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'drinking Water. . 

Source protection 



ACT FOR CLEAN WATER 



CLEAN WATER ACT, 2006 

Technical Bulletin: Addressing Transportation Threats 



Updated: September 2010 



The Clean Water Act requires that source protection committees list activities 
that are or would be drinking water threats. Through regulations and technical 
rules, the province has set out which activities must be considered drinking water 
threats under specific circumstances. Section 1.1 of Ontario Regulation 287/07 
(General) lists activities that are prescribed as drinking water threats and the 
Table of Drinking Water Threats in the Technical Rules specify under what 
circumstances these activities are considered threats. 

The regulations and technical rules provide a mechanism through which source 
protection committees can add drinking water threats or add additional 
circumstances to activities the province has already listed as a threat. 

The list of activities that are prescribed as drinking water threats was established 
using input from multiple stakeholder groups and committees. The method of 
determining when an activity is a threat, and more specifically a significant, 
moderate, or low drinking water threat, is based on a semi-quantitative risk 
assessment that considers both the nature of the activity itself (the hazard rating) 
and the vulnerability of the area in which the activity is located. This is used to 
determine a risk score. The methodology was widely consulted on in advance of 
the posting of the regulations and technical rules around the assessment report. 

During the consultation on the regulations and technical rules for the assessment 
report, questions were raised around the inclusion of transportation corridors as 
drinking water threats. Corridors were not included in the list of prescribed 
activities as the inclusion of corridors did not fit within the semi-quantitative risk 
assessment process. 

Although transportation corridors have not been included as a prescribed threat 
and cannot be added, there are a number of ways that specific activities taking 
place within a transportation corridor could be identified as a threat at the 
discretion of the Director under the Clean Water Act. 




PIBS 7682 



Clean Water Act, 2006 

Technical Bulletin: Addressing Transportation Threats 

Including Transportation Threats in the Assessment Report 

• Not being listed as a prescribed threat does not preclude source protection 
committees (SPCs) from determining that, on a local level, transportation of 
specific substances along certain routes does pose a threat to local source 
waters and SPCs have the flexibility to include them in the assessment report. 

• Transportation threats can be considered by adding a new drinking water 
threat as per Rule 119 of the Technical Rules. An SPC can include a threat 
that is not prescribed in O. Reg. 287/07 if: 

(1) the activity has been identified by the SPC as an activity that may be a 
drinking water threat; and 

(2) information provided by the Director indicates that, 

(a) the chemical hazard rating of the activity is greater than 4, or 

(b) the pathogen hazard rating of the activity is greater than 4. 

• Rules 120 and 121 set out how the hazard rating is determined: 

120. The chemical hazard rating of an activity that is not prescribed to be a 
drinking water threat under O. Reg. 287/07 (General) shall be a rating 
that in the opinion of the Director reflects the hazard presented by the 
chemical parameter associated with the activity, if any, considering the 
following factors: 

(1) Toxicity of the parameter. 

(2) Environmental fate of the parameter. 

(3) Quantity of the parameter. 

(4) Method of release of the parameter to the natural environment. 

(5) Type of vulnerable area in which the activity is or would be located. 

121. The pathogen hazard rating of an activity that is not prescribed to be a 
drinking water threat under O. Reg. 287/07 (General) shall be a rating 
that in the opinion of the Director reflects the hazard presented by 
pathogens associated with the activity, if any, considering the following 
factors: 

(1) The frequency of the presence of pathogens that may be associated with 

the activity. 

(2) Method of release of the pathogen to the natural environment. 

(3) Type of vulnerable area in which the activity is or would be located. 

• Before adding a transportation threat to the assessment report, Director 



Clean Water Act, 2006 

Technical Bulletin: Addressing Transportation Threats 

approval of the hazard rating and the risk score must be obtained. 

• Once a new threat is added, then the SPC must follow the same process 
around identifying where the threat is significant, moderate or low and how 
many significant drinking water threats are in each vulnerable area. 

Source Protection Plans and Transportation Threats 



• 



• 



When making the decision regarding whether to add transportation-related 
threats to the assessment report, there are a number of things SPCs should 
consider relating to the source protection plan. 

If a transportation threat is identified as a significant threat in the assessment 
report, the Clean Water Act, 2006 requires the source protection plan to 
contain a policy that satisfies the objectives of ensuring this threat ceases to 
be and never becomes significant. There are several options for addressing 
significant transportation threats in source protection plans. 

1. Reducing the likelihood that a spill will occur. 

• There are various policy approaches which an SPC could use when 
formulating a policy to reduce the likelihood that a spill will occur in a 
vulnerable area: 

• Policies relating to education and outreach could be developed, 
including those that require the installation of signs making 
transporters aware that they are travelling through a vulnerable 
drinking water source protection area, and thus motivating them 
to voluntarily undertake appropriate precautions. 

• Policies could be developed that reduce the speed of the 
vehicles or restrict the route used to transport certain 
substances on some roads (where municipalities have the 
jurisdiction to make such policies). However, it should be noted 
that SPCs do not have the authority to make policies to change 
transportation routes on provincial or federal transportation 
corridors, nor do they have the power to change where existing 
corridors are located. 

