie," by A. H. 
Miller; "Our Limited Vision and the New Pho- 
tography," from the London Lancet; "Reflex 
Action, Instinct and Reason," by G. Archdall 
Reid; "A Sister-iu-Law of Mary Queen of 
Scots," from Blackwood; "The Two Dumas," 
by C. E. Meitkerke; "The Evolution of Editors," 
by Leslie Stephen, and "Florian," by Augustus 
Manston. Littell & Co., of Boston, are the pub- 
lishers. 

The Review of Reviews for April contains the 
most complete account yet published of the Cu- 
ban situation, written by Murat Halstead and 
elaborately illustrated. The Pending Cam- 
paigns in Abyssinia and the Soudan are de- 
scribed by the editor in the "Progress of the 
World" (together with various other foreign 
and home topics), and illustrated with a map 
and a large number of portraits and pictures. 
Other articles in the April number are "Eng- 
lish Response to the Appeal for Arbitration;" 
"Murat Halstead— A Sketch," by Albert Shaw; 
"An American Heroine in the Heart of Arme- 
nia;" "Shall We Have the Poe Cottage?" 

The McDowell Fashion Magazine at hand con- 
tain many new ideas of great value to both pro- 
fessional and amateur dressmakers. 

"La Mode de Paris" and "Paris Album of 
Fashions" cost $3.50 per year's subscription, or 
thirty-five cents a copy. The "French Dress- 
maker" is $3 per annum, or thirty cents a copy, 
and "La Mode" $1.50 a year, or fifteen cents a 
copy. If you are unable to procure either of 
these journals from your newsdealer, do not 
take any substitute, but apply by mail to 
Messrs. A. McDowell & Co., 4 West 14th street, 
New York. 

Theatre toilettes, reception gowns, marvelous 
spring hats, children's frocks and everything 
bewitchin c and appropriate to the season, are 
shown in illustration and descriptit'u in the 
number of Harper's Bazar issued on April 11. 
A striking and timely paper on "Woman's Stu- 
dent Life at Oxford," by Cynthia Barnard, is a 
feature of the number. 

Harper's Weekly for April 11— an issue of un- 
usual size, comprising forty-eight pages and an 
illustrated cover— is a "bicycle number," and 
yet by no means exclusively devoted to the 
wheel. The following is a partial list of its lit- 
erary and pictorial features: Double-page draw- 
ing by W. T. Smedley, "An Afternoon Spin on 



Riverside Drive;" two full-page drawings by A. 
B. Frost, "A Century Run— On the Home- 
stretch;" "Tourists;" front-page drawing by A. 
J. Keller, "The Michaux Club;" "The Story of 
the Wheel," by A. G. Batchelder (illustrated); 
"Touring," by James B. Townsend (illustrated); 
"The Racing Side of Bicycling," by Albert Mott 
(illustrated); "The Bicycle in the Army," by 
Major Howard A. Gifting, C. N. G. (illus- 
trated; "The Bicycle's Relation to Good Roads," 
by Isaac B. Potter; "The Bicycle in Relation to 
Health," by Henry Smith Williams, M. D. ; 
"The Modems Awheel," by Harry A. Gushing; 
"Into the Happy Hunting-Grounds of the Utes," 
by Hamlin Garland, with full-page illustration 
by Hari-y Fenn; "Ancient New York Market 
Rights," by Julian Ralph, with full-page illus- 
tration by Al Hencke; "The Naval War College 
at Newport," by Lieut. S. A. Stanton, U. S. N., 
with full-page illustration by W. L. Sonntag; 
"A Natural Protector," complete story by 
Thomas Wharton, illustrated by T. de Thul- 
strup. 

The "Southern States" is in receipt of a pho- 
tograph, showing a number of very attractive 
views, accompanied by the following letter from 
Mr. C. Irving Page, Auburndale, Fla. : 

"I send you a photograph showing some of 
our orange groves last month. Such erroneous 
impressions seem to be general about groves, 
etc., in this section that I photographed a few 
trees and also some vegetable fields, thinking 
this might show our present condition better 
than many pages of writing. That we were 
badly hurt by the freeze of 1895 goes without 
saying, but that we were killed out is a long 
ways from the truth; some trees, having been 
well protected by our large, deep lakes, timber, 
etc., did not lose their leaves. One of our grow- 
ers here estimates his crop this year at 500 
boxes of oranges; another, 100, and most all 
groves about here show more or less bloom, 
while here and there we find "a regular flower 
tree." Our fields of tomatoes, egg plants, 
squash, etc., have not been hurt at all by cold 
this season, and many shipments are being 
made daily." 

Mr. Page has an advertisement elsewhere in 
this number. 

Representatives of prospective settlers from 
the Northwest and other sections will And val- 
uable information in the advertisement of 
Messrs. Samuel W. Goode & Co., Atlanta, Ga., 
on another page. The tract of 24,000 acres of 
Georgia yellow-pine timber would seem to offer 
an exceptional opportunity at the low price 
asked for it. Besides this, Messrs. Goode & 
<Jo. control farm and orchard lands in all parts 
of the State of Georgia and in other parts of 
the South, and also city property. 

I'ersons going to Florida, or thinking of buy- 
ing land in any part of the South, may find 
something to their advantage in the advertise- 
ment of H. Ruge & Sons, Apalachicola, Fla. 

North Carolina is attracting widespread at- 
tention on account of its facilities for fruit- 
growing, truck farming, stock raising, dairy- 



THE 



Southern States. 



HAY, 1896. 



ARBOR DAY. 

By James R. Randall. 

The Department of Agriculture, at in a different direction and with no less 

Washington, has issued a very inter- striking results. The statistical re- 

esting pamphlet on Arbor Day from port of the Department of Agriculture 

the pen of Mr. N. H. Eggleston. This gives the value of our cereal crops for 

Bulletin, as it is ofificially called, dem- the year 1894 as follows: 

onstrates the intellectual force of the Wheat $225,902,025 

writer and his varied and scholarly at- Corn 554,719,162 

tainments. Necessarily, Hon. J. Ster- Oats 214.816,920 

ling Morton, Secretary of Agriculture, Rye 13.395.476 

has a conspicuous place in the picture, Barley 27,134,127 

but it would be impossible to write on Buckwheat 7,040,238 

thus subject withing giving him special 

and deserved prominence. Indeed, Total $1,043,007,948 

Mr. Eggleston states that his pen was , , ^ 

restrained in this respect rather than o'' ^^ss by $15,000,000 than our one 

stimulated. ^^^^f ^ ^\''^- . 

We are first informed of the com- -^'^^ depletion of our tmiber by va- 

mercial value of trees, and this is done ^'^o^s railway, mining and other cor- 

at a glance almost by comparing, sta- porations is shown to be deplorably 

tistically, the value of the product of immense, while the most criminal 

gold and silver mines with the prod- wastefulness is ^ known to prevail 

ucts of our forests. In the one case it where magnificent forests have been 

is $70,922,000, and in the second case scourged by fire as not only to destroy 

$1,058,650,859, or fifteen times that of younger growths of trees, but to turn 

gold and silver. fertile soils into deserts. 

"Another comparison is very signi- "It is estimated that on the average 
ficant. If we add to the gold and sil- not more than three-eighths of what 
ver products that of all other minerals, we cut i^^the forests is utilized, five- 
including such prominent ones as iron, eighths of 'tl'fe material being wasted, 
copper, lead, zinc, coal, lime, natural In the great redwood forests of the 
gas, petroleum, salt, slate, building Pacific Coast such is the wasteful 
stones, and the twenty-five or more method of operation, it is said, that in 
remaining, which are less important, procuring a railroad tie worth thirty- 
we shall have for the value of all our five cents, $1.87 worth of the sub- 
mineral products obtained during the stance of the tree is w^asted. In Eu- 
vear 1894, $553,352,996, or only about rope it is estimated that seven-eighths 
one-half the value of our forest prod- of the forest material is made use of, 
ucts. and the waste is only one-eighth. 

"Again, we may make a comparison "A conspicuous case of wastefulness 

■ 85 



86 



ARBOR DAY. 



is worth noting in this connection, not 
only as an instance of wastetuhiess, 
but for the great and direct damage 
resulting from it. To meet the de- 
mands of a great mining company on 
one of the Sierra Nevada ranges, a 
band of men, numbering thousands in 
all, were sent with their axes into a 
forest district in that vicinity. It was 
an extensive region, and the forest pre- 
sented a stand of trees not excelled, 
perhaps, in quality in all the country. 
Every condition of climate and soil 
had been favorable for their growth. 
They stood thick and stalwart. 

"As the quickest and easiest way of 
getting out the largest trees, which 
were the ones wanted for the miners' 
use, the forest was cut clean and lev- 
eled with the ground. Then, the tim- 
ber having been removed, the re- 
maining trees, spread over miles and 
miles of the mountain side, were given 
to the flames. The fire not only con- 
sumed the trees, but burned up the 



mighty mass of burning fuel that, in 
many places, they crumbled to gravel. 
When the rains came and the snows 
melted rapidly in springtime — having 
no sheltering foliage of the trees to 
protect them from the rays of the sun 
— the ashes of the burned trees, and 
what was left of the soil, together with 
the rocky gravel, were swept down the 
mountain side with torrent swiftness 
and force, overflowing the banks of 
the watercourses, tearing them from 
their places, and pouring out the de- 
bris of disintegrated rock upon the 
fertile meadows below to the depth of 
many feet. 

"The settlers in the peaceful valleys 
at the foot of the mountains, to whom 
the dense forests had -sent from their 
saturated spongy soil and the slowly 
melting snows under their protecting 
shade a steady and sufftcient suppl}^ of 
water to enable them to prosecute 
their farming operations in that arid 
region with an assurance of success 




LI\'E OAK TREE, AUDUBOX PARK!, NEW ORLEANS, ANTEDATING 
THE SETTLEMENT OF THAT COl'NTRV. 



soil beneath them — the rich leaf mold, 
which was the accumulation of cen- 
turies of tree growth. The very rocks 
beneath it were so heated bv the 



nowhere surpassed, now found them- 
selves at the mercy of torrents in the 
spring season and droughts in the 
summer time, and were forced to aban- 



ARBOR DAY 



87 



don their no longer productive farms. 
Those green mountain slopes which 
it had taken centuries of growth to 
prepare as the guarantee of fertility 



cation in a large degree. Millions of 
trees are in this way planted every 
} ear, and the work of reparation goes 
grandly on along wath intellectual im- 




LANE AT DARLINGTON, MD. 



to the fields below are gone. Naked 
rocks only are now to be seen in their 
place. It will take centuries to clothe 
them again with trees, and meanwhile 
the valleys and plains below will re- 
main the desert which the greed and 
recklessness of man have created 
there." 

Under such circumstances, Arl^or 
Day became a national necessity, as 
well as a national holiday. 

Mr. George P. Marsh, the eminent 
diplomatist and representative of the 
United States at foreign courts, chiefly 
in Italy and Turkey, was the first to 
call attention to this subject, but prac- 
tical application in the United States 
was inaugurated by Secretary Mor- 
ton. To him, Arl)or Day honoredly 
and worthily belongs in a suggestive 
and actual sense. It is not only a day 
devoted to tree planting by public 
schools and communities all over the 
countrv, but it is a seminary for edu- 



provement and what is felicitously 
called "tree sentiment." Testimonials 
of the benefit of this holiday are from 
the highest sources and almost of 
overwhelming magnitude. 

Mr. Eggleston says: 

"It is not a matter for wonder, there- 
fore, that an institution with such a 
si)irit and such possibilities, with so 
much to commend it to the attention 
of persons of intelligence and gener- 
ous feeling, and especially to the ar- 
dent natures of the young, should 
have a speedy and wide acceptance. 
And so, by its own manifest merit and 
without an}' propagandism on its be- 
half, it has been adopted by nearly ev- 
ery State and Territory of the Union ; 
and limited by no national boundaries, 
it has even crossed the Atlantic on the 
one hand, and become established in 
Great Britain, France, and Xorthern 
and Southern Africa ; and on the other, 
within the present Acar, has crossed 



ARBOR DAY. 



the Pacific and been welcomed in the 
Hawaiian Islands and in Japan. 

"The beneficent results of an insti- 
tution of this character, and already 
almost worldwide in its reach, no one 
can measure. Year by year it will 
bring millions of people, young and 
old, into a closer and more intimate 
contact with nature, unveiling to them 
its precious secrets, opening to them 
stores of valuable knowledge, and cul- 
tivating in them the best feelings. In 
our own country it promises to do 
more than anything else to convert us 
from a nation of wanton destro3^ers of 
our unparalleled heritage of trees to 
one of tree-planters and protectors. 
Instead of looking upon the trees with 
indifi^erence, or even with a hostile 
feeling, as to a great extent we have 
done, or regarding them chiefly as ma- 
terial for use in the constructive arts, 
or to be consumed as fuel, we shall be- 
come tree-lovers. A tree sentiment 
will be created and established which 
will lead us to recognize and cherish 
the trees as friends, and while we shall 
freely make use of them in the various 
arts and industries of life, Ave shall be 
mindful of their value in other respects 



and find constant delight in their com- 
panionship." 

\>rv interesting accounts are given 
of the legislation on this subject and 
how Arbor Day should be observed 
for a common good. Specimens of 
addresses made on such occasions are 
furnished. The work of schools, in a 
technical sense, is outlined, with ex- 
cellent illustrations. Trees are con- 
sidered in their relations as living 
things, in masses, in forests, in their 
florescence and their leafless state, the 
value and beauty of leaves, methods of 
planting, in streets, grounds, lawns 
and parks. We are told how these 
plantings should be successfully done. 
Then the trees are considered in their 
ethical attitude, as masterpieces of 
God, as inspirers of poetry and incen- 
tives to reverence and art. 

The South should emulate and even 
surpass the Eastern, Middle and West- 
ern States in practical observance of 
Arbor Day. Texas has done nobly, 
and her example should be followed 
everywhere South of the Potomac. 

Hon. J. M. Carlisle, superintendent 
of public instruction in Texas, says: 

"Washington's birthday, February 




STREET TREE PLANTIXG. 



ARBOR DAY. 





■af^P 





AN OLD MAINE HOMESTEAD. 



22. is observed in this State as Arbor 
Da}-. It is observed as a holiday, and 
is devoted to the planting" of trees, 
shrubs, flowers and the general orna- 
mentation of public buildings and 
grounds. The patriotic exercises ap- 
propriate to Washington's birthday 
blend beautifully with the observance 
of Arbor Day. 

"The effect of the observance of the 
day is wholesome. Interest in the 
study of trees, shrubs and flowers is 
stimulated, appreciation of the won- 
ders and beauties of nature is height- 
ened, and the sentiment in favor of 
both physical and moral cleanliness is 
greatly strengthened, while patriotic 
feelings are aroused and the people 
are drawn together by the contempla- 
tion of so many great themes in which 
all have a common interest." 

The Commissioner of Agriculture 
in Pennsylvania, reciting the immense 
benefits of Arbor Day in his common- 
wealth, in a most valuable address, 
says: 

"Suppose each child in the State of 
Pennsylvania between the ages of five 



and seventeen years plants a tree which 
grows to a mature size. Put these all 
together at fifteen feet apart, and you 
will have a forest of eleven and one- 
half square miles. That means 7360 
acres of forest-^good, productive for- 
est. Each acre of such forest can, in 
the growing season, give back to the 
air about 14,500 tons of water by evap- 
oration or transpiration. In other 
words, as the result of planting one 
tree for each school-child of today 
there might be distilled back into our 
air, from this eleven and more square 
miles of forest area each growing sea- 
son, 106,720,000 tons of water. 

"Now, I want to ask you if you 
know what that water does up in the 
sky. It destroys the frost which kills 
your crops. That is, each one of you 
here who plants a long-lived tree of a 
kind that may grow to large propor- 
tions, will, when it has grown to mid- 
dle size, be placing away up there in 
the sky over seventy tons of w'ater 
each year, which is to help protect and 
produce the grain on which your 
grandchildren will live. Indeed, it 



90 



ARBOR DAY. 



may be, }Ou will find when you are 
done with earth that you have placed 
something in the sky of more import- 
ance still. You know that to 'love 
your neighbor' is half of the divine 
command. Will you plant a tree 
somewhere this year?" 

Certainly, such blessings, so easily 
procured, should be availed of enthu- 
siastically by the people of the South. 

The South, in such cities as New 
Orleans, Savannah, Augusta, Charles- 
ton and Mobile, for example, has un- 
derstood the noble art of embellish- 
ment by trees along the streets or in 
the suburbs. This art should be culti- 
vated more and more, until there is, 
as it were, nothing left short of what 
we call perfection. 

Magnificently endowed with forests 
as the South is, over one-half of all the 



standing timber in the United States 
being south of Mason and Dixon's 
line, it behooves this section to appre- 
ciate its goodly heritage. Forestry 
should l:)e made a study throughout 
this section. Arbor Day celebration 
ought to be observed in every school 
in the South, accompanied by some 
instruction as to the relation of forests 
to climate and rainfall. Every village 
and town in the South should encour- 
age the planting of shade trees, emu- 
lating in that respect the example of 
the national government, which has 
made Washington, because of its 
shade trees, one of the most beautiful 
cities in the world. The attractiveness 
of a home or of a village well shaded, 
as compared with the barrenness of 
one without trees, is strikingly illus- 
trated by the accompanying cuts. 



A SUMMER DAY IN DIXIE. 



By Edxcard Waricick. 



The summers are delightful in the 
Southern States. Let me describe a 
summer day in Dixie-: There is nothing 
in nature more nearly approaching the 
ideal than a summer day. In most 
climes a summer day is an etherial 
revelation, a beautiful jewel plucked 
from the crown of time, a sparkling- 
laugh from the newborn present, that 
ripples in successive smiles over the 
face of all living and growing things. 
But the summer day in Dixie — ah! 
here is something without a peer. In 
the great patchwork of days spread 
out over the face of the earth the most 
beautiful blocks fall upon the South- 
land — a spell of enchantment, a gem 
from Elysia, a gleam from time's 
brightest aurora, a ray of eternal hope. 

On the mountain tops, where the 
earth holds up its face, as it were, im- 
ploring heaven's benediction, the 
nymphic zephyrs brew the air for this 
perfect day. Pure as etherial dews, it 
comes from the fountain, gathering the 



choicest perfumes from the wild flow- 
ers that deck the sun-kissed mountain 
sides — on it goes through all the 
Southland, weaving its way through 
the rays of sunshine into one silken 
web of jocund day. Like youth, it 
comes coy-like, but soon bubbles over 
with rolic and laugh. Like a divine 
blessing, it is a balm to the wounded 
heart, a surcease of sorrow. It decks 
every living soul with garlands of joy 
and gladness. 

Such a coujpound of the perfect day 
can only come from the laboratory of 
the C^od of nature. All of its compo- 
nent parts are minutely apportioned, 
the temperature perfect, the moisture 
exact, the atmospheric motion just 
sufliicient to gently fan the cheek — 
diffused with the rare golden sunshine 
of this clime, makes a day pure as the 
dews of heaven and sweet as the breath 
of babes. Such is the summer dav in 
Dixie! 



cow PEAS: THEIR ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION, AND 
THEIR FEEDING AND FERTILIZING VALUE.* 



ORIGIN. 

The exact origin of this leguminous 
plant is unknown. It is said to be 
indigfenous in India and China, though 
-^many unsuccessful attempts have been 
made by Southern agriculturalists to 
obtain specimens from these countries 
for the purpose of identifying botani- 
cally, the varieties grown in the United 
States. 

When it was introduced into this 
country is also undecided. Prof Brewer 
gives it as his suspicion that it was 
about the middle of the last century by 
the London "Society for the Promo- 
tion of Arts and Commerce." 

It is known that under the auspices 
of this society many of our valuable 
sub-tropical plants (notably cotton) were 
introduced, and it is highly probable 
that the cow pea came in at this time 
and in this way. 

This, however, is a mere conjecture, 
ut we do know that the plant was here 
tvrly in the present century, and was 
ten, as now, called "cow pea." 

Why it was ever called "cow pea" is 
ah left to conjecture. One of its 
Hidoo or East Indian names is "cow 
lee' and Prof. Brewer thinks that 
entusiastic philologists might suppose 
ouraame a corruption of that, but he 
addi there is no evidence other than 
soun, of the connection of the two 
name, 

Pr( W. R. Dodson, botanist of the 
State xperiment Station, Baton Rouge, 
La., eoerimented last year with sixty- 
_^three ^-called varieties of cow peas, 
with th special object of studying them 
irom a otanical standpoint, to see first 
whetherhey were included under more 
than om^pecies, and secondly whether 
they cou' not all be classified under a 



*Condensefrom Bulletin No. 40 of the Louisiana 
Agricultural xperiment Station, Wm. C. Stubbs, 
Ph. D., Direc-, Baton Rouge, La. 



very few varieties. In his report he 
concludes from very close study and 
comparison ot the growing varieties 
that there is but one species of all of the 
varieties of the true "cow peas" and 
that the number of varieties can be 
greatly reduced, probably to five, pos- 
sibly to three. He regards the solid 
colors, black, white and red as pure 
varieties and the others as fluctuating 
hybrids of these three. The clay is 
possibly a degenerate red, but its con- 
stancy seems to be a character that 
would almost warrant a distinct variety. 
So too with those kinds like the granite, 
which shows little or no variations in 
the markings of color being small black 
spots on a dull brown background, 
possibly in the past a hybrid between a 
clay and a black. 

\ARIETIES. 

The so-called varieties of cow peas 
are very numerous. No systematic 
method of collecting and classifying 
them has ever been adopted. Nearly 
every community has a pea with special 
characteristics, bearing the name of 
some prominent farmer whose enter- 
prise led him to import it, or to origi- 
nate it by selection from some sport 
found in his or his neighbor's field. In 
this State we have the "King" pea, the 
"Colvin" pea and others known only 
locally, as the result of patient care and 
intelligence on the part of the origina- 
tors. Could a careful collection of all 
of the varieties thus distributed through- 
out the Southern States be made, their 
number would largely exceed one hun- 
dred. 

It is further believed that soil and 
climate and method of cultivation are 
factors in the modification of character- 
istics, which, if repeated, will produce a 
differential sufficient to constitute a new 
variety. Experiments have shown that 
the clay pea, usually a heavy runner, 



92 



cow PEAS: THEIR ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION. 



may by continued cultivation on a sandy 
soil in higher latitudes become a bunch 
pea. The writer has grown two varie- 
ties of clay peas whose seed were in 
every way identical in appearance, side 
by side on the same ground and under 
the same mode of treatment, and yet 
one would prove to be a prolific bunch 
and the other an immense runner. One 
would early ripen its fruit, while the 
other hardly produced, late in the sea- 
son, seed enough to replace those sown. 
Varieties are greatly modified by lati- 
tude. Seed grown continuously in 
Louisiana are apt to adapt themselves 
to this latitude and spend a large part 
of their energies in making vines before 
putting on fruit. The same seed grown 
in Virginia continuously will make less 
vine and mature their fruit in a shorter 
time, adapting themselves to their envi- 
ronment, 7. e., will become acclimated. 
If seed of this variety, taken both from 
Louisiana and Virginia, be sent to a 
more northern latitude, it will probably 
be found by cultivating them, that the 
Virginia seed will produce less vine and 
give fully matured fruit, while those 
from Louisiana would spend their en- 
ergies in making vines only. Such re- 
sults have been noted by several of our 
experiment stations. 

In the far South time of planting 
largely modifies the time of maturity 
and the tendency to \'ining. It is a 
common but truthful saying, that if 
vines are desired, peas should be sown 
early ; if seed, quite late. Hence the 
sugar planters of Louisiana, who sys- 
tematical!} follow a prescribed rotation 
of crops -vv.th corn and peas as one of 
the courses, frequently seriously injure 
the corn crop in order to secure an early 
crop of peas, and thus obtain a heavy 
crop of vines for turning under in 
August and September preparatory for 
a crop of cane. The same peas planted 
in July or August will make small vines 
but a good crop of peas (seed). Since 
the time ot maturing constitutes one of 
the characteristics of varieties, it is easily 
seen how varieties may thus be multi- 
plied. 

Varieties are thus distinguished by 
the form, size and color of the seed, by 
habits of growth as to vines or pods, 



time of maturity and color and size of 
pods. When the peas are closely 
packed in the pod, giving them a 
rounded form, and the pod conforms 
to the shape of the bean within, 
giving it when viewed in a perpen- 
dicular position, a sinuous outline, 
the varieties are styled "crowders," the 
simple meaning of which is that the 
seed are crowded in the pod. When 
the seed are somewhat flattened, rather 
kidney-shaped, and are not so closely 
crowded in the hull, the latter not 
showing distinctly the outline of the en- 
closed seed, they are called "kidneys." 
Perhaps varieties and possibly species 
are better differentiated by these char- 
acteristics than any other. The color 
of the seed isperhajis more diverse than 
any other characteristic. Given the 
three solid colors, white, black and red, 
and the combinations which can be made 
from them are almost countless ii care 
be taken in completely differentiating 
them. Hence cow peas with many 
colors, white to black through red, and 
their combinations, are obtainable. Color 
is a feature of cow peas, which can 
easily be modified by selection. In ; 
nearly every lot of clay peas will be / 
found light and dark shades of cream./ 
The author once separated these, and/ 
by continued separate plantings ob/ 
tained on the one hand a pea approach/ 
ing white in color, and on the oth'/ 
nearly red. A large majority of t'^ 
varieties are white wholly or in part. / 

The size of the pea may vary fr/n 
very large to very small, and yet sc>e 
varieties growing very large seed in he 
place, may produce a medium pei in 
another, the change being superind/ted 
either through soil or climate, or bp. 

So too with size of pods. As fi'ule 
the crowders are shorter than thekid- 
neys, but the length of either is g^^^tly 
modified by en\ironment. The j^vail- 
ing color of the hulls of cow Ms is 
straw color, yet several varieties /e now 
grown with decidedlv colore</ pods. 
Accidental variation was doubtl^ seized 
upon, and by careful selection -M prop- 
agation, a permanent variation Ptained. 

The habits of growth are no/onstant, 
as above shown, even in the saip variety. 
Yet it is well known that und/the same 






CO IV PEAS: THEIR ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 



circumstances, different varieties will vary 
greatly in behavior. Some vv^ill be im- 
mense "trailers," running flat on the 
ground for twenty feet (as the "conch"). 
Some will start off erect, then begin to 
run, making finally a large quantity of 
vines. While others will shoot up erect, 
and from erect stems send off fruit. 
Hence the farmer usually denominates 
them as "trailers," "runners" or "bunch." 
While the habit of growth is not an 
unerring characteristic of variety, yet it 
serves our purpose of classifying the ten- 
dencies of varieties. I have never seen 
the "conch" pea otherwise than a trailer, 
nor the "pea of the backwoods" anything 
but a bunch. 

Upon the habits of growth depend 
largely the successful mowing of pea 
vines by the mowing machine. Trailers 
are difficult to mow with an ordinary 
mower. Runners present some difficul- 
ties but may with care be accomplished. 
While bunch peas are as easily mowed 
as timothy grass. 

Time of maturity is a very varying 
factor, modified largely by time of plant- 
ing, character of soil and latitude. Yet 
varieties are so indelibly impressed with 
differences in times of maturity, that 
they exhibit these characteristics for a 
long time, until bred out of them by 
modifying environments. It is usual 
to speak of "very early," "early," 
"medium," "late" and "very late" varie- 
ties. These terms are full of meaning 
for varieties grown locally and thoroughly 
acclimated. But for use in Northern 
latitudes they are, as already explained, 
comparative only. 

cow PEA HAY AND SILAGE. 

From the above it may be seen that 
pea vine hay may be good, bad or 
indifferent, the quality depending largely 
upon the variety of pea, time of harvest 
and care in curing. 

When properly harvested and cured 
it is a most excellent food for stock, and 
it is the equal of red clover hay which 
is so largely used in the North. At the 
Delaware Station the yield of dry pea 
vine hay per acre was 2353 pounds and 
the Director compares it with the very 
best winter wheat bran as follows : 2353 
pounds dried pea vines contain 58 
pounds fat, 147 pounds ash, 320 pounds 



protein, 1596 pounds fibre and carbo- 
hydrates, and 232 pounds moisture. 
The same quantity of wheat bran con- 
tains 98 pounds fat, 120 pounds ash, 
296 pounds protein, 1272 pounds fibre 
and carbohydrates, 214 pounds moisture. 
"The bran leads in fat, but in all other 
respects the dry matter in the A'ines 
excels. It was found that with pea 
vines in a ration bran could be dispensed 
with." "The butter yields were slightly 
increased by its use without impairing 
the quality." The vines can be cured 
into hay or be preserved as silage. 
Either as hay or silage it is highly 
relished by stock. This is universally 
admitted except by the Kansas Station. 
"Three varieties were grown but the 
stock would not eat the vines green, 
cured or ensilaged. The crop possesses 
no value for Kansas farmers, unless 
possibly when used as a green manure." 
Rept. 1889, page 42. Per contra, the 
stations in Connecticut, New York, 
Pennsyhania, Delaware, Rhode Island 
and Mississippi, speak of the avidity 
with which the stock ate it either as hay 
or silage. Every Southern tarmer highly 
appreciates the forage from this plant, 
and in Louisiana it furnishes the bulk 
of the hay used upon the plantations. 
Besides the hay crop, this plant, if the 
proper variety be used, and is planted 
(at the South particularly) late enough, 
will yield a crop of berries which are 
extremely valuable as a concentrated 
food for man or animals. The Georgia 
Station reports the yield per acre of one 
variety (Quadroon) as high as 41.6 
bushels, with a number of others over 
thirty. 

cow PEAS AS A SOIL RESTORER. 

Valuable as this plant is for its vine 
and fruit as food, its superlative excel- 
lence lies in the property which it has 
of restoring worn soils. This property 
it shares with all leguminous plants, but 
it surpasses them all in producing the 
maximum results in a minimum of time. 
Clovers, trefoil, lupins and alfalfa are 
used in different countries as soil reno- 
vators. They are planted in the fall or 
spring, and occupy the ground the 
entire season or longer for good results. 
In the South the cow pea is planted in 
the late spring or early summer, and 



94 



COW PEAS: THEIR ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 



the crop of vines or peas are harvested 
or buried for fertihzing purposes in early 
tall. The growth and development of 
this plant is both rapid and enormous, 
particularly when planted on good land. 
It perhaps assimilates more plant food 
in a short time than any other legumin- 
ous plant. 

This plant, in common with all others 
of the pulse family, assimilates the 
nitrogen of the air, and if phosphates, 
potash and lime be present in the soil, 
it will grow with great rapidity and 
luxuriance. The . manner of assimila- 
tion of nitrogen has recently been pa- 
tiently investigated by scientists, and 
while the exact process by which it is 
accomplished is not yet clearly under- 
stood, the primary cause is clearly 
shown. If a farmer will pull up care- 
fully with its roots a pea vine plant from 
his field, and examine closely each root- 
let, he will, if he has selected a healthy 
growing specimen, find each one cov- 
ered with wart-like protuberances or 
tubercles. These tubercles, if exam- 
ined under a powerful microscope, will 
be found filled with micro organisms of 
bacteria. They are living on the plant 
and are drawing from it the mineral 
matter requisite for their existence. 
Simultaneously however, they are as- 
similating the free nitrogen of the air 
which reaches them through the poros- 
ity of the soil. These bacteria have a 
very ephemeral existence but great 
facility for rapid multiplication. Hence 
millions die every tew moments and are 
absorbed and appropriated b)'- the grow- 
ing plant. This living together of the 
plant and its seeming parasite, each act- 
ing as a purveyor of food for the other, 
is a most remarkable discovery made 
almost simultaneously by Dr. W. O. 
Atwater of this country, and Hellriegel 
of Germany. While it has long been 
known that leguminous plants had these 
nodules on their roots, and longer still 
that they were in some way nitrogen 
gatherers, and therefore soil improvers, 
yet the relations between these nodules 
and the plant were determined only a 
few years since by these distinguished 
scientists. 

These organisms are believed to live 
in the soil, and there are strong reasons 



for believing that each kind of legumi- 
nous plant has its own peculiar bac- 
terium. Hence it is sometimes found 
necessary to "inoculate a soil" before it 
will grow successfully certain legumes. 
This is accomplished by applying a 
light dressing of the soil in which the 
legume has been successfully grown, or 
by sprinkling it with an intusion from 
that soil, or better still with an infusion 
of the roots (with their tubercles) of 
the plant which you desire to grow. 

Even a soil which is "too poor to 
grow cow peas" may by inoculation be 
made to produce a fairly good crop. 
Having once inoculated it better crops 
of peas may each succeeding year be 
grown. It is possible that the excellent 
results obtained from a crop following a 
pea or clover crop, even when the entire 
growth above ground has been removed 
for hay, are largely due to the immense 
number of bacteria left in the soil by 
these crops. With the chemical com- 
position of the pea plant and the knowl- 
edge of the facility with which it draws 
its nitrogen from the air, one can readily 
appreciate the advantages to be derived 
from growing a crop of cow peas. 

ADVANTAGES OF THE COW PEA CROP. 

(i) It is a nitrogen gatherer; (2) it 
shades the soils in summer, keeping 
them in a condition most suitable to the 
most rapid "nitrification" and leaves 
them friable and loose in the best con- 
dition for a tuture crop ; (3) it has a 
large root development and hence 
pumps up from great depths and large 
areas the water and with it the mineral 
matter needed by the plant ; (4) its 
adaptability to all kinds of soils, stifitest 
clays to most porous sands, fertile 
alluvial bottoms to barren uplands ; (5) 
it stands the heat and sunshine of 
Southern summers ; (6) its rapid growth 
enables the farmer in the South to grow 
two crops a year on the same soil ; (7) 
if sown thickly, will by its rapid growth 
and shade, etTectually smother all weeds 
and thus serve as a cleansing crop ; (8) 
it is the best preparatory crop known to 
the Southern farmer, every kind of 
crop grows well after it ; (9) on the 
alluvial lands of the Mississippi bottoms, 
it serves to pump off excessive water,, 
evaporating it through its great foliage,. 



cow PEAS: THEIR ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 



95 



thus keeping the soil in a condition for 
most rapid nitrification during the entire 
growing season; (lo) it furnishes a 
most excellent food in large quantities 
for both man and animals. 

With all of these advantages, it is no 
wonder that it is called the "clover of 
the South," and were it used regularly 
throughout the South as one of the 
crops in a regular but short system of 
rotation, the soils of this section would 
soon rival in fertility their primitive 
conditions. 

A few results taken from the bulletins 
of the different experiment stations 
will show the large accumulations of 
nitrogen made by this crop upon an 
acre of soil. There is also given 
amounts of phosphoric acid and potash 
contained in the crop gathered from the 
soil and subsoil. 

Louisiana Sugar Station obtained 
3330 pounds dry matter in the vines 
and 1040 in the roots from an acre. 
The former contained 56 pounds nitro- 
gen, 16 pounds phosphoric acid, and 
92 pounds potash, and the latter 8^ 
pounds nitrogen, 4^4 pounds phos- 
phoric acid and no pounds potash. 

At the North Louisiana Experiment 
Station twelve varieties of peas have 
been grown for three years on the same 
land and entire amounts of vines, peas 
and roots harvested, weighed and 
analyzed. The average of the best for 
the three years are as follows, per acre: 





Nitrogen, 
lbs. 


PhosDhoric 
Acid, lbs. 


Potash, 
lbs 


Black 


96 

88 
79 

64 
55^ 


19% 
17 
18 
17 

1014 


8]!^ 




78 

65 
53 
4014 




Red 


Clay 


Whippoorwill 



In Alabama the average yield per 
acre of vines gave 115^ pounds nitro- 
gen, 39 pounds phosphoric acid and 89 
pounds potash, and of roots, "jyl pounds 
nitrogen, 7 pounds phosphoric acid and 
39 pounds potash, or a total of 123^ 
pounds nitrogen, 46 pounds phosphoric 
acid and 118 pounds potash. 

In Connecticut the Storrs Agricul- 
tural Station gives for the total plant, 
including roots, 90 pounds nitrogen, 23 



pounds phosphoric acid and 75 pounds 
potash per acre. 

In Rhode Island for the black peas 
the total crop of green vines per acre 
was 35,003 pounds, containing 157 
pounds nitrogen, 32.2 pounds phos- 
phoric acid and 109^ pounds potash. 
Assuming the roots to be one -fifth of 
the dry matter of the vines, and using 
the analysis given by Storrs Agricul- 
tural Station, the director estimates an 
addition to the above of ly}^ pounds 
nitrogen, 5.15 pounds phosphoric acid 
and 10 pounds potash for the fertilizing 
ingredients of the roots in order to ob- 
tain the true manurial value of an acre 
of cow peas. 

Arkansas reports the presence ot 68 
pounds nitrogen, 14 pounds phosphoric 
acid and 50 pounds potash in a crop of 
peas grown upon an acre of land. 

South Carolina reports the yield of 
3.6 tons of dry matter to the acre, con- 
taining 205 pounds nitrogen, 33 pounds 
phosphoric acid and 155 pounds potash. 

Other yields might be given, but these 
suffice to demonstrate the fertilizing 
value of the cow pea. The average of 
the yields of the six States given above 
is 122 pounds nitrogen per acre. If it 
be assumed, which is doubtless true, 
that the larger part of this nitrogen 
comes from the air and is therefore a 
direct addition to the fertility of the soil, 
one can easily calculate the money 
value of this addition. 

Nitrogen is the most costly of all the 
ingredients of fertilizers. It is also the 
most fugitive element of our soils, being 
washed out by rains and removed lai'ge- 
ly by grain crops. The average price 
paid for this element in commercial 
fertilizers by the farmers of this coun- 
try is not far from 15 cents per pound. 
Using this as our factor the money value 
of an average pea crop, measured by 
its nitrogen contents alone is over $18 
per acre. In many instances it far ex- 
ceeds this sum. No account has been 
taken of the phosphoric acid and potash 
present, since those come wholly from 
the soil, but by transferring them from 
greater depths to the surface soil, which 
is accomplished when pea vines are 
turned under as a fertilizer, they are 
made immediately available for the sue- 



96 



COM/ PEAS: THEIR ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION. 



ceeding crop, and to this extent has 
added to the money value of the pea 
crop. 

In the experiments at the North 
Louisiana Experiment Station with dif- 
ferent varieties, it was found that the 
proportions of fruit to vines varied 
from ID to 25 per cent, in the running 
varieties to 60 to over 100 per cent, in 
the bunch. The percentage of roots to 
vines depended also upon the character 
of the variety. The running varieties 
averaged about 20 per cent., while the 
bunch ran from 33 per cent, up to 100 
per cent., the amount depending entire- 
ly upon the bunchiness and prolificness 
of the variety. The percentage of peas 
to hulls was more constant, varying be- 
tween the limits of 70 and 76 per cent. 

The moisture in green pea vines may 
be assumed without much error to be 
85 per cent, of its weight, leaving 15 
per cent, of dry matter. The growing- 
vine may be roughly estimated to con- 
tain 0.40 per cent, nitrogen, 0.07 per 
cent, phosphoric acid, and 0.30 per 
cent, potash. The yield of green matter 
varies with soil and variety, but yields 
of over 20 tons per acre are recorded. 

The pea vine hay, if cured with leaves 
on and from one of the running varie- 
ties, will contain approximately the fol- 
lowing percentages : Nitrogen, 2 per 
cent.; phosphoric acid, 3 per cent., and 
potash, 1.5 per cent. 

Therefore an easy calculation of the 
approximate value of the fertilizing 
effects of a crop of pea vines can be 
made by using the above figures after 
the weight of green or dry matter to 
the acre is obtained. 

ROTATION OF CROPS. 

Every system of profitable farming 
must sooner or later consist of a rotation 
of crops with at least one renovating 
crop in the cycle. The enlightened 
agriculturist of every country is on the 
lookout for a valuable leguminous crop, 
which will be an addition to his fields 
and his system. The sugar planters of 
South Louisiana very generally practice 
a rotation of sugar cane, corn and cow 
peas. The rotation is not violated even 
when the peas are extremely high in 
price They find that no other crop or 
fertilizer can compare in results with the 



cow pea. By turning under the vines 
with heavy plows in August or Septem- 
ber, the ground is in most excellent 
condition for the planting of cane in 
October. Thus the fertility and pro- 
ductiveness of his soils are maintained. 
But the cotton planter as a rule has no 
rotation. Cotton follows cotton, with an 
occasional change to corn, and with the 
regularity of the seasons. Under this 
exclusive culture of cotton, much of the 
lands of the Southern States have be- 
come so depleted in fertility and so 
deprived of humus as to render uncer- 
tain the profits to be derived from its 
cultivation. Remunerative returns for 
the labor and expenses of cultivation are 
rarely received. It is therefore a ques- 
tion of paramount importance to e\'ery 
patriotic citizen, how to restore these 
worn and tired soils. Can these seem- 
ingly exhausted soils be restored to their 
primitive fertility, and at the same time 
return each year a fair remuneration for 
the labor and expense involved in the 
accomplishment? Several stations re- 
ply most positively in the affirmative. 

Arkans.'s station gives results show- 
ing that "a rotation of crops, including 
I he cow pea, will maintain and restore 
fertility to worn soils, without the use 
of any kind of manure and at the same 
time with a profit." It shows also, that 
"the vines turned under increased the 
crop of cotton over the plat from which 
the vines were removed for hay." "It 
was more profitable however, to feed 
pea vine hay (with cotton seed) to stock, 
and return the manure to the soil, than 
to use the vines directly as a fertilizer." 

Extensive experiments at the State 
Experiment Station, Baton Rouge, La., 
and at the North Louisiana Experi- 
ment Station, Calhoun, covering a rota- 
tion of oats, cow peas, cotton and corn 
and cow peas, with and without appro- 
priate fertilizers, extending over six 
years, have been made and the results 
published in bulletin form. They have 
conclusively shown that the poorest 
lands of this State can easily be reno- 
vated by above rotation, and more 
rapidly in connection with the use of 
fertilizers. Fair profits may be realized 
each year by the adoption of the latter 
system of rotation. The Georgia Ex- 



CO IV PEAS: THEIR ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 



97 



periment Station has tried a similar ro- 
tation, and finds such beneficial results 
as to commend the system to the farm- 
ers of that State. 

Occasionally it may be found that the 
soil is too poor to grow even cow peas 
without assistance, and therefore it will 
be necessary to add mineral manures 
(phosphates and potash) at the time of 
planting. In fact it may be deemed 
wise to add phosphates, and perhaps 
potash to nearly all soils in conjunction 
with the planting of cow peas. 

AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF THE PARTS OF THE COW 
PKA (AIR DRIKD) 



Part. 



Peas 

Hulls 

Vines 

Roots , 

Stems 

Leaves 

Leaf sta'ks 



12.68 
13-34 
12.03 
12.58 



11.05 
9.64 



0< 



3-8.S 
1. 16 
1-94 
1-32 
1.09 
3-01 
1. 01 



1-45 
1.23 

I 82 

1-52 
2.25 
1. 12 
1-34 



From the above it will be seen that 
the nitrogen predominates in the peas 
and in the leaves, while potash is most 
abundant in the stems. Therefore in 
curing pea vine hay, great care should 
be exercised to harvest as many leaves 
as possible, since their loss depreciates 
greatly its value as food and increases 
the stems with a superabundance of 
potash and deficiency of nitrogen. This 
excessive potash in the stems of pea 
vines also suggests most careful pains in 
curing them, since fermentation may 
easily develop "nitre" (nitrate of potash) 
in the vines which may in excessive 
quantities have serious effects upon the 
kidneys of work stock. 

The variety of cow pea therefore 
furnishing the largest amount of nitro- 
gen is best suited for both hay and as a 
soil improver, and an inspection of 
above table will show that that variety 
must have an abundant foliage, since the 
leaves are richest in this ingredient. If, 
however, beans or peas be sought with 
an early maturity, then the Speckled, 
Blue, etc., may be the more desirable 
varieties. 

All varieties of cow peas bearing much 
foliage are late in maturing, therefore 



for forage and green manuring they 
should be planted early to secure maxi- 
mum results. 

SHALL PEA VINES BE TURNED UNDER 
OR HARVESTED OR FED? 

Experiments have been made by the 
Georgia Station for two years to deter- 
mine the most economical disposition of 
the pea crop. To this end three series 
of plats were prepared and all of them 
fertilized alike with 200 pounds acid 
phosphate per acre, and planted in cow 
peas. On the first series the vines were 
permitted to ripen their peas and these 
were removed and the dead vines 
turned under in November. On another 
series the vines were turned under 
when in full luxuriance of growth. 
On the remaining series the vines 
were cut at the proper stage and 
made into hay. Credit was given for 
the peas picked and hay removed. The 
next year the entire plat was put in cot- 
ton and treated alike and the results of 
the cotton from each series carefully and 
separately weighed and valued. While 
both the green vines and dead ones 
from which the peas were picked gave 
in their order increased yields of cotton 
over the series fVom which the vines 
were removed for hay, yet the money 
value of the results, including value of 
peas and hay removed, were strongly in 
favor of the last series. The following 
are the conclusions of the Director for 
the two years : 

"The two experiments agree with re- 
markable closeness, and the results may 
be accepted as conclusive. Therefore, 
the 'conclusions' reached as the result of 
the first experiment are confirmed and 
adopted as follows : 

"(I.) That the best disposition of a 
crop of field peas is to convert the vines 
into hay. 

"(2.) The next best is to permit the 
peas to ripen and gather them (or pas- 
ture them). 

"(3.) Turning the pea vines under 
green gave the poorest economic re- 
sults. 

"Note. — It may be truly said that the 
practice of turning under a crop of cow 
pea vines- — ready for the mower, and in 
a few days for the barn and for the 
cattle — has no more reason to sustain it 



98 



CO IV PEAS: THEIR ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION. 



than would the practice of turning un- 
der a crop of wheat, oats, corn or cot- 
ton at its most vigorous stage of growth. 
Nearly every form of stock food would 
be a valuable and effective fertilizer if 
applied immediately and directly to the 
soil ; but the farmer, in an economic 
sense, can no more afford to manure his 
soil with a crop of pea vines that are 
ready to mow, than he can to sow good, 
sound wheat bran on his land as a fer- 
tilizer." 

Similar experiments have been made 
at other stations with like conclusions. 
It may therefore be assumed that the 
best economy suggests that where live 
stock are present in sufficient numbers 
to consume it, that the pea vines be 
made into hay and fed, and the re- 
sultant manures carefully returned to 
the soil. Elsewhere will be found the 
high feeding value of both vine and 
peas, both of which are possessed of 
high digestion coefficients. Experi- 
ments made at the North Carolina Sta- 
tion with pea vines, established the fol- 
lowing digestion coefficients, viz.: Dry 
matter 59.2 per cent., protein 64.5 per 
cent., fats, 50 per cent., carbohydrates 
70.7 per cent., fibre 42.9 per cent., ash 
45.1 per cent., which are, with the ex- 
ception of fibre, much higher than the 
coefficients given for red, crimson or 
Alsike clovers. The pea, like all con- 
centrated foods, has enough coefficients 
of digestion. 

If, however, there are not enough 
stock to consume the vines, they should 
be turned under. The proper time for 
doing this will depend largely on the 
- character of the soil and the exigencies 
of the farmer. If a winter crop is to 
follow, they should be turned under 
on all soils early enough to insure par- 
tial decomposition by the time of seed- 
ing. If a spring crop is to follow, and 
the soil is stiff and clayey, they should 
be turned under in the fall and the land 
thrown into high rows, permitting sur- 
face drainage, so as to receive the bene- 
ficial physical effects which the winter 
under such conditions will produce. If 
the land be porous and sandy, but 
level, it is probably best to leave them to 
decay on the surface, since the loss 
thereby (shown by the Alabama Station 



to be great) is believed to be even less 
than will occur by plowing them under 
in the fall and subsequent winter leach- 
ing. If the land is rolling, they should 
by all means be turned under in the 
fall. 

But the truly scientific disposition to 
make of pea vines destined for the soil 
on all character of lands, is to turn them 
under in early fall and occupy the 
grounds at once with a winter crop • of 
grain (oats, rye, barley or wheat) or 
some of the clovers or grasses. From 
an economical standpoint, this course 
should be pursued, even though the 
winter crop had itself to be plowed un- 
der for some spring crop. 

SUMMARY. 

I St. The origin of the cow pea was 
doubtless India, where to-day many re- 
lated species are grown. 

2d. All the varieties of the cow pea 
now cultivated in the United States are 
believed to have originated from one 
ancestor "Vigna sinensis," and that the 
numerous so-called \'arieties can be 
greatly reduced in number. 

3d. The best varieties of peas for 
vines and green manuring are the Un- 
known, Black, Clay, Red, etc., while the 
strictly bunch varieties, Whippoorwill, 
Blue, Black-Eye, etc., give larger re- 
turns in peas. 

4th. The composition of peas and 
pea vine hay exhibits large feeding 
values, as well as high fertilizing prop- 
erties. 

5th. Cow pea vines can be converted 
into hay or preserved as silage, both of 
which have proven by repeated experi- 
ments to be palatable and nutritious 
food for farm stock. 

6th. The cow pea occupies the front 
rank among the leguminous plants as a 
soil restorer, enjoying largely the com- 
mon property of this family of utilizing 
the free nitrogen of the air; an aver- 
age pea crop accumulating over 100 
pounds of nitrogen per acre. 

7th. A rotation of crops is impera- 
tively demanded by scientific agriculture, 
and any system of rotation in the South 
which omits the cow pea, is an egregious 
blunder. 

8th. A three years' rotation with five 
crops, two of which are cow peas 



cow PEAS: THEIR 'ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION. 



99 



especially with appropriate fertilizer for 
each crop, has been found most effective 
in building up worn soils. 

gth. The proper disposition to make 
of pea vines is to convert into hay or 
silage and feed to stock, carefully re- 
turning the manure therefrom to the 
soil. The digestive coefficients of peas 
and pea vine hay are high. In the 
absence of stock to consume the hay, 



the vines should be turned under, 
loth. The proper time to turn under 
vines will depend largely on soil and 
exigencies of the farmer. True economy 
would dictate the turning under in the 
early fall, and the sowing of the ground 
later in some winter crop, small grain, 
grass or clovers, and these in turn to be 
buried if a spring crop be desired. 



GRASSES AND FORAGE PLANTS IN THE SOUTH. =^= 



When the Northern man first comes 
to this part of the country he misses the 
timothy meadows and the blue grass 
pastures to which he has been accus- 
tomed, and because he does not see 
them, too often juiups to the conclusion 
that this is not a grass-growing country, 
that our cattle must be grazed on broom - 
sedge and blum bushes, and that all of 
our hay must be imported. Gentlemen, 
if you have come to any such conclu- 
sion, you were never more mistaken in 
your life. It is true that we do not have 
the broad meadows and hay fields such 
as we see in the North, but it is because 
we do not need them, because we can 
cut hay — and good hay too — on almost 
any of our lands, and at almost any time 
during eight months of the year. In the 
North the farmer can grow no other 
crop on the land where he cuts his hay, 
but here we can, and do, cut from two 
to three tons per acre on land from 
which oats, wheat or some other early 
crop has been harvested ; and this with- 
out even the expense of plowing or 
seeding. Some years ago, when I had 
seen less of Mississippi grasses than I 
have now, I urged one of my friends, an 
old Illinois farmer, to plant some of the 
common cultivated varieties of the 
North, and even offered to furnish him 
with the seed if he would do so. His 
reply was that he did not want the seed 
and could not aftbrd to plant it. He 
said : "Last year I had twenty acres of 
cucumbers in my peach orchard, and 

*Address delivered at the Interstate Agricultural 
and Horticultural Convention, held at Jackson, 
iVIiss., February, 1892, by Prof S. M. Tracy, Diiector 
of the Mississippi Agricultural Experimetit Station. 



after harvesting the crop I kept the 
ground clean around the trees and then 
cut from the field thirty five tons of as 
fine hay as I ever used, and that is good 
enough grass for me." Of course he 
was right in declining my ofter, for his 
hay cost him absolutely nothing but the 
harvesting. 

We can grow grass as cheaply and 
easily as it can be done anywhere in the 
world, but we have not yet learned to 
use and to sell it as well as have our 
Northern friends. We can cut fro.n 
two to four good crops on such land as 
we give to hay- growing, and can make 
one good crop on any of our lands, even 
our cultivated corn and cotton fields 
giving us a good yield of peavine hay 
if we take the trouble to plant the seed. 

With a climate, soil and conditions so 
widely different from those of the North, 
it follows very naturally that we should 
grow different kinds of grasses from 
those found in the cooler and drier 
regions of the Northern States ; and we 
have a much wider range from which to 
select. Minnesota has about 140 spe- 
cies of native grasses, Missouri 150, 
Illinois about the same. New Jersey 165, 
while Mississippi has more than 200, 
and the proportion of clovers and other 
forage plants is fully as large. 

With us, Bermuda is the staple sort 
for both hay and pasture. It grows 
well all through the South, will make 
from two to four tons of hay per acre, 
and the hay is fine, tender and nutri- 
tious. During the summer it gives the 
best of pasture, and is uninjured by the 
longest drouths. At the Experiment 



loo G J? ASSES AND FORAGE PLANTS IN THE SOUTH. 



Station we have been feeding with both 
Bermuda and timothy hays during the 
last three years, as a test of their feeding 
values. The timothy was selected espe- 
cially for the purpose by a man who 
ships that hay very largely, and was of 
the very best quality ; the Bermuda was 
purchased from a neighboring farmer. 
Without going into the details of the 
trial I may state, that ton for ton, we 
found very little difference between the 
two, though the balance was slightly in 
favor of the Bermuda. As the timothy 
cost, delivered at the Station, nearly 
twice as much as did the Bermuda, the 
balance of profit was very decidedly in 
favor of the home-grown hay. 

Johnson grass makes excellent hay, 
and will give from three to four cuttings 
a year. While thousands of dollars 
have been made by its cultivation, and 
it grows well on almost any kind of soil, 
it will never be popular, as when once 
planted, it "sticketh closer than a 
brother," and it is difficult to grow any 
other crop on the land. 

Timothy, the stand-by for the North- 
ern hay growers, is of no value here, 
but crab-grass, that pestiferous garden 
weed of the North, seems to change its 
character when it crosses the Ohio river, 
and here it is a valuable plant, making 
its growth late in the season after 
other crops are laid by, and yielding 
from one to three tons of hay per acre, 
which is fully equal to Timothy, and 
which costs nothing for seed, culti- 
vation or rent. 

Red clover grows as well here as it 
does in New York or Wisconsin, and 
we are learning to appreciate its value 
for fertilizing purposes as well as for 
hay. At the station our yield of red 
clover for the last two years has 
averaged a little over three tons per 
acre, and we have usually cut a third 
crop of other grasses from the same 
ground in addition. 

We are learning that we can grow 
our fertilizers cheaper than we can buy 
them, and I know of no soils which 
respond more quickly to green manur- 
ing than do those of this State. For 
this purpose we are using a number of 
different plants, red clover, cow peas, 
lespedeza and melilotus being among 



the best, as they all give paying crops 
of hay, and pav many times their cost 
in their improvement of the soil. Meli- 
lotus, the old "sweet clover" of the 
North, is of comparative recent intro- 
duction, but on all lime soils it makes 
a wonderful growth of forage, and is 
decidedly superior to red cloxer in its 
fertilizing value. Lespedeza is the 
standard clover plant of the South. It 
will grow on the poorest and dryest 
soils and, pound for pound, is the best 
hay I have ever used for fattening or 
for milch cows. Three years ago last 
October, our barn containing the hay 
we had stored for winter use was de- 
stroyed by fire. The last of October 
is late for making hay, even here, but 
on the day after the fire we put our 
mowing machines into a field of lespe- 
deza which we had before thought 
hardly worth the cutting, and in two 
weeks we had stored a fresh supply of 
hay, mostly lespedeza, but with a 
liberal mixture of asters, golden rods, 
and plum bushes ; but even this hay 
gave us better results in milk and butter 
than did equal weights of imported 
timothy. 

Chicken corn, a kind of sorghum 
which has become naturalized in a large 
part of this State, yields an immense 
amount of excellent hay when cut before 
it is grown too large. It makes its 
growth quite late in the season, princi- 
pally in September, and frequently takes 
possession of a field from which red 
clover has been cut. We have cut 
three tons per acre of this hay from 
land from which we had already cut 
two good crops of clover, without 
apparent injury to the growth of the 
clover the next season. 

There is no lack for pastures during 
the summers, and with a little care they 
may be made to last nearly the whole 
winter also. .Orchard grass, red top, 
and rescue grass grow well here, and all 
remain green and fresh through our 
coldest weather. Our native cane- 
brakes winter — after a fashion — thous- 
ands of cattle annually, and with the 
first warm days of spring the vetches, 
melilotus and lucerne, give excellent 
grazing. 

And so I might go on indefinitely, 



GJ^ ASSES AND FORAGE PLANTS IN THE SOUTH. 



lOI 



but life is too short for me to describe 
all the good grasses and forage plants 
with which we of the South have been 
blessed, and I have already said enough 
to show that we can have an abundance 
of both hay and pasture at a merely 
nominal cost. 

Northern men have tried to impress 
us with the idea that good hay can be 
made only from timothy and clover, and 
that these can be grown only north of 
the Ohio river. We used to believe 
that, and to pay them enormous prices 
for poorer hay than that which we did 
not take the trouble to cut from our 
own plantations. Perhaps we were able 
to do that in the old days, but six cent 
cotton cannot be grown profitably on 
twenty dollar hay, and we have learned 
to do better. We have learned that 
our home-grown hays are equally good, 
and that they can be grown for less 
than half the cost of the imported 
article. A few years ago it was a com- 
mon sight to see trainload after train - 



load of Iowa and Illinois hay coming- 
South, but we rarely see that now, 
and the shipment of hay to the 
North is becoming an established 
business. Smce I came to this meet- 
ing a gentleman who lives on the 
line of the Illinois Central Railroad 
has told me that ten years ago there 
were not twenty tons of hay put up in 
his neighborhood, but this year eighty 
cars were shipped from his station to 
Northern markets. And so it is in 
nearly all parts of the South. It has 
taken us a long time to learn the value 
of our native pastures, and still longer 
to learn what grasses to grow for hay, 
but we have learned these, in part at 
least, thanks to such men as Mottgom- 
ery, and Stewart, and Odeneal, and 
now grass growing, with its natural 
accompaniments of stock raising and 
dairying, has become one of the most 
profitable, and certainly one of the 
most rapidly growing industries of the 
State. 



THE SCUPPERNONG GRAPE. 



The scuppernong is, with a few 
exceptions, the only variety cul- 
tivated of the Vitis Rotundifolia, 
the Muscadine type. It is not hardy 
above the 35th degree of latitude, ex- 
cept in the eastern part of North Car- 
olina and the southeastern corner of 
Virginia, where, on account of near- 
ness to the coast and the Gulf stream, 
vegetation is identical with that of 
lower latitudes; hence it is exclusively 
a Southern grape. It thrives any- 
where in the far South, and is par- 
ticularly at home in the light soil of 
the piney woods country bordering 
the Gulf of Mexico. It has been found 
growing in a wild state in Georgia. It 
is stated historically that the scupper- 
nong was discovered on the Island of 
Roanoke in North Carolina by the 
colony of Sir Walter Raleigh, in 1554, 
and the original vine is said still to ex- 
ist there, being over 300 years of age. 



Certainly, it has no more congenial 
home than this region. 

In appearance, wood, fruit and 
habits, the scuppernong is entirely dis- 
tinct. The bark is smooth, of grayish- 
ashy color, variegated with many 
small. Jot-like specks of lighter hiie; 
the wood is hard, close-textured, 
firm; the roots white or creamy. The 
leaves, before dropping in autumn, 
become of a brilliant yellow. The vine 
is a profuse bearer, but not at first a 
rapid grower. While a Niagara or a 
Concord will give a fair crop in this 
section the year after planting, not 
much fruit need be expected from the 
scuppernong until after it is three 
years old, and it gradually increases in 
productiveness with the growth of the 
vines. There is probably nothing else 
in the whole horticultural world that 
will produce an annual crop with so 
much certainty, both as to quantity 



I02 



THE SCUPPERNONG GRAPE. 



and quality. They are the only grapes 
known in the world that are exempt 
from insect troubles and diseases. 
Five acres can be cultivated as easily 
as one acre of other grapes. They 
bloom too late to ever be caught by 
the frost. 

A vineyardist of Alabama describes 
the growing and training of the scup- 
pernong, as follows: 

"When two years old, the vine is 
planted beside a post, which, with 
crosspieces nailed on top, will carry 
the vine for a year or two; then the 
never-ending work of building the 
arbor commences. Four posts, eight 
to ten feet apart, are set in a square 
about the vine. These posts extend 
some eight feet above ground and 
have poles spiked from top to top. On 
these poles light rails, split from some 
durable wood, are placed two feet 
apart. As the vine creeps out over 
these rails, new rows of posts are set 
outside, with more poles and rails, un- 
til six to ten years after planting, the 
arbors touch one another, and the 
vineyard is one great arbor. A suc- 
cessful vineyardist of Mobile county, 
Alabama, after trying various dis- 
tances up to fifty-four feet apart, has 
settled on forty-eight feet as the best 
distance for vines. The vines would 
cover the arbor when planted fifty- 
four feet apart, but it was too much 
work to keep up so much arbor." 

Another grower, residing in Scran- 
ton, Miss., favors the "Southern 
States" with the result of his experi- 
ence, as follows: 

"In planting a vineyard upon new, 
long-leaf pine land, it is best to pre- 
cede with a crop of cow-peas and an 
application of thirty bushels of slaked 
lime per acre ; 700 pounds of fertilizer, 
containing 9 per cent, phosphoric acid 
and 14 per cent, of potash, the cow- 
peas, planted between the rows, sup- 
plying nitrogen. It is advisable, how- 
ever, in order to secure success in 
years to come, to apply to the vine- 
yard twenty bushels of slaked lime 
every five years during the winter 
months. If no leguminous crop be 
raised, 200 pounds of nitrate of soda 



may be used to produce the same re- 
sult. 

"Although the scuppernong is pro- 
pagated mostly by layers, it has been 
proved that cuttings also can be 
rooted; but they should be replanted 
and set the following winter to form 
more roots. Good prepared plants 
can be had from nurseries, but it is 
preferable to purchase in lots, saving 
expense and labor, the nursery's 
scuppernong being already firmly 
rooted. The vineyard should be laid 
out forty by forty feet, giving twenty- 
seven vines to the acre. For various 
reasons, plant as a pear orchard. On 
the Gulf coast we plant as follows: 
Dig a hole six feet in diameter and one 
foot deep, placing a stick ten feet in 
length in centre of the hole; lay four 
inches of surface earth in the hole, 
covering this with a layer of pine 
straw. If straw is not obtainable, 
seven pounds of stable manure will 
answer the purpose. I prefer cotton- 
seed meal, because it gives the plant 
an impetus, being an excellent ferti- 
lizer and bearing almost immediate 
results. The stem of the scuppernong 
should always be planted on the south 
side of the stake. The vines or 
branches are now laid in and spread 
all over the hole in the same 
manner as the roots. Cover the 
vines with a layer of earth, so as to 
form roots. Arrange so that the top 
vine is one inch out of the ground; 
from this the new vine is raised. On 
the Gulf coast the scuppernong can be 
planted from November until the 15th 
of April. As soon as shoots appear on 
the vine, remove all excepting the 
topmost shoot, and continue remov- 
ing shoots until it is eight inches high ; 
then tie to the stake which has been 
set in the middle of the hole. As 
branches form, rub ofif the buds, thus 
increasing the growth of the plant. 
Be careful, however, to let the topmost 
bud grow, and when the vine has at- 
tained the height of eight feet, two 
branches are allowed to grow in op- 
posite directions — one north and the 
other south. The scuppernong nat- 
urally grows southward. In the 



THE SCUPPERNONG GRAPE. 



103 



meantime, while the vine is growing, 
I do not neglect arboring. A line of 
posts is set twenty feet from the out- 
side of vine and twenty feet apart, 
nailed together with lumber (one and 
one-half by six). Instead of wood 
on the top of arbor, I use No. 12 gal- 
vanized wire, stretched two feet apart. 
The two leaders of the vine are trained 
to run diagonally over the arbor, and 
from these cross leaders are grown, 
about fifteen inches apart, and again 
all buds are removed excepting the 
topmost. This process adds vigor to 
the growth of the vine. It is carefully 
tied to the wire to prevent the crown 
from malting. Having been properly 
planted, fertilized, trained and nursed, 
these leaders should cover over ten 
feet square before the leaves fall in 
autumn. In the second year the vine 
covers from seven to nine feet in all 
directions. The fruit is formed on the 
old wood, the current shoots not bear- 
ing. The wiring should be continued 
until the whole space is covered with 
fruit wood and leaders, until the vines 
meet one another and a solid arbor is 
formed." 

The grapes do not grow in bunches, 
but singly or in small clusters, scat- 
tered all over the vines. They are 
very large, being often an inch in 
diameter and are exceedingly frag- 
rant. The skins are thick and the pulp 
is remarkably sweet and palatable. 
When ripe, the grape parts from the 
stem just as the orange does. The 
crop is harvested by stirring the vine 
with a pole, the berries and leaves be- 
ing caught on a sheet spread below. 
The Mississippi authority quoted 
above gives this method of harvesting 
a vintage: 

"Sheets of unbleached cotton are 
fastened to the four posts surrounding 
the vine and suspended midway be- 
tween the arbor and the earth. The 
wire is shaken with a hook, and the 
ripe grapes are not injured by falling 
upon the sheet. The main point in 
favor of shaking with the hook is to 
secure the ripe fruit only and to get it 
quickly. The grapes are next taken 
to the separator, which is a cloth four- 



teen feet in length and two yards in 
width, placed over rollers fitted up 
with set screws to stiffen the cloth. 
The rollers are placed under a wooden 
bed with flanges six inches in height 
on the sides, the rollers being so placed 
that the cloth will just run clear of 
them, the bed to take up the weight. 
The roller on the upper end, provided 
with a crank, is six inches in diameter 
and flush with flange. The roller bed 
stands on a decline of three feet; it is 
set in operation by turning the crank 
or pulley forwards and backwards, 
separating the refuse from the grapes, 
which are left cleaner than if they had 
been picked by hand." 

The same authority continues: 'T 
will give the actual cost of planting 
twelve acres and arboring five acres. 
A 20-foot arbor for vine rows of five 
acres requires 1200 feet of No. 12 gal- 
vanized wire, at $36; 600 posts, $15; 
3000 feet of lumber, $30; nails, $2.50; 
labor, $21 ; the cost of planting per 
vine, including fertilizer, plant and 
labor, 55 cents." 

There are many profitable ways of 
utilizing these grapes. For making in- 
to preserves and marmalades, they are 
especially adapted on account of the 
thick skins and the great quantity of 
pulp that adheres to the- skin. They 
make as fine preserves as can be made 
from any fruit, and very much finer 
than can be produced from any other 
grape. There is no limit to the de- 
mand for scuppernong grape pre- 
serves wherever introduced, and the 
price is sufficient to afford a very large 
profit. 

The use of unfermented grape juice 
has become so general among physi- 
cians of the North in cases of fever 
that there is always a great demand 
for it at a much better price than is paid 
for wine. The grape juice is kept 
fresh by bottling and sealing when hot. 
It is the nearest substitute for milk 
that is known in the vegetable king- 
dom, and a fever patient who is un- 
able to take milk or other food, may 
have life and strength maintained for 
many days by the use of nothing but 
the grape juice, as it affords nourish- 



I04 



THE SCUPPERNONG GRAPE. 



ment as well as drink. A very great 
quantity of white wine vinegar can 
be made from an acre of these grapes 
and return a handsome profit. 

The scuppernong will make as fine 
brandy as can be made from any grape 
in the world. It has also warm advo- 
cates among American wine-makers, 
as it makes a splendid white wine. The 
delightful fragrance of the scupper- 
nong imparts an exceedingly pleas- 
ant bouquet to the wine. The fruit, 
though ordinarily deficient in sugar, 
is very sweet to the taste, owing to its 
having but very little acid. 

If the grapes are placed in a cask 
with a false bottom, the juice that will 
run out without any pressure, will 
make a fine dry wine, if no sugar is 
added. About half of the juice can be 
secured in this way; the remainder 
should then be run through a wine 
press, care being taken not to crush the 
seeds. Both water and sugar may be 
added to the juice that comes from 
the press, and a delicately-flavored 
sweet wine will be the result. 

I quote here some authorities and 
cultivators of the scuppernong: 

P. J. Berckmans, of Georgia: 'T 
could not say too much in praise of 
the scuppernong as a wine grape. It 
is one of those things that never fail. 
Of course, I do not compare it with 
the Delaware and other fine-flavored 
grapes; but the question is. Where, 
where shall we find a grape that will 
give us a profit? We have it in the 
scuppernong." 

S. I. Matthews, of Monticello, Ark. : 
"The saccharine deficiency of the 
grape may be accounted for in a meas- 
ure by the fact that the plan of train- 
ing upon arbors excludes the sunlight 
and heat from the fruit, which it is the 
practice to gather by shaking down 
from the vines, whereby a consider- 
able portion of but partially ripe fruit 
is obtained. And yet, according to 
some tests, the scuppernong has reg- 
istered 88° on the (Oechsle) must 
scale, which would give 9 per cent, of 
alcohol. When it shall be planted on 
dry south hill sides, instead of on low 
moist bottoms ; when it shall be trained 



on trellises, where the sun heat, both 
direct and reflected from the ground, 
shall bathe the fruit and foliage, in- 
stead of upon tall umbrageous arbors, 
through which the sun's rays can 
scarcely penetrate, and when only the 
perfectly ripe fruit shall be carefully 
hand-picked, instead of being rudely 
shaken, and all berries that will fall gath- 
ered and pressed together, there will 
be little if any lack of sugar. But even 
admitting this deficiency, it is the only 
demerit of this variety, and can be 
remedied either by adding pure sugar 
to the must, and adding so much of the 
resulting S3'rup to the other as is 
needed, to bring it up to the proper 
standard. Moreover, the true scup- 
pernong is the most productive and 
reliable grape for the South, and its 
cultivators plant therefore mainly of 
the scuppernong and its class." 

A notable variety of the scupper- 
nong species is the Thomas, discov- 
ered and introduced by Drury 
Thomas, of South Carolina, and thus 
described: 'Tn color it varies from red- 
dish purple to deep black; has a thin 
skin ; sweet and tender flesh ; is less in 
size than the scuppernong; makes a 
fine wine, and is superior for the table." 
Mr. Berckmans, of Augusta, Ga., de- 
scribes it as follows: "Bunches from 
six to ten berries; berries slightly ob- 
long, large, of a slight violet color, 
quite transparent; pulp tender, sweet, 
of a peculiar, delicate vinous flavor, 
quality superior to any of the type. 
Maturity, middle to end of August. 
Has but little musky aroma and makes 
a superior red wine. A spurious va- 
riety is sold under the name of 
Thomas ; this is inferior in quality, and 
produces a deep, black-colored fruit 
of no merit whatever." 

Other sub-varieties of the scupper- 
nong are: The Eden, a very large 
black berry, with delicate Thomas fla- 
vor, often twelve to fifteen berries in a 
cluster; a profuse bearer. The James, 
originated by J- Van Lindley, in Pitt 
county. North Carolina; it is black, 
large size, good quality and very pro- 
lific. The Pee Dee, discovered on the 
Pee Dee river in South Carolina; a 



THE SCUPPERNONG GRAPE. 



105 



sub-variety of the scuppernong, some- 
what similar in color, but smaller; 
skin very tough, quality good, ripens 
one month later than scuppernong. 
The Tender Pulp, a black-skinned va- 
riety, with pulp dissolving, sweet, of 
second quality; maturity from middle 
of August to middle of September. 

The latest of the dark-skinned va- 
rieties of this class is known as the 
Flowers. The berries are large, grow- 
ing in clusters of ten to fifteen ; black, 
sweet; ripens very late; hangs upon 
the vine until frost. Said to make a 
rich, red and delicious wine. Never 
fails to produce a crop, and is perfectly 
free from all kinds of disease. It is 
much esteemed in Georgia, Alabama 
and South Carolina on account of its 
lateness, as it does not come in until 
the scuppernong is gone. Mr. Berck- 
mans says it is not quite as good as 
the scuppernong, and is about the 
same size. 

A scuppernong hybrid, from whose 
seedlings valuable results were ex- 



pected, was originated prior to 1877 
by Dr. A. P. Wylie, of Chester county. 
South Carolina. Since the death of 
Dr. WyHe, however, it is supposed 
that the seedlings have all been lost. 
It is said that Professor Munson, of 
Denison, Texas, is experimenting on 
a number of scuppernong and Thomas 
hybrids with Herbemont, the vines of 
which are very thrifty and beautiful. 

There is no limit to the possibilities 
for the profitable cultivation of scup- 
pernong grapes. They succeed well 
on any kind of soil and in any location 
in the extreme South. It gives so lit- 
tle trouble in cultivation that it is 
called by some "the lazy man's grape." 
The vine takes care of itself. It is a 
very poor place in the South that does 
not have a scuppernong arbor of one 
or two vines. A negro cabin away 
off in the woods may not have so much 
as a "collard" patch, or even a fig or 
pear tree, but it will have its scupper- 
nong arbor. 




THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



Southern States. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY MAGAZINt. 
DEVOTED TO THE SOUTH. 

Published by the 

Manufacturers' Record Publishing Co. 

Manutaoturers' Record Building, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

SUBSCRIPTION, ... $1.50 a Year. 

WILLIAM H. EDMONDS, 

Editor and Manager. 

BALTIMORE, MAY, 1896. 



