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Canabmit BmtB of Sdjool-goohs. 



THE 



SPELLING-BOOK 



COMPANION TO THE EEADERSL 



Fxw ©»taria. 




TORONTO : 
WM. W^ARWICK. 



Entered according to Act of Provincial Legislature, in the Tear 
One Thousand Eight Hundred and Sixty-seven, by the 
Reverend Egerton Ryerson, LL.D., Chief Super intendeni 
of Education for Ontario, in the Office of the Registrar of 
the Fronin/ie oj Canada. 



PEEFACE. 



The Orthography of the English Language is irregnlar and difficult ; 
and the art of spelling correctly can only bo acquired by diligent 
application and patient perseverance. 

The practice, formerly almost universal, of making spelling nearly, 
if not entirely, an oral exercise, failed to secure proficiency in the art, 
since many who could readily spell whole columns of words on hearing 
them pronounced, would not be able to write a single sentence ortho- 
graphically correct. Spelling is more easily and more accurately 
acquired by the eye than by the ear. Recently a most marked im- 
provement, in this respect, is observable in our schools, and this 
pleasing change is mainly to be attributed to a different method of 
teaching, happily now very generally adopted. Intelligent and 
successful teachers use the reading lessons as exercises in spelling, 
giving out the words with which the pupil has already become 
acquainted, in their connection ; and so soon as the learners can 
write on slate or paper, lessons by dictation are assigned them. 

It is desirable, however, as the pupil advances, that he should be 
taught the authogi-aphy of the more difficult and irregular words in a 
more systematic way, by the use of a suitable Spelling Book, in wliich 
the words are so arranged as to render the task of learning to spell 
them as little irksome, and as interesting and instructive, as possible. 
This object, it is believed, can be best attained by associating in one 
exercise the spelling, pronunciation, meaning, and uses of the words. 
In such an exercise the pupil learns not only to spell correctly, but 
also to use words properly, and to express himself with clearness and 
accuracy. 

Exercises in spelling, in prontmciation, in the meaning of words, 
and in the formation of sentences, may be so blended, as that the 
pupil, while acquiring the one, may also acquire a knowledge of the 
others. 

A number of excellent books have been published with the view of 
aiding both teacher and pupil in their work : this Spelling Book 



IV PREFACE. 

is issued with a similar design, and it is hoped that it will be found 
well adapted for that purpose. 

It is specially designed as a Companion book to the Series of Eeaders 
authorized by the Council of Public Instruction, and may profit- 
ably be introduced so soon as the pupil enters upon the Third Book of 
that Series. A few brief suggestions have been given as to the best 
way of using portions of the book, but doubtless every ingenious 
teacher will adopt some skilful and successful method of his own, 
adapted to the necessities and attainments of his class. It is obvious, 
however, that teachers are not expected to follow the order of the suc- 
cessive parts of the book. Lessons in several parts may, at the same 
time, be assigned to advanced classes. 

Part I. contains an outline of the principles and rules for spelling, 
pronunciation, and reading, — brief and easily learned, yet, it is hoped, 
fitted to aid in imparting and acquiring a full knowledge of the powers 
of letters, a distinct and accurate pronunciation of words, and a 
graceful and intelligible utterance of sentences. 

Part II. comprises lists of the more difiicult words and exercises, 
so arranged as to facilitate the acquisition of a correct orthography, 
and a right and ready pronunciation. 

Pabt III. treats of verbal distinctions ; and the exercises are b(i 
classified as to secure to the student a knowledge both of the spelling 
and pronunciation of the words, and also of their meaning and use. 
Numerous exercises in dictation are furnished, as examples to be 
indefinitely extended in conducting the class. 

Part IV. introduces the subject of derivation, as extensively afi 
was deemed desirable in an elementary work. The roots given will 
explain most of the words found in the Readers. Each lesson in thia 
part is also to be used as an exercise in spelling, and will prove a 
good test of the proficiency of the pupil. 

Part V. supplies an explanation of many abbreviations in common 
use, and of a number of Latin and French phrases frequently quoted. 

The authority for Orthography and Pronunciation is " Worcester's 
Dictionary," which was adopted as a standard in the series of Eead- 
ing Books, to which this little work is intended as a Companion. 

Educatiok Office, 
July 1868. 



COiNTENTS.- 



PART FIRST. 

PAQB 

THE PRINCIPLES OF OETHOGKAPHT, ORTHOEPY, AND ELOCUTION. 



Section I. Oethoqrapht, 

1. Letters, 

2. The Powers of tha Letters, Diphthongs, Triphthongs 

and Digraphs, 

1. Vowels and their Sounds, 

2. Diphthongs and their Sounds, 

3. Triphthongs and their Sounds, 

4. Consonants and their Sounds, 

5. Digraphs and their Sounds, 

3. General Rules for the Use of Capital Letters 

4. Syllables, 

5. Words, 

'■Iection IL Orthoepy, 

1. Articulation, . 

2. Accent, 

3. Rules for Spelling, 

4. Punctuation, . 

Section III. Elocution or Reading. 

1. Emphasis, 

2. Pauses, . 

3. Tones, 

4. Inflection, . 



9 

10 

11 
12 
13 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
21 

22 
22 
23 
24 
27 

30 
31 
33 
34 
35 



PART SECOND. 

SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION. 

Geotion I. Some of the more difficult Monosyllables 
arranged according to the sounds of the 
Vowels, , . . , . 



39 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



Section II. Dissyllables, accented on the fiest syllable, 

WHICH, OWING TO THEIR TEEMINATION, OR PRO 
NUNCIATION, ARE LIABLE TO BE MISSPELT, 

Words of Unsettled Orthography, 
Section III. Lists of Words in which the sounds of the 
Letters are peculiar or difficult, . 

Section IV. Special Exercises in Articulation, . 

Section V. Lists of the more difficult Words, and such 
AS more frequently occur, arranged AC 

cording to the vowel sound of the AC' 
CENTED SYLLABLES, 

Section YI. Words of more than Four Syllables, 
A List of the most Difficult Words in common use, 



47 
50 

51 
59 



65 

89 
92 



PART THIRD. 



VERBAL distinctions. 



Section. I. Words which are pronounced alike, but which 
DIFFER IN Spelling and Signification, 

Section II. Words which are Spelled alike, but which 
DIFFER IN Pronunciation and Meaning, 

Section III. Words distinguished by the Place of the 
Accent, . . . . . 

Section IV. Words of similar Sound, which require to 
be very distinctly pronounced in order to 

BE distinguished, . . . . 

Section V. A Collection of Words which have a variety 
OF Meanings, and are used in different 

SENSES, . . 

Section VI., .... 
Verbs of similar signification, , 
Nouns, .... 
Adjectives and Participles, , 

Sentences, 

Synonymous Words, . , 

Words of similar signification, . 
Words which express opposite ideas, 
Words which express correlative ideas, 



9« 
113 
115 

119 

122 

mi 

131 
185 
1.39 

I'^n 

142 
144 
144 
1J6 



CONTKNTS. 



vu 



PART FOURTH. 



ETTMOLOGT, OR THE DERIVATION OP WORDS. 

Sbotion I. History of the Language, 

Section II. Prefixes, 

Section III. Affixes, 

Section IV. Latin Roots, 

Section V. Greek Roots, 

Section VI., . 

Names of the Arts and Sciences, 

Words derived from Proper Names, 

The Names of the Months and Days, 

Terms of Measurement, . • 

Names of Persons, . . 



147 

154 
1G2 
169 
187 

19-J 
192 
194 
195 
196 
207 



PART FIFTH. 

Section I. A Collection of Latin Words, Phrases, and 

Quotations, ..... 209 
Section II. French Words and Phrases, . . . 215 

Seotiom III. An Explanation of sojie Abbreviations 

WHICS ABB IN GSNEBAIi UsE, . . .271 



KEY TO THE SOUNDS OP THE MARKED LETTEES. 



Vowels. 



a, long, 


as in fate. 


0, long. 


as in note. 


a, short 


» 


mt 


6, short. 


)) 


n6t. 


a, long, before r, 


»> 


fare. 


6, long and close 


)) 


m6ve. 


a, grave, 


>j 


far. 


0, broad, 


n 


nor. 


a, intermediate, 


« 


fast. 


6, like ii, 


n 


dove. 


a, broad, 


„ 


fall. 














u, long, 


1' 


tube. 


e, long 


»> 


mete. 


H, short. 


J5 


tiib. 


^, short, 


» 


met. 


ft, obtuse. 


l> 


pMI. 


e, like a. 


»> 


thgy. 


ii, obtuse short, 


»> 


fiir. 


e, obtuse short, 


» 


her. 


fl, like 6, 


n 


rule. 


i, long, 


)) 


pine. 


y. long, 


rt 


type. 


I, short, 


»» 


pin. 


y, short. 


w 


sylvan 


i, like e. 


» 


pique. 


y, obtuse short, 


M 


myrrh. 


1, obtuse short, 


»> 


fir. 









Diphthongs. 

The diphthongs oi, oy, ou, ow, eu, and ew, when sounded as 
in boil, boy, out, owl, feud, and new, are not marked. 

When a mark is placed over one of the vowels, it indicates 
that that vowel only is sounded, as sow, read, joiist, court. 

Letters in italics are silent, as might, l&mb, write. 



Consonants. 



5, soft 

0, hard 

?h, 

0h, 

ch, without mark, 

g, soft, 

g, hard, 

s, soft, 

X, soft, 

th, smooth, 



like 8, as in acid. 



k, 
sh, 
Jc, 
tshj 



fla0cid. 
chaise, 
ghasm. 
charm, 
gill. 



muse, 
exact, 
this. 



PAET FIRST. 



THE PIUNCIPLES OF ORTHOGEAPHY, 
ORTHOEPY, AND ELOCUTION; 

OB, 

DIRECTIONS FOR SPELLING, PRONUNCIATION, AND 
READING. 



SECTION I. 
ORTHOGEAPHY (Gr., orthos, correct, and grapho, I write) 

Orthography treats of letters, syllables, separate words, and 
spelling. 

All language may be divided into natural and artificial. 

Natural language consists of signs addressed to the senses, 
which have a natural connection with the ideas and feelings which 
they are intended to express — as pictures, sounds, and gestures 

Artificial language consists of arbitrary signs, used by common 
consent to represent ideas and feelings with which they have no 
natural or necessary connection. 

Artificial language includes both spoken and written. 

Spoken language consists of articulate sounds, made by the 
organs of speech, as signs of ideas. 

Articulate sounds are such as are distinctly uttered, and can bo 
repeated at will. 

In speaking we employ both natural and artificial language. 



10 ORTHOGRAPHY, ORTHOEPY, AND ELOCUTIOK. 

Written language consists of certain signs of articulate speech, 
called words, and other marks or characters used in writing and 
printing. 

The sruallest part of written language is called a letter, 

1. Letters. 

A letter is a mark, or character, used to represent some ele- 
mentary sound of the human voice, as an element of speech. 

There are twenty-six letters in the English alphabet, which 
represent about forty simple sounds. 

The word alphabet is formed of the first two letters used by the 
Greeks — Alpha, a, and Beta, b. 

Four things are to be learned concerning the letters — their 
names, forms, povjers, and classes. 

The names of the letters, as now commonly spoken and written 
are, — A, Bee, Gee, Dee, E, Eff, Gee, Aitch, I, Jay, Kay, Ell, Em, 
En, 0, Pee, Keu, Ar, Ess, Tee, U, Vee, Double U, Ex, Wy, and 
Zee. . 

The form of a letter may be greatly varied, both in size and 
shape, according to the style of writing or printing adopted, yet 
its name and power remain essentially the same. 

The following are some of the different forms given to the let- 
ters of the English alphabet. 

ROMAN. Eoman. 

ITALIC. Italic. 

The power of a letter is the sound which it represents. 

Some letters have several powers, and represent more sounds 
than one — as a in fate, f^t, f&U, far. 

Some letters have only one power, and represent only one 
sound — as h in bad, bob, and p in lap, pan. 

A few letters have no separate power assigned to them, but are 
used to represent a sound expressed by some other letter. Thus, 
two or more letters are used to represent the same sound — as g, 
which has the same sound as h or c hard, as in pique, liquor. 

The first letter of a word is called the initial letter. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 11 

The last letter of a word is called thQjinal letter. 

When any letter of a word is not sounded in pronunciation, it 
is called silent, or mute. 

The letters are divided into two general classes, called vowels 
and consonants. 

A vowel is a letter which forms a perfect sound, and can be 
uttered alone — as a, o. 

A consonant is a letter which cannot be distinctly uttered 
without the aid of a vowel^as b, d. 

The vowels are a, e, *, o, «, and sometimes w and y ; all the 
other letters are consonants. 

woxy'is called a consonant when it precedes a vowel heard in 
the same syllable — as in wine, twine, whine, yes, yard, youth. In 
all other cases these letters are called vowels — as in eye, ewe, 
newly. 

The consonants are divided, with respect to their powers, into 
semi-vowels and mutes. 

A semi-vowel is a consonant which can be imperfectly sounded 
without the aid of a vowel, and the sound of which-at the end of 
a syllable may be prolonged — as I, n, in all and ian. The semi- 
vowels are/, h,j, I, m, n, r, », v, z, x, and c and gsoit. 

A mute is a consonant which cannot be sounded Without a vowel, , 
and the sound of which at the end of a syllabl^cannot be pro-^ 
longed — as b, h, t, in dub, ark, mat. ^' / 

The mutes are b, d, k, p, q, t, and c and g h#d. / 

j and a, are double consonants. / ' / 

Z, m, n, and r are called liquids, because thpy coalesce readily 
with the sound of other letters — as hard, hmd, helm, hurt. 

The consonants are sometimes divided, with respect to the or- 
gans of speech, into labials — as &, p, m,f, and u; dentals — as d, t, 
8, z, and c and g soft ; and palatals — as k, q, and c and g hard. 

There is considerable diversity of opinion as to which class 
^ome of the letters ought to be assigned. 



2. The Powers of the letters, diphthongs, 
triphthongs, and digraphs. 

If each simple sound were represented by only one distinct 
character, and if the alphabet contained a separate character for 



12 



ORTHOGRAPHY, ORTHOEPY, AND ELOCUTION. 



each sound, the orthography and pronunciation of words would be 
very easily acquired ; but as many sounds are represented by dif- 
ferent letters, or by a union of letters, and several letters have the 
same sound, while some sounds have no single separate character 
to represent them, it is necessary that the different powers of each 
letter, and union of letters, be accurately known. The union of 
several letters to express a simple sound, and the use of one letter 
to express more sounds than one, are called orthographical expe- 
dients. 

Orthographical expedients are resorted to on account of the im- 
perfections of the Englisli alphabet, which may be characterized as 
deficient, redundant, and ambiguous. 

Deficient^ because there are simple sounds for which it supplies 
no letter. 

Redundant, because some simple sounds are represented by 
more than one letter. 

AmbiguouSf because some letters represent more sounds thai) 
one. 



1. Vowels and their sounds. 



1. a, long, 

2. ^, short, 

3. a, long before r, 

4. a, grave, 

5 a, intermediate, 

6. S, broad, 

1. e, long, 

2 S, short, 

3. %, like a, 

4. e, short before r. 

1. I, long, 

2. I, short, 

3. i, like e, 

4. i, short before r, 



1. 6,long, 

2. 6, short, 



as in fame, aim, day, break. 
„ fat, man, carry, plaid. 
„ fare, air, bear ; ere, heir, whene'er. 
„ far, path, balm, aunt, hearth. 
„ fast, ask, staff, branch, dance, grass. 
„ fall, haul, awl, talk, warm. 

,, mete, meet, fear, seize, field, key. 
„ met, merry, sell, dead, friend. 
„ veil, weigh, they, prey. 
her, fern, term, herd, earth, 

pine, isle, find, height, aisle, oblige, 
pin, ill, fin, sieve, since, 
pique, marine, machine (Fr. sound oii). 
fir, firm, bird, virtue, virgin. 

note, boat, toe, owe, four, door, 
not, bond, sorrow, coral. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



13 



3. 6, long and close, as in move, do, tomb, lose, moon, food. 

4. 6, broad before r, „ nor, corn, form, sort, morning. 

5. 5, like ii, „ love, done, son, worm, does, none. 

1. u, long, „ cube, tune, pure, feud, beauty. 

2. a, short, „ cub, tun, fur, putty. 

3. ft, middle, „ pull, push, put ; heard in book, foot, 
good. 

rule, rude, ruby, true. 

w, when a vowel, is'not used alone, and generally takes the 
place of u in diphthongs, aw and ow being equivalent to aw and 
oil. 

y, when used as a vowel, has the same powers as i. 

In unaccented syllables, each of the vowels has a short ob- 
scure sound — aa palace, fuel, ruin, actor, famous, martyr. 



4. a,precededbyr,as6„ 



2. Diphtliongs and their sounds. 

A diphthong is the union of two vowels in one sound — as ou 
in out, oy in boy. 

Diphthongs are classified as proper and improper. 

K proper diphthong is one in which both vowels are sounded — 
as oi in boil, ow in cow. 

An improper diphthong is one in which only one of the vowels 
is sounded — as oa in boat, ea in beat, ee in feet. Improper 
diphthongs are sometimes called digraphs. 

The number of possible combinations of two vowels is thirty- 
five — as, 



aa, ae, ai, ao, au, aw, ay 
ea, ee, ei, eo, eu, ew, ey 
ia, ie, w, io, iu, iw, iy 
oa, oe, oi, oo, ou, ow, ny 
ua, ue, ui, uo, uu, uw, uy 



Of these, twenty-nine are used. 

The following six are not used : 

ii, iu, iw, iy, uu, and uw 



Ten of these diphthongs may be either proper or improper, 
according as they are sounded in any given word — as ou in four 
and in loud. These are — ay, ie, oi, ou, ow, ua, ue, ui, uo, uy. 

The proper diphthongs maybe reckoned as twelvQ—ay,ia,ie, 
io, oi, ou, ow, oy, ua, ue, ui, uo. 

The proper diphthongs beginning with i or u differ from the 



14 ORTHOGRAPHY, ORTHOEPY. AND ELOCUTION. 

rest, i being sounded like y, and u like w — as in poniard (p8n- 
yard), assuage (as-swage). 

There are only five strictly proper diphthongs — ay in thf 
aflSrmativeay ; oi and oy, which have the same sound — as in boil, 
boy; ou and ow, which have the same sound — as in out and owl. 
The improper diphthongs may be reckoned as twenty-six — aa, 
ae, ai, ao, au, aw, ay ; ea, ee, ei, eo, eu, ew, ey ; ie ; oa, oe, oi, 
00, ou, ow; ua, ue, ui, uo, uy. 

These are used as equivalents or substitutes for the vowel 
Bounds— as 

aa for a, as in Aaron ; a, as in Balaam. 

ae „ e, as in sera ; g, as in diaeresis. 

ai „ S,, as in plaid ; e, as in again ; I, as in aisle ; I, as in 

villain. 
ao „ a, as in gaol, frequently written jail. 
au „ a, as in gauge ; a, as in aunt ; a, as in draft, t, as in 

caught : 6, as in hautboy. 
aw „ S., as in lawn, 
ay „ a, as in day ; e, as in quay ; S, as in says (s&). 

ea „ a, as in steak ; a, as in heart j «, as in tea ; g, as in 

head. 
ee ,, e, as in bee ; I, as in been, 
ei „ a, as in veil ; a, as in their ; e, as in seine ; S, as in 

heifer ; i, as in height ; I, as in forfeit. 
eo „ e, as in people ; S, as in leopard ; 6, as in yeoman ; 

6, as in georgic ; •&, as in luncheon. 
eu „ u, as in feud ; a, as in rheum ; 6, as in shew, usually 

written show. 
ew „ 6, as in sew ; ti, as in dew. 
ey „ a, as in prey ; e, as in key. 

ie „ e, as in grief ; i, as in die t I, as in sieve. 

oa „ 6, as in boat ; 6, as in groat, 
oe „ 6, as in doe ; 6, as in shoe. 
oi „ I, as in choir ; I, as in tortoise. 
00 „ 0, as in door ; 6, as in moon j % as in flood ; C, es in 
good. 



OBTHOGRAPHT. 15 

ou for a, aa in thought ; 6, as in though ; 6, as in cough ; fi, as 

in rough ; ft, as in could, 
ow „ 6, as in know, show. 

ua „ a, as in guard; u, as in raantuamaker. 

ue „ g, as in guest ; a, as in true. 

ui „ I, as in guide ; I, as in guilt ; Q, as in juice ; 6, as 

in fruit. 
uo „ ti, as in liquor. 
uy ^ i, as in buy. 

3, Triphthongs and their sounds. 

A triphthong is a union of three vowels in one sound— as 
U07/ in buoy, eau in beauty. 

Triphthongs are classified as proper and improper. 
A proper triphthong is one in which all the vowels are Founded 
— as buoy. 

The only proper triphthong is uoi/. 

An improper triphthong is one in which only one or two of tlie 
vowels are sounded— as eau in beauty. 

Improper triphthongs are sometimes called trigraphs 

The improper triphthongs may be reckoned as sixteen-a^^e 
aye; eau, eou, ewe, eije; ieu, iew, iou ; oeu, owe; uai, uaw, uea 
uee. They are used to represent some of the sounds of the vowels 
— as, 

awe for k, as in awe. 

aye „ a, as in aye. 

eau „ u, as in beauty ; 5, as in beau. 

eou „ a, as in the termination ceous (shtls). 

ewe „ u, as in ewe. 

eye „ i, as in eye. 

ieu „ Q, as in adieu. 

lou „ a, as in the terminations clous, tious (shtis). 

iew „ u, as in view. 

oeu „ a, as in manoeuvre. 

owe „ 0, as in owe. 

In the triphthongs beginning with u, the u is sounded like w- 
•8 m quail, squaw, squeai, queer. 



16 oethosrapet, orthoept, and elocdtiom. 



4. Consonants and their soimcls. 

h has only one sound — as in bad, tub ; and is silent after m 
and before t in the same syllable — as in lara&, de&t ; except in 
succumb. 

c has the sound of k before a, o, and u ; and the sound of « 
before e, i, and y, except in sceptic and scirrhous, with their 
derivatives. It is silent in indict and its derivatives. 

d has one sound — as in did ; in some words ending in ed, when 
the e becomes silent, d has the sound of t — as in mixed (mist). 

/ has one sound — as in fat, snuff ; in of it has the sound 
of «. 

g is hard before a, o, and u — as in gave, gold, gull ; only excep- 
tion, gaol. Before e, i, and y, g is sometimes hard — as in get, gift, 
foggy ; but more frequently soft, likej — as in gem, giant, gymnast. 
g is silent before n in the same syllable — as in g'nat, re\gu. 

h is an aspirate or rough breathing. At the beginning of many 
words h is silent — as Aeir, /ionor ; it is silent also after r — 
as rAeum, rhetoric. 

j is a double consonant, like g soft — as in- judge ; it has thw 
sound of y in hallelujah. 

k has only one sound — as in like, kick ; it is silent before n — 
as in Jcniie, knee. 

I has only one sound — as in love, roll, bold ; it is frequently 
silent — as in ca?f, baZm, talk, shouM. 

m has only one sound — as in man, ram. The only exception 
is accompt and its derivatives, now generally written account, &c. 

n has a simple sound — as in note, ten; and a mixed or ring- 
ing sound — as in bank, brink, anchor, angle. When immediately 
preceded by Z or m at the end of a syllable, n is silent — as in 
kilw, hymn. 

p has only one sound — as in pane, lap. It is silent at the 
beginning of words when immediately followed by s or i — as in 
psalm, ptolemaic. 

q has the sound of k, and is always followed by «. 

r when before a vowel has a hard, trilling sound — as in rat, 
run ; when after a vowel, a soft liquid sound — as in far, farm. 
It has a peculiar effect on the sound of the preceding vowel — &o 
in fare, far, &c. ; r is never silent. 



OETHOGEAPHT. 17 

s has a hard or hissing sound like c soft— as in sight, sun ; 
and a soft sound like z — as in new;-, teaches. It has also the 
sound of o'/t, and zh — as in censure, treasure. 

t has only one sound — as in time, not ; but when followed 
by la, le, or lo, it takes the sound of sA— as partial, patient, 
nation, (parshal, &c.) 

V has only one sound — as in vale, vote, love. 

w has only one sound— as in wine, water. It is silent before 
r — as in M;rite, tijreck. 

X has a sharp sound, like hs — as in tax, expect ; and a soft 
sound, like gs — as in exalt, exert. At the beginning of words 
it has the sound of z — as in Xenophon. It has also the sound 
of hsh — as in fluxion, luxury. 

?/, as a consonant, has always the same sound — as in you, yet. 

2 has the sound of soft s — as in zany, zest. It has also the 
sound of zli — as in azure, seizure. 



5. Digraphs aud their sounds. 

Some sounds are represented by the union of two consonants, 
wiiich are called digraphs. These arc, c^, clc^ gh^ ng, pli, qu, rh, 
sh, th, and wh. 

ch has the sound of tsh — as in chair, church. When it fol- 
lows the letters Zor w, ithas the sound of sh — as in filch, bench. 
In words taken from the French, it has also the sound of sh — 
as in chaise, machine. 

In words derived from the ancient languages, ch is generally 
hard — as in anarchy, chasm, echo ; exceptions — chart, charter, 
charity, ch is always hard when followed by I or r — as in chloro- 
form. Christian. 

In the prefix arch, signifying chief, ch is soft before a con- 
sonant, and hard before a vowel— as in archbishop, architect. 

ch is silent in dracAm, scAism and yacZit. 

ck is equivalent to k or the hard sound of c — as in brick, 
locket. 

gh has the sound of/ — as in laugh, rough. When it occurs at 
the beginning of a word, it has the sound of gr hard — as in ghost; 
when at tlie end of a word, it is frequently silent — as in dongh, 
though. It is always silent before t — as in light, height, f raugiit ; 

B 



18 ORTHOGRAPHY, ORTHOEPT, AND ELOCDTION. 

except in draught. In a few words it has the sound of k — as 
hough, lough ; and in hiccough it has the sound of p. 

The diflEerent sounds of ough are exemplified in the following 
lines :— 

" 'Ti3 not an easy tisk to show 
How ough sound ; since though 
An Irish lough, and English slough, 
And cough, and hiccough, all allow 
Differ as much as tough and through, 
There seems no reason why they do." 

ng has a ringing or nasal sound— as in ring, sung. When a 
syllable ending in ng is followed by another syllable beginning 
with a vowel or Z, in many words the sound of the g is doubled — 
as in anger, angle, stronger, finger. There are exceptions — as 
singer, ringer, hanger, &c. 

ph has the sound of/— as in physic, philosophy. In nephew it 
has the sound of w/ and in naphtha, diphthong, triphthong, &c., 
it has the sound of p; and when it precedes th^ at the beginning 
of a word it is silent — as in /^Athisic (tiz'-ic). 

qu has the sound of kw — as in quill, quarrel. In many words 
derived from the French it has the sound of h — as in etiquette, 
mosque, liquor. 

rh has the sound of r — as in rhetoric, catarrh, 

sh has only one sound — as in should, shall, crash, push. 

th has a hard or aspirate sound — as in thin, earth ; and a soft 
or vocal sound — as in this, breathe. In a few words it has the 
sound of t — as in Thomas, thyme. 

wh is sounded as if written Aw— as in when, whip. In some 
words it has the sound of h — as in who, whole. 

c, s, sc, and t, when followed by e or i, in the termination of 
many words, have the sound of sh — as in ocean, social, mansion, 
nation. 

3. General Rules for the use of capital letters. 

The following classes of words should begin with a capital 
letter : — 

1. The chief words in the title of books, when referred to by 
name — as Thomson's Seasons, The Scriptures of the Old and 
New Testaments. 



ORTHOGUAPHT. 19 

2. The first word of every book, tract, essay, &c., and of their 
divisions, chapters, sections, paragraphs ; and of every sentence, 
or of clauses separately numbered ; and of every example, or direct 
quotation. 

3. All the names and attributes of Deity, and frequently the sub- 
stitutes for them when emphatic — as, the Almighty, Eternal, and 
All- wise God, our Father in Heaven ; and Jesus Christ our Medi- 
ator and Redeemer ; and the Holy Spirit the Comforter— "The 
hope of my spirit turns trembling to Thee." 

4. All proper names of persons, places, or things ; all titles of 
honor and respect, and epithets of distinction — as, Saul of 
Tarsus ; The Queen of Great Britain ; Aunt Mary ; Brother 
Paul; Rev. Dr. Chalmers; John Brown, Jun., Esq. 

5. Compound proper names, which are written without a 
hyphen, should have but one capital letter — as Eastport, White- 
haven, Newfoundland ; but when the word East, West, North, 
South, or New, distinguishes a place by way of contrast, then two 
capitals may be used — as East Cowes and West Cowes ; New 
Hampshire; New York. 

6. Words derived from proper names ; the names of the months 
and days — as Roman, Canadian ; January, Monday. 

7. The first word of every line in poetry, the pronoun I, and the 
interjection — as, When I return I will call upon you ; 

" Few are thy days, child of dust. " 

8. Words of special importance, and such as denote the princi- 
pal subject of the composition — as. The Reformation produced 
extensive and permanent results; The memories of the Revolution 
still rouse the hearts of the people. 

4. Syllables. 

A syllable is an articulate sound uttered by one efEort of the 
voice, and represented by one or more letters — as 0, or ought. 
A word of one syllable is called a Monosyllable. 
A word of two syllables is called a Dissyllable. 
A word of three syllables is called a Trisyllable. 
A word of more than three syllables is called a Polysyllable. 
Syllabication is the division of words into syllables. 



20 ORTHOGRAPHY, ORTHOEPT, AND ELOCUTION. 

Each vowel, except w, may form a syllable of itself ; but aeon 
fconant, without a vowel, cannot form a syllable. 

The proper syllabication of English words is attended witli 
much difficulty ; and it will vary according as the word is divided 
to show its derivation, or to exhibit its pronunciation. 

In dividing words into syllables we are guided chiefly by theear. 
No rules can be given which will apply in every case. 
The following rules will furnish some assistance to thelearner:- 

1. Lettersformingdiphthongs ordigraphsmustnotbe separated 
— as church-es, watch-es, cough-ing, walk-ing. 

2. Two vowels coming together, and not forming a diphthong, 
must be placed in distinct syllables — as la-i-ty, a-e-ri-al. 

3. Derivative and grammatical terminations should generallybe 
separated from the root to which they have been added — as, harm- 
less, great-ly, teach- er, teach- est, man-hood, free-dom, na-tion, 
pe-ti-tion. 

4. Compound words should be divided into the simple words 
which compose them — as, rail-road, ice-house, never-the-less. 

5. A single consonant, between two vowels, should be joined 
with the vowel which it modifies in utterance — as fe-ver, riv-er, 
col-on, fel-on, ex-ist, ob-lit-er-a-tion. 

6. A word at the end of a line may bo divided if necessary ; but 
the letters forming a syllable must not be separated. 

The different syllables of a polysyllable are sometimes distin - 
guished as the first, second, third, fourth, &c., beginning with the 
first syllable of the word. 

Sometimes they are named, beginning with the last syllable of 
the word, thus : — 

The final syllable is called the last, or ultimate. 

The last syllable but one is called the penult, {almost last.) 

The last syllable but two is called the antepenult, (be/ore the 
almost last.) 

The last syllable but three is called the preantepenult, (&e/b?'e 
the one before the almost last.) 

The first syllable of a word is generally called the first ; and if 
a word has more than five syllables, all except the last four are 
reckoned from the first. 

Divide tlie following Words into Syllables, and apply the proper 
name to each Syllable : — Apparition. '>euevolently, conteniporaneous, 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 21 

preantepennltimate, incomprehensibility, aeration, spontaneity, des- 
patclies, corollary, pertinacious, gaseous, notwithstanding, pigeon. 

5. Words. 

A word is one or more syllables spoken or written, as the 
sign of an idea, or some modification of an idea. 

Words may be distinguished as to their formation, or their 
form. 

Words, as to their forrtiation, are either primitive or deriva- 
tive; as to their /o?'7re, they are either simple or compound. 

A primitive word is one that is not derived from any other 
word — as man, book, good, great, make. 

A derivative word is one which is formed from some other 
simple word — as manhood, goodness, maker. 

A simple wordi is one that is not composed of other words — as 
watch, glass, house, light, less. 

A compound word is one that is composed of two or more 
simple words — as watchman, glasshouse, nevertheless. 

Permanent compounds are generally written as one word — as 
bookseller, schoolmaster ; others, which maybe regarded as tem- 
porary compounds, have the different parts united by a hyphen — 
as good-natured, laughter-loving, negro-merchant, love-lighted. 

Compounds regularly united, and taking but one accent, should 
be written without a hyphen — as gentleman, railroad, steam- 
boat. 

When the parts o £ a compound word do not readily coalesce, or 
when each part retains its original accent, the hyphen should be 
placed between them— as lotus-eater, manj'-handed, rosy -fingered. 

Words otherwise liable to be misunderstood should be joined 
together or written separately as the meaning and construction 
may require. A glass house is a house made of glass ; but a glass- 
house is a building where glass is made. A negro merchant means 
a person of color, who is engaged in trade; but a negro-merchant 
means a man who buys and sells negroes. 

When two or more compound words are connected in one sen- 
tence, each of them should be fully expressed — thus, seven or 
eighteen, should not be used for seventeen or eighteen. 



83 ORTHOGRAPHY, ORTHOEPY, AND ELOCUTION. 

SECTION II. 

ORTHOEPY (Gr., orthos, correct, and epos, a word.) 

Orthoepy treats of the proper pronunciation of words. 

Orthography treats of words as they are written ; orthoepy 
treats of words as they are spoken. The one deals with what is 
addressed to the eye ; the other, with what is addressed to the 
ear. 

The pronunciation of the English language is in a great mea- 
sure arbitrary. Good present usage is always the highest autho- 
rity; but as usage varies at different times and in different places, 
a perfect and permanent system of pronunciation is unattainable. 
With regard to many words, there is an acknowledged disagree, 
ment among the best orthoepists. 

It is exceedingly difficult, by any system of notation, to indicate 
accurately every sound of each letter ; and even though the nota- 
tion were more perfect than it is, it were even more difficult deli- 
cately to apply the correct sign in each case. An approximation 
to perfect accuracy is all that can be attempted. 

The irregularities, arising from the composite character of the 
language, are so numerous, that few rules can be constructed to 
which there would not be a long list of exceptions. A few general 
directions may be given, which will greatly aid the young learner. 
It must never be forgotten, however, that a correct, distinct, and 
unaffected pronunciation can onlybe acquired bycaref ul attention 
to the best speakers and readers of the language, and by frequent 
practice. 

E verylesson in spelling should be also an exercise in pronuncia- 
tion ; and classified'lists of words have been prepared to aid the 
pupil in acquiring a right and ready pronunciation. 

Pronunciation, as distinct from elocution or reading, is the 
utterance of words, taken separately. 

The proper pronunciation of a word includes a distinct arti- 
culation and a correct accent. 

1. Articulation. 

Articulation is the utterance by the organs of speech of the 
elements of vocal language. 



ORTHOEPY. 23 

Articulation should be full, clear, and distinct. 
A distinct articulation is greatly promoted by protracting all 
such vowel sounds as will admit of it. 



2. Accent. 

^cccniisaprominencegiven tooneormoresyllablesof aword, 
by a special stress of the voice. 

1. Every word of more than one syllable has one accented 
syllable— as ac'cent, acce'nt. 

2. Many polysyllables have two or more syllables accented, 
which are distinguished as primary and secondary — asinad"ver- 
tise', ap"pela'tion, val"'etu"dina'rian. The secondary accent is 
much weaker than the primary, and is only used for the sake of 
greater distinctness in pronouncing long words. 

3. The general tendency of the English language is to place 
the accent on the first syllable of dissyllables, and on the ante- 
penult of polj'syllables — asinab'sence,dis'tance,vir'tue,ap'athy, 
big'otry, abil'ity, infirm'ity, contrari'ety, ceremo'nious. 

4. In verbs of two syllables the tendency is to place the accent 
on the second syllable — asinbeli'eve,dev'ote. This is frequently 
done to distinguish the verb from a noun or adjective spelled 
similarly — as ab'sent, abse'nt, col'lect, colle'ct. 

5. Words adopted from the Latin language into the English, 
without any change of orthography, generally retain the Latin 
accent— as in acu'men, cura'tor, deco'rum. 

Some words of that class have, however, conformed to the Eng- 
lish analogy, and are accented on the antepenult — as or'ator, 
Ben'ator. 

6. Words ending in ial, ian, lent, eous, ious, or ion, preceded 
by c, g, s, or t, have the accent on the penult — as in dissen'sion. 
medita'tion, farina'ceous, pugna'cious, coura'geous, conta'giou.^, 
dissen'sious, conten'tious, par'tial, provin'cial, arithmeti'cian, 
an'cient. 

7. Words ending into generally have the accent on the penult ; 
those ending in ical, on the antepenult— as in algebra'ic, har- 
mon'ic ; f anat'ical, poet'ical. 

8. Words ending in tude, efi/, ifi/, ety, it;/, graphy, logy, 
hguy, mathy, pathy, metry, tomy, meter, gonal, fluent, fluous. 



24 ORTHOGRAPHY, OUTHOEIT, AND ELOCUTION. 

porous, and voroiis, have the accent on the antepenult — as, for*- 
titude, rai-'efy, tei-'rify, sati'ety, legal'ity, geog'raphy, geol'ogy, 
col'loquy, ap'athy, geom'etry, anat'omy,thermoin'eter,diag'onal, 
super'fluous, affluent, ovip'arous, omniv'orous. 

9. There are some cases in which the usual place of the accent 
is changed : 

(1.) When words are used in contrast — as. 
It is easier to give than to for'give. 
lie must in'crease, but I must de'crease. 

(2.) Poets sometimes change the usual accent tosuitthe measure 
or rhyme. 

3, Rules for Spelling. 

1. Monosyllables ending iD/,Z,ors, preceded by asingle vowel, 
double the final consonant — as muff, mill, mass. 

Exce2)tlons—c\ei, if, of, as, gas, has, was, yes, is, his, this, us, 
pus, thus. 

Monosyllables and English verbs ending in c take cMor cc, as, 
rack, rock, attack. Words derived from the classics havec alone — 
as music, maniac, public. 

Exceptions — arc, ore, lac, roc, soc. 

2. Words ending in any other consonant than/, I, or s, do 
not double the final letter — as rob, rod, rug, run, cup, cur, 
cat. 

Exceptions— ahh, ebb, add, odd, egg, inn, err, butt, buzz, fuzz, 
and sometimes ragg, burr, and purr. 

3. Monosyllables and words accented on the last syllable, when 
they end with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, or 
by a vowel after qu, double the final consonant before an affix, 
beginning with a vowel — as rob, robbeth ; admit, admitting ; 
acquit, acquitted. 

Exception — When the accent is changed the consonant is not 
doubled — as prefer, preference. 

4. Words ending with a final consonant, not preceded by a 
single vowel, or when the accent is not on the last syllable, do 
not double the consonant before an affix— as spoil, spoiler; com- 
plain, complaining ; differ, difference ; garden, gardener. 

Exceptions — 

(1.) Biassed, worshipper, &c., and woollen. 



oitiUOEry. 



25 



r'i.) Fin al Z, preceded by a single vowol, is generally doubled be- 
f ore the aflix — as counselling, libelling, travelling, &c. As to this 
ITactice there is great diversity of opinion. Some say that there 
filiould be no exception to the general rule. 



Words ending in I which double the Final Consonant, contrary 
to the Rule. 



apparel 


embowel 


laurel 


quarrel 


bevel 


enamel 


level 


ravel 


bowel 


equal 


libel 


revel 


cancel 


gambol 


marshal 


rival 


carol 


gospel 


marvel 


rowel 


cavil 


gravel 


model 


shovel 


channel 


grovel 


panel 


shrivel 


chisel 


handsel 


parcel 


snivel 


counsel 


imperil 


pencil 


tassel 


cudgel 


jewel 


peril 


trammel 


dishevel 


kennel 


pistol 


travel 


drivel 


label 


pommel 


unkennel 


duel 









5. Words ending in a double letter preserve it double in all 
derivatives formed either by an affix or a prefix ; as wooer, seeing, 
Bnrillness, oddly, agreeable, foresee, repass, enthrall, undersell, 
superadd. 

Exceptions — 

{1.) When ee comes before e, and U before I, one of the letters 
id dropped — as freer, skilless, fully. 

12.) Some words ending in double U drop one I before ful and 
ness — as skilful, dulness, fulness. 

6. Words ending with silent e retain the e before an affix be- 
omning with a consonant, but drop it if the affix begins with a 
vowel — as peaceful, graceless, extremely, lodgement, removal, 
raving, loving, truism. 

Exceptions — 

(1.) Words ending in ce or ge retain the e before able or ous, 
to preserve the soft sound of these letters — as in traceable, chan ge- 
«bie, outrageous. 

(2.) The e is retained in shoeing, hoeing, singeing, swingeing, 



26 ORTHOGRAPHY, ORTHOEPY, AND ELOCUTION. 

and tingeing; in the last three, to distinguish them from singing, 
swinging, and tinging, 

(3.) The e is omitted in duly, truly, wholly, awful, argu- 
ment ; and generally in judgment, abridgment, and acknowledg- 
ment. 

7. Words in y, when preceded by a consonant, change y into i 
before all affixes except ing, but when y is preceded by a vowel 
it remains unchanged; as glory, glories, glorify, glorying; pray, 
prayer, praying. 

Exceptions — 

(1.) Compound words — as mercy-seat, pennyworth; beauteous, 
and piteous; slyness, slyly; shyness, shyly; babyish, babyhood, 
and ladyhood, 

(2.) Laid, paid, said, staid, lain, daily, obeisant, and obei- 
sance. 

_ 8. Compound words generally retain the spelling of the simple 
words which compose them — as wherein, shoemaker, innkeeper, 
kneading-trough. 

Exceptions — 

(1.) In permanent compounds, or in derivatives in which they 
are not the roots, all &TiAfull drop one I — as in handful, careful, 
fulfil, always, already, withal. 

(2.) When three letters of the same kind come together, one of 
them is dropped, or else a hyphen is used — as chaffinch, Rosshire 
or Ross- shire. 

(3.) Chilblain, welcome, and welfare, drop one I ; shepherd, 
wherever, and whosoever drop an e; and wherefore and therefore 
assume an e. 

9. When a prefix ends in a consonant, the consonant is gener- 
ally retained ; but it is often changed, for euphony, into the same 
letter with which the root begins, or one which blends readily 
with it — as ad in accede, con in colloquy or corrode, in in ille- 
gal, improve, irregular, ignoble. 

Exercises. 

(Many similar ones to be given by the Teacher,) 

1. Add the affixes, er, est, ed, eih, or ing to the following words: — 
fat, sad, wet, blot, chop, dub, nip, nod, quit, throb, trim, tug, wag, 
whet, dig, fit, knit, plot, ship, sin, spin, whip, wrap. 



OETHOEPT. 27 

2. Add any of the affixes which are applicable to the following 
words — as est, er, ing, ed, er, able, ance, ent, enje : — abhor, allot, ap- 
pal, begin, compel, concur, confer, coquet, distil, enrol, equip, forbid, 
fulfil, incur, instal, omit, patrol, prefer, rebel, refit, regret, repel, sub- 
mit, transfer, trepan, unfit, unman. 

3. Add suitable affixes to the following words : — differ, credit, offer, 
glimmer, murmur, counsel, covet, jewel, gallop, limit, pamper, ap- 
parel, enamel, equal, label, marshal, rebel, rival, shovel, travel, wor- 
ship, boil, conceal, despoil, impair, proceed, refrain, shriek, retreat, 
reveal. 

4. Add ly, ful, ness, able, ish, ous, ment, or ity to the following 
words : — fearless, peace, grace, amiable, lucrative, ripe, i^rofane, 
taste, shame, defence, blame, rogue, sense, grieve, courage, humane, 
abridge, lodge, judge. 

6. Add s, er, est, ing, or ed to day, dairy, ditty, key, toy, copy, cry, 
carry, defy, delay, rally, survey, study, shoe, vie, vary, way, weary. 

4. Prmctxiatioii. 

In written language a number of diacritical marks are used 
to indicate the grammatical and logical divisions of a dis- 
course. 

Punctuation is the art of dividing a literary composition into 
sentences, and parts of sentences, by means of certain marks 
or points, for the purpose of showing the mutual relations of 
the words, and of expressing more clearly the meaning of the 
writer. 

The art of punctuation depends chiefly upon the principles 
of grammar, and is designed to assist the reader in under- 
standing what he reads. As many of the marks used, however, 
have a rhetorical as well as a grammatical significance, a 
thorough acquaintance with their use is indispensable to good 
reading. 

The comma, semicolon, colon, and period, are used chiefly for 
grammatical purposes; the dash, parenthesis, exclamation, and 
interrogation points have a rhetorical, as well as a grammatical,^ 
character. 

There is some diversity in the use of these marks, in the 
practice of difEerent authors ; yet, on the whole, the difficulty 
in this respect is not greater than in spelling or pronuncia- 
tion. 



28 ORTIIOr.KArilT, ORTUOErr, AND ELOCUTION. 

The following examples will illustrate the importance of acor- 
rect punctuation : — 

1. " My name is Nerval on the Grampian hills. 

My father feeds his flock a frugal swain ; 
Whose constant cares were to increase his store." 

2. " My name is Norval.* On the Grampian hills, 

My father feeds his flock ; a fnigal swain, 
Whose constant cares were to increase his store." 

3. " Every lady in this land, 

Hath twenty naila upon each hand ; 
Five and twenty on hands and feet. 
And this is true, without deceit." 

4. " Every lady in this land 

Hath twenty nails : upon each hand 
Five ; and twenty on hands and feet. 
And this is true, without deceit." 

A barber's sign. 
{As understood by the Customer.) 

5. " What do you think ? 

I'll shave you for nothing. 
And give you some drink." 

{As explained by the Barter.) 

6. " What ! do you think 

I'll shave you for nothing, 
And give you some drink ?" 

The Names and Uses of the Points, and other BEarks used in 
Writing and Printing. 

( , ) The comma is used to mark the smallest grammatical 
division of a sentence, and generally indicates a short pause in 
reading. 

( ; ) The semicolon is used to separate the parts of a com- 
pound sentence which are not so closely connected as those 
separated by a comma ; and requires a longer pause in reading 
than the comma. 

* Read each quotation as differently punctuated ; and mark the 
difference in meaning. 



ORTHOEPY. 29 

( : ) The colon is used to separate tlie parts of a compound 
sentence which are notso closely connected as those separated by 
a semicolon : it is generally placed after a clause complete in 
itself, and it requires a longer pause in reading than a semi- 
colon. 

( . ) The period is used to mark an entire and independent 
sentence, whether simple or compound : and it requires a full 
pause in reading. It is also used after abbreviations. 

(?) The note of interrogation is used to show that a ques- 
tion is aj^kcd. 

( ! ) The note of exclamation is used to denote a pause with 
some strong emotion of joy, wonder, grief, &c. 

( ) The parentheses are used to distinguish an explanatory 
clans 3 or phrase inserted between the parts of a sentence, which is 
usually read more rapidly, and in a lower tone. 

[ ] The brackets are used to enclose an inserted passage, or 
word of explanation. 

~-— The hrace is used to connect several words, sentences, or 
lines which have something in common. 

( — ) The dash is used to denote an abrupt or emphatic pause, 
or a change in the subject or sentiment. 

( ' ) The apostrophe is used to denote the possessive case, or 
the elision of one or more letters of a word. 

(" ") The marks of quotation are used to indicate that the 
words or passage, included by them, are quoted from some other 
book or writing. 

( — — ) or (* * * *) The ellipsis is used to indicate the designed 
omission of some letters, words, or sentences. 

( - ) The hyphen is used to connect the parts of a compound 
word, or to divide a word into syllables. When placed at the end 
of a line, it shows that a part of the word is placed at the begin- 
ning of the next line. 

(^) The caret is used to show where words or letters are to be 
inserted which have been accidentally omitted in writing. 

(§) The section is used to divide a book or chapter into 
parts. 

( ^ ) The paragraph is used to indicate the beginning of a new 
Bubject. It is chiefly used in the Bible. 



30 ORTHOGRAPHY, ORTHOEPY, AND ELOCUTION. 

( 1^ ) Tlie index is used to point out something to which the 
reader's attention is specially called. 

( * ) The asterisk, (f) The dagger. ( J ) The double dagger. 
(II) The parallels. The small letters of the alphabet, as **• 
&c., and numerical figures, as ^ ^ * &c., are used to indicate 
a reference to notes in the margin, or at the bottom of the 
page. 

( •• ) The dimresis is placed over the latter of two vowels, to 
show that they belong to two distinct syllables — as in aerial. 

(j>) The cedilla is a mark placed under the c, to show 
that it has the sound of s — as in facade. 

(') O ( ) The accents, called the acute, the grave, and the 
circumflex, are used to mark the accented syllables of words, or 
to indicate the inflections of the voice in reading. 

(-) ( "^ ) (A) ( • • ) (— ) The marks of quantity are used to in- 
dicate the sounds of the vowels in pronunciation. 

Leaders are a series of dots used to guide the eye to 

the end of a line for the completion of the sense. 

( ,,) ( — ) A double comma or dash is used to indicate that 
what is expressed in the line and word immediately above it, is to 
be understood ; as — 

John Jones, Esq London. 

Peter Pence, „ „ 

For general examples, pupils are referred to their reading- 
books. 



SECTION III. 

ELOCUTION OR READING. 

A good pronunciation comprises a full and open enunciation of 
the long vowel sounds, a clear articulation of the consonants, a 
forcible and well-placed accent, and a distinct utterance of the 
unaccented syllables. 

Pronunciation has reference to words, and elocution to sen- 
tences. 

Elocution is the graceful utterance of words that are formed 
into sentences, and should convey the meaning clearly, impres- 
sively, and agreeably. 



ELOCUTION OR READING. SI 

Good reading is both a graceful and a useful accomplishment ; 
and, when rightly practised, is a healthy exercise. 

In learning to read, the utmost care should be taken, and no 
pains spared, to learn to read well. 

No system of rules can be given which will prove of much use 
in acquiring a good elocution ; good examples, oral instruction, 
and frequent practice are requisite. 

From the very commencement, pupils should be trained to 
correct habits of reading, rather than required to learn any formal 
rules. Indeed, rules are only serviceable when they aid in acquir- 
ing correct habits. A frequent reference to rules is likely to 
prove a hindrance to progress. 

Great attention should be paid to the position of the reader, 
BO that all the organs upon which the power of the voice depends 
maj' have free scope for easy action. 

The reader should stand or sit erect, and hold the book in such 
a way as not to make it necessary for him to droop the head, or 
to contract the chest. 

The object of learning to read is twofold : first, that knowledge 
may be readily acquired ; and second, that knowledge may be 
clearly and pleasantly communicated. 

No person can be said to read well who does not read both 
intelligently and intelligibly, and the latter always implies the 
former. 

Amonotonous, measured, drawling,orhesitatingmanner should 
be carefully guarded against. 

The reader should endeavour fully to comprehend the ideas 
and emotions intended to be expressed by each sentence read, and 
then read it as it would naturally be spoken under the circum- 
stances. 

Elocution, or good reading, in addition to a correct pronun- 
ciation, requires a knowledge of em]}hasis, pauses, tones, and 
inflection. 

1. Emphasis. 

JEJTwpAaszs is a peculiar stress of the voice laid upon some par- 
ticular word or words in a sentence to mark their special signifi- 
cance and importance. 



32 ORTHOGRAPHY, ORTHOEPY, AND ELOCUTION. 

Tlie proper placing of emphasis in the utterance of a sentenca 
is of the utmost importance, as a change of emphasis frequently 
changes the meaning of the sentence. 

Example — 

Did you give a book to JoTin'i No, sir ; I gave it to Henry. 

Did you give a hooTc to John ? ISTo, sir ; I gave him a -pen. 

Did you give a book to John ? No, sir ; he tooh it. 

Did you give a book to Jolin? No, sir; Henry gsi\e ittohim. 

Did you give a book to John? No, sir ; I did not. 

The same words constitute a different question, and require a 
different answer according to the word on which the empliasis la 
placed. So m the nest example the affirmation varies with th* 
changed emphasis. 

Example — 
James was obedient to his teacher ; JoJm was not. 
James vas obedient to his teacher ; he is not now. 
James was obedient to his teacher; but he was not respectful 
James was obedient to his teacher ; not to mine. 
James was obedient to his teacher; not to his companion. 

To emphasize correctly we must be able to read intelligently 
The following rules may aid the learner : — 

1. Words important in meaning, and peculiarly significant, are 
emphatic; as — 

Grand, gloomy, and peculiar, he sat upon the throne, a seep 
tered hermit. 

Never despair; never be discouraged; however stormy the 
heavens, however dark the way, however g7-eat the dif 
ficulty. 

Charge ! Chester, charge ! On ! Stanley, on ! 

Sometimes a whole clause is emphatic ; as — 

Heaven and earth will witness, if Rome must fall, that we are 
innocent. 

