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THE UNIVERSITY OR ALBERT A 


A ST'UDY OR ATIiOSPEERIC OZONE 
IN THE EDIIONTON AREA 


A DISSERTATION 

SUBElITTED to the SCHOOL OR GRADUATE STUDIES 
PARTIAL R-ULRILEENT OR THE HE QUIRE LENTS ROR THE 
OR EASTER OR SCIENCE 


DEGREE 


FACULTY OR ARTS AND SCIENCE 
DEPARTMENT OR PHYSICS 
BY 

JANES N. DENNIS, B.Sd. 
aDjI'iCN T on , ALBiiiATA, 
SEPTEMBER, 1954. 





abstract 


The Dobson double quartz spectrophotometer, put into opera-tion 
by R.D, Leppard in 1950, has been used to take observations of 
the atmospheric ozone at Edmonton until Dec SI, 1953. Leppard’s 
work, using direct sun and zenith blue sky observations to check 
the applicability of empirical charts made at Oxford, has been 
continued a,nd a. correction curve has been drawn. The relation 
between upper atmosphere 7/eather and changes in the total ozone 
amount has been studied graphically and a strong negative 
correlation between ozone amount and the height of various 
pressure levels has been found. Zenith sky observations have 
been taken, the umkehr curves drawn and the vertical distribution 
of ozone calculated on three occasions. The mean height of the 
ozone layer has been found to be somewhat lower at Edmonton than 
it wa-s formerly thought to be. A curve of the three year average 
of ten day means ha.s been drawm to show the annual ozone cycle 
at Edmonton, im unusual secondary maximum in December has been 


observed. 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2018 with funding from 
University of Alberta Libraries 


https://archive.org/details/studyofatmospherOOdenn 




The author wishes to express his gratitude for rhe 
encouragement and assistance received from hr. l.H. Go’wan 
who supervised the work. The interest shown by other 
members of the Physics Department is appreciated. 

Ke wishes also to tnank the imtional Hesearch Council 
for their financial support, the meteorological Service for 
rhe use of their instrument, ana their staff at the Edmonton 
Airport who have assisted with this work in xtciny ways, notaoly 
oy taking the regular 11;30 and 14:30 observations on week days. 
















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TABliS Or COIsiTEjmTS 


List of Tables 
List of figures 

I* Introduction . 1 

II. Theoretical Principles Determining the Amount of Ozone 

in the Atmosphere and Its Distribution . 2 

III. Theory of the measurement of the Total Amount of Ozone 

and the Methods Used .. 3 

r\r. Measurement of the Mean Height and Vertical Distribution 

of Ozone .. 9 

V. Observations of the Total Ozone iimount . 14 

VI. Seasona.1 Variation of Ozone. 56 

VII. Variant ions of Ozone and the Upper Air Information. 56 

VIII. A. Va^riation of the Amount of Atiiiospheric Ozone and the 

tt/eather Map . 70 

3. The iimount of Ozone and the Upper AMr Maps . 73 

IX. The Mean Height of the Ozone Layer from Direct Sun 

Observations . 73 

X. The Uiiikiehr Effect and the Vertical Distribution of Ozone SO 

XI. General Discussion of Results . 91 

Appendix I The Dobson Spectrophotometer . 94 

Appendix II Umhehr Calculations . 97 

Bibliography . 99 
















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LIST OL TiiBLSS 


Page 

Table 1 «Tavelengths Used in Observation. 6 

Table 2 Tlean Values of ^ . 13 

Table 3 Hean Values of 10”^^.b . 13 

Table 4 Lumbers of Observations . 14 

Table 5 Ozone Observations .. 15 

Table 6 Mean Daily Ozone Values, 1953 . 55 

Table 7 Surrmiary of Ozone-Upper Air Correlations . 69 

Table 8 Results of Urfkiehr Observations . 91 

LIST OP P1GURS3 

Page 

Pigure 1 Graph of Heading, H, against Q Dial Setting .... 8 

Pigure 2 Curve of Corrections to be added to 11 for Zenith 

Sky Observations . 10 

Pigure 3 Ten Day Means of Ozone Over Pdinonton . 57 

Pigure 4 Ozone - Upper Air Correlation Graph January 1953 58 

Pigure 5 Ozone - Upper Air Correlation Graph Pebruary 1953 59 

Pigure 6 Ozone - Upper Air Correlation Graph March 1953 60 

Pigure 7 Ozone - Upper Air Correlation Graph April 1953 61 

Pigure 8 Ozone - Upper Air Correlation Graph rlay 1953 62 

Pigure 9 Ozone - Upper Air Correlation Graph June 1953 63 

Pigure 10 Ozone - Upper Air Correlation Graph July 1953 64 

Pigure 11 Ozone - Upper Air Correlation Graph August 1953 65 












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LIST OL FIGURES (Cont'd) 


Page 

Ozone - Upper Air Correlation Graph September 

1953 66 

Ozone - Upper Air Correlation Graph October 1953 67 
Ozone - Upper Air Correlation Graph llovember 1953 68 


Surface Ozone Distribution Uarch, April and I-ay 71 
Surface Ozone Distribution June, July and August 72 
500.mb. Contours of a Gold lov/ Pressure System 74 

500 mb. Contours of a Trough . 7 5 

Direct Sun Observations Imiy 26, 1953 . 76 

Direct Sun Observations i.Iay 28, 1955 . 77 

Direct Sun Observations June 11, 1953 . 78 

Direct Sun Observations July 9, 1953 . 79 

^^Ititude against Atmospheric Pressure . 82 

Unikehr Curve Lay 26, 1953 . 84 

Umkehr Curve June 5, 1953 . 85 

Umkehr Curve September 4, 19 53 . 86 

Umk.ehr Curve September 8, 1953 . 87 

Ozone Distrioution Lay 26, 1955 . 88 

Ozone Distribution June 5, 1953 . 89 

Ozone Distribution September 4 and 8, 1953 . 90 

Dobson Spectrophotometer . 95 

Graphical Solution of Umkehr Equations . 98 


















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1 


I• I ntroduction 

The presence of ozone in the earthupper atmosphere was 
suggested by Hartley, when it was discovered that the short wave¬ 
length end of the solar spectrum, and all stella^r spectra, are 
rather sharply cut off near 3000A. The absorption coefficients 
in the Hartley bands v/ere measured by Meyer (l) in 1913. Eabry 
and Buisson (2) a.lso studied the Hartley bands in 1913 and extended 
the knowledge of the absorption coefficients of ozone into the 
Huggins bands to 3340A. Observations by Abbot for the Smithsonian 
Institution showed that there was absorption in the visible region 
corresponding to the Ghappuis a/bsorption bands of ozone. Habry and 
Buisson (3) proved that the absorbing substance wa.s in the eamth^s 
atmosphere by observing the solar spectrum at various solar zenith 
angles. Cabannes and Dufay (4) shot/ed in 1927 that the aiosorption 
observed was consistent with the measurements of absorption 
coefficients made by Golange and thus confirmed the assumptions of 
Habry and Buisson that the absorbing substance was ozone. 

The next fundamental work was done by Dobson (o) 'who developed 
to great precision the method of measuring the amount of ozone in 
a column above the observer by the invention of his spectrophotometer. 
Between 1925 and 1929 Dobson (5) conceived and directed a measuring 
program, which shov^ed up the large scale seasonal a.nd geographical 
distribution of ozone. He also discovered the large day to day 
variations which are connected with the general weather situation. 

The mean altitude of the ozone layer was first measured by 
Strutt (Rayleigh) in 1917 as 40 to 60 ICm. above sea level. More 
recent measurements have located the layer between 10 and 45 Km. 
with the maximum .around 25 Km. Measurements have been made with 
sounding balloons by E. and H.Y. Regener (7), and more recently with 
V-2 rockets. Such direct investigations are made only infrequently 



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because of their great cost, 

^ more generally applicable method of deteriidning the vertical 
distribution of ozone mahes use of the Dobson spectrophotometer and 
the umkehr metZnod of Gotz (S). 

In this thesis an attempt is made to refine the method used 
by Gov;an and Leppard (9) to correlate the varia^tions in the total 
amount of ozone with the wea,ther map* measurements of the vertical 
distribution of ozone have been made by the uitkehr method. A 
graphical method of comparing the day to day variation of ozone 
with the upper air weather data has been devised. 

II• Theor e tical Prin c iples D et er m ining the Aitount of Ozone in the 
At mosphere a n d It s D ist ribution 

After Dobson’s extensive measuring program, attempts were 
made to provide a suitable photo-chemical theory for the production 
of ozone, l/ulf (lO) has shown that all absorption of wavelengths 
less than 2400A leads to the dissociation of a diatomic oxygen 
molecule into two oxygen atoms, or the excitation of the molecule 
so it dissociates on collision. The reactions can be represented 
by the following equations; + hV -—^ 0 0 (l) 

whe r e AV represents one quantuiri of energy, h is Dlanck’s consta,nt,* 
and V represents the frequency of the radiation involved, and 

0<n + 0 A. -- > 0^ M (2) 

where m is a third body necessary for the conservation of energy 
and momentum. 

The amount of ozone does not increase indefinitely since 
there are also the following destructive reactions at work: 

0^ “’■*0 —> 20^ (excited) (3) 

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There are other possible reactions w/hich do not have an apx^reciable 
effect in the free atmosphere. 









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v7ulf and J-ieming have calculated the vertical dis'oribution of ozone 
from photochemical principles (ll) and find the calculated amount 
to be in good agreemenr with observations at levels above 35 hm, 

R,A, Craig has shown that the time required for the ozone to return 
to equilibrium is only a few hours, above 35 imi. , but at lower levels 
it can persist for several days (12). Low tempera,tures have been 
found to be favorable to nigh ozone concentrations. 

Short term variations in the tota .1 amount of ozone have been 
explained by horizontal convergence, vertical divergence, and the 
persistence of ozone at lo¥\fer levels, which is not in photo-chemical 
equillbrium. 

Seasonal va.riations and latitudinal distribution can be 
explained on the basis of circulation in the stratosphere extending 
over both hemispheres, or by a combination of turbulent mixing 
and the temperature effect (l3). Sufficient evidence is not yet 
available to determine which exxjlanation, if either is the correct 
one, or their relative importance if both act. 

III. T heory of th e Measu r ement o f t he Total Am ount o f n t mospheric 
Ozone and the Meth o ds Use d 
( a* ) Symbols . 

The symbols used throughout this thesis are defined here in 
alphabetical order. 

A, B, C, L refer to pairs of wavelengths which can be 


used. Values are given in Table 1 . 


1 


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atmospheric pressure at a height h. 
the base of natural logarithms, 
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correction to convert dial reading, to the 
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XJ. Xi --UXi ' • < .ri.;. JdJi ''.1.1. ' O.L'j.":.vV 

i jB)-.; e-l i^iU ; L .Oc X9J Ji r;S 

X' i;‘ V. , ', 




vffi...' ■\' •> .'.^/i'-u' 

'«< •' /■■ >:■' 





5£i. 



iirj .■'<o.c^?''I 


■' ' / ' 

a”- 

■^' -‘- c 

XvV-"- 

m . -■■■ 

'<■) 

\j 

i*^‘- 

.'if. ''■'>■■ .-!■' ,,' ' ■ 

S'li'S® 

! r'V P'-J X \_. j irU.' '."^ J xv.' 

X'je-'iB :.i.fioo 





X ■■:■„ ■ . 


Xa XXitJUi'; "tZ GX/ 

•-.ta^ fcuj 


',. .' -Pv '■■' 



;.', ,.,v'fi'>, . ■ 

.-■ .y .; 

'‘p 

^ , - ’ ’ . '• ..i'' .' •,' ''»Vi 

. Ot. -•• ..J li.xj itx 1. 

.J'0 xX' '• : ‘•-CJ 0 

-h' 


p'XJjO 

'■'. ■ ;^'r' f 







'. '*■ - J P ' ‘J- -. .i ;S:!''^-''«'|:;'4^.;4 : ..■'^K''-- 

O' . V 


i 


; . ,. V ' ji; . H M .: O f I . O Cj 

V“ "'•Vi-^ 

hi i ■ -PP. ..i. ' 1 :..^..' 

ia a u - ,;'til.£9Sf: IP/P 

t.' ‘^uj V 

XlfcJ ftsiivi, X^xP 




5 . 


^2’ ^3’ 


refer to slits in the instrument (see 
Appendix l) 


X the total afliount of ozone in the atmosphere, 

considered as a pure layer a,t nornial 
temperature and pressure. 

x^ the concentra-tion of ozone at a height h. 

Z the solar zenith angle measured at the 

earth^s surface. 

Z* the sola,r zenith angle measured at the 

level of the centre of gravity of the ozone. 

the sun’s zenith 8.ngle mea,sured at a height h. 
the absorption coefficients of ozone for 

, M 

the V(/s.velengths "X , > , a.nd X . 



is] s" 


e 

s, X', X 


the molecular scattering coefficients of the 
atmosphere for wa.velengths \ , X j and X . 

the molecular scattering coefficient of the 
atmosphere a.t a height h. 

the scattering coefficients for larger 
pa,rticles in the atmosphere for 'wavelengths 

^ j X j and X • 

the sun’s declination, 
the sun’s hour angle. 

■wavelengths passing through slits S^, 
and 3^ respectively. 







.i t■! ' 

k- ni: e'J ^ \:.o 

J.’ lioJOj 

edJf 


,1... XOl. 

0.0 l. 

01J.J.: noi' kej:3Li; 

a JO 



. '■ Lii: 


. _ a J 


0 ! xz.ii . 

J o.U'JlSO) 

'to ro.iioooo nootfOo 

OiOvT’'^' 



nf:'; 

I* 

. O.T j. •■ O.v 

'■ n t i.jJo k -0 

erij 

.u-.j . 

J 

!iM?p55y§fe:;Oi^ 

oJv J. 

..:.i 

..0 rlO'i. I. '! 00 ' 

oko 

lo 

lO 

i-i:ot-o o:.k to -I-: 

vol 

» lOj'-'"K ' 0 

.. .- J . L' 

? -i.;03S5... - i. 

,;r:n a:y o koiJa 

6AJ- 

,v 







J .'ji J "i :j i 

'I'ieoD .0 .1 o:.;o. 

6 00- 


• 

I; i ■ » 

. . o.iJ- .oaik V. ;t; 

(O.kd' 

o'i’i 
o'- ; ’ 

i 1 r LO S 

orso.) ^:'.xT 

■oj,:.-):: xoloov) iO.:^ 

okd- 


'.L:. . 

• Ci J ... 

1 O O' 0 V; XO1 0 '.L a OtJ 0 0. 

,it.; 



L V j.•- .Li: ‘: o o . j ;.j L ,o c; 'i:/:;.1o#i rivi • 

. :: ; 

« o'. i _ i.B 10ikXciU...j j.-’ ■ ''■■■ 

, 1 “LQ .: .i. ; L 't f, 'J ,3 ■;>'i i i o' Ji. i.i' 

■ ■; . ■ V . 

'- J .'J : ...lo c:i c';J, ' ■ 

. . . t , A 


T,fJO;L L.. 

'Vi.* 

-J ’■ n.Li. V. ' . 

■ .v' ■ 



6 . 


<!> 

Table 1,. 

Slit 

yi/ave length 
at 

Setting A 
Setting B 
Setting C 
Setting D 


the ratio of a ray's path through the ozone 
to unity for vertical incidence. 

the density of the atmosphere at a height 

h. 

the latitude of the observer. 

Wavelengths Used in Observations. 


^2 

^3 

/ 

X 

S 4 

// 

X 

3054 A.U. 

3253 A.U. 

4355 A.U 

3085 

3291 

4453 

3112 

3323 

4536 

3175 

3399 

4740 





7 . 


(b) T he Llea sureiuent o f the Total ./imount of Ozon e 
1. Direct Sun tiethod. 

The iiiethod used to measure the total amount of ozone consists 
of comparison of the intensities of two r/avelengths of ultra-violet 
radiation. The measurements are made Yn.th a Dobson Spectrophotometer 
( 14 ). A description of the instrument is given in Appendix I. The 
wa,velengths are so chosen that one is more strongly absorbed by ozone 
than the other, while they are affected equally by the other gases 
in the atmosphere. They are also chosen so tha,t a slight change in 
wavelength will ha,ve little effect on the relative intensity of the 
two beams, rhgure 1 is a graph of the dial reading (relative 
intensity ) agahnst Q pointer setting (v^/avelength) , shof^ing the 
settings used in making observations. 

The intensity of a wa.velength, in the ozone region is 

I - I m - <5 sec D 

o 

or * ^°^10 ^0 “ ^ ^ 

Por a neighboring wa.velength, X , greater than X 

logioT ’ r log^^I^ * - o< *m - 5’ssc Z 

Squations (6) and (v) can be solved for x yielding 

X = _ iJl__-i^hecZ 

When Z is less than 68^, m^secZ css: ji. 

Por a given wavelength paar ( /^ - /^ Mm is a constazit and 

^ * )p 

( S ^ MsecZ varies slightly with the atmospheric conditions, 

( <=( - q( » 

such as haze. 