The SOUTHERN STATES is an exponent of the 
Immigration and Real Estate Interests and 
general advancement of the South, and a journal 
of accurate and comprehensive information 
about Southern resources and progress. 

Its purpose is to set forth accurately and 
conservatively from month to month the reasons 
why the South is, for the farmer, the settler, the 
home seeker, the investor, incomparably the 
most attractive section of this country. 



An Outlet Necessary. 

The South constitutes today a field for 
the expansion of certain congested condi- 
tions. It has ceased to be merely a desir- 
able locality for immigration and invest- 
ment, and become a necessity. The well- 
being of numberless communities existing 
in the United States requires a new prom- 
ised land, and one that shall be free from 
the deadly mortgage taint that has perme- 
ated the West. They are looking for a new 
cry to replace the shibboleth that has led 
them so many weary leagues towards the 
setting sun, and which had for its founda- 
tion so few of those conditions which make 
life a pleasant and a profitable thing. Be- 
sides these people, who have migrated once 
and been disappointed, there are others. 



and they may be counted by thousands, 
who have been waiting year after year for a 
suitable opportunity to make a move of 
some sort, but who have been discouraged 
by the occasional tidings, becoming latterly 
more frequent, of bad seasons, droughts, 
forclosures and catastrophes of various 
sorts, from what has hitherto been their 
only Mecca. Every passing season has 
augmented their discontent. They are, per- 
haps, living in an overcrowded district, 
where the opportunities to get ahead are 
discouragingly small, and where they feel 
that their constant efifort to make a living 
bears indeed a naked existence as its fruit 
and nothing besides. The keen desire to 
own a home, the fascination of proprietor- 
ship, and all the other powerful incentives 
that are constantly inducing men to forsake 
the evils they endure and fly to others that 
they know not of, are at work upon these 
people, and all that has kept them at home 
is the lack of a place to go to that has not 
had its reputation torn to shreds by a long 
chapter of calamities. 

There is still a third class of people whom 
it is reasonable to suppose will turn their 
footsteps in future towards the Gulf of Mex- 
ico instead of towards the Pacific. Thej'. 
too, come from a congested and dissatisfied 
locality — the European States. Whether or 
not large numbers of them are wanted in 
the South will not be here discussed, but 
it may be laid down as a settled fact that 
large numbers of them will come, and 
among them will be found good, bad and 
indifferent citizens. The class who mi- 
grate are often, unfortunately, of an unde- 
sirable character. Among them there nec- 
essarily exist a certain number who have 



106 



EDITORIAL. 



107 



apparently been born into the world for the 
idle purpose of consuming its substance. 
They are unpopular as new-comers, but 
they are unbearable at home. A change of 
scene and surroundings usually has the ef- 
fect of exciting them to some desultory and 
spasmodic effort, which, while productive 
of no substantial result, is greatly prefer- 
able to the state of lethargy and irritation 
in which they ordinarily exist and which 
has made them a nuisance on their native 
heath. It is by the occasional opening of 
new fields for settlement, such as was done 
with the West in 1849, and which is now 
being done with that great but undevel- 
oped section south of the Ohio and Poto- 
mac rivers, that discontent is alleviated, 
friction avoided and civilization advanced. 
The chronic malcontents we must expect, 
but we may confidently rely on their being 
followed, accompanied ind even preceded 
by much more than their equivalent of use-' 
ful and industrious citizens. A twofold ad- 
vantage therefore becomes manifest in the 
recent exodus from the North and West to 
the South — an advantage to the first-named 
sections, inasmuch as they are able to get 
rid of many who were, by the force of cir- 
cumstances, an incubus, but who will, un- 
der the changed and easier conditions prev- 
alent in the Southern States, become pros- 
perous and valuable citizens, and an advan- 
tage to the last-named section, in that it will 
receive what it so greatly needs, which is a 
material increase in its population, so that 
its wonderful resources can be properly de- 
veloped. The South will take its chance 
with the undesirable portion of its new in- 
habitants, and trust to its fertility of re- 
source and its intelligent methods to make 
something out of them. In its efforts to do 
this, it cannot but have the best wishes and 
cordial support of everyone. In fact, the 
South is asking for friendship and co-oper- 
ation. It does not want to be envied be- 
cause its day is beginning to come at last. 



after a depression extending over a quarter 
of a century. It wants this great and glo- 
rious truth to be received as it should be. 
with universal approval and with a broad 
perception of the fact that its prosperity 
will not be hugged to its own bosom nor 
confined to its own people. It is with the 
understanding that its revival and success 
means the well-being of the nation that it is 
asking today for capital to build its fac- 
tories and for hands to grasp its plows. 
There is no undertaking in which this 
whole country can unite with so much cer- 
taintj' of reaping a material and widespread 
benefit as in the upbuilding of the South. 
The leading men of the North have recog- 
nized this, and in many of them we may 
count our warmest friends, our most pow- 
erful advocates and our staunchest defend- 
ers. They know that in times past our 
faults have been magnified and our virtues 
belittled, and they are thoroughly pleased 
to see the era of prejudice pass away. But 
it is to the mass of the people that the 
South looks for its most valuable support. 
They must be shown that its growth does 
not mean injury to the North and West, 
but rather the amelioration of many of the 
strained conditions existing there today; 
that it means the enlargement of trade, the 
enhancement of values and the multiplica- 
tion of opportunities. These people of the 
North and West have grown up surrounded 
by traditions that are none the less powerful 
because they are myths, and to overthrow 
them in a worthy cause would be a great 
and an honorable achievement. 

Dr. Depew's Observations. 

One night recently the Montauk Club, of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., gave a banquet in honor 
of the birthday of Chauncey M. Depew. 
This club,' composed of the most prominent 
men of that city, of all parties, has for sev- 
eral consecutive years paid this tribute of 
appreciation to one of the most able, genial 
and versatile men of our country and age. 



io8 



EDITORIAL. 



and has always been repaid with a speech 
worthy alike of the guest and his hosts. 

At this time, Dr. Depew had been home 
but a day or two from a trip to the Pacific 
coast. The route going and returning cov- 
ered more than 8000 miles of railroad travel. 
Dr. Depew is a keen observer; nothing es- 
capes his notice; things that to many others 
would seem trivial, or of no account, are to 
him items of importance in forming an ac- 
curate and just judgment of the conditions 
of the country, its possibilities of develop- 
ment, its signs of progress. All these he 
groups together in his mind, and upon them 
he founds his conclusions. The people 
generally have the impression that Dr. De- 
pew is an eloquent and exceedingly witty 
after-dinner speaker, wdio charms all that 
listen to him. But the hard-headed busi- 
ness men, the great capitalists, the leading 
financiers of the country, know that he is 
one of the shrewdest and most sagacious 
men of this era, and that the splendid man- 
ner in which he has managed the immense 
railway interests of the corporations that 
are united under what is commonly known 
as the Vanderbilt System is but one illustra- 
tion of the practical power with which this 
eminent private citizen is richly endowed. 

We refer thus to Dr. Depew as a fitting- 
prelude to the speech he made at the ban- 
quet of the Montauk Club, in which he 
said, very briefly, some things that all in- 
terested in Southern development may 
study with profit to their section and to 
themselves. Referring to his journey, he 
said: 

"I have been impressed during a recent 
tour of over 8000 miles with the fact that 
we, as Americans, know less about each 
other than we do about foreign countries. 
Almost any intelligent person whom you 
meet is familiar with the industrial and so- 
cial conditions of Great Britain, France, 
Germany and Italy, and the knowledge of 
many of them extends to all the continents 
of the globe. Very few are familiar with 
the climatic, the agricultural, the industrial 



or the commercial conditions and possibil- 
ities of the Gulf States, or of that vast ter- 
ritory which extends from the boundaries 
of Oregon and California over thousands 
of miles of arid plain, with some beautiful 
oases of cultivated land, up to the Mis- 
souri river. Our country is so vast in ex- 
tent, and capital, labor and competition 
have become so concentrated in crowded 
centres, that we need a department of gov- 
ernment to teach congested populations 
where they can find air, health, wealth and 
liberty. Why should miners be starving 
in one territory, when productive mines are 
calling for labor in another? Why should 
farmers, freezing in inclement climates, or 
with their barns, their houses, their fences 
and their stock blown to pieces by resistless 
blizzards, give it up and return again to the 
older settlements, when rich fields and al- 
luring climates wait for and want them? In 
the thousands of miles of the great Ameri- 
can desert ten millions of people could live 
in prosperity and happiness under a scien- 
tific system of irrigation — such a system as 
only the government could inaugurate. 
Strange as it may appear, the historian, in 
looking over our country and citing its ben- 
efactors, will give a place, and a good one, 
to Brigham Young. Having stopped his 
caravan in the Salt Lake Valley, with the 
mountains of snow encircling it and the al- 
kali plains, hard and dry and unproductive, 
he saw that if he brought the water from 
the mountain and distributed it on the plain 
he could produce an earthly paradise for his 
co-religionists. He also discovered that 
the real secret of successful farming in a 
country of rich soil is the small farm, which 
the farmer and his family can look after 
personally and attend to in every detail. 
That principle has made Utah the most 
prosperous of the intermontane States, and 
Salt Lake its largest city. Governor Flower 
tells of a farmer from Jefferson county who 
settled in the Northwest. In narrating to 
the governor his experiences, he said that 
in order to resist the blizzard he built a 
snow fence four feet wide and six feet high. 
When the wind blew it over, then the 
'darned old fence was six feet wide and 
four feet high.' I found this farmer in 
Texas, where he had gone with his neigh- 
bors. They had demonstrated that rice 
could be profitably raised upon hitherto 



EDITORIAL. '■ 



109 



almost worthless prairie land, and that little 
colony are now living in comfort and com- 
parative affluence." 

Let us analyze this statement briefly, and 
so see the country as Dr. Depew sees it. 
The first fact mentioned is that the average 
intelligent American knows more about 
European countries than about his own. 
"Very few are familiar with the climatic, 
the agricultural or the commercial condi- 
tions and possibilities of the Gulf States." 
The eloquent doctor might have added, "or 
of any other section south of the Ohio and 
Potomac." Note, also, his reference to 
"the thousands of miles of arid plains" that 
lie between the eastern borders of Cali- 
fornia and Oregon and the Missouri valley, 
that can only be made habitable by vast 
public expenditures upon a general system 
of irrigation. Think of the meaning of his 
story of the Northwestern farmers who fled 
from their blizzard-swept lands to Texas, 
and there found comfort and sources of 
prosperity on the "almost worthless prairie 
land" they converted into ricefields. Was 
not Depew wise in his suggestion that "we 
need a department of government to teach 
congested populations where they can find 
air, health, wealth and liberty?" 

The time may come fifty or a hundred 
years hence when the United States govern- 
ment will find it necessary to redeem, by 
scientific irrigation, those "thousands of 
miles of the great American desert" upon 
which "ten millions of people could live in 
prosperity and happiness," but no such ex- 
penditure will be needed or be justifiable 
while vast fertile areas of the South remain 
open to settlers. Nor can the national gov- 
ernment be expected to establish a depart- 
ment to teach the "capital, labor and com- 
petition concentrated in crowded cities" 
where "congested populations can find air, 
health, wealth and liberty." 

All these opportunities the South ofifers 
to the people who need them, and yet not 
more than one person in ten thousand 



knows of them, notwithstanding all the ef- 
forts that have been made to call attention 
to them. What the South needs is an hon- 
est, earnest, persistent, never-ceasing sys- 
tematic endeavor to presents its attractions 
and advantages to all that class to whom 
Dr. Depew referred. What the "Southern 
States" and the Manufacturers' Record have 
done, what the railroad companies travers- 
ing that territory, and what many cities and 
towns have attempted to do to attract at- 
tention to the South, could be increased a 
thousand-fold to the great benefit of every 
Southern commonwealth. The "Southern 
States" and the Manufacturers' Record are 
as ready as in the past to advance the 
South's interests, and by "precept upon pre- 
cept and line upon line" to "teach congested 
populations where they can find air, health, 
wealth and liberty." If in this good work 
they can have the efficient co-operation of the 
railroads, the property-owners and, in fact, 
of the whole South, they can do a thousand- 
fold greater good to every State and every 
community than all they have thus far 
achieved. 

How It Can Be Done. 

]\Iany communities in the South profess 
to be anxious to secure immigration, but it 
all ends with professions. No vigorous ef- 
forts are made, and no money spent to 
accomplish this end. and, of course, no set- 
tlers are drawn that way. How to secure 
immigrants is a question that is being 
asked by many people; others are practi- 
cally indifferent, not realizing the value to 
the community of the incoming of outside 
people. Air. J. F. Merry, of the Illinois 
Central Railroad, presents in this issue, in 
a brief letter, a few. practical facts, showing 
how energy and money combined brought 
good results, and how immigration has 
doubled the value of land. In a Mississippi 
county a few men determined to try to se- 
cure new settlers. They expended money 
for this purpose. In one year the result 



no 



EDITORIAL. 



shows the location of sixty-nine families, 
whose purchases of land aggregate 26,700 
acres, and an increase in values throughout 
the county to an average of $5 an acre, 
against $3 one year ago. In the mean- 
time, town property in that county has in 
some cases advanced 100 per cent. All this 
has been done in one year. Here is an ex- 
ample for every county in the South. 

One Acre in South Carolina Beats Fifty 
Acres in Illinois. 

Mr. C. R. Mower, of Rockford, 111., in an 
article published recently in the Southern 
Farmer, of New Orleans, stated that corn 
lands in the river bottoms of Illinois are 
worth $75 to$i25 an acre, "with a borrowing 
value of $30 to $50 an acre;" and then, to 
show the handsome profit made on the corn 
crop in that region, he gave the following 
estimate of cost, yield and receipts: 

One man, six months, at $30 per 

month $180 00 

The team and machinery offsets the 
man's labor, consisting of three 
horses, sulky plow, drag or har- 
row, corn planter, horse hoe or 
wheeled cultivator, or siding cul- 
tivator (one machine), Studebaker 
wagon and double harness, ex- 
pense for six months ' 180 00 

Seed corn 8 00 

Extra help gathering corn 20 00 

Cribbing, shelling and elevator 
charges on an estimated yield of 
fifty bushels per acre, or 2500 
bushels, at five cents (very lib- 
eral) 125 00 



$513 00 
2500 bushels of corn, at thirty-five 
cents, being the average price for 

six years 875 00 

Profit on fifty acres of corn $362 00 

The above statement caught the attention 
of the News and Courier, of Charleston, S. 
C, which had been publishing reports of 
the most profitable crop of tobacco from 
one acre of ground, or the largest return 
from any crop produced from one acre of 



ground in South Carolina in 1895. The 
News and Courier published the following 
statement of sale and expenses on one acre: 
also statement of turnip crop on same acre 
after the tobacco crop, from J. E. Brock- 
inton, Kingstree, S. C: 
"1750 pounds tobacco on 

one acre sold for %2)26 00 

Expense 40 00 



200 bushels turnips at 40. . . 80 00 
Expenses 5 00 



75 00 



Total $361 00 

"I have the same acre now planted in Irish 
potatoes; after the potatoes will plant in to- 
bacco, and after the tobacco again in tur- 
nips, and I hope to beat the above record. 

"J. E. B." 

A profit of $361 on one acre of ground, 
and the profit on fifty acres of corn in Illi- 
nois, $362. With less yield than fifty bush- 
els of corn to the acre, the News and Courier 
continues, the one South Carolina acre 
would have beaten the fifty Illinois acres, 
instead of falling $1 behind them, but it is 
enough for the purposes of comparison 
that it equaled them in profitableness even 
when they are allowed so large a yield. 
And this is not all that is to be said in favor 
of the South Carolina acre. 

Mr. Mower, it will be noted, rates the 
value of the Illinois land at an average of 
$100 an acre, and makes no allowance in his 
calculation for "interest and taxes" on it. 
Fifty acres, worth $50 an acre, represents 
an invested capital of $5000, however, and 
the interest and taxes on that sum would 
absorb the whole "profit" from their crop, 
reckoning the "interest" at 7 per cent, and 
the taxes at only $12. Mr. Brockinton's 
acre probably represents a capital of $30, 
and the interest and taxes on that sum 
would not amount to $2.50. Probably land 
of equal value for tobacco and turnip raising 



EDITORIAL. 



could be bought in the same neighborhood 
for $10 or $15 an acre, or even less. 

Several impressive morals can be drawn 
from this comparison of intensive farming 
and profitable cropping on Illinois river 
bottoms and South Carolina high lands 
respectively, but three will suffice for the 
present purpose. 

One is that no young man in South Caro- 
lina, who is willing to work, need be at any 
loss about where to find wholesome and 
profitable work in South Carolina. 

Another is that it would appear to be the 
\ part of wisdom for farmers in Illinois who 
are trying to make a living by raising 35- 
cent corn on $ioo-an-acre corn lands in Il- 
linois to pull up their stakes and try what 
they can do at farming on $io-an-acre, or 
$5-an-acre tobacco lands in South Carolina. 

And another is that the land owners and 
farmers of Williamsburg county, who have 
lands to sell, and desire to sell them to in- 
dustrious men who will settle on them and 
help to "develop" Williamsburg county, 
would do well for themselves by advertis- 
ing their county and its capabilities to the 
Illinois farmers and the farmers of the 
West and Northwest generally, by making 
a first-class exhibit, of whatever they have 
to exhibit, in the approaching Cotton- 
States Exhibition to be held in Chicago. 

The "Southern States" is indebted to the 
United States Agricultural Department for 
the cuts used in the article on "Arbor Day" 
in this issue. 

The Outcry Against Railroads. 

A recent editorial in the Atlanta Journal 
•on the Seaboard Air Line furnishes an op- 
portunity to say a few pertinent words 
about not only the Seaboard Air Line, but 
railroads in general. 

The Journal complains that the Seaboard 
has moved its general offices from Atlanta 
to Portsmouth, and, further, that the 
schedule of passenger trains is arranged 



without regard for the convenience of peo- 
ple living along the line near Atlanta, or for 
the welfare of Atlanta merchants. As for 
the first grievance, the main offices of the 
company have always been at Portsmouth. 
It has never had any other headquarters. 
The offices of the general manager, the 
traffic manager and the general passenger 
agent are located there, and presumably 
such subordinate officers as were formerly 
stationed at Atlanta have been moved to 
Portsmouth, in order that they might be 
in immediate contact with and under the 
supervision of their chiefs. This would 
seem to be the most natural thing in the 
world, and to complain of it as not being 
"fair treatment" of Atlanta is childish. 

Moreover, in regard to this and the other 
ground of complaint, the officers of the 
Seaboard Air Line are broad, liberal, pro- 
gressive, able men, experienced and skill- 
ful in railroad management. They are 
doubtless fully alive to the fact that the in- 
terests of the road are bound up with the 
interests of the communities it serves. It 
is to their interest to make the road as 
profitable to its owners as possible, and it is 
absurd to imagine that they are going to 
unnecessarily put any barriers in the way 
of traffic, or to purposely pursue any policy 
hostile to the welfare of the territory from 
which the road gets its business. 

So many newspaper writers and so large 
a part of the public lose sight of the fact that 
railroads, like newspapers and other busi- 
ness undertakings, are operated for the 
purpose of making money. They are not 
philanthropic institutions. It cannot be 
expected of them that they shall run their 
trains more frequently than the traffic they 
can secure will justify; that they shall sus- 
tain offices in localities where they are not 
needed, simply as a matter of good will, or 
that they shall pay out for public conveni- 
ence and benefit more money than they re- 
ceive for carrying passengers and freight. 



112 



EDITORIAL. 



Nor can a railroad regulate its train sched- 
ules with reference to the wants of a small 
part of its territory only. The interests of 
the people along the entire line must be 
equally considered. 

It is a pity that this unreasoning propen- 
sity to decry railroads is so widely preva- 
lent and so deeply rooted. The average 
man, if he happens to be going a distance of 
ten miles on any railroad, expects the entire 
system to be operated with reference to his 
convenience on that particular trip. 



The idea that grasses cannot be grown in 
the South is so widespread and so strongly 
intrenched in the minds of Northern farm- 
ers that only by constant and continued 
demonstration of its fallacy can it be cor- 
rected. Supplementing what we have al- 
ready published on this subject, we present 
this month the testimony of one of the 
highest authorities in the land, Prof. S. M. 
Tracey, director Mississippi Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 




Immigration Notes. 



The Bellamy Colony. 

The Bellamy Colony, or, as it is perhaps 
better known, the Magnolia Colony, located 
at Shepherd, San Jacinto county, Texas, is 
just entering its second year. It is a social- 
istic experiment, having for its object the 
practical demonstration of the idea outlined 
in Bellamy's reform novel, "Looking Back- 
ward." An extract from the first annual 
report of the colony, recently published, 
gives the following information : 

"This colony was started in April, 1895. 
mainly by Texas people. A piece of tim- 
bered land, seventy-six acres, was bought, 
and several members, with families, were 
placed on it to test the soil, climate, health, 
cost of clearing the land, etc. 

"The results were all that could have 
been wished for. The health of the colony 
has been excellent, the climate mild and 
pleasant and the seasons regular. The 
country is Avell adapted to farming, gar- 
dening, fruit raising, dairying, poultry, 
hogs, bee keeping, etc., and in most of 
these the colony is already engaged. 

"The cost of clearing the land is consid- 
erable, but lightened somewhat by the sale 
of the wood and timber that is taken off." 

The timber country was preferred for this 
colony as affording cheaper building and 
manufacturing material. The colonists 
say that a small sav/ and planing mill will 
be put in and a number of other Industries, 
including a newspaper and publishing busi- 
ness; also the manufacture of wagons, bug- 
gies, implements, furniture, etc., will be 
started as quickly as competent people can 
be interested in those lines. None but earn- 
est and thorough socialists are admitted. 
All land, property of every description, is 
owned in common, and the members share 
equally in the results of their labors. 

It is intended that the colony, if suc- 
cessful, shall become part of a general co- 
operative system, which will produce, man- 
ufacture and exchange all the ordinary ne- 
cessities, and, in time, the comforts and 
luxuries, of life, independent of the com- 



petitive markets and money system. They 
say their exchanges will be effected through 
clearing houses at convenient centres. 

No money, they say, will be used, ex- 
cept for freights, imports, taxes and pur-* 
chase of lands for the extension of the sys- 
tem. They claim that only by co-opera- 
tion and consolidation of interests can 
there be anything like a general equality of 
results or any improvement on present con- 
ditions. 

The)' contend that the "anarchy of com- 
petition" is responsible for the poverty of 
the country, and that under collective own- 
ership and administration a great part of 
the crime, ignorance, sickness, idleness, 
drunkenness and general misery would 
cease. That there would be better houses, 
better living, greater social and educational 
advantages and a broader field for genius 
and ability. 

Magnolia Colony, they say. is not the 
only one engaged in the work. Others on 
the same line are operating in other States. 

A Foreign Settlement in Georgia. 

Messrs. Missler & Krimmert, bankers, of 
New York, who have a large foreign corre- 
spondence and clientage, own 12,000 acres 
of land at Normandale, in Dodge count}-, 
Georgia, which, as previously reported in 
the "Southern States," they purchased from 
the Normandale Lumber Co., and about 
8000 acres at a point four miles north of 
Milan. In the Normandale tract is in- 
cluded the town of Normandale (now to be 
called "Missler"), which was the business 
centre of the Normandale Lumber Co., and 
contains a depot, large store and 100 
houses of one to four rooms each, averaging 
in cost about $500. This town lies on both 
sides of the Southern Railway, which runs 
through it in a northwesternly direction, 
the greater part of the town being on the 
west side of the track. The cottages are 
painted white or whitewashed, and present 
an attractive appearance. The firm of 
^ilissler & Krimmert are maintaining at 



114 



IMMIGRA TION NO TES. 



Missler a general store and farm. The 
colonists have opened and planted, or have 
ready to plant, 1800 acres of land — 1000 
acres in the Normandale tract and 800 acres 
of the Milan tract; their plantings consist 
of corn, oats, potatoes, tomatoes, cabbages, 
egg-plants, spinach, cauliflower, beets, cu- 
cumbers, beans, celery, lettuce, etc.; also 
tobacco, peas, beans, and, in fact, every- 
thing that will grow in that country. They 
propose to ship their products direct to 
New York via the Ocean Steamship Co. 
and the Georgia & Alabama Railway. 
Messrs. Missler & Krimmert, being the 
agents of the North German Lloyds, are in 
a position to attract emigration from Euro- 
pean points. Their agents throughout 
Europe are distributing information printed 
in three dififerent languages, covering all 
phases of the attractions of their settle- 
ments. These agents are permitted to 
ticket colonists by proper order forms via 
North German Lloyd steamships through 
New York via Ocean Steamship Co. to Sa- 
vannah and the line of the Georgia & Ala- 
bama Railway. Messrs. Missler & Krim- 
mert hold their lands at $5 per acre, payable 
$1 cash, balance in five years. None of the 
town property is for sale, and none will be 
sold until the farm land is all sold and set- 
tled. All working details of the colony are 
handled directly by Missler & Krimmert, 
as they have no local agents. About 150 
people are now reported settled on the 
lands, and an average of fifty per month are 
expected as a regular movement. Col. A. 
Pope, of the Georgia & Alabama road, be- 
lieves that the plans of Messrs. Missler & 
Krimmert contain the basis of a satisfactory 
immigration of a suitable class of foreigners 
— Swedes, Germans, Scandinavians and 
other people from the North of Europe. 

English Settlers for Florida. 

Through the efforts of Mr. George 
Mitchell, an Englishman, seconded by in- 
fluential friends in England, a syndicate 
has, it is reported, been formed to colonize 
lands in Florida. It is said that the char- 
ter has been secured and all necessary pre- 
liminaries completed. Its capital is claimed 
to be $3,000,000. It will acquire and clear 
wild lands. The timber will be manufac- 
tured into whatever articles it may be best 
suited for. As the lands are cleared, they 
will be laid out in plots and drained or irri- 



gated as their condition may indicate. They 
will then be thrown open for settlement. 
"Throughout Great Britain," Mr. Mitchell 
said, "are scattered thousands of men and 
» women who have lived for years m India, 
Ceylon, Africa or other of England's 
warmer possessions. They do not desire 
to spend all their lives in foreign lands, yet 
find the raw climate of England too trying. 
The United States comes next in the home 
feeling to an Englishman, and the Florida 
climate is the one these people need. This 
is the special class we propose to look out 
for. But we are just as ready to locate the 
same intelligent class from any part of the 
United States, France, Germany, any- 
where." 

About thirty Italians and Hungarians ar- 
rived at Brunswick, Ga., on April 20, on 
the Mallory steamer from New York, en 
route to Normandale, Ga., where they will 
form part of a colony soon to settle in that 
section. 

About the middle of April, Mr. W. F. 
Barrows, a member of the Indiana Farmer 
Co., went down to Washington county, 
Florida, with some other interested parties, 
and with the assistance of A. G. Chandlee, 
their local agent, made selections for 
twenty-two families on 2000 acres of the 
land recently secured by the company. 
Judging from present prospects, it is 
thought the company will have 200 families 
colonized in the next twelve months. 

It is reported that a syndicate of New 
York men has negotiated for a tract of 
25,000 acres of land in the vicinity of Hel- 
ena, on the Georgia & Alabama Railway, 
upon which they propose to locate several 
hundred families of Swedes. The tract will 
be subdivided into small farms, and truck- 
ing and fruit growing will be the chief pur- 
suits of the colonists. 

Speaking on the subject of immigration 
to Tennessee recently. Col. J. B. Killebrew, 
of Chattanooga, said: "The immigration 
agent will not have anything to do with the 
sale of lands, and puts himself on the side 
of the immigrant to protect him and save 
him from imposition. And when I feel I 
have to engage in speculation on lands and 
receive commissions to sustain myself, I 



IMMIGRA TION NO TES. 



115 



will resign my position. I do not think 
any man, who places himself in the respon- 
sible position of immigration agent, should 
for a moment think of making a profit on 
the immigrant. A great many lands on 
every division of the Nashville, Chatta- 
nooga & St. Louis road have been secured 
by persons who propose to sell them to im- 
migrants. They put very reasonable prices 
on them, and we see to it that they do not 
advance the prices with the tide of immi- 
grants. Should they do so, we will not 
recommend them to immigrants. We have 
a perfect check on them in this way. We 
want a desirable class of immigrants, and 
we have a variety of soil, adapted to fruit" 
culture, the cereals, grasses, tobacco, etc., 
at A'ery low prices." 

Captain Eric Von Axelson, the well- 
known Swedish immigration agent, has 
been appointed general land agent of the 
Yellow River Railroad, which runs from 
Crestview, a station on the Louisville & 
Nashville Railroad, to Florala, Ala. The 
lands of this company are in West Florida. 
The timber has been cut of¥, and the land is 
simply waiting for the plow. The general 
manager of the road, W. B. Wright, of 
Pensacola, is an enterprising man, and 
will do all that is possible to build up the 
country along his road. Captain Von Ax- 
elson has established his headquarters at 
Laurel Hill, Fla., and is now at work get- 
ting up a Swedish co-operative colony. 

Messrs. E. T. Griffeth and V. Benbow, 
of Muncie, Ind., have taken an option on 
500 acres of land with the Tifton Land & 
Emigration Co. 

Mr. Paul Scherer, immigration agent of 
the Norfolk & Western road, is said to have 
sold two farms recently in Bedford county, 
Virginia, to five Swiss gentlemen. One of 
the farms, 265 acres, was purchased by F. 
Lenenberer and two others; the other farm, 
120 acres, by A. Steiner and W. Jordi. One 
of the gentlemen named is said to have at- 
tended one of the best agricultural colleges 
in Switzerland for three years. 

The Francis E. Willard Co-Operative 
Colony has just begun operations, it is said, 
at Andrews, N. C. It is located in the 
heart of Valley river valley, which is in the 



extreme southwestern corner of North Car- 
olina. The railroad from Asheville to 
Murphy passes through the 20,000 acres of 
land purchased by the Willardites. The 
first instalment of the colony, headed by 
President W. C. Damon and Secretary E. 
P. Smith, arrived in Andrews last October, 
and since then the population has steadily 
increased. The colonists have adopted a 
novel and interesting set of by-laws to gov- 
ern their enterprise. They say that they do 
not wish to boom land, or to build a town; 
that they are moved by a deep conviction 
that society throughout the United States 
generally is constructed on a wrong basis, 
and they propose to begin all over again in 
their new locality and to gradually bring 
the entire people around to their way of 
thinking. It is reported that before the 
war more than a million and a half of gold 
was taken out of the valley where the Wil- 
lardites are located, and expert gold miners 
say that with improved machinery more 
than that amount can be taken from the 
mines formerly worked. 

The Ohio Colonization Co., of Dayton, 
Ohio, proposes to settle a colony of 1000 
Ohio families in Lauderdale county, Ala- 
bama. Mr. Isaac S. Bradley, president of 
the company, and Dr. Samuel F. George, 
general manager, have bought for the com- 
pany from Mr. Frank Perry, of Florence, 
Ala., 4600 acres of land in the Reserve, ex- 
tending from and including the Key farm 
to Woodland, and between the Cheatham's 
Ferry road on the north and the Tennessee 
river on the south, fronting three miles on 
the river. The conditions of the purchase 
are that the purchasers shall pay the sum 
of $5000, with the balance on credit. The 
deal was closed verbally on the nth of 
April, the contract to be submitted to the 
board of directors at Dayton, of which Dr. 
George and Judge Bradley are members, 
and upon their approval, the documents to 
be signed, sealed and delivered. The asso- 
ciation will, within six weeks or so, com- 
mence the erection of houses and the mak- 
ing of improvements, and will locate their 
members. The general scheme is a new 
thing in this part of the country, and is prac- 
tical co-operation and community of labor 
and goods, based on agriculture first and 
then manufactures. The full development 
of the scheme would, it is said, mean an in- 



ii6 



IMMIGRA TION NO TES. 



Mux of 4000 or 5000 people to Lauderdale 
in the near future. The two representatives 
of the association, Dr. George and Judge 
Bradley, are highly sanguine of success, 
and their standing at their home in Dayton 
is represented as being above reproach. 
Mr. Thurston H. Allen, of the Allen- Van 
Buskirk Immigration Co., was instrumental 
in causnig these gentlemen to choose 
Lauderdale. 

The Camp Fire, a G. A. R. paper lately 
published in Nebraska, has located at 
Grand Ridge, West Florida, on the line of 
the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. Judge 
Porter and Capt. J. F. Zediker, the owners 
of the paper, have control of a fine body of 
land, on which they will settle immigrants, 
the colony to be known as the Porter Col- 
ony. They are working diligently, and ex- 
pect to locate in their section next fall many 
soldiers whose declining years may be ren- 
dered happy by the salubrious climate. 



were followed by seventeen other Western 
people. 

At Waycross, Ga., it is said, in the latter 
part of March, Mr. Herbert Murphy's 
Clough-Hilliard land was opened to the 
colonization of good Northern and West- 
ern farmers. The land was surveyed and 
laid off in ten-acre tracts, and a map of the 
survey completed. Thousands of maps and 
circulars will be distributed judiciously 
among the better class of farmers in the 
North and West, showing the location of 
the property and its desirability. The prop- 
erty consists of rich yellow-pine timber and 
rich agricultural land. It borders on the 
northern limits of. the city, and extends be- 
yond Kettle Creek, about four miles from 
Waycross. The soil will produce a fine 
quality of tobacco and all the products that 
are prominent in the agriculture of South 
Georgia. Waycross has a fine system of 
artesian water works.. 



Mr. William Windt, a German from Mil- 
waukee, purchased about a month ago 6000 
acres in Escambia county, Alabama, on 
which he intends to settle thrifty German 
immigrants, who will raise early garden 
truck to be shipped to Northern markets, 
and also engage in fruit growing. 

A delegation of Germans from Kansas 
City Kan., representing several hundred of. 
their countrymen — some now in Kansas 
and others across the Atlantic — have re- 
cently visited Atlanta and the surrounding 
covmtry, looking for lands upon which to 
settle. They want 5000 acres of land, it is 
said, suitable for diversified farming, within a 
distance of an easy day's journeytothecityof 
Atlanta, which will be the market for their 
varied products. It is the intention of the 
colonists to establish a society of their own. 
Those who visited the section are scientific 
truck growers. 

Messrs. Fred. P. Chaubuckle, of One- 
kama, Mich.; Charles Magnusen, of Wood- 
boro. Wis., and James H. Pope, of Quincey, 
111., have visited the Sunny South Colony 
at Chadbourn, N. C, prospecting for. lands 
there or in the colony, which the Columbus 
Countv Land Co. is organizing. They 



At Shell Beach, about two miles north of 
Sarasota, Capt. C. N. Thompson, of Chi- 
cago, purchased last fall a tract of land em- 
bracing a mile and one-half bay frontage; 
broad avenues were cleared, and the tract 
has been laid ofif in lots with 100 feet front- 
age on the bay and 200 feet depth. The 
work of erecting residences has begun, and 
so far three very neat, comfortable houses 
have been completed. The property-hold- 
ers, it is said, intend to la}'^ concrete walks 
to connect all of the houses, as has already 
been done in the above cases. Work was 
commenced early in April on a club house 
intended to accommodate ten families, who 
have already donated sufficient for the erec- 
tion of a handsome building. Captain 
Thompson having donated the site. He will 
continue to build a number of cottages on 
his personal accoimt, claiming that he has 
a number of them rented in advance for 
next season. A substantial wharf has been 
built, bathhouses will be arranged, and 
every detail in connection with the colony 
bears the stamp of practical business and 
substantial appointments. An effort will 
be made to have a steamer plying between 
Sarasota and Braidentown by next season, 
so that quick connections can be made with 
the steamer Manatee for Tampa. 



General Notes. 



I 



The Scandinavian in America. 

The third paper of the series of race char- 
acteristics in American life is contributed 
to the May Atlantic Monthly by Charles 
Kendrick Babcock. Of the Scandinavian 
he says: "The great adaptability of the 
Scandinavians to the circumstances and 
customs of their adopted country is ac- 
knowledged on all sides. Whenever and 
wherever they have transplanted them- 
selves, whether in England in the ninth cen- 
tury, in Normandy in the tenth, in Sicily in 
the eleventh, or in America in the nine- 
teenth, the same process of transformation 
has taken place. No other people in his- 
tory has such a record. In the United 
States they have eagerly learned English, 
and have quickly done so because of its 
similarity to their own languages in struc- 
ture and vocabulary. Of course, men who 
have come hither as adults always prefer 
the old speech, and in some districts of the 
country and in Scandinavian quarters of 
the cities, it will be heard almost exclu- 
sively, because of the large numbers of the 
foreign born. But the second generation 
quite invariably choose English, and many 
of them have forgotten the language of 
their fathers." 

Citrus Fruit Culture. 

Planters who have had experience in the 
Biscayne Bay country of Florida believe 
that the orange, the lime and the lemon, 
and perhaps most largely the grape fruit, 
will flourish there. Orange trees that were 
planted at Biscayne, the northernmost 
postoffice on the bay, twenty-five years ago, 
are still to be seen, hale and thrifty, and in 
season laden with excellent fruit. The 
trees are planted less than an eighth of a 
mile from the bay front, and all these years 
have had no attention. With this example 
before them, homesteaders and buyers of 
land in this vicinity have not hesitated to 
put out hundreds of young trees, which are 
reported in a most thrifty condition. Some 
growers remove the Coralline rock, giving 



the tree the benefit of a location in the un- 
der soil, but others have planted in the 
thin soil that overlies the rock, believing 
that the sturdy roots of the young tree will 
penetrate the porous, phosphate-charged, 
moisture-conserving rock, that in the minds 
of some is an impediment to successful 
planting. 

Cranberry Culture in North Carolina. 

Capt. C. W. Chase, a prominent Alassa- 
chusetts cranberry grower, in the latter part 
of April closed a contract for 800 acres of 
land on the banks of the Pasquotank river, 
about three miles from Elizabeth City, N. 
C. On this land there is a fine natural 
growth of cranberries. "The season here 
is six months earlier than it is in Massa- 
chusetts," said Captain Chase; "land is 
much cheaper, and labor does not cost nearly 
so much. I am the first man to begin cran- 
berry culture in this State, but I think it 
will soon develop into a large and profit- 
able industry. As to the profit in the crop, 
the cost of cultivation is comparatively 
little, and I have often gathered $850 worth 
of cranberries from a single acre." 

The land that will be planted in cran- 
berries is only three miles from Edenton. 
on the banks of the Paskuotank. and has 
transportation facilities by land and water. 
All along the Alligator river, in Hyde 
county, cranberries grow wild, it is said. 
This is one more industry for North Caro- 
lina, for which there seems to be a great fu- 
ture, another proof of the recent assertion 
of the editor of the Philadelphia Times 
that "every part of North Carolina has some 
one tiling that will make it a distinctively 
great section." 

The Georgia Watermelon Crop. 

The Georgia watermelon growers, as if 
by unanimous agreement, this year deter- 
mined to decrease their acreage, and it is 
learned that the crop is 40 per cent, less 
this year than last. The acreage in canta- 
loupes is considerably increased this year, 



117 



Ii8 



GENERAL NOTES. 



as results from past shipments have been 
more satisfactory than with watermelons. 

A New England Man's Views of the 
South. 

Mr. J. D. Swain, of Nashua, N. H., a re- 
tired manufacturer of forty years' experi- 
ence, stated in a recent interview in Nash- 
ville, Tenn., that he believed the whole 
South was destined to great prosperity. In 
this interview, he said: 

"The iron manufacturers made an effort 
five or six years ago to get into the South. 
They established plants in Alabama and 
Georgia. They found an excellent quality 
of ore and coal, and were enabled to pro- 
duce pig iron at much less cost than in the 
North; but the scheme was premature. 
There were no railroad facilities for trans- 
porting the iron after making it. Then the 
financial troubles had their effect. When 
there are a sufficient number of railroads in 
operation, he said, this section will find 
ample capital anxious to come here for 
iron manufacturing. Then the South will 
supply not only this country, but the world. 
We simply cannot compete with the South; 
freights would eat us up. 

"All the leading cotton manufacturers 
are seeking legislative action authorizing 
an increase in their capital stock, with the 
privilege of locating anywhere. Two large 
corporations at Nashua have increased their 
capital stock, bought large tracts of coal 
lands in Alabama, and will erect plants 
there this season. The claim is made that 
they will manufacture only the coarser 
grades of goods in the South, and still 
manufacture the finer grades North, but 
this is a subterfuge, and the South will 
eventually get all the great Eastern cotton 
manufactories. This is their natural loca- 
tion — where they have the coal, the water 
power and cotton growing at their door, 
with no transportation charges, except on 
manufactured goods. 

"If the South builds railroads, she will be 
as near the seacoast as New England, and 
the railroads will be as good property as 
the factories in a few years. Some cotton 
factories here pay 15, 25 and even 30 per 
cent., while in New England today they are 
probably running behind. None are mak- 
ing anything. The New York warehouses 
are packed full of goods, for which there 



is no market, and which they cannot afford 
to hold. 

"Capital is turning towards the South, 
and there are millions of dollars ready and 
anxious for opportunity. The West is 
dead. We invested much money in the 
West and lost it. In the South it is differ- 
ent. Investments are safe and profitable. 
This generation will not see confidence re- 
stored in Western investments. The only 
thing that has been in the way of extensive 
Southern investments was the feeling lin- 
gering since the war. This is dying out. 
and good fellowship restored." 

Will Be A Big Pear Crop. 

Mr. T. Remsen Crawford, press agent of 
the Plant System, recently made a trip to 
Thomasville, Albany and neighboring 
points in the fruit section to secure informa- 
tion for the system relative to the fruit crop 
outlook. 

"The pear crop, as I find from those most 
prominently interested in the orchards," 
Mr. Crawford said, "has reached a point 
where it can be predicted with some cer- 
tainty what it will be. The pears are now 
about the size of large marbles, and the 
trees are loaded down with them. There is 
a little blight in all the orchards, but it 
doesn't scatter much, and is not doing any 
great amount of damage. 

"I am told by Mr. B. W. Stone, of 
Thomasville, secretary of the Pear Growers' 
Association for Georgia and Florida, and 
there is no one more reliably posted on the 
subject, that the crop this year will be 
somewhere between 15,000 and 18,000 bar- 
rels. This, he says, is what might be called 
a healthfully large crop of pears, the fruit 
is in elegant condition and promises to be 
better, according to old pear growers, than 
it was last year. 

"Last year's crop was phenomenally 
large, reaching nearly 25,000 barrels. This, 
they all say, was too large a crop, and com- 
ing on late along with the peach crop, the 
pears sold at low prices. They say the 
crop is fully a week earlier this year, and a 
week means a great deal to the fruit and 
vegetable grower. Besides this, the size of 
the crop is such as will not glut the market, 
and it is believed they will bring far better 
prices than they have in some years." 

With regard to the peach crop in that 



GENER4L NOTES. 



119 



section, around Albany, Tifton and other 
points in Southwest Georgia, Mr. Crawford 
said about the same statements might be 
made. 

Meeting of Fruit Growers. 

A movement is under way to organize the 
fruit growers throughout the country. The 
Georgia and other horticulturists have be- 
come interested in the idea, and a circular 
sent out to fruit growers' unions bears the 
signature of John D. Cunningham, presi- 
dent of the Georgia association, among 
other names. The following are extracts 
from the circular: 

"The immense quantity of fruit shipped 
from the South to the North, from the Pa- 
cific to the Atlantic, from the centre to the 
coast, give to the transportation companies 
a great volume of business. The transpor- 
tation lines find it necessary to have their 
associations adjust rates and avoid needless 
competition. The fruit growers of the 
United States, in a like association of the 
whole, will be enabled to better existing 
conditions in transportation matters and to 
mutually assist each section in correcting 
unjust discriminations on the part of com- 
mon carriers. In behalf of the many fruit 
unions throughout the country, and for the 
better success of the fruit-marketing asso- 
ciations and the protection of the fruit 
growers, a meeting of representatives of 
the fruit growers' unions and associations 
of the United States is to be held at the 
Palmer House, Chicago, 111., on Wednes- 
day, iVTay 20, 1896, for the purpose of or- 
ganizing the National Fruit Growers' 
Union." 

The News and Courier's Prize Farming 
Contest. 

To supplement the prize of $100, which 
was offered in January last by the Charles- 
ton News and Courier for the best record 
of "all round farming" made in South Car- 
olina this year, the Rock Hill Buggy Co., 
of Charleston, has ofifered one of the finest 
open buggies made by the company, the 
regular retail price being $85. The two 
prizes together will insure to the winner in 
the contest the very handsome reward of 
$185 for his labor over and above the profits 
of his year's work. The contest will close 
on December 31, 1896, and all reports of 
operations for the year must be made before 



January 15, 1897. Each report must pre- 
sent on the one hand a statement of the 
total cost of conducting the farm, including 
every item fairly chargeable to the expense 
account; and, on the other hand, a like item- 
ized statement of moneys received from 
sales, and of the local or other market value 
of articles remaining unsold. Both state- 
ments must be sworn to by the contestants 
and attested by three reputable and disin- 
terested men, his neighbors, after examina- 
tion of his rtcords, to be submitted for their 
inspection and approval. The largest net 
profit made per acre will be calculated from 
these reports, and the prize will be awarded 
accordingly. No farm of less than ten acres 
will be admitted to the contest, and each 
contestant is required to cultivate not less 
than four dififerent kinds of field or orchard, 
or field and orchard crops. 

Celery and Lettuce in the South. 

It is reported that an old marsh, in Flor- 
ida, between Tampa and East Tampa, will 
be converted into a celery farm. The farm 
will comprise forty acres, protected from 
overflows by a four-foot dike. The farm 
will be in charge of a German gardener. 
Last year's experiments with celery at Tif- 
ton, Ga., and Tampa, Fla., demonstrated, it 
is said, that such a crop successfully culti- 
vated in this section, brings a handsome re- 
turn to the grower. In Tampa last year 
$1000 was no unusual return from an acre 
of celery, and one family in Tampa realized 
$2000 on an acre. Much attention is given. 
to the cultivation of lettuce also. The les- 
son taught by the freeze of 1895 caused 
many farmers to cover their lettuce crop. 
Surprising results have been obtained by 
nearly every farmer who planted this crop 
to any considerable extent. The acreage 
this year has been four times as large as 
that of any previous year, but the enormous 
yield seems to have had no effect upon the 
market prices. Lettuce is a crop that re- 
quires a cultivated market, and good prices 
were obtained for it in New York and Phil- 
adelphia after some work on the part of 
commission merchants. The first crop 
was planted last September, and the first 
shipments were made about the latter part 
of December or the ist of January. They 
were light at first, but they gradually in- 
creased, till they reached about 3000 bas- 



I20 



GENERAL NOTES, 



kets per week from Tampa. About 300 bas- 
kets is the average yield per acre. It is said 
to cost about 30 cents a basket to grow let- 
tuce and load it upon the cars for market; 
the cost of transportation to New York, 
seventy-one cents, makes the expense of 
placing the crop upon the market $1.01 per 
crate. The average sale of lettuce this year 
is estimated at ^3.76 per crate, making the 
net profit to the growers $2.75. 

Testimony of Northern Settlers. 

The following statements are from North- 
ern persons who have settled at Statham, 
Ga., on the Seaboard Air Line: 

Col. O. S. Hayes, who is at the head of 
the Ohio Colony of ex-Union soldiers at 
Statham, is a nephew of Col. Wm. L. 
Strong, mayor of New York. Col. Hayes 
says: "I think this is the greatest place in 
the world for people suffering bronchial, 
catarrhal and pulmonary troubles. I have 
gained forty pounds since coming here." 

Mr. O. Dyanman moved South with his 
family from Defiance, Ohio. He says: "I 
have been here eleven months, and I am de- 
lighted with the country, and my family are 
all well pleased. I would not go back 
North for the whole North, if compelled 
to stay there. I will say to my Northern 
friends, that if they can sell their property 
in the North for half price, they can come 
here and better their condition. We have 
the finest all-the-year-around climate to be 
found anywhere. We commence eating the 
choicest home-raised fruits in May, and 
continue until November. The water is as 
tine as any in the world. I have spent fifty- 
five summers of my life, and spent the 
finest summer of my life here in the South. As 
for winter, we have had none, comparatively 
■ speaking. When you land here, you will 
be shown the country by the old citizens, 
who are very anxious for Northern people 
to locate and build homes among them." 

Rev. James W Wright, who came from 
Rocky river, Ohio, says: "I am well pleased 
with this section, and am glad that I came. 
My health has greatly improved, and I have 
found living cheaper than in the North." 

Mr. W. A. Lord came from Orange. 
Mass. He says: "I came to Statham two 
months ago, and am very much pleased 
with the country. The soils and climate 
seem to be well adapted to the growing of 



nearly all sorts of fruits and agricultural 
products grown in similar latitude. Land 
can be bought at reasonable prices and on 
fair terms. 

"Grasses are not grown to a great ex- 
tent in this locality, but I am satisfied that 
with proper care and by the selection of 
proper varieties, grasses and clover can be 
successfully grown. Cotton has been the 
chief crop for many years, and has been 
grown to the exclusion of other products, 
but the people are beginning to see the folly 
of such exclusive cropping, and are fast 
turning their attention to a more varied sys- 
tem of agriculture. 

"To sum up the whole thing in a nut- 
shell, the clim.ate and country are all right 
and the near future will certainly see a 
great change for the better in this whole 
Southern country, and Northeast Georgia 
will keep up fully with the procession." 

Mr. J. M. Woods says: "I have been 
troubled with catarrh for several years, and 
moved from Franklin Grove, 111., and came 
South to find relief. Since living here, I 
have been benefited. I don't take any med- 
icine, and am so much better that I believe 
I will be entirely cured. I have bought a 
farm, and am fixing it for a fruit farm. This 
is a fine country and good climate." 

The fame of the Ellentown Hammock, in 
Florida, is remarkable. Forty-six years 
ago it was picked out of the whole State of 
Florida as the richest land and best adapted 
for the foundation of a great sugar planta- 
tion, although in the centre of a State which 
was then almost a wilderness. In 1858, this 
property was sold for $190,000. It had been 
cleared and planted in sugar cane in the 
year the war opened, but the cane was never 
harvested, and the land has returned to the 
original forest. Now, after thirty years, its 
value is again recognized, and there will be 
located here one of the largest groves in 
the State, Mr. Kimball C. Atwood, a 
wealthy gentleman of New York city, hav- 
ing purchased a tract of 160 acres of this 
section — 150 acres from the Patten estate 
and ten acres from Mr. C. P. Parrish. 

In the early part of April, fifty colonists 
arrived at Glenmore, on the Alabama Mid- 
land Line of the Plant System, about ten 
miles west of Waycross. These are for the 



GENERAL NOTES. 



121 



Elwood Park Colony, of which Mr. G. W. 
Shults is organizer and superintendent. 
The colonists are from Ohio. 

Mr. J. L. Reed, of Marion county, 
Georgia, has purchased forty acres of land 
near Ocean Springs, Miss., on the north 
side of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, 
where he expects to plant a fruit and vege- 
table farm and raise fine stock. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

A New Hampshire Man's Opinion of 
Arkansas. 

Editor Southern States: 

I was reared on a farm among the bleak 
granite hills of New Hampshire, where the 
most careful, thorough and laborious cul- 
tivation and the utilization of every pos- 
sible means of fertilization (including the 
saving of dish-water, weeds and garbage 
for compost heaps) are necessary to obtain 
fair returns from planting. I went from 
farm life into other lines of business, which 
took me into many Western and North- 
western States, the Territories and foreign 
lands. A year ago, while at Kansas City, 
Mo., I one day accidentally strolled into 
the ot^ce of a railroad company that oper- 
ates lines southward from Kansas City, and 
found exhibited what was to me an amazing 
display of the products of Southwest Mis- 
souri and North and Western Arkansas. 
comprising fruits of nearly every variety, 
grains, vegetables, grasses and various spe- 
cimens of timbers, ores, etc. As I pro- 
ceeded to investigate farther. I became 
more and more interested, and returning to 
St. Paul, ]\Iinn., mentally resolved to later 
on see for myself this, to me, fabled land. I 
entered into correspondence with individ- 
uals at different points, and the reports I 
received so closely tallied with each other, 
and sustained my first information, that in 
November last, accompanied by a few ac- 
quaintances who had become interested, I 
came down to "spy out the land." A phy- 
sician friend, solicitous for my health, fitted 
me out with a liberal supply of quinine, 
liver pills, fever powders, sleeping tablets, 
etc. Another friend supplied me with am- 
monia and a generous flask of fine old 
whiskey for snake, centipede, tarantula 
bites, etc. Still another supplied me with 
a fan and a mosquito bar, and suggested. 



also, a stock of dynamite for defensive pur- 
poses. Leaving Minnesota during a hard 
snow-storm, and passing through Iowa in a 
cold rain and drizzle, we found at Sulphur 
Springs, Ark., our first stopping place, a 
bright, clear, balmy afternoon, and spent 
some time looking over the country in 
Benton and adjoining counties. We were 
all most favorably impressed with the 
change from the monotonous prairies to 
these cozy valleys and beautiful timbered 
hills, the mellow atmosphere, the clear, 
bright sparkling streams, pure, cold spring- 
waters and the welcome sunshine. It was 
remarked that if this is so charmingly de- 
lightful and entrancingly beautiful at this 
dreary season of the year, what can it be 
in leafy May and June. The large yields of 
corn, oats and mammoth grasses surprised 
us, for in all our experience we had never 
seen such productions. We noted many 
large orchards of varied fruits, in many 
cases, however, showing general neglect in 
proper attention, but were informed the 
yield was quite satisfactory, and the natural 
thought was, what would be the additional 
returns did these orchards, etc., receive the 
care we had been accustomed to see be- 
stowed on them. We found a general con- 
dition of peace and contentment existing, 
tlie people kindly and hospitably disposed, 
law-abiding, lawyers and doctors scarce, 
preachers a plenty and to spare. After 
several months' sojourn, I have not had 
any occasion, as yet, to open my medicine 
chest; on the contrary, I have been greatly 
relieved from a severe case of catarrh, and 
have increased in flesh. The ammonia is 
untouched, and is liable to remain so; the 
whiskey came in well, in a country where 
local option exists and is rigidly enforced. 
I am informed there are absolutely no 
mosquitoes. The fan will be returned to 
the donor, as Minnesota summers, while 
.shorter, are much warmer than these here. 
My ramblings have been intensely interest- 
ing and instructive to me. I find the coun- 
try a positive and direct contradiction to 
the impression I had had regarding it; in 
short, a revelation in its people, their 
modes, manners and customs; the health- 
ful and desirable climate; the wonderful 
productiveness of the soil under, in many 
cases, inferior cultivation. Arkansas in 
general, and particularly this northwest- 
ern section, is receiving a steady flow of 



122 



GENERAL NOTES. 



a good class of immigration. Improvements 
are visible on every side in the agricultural 
line. The raw material in abundance is 
at hand, as a basis, for many and diversified 
manufacturing ventures, and are gradually 
being utilized. Two of my three com- 
panions have located here permanently — 
one in business, and the other will go into 
fruit farming; while the writer has written 
his people North that he is content to live, 
die and be buried here. W. L. HALL. 
Benton County, Arkansas. 

How It Can Be Done. 

Editor Southern States: 

The question of how the great agricul- 
tural sections of the South may be devel- 
oped is being solved in a practical way at 
many points on the lines of the Illinois 
Central and Yazoo & Mississippi Valley 
railroads in the States of Kentucky, Tennes- 
see, Mississippi and Louisiana. The pas- 
senger department of the "Central'' has for 
fifteen years persistently advertised, through 
the press and otherwise, the climate, the 
character of the soil and the products to 
which it is especially adapted, and has been 
rewarded in seeing a steady immigration 
from the Northwest, which has, in some lo- 
calities of the South, completely changed 
the farm methods and the character of the 
crops raised. For instance. Crystal Springs, 
Miss., has almost wholly abandoned the 
growing of cotton, and the farmers in that 
vicinity are, many of them, cultivating 
acres of tomatoes and other vegetables for 
the early Northern markets. It seems in- 
credible, and yet it is a fact, that the ship- 
ments of tomatoes alone from this point 
reach into the thousands of carloads in a 
single season. 

But the point I desire to especially em- 
phasize in this short article is the fact that 
no one can so successfully advertise and 
develop a given locality as the people who 
live there, and are naturally, of all others, 
most interested in the character of the im- 
migration and the habits and customs of 
the families who are to become their per- 
manent neighbors. As an illustration of 
this, allow me to refer to an instance which 
occurred on the line of the Illinois Central 
only last year, and with which I am per- 
sonally familiar. The citizens of a certain 
excellent agricultural county in Mississippi, 
which had not to exceed 20 per cent, of its 



lands under cultivation, had been indiffer- 
ent as to inviting immigration, and, as a 
result, only a few Northern families had 
located in that county. A few enterprising 
men residing at the county seat, who were 
familiar with what was being done at other 
points through the introduction of North- 
ern energy and Northern capital, called a 
public meeting, I think in March, 1895. 
The question of immigration was fully dis- 
cussed, and then and there money was 
raised for the compilation of a pamphlet 
describing accurately and in detail the ad- 
vantages of the town and county. Within 
sixty days the pamphlet was published, and 
two good men, supplied with this kind of 
literature, visited the Northwestern States 
and distributed the same among the farm- 
ers and others, whom they found glad to 
receive them. Last month, one year from 
the date of the meeting to which I have 
referred, another meeting was called in the 
same town and in the same hall. This con- 
sisted of bankers, lawyers, doctors and 
others from the city, and farmers, several 
of whom, less than a year ago were located 
in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, 
South Dakota or Nebraska, who are now 
freeholders in that very county. The ob- 
ject of this meeting was to report as to the 
practical workings of the plan adopted the 
year before, and the reports showed that 
within a year sixty-nine families had located 
within the county, and their aggregate, pur- 
chases amounted to 26,700 acres. In a sin- 
gle year lands in this county have ad- 
vanced from $3 to $5 per acre, and city 
property, in some cases, fully 100 per cent. 
I would not say that such phenomenal 
results could always be obtained, but I am 
confident if each community throughout 
the South would make special efforts to ad- 
vertise their own advantages, and not depend 
entirely upon railroads and real estate 
agents, they would unquestionably get 
quicker and more satisfactory results. 
J. F. MERRY, 
Asst. Gen. Pass. Agt., I. C. R. R. 



BOOKS AND HAQAZINES. 

The Southern Baptist Pulpit. Edited by 
Rev. J. F. Love. Philadelphia, Ameri- 
can Baptist Publication Societv. Price 
$2. 
The fiftieth anniversary of the organiza- 



GENERAL NOTES. 



123 



tion of the Southern Baptist Convention 
was celebrated at the annual meeting of the 
convention held in Washington, D. C, in 
May, 1895. As a sort of memorial of this 
"jubilee session," Rev. J. F. Love has pub- 
lished this book, containing a notable ser- 
mon from each of thirty-three conspicuous 
Baptist preachers of the South, each sermon 
being accompanied by a photograph of the 
author of it and a sketch of his life. It is a 
book that every Baptist in the South will 
want and ought to have. The personal 
sketches are alone worth the price of it. 

Washington; or. The Revolution. An 
Historical Drama. By Ethan Allen. In 
two parts. Published by F. Tennyson 
Neely, Chicago and New York. Each 
part, paper, fifty cents; cloth, $1.50. 
Mr. Allen, of the New York bar, has 
found time to step aside from professional 
duties to dramatize the story of the struggle 
for American independence. The first part, 
from the Boston Massacre to the surrender 
of General Burgoyne, is in less than 40.000 
words; and part second, from Red Bank 
and Valley Forge to the inauguration of 
George Washington as the first President 
of the United States, about 55, 000. The 
whole story of the Revolution can be gath- 
ered to the memory in a day. Every figure 
in the work is chiselled distinctly; the style 
is clear and forcible; the narrative full of 
romance, pathos and noble incident. The 
student who may have heretofore found his- 
tory a wearisome task will seize eagerly up- 
on this form of it, and find that, while en- 
joying the pleasure of reading, important 
dates and events become firmly fixed in his 
memorj'. 

Plant Breeding. By L. H. Bailey. Uni- 
form with the Horticulturists' Rule Book. 
New York, Macmillan & Co. $1. 
Professor Bailey, in this little voluifte, 
has brought together the subject-matter of 
various lectures which he has been in the 
habit of delivering before; the students of 
Cornell University. The heart of the book 
is in the third lecture, where specific rules 
for the guidance of the cultivator are laid 
down. The influence of soils and methods 
of treatment, effects of climate, the change 
of seed, etc., are discussed; the use and need 
of crossing in the vegetable kingdom, and 
its value as a means of originating new va- 



rieties; directions for the crossing of plants 
are given in detail, with full illustrations, 
and translations of important foreign opin- 
ions on plant breeding. ' Plant Breeding is 
the second volume in the "Garden Craft" 
series, the first number in which, "The 
Horticulturists' Rule Book," was reviewed 
in a former number of the "Southern 
States." 

The Spraying of Plants. By E. G. Lode- 
man, instructor in Horticulture in the 
Cornell University. New York, Mac- 
millan & Co. $1. 

Air. Lodeman has expended the etTort of 
two years upon this book, having visited 
Europe for the purpose of collecting ma- 
terial, ma;king a trip to the vineyards of 
the jNIedoc, in which the modern practice 
of spraying had its origin. The contents 
are: Part I. "The History and Principles of 
the Spraying of Plants," comprising the fol- 
lowing chapters: I. "Early History of 
Spraying;" II. "Spraying in Foreign Coun- 
tries;" III. "Spraying in America;" IV. 
"Materials and Formulas Used in Spray- 
ing;" V. "Spraying Devices and ]\Ia- 
chinery;" VI. "Action of Insecticides and 
Fungicides." Part II. "Specific Directions 
for the Spraying of Cultivated Plants." The 
book is thoroughly illustrated with new and 
original engravings. 

This is published as one of the volumes 
in Messrs. Macmillan & Co.'s "Rural 
Science Series." Other volumes in prepa- 
ration are: "The Apple in North America," 
by L. H. Bailey, editor of the series; "The 
Fertility of the Land," by I. P. Roberts, of 
Cornell University; "Milk and its Prod- 
ucts," by H. H. Wing, of Cornell Univer- 
sity; "Bush Fruits," by Fred W. Card, Uni- 
versity of Nebraska. It is expected that the 
series will finally cover the entire field of 
rural life. Some of the topics for early 
treatment are: "Forestry," "Grape Cul- 
ture," "Planting Manual," "The Grass," 
"Plant Life," "Rural Economics," "Land- 
scape Gardening," etc. 

Southern Sidelights. A Picture of Social 
and Economic Life in the South a Gener- 
ation Before the War. By Edward Ingle. 
A. B. New York, Thomas Y. Crowell & 
Co. $1.75. 
This compact volume of information is 

an important addition to the study of Am- 



124 



GENERAL NOTES. 



erican history and life. Mr. Ingle has con- 
scientiously gathered from contemporary 
magazine and newspaper articles, from pub- 
lic documents, from private letters, every 
available testimony in regard to the partic- 
ular state of society or politics portrayed 
in this work. After defining what he means 
by the term "Southern," Mr. Ingle takes up 
in turn the following topics: I. "Traits of 
the People;" II. "Where Cotton Was Ru- 
ler;" III. "Phases of Industry;" IV. 
"Trade and Commerce;" V. "The Educa- 
tional Situation;" VI. "Literary Aspira- 
tions;" VII. "Plans for Progress;" VIII. 
"The Peculiar Institution;" IX. "The Cri- 
sis." 

Carefully selected statistics are given to 
show that the outline history is a truthful 
one, while the grace of the author's style 
and the harmonious blending of politic 
happenings and economic conditions with 
the natural sentiments, the habits of 
thought, the mode of action of the people, 
prevents the rather poetical title of the vol- 
ume from being considered a misnomer. 

New Orleans: The Place and the People. 

By Grace King. New York, Macmillan 

& Co., publishers. $2.50. 

In the introduction to this work, the 
author asks: "Which is the better guaran- 
tee of truth — the eye or the heart? Is 
either trustworthy when directed by love? 
Does not the birthplace, like the mother, 
or with the mother, implicate both eye and 
heart into partiality, even from birth?" 

Miss King is deeply in love with her sub- 
ject, yet one feels in reading the book that 
she endeavored conscientiously to present 
a truthful picture. The work is historical, 
yet so romantic is the history of New Or- 
leans, "the entrancing city of the heart," 
that it has all the charm of the most fasci- 
nating work of fiction. The contents are: 
"History of the Mississippi River;" "Colo- 
nization of Louisiana;" "Founding of New 
Orleans;" "The Ursuline Sisters;" "Indian 
Troubles;" "Cession to Spain;" "Spanish 
Domination;" "Spanish Administration;" 
"American Domination;" "The Barata- 
rians;" "The Glorious Eighth of January;" 
"Ante-Bellum New Orleans;" "War;" 
"Convent of the Holy Family," concluding 
with the death and burial of Charles Gay- 
arre, the historian of Louisiana, to whose 
memory and name Miss King pays loving 



and grateful tribute. The book is pro- 
fusely illustrated. 

The Commercial Travelers' Home Mag- 
azine, of Binghamton, N. Y., has short- 
ened its name to the Home Magazine, and 
its May number presents a handsome new 
cover, designed by Claude Fayette Brag- 
don. The change has been in contempla- 
tion for some time, but an unfounded rumor 
that a magazine with a similar name, for- 
merly edited by Mrs. John A. Logan, was 
to be revived at Washington, caused the 
delay. There is only one Home Magazine, 
therefore, and it is published at Bingham- 
ton. 

The Lincoln paper in the May McClure's 
contains some very interesting unpublished 
letters and anecdotes, showing Lincoln's 
rare tact and sagacity as a political mana- 
ger, even as a young man. It also de- 
scribes Lincoln's life in Washington as a 
member of Congress in 1847-1849, and re- 
produces from the newspaper in which it 
was reported at the time an important but 
now unknown speech of Lincoln's made in 
New England in 1848. A number of rare 
pictures appear with the paper. 

The McDowell Fashion Magazines of 
the month furnish abundant illustrations of 
new fancies in summer millinery. "La 
]Mode de Paris" and "Paris Album of Fash- 
ions" cost $3.50 per year's subscription, or 
thirty-five cents a copy. The "French 
Dressmaker" is $3 per annum, or thirty 
cents a copy, and "La Mode" $1.50 a year, 
or fifteen cents a copy. If you are unable 
to procure either of these journals from 
your newsdealer, apply by mail to Messrs. 
A. McDowell & Co., 4 West Fourteenth 
street, New York. 

An attractively seasonable flavor per 
vades the Ladies' Home Journal for May. 
the rich bounties of spring being presented 
in poetry, in prose and in picture. Among 
the articles along more serious lines is Ex 
President Harrison's paper on "This 
Country of Ours," in which he discusse.'^ 
most lucidly the President's participation 
in treaty-making and his exercise of the 
veto. Also, Dr. Parkhurst's paper on, 
"Shall We Send Our Boy to College?" a 
question he discusses forcibly, pro and con, 



GENERAL NOTES. 



125 



and presents a conclusive solution to a 
problem that confronts so many parents. 
The May Journal, both in a literary and pic- 
torial 'way, is an admirable magazine. By 
the Curtis Publishing Co., Philadelphia. 
$1 per year; ten cents per copy. 

There is always an endless surprise of 
good things to be found in Litteli's Living 
Age, and recent numbers have been no ex- 
ception to the rule. We note in particular 
"Recent Science," by Prince Kropotkin, 
the eminent Russian scientist and revolu- 
tionist, which consists of two papers, 
"Roentgen's Rays" and "The Erect Ape- 
Man. " The same issue contains an article 
by Eivind Astrup, "In the Land of the 
Northernmost Eskimo," and another, "The 
Chevalier D'Eon as a Book Collector," by 
W. Roberts. Notable papers in other late 
issues are "South Africa and the Chartered 
Compan}^" by Charles Harrison; "In 
Praise of the Boers," by H. A. Bryden; 
"National Biography," by Leslie Stephen; 
"The Baltic Canal and How It Came to be 
Made," by W. H. Wheeler; "Spenser, and 
England as He Viewed It," by Geo. Serrell; 
"Cardinal Manning and the Catholic Re- 
vival," by A. M. Fairbairn; "Personal 
Reminiscences of Cardinal Manning," by 
Aubrey de Vere; "The Rival Leaders of the 
Czechs," by Edith Sellers, etc. The above 
partial list gives but a trifling idea of the 
great field covered by the Living Age. Pub- 
lished weekly, each issue brings just such 
valuable scientific, biographical and his- 
torical essays, sketches and reviews, to say 
nothing of the choice fiction and poetry, 
which are equally features of this admirable 
periodical. The price, formerly $8 a year, 
is now but $6. Published weekly by Littell 
& Co., Boston. 

The May "Book News" is as bright as a 
spring morning. The detached frontis- 
piece is a portrait of Miss Anne HoUings- 
worth Wharton, author of "Through Co- 
lonial Doorways," "Colonial Days and 
Dames," etc. Dr. Talcott Williams talks 
helpfull}^ of new books, and able letters from 
New York, Boston, Chicago and London 
put one in touch with the book world. 
Some 260 new books are noticed — among 
them "Democracy and Liberty." by Wil- 
liam Edward Hartpole Lecky. Manj^ pic- 



tures from the new books brighten the 
pages of this unique magazine. Monthly; 
fifty cents a year. John Wanamaker, pub- 
lisher, Philadelphia. 

Harper's Weekly for May 2 contains an 
article on the "Squadron Drill" of the ves- 
sels of the United States Navy at Hampton 
Roads, illustrated by a double-page and a 
front-page drawing by Carlton T. Chap- 
man. There is also a preliminary article on 
the General Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, with a page of portraits 
of the most important bishops, officers and 
delegates; and an especially timely paper 
devoted to the development of the garden- 
truck industry in the South. 

The Review of Reviews for May is an ex- 
ceedingly alert and well-planned number, 
true from beginning to end to the well- 
known methods and ideals of this unique 
periodical. The department of Leading 
Articles of the Month, which the original 
features of the Review of Reviews have 
sometimes seemed to be crowding just a 
little, is allowed in the May number to 
have its full space. In the compass of 
about forty pages one finds a remarkably 
thorough and varied digest of the most sig- 
nificant articles in the newest issues of the 
principal American, English and Continen- 
tal periodicals. The Review goes to press 
after the other monthly periodicals are all 
printed, and in view of its timeliness re- 
quiring very rapid mechanical execution, 
its typography and pictures are remarkably 
handsome. The most important original 
feature in this number is entitled "The 
Great Occasions of 1896." In a rapid nar- 
rative fashion, with due regard to dates and 
precise facts, the reader is apprised of all 
the great gatherings and conventions of a 
political, religious or educational character, 
foreign expositions and noteworthy events 
in general that the coming six months will 
afiford to American and European travelers. 

Some of the features in Harper's Weekly 
for May 9 are: "The Exposition at Buda- 
Pesth," with a double-page illustration and 
an article by Robert Howard Russell; "The 
Tennessee Exposition," illustrated; "The 
Insurrection in Cuba," illustrated, and 
"Garden Trucking," by L. J. Vance, illus- 



126 



GENERAL NOTES. 



trated. The last-mentioned article treats 
of the increasing industry of raising vegeta- 
bles and fruits in the South for sale in the 
Northern and Western markets during the 
winter season. 

Harper's Bazar for May 2 is bright- 
ened by a variety of very beautiful toil- 
ettes suitable to the spring. Fans, para- 
sols and other dainty accessories of the cos- 
tume of a thoroughly well-dressed woman 
are described among this season's nov- 
elties, and there is also a look at those 
indispensable requisites, gloves, shoes 
and stockings. "The Out-door Woman" 
is occupied with the latest news about ten- 
nis and golf. The home-coming to Blen- 
heim of the young Duke and Duchess ot 
Marlborough are described with picture 
and pen. and Mrs. Burton Harrison's 
charming novelette, giving an episode in 
the life of a more humble but not less en- 
tertaining "Young Couple," begins in this 
notable May number of the Bazar. 

The May number of Harper's Magazine 
opens with an article on "Mark Twain," by 
his long-time friend, Rev. Joseph H. 
Twichell. The paper abounds in anecdote, 
and is embellished with a frontispiece por- 
trait, engraved by Florian from the latest 
photograph of Mr. Clemens, and with pic- 
tures of his Hartford and Elmira homes ny 
Childe Hassam. The attitude of England 
during the Civil War in America is strik- 
ingly set forth in two letters written in 1862 
and 1863 by William E. Gladstone to the 
late Cyrus W. Field. The development of 
Washington during his early manhood is 
the subject of a paper by Professor Wood- 
row Wilson, called "At Home in Virginia." 
Poultney Bigelow on "The Struggle for 
Liberty" treats of the battle of Leipsic and 
the resulting retreat of Napoleon from Ger- 
many. Brander Matthews contributes a 
paper entitled "The Penalty of Humor." 
The number is strong in fiction. Mr. War- 
ner's suggestive comment maintains the 
high character of the Editor's Study, and the 
Editor's Drawer is introduced with a farce. 
"First Aid to the Injured," by W. G. Van 
Tassel Sutphen. 

Scribner's for June will contain an inter- 
esting article from the pen of Henry Nor- 



man, the correspondent of the Londoir 
Chronicle, entitled "In the Balkans — the 
Chessboard of Europe." It is a most vivid 
presentation of the curious principalities 
that make up that interesting corner of the 
world — -Roumania, Montenegro, Servia, 
Bosnia, etc. Also, a second instalment of 
"Vailima Table-Talk;" a unique story, en- 
titled "His College Life, by President Wil- 
liam De Witt Hyde, of Bowdoin College; 
"A Letter to Town," by H. C. Bunner; the 
usual instalment of Barne's "Sentimental 
Tommy;" the second article on "The 
Trotting Horse," by Hamilton Busbey, and 
an exciting account of hunting the Big 
Horn in the Rockies, by Harry C. Hale, a 
lieutenant in the United States army, under 
the title, "At St. Mary's." 



