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SULPHURIC ACID 
HANDBOOK 



PUBLISHERS OF B O O K. S F O K^ 

Coal Age Electric Railway Journal 
Electrical World v Engineering. News-Record 
American Machinist ' v The Contractor 
Engineering S Mining Journal v Po we r 
Metallurgical 6 Chemical Engineering 
Electrical Merchandising 






SULPHURIC ACID 
HANDBOOK 



BY 
THOMAS J. SULLIVAN 

WITH THE MINERAL POINT ZINC COMPANY, A SUBSIDIARY 
OF THE NEW JEB8EY ZINC COMPANY 



FIRST EDITION 



McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC, 

239 WEST 39TH STREET. NEW YORK 



LONDON: HILL PUBLISHING CO., LTD. 

6 & 8 BOUVERIE ST., E. C. 

1918 



COPYRIGHT, 1918, BY THE 
MCGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC. 



THK MAPI.H! I> K K M S YORK PA 



PREFACE 

As sulphuric acid is one of the most important of chemicals, 
being an intermediate raw product, essential in most manu- 
facturing processes, I think the appearance of this handbook 
dealing solely with sulphuric acid is well justified. In fact, 
in almost every industry some sulphuric acid is used and it 
has been asserted that the consumption of sulphuric acid by 
any nation is a measure of its degree of industrial progress. 
This is certainly not strictly correct, but sulphuric acid forms 
the starting point of, and is used in so many industries that there 
is considerable element of truth in this statement. A few 
examples showing some of its important uses follows : 

(a) For decomposing salts with the production of nitric acid, 
hydrochloric acid and sodium sulphate, thus indirectly in the 
manufacture of soda ash, soap, glass, bleaching powder, etc. 

(6) For the purification of most kinds of oil, including petro- 
leum and tar oils. 

(c) For pickling (i.e., cleaning) iron goods previous to tinning 
or galvanizing. 

(d) As a drying agent in the production of organic dyes, on 
which the textile industry depends to a large extent. 

(e) For rendering soluble mineral and animal phosphate 
(superphosphate) for manures; thus agriculture absorbs large 
amounts, and consequently food stuffs are affected by 
fluctuations in the supply of this important chemical. 

(/) For the manufacture of nitric acid from Chile saltpetre: 
, nitric acid and sulphuric acid together are used in the nitration 
of organic substances such as glycerine and cellulose forming 
nitro-glycerine and nitro-cellulose mainly used in the manu- 
facture of explosives now in great demand. So, a copious 



387487 



vi PREFACE 

supply of sulphuric acid is an absolute necessity for the explosive 
industry and any shortage in this supply would mean a shortage 
of explosives. 

Without multiplying examples of this nature, enough has been 
said to indicate the complexity of modern industrial conditions, 
the interaction of one industry on the other, and finally the 
often obscure, but highly important, part played by sulphuric 
acid as an ultimate and absolutely essential raw material of 
these industries. 

Owing to the enormous amount of literature containing data 
on sulphuric acid, it has become more and more difficult for the 
busy worker to gather from this mass of literature, the facts 
which are of practical interest and use to him. Much valuable 
material is of little use because it is scattered through the litera- 
ture and is therefore inaccessible. 

The publication of this handbook was undertaken as an 
attempt to overcome this difficulty, at least in part. The scope 
has been limited almost entirely to numerical data, inasmuch 
as such data cannot generally be carried in mind, but must be 
readily accessible for use. The special investigator would 
probably always prefer to go to the original source for the infor- 
mation he wishes, so, to republish all matter of this kind would 
be unnecessary and impracticable. The attempt has been 
made to select and tabulate only that which is of fairly general 
interest and utility and produce a convenient reference book 
of numerical data. 

In collecting the tables only those generally adapted to 
American practice have been selected. When specific gravity 
is given in terms of the Baume degrees, the so-called American 
Standard has been adhered to. Where a different Baume 
scale has been used in a table, the figures have been recalculated 
to conform to the American Standard. Almost all of the tables 
of Bineau, Kolb, Otto, Winkler, Messel, Knietsch, Pickering, 
Lunge, Isler, Naef, etc., have been omitted as they have long 
since become obsolete as far as being of practical value for use 



PREFACE vii 

in general American practice. All molecular weights as 
well as the factors for the calculation of analytical results have 
been calculated from the International Atomic Weights of 1917 
(1918). The molecular weights and other figures have been 
carried out further beyond the decimal point than is necessary 
for most calculations. 

Great care and pains have been taken to secure accuracy 
and completeness of data. All figures have been calculated 
several times, and it is hoped that the errors have been reduced 
to the minimum. However, errors have undoubtedly crept in, 
and the author would greatly appreciate notations of any of 
these which may come to the reader's attention, with a view 
to their correction in later reprints or editions of the book. 

A large amount of time and labor was involved in the prepara- 
tion of these tables, inasmuch as it was necessary to collect 
data from many widely scattered sources. The scope of the 
first issue, therefore, is rather more limited than originally 
planned, but if the demand for the publication justifies it, the 
scope will be extended in future issues. 

The author wishes to express his appreciation to the many 
friends who assisted in checking problems, reading the manu- 
script and proof, and giving much valuable criticism and 
advice. 

THOMAS J. SULLIVAN. 
DE PUE, ILL. 
March 1, 1918. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PREFACE .'... v 

INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC WEIGHTS xii 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1 

Definition of 1 

More Common Methods of Determining 1 

Corrections to be Applied 

Conversion of Basis 3 

HYDROMETERS 5 

Types 

Classes 5 

Manipulation 5 

AMERICAN STANDARD BAUME HYDROMETER 8 

Specific Gravities Corresponding to Degrees Baume" 11 

Degrees Baume" Corresponding to Specific Gravities 16 

TWADDLE HYDROMETER 20 

Specific Gravities Corresponding to Degrees Twaddle 21 

NOMENCLATURE OF SULPHURIC ACID 22 

FORMULAS FOR USE IN SULPHURIC ACID CALCULATIONS 24 

DESCRIPTION OF METHODS EMPLOYED IN PREPARING THE TABLES OF 
SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID, NITRIC ACID, AND HYDROCHLO- 
RIC ACID, ADOPTED BY THE MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE UNITED STATES 27 

Nitric Acid Table 49 

Hydrochloric Acid Table 51 

Sulphuric Acid Table 54 

SULPHURIC ACID 94-100 PER CENT. HjSO* 60 

SULPHURIC ACID 0BE.-100 PER CENT HzSO* 61 

SULPHURIC ACID 50-2 BE 68 

FUMING SULPHURIC Acm 71 

Per Cent. Free SO 3 as Units 74 

Per Cent. Total SO 3 as Units 76 

Equivalent Per Cent. 100 Per Cent. HzSO* as Units 79 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST SULPHURIC ACID 76.07-82.5 PER CENT. SO S 81 

ix 



x CONTENTS 

PAGE 

SULPHURIC ACID PER CENT SO 3 CORRESPONDING TO EVEN PERCENT- 
AGES H 2 SO* 85 

SULPHURIC ACID PER CENT H 2 SO 4 CORRESPONDING TO EVEN PER- 
CENTAGES SO 3 86 

ACID CALCULATIONS, USE OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY TABLES, ESTIMATING 

STOCKS, ETC 80 

DILUTION AND CONCENTRATION OF SULPHURIC ACID TO FORM SOLUTIONS 

OF ANY DESIRED STRENGTH 89 

Table for Mixing 59 Baum6 94 

Table for Mixing 60 Baume" 95 

Table for Mixing 66 Baume" 96 

FORMATION OF MIXTURES OF SULPHURIC AND NITRIC ACIDS OF DEFINITE 

COMPOSITION (SO-CALLED MIXED ACID) 96 

BOILING POINTS SULPHURIC ACID 103 

MELTING POINTS SULPHURIC ACID 103 

TENSION OF AQUEOUS VAPOR SULPHURIC ACID 105 

STRENGTH FOR EQUILIBRIUM WITH ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE .... 107 

PREPARATION OF THE MONO-HYDRATE 108 

POUNDS SULPHURIC ACID OBTAINABLE FROM 100 POUNDS SULPHUR . . 108 
POUNDS SULPHURIC ACID OBTAINABLE FROM 100 POUNDS SO 3 .... 109 
POUNDS SULPHUR REQUIRED TO MAKE 100 POUNDS SULPHURIC ACID . 109 
THE QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE IN BURNER GAS 109 

TEST FOR TOTAL ACIDS IN BURNER GAS 113 

CALCULATING THE PERCENTAGE SO 2 CONVERTED TO SO 3 WHEN THE 
SO 2 IN THE BURNER AND EXIT GASES is KNOWN AS USED IN THE 

CONTACT PROCESS 113 

Table 115 

THEORETICAL COMPOSITION OF DRY GAS FROM THE ROASTING OF 

METALLIC SULPHIDES 123 

THEORETICAL COMPOSITION OF DRY GAS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SUL- 
PHUR 124 

QUALITATIVE TESTS SULPHURIC ACID 125 

Nitrogen Acids Selenium Lead Iron and Arsenic 

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SULPHURIC ACID 126 

QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF LEAD, IRON AND ZINC IN SULPHURIC 

ACID 139 

THE ANALYSIS OF MIXED ACID AND NITRATED SULPHURIC ACID .... 140 

CALIBRATION OF STORAGE TANKS AND TANK CARS 148 

MATHEMATICAL TABLE CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, 

SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND CUBE ROOTS 155 

DECIMALS OF A FOOT FOR EACH ^4 INCH 173 



CONTENTS xi 

PAGE 

DECIMALS OF AN INCH FOB EACH 3^4 177 

BELTING RULES 177 

ANTI-FREEZING LIQUIDS FOR PRESSURE AND SUCTION GAGES 178 

Table 179 

FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS 180 

Names of Fittings 182 

Templates for Drilling Standard and Low Pressure Flanged Valves 

and Fittings 183 

General Dimensions of Standard Flanged Fittings Straight 

Sizes 184 

General Dimensions of Standard Reducing Tees and Crosses . . .186 

General Dimensions of Standard Reducing Laterals . 4 187 

General Dimensions of Extra Heavy Flanged Fittings Straight 

Sizes 188 

General Dimensions of Extra Heavy Reducing Tees and Crosses . .190 

General Dimensions of Extra Heavy Reducing Laterals 191 

Templates for Drilling Extra Heavy Flanged Valves and Fittings . 192 

Weight of Cast-iron Flanged Fittings 193 

CAST-IRON PIPE 194 

Nominal Weight of Cast-iron Pipe Without Flanges 194 

Standard Cast-iron Pipe Standard Dimensions 195 

WROUGHT IRON AND STEEL PIPE 197 

Standard Wrought Iron and Steel Pipe 197 

Extra Strong Wrought Iron and Steel Pipe 199 

Double Extra Strong Wrought Iron and Steel Pipe 200 

Standard Outside Diameter (O. D.) Steel Pipe 201 

SCREWED FITTINGS 202 

Standard Screwed Fittings 202 

Extra Heavy Screwed Fittings 203 

AMERICAN BRIGGS STANDARD FOR TAPER AND STRAIGHT PIPE AND LOCK- 
NUT THREADS 204 

LEAD PIPE 206 

SHEET LEAD 207 

STANDARD 9" AND 9" SERIES BRICK SHAPES 208 

FIBRE ROPE KNOTS AND HITCHES AND How TO MAKE THEM .... 210 

U. S. CUSTOMARY WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 213 

METRIC MEASURES ; 214 

EQUIVALENTS OF METRIC AND CUSTOMARY (U. S.) WEIGHTS AND 

MEASURES 216 

COMPARISON OF THERMOMETRIC SCALES 219 

Fahrenheit degrees as units 219 



xii CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Centigrade Degrees as Units 220 

WATER 221 

Density and Volume 

DENSITY OF SOLUTIONS OF SULPHURIC ACID 222 

TEMPERATURE CORRECTIONS TO PER CENT OF SULPHURIC ACID DETER- 
MINED BY THE HYDROMETER 224 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID 225 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 233 

INDEX . 235 



INTERN A TIONAL 
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC WEIGHTS, 1917 l 





Symbo 


Atomic 
weight 




Symbol 


Atomic 
weight 


Aluminum 


Al 


27.1 


Neodymium 


Nd 


144 3 


Antimony 


Sb 


120.2 


Neon 


Ne 


20 2 


Argon 


A 


39.88 


Nickel 


Ni 


58 68 


Arsenic 


As 


74.96 


Niton (radium em- 






Barium 


Ba 


137 37 


anation) 


Nt 


222 4 


Bismuth 


Bi 


208.0 


Nitrogen 


N 


14.01 


Boron 


B 


11 


Osmium. . 


Os 


190 9 


Bromine 


Br 


79 92 


Oxvgen 


o 


16 00 


Cadmium 


Cd 


112.40 


Palladium 


Pd 


106 7 


Caesium 


Cs 


132.81 


Phosphorus 


P 


31 04 


Calcium 


Ca 


40.07 


Platinum 


Pt 


195.2 


Carbon 


c 


12 005 


Potassium 


K 


39 10 


Cerium 


Ce 


140 25 


Praseodymium 


Pr 


140 9 


Chlorine . . 