2. A - G or Difference method. 

The amount of variation of ( S' - ^ *)secZ with haze conditioiis 

t 01 - "'5 

in the atmosphere is not well knovm (15)(16). This variation can 
be avoided by using ¥/avelength pairs instead of one. The 

equation for x if tne A and C wavelength pairs are used is 


(5) 

(6) 

( 7 ) 

( 8 ) 











r.' 

r y • .j' 


f- I O • j;.,--. A: ''^."i,...^ ... '^... J;;-'. 'S:.::.. ..irJ. 

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./ ■ ■ ■ ■ 

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■■ V. ■,; 

x:tO- F -UlVr DFjYi c,.Yi,YY3S Y ■ ‘U^:! . £;0 .C CTF ibjn' 

.,j: c;.c jjit.:. sxIy lo .yu i i 'oe,r. <- d-d.) 


• -f 


,.C, .noi f ^ci'-i. t.:.o J'^nj i.oaaxio oi; o,.;./ jieXevjlv. 


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(Wedge Dial Reading) 




:M.^:iitxnT i il H rj. 


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i” \ ■' ' 1 ' '■' ' "■'it”'" ‘ )'■ i' f !' 

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150 




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1 

II 

- 

Gm / 



(9) 

where S' = 100 

( ^ 

- ^’)a 

- ( ')c 



and G r 100 

( /<^ 

- 

1 

V—^ 

O 

/ E 


and the subscripts 

indicate 

the wavelengths 

used. 



3. Zenith Sky Observation 

On cloudy days the amount of ozone is obtained from empirical 
charts, produced at Oxford, by comparing zenith sky readings with ozone 
amounts obtained by the direct sun method. Corrections for light from 
various types of cloud are also obtained from empirical charts. 

It has been found necessary to apply a correction to the value 
of 11 observed at Edmonton to make the ozone values obtained from the 
chart correspond with those calculated from direct sun observations. 

The correction required has been found to vary with season. The 
curve of corrections applied to zenith sky observations appears in 
Eigure 2. The correction curve is not given for the whole year, 
because no observations have been taken on the blue zenith sky 
during January, Eebruary, March and April. 

^• Measurement of the Mean Hei^h.t and Yertical Distribution 

(S') Mean Height of the Ozone Lawy e r from Zenith Sky Observations. 

If the ozone is assumed to be concentrated in a layer at a 
height h, sunlight passing the layer will be affected by the total 
thickness of the layer and by the angle at which the sunlight 
passes through the layer. Because of the curvature of the earth 
the sun’s zenith angle, Zj^, at a height h will not be the same as 
tne zenith angle, Z, at the eamth’s surface. If the atmosphere is 
free from dust and haze so tha.t secondary scattering can be neglected, 
the formula which applies is L r Bq ” ^ ^h ’ ( ^-/<J’)secZ. 






• > .) - ) OCvi' 

' ' ^ ^jfiJ ■ ' V 

. - .:M^, .\ ' .^ ,' -' ) ■ - , ) • 00..^ :: O' ' mw ■ 

o,^ c0:i^r:elf V.:..w ^i0>jO ::, jo,; > .j^j; p 

;to X rr 7 ;D (j'D .nia ji -1 

:;Pi.^;...J'p'-o Si ‘:nv'>iO 'to ;i‘n.'jOi,<.rx-; oiLt a\.s^ '/iJOl;:' XiO'' '; 

.^o.i"', . ;:'ji;i:ej: xx.c y ,-jxd .^iPio&O ■ iov o.oOoO; ./■' * ®j sj.-.pfo' 

.._ .,.i:Oi.u‘oo'XiOvJ xfp.o j-Q^ o.'::i' ^o I:5ai.^xj0'o cotr'-oovtsA ■ 

..o .;. o;Olij :...0 . o :;1 O Ooli,'Q'L.O Oi^olo '1,0 

' .ivX ;v;'i ',P ' ■ , ■ y 

),. . 0 ' .i x-0,:-,.e. 00 \-XPiC;;: oootl. ^^ipoOO 

. ‘.,,0^0 ..rOOPtoY P!:.0::0 XY-;0' O.-i YOdPPoPPb^.. J ;i. OOVlSvU^ ,.; lo 

' ’ ■ ■ 'P;' 

o,i,; .'ii ; oY):7Yi ...•o'l'.i i.Y.'OaoiiO 'Mojpj^e'i.X'Oo .tii^’^b. 

•;.Y..V oj" .oi':;..'-yjI iX-Sa'O • Y-iO fy.: '.;ib.>po’a; ' OiOoaOP’XjO Oill' 

• " 'j' :YStCx- ;,■ ;. 

Y'oii,,-VI ;.:Lo Aiui.YO.S OJ ..• OJpt.YA Y.::r:P'l:i:b;O'Oi0O''’iO 

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■ , ’ X _ ' ' , X' . , 

V.--.o>x o;.'j;o p ^ ij.vj ovisip BUk-:. o^€'^ 

.i/'i - ..j , iiov. 5X--'XU'*x0w.> . ^/xtiuroAO 

' ptbbvtYb i ■ 

■.j;J;.7..../bp,-JU-;i-iii'.0 . .A'O'.. .OriixLJXiid. JX;.\ xOAiiiiPAjf- 

-: ■■■ ., .,*■ 

..,>. ^ '-.L AOv* sOPA-hSiO PAA'4il^ ,Y. Ao!^ 

■ .'. .- ■ - ■ '■••—■ 

-'') 1 j-^PX.J , :y>- ■ i'.; O'j JJO.cO- '- c. Jj XAij*.O 0 U ■■BX:^)S 'i’i 

' ' '' ■ '”■' 

,.- ..;■/■ -.0 J.J.4. iv, Ai svaw'’ ,y<.yy)' . < l iaii'' ; 

. V.. ..• .•jo.Pv. p; . Aio' \A'■XG;xO>l' 0 :aA a on..- .ox 00 

■ ■' ' ; .' ' , ,. .' .'•, - ' ■■ ' V.-''' 

- . . .: :i:;,jP:V'X.YX) P ./ -.0 oam?o';7-v . 0;;.-„jri.i! ' OfOi' :.Y..arv:x:,. ■ 

•' iV. •:{ u;x,, i::.A t' ijii i : ' .-vLvltp^ .40"xi.,:ux: cP rijjxr'oOj 

' P; . . -..'rip;, VuYXXAO P.;^- ;P. ; ^ , X YXilX/OY 0 j ' 

' ': r » ' 

- '■ ■’ X. O .. . .,' Qo 7 .^.;y 0 .’ ..jVTOO •■ .-O'Ox 

■ , X ■ ■ . ■ ' ';t 

J -. ..\ A - •-' ) - ^j. OP lAJ:.'...' ;. Iyp-XccA 





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































The unknown quantities in the equation are , x and h. is a 

known function of h. 

Sin r H sin Z (lO) 

H -f h 

where R is the radius of the earth. 

If the meteorologica,! conditions are stable so that x and h can 
be assuited to be consta,nt, and is constant, the three unknowns 
Ccin be found by the following procedure. 

(i) Observations are taken for half a. day from Z r 83?5 to the 
local noon. The resulting values of M are plotted against 
sec Z, and a smooth curve is drawn through the points. 

(ii) To each ordinate is added the appropriate value of 

( - /s' i sec Z. 

(iii) If sec Z were used instead of sec Z the curve should be a 

h 

straight line. Sec Z is replaced by sec Z^^ as the abscissa, 
using 10 Km., 20 Km., etc. for h. If one of these curves is 
a straight line the corresponding; value of h is taxen to be 
the correct one. If none of the curves is a straight line the 
a,ssuuuption that x and h are constants is not justified. 

(b) Vertical Distribution of Ozone from Zenith Sky Observations. 

The intensity of light from the zenith blue sky depends on the 
amount of air ava,ilable to scatter light at any height, h, the 
relative intensities of light available to be scattered, and the 
aiTiOunt of ozone tiirough which a ray must pass. The intensity 
received by the spectrometer at the earth*s surface is tne total of 
all light scattered dovm'ward from a colunin of air aibove the instrmiient. 
There will be a limited region from which most of the light received 
lias been scattered. This height of maximum scattering will depend 
upon the rate of absorption of the particular wavelength involved, 
and the sun’s zenith angle. It will be greater for those wavelengths 







^ \ *..-% r ^ I* ■“ :, •,«;, ,.■..■■ ■ •'",' ' 


Ih,*^ - K' 
ron5t'*';j 


Ij!' 


'. uru i.'loej 'jkii e-:w 1:X 


oJ: ui- ij'ri.i. 5 jx.:..'■ u;j OJ ;,;&>iUxJa 6 'ja ac. 




., :■!■- V. ' ; J. x O t 'x.L. 

,-£ .v,,.- f.ia ^ ■ i- Y xaat U; 

'to .-.OiOi-.-V fix J i ^OX B. .a »:'100f:. i..aOV'X ■ . 


•vo 'xo i aviiOj fix-Ox a «-■■ oo; 


V aa ■: X :i.f: 0 i';;.^,.:. 9uX 


j 




•) . V. 


■j C .). ', o - - - 

. 0 3 a. J >' -x 

. f r- 1 .' > 

X.. oX.juJ- O'tio 

•)• 9-^u ; ose 

h ■ '"T- 

■ >. . 

a -J , V ; t X ./ 0.: 

b 033 .O- 

■ ' :.■ 0 i. ■ 

r. V -. i o^^. 

* .1 .X-0.,.,ia: 

-V .0 ./ 00-.--J 

.0 0 n Q, ■ f -- 

Yu 

* .ja 

t :A- 

■.J .X 

..: Xo o.;j.:..v 

. ..Xu.' 

.■:"3 0 I a -O a.3; 

'^h ■■ 

.ui.^i'X X, i i.,.v'.i..xi 
X- ■ 

... .' . 1. 1 ■ ■ 

.; , .c cx VYOo 

p.iJ, 

XO f-i'iUi- XI 

. .: (0 :.,o '"i'.' uo ' 

. . . LiJ ^. 

Xor^ xi a J liitXano;) 

0-fu a' Xro V 

j • 0, iiOXJ".!. X.'. 

. .L.^ *.'■ ! ;,. 0'.> ■ 

V. ..iX -i.' 

.. 'jl'x 

anoO'J X'O ooX 

Ti/oIxJ■ox^■ iOD 

s 

. o-,o . ■ . 'X 

\ K- LL :i.J X ,3 


. .J.^x X'’,.„X l 

lo V jio.ricA'L-..i 

;. , . . ., , ‘ 

r .. .. . : 

'iX -i 

PjS 

jj.. "Xu a' OJ' 0 

J- u ui.. X.A V^*t^ ;. iii' 

X' -x ■• • 

.J ; - ' ■■' 

./.,0u -*-< Oj 

91 O ' - 

x.aa: x'-'x-i; X 

. , O.IV, , J 

,0 3 -Ai'X .XiuXU'I 


1;. U i i) 




) jB.JO. lZ 


■: X ; U 


B'i 


'., 0,.Xfx- 

j . J J, 


JS. 0. 


;O0^L ./ .;X0:'. j lO X.'.ooaux 


.o 'X J- 0 e v>.: '.X >. oa \ 0 a i 


, - \ ', _.' J..i..:; X. ) _.0 J- .'■ * v.> .' '.•J'i. i. \ X> •'s* . i.v^ • .. '-.' ■•'V -> '-.I . I, .L X .!_-Lfj 

.-. .., 1 ..il . .. ';,io .. ...Jil i:OX;X‘l r.O'!.T/: xX Sj Si i..:-X.'. ■ 

w .! \f; i. .'. a j^lObi XSJ. . iOCx,; . ' 'I • u:{_,.jl;-.> aX ; . bX’iXi J J' . jao . V - C; Ovi 

./ •./ :., .lo v. - i j.>. 0 X. j o--. oxx-J 'to f’Xox 

„ ;’V;’.. . : .• r . ■ x x - Xixvr jX . o! .iXXaaH ^ 



which are most strongly absorbed and also greater Yi/hen the sun is 
low. Thus the mean height of scattering for light of wavelength 3112A 
will be higher than that for wavelength 3323A. When the sun is low, 
the mea-n height of scattering of 3112A. is above most of the ozone^ so 
that its intensity is cha^nging slowly as the sun sinks; while the 
mean height of scattering of 3323A. is still below the ozone lawyer 
and is decreasing rapidly as the solar zenith angle increases. 

L thus decrea.ses to a minimum (around Z r 85^) and then increases 
for larger values of Z. 

This effect Y\ias first noticed by Gotz in 1929 and was named 
by him the ’‘umkehr effect’*; it is also kno?m as the Gotz inversion 
effect. It can most easily be seen in curves of log I / plotted 

/ T » 

4 

agahnst some higher power of Z. Z has been found most generally 
convenient. Such curves are called umkehr curves, since they 
illustrate the umkehr effect. Gotz also realized tne possibility of 
calculating the vertical distribution of ozone from observations of 
the intensity of light scattered from the zenith sky. Such 
calculations were carried out by Gotz, lieetham, and Dobson in 1934 (l?) 

using two different methods of calculation. It is their method A, 
developed at Arosa, that is used here. 


The intensity of light of any wavelength reaching the earth*s 
surface is 

secZh dh 


klg 1 * cos^Z) [ 


10 


10 


secZ^ dhl 




dh 


Hi 


Since the instrument readings are always in terms of ratios, constants 
such as (l+ cos Z) and K drop out, and equation (ll) may be rewritten 

as _ 

1 “ 


I - £lO''^^-b lO'^'l 


£l0 




(12: 


The summa,tion is carried out in 1 Km. steps from 1 to 65 iun. above 


sea level. 



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13 


It is convenient to divide 
ozone amounts as follows; 

Above 50 idii. 

50 - 35 iCm, 

35 - 20 
20 - 5 ICni. 


the atmosphere into 5 layers with 

negligible ozone 
xp cm. 

Xg cm. 

s cm, r X - (Xp + u ) cm. 


1 - 5 Ihn. - M cm. I 

I 

The assumption that the amount of ozone above 50 ihn. is negligibl! 
and that the amount below 5 Km, is 1% of the total amount per Km^is I 

ma,de in accordance with direct measurements^ made by balloon borne 
instruments. Since the total amount of ozone is known from direct 
sun measurements, only xp and X 2 are unknown. The mean values of 
^ for each layer and for zenith angles of 80^ and 90^ are given in 
Table 2. The mean values of 10 *b for each layer are given in 
Table 3. Using these tables and the value of -log from an 


Table 2 
Layer 


Mean Values of 


80 


Z r 90 


Above 50 imi. 


X 


20 


35 Tma, 

X 1- 2.31 Xp 

X -f 19.03 Xp 

20 inn. 

x+ 4. 38Xj^+ 2.31x2 

X ■» 15.30xp 18.90xp 

5 Km, 

3 , 31x tl .75xp^ 2.OOxg- 2.31u 

19.87x-9.99xp-3.62x2 -18.87i 

1 Km. 

5.42x-0.57x^-0.19x2"2.lOu 

21. 96x- 12.84XP-10. 37x2^-1246 


Table 3 

Layer 

Mean Talues of 10“^^ .b and 10" ^ ^b. 

Q^o 90 

-a j£ -fljC 

10-b 10'^ -b 10 -b 

10 -b 

Above 50 Km. 

.112 

.144 .111 

.141 

50-35 Km. 

.604 

.780 .556 

.730 

35 - 20 Km. 

4.86 

6.42 2.28 

3.57 



. -3 


20-5 iim. 

18.7 

30.8 7.94x10 

7.74x10 

5 - 1 iim. 

5.33 

14.05 7.03x10"^^ 

6.55x10 











'"/tf' . i, ■'ei.i. -Tl 


: S V'- () .1. .i. s.) )' ■■■:• x'. j\ 


c\' 


C, 


..■■i,:. i.i ■ ■ 

.XK “* -0c3 
i/i v)> ■ - .e- 





,.:r 1 




, a C‘: 11-0 ■ 0.ui ■:• 0. .1. , 0 J IV - u: ^1/i.v 

'■■X .:' 1- ' 

, ■• ; ■; j:'16 \ L. i " i :■ 1 i . '■kH v il.. « . Itii'lX 

• : >-XXX 

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iJ'> , .. ..u' :• - li .o.-ViO ■ iixjs 

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11 


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o, 




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'.. . “ Od 

r ■ ' r ■'■ ( 

,- .'\,'....-I. » ■ •- ■ L--. ■' 

. r-'x.:! 



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t. • . 


a 


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ud :xoCA 

' 'A; 






14 


unikehr curve, one obtains two equations in two unicnowns which can 
be solved for and • 


• O bse rva tions of the Total Ozone Amount 

Observations have been taken at Sdmonton since the Dobson 
Spectrophotcnieter was put into operation on Aug 2, 1950. The 
observations from march 1, 1952 to December 31, 1953 are recorded 
in Table 5. 

The number of times the amount of ozone was ca-lcula-ted, the 
nuifiber of days upon which observations were made, and rhe methods 
used are given in the following table. 