I know not what course o^Aers will take ; but as for 7ne, give mr 
liberty, or give me death ! 



ELOCUTION OR READING. J53 

2. Words opposed to each other in meaning are emphatic by 
contrast ; as — 

It is more blessed to give than to receive. 
He that knows Jdmse/f, knows others. 
He must increase, I must decrease. 
Be wise as serpents, and harmless as doves. 
Tliere is a difference between giving and forgiving. 
Emphasis has the effect, in some cases of contrast, of changing 
the place of the accent, — 3rd and 5th examples, 

3. Words used in counting or numbering, or when they are 
repeated in a list, are emphatic. 

2. Pauses. 

Pauses are cessations in utterance, which serve to relieve the 
reader or speaker, and to render language more intelligible and 
pleasing. 

1. Pauses are of three kinds : Distinctive, hmvhatic, and 
Poetical. 

The distinctive pauses are such as are require? by the 
sense, and their duration should be proportionate to the degree 
of connection between the clauses or sentences uttered. The 
shortest should allow time to relieve the voice by taking 
breath. 

The emphatic pauses are such as call the hearer's attention to 
something tiiat has been said, or is about to be uttered, and may 
be made either immediately before, or justafter,somethingwhich 
the speaker thinks specially important. ■> 

The effect of such a pause is like that of a strong emphasis, 
and should not be too frequently employed. 

The poetical pauses are such as are peculiar to the read- 
ing of poetical composition, and relate to the harmony of num- 
bers." 

There are two well marked, called the Anal and ccesural pauses. 

^\\Q final pause marks the end of each line to the ear. 

The ccesural pause commonly divides the line near the 
middle. Sometimes more than one cfesural pause occurs in the 
same line. 

2. In reading, the utmost attention should be paid to tb» 





34 ORTHOGRAPHY, ORTHOEPY, AND ELOCUTION. 

proper use of the pauses, as they greatly modify and enforce the 
meaning of what is read. 

3. A correct elocution may demand a pause where the 
grammatical construction does not require the insertion even of 
a comma, and sometimes a comma may be correctly used where a 
good reader would find no occasion to pause. 

4. The ordinary marks of punctuation, which indicate the 
grammatical construction, and assist in exhibiting the meaning 
of the writer to the eye of the reader, are insufficient as a guide 
to the reader in his attempt to convey that meaning to the ear 
of the hearer. 

Hence the use of rhetorical pauses, the length and frequency 
of which must be determined by the nature of the subject, and by 
the taste and judgment of the reader. 

3. Tones. 

Tones are those modulations of the voice which depend upon 
the feelings of the speaker, and give expression to reading. They 
are the natural language of the emotions. 

1. Each strong feeling or passion has its appropriate tone. 
The tone of love is soft and smooth ; of anger, strong and 

vehement ; of joy, quick and clear ; of sorrow, low and tender ; 
of fear, tremulous and hesitating ; of courage, full and loud. 

" In exordiums, the voice should be low yet clear ; in narra- 
tions, distinct ; in reasonings, slow ; in persuasions, strong. 
It should thunder in anger; soften in son-ow ; and melt in 
love." 

2. Expression affects both the pitch and movement of the- 
voice. 

Pitch of voice refers to the note or key on which we read or 
speak. 

The pitch may be regarded as high, middle, and low. 

The m,iddle pitch is that used in ordinary conversation. 

The high pitch is that used when the voice is raised above the' 
ordinary conversational tone. 

The low pitch is that used when the voice falls below the ordi- 
nary conversational tone. 

Movement refers to the time or rate of uttering words and 



ELOCUTION OK READtM 36 

sentences. Movement may be regarded as rapid, moderate, or 
8low. 

3. LangTlage not expressing strong emotion, as most nar- 
rative, descriptive, and historical writings, should be read on the 
middle pitch, in a conversational tone, and with the moderate 
movement. 

4. Language which is grave, grand, or sublime, should gener- 
ally be read on the low pitch, and with a deliberate utter- 
ance. 

6. Language of joy, mirth, or other pleasurable emotions, 
should be read on a key a little above the middle pitch, with a 
smooth, flowing voice, and a rapid movement. 

6. Language of declamation and passion should be read with a 
distinct and forcible utterance, the pitch and movement varying 
according to the intensity of the emotions. 

4. Inflection. 

Inflection i? the variation of the voice in passing from one key 
or pitch into another, higher or lower. 

1 There are four distinctions with regard to inflection, viz. : 
the rising inflection, the fulling inflection, the circumflex, and 
monotone. 

The rising inflection is the upward slide of the voice. 

The falling inflection is the downward slide of the voice. 

The circuwflcx is the union of the falling and rising inflections 
on the same syllable or word, producing a slight undulation of the 
voice. 

The monotone is a protracted sameness of sound on successive 
syllables or words. 

2. The direction of the inflections must, in all cases, be de- 
termined by the sense of the passage read. 

3. The rising inflection is used much more frequently than 
the falling. 

4. The emphasis of a falling inflection is much stronger than 
that of a rising inflection. 

The following general rules may prove useful to the teacher or 
•advanced pupil : — 

1. Questionswhichcanbe answered by yes or no, generally take 



36 ORTHOGRAPHY, ORTHOEPY, AND ELOCUTION. 

the rising inflection; all other questions, the falling. The answers 
in both cases, take the falling inflection. 

2. Negation, as opposed to affirmation, takes the rising inflec- 
tion, and the latter the falling ; comparison and contrast follow 
the same rule. 

3. Expressions of tender emotion and expostulation take the 
rising inflection; and the expression of strong emotion and autho- 
rity require the falling. 

4. Clauses which leave the sense unfinished take the rising; 
when the sense is finished the falling inflection is used. 

5. Hypothetical expressions, an implied contrast, sarcasm, and 
irony, require the union of both inflections. 

6. Passages of solemn denunciation, sublime description, oi 
reverential awe, are often read without inflection. 



Exercises on Inflection. 

Rule 1. Do you tbink he will come to-day' ? No' ; I think he 
will come to-morrow\ Does the law which thou hast violated de- 
nounce vengeance' against thee ? Behold that law fulfilled\ Who 
ever left the precincts of mortality without casting a trembling eye on 
the scene that is before* him ? Am I, then, to live beyond the grave'? 
Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation'? 
Are you going' ? I say, are you going' ? Will the Lord cast off for 
ever' ? and will He be favourable no more' ? Is His mercy clean gone 
for ever' ? Doth His promise fail for evermore' ? Hath God forgotten 
to be gracious'? Hath He in anger shut up his tender mercies'? Selah'. 
Whom Bay the people that I am' ? 

Has God', thou fool', worked solely for thy good'? 
Thy joy', thy pastime', thy attire', thy food' ? 
Who for thy table feeds the wanton fawn'. 
For him as kindly spreads the flowery lawn\ 

Rule 2. I did not hear him', I saio him\ I said he was a good 
soldier', not a good citizen'. I came to bury Cassar', not to ^."aise 
him'. Homer was the greater genius', Virgil the better artist'; in 
the one, we must admire the man', in the other, the work'. By 
honor', and dishonor' ; by evil report', and good report' ; as deceivers' 
and yet true' ; as uuknown', an.3 yet well known'; as djing', and be- 
hold we live' ; as chastened', and not killed' ; as sorrowful', yet always 
rejoicing' ; as poor', yet making many rich' ; as having nothing', and 
yet possessing all things'. Does he speak rationally', or irrationally' ? 



ELOCUTION OR READING. 37 

Rule 8. brother' I dear brother'! do not leave us'. 

My mother'! when I learu'dthat tliou wast dead', 
Say\ wast thou conscious' of the tears I shed'? 
Hover'd thy spirit o'er tliy sorrowing sou', 
"Wretch even then', life's journey just begun'? 
Is your father well', the old man' of whom ye spake'? Is he yet 
alive'? 
Woe unto you Pharisees' ! woe unto you scribes' 1 
The charge I deny'; the accuser I defy'. 

What a piece of work is man' ! How noble in reason' ! how infinite 
in faculties' I in action', how like an angel' ! in apprehension', how 
like a god' ! 

Go to the ant', thou sluggard' ; consider her ways, and be wise'. 
You blocks', you stones', you worse than senseless things' I 
The curfew tolls' the knell of parting day' ; 
The lowing herds wind slowly o'er the lea'; 
The ploughman homeward plods his weary way', 
And leaves the world to darkness and to me'. 
Rule 4. The great', the good', the honored', the noble', the wealthy', 
alike pass away'. 

Ye hills' and dales', ye rivers', woods', and plains', 
And ye that live and move, fair creatures', tell', 
Tell if ye saw, how I came thus' ; how here' ? 
The applause of listening senates to command'. 
The threats of pain and ruin to despise', 
To scatter plenty o'er a smiling land', 
And read their history in a nation's eyes', 
Their lot forbade' ; nor circumscribed alone 
Their growing virtues', but their crimes confined' ; 
Forbade to wade through slaughter to a throne', 
And shut the gates of m»rcy on mankind'. 
In the beginning God made the heavens and the earth', and the 
earth was without form and void'; and darkness was on the face of 
the deep' : and the Spirit of God moved on the face of the waters'. 

Rule 5. If the righteous scarcely be saved', where shall the ungodly 
and the sinner appear' ? And but for these vile guns, he would him- 
self have been a soldier'. 
If it will feed nothing else', it will feed my revenge. 
Hath a dog mone/ ? Is it possible a clir can lend two thousand 
ducats'? 

Hamlet', you have your father much offended'. 
Madam', you have my father much offended. 



88 OETHOGRAPHT, ORTHOEPY, AND ELOCUTION. 

They tell ta to be moderate' ; but thSy, thSy are to revel in pro- 
fusion'. 

I did not give a sixpence'. I did not give a sixpence'. 

Hume said he would go twenty miles to hear "Whitfield preach. 

No', no', my lord' ; wish not a man from England. 

Rule 6. And one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy, is 
the Lord of Hosts. The whole earth is full of His glory. 

Blessing, and honor, and glory, and power, be unto Him that sitteth 
upon the throne, and unto the Lamb, for ever and ever. 

In thoughts from the visions of the night, when deep asleep falleth 
on men, fear came upon me, and trembling, which made all my bones 
to shake. Then a spirit passed before my face ; the hair of my flesh 
stood up. It stood still, but I could not discern the form thereof; 
an image was before mine eyes, there was silence, and I heard a voice 
saying. Shall mortal man be more just than God ? Shall a man be 
more pore than his Maker 7 



PAET SECONR 



SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION. 



The following exercises will be found profitable as lessons in 
spelling; but they are also especially designed to aid in acquiring 
a distinct and accurate pronunciation. 

When spelling lessons are recited oralhj, the pupils should be 
required to pronounce the word before spelling it, as well as after- 
wards. "When the lessons are written from dictation, the sounds 
of the vowels, silent letters, and peculiar sounds of the consonants, 
should be marked, as exemplified in the first two lessons. 

SECTION L 

Some of the more difficult monosyllables arranged 
according to the sounds of the vowels. 

1. The BOTUid of a long— as in fame ; and e having the same 
sound — as in veil. 



a0ho 

baste 

bat^ 

blaze 

brace 

break 

chafe 

cbaise 

change 

chase 



chaste 

dei^n 

drain 


gawge 
hail 

haste 


plague 
plaint 
quail 


ekein 
steak 
Btraifir/it 


e\ght 
feint 


i-nave 
lain 


quaint 
quake 


strange 
stray 


flail 


lathe 


raise 


train 


frail 


main 


range 


tmt 


freight 
grange 
grape 


neigh 
paste 
phrase (f) 


rei^n 
saint 

shnve 


vein 

-weigh 

v/eight 



40 



SPELLINQ AND PRONUNCUTION. 



2. The Bound of d short — as in fat. 



batch 


crSnk 


gfuash 


plank 


sh^nk 


black 


crash 


hand 


prank 


shrank 


bl^nd 


drank 


hitch 


quack 


spring 


c&lx 


flange 


jam6 


quiifE 


thrash 


cSmp 


frank 


Arnack 


rack 


thwick 


citch 


gas 


iam& 


Bcaip 


twang 


0b^sm 


gland 


m3,nse 


scamp 


vamp 


cramp 


grnat 


match 


scratch 


•orap 


3. The sound of a 


lone— as in fare ; and e having the 






«ame sonnd. 






air 


fair 


lair 


scare 


ware 


chair 


flare 


ne'er 


square 


wear 


char 


glare 


pear 


swear 


where 


e'er 


hair 


rare 


their 




ere 


Aeir 


scarce 


there 






4. The sound of d grave- 


—as in far. 




alms 


chart 


haunch 


march 


snarl 


are 


clerk 


haunt 


marsh 


staunch 


arm 


craunch 


heart 


palm 


starch 


barge 


daunt 


heartb 


paths 


tarn 


baths 


flaunt 


jaunt 


psalm 


tart 


calf 


gaunt 


larch 


qualm 


taunt 


carve 


gnarl 


laugh 


shark 


yard 


charge 


guard 


launch 


smart 


yarn 




5. The sound of d — as in fast. 




ask 


chant 


draft 


grass 


prance 


branch 


clasp 


glance 


haft 


shaft 


brass 


class 


glass 


lance 


slant 


chafE 


dance 


graft 


laugh 


spasm 


chance 


draught 


grasp 


lanch 


staff 


6. The sound of d— as in fall ; and o 


with the same sound, 


bald 


brought 


crawl 


fault 


gauze 


balk 


caught 


dwarf 


fought 


gnaw 


bought 


chalk 


false 


fraught 


groat 



WORDS OP ONE SYLLABLE. 



41 



halt 


prawn 


squall 


thwart 


warm 


hawk 


quart 


sward 


wall 


warmth 


naught 


shawl 


swarm 


waltz 


wharf 


paunch 


spa 


thaw 


want 


wrought 


pause 


spawn 


thought 


war 


yawn 


7. The sound of e- 


—as in mete ; and t with the 


same soand. 


beard 


fierce 


lief 


seethe 


theme 


beeves 


freeze 


liege 


seine 


thief 


bier 


gear 


meat 


sheaf 


thieve 


breeze 


geese 


mien 


sheath 


tweak 


brief 


grease 


neap 


sheaves 


weal 


cheap 


grief 


niece 


shriek 


weird 


cheer 


heath 


pea§e 


siege 


wheel 


cheese 


heaveg 


pierce 


smear 


wheeze 


chief 


key 


priest 


sneeze 


wreathe 


cleave 


knead 


queen 


sphere 


wreaths 


crease 


knee 


queer 


sqreak 


yield 


dream 


kneel 


reach 


squeeze 


zeal 


drear 


league 


scene 


streak 


pique 


field 


lease 


scheme 


tears 


suite 


fiend 


leaves 


screech 


tease 






8. 


The sound of i- 


—as in met. 




bench 


debt 


lead 


scent 


trench 


blench 


delve 


lend 


sketch 


twelfth 


blest 


depths 


length 


spread 


wealth 


bread 


dregs 


meant 


stealth 


wedge 


breadth 


drench 


pence 


strength 


whence 


breast 


fledge 


phlegm 


stress 


wreck 


breath 


friend 


pledge 


stretch 


wren 


check 


guess 


quell 


sweat 


wrench 


chess 


guest 


quench 


swept 


wretch 


"jlcanse 


head 


quest 


tempt 


yelp 


■erepc 


health 


read 


test 


yell 


crest 


hedge 


realm 


thread 


yelk 


deaf 


ketch 


said 


threat 


yet 


dealt 


kedge 


saith 


thence 


zest 


death 


knell 


eajs 


tread 





42 



SPELLING IND PEONONCLiTION. 



sound of g before r — as in her; and i before r having^ 
^nearly same sound, approaching the sonnd of ii short — as in 
-hurl. 



^bird 


first 


myrrh 


stern 


^irch 


flirt 


nerve 


stir 


'birth 


germ 


pearl 


swerve 


chirp 


girl 


perch 


terse 


dearth 


girth 


quirk 


third 


dirge 


heard 


search 


thirst 


dirt 


hearse 


shirt 


twirl 


earl 


herb 


skirt 


verge 


earn 


learn 


smirk 


verse 


earth 


merge 


sperm 


whirl 


fern 


mirth 


squirt 


yearn 


firm 










10. The sonnd of i long — as in pine. 




isle 


fife 


night 


sleight 


blithe 


fight 


ninth 


splice 


bribe 


fright 


plight 


sprite 


bright 


grind 


price 


thigh 


brine 


guide 


prime 


thrice 


buy 


guile 


prize 


thyme 


chime 


guiae 


pyre 


tight 


choir 


gyves 


quire 


tithe 


Christ 


height 


quite 


twice 


0hyle 


high 


rhyme 


while 


0hyrae 


knife 


right 


why 


climb 


knight 


rye 


wipe 


■die 


light 


scribe 


writhe 


dight 


lyre 


scythe 


Wright 


dike 


might 


sigh 


wry 


drive 










11. The sonnd of t- 


-as in pin. 




bilge 


build 


click 


drink 


bliss 


built 


crimp 


filth 


bridge 


chick 


cringe 


fifth 


brink 


chintz 


didst 


fling 


brisk 


clifE 


drill 


flint 



WORDS OP ONE SYLLABLE. 



4:6 



fnnge 


kill 


quiz 


swift 


frith 


kiln 


rythm 


Bwinge 


gill 


mill 


rick 


switch 


gills 


mince 


rift 


thick 


give 


mint 


rinse 


think 


glimpse 


niche 


risk 


tinge 


glyph 


nick 


schism 


trick 


guild 


nymph 


scrip 


twinge 


guilt 


phiz 


script 


twist 


hinge 


plinth 


shift 


twitch 


hint 


prick 


shrink 


whisk 


hiss 


print 


sieve 


whist 


hitch 


prism 


since 


wing 


hymn 


quick 


squill 


wring 


imp 


quill 


squint 


wrist 


jilt 


quit 








12. The sound of ff — as in note. 




bloat 


dolt 


known 


shoal 


board 


dough 


loath 


shown 


boast 


floor 


loathe 


soap 


bold 


float 


loaves 


source 


borne 


fold 


most 


stroll 


boll 


folk 


mould 


stove 


bowl 


force 


moult 


strove 


bourn 


ford 


mourn 


sword 


broach 


forge 


poll 


sworn 


brogue 


ghost 


porch 


though 


brooch 


goad 


pork 


throat 


chose 


gourd 


port 


throw 


chrome 


gross 


prone 


toast 


close 


growth 


prose 


torn 


clothes 


hoarse 


quote 


vogue 


coarse 


hoe - 


roast 


woe 


corab 


home 


roe 


wold 


cor/;8 


horde 


rogue 


wore 


course 


host 


row 


worn 


court 


jolt 


Bcold 


wrote 


doe 


knoll 


scope 


zone 



44 



SPELLING AND PEONUNCUTION. 



13. The sound of S - as in not ; and a having the same souna 



block 


dross 


lough (ck) 


squat 


blond 


floss 


mosque 


swarajy 


blotch 


frock 


moss 


swan 


bronze 


froth 


notch 


throb 


clock 


loss 


prompt 


throng 


cloth 


gloss 


quash 


tongs 


conch 


golf 


scoff 


trough 


copse 


hock 


scotch 


wasp 


cough 


hough (ck) 


shock 


watch 


crock 


knock 


shone 


what 


cross 


knot 


solve 


wrong 


dodge 


lock 


squash 


yacht 


L The sound of o 


—as in move ; 


and u having the i 


samo sound. 


bloom 


fruit 


prune 


spool 


booth 


gouf 


rheum 


spruce 


brew 


grew 


roost 


through 


bruise 


groove 


rouge 


tomb 


bruit 


group 


rude 


tooth 


brute 


hoof 


rule 


tour 


chew 


loose 


school 


troup 


choose 


lose 


screw 


truce 


croup 


mood 


shoe 


true 


coo 


moor 


shoot 


truth 


crude 


moose 


shrewd 


whom 


cruise 


noose 


smooth 


whose 


crews 


ooze 


soothe 


would 


fool 


prove 


soup 


wound 


15. The sound of o in nor, slightly differing ftom 


6 in n5t. 


born 


horn 


norm 


som 


cord 


horse 


norse 


sort 


cork 


lord 


north 


torch 


com 


lorn 


orb 


torque 


corpse 


morgue 


ore 


torsk 


form 


morn 


short 


tort 


gorge 


mort 


sord 





WOEDS OP ONE SYLLABLE. 46 

^6. The sound of it — as in tub ; and o having the same sound. 



blood 


drudge 


munch 


struck 


blunt 


flung 


none 


strut 


blush 


flush 


nudge 


stump 


bump 


front 


numb 


surge 


bunch 


furze 


once 


touch 


chough 


glove 


one 


thump 


chuck 


grudge 


pluck 


tongue 


church 


gruflf 


plumb 


tough 


come 


hump 


plunge 


trump 


crumb 


hunch 


punch 


truss 


cruich 


judge 


rhomb 


word 


does 


jump 


rough 


world 


dost 


lump 


rush 


worm 


dove 


lungs 


slough 


worse 


dumb 


month 


snufE 


worst 


done 


mulct 


son 


worth 


dunce 


mumps 


sponge 


young 


17. 


The sound of 


u long — as in tube. 




blew 


flew 


juice 


spume 


blue 


flue 


knew 


stew 


cue 


flume 


lieu 


sue 


dew 


flute 


lure 


suit 


due 


glue 


mew 


tune 


ewe 


glume 


mute 


view 


feud 


huge 


pew 


yew 


few 


jew 


sluice 


you 


18. The sound of 


u — as in pull ; 


and 00 having the 


same sound. 


book 


crook 


hood 


stood 


brook 


food 


room 


tomb 


buU 


foot 


shook 


wolf 


cook 


full 


should 


wolves 


could 


good 


soot 


would 



19. The sound of ou and ow, the same sound as in out, and owl. 
bough bound brow brown 



46 



SPELLING And PEONUNCLiTIOi*. 



browse 


fount 


mouse 


Bcowl 


cloud 


frown 


mouth 


ehroud 


couch 


gown 


now 


slough 


crowd 


grouse 


ounce 


sour 


doubt 


growl 


plough 


spouse 


drought 


hound 


pounce 


trow 


•drown 


house 


rouse 


trout 


'drowse 


howl 


scour 


vouch 


flounce 


lounge 


scout 


vow 


flour 


mound 


scow 


wound 


). The aou&i of 


oi and oy, 


the same sound as 


in boil and bo] 


broil 


foil 


joist 


soil 


choice 


foist 


joy 


spoil 


coif 


groin 


loin 


toil 


coil 


hoist 


point 


toise 


coin 


hoy 


poise 


toy 


coy 


joint 


quoit 


voice 



21. Words ending in ow which have sometimes the sound of 
ou as in out, and sometimes that of J as in no. The first 
of each pair has o, 

bow, an instrument to shoot arrows 

bow, to bend ; to stoop 

lower, to bring down 

lower, to appear dark 

mow, to cut down 

mow, a place where corn or hay la put 

row, a rank 

row, an uproar 

sow, to scatter seed 

sow, a female pig 

£2. Promiscuous Exercises on the vowel sounds, which the pupil 
should not only pronounce, but write, and apply the dis- 
tinguishing mark to each vowel, and mark the silent 
letters, and consonants having peculiar sounds. 



chief 
wealth 



whence 
sauce 



scythe 
rhyme 



taunt 
yawn 



WORDS OP TWO SYLLABLES. 



47 



drought 


thwart 


bridge 


rhythm 


grouse 


aisle 


stew 


folk 


czar 


chyle 


pyre 


balk 


gauge 


choir 


wrought 


psalm 


Bluice 


prance 


thyme 


says 


float 


huge 


shoe 


does 


crook 


source 


gouge 


gyves 


freak 


tjpe 


fruit 


joust 


bleech 


yacht 


dough 


chasm 


dealt 


sponge 


masque 


write 


calm 


train 


bowl 


bird 


knock 


quit 


league 


dirge 


saw 


guise 


dale 


want 


foal 


crutch 


soap 


first 


knife 


Bolve 


wealth 


last 


mow 


niche 


knit 


what 


health 


flounce 


liege 


war 


neigh 


tight 


chyme 


buy 


pawn 


flute 


dearth 


staves 


scoff 


yearn 


hearth 


gnaw 


toad 


nymph 


daunt 


eight 




SECTION 11. 





DissyllaWes, accented on tlie 
to their termination, or 
to be misspelt. 



first syllable, which, owing 
pronunciation, are liable 



(a) 


gracious 


wager 


balance 


acre 


hasten 


waken 


ballad 


alien 


hazel 




ballot 


angel 


jailer 


(a) 


banter 


ancient 


mason 


ag'ate 


baron 


brazier 


patience 


agile 


barrel 


cable 


patient 


alum 


barren 


chamber 


rasure 


anger 


batter 


chasten 


ration 


ankle 


cabin 


daily 


razor 


arras 


cackle 


favor 


sabre 


aspen 


camel 


gable 


eavor 


atom 


cancel 


glazier 


staple 


axle 


canter 


grazier 


vapor 


baffle 


canon 



48 



SPELLING AND PRONUNCUTIOH. 



canvas 


jangle 


travel 


water 


captain 


knacky 


traverse 


wartare 


carol 


knapsack 


valance 




castle 


lather 


valiant 


(5) 


cattle 


landscape 


valid 


eager 


cavil 


lavish 


valley 


beetle 


chapel 


malice 


valor 


cheapen 


chaplain 


manage 


vanish 


deacon 


clatter 


manor 


vapid 


feeble 


damage 


mantle 


wagon 


fever 


damask 


mansion 




leisure 


damsel 


paddle 


(a) 


lever 


dangle 


pageant 


arbor 


meagre 


dandruff 


palate 


barber 


seizure 


draggle 


palace 


barley 


specioiw 


dragon 


parish 


cargo 


steeple 


fagot 


parrot 


cartage 


treason 


famine 


passage 


cartridge 


weasel 


fashion 


patent 


garden 




fasten 


planet 


harden 


(S) 


fatten 


prattle 


jaundice 


beckon 


flagon 


rabid 


marvel 


beggar 


flannel 


rankle 


parcel 


bevil 


fracture 


rapid 


parlor 


bevy 


fragile 


rattle 


parson 


blemish 


gabble 


ravage 


fasten 


bury 


gamut 


ravish 




cherish 


garret 


saddle 


(a) 


clever 


grammar 


ealad 


altar 


cleanly 


granite 


sanction 


auburn 


credit 


grandeur 


satin 


caucus 


crystal 


gravel 


satire 


cordage 


deafen 


habit 


shatter 


corselet 


debtor 


handle 


statute 


faucet 


deluge 


harass 


tackle 


sausage 


desert 


havoc 


talent 


walrus 


earthen 


hazard 


talon 


warden 


epoch 


jagged 


tangle 


warrant 


felon 


jalop 


travail 


wharfage 


ferry 



WORDS OF TWO SYLLABLES. 



49 



fervor 


mitre 


liver 


(5) 


flexure 


nitre 


lizard 


ocean 


headache 


trifle 


lyric 


ochre 


leopard 


vital 


minion 


omen 


level 


■widen 


minute 


opal 


levy 




mission 


osier 


many (^) 


00 


mitten 


boatswain 


medal 


bibber 


mythic 


cocoa 


meddle 


bigot 


mystic 


courtier 


melon 


billons 


pigeon 


dotage 


menace 


billow 


pippin 


golden 


metal 


blister 


pistol 


molten 


merit 


britlle 


pity 


postage 


never 


brilliant 


pivot 


sober 


peril 


builder 


privy 


topaz 


prelate 


busy 


quibble 


yeoman 


rebel 


chisel 


quiver 




relish 


Christian 


riddle 


(5) 


revel 


city 


rigor 


bodice 


sceptre 


c:vic 


ripple 


body 


schedule 


civil 


river 


bonnet 


senate 


clippei 


rivet 


collier 


seraph 


crimson 


scissors 


comet 


sever 


cymbal 


sickle 


comic 


shekel 


distich 


snivel 


copy 


sheriff 


drivel 


spin age 


coral 


sterile 


driven 


spirit 


cotton 


tenon 


fickle 


swivtl 


florid 


tenor 


fiction 


synod 


forest 


tepid 


filial 


syrup 


frolic t 


vengeance 


fillet 


tinsel 


gospel 


very 


frigate 


thistle 


homage 




giddy 


vigil 


Aonest 


(0 


giggle 


village 


Aonor 


bible 


hinder 


villain 


horrid 


fibie 


inner 


vineyard 


jocund 


heighten 


limit 


visit 


logic 


idler 


linen 


widow 


lozenge 


iroa 


linDfit 


wizard 


model 



50 



SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION. 



modest 


tropic 


frontier 


muscle. 


monarch 




grovel 


puncheon 


moral 


(ii) 


honey 


ruffian 


porridge 


culture 


hovel 


sculptvire 


pottage 


curtain 


h ver 


sloven 


produce 


cousin 


jungle 


stomach 


proper 


cover 


knuckle 


study 


provost 


covert 


lustre 


tunnel 


novel 


covet 


money 


tonnage 


scholar 


dudgeon 


mufSn 


worry 


topic 









Words of nnsettled orthography. 
(The mode of spelling preferred alone is given.) 



abetter 


connection 


indite 


pgnniless 


abridgment 


corpse 


inquire 


phial 


accountant 


crfise 


jail 


plaster 


ambassador 


dClft 


jtidgment 


potato 


apostasy 


demain 


joust 


raze 


barque 


despatch 


license 


rear 


befall 


diocese 


liivender 


reflection 


behove 


Ecstasy 


licorice 


resin 


brazier 


endue 


marquis 


rennet 


camlet 


expense 


mileage 


ribbon 


cSraoraile 


foretell 


mistletoe 


seamstress 


c&rabine 


foundry 


molS,sses 


show 


caster 


gayly 


mSccason 


sponge 


^himois 


gayety 


movable 


steril8 


chastely 


gipsy 


negotiate 


strew (6) 


cipher 


gray 


firison 


surname 


checker 


hiccough (cup) osier 


woe 


0ligmist 


hgadachc 


6xide 


woful 


ch^stout 


/tSsder 


p^nsy 





LETTERS PECULUR OR DIFFICULT. 



5J 



SECTION III. 

List of words in which the sounds of the letters are 
peculiar or difficult. 

Words in wliich ci and ie occur having the sound of ?. 

The foUowinj^ rule will aid in (Icteiminin^ wliicli of the two 
letters stands first in any word. AVlien the di[)htIiong is|ireceded 
by 8, or by c having the sound of s, ei is used. In other words ie 
IS used — except in siege and financier; either and neither. 

The followinglists contain the principal words of each class: — 

1. Words which have ei. 



ceil 


ei ther 


per ceivo 


seize (and its de- 


ceil ing 


con ceit 


re ceipt 


rivatives) 


de ceit 


con ceive 


re ceivo 


leizure 


de ceive 


nei ther 


seino 





2. Words which have ie. 



a chicve 


chev a lier 


griev ance 


re lieve 


ag grieve 


fief 


griev 0U3 


re trieve 


be lief 


field 


liege 


shield 


be lieve 


fierce 


mien 


shriek 


bom bar dier 


fiend 


piece 


siege 


brig a dier 


fi nan cier 


pier 


tier 


brief 


gren a dier 


pierce 


tierce 


cav a Her 


grief 


priest 


wield 


chiof 


grieve 


re lief 


yield 


3. Words in 


which ai, ay, ea, 


ei, eo, and ie, have the sound of 


a gain 


clean ly 


en feoff raent 


health 


a gainst 


dead 


friend 


heav y 


bread 


dead ly 


friend ly 


heav en 


breadth 


deaf 


friend ship 


heif er 


break fast 


death 


feath er 


in stead 


breast 


en deav or 


head 


jeop ar dy 


aleanso 


en feofE 


head y 


lead 



62 



SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION. 



leath er 


pheas ant steady 


weath er 


leav en 


peas anl 


; sweat 


weap on 


leop ard 


read 


steal thy 


waist coat 


memt 


read y 


spread 


wealth 


me as ure 


realm 


treas ure 


zeal 0U3 


mead ow 


said 


thread 


zeal ot 


non pa leil 


saith 


threat en 




pleas ant 


says 


treach er 


y 


picas ure 


stead 


tread 




4. "Words ia wMclx e 


has ths sound of d, 


and i the sound 






of e. 




e'er 




ambergris 


palanquin 


ere 




antique 


pique 


ne'er 




bombazin 


piquant 


there 




capuchin 


police 


thereafter 




caprice 


quarantine 


therein 




chagrin 


ravine 


thereof 




critique 


recitative 


thereon, an 


d other 


fatigue 


routine 


compounds of 


frize, or frieze 


suite 


there, 


except 


gaberdine 


tabourine 


thei-efore 




haberdine 


tambourine 


whene'er 




invalid 


tontine 


wherever 




intrigue 


transmarine 


whereas 




machine 


ultramarine 


wherein 




magazine 


unique 


•wherefore. 


and 


mandarin 


verdigris 


other 


com- 


marine 


valise 


pounds 


of 






where 








5. Words to be carefully distinguislied 


in pronunciation 






and spelling. 




Snt, aunt 




coat, quote 


nick, ntche 


bath, bathe 




east, yeast 


real, reel 


bile, boil 


, 


fought, (a) fault 


suit, suite (e) 


boy, buoy- 




loath, loathe 


tower, tour 


breath, brea 


dth 


loo lieu 


track, tritct 


cloth, clolh© 









LETTERS PECUIiUI' OH DIFFICULT. 



53 



6. Words in which the first of each pair has the hard or hissing 
sonnd of s, and the second the soft sound, like z. 



advice, adviso 
ass, as 
brass, braze 
chase, chaise 
cease, seize 
dice, dies 
device, devise 
dose, doze 
fuss, fuzz 



grease, greaje 
hiss, liis 
hence, hens 
glass, glaze 
grass, graze 
juice, Jews 
lease, lees 
loose, lose 
mace, maze 



peace, peas 
pence, pens 
price, prize 
rare, raise 
rice, rise 
ruso, rues 
vice, vies 
truth's, truths 



7 Words spelled alike, excepting that the latter of each pair 
begins with h, which is aspirated. 



ail, hail 
air, hair 
all, hall 
alter, halter 
ale, hale 
am, ham 
and, hand 
arm, harm 
arbor, harbor 
art, hart 
arrow, harrow 
ash, hash 



asp, hasp 
at, hat 
ate, hate 
aunt, haunt 
ear, hear 
eat, heat 
eaves, heaves 
edge, hedge 
eel, heel 
elm, helm 
erring, herring 



ides, hides 
ill, hill 
ire, hire 
is, his 
it, hit 
oar, hoar 
old, hold 
oral, horal 
osier, hosier 
otter, hotter 
owl, howl 



8. Words spelled differently, hut distirgaished in pronunciation 
only by the use of the aspirate. 

aloe, hallow eye, high wen, when 

ardor, harder islands, highlands wet, whet 

arras, harass oaks, hoax wight, white 

artless, heartless owe, hoe -wile, while 

awe, haw owes, hoes wine, whine 

awl, haul own, hone wist, whist 

axe, hacks Wales, whales wit, whit 

eddy, heady ware, where witlier, whither 

eight, hate way. whey witch, which 

ere, hare weather, whether wot, what 



54 SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION. 

9. Words in which the initial h is silent. 

heir, lieirs, hciross hostler 

herb, heibage, herbless hour, hourly 

honor, honorable, honorary, humble, humbly, humbleness 

honorer humor, humorist, humorous, 
honest, honest\', honestly humorsome 

10. Words in which g is hard hefore e, i, and y. 

When words ending in g, preceded by a vowel, double the g 
before an added syllable beginning with e, t, or y, the g is hard 
—as dig, digging ; big, bigger ; bog, boggy. 

g is hard also in the following words : — 



gear 


get 


giddy 


gild 


girdle 


geek 


gewgaw 


gift 


gill 


girl 


geese 


gibber 


g'g 


gimlet 


girt 


gelJ 


gibberish 


giggle 


gimp 


give 


gelding 


gibbous 


giggler 


gird 


gizzard 


gelt 


gibcat 








auger 


eager 


tiger 


forgive 


.waggish 


dagger 


stagger 


trigger 


piggin 


knaggy 


dogged 


swagger 


begin 


rigging 


snaggy 


dogger 


target 


druggist 


sluggish 


&c. 


11. 


Words in which n has the sound of ng 




anchor 


canker 


flank 


monkey 


tank 


ankle 


concord 


function 


pink 


thank 


anxious 


concourse 


hank 


rancor 


think 


bank 


clank 


hanker 


rank 


uncle 


banquet 


crank 


ink 


rankle 


vanquish 


blank 


clink 


lank 


sink 


wink 


blanket 


dank 


link 


sjirinkle 


wrinkle 


brink 


drunk 


mink 


sunk 


zinc 



12. Words, with the sound of ng, in which the sound of g is 
doubled — as finger (fiiig-ger). Compare ringer. 

anger angular congress gangrene jingle 

angle clangor finger hunger language 

anguish conger fungous jangle languish 



tETTEBS PECULIAR OR DIFFICULT. 



55 



languor monger singular 

linger mongrel tangle 

mangle sanguine unguent 

mingle single T\'rangle 



longer younger 

longest youngest 
stronger 
strongest 



13. Words in wliiih ch has the sound of sh or k. 

The sound of sh. (The accented syllable is marked with the 
proper vowel souad.) 

chad, a kind of fish chemise (eez), an under-gar- 
chagrin, vexation ment 

chaise, a light carriage chevalier, a knight, 
chamade, the beat of a drum for chicane, to use quibble 

surrender chicanery, trickery 

chamois, a species of goat chiffonier, a rag-picker 

champagne, a kind of wine chiffonniere, (ar), a work-table 

champaign, an open country chivalrj', knighthood,gallantbe- 
chai'ade, a sort of riddle havior 

charlatan, a quack, mountebank chivalrous, gallant 

chateau (6), a country house chivalric, pertaining to chiralry 

The sound of Jc. ch before I and r is always hard — as chlorine, 
chloric, &c., chrism, chrysalis ; and in the following words : — 

eliara, an eastern governor chiropodist, a surgeon for the 
Chaldaic, relating to Chaldea hands and feet 
chameleon, a species of lizard chirurgeon, a surgeon 
chaos, confusion choler, wrath 

character, mark, quality choral, belonging to a chorus 

chiirta, charter, parchment chord, harmony 

chorister, leader of a choir 
chorography, a description of 

places 
chorus, a part in which all join 

in singing 
chyle, tiie food as changed in 
the duodenum 



chasm, a breach, a vacuity 
chemistry, a science 
chiliad, a thousand 
chimera, an idle fancy 
chirolog}', art of conversing 

with the hands 
chirography, handwriting 
chiromancy, palmistry, ordivin- chyme, the food as changed in 

ing byrea ling the lines 'ȣ the the stomach 

hand 



66 



SPELLING AND PKONDNCIATION. 



14. Words ending in le or cU 

The termination k is pronounced as cl, and it is Bometimes 
difficult to remember which termination isindicated by tlie sound. 

The following list contains nearly all the words of that class 
which end in el: — 



angel 


damsel 


kennel 


rowel 


bevel 


dishevel 


levd 


shsvel 


barrel 


drivel 


Jintel 


snivel 


btishel 


enamel 


model 


swivel 


camel 


flannel 


morsel 


tassel 


cancel 


funnel 


novel 


tunnel 


chancel 


gospel 


p^nel 


trammel 


chapel 


gravel 


parcel' 


tinsel 


chjirnel 


grovel 


pSramel 




chisel 


hazel 


itlvel 




ciidgel 


hSvel 


revel 





15. "Words ending in re or er. 

The terminations er and ?•<? are sounded alike. 

Tiiefollowinglistcontainsallthe words usually written with re. 
In regard to some of tliem there is a diversity of opinion — as, 
centre, theatre, &c., written by some center, tlieater, &c. : — 



accoiitre 


lustre 


nitre 




saltpetre 


acre 


mast-acre 


ochre 




sombre 


calibre 


meagre 


ogre 




sceptre 


centre 


mediocre 


orchestre 




spectre 


fibre 


metre 


reconnoitre 


sepulchre 


lucre 


mitre 


sabre 




theatre 




Exercises. 






apple, cbapel 


enter, 


centre 


neater, metre 


chisel, frizzle 


eager, 


meagre 


Tiber 


, fibre 


medal, meddle 


auger, 


, niaugre 


muster, lustre 


mfttal, mettle 


sober, 


sabre 







16. Words ending in ise or ize. 

Those derived from the Greek, and others formed after the 
same analogy, have tlie termination ize — as, agonize; but woids" 
derived from the French have generally ise — as, apprise. 



LETTERS PECULIAR OR DIFFICULT. 



67 



The following list compribes most of the verbs usually written 
^ith the termination ise : — 



advise 

advertise 


compromise 
demise 


emprise 
enfrancliise 


premise 
revise 


affranchise 


despise 


enterprise 


Bupeivise 


apprise 


devise 


exorcise 


surmise 


chastise 


disfranchise 


exorcise 


surprise 


circumcise 


disguise 


franchise 




compiise 


divertise 


merchandise 





With regard to the following words usage is divided between 
ise and ize : — 



catechise or catecliize 
criticise or criticize 
patronise or patronize 



recognise or recognize 
civilise or civilize 
epitomise or epitomize 



17. Words in which s or 2 has the sound of zh. 

In the termination sion, when preceded by a vowel, s has the 
Bcund of zh, as in evasion, cohesion, decision, explosion, con- 
tusion, &c. 



ambrosia 


closure 


embrasure 


ozier 


azure 


composure 


enclosure 


pleasure 


brazier 


crozier 


hosier 


treasure 


glazier 


disclosure 


incision 


usually 


grazier 


displeasure 


incisure 


usury 


feizure 


elysian 


leisure 




vizier 


el5^sium 


measure 





18. "Words in which s has the sound of sh. 

s has the sound of sh in the termination sion, when preceded by 
a consonant — as aversion, expulsion, dimension, passion, &c. 



assure 


im pressure 


osseous 


sQmaoh 


censure 


insQre 


pleasure 


sure 


compressure 


nauseate 


sensual 


tensure 


fissure 


nauseous 


sugar 


t5nsure 



i has the sound of sh when followed by i forming a distinct 
syllable, and when preceded by a short vowel bearing the accent, 



68 SPELLING AND PEONtJNCIATION. 

it is sounded with it in pronunciation — as ingratiate, negotiate, 
vitiate,petition,abo]ition,recognition;pronounced,in-gra.'-she-at, 
vish-e-at, pe-tlsh-iin. 

19. Terminations. 

The terminations sion, tlon, cean, cian, tian, cial, tial, cient 
tient, cini^s, scions, tious, science, and tience^ are pronounced as 
one syllable ; and c, sc, s, and t, have the sound of sh— as in 



ascension 


optician 


ancient 


captious 


mission 


tertian 


patient 


cautious 


passion 


official 


quotient 


factious 


mention 


special 


gracious 


conscience 


nation 


social 


precious 


patience 


traction 


martial 


specious 




ocean 


nuptial 


conscious 




logician 


partial 


luscious 





The terminations geon and gion are pronounced as one syllable, 
g having the sound of j — as pigeon, surgeon, widgeon, legion, 
region, religion. 

20. Words in which the sound of th is vocal— as in this, smooth. 
The initial th is vocal in the following words and their com- 



pounds. 




X 




tijan 


these 


those 


thenceforth 


that 


they 


thou 


there 


the 


their 


though 


therefore 


thee 


theirs 


thus 


thither 


them 


this 


thence 


thitherward 


tlien 









ih is vocal also at the end of many verbs, and in the plural of 
some nouns, as — 



bathe 
breathe 

cloihe 
mouth 


sheathe 
wreathe 
smooth 
bequeath 


baths 
laths 
paths 
oaihs 


mouths 

truths 

youths 



SPECIAL EXERCISES IK ARTICULATION. 



59 



SECTION IV. 
Special Exercises in articulation. 

The following exercises to be slowly and frequently read; and 
to be written from dictation : — 

1. 'Words ill wliich several consouants come together. 



mobb'd cribs 


width 


wafts 


coughs 


robb'd rubs 


• breadth 


grafts 


laughs 


sobb'd prob'st 


widths 


laugh'st 


cough'st 


begg'd rob'st 


breadths 


graft'st 


laugh'st 


bragg'd stabb'd 


lengths 


drafts 


troughs 


dandle huddle 


handle 


claspedst 


haggl'd 


dandles huddles 


handles 


troublest 


haggl'd'st 


daudlest huddlest 


handiest 


troubled 


giggl'd 


dandl'd huddled 


handled 


marvel'd'st 


giggl'd'st 


wags folds 


stealth 


range 


helps 


wagg'st fold'st 


health 


rang'd 


help'st 


bags moulds 


wealth 


strange 


drink'st 


bagg'st mould'st 


delft 


estrang'd 


wink'st 


pinch'd burn'd 


learnt 


mask'd 


prisms 


trench'd burnt 


ask'd 


masks 


reason'd 


minc'd learn'd 


asks 


j)rism 


reasons 


2. Phrases containing a succe 


isslon of similar 


sounds. 


hard hearts 




truth threatens 




land and 




church chimes 




laid down 




fearless slave 




done nobly 




cheapest store 




barbed blade 




much cheaper 




black block 




hourly looking 




dark closet 




surprising singing 


calm minds 


• 


rural relations 




own neighbor 




singing gaily 




reap plenty 




really laborious 


far round 




thirtieth thousand 


loss stated 




what troubleth thee 


live virtuously 




the best story 




gives zealously 




amid mid-day 


dreams 


breathe thou 




among great tomes 



60 



SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION. 



Phrases and sentences, composed of similar sounds, which 
require to be carefully distinguished in pronunciation. 



An ice-house, 

A little laughter, 

He could pay nobody, 

His cry moved me, 

It was founded long ago, 

It was a gi-eat error. 

Let all men bend low, 

Let him recite his story, 

Let him come and obey. 

Such an ocean to exist, 

To obtain either. 

That lasts till night, 

The highlands are in sight, 

Wastes and deserts, 



A nice house. 

A little after. 

He could pain nobody. 

His crime moved me. 

It was found dead long ago. 

It was a great terror. 

Let tall men bend low. 

Let him recite history. 

Let him command and obey. 

Such a notion to exist. 

To obtain neither. 

That last still night. 

The islands are in sight. 

Waste sand deserts. 



4. Sentences the chief words of which begin with the same 
sounds. 

Apt alliteration's artful aid. 

By being busy boys become better. 

Churlish chapmen chide cheerful children. 

Guilty gamblers greedily grasp gold. 

He heard his herdsmen hurrying him home. 

Jaunty gentlemen generally joke joyously. 

Many miserable men make money by miserly meanness. 

Musing a moment before them, Miles Standish j^aused as if doubtful. 

Peculiarly proud persons perchance pay penance to pinching poverty. 

Quidnuncs query with queer quizzical questions. 

Round the rugged rock the rapid river ran. 

Rushing rapids roar round rising rivers. 

Shrill shabby shrews should surely show sure shame. 

Similar sights and sounds savor certainly of satiety. 

Sudden and loud as the sound of a soldier grounding his musket. 

Thirty-three thousand things thwart thoughtless thieves. 

Trials and troubles turn with time and tide. 

Wisdom wages war with wilful wickedness. 



5. Similar sounds, with the letter r, and without it, to be 
carefully distinguished in pronunciation. 

ah ! an exclamation area, extent of surface 

are, plural of is arier, more airy 



SPECIAL EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION. 



CI 



balm, a fragrant ointment 

barm, yeast 

boa, a kind of serpent , , , 

boar, a ma'e swine "^ ' 

bust, a half-leugth statue 

burst, to break open 

dust, powdered substances 

durst, dared 

father, a male parent 

farther, more distant 

fellow, a companion or equal 

feller, one who cuts down trees 

formally, with much ceremony 

formerly, in time past 

fust, a mouldy smell 

first, foremost — earliest 

gnaw, to eat into 

nor, neither 



•-t,^iJt^ 



laud, to praise 
lord, a title, or master 
^awn, fine linen 
lorn, forsaken 
manna, a kind of gum 
manner, method 
pass, a "passage 

parse, to tell parts of speech, &c. 
pillow, a cushion for the head 
pillar, a column 
quota, a proper share 
quoter, one who quotes 
sought, searched 
sort, a kind 
stalk, a stem 
stork, a bird of passage 



6. Words which are often yrononnced alike, though the first of 
each pair is a monosyllable and the second a dissyllable- 
Those ;n the first column should be distinguished, those in 
the second column may be pronoun:;ed alike- 



diie, dismal 

dyer, one who dyes 

flare, to give a glaring'unsteady light 

flayer, one who flays 

flour, meal 

flower, a blossom 

gore, blood 

goer, one who goes 

hire, wages 

higher, more lofty 

hoar, white 

hoer, one who hoes 

lair, the bed of a beast 

layer, a stratum or row 

lore, learning 

lower, deeper 

lyre, a harp 

liar, one who lies 

mare, a female horse 

mayor, a magistrate 



bald, without hair 

bawled, cried aloud 

bard, a poet 

barred, hindered 

board, a plank 

bored, pierced 

bold, brave 

bowled, rolled 

braid, to plait 

brayed, did bray 

brood, to sit on eggs ; progeny 

brewed, did brew 

gourd, a plant 

gored, pierced with a horn 

guest, a visitor 

guessed, did guess 

mist, a sort of fog 

missed, lost ; did not hit 

mode, a manner 

mowed, cut down 



62 



SPELLING AND PRONUNCUTION. 



ode, a kind of poero 

owed, was indebted 

rode, did ride 

road, a way 

rowed, did row 

sold, disposed of 

soled, having a sole pi;t on 

Bword, a weapon 

soared, mounted aloft 

told, mentioned 

tolled, did ring 

wade, to pass through water 

weighed, did weigh 



more, a greater quantity 

mower, one who mows 

pare, to cut off the rind 

payer, one who pays 

roar, to make a loud noise 

rower, one who rows 

sire, a father 

sigher, one who sigha 

side, an edge or margin 

sighed, did sigh 

soar, to fly aloft 

sower, one who scatters seed 

sore, painful 

sewer, one who sews seams 

sure, certnin, safe 

shoer, one who shoes 

ware, merchandise 

weigher, he that weighs 



Exercises for Dictation. 
The pupti shoxild.be required to write others of a similar kind. 

The loss of all his colors was a dire calamity to the dyer. 

The lamp began to flare, so that the flayer could scarcely see to 
take the skin off the slain ox. 

Do not sprinkle flour over the flower pot. 

If you wish me to serve you faithfully, you must give me higher 
wages; and, when the work is done, pay me my hire. 

The hoer cannot hoe in the garden to-day as the ground is covered 
with hoar frost. 

The lair of the wolf was found in a thicket, on a thick layer of 
leaves. 

It is gi-aceful to play skilfully on a lyre, but it is disgraceful to be 
a liar. 

The mayor of the town owns a beautiful bay mare. 

When the sower went out in the morning to sow his seed, he saw a 
lark soar into the sky. 

The shoer drove another nail into the shoe on the pony's foot, ft 
make it firm and sure. 

A stone fell on the mason's bald head, on account of which hs 
bawled most lustily. 

The boy bored a hole through the board with a gimlet. 

Our guest never left his room for four days, and no one ever guessed 
the reason of his conduct. 



SPECIAL EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION, 



m 



He mowed the grass well, but he had a strange mode of handling 
the scythe. 

He rowed a boat across the ferry, and then rode home in a carriage 
along the new road. 

I saw the boy wade into the riTor and bring out a fish, which 
weighed three pounds. 

He told me that the large bell was tolled yeRterday. 

He sold a pair of thick soled b.oots for four dollars. 

The mist was so dense on the hills that he missed his way, and did 
not get back that night. 



7. Words which, when indistinctly pronounced, are likely to bs 

confounded. 

Each pair should be carefully enunciated, one directly after tlie 
other. 



accept, except 
access, excess 
accede, exceed 
accidence, accidents 
adherence, adherent* 
addition, edition 
affect, effect 
allusion, illusion 
apposite, opposite 
assistance, assistants 
attendance, attendants 
acts, axe 
capital, capitol 
celery, salary 
centuries, sentries 
concert, consort 
decease, disease 
deference, difference 
descent, dissent 
divers, diverse 
elicit, illicit 
elude, illude 
emerge, immerge 
emigrate, immigrate 



eminent, imminent 
eruption, irruption 
expedience, expedients 
fisher, fissure 
gamble, gambol 
genius, genus 
gesture, jesture 
impostor, imposture 
ingenious, ingenuous 
lightening, lightning 
lineament, liniment 
millenary, millinery 
missal, missile 
monetary, monitory 
oracle, auricle 
ordinance, ordnance 
pastor, pasture 
patience, patients 
presence, presents 
preposition, proposition 
prophecy, prophesy 
sculptor, sculpture 
statue, statute 
tracks, tracts 



(54 SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION. 



Exercises for Dictation. 

The scholars should be required to read these sentences ti' tba 
class, and also to write out others of a similar kind. 

All these presents I accept, in your presence, except the last. 

"When he obtained access into the king's presence, his joy was in 
excess. 

It would far exceed my instructions, were I to accede to your pro- 
posal. 

In the new edition of the book, a large addition has been made to 
the first chapter. 