2. Reducing the impact of a spill, should it occur. 

• There are also several policy approaches which an SPC could use 
when developing a policy to address the impact of spills: 



Clean Water Act, 2006 

Technical Bulletin: Addressing Transportation Threats 



• Policies relating to structural and operational risk management 
measures, including the construction of berms or setbacks, 
which could reduce the speed at which spilled contaminants 
would reach the drinking water source. 

• Policies could direct actions to be taken by persons or bodies to 
update spill prevention and spill contingency plans or 
emergency response plans for the purpose of protecting 
drinking water sources with respect to spills that occur within 
vulnerable areas. The amended General Regulation 287/07 now 
also allows these kinds of policies within a wellhead protection 
area or intake protection zone along highways, railway lines or 
shipping lanes even if no specific transportation threats are 
included in the assessment report. 

Important Considerations 



• 



SPCs should consider the nature of transportation threats in their Source 
Protection Areas. It may only be necessary to include one transportation 
threat in the assessment report (e.g., one about which much information is 
known) if plan policies to address this threat (which are often broad reaching) 
could also address all incidences of transportation threats in the area. For 
example, reduction in speeds or rerouting truck traffic could apply to all 
transportation. 

The assessment report may identify that transportation threats are a 
moderate or low threat and then the SPC could exercise their discretionary 
authority under the Act to establish policies in the plan. However, policy 
options for addressing these moderate or low transportation threats may be 
limited and have limited legal effect (i.e., strategic action policies). 

The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act requires municipalities 
to complete a HIRAI (hazard identification and risk assessment) and to 
identify critical infrastructure. It also requires municipalities to have 
emergency response plans but does not specify that drinking water systems 
and associated vulnerable areas be included. 

If additional drinking water systems are elevated into the source protection 
planning process, these systems and their associated vulnerable areas may 
not have been identified in municipal emergency response plans. SPCs 
should consider this when thinking about recommendations for emergency 
response plans. 



Clean Water Act, 2006 

Technical Bulletin: Addressing Transportation Threats 

Summary 

• Transportation corridors are not included in the list of prescribed threats. 

• SPCs could seek approval of the Director to have site-specific transportation 
threats related to the transport of specific substances included as a local 
drinking water threat in the assessment report through the process set out in 
the rules to include additional threats. 

• Including transportation threats as significant threats in the assessment report 
has important ramifications for the source protection plan - policies must be 
included in the plan to ensure that all significant threats cease to be or never 
become significant (i.e., are sufficiently managed). 

• Policy options for addressing significant transportation threats could address 
the likelihood of a spill or the impact of a spill once it occurs. 

• SPCs may include policies in the source protection plan that direct spill 
prevention and spill contingency plans or emergency response plans be 
updated to address spills in wellhead protection areas or intake protection 
zones along highways, railways or shipping lanes without formally adding 
transportation threats to their assessment report. 

Example: 

Adding the threat of "transportation of fuel" to address transportation of fuel 
through an IPZ. 

Step A. Determine threat and circumstances to be added. 

Threat: Transportation of fuel. 

Circumstances: 

1. The fuel is transported in a quantity that is more than 10,000 litres (Large 

trucks transporting fuels typically have capacities ranging from 28,400 
litres to 37,500 litres). 

2. A spill of the fuel may result in the presence of BTEX in groundwater or 
surface water. 

Step B. Determine the hazard rating according to rule 120 



Clean Water Act, 2006 

Technical Bulletin: Addressing Transportation Threats 

The hazard rating would be calculated by considering the factors listed below: 

(NOTE: the values given are hypothetical and should not be used as a basis 
for further calculations without confirmation) 



1. Toxicity of the parameter BTEX 

2. Environmental fate of the parameter BTEX 

3. Quantity of the parameter BTEX 

4. Method of Release (RIM score): BTEX 

5. Type of Vulnerable Area IPZ 



8 

6 (direct) 

15,000 L (scoring 10) 

6 (low) 



For this hypothetical example, the Hazard Rating would be 7.8. 

Step C. Determine where the activity would be a significant, moderate or 
low drinking water threat, according to rules 129, 134 and 137. 

With a hypothetical hazard rating of 7.8, handling of fuel according to the 
circumstance described above would be a moderate drinking water threat in 
areas within the IPZ with vulnerability scores from 8 to 10. It would be a low 
drinking water threat in areas within the IPZ with vulnerability scores of 6 and 
7. 



For further Information about the Clean Water Act, 2006 visit the Ministry of 

Environment web site at: www.ontario.ca/cleanwater or contact, 

Public Information Centre 

Ministry of Environment 

135 St Clair Avenue West 

Toronto, ON 

M4V 1P5 

Tel: (416) 325-4000 or 

1 800 565 4923 



Cette publication hautementspecialisee n'estdisponible qu'en anglais en vertu du reglement 
441/97, qui en exempte I'application de la Loisurles services en francais. Pourobtenirde I'aide en 
francais, veuillez communiquer avec le ministere de I'Environnementau 416-212-5296, ou 
sourceprotection@ Ontario. ca