DUMBDRS or OBSErcTATICDS 

Dumber of times Ozone 


Table 4 


Method Used 


Direct Sun Method using 
c wavelengths (results 
denoted by ) 

Difference method using 
A and C wavelengths 
(results denoted by x ) 

Zenith Cloudy Method 
(results denoted by x^} 

40 


amiount was calculared 


790 


9 


157 


Dumber of days upon 
which observations 
were made 


443 


9 


123 










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.Pofi.re-'. \buoLO 
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TABIji V 

OZCiidl VALUS3 lisT CZiS 


mOUATAIjM a \q 

Date staddxdd d’ d cloud Cos z ^ ‘ 

■XliOS (10’ cm ) 


' 1/52 

1134 

108.4 

.4562 

336 


1515 

133.3 

.3675 

340 

2/52 

1445 

121.4 

.4149 

350 

3/52 

1130 

97.9 

. 4650 

306 


1426 

105.8 

.4430 

319 

4/52 

1126 

97.8 

.4674 

307 


1237 

94.6 

. 4986 

319 


1526 

120.5 

.4658 

399 

5/52 

1128 

87.9 

.4751 

267 


1430 

93.4 

.4495 

275 

6/52 

1125 

88.7 

.4868 

285 


1430 

94.4 

.4550 

278 

7/52 

1140 

133.5 

.4966 

281 


1435 

151.5 

.4548 

320 

9/52 

1455 

108.1 

.4397 

325 

11/52 

1130 

89.1 

.5129 

306 


1430 

104.4 

.4823 

333 

12/52 

1129 

89.1 

.5178 

310 


1440 

101.6 

.4756 

330 

13/52 

1450 

105.4 

.4681 

340 

14/52 

1137 

83.2 

. 5361 

296 


1500 

96.3 

.4594 

289 

15/52 

1220 

76.4 

. 5636 

264 

16/52 

1158 

80.6 

.5607 

301 

17/52 

1130 

82.7 

.5483 

298 








. / I.. 


:cX. , w 

‘ a ^ 

^ "y" ... . 

. H;. .o 


•1* .'’'i r-: 

,.i. 1. 




-- 

Hi 

■.?.GXI 

;;;3\I iflM.t,-' 

i'M 

i' V. o c.. X 

xrcx 

'^'u- 

;:. . ,.H1 

■X'-'i-I 

Vi; \V* 

(.. . 

Go IX 

;Xo\X' 

■ri 

. ^OX 

c^'X'-X X 


C, . 

"o J^’ .1 

A: * 

c . 

. VX2I 



. .diAcX 


■; . Vo 

'^Isxx ■ 

■ . 

'■- ' ’l 

Oe. M 


„ .. .X' 

1 j v. o ,^., ■ 

1 

G^XIUX ’ 

Vo \o 

V . -. 

Ov^VX , 


I-f’ .- 

: G . ^-- ■ -i- 

I- 

Oi^-XI 

gxitv^ '■’ 

■ HXn.f 

C:..:r4 

.:m 

X . '■•Xj.. 

, _.oXrX- 

5r;'?A0--; 

. I . /O 

^ -^doxx. 

V:X\Xl 


OcXl 



G^XX 


• ..lCX 

01 x 


^ ! 

. '■/ 'v-i. 

O^iXX 

acVi: 

c'l . C' 

VX 11 

VO \XX 

^ I,.: 

■/X, ^c^Xx'Xl 







16 



AxOUxsiTxiliM 

STAl\iDARD 

TIME 


1% CLOUD Cos 2 

{ 10' 2 cm ) 

MAR 17/52 

1609 

121,0 

.3539 

286 

19/52 

1138 

81.0 

.5660 

307 


1508 

39.6 

.4734 

278 

20/52 

1126 

85.7 

. 5613 

326 


1436 

93.5 

.5216 

334 

21/52 

1136 

88.7 

.5699 

353 


1444 

98.3 

.5767 

401 

24/52 

1134 

77.1 

.5918 

3 04 

26/52 

1137 

69.4 

.6051 

272 

27/52 

1504 

77.1 

.5194 

256 

29/52 

1126 

70.2 

. 5629 

282 

31/52 

1150 

74,0 

.6401 

319 


1435 

81.3 

.5788 

317 

APR 1/52 

1142 

75.2 

.6408 

326 


1442 

81.4 

.6747 

385 

2/52 

1132 

75.6 

.6392 

327 


1439 

78.7 

.5833 

307 

3/52 

1140 

76.5 

.6500 

339 


1427 

77.4 

.5927 

306 

4/52 

1128 

68.2 

.6465 

290 


1430 

73.6 

.6037 

294 

5/52 

1132 

66.2 

.6545 

284 

7,/52 

1138 

69 .9 

.6690 

313 

8/52 

1131 

74.3 

.6689 

339 










■; 


aoO . c 


?uc; ( - • 


- 



■ oil., oJ '■' * W.'r-■}«=^ 





17 


JjATE 

M’OUliTAIX 
ST Ai^D ArliJ 

T llvlii 

IT fi' 

c c 

CLOUD Cos Z 

X 

c 

(10 ' 

.O’H 8/52 

1435 

83.7 

.6154 

355 

9/52 

1135 

76.0 

.6766 

368 


1441 

81.6 

.6122 

342 

10/52 

1140 

66.9 

.6848 

305 


1435 

69.5 

.6232 

284 

15/52 

1600 

89.7 

.5044 

303 

16/52 

1135 

65.9 

.7089 

312 

17/52 

1136 

60.9 

.7141 

284 


1453 

65.8 

.6286 

267 

18/52 

1443 

60.0 

.6466 

244 

1^/52 

1138 

54.8 

.7238 

251 

21/52 

1134 

51,2 

.7295 

231 


1435 

56.6 

.6687 

236 

22/52 

1440 

62.2 

.6758 

272 

23/52 

1138 

61.6 

.7400 

302 


1443 

60.6 

. 6655 

257 

24/52 

1135 

56.4 

.7421 

273 

25/52 

1130 

55.2 

.7428 

263 

28/52 

1438 

43.7 

.6894 

268 

29/52 

1129 

57.4 

.7567 

284 


1435 

66.2 

.6967 

307 

l/''52 

1135 

60.0 

.7674 

306 


1435 

60.8 

.7032 

278 


X X. 
ac ■ z 

cm ) 







±o. 


Date 

iViO U AIi\F 
STAMDARD 
TIi^ 

11 

c 

If’ 

c 

11 CLOUD 

a 

Cos Z 

X 

c 

( 10 

1.1AY 2/52 

1135 

54.9 



.7707 

273 

3/52 

1135 

51.9 



.7740 

255 

5/52 

1135 

57.7 



.7791 

297 

6/52 

1140 

61.1 



.7862 

323 


1430 

66.7 



.7253 

327 

7/52 

1145 

54.2 



.7916 

279 


1430 

58.5 



.7276 

276 


1435 

60.6 



.7221 

287 

8/52 

1126 

54.7 



.7733 

274 


1426 

58.3 



.7354 

278 

9/52 

1138 

52.7 



.7435 

247 


1456 

62.2 



.6983 

308 

12/52 

1143 

55.8 



.8041 

296 

13/52 

1135 

52.9 



.8022 

280 


1425 

58.8 



.7500 

2^0 

14/52 

1125 

57.8 



.7982 

307 

15/52 

1445 

60.4 



.6895 

268 

16/52 

1135 

52.8 



.8093 

277 

17/52 

1142 

54.5 



.7430 

258 

19/52 

1130 

53.7 



.8128 

285 


1436 

56.7 



.7 507 

276 

22/52 

1135 

50.2 



.8216 

264 

23/52 

1140 

53.2 



.8264 

288 

26/52 

112t^ 

54.5 



.8242 

296 











19 


DaI'E 

MOUETAIll 

STAEEARD 

1 J-jjaiii 

S'c 

cloud 

Cos 2 

c ac 2 

( 10"^ cm ) 

2IAY 27/52 

1128 

51.4 


.8257 

274 

28/52 

1137 

49.6 


.8326 

265 


1436 

55.5 


.7682 

275 

50/52 

1130 

50.9 


.8310 

273 


1426 

54.8 


.7834 

279 

31/52 

1132 

50.6 


.8334 

272 

JUii 2/52 

1132 

47.6 


.8355 

251 


1440 

53.1 


.7704 

261 

3/52 

1133 

48.8 


.8382 

261 


1458 

51.8 


.7479 

243 

4/52 

1129 

46.9 


.8357 

246 


1430 

48.3 


. 7855 

237 

5/52 

1135 

45,2 


.8403 

236 


1430 

45.9 


.7864 

220 

14/52 

1106 

53.9 


.8236 

291 1 

16/52 

1134 

49.0 


.8455 

265 


1435 

52.1 


.7978 

267 

17/52 

1433 

55.1 


. 7.33 

287 

18/52 

1126 

49.2 


.8401 

264 


1610 

58.4 


.6422 

232 

19/52 

1129 

49.8 


.8418 

270 


1400 

49.7 


.8279 

264 

20/52 

1135 

50.0 


.8460 

272 











i‘ r 


I.. 



'(T” 




:;■ :.:i:;:Gr:x:;.:r:.:“ 


I.. cX.„.j:,\. 

■ ,.;o 


.-’g \Qk‘ . .,''.' 

" -A 

...; 0C.-U.- 

'ixw 

•. ^v. v..-cXi 

XGXO.;. ■■ 

Xo , . OG-Xi 


■ ■ 

iXd's.LG 




;,G 

, Xi • vc: ' 

.iX rm-^l . 

oX u.XXi S'J \j> 

CiV; 

.-GxO 

-f 

X ^ OgXX 

il 

x'> •„ '^.,11 ■ naxxx 

'■'SvA-' 

bxx:.'. S;;:\xx 

... <,.:u ■% 

'^’ X .a a';\ 'j;. 

x' 

.•.■!.x . .. 





20 


Date 

STANDARD 

TllVliii 


c 

E CLOUD 

3/ 

Cos 2 

( 10 

JW 20/52 

1440 

50,6 



.7864 

252 

21/52 

1133 

50.4 



.8448 

271 

23/52 

1135 

50.8 



.8456 

279 

24/52 

1150 

45.2 


L 

. 8532 

241 


1426 

49 .2 



.8833 

248 

25/52 

1140 

46.7 



.8479 

250 

26/52 

1135 

49.7 



.8445 

271 


1438 

50.6 



.7895 

253 

27/52 

1430 

49.2 



.7988 

247 

30/52 

1415 

51.6 



.8139 

261 

JUL 2/52 

1450 

54.3 



.7728 

271 

3/52 

1129 

49.4 



. 8358 

246 


1556 

56.9 



.6689 

237 

4/'5 2 

1138 

45.0 



.8407 

234 


1449 

48.7 



.7728 

233 

7/52 

1128 

45.3 



.8311 

228 


1437 

45.6 



.7856 

219 

8/52 

1129 

47.1 



.8305 

246 


1438 

47.9 



.7834 

232 

9/52 

1130 

47.6 



.8301 

249 


1430 

49,6 



.7916 

237 

10/52 

1430 

45.9 



.7872 

263 

11/52 

1130 

48.8 



.8274 

257 


1434 

55.3 



.73^8 

283 


ac 












DATE 

AGUM'AID 

staddari; 



D CLOUD 

Cos Z 

Xp X X 

^ ac z 


TIaS 

c 

c 

a 


(10"2 cm 


15/52 

llLo 

39.4 

H 

• 

T r 

M 

.8179 


270 

16/52 

1145 

37.1 

66.3 

L 

.8295 


250 


1428 

38.1 

70.3 

L 

.7848 


250 

17,'52 

1442 

54.3 


H 

.7671 

268 


18/'52 

1125 

49.1 



.8127 

253 


22/52 

1145 

51.7 


E 

.3188 

273 



1555 

57.3 


il 

.6806 

245 


23/52 

1145 

30.6 

81.5 

M 

.8172 


230 


1545 

56.7 


M 

. 6616 

234 


24/52 

1140 

51.6 


M 

.8117 

270 



1430 

52.6 


• M 

.7683 

257 


25/52 

1435 

51.4 



.7604 

246 


28/52 

1128 

48.8 



.7945 

243 



1555 

59 .0 



.6313 

231 


29/52 

1119 

47.8 



.7848 

232 



1438 

49.5 



.7474 

228 


30/52 

1126 

46.7 



.7880 

225 



1527 

53.8 



.6746 

221 


31/'5 2 

1558 

57.3 



.6173 

214 


■ 1/52 

1126 

49.1 



.7829 

240 



1528 

40.6 

73.6 

L 

.6681 


240 

4/52 

1126 

47.8 


M 

.7748 

228 






b . vo 




> j. J. 


0o:‘i; ' 


. 4 ' ■ 


.:.u: 




• \ 


■ ( 


xj: 




DATS 


CLOUD Cos Z 


aUG 


i..OUDTAID 

STaLDaLD D* a 

mr-.-p ^ c a 



X 


cm 


5/52 

1155 

46.5 


.7906 

225 


1412 

51.7 


.7559 

246 

6/52 

1135 

50.4 


.7760 

246 


1452 

57.5 


.7062 

259 

7/52 

1140 

46.4 


.7763 

219 

8/52 

1135 

50.3 


.7702 

242 


1459 

51.2 


.6901 

212 

11/52 

1142 

51.5 


.7656 

248 


1448 

52.6 

H 

.6950 

224 

12/52 

1130 

49.8 


.7542 

232 


1435 

51.1 

xl 

.7103 

221 

13/52 

1140 

48.0 

E 

.7575 

222 


1444 

52.6 

M 

.6929 

223 

14/52 

1135 

39.2 67.1 


.7511 

290 

15/52 

1137 

56.3 


.7491 

272 


1535 

62.5 

L 

,6065 

237 


1536 

63.3 


.6048 

243 

18/52 

1138 

53.6 


.7394 

250 


1430 

55.5 


.6908 

240 

19/52 

1148 

46.8 


.7417 

207 


1439 

51.6 

E 

.6756 

209 

20/52 

1137 

50.3 

M 

.7316 

226 


1435 

51.6 

L 

.6701 

207 

21/52 

1104 

52.7 

E 

.7004 

227 


1435 

53.3 

E 

.6721 

218 


OON 








o. 




. . .;. 


. . \ . 

w' J * 

(....li 

.u,. ,8 

.. . •• , . 

; . -;■; 

^ SX.XI 


', :. \ . . 


. 'J •. i. 1. 

X .i \ X‘ 

V ; > . 

- J . ,. ., 

' =8 -ij. 


'-• 1 't'l- 

X.8- 

■ , ' ' ;v Vi.’ 

■nW'' . 

8X,lI 

xa\x 

' .. \ \ . 

c » ■ 

■■ „ 

CXII 

Xcf'xC 


' 1 >■'.; 

' ' , X: ’‘'X . ; 

' oxx^; 


8 •' \ . 


■ SxXX 

xx x.a 

u .V . 

t\ '.'■:■■■ 

lii , <,. » 1 . 

. 88 M 


: ;- . , . 

1 


,x.;\ '.I 

. •- 1; . 




■\. \’ s . 

■ : ■ . 

OXIi 

XjXcx 

-X ;l , 

. * ■ r-;-. 






.!. 1 0 '■) » 

■* ' r '.S- . - ■■.' 

.-v, ;x 

' -88 u: 



■ X ,. ( 

, X'X 


i • ■ , . 

'■ ■' '■ ■■''•*.- ; x, ..- -» ?'c; , 

VX.,..L 

X.g\cI 


Oj-L'. 


!' r- 




L:; 







■-'5 


CiCi ' 

I'-', ■ ... 

’(8a XI .uX'xSx 

U0X.i 
8 

..G^_ • 

v:;!! xa .88 


^.•i.i xAix 


jW 







DATE 

liA/UDTAlD 
STANDiiRD D 

TIDE ^ 


CLOUD 

ct 

Cos Z 

L 

(10 

cm ) 

AUG 22/52 

1126 

34.5 

68.4 

M 

.7153 


210 


1437 

34.6 

70.8 

M 

, 6654 


242 


1528 

46.4 

101.0 

H 

.5713 


242 

25/52 

1125 

56.0 



.7037 

249 



1440 

58.4 



.7005 

262 


26/52 

1134 

55.7 



.7064 

248 



1430 

60.0 



.6560 

249 


27/52 

1138 

54.9 



,7050 

243 



1519 

67,0 



.5802 

245 


28/52 

1142 

51.8 


M 

.7034 

223 



1437 

43.1 

69.0 

id 

.6380 


240 

3SPI 2/52 

1442 

55.8 


Ivi 

.6080 

202 


3/52 

1133 

56.9 


L 

.6719 

218 


5/52 

1137 

55.5 



.6655 

228 



1442 

60.5 



.5913 

218 


6/52 

1115 

54.6 



.6447 

212 


8/52 

1126 

56.6 



.6441 

223 



1442 

49.8 

67.1 

M 

.5751 


239 

0/52 

1138 

44.4 

68.6 

L 

.6474 


250 

10/52 

1143 

44.2 

70.6 

L 

.6454 


250 


1440 

66.4 



.5666 

234 


11/52 

1143 

41.4 

74,0 

L 

.6404 


238 


1144 

59.9 


L 

.6409 

240 



1431 

63.7 



.5734 

230 









LATE 


jii.OUiLi’AIE 

STAELiiKD 

TliEC 


A 


E' 


K 


a 


CLOUD 


Cos Z 


^:ac z 


10 


cm ) 


oSPT 12/52 

1430 

46.9 



.5691 

221 


13/52 

1140 

58.9 



.6291 

231 


14/52 

1342 

54.9 



.6099 

198 


15/52 

1130 

56.6 



.6135 

208 



1430 

66.0 



.5522 

224 


16/52 

1130 

41.3 

67.9 

ivi 

.6083 


231 


1436 

45.4 

64.6 

M 

.5385 


208 

17/52 

1130 

41.1 

66.4 

L 

.6032 


212 


1434 

45.5 

67.0 


.5356 


211 

18/52 

1146 

58.2 



.6071 

214 



1440 

69.6 



.5214 

223 


19/52 

1135 

57.6 



.5973 

206 



1427 

65.8 



.5296 

210 


20/52 

1245 

55.6 



.5729 

184 


22/52 

1134 

57.1 



.5796 

195 



1455 

67.7 



.4770 

186 


23/52 

1118 

55.8 



.5641 

181 



1430 

60.2 



.5055 

175 


24/ 52 

1124 

57,5 



.5631 

188 



1440 

64.4 



.4857 

180 


25/52 

1140 

55.4 



.5670 

181 



1446 

63.6 



.4714 

167 



1550 

83.4 



.3588 

173 









■ rsm::-jO. 