His adherence to these views lost him many adherents. 

He may only affect ignorance, in order the more easily to effect his 
purpose. 

The attendants gav? poor attendance on the occasion. 

He acts wisely in taking an axe with him. 

In the capital of the couutry stands the capitol, at the gates of 
which sentries have stood daily for centuries. 

There was obvious concert between her and her consort. 

The decease of my friend was caused by a lingering disease. 

■\Yith all due deference to you, I think there is a very great differ- 
ence. 

I dissent entirely from the proposal of an immediate descent into 
the mine. 

We emigrate from one country and immigrate into another. 

Eminent men are often placed in imminent danger. 

The very expedients, which you use, show the matter to be one of 
expedience. 

The impostor was soon detected in his acts of imposture. 

When the men were lightening the vessel the lightning struck it. 

The liniment will heal the wound on his face without altering a 
lineament of it. 

Monitory advice is often useful in monetary transactions. 

He spoke like an oracle about the auricle of the heart. 

The pastor of the parish has pasture for a horse and a cow. 

His patients had great patience in waiting for him. 

If he has the gift of prophecy, let him prophesy. 

The sculptor, in accordance with the statute, produced a statue, 
which is an exquisite piece of sculpture. 

Wherever he saw tracks, or footpaths, there he dropped some tracts. 



OirnCULT WORDS AKRANQED m STLLABLES. 



C5 



SECTION V. 

Lists of the more difficult words, and sucli as mors 
frequently occur, arranged accoriinj to the vowel 
Bound of the accented syllables. 

Words of not more than four syUahles. 

1. The soand of J — as in fate. 

Accented on the first syllable. 



ag en cy 
al ien ate 
an cieut 
a mi a I le 
a que ous 
a rea 
bail if! 
bane ful Ij 
bay net "^ 
bra zier 
ca denco 
cam brie 
ca pa 1 le 
cLam bcr 
chas tea 
0lia OS 
dai ry 
dai sy '^ 
dan ger ous 
dra per y — 
fa Tor ltd — 



fla gran cy 
fra gran cy 
gay e ty 
gla zier 
grace ful ly 
gra ciou8 
gra zier 
gua ia cum 
lia// pen ty 
liei nous 
i'oav er y 
la i ty 
la zar house 
ma ni ac 
ma tron 
na sal 

neij/A bor '" 
pa tri arch • 
pa tri ot 
pa tron ess 
pay a blo 



pla gia rism 
\\\ guy 
1 1 ly ful ly -.. 
prai rie -^-i 
ra di ant 
rai ment 
rai §in 
ra ti 
ea ore 

sal a ble •« 
sa ti ate 
spa ci ous 
trai tor ous 
va gran cy 
va por y 
va ri e gate 
ya ri ous 
wain scot 
way ward - 
wa ver ing 
way faro 



Accented on the second syllable. 



a ba ta bio 
a bey ance 
ac quaint ance 
ad ja cent 
ag ra ri an 
ap praif er 



ar rai^n 

ar range meat 

ar ray 

as say 

at tain dcr 

M Buage 



an da cions 
bar ba ri an 
be lia vior 
be wail ing 
bro cade 
cam poijn 
B 



6G 



6PELLIN0 AND pnoiTxracuTroir. 



ca pa C10U3 
fliaiii ado 
ctiam ]irirfno 
5'iar ailo 
^lii can ery 
com pla cen cy 
com plain er 
con ta i;iou3 
con tain 
con vey ance 
cnur a geous 
cms ta ceous 
cu ta no 0118 
dis sua sion 
dis taste ful 
cf face 
c la lion 
c ma ci ate 
em bra snro 
en dan gcr 
« qua tor 
e ra di ato 
ex tra ne ons 
ex cliang ing 
OS pa ti ato 



far ra go 
fe ra cions 
for licar anco 
gram ma riim 
gro ga ri ous 
gy ra tion 
liare liraincd 
hi a tU3 
liu m.'uio 
im pair 
in gia ti ato 
in lay 
in sa ti ato 
in sta lilo 
in vcigli 
ir ra di ato 
li bra ri an 
lo qua cioti3 
mo sa ic 
bei sanc9 
bey ing 
oc ca sion 
o paqiie 
pal la di um 



par terro 
per sua sion 
pro sa ic 
jMir voy nr 
quan da ry 
re frain 
re ga lia 
re lay 
re main 
ro pair 
6a ga cious 
sec ta rian 
spec ta tor 
epon ta ne OVB 
6ur vey ing 
un feigned 
un va ried 
un veil 
un \va ry 
vex a tioiis 
vi ca ri ous 
vi ra go 
vi va cious 
vol ca no 



Accented on tlie tldrd sellable. 



ad van ta gcous 
ad u la ticin 
af fi da vit 
ag gra va tion 
as pi ra tinn 
ap per tain 
as cer tain 
ap pa ra tiis 
bar li cadd 
bas ti ua do 



col on nailo 
con gre ga tion 
con II. I gra tion 
dell o nair 
des per a do 
des pe ra lion 
dis ser ta tion 
en ler tain 
dep re da tion 
ha is la tiuu 



lit er a ti 
macli i na ti^n 
mas quer ade 
pal i sade 
j)rep nr a tion 
pro cu ra tor 
sep ar a tiuc 
ser e nado 
tre[) i da tion 
vi ti a tioa 



DIFFICULT WOUDS ARRANGED lH SYLLAhLliS. 6? 

2. Tbe Eonnd of <f as in fnt. 





Accented on the first t 


ii/llable. 


•b sti nence 


cat a ract 


ma^ is tra cy 


ac CC8 60 ry 


cat e ciiisra 


niaj es ty 


ac cu ra cy 


cal uni ny 


na! le a bio 


ac ri mo ny 


cat er pil lar 


mack er el 


ad jec live 


car riflge 


man a clea 


ad ju tant 


cav al ry 


man age 


ad mi ra bio 


dial ice 


mar riago 


am i ca ble 


^liam oia 


mar ringe a ble 


ad mi ral ty' 


cas u al 


mas sa ere 


al CO liol 


cliar ac ter 


mat ins 


ag ri cul turs 


clias tise ment 


mat ri mo ny 


al lo go ry 


clias ti ty 


mat tiess 


am ber gris 


cal i bre 


macli i na'e 


an ces try 


dac tyl 


mag not i&m 


an ec dole 


flam beau (0) 


pag eaiit 


an guish 


frag ile 


Iiamph let 


an ar chy 


gal ax y 


pal li ate 


an ti mo ny 


gal Ian try 


par a graph 


an ti qua ted 


gal ler y 


pal pa ble 


an ti qua ry 


gal van ism 


par al lei 


aph rism 


gran dour 


pan to mime 


aq ui line 


graph ic 


par a t^ite 


&sth ma 


hal cy on 


pat ri mo ny 


at mos pbere 


hand ker chief 


pat ron age 


av e nue 


jav e lin 


phan ta t-y 


av a rice 


hab i ta bio 


phar i see 


av er age 


ifcnap sack 


psal mist 


al plia bet 


lab y rinth 


psal mis try 


ap plex y 


Ian guago 


psal mo dy 


bach e lor 


Ian guor 


quack er y 


bal an CO 


lac er ate 


rail ler y 


bal CO ny 


lacli ry mal 


rap iuo 


bap tism 


la0li ry mose 


r/(ap so dy 


cap il la ry 


la[) i da ry 


rav en ous 


cap tain 


lam en ta ble 


eac clia rine 


cat a logD0 


lax i ty 


sac ri &ce 



68 



BPELLIKO AND PEONUNCIATION. 



saZm on 

sap pliire (sS£ fir) 
sat ci lite 
Bcan dn Ions 
sal u ta ry 
span iel 
snap pish 
EtaL u a ry 



trag dy 
tab or iia cle 
tan ta lize 
tan gi bio 
ta]) is try 
tran sient 
tran quil lize 
tav cin 



trap e zoid 
trav erse 
thank less 
vac u una 
Iran script 
vag a bond 
val iant 



Accented cm (lie second tyllable. 



a cad e my 

a lac ri ty 
a nial gara 
a nach ron ism 
a nal o gy 
a natb c ma 
a qiiat ic 
as [ilial tic 
as sas si nato 
ast/t nia tic 
at tacli mcnt 
au dac i ty 
bat tal ion 
bom bas tic 
can tliar i des 
ca tas tro pLo 
pliro mat ic 
CO ag u la!o 
com par a tivo 
cui rass (kwc) 
dis par age mcnt 
dia ma tic 
e jac u late 
e lab rate 
e las lie 
e lapse 
em bar rass 
e man ci pate 
em pLat io 



en fran cbise 
en am el 
en am or 
en camp mcnt 
en tab la ture 
ex agg or ate 
e van gel ize 
ex panse 
ex tra va gant 
fi nance 
fa nat i cism 
gram mat i cal 
gym nas tic 
lia rangue 
hi lar i ty 
ho san nah 
hu man i ty 
im ag i na ry 
im pas si bio 
in tajil io 
i ras ci ble 
in tran si tive 
if ra tion al 
lym pliat ic 
me clian ic 
men dac i ty 
mi rac u lous 
mis an tlno py 
mo laii ses 



mo rass 
mu lat to 
pac i ty 
phi Ian thro py 
phlcg mat ic 
phy lac ter ies 
])i az za 
j)ncu mat ic3 
port man teau (o) 
pro eras ti nate 
prag mat ic 
re fran gi ble 
re gal i ty 
re gat ta 
rhcu mat ic 
Bclm mat io 
scho las tic 
se rajl io 
se raph ic 
som nam bu lism 
sto mach ic 
sub Stan tial 
the at ri cal 
to bac CO 
ty ran ni caJ 
u nan i mous 
ve rac i ty 



DIFFICULT WOEDS AERANQED tS STLLABLES. 



60 



Accented on the third syllable. 



an i mal culo 
cir cum stan tial 
com plai s luco 
com plai saut 
con ti dant 
CO ri an der 



di a {jraph io 
em blciu at io 
raal e fac tor 
mal e fac tion 
par a graphic 
par a phras tie 



par al lac tio 
pu tri fac tioa 
sat is fac tioa 
syc pliaii tic 
sys tern at ic 
ua sub staa tial 



3. The sound of a, as in fare. 
Accented on the first syllable. 



bare faced 
bare ly 
bare n^^ss 
bear a ble 
care ful ly 
care less nes3 
dar ing ly 
fai ry 
fare well 
gar ish 



hare brained 
hair y 
hair less 
pair ing 
pa rent 
pa rent age 
par ing 
rare ly 
rar i ty 
scarce ly 



scar ci ty 
stair case 
star ing ly 
spare ly 
spar ing ly 
square ness 
sqiiar ish 
star er 
ware house 
wa ri ly 



af fair 

ap par ent 
com par ing 
de clare 
de spair 



Accented on the second syllable. 

de spair ing mo hair 

for bear ance pre pare 

for swear ing re p lir ing 

in snare un fair ly 



im pair ing 



un fair ness 



a? mond 
&l mon er 
ar bi ter 
ar chi tect 
ar clie type 
ar ihives 
ar que bus 
ar gu ment 



4. The sonnd of d, as in far. 
Accented on the first syllable. 

car ni val 

car ti 1 ige 
chari£e u ble 



ar ti san 
art ful ly 
ar ti fice 
bar ba 1 0U3 
bar bi can 
bra vo 
car di nal 
charm ing I7 



^liar la tan 
clar ion 
fai' ci cal 
far del 
gaunt let 



ro 



SPELLCfa AND PEONUNCUTION. 



gnar di an 
liarm less ly 
liar mo nize 
Lard i liood 
liar le quin 
harp si chord 
jaim dico 
lar ce ny 
lau^h a bio 



lauc;h ter 
l.mn dry 
mar jo raiu 
mar tyr 
mar tyr dom 
mar tin gale 
par lia ment 
par ai mo uy 



par son ags 
par tial ly 
jtars ley 
par ti tan 
phar ma cy 
sar casm 
eaun ter 
ser geant 



Accented on the second syllabh. 

a part raont co part ner hu? sar 

ant arc tic ci tliar tic letii ar gio 

ba za^r do part ment mam ma 

be calm did liear tea mus tijho 

gui tar cm balm in car uato 

ci gar era bar go 

com part ment en lar^o ment 



pa pa 

un daunt ed 



5. The soand of d, as in fast. 
Accented on the first sellable. 



ask ing 
cast a way 
cast cr 
chaf fy 
chan eel lor 
chan cer y 
chant ing 
glass y 
last ing 
last ly 
danc ing 
mas ter y 



m« ter ly 
mas tiCE 
nas ty 
pas I or 
pas turo 
pas tur ago 
pass a ble 
pass ver 
pass word 
pass a biy 
pass port 
pas tor al 



plas ter 
plas ter er 
pranc ing 
raft er 
rafts man 
raft ing 
filan der oua 
task work 
vast ly 
vast y 
vast ness 



Accented on (lie second syllahU. 



ad vance 
ad vauce ment 
ad van tage 
a mass 
as kanco 



a slant 
en chant 
en chant ment 
en hance 
'^ trance 



dis mast 
sur pass 
siir ])ass ing 
un clasp 
un mask 



DIFFICULT WOKDS AEnAXGED IN SYLLABLES. 71 

6. The sound of a as iu fall. 

Accented on ihe first sijUable. 

a1 dpr man faZ con naiigh fi ly 

al ma nao fa/ en er nau se ate 

al lar fal si fy nau scous ly 

an di cnco gau dy nau ti cal 

au di to ry gau di ness pan ci ty 

au gu ry liaw fcr pau jier ism 

au ri do lial ter j lau si Llo 

nu to graph Law iliorn qiialm iah 

au tunin lau da Llo quar tcr 

awk ward law suit fau sago 

Lau bio niau gro slaur/A ter 

caul droa maud lin tali< a tivo 

caul i flovjer mawk isU tliral dooi 

can ter izo nangli ty wa ter 

can tion3 nau^h ti nes3 wu tcr fall 
daugli tcr 

Accented on the second syllable. 

ap pal de fraud in can tions 

ap planse ex alt in stal mont 

as sault ex laust in tliral mcnfc 

be daub ex liaus tion ma laud er 

be souglit Ly draul ics pa.^h a 

de fault er Ian dau tar pau lin 

7. The Eound of ? as in mete. 

Accented on the first syVxililc, 

bca con ea si er fee Llo 

be lie moth cat a Llo fre qiicnt ly 

brief ly e go i^m groa si ntsj , 

ere dcnce c qua Lly lei sure 

de ecu cy e qui nox lei sure ly 

de i ty e ven ly Ic gioa ar y 

de vi 0U3 feal ty le ni ent ly 

ea gle fca si Lie e qual izo 



7a 



tPKLLmO AaiD PBONimCUTIOV. 



measles 
me ni al 
mo te or 
ncAt \y 
need less ly 
peace a biy 
pie nastn 
pre Bci enco 



re cent ly 
re qui em 
66 ere cy 
seen er y 
seiz ure 
sea son ing 
6oa son a bio 
teach a bio 



the a tro 
the o ry 
trea tise 
ve he mence 
vo he mcnt 
wea ri some 
weas el 
ce nith 



Accented on tht second tyllalle. 



ab tie mi ons 
a chieve 
od he renco 
a e ri al 
a gree ment 
al le gi anco 
a me na bio 
an tiqiio 
op pease 
ap pre ci ato 
a rc na 
ar rear ago 
aus tcro 
be liere 
be qiicath 
be reave 
bo siege 
bo sraoar 
bias phemo 
bo hea 
can teen 
ca prico 
ca rccr 
casii icr 
ca tlic dral 
^ha grin 
eha me leoa 
phi mo ra 
com plete 



con ceal 
con cedo 
con ceit 
con ceive 
con gcal 
con ve nient 
cri tiquo 
czar i na 
de ceivo 
do mean or 
dep ro ci ato 
di:i easo 
c gro gious 
en dear ment 
e the re al 
ex p-i di enco 
fa ce tious 
fas cine 
fa tigiio 
fu no ro al 
f u ;ce 
pen leel 
hy na 
i de a 
ii Ic gal 
im peach mont 
ini pede 
in e bri ato 
in he rence 



in trigue 
in vei gle 
ma chi ner y 
ma chin ist 
ma rino 
mu 80 um 
mys te ri ous 
be dient 
ob lique 
ob se qui ous 
per ceive 
pie be ian 
pro code 
pre CO dence 
pri me val 
pro ce dure 
pro ceed 
re coipt 
re ceiv a ble 
re ceivo 
re lief 
ro 11 eve 
re prievo 
ro tricv a ble 
rou tine 
salt pe tre 
se Crete 
sha green 
sub poe na 



DliTICULT WOBDS ABRAXQED IH SYLLABLES. 



78 



fti pe ri or 
tor rcne 
ton tine 
tor 1)0 do 



tra ge di aa 
u nique 
un wear icd 



Accented on the iMrd 



as t^gxi ee 
bom bar dier 
bom ba ;ia 
cap u (hin 
cav a Her 
fhan de lier 
con si^n eo 
con tia veno 
di ar r/ioe a 
dis a greo mcnt 
en gi neer 
eu ro pe an 
fi nan cier 



fric as see 
gaz et tccr 
gon do lier 
grcn a dier 
guar an tee 
guil lo lined 
by me ne al 
in CO be renco 
in ler fe rence 
ir re me dial 
mag a zino 
man da rin 



un wield y 
val ise 
vice ge rent 



syllable. 

mau so le am 

mis do mean or 
mor^ ga gee 
moiin tain eer 
pal an quin 
per se ve ranee 
quar au tine 
rep ar teo 
sac ri le gious 
sper ma ce ti 
6U per sede 
tarn bour ine 



2)dcl Hum 
ben e fico 
bev er ago 
break fast 
brcv i ty 
eel e ry 
eel i ba cy 
ccm cnt 
cera te ry 
ccn taph 
ccn tre 
ccr e mo ny 
(;1icm i cal 
ciicr i»]i 
cber u bim 
clem cnt 
cler i cal 



8. Tlie sound of If as 

Accented on the first 

crcd i ble 
crev ico 
deit or 
ded i cato 
def er enco 
den i zen 
dep re cate 
cch 
ec sta cy 
cd i ble 
cf fi ca cy 
cf fi gy 
og tism 
el egy 
el i gi bio 
el qucnco 
em er y 



in mSt. 
syllable. 



cm 13 sa ry 
em ])lia sis 
en vy ing 
cpb od 
ep i cy cle 
ep i taph 
ep i tbet 
cq ui ta ble 
cq ui ty 
cs en lent 
cs say ist 
ctli ics 
ct i qnofto 
ex e era bio 
ex em j)Ia ry 
ex pli ca ble 
ex quis ite 



74 



SPELLDfO AXD PRONUKCUTIOS. 



OS tn a ry 
fcatli er 
ft-m i nine 
fren zy 
gel a tino 
gpn u iue 
ges ture 
head aclio 
hem is ])l»2ro 
lier e tic 
her o ine 
her ism 
hes i tan cy 
leav en 
1 g a cy 
leg ate 
leg is la tor 
le'<|) aid 
Icth ar gy 
lev y 
lev i ty 
mecli an ism 
mel an phul y 
mem o ra bio 
mes sago 
met a phor 
Dec es sa ry 
nee ta riue 
neg a live 
neg li gent 
neb tlo 
Deth er 
pea§ ant 
ped a goguo 
I'cr cmp tory 
jieat i leuce 
pet al 
j)fct ri fy 
pet u lont 



plea? ant ry 
plen tc 0113 
preb en da ry 
pros i ilent 
pre cious 
prec i pice 
pred a to ry 
pref er a bio 
pref ace 
prej u dice 
p el udo 
j)rera is es 
pres ly !er y 
prev a lent 
pres i den cy 
q'ler u Ions 
rec oni pcLce 
lec on dilo 
iig i iiient 
rep ri maud 
rep ro bate 
res er voir 
res i due 
ret i cenco 
ret i cule 
ret ro grade 
ret ro .spect 
rev el ler 
rev e nue 
rev er enco 
rev ca ble 
thct ric 
Beep tic 
Bc-iied ule 
seam stress 
Bee re ta ry 
6cc u lar 
sem i breve 



scm 1 na ry 
sen 811 al 
sen ti ent 
Ben ti nel 
Bcp ar a ble 
Bep tu a gint 
Bep 111 chro 
Eer a phim 
Bev er ance 
Bheli el 
Bbep herd 
spec ta ulo 
spec tie 
spec u la tion 
spiicr i cal 
Btreu u 0U3 
tcc'i ni cal 
tel e graph 
tel Ca cope 
tera po ra ry 
ten e raent 
ter ri er 
ter ri to ry 
treach er ous 
treas uro 
tiel lised 
veg e ta tive 
Ven cr a ble 
Vcn gcance 
ven i son 
ven om oiia 
ves ti bulo 
veap on 
wher ry 
wres tlo 
zeal ot 
zeal oua 
zeph yr 



DimCULT WORDS ARRAXGED IN SYLLABLES. 



75 



Accented on the second 
ac eel er ate dis sent 



ac cos siori 
ac ccp la bl« 
ad (iie83 
a gainiit 
al lege 
al read y 
an gel i cal 
as ccn dant 
as cen dan cy 
as cen hiuq 
as cet ic 
bi sec ticn 
bi sex tile 
bru nette 
bur lesque 
ca det 

^lii tuer i cal 
com mend a ble 
com pen sate 
con demn 
con jec ture 
con temn 
con tempt u cos 
con ven ti cle 
con vex i ty 
CO quet ry 
CO quetto 
cor vetto 
de crep id 
de lee ta ble 
dia sea sioa 



de vol op 
di ror e sis 
di lein ma 
de cein bcr 
ec ccn trio 
cc lee tic 
ef fee live 
cf fern i naie 
e lee tiL'ss 
c met ic 
en deav or 
en feod mcnt 
en VL-1 op 
e qnes tri an 
ex clieq uer 
ex crcs ceuco 
ex oc u tor 
ex cm pli fy 
ex tern po re 
fi nesso 
ga zetto 
gro tesqiie 
he ret i cal 
li.vs ter ics 
in cred i ble 
in dcf i nite 
in del i bio 
in dem ni ty 
ir rel e vant 
in vet er ate 
li cen ti ate 



sijllahle. 

ma lev o lent 
mo men to 
ne ces si tate 
pe d«s tri an 
pa rcn the sit 
jier ]iet u ato 
jio et i cal 
po lem ic 
jios sessed 
])0.s ses sion 
]irc des ti nate 
pre sent a ble 
])re sen ti ment 
]iro phet i cal 
])u tres cent 
qui es tent 
quint cs .^-eiice 
re cell siou 
re gret led 
re plen isli 
re plev in 
re sef^t ment 
re spec ta ble 
re trench ment 
sen ten ii(m3 
Ecp ten ni al 
se ques trate 
sue ces aion 
6Ug gest 
ter res tri al 
um brel la 
y.g\x ctte 



Accented on the third syllable. 

9r a dem io ad o Ics cence ar a besquo 

ac ci den tal al plni be lie ar phi tec tv.«"5 

ac qui es cenco ap o plec tie co a les cence 



76 



SrELLKO AST) PROXDXCIATION, 



con sci en tious 
con va ks ceuce 
dis ill Iter it 
ef I'cr vcs cenco 
ep i lep lie 



ev an es cent 
en cr get ic 
in ilu eii za 
in ter rug num 
iu uu cu Jo 



9. The sound of e before r- 
jfi cccnicd on Vie first 



cer tain ty 
clcr gy man 
fer veil cy 
fer vid ly 
glicr kin 
her mit 
Lcr mit ago 
mcr ci fiil 
mer clian disc 
mcr cu ry 
nerve less 
ncr vino 
ner vous ly 



per CO lato 
per fi dy 
per jii ry 
per me a bio 
per ma nent 
per qui silo 
per son 
per son ate 
per son al ly 
per ti nent 
port ncs3 
qucr CU3 
search a bio 



raign o nefte 
cm ni pres eat 
pic itir esque 
jire do ces sor 
sac ra men tal 

-as in her. 
syllable. 

search er 
ser pent 
ser i)en tine 
ser vi tor 
ser vi tude 
ter ma gant 
ter mi nu3 
ver di gris 
ver dan cy 
ver sa tilo 
ver te bral 
ver ti cal 
ver ti go 



Accented on the second syllable. 

ad verb i al de ter ment in ter pret 

ad ver sa tivo di ver sion im mer sion 

ad ver tise ment e mer genco ma ter nal 

as ser tion e ner vate per ver hion 

a ver sioa ex tor nal pre Ex;r ver 

CO er cion f ra ter nal re hear sal 

con ver sion hi ber nal re ver be rate 

de ser tion hy per bo lo bu per nal 

dis cern ment in ter nal Eub ser vi ent 

de ter mine im per li nent 

10. The sound of I before r — as in fir. 

Accented on the first syllable. 

bird like bii tli riglit cir cuit 

bird e^ed cir ci uul cii qle 



DIFFICULT WORDS ARRAIrOEU IS STXLABLES. 



77 



cir cus 
cir CM lato 
cir cum spect 
cir ciiin stance 
cliirp er 
dir ti ]y 
dir ti ness 
fir kin 
fir man 



firm ]y 
fir ma nient 
firm iicss 
first bora 
fir trco 
gird le 
girl liood 
iiic some 
mirk y 



mirth ful ness 
m_vr mi don 
niyr tlo 
qiiirli ish 
tliirs li ]y 
tliir ti cth 
vir tu oiis \j 
vir tu ous 



Accented on the second syllable. 



en cir cle 
en circ let 
en cir cling 
en gird 
en gir die 



en girt 

in cir cum spect 

in firm 

in fir ma ry 

11. Ths sound of J — as in pine 
Accented on the first syllable. 

bi ra ry i ci do 

lui be ry i run (iiirn) 

plii 10 graph i ron y 

clii ro man cy i sin glass 

^ifilier is land 

cli max i vo ry 

cy cle li bel Icr 

cy press li bra ry 

di a gram live li hood 

di a lect mi cro cosra 

di a logne mi cro scope 

di a mond mi tre 

di a per night in gale 

di a j)lira/7m ni tre 

di cesc pi lot 

l.i e rir chy pi ou3 
hy a ciiith 

Accented on the second syllable. 
ac quire ad vi so ry al li ance 

ad via ed ly af fi auce al mi^A ly 



in fir mi ty 
in firm ly 
un firm 
un firm ncss 



pn ma cy 
};ri ina ry 
])ri va cy 
ri^//t eous 
Bci enco 
6ci list 
fii phon 
Eiz a ble 
siz er 
slight ing 
spriglit li nesa 
Pl-right ly 
tri pod 
ty rant 
vis count 
vis count ess 



78 



SPELiilNO AND PKONUKCUTIOIf. 



an ni hi lato 
anx i e ty 
as j)ir in.j 
as Ki.7n ment 
a 8y liim 
be guile 
be n\gn 
con dlgn 
con ni vanco 
con 8i<7n mcnt 
de ci plier 
de ci sive 
de Bcri er 



de §i/7n 
d:s ci pie 
dis guise 
dis qui e tude 
du bi e ty 
en liglit en 
en vi ron 
ex cite mcnt 
Le li a cai 
Lo ri zon 
jg nite 
in diet 
in diet ment 



in dite 
in qui e tndo 
in vi o late 
le vi a than 
raa li^n 
ob liged 
pro vi BO 
sa li va 
sa ti e tj 
80 ci e ty 
6ub si dcnce 
un sight li ness 
un tried 



ad ver tiso 
ad ver ti ncr 
CO in cide 
dis u nit ed 
ira po lite 
im po lite ly 
im po lite uess 



Accented on the third syllable. 

in de ci sive un de ci ded 

sub di vide un de filed 

6U per vise un de fined 

BU per vi sor un di vid ed 

Bu per scribe un en light ened 

ua af fright ed un pro vid ed 



12. The sound of / — as In pm. 
Accented on the first si/Uahle. 



bib 15 cal 
big a my 
big 01 cd 
bil iou3 
bil liarils 
bin iia cle 
bis en it 
bril lian cy 
bu§ t ness 
cbiv al rous 
chriu /en 
chrvB a lis 
cic a tiize 



cit i zen 
civ il ly 
crit i cism 
crys tal 
cry 8 tal lino 
C} I in der 
cyn ic 
d'lf ti dent 
dig it 
dil a to ry 
dijiA tliong 
dis ci pline 
dis crop anco 



dis syl la bid 
dis tieh 
dyn as ty 
dys en tcr y 
fil ial 
fil a gree 
fis cal 
fiih er 
gib her ish 
gib bona 
gig glor 
giis tie 
guin ca 



DtFFICULT WORDS ARRANGED IN BTLLABLIS. 



79 



hid ecus 
hip po drome 
Lis to ry 
liyp crito 
h ys sop 
id i om 
ig i.e ous 
jg no niin y 
in tri ca cy 
ir ri gate 

is 6U0 

ist/t mus 
lie or ico 
lin e ago 
lin ca nient 
lin i ment 
liu giiiiit 
Jiq tii fy 
lin tcl 
liq iii date 
liq uor 
lit tr a ry 
lit er a ture 
lit i gant 
live long 
liv er y 
liz ard 
lyr ic 

mid wife ry 
mil i ta ry 
mil liu er 



rain i a turo 
min ute 
mir a c!e 
mis eel la ny 
mis er a Lie 
mis cliiev ous 
mis tic toe 
myr i ad 
mys to ry 
mys ti cal 
pig con 

pit C0U3 

priv i ly 
pyr a mid 
pyr man cy 
lid i cule 
rig or ous 
rib i b'e 
eciiu c tar 
Ein ue 
syc a more 
611 is ter 
Bye o jihant 
syl la Lie 
6yl lo gisra 
sym me try 
eym pa tliy 
6\ n a goguo 
cyn CO po 
B.\n nym 
syn tax 



fiyn the sis 
eyr iiige 
tlirif ty 
tliis /lo 
tiiii or ons 
tri syl la ble 
tit ii late 
triv i al 
tyra [lu num 
typ i fy 
tyr an ny 
vie ar age 
vie in age 
vie ious 
vic't ual ler 
vic't uals 
vig i lance 
Vil kiin 
vil la ny 
vin e gar 
vine }ard 
vir u lent 
vit re ous 
vi ti ute 
V t ri ol 
wliim si cal 
wltis l\e 
wit li cism 
wiz ard 
worn en 



Accented on the sfcond syllahle. 

ab Fcind a ritli m« t ic on rif or ous 

a liyss ar tic n late aux il ia ry 

a ci(i i ty as t-\i\ ii ons a vid i ly 

am j)h I) i ons as sim i lato Imn dii ti 

an titli fi sis as trin gent Icl lig er eut 

an tip o dcs au ric u lor be wilcli 



80 



EPELLDfO ASD PEONUKCUTIOS. 



bi C'ip i tal 
Llan (li! o qucnce 
ca pit ti 1 ae 
car II iv o roiis 
ccn tnf n gal 
cen trip e tal 
0lia lyb e ale 
ci vil ian 
CO in ci denco 
col li sion 
com mil tee 
con oil i ate 
con fis cate 
con sid er 
con tig u 0U3 
con tin n anco 
con tin lie 
cii pill i ty 
de tic ient 
do iir i um 
de liv er y 
de lie ions 
de Iir i oug 
de lin e ate 
de ris ion 
de sic cate 
dis 3im i lar 
dis trib ute 



di vin i ty 
e clipeo 
em pir ic 
cm pir i cism 
pis t\e 
ex hi I a rate 
ex plic it 
fas tid i 0U3 
fri gid i ty 
f rn i tion 
ful fil ment 
f u til i ty 
gen til i ty 
im plic it 
11 lit er ate 
im pris on ment 
in cip i ent 
in dig e nous 
in fin i ty 
in i tial 
in i ti ate 
in im i cal 
in if] ui tous 
in Btil Icr 
i tin er ant 
mag nif i cent 
me die i nal 
mi li tia 



mn nio i pal 
mu nif i cent 
DO Ti ti ate 
om niv or oas 
om nip o tent 
vip ar oua 
of fie i ate 
par tic u lar 
pa vil ion 
pe riph e ry 
per iph ra sis 
pe ti tioa 
per 818 tence 
pre die a ment 
pre cip i tate 
pliy si cian 
pro mis cu 0U8 
punc til io 
po lyg a my 
quad rille 
re build 
re frig er ant 
60 lie it 
so lil quy 
u biq ui ty 
Yen tril o qaist 
vi cis si tude 
vi vip ar 0U8 



Accented on iJie tJiird syllahU. 

ah li tion dis qui si tion pyr a mid io 

ad ven ti tious in aus pi cious pro bi bi tion 

be a tif io in tcr mis sioa rem i nis ccnce 

ben e die tion ir re lig ion rep e ti tioa 

ben e n cial met a pliys ica eci en tif io 

cir cum ci sion jtan e gjr ist su per fi cial 

Ciil vin is tic par a lyt ic sur rep ti tious 

CO a li tion pol i ti cian un be fit tiug 

dff i ni tion prcj a di cial uu cou Tiuccd 
dem li tion 



DIFFICULT WORDS ARRANGED IN STLLABLES. 81 



bo\rl I'n;^ 
Itro kcr ago 

bow .sjuit; 
c'llo ro form 

CO coa 
CO ma toso 
CO gcu cy 
coul ter 
cour tier 
do lor 
did ler y 

fo li IX'^Q 



13. The sctind cf o, rs In nSte. 
Accented on the first syllable. 



gwct III a 
li.iiit lioy 

ouk uiu 



am bro sial 
am mo ni a 
am mo ni una 
an clio vy 
a ro ma 
as so ci ate 
a tro ciou3 
be moan 
be utow mcnt 
bii leau (o) 
cajole 
col lo qui al 
Co lo ni al 
com pos nio 
con do lence 
cor po re al 
cor ro bivo 
cus to di al 
de CO rous 



ro piicr y 
ro per y 
ro SI ry 
elioiil ilrr 
60 ci al 
60 l.ir 

6ol di^-r (j2i) 
60 joiiru 
epo 11 rtto 
6to i cism 
6t()w ago 
tro jiliy 
}oo man ry 
zo (li ac 
zo o [)\\\ te 



<1 i<13 

cearx 
o clire 
dor ous 

ll\X 

o liro 
ri cut 
ri oie 
por ca I lin 
]ior ti CO 
por trait uro 
poiil tor er 

]>I0 to Col 

I»ii) lo tjpe 
<]iK) ta 
quo liout 

Accented on the second syllulle. 

de CO rum no go ti ate 

de mo ni ac 

di plo ma 

di jtlo ma cy 

e lope niriut 

e mo tion 

en CO mi nm 

en cioacli ment 

en no ble 

en rol mcnt 

er ro ne ous 

eu lo gi urn 

ex CO ri ato 

fe lo ni oua 

bar mo ni ous 

he ro i cal 

jo cose 

me mo ri am 

mo rusA 



op po iicut 
op pro bri um 
pa go da 
pa ro cbi al 
Tan do ra 
pa rolo 
Jia I rol 
pre CO cious 
jiro mo tion 
jro rogue 
re Kource 
re t-tor er 
re St or a tive 
re volt 
60 no rous 
Bj-m pbo ni ous 
un wbole Hoxae 
1XX ri ous 
V 



62 



SPELLING AND PEONUNCUTION. 



Accented on the Lilru ju liable. 



ad i poso 
lian da ]ore 
Lnig ga do cio 
ce re mo nious 
cor nu CO \na 



de com pose 
dis era bogne 
in com niodo 
in dis poso 
in tor pose 



op e roEo 
op rose ness 
un op posed 
vir tu so 



14. The sound of ^, as In n5t 

Accented on the first syllable. 

liron e1ii al for feit ure ox y gen 

fliol er ic liom i cide ox y mel 

cliron i cio hnn or a ry pol y gon 

cog ni zance lios pi tal pol y glot 

col Icpguo i-nock cr pon iard 

col lege laud a num pos si Llo 

col ny laur el post ha mous 

col limn log a rithras prod i gal 

com men ta ry Ion gi tude prod i gy 

com mon al ty loz engo prof it a ble 

com pa ra bio mol 11 fy prof li ga cy 

com pe ten cy mon as te ry prog o ny 

com pio mise mon o dy prom on to ry 

con jti gal mon o tlio ism prom is so ry 

con qncr or movt gngo proph c cj^ 

con science noc tu a ry propli c t^y 

con se quence nom i na tive pros e lyte 

con tstrue non ago scoff er 

con iro ver sy nov el ist sof ten 

con lu me ly nov ice Bol ace 

cop u la cb dii ra cy sol e cize 

coj) n la tive ol) sc quics sol cnin ly 

con gm ous ob so leto sol em nize 

cor ol la ry ob s'a cle sol stice 

cor ri gi ble oc cii pan cy equal > ble 

doc ile ol i ^;ir cliy sqiial id 

dnl (I wiis op e ra toe sin 

dol pliin 0(> cr a tive tol er a ble 

fop pe ry os trick tol er auco 



bIFFICULT WOEDS ARRANGED C( STLLABLE3. 83 



to* Kil 




vol a til izo 


war rcn 


tor 16180 




vr.ii r^rt 






Accented on the second 


rjUahle, 


ac tnoMTf edg 


mcnt 


do mon strato 


ma bog a ny 


ab (I >m 1 nul 




di oc e san 


mis ci»u >-true 


a nom a \y 




dox ol gy 


»2iie moil ic9 


a poc r}' pha 




dc tiom i nate 


mo nop ]y 


ii pol gy 




e lun gate 


my thol gy 


a po8 ta sy 




em bossed 


ce soph a gus 


a pos tro ph« 




eu phon i cal 


plie nora e non 


a potli e bis 




ex cog i tale 


pill Ijs pliy 


as trou my 




es. ot ic 


plile bot my 


au toe ra cy 




ge og ra phy 


pho tog ra ])hy 


1)6 801 ted 




ge om 6 try 


prog nos tic 


be troth 




Lis tor i cal 


re mon strate 


be yond 




ho mol gou8 


The tor i cal 


b'l ol fry 




by poo ri sy 


r/ii noc e ros 


l)i og ra phy 




by poth e sis 


spas mod ic 


eha ot ic 




im mod es ty 


Btcn og ra phy 


ca lor io 




ira pol i tic 


Bym bol ic 


CO los sal 




im piov i dent 


Byn on y mous 


con coct ed 




in doc ile 


syn op his 


con glom e rate 


in oc u lato 


ver 1)08 i ty 


CO op e rate 




i 80S ce lea 


zo ol gy 


cor rob or ate 










Accented on the third syllable. 


al le gor ic 




bis tri on ic 


myth log ic 


eat e gor ic 




by per bol io 


po ri od ic 


cor res pond enco 


met a mor phose 


pliil liar mon io 


di a bul ic 




met a pbor ic 


phi io 8u |ibic 


• CO nom ic 









15. The sound cf o before r, as in nor. 
Accented on the first syllable. 
bor der cor di al ly cor mo rant 

bor der er cor di form cor nc a 

oor ban cor du rov cor njer 



84 SPELLING AND PEONtJNCUTION. 

cor ncl fort mffJii ]y nor mal 

cornet forward iiorlli cm 

cor nice p«or '/\a or di nu ry 

cor ]):> ral gnr gcoiis por cu pine 

coi- pu inro gnr ^'oii ]n r pliy ly 

cor pii knt pir man dizo j'or jiui-e (pus) 

cor [HIS cle lior ny tsor ta lilo 

corse let Ijorse man sor ti lejjo 

cor sa^'O liorse man sliip torch bear er 

cor ti cal horse rac ing tor ment 

dor man cy lior ta tive tor y'l tude 

dormitory lior ti cul turo tor quat ed 

dor sal lord ly tor sion 

formal i«m lord i^liip tortoise (tis) 

for ma tive mor dant lor tu ous ly 

fur mi d.i I lo nuir nion tor tiire 

for mil la mor scl tor tur crs 

for mil l.ze mor ti fy vor tex 

for ti fy mor tiso vor ti cal 

fortitude mortuary 

Accented on the second syllable. 

ah nor raal ex or bi tant re for ti fy 

ab or tion ex or di um re sorb eat 

ab sor bent for lorn ly re sorp tion 

ab sorp tivo in cor po rate ro sort 

ac cord ant in form sub or di nate 

ac cor diug in form al sub orn 

a doin in form er sub orn cr 

a dorn ment ,in tor lioa tri cor por al 

con form a b!e in trorse un for lu nate 

con tor mi ty per for mance un or dered 

con sort re for mu tive un or gan ized 

de formed re formed un or tho dox 

16. The sound of «, as in tube. 

Accented on the first syllable. 

beau te ous bu gle cu li na ry 

boau ty cu cum ber cu po la 



DIFFICULT WORDS ARRANGED IN SYLLABLES. 



85 



cu ra cy 
cu ra tive 
cu ri ous nes3 
cu ti cle 
du cl list 
du bi oiis ness 
du ra bio 
du te ous 
cu clia rist 
eu lo gy 
eu ]>lio ny 
feu (lal 
fu ner al 
fu sion 
glu ti nous 
ju bi leo 
Jia mor oas 



h\i mor some 
ju gu lar 
jui cy 
ju rist 
ju ve nilo 
lu era tivo 
lu na tic 
uiu ci lage 
neu ter 
nu tii tive 
rows mon ger 
nu mer a ble 
nu ga to ry 
nu me ra tor 
nui sanco 
nu tri ment 



Accented on the second 
ac cu rau lato con tu sion 



ac u men 
a dieu 
ad ju tor ' 
al hi sioQ 
nl bi sivo 
al lu vial 
a muse ment 
as kcw 
bo dew 
bit u men 
Lit u mi notis 
cc ru le au 
cen tu ri on 
clier u bic 
com pu ta bio 
con du cive 



dl le lu jah 
dl lo cu tio" 



do lu sioQ 
de mure 
dif fu sion 
di lu tion 
ef fu sion 
en due 
en tiiu si ast 
63 cliew 
pra tu i tou3 
li(^rcu le an 
il lu sive 
im buo 
im mu ni ty 
in tu i tivfl 
ira pu^a 

Accented on the third 
a ma teur 
CO ad ju tor 



pleu ri sy 
pu pil a ry 
pu ru len cy 
pu trc fy 
BU da to ry 
Buit a bio 
Bui tor 
Biire ty 
Tues day 
tu lip 
tu mult 
tu na ble 
tut e la ry 
u ni son 
us ago 
u su ry 

syllable. 

li queur 

lu gu bri ons 

lux u ri ous 

mis us ago 
pel 111 cid 
pry fu sion 
pro tu be ranc9 
pur su ance 
pur suit 
re fu sal 
re view 
sa lu liri ty 
Bill pliii re ous 
un u su al 
vol u mill ous 
vit u per ate 

syllable. 

con sti tu tion 

des ti tu tion 



80 



SPELLIXa XST> rROJfUNCIATIOS, 



dim i nu tion 
dit* tri l)u tioa 
cl en tion 
in se euro 



in se cure ly 
in tr.i mu ral 
res ti tu tion 



ret ri bo ttnn 
rev lu tion 
sub sti tu tioi 



17. Tiie soTiiid of it as in tVib, and d as in dfivA. 
Accented on the first syllable. 



bor nngh 

buck et 

bndi; et 

bnf fet in» 

bus /le 

col o nel (kiirnel) 

com pa ny 

com pns sea 

com rade 

con (luit 

con ju rer 

coup lo 

coup let 

cour ag© 

cov cy 

cov e nant 

cov et iiig 

coz en 

cruni lilo 

cum brou3 

cup board 

cur ren cy 

cur ri er 

cus to ma ry 

doub le 

drom e da ry 

dul nes3 

dun geon 

dusk i noss 

ful mi nate 

ful soma 

fuuc tion a ry 



fns tinn 
pov ern a bla 
gov ern lucnt 
gud geon 
gun walo (nel) 
gut tur al 
lion e\' moon 
liov cr ing 
liun dred 
knuck le 
lug gage 
lus cious 
Ins tro 
lux u ry 
TO on grel 
TOon key 
niotii er 
mur der er 
mus cle 
n<iur ish ment 
nun cio 

on ion (un yun) 
pul mo ua ry 
pun cheoa 
punc ture 
pun isli ment 
pus tule 
scul ler y 
scul lion 
scutch eon 
shov el 



some bod y 
6ov er cign 
Bov or eign ty 
spon gy 
Btib lu na ry 
sub si dy 
sub tile 
sub tie 
snf for ance 
suE fra gan 
Bul pbur 
sump tu a ry 
Bumptuousness 
sur geon 
sup pu rate 
Btom ach 
smotli er ing 
thor ough 
troub le 
trum pet 
truncli eon 
tur ret 
ug li ness 
ul CO rate 
um brage 
urn pi re 
un du la ting 
ut ter a ble 
vul ner a ble 
won der ing 
worth i lyj 



PimCULT WORDS ARRANGED Df SYLLABLES. 



87 



Accented on the second syllable. 

ae com pa ny de f iinct es cut cheon 

nc ciis torn de miirrer ex pul sion 

ad lilt crate dis com fit ex piingo 

of front dis com fort in giilf 

as sump tioa dis col or pe mil ti mate 

au gii.->t di vulgo re fill gen cy 

be numbed en com pass ro tun Hi ty 

com lius li bio e nough re siis ci tato 

con cur rcnce in culp a ble sue ciimb 

con tium mate in cum ben cy tu mul tu oug 

con sump tion e uun ci ato tri urn vi rate 
coa vul Bion 



18. The sound of il, as in filr. 
Accented on the first syllille. 



bnrg^ cr 
bur den some 
bur glar y 
cour te 0U3 
cur tain 
fur ca ted 
fur lough 
fur nace 



fur ni ture 
nur scr y 
pur lieu 
Bur feit 
Bur geon 
Bur plico 
Btnr geon 
tur giJ 



jour nal isra 
jour ney man 
mur ky 
fur tlier ancc 
tur bu lent 
tur pi tudo 
tur pen tine 



Accented on the second syllable. 



ab surd 
at tor ney 
ad journ 
dis burse ment 
dis cour ago 
dia cour te ous 



dis cur sion 
dis cur bive 
dis turb anco 
di ur nal 
ex cur sion 
in sur gent 



noc tur nal 
per lurb 
pre cur sor 
un hurt 
u sur per 



bnl ly 
bul let 
bul lock 



19. The sonud of t2, as in pilll. 
Accented oji the first syllable. 

bul wark butcli er y 



bul lo tin 
bul liuch 



bush i ness 
bull bait ins 



SPELLING AXD rROXUNCIATION. 



book scl ler 


foot man 


rook er y 


book keep ing 


fill ler 


Wolf ish 


book isli 


ful nes9 


wolf ish n?9<» 


but Illsh 


pn<l iling 


worn an 


boot jack 


pill pit 


wo in an liood 


cook er y 


pul let 


wool li uess 


cuck 00 







23. Tlie sound of of, as in oil, and of 07j, as in j:y. 
Accented on thefimt syllable. 



bois tcr 0U3 
boy isli 
cloy ing 
clois tcr 
coin ago 
foi bio 
hoist ing 
joy oua 



joy ful no?3 
l(»y al ty 
loi ter er 
moi e ty 
moisten 
nois orao 
oys ter 
oiut raent 



oil y 
pois ing 
pois on 
pois on ing 
soil ing 
toil ing 
toy bhop 



Accented on the second ayllahle. 

a droit de void en joy ing 

a noint ing en jny mcnt pur loin 

a void anco cm broid er re coil ing 

annoy em 1 1 ly ing re jiice 

an noy ance em jiioy mcnt re join 

ad join ing en join re joiud er 

np point nient 

21. Tlie sound of ou, as in out, and of o to, as in owl. 
Accented on lite first syllable. 



bonn da ry 
blow zy 
chow der 
coun ten ance 
coun ter pane 
coun ter feit 
coun ter poise 
coun ter mand 



dough ty 
foiin dry 
foun tain 
fow ler 
fow ling piece 
flow er y 
growl iof 
gouty 



out rage 
pow der 
pow der horn 
prow ess 
trou sera 
trow el 
vow ol 



WORDS OF ilOHR TIIAX FOUR SYLLABLES. 



89 



Accented on (he second syllable 

ac count a vow al 

a oous tics ca rou sal 

al low in:j de nomico 

al low anco de noimc er 

a mount en coun ter 

an noiince en dow 

a round on dow mcnt 



em pow er 
es pons al 
pro nounco 
re count 
re nonnce 
re nown 
6ur mount 



ab bre vi a tion 
ac eel er a tion 
al le vi a tion 
an ni liil a. tion 
as 80 ci a tion 
CO ajj u la tion 



SECTION YI. 

T7ords of more than four syllaMes, 

The long soond of tlie vowels. 

Accented on the penulL 

col ni zi tion 
con cil i a tion 
CO op er a tion 



de lin c a tion 
dis ad van ta geous 
in e bri a tion 



in ef fi ca cious 
pro pi ti a tion 
pre des ti na tion 
ram i fi ca tion 
re nun ci a tion 
re su:j ci ta tion 



as si du i ty 
al ize l>ra i cal 
an tc di lu vi an 
am plii tile a tre 
brag iiti do ci 
con tra ri e ty 
CO tem po ra no ous 
cor nu CO pi a 
con sii tu tion al 
con tu me li ous 
ccr e mo ni ous 
dis ci pit ua ri an 



Accented on the antepenult. 

del e te ri ous 
en cy clo pas di a 
ex torn po ra ne ous 
gu ber na to ri al 
liet er o go ne ous 
ir re triev a b'.e 
in cor po re al 
ir re proach a ble 
im por tu ni ty 
in po nn i ty 
in de fea si ble 
mer i to ri ou« 



maj is te ri al 
mar, ri mo ni al 
mis eel la ne ous 
no to ri e ty 
phar • sa i cal 
pri mo ge ni al 
BU per flu i ty 
sub ter ra ne an 
sim ul ta no ous 
un ad vis a ble 
un do ni a ble 



90 



BPBLLINO AKD I'RONUNCIITION. 



par Bi mo ni oas nesa 
re me di a bie 



Accented on the pre-antex>enult. 

cer e mo ni ous ness ira ma te ri al ly 

cotem po ra ne ous ly ir re me di a ble 

diH a grce a ble ness in com mu ni ca ble bu per nu me ra tj 

ex tern po ra neously in cor po re al ly un rea son a ble 

in Btaa la ne ous ly mer i to ri ous ly val e tu di na ry 



a man n en sis 
a rith me ti clan 
char ac ter is tic 
dis sat is i'ac tion 



Short soTuds of the vowels. 
Accented on the penult. 

Iior i zon tal 
in dis j)0 si tion 
in ar ti fi cial 
math e ma ti clan 



phi Ian throp io 
su per in ten dence 
bu per a bun dant 



as sa foet i da 
a ris to crat i cal 
car ti lag i nous 
car a van sa ry 
Christ i an i ty 
oon san guin i ty 
chion log i cul 
di vis i bil i ty 
diu in gen u ous 
dis sim i lar i ty 
eo cle si as ti cal 
ec cen trie i ty 
et y mol o gy 
fa mil i ar i ty 
gen e al gy 
gen e ral i ty 
gen e ros 1 ty 
gen e ral is si mo 
by potb et i cal 
hy i>o ghon dri a 
in bos pi tal i ty 
ir reg u lar i ty 
in com pre hen si ble 



Accented on the antepenult. 

in f al li bil i ty par tic u lar i ty 

in di vid u al pe cu li ar i ty 
in com prcs si bil i ty prin ci pal i ty 

in suf fi cien cy pop u lar i ty 

in ca pac i ty pu sil Ian i moiis 

im mor tal i ty pu sil Ian im i ty 

im mor al i ty pliy si og no my 

im pla ca bil i ty plira se ol o gy 

im pos si bil i ty phi lo soph i cal 

in cied i bil i ty quad ri lat er al 

in de struct i bil i ty re spec ta bil i ty 

in fal li bil i ty sys te mat i cal 

in flex i bil i ty sim i lar i ty 

im per cept i ble sin gu lar i ty 

ma te ri al i ty su per c'l i ous 

met a phys ic al syra pa thet i cal 

myth log i cal spir it u al i ty 

mediocrity su per intenden cy 

oph i ol gy Bur rep ti tious ly 

par al lei o gram sua cep ti bil i ty 

pri mo gen i ture trig o nom c try 

pu er 11 i ty the o ret i cal 



WORDS or llOBE inX^ FOUR STLLADLE8. 91 

Accented on the pre-aniepenuH. 

ai tro noin i cal ly cm Me mat i cal ly in ex pi a ble 

an a torn i cal ly liy po crit i cal ly in rie fat i gablo 

a men da to ry in ter rog a tive ly ma;? nif i cent ly 

a vis to crnt i ral ly in dis crim i nate ly o pin ion a tive 

al jilia I'Ct i ml ly in cor ri ii\ Mo par tic u lar ize 

an a lyt i cal ly in for mi da lile par a dr x i cal ly 

cat e f,'or i cal ly il le pit i ma cy ])re cip i tant ly 

con Kid e rare ly in de fat i ga Me ri ciic u lous ly 

cu l>ic u U ry in tcr rop a to ry jccom men date ry 

con bid e ra Me in sig nif i can cy re form a to ry 

de rog a to ry in cal cu la Me reg u la ting 

dog mat i cal ly in con Kid e ra Me re pos i to ry 

de lib er a tive in diis tii ous ly bu per an nu a ted 

de pos i to ry in vul ner a Me sat is fac to ri ly 

dis crim i na tive in cen di a ry un in liab it a ble 

e pie CO pa ry in ev i ta ble un ut ter a ble 

ex tra or di na ry in ex o ra ble vo lup tu ou3 ness 

Promiacuotis Exercises. 