NEWSPAPER COMMENT. 

To the Southland. 

There is a great deal of commotion at 
present in the Northwest, due to the mi- 
gration from that section of the Union to 
the Southern States. The movement is the 
outgrowth of the settlement in Louisiana 
some years ago of some colonies and indi- 
viduals, who found the change most agree- 
able and profitable. The news of their for- 
tune and prosperity has induced others to 
follow their example, so that now many 
States are losing in population by reason of 
this migratory spirit. 

It is evident that this movement has 
caused more or less alarm in some sections, 
so that now efforts are being made to head 
it of¥. The States principally afifected are 
Kansas, Nebraska. Wisconsin, Iowa and 
South Dakota, although the movement 
southward is not confined to these States 
alone, but it is serious enough there to 
cause alarm. The Chicago Times-Herald 
recently entered into an investigation of the 
matter, and its correspondents sent to that 
paper various communications from differ- 
ent States, showing the extent of the migra- 
tory movements and setting forth the ar- 
guments used to encourage and discourage 
it. The Times-Herald declared that there 
were no politics in the movement, though 
a large number of the emigrants are Re- 
publicans. The argument used against the 
movement is that these Republicans will be 
in constant friction with the Southern peo- 



GENERAL NOTES. 



127 



pie in political affairs, it being alleged that 
the climate and the negro are simply buga- 
'.boos. 

It has been learned that the railroads are 
the promoters of the movement, .and that 
ithe political argument is not material with 
men who are willing to try to raise corn on 
Hand worth from $40 to $100 per acre, when 
ithey believe that they can buy land equally 
,as good in the South at from $5 to $15 per 
.acre. Then. too. they find they can work 
nearly the whole year in the South, and 
that the climate is better for the general 
health. 

Several years ago a colony of Northern 
'G. A. R. men, with their families, was es- 
tablished in Georgia, and it is said that it 
has been very prosperous since. Several 
•other colonies besides those mentioned 
have departed for the South. One con- 
.sisted of Norwegian farmers from Iowa. 
It is also understood that J. R. Sovereign, 
the K. of L. leader, is to head a party of 
emigrants bound for Arkansas, where a 
tract of land already has been purchased for 
their settlement. A party of Populists, un- 
der the leadership of a Des Aloines man. 
recently took up a residence in the southern 
part of Alabama. This latter is a co-opera- 
tive society, and though it is not probable 
that the system will be successful, still the 
emigrants will be well calculated to become 
a permanent part of the population of the 
State to which they are going. 

The causes of this movement of Western 
farmers toward the South are e\'ident. The 
first inducement is the cheapness of land. 
So much land is being sold now in the 
West that is arid and unproductive, and set- 
tlers find it almost impossible to raise 
enough to pay for it. Then, too, the prices 
for farm products have been so low during 
the past three or four years that the small 
revenue derived from farming has been 
most discouraging. The failure of crops 
in some sections and the severitj' of the cli- 
mate also are gi\-en as causes for the migra- 
tion to the South. 

The people evidentlv are turnins' to the 
one section where lands are cheap and 
where the climate is balmy the year round. 
Whether railroads or individuals are be- 
lieved, the movement matters not. Emi- 
grants believe that there are greater induce- 
ments for them in the South than in the 
West. The migratory trend to the South- 



ward, therefore, is not surprising. As to 
politics, that feature will take care of itself. 
No one need be discouraged by reason of 
political considerations. The men who go 
South will vote for their interests, as they 
see the light, just as they have done in the 
section from which they emigrate. 

It cannot be disputed that the South has 
the facilities and resources for making it 
the great Mecca of emigration for the next 
quarter or half century. Great things may 
be expected of Dixie, even in the next de- 
cade. — Albany Evening Journal. 

Farming in the South. 

The "Southern States," one of the best 
magazines published in this country, in its 
.A.pril number contains a very interesting 
article relative to the agricultural develop- 
ment of the South. The writer explains 
why so few white people of the laboring 
class came to the South prior to the war. 
which was on account of a disinclination to 
come in contact with slave labor. After the 
close of the war these same people emi- 
grated to the West, believing that if they 
located in this section they would be placed 
on a social level with the freed negroes. 
Farmers who have come here from the 
Northwest, and who have prospered in the 
South, will testify to the fact that this is a 
mistake. The article in the "Southern 
States" magazine was written by Dr. J. B, 
Killebrew, and the facts presented in it are 
taken from the census of 1890. He shows 
that more successful results have been ex- 
perienced from the operation of small farms 
in the South than from those in any other 
portion of the country. He draws a com- 
parison between the advantages that accrue 
to farmers in the Northern States and to 
those in the Southern States. In other 
words, the exp.erience of the farmers in 
Ohio. Indiana, Illinois, Alichigan. Wiscon- 
sin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North and 
South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas, North 
Central States, is contrasted with that of 
the farmers of Arkansas, Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana 
and Texas, the South Central States. The 
value of land, fences and buildings belong- 
ing to the 1,923.822 farms of the North Cen- 
tral States was. in 1890, $7,069,767,154. The 
returned value of the farm products for the 
preceding year in these States was $1,112.- 
949.820. or 15.7 per cent, of the value of 



128 



GENERAL NOTES. 



farms and improvements. When the South 
Central States are considered, it is seen that 
the value of the land, fences and buildings 
on the 1,080.772 farms embraced in this 
group of States during the year 1890 was 
$1,440,022,598. while the value of the farm 
products in 1889 was $480,337,764, which is 
iZVi per cent, of the total valuation of the 
farms and improvements. "The plain and 
most obvious conclusions drawn from these 
figures, says the New Orleans Picayune, in 
its review of this excellent article, "is that 
the same amount of capital invested in 
farms and farm improvements in the South 
Central States will yield more than twice 
the percentage on the investment that it 
would if invested in the North Central 
States. Nor is this all. A very large pro- 
portion of the crops grown on the farms of 
the North Central States must be consumed 
in providing for the exigencies of long win- 
ters. Stock must be cared for and fed six 
months, as against an average of three 
months in the South Central States. 

"Dr. Killebrew finds a still more power- 
ful argument in favor of the South Central 
States. Fuel for winter does not cost half 
as much, nor are there any blizzards to 
battle with in the winter, or dreadful si- 
moons in the summer to destroy the prod- 
uct of farm labor. The enjoyments of life 
are more than doubled by the amenity of 
the climate and the fruitfulness of the coun- 
try in the South Central States. 

"The debt situation furnishes some im- 
portant comparisons. Without pretending 
here to search out the causes of the indebt- 
edness, but merely to state the facts as they 
are shown by the census, it will be enough 
to cite that in 1890 there were 1,376,666 
mortgages on the 1,923,822 farms in the 
North Central States, carrying a mortgage 
indebtedness of $1,194,352,052. This shows 
70 per cent, of the farms mortgaged. In 
the South Central States, at the same time, 
there were 207,510 mortgages on the 1,080,- 
772 farms, involving a mortgage indebted- 
ness of $184,729,981, thus showing only 
about one-fifth of the farms in the South 
Central States mortgaged, as against 70 per 
cent, of the farms in the North Central 
States. 

"This is an extremely favorable condition 
for the Southern people, particularly when 
it is remembered that they lost $5,000,000,- 



000 of property by the civil war. Under the 
circumstances, it would naturally be ex- 
pected that the Southern farms would be 
mortgaged for every cent they will bear, 
but such is not the case. On the contrary, 
their condition is very favorable to an early 
escape from the worst burdens of debt, and 
this is not the least of the circumstances 
which invites the agricultural development 
of the South and immigration from the 
Northern farming States." — Little Rock 
Gazette. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Messrs. W. W. Duson & Bro., Crowlty, La , who 
advertise elsewhere in this issue, offer to supply full 
information about Southwest Louisiana by sending 
to inquirers maps and a copy of their new book, 
"Come and See," which is a well written pamphlet, 
handsomely printed and illustrated. The writer of 
this book demonstrates that Louisiana compares 
favorably with any country on the globe in health, 
the fertility of its soil and every other thing neces- 
sary for human comfort and progress. The pamphlet 
treats largely of the rice industry of Acadia Parish, 
which is celebrated everywhere, but the other ad- 
vantages of Louisiana are set forth and statistics 
given to prove the writer's assertions — the cultiva- 
tion of sugar cane, fruit, truck, stock, timber and 
the like. Messrs. Duson & Bro. are making sales 
almost daily to farmers from the North and West. 
Crowley is a thriving town, offering fine opportunities 
to the merchant, the manufacturer, the banker and 
the professional man. Messrs. Duson & Bro. claim 
that ten thousand Northern and Western people bave 
located at Crowley. Home seekers should read the 
firm's advertisement and write for information. 



At Fort Valley, in the center of the famous peach belt 
of Georgia, Mr. W. P. Blasingame offers bargins in 
fruit, farm, pasture and timber lands. A large number 
of Eastern and Western people have settled in this 
locality and are well satisfied with their success, 
besides enjoying perfect health and the comfort of a 
delightful climate. Prospective home-seekers should 
write to Mr. Blasingame for information, as he 
requests in an advertisement elsewhere in this issue. 

Greensboro, N. C, has become a city of great im- 
portance, being a railroad center and good market, 
and having large hotels, churches, a female college, 
an industrial school, water works, gas and electric 
lighting, etc. Farmers in the vicinity of that city are 
especially well favored. Mr. R. G. Thomas adver- 
tises in this magazine a good farm of 265 acres within 
two and a-half miles of Greensboro. 



SOUNDS LIKE MIRACLES. 

We will send free on application a large sheet of 
Unsolicited Testimonials about the cures made by 
Humphreys' Specifics. Address Humphreys' Med- 
icine Co., New York. 



THE 



Southern States. 



JUNE, 1896. 



SOME ATTRACTIONS OF THE SOUTH. 

By James R. Randall. 



It seems to be a fact, though a 
strange one, that many thousands of 
persons in this country, as well as 
abroad, regard the South as a flat, 
uninteresting region, wholly devoid of 
any natural beauties which character- 
ize many other portions of the world. 
This sentiment, emphatically false 
and misleading, has been propagated 
and maintained despite the correction 
of Northern tourists and multitudin- 
ous publications in newspapers, mag- 
azines and other descriptive articles, 
more or less faithfully and profusely 
illustrated from photographs or artis- 
tic sketches taken on the spot. 
Nothing, however, is more dilH- 
cult to eradicate than ignorant 
or traditional prejudice. It is fixed 
in the mind like the saw-palmetto 
in the earth, which, growing but a few 
feet above ground, has a root that is, 
picturesquely or pungently, said to 
reach out to China on the other side of 
the globe. As Americans are omniv- 
erous readers, and as the South has for 
many years, especially in the two last 
decades, had persistent literary adver- 
tising, I must take for granted that 
much of this fallacy perpetuates itself 
in a species of morbid incredulity that 
almost defies reason and common 
sense. It is best, perhaps, when such 
stolid Ephraims are joined to their 
idols, that they be let alone; but, un- 
questionably, there are numerous 
persons who are innocently duped, 
and, therefore, excellent subjects for 
missionarv work such as the ".South- 



ern States" magazine is now so use- 
fully, powerfully and prosperously un- 
dertaking. 

In a former article in the "Southern 
States" magazine, I wrote of the Sky- 
land of the South, chiefly treating of 
that region which is most commonly 
known at Asheville and within a ra- 
dius of about 100 miles circumjacent 
thereto. In that article an attempt 
was made to produce a panoramic ef- 
fect of the South's alpine section, more 
as a sample of the highland there than 
a detailed account of the vast area of 
mountain and plain, sublime as Switz- 
erland and yet unspeakably more 
charming, because the great peaks of 
the South are clad with verdure or til- 
lage to their very crowns, while the 
uplifted lands of Europe are bare and 
bald in comparison. It is not mv in- 
tention to repeat what I then wrote, 
but to glance at this grand develop- 
ment of the Great Architect. It should 
suffice any rational person to know 
that a man like Mr. George \'ander- 
bilt, who has prodigious wealth and 
wide knowledge of the world, would 
not select a mountain section of the 
South to build a more than royal pal- 
ace, with its imperial domain, unless 
he had determined that nowhere on 
this terrestrial ball could he find any 
place more enchanting. And it is in- 
deed an almost matchless prospect, 
with giant heights, lovely vales, at the 
meeting of two noble, pellucid rivers, 
where the atmosphere comes with 
health-laden wings, and purest drink- 



129 



SOME ATTRACTIONS OF THE SOUTH. 



131 



ing water is unsealed from the magical 
sanitariums of the hill-bosom hard by- 
I might rest the case here and feel 
that even the most stubborn skeptic 
would be convinced, but it may be 
added that equally majestic and allur- 
ing lands are found, in prodigal pro- 
fusion, in other parts of North Caro- 
lina, in South Carolina, Alabama, 
Georgia, the V^irginias, Tennessee, 
Kentucky and, in degree, also Arkan- 



sas. A Maryland man, naturally and 
with proper pride, boasts of the western 
portion of his State, and all who visit 
Pen Mar, Oakland and Deer Park, 
for example, recognize the glory of 
the vision; but I venture to say that 
the South more than equals that 
scenery, and I am bound to declare 
that the view from Lookout moun- 
tain, with the serpentine Tennessee 
river at its base, is much finer and 




132 



SOME ATTRACTIONS OF THE SOUTH. 




ox THE BAY SHORE, :M0BILE. ALA. 



more varied than any spectacle in 
Maryland. If there is a more splendid 
region than Southwestern Virginia I 
have yet to see it. In our far North- 
western empire there are loftier peaks 
and wilder chasms, but no such coun- 
try as the South, -with its immeasur- 
able natural advantages for all wants 
of civilized man. If there is anything 
essentially amiss there I am not con- 
versant with it, unless it be, for some 
reason or other, men who inhabit sucli 
places have not always or adeciuately 
realized the treasures they possess. In 
degree, the same may be declared of 
the whole mountain section of the 
South, which, along with the Pied- 
mont country, will eventually become 
the predominant section of this mighty 
republic. Certain political, financial 
and racial conditions have retarded 
instant, invincible exploitation ; but 
all difficulties will have final surmount- 
ing, and the South, as Keats personi- 
fied Poetry, is 

''Might ha'f slumber ng on its of^ n right i rm " 

It would be tedious, perhaps, and 
quite superfluous to point out the stu- 
pendous magnificence of other alpine 
parts of Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, 
the Carolinas, the Mrginias and Ken- 
tucky. Let me simply invite my in- 



credulous Xorthern or European 
brethren to visit these sections and see 
for themselves that most extravagant 
pen-picturing is poor and weak when 
contrasted with palpable objects. 

The hill country of the South is 
ecjually attractive and, in some re- 
spects, according to individual prefer- 
ence, more desirable for settlement 
than the mountain region. The East- 
ern or Western man would find in such 
places lands as fertile as any he left at 
home, with productions similar to his 
own and a climate far more genial. In 
this region, as in the mountain land, 
nature has been bountiful with healing- 
fountains, and no Southern man need 
leave his own section to cure any com- 
plaints that thermal or medicinal 



waters hygienicallv reach. 



The Hot 
celebrated 
are other 



Springs of Arkansas are 
far and wide, but there 
waters equally potential in the same 
direction. Near Spartanburg, S. C, 
adjacent to the battlefield of Cowpens, 
where Tarleton was overthrown by 
the generalship of Morgan, Howard, 
Pickens and William Washington, 
there is a spring famous, from Re\o- 
lutionary times and Indian tradition, 
which works veritable wonders for 
nearly every disease that affects our 
poor humanity, and is besides a nat- 



SOME ATTRACTIONS OF THE SOUTH. 



133 



ural Keeley cure, with none of the pre- 
hminary tortures of the doctor's for- 
mula. The country roundabout is 
rolHng, fecund, dehghtful, with great 
hardwood trees and superb tihage, 
where clover grows spontaneously, as 
if to invite the Northerner to come 
there and abide, promising him all of 
earth's products that he is accustomed 
to and not a few other crops and fruits 
and filowers that he cannot coax at 



home outside of an expensive conser- 
vatory. It would require many page^ 
to recite the natural advantages ot 
such portions of the South. They. 
must, as the proverb goes, be seen to 
be appreciated. 

There are indeed flat or prairie sec- 
tions of the South, immense in area 
and boundless in fertility, as well as 
pleasing to the most artistic eye. All 
who read this magfazine know what 




WATERFALL (NINETY-SIX FEET) NEAR ENTERPRISE, MISS. 



134 



SOME ATTRACTIONS OF THE SOUTH. 



marvels have been accomplished in 
such portions of Florida, Louisiana, 
South Carolina, Georgia and other 
level lands by Northern as well as 
Southern men. Need I even allude to 



and that poetic domain of the Teche, 
not far by rail from New Orleans, 
which astounds the traveler with its 
vegetable and marine opulence, while 
ravishing his spirit with pictures of 




the rice region of Louisiana, the coast 
truck farms of Georgia and South 
Carolina, the peach country of the 
same commonwealths, the sugar-cane 
plantations of Louisiana and Florida, 



land and water, such as beguiled the 
famous Joseph Jefiferson, who is at 
once painter and actor of high art. 

If you desire seaside diversion, 
there are innumerable places on the 



SOME ATTRACTIONS OF THE SOUTH. 



135 




Mora, eastern north Carolina. 



Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the South 
where the beach is hard as you could 
wish for driving, where the billows 
are as bold as one could desire for 
bathing, and, in some places, in the 
semi-tropic zone, where a daily plunge 
in old ocean, along the Oriental In- 
dian river, can be had in winter as well 
as summer. Why speak of Virginia 
Beach, near Norfolk; of Morehead 
City, in North Carolina; of Sullivan's 
Island, near Charleston, with Fort 



Sumter's ruined battlements in full 
view, and the grave of Osceola at the 
gate of Fort Moultrie; of Tybee, near 
Savannah; of Pablo Beach, near Jack- 
sonville; of the multitude of Gulf re- 
sorts between Mobile and New Or- 
leans, dotting the Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railway? At all of these delect- 
able places the scenery is inebriating, 
fishing excellent, boating superb, the 
company refined and intelligent. 
If we had not a deeper, more serious 



136 



SOME ATTRACTIONS OF THE SOUTH. 



and tremendous element in our lives, 
compelling us to labor, to sacrifice, to 
conquer our animal natures, to atone, 
perchance, for delinquencies, in order 
to reach meritoriously the endless life 
beyond, the only land of real happi- 
ness, how inspirationally a man might 
pass his days in such regions! As it is, 
with all of our moral responsibilities 
alive to conscientious dutv, there is 



more genuine, honest, sincere oppor- 
tunity for such content and pleasure 
as the world affords at the South 
than in any other country, unless, in- 
deed, the settler there be afflicted with 
acute or chronic nostalgia and inca- 
pable of remedial deliverance. 
Luckily, perhaps, the larger number 
of human beings may be said to 
either have freedom from this disease 




SOME ATTRACTIONS OF THE SOUTH. 



137 



or at any rate, led by interest or self- men, like Quitman or Prentiss, or 
protection, and then by acquired ties, many other distinguished and even 



shake it off actually, if not sentiment- 
ally. 

That grand discontent which, under 



historical characters, become more 
Southern than Southerners. 

There is, however, a natural, inex- 




CULLASA.JA FALLS, MAUON COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA. 



Providence, drove Columbus, as well 
as Stanley, forth on voyages of dis- 
covery, measurably actuates millions 
of our fellow-creatures, and so it 
comes to pass that often Northern 



plicable and subtle law that compels 
redundant Northern population to 
move Southward. Now and then, it is 
curbed, thwarted, arrested or sus- 
pended; but ultimate onset, peaceful, 



138 



SOME ATTRACTIONS OF THE SOUTH. 



useful and resolute, is certain and ab- 
solute. The advance guard of "reloca- 
tion" has already come; the main 
army is behind ready to move when 
times are ripe for action and when the 



results. Before many decades have 
passed the South will have compara- 
tively no abandoned lands, whether of 
mountain, vale or prairie, whether in 
the pine or hickory or live oak sec- 




Ruler of the Universe gives the signal 
for a general advance. Knowing and 
believing this, I look even upon lonely 
waste places of the South with uncon- 
cern, and I patiently await inevitable 



tion. She will be an immense, popu- 
lous, opulent empire. She will have a 
composite industry of agriculture, 
manufacture and commerce. She will 
be aggressively enterprising, too, be- 



SOME ATTRACTIONS OF THE SOUTH. 



139 



cause of Northern influx. And this 
mighty productive, industrious, pic- 
turesque South will demonstrate its 
spirit, as well as its material potency, 
not only in its alpine region, but in 
the "Piedmont escarpment" and along 
the Mississippi valley, and on the 
nethermost plains of the Gulf and 
Atlantic. The same spirit that created 
a new St. Augustine — that dream of 
Arabian Nights — and sent its pulsa- 
tions down the Indian river, even as- 
piring to clasp Key West — the outpost 
overlooking Cuba — with railway steel, 
will animate the whole South of the 
near future and revolutionize the con- 
tinent. I trust that, as the South shall 
grow in material glory, she will also 
diffuse over all the land that better 
spirit of conservatism, true Union, 
genuine liberty and pure religion. I 
trust that she will not greedily and 
destructively abandon herself to the 
Golden Calf, but rather become, in all 
wholesome ways, worthy of temporal 
blessings which are promised to those 
who "Seek first the Kingdom of God." 
A New England Republican governor 
— now in dignified, comfortable, in- 
tellectual retirement — once told me 
that the North, some day, would be 
obliged to lean upon the South's con- 
servatism, in morals as in other 
things, for security from forces of evil 
omen at home. Apparently that epoch 
is near at hand, if we can interpret cer- 
tain signs of the times. The peaceful 
battle of the future civilization, there- 
fore, promises to be fought with com- 



binations much different from those 
obtaining in the martial combat of the 
past. In that tremendous coming time 
our very liberties may depend upon 
the Northern graft upon the South's 
autonomy. There may be, as there 
have hitherto been, desperate efforts to 
prevent the relocation of peoples 
Southward, but it will ultimately burst 
all barriers, just as the Mississippi 
river, rising in a hyperborean nook, 
finds its resistless way to the tropic 
Gulf, bearing to the South the rich 
soil of the Northwest and the spoil of 
half a continent. The Northwestern 
man settled in Louisiana's level lands 
well stated that he had to come South 
to find his father's farm, which had 
taken, via the Father of Waters, what 
so many Northerners should take — 
a Southern tour. Our brethren should 
come, for enlightenment, profit, diver- 
sion, settlement. First comers will be 
the wiser, because I have noticed that 
when a thrifty Northern brother gets 
a really good thing at the South, he 
does not let it go. even to Yankee 
friends, on ground-floor prices. But 
whether anybody likes it or not, this 
shifting of centres of population will 
come to pass. Even Wall street and 
rich, close corporations attached 
thereto may perforce contribute to the 
future greatness of a Greater South, 
in order to benefit themselves, for the 
cause of Southern prosperity is the 
cause of the whole Union, and this 
portentious truth cannot be too 
promptly learned and wholesomely 
applied. 



THE PEACH AND OTHER FRUITS IN GEORGIA. 



By F. H. Richardson. 



Within the last few years Georgia 
has come to be very widely known and 
highly regarded as a fruit-growing 
State, and the excellence, diversity 
and early maturity of its horticultural 
products have brought about a rapid 
development of this industry. 

The first of the Georgia fruits to be 
shipped to markets outside of the 
State in large quantities was the water- 
melon, and this is now one of the staple 
products of the State. Last year near- 
ly 5000 cars were shipped outside of 
the State, and averaged net $40 a car 
to the shipper. About 1200 good- 
sized melons make a carload, and 
these can easily be raised on two acres 
in the melon belt of Georgia. It is too 
early yet to estimate accurately this 
year's crop, as it will not begin to 
move until the latter part of June. It 
is but just to say that the railroad au- 
thorities have given assurance of bet- 
ter rates this year than formerly, and 
that the Georgia railroad commission 
has to the limit of its authority ex- 
erted itself for the benefit of this in- 
dustry. 

Quite a large business is done in 
cantaloupes, as well as watermelons, 
and shipments of these often prove 
very profitable. There are several 
melon farms in the State this year 
which cover 100 acres and more, and 
from which the owners will probably 
reap handsome incomes. 

Another Georgia fruit which is 
shipped quite extensively is the Le 
Conte pear. It was brought to Georgia 
in 1850, and was then called the Chi- 
nese sand pear. The name it now 
bears is due to the fact that Mr. John 
Le Conte, of Philadelphia, sent the 
first tree of this variety to the State. 
It was planted by his niece, Mrs. J. AT 
B. Hardin, at her home in Libertv 



county. This pioneer pear tree is still 
vigorous and has attained immense 
size. As much as forty bushels of fruit 
has been gathered from it one season. 
Cuttings were taken from it in 1869 
and planted in Thomas county, which 
is now the headquarters of the pear in- 
dustry. The Le Conte is a hearty pear 
and rarely subject to blight. It suf- 
fered, however, from this cause last 
vear and the crop was light. The trees 
are in excellent condition this year, 
however, and it is estimated that, at 
least 18,000 barrels will be shipped. 

In good seasons, pear culture is 
very profitable. Last summer one 
grower from an orchard of five acres, 
250 trees, shipped 180 barrels, receiv- 
ing an average, net, of $4.50 a barrel. 
Another grower, on one-quarter of 
an acre of remarkably fine trees, 
cleared $145. 

The KiefTer pear is also largely cul- 
tivated in South Georgia, and this fruit 
is especially valuable for preserving. 

The cultivation of fancy plums is 
also quite extensive in this State. 
There are fifty varieties under the 
name of Botan plums alone, and ship- 
ments of these grow larger every year. 
Some of the large peach growers in 
the State make a very profitable side- 
issue of plum culture. Several varie- 
ties of the Japanese plum grown in 
this State reach immense size and are 
fully equal in flavor and beauty to the 
best products of California. 

But valuable and attractive as are 
the melonfields, the pear and plum 
orchards of Georgia, the Georgia 
peach is now receiving more attention, 
both at home and from the outside 
world, than any other fruit grown in 
this State. 

Several years ago, Hon. J. H. Hale, 
of Connecticut, in a speech before the 



THE PEACH AND OTHER FRUITS IN GEORGIA. 



141 



American Association of Nursery- 
men, said: "Having visited every fruit 
section of the United States — every 
fruit-growing section in every State of 
the Union — and had my peach-eye 
open, because I love peaches and 
peach culture, I just lost my head when 
I got in that section of Georgia, and 
I do not think, California not excepted, 
there is another such district in the 
United States for the growing of 
fruit." 

This strong testimony has been cor- 
dially endorsed by prominent nursery- 
men from all parts of the United 
States, many of whom have made 
large investments in the peach regions 
of Georgia. The largest orchards in 
the State are now owned by Ohio men, 
who came here a few years ago on a 
tour of inspection, and were so com- 
pletely captivated by the possibilities 
of the peach culture in Georgia that 
they proceeded at once to enter this 
attractive enterprise. 

The first peach orchard planted in 
this State for the purpose of shipping 
fruit to Northern markets was that 
of Judge John D. Cunningham, which 
was laid out at Orchard Hill, fifty 
miles below Atlanta, in 1868. He 
planted forty acres, and lived to see his 
orchard not only a thing of beauty, 
but the source of a handsome revenue. 
In 1887 this orchard numbered 60,000 
trees, and many times peaches shipped 
from it to Northern markets have 
brought as much as $15 and $20 a 
bushel, as they got there early and 
were of exceptionally fine quality. 

Mr. John D. Cunningham, Jr., son 
of this pioneer in Georgia peach cul- 
ture, is now president of the Georgia 
Peach Growers' Association and 
probably the largest individual peach 
grower in the State. He has faith that 
North Georgia has several counties 
which are quite as well adapted to 
peach culture as the best regions in 
middle and southern portions of the 
State. Mr. Cunningham either owns 
entirely or in part orchards in North 
Georgia which number over 200,000 
trees. Shipments from these orchards 
last year were verv extensive, and 



profitable prices were obtained for 
their fruit. 

One of the earliest and most enter- 
prising peach growers in this State was 
Mr. John H. Parnell, brother of the 
great Irish patriot. About 1870, he 
planted a large orchard near West 
Point, Ga., from which he obtained 
remarkable results. It was frequently 
his good fortune to get the first 
peaches to New York, and for these 
he obtained magnificent prices. To 
him also belongs the honor of having 
made the first shipment of peaches 
from the United States to England. 
The fruit arrived at London in perfect 
condition, but, owing to the heavy ex- 
pense of shipment, it barely paid for 
the experiment. ^Ir. Parnell pre- 
dicted, however, that the time would 
come when immense Cjuantities of 
peaches would be shipped from 
Georgia to England, and his prophecy 
may soon be realized. The railroads 
are now well supplied with refrigerator 
cars, and there is a transportation 
company which is already arranging 
to handle shipments of fruit from the 
South to Europe at greatly reduced 
rates, with all modern provisions for 
keeping the fruit fresh and sound. 

Unlike the melon industry, the cul- 
tivation of peaches has grown steadily 
in this State, until it has reached enor- 
mous proportions. Last year's crop 
was immense, but that of this year will 
far exceed it. About 950 cars of 
peaches, containing over 2,000,000 
pounds, were sent out from this State 
last year and netted nearly $500 a car 
to the shipper. Shipments this vear 
vvdll probably be still larger, as the 
orchard acreage has been greatly in- 
creased and better arrangements have 
been made for handling the crop. The 
railroads have agreed to provide not 
only for lower rates, but better service, 
and the Georgia peach growers have 
perfected a thorough organization that 
will enable them to place their crop 
more advantageously than ever be- 
fore. They wall be enabled, by means 
of their central office at Macon, to as- 
certain the condition of various mar- 
kets to which they ship, and can thus 
place their fruit where there is a de- 



142 



THE PEACH AND OTHER FRUITS IN GEORGIA. 



mand for it, instead of glutting one 
market and leaving another destitute, 
as they frequently did under their old 
loose methods of shipping. 

It is hard to keep up with the ad- 
vance of this industry in the State 
and to estimate very closely its present 
extent in Georgia. There are, how- 
ever, on the line of the Central Rail- 
road and its branches alone over 
1,600,000 peach trees. 

In the immediate vicinity of Fort 
Valley there are about 600,000 trees, 
and about Marshallville, thirty miles 
further down the Southwestern Rail- 
way, there are 300,000. Near this lat- 
ter place is the famous orchard of 
Samuel H. Rumph, the originator of 
the famous Elberta, probably the 
most beautiful peach that reaches any 
market. Mr. Rumph went into the 
business when a mere boy, and for 
twenty years has given his entire time 
and energy to it. His success has been 
remarkable, and his orchard is a model 
in every respect. He has reaped a rich 
reward for his patient and devoted 
efiforts, and his profits last year from 
his orchard and nursery were said to 
have been $50,000. 

There are 300,000 peach trees 
around Grifftn, and 200,000 around 
Marietta. There are many other 
points in the State where the orchard 
interests are extensive, but not quite 
so large as those we have mentioned. 
Prominent among these is Tifton, on 
the Georgia, Southern & Florida Rail- 
road. Tifton usually gets the first 
peaches to market. 

The early Alexander is the first 
peach to ripen in Georgia, but it is so 
far inferior to varieties that come a 
little later that it is being very gener- 
ally discarded. The most popular 
and profitable varieties are the Sneed, 
Triumph, Early Tilotson, Mountain 
Rose, Lady Ingold, Georgia Belle, 
Elberta, Globe, Chair's Choice, Lone 
Star, Pickett's Late and Wonderful. 
These have been mentioned in about 
the order in which they ripen. 

Peaches are packed for market in 
either crates or baskets. Crates hold 
about three pecks, and baskets about 
one-third of a bushel. The basket is 



coming into greater favor, because it 
is cheaper. The cost for crates for a 
carload of peaches is about $80, while 
the same amount of peaches can be 
packed in baskets which cost only 
about $35. Georgia, so far, has shown 
a remarkable lack of enterprise in the 
manufacture of crates and baskets. 
The bulk of the supply for this State 
comes from Petersburg, Va. There is 
a fine opening in Georgia for an ex- 
tensive manufactory of these goods; 
they can be made out of the cheapest 
sort of timber, and the demand for 
them is constantly increasing. 

It may interest some of the readers 
of the "Southern States" to know how 
the Georgia peach orchard is started. 
Formerly trees one year old were 
planted, but now what are called 
"June buds" are used almost entirely. 
The seed is planted in the fall and 
comes up in March; it buds in June, 
and this bud is then grafted into any de- 
sired variety. The growth of the bud is 
forced by frequently and judiciously 
breaking off the top of the little tree 
under whose bark is has been inserted. 
With this treatment it grows rapidly 
until frost, when the tree is then taken 
up, and may be planted at any time 
from November to April. It is put 
into the orchard at the same depth it 
had in the nursery, and dirt must be 
packed very firmly about it. Into each 
one of the holes for the young tree 
bone meal is poured and mixed thor- 
oughly with the clay. Trees are usu- 
ally planted 12x18 feet on rohing land 
and about 15x15 feet on level land, 
which gives about 200 trees to the 
acre. 

The peach tree becomes productive 
very soon in Georgia. It bears fre- 
quently in its second year. I have 
known a peck of excellent peaches to 
be gathered from a two-year-old tree. 
The useful life of a peach tree averages 
from ten to twelve years. It is at its 
best at the age of five, six or seven 
years, and a first-class tree of that age 
can be depended upon for two crates 
in any good season. Land is so cheap 
in Georgia that, as a rule, when an 
orchard is exhausted the trees are cut 
down and the land planted in cotton 



THE PEACH AND OTHER FRUITS IN GEORGIA. 



143 



or some other crop, while fresh land 
is secured for a new orchard. All 
crops drain the soil of certain ele- 
ments, and experience has proved that 
young peach trees do not thrive so 
well on old orchard sites. The neces- 
sity of changing the location of or- 
chards every ten or twelve years con- 
stitutes no valid objection to peach 
culture in Georgia. As I have said, 
land is cheap, and even if the farmer 
is not able or does not wish to acquire 
more land, he can call into requisition 
for his orchards land that has been 
used for a few years for other pur- 
poses. It is very soon restored to fit- 
ness for peach culture by lying fallow 
or by bearing other crops. 

There are many reasons for the faith 
that Georgia is destined to be the 
greatest peach State in the Union. In 
quality, its peaches are admitted to be 
superior to those of either Delaware 
or California. Georgia's advantages 
over Delaware are many and patent. 
Land in Delaware that is fit for peach 
culture costs from $75 to $150 per 
acre. Labor can hardly be had there 
at less than $25 a month and board, 
yet even with these heavy expenses 
the Delaware peach grower makes a 
handsome profit when he gets an av- 
erage net price of thirty-five cents for 
his crates of five-eighths of a bushel. 
In Georgia, excellent land for peach- 
growing can be had at from $10 to $25 
per acre. Of course, lands directly on 
the railroad command the higher 
price, but I should say that abundant 
lands within easy reach of the rail- 
roads and admirably adapted for 
peach culture can be bought both in 
North and South Georgia for from $15 
to $20 an acre. Labor is also much 
cheaper than it is in either Delaware 
or California. Men can be hired for 
$9 a month and board, and the labor 
of women is even cheaper. Another 
great advantage which Georgia has 
over Delaware is that the Georgia 
peach reaches the market so much 
sooner. By the time the Delaware 
peach ripens the market is amply sup- 
plied with fruit from every quarter, 
and, of course, prices are very much 
lower. That the Georgia peach is su- 



perior to the best California article will 
be testified to by every impartial and 
discriminating person who has tasted 
both. This claim is susceptible of ab- 
solute demonstration. While a bushel 
of California peaches, when evapor- 
ated, weighs from twelve to fourteen 
pounds, a bushel of Georgia peaches 
weighs only seven or eight pounds. 
Juice is what gives a peach its flavor, 
quality and value, and it will thus be 
seen that the Georgia peach contains 
far. more juice and far less fibre than 
the peach of California. 

The peach industry has already 
proved a vast benefit to Georgia, and 
there is every reason to believe that it 
will become immensely more import- 
ant. It brings a large quantity of 
money into the State at a time when 
the regular farm crops are not ready 
for market, and already gives employ- 
ment to a host of men and women. 
Last year one bank at Fort Valley 
cashed checks for labor in peach or- 
chards in that vicinity to the amount 
of $12,000 in one week. Women, boys 
and girls in towns and on the small 
farms find employment at very good 
wages in picking and packing fruit. 
The country people generally are 
quite willing to engage in this work, 
and at every prominent fruit centre in 
the State there is an air of thrift and 
liveliness at a season when the other 
towns are listless and dull. 

It is quite certain that the manufac- 
ture of baskets and crates will soon be 
undertaken on a large scale, and this 
will give the State another important 
and profitable industry. 

The Georgia Fruit Growers' Asso- 
ciation, composed of practical and ex- 
perienced men, will be able to do much 
to protect the rights and improve the 
profits of the fruit growers of this 
State. It will certainly enable them 
to place their products very judicious- 
ly; it will protect them against unprin- 
cipled agents, and will save them 
large sums of money in commissions. 
The association will also be able to 
deal more effectively with the rail- 
roads than the individual shipper pos- 
sibly could. 

The outlook for peach culture in 



144 



THE PEACH AND OTHER ERUITS IN GEORGIA. 



Georgia is brigliter than ever before. 
Every man in the State who is largely 
interested in it has great confidence in 
its future, and hundreds of thousands 
of trees will be planted next fall. The 
Georgia peach has established its rep- 
utation. It is wanted everywhere, and 
people will readily pay better prices 
for it than they will for peaches from 
other States. There is practically no 
limit to the demand for it. The Boston 
Herald last year exulted in a long edi- 
torial over the fact that "real peaches" 
had at last reached that market. It 
referred to the arrival of a large ship- 
ment of "Elbertas" from this State, 
and in glowing terms eulogized their 
quality and flavor over the tasteless 
California peach and even the Delaware 
peach, on which that market has hith- 
erto been compelled to rely. 

This year all of the great cities of 
the North and West wih be liberally 
supplied with Georgia peaches, and 
the prospects are that in both quality 
and quantity they will be superior even 
to the best of those that were sent out 
last year. It is not a wild estimate to 
predict that within the next five years 
the value of the peach crop in Georgia 
will go over into the millions. It has 
alreadv enlisted the eiTorts of manv of 



the brightest and thriftiest farmers of 
the State, and has brought to us a 
large number of enterprising and 
worthy citizens from other parts of the 
country. 

What Mr. Albaugh, the great Co- 
lumbus (Ohio) nurseryman, and his 
associates have done will be done by 
scores of discerning men from other 
States when they see the possibilities 
of profit in the beautiful industry of 
peach growing in Georgia, and many 
of our own people will soon learn that 
they have in their command an easy 
and bountiful source of revenue ^ if 
they will bestow intelligent attention 
upon peach culture. 

Georgia is becoming a great grape 
State also. When Mr. Wm. W. Wood- 
rufif planted a large vineyard near 
Griffin in 1868 it was the only venture 
of the kind in the State, but now there 
are hundreds of extensive vineyards in 
Georgia, and many of them pay hand- 
somely. The home market has a de- 
mand more than suf^cient for all the 
grapes now raised in GeorgiS, and 
there is much room yet for this indus- 
try if properly pursued. There is hard- 
ly any section of the State which is not 
adapted to grape culture. 



APPLES AND APPLE-RAISING SOUTH. 



By M. B. HiUyard. 



A large apple orchard is something 
very rare in the far South, at least 
within the zone of my observations. 
Of course, my area of observation did 
not cover the entire South, and I have 
not been much of a traveler for the 
past fifteen years. But, while there is 
a tendency to enlarge, or, rather, begin 
apple raising, it is a very recent thing, 
very limited in its belt, and mostly 
confined to the summer varieties. 

There is a good deal of reason for 
the insignificance of apple raising 
South. The fruit-raising furore com- 
municated to the South througii the 



small fruits and peaches and plums, 
principally. The last two varieties 
bear earlier than the apple and outsell 
it. The small fruits pay well, yield well 
and bear at once, so to speak. Then 
the apple of the South (the earlv vari- 
eties) finds all sorts of competition 
from the other fruits and from South- 
ern and Eastern peaches and small 
fruits: New Jersey, Delaware, Michi- 
gan, raspberries, strawberries, black- 
berries, and peaches from Delaware 
to a long way South. For the winter 
apples of the South there is found such 
a competitor in the whole apple-belt 



APPLES AND APPLE-RAISING SOUTH. 



145 



of this continent that the South ma}' 
be said, at this time, to be not "in it" 
as to raising winter apples at all. 

Another reason why the South is in 
the business of raising winter (or fall) 
varieties of apples in that small way 
now marking the condition of afifairs 
is, that the favorite varieties of North- 
ern apples will not succeed South, ex- 
cept with few exceptions. The writer 
well remembers how, when a young 
man, he saw the delicious and superb 
winter apples (that succeed so well in 
New York, New England, Michigan) 
on exhibition at an agricultural fair in 
Dover, Del. The agent sold trees at a 
great pace, no doubt. But none of the 
apples succeeded in Delaware; such 
choice varieties as Baldwin, Spitzen- 
berg. Road Island Greening, Seek-no- 
further and others. The above expe- 
riment in Delaware is a type of what 
the South has experienced with regard 
to winter apples, introduced from the 
North, that have failed South. The 
tree-pedler, with his highly-colored 
plates and his smooth tongue and his 
shameless deception, for all these 
years, has talked the South into buying 
varieties of apples that are failures 
South. If these Northern nursery- 
men would propagate varieties of ap- 
ples that would succeed South and 
sell them here, there would not be so 
much ground for criticism. But their 
present plan is as much a fraud as it 
would be for Southern nurserymen to 
go North and East and sell to horti- 
culturists there varieties of the fig or 
orange, by assuring purchasers that 
these were very hardy and would suc- 
ceed there. If the Northern horticul- 
turists are less gullible than those 
South, that does not alter the prin- 
ciple. 

Then, undoubtedly, this prevalent 
disfavor of the winter apple South in- 
terferes much with an acquisition or 
attempt at production of new varieties. 
If a person South should discover a 
new very early peach, that carried well 
and was fine in size and color, it would 
be a fortune to him. The same prin- 
ciple would apply to a new strawberry, 
in large measure also to a cherry. But 
to find a new and great variety of win- 



ter apple would be worth nothing, be- 
cause there would be no demand for 
it; as witness the amazing inconsider- 
ation with which the South treated the 
Shannon apple, that wonder of Arkan- 
sas, which took the premium over all 
competitors at the Cotton Centennial 
here in New Orleans, 1884-85. I re- 
member well with what exultation I 
hailed the victory, and said, "Now, we 
shall have a new era in apples. We 
shall soon see the Shannon on sale here 
in New Orleans, and measurably dis- 
use this wretched, but popular, Ben 
Davis and such." And yet I don't 
suppose you could find a barrel of 
Shannons anywhere on sale in any city 
of the South; and I doubt if one 
Southern nurseryman in a hundred 
propagates it, or, if he does, sells any 
but the fewest number of the trees. 
And another illustration of the com- 
parative disregard is the Johnson, a 
seedling originating in Mississippi, 
with which Dr. H. E. McKay, of Mad- 
ison Station, Mississippi (the straw- 
berry king, as he is designated) took 
the premium as the best new fall ap- 
ple at the same great exposition just 
mentioned, where the Shannon took 
its premium. Had two such apples 
been discovered North or West the 
whole horticultural world would have 
been agog, and millions of trees sold 
in a very few years. I remember, in 
Delaware, we horticulturists thought 
we were getting the Hale's early 
peach very cheap at $1 a tree, one year 
old. Look, too, at the Idaho pear, dis- 
covered a few years ago, and its price! 
I have mentioned the Shannon and 
Johnson apples only by way of illus- 
tration. Doubtless there are many 
others very good. I would undertake 
to find on the Southern branch of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, in Missis- 
sippi and Tennessee, and in Northwest 
Louisiana, at least half a dozen new va- 
rieties of fall and winter apples; seed- 
lings that constitute great accessions 
to the really large list of these apples 
that are hardly known to anyone, un- 
propagated and unappreciated. I 
hardly ever fail to discover something 
new in any trip I make, because I keep 
my eyes open. Only a few years ago 



146 



APPLES AND APPLE-RAISING SO UTH. 



I discovered two seedling pears in 
Louisiana, both fine, one of which, it 
propagated, would be the greatest ac- 
cession to the varieties of that fruit 
v/ithin the last twenty-five years. But 
I was not situated to push it, and did 
not care to "give it away." Why the 
Secretary of Agriculture does not see 
his way clear to put some one in the 
field to discover new varieties of fruit, 
South, is a mystery. Not but that 
something has been done, but there is 
such a broad, rich field totally unex- 
plored. The South, for illustration, 
among her most foreknowing horti- 
culturists, is yearning to propagate 
the cherry. And I have been hunting 
it for twenty-five years, and have found 
much which I hope to give to the read- 
ers of the "Southern States." But why 
should this be left iri such a disre- 
garded condition? 

I have only alluded to the Johnson 
and Shannon apples by way of illus- 
tration. Undoubtedly, the South at 
large could add scores, if not hun- 
dreds, of varieties of choice fall and 
winter apples to the list of propagation 
if there were a demand. The question 
is, will there ever be a demand? Or, 
rather, the question is, will the South 
ever meet the demand? For the South 
consumes really an immense quantity 
of Northern apples. They sell, gener- 
ally, higher in the South than oranges. 
You can buy choice oranges at the 
fruit stands in New Orleans at twenty- 
five cents per dozen, when you mus*" 
pay fifty or sixty cents for a like num- 
ber of choice Newtown pippins, Belle- 
flower or Maiden's Blush. And even 
the Ben Davis, here as everywhere the 
popular variety, outsells choice or- 
anges. 

The winter apple. North and West, 
is a staple; and I observed that in Illi- 
nois the lands where apples were suc- 
cessful, and the farms containing good 
apple orchards, sold for far more 
money than ordinary farming lands. 
The home consumption of the fruit, 
the demand for export to Europe and 
the Southern demand, make the busi- 
ness profitable, and many new or- 
chards are being planted. 

But the South has so many new 



things pressing her attention for adop- 
tion that raising winter apples has 
never come home to the consideration 
of her horticulturists. We buy North- 
ern vinegar, made of chemicals; 
Northern pickles preserved in it; we 
have been buying our pork packed 
from hogs raised largely in their or- 
chards; we buy their cider and cham- 
pagne cider, and we buy their apples. 
But it is quite certain that the immense 
number of Northern and Western 
immigrants who are moving from 
their homes to various places South 
will not be content to go without ap- 
ples, when they find they can raise as 
good here as in their old homes, and 
even better, as to many varieties. And 
in less than a quarter of a century you 
will find large droves of hogs in or- 
chards sodded with Kentucky blue- 
grass, the orchards the plantmg of 
these Northern and Western immi- 
grants. And there will be plenty of 
home-made apple cider and home- 
made cider vinegar, and pickle fac- 
tories, and "apple-butter" will abound 
and the ever-present and dyspeptic 
pie. And like as not, Newtown pip- 
pins will be going from Charleston, S. 
C, and Savannah, Ga., to Europe, and 
the first or early ripe to New York, 
Boston, Philadelphia and Chicago; 
for I firmly believe that not only Pied- 
mont, Va., but the mountains of North 
and South Carolina, Georgia, East 
Tennessee and Alabama, can raise that 
celebrated apple. It is a very shrewd 
bit of advertising to call it the Albe- 
marle pippin in Virginia, and thus 
commend it to the world as peculiar 
in merit in that locality. Georgia is 
well playing the same game with the 
Elberta peach, and Crystal Springs, 
Aliss.. with her tomatoes, as North 
Carolina had her "golden belt" for her 
bright tobacco, and New Jersey, fifty 
years ago, for her peaches, and Her- 
kimer county. New York, for her 
cheese, and Orange county, New 
York, for her "Goshen" butter. And 
I am happy to know how the Albe- 
marle pippin was exempted by Eng- 
land from the tariff imposed on apples 
by special act of Parliament, and ad- 



APPLES AND APPLE-RAISING SOUTH. 



147 



mitted duty free on account of the su- 
perior excellence of that fruit. 

I have been greatly impressed with 
the merits of Mr. James Blakey's ar- 
ticle in the "Southern States" for Aug- 
ust, 1894, on "The Fruit Industry of 
Piedmont, Virginia." It is particu- 
larly valuable in the information con- 
veyed to the practical horticulturist, 
as to what varieties of apples are suc- 
cessful there. One of the most dis- 
piriting effects of experimenting in 
fruit culture is in the losses in time 
and money of fruitless experiment. 

Another point of the utmost import 
is that it demonstrates there is a field 
for the Southern apple, which is one 
of the aims of this article to show. I 
firmly believe that the first yield, or 
early part of the crop, of the Southern 
apple may find in any year something 
of a market North and West, and in 
failure of the apple crop there a con- 
siderable market, and that all the time 
the South will furnish a market for 
Southern-raised fall and winter apples 
and largely supplant the apples of 
these seasons raised North and West 
and now consumed so largely South. 
I have more than conjecture for this, 
because some years ago, while on a 
tour of investigation in the mountains 
of North and South Carolina, I found 
luscious home-raised apples selling 
everywhere, and, my impression is, to 
the almost (if not altogether) exclu- 
sion of Northern apples. 

As to summer apples South, one 
may say that almost everywhere the 
favorite Northern varieties do well. 
Certainly as low as (if not below) lati- 
tude 31°, except, perhaps. Western 
Texas. For some inexplicable reason, 
some varieties that do well in one lo- 
cality seem not to do at all in other 
places where they might be expected 
to succeed. Thus you will find, for il- 
lustration, the Red Astrachan, Sum- 
mer Queen, Early Harvest and Red 
June highly commended where the 
Yellow June or Early Strawberry are 
not. 

In the year 1873, Dr. H. A. Swayse, 
D. Redmond and myself were sent as 
delegates from the Louisiana Fruit 
Growers' Association to the Quarter 



Centennial meeting of the American 
Pomological Society, held at Boston, 
Mass., in September. There we made 
a report on the fruits adapted to what 
we deemed the association or its terri- 
tory. It is not necessary to inform the 
older horticulturists of the country 
who Messrs. Swayse and Redmond 
were. Suffice it to say that they were 
practical men and had a national repu- 
tation. At that date we made this re- 
port as to apples: "We would recom- 
mend Early Harvest, Red Astrachan. 
Carolina Red June, Primate Garret- 
son's Early, Yellow June, Early 
Strawberry, Bevan, Golden Sweet, 
American Summer Pearmain, Rhodes' 
Orange, Bruce's Summer, Yellow 
Horse, Cane Creek Sweet, Batchelor, 
Taunton, Hoover, Carter." 

After years of investigation, over 
enlarged territory, I added to these, a 
list in my book ("The New South," 
Manufacturers' Record, 1887), the fol- 
lowing list, found on page 281 : "Sum- 
mer — Striped June, Sweet Bough, 
Early Red Margaret, Hames, Caro- 
lina Watson, Family, Julian, Arom- 
atic Cheese, Stanley's Seedling. Au- 
tumn — Bonum, Yopp's Favorite, 
Pennsylvania Cider, Tuscaloosa Seed- 
ling, Mamma, Philippi, Lawren's 
Greening, Carter's Blue, Buncombe, 
Junaluskee, Maverick Sweet, Yates, 
Ben Davis, Disharoon, Carolina 
Greening. Winter — Ferdinand, Can- 
non, Pearmain, Oconee Greening, 
Moultries, Nickajack, Hockett Sweet. 
Stevenson^s Winter, Holly, Pryor's 
Red, Stansil, Shockley, Romanite 
Santa, Limbertwig. Cider apples — 
Dean Crab, Hewes's Virginia Crab." 
Last summer I spent quite a while 
on the Southern branch of the Illinois 
Central Railroad, in the great fruit and 
vegetable centres of Crystal Springs, 
Terry, Madison ct al. There I got 
much information, and had many notes 
on the apple, which I unfortunately 
cannot now find. I find allusions by 
Mr. J. W. Day, a large fruit-grower, to 
the Buckingham, a seedling brought 
by him from Anna, 111.; a large, flat, 
red apple, yellow-fleshed; also the Be- 
noni (a summer variety, red striped), 
introduced bv him, bearing at three 



148 



APPLES AND APPLE-RAISING SOUTH. 



years old from the bud. But of all the 
surprising information I got on ap- 
ples was that from Doctor McKay, the 
"Strawberry King," already men- 
tioned. He told me that the Russett 
family, in his latitude, Madison, Miss., 
succeeds better than in latitude 40°, 
especially the Roxbury Russett. I con- 
fess to having been amazed at this, and 
it opens a field to the South that surely 
some very considerable number of 
apple-raisers will occupy ere long. 
Possibly it may not be news to some 
Southern apple-raisers, but it will be 
to a great many. When it becomes 
known, generally, that the South can 
raise superb Newtown pippins and 
Roxbury Russetts, one hardly knows 
what better can be said. 

As to the Ben Davis in parts of Mis- 
sissippi (likely elsewhere), such su- 
perb apples can be raised that the av- 
erage Ben Davis bears no comparison 
with it. Here, too, is a field, and the 
people who plant large orchards of 



this variety will take time by the fore- 
lock and do a smart thing. It is the 
apple of great demand everywhere, 
and particularly South. It will be a 
good deal earlier here than North and 
West. 

The Red Astrachan, South, is far su- 
perior to the fruit in any other location 
I have seen. 

A very choice apple-belt is in the 
clays of Northwest Louisiana. And 
part of Arkansas now is effectively ad- 
vertised as "The Land of the Big Red 
Apple." 

Of course, I have omitted a good 
many varieties of apples that are suc- 
cessful in many places South, and I 
have named varieties that may not 
succeed in a number of localities. I 
have aimed mainly to show that the 
South is naturally a fine apple coun- 
try, and that there is a great future 
for it. The next quarter of a century 
will teem with revelations as to the 
production of this fruit in the South. 




SOCIAL TRADITIONS OF THE OLD SOUTH. 

By Arnot Chester. 



It needs no pen of mine to describe 
the social code of the New South. It 
is simply the code of the rest of the 
world, appearing a trifle accentuated 
to us old Southerners, perhaps, by 
force of contrast with the one which 
preceded it. 

But to readers of today it may pos- 
sibly prove interesting to have a brief 
account of manners and customs so 
different from those now prevailing, 
that it is hard to believe they existed 
only two generations ago; for even in 
the quiet nooks and corners of the 
land, where memories of the past still 
linger, they linger as traditions merely, 
having long ceased to influence con- 
duct or to mould manners. 

Looking backwards, one can see 
that the change was a gradual one. 
Little by little the standard has been 
lowered and the lines of demarcation 
effaced. 

Truth to say, in the days of which I 
write class distinctions were almost as 
pronounced in the South as are the 
caste distinctions of India, the only 
difference being that it was possible to 
pass from class to class. 

The upper stratum of society was 
composed of the landed proprietors, 
the planters and the professional men. 
Within these sacred limits few could 
penetrate who were not "born in the 
purple." Occasionally, for some oc- 
cult reason, impossible to explain, an 
outsider was admitted to the charmed 
circle ; but as a whole, Southern society 
was eminently aristocratic. The rela- 
tions between the classes were harmo- 
nious enough, though the distinctions 
were so sharpl}^ defined, perhaps I 
ought rather to say, because they were 
so sharply defined. 

The shopkeeper, for instance, was 
treated with the most perfect courtesy 



by his lady customers in their business 
intercourse, but he would never have 
dreamed of exchanging compliments 
with them across the counter, or of 
bowing to them in the street! 

He and they equally recognized the 
fact that .they belonged to different 
worlds and revolved in different or- 
bits. Within these broad lines, of 
course, there were innumerable shades 
and gradations of difference. Nor was 
tlie gulf between the classes an abso- 
lutely impassable one. The retired 
tradesman, whose son had received a 
liberal education, might hope to see 
his grandson admitted within doors 
fast barred to himself. But it was an 
accepted axiom that "it took three 
generations to make a gentleman." 

Of course, this did not apply to men 
of talent (who rise everywhere by the 
force of their own merit), but it was 
the process through which it was nec- 
essary for the ordinary "raw material" 
of vulgar humanity to pass before it 
was considered fit to be stamped with 
the wall-mark of gentility. 

At the South the wealth of the rich 
never rolled up into the millions, but 
in their day and generation they were 
esteemed wealthy, and they certainly 
enjoyed all the real privileges and im- 
munities that money can secure. They 
had an assured income sufficient not 
only for the supply of their necessities, 
but also for the gratification of their 
tastes, and as a natural consequence a 
most open-handed, large-hearted style 
of living prevailed. 

Whole families frequently spent an 
entire season with other families, with- 
out the least feeling of obligation on 
the one side, or of imposition on the 
other. The question of expense never 
occurred either to hosts or guests. 

Gifts intrinsicallv valuable were 



ISO 



SOCIAL TRADITIONS OF THE OLD SOUTH. 



freely bestowed by friend upon friend, 
and as freely received. Horses and 
even houses were sometimes given 
away, and smaller gifts were con- 
stantly interchanged. It was a com- 
mon thing for a cousin or a brother-in- 
law, who was a planter, to keep a fam- 
ily supplied with rice year after year. 
The planter's code was a simple one: 
his crop, whatever it was, rice or cot- 
ton, was to be sold — that constituted 
his income; but all the smaller prod- 
ucts of his plantation, his fruit and his 
vegetables, his poultry and his mut- 
ton, were only so many little et ceteras 
to be shared with his friends. 

The same spirit animated the pro- 
fessional men. A doctor-friend would 
give many useful hints, for which he 
would have scorned to send in a bill. 
A lawyer-friend frequently furnished 
valuable professional advice, for which 
no fee was desired. While as for the 
innumerable nondescript little ser- 
vices for which nowadays one's near- 
est relatives appear to expect to be 
paid, they were then so invariably ten- 
dered gratis that the possibility of pay- 
ing for them never even suggested it- 
self to the mind. 

Sunday at the South was universally 
observed. A Southern Sunday was 
almost as quiet a day as a New Eng- 
land Sabbath, though there were no 
"blue laws" to enforce its observance. 
But the people Avere generally sober- 



minded and God-fearing, and those 
not themselves governed by religious 
considerations were nevertheless con- 
trolled by public opinion, which "pub- 
lic opinion" very strongly condemned 
anything like "pleasuring" on Sun- 
day. 

No reputable place of amusement 
was ever open on that day. Cheap 
Sunday excursions were unknown, 
and even riding and driving for pleas- 
ure on Sunday afternoon was pro- 
nounced by fashion to be in bad taste. 
People went to church or stayed at 
home, as inclination prompted; but no 
visiting was done, except among rela- 
tives and particular friends, and for- 
mal entertainments were never given 
on Sunday. 

All of which goes to prove, perhaps, 
that the people were a primitive peo- 
ple. But surely the primitive virtues 
which flourished among them — truth, 
honesty, generosity, unselfishness — 
are still commendable in theory at 
least, though we have long since de- 
cided that they are quite unattainable 
in practice under the more complex 
conditions of modern life. 

My subject is so interesting (to the 
writer at any rate) that it is hard for me 
to take leave of it. But fearing that 
already I have exceeded the limits of 
a well-bred article, I hasten at once to 
make my parting bow and retire. 



THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



Southern States. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY MAGAZINb. 
DEVOTED TO THE SOUTH. 

Published by the 

Manufacturers' Record Publishing Co. 

Manufacturers' Record Building, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

SUBSCRIPTION, - - - $1.50 a Year. 

WILLIAM H. EDMONDS, 

Editor and Manager. 



BALTIMORE, JUNE, 1896. 

The SOUTHERN STATES is an exponent of the 
Immigration and Real Estate Interests and 
general advancement of the South, and a journal 
of accurate and comprehensive information 
about Southern resources and progress. 

Its purpose is to set forth accurately and 
conservatively from month to month the reasons 
why the South is, for the farmer, the settler, the 
home seeker, the investor, incomparably the 
most attractive section of this country. 



The Sugar Bounty Decision. 

We congratulate our Louisiana friends 
upon the Supreme Court decision that will 
compel payment of the sugar bounty. 
There never was a more equitable decision. 
Whatever opinion may be entertained of 
the bounty system, the fact remains that 
the government had, by legislative enact- 
ment, not only in one Congress made this 
enactment, but in another Congress, when 
the bounty was repealed, in revision of the 
tariff, the justice of carrying out one year's 
contract was conceded. How a subordi- 
nate official of the Treasury could have at- 
tempted to override a congressional law 
and refuse to carry it out passes ordinary 
comprehension. Whether this subaltern 
did this of his own motion or was inspired 



by higher authority, we need not now in- 
quire. The Supreme Court has decided the 
■payment of the bounty money constitu- 
tional and mandatory, without undertaking 
to rebuke anybody connected with the ar- 
rest of justice. This decision affirms that 
the government must observe the obliga- 
tion of contract, just as individuals do, 
and that it has no right to presume, in such 
matters, upon its own superior power or 
the presumed weakness of the contending 
party in equity. One unfortunate incident 
of this act of Comptroller Bowler was the 
friction engendered between Congress and 
the executive branch of the government. 
However, all's well that ends well, and 
while regretting that our Louisiana friends 
should have been compelled to remain a 
long time out of money justly due them, 
causing necessarily much embarrassment 
and irritation, we trust that they will soon 
be paid, and that much of the hard times 
may be mitigated thereby in the sugar-pro- 
ducing regions of the Pelican State. 

The Tennessee Exhibition. 

Stimulated, no doubt, by the enterprise of 
Atlanta, the chief metropolis of Georgia, 
the people of Tennessee have inaugurated 
an exposition at Nashville, the capital of 
their State, which bids fair to equal, if it 
does not surpass, the wonderful manifesta- 
tion at the Gate City of the South. The ex- 
hibition proper at Nashville will not be 
held itntil May i, 1897, but a preliminary 
opening, with great ceremony, occurred on 
the first of June, and was a success in every 
particular except the weather, which hap- 
pened to be rainy, much to the delight of 
the farmers of the State, if not to pleasure- 



151 



152 



EDITORIAL. 



seekers. But rain did not dampen the 
ardor of the visitors, and Southern people 
are not afraid of being wet, especially in a 
patriotic cause. They know, too, that sun- 
shine is not long suspended, and so it 
proved in this case, we believe. 

Tennessee is a wonderful State, and de- 
serves to be better known and appreciated 
everywhere beyond her borders. Tennes- 
see's capital is a beautiful city, nobly located 
on a navigable river. It has an energetic 
population, and is famed for hospitality. No 
State has a more fertile soil than Tennes- 
see. All of the crops, not of a tropical or 
semi-tropical nature, are produced, includ- 
ing cotton. It is a famous producer of 
corn, grasses, wheat, fruit and live-stock, 
with all of their varying kindred develop- 
ments. It has abundant coal, iron ore, 
limestone, marble and nearly all minerals 
valuable to man. Industrial exploitation 
has been a marked feature of recent years, 
and the time is not distant when this State 
will be among the foremost in all kinds of 
manufacture. If, as the scientists predict, 
water-power is to be the most important 
factor in developing the motive powers of 
electricity, Tennessee will have few rivals 
in this respect, for her rivers are among the 
noblest of the world. Her mountain region 
is sublime in natural grandeur, and has be- 
come famous in song and story. Her tim- 
ber lands will become more and more veri- 
table mines of wealth. Some of the peaks 
of East Tennessee are 6000 feet high. Its 
geographical situation is admirable. At 
Memphis, destined to be one of the greatest 
commercial cities of the South, it is in touch 
with the mighty valley of the Mississippi 
and its tributaries, and through great trunk 
railways there linked to the West and 
Southwest. At Bristol it meets Virginia 
and clasps hands with the Eastern imperial 
domain. Chattanooga, a modern wonder, 
industrially, forms her central citadel. Her 
commercial communications are perfect, 
and, with the recurrence of the era of pros- 



perity, which Prophet Benner establishes in 
1898, Tennessee will advance gigantically 
in opulence, population and renown. She 
is 100 years in Statehood, but young in na- 
tionality. Her treasures in all material 
prospects have been merely skimmed, 
owing in part to conditions appertaining to 
a period before and since the war; but the 
twentieth century will find her in the front 
rank of first-class States, measured by the 
severest tests of progress. The remark- 
able movement (now in its incipiency) of 
population from the Northwest to the Bor- 
der States, as well as to the farther South, 
will halt many thousands of the most ener- 
getic of mankind in Tennessee. There are 
multitudes of Northwestern men who prefer 
a climate of some cold intervals to the balm- 
ier temperature of the semi-tropical South. 
Those pioneers of the new time will 
settle in Tennessee and make it superior to 
Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, 
and even Ohio. Tennessee has all of the 
advantages of the Northwest, some vastly 
superior ones, and none of its drawbacks. 
Colonel Cowlam's theory of relocation, as 
a primal solution of our continental social 
problem, will have a marvelous illustration 
in Tennessee. 

Seeing, however, is said to be believing, 
and therefore we urgently counsel our 
Northern friends, especially those who 
meditate a change of home, to visit the 
Tennessee exhibition. We are satisfied 
that the wonders there displayed in minia- 
ture of Tennessee's productions and possi- 
bilities, will stimulate many of them, not 
only to visit the famous stock farms around 
Nashville and the glorious valley of the 
Tennessee river, but push to Memphis, by 
the Father of Waters, to Chattanooga and 
to Knoxville. A visit to Lookout Moun- 
tain is one of the most inspiring tours, and 

once a man has beheld the different sections 
of the State he must confess that nature has 
left nothing undone to make it fit for the 



EDITORIAL. 153 

habitation of the most exacting race. The State, and yet there is not a Southern State 

people there have the marked kindliness of that did not have more trees than Connec- 

the Southern character, along with the in- ticut. The number credited to this State 

domitable vigor of the inhabitants of the was 88,655, while the smallest number in 

most favored regions of the temperate anj' Southern State was 235,936, in Florida; 

,,zone. Education in the cities and towns nearly three times as many. 

has a wide and comprehensive scope. All The total number of trees in the United 

of the comforts and necessities of modern states was 53.88s,597, of which the South 

civilization are at hand. But the first 100 h^d nearly 40 per cent., as follows: 

years of Tennessee in material growth will -.r,- • ■ 

•' ^ Virginia 1218,219 ~ 

have been as nothing compared with the Iw^A Y^"^-^"r ^ 450440 

^ '^ iNortn Carolina 2,133,004 

majestic achievements of her second cen- Geor^ia^™!'.T 2^S7'^^6 

tenary. No man can compute what the State Alabali^a;.'.' .■.■.'.■.■.■.'.'.'.■.■.■.■.'.■..■.■.■.■.■.'.■; .■.'.■■.■.■.■.■ ".'.■.■i lll'tll 

of Tennessee and the South will be in the Louisiiifa^.!:v::::v.. ...;;::::;;:::.;. ;::;;:::'.: '^^fifiz 

end of the twentieth century, but the fancy Tenn«see!!!.\';;;.\';;.";.\.\'.'.'; ■.'.■.■;.'.".";.'.'''""2'347 699 

of man may well be taxed to form anything \^^'^n'tl:\\^\\' \:\:\ ^V::^\\\\V:^^^^^^^^^ 
like a just estimate of the stupendous fact. 20 822 344 

The extension of existing orchards and 
Peaches in the South. ^1^^ establishment of new ones has within 
We publish in this number an article on the last few years gone on much more rap- 
peaches in Georgia, by Mr. F. H. Richard- idly in the South than in the North. In 
son, editor of the Atlanta Journal. The Arkansas and Georgia, particularly, there 
magnitude of the peach-growing industry has been notable development. It is prob- 
in the South is not at all realized. It is able that in each of those States the number 
commonly supposed that California, New of bearing trees is fully twice as great now 
Jersey, Delaware and Maryland produce ^s in 1889, the census year. In North Caro- 
the bulk of the peach crop of the country. lina- Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and 
To those who have held this belief a study Tennessee also there has been a great in- 
of some statistics on peach-growing will be crease in the number of trees, and there has 
interesting. According to the last census. ■ been some increase in all the other South- 
the number of bearing trees in each of the ern States. On the other hand, the indus- 
chief peach-producing States was, in 1889, try in the Northern peach-producing States 
as follows" bas not had, on the whole, any great ex- 
Maryland 6,113287 Texas 4486,901 Pansiom In Maryland, the greatest peach 

Kansas 4,876,311 Georgia 2,787546 c^-^^^p +l-,p pv1-pn<;inn of tbp indnstrv in the 

Delaware 4451,623 Arkansas 2,769,os2 -State, tne extension oi tne moustry m tne 

^d^::::::^^^ ll^^rcir^in^.^.f^^'^, mountain peach district is doubtless more 

Ml^^^^li-.V.V.V.V.V^^1lt ^!Sh^::::::::::l;2:3;2l9 than offset by the failing of? in the tidewater 

Ohio 1,882,191 Kentucky 1,205,866 <,„^i:„,, „,ViprP mnnv nrrTiarrJ? bavp hppn 

Pennsylvania 1,146,312 Mississippi 878,569 section, wnere many orcnaras nave oeen 

N^^^°'-'^ ^•°'^'"° South Carolina... 711 138 ^^^ ^^^^,^^ ^^^ ^j^^ ^^^^ p^^ ^^ ^^j^^^. ^^^^_ 

That is, Texas had more trees than New In New Jersey and Delaware there has been 

Jersey or Delaware, and was exceeded by little if any growth. In Connecticut, New 

only two other States, Maryland and Kan- York.i Pennsylvania, Michigan and some 

sas. Georgia and Arkansas had each more other Northern States the orchards have 

trees than California, and Tennessee and suffered great damage from "yellows," 

North Carolina had nearly as many. Con- though many new orchards have been set 

necticut is widely noted as a peach-growing out in these States and there has been a 



154 



EDITORIAL. 



considerable increase in California and 
Missouri. It may, therefore, reasonably be 
claimed that the South (even excluding 
Maryland and Missouri and adding these 
two to the Northern list) now has fully half 
of all the bearing peach trees in the United 
States, and that Arkansas, Georgia and 
Texas have probably more bearing trees 
than any other State, except possibly 
Maryland. 

The yield of peaches in 1889 in the prin- 



cipal peach-growing States was, according 
to the census report, as follows: 



Bushels. 

Kansas 1,798,781 

California 1,691,019 

Missoui i 1,667.789 

Maryland.. 803,019 

New Jersey 776,078 

Ohio 687,112 

Delaware 457,201 

Illinois 341,178 

Indiana 307,084 

Michigin 216,311 

New York 169,976 

Pennsylva'.ia 117,151 

Oregon 69.934 

Utah 69 910 

Washington 63,497 

Connecticut 37.295 



Bushels. 

Georgia 5, 52':, 119 

Texas 5,106,332 

Arkansas 3,001,125 

North Carolina. .2,740,915 

Tennessee 2,555,099 

Alabama 2,431,203 

South Carolina.. .1,490,633 

Mississippi. 1,324,354 

Virginia 1,052,000 

Kentucky 846,138 

West Virginia 376,662 

Louisiana 310,217 

Florida 230,290 




Immigration Notes. 



Another German Colony Located on the 
Southern Railway. . 

Mr. J. F. Jordan, the tobacco dealer in 
Greensboro, N. C, has consummated the 
sale of a tract of several hundred acres of 
land located within five miles of the city of 
Greensboro and from one to four miles of 
the Southern Railway, to a party of Ger- 
mans from Pennsylvania. The purchasers 
propose moving to the property this sum- 
mer, and will engage in general farming, 
fruit and vegetable growing. 

Louisiana Immigration. 

The Shreveport (La.) Times says: 
"Papers all over Louisiana are telling of 
the coming of Northern immigrants who 
find homes in various sections of the State. 
It is a pleasing task to chronicle these sig- 
nificant facts, for they prove beyond doubt 
that the tide of immigration has changed 
from the West to the South, and that in the 
near future Louisiana will, with the coming 
of the new north and south trunk lines, se- 
cure her full share of the newcomers. We 
copy the following item from the Baton 
Rouge Daily Truth to show what is hap- 
pening in that immediate section: 

" 'On Sunday there arrived in this city a 
Mr. yi. n. Burr and family, of Paxton, 111., 
who has come here to settle among us. 
About two months ago he was here, and 
was so well pleased with our locality that 
he purchased 400 acres of the Arlington 
plantation, upon which he will now reside. 
We give the newcomers a hearty greeting, 
and trust they may be happy and prosper- 
ous in their new home. Mr. Shannon in- 
forms us that another gentleman of the 
West has or will purchase land to be taken 
from the same plantation, and also move 
here within a week or two. In addition to 
these, some thirty thrifty Germans are ex- 
pected here this week in search of land upon 
which to settle. These people wish to 
locate as near together as possible to form 
a community of their own.' " 



A firm of land agents of De Pere and 
Green Bay, Wis., who have been very suc- 
cessful in the last six months in selling 
land in the Yazoo Valley to Northern set- 
tlers, have formed a company, to be known 
as the Yazoo Valley Immigration Co., with 
the intention of attracting Northern and 
Northwestern farmers to the Yazoo Valley. 

It is said that about twenty English fami- 
lies have applied through a representative 
to Governor Lowndes for information as 
to the possibility of securing lands in Mary- 
land suitable for truck farming. The in- 
quirer states that the prospective immi- 
grants are frugal, steady and industrious, 
and that they will bring some money with 
them. Governor Lowndes referred the let- 
ter of inquiry to ]\Ir. Littleton T. Dryden, 
State superintendent of immigration, who 
expects to have, as soon as possible, in sys- 
tematic arrangement all information neces- 
sary to meet just such inciuiries. 