' , ..:..-..... 


o 'i-x xa ,:Xj: 


i. fSc - 


■ . ..rii 


, >- -C . 

• ' ■ ' .■ ■ ' 


'X-:s\m 

■• ; . i ’ . 

"" fi‘Sr / ' ■ ■ 


xfcXdl 


. Xi ; XeSil X'XV.i 


(;tll U.. \V.L 






iJATE 


mOUKTaIIT 
STAImDaRD 
T IivlEi 


C AOUD Cos Z 




c 


X 


c “"Z 

10 -3 


X, X 


ac 


ciaj 


SEPT 

26/52 

1126 

62.7 

.5539 

209 



1429 

66.5 

.4891 

191 


27/52 

1134 

62.4 

.5532 

207 


29/52 

1428 

67.0 

.4721 

183 


30/ 52 

1130 

65.1 

.5347 

213 



1155 

63.3 

.5466 

208 



1433 

74.5 

. 4595 

206 

OCT 

1/52 

1137 

63.5 

.5333 

202 



1428 

72.9 

.4601 

201 


2/52 

1124 

67.5 

.5198 

213 



1326 

77.5 

.5175 

252 


3/52 

1124 

67.6 

.5145 

210 



1440 

82.1 

' .4312 

219 


4/52 

1127 

70.3 

.5109 

220 



1432 

80.5 

.4364 

215 


5/52 

1426 

75.1 

.4382 

195 


6/52 

1127 

62.0 

.4999 

177 



1436 

77.9 

.4188 

193 


7/52 

1130 

63.1 

.4962 

180 



1432 

72.8 

.4180 

176 


8/52 

1134 

65.9 

.4926 

190 



1430 

73.7 

.4148 

194 


9/52 

1130 

66.0 

.4849 

231 



1434 

81.1 

.4031 

194 









i 


l/'J. 


. 

■. ■ 




.a; 



, . -j o^' 1 i 

m 

. !g \bX 

i’ 1 






> • • . 

:• - ..n 

■ » x-.o -C'-f- " 

srH\vs; 

.,■} 


, ■. . 


'a 

Xb -vvA: 


S • ■ -■ . 

! : 

* S. 'A'Si. 1 

...t'..- \Oc» 



■'» . V- . 

. ' .y^iX 


• >V.- . 

jjGlA 

, - r '> ■ " 

. . 1 -L' -S 


'.v.- 



r:. 1 

Xo\t 

.L 0 . 

J.. ^ ' . 


ii « V V ' A'.' .“i 


1'• j. ■ 

•. .. 'S 1 - . 


G.S: , 

Ov. \^:i 


■S'... ^ . 

av;: 

■c.W \ cA-.I 


01^; 

■,:M - 



. \ M' 

v,.l ■• 

L X - 


"s' :■ \ 

■A 

X . .■■%■ ■> . ' , ^ .^^.i. • 


(/i.;. 

^ j . . 

, '' ' **'-1 ■ '■■■'" ■' ... ' 

■J-'f ' 

, , A''S'-r 

6 . OS' ' .''Si I 

XC.,-X 

."'ASaSS '■ . 

•SO:' ■ ■ ' 


• - • 

' 

i. . - 1 'A: c:aOX 


S' ■. . 

KilL 


1 

. ‘ A 

• ^ 

. -L ■ . 


• t ^ 

A., ■' u€^.i: 

ff 

-.A 

... 







...S' . iSOM 





.[I 




' 

\ v cSX 





«. . ■■■0 v "_ f :: 


:• « 

<a> 


; . . -gXI. 










26 


DATE 

ilOTOTAIH 

STAIHDARD 

TIES 


^03 1 

s ! 

1 

I 

1 

i 

i 

CLO'OD 

Cos Z 

■^ac 

( 10"3 cm ) 

OCT 10/52 

1134 

70.7 



.4814 

204 


1429 

80.6 



.4037 

193 

11/52 

1116 

77.4 



.4648 

221 

12/52 

1450 

89.3 



.3927 

214 

14/52 

1126 

78.2 



.4544 

218 


1431 

91.6 



.3775 

212 

15/52 

1128 

50.3 

68.1 

L 

.4503 

208 


1436 

60.0 

66.2 

L 

.3645 

203 

16/52 

1200 

65,7 



.4236 

150 


1438 

80.7 



. 3555 

161 

17/52 

1144 

67.9 



.4464 

174 


1433 

78.3 



. 3568 

155 

18/52 

1120 

67.2 



.4288 

159 

19/52 

1121 

73.3 



.4241 

179 

20/52 

0954 

93,4 



. 3243 

176 


1131 

71.8 



.4245 

174 


1434 

87.3 



.3379 

168 

21/52 

1130 

70«3 



.4125 

161 


1434 

85.4 



.3324 

157 

§2/52 

1130 

72.8 



.4067 

167 


1436 

90.6 



.3238 

165 

23/52 

1125 

72.1 



.4044 

163 


1432 

88.0 



.3238 

158 





i 





DATE 

ji'-GUET AI :<A 
STEiE'DA'AD 
TIEE 


H’ 

c 

U CLOUD Cos Z 

a 

X. X„ X 

^ ^ ac 

( lO cm } 

OCT 

24/52 

1133 

72.7 


.4033 

165 



1448 

65.8 

59.7 

.3097 

1-2 


25/52 

1136 

82.1 


.3997 

196 



121S 

82.6 


.4092 

204 



1325 

89.3 


.3844 

209 



1414 

97.9 


.3362 

197 


26/52 

1125 

87.3 


.3884 

205 



1439 

112.9 


.2972 

205 


27/52 

1140 

87.1 


.3906 

206 


29/52 

1151 

90.4 


.3838 

213 


30/52 

1306 

69.4 

60.1 

.3636 

225 



1340 

76.8 

54.5 

.3451 

233 


31/52 

1134 

105.4 


. 3668 

249 



1433 

128.4 


.2793 

226 

EOV 

1/52 

1129 

109.1 


.3589 

253 


2/52 

1123 

99.8 


.3508 

217 



1425 

102.5 


.2799 

162. 


3/52 

1128 

98.8 


.3485 

205 



1450 

137.1 


.2387 

201 


4/52 

1100 

108.5 


.3245 

220 



1138 

104.9 


.3492 

231 



1430 

129.6 


.2635 

212 


5/52 

1137 

104.7 


.3428 

225 



1448 

147.5 


.2326 

209 
















28, 



itCUxNiTAllNl' 

STAilDA/iD 

11 

c 

A* 

c 

lA CLOUD 

Cos Z 

X 

c 

(10- 

^ac 
^ cm) 

^ 6/52 

1133 

107.4 



.3361 

236 



1442 

143.6 



.2371 

214 


8/52 

1140 

109.3 



.3297 

227 


9/52 

1133 

104.6 



,3218 

207 


10/52 

1134 

110.0 



.3174 

218 



1431 

144.9 



.2348 

213 


11/52 

1421 

137.4 



.2435 

207 


12/52 

1127 

120.0 



.3048 

237 



1449 

172.9 



. 2005 

229 


13/52 

1125 

125.0 



.2993 

243 



1432 

170.7 



.2207 

221 


14/52 

1138 

79.6 

76.8 

M 

. 3014 


220 


1432 

107.5 

69.0 

M 

.216 4 


236 

17/52 

1135 

78.3 

66.9 

M 

.2876 


203 


1435 

165.1 



.2011 

204 


18/52 

1130 

123.9 



.2809 

216 



1442 

169.1 



.1881 

201 


19/52 

1125 

122.4 



.2741 

206 



1424 

154.1 



.2088 

200 


20/52 

1133 

130.4 



.2744 

226 



1406 

151.3 



.2154 

204 


21/'52 

1132 

99.3 

65.2 

M, 

.2702 


246 

22/52 

1127 

136.7 



.2639 

233 


23/52 

1123 

92.2 

65.2 

H 

.2579 


225 





'Ji 




! 

o 


, r- 


"S' " ■•'■'■■ 



. ^ L J. 


:&ii 




L.J. 




. -L ‘-H 


.i.u..; 


•J V ^ .L 

(j. - 


b . 


C - 


i. r 


L 




v-I ‘'b 

^ a, 1' i u b... \c^ 

-. 1 boll bc> \v 

j u*'.■ j-j.. ;'J \0.l 

■ 1 'X 6 i - i 

Gi ixb,r boMi 

.':' * lb'-#' 

. i ■ ^'''■ J. 1 ■ c'C v.‘.± 

'VI ■ bbS 


V V; J bbi.i: 

V.VVj. bGGJ-. 


c , y. \ O i- .i: i. 


C. \G i 


V\|^I 


. '.■: .L 


I 


iZ. 

V.. i. i 


■ >I 


. . bL 

I . ■ 

. li . J. f. 




bj\x. 


..■> 's'*'^ I 




vOi.L 

b'.. b.i' 


nO^ 


■:g xiS 


v* 


r 


\ 


i. 


M ;, G.r'j 


C' T ■■ - t ‘ 

V.\v* 


rvr 



29 


iJATE 

iiiOUHxAlE 

STai'^DARD 11 

TInDi ° 


CLOUD 

Cos Z 

(10 

\ ^ac 

Offl) 

iJOV 24/52 

1128 

95.7 

68.7 

L 

.2572 


231 


1437 

209,1 



.1761 

251 


25/52 

1123 

152.7 



.2509 

250 



1325 

156.2 



.2468 

254 


27/52 

1350 

153.5 



.2214 

214 


30/52 

1142 

138.9 



.2442 

211 


OliC 3/52 

1500 

205.6 



.1236 

156 


4/52 

1126 

144.7 



.2262 

203 



1425 

173.5 



.1695 

183 


5/52 

1128 

138.4 



.2253 

189 



1400 

9-.0 

56.6 

M 

.2948 


245 

7/52 

1128 

99.6 

51.4 

M 

.2207 


193 

9/52 

1130 

167.4 



.2179 

238 



1441 

231.1 



.1291 

201 


10/52 

1127 

164.0 



.2141 

226 


11/ 52 

1142 

171.7 



.2210 

251 



1413 

204.6 



.1743 

240 


12/52 

1125 

157.5 



.2099 

208 



1309 

147.3 



.2213 

202 


13/52 

1126 

146.4 



.2093 

186 


14/52 

1153 

131.4 



.2215 

169 


15/52 

1134 

94.2 

59.8 

M 

.2118 


192 


1332 

155.1 



.2001 

191 











,1« 





i\ ' 

o'" 

:. . • . ;.ii 



..... „. 



— -■ -- 



V..: 

CC‘-:.I 

g..’v!« f©.> 

fc 

VXXI 

iS 

V. wl , 



V ’-i > 

1 


- . X51 

•0:.X-.!:- 

fe'S ^ 

...XI 

'■ '.sx-n/' 

<X\0€ ^ . 


OXdl 


. . X.-.'. 

dXXI' 

:v.U. v„>- 

^ . ; \- f 

t;l v> X’ j,. 


. X-: X 


S;':3\X : 

* . , 

Oy#I 


C . 

c^b'.r. J. '><5 


■-. vei 

.„ Oo.i.J. 

b:v_. \^;' 

i . J-XiX. 

IX-U, ■■ 

fe;'. 

c. 

?XXX 

x:a nOX 

■•■•'■- 



V. >,Vl 

. x.>xx 

X.J -..xx 

■•. ' CXi 

oi;-i 


: ■ .. 



7 : ‘;Xi. 


sxXsi 

. :'M 

eox.i 

■ ,v?: 

'. •:^J>I 

o.-;iX 


. X ..i 

. ■ .L .1/ 

:;c V I i;? 


. ■ ; 


K.Xc 


:S:s\bi . V 




' 'iLm 





DATE 

MOUilTAIN 

STAi'iDAHD 

TIDE 

c 

CLOUD Cos Z 

c ^ 

X 

c 

(10 

DSC 16/52 

1131 

155.6 

.2086 

203 


1405 

183.2 

.1800 

213 

17/52 

1128 

175.4 

.2060 

238 

18/52 

1134 

180.1 

.2086 

251 


1413 

215.2 

.1708 

247 

20/52 

1154 

155.0 

.2174 

213 

21/52 

1131 

177.1 

.2054 

197 

22/52 

1150 

159.6 

.2191 

224 


1319 

160.8 

.2210 

229 


1346 

181.8 

.1962 

235 

23/52 

1154 

165.9 

.2170 

234 


1356 

188.6 

. 1898 

238 

25/52 

1148 

158.7 

.2147 

217 

27/52 

1135 

170.6 

.2083 

231 

29/52 

1243 

161.3 

.2275 

240 


1427 

213.4 

.1662 

242 

31/52 

1137 

168.6 

.2126 

234 

Jam 1/53 

1143 

164.0 

.2174 

231 

2/ 53 

1132 

152.7 

.2115 

201 

3/53 

1130 

173.6 

.2115 

242 

5/53 

1145 

171.1 

.2242 

254 


1423 

208.8 

.1843 

256 

8/53 

1131 

162.8 

.2203 

232 

10/53 

1137 

161.2 

.2291 

239 















31 


DATE 

MGUETAID 

ETaEDARD 

TIED 

R 

E' 

c 

N CLOUD 

a 

Cos Z 

(lo’ 

3 

cm 

JMi 11/53 

1220 

101,6 

58,0 

L .. . 

.2512 


240 

12/53 

1435 

173,8 



.1911 

213 


14/53 

1425 

172.6 



.2084 

235 


15/53 

1120 

101,0 

63,8 

1 .r 

Jjj-X. 

.2285 


227 

16/53- 

1126 

158,9 



.2376 

248 



1420 

175.9 



.2202 

259 


18/53 

1306 

98.9 

62.4 

H 

.2401 


260 

19/53 

1138 

154.5 



.2547 

260 



1426 

102.5 

66,5 

M. 

.2250 


'230 

20/53 

1441 

95.4 

68.2 

M. 

.2198 


212 

21/53 

1115 

161.2 



.2426 

259 



1430 

166.7 



.2287 

255 


22/53 

1127 

151,6 



.2578 

256 



1420 

152.1 



.2430 

240 


23/53 

1120 

148.3 



.2541 

246 



1431 

154.6 



.2359 

236 


24/53 

1116 

104.1 

55.9 

L 

.2541 


243 

26/53 

1420 

115.8 

59.4 

L 

,2774 


318 

27/53 

1133 

162.3 



.2608 

287 



1422 

177.8 



.2622 

326 


28/53 

1132 

107.5 

58.7 

K 

.2839 


290 

29/53 , 

1125 

97.9 

54.3 

A 

.2822 


254 


1444 

102.1 

59.0 

K 

.2472 


240 

30/53 

1122 

134.2 



.2841 

246 



1425 

97.5 

55.0 

11 

.2730 


243 









; O ■ " ■■■■ , 


.-;i ; 

. .1 I.: ■ 


: ■ L- : 








■■ .... 


L . 


j. 






■A* 




X^.I0X 

cxoi 

So vli 


-;/'■/ 


■X..x.‘0 


• ’■ 

■ Z 0 X ]' 

X 

C.» G \ 5 J. 

, mV 

.... ■ 'i 1 

at-^x 

. .^x 



■ v • 


i'- f. ,' 



" 

■*'- 

V - 

OVXQX ^ 

O - j. X 

Z ■ xgX .. 


. xa i 

i,» 

.i:..!. 

: -.Xx 


Qi x.; 


X. :. .OX 

6vo>4x; 


, . ;■ ..■£ 

^.-v'XI 

'H' 

G . \(.i 


‘vi' ■ 

. ,oX0i 



. C 

■ ix'o: 

GO 



zin 

o.-as' ■ 


■ i c .i. 

_^’0o.:-X 



o.XXx' 

m 

. GO \S;0 


X,. -...L 

06: xi 




0:.Xi ' 

:.,..xXx 

W ... \.-«vA 


. •-:;X 

X::.i'X 



Ox 

o X .1 j! ■ 

' < V' 

:. X..G \X0 '-X 

Ti 

,.UX 


■ u Q \dSi 


: . 'M: . 