Each word to be divided into syllables, and tbe vowel soands, 
accent, and silent Icticrs indicated. 

Advertisement, adipose, agitaWe, allegorize, ally, alpbabetarian, 
ambuscade, antediluvian, antliropopliagy, antiplional, apoplexy, ap- 
plicative, archdiocese, arraign, assignee, axillary, balcony, bargaining, 
basket-woman, beauteous, benumb, benignly, borderer, burat-oflfering, 
buzzingly, cabal, calfskiti, caoutcliouc, cherubic, climacteric, compen- 
Bate, confiscate, copulatory.coquetry, corol'ary, corselet, cruel-hearted, 
cyclopfedia, czarina, debtor, decalogue, designative, desolator, desul- 
tory, determinateness, disobligement, disorganize, dwarfish, dyspepsy, 
effrontery, eightieth, elegiac, empyrean, ephemeric, equitemporaneous, 
equivocatory, erewhile, ermine, european, excarnate, exile, extirpate, 
evry. Fai;a<le, falconry, fasten, folks, foreign, forfeiture, furbelow, fur- 
thermore, gardener, garish, garnish, georgian, glossary, government, 
guardian, guest-chamber, guillotine, guinea-worm, gyves, halfpenny, 
haranguer, hard-hearteduess, haunted, hearthstone, keterogeueons, 
honesty, hospital, humble, humanity, hypostases, hyssop, ichneumon, 
ideality, idyl, illiterate, illustrate, imperforate, imperial, impertinence, 
incompatibility, indian, indigestibility, indubitably, indorsement, 
fei^nuousness, inkling, inordinately, inscrutability, insurgent, in- 
ni^ber, inveigle, invertebrate, iron, ironwood. irony, isinglass, issue. 



92 SPELLING AND rRONUXCIATION. 

Jerked, jonrnal, jouster, judgment, justiciary, kaleidoscope, kernel, 
keyage, kirkyard, knapsack, knighthood, knocker, lapidary, larboard, 
laurel.lava, legcr, lever.lexicographer, liglit-fingered, lineament, liquor, 
lose, luncheon, machine, maehinator, maintenance, maligner, marine, 
martial, marriage, militia, misinterpret, misgovernment.mohair.mono- 
Byllabic,mormon, mountaineer, mourcfully, moustache, multitudinary, 
muscle, mysteriarcii,mytholog?cally, nnphtha, nasty, nauseate, nephew, 
nervously, neutrality, night-walking, nocturnally, noisomely, nona- 
genarian, L.(«logy, northward, notable, nothing, nuptial, nursery, 
nyujph-like. Oaken, obduracy, obedience, obeisance, obligatorily, ob- 
lique, often . oneness, "ordinary, orihoepist, oxygenize, j airing-time, 
palanquin, palaver, paraphrastically, parcel, parchment, parsimonious, 
particle, passable, pastorship, pastry, patriotism, perceptivity, periodi- 
cally, perjury, phthisicky, i)laguy, polytheism, presbytery, prescience, 
prophesy, psalmody, pseudo-clergy, pudding, paddle, purjjle, pyro- 
meter, quartette, quay, quirk, quotient, radiation, raftsmen, rankling, 
raspberry, rareness, receivability, requisitsly, research, resume, rever- 
sal, rhapsody, rhythmical, rotatory, rouge, roughness, ruthlessness. 
Saccharine, sacerdotal, sacrilege, salve, scarlatina, schismatic, scholarly, 
scion, scorpion, scruple, scrutiny, searcher, secretary, sedentary, seig- 
niorage, septiiagint, seraphim, serpentine, sharpen, shekel, shrievalty, 
sinister, sew, sociability, soften, sonorous, spaniel, squirarchy, squirrel, 
steam-gauge, strewing, subtlety, surcingle, surety, surtout, surveil- 
lance, sweatiiiess, swordless, syringe, tabernacle, tableaux, talkative, 
target, taskmaster, temptation, tergiversation, tersely, thermometrio, 
thesis, thoroughfare, tigerish, tissue, tithebook, tongue-grafting, tor- 
tuousness, tortoiseshell, trait, treason, treasury, treati=e, troche, 
tyrannically. Ululation, unacceptable, unceremonious, uticertainty, 
unconditional, uncurdled, under-gardener, undisturbed, unfairly, ua- 
gird, union, unsure, uprightness, urgency, usurper, uvula, vagueness, 
valiantly, vanguard, veilless, veiny, vengeance, verdigris, vertebrated, 
vignette, \"isionary, vizier, voluminous, vulnerability, wadille, Wiifting, 
walking, warbler, wearing, wonderful, wormeaten, wrestle, wristlet, 
wrath, wrough*, wrynecked, yajlit, yardarm, yesterday, youthfully, 
youugish, zealously, zenith, zodiac, zodiacal, zoological, zoophyte. 

A List of a number of the most Bii&:ult Words in common use. 

The sound of ilta vowel in the accented syllable is marhed. 

5 vi a ry Sst/i ma an tip o dea 

il cUy my &l moiid an cho vy 

5u sioer apli oiv e sis ac cOu iro 

&poclie<7m assafoctida apocryphal 



DIFFICULT NYOBDS IN COMMON USB. 



93 



a p5s do 

ant' <> graph (5) 

a (Heu 

lioft qnel' 

bal s;im 

bias [ilicme 

bar i al (c) 

biisi ncss (bizncss) 

bit u mea 

bor oiigli 

biirg/j er 

boiir geon 

bC? nm 

bdsl, el 

lutcli er 

bo!i_7/t 

Cray on 

ca tiirrA 

cocli i ncal 

qe illl la 

cen trip e tal 

crCti [»ier 

c6ii;,'Ii 

ce ru le an 

cOl iiel (kiirncl) 

coiir te ou3 

cuck 00 

cfi.-ih ion 

ca rouse 

cit a CD in 63 

cliiil (Iron 

dan i)liin 

des lie I iide 

di acr e sis 

dlii/t ilioug 

dGc at 

dan^/i ter 

en Ycl op 

ex ii: ge rata 



em py re an 
ex cliCq Iter 
gull lo tfiio 
gam lingo 
proiise 
lia(/pcnc3 
Lai ty on 
liii/va 

hiir Ic quia 
ho il zou 
han't boy (5) 
hy dro plio bia 
7i6<l lor 
hougii (k) 
her cu 1*^ an 
house wife 
ist/t mus 
im pSst /*iuno 
5 sfls ce lea 
]'co[) ar dy 

j'/iist 

/jiilglit 
lo vl a than 
log a ritlira 
mas qiier a lo 
nicz zo tin to 
uiT-i cliiev 0113 
nits fie toe 
fra:ie mCa ic3 
nap/t tlia 
noil par oil 
iiut sauce 
no tiling 
or tlio e py 
once (wuiis) 
on ii)ii (ia yiia) 
par iciie 
jioit man teau 
par lia went 



pud a gogue 
plie'is ant 
]ililc//n 
]i'C tnr Csquo 
].nii c g;r ibt 
2'/iJtys ic 
]i6r ce lain 
] 6^t Ini moua 
)ir6 loguo 
I fl/.s- ne 
pul pit 
pi^it 

poiiyn ant 
^)sM7in 
j)-fil n o dy 
q'laii I'a ly 
iC'ii (kc vOus 
rC/(re 

r<V'Q nil tism 
Be//. IS in. It ic 
BCr geaut 
stavts 
slaiuli ter 
sper ma ca ti 
sul) poc na 
sche I ule 
se'en ni^iit 
toi liior (jer) 
so iiQ roiis 
tCnve nir 
6ur idnt 
S'la'l loj) (6) 
K^'ii on y luoua 
Bill piiO re ou3 
Bure (shQi) 
shoe 

sov cr c'gn ty 
Etuni ach 
Bxibi le 



1^4 SPBLLING AND PROKUNCIlTIOir. 

sftg ar (sh) tor toise vict u al ler 

to bic CO tli6 TQugh w6nt 

tar pail lin trow §er3 wo'm en (I) 

T/'Smc : '^2) vi o Ion col lo S56 nith 

trl {.0(1 vIct wals sJJph yr 



tOu> ards 



Ssntences for Dictation. 



A lazar-honse it sepirsd : within were laiA 
Kumbers of all diseased, all maladies — 
CouTalsioas, epilepsies, fierce catarrhs. 

The faith and patience, the oonrage and prudence, of the ancient 
Christians, far surpass the most famous achievements of militar/ 
heroes. 

Swearing allegiance to their sovereign. 

An enlightened reader laughs at the inconsistent chimera of such 
an author. 

Oh what A confluence of ethereal fires I 

Not a commercial , but a martial republic ; a repnblio, not of simple 
husbandmen or fishermen, but of intriguers and warriors. 

A sergeant made use of him to inveigle country fellows, and to list 
them into the service of the Parliament. 

The food of the cod is either small fish, worms, or ernstaceous 
animals. 

Every morning waked ua to a repetition of toil ; bat the evenlDg 
repaid it with hilariry. 

Gray-bearded men and grave, with warriors mixed 
Assemble, and harangues are made. 
Spoiled by the affectations of coquetry. 

Tlie nobles have the monopoly of honor, the plebeians • monopoly 
of acquiring wealth. 

It is a dispute amongst critics, whether burlesque poetry rans best 
in heroic verse, or doggerel. 

If two vowels are to be read as two distinct syllables, one letter is 
sometimes marked with a diaeresis ( •• ). 

An indictment is a written accusation of one or more persons of a 
crime or misdemeanor, presented upon oath by a grand jury. 

Antipodes are those situated on that part of the globe diametrically 
opposite. 

A real circular motion is always accompanied with a centrifngal 
motion. 

We must not swallow down opinions as silly peopis do an einpirl#^ 
pills, without knowing what they are made oL 



SENTENCES FOB DICTATION. OS 

A fastidious individual affects or arrogates superior taste and dis- 
cernment. 

Tlie Emperor Julian himself, that most bitter adversary of Chris* 
tianity, vrho had openly apostatized fiom it, did not deny the reality 
of oar Lord's miracles. 

They had no authority, either by diocesan or by provincial syna* 
gORues. 

A concatenation, by intermediate ideas, may be formed of all homo* 
geneous truths. 

Sir James Macintosh wrote an excellent dissertation on metapbysi* 
eal science. 

From yonder realm of empyreal day I 

The guillotine was first proposed to the National Assembly of 
France by a physician, and from him received its name. 

Here sacred pomp and gpnial feet delight, 
And solemn dance and hymeneal rite. 

We ought sometimes to suspend our judgment, till the first effer- 
vescence is a little subsided. 

It is unfortunate that we should be harassed by implacable perso- 
eutiun, or excruciated by irremediable pains. 

And sought, 
By pyramids and mausoleum pomp, 
Short-lived themselves, to immortalize their bones. 

Theso men, republicans from servility, who published rhetorical 
panegyrics on massacres, and who reduced plunder to a system of 
ethics, are as ready to preach slavery as anarchy. 

Tlie habitual passion of Howard's mind was a measure of feeling 
almost equal to the temporary extremes and paroxysms of common 
minds ; as a great river in its customary state is equal to a small or 
moderate one when swolleu to a torrent. 

I omitted to state that I visited him several times. 

I regretted to hear sentiments bo bigoted and besotted, and npon 
expressing my regret, the eyes of a'l present were riveted upon me. 

lie piofTered me his assistance on the occasion, but I preferred to 
act for myself. 

lie mounted the piebald pony, and galloped away. 

At the last conference the president conferred great honor a;pon 
him. 

Shall I envelop it in a cover, or send it without an envelope ? 

The misfortunes of that dissipated and dissolute young man deserre 
no commiseration. 

Though all his friends interceded in his behalf, he was superseded. 



96 SPELLmO AND PRONUNCIATION. 

I will not recede ; on the contrary, I will proceed. 

It is almost unnecessary to observe tliat be was not benefited by 
sueli coniisels ; nay, be was nnfittfd by tbem for bis situation. 

Tlie vessel, iiaving unshipiied ber rmlder, became uumauageable. 

Tbe allifS encamped in tlir rnllcvs below. 

Tbe nttornevs made frequent jo irnevs down. 

As befiltiii-j; bis exaltt d stntiou and character, be omitted no oppor- 
tunity of beni't)tin<j mankind. 

After repeated sallies from tbe lanes and alleys, tbey were repulsed 
and dislodged. 

He offered to mould it in pewter, biit I preferred one of plain lead. 

An embarrassed cobbler met A\i.b a Larassed pedler, gouging tb« 
Bymmetry of a peeled pear, witb unparalleled and ingenuous scrupu- 
losity. 

That bold player bowled tbe ball well. 

That new grater is a much greater invention than I supposed. 

■\Vlien tbe allies riishnd through tbe alleys of tbe city, tbe army 
maile an attempt to raise tbe siege. 

The season of autumn sugsesr.s serious and solemn tlionghts. 

The fingers of that poor dumb boy are so numb that he cannot 
make a sign. 

I dififer from you, and have a strong preference for tbe other, yet in 
deference to your 0|iiuion, I accept tbe p'ace be proffered mo. 

Tliere is a principle of coherence inherent in matter, which is uneof 
its principal cbaiacteristics. 

lie is so wilful that, bowever skilful be may be, be cannot fulfil the 
task assigned him. 

A knight of the garter, a puisne judge, a sheriff, a visconnt, and an 
earl were present. 

lie wrote odes and lyrical ballads, psalms, hymns, and anthems. 

lie studies grammar, arithmetic, and geography. 

The ph bisicky old knight suffered severely also from rhenmatism. 

^Yhou the colonel entered tbe catacombs be was greatly amazed. 



PART THIRD. 



YERBAL DISTmCTIONS. 



There are many words in the language which maybe confounded 
either in form, sound, or sense. 

Some words have the same sound, but differ both in form and 
sense — as, ate and eight : the boy ate eight buns. 

Rome words have the same form, but dift'er in sound, or sense, 
or in botli — as, does and does : he does feed the does. 

Some words have the same form, but differ in accent and use — 
as, ab'sent and absent' : I sm sorry I was absent to-day; and I 
will not absent myself to-morrow. 

Some words have nearly the same sound, and require to be dis- 
tinctly enunciated in order to be distinguished — as, tracks, tracts ; 
the moicer will cut more grass. 

Some words have various meanings, and are used differently — 
as,While leaning on a post, he told me that, when at the military 
post, he obtained a post of great honor and trust, in which it was 
his duty, not only to post the general's letters, but also to post his 
private ledger. 

Some words have a kindred, or similar meaning, and must be 
distinguished in application or use. We speak of a, yoke of oxen, 
a i^air of boots, a brace of pistols, and a couple of oranges. 

Q 



93 



VERBAL DIST1WCTI0N8. 



SECTION L 

Words which are pronounced alike, hut which differ in 
spelling and signification. 

Each of the words is defined, but as it is often impossible to 
give a clear and intelligible definition of such simple words, a 
number of sentences has been constructed, in which most of the 
words are used, and which will convey a clearer idea of their dif- 
ferent meanings. 

These sentences are designed as exercises in dictation ; and the 
pupils should be required to construct other similar sentences in 
which the words may be properly used. Such exercises are fitted 
to enable a pupil to read intelligibly, as well as to spell correctly. 

The words in the lists are arranged according to the sounds of 
tlie vowels, the sentences for dictation follow the order of 
the words. 



a as in fate. 



ale, beer, malt liquor 
ail, to be sick 
ate, devoured 
eight, a number 
bale, a pack of goods 
bail, a surety 
base, low, mean 
bass, a part in music 
bate, to take less 
bait, an allurement 
bay, a color ; a tree 
bey, a Turkish governor 
bays, bay trees 
baize, a kind of cloth 
braid, to weave together 
brayed, did bray 
brake, a thicket 
break, to part by force 
cane, a strong reed 
Cain, a man's name 
Dane, a native of Denmark 
deign, to vouchsafe 



day, a period of time 
dey, a moorish governor 
days, periods of time 
daze, to dazzle 
faint, languid, weak 
feint, a pretence 
fane, a temple 
fain, willingly, gladly 
feign, to dissemble 
frays, quarrels 
phrase, an expression 
gage, a pledge 
gauge, to measure a cask 
gate, a sort of door 
gait, manner of walking 
grate, a fireplace 
great, large 
gra'ter, a sort of ra&p 
great'er, larger 
grays, mixed colors 
graze, to eat grass 
hale, strong, healthy 
hail, frozen rain 



WORDS PBONOL'XCED ALIKE. 



d9 



hay, dried grass 

hey ! an exclamatiou 

lade, to load 

laid, placed 

lane, a narrow road 

lain, participle of lio 

made, finished 

maid, a girl 

male, masculine 

mail, a post-bag 

mane, hair on an animal's neck 

main, principal, chief 

maze, confusion of thought 

maize, Indian corn 

nave, the middle of a wheel ; 

part of a church 
knave, a rogue 
nay, no ; not 

neigh, the voice of a horse 
pale, wan, dim 
pail, a vessel for water, &c. 
pane, a square of glass 
pain, a feeling of uneasiness 
place, a situation 
plaice, a flat fish 
plane, a carpenter's tool 
plain, clear, even 
plate, wrought silver 
plait, a fold, a double 
j)ray, to beseech 
prey, plunder, booty 
prays, entreats 
praise, to commend 



air, the atmosphere 

ere, before 

e'er, ever 

heir, an inheritor 

airy, exposed to the air 

eyry, a nest of a bird of prey 

bare, naked ; simple 

bear, a beast of prey 

bear, to suffer 



rain, water from the clouds 

rein, a bridle 

reign, to rule 

raze, to destroy 

raise, to lift, to elevate 

rays, beams of light 

sale, a selling 

sail, to swim with sails 

slay, to kill 

sley, a weaver's reed 

sleigh, a vehicle for travelling on 

snow 
stake, a post ; a wager 
steak, a slice of meat 
strait, a narrow pass 
straight, direct 
tale, a story 
tail, the hinder part 
tray, a sort of dish 
trait, a feature 
vale, a valley 
vail, or veil, to cover 
vane, a weathercock 
vain, proud ; fruitless 
vein, a blood-vessel 
wane, to decrease 
wain, a wagon 
waste, to consume 
waist, middle part of the body 
wait, to tarry 
weight, heaviness 
wave, a billow 
waive, to give up ; to quit 
way, a manner ; a road 
weigh, to balance ; to poise 

in fare. 

chair, a movable seat 
char, to work by the day 
fare, food ; price of passage 
fair, beautiful ; honest ; a place of 

sale 
glare, splendor 
glair, the white of an egg 
hare, name of an animal 
hair, covering of the head 



100 



VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 



pare, to cut thinly 

pair, a couple 

pear, a fruit 

stare, to look earnestly 

stair, a flight of steps 

tare, an allowance iu weight 

tear, to rend 



tares, a kind of grain 
tears, does rend 
their, belonging to them 
there, in that place 
ware, merchandise 
wear, to carry on the person ; to 
waste with use 



& as in fat. 



ndd3. increases 
; Ize, a cooper's axe 
analyst, one who analyzes 
annalist, a writer of annals 
anker, a liquid measure 
anchor, a heavy iron for a ship 
ass, a beast of burden 
as, a Roman weight and coin 
bad, vicious 
bade, commanded 
candid, sincere ; frank 
candied, preserved in sugar 
cannon, a great gun 
canon, a law ; a rule 
canvas, coarse cloth 
canvass, to solicit votes 
dain, a beast's mother 
damn, to condemn 
dram, a small weight 
drachm, an ancient coin 
jam, a conserve of fruit 
jamb, a supporter 



lack, to want 

lac, a sort of gum ; sum of 

100,000 
lacks, wants 
lax, loose 
laps, licks 
. lapse, a fall ; a slip 
mantle, a cloak ; a garment 
mantel, the chimney-piece 
nag, a littk horse 
knag, a knot of wood 
nap, a short sleep 
knap, to break short 
pallet, a little bed 
palette, a painter's board 
rack, to torture 
wrack, ruin; a sea- weed 
rap, to strike 
wrap, to fold 
tacks, small nails 
tax, a rate imposed 
travel, to go a journey 
travail, work ; trouble 



ark, a chest 
arc, part of a circle 
hart, a sort of stag 
heart, the seat of life 
mark, a sign; a note 
juarque, license of reprisals 



d as in far. 

marshal, to arrange in order 
martial, warlike 
martin, a kind of swallow 
marten, a kind of weasel 



cask, a barrel 
casque, a helmet 
cast, to throw 
•caste, rank amoag the Hindoos 



a as in fast. 

caster, one who throws 
castor, the beaver 



WORDS PROJ^OUNCED ALIKE. 



101 



& as in fall. 



all, every one 

awl, a sharp pointed tool 

aught, anything 

ought, should 

ball, any round tiling 

bawl, to cry out 

call, to name ; to appeal to 

caul, a net for the hair 

caws, doth caw 

cause, a reason ; a motive 

claws, talons 

clause, part of a sentence 

gall, bile ; bitterness 

Gaul, a Frenchman 

e as 

be, to exist 

bee, a honey-making insect 

beech, a timber tree 

beach, the sea-shore 

beer, malt liquor 

bier, a carriage for the dead 

beet, an eatable root 

beat, to strike 

creek, a small port ; a cove 

creak, to make a harsh noise 

deer, a swift animal 

dear, beloved ; expensive 

discreet, prudent 

discrete, distinct 

feet, parts of the body 

feat, an exploit ; an action 

flee, to run away 

flea, a biting insect 

freeze, to congeal 

frieze, coarse woollen cloth 

Greece, a country of Europe 

grease, soft fat 

greaves, leg armor 

grieves, laments 

heel, the hind part of the foot 

heal, to cure 

hear, to hearken 

here, this place 



hall, a large room 

haul, to pull 

law, a rule ; a statute 

la! an exclamation of surprise 

mall, a wooden hammer 

maul, to beat ; to bruise 

paws, a beast's feet 

pause, a stop 

quarts, plural of quart 

quartz, a mineral 

Salter, more salt 

psalter, a psalm-book 

wall, a raised fence 

waul, to cry as a cat 

in mete, 
key, an instrument for a lock 
quay, landing place from ships 
lea, a meadow 
lee, opposite to the wind 
leaf, a part of a plant or book 
lief, willingly 
leek, a sort of onion 
leak, to run out 
lees, settlings ; dregs 
lease, to glean 
meed, reward 

mead, a liquor made from honey 
mean, paltry ; low 
mien, air ; deportment ; aspect 
meet, to encounter 
meat, animal food 
mete, to measure 
meter, one who or that which 

measures 
metre, poetical measure ; verse 
need, want ; necessity 
knead, to work dough 
peace, quiet ; tranquillity 
piece, a bit ; a part 
peak, a point ; the top 
pique, to glory in ; a grudge 
peel, a rind or skin 
peal, a ring of bella 



102 



VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 



peer, a nobleman 

pier, support of a bridge, &c. 

pleas, excuses 

please, to gratify ; to delight 

queen, a king's wife 

quean, a •worthless woman 

reed, a tall sort of grass 

read, to peruse 

reek, steam ; vapour 

wreak, to exercise vengeance 

Bee, to view ; to behold 

sea, the ocean 

seal, to fasten 

ceil, to make a ceiling 

seed, what produces plants 

cede, to give up ; to resign 

seem, to appear 

Beam, a joint 

Been, viewed ; beheld 

seine, a fishing net 

scene, a sight ; a view 

seer, one who sees ; a prophet 

sear, to burn ; to wither 

cere, to cover with wax 



assent, agreement 
ascent, a going up 
bell, a hollow, sounding inetallic 

vessel 
belle, gay young lady 
berry, a small fruit 
bury, to put under ground 
bred, brought up 
bread, food made from the fioiir 

of wheat, &c. 
Brest, a French seaport 
breast, a part of the body 
guest, a visitor 
guessed, did guess 
led, conducted 
lead, a soft, heavy metal 



sees, views ; beholds 

seize, to lay hold of 

senior, elder 

seignior, a lord 

shagreen, a sort of leather 

chagrin, vexation 

sheer, pure ; unmixed 

shear, to clip ; to reap 

sleeve, a covering of the arm 

sleave. untwisted silk 

steel, refined iron 

steal, to rob, thieve, or pilfer 

sweet, pleasing to the senses 

suite, succession ; retinue 

tear, water from the eye 

tier, a rank ; a row 

teas, leaves of a Chinese plant 

tease, to torment 

teem, to abound 

team, a set of horses 

week, seven days 

weak, feeble ; infirm 

ween, to think 

wean, to withdraw from 

in met. 
lessen, to make less 
lesson, a task ; a lecture 
levy, to raise money, &c. 
levee, attendance at court 
rest, repose ; ease 
wrest, to force ; to strain 
sell, to vend ; to dispose of 
cell, a small cavity ; a hut 
seller, one who sells 
cellar, j^lace under ground 
sent, conveyed 
cent, a hundred ; a coin 
scent, an odor ; a smell 
wetlier, a sheep 
weather, state of the air 



by, with; near 
buy, to purchase 



t as m pine. 

clime, climate ; a country 
climb, to mount up 



WORDS PEONOUNCED ALIKE. 



103 



die, to cease to live 
dye, to color cloth 
find, to discover 

fined, condemned to pay a pen- 
alty in money 
high, tall ; lofty 
hie, to make haste 
hide, to conceal 
hied, went in haste 
ay, yes 

eye, the organ of sight 
isle, an island 
aisle, a passage in a church 
indite, to compose 
indict, to accuse 
lie, an intentional falsehood 
lye, liquor from ashes of wood 
lier, one who lies down 
liar, one who tells lies 
mite, a little insect in cheese 
might, power ; ability 
night, darkness 
knight, a title of honor 
pries, inquires into 
prize, a reward ; a premium 



quire, twenty-four sheets of paper 

choir, a band of singers 

rime, hoar frost 

rhyme, similar sounds 

rite, a ceremony 

write, to do writing 

right, straight ; correct 

Wright, a workman 

rye, a sort of corn 

wry, crooked ; distorted 

sine, a geometrical line 

sign, a mark ; a token 

site, a situation 

cite, to summon ; to qiiote 

eight, a view ; a vision 

size, bulk ; magnitude 

sighs, heaves a sigh 

slight, to neglect 

sleight, an artful trick 

stile, steps into a field 

style, manner of writing, &c. 

time, duration ; season 

thyme, an aromatic herb 



t as in pm. 



bin, a place to hold corn, &c. 
been, part of the verb to be 
gild, to adorn with gold 
guild, a corporation 
gilt, adorned with gold 
guilt, wickedness, sin 
grisly, frightful, hideous 
grizzly, somewhat gray 
him, that man 
hymn, a divine song 
in, within 
inn, a public-house 
kill, to take away life 
kiln, a sort of fm-nace 
limb, a member of the body 
limn, to paint 



links, divisions of a chain 

lynx, a spotted beast 

nit, an insect's egg 

knit, to make stockings, &c. 

primmer, more precise 

primer, a child's first book 

ring, a circle 

wring, to twist 

signet, a seal 

cygnet, a young swan 

single, alone 

cingle, a girth 

sink, to fall down 

cinque, five 

sticks, pieces of wood 

Styx, a river of the poeta 



J04 



VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 



5 as 
boll, or bole, a round stem 
bowl, a basin 
bow, a weapon 
beau, a gallant 

bore, to make a hole ; did bear 
boar, the male of swine 
borne, carried ; supported 
bourn, a limit ; a boundary 
broach, to utter first 
brooch, an ornament 
close, to shut up 
clothes, garments ; dress 
cole, a sort of cabbage 
coal, mineral fuel 
coarse, rough ; gross 
course, a race-ground 
core, the heart of a tree, &c, 
corps, a body of troops 
cote, a fold for sheep, &c. 
coat, a part of dress 
doe, a female deer 
dough, unbaked paste 
doze, to slumber 
does, female deer 
fort, a castle 

forte, what any one knows best 
forth, forward 
fourth, next after third 
gloze, to flatter 
glows, shines brightly 
groan, to sigh deei^ly 
grown, increased 
grocer, a dealer in sugar, fee. 
grosser, coarser 
hoard, a treasm-e 
horde, a tiibe 
hole, a hollow place 
whole, entire; unbroken 
home, one's dwelling 
holm, the ever-green oak 
lone, retired ; solitary 
loan, a thing lent 
moan, to lament 
piown, cut down 



in note. 
mote, a particle of dust 
moat, a ditch 
no, not so 

know, to understand 
nose, part of the face 
knows, understands 
I or oh ! alas 
owe, to he indebted 
ore, unrefined metal 
oar, a pole to row with 
pole, a long stick ; extremity of 

the earth's axis 
poll, 9, list of voters 
pore, to look closely 
pour, to empty out a liquid 
port, a harbor 
Porte, the Turkish court 
rode, did ride 
road, a way 

rowed, impelled by oara 
roe, a female deer 
row, a rank 
roes, female deer 
rose, a flower 
rows, ranks 
rose, did rise 
Rome, name of a city 
roam, to wander 
rote, repetition 
wrote, did write 
sloe, a wild sort of plum 
slow, tardy, not quick 
so, in such manner 
sow, to scatter seed 
sew, to work with a needle 
sole, the bottom of a shoe 
soul, the immortal part of man 
sore, tender ; painful 
soar, to rise high 
throe, extreme agony 
throw, to cast ; to heave 
throne, a seat of state 
thrown, cast 



WORDS PRONOUNCED ALIKE. 



toe, part of the foot 
tow, dressed hemp 



yoke, a bond ; a link 
yolk, the yellow of an egg 



^ as in not. 



cobble, to mend 
coble, a fishing boat 
codling, a sort of apple 
coddling, parboiling 
cord, a string 

chord, the string of a musical 
instrument 



grot, a cell 
groat, fourpence 
lock, a fastening 
loch, or lough, a 1 
not, denying 
knot, a tie 



o as in move. 



brews, doth brew 

bruise, to hurt 

brute, a beast 

bruit, a noise ; to report 

choose, to select 

chews, to grind with the teeth 

crews, ships' companies 

cruise, to sail up and down 



rood, a quarter of an acre 
rude, uncivil ; untaught 
root, part of a plant 
route, a road ; a way 
threw, did throw 
through, by means of 
too, overmuch 
two, one and oae 



blue, a color 

blew, did blow 

due, owing 

dew, moisture 

ewe, a female sheep 

yon, yourselves 

yew, an evergreen tree 

flue, a passage for smoke 

flew, did fly 

hue, a color or tint 

hew, to cut down 

Hugh, a man's name 

burrow, a rabbit hole 
borough, a corporation 
chuff, a surly clown 
chough, a sea bird 
cousin, a relation 
cozen, to cheat 
dun, a dark color 
done, finished 
dust, powdered dirt 
dost, second person of the 



u as in tube. 

mule, a beast 

mewl, to cry like an infant 

muse,- to ponder 

mews, enclosure ; stables 

new, fresh 

knew, did know 

use, to employ 

ewes, female sheep 



il as in tCil). 

fungous, spongy 
fungus, a sort of mushroom 
just, honest 
joust, a mock fight 
nun, a young woman in a convent 
none, not any 
plum, a fruit 
plumb, perpendicular 
ruSf, a neck ornament 
verb do I'ougn, coarse ; uneven 



106 VEKBAL DISTINCTIONS. 

rung, did ring sutler, a seller of provisions 

wrung, twisted su&tler, more cunning 

skull, the bone of the head tun, a large cask 

scull, a small boat ton, twenty hundredweight 

sum, the whole won, gained 

some, a part one, a single thing 

sun, the fountain of light 

son, a male cliild 

e, 'i, ii before r. 

berth, a sleeping place ; situation furs, skins of beasts 

birth, a coming into life furze, a wild shrub 
herd, a drove ; flock 
heard, did hear 

ou as in out. 

bow, to bend foul, not clean 

bough, a branch fowl, a large bird 

brows, plural of brow our, belonging to us 

brouse, to eat shrubs hour, sixty minutes 

Exercises. 

What can ail him ? Do not drink ale. 

Bring me eight pears. Did he pare the pear before he ate it? 

Tell him to bail out the water, and put the bale of cotton into the 
boat. Bail was refused at the court for the person who stole the bale 
of silk. 

It is a base act to wrong the weak. You will find the bass fiddle 
lying at the base of the statue ; take it and assist those who are singing 
bass. 

The Bey of Turkey rode on a bay horse. 

I am weary, and would fain lie down. Never feign friendship, but 
be ever truthful. 

She seemed to be faint, but it was soon discovered to be a mere 
feint on her part. 

I saw him pass through the gate, and his gait appeared very 
awkward. 

He put a great part of the coal in the grate. 

You must rub the greater part of that carrot on the large grater. 

Tell John to put the bay horses to the carriage, and turn out the 
grays to graze in the meadow. 

That poor man has lain for two hours in the lane. 

He laid aside his coat, and aided the men to lade the boat with 
sugar. 

The young maid sitting there made two coats yesterday. 



WORDS PRONOUNCED ALIKE. 107 

The main difference between a lion and a lioness is, that the latter 
hag no mane. 

The male passenger put a letter into the mail. 

I felt quite in a maze when he asked me the difference between 
maize and wheat. 

The knave who stole the nave of the wheel, was seen sitting in the 
nave of the church. 

Nay, you must be mistaken, my horses did not neigh at that time. 

How pale you are, carrying that heavy pail of milk. 

He cut his finger with a broken pane of glass, and he suffers much 
pain. 

He was fishing in a certain place, and caught a flat fish called a 
plaice. 

It is quite plain that the surface is as plain as the joiner's plane can 
make it. 

Tell me, I pray you, how the tiger seizes his prey. 

When did the reign of Queen Victoria commence ? 

Raise the window and let the rays of the sun into the room. 

The seaman offered a large sail for sale. 

The butcher took the sheep away in his sleigh to slay them. 

He put the steak of beef on a sharp stake to broil it. 

We sailed in a straight line across the narrow strait. 

It was stated in a tale I read, that some animals sit upon their tails. 

Kindness is a marked trait in the character of the young person who 
holds that tray. 

The lady covered her face with a veil as we passed through the 
naiTow vale. 

The ass brayed loudly. Tell Mary to braid her hair. 

The vane fell upon that vain person and cut a vein in his arm. 

You will waste less time if you bind the belt round your waist. 

Wait a little and he will tell you the weight of the box. 

I waive my right to that seat lest the wave reach your dress. 

While I stood in the way I saw him weigh the bag in a curious way. 

A good man prays unto the Lord, and sings praise unto His name ; 
and he weighs well the motives which govern his ways. 

I learned ere I came that the air of this place is bracing, and, if 
I e'er return, I will bring the young heir with me. 

The eagle builds his eyry in a lofty and airy situation. 

The white bear tore the bare arm of the lad so badly, that I could 
not bear to look at it. 

I offered a chair to the char-woman when she came in. 

It was not fair to charge that fair person so high a fare for entering 
the fair. 

Tell John to take all the hair off that hairskin. 



108 VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 

Did you ever see any one pare an apple or a pear with a pair of 
Bcissors ? 

Do not tear that paper on which the amount of tai"e is marked. 
I/He tears bis coat in going into a field of tares. 

Their carriage is not there. 

That kind of ware will soon wear away the dress I gave him to wear. 

It is not fair that that hoy should bear on his bare arm a pair of 
pale colored pails, the one filled with pared pears, the other with tin- 
ware for common wear, i 

He now adds an axe and a new adze to his box of tools. 

The master bade me avoid the companionship of that bad boy. 

It is sad when a canon of the church is enforced by soldiers and 
cannon. 

He paid an old coin, called a drachm, for a dram of liquor. 

If he had a lac of rupees he did not lack for support. 

He hung his mantle over the mantel to dry. 

The weary painter threw down his palette and flung himself upon 
his pallet of straw. 

Wrap up the parcel, then rap for James to carry it home. 

It was sore travail for so old a man to travel bo far in a hail storm. 

One end of the lid of the ark was formed like the arc of a circle. 

The huntsman shot the hart through the heart. 

As he was a soldier of mark, the king granted to him letters of 
marque. 

That martial man will marshal the troops. 

He laid aside his casque and sat on a cask standing near. 

He urged the people to cast aside all respect for caste. 

That martial-looking man, who wears a casque, ordered me to carry 
this cask to the marshal. 

All shoemakers use the awl. 

If you have aught against me, you ought to tell me frankly. 
Those boys should not bawl so loudly when they play at ball. 
Do you call the net enclosing that girl's hair a caul ? 
That old crow caws frequently without any cause. 
Haul that trunk to the end of the hall. 
John held the paws of the dog in his hand. 
Did you hear the cat waul on the other side of the wall ? 
You should pause at the end of that clause, which speaks of the 
paws of a lion and claws of an eagle. 
Can it be that a bee hurt you ? 
There is not a beech tree near the beach. 
He thoughtlessly placed a can of beer on the bier. 
He took up a large beet and beat the boy with it. 



WORDS PRONOUNCED ALIKE. 109 

In running up the creek, the timbers of the vessel began to creak 
and strain. 

He bought the deer at too dear a price. 

In performing the feat he injured lis feet much. 

Would you flee away at the sight of a flea ? 

Cover the jar with that piece of frieze, lest its contents freeze before 
morning. 

It grieves me to see you wear these heavy greaves. 

This salve will heal your sore heel. 

Stand here and hear what he says. 

Take the key and open the gate which leads to the quay. 

I crossed the lea on the lee side of the wood. 

I would as lief take one leaf as another. 

I saw water leak out of the vessel in which he placed the green leek. 

Who would believe, from his haughty mien, that he could mean 
to be so mean and deceitful. 

When next we meet I hope to have better meat, and to mete out 
to you a larger portion. 

Who pasted these four Hues of metre on the gas metre ? 

You need not knead the dough so much. 

For the sake of peace I will give to each of you a piece. 

Did you hear that peal of thunder ? Give me a piece of orange peel. 

Did not pique youi'self so highly on reaching the peak of the hill 
before me. 

I saw a peer standing on the pier of the bridge. 

Please to state at once all the pleas you can offer in your defence. 

As you read the line point out each word with the reed. 
^ He went out to see the sea, and a grander scene is seldom seen. 

We ceil a room with timber or plaster ; but we seal a letter with 
wax, and mark it with a seal. 

Before I put a seed into the ground, he must cede to me all his 
right to it. 

It does not seem to me that that seam is very close. 

He sees the plant in the water, but he cannot seize it with his hand. /^ 

I saw John peeling an orange while that pealing anthem was being 
played. 

It were sheer nonsense to affirm that a shepherd ought not to shear 
his sheep. 

She pinned some ravelled sleave upon the sleeve of her dress. 

Did the man steal the steel he offered for sale ? 

The prince ordered sweet wine to be furnished to all his suite. 

No tear started to his eye, though he saw tier above tier of guns on 
the fort. 

The team of horses is ploughing in the fields,which teem with vendure. 

He has been very weak all this week. 



110 VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 

The chagrin of poor Moses must have been great when he found out 
how he had been imposed upon with regard to the spectacles in the 
shagreen cases. 

I did not assent to your proposal of making the ascent of the hill. 

The bell rang, and then the belle of the evening entered the room. 

He made a hole in which to bury the berry. 

The chickens were bred on bread made of rye meal. 

They led him through the forest to the lead mines. 

Your guest shrewdly guessed my object last night. 

I will lessen your lesson if you find it too long. 

I heard at the levee to-day that the Parliament propose to levy a 
new tax. 

If you do not allow me to sit at rest, I will wrest that stick from you. 

Did the hermit sell his right to the cell ? The seller has gone to live 
in a cellar. 

He spent eveiy cent he had for a scent bottle, which he sent to a 
friend. 

The weather was cold \ihen the shepherd brought a wether &om the 
hill. 

The man was on his way to dye the web of cloth, when he received 
an injury which caused him to die. 

By next week he will buy a farm. 

It is fatiguing, in a warm clime, to climb high hills. 

If you find the document, and do not return it, you will be fined 
by the court. 

It is now high time to hie homeward, for the sun is not high. 

He hied home to hide his part of the spoil. 

I asked him if he was pleased ; he looked in my eye, and said, " Ay." 

I walked through the aisle of the church which stood on the isle. 

Do not lie down in the lye. 

Every mite in that cheese might be removed. You might have 
given your mite. 

I meet the knight almost every night in the street. 

Thomas pries into the class register, to learn whether he is likely 
to get a prize. 

The choir made use of more than a quire of paper. 

I will write to the wheelwright, and tell him it is not right for him 
to observe that rite. 

He makes a wry face at the rye-bread and water offered to him. 

At the first sight of your house he said he would cite you before 
the council for choosing a site so near his premises. 

It is childish for a boy of your size to heave so many sighs about 
such a trifle. 

Slight all those tricks performed by sleight of hand. 



WORDS PRONOUNCED ALIKE. Ill 

He told, in fine style, how he got over the stile in his haste. 
At this time last year the thyme was in bloom. 

Have yon been told to make a bin for the corn ? 

They intend to gild the ceiling of the Guildhall. 

There is no guilt in making use of gilt vessels. 

It was a grisly sight to see the huge grizzly bear torn to pieces. 

I heard him sing a beautiful hymn. 

I may take my ease in my own inn. 

He was told to kill the dog, and throw it into the kiln. 

The links of the chain have chafed the neck of the lynx. 

I can knit, but I never saw a nit. 

He is quite prim ; but the child, with a primer in her hand, is 
primmer. 

They who ring the bells for joy to-day, may wring their hands in 
grief to-mon-ow. 

I will give you a cygnet, if you will place your signet on the book. 

Fasten the saddle on the horse with a single cingle. 

The boar broke the door of his pen and bore away a part of it. 

He was borne far beyond the bourn of his native country. 

Cupid gave his bow into the hands of that elegant beau. 

The beau spent au hour in trying to tie a bow to please himself. 

She soon began to broach the subject of the new brooch. 

The mistress told her to close the trunk containing her clothes. 

You have spoiled the cole by letting it fall on the coal. 

His manners are coarse, as might be expected on a race course. 

One of his own corps cut the core out of a nut and gave it to him. 

Lay aside your coat and assist in getting the flock into the cote. 

I fed the tame doe with some dough. 

He had four of his fore teeth extracted. 

His forte seems to be to fight behind a fort. 

On the fourth day of May he went forth to sow. 

You have grown so fat that hard work makes you groan. 

The horde of gipsies have a hoard of stolen goods. 

He dug a hole and hid the whole of his money in it. 

Around his home stood a grove of trees, among which were the 
holm, the oak, and the elm. 

That lone old man gave me the loan of an axe. 

I heard a moan among the new mown hay. 

There was a mote in his eye, so that he did not distinctly see the 
moat. 

He did not know how to say no. 

I will give you some of this ore, if you ffili iake your oar and row 
me o'er the ferry. 



112 VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 

You will see a pole at the end of the booth, having the state of 
the poll marked on it. 

He rode along the new road. 

I saw a roe feeding behind a row of trees. 

I rose and saw three roes standing between two rows of rose bushes. 

He left Eome in the spring to roam over the south of Italy. 

Notwithstanding the sore on the neck of the dove, it can still soar 
aloft. 

I heard a cobbler, who could scarcely put a sole on a shoe, say that 
the soul is not immortal, and his sole reason was he could not be- 
lieve it. 

He wrote the passage so often that he could say it by rote. 

He sent the shipwright to cobble the old coble lying on the beach. 

While the cook was coddling the codlings, the maid made ready the 
table. 

I paid the old man a groat to see his grot or cell. 

He turned the key in the lock, and went with me to gee a beautiful 
loch (lough) behind the hill. 

He will not deny that he tied the knot. 

I broke a chord of my violin by tying a cord too tightly around it. 

The man that brews the ale received a severe bruise on his foot. 

It was soon bruited abroad that the brute had gored him. 

The crews of the.vessels,sent to cruise on the coast of Africa, suffered 
much. 

That rude man says, that one rood of his land is worth more than an 
acre of oiirs. 

On your route through the forest you would observe many a root 
on the surface of the ground. 

That very rude boy threw a stone through the window. 

The two deer which you gave to me cost you far too dear a price. 

Choose any apple you please, but he that chews that one must 
have good teeth. 

The wind blew away my blue silk handkerchief. 

I came early, though the dew was on the grass, to pay you the 
money due. 

Did you bind tl : cv/e to the yew tree ? 

The flue was on fire, and the sparks flew about in all directions. 

I sent Hugh to hew a piece of timber of a peculiar luic. 

I heard the poor infant mewl in the pannier on the lack of the 
mule. 

The royal mews is not a fit place wherein to muse. 

He knew very well that the furniture was new. 

Use the ewes well during winter. 



WOiibS SPELLED AiilgB. 119 

We saw a rabbit run into its burrow in the warren, within the 
borough of Dunse. 

That surly man who shot the chough is a rough chuff. 

When you are done, put the saddle on the dun pony. 

Dost thou not see the dust upon tlie book? 

We speak of fungous substances, and we call a'mushroom a fungus. 

The decisions given at the joust were regarded as just. 

Did none of you ever see a nun in a convent ? 

The stake, placed near the plum tree, is not plumb ; try it by the 
plumb line. 

The material, of which the ruff is made, is coarse and rough. 

After he had rung the funeral bell, he sat down and wrung his 
hands in bitter sorrow. 

He found the skull of a fish in the bottom of his scull. 

Some think the sum of money far too great. 

I saw your son, standing without his cap, in the rays of the sun. 

The sutler was a subtler reasoner than the sergeant. 

When the tun is filled it will weigh more than a ton. 

He won only one game, and I once won two. 

His berth has been a good one ever since the birth of his first son. 
I heard that he sold the entire herd to one butcher. 
She spread the furs on the furze bushes to dry. 

Bow down and lift that green bough. 

The goats browse along the brows of the mountains. 

That fowl is a very foul bird. 

We are glad to receive our friends at any honr. 



SECTION II. 

Words whicli are swelled alike, but which diflfer in 
pronunciation and meaning. 

abuse, ill usage cleanly, neatly 

abuse, to use ill — to reproach cleanly, free from filth 

as, a Koman coin clothes, provides with dress 

as, so clothes, garments 

bass, a kind of fish coiirtesy, civility — kindness 

bass, low notes in music coiirtesy, act of respect made by 

char, to burn partially women 

char, to do little jobs of work diffuse, scattered — not concise 

diffuse, to spread abroad 
H 



114 



VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 



dfiea, female deer 

does, 3J per. sing, of do— dOth 

excuse, an apology 

excuse, to pardon 

form, a class — a long seat 

form, shape — figure 

grease, melted fat 

Riease. to siuear with grease 

gill, gills, the lungs of a fish 

pill, the fourth part of a pint 

hinder, on the back side 

binder, to prevent 

house, a place of abode 

house, to put into a houso 

lead, to guide 

I6ad, a heavy metal 

learned, intelligent — skilful 

learned, did learn 

lease, to let houses or lands for 

rent 
lease, to glean 
live, living — alive 
live, to exist 
mouse, an animal 
mon^e, to catch mice 
number, to count 
num&er, more torpid 



notable, remnrkable-distinguished 

n6table, careful — bustling 

poll, the head — a place of election 

poll, pet name for a parrot 

primer, more excellent 

primer, a child s first book 

raven, a bird 

raven, to devour 

read, to peruse a book 

read, d d read 

sewer ( so-er), one who sewa 

Bewer (s6-er), a drain 

slovgh, a miry place 

slough (slufif), the cast-off skin of 

a snake 
tarry, to wait 
tiirry, covered with tar 
tear, a drop of water from the eye 
tear, to rend — a rent 
use, act of using — utility 
use, to make use of — to employ 
wind, to turn round 
wind, air in motion 
worsted, defeated 
worsted, a kind of woollen yarn 
woand, a hurt 
wound, part, of the verb to wind 



Exerciss for Reading and Dictation. 

I learned that, though you abuse that learned man, he will give no 
abuse iu return. 

The man who sings bass, caught a bass in the lake, as I passed, for 
which I gave him an old coin called an as. 

The charwoman is very cleanly, she brings in the charcoal and does 
all her work very cleanly. 

The generous lady, who clothes so many orphan children, received 
the child with the greatest courtesy, and when the girl was a imitted, 
Bhe made a courtesy, and thanked the lady for her clothes. 

[le does not write vigorously, his style is too dilfase. 

Tiie excuse you make is not sufficient, so I cannot excuse you. 

You must form your letteis belter, or you cduuot be admitted to 
the f.inrlh form. 

As he held the fish by the tail more than two gills of water ran 
fi-O) Q itB gills. 



WORDS DISTINGUISHED BY PLACE OF ACCENT. 



115 



It did not hinder the journey, but he put " Rachel and Joseph 
biiidermost." 

He built the house so large that he could house all Lis cattle during 
the winter. 

lie undertook to lead them and the live stock to a place near the 
lead mines, where they mi^ht live for a time. 

On tliat notable occasion I first lieard of his notable housekeeper. 

I read in the primer tliat the ravens croak and the lions raveu. 

Tarry for me till I put this tarry ftick into the slough. 

When the cliild saw the tear in her (hess, a tear came to h^r eye. 

The wind was very high, so we remained at home to wind that 
worsted yarn, wljich the servant iiad not wound yesterday, on account 
of the wound she received in her liaud. 



SECTION III. 
"Words distinguished by the place of the accent. 

In most of the following words the accent is regulated by the appli- 
cation. When used as verbs, the accent is placed on the last syllable 
— as, absent', reprimand'. Except attrib'ute. 

ce'ment, that which unites 
cement', to unite 
com'pact, an apireemeut 
comiiacl', firui — sjlid 
col'lect, a short prayer 
collect', to bring together 
com'ment, an exposition 
comment' (upon), to expound 
com'jjound, a mixture — an en- 
closure 
compound', to mix — to come to 

terms of agreement 
con'cert, a musical entertainment 

— agreement of design 
concert', to contrive — to plan 
con'crele,a mass formed of parts 
concrete', to unite in one body 
con'duct, behavior 
conduci', to lead — manage 
con'rine, a boundary 
confine', to limit — to imprison 



ab'sent, not present 

absent', to keep away 

ab'stract, an abridgment 

abstract', to draw or separate from 
— to abridge 

ac'cent, a peculiar tone in speak- 
ing or pronouncing — stress or 
force given to a particular syl- 
lable in a word — a mark by 
which the accent is denoted 

accent', to mark the accent — to 
give or express the accent 

affix, a post-fix, or part added to 
a word 

aifix', to join or unite to 

at'tribute, a quality 

attrib'ute, to assign to 

aug'ment, an increase 

augment', to increase 

Au'gust, the eighth month 

augnst', great — majestic 



116 



VERBAL DISTINCTIOl^S. 



con'flict, a struggle — a contest 

conflict', to oppose 

con'jure (Imn'jiir), to practise the 

arts of a coDJurer 
conjure', to call upon with adjura- 
tion — to entreat in the most 
earnest manner 
con'sort, wife or husband — a com- 
panion 
consort', to associate with 
con'test, a dispute — a struggle 
contest', to dispute — to contend 
con 'tract, a binding agreement 
contract', to draw together or 

agree 
con'trast, opposition of figures 
contrast', to place in opposition 
con'verse, conversation — the op- 
posite or contrary 
converse', to discoujse familiarly 

with 
con' vert, a person converted 
convert', to change or turn 
con'vict, a person convicted 
convict', to prove guilty 
con'voy, an escort or guard 
convoy', to escort — to accompany 

as a guard 
coun'termand, an order to the 

contrary 
countermand', to revoke a former 

order 
des'cant, a song — a discourse 
descant', to harangue 
desert (dezert'), that which one 

deserves — degree of merit 
desert (dez'-ert), a wilderness — a 

deserted place 
di'gest, materials arranged 
digest', to arrange — to dissolve 
dis'count, abatement for ready 

money 
discount', to make an abatement 
en'trance, the act or the place of 
entering 



entrance', to put into a trance or 
ecstasy 

es'cort, an armed guard 

escort', to accompany as a guard 

es'say, an attempt — a treatise 

essay', to attempt— to try 

ex'ile, a person banished — banish- 
ment 

exile', to banish 

ex'port, a commodity exported 

export', to carry or ship goods out 
of the country 

ex'tract, something extracted 

extract', to draw out or from 

fer'ment, a boiling — a tumult 

ferment', to cause or produce fer- 
mentation 

fre'quent, often occurring 

frequent', to visit often 

gal'lant, brave (applied to military 
men; 

gallant', particularly attentive to 
ladies 

im'port, any commodity imported 
— meaning — consequence 

import', to bring from abroad — 
to mean or signify 

in'cense, perfume or fragrance 
exhaled by fire 

incense', to inflame — to enrage 

in'crease, augmentation 

increase', to make more or greater 

in'lay, something inlaid or in- 
serted 

inlay', to lay or put in 

in'sult, an affront 

insult', to treat with insolence 

in'terchange, a mutual exchange 

— commerce 
interchange', to exchange with 

in'terdict, a prohibition 

interdict', to prohibit 
invalid (in'valeed), one weak or 
disabled by sickness, wounds, 
or old age 



■^VOEDS DISTINGUISHED BY PLACE OF ACCENT. 