Mr. A. Shulson, of Bowling Green, Ohio, 
has been prospecting in the neighborhood 
of Winston-Salem, N. C. \lr. Shulson is 
said to have a colony of prosperous Norwe- 
gians, which he desires to locate in a good 
section. 

Mr. Hogap Bogigion, who is said to be 
the most prominent Armenian in this coun- 
try, and ]\Ir. S. S. Blanchard, an ex-senator 
of Massachusetts, accompanied by Mr. M. 
V. Richards, immigration agent of the 
Southern Railway, have been making a 
tour of the South with a view to acquiring 
a big tract of land upon which to colonize 
a large number of Armenians. It is under- 
stood that Mr. Bogigion represents a syn- 
dicate of wealthy and benevolent people in 
the East, who are determined to try and 
see what can be done toward colonizing as 
many Armenians in this country as possi- 
ble. This is in accord with a suggestion 
made by the "Southern States" of last Feb- 



156 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



ruary, pointing out that these people would 
be most excellent citizens for the South, 
their high civilization and Christianity be- 
ing the chief reasons for their present suf- 
ferings under Turkish dominion. They 
are progressive farmers, and in climate and 
products their country is very siinilar to 
much of the South. Mr. Bogigion is said 
to be a man of vast means, and apparently 
determined to do some practical good for 
his people. He has appeared several times 
before congressional committees at Wash- 
ington to tell what he knew from letters 
received from his fellow-countrymen, of 
the Armenian atrocities. 

The Atlantic & Danville Railway, whose 
main line runs from Norfolk to Danville, a 
distance of 206 miles, has appointed Mr. J. 
O. Shelburn general immigration agent, 
with headquarters at Lawrenceville, Va. 
Mr. Shelburn is enthusiastic on the subject 
of immigration to Virginia, predicting 
great success for the section traversed by 
this road, which runs through the noted 
trucking region of Virginia, a distance of 
eighty miles; thence for probably forty 
miles across a country rich in general farm- 
ing capabilities, touching the famous Me- 
herrin and Roanoke river lands, through 
the bright tobacco belt of Virginia to Dan- 
ville, one of the largest tobacco markets. 
To promote immigration along this line the 
Atlantic & Danville Land Co. has been or- 
ganized, of which J. O. Shelburn is man- 
ager; C. D. Owens, president, and L. Tread- 
well, treasurer. 



sides of the Louisville & Nashville Rail- 
road, in the centre of the county, half-way 
between and within forty-eight miles from 
two of the largest cities of the State, Bir- 
mingham and Montgomery. One lot in 
the residence portion of the town is given 
free of charge to every purchaser of a farm 
or orchard tract who, within a year builds 
a residence on it to cost not less than $300. 
A considerable tract of land in the south- 
east corner of the town site is reserved for 
use as experimental gardens. From each 
corner of the city is laid out a broad avenue 
or street, extending through the colony in 
the directions of northwest, northeast, 
southwest and southeast. This arrange- 
ment gives every tract of land in the colony 
almost a straight road to the city. 

Mr. S. L. Baker, mayor of Bellvue, Iowa, 
has purchased S80 acres of land in Escambia 
county, Alabama, at Canoe Station, on the 
Louisville & Nashville Railroad, and will 
engage extensively in fruit-growing, truck- 
ing and general farming. Mr. Baker is 
now building an eight-room house. He 
expects a large number to join him in the 
fall from his old home in Iowa. 

Major W. L. Glessner, land commisr 
sioner of the Georgia Southern & Florida 
Railroad, states that he has sold 5260 acres 
of land near Ashburn, Ga., to the Ohio 
Colonization Association, of Dayton, Ohio. 
A notice of the plans of this association 
was published in the "Southern States" for 
May. 



The Concordia Land & Improvement 
Association is pushing the work on its new 
colony town, Thorsby, in Chilton county, 
Alabama. The colony lands lie on both 



A party of Ohio farmers arrived at Pe- 
tersburg, Va., June 10, with the expecta- 
tion of buying lands in that section. 



General Notes. 



Rev. Edward Everett Hale Advises The 
Invalids be Sent to the South. 

Attention is invited to the following sug- 
gestive article on one phase of the attrac- 
tions and advantages of the Sotith which 
that venerable Massachusetts clergyman 
and writer, Rev. Dr. Edward Everett Hale, 
contributed to a recent issue of the New 
York Commercial Advertiser. 

It is a splendid tribute from a man of 
large influence in New England and the 
North to the many Southern localities 
"where air and sun and all the conditions 
of climate are invigorating and inspiring." 
Dr. Hale's suggestion to "the more intelli- 
gent boards of administration in the North- 
ern States" to "remove to Southern lati- 
tudes the invalids who are now pining 
under Northern winters," will induce many 
of the philanthropists and humanitarians of 
the North to investigate the subject, and 
while it may not and probably will not re- 
sult in the transfer of any State-supported 
institutions from the North, it will cause 
many to select suitable locations and estab- 
lish low-priced and yet thoroughly com- 
fortable and attractive homes in the midst 
of pleasant natural and social environments, 
such, for instance, as that which Mr. Tufts, 
of Boston, has now well tmder way in the 
sand-hill, piney-woods section of North 
Carolina: 

"Robert Stephenson, the inventor of the 
locomotive, was one day standing with an 
English gentleman on an eminence from 
which they could see a very distant train. 
Stephenson said to his friend: 'What is it 
which is drawing that train along through 
the valley?' The gentleman replied, with a 
laugh, 'Why, of course, it is one of your 
engines.' 

" 'Ah, yes,' said Stephenson, 'but what 
makes my engine go?' And then he added, 
in a reverential tone, that the Lord God had 
hundreds of thousands of years ago packed 
away enough of His sunshine, in ferns and 
other products of pre-historic times, to heat 



the water from which rose the steam which 
pressed upon the piston which drove the 
wheels which bore the train along. 

"The sun is as hot today as it was 3000 
years ago, when these ferns and palms of 
the coal measures were glowing in their 
fresh beauty. We are in the position of 
bon vivants who, at a dinner which means 
to have everything nice, are eating in Jan- 
uary the peas which were fresh in Paris the 
June before. 

"We are greatly obliged to the foresight 
of the Parisian green grocer who canned 
these goods for use. They are better than 
no peas — or we try to think they are — and 
so we direct the caterer at the club to make 
a little pile of them around the mutton 
chops which he serves for our luncheon. 

"Let us not forget, at the same moment, 
that we have brothers and sisters, not 3000 
miles away, who have the same morning 
picked fresh peas in their own gardens, and 
who, at the moment when we enjoy the 
canned article, are eating peas Avhich they 
or their sweethearts have shelled the hour 
before. 

"The parable of the canned sunshine, as 
Stephenson presented it to his friend, is 
one which is now assuming importance in 
an economic point of view. England is 
alarmed every few years by the announce- 
ment that, before many centuries are over, 
her own home supplies of canned sunshine 
will be exhausted. But no man cares much 
for what is going to happen to his children 
or his grandchildren; and so England says 
cheerily that posterity may take care of 
itself, and that she will not borrow trouble. 

"In our own country we are not so for- 
tunate as our English cousins are. At the 
present moment the State of Massachu- 
setts, in fifteen or twenty public institutions, 
is burning tens of thousands of tons of coal 
every winter, for the comfortable care of 
the insane, the idiots, the blind, the deaf, 
the dumb, the prisoners and the diseased. 

"These tons of coal represent so many 



158 



GENERAL NOTES. 



cans of sunshine of hundreds of thousands 
of years ago. The Board of Commission- 
ers for Charity and Lunacy are grateful that 
in Pennsylvania, in Nova Scotia and some 
other parts of the world these supplies are 
ready for their mining; and they and the 
legislature of Massachusetts are ready to 
pay good money that these tons of coal may 
be hauled to their doors. 

"The people of the Northern States, 
however, would do well to remember that 
they are again more fortunate than the peo- 
ple of England and Scotland, because 
within the limits of the very nation to which 
they belong, that sun, which is the noblest 
emblem and agent of the love of God, has 
the same power which he had 300,000 years 
ago. 

"The patient who droops in the close air 
of a Northern infirmary resolves on some 
fine day that he will go to Southern Geor- 
gia, or Florida, or Texas, or New Mexico, 
or California, and finds, to his joy, that he 
droops no longer. 

"To follow the parable which we used 
in beginning, he finds the peas whicK he 
picked in his garden in the middle of Jan- 
uary, and which are cooked to be eaten with 
his chop when the time of lunch comes, are 
sweeter and fresher and better than the peas 
which were brought from Paris after they 
had been packed six or eight months be- 
fore, or possibly, if the dealer were shifty, 
some years before. He finds, in other 
words, that the sunshine before it is canned 
has more life-giving effects than it has after 
it has been packed 300,000 years. 

"Under the same inspiration, then, which 
some years since began to send the cotton 
mills of the North to the country where the 
cotton grows, so that now our friends in 
South Carolina and Georgia are making 
stout cotton goods which begin to appear 
in all the markets of the world, it is begin- 
ning to suggest itself to the people who are 
not very slow, in the Northern States, that 
instead of taking care of an invalid in a 
close cell in a Northern winter, with a stove 
or a furnace well heaped with canned sun- 
shine, there may be occasions when it will 
be better for that invalid to be carried into 
those latitudes where the sunshine is of to- 
day and does not have to boast of its 
antiquity. 

"Societies have been formed in the 



Northern States with the modest purpose 
of giving to such invalids information as to 
points in the Southern belt which are 
healthy, and where air and sun and all the 
conditions of climate are invigorating and 
inspiring. 

"The more intelligent boards of adminis- 
tration in the Northern States must begin, 
now that travel is so simple and easy, to in- 
quire under what conditions, and with what 
advantages, they could remove to the 
Southern latitudes the invalids who are 
now pining under Northern winters. It is 
simply to inquire how they can exchange 
canned sunshine of 300,000 years ago for 
the fresher tonic and food of today." 

American Fruits in Germany. 

Mr. J. C. Monaghan, United States Con- 
sul at Chemnitz, Germany, in a report on 
American fruits in Germany, says: 

"Our farmers in the coast country from 
Maine to Florida might make huge profits 
out of their orchards. I am not sure that 
Eastern peaches and Florida oranges could 
not compete successfully with the wretched 
apologies for peaches and oranges offered 
at enormous prices in these markets. Of 
course, much must depend on the cost of 
ocean transportation. If this could be got 
down to seventy-five cents or one dollar 
per barrel there would be profits for pro- 
ducers, middlemen and retailers. As soon 
as these people know that they will get 
goods things at reasonable rates, they pre- 
fer them to bad wares, however cheap. The 
qualities of our fruits are well known. All 
that is required is a little enterprise to put 
them into the shops and a little energy with 
which to push them." 

The Yazoo Delta. 

It is very generally conceded that no- 
where on this earth is there a section of 
country more fertile than the Yazoo Valley, 
in Mississippi. The Nile Valley, historic 
for phenomenal agricultural opulence, is 
not more productive than the Yazoo Valley. 
The soil is enriched by alluvium deposited 
by the Father of Waters for untold ages. 
It is not only supremely rich, but practi- 
cally inexhaustible. Here are 5,000.000 
acres- — a principality in itself — requiring no 
artificial fertilization, and only needing "to 
be tickled with a hoe to blossom into har- 



GENERAL NOTES. 



159 



vest." Twenty dollars an acre is said to be 
a low estimate of what may be produced 
annually on these lands, even with the poor- 
est and most thriftless methods of farming. 
What may they not be capable of under 
skillful cultivation? 

The real value of the lands in the Yazoo 
Valley when cleared of timber is as high as 
that of any of the highly developed North- 
ern States, where land rents for $3 to $6 per 
acre on a valuation of from $50 to $100 per 
acre. In the Yazoo Valley the lands, al- 
though the deadened timber may be stand- 
ing upon them, will rent on January i of 
any year for $4 to $7 per acre. 

What greater opportunity can be held 
■out to the small farmer who is a renter in 
the North and West, who sees no prospect 
ahead of ever being able to own the lands 
he cultivates, than the chance to go into 
this country where he can buy lands at $6 
or $7 per acre, lay out $5 or $6 or less per 
acre in clearing the timber ofT, and in four 
or five years become the owner of property 
that will never fail to produce at the very 
lowest $20 per acre net? At an annual out- 
lay no greater than he is now paying as 
rent, he can buy and clear a farm that will 
yield larger returns than the farm he is now 
working, and must grow more valuable 
every year as this region is more and more 
thickly populated. 

"Infatuated with the South." 

Mr. D. A. R. McKinstry, of Athens, 
Ohio, has recently spent some time investi- 
gating the South, and he gives the results 
of his observations in a letter to his home 
paper, from which the following extracts 
are taken : 

"I have visited the South several times 
during the last five years, and the more I 
observe of the development, resources and 
climate, the more I like the country in gen- 
eral, and certain sections in particular. 

"In this article my observations will be 
confined mainly to Tennessee, Georgia and 
Alabama. There you have high altitude, 
pure water and delightful climate. In sum- 
mer the temperature rarely rises above 
ninety, and in winter the freezing point is 
seldom passed. Statistics prove this to be 
one of the most healthful regions of our 
country. 

"The South is experiencing a rapid 



change socially, politically, industrially and 
otherwise. Everywhere I meet the same 
friendly greeting and exhortation: 'Come 
among us; bring your Northern friends 
and help us develop our natural resources 
and improve our agricultural interests.' 

"Here and there many Northern immi- 
grants have dropped in, and recognizing 
the great advantages of a fine climate v/ith 
long seasons, abundant rainfall, productive 
soil and good markets, they have come to 
stay, and have already demonstrated how 
easily lands are reclaimed and their adap- 
tability to the production of almost every- 
thing that is grown north of the tropics. 
And hosts of hustling Northern farmers, 
fruit-growers, gardeners, dairymen, etc., 
are following, and soon that region will be 
transformed into a vast expanse of produc- 
tive and well-kept farms, orchards and 
vineyards. 

"The soil is of two general classes; the 
red loam, with a limestone characteristic, 
that never wears out and will produce well 
of cotton, corn, wheat, oats, rye, clover, ber- 
muda and millet; and gray gravelly soil 
that with care and light fertilizing produces 
good general crops and abundant yields of 
fruit, berries and vegetables. 

"in many cases a bale of cotton (500 
pounds) per acre is produced, which I saw 
sell April 13, at Cedartown, Ga., at seven 
and one-half cents per pound, or $37.50 per 
bale. That same land readily produces 
fifty bushels of corn, twenty-five bushels of 
wheat, fifty bushels of oats, 200 bushels of 
Irish or sweet potatoes and two and one- 
half tons of clover hay per acre. I saw 
lands in both Georgia and Alabama that 
after growing cotton year after year for 
nearly half a century, and never fertilized, 
still producing as above noted, and of fruit 
and berries the product and profit is simply 
incredible. Owing to the rapidly develop- 
ing manufacturing interests of the country, 
much of this product finds a good home 
market, while the surplus reaches the 
Northern markets readily, where it always 
commands good prices. 

"The region of which I write is watered 
principally by a system of wonderfully large 
springs of cool refreshing water, which 
form strong and swift streams which flow 
the year around and abound with fine fish. 



i6o 



GENERAL NOTES, 



Here and there is a spring or well of the 
noted chalybeate water. 

"Malaria is almost unknown, while rheu- 
matism, kidney and bladder, liver and 
stomach diseases, with all their horrid at- 
tending disorders, are rare. This favor- 
able feature is no doubt directly attributed 
to the pure yater supply. This region is 
not annoyed with mosquitoes and flies; with 
the temperature at ninety the heat is not 
felt as it is in this latitude, and the nights 
are cool and refreshing for sleep. 

"My wife became infatuated with the 
South, and is firm in the faith that the cli- 
mate and water would restore the wasted 
physical energies of many Northern people. 
The manufacturing, mercantile and agri- 
cultural industries of the South are as yet 
in their infancy; but development has be- 
gun in earnest — it is a united effort — and 
each certainly offers an inviting field to 
those seeking locations or contemplating a 
change. To such I would say, go and in- 
vestigate, and in all probability you will 
realize your fondest expectations." 

Midsummer Fruit Fair. 

The third annual midsummer fruit fair 
of the three counties, Berrien, Worth and 
Irwin, in Georgia, will be held at Tifton, 
Ga., Wednesday, Thursday and Friday. 
July 8, 9 and lo, 1896. There will be a dis- 
play of ripe peaches, pears, plums, apples, 
grapes, melons and other fruits, as well as 
garden and field products, giving an excel- 
lent object-lesson of the resources of South 
Georgia. Visitors to the fair will have an 
opportunity to visit some of the great or- 
chards and vineyards in the fruit belt of 
Georgia, and see the fruit picked, packed 
and shipped by the carload. During the 
fair ther,e will be held a convention of 
Northern farmers and fruit-growers who 
have settled in Georgia. 

Improvement in Southern Farming. 

The following is taken from an address 
by Dr. Charles W. Dabney, United States 
Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, deliv- 
ered June 2 at a meeting of farmers of Vir- 
ginia held at Ashland, Va. : 

"The year 1870 may be taken as the be- 
ginning of a new era in the South. The 
clouds of war had lifted, the atmosphere 
had cleared, and the sun was shining 



brightly and warmlj- once more upon a 
brave people who had turned from scenes 
of death and destruction to the work of re- 
habilitating their farms and homes. Obe- 
dient to the instructions of the great leader 
whom they had followed in war, the old 
soldiers returned, in 1865, from the camp 
to the farm and "pressing" either a broken- 
down war horse or an old government mule 
into service, went to work ploughing fields. 
By 1870 they were fairly well settled and 
equipped again for work, so that we may 
take this date as a good starting point for 
our investigations. 

"']\Ir. Mulhall. the great English statisti- 
cian, in a recent article in the North Amer- 
ican Review, gives us some very interesting 
figures compiled from our censuses for 
1870. 1880 andi890. He shows that while 
the wealth of the New England States be- 
tween 1870 and 1890 increased 60 per cent., 
the Middle States 88 per cent, and the 
Prairie States 330 per cent., the Southern 
States, including the Virginias, the Caro- 
linas, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Missis- 
sippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee, increased from a total 
of values in 1870 of $2,827,000,000 to $9,928,- 
000,000 in i8go. or more than 350 per cent. 
The Pacific States are the only ones that 
made a greater increase, all values there hav- 
ing sprung into existence between the years 
1870 and 1890 showing an increase of 1000 
per cent. The increase in the Southern 
States from 1880 to 1890 was from $6,448,- 
000,000 in 1880 to $9,928,000,000 in 1890, or 
more than 50 per cent. This is chiefly the 
product of Southern agriculture." 
THE LESSON OF LIYIXG AT HOME. 

Coming to the subject of diversified farm- 
ing, Mt. Dabney said: 

"This brings us to the consideration of 
the most remarkable change in Southern 
agriculture in the past thirty years, namely, 
the diversification of agriculture, resulting 
especially in the production on the farm of 
a larger portion of the food of man and 
beast. Virginia farmers have always been 
thrifty in this respect, but even they have 
learned during the last twenty years the les- 
son of living at home. The old-time cotton 
planter undertook to make cotton pay for 
everything else and still had a profit. He 
was a man of one idea and one crop. He 
made cotton and bought his corn, his 



J 



GENER4L NOTES. 



i6i 



bacon and even his hay. The farmers 
would deHver their cotton in town and take 
back loads of hay and oats, of flour and 
meal, upon which to feed their hands and 
their stock, and even the housewives would 
come to town and buy creamery butter and 
Northern eggs with which to make the 
Christmas cake. Now all this is changed. 
The planters who kept their coril cribs in 
Cincinnati and smoke-houses in Chicago 
have either failed or learned better. The 
younger generation of cotton farmers own 
corn and their own fat hogs. On a trip 
through the cotton section last summer I 
found the warehouses in the country towns, 
which at that season were usually full of 
bacon and cornmeal, standing almost en- 
tirely empty. The railroads report to us 
that there has been a wonderful diminution 
in the number of cars laden with bread and 
meat which they have hauled into the 
South. As evidencing the changes from 
exclusive cotton planting which have taken 
place in South Carolina within the past year 
or two, the Charleston News and Courier's 
annual review of the trade and business of 
that city for the year ending September i, 
1894, showed the importation of bacon dur- 
ing the year to have been 1640 carloads, or 
41,000,000 pounds. The same review for 
the following year showed a reduction of 
those figures by 546 carloads and 13,650,000 
pounds. The reduction in importations of 
corn for the same period was 225,000 bush- 
els, of hay 9750 bales and of flour 46,981 bar- 
rels. The reduction in hog products was 
nearly 14,000,000 pounds, which, at the aver- 
age price of .1894, would amount to nearly 
$1,000,000. When it is remembered that 
Charleston is only one of several large dis- 
tributing points in the State, that Augusta, 
Savannah and Atlanta also supply a large 
territory through their railroad connections 
in the State, the aggregate reduction of im- 
portations and consequent saving to the 
State, even for the year ending September 
I, 1895, must evidently have been very great. 
The saving to the State of South Carolina, 
as above indicated, is estimated to have 
been (annually) $5,000,000. 

DAIRY CROPS. 

"The figures showing the increase in the 

acreage of grass and forage crops are very 

striking. Alabama and Georgia mowed 

over three acres, Arkansas over five, Mis- 



sissippi over seven, South Carolina over 
ten and Florida over twenty-three acres in 
1889 for every acre mown in 1879. The 
South is not only growing its own grain, 
but also its own hay and forage crops. This 
means more and better stock, meat, milk 
and butter. According to the reports made 
to the Department of Agriculture, there 
has been an increase of 2,500,000 head of 
hogs in the South in 1896 as compared with 
1890. This increase has been chiefly in the 
great cotton States — South Carolina, Geor- 
gia, Alabama and Alississippi. How is it 
with milch cows, which are one of the best 
evidences of family thrift? In 1880. there 
were 2,500,000 milch cows in the South; in 
1890, 2,800,000, which number remains about 
the same in 1896. This is not a great in- 
crease in numbers, but the butter produc- 
tion tells the story. In 1880 the Southern 
States produced only about 90.000,000 
pounds, or less than seven pounds per cap- 
ita, of butter. In 1890, the same States pro- 
duced 1 56,000,000 pounds, or even ten pounds 
per capita. In other words, between these 
dates the output of butter from practically 
the same number of cows has been nearly 
doubled, showing that better stock has been 
introduced and better methods of feeding 
and care practiced. The improvement in 
this respect has been especially marked in 
Virginia, where there has been a large in- 
crease in the number of neat cattle, more 
than half of which are milch cows. In 1880 
Virginia produced 11,500,000 pounds of 
butter, as against 18,700,000 pounds in 1890. 
The production of cheese doubled also. 
The census figures with regard to poultry 
are just as striking as those for milk and 
butter. The State of Virginia, for exam- 
ple, trebled the number of its poultry be- 
tween 1880 and 1890, and increased its egg 
production proportionately. 

SOUTH CAROLINA'S FERTILITY. 
"To a great extent intensive cultivation 
l:i.s taken the place of extensive cultivation, 
especially in cotton-growing. This was 
strikingly illustrated when the census sta- 
tistics of cotton production in South Caro- 
lina were first published. It was generally 
stated that South Carolina could not have 
made that amount of cotton. Careful in- 
vestigation, howevet, proved the correct- 
ness of the figures and made manifest the 
fact that the unexpectedly large production 



l62 



GENERAL NOTES. 



was due in great part to improvements in 
the method of cultivation. Cases where 
500 pounds of cotton were raised to the 
acre were found to be very numerous; an 
average of 750 pounds per acre was by no 
means uncommon, while in the case of a few 
small farms it was as high as 1000 pounds 
per acre. One of the most successful plant- 
ers wrote: 'We farm on the intensive sys- 
tem and have brought our farms up to a 
high state of fertility gradually and therefore 
permanently.' It was subsequently ascer- 
tained that while the total area of improved 
land in the State had increased 27.18 per 
cent., the amount expended in fertilizers had 
increased 45.39 per cent. 

TRUCK FARMS. 
"The trucking industry, or the business 
of growing early vegetables and fruit for 
shipment to Northern markets, is one of 
the most remarkable developments in Vir- 
ginian and Southern agriculture in recent 
years. Probably no single industry has 
brought so much money into the South 
within the last thirty years as this one. The 
annual crops of garden vegetables, such as 
early potatoes, beans, cabbage, cucumbers, 
spinach, lettuce, asparagus, and of fruits, 
such as oranges, strawberries, pineapples, 
watermelons, etc., have been worth a great 
deal more to the South in actual money 
than has the lumber, the tobacco, the min- 
eral products, or any other of the great 
staple products which are commonly sup- 
posed to bring revenue to the country. 

"The establishment of this industry has 
resulted in a remarkable advance in the 
value of land. Many farms on the Atlantic 
seaboard which were almost worthless, or 
which sold for from $2 to $5 per acre before 
truck farming was introduced, have ad- 
vanced in value from $40 to $200 per acre, 
according to location and convenience to 
market. 

"The lands best adapted for early vege- 
tables contain only 3 to 9 per cent, of clay, 
and from 60 to 80 per cent, of fine and me- 
dium sand. The finest truck soils around 
Norfolk have, for example, an average of 
about 8 per cent, of clay and 65 to 70 per 
cent, of fine and medium sand. Such soils 
are well adapted for growing early potatoes, 
asparagus and melons. Soils containing 
from 6 to 12 per cent, of clay are more re- 
tentive of moisture and somewhat colder, 



but are still well adapted for certain crops, 
such as tomatoes, peas, spinach and cab- 
bage. More clay than this is found in the 
heavy coarse wheat lands, which may be 
much more productive, but are always a 
great deal later, because, doubtless, they 
are much colder. As to the profits made, 
it is stated that on a farm of ten acres one 
farmer raised and sold $200 worth of Irish 
potatoes, $100 worth of cucumbers and over 
$100 worth of tomatoes, besides smaller 
sums on other vegetables, cabbage, turnips, 
etc. He maintained also twenty head of 
cattle, two good horses, and sold enough 
milk and butter to pay the entire expense of 
the farm and family. Another farmer raised 
$1200 worth of Irish potatoes on seven 
acres and enough other products to main- 
tain and pay all the expenses of his family. 
I cite these instances to show what a small 
truck farmer can do. The income of these 
men was as much as that of many a cotton 
planter cultivating 500 or 600 acres of land. 
CULTIVATION OF FRUITS. 
"The growing of small fruits is usually 
considered a part of the trucking industry, 
as these fruits are grown upon the same soil 
and usually by the same persons. Straw- 
berry-growing has already reached enor- 
mous proportions in the South, and is 
steadily increasing. The American people 
seem to have an insatiable appetite for this 
delightful fruit, and there is no telling, yet 
how many strawberries they will consume. 
The same is true of watermelons and the 
canteloupes. Thousands of carloads of 
melons are annually shipped North over 
our various railways, while shiploads go 
by water to all the Eastern cities. The 
enormous development of these industries 
is too well known to require notice here." 

Truck Farming in Eastern Florida. 

The truck business along the East coast 
for the past season has been nearly 100 per 
cent, greater than it was last year. The 
crops gathered and sent to market have 
also proved much more profitable than for 
many seasons; and in consequence farmers 
are much better off financially and feel 
greatly encouraged. During the past six 
or eight months the development of the 
East coast has been marvelous. Nevv^ set- 
tlements have been colonized and new 
towns established all along the line, partic- 



GENERAL NOTES. 



163 



ularly through Brevard and Dade counties. 
Progress continues to march southward 
along the coast, and before another year 
shall roll around the increase in population 
and business promises to be double what it 
is today. 

The total number of crates hauled by 
freight by the railroad does not represent 
one-half of the total number shipped, as it 
is estimated that more than one-half goes 
forward by express. Those competent to 
judge say that fully 100,000 crates of vege- 
tables have been shipped by freight and ex- 
press from stations along the East coast to 
market during the six months ended April 
30, and that good prices have been obtained 
throughout the season. The bulk of the 
increase over a corresponding time for last 
year is from the lower end of the line, where 
new country is being rapidly put in culti- 
vation, but the increase is very small 
compared to what is expected next season. 
But the lower portion of the East coast is 
not the only locality that is making prog- 
ress in the raising of early vegetables. A 
careful canvas made around Hastings Sta- 
tion, a thriving settlement eighteen miles 
southwest of this city, on the way to Pal- 
atka, shows that the farmers and truckmen 
there are not permitting the grass to grow 
under their feet since the frost robbed them 
of their oranges. 

In a table furnished by Capt. W. W. Jar- 
vis, general freight agent of the Florida 
East Coast Railway, Hastings is credited 
with shipping 956 crates of vegetables by 
freight. The station agent, however, says 
that a great deal more than half the product 
went forward by express. 

As Hastings shows a fair average of the 
increase in vegetable growing of the differ- 
ent points along the Florida East Coast 
Railway, a detailed account of what has 
been produced there will give a fair idea of 
what other localities are doing. A care- 
fully prepared table gives the output of the 
settlement for the seasons of 1895 and 1896 

^^^°"°^^^= 1895. ison. 

Cabbage 30 45 

Peas 2 4 

Irish potatoes 50 75 

Sweet potatoes 85 95 

Oats 20 70 

Strawberries 30 60 

Tomatoes 6 15 



In addition to the above, many small 
crops, such as corn, snap beans, lettuce, 
eggplants, etc., were raised and shipped, as 
well as 8000 hothouse cucumbers, against 
4000 last year. 

In comparison, the crops of this year 
were heavy, while those of a season ago 
were light. Last year the prices were un- 
satisfactory, while this year they were all 
and more than was expected. For in- 
stance, strawberries sold in the New York, 
Boston and Washington markets at from 
thirty to fifty cents per quart. It cost the 
producers from ten to twelve cents per 
quart to send them to market in refriger- 
ator boxes, netting them from eighteen to 
forty cents per quart. While strawberries 
were selling in St. Augustine for five cents 
a quart, the growers at Hastings would not 
sell them at home for less than fifteen and 
twenty cents. The market did not break 
until all of the crop had been disposed of; 
then Georgia strawberries took up the 
trade. 

The fine hothouse cucimibers from Eng- 
lish seed, ranging in length from twelve to 
eighteen inches, were disposed of to the 
large hotels, in the State, there being very 
few left at the close of the season to send 
elsewhere. These cucumbers averaged $3 
per dozen at the hothouses. New potatoes 
were also disposed of at good prices, the 
growers netting from $5 per barrel and up- 
ward. Crops this year were not only good, 
but they were early, and for that reason 
good prices prevailed. Unless Florida 
truckmen can send vegetables to market 
ahead of any other point, there is very little 
money in the business. When the weather 
and conditions are favorable, which is the 
case five out of six years, no business in the 
State pays better than raising early vege- 
tables. 

Along this coast there has been sufficient 
moisture in dews and light rains to keep 
corn, potatoes, rice, melons, etc., from 
burning. 

Next fall the truckmen will plant twice 
the acreage of last year, while many new 
planters will develop new land. The East 
coast, which up to within a few years has 
been rather backward in trucking, owing 
to the good profits made from citrus cul- 
ture, is making rapid headway in diversified 
farming, and in future the prospects are 



GENERAL NOTES. 



bright for success in whatever may be un- 
dertaken. — The Citizen, Jacksonville, Fla. 

The Georgia and Alabama. 

Vice-President Cecil Gabbett, of the 
Georgia & Alabama Railway, says that the 
business of his line is holding up satisfac- 
torily. Fitzgerald is a great point on the 
system. The colonists are perfectly satis- 
fied, and are getting on well. The artesian 
well, which the railroad company is having 
bored, is about 350 feet down. It is now 
going through rock. Mr. Gabbett states 
that he expects to get water when the rock 
is pierced. Once artesian water is brought 
to the surface there will be no question 
about the health of the colony. Thus far, 
there has been no sickness to speak of. The 
colonists who went down last fall and win- 
ter are acclimated now. 

"Next fall we expect another heavy influx 
of settlers," said Mr. Gabbett. 

Cash in Cabbages. 

W. J. Chambers, of Orange Lake, Fla., 
says he made this year over $5000 net from 
forty acres. He further says that off two 
and one-half acres of lettuce he received 
net returns of $750, and that L. R. Smoke, 
of Orange Lake, off seven-eighths of an 
acre, received over $400 for lettuce. 

What the South Can Offer Immigrants. 

The Bolton (Miss.) Times presents the 
following as some of the inducements the 
South has to offer immigrants: "Every- 
thing here is favorable to new comers of 
whatever political opinion or religious 
creed. Land is cheap; it is here for the 
having, and for sale from $1 per acre up, 
with a climate unsurpassed, especially Cen- 
tral Mississippi. While lands are very 
cheap, the idea of getting something that is 
very valuable for nothing is played out. 
Value has possession here as well as else- 
where, and there are farms in this State as 
productive as in any section of the United 
States that may be had at one-fourth the 
price of similarly productive lands in the 
East or West. The man that has a good 
farm generally realizes the fact, and is suffi- 
ciently contented to let well enough alone 
and remain where he is and make the best 
of life. Farms of this class come high, 
from the fact that, as a rule, a man knows 



when he is doing well. The immense re- 
sources of the South is sufficient induce- 
ment for the miner or manufacturer to 
come, and to the health seeker this section 
is especially favored, and those who are 
afflicted with incurable complaints so often 
found in colder climes can at least find 
rest and relief here." 

The Cities Interested in Agricultural 
Immigration. 

The owners of the old plantations of the 
South want to sell part of their holdings — 
indeed, largely, have to sell. The time has 
come. To whom are they going to sell? 
Can they find any buyers? The white peo- 
ple of the South have all the land they want 
and more besides. Consequently there is 
no demand in the South for land; and there 
will not soon be from Southern people. 
The only salvation of the large Southern 
land owner is white immigration. The best 
immigration for the South is the farmer 
population of over-crowded sections of the 
North and Northwest — Americans. Let 
tliis' immigration be invited by the South. 

How can Southern cities expect to attain 
large growth with their surrounding coun- 
try sparsely populated, or "unsettled," as a 
foreigner recently said on a visit to the 
South? In Georgia there are thirty-one 
people to the square mile; in Massachu- 
setts there are 269. Of course, sparse 
population and small productiveness are 
the principal reasons why the South has 
not greater wealth. It is vitally to the in- 
terest of cities to aid in the settlement of 
their surrounding country by immigration. 
— Augusta (Ga.) Chronicle. 

The Proper Handling of Fruits. 

In view of the near approach of fruit sea- 
son the following exti^acts from a bulletin 
of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture will be interesting just now. There 
is undoubtedly room for great improve- 
ment in both the packing and the market- 
ing of Southern fruits. The advantages of 
earlier maturity and finer flavor as com- 
pared with the product of some other sec- 
tions, is often in large measure offset by 
bad packing and injudicious distribution. 
The publication from which the extracts 
given below are taken relates specifically 
to peaches, but much of this admonition 



GENERAL NOTES. 



165 



will apply equally well to other products: 

"Picking" and packing are matters which 
require the personal attention of the grow- 
er. These cannot be trusted to hired labor 
without strict oversight. The peach should 
be picked and packed as carefully as an 
orange; should never be poured from bas- 
ket to basket; should never be bruised in 
handling; should be carefully assorted by 
grades, and should be put up for market 
with an eye to attractiveness, so that the 
best prices may be obtained. It is not 
strictly proper, however, to put red net- 
ting over green fruit. There is just the 
right time to pick for market, and this is 
something to be learned by experience — a 
day too early and the peaches are green; 
a day too late and they are over-ripe, and 
they will be soft and bruised and unsalable 
before they reach the consumer. No fruit 
requires greater expedition and better judg- 
ment in picking and marketing, and in 
these particulars the peach is strikingly in 
contrast with the orange, which never wor- 
ries the grower, but may be picked and 
marketed any time from November to 
April, barring accidents from unexpected 
frosts. 

"In general, peach growers in the East- 
ern States are very careless — almost indif- 
ferent — as to the manner of shipping fruit 
to market, and the result is that such fruit, 
while often of a very superior quality, 
rarely brings as good prices as inferior 
fruit put up with special pains to m.ake it 
attractive. The baskets in general use in 
the Eastern States are too large for retail 
trade. Growers of peaches on a large scale 
in New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland 
seem to think that they cannot handle their 
vast quantities of fruit in small baskets. 
Growers in Michigan and California have 
learned better, and send their fruit out in 
much more attractive form, the result be- 
ing that they get better prices. Florida 
fruit also comes to market in good shape, 
and the Florida crate is one of the best. 
The choicest grades of peaches should never 
be sent to market in large baskets, but each 
fruit should be wrapped separately and 
sent with as much care as eggs if the best 
prices are desired. For the canning house 
and the wholesale trade, the Delaware bas- 
ket is undoubtedly one of the most conve- 
nient forms for shipment. Inferior fruit 



should be kept at home and dried or fed to 
the pigs. The unprofitable handling of a 
large part of such fruit might be avoided 
by thinning, as already suggested. 

"On some accounts it is highly desirable 
that the fruit should be transported by 
water, if the distance is not great and the 
journey can be made rapidly; otherwise it 
must go in cars, and the extra jar must be 
compensated for by rapid delivery and sale. 
Of course, when peaches are shipped long 
distances in warm weather particular pains 
must be taken to see that the cars are prop- 
erly iced, and that there are no delays in 
transit, and when they come from the Pa- 
cific Coast they must necessarily be picked 
green. Eastern growers have an advan- 
tage over those on the Pacific Coast in the 
much finer quality of fruit grown and in be- 
ing near to market, so that their peaches 
may be allowed to ripen on the tree, some- 
thing very necessary to the full perfection 
of this fruit; but these great advantages are 
largely lost by carelessness in packing and 
shipping, and consequently the California 
peach growers are generally able to com- 
mand a better price in New York markets 
than Eastern growers. Mention has al- 
ready been made of the desirability of plant- 
ing orchards where competition in trans- 
portation exists. This affords to growers 
of the choicest fruit a reasonable guaranty 
that the whole of their profit will not be 
swallowed up by exorbitant freight rates. 

"In years of great abundance, another 
serious cause of loss is due to what are 
known as 'slumps' in the market. Most 
Eastern-grown peaches find their way to a 
few large markets, where prices necessarily 
break down when a large quantity of fruit 
is suddenly thrown upon them. At times 
when a glut exists, even the best fruit will 
scarcely pay for the baskets in which it is 
shipped, much less for transportation, pick- 
ing, packing, etc., and this may happen 
several times during the season. This ruin- 
ous state of afifairs is not attributable to 
overproduction, but to maldistribution. 
The crying need in the Eastern States is for 
a system of distribution which will prevent 
gluts in the market. It is well known that 
at the very time when these 'slumps' occur 
in New York and other large centres hun- 
dreds of smaller towns in the interior can- 
not procure peaches at any price. 



i66 



GENERAL NOTES. 



"The writer has frequently paid five cents 
apiece for quite ordinary peaches in interior 
towns in New York and Pennsylvania and 
farther west, when the finest peaches could 
scarcely be given away in New York and 
Philadelphia. This suggests that much loss 
could be avoided by a well-organized sys- 
tem of distribution. Just how this shall 
finally be brought about is a difficult prob- 
lem to solve, but it is certainly one of the 
things which peach growers must study to 
accomplish. It is worth the earnest con- 
sideration of pomological associations, 
boards of agriculture and all who are inter- 
ested in growing peaches. 

"It would seem that there might be 
some arrangement with the local dealers in 
many of the smaller towns in the Eastern 
United States and with large dealers in the 
cities, whereby telegraphic advice could be 
sent every day during the season to some 
centrally located place in each peach re- 
gion and thence communicated to all the 
growers. In this way it would be known 
where the market was full and where empty, 
and shipment could be arranged according- 
ly. Co-operation is the keynote of success. 
Indeed, without hearty co-operation and 
compact organization little or nothing can 
be accomplished; and yet to secure and 
maintain such organization presents the 
chief difficulty. Home consumption is an- 
other way to avoid gluts in the market; also, 
the judicious use of canning and drying 
houses." 

Beginning of the Watermelon Season. 

The watermelon season has begun. 
Georgia was the first in the field this year, 
with a carload shipped on June 3 from Pid- 
cock, a station on the Plant system. The 
Alacon Telegraph states that the first week's 
shipments of early melons amounted to 
nineteen cars, the first car being from 
Georgia. Nine cars have been turned over 
to the Ocean Steamship Co. for shipment 
to the Eastern market, and six cars have 
gone through Savannah by all rail for New 
York. Four cars went to Western mar- 
kets, two of them being from Georgia and 
two from Florida. Out of the fifteen cars 
that went through Savannah, twelve cars 
were Georgia melons and three Florida 
melons. 

A prominent commission merchant of 



New York, who receives a big share of the 
melons shipped from Georgia and Florida, 
gives an interesting statement as to the re- 
ceipts of watermelons in that city. He 
says: 

"This market is almost wholly supplied 
by Georgia, Florida, South and North Car- 
olina, Maryland, Virginia and New Jersey. 
The melons arrive from the different States 
successively in the order in which they are 
mentioned. Missouri and other Western 
and Southwestern States, which produce 
watermelons extensively, find markets for 
their products nearer home. 

"It has been estimated by experts that 
when the crops are full there are annually 
received in this city about 20,000,000 mel- 
ons, but what the quantity will be this year 
is difficult to predict until later in the sea- 
son. The supply, when full, comes from 
the different States mentioned in about the 
following quantities: Florida, 1,600,000; 
Georgia, 11,000,000; South Carolina, 2,000,- 
000; North Carolina, 1,600,000; Maryland, 
1,600,000; Virginia, 1,100,000; New Jersey, 
1,100,000 — total, 20,000,000. When the mel- 
ons are received they are carefully culled 
and classified as 'primes,' 'mediums' and 
'seconds,' and are sold to fruit dealers, gro- 
cers, hotel^keepers and others in lots rang- 
ing from one dozen each to large truck- 
loads. As the season advances the prices 
steadily decline, and the market frequently 
becomes so glutted in mid-season that only 
nominal prices can be obtained, and heavy 
losses are experienced by shippers and re- 
ceivers." 

On the farm of Capt. E. B. C. Hambley, 
Rockwell, Rowan county. North Carolina, 
there is a very fine herd of cattle, said to be 
150 in number. One hundred cow^s are 
now being milked, and these yield, it is re- 
ported, an average of seven pounds of but- 
ter each per \xeek. 

At Beeville, Texas, about a month ago 
Messrs. T. N. Hall and R. T. Hicks, of 
Pittsfield, 111., closed a contract for the pur- 
chase of 4700 acres of land in Bee county, 
ten miles from Beeville, for $25,000. 

/ It is estimated that the truck shipped 
from New Berne, N. C, last year amounted 
to seventy trainloads, or about 240,000 



GENERAL NOTES. 



167 



boxes and barrels, and 150,000 packages by 
steamer. The value of this truck is sup-/ 
posed to have been about $i,ooo,ooq. ^^^ 

It is reported that a company has been 
formed at Orlando, Fla., to experiment in 
the growing of rubber trees, shrubs and 
vines in the vast waste lands in the south- 
ern part of the State. Mr. Flagler is said 
to have donated 300 acres of land at Bay 
Biscayne, in Southern Florida, and, it is 
stated, that in case the business prove 
profitable, he will grant from 10,000 to 
20,000 acres more. 

The colonists at Linton, Fla., give the 
following showing as to their success in 
trucking. The figures show the number of 
vegetables thus far shipped and the highest 
and lowest prices that have been received: 
Beans, 100 crates, $1.50 to $2.50; cabbage, 
fifty barrels, $2 to $3; cucumbers, fifty 
crates, $2.50 to $6; lettuce, fifteen barrels, $3 
to $6; potatoes, fifty barrels, $5 to $10; 
tomatoes, 1320 crates, $3 to $6. This is 
considered a remarkable showing. At this 
time last year there was not a single vege- 
table produced in or about the site of 
Linton. 

Mr. W. W. Duson, of Crowley, La., vis- 
ited Lake Arthur, La., about a month ago 
with a party of investigators, among whom 
were Mr. and Mrs. R. H. Lyons, formerly 
of Kansas City, who contemplate assuming 
proprietorship of Hotel Arthur, on the lake, 
and making it a summer and winter resort 
for Northern people. Mr. Lyons, it is 
said, will also invest in some farm property 
in Acadia parish. Mr. Isaac M. Lichten- 
stein, of the firm of H. Lichtenstein & Son, 
and Mr. Isidore Hechinger, of the firm of 
S. Gumbel & Co., of New Orleans, are said 
to have invested heavily during the past 
year in the section of Louisiana about 
Crowley and the new town of Lockwood, 
at the southern terminus of the Midland 
branch railroad. 

Mr. Henry Hubbard, a scientist, and Mr. 
G. H. Williams, one of the most enterpris- 
ing men in Florida, are about to begin a 
new industry in Florida — the manufacture 
of camphor. They are said to have planted 
on their Haw Creek land 1300 camphor 



trees, and Mr. Collins Hubbard has had 
1100 trees planted. So far by experiment- 
ing a small quantity of good camphor has 
been made, which will be sent to Washing- 
ton for analysis. The camphor has been 
made from the leaves of the tree by a very 
simple chemical process, which only re- 
quires a properly-constructed apparatus to 
produce the camphor in larger quantities. 
Mr. Hubbard thinks that 100 pounds of 
leaves will produce two pounds of cam- 
phor, the cost of manufacture being light 
and the camphor worth now sixty-eight 
cents a pound wholesale. The trees are full 
of leaves all the year round, and are not 
easily damaged by cold in this latitude, 
having passed through the notable freezes 
of last year with slight damage. 

The largest grower of scuppernong 
grapes in America is Col. Wharton J. 
Green, owner of the famous Tokay vine- 
yard near Fayetteville, N. C. This vine- 
yard, said to be the largest east of the 
Rocky mountains, has over sixty acres in 
scuppernong vines. Colonel Green, the 
owner, has published an interesting pam- 
phlet on "American Grape-Culture," with a 
description of his vineyard. 

Mr. James F. Jordan, of Greensboro, N. 
C, is said to have consummated a sale re- 
cently of 470 acres of fertile farming lands 
four miles north of Greensboro, which will 
be divided up into tracts among a number 
of families who will farm for a living. The 
land was sold to a syndicate, and the colo- 
nists are reported to be Australians. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

A Flourishing Colony in Alabama. 

Editor Southern States: 

In accordance with your request, I have 
the pleasure to send you a few facts in re- 
gard to Thorsby, the new Northern colony 
in the centre of the State of Alabama. 

It was twelve months ago, or thereabouts, 
that the restlessness and unsatisfactory con- 
ditions of the people in the Northwest cul- 
minated in one community in the sending 
out of a couple of agents to look up a new 
home for eight or ten families, who wished 
to emigrate to a more congenial clime. The 
low prices of wheat and other grains, the 



i68 



GENERAL NOTES. 



severe seasons — long, cold winters and 
short, hot summers — the costly farm ma- 
chinery and other expensive requisites on a 
farm in the Northwest, the continual drudg- 
ery necessary in order to keep the mort- 
gage from increasing — all these things are 
making the farmers up North exceedingly 
weary, and the result is beginning to mani- 
fest itself in the ever-increasing emigration 
to the sunny South. A great deal of adver- 
tising by railroad companies, land corpor- 
ations and the States themselves turned the 
tide of immigration into the Northwest. A 
little judicious advertising on the part of the 
South is what is needed to bring new set- 
tlers into the Southern States. Every 
Southern State can ofYer superior induce- 
ments to the home-seeker. Every Southern 
State should advertise that fact so that the 
home-seeker may know it and take advan- 
tage of the opportimities offered. There 
should be a commissioner of immigration 
appointed by every State in the South. The 
resources of the State should be advertised 
throughout the land. The Scandinavians, 
Germans and other desirable immigrants 
should be given information in their own 
language. A few thousand dollars spent 
annually by the State in the cause of immi- 
gration would bring the very best results. 
True, some of the Southern States are be- 
ginning to "let their lights shine," and rail- 
road companies and a few private corpor- 
ations are sending out circulars and pam- 
phlets, which are eagerly read up North by 
the intending settlers. But a good deal 
more could be done and should be done, 
especially by the States themselves. But I 
am digressing. 

The two agents who were sent out to 
look up a location for a colony of eight 
families visited a great number of places in 
the South, especially in the States of 
Georgia and Alabama. They found many 
desirable places for a Northern colony, but 
the locality which suited them best was the 
"Chilton Plateau," or the famous highlands 
in the centre of Alabama, in Chilton county, 
on the great Louisville & Nashville Rail- 
road, midway between the cities of Birming- 
ham and Montgomery. This locality 
seemed to possess all the requisites for an 
ideal Northern colony — good climate, good 
soil, good water, good market and good 



transportation facilities; and a sigh of grate- 
ful relief, "Here we rest!" went up from the 
souls of the faithful emissaries, and they 
called the place Thorsby, presumably in 
honor of the great Thor, the mighty deity 
of the gallant Northerners of ancient lore. 
When the emissaries came back and told 
their families and friends about the beauties 
of the country they had visited, they found 
that everybody wanted to go, and that they 
would have to provide land for many more 
families than had been originally figured 
on. Thus it came to pass that the "Con- 
cordia Land and Improvement Associa- 
tion" was formed, who went to work and 
secured sufificient land to accommodate 
any number of people from the North, and 
ever since there has been an influx of de- 
sirable Northern people into the new col- 
ony at Thorsby. 

As yet the place is in its infancy, but al- 
ready many substantial improvements have 
been made, and the work is steadily pro- 
gressing. Thorsby, the new town, is lo- 
cated about four miles south of Jemison, 
and has a beautiful location. Several build- 
ings have been erected, amongst them a 
large hotel, a saw mill, stores, etc. The 
surrounding lands have been platted into 
lo-acre tracts, which are sold for vineyards 
and fruit raising, while the lands a little 
further out are utilized for general farming, 
and there are no better lands in the South 
for fruit raising and general farming than 
right here in Thorsby. The colony is not 
very large yet, but is constantly increasing, 
and the best of it is that everybody seems 
to be well pleased with their new home. 
K. G. FAEGRE. 

Thorsby, Jemison P. O., Ala. 

The Southern Pines Convention. 

Editor Southern States: 

I have just returned from one of the most 
interesting meetings I have ever attended, 
and one which I believe will be of vast ben- 
efit to the South. I refer to the Southern 
States Settlers' Association meeting, at 
Southern Pines, N. C. About 800 persons 
were present, and it was an "experience 
meeting," with the experiences related 
from full hearts — hearts overflowihg with 
the idea that the South is, above all others, 
the place for homes, and a missionary 



GENERAL NOTES. 



169 



spirit which desired to tell others that they, 
too, might come and reap the benefits of 
residence. There was no effort at display; 
no high-sounding phrases or bombastic 
speech, but plainly told stories whose very 
plainness carried conviction to the hearts 
of those who heard. ]Men were there who 
had resided in the Southland for thirty 
years, coming back to make homes where 
they had first come only to take part in de- 
struction; others were there who had been 
here for time measured simply by weeks, 
but all filled with enthusiasm and love and 
bent upon speaking such words as would 
convince the minds of Northern citizens 
when heralded through the press. There 
was a distinct patriotism, which, though 
the speakers were nominally representing 
their own States, refused to be bound by 
such narrow lines, and constantly broke 
through those lines in pleas for the South, 
as a unit, and not as distinct and separate 
State entities. For years the Manufactur- 
ers' Record has been working faithfully 
and well to bring out from the shadow into 
which it had fallen, and from under the 
misapprehension which had covered it as 
with a mantle, this beautiful, yea, not only 
beautiful, but practical Southland. It 
showed its beauty and drove home by stub- 
born facts and figures its practical business, 
manufacturing and agricultural possibili- 
ties. Then came other periodicals to the 
help of the cause, and then the "Southern 
States'' magazine, in its peculiar field. To 
the Manufacturers' Record and the "South- 
ern States" magazine, of Baltimore, the 
South owes more of its present prosperity 
than to any other source. This is not writ- 
ten, Mr. Editor, as flattering, but is the 
concensus of opinion of all those with 
whom I have talked, and their name is 
legion. As vice-president of the Southern 
States Settlers' Association, representing 
South Carolina, I thank you for the work 
you have done in the past, and ask for your 
continued co-operation, feeling that in it 
we have a strong arm to lean upon and an 
exponent which carries with it the evi- 
dences of truth and honesty, and a convinc- 
ing power above all other in persuading 
people to come and see. 



JOHN P. COFFIN, 



Florence, S. C. 



NEWSPAPER COMMENT. 

More Small Farms Needed. 

The massing of capital in order to con- 
duct business on the largest scale is now 
the tendency in almost every branch of 
manufacturing industry. In this way, by 
employing the best methods and the most 
expensive machinery, most of the small 
dealers and manufacturers have been forced 
out of business. Of late years this has gone 
still farther, and the large capitalist has been 
either obliged to join some trust or to be 
crushed by it. Some have thought that in 
this method lies the remedy for the depres- 
sion that has for a number of years been 
suffered by the farming industry. If whole- 
sale methods and the employment of large 
capital are necessary to make other indus- 
tries profitable, why should not the same 
means produce like results in farming? 

Those who ask. the question overlook the 
fact that farming on an extensive scale has 
always been practised in this country. 
While it is true that this has mostly been 
with insufficient capital, it is likely that 
even with an unlimited supply of money 
the farming could not be made profitable 
over large areas under one management. 
There are several difficulties which con- 
front the wholesale farmer at the start. 
Very few men have the requisite executive 
ability to handle large bodies of laborers 
and get as much out of their work as they 
would earn working for themselves. It is 
very difficult to get good farm help now, 
and the difficulty is likely to prove greater 
rather than less. Farm work requires the 
constant and active thought of those en- 
gaged in it to a'far greater extent than does 
any branch of manufacturing industry. 
The workman in charge of a machine be- 
comes himself in time something like the 
machine which he handles. The workman 
on the farm is in partnership with nature, 
and he must vary his work with all her 
changes. The idea that anybody can be a 
successful farmer is the greatest mistake 
that can be made. The successful farmer 
must be a thinker, and such men are less 
common than is generally believed. The 
men who are thinkers can generally get 
employment at something that will pay bet- 
ter than farming. 

But the chief reason why farming on a 
large scale cannot be made successful is 



170 



GENERAL NOTES. 



that enough manure cannot be either made 
or purchased on a large farm to maintain 
fertility. The large farmer almost invari- 
ably grows the crops which have the great- 
est facilities for harvesting in improved 
labor-saving implements. These are grain 
crops and all very exhaustive. They 
quickly reduce fertility to the point where 
the crop, even with these facilities for hav- 
vesting it, will not pay for growing. It is 
only by the continued extension of wheat- 
growing in the Northwest into new terri- 
tory that the cultivation of this crop in 100- 
acre fields is possible. This cannot last 
many years longer. When the area of un- 
cropped land is exhausted, the wheat-grow- 
ing of the future must be done on smaller 
farms, which will necessitate growing a 
larger crop per acre. This has become 
necessary already. The low price of wheat 
leaves no profit if grown extensively, ex- 
cept on land that has never previously 
borne more than two or three crops. After 
this the bonanza wheat farm with the cream 
of its fertility taken off must be slowly re- 
stored to productiveness by being devoted 
to stock-growing, to dairying and to mixed 
husbandry. 

What is wanted in most parts of the coun- 
try is the cutting down of too large farms, 
and their subdivision into small places, 
with a greater amount of capital to work 
them. It is a mistake to suppose that 
money cannot be made on small farms of 
twenty to forty or fifty acres. If their 
owner is quick to perceive what his land is 
best adapted to growing, he can make more 
money on one of these small farms than 
anyone can on five times as much land de- 
voted to the crops in which there is 
the strongest competition. — The American 
Cultivator. 



BOOKS AND HAQAZINES. 

"The American," a weekly journal pub- 
lished at 119 South Fourth street, Philadel- 
phia, under the editorship of Wharton 
Barker, is one of the most able and power- 
ful of the advocates of the free coinage of 
silver. The issue of the American for 
June 13 contained a translation of an ar- 
ticle, prepared a short while before his 
death a few months ago, by the great French 
economist, Cernuschi, on the adoption of 
free coinage by the United States, from 



which the following paragraphs are taken: 
"But if I were a citizen of the United 
States, and were convinced that Europe, by 
reason of England's attitude, is fixedly hos- 
tile to the establishment of a stable mone- 
tary parity between gold and silver, obsti- 
nately rejecting all ideas of international bi- 
metallic agreement, then I should cease to 
be an international bimetallist, which nearly 
all my friends in the United States are, and 
should go over unhesitatingly to the camp 
of the silver men. * * * 

"The present monetary policy of the 
United States is consequently very advan- 
tageous to the interests of England, a gold 
monometallic country, but it is utterly ruin- 
ous as regards the foreign financial relations 
of the United States, and especially for its 
native producers. 

"This is why, inasmuch as England's at- 
titude prevents the realization of interna- 
tional bimetallism, and condemns one-half 
of the world to gold monometallism and the 
other half to silver monometallism, I would 
not hesitate, were I a citizen of the United 
States, to become — I, Cernuschi, the father 
of international bimetallism, as I am every- 
where called — a silver monometallist. 

"From a theoretical point of view, the 
free coinage of silver at 16 to i, re-estab- 
lished by the United States without the 
concurrence of Europe, would be a vicious 
solution, but it would nevertheless be a step 
in the direction of international bimetallism, 
for, under the regime of the new standard, 
the productive power of the United States 
would receive so enormous an impulse, and 
this development would have such a disas- 
trous effect upon the economics and finan- 
cial interests of England and the other 
European nations now governed by the 
gold standard, that it may be confidently 
predicted in advance that the course of 
events would force the adoption of interna- 
tional bimetallism as the only true solution 
even upon those who, today, deny the pos- 
sibility and efficacy of it." 

McClure's Magazine for July will contain 
a fine series of portraits of Longfellow, fur- 
nished by the poet's daughter, and Elizabeth 
Stuart Phelps will publish her recollections 
of Longfellow, Whittier and Holmes. The 
same number will contain an illustrated 
paper by Clevel and Moffett, showing the 
exact status at the present moment of the 



GENERAL NOTES. 



171 



horseless carriage, indicating the revolution 
that impends in travel and traffic. '"Lincoln 
as a Lawyer" and other interesting articles, 
besides the usual complement of fiction. 

The June Review of Reviews publishes 
an exhaustive account of Professor At- 
water's investigations on the subject of 
foods. It is not generally known that this 
inquiry is being prosecuted under the aus- 
pices of the national government. The 
Review article sums up the results thus far 
reached. Robert Stein, of the United States 
Geological Survey, gives in this number an 
authoritative account of the Alaskan gold- 
fields; Baron Pierre de Coubertin has an in- 
teresting article on the Franco-Russian al- 
liance. The "Money Question" is dis- 
cussed, "Greater New York," "The Growth 
of St. Louis," "The British Education Bill" 
and "The Slump in South Africa." The cor- 
onation of the Russian Czar has suggested 
a character study of that young ruler, which 
is published in this issue of the Review. 

The Home Magazine, published at Bing- 
hamton, N. Y.^ in addition to its large 
quantity of original matter, makes a prac- 
tice of giving each month some of the best 
things in prose and verse from the latest 
foreign periodicals, after the manner of the 
Eclectic and Littell's Living Age. The 
profit realized from publishing this maga- 
zine is devoted to the work of building the 
national home for commercial travelers at 
Binghamton. 

During June, articles on the following 
subjects will be published in Harper's 
Weekly: "The Republican Convention at 
St. Louis" (profusely illustrated); "The De- 
structive Cyclone at St. Louis;" "The Cor- 
onation of the Czar;" "The Yale Crew for 
Henley;" "Opening of the Red Lake In- 
dian Reservation." S. R. Crockett's serial, 
"The Gray Man," will be concluded, and a 
new novel by W. D. Howells, entitled "The 
Landlord of the Lion's Head," will be be- 
gun. Illustrations for Mr. Howell's story 
have been made by Smedley. 

Among the striking features in the At- 
lantic Monthly for June are "The Politician 
and the Public School," by Mr. G. L. Jones, 



and "Restriction of Immigration," by Gen. 
Francis A. Walker. Paul Leicester Ford 
contributes an able historical study of 
"Lord Howe's Commission to Pacify the 
Colonies," embodying a hitherto unpub- 
lished manuscript. Other readable articles 
are by Mrs. Catherwood, Mrs. Olive Thorne 
Miller, George Parsons Lathrop, Henry 
James and T. Russell Sullivan. 

Harper's Bazaar presents every week the 
different changes in style evolved by Dame 
Fashion. The number for June 5 contains 
illustrations of Summer Toilettes, Summer 
Bonnets and Hats, Summer Costumes, 
Paris Toilettes. There are also interesting 
articles and poems by Candace Wheeler, 
William Hamilton Hayne and others; the 
serial, "Mrs. Gerald," by Maria Louise 
Pool, continues. 

The supplement to Harper's Weekly for 
June is largely devoted to "China Today," 
concluding the observations and studies of 
that country by the members of the World's 
Transportation Commission. The Great 
Wall, the Chinese Railway, and Russian In- 
fluence are among the interesting topics 
discussed and illustrated. Apropos of the 
beginning of the yachting season, there is 
a double-page drawing by T. de Thulstrup, 
illustrating the recent improvements in the 
house and grounds of the Larchmont Yacht 
Club. The recent opening to settlement of 
the Red Lake Indian Reservation is the 
subject of an illustrated article. 

The June Ladies' Home Journal contains 
a paper from President Harrison on "The 
Pardoning Power and Impeachment," both 
subjects being comprehensively discussed; 
John Gilmer Speed gives some surprising 
statistics in an article on "Conducting a 
Great Hotel," and Dr. Parkhurst's paper, 
"Substitutes for a College Training," is 
very practical. There are various other ar- 
ticles, some humorous, some instructive, 
all interesting. The June Journal makes it 
evident that its editor's promise, made in 
December, to give his readers the best 
twelve issues of the magazine they have 
ever had, is being fulfilled. By the Curtis 
Publishing Co., Philadelphia. $1 per year; 
ten cents per cop3^ 



172 



GENERAL NOTES. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

We have received from the Experiment Sta- 
tions of New Jersey and Connecticut copies of 
their annual reports for 1895. The New Jersey 
report is the sixteenth issued, and the Connec- 
ticut report is the nineteenth. These docu- 
ments are rich in valuable matter and might be 
profitably as well as curiously studied by our 
Southern farmers and planters. We do not, as 
a rule, know enough of the progress made in all 
sections of our wonderful country, and these 
reports furnish the desired information as to 
the highest Northern development at the Bast. 
They contain, besides, in special articles and in 
reports of experiments and tests, a vast amount 
of information of value to farmers, gardeners 
and fruit growers everywhere. 

"Hay Substitutes." By C. S. Phelps, Bulle- 
tin No. 17, June, 1896, Storrs Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station, Storrs, Tolland county, Con- 
necticut. Sent free on application to the Sta- 
tion. 

Those who have read the entertaining articles 
contributed to the "Southern States" from time 
to time by Mr. Charles Hallock will be inter- 
ested to know that he is now the editor of a 
recently-established sportsman's paper, the 
Western Field and Stream, published at St. 
Paul, Minn. Mr. HallQck has been well known 
for a generation as journalist, editor and mag- 
azine writer. He was the founder of Forest and 
Stream, and there is probably no man in Am- 
erica better equipped for the editorship of a 
sportsman's journal than he. The Western 
Field and Stream is superbly gotten up. 

Onion Cnltnre. 

"There are few vegetable crops of more im- 
portance to the rural population of the United 
States than the onion crop. The relatively large 
profits which it is possible for the skillful grow- 
er to obtain from a limited area have rendered 
the cultivation of this bulb especially popular 
with those possessing small tracts of land, 
while gardeners residing in localities whose 
soils and climate are pre-eminently adapted to 
onion culture have found it profitable to till 
lai'ge areas. Twenty-five to 100 acres in one 
field is not an unusual thing in such localities. 
Large yields overstock the market some years, 
resulting in very low prices; but the prices re- 
ceived during a series of years make onion cul- 
ture, as a rule, a profitable enterprise where 
the soil and climatic conditions are favorable. 

"Notwithstanding the extensive production of 
onions in the United States, hundreds of thous- 
ands of bushels are annually shipped to our 
ports from Bermuda, France, Spain and Cuba. 
This fact demonstrates that the home demand 
at all seasons of the year is not yet fully sup- 
plied by growers of our own country. The 
bulbs of foreign varieties are superior in qual- 
ity to those originated in this country, such as 
the Yellow Dan vers. Red Wethersfield and Silver 
Skin. The imported bulbs are also placed on 
the market before the gardeners in the North 



can mature their crops, but the long season of 
California and certain parts of the South ren- 
ders it possible for these sections to cultivate 
successfully the foreign varieties and mature 
the onions almost, if not quite, as early as the 
countries named." 

The above is the introduction to Farmers' Bul- 
letin No. 39, "Onion Culture," by R. L. Watts, 
instructor in horticulture at the University of 
Tennessee and horticulturist of the Tennessee 
Agricultural Experiment Station. The bulletin 
has thirty-one pages and three illustrations, and 
considers such topics as selection and prepara- 
tion of soil, fertilizing, cultivating the crop, se- 
lection of seed and of varieties, growing onions 
from sets and seed, transplanting, irrigating, 
harvesting, production of onion seed, and men- 
tions two important enemies of the onion. 

This bulletin is for free distribution, and re- 
quests should be addressed to the Secretary of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

There is now ready for distribution by the 
United States Department of Agriculture to all 
applicants a bulletin on "Spraying for Fungous 
Disease," No. 38 of the Farmers' Bulletin se- 
ries. It is four years since there was published 
in a former bulletin "a summary of the more 
important methods of combating some of the 
destructive diseases of fruits." During this 
time many improvements have been made in 
the work, and for this and other reasons it seems 
desirable to now bring together, in brief, prac- 
tical form, our present knowledge on the sub- 
ject. The question as to whether it will pay to 
spray has long since been answered in the 
affirmative, so it is not necessary at this time 
to enter upon any argument in regard to this 
phase of the subject. 

The contents of the bulletin are as follows: 
"Fungicides or Remedies for Plant Diseases;" 
"Methods of Applying Fungicides;" "Treatment 
of Grape Diseases — Black Rot, Downy Mildew, 
Powdery Mildew and Anthracnose;" "Treat- 
ment of Apple Diseases — Apple Scab, Bitter 
Rot and Powdery Mildew:" "Treatment of Pear 
Diseases;" "Treatment of Quince, Cherry and 
Plum Diseases." 

That the ripening of cream in butter-making 
is caused and controlled by bacteria is a recog- 
nized fact. But bacteriology has yet much to 
determine as to just what micro-organisms pro- 
duce good butter and just how they act. Much 
has, however, been done in this direction, no- 
ticeably by the Storrs Experiment Station at 
Storrs, Conn. Bulletin No. 16 of the Station, 
just issued, is "Bacteria in the Dairy," and con- 
tains reports of investigations by Prof. H. W. 
Conn on the effect of bacteria on the flavor and 
aroma of butter. The results are most interest- 
ing. It is sent free on application to the Station 
as above. 

The Southern Field for May, published l),v the 
Immigration Bureau of the Southern Railway 
Co., contains a great deal of useful information 
regarding that part of the South traversed by 
the road, the States of Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, 



THE 



Southern States. 



JULY, 1896. 



THE PECAN. 



A brief article on "Pecan Culture," 
printed in the "Southern States" some- 
thing more than a year ago, aroused so 
much interest in this new industry, 
was so widely copied and brought so 
much inquiry for further and more 
specific information, that it has been 
thought well to now publish such an 
article as will cover the whole ground 
of pecan-raising. 

Some interesting testimony is fur- 
nished by the last United States cen- 
sus, the census ofifice having for the 
first time made a special investigation 
for the purpose of ascertaining the ex- 
tent and value of the production of 
semi-tropic fruits and nuts in the 
United States. The material from 
which these statistics were compiled 
was obtained direct from the growers 
upon schedules specially prepared for 
that purpose, and by personal visits of 
special agents to sections of the coun- 
try where the products are grown. 
These investigations were made in the 
States of Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, 
Louisiana. and Texas, and the state- 
ment is made that "pecan culture in 
Northwest Florida and all the Gulf 
States has apparently just begun to de- 
velop some of its wonderful possibili- 
ties as a reliable and profitable crop." 
According to the published figures, 
there were in 1889 in the district 
named 27,419.50 acres of pecan trees, 
representing 214,988 bearing and 657,- 
980 non-bearing trees, with a crop 
value for that year amounting to 
$1,616,576.50. It is instructive to note 
that even at that time the value of the 
pecan crop was second only to that of 
oranges in the entire list of semi-tropic 



fruits and nuts grown in the United 
States, including California. As the 
census office estimates that more than 
1,500,000 additional acres in Florida 
and California alone are suitable for 
the planting of pecan trees, to which 
must be added probably a like number 
for the other States of the South, it is 
seen to what an enormous extension 
the pecan industry is susceptible, 
when less than 30,000 acres, with about 
one-third of the trees bearing, pro- 
duced in 1889 over $1,600,000 worth 
of nuts and took rank in value second 
only to that of the orange crop. 

The acreage of bearing pecan trees, 
according to the census reports, was 
for 1889 by States as follows: Florida, 
2155; Louisiana, 2000; Mississippi, 
1073; Texas, 563; Georgia, ninety- 
seven; California, seventeen — truly 
but a small beginning, when viewed in 
the light of the possibilities presented 
by the Gulf States alone. As will be 
shown by the testimony given here- 
with, there are very large sections of 
Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Missis- 
sippi, Louisiana and Texas altogether 
suited to the raising of the pecan, and 
in portions of other Southern States, 
notably South Carolina, it has been 
found by a practical test of twenty 
years' culture that the pecan can be 
grown with profit in almost any region 
where the hickory tree abounds, al- 
though the evidence appears to favor 
the southerly latitudes of the United 
States for the production of the heavi- 
est, richest and most finely-flavored 
nut. 

The testimony of successful growers 
given in this article is sufficient to 



174 



THE PECAN. 



arouse a considerable degree of en- 
thusiasm in the mind of any reader. 
Over a large area of country, in a 
variety of soils and under circum- 
stances calling for few of the trials, an- 
noyances and disappointments inci- 
dent to almost all the undertakings of 
the husbandman, here is demonstrated 
to be an industry which can be prose- 
cuted merely as a side issue if desired, 
and which, beginning at from ten to 
twelve years from the seed will yield a 
profitable return, practically unaf- 
fected by seasons, markets, blights or 
pests, and which after fifteen or twenty 
years will give a profit of hundreds of 
dollars an acre for generations. 

There are, of course, some impor- 
tant technical points to be considered, 
and, as in every other undertaking, 
the amount of brains put into the work 
shows a direct ratio to financial results. 
The subject is a fascinating one, and 
the language of prominent growers 
will be read with interest in following 
the various steps in the culture of the 
pecan, from the seed to the harvest. 

An interesting writer and a success- 
ful grower of pecans is Hon. Arthur 
Brown, of the Rivera Pecan Nursery, 
at Bagdad, Santa Rosa county, Flor- 
ida, who says in a letter to the '*South- 
ern States'': "I have heard of pecan 
trees bearing in six years, though I 
have never had them to bear sooner 
than the tenth year. As a rule, the 
bearing in paying quantities begins in 
from fifteen to twenty years, and the 
increase yearly thereafter is very cer- 
tain. At twenty years old the yield 
should be not less than lOO pounds per 
tree, which, sold at fifteen cents per 
pound, makes the tree worth $15 in 
income, and if in grove form, at forty 
feet square, gives twenty-seven trees 
per acre, which at $15 per tree gives 
$405 per acre. I have trees over fifty 
years of age from which I have sold 
700 pounds per tree at twenty cents a 
pound, giving $140 per tree, which 
would be for an acre of such trees 
$3780. I do not believe pecan culture 
can be overdone, for at only five cents 
a pound the income of 20-year old 
trees is sufificient to justify the planting 
not only for the owner, but for pos- 



terity also, and not only for the income 
derived therefrom at twenty years old 
and for ages thereafter, but also for 
the valuable wood for axe-handles, 
plow-handles, etc." 

It is agreed by the authorities that a 
generous alluvial soil is best suited to 
the location of a pecan grove, though 
the trees will flourish in any good soil, 
with a clay subsoil, preferably where 
there is plenty of moisture, but not 
standing water. Damp, boggy soil 
will not do, and though land which 
overflows is to be avoided for young 
trees, yet no ill effects from this source 
are seen if the tree is more than a year 
old and is not in leaf at the time of 
overflow. Lands along creek bot- 
toms, the margins of lakes and like 
localities will produce thrifty trees, 
and Mr. Brown states that he has seen 
splendid specimens on high pine land 
four miles from a water-course, on 
land with a top surface of a dark loam, 
with clay subsoil. As the pecan tap 
root will penetrate thirty feet into the 
earth, and lateral roots are thrown out 
in all directions, so it is commonlv re- 
ported that a pecan tree cannot be 
blown down ; the more porous the soil 
the more rapid will be the growth, and 
to assist in opening the way for the 
roots, one grower, Mr. Herbert Post, 
of Fort Worth, Texas, strongly recom- 
mends the use of dynamite wherever 
there is a subsoil, which he explodes 
at the bottom of a two-inch augur hole 
sunk into the ground six feet below 
the bottom of the hole into which it is 
proposed to transplant a tree. He 
makes the claim that at a co§t of f fteen 
or twenty cents a hill a growth many 
times greater can thus be secured in 
the same length of time. 

As the pecan tree thrives best in a 
generous soil, most growers recom- 
mend the use of fertilizers. Savs Wx. 
Brown: "Fertilizing is beneficial, 
and if regularly done will bring the 
tree quicker into bearing, but spas- 
modic fertilizing is absolutely harmful, 
and no grove will be first-class treated 
that way. The best fertilizer is a com- 
post of stable and hog-pen scrapings, 
dead leaves, rotted grass, dead ani- 
mals, fish, bone dust, ashes and muck, 



THE PECAN. 