GO'II 

..iWS 


..xvx 

^X 


. .J- 

<j * 1 '-JJ. r 

':'^XX 

■-.. \Jb; '•;;j| 

' • 

■ >.0^: . 

... ,XX 

c, .--0-: ."‘5 

V . ; 

.[ . C^.i. 

"■ -M 

. ...M 


6e\oc 

^i. I 

. \ '.r. ■^., 




32 







IOO'U17i' aIIT 





^0 


1 

SIxiIDatu!) 

TILTS 



il., CLOuD 
a 

Cos Z 

(10' 

“3 , 

1/53 

1135 

123.7 



.3041 

243 


2/53 

1125 

127.6 



.3005 

250 



1418 

118.7 



.3111 

236 


3/53 

1123 

80.5 

54.2 

LI 

. 3018 


216 


1430 

84.3 

55.6 

M 

.2870 


215 

4/53 

1127 

76.0 

92.4 

M 

.3071 


226 

5 /53 

1128 

127.6 



.3169 

267 



1420 

134.5 



.3072 

276 


6/53 

1115 

134.5 



. 3099 

279 


% 

1427 

126.2 



.3051 

251 


7/53 

1127 

84.1 

63.9 

Xi'L 

. 3258 


238 

8/53 

1147 

95.5 

51.6 

M 

.3465 


293 

9/53 

1119 

79.2 

58.4 

M 

.3289 


283 


1427 

111.7 



.3203 

225 


10/53 

1129 

74.3 

55.3 

LI 

.3431 


222 


1431 

77.3 

57.5 

- M 

.3411 


233 

11/53 

1135 

107.9 



.3556 

247 



1428 

113.2 



.3296 

239 


12/53 

1129 

72.3 

56.1 

A 

.3538 


223 


1419 

105.6 



.3615 

245 


13/53 

1125 

81.6 

56.0 

LI 

.3556 


239 


1435 

121.0 



. 3339 

266 


14/53 

1125 

65.3 

69.3 

M 

.3610 


201 


ac 


cm 










53 


DATS 


DAB 


jIIAR 



ilOUiCI'AIlT 

6 T i'iAD Ai: iD 
THIS 

11 

c 

M-c 

CLOUD 

Cos Z 

L 

(10 

cm) 

15/53 

1149 

90.0 



.3950 

220 


16/53 

1128 

103.6 



.3746 

250 



1425 

102.9 



. 3596 

234 


17/53 

1119 

107.1 

62.2 

L 

.3719 


378 

18/53 

1430 

83.0 

54.5 

L 

. 3651 


263 

19/53 

1122 

103.9 



. 3860 

260 



1428 

109.1 



.3728 

266 


20/53 

1125 

98.2 



.3946 

248 



1431 

102.0 



.3749 

245 


21/’5 3 

1120 

94.4 



.3954 

236 


22/53 

1155 

93.4 



.4285 

258 


23/53 

1130 

100.0 



.4160 

273 



1437 

104.3 



.3846 

261 


24/53 

1120 

81.5 

51.7 

11 

.4129 


286 

25/53 

1126 

71.7 

55.1 

H 

.4241 


260 

27/53 

1122 

105.3 



.4523 

308 


28/53 

1131 

77.7 

63.9 

M 

.4521 


318 

1/53 

1337 

100.7 



.4703 

321 


2/53 

1436 

111.0 



.4245 

321 


5/53 

1131 

100.0 



.4761 

324 



1430 

98.6 



.4479 

29 4 


6/53 

1427 

96.5 



.4569 

293 


7/53 

1130 

84.4 



.4871 

266 


8/53 

1203 

76.5 



.5160 

252 


9/53 

1131 

33.8 



.5001 

272 



1425 

81.4 



.4741 

244 









A 


■y “ 

;X) ■ 


. o'X 

.. X ., 

L.*. 1 -vU. 



:7ZT~ - 

' :''0^ 


OX..: 


. . uX 

' XiXX 


V > ■ '• 


» 01 


.xa\o1 

.V.- 

, t 

.. . 0 0 J. ■ ■ 

d-XiX 

X 



■X'. .. " 'X\. ’ 

i . V a. X 

ox XI 

X':X\Vi 


1. - •■■' 

V . '0 

QcXi 

■OoscX 



. o ox 

S X: i X 

G"1 \ ..'i 


'■ X-* * ■ 

XX X1. X 

, 3X>X 

' ' .;■' 

‘.11 

Or‘ .'. 

■■■■ 

...■'• ' . S' 

J • O' . 

r .^Ox 

xsXilI 

XiXi 

sa\ox-;. 

dwX 


■■. ^ . 

Oj:-IX 

■ Xd .10 



•? . C. 

c X, X i’ 



. X - 


T.LV dSU'X (iQ'\GX 

“ . ''iC't ■ ■ ■ ; v 9iUX, • cV'."; ' ,VSi 

Loll ■ V.X; ^ 

xci ,i yu^- 

IX II 

xa‘\6 

;ii 

Ol,.i:i 'c.a\V 

. c. . d'.' ; Xoxi X'.. \d 

^ . 5', ■ ' I'X.i'i .'cV-? 



''i 


V-. COX 
; . J.. X X 
0,<:. (^.i: 



-t-X 


Xi 




^'1^‘X 


V 




DATE 

EOUDTAID 

STADDAFlD 

T Ii'viS 


D* 

c 

cloud 

Cos Z 

(10‘ 

X X 

IMn 

■3 cm) 

m'AR 10/53 

1131 

64.6 

58.4 

L 

.5061 


275 


1426 

69.8 

55.5 

L 

.4795 


280 

11/53 

1152 

67.0 

54.6 

L 

.5128 


291 


1426 

73.6 

50.3 

JU 

.4852 


304 

12/53 

1433 

75.6 

53.5 

L 

.4834 


319 

13/53 

1129 

83.3 



.5225 

287 



1430 

82.5 



.4915 

261 


14/53 

1129 

82.9 



.5281 

289 


15/53 

1134 

84.4 



.5383 

303 


16/53 

1133 

76.8 



.5433 

271 



1425 

81.4 



. 5136 

272 


18/53 

1126 

77.5 



.5492 

278 



1427 

78.5 



.5218 

264 


19/53 

1127 

76.7 



.5561 

279 



1428 

79.4 



.5259 

271 


20/53 

1426 

89.6 



.5332 

281 


21/53 

1131 

78.4 

53.5 

ML 

.5707 


380 

22/53 

1138 

81.4 



. 5819 

320 


23/53 

1126 

74.9 



.5784 

284 



1423 

76.7 



.5524 

276 


24/53 

1130 

49.7 

54.8 

M 

.5873 


244 


1430 

49.0 

67.3 

M 

.5496 


232 

25/53 

1134 

53.5 

55.3 

L 

.5959 


264 


1436 

57.4 

56.9 

E 

.5476 


266 











35 


JaTE 

iwxOUifrAIH 
ST Al'ijJiUiD 
TIxSil 

IT 

c 

®'c 

CLOUD 

2 , 

Cos Z 

1 ^ 

I (- y. 

1 6 " 

X X 

z ac 

^ cm ) 

wiH 26/53 

1123 

74.7 



.5925 

293 



1429 

69.7 



.5605 

248 


27/53 

1126 

69.5 



.6013 

270 



1434 

74.4 



.5594 

273 


28/ 53 

1128 

53.7 

65.7 

E 

.6078 


279 

29/63 

1140 

64.0 



.6211 

253 


30/53 

1133 

69 • 3 



.6237 

293 



1430 

56.3 

53.1 

M 

.5789 


270 

31/53 

1134 

70.8 



.6286 

294 



1430 

78.2 



,5836 

305 


APR 1/53 

1154 

78.1 



.6340 

338 



1452 

81.2 



.5812 

317 


2/53 

1123 

69.9 



. 3 309 

291 



1430 

70,2 



.5930 

269 


CJi 

1123 

65,5 



.6361 

269 


o 3 

1133 

65.5 



,6490 

276 


5/53 

1120 

71.7 



.6420 

307 


6/53 

1430 

66.9 



.6118 

292 


7/53 

1128 

66.7 



.6604 

290 



1430 

54.4 

52.4 

L 

.6162 


275 

8/53 

1133 

51.5 

52.1 

M. 

.6692 


280 

9/53 

1130 

50.6 

53.1 

L 

.6129 


257 


1434 

54.6 

53.5 

L 

.6198 


277 

10/53 

1128 

68.6 



.6753 

370 



1424 

55.4 

53.0 

T, 

. 6365 


300 










I ^ 





CQ \dy. 


V « '-.'C- . , x 

di^Li g;;\V^: 

- - ■,;■ .. .. 

'■y; .. S^..dr .'c:d\^,y 

-V. o^^u: 

.'■ . x-: Ox .jT 

, '., >5.IJ. GV-\IO, 

w.» j.s' v/.rj 1--L, 

x-.'v ^:.Ix' 0..\.L 

•... ■" ' 

. ; ■ .0 ij.-® 6^\?: 








36 


DATE 

MOURTaIjI 

STANDARD 

TIES 


li ’ S' 

c a 

CLOUD 

Cos Z 

( 10 

X„ X 

2 ac 

cm) 

x^PR 11/53 

1128 

55.3 

0 2.3 


.6802 


309 

12/53 

1123 

73.6 



.6809 

343 


13/53 

1120 

75.4 



.6834 

353 



1429 

79.8 



.6434 

353 


14/53 

1128 

71.4 



.6941 

337 



1425 

75.6 



.6524 

336 


15/53 

1431 

73.3 



.6493 

321 


16/53 

1122 

65.5 



.69 86 

311 



1431 

70.8 



.6531 

309 


17/53 

1135 

68.3 



.7121 

329 



1424 

67.8 



.6657 

299 


18/53 

1125 

66.1 



.7096 

314 


19/53 

1135 

62.0 



.7195 

294 


20/53 

1126 

69.3 


• 

.7111 

335 



1428 

49.5 

50.3 

jiii 

.6725 


271 

21/53 

1130 

63.1 



.7258 

305 



1423 

64.7 



. 6823 

290 


22/53 

1129 

63.7 



.7292 

310 



1435 

65.9 



.6712 

291 


23/53 

1132 

60.5 



.7352 

299 



1426 

48.3 

D 3«8 


.6861 


275 

24/53 

1126 

63.4 



.7351 

311 



1428 

69.0 



.6874 

319 


25/53 

1117 

61.9 



.7318 

300 










37 


ijAT^i 

ivaOUiMlYklR 
STAiiDARiJ 
/ I-.J] 

^9 

11 ' 

c 

H CLOUD 

a 

Cos Z 

'fj- -r.r 

JV Ji, J\, 

c z ac 

(10 ^ cm ) 

i-iPR 27/53 

1135 

40.3 

54.2 

L 

.7522 


250 


1433 

44.3 

54.4 

L 

.6916 


253 

28/53 

1120 

40.7 

51.5 

Ivi 

.7317 


248 


1430 

43.1 

52.4 

M 

.6987 


243 

29/53 

1133 

39.7 

57.0 


.7582 


249 


1433 

45.6 

55.9 


,7567 


281 

/lAY 2/53 

1125 

38.8 

52.9 

L 

.7634 


242 

3/53 

1147 

55.9 



.7796 

284 


4/53 

1120 

49.3 



.7660 

235 



1427 

51.7 



.7217 

231 


5/'53 

1132 

51.2 



,7778 

252 



1422 

40.6 

52.5 

M 

.7307 


242 

6/53 

1124 

53.4 



.7751 

265 



1429 

51.9 



.7252 

233 


7/53 

1137 

50.1 



.7866 

248 



1418 

55.1 



.7409 

261 


9/53 

1137 

39.9 

54.9 

L 

.7919 


260 

10/53 

1136 

49.4 



.7943 

247 


11/53 

1130 

53.4 



.7933 

274 



1430 

58.4 



.7379 

281 


12/53 

1126 

49.3 



.7831 

241 



1431 

56.0 



.7555 

274 


13/53 

1131 

59.7 



.7898 

316 



1429 

54.3 



.7599 

265 












38 


DATE 

IlOUH'IAiH 

bTAiNiDAtlD 

TIAE 



A CLOUD Cos Z 

L 

(10 

^2 

cm ) 

14/53 

1132 

54.4 


.7932 

281 



1432 

46.8 

56.9 

A .7586 


325 

15/53 

1125 

43.8 

50.4 

L .7901 


291 


1446 

59.1 


.7311 

282 


16/'53 

1127 

44.9' 

*50.9 

L .3037 


306 

17/53 

1127 

54.5 


.8059 

288 


18/53 

1433 

58.8 


.7518 

291 


19/53 

1129 

43.0 

53.8 

M ,8120 


299 


1430 

43.6 

53.5 

M .8132 


301 

20/53 

112 i 

39.0 

51.7 

H .7570 


255 


1422 

59.3 


.7691 

308 


21/53 

1132 

43.5 

59.8 

L ,.3173 


263 


1428 

58.0 


.7644 

292 


22/53 

1129 

57.7 


.8173 

316 



1426 

66.9 


.7686 

353 


23/53 

1120 

54.5 


.8131 

291 


24/53 

1421 

59.1 


.7783 

306 


25/53 

1131 

55.7 


.8238 

305 



1429 

56.9 


.7709 

287 


26/53 

0800 

84.4 


.5000 

276 



0834 

75.2 


.5735 

283 



0902 

69.0 


. 6294 

285 



0932 

64.4 


.6837 

289 






:V':V 


C-- 


J 'ia 


f 


Q 


0 


i... 


iiL: 


10 . 



. \ 


i.. 

‘.IcV 






j: ,' \ 




X. 


1X1. 


^ I 


\ \ 


L ^ 


: ■ \ ... 


'■. w'. 
\ . 




t . " . 

11 

. 1X>1 

a:g\ii 

T 


».'.;- - 

IX 

■ ■ 

G \di 





■■C''*''. ■ 



j: . <. :■ 

xMX' 

■ • :: •-.■"'■V:: 

J, 

.. r.,4 

X . 1 •' 

VIII 

G Isdl 

, ■ ' > ,. 



VxII 

?:v\vi 



'0§,c:l' 

•: '-I , 

v;d -.oi 

.i'- 

fo.:- .. 

u. 

• i;^li . 

lx V.I 



6 * 

.; ' ,■ . u;:ii 


^'1 'i' 

V. 


..Vuj: 

VV.M 

Gg\01 

r 

<;•,■■■ a'' 

u 0-- 

XX oo 

,,,., .lc.ll 

i'X 

G -• \I 1 




:?$;il 

Gx 1-;,V 



'! 

oH>l 

a 

. ' oil I :, 

. e:a \os 

■ ■ 'a 



1 .:..i: 

.,' , ’. i - 

' ••..’■■•' \ 

'■ 

t'f: ':V 

V.. i- 

ICII ' 

C-'XvxXiX 



■. « '; J 

VvVI 


iP 







. • I. -'O 

i'.xS- 

1 . > - 

1. ■ 

xX.VO 

.'x: 

.X'C \.; S' 

'j5 


' 

’'■' C'.I V j 

. Vxxa) 

'CX X 








39 


JATE 

uET AIE 

3 T Ai\iD AiiD IST 

Tli-IS ° 

11 * 

c 

E/. CLOOD 

Co 

Cos Z 

(10 

z SIC 

- 3 ^ 

cm ) 

iilAY 26/53 

1000 

60.9 



.7284 

292 



1038 

58.3 



,11 Qo 

301 



1132 

56.9 



.8260 

314 



1243 

54.6 



.8437 

306 



1434 

62.5 



.7666 

323 


27/53 

1135 

49.8 

57.7 

L 

.8294 


355 


1440 

48.6 

58.9 

L 

.7610 


816 

28/53 

1130 

53.4 



.8279 

290 



1235 

51.0 



.8475 

281 



1339 

48.8 



.8236 

255 



1432 

56.4 



.7727 

284 



1532 

61.7 

■ 


.6845 

274 



1627 

71.1 



.580 5 

266 



17 56 

105.9 



.3804 

262 



1824 

126.0 



.3131 

259 



1836 

136.0 



.2850 

252 


29/53 

1128 

50.7 



.82b0 

271 



1429 

39.5 

59.4 

T 

Ju 

.7893 


279 

JUES 1/5 3 

1431 

54.3 



.7805 

274 


2/53 

1444 

39.9 

51.5 

M 

. 7655 


264 

3/53 

1120 

47.6 



.8284 

248 



1429 

37.4 

49.7 

M 

.7854 


255 

4/53 

1130 

48.9 



.8361 

261 



1432 

52.2 



.7832 

261 










I'T ) 



■ li 
0 






V' 


•i 


I -a . 




.',5 


.L J. ' L ; \ 


^ > r j 








1 ^ 




1 -. 