117 



present', to give formally 
prod'uce, that which is produced 
produce', to bring forth 
proj'ect, a scheme — a contrivance 
project', to form in the mind — to 

jut out 
prot'est, a solemn declaration 
irotest', to declare solemnly 
.'eb'el, one that rebels 
rebel', to oppose lawful authority 
rec'ord, a register— a memorial 
record', to register 
refuse, what is refused as useless 

— worthless remains 
refuse', to reject 
rep'rimand, a censure 
reprimand', to chide or rebuke — 

to censure 
fcub'ject, placed under — liable to 
— one under the dominion of an- 
other — the question or matter 
under consideration 
subject', to place under — to reduce 

to submission 
su'pine, a kind of verbal noun 
supine', lying with the face up- 
wards — indolent 
sur'name, family name 
surname', to add another name 
Bur'vey, a view taken 
survey', to take a view 
tor'ment, torture — vexation 
torment', to put to pain — to vex 
trans'fer, the act of transferring 
transfer', to assign or make over 
trana'port, rapture — a vessel for 

conveying soldiers beyond sea 

transport', to carry beyond sea as 

a convict — to put into ecstasy 

Exercises for Dictation. 

(These sentenceB should not only be read, but also written, marking 
the accent properly.) 
The boys, who were absent from school yesterday, must not absent 
themselves again, without special permission. 



invalid {inval'id), weak— of no 

force or weight 
min'ute, the 60th pai-t of an hour 

— a small portion of time 
minute', small — diminished 
miscon'duct, bad behavior 
misconduct', to behave badly 
ob'ject, something seen — an end 

or purpose 
object', to make an objection to 

— to oppose by argument 
o'vercharge, too great a charge 
overcharge', to charge too much 

— to crowd 
o'verthrow, defeat — discomfiture 

— destruction 
overthrow', to defeat — to dis- 
comfit — to destroy 
per'fume, fragrance 
perfume', to scent 
per'mit, a written authori'y from 

an excise officer for removing 

goods 
permit', to authorize — to allow 
precedent (pres'fdeni), a previous 

rule or example 
prece'dent, preceding or going 

before — former 
pre'fix, a particle or preposition 

prefixed to a word 
prefix', to put before 
premise, an antecedent state- 
ment 
premise', to state beforehand 
pres'age, a prognostic or sign 
presage', to foretell or forebode 
pres'ent, something presented — a 

gift or offering 



118 VERBAL DISTINCTIOXS. 

To accent a word properly, is to place the accent on the right 

syllable. 

We can attribu'e the attribnte of prescience to God nlone. 

Did you abstract from my dtsk tlie abstract which I made of the 
lecture ? 

You must affix each prefix and afiax properly. 

Tlieir august monarch died in August last. 

By prefixing the augment, you augment the length of the word. 

Tue troops stood iu compact order, while their generals signed the 
compact. 

Tliey met to concert measures for conducing the concert. 

His conduct was so bad that unless he conduct himself better, he 
cannot remain in scliool. 

He must confine his operations within the confines of his own terri- 
tory. 

Their accounts of the conflict conflict with each other. 

I conjure you to refra:n from attempting to conjure by such means, 

lie intends to contest the result of ilie late contest. 

The builders who contract for the works are all able to fulfil the 
terms of the contract. 

Bhouhl he desert his friend in the desert, both would suffer. 

A convoy of war vessels was sent to convoy the emperor heme. 

An armed escort was appointed to escort us through that moun- 
tainous region. 

When he discounted that bill he charged a high discount. 

That extensive house exports a large share of the exports of the 
country. 

Extract the juice of the lemons, as directed in the extract I read 
from the paper yesterday. 

The gallant officer was very gallant in his manners last night. 

Too frequent opportuuiiies were afforded him to frequent theatres 
and places of public amusement. 

lie imports largely, thereby increasing the imports of the country. 

You will greatly incense the old man if you ask him why he burns 
incense in his room. 

Tlie reasons for excluding that poor invalid from the hospital are 
utterly nivalid. 

A minute is a very minufe portion of time, yet of great value. 

It I knew the object he lias in view, I might not object to his course. 

He saw some presage in the sky, which seemed to him to presage the 
overthrow of the city. 

I cannot, at present, in person present you with the present which I 
hereby send. 

Permit me to see the permit for removing the goods. 

Yoa need not produce a better sample of the produce of the coantry. 



WORDS OF SIMILIAR SOUND. 119 

The project you propose is so impracticable, that unless you can pro- 
ject a better, the affair must be given up. 

I earnestly protest against their protest being recorded. 

Should be rebel against the government, be must expect the fate of 
a rebel. 

Tlie very dogs refuse to eat the refuse you oflFered fo him. 

I will record the transaction and send you a copy of the record. 

Ilis remarks on that subject may subject him to a great amount 
of trouble. 

The former survey was so incorrect that it was resolved to survey 
the whole territory anew. 

lie has already made a transfer of his goods, and cannot therefore 
transfer them to you. 

A very large transport will be required to transport all these troops 
across the sea. 

Place the accent on different syllables in the following words, and 
name the part of speech to which they belong when so accented; and 
construct short sentences exemplifying their use : — 

Attribute, countercheck, connterbalance, countermine, convert, 
counterplot, countersign, interdict, desert, gallant, august, 
minute, invalid, misconduct, overflow, overturn, retail, suffix, 
undress, upstart, foretaste, premise. 



SECTION IV. 

Words of similar sound, whicli require to be very dis- 
tinctly pronounced in order to be distinguished. 
The difference between some of them is very 
slight. 

aloud, with a loud voice Britain, the name of a country 

.illowed, did allow Ihiton, fln inlialiitant of Britain 

altar, an ereciion on which oiler- calendar, an almanac 

ings or sacritices are laid calender, a machine for pressing 
alter, to change cloth 

auger, a boring instrument carat, a small weight 

augur, a soothsayer carrot, a vegetable 

border, the outer edge caster, one who casts, or that from 
boarder, one who boards which something is thrown 

bridal, pertaining to a wedding castor, the beaver — a kind of oil 

bridle, a piece of harness used to cellar, a place where certain kinds 

guide a horso of goods are stored 

seller, one who sells 



120 



VEBBAL DISTINCTIONS. 



censor, one who finds fault 

censer, a vessel to hold incense 

cboler, anger — wrath 

collar, something worn around the 
neck 

council, an assembly 

counsel, to advise — advice 

culler, one who culls or selects 

color, a hue, as black or red 

currants, fruit 

currents, running water 

depository, a place where things 
are deposited 

depositary, one who has charge of 
a depository 

deviser, one who devises — an in- 
ventor 

divisor, a term used in arithmetic 

fool, an unwise person 

fuU, filled up 

fir, a kind of tree 

fur, skins with soft hair 

holy, sacred 

wholly, entirely 

lessen, to make less 

lesson, a precept — a task 

manner, method — way 

manor, a domain 

metal, a mineral, as gold, silver 

mettle, spirit — courage 



miner, one who works in a mine 

minor, one under legal age 

naughty, wicked — worthless 

knotty, full of knots 

ottar, oil of roses 

otter, an animal 

plaintiff, one who prosecutes in 

a lawsuit 
plaintive, mournful 
precedent, an example 
president, one who presides 
principal, chief — money at interest 
principle, a maxim — rule of action 
profit, advantage — gain 
prophet, one who foretells events 
rabbet, a term in carpentry 
rabbit, the name of an animal 
sailer, that wliich sails 
sailor, a seaman — mariner 
stationary, remaining iu one place 

or state 
stationery, pens, paper, &o. 
succor, help 
sucker, a young shoot 
symbol, a sign — a type 
cymbal, a musical instrument 
treaties, agreements 
treatise, a book 
vial, a phial or small bottle 
viol, a musical instrument 



Exercises for Beading and Dictation. 

(In reading these sentences care should be taken to pronounce the 
ambiguous words very distinctly.) 

We are not allowed to speak aloud during study hours. 
Tell the architect that he must alter the form of the altar. 
The aged augur first bored three holes in the board with an auger. 
One of the boarders stepped on the border of the flower-plot. 
One of the bridal party happily caught my horse by the bridle. 
I am still a Briton, though I do not reside in Britain. 
Look into your calendar and ascertain when the instrument called 
a caler.Oer was first used. 



WOEDS OF SniILAE SOUND. 121 

That gold is ten carats fine, and is of the color of a pale red carrot. 

Does the caster contain a bottle of castor oil f 

The seller of these goods lives in a cellar. 

The appointed censor would not allow the boy to touch the censer 
of incense. 

The man was in great choler because the collar was not ready. 

Before we sailed down the rapid currents of the St. Lawrence, a 
young girl had brought on board a basket of white currants. 

He counselled me to bring my case before the council at its next 
meeting. 

The culler was required to select the fruit according to its color. 

The deviser of the scheme erred by making use of a wrong divisor. 

The depositary reports 600 volumes in the depository. 

That fool is full of nonsense. 

I found that piece of soft fur lying near the old fir tree. 

That holy man is wholly devoted to his sacred work. 

If your lesson is too long, I will lessen it somewhat. 

The lord of that manor has a distinguished manner of speaking. 

A metal horse cannot be called a horse of mettle. 

The owner of the large mines, where this miner works, is still a 
minor. 

That naughty boy struck the dog with a knotty stick. 

I dropped a few drops of the ottar of roses on the skin of the otter. 

The plaintiff in the case spoke in a very plaintive voice. 

The president said he could not allow that precedent. 

The principal of the school said it would be his principal aim to 
conduct the institution on sound principles. 

The prophet of old spake for our profit. 

I told the joiner to rabbet the boards with which he covered the 
box for my rabbit. 

The sailor said his ship was a first-rate sailer. 

As I am to be stationary for a time, I require the less stationery. 

The boy was sent to cut away the sucker with a sharp knife, with 
which he wounded himself so badly that had I not come to his suc- 
cor, he could not have got home. 

He employed the cymbal as a symbol of his profession. 

He published a treatise concerning all the treaties of that age. 

He poured from a vial a few drops of essence on his viol. 



122 VEKBAL DISTINCTIONS. 

SECTION V. 

A Collection of words which have a variety of 
meanings, and are used in different senses. 
(The particular meaning of such words, in any case, must be deter- 
mined by the sense of the passages in which they occur.) 

Each woi d in a language, when first formed, had doubtless only 
one meaning which it was designed toexpress, and which may be 
Etv leil its primary signification. Butalivinglanguage is ever.'-ub- 
ject to change, both in the forms and uses of words; and thus 
otlier meanings become associated with them, wliich may be re- 
garded as their fcccondary or figurative signification. 

Tiiere is generally a natural, though not always an obvious, con- 
nection between the secondary and primary meaning of a word, 
which is very pleasing to trace, and which it is the duty of a skil- 
ful teacher to point out to his pupil. 

Some words have lost their primary signification, and are now 
used only to express their secondary meaning. 

J.Iaiij' words, though written and pronounced exactly alike, are 
derived from different roots, and hence their different meanings — 
as bay, corn.** 

Although the meaning of a word may of ten be correctly inferred 
from its place and use in a sentence, yet in order to be able to 
employ a word properly, it is necessary that its various meanings 
be known. 

The following list, which contains many words in common use, 
is designed as an exercise in the difEereut uses of words; and 
pupils should be required to construct sentences containing the 
words, properly employed in their different significa.ions. 

Address, deportment — dexterity — the direction of a letter— a petition 
— to accost 

* Bay, A.S. bugan, to bend, a bay, or bight of the sea; a bay, or 
bow window. 

Bay, Gr. bais, a palm branch ; the color of the fruit. Lat. 
babius. Fr. bai, a chestnut color, applied specially to horses. 

Bay, Fr. abayer, to bark at ; or abbayer, to expect. 

Corn, Lat. granum, gam, garnery, grain — a grain, or minute 
particle, hence to put grains of salt on meat. 

Corn, Lat. cornu, horn, a hard substance. 



WORDS WHICn HAVE A VARIETY OF MEANINGS. 123 

Air, what we breathe — music — mien 

Angle, a corner — a point where two lines meet — to fish with a line and 

hook 
Apparent, plain — visible — seeming — not real 
Aixh, part of any curved line — part of a bridge — mirthful — roguish — 

shrewd 
Ashes, trees — what remains after combustion 
Bachelor, an unmarried man — a university degree 
Bait, a bit of fond put on a hook to allure fish — a temptation — refresh- 
ment — to worry with dogs 
Ball, a round thing — a game— an entertainment with dancing 
Bank, a heap of earth — the land bordering oa a river or canal — a place 

where money is kept 
Bar, a piece of wood, &c., to stop a passage — the place where the 

criminal stands in court —a division in music — to fasten — to hinder 
Bark, the rind of a tree — a kind of ship — to make the noise a dog 

does 
Base, the foundation — vile — worthless 

Baste, to pour the dripi>ing over roasting meat — to sew slightly 
Bat, a stick to strike a ball — an animal like a mouse, with wings of 

skin 
Bay, an opening on a coast — a projecting window — a color — a kind of 

tree — a state of defiance — to bark at 
Beam, a large piece of timber — a ray of light 
Bear, to carry — to endure — a rough, savage animal 
Bed, what we sleep on — the channel of a river 
Beetle, an insect — a heavy mallet 
Bill, the beak of a bird — an account of money, &c. 
Billet, a log of wood — a note — to direct by ticket where to lodge 
Bit, a small piece — the iron put into a horse's mouth 
Blade, the cutting part of a tool — a leaf of grass or corn — the flat 

bone of the shoulder — the flat part of an oar 
Blow, a stroke — a sudden calamity — to puff" — to blossom 
Board, a ])lauk — a table — to live with another for a certain price — a 

council or commission 
Boot, a covering for tlie leg — profit — advantage 
Bound, a limit — a leap — did hind 
Bowl, a vessel for liquids — to roll 
Box, a tree or shrub — a case or chest — ablowwiththe closed hand — 

a seat in a playhouse — the driver's seat on a coach — to fight with 

the fists 
Brace, to bind — a couple or pair 

Brazier, a worker in brass or copper — a pan to hold coals 
Brook, a rivulet — to endure 
Bull, an animal — an edict of the pope — a blunder 



124 VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 

Butt, a large cask or barrel — the mark aimed at — a person at whom 

jests are aimed — to strike with the head or horns 
Calf, the young of a cow — the thick part of the leg 
Cape, a headland — a covering for the slioulders 
Caper, to skip and jump like a goat — a frolic — a bud that is pickled 
Card, thick, stiff paper — to comb wool, &c. 
Case, a covering — state of things — variation of nouns 
Cashier, one who has charge of the cash — to dismiss from office 
Cast, to throw — to form in a mould — a moulded form 
Cataract, a waterfall— a disease in the eye 
Charge, care — command — accusation — attack — expense 
Chase, to hunt — hunting — to engrave on metals 
Cleave, to split — to stick or adhere 
Club, a heavy stick — a society — to unite together 
Cockle, a shell-fish — a weed that grows among grain 
Comb, an instrument for the hair — the crest of a cock — the cells in 

which bees put honey 
Commit, to intrust — to be guilty of — to send to prison 
Concordance, agreement — an index to words in the Bible 
Copy, a model to be imitated — an imitation 
Corn, grain — a horny substance on the foot — to salt slightly 
Count, to reckon — a title of honour — a i^oint in an indictment 
Counter, a shop table — a sort of coin — contrary 
Court, space before a house — a little street — a hall of justice — an 

assembly of judges — the residence of royalty — to solicit — to woo 
Crab, a shell-fish — a wild apple 
Craft, cunning — a trade — a small sailing vessel 
Crane, a long-legged bird — an engine to raise weights — a bent tube 

to draw liquor out of a cask 
Cricket, a chirping insect — a game with bats and ball 
Crop, the harvest — the craw of a bird — to cut short 
Cross, a straight body laid over another — misfortune — peevish — to 

thwart 
Crow, a large black bird — an iron lever — the voice of a cock — to 

triumph 
Cry, to call out — to weep 

Dam, the mother of an animal — a bank to confine water 
Date, a time — the fruit of the date tree 
Deal, to share — a share — to traffic — a fir plank 
Dear, expensive — precious — beloved 
Deck, to cover — to adorn — the fioor of a ship 
Desert', merit or demerit — to forsake 
Die, to cease to live or exist — a stamp — a little cube 
Diet, an assembly of states — food — to eat by rule 
Dock, a place where ships lie, or are built — an herb — to cut off 



WOEDS WflICa HAVE A VARIETY OF MEANINGS. 125 

Down, soft feathers — an open plain — not up 

Draw, to cirag — to take from a cask or well — to delineate 

Drill, to bore holes — to exercise recruits 

Drug, a medicine — any wortliless thing 

Dun, dark colored — a clamorous creditor 

Ear, the organ of bearing — a spike of corn 

Elder, older — the name of a tree 

Engross, to occupy the whole — to copy writings in large characters 

Entertain, to amuse — to hold in the mind 

Even, level — evening — not odd — so much as 

Exact, accurate — to require authoritatively 

Express, to squeeze out — to utter — to send hastily — a message 

Fair, beautiful — ^just — favorable — a periodical market 

Fare, the price of passage by land or water— provisions 

Fast, firm — swift — abstinence from food 

Fawn, a young deer — to court servilely — to flatter 

Fell, did fall — to cut or knoclfdown — cruel 

Fellow, an associate — one of a pair — a mean wretch 

Felt, perceived — the substance of which hats are made 

Figure, shape — a statue — a numerical character 

File, a rasping tool — a line on which papers are put 

Fillet, a band — a chaplet round the head — the thick part of a leg of 

veal 
Fine, thin — clear — splendid — a forfeit — the end 
Firm, strong —steady — a name for a house of trade 
Fit, proper — suitable —a paroxysm — to suit 
Flag, a water plant — a paving stone — colors or ensigna — to grow 

spiritless 
Flatter, smoother — to praise falsely 
Fleet, a number of ships — a navy — nimble 
Flock, a company of birds or beasts — a lock of wool 
Flue, a chimney — soft fur or down 
Foil, a defeat — leaf-metal — a blunt sword 
Fold, a double or plait — an enclosure for sheep 
Foot, part of the body on which we stand — twelve inches 
Forge, to form by the hammer — to counterfeit 
Founder, one who establishes — a caster — to sink to the bottom — to 

lame a horse 
Fret, to wear away by rubbing— to be peevish — to vex 
Fry, a swarm of young fishes — to dress food in a pan 
Fuller, nearer full — a cleanser of cloth 

Game, sport — a single match at play — animals hunted or shot 
Gin, a snare — a spirit flavored with juniper berries 
Gloss, superficial lustre— a comment 
Gore, clotted blood — a triangular piece — to pierce with a horn 



126 VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 

Grain, corn — any minute particle — a small weight 

Grate, a range of bars — to wear away by rasping — to make a harsh 

noise 
Grateful, thanlvful— de'iglitful 

'Grave, tlje ]ilace where corpses are put — serious — to engrave or carve 
Graze, to feed on grass — to touch lightly 
Green, colored like grass — fresh — unripe 
Gvoss, large — coarse — the chief part — twelve dozen 
Ground, earth — to found — sharpened by grinding — reduced to powder 
Gum, the flesh about the teeth — a sticky substance that oozes from 

trees 
Habit, the state of a thing — custom — dress 
Plail, frozen rain — to salute 

Hamper, a large packing basket — to perplex — to clog 
Heaven, the eternal abode of the good — the sky 
Help, to assist — to prevent — to avoid 
Hide, to conceal — the skin of an animal 
Hind, backward — a female stag — a peasant 
Hop, to jump on one leg — a climbing plant 
Host, the master of a feast — landlord of an inn — an army — any great 

number 
Hue, a color — a tint— a clamor 
Husband, a mnrried man — to manage frugally 
Instant, urgent — immoderate — current a moment 
Jar, an earthen vessel — a rattling sound — discord — the state of a 

door not quite shut 
Jet, a black fossil — a spout of water — to jut out 
Just, upright — exactly — nearly 

Key, an instrument to open a lock — means of solving difficulties 
Kind, benevolent — a sort of species 
Kite, a bird of prey — a paper toy to fly 
Lace, a string — -curiously woven thread 
Lake, a large body of fresh water — a beautiful red color 
Lap, to lick like a dog — to fold — the part formed by the knees in a 

sitting posture 
Last, latest — to continue — to endure — the mould on which shoes are 

made 
Lawn, an open space between woods— fine linen 
Lay, to place down — to wager — did lie — a song — not clerical 
League, a confederacy — a distance of three miles 
Lean, to incline — the muscular part of flesh — thin 
Leave, permission — to quit — to desist 
Left, not taken — the hand not taken — not the right 
Let, to permit — to hinder — a hindrance 
Letter, a vowel or consonant— an epistle — one who lets 



WORDS WHICH HAVE A VARIETY OP MEAKINGS. 127 

Lie, to rest — to utter ■wilful falsehoods — a fiction 

Light, bright — to kindle — illumination — knowledge — not heavy — to 

settle 
Like, reseniblincr — to approve — as 
Lime, burnt chalk— a sort of lemon — a sticky substance — a kind of 

t)ee 
Line, a stvinc; — a single vevse — to cover inside 
Link, a single ring of a chain — a torch — to connect 
Litter, a portable bed— strawlaid under animals — a number of things 

in disorder — a brood of animals 
Lock, a complicated fastening — a contrivance to raise barges in canals 

— a quantity of hair or wool 
Long, drawn out — to desire earnestly 
Lot, fortune — chance — a parcel — a portion 
Mace, an ensign of authority — a kind of spice 
Mail, defensive armor — a post-bag of letters 
Mangle, to smooth linen — to cut and tear 
March, the third month — to walk in procession 
Mast, the poles to which the sails of a ship are fixed — the fruit of an 

oak or beech tree 
Match, a thing that easily inflames— an equal — a thing that suits — a 

marriage — a game 
Matter, material substance — subject of discourse — consequence 
Mea.'l, a meadow or pasture field — honey-wine 
Meal, a repast — the flour of corn 

Mean, b is; — niggardly — middling— medium— to intend — to signify 
Meet, to come face to face — proper — suitable 
Mine, a cavern dug for miuerals — belonging to me 
Mint, a plant — the place where money is coined 
Minute, the sixtieth part of an hour — a short; note 
Mole, a little animal — a spot on the skin — a mound 
Moor, a marsh or fen — a negro— to fasten by ancliors 
Mortar, vessel in which things are pounded — cement for bricks and 

stones — a short wide cannon for bombs 
Mould, the ground in which plants grow — the shape in which things 

are cast — concre'iin^i by decav — to grow mouldy 
Nail, a metal spike — the horny substance at the end of the fingers and 

toes — sixteenth of a yard 
Nap, a short; sleep — the down on cloth, &c. 
Neat, an ox or cow^elegant — pure 
Nervous, vigoro-.-* —having weak nerves 
Oblige, to compel — to bind — to please 
Order, regularity — a command — class 

Organ, a natural instrument of sense — a musical wind instrument 
Ounce, a email weight — an animal like a panther 



12S VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 

Page, one side of a leaf — a young attendant on a prince 

Pale, wan — dim — a stake or rail to enclose grounds — a district or 

territory 
Pall, a mantle of state — to become insipid 
Palm, the inner part of the hand — a tree — victory — to impose upon 

by fraud 
Partial, fond of — affecting only a part 

Paste, a mixture of flour and water — an imitation of precious stones 
Patient, enduring — persevering — a sick person 
Peck, a quarter of a bushel — to pick up food with the beak — to strike 

with a pointed instrument 
Peer, an equal — a nobleman — to look narrowly 
Pen, a writing instrument — a small enclosure 
Perch, five and a half yards — that which birds sit on — a kind of fish 
Pet, a slight passion — a favorite 
Pike, a long lance — a fish of prey 

Pile, a beam driven into the ground — a heap — hairy surface 
Pine, a tree — to languish 
Pinion, a wing — fetters for the arms — a small-toothed wheel on the 

same axis as a larger one — to shackle 
Pink, a flower — a rose color 
Pitch, thickened tar — degree of elevation — to throw — to fall headlong 

— to fix or place 
Plate, a small round dish — vessels of gold or silver — flattened metal 
Poach, to boil slightly — to take game stealthily 
Pole, a long piece of timber — five and a half yards in length — the ex- 
tremity of the earth's axis — a native of Poland 
Port, a harbor — the gun-hole in a ship— mien — a sort of wine from 

Oporto 
Porter, a door-keeper — one who carries loads — strong beer 
Post, a piece of timber set up — a messenger — employ — to travel 

quickly — to copy into a ledger — to send a letter by mail 
Pound, twenty shillings — a weight — a prison for stray beasts — to 

strike repeatedly 
Prefer, to choose before another — to advance — to offer 
Prune, to lop trees — a dried plum 

Pulse, motion of the blood in an artery — a kind of plant 
Pump, an engine to raise water — a dancing shoe 
Pupil, the apple of the eye — a scholar — a ward 
Purchase, to buy — convenience for using force 
Quarter, a fourth part — mercy by a conqueror — eight bushels of corn 

— to lodge soldiers by billet. 
Race, a generation — a course at running 
Rail, a palling or post — to speak contemptuously 
Bank, luxuriant — rancid— a row or line — dignity 



WORDS WHICH HAVE A VARIETY OF MEANINGS. 120 

Rash, hasty — headstrong — a hreaking out 

Rear, the hinder imrt — to raise — to bring up — to rise on the hind legs 

Render, one who tears — to restore — to yield 

Rent, a tear — income 

Resolution, separation into parts — determination 

Rest, repose — remainder 

Right, true — straight — not left — justice — a just claim 

Ring, a circle — to sound a bell, &c. 

Rock, a vast mass of stone — to shake, to agitate 

Roe, a female deer — the eggs of fish 

Rose, a sweet-scented flower — did rise 

Rue, a bitter plant — to regret, to lament 

Rush, a plant in marshes — to move with violence 

Sable, an animal — black, like the color of a sable 

Sack, a bag — a sort of wine — to pillage or plunder 

Sage, a plant like mint — wise 

Sash, a silken band— a window frame 

Saw, a toothed cutting instrument — a proverb — did see 

Scale, a balance — graduation — a Uttle shell on a fish's skin — to climb 

by ladders — to peel off in thiu pieces 
Seal, a marine animal — a stamp — to fasten a letter 
Season, one of the four parts of the year — a fit time — to give a relish 

to — to make fit for use 
See, the diocese of a bishop — to view 
Set, to place — to plant — to become solid — a number of things suited to 

each other 
Shaft, a handle — an arrow — a narrow perpendicular pit — the pole of a 

carriage — part of a pillar 
Shed, a sUght covered building — to let fall 
Shoal, a great multitude — a sand-bank — shallow 
Shore, the coast of the sea — a support to a building 
Shrub, a bush — spirit, acid, and sugar mixed 
Size, bulk — a sticky substance 
Smelt, a small sea-fish — to melt ore — did smell 
Sole, the bottom of the foot — a small sea-fish — only 
Sound, a noise — a shallow sea — healthy — uninjured — to try depth 
Spii'it, the soul of man — courage — an inflammable distilled liquor 
Spring, one of the four seasons — an elastic body — a leap — a fountain — 

to arise — to grow 
Stake, a post stuck in the ground — a pledge — hazard 
Steep, difficult of ascent — to soak — a precipice 
Steer, a young bullock — to direct a course 
Stem, a stalk — to oppose a current 
Stern, severe, harsh — the hind part of a ship 
Stick, a slender piece of wood — to adhere — to stab 

I 



180 VERBAL DISTINCTIOKS. 

Still, quiet — to calm — a vessel for distilling — to this time— notwith- 
standing 

Stock, the trunk of a tree — a family or race — a stiff cravat — fixed 
quantity — part of a musket 

Stocks, a place of coufiuement — the frame in which a ship is built — 
the public funds 

Strain, to filter — to sprain — to press — style — sound 

Succeed, to follow — to prosper 

Suffer, to permit, to allow — to endure, to bear 

Suit, courtship— an action at law — to fit 

Swallow, a bird — to take down the throat 

Table, a board used for meals, &c. — an index 

Tack, to join — to turn a ship — a little nail 

Talent, a sum of money — a natural gift 

Taper, a wax candle — regularly narrowed — slender 

Tender, an attendant — a bidding — soft — to offer 

Till, to cultivate — a money box — to the time 

Toll, a tax on goods and passengers — to ring a bell slowly 

Top, the highest part of anything — a boy's plaything 

Treat, to negotiate — to discourse — to act towards a person — a feast 

Tumbler, a posture-master — a large drinking glass 

Turtle, a species of dove — the sea- tortoise 

Usher, to introduce — one who introduces — an under-teacher 

Utter, to speak — to publish— extreme — outermost 

Vault, an arched cellar — to leap 

Vice, wickedness — an iron screw press — a substitute 

Wages, pay to servants and workpeople — carries on 

Well, a deep narrow pit of water — in good health — in a proper manner 

Yard, enclosed ground around a house — a measure of three feet — 
the su^jport of the sails of a ship. 



Examples. 

air. — While enjoying together the evening air, my fr'end, who had 
a martial air about him, asked Mary to sing a sweet 
Scottish air which he had heard in his boyhood. 

bark. — John, take a piece of that fresh elm bark, and tie up the 
watch dog so that he may not bark at us, as we go on 
board the bark to-night. 

Comb. — James sold a box of honey in the comb, and bought a brush 
and a comb to comb his hair. That cock is a splendid 
bird, his plumage is very fine, and his comb is high, aud 
as red as coral. 

grave. — He asked the sculptor, in a grave and serious manner, to 



VERBS OP SIMILAR SIGNIFICATION. ISl 

grave that inscription upon the stone, wbich he proposed 
to erect over his mother's grave. 

link. — I saw the huntsman link the hounds to.'jetlier with a ehnin, 
one link I'f which was biokeii. Tne old man carried a 
lighted link in his hand to show us the heauties of the 
cave. 

porter. — The a^ed porter op"^ened the gate, to allow the porter to pass 
through, who carried on his shoulder a cask of porter. 

well. — The laborer, who cleaned the well, performed his work very 
well indeed ; but he caught a severe cold, and has not 
been well since. 



SECTION VL 

Owing to the composite cliaracter of tlie English Langnago 
many words have .siniilarmeanings — very few aresirictlj'S' noiiy- 
niou.s — and mucli of the beauty and [)ower of composition lies in 
the proper use and ajipropriate application of such words. T e 
following exerci.-es aio designeil not only to fiiinisii suitable 
spelling lessons of words, in j)lirases and short sentences indicat- 
ing their meaning, but also to accustom the pupil, in speaking 
or writing, to use words appropriate!}'. 

The words given are only oximples, wliich every intelligent 
teacher can multiply as occasion requires. Tue pupds sliould be 
required, in spelling each word, to give tiie entire phrase, or an- 
other similar one ; and also to write out seritences containing tlie 
words given, or others furnished by the teacher. 

Verbs of similar signification. 

We abandon a sinking ship We allay thirst 

„ forsake our friends ,, appease hunger 

,, desert our post „ soothe pain 

„ miiigate severity 
,, administer justico ,, alleviate 8>il!'ering 

,, govern a kingdom ,, relieve distress 

,, adduce an argument ,, avgue a question 

„ assign a reason „ discuss a subject 

„ advance an opinion „ dispute a claim 



132 



VERBAL DISTINdTIONS. 



We assert the innocence 
,, maintain the position 
,, vindicate the rights 

,, assist the helpless 
„ succor the distressed 
,, relieve the needy 

,, avoid evil 
,, shun danger 
,, elude vigilance 
,, eschew temptation 

,, bind a bundle 
„ tie a knot 
„ fasten a gate 
„ unite our efforts 
,, join our hands 

,, bewail the loss 
„ bemoan the fate 
,, deplore the ruin 
,, lament the misfortune 

„ build houses 

,, erect monuments 

„ construct machines 

„ behold with admiration 
„ observe with care 
„ look at with pleasure 

,, cease from talking 
„ leave off work 



,, choose one from a number 

„ prefer one to another 

,, cheer the desponding 

,, comfort the distressed 

,, console the afflicted 

,, encourage the fearful 

,, claim property 

,, demand rights 



We cover the head 
,, hide the face 

„ color the cheeks 
„ dye the clothes 
„ stain the hands 



„ commit offences 
,, perpetrate crimes 

„ comprehend the entire design 
„ understand the language 
,, apprehend the meaning of an 
author 

„ counsel a person to do 
„ admonish him not to do 

„ deny an accusation 
„ contradict a statement 
„ refute an argument 

„ decorate with garlands 

„ adorn with jewels 

„ embellish with ornaments 

„ divulge a secret 
„ reveal a design 
,, disclose a conspiracy 

,, differ about a matter 
,, dispute after we differ 
, , quarrel after we dispute 

„ discover what was before un- 
known — island 

,, invent what did not before 
exist — machine 

„ draw a likeness 
,, form an image 
,, paint a picture 
„ carve an effigy 



TERES OP SIMILAR SIGNIFICATION. 



133 



We effect a purpose 
,, execute a design 
,, accomplish an object 
,, achieve an enterprise or exploit 

,, enroll names 
,, register votes 
,, record documents 

,, establish an institution 

,, institute its laws 

,, regulate its proceedings 

,, esteem a person 
,, estimate the value 
„ appreciate the worth 

,, exact obedience 
,, extort a confession 
„ enforce a command 

,, expect on good grounds 
„ hope with less confidence 

,, enlarge a house 
,, increase expenditure 

,, forgive an injury 
,, pardon an ofience 
,, excuse a fault 
,, cancel a debt 

„ grant a request 

,, allow an indulgence 

,, bestow alms or praise 

„ afford relief 

,, confer a favor 

„ concede a privilege 

„ acknowledge an error 
„ confess a fault 

„ suffer what cannot be removed 
,, tolerate what we do not ap- 
prove 
„ sanctioQ what is just 



We give to inferiors 
„ present to equals and friends 
,, offer to superiors 



„ heal a wound 
,, cure a disease 
,, remedy a wrong 

,, hit a mark 
,, strike a person 
,, beat an animal 

„ help a person in worlr 

„ assist him in study 

„ aid him in difficulty 

„ relieve him in s»»ffering 

„ succor him in dagger 

,, support him in weakness 

,, keep possession 
,. hold opinions 
,, retain an office 

„ leave a place 
„ quit a house 
,, relinquish a position 

,, live at a place 
,, dwell in a house 

„ lead the blind 
,, guide a traveller 

„ make a tool 
,, form a model 
„ create a desire 
„ perform a service 
,, cause a change 
, , compose a treatise 

„ meet a friend 
,, confront a foe 
,, face a danger 



134 



VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 



We mould a statue 
„ fashion a figure 
„ shape a limb 

„ monnt a ihrone 

,, scale a rampart 

,, climb a hill 

„ ascend a mountain 

,, muster soldiers or forces 
„ collect an army 
„ assemble the people 
,, convoke a council 

„ number objects 
„ count moments 
,, reckon profits 
,, compute amounts 
„ calculate expenses 

„ obviate a difficulty 
„ preclude a possibility 
,, prevent a repetition 

,, obtain rewards 
,, acquire knowledge 

„ order dinner 

„ prescribe medicine 

„ dictate terms 

,, appoint a meeting 

,, pare an apple or potato 
„ peel an orange or lemon 

„ pull a rope 
„ pluck a fl >wer 
,, draw a cart 
,, drag a body 

, , praise a pf rfnrmance 
,, extol a cliaiacLer 
,, commend an nction 
,, applaud a deed of valor 
„ approve a course of action 



We refer to a statement 
,, allude to a circamstauce 

„ reclaim the erring 
„ reform the manners 

„ relate an incident 

,, narrate an adventure 

,, recount an exploit 

,, describe a scene 

,, recite a tale or passage 

,, rehearse a story, or what we 

have heard 
,, repeat a statement already 

made 

, , remunerate for services 
„ compensate for injuries 

,, return what we have borrowed 
,, restore what we have taken 
,, surrender what is our own 

,, salute a friend 
, , accost a stranger 
,, address a company 

„ second a motion 
,, support a party 

„ share our fortune 
,, divide our profits 
„ distribute our gifts 

,, shut a door 
„ close an eye 

„ stray from a path 

,, swerve from a principle 

,, sympathize with the afilictcd 
,, pity the distressed 
, , have compassion on the miser- 
able 



NOUNS. 



135 



We tremble with fear 

„ shudder with horror 

,, take money or things 

,, accept an oflFer 

„ receive an appointment 

,, use things or instruments 

,, employ persons or agents 

,, usurp rights 

„ arrogate honors 

,, assume a position 

, , vary our manners 

,, change our garments 

,, alter our conduct 

,, vanquish an enemy 

., conquer a country 

,, subdue our passions 

„ overcome our prejudices 

,, surmount difficulties 



We overthrow a government 
,, overturn a vehicle 



view a landscape 

see an object — tree 

look at a picture 

behold a spectacle — setting sun 

want ornaments 
need assistance 
lack wisdom 

wish for enjoyment 
desire life 
long for home 

yield our opinions 
cede our lands 
deliver our [ roperty 
surrender our rights 



Nouns. 



ability, power to perform 
cleverness, power to perform well 

affinity, relation by marriage 
consanguinity, relation by blood 

agreement, a verbal arrangement 
contract, a written agreement 

alertness of body 
alacrity of mind 

attractions of play 
charms of oratory 
allurements of vice 
fascinations of beauty 

buiden on the back 
load on a wagon 
freight on a ship 



business of a merchant 
trade of a hatter 
profession of a lawyer 

a case of distress 
the cause of humanity 

chastisement of a child, or offender 
punishment of a criminal 

colleague in office 
partner in business 
coadjutor in labor 
assistant in duty 

confines of a territory 
limits of a town 

contest of parties 
conflict of opinions 



136 



VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 



continuance in respect to time energy of character 
continuation in respect of space vigor of intellect 



copy of a writing 
model of a machine 
pattern of a carpet 
specimen of drawing 
sample of grain 

colors of a regiment 
flag of a ship 
banner of a host 

crowd of people 
herd of cattle 
flock of birds 
drove of swine 
swarm of bees 
shoal of fishes 

cure is effected 
remedy is applied 

customs of a country 
manners of a people 
fashions of a time, age, year, or da 

dignity of character 
haughtiness of behavior 
loftiness of sentiment 
pride of wealth 

disease amongst men 
distemper amongst brutes 

drift of a discourse 
scope of a passage 
tendency of a principle 

dregs of wine 
sediment of water 

duty, what is to be done from a 
sense of right — to speak truth 

obligation, what is to be done to 
give another his right — to ful- 
fil a promise 



end of a street, line, or road 
extremity of a country 

emulation for equality 
competition for superiority 
rivalry for selfish gratification 

emoluments, salary — fees, &c. 
perquisites, allowance above 
gular salary 

esteem for virtues 
respect for position 
veneration for age and worth 

fault in conduct 
defect in education 

freedom of speech 
liberty of conscience 

falsehood aims to deceive 
fiction aims to amuse 

flame of fire 
flash of lightning 
blaze of a torch 

fortitude endures suffering 
courage meets danger 

gang of thieves 
band of robbers 
crew of a vessel 
company of travellers 

glory to God 
honor to men 



NOUNS. 



137 



grace of motion 
beauty of countenance 
elegance of figure 
charms of person 

hardihood to persist 
boldness to speak 
audacity to demand 
effrontery to complain 

holiness of heart 
sanctity of manners 

honesty of purpose 
uprightness of conduct 
integrity of character 

impediment hinders progress 
obstacle prevents progress 



margin of a lake 
brink of a precipice 
edge of a knife 
rim of a wheel 
border of a shawl 

member of a family 
limb of a body 

massacre, murder without author- 
ity 
carnage, slaughter in battle 

money, a circulating medium — 

coin or notes 
cash, ready money 

murder is applied to men 
slaughter is applied to brutes, or 
men in large numbers 



injury, intended wrong necessaries of life 

damage, injury or loss sustained necessities of our nature 



indigence, scanty supply of the 

necessaries of life 
poverty, a want of them 

joy of the hearty 

gladness of the spirit 

gayety of manners 

mirth of expression, or intercourse 

libel, slander written 
defamation, slander spoken 

looseness of character 
laxity of discipline 
licentiousness of manners 
dissoluteness of morals 

mark of distinction 
badge of honor 
itigma of disgrace 



note of triumph 
sign of distress 
token of friendship 
mark of respect 

omen of certain success 
prognostic of a coming storm 
presage of future greatness 

owner of a book 
proprietor of an estate 
possessor of a house, or farm (is 
not necessarily the owner of it) 

pang of conscience 
agony of remorse 
anguish of despair 

privacy of home 
retirement from business 
seclusion from society 



138 



VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 



produce of an acre 
products of the earth 
productions of nature 

profit of a transaction 
advantage of a. position 
benefit of advice 

prospects in life 
success in basinesa 

prosperity is opposed to adversity 
success is opposed to failure 

quickness of movement 
swiftness of motion 
fleetness of a horse 
rapidity of a current 
speed of a runner 
velocity of lightning 

reprieve from punishment 
respite from toil 

resemblance in figure 
similarity of disposition 

revenge of man 
vengeance of God 

rule of a sovereign 
jurisdiction of a court 

steadiness of conduct 
stability of cliaracter 
constancy of affection 
firmness of purpose 

society of learned men 
association of merchants 
company of actors 
community of monks 
partnership in business 

sobriety of deportment 
moderation of our desires 
nperance in eating 



stratagem in war 
subterfuge in argument 

suavity of language 
urbanity of manners 

talent for oratory 
faculty of speech 

tenet is maintained 

dogma is asserted, or adopted 

doctrine is taught, or preached 

tumult of a multitude 
riot of a mob 
uproar among boys 

utility of science 
usefulness of machinery 

veracity of a witness 
truth of his testimony 

weakness of infancy 
imbecility of youth 
infirmities of age 

wages of a laborer 
hire of a carriage 
salary of a clerk 

word of praise 
term of reproach 
expression of sympathy 

work is a common duty 
labor is often hard 
toil is painful and wearisome 
drudgery is disagreeable 
employment should be regular 

wealth of a country 
riches of an individual 
richness of a soil 
opulence of a city 



ADJECTIVES AND PARTICIPLES. 



139 



aonte rflasoner 
expert player 

arrogant boaster 
supercilious manner 



Adjectives and Participles. 

enticed by persuasions 
seduced by wiles 
urped by entreaties 
impelled by motives 



animated by hope 
instigated by malice 
stimulated by passion 

ancient temples 
antiquated customs 
antique robes 

allured by appearances 
tempted by promises 

brave man 
courageous hero 
intrepid warrior 
heroic leader, or action 

benevolent, having kind feelings 
beneficent, doing kind actions 

banished from home 
exiled from country 
expelled from college 

compelled by force 
constrained by fear 

contemptible action 
contemptuous speech 

discreet in advising 
prudent in taking advice 

deprived of pleasures 
despoiled of property 
bereaved of children 

devoted to a cause 
attached to a friend 



efficient teacher 
efficacious medicine 

enormous crime 
tremendous storm 

exorbitant price 
extravagant expenditure 

faded flower — may revive 
withered leaf — cannot revive 
decayed plant 

genuine book — written by the al- 
leged author 

authentic record — in accordance 
with facts 

grave subject 
serious person 

general, including the most part 
universal, including the whole 

great man 
large field 

haughty in demeanor 
presumptuous in language 

holy men 
saered tilings 
saintly virtues 

hujre giant 
immense structure 
vast territory 
extensive operations 



140 



VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 



hindered by difficulties 
detained by waiting 

illegible writing 
unreadable book 

inefficient officer 
ineffectual effort 

Impertinent remark 
impudent fellow 

impracticable scheme 
impossible event 

jaded with business 
tired of sameness 
exhausted with exertion 
fatigued with labor 
wearied with waiting 
harassed with complaints 

kept from danger 
saved from destruction 
preserved from injury 
delivered from evil 

liberal allowance 
generous gift 
munificent donor 

methodical in manner 
regular in performance 
punctual in attendance 

notorious for misconduct 
celebrated for virtuous deeds 
renowned for great achievements 
famous for some peculiarity 
illustrious for high descent 

obliged by necessity 
bound by obHgatioa 



pretty cottage 
handsome house 
splendid mansion 
palatial residence 
magnificent palace 

proud of superiority 
vain of accomplishments 

suffocated by foul air 
smothered for want of air 
strangled by pressure 
choked by food 

surprised at what was uoexpected 
astonished at what is great 
overawed by what is vast or grand 
intimidated by what is fearful 

sure testimony 
certain inference 
safe conclusion 

true report 
veracious historian 

truthful person 
trusty servant 

young man 
youthful vigor 
juvenile performance 
puerile conduct 

disreputable company 
discreditable transaction 

disobliging manner 
unaccommodating disposition 

imperishable renown 
indestructible materials 

indomitable will 
irrepressible ardor 



SENTENCES. 



141 



initiatory ceremonies 
introductory remarks 

imperceptible progress 
unperceiyable approach 

incurable disease 
irremediable mischief 

incontestable principle 
incontrovertible argument 

inextinguishable hatred 
unquenchable thirst 



habitually profane 
customarily present 

continually happening 
always existing 

frequently occurring 

often returning, he wearies me 

willingly came, being asked 
voluntarily offered, without being 

asked 
spontaneously proposed, without 

being urged 



Sentences. 



Words signify the intentions. 
Silence implies consent. 
The beehive denotes industry. 

The stream overflows its banks. 
The water inundates the country. 
The land is deluged with blood. 

Plague and pestilence extirpate. 
Fire and sword exterminate. 

Method strengthens the memory. 
Exercise invigorates the body. 
Religion fortifies the mind. 



The pillars support the building. 
The ropes sustain the weight. 
The troops maintain the contest. 



The reed is shaken by the wind. 
The earth is agitated by an earth- 
quake. 
The vessel is tossed by the waves. 



Pecuniary difficulties embarrass. 
Opposing doctrines perplex. 



The discourse embraces a variety of topics. 
The country contains a multitude of people. 
The lesson includes a portion of Scripture. 

The encyclopaedia comprises many volumes, comprehends all the 
sciences, embraces all subjects, contains much useful matter, 
and is designed to include everything of importance — and is itself 
enclosed in a case. 

On our journey we were teased by many unpleasant trifles, tantalized 
by delusive appearances, vexed by the carelessness of servants, 
harassed by the importunity of beggars, and tormented by more 
serious evils. 



142 



VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 



Exercise. 

Write phrases, or sliort sentences, containing the following 
words properly applied. 

abilicate 

resign 

reliijquish 

abhor 

abominate 

detest 

abjure 

renounce 

recant 

abridge 

curtail 

shorten 

acuteness 

penetration 

sagacity 

accede 
comply 
acquiesce 

behavior 
conduct 
demeanor 

confidence 
assurance 
effrontery 

couple 

pair 

brace 

Words which are nearly identical in meaninf, and usually called 
synonymous. The firsn of each pair is of English, the second 
of Laiin origin. The words mutually define each other. lor 
general use the first is to be preferred. 



acute 
sharp 
keen 


forbid 

probibit 

interdict 


brave 

courageous 

valiant 


found 

establish 

institute 


allotted 

appointed 

assigned 


informs 
teaches 
instructs 


committed 
consigned 
intrusted 


interpose 
interfere 
intermeddle 


dangerous 

perilous 

hazardous 


penetrate 

pierce 

perforate 


encompassed 
environed 
encircled 
surrounded 


restore 
return 
repay 


faithless 

perfidious 

treacherous 


deny 
disclaim 
disown 
disavow 


heavy 

ponderous 

weighty 


shake 

agitata 

toss 


metamorphosed 

transformed 

transmuted 


weaken 
enfeeble 
debilitate 



begin 
commence 



bequeath 
devise 



binding 
obligatory 



bitterness 
acrimony 





SYNONYMS. 


14 


bloody 


fulness 


outward 


unwilling 


sangrinary 


repletion 


external 


involuntary 


bodily 


happen 


overseer 


upri;ihtness 


corporeal 


chance 


inspector 


rectitude 


boyish 


heavenly 


owing 


•want 


puerile 


celestial 


due 


necessity 


boundariea 


hinder 


shepherd 


waver 


confines 


prevent 


pastor 


fluctuate 


brotherly 


inside 


shock 


watery 


fraternal 


interior 


concussion 


aqueous 


childhood 


keeping 


shun 


weaken 


infancy 


custody 


avoid 


invalidate 


choice 


kingly 


step 


weapons 


option 


regal 


pace 


arms 


comer 


lean 


sweat 


weep 


angle 


meagre 


perspire 


deplore 


dark 


likely 


tasteless 


will 


obscure 


probable 


insipid 


volition 


die 


live 


teachable 


will 


expire 


exist 


docile 


testament 


earthly 


lively 


thick 


witness 


terrestrial 


animated 


dense 


testify 


eastern 


lucky 


threat 


woman 


oriental 


fortunate 


menace 


female 


enliven 


milky 


thoughtful 


womanly 


animate 


lacteal 


pensive 


effeminate 


enough 


motherly 


timely 


wonderful 


sufficient 


maternal 


seasonable 


marvellous 


errand 


odd 


time-serving 


woody 


message 


singular 


temporizing 


sylvan 


fellowship 


opening 


truth 


wordy 


companionship 


ajjerture 


verity 


verbose 


freedom 


overflow 


understand 


worth 


liberty 


inundate 


comprehend 


value 


friendly 


cuilive 


unspeakable 


worthless 


amicable 


survive 


ineffable 


valueless 


fulness 


outside 


unutterable 




plenitude 


exterior 


inexpressible 





144 



VEEBAti DISTINCTIONS. 



Greek. 
am'nesty 
anal'ogy 
apatbet'ic 
apol'ogy 
baptize' 
bisb'op 
cat'alogue 
cat'aract 
catb'olic 
cbron'ical 
cbrys'alis 
democ'racy 
di'alogue 
didac'tic 
doxol'ogy 
dyn'asty 
eclec'tic 
epit'ome 
elUp'tical 
eu'cbarist 
eu'logize 
gno'mon 
lex'icon 

metamor'pbose 
monar'cbical 
mys'tery 
par'able 
patbet'ic 
peripb'ery 
pbenom'enon 
proph'esy 
rbet'oric 
Bpbere 
eym'patby 
tautol'ogy 
tbrone 



Words of similar significatioa. 
Derived from 
Latin. 
oblivion 
correspond'ence 
insen'sible 



excuse 

immerse' 

Bupervi'sor 

in'ventory 

cascade' 

univer'sal 

per'mauent 

aure'lia 

repub'lic 

conversa'tion 

preoep'tive 

glorifica'tion 

domin'ion 

select'ing 

ab'stract 

oval 

sac'rament 

commend' 

in'dex 

dic'tionary 

transform' 

re'gal 

se'cret 

simil'itude 

affect'ing 

circum'ference 

appear 'ance 

predict' 

or'atory 

globe 

compas'sion 

repeti'tion 

seat 



English. 
forgetfulness 
likeness 
unfeeling 
plea 
dip 

overlooker 
list 

vyaterfall 
•wbole 
lasting 
grub 

commonwealth 
talk 

teaching 
praise 
power 
choosing 
abridgment 
egg-shaped 
holy supper 
praise 
pointer 
word-book 
change 
kingly 
wonder 
likeness 
feeling 
boundary 
sight 
foretell 
fine speaking 
ball 

fellow-feeling 
a saying again 
chair 



Words which express opposite ideas, 

love hatred lovely hateful 

wisdom folly wise foolish 

goodness evil good evil 



^VOEDS WHICH EXPRESS CORRELATIVE IDEAS. 145 



truth 


falsehood 


true 


false 


learning 


ignorance 


learned 


ignorant 


virtue 


vice 


virtuous 


vicious 


happiness 


misery 


happy 


miserable 


hope 


despair 


hopeful 


desperate 


innocence 


guilt 


innocent 


guilty 


mirth 


Badness 


merry 


sad 


peace 


war 


peaceful 


warlike 


pleasure 


pain 


pleasant 


painful 


ease 


difficulty 


easy 


difficult 


prosperity 


adversity 


prosperous 


adverse 


plenty 


scarcity 


plentiful 


ecarce 


fruitfulness 


barrenness 


fruitful 


barren 


fertility 


sterility 


fertile 


sterile 


industry 


sloth 


industrious 


slothful 


diligence 


negligence 


diligent 


neghgent 


wealth 


poverty 


wealthy 


poor 


health 


sickness 


healthy 


sick 


beauty 


deformity 


beautiful 


deformed 


age 


youth 


aged 


young 


antiquity 


novelty 


ancient 


novel 


bravery 


cowardice 


brave 


cowardly 


hardness 


softness 


hard 


soft 


brightness 


dulness 


bright 


duU 


strength 


weakness 


strong 


weak 


length 


shortness 


long 


short 


•width 


narrowness 


wide 


narrow 


depth 


shallowness 


deep 


shallow 


day 


night 


daily 


nightly 


heat 


coldness 


hot 


cold 


light 


darkness 


Ught 


dark 


weight 


lightness 


heavy 


light 


noise 


silence 


noisy 


silent 


afiarmation 


negation 


affirmative 


negative 


convexity 


concavity 


convex 


concave 


transparency 


opacity 


transparent 


opaque 


economy 


extravagance 


economical 


extravagant 




Words which express correlative ideas. 


creator 


creature 


leader 


follower 


parent 


child 


principal 


assistant 


husband 


wife 


captain 


crew 


bridegroom 


bride 


town 


country 


king 


subject 


clergy 


laity 


master 


servant 


uncle 


nephew 



146 



VERBAL DISTINCTIONS. 



teacher 


pupil 


aunt 


niece 


ancestors 


descendants 


cause 


effect 


landlord 


tenant 


prior 


posterior 


physician 


patient 


superior 


inferior 


lawyer 


client 


interior 


exterior 


creditor 


debtor 


plaintiff 


defendant 


host 


guest 


original 


copy 


lender 


borrower 


question 


answer 


•winner 


loser 


native 


• foreigner 


majority 


minority 


vowel 


consonant 


seller 


buyer 


alkali 


acid 


wholesale 


retail 


action 


passion 


giver 


leceiver 







PAKT FOUETH. 



ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. 



SECTION" I. 

HISTORY OP THE LANGUAGE. 

The English language is now a composite, or mixed language, 
comprising words adopted, or derived from nearly all the principal 
languages of the world. "" 

The history of the language, in its origin, changes, and forma- 
tion, furnishes an outline of the history of the nation. 

The chief elements of the English language are the Anglo- 
Saxon and the Classic. 

The Anglo-Saxon or English, is the mother-tongue, or basis 
of the language, and was a simple language for several centuries. 

The Classicis that part of the language derived from the Latin 
and Greek tongues, whether directly, or mediately through the 
French. 

The following are the leading historical facts or events, which 
have exerted an influence on the formation and character of the 
English language. 

1. The occupation of the country by the primitive inhabitants,, 
probably of Celtic origin, whose language furnishes a few words, 
chiefly geographical — asThames,Kent,cairn,iiilt,clan,jrj7patrick^ 
Aberdeen. 



148 ETYMOLOGY, OB THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

2. The early invasion by the Romans about 55 B.C., who 
introduced some military terms, mainly preserved in the names 
of places — asWinchester, Lancaster, Lincoln, Stratford, {chester 
«vr caster, coin, and street or strat.) 

3. Tlie settlement of the Angles and Saxons, in the fifth cen- 
tury, who came from a part of Europe now included in Germany, 
and who introduced their language, which, in the eighth century, 
became the language of the country. 

4. The advent of the Danes, and their subsequent intercourse 
with the inhabitants of the country. The influence of the Danish 
language is but slight, and is seen chiefly in the names of places 
—as Grimsbi/, Whit Jy, and Derby ; by meaning town or village. 

5. The Norman Conquest, which led to the introduction and 
use of the French language for a time, and to its ultimate amal- 
gamation with the Saxon ; the union of the two forming the real 
basis of our present English tongue. 

6. The revival of learning, and the reformation of religion, 
which introduced a large increase of the Classic element. 

7. The number and influence of the great writers of the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries, which effected many changes 
in the form and structure of the language. 

8. The frequent wars and extensive commerce carried on with 
many nations,which have added many new words to the language. 

9. Recent and numerous discoveries in natural science, which 
have led to the formation of many technical terms. 

10. Changes in the orthography of many words — which still 
exert an influence — the orthography of not a few words being 
still unsettled. 

Some authors compute the number of words in the English 
language to be as high as nearly 100,000 ; others reckon them as 
about 75,000. The latter number is probably the more correct. 

Of this number about 23,000 are of Anglo-Saxon origin, and 
nearly 50,000 are derived from the Latin and Greek. 

In the language of ordinary intercourse, however, the Saxon 
bears a much larger proportion, as it furnishes the words most 
generally and most frequently used. 

The Lord's prayer, for instance, as given by Luke, consists of 
58 words, only three of wliich are derived from the Latin — 
indebted, temptation, and deliver. 



HISTORY OF THE LANGTJIGE, 149 

From the Anglo-Saxon we get most of the words which relate 
to the home, the hearth, and the heart ; to the senses, and to the 
affairs of every-day life. 

From the Latin we have words which relate to war,law, litera- 
ture, and the arts. 

From the Greek we obtain the words which relate specially to 
the sciences. 

From the French we borrow words which pertain to art, taste, 
and poetry. 

From other languages we have adopted words denoting the 
things and products peculiar to the countries where they are 
spoken, as — 

Hebrew — Amen, cherub, ephod, hallelujah, manna, Messiah, 
Sabbath. 

ilraJic-Alembic, alcohol, algebra, almanac, khan,koran,divan. 

Persian — Bazaar, caravan, pagoda, taffeta, scarlet. 

Indian — Calico, muslin. 

Turkish — Dragoman, tulip, turban. 

Spanish — Armada, mosquito, duenna, gala, lagoon, punctilio, 
palaver. 

Italian — Adagio, bandit, cameo, gazette, macaroni, piano, 
sonnet, 

Dutch— Ba.Ua.3t, barge, boom, cable, sloop, skate, squint. 

America — Potato, tobacco, tomahawk, wigwam. 

Definitions. 

Etymology is a science which explains ^q origin and deriva- 
tion of words, with a view to ascertain their radical, or primary 
meaning. 

Stymology may be divided into two branches, called respec- 
tively philosophical and historical etymology. 

Philosophical etymology is an attempt to explain the first 
origin and formation of the primitive or root words in all lan- 
guages, which by some are supposed not to exceed a few hundreds 
in number. 

Historical etymology embraces the following three things — 

1st. Thetracingof awordtoitsrootorroots,asunrighteousness, 
which is a modification of the root right by the prefix wn, and the 
two affixes ous and ness. 



150 ETYMOLOGY, OE THE DEEIVATION OP WORDS. 

2d. The tracing of a word to its root, and ascertaining the 
language whence that root is derived — as in unrighteousness, right 
is the root, and it is derived from the Latin — rego, rect, I rule. 

3d. The tracing of the growth of a word from its first meaning 
to its present use, as sacrament, — from the Latin sacramentum, 
a sum of money deposited as a pledge ; the oath of allegiance 
taken by a Koman soldier; a solemn obligation or engagement ; 
a sacred thing ; and now a religious ordinance, as the sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper. 

Derivation is a device of language, by which the modifications 
of a simple idea are expressed by modified forms of the radical 
word — as strike, stroke, striker. 

A primitive word is one which is not formed from any other 
word — as good, man, home. 

A derivative word is one which is formed from a primitive 
word, by some change or addition — as from speak, speech, be- 
speak, speaker. 

A compound word is one which is composed of two or more 
simple words — as steamboat, railroad, golden-feathered. 

Tlie rootoi a word is that part of it which expresses the primi- 
tive idea — as right in wwrightQow?,, thank in VMthanhinl. 

A prefix is a part added at the beginning of a word — &s fore- 
taste, intervene, co-operation. 

An ajix is a part placed at the end of a word — as goodness, 
manly, civility. 

Sometimes more than one prefix or affix is used in forming the 
BSimeword—&sdi8-com-i)Ose,thsink-ful-ness,pre-ante-pen-nUimate. 

Many words derived from the Classics are compound — as aque- 
duct, telegraph. 

The meaning of a compound or derivative word is equal to the 
united meaning of its significant parts — Asaqaednct, water-lead, & 
channel formed through which water may flow; incompressible, 
not together pressed can be, that which cannot be pressed together. 



The primitive or radical words of a language form but a small 
portion of the whole vocabularj^ and in the English language they 
probably do not amount to 10,000. 

Of the 50,000 words derived from the Latin and Greek, not 
inore than 2000 or 3000 are radicals. From twelve roots alone, 



HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE. 151 

more than 2000 derivatives are formed. From the verb traho, 
I draw, more than 200 are formed ; and from/ac^o, I make or do, 
not less than 500. 

There are not less than 200 terminations, prefixes, and affixes 
used in the formation of derivatives, and of these more than a 
third are Anglo-Saxon. 

Many primitive words are formed on the principle of imitation, 
such as — 

1. The namesof animals from the sounds they utter — as cuckoo, 
whippoorwill, quail. 

2. Words representing the sounds uttered by animals — as coo, 
cluck, twitter, roar, buzz, purr. 

3. Words which represent the sounds made by the motion and 
meetingof bodies — as click, clanking, dash, thump, rattle, tinkle. 

4. Words representing repeated or continuous, sounds — as rat- 
tat, ding-dong, murmur, babble, cackle, ripple. 

This principle is sometimes illustrated in the collection of words 
in a sentence, as in the last of the two following lines on a sea- 
shell :— 

" Pleased it remembers its august abodes, 
And murmurs as the ocean murmurs there." 

Remarks on Derivation. 

1. Primitive words are frequently formed by an attempt to 
represent the sound characteristic of the object they are intendeii 
to denote. 

2. Every word at first had only one meaning, called its primary 
signification, 

3. The primary meaning of a derivative word is the united 
meanings of its significant parts. 

4. Other meanings are frequently superadded to the primary 
meaning of a word, which are called its secondary significations. 

5. The secondary meanings are connected with the primary, 
and derived from it. 

6. Words are often used both in a primary and secondary 
sense. 

7. Some words have lost their primary meaning, and retain 
only their secondary signification. 



152 ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DERIVATION OP WORDS. 

8. Derivatives formed by prefixes, generally belong to the same 
part of speech as the root; but when affixes are used they gener- 
ally determine the part of speech to which the derivative be- 
longs. 

9. Words adopted from the Latin generally undergo a change 
in the termination alone — Incrum, lucre, actum, act, confido, 
confide. 

10. Roots in composition generally undergo a change in the 
vowel sounds — as from capio, anticipate, deception, occupy. 

11. Words from the Latin, derived through the French, under- 
go various changes, and are generally contracted — as imperator, 
empereur, emperor ; corona, couronne, crown; plicare,plier,ply. 

12. Some words are derived both directly from the Latin and 
mediately through the French — as from securus, secure ; and, 
securus, sfir, sure. 

13. In derivatives, vowels are frequently changed, and conson- 
ants, formed by the same organs of speech, interchanged — as fall, 
fell ; tell, tale ; strike, stroke ; prove, proof ; gird, girth. 

14. Saxon roots are often modified by Classic prefixes and 
affixes, and Classic roots by Saxon additions — as tiaism, dislike ; 
aptness, «?«just ; artful, misuse. 

15. Some affixes have different and even contradictory mean- 
ings, and sometimes they do not change the meaning of the word 
at all, or very slightly, hence it is frequently difficult to assign the 
precise import of an affix, as — lighten, enlighten ; bedeck, be- 
gird. 

16. Derivatives from the Latin or Greek, or other languages, 
may be considered as roots in English— as receive, derived from 
re and capio in Latin, from which we form receiver, receipt, &c. 

17. Long sounds in simple or primitive words are usually 
shortened in compounds and derivatives — as cave, ca,vity ; grain, 
granary ; please, pleasure ; sheep, shepherd. 

18. The term Anglo-Saxon, for the sake of convenience, is 
employed as embracing the Saxon, Gothic, and Celtic elements of 
the language; and the term Classic as including the Latin, 
Greek, and French elements. 

Many Anglo-Saxon derivatives are formed simply by the omis- 
8ion,addition, or interchange of letters, without adding a syllable. 



HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE. 



163 



Verbs derived from verbs — as 



chop chip 
drop droop 
din dun 
fall fell 



bless bliss 
feed food 
sing song 
sit seat 
tell tale 



cling clinch 
click clack 
wake watch 
wring wrench 

Nouns from verbs — as 

dig ditch 
gird girth 
speak speech 
stick stitch 
strive strife 



lash slash 
melt smelt 
nip snip 
whirl twirl 



bake batch 
choose choice 
hold hilt 
lose loss 
weave woof 



feign feigned feint 

flow flowed flood 

gild gilded gilt 

give gived gift 

join joined joint 
weigh weighed weight 

wane waned want 



bear beareth birth 

brew breweth broth 

die dieth death 

grow groweth growth 

heal healeth health 

smite smiteth smith 

steal stealeth stealth 



Nouns from adjectives — as 

broad breadth strong strength 

dear dearth slow sloth 

deep depth warm warmth 

long length wide width 

Families of words from a common root. 

beat, bat, batter, battery, baton, beetle. 

bind, band, bandage, bond, bondage, bound, boundary, bundle. 

crook, crack, crick, crouch, crotchet, criitch, encroach. 

foot, feet, fetter, fetlock. 

heal, health, hale, hail. 

slip, slop, slope, slipper, slippery. 

spit, ppittle, spout, sputter, spatter. 

sip, sop, soup, sup, supper, 
bake baker batch bind binder bundle seat sitter saddle 
break breaker breach gird girder girdle spin spinner spindle 
dig digger ditch prate prater prattle wade wader waddle 



154 ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DERIVATION OP WORDS. 

SECTION II. 
PREFIXES. 

Prefixes are numerous, and are derived from various lan- 
guages. 

The prefixes are arranged, for convenience, as to their origin^ 
into two classes — Anglo-Saxon and Classic. 

The prefixes consist chiefly of prepositions, separable or insep- 
arable. 

A separable preposition is one which may be used alone — as 
with, in wJi7Astand. 

An inseparable preposition is one which cannot stand alone, 
and is used only as a prefix — as ig^ in ignoble, or se, in select. 

In many instances the same prefix is common to several lan- 
guages, the Greek apo or aph^ the Latin a, ab, or a&s, the French 
a, and the Gothic of or off, difEer only in form. They are the 
same prefix, and have the same general meaning. 

The prefixes generally express motion and rest, with regard to 
time or place, and may be classified according to the relations 
they indicate. 

Some prefixes are used to express different relations, and will 
be found in more classes than one. 

1. Prefixes wMch denote rest and motion in time and place. 

Anglo-Saxon — 

( ^ ) aside, ashore, abed, afoot, abreast, 

a j^ at or on j ^^j'^^^ 

en or em in or into engrave, enclose ; embalm, embark 

Classic — 

C . . ") include, infuse, inspect; illumine, 

in or il, im, ir -^ ' • * ' f illude, illapse ; impel, import, im- 

i, ^ J press ; irradiate, irrigate 

en or em in or into energy, endemic ; emblem, emphasis 

2. Prefixes which denote rest and motion loithin or between 
objects in time or place. 

Classic — 

... r loithin ) entertain, enterprise ; intervene, in- 

enter, inter, or \ ^^ f terlace, interview, intercourse ; 

^^ ^° (^ hetween ) introduce, intromit 



PREFIXES. 



155 



3. Prefixes which denote rest and motion from a place or point 

of time. 
Anglo-Saxon — 



"^ offset, offspring, offfshoot, offscour- 
) iiig ; ■withliolJ, withdraw 

^ abate, avoid, abuse, avert, abjure, 
I absolve, abscond, abstract ; de- 
Y cide, deduct, depart, detain, de- 
I tract; apostle, apology, aphelion, 
L J aphoeresis 

4. Prefixes which denote rest and motion out of a place or point 
of time. 
Anglo-Saxon — 
out 



t% with 

Classic — 



a, ab, or abs, 
de, apo or aph 



from 



from 



out of outbreak, outcast, outpost 



Classic — 
e or ex, ef, ec 



■^ educate, elect, emerge, exceed, ex- 
out of > haust, egress ; effect, effulgence ; 
J eccentric, eclipse 

5. Prefixes which denote rest and motion without or beyond a 
place or point of time. 



Anglo-Saxon — 
oat 

Classic — 

extra, ultra, 
preter, trans 
or tres, tra, 
traf; para, 
meta or meth 



beyond outlive, outrun, outrage, outsell 



beyond 

or 
after 



" extraordinary, extravagant, extra- 
mural ; ultramarine, ultramun- 
dane, ultramontane ; preternatu- 

■ ral, preterhuman, pretermit ; 

/ transatlantic, transgress, tres- 
pass ; traverse, tratfic ; paradox, 
paraphrase, paragraph ; meta- 
phor, metamorphosis, method 



6. Prefixes which denote rest and motion before or after a place 
or point of time. 
Anglo-Saxon — 

fore 



Classic — 

ante, pre, pro, 
pur, pros 



post, par, and 
met^ 



before 

before 
after 



forearm, foresee, foretell, forerun- 
ner 

^ antechamber, antemeridian, ante- 
past, antedate ; precede, prefer, 

y presume, precursor; proceed, pro- 
tract ; purpose ; prosthesis, pro- 

J gi'amme 

") postpone, postscript, postmeridian ; 
j pursue; metaphysics 



156 ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DERIVATION OP WORDS. 



7. Prefixes which denote rest and motion above or helow a place 



Anglo-Saxon — 
over I 

under < 

Classic — 

snper, sur, 
supra, aiid 
hyper 



Bub or snc, snf, 
BUg, sup, sus ; 
hypo, cata 



or point of time. 

u; 

undervalue 



overcast, overcome, overflow, over- 
shadow 

, , ") undergo, underhand, underrate, 

below { 



above 



beyond 



below 



down 



") superintend, supersede, supernatu- 

I ral ; survive, surra ount, surprise; 

[- supramundane, supralapsarian ; 

j hypsrcritical, hyperbole, hyper- 

J horean 

'j submit, subject ; succeed, succumb ; 
suffer, suffuse ; suggest ; support, 
suppose ; suspend, sustain ; hy- 
pocrite, hypothesis, hyphen ; cata- 
combs, cataract, catarrh, cata- 
strophe 



circum, pen 



amphi or amhi 



about 



8. Prefixes which denots rest and motion about or around a place 
or point of time. 
Classic — 

circumscribe, circumvent, circum- 
ference ; pericardium, perimeter, 
periphery, period 
amphibious, amphitheatre, ambi- 
guous 



round 
both 
or tioo 



. ( both ■) 

^ (^ or tioo ) 



0. Prefixes which denote rest and motion against, in place or 



Anglo-Saxon — 
gain and with 
Classic — 



time. 



against gainsay, withstand 



contra, contro, 
counter ; oh or 
oc, of, op ; anti 
or ant 



r 



against 



") contradict, contravene ; controvert; 
counteract, countermand, coun- 
terpoise ; object, obstruct, occur; 
offend; oppose, oppress, oppugn; 
antidote, antithesis ; antagonist, 
antarctic 



10. Prefixes which denote rest and motion through a place and 
time. 
Classic — 

^ "S perambulate, perforate, persecute, 

per or pel ; par, j ^j . j C perfect ; pelhicid ; pardon, para- 
4ia i ' C mount ; diagonal, diagram, dia- 

Q J meter, diarrhoea 



PREFIXES. 



157 



11. Prefixes wMch denote rest and motion forward and backward 
in plac8 and time. 

Anglo-Saxon — 
fore or for forward forward, foreshadow, foreland 

Classic — 
pro 

retro, re, ana 



forward 

< forv>ard 

\ backicard 
i or again 



") promote, progress, project, pro- 
_) crastinate 

"^ recede, repeat, return, redeem, 
( reflect, result ; retrocede, retro- 
t grade, retrospect ; analogy, ana- 
(^ ) lysis, anachronism 

12. Prefixes which denote rest and motion together or apart in 
place and time. 



Classic — 



con or CO, cog, 
col, com, cor ; 
juxta, syn or 
sym, syl, sy 



dis or di, dif ; se 



") condole, congregate, consent ; co- 
alesce, coerce, coincide ; cognate, 
cognition ; collect, collate ; com- 
together }■ pose, compact ; correct, corrode ; 
juxtaposition ; synagogue, synod, 
syntax; syllable ; sympathy, sym- 
metry, symptom ; system 

■^ dispel, dissect, dispeise ; dilate, di- 
apart > gress, divert ; differ, diffuse ; se- 

J cede, seclude, sedition 



13. 



Prefixes which denote rest and motion 
and time. 



to or upon in place 



Classic — 



r 



ad or ac, af, ag, 
al, an, ap, ar, as,-{ 
at ; epi 



to, or 

Xip07l 



adduce, advance ; accede, accept ; 
affix, affect ; aggressive, aggra- 
vate ; allocate ; annex, annotate ; 
append, applaud ; arrest, arrive ; 
ascend, assail ; attend, attain ; 
epidemic, epistle, epitaph, epi- 
tome 



14. Prefixes which denote negation and destitution in place or 
time. 

f ^ forbid, forget, forgive, forsake ; un- 

1 lovely, unequal, unholy, unman- 
not. or ' - •' '■ •" - 



for, un, dis 



in or ig, il, im, j 
ir ; sine, a or an ] 



I ly, unjust, uncover, unfetter, 

^^^ « j unmask, untie ; disjoin, disunite, 

J disgrace 

"^ inaccurate, incapable, infant ; ig- 

I noble, ignorant ; illegal, illogical ; 

.,,' . y immature, imnioital; irrational, 
witliout • . • • 

' irreverent ; snicere, smecure ; 

apathy, atom, anarchy, atheist 



bene, and eu 

male or mal ; 
dys 



well 



ill or bad 



158 ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DERIVATION OP WORDS. 

15. Prefixes whicli denote luell or ill in place and time, 

„._ C .,, ) misguide, misadTsnture, misfor- 

mi9 ]^^ll ox wrong '^ tune, misrule 

") benefactor, benevolence ; eulogy, 
j eupbemy, eucbarist 
") malevolence, malpractice, maltreat; 
) dyspepsy, dyspliony, dysentery 

Tbe prefixes be, and en or em, have different powers ; when placed 
before nouns or adjectives they form verbs, and have the meaning of 
to make, as, becalm, becloud ; enable, enrich ; embolden, empower. 
In adverbs and prepositions be has the force of by or in; as, because, 
below, beside. Sometimes they merely strengthen, without changing, 
the meaning of the root, as, gird, begird, engird ; deck, bedeck. En 
is sometimes used both as a prefix and affix in the same word, as, 
enlighten, embolden. 

Exercises on the primary and secondary meanings of 
derivatives formed by Prefixes, 

The pupils should be required to write similar examples under each 
of the prefixes. 

Anglo-Saxon Prefixes {arranged alphabetically). 



PxiEFix. Meaning. 



at or on 



Derivatives. Literal Meaning 
( aground on ground 

I ahead at the head 



SrCONDARY 

Meaning. 

stranded — stop- 
ped 

forward — far- 
ther on 



to make /beguile 



be 

en 

for 

fore 
mis 
out 



about 
by or in 

to make f ennoble 



I beset 
below 



to am use— 

ceive 
to enclose 



•to de- 



in or into (^ embalm 
not 



before 

ill or 
wrong 



( forsake 

f forerunner 

I 

f mislay 



above or ("outpost 
beyond (_ 



to use guile 

to set about 

in a lower place inferior in rank 

to make noble to elevate — to 

exalt 

to put in balsam to preserve 

not to seek to leave — to 
abandon 

one who runs a herald — mes- 
before senger 

to lay in a wrong to lose 
place 

a place beyond a picket or guard 
tbe camp 



PREFIXES. 
Prbfix. Meanik-q. DEBrvATiTEs. Literal Mbaitin-g. 
over 
un 
under 



above, too ("overshadow to place a slia- 



much 
not 



with 

Latin. 

a, ab, or 
abs 



beneath 
from 



unmanly 
f underhand 

( withhold 



dow over 

not manly 

beneath the 
band 

to hold from 



159 

sucondabt 

Meaning. 

to shield — to 
protect 

cowardly — mean 

sly, or clandes- 
tine 

tohinder, or pre- 
vent 



Classic Peefixes (arranged alphabetically) 
from 



to loose from to pardon 
to swear away to abandon 
from 



( ciri 



ad, ac, 
af,al,an, to 
ap or ar 



ante before 

circum around 



con, CO, 

col, com together 
or cor 



contra • ^ . . 

counter "^'''"** 1 <^°"°teract 



f absolve 
} abjure 

f advance 

•\ affiance 
I 

I apply 

("antechamber a chamber before a waiting room 



to move to the to promote — to 

van improve 

to give faith to to promise in 

marriage 
to fold to to use — to ask 



the chief one 

cumvent to come round to cheat 
another 



de 



from 
dis or di apart 



J C decide 

aoi07i or S J . , 
J- ^ deviate 



r concourse a running to- a multitude 

[ gether 

I connive to wink together to overlook a 

fault 
coincide to fall in to- to agree 

gether 

against the pro- smuggled 

clamatiou 
to act against to hinder 
to make against to imitate — to 
feign 

to cut down toend — toseltle 
to go from the to err — to stray 
way 

'disturb to put a crowd to stir— to agi- 

I asunder tate 

dilapidation stones falling ruin — decay 
apart 



(contraband 
counteract 
counterfeit 



160 fiTYMOLOGT, OR THE DERIVATION OP WORDS. 



Pebfix. Meaniitg. Deeitatitbs. 
' expedite 
out of 



e, ex, or 
ec 



eccentric 
educate 



LiTBEAL MeANIXG. 

to take the feet 

out 
out of the centre 
to lead out 



extra beyond ^^^trayagant 

/"indorse 
in , im, il in, on, or N 
or ir into j inspect 

(_ impede 



inter between 
intro within 



( intercourse 
( introduce 



(object 
occur 
offer 
L 



per 

post 
pre 

pro 

re 

retro 



sine 



1 perish 
perennial 

after postpone 

before fP'^emature 

forth or jP'^^J^'^* 
forward 1 

back or M''"^ 
again |^^^°^''" 

bacJcicards retrograde 
f secede 



aside or 
from 



without 



■I seduce 
sinecure 



wandering be- 
yond 

to write on the 

back 
to look into 
to put the feet in 

to run between 
to lead within 



Second AET 
Meaning. 

to hasten or 

quicken 
odd — peculiar 
to train — to in- 
struct 

wasteful — ^wild 



to sign — to agree 

to examine 
to hinder 

fellowship — 

communication 

to 



to throw against 
to run in way of 

to put in way of 



to go through 
through the year 

to place after 
before ripe 



quainted 

to find fault 
to happen — to 

appear 
to present — to 

give 

to die — to wither 
lasting — per- 
petual 



something 
thrown for- 
ward 

to buy back 
to form again 



to step back- 
ward 

to go aside 
to lead from 



without care 



delay. 

too soon, or 
hasty 

a plan, or scheme 



to save 

to improve — to 

amend 

to become worse 



to leave 

to corrupt — to 
deiDrave 

an ofiuce without 
service 



PREFIXES, 



161 



Pajyil. MEANIlfG. DBRrVATITKS. 

( submit 



sub, sue, , 
suforsup""'^^'* 



super or above or 
BUT over 



( succor 
^superfluous 

i superlative 
(.suivive 

f translate 



trans, I 

tra traf ''<^™^^ or i 
nr trpa bcT/ond ] traduce 

1 traffic 
trespass 
transcend 

ultra beyond ^^l^'^^on- 

Oreek. 
a or an without 



Sbcondabt 
Meaning, 

to yield — to re- 
sign 
to help— to aid 

abundant — 

needless 
highest — best 
to remain 

to bear across to interpret — to 
express in the 
words of an- 
otherlanguage 
to lead across to slander 
to make across to trade 
to pass across to sin 
to climb beyond tc sxcel 



LlTEBAX MBAJfINO, 

to send under 

to run under 
flowing over 

carried above 
to live over 



beyond the 
mountain 



foreign 



(■ apathy 



anarchy 
f amphitheatre 

ampM or both sides J 

ambi or two 1 . , 

ambiguous 

L 

S anathema 
analyze 



ant 



opposi 
to 



anti or a^ainsf or r antidote 
ite j 

(.antarctic 

^ apologize 
(_ aphelion 



apo or , 
aph /™'» 



cata 
dia 



en ))• 
em 



down 
through 



( catechise 

( diarrhoea 

r energy 
} empiric 



without feeling coldness 
without rule confusion 

theatre on both ground sloping 
Bides upwards all 

round, 
driving two ways doubtful — un- 
certain, 
placed up devoted — acm-se 

to loose back to solve — to ex- 
amine thor- 
oughly 

given against a cure for poison 

— a remedy 
opposite to arctic 

to reason away to defend 

from 
from the sun 

to sound down, to teach — to 
or in the ear question 

a flowing name of a dis- 

through ease 

inward power force — spirit 
one skilled in a quack, or pre- 
practice alone tender 



162 ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DEEIYaTION OF WORDS. 



FsxTix. MxAKiira. Dbeiyaiites. LiTXBix MsAyiira. 
epitome 



epx or 
eph 



for or 



ec or ex out 
hyper beyond 



hypo 

meta or 
meth 



para 



under 
after 



side by 
tide 



a cutting upon, 
aa a book 
ephemeral for a day 

exegesis a leading out 

( hyperborean beyond the 
\ north 

( hypocrite one under a 
\ mask 

^ metaphysics after physics 
after a way 



\ method 
parable 

paradigm 



parasite 



C period 



thrown side by 

side 
something 

shown side 

by side 
one near for 

food 

the way round 



peri round j Peripatetics followers of 



Secoitdakt 

MEAiriifO. 

an abridgment 

brief, or short 
an explanation 
cold, frigid 

a feigner — dis- 
sembler 

mental science 
order 

a comparison 

a model, or ex 
ample 

a flatterer 

stated time, or 
end 



i 



syn, syl together, 
or sym with 



'^synod 

syllable 
symphony 



Aristotle, who 
taught walking 
about 

a going together an ecclesiastical 

assembly 
a taking to- a distinct utter- 

gether ance 

a sounding to- agreement 

gether 



The prefixes, meta and para, have different shades of meaning. 



SECTION m. 

AFFIXES. — (Sometimes called postfixes or suffixes.") 

AflBxes are letters or syllables placed at the end of a word to 
modify its meaning. 

The affixes usually determine the part of speech to which the 
words they form belong, and therefore may be arranged according 
to the classes of words formed by their aid. 



AFFIXES. 163 

Some terminations have several meanings, and are used in 
forming differentparts of speech — as,a^in captivaieand potent- 
ate / ish, in burnjs7i and hla.ckish; en, in weakere and wooden. 

The same word is often used for the act and the product ; the 
statfl and the quality; the place where and the practice of some 
art in it — as, formation, animate, surgery. 

Affixes wMch form Nouns. 

1. AflBixes which denote the person who acts, or who is. 

Anglo-Saxon — ar, ard, er, yer, ster. Classic — an, ant, ary, ate, 
ee, eer, ent, ic, ist, ite, ive, or. 

Examples. 

Liar, one who tells lies. Vagrant, one who wanders. 

Coward, one who is afraid. Mountaineer, one who lives among 

Antiquary, one who studies old the mountains. 

things. Favorite, one who is favored. 

Patentee, one to whom a patent Captive, one who is taken in 

is granted. ' war. 

Oculist, one who professes to cure Gamester, one who gambles. 

the eye. 

The pupil should be required to explain the following lists 
of words, under each class, in a similar manner ;- 

ar beggar, bursar, scholar, vicar 

ard dotard, drunkard, sluggard, steward, wizard 

er brazier, butler, draper, mariner, talker, walker 

yer lawyer, sawyer 

star barrister, chorister, maltster, punster, spinster 

an Christian, European, Canadian, librarian, veteran 

ant assailant, combatant, mendicant, lieutenant, litigant 

ary contemporary, incendiary, lapidary, voluptuary 

ate advocate, curate, delegate, legate, potentate 

ee assignee, employee, legatee, referee, refugee 

eer auctioneer, charioteer, mutineer, pioneer, scrutineer 

eat adherent, client, patient, president, regent, student 

ic critic, domestic, demoniac, mechanic, sceptic 

ist botanist, huguist, monopolist, naturalist 

ite bedlamite, cosmopolite, eremite, Canaanite 

iire fugitive, native, operative, representative 

or ancestor, benefactor, competitor, male/'nctor 



164 ETYMOLOGY, OB THE DERITATION OF WORDS. 

2» Affixes whicli denote the thing which is, or is done. 

Classic — ary, ice, ment, mony, ory. 
Examples. 

Botmdary, that which bounds. Aliment, that which nonrisbes. 

Testimony, that which is testi- Territory, the land which belonga 
fied. to any one. 

ary anniversary, corollary, luminary, preliminary 

ice advice, device, justice, notice, practice, service 

ment advertisement, amendment, amusement, document 

mony alimony, patrimony, sanctimony 

ory auditory, directory, memory, promontory 

3. Affixes whicli denote the j^Zace where a thing is, or is done. 

ry, ery, ary, ory. 

Examples. 

Vestry, a place where vestments Fishery, a place where fish are 

are kept. caught. 

Aviary, a place where birds are Armory, a place where arms are 

kept. kept. 

ry foundry, laundry, drapery 

eiy cemetery, colliery, nunnery, nursery, surgery 

axy apiary, granary, dispensary, library 

ory dormitory, factory, observatory, oratory 

4. Affixes which denote rank, office, or dominion, 

Anglo-Saxon — dom, ric, ship. Classic — acy, ate. 

Examples. 

Dukedom, the rank of a duke. Bishopric, the jurisdiction of a 

Curacy, the office of a curate. bishop. 

Kingdom, the dominion of a king. 

dom & ric Christendom, heathendom, earldom, archbishopric 

ship clerkship, mastership, professorship 

acy, cy abbacy, captaincy, magistracy, papacy 

ale electorate, protectorate, pontificate 



AFFIXES. 165 

6. Affixes wUch ienote persona or things collectively. 

age, ry. 

Examples. 
Assemblage, a collection of persons. Yeomanry, the farmers of a 
Foliage, the leaves of a tree or country, 
forest. 

age coinage, cordage, leakage, plumage 

ry finery, gentry, machinery, peasantry 

6. Affixes which denote the act of doing, or the thing done, 
age, ion, ment, ure. 

Examples. 
Pillage, the act of plundering, or Sepulture, the act of burying, or 

theft. burial. 

Operation, the act of working, or Entertainment, the act of treat- 

the process. ing guests, or a feast. 

age carriage, marriage, passage, postage 

iou admission, dissection, inspection, passion 

meat atonement, commencement, elopement, interment 

ure creature, capture, disclosure, departure, imposture 

7. Affixes which denote state, condition, quality. 

Anglo-Saxon — dom, hood, ness, ry, ship, th. Classic — acy, age, 
ance, ancy, ence, ency, ism, ment, mony, tude, ty or ity, ure. 

Examples. 
Widowhood, the state of being a Activity, state of being active. 

widow. Vassalage, condition of a vassal. 

Holiness, state of being holy. Diligence, quality of being dili. 

Partnership, state of being a part- gent. 

ner. 

dom freedom, thraldom, martyrdom, wisdom 

hood boyhood, girlhood, likelihood, priesthood, manhood 

ness blessedness, deafness, darkness, gentleness, weakness 

ry bravery, gallantry, pedantry, rivalry, slavery 

ship apprenticeship, friendship, hardship, suretiship 

tb death, truth, mirth, strength, youth 

acy accuracy, degeneracy, legitimacy, supremacy 

age bondage, dotage, marriage, peerage, pilgiimage 

ance, ancy abundance, brilliancy, repentance, pliancy 



166 ETTMOLOQT, OR THE DERIVATION OP WOBDS. 

ence, ency patience, effulgence, clemency, potency 

ism barbarism, parallelism, schism, truism 

ment agreement, banishment, enjoyment, punishment 

mony acrimony, matrimony, parsimony 

tude altitude, aptitude, gratitude, servitude, solitude 

ty or ity brevity, captivity, docility, felicity, poverty 

ure composure, pleasure, rupture, torture, verdura 

8. Affixes which denote art, tcience, practice, or doctrines. 
Anglo-Saxon — ry. Classic — ics, ism, ure. 
Examples. 
Cookery, the art of cooking. Calvinism, the doctrines of CaMo. 
Optics, the science of seeing. Sculpture, the art of carving. 

ry bribery, carpentry, chemistry, roguery, treachery 

ics ethics, mathematics, physics, politics, tactics 

ism criticism, despotism, patriotism, gnosticism, polytheism 

ure agriculture, architecture, manufactare 

9. Affixes which denote diminution or little. 
Anglo-Saxon — el or le, kin, let or et, ling, ock, y or ie. 
Classic — cle, cule or ule. 
Examples. 
Leaflet, a little leaf. Canticle, a little Bong. 

GosHng, a little goose. Reticule, a little net. 

Paddock, a little park. Granule, a little grain. 

el,le satchel, kestrel, sickle 

kin, en lambkin, mannikin, kitten, chicken 

let, et coronet, floweret, turret, eaglet, bracelet, rivulet 

ling darhng, duckling, foundUng, stripling, seedling 

ock bullock, hillock 

y or ie Tommy, Willy, Jamie, lassie, baby 

cle, cule conventicle, icicle, animalcule 

ale globule, spherule 

Affixes which form Adjectives. 

1. Affixes denoting of, like, or pertaining to, 

ao, al, an, ar, ary, ic, ical, id, ile, ine, ory ; ch, ese, ish. 

Examples. 

Dental, pertaining to the teeth. Lucid, pertaining to light. 

Lunar, pertaining to the moon. Canine, pertaining to a dog. 

Angelic, pertaining to angels. Bomish, pertaining to Home. 



AFFIXES. 167 

ae cardiac, elegiac, hypochondriac 

al autumnal, final, paternal, royal, vernal 

an cerulean, human, republican, sylvan, Canadian 

ar circular, globular, lunar, ocular, singular 

ary capillary, honorary, military, pecuniary 

ic chaotic, despotic, domestic, gigantic, public 

ical botanical, clerical, nautical, technical, poetical 

id candid, fervid, humid, morbid, splendid 

ile febrile, hostile, infantile, juvenile, mercantile 

ins aquiline, feline, masculine, saline, divine 

ory consolatory, piscatory, promissory, valedictory 

ch Scotch, Welsh, French 

eso Chinese, Genoese, Maltese, Portuguese 

Ish English, Irish, British, Danish, Swedish 

2. Affixes denoting full of, or abounding in. 
Anglo-Saxon — ful, some, y. Classic — ous, ose, ate. 
Examples. 
Faithful, full of f utti. Joyous, full of joy. 

Frolicsome, full(" 'in. Jocose, full of jokes. 

Knotty, full of kunn. Passionate, full of passion. 

fal artful, car<-<n: doleful, grateful, slothful 

some burdensome, gladsome, humorsome, wholesome 

y balmy, cloudy, flowery, mighty, massy, rocky 

ous ambitious, beauteous, dubious, erroneous, timorous 

ose comatose, morbose, morose, verbose 

ate considerate, fortunate, moderate, ornate, intricate 

3. Affixes denoting likeness, 

Anglo-Saxon— ish, like, ly ; as — 

Boyish, hke a boy. Manlike, like a man. Friendly, like a friend. 

ish brutish, clownish, knavish, foolish, monkish 

like Cnristianlike, giantlike, warlike. Godlike, ladylike 

ly brotherly, cowardly, matronly, princely, worldly 

4. Affixes denoting may or can do, or be. 
Classic — able, ible, ile, ive. 
Examples. 
Arable, can be ploughed. Ductile, can be drawn out. 

Audible, may be heard. Active, able to act. 



168 ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

aTjle blamable, curable, eatable, imitable, practicable 

ible flexible, legible, intelligible, tangible, Tisible 

ile docile, fragile, tractile, versatile 

ive cohesive, defensive, locomotive, productive 

5. Affixes denoting being or doiiig ; 

Classic — ant or ent; like or made of; Anglo-Saxon — en. 

Examples, 
Dormant, being asleep. Flaxen, like flax, or made of flax 

Pendent, hanging down. Earthen, made of earth. 

ant errant, pleasant, verdant, vigilant 

ent antecedent, beneficent, belligerent, malevolent 

en brazen, golden, leaden, silken, wooden, woollen 

6. Affixes denoting diminution and privation. 
Anglo-Saxon— ish and less; 
Brackish, a little salt. Saltless, without salt, 

ish duskish, feverish, greenish, slavish, whitish 

less bloodless, breathless, friendless, homeless, lifeless 

The termination some denotes a degree of the quality indicated — as, 
blithesome, delightsome, gladsome, lonesome, toilsome, and whole- 
some. 

The termination th, added to the cardinal numbers, forms the or- 
dinal numbers, which are adjectives — as four, fourth ; six, sixth. 

The terminations em and erly, and ward, added to north, east, 
Bouth, and west, form adjectives expressing direction — as north, 
northern, northerly, northward. 

Affixes which form Verhs. 

Affixes which signify to make, take, or give, 

Anglo-Saxon — en, ish. Classic — ate, fy, ise or ize. 

Examples. 
Brighten, to make bright. Eradicate, to take the roots o»t. 

Publish, to make public. Amplify, to make large. 

Apologize, to make an excuse. Equalize, to make equal. 

en cheapen, enlighten, gladden, moisten, quicken 

ish admonish, embellish, establish, empoverish, finish 

ate animate, captivate, decapitate, perforate, terminate 



LATIN ROOTS. 169 

fy fortify, magnify, qualify, rectify, sanctify, verify 

ise authorize, fertilize, pulverize, scrutinize 

Some verbs are formed by adding I or le, r or er — as hand, handle ; 
start, startle ; knee, kneel ; draw, drawl ; wave, waver ; long, linger ; 
Bpit, sputter ; whine, whimper. 

Aflixes which form Adverbs. 

1. Affixes denoting manner — ly and vrise. 

Examples. 
Artfully, in an artful manner. Crosswise, in a cross manner. 
Justly, in a just manner. Likewise, in like manner. 

Honestly, in an honest manner. Otherwise, in another manner. 

2. Affixes denoting direction — ward. 

Eastward, in the direction of the east ; so westward, &c. 
Heavenward, in the direction of heaven ; so homeward, &c. 
Leeward, in the direction opposite that from which the wind 
blows. 

Thitherward, in the direction of that place — so whitherward. 

The termination ward forma both adjectives and adverbs — as, he 
travelled northward, in an awkward manner, by the downward road. 



SECTION IV. 
LATIN BOOTS. 

acer (aeris), sharp — acrid, acridity, acrimony, acerbity ; eager 

acidus, sour — acid, acidity, acidulate 

acuo, I sharpen — acute, -ly,-ness, acumen 

sedes, a house — edifice, edif-y,-ication, unedifying 

jequus, equal — equalize, equality, equator, equation, equable ; ade- 
quate, equinox, equity, iniquity 

jBstimo, I value — estimate, estimable, estimation ; esteem 

ager (agri), a field — acre, agrarium, peregrinate, pilgrim ; agriculture, 
-al,-ist 

agger, a heap — exaggerate, exaggeration 

ago (actus), I do — act, actor, activity, actuate ; exact, transact ; agent, 
agitate, cogent, damage, manage, agile, agility; virago 

alienus, belonging to another — alien, -ate, -ated,-ati')n, -able 

alo, I nourish — uUment,-ary,-aiion,-iveaes8 



170 ETTMOLOGT, OR THE DERIYATION OF W0ED3. 

alter, another — alter,-nate,-nation,-cation ; subaltern 

altus, high — altitude, exalt, -ation ; altar 

amo [amicus), I love — amity, amicable, amiable, amorous, amatory, 
enamored, inimical, enmity, enemy 

amplus, large — ample, ampIi-fy,-fication,-tude 

ango (anxi), I vex — anger, angry, anguish, anxiety, anxious, -ly 

angulus, a corner — angle, angular, rectangular, triangular, quadrangle 

auima, the soul or life — anim-al, -ate, -ation, -alcule ; inanimate 

animus, the mind — unanimous, animosity, equanimity 

annus, a year — annual, biennial, perennial, millennium ; annals, an- 
niversary, annuity, annular, centenary 

antiquus, old or ancient — antique, antiquity, antiquated, antiquarian ; 
antic 

aperio, I open — aperient, aperture ; April 

appello, I call — appeal, appell-ative, -ation 

apto, I fit — adapt, apt,-itude,-ly,-ness, adept, inept, -itude,-ly,-ness 

aqua, water — aqueous, aquatic, aqueduct, terraqueous, aquarium 

arbiter, an umpire, a judge — arbiter, arbitr-ate, -ation, -ary,-ator, -ess 

arbor, a tree — arbor, -eous,-escent,-etum,-ist 

arceo, I shut up, restrain — coerce, coercive, coercion ; exercise 

arcus, a bow — arc, arcade, arch, archer, archery 

ardeo, I burn — ardent, ardor, arduous, arson 

arguo, I argue — arguer, argument, -ation, -ative 

arma, arms — arm,-or,-orer,-ory,-y,-ament,-orial,-istice; disarm, un- 
armed 

aro, I plough — arable, inarable, aration 

ars (art), art — art,-ist,-isan,-ifice,-ificial,-ful,-less; inert, inertness, 
inertia 

artus (articukis), a joint — article, articul-ate,-ated,-ately,-ation ; 
inarticulate 

asper, rough — asperity, aspir-ate, -ation ; exasper- ate, -ation 

atrox, cruel — atrocity, atrocious, -ness 

audio, I hear — aud-it,-itor,-itory,-ience,-ible ; inaudible 

augeo (auctus), I increase^ — augment, -ation; auction, -eer; august, 
autumn ; author,-ity ; auxiliary, unauthorized 

anris, the ear — aurist, auricle, auricular ; auscultation 

avarus, greedy — avarice, avaricious,-ly,-ness 

avidus, eager — avidity 

barba, a beard — barb, barbed, barber, barbel 
barbarus, rude, savage — barbarian, barbar-ous,-ity,-ize,-ism,-ic 
beatus, blessed — beatitude, beatify, beatific 
bellum, war — belligerent, rebel, rebellion 

bene, well (used in composition) — ^benefit, beneYolent, benison, benifiw, 
beneficent 



LATIN ROOTS. 171 

bibe, I drink— im'bibe, bib, bibber, bibulons, bibaciotis ; mne-bibber 

bis {hi}, twice — biped, bisect, biscuit, binary; combine 
bouus, good — boon, bounty, bounteous, bountiful 
brevis, short — brief, briefly, brevity, abbrevi-ate,-ation,-ator ; bre- 
viary 
brutus, stupid — brutal, -ize,-ity ; brutish,-ly,-ness ; imbrute 

cado (cas, cid), I fall — cadence, case, casuist, casual, cascade; acci- 
dent, accidence, coincide, coincidence, decay, deciduous, incident, 
Occident, occasion 

csedo {cid, cis), I cut — caesura, concise, decide, decisive, decision, ex- 
cision, incision, precise, precision ; homicide, regicide, suicide, 
&e. 

calculus, a little pebble — calculate, calcul-able,-ation,-ator ; miscal- 
culate, incalculable 

candeo, I am white, I shine — candid, candidate, candor, candle ; in- 
cense, incentive 

cano (cant), I sing — cant, canticle, chant, enchant, incantation, re- 
cant, accent 

capillus, a hair — capillary, capillarity, capilliform 

capio {cep,capt), I take— cap-able,-acious,-acity,-acitate; capt,-ious, 
-ive,-ivate,-or,-ure ; except, precept, intercept ; conceive, deceive, 
receive, receij^, recipient, acceptation, occupation, preceptor, re- 
ceptacle, susceptibility 

caput (capitis) , the head — capital, capitulate, cape, captain, chapter, 
precipitate, precipice, recapitulate 

oaro (carnis), flesh — incarnate, carnal, carnage, carnival, carrion, car- 
case, carnivorous 

causa, a cause — causation, accuse, excuse, recusant 

caveo (caut), to be on one's guard — caution, cautious,-ly,-ness, pre- 
caution 

cavus, hollow — cave, cavern, concave, cavity, excavate 

cedo (cess), I yield, I go — cede, cession, cease, cessation, accede, con- 
cede, exceed, precede, proceed, recede, succeed, recess, success, 
-ive,-ion, &c. 

celer, swift — celerity, accelerate 

celeber, renowned — celebr-ate,-ated,-ation, celebrity 

celsus, high — excel, excellent, excellence, excelsior 

censeo, I judge, I blame — censor, censorious, censure, censurable 

centrum, the centre — central, centrical ; centripetal, centrifugal, con- 
centrate, concentric ; eccentric 

centum, a hundred — century, centurion ; centage, centesimal, centi- 
pede 

cerno [crct], I judge — certain, certify, concern, decree, discern, dis- 
creet, secrete, secret, secretary 



172 ETTMOLOGT, OB THE DERIVATION OP WOEDS. 

circus, a circle — circlet, circular, circulate, circuit, encircle, Bemi- 

cirole 
cito, I call or rouse — cite, citation, excite,-ment, incite, recite, recita- 
tion, resuscitate 
civis, a citizen — civic, city, civil, -ian,-ity,-ize,-ization, uncivil 
clamo, I cry out — claim, acclaim, clamor, clamorous, declamation, 

exclaim, proclaim, proclamation, reclaim 
clams, clear, bright — clear, clearance, clarify, declare, declaration 
Claude {clud, clus), I close — close, closet, cloister, conclude, conclu- 
sion, include, inclose, recluse, seclusion 
Clemens, merciful, mild — clement, clemency, inclement, inclemency 
clino, I bend — decline, deolension, declivity, incline, inclination, 

acclivity, recline 
colo {cult), I cultivate — cultivated, colony, colonist, colonial, colonize, 

culture, agriculturist, occult 
colo, I strain — colander, eolation, percolate, percolation 
commodus, convenient — commodious, commodity, incommode 
cor {cordis), the heart — core, cordial, courage ; concord, concordance, 

discord, record, accord, accordant 
comu, a horn — corn, cornet, corneous, cornice, unicorn 
corona, a crown — crown, coronation, corolla, coronet, coroner 
corpus {corpor), the body — corporal, corporate, corporation, corporeal, 

corpulent, corpse, corpuscle, incorporate 
credo, I trust, I believe — creed, credit, credible, creditor, credential, 

credulous, incredulity, accredit 
creo, I make — create, creator, creation, creature, creative, recreation 
cresco (cret), I grow — crescent, accretion, concretion, excrescence, de- 
crease, increase, increment 
crimen, a crime — criminal, crimination, recrimin-ate,-ation 
crudus, raw, unripe — crude, crudity, crudeness 
crux {cruc), a cross — crucify, crucifixion, cruciform, crucible, crusade, 

excruciate, crosier, cross 
cubo, or cumbo, I lie down — cumber, cumbent, cumbrance, incubus, 

accumbent, incumbent, recumbent, succumb 
culpa, a fault — culpable, culpability, culprit, inculpate, exculpate 
cumu! ,3, a heap — cumulative, accumul-ate,-ation,-ator 
cira, care— cure, curate, curacy, curious, accurate, secure, sinecure 
corro {urs), I run — current, curricle, courier, concur, incur, occur, re- 
cu;\ succor, course, concurrence, discourse, incursion, precursor 
on vus, crooked — curve, curvature, curvate, incurvate 

da:r.no, I condemn — damage, condemnab'e, condemnation, indemnify 
debeo, I owe — debit, debt, debtor, dt ben^ure, indebtedness 
decet, it is becoming — decent, lecency, tu cerate, decoration, decorous, 
indecorous 



LATIN ROOTS. 173 

deleo, I blot out, I destroy — delete, indelible, deleteriou8,-ly,-nes8 

deliciae, delight — delicacy, delicate, -ly,-ness, delicious 

dens, {(lent), a tooth — dental, dentist, dentifrice, dentition, indent, 

indenture, trident 
densus, thick — dense, density, condense, condensation 
deus, a god — deify, deity, deist, deism, deification 
dico (dicat), I set apart — dedicate, dedicatory, abdicate, index, indi- 
cate, indicative, predicate, predicament, adjudicate 
dexter, right-handed — dexter, dexterity, dexterous, -ly,-nes3 
dico (diet), I say — diction, dictate, dictator, dictatorial, addict, bene- 
diction, contradiction, edict, interdict, valedictory, verdict 
dies, a day — dial, diary, diurnal, meridian, quotidian, diet 
dignus, worthy — dignify, dignity, indignity, deign, disdain, indignant, 

indignation, condign 
disco, I learn — disciple, discipline, disciplinary, disciplinarian 
divide, I separate — divide, division, dividend, indivisible, individual 
divinus, heavenly — divine, divinity, divination 
do {dat, dit), I give — donor, donation, date, dative, antedate, addition, 

condition, edit, editor, perdition, tradition, pardon 
ioceo (doct), I teach — doctor, doctrine, document, docile, docility 
dominus, a master, a lord — dominant, dominion, domination, domini- 
cal, domineer, predominate 
domus, a house — dome, domestic, domesticate, domicile, domiciliary 
dnbius, doubtful — dubious, dubitation, indubitable, doubt, doubtful 
duco {duct), I lead— duke, ducat, ductile, abduction, adduce, conduce, 
conduit, conduct, deduction, educate, inducement, reduce, seduce, 
traduce, aqueduct, viaduct 
durus, hard — endure, durable, duration, during, indurated, obdurate, 
obduracy 



ebrius, drunken — inebriate, inebriety, inebriation, (with sine), sober, 
-ly, sobriety 

egeo, I am in need — indigent, indigence 

ego, I — egoism, egotist, egotize, egotistic, egotism 

elegans, handsome — elegant, elegance, inelegant 

emo {emj}t), I buy — exempt, exemption, pre-emption, peremptory, 
redeem, redemption; prompt, impromptu 

60 (it), I go — circuit, exit, initiate, iterate, obituary, perish, transit, 
transition 

equus, a horse — equine, equip, equipage, equipment 

erro, I wander — err, errant, error, errand, erratic, erroneous, aberra- 
tion, errate 

esse (ens), to be — essence, essential, interest, nonentity, absent, preB< 
ent, represent, misrepresent 