175 



mixed up together, covered with a foot 
or two of gfood black earth, and this 
covered with dead grass, and on this 
pour each day all the house and kitchen 
soapsuds and greasy water and let 
stand until ready for use." 

Regarding fertilizers, the following 
is the advice of the manager of the 
Stuart Pecan Co., of Ocean Springs, 
Miss.: "Have a place to pile every- 
thing in a compost heap that has any 
value as a fertilizer. The three prin- 
cipal ingredients which the tree re- 
quires to make its growth, also to pro- 
duce well, are potash, nitrogen and 
phosphate. Potash is found in ashes 
of all kinds; also kainite, a substance 
resembling rock salt, which is shipped 
to this country from Germany, con- 
tains about 14 per cent, of potash. The 
cheapest source is to buy wood ashes 
at even twenty cents a bushel. Next 
comes kainite at about $15 a ton. 
(Dealers in commercial fertilizers 
usually handle it). These should be 
sown in a light dressing about the 
trees in the fall and worked into the 
soil, then the fertilizer gets down to 
the roots by the time the trees start to 
grow in the spring. A little each year 
is better than a large quantity at once. 

"Nitrogen comes from animal 
waste, guano, nitrate of soda, blood, 
cottonseed, etc. In case it exists in 
quantity it should not be composted, 
as the heat that would be generated in 
the compost heap would drive off a 
large per cent, of the nitrogen. Such 
had better be mixed with marsh muck, 
leaf mole or humus of some kind, and 
kept under cover. Apply this to the 
tree the same as the potash. 

"Phosphate exists in the phosphate 
of lime, the bones of animals and the 
mineral phosphate rocks, which are 
the ancient marine animals. The last 
can be sown around the tree at any 
time and worked into the soil, as there 
is no waste to it. There is nothing 
better than barn-yard manure, but as 
that is made only in limited quantities 
and not enough to go around, the defi- 
ciency must be supplied from some 
other practical source. Your com- 
post heap will be a complete manure, 
having all the elements of plant 



growth. See that nothing goes to 
waste that will add to the value of the 
compost heap. Upon a farm of 160 
acres there will be enough each year 
to keep a good-sized grove in fane con- 
dition. It is only the naturally poor 
land that requires to be fertilized; the 
valleys are always rich enough in their 
natural state for the tree to do its best, 
both in growth of wood and nuts. The 
thin, sandy soils require to be fertil- 
ized, and the tree appreciates such 
treatment, as you can readily see by 
the way it grows, also in the extra crop 
of nuts it will produce."' 

The selection of seed, or of nursery 
stock in case the grower chooses not 
to do his own planting, is obviously of 
importance. Some growers give it as 
their experience that the pecan will 
faithfully reproduce its kind, while 
others find seedlings unreliable, and 
resort to grafting; but all freely admit 
that the best results are only obtained 
by a system of careful selection. For 
seed purposes many growers of the 
large, plump, finely-flavored varieties 
get from one to ten cents apiece, and 
opinions are given, based on results, 
that some of the finer, so-called paper- 
shell nuts would be cheap at a dollar 
apiece. 

Growers difTer as to the time and 
methods of planting, the late Col. W. 
R. Stuart, of Ocean Springs, Miss., re- 
ferred to as the "father of the pecan 
industry," recommending that plant- 
ing be done in the winter, and that the 
planting be done in nursery rows, 
while others bury the nuts in loose, dry 
sand or under a shallow covering of 
soil during the winter, allowing them 
to slightly sprout before planting, and 
strongly recommend that they be 
planted where the tree is to remain. 
Some think that the nuts can be better 
protected from rats, squirrels, ants 
and other pests which are likely to at- 
tack the freshly-planted nut if the 
nursery plan is adopted, and if a fertile 
plat be selected, deeply plowed, with 
furrows four feet apart, four inches 
deep, nuts planted twelve inches apart 
and covered level, the trees will make 
a growth of eight to fifteen inches the 
first year and be ready for transplant- 



176 



THE PECAN. 



ing the next year. Some report good 
success in transplanting at the ages of 
five or six years, he says, but he thinks 
the sooner the better, and says trees 
that are not set at the age of one year 
should have the top root cut fifteen to 
twenty-four inches below the surface 
of the ground. On this point there is 
a sharper disagreement among grow- 
ers than on any other feature of the 
subject of pecan culture. Colonel 
Stuart declared that all the trees in his 
grove had their tap-roots cut, and he 
was sure it benefited them, "making 
them grow stronger and larger and 
awakening them to the necessity of a 
more thorough and vigorous rooting."' 
Others declare the tap-root cannot be 
duplicated, and that cutting it retards 
the tree in bearing and makes it less 
prolific. 

Granting the proposition that the 
pecan cannot be implicitly relied on 
to propagate its kind, or "come true," 
the question of budding or grafting is 
of importance to the grower who 
wants to be certain that his trees will 
produce what he has marked for and 
expects. Budding and grafting are 
said by some experts to be more diffi- 
cult operations with nut-bearing trees 
than with ordinary fruit trees, as unless 
treated by skilful hands only a small 
proportionate number will live. In- 
structions regarding these processes 
are given in the Stuart Company's 
pamphlet, heretofore referred to. A 
successful method, known as "annular 
budding," is described as follows: 

"Take a sharp knife, make two cuts 
■completely around the stock about 
■one inch apart; cut only just through 
the bark ; make a straight slit through 
this bark between the two circles ; now 
slip ofif this ring of bark and use it for 
a pattern to cut the ring of bark from 
the scion, which must have a well-de- 
veloped bud in its centre; cut close to 
•each end of the pattern; now split this 
'.second ring down as you did the first, 
•slip it off from the scion, put it in the 
place of the ring taken from the stock, 
trim if necessary so that the fit will be 
perfect; now wrap with strips of 
waxed cloth all the wounded parts, but 
'do not cover the bud ; cover over well 



the slit with wax, also tie two cords 
around, one above and one below the 
bud, over the waxed cloth just where 
the scion bark meets the stock bark. 
In case it is a success, the bud will 
show life in a few days, and after the 
shoot is out a few inches, cut the cords, 
also the top, from the tree a few inches 
above the bud ; let no sprouts grow on 
the stock, as they may draw the sup- 
port from the bud. After the bud has 
grown ten inches, cut the stock down 
to within one inch of the bud. Seed- 
lings can be worked in this way after 
they are two years old up to five or six. 
The scion wood must be full as large as 
the stock; the bandage and wax must 
be well applied, so as to exclude the air 
perfectly from the wound. In case 
new bark does not form readily over 
the stock above the bud in two years, 
trim down a little with a sharp knife. 

"Some use the tongue graft; it does 
very well for one-year-old stock. The 
mode is to cut the stock square ofif a 
little below the ground; place your 
knife down on one side of the stock, 
one and one-quarter inches from the 
end, draw upwards, have the knife 
come out almost the centre of the 
stock at its top; this takes off a wedge- 
shaped piece ; now partly split, and cut 
a little across the grain from the top of 
the stock down so far as the piece is 
long that you shaved from the one 
side; thus you have a wedge-shaped 
tongue upon one side of the stock. 
Now prepare the scion in a similar 
manner, only cut clear across the 
scion, having the knife come out just 
at the inner edge of the bark at the end ; 
split the scion in the centre, setting 
the knife back from the end in com- 
mencing; now insert the tongue of the 
scion into the cleft of the stock, being 
sure that the edges of the bark of all 
meet nicely upon one side ; this makes 
it possible for a union of the scion with 
the stock at four dififerent points. Wrap 
with twine to hold the parts well to- 
gether; bring up the earth to near the 
top of the scion all around; no wax is 
needed. Scions should be cut when 
the buds are dormant, and stored away 
in a cool,moist place until used. Trees 
to be worked this way must be upon 



THE PECAN. 



177 



high, dry ground, as standing water 
would be death to the scion at any 
time for the first six months after the 
grafting was first done. The old-fash- 
ioned cleft graft is fully as reliable as 
any; trees one inch in diameter are 
very favorable for that style of work. 
Saw ofif the stock just at the surface of 
the ground with a fine-tooth sharp 
saw; split the stock in the centre; now 
put a wedge in the cleft to hold the 
splits apart just the distance of the 
thickness of your scion when trimmed, 
wedge-shape at one end, ready to be 
inserted into the cleft of the stock, 
which needs to be done with gfreat 



limbs, of course, are preferable, as the 
bark is more pliable; also, has more 
sap which circulates very freely. 

"The old-style w^ay of propagating 
by budding, as we bud the peach, is a 
failure with the pecan. There is no 
question but what it richly pays any- 
one who contemplates putting out a 
pecan grove to do it with budded or 
grafted trees, even though you go very 
much more slowly, as it is not the 
number of trees that count so much as 
it is the good ones. Ten grafted or 
budded trees are of more value in 
starting a grove than one hundred of 
the best seedlings you can get. In the 




VARIETIES OF CULTIVATED PECAN. 



nicety. Where the scions are small 
enough so they will not crowd each 
other, it is best to put in two for each 
stock. Wrap a cord firmly around and 
tie; also use a liberal amount of wax 
upon the sides of the cleft; also open 
the top of the stock; in fact, cover all 
bare places well over, then bring up 
the earth to near the top of the scion, 
leaving one bud out. The limbs of the 
trees can be worked in a similar man- 
ner, with this difference: more wax 
must be used, and each scion must 
have a terminal bud, so as to prevent 
evaporation. The new growth of 



one case you are certain that your 
trees will bear fne, large, soft-shell 
nuts (in case your scions were of that 
kind, which are the kind to secure by 
all means), while with seedlings you 
do not know what the nuts will be. It 
costs no more to care for a grove of 
choice trees than of poor ones; then 
again the grafted or budded ones 
come into profitable bearing three 
years earlier than the seedlings. Here 
is a case in point: Last November we 
paid in cash $248 for the nuts which 
grew upon one tree, the crop of one 
year. The tree is twenty inches 



178 



THE PECAN. 



through at its base and forty-five feet 
high. Such a size tree would grow in 
twenty or twenty-five years. Now, 
small nuts from the same size tree will 
sell for not more than $15 or $20. An- 
other tree onlv ten years old bore 



squares of not less than forty feet 
apart — in poorer lands a greater dist- 
ance — and to dig holes not less than 
four feet deep by three feet wide. The 
usual care in transplanting any nur- 
sery tree is required for the pecan. It 





COMMON WILD PECAN. 



$13.50 worth. These choice trees are 
such as we grow seedlings from. We 
sell a great many more seedlings than 
we do grafted or budded trees, simply 
because they are so much cheaper, and 
people in general do not realize that 
such a vast difference exists between 
the profits of the seedling and the 
grafted or budded ; but such is the case 
and such it will always remain for 
aught that we can see. 

"Those who contemplate establish- 
ing groves, and cannot afford to buy 
a sufiticient number of trees with which 
to set it; can buy from one tree up to as 
many as they can, according to their 
desire and ability, of the very choicest 
variety, and a part of each succeeding 
year's growth of new wood can be 
trimmed ofif to graft or bud seedlings 
with. In so doing, you may be going 
a little slow, but you can have the sat- 
isfaction of knowing that you are on 
the right road, the one which leads to 
success; you are growing your own 
wood for grafting and may have some 
to sell, and it will sell at a good price, 
because it is scarce ; it need not be long 
before you will get back all your trees 
cost you, as it is a very profitable busi- 
ness raising the trees just for the graft- 
ing wood alone. We appreciate this 
condition perfectly, inasmuch as we 
never have been able to get all the 
grafting wood which we want to use \\\ 
grafting and budding our seedlings." 

Having reached a decision regard- 
ing the better method of beginning a 
pecan grove, the grower who decides 
to use a nursery-grown tree is advised 
to have his well-selected ground thor- 
oughly prepared and laid of¥ in 



is regarded as important to spread out 
the lateral roots, place plenty of ferti- 
lizer around the tree, cover up well 
and burn the ground around the roots 
and on top and strew some loose dirt. 
All around the tree place a mulch of 
dead leaves. According to the Florida 
expert, it is desirable to protect the 
young tree from the western sun by 
placing a board on its western side. 

Orchard trees, grapevines and many 
other crops, even corn, cotton, beans 
and potatoes, are suggested and rec- 
ommended to be planted in the pecan 
groves for the first ten years or less. 
It is desirable to keep the ground well 
cultivated and free from weeds, with- 
out, however, drawing too much upon 
the fertility of the soil immediately 
surrounding the trees. As the trees 
approach maturity it is conceded that 
the ground should be sown in grass 
and thus left permanently. 

The processes of nature seem to 
suggest methods for harvesting the 
nuts, the hulls opening with the frosts 
of autumn and the nuts falling to the 
ground. A common method of assist- 
ing this process is to shake the trees, 
or to thresh them with long poles. 

Dealers who make the most of their 
opportunities select for seed the most 
desirable nuts, and assort the remain- 
der, so as to receive the advanced price 
always obtainable for the better quality 
of nuts. 

The industry of preparing the meat 
of pecans for market, free from shells, 
is assuming considerable proportions. 1 
One manufacturer recently in one year 
sold as many as 100,000 pounds of the 
kernels. As the process of turning out 



THE PECAA. 



179 



the meat free from the shells is per- 
formed by machinery, confectioners 
are every year increasing the uses to 
which they put the pecan nut. 

As a marketable commodity the 
nuts of the pecan have many advan- 
tages over all fruits. No delicate care 
is needed in gathering them and put- 
ting them up for the market. Delay in 
transportation does not injure them, 
unless through undue exposure to heat 
or damp. They can be shipped any 
distance and in any month of the year, 
and there is a large and increasing 
demand for them everywhere and at 
all seasons. 

A most comprehensive treatise on 
the enemies of the pecan is embraced 
in an article published in the New Or- 
leans Times-Democrat some time 
since. As it describes all the pests 
known to any section of the country 
where the pecan is grown, and also 
suggests remedies, it is a valuable ad- 
dendum to the literature on the sub- 
ject of pecan raising. 

"The fall web worm, or pecan cater- 
pillar, is one of the most destructive 
insects the pecan grower has to con- 
tend with either in Louisiana or Mis- 
sissippi. 

"Some ignorant persons argue that 
it does no harm by defoliating the 
young tree, but it is a well-known fact 
that if any plant be defoliated, the suc- 
ceeding crop of fruit will be greatly in- 
jured, and the growth damaged ior 
some time to come. Hence the neces 
sity of destroying every insect that 
preys upon the leaves, besides all 
mosses and lichens that may interfere 
with their development. 

"There are at least two practical 
methods of destroying the pecan cater- 
pillar: first, by burning off the nests. 
The best device for this purpose is a 
piece of asbestos packing, wired to a stiff 
iron rod and fastened to a long, light 
pole (a bamboo fishing-pole answers 
the purpose admirably). By dipping the 
asbestos in coal oil or crude petro- 
leum one may burn off eight or ten 
nests without redipping. The asbestos 
will last for an indefinite time, as it is 
incombustible. Where the trees are 



so tall that they cannot be reached with 
a pole, spraying must be resorted to. 
For this purpose any arsenical prepa- 
ration will answer, but the safest and 
most economical one is made from 
Paris green. 

"Caution must be used not to make 
the solution too strong, or it will burn 
the leaves. One-quarter pound to 
fifty gallons of water, which must be 
kept well stirred during the process 
so that it may be distributed evenly 
over every portion of the leaves and 
branches. 

"The following is a description of 
various insect pests: 

"The caterpillar is the larva of a 
small moth or miller spotted more or 
less with black or brown. The eggs 
are laid on the leaves early in the 
spring and a week or so later the 
worms are hatched to work well 
through the season, unless destroyed 
as suggested. 

"Another insect found working on 
the pecan and hickory east of the Mis- 
sissippi river is a small borer that cuts 
through the bark of the main trunk 
and digs a tunnel directly into the 
wood, ranging upward. It is about 
half an inch in length and looks a little 
like the borer found in peach trees, ex- 
cept that its head is not so broad and 
flat. 

"The parent is a black beetle, spotted 
and marked more or less with bright 
yellow; length about three-fourths ol 
an inch ; long feelers come out from 
either side of the head, turning back- 
ward. Scientific name, Cyllenepicta. 

"The beetle deposits its eggs upon 
the outer bark of the tree early in the 
spring, and a week or so thereafter 
finds the young borers hatched and 
cutting inward. By the fall the trans- 
formations of the insects have been 
passed, leaving the perfect beetles to 
hibernate through the winter and be 
ready for starting a new brood on the 
opening of the next spring. 

"The remedy recommended for this 
pest is to give the trunk a thorough 
spraying with an arsenical solution 
early in the spring. This will effectu- 
ally destroy the young borers ere they 



i8o 



THE PECAN. 



have more than started into the bark, 
for they eat their way in and hence 
could not avoid getting a dose of the 
poison. 

"The third insect that works upon 
the pecan, hickory, persimmon and 
other trees is a twig girdler, known to 
entomologists as Oncideres Cingula- 
tus. It is a grayish-brown beetle 
about three-fourths of an inch in 
length, arrned with long feelers, some- 
what like those of the beetles that pro- 
duce most of the tree-borers, though 
the feelers (antennae) extend more to 
the front than those of the borer 
beetles. It has a snout or bill which 
turns downward at right angles with 
its body. This mischievous insect, se- 
lecting a twig, proceeds to pierce it, 
and deposits eggs therein. These eggs 
hatch little grubs, which work along 
the pith of the twigs; but it is neces- 
sary for them to come out and go into 
the ground before they can pass 
through their transformations and be- 
come perfect beetles like the parent. 
But the parent has made provisions to 
favor all this. After depositing her 
eggs in the twig, she descends a few 
inches, and, with her bill, begins gird- 
Hng it round and round, until almost 
cut ofif, just wood enough being left to 
enable it to hang on for a short time, 
some of them remaining attached to 
the tree until the fall winds come and 
break off the twig at the point girdled. 
It drops to the earth, and the grubs 
come out, dig into the soil and under- 
go their transformation. The only 
damage done by this insect is to prune 
the tree, and sometimes it prunes 
where we would rather that no prun- 
ing had been done. It seems to do 
more damage to the common persim- 
mon than either the hickory or pecan. 
Gathering the branches already fallen, 
also removing those attached to the 
tree and burning, will destroy many of 
the young grubs. 

"The pecan has no disease that we 
know of. On several occasions we 
have heard of twig blight, and more 
than once we have traveled a consid- 
erable distance to investigate it. In- 
variably we found it springing from 



the same cause, swampy or boggy 
land. While occasional overflows of 
streams do not at all injure the pecan, 
but rather help it, permanently 
swampy or soggy locations are against 
it. The trouble shows first upon the 
slender twigs, and then we hear of 
pecan blight. 

"Immediate and thorough drainage 
is the remedy in all such cases. Cut 
deep ditches to the grove, lead ofif the 
water standing in the soil, and sub- 
soil and the trees will promptly re- 
cover. 

"The Times-Democrat may here re- 
fer to another pest which is very de- 
structive to the pecan in Southern 
Louisiana, and which infests large 
trees to the extent that it not only ren- 
ders them practically worthless for 
fruiting purposes, but eventually kills 
the tree. This is the well-known 
Spanish moss. 

"Chemical analysis shows this to be 
a true parasite, and not an air-plant, 
as supposed by many. 

"The remedy for all trees, including 
the pecan, which may become infested 
with either moss or lichens, is to spray 
thoroughly with any strong alkaline 
wash." 

In keeping with the importance of 
the industry and the standing of the 
experts whose opinions are at hand, 
the "Southern States" publishes as 
follows, letters recently received cov- 
ering the points of interest in the cul- 
ture of the pecan : 

Mr. T. V. Munson, of Denison, 
Texas, who has given much attention 
to the facts concerning pecan raising, 
and who has collected and tested the 
finest nuts from various sources and 
has for years grown trees from the best 
kinds in nursery for sale, gives the re- 
sults of his investigations in the follow- 
ing letter to the "Southern States:" 

"The largest pecan orchard in the 
world is that of F. A. Swinden, of 
Brownwood, Texas, which contains 
400 acres, set with 11,000 pecan trees 
at forty feet apart each way. The 
trees range in age from two to seven 
years, transplanted, grown from nuts 
of several of the best varieties yet 



THE PECAN. 



l8l 



found, such as the Stuart, Van De- 
man, Swinden, etc. Such varieties are 
yet scarce even for planting, and for 
that purpose command a price of fifty 
cents to $1 per pound, while the com- 
mon kinds generally gathered in the 
woods can be bought for five to ten 
cents per pound. There are other 
splendid varieties, such as the Risien, 
Gonzales, Pearl, Jumbo, etc., but these 
are yet confined to isolated, rare, wild 
trees found in various parts of Texas, 
and young trees grown from them 
not yet in bearing. 

"The typical soil for the pecan is a 
deep, dark, alluvial, well-drained soil, 
such as is found in creek and river bot- 
toms, that rarely overflow, that are 
suitable for general farming. Low, 
swampy and poor lands are unsuitable. 
The nuts should be secured from iso- 
lated trees, where the pollen of inferior 
kinds does not prevent the parent tree 
from reproducing its kind. They 
should be planted in rich loamy soil, 
in nursery rows, in the fall, and cov- 
ered two or three inches deep. The 
land should be free from moles, mice 
and especially pocket-gophers, which 
are very fond of both the nuts and the 
roots of the trees and are very destruc- 
tive to them. 

"At one year in nursery set the trees 
in permanent orchard, twenty-five feet 
apart each way, with stake to mark po- 
sition of each and to protect from 
plowmen. Cultivate the land in cot- 
ton, potatoes, melons or any other 
low-growing crop, and keep the 
ground clean about the trees. A good 
stand can be more certainly secured in 
this way than by planting nuts where 
the trees are permanently wanted, as 
weeds, gophers, mice, etc., destroy the 
nuts and young trees before they show 
themselves much above ground. 

"In six to eight years the trees will 
begin bearing. Generally, trees that 
have been transplanted will bear earlier 
than those growing permanently 
where planted, thus following the gen- 
eral law as observed among fruit trees. 
After a tree has borne once or twice 
the character of nuts that it will 
always bear is known. If not as fine 



as desired, at the next spring, just be- 
fore buds swell, top-graft to the very 
finest nuts borne by any in the planta- 
tion or that can be procured. At pres- 
ent, no stock of grafted fine kinds is 
in existence of any consequence; 
hence this advice. Trees can be pro- 
cured of a few reliable parties who 
grow for sale from the best nuts to be 
had. 

"At ten to twelve years the trees 
bear from one-half to two bushels each 
and at that amount are profitable, as 
the price of line nuts for confectioners, 
etc., will be from fifteen to twenty-five 
cents per pound. That would be $3 to 
$12 per tree. After that, the orchard 
will be good for many generations and 
more and more profitable with age. 

"At fifteen years of age, every alter- 
nate tree should be grubbed out, as 
crowding would then begin, and the 
permanent trees would be left fifty feet 
apart each way. The trees grubbed 
out will be profitable as nut bearers 
for at least ten years, and the wood is 
very valuable for fuel and all kinds of 
tool handles. 

"The land can be cropped in low 
farm crop for ten to twelve years after 
planting, after which it should go into 
permanent pasture. The land under 
the trees should be raked ofif clean each 
fall when nuts first begin to fall, and all 
live stock removed from the orchards, 
and then the gathering can best be 
done by children at a few cents per 
bushel, going over once every three to 
six days, according to rapidity of rip- 
ening, until crop is all down. 

"After gathering, the nuts should 
be spread on floors under sheds, or in 
barns, until fully cured; then should 
be entirely cleared of hulls and as- 
sorted into grades by running through 
a graduated sorter, composed of wire 
screens. Then the nuts are run 
through a polishing machine, and put 
up in boxes of different weights, with 
grade marked thereon, and then mar- 
keted by samples, put up in small mail- 
ing boxes. 

"Only those having abundant capi- 
tal and suitable land could afford to 
establish a pecan orchard of many 



l82 



THE PECAN. 



acres, but every family, with a good 
roomy yard, of good soil, might enjoy 
the luxury of one or more trees. They 
make a splendid shade-tree and give 
the children infinite fun. 

"The most disagreeable feature of 
the pecan tree as a shade-tree is that 
the tent-caterpillar is very fond of it, 
and makes it unsightly by nesting at 
the extremities of the branches. These 
nests are quickly dislodged by twisting 
into them the extremity of a long pole 
having some nails driven partially into 
it near the end to take hold of the web 
of the caterpillars. The nests with cat- 
erpillars in them are pulled down and 
held over a flame a few moments. Or 
a wad of raw cotton can be tied to the 
end of the pole, saturated with coal oil, 
lighted, and held a few moments under 
each nest, which will quickly destroy 
them and their contents without dam- 
age to the trees, if in careful hands. 

"As to theories concerning injuri- 
ous effects of cutting the tap-root of 
pecan trees, they are purely theories 
and nothing more. Often in the nur- 
sery-rows I have seen trees that had 
their tap-roots eaten quite away by 
pocket-gophers, that would send down 
several perpendicular roots, and be- 
come more vigorous than ever. Such 
trees transplant more readily than 
those with single tap-roots, and do 
equally as well or better permanently. 
The tree is in its nature prepared to 
overcome such accidents." 

One of the most spirited opponents 
of tap-root cutting is Hon. Arthur 
Brown, of Florida, quoted in the fore- 
going pages. On this subject he says: 

'T know that some do not agree with 
me regarding the "tap-root," and with 
them I agree to disagree, for I know 
that many do agree with me that the 
cutting of the tap-root injures the tree 
in so far as to lessen the chances of a 
heavy yield of nuts and prolongs the 
date of bearing; therefore I am con- 
tent to continue in this same belief 
which I have maintained for so many 
years. 

"If it is concluded to plant trees in- 
stead of seed, select only those trees 
from one to two years old, giving 



choice to the one-year-old, having 
good tap-roots, with healthy lateral 
roots. The well-known fact of short- 
ening the root to produce earlier bear- 
ing is all very well for some trees and 
plants, but will not answer for the pe- 
can tree, at least experience so teaches 
me, and I am not alone in that belief, 
and quote the following from an ar- 
ticle on pecan culture in St. Andrew's 
Buoy, which says: 'Thousands of pe- 
can trees have been transplanted from 
nurseries the past few years, the nur- 
serymen cutting off the tap-root, not 
thinking or knowing that they have 
destroyed the life of the tree as to its 
bearing value. They will grow and 
make beautiful shade trees and that is 
all. I am well aware that some differ 
with me, but our most experienced pe- 
can growers say never cut the tap-root 
of a pecan tree.' 

"In this I agree, and beheve the 
many who may differ will eventually 
regret doing so. The successful gar- 
dener will pinch off the roots of the 
cabbage plant before transplanting to 
make the plant 'head low' and thus 
avoid the long neck and small head, 
and so if we cut off the tap-root of the 
pecan w^e are aiming to have a beauti- 
ful round-headed tree that may never 
bear a nut, and if it bears at all the 
bearing age will be very slow coming 
and the yield very small at the best. 
The peach and pear tree soon give re- 
turns in fruit, and all inferior trees can 
be replaced and the planter rewarded 
for his labor; but not so with the pe- 
can — it takes from fifteen to twenty 
years to have a tree that will bear in 
paying quantities, and if a mistake is 
made at time of planting, too many 
years must roll around probably be- 
fore this mistake is discovered and too 
late to rectify the mistake; so all is lost 
from not starting right. Whether the 
planter believes that the tap-root 
should be or should not be cut before 
transplanting ought not hinder the 
planter in the least, for as it is no more 
trouble to plant the tree with the tap- 
root uncut than cut, why not take the 
safe side and plant with tap-root un- 
cut? You are most certainly then on 



THE PECAN. 



183 



the safe side. In my opinion, a one- 
year-old tree, with tap-root entire, is 
the age and kind to transplant. I do 
not say plant the nut in preference to 
the tree, for a one-year-old tree, with 
good tap-root, properly planted, will 
do just as well and be as sure of pro- 
ducing a bearing tree as one from the 
nut. In many sections, rats, squirrels, 
crows, etc., are very destructive, and 
many nuts are lost by their digging 
them up. The planter must choose for 
himself, and, of course, take all chances 
regarding the rats, etc., digging up the 
nuts, and not lay the blame all on 
'bad nuts.' I have tried many ways to 
prevent this depredation of the rats 
and squirrels, but failed in all. 

"If nuts be preferred, then by all 
means plant them where you wish the 
tree to stand and thus save much trou- 
ble. In grove form, pecan trees should 
stand not less than forty feet square, 
and will take twenty-seven trees per 
acre at that distance; but I will add 
that some of my trees nearly seventy 
years old overlap their limbs at sixty- 
five feet apart.'' 

The opinions of Mr. Herbert Post, 
of Fort Worth, Texas, are contained 
in the following letter to the ''South- 
ern States:" 

"Being of the same family as the 
hickory and black walnut, the pecan 
can be grown profitably wherever 
they grow, which means every State 
in the Union. Probably there is no 
tree so valuable in the Unit^ed States, 
of a wild growth, that can be domesti- 
cated with so much success and profit 
as the Texas thin-shell pecan. Re- 
sponding generously to cultivation, 
they will bear at six years of age and 
with profit at eight years. 

"A man living near here brought in 
some new pecans last week, and says 
he gathered two and one-half bushels 
from a tree but three years old. This 
tree had been irrigated, however. This 
is a wonderful yield, much better than 
usual, but this fact shows what they 
are capable of doing when given intel- 
ligent culture. 

"First, I will speak of what has been 
long in dispute regarding the trans- 



planting of pecan trees and cutting of 
the tap-root. Unknowingly, and with- 
out intention to deceive, nurserymen 
have cut the tap-root of the pecan, and 
told their customers that it made no 
difference as to their bearing — they 
will transplant as well as any other 
tree ; but everyone can be assured that 
when the tap-root is cut it w411 never 
grow another, and the bearing quali- 
ties of the tree are destroyed. Thous- 
ands of trees have thus been treated 
the past few years, which will brnig 
disappointment to the grower. Some 
have written me that I am mistaken, 
as they have found new tap-roots 
growing after the original had been 
cut. They are only brace-roots, or 
new feeders. The tips of the tap-root 
have offices to perform in the growth 
of the tree which can be supplied in no 
other way if the tap-root has been cut, 
and it is a waste of time and money to 
transplant a pecan tree if the roots 
have been cut. Our best growers all 
say, don't cut the tap-root, and every- 
one will find they are right. It is fool- 
ish after such costly experiments by 
others to continue the practice of cut- 
ting the tap-root, and I advise every- 
one to demand whole and uncut roots 
of the pecan tree, or refuse them. The 
pecan is a rapid grower in the ground. 
When the young tree is only eight 
inches above ground the tap-root has 
gone down two and one-half feet. 

"The cost of planting the best Texas 
thin-shell pecans will not exceed $3 
per acre; the care of them until they 
come into bearing is almost nothing. 
Cultivating the same ground on which 
they are planted soon pays all expenses 
and helps wonderfully the growth of 
the trees. 

"It has been recommended, hereto- 
fore, as best to plant the nuts where 
the trees are to stand. So many com- 
plaints have been made of losses by 
squirrels, moles and rats in the field 
that some other and better plan must 
be adopted. The following has been 
found the cheapest, safest and best 
plan for planting the pecan. Throw 
up a bed in your garden or enclosure 
near your house to the height of three 



THE PECAN. 



to four feet, placing at the sides either 
rails or plank to keep it from caving. 
Plant your pecan nuts in rows twelve 
inches apart and six inches in the row. 
Within twelve months you can trans- 
plant with safety, with roots whole and 
unbroken in this way. Where the 
trees are to remain permanently, take 
a post-hole auger and dig, say, a foot 
deeper than the length of the roots. 
When ready to transplant, remove the 
side of the bed next the outside row 
and take away the earth to full length 
of roots. Remove all the roots to the 
place prepared. Put them in carefully 
and fill with earth, well filled around 
the roots, and your work is done and 
you have started a foundation for 
wealth for your family and theirs for 
generations to come, giving you an 
annual income, at small cost, for plant- 
ing and care. 

"Every year as your grove ap- 
proaches bearing, the value of your 
land increases. English walnut lands 
in California sell from $800 to $1200 
per acre, and not long ago sixty acres 
sold at $1300 per acre. Pecan groves 
will become equally valuable, paying 
large income on such valuations. 

Dr. Chas. Mohr, a well-known bot- 
anist and grower, of Mobile, Ala., who 
•has written a number of papers on pe- 
can culture, giving the results of his 
very extensive observation and expe- 
rience, the first read before the Missis- 
sippi Valley Fruit Growers' Associa- 
tion, held in New Orleans in 1883, and 
published in the reports of the associ- 
ation, and another before the Ameri- 
can Forestry Congress at Philadel- 
phia in 1889 (republished, with addi- 
tions, in Garden and Forest, Vol. 2, p. 
569, Nov., 1889), sends a brief outline 
of his opinions as follows: 

"To obtain fruit at the earliest it is 
best to plant the seed on the spot 
where the trees are to remain. Seed 
selected for planting (best quality, of 
course) should be put away, buried in 
sand, until the latter part of winter or 
dawn of spring, when they should be 
planted in well-prepared ground, en- 
riched by well-rotted manure and de- 
composed vegetable matter. 



"If planted in a bed, the seedlings 
can be transplanted best after the first 
season, late in the fall. Care must be 
taken not to injure the tap-root and to 
preserve intact the fine lateral root- 
lets. 

"A light sandy loam, with a subsoil 
retentive of moisture, should be se- 
lected to obtain best results. 

"After seeing that the plants become 
firmly established, no other attention 
is necessary beyond occasional mulch- 
ing with litter. A moderate applica- 
tion of bonedust in the spring and of 
liquid manure slop from the kitchen, 
etc., will greatly hasten the growth. 

"Trees should be planted not less 
than fifty feet apart each way, and sixty 
feet is better. 

"Seeds do not always prove true to 
the superior qualities of the parent 
stock; hence grafting is often resorted 
to. Cultivators find the surest method 
in grafting the seedling above the neck 
of the root when not over two years 
old. 

"The trees begin to bear about eight 
or ten years from the seed. Profitable 
returns may be expected after they 
have reached the age of fifteen to 
twenty years. It can be said that un- 
der normal conditions trees will con- 
tinue to flourish luxuriantly for gener- 
ations. The attacks of the hickory 
borers, their larvae burrowing into the 
limbs of trees of full growth, are, how- 
ever, causing not rarely considerable 
injury and premature death. Another 
insect enemy is the tent caterpillar, the 
webs of which should be destroyed be- 
fore the sun is fairly up, as soon as 
they make their appearance. 

"The number of pecan groves of 
small extent is increasing in this sec- 
tion with every year."' 

Mr. O. D. Faust, of Bamberg, S. C, 
sends to the "Southern States his views 
on pecan raising, as follows: 

"The pecan, which grow'S naturally 
over a large portion of the United 
States, and is indigenous along the 
Mississippi river as far north as Illi- 
nois, is the most important of our na- 
tive nuts, and has assumed consider- 
able importance as an industry in the 



THE PECAN. 



185 



South. It is remarkable as the most 
profitable of all our nut-bearing trees. 
No man can leave a surer legacy for 
his family than a good pecan grove. 
My experience is that for a permanent 
annual income, at small cost for start- 
ing and permanently enhancing the 
value of the land, nothing excels the 
pecan. 

"There are many varieties of the pe- 
can, and it is of great importance in 
securing trees or nuts to get the best 
varieties. The pecan will do well 
wherever the hickory is found; it re- 
sembles very much the latter; it is 
very tough and hardy, and its long 
tap-root seems to render it independ- 
ent of the seasons. 

"A deep alluvial soil is what the pe- 
can needs, as it is found naturally in 
its most flourishing state in rich bot- 
tom lands. The young trees com- 
mence to fruit at seven or eight years, 
and continue to increase their stock 
every year. They constitute as hand- 
some and efficient shade-tree as any 
other, and seldom blow down. 

"Here is an opening for those who 
own only a few acres of land to plant 
trees that will, in a few years, enable 
them to supply an ever-increasing de- 
mand. There is no danger of over- 
supplying the market. There are too 
many doubting Thomases in every 
community to be any danger of plant- 
ing too many trees, and only the more 
progressive men will plant pecans and 
reap the reward. 

"There will always be a ready de- 
mand for the nuts, as few will embark 
in an enterprise that it takes so long, 
they say, to come in. There will never 
be an over-supply ; the markets of the 
world are open to us. Europe hardly 
knows what the pecan is; England, 
France, Germany, Spain and Italy 
have never seen our fine pecans, so 
that the demand will always be great 
and the prices high. 

"Almost any crop can be grown on 
the land until the trees pay enough to 
give the land up to them, and then can 
be sown to pasture. 

"Some claim that transplanted trees 
will not bear; this I think misleading. 



as most of my trees are transplanted, 
and I see no difference in the bearing 
qualities. They can be safely trans- 
planted one to two years old without 
cutting the tap-root. Some maintain 
that the transplanting of the pecan, 
while young, is advantageous, inas- 
much as it causes it to make a more 
spreading head and to come earlier 
into bearing. 

"The tendency of the pecan to pro- 
duce varieties is amply proved by the 
numberless kinds we have. The best 
way to propagate a certain kind is by 
grafting or budding. Either is much 
more difficult than the grafting of fruit 
trees. Grafted trees come earlier into 
bearing than seedlings, besides perpet- 
uating the improved kinds. My trees 
at ten years old bore thirty pounds 
of nuts, and at fifteen years the yield 
was doubled, or more than $200 per 
acre; but assuming the product is but 
half that, what other crop ofTers so 
great and so reliable a profit? An old 
gentleman five miles from my place 
has two trees, from which he sells $45 
to $50 worth of nuts. Think of what 
a grove of such trees would pay! It is 
better than life insurance or a bank ac- 
count. Indeed, in Louisiana the pecan 
industry is run as insurance. 

"On good land they should be set 
50x50 feet; on ordinary land, 42x42 
feet will do. My trees are 35x35 feet, 
and I find they are too close. They 
should be set out at one year old, on 
account of their long tap-root. Ferti- 
lize well every year. It will be bene- 
ficial to mulch the young trees with 
top earth, stable manure or any well- 
rotted compost, which keeps the 
ground cool and prevents baking by 
the summer sun. They have this pro- 
tection in the forest, and we should 
learn this lesson from nature. I would 
advise the progressive young man to 
commence now and put out a grove 
of the best paying and most reliable 
of all trees, the pecan. 

"When the old man with wintry 
locks was asked why he planted trees 
which he could never see mature, he 
replied, that some one planted trees 
for him, and he would plant for grati- 



i86 



THE PECAN. 



tude that posterity might reap the re- 
ward. Benefactors are of many 
classes, but it is doubtful if anyone 
more generally benefits the world than 
the tree planter." 

The views and experience of Mr. 
John J. Delchamps, of A'lobile, Ala., 
are outlined in the following extracts 
from a letter to the "Southern States:" 

"Were I a younger man and wished 
to make a pecan grove I should, in the 
fall or early winter, select good-sized 
thin-shell nuts; these I would stratify 
in some safe garden corner and have 
covered with an inch or two of soil ex- 
posed to the weather. In February, 
these nuts, being swollen or sprouting, 
I would plant out where the trees were 
destined to stand permanently. At a 
year or two old, the young trees might 
be grafted or budded. Cleft-grafting 
at the collar I have found an easy pro- 
cess; ring or annular budding is the 
favorite process in Europe with nut 
trees. Selection of abnormally large 
nuts for seed I would avoid, because 
my experience and observation show 
that when the highest degree of im- 
provement has been reached there is 
a great tendency to sport back, while 
seed, having attained a fairly satisfac- 
tory condition, is more likely to hold 
its own or make further progress for 
good. 

"I have known a few instances, not 
over half a dozen well authenticated, 
of pecan trees fruiting at five years of 
age; a good many at six and seven. 



All those were seedlings that had never 
been transplanted or when yearlings. 
Trees that had been root-pruned, sci- 
entifically or otherwise, or trans- 
planted when several years old, I have 
never known to make good, satisfac- 
tory growth, or to come into early 
bearing. A very young tree, one or 
two years old, may be safely risked,, 
for although the tap-root will be cut 
or shortened more or less it will throw 
out new ones, probably two or three, 
which I accept as conclusive evidence 
that nature demands it. 

"The trees should be not less than 
fifty feet, if seed is put where the trees 
are to grow, or even if yearlings are 
so planted; if large ones are trans- 
planted, which will seldom, if ever, de- 
velop into large, healthy and symmet- 
rical ones, thirty feet will do. 

"The pecan, like all its congeners of 
the carya family, adapts itself to a 
great variety of soils and conditions. 
It succeeds best on alluvial lands, not 
too dry nor too wet. Manure or other 
fertilizer it does not seem to need or 
call for urgently; oyster shells, bone- 
dust, may be suggested as probably 
very good and productive of heavy 
yield. For a few years, the orchard 
may well be utilized for planting po- 
tatoes, cabbage, turnips or other like 
truck. After a few years, the grove 
can be utilized as a pasture for small 
cattle, and when the trees have at- 
tained a size putting them beyond 
risk of injury for larger ones." 



THE CAUSE AND PREVENTION OF PEAR BLIGHT 



The growers of pears in the Gulf 
States have lost millions of dollars in 
the last few years by the ravages of the 
mysterious malady known as blight. 
Until the orchards were attacked by 
blight, the growing of Le Conte and 
Keilifer pears in South Georgia, West- 
ern Florida, South Alabama and else- 
where in the Gulf coast region was one 
of the most certain and profitable of 
agricultural pursuits. Horticulturists 
have been wholly at sea as to the cause 
and cure of this disease. Investigation 
and experiments have failed to dis- 
close the origin of it or discover a 
remedy for it. It is said now, how- 
ever, that the Agricultural Depart- 
ment at Washington, after the most 
careful' and thorough investigation, 
extending over a period of several 
years, has finally discovered the cause 
of the disease and has found that it can 
be prevented and cured. 

The following article on the subject 
is one of the most important and valu- 
able of recent contributions to horti- 
cultural literature. It is taken from 
the recently published "Yearbook of 
the United States Department of Ag- 
riculture'' for 1895, and Avas written 
by M. B. Waite, of the Division of 
Vegetable Physiology and Pathology : 

"There is probably no disease of fruit 
trees so thoroughly destructive as pear 
blight, or fire bhght, which attacks 
pears, apples and other pomaceous 
fruits. Some diseases may be more 
regular in their annual appearance, 
and more persistent in their attacks 
on the fruits mentioned, but when it 
does appear pear blight heads the list 
of disastrous maladies. Again, no dis- 
ease has so completely baffled all at- 
tempts to find a satisfactory remedy, 
and, notwithstanding the great prog- 
ress made within the last ten years in 
the treatment of plant diseases by 
spraying and otherwise, pear blight 



has untd recently continued its depre- 
dations unchecked. It is now known, 
however, that the disease can be 
checked by simply cutting out the af- 
fected parts. This was one of the first 
methods tried in endeavoring to com- 
bat the disease, but came to be gener- 
ally regarded as worthless. The rem- 
edy which will be discussed in this 
paper is, in a general way, so similar 
to the old one that at first it may be 
diiificult to see that anything new has 
been discovered. In the process now 
proposed, however, there are three vi- 
tal improvements, namely, the thor- 
oughness and completeness with 
which the work is carried out, the time 
when the cutting should be done, and 
a thorough knowledge of the disease 
so as to know how to cut. 

"The method of holding the blight in 
check was discovered through a care- 
ful scientific investigation of the life 
history of the microbe which causes it. 
The investigations were carried on in 
the field and laboratory, and extended 
over several years. In the short ac- 
count which follows no attempt will be 
made to enter into the details of the 
work, nor to introduce all the evi- 
dence to prove the various statements, 
but simply to give such points as will 
enable the reader to intelligently carry 
out the method advocated. 

Vn'hat i.s pear blight? 

"Pear blight may be defined as a 
contagious bacterial disease of the pear 
and allied fruit trees. It attacks and 
rapidly kills the blossoms, young fruits 
and new twig growth, and runs down 
in the living bark to the larger limbs 
and thence to the trunk. While the 
bacteria themselves rarely kill the 
leaves, at most only occasionally at- 
tacking the stems and midribs of the 
youngest ones, all the foliage on the 
blisfhted branches must of course even- 



187 



THE CAUSE AND PREVENTION OF PEAR BLIGHT. 



tually die. The leaves usually succumb 
in from one to two weeks after the 
branch on which they grow is killed, 
but remain attached, and are the most 
striking and prominent feature of the 
disease. 

"The most important parts of the 
tree killed by the blight are the inner 
bark and cambium layer of the limbs 
and trunk. Of course, when the bark 
of a limb is killed, the whole limb soon 
dies, but where the limb is simply gird- 
led by the disease, it may send out 
leaves again the next season and then 
die. All parts of the tree below the 
point reached by the blig'ht are 
healthy, no more injury resulting to 
the unafifected parts of the tree than if 
the blighted parts had been killed by 
fire or girdling. 

"Blight varies greatly in severity 
and in the manner in which it attacks 
the tree. Sometimes it attacks only 
the blossom clusters, or perhaps only 
the young tips of the growing twigs; 
sometimes it runs down on the main 
branches and trunk, and again it ex- 
tends down only a few inches from the 
point of attack. The sudden collapse 
of the foliage on blighted branches 
has led many to believe that the dis- 
ease progresses more rapidly than it 
really does. It rarely extends farther 
than two or three inches from the 
point of attack in one day, but occa- 
sionally readhes as much as one foot. 

"It is an easy matter to determine 
when the disease has expended itself 
on any limb or tree. When it is still 
progressing, the discolored, blighted 
portion blends ofif gradually into the 
normal bark, but when it has stopped 
there is a sharp line of demarcation be- 
tween the diseased and healthy por- 
tions. 

CAUSE OP THE DISEASE. 

"Pear blight is caused by a very mi- 
nute microbe of the class bacteria. 
This microbe was discovered by Prof. 
T. J. Burrill, in 1879, and is known to 
science as Bacillus amylovorus. The 
following are the principal proofs that 
it causes the disease: (i) The microbes 
are found in immense numbers in 
freshly blighted twigs; (2) they can be 
taken from an afifected tree and culti- 



vated in pure cultures, and in this way 
can be kept for months at a time; (3) 
by inoculating a suitable healthy tree 
with these cultures the disease is pro- 
duced; (4) in a tree so inoculated the 
microbes are again found in abund- 
ance. 

LIFE HISTORY OF THE MICROBE. 

"Blight first appears in sprmg on 
the blossoms. About the time the tree 
is going out of blossom certain flower 
clusters turn black and dry up as if 
killed by frost. This blighting of blos- 
soms, or blossom blight, as it is called, 
is one of the most serious features of 
pear blight. One of the most remark- 
able things about this disease is the 
rapidity with which it spreads throug'h 
an orchard at blooming time. This 
peculiarity has thrown much light on 
the way the microbes travel about, 
which they do quite readily, notwith- 
standing the fact that they are sur- 
rounded and held together and to the 
tree by sticky and gummy substances. 
They are able to live and multiply in 
the nectar of the blossoms, from whence 
they are carried away by bees and 
other insects, which visit the blossoms 
in great numbers for the honey and 
pollen. If a few very early blossom-s 
are afifected, the insects will scatter the 
disease from flower to flower and from 
tree to tree until it becomes an epi- 
demic in the orchard. We shall see 
later how the first blossoms are in- 
fected. From the blossoms the dis- 
ease may extend downward into the 
branches or run in from lateral fruit 
spurs so as to do a large amount of 
damage by girdling the limbs. An- 
other way in which the blight gains 
entrance is through the tips of growing 
shoots. In the nursery, when trees 
are not flowering, this is the usual 
mode of infection. This is often called 
twig blight, a good term to distinguish 
it from blossom blight, provided it is 
understood that they are simply diff- 
erent modes of attack of the same dis- 
ease. 

CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE DISEASE. 

"The severity of the attacks, that is, 
the distance which the blight extends 
down the branches, depends on a num- 



THE CAUSE AND PREVENTION OF PEAR BLIGHT. li 



ber of different conditions, some of 
whic'h are under the control of the 
grower. It is well known, however, 
that the pear and quince are usually 
attacked oftener than the apple. Some 
varieties of pears, like Duchess and 
Keiffer, resist the disease much better 
than others, such as Bartlett and 
Clapps Favorite. It may be stated in a 
general way that the trees most se- 
verely injured by blight are those 
which are healthy, vigorous, well cul- 
tivated and well fed, or, in other words, 
those that are making rapid growth of 
new, soft tissues. Climatic conditions 
greatly influence the disease, warm 
and moist weather, with frequent 
showers, favoring it; dry, cool and 
sunny weather hindering it, and verv 
dry weather soon checking it entirely. 

"The pear-blight microbe is a very 
delicate organism and cannot with- 
stand drying for any length of time. 
In the blighted twigs exposed to ordi- 
nary weather it dries out in a week or 
two and dies. It causes the greater 
part of the damage in the month or 
two following blossom time, but twig 
blight may be prevalent at any time 
through the summer when new growth 
is coming out. In the nursery, severe 
attacks often occur through the sum- 
mer. In the majority of cases, how- 
ever, the disease stops by the close of 
the growing season. At that time the 
line of separation between the live and 
dead wood is quite marked, and prob- 
ably not one case in several hundred 
would be found where the diseased 
wood blends off into the healthy parts 
and the blight is still in active prog- 
ress. In the old, dried bark, where the 
disease has stopped, the microbes have 
all died and disappeared. 

"It has been claimed that the blight 
microbe lives over winter in the soil, 
and for a long time the writer sup- 
posed this to be the case, but after care- 
ful investigation the idea was aban- 
doned, for in no instance could it be 
found there. Unless the microbes keep 
on multiplying and extending in the 
trees, they soon die out. This is a very 
important point, but it affords oppor- 
tunity to strike the enemy at a disad- 
vantage. In certain cases the iDligfht 



keeps up a sort of slow battle with the 
trees through the summer, so that at 
the close of the season, when the tree 
goes into a dormant condition, active 
blight is still at work in it. This is also 
true of late summer and autumn infec- 
tions. In these cases the blight usu- 
ally continues through the winter. The 
germs keep alive along the advancing 
margin of the blighted area, and al- 
though their development is very slow, 
it is continuous. Probably the indi- 
vidual microbes live longer in winter. 
At any rate, the infected bark retains 
its moisture longer, and generally the 
dead bark contains living microbes 
during a much longer period than it 
does in summer. It has already been 
found that this microbe stands the cold 
well. Even when grown in broth in a 
warm room they may be frozen or 
placed in a temperature of o° F. and 
not suffer. 

" vVhen ri3ot pressure begins in early 
spring the trees are gorged with sap. 
Under these favorable conditions the 
microbes which have lived over win- 
ter start anew and extend into new 
bark. The new blight Which has de- 
veloped in winter and spring is easily 
recognized by the moist and fresh ap- 
pearance of the bhghted bark, as con- 
trasted with the old, dead and dry bark 
of the previous summer. The warm 
and moist weather which usually 
brings out the blossoms is particularly 
favorable to the development of the 
disease. At fhis time it spreads rap- 
idly, and the gum is exuded copiously 
from various points in the bark and 
runs down the tree in a long line. 
Bees, wasps and flies are attracted to 
this gum, and undoubtedly carry the 
microbes to the blossoms. From 
these first flowers it is carried to 
others, and so on till the blossoms are 
all killed or until the close of the 
blooming period. Even after the 
blooming period it is almost certain 
that insects accidentally carrv the 
blight to the young tips and so are in- 
strumental in causing twig blight also. 
The key to the whole situation is found 
in those cases of active blight (com- 
paratively few) which hold over win- 
ter. If thev can be found and de- 



igo THE CAUSE AND PREVENTION OF PEAR BLIGHT 



stroyed, the pear-blight question will 
be solved, for the reason that without 
the microbes there can be no blig'ht, 
no matter how favorable the condi- 
tions may be for it; to use a common 
expression, there will be none left for 
seed. 

TUEATMEXT FOlt PEAK BLIGHT. 

"The treatment for pear blight may 
be classed under two general heads: 
(i) Methods which aim to put the tree 
in a condition to resist blight or to ren- 
der it less liable to the disease; and 
(2) methods for exterminating the mi- 
crobe itself, which is of first import- 
ance, for if carried out fully there can 
be no blight. The methods under the 
first head must unfortunately be di- 
rected more or less to checking the 
growth of the tree, and therefore are 
undesirable except in cases where it is 
thought that the blig'ht will eventually 
get beyond control in the orchard. 
Lender the head of cultural methods 
which favor or hinder pear blight, as 
the case may be, the following are the 
most important : 

"Pruning. — Pruning in winter time, 
or When the tree is dormant, tends to 
make it grow and form a great deal of 
new wood, and on that account it fa- 
vors pear blight. Withholding the 
pruning knife, therefore, may not 
otherwise be best for the tree, but it 
will reduce to some extent its ten- 
dency to blight. 

"Fertilizing. — -The better a tree is 
fed the worse it will fare when attacked 
by blight. Trees highly manured with 
barnyard manures and other nitroge- 
nous fertilizers are especially liable to 
the disease.. Over-stimulation with 
fertihzers is to be avoided, especially 
if the soil is already well supplied. 

"Cultivation. — The same remarks 
apply here as in the case of fertilizing. 
A well-cultivated tree is more inclined 
to blight than one growing on sod or 
untilled land, although the latter often 
do blight badly. Generally good til- 
lage every year is necessary for the 
full development of the pear and 
(luince trees, and is more or less so for 
tlie apple in many parts of the country, 
but the thrift that makes a tree bear 
good fruit also makes it susceptible to 



blight. Check the tree by withholding 
tillage, so that it makes a short growth 
and bears small fruit, and it will be in a 
better condition to withstand the 
bhght than it would were it cultivated. 
In cases where thrifty orchards are at- 
tacked by blight and threatened with 
destruction, it may often be desirable 
to plow them once in the spring and 
harrow soon after the plowing, to plow 
them only, or to entirely withhold cul- 
tivation for a year, mowing the weeds 
and grass or pasturing with sheep. A 
good way is to plow the middle of the 
space between the rows, leaving half 
the ground untouched. 

"Irrigation. — In irrigated orchards 
the grower has the advantage of hav- 
ing control of the water supply. When 
such orchards are attacked, the proper 
thing to do is to withhold the water 
supply or reduce it to the minimum. 
Only enough should be supplied to 
keep the leaves green and the wood 
from shriveling. 

"Extermination of the Blight Mi- 
crobe. — We now come to the only 
really satisfactory method of control- 
ling pear blight — that is, exterminat- 
ing the microbe, which causes it, by 
cutting out and burning every particle 
of blight when the trees are dormant. 
Not a single case of active blight 
should be allowed to survive the win- 
ter in the orchard or within a half mile 
or so from it. Every tree of the pome 
family, including the apple, pear, 
quince, Siberian crab apple, wild crab 
apple, the mountain ash, service berry, 
and all the species of Crataegus, or 
hawthorns, should be examined for 
this purpose, the blight being the 
same in all. The orchardist should not 
stop short of absolute destruction of 
every case, for a few overlooked mav 
go a long way toward undoing all his 
work. Cutting out the blight may be 
done at any time in the winter or 
spring up to the period when growth 
begins. The best time, however, is 
undoubtedly in the fall, when the foli- 
age is still on the trees and the contrast 
between that on the blighted and that 
on the healthy limbs is so great that it 
is an easy matter to find all the blight. 
It is important to cut out blight when- 



THE CAUSE AND PREVENTION OF PEAR BLIGHT. 191 



ever it is found, even in the growing 
season. At that time of year, how- 
ever, it cannot be hoped to make much 
headway against the disease, as new 
cases constantly occur which are not 
sufficiently developed to be seen when 
the cutting is done. In orchards 
where there are only a few trees, and 
the owner has sufficient time to go 
over them daily, he will be able to save 
some which would otherwise be lost. 
However, when the trees stop forming 
new wood, the campaign should begin 
in earnest. 

"Of course, the greater part of the 
blight can be taken out the first time 
the trees are gone over. If this be in 
midsummer, the trees should all be 
again carefully inspected in the au- 
tumn, just before the leaves s'hed, so as 
to get every case that can be seen at 
that time. After this a careful watch 
should be kept on the trees, and at 
least one more careful inspection given 
in spring before the blossoms open. 
It would doubtless be well to look the 
trees over several times during the 
winter to be certain that the blight is 
completely exterminated. In order to 



do the inspecting thoroughly, it is nec- 
essary to go from tree to tree down 
the row, or, in the case of large trees, 
to walk up one side of the row and 
down the other, as in simply walking 
through the orchard it is impossible 
to be certain that every case of blight 
has been cut out. 

"The above line of treatment will be 
even more efihcacious in keeping un- 
affected orchards free from the blight. 
A careful inspection of all pomaceous 
trees should be made two or three 
times during the summer and a sharp 
lookout kept for the first appearance 
of the blight. It usually takes two or 
three years for the disease in an or- 
chard to develop into a serious epi- 
demic, but the early removal c he 
first cases will prevent this and -e 
a great deal of labor later and ma.iv 
valuable trees. 

"In doing this work it must be re- 
membered that success can be ob- 
tained only by the most careful and 
rigid attention to details. Watch and 
study the trees, and there is no ques- 
tion that the time thus spent will be 
amply repaid." 



THE SOUTHERN PEOPLE. 



The inhabitants of the Southern 
States have long had a reputation for 
courtesy, hospitahty and pleasant de- 
meanor These qualities have come to 
them to a great extent in a hereditary 
way, the original settlers of Virginia 
and the Carolinas, to say nothing of 
the vast area of Louisiana, being of 
gentle stock and comparatively free 
from the coarse, brusque qualities 
generally possessed by the hardy set- 
tlers of a strange and hostile country. 

Undoubtedly, in contending with 
the grave vicissitudes of colonization, 
gentle birth and courtly manners were 
scarcely a valuable stock in trade, their 
usefulness being probably confined to 
the more enlightened enjoyment of 
those precarious moments when a mer- 
ciful Providence gave them a short re- 
spite from the attacks of the Lidians 
and the struggle against poor crops. 
That their accomplishments were an 
actual handicap was plainly evidenced, 
particularly in the Virginia colony, 
where a previous condition of wealth 
and idleness made the colonists so re- 
luctant to undergo the heavy toil re- 
quired that Capt. John Smith had to 
promulgate his famous rule that he 
who did not work should not eat. This 
Virginia colony fell far behind the 
others, required constant assistance 
to save it from destruction, and was 
finally built up only after determined 
and repeated efforts. 

The infusion of knightly blood, 
however, was destined to bear a very 
valuable and agreeable fruit. When 
the keen edge of adversity had worn 
away and opportunities occurred for 
the exercise of those graces and vir- 
tues which go so far towards making 
this world a habitable place, the forms 
and ceremonies, the good-fellowship, 
the hospitality, the politeness, the gen- 
erosity, which had been fostered orig- 
inally in the higher circles of Europe 



sprang forth from beneath the cover- 
ing cast over them by toil and trouble 
and made these once despised settle- 
ments the home of an enhghtenment 
and refinement which had not its equal 
elsewhere on the American continent. 
We witness in the South today the 
result of all this, and it is now proving 
a most valuable factor in the advance- 
ment of this section. People \yho 
come here from elsewhere find them- 
selves among congenial friends, 
among people who, while their tradi- 
tions, customs and habits are perhaps 
slig^htly different, are disposed to look 
with courteous toleration on the meth- 
ods of their new neighbors, and who 
are too kindly by nature and too po- 
lite by breeding to interfere with or 
object to their idiosyncracies. While 
this may seem a small matter on casual 
reference, it is in reality something of 
great and vital importance. Nothing, 
in actual practice, so annoys a man as 
rude criticism and intermeddling on 
the part of his neighbors. Nothing so 
soon disgusts him, nothing so soon 
impels him to move away, as this. 
Bad crops, sickness, overflows, almost 
any natural calamities, are less disas- 
trous in their ultimate results. 
Give him, under whatever adver- 
sity may fall upon him, a help- 
ing hand, a kind word and an abund- 
ance of honest sympathy, and he will 
cling to a locality through a vast 
amount of misfortune; but encircle 
him with a crowd of nagging, fault- 
fnding, discourteous neighbors, and 
the fairest field becomes a desert and 
the brightest sky a cloud. The people 
of the South have, therefore, in their 
hereditary courtesy a powerful assist- 
ant in their attempt to build up their 
country and fill it with desirable and 
industrious immigrants. The natural 
inclination to be hospitable and to 
lend a helping hand is a tower of 



THE SOUTHERN PEOPLE. 



193 



strength. It makes friends for them, 
it popularizes them, and, incidentally, 
it enriches them. The hardships to 
which a gentle lineage subjected their 
ancestors on the shores of a savage 
and inhospitable country are being 
repaid today in the great influx of cap- 
ital and labor that is coming among 
tliem, and which, after it has settled, is 
glad it came, and is by no means in- 
clined to move away again. To the 
natural advantages of their section 
they add all this. It is a possession of 
priceless value. Let the Southern 
people keep up this reputation which 
they have won almost without a strug- 
gle, because, aside from its practical 
value, it is a sacred and beautiful thing. 
Undoubtedly as the old stock dies out 
and is replaced by newcomers there 
will be a slight tendency to forget the 
quaint, old-fashioned courtesy of 
years gone by. The struggle for ex- 
istence today doesn't harmonize with 
it well. It takes too much time to be 
polite. It takes too much time to see 
that some fellow whom we never met 
before enjoys himself thoroughly 
while he is with us. What nonsense 
this is! There is no way in which the 
people, and particularly the people of 
the South who are askine for immi- 



grants to build up their waste places, 
can more profitably employ their time 
than in exercising the courtesy in 
vogue half a century ago, with all its 
old-fashioned frills left on it. Years 
should not destroy it; new conditions 
should not change it. It must be an 
instinctive trait that should crop out 
on every occasion, and it will be one of 
the grandest advertisements of a sec- 
tion already crammed with a plethora 
of good things. A substantial, self- 
reliant people never sacrifice their 
long-established virtues to the whirli- 
gig of time ; and in this case both sen- 
timent and material prosperity call for 
their preservation. Let the people of 
the South, therefore, newcomers as 
well as old residents, unite to foster 
and perpetuate those noble and hon- 
orable customs of hospitality, gener- 
osity and honor which are theirs by 
inalienable heritage and tradition. It 
is hard to build up a reputation, but 
here is one ready to their hands and 
which it will be scarcely more than a 
labor of love to maintain. There will 
be pleasure in it, and it will comport 
well with our own fin de siecle ideas, 
inasmuch as there will be profit in it 
too. 




THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



THE 

Southern States. 

AN ILLUSTRATCD MONTHLY MAGAZINh. 
DEVOTED TO THE SOUTH. 

Published by the 

Manufacturers' Record Publishing Co. 

Manufacturers' Record Building, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

SUBSCRIPTION, - - - $1.50 a Year. 

WILLIAM H. EDMONDS, 

Editor and Manager. 

BALTIMORE, JULY, 1896. 

The SOUTHERN STATES is an exponent of the 
Immigration and Real Estate Interests and 
general advancement of the South, and a journal 
of accurate and comprehensive information 
about Southern resources and progress. 

Its purpose is to set forth accurately and 
conservatively from month to month the reasons 
why the South is, for the farmer, the settler, the 
home seeker, the investor, incomparably the 
most attractive section of this country. 



A Disaster That Has Wrought Blessings. 

An old familiar hymn says that "Misfor- 
tunes, though they seem severe," are often 
mercifully sent for man's benefit. Very 
many of the people of the Florida peninsula 
have had an experience that will justify 
them in accepting the truth of this saying, 
for when the unexpected and unprecedent- 
ed frosts of 1894 blasted their orange groves 
they thought the misfortune was irrepar- 
able. But most of them were plucky Am- 
ericans, and, soon recovering from the ef- 
fects of the shock, they began to bestir 
themselves and to utilize their lands for 
other purposes. It was wonderful how 
speedily they began to recover from their 
losses. Now, says the Florida Times- 
Union, new orange groves are in a thriving 
condition, and it is a safe prediction that 



the crop of 1896 will surpass by many thou- 
sand boxes the estimate of yield made after 
the destruction of 1894. Nor is this all. 
There has been a great diversity of crops 
introduced in consequence of that disaster, 
and while Florida will again be noted as 
foremost of the citrus producers, she will 
be famous also for many other products 
that will enrich her people. On Thursday, 
June 18, 1000 crates of pineapples were 
shipped from Jacksonville to the North by 
the Clyde Line; and this was but one of a 
number of considerable shipments that 
have been made this season. In fact, says 
the Times-Union, the pineapple cultivation 
of the East coast is assuming such propor- 
tions that it will soon assume the first rank 
of Florida industries, and this is but a fore- 
runner of the marvelous growth of the 
peninsular section. 

What has wrought this wondrous 
change? The climate and soil were there 
when the Spanish adventurers first landed 
on that coast. They have been there 
through all the years that Florida has been 
a commonwealth of the United States. Yet 
it is only within a few years that the State 
has begun to show its superb possibilities 
as a producer of a great variety of tropical 
fruits. The Times-Union explains the 
seeming miracle by saying: "Hard work, 
intelligent effort and unflagging persever- 
ance were all necessary to retrieve the losses 
occasioned by the disaster to the fruit in- 
dustry, but this spirit has been shown to a 
noble extent, and the lesson of experience 
taught by that unexpected and undreamed 
of calamity will doubtless prove, in the end, 
one of incalculable profit to the Florida 
farmer.'' 

There is a valuable suggestion in the 



EDITORIAL. 



195 



foregoing to the many at the North who 
were looking longingly toward Florida as 
their future home and making their plans 
to go there at an early day up to the time 
that they read of the heavy frost and the 
destroyed orange groves. Then they aban- 
doned their intentions, mistakingly think- 
ing that Florida was no place for them. 
But the calamity that opened the way for a 
greater diversity of products than Florida 
ever sent to market before it occurred has 
proved that there is no part of our country 
in which the industrious and thrifty tiller 
of the soil can so quickly recover from the 
effects of a crop disaster, nor is there one 
superior to it for that diversity of products 
that will enable the intelligent cultivator 
to market at a handsome profit a goodly 
percentage of his many annual crops. The 
Florida orange grower and his brother 
farmers have been taught the truth of the 
old adage, that it is not wise to put all one's 
eggs in a single basket, and they are apply- 
ing that truth so practically that from one 
year's end to another they will always have 
something to sell that people elsewhere will 
be glad to buy and pay for liberally. 

Genuine Thrift. 

When a Southern man, for example, in- 
quires how it is that the Yankees have, with 
some inferior conditions, continued to be- 
come so rich, the answer generally is that 
they are not lazy. There are economic 
reasons why much wealth has been con- 
centrated at the East and partly at the 
West, as well as legislative causes; but it is 
true that the keen, money-making Yankee 
is not only alert and ingenious, but he is 
also saving. In Phil. Armour's big slaugh- 
ter-houses in Chicago and elsewhere he is 
said to utilize every part of the animal but 
the squeal. Indeed, we once heard that a 
Yankee was figuring on the squeal or 
breath. Now, the tendency southward has 
been hitherto to waste instead of salvage. 
It is not so very long ago that Louisiana 



planters used to dump molasses of an in- 
ferior grade into the river. Now, it is uti- 
lized as one of the best materials for fatten- 
ing stock of all kinds. The truck farmers 
around Norfolk should learn lessons of 
thrift. They are said to be operating on a 
very unwise plan. A correspondent of the 
Country Gentleman says: 

"A great majority of our truck farmers 
are now buying hay for their farm horses 
at $16 to $18 per ton. And yet there is not 
a man of them but from an acre of his truck 
land can raise from three to five tons of 
orchard grass, timothy and clover each 
year. The great trouble is right here: We 
are growing too much truck — too many 
vegetables. We buy Western hay at $18 
per ton and glut all the Northern and East- 
ern markets with cabbages. We buy ma- 
nure in sack (fertilizers), buy butter in tubs, 
and yet we have hundreds of thousands of 
acres of good stock lands lying idle. 

"We can make the manure and the milk 
and the butter consumed here. The other 
day a gentleman asked me to tell him where 
he could get some good cream, say two gal- 
lons per day at the start, and to run up to 
ten gallons per day later on. It could not 
be found here, not even at $1 to $1.25 per 
gallon. The land is here, the climate is 
here, the market is here, but the cows and 
the cow farmers are not here." 

The very statement of this case should 
bring a swift remedy. If some farmers 
would reduce truck acreage just enough to 
save in hay and pay some attention to but- 
ter and milk production, as well as other 
necessaries that could be raised at home, 
the example might become epidemical. It 
is said that a hotel-keeper at Norfolk grew 
rich because his large family, along with 
himself, did most of the work and kept the 
money at home. If the truck farmers 
around Norfolk will stop leaks — calculate 
on all but the squeal — and become as fa- 
mous for thrift as they are for truck, thou- 
sands and, in time, millions of dollars will 
be saved. 

A farmer who raises only such products 
as he can sell, and buys foodstuffs for his 



196 



EDITORIAL. 



family and his stock, is recklessly un- 
thrifty. The cotton planters pursued that 
policy until confronted by ruin as a result 
of it. They are now in large part growing 
other things to live on and raising cotton 
as a surplus. The rice growers of South- 
west Louisiana expended all their efifort 
upon rice, and paid cash for imported food 
supplies. As a consequence a temporary 
collapse of the rice market brought disas- 
ter upon them. They are now beginning to 
raise stock and poultry and such products 
of the farm, garden and orchard, as will fur- 
nish food the year round. Following this 
course, they cannot seriously suffer even if 
there shall be occasional bad years for 
rice. The Florida orange growers thought 
they could afford to raise only oranges and 
buy everything else. When the orange crop 
and the orange trees were killed, there was 
nothing else to fall back upon. The one 
only source of revenue had been destroyed, 
and there was want and suffering and pov- 
erty that might have been averted by a 
thrifty diversification of crops. The lesson 
has been learned now, and Florida fruit 
growers will not again rely upon any single 
product, and will not again pursue the fatal 
policy of paying out money for food sup- 
plies that they can raise themselves. 

The Virginia truck farmers need to learn 
that a farmer's business primarily is to 
make his farm supply as nearly as possible 
all his material wants. Only when he has 
done this can he safely and properly indulge 
in the speculation involved in raising mar- 
ket crops. There will be years when the 
grower of any single money crop, whether 
it be cotton or wheat or tobacco or rice or 
vegetables or fruits, would be better ofif by 
giving all his time and attention and capital 
to the one crop and buying everything else 
he might need; but these are exceptional 
periods, and in the long run such a course 
brings inevitable loss and disaster. 



Col. Killebrew's Work. 

We publish elsewhere an article from a 
Michigan paper in which are given some in- 
teresting facts about the work that Col. 
J. B. Killebrew is doing in that section in 
behalf of immigration to the South. If the 
immigration interests of all the Southern 
States were represented as ably, intelligent- 
ly, judiciously and energetically as Colonel 
Killebrew is representing Tennessee, the 
volume of agricultural population moving 
southward would be much greater than it 
is. Colonel Killebrew is a man of scholarly 
attainments, and brings to his work a gen- 
eral knowledge of economic subjects and 
a broad comprehension of the questions af- 
fecting movements of population; he is sci- 
entifically and practically skilled in agricul- 
ture, and can therefore discuss intelligently 
any agricultural pursuit; he served for a 
time as Commissioner of Agriculture for 
Tennessee, and has had, therefore, unusual 
opportunities for acquiring a thorough fa- 
miliarity with every part of the State; he is 
not interested in any way in the sale of 
lands, and is, for that reason, the better 
able to get the confidence of those with 
whom he talks; he is conservative, is careful 
and exact in all his statements, and those 
whom he induces to move South never find 
the conditions less favorable than he has 
represented them to be; he is a close ob- 
server, a man of tact and sound judgment, 
a courteous gentleman and a ready, enter- 
taining and convincing public speaker. 
With these qualities, supplemented by hard 
work, it is not surprising that he is accom- 
plishing large results in promoting the 
removal of the better class of farmers from 
the Northwest to Tennessee. 

Yearbook of the Department of AgricuN 
ture for 1895. 

The Yearbook for 1895 is now ready for 
distribution. The 656 pages of the Year- 
book contain (i) a general report of the op- 
erations of the Department; (2) a series of 



EDITORIAL. 



197 



papers prepared in the different bureaus 
and divisions of the Department, or by ex- 
perts specially engaged, and designed to 
present in popular form results of investi- 
gations in agricultural science or new de- 
velopments in farm practice. These are 
illustrated by ten full-page plates and 134 
text figures; (3) an appendix of 104 pages, 
containing miscellaneous information and 
agricultural statistics compiled down to 
the latest available date, relative to the pro- 
duction, values, per capita consumption, 
exportation and importation of farm prod- 
ucts; (4) an index of thirty pages. 