40 


jats 


jLix'oS 



iviOUliTAiN 

STAlNiBAirA) 

llilBj 

11 

c 

A* 

c 

CLO'UD Cos Z 

A 
( 10 

5/53 

0702 

98.0 


.3794 

235 


0716 

92.2 


.4124 

241 


0742 

81.3 


.4729 

243 


0803 

74.3 


.5202 

244 


0824 

69.4 


.5656 

249 


0843 

69.6 


.6048 

247 


0904 

61.3 


.6458 

251 


0931 

57.6 


.6943 

254 


1005 

54.0 


.7482 

257 


1030 

51.5 


.7813 

256 


1101 

50.4 


.8142 

262 


1131 

49.9 


,8381 

269 


1226 

47.9 


.8573 

262 


1428 

51.6 


.7886 

260 

7/53 

1138 

50.7 


.8437 

282 

8/53 

1127 

49.0 


.8375 

262 


1425 

55.3 


.8101 

295 

9/53 

1127 

50.3 


.8416 

280 


1429 

56.8 


.7823 

297 

10/53 

1133 

51.4 


. 8425 

282 


1434 

54.5 


/?876 

279 

11/53 

1129 

50.8 


.8405 

277 


1232 

49.5 


.8621 

276 












DATS 


mO Li DT aI D 
STADDaHD 
TIaS 




c 



IT CLOUD 


Cos Z 


X 

c 


(10 


Ac 

cm ) 


JUiM' 11/53 

1437 

53.5 



.8011 

278 


1538 

58.3 



.6945 

258 


1723 

87.2 



.4811 

274 


1806 

104.3 



.3313 

258 


1810 

107.4 



.3719 

261 


1836 

124.6 



.3100 

252 

12/53 

1126 

44.5 



.8397 

230 


1434 

51.6 



.7891 

264 

13/53 

1301 

44.1 



.8462 

230 

14/ '53 

1335 

49.2 



.8438 

266 

15/53 

1451 

39.2 

54.1 ^ 

L 

.7699 


16/53 

1126 

46.8 



.8400 

248 


1426 

52.6 



.8010 

272 

25/53 

1420 

42.0 

58.5 

L 

.8098 


27/53 

1135 

47.7 



.8440 

250 

28/53 

1124 

49 .4 



,8361 

256 

30/53 

1135 

37.2 

55.9 

X 

.8424 


JULY 1/53 

1112 

56.2 



.8243 

308 

2/53 

1429 

55.6 



.7982 

291 

3/53 

1128 

39.8 

56,0 

L 

.8353 


4/53 

1127 

58.7 



. 8536 

332 

5/53 

1129 

53.9 



.8342 

296 

6 , 53 

0854 

66.6 



.6154 

264 


0924 

60.2 



.6723 

264 


1230 

55.2 



.8577 

317 


282 


320 


299 


302 







u 

fc.'l 






O J > -L . 




:y 




\ Li V 




«-•■■_» 

■ veil 

■ ■ ■ H 

6>xXi. 

Xu o 

■ « '■' 

oc II 


'- ..";,Vr 

. ■ “ ' f. , 

' ■^SV L 

- - ; 

■rn 





'^X , . - - ox , ■ 

xoc.i; 


, 

■: X'lLXX' -^.':'!^X 

CIcU 


■'. 1 

-X 

•:, ■ • J 

:n-:8I 


1 

,X'i’ " A," .'6 

sSii, 

l>i: i:i 

• Vy’.^ 

■ ■ ...j^ 

^ '-. rx 

''XH- ■ "' " -. 

■XL: XX 


i 

^iXoi 

<.g'\c:x 

;i 




xo^i 4a\ni 
isu; :.o .XI 
. '>5^-1 


O .. \ . :v 


.^1 


3611,., 3c:;\o3 . 

\i IXCu' 




:kn . 


ill I ;,: 

o.IX i 

iHi 

VIXJ: 
..;.Xi 
lOoO . 

Ooi.: • 


.■;'J 


13 d 




42 


DATE 


iiiiGLJxMTx-i.ID 

STAi^DARD IT D* 
TIIdE ° c 


H CLOUD 

Si 


Cos 2 


\ A 

(10 ^ cm) 


ac 


JUL 7/53 


8/53 


9/53 


0935 

59.9 

.6902 

266 

1125 

49.4 

.8288 

262 

1432 

51.6 

.7916 

261 

0740 

80.5 

.4518 

226 

0844 

62.3 

.5922 

228 

0942 

55.3 

.6906 

238 

1035 

49.3 

.7779 

239 

1139 

46.3 

.3375 

243 

1233 

46.8 

.8560 

254 

1327 

46.5 

.8442 

247 

1430 

48.6 

.7929 

241 

1530 

54.9 

.7101 

245 

1731 

78.6 

.4673 

229 

1800 

92.7 

.3998 

233 

1834 

100.9 

.3188 

229 

1849 

122.9 

.2829 

219 

1909 

141.9 

.2352 

208 

1933 

176.3 

.1787 

200 

0522 

210.5 

.1249 

165 

0526 

203.2 

.1340 

171 

0534 

1-6.8 

.1525 

192 

0547 

177.8 

.1825 

207 

0556 

164.8 

.2036 

212 

0617 

137.4 

.2534 

219 

0631 

124.0 

.2368 

224 

0645 

113.1 

.5204 

228 














43 


DATE 


JUL 


MOUDTaIM X, X„ X.^ 

STAEDA^ U iNj* D CLOUD Cos Z ^ do 

TIiLBJ ^ ( 10 cm ) 


9/53 

0700 

102.1 

.3563 

229 


0717 

,94.2 

.3965 

236 


0731 

87.5 

.4295 

237 


0748 

81.6 

.4687 

232 


0803 

77.0 

.5027 

245 


0829 

69.7 

. .5595 

250 


0903 

63.7 

.6287 

255 


0926 

60.6 

.6716 

260 


0947 

56.2 

.7076 

252 


1017 

53.7 

.7531 

257 


1046 

51.0 

.7896 

256 


1108 

49.4 

.8123 

255 


1133 

48.2 

.8324 

254 


1243 

47.5 

.8551 

258 

10/53 

1121 

51.5 

.8222 

273 

11/53 

0613 

153.8 

.2389 

238 


0620 

143.0 

.2554 

235 


0632 

129 .0 

. 2850 

234 


0647 

115.4 

.3217 

235 


0652 

110.9 

.3337 

234 


0702 

104.0 

.3577 

236 


0712 

99.8 

. 0 810 

243 


0717 

95.3 

.3826 

229 








‘E 

ikLOUETAIIsf' 

STAj^DAKD 

il 

c 


11 CL0UT> 

Cos Z 

(10 

\ -^ac 

-3 ^ 

cm ) 

- 11/53 

0731 

90.0 



.4255 

243 



0742 

83.6 



.4512 

238 



0801 

76.3 



.4945 

237 



0816 

72.3 



.5879 

240 



0841 

66.2 



.5818 

242 



0859 

61.8 



.6166 

233 



0921 

59.3 



.6593 

246 



0944 

55.1 



.6996 

241 



1013 

52.6 



.7445 

247 



1038 

50.8 



.7776 

256 



1103 

49.3 



.8049 

251 



1134 

48.2 



.8305 

254 


12/53 

1135 

51.8 



,8299 

280 


13/53 

1128 

32.8 

57.3 

M 

.8234 


262 

14/53 

1128 

31.9 

55.3 

M 

.8220 


258 


1430 

35.0 

55.6 

Jia 

.7861 


2 85 

15/53 

1136 

54.5 



•82^1 

297 


16/53 

1135 

35.4 

64,0 

M 

.8264 


286 


1431 

53.1 



.7627 

258 


17/53 

1130 

46.9 



. 8185 

239 


19/53 

1610 

58.6 



.5240 

225 


20/53 

1132 

55.1 



,8146 

29 6 



1430 

54.3 



.7649 

267 


21/53 

1130 

45.7 



.8112 

228 



1430 

47.8 



.7747 

228 








0 


0 


I 






I 






I 




J. ■ L 


U.LJ.. 


1 . 


C- 


ia.. i . 

% ' 


. i 


<\ 


J. 


o' a 


v<’ ■ i. 


i: 


u -j: 



V.L 





0 • j. 


k/:- .L‘. 


Cc' 'X 





45 


date 


1 

MOUiNiTAlll 

bTAIlDARD 

T lilhj 



E CLOUD 

a* 

Cos 2 

(10 

^ i 

« j 

^ ! 
“ ! 

? ! 

22/53 

1117 

52.6 



.7989 

271 



1426 

36.5 

56.3 

M 

.7772 


270 

23/53 

1131 

53.4 



.8082 

281 


24/53 

1215 

38.5 

53.5 

M 

.8279 


299 

27/53 

1125 

46.0 



.7950 

224 



1425 

54.3 



.7675 

268 


28/53 

1137 

50.7 



.3015 

259 



1428 

38.1 

52 • 4 

L 

.7618 


276 

29/53 

1131 

48.3 



.7948 

240 



1434 

53.3 



.7 526 

255 


30/53 

1120 

56.9 



.7838 

294 


31/53 

1145 

36.2 

51.3 

L 

.7991 


277 


1434 

38.1 

58.6 

L 

.7474 


279 

4/53 

1124 

55.4 



.7740 

279 



1454 

54.5 



.7107 

243 


5/'5 3 

1128 

50.0 



.7744 

242 



1431 

51.5 



.7341 

235 


6/53 

1141 

45.9 



.7806 

217 



1430 

53.1 



.7707 

240 



1600 

61.7 



. 5955 

226 



1629 

68.1 



.5376 

213 



1656 

75.5 



.4792 

213 



1722 

85.5 



.4206 

222 



1744 

96.1 



.3671 

218 



1807 

112.5 



.3111 

217 












V ^ 


. V 

v.V' 

s' 

VOLV 

i^oV'V 




V'XII 

c>a\S:;:: 

aXil 





•:. ■ • 

■'* 

j.Mf 



-.j;gu 

'■ X 

xl-i' 

. ‘'';-vv:' 


60 ,''.'.';X 


■■ 


■ ss 



S' ..1., 

'..<-■ \w. ■ 


6X::m 



I,. IX 

'0 -AG-X 





■ ■•iX 

;a^ ■3' 
O Li A,' -j' 

■ v;>-X 








46 


DATS 

AUG 7/53 

10/53 

11/53 

12/53 

13/53 

14/53 

16/53 
17/ 53 

18/53 

19/53 

20/53 

21/53 


AOUDTAID 

STANDARD 

TI_.jS 



CLOUD 

Cos Z 

^0 

(10 

L 
-3 ( 

1135 

48.9 



.7737 

228 


1436 

51.6 



.7245 

231 


1128 

53.1 



.7597 

257 


1429 

51.2 



.7227 

228 


1131 

36.3 

53.0 

M 

.7588 


273 

1438 

52.5 



.7085 

230 


1125 

38 • 8 

56.1 

L 

.7510 


277 

1425 

53.6 



.7200 

241 


1126 

56.3 



.7466 

273 


1424 

54.6 



.7370 

256 


1132 

59,4 



.7500 

293 


1430 

52.9 



.7072 

231 


1126 

54.1 



.7387 

253 


1125 

53.9 



. 7345 

250 


1429 

55.0 



.6969 

239 


1130 

49.8 



.7349 

224 


1438 

55.7 



.5899 

193 


1135 

49.4 



.7 348 

221 


1426 

52.8 



. 6913 

224 


1128 

52.8 



.7249 

239 


1428 

36.3 

53.9 

Ml 

. 6860 


243 

1129 

37.5 

51.1 

L 

.7232 


252 

1434 

56.4 



.6732 

236 


12 46 

49.2 



.7399 

223 


1506 

57.5 



.6214 

220 



23/53 








O' 


J . ij 




r ' 


i' 


rr 


1 


.o.\V 


u... 




. .1 


x 


r 

. 1 . 


I ; . 


j- 




i! 




.'•..XI 





47 


DATE 

iViOUAT aID 
STi^iTDArvD 

i Jl -Villi 

D 

c 

11* 

c 

CLOUD 

Cos Z 

4 
( 10 

^ac 

' cm ) 

aUG 26/53 

1127 

38.0 

52.0 

M 

.7024 


254 


1431 

39 .0 

51.3 

M 

.6558 


245 

27/53 

1135 

38.2 

49.7 

L 

.7040 


255 


1430 

43.3 

51.7 

L 

.6525 


266 

28/53 

1120 

39.3 

50.9 

L 

.6889 


258 


1436 

58.7 



.6403 

234 


29/53 

1112 

54.3 



.6778 

226 



1127 

57.4 



,6902 

251 


31/53 

1127 

56.5 



.6819 

241 



1435 

63.0 



.6190 

251 


SEPT l/'53 

1128 

40.9 

53.4 

• 

.6794 

257 



1437 

61.4 



.6195 

237 


2/53 

1154 

60.9 



.6780 

265 


3/53 

1127 

59.0 



.6700 

250 


4/53 

843 

82.5 



.4160 

209 



0859. 

75.6 



.4499 

205 



0919 

69.5 



.4898 

204 



0945 

66.1 



,5370 

201 



1021 

59.0 



.5934 

211 



1148 

51.7 



.6772 

211 



1206 

51.3 



.6850 

213 



1237 

52.0 



.6885 

217 



1431 

59.3 



.6108 

222 


6/53 

1423 

56.5 



.6114 

207 













48 


JATS 

.LiAjUlTlAlJl 

STAlTDArvD 

TILiE 


E* iT, CLOUT) 

c a 

Cos 2 

(10 

T X 

z £ 

-3 

cm 

SHP 7/5o 

1455 

61.5 


.5627 

208 


8/53 

0858 

79.2 


.4307 

206 



0920 

73.6 


.4745 

212 



0946 

66.8 


. 5250 

213 



1011 

63.7 


.5614 

218 



1036 

60.3 


. 5967 

219 



1058 

58.0 


.6208 

220 



1129 

56.6 


.6474 

225 



1215 

56.7 


.6676 

236 



1431 

62.3 


.5909 

227 


9/53 

1132 

42.0 

53.6 

.6450 


250 


1430 

45.4 

52.3 M 

.5993 


250 

10/53 

1133 

60.5 


.6407 

244 



1427 

63.4 


.5846 

229 


11/53 

1125 

67.7 


.6294 

278 



1427 

61.4 


.6362 

247 


12/53 

1432 

65.2 


.5675 

229 


13/53 

1245 

55.8 


.6435 

219 


14/53 

1133 

57.3 


.6213 

216 



1430 

.63.5 


. 5588 

230 


15/53 

1132 

58.8 


.6153 

222 



1430 

62.0 


.5533 

206 


16/53 

1129 

41.7 

57.7 M 

.6090 


239 


1429 

46.8 

64.8 M 

.5489 


248 













49 


DATE 

MGUHTAID 

3TADDAK0 

T IluiE 


il* 

c 

cloud 

Cos 2 

( 10 

X X 

z ac 

-3 

' cm ) 

SSP 17/53 

1135 

62.7 



.6077 

248 


13/53 

1434 

49.6 

58.5 

H 

.5938 


270 

19/53 

1503 

75,8 



.4651 

216 


20/53 

1148 

62.7 



.5990 

234 


21/53 

1132 

61.2 



.5854 

219 



1431 

43.3 

59.5 

H 

.5173 


196 

22/53 

1135 

40,5 

52.1 

lEu 

.5818 


208 


1437 

46.8 

51.7 

M 

.5062 


207 

23/53 

1130 

44.6 

55.8 

M 

,5746 


226 


1431 

71.8 



.5054 

219 


24/53 

0844 

107.6 



.3289 

219 



0935 

84,6 


ft 

.4282 

225 



1003 

76.6 



.4742 

225 



1111 

66.4 



.5545 

227 



1129 

65,1 



.5678 

229 


25/53 

1129 

47,6 

60.5 

H 

.5620 


240 


1429 

79.7 



.4968 

253 


26/53 

1012 

73.5 



.4771 

209 


28/53 

1435 

80.5 



.4700 

238 


29/53 

1135 

76.0 



,5439 

267 



1433 

82.3 



,4667 

243 


30/53 

1137 

69.2 



. 5398 

232 



1431 

54.6 , 

51,8 

M 

.4619 


220 












■J 

L ) ' 

r. 

Vl (J-.^ ’' '-^ •■^•^ 

p 

T '■. 

o;" 

■\' ; 

■ffioi. f , 1 .' . 

" Gsil.: ■■ . 

m Gi..’Xi. 

i..; -‘wl 


X' 

■ ■ 'cddl 

?:x \Vi' 

9!€,U 

^ , ■ 


c>C.. -••- ■ '•• ■* -•■ 

C- ^ ;?'■ 


r J ■^^:S 


<.y^^ 

.LoX'-s-., 

t. . 

::;ii ■ 

. G uXl .i- 

bo'x^Xi 


■>G. ‘ 



. bX/LI, 

c^^'sOb 



H .^gXI 


‘ #:;;|:g 

B i'■■) - -- l-^'v U-Ui' ''Ojil Ox./ V:,.'::- 




X 


vef'i 


bf'Vc . 






'.;. .L :.-; G 0 J - 


£■. [?" 


.leb: 






";:i- 


r.L : bbXc » 


c . Vf X 

,d. 


■ i>X8 b 

gX '.I 

•vb- b 

,■ ■ , ^ ’ --XX"' 


GgCg 



r’.. >\.vi 




'.; \.'‘. i-'.:- \ 




bvX.X 

. 'b, 


’/ ...’ . C'. ir- 0 L- . 