174 ETYMOLOGT, OR THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

«semplum, a model — example, exemplary, exemplify, unexampled, 

sample 
experior (expert), I try — experiment, experimental, expert, expertness, 

isperience, peril 
extsr, eiternus, outward — external, extraneous, extreme, extrinsic 

faex (fee), grounds, dregs — feces, feculance; defecate, defecation 
faber, a workman — fabric, fabricate, fabricator, fabrication 
facies, the face — facial, efface, superficies, superficial 
facilis, easy — facile, facility, facilitate, difficult, difficulty 
facio (fee, fie), I make — fact, factor, factory, faculty, affect, affecta- 
tion, artificer, confection, deficient, effectual, manufacture, offi- 
ciate, perfect, proficient, refection, sacrifice, sufficient 
fallo (fals), I deceive — false, falsity, fallacy, fallible, infallible, fault 
falx, a hook or sickle — falcated, defalcate, defalcation 
fama, a report — fame, famous, infamous, defame, defamation 
familia, a family — familiar, -ity,-ize, unfamiliar 
fanum, a temple — fane, profane, profanity, fanatic, fanaticism 
fari (fan, fat), to speak — fate, fatal, fable, affable, ineffable, infant, 

nefarious, preface ^ 

fateo, (fess), I acknowledge — confess, confession, professional 
fatigo, I weary — fatigue, indefatigable, fag 
fatuus, silly — fatuous, fatuity, infatuated, infatuation 
fecundus, fruitful — fecund, fecundate, fecundity 
felix, happy — felicity, felicitous, infelicity, felicitate 
fendo (fens), I strike or ward off — fender, defend, defendant, offend, 

inoffensive; fence, defence 
fero (lat), I bear or carry — ferry, fertile, confer, defer, differ, infer, 
offering, preference, suffer, transference, collation, elate, odori- 
ferous, prelate, superlative, translation 
ferrum, iron — ferreous, ferruginous, ferrule, farrier, farriery 
ferveo, I boil or rage — fervor, fervent, fervid, effervesce; ferment- 
ation ; fever, feverish, febrifuge 
festus, joyful — festal, festive, festivity, festival, infect, fete 
fibra, a thread — fibre, fibril, fibrous, fibrine 
fido, I trust — fidelity, confide, defy, diffidence, infidelity, perfidious, 

perfidy 
figo (fix), I fasten — fix, fixture, affix, prefix, transfix, crucifix 
Alius, a son ; filia, a daughter — filial, affiliate, affiliation 
filum, a thread — file, filament, filigree, fillet, defile, profile 
fingo (fict), I form — fiction, fictitious, figment, effigy, figure, figura- 
tive, transfiguration 
finis, an end — finish, infinite, infinity, affinity, definite, indefinite 
firmus, strong — firm, firmament, affirm, confirm, infirm, infirmary, 
infirmity 



LATIN ROOTS. 175 

fiscus, a money-bag, the public treasury — fiscal, confiscate, confiscation 
fissum, a cleft — fissure, fissile, fission 

fiamma, a flame — flambeau, inflame, inflammation, inflammatory 
flecto (flex), I bind — Sector, flexion, flexible, deflect, inflection, refleo- 

tion, reflex 
fligo (flict), I beat — afllict, affliction, conflict, infliction, profligate, 

profligacy 
flo (flat), I blow— flatulent, afflatus, efflation, inflate, inflation, flute 
flos, a flower - floral, florid, floridity, flour, flourish, flowery, efflor- 
escence 
fluo [fiuct, flux) I flow — fluid, fluent, fluvial, fluctuate, affluence, 

conflux, confluence, defluxion, effluvia, influence, superfluity 
fodio {foss), I dig— fossilize, fossilist, fossiliferous 
foedus, a treaty — federal, confederate, confederacy 
folium, a leaf — foliage, foliaceous, foliate, foil, trefoil, folio 
forma, form, shape — formal, form,-ation,-ative,-ality,-ula, conformity, 
deformity, inform, information, performance, reform, transfor- 
mation, uniformity 
fors {Jort)f chance,— fortune, fortunate, fortuitous, misfortune, unfor- 
tunate 
fortis, strong, brave — fortify, fortitude, force, enforce, fortress, effort, 

comfort 
frango {fract), I break — frangible, fraction, fracture, fragile, fragility, 

frailty, infringe, refraction, suffrage, irrefragable 
frater, a brother — frater,-nal,-nity,-nize ; fratricide ; friar 
fraus, deceit — fraud, fraudulent ; defraud 
frigus, cold — frigid, frigidity, frigorific, refriger,-ate,-ator 
frons [front), the forehead — frontier, affront, confront, effrontery, 

front, frontlet, frontispiece 
fruor (fruct), I enjoy— frugal, frugality, frnit,-ful,-less,-lessness, frtii- 

tion, fruiterer, fructify 
fagio, I flee — fugitive, fugacious, refuge, subterfuge 
fulgeo, I shine — fulgent, refulgent, effulgence, fulminate 
fumus, smoke — fume, fumigate,-ation,-ator, perfume 
fundo (fus), I pour out — fuse, fusible, a founder, confound, diffuse, 

effusion, profusion, suffusion, transfuse 
fundus, field, bottom — found, to founder, foundation, fundamental, 

profundity ; fund, funds, refund 
fungor (fuiict), I perform — function, functional, functionary, per- 
functory, defunct 

gelu, frost — gelid, gelatine, congeal, jelly 

gero (gest), I carry — gesture, gesticulate, belligerent, congestion, 

digest, indigestion, register, suggest, vicegerent ; jest,-er 
gigno (gen), I bring forth or produce — generate, generation.-genius, 



1?6 ETYMOLOGY, OB THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

genial, generic, general, genitive, generous, generosity, genuine, 
gentile, gentry, genteel, indigenous, ingenuous, ingenuity, pro- 
genitor, progeny, regenerate 

glol)us, a ball — globe, globular, globulous, conglobulate 

glacies, ice — glacier, glacial, glacialist 

gluten, glue — gluey, glutinous, agglutinate, conglutinate 

gradior (gress), I go— grade, gradation, gradual, graduate, degrade, 
retrograde ; ingress, progress, transgression, congress 

gramen, grass — gramin-aceous,-eous,-ivorous,-ifolious 

grandis, great — grand, grandeur, grandee, grandsire, aggrandize, 
grandiloquent, grandiose 

granum, a grain of corn — granary, garner, granule, granulate, grange, 
granate, grenade, grenadier 

gratus, thankful — grateful, gratitude, gratuity, gratify, congratulate, 
grace, gracious, disgrace, greet, ingratiate, ingratitude 

gravis, heavy — grave, gravity, gravitate, grief, grieve, grievous, 
aggrieve, aggravate 

grex (greg), a flock, gregarious, congregate, aggregate, egregious, 
segregate 

gusto, I taste — gust, disgust, disgustful, disgustingly 

habeo (hib), I have — habitation, habit-ual,-able, cohibit, debilitate; 
exhibit, inhibit, prohibition 
\ haereo {hes), I stick — adhere, adhesive, cohesion, coherent, hesitate, 
inherent, incoherent 

Tmeres (haered), anheir — heritage, heritable, hereditary, inherit,-ance, 
disinherit ; heiress, heirloom, co-heir 

halo, I breathe — exhale, inhale, inhalation, anhelation 
_\^haurio (7iaM5(), I draw — exhaust,-ible,-ion,-les3,-ive ; inexhaustible 

herba, an herb — herbage, herbalist, herbaceous, herbivorous 

hilaris, cheerful — hilarity, hilarious, exhilaration 

homo, a man — human, humane, homage, humanity, humanize, homi- 
cide, inhumanity 

horreo, I shudder — horror, horrid, horrible, horrify, abhor, abhorrence 

hortor, I advise — exhort, exhortation, hortative, hortatory, dehorta- 
tory 

hospes {hospit), a guest — hospitable, hospital,-ity, host, hotel, hostler 

hostis, an enemy — host, hostile, hostility, hostage 

humeo, I am moist — humid, humidity, humor, humorist, humoroas 

humus, the ground — inhume, exhume, exhumation, posthumous ; 
humble, humility 

idem, the same — ^identity, identical, identify, identifiable 
ignis, fire — igneous, ignite, ignition, ignitible 
imago, an image — imagine, imaginary, imagination 



LATIN ROOTS. 177 

impero, I command— imperative, emperor, imperial 

impetus, force — impetus, impetuous, -ly,-ness, impetuosity 

iuanis, empty — inane, inanity, inanition 

inferus, below — inferior, inferiority, infernal 

msula, an island — insulated, isle, isolate, peninsula 

integer, whole — integral, integrity, disintegrate, redintegration 

ira, anger — ire, ireful, irate, irascible, irritation 

jaceo, 1 lie — jacent, adjacent, circumjacent 

jacio (ject), I throw — jet, jaculation, ejaculate, abject, conjecture, 
dejection, interjection, objective, reject, subject, subjection 

jocus, a jest — joke, jocose, jocund, jocular, jocularity 

jubilo, I shout for joy — jubilee, jubilate, jubilation 

jugum, a yoke — abjugate, subjugate, subjugation 

jungo (junct), I join — ^junction, juncture, conjunction, conjugal, in- 
junction; join, enjoin, joiner 

juro, I swear — ^jury, adjure, conjure, peijury 

judex, a judge; jus [jur), right — ^just, justice, justify, injury, judge, 
judicature, judicious, prejudice, judicial, jurisprudence 

juvenis, young — juvenile, juvenility, juniors, juniority, rejuvenescence 

juvo (jut), I help — adjutant, coadjutor 

labor, work — ^labor, laborious, laboratory, elaborate 

labor (laps), I slide — lapse, relapse, elapse, illapse, collapse 

laedo (lid, lis), I hurt — collide, collision, elide, elision 

lapis (lapid), a stone — lapidary, dilapidate, dilapidation 

latus, carried, broad — dilate, latitude, latitudinarian, delay, dilatory, 

illative, oblate, translation 
latus {later), a side — lateral, collateral, equilateral 
laus (laud), praise — laud, laudable, applaud, allow, allowable 
laxus, loose — lax, laxity, relax, relaxation, prolix 
lego (legat), I send, appoint — legate, legacy, delegate, allegation 
lego (lect), I read or choose — legible, lecture, legion, allege, college, 

diligent, eligible, elegant, election, negligence, selection 
legumen, pulse, pease, beans — leguminous, legumes 
levis, light (levo, to raise) — levity, levy, alleviate, elevate, elevator ; 

relieve 
lex {leg), a law— legal, legality, legalize, legislator, legitimate, allegi- 
ance 
liber, free — liberal, liberty, liberate, illiberal, livery 
liber, a book — library, librarian, libel, libellous 
libra, a balance — deliberate, -ly,-ive, equilibrium, indeliberate 
licet, it is lawful — license, licentiate, licentious, illicit 
lignum, wood — ligneous, lignify, ligniform 



178 ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

ligo, I bind — liable, liability, ligament, league, liege, alliance, oblige, 

religion 
limes, a boundary- — limit, limited, illimitable, unlimited 
linquo (lict), I leave — delinquent, dereliction, relinquish, relict, relic 
linum, flax — linen, linsey, lint, line, lineal, delineate, lineament 
liqueo, I melt — liquid, liquefy, liquefaction, liquidity, liquor 
litera, a letter — literal, literature, alliteration, illiterate, obliterate, 

letter 
locus, a place — local, locality, locate, locomotive, dislocate, allocation 
longus, long — longitude, longevity, elongate, prolong 
loquor, I speak — loquacity, soliloquy, eloquence, elocution, obloquy, 

magniloquent, ventriloquist 
ludo {his), I play — ludicrous, allusion, elude, illusion, delusion, de- 
lusory, prelude 
lumen, light — luminary, illuminate, illumination, luminous 
luna, the moon — lunar, lunation, lunacy, lunatic, sublunary 
luo, I wash^ablution, alluvial, deluge, dilution, pollute 
lustro, I shine — lustration, illustrious, illustrate 
lux {luc), light — lucid, lucifer, elucidate, pellucid 
luxus, luxury, excess — luxuriant, luxurious, -ly,-nes3 

macies, leanness — emaciate, emaciation 

magnus (major), great — magnify, magnitude, magistrate, master, 

major, majority, majestic ; mayor 
mains, bad — malice, malicious, malevolent, malignity 
malleus, a hammer — mallet, malleable, maul, unmalleable 
mando, I enjoin — mandate, command, demand, remand 
maneo {ma7is), I remain — manse, mansion, immanent, permanent, 

remnant 
manus, the hand — manual, manufacture, manumission, manacles, 

manuscript, emancipate 
mare, the sea — marine, mariner, maritime, submarine, mermaid 
mater, mother — maternal, maternity, matron, matrimony, matricu- 
late, matricide 
maturus, ripe — mature, maturity, immature, prematm'e 
medeor, I heal — medical, medicine, remedy, irremediable 
medius, the middle — mediate, medium, immediate, mediocrity 
mel, honey — mellifluous, melliferous, mellific 

memini, I remember; memor, mindful — memory, memorial, memo- 
randum, memoir, commemorate, reminiscence 
mens, the mind— mental, mentality, demented, amentia 
merge {mers), I plunge — mersion, emerge, emergeD(yr, immersion, sub- 
merse 
merx, merchandise — commerce, commercial, merchant, mercantile 



LATIN ROOTS. 170 

metior (mens), I measure — mete, immeuse, mensuration, dimension, 

commensurate 
migro, I remove — migrate, emigrate, immigration, transmigration 
miles, a soldier — militia, military, militant, militate 
mineo, I project — imminent, prominent, eminent, eminence 
minister, a servant — ministration, ministry, admiuis-ter,-trate,-trator 
minor {minus), less — diminish, diminution, comminution, minority, 

minute 
minis, wonderful — miracle, admire, admiration, admirable 
misceo [mixt], I mingle — mixture, miscellaneous, unmixed, promiscu- 
ous, intermix 
miser, wretched — miser, miserable, misery, commiserate 
mitto (miss), I send — mission, missile, admit, commission, dismiss, 

emissary, manumission, promise, remission 
modus, a maimer — moderate, accommodate, commodious, mode, 

model, modify, modulate, modest 
mons, a mountain — mount, mound, amount, dismount, paramount, 

tantamount 
mollis, soft — mollify, mollient, emollient 
moneo, I advise — monitor, monument, admonish, premonition 
monstro, I show — monstrous, demonstrate, demonstrable, remon- 
strate 
mordeo, I bite — mordant, morsel, remorse, remorseless 
mors (mort), death — mortal, mortality, immortal, -ize, mortify 
mos (mor), a custom — moral, moralize, morality, immoral, demoralizo 
moveo (mot), I move — remove, commotion, promotion, remote 
multus, many — multitude, multiple, multiplication, multiplied 
munus, a gift, or office — munificence, commun,-ion,-icate, immunity,. 

remunerative 
murus, a wall — mural, immure 

miisa, a song — muse, music, amuse, amusement, museum 
muto, I change — mutable, mutation, mutual, permutation, transmute 

narro, I relate — narration, narrative, narrator 

nascor (nat), to be born — nascent, native, nation, nature, innate,. 

supernatural 
navis, a ship — navy, naval, navig-ate,-ation,-able 
necto (nex), I tie — connect, annex, annexation, disconnect 
nervus, a sinew — nervous, unnerve, enervate 
neuter, neither of the two — neutral, -ize, -ity 
nihil, nothing — nihilism, nihility, annihil-ate,-ation 
nobilis, well knoyn — noble, nobility, ennoble, ignoble 
noceo, I hurt— TK)xiou3, noisome, innocent, innocuous, annoyance 
nomen, a name— nominate, nominator, denomination, binomial, no- 
menclature, ignominy 



180 fiirMOLOGT, OK THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

norma, a rale — normal, abnormal, enormous, enormity 

nosco, cognosce, I know — cognizance, recognition, knowledge, acknow- 
ledge, rec^nize, precognition ' 

notus, known — note, notable, notorious, annotator ^ 

novus, new — novel, novelty, novitiate, innovate, renovate 

nox {noct), night — ^?quinox, equinoctial, nocturnal 

nuUus, none — nullify, ngUity, annul, disannul 

numerus, a number — numerous, numeration, enumerate, innumerable, 
sui^ernumerary ^ 

nuncio, I tell — announce, enunciate, denounce, renounce, pronuncia- 
tion \ 

natrio, I nourish — nutriment, nutrition, nutritive, innutritions 

obscurns, dark — obscuration, obscurely, obscureness, obscurity 

oculus, the eye — ocular, oculist, binocular, inoculate 

odor, smell — odorous, odoriferous, odorless 

oleo, I smell — olfactory,, redolent, redolepce 

olo, or olesco, I gi'ow — adolescence, adult, abolish, abolition, aboli- 
tionist 

omnis, all — omnipotent, omniscience, omnivorous, omnibus, &c. 

onus {oner), a burden — onerous, onerary, exoner,-ate,-ation,-ative 

opus (oper), a work — oper-ate,-ative,-ation,-ator, co-operate, opera 

orbis, a globe — orb, orbit, orbicular, exorbitant 

ordo, law — order, disorder, extraordinary, ordain, ordination, subor- 
dinate 

opto, I wish — option, optional, optative, adopt, adoption 

orior, I rise — orient, origin, originate, exordium 

orno, I deck— ornament, -al,-ation, adorn, adornment, ornate 

oro, I speak — oracle, oration, oral, oratory, orator, orison, adore, in- 
exorable, peroration 

OS (ossis), a bone — osseous, ossify, ossific, ossivorous 

ovum, an egg — oval, ovate, ovally, oviparous 

pallium, a cloak, covering — palliate, palliative, palliation 

pando, I spread — expand, expansive, expanse, pace, space, compass, 

surpass, trespass 
pango (pact) I fix or agree — paction, compact, compactness, impinge 
palatum, the roof of the mouth, taste — palate, palatal, palatable, 

unpalatable 
palus, a peg or post — pale, paling, palisade, empale, empalement 
par, equal — parity, separate, disparity, disparage, peer, peerless 
pareo, I appear — peer, appear, apparition, apparent, transparent 
pario, I bring forth — parent, parental, oviparous, viviparous 
paro, I make ready — preparation, pare, parade, parry, apparel, pre- 
pare, repair, reparation 



LATIN ROOTS. 181 

pars, a part — particle, partake, partition, party, partisan, partial, 
partner, parboil, parcel, apartment, impart, impartiality 

pasco (past), I feed — pastor, pastoral, pasture, antepast, repast 

pater, a father — paternal, paternity, patrimony, patron, patronize, 
patrician 

patior (pass), I suffer — patience, patient, impatient, passive, passion- 
ate, compassion 

patria, one's country — ^patriot, patriotism, compatriot, expatriate 

pax, peace — peace, pacify, pacific, pacification 

pello (puis), I drive— pulse, pulsation, compel, dispel, expulsion, im- 
pulse, repulsion ^ 

pello, I name, or call — appellative, compellation, appeal, repeal 

pendeo, I hang — pendent, pendulum, depend, impend, suspense, ap- 
pendix 'J 

pendo (liens), I weigh — pensive, expense^i^j^peuditure, compensation, 
dispense, recompense, stipend, stipendiary-^ 

penetro, I pierce — peneti;^, penetration, impenetrable 

pes (ped), the foot— pedal, pedestal, pedestrian, biped, quadruped, 
expedite, expedient, impediment 

peto, I seek — petition, petulant, appetite, compete, competitor, im- 
petus, impetuous, repeat, repetition 

pingo (pict), I paint — picture, pigment, pictorial, picturesque, depict 

plus, dutiful — piety, impious, impiety 

plaeeo, I please — placid, complacency, complaisant, displease, im- 
placable 

plauta, a plant — plantation, plantain, implant, supplant, transplant 

plaudo (plaus) I praise— plaudit, applaud, plausible, applause, ex- 
plode, explosion 

pleo (plet), I fill — plenary, plenty, complement, complete, depletion, 
replenish, supply, supplement 

plico, I fold — apply, complicate, complex, display, duplicity, explicate, 
implicit, perplex, simple, triplet 

ploro, I wail — deplore, explore, implore 

pluma, a feather — plumage, plump, plumeless, plumule 

poena, pain or punishment — pain, penal, j)enalty, penance, peniten- 
tiaiy, imiJunity, repent 

polio, I smooth — polish, polite, interpolation 

pondus (ponder), weight — pound, ponderous, ponder, preponderate, 
imponderable 

pono (posit), I place — post, posture, position, apposite, deposition, dis- 
pose, expositor,apposition, propose, purpose, repose, transposition 

populus, the people — popular, populace, population, depopulate, pub- 
lic, publish, republic 

porto, I carry- — porter, portable, export, import, importunity, report, 
transportation 



182 ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DEKIVATION OF WORDS. 

potens, powerful— potent, potentate, potential, -ity,-ly, impotent, 

omnipotent 
poto, I drink — potation, potion, potable 

praeda, inlander — prey, predatory, predaceous, depred-ation,-ator 
prehendo, I take — apprehend, comprehension, apprentice, reprehend 
premo (press), I press — print, pressure, compress, depression, express, 

oppression, repress, suppression, irrepressible 
pretium, a price — precious, appreciate, prize, appraise, depreciation 
primus, iirst — prime, primate, primer, prince, principal,primogeniture 
privo, I take away — deprive, privation, privative 
privus, one's own, or single — private, privacy, privilege 
probo, I prove — probe, probation, probable, approbation, improve, 

disprove, reprobate 
promo (prompt), I bring forth, I tell — prompter, prompt, promptly, 

promptitude, impromptu 
prope (prox), near — propinquity, propitiate, proximate, approximate, 

approach 
proprius, one's own — proper, property, appropriate, propriety, impro- 
priety 
pndor, shame — impudent, impudence, repudiate 
pugno, I fight — pugnacious, pugilist, impugn, repugnance 
pulmo, the lungs — pulmonary, pulmonic 
pulvis, {pulver), dust — pulverize, pulverable, pulverization 
pungo (punct), I prick — pungent, puncture, punctuation, punctilions, 

punctuality, compunction, expunge, point, appoint 
purge, I cleanse — purge, purgative, purgatory, purgatorial 
purus, clean — purify, purity, puritan, impure, impurity 
pus (pur), matter of a sore — pustule, pustulate, purulent, suppurate 
puto, I reckon, I prune — ^putative, compute, dispute, deputy, imputa- 
tion, repute ; amputate 
putris, rotten — ^putrefy, putrefaction, putrid, putridity, putrescence 

qualis, of what kind— qualify, quality, disqualify 

quantum, how much — quantity, quantitative 

quaere (quis, ques), I seek — quest, question, acquire, disquisitio'.i, 

inquire, request, requisition, perquisite 
quatio, I shake — quash, concussion, discuss, percussion 
quatuor, four — quart, quarter, quartern, quadruped, quadrant 
qviies, rest^quiet, quiescence, inquietude, disquietude, acqnlcoce 
quot, how many — quote, quotient, quotation, quotidian 

radius, a ray — radiant, radiation, irradiate, radius 
radix, a root — radicle, radical, radish, eradicate 
rado {ras), I scrape — raze, razor, erase, abrasion, rasure 
ramixs, a branch — ramify, ramification 



LATIN BOOTS. 183 

rapio, I carry off — rapacious, rapid, rapine, rapture, surreptitious 

rarus, thin — rarefy, rarefaction, rare 

rego (rect), I rule — regal, regent, regimen, regular, register, rector, 
reign, direct, rectify 

repo, I creep — reptile, reptilian 

res, a thing — real, realize, republic 

rideo (ris), I laugh — ridicule, ridiculous, risible, deride, derision 

rigeo, I am stiff — rigidity, rigor, rigorously 

rivus, a stream — river, rivulet, rival, rivalry, arrive, derive, derivation 

redo (ros), I gnaw — corrode, corrosion, corrosive, erasion 

rota, a wheel — rote, rotate, rotatory ; rotund, routine 

rudis, rude, ignorant — rudiment, erudite, erudition 

rus (rui-), the country — rural, rustic, rusticity, rusticate 

rumpo (nipt), I break — rupture, abrupt, bankrupt, corruption, inter- 
rupt, irruption 

sacer, sacred — sacrament, sacrifice, consecrate, execrable, sacrilege 
sagax, wise — sage, sagacious, sagacity, presage 
sal, salt — saline, saltish, sauce, saucy 

salio (suit), I leap — salient, saltation, assault, sally, desultory, exal- 
tation, insult, result, resilient 
salus (sahit), health — salute, salutary, salubrious, salvage, salve, 

salutary, salvation 
sancio (sawct), I confirm — sanction, sanctify, sanctity, saint, sanctuary 
sanguis [sanguin], blood — sanguine, sanguinary, sanguineous, ensan- 
guine 
sapio, I taste, I am wise — sapient, savor, sapid, insipid, insipidity 
satis, enough — satisfy, satisfaction, sate, satiate, insatiable 
scando, I climb — scan, ascend, ascension, condescension, descend, 

transcend 
scindo (sciss), I cut — scissors, scissure, abscession, rescind, rescension 
scio, I know — science, scientific, sciolist, conscience, omniscience, 

prescience 
Bcribo [script), I write — scribe, scripture, scribble, description, in- 
scribe, manuscript, superscription 
sculpo, I carve — sculptor, sculpture, sculptured 
seco {sect), I cut — sect, section, dissect, insect, intersection, trisect 
sedeo (s^ss), I sit — seat, sedate, sedentary, session, assiduous, preside, 

possess, supersede 
semen, seed — seminal, seminary, disseminate 
senex, old — senile, senator, senior, seniority, seignior 
sentio {sens), I feel, I think — sense, sensuous, sensitive, sensible, sen- 
tient, sentiment, sentence, assent, dissension 
eequor (secut), I follow— second, sequence, execute, subsequent, pro- 
secute, obsequies, subsequent 



184 ETYMOLOGY OR THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

sero (sert), I knit or join — series, assert, insertion, desertion, exert 

serpo, I creep — serpent, serpentine, serpentize 

servo, I keep or wait — serve, servant, servile, servitude, conserve, 
observe, preservation, subservience 

aeverus, strict — severe, severity, persevere, asseveration 

signum, a mark — sign, signify, assign, consignment, designate, resig- 
nation, insignificant 

silex, flint — silicious, silicate, silicify 

similis, like — similar, similarity, similitude, assimilate, resemble, 
dissimulation, simulation 

sinus, a curve or bay — insinuate, sinuosity 

socius, a companion — social, sociable, society, association, dissociate 

sol, the sun — solar, parasol, solarize 

8oUdus, solid — solidity, solidify, solder, consolidate 

solve, I loose — solvency, solve, solution, soluble, absolve, absolute, 
revolution 

solus, alone — sole, solitude, solitary, desolate, soliloquy 

sono, I sound — sonnet, sonoraus, consonant, dissonance, resound, 
unison 

sorbeo, I suck in — absorbent, absorb, -ing, absorption, reabsorb 

sors (sort), a lot — sort, assort, consort, resort, sorcery 

spargo (spers), I scatter — asperse, aspersion, disperse, intersperse 

spatium, space — spacious, expatiate, spaciousness 

specie, specto, I look — special, specious, specimen, spectacle, spectator, 
aspect, conspicuous, expect, prospect, suspicion 

spero, I hope — desperate, despair, prosper, prosperity 

spiro, I breathe — spirit, spiritual, sprite, aspirant, conspire, dispirit, 
expiration, iminspired 

splendeo, I shine — splendid, splendor, resplendent 

spondee (spons) , I promise — sponsor, spouse, correspondence, irre- 
sponsible, respond 

sponte, of one's own will — spontaneous, -ly,-ness, spontaneity 

statue, I set up, I appoint — statue, statute, constitute, institute, 
institution, substitute 

Stella, a star — stellar, constellation, stellated, stellular 

stilla, a drop — still, distil, instil, distillation 

stinguo (stinct), I put out — distinguish, distinct, extinguish, extinct, 
instinctive 

sto {stan, stit), I stand — stable, stablish, state, station, stationary, 
constant, distant, instantaneous, obstacle, rest, solstice, substan- 
tive, substitute 

stratus, thrown down — strata, prostrate, stratify, stratification 

stringo (strict), I hold fast — stringent, astringent, strict, stricture, 
strain, straitness, restrict, restrain, distrain, distress, unre- 
stricted 



LATIN ROOTS. 185 

struo {struct), I build — destroy, destructive, instruct, instrument, 
superstructure 

stupeo, I am stunned, amazed — stupid, -ly,-ity, stupendous 

sumo (sumpt), I take — assume, consumption, presume, resume, sump- 
tuary, sumptuous 

surgo (surrect), I rise — insurgent, insurrection, resurrection 

tango {tact), I touch— tangent, tangible, tactility, contact, contagion, 
contiguous, contingent 

tego {tect), I cover — tegument, protect, detection, protectorate 

temuo {ternpt), I despise — contemn, contemptible, contemptuous 

tempus, time — temporal, contemporary, extemporaneous 

tendo {tens), I stretch — tendency, attend, extension, intention, osten- 
tation, pretence, subtend 

teneo {tent), I hold — tenable, tenant, tenet, contain, detention, ab- 
stinence, continuance, impertinent, maintain, obtain, sustenance 

tenuis, thin — tenuity, attenuate, extenuation 

terminus, a bound — term, terminate, determine, extermination, in- 
terminable 

tero (trit), I rub — trite, triturate, tret, attrition, contrite, detriment 

terra, the earth — terrestrial, terraqueous, terrace, inter, subterraneous 

terreo, I frighten — terrible, deter, deterrent, terror 

testis, a witness — test, testify, testament, attest, detest, intestate, 
protestation 

texo, I wear— textile, texture, context, pretext, tissue 

timeo, I fear — timorous, timidity, timidly 

tolero, I bear — tolerant, tolerable, intolerant, toleration 

torpeo, I am benumbed — torpid, torpidity, torpidly 

torqueo {tort), I twist — torture, tortuous, torment, contortion, dis- 
tort, extortion, retort 

torreo, I parch — torrid, toast, torrefy, torrent 

totus, the whole — total, totality, totally 

traho (tract), I draw — trace, tractable, tractile, attract, abstract, dis- 
traction, extraction, portray, retract, protract 

tremo, I shake, tremble — tremendous, tremble, tremulous . 

trepidus, fearful — trepidation, intrepid, intrepidity 

tres, three — trio, tripod, triangle, trinity, trice 

tribuo, I give — attribute, distribution, retributive 

cricae, wiles — tricks, trickery, intricate, extricate, inextricable, in- 
trigue, tress 

t>-udo(frits), I thrust — intrude, intrusion, extrude, protrusion 

tuber, a swelling — tubercle, tubercular, tuberose 

tneor, I observe — tutor, tuition, intuitive, tutelary 

turba, a crowd — turbulent, disturb, imperturbable, perturbation^ 
turbid 



186 ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DERIVATION OP WORDS. 

uber, fruitful — exuberant, exuberance 

umbra, a shade — umbrageous, iimbrella, adumbrate, penumbra 

imda, a wave — undulate, undulation, redundant, inundate, abound, 

abundant 
unguo {unci), I anoint — unguent, unction, unctuous 
unus, one — uniforqa, unicorn, unilateral, unique 
urbs, a city — urban, urbanity, suburbs, suburban 
uro {list), I burn — inure, combustion, incombustible 
utor (us), I use — utility, utilitarian, utensil, useful, usefulness, usury, 

abuse, disuse 



vaco, I am empty — vacant, vacancy, vacation, vacate 

vacuus, empty — evacuate, evacuation, vacuum 

vado, I go — evade, evasion, invade, pervade 

vagor, I wander — vagrant, vagabond, vagary, extravagance 

valeo, I am strong, I am worth — value, valor, iV^lid, valiant, avail, 
valetudinarian, convalescence, invalid, prevalent 

vanus, empty — vanish, vanity, vain, vainly 

vapor, steam — ^vapory, evaporate, vapid, vapidness 

vario, I change — variable, various, variance, Variety, variegate 

vas, a dish — vase, vascular, vessel 

vasto, I lay waste — vast, vastness, devasta^n, waste, wasteful 

veho, I carry — vehicle, convey, inveigh, invective 

vello (vuls), I pull — convulsion, revulsion 

velo, I cover — veil, revelation, reveal, unveil 

velox, swift — velocity, velocimeter, velocipede 

vendo, I sell — vend, vendor, vendible, vendue, venal 

ventus, the wind — vent, ventilate, ventil-ation,-ator 

venio {vent), I come — convene, contravene, advent, convention, in- 
vention, revenue 

verbum, a word — verbal, verbose, adverb, proverbial 

verto (vers), I turn — verse, version, vertex, advert, aversion, adver- 
sity, perversion, universe 

varus, true — verity, veracious, verify, verdict, aver 

vestigium, a trace or mark — vestige, investigate 

vestis, a garment — vest, vestment, vestry, divest, investment 

via, a way — deviate, devious, impervious, previous, trivial, undeviat- 
ing, viaduct 

vicis, a change — vicar, vicarage, vicarious, vicegerent, vicissitude 

video (vis), I see — vision, visible, visit, evident, providence, revise, 
supervision 

vigeo, I flourish — vegetable, vegetate, vegetation, vigor, vigorous, in- 
vigorate, vigil, vigilant 

villa, a farm — village, villain, villany, villanage 



GREEK ROOTS. 187 

vinco {vict), I conquer — victor, convince, evince, province, vanquish, 

invincible 
vinum, wine — vinous, vintage, vinegar, vineyard, wine 
vir, a man — virile, virility, virtue, virago, triumvirate 
virus, poison — virulent, virulence 
viscus, glue — viscid, viscidity, viscous 
vita, life — vital, vitality, vitalize 
vitrtun, glass — vitreous, vitrefy, vitrefaction, vitriol 
vivo, I live — vivid, vivacious, vivify, revive, convivial 
voco, I call — voice, vocal, vocation, vociferate, advocate, invocation, 

convoke, revoke 
volo, I am willing — voluntary, volition, benevolence, volunteer 
volo, I fly — volatile, volatility, volatilize 

volvo, I roll — volume, voluble, convolve, develop, revolution, revolt 
voro, I devour — voracious, devour, carnivorous, omnivorous 
voveo, I vow — vote, votary, votive, devote, devotion 
vulgus, the common people — vulgar, -ity, divulge, promulgate 
vulnus {vulner), a wound — vulnerable, vulnerary, invulnerable 



SECTION V. 
GREEK EOOTS* 

aer, the air — aerial, aerolite, aeronaut, artery, arterial, airy, airiness 

ago, I lead — demagogue, synagogue, pedagogue, stratagem, strategy 

agon, strife — agony, antagonist, antagonism, agonize 

akouo, I hear — acoustic, acoustics, acoumeter 

angelSs, a messenger — angelic, angel, archangel, evangel, -ize,-ist, 
-ism,-ical 

authropos, a man — anthropology, philanthropy, misanthropy 

arche, beginning, sovereignty — archaism, archives, archon, anarchy, 
monarchy, oligarchy, patriarch, tetrarch 

aster, or astron, a star — astronomy, astronomical, astrology ; aster, 
asterisk; astral, disaster, disastrous 

athletes, a wrestler — athlete, athletic 

atmSs, vapor — atmosphere, atmospherical 

autos, one's self — autocrat, autograph, automaton, autonomy, auto- 
biography, tautology 

hallo, I throw — ball, ballet, emblem, hyperbole, parable, problem, 

symbol, diabolical 
baptizo, I dip or sprinkle — baptist, baptism, baptismal, anabaptist, 

pasdobaptist 

* The Greek letters arc expressed bj- their Knglisli equivalents. 



188 ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

basis, the bottom — basement, baseless, bass, abase, debase, abashed, 

bashful 
biblSs, a book — bible, bibliography, bibliopolist, bibliomania 
bios, a life — biography, biology, amphibious 

character, a mark of distinction — character, characterize, character- 
istic 

charis, love, or thanks — charity, charitable, eucharist, eucharistic 

cheir, the hand — chirography, chirology, chiromancy, enchiridion, 
chirurgeon, (whence surgeon) 

chole, bile, anger — melancholy, choler, choleric 

christSs, anointed — Christ, chrism, christen, Christianity, Christmas, 
antichrist 

chroma, color — chrome, chromatics, achromatics 

clir6n6s,time — chronic, chronical, chronology, chronometer, anachron- 
ism, synchronous, synchronize, synchronism 

cosmos, order, the world — cosmical, cosmogony, cosmopolite, micro- 
cosm, cosmetic 

cranion, a skull — cranium, craniology, pericranium 

cratos, power — democratic, aristocracy, autocratic, theocracy 

crites, a judge — critic, criticism, crisis, diacritical, hypocrisy 

crupto, I hide — crypt, cryptography, apocrypha 

euclos, a circle — cycle, encyclical, epicycle, encyclopaedia, encyclope- 
dist, Cyclops 

daimon, a spirit — demon, demoniac, demonism, demonology, pande- 
m©nium 

deka, ten — decade, decalogue, decagon, indecagon, dean 

demos, the people — demagogue, democracy, endemic, epidemic, pan- 
demic 

despotes, a master — despotic, despotism 

dogma, doxa, opinion, glory — dogma, dogmatic, dogmatize, dogma- 
tism, doxology, orthodox, heterodox, paradoxical 

dotos, given — antidote, anecdote, anecdotal 

dynamis, power — dynamics, dynameter, dynasty, dynastic 

eid5s, form — asteroid, conoid, spheroid, kaleidoscope 
electron, amber — electrical, electricity, electrify, electro-dynamics 
ergon, work— energy, liturgy, metallurgy, georgic, organ, -ization 
ethuos, a nation — ethnical, ethnology, ethnographer 
ethos, custom — ethics, ethical 

eu, well (in composition) — euphony, euphemism, eulogy, eucharist, 
evangelist 

gamoB, marriage — agamist, bigamy, misagamist, polygamy 



GREEK ROOTS. 189 

ge, the earth — geocentric, geography, geology, geometry; apogee, 
perigee 

gennao, I produce — genesis, genealogy, homogeneous, oxygen, hydro- 
gen, nitrogen 

ginosko,! know — gnomon, gnosticism, diagnostic, physiognomy, prog- 
nostic 

glossa or glotta, the tongue — gloss, glossary, glossarial, glottis, epi- 
glottis, polyglot 

g6nia,au angle —pentagon, heptagon, polygon, diagonal, trigonometry 

gi-amma, ^ letter — grammar, anagram, diagram, epigram, pro- 
gramme, telegram 

grapho, I write — graphic, grave, aiitograph, epigraph, biography, 
geography, paragraph, telegraph, topography, &c. 

gumuos, naked — gymnast, gymnastics, gymnasium 

gune, a woman — gynocracy, misogynist, mysogyny 

hedra, a seat — cathedral, sanhedrim, polyhedron, &c. 
helios, the sun — heliocentric, helioscope, heliotrope, aphelion, peri- 
helion, parhelion 
hemera, a day — ephemera, ephemeral, ephemeris 
heteros, another — heteroclite, heterodox, heterogeneous 
liieros, sacred — hierarchy, hieroglyphic, hierography, hierophant 
histemi, to place — apostate, ecstasy, statics, statistic, system, sys- 
tematize 
hodos, a way — episode, exodus, method, -ist,-ical, period, -ical, synod 
homos, like — homogeneous, homologous, homonymous 
hudor, water — hydraulics, hydrogen, hydrophobia, hydrostatics, an- 
hydrous 
humneo, I sing — hymn, hymnal, hymnology 

idios, idiom— idiot, idiocy, idiosyncrasy 

isos, equal (in composition) — isochronous, isosceles, isothermal 

lambano {hps), I take — syllable, catalepsy, epilepsy 

laos, the people — laity, laic, lay, as opposed to clerical 

leg5, I speak or collect — lexicon, dialect, eclectic, elegy, prolegomena 

lithos, a stone — aerolite, lithography, lithotomy, monolith 

logos, a word — logic, analogy, apologue, catalogue, decalogue, dialogue, 

entomology, geology, neology, theology, zoology, &c. 
luo, I loose — analyze, analysis, palsy, paralytic 
lura, a lyre — lyric, lyrical, lyrist, lyrated 

mache, a fight — logomachy, monomachy, naumachy, sciomachy 
mania, madness — maniac, monomania, bibliomania 
martur, a witness — martyr, martyrdom, martyrology, protomartyr 
matbema, knowledge — philomath, poljmathy, mathema-tics,-tical, 
-tician 



190 ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DERIVATION OP WORDS. 

mochane, a machine^racsb-aaic, mechanics, mechanism, machination, 

machinist 
melos, a song — melody, melodious, melodrama ; Philomel 
xnetron, a measure — metre, metrical, barometer, diameter, geometry, 

perimeter, symmetry, thermometer, trigonometry 
micros, small — microscopic, microcosm, micrography, micrology 
miseo, I hate — misanthropist, misogynist, misogamist 
mnema, memory — mnemonics, mnemotechny, amnesty 
monos, one — monad, monarch, monarchy, monk, monastic, monopoly, 

monotheism, monotony , 

morphe, shape — amorphous, metamorphose, polymorphous 
mnthos, a fable — myth, mythical, mythology 

nans, aship — nautical, nautilus, aeronaut, nausea, nauseous, nauseate 
necros, dead — necropolis, necromancy 

nomSs, a law, or rule — anomaly, antinomian, astronomy, economy 
neuron, a nerve — neuralgia, neurology, aneurism 

6d5, a song — ode, epode, monody, parody, psalmody ; comedy, tragedy 

oikos, a house — economy, diocese, parochial, parish 

onoma, a name — anonymous, metonymy, paronymous, patronymic, 

synonymous 
Sptomai, I see — optics, optical, optician, catoptrics, dioptrics, myopy, 

synopsis 
orama, a view — cosmorama, diorama, panorama 
orthos, right — orthodox, orthoepy, orthography 
osteSn, a bone — osteology, periosteum 
oxus, sharp, acid — oxide, oxygen, oxytone, paroxysm 

pais, a child — pedagogue, pedagogy, psedobaptism 

pan, all (in composition) — panacea, pandemic, panoply, pantheism 

pathos, feeling — pathetic, pathology, antipathy, apathy, sympathy 

petalon, a leaf — petals, bipetalous, polypetalous, &c. 

petros, a stone— petrify, putrescent, petroleum 

phago, I eat — anthropophagi, ichthyophagi, sarcophagus 

phaino, I appear — phasis, phantom, phenomenon, fantasy, sycophant 

pharmakon, a remedy — pharmacy, pharmaceutical, pharmacology 

pliemi(p7(as),I speak — blaspheme, blasphemy, emphasis, euphemism, 

prophet 
pliero, I bear — periphery, metaphor, phosphorus 
pMlos, a friend — philanthropy, philosopher, philter, Theophilus 
phone, asound — phonetic, aphony, euphonious, symphony, tautophony 
phos, light — phosphor, phosphorus, photography, photometer 
phrasis, a phrase — phraseology, paraphrase, periphrase 
phren, the mind — phrenology, frenzy, frantic, frenetic 
phusis, natme—physic, physiology, physiognomy, metaphysics 



GREEK KOOTS. 191 

plasso, I form — plastic, plasm, plaster, cataplasm, protoplastic 
pnonma, the wind, a breath — ^pneumatics, pneumatology, pneumonia, 

pnenmonic 
poleo, I make — poem, poet, poetical, poesy 
pOleo, I sell — bibliopolist, monopoly, pharmocopolist 
pfilis, a city — police, policy, politic, polity, metropolis, political, cos- 
mopolite, necropolis 
pClns, many — polygon, polyglot, polysyllable 
pons (pod), a foot — antipodes, polypus, tripod 
prasso {pragma), I do — practice, practical, impracticable, praxis, 

pragmatical, pragmatist 
protbs, first — protasis, protocol, prototype, protoplast 
psallo, to play — psalm, psalmody, psalmist, psalter, psaltery 
pseuche, breath, soul — psychology, metempsychosis, psych omachy 
pur, fire — pyre, pyramid, pyrotechny, pyrometer, empyreal 

rheo, I flow — rheum, rhetoric, rheumatism, catarrh, diarrhcea, resin 

sarx, flesh — sarcasm, sarcophagy, sarcotic, anasarca 
scfipeo, I see — scope, helioscope, polyscope, telescope, bishop, episco- 
pacy, microscope, horoscope, kaleidoscope. 
s5phos, wise — sophism, sophistry, sophisticate, philosophy 
sphaira, a sphere — sphericity, atmosphere, hemisphere 
stereos, solid, firm — stereotype, stereoscope 
stichos, aline, a verse — distich, hemistich, decastich, acrostic 
stello, I send — apostle, epistle 
strophe, a turning — apostrophe, catastrophe, antistrophe 

tasso, I arrange — tact, tactics, syntax 

taphos, a tomb — epitaph, cenotaph 

teclme, art — technical, technology, polytechnic, pyrotechnist 

tele, afar off — telegraph, telescope, teleology, telegram 

theSs, God — theism, theology, atheist, pantheon, theocracy 

thermos, hot — thermometer, thermal, isothermal 

tithemi, I place — theme, thesis, antithesis, epithet, synthesis 

tome, a cutting^atom, atomic, anatomy, entomology, epitome, litho- 
tomy, phlebotomy 

tSnos, a sound — tone, tonic, semitone, oxytone, detonate, intonation, 
monotony 

tSpos, a place — topic, topical, topography, utopian 

toxicon, poison — intoxicate, intoxication 

trSpos, a turn — trope, tropical, heliotrope 

tupos, a pattern or figure- type, typical, typify, typography, anti- 
type, stereotype 

zoon, an animal — zodiac, zoology, zoography, zootomist ; azote 



192 ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. 



SECTION VL 
Names of the Arts and Sciences. 

Arts, ars, skill in joining something — the objects of art are works. 
Science, scio, I know — the object of science is knowledge. 
Science is knowledge methodically arranged. Art is science 
practically applied. 



akouo, I hear — the science of sound 

an Arabic word of doubtful derivation, probably 

from al, the, and geher, strong — a kind of uni- 
versal arithmetic 
ana, up, and temno, I cut — the science which treats 

of the structure of the human body 
archos, chief, and tecton, builder — the science or art 

of building 
aritlimos, number — the science of numbers 
aster, a star, and logos, a discourse — a pretended art 

of foretelling future events by the position of the 

stars 
aster, and nomos, a law, the science which treats of 

the heavenly bodies 
hios, life, and grapho, I write — the art of writing an 

account of the lives of individuals 
hios, and logos — the science of life 
botane, a plant — the science of plants 
kimia, hidden — the science which treats of element- 
ary substances 
conclie, a shell, and logos — the science of shells 
crystallography crystallos, a crystal, and grapho — the science which 

treats of the origin and formation of crystals 
dendron, a tree, and logos — the natural history of 

trees 
dunamis, power — the science of moving powers 
diviims, divine — the science of divine things 
electron, amber — the science which explains the laws 

of the electric fluid 
ethos, a custom — the science of morals 
ge, the earth, and /0.170s — the science wliich treats of 

the formation and structure of the earth 
ge, and grapho, a description of the surface of the 

earth 
geometry ge, and metron, a measure — the science of magnitude 



acoustics 
algebra 



anatomy 

architecture 

arithmetic 
astrology 



astronomy 

biography 

biology 
botany 
chemistry 

conchology 



dendrology 

dynamics 

divinity 

electricity 

ethics 
geology 

geography 



NAMES OF THE ARTS AND SCIENCES. 



193 



hydraulics fmdor, water, and aule, a pipe — the science which 

treats of fluids in motion 

hydrostatics hiidor, anAstatics, standing — the science which treats 
of fluids at rest 

hydrodynamics hudor, and dunamis, power — a science which em- 
braces both hydraulics and hydrostatics 

history historia, learning by inquiry — an account of facts. 

It is of various kinds, as civil and natural, poli- 
tical and ecclesiastical, sacred and profane 

lexicography lego, lexicos, I speak, grapho — the art of writing dic- 
tionaries 

magnetism magnes, a dweller in Magnesia — the science which 

explains the phenomena of the magnet 

mathematics viathema, learning — the science which treats of the 
relations and measurement of quantities, and in- 
cludes arithmetic, algebra, geometry, &c. 

mechanics mcchane, a means, or contrivance — the science which 

treats of the laws of motion, including both 
statics and dynamics 

meteorology meteora, meteors, and logos — the science of the atmos- 
phere and its phenomena 

mineralogy mineral, from mine, and logos — the science of minerals 

neology nous, the mind, and logos — the science of intellectual 

facts 

optics ops, the eye — the science of light and vision 

physics phusis, nature — the science of nature, natural philo- 

sophy 

physiology phusis, and logos — the science which treats of the 

functions of living bodies 

phonetics phone, sound— the science of articulate sounds 

phonography phone, and grapho — the art of writing by sound, each 
sound having a distinct character 

photography phos, light, and grapho — the art of printing by the 
action of light 

pneumatics pneuma, a breath — the science which treats of the 
mechanical properties of the air 

pneumatology pneuma, and logos — the science of mind or spirit 

politics polis, a city — the science or art of government 

psychology psuche, mind or soul, and logos — the science of the 

mind 

stenography stenos, close, and grapho — shorthand writing 

statics sto {stat), I stand — the science which treats of bodies 

at rest 

statistics sfo {stat), I stand — the science which classifies and 

arranges facta 



194 



ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DERIVATION OF WORD*. 



telegraphy tele, afar off, and grapho — the art of writing at • 

distance 
theology theos, God, and logos — the science which treats of the 

nature and attributes of God 
trigonometry treis, three, gonia, an angle, metron, a measnre — the 

art of measuring triangles 
topography topos, a place, and grapho — a description of a plac« 
zoology zoon, an animal, and logos — the science which treats 

of the nature, habits, and haunts of animals 



Words derived from Proper Names. 

bayonet a short, triangular dagger, to be fixed on the end of 

a musket — from Bayonne, where it was first 

made 
burke to murder, to get rid of — a modern term, derived 

from the name of a murderer, executed in 1829 
calico a kind of cotton cloth — from Calicut, where it was 

first manufactured 
cambric a fine, white cloth, linen or cotton — from Cambray, 

where it was originally manufactured 
cicerone a loquacious guide — ^from Cicero, the Roman orator 

currant a small, dried grape — from Corinth, whence first 

brought 
daguerrotype a picture obtained by the rays of light falling upon a 

prepared plate — from Daguerre, the name of the 

inventor 
damask cloth woven with flowers and figures — from Damas- 

cus, whence it was originally brought 
dunce a blockhead — from a learned schoolman named Duns 

Scotus, or John Scot of Dunse, often quoted by 

his followers 
epicurean luxurious — from Epicurus, an ancient philosopher, 

who considered pleasure the chief good 
guillotine an instrument of capital punishment — from Ouillo- 

tin, the name of the supposed inventor of it 
guinea a coin worth five dols., first coined in 1662, of gold 

brought from the coast of Guinea 
gipsy or gypsy a wanderer or vagrant — from Egyptian 
herculean powerful — from Hercules, an ancient giant of my- 

thology 
hyrtaneal pertaining to marriage — from Hymen, the god of 

marriage 
jOTiai merry — from Jupiter, jovis, the planet. To be born 

nnder this planet was to have a happy augury 



THE NAMES OP tllE MONTHS AND DATS. 



195 



macadamize 

mansolenm 

meander 

mercnrial 

milliner 

maslin 

Philippic 

Platonic 

satomine 

Socratic 

stentorian 

tantalize 

tariff 

worsted 



to cover a road with broken stones — from MacAdam, 

the projector of the plan 
a magnificent tomb — from Matisolus, to whom such 

a monument was erected by his widow 
to flow in a winding course — from Meander, a river 

in Phrygia noted for its windings 
lively — from planet Mercury, as all born under that 

planet are supposed to be light-hearted 
one who makes or sells bonnets — supposed to be 

from Milan, whence the articles were imported 
a fine cotton fabric — from Mosul, where it was first 

manufactured 
an invective — from Philip, against whom Demos- 
thenes delivered some of his most fiery orations 
pure and spiritual, generally applied to affection — 

from Plato, who warmly advocated such a love 
gloomy, from the planet Saturn, whose influence 

was supposed to make a person stern and grave, 

Ihe opposite of mercurial 
questioning, applied to a mode of reasoning — from 

Socrates, the philosopher, who used this method 

in teaching 
very loud — from Stentor, a Greek herald, whose 

voice was said to have equalled the united voices 

of fifty men 
to tease or vex — from Tantalus, who, according to 

mythology, was punished by having water placed 

so, that whenever he attempted to drink, it re- 
ceded from his lip 
duty or customs — from Tarifa, a place near the 

Straits of Gibraltar, where the Moors were 

accustomed to levy tribute on the merchant ships 

sailing past 
a kind of woollen yarn — from Worsted, a place in 

England where it was spun 



Names of the Months and Days. 