For the information of horticulturists, 
dairymen and farmers generally, the follow- 
ing table of contents is quoted: 

"Report of the Secretary;" "Soil Fer- 
ments Important in Agriculture; Origin, 
Value and Reclamation of Alkali Lands;" 
"Reasons for Cultivating the Soil;" "Hu- 
mus in its Relation to Soil Fertility;" 
"Frosts and Freezes as Afifecting Cultivated 
Plants;" "The Two Freezes of 1894-95 in 
Florida, and What They Teach;" "Testing 
Seeds at Home;" "Oil-Producing Seeds;" 
"Some Additions to our Vegetable Diet- 
ary;" "Hemp Culture;" "Canadian Field 



Peas;" "Irrigation for the Garden and 
Greenhouse;" "The Health of Plants in 
Greenhouses;" "Principles of Pruning and 
Care of Wounds in Woody Plants;" "The 
Pineapple Industry in the United States;" 
"Small-Fruit Culture for Market;" "The 
Cause and Prevention of Pear Blight;" 
"Grass Gardens;" "Forage Conditions of 
the Prairie Regions;" "Grasses of Salt 
Marshes;" "The Relation of Forests to 
Farms;" "Tree Planting in the Western 
Plains;" "The Shade-Tree Insect Prob- 
lem in the Eastern United States;" "The 
Principal Insect Enemies of the Grape;" 
"Four Common Birds of the Farm and 
Garden;" "The Meadow Lark and Balti- 
more Oriole;" "Inefficiency of Milk Sep- 
arators in Removing Bacteria;" "Butter 
Substitutes;" "The Manufacture and Con- 
sumption of Cheese;" "Climate, Soil, Char- 
acteristics and Irrigation Methods of Cali- 
fornia;" "Co-operative Road Construc- 
tion;" "A Pioneer in Agricultural Science;" 
"Work of the Department of Agriculture 
as Illustrated at the Atlanta Exposition." 
Persons wishing a copy of the Yearbook 
should apply to their Congressmen. 



Immigration Notes. 



Col. J B. Killebrew in Michigan. 

Col. J. B. Killebrew is making a vigorous 
canvas in Michigan for Tennessee. He 
spoke to a large audience at Riverdale on 
the nth, to another large audience at Sum- 
ner on the I2th, and on Saturday evening 
he spoke at the District No. 8 school build- 
ing to a house densely packed with the 
most intelligent farmers in this county. 
There were scores of people who could not 
gain admittance to the house and stood at 
the windows to hear his speech. 

Colonel Killebrew gave a graphic account 
of the State of Tennessee, the topographical 
features, its soils, climate, crops, social con- 
ditions and the opportunities and advan- 
tages which it offers to industrious and en- 
ergetic men. He stated that his purpose 
was not to make anyone dissatisfied with 
Michigan, for, as he expressed it, "a man 
always does best where he is contented." 
But if there are any who wish to emigrate, 
he desired to invite them to Tennessee — a 
State not surpassed in natural resources, 
aptitudes and capabilities by any other in 
the Union. He spoke of the disadvantages 
as well as the advantages of the State. He 
said the public schools and roads were not 
so good in the country as they should be, 
but a denser population would soon cure 
these evils. He stated that he had been 
sent North by the president of the Nash- 
ville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Railway to 
tell the whole truth to the people, and that 
he believed President Thomas would dis- 
pense with his services if he should make 
any statement that would be misleading or 
deceptive, or that could not be verified. 

Among the many things he spoke of was 
the proposed centennial exposition, which 



will open YLay i, 1897, and continue six 
months. This exposition promises to be 
the most beautiful in design and the most 
attractive to Northern visitors of any ever 
held in America. The grounds will be skill- 
fully and artisticaally embellished by every 
flower that grows in the Southern land. 
Every resource of the country will be illus- 
trated and every attraction provided to in- 
terest, entertain and instruct those who 
may visit it. He gave a cordial invitation 
to everyone to come to the exposition and 
study the capabilities of Tennessee for mak- 
ing homes of happiness, plenty and content- 
ment. 

After speaking for nearly two hours to a 
most deeply interested audience, he re- 
quested those present to ask questions con- 
cerning any matters about which they 
might want information. For more than 
half an hour he was plied with questions 
upon every conceivable subject, all of which 
he answered readily and to the apparent 
satisfaction of his interrogators. 

Colonel Killebrew is an educated gentle- 
man, a ready speaker full of enthusiasm 
and knowledge, and very courteous to all with 
whom he comes in contact. He has num- 
erous invitations to address audiences in 
various parts of the State, and those who go 
to hear him will not be disappointed. — The 
Independent, St. Louis, Mich. 

The Maryland Board of Immigration is 
preparing a pamphlet, which will be printed 
in English and foreign languages, setting 
forth the advantages of Maryland for set- 
tlers. The secretary of the board is Mr. 
Van der Hoogt, and the office is at Annap- 
olis. 



General Notes. 



Hops in North Carolina. 

Mr. A. L. Jones, formerly editor of the 
Hop Growers' Journal, of New York, and 
himself a practical hop grower, now en- 
gaged by the Seaboard Air Line to intro- 
duce and encourage hop culture in its ter- 
ritory, has this to say about the industry in 
North Carolina: 

"The subject of hop culture has occupied 
,the attention of Northern settlers and 
prospectors and of Southern farmers and 
land owners for some time, and to such 
good purpose that the wide planting and 
speedy growth of this important industrj^ in 
the South is no longer a matter of doubt. 
Go where we will in any section of the 
country traversed by the great Seaboard 
Air Line system, and we are told that the 
business of hop growing has come South 
to stay. 

"It is well for the South that this is so. 
While the success that has attended the in- 
troduction of hop culture into North Caro- 
lina has not been phenomenal, it has never- 
theless been greater than was anticipated 
by the first planters, and sufficient to justify 
the prediction, or assertion rather, that na- 
ture intended the hop garden of this coun- 
try should be right here in the South. So 
far. the work of planting this garden has 
been done mainly by Northern men, but 
the interest taken in it by farmers and land 
owners generally has been very great. Were 
it is not for the lack of technical and practi- 
cal knowledge of the cultivation and curing 
of hops, the business would speedily take on 
all the characteristics of a boom. As it is, 
it can be said that the situation is satisfac- 
tory in all respects, save one. We are in 
need of more teachers. We want more ex- 
perienced hop men among us, men who 
can properly cure and prepare the crop for 
market, and from whom we can learn how 
to rightly conduct the business from the 
time of planting until the hops are in the 
bale. Men competent to do or to superin- 



tend the work in the field and in the kiln are 
very much in demand and can command 
ver}' good pay. 

"The development of a new hop region 
near the Atlantic coast and within easy 
reach of all the great markets of this coun- 
try and Europe is not considered at all de- 
sirable by the hop growers of the North and 
West, and is looked upon with more or less 
disfavor by them. Although the progress 
made in this State is but little known to the 
people of the older hop regions, the minds 
of some of them are beginning to be exer- 
cised, as evidenced in letters coming from 
the hop regions of New York and the Pa- 
cific coast States. A few among the think- 
ing ones are quite ready to admit that a rev- 
olution of the hop industry of this country 
is impending. Some of them think a more 
diversified agriculture would be a good 
thing for us, but that we ought not to 'di- 
versify' on the hop. They do not all think 
alike, however. In a letter received not 
long ago from a valued friend, a hop grow- 
er in New York, I found these words: 'It 
would appear as though nature herself had 
determined to revolutionize the business 
and transfer the better part of it to the 
South." The writer is coming to North 
Carolina, and he says elsewhere: 

" 'In Dixie's land I'll take my stand 
And grow good hops in Dixie.' 

"Yes, he is coming; many others are 
coming, and we shall welcome them all 
with right good will. We know they 
will be glad they came, and that they will, 
like the rest of us Northern settlers, be glad 
to stay. 

"Hop growing is one of the industries 
which are being transferred from the North 
and for the same general and compelling 
reasons that the spindles and looms of New 
England are being transferred to the water 
powers and cotton-fields of the South. 
Here are the natural conditions, the con- 



139 



200 



GENERAL NOTES, 



ditions essential to profitable production, a 
combination, in fact, of all the desirable 
and all the requisite conditions. And it is 
here that the Northern settler and the 'Tar 
Heel' are going to work together in devel- 
oping the possibilities and making this the 
greatest and most prosperous hop-growing 
State in the Union. 

"Of the many conditions favorable to 
hop culture in the South, climate and soil 
are the most important. They are the fac- 
tors that determine the quality of hops. 
Now, the best hop ever produced in this 
country comes to us out of the soil and cli- 
mate of North Carolina. Other favoring 
conditions enable us to grow two or three 
pounds of these hops at the cost of produc- 
tion of a single pound in the State of New 
York. The yield per acre in North Caro- 
lina is equal to that in New York, and the 
Carolina crop can be put on the market 
before that of New York has left the field. 
These are facts amply demonstrated, fully 
proven and no longer disputed. 

"Whatever twist a revolution of the hop 
industry of this country may give to the 
hop poles in New York and Western fields, 
North Carolina will continue to train the 
vine in the way it should go, and quietly 
harvest the winning hop. And when our 
brother hop growers at the North and the 
West begin to look about them in order to 
find out just 'where they're at,' we will show 
them that hops grow well in both the sandy 
and the red clay loam of the Old North 
State and that they had better come here 
and stick as many poles into the ground as 
they can. 

"The Northern settler who comes here 
to grow hops for his own profit while he is 
growing up with the country for the coun- 
try's good, very naturally does some figur- 
ing over the cost of things. He goes at it 
and finds in due time that land, labor and 
lumber are cheap enough. He finds that 
the cost of living is less here than at the 
North. He finds that in this climate he has 
many more days in a year in which he may 
go about his business out of doors than he 
ever had before in any year of his life. He 
finds a climate in which 'life is worth living 
all the year round.' He finds health in the 
waters and 'inspiration in the very air.' He 
finds a great many good things, and with- 
out any trouble at all he finds that he can 



get plenty of hop poles for a cent apiece. 
And now he wants to find out what it will 
cost to establish a hop-yard and maintain 
it until it begins to pay. 

"To help him along, we hand him the ac- 
count of a ten-acre hop-yard lately estab- 
lished in the northern part of the State. I 
know that most of the items in this account 
are correct, and I believe all of them are. 

"The cost of the land is not included in 
this statement. Equally good hop lands 
can be bought for from $5 an acre up. The 
cost of preparing the land and planting the 
ten acres to hops, together with the 
amounts paid for roots, freight, etc., was 
$142.56. For poles, $75. Fertilizer used 
and to be used the first year, %22,- Total, 
$250.56. The cost of cultivation the first 
year, it is expected, will be more than paid 
by other crops grown between the rows of 
hops. These crops will be potatoes, peas 
and Kaffir corn. The hop-house on this 
place is expected to cost, when fully 
equipped, about $200. This plant, it will be 
understood, is not an annual plant, nor is 
it an annual expense. Let us call it a semi- 
centennial plant, for it ought to be good for 
fifty years. If the farmer does not crop his 
vines the first year, he will have plenty of 
time in which to put up a hop-house, and 
if he will 'turn to' and do a good part of the 
work himself he can establish such a plant 
for much less money. As a hop grower, 
the North Carolina farmer has advantages 
possessed by no other hop grower in this 
country. He poles a ten-acre hop-yard in 
this State for $500 less money than it can be 
done for in the State of New York. 

"He pays for field labor about one-third 
the price paid in New York, and the har- 
vesting of his crop does not cover over one- 
quarter as much. He has a picking season 
nearly twice as long as that in New York, 
and twice the acreage can be handled in his 
curing-house. His picking is done by the 
best kind of 'home pickers' — colored people 
who board and house themselves, give no 
trouble, and do the work in the most satis- 
factory manner. His hops may be allowed 
to remain on the vines for some days after 
they are ripe, and without deterioration and 
with but little loss of lupulin. None of the 
insects that infests Northern and Western 
hop-yards have ever appeared in his yards, 
and no disease or pest of any sort has ever 



GENERAL NOTES. 



20 1 



been found in the hopfields of North Caro- 
lina. 

"Now, it goes withovit saying that the 
Northern settler and the Southern farmer 
ought promptly, and for their own profit, 
to avail themselves of these manifestly 
great and valuable conditions and advan- 
tages. By prompt action and the intelligent 
utilization of these advantages the coming 
revolution of the hop industry of this coun- 
try must and will terminate in favor of the 
South." 

Farmers in the Northwest Eager to 
Move South. 

The "Southern States" is in receipt of the 
following letter from an observant and re- 
liable correspondent now in the North- 
west: 

"I have never seen the farmers so inter- 
ested in any place about the South as they 
are here. The great cause of dissatisfaction 
arose from the late period in which the 
crops mature, the consequent low prices, 
and the want of good home markets. When 
the potatoes, for instance, reach market, the 
market is glutted with potatoes from all 
parts of the country. The same may be 
said of all vegetables, fruits and berries. I 
have taken pains to inquire what returns the 
farmers received from their farms, and I 
find in this portion of the State the sales of 
crops grown on a 40-acre farm will not av- 
erage $150 per annum. After the payment 
of taxes and the payment of the interest on 
mortgages, which unfortunately burden 
more than half of the farms, there is abso- 
lutely nothing left to supply the farmer with 
any of the comforts or conveniences of life. 
The severity of the winters also is a great 
tax upon the farmers. What earthly reason 
can be given why these intelligent men and 
women should remain in a climate that re- 
quires one-third of their toil in order to 
pass comfortably through it? 

"All intelligent farmers here now recog- 
nize the fact that early crops mean good 
prices; late crops, low prices. I think the 
only thing that prevents a general exodus 
of the people from this section southward 
is the difficulty they have in disposing of 
their farms. There are ten farms for sale 
where there is one buyer. This immediate 
region is handsomely improved with excel- 
lent farm houses, the buildings often hav- 



ing cost more than the farms are now worth. 
It is unfortunate for the farmers here that in 
flush times they had an abundant credit. 
Oftentimes they mortgaged their farms to 
make these improvements. These mort- 
gages are now the bane of the farmers' 
lives, for as many of them cannot meet the 
interest, the mortgagee takes immediate 
steps to foreclose the mortgage, and the 
farmers in many instances are compelled 
to see their farms sold for the money that 
was borrowed to improve them." 

The third annual meeting of the Georgia 
Dairymen's Association will be held at 
]\Iacon, August 19 and 20. 

The officers are R. J. Redding, president. 
Experiment; R. E. Park, vice-president, 
Macon; M. L. Duggan, secretary, Sparta; 
H. J. Wing, treasurer. Experiment. It is 
expected that the meeting will be attended 
by a number of dairymen from Northern 
States. 

A Strawberry Town in Southern Mis= 
souri. 

Sarcoxie is the strawberry town of South- 
ern Missouri. It was discovered that it was 
particularly designed for strawberry cul- 
ture in 1889. A few years before that a nur- 
seryman put out a few plants, and found 
the berries therefrom e.xceedingly good. 
He then planted a few acres, which were so 
profitable that his neighbors gave up the 
cultivation of corn and planted their stony 
fields with strawberries. The strawberry 
acreage increased gradually, until now 500 
acres are under cultivation, and this year 
1000 acres more have been put in young 
plants, which will bear next season. There 
is now one strawberry farm of 100 acres, 
several of fifty acres, and from that down to 
one acre. The business men, lawyers, doc- 
tors and clerks have the strawberry fever, 
and it is difficult to find a man in Sarcoxie 
who doesn't grow strawberries. The net 
annual income to the town from strawber- 
ries is about $40,000, and next year it will 
probaly be over $100,000. About $30,000 is 
paid in wages ever year to berry-pickers, 
and this will be more than doubled next 
year. It took 5000 persons to pick Sar- 
coxie's berry crop this year, and 10,000 will 
be needed next year. 

The berry growers have an organization 
that protects their interests and makes their 



202 



GENERAL NOTES. 



crops profitable. They have banded them- 
selves into a horticultural association, 
which elects a directory of five from its 
members. This directory is in perpetual 
session during the berry season, which lasts 
four weeks, beginning May lo. The asso- 
ciation sells the products of the day when 
the day comes. Bids for the fruit are sent 
to it from all over the country, and the ber- 
ries go to the firm that has the best com- 
mercial rating and reputation for honesty 
and bids the highest price. Ten carloads a 
day are the average shipment from Sar- 
coxie. This means 6000 crates, or nearly 
150,000 quarts of berries. 

The profits of berry culture are variable 
with the season. The gross receipts from 
an acres of berries are about $125. It costs 
about $15 an acre to buy plants and set 
them out, and about as much more for cul- 
tivation and other expenses. A Sarcoxie 
berry grower received $600 this season for 
the product of four acres of exceptional 
berries and the purchaser paid for picking 
them. Another made $375 from three-quar- 
ters of an acre, and so it goes. Some of the 
land on which the strawberries are most 
successfully grown is not fit for anything 
else, and would not sell for $10 an acre. 

Around and about the town of Sarcoxie 
are camped 5000 berry-pickers. The berry- 
picking season is the annual vacation of the 
people within a hundred or more miles of 
Sarcoxie. As the picking season ap- 
proaches, the horticultural association ad- 
vertises for pickers, and they begin to come 
in from the Ozark country, Kansas, Indi- 
ana, Indian Territory and Oklahoma. They 
come in parties of fifty and a hundred some- 
times, their white-covered wagons catching 
up with one another or meeting at cross- 
roads, and naturally forming into parties. — 
Kansas City Star. 

Texas Fruit Palace. 

The Texas Fruit Palace in Tyler will 
open its doors July 8. A building covering 
nearly two acres and having a seating ca- 
pacity of 8000 has been erected. The Mex- 
ican Band and sev/al theatres will furnish 
amusement for the thousands who are ex- 
pected to be in Tyler at that time. The 
State encampment will also be held in Ty- 
ler at the same time, and altogether the 
city will have the biggest jubilee in its his- 
tory. 



The flower display, it is said, will be the 
largest ever seen in Texas, the entire first 
floor of the building having been set aside 
to the exhibits of fruits and flowers, and no 
display of merchandise will be within the 
building except such as contribute directly 
to the entertainment of visitors. 

The Florida Orange Outlook 

M. S. Moreman, the traveling represen- 
tative of the Florida Fruit Exchange, esti- 
mates the probable production of oranges 
for the next season at 125,000 boxes, as 
against less than 50,000 for the season of 
1895-96. Some oranges will be produced 
in almost every part of the orange-growing 
belt of the State, though, of course, in small 
quantities in most parts. The recovery of 
the trees is not so rapid, according to Mr. 
Moreman, as many have anticipated it 
would be, but he stated that it was satisfac- 
tory. About half of the acreage that was 
flourishing before the disaster of fifteen 
months ago is now being recovered by ac- 
tive efforts, while the rest is being neglected 
or is but indifferently cultivated. 

American Fruit Growers' Union. 

Representatives of a number of fruit 
growers' unions and associations met in 
Chicago recently and organized a national 
association to be called the "American Fruit 
Growers' Union," the purpose of which is 
to protect and aid fruit growers in shipping 
and marketing their products. In a circular 
issued June loth from the office of the 
Union, at No. 2 State street, Chicago, it is 
said that: 

"We organized the American Fruit Grow- 
ers' Union successfully, and the backing it 
received, and the enthusiasm manifested by 
the delegates present insures its perma- 
nency and future success. Nearly every 
fruit-growing State in the Union, as well as 
several provinces of Canada, were repre- 
sented in person, the delegates actually con- 
trolling over 50,000 carloads of fruit. Both 
deciduous and citrus fruits were repre- 
sented. 

"The membership in the American Fruit 
Growers' Union will be confined to dele- 
gates elected by the various State and Pro- 
vincial associations, and one vice-president 
for each State elected by the American 
Fruit Growers' Union. 



GENER4L NOTES. 



203 



"Arrangements will be made whereby all 
competing sections will be notified through 
the State organizations of the movement 
and amount of fruit shipped from compet- 
ing sections to the same time. In this man- 
ner we hope to avoid glutting any market 
by a voluntary distribution. No steps will 
be neglected looking toward keeping every 
section posted as to the necessities of each 
market and the shipments en route. 

"A list of the most reliable commission 
houses in every city is being prepared, and 
contracts will be made with them to handle 
che business of our members at very much 
reduced commission. We have already 
made several contracts with auction houses 
in the larger cities whereby practically 
one-half of the commission is saved for our 
members, and similar contracts will be made 
in all cities large enough to support an auc- 
tion house. In fact, it can be said that no- 
thing is being left undone to thoroughly 
protect our members at the places where 
they most need protection, that is, at the 
markets. 

'"Should any commission house or buyer 
mistreat one of our members, our constitu- 
tion provides that, upon the matter being 
reported to our general manager, a thor- 
ough investigation will be had, and if it is 
found that the charge is true, the American 
Fruit Growers' Union must take such legal 
steps as may be necessary to force a proper 
settlement — free of expense to the member 
making the complaint. This, you will 
readily see, is one of the most valuable pro- 
visions possible to be made in protecting 
the shipper. No corporation or firm 
would care to fight as powerful an institu- 
tion as the American Fruit Growers' 
Union, although they might take their 
chances with an individual or smaller asso- 
ciation. 

"Our executive committee will also ex- 
amine into any discrimination against any 
section on the part of railroads or refriger- 
ator companies, and in any way possible to 
adjust said discrimination or furnish evi- 
dence to prove said discrimination should 
legal steps be taken. 

"The management of the American Fruit 
Growers' Union is vested in an executive 
committee of seven (7) members elected 
annually. All officers handling funds of the 
Union are under suitable bonds. At pres- 



ent, no elective officer receives any salary 
except their actual expenses while in per- 
formance of duties pertaining to the office. 
The general manager and his assistant are 
employes of the Union through the execu- 
tive committee. 

"Our constitution provides that the total 
charge made by the American Fruit Grow- 
ers' Union for looking after shipments 
shall not exceed $1 per car. In view of the 
services we propose to render to shippers. 
this amount may seem extremely small, but 
when the fact is taken into consideration 
that we expect not less than 50,000 carloads 
of fruit to be handled through our Union, 
it will be seen that an ample amount will be 
derived from assessment to pay all expenses 
if economically administered, and probably 
leave a surplus. It is the intention of the 
executive committee to reduce this assess- 
ment to such a point as will make it simply 
sufficient to cover the cost of the services 
rendered, it being purely a co-operative or- 
ganization, and so chartered under the laws 
of the State of Illinois, and it is unnecessary 
that it lay up any large amount of surplus. 

"Our constitution provides that there 
shall be no dictatorial or arbitrary methods 
in dealing with our members. The Union 
does not propose to force members to ship 
to any certain markets or to dictate in any 
way in so far as the members themselves 
may agree by assenting to the terms of the 
constitution. We propose that the Ameri- 
can Fruit Growers' Union shall be the ser- 
vant of its members and not an arbitrary 
master. We believe that through this 
Union the growers in the dilTerent sections 
will be brought closer together; that they 
will feel that the interest of one is the inter- 
est of all, and that the interchange of views 
and experiences as to past methods of con- 
ducting their chosen profession will be sim- 
ply invaluable to all." 

The officers of the Union are: President. 
John D. Cunningham; secretary and gen- 
eral manager, Willis Brown; assistant gen- 
eral manager, H. J. Underbill; treasurer. 
Northern Trust Co., Chicago. The execu- 
tive board is as follows: T. H. B. Chamblin, 
director Riverside Fruit Exchange, organ- 
izer Southern California Fruit Exchanges, 
Riverside, Cal. C. W. Benson, manag"'- 
Texas Fruit Union, Alvin, Texas. E. H. 
Fay, manager Chautauqua Grape Growers' 



204 



GENERAL NOTES: 



and Shipping Associations, superintendent 
of shipping Alabama and Georgia Fruit 
Growing and Winery Associations, Port- 
land, N. Y. F. H. Jinnette, director Anna 
Fruit Growers' Shipping Association, An- 
na, 111. Wm. A. Gardner, president South 
Central Missouri Fruit Growers' Associa- 
tion, West Plains, Mo. John D. Cunning- 
ham, president Georgia Fruit Growers' As- 
sociation, Marietta, Ga. Willis Brown, 
president Oregon Fruit Union, secretary 
Information Bureau Northwest Fruit 
Growers' Association, Portland, Oregon. 

Agriculture in Mississippi. 

The following paragraphs are taken from 
a report on the climate, soil, productions 
and agricultural capabilities of Mississippi, 
issued some years ago by the United States 
Department of Agriculture. Since the in- 
vestigations on which this report was based 
were made, the State has made great prog- 
ress in agricultural development and im- 
provement: 

"Mississippi is essentially and pre-emi- 
nently an agricultural State. Nature de- 
signed and fashioned it to bless and reward 
the labors of the husbandman. What the 
State lacks in mineral resources is more 
than counterbalanced by a generous, re- 
sponsive soil, and almost ideal climate, and 
productions the value and variety of which 
are not excelled in any part of the Union. 

"The first Europeans who trod its soil — 
the adventurous and romantic expedition 
of Hernando De Soto — found its surface 
richly carpeted with the native grasses, and 
maize or Indian corn, one of the chief foods 
of mankind, 'of such luxuriant growth as 
to produce three or four ears to the stalk.' 
No State in the Union has been more lib- 
erally endowed by nature with all the condi- 
tions favorable to agriculture, and that it 
possesses the requisites for great manufac- 
tures, to consume and put into marketable 
shape its varied products of raw material, 
is now no longer a matter of experiment. 

"In one sense of the word Mississippi is 
still a new State, with its immense natural 
advantages as yet mainly unappropriated. 
Its great forests of valuable woods have 
been comparatively little depleted; many of 
its numerous fine mill and manufacturing 
sites await the power of skill and capital; 
more than one-half of its area remains un- 
touched by the husbandman, while the part 



already in cultivation may be made to 
double its productive power by improved 
methods of agriculture. * * * * 

"The great, rich alluvial plain lying in 
Mississippi, and commonly known as the 
Yazoo delta, is one of the most important 
formations, not only in the State, but in the 
entire Union. It. lies between the Missis- 
sippi river on the west and the Yazoo river 
and its tributaries on the east, and from the 
line separating Mississippi and Tennessee 
on the north to Vicksburg on the south. 
It comprises about 6250 square miles, or 
4,000,000 acres, of some of the most fertile 
and productive soil in the world. It is 
larger than the combined area of Connecti- 
cut and Rhode Island, and almost half as 
large as these two States and Massachusetts 
all combined. 

"This vast delta is ellipsoidal in shape, 
and its dark, rich alluvium has been formed 
by the overflow of the Mississippi and Ya- 
zoo rivers and their tributaries. At its 
northern limit, the State line, it is very little 
more than ten miles wide, but the Missis- 
sippi river, turning to the southwest, it 
widens rapidly, and thirty miles southward, 
where the dividing line between Panola and 
Tate counties would strike the bluff near 
Helena, Ark., it is about thirty-six miles 
wide. Opposite Charleston, Tallahatchie 
county, the bottom is about fifty-eight 
miles wide. It reaches its greatest width 
about opposite the town of Carrollton, Car- 
roll county, where it is about sixty-eight 
miles wide, and from thence it at first nar- 
rows slowly, and at last rapidly. Opposite 
Yazoo City it is still more than forty miles 
wide, but ends near Vicksburg, where the 
hills extend to the bank of the Mississippi 
river. Of all this fertile plain only about 
one-eighth, or 500,000 acres, is improved, 
the remainder being covered with vast for- 
ests of valuable timber. The prejudice 
which long existed as to its supposed unfit- 
ness for cultivation and for health is rap- 
idly dying out, and it is now generally con- 
sidered, in its vast possibilities, of more 
value that all the other sections of the State 
combined. It is true that much of the delta 
is subject to overflow in times of high water, 
and on this account has often been avoided, 
but with a proper system of kvees this dis- 
advantage may to a great extent be re- 
moved. Even the lands subject to over- 
flow, with the present system of levees, 



GENERAL NOTES. 



205 



will, on an average in a given series of 
years, produce better returns than most of 
the upland country. 

"The soil of the delta is of two classes, 
loam and clay, the former varying in color, 
but generally dark and easy to cultivate. 
The clay lands are popularly known as 
'buckshot lands,' from the soil drying into 
angular bits the size of a buckshot, and of a 
lead color. When wet this soil is soft, 
smooth, and slippery, and when dry is loose 
and light, and falls to pieces. The 'buck- 
shot' lands are considered the most produc- 
tive in the delta, taken one year with an- 
other, and will easily produce, with proper 
cultivation, from one to two bales of cot- 
ton, and from sixty to eighty bushels of 
corn per acre. Professor Hilgard ascribes 
their fertility mainly to certain ferruginous 
concretions which they contain, and deems 
them almost inexhaustible. * * * * 

"The climate of Mississippi is all that 
could be desired for agricultural purposes. 
It is a happy medium between the extremes 
of heat and cold. The winters are short, 
mild and pleasant; the summers are in the 
main devoid of the intense heat often felt 
in more northern latitudes. The summer 
heat is, indeed, more prolonged, but much 
less oppressive than farther north, owing 
to the proximity of the State to the Gulf 
and the prevalence of cool, refreshing winds 
blowing from that direction. The ther- 
mometer seldom reaches 100 degrees in 
summer in any part of the State. June, 
July and August are the hottest months, 
but the range of temperature for the State in 
these three months is about from sixty-four 
degrees to ninety-five degrees, with a mean 
of about eighty-one degrees. In winter ice 
of about an inch in thickness forms in the 
northern part of the State, while in the 
southern part frosts rarely occur. Novem- 
ber, December and January are the coldest 
months. The average winter temperature 
is not below forty-five deprees, and the ther- 
mometer seldom falls to twenty-five de- 
grees. It is a well-esta'blished fact that in 
the course of a year more outdoor labor 
can be performed with less inconvenience 
than in regions farther north. As has been 
elsewhere stated on the subject of labor, 
there is no climatic obstacle in the way of 
white labor in the State. The elevation of 
the State is, moreover, greater than is gen- 
erally supposed, and this gives a climate 



normally belonging to regions from one to 
two degrees farther north. * * * * 

"Mississippi as an agricultural country 
has advantages unsurpassed in the vital 
matter of rainfall. The abundant luxuriant 
vegetation to be seen here on every hand 
during the hottest summer months shows 
the presence of ample moisture to vitalize 
and promote the growth of all vegetation. 
As a matter of course there are short sea- 
sons of drought occasionally, for these 
occur everywhere, but they are less frequent 
here than in many States, and are generally 
confined to small and widely separated 
areas. The rainfall is usually copious 
throughout the State in the spring and sum- 
mer, while the annual precipitation is more 
or less evenly distributed in all sections of 
the State. From the south and west come 
the regular rain winds, bringing refreshing 
showers, highly conducive to the growth 
of cotton, the cereals and other vegetation. 
The tables of the census give the annual 
rainfall in North Mississippi at from forty- 
eight to fifty-eight inches per annum, while 
in South Mississippi it is fifty-eight inches 
per annum. The high country lying be- 
tween the Tombigbee and Yazoo rivers has 
fully fifty-eight inches per annum, and the 
Yazoo delta has as much as forty-eight 
inches of annual rainfall. The degree to 
which the State is favored in this respect 
may be appreciated when it is remembered 
that the country west of the Mississippi 
ranges from twenty to as low as four inches 
of rainfall per annum. Kansas, Texas and 
the Indian Territory have from twenty to 
thirty-eight inches per annum, and Maine, 
New York, Virginia and Ohio from thirty- 
two to forty-six inches per annum. Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky have from forty-six 
to fifty-six inches per annum, the same as 
the north half of Mississippi, and the coun- 
try near the Northern Lakes, east of the 
Mississippi, from twenty-four to thirty-six 
inches per annum. 

"If the old adage that 'health is wealth' 
be true, Mississippi may be considered an 
exceptionally opulent State. It is rich in 
the conditions of health, and the facts will 
demonstrate that it is one of the healthiest 
States in the Union. This subject is wor- 
thy of consideration here as vitally afifecting 
the results of agriculture. An impression 
prevails in some places outside of the State 
that Mississippi is very unhealthy. How 



206 



GENERAL NOTES. 



little foundation there is for this belief will 
be seen by an examination of the mortality 
tables of the United States census. It 
should be remembered in this connection, 
that the statistics of health in Mississippi 
include, of course, the entire population, 
white and colored, and that the death rate 
among the colored population is quite 
high, being 17.28 per thousand throughout 
the Southern States. It is suggested in 
the census that the difference in mortality 
between the white and colored people in the 
Southern States is especially well marked, 
and is largely due to the relatively greater 
number of deaths among infants in the col- 
ored population. The following table of 
comparative statistics compiled from the 
census will be a sufficient answer to the as- 
sertion sometimes made that the State is 
unhealthy: 

Annual death rate for each thousand of 
population. 

Massachusetts 18 . 59 

New York i7-30 

Virginia 16.32 

Indiana 15-77 

Texas 15-53 

Kansas 15-22 

Pennsylvania 14-92 

Illinois 14.60 

Kentucky 14-39 

Alabama 14.20 

Georgia 13-97 

Colorado 13-10 

Mississippi 12.89 

"In 1878 Mississippi took steps to avail 
itself of the munificent grant of the general 
government, passed in 1862, to encourage 
the establishment of industrial colleges in 
the States 'to benefit agriculture and the 
mechanic arts.' Although the State was 
tardy, on account of the war and the disor- 
ganization which followed it, in adopting 
means to appropriate the benefits of this 
act, when it did begin the work it was pros- 
ecuted with an earnestness and liberality 
which has placed the cause of agricultural 
education here in advance of some of the 
Southern States where the system was in- 
augurated much earlier. The act of Con- 
gress, among other things, provided for the 
endowment, support and maintenance in each 
State of at least one college where the lead- 
ing object shall be, without excluding other 
scientific and classical studies, and includ- 
ing military tactics, to teach such branches 



of learning as are related to agriculture and 
the mechanic arts in such manner as the 
legislatures of the States may respectively 
prescribe, in order to promote the liberal 
and practical education of the industrial 
classes. The prime object — instruction in 
'agriculture and the mechanic arts' — herein 
outlined, has, in this State, been rigidly and 
literally observed. Other studies are 
taught as a matter of course, but they are 
considered as secondary to these interests, 
and rather as instruments to more readily 
understand the principles which underlie 
agriculture and the mechanic arts. 

"In 1878 the legislature passed the act to 
establish the 'Agricultural and Mechanical 
College of Mississippi.' At that time the 
agricultural land scrip represented 207,920 
acres, which had been previously sold at 
ninety cents per acre, realizing in currency 
$188,928, which by judicious management 
has been increased to $227,150, now in the 
State treasury, and represented by 20-year 
bonds running from 1876 to 1896, and bear- 
ing 5 per cent, interest per annum. This 
fund was equally divided between 'Alcorn 
University and Agricultural and Mechan- 
ical College,' for colored students, which 
had previously been established at Oak- 
land, Claiborne county, and the 'Agricul- 
tural and Mechanical College of Missis- 
sippi,' afterwards located at Starkville, 
Oktibbeha county, for the education of the 
white youth. 

"It will be observed that the two institu- 
tions, while kept separate and distinct, were 
endowed on terms of perfect financial 
equality. Liberal appropriations from the 
public funds have been made at each suc- 
ceeding session of the legislature for both 
of these institutions, and their prosperity 
has been substantial and gratifying. The 
'Agricultural and mechanical College of 
Mississippi' is presided over by General 
Stephen D. Lee, a practical and thoroughly 
earnest educator. This institution has a 
deep hold on the affections of the agricul- 
tural classes of Mississippi, and is destined 
to accomplish much good in educating and 
directing the minds and tastes of its pupils 
to agriculture, horticulture, stock farming, 
management of farms, manner of perform- 
ing labor, and the mechanic arts. The edu- 
cation imparted here is also practical and 
illustrative; students are required not only 
to be familiar with labor, but to labor them- 



GENERAL NOTES. 



207 



selves, which, indeed, constitutes an impor- 
tant part of their education. The buildings 
are handsome, permanent and commodi- 
ous; the farm embraces 1940 acres of land, 
600 of which are under cultivation, includ- 
ing gardens and grounds. The farm is also 
well stocked with improved breeds of cat- 
tle, and with a complete outfit of the latest 
improved agricultural implements and farm 
machinery. 

"The average attendance of pupils has 
been about 300, while at the session just 
closed it reached 317. Students are appor- 
tioned among the several counties of the 
State, according to the number of educable 
white children, thus giving each county an 
opportunity for representation. 

"The 'Alcorn University and Agricul- 
tural and Mechanical College' for colored 
students is presided over by ex-United 
States Senator H. R. Revels, colored, who 
takes a deep interest in the success of the 
institution. Tuition is free, as in the col- 
lege for whites, and the State has appropri- 
ated, in addition to the interest derived 
from the agriculaural script fund, all the 
money required for its successful main- 
tenance. ***** 

"As indicating the growth of diversified 
industries in the State, it may be mentioned 
that a very profitable and handsome busi- 
ness has been built up in places adjacent to 
the railroad lines in the production and 
shipment of fruits and vegetables to the 
larger cities. This new industry has been 
steadily growing for a number of years, 
until it now assumes proportions reaching 
into the thousands at a number of points in 
Central and Southern Mississippi along the 
line of the Illinois Central Railroad. The 
acreage in fruits and vegetables is con- 
stantly being increased, and the industry, 
inaugurated by a few progressive minds, 
bids fair to spread and widen until it em- 
braces all points accessible to markets, 
thereby becoming an important factor in 
the State's production. The success which 
has attended the efforts of those who have 
engaged in the business shows what may be 
accomplished when it increases sufficiently 
to obtain concessions from railroads in the 
matter of rates, rapid transportation and 
improved methods of handling. New mar- 
kets will be opened up, a healthy rivalry 
will be established to produce the best re- 
sults, and there will be a mijtiaality of inter- 



ests prompting organization and co-opera- 
tion in all things tending to promote and 
advance the industry. A direct result, and 
one already foreshadowed in the State, of 
the growth of the business and increased 
production will be the establishment of 
canneries to utilize such stock as may be on 
hand at seasons when the markets are de- 
pressed to such an extent that it is no 
longer profitable to make shipments. This 
sometimes happens late in the season. 

"In the central and southern portions of 
■ the State fruit and vegetable production as 
a business has been found so profitable as 
to obtain a firm footing within the past few 
years. This part of the State possesses 
many advantages for successful fruit and 
vegetable growing, and is attracting the at- 
tention of market gardeners of the North 
and West. The winters are mild and short, 
and successive crops of a large variety of 
vegetables can be raised during the year 
with outdoor culture. It is claimed that in 
the extreme southern portions of the State, 
with reasonable attention, green peas, let- 
tuce, radishes and a number of other vege- 
tables can be raised every month in the year. 
The varieties of fruit which grow here suc- 
cessfully include species grown in more 
northern latitudes, as well as those which 
nearly approach the tropics. 

"The soil in South Mississippi is a sandy 
loam, while higher up it contains a great 
deal of lime, conditions considered favora- 
ble to profitable fruit and vegetable grow- 
ing. The fig tree and the vine bring the 
most satisfactory results, with but slight at- 
tention. In the southern part of the State 
the fig, which bears regularly every year, 
matures its first crop in May and the second 
and more abundant crop in June and July. 
It is of long life, and neither tree nor fruit 
is subject to disease. The dry season, 
which usually occurs about the time of ma- 
turity of the fig, renders the preserving and 
drying of it a labor of easy accomplishment. 
Peaches, pears and apples do well, but diffi- 
culty has been experienced in obtaining a 
variety of the latter which will keep well 
during the winter. Oranges are quite ex- 
tensively and successfully grown on the 
coast, and are considered equal in flavor to 
the Florida oranges. The Scuppernong 
grape is also largely grown on the coast, 
and to a less extent throughout the State. 
From it excellent wines are manufactured. 



208 



GENERAL NOTES. 



The Concord, Catawba and Martha grapes 
have found most favor. The vines are 
usually planted in February, and most of 
the varieties mature in June and July. 
Blackberries and dewberries are indigenous 
throughout the State, and grow luxuriantly 
in fields and woodlands. On fertile lands 
these fruits compare favorably, both in size 
and flavor, with the cultivated berries, and 
are no doubt susceptible of great improve- 
ment by cultivation. 

"Strawberries have attracted the most at- 
tention, and are considered the safest and 
most profitable crop. Plants put out in 
June yield a full crop the following spring, 
when kept clear of grass and weeds and well 
cultivated in the fall. The Wilson, Albany, 
Imperial and Monarch of the West are the 
most approved varieties. They are easily 
cultivated, and boys and girls are generally 
employed to gather the crop. The first 
shipments from this State are usually made 
about the isth of March in each year to 
Chicago, 111. ****** 

"Good pasturage, an abundance of water, 
short, mild winters and accessible markets 
are the advantages Mississippi possesses for 
stock-raising. 

"The farmers of the State have long 
waged an energetic warfare against grass, 
which they considered their most trouble- 
some foe; they are now beginning to look 
upon this growth as their strongest ally, 
and with a new and proper appreciation of 
the immense value of this crop to the agri- 
cultural interests of the State. The warfare 
against 'General Green,' to use a popular 
plantation expression, of course necessarily 
continues in the cultivation of crops, but 
many are finding by experience that the 
profits on grass and stock often exceed 
those on the crops, and the disposition to 
engage in this new departure as a matter of 
business has increased greatly in the past 
few years in all sections of the State. 

"The question of ascertaining the grasses 
best suited to the soil and climate of the 
State has been made the object of many ex- 
periments, much thought and attention by 
the most progressive farmers and stock- 
breeders of the State. 

"Of late years, since the exclusive culture 
of cotton has by repeated disastrous experi- 
ments proven unwise and unprofitable, the 
interest in grass and stock has assumed 
great importance. Probably no other sub- 



ject has for years enlisted the attention of 
intelligent farmers and landholders so gen- 
erally; and this awakening interest is des- 
tined to grow and widen until Mississippi 
takes its proper place among the grass and 
stock-producing States. It is a subject of 
vital importance, no less on account of its 
efifect in the amelioration and restoration of 
exhausted lands than the certain and direct 
profits to be obtained therefrom. 

"The grasses of the State, which are com- 
monly referred to as natural and pasture 
grasses, which grow spontaneously, with lit- 
tle or no care and attention, constitute a never- 
failing and exhaustless mine of wealth, which, 
when properly worked, will afford a new 
and valuable source of revenue. Of this 
class the well-known Bermuda (Cynodon 
dactylon) is considered the most valuable 
and is entitled to the first place, but its pre- 
cedence is being energetically contested by 
a comparatively new and powerful rival, 
the Japan clover, or Lespedeza striata. The 
Bermuda, while an introduced grass, like 
the Japan clover, is now so well established 
that it may be very properly considered as 
a native. * * * * 

"Almost all of the cultivated grasses and 
clovers have done well in Mississippi with 
proper care and attention. There have 
been failures in some instances, it is true, 
but they have generally resulted from care- 
less and improper preparation of the soil 
at planting. The following article on the 
feedstuffs of Mississippi, prepared for this 
report by Prof. John A. Myers, State chem- 
ist, and professor of chemistry in the Agri-' 
cultural and Mechanical College, is full of 
interest: 

" 'Although during the late civil war 
Mississippi swarmed with stock (cattle and 
hogs), and was one of the chief granaries 
irom which some of the armies drew their 
supplies, it is not unfrequently stated that 
Mississippi is unsuited for the growing of 
stock. It is very strange that within 
twenty years after the State has been known 
to be capable of supporting such vast herds 
of stock the impression should prevail that 
stock cannot be grown. It can only be ex- 
plained by taking into the account that just 
after the close of the war the price of cot- 
ton ran so high that it dazed the farming 
community so completely that they parted 
with all of their stock and went to raising 
cotton. We venture the assertion, how- 



GENERAL NOTES. 



209 



ever, that there is scarcely a State in the 
Union that has superior natural facilities 
for this pursuit than Mississippi. 

" 'The question is often asked, is there 
any forage in Mississippi for cattle? We 
answer, yes, abundance of it; and if the 
farmers would only let the grasses grow in- 
stead of trying to kill them, Mississippi 
would in a few years become one of the 
most important grazing States in the 
Union. In spite of their efforts, however, 
the grasses are gradually gaining ground; 
and many of them are now so perfectly 
scattered that the land will rapidly become 
"set" in them when not in actual cultiva- 
tion. These grasses, while largely differ- 
ent from those familiar to the stock-grow- 
ers of the North and West, are as nutritious 
and valuable feedstuffs as many of the most 
highly-prized grasses of those regions. 
The variety of grazing is greater than it is 
farther north, just as vegetation is more 
luxuriant in warm countries than in cold. 
Besides this, many of the grasses so highly 
prized, such as orchard grass, the clovers, 
timothy and the millets, do as well here as 
anj^where else, so far as trials with them 
have been made. But, without these, we 
have a number of grasses, as Bermuda 
grass, Lespedeza or Japan clover, which 
rrow wherever there is any soil to cling 
to, when they once get introduced. These 
afford pasture during the summer, fall and 
winter. In the spring there is a variety of 
grasses which come on rapidly and afford 
most excellent pasturage.' " 

The Relative Value of Land North and 
South. 

The "Southern States," in its issue for 
November, 1895, said: 

"Is not an acre of land in the South that 
will produce in a year more revenue than 
an acre in Iowa, Ohio or New York worth 
intrinsically as much? And yet, while land 
in these last-named and other Northern 
States is held at $30 to $100 an acre, land in 
the South, capable of yielding more money 
in a year, can be had for from $2 to $10 per 
acre. The price is low because there are 
millions of acres more than the present 
population can cultivate. As the popula- 
tion increases through immigration prices 
will rise. Prices are now much higher 
than formerly in some localities. Can the 
Northern farmer afford to go on cultivating 



high-priced land that -will never increase in 
value, when for a tenth to a fourth of the 
value of his farm he could get another in 
the South on which he could make more 
money and live in more comfort, and which 
would be getting more valuable every 
year?" 

The Jacksonville (Fla.) Times-Union 
elaborates this idea as follows: 

"The low price of land in the South 
should attract immigrants from the North- 
west, where a farmer has to pay four times 
as much as in the South for land no better 
than he could obtain in this section. One 
hundred acres of land that in the South 
would represent an outlay of only $500, 
would cost $2000 in the West. 

"These conditions are purely artificial, 
and are sure to change. In fact, the 
change has commenced already. In the 
Northwest land is beginning to decline in 
price. In the South it is rising, and in ten 
or fifteen years, by a slight shrinkage in the 
former section, and a large gain in the lat- 
ter, the price of land will be equalized. 

"It is the part of wisdom then — it is only 
plain common sense to sell that which will 
depreciate and buy that which will appreci- 
ate. A Western farmer who owns 100 
acres of land can sell, pay the expenses of 
moving his family South, buy an equal 
amount of land equally good, and that in 
ten or fifteen years will be equally valuable, 
and have left more than $1000 in clear cash. 

"This fact is beginning to be known and 
appreciated to an extent that has turned a 
considerable tide of immigration south- 
ward. It is also known that a greater di- 
versity of agricultural products can be 
grown in the South than at the West, and 
proper diversification is the only guarantee 
against glutted markets and ruinous 
prices." 

The One Thing Lacking. 

The following pointed and forcible com- 
plaint from a county in Tennessee will ap- 
ply to many localities in every Southern 
State. The article is taken from the Leader- 
Review, published at Humboldt, Tcnn.: 

"It is a rather remarkable fact that while 
Gibson county is regarded as one of the 
richest in the State, where agriculture has 
reached a comparatively high state of per- 
fection, that it has not been brought into 
more prominence as a Mecca for home- 



2IO 



GENERAL NOTES. 



seekers. It is true a number of settlers 
have located within our borders during the 
past few years, but in proportion to our ad- 
vantages, they have been few and far be- 
tween. The hub of the great fruit and veg- 
etable belt of Tennessee, with annual ship- 
ments of hundreds of thousands of cases of 
fruits and vegetables to markets embracing 
the Northeast and West, carrying with 
them a practical object-lesson of our re- 
sources and capabilities, we have reaped 
practically no harvest at all from an immi- 
gration point of view. Why this thusness? 
It is because we have pursued the even 
tenor of our way regardless of what the 
world's opinion of us might be. We have 
made no effort at all to show up our advan- 
tages and secure immigration. 

"While we have thus been idling along, 
some of our far less favored sister counties 
have been doing some faithful missionary 
work in the bleak Northwest, and as a re- 
sult they are showing us a clean pair of 
heels in the race of growth and improve- 
ment. Down in Fayette county hundreds 
of Northern people have bought lands and 
are making homes, and are identifying 
themselves with the business interests of 
the community. Land has advanced in 
price from 50 to 100 per cent., and still set- 
tlers are pouring in. This is the conse- 
quence of advertising and showing up the 
resources of the county. Something like 
two years ago a land company was organ- 
ized down there, composed of some of the 
most enterprising men of that section. 
They at once proceeded to advertise by 
means of thousands of pamphlets, maps 
and circulars. They also advertised in a 
number of Northern papers and sent immi- 
gration agents up there, and generally in- 
augurated a great advertising scheme. 
Colony after colony of thrifty Northern 
farmers settled in Fayette as the result of 
this publicity. These people have brought 
a great deal of money into that section, and 
have given a stimulus to trade that has not 
been felt before since the war. 

"It is said that trade is nearly double 
what it was previous to this influx of set- 
tlers. Everybody is prosperous and happy 
in old Fayette, and her sun-baked and gully- 
washed old red hills that were only the 
abiding place of the molly-cotton-tail and 
the festive 'possum, are beginning to wear 
a more cheerful appearance under the own- 



ership of the energetic Northerner. So 
much for enterprise and pluck. On the 
other hand, look at Gibson. A county far 
superior to Fayette in natural advantages, 
situated in the heart of the garden spot of 
the South — a veritable laggard in the mat- 
ter of immigration. It is a ridiculous fact 
that adjacent counties are being advertised 
on the strength of Gibson's productiveness 
and resources, while we contentedly sit 
high and dry and get nothing. What do 
these advertising counties have to say for 
themselves? Why, they say that they are 
situated within the fruit belt of Tennessee, 
and that it is incomparable in productive- 
ness. Then they cite figures taken from 
Gibson's fruit and vegetable shipments to 
prove their assertions. We do not adver- 
tise — and we do not get any of the benefits 
of immigration and increased land value. 
We simply sit still and allow others to 
make ofif with what, of a right, belongs 
to us. 

"Gibson is acknowledged to be one of the 
finest sections of country in the entire 
South, taken from all points of view, and 
we should have the enterprise to make the 
most of it. The matter of a comprehensive 
centennial exhibit should be given prompt 
and special attention. The centennial is 
progressing apace, and will afford a chance 
for advertising our county that will never 
be equalled again. If the county court 
cannot be induced to make an appropria- 
tion, then the matter should be taken up by 
onr citizens and a private subscription 
raised for the purpose. The centennial will 
not be complete without Gibson county's 
fruit and vegetable exhibit, and it should be 
there by all means. And above all, it 
should be a splendid showing up of Gib- 
son's matchless resources and productive- 
ness." 

Mr. S. B. Hughes, of Pittsburg, Pa., has 
bought 650 acres of land near Tifton, Ga. 
He will begin work at once to clear the land 
preparatory to planting a large orchard in 
peaches and Japan plums next fall. 

Florida Colonization. 

The Cincinnatus Farms is the name given 
to a tract of 115,000 acres of land on the 
east coast of Florida, owned by Mr. A. O. 
Russell, president of the United States 
Printing Co., of Cincinnati, Ohio. The 
land, now partly overflowed, will be re- 



GENERAL NOTES. 



211 



claimed and connected with the Florida 
East Coast Railway by standard-gauge rail- 
road ten miles long. Mr. W. W. Russell, 
manager of the property, writes to the 
"Southern States" from Sebastian, Fla., as 
follows: 

"I can say at this time that we have been 
at work during the past two months build- 
ing our ten miles of railroad of standard 
construction, connected with the Florida 
East Coast Railway, and extending into 
our large body of land, preparatory to mak- 
ing our canals for the drainage of this land. 
Our canals will be sixty feet wide, and aver- 
age six feet in depth. There will be thirty- 
two miles of canals and thirty-two miles of 
dykes, the; entire work amounting to about 
2,500,000 cubic yards of excavation. When 
this work is completed it will throw on the 
market 87,000 acres of pure muck farms 
and 28,000 acres of high pine and prairie 
land, from which can be produced anything 
that will grow in any part of the South, and 
to perfection large crops of sugar, rice and 
tobacco. 

"While we have lands along the line of 
our road and in our main body of land that 
, can be put under cultivation at once, it has 
been our policy not to seek settlers until 
our work of drainage is completed, and 
have, therefore, not offered any, feeling that 
to be too premature in inducing settlers 
would create a feeling of dissatisfaction that 
would always be an injury to this locality, 
as other localities in Florida, containing 
good soils, have been injured by the too 
earnest work of the projectors getting in 
settlers before the land was ready for them. 

"When we are ready for settlers we will 
notify those who desire to commence farm- 
ing in the South, and hope at' that time 
to offer them the best soil in Florida at a 
price that will be within the reach of all." 

The South's Industrial Progress. 

The industrial progress of the South is 
the one great incentive that should actuate 
the people in the development and utiliza- 
tion of its immense resources. These are 
virtually thus far only partially unearthed. 
Yet under the impetus thus given in utiliz- 
ing its ores, coalbeds, oil wells and other 
resources, giant strides have been taken to- 
ward a future of unequalled wealth, power 
and greatness. Yet the efforts thus far 
made are but as the zephyrs of the morn as 



compared with the propitious trade winds 
that will send the great ship of advancement 
spinning forward toward the eventual har- 
bor of full development, where it will reap 
the profits of a successful voyage. 

Already the mighty forces are at work 
bringing into prominency the unrivaled ad- 
vantages, the unlimited resources, the salu- 
brity of climate and the golden fertility of 
soil of this magnificent section that is the 
garden spot of the world in its undeveloped 
mines of wealth that Will eventually rival , 
all the massive treasures dug from the 
bowels of the earth. The construction of 
railways has brought to light the silent 
wastes that have been untouched by the 
hand of labor and industry. With these 
there are flowing into this modern Eden of 
America capital and population. Under 
the inspiration of their presence the land is 
beginning to pulsate with new life. The 
whir of the cotton spindle, the blasts of fur- 
naces, the hum and clatter of factories and 
industries of all kinds, are awakening the 
solitudes and disturbing the silent forests 
and busy marts w'ith the buzz of machinery. 

Steadily the cotton mills are traveling 
into the great belt where the fleecy staple is 
cultivated and gathered. Their open gate- 
ways will soon no longer be found hun- 
dreds of miles away in the East, but here at 
home, where the raw material can be carried 
from the fields, snowy with the staple, into 
the spindles and looms of the factories, thus 
adding hundreds of millions to the reve- 
nues of the South. So shall her lap be filled 
with a golden harvest, and instead of pour- 
ing forth the riches of her cornucopia into 
the bosoms of the Eastern and English 
spinners, she shall gather it in a constantly- 
increasing treasure of yellow gold, until she 
shall laugh in the glory, splendor and plen- 
titude of her untold wealth. 

The industrial progress of the South! 
This is the magic talisman that is opening 
the locked gates that shall unfold the hid- 
den treasures that have lain dormant within 
the bowels of the land in this section, whose 
bosom the glowing sun has warmed with 
fervent kisses, and whose riches have been 
kept concealed from the touch and use of 
man. Such journals as the Manufacturers" 
Record are daily and weekly heralding 
forth these aids to the upbuilding and pros- 
perity of this magnificent Southland. To- 
day even Shreveport is responding to the' 



212 



GENERAL NOTES. 



revivifying and magnetic influences of in- 
dustrial development. A magnificent steel 
highway is awakening the ambition to se- 
cure factories, cotton mills, foundries, plan- 
ing mills, sash and blind factories and other 
industries that add to the volume of busi- 
ness and the stir of active life. 

These are aids to progress and greatness 
that need only the lapse of time, patient 
labor and awaiting to develop into the frui- 
tion of the loftiest expectations of those 
who are up and doing. Human industry, 
perseverance, effort, are sure of eventual 
reward, and this city is traveling in the 
great highway that leads to assured suc- 
cess. Work and wait. The goal is in 
sight. — Shreveport (La.) Times. 

Desirable Immigration. 

The unoccupied areas of the South are 
much greater than those that are peopled. 
A study of the map of the Southern States 
and of the census statistics of population 
will show this fact and save all argument. 
Assuming ^ that this statement is correct, 
the question comes up, how can the South 
secure the increased population it needs, 
and of the kind it ought to have to increase 
its prosperity and to develop its unlimited 
and greatly varied natural resources? 

It is conceded by all well informed on the 
subject that the South has in its white pop- 
ulation the most homogeneous community 
of American citizens in the United States. 
It is also conceded that the Afro- American 
population of the South is an important 
economic element of its well-being. The 
South has seen, in the Mafia troubles at 
New Orleans of a few years ago, and in the 
numerous disturbances that have caused 
great losses in the North and West during 
the past two decades, proofs enough that 
the immigration pouring into this country 
from Southern and Eastern Europe is not 
merely, a great calamity, but that its contin- 
uance will be a serious menace to the per- 
petuity of those institutions which in the 
past have given our country its great pros- 
perity. 

What immigration, then, does the South 
need to make it the greatest agricultural, 
mining and manufacturing section of the 
United States? Who are the people that 
can best develop this section of botmdless 
resources by working in co-operation with 
its present population? Who are the peo- 



ple to whom the South will extend the kind- 
liest welcome and unite with them to make 
its wilderness places "blossom as the rose?" 
These questions carry their own answers. 
It wants, first of all, native-born Northern 
men and women, trained in all the econo- 
mies and thrift of the Commonwealths that 
have been made great and wealthy because 
of these hereditary characteristics. It 
wants the men who know how to so culti- 
vate twenty acres that the net profits an- 
nually will be greater than many farmers 
now get from their work on lOO acres. It 
wants the brains trained to see the commer- 
cial possibilities that abound in its forests 
and in its natural field, meadow and swamp 
products, and to put them to use. It needs 
the skilled artisans whose little shops, em- 
ploying from five to twenty-five hands, turn 
out annually in the New England States an 
aggregate of many millions of dollars of 
goods. It needs a great influx of the thrifty 
people of all those States between the St. 
Lawrence and the Potomac and Ohio, 
whose annual swarms of young people 
have largely in the past built up the splen- 
did series of Commonwealths that lie be- 
tween the great lakes and the Pacific ocean, 
and have changed what are now Oregon 
and Washington from an unknown wilder- 
ness, "where rolls the Oregon and hears no 
sound save its own dashings," to Common- 
wealths that are yearly increasing in popu- 
lation, in wealth, and in all that constitutes 
a prosperous American State. 

Next to these native American immi- 
grants, the South needs the sturdy yeo- 
manry of Great Britain; the cool, slow- 
moving, but always energetic Hollander; 
the sturdy, hard-working. God-fearing, 
self-respecting people of Denmark, Norway 
and Sweden; the best middle-class folk and 
peasantry of the many provinces of the 
German Empire, and the mercurial but in- 
dustrious sons and daughters of France. 
The South can welcome all these gladly, 
for most of these European stocks were 
represented in the early settlement of these 
States, and their blood, commingled in 
their descendants, has made our best 
Southern manhood and womanhood. 

Measures are pending in Congress, in 
obedience to an almost universal demand 
from native and naturalized citizens, that 
will, between now and next March, prob- 
ably result in some radical restrictions in 



GENERAL NOTES. 



213 



our immigration laws, and relieve the coun- 
try of some of the dangers from this source. 
If the laws contemplated should, when put 
in operation, be found inadequate, public 
opinion will force additional legislation 
until the desired end shall be attained. The 
South, therefore, need not concern itself 
further about this matter than to heartily 
support all reasonable measures for pro- 
tecting itself and the remainder of the coun- 
try from the further incoming of this ob- 
jectionable and demoralizing immigration. 

But how to get to itself the classes of set- 
tlers it does need is quite another matter. 
In last week's issue we showed what efforts 
Minnesota and other Northwestern States 
were making to add to their populations, 
and approved the systematic methods they 
had adopted to secure desirable settlers. 
An ardent friend of the South, who has for 
nearly seventeen years been working zeal- 
ously and intelligently to induce the North- 
ern and especially the New England people 
to go South instead of West, and who has 
been instrumental in sending many desir- 
able settlers and much capital into several 
Southern States, upon reading our editorial 
of last week, wrote as follows: 

"I thank the Manufacturers' Record for 
its plain statements of what the people of 
the Northwest are doing to get settlers. 
They need them, and they have the right to 
say the best they can for their section. But 
the class of immigrants they are after could 
do so much better in the South that it is a 
shame that equally systematic measures 
have not been taken to inform such people 
of the superior advantages that may be 
found everywhere in what were once the 
slave States, and in this connection I hope 
the Manufacturers' Record will permit me 
to make this suggestion: There are today 
in New England at least 50,000 people who 
would settle in the South if they knew 
where to go to find the locations they de- 
sire. In the States of New York, New Jer- 
sey and Pennsylvania there are as many 
more. They are of the very best native 
stock. All of them have some means. Very 
many are well-to-do. Some have wealth, 
and are seeking opportunities to invest it. 
In New York city are the foreign consuls 
of all those European States that furnish 
the most desirable immigrants. There are 
also great numbers of naturalized citizens 
who have acquired some property that 



would like to live elsewhere. There is not 
a day in the year that the metropolis is not 
visited by thousands of people from all over 
the Union. What the South should do is 
to make next year a large exposition in that 
city of its attractions. It should open the 
first of October and continue to the first of 
April. This should be a purely business 
enterprise, free from all flummery and 
"show" features. It should be made up en- 
tirely of object-lessons for plain people. 
The thousands that would go to see such an 
exposition would go to be instructed, not 
to be amused. They would wish to see the 
products of the soil, of the forests, of the 
mines, of the rivers, the sounds and the sea- 
shore bays and harbors. They w^ould like 
to know of the physical and climatic condi- 
tions of localities, of the religious and 
educational advantages, of the laws affect- 
ing real estate, taxation and such 
other matters. Transportation facilities by 
rail and water, water-powers, and all other 
matters relating to the establishment and 
maintenance of industries, would command 
their attention. 

"Now why cannot this plan be executed? 
If the mountain will not go to Mahomet? 
why not take Mahomet to the mountain? 
I am sure that such an exposition would 
have the greatest practical results. The 
South should be represented at it by its 
most practical business men, not its elo- 
quent orators or its 'eminent citizens,' but 
plain-spoken, practical men, whose 'yea, 
yea,' and 'nay, nay,' would mean much to 
those they encountered. As soon as it was 
known that such an exposition was open, 
that it was an honest representation of the 
South, it would draw to it more people that 
meant business than all the local and na- 
tional expositions in which the South has 
ever participated, and would advertise the 
entire section as it has never been adver- 
tised before." 

So writes our friend, and asks, "What 
does the Manufacturers' Record think of 
this suggestion?" We change his ques- 
tion and ask, "What does the South think 
of it?" Let us know. — Manufacturers' 
Record. 

A New Land Company in Virginia. 

A company to be known as the Southern 
Farm Land Co. has been chartered at Nor- 
folk, Va. Its object, as stated in the char- 
ter, is to buy, lease, improve and sell real 



214 



GENERAL NOTES. 



estate in Virginia, North Carolina and 
other States, especially along the line of the 
Seaboard Air Line; to foster horticulture 
and improve agriculture. The principal 
business office will be in Portsmouth. The 
names of the officers are: George L. 
Rhodes, Portsmouth, Va., president; A. B. 
Farnsworth, New York city, vice-presi- 
dent; W. W. Foltz, Portsmouth, Va., sec- 
retary and treasurer, and W. A. Fentress, 
general counsel. The board of directors 
are George L. Rhodes, A. B. Farnsworth, 
V. E. McBee, John H. Sharp, T. J. Ander- 
son, John T. Patrick and E. W. Thompson. 

Pineapple Shipments. 

A Florida dispatch states that the pine- 
apple crop this year is estimated at between 
55,000 and 60,000 crates, or 5000 less than in 
1894, which was the largest ever grown in 
the State. Most of the pineapples are 
grown along the east coast. The shipping 
season is now open, and from eight to ten 
carloads daily are being sent North over 
the Florida East Coast Line. A pineapple 
patch will yield on an average about 100 
crates per acre. The market price varies 
from $3 to $15 per crate, according to the 
time at which the fruit reaches market. A 
number of growers this year have realized 
$400 per acre, and have only paid $100 per 
acre to raise the crop. 

For Plant System Employees. 

The recently-inaugurated relief and hos- 
pital department of the Plant system is thus 
described by the Savannah News: 

"The relief and hospital department of 
the Plant system of railroads went into ope- 
ration yesterday. This department is a 
new feature with the road, but it is one in 
which every employe, and there are more 
than 5000 of them, will take an interest. 

"The Plant system has had a hospital at 
Sanford, Fla., about thirteen years, and is 
now building hospitals at High Springs 
and Waycross. It will use the St. Joseph's 
Infirmary as its hospital here for the pres- 
ent, but will no doubt eventually build one 
of its own. 

"The headquarters of this department 
will be at Waycross, and Dr. F. H. Cald- 
well, the chief surgeon of the system, will 
"be at the head of it. This department has 
advantages both for the system and its em- 
ployes. In the first place, it insures the sys- 



tem in securing sound and able-bodied men, 
as each man who enters the service of the 
system from this time on must undergo a 
thorough medical examination, and must 
have his name put on the membership rolls 
of the relief and hospital department. If he 
cannot pass the examination he will not be 
taken as an employe. 

"The benefits to the employes are two- 
fold. It insures them not only free medical 
attention and medicine when they are sick, 
but also pays from fifty cents to $2.50 per 
day when sick and disabled. In the second 
place, it furnishes them cheap life insur- 
ance up to $3000 with the payment of reg- 
ular dues, which range from $1 to $5 per 
month, according to class of employment 
or salary, each employe receives a death 
benefit of $250 to $1250, according to the 
amount of the salary paid him, if he dies a 
natural death, but in case his death is by 
accident his family will be paid from $500 
to $2500 on the same basis, the benefit for 
an accidental death being twice as great as 
if the death is a natural one. In addition to 
this, any employe may increase his insur- 
ance up to an amount not exceeding $3000 
by the payment of an additional $1 per 
month for each $1000. 

"It is optional with all the present em- 
ployes of the system whether they become 
members of the department or not, and 
they are given until January i, 1897, to de- 
cide. Arrangements have been made for 
enrolling at once all the employes of the 
system who wish to become members, and 
there is no doubt as soon as they are made 
fully aware of the benefits of the new de- 
partment practically all of them will have 
their names enrolled. The system, how- 
ever, does not leave it optional with new 
employes. They must become members 
and must pass the medical examinations be- 
fore they will be taken into the service. 

"In addition to the monthly dues of mem- 
bers, the Plant system will pay into this 
fund $12,000 annually in monthly instal- 
ments of $1000 each. In addition to this 
the system agrees to make good any deficit 
in the fund that may exist at the end of the 
fiscal year. If there are any present em- 
ployes of the system who fail to go into the 
department by January i, 1897, they will 
have to pass the medical examination in 
case they desire to go in after that date, 
just the same as new applicants. Up 



GENERAL NOTES. 



215 



to that time they will all be admitted, 
however, without examination, and irre- 
spective of age or physical condition. New 
employes over forty-five years old will not 
be admitted to the relief and hospital de- 
partment. 

"Dr. King Wylly, the local surgeon of 
the system, will be in charge of the hospital 
work here. The entire department will be 
under the direction and control of chief 
surgeon, Dr. F. H. Caldwell, who will re- 
port to General Superintendent Dunham. 
The department will undoubtedly prove a 
most important and beneficial feature. It 
gives all the employes of the system, no 
matter how large or small their salaries, 
advantages which they have never had 
heretofore for the payment of a small 
monthly sum, and they will no doubt all be 
glad to become members of this valuable 
department." 

Diversification of Crops. 

The following sound advice to farmers is 
from the New Orleans Picayune: 

"We have all heard the old adage of 
placing too many eggs in one basket, and 
in no case is this more applicable than to 
the farmer who devotes his whole energies 
to the production of one crop. Our farm- 
ing community is beginning to realize this, 
as is evidenced by the increased inquiries 
as to the adaptability of certain crops to 
their section. In no section is the farmer's 
choice in this direction so unlimited as in 
this southland of ours. The true policy 
should be the production of possible home 
supplies, purchasing only those it is impos- 
sible to raise, giving in exchange our sur- 
plus. A list of the plants that should be 
included in this diversification is hardly 
necessary, but the mention of a few may 
serve to turn the attention of some of our 
readers to the subject. And first of all, no 
system of farming is complete without 
its due pro rata of live-stock, including cat- 
tle, sheep, hogs and fowl. They serve a 
double purpose, as being not only a source 
of revenue from their sale, but in being the 
manufacturers of the cheapest and best fer- 
tilizer in the world. If we will stock our 
farm properly we will soon cut down, to a 
large extent, our fertilizer bill. Again, the 
introduction of this stock upon our farms 
will soon force the otherwise unwilling 
owner to diversify his crops, for he will 



soon be confronted with the necessity of 
feeding those animals. This in its turn 
will bring attention to the grasses — those 
friends of ours against whom we have been 
waging such a bitter war of extermination. 
There are no finer grass lands in the world, 
nor does any country possess a greater list 
of highly nutritious native grasses than we. 
Add to these a few of the domestic grasses 
for winter pasturage, and there is no reason 
why our stock should not be fat all the 
year round. We cannot pass over this sub- 
ject without calling attention to some of the 
statements in regard to alfalfa on our allu- 
vial lands. At a recent meeting of agricul- 
turists it was stated by a gentleman of per- 
fect reliability that he had raised 3000 
pounds of pork on one acre of this plant. 
Another stated that on ten acres he had 
made enough hay to feed thirty head of 
mules the entire year and pasture twenty 
hogs. This plant at the experiment station 
at Audubon park has given ten cuttings of 
hay, of over a ton and one-half each, per 
acre, in one year. 

"Another item to which we might pay 
more attention is poultry, especially chick- 
ens. It is estimated that it costs about $1 
a year to feed a hen. This hen should lay 
at least 200 eggs in that time. It is a well- 
known fact that there is a ready sale in any 
of our large cities for fresh eggs at from 
fifteen to twenty cents per dozen. In fact, 
we have been told by a prominent hotel- 
keeper that he would willingly contract for 
eggs for the whole year at the highest of 
the above figures, if guaranteed fresh. At 
the same meeting referred to above it was 
stated by a gentleman that the products of 
his poultry-yard were worth from $4 to $5 
a month to his own table. Without taking 
into consideration the product from sur- 
plus fowls, these facts alone should lead us 
to give more attention to poultry. The 
hog is the best boarder a farm can have. 
He not only pays liberally for his board, 
but is willing and anxious to gather his 
food for himself. It has been repeatedly 
stated in public meetings that pork can be 
raised in this country for one-half cent a 
pound gross. This not only proves the 
hog a liberal boarder, but also proves be- 
yond doubt the ability of our soils to pro- 
duce an abundance of feed in great variety. 
In advocating diversification of crops we 
are frequently met with the argument that 



2l6 



GENERAL NOTES. 



with one or two exceptions there is no sale 
for our products. While in Lafayette last 
January we were told that there were thou- 
sands of bushels of corn ungathered be- 
cause of a lack of market, yet the neighbor- 
ing city of Alexandria has already con- 
tracted for hundreds of barrels of meal and 
carloads of meat, oats, corn and hay for this 
year. Why is this? Last fall we went to 
a merchant with a load of corn in the ear 
and offered to sell to him. His answer was, 
I do not want it. And as we were receiving 
this reply his dray came ' from the steam- 
boat landing loaded with sacks of Kansas 
and Missouri corn. We retuned home with 
our corn, bought a sheller, shelled it, and 
sold it to the same merchant at forty cents 
per bushel the following day. 

"With cornmeal selling at $1.75 to $2, 
and hominy at $3 per barrel, there is no 
reason for corn to rot in the fields. If the 
facilities are lacking for converting it into 
this merchantable form, then let our farm- 
ers form a company and erect their own 
machinery. It is comparatively inexpen- 
sive, and a few dollars contributed by each 
farmer in a neighborhood will create a good 
market for all its products. Again, nearly 
all farm products are for feeding animals 
and man. If hogs can be raised for half a 
cent, or even two cents, a pound, why is 
there not a profit in selling them at from 
four to four and one-half cents? The ex- 
periment station has proven beyond doubt 
that cattle can be fattened rapidly on the 
ordinary products of a farm. At an expen- 
diture of one and three-quarters cents a 
pound for the animals, there was a profit in 
sixty days of over 30 per cent., when they 
were sold for three cents, and today they 
are worth four and one-half cents." 



BOOKS AND HAGAZINES. 

The July number of the Pocket Maga- 
zine, published by Frederick A. Stokes Co., 
New York, contains stories by Mrs. Burton 
Harrison, Mary E. Wilkins, Helen Leav- 
enworth Herrick, Hamlin Garland and 
Elizabeth Pullen, a poem by Eugene Field, 
and some entertaining bits of news and crit- 
icism in its department of Literary Flotsam 
and Jetsam. 

The July number of Harper's Magazine 
opens with a paper on General Washing- 



ton and the period of the Revolution, by 
Woodrow Wilson. Rarely has a historic 
personage been made so real and human as 
Washington here appears, in camp and on 
the battlefield no less than in the Virginia 
House of Burgesses or at his Mount Ver- 
non plantation. Mr. Pyle's illustrations of 
historic scenes worthily accompany Profes- 
sor Wilson's admirable studies of colonial 
life and politics. 

The McDowel Fashion Journals are un- 
usually attractive this month. The Paris 
Album of Fashion has been consolidated 
with the La Mode de Paris and La Mode 
with the French Dressmaker, thus forming 
in either instance a very powerful combina- 
tion of novelties. The price of La Mode 
de Paris and Paris Album of Fashion 
united remains the same, viz, thirty-five 
cents a copy or $3.50 a year. The price of 
the French Dressmaker, which includes La 
Mode, is thirty cents a copy or $3 a year. 

The Atlantic Monthly, which begins a 
new volume with the July number, securely 
holds its own place as the foremost of our 
periodicals in its literary quality, and it 
shows also a firm and ready grasp on the 
important topics of the time. This number 
treats of the timely subjects in International 
Politics, Democratic Tendencies, Science, 
Literary Methods, Fiction, Criticism, Lit- 
erary Reminiscences and Suggestions, and 
Education, with an unusual variety of 
minor topics. 