,b.':,/b 

X . ■; X 


.ix.a 

' 

.:. ■- b 1 . - J- • ^; ■;' 


■ . ■ 



i/b' ’'XX- 1. 



io* 

ifl. 




, ' • 

‘-1 - ^,' ' 

^m^r' 

i-1 

gX.\c.i 







■• .: r ■ ^ ■:•. 


SbXS' 


■ xaM' 







■ , 

.i. \ ^ 1- e 


(.; ■» c. \' 


xibT- 

ti\bB 

v c: ': UgV: . 

b.p’X;;xXb;v.>:b/S ; , 

C \ Ui::' ' 


'■ ;■ ■ 

•-;' L . 

e-bdii 

Vr;.:: .G . 



X , j.I 

.<:'\v>i^ 


b b .'b'';'''^''X 





. '4 . ', ' , 


. 8 


G. J. 

...'/oj;'*. 


'■'SAyiSfeb 

, .. o 


VUI 

G ,V\ub 

Oib' . 

» -L » 

f ; ^ 'V ■ 


IXXI 













50 


DaTji] 



MOUjUaIjI 
iD i. AJl\ID AitiD 

TIES 

11 

c 

c 

lA CLOUD 

cX 

Cos 2 

(10 

A 

-3 

Cij 

1/53 

1131 

75.6 



.5311 

257 



1432 

87.8 



.4565 

258 


2/53 

1150 

75.8 



.5253 

254 



1430 

87.2 



.4531 

253 


3/53 

1151 

59.3 


60.2 

.5309 



6/53 

1129 

58.0 



.5023 

161 



1432 

71.9 



.4255 

175 


1/bo 

1140 

63.3 



.5027 

185 



1428 

92.6 



.4248 

252 


8/53 

1129 

43.3 

52.9 

M 

.4911 


188 


1431 

52.9 

51.5 

11 

.4146 


197 

9/53 

1130 

43.8 

53.1 

, 1£ 

.4861 


217 


1432 

47.5 

62 • 1 

M 

.4072 


179 

10/53 

1111 

70.0 



.4667 

192 



1111 

70.0 


124.4 

.4667 



11/53 

1112 

61.5 



.4632 

155 



1112 

61.5 


107.9 

.4632 



13/53 

1126 

76.9 



.4617 

218 



1430 

93.6 



.3858 

225 


14/53 

1150 

70.0 



.4671 

193 



1354 

76.8 



.4236 

192 



1429 

85.4 



.3815 

194 



1435 

88.5 



,3731 

195 



254 


199 


168 






OO (.'JVv'O 




V !V 


II 

IgI ^ 


S'oo - 
VI-, I 






* ^ ui« 


I’iiii 





0 ' 

;.'ci 

G.if. 



I 

■K., e J \ 

m 

h. Vo 

VOf-I 

^ . . \ 

, I;5:XX 

V . \v 

uoil 

■ 

' 1C II 


vlli 



V . i. S' 

Sg .^I 

. od 


I!' f V ; 

• « 'A' 

. o "S. 11 

C* « v.'-!^ 



I.:,o>I 


.^^ 41,1 

■;: * ; - 

ilv- X 


g: lill 

O-OV 

fC,. -fvtj; 

ally 

' .axil 

G. liS^ ; ' . 

■' gxxx 

. ■j\ ■ 

■..•X 

c's^xj: 

0 .1 Cl- 

:(3 ■ 

oa.M 

G.av 

''oexx 

8.0V 

•^a-xx 

I'. 

■ III I 

c. ob 

C X X .1 


6.-\i 


X -t- 


:^X r 




'U; 


ft \G.i. 







51 


DATE 

MOUITTAlJl 

ST'AJNDiiHD 

TliitS 



D CLOUD 

a> 

Cos Z 

(10 

X 

Z 3-C 

cm) 

OCT 14/53 

1435 



153.6 

.3731 


191 


1501 

96.1 



.3329 

189 



1533 

112.1 



.2758 

183 



1602 

142.1 



.2172 

186 


15/52 

1127 

72.4 



.4509 

193 



1429 

87.0 



.3756 

195 


16/53 

1127 

75.2 ' 



.4454 

200 



1425 

90.8 



.3476 

183 


17/53 

1429 

94.4 



. 3636 

211 


lS/53 

1347 

79.3 



.4067 

190 



1347 

79.3 


142.7 

.4067 


187 

19/53 

1130 

83.2 



.4296 

221 



1430 

99.6 



.3507 

214 


20/53 

1131 

55.2 

49.9 

M 

.4255 


203 


1431 

65.7 

49.7 

M 

.3433 


198 

21/53 

1129 

90.1 



.4191 

239 



1430 

104.2 



.3390 

219 


22/53 

1131 

82.9 



.4145 

209 



1440 

104.1 



.3192 

201 


23/53 

1124 

85.3 



.4052 

211 



1430 

104.1 



.3278 

208 


24/53 

1448 

112.4 



.2958 

203 


25/53 

1125 

88.6 



.3962 

216 



1125 

88.6 


160.6 

.3962 


225 

26/53 

1125 

85.5 



.3897 

200 








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ii^OuLTAIlT 

STALDiiKD 

TIiuE 

c 

IT* 

c 

il, CLOUD 

ci 

Cos Z 

(10 

X X. ^ 

z cxC 

cm) 

OCT 27/53 

1129 

54.8 

78.5 

M 

. 3866 


199 



1431 

69.9 

57.1 

M 

. 3043 


192 


28/53 

1133 

89.1 



.3834 

207 




1431 

111.4 



.2991 

203 



30/53 

1130 

65.7 

62.2 

L 

.3713 


215 



1430 

122.0 



.2896 

222 



31/53 

1128 

55.3 

68.5 

L 

.3651 


219 


llOV l/53 

1146 

93.5 



.3687 

212 




1146 

93.5 


169.9 

.3687 



223 

2/53 

1127 

100.2 



.3541 

221 




1431 

126.4 



.2736 

215 



3/53 

1125 

96.8 



.3481 

203 




1433 

84.2 



.2639 

204 



4/53 

1127 

64.6 

49.7 


.3441 


187 



1432 

80.9 

50.9 

M 

.2606 


186 


5/53 

1131 

104.7 



.3410 

225 




1131 

104.7 


194.8 L 

.3410 



248 

7/53 

1318 

68.8 

51.1 


.3230 


191 


8/53 

1131 

9814 



.3777 

235 



9/53 

1129 

105.3 



.3209 

206 




1431 

133.0 



.2402 

19 4 



10/53 

1131 

70.4 

50.9 

L 

.3200 


190 



1431 

84.5 

53.7 

L 

.2358 


176 


11/53 

1305 

101.6 



.3124 

187 












53 


DATE 


mOUDTaIH 

STAI'iDARD D Tf* D CLOuD) Cos Z X X 

TTUni c c a c z ac 


i'^OV 12/5 3 

1128 

110.1 


.3063 

206 

13/53 

1131 

108.5 


. 3035 

199 


1427 

84.8 

50.2 K 

.2285 


14/53 

1318 

105.8 


.2921 

182 


1318 

105.8 

101.0 

.2921 


15/53 

1215 

70.6 

50.6 "K 

.3069 


16/53 

1131 

114.1 


.2908 

202 


1428 

147.3 


.2152 

196 

17/53 

1131 

122.1 


.2864 

219 

18/53 

1130 

128.5 


.2817 

230 


1427 

158.3 


.2095 

210 

19/53 

1129 

123.7 


.2774 

212 


1428 

158.7 


.2046 

202 

20/53 

1131 

130.0 


.2743 

225 

21/53 

1141 

128.2 


.2759 

221 

22/53 

1249 

130.4 


.2752 

227 

23/53 

1130 

133.7 


.2627 

221 

24/53 

1128 

147.1 


.2632 

254 


1430 

186.3 


.1863 

233 

26/53 

1127 

140.2 


.2506 

222 


1430 

182.1 


.1307 

212 

27/53 

1131 

88.7 

53.3 M 

.2494 


29/53 

1133 

144.9 


.2446 

225 

DEC 1/53 

1128 

151.2 


.2358 

229 

2/53 

1124 

104.0 

48.9 L 

.2308 



164 


199 

181 


194 


215 






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54 , 


Date 

i^OUDTAIN 

STAi/DAtO) 

TIMS 

1^0 

IT* 

c 

CLOUD 

Cos 3 

X 

c 

(10 

^ac 

“3 \ 

cm) 

D3C 3/53 

1132 

172.3 



.2327 

270 


5/53 

1132 

178.5 



.2281 

276 


6/53 

1139 

125.1 

50.5 

M 

.2293 


257 

7/53 

1128 

123.5 

63.8 

L 

.2211 


259 

8/53 

1128 

181.6 



.2190 

268 


9/53 

1128 

180.3 



.2168 

263 



1427 

222.0 



.1606 

248 


10/53 

1131 

189.9 



.2168 

282 


11/53 

1131 

124.6 

53.0 

M 

.2153 


263 

13/53 

1145 

174.8 



.2197 

256 


14/53 

1130 

184.1 



.2106 

262 


15/53 

1131 

186.2 



.2106 

266 


19/53 

1138 

177.4 



.2206 

263 


23/53 

1129 

102.0 

63.2 

H 

.2018 


209 


1429 

205.4 



.2070 

296 


24/53 

1132 

166.4 



.2054 

220 


25/53 

1246 

170.4 



.2248 

254 


30/53 

1127 

117.1 

49.5 

U 

.2293 


233 










55 


The means of daily ozone amounts using both direct sun and 
and corrected zenith cloudy observations are given in fable 6. The 
daily means have been used to calculate tne ten-day means in order 


to avoid undue weighting on days vhien many readings were taken. 

Table 6 mAiA DaILY OZOhE 19 53 

- 3 

(Ozone in 10 cm) 


Date 

Jan 

Deb 

liar 

Apr 

May 

Jun 

Jul 

Aug 

Sep 

Oct 

llov 

Dec 

1 

231 

243 

321 

328 


274 

308 


247 

258 

218 

229 

2 

201 

243 

321 

280 

242 

264* 

291 

- 

265 

254 

218 

215* 

3 

242 

216* 

- 

269 

285 

251 

302* 

- 

250 

254* 

204 

270 

4 

- 

226^ 

- 

276 

233 

261 

332 

161 

210 

- 

187' 

- 

5 

255 

272 

309 

307 

247 

252 

296 

239 

- 

- 

237 

276 

6 

- 

265 

293 

292 

249 

- 

282 

221 

207 

168 

- 

257* 

7 

- 

238* 

266 

283 

255 

282 

263 

230 

208 

224 

191’* 

259* 

8 

232 

293* 

252 

280’ 

- 

278 

232 

- 

220 

193* 

235 

268 

9 

- 

254 

258 

267* 

260* 

289 

232 

- 

250* 

19 8^^ 

200 

256 

10 

239 

228'' 

278* 

305 

247 

281 

273 

243 

237 

196 

183 

282 

Yeans 

233 

248 

287 

289 

252 

270 

281 

219 

233 

218 

208 

257 

11 

240* 

243 

29 8* 

309 

278 

279 

225 

252 

263 

162 

187 

263* 

12 

213 

234 

319* 

343 

258 

247 

280 

259 

229 

- 

206 

- 

13 

- 

253 

274 

353 

291 

230 

262" 

265 

219 

221 

182 

256 

14 

235 

201* 

289 

337 

303 

266 

261 

262 

223 

190 

193 

262 

15 

227^^ 

220 

303 

321 

287 

282 

297 

- 

214 

194 

181* 

266 

16 

253 

242 

272 

310 

306*^ 

260 

272 

253 

244* 

192 

199 

- 

17 

- 

378* 

- 

314 

288 

- 

239 

245 

248 

211 

219 

- 

18 

260* 

263* 

271 

314 

291 

- 

- 

209 

270* 

189 

220 

- 

19 

245 

263 

275 

294 

300 

- 

225 

223 

216 

218 

207 

263 

20 

212* 

247 

281 

303 

282 

- 

282 

241 

234 

200* 

225 

- 

Yeans 

236 

254 

287 

320 

288 

261 

260 

245 

236 

198 

202 

262 

21 

257 

236 

380* 

298 

276 

— 

228 

244 

208 

229 

221 

<. 

22 

249 

258 

320 

301 

335 

- 

271 

- 

208 

205 

227 

- 

23 

241 

267 

280 

287 

291 

- 

281 

222 

223 

210 

221 

203 

24 

243 

286* 

238 

315 

306 

- 

299 

- 

224 

203 

244 

220 

25 

- 

260^ 

26 5 

300 

344 

32Cf 

- 

- 

247 

221 

- 

254 

26 

318 

- 

271 

- 

297 

- 

- 

250 

209 

200 

217 

- 

27 

307 

308 

272 

252* 

366"* 

256 

246 

262 

- 

196 

194"' 

- 

28 

290* 

318 

279* 

246* 

269 

265 

269 

246 

238 

205 

- 

- 

29 

247* 


253 

265 

275 

- 

248 

239 

255 

- 

225 

- 

30 

245 


282 

- 

- 

299 

294* 

- 

226 

219 

- 

233 

31 

- 


322 


• 


278 

246 


219 


- 

means 

266 

276 

297 

283 

306 

285 

268 

258 

226 

211 

221 

228 


"‘Daily niea,n determined by zenith cloudy reading only. 



r; 











h 









56 


• S eason al Var iat ion of Ozone 

]?igure 5 is a curve of the ten day means of all the ozone 
observations tamen during 1953, and a curve of three year average 
of ten day means from Aug. 1, 1950, to Dec. 31, 1953. The small 
numbers at the bottom indicate the nuniber of observations used to 
locate the corresponding point in the 1953 curve. The Oxford 
average 1926 - 1930 (18) is shown for comparison, since the 
latitude of Oxford, 52^ h, is near thaA of Sdmonton. 

The Ddmonton average curve follows the general pattern 
of the Oxford average, but has more fluctuations, since it is 
based on a shorter period of observation and is a curve of ten- 
da.y mea.ns, rather tharn monthly rnea,ns. The three-yea^r Edmonton 
curve nas a maximum early in tiarch, a little earlier than at 
Oxford, and a minimum in the first ha.lf of October. A secondary 
maximum, which does not appear on the Oxford curve, occurs at 
the end of Janua,ry. The Oxford curve is not complete for January 
but it is possible that a imximum occurs there in December as it 
does at Edmonton. 

YII. Variation s of Ozone an d th e Uuper Atm o sphere V/eathe r 
Informa t ion 

figures 4 to 14 show the variation of the 100 mb. (millibar), 
200 mb., 300 mb., and 500 mb. levels and the tropopause height 
compared ¥;ith the meenn daily ozone va^lues. The readings of the 
pressure levels are taken twice daily with radio sonde balloons 
which a.re sent up at S;00 and 20;00 mountain Standard Time by the 
Dominion Weather Bureau at Edmonton. It is the daily mea-n of these 
readings vi/hich is plotted. The ozoiie aiiiount has been plotted on 
an inverted ordinate since a strong negative correlation was 
expected. 









/ 


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6^00mb. Iei/e.f /e-ve! 









































































































































































































































































































































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ol 






















































































































































































































































S'3 00 


1 


"Tropopous« WeiqVit" in nr^eters. Thickness 









































































































































































































































































63. 






























































































































































































































































04 



Date 










































































































































































































































































biD. 













































































































































































































































































Date 
































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































The results indicated by the graphs are suirrnarized roughly in 
Table 7. 



lOOmb. 

Pressure 
200mb. 

Levels 
300mb. 

500mb. 

Tropopause 

Height 

ITumber of days upon 
which the ozone 
increased and the 
height fell or vice 
versa, 

119 

136 

144 

139 

130 

Humber of days upon 
which both rose or 
both fell 

84 

74 

71 

76 

82 

ilumber of days upon 
which one or the other 

15 

15 

16 

21 

14 


did not change 

There is a significant negative correlation betv\/een the 
ajTiOunt of ozone in the atmosphere and the pressure levels. The 
correlation seems here to be strongest for the 300rfib. level which 
is about 10 Kin. a,bove sea level. This is belov^/ the centre of gravity 
of the ozone layer, but it must be remembered that the variations 
in the amount of ozone occur at lower levels. ITo account has been 
taken in Table 6 of the magnitude of the changes and^ since they were 
generally small when the unexpected correlation showed up, one would 
expect the correlation to be even stronger tha,n is indicated by the 
table. 

Since the amplitude of the fluctuations in the tropopause 
height is greater tnan that of the pressure levels, it has been 
plotted on a reduced scale which appears in red on the right hand side 
of the graphs. A significant negative correlation exists between the 
tropopause height and the ozone amount. The troiDopause height cannot 





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# 


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70 . 


be determined as accurately as the height of the pressure levels and 
since a randomness of values will tend to wipe out any correlation, 
that between the ozone and tropopause height may be at least as 
strong as that betr^een the ozone and the pressure levels. 

Strong upper air troughs which are accompanied by high ozone 
values are seen in the graphs of January 27 and April 13. Examples 
of upper air ridges accompanied by lo'w ozone values occur on liarch 8 
and June 12. Of the twenty four upper air troughs that passed 
Edmonton in the first eleven months of 1953, twenty one were shown 
by the graphs to be accompanied by high ozone values. Ozone readings 
were not available for tv/o troughs. On liay 15 ozone observations 
were lov; as an upper air trough wi/as passing. The reason for this may 
be that the readings were not reliable for that day, since one of them 
was a zenith cloudy reading. 