Cl 


35 46 


Radium 


Ra 


226 


Chromium 


Cr 


52 


Rhodium 


Rh 


102 9 


Cobalt 


Co 


58.97 


Rubidium 


Rb 


85 45 


Columbium 
Copper 


Cb 
Cu 


93.1 
63 57 


Ruthenium 
Samarium 


Ru 

Sa 


101.7 
150 4 


Dysprosium 


Dy 


162 5 


Scandium 


Sc 


44 1 


Erbium 
Europium 


Er 
Eu 


167.7 
152 


Selenium 
Silicon 


Se 
Si 


79.2 
28 3 


Fluorine 


F 


19.0 


Silver 


Ag 


107 88 


Gadolinium 


Gd 


157.3 


Sodium 


_ T 6 
Na 


23 00 


Gallium 


Ga 


69 9 


Strontium 


Sr 


87 63 


Germanium 


Ge 


72 5 


Sulphur 


s 


32 06 


Glucinum . . 


Gl 


9 1 


Tantalum . 


Ta 


181 5 


Gold 


Au 


197 2 


Tellurium 


Te 


127 5 


Helium 


He 


4 00 


Terbium 


Tb 


159 2 


Holmium 


Ho 


163.5 


Thallium 


Tl 


204 


Hydrogen . . . 


H 


1 008 


Thorium 


Th 


232 4 


Indium 


In 


114 8 


Thulium 


Tm 


168 5 


Iodine 


I 


126 92 


Tin 


Sn 


118 7 


Iridium 


Ir 


193 1 


Titanium 


Ti 


48 1 


Iron 


Fe 


55 84 


Tungsten " 


W 


184 


Krypton 


Kr 


82 92 


Uranium 


u 


238 2 


Lanthanum . . 


La 


139 


Vanadium 


V 


51 


Lead 


Pb 


207 20 


Xenon 


Xe 


130 2 


Lithium 


Li 


6.94 


Ytterbium (Neovt- 






Lutecium . . 


Lu 


175.0 


terbium) ! . . . 


Yb 


173.5 


Magnesium . 


Mg 


24 32 


Yttrium 


Yt 


88 7 


Manganese 


Mn 


54 93 


Zinc 


Zn 


65 37 


Mercury 


Hg 


200 6 


Zirconium 


Zr 


90.6 


Molybdenum 


Mo 


96.0 









1 On account of the difficulties of correspondence between its members due to the war, the 
International Committee on Atomic Weights has decided to make no full report for 1918. 
Although a good number of new determinations have been published during the past year, 
none of them seem to demand any immediate change in the table for 1917. That table, there- 
fore, may stand as official during the year 1918. F. W. CLABK, Chairman. 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 

Definition of the Term "Specific Gravity of a Liquid" 

The density of a liquid is defined as the weight of a unit volume. 

The specific gravity, or the synonymous term, relative density, 
is the ratio of the density of the liquid in question, referred to the 
density of some substance which is taken as unity. The standard 
substance employed is water at its maximum density (4C. or 
39.2F.). 

More Common Methods of Determining the Specific Gravity of Liquids 

1. Pycnometer. Here we have vessels of unknown volume, 
but either having a mark on the neck, or having glass stopper 
with a capillary hole. Thus the pycnometers are made to hold 
constant volumes. Constant temperature is obtained by the aid 
of a bath of constant temperature. For use in a determination 
the pycnometer is weighed empty, filled with water, and filled 
with the liquid under consideration. The weight of the pycnom- 
eter full of water minus the weight of the empty pycnometer is 
equal to the weight of the water it will hold. This weight, com- 
pared to the weight of the liquid that the pycnometer will hold, 
gives us the specific gravity of the liquid. 

2. Mohr, Westphal, Sartorius, Specific -gravity Balances. In 
the balances the right-hand half of the beam is divided into ten 
equal parts from the fulcrum to the point of suspension at the 
end of the beam. Suspended from this end of the beam is the 
plummet while a weight at the other end acts as a counterbalance. 
When the plummet is immersed in water at 4C., the equilibrium 
of the balance is destroyed by the buoyancy of the water. To 
adjust the equilibrium, a weight equal to this force and in grams 
equal to the weight of the volume of water displaced (which is 
equal to the volume of the plummet) is hung from the point of 

1 



2 k . ... t ^SULPHURIC ACID 'HANDBOOK 



suspension. This weigKt is known as the unit weight and is 
called a rider. Other riders weighing respectively 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 
of the weight of this rider constitute the set of weights used with 
these balances. With their aid the density of a liquid can be 
directly read off from the balance beam. 

3. Hydrometers. These instruments consist of a spindle- 
shaped float, with a cylindrical neck containing a scale. They 
are weighted at their lower end, thus bringing the center of 
gravity very far down, and insuring an upright position when 
floating. They depend upon the principle that a body will sink 
in a liquid until enough liquid has been displaced, so that the 
weight of the displaced liquid equals the weight of the body. 

The weight and volume are so adjusted, that the instrument 
sinks to the lower mark on its neck in the heaviest liquid to be 
tested by it, and to the highest mark on its neck in the lightest 
liquid to be tested by it. As the density of a liquid changes with 
the temperature, the liquid should always be at the temperature 
at which the hydrometer was calibrated or proper correction 
made. 

Corrections to be Applied in Specific Gravity Determinations 
To obtain the true specific gravity of substances, their densities 
at 4C., and in vacua, must be compared with the density of 
water at 4C., in vacuo. 

For technical use, specific gravity is frequently determined at 
any convenient temperature, and referred to water, of either 
that same temperature, or to water at 4C., the weight in air 
being taken as a basis. 

In purely scientific calculations, water is taken as standard at 
4C., while in commercial laboratories the standard is often in 
the neighborhood of 15.56C. ? consequently specific gravities 
determined by these standards do not agree. As the tempera- 
ture of water increases from 4C., it expands. The weight being 
constant, with increase of volume, the density is lowered. In 
the case of water this increase of volume with rise of temperature 
is not uniform, but has been determined with great care. Know- 
ing the relative density of water at various temperatures, the 



SPECIFIC GRAVITY 3 

volume of a gram is obtained by taking the reciprocal of the dens- 
ity. The expansion of liquids being appreciable, conditions 
should always be given with the specific gravities. 

15 
Thus jgbC. after the specific gravity figure, means that the 

temperature of the substance was 15C. at the time of the deter- 
mination and that the unit volume of it was compared with the 

15 
weight of a unit volume of water at 15C. Similarly -jo-C. after 

the specific-gravity figure, means that here the comparison is 
made with the weight of a unit volume of substance at 15C. 
compared with the weight of a unit volume of water at 4C. 
CONVERSION OF DENSITY BASIS 1 

Prepared for use in reducing readings of a hydrometer graduated to indi- 
cate density or specific gravity at a specified standard temperature, 7\ 
referred to water at a specified temperature, T', as unity, to the basis of 
another standard temperature, /, and reference temperature, t'. 

The factor A (given in units of the sixth decimal place), multiplied by the 
density or specific-gravity reading, gives the correction to be applied to the 
reading to reduce it to the required basis. 

20 
Suppose a hydrometer indicates specific gravity at -jo"C., and it is required 

to know the correction in order that it shall indicate specific gravity at 
15.56V ,,, 
15.56^'' t] 

That is, if the hydrometer indicates correctly a specific gravity of 1.5760 at 

20 15 56 

-r^-, then at ' the reading of the instrument will be too low by 1.5760 X 

0.001062 =0.0017. A correction of 0.0017 must, therefore, be added to the 
indication of the hydrometer. 

"I f\ \A 

Or, if a maker using standards indicating D ' C. wishes to graduate a 

lo.oo 

(\f\ 

hydrometer to indicate density at 20C. referred to water at 4C. (D^-), the 
readings of the standard must be corrected by use of the factor +0.001062. 

Suppose the standard reads 1 . 5760 

The corresponding correction is 1.6 X 0.001062 =.. . +0.0017 

Corrected reading ; . . . 1 . 5777 

The table is calculated for Jena 16m glass. 

1 United States Bureau of Standards, Circular No. 19, 5th edition, March 
30, 1916, p. 40. 

NOTE : The Bureau of Standards for the sake of uniformity, use the same 
abbreviation, D, with proper temperature basis, for both density and specific 
gravity. 









SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 




i.o 




T- iCOCXDCOOCOC<l' ICOO 
COTHiOTHOC^tOb-Tt* 




q 




+ + + + + + + + + 




00 




ilSIIgll ! 




q 




+ + + + + + + + 1 




2 




liiillg !! 




q 




+ + + + + 1 




>d id 








q 


I 


+ + + 7 


IX, 








>> 






^O5<NN.rt<OC^Tt<00 


1 





s 

g 


i"H O^ O^ 00 00 CO !> 00 


"d 


q 


0) 

T3 


^ + + + + 1 .1 f 


O 




JS 




ired basis 


q 


of the six 


COTHIOTH !>-TjiC^iCO5 
TH 00 C^ C^ c^ 


3 
O* 




-2 




& 




3 


O CO O O T*< b- 




<0 


a 


rHO^ THOOOTtlCOO 




q 


^ 


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1 1 1 




q 




TH _j_ 1 O5 O C^ t>- t>- 
_|_ + 1 TH TH TH (N 

1 1 1 




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TH IOOTHOOCO-^COO 
TH i t -H Cft O CO !> 00 




q 




+ ii 7777 




q 




""^""77?! 


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(-J iO>O_ 1 . lO^OiO^O 


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C^l'* ^ "* ^H TH TH!^ TH TH TH TH H ^H (N 1 C* C^ I(N 


3" 


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HYDROMETERS 5 

HYDROMETERS 

There are two types of hydrometers, namely, hydrometers 
proper, and hydrometers which are combined with thermometers, 
called thermo-hydrometers. 

There are four classes of hydrometers : 

1. Density hydrometers, indicating density of a specified 
liquid, at a specified temperature, in specified units. 

2. Specific -gravity hydrometers, indicating the specific gravity 
or relative density of a specified liquid, at a specified temperature, 
in terms of water at a specified temperature as unity. 

3. Per cent, hydrometers, indicating, at a specified tempera- 
ture, the percentage of a substance in a mixture or solution. 

4. Aibitrary scale hydrometers, concentration or strength of 
a specified liquid referred to an arbitrarily defined scale at a 
specified temperature (Baum6 hydrometer, Twaddle hydrometer, 
etc.). 

Manipulation of Hydrometers 1 

Hydrometers are seldom used for the greatest accuracy, as the 
usual conditions under which they are used preclude such special 
manipulation and exact observation as are necessary to obtain 
high precision. It is, nevertheless, important that they be 
accurately graduated to avoid as far as possible, the use of in- 
strumental corrections, and to obtain this result it is necessary to 
employ certain precautions and methods in standardizing these 
instruments. 

The methods of manipulation described below are, in general, 
the ones employed at this Bureau in testing hydrometers and 
should be followed by the maker or user to a degree depending 
on the accuracy required. 

Observing. The hydrometer should be clean, dry, and at the 
temperature of the liquid before immersing to make a reading. 

The liquid in which the observation is made should be con- 
tained in a clear, smooth glass vessel of suitable size and shape. 

1 U. S. Bureau of Standards, Circular No. 16, 4th edition, Feb. 23, 1916. 



a 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



By means of the stirrer which reaches to the bottom of the 
vessel, the liquid should be thoroughly mixed. 

The hydrometer is slowly immersed in the liquid slightly be- 
yond the point where it floats naturally and then allowed to 
float freely. 

The scale reading should not be made until the liquid and 
hydrometer are free from air bubbles and at rest. 

In reading the hydrometer scale the eye is placed slightly be- 
low the plane of the surface of the test liquid; it is raised slowly 
until the surface, seen as an ellipse, becomes a straight line. The 
point where this line cuts the hydrometer scale should be taken 
as the reading of the hydrometer. 

In reading the thermometer scale, errors of parallax are avoided 
by so placing the eye that near the end of the mercury column 
the portions on either side of the stem and that seen through the 
capillary appear to lie in a straight line. The line of sight is 
then normal to the stem. 

NOTE : According to the Bureau of Standards, then, the point A (see figure 
below) not the point B is the one to be noted as the reading. 

Influence of Temperature. In 

order that a hydrometer may cor- 
rectly indicate the density or strength 
of a specified liquid, it is essential 
that the liquid be uniform through- 
out and at the standard temperature. 
To insure uniformity in the liquid, 
stirring is required shortly before 
making the observation. This stir- 
ring should be complete and may be 

well accomplished by a perforated disk or spiral at the end of a 
rod long enough to reach the bottom of the vessel. Motion of 
this stirrer from top to bottom serves to disperse layers of the 
liquid of different density. 

The liquid should be at nearly the temperature of the surround- 
ing atmosphere ; as otherwise its temperature will be changing 




HYDROMETERS 7 

during the observation, causing not only differences in density 
but also doubt as to the actual temperature. When the tem- 
perature at which the hydrometer is observed differs from the 
standard temperature of the instrument, the reading is not truly 
the density according to the basis of the instrument or the quality 
of the liquid according to per cent, or arbitrary scale, but a figure 
which differs from the normal reading by an amount depending 
on the difference in temperature and on the relative thermal ex- 
pansions of the instrument and the particular liquid. 

If the latter properties are known, tables of corrections for 
temperature may be prepared for use with hydrometers at 
various temperatures. Such tables should be used with caution 
and only for approximate results when the temperature differs 
much from the standard temperature or from the temperature 
of the surrounding air. 

Influence of Surface Tension. Surface-tension effects on hy- 
drometer observations are a consequence of the downward force 
exerted on the stem by the curved surface or meniscus, which 
rises about the stem, and affects the depth of immersion and 
consequent scale reading. 