Tear A.-S. year — a cycle, or period of time, a revolution 

Month A.-S.mona — the moon, or mooneth = month 

Week A.-S. weak — a period of seven days 

Day A.-S. daeg — a day, or from the rising to the setting 

of the sun 

January Janus — the god of the year, or janua, a gate 

FehraaiT Pebrua—a, festival usually held in that month 



196 ETYMOLOGY, OB THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

March Mars — the god of war — the first month of the Ro- 

man year 

April Aprilis — from aperio, I open, the opening month 

May Mains — from majores, old men, because the mouth 

was consecrated to old men ; or from Maia, the 
mother of Mercury 

June Juno — a goddess, ox junior es, young men 

July Julius Caesar 

August Augustus Caesar 

Septemher Septem, seven, the seventh month from March 

October Octo, eight — the eighth month 

November Novem, nine, the ninth month 

December Decern, ten, the tenth month 

Sunday A.-S. sunne, sun, and daeg, day — anciently devoted 

to the worship of the sun 

Monday Mona, the moon, and daeg, day — sacred to the moon 

Tuesday Tuisco — the Saxon god of war 

Wednesday Woden, or Odin — a northern deity or chief 

Thursday TJior — a fabled deity in the north of Europe 

Friday Friga—a. goddess, wife of Odin 

Saturday Saturnus — a Latin deity, the god of time 

Candlemas Feb. 2d — from candle and mass, feast of St Mary, so 

called because of the number of candles then used 
Easter 3d day after Good Friday — A .-S. Easter, supposed 

to be from Eostre, the Yenus of the north 
Whitsuntide 49th day after Easter — white, sunday, tide, so called 

from the white robes worn at the festival 
Lammas-day Aug. 1st — hlaf, bread, and messe, a feast, feast of 

first-fruits 
Michaelmas Sept. 29 — Feast of the Archangel Michael 
Martinmas Nov. 11th — Mass of St Martin 

Christmas Dec. 25th— Christ's mass, or feast 

Yule A.-S. jule, a feast — a name applied to the feast of 

Lammas and Christmas, usually the latter 



Terms of Measurement. 

Many of these were originally derived from parts of the body, or 
objects in common use — as nail, finger, hand, yard, ell, grain, peati.y- 

Weight. 



grain 
pennyweight 



1. Weight. 
L. granum, a single seed 
weight of a silver penny 



TERMS OF MEASUKEMENT. 

scruple L. scrupulus — a small rough stone 

draclim Gr. drachme — a Greek coin or weight 

ounce L. uncia, or unica — one part 

pound A.-S. pund; L. pondus — a weight 

hundredweight 100 pounds 
ton A.-S. tunne — butt, or cask 



197 



2. Value. 

farthing fourthing — a fourth part 

halfpenny one half of a penny 

penny A.-S. penig — a penny 

/ (First made of silver, and deeply indented by a 

cross, hence easily broken into two, or four 

parts.) 
shilling A.-S. schilling 

pound L. pondus — weight 

cent L. centum — a hundred 

dime L . decima — a tenth 

dollar A.-S. dcel — a portion ; Ger. tlutler 

3. Extent. 

inch same as ounce 

foot from foot, its length 

yard A.-S. gijrd — to gird, the girth of the body 

rod A.-S. rod — a long slender shoot 

furlong A.-S. fur, farrow, lang, long — a long furrow 

mile L. mille passuum — 1000 paces, the Eoman mile 

league L. leuca — a GaUic mile 

rood same as rod 

acre L. ager ; Ft. acre — a field 

cubit L. cubitus — leaning, elbow, from the elbow to the 

end of the fingers 

ell A.-S. elne ; L. ulna — the elbow, or arm, an arm's 

length 

fathom A.-S. fcethem — both arms extended 

hand A.-S. hand — the hand closed, four inches 

4. Capacity. 

gill A.-S. wcegel — one-fourth of a pint 

pint Gr. pino, I drink — one draught , 

quart L. quartus — fourth part [of a gallon) 

gallon Fr. gallon 

firkin A.-S. four kin — a fourth (of a barrel) 



198 ETYMOLOGY, OE THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

barrel Fr. baril 

pipe A.-S. pip — a hollow tube 

peck A.-S. pocca — a poke, or bag 

bushel Fr. boisseau, or boite — a box 

The following examples will illustrate the changes which woi'da 
undergo in derivation from the latin, through the French. 



Latin. 


French. 


English. 


Meaning. 


abbreviare 


abreger 


abridge 


to shorten 


alter 


autre 


other 


another 


armare 


armer 


arm 


to arm ^^ 


audire 


Guir 


hear 


to hear 


balsamam 


baume 


balm 


a fragrant gum 


brevis 


bref 


brief 


short 


charta 


carte 


card 


paper 


diluvium 


deluge 


deluge 


a flood 


humanus 


humain 


human 


human 


judex 


jage 


judge 


a judge 


jungere 


joindre 


join 


to unite 


linea 


ligne 


line 


a thread 


nasus 


nez 


nose 


the nose 


octo 


huit 


eight 


eight 


pauper 


pauvre 


poor 


poor 


peregrinus 


pelerin 


pilgrim 


wanderer 


pUcare 


plier 


ply 


to fold 


probare 


prouver 


prove 


to try 


publicare 


publier 


publish 


to announce 


pulvus 


poudre 


powder 


dust 


recipere 


recevoir 


receive 


to take back 


retinere 


retenir 


retain 


to hold back 


schola 


ecole 


school 


leisure 


signare 


signer 


sign 


to mark 


simulare 


sembler 


seem 


to feign 


ungere 


oindre 


anoint 


to smear 


ululare 


hurler 


howl 


to shout 


ultra 


outre 


out 


beyond 


vindemia 


vendange 


vintage 


grape-gathering 



Exercises. 

Attach roots to the following prefixes, and give both the literal and 
ordinary mQanings of the derivatives — a, be, for, fore, mis, out, over, 
under, un, with ; 

ab, amphi, ante, anti, ad, apo, con, de, dia, en, ex, in, ob, per, pre, 
pro, para, peri, re, se, sine, sub, syn, and trans. 



CHANGES UNDERGONE m DERIVATION. 199 

What forms do ad, con, ex, in, per, sub, and trans assume ? Give 
examples illustrating the different forms of each. 

Specify the relation expressed by each ofthe following prefixes, and 
give examples : — en, inter, ab, in, ex, post, pre, supra, sub, over, 
hypo, dia, cata, contra, ad, dis, epi, a, peri, bene, un, sine, en, and 
per. 

Distinguish between prefixes and aflaxes as to their use in deriva- 
tion, and state the principles on which they may be respectively 
classified. 

Use the following terminations in the formation of nouns : — ar, ard, 
er, ster, ate, ant, ist, ism, age, ance, dom, ship, ness, ment, ure, let, 
tion, ling, hood, cule. 

Form nouns from able, bishop, cordial, divide, eat, fat, grave, head, 
idle, judge, king, love, man, noble, omit, prefer, quack, repent, son, 
utter, vacant, waste, year, young. 

Form adjectives with the following terminations : — al, ar, ary, ic, 
id, ine, ile, ish, ous, some, ive, ful, ble, ent, like, ly, less, en, and y. 

Form adjectives from aim, beauty, defy, eight, fame, grace, 
hand, ice, joy, lady, move, notice, origin, porcp, quarrel, remedy, 
Bcom, transcend, use, vex, wave, youth. 

Form verbs from alien, black, canon, distinct, fertile, habit, im 
mortal, just, legal, moist, public. 

Form verbs with each of the following terminations : — ate, en, fy, 
ish, ize, er, and le. 

Explain the force of the affix in each of the following words : — 
Adventure, beauteous, condolence, dutiful, eagerness, fertiUty, grace- 
fulness, habituate, intimacy, justice, kindliness, lover, mansion, 
nature, option, penmanship, querulous, rectify, saturate, terminal, 
usurious, verify, western, youthfully, zealously. 

Trace the etymology of the following words ; and give the meaning 
of the roots, prefixes, and affixes : — Acrimony, armory, amiable, apti- 
tude, ajtful, audience, aggravate, apparent, beaefice, benevolent, 
belligerent, brevity, carnivorous, civilization, criminal, conscious, 
conjugal, colloquial, crucifix, docility, domestic, denominate, decency, 
deify, dictionary, dignify, indignity, ductility, education, edifice, 
entity, equatorial, experience, extraneous. 

Fabrication, facility, factory, fortitude, fertility, fidelity, fragment- 
ary, fraternal, fugitive, fusible, gravitate, gesticulation, granary, gov* 
ernment, habitude, hesitation, homicide, hostile, hun'.idity, horrible, 



200 ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

imitator, imagination, imperative, insular, internal, itinerate, itera- 
tion. 

Jacent, jocular, jurist, injustice, juncture, juvenile, judgment, 
lapse, legal, lapidary, dilapidation, military, magistrate, mortality, 
magnify, mortify, marine, navy, navigation, natal, novice, novel, 
numerate, octave, oculist, operator, original. 

Partisan, partial, parity.patrimony, penitent, pauperism, patriotism, 
pacific, ponderous, pendant, pedestrian, petition, picture, placid, 
plausible, plenitude, pliant, position, pontoon, publicly, purify, quad- 
rant, quality, qualification, question, quietude, quotient. 

Badiate, radical, razor, rapture, rational, rupture, rusticity, regu- 
larity, rectitude, rivulet, rotate, rudimental, sacred, sacrament, sanc- 
tity, saline, satisfy, senator, scientific, simultaneous, sequence, senti- 
ment, solar, solidity, somnolence, solution, sonorous, special, sponsor, 
spiritual, suasion. 

Table, tabulate, tangent, tenant, tenement, tenacity, temporal, 
temperance, temperament, tenuity, terminate, trite, terrace, textual, 
turbulent, umbrageous, undulation, unction, unity, urbanity, useful- 
ness, vacant, vagrancy, verbal, virility, virtue, vicarious, vitality, 
viator, verity, vocal, vocable, visible, visitation, vulgarity. 

Agriculture, anniversary, aqueduct, artificial, amanuensis, bene- 
factor, cornucopia, centipede, centrifugal, emancipate, equivalent, gra- 
minivorous, intersection, intervene, jurisdiction, lucifer, longevity, 
multiform, munificence, ossify, ossivorous, peninsular, pellucid, pro- 
vince, piscivorous, quadruped, rectangle, sacrifice, superscription, 
triennial, unicorn, valediction. 

Amateur, anoint, auspicious, apprise, betray, biscuit, ceiling, chief, 
complacent, convey, count, course, decree, discreet, deny, deliver, 
despair, devour, discuss, duke, eligible, expire, exult, flexible, fiction, 
flourish, grief, hotel, inquest, inveigh, jointure, lesson, mansion, 
mancBuvre, melon, normal, noun, ovation, occupy, peer, precipice, 
pursue, parricide, provoke, query, question, rely, relict, repair, 
resemble, scissors, siege, senior, surfeit, surpass, traitor, tutor, voice, 
volume. 

Aerate, aerolite, agony, antagonist, anachronism, autograph, atmos- 
phere, atheist, bibliography, blaspheme, bishop, cosmogony, criticism, 
christian, cyclopaedia, cosmorama, demagogue, democracy, diameter, 
evangelize, epidemic, etymology, glossary, hyperbole, hieroglyphic, 
hydrostatics, idiot, kaleidoscope, hthography, monarchy, microscope, 
polyglot, protomartyr, physician, panorama, photometer, politics, 
Btereotype, stereoscope, tautology, tripod, sarcophagus, tonic, typical. 



PREFIXES — AFFIXES. 201 

Examples of Derivatives. 

1, Pono, pos, I place. 

By Prefixes, 
pose interpose 

compose oppose 

recompose propose 

decompose propound 

discompose postpone 

compomid purpose 

decompound repone 

depose repose 

depone suppose 

dispose transpose 

redispose superimpose 

expose apposition 

expound opponent 

impose preposition 

reimpose 

By Affixes. 
From each of the preceding derivatives, formed by prefixes, several 
derivatives may be formed by affixes : — 

pose pos, -er, -ingly, -ited, -ition, -itional ; itive, -ly, -ness ; 

itiv,-isrn,-ist,-ity 

compose compos,- er,-t,-ition,-edly,-edness,-ite,-itor,-ure,-itive ; 

incomposite ; uncomposed 

recompose recompo3,-er, -ition 

decompose decompos,-er,-ition,-ite,-able; undecompos,-ed,-able 

discompose discompos,-ed,-edness,-ure 

compound compound,-ed,-er,-able; uncompound,-ed,-edly,-edness 

decompound decompound, -ed, -able ; undecompounded 

depose depos, -al,-able, -er, -it, -itary, -itor, -itory, -ition ; unde- 

pos,-ed,-abl6 

depone deponent 

dispose dispos, -al, -able, -edness, -ing, -ingly.-ition ; undispos, 

-ed,-edness 

indispose indispos,-ed, -edness, -ition 

redispose 

predispose predispos, -ing, -ition ; predispon,-ent,-ency 

expose expos, -ed,-er,-ition, -itive, -itor, -itory,-ure ; unexposed 

expound expounder ; unexpounded 

impose impos,-able,-ableness,-er,-ing,-ition ; nnimpos,-ed,-ing 

reimpose reimpos,-ition,-ed 



202 ■ BTTMOLOGT, OB THE DERIVATION OF WORDg. 



superimpose 

interpose 

oppose 

propose 

propound 

postpone 

purpose 

repone 

repose 

suppose 



BnperimpoB,-ition,-ed 

intei-poSj-alj-er.-it.-ition.-ure 

oppos,-able,-er,-mg,-ite,-itely,-itenes3,-ition,-itiomBt, 

-itive ; unopposed 
propos,-al,-er,-ition,-itional ; unproposed 
propounder 
postpon,-er,^ment 
purpos,-ed,-ly ; purposeless,-ly ; unpurposed 



repos,-al,-edness,-it,-ition,-itory ; unreposed 
Buppos,-able,-er,-ition,-itional; ititious,-ly,-ness; itive, 
-ly; itory 

presuppose presuppos,-al,-ition 

transpose traDspos,-al,-.ition,-itional,-itive ; untransposed 

apposition appositive, apposite,-ly,-ness 

opponent as an adjective, and as a noun 

preposition prepositional, prepos, -itive, -itor,-iture 

In like manner, write the derivatives of: — ago, amo, audio, cado, 
cssdo, canOjCapio, cedo, cerno, clamo, claudo, colo, credo, creo, cresco, 
cubo, curro, dico (diet), dico (dicat), divido, do, doceo, duco, emo, eo, 
erro, fari, facio, fendo, fero, ferveo, fido, figo, fingo, flecto, fligo, flue, 
frango, fugio, fulgeo, fundo, gero, gigno, gradior, habeo, hsero, halo, 
jacio, jungo, labor, lego, ligo, linquo, loguor, ludo, luo, mando, 
maneo, medeor, memini, mergo, meteor, migro, mineo, misceo, mitto, 
moneo, moveo, muto, nascor, noceo, nosco, nuncio, oleo, orior, oro, 
paro, pasco, patior, pello, pendeo, peto, pingo, placeo, plaudo, pleo, 
plico, porto, premo, pungo, puto, quaero, quatro, rado, rapio, rego, 
rideo, rogo, rumpo, salio, sancio, sapio, scando, scio, scindo, scribo, seco, 
sedeo, sentio, sequor, sero, servo, sisto, sol vo, spargo, specie, spiro, spon- 
deo, statuo, stinguo, stringo, struo, suadeo, sum(es«e), sumo, tango, tego, 
tendo, teneo, tero, texo, torqueo, traho, tribuo, trudo, vado, valeo, veho, 
venio, verto, video, vinco, vivo, voco, volvo, volo, voro, voveo, utor. 

2. Anima, the soul, or life ; animus, the mind. 
animate animat,-ed,-iug,-ion,-ive,-or ; inanimate, -d,-ness, -ion, 

unanimated, unanimating 
reanimate reanimation 

animal animal,-ism,-ity,-ize,-ization; unanimalized 

animalcule animalcul,-ar,-ine,-ist 
unanimous unammous,-ly,-nes3 ; unanimity 
equanimity 

magnanimity magnanimous, -ly 
pusillanimity pusillammous,-ly,-nes8 
animosity 
animadvert animadvert,-er, animadversion 



ANGLO-SAXON AND CLASSIC ELEMENTS. 203 

In like manner, let the pupil select any root and form all the 
derivatives he can, with the appropriate prefixes or affixes. This 
exercise will not only enable him to spell correctly, but also aid him 
in acquiring a knowledge of the meaning of a large number of words. 

Such exercises may be conducted either orally, or in writing ; when 
conducted orally, each member of the class should, in succession, give 
a derivative, spell, pronounce, and define it, in parts, and as a whole. 

The pupil may also be required to write out the derivatives, with 
their meaaings — thus ; 

Jungo, I join— junctus, joined, 

junction, juncture, a union all the parts and inflections of 

join, to unite a verb 

joiner, one who joins ; a carpenter conjunct, united 

joint, a union of two parts, which conjunction, act of joining 

admits motion ; a hinge conjuncture, meeting of events 

jointly, together ; in a united man- disjoin, to separate 

ner disjunction, separation ; disunion 

adjoin, to join to enjoin, to command 

adjoining, near to injunction, order ; precept 

conjoin, to join together subjoin, to add under 

conjoint, united subjunctive, annexed 

conjointly, in union subjugate, to conquer 

conjugal, joined together ; relat- subjugation, act of subduing 

ing to marriage subjugator, one who subdues 
conjugate, to join together ; to give 

Exercise on the Anglo-Saxon and Classic elements of 
the language. 

TheAnglo-Saxonsuppliesmostofthemonosyllables, and words used 
in the ordinary intercourse of life, and in poetry. The Classic element 
consists mainly of words of two or more syllables, and furnishes the 
language of literature and science. 

Most of the words of Classic origin, not scientific, may be translated 
by equivalent Saxon words— as adapt, fit to ; circumambulate, walk 
round ; inspire, breathe in. 

Compare the foUov^ing extracts :— 
" That is a step 
On which I must fall down, or else o'erleap. 
For in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires ; 
Let not light see my dark and deep desires. 
The eye winks at the hand. Yet let that be 
Which the eye f&ars, when it is done, to see." 

— Sha hespeare. 



204 ETTMOLOGT, OR THE DERIVATION OP WORDS. 

" Aa predominant habits of warfare are totally irreconcilable with 
those of industry, not merely by the immediate works of destruction, 
which render its efforts unavailing, but through that contempt of 
peaceful occupations which they produce, the feudal system must 
have been intrinsically adverse to the accumulation of wealth, and 
the improvement of those arts which mitigate the evils, or abridge 
the labors of mankind," 

In the first extract there are 52 words, 50 of which are mono- 
syllables, and the other 2 dissyllables. 

There are 42 different words, all Anglo-Saxon except 1— viz., de- 
sires. 

In the second extract there are 64 words, of which only 37 are 
monosyllables, 14 dissyllables, and 13 polysyllables. 

There are 50 different words, of which 25 are of Classic origin. Of 
the 37 monosyllables, only 1, art, is of Classic origin. While, of the 
27 words of more than one syllable, only 3 are of Anglo-Saxon origin 
— warfare, evils, and mankind. 

The pupil should be required to trace the derivation of each of the 
classical words in the second extract. 

Passages from the Reading Books should be assigned as exercises, 
to be analyzed in the following manner. 

Extracts from the Fourth Reader, pages 292 and 293 : — 

•* And there lay the steed with his nostrils all wide, 

But through them there rolled not the breath of his pride. 
And the foam of his gasping lay white on the turf. 
And cold as the spray of the rock-beating surf." 

•' Some time after this occwrrence, one of the nobles of the cowt, & 
proud, ambitious man, resolved to destroy the king and j)Zace himself 
on the throne. In order to accompHah his diabolicaA purpose, he 
secured the con^dence of one of the king's surgeons." 

In the first extract there are 41 words, of which 37 are mono- 
syllables, 3 are dissyllables, and 1 is a compound word. 

There are 29 different words, and all are of Anglo-Saxon origin. 

In the second extract there are 43 words, of which 28 are mono- 
syllables, 8 are dissyllables, and 7 are words of more than two 
syllables. 

There are 32 different words, of which 15 are of classic oiigin, and 
are italicised. 



EXERCISE IN DERIVATION AND SPELLING. 20-5 

The following may be taten as a form of an ordinary exercise in 
derivation, and also a lesson in spelling : — 



•i -s 



fl'Sfogoa 03 a So 



P< iao 






•n > "3 



^ ^ -S 3 .2P 






a o ° g aft 



3 3 -2 -2 "S I i 






-a 2 
13 



a ^ t> o <= ^ 



2 -S e, O 



f-l r-H * 



II II 



Ho® '20-^ 



O 2 ^-l ( 



206 EtTMOLOGY, OE THE DERIVATION OP WOllDS. 

The following Exercise may prove interesting as well as instruc- 
tive to pupils, as illustrating the difference between words 
of Anglo-Saxon, and those of Classic origin. 

The words selected pertain to homb. 

1. The HOME, a cover ; a place in which to live. 
A.-S. Home, homestead, house, abode, dwelling. 
CI. Domicile, habitation, residence. 

2. The KINDS of homes. 

A.-S. Building, booth, cot, cottage, grot or grotto, hall, hovel, 
hut, chixrch, meeting-house. 

CI. Cabin, castle, citadel, edifice, fortress, mansion, manor, 
palace, pavilion, tabernacle, tent, villa, temple, cathedral, 
chapel, chancel, cloister, convent, minster, vestry. 

3. The GROUPS of houses. 
A.-S. Borough, hamlet, town. 

CI. City, parish, municipality, village. 

i. The PARTS of a house. 

A.-S. Outside, inside, gable, end, corner, gate, door, latch, sill, 
room, bedroom, floor, hearth, roof, lobby, kitchen, window, 
shutter, stair, garret. 
CI. Exterior, interior, apartment, chamber, cornice, cellar, 
closet, dormitory, gallery, lintel, library, portal, recess. 

5. The BUILDINGS belonging to a house. 

A.-S. Outhouse, bam, crib, dairy, shed, stall. 
CI. Office, kennel, stable. 

6. The FURNITURE of the house. 

A.-S. Household stuff, bed, bolster, basket, bowl, card, can, cradle, 
crock, cup, dish, fork, gridiron, hoop, jug, knife, ladle, 
mat, pillow, pitcher, poker, rocker, seat, sheet, stool, 
spoon, stove, tankard, tongs, washstand. 

CU Basin, candlestick, canister, carpet, chair, chalice, chandelier, 
couch, cushion, furnace, goblet, lamp, napkin, picture, 
plate, platter, scuttle, skillet, table. 

7. The FAMILY in the house, 

A.-S. Household, babe, baby, bairn, boy, brother, clan, clansman, 

child, daughter, father, forefather, husband, kin, kindred, 

sister, son, wife. 
CI. Family, aunt, connection, consort, cousin, dame, damsel, 

grandame, infant, matron, parent, patriarch, orphan, 

nephew, niece, relation, relative, ancle. 



If AMES OF PERSOiirS. 20^ 

8. Tb' SKRVANTS of the house, 

A.-S. Carman, cook, footman, henchman, hireling, honsemaid, 

ploughman, steward, shepherd, teamster, washerwoman, 
CI. Almoner, attendant, chaplain, serf, servant. 

9. The FOOD for the household. 

A.-S. Breakfast, dinner, supper, ale, bacon, barm, beer, batter, 
bread, bun, butter, cake, cheese, custard, dough, dumpling, 
egg, flapjack, ham, loaf, meal, meat, muffin, pickle, 
pudding. 

01. Aliment, beef, beverage, biscuit, claret, crust, decoction, 
diet, feast, flour, nutriment, pork, porter, potation, sauce, 
tart, toast, wine. 

10. The CLOTHING for the household. 

A.-S. Clothes, apron, belt, cap, cloak, clog, flannel, fob, garter, 
girdle, glove, gown, hat, hood, hose, jerkin, kirtle, mantle, 
muff, ribbon, ruffle, shirt, skirt, shroud, shoe, stocking, 
tippet. 

CU Apparel, chaplet, cincture, collar, crownt fringe, frontlet, 
habiliment, pall, plume, sandal, vest. 

Karnes of Persons. 
Formerly surnames were not employed, and the one name given 
was generally significant. This is true of all Scriptural names, and of 
many others. 

Anglo-Saxon. 
Ada, happy Eleanor, all fruitful 

Alfred, all peace Emma, a nurse 

Adelaide, the princess Ernest, ardent 

Adeline, a little princess Everard, well reported 

Alphonso, our help Francis, freeman 

Baldwin, bold winner Eiehard, richly honored 

Charles, one crowned Bobert, redbearded 

Charlotte, a crowned woman Walter, wanderer 

Edward, truthkeeper William, defender of many 

Edwin, happy winner 

Fi-ench. 
Amelia, beloved Isabella, olive-colored 

Arabella, beautiful altar Eosabelle, beautiful rose 

Blanche, white or fair Eosalind, elegant rose 

Latin. 
Alicia, noble Barbara, strange 

Augustus, increasing Beatrice, one who biessefl 

Amanda, beloved Olara, clear 



208 ETYMOLOGY, OR THE DERIVATION OF WORDS. 



Grace, favor 

Jane, peace 

Julia, soft-haired woman 

Juliet, the little soft-haired 

Julius, the soft-haired 

Letitia, joy 



Agatha, good 

Agnes, chaste 

Alexander, defender of men 

Basil, kingly 

Bertha, bright 

Catherine, pure 

Cyrus, lord 

Erasmus, to be loved 

Eugene, nobly descended 



Margaret, a pearl 
Miranda, admired 
Oliver, the olive man 
Rose, the rose 
Viola, the violet 



Greek. 



George, a farmer 
Helen, one who pities 
Matilda, stately 
Phoebe, light of life 
Philemon, one who kisses 
Philip, a lover of horses 
Sophia, wisdom 
Theodore, a gift of God 



HeJjrew. 



Anna, kind 
Deborah, a bee 
EUzabeth, house of strength 
James, or Jacob, supplanter 
John, the grace of God 
Jonathan, the gift of God 



Madeline, noble 
Martha, troubled 
Mary, a salt tear 
Susan, a Uly 
Sarah, my lady 
Samuel, heard of God 



PAET FIFTH, 



SECTION I. 
A Collection of Latin Words, Phrases, and Quotations. 

Ab extra, from without 

Ab intra, from within 

Ab initio, fr-om the beginning 

Ab origine, fr-om the origin, or commencement 

Ab ovo, from the egg 

Ab ovo usque ad mala, fr-om the egg to the apples ; fr-om beginning to 

end 
Abuno disoe omnes, from one, judge of all 
A capite ad calcevi, fr-om head to heel 
A cruce saliis, salvation is from the cross 
A cuspide corona, a crown from the spear : the sword of valor 
A posteriori, an argument fr-om effect to cause 
A priori, an argument from cause to effect 
A fortiori, with stronger reason 
A Deo et rege, from God and the king 
Ad Calendas Grcecas, at the Greek Calends; never, as the Greeks had 

no Calends 
Ad captandum vulgus, to catch i^e vulgar 
Ad eundem gradum, to the same degree 
Adfinem, to the end 
Ad Hominem, to the individual ; personal 
Ad infinitum, to infinity 
Ad interim, in the meantime 
Ad nauseam, to disgust 
Ad valorem, according to the value 
Adunguem, to the touch of the nailu: exactly 
Alias, otherwise, — as Smith alias Brown 
Alibi, elsewhere 

Alma mater, benign mother ; — applied to universities 
Alieni temporis fiores, blossoms of a time gone by 



210 LATIN WOEDS, PHRASES, AND QUOTATIONS. 

Aliquandobonusdo7-mitatHomerus,e\enthegood'H.om6tBometim6au»da 

Alter ego, my other self 

Alter idem, another exactly similar 

Alpha and Omega, first and last ; — from the names of the first and 

last letters of the Greek alphabet 
A mensa et thoro, from bed and board \ ii 

A'mor nummi, love of money ; covetousnesa ' 

Amor patrice, love of country ; patriotism 
Animo, non astutia, by courage, not by craft 

A posse ad esse, from possibiUty to reality i 

Apparatvs belli, materials for war 
Argumentum ad crumenam, an argument to the purse 
„ hominem, ,, to the man 



„ ignorantiam, 
„ judicium, 
„ verecundiam, 
,, baculinum, 



to ignorance 

to the judgment 

to modesty 

an appeal to force ; club law 



Ars est celare artem, it is true art to conceal art 

Audi alteram partem, hear the other side 

Bellum lethali, a deadly war 

Bis dat qui cito dat, he gives twice who gives quickly 

Bis vincit, qui se vincit in victoria, he conquers twice, who restrains 

himself in victory 
Bona fide, in good faith 
Bonis avibus, with good omens 
Cacoethes, a bad habit, a strong desire to do a thing 

„ carpendi, a rage for finding fault 

„ scribendi, „ writing 

„ loquendi, „ speaking 

CcEteris paribus, other things being equal 
Garpe diem, improve time, or opportunity 
Casus belli, a cause for war 
Caelum, non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt, their clime, not 

their affections, they change who cross the sea 
Compos mentis, of sound mind 
Corpus delicti, the main offence 
Cor unum, via una, one heart, one way 
Crux criticorum, the puzzle of critics 
,, medicorum, „ physicians 

,, mathematicorum, „ mathematicians 
Cucullus non facit monachum, the cowl does not make the monk 
Cut bono, to what end ; what is the use ? 
Currente calamo, with a rapid pen 
De facto, in reality, or in point of fact 
De jure, by law, or, of right 



LATIN WORDS, PJIRASKS, AND QUOTATIONS. 2ii 

Dei gratia, by the grace of God 

Dc giistibtis non disputandum, there is no disputing about tastes 

De novo, anew, or from the beginning 

Delenda est Carthago, Carthage must be destroyed 

De mortuis nil, nisi bonum, concerning the dead say only what in 

favorable 
Detur digniori, let it be given to the more worthy 
Docendo discinms, by teaching we learn 
Dulce at decorum est pro patria mori, it is sweet and honorable to die 

for one's country 
Dum spiro, spero, while I breathe, I hope 
Dum vivimus, vivamus, while we live, let us live 
E pluribus tinum, from many one, — motto of U.S.A. 
Errare humanum est, to err is human 
Est modus in rebus, there is a medium in all things 
Esto perpetua, let it endure for ever 
Et hoc genus omne, and every thing of the sort 
Ex animo, heartily ; sincerely 
Ex cathedra, from the chair ; officially 
Ex officio, by virtue of one's office 
Ex parte, from one side only ; partial 
Ex pede Herculem, judge of the whole by a sample 
Ex nihilo nihil fit, nothing produces nothing 
Ex post facto, after the deed is done; retrospective 
Ex ungue Iconem, the lion is known by his claws 
Fac siviile, an exact copy 
Fama semper viret, a good name is ever green 
Fas est ab hoste doceri, we may learn even from an enemy 
Festina lente, hasten slowly 

Fiat justitia, rrcat caelum, let justice be done, though the heavens fall 
Finem respice, look to the end 
Finis coronat opus, the end crowns the work 
Flagrante delicto, in the actual commission of the crime 
Fortiter in re, with firmness in action 
Fortes fortuna juvat, fortune favors the brave 
Fortuna favet fatuis, fortune favors fools 
Fulnien brutum, a harmless thunderbolt 
Genius loci, the genius of the place 
Gloria virtutis umbra, glory is the shadow of virtue 
Gratis dictum, a mere assertion 
Habet et musca splenem, even a fly has its anger 
Haud passibus cBquis, with unequal steps 
Hie et ubique, here and everywhere 
Hie labor, hoc opus, this the labor, this the work 
Hinc ilia lachrgmce, hence these tears 



2].^ LA'TlN WORDS, PHRASES, AND QUOTATIONS. 

Hodie mihi, eras tibi, to-day be mine, to-morrow thine 

Honor virtutis prcsinium, honor is the reward of virtue 

Humani nihil alienum, nothing which relates to man is foreign to mo 

Imo pectore, from the bottom of the heart 

In esse, in posse, in existence, — ^possible existence 

In forma pauperis, as a pauper 

In limine, at the outset 

In loco parentis, in the place of a parent 

In medias res, into the midst of things 

In omnibus aliquid, in toto nihil, a little in everything, in'noSfaaig 

complete 
In propria persona, in his own proper person 
In rerum natura, in the nature of things 
In statu quo, in the former state 
In terrorem, as a warning 
In vino Veritas, there is truth in wine 
Inter alia, among other things 

Invita Minerva, Minerva unwilling, — without capacity 
Ipse dixit, he has said it, — a mere assertion 
Ipsofadto, by the fact, or deed 
Jacta est alea, the die is cast 
Jucundi acti lahores, past toils are pleasant 
Jure humane ; jure divino ; by human law ; by divine right 
Jus gentium, the law of nations 
Labor omnia vincit, labor overcomes all difficulties 
Lapsus Ungues, a slip of the tongue 
Lex talionis, the law of retaliation 
Litera scripta manet, the written letter remains 
Locum tenens, a substitute 
Lusus natures, a freak of nature ; a monster 
Magna Charta, the great charter 

Magna est Veritas, et prcevalebit, great is truth, and it will prevail 
Malum in re, a thing evil in itself 
Maluvi prohibitum, a thing evil because forbidden 
Mens conscia recti, a mind conscious of rectitude 
2Iens sana in corpore sano, a sound mind in a sound body 
Memento mori, be mindful of death 
Mirabile dictu, strange to say 
Modus operandi, manner of operating 
Multum in parvo, much in little 
Mutatis mutandis, making the requisite changes 
Necessitas non habet legem, necessity has no law 
Ne fronti crede, trust not to first appearances 
Nemo me impune laccssit, no man annoys me with impunity 
Nemo mortalium omnibus horis sapit, no man is wise at all times 



LATIN WORDS, PHRASES, AND QUOTATIONS. 213 

Ne plus ultra, the utmost limit ; perfection 

Ne quidnimis, too much of one thing is good for nothing 

Nil desperandum, never despair 

Nisi Domimis frustra, unless God be with us, effort is vaia 

Nolens volens, willing or not 

Non compos mentis, not of sound mind 

Nonest inventus, he has not been found 

Non quo, sed quomodo, not by ■whom, but how 

Non seqvitur, it does not follow 

Noscitur ex sociis, he is known by his companions 

Nunc aut nunquam, now or never 

Obscurumper obscurius, explaining whatis obscure by something more 

obscure 
Odhim theologicum, the hatred of disputing theologians 
Omis probandi, the burden of proof 
Ora et labora, pray and labor 
Ore rotunda, with a full round voice 
Otia dant vitia, idleness leads to vice 
Otium cum dlgnitate, leisure with dignity 
Palmam qui meruit ferat, let him bear the palm who has won it 
Pari passu, at a similar pace 

Parvum parva decent, little things become a little man 
Par nobile fratrnm., a noble pair of brothers 
Particeps criviinis, an accomplice in crime 
Peccavi, I have sinned 
Per fas aut nefas, by fair means or foul 
Per saltum, by a leap, at once 

Poeta nascitur, non Jit, nature, not art forms the poet 
Prima facie, at first sight 
Primum mobile, the first mover 
Pro aris etfocis, for our altars and oiir hearths 
Pro bono publico, for the public good 
Pro rata, in proportion 
Pro re nata, for the matter in hand 

Pro rege, lege, et gregc, for the king, the law, and the people 
Pro tempore, for the time 
Qua nocent decent, we learn by what we suffer 
Quails vita, finis ita, as is the life, so is the end 
Quid pro quo, tit for tat 
Quos Deus vult perderc, prius dementat, those whom God would de« 

stroy He first makes mad 
Qiiot homines tot sentcntice, many men, many minds 
Becte et suaviter, justly and mildly 
Relata refero, " I tell the tale as it was told to me " 
Requiescat in pace, may he rest in peace 



214 LATIN WORDS, PHRASES, AND QUOTATIONS. 

Euit mole sua, it falls by its own weight 

JRus in urbe, the conntry in the town 

Salus populi sujprema est lex, the welfare of the people is the supreme 
law 

Sartor resartus, the cobbler mended 

Secundum artem, in order, regulaily 

Semel et simul, once and altogether 

Sic transit gloria mundi, so passes the glory of the world 

Sine die, without naming a day 

Sine qua non, an indispensable condition 

Similia siviilibus curantur, like is cm'ed by hke 

Spero meliora, I hope for better things 

Sua cuique voluptas, every one has his own pleasure 

Suaviter in modo, fortiter in re, gentle in manner, forcible in execu- 
tion 

Sui generis, of its own kind, singular 

Sub judice lis est, the cause is yet before the judge 

Sab rosa, under the rose, privately 

Summum jus, summa injuria, the rigor of the law may be the greatest 
wrong 

Suum cuique, let every one have his own 

Tempora mutantur, times change 

Terra incognita, an unknown land 

Tertium quid, a third something 

'Toties quoties, as often as 

Tata coelo, by the whole heavens 

Trahit sua quemque voluptas, every one is attraeted by his peculiar 
pleasure 

Triajuncta in uno, three joined in one 

Trojafuit, Troy was — (and is not) 

Ubi bene, ibi patria, where it is well with me, there is my country 

Unguibus et rostra, with talons and beak, "tooth and nail" 

Usque ad aras, even to the altars ; to the last extremity 

Utile dulci, the useful with the agreeable 

Ut pignus amicitia, as a token of friendship 

Ut supra; ut infra, as above ; as below 

VcB victis, woe to the vanquished 

Vade mecum, a constant companion 

Veni, vidi, vici, I came, I saw, I conquered 

Vi et armis, by main force 

Vice versa, the reverse 

Virtus millia scuta, virtue is a thousand shields 

Vita brevis, ars long a, life is short, art is long 

VitcE via virtus, virtue is the way of life 

Vitiis nemo sine nascitur, no man is born without his faults 



FRENCH WORDS AND PHRASES. 215 

yive, vale, Ktb, and be well 

Vox et prceterea nihil, sound -without sense 

Vox populi, vox Dei, the voice of the people is the voice of God 

Vivat regina, long live the Queen. 



SECTION IL 
French words and phrases. 

French Words. 

Amateur, ahm atehr', an admirer Embonpoint, ahn bon pwoin', jolly, 
Bagatelle, biig at ell', a trifle plump 

Bureau, bu ro', an office desk Embouchure, ahn boo shure, the 
Caisson, cais sohn', a chest or case mouth of a river 

Canaille, can ah ee, the rabble Encore, ahn core, again 

Champetre, shahn paytr', rural Ennui, ahn we', wearisomeness 

Chdteau, shah to', a country seat Entree, ahn tra', entrance 

Ci-devant, seed vahn, formerly Envelope, ahn v'lope, a cover 

Clique, cleek, a faction Epaulette, ep o let', a shoulder- 
Connoisseur, con a sehr', a sldlful knot 

judge Estafette, es tab fet', an express 
Contour, con toor', the outline of Etiquette, et e ket', ceremony 

a figure Facade, fah sahd', a front 

Cortege, cor tazhe, a train of at- Fete, fate, a feast or festival 

tendants Fracas, frah cab', a squabble 

Coterie, co t're', a company Gensdarmes, zhahn darm', soldiers 

Coup, coo, a stroke or blow Gout, goo, taste 

D^.bris, da bree', broken remains Hauteur, hot tehr', haughtiness 

Debut, da bu', a first appearance Levee, lev'a, a morning assembly 
Denouement, da noo mahn', the at court 

unravelling of a plot Liqueur, le quehr', a cordial 

Devoir, dev war', duty manoeuvre, man ehvr', a trick 

Depdt, da po', a store or maga- Mignonette, min yo net', a sweet- 

ziue smelling flower 

Domicile, dom e seel', abode Naivete, nah eev ta', ingenuous- 
Douceur, doo sehr', a bribe or pre- ness, simplicity 

sent Nonchalance, non shah lahnce', 
Eclaircissement, a clair cis mahn, indifference 

Rn explanation Nonpareil, non par ale, matchless 

Eelat, a clah', splendor Outre, oo tra', preposterous 

FMve, a lave, a pupil Parole, par ole, a word of promise 



21G FKENCH WOEDS .*5fD PHRASES. 

Parteire, partare, a flower-garden Sans, sahn, without 

Penchant, pahn sbahn', au incli- Savant, sav' ahn, a learned man 

nation or liking Soi-disant, swaw dee' zahn, pre- 
Prairie, pra'ree, meadow land tended, self-styled 

Protege, pro ta zha', one that is Soiree, swar ra', an evening 

patronized party 

Rencontre, rahn cohutr', an unex- Souvenir, boov neer', remem- 

pected meeting brance 

Rendezvous, rban da voo', a place Suite, sweet, retinue, series 

of meeting Surtout, soor too', an outer coat 

Reservoir, ra zer vwar', a reserve Tapis, tab pe', the carpet 

of water, &c. Tour, toor, a journey 

Restaurateur, re staur ah tehr', a Trait, tray, a feature 

tavern-keeper Unique, u neek', singular 
Ruse, ruse, a stratagem 

French Phrases, 

Aide de camp, aid' cahn, an assistant to a general 

A la mode, ah lab mod', in the fashion 

A propos, ap pro po', seasonably ; by the by 

Beau monde, bo mond', the gay world 

Belles lettres, bel lettr', polite literature 

Billet doux, be ya doo', a love-letter 

Bon gre, inal gre, bohn gra', mahl gra', with good or ill-will 

Bon mot, bohn mo', a witticism 

Bon ton, bohn ton', high fashion 

Bon vivant, bon vee/ ahn, a high liver 

Cap a pie, cap ah pee', from head to foot 

Carte blanche, cart blahnsh, unconditional terms 

Chef d'xuvre, shay dehvi", a masterpiece 

Ckevaux de frise, shev o d'freez', a sort of spiked fence 

Comme ilfaut, com e fo', as it should be 

Conge d'elire, con zha da leer', permission to elect 

Coup de grace, coo d'grass', the finishing stroke 

Coup de main, coo d'mahn', a bold stroke 

Coup d'ceil, coo d'ale', a glance of the eye 

Dejeuner a lafourchette, da' zheu na ah lah foor' shet, a breakfast vvitf 

meat, fowls, &c. 
Dernier ressort, dairn' ya res sor', a last resource 
Dieu et mon droit, dieu' a mohn drwaw', God and my right 
Double entendre, doobl ahn tahndr', double meaning 
Entre nous, ahntr noo', between ourselves 
Faux pas, fo pah', a fault ; misconduct 

Feu de joie, feu d'zhwaw', a discharge of firearms at a rejoicing 
Fille de chambre, fee d'shambr' a chamber-maid 



ABBBE NATIONS. 217 

Honi soit qui malypense, on e swaw' ke mahl e pahnse', evil be to him 

that evil thinks 
Hors de combat, hoi' d'cohn'bah, disabled 
Je ne sais quoi, zhehn say quaw', I know not what 
Jeu d'esprit, zheuds pree', a witticism 
Jeu de mots, zheud mo', a play upon words 
Blaitre dlwtel, maytr do tel', a tavern-keeper 
Mauvaise honte, mo vayz hont', false modesty ; bashfulness 
Nom de guerre, nohn d'gair', an assumed name 
On dit, ohn de', a flying report 
Petit inaitre, pte' maytr', a fop 
Ruse de guerre, ruhz d'gaii", a stratagem of war 
Sa7ig froid, sahn frwaw', coolness, indifference 
Tete a tete, tait ah tait, a private conversation 
To2it ensemble, too tahn sahnbl', the whole 
Valet de chambre, val a d'shanbr', a gentleman's servant 
1 'is d vis, veez ah vee', face to face 

The foregoing attempt to give the true sound of the French Words and 
Phrases will perhaps be found useful : the exact pronunciation can 
only be learned from the teacher. Whenever they are written, they 
require the accents which are here given. 



SECTION III. 

An Explanation of some abbreviations which are in 
general use. 

1. TITLES, Literary, Honorary, and Official. 

Latin — 

A.A.S. Academics Americana Socius, Fellow of the American 

Academy 
A.A.S.S. Americana Aniiquarian<s Societatis Socius, MGmhexoi the 

American Antiquarian Society 
A.B. Artium Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Arts 

A.M. Artium M agister. Master of Arts 

A.O.S.S. Amencana Orientalis Societatis Socias, Member of the 

American Oriental Society 
A.R.S.S, AntiquariorumRegice Societatis Socius,Fel\o-w ottheRoyal 

Society of Antiquaries 
B.D. Baccalaureus Divinitatis, Bachelor of Divinity 

J'.L. Baccalaureus Legum, Bachelor of Laws 

13.M. Baccalaureus Medicina, Bachelor of Medicine 



218 ABBREVIATIONS. 

C.P.S. Gustos Privati Sigilli, Keeper of the Private Seal 

C.R. Gustos Rotulorum, Keeper of the Rolls 

C.S. Gustos Sigilli, Keeper of the Seal 

D.D. Divinitatis Doctor, Doctor of Divinity 

D.T. Doctor Theologice, Teacher of Theology 

I.N. R.I. Jesus Nazarenus Rex Judceorum, Jesus of Nazareth, King 

of the Jews 

LL.B. Legum Baccalaureus , Bachelor of Lawa 

LL.D. Legum Doctor, Doctor of Laws 

M.B. Medicines Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Medicine 

M.D. Medicince Doctor, Doctor of Medicine 

S.H.S. Societatis Histories Socius,'Fellow ot the Historical Society 

S.P. A.S. Societatis Philosophicce AmericancB Socius, Member of the 

American Philosophical Society 

S.R.S. Societatis Regice Socius, Fellow of the Royal Society 

S.T.D. SacrcR Theologice Doctor, Doctor of Sacred Theology 

S.T.P. Sacra Theologice Professor, Professor of Theology 

V.D.M. Verhi Dei Minister, Minister of God's Word 

V.R. Victoria Regina, Queen Victoria 

English — 

Adjt. Adjutant 

Atty. Attorney 

Bart. Baronet 

Capt. Captain 

C.B. Companion of the Bath 

Col. Colonel 

Dep. Deputy 

D.C.L. Doctor of Civil Law 

Dr. Doctor 

Esq. Esquire 

E.A.S. Fellow of the Society of Arts 

F.E.S. Fellow of the Entomological Society 

F.G.S. Fellow of the Geological Society 

F.H.S. Fellow of the Horticultural Society 

F.L.S. Fellow of the Linnean Society 

F.R.S. Fellow of the Royal Society 

F.R.A.S. Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society 

F.R.G.S. Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society 

F.R.S. E. Fellow of the Royal Society, Edinburgh 

F.R.S.L, Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature 

F.S.A. Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, or ArtB 

F.T.C.D. Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin 

F.Z.S. Fellow of the Zoological Society 

Gen. General 



ABBREVIATIONS. 219 



Gent. 


Gentleman 


Gov, 


Governor 


Gov.-Gen. 


Governor- General 


H.M. 


Her, or His, Majesty 


H.K.H. 


His, or Her, Royal HighnesB 


Hon. 


Honorable 


J.P. 


Justice of the Peace 


Knt. 


Knight, 


KB. 


Knight of the Bath 


K.C.B. 


Knight Commander of the Bath 


K.G. 


Knight of the Garter 


K.G.C, 


Kniglit of the Grand Cross 


K.G.C.B. 


Knight of the Grand Cross of the Bath 


K.L.H. 


Knight of the Legion of Honor 


KP. 


Knight of St. Patrick 


K.T. 


Knight of the Thistle 


L.O. 


Lord Chancellor 


L.O.J, 


Lord Chief-Justice 


Lieut, or Lt. 


Lieutenant 


Lieut.-Col. 


or Gen. or Gov. 


M. 


Monsieur, or Sir 


M. 


Messrs ; Gentlemen ; Sirs 


Mr. 


Master, or Sir 


Mrs. 


Mistress 


MUe. 


Mademoiselle, or Miss 


Mme. 


Madame 


Maj. 


Major 


Brig. Maj. -Gen 


. Brigadier-, Major-General 


M.C. 


Member of Congress 


M.L.C. 


Member of the Legislative Council 


M.P. 


Member of Parliament 


M.P.P. 


Member of the Provincial Parliament 


M.R.C.S. 


Member of the Royal College of Surgeons 


M.ai.A. 


Member of the Royal Irish Academy 


M.R.S.L. 


Member of the Royal Society of Literature 


Mus, D. 


Doctor of Music 


Ph.D. 


Doctor of Philosophy 


Prof. 


Professor 


P.M. 


Postmaster 


P.M.G. 


Postmaster General 


Q.C, 


Queen's Council ^ 


Reg, Prof. 


Regius Professor 


Rev. 


Reverend 


Rt. Rev. 


Right Reverend 


Rt. Hon, 


Right Honorable 



220 ABBREVIATIONS. 

Sol. -Gen. Solicitor-General 

Serg. Sergeant 

Surg. Surgeon 

Surg. Gen. Surgeon General 

Surv. Surveyor 

Surv. Gen. Surveyor General 

V.O. Vice Chancellor 

W.S. Writer to the Signet 

2. Miscellaneous Alibreviatioas. 
Latin. 

A.C. Ante Christum, before Christ 

A.D. Anno Domini, in the year of our Lord 

.ffit. Aetatis, of age, or«iged 

Ad. Lib. Ad libitum, at pleasure 

A.R. Anno Regni, in the year of the reign 

A.TJ.C. Anno Urbis ConditcB, from the year of building the city V 

(Home) 

C. or Cent. Centum, a hundred 

Cal. Calenda, the calenda 

Cwt. Centum, xoeight, a hundredweight 

Del. Delineavit, he drew it, — placed on an engraving with the 

name of the draftsman 

D.G. Dei Gratia, by the grace of God 

D.V. Deo volente, God willing 

Dwt. Denarius, weight, a pennyweight 

E.G. Escempli gratia, for example 

Et. al. Et alii, or alibi, and others, or elsewhere 

Et seq. Et sequentia, and what follows 

H.E. Hoc, or hie est, that, or this is 

H.J.S. Hie jacet seimltus, here lies buried 

H.R.I.P. Hie requiescit in pace, here rests in peace 
lb. or Ibid. Ibidem, in the same place 

Id. Idem, the same 

I.E. Id est, that is 
I.H.S. 

or Jesus hominum Salvator, Jesus the Saviour of mes 
J.H.S. 

Incog. Incognito, imknown 

In lim. In limine, at the outset 

In loc. In loco, in the place 

In trans. In transitu, on the passage 

L.S.D. Libra, solidi, denarii, pounds, ahillingg, pence 

M.S. Memorice sacrum, sacred to the memory 

N.B. Nota bene, mark well ; take notice 





ABBREVIATIONS. 


221 


Nem. con, 


■ Nemine contradicente, 


, no one contradicting 


Nem. diss 


. Nemine dissentiente, no one dissenting, unanimously 


Ob. 


Obiit, he or she died 






Oxon. 


Oxonia, Oxford 






Per cent. 


Per centum, by the hundred 




P.M. 


Post meridiem, afternoon 




Pro tern. 


Pro tempore, for the time 




Prox. 


Proximo, next, or of the next month 


Q.E. 


Quod est, which is 






Q.E.D. 


Quod erat demonstrandum, which was to be demonstrated 


Q.E.F. 


Quod erat faciendum, 


which was 


to be done 


Q.V. 


Quod vide, which see 






Sculp. 


Sculpsit, he or she engraved it 




Ult. 


Ultimo, last, or of the last month 


Vid. 


Vide, see 






V.G. 


Verbi gratia, for example 




Viz. 


Videlicet, to wit ; nameiy 




&c., etc. 


Et catera, and the rest ; and so 


forth 


English— 


- 






A. or Ana. 


. Answer 


Ed. 


Editor 


Abbr. 


Abbreviation 


Fol. 


Folio 


A.B.S. 


American Bible So- 


Hdkf. 


Handkerchief 




ciety 


Hhd. 


Hogshead 


A. and 


American and Foreign 


H.M.S. 


Her Majesty's Service 


F.B.S. 


Bible Society 


I.O.O.F. 


Independent Order of 


Anon. 


Anonymous 




Oddfellows 


Arith. 


Arithmetic 


MS- 


Manuscript 


A.S. 


Anglo-Saxon 


Mrfrf. 


Manuscripts 


B.C. 


Befr>re Christ 


Mt 


Mount, or Mountain 


B. an-^ 


iSntish and Foreign 


N.B. 


New Brunswick, or 


'«? ii.cJ. 


Bible Society 




North Britain 


Brit. 


Britain 


N.F. 


Newfoundland 


G.B. 


Great Britain 


No. 


Number 


C.E. 


Canada East; or Civil 


N.S. 


Nova Scotia 




Engineer 


N.T. 


New Testament 


Chap. 


Chapter 


Ont. 


Ontario 


Clk. 


Clerk 


O.S. 


Old Style 


Co. 


County, or Company 


O.T. 


Old Testament 


Coll. 


College 


Oz. 


Ounce 


C.P. 


Common Pleas 


Ps. 


Psalm 


D.F. 


Defender of the Faith 


P.E.I. 


Prince Edward's Island 


Doz. 


Dozen 


Pari. 


Parliament 


E.W.N.S. 


East, West, North, 


P.O. 


Post Office 




South 


Qu. 


Question. 



222 


ABBREVIATIONS. 




R.A. 


Eoyal Academy ; Royal 


Tr. 


Translator 




Artillery ; Russian 


Univ. 


University 




America 


U.S.A. 


United States of Am- 


R.B. 


Royal Engineer 




erica ; United States 


Rec. Sec. 


Recording Secretary 




Army 


Regt. 


Regiment 


U.S.M. 


United States Marine 


R.M. 


Royal Marines 


U.S.N. 


United States Navy 


R.N. 


Royal Navy 


Xmas. 


Christmas 


Sept. 


Septuagint; September 


Xnty. 


Christianity 


Bt. 


Saint, or Street 







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