One of the major difficulties in this type of analysis is 
that there are many days upon which no ozone value is available and 
some days upon which only zenith cloudy observations could be ta,hen. 

ilo graph has been drawn fro December since the upper air 
weather data were missing for too many December days. 

VIII. A. Va ria t ion of the Am oun t ^^of Atm osphe ric Oz one a nd th e 
Weather map . 

Two maps have been drawn using the method of Leppard (l9), 
but with a more strict criterion used in selecting points. Deviations 
from a smoothed ten day mean are plotted with respect to the warm and 
cold fronts of well - defined young weather systems. The pattern 
of rhe lines of equal ozone amount is similar to that obtained by 
Leppard. The maps a-re shoim in Eigures 15 and 16. 










t io sJ. .t-ri ■/fi'i'ci! v:£©:.tBT; 4 ,'o.o« i'/.'. liylaihifcci-an scJ'";; 




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72. 












73 


2• I'he Ajiiount of Oz on e and the Ui p-per Air l^iaDs 

An attempt has been made to plot the position of 3dmonton 
on the 500 mb. map and to find a relation to weather systems similar 
to that obtained for surface maps, if such a relationship exists. 

The method used was to first locate a well defined upper air trough 
on the weather map. A piece of celluloid 'was then placed over the 
map. The trough was drawn on the celluloid and the 500 mb. contours 
were filled in as they v^/ere in the map made nearest the time that the 
trough passed Edmonton. The trough on the celluloid v\^as then moved 
until it coincided with the trough*s position at the times when ozone 
observations were made. The position of Edmonton relative to the 
trough and the ozone value at thsit time were itarhed on the celluloid. 

Eighteen troughs and one cold, closed low pressure system were 
studied in this v/ay. An example of a trough and the cold low pressure 
system a.re shown in Figures 17 and 18. ho genera,! conclusion could be 
drawn, since the cloudy weather which generally accompanies low 
pressure systems prevented reliable ozone measurements from being 
taken eit the times when they were most needed. 

IX. Determination of the mean Height of the Ozone Layer from 

D irect Sun O bservations 

Direct sun observations were made during the mornings of ITay 26, 
iiay 28 3.nd June 9 and in the afternoon and evening of June 11. The 
four curves obtained are sho'wn in Figures 19, 20, 21, and 22. The 
curves are all unsatisfactory for determining the mean height of the 
ozone since they tend to bend the opposite Y^ay from, that predicted by 
theory. Possible explanations for this axe that the amount of ozone 
in the atmosphere changed during the observations or that the light 
scattered into the instrument from the atmosphere at low sun a,ngles 






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ei^e >rti? xigj'oxo’' 4 'to a.dxxj&^ca \x^)h- ain^' nx dexbuds 

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77 



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80 


was strong enough to affect the reading. This type of height 
determination may be improved if the focused irriage of the sun on the 
slit, were used at low sun angles. 

These curves do, nowever, provide a check on the value of 
and indicate that the value used in calculations may have ceeii slightl}^ 
too large. Liore observations will be required to determine 'Whether 
or not a small correction is required. 

k. Th^ Umkehr IDffect and the Vertical Distribution of Ozone . 

a. Data Used in the Basic Equations 

Equation (12) can be reduced to 

10"^*.to 10"'*'^ - IJ_ 10“'^".b 10“^®- - 0 (13) 

I 

The surmnation is carried out in one Tmi. steps a,nd the mean values of 
lO” .b and 10~^ ^.b are calculated for each 15 Km. layer a-nd recorded 
in Table o. The mean values of X in terms of x^, Xg? x and u are 
calcule^ted trigonometrica.lly and. can be found in Table 2. 

The elevarion of Edmonton is 2183 ft or 0.7 Km. The ca,lcula-tions 
are simplified if the elevation is taken as 1.0 Km., and the error 
introduced is small, since the effect s of the lower layers are 
negligible at low sun angles. 

The values substituted in equation (13) were obtained from the 
following sources: 

/3 and* calculated from the value of/-/^* in the 

opera-tor^s manua.1 for the instruiiient (20) 
b 1 Km. to 20 Sm. long-term mean pressures for the spring 

and surrmier months from radio-sonde 
observations by the Dominion -Wea-ther 
Office at Edmonton. 





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81 


b SO.IuTi. to 55 xCm. 
b above 55 Itm. 


m for Z = 80° 

m for Z = 90° 


r.' 


computed by E.H. Gowan (2l). 

computed by the author, A graph 
of the pressures used is given 
in I’igure 23. 

from the table supplied with the 

instrument m at 80° z 5.602. 

calculated trigonometrically with 

a correction for atmospheric 

refraction extrapolated from the 

table of m. m at 90° ^ 38.34. 

calculated from the formula 

£ r 1+ _b_ (m - 1), 

760 


The readings of the instrument are - logplus a consta-nt. 

The value of -fr = 10' lo*' . (14) 

The required constant can be determined by extrapolating the umkehr 
curve to Z z 0 and co.mparing the value obtained with the calculated 
value of log-^. The constant obtained is used to correct the numibers 
from the unlcehr curve 5 which are to be substituted in equation (13). 

Two simultaneous equations of the following form can be 
produced in which the only unknowns are x^ and x^. Solutions of 
the equations are obtained by successive approximation, and the 
points obtained are plotted on a graph of Xg against X 3 _ to obtain a 


simultaneous solution. 


c: 


n<i^^ X u . -•• o-iJ.:! j' s ihi > ‘' !>e- .xi.! d 

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ATnc>5PH£Rtc Pressure in Mn. of Mercury 



























































































































































































































83 


14,05 (5.42x - 0.57xj^ - 0.19x2 -2.10u) 

+30 8 *10'^*^^ (3.31x f 1.75x^ + 2.06x2 “ 2.31u) 
+ 6.42 .lO”*^-^^ 4.38X1 + 2 . 3 IX 2 ) 

.0.78 (X. 2 . 3 IX 1 ] 


+- 0.144 • 10 


-0.08x 


lQ-a-.288 5.42x - 0.57x1-0.19x2“ ^lOu) 


.-1 


+-18.7 •10-1*23(3.31x + 1.75xi 2.06x2 - 2.31uj 

.4.86 . 4 . 38 X 1 ^2.31x3) 

>1.23(x + 2.31xi} 


+ 0.604 • 10 


+ 0.112 * 10 


-1.23xJ 


= 0 


(b) Uink eh r Observations 

Zenith shy observations ha.ve been irade from before sunrise 
until noon on several d.ays.when the sky was cloudless, and the 
meteorologica.1 conditions Yi/ere believed to be stable, figures 24, 
25, 26, and 27 are the umkehr curves obtained on iiay 26, June 5, 
Sept. 4, and Sept. 8 , 1953. These are curves of h plotted against 
one ten iiiillionth of the fourth -pov^ex of the zenith a.ngle. The 
inversion effect ca.n easily be seen in all of the curves. The 
values of 11 used in the distribution calculations a,re indicated 
on the graphs. 

( c ) Re sults o f the U iij kehr C alculations. 

Calculations based on the umkehr curves have produced the 
results represented in Table 8 and figures 28, 29, and 30. A brief 
outline of the Ivlay 26 computations can be found in Appendix 2. 

The observations made on Sept. 4 and Sept. 8 were averaged since 
the conditions and values on these t\io days were similar. 









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Meight Adove Sea Level in Kieoi^eters 


88 



Ozone Concentration in Cm per Kri. 


































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Heionr Above SfA Level in Kilometers 



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HtiuHf Above Sea Level in KiLOriLTEKS 



Ozone Co NCENTRAnoN in Cn. per Km, 











































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































The calculated distribution for June 5 does not agree very 
well with the distributions for the otner days. The assuiuption that 
the ozone distribution was constant during the period of observation 
is not Dome out by Table 5, and may not be justified on this day. 

Table 8. Results of the Umkehr Observations 


I^ayer hate 

May 26, 1953 

June 5,1953 

Sept. 4 <Sc 8 1‘ 

50 - 35 Ion. 

.019 cm . 

.019 cm. 

.013 cm 

x^ 35 - 20 iCm. 

.097 

.070 

.070 

s 20-15 Km. 

.158 

.161 

.116 

u 1-5 Em. 

.011 

.010 

.008 

X Total ozone amount 

.285 cm. 

.260 cm. 

.207 cm, 

r!ean height 

19 im. 

18 Ur. 

19 Km. 


• G eneral Dis cussi on of Results 

It is believed that for the upper air, ymere the weehher 
systems in this locality are characterized by ridges and troughs 
rather than closed - isobar systems, the graphical method of 
analysis is superior to the method of plotting ozone variations 
geographically with respect to weather systems. The grapnical method 
makes use of all the information available, depicting the conditions 
in four pressure levels a,t once. The study of vs/eather maps may be 
a useful follow-up in ca,ses of spectaculam- changes. 

vVhile the map study revealed little nev; information at higher 
levels, a careful study of the surface maps, using a method similar 
to that used in this thesis, and all the observations noY'i availa'de. 




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92 


may produce a map of the ozone-weather relationship, which will 
have more and better control points than any such maps already 

draYm. 

In Table 5 ozone ariiounts are all given to three significant 
figures. The reader must remember that, although the third figure 
is reliable under ideal conditions, it has little or no value 
Y\?hen the sun is low or when the zenith cloudy method of observation 
is used. The ozone amounts obtained by the A - C, difference method 
agree v/ith the direct sun res.dings, although enough observations 
have not yet been made to determine whether or not the haze 
correction used here should be changed. 

It v/ill be noticed that in Table 5 the ozone amount appears 
to increa^se toward noon upon every day during which readings were 
taken all morning, and to decrease tovvard evening. It is not 
yet known whether this effect is caused by light scattered into 
the instrument by the atmosphere, an incorrect height used in the 
calculation of yi, an incorrect value of , or whether the amount 
of ozone actually does increase toward, noon. The answer Y^ill not be 
known until several series of direct sun readings have been made 
using the focussed image of the sun on the slit of the spectrometer. 
If the correct solution is that the ozone changes during the day, 
the uiiikehr calculations will be incorrect. If any of the other 
explanations is the true one, the umkehr calculations will not be 
3 .ffected. 

The umkehr calculations may have been improved by a different 
choice of divisions of the atmosphere; so that a better picture of 
the distribution of atmospheric ozone vv'ould have been obtained. 






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The raore important conclusions reached in this study raay be 
stated briefly as follows: The annual variation of ozone at Udaionton 
is similar to that at Oxford, but has some irregularities which do 
not appee^r in the Oxford curve. There is a strong negative 
correlation between the atiaospheric pressure levels and the ozone 
araount. The vertical distribution of ozone at Edmonton is similar 
to th8.t at coraparable locations. The charts of ozone amount against 
zenith sky reading, constructed at Oxford, can be used in Edmonton 
if a seasonal correction is applied to the reading. The difference 
method indicates that a satisfactory atmospheric correction is being 


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i ^FE lM DIX I _ The Dobson SDectrophotometer 


(3*) T he Q-ptica l System 

The optical system of the instrument is illustrated in Figure 
31. Light from the entrance v\^indow is Dent by a reflectirgprism 
through a slit (S^), through a quartz collimator, and 60° quartz 
prism to a mirror which reflects light back through the prism and 
lens to form a spectrum in the focal plane of the instrument. The 
required wavelengths are isolated by means of slits (Sg, S^j and S^) 
in the focal plane. For convenience the isolating slits are in a 
plane at right angles to the axis of the instrument and a beam falling 
on is brought to focus in this plane by a special achromatizing 
lens. After x)assing through the central slits the light passes through 
a sector wheel driven by an electric motor. This allows two 
wavelengths to pass alternately into a second monochromator and to 
fall finally on the photomultiplier behind slit S^. Since the ultra 
violet is much weaker than the longer Y^ravelengths, light scattered 
from the quartz surfaces of the instrmrent Y^/ould be comparable in 
intensity to that striking the photomultiplier from S^, if the 
double spectrometer arrangement were not used. Sven so it is 
necessary to enclose the photomultiplier in a light tight case and 
cover the entranice slit Yi^ith an ultraviolet filter. 

A selector rod in the base of the instrument operates a 

shutter which blocks either 3^ or 3^. When the rod is pulled out 

to the position marked "short," S and S are open. When it is 

k o 

pushed in, and S are open. 

o 4 

A pair of optical wedges mounted in front of 3^ can be moved 
by turning a dial on top of the instrument. The reading of this 
dial Ymen the beams from the tY\?o slits ame of equal intensity is 
representative of their rela-tive intensity. 






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Dobson Spectrophotometer 


































































Thick, flat quartz plates are mounted in front of S. and S . 

1 5 

These can be rotated about a horizontal axis, perpendicular to the 
axis of the instrument, by pointers, and which move over 
scales on the cover of the instrument. These dials are used to 
correct for temperature changes in the dimensions of the instrument 
and the refractive index of the quartz optics, by displacing the 
ray of light from and the ray entering S^. Larger adjustments 
of the 0, pointers can be used to select different wavelength pairs. 

A thermometer extends into the interior of the instrument. A table 
provided i/ith the instrument gives the correct setting of each 
0, pointer at different temperatures. 

(b) The Am-plifying an d He/;'is torin g Syst em 

The 1P28 photomultiplier tube behind slit 3^ is connected to 
the first grid of a three stage low frequency amplifier, built 
inside the main instrument housing. Only fluctuations in the current 
caused by the rotating shutter are amplified. These are rectified 
by a comutator on the shurter shaft into a pulsating direct current 
7 ;hich is read on a hea.vily dainped, direct current microammeter. If 
the currents produced by the photomultiplier fox' the t'wo wa>velengths 
are equal, the alternating current amplifier is not anfected, and 
there is no current in the output circuit. It is in this “balanced*’ 
condition that the wedge dial is read. 



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97 . 


_ Ozone Distribution Calculations Based on the Umkehr 

Curve of Iia y 26. 1953 . 


X r .285 cm. 



(3 - .473 


.364 

= 1.23 

o<’ I 

.08 


vftien Z = 90°, L + k ; 125.3 
when Z = 80°, L + k - 120.2 


extrapolated 

to 

2=0°,; 

35.0 

10-“^ 


^0-.473 

^q-1.23 ‘ .285 

10“^ ^ 


10“ 

.SBB’ 

L = 100 log 

i 

I* 

• 

II 



L + k r 35.0 

k = -8.6 

when Z : 80°, I = 128.8 
viftien Z :: 90°, L = 133.9 


The equation for the case of the sun at 80^is given in 
Chapter X (a,). The corresponding equation for Z - 90^ can be 
written from the information provided by the uidkehr curve, and 
the values of I and b given in Tables 2 and 3 respectively. 

Solutions of the equations are obtained by successive 
approximation; and the points obtained are plotted as shovm in 
I'igure 32. Because of the difficulty of finding the points, only 
enough have been located to determine the solution of the 
simultaneous equations. 













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jj'IGUKS 32. Graphical Solution of Umlehr Equations. 










99 . 


Bibliography. 

1. Ileyer, B., Ann. Physik, 12, 849 - 859 (1913). 

2. Pabry, G., Buisson, M. , J. Phys. Rad., Ser. 5,3, 196 -206 (1913) 

3. Pabry, C., Buisson, IE., J. Phys. Rad., Ser. 6,2, 197-226 (1921). 

4. Gabannes, J., Dufay, J., J. Phys. read., Ser. 6,8, 353-364 (1927) 

5. Dobson, G.h.B., Proc. Phys. Soc. London, 43, 325-339 (l93l)^ 

6. Dobson, G.h.B., Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A129, 411-433 (1930). 

7. Regener, E., Regener, H.V., Phys. Z., 35, 788-793 (1934). 

8. Gotz, P.W.P., Gerl. Beitr. Geophys., 31, 119-154. 

9. Gowan, B.K., Leppard, R.B., Canadian Jour. Phys., 31, 702-713 (1953 

10. Wulf, O.R., J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 25, 231-236 (1935)^ 

11. vi/ulf, O.R., Deming, L.S., Terr, flag., 41, 299-310 (1936). 

12. Graig, R.A., Observations and Photochemistry of Atmospheric 
Ozone and their Meteorological Significance, American 
Meteorological Society Monograph, Pol. 1, ho. 2. 

13. Reed, R.J., Julius, A.L., A Quantitative Analysis of two 
Proposed Mechanisms for Yertical Ozone Transport in the 
Lower Stratosphere^ Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

14. Operators Manual for Dobson Spectrophotometer, H. and L. 

Beck Ltd., 69, Mortimer Street, London ¥. 1. 

15. Ibid., XrV, Addition dated Jan 25, 1952. 

16. Ibid., XIV, Addition dated Jan. 26, 1952. 

17. Gotz, P.W.P., Meetham, A.R. Dobson G.M.B., 

Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A 145, 416-446. 

18. Dobson, op. cit., VI. 





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19. Leppard, R.L., Masters Thesis, University of xUtoerta, 1952. 

20. Operator’s Manual, op. cit., XIY, 48. 

21. Gov^an, S.H., Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A 128, 531-550 (1930). 



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