Because a hydrometer will indicate differently in two liquids 
having the same density but different surface tension, and since 
surface tension is a specific property of liquids, it is necessary to 
specify the liquid for which a hydrometer is intended. 

Although hydrometers of equivalent dimensions may be com- 
pared, without error, in a liquid differing in surface tension from 
the specified liquid, comparisons of dissimilar instruments in such 
a liquid must be corrected for the effect of the surface tension. 

In many liquids spontaneous changes in surface tension occur 
due to the formation of surface films of impurities, which may 
come from the apparatus, the liquid, or the air. 

Errors from this cause are avoided either by the use of liquids 
not subject to such changes, which, however, require correction 
of the results by calculation, or by the purification of the surface 
by overflowing immediately before making the observation. 



8 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

This latter method is employed at this Bureau for testing hydrom- 
eters in sulphuric-acid solutions and alcohol solutions, and is 
accomplished by causing the liquid to overflow from the part of 
the apparatus in which the hydrometer is immersed by a small 
rapidly rotating propeller which serves also to stir the liquid. 

Cleanliness. The accuracy of hydrometer observations de- 
pends, in many cases, upon the cleanliness of the instruments and 
of the liquids in which the observations are made. 

In order that readings shall be uniform and reproducible, the 
surface of the hydrometers, and especially of the stem, must be 
clean, so that the liquid will rise uniformly and merge into an 
imperceptible film on the stem. 

The readiness with which this condition is fulfilled depends 
somewhat upon the character of the liquid, certain liquids, such 
as mineral oils and strong alcoholic mixture, adhere to the stem 
very readily, while with weak aqueous solutions of sugar, salts, 
acids, and alcohol, scrupulous cleaning of the stem is required 
in order to secure the normal condition. 

Before being tested, hydrometers are thoroughly washed in 
soap and water, rinsed, and dried by wiping with a clean linen 
cloth. 

If to be used in aqueous solutions which do not adhere readily, 
the stems are dipped into strong alcohol and immediately wiped 
dry with a soft, clean, linen cloth. 

AMERICAN STANDARD BAUME HYDROMETER 

(Liquids Heavier than Water) 

The Manufacturing Chemists' Association of the United States 
and the United States Bureau of Standards have adopted a 
Baume scale based on the following relation to specific gravity: 

Degrees Baume = 145 - ~~fiO 

Specific gravity at T^F. 

or 

a .<. ., ,60,, 145 

Specific gravity at TT^F. = -3 = -, 

60 145 degrees Baum6 



BAUME HYDROMETERS 9 

The following history of the Baume scale is taken from Circular 
No. 59 issued by the United States Bureau of Standards, April 5, 
1916: 

"The relation between specific gravity and Baume* degrees represented by 
the formulas given was adopted by this Bureau in 1904, when it first took up 
the question of testing hydrometers. At that time every important manu- 
facturer of Baume hydrometers in the United States was using this relation 
as the basis of these instruments, or at least such was their claim. 

"The origin and early history of the Baume" scales has been admirably 
treated by Prof. C. F. Chandler in a paper read before the National Academy 
of Sciences at Philadelphia in 1881. As this paper may not be readily 
available to some who are interested in the matter, it may be well to include 
here a part of the material prepared by Prof. Chandler. 

"The Baume scale was first proposed and used by Antoine Baume", 
a French chemist, in 1768, and from this beginning have come different 
Baume scales that have been prepared since that time. The directions 
given by Baume for reproducing his scale were first published in L'Avant in 
1768, and though simple, are not specific, and the conditions assumed are not 
easily reproducible. It is not strange, therefore, that differences soon ap- 
peared between the Baum6 scales as set up by different observers. That 
this divergence did actually occur is well shown by the large number of 
Baume" scales that have been used. Prof. Chandler found 23 different 
scales for liquids heavier than water. 

" Baum6's directions for setting up his scale state that for the hydrometer 
scale for liquids heavier than water he used a solution of sodium chloride 
(common table salt) containing 15 parts of salt by weight in 85 parts of 
water by weight. He described the salt as being 'very pure' and 'very dry' 
and states that the experiments were carried out in a cellar in which the 
temperature was 10 Reaumur, equivalent to 12.5C. or 54.5F. 

"The point to which the hydrometer sank in the 15 per cent, salt solu- 
tion was marked 15, and the point to which it sank in distilled water at the 
same temperature was marked 0. The space between these two points 
was divided into 15 equal parts or degrees, and divisions of the same length 
were extended beyond the 15 point. 

"Other makers of Baume" hydrometers soon began to deviate from the pro- 
cedure outlined by Baume", the deviations being, no doubt, partly accidental 
and partly intentional, and in course of time, as already pointed out, many 
different Baume" scales were in use. 

"This condition of affairs led to great confusion in the use of the 
Baum6 scale. 



10 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

" From a consideration of the variations that occurred it was soon evident 
that some means of denning and reproducing the scale more exactly than 
could be done by the simple rules given by Baume should, if possible, be 
found. This means was readily provided by assuming that a fixed relation 
should exist between the Baume scale and the specific-gravity scale at some 
definite temperature, and in terms of some definite unit. When this relation 
is expressed in mathematical terms in the form of an equation, then the 
Baume" scale is fixed beyond all questions of doubt. At the present time all 
Baume' scales in use are based on such an assumed relation, and the differ- 
ences existing between them arise from differences in the assumed relation 
or 'modulus' on which the various scales are based, and the standard tem- 
perature at which the instruments are intended to be correct. 

"If a definite modulus is adopted, then the degrees Baume* corresponding 
to any given specific gravity, or the specific gravity corresponding to any 
given degree Baume may be calculated; or if the specific gravity and 
corresponding degree Baume at any point of the scale are known, then the 
modulus can be determined and the complete Baume scale calculated from 
this single point. 

Let s = specific gravity. 

d = degrees Baume". 
ra = modulus. 

Then for liquids heavier than water: 



-d 
m 



s - 1 

"At the time the Bureau of Standards was contemplating taking up the 
work of standardizing hydrometers (1904). diligent inquiry was made of the 
more important American manufacturers of hydrometers as to the Baume 
scales used by them. Without exception they replied that they were using 
the modulus 145 for liquids heavier than water. This scale, the "American 
Standard," was therefore adopted by the Bureau of Standards and has 
been in use ever since. 

"There having been no objection or protest from any manufacturer or 
user of Baume hydrometers at the time the scale was adopted by the Bureau, 
it was assumed that they were entirely satisfactory to the American trade 
and were in universal use." 



BAUME HYDROMETERS 



11 



60 /15 56 
SPECIFIC GRAVITIES AT bF. t'toC. CORRESPONDING TO DEGREES 



BAUME 

(American Standard) 
145 



Degrees Baum< = 145 - g g . fic ravit for Liquids Heavier than Water 



Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baum - 


Specific 
gravity 


0.0 


1.0000 


.1 


.0218 


.2 


1.0447 


.3 


.0685 


.1 


1.0007 


.2 


.0226 


.3 


1.0454 


.4 


.0693 


.2 


.0014 


.3 


.0233 


.4 


1.0462 


.5 


.0701 


.3 


.0021 


.4 


.0240 


.5 


1.0469 


.6 


.0709 


.4 


.0028 


.5 


.0247 


.6 


1.0477 


.7 


.0717 


.5 


.0035 


.6 


.0255 


.7 


1.0484 


.8 


.0725 


.6 


.0042 


.7 


.0262 


.8 


1.0492 


.9 


.0733 


.7 


.0049 


.8 


.0269 


.9 


1.0500 


10.0 


.0741 


.8 


.0055 


.9 


.0276 


7.0 


1 . 0507 


.1 


.0749 


.9 


.0062 


4.0 


.0284 


.1 


1.0515 


.2 


0757 


1.0 


.0069 


.1 


.0291 


.2 


1.0522 


.3 


.076 


.1 


.0076 


.2 


.0298 


.3 


1.0530 


.4 


.0773 


.2 


.0083 


.3 


.0306 


.4 


1.0538 


.5 


.0781 


.3 


.0090 


.4 


.0313 


.5 


1.0545 


.6 


1.0789 


.4 


.0097 


.5 


.0320 


.6 


1.0553 


.7 


1.0797 


.5 


.0105 


.6 


.0328 


.7 


1.0561 


.8 


1.0805 


.6 


.0112 


.7 


.0335 


.8 


1 . 0569 


.9 


1.0813 


.7 


.0119 


.8 


.0342 


.9 


1.0576 


11.0 


.0821 


.8 


.0126 


.9 


.0350 


8.0 


1.0584 


.1 


.0829 


.9 


.0133 


5.0 


.0357 


.1 


1 . 0592 


.2 


.0837 


2.0 


.0140 


.1 


.0365 


.2 


1.0599 


.3 


.0845 


.1 


.0147 


.2 


.0372 


.3 


1.0607 


.4 


.0853 


.2 


.0154 


.3 


.0379 


.4 


1.0615 


.5 


.0861 


.3 


.0161 


.4 


.0387 


.5 


1.0623 


.6 


.0870 


.4 


1.0168 


.5 


.0394 


.6 


1.0630 


.7 


.0878 


.5 


1.0175 


.6 


.0402 


.7 


1.0638 


.8 


.0886 


.6 


1.0183 


.7 


.0409 


.8 


1.0646 


.9 


.0894 


.7 


1.0190 


.8 


.0417 


.9 


1.0654 


12.0 


.0902 


.8 


1.0197 


.9 


.0424 


9.0 


1.0662 


.1 


.0910 


.9 


1.0204 


6.0 


.0432 


.1 


1.0670 


.2 


.0919 


3.0 


1.0211 


.1 


.0439 


.2 


1.0677 


.3 


.0927 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

SPECIFIC GRAVITIES AT -^r F. [^ ' no C. ) CORRESPONDING TO 
60 \15.5o / 

DEGREES BAUME (Continued) 



Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 


.4 


1.0935 


16.0 


1 . 1240 


.6 


1.1563 


.2 


.1905 


.5 


1.0943 


.1 


1 . 1249 


.7 


1.1572 


.3 


.1915 


.6 


1.0952 


.2 


1 . 1258 


.8 


1 . 1581 


.4 


.1924 


.7 


1.0960 


.3 


1 . 1267 


.9 


1.1591 


.5 


.1934 


.8 


1.0968 


.4 


1 . 1275 


20.0 


1.1600 


.6 


.1944 


.9 


1 . 0977 


.5 


1.1284 


.1 


.1609 


.7 


1.1954 


13.0 


1 . 0985 


.6 


1 . 1293 


.2 


.1619 


.8 


1.1964 


.1 


1.0993 


.7 


1.1302 


.3 


.1628 


.9 


1 . 1974 


. .2. 


1.1002 


.8 


1.1310 


.4 


.1637 


24.0 


1 . 1983 


.3 


1.1010 


.9 


1.1319 


.5 


.1647 


.1 


1 . 1993 


.4 


1.1018 


17.0 


1 . 1328 


.6 


.1656 


.2 


.2003 


.5 


1.1027 


.1 


1 . 1337 


.7 


.1665 


.3 


.2013 


.6 


1 . 1035 


.2 


1 . 1346 


.8 


1.1675 


.4 


.2023 


.7 


1 . 1043 


.3 


1 . 1355 


.9 


1.1684 


.5 


.2033 


.8 


1.1052 


.4 


1.1364 


21.0 


1.1694 


.6 


.2043 


.9 


1.1060 


.5 


1 . 1373 


.1 


1 . 1703 


.7 


1.2053 


14.0 


1.1069 


.6 


.1381 


.2 


1.1712 


.8 


1.2063 


.1 


1.1077 


.7 


.1390 


.3 


1 . 1722 


.9 


1.2073 


.2 


1.1086 


.8 


.1399 


.4 


1.1731 


25.0 


1.2083 


.3 


1.1094 


.9 


.1408 


.5 


.1741 


.1 


1.2093 


.4 


1.1103 


18.0 


.1417 


.6 


.1750 


.2 


1.2104 


.5 


1.1111 


.1 


.1426 


.7 


.1760 


.3 


1.2114 


.6 


1.1120 


.2 


.1435 


.8 


.1769 


.4 


1.2124 


.7 


1.1128 


.3 


1 . 1444 


.9 


.1779 


.5 


1.2134 


.8 


1.1137 


.4 


1 . 1453 


22.0 


.1789 


.6 


1.2144 


.9 


1.1145 


. .5 


1 . 1462 


.1 


.1798 


.7 


1.2154 


15.0 


1.1154 


.6 


1.1472 


.2 


.1808 


.8 


1.2164 


.1 


1.1162 


.7 


1.1481 


.3 


1.1817 


.9 


1.2175 


.2 


1.1171 


.8 


1 . 1490 


.4 


1.1827 


26.0 


1.2185 


.3 


1.1180 


.9 


1 . 1499 


.5 


1 . 1837 


.1 


1.2195 


.4 


1.1188 


19.0 


1.1508 


.6 


1.1846 


.2 


1.2205 


.5 


1.1197 


.1 


1.1517 


.7 


1 . 1856 


.3 


1.2216 


.6 


1.1206 


.2 


1 . 1526 


.8 


1 . 1866 


.4 


1.2226 


.7 


1.1214 


.3 


1.1535 


.9 


1 . 1876 


.5 


1 . 2236 


.8 


1.1223 


.4 


1.1545 


23.0 


1.1885 


.6 


1.2247 


.9 


1 . 1232 


.5 


1.1554 


.1 


1 . 1895 


.7 


1 . 2257 



BAUME HYDROMETERS 



13 



60 /15 56 \ 

SPECIFIC GRAVITIES AT HT^>^- ( i g c^oG- ) CORRESPONDING TO 
oU \lo.oo / 

DEGREES BAUME (Continued) 



Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 


.8 


1.2267 


.4 


1.2653 


34.0 


1.3063 


.6 


1.3501 


.9 


.2278 


.5 


1.2664 


.1 


1.3075 


.7 


1.3514 


27.0 


.2288 


.6 


1 . 2675 


.2 


1 . 3087 


.8 


1.3526 


.1 


.2299 


.7 


1.2686 


.3 


1.3098 


.9 


1.3539 


.2 


.2309 


.8 


1.2697 


.4 


1.3110 


38.0 


1 . 3551 


.3 


.2319 


.9 


1 . 2708 


.5 


1.3122 


.1 


1.3564 


.4 


.2330 


31.0 


1.2719 


.6 


1.3134 


.2 


1.3577 


.5 


.2340 


.1 


1.2730 


.7 


1.3146 


.3 


1.3590 


.6 


.2351 


.2 


1 . 2742 


.8 


1.3158 


.4 


1.3602 


.7 


.2361 


.3 


1.2753 


.9 


1.3170 


.5 


.3615 


.8 


.2372 


.4 


1.2764 


35.0 


.3182 


.6 


.3628 


.9 


.2383 


.5 


1 . 2775 


.1 


.3194 


.7 


.3641 


28.0 


.2393 


.6 


1.2787 


.2 


.3206 


.8 


.3653 


.1 


.2404 


.7 


1 . 2798 


.3 


.3218 


.9 


.3666 


.2 


.2414 


.8 


1.2809 


.4 


.3230 


39.0 


.3679 


.3 


.2425 


.9 


1.2821 


.5 


.3242 


.1 


.3692 


.4 


.2436 


32.0 


1 . 2832 


.6 


.3254 


.2 


.3705 


.5 


.2446 


.1 


1.2843 


.7 


.3266 


.3 


.3718 


.6 


.2457 


.2 


1.2855 


.8 


.3278 


.4 


1.3731 


.7 


.2468 


.3 


1.2866 


.9 


1.3291 


.5 


1.3744 


.8 


.2478 


.4 


1.2877 


36.0 


1.3303 


.6 


1.3757 


.9 


.2489 


.5 


1.2889 


.1 


1.3315 


.7 


1.3770 


29.0 


.2500 


.6 


1.2900 


.2 


1 . 3327 


.8 


1.3783 


.1 


1.2511 


.7 


1.2912 


.3 


1.3329 


.9 


1.3796 


.2 


1.2522 


.8 


1.2923 


.4 


1.3352 


40.0 


1.3810 


.3 


1.2532 


.9 


1 . 2935 


.5 


1.3364 


.1 


1.3823 


.4 


1.2543 


33.0 


1.2946 


.6 


1.3376 


.2 


1.3836 


.5 


1.2554 


.1 


1.2958 


.7 


1.3389 


.3 


1.3849 


.6 


1.2565 


.2 


1 . 2970 


.8 


1.3401 


.4 


.3862 


.7 


1.2576 


.3 


1.2981 


.9 


.3414 


.5 


.3876 


.8 


.2587 


.4 


1.2993 


37.0 


.3426 


.6 


.3889 


.9 


.2598 


.5 


1.3004 


.1 


.3438 


.7 


.3902 


30.0 


.2609 


.6 


1.3016 


.2 


.3451 


.8 


.3916 


.1 


.2620 


.7 


1.3028 


.3 


.3463 


.9 


.3929 


.2 


.2631 


.8 


1.3040 


.4 


.3476 


41.0 


.3942 


.3 


.2642 


.9 


1.3051 


.5 


.3488 


.1 


.3956 



14 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

SPECIFIC GRAVITIES AT ^^F. (.. F ' g/ , C. ) CORRESPONDING TO 
oO \15.5o / 

DEGREES BAUME (Continued) 



Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 


.2 


1.3969 


.8 


1.4471 


.4 


.5010 


52.0 


1.5591 


.3 


1 . 3983 


.9 


1 . 4486 


.5 


.5026 


.1 


1.5608 


.4 


1.3996 


45.0 


1.4500 


.6 


.5041 


.2 


1.5625 


.5 


1.4010 


.1 


1.4515 


.7 


.5057 


.3 


1.5642 


.6 


1.4023 


.2 


1.4529 


.8 


.5073 


.4 


1 . 5659 


.7 


1.4037 


.3 


1.4544 


.9 


.5088 


.5 


1 . 5676 


.8 


.4050 


.4 


1.4558 


49.0 


1.5104 


.6 


1.5693 


.9 


.4064 


.5 


.4573 


.1 


1.5120 


.7 


1.5710 


42.0 


.4078 


.6 


.4588 


.2 


1.5136 


.8 


1 . 5727 


.1 


.4091 


.7 


.4602 


.3 


1.5152 


.9 


1.5744 


.2 


.4105 


.8 


.4617 


.4 


1 5167 


53.0 


1.5761 


.3 


.4119 


.9 


.4632 


.5 


1.5183 


.1 


1.5778 


.4 


.4133 


46.0 


.4646 


.6 


1.5199 


.2 


1.5795 


.5 


.4146 


.1 


.4661 


.7 


1.5215 


.3 


1.5812 


.6 


.4160 


.2 


.4676 


.8 


1.5231 


.4 


1.5830 


.7 


.4174 


.3 


.4691 


.9 


1 . 5247 


.5 


1 . 5847 


.8 


.4188 


.4 


.4706 


50.0 


1.5263 


.6 


1.5864 


.9 


.4202 


.5 


1.4721 


.1 


1.5279 


.7 


1.5882 


43.0 


1.4216 


.6 


1.4736 


.2 


1 . 5295 


.8 


1 . 5899 


.1 


1.4230 


.7 


1.4751 


.3 


1.5312 


.9 


1.5917 


.2 


1.4244 


.8 


1.4766 


.4 


1.5328 


54.0 


1.5934 


.3 


1.4258 


.9 


1.4781 


.5 


1.5344 


.1 


1.5952 


.4 


1.4272 


47.0 


1.4796 


.6 


1.5360 


.2 


1 . 5969 


.5 


1.4286 


.1 


1.4811 


.7 


1.5376 


.3 


1.5987 


.6 


1.4300 


.2 


1.4826 


.8 


1.5393 


.4 


1.6004 


.7 


1.4314 


.3 


1.4841 


.9 


1 . 5409 


.5 


1.6022 


.8 


1.4328 


.4 


1.4857 


51.0 


1 . 5426 


.6 


1.6040 


.9 


1.4342 


.5 


1.4872 


.1 


1.5442 


.7 


1.6058 


44.0 


1.4356 


.6 


1.4887 


.2 


1 . 5458 


.8 


.6075 


.1 


1.4371 


.7 


1.4902 


.3 


1 . 5475 


.9 


.6093 


.2 


1.4385 


.8 


1.4918 


.4 


1.5491 


55.0 


.6111 


.3 


1.4399 


.9 


1.4933 


.5 


1.5508 


.1 


.6129 


.4 


1.4414 


48.0 


1.4948 


.6 


1 . 5525 


.2 


.6147 


.5 


1 . 4428 


.1 


1.4964 


.7 


1.5541 


.3 


.6165 


.6 


1.4442 


.2 


1.4979 


.8 


1.5558 


.4 


.6183 


.7 


1.4457 


.3 


1.4995 


.9 


1.5575 


.5 


.6201 



BAUMfi HYDROMETERS 



15 



60 /15 56 
SPECIFIC GRAVITIES AT F. ' 



CORRESPONDING TO 



DEGREES BAUME (Concluded) 



Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 


.6 


1.6219 


.3 


1.6724 


.9 


1.7241 


.5 


1.7791 


.7 


1 . 6237 


.4 


1.6744 


61.0 


1.7262 


.6 


1.7813 


.8 


1.6256 


.5 


1.6763 


.1 


1.7282 


.7 


1 . 7835 


.9 


1.6274 


.6 


1 . 6782 


.2 


.7303 


.8 


.7857 


56.0 


1.6292 


.7 


1.6802 


.3 


.7324 


.9 


.7879 


.1 


1.6310 


.8 


1.6821 


.4 


.7344 


64.0 


.7901 


.2 


1.6329 


.9 


1 . 6841 


.5 


.7365 


.1 


.7923 


.3 


1.6347 


59.0 


1.6860 


.6 


.7386 


.2 


.7946 


.4 


1.6366 


.1 


1.6880 


.7 


.7407 


.3 


.7968 


.5 


1.6384 


.2 


1.6900 


.8 


.7428 


.4 


.7990 


.6 


1.6403 


.3 


1.6919 


.9 


1.7449 


.5 


.8012 


.7 


1.6421 


.4 


1.6939 


62.0 


1.7470 


.6 


.8035 


.8 


1.6440 


.5 


1.6959 


.1 


1.7491 


.7 


.8057 


.9 


1.6459 


.6 


1.6979 


.2 


1.7512 


.8 


.8080 


57.0 


1 . 6477 


.7 


1.6999 


.3 


1.7533 


.9 


1.8102 


.1 


1.6496 


.8 


1 . 7019 


.4 


1.7554 


65.0 


1.8125 


.2 


1.6515 


.9 


1.7039 


.5 


1 . 7576 


.1 


1.8148 


.3 


1 . 6534 


60.0 


1.7059 


.6 


1.7597 


.2 


1.8170 


.4 


1.6553 


.1 


1.7079 


.7 


1.7618 


.3 


1.8193 


.5 


1.6571 


.2 


1.7099 


.8 


1.7640 


.4 


1.8216 


.6 


1.6590 


.3 


1.7119 


.9 


1.7661 


.5 


1.8239 


.7 


1.6609 


.4 


.7139 


63.0 


1.7683 


.6 


1.8262 


.8 


1.6628 


.5 


.7160 


.1 


1.7705 


.7 


1.8285 


.9 


1.6648 


.6 


.7180 


.2 


1.7726 


.8 


1.8308 


58.0 


1.6667 


.7 


.7200 


.3 


1 . 7748 


.9 


1.8331 


.1 


1 . 6686 


.8 


.7221 


.4 


1.7770 


66.0 


1 . 8354 


.2 


1.6705 















16 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



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THrHrHrHrH <N (N 



BAUME HYDROMETERS 



17 



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338 



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OS X X X X XXXXb 



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18 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



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BAUME HYDROMETERS 

<NC^-HOO O5aiOOOOl>- 



19 



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0000 00 



20 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

TWADDLE HYDROMETER 
(Generally used in England) 
Methods of Converting Specific Gravity to Degrees Twaddle 

1. Let x = degrees Twaddle. 

y = specific gravity. 
IQOOj/ - 1000 
~5~~ 

2. Orz = 200 (y - 1). 

3. This method may be used for any value below 2.000. Move 
the decimal point two figures to the right, striking off the first 
figure and multiplying the remainder by 2. 

Methods of Converting Degrees Twaddle to Specific Gravity 

1. Let x = specific gravity. 
y = degrees Twaddle. 
5y + 1000 
1000 



The degrees in Twaddle's hydrometer bear a direct relation- 
ship to the specific gravity, the basis of the system being plain 
and unmistakable, since every degree is equal to a difference in 
specific gravity of 0.005. 



TWADDLE HYDROMETER 



21 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES CORRESPONDING TO DEGREES TWADDLE 



Degrees 
Twaddle 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Specific 
gravity 


1 


1.005 


35 


1.175 


69 


1.345 


103 


1.515 


137 


1.685 


2 


1.010 


36 


1.180 


70 


1.350 


104 


1.520 


138 


1.690 


3 


1.015 


37 


.185 


71 


1.355 


105 


1.525 


139 


.695 


4 


1.020 


38 


.190 


72 


1.360 


106 


1.530 


140 


.700 


5 


1.025 


39 


.195 


73 


1.365 


107 


1.535 


141 


.705 


6 


1.030 


40 


.200 


74 


1.370 


108 


1.540 


142 


.710 


7 


1.035 


41 


.205 


75 


1.375 


109 


1.545 


143 


.715 


8 


1.040 


42 


.210 


76 


.380 


110 


1.550 


144 


.720 


9 


1.045 


43 


.215 


77 


.385 


111 


1.555 


145 


.725 


10 


1.050 


44 


.220 


78 


.390 


112 


1.560 


146 


.730 


11 


1.055 


45 


.225 


79 


.395 


113 


1.565 


147 


.735 


12 


1.060 


46 


.230 


80 


.400 


114 


1.570 


148 


1.740 


13 


1.065 


47 


.235 


81 


.405 


115 


1.575 


149 


1.745 


14 


1.070 


48 


.240 


82 


.410 


116 


1.580 


150 


1.750 


15 


1.075 


49 


.245 


83 


.415 


117 


1.585 


151 


1.755 


16 


1.080 


50 


1.250 


84 


.420 


118 


1.590 


152 


1.760 


17 


1.085 


51 


1.255 


85 


.425 


119 


1.595 


153 


1.765 


18 


1 090 


52 


1.260 


86 


.430 


120 


1.600 


154 


1 770 


19 


1.095 


53 


1.265 


87 


.435 


121 


1.605 


155 


1.775 


20 


1.100 


54 


1.270 


88 


.440 


122 


1.610 


156 


1.780 


21 


1.105 


55 


1.275 


89 


.445 


123 


1.615 


157 


1.785 


22 


1.110 


56 


1.280 


90 


.450 


124 


1.620 


158 


1.790 


23 


1.115 


57 


1.285 


91 


.455 


125 


1.625 


159 


1.795 


24 


1.120 


58 


1.290 


92 


.460 


126 


1.630 


160 


.800 


25 


1.125 


59 


.295 


93 


.465 


127 


1.635 


161 


.805 


26 


1.130 


60 


.300 


94 


.470 


128 


1.640 


162 


.810 


27 


1.135 


61 


.305 


95 


.475 


129 


1.645 


163 


.815 


28 


1.140 


62 


.310 


96 


.480 


130 


1.650 


164 


.820 


29 


1.145 


63 


.315 


97 


.485 


131 


1.655 


165 


.825 


30 


1.150 


64 


.320 


98 


.490 


132 


1.660 


166 


.830 


31 


1.155 


65 


.325 


99 


.495 


133 


1.665 


167 


.835 


32 


1.160 


66 


.330 


100 


.500 


134 


1.670 


168 


.840 


33 


1.165 


67 


1.335 


101 


.505 


135 


1.675 


169 


.845 


34 


1.170 


68 


1.340 


102 


.510 


136 


1.680 


170 


.850 



22 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 
NOMENCLATURE OF SULPHURIC ACID 