The Review of Reviews for July is a 
strong political number. The portraits of 
prominent men of all shades of politics are 
numerous and interesting, and the editorial 
comment on the present situation is lumi- 
nous. The Review is the only monthly 
which is able to keep fully abreast of all 
political movements and changes. It is 
never caught napping. The action of the 
St. Louis Convention on the i8th of June 
is already history to the Review of Re- 
views which appears on the first day of 
July; indeed, that action had been definitely 
and accurately predicted in the number of 
the month previous. The Review has 
shown such possibilities in political maga- 
zine journalism as had not been dreamed of 
in the philosophies of the magazine editor 
of the conventional type. 



THE 



Southern States. 



AUGUST, 1896. 



NUT CULTURE IN THE SOUTH. 



In view of the possible profitableness 
of pecan-growing in the South, as 
shown in an article published in the 
"Southern States" for July, it is asked 
very pertinently, "\\ hy should the 
South not give large attention to nut 
culture in general?" 

The cultivation of nut trees other 
than the pecan has not become an es- 
tablished pursuit of any magnitude in 
any part of the South, but it is receiv- 
ing the attention of enterprising and 
progressive experimenters here and 
there, and seems likely to become in 
time an important industry. In the 
report of the Secretary of Agriculture 
for 1889 it was said that "Nut culture 
is assuming more importance as an in- 
dustry in this country than formerly; 
in fact, until recently it has scarcely 
been attempted." 

In the Secretary's report for 1891 
the pomologist of the Agricultural 
Department wrote : 

"Our native nuts are rarely found in 
cultivation, but the interest in nut cul- 
ture is growing, and especially in the 
pecan, which is probably the best of all 
nuts, either native or foreign, which 
are found in our markets. The im- 
proved varieties of this nut were men- 
tioned in my report of last year. In 
California there is a lively interest in 
the culture of the Persian walnut. This 
nut has often been incorrectly called 
'English walnut' and 'Madeira nut,' 
but recent investigations prove the 
name 'Persian' to be the correct one. 
All over the country there is a slight 
interest in the culture of foreign chest- 
nuts, but there is great need of more 
extensive plantings. Our markets are 
poorly supplied, and the price is, there- 



fore, high for these and other nuts 
which should become a common ar- 
ticle of food hereas in Southern Europe. 
Already a much larger import trade 
is carried on than our farmers should 
permit, and we trust that the tide of 
trade in nuts will in time be turned the 
other way, as is now the case with 
raisins, oranges and canned fruits." 

The ordinary farmer is likely to 
scoff at the idea of raising nut trees for 
their fruit, just as twenty-five years 
ago his father would have ridiculed the 
suggestion that he should raise "gar- 
den truck" for market along with his 
corn, wheat and oats. But it is not im- 
probable that the next generation will 
see as great a development relatively 
in nut culture as the present gen- 
eration has seen in truck farming and 
fruit growing. On this point there are 
some interesting paragraphs in a re- 
cently-issued bulletin (No. 36) of the 
Pennsylvania State College Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station. 

"Many of our cultivated fruits," says 
the writer, "have come to us from the 
Old World, where they have been un- 
der cultivation so long a time that the 
place and circumstances of their ori- 
gin are entirely unknown. Some 
others are derived from American spe- 
cies, and are so plainly related to the 
wild native fruits that their transfor- 
mation under careful cultivation and 
selection can be very clearly traced 
step by step. 

"There are certain native fruits, 
however, which, until recently, at- 
tracted very little attention as of pos- 
sible value under cultivation. These 
are the various nuts, such as the 
chestnut, hickory-nut and walnut. 



215 



NUT CULTURE IN THE SOUTH. 



This is perhaps accounted for by the 
great ease with which the ordinary 
fleshy fruits are produced, their gen- 
eral profuse productiveness and the 
agreeable contrast in food supply 
which they present to the staple ar- 
ticles of diet. Moreover, the spontan- 
eous yield of the nut trees has seemed 
to be ample for all needs, and they have 
always appeared to be rather intract- 
able subjects when brought under cul- 
tivation and to require a good deal of 
time before coming into bearing. It is, 
however, necessary to take but a brief 
retrospect of fruit cultm"e in general to 
see how completely ideas of its feasi- 
bility and profitableness have changed 
within the past twenty-five years. 

"Middle-aged men readily remem- 
ber when there was no such thing as 
small-fruit culture in the United 
States, except as people supplied their 
own tables from a few plants in their 
gardens. Small fruits were not raised 
to sell, for it was thought neither feasi- 
ble nor profitable to do so. 

"With changed conditions of ease 
of transportation, systematic methods 
of culture, etc., a great industrv lias 
arisen, which involves thousands of 
men and a great capital to keep it in 
operation. From being a small busi- 
ness, carried on, perhaps, as a tem- 
porary makeshift, or in connection 
Avitli other kinds, it has grown to be 
the chief occupation in many localities, 
and has even invaded districts long 
wedded to the production of certain 
staples only, and has materially 
changed their agriculture. In the di- 
versification of industries which is now 
deservedly attracting so much thought 
and attention, the increase of our 
plants of cultivation should find a 
place, and of cultivated plants the nut- 
producing trees are among the most 
promising. The nut trees differ very 
much in certain particulars from other 
trees which produce edible fruits. They 
are of the first rank as to size, and the 
fruit is the true seed only, and is not 
made up of the fleshy coverings of the 
seed, as in the apple, peach, etc. Nuts 
have, therefore, much less water and a 
higher nutritive value generally. They 
are rather of the nature of staple ar- 



ticles of diet, and approach the grains 
in food value. They are, moreover, not 
of the perishable class, and are easily 
handled, with little waste and risk." 

The thirteenth annual report of the 
North Carolina Horticultural Society 
contains a paper on the orchard cul- 
ture of nuts, from which the following 
is taken: 

"The subject of nut culture is a new 
one to most American fruit growers. 
Until recently our almost boundless 
forests, rich in nut-bearing species, 
have yielded a supply sufficient for the 
demands of our markets. The river 
bottoms of Louisiana and Texas have 
yielded their tribute of pecans ; the val- 
leys of more northern States have sup- 
plied an abundance of black walnuts 
and butternuts; the forests of Appa- 
lachian ridges have furnished tooth- 
some chestnuts, which have found 
sale at prices usually profitable to the 
collector. While the shagbarks of 
New England and the Central States 
have long been stable commodities in 
city markets, none of these have been 
planted or cultivated for their nuts un- 
til recently, because of the belief that 
their culture could not be made prof-t- 
able. 

"But the progress of our impetuous 
civilization has gradually worked a 
change in forest conditions. The axe 
has given way to the saw mill, and the 
fire from the burning log-heap has not 
ceased its destruction at the line-fence 
of the settler. Our forest area is rap- 
idly diminishing, and the area of the 
nut-bearing trees decreases at even a 
faster rate, because of the greater value 
of the timber of most of the nut-bear- 
ing species. The near future is sure to 
witness a change in the source of the 
supply of nuts now demanded bv our 
city markets similar to that which has 
been witnessed in regard to our small 
fruits, i. e., the wild nuts will be re- 
placed by the larger, finer and in every 
way superior products of cultivated 
plantations. 

"From the fact that choice nuts can 
be shipped for long distances, it is 
probable that the nut culture of the fu- 
ture will become localized, both as re- 
gards species and varieties. Certain 



NUT CULTURE IN THE SOUTH. 



219 



localities will be found to produce a 
superior product of the pecan, the wal- 
nut, the chestnut, the hazel and the 
shellbark, and the production of those 
particular types will become specialties 
in those localities. This tendency is 
already strongly marked in California, 
where, after a quarter of a century of 
somewhat indiscriminate planting, it 
has been found that the Persian wal- 
nut (Iiiglans rcgia) and the almond 
cannot be profitably grown in the same 
climates, but succeed admirably in re- 
gions not widel}' separated. 

'Tt is therefore of the utmost im- 
portance that planters study their con- 
ditions and select species suitable to 
their localities before embarking in 
nut culture on an extensive scale. As 
in all fruit culture, only careful experi- 
ment can settle uncertain points." 

As previously stated, nut culture 
(except as to the pecan) has not yet 
become an industry of much import- 
ance in the South. In Louisiana, how- 
ever, a fine beginning has been made 
in the cultivation of the English wal- 
nut, as it is commonly called. Accord- 
ing to the last census, there were in 
Louisiana in 1889, 4391 bearing and 
I J, 859 non-bearing trees. The yield 
of nuts in 1889 was 163,800 pounds, an 
average of 1800 pounds per acre of 
bearing trees (ninety-one acres), 
which, at nine cents a pound, brought 
$14,742, or $162 per acre. It is 
probably safe to assume that there are 
nov/ not less than 10,000 bearing trees 
in the State. The nut yield reported 
for the year 1889 was mostly from 
young trees. The product increases 
every year for many years after the 
tree comes into bearing. In Califor- 
nia, for example, where the walnut has 
been cultivated for years, and where 
the bearing trees had a much greater 
average age than in Louisiana, the 
yield for 1889 is stated in the census re- 
port to have been 3600 pounds per 
acre, making a revenue, at nine cents 
a pound, of $324 an acre. California 
had, in 1889, 184,018 bearing and 396,- 
254 non-bearing trees. The value of 
the California crop of 1889 was $i,- 
242,216. California and Louisiana are 
the onlv States noted in the census re- 



port as producing this nut. It would 
seem to be amply demonstrated, how- 
ever, that there are large areas in 
nearly all the Southern States admir- 
ably suited to it. In the yards of 
many of the old-time homes of the 
South there may be seen trees forty, 
fifty, sixty years old and over, and a 
number of Southern horticulturists 
have in the last few years found by ex- 
periment that this nut may be profit- 
ably grown. j\Ir. W. A. Taylor, as- 
sistant pomologist of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, 
says in a recent article: 

"This species (Jiiglans rcgia), which 
is quite commonly known under the 
names English walnut and Madeira 
nut, has long been experimentally 
planted in our Eastern States. Occa- 
sional trees about the older cities of 
the E.astern States succeed so well that 
there is encouragement for further ef- 
fort with the improved varieties 
known to be of superior hardness and 
productiveness. It should be thor- 
oughly tested in those portions of 
North Carolina where the combina- 
tion of good soil, mild climate and 
freedom from late and early frosts is 
found — notably in the thermal belts of 
the southwest portion of the State. In 
California this nut is largely grown 
from seed, though it is easily budded 
and grafted upon seedlings of its own 
species and upon the native California 
walnut. It could probably be success- 
fully worked by annular budding on 
small trees of the black walnut just as 
the sap is starting in the spring. The 
varieties which have proved hardiest 
and most productive thus far are of 
comparatively recent introduction 
from France. They are the Chaberte, 
Franquette, Mayette and Praepartu- 
riens, the last-named being the best 
known and most widely disseminated 
of the type. It is a nut of but medium 
size, but so precocious and regularly 
productive as to make up in quantity 
what the individual nuts lack in size. 
A few trees of each of these should be 
planted in every locality where condi- 
tions are favorable. It is probable 
that at least one of the Japanese wal- 
nuts (Jiiglans sieholdiana) recently in- 



220 



NUT CUL TURE IN THE SO UTH. 



troduced will be found suited to con- 
ditions where the Persian walnut suc- 
ceeds, but it has not as yet been fruited 
in the Eastern United States." 

Next to the pecan, the chestnut is 
being more widely experimented with 
now than any other nut. The United 
States Department of Agriculture has 
given considerable attention to it, and 
in the annual report of the Secretary of 
Agriculture for 1889 the pomologist 
wrote as follows of it: 

"Among the native nuts there are 
perhaps none of more importance than 
the chestnut. It grows naturally over 
a large part of the United States, be- 
ginning with Kentucky and Ohio, 
reaching northeast to the boundary 
and eastward to the Atlantic ocean. 
The wild nut is exceedingly rich in 
flavor and very sweet. In these re- 
spects it is superior to the European 
or Asiatic strains. Moreover, our na- 
tive chestnut seems to thrive much bet- 
ter than the foreign varieties, but in 
the size of nuts the latter have the ad- 
vantage. A number of varieties of our 
American species, Castanea Vcsca, 
have been brought to notice, and are 
now propagated by grafting and bud- 
ding, showing signs of a decided im- 
provement as compared with the ordi- 
nary kinds found in the forests. 

"There are in Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, East- 
ern Tennessee and the mountain re- 
gions of the Carolinas and Northern 
Georgia, and all that part of our coun- 
try lying northward of the States 
named (except in Northern New 
York and a part of the New England 
States, where the climate is not suit- 
able), large tracts of lands now yield- 
ing small returns which might be 
profitable if planted to chestnuts. 
Many old wornout fields, which are 
practically worthless in their present 
condition, might be thus turned to 
good account. The timber would be 
commercially valuable, but the nuts 
would bring much larger returns to 
the owner. Once started and culti- 
vated for a few years until they begin 
to shade the ground, the trees would 
require very little further attention ex- 
cept to thin them out. As an article of 



food, the chestnut is very valuable, 
but at present the prices are very high. 
Even the common nuts from ungrafted 
trees would repay the use of the land, 
but it would be much better to plant 
only grafted trees of the choicer varie- 
ties. 

"In my report for 1887 directions 
were given for budding and grafting 
the nut trees, which is a rather difificult 
thing to do, but with proper care a 
reasonable degree of success may be 
attained. 

"Perhaps the most valuable variety 
yet introduced is the Paragon, which 
was brought into public notice by H. 
M. Engle & Sons, of Marietta, Pa. It 
is possible that this variety may have 
some foreign stock in it, as the leaves 
differ slightly from those of our native 
species, but the trees seem to be very 
thrifty, and have successfully with- 
stood the winters of the last fourteen 
years in Pennsylvania. Mr. Engle in- 
forms me that he 'obtained it from a 
few scions received from an amateur 
horticulturist (now deceased) in Phila- 
delphia, and never learned where the 
horticulturist got the stock;' hence the 
origin is unknown. It has perhaps 
not been disseminated except through 
the firm now handling it. The tree 
bears abundantly and at an early age. 
The nuts are very large, averaging 
nearly an ounce in weight. 

"A variety named Dupont has been re- 
ceived from Delaware, and is a pure na- 
tive seedlingwithoutdoubt. The origi- 
nal tree, near Dover, Del., is said to have 
borne from $30 to $40 worth of nuts 
annually for years past, but within the 
last year or two the rose bug has par- 
tially destroyed its blooms. The nut is 
almost as large as the Paragon and 
fully equal to it in flavor." 

The same writer said in the annual 
report for the following year: 

"In my report last year I mentioned 
this nvit and gave an illustration of 
Paragon, a chestnut which was 
brought to notice by H. M. Engle, of 
Marietta, Pa. I then thought it 
might be partly of foreign stock, and 
now am sure that it is nearly or entirely 
so. It is better in quality than the 
other varieties I have tested of either 



NUT CULTURE IN THE SOUTH. 



221 



European or Asiatic parentage, but it 
is now quite well established that W. 
L. Shaeffer, of Philadelphia, planted a 
European nut from which the original 
tree of this variety came. The same 
may be said of a variety mentioned in 
my report of last year under the name 
Dupont, which is a Delaware seedling 
from a foreign nut. Recent investiga- 
tions prove that its true name is 
Ridgley, and that Dupont is only a 
synonym. There are a number of very 
large varieties of foreign chestnuts in 
the hands of Samuel C. Moon, of Mor- 
risville. Pa., and William Parry, of 
Parry, N. J., who both sent me samples 
this year. It is, however, my belief 
that we should look chiefly to our na- 
tive species for the choicest kinds, al- 
though not the largest. 

"During the investigations of this 
year there have been found a number 
of very large varieties and some very 
early in ripening. In due time they 
will be brought to public notice and 
full information will be given about 
them." 

Mr. W. A. Taylor, of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, says of this nut: 

"Because of their large size, the 
Spanish and Japanese chestnuts find 
ready sale iri our markets at good 
prices. Neither of them is equal to our 
native chestnut in flavor, but consider- 
able quantities are imported and sold 
by roasters from stands on our city 
streets. They sell for about twice as 
much as our native varieties. Of the 
two species, the Spanish is of better 
quality than the Japanese, though the 
latter is the larger nut and the tree 
comes sooner into bearing. Both can 
be quite easily grafted on the Ameri- 
can chestnut, either by cleft grafting 
at the crown or by whip-grafting the 
top or branches. They will probably 
succeed wherever the native chestnut 
thrives, and are, therefore, suited to 
the higher portions of the State, in- 
cluding the ridges of the Piedmont 
and mountain regions. For the pres- 
ent, their planting should be confined 
to experimental plots, as it is highly 
probable that American varieties of 
these species will soon be developed 
which will supersede them in our mar- 



kets. Two such have already come to 
notice, both of the Spanish type — the 
Paragon and Ridgley. The Paragon 
originated in Germantown, Philadel- 
phia, and is a large nut, of good qual- 
ity. The Ridgley, of which the origi- 
nal tree stands near Dover, Del, is a 
little smaller, but is reported to be very 
productive and of good quality. A va- 
riety that will yield nuts as large as the 
Paragon, and equal to our native 
chestnut in quality, is the desideratum 
of our nut-growers now. The origi- 
nator or discoverer of such a tree has 
both honor and financial recompense 
awaiting him. 

"Of the imported European varie- 
ties, Numbo has proved most valuable 
thus far, enduring the winters and 
yielding good crops of large nuts in 
Eastern Pennsylvania. The best Jap- 
anese varieties yet tested are the 
Giant", Early Prolific and Superb — all 
large nuts.'' 

And here are some extracts from 
the bulletin of the Pennsylvania State 
College Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion, heretofore referred to: 

"While all of the nut trees are prob- 
ably capable of improvement, and each 
has adaptation to its particular situa- 
tion, the one most promising in this 
latitude is the chestnut. * * * 

"Many districts in which the trees 
are abundant derive a respectable in- 
come from the sale of the nuts, and it 
is obvious that this is an industry 
which can be made far more produc- 
tive and prof table than it now is, since 
very little effort has been made toward 
cultivation. Only the natural, spon- 
taneous product has been gathered. * * 

"A few acres on each farm planted to 
chestnuts would entail no great ex- 
pense or labor, and would at least re- 
new the wooded covering which pro- 
tects the surface from washing, holds 
the leaves and vegetable debris and 
gradually accumulates humus to en- 
rich the soil. Few trees are more use- 
ful to the farmer in furnishing posts 
and other materials for farm uses ; and 
with proper care in thinning, trim- 
ming and protecting, they would in 
time become bearing trees — a chest- 
nut orchard, as reliable a source of in- 



222 



NUT CULTURE IN THE SOUTH. 



come as an orchard of any kind of 
fruit. ^^=-- * 

"It goes without saying that chest- 
nuts are salable, and that the market 
has never yet been overstocked. In- 
deed, the market is generally quicklv 
sold out, and this in spite of the fact 
that they are not perishable by any 
means and there is no need of forcing 
their sale. * * * 

"Altogether there are several rea- 
sons why the growing of chestnuts is 
well worthy the attention of anyone 
who has the facilities for it." 

The same authority furnishes the 
following general information on 
chestnut culture: 

"The chestnut is a native of the 
Eastern United States, particularly the 
mountainous parts, where in the high- 
er and drier soils it is one of the most 
common as it is one of the most useful 
of our trees. It is not as widespread 
as many others, and is somewhat lim- 
ited by soil conditions as well as by lat- 
itude. It is not a tree of wet or heavy 
soils, nor can it be grown successfully 
in them. Apparently it succeeds but 
poorly in limestone land, but whether 
from the lime which it contains, or be- 
cause of its heavy clayey character, is 
not known. But in gravelly soils, such 
as are common and extensive in hilly 
districts, it grows luxuriantly, becomes 
well developed and productive. The 
localities in which it can be satisfac- 
torily grown are hence quite readily 
determined. To some extent it can 
and has been grown in places where it 
is not native, and in soils not of light 
and gravelly nature, but generally im- 
perfectly and with difficulty, and the 
trees have been sterile, or at least ir- 
regular and uncertain in fruiting. It 
has been noticed that near the borders 
of the area in which this tree is native 
it is quite liable to be barren and to at- 
tain a meagre size and development. 
To avoid disappointment one should 
satisfy himself that both climate and 
soil conditions are favorable before 
attempting chestnut culture. 

"The chestnut grows naturally from 
the seed or nut, and also reproduces 
itself indefinitely by sprouts from the 
base of the trunk. This second meth- 



od is very common, particularly in 
newly-cleared land, and makes more 
easy and rapid the renewal of these 
trees than of those kinds which grow 
from the seed alone. 

"In growth from the seed it is found 
that the nuts lose their vitality in a re- 
markably short time, and hence spe- 
cial care must be taken either to plant 
them very soon after they are gathered, 
or else to keep them so protected that 
their vitality is not impaired. Loss of 
vitality is practically coincident with 
loss of moisture, and nuts once dried 
will not germinate, while those par- 
tially dried will be more or less un- 
certain in their germinative powers. 
Nine-tenths of all failures in the ger- 
mination of this and many other seeds 
usually comes from drying or the in- 
ability of the seed to procure sufficient 
moisture during germination. Nuts 
intended for planting should be kept 
buried in soil, or, better still, coarse 
saw dust or litter, slightly moist, until 
they can be planted. If possible, nuts 
should be planted where the trees are 
to stand. The seedling is character- 
ized by a remarkably long and vigor- 
ous tap-root. It much exceeds the 
stem in both length and thickness. If 
allowed to grow without removal there 
is no check on growth ; if transplanted 
it is impossible to avoid some mutila- 
tion of the roots, generally a loss of a 
considerable part of the tap-root, and 
experience "shows that in the chestnut 
tree this is more of an interference, 
and requires more time to recover 
from than in any of our common fruit 
trees, to say nothing of the occasional 
loss of a tree, which transplanting al- 
ways involves. * * '^ 

"The fruiting of the chestnut does 
not ordinarily occur until the tree has 
become at least ten or twelve years old, 
and when they are crowded not until 
much later, and then sparingly only on 
its uppermost branches. Low, round- 
headed trees, having ample room for 
development, are the only ones which 
bear early and liberally. * * * The 
nuts are comparatively uniform in size, 
but vary greatly in abundance and 
perfection in different years. Imper- 



NUT CUL TURE IN THE SO UTH. 



223 



feet fertilization and insect injury are 
the chief causes of this. 

"Our native chestnut is but Httle va- 
riable in any respect, and has given us 
scarcely any varieties, the history of 
which is known, or which are plainly 
distinguished from the type. 

"The European chestnut, however, 
has not only a marked natural peculi- 
arity in the greater size of its nuts, but 
has given rise to varieties which are 
much superior to the wald type, and 
are highly valued by cultivators. Over 
thirty have been named, and the com- 
mon species are said to be but little 
used, except as stock upon which to 
work the others. The varieties in most 
frequent cultivation are esteemed for 
the superior quality of their fruit more 
than for any other reason. The trees 
do not -grow so large as the American, 
and come into bearing more quickly. 

"\\ ithin the past few years species 
from Japan have been introduced into 
the United States. Unfortunately, 
they do not appear to be entirely harcly 
on their own roots, except in the 
South and some favored districts in the 
Middle States. They are quite dwarf 
in habit, produce nuts larger even 
than the European, and begin to fruit 
vvhen thev are but four or five years 
old. 

"These two characters, of small size 
snd early fruitfulnesr, give them spe- 
cial value, and if they can be worked 
upon stocks of the American species, 
we can secure trees which will bear 
earlier and produce larger nuts than 
our native species. It would seem 
possible, also, by hybridizing, to com- 
bine the hardiness, vigor and quality 
of the American species with the larger 
size of fruit and precocious bearing of 
the foreign sorts. The nuts of the lat- 
ter, despite their large size, are not of 
the best quality. They lack sweetness, 
and the skin is often cjuite bitter and 
astringent; but as this is easily re- 
moved, and boiling makes the meat 
more palatable, this method of prepa- 
ration is commonly employed in for- 
eign countries where chestnuts have 
long been a favorite article of food. In 
this country we have never looked up- 
on them in just that light, although a 



great many bushels are used every 
year, and the supply never equals the 
demand. * * * 

"In raising chestnut trees from the 
seed special care and pains should be 
taken to secure fresh nuts which have 
not had time to become dry, or have 
been carefully packed so as to preserve 
their moisture. It is surprising how 
quickly they lose moisture in a warm 
and dry atmosphere, and, as loss of 
moisture means loss of germinative 
power, too great pains can scarcely be 
taken with nuts intended for seed. 
They may be planted in the fall, or 
buried in the ground until spring and 
then planted. The former is generally 
the better plan. The objection com- 
monly raised to fall planting is the 
danger that the nuts wall be destroyed 
by burrowing animals. This should 
be anticipated by planting at least 
twice as many as the number of trees 
desired. It may be doubted whether 
spring-planted nuts are not fully as 
liable to destruction by this means as 
are any other. 

"Care should be taken that they are 
not carelessly put so deep that the stem 
finds difficulty in getting into the air, 
nor so poorly covered that they will 
dry out before germination. The use 
of the foot in seed sowing to press the 
ground about the nut should be care- 
fully observed. On rough, stony 
ground, containing roots of various 
shrubs, all the operations of planting 
are more tedious than in other situa- 
tions, but success cannot be had with- 
out proper observance of them. Very 
bushy land must be cut and burned 
over before planting. It must not be 
supposed that because the chestnut is 
a forest tree it will grow anywhere. 
After it is once thoroughly established 
it will hold its own, but in order to get 
a start and foothold it must have much 
the same help and protection which 
are given to any cultivated plant. The 
seedling must have light and air, and 
will not thrive in the shade, nor when 
crowded by sprout-growth or other 
vegetation. Transplanting seedling 
trees can, of course, be done, but so far 
as our experience goes it is always at- 
tended bv a check on growth and vig- 



224 



NUT CULTURE IN THE SOUTH. 



or which last two years or more, and 
they are easily outstripped by the 
others. * * * 

"Where there is a natural sprout- 
growth of chestnut on land which is 
often abandoned and left to run to 
waste, there is an excellent oppor- 
tunity for securing an orchard of nut 
trees at a very small expense and 
trouble. The chestnut sprouts should 
be thinned out gradually until they 
are so far apart that they will not in- 
terfere with one another. Trees so ex- 
posed will develop short trunks and 
low, round-headed tops, and will come 
into bearing much sooner than other- 
wise. The trees and shrubs of other 
kinds should meanwhile be cut peri- 
odically, at least in so far as they di- 
rectly interfere with the symmetrical 
development of the chestnuts, so that 
the latter will eventually occupy the 
whole ground. * * * In effect, this 
is but giving a little attention to the 
second growth, which appears after 
every cutting of chestnut land, and 
thus turning its energy into a particu- 
lar channel. When the small amount 
of labor necessary to do this is con- 
sidered, it is surprising that more do 
not undertake it. It will be necessary 
to afford some protection from fire and 
trespassers, but what reasons can be 
given for not protecting and enforcing 
the rights on property of this kind as 
on any other? 

"But such sprout-growths can be 
treated in another way. If taken when 
they are still young and small they 
can be grafted with scions of any of the 
named varieties which are now offered 
by nurserymen. 

"The advantages of this method are 
so great, and it can be so easily applied 
in many localities where this tree is 
common, that a description of what 
has been done will be the readiest 
means of understanding and appreci- 
ating it, and a guide for those who 
wish to undertake it. 

"Along the west side of the Susque- 
hanna river, in York county, Pennsyl- 
vania, opposite Marietta, runs a low, 
rough mountain ridge of quartz rock, 
which is the hardest and least easily 
disintesfrated of all rock materials. 



Where it has been cleared of brush and 
tree growth the surface is strewed with 
boulders broken off of the parent 
ledge. Soil can scarcely be said to 
exist. At best there is but a gravelly 
surface, with here and there the loose 
rocks in profusion. To look at a 
cleared portion of it one might very 
naturally suppose that nothing what- 
ever could grow upon it. Neverthe- 
less there has been a quite liberal tree 
growth here, chiefly of rock oak and 
chestnut, and it is evident that the hill- 
side is fit for nothing else. It has been 
cut over at least once, quite likely 
twice, and allowed to grow up to 
sprouts again. While chestnut was 
the dominant growth it was so thick 
and crowded that the trees never 
amounted to anything as nut-produc- 
ers. The wood was useful for posts 
and rails, but the owner, Mr. Engle, 
says he never thought it worth while 
to attempt to gather the few scattered 
nuts which they produced. About six- 
teen years ago he received from Mr. 
William L. Schaeffer, of Philadelphia, 
grafts of a variety of chestnut called 
the 'Great American,' since it was 
thought to be a large fruited form of 
the native American species. These 
grafts were set in trees growing in his 
door-yard, and have now made beau- 
tiful, low, round-headed specimens 
strikingly like the apple tree in general 
appearance. They grew rapidly and 
borealmost every year. Soon they called 
attention to the superior character of 
the variety, and suggested the experi- 
ment of grafting on the young sprouts 
upon the hillside across the river. Ac- 
cordingly the native growth was 
cleared away, a few acres each year, 
and, after a year from cutting, when 
the young sprouts had sprung up 
about each stump, the process of graft- 
ing began. The sprouts were thinned 
out freely, so that those remaining 
should be as uniformly spaced as pos- 
sible. These were then grafted with 
scions supplied from the few door- 
yard trees first worked. The process 
of grafting did not differ materially 
from that long employed in the propa- 
gation of the apple and other familiar 
fruits, but rather seems to correspond 



NUT CULTURE IN THE SOUTH. 



225 



so closely to it that anyone who can 
graft the apple can graft equally well 
the chestnut, although it is probable 
that the percentage of successful grafts 
with the latter will always be some- 
what smaller. Care must be taken to 
have both stock and scion in good con- 
dition. The scion, particularly, should 
be dormant, and yet plump and ready 
to quicken and start into active growth 
so soon as the current between stock 
and graft is established. Particular 
time, early or late in the spring, does 
not seem to be essential so long as the 
scions are in this satisfactory condi- 
tion. But, considering how easily 
they become impaired as the warm and 
sometimes dry weather of spring ar- 
rives, I much incline to favor early 
grafting. I have had the best success 
with the early set grafts. Mr. Engle, 
however, is inclined to pay little atten- 
tion to time and to do the work when 
it is most convenient. 

"Neither does there seem to be 
much choice in the kind of graftingf 
employed, excepting as that is deter- 
mined by the size of the stock. In gen- 
eral, preference has been given to whip 
or tongue grafting the sprouts which 
are half an inch or thereabouts in di- 
ameter. This is a more rapid method 
than cleft grafting, and by it a closer 
contact with the stock can be obtained, 
and the grafts are less easily displaced. 
Should the graft fail to grow, cleft 
grafting the succeeding year will often 
be required on account of the in- 
creased size which the sprouts have 
reached. Grafts should be set up two 
or three feet from the ground; even 
then the tendency is to make low and 
broad tops. Sometimes the union is 
imperfect, and a knob or irregular 
swelling shows where the grafting was 
done. But more commonly no dis- 
tinct mark was left after two or three 
years' time, and in many trees it was 
impossible to distinguish where the 
union had taken place. The details of 
such simple grafting as this it is as- 
sumed the reader is alreadv familiar 
with. * * * 

"Occasional grafts which have con- 
tained fruit buds have knit so quickly 
as to have brought forth their flowers 



and even produced fruit in the first 
year. But this is very exceptional, and 
moreover is not desired. More com- 
monly there has been fruiting the sec- 
ond year, but this also is no real ad- 
vantage and is not encouraged. With 
the third year bearing becomes quite 
common, and from this on regularly 
increasing crops are the rule. Indeed, 
the trees are apt to set more fruit than 
they can carry and mature, and Mr. 
Engle's practice has been to thin them 
as soon as the burs are so fully formed 
that they foreshadow the probable 
crop. This is necessary to prevent the 
branches from being broken, if for no 
other reason. The nuts, it should be 
remembered, are three to four times 
as large as the native species, and the 
burs are correspondingly heavy. This 
precocity of the grafted trees (for the 
native seldom bears before it is ten to 
fifteen years old) is perhaps even more 
pronounced than in our common do- 
mesticated fruits, and is of itself suffi- 
cient to show a great advantage in the 
practice of grafting. Because of it 
some return is had in three years from 
the time of doing the main part of the 
work, or four years from that of cut- 
ting the trees whose sprouts served as 
stocks. The oldest trees on the hill- 
side referred to are now six years 
grafted. About twenty-five acres have 
been worked over, or will have been 
before the current year expires ; about 
three-fourths of this are in moderate 
bearing. They are all of the one va- 
riety, now called 'Paragon,' since it is 
not a pure native American, as was 
thought when the first name was ap- 
plied. It has certain excellent charac- 
ters, which have been confirmed by 
twelve or more years during which it 
has been fruited. They are regularity 
of bearing, seldom missing a year; 
large size, fair to good quality (they 
hardly equal the native nut in sweet- 
ness, though they come very close to 
it), and a holding in the bur even after 
they were fully ripe and it has opened 
wide. This last quality is of consider- 
able advantage in gathering on rough, 
rocky ground, where many nuts would 
be lost if they shelled out easily and 
fell among the undergrowth or into 



226 



NUT CULTURE IN THE SOUTH. 



the rock crevices. The burs can be re- 
moved from the trees, taken to a 
smooth 'floor,' where the nuts can be 
separated at leisure. In addition to 
early fruitfulness, grafting produces 
nuts of a known variety, and hence 
uniform size and quality. Nut culture 
thus becomes reduced to a system, and 
is no longer the hit or miss matter of 
the wild tree. It seems quite probable 
moreover from the experience of a 
number of others that this particular 
variety is not any better adapted to 
propagation by grafting than are other 
kinds, and that even the Asiatic or Ja- 
pan varieties may by grafting become 
entirely hardy and productive also. 
These latter bear nuts of still larger 
size, but are liable to be quite deficient 
in quality. They vary, however, great- 
ly among themselves, and now that 
they are being grafted so commonly 
we shall doubtless soon have these 
differences in quality brought out and 
so well known that the name chestnut 
will of itself be no more distinctive or 
expressive than is the word apple. 



when unaccompanied by the qualify- 
ing variety name like Baldwin or 
Rambo. '^ * * 

"These larger grafted nuts are par- 
ticularly attractive, since the average 
customer will pick out the big ones 
ever}^ time, and the size of the fruit out- 
ranks every other consideration. 

"Altogether there are several rea- 
sons why the growing of chestnuts is 
well worthy the attention of anyone 
who has the facilities for it. The fa- 
cilities for the growing of chestnuts 
are a light, sandy or gravelly soil, 
which is dry or easily drained, or, bet- 
ter still, a natural chestnut coppice on 
land the rougher the better, since it 
can be utilized very fully by grafting 
after the manner described. There is 
a great deal of such land. It is safe to 
say that it often does not pay its taxes. 
The same energy and care here put in- 
to the creation of a chestnut orchard 
that is given to one of apples would 
seem to be entirely feasible and the 
most promising means of making such 
land productive." 



NORTHERN FRUIT DEALERS VISIT GEORGIA. 



Early in July a number of prominent 
persons, mostly fruit dealers from New 
England and elsewhere, went South 
for a visit to the great peach belt of 
Georgia at the invitation of Mr. J. H. 
Hale, the Connecticut horticulturist, 
who owns one of the largest and finest 
of the Georgia peach orchards. 

Two of the members of the party 
have favored the "Southern States" 
with accounts of what they saw and the 
impressions gained on the trip. Their 
letters are given below : 

From 

Hon. J. n. Hubbard, 

Middletown, Conn. 

The editor of the "Southern States" 
requests an account of my observa- 
tions in the South on the occasion of 



my recent trip to Georgia with the 
party which accompanied Mr. Hale 
and made his fruit plantation in that 
State its objective point. 

It should be remarked that the trip 
was a very hurried one, the observa- 
tions made necessarily superficial, and 
the resultant impressions ought, 
therefore, to be held subject to correc- 
tion on many points as a more thor- 
ough study of the situation may indi- 
cate. 

On one point, however, there is no 
possibility of mistake, and that is the 
warm and generous hospitality of the 
Southern people. It seems to pervade 
all ranks and conditions, and crops 
out even in the management of what 
we are accustomed to speak of as 
"soulless corporations," as well as in 



NORTHERN FRUIT DEALERS VISIT GEORGIA. 



227 



the home hfe of the people. It envel- 
oped us simultaneously with the first 
warm breath of Southern air, and we 
did not escape from it so long as we 
remained in the region distinctively 
known as the South. To the other ele- 
ments of interest in the trip this adds 
the crown and makes the whole perfect 
and complete. 

Most of the gentlemen comprising 
the party viewed what they saw from 
the standpoint of dealers, and their 
impressions would be apt to relate to 
the matter of distribution rather than 
production. My own occupation is 
that of the farmer, and the productive 
aspects of what we saw naturally inter- 
ested me most. 

And I do not think even a hurried 
inspection of the South can be mis- 
taken in the observation that its ca- 
pacity for agricultural and horticul- 
tural production is varied and im- 
mense. 

It is immense for one reason, be- 
cause it is varied. 

There can be no doubt but what the 
South has suffered greatly in the past, 
and lagged somewhat behind in the 
march of development, because of the 
habit of her people, which has led 
them to confine their productions to a 
very few great staples. 

Such a policy inevitably leaves a 
large proportion of the productive ca- 
pacity of soil and climate untouched 
and inactive. It also leaves inactive 
and untouched a large share of the en- 
ergy and skill of the population, which 
a varied production would awaken and 
bring into active operation. This last 
consideration may seem fanciful to 
some, but it really is of the greatest 
importance. 

Right in the same family, among 
children of one father and one mother, 
will often be found a great diversity of 
talent and aptitude, and unless each 
finds the occupation which interests 
and fits him, and calls his best energies 
into exercise, the force and capacity 
for service locked up in his nature will 
be largely wasted. 

To enable each to find his right 
place and work the choices which are 
spread out before him must be many 



and varied, and thus through the two 
modes of action indicated by concen- 
tration on the part of the individual, 
and largely varied production in the 
community, will the best results for 
both be obtained. 

It is .a happy omen for the South 
that she is entering upon a career of 
varied production. On the road from 
Savannah to Macon we entered the 
region of red subsoil, and we did not 
leave it until well-nigh or quite 
through both the Carolinas on the way 
home. Just what its limits are I do 
not know, but it must characterize a 
wide area of territory in the South. 

Its constitution and the resources of 
fertility wdiich it contains must furnish 
an interesting subject for investiga- 
tion, inasmuch as all soils not alluvial 
are built out of their subsoils. At first 
sight we called this subsoil a clay, but 
Mr. Hale informed us that the clayey 
element in it was very slight indeed, 
and we soon saw by its propensity to 
gully in heavy rains that this must be 
so. In places where the surface soil 
had been by any agency entirely re- 
moved the subsoil seemed very barren, 
but the bountiful crops upon fields 
where it was covered by a thin layer of 
loam strongly inclined the observer to 
think that some portion of their sup- 
port was drawn from the underlying 
strata. 

A Yankee would be apt to test the 
quality of this subsoil by sending his 
plow down into it, though perhaps he 
might find out that he had better have 
let it alone. 

I have written "bountiful crops," 
but that phrase needs some qualifica- 
tion. Not all the crops observed are 
bountiful. Some of them, of corn and 
oats especially, would not be satisfac- 
tory to a Northern farmer, as he could 
not see in them compensation for the 
labor cost of production, to say noth- 
ing of any profit. 

This, however, leads me to an obser- 
vation made at second hand, and that 
is that the labor cost of producing a 
crop is much less at the South than at 
the North. 

K friend of mine who employs labor 
in both sections tells me that the 



228 



NORTHERN FRUIT DEALERS VISIT GEORGIA. 



Southern people don't begin to appre- 
ciate the advantage they have in the 
possession of a labor supply which is 
cheap, contented and efficient. He de- 
clares that he can accomplish equiva- 
lent results at the South for little more 
than half what thev would cost at the 
North. 

Recurring for a moment to the mat- 
ter of diversity of production, the 
growth of the manufacturing interest 
observed in Northern Georgia and the 
Carolinas is one of the most hopeful 
indications for the future to be seen in 
the South. It is hopeful, not only be- 
cause of the direct addition it makes 
to the wealth of that region, but be- 
cause of the home market thus fur- 
nished for its varied agricultural pro- 
ductions. 

There is no other market which will 
compare in value to the producer with 
the home market.- 

New England agriculture labors 
under many adverse conditions, but is 
saved from practical extinction by the 
home market supplied by her manu- 
facturing population and everywhere 
accessible. 

The attractiveness of many South- 
ern landscapes remains strongly im- 
pressed upon my memory. All through 
Northern Georgia, the Carolinas and 
Virginia a panorama of beauty was 
continually being unrolled before the 
eyes that watched from the car win- 
dows. Sometimes an undulating 
country stretched away to the horizon, 
written all over with promises of plen- 
ty and peace. Sometimes a mountain 
background rose up as a setting for 
the picture, bringing in the element of 
grandeur to complete the combina- 
tion. No one need wonder that those 
who live in the South love their homes 
with passionate devotion. 

But it must not be considered that 
this party of Northern men who 
looked upon the attractions of the 
South with appreciative eyes were for 
that reason at all inclined to disparage 
or undervalue their own section. Un- 
doubtedly their thought of the rich- 
ness and beauty of our whole country 
was greatly enlaro-ed and stimulated. 
Thev had tested the North, and knew 



that it was a good land. They have 
looked upon the South, and seen that 
it is fair and rich in promise. North 
and South together form an aggrega- 
tion of resource and attraction found 
nowhere else on earth. In this wealth 
we are all sharers. 

Somewhere in the broad sweep of 
this country of ours there is a place 
and a work and a reward for everyone. 
It is probable that in the South more 
than in any other section of our coun- 
try there are to be found vacant places 
and unclaimed rewards. But this con- 
dition of afifairs cannot continue. Our 
whole land is becoming known to our 
whole people as never before, and in 
the not distant future there are to be 
no neglected localities of large extent. 

Our whole country is to be built up 
in beauty and strength, and we are all 
of us to be glad and grateful for the 
fact that all are citizens of the United 
States of America. 

From 

J. Horace McFarland, 

Harrisburg, Pa. 

As one of the party of Northern 
fruit and tree men who recently made 
a hurried trip into the Georgia peach- 
growing section, I am glad to accede 
to the request of the editor of the 
"Southern States" for a few words on 
the country. 

It was not my first trip, the same 
region having been visited in 1892. I 
can, therefore, fully appreciate the very 
great improvement of conditions that 
I see now. The touch of progress 
seems to have been felt in all direc- 
tions; not only are the railroads 
greatly improved in every respect, but 
the country seems to be gaining won- 
derfully in manufactures. The in- 
crease in the number of cotton mills, 
for instance, points to the fact that the 
East will not long enjoy her suprem- 
acy in making cotton cloth. Surely, it 
is a proper thing that this great staple 
should be worked up as nearly as pos- 
sible at the productive points. 

Of the fruit planting — to see which 
was particularly the object of our visit 
— it is difficult to speak without en- 
thusiasm. Our party spent one night 



NORTHERN FRUIT DEALERS VISIT GEORGIA. 



229 



in sleeping-cars directly in the heart of 
the great peach orchard of the Hale 
Georgia Orchard Co., near Fort Val- 
ley. It was a novel experience, and 
one long to be remembered, to thus 
rest in the midst of a mile and one- 
quarter square of bearing peach trees. 
As we mounted to the observatory on 
Mr. Hale's packing-house, and the 
peach horizon spread away from us in 
every direction, the view was a most 
inspiring one. 

Our party was composed altogether 
of practical men, who, while not un- 
mindful of the delights of the trip and 
the beauty of the scenery, were yet 
anxious to see whether the claims that 
had been made for Georgia fruit were 
to be substantiated. I think all were 
more than satisfied, especially with the 
crop in the Hale orchards, where ev- 
erything that care and skill can com- 
pass has been done not only to pro- 
duce fair fruit in great abundance, but 
lo send it North in the shape most at- 
tractive to the buyer. The great or- 
chard of the Albaugh Orchard Co., 
adjoining Mr. Hale's plantation, and 
the important enterprises of other 
Ohio companies found in the neigh- 
borhood of Myrtle and Perry, as well 
as the older and well-known orchard 
of Mr. S. H. Rumph at Marshallville, 
were all keenly scanned by our party. 

Looking the matter over carefully, 
one cannot but feel that the fruit busi- 
ness is in its infancy in Central 
Georgia, notwithstanding the magni- 
tude of individual interests already in 
evidence. The crop of last year was 



distributed in but few of the great 
markets of the country, these greedily 
taking all good fruit that was offered. 
On my way North I met a representa- 
tive of one of the great Northwestern 
railway systems, who had been hunt- 
ing fruit among the peach-growers for 
his road, thus meaning the distribution 
of peaches to St. Paul, Minneapolis, 
Milwaukee and the other points of 
population in the Northwest. He 
could get no promises, although con- 
fident of ability to send through cars 
in good shape. Thus these markets 
are yet untouched by the Georgia 
peach, which, coming to perfection at 
a time when there is practically no 
other good fruit in the market, cannot 
but be acceptable wherever it is landed 
in good order. 

The experience of the growers this 
year in fighting insect pests, and their 
experience with regard to improperly 
handled fruits, only points their way 
to greater success as system and 
method shall take the place indicated 
by experience dearly obtained. I have 
great faith in the future of the South- 
ern States as their marvelous resources 
become better known in overcrowded 
sections of country, and can only won- 
der that our Eastern farmers will seek 
the bleak Northwest where their semi- 
occasional crops are in constant dan- 
ger of being bodily lifted out and de- 
posited somewhere in the next State, 
instead of turning their eyes toward 
the sunny South, with its civilized con- 
dition, salubrious climate, proximity 
to markets and excellent labor supply. 



TRUCK-GROWING IN LOUISIANA. 



Bulletin No. 42, of the Louisiana 
State Experiment Station, contains 
the following interesting account of 
the truck-growing industry in that 
State: 

"The peculiar location of this State, 
occupying the extreme southern end 
of the great Mississippi valley, with its 
30,000,000 of people, its excellent 
transportation facilities, including the 
great Mississippi river and its tribu- 
taries, which must forever serve in a 
measure as a check upon excessive 
charges for freight of the several lines 
of railway which parallel it, its favor- 
able climate and its excellent soils, all 
point to 'truck-growing' as a most 
profitable industry for the intelligent 
agriculturists of this State to engage 
in. The large cities of Chicago, Cin- 
cinnati, Indianapolis, St. Lo.uis, Kan- 
sas City and others should be mainly 
supplied with early vegetables from 
this State. Railroads have always 
shown a disposition to give rapid and 
cheap transportation to farmers, when- 
ever the supply of trucks would justify 
the expenditure needed for the equip- 
ment of cars suitable for the under- 
taking. To make this supply requires 
the active co-operation of many farm- 
ers in each locality, and unfortunately 
the conservatism of the latter is so 
great as to preclude such action until 
forced by necessity or demonstrated 
by many successful individual efforts 
that such a co-operation is safe and 
profitable. Successful individual effort 
is of rare occurrence. In shipping a 
few boxes or barrels of vegetables they 
must go by express in order to reach a 
distant market in good order, and the 
charges are so excessive as to preclude 
profit. A single carload sent by 
freight does not receive the despatch 
nor attention which is necessary to in- 
sure the arrival in eood order of its 



contents. Hence little or no profit is 
usually the result of such shipment. 
There must be a sufficient number of 
shippers to load a full train of well-ven- 
tilated and refrigerator cars, which can 
be despatched as through freight be- 
hind the through passenger trains, at 
regular intervals, to insure handsome 
profits to the grower and reasonable 
rates of freight to the railroad. Un- 
fortunately, many sections of the State 
are waiting on the railroads for such 
transportation, and the railroads, on 
the other hand, are delaying the prepa- 
ration of such equipments and the 
adoption of such a schedule until the 
trucks are offered. Hence little or 
nothing is being done along the lines 
of some of our main railroads, which 
run through sections of the State, 
which are pre-eminently adapted by 
nature to the growing of fruit and veg- 
etables. Fortunately, some of our 
railroads have awakened to the neces- 
sity of building up the country through 
which they pass, and have given facili- 
ties for cheap and rapid transportation, 
even at heavy losses at first to begin- 
ners in this industry, realizing that if 
a few farmers could successfully inau- 
gurate this new departure in agricul- 
ture thousands would quickly follow, 
and ultimately enable them to recoup 
losses, build up the adjacent country 
and increase the business of the road. 

"The Illinois Central Railroad some 
years ago adopted this wise policy, and 
i.s today flattered by the wonderful re- 
sults obtained. During the early 
spring a rapid vegetable train leaves 
New Orleans daily and picks up all 
along its lines cars freshly loaded and 
awaiting its arrival. These trains fol- 
low closely the through passenger 
trains to Chicago, and arrive in the Lat- 
ter city with little or no injury to the 
vegetables. Hence profitable returns 
to the farmers along itr, lines for cab- 



77? UCK- GRO WING IN LOUISIANA. 



231 



bag-es, beans, radishes, lettuce, cucum- 
bers, beets, strawberries, etc. 

"A visit to the country along this 
road from Lake Maurepas to the State 
line, will convince anyone of the wis- 
doifi of the railroad in adopting such a 
policy. A few years ago scarcely any 
depot along this line in this State paid 
the expenses of a local agent. Today 
one finds the thriving towns of Pont- 
chatoula, Hammond, Tickfaw, Rose- 
land, Amite, etc., all busily engaged in 
iruck and fruit-growing and furnish- 
ing the road a large income from 'the 
transportation of their products. 
Small farms, well tilled, are a£fordin.g 
good incomes to thousands of North- 
ern and Western farmers, who have 
come South for health, recreation, 
comfort and money. The Mississippi 
A^alley Railroad is also proflfering sim- 
ilar inducements to the dwellers along 
its line, but as yet has met with but 
little encouragement in this State, the 
farmers and planters adhering to the 
old practice of growing sug'ar-cane 
and cotton. 

"The Missouri Pacific, which enters 
the State in Morehouse Parish and 
penetrates it as far south as Alexan- 
dria, has succeeded by its liberal in- 
ducements in persuading many of the 
denizens along its line into the truck 
industry. So great has been its suc- 
cess that recently a horticultural 
society was organized in the city of 
Monroe for the avowed purpose of 
growing trucks for shipment to the 
West. This society has a numerous 
membership pledged to the growing 
of a large acreage in vegetables the 
present year. .Sooner or later 'truck- 
growing' will be a large industry along 
this road under the liberal policy now 
being practiced. 

"With the establishment of perma- 
nent 'truck-growing' there will follow 
in every neighborhood a canning fac- 
tory, which will utilize the surplus 
which distant markets refuse. Such 
factories will insure the grower a home 
market at some price, when remuner- 
ative returns are no longer obtained 
by shipment. Thus one industry cre- 
ates another, and by multiplying them 



in every favorable locality, a large ag- 
gregate wealth is created. 

"The good work accomplished by 
the Illinois Central and Missouri Pa- 
cific should provoke the other roads of 
our State to similar action, and the 
very successful results obtained by the 
former should convince them of the 
wisdom of such a move. The farmers 
generally are ready for the trial of any 
new industry which will bring exemp- 
tion from the dominion of cotton, but 
must first have deep conviction of the 
sincerity of the railroads in proffering 
full co-operation. 

SECTIONS OF THE STATE ADAPTED TO 
TRUCK FARMING. 

"Sandy loams, carrying a normal 
content of from 6 per cent, to 12 per 
cent, of moisture, are peculiarly 
adapted to certain kinds of trucks, viz, 
Irish and sweet potatoes, radishes, 
beans, peas, tomatoes, melons, beets 
and strawberries. While heavier soils 
with a larger moisture capacity are bet- 
ter adapted to cabbages, onions, o.^'g 
plants, etc. 

"In and around New Orleans are 
grown an immense amount. of 'trucks;" 
all kinds for the local market, and cab- 
bages, onions, ^^^ plants, etc., for ship- 
ment. There are over 2500 gardeners 
engaged in this industry. Around the 
cities of Baton Rouge and Shreveport 
there are also local gardeners who sup- 
ply these cities and occasionally make 
small shipments abroad. 

"Louisiana has a large area of soils 
of the sandy loam type specially 
adapted to truck and fruit-growing, 
and it is very widely extended, border- 
ing nearly every railroad in the State. 

"The Illinois Central nearly bisects 
the pine hills of the Florida parishes, 
and extends for over fifty miles .across 
them. Experience has proven the 
adaptability of these soils to this indus- 
try, and thousands of acres are today 
occupied by strawberries, radishes, let- 
tuce, beets, potatoes, cabbages, etc. 

"The Mississippi Valley has a small 
industry in and around Wilson of most 
excellent truck soils, and is doing 
much towards developing them. Be- 
yond the Louisiana line, near Centre- 



232 



TRUCK-GROWING IN LOUISIANA. 



ville, Gloster and other points in Mis- 
sissippi, similar soils prevail and larger 
developments of the truck industry 
have been secured. 

"The Missouri Pacific is gradually 
developing the fitness of the soils along 
its line, and will some day have village 
truck farms along its entire length. 
The two sections of the State, however, 
which are perhaps better adapted to a 
general truck-growing have had the 
least development. 

"Experiments at the North Louis- 
iana Experiment Station, Calhoun, 
La., on the line of the Vicksburg, 
Shreveport & Pacific Railroad, have 
shown that vegetables of nearly every 
kind and of perfect quahty could be 
easily and cheaply grown. The soil on 
this station is typical of the larger por- 
tion of North Louisiana, through 
which the Vicksburg, Shreveport & 
Pacific runs, in an east and west, and 
the Texas & Pacific in a north and 
south direction. No finer market gar- 
dens could anywhere be estabhshed 
than along' these two roads, and a lib- 
eral and persuasive policy on the part 
of the managers of these roads would 
soon demonstrate the truth of this as- 
sertion, give an increased business to 
the roads, develop population and en- 
hance the values of adjacent lands. It 
is hoped that such a policy may soon 
be inaugurated. 

"The country bordering the South- 
ern Pacific from the Mermentau river 
to the Texas line is well adapted from 
the character of soil to truck-growing. 
Drainage, which can easily be accom- 
pHshed, will be needed in many places 
for the best results. A similar coun- 
try borders the Watkins & Gulf Rail- 
road, extending from Lake Charles to 
Alexandria. The very liberal policy 
which both of these roads have pur- 
sued in securing the many new settlers 
along these lines will most probably be 
continued in co-operation with these 
settlers in developing every profitable 
new industry. It is, therefore, reason- 
able to expect .an early development of 
the fruit and truck industries along 
these lines. It will thus be seen that 
Louisiana has the climate, the soil, the 
transportation facilities and intelligent 



farmers, the needed factors for success 
in truck and fruit-growmg. It only 
requires the harmonious co-operation 
of the last two to bring to full fruition 
the grand possibilities of the industry. 

SUGGESTIONS TO THOSE CONTEMPLAT- 
ING EMBARKING IN THIS INDUSTRY. 

"While the soils mentioned above 
are physically adapted to the growing 
of trucks, they must be made very fer- 
tile for profitable results. Truck- 
farming means intensive, high farming. 
Lands dedicated to trucks must be 
heaVily fertilized, not with commercial 
fertilizers only, but with such home- 
made manures as will insure large sup- 
plies of organic matter. The frequent 
incorporation of vegetable matter by 
the growing and turning under of some 
leguminous crop, preferably cow-peas, 
additioned by mineral manures, will in 
a few years render these soils well 
adapted to truck-growing. 

"If stable manures be used, they 
should first be thoroughly composted 
and several times piled and cut down, 
in order to bring it into a most avail- 
able condition as plant food. A com- 
post of stable manure, cottonseed, acid 
phosphate and kainite, mixed in such 
proportions as will suit the crop to be 
grown, will be found a very elifective 
fertilizer, perhaps superior to any other 
mixture. 

"When the supply of home manures 
is inadequate for the demands of your 
crop, these may be supplemented by 
cottonseed meal, acid phosphate and 
kainite, mixed to suit the kind of vege- 
table grown. 

PROPER ROTATION 

must be observed in truck growing as 
in general farming, if the fertility of 
the soil be maintained and maximum 
results desired. A slight knowledge 
of botany, yea, even of the character 
of the vegetables grown, will greatly 
assist the farmer in determining the ro- 
tation to be adopted. Melons, cu- 
cumbers and squashes belong to one 
family and should not succeed each 
other. Egg-plants, tomatoes and Irish 
potatoes form another, and beans and 
peas another. 



TR UCK- GRO WING IN LOUISIANA. 



233 



"Always follow a crop by another 
of a different family. Expressed in a 
simpler manner, roots should not fol- 
low roots. A top-rooted plant will fol- 
low well a fibrous-rooted one. After 
a heavy manuring, cabbages, onions, 
Irish potatoes and egg-plants should 
be planted, since these require exces- 
sive fertility for best results. Follow 
these crops with tomatoes, squashes, 
etc., and these in turn by beans, peas, 
etc. A farmer will soon have a suitable 
rotation of both crops and fertilizers. 



COLD FRAMES AND HOT BEDS 

may be frequently used with advan- 
tage for the growing of early vege- 
tables. Even the use of glass sash may 
sometimes be made to pay hand- 
somely. 

"The use of cheep cheesecloth is fre- 
quently found efficacious in protecting 
tomatoes, egg-plants, etc., against 
frosts, and several transplanting under 
such a cover before setting in the field 
has been extensively practiced with 
excellent results." 



SOME NOTES OF TRAVEL IN MISSISSIPPI. 



By M. B. Hillyard. 



A recent trip through parts of Lou- 
isiana and Mississippi afforded me an 
opportunity for making conclusions 
on certain points which have been 
unsettled in my mind hertofore. 
I also learned something more (and 
something new, too) as to the many- 
sided developments going on in the 
localities visited. I also visited all the 
Northern — so to speak — towns, actual 
and theoretical, between New Orleans 
and Jackson, Miss. By Northern 
towns I mean those composed, mainly 
or principally, of Northern and West- 
ern people. Two or more are almost 
exclusively so, there hardly being a 
Southern family in these towns. Al- 
most all these communities are con- 
tented, even joyous and elated in tem- 
per; full of faith in the future of their 
respective towns; full of talk about 
their merits; public-spirited — a sort of 
committee of the whole on advertise- 
ment. As my mission was in the field 
of journalism for a New Orleans daily 
paper, I had a chance to note the sedu- 
lousness and ingenuity of their boom 
work. Of course, it must confuse a 
Western man, who is undecided, in or 
near what town to locate, to hear the 
blazon of panegyric stunning his ear 
by the inhabitants of respective locali- 
ties as to the superior attractions 
thereof; but one thing is mighty sure 
to happen: nothing but a Northern 



town gets a Northern immigrant. It 
seems to be one of the most difficult 
things to secure Northern men for 
any but these Northern towns. There 
are but few exceptions. I must say a 
good word for the broad experiment- 
alism of these immigrants. They are 
trying, in fruits and vegetables, varie- 
ties without number. This is very 
wise and progressive. They can tell 
you the best radish, cabbage, beet, 
strawberry, for their localities. One 
great experimentalist has tried sev- 
enty-two varieties of plums. Only 
two or three succeeded. But one va- 
riety will probably make him rich, as 
he got $12 per bushel for them. An- 
other has a plum he originated, which 
is said to be one of the greatest acqui- 
sitions to that fruit ever made. This 
I have, on the very highest authority. 
I sought in vain to get up with it. It 
is said the owner has an impassable, 
high wire fence guarding it. He pro- 
duced this plum after years of trial — 
one of 500 seedlings, all the rest dis- 
carded. I went on a cherry hunt with 
one great experimentalist. On the 
trip I found a seedling pear which I 
have named Dr. Stackhouse, in honor 
of this great pioneer, now deceased. 
(This pear I may have something to 
say of hereafter.) 

One can see from my cursory notice 
of the experimental, alert spirit of 



234 



SOME NOTES OF TRA VEL IN MISSISSIPPI. 



these Western horticulturists and 
"truckers" what an advance the South 
will receive in their respective lines. 
A-Iany new varieties of fruit will be 
found or produced especially adapted 
to the South. The plum I mentioned 
is a case in point; my Stackhouse 
pear; a grape I first lately saw — the 
Oldstein, originated at Shreveport, 
La., much like the Concord, earlier 
and an even ripener. Then I am warm 
on the track of several Bigarreau and 
heart cherries in Mississippi. And Mr. 
Day, of Crystal Springs, and I have 
satisfactorily determined that the 
Early Richmond and Morello cherry, 
so called (although the former is in the 
Morello class) can be successfully 
raised as low as latitude 32° and lower 
in the pine woods and orange-sand 
soils of Mississippi. This is certainly 
well worth knowing, and settles favor- 
ably the long-disputed question as to 
whether any cherry can be successfully 
raised so far South. 

I saw some conclusive facts as to 
the apple. You may safely put South- 
ern Mississippi above the Louisiana 
line in the summer-apple belt. I will 
not say more, for as to winter varie- 
ties my investigation did not extend; 
and I will not say how many varieties 
of the summer apple can be success- 
fully raised. And as you go North, 
certainly up to or near Jackson, the 
apple soil improves, as you find less 
sand and a heavier soil — clay loams 
generally. Soil is the great factor, and 
as the soil varies much, latitude doesn't 
count for much. 

In apples I must particularize the 
transcendent Crab, at Crystal Springs, 
superb and beautiful beyond belief; 
and an apple, judged to be the Duch- 
ess of Oldenburg (although unde- 
cided), at Terry, Miss. Another reve- 
lation as to the apple in its size and 
color. 

I noticed the growth in dairying. 
Several extract their cream by separa- 
tors and send it to New Orleans. Most 
send the milk. It is having a ver}^ 
noticeable effect on the milk from the 
city dairies, and banishing water from 
it. Almost everyone in the country 
has more or less grade and thorough- 



bred Jerseys in his dairy, and the Hol- 
stein and Shorthorn appear in limited 
number. It seems most difficult to in- 
duce these dairymen to sow the culti- 
vated grasses for their cattle, and 
while East Mississippi has tens of 
thousands of acres in the various clov- 
ers — orchard grass, Kentucky blue- 
grass, et al., and that, too, by South- 
ern men, the immigrants from the 
West are almost totally disregarding 
them. Undoubtedly, the stiff, creta- 
ceous soils of the prairie belt in East 
Mississippi are far superior grass lands 
to the sandy loams of the south-central 
part of the State. Nevertheless, one 
can raise fine grasses of the above and 
other species in the latter area; and as 
a number of Western men whom I 
saw are satisfied of this fact, we may 
look for some handsome fields of them 
shortly. 

I noted with- great pleasure the en- 
thusiasm of some swine-breeders, and 
an association of these has been lately 
organized. No better Poland-Chinas 
and Berkshires can be found any- 
where than are now raised in Missis- 
sippi — thoroughbred, registered ani- 
mals, for which the most startling 
prices have been paid. 

Poultry-raising, especially the busi- 
ness of spring chickens for the West, 
is forging ahead. A poultry-breeders' 
association has been lately formed. A 
very elaborate article I wrote last year 
for the Times-Democrat gave an im- 
mense impetus to this business, and 
the gentleman about whose operations 
I wrote tells me that he received over 
400 enquiries about it from various 
portions of the South, and that the let- 
ter went the rounds of the poultry 
journals of the country, even as far 
west as California. 

Another industry, totally new, is 
that of raising Belgian rabbits, about 
which I wrote an elaborate article for 
one of the New Orleans dailies. 

It is almost impossible to enumer- 
ate all the aspects of the new life in 
Mississippi now cognate to the soil; 
but here is a partial list: Exporting 
corn and hay; raising thoroughbred 
.cattle, sheep and hogs of almost every 
breed; fattening on grass and cotton- 



SOME NO TES OF TRA VEL IN MISSISSIPPI. 



235 



seed hulls grade cattle for the West- 
ern cities ; raising fruits and vegetables 
in the largest way and canning them 
to some extent; the nursery business; 
raising pecans in a good measure; can- 
ning shrimp and oysters largely; rais- 
ing and distilling peppepmint; raising 
flowers for winter sale in Western 
cities; raising fancy chickens, eggs 
and spring chickens; poultry-raising 
in general; rabbit-farming; broad 
fields in the cultivated grasses; dairy- 
ing largely ; creameries for cheese and 
butter. What a list! What State cov- 
ers such a broad field in industries 
kindred to the soil? And still I have 
not made my list complete. 

Then take cotton and woolen man- 
ufacture, the numerous industries cog- 
nate to lumber, the immense business 
in brick manufacture, and measurably 
in tile, and, in fact, I know not what. 
And in truth we have but begun. 

It seems an epoch in town building, 
and while many new towns have 
sprung into being and vigor in the last 
few years, many more are coming. Al- 
most every one afifords to the wise stu- 
dent some light how to better the com- 
ing ones. I take it, that too little em- 
phasis has been given to the rare win- 
ter climate of a certain belt in South 
Mississippi and North Louisiana. 
Nearly a quarter of a century ago I 
made a study of this, and while I did 
not fail to stress the wondrous future 
in fruits and vegetables, manufactur- 
ing, etc., I made very prominent its de- 
licious winter climate. I think the 
areas that shall fairly delineate this are 
destined to a great future. The people 
who hunt climate are generally 
wealthy, cultured, build the hand- 
somest houses, make the most charm- 
ing social life. 



Were I ever to undertake a new 
town, and in the area in question, I 
should certainly seek to especially com- 
mend the climate. I see but one new 
town working on this line, and its little 
sanitarium is crowded every winter. 

To my mind, one of the greatest 
mistakes the average railroad immi- 
gration and real estate agent makes is 
to hold out the inducement of large 
and rapid fortunes. The day is past 
for it. I used to urge it up to fifteen 
years ago, when early tomatoes, pota- 
toes, peaches, etc., were $9 to $12 per 
barrel; strawberries and raspberries 
$1.50 a quart. But that day will never 
come again. Let men be reminded 
that, as a general thing, they must ex- 
pect poor land (which, however, they 
can make as fertile as any under the 
sun), that they can make far more in 
fruits and vegetables than at home, that 
they can buy land at easily one-tenth 
(and frequently less) than at home, 
that they will find a delightful winter 
climate and a more agreeable summer 
one, far better health and a cure for 
and exemption from many ailments, 
that they can have flowers and vege- 
tables the year round and almost the 
same as to fruits, that they will find 
schools, churches and congenial peo- 
ple, railroads, no blizzards, cheap fuel 
and lumber, no cyclones, frequently no 
mosquitoes, pure, cool water never- 
failing in springs and wells, and rivu- 
lets and creeks (often abounding in fine 
fish.) of clear and unfailing water over 
pebbly bottoms that — but is not that 
enough? Why try to make them be- 
lieve they have only to plant a peach 
orchard and strawberry patch, or a 
large "lay-out" in cabbage or toma- 
toes, and be metamorphosed into mil- 
lionaires or plutocrats in a year or two? 



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 



Although it is about a hundred 
years since agriculture began to be 
considered a fit subject for scientific 
research, it is less than fifty years since 
the development of the present plan of 
organized investigation was started by 
a company of German farmers living 
near Moeckern; and when later the 
co-operation of the University of Leip- 
sic and of the German government 
was secured, an idea was born which 
has taken root all over the globe, and 
which in many of its relations to the 
welfare of the community is of para- 
mount importance to national life, for 
throughout all history the depletion 
of the soil and the decline of agricul- 
ture have been followed by a fatal im- 
pairment of national vigor. 

The first experiment station in Am- 
erica was started by the Wesleyan 
University at Middletown, Conn., only 
twenty years ago, but so fruitful were 
seen to be the possible results of wide- 
spread research along the same lines 
that the work was immediately taken 
up elsewhere throughout America, so 
that there had been some seventeen 
stations established here prior to the 
conference of representatives of agri- 
cultural colleges and experiment sta- 
tions called by Agricultural Commis- 
sioner Norman J. Colman in 1885. 
From this convention resulted the or- 
ganized movement for national assist- 
ance in this work, which resulted two 
years later in the passage by Congress 
of what is known as the Hatch bill, 
which gives to each State and Terri- 
tory $15,000 a year out of the national 
treasury for the maintenance of an 
agricultural experiment station. Since 
that time so rapidly has the work been 
extended that stations are now in op- 
eration under this act in every State 
and Territory, except Alaska, and in 
some States supplemental stations 
have been established by State appro- 



priations or private contributions. A 
million dollars are spent annually in 
the maintenance of these experiment 
stations, three-quarters of which 
comes from the national treasury, and 
the work in America leads the world. 
It has been declared that the Ameri- 
can farmer, although not a scientific 
speciahst, has a keen sense of what- 
ever is sound and good, and in the ap- 
plication of the practical results of 
scientific investigation he may be 
counted on to zealously further this 
governmental work. "In the history of 
no nation has there been such a thirst 
for knowledge on the part of the great 
masses of the people, such high and 
just appreciation of its value and such 
wide-reaching, successful and popular 
schemes for self-education; no other 
nation has so large a body of farmers 
of high intelligence; never before has 
the great agricultural public been so 
willing and, indeed, so anxious to re- 
ceive with respect and use with intel- 
ligence the information which science 
offers; never before has science had so 
much to give." 

While the stations have found out 
much that is new and of economic 
value, one very great work accom- 
plished has been to teach the farmer 
how to help himself, for in many lines 
it has been shown that to achieve the 
best results the farmer must himself 
be an experimenter. Agriculture can- 
not be made an exact science for the 
reason that the manifold intricate op- 
erations continually going on in the 
air, soil, plant and animal world make 
the formulation of an unswerving set 
of rules an impossibility. As in the 
practice of medicine, so much depends 
on individual peculiarities that the 
scientist must content himself with the 
presentation of certain ascertained 
facts and principles which may serve 
as a guide to an improvement in the 



236 



AGRICULTURAL EXPERLMENT STATION. 



237 



methods of agriculture; but the suc- 
cessful farmer must himself intelli- 
gently study the conditions and needs 
of his soil and his animals, and apply 
the teachings of science in accordance 
with the lessons of his own experience. 

The benefits of the co-operation of 
farmers with the stations have been 
particularly conspicuous in experi- 
ments made in the use of fertilizers, 
hundreds of farmers having in this 
way gained important information 
which they have also imparted to 
their neighbors, and by learning prop- 
er methods of experimenting have 
been enabled to apply the experience 
gained by scientific investigation to 
peculiar conditions of individual 
farms. Many useful results have been 
reached in the study of soils and ferti- 
lizers, and also in the tests of new va- 
rieties of cereals, forage plants, vege- 
tables and fruits; in researches on the 
composition and digestibility of feed- 
ing stuffs; in feeding experiments, es- 
pecially with pigs and dairy cattle; in 
investigations in dairying, especially 
regarding means for testing milk and 
the methods of cheese-making; in ob- 
servations on plant diseases and in- 
jurious insects, and in experiments on 
repressing these enemies of the far- 
mer. 

A classification of the work of the 
experiment stations may be made in 
a general way, as (i) to act as bureaus 
of information on many questions of 
practical interest to the farmers of 
their several localities; (2) to seek by 
practical tests to devise better meth- 
ods of agriculture and to introduce 
new crops and live stock, or to estab- 
lish new agricultural industries; (3) 
they aid the farmer in his contest with 
insects and with diseases of his crops 
and live stock; (4) they help to defend 
the farmer against fraud in the sale of 
fertilizers, seeds and feeding stuffs; 
(5) they investigate the operations of 
nature in the air, water, soil, plants 
and animals, in order to find out the 
principles which can be applied to the 
betterment of the processes and prod- 
ucts of agriculture. 

In the United States there are fifty- 
four experiment stations. The stations 



are conducting a wide range of scien- 
tific research in the laboratory and 
plant house and an equally large 
amount of practical experimenting in 
the field, the orchard, the stable and 
the dairy. Thirty stations are study- 
ing problems relating to meteorology 
and climatic conditions. Forty sta- 
tions are at work upon the soil, inves- 
tigating its geology, physics or chem- 
istry, or conducting soil tests with fer- 
tilizers, or in other ways. Fourteen 
stations are studying questions relat- 
ing to irrigation. Thirty-nine stations 
are making analyses of commercial 
and home-made fertilizers, or are con- 
ducting field experiments with ferti- 
lizers. At least fifteen stations either 
exercise a fertilizer control in their re- 
spective States, or make analyses on 
which the control is based. All the 
stations are studying the more import- 
ant crops, either with regard to their 
composition, nutritive value, methods 
of manuring and cultivation, and the 
best varieties adapted to individual lo- 
calities, or with reference to systems 
of rotation. Thirty-five stations are 
investigating the composition of feed- 
ing Stuffs, and in some instances mak- 
ing digestion experiments. Thirty- 
seven stations are conducting feeding 
experiments for milk, beef, mutton or 
pork, or are studying different meth- 
ods of feeding. Thirty-two stations 
are investigating subjects relating to 
dairying, including the chemistry and 
bacteria of milk, creaming, butter- 
making, or the construction and man- 
agement of creameries. Forty-five 
stations are studying methods of an- 
alysis and doing other chemical work. 
Botanical studies occupy more or less 
of the attention of about thirty sta- 
tions; these include investigations in 
systematic and physiological botany, 
with especial reference to the diseases 
of plants, testing of seeds with refer- 
ence to their vitality and purity, clas- 
sification of weeds, and methods for 
their eradication. Forty-three sta- 
tions work to a greater or less extent 
in horticulture, testing varieties of 
vegetables and large and small fruits, 
and making studies in varietal im- 
provement and synonymy. Several 



238 



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



stations have begun operations in for- 
estry. Thirty-one stations investigate 
injurious insects, with a view to their 
restriction or destruction. Sixteen 
stations study and treat animal dis- 
eases, or perform suc'h operations as 
dehorning animals. At least seven 
stations are engaged in bee culture, 
and three in experiments with poul- 
try. 