Sulphuric acid shows a definite relation between the specific 
gravity and strength up to 93.19 per cent. H 2 SO 4 . As it is much 
easier to determine the specific gravity than the strength, acids 
weaker than 93.19 per cent, are nearly always spoken of and sold 
as being of so many degrees Baurne*, the Baume hydrometer being 
the instrument generally used for determining the specific gravity. 
The principal strengths of such acids are : 



Degrees Baum6 


Specific gravity 


Per cent. SO 3 


Per cent. H 2 SO 4 


50 


1.5263 


50.76 


62.18 


60 


1 . 7059 


63.40 


77.67 


66 


1 . 8354 


76.07 


93.19 



In 1882 the Manufacturing Chemists' Association of the 
United States agreed on a set of values for Baume degrees and 
their H 2 S0 4 equivalents. In 1904 the Association adopted the 
table of Ferguson and Talbot. The H 2 SO 4 equivalents show a 
slight change from the table of 1882 and those values have been 
used in this country ever since. In Germany especially, and 
quite generally on the continent, a different set of values for 
Baume degrees is used in which all have higher values in specific 
gravity and H 2 SO 4 than those used here. For instance 66Be. 
here corresponds to 93.19 per cent. H 2 SO 4 and in Germany to 
98 per cent. 

The 66 acid is also known as oil of vitriol (0. V.) and strengths 
of weaker acids are sometimes spoken of as so many per cent. 
O. V., a 60Be. acid containing 77.67 per cent. H 2 S0 4 being 
called 83.35 per cent. 0. V. 



77.67 X 100 
93.19 



= 83.35 



NOMENCLATURE OF SULPHURIC ACID 23 

This, however, is not very common. In reporting total pro- 
duction or uses of sulphuric acid it is frequently stated as being 
equivalent to a certain quantity of acid of 50 or 60 or some other 
standard strength, the total amount of H 2 S04 being the same as 
that contained in the stated quantity of the stated strength. 
Productions are also often reported as tons of SO 3 . 

When an acid becomes stronger than 93.19 per cent. H 2 SO 4 , 
to speak of it in terms of specific gravity or degrees Baume* would 
be fallacious as 94.5 per cent, acid has practically the same specific 
gravity as 100 per cent. Acids between 93.19 and 100 per cent, 
are spoken of as so many per cent, sulphuric acid; 100 per cent, 
acid being commonly called the mono-hydrate. This contains 
100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 (81.63 per cent. SO 3 ). 

SO 3 dissolves in the mono-hydrate giving fuming acid or 
oleum. It is called fuming acid because the S0 3 escapes, form- 
ing white fumes, when exposed to the air. Oleum is the German 
name which has been used extensively in this country, since the 
first practical methods of making it were German and the German 
nomenclature was frequently adopted here. It is also known in 
Germany as Nordhausen Oil of Vitriol. 

There are three ways of stating the strength of fuming acid: 

1. The per cent, of free (dissolved) S0 3 . 

2. The per cent, of total SO 3 . 

3. The equivalent per cent. 100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 . That is the 
per cent, of 100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 it would make if sufficient water 
were added to combine with all the free SO 3 . 

For instance an acid containing 20 per cent, free S0 3 would 
contain a total of 85.30 per cent. SO 3 , and actual H 2 SO 4 content 
of 80 per cent, and would make 104.49 per cent. H 2 SO 4 if sufficient 
water were added to combine with all the free SO 3 . It might, 
therefore, be called 20 per cent., 85.30 per cent, or 104.49 per cent. 

Mixed acid is the technical term for a mixture of strong sul- 
phuric acid and nitric acid. 



24 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

FORMULAS FOR USE IN SULPHURIC -ACID CALCULATIONS 

(By non-fuming acid is meant all strengths under 81.63 per cent. SO 3 ) 
(By fuming acid is meant all strengths over 81.63 per cent. SO 3 ) 

The following factors were calculated from molecular weights: 
SO 3 80.06 



H 2 SO 4 98.076 

H 2 S0 4 = 98.076 

SO 3 : 80.06 

H 2 O 18.016 



= 0.8163 
= 1.2250 
= 0.1837 

= 5.4438 



H 2 SO 4 98.076 

H 2 SO 4 = 98.076 

H 2 = 18.016 

S0 3 = 80.06 
H 2 O "18.016 

H.O _ 18.016 _ 
S0 3 " 80.06" ' 

To Calculate Per Cent. S0 3 Non-fuming Acid 

Per cent. H 2 SO 4 X 0.8163 
or Per cent. H 2 S0 4 ^ 1.2250 

To Calculate Per Cent. H 2 S0 4 Non-fuming Acid 

Per cent. SO 3 4- 0.8163 
or Per cent. S0 3 X 1.2250 

To Calculate Per Cent. Free H 2 Non-fuming Acid 
100 - per cent. H 2 SO 4 

To Calculate Per Cent. Combined H 2 O Non-fuming Acid 

Per cent. H 2 S0 4 per cent. S0 3 
or Per cent. H 2 S0 4 X 0.1837 

or Per cent. S0 3 X 0.2250 



SULPHURIC-ACID CALCULATIONS 25 

To Calculate Per Cent. Combined H 2 Fuming Add 

Per cent. H 2 SO 4 X 0.1837 
or 100 - per cent, total SO 3 

or Per cent, combined SO 3 X 0.2250 

To Calculate Per Cent. H 2 S0 4 Fuming Add 
98.076 (100 - per cent, total SO 3 ) 

18.016 

or 100- per cent, free SO 3 

or Per cent, combined H 2 O X 5.4438 

or 
Per cent, combined H 2 O + (4.4438 X per cent, combined H 2 0) 

To Calculate Equivalent 100 Per Cent. H 2 SO 4 Fuming Add 

Per cent, total SO 3 * 0.8163 
or Per cent, total SO 3 X 1.2250 

To Calculate Per Cent. Combined SO 3 Fuming Add 

80.06 (100 - per cent, free SO 3 ) 

98.076 

or Per cent, H 2 SO 4 X 0.8163 

or Per cent, combined H 2 O X 4.4438 

or Per cent, total S0 3 per cent, free SO 3 

To Calculate Per Cent. Free S0 3 Fuming Add 
(Per cent, total SO 3 X 98.076) - 8006 

18.016 

or (Per cent, total SO 3 X 5.4438) - 444.38 
or (Per cent, total SO 3 - 81.63) 5.4438 

or Per cent, total SO 3 - (per cent, combined H 2 O X 4.4438) 
or Per cent, total SO 3 per cent, combined S0 3 
or 100 - Per cent. H 2 S0 4 



26 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

To Calculate Per Cent. Total SO 3 Fuming Acid 

(Per cent, free SO 3 X 18.016) + 8008 
98.076 

or (Per cent, free SO 3 X 0.1837) + 81.63 

or 0.8163 (100 - per cent, free SO 3 ) + per cent, free SO 3 

or Equivalent per cent. 100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 X 0.8163 

or Per cent, free SO 3 + per cent, combined S0 3 

To Calculate Weight per Cubic Foot Acid 

Specific gravity at ^goF. L .' C.j X weight per cubic foot 
water at 60F. (62.37 Ib.) 

To Calculate Weight SO 3 per Cubic Foot 

(Weight of acid per cubic foot X per cent. S0 3 ) ^ 100) 

To Calculate the Equivalent Per Cent, and Weight of One 
Strength Acid of Compared to Another 

The equivalent per cent, in 66Be. (93.19 per cent. H 2 SO 4 ) of 
an acid of 60Be\ (77.67 per cent. H 2 SO 4 ) is: 

77 f\7 

^g X 100 = 83.35 per cent. 66Be\ 

and as 60Be*. corresponds to 1.7059 specific gravity, the pounds 
of 66B4. equivalent to 1 cu. ft. of 60Be\ is: 

X L7059 x 62 ' 37 = 88 - 68 lb - 66 B4 ' 



NOTE. While ascertaining equivalents of non-fuming acid, strengths 
used for the calculations can either be taken as per cent. SO 3 or of per cent. 
H 2 SO 4 . 

If calculating fuming-acid equivalents, strengths should be used in terms 
of total per cent. SO 3 unless expressed in the equivalent per cent, of 100 per 
cent. H 2 SO 4 . 



INTRODUCTORY 27 

DESCRIPTION OF METHODS EMPLOYED IN PREPARING THE TABLES 
OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID, NITRIC ACID, 
AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID, ADOPTED BY THE 
MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS' ASSO- 
CIATION OF THE UNITED STATES 1 
BY W. C. FERGUSON 

INTRODUCTORY 

The General Chemical Company, finding that many different 
methods of analysis were being used in their various works, and 
realizing the advantages of uniform methods, submitted the task 
of unification to the writer. After careful investigation, the 
methods best adapted were selected, and by the constant ex- 
amination of new methods described in the literature as well as 
by original research, these methods are from time to time sub- 
stituted or modified. The need soon became apparent for uni- 
form specific-gravity tables, no two authorities agreeing; not 
only was there disagreement between specific gravities and cor- 
responding percentage composition when reduced to the same 
standard, but different moduli, temperatures, etc., were used as 
standards. 

The preparation of standard tables of the specific gravity and 
corresponding composition, with other useful data, was under- 
taken for nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia and sulphuric 
acid. The Manufacturing Chemists' Association of the United 
States, hearing of our efforts while the work was in progress, after 
investigation, accepted the tables as they were completed as 
standard tables of the association. In the case of the sulphuric 
acid table, they employed Prof. H. P. Talbot of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology of Boston, as expert, whose name appears 
with that of the writer as authority. 

These tables are designed primarily as a basis for sales which 
are largely governed by the degree Baume"; they are also useful 
for controlling processes, taking account of stock, etc. 

1 Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., July 31, 1905, pp. 781-790. 



28 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

The acids and ammonia used were the purest obtainable c.p., 
and were carefully examined for impurities and purified when 
necessary. The impurities in commercial products are such a 
variable quantity and, as their purity is becoming more pro- 
nounced as manufacturing processes improve, many substances 
made on a large scale being nearly c.p., it was deemed that the 
tables would have more practical value if they were based upon 
c.p. compounds. As to any scientific merit they may possess, it 
is needless to say that such a positive basis to which they can 
always be referred is an essential. 

All of the analytical and specific-gravity determinations, de- 
terminations of the coefficient of expansion (or allowance for 
temperature), determination of boiling points, as well as all cal- 
culations and clerical work, were performed by two experienced 
men working independently. 

SPECIFIC-GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS 

All specific-gravity determinations were taken at 60F., com- 
pared with water at 60F. The work was done in winter and no 
account was taken of differences of atmospheric pressure or 
temperature, which averaged about 760 mm. and 65F. 

The apparatus used in this work was a 50-c.c. Geissler picnom- 
eter having a capillary side-arm tube fitted with a glass cap, in 
the top of which was a small hole which allowed the liquid to 
expand without loosening the thermometer or cap, at the same 
time preventing loss while weighing. The thermometer, which 
was ground to fit the neck of the bottle, was graduated to J^F. 
and readable to Hs ^., and was frequently checked against a 
standard thermometer. 

Before making a determination the water content of the bottle 
was first accurately determined and checked from time to time 
during a series of determinations. To obtain the water content, 
the bottle together with the thermometer and glass cap were 
carefully cleaned, dried and weighed. (The accuracy of the 
balance and weights were systematically checked against a 



COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION 29 

standard set of weights.) The bottle was then filled with freshly 
distilled water at 55-57F., and the thermometer tightly in- 
serted. As the temperature slowly rose, the water expanded 
through the capillary side arm. When the thermometer regis- 
tered 60F., the last drop was removed from the top of the capil- 
lary, the tube capped and the whole weighed. This weight, less 
the tare obtained above, was taken as the water content of the 
bottle at 60F. Check determinations agreed within 0.002 gram, 
or less than 0.00005 specific gravity. Distilled water freed from 
carbon dioxide by boiling, and cooling in a closed vessel, gave the 
same water content as the ordinary distilled water which was 
used throughout the work. This water was free from chloride 
and residue upon evaporation. 

In determining the specific gravity of liquids, the weight of the 
liquid contained by the bottle at 60F. was obtained as above. 
This weight, divided by the water content, equals the specific 
gravity. 

It was thought that the temperature of the liquid in the bottle 
might vary in different parts and the whole not have the same 
temperature as registered by the thermometer in the center of 
the bottle. To ascertain the facts in the case a beaker was filled 
with water below the temperature of the room, and a thermom- 
eter placed in the center of the beaker showed the same tempera- 
ture, as those placed near the sides, the temperature rising uni- 
formly throughout the liquid. 

COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION 

The correction for temperature was found by allowing the 
liquid to slowly expand, and when the temperature had risen 
8-10F., the tube was wiped off and capped, and the apparatus 
again weighed. Another weight was taken at a still higher tem- 
perature, and from these results the difference in specific gravity 
for 1F. and the number of degrees corresponding to lBe. were 
calculated. To determine how much the expansion of the pic- 
nometer affected the specific-gravity determinations at different 



30 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

temperature, the bottle was filled with distilled water and weighed 
at 50, 60, 70 and 80F. From Kopp's table of the volume of 
water at different temperatures, the increase in volume of 50 c.c. 
for each 10F. was calculated. If the bottle had not expanded, 
the successive differences in weight should have corresponded 
with the differences in volume, but in each case the differences 
in weight were less than the calculated expansion of water, the 
amount less being due to the expansion of the glass bottle. The 
results showed that 1F. = 0.00062 gram = effect of expansion 
of 50-c.c. bottle. 100 c.c. = 0.0012 gram which would make a 
difference of 0.000012 specific gravity, which is less than the 
accuracy of our determinations, and no correction has been made 
for it. 

Analytical Determinations. All calculations are based upon 
F. W. Clarke's " Table of Atomic Weights," 19010 = 16. 

Preparation of Standards. The following standards were 
prepared by the methods to be described: Sodium carbonate (a) 
ignited at low red heat to constant weight; sodium carbonate (b) 
heated at 572F. to constant weight; ammonium sulphate; 100 
per cent, sulphuric acid; sulphuric anhydride; sulphanilic acid. 

Sodium Carbonate (a). This standard was prepared from 
the purest obtainable sodium bicarbonate made by the ammonia 
process and specially selected for us by a prominent manufac- 
turer. Our analysis showed it to contain in addition to some 
sodium chloride 

Per cent. Per cent. 

SiO 2 0.001 equivalent Na 2 CO 3 = 0.00 

Fe 2 O 3 .Al 2 O 3 0.002 equivalent Na 2 CO 3 = 0.00 

CaCO 3 0.010 equivalent Na 2 CO 3 = 0.0106 

MgCO 3 .. . . 0.009 equivalent Na 2 CO 3 = 0.0113 



0.022 0.0219 

The impurities that are titratable by an acid, calcium and 
magnesium carbonates, are exactly equivalent to the sodium 
carbonate displaced. 



COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION 31 

About 200 grams of sodium bicarbonate were washed in a 
funnel having a porcelain plate until entirely free from chloride. 
It was then dried at 100C., protected from acid gases, finely 
ground, and kept in a sealed bottle until used. About 20 grams 
of bicarbonate thus prepared was heated in a platinum dish at 
a moderate red heat, until the weight was constant, and then 
5 grams was quickly and accurately weighed for analysis. Our 
attention was directed to the method of heating sodium carbon- 
ate, for, in standardizing, various results were obtained depend- 
ing on the temperature of ignition, the highest temperature 
giving the greatest alkalinity, or about 0.09 'per cent, greater 
than the lowest. It remained to be proved whether the high or 
low result was correct, and whether in heating to the higher 
temperature (red heat over a Bunsen flame) water was given off, 
or whether the loss in weight was due to a decomposition of 
sodium carbonate into sodium oxide and carbon dioxide. 

In referring to the literature several references were found 
upon the ignition of sodium carbonate. Mendeteeff, vol. I, p. 
525, in quoting the work of Pickering, says: "When sodium 
carbonate is fused about 1 per cent, of carbon dioxide is disen- 
gaged." In Lunge's " Untersuchungs Methoden," vol. I, p. 83, 
reference is made to an article in Zeitschr. f. Angew. Chem., 1897, 
p. 522, by Lunge, in which he says that soda intended for the 
standardization of acids must not be heated higher than 300C. 
(572F.), and if the heating is carried on at this temperature for 
a sufficient length of time, one may be sure that neither bicarbon- 
ate nor water is left behind, and yet no sodium oxide has been 
formed as may happen if the heating is carried to a low red heat. 

Sodium Carbonate (b). A portion of the washed and dried 
bicarbonate was carefully heated in a platinum crucible with 
occasional stirring at 572F. to constant weight, and immediately 
analyzed. 

Ammonium Sulphate. Ten grams of the standard acid (to be 
hereinafter described) were quickly and accurately weighed in a 
small glass weighing tube, avoiding absorption of moisture from 



32 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

the atmosphere. After rinsing the sample into a large platinum 
dish, it was made slightly ammoniacal with ammonia that had 
been freshly distilled to free it from silica. During evaporation 
on the steam bath, the dish was kept covered by a large funnel 
and protected from acid fumes. Ammonia was added from time 
to time, as it was found that the salt became acid on evaporation. 
After evaporation the dish was dried in an air bath to constant 
weight at 230F. 

Sulphuric Acid (100 Per Cent. H 2 SO 4 ). In reviewing the 
work of Pickering (Jour. Chem. Soc., 1890) it occurred to us that 
it would be possible to make some pure 100 per cent, sulphuric 
acid, and that the analysis of this would serve as a suitable check 
on our other methods. Pickering has shown that the curve of 
the melting point of sulphuric acid near 100 per cent, reaches a 
maximum at 100 per cent. Therefore, by starting with an acid 
slightly less than 100 per cent, and another slightly more than 
100 per cent., a point should be reached in recrystallizing when 
the successive crops of crystals obtained from both acids should 
show the same per cent, sulphuric acid. This was actually the 
case. 

Starting with 2 liters of chemically pure sulphuric acid, pure 
redistilled sulphuric anhydride was added until, on analysis, the 
strength was 99.8 per cent. The bottle was shaken during crys- 
tallization so as to obtain small crystals, and when the bottle 
was half full of crystals the mother liquor was drained off through 
a porcelain plate fitted over the mouth of the bottle and having 
a glass tube passing through its center to the bottom of the bottle 
through which air dried with strong sulphuric acid was admitted, 
when the bottle was inverted. By draining the crystals for 
several hours at a temperature slightly above the melting point, 
the mother liquor was entirely removed. These crystals were 
then melted and recrystallized, and drained as described above. 
The crystals thus contained were melted, recrystallized and 
drained, the final crystals being melted and kept in a sealed 



COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION 33 

bottle until analyzed. Two liters of acid were prepared, analyz- 
ing 100.1 per cent, sulphuric acid. From this the standard was 
prepared in exactly the same manner as in the case of acid analyz- 
ing 99.8 per cent, sulphuric acid. 

Sulphuric Anhydride. Another method used as a check on 
our standard was the titration of sulphuric acid formed by the 
addition of water to 100 per cent, sulphuric anhydride. To do 
this required especial care first, to obtain a sample of sulphuric 
anhydride free from water, and, after obtaining it, to mix it with 
water without loss of anhydride. The plan adopted was as 
follows : 

Fuming sulphuric acid containing 40 per cent, free SOs was 
distilled at a low temperature into a long-necked flask fitting 
tightly over the delivery tube of the retort. A few crystals of 
potassium permanganate were added to oxidize any sulphur 
dioxide present. The first 25 c.c. of the distillate were rejected. 
About 200 c.c. were distilled over. Then this 200 c.c. was redis- 
tilled, rejecting the first few cubic centimeters and collecting 
about 100 c.c. in an ordinary distilling flask, to the delivery tube 
of which was sealed the open end of a test-tube, which had been 
drawn out in the center, and bent at the constricted part, almost 
to a right angle, thus forming a receiver. As soon as the distilla- 
tion into the flask was completed the neck was sealed, thus 
making the whole apparatus air-tight. By warming the flask 
to 140F. and cooling the receiver, about 20 grams of sulphuric 
anhydride were distilled over into the latter, which was then 
sealed at the constricted part having a slight vacuum. 

Sulphanilic Acid. In looking through the list of organic acids 
for one that would be suitable, sulphanilic acid was decided upon 
on account of its being a monobasic acid with a high molecular 
weight, crystallizing without water and drying without decompo- 
sition. The so-called c.p. acid was recrystallized three times, 
finely ground, and dried in an air bath at 230F. to constant 
weight. 



34 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

ANALYSIS OF STANDARDS 

For the comparison of the above carefully prepared compounds 
as standards 2 liters of c.p. sulphuric acid were used. This acid 
was tested for impurities, found to be practically free, and was 
kept sealed when not in use, its percentage composition being 
determined as follows: 

Sodium Carbonate (a). Five grams of freshly ignited sodium 
carbonate, prepared as above, were quickly weighed out, and an 
amount of standard acid, slightly in excess of the amount required 
for neutralization was weighed in a small weighing tube and 
washed into a flask containing the sodium carbonate. After 
boiling for 15 min. to expel carbon dioxide, the excess of sulphuric 
acid was titrated with N/2 sodium hydroxide, using phenolph- 
thalein as indicator. A short stem funnel was placed in the neck 
of the flask to prevent loss while boiling. Duplicate analyses of 
the standard acid by this method gave 97.33-97.35 per cent, of 
sulphuric acid. 

Sodium Carbonate (6). Five grams sodium carbonate, pre- 
pared as above by heating at 572F. to constant weight, were used 
in determining the strength of our standard acid. Observing 
exactly the same conditions described above, we obtained 97.41- 
97.42 per cent, sulphuric acid. 

Ammonium Sulphate. The ammonium sulphate dried to con- 
stant weight at 230F., as described above, was cooled in a desic- 
cator and quickly weighed. 

The salt was then dissolved in water and the small amount of 
free acid present, as indicated by methyl orange, was titrated 
with N/3 sodium hydroxide. Adding an equivalent weight of 
ammonia to the weight above, gave 97.41 per cent, as the strength 
of the sulphuric acid. The amount of acid titrated was less than 
0.10 per cent, (with methyl orange a sharp end point is obtained). 
A duplicate analysis gave 97.41 per cent, of sulphuric acid. 

Sulphuric Acid (100 Per Cent. H 2 SO 4 ). About 6 grams of 
acid, crystallized from 99.8 per cent, sulphuric acid, as described 
above, were introduced into the bottom of a small weighed tube 



ANALYSIS OF STANDARDS 35 



by means of a long-stemmed dropping tube manipulated with a 
rubber bulb. The glass stopper was then inserted in the tube, 
the whole weighed, after which the acid was carefully washed 
into a casserole containing cold water, and titrated with sodium 
hydroxide solution, using phenolphthalein as indicator, according 
to the method to be described. 

Assuming this acid to be 100 per cent, sulphuric acid, and using 
the NaOH solution standardized on this basis to determine the 
composition of the standard acid, duplicate determinations gave 
97.39-97.41 per cent, sulphuric acid. Acid crystallized from 
100.1 per cent, sulphuric acid. Using this standard exactly as 
in the preceding our standard acid analyzed 97.40 per cent, 
sulphuric acid. 

Sulphuric Anhydride. The tube containing the sulphuric an- 
hydride was weighed and placed in a glass-stoppered bottle con- 
taining about 100 c.c. of water. The tip was broken off above the 
level of the water and the bottle sealed. After standing in a 
warm place for 3 days, the sulphuric anhydride had distilled out 
of the tube and was absorbed by the water, thus mixing without 
any loss of sulphuric anhydride. The glass tube was dried and 
weighed, and, deducting this weight from the weight above, we 
have the weight of sulphuric anhydride. The resulting acid was 
diluted to 1 liter and 300 c.c. measured with the dividing burette 
were titrated with sodium hydroxide solution, using phenolph- 
thalein as indicator, boiling out carbon dioxide and observing 
the same conditions as in standardizing. 

Assuming the sulphuric anhydride to be absolute, and using 
the sodium hydroxide solution, standardized on this basis, to 
determine the strength of the standard acid, it was found to be 
97.40 and 97.43 per cent, of sulphuric acid. 

Sulphanilic Acid. Twenty grams of this acid, prepared as 
described above, were titrated, using about 95 c.c. of sodium 
hydroxide solution, phenolphthalein as indicator, and observing 
all conditions as in standardizing with sulphuric acid. Assuming 
the acid to be 100 per cent, pure, and using the sodium hydroxide 



36 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



solution standardized on this basis to determine the strength of 
our standard acid, it was found to be 97.41 per cent, of sulphuric 
acid. 

Recapitulation of composition of standard sulphuric acid re- 
ferred to all the standards employed : 







Per cent. 


Average 


Sodium carbonate 
(A) Ignited at low red heat to constant weight 




97.33 


97 34 


(B) Heated at 572F to constant weight 




97.35 
97.41 


97 415 


Ammonium sulphate method 


[ 


97.42 
97.41 


97 41 


100 per cent, sulphuric acid prepared from acid slightly 
under 100 per cent 
100 per cent, sulphuric acid prepared from acid slightly 
over 100 per cent 




97.41 

97.39 
97.41 

97 40 


97.40 
97 40 


Sulphuric anhydride 


' 


97.40 


97.415 


Sulphanilic acid 




97.43 
97.41 


97.41 











The close agreement between the above standards, with one 
exception, is only what the writer and his assistants ex- 
pected, provided the standards themselves were pure. The 
analytical methods employed and to be described yield results in 
experienced hands that are entirely in accordance with the above 
figures. 