The literature disseminated by the 
stations naturally forms an important 
feature of the practical work accom- 
plished. Each station is required by 
law to publish an annual report and at 
least four bulletins a year. The more 
progressive stations publish many 
more than four bulletins a year; some 
of them more than an average of 
one a month. These bulletins are 
mailed free on application to any 
farmer in the State in which they are 
published. They constitute the best 



of all agricultural literature. "Besides 
regular reports and bulletins, a num- 
ber of stations issue press bulletins, 
which are widely reproduced in agri- 
cultural and county papers. The sta- 
tion bulletins are now regularly dis- 
tributed to half a million persons who 
are either farmers or closely identified 
with the agricultural industry. More- 
over, accounts of the station work are 
given and discussed in thousands of 
newspapers. The New York Cornell 
station alone estimated some time ago 
that each one of its publications di- 
rectly or indirectly reached more than 
half a million readers. Besides this, a 
very large correspondence with farm- 
ers is carried on, hundreds of public 
addresses are annually made by sta- 
tion officers before farmers' meetings, 
and the results of station work are 
taught to thousands of students in ag- 
ricultural colleges." 




THE SOUTHERN STATES. 



Southern States. 

RATED MONTHLY 
3TED TO THE SOI 

Published by the 

Manufacturers' Record Publishing Co. 

Manufacturers' Record Building, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

SUBSCRIPTION, - - - $1.50 a Year. 

WILLIAM H. EDMONDS, 

Editor and Manager. 

BALTIMORE, AUGUST, 1896. 

The SOUTHERN STATES is an exponent of the 
Immigration and Real Estate Interests and 
general advancement of the South, and a journal 
of accurate and comprehensive informatien 
about Southern resources and progress. 

Its purpose is to set forth accurately and 
conservatively from month to month the reasons 
why the South is, for the farmer, the settler, the 
home seeker, the investor, incomparably the 
most attractive section of this country. 



Foreign Immigration Through Galveston 

The most significant move yet made in 
behalf of securing European immigration 
for the South has been brought about 
through the rate war inaugurated by the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad, and 
the effects of the new departure are certain 
to be far-reaching, and of great importance 
to the South. With the aggressive policy 
which has latterly marked the management 
of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, such a 
cut in passenger rates on business out of 
Galveston has been put into effect as makes 
it likely that a large part of the immigra- 
tion bound for the West will hereafter be 
diverted from Atlantic ports to Galveston. 
The Missouri, Kansas & Texas has made a 
sweeping cut to all Western points, and has 
arranged with conmecting lines for such co- 



operation as enables it to boldly enter the 
field as against all the Eastern trunk lines 
for European business bound for trans- 
Missouri points. The rates made by this 
road are from 40 to 50 per cent, below the 
rates from New York to all points West, and 
in order that the smaller European steam- 
ship lines running into Galveston may not 
secure a lion's share of European immigra- 
tion, the big North German Lloyd and 
Hamburg-American lines have arranged to 
run boats regularly hereafter between 
Bremen and Hamburg and Galveston, even 
though this move means the curtailment of 
the service heretofore given to New York 
and Baltimore. 

The significance of this new departure 
may be more fully comprehended when it is 
remembered how prone the European im- 
migrant is to locate permanently at or near 
the point he first strikes on landing from 
his voyage. This is attested by the fact 
that of the residents of New York, where 
the greatest number of European immi- 
grants has landed during the past forty 
years, the native-born population is today 
less than one-third of the total population 
of the city. 

Great revolutions have been inaugurated 
with initial moves of no more pretentious 
design than marks this apparent effort of 
an ambitious railroad to merely secure an 
increased business on a basis of doubtful 
immediate financial advantage. The stu- 
dent of affairs sees in it an epoch-marking 
event. 

Summer Temperature North and South. 

The appalling fatalities accompanying 
the hot wave which enveloped a large por- 
tion of the United States during the earlv 



240 



EDITORIAL. 



days of August — fatalities which it is esti- 
mated number well on toward 10,000 human 
victims and untold thousands of domestic 
animals — have served to give emphasis to 
the declarations frequently made by the 
"Southern States" that, as compared with 
the North, the South is an infinitely su- 
perior region for comfort and health dur- 
ing the summer season. 

While the deadly heat was daily striking 
down its hundreds in every large city of the 
North, sunstrokes and prostrations were 
unknown in the far South, where the tem- 
perature was much lower than in places a 
thousand miles to the north; and even in 
the few Southern cities where the ther- 
mometer \ndicated a degree of heat equal 
to that of the highest temperatures in the 
North the prostrations were rare and 
deaths from stunstroke almost unheard of. 

The "Southern States" gave prominence 
in its June issue to the suggestion that the 
intending visitor to the South could do no 
better thing than to so time his visit as to 
bring him into 'the Southern country during 
the heated term. Wherever this advice is 
taken the visitor is surprised and delighted 
with the climatic conditions he encounters. 

A comparison of the various tempera- 
tures during the August hot spell will be 
interesting matter for future reference, 
showing as it does the great advantage even 
the very far South possesses over the North 
during the midsummer. Not all these fig- 
ures have yet been collected, but such as 
have been presented prove a case which 
fuller information could only confirm and 
strengthen. Take, for instance, reports 
made to the Florida Times-Union from sev- 
enteen Southern and eleven Northern cities 
and three border cities, Cincinnati, St. 
Louis and Kansas City. The seventeen 
Southern cities showed at the time of ob- 
servation an average maximum temperature 
of 89 14-17 degrees; the eleven Northern 
cities, 92 2-1 1, and the three border cities 



94 degrees. At the same time a compari- 
son between the extreme Southern and ex- 
treme Northern cities of the United States 
showed an almost identical average maxi- 
mum temperature, with this difference in 
favor of the South, that whereas the per- 
petually cooling breezes from the Gulf do 
not materially afifect the records of the 
thermometer, they bring about a condition 
of comfort and healthfulness which make 
impossible the disastrous results of a heated 
term at the North. Thus the temperature 
at New Orleans has scarcely exceeded 90 
degrees this season, and there have been 
no deaths from the heat, and the same may 
be said of almost the entire coast country. 
In this connection it is interesting to 
note the suggestion made by the New Or- 
leans Picayune to the effect that Southern- 
ers would better stay at home during May, 
June and July, and not begin their north- 
ward flight until after the middle of August, 
when it may be permissible to seek in the 
cooling Northern latitudes relief from the 
only really inconvenient feature of the 
Southern summer, its protracted length. 

Qood Advice. 

E. S. Compton, of Newark, N. J., on a 
recent visit to New Orleans, in an inter- 
view with a reporter of the Picayune, said: 

"Here in Louisiana there are today lands 
that are worth millions to the State, from 
a standpoint of fertility and excellence, that 
are going to waste. People in the North 
are afraid to come here, because they have 
an erroneous idea of the place. You should 
get before them, presenting to them the fact 
that you have the greatest natural agricul- 
tural country in the world, and that your 
resources are diversified and magnificent. 
No section of the Union is better able to 
rightfully claim the people than this. No 
section is so poorly advertised and more 
thoroughly misunderstood. Let th® State 
be pushed forward with the business 
methods that apply to the transaction of the 
business of any private firm and the results 
will be marvelous. 



EDITORIAL. 



241 



"When you have a good factory you ad- 
vertise it. Merchants advertise their wares, 
and why should not a State advertise its 
advantages? Every settler of good char- 
acter that you secure is an additional means 
of enriching the State. The taxes upon 
many are lighter than the taxes upon a few, 
because there are more to divide the bur- 
dens of government among. The pros- 
perity in a community where every foot of 
ground is made to produce something is 
greater than in a community where the 
people are few and the planting is a mo- 
nopoly. Get out and advertise that this is 
the place to come to to find success and 
easy business prosperity, and the people 
will come with their goods and chattels "to 
make an empire State of Louisiana." 

If Louisiana and all the other Southern 
States would take Mr. Compton's advice, 
and advertise their advantages liberally and 
aggressively, the volume of people and 
money and factories now going South 
would be enormously increased. 

How to Preserve Surplus Fruit. 

One of the most prosperous vocations in 
Western New York is that of evaporating 
fruit. In 1871 a farmer named Hatch, liv- 
ing in Monroe county, near Rochester, ac- 
cidentally learned that sliced apples could 
be preserved and made a pure white color 
by the use of brimstone. He began pre- 
serving the fruit in this manner and found 
a ready market at a high price. Other 
fruit-growers in the vicinity took up the 
idea, and fruit-evaporating towers were 
constructed for the purpose of drying fruit 
on a large scale. The method commonly 
used is as follows: A sieve, laden with the 
sliced fruit, is placed in the tower and the 
brimstone fumes are allowed to pass 
through it. It is then hoisted to a higher 
point and exposed, to the air, and another 
tray of fruit takes its place. This in turn is 
elevated and replaced by a third tray. The 
process is continued until the tower is filled 
with the trays of fruit. But a comparatively 
short time is required to complete the pro- 
cess of evaporation, when the product is 



ready to be packed and shipped to any por- 
tion of the country or to Europe. Large 
shipments are annually made to France, 
Germany and Russia. In France the evap- 
orated fruit which comes from Western 
New York is in common use, and it is 
stated that the city of Rochester is better 
known in that country on account of its 
fruit products than in any other way. 

There is a suggestion in this which 
Southern fruit-growers would do well to 
consider. The opportunity for preserving 
fruit as outlined can be utilized by them. 
There are times when the crops of apples, 
peaches or plums may be so large that thej' 
cannot be marketed at once with any profit. 
In this case the use of evaporators would 
place the fruit in a condition where it could 
be stored for many months, or sent North 
and sold in that condition at a much higher 
price than in its fresh state. The cost of 
the evaporators is comparatively little, and 
one evaporator would do for a number of 
large orchards. The process can be applied 
to peaches, berries, plums, apricots, cher- 
ries, etc., as well as apples, and there is no 
reason why the Southern fruit-growers 
should not find a market in Europe for 
such goods, as well as the Northern horti- 
culturists. 

Agricultural Experiment Stations. 

Comparatively few persons in the United 
States, we presume, adequately understand 
what a great work has been accomplished 
by agricultural experiment stations in the 
United States, whichhadabeginning in Con- 
necticut only twenty-one years ago. These 
stations began, on a small scale, in Saxon}', 
in 1851, at Moeckern, a small village. Since 
that time they have multiplied all over Eu- 
rope, and, under the directing genius of 
some of the greatest chemists in the world, 
have given a stimulus to farming beyond all 
calculation. Chemistry applied to agriculture 
has become, as it were, a special department 
of science and the true friend of the enter- 



242 



EDITORIAL. 



prising farmer. So great is chemistry es- 
teemed in Europe that it is said a professor 
at Heidelberg University is paid no less 
than $40,000 a year. It would take many 
pages to describe what this science has 
done in recent years for the analysis of 
soils and production of fertilizers, the im- 
provement of crops and destruction of 
noxious insects. We are told that in two 
counties, of Georgia, located side by side, 
there is a marked difference in the farm 
production, because one of them is con- 
ducted in an old-fashioned rut, and the 
other along the lines of modern science. 
Everybody at all acquainted with the sub- 
ject knows that a rich and intelligent far- 
mer in any neighborhood, who is abreast 
with the age and given to development, 
exerts an amazing and beneficial effect upon 
people round about, who benefit by his 
knowledge and exploitation. When this 
example is vastly enlarged by State and 
government patronage, in an organized and 
disciplined form, as in experiment stations, 
the value of such an institution is incom- 
parably great and beneficent. These sta- 
tions issue periodical buUetins, based upon 
practical exploitation, and they are looked 
for eagerly by all cultivators of the soil who 
rise above mere plodding industry. Near 
Augusta, Ga., Mr. Berckmans, a Belgian 
gentleman, scientifically educated, bought 
a poor tract of land from a great cotton 
planter, and his failure was confidently an- 
ticipated by men of the old regime. He 
converted that nearly barren waste into a 
horticultural nursery which is a marvel of 
fecundity, and he has grown rich and fa- 
mous. He, to use one of Grady's epigrams, 
'manured the land with brains." Experi- 
ment stations follow along the Berckmans 
line, with a much more extensive opportu- 
nity, and they cannot be too highly com- 
mended or liberally sustained by the State 
or the government of the United States. 

An account of the work of agricultural 
experiment stations in the United States is 



given in another part of this number of the' 
"Southern States." 

Isolated Cities. 

It would seem to be a sort of paradox that 
no considerable town should exist within 
twenty miles of an important city, especially 
an old and famous seaport. Yet this is a fact 
concerning such cities as Charleston, Sa- 
vannah and New Orleans. They are what 
some one has called "isolated cities." The 
large cities of the East and West act mag- 
netically in the creation, as it were, of impor- 
tant and thriving circumjacent towns. Be- 
tween Wilmington, Del., and Philadelphia, 
and more notably between Philadelphia and 
New York, there is an almost continuous 
chain of enterprising municipalities, nour- 
ishing the metropoli'tan centre and being 
nourished in return. Savannah has no 
town of any consequence within twenty 
miles of it by rail. Charleston and New 
Orleans are in the same category. And yet 
these cities are historic, contemporaneous 
with our earliest history, splendidly situated 
and admirably circumstanced for wealth- 
production. There may be reasons con- 
nected with slavery, war, reconstruction 
and the like why such conditions exist, but 
it would be worth while for those cities to 
study the problem and see if correction of 
the evil is not comparatively easy. 

There is reciprocal opulence in busy 
towns circling around the great metropolis 
by miscellaneous trade. We have cited the 
cases of New York and Philadelphia. Bos- 
ton would not be half as wealthy as it is but 
for the hundred or more neighboring 
places, containing from 1000 to 20,000 peo- 
ple, located within a radius of about ninety 
miles of its limits. 

The cities of the South, such as Atlanta, 
Charleston, Savannah, New Orleans, Bir- 
mingham and others, should be actively in- 
terested in drawing colonies to the adjacent 
territory and in building up towns and vil- 
lages in the vicinity. Their continued 



EDITORIAL. 



243 



> growth and prosperity will be largely af- 
fected by the development of this outlying 
territory. 

We print elsewhere in this issue an ex- 
ceedingly interesting and noteworthy letter 
from Hon. J. M. Hubbard, of Connecticut, 
which is marked by a high and broad 
patriotism such as, unhappily, is too sel- 
dom encountered. The closing paragraph 
of the letter— 

"Our whole country is to be built up in 
beauty and strength, and we are all of us 
to be glad and grateful for the fact that all 



are citizens of the United States of 
America" — 

might well be printed permanently in con- 
spicuous type in every newspaper in the 
land, engraved upon the walls of every 
schoolroom and borne in the hearts of 
every citizen of our great country. 

The interesting article on "The Southern 
People," published in the July number of 
the "Southern States," was from the pen of 
]\Ir. Reginald Dykers, of New Orleans, 
whose name as author of 'the article was 
inadvertently omitted. 




Immigration Notes. 



A Dunkard Colony for Louisiana. 

A committee of Dunkards from widely- 
distant portions of the United States re- 
cently visited the neighborhood of Lake 
Charles, La., with the object of locating a 
large colony there should conditions be 
found satisfactory. The report made by 
this committee to the brethren of the church 
is highly commendatory. The committee 
is particularly well pleased with the climate, 
soil and future prospects of the country, 
and with the sociability and hospi'tality of 
the people. The report continues: "The 
climate is mild and healthful. The Gulf 
breeze cooling the atmosphere, makes the 
day pleasant. The soil is good, and grows 
vegetables the whole year. The country is 
level and adapted to the production of rice, 
sugar-cane, fruits and vegetables. An 
abundance of good fish are in the streams 
and waters; also fine beds of oysters. Such 
timber as pine, cypress, magnolia, live oak, 
etc., are in abundance, and good building 
timber is furnished to parties building 
houses at from $9 to $11 per thousand." 
The well-known thrift and industry of the 
Dunkards, almost without exception, will 
make a colony of them a valuable acquisi- 
tion. 

Hungarian Qrape=Qrowers in Texas. 

An experiment is to be made with Hun- 
garian immigration into Southern Texas, 
Messrs. Hahl & Pudor, of Houston, having 
contracted for a colony of farmers from 
Hungary, who will locate on a 4000-acre 
tract of land in Brazoria county, Texas. 
Twenty-five families are expected to arrive 
shortly in Galveston from Hamburg and 
Bremen and will at once locate on the 
colony lands. These immigrants expect to 
devote their attention very largely to the 
fruit and grape business. 

Knoxville, Tenn., real estate agents are 
negotiating with the promoters of a large 



colonization scheme originating in Illinois. 
About 15,000 acres are wanted as nearly in 
one body as possible. It is expected that 
representatives of the colony will visit 
Knoxville and other places in the South 
soon to more definitely determine on a 
locality. 

To Grow Sugar Beets in South Carolina. 

Mr. Julius Hartman, of Atlanta, Ga., is 
arranging to establish a colony of German 
families in South Carolina. The colonists 
will engage mainly in raising sugar-beets, 
and a factory will be built to utilize this 
product. 

In speaking of the enterprise, Mr. Hart- 
man says: 

"The emigration which the West has had 
for the past twenty-five years ha? now 
turned to the South. Our millions of acres 
of good farming land will soon be settled 
by Northern and European farmers. The 
land is cheap, and when the work is done 
here there are far better results than in any 
other section of the country. 

"Many farmers from my native country 
wanted to come to the South, provided I 
would agree to remain with them. This I 
at first refused to do, but I finally con- 
sented, and the next question with me was 
where to find the right sort of land for the 
cultivation of our chief crop, sugar-beets, 
as this will be a profitable business, with no 
tax to pay for the production of sugar, as 
in the case of Germany. The import of 
sugar is enormous, and amounts yearly to 
over $100,000,000, but this will not last, and 
the German farmers are well aware of it; 
consequently it cannot surprise us when a 
large immigration of farmers, well ac- 
quainted with all the methods of raising a 
high-standard sugar-beet, sets into this 
country, and when they are guided well it 
will be a blessing to them. 

"After a search of two years I have found 
exactly what I have been looking for in 
Abbeville county, South Carolina, near the 



244 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



245 



line of Georgia, and in the same latitude 
with Atlanta, having the same fine climate 
and delightful winters, with plenty of sun- 
shine, where the summer days and nights 
are not of that sultry nature existing in the 
North. The place is known as the 'garden 
spot' of South Carolina, consisting of a 
plateau of many thousand acres, with a 
first-class soil and the land nearly level, hav- 
ing just fall enough to turn off the surplus 
water into the small branches running 
through the property. It has many springs 
of the best freestone and mineral water. 
The Seaboard Air Line Railroad runs 
through the tract and will erect a station 
thereon. 

"To start a sugar factory it has been nec- 
essary to get all the land on this plateau 
under our control. This has now been 
done and a company organized. 

"We have laid off a town site and platted 
small farms around it in twenty-five, fifty 
and lOO-acre tracts, with streets and roads, 
to the best interests of the colony. We have 
an agent now in Germany, and I will join 
him there and will bring back a number of 
my countrymen who I will locate on this 
property. These German farmers are well- 
to-do, and will soon make a fine settlement, 
with a flourishing town in the centre. 
Good farmers on good soils always make a 
good town. These farmers will not only 
pay cash for the land they buy, but will 
build up good homes, and will also take an 
interest in the sugar factory. In 1898 we 
will be ready to raise sugar-beets and have 
a factory built with German capital to make 
them into sugar. The power will be elec- 
tricity. A large plant at Calhoun Falls, 
near by, will soon be erected. 

"There are at present only seven sugar- 
beet factories in this country — three in Cali- 
fornia, one in Utah, two in Nebraska and 
a small one in Virginia. There are 403 
large ones in Germany. The pecuniary re- 
sults here have been exceedingly profitable, 
even in Nebraska, where the season for 
good maturing of the beets is rather short 
and the price for labor is double what it is 
in the South. 

"Splendid food is left after the sugar is 
extracted from the beets to fatten fattle for 
the market, and the deep cultivation neces- 
sary to the successful raising of the sugar- 
beet enriches the land. 



"It will be a benefit to our farmers and 
the country generally to keep this money 
here which we send at present to foreign 
countries. Having the right kind of soil, 
well fitted for deep cultivation, there is no 
better place in this country to raise sugar- 
beets than the South. With plenty of sun- 
shine, but without drought, and a long sea- 
son of delightful weather, with the heavy 
Southern morning dews, such as I have 
never seen in any other parts of the coun- 
try, it brings just what is needed for the 
successful raising of the highest standard 
sugar-beet. A 25-acre farm in this colony, 
with seven acres yearly in sugar-beets, will 
give the diligent farmer a good and pros- 
perous home. W. J. Schafer, a German, 
near Chino, Cal.. planted last year five and 
one-half acres in sugar-beets. His harvest 
was 140 tons, or twenty-five and one-half 
tons per acre, with 14^^ per cent, sugar. 
The factory in Chino paid him $658 for his 
crop, or over $119 per acre. The price of 
the California land has gradually doubled 
and now costs over $200 per acre. Our 
land is just as well adapted to raising sugar- 
beets as theirs. It would be easy for us to 
settle all the land in this colony with farm- 
ers from Germany, but it would not be to 
their best interest, and we prefer to have some 
thrifty American farmers, especially Ger- 
mans, between them, as the farm work done 
here is so different from that in the Old 
Country, and, besides, I want to see these 
Germans become in the shortest time pos- 
sible good American citizens." 

The colony is to be known, in honor of 
its founder, as Colony Hartman. 

Immigration Needed. 

The Florida Times-Union refers to the 
fact that the population numbers only 
about eight to the square mile in Florida, 
and urges the subject of immigration upon 
the people of Florida as a matter of the 
most vital importance. 

"The State could easily sustain forty 
times its present population," says the 
Times-Union. "If it had such a popula- 
tion average land would be at least twenty 
times as valuable as now. Of course, such- 
a population should be distributed between 
country and town. That portion living in 
the country should not glut the markets 
with tropical fruits. With intelligent 



246 



IMMIGRATION NOTES. 



diversification 7,000,000 people could live 
in this State by the cultivation of the soil 
as well, or better, than 300,000 live now. 
With such products as tropical fruits of all 
kinds, strawberries, melons, peaches, pears, 
various kinds of garden vegetables, ramie 
and other fibrous plants, with cotton and 
corn, and other kinds of grain, the thought- 
ful man who cultivates the soil and dis- 
tributes his crops properly need fear no 
glutted markets." 

Rev. Dr. H. Engle, of Esterville, Iowa, 
and Prof. P. A. Eikeland, of the United 
Church Seminary, of Minneapolis, Minn., 
have been making a tour of Alabama in 
company with Prof. G. J. Eilestad, wko has 
been interested for some time in the work 
of inducing the immigration of Scandi- 
navians from the North to the South. 
Messrs. Engle and Eikeland represent a 
large number of Norwegian Lutherans, 
who have become dissatisfied with the hard 
conditions of the struggle for existence in 
the Northwest and who are turning to the 
South with longing eyes. The party vis- 
ited the thrifty colony of Swedes and Nor- 
wegians at Fruithurst, Ala., also the Scan- 
dinavian colony at Thorsby, and were very 
much pleased with the testimony gathered 
from their fellow-countrymen who had 
located at those places. 

A party of nine Northern colonists, ar- 
riving at Green Cove Springs, Fla., the 
middle of August, were amazed to find the 
climate much pleasanter than it was at their 
homes in the North, and they were so well 



impressed with the situation that they have 
begun to make selections of lands for gar- 
den farms, vineyards and pear orchards. 
The "Southern States" has always main- 
tained that the only way to get an aocurate 
idea of summer temperature in the South 
is for Northerners to go South in midsum- 
mer, and the experience above mentioned 
is simply a proof of the soundness of this 
contention. 

Under authority from the legislature, a 
census of Florida was taken in 1895, and 
statements regarding the population shown 
thereby have just been published. Ac- 
cording to this enumeration, there has been 
an increase of 18.7 per cent, in the popula- 
tion as compared with 1890, the summar)- 
being as follows: 

1890. 1895. Inc. 

White 224,949 271,561 46,612 

Colored 166,473 193,078 26,605 

Totals 391,422 464,639 73.217 

Between 1880 and 1890 the increase in 
population was 121,929, so that the increase 
of 73,217 in the succeeding five years is a 
very gratifying showing. It will be noted 
"that the increase in white population has 
been very considerably greater than of the 
colored, the percentage of increase being 
20.7 white to 15.9 black. 

A Chicago party has been in Orlando 
and other portions of Florida making in- 
vestigations looking to the location of a 
colonv of Germaa farmers. 



General Notes. 



An Unscrupulous Vilifier of the South. 

The Chicago Times-Herald recently pub- 
lished a letter from Georgia setting forth 
that the great Northern colony established 
at Fitzgerald had proved a failure; that sick- 
ness, death and dissatisfaction had greatly 
thinned out the population, and that those 
who hold on need expect nothmg in future 
but a dreary system of slavery to debt. The 
article was flagrantly false throughout. The 
correspondent cannot plead ignorance in de- 
fence of the charge of malicious slander, for 
th-e reason that any investigation would have 
shown that there was absolutely no founda- 
tion for his statements. Moreover, the 
same or similar slanderous stories, pub- 
lished several months ago in a North- 
western paper, were shown to be false, and 
the testimony in demonstration of this could 
not have failed to reach the notice of this 
Times-Herald correspondent, who is a 
writer on a leading Georgia daily news- 
paper. It is no doubt this fact, by the way, 
that gave him access to the columns of the 
Times-Herald. Being a Southerner and a 
member of the staff of a well-known and 
highly-regarded newspaper, he is supposed 
to know what he is writing about and to be 
reliable. The articles he has been sending 
to the Times-Herald and other Northern 
papers are written presumably for the sake 
of the paltry recompense they bring in the 
sum paid to space-writers, and he thinks to 
make them salable by decrying the South. 
It is worth taking note of, that not a single 
statement he has made is supported by tes- 
timony or any attempt at proof. Every 
claim he makes rests on his simple say so. 

The truth is, that the founding of Fitzger- 
ald is the most marvelously successful 
achievemenit in the field of enterprise which 
has been seen in the South or anywhere else 
for years, and i4:s condition today is one of 
pronounced prosperity. Not only are the 
present citizens of Fitzgerald enthusiastic 
over the situation, but there are promises 



of very large accessions to the colony be- 
tween September and January next. The 
town is full of life and activity. Arrange- 
ments are being made for a corn and cotton 
exposition to open September 8, a tourist 
hotel is being built, not less than fifty houses 
are in process of construction all the time, 
the price of real estate has advanced 
steadily, and numerous important develop- 
ments are in progress. All summer new 
families have continued to arrive, a wagon 
train of eleven teams having been a feature 
of one recent day, and advices received by 
the colony company indicate a heavy immi- 
gration movement to the colony during the 
coming fall. 

The editor of the "Southern States" has 
visited Fitzgerald, and he has constant in- 
formation about it from perfectly compe- 
tent, conservative and trustworthy sources, 
and he is in a position to say that the Fitz- 
gerald colony is a thriving, promising en- 
terprise, and is doing much better than 
could reasonably have been expected of an 
undertaking of such magnitude. A few 
months ago, after a personal visit to Fitz- 
gerald, he wrote of it as follows: 

"The success of this enterprise up to the 
present time, and i^s exemption from mis- 
hap, delay and disaster of every sort, is 
marvelous. Of course, there have been dif- 
ficulties to contend with, and there have 
been minor drawbacks and trifling discour- 
agements. The astonishmg fact is, that 
these have not been greater. There has 
been some sickness, but very Tittle, compar- 
atively. It is amazing that among 7000 or 
8000 people, including women and children, 
old and feeble persons, and some infirm and 
delicate ones, all subejctto more or less pri- 
vation, to insufficient shelter and to change 
of food and water following the fatigue of 
long travel — it is amazing, I say. that there 
has not been a great deal of sickness, and 
that there have not been a great many 
deaths. The fact that there has been so little 



247 



248 



GENERAL NOTES. 



is a fine demonstration of the healthfulness 
of the locaUty. 

"It is remarkable, too, that among so 
many people there have not been found a 
considerable number of disappointed and 
dissatisfied, and particularly when the pres- 
ent crude conditions are considered; but 
there have probably not been a dozen fam- 
ilies that have cared to withdraw from the 
colony and go back to their old homes. 
The few cases of sickness that have occurred 
and 'the few disappointed colony members 
have been eagerly seized upon by those cap- 
tious persons whose chief pursuit is to find 
fault with and rail at the plans of other peo- 
ple, and by certain Northwestern newspaper 
writers, and heralded as indications of disin- 
tegration, demoralization and collapse. It 
may be safely said 'that there is not anywhere 
an enterprise of any sort more full of vigor, 
vitality and promise than this Fitzgerald 
colony." 

The Macon (Ga.) Telegraph said edi- 
torially in its issue of August 6: 

"The Telegraph has watched the course 
of this wonderful new town in Wiregrass 
Georgia, and it is only a week since a mem- 
ber of the stafif of this paper visi'ted the town 
for the special purpose of satisfying us that 
the statements made as to its growth and 
conditions were true. The fact of the matter 
is that Fitzgerald makes a most remarkable 
showing; that the town is in a prosperous 
condition, and that the health record during 
the summer mon'ths has been excellent, con- 
sidering the fact that the town has grown 
from the wild pine woods to a population of 
from 5000 to 6000 within the last eight 
months, and that the rush of population has 
been much greater than the promoters of 
the colony looked for during that time. 
Sworn statements show that during the 
month of July only eight deaths occurred in 
the colony. 

"It is evident, from interviews with new 
settlers, taken at random throughout the 
town and on the small farms around it, that 
as a rule the people who have come to Geor- 
gia are very well satisfied. The town pre- 
sents a most prosperous appearance, and 
notwithstanding the fact that the season of 
the year is not conducive to a spirit of 
energy, Fitzgerald gives evidence of a 
steady, substantial and vigorous growth. 

"The directors of the colony have acted 



honestly with the people, and have not mis- 
represented anything. For the last four 
months every effort has been made to pre- 
vent new members from coming in because 
of the danger of a radical change of climate 
and surroundings during the heated term. 
Notwithstanding this fact, the settlers con- 
tinue to come in, and for miles around Fitz- 
gerald, as well as in the town itself, build- 
ing is going on. 

"The directors of the colony confidently 
expect an influx of several thousand settlers 
before the opening of the new year. The 
representatives of the railroads indorse this 
expectation and saj^ that reports from agents 
all through the West point to a very large 
exodus from the West to the South. 

"Of course, it is to be expected that in the 
case of an enterprise and undertaking such 
as this there will always come with the rush 
of first settlers a number of people who ex- 
pect to find a very different condition of 
things from what actually exists. For one 
reason or another they leave to return to 
their homes, and of course when they get 
back home are only too anxious to offer an 
excuse for their return, and will lay the 
blame on the colony. Then again, there al- 
ways follows in the wake of great immigra- 
tion movements an element that is objec- 
tionable to the people who are in earnest 
about making new homes for themselves, 
but that element soon disperses and is the 
first to spread maliciously false reports. 
These things have happened in the case of 
Fitzgerald, and the promoters of the colony 
make no secret of the fact that a percentage 
of the first population has left. Naturally, 
they are glad of it, because they neither want 
an element of discontent nor an element ob- 
jectionable to the best portion of the com- 
munity." 

A Magic City. 

The newest magic city on the map is 
called Mena, and is in Pope county, Arkan- 
sas, half-way between Kansas City and Port 
Arthur, on the new Kansas City, Pittsburg 
& Gulf Railroad. Two months ago there 
was no town there at all. Today there are 
3000 people, and they are coming in at the 
rate of fifty to 100 a day. The railroad has 
just been finished to the town, and it is 
booming at a rate which causes its friends to 
prophesy that within a year it will have a 



GENERAL NOTES. 



249 



population of 10,000. Investigation shows 
that these aspirations are not entirely with- 
out substantial foundation, as it is a well- 
known fact that the Kansas City, Pittsburg 
& Gulf Railroad opens up one of the richest 
sections from start to finish that is tributary 
to any railroad in the country, and Pope 
county, Arkansas, is one of the rich sections 
now first penetrated by a railroad. The re- 
sources of this county are varied, and the 
horticultural and agricultural interests are 
sufficient to justify a considerable trading 
point on these grounds alone. In addition, 
however, to these natural advantages, it is 
the intention of the railroad company to 
throw all the weight of its influence in favor 
of making this new town of Mena an impor- 
tant commercial and manufacturing centre 
for the entire section. The company is al- 
ready building roundhouses, and a fine 
stone depot, and other improvements of a 
substantial character are being made. A 
picturesque surrounding is one of the attrac- 
tive features of the location, a pleasing com- 
bination of mountain, vale and river scenei-y 
affording a picture of great beauty. The 
elevation is about 1200 feet above sea-level, 
and in point of healthfulness the locality is 
said to be unsurpassed. There are a num- 
ber of springs near by whose waters possess 
medicinal qualities, and it is proposed to 
make something of a pleasure and health re- 
sort of the place. 

An inaugural excursion has been ar- 
ranged by the Kansas City, Pittsburg & 
Gulf Railroad for August 18, 19 and 20, the 
excursion train starting from Kansas City, 
which is distant from Mena 382 miles. 

The Georgia Horticultural Society. 

The annual meeting of the Georgia State 
Horticultural Society, held at Griffin, in 
August, was an unusually well-attended and 
representative meeting, and indicates a 
gratifying increase in the interest mani- 
fested by Georgians generally in the exten- 
sion of fruit culture throughout the State, 
already a very important industry. The 
horticultural interests of Georgia are sus- 
ceptible of very much greater development, 
and the State's horticultural society is do- 
ing valuable work in this direction. The 
meetings of the society are devoted to the 
subjects of fruit culture in all its forms, and 
especially to new varieties, fruit diseases and 



the adaptation of different localities to dif- 
ferent varieties of fruit. The next meeting 
of the society will occur in August, 1897, at 
Savannah. 

Col. Killebrew's Work for tlie South. 

The Nashville (Tenn.) American of a re- 
cent date contained the following letter: 

"My attention has been called to an arti- 
cle in a magazine entitled, "The Southern 
States," written by Col. J. B. Killebrew. 
I am so much pleased with this able 
article that I wish, through your paper, to 
call attention to certain facts brought out 
by Colonel Killebrew, as I think it is of 
great importance to keep them constantly 
and prominently before our people. Col- 
onel Killebrew says: 'Instituting a com- 
parison between the States of Ohio, In- 
diana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Min- 
nesota, Iowa, Missouri, North and South 
Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas, known as 
the North Central States on the one hand, 
and the States of Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, 
Oklahoma and Arkansas, known as the 
South Central States, on the other, some 
significant facts will appear and some start- 
ling conclusions reached. The figures 
used are from the census of 1890. The value 
of land, fences and buildings belonging to 
the 1,923,822 farmers of the North Central 
States was in 1890 $7,069,767,154. The re- 
turned value of the farm products for the 
preceding year in these States was $1,112,- 
949,820, or 15.7 per cent, of the value of the 
farms and improvements. 

" 'Now take the South Central States, 
and we shall find that the value of the land, 
fences and buildings on the 1,080,772 farms 
embraced in this group of States during the 
year 1890 was $1,440,022,598^ while the value 
of the farm products in 1889 was $480,337,- 
764, which is ^sYi per cent, of the total valu- 
ation of the farms and improvements. The 
conclusion drawn from these figures is in- 
evitable, viz, that the same amount of cap- 
ital invested in farms and farm improve- 
ments in the South Central States will yield 
more than twice the per cent, on the invest- 
ment as it would if invested in the North 
Central States.' 

"These facts, as quoted by Colonel Kille- 
brew, are remarkable, yet they are authen- 
tic, because they are taken from the census 
reports. Let us now inquire why it is that 



250 



GENERAL NOTES. 



the value of the product of the farms in the 
South Central States is 3316 per cent, of the 
value of the land and improvements, and 
only 15.7 per cent, of the value of the land 
and improvements in the North Central 
States? There are two reasons for this dif- 
ference. One is, lands in the Southern 
States are not as high as they are in the 
Northern States, yet will produce just as 
well. The other reason is, the things pro- 
duced on Southern farms sell for a better 
price than those produced on the Northern 
farms. When corn is worth thirty cents 
per bushel in the Northern States, it is 
worth forty to fifty cents per bushel in the 
South. When hay is worth $6 per 
ton in the North, it is worth $10 in the 
South. The question would naturally 
arise, why are these stable products of the 
farm worth more in the South than they are 
in the North? The answer is found in the 
fact that the South does not produce as 
much of these products as is consumed by 
her own people, while the North must find 
a foreign market for her surplus. All the 
lands of the North are planted to hay, 
wheat, oats and corn, while we plant our 
lands to hay, wheat, oats, corn, cotton, rice, 
tobacco and sugar-cane. 

"If all our lands in the South were planted 
to corn, hay, wheat and oats, it would les- 
sen the price of our corn, wheat, oats and 
hay, because we would make more than our 
people could use, and the surplus would 
pull down the price of all. 

"Such facts as these cannot be kept too 
prominently before the people. Colonel 
Killebrew, as emigrant agent for the Nash- 
ville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Railroad, is 
doing a great work for this section. He 
has done more to attract the attention of 
Northern farmers to Tennesseee and Ala- 
bama than all else that has ever been writ- 
ten by others. His work is beginning to 
bear fruit. We have had a number of emi- 
grants to Lewis county from the North 
during the past twelve months. Only last 
week we had five well-to-do Illinois farmers 
with us looking at our lands. All were 
well pleased, and went back home to sell 
their farms to come to Tennessee, where 
they can get cheaper homes and escape the 
long, cold winters of the North. 

"J. A. CUNNINGHAM. 
"Kimmins, Tenn., June 19, 1896." 



The Atlanta & West Point Railway. 

Moody's Magazine has an interesting 
sketch of Mr. George C. Smith, president 
of the Atlatita & West Point Railroad and 
Western Railway of Alabama, from which 
the following paragraphs are taken: 

"Mr. George C. Smith is a practical and 
thorough railway man, and his present po- 
sition as president and general manager of 
the Atlanta & West Point Railroad is a 
step higher in a long and successful career. 

"He was born in Grantville, Washington 
county. New York, March 4, 1855. He 
graduated from Adrian College, Adrian, 
Mich., in June, 1877, and began his busi- 
ness career the same year as private secre- 
tary to the Governor of Michigan. This 
position he held till 1881, when he entered 
railway service as secretary to H. M. 
Hoxie, general manager .of the Interna- 
tional & Great Northern Railroad, in 
Texas, and retained this position until 1882. 
From i88j to 1886 he was secretary to 
Capt. R. S. Hayes, first vice-president of the 
Missouri Pacific Railway, holding this po- 
sition until 1890. In this year he was ap- 
pointed assistant general manager of this 
system, and from 1893 to 1894 he held, also, 
in conjunction with this office, the position 
of general manager of the Kansas City, 
Wyandotte & Northwestern Railway. 

"He received his appointment as presi- 
dent and general manager of the Atlanta 
& West Point Railroad and of the Western 
Railway of Alabama in 1894. 

"The entire management of the railway 
has shown a marked improvement under 
his experienced hand and trained ability. 
He has improved the freight and passenger 
service, until the people along the line 
boast of having the best transportation fa- 
cilities to be found in the South. The result 
is already being seen in the springing up of 
factories along the line, in the development 
of the fruit industry and in the growth of 
the cities and towns. The road holds a 
commanding position, and Mr. Smith 
thoroughly understands and fully utilizes 
its advantages. 

"President Smith's financial statement 
for the last fiscal year shows the best year 
in the road's history. Both gross and net 
earnings are larger than they ever were 
before. The gross earnings for the year 
ending June 30, 1896, are $533,838.51, an in- 



GENER4L NOTES. 



251 



crease of $59,816.21. Net earnings are 
$217,164.30, an increase of $17,211.21 com- 
pared with the previous year. 

"After the payment of interest and divi- 
dends the surphis amounts to about $52,000, 
which has been invested in additional 
freight and passenger equipment, pur- 
chased and placed in service during the 
year. 

"One of the striking features of the finan- 
cial statement is the gain in the receipts of 
the passenger department. The passenger 
income for 1896 is over $95,000 ahead of 
the corresponding period of 1895. Cap't. 
John A. Gee, the general passenger agent 
of this line, has been so long in its service 
that he knows every mile of track, the wants 
of every patron along his line, and, it is 
said, almost every resident in his territory." 

Texas Fruit in Chicago. 

Mr. T. H. Thompson returned recently 
from Chicago, where he has spent several 
weeks superintending the marketing of 
Texas fruit shipped by the firm from Tyler. 
He placed forty-two carloads of peaches on 
the Chicago market, and says that the re- 
turns were much better than expected, con- 
sidering the dullness and depression in all 
lines of trade at that time. 

The best result obtained by Air. Thomp- 
son's trip was the demonstration that Texas 
peaches can compete with those from any 
State in the Union. Speaking of this, Mr. 
Thompson said: "Peaches shipped by our 
representatives from Tyler always found 
ready sale in Chicago, and were in much 
better demand than any other fruit of that 
class placed on the market. California 
peaches ranked as seconds in comparison 
with the Texas article, and on several oc- 
casions I saw our peaches sell for two and 
three times as much as those from the 
Golden State. I have always contended 
that this State could and did raise the best 
peaches grown in the United States, and 
was anxious for this opportunity to demon- 
strate it upon the largest fruit market in the 
United States. 

"We have now made a reputation in Chi- 
cago, and if there is a good fruit season 
next year we expect to ship between 200 and 
300 carloads of Texas peaches to that point. 
Growers around Tyler and other East 
Texas towns are now cultivating the very 



finest varieties to be obtained, are learning 
all the latest methods of packing and hand- 
ling, and will be prepared for a big business 
next year. Prior to this season only one or 
two carloads of Texas peaches were ever 
sent to Chicago. Hereafter the fruit dealers 
in that city will demand large shipments. 

"Our peaches ripen earlier than those 
from any other section, and will retain their 
place on the market longer. Naturally the 
rules of supply and demand aiifect the mar- 
ket there as well as anywhere else, but tak- 
ing it all in all the Texas fruit will secure 
a better price than any other. Some days 
it seemed that fruit from every part of the 
countr}' poured into Chicago, and then, of 
course, prices were very low. We also 
shipped one or two carloads of peaches to 
Minneapolis, St. Paul and other Northern 
points, and received very encouraging let- 
ters from the dealers, who stated that the 
Texas peaches were the best they had ever 
handled. 

"Practically every carload of fruit sent 
from Tyler arrived in good condition. They 
were shipped in refrigerator cars, sent by 
fast trains and not delayed in transit. If 
the general condition of trade had been bet- 
ter, prices would, of course, have averaged 
more, but money is just as scarce in Chi- 
cago as it is anywhere else. Of course, the 
fruit trade felt the effects of this, but our 
Texas shipments turned out much better 
than we expected." — The Post, Houston, 
Texas. 

A Boston Journalist on the South. 

Mr. .George A. Benham is a lawyer and 
journalist, of Boston, who has traveled all 
over the United States east of the Rockies, 
and visited nearly every leading city, study- 
ing social, economic and industrial condi- 
tions and writing extensively for leading 
papers. He has spent about eight months 
traveling in the South. Speaking of his in- 
vestigations, he said recently: 

"The West and Northwest are merely re- 
productions of the East, with such modifi- 
cations as are incident to the settlement of 
a new country. But in the South things 
are radically dift'erent, and the conditions 
of life, of social economics, present an en- 
tirely new" phase. 

"The nature of the soil and climate, the 
character of the people and their' manners 



252 



GENERAL NOTES. 



and customs, the colored race existing un- 
der peculiar conditions, the mode of con- 
ducting public affairs, the public and private 
institutions, and the sentiments of the people, 
all present to the Northern or other visitor a 
most interesting and instructive field for 
study. And this is especially true, because 
the South is in a transitory period, or in a 
state of evolution. 

"An increased demand for raw products 
has been followed by improved processes 
of agriculture. New or abandoned lands 
have been worked through the aid of irri- 
gation, and improved implements have 
been introduced. The result has been a vast 
gain in the amount, character and value of 
agricultural products and a vast enhance- 
ment in values of lands. 

"The fruit industry of the South has at- 
tained enormous proportions and is a 
source of vast revenues. Circumstances are 
decidedly in favor of this industry, as well 
as truck farming. Florida suffered terribly 
by the freezing of the orange trees — a real 
blessing, since it caused a proper diversifi- 
cation of industries, but these are growing 
up again, and the quantity of that delicious 
fruit will soon be normal South. Mean- 
while the farmers are raising vegetables, 
grain and producing other things available 
for home consumption. Georgia and East- 
ern Alabama are making wonderful prog- 
ress in the raising of grapes, peaches, pears 
and the ever-delicious watermelon and can- 
taloupe, which are luxuries and promoters 
of health. The soil of these States is well 
adapted to fruit-raising. Northern Ala- 
bama and Southern Tennessee are the 
scenes of great and profitable operations in 
coal and iron, centering largely about Bir- 
mingham and Chattanooga. Mississippi is 
still a pastoral and agricultural State; so 
with Texas, largely. Louisiana is develop- 
ing the rice and sugar industry, with excel- 
lent results. North Carolina and South 
Carolina are, as usual, large producers of 
cotton and corn, though manufactures are 
making rapid strides in those States. 

"The fabrication of raw materials close 
to the places of production, increased by 
the powerful stimulus of cheap coal and 
labor and excellent transportation facilities, 
has largely changed the aspect of many 
localities in the South and vastly enriched 
the entire country.'' 



Everything Tending Southward. 

The trend of things is now all toward the 
South. The farmers are coming and the 
manufacturers are coming, and whether 
silver is voted up or down the procession is 
going to move, and it will not be long be- 
fore the wheels go round in every part of 
the South, which takes advantage of the 
movement and brings its resources before 
the people who are coming. This takes 
spirit and enterprise; it costs time, money 
and intelligent effort, and cannot be ac- 
complished by mule shows, such as Vicks- 
burg delights in. Colonel Powers, the in- 
defatigable industrial commissioner of the 
Illinois Central, has been hard at work for 
the past few months, and as the result of 
his efforts a large number of new enter- 
prises are being located, none of them, how- 
ever, in Vicksburg. Among them are 
creameries, shirt-waist factories, sleigh- 
runner factories, stone quarries, fruit and 
candy package factories, planing mills and 
cotton-mill loom factories, and a great va- 
riety of manufacturing enterprises, more so 
than ever before. This diversity of the new 
enterprises is a source of satisfaction to 
railroad people, for the reason that it tends 
to diversify the labor, and the people where 
these new plants are located have an oppor- 
tunity of making a living some other way 
than by manual labor in the fields, raising 
cotton and corn. — Southland, Vicksburg, 
Miss. 

The Growth of Tampa. 

Among other evidences of the remark- 
able growth of the city of Tampa, Fla., in 
the last ten years, the statistics of the busi- 
ness of the Tampa custom-house are very 
striking. For the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1895, the custom-house receipts were 
$73-30, and the total receipts from the es- 
tablishment of the custom-house up to that 
time aggregated 1438.28. So rapid has 
been the growth of the city's industries that 
the custom-house receipts for the fiscal year 
ending in 1890 were $254,688.22, and for 
1896, $783,756.77. There has been a large 
increase every year, the aggregate receipts 
since 1885 having been $3,453,4i5-73- 

The people of Tampa naturally feel that 
the United States government should erect 
a handsome building in place of the 
meagre and unsightly structure which was 



J 



GENERAL NOTES. 



253 



used when the business of the port was less 
than a hundred dollars annually, and is 
totally inadequate and unfit for the present 
volume of business, already exceeding a 
quarter of a million and growing at the 
rate of $150,000 to $200,000 a year. 

On this point a writer in the Florida Citi- 
zens says: 

"This array of figures argues well for the 
erection of a public building in this city, 
and if 10 per cent, of the amount paid into 
the treasury of the United States by this 
port should be allowed for such a purpose 
the people of Tampa would be quite well 
satisfied. No other city in the State can 
make so satisfactory a financial showing. 
Many excellent government buildings are 
to be seen in less deserving cities." 

What a Kansas City Trust Company and 

a Railroad are Doing in Behalf of 

Southern Development. 

Mr. A. E. Stilwell, president of the Mis- 
souri, Kansas & Texas Trust Co. and vice- 
president of the Kansas City, Pittsburg & 
Gulf Railroad, and his associates in these 
enterprises are doing a great work for the 
advancement of the entire Southwest and 
indirectly for the whole South. Looking to 
the upbuilding of the country tributary to 
this railroad system, his companies are 
carrying out active, broadminded plans that 
should be followed by every railroad and 
financial institution in the South. These 
plans are broad enough to prove of im- 
mense value to the entire South. In his 
eiiforts to awaken a widespread interest 
throughout this country and Europe in the 
development of direct trade between Eu- 
rope and the West via Southern ports, and 
to attract men, money and manufactures to 
States through which this road passes, such 
as Missouri, Texas, Arkansas and Louisi- 
ana, Mr. Stilwell wrote to the Manufactur- 
ers' Record, of Baltimore, under date of 
July 7, as follows: 

"We have watched with much inter- 
est the effective work you are doing 
in attracting attention to the South, in 
aiding in its industrial development, and 
especially the Manufacturers' Record's suc- 
cessful efforts to awaken a widespread in- 
terest, both in this country and abroad, in 
the upbuilding of Southern ports, as outlets 
to foreign markets for Western products. 
We would, therefore, take the liberty of 



suggesting that you publish a special edi- 
tion, to be devoted to the relation of Kan- 
sas City, as the central point between the 
West and South, to the development of di- 
rect trade through the natural and nearest 
outlet for Western products. This city is 
rapidly coming to the front as the concen- 
trating point for a vast grain traffic destined 
for Europe through Southern ports, and the 
early completion of the Kansas City, Pitts- 
burg & Gulf Railroad — the most important 
line that has been built during the late pe- 
riod of depression — will turn to the Gulf at 
Port Arthur an enormous Western export 
business, and practically begin a real revo- 
lution in the Southern trend of Western 
trade. 

"If you will undertake as an immediate 
sequel to your New Orleans edition a 
'Kansas City and Gulf Issue' our company 
will subscribe for not less than 10,000 extra 
copies, and carefully mail them to leading 
business houses, bankers, manufacturers, 
exporters and other desirable classes both 
in this country and in Europe. This com- 
pany, on account of its allied railway and 
manufacturing interests to the southward, 
desire to have such facts as you would pub- 
lish brought directly to the attention of the 
classes named. For the construction of the 
Pittsburg, Kansas City & Gulf Railroad -and 
its terminals we have financed exceeding 
$16,000,000, and as this great North and 
South air line will open up a region of vast 
resources — timber, mineral and agricultural 
— and give the West the shortest line to the 
Gulf, we will see that every one of the 10,- 
000 extra copies ordered shall be put where 
it will do the most good." 

Accepting this suggestion, the Manufac- 
turers' Record will publish in September 
a special edition that will have the widest 
circulation throughout the North and West 
and in Europe. It will reach many thou- 
sands of the leading manufacturers and 
capitalists in this country and abroad, and 
must prove of very great value to the entire 
Southwest. Mr. Stilwell and his companies 
deserve the thanks of all interested in the 
welfare of this section. 

Mr. M. V. Richards, Washington, D. C, 
land and industrial agent of the Southern 
Railway, is sending out a folder with in- 
formation about homeseekers' excursions 
in August, September and October. On 



254 



GENERAL NOTES. 



certain dates, both one-way and round-trip 
tickets will be sold at reduced rates from 
■the North and West to all points on the line 
of the Southern. 

A Prosperous Georgia Canning Factory. 

The Oemler Canning Factory, on Wil- 
mington Island, near Savannah, Ga., is 
turning out 5000 cans of vege'tables a day. 
The Oemler factory employs at present 
eighty hands in the fields and in the factory. 

The factory is now putting up tomatoes, 
okra and beans. Mr. Oemler has about 
sixty acres of land planted in tomatoes, 
about eight acres in beans and about seven 
acres in okra. The yield of tomatoes is 
between 500 and 600 bushels to the acre, 
making a total yield of 33,000 bushels. The 
okra crop is continuous from the time it 
begins until frost. The bean crop is now 
in its prime. The industry is in itself an 
interesting one. Besides the farm owned 
by Mr. Oemler, "the factory furnishes a 
market for the truck grown by the small 
farmers on the island. All of the product 
of the factory is grown on the island. The 
majority of the employes own small patches 
of land which are planted in truck, and 
these supply the factory with vegetables. 
About one-half of the employes are women 
and children. The factory hands earn from 
seventy-five cents to $1 a day. Some of the 
skilled hands, the cappers and processors, 
who work by the piece, earn much larger 
wages, some of them as high as $4 and $5 
a day. 

The factory markets the great part of its 
canned product in New York, although a 
large quantity of canned goods is sent 
West, principally to Chicago. The factory 
will begin canning oysters in October, and 
turns out then as high as 12,000 cans of 
oysters a day. 

The Italian Colony in Arkansas. 

Readers of the "Southern States" will 
remember the Italian colony established 
last year in Arkansas by the late Mr. Austin 
Corbin, an account of which was published 
in the December number of the "Southern 
States." 

Mr. F. W. Watkins, the manager of the 
colony, gives the following account of the 
present condition of the colony: 

"It was feared at first that the Italians 



would prove undesirable citizens, but just 
the opposite has been the case. They came 
to Sunnyside, took possession of the homes 
which had been prepared for them, and at 
once began working out their own salva- 
tion. The soil is very productive, and the 
energy they have expended upon it is now 
showing signs of abundant return, on which 
account they are very happy and contented. 
They have raised good crops of corn and 
some little grain. Cotton they have not 
troubled with a great deal. 

"I have been in charge of the colony since 
it was first inaugurated, and I am convinced 
that they make as good citizens as one could 
wish for. This seems to be the opinion, 
too, of the people who live adjoining 
them." 

Mr. Watkins says that only a few months 
after they came there application for natur- 
alization papers was made, and they have 
all become regular citizens of the State. 
They are represented by Mr. Watkins as 
taking an active interest in all that concerns 
the welfare of the State, and really make 
intelligent voters. They have raised money 
for the erection of a church, and work is 
rapidly progressing upon the building. A 
priest has made his appearance in the col- 
ony, and schoolhouses have been erected, 
so that it is evident they are already in line 
with the advanced ideas of the day. 

Mr. Watkins says that the Italians have 
become so much attached to their new 
home that every efifort will be made by 
them to induce many of their friends in the 
old country to join them, and there is every 
indication of many more of their relatives 
and friends finding an asylum in this blessed 
land of liberty and freedom. 

It is stated that the people of the section 
of country where these Italians are living 
have been watching the developments of 
the new colony, and are so well pleased 
with the character of the Italians as citizens 
that an efifort will be made to have another 
colony established. 

A Thrifty Florida Farmer. 

Mr. H. P. Gradick, of Geneva, Fla., has 
sixty-two hives of bees that are storing 
away honey very rapidly. He took out 
forty gallons of honey the last week in July 
and expected to take out fifty gallons the 
next week. He is a successful farmer, and 
has raised his supplies at home since the 



GENERAL NOTES. 



255 



freezes of the winter of 1894-95. He has 
just harvested a fine crop of corn, and saved 
enough fodder to feed his stock for another 
year and still have some for sale. He 
makes his own meat at home, and this, with 
chickens, eggs, butter and milk, enables 
him to live like a prince. He had a fine 
grove prior to the freeze. He has budded 
his frozen trees, and now there is a fine, 
new growth, which gives promise of bear- 
ing next year. 

Louisiana as a Field for Immigrants. 

A writer in the Leeds (England) Mer- 
cury says: "In Louisiana the peculiarities 
and characteristics of Southern life are 
more accentuated than in Georgia or the 
two Carolinas; the 'older South' is more in 
evidence there, and the emigrant who 
makes up his mind to settle there has not 
only to attach himself to the land, but to 
the habits and customs of the people, with 
whom there still lingers much that is 
French, with something that is Spanish, 
and an easy-going negro population that 
cannot be overlooked or set aside. The 
climate compares favorably with that of 
California and Oregon. In the hottest 
weather the cool Gulf breeze tempers the 
heat. I have had placed at my service a 
letter from a resident of Millersville, La., 
to a friend in Dakota, which presents a few 
interesting points regarding the life of a 
settler in Southwestern Louisiana. It is 
dated December 15, and says (inter alia), 
'When I read of 30° below zero and no coal 
I shudder, and wonder if I really was ever 
there. We have had a few frosts, the grass 
is green, and cattle and horses on the range 
are fat and sleek. I am writing in a room 
without fire and doors open. We don't fear 
a coal famine; we can go and get enough 
fuel to last a week in an hour's time and it 
won't cost a cent. We live on as beautiful 
a prairie as ever lay out of doors. Magnifi- 
cent timber of all kinds on either side within 
a mile and one-half. Good fence lumber 
cost $7 per 1000 feet, and health is as good 
as in Dakota. Abundance of wild fruit from 
March to August. Peaches, nectarines, 
figs, apricots. Japan persimmons are prop- 
agated from cuttings and come into bear- 
ing in two years. Pears begin to bear in 
from three to five years, and this is the 
home of the best. These prairies produce 
grass to beat the world; will average 'more 



to the acre than ten acres in Dakota. There 
have been thousands of tons of hay shipped 
this fall at prices that net more cash than a 
Dakota wheat crop. These are some of the 
things that strike a Dakota man favorably. 
I could tell you of some things not quite so 
pleasant, but nothing, to compare to a straw 
fire. This country is filling up with North- 
ern people, property is advancing in price 
every day, and I have the first Northern 
settler yet to see who wants to spend the 
winter in Michigan. Horace Greely said, 
"It is easier to raise a steer in Texas than 
to raise a hen in Maine," and I am not sure 
but it is cheaper to raise a whole herd of 
cattle here than to pull one old cow around 
by the horns, hunting for water and fresh 
grass in Dakota. Nothing but extreme 
poverty drove me out of Dakota, and now 
I do thank the good Lord for one spell of 
poverty, and that by contrasting this with 
Dakota I can the more enjoy the glorious 
weather, the beauty of the landscape, etc. 
How we can laugh at the storm and the 
coal dealers and the straw pile; how we 
can luxuriate on the sweet potato, rice, 
poultry, eggs, sugar and syrup, corn bread, 
beef at five cents per pound, etc., all of home 
production. Here, if we can't buy shoes, 
we can be independent, and go barefoot and 
never think of freezing.' " 

State and United States Lands in flis^ 
sissippi. 

The State of Mississippi has for sale 
about 500,000 acres of land. This land is 
divided into three principal classes: 

First — The Chickasaw school lands, 
about 30,000 acres, held at $6 per acre. 
These lands were selected by agents of the 
State prior to 1850 from the broad domain 
of the general government, which at that 
date embraced three-fifths of the entire 
lands of the State, and it is reasonable to 
suppose that the State's agent located the 
best. They were mainly located in the delta 
on lands bordering on the delta, and were 
intended for agricultural purposes. 

Second — Forfeited tax lands, about 300.- 
000 acres, held at one-half of their assessed 
value, are lands forfeited and sold to the 
State for non-payment of taxes. The law 
requires that the land remain in the audi- 
tor's office for two years after sale to the 
State, during which time they are subject 
to redemption by the owner; thereafter 



256 



GENERAL NOTES. 



offered by the land commissioner for sale 
at the prices above stated. These lands are 
scattered all over the State and in nearly 
every county. 

Third — Swamp lands, about 150,000 acres, 
held at $1.25 per acre. These are lands 
granted the State under the act of Congress 
appfoved September 28, 1850, and the acts 
amendatory thereto. These are strictly 
timbered lands and located in the south- 
eastern portion or pine belt of the State. 
The name "sv^ramp land" is a misnomer, as 
there is little, if any, of the land of a swampy 
character, the lands having been given to 
the State in lieu of lands disposed of by the 
government which were of a swampy char- 
acter, and bought from the government for 
the sake of the fine cypress and other tim- 
ber which covered them at that time. 

In addition to the foregoing, the Con- 
gress of the United Sta'tes has granted to 
the State university and agricultural col- 
leges of the State some 70,000 acres of land, 
which has been selected from the finest pine 
lands in the South, and are for sale or lease 
by the trustees of the various institutions of 
learning. 

The United States has about 800,000 
acres of land in Mississippi, chiefly in the 
southern portion of the State. These kinds 
are finely timbered, as a rule. They are 
subject to homestead, as in other States. 

Another Western View. 

A factor has arisen in hog-raising that 
will tend to greatly broaden the industry. 
For a century the South has furnished a 
good market for Northern-grown pork. 
All that old-settled region lying south of 
the Ohio and east of the Mississippi has 
always been a large consumer of Northern 
pork. Its agriculture, during the slavery 
period, ran almost entirely to the two great 
staples, cotton and tobacco. Live stock 
was neglected, and is still neglected mark- 
edly. One can travel hundreds of miles by 
rail in the South and never see a stock car 
or a stock-yard. The older farmers of the 
South have not yielded to new conditions, 
and have not materially departed from the 
customs of the past. They have gone on 
raising cotton and tobacco, and have barely 
subsisted. Today, with the exception of 
horses and mules in Kentucky, not one of 
the States of the old South equals either of 
the Dakotas in production and value of 



live stock. Yet the natural advantages of 
the South for profitable swine-raising are 
superior to those of the North. So favor- 
able are the conditions in some portions 
that wild hogs flourish in droves. While 
the South naturally lacks the nutritious 
grasses of the North, it is richer in mast, 
and is capable of producing clover and 
other forage crops that will equal any grown 
in the North. It has climatic conditions, 
too, which will make it possible to produce 
pork there much cheaper than in the 
North, to say nothing of the present cheap- 
ness of the land, much of which can be 
made to rival Iowa and Illinois in corn pro- 
duction. These things have been noted by 
Northern farmers, and the tide of migration 
that has been westward since the early set- 
tlement of the country is now setting South. 
And with that migration is going the spirit 
and enterprise that will revolutionize 
Southern agriculture and stock-raising. — 
Western Swineherd. 

It is quite true that for many years after 
the war the South raised cotton almost ex- 
clusively, but it is not accurate to say that 
this was the case before the war. No part 
of the United States had a more diversified 
agriculture than the South had up to the 
beginning of the war. 

With one-third of the country's popula- 
tion and only one-fourth of the white popu- 
lation, the South not only produced all the 
cotton, rice and sugar raised in the United 
States — these were all practically surplus 
cash crops — but also raised in i860 358,- 
000,000 bushels of corn, or 44 per cent, of 
the total crop of the country; 351,500,000 
pounds of tobacco, against 77,800,000 
pounds in the rest of the country; 38,600,000 
bushels of sweet potatoes, out of a total 
crop of 41,600,000 bushels; it had over 40 
per cent, of the total value of live stock of 
the country, or $467,498,000 out of $1,100,- 
000,000; it made 16,000,000 gallons of mo- 
lasses, against 22,000 made by other sec- 
tions; it produced beeswax and honey to 
the extent of 13,500,000 pounds, or over 
one-half of all made in the country; the 
value of the animals slaughtered was $84,- 
400,000, against $128,000,000 in all other 
sections combined, and out of a total value 
of what were classed as "home-made manu- 
factures" of $24,300,000 the South had $16,- 
500,000. In i860 the whole country raised 
15,000,000 bushels of beans and peas, and 



GENERAL NOTES. 



257 



of this quantity 11,800,000 bushels were 
produced south of Mason and Dixon's 
line. 

These figures are taken from the book, 
"Facts About the South," by R. H. 
Edmonds, editor of the Manufacturers' 
Record, by whom they were compiled from 
such official sources as the United States 
Census Reports and Reports of the United 
States Agricultural Department. They are 
given in "Facts About the South," along 
with statistics of other products, in the fol- 
lowing tabular form: 

V' IH i Yield in 

Crops in i860. Q^,7fh Remainder 

bouth. gf Country. 

Corn, bushels 358.i53.ooo 472,297,000 

Wheat, bushels 44,8co 000 125,200,000 

Cotton, bales 5,i96,oro None 

Tobacco, pounds 351,500,000 77,800000 

Rice, pounds 187,000,000 None 

Sweet potatoes, bushels — 38000,000 3,600,000 

Sugar, pounds 302,000,000 None 

Value of live stock $467,498,364 $639 991,852 

Molasses, gallons 16,314,818 22,232 

Beeswax and honey, lbs... 13.551. 151 12,835,704 
Value of animals slaught- 
ered $84,447,110 $128,424,543 

Value of home-made mar.u 

factures.. $16,585,281 $7,672,941 

Peas and beans, bushels... 11,878,452 3,309,661 

Wool, pounds 12565,337 47,940,oc6 

Cash value of farms $2,308,409,352 $4,330,004 869 

Mr. James Brown, one of Michigan's 
largest celery-growers, will undertake the 
jrowing of celery on a large scale in 
Florida. It is said that Mr. Brown raised 
celery at a point near Kissimmee last win- 
ter and netted $3000 off one acre. 

The Georgia & Alabama Railway issues 
an announcement of an arrangement for 
settlers' and homeseekers' tickets. The 
dates mentioned on which excursion rates 
are in efifect are August 4 and 18; Septem- 
ber I, 15 and 29; October 6 and 20; Novem- 
ber 3 and 17. 

Mr. E. W. La Beaume, the general pas- 
senger and ticket agent of the Cotton Belt 
Route, has issued a pamphlet descriptive of 
lands for sale along the line of that railroad, 
and in some respects this little pamphlet is 
unique. It contains an unbiased descrip- 
tion of farm lands in various counties of 
Arkansas and Missouri through which the 
line runs, and was compiled by a represen- 
tative of the Cotton Belt Route, who made 
a canvas of the territory traversed. In each 
case a local land agent is mentioned to 
whom inquiries may be addressed, and 
while guaranteeing the responsibility of the 



agent named, the Cotton Belt Route dis- 
claims any interest in the sale of the land 
other than the settling and upbuilding of 
the country tributary to its lines. 

A well-organized effort to direct immi- 
gration to Southern Virginia is evi- 
denced by the appearance of the Home- 
seekers and Investor's Guide, a new publi- 
cation emanating from Lawrenceville, Va. 
In the issue at hand particular attention is 
called to the merits of the new colony of 
Reigate, on both sides of the Atlantic & 
Danville Railroad, in "the counties of Bruns- 
wick and Greenville, Virginia, containing 
some 20,000 acres of land, the property of 
the Atlantic & Danville Land Co. The lo- 
cation is about eighty miles west of Nor- 
folk, and is in the famous trucking section 
and the bright-tobacco belt of Southern 
Virginia. The plans of the land company 
have been well matured, and the e^ffort to 
attract Northern and Northwestern settlers 
to this locality will be industriously and in- 
telligently carried forward. 

The commissioner of agriculture of Ten- 
nessee, Nashville, has issued a valuable 
geological, division and county map of the 
State. 

The map is folded in pamphlet form, 
making a fold of thirty pages. On the ob- 
verse side the thirty pages are used in tell- 
ing a story of the resources, capabilities and 
possibilities of the State. 

There are two maps on the face of the 
sheet; one is a colored map of the counties, 
and the other is a highly-tinted topographi- 
cal chart, which shows the products, etc. 

The passenger department of the Louis- 
ville & Nashville Railroad Company has 
just issued a very interesting 100-page book 
under "the title of "Garden Spots." It will 
be sent to applicants, on receipt of ten cents, 
by Col. C. P. Atmore, passenger agent of 
the Louisville & Nashville road, Louisville, 
¥iy. The book contains maps, descrip- 
tions, accounts of resources, capabilities of 
soil, etc., of various counties through which 
the line passes in the States of Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Alabama, Southwestern Missis- 
sippi and West Florida. 

The projectors of the Fitzgerald colony 
have initiated another large undertaking. 



258 



GENERAL NOTES. 



The propose to take 10,000 acres of land in 
Wilcox and Irwin counties, Georgia, the 
same section in which the colony is located, 
and convert it into a great fruit farm for 
raising peaches, pears, plums, grapes and 
other fruits that may prove profitable. 

Manager C. L. Post, of Parlin & Oren- 
dorff Co., returned last week from quite an 
extended trip in the South, and comes back 
more firmly than ever in the belief that that 
territory is destined to take a front rank in 
general agriculture. Never before have the 
people seemed to be so fully awakened to 
the great possibilities of the South as a 
farming country, which is shown in the 
desire to discard old back-number imple- 
ments and machines and take up the latest 
and most improved. No longer are the 
farmers content to seed their lands to one 
staple and then send their money elsewhere 
for breadstufTs and bacon. They realize 
that they can grow to perfection many 
crops that were for years regarded as being 
profitless in the South, and a new era of 
farming has set in that calls for a variety of 
implements that a few years ago were never 
seen in that country. It is a vast field that 
implement-makers will find very profitable 
from now on. — Farm Machinery, St. Louis, 
Mo. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Culture of the Pecan. 

Editor Southern States: 

The very interesting article on the pecan 
in your issue of July is timely, and of great 
value now, as so much interest is being 
taken in growing the pecan for profit. 

Not only are people planting a few pounds 
for their own use, but already movements 
are on foot to plant them for commercial 
purposes by hundreds of acres, as they do 
of the English walnut in California. 

No American nut tree can be planted that 
has so few insect enemies; also being prac- 
ticall}' unafifected by seasons, blights or mar- 
kets, a universal favorite, large demand and 
as yet but little seen outside of the United 
States. With cultivation the pecan will 
grow four or five times as fast as when 
growing without, coming into bearing in six 
years, paying at eight and ten years, contin- 
uing to increase until thirty years old, con- 
tinuing in bearing for hundreds of years. It 



is a rare thing to see in our pecan forests a 
tree blown down or dead. As a rule the 
cultivated pecan bears annually, some sea- 
sons more than others. Their yield of nuts 
varies according to the soil and care of the 
trees. We have cultivated 'trees here which 
earn their owners from $50 to $80 per tree 
year after year. A grower in Florida says 
he has sold the product of one tree at $140. 
Another party says he has paid $248 for the 
crop of one year upon one tree. Passing 
by such great yields of individual pecan 
trees, an orchard, planted 20x20 feet apart, 
at only $5 per tree (fifty pounds at ten cents), 
would yield $630 per acre, besides what can 
be earned from crops grown between the 
trees. It is not generally known, but some- 
where in this State there have been grown 
dwarf pecan trees, and probably they exist 
still. 

In 1853 John Le Conte presented to the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia a unique pecan, which he named 
"Hicoria Texana," and of which he said the 
habit was to grow ten or twelve feet high. 
Similar pecan nuts were received by the De- 
partment of Agriculture at Washington as 
late as 1890. 

Much has been learned about the growing 
of pecans the last few years, which is of 
great advantage to those beginning now to 
plant. It has been thought that being a 
wild tree, we must pursue nature's method 
of planting. 

A grower of long experience here in 
Texas says: "No more costly mistakes 
have I made than in trying to follow nature 
in raising the pecan. Every agricultural 
success has been achieved by overcoming 
nature's efforts to defeat it." 

With reports from many who planted the 
nut in the field, where tree was to stand, of 
destruction by squirrels, moles and rats, I 
advise a much cheaper and safer plan, which 
is this: In your garden throw up a bed. 
plant the nuts and the following fall trans- 
plant to permanent home, which is easily 
done by removing all the earth to the bot- 
tom of the roots, when they can be moved 
without loss of a fibre. This plan gives the 
young trees your daily observation and care 
during their first year's growth, and plenty 
of time to prepare the ground for their per- 
manent home. 

The California tree planters have learned 
how to plant the largest number of trees to 



GENERAL NOTES. 



259 



the acre without crowding, and have gen- 
erally adopted what they call the equilateral 
triangle method, which permits the planting 
of seventeen more trees to the acre, 20x20 
feet apart, than by the square method. The 
selection of seed is very important; as in 
the coming years as now, the demand is for 
the finest nuts grown, no't only size, but 
flavor of parent nut, together with the pro- 
lificness of the parent trees. If a choice 
pecan cost you ten cents each, it would be a 
good investment to plant. This need not 
be, however, as the best Texas thin-shell 
pecan need not cost over $3 per acre. There 
is and may be always a dispute as to cutting 
the tap root of the pecan. Some say one 
way, some another, but the preponderance 
of testimony says don't cut the tap root. 
This is the life of the tree, and cannot be re- 
stored if once cut. Brace roots will grow, 
the tree will make a handsome shade tree, 
but as for nut-bearers, they are not of suc- 
cess equal to those trees which have a per- 
fect and whole tap root. 

The question of grafting and budding 
pecan trees is also in dispute, being unlike 
pear, peach, apple and other such trees. I 
don't say it cannot be done, but many doubt 
it, and as yet but little evidence of success 
has been made to show that it has advan- 
tages over planting the nuts. 

At any r.ate. the cheapest, safest and the 
best plan is to plant the nut, and as the 
years go by experiment with grafting and 
budding if you desire. In the meantime 
your seedling trees are doing well, whatever 
may result from your experiments. 

A great interest is also being taken in 
planting groves of the Japan mammoth 
sweet chestnut, which is the largest chestnut 
grown, the nuts often measuring four to six 
inches in circumference, and weighing 
twelve to sixteen nuts to the pound; mature 
easily without frost. In the Southern 
States they are ripe in August, and early 
shipments to the Northern markets sell from 
$10 to $15 per bushel. At that time no other 
chestnuts are in market, and they take the 
cream of prices. The trees are dwarf, begin- 
to bear at two and three years old, paying 
well at five years from planting the nut. 
They have no of¥ years. The Japan walnut, 
which has a flavor much like our butternut, 
is becoming a great favorite also, as the 
trees bear heavily, and pay large profits in 



growing them, better than the English 
walnut. 

Nut groves bring fortunes, at a very small 
cost for outlay. 

HERBERT POST. 

Fort Worth, Texas. 

Benefits of Immigration. 

Editor Southern States: 

The efforts made by Southern railroad 
companies to induce immigration from the 
Northweste