The abnormal result in the case of sodium carbonate ignited 
at a low red heat was investigated as follows : 

About 20 grams of sodium carbonate were heated to constant 
weight at 572F., and 10 grams used for analysis of the standard 
acid showed it to contain 97.416 per cent, sulphuric acid. Ten 



ANALYSIS OF STANDARDS 37 

grams were placed in a platinum boat in a combustion tube, where 
it was heated to moderate red heat in a combustion furnace. A 
slow stream of dry air, free from carbon dioxide, was aspirated 
through the tube, and the carbon dioxide, disengaged by heating 
the sodium carbonate, was absorbed in a saturated solution of 
barium hydroxide, contained in a bottle. A Mohr bulb contain- 
ing barium hydroxide was connected with the bottle and proved 
the complete absorption of carbon dioxide therein. After aspi- 
rating for several hours, the bulb was connected directly to the 
tube and the aspiration continued, which showed that no more 
carbon dioxide was evolved, no precipitate being formed. 

The excess of barium hydroxide was neutralized with strong 
HC1, and finally carefully titrated with N/300 hydrochloric acid, 
using phenolphthalein as indicator; the barium carbonate was 
then titrated with N/300 hydrochloric acid, using methyl orange 
as. indicator. 

A blank titration was made using the same reagents, and the 
difference between the two methyl orange titrations represented 
the alkalinity due to barium carbonate. In this way 0.0060 
gram carbon dioxide were determined by a titration of about 
35 c.c. of hydrochloric acid, thus making a simple and accurate 
determination. 1 The carbonate of soda that had been heated 
in the combustion tube was removed, accurately weighed, and 
used to analyze the standard acid. About 10 grams were used, 
and the result obtained was 97.358 per cent., which is 0.058 per 
cent, lower than the result obtained above. 

0.0060 gram of carbon dioxide formed by decomposition of 
sodium carbonate would leave 0.0084 gram Na 2 0, which, when 
weighed and calculated as Na 2 COa, would make a difference in 
the per cent, of sulphuric acid of 0.056 per cent., which agrees 
within 0.002 per cent, with the result found. 

1 This method was subsequently published in the Analyst, May, 1904, vol, 
29, pp. 152-153, THOS. MACARA. 



38 SULPHURIC A.CID HANDBOOK 

After heating to redness: 

9.9916 grams Na 2 CO 3 are equivalent to . 9 . 2369 grams H 2 SO 4 

0.0084 gram Na 2 CO 3 are equivalent to 0.0134 gram H 2 SO 4 



9. 2503 grams H 2 SO 4 
Before heating to redness : 

10 . 0000 grams Na 2 CO 3 are equivalent to 9 . 2447 grams H 2 SO 4 

Increased alkalinity due to Na 2 O formed 0. 0056 gram H 2 SO 4 



Equivalent to . 056 per cent, of 

H 2 S0 4 



If the C02 found had been the result of decomposition of 
sodium bicarbonate, the increased alkalinity would have been 
0.078 per cent, instead of 0.058 per cent, as found. 

By heat : 
2NaHC0 3 = Na 2 C0 3 + CO 2 + H 2 O. 

168.116 106.1 44 18.016 

. 0060 gram CO 2 found are equivalent to . 0228 gram NaHCO 3 , 

After heating to redness : 
10 . grams Na 2 CO 3 are equivalent to 9 . 2447 grams H 2 SO 4 

Before heating to redness : 
9 . 9772 grams Na 2 CO 3 are 

equivalent to 9 . 2236 grams 

0.0228 gram NaHCO 3 are 

equivalent to 0.0133 gram 



9 . 2369 grams 9 . 2369 grams H 2 SO 4 



Increased alkalinity due to formation 0.0078 gram H 2 SO 4 

or of Na 2 C0 3 from NaHCO 3 equivalent to 0. 078 per cent, of H 2 SO 4 

It is thus indicated by this experiment that the carbon 
dioxide formed is the result of decomposition of NagCO? into 
Na,0+C0 8 . 



ANALYSIS OF STANDARDS 39 

A sample of sodium carbonate, prepared by drying to constant 
weight at 572F., was heated until it had completely fused, and 
analysis showed an increased alkalinity equivalent to 0.30 per 
cent, of carbon dioxide disengaged. 

If the -calcium and magnesium carbonates present in the puri- 
fied carbonate were entirely converted into oxides when ignited 
at low red heat only 0.018 per cent, increased alkalinity would be 
accounted for. 

These results, considered together with the close agreement 
between the other standards and sodium carbonate ignited at 
572 F., are very convincing arguments in favor of preparing 
standard sodium carbonate in this manner. 

Standard Acid. Averaging the results obtained from the 
different standards enumerated above, excepting sodium carbon- 
ate ignited to redness, its percentage composition was found to be 
97.41 per cent, sulphuric acid. 

This acid or its equivalent was used for standardizing the 
caustic soda that was employed for all analytical determinations 
embraced in these tables. 

The burette used was a 100-c.c. chamber burette graduated 
from 95-100 c.c. in Ko c.c., and readable to Koo c.c. The 
burette was standardized between 95 and 100 by weighing mer- 
cury delivered every J^ c.c., and for 1 c.c. the mercury was 
weighed every J^Q c.c.; the readings and graduations were found 
to be accurate to Koo c.c. The burette was frequently cleaned 
with strong sulphuric acid, so that it drained perfectly for each 
determination. 

Standard Sodium Hydroxide Solution. This solution was pre- 
pared from c.p. caustic soda, purified by baryta, and was made 
of such strength that 6 grams of standard acid required 95-98 c.c. 
Caustic soda purified by alcohol is not suitable for this purpose, 
as it does not drain properly in the burette, but produces an oily 
appearance. To standardize this solution, using methyl orange 
as indicator, about 6 grams of the standard acid were quickly 
and accurately weighed out, diluted with about 400 c.c. cold dis- 



40 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

tilled water and 1 c.c. of a J-{Q P er cent, solution of methyl orange 
added. The caustic soda solution was then run in from the 100- 
c.c. chamber burette until a few tenths of a cubic centimeter ex- 
cess had been added, and after 3-min. draining the burette was 
read. Standard sulphuric acid of strength about equivalent to 
the soda solution was added from a burette until a trace changed 
the color of the solution from yellow to orange. The end point 
is sharper in titrating from alkaline to acid than vice versa. 

H 2 SO 4 taken - H 2 SO 4 2d titration 

^. ^TT - = grams of sulphuric acid 

equivalent to 1 c.c. sodium hydroxide solution. 

A thermometer was kept in the standard solution, and the 
temperature at which the solution was standardized was re- 
corded, and in making a subsequent titration at any other tem- 
perature the necessary correction was applied to the reading. 
The correction for temperature was determined with the pic- 
nometer, as described above, and for 100 c.c. of solution was 
found to be 0.015 c.c. = 1F., to be subtracted when the tem- 
perature was above the temperature of standardizing, and added 
when below. 

Duplicate titrations agreed within 0.03 c.c. Methyl orange 
was used in titrating nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and 
ammonia. 

To standardize with phenolphthalein, about 6 grams of the 
standard acid were accurately weighed out and poured into a 
casserole containing about 25 c.c. of cold water, all acid being 
rinsed from a small weighing beaker into the casserole. One 
cubic centimeter of phenolphthalein solution (1 gram per liter) 
was added, and the sodium hydroxide solution run in from the 
100-c.c. chamber burette until within about 0.5 c.c. of the end 
point. The solution was then boiled for 5 min. to remove carbon 
dioxide, and the titration finished by cutting the drops from the 
tip of the burette until a fraction of a drop produced a faint pink 
color. This tint was carefully noted, and all analyses run to the 



NITRIC-ACID TABLE 41 

same end point. By boiling for exactly 5 min., provision was 
made for uniform draining of the burette. Duplicate titrations 
agreed within 0.02 c.c. 

While the limits of burette reading were placed at 0.03 c.c. 
when methyl orange was used, and 0.02 c.c. for phenolphthalein, 
yet, as will be shown, the actual duplicates obtained by two men 
working independently averaged much closer. 

Dividing Burette. The dividing burette referred to under 
standardizing with sulphuric anhydride is designed for accurately 
dividing a solution. It consists of a burette the top of which is 
drawn to a capillary and bent downward; the stop-cock of the 
burette is a three-way cock, the third passage being connected 
to a vertical tube at the top of which is a funnel for 
filling the burette. One and 2-liter flasks with small necks 
were graduated by running from the burette a sufficient number 
of times to fill the flask to a point in the neck. This point was 
carefully checked, and in subsequent use, it was always filled 
to this mark/ 

The amount of water delivered by the burette was weighed, 
and the weights checked within 0.004 gram, or Ms>ooo of the 
weight of one burette full. In measuring out an equivalent of 
5 grams of a liquid made up to volume, the error would be 0.0002 
gram. 

The tables are described in the order in which they were pre- 
pared during a period of nearly 3 years. 



NITRIC-ACID TABLE 

The c.p. nitric acid employed was free from nitrous and hydro- 
chloric acids, and the residue upon evaporation at 212F. was 
too small to affect the determinations. This acid was used for 
all samples up to 43Be., and for the stronger samples this acid 
was concentrated by distilling with pure glacial phosphoric acid 
and potassium permanganate, the latter to prevent the formation 



42 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

of nitrous acid. 95.80 per cent, nitric acid was the strongest 
sample obtainable, for above this point the acid contained large 
amounts of nitrous acid. 

The specific-gravity determinations were made as described 
above, and at the same time the picnometer was filled, a 6 to 
8-gram sample was weighed in a small weighing tube having a 
ground-glass stopper, which prevented loss while weighing and 
diluting. The sample was diluted with water by removing the 
stopper of the tube with a glass fork while immersed in a casserole 
containing approximately 400 c.c. of water. The titration was 
then made, using methyl orange as indicator, observing the con- 
ditions described in standardizing. 

Allowance for Temperature. After determining the specific 
gravity of the different strengths employed at 60F., the tem- 
perature was raised to 70F., and the picnometer weighed; like- 
wise at 80F. from this data the allowance for temperature 
was calculated, and was found to be uniform for a given 
strength of acid. At 43Be*. the determinations were made 
from 50 to 90F. 

The following determinations were made, and from these the 
table was calculated by interpolation, the specific gravity and 
corresponding percentage composition being calculated to cor- 
respond with each 0.25Be. 

From the Baume* the corresponding specific gravity was calcu- 
lated by the formula: 

Degrees Baume = 145 5 ^ r 

Specific gravity 

The instability of 96 per cent, nitric acid is so great that agree- 
ing determinations were difficult to obtain, and those selected 
corresponded with the differential of the table at this point. 



NITRIC-ACID TABLE 



43 



Specific gravity 


Per cent. HNOs 


Specific gravity 


Per cent. HNOs 


1.0844 1 


14.49 


1.4506 


77.15 






1.4507 


77.16 


1.1095 1 


18.45 










1.4563 


78.78 


1 . 1659 1 


27.15 


1.4563 


78.80 


1.2109 1 


33.80 


1.4707 


82.88 






1.4707 


82.91 


1.2641 


41.77 






1.2643 


41.81 


1.4873 


88.33 






1.4871 


88.31 


1.3144 


49.69 






1.3144 


49.70 


1.4951 


91.42 






1.4950 


91.39 


1.3761 


60.45 






1.3760 


60.44 


1.4963 


91.92 






1.4961 


91.91 


1.4469 


76.57 






1.4471 


76.57 


1.5014 


94.59 






1.5014 


94.58 


1.4405 


74.84 






1.4404 


74.80 


1.5037 


95 64 






1.5044 


95.80 



1 These determinations are the average of results that checked within 
0.0001 specific gravity and 0.02 per cent., the record of which has been lost. 

The following will show the comparative sensitiveness of the 
analytical determinations, specific-gravity determinations and 
reading of a delicate Baume hydrometer and thermometer gradu- 
ated to 1F., in terms of specific gravity: 



36. 


Anal. det. 


Sp.-gr. det. 


Be. reading Ho 


15 
30 
45 


0.00013 sp. gr. 
0.00013 sp. gr. 
0. 00008 sp. gr. 


0.0001 sp. gr. 
0.0001 sp. gr. 
0.0001 sp. gr. 


0.00044 sp. gr. 
0. 00056 sp. gr. 
0. 00072 sp. gr. 



44 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

HYDROCHLORIC-ACID TABLE 

The purest c.p. hydrochloric acid obtainable was tested for 
free chlorine, sulphuric acid and residue upon evaporation at 
212F. There were only traces of impurities, which would affect 
the determinations less than the errors of manipulation. 

For the samples above 22Be. this acid was concentrated by 
distilling it into a portion cooled in ice water. 42.61 per cent, 
hydrochloric acid was the strongest sample upon which a specific- 
gravity determination could be obtained at 60F. Above this 
point bubbles of gas were formed in the picnometer when warmed 
to 60F. 

The specific gravity and allowance for temperature were 
determined as in the case of nitric acid. The allowance for tem- 
perature was found to be uniform for each strength of acid; 
22Be. deteminations were made from 50 to 90F. 

After making the above determinations the thermometer of 
the picnometer was withdrawn while the bottle was immersed in 
about 700 c.c. of water in a large casserole, thus avoiding loss 
while diluting. The bottle was carefully washed out and the 
dilute acid made up to 2 liters in a flask standardized against the 
100 c.c., dividing burette and portions of this solution were taken 
with the burette for titration with sodium hydroxide. Methyl 
orange was used as indicator, the same conditions used in stand- 
ardizing being closely followed, about 98 c.c. of sodium hydroxide 
solution being used for each determination. A sample of hydro- 
chloric acid was analyzed by precipitating with silver nitrate and 
the silver chloride calculated to hydrochloric acid checked the 
results obtained by titration. 



By silver chloride 


By titration 


29.97 per cent. HC1 
29. 98 per cent. HC1 


29. 97 per cent. HC1 
30. 00 per cent. HC1 



HYDROCHLORIC-ACID TABLE 



45 



The following determinations were made, and from these the 
table was calculated by interpolation, the specific gravity and 
corresponding percentage composition being calculated for each 
lBe. from l-5, 0.25Be., from 5-16 and for the rest of the 
table for each 0.1 Be. 



Specific gravity 


Per cent. HC1 


Specific gravity 


Per cent. HC1 


1.02813 
1.02815 


5.73 
5.73 


1 . 13926 
1.13928 


27.44 

27.47 


1.05353 
1.05359 


10.74 
10.73 


1 . 15277 
1 . 15273 


30.07 
30.04 


1 . 07676 
1.07678 


15.37 
15.37 


1 . 16642 
1 . 16652 


32.70 
32.72 


1.09670 
1.09664 


19.29 
19.28 


1.19918 
1.19902 


39.61 
39.56 


1.11440 
1.11442 


22.73 
22.76 


1 . 20586 
1 . 20584 


41.16 
41.13 


1 . 12300 
1 . 12300 


24.35 
24.37 


1.21140 
1.21120 


42.65 
42.57 



The following will show the comparative sensitiveness of the 
analytical determinations, specific gravity determination and 
reading of a delicate Baume hydrometer and thermometer gradu- 
ated to 1F. in terms of specific gravity: 



Specific gravity 


Anal. det. 


Sp.-gr. det. 


Be. Ho 


10 

18 
24 


. 00004 sp. gr. 
0.00015 sp. gr. 
0.00012 sp. gr. 


0. 00005 sp. gr. 
0. 00005 sp. gr. 
0. 00010 sp. gr. 


0. 00027 sp. gr. 
0.00031 sp. gr. 
0.00033 sp. gr. 



46 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

SULPHURIC-ACID TABLE 

The c.p. sulphuric acid used was 1.84 specific gravity, was 
free from hydrochloric and nitric acids and ammonia and gave a 
trace of residue upon evaporation. The impurities were less 
than enough to affect either the specific gravity or analytical 
determinations. 

The specific-gravity determinations were made as described 
above, except that in bringing the temperature to 60F., the 
picnometer was immersed to the neck in a beaker of water a few 
degrees below 60F., so that the temperature rose slowly, being 
the same inside and outside when capped. 

The allowance for temperature for every 10F. between 50 
and 90 F. was determined at the following degrees Baume": 
66, 63, 57, 51, 44, 36, 29, 21, 12. It was found to be practically 
uniform for a given strength of acid, and the results are based on 
a range of 40F., the table giving the corrections at even degrees 
Baume", being calculated from these results by interpolation. 
Samples were taken from the picnometer for analysis, and an 
amount of acid was weighed out each time which would require 
between 95 and 100 c.c. of soda solution. With the weakest 
samples a more dilute standard soda solution was used, but the 
same conditions as used in standardizing with phenolphthalein 
were closely observed in all cases. 

The boiling-point determinations were made in a 200 c.c. long- 
necked flask, using about 100 c.c. of acid in each case. A certi- 
fied thermometer accurate to 1F. was suspended in the acid. 
A small piece of porcelain was placed in the bottom of the flask 
to facilitate boiling. The flask was gradually heated with a free 
flame and the temperature recorded when boiling was first 
perceptible. 

The following determinations were made, and from these the 
table was calculated by interpolation, the specific gravity and the 
corresponding percentage composition being calculated for each 
degree Baume from 0-64 and for each > Be. from 64-e6Be. 



SULPHURIC-ACID TABLE 



47 



From the Baume* the corresponding specific gravity was calcu- 

145 
lated by the formula: Degrees Baume = 145 - specific gravity 

The degree Twaddle was calculated by dividing the , decimal 
part of the specific gravity by 0.005. 



Specific gravity 


Per cent. H Z SO< 


Specific gravity 


Per cent. HjSOi 


1 . 00488 


0.713 


1 . 52814 


62.342 


1.00468 


0.701 


1.52803 


62.334 


1.03471 


5.145 


1 . 54403 


63.792 


1.03470 


5.142 


1 . 54399 


63.776 


1.06488 


9.473 


1 . 57481 


66.518 


1.06472 


9.469 


1.57482 


66.515 


1.09918 


14.221 


1.62722 


70.990 


1.09912 


14.217 


1.62723 


71.000 


1 . 13532 


19.042 


1.66807 


74.480 


1 . 13532 


19.041 


1.66773 


74.438 


1.17362 


23.936 


1.70438 


77.546 


1 . 17344 


23.929 


1.70449 


77.555 


1.21051 


28.549 


1 . 72577 


79.377 


1.21045 


28.543 


1.72576 


79.398 


1.25129 


33.488 


1.74733 


81.322 


1.25132 


33.484 


1.74714 


81 . 324 


1.29513 


38.651 


1.77002 


83.482 


1.29507 


38.631 


1.76987 


83.467 


1.34415 


44.149 


1 . 79590 


86.364 


1.34403 


44.140 


1.79603 


86.363 


1.39469 


49.521 


1.81185 


88.534 


1.39460 


49.519 


1.81163 


88.527 


1.43084 


53.193 


1.81939 


89.752 


1.43072 


53.175 


1.81929 


89.732 


1.46673 


56.674 


1.82756 


91.337 


1.46678 


56.675 


1.82750 


91.308 


1.48219 


58.143 


1.83557 


93.219 


1.48225 


58.128 


1.83555 


93.226 



48 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



The following will show the comparative sensitiveness of the 
analytical determinations, the specific-gravity determinations, 
and the reading of a delicate Baume hydrometer and thermometer 
graduated to 1F., in terms of a specific gravity: 



B6. 


Anal. det. 


Sp.-gr. det. 


B6. Ko 


20 
50 
66 


0. 00007 sp. gr. 
0.00005 sp. gr. 
0.00004 sp. gr. 


0.00005 sp. gr. 
0.00005 sp. gr. 
0.00006 sp. gr. 


0.00024 sp. gr. 
0. 00040 sp. gr. 
0.00057 sp. gr. 



The following chemists, my assistants, aided in the preparation 
of the tables : 

W. P. KERN, B. S. N. A. LAURY, B. S. 

J. G. MELENDY, B. S. A. J. LOTKA, B. Sc. 

HARDEE CHAMBLISS, M. S., PH. D. C. A. BIGELOW, B. S. 

H. B. BISHOP, B. S. A. F. WAY, B. S. 

W. W. SANDERS, B. S. H. P. MERRIAM, PH. D. 

T. LYNTON BRIGGS, F. I. C., F. C. S. 

Such merit as these tables possess is largely due to these gentle- 
men, but more especially to Mr. Bishop who had immediate 
charge of, and participated in most of the determinations, and 
who shared with the writer the preparation of this paper. 



NITRIC ACID 



49 



NITRIC ACID 
BY W. C. FERGUSON 



Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 
60 F 
60 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Per cent. 
HNOa 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 
60 F 
60 ' 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Per cent. 
HNOi 


10.00 


1.0741 


14.82 


12.86 


20.75 


.1671 


33.42 


27.33 


10.25 


1.0761 


15.22 


13.18 


21.00 


.1694 


33.88 


27.67 


10. J 50 


1.0781 


15.62 


13.49 


21.25 


.1718 


34.36 


28.02 


10.75 


1.0801 


16.02 


13.81 


21.50 


.1741 


34.82 


28.36 


11.00 


1.0821 


16.42 


14.13 


21.75 


.1765 


35.30 


28.72 


11.25 


1.0841 


16.82 


14.44 


22.00 


.1789 


35.78 


29.07 


11.50 


.0861 


17.22 


14.76 


22.25 


.1813 


36.26 


29.43 


11.75 


.0881 


17.62 


15.07 


22.50 


.1837 


36.74 


29.78 


12.00 


.0902 


18.04 


15.41 


22.75 


1 . 1861 


37.22 


30.14 


12.25 


.0922 


18.44 


15.72 


23.00 


1 . 1885 


37.70 


30.49 


12.50 


.0943 


18.86 


16.05 


23.25 


1.1910 


38.20 


30.86 


12.75 


1.0964 


19.28 


16.39 


23.50 


.1934 


38.68 


31.21 


13.00 


1.0985 


19.70 


16.72 


23.75 


.1959 


39.18 


31.58 


13.25 


1.1006 


20.12 


17.05 


24.00 


.1983 


39.66 


31.94 


13.50 


1 . 1027 


20.54 


17.38 


24.25 


.2008 


40.16 


32.31 


13.75 


.1048 


20.96 


17.71 


24.50 


.2033 


40.66 


32.68 


14.00 


.1069 


21.38 


18.04 


24.75 


.2058 


41.16 


33.05 


14.25 


.1090 


21.80 


18.37 


25.00 


.2083 


41.66 


33.42 


14.50 


.1111 


22.22 


18.70 


25:25 


.2109 


42.18 


33.80 


14.75 


.1132 


22.64 


19.02 


25.50 


.2134 


42.68 


34.17 


15.00 


.1154 


23.08 


19.36 


25.75 


.2160 


43.20 


34.56 


15.25 


.1176 


23.52 


19.70 


26.00 


.2185 


43.70 


34.94 


15.50 


.1197 


23.94 


20.02 


26.25 


1.2211 


44.22 


35.33 


15.75 


.1219 


24.38 


20.36 


26.50 


1 . 2236 


44.72 


35.70 


16.00 


.1240 


24.80 


20.69 


26.75 


1 . 2262 


45.24 


36.09 


16.25 


.1262 


25.24 


21.03 


27.00 


1.2288 


45.76 


36.48 


16.50 


.1284 


25.68 


21.36 


27.25 


1.2314 


46.28 


36.87 


16.75 


.1306 


26.12 


21.70 


27.50 


1.2340 


46.80 


37.26 


17.00 


.1328 


26.56 


22.04 


27.75 


.2367 


47.34 


37.67 


17.25 


.1350 


27.00 


22.38 


28.00 


.2393 


47.86 


38.06 


17.50 


.1373 


27.46 


22.74 


28.25 


.2420 


48.40 


38.46 


17.75 


.1395 


27.90 


23.08 


28.50 


.2446 


48.92 


38.85 


18.00 


.1417 


28.34 


23.42 


28.75 


.2473 


49.46 


39.25 


18.25 


.1440 


28.80 


23.77 


29.00 


.2500 


50.00 


39.66 


18.50 


.1462 


29.24 


24.11 


29.25 


.2527 


50.54 


40.06 


18.75 


.1485 


29.70 


24.47 


29.50 


.2554 


51.08 


40.47 


19.00 


.1508 


30.16 


24.82 


29.75 


.2582 


51.64 


40.89 


19.25 


.1531 


30.62 


25.18 


30.00 


.2609 


52.18 


41.30 


19.50 


.1554 


31.08 


25.53 


30.25 


.2637 


52.74 


41.72 


19.75 


.1577 


31.54 


25.88 


30.50 


.2664 


53.28 


42.14 


20.00 


.1600 


32.00 


26.24 


30.75 


.2692 


53.84 


42.58 


20.25 


.1624 


32.48 


26.61 


31.00 


.2719 


54.38 


43.00 


20.50 


1.1647 


32.94 


26.96 


31.25 


.2747 


54.94 


43.44 



50 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



NITRIC ACID (Concluded) 



Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 

?O! F 

60 ' 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Per cent. 
HNOa 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 

!F 

60 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Per cent. 
HNOs 


31.50 


.2775 


55 . 50 


43.89 


40.25 


1 . 3843 


76.86 


62.07 


31.75 


.2804 


56.08 


44.34 


40.50 


1.3876 


77.52 


62.77 


32.00 


.2832 


56.64 


44.78 


40.75 


1.3909 


78.18 


63.48 


32.25 


.2861 


57.22 


45.24 


41.00 


1.3942 


78.84 


64.20 


32.50 


.2889 


57.78 


45.68 


41.25 


1.3976 


79.52 


64.93 


32.75 


.2918 


58.36 


46.14 


41.50 


1.4010 


80.20 


65.67 


33.00 


.2946 


58.92 


46.58 


41.75 


1.4044 


80.88 


66.42 


33.25 


.2975 


59.50 


47.04 


42.00 


1 . 4078 


81.56 


67.18 


33.50 


.3004 


60.08 


47.49 


42.25 


1.4112 


82.24 


67.95 


33.75 


.3034 


60.68 


47.95 


42.50 


1.4146 


82.92 


68.73 


34.00 


.3063 


61.26 


48.42 


42.75 


1.4181 


83.62 


69.52 


34.25 


.3093 


61.86 


48.90 


43.00 


1.4216 


84.32 


70.33 


34.50 


.3122 


62.44 


49.35 


43.25 


1.4251 


85.02 


71.15 


34.75 


.3152 


63.04 


49.83 


43.50 


1 . 4286 


85.72 


71.98 


35.00 


.3182 


63.64 


50.32 


43.75 


.4321 


86.42 


72.82 


35.25 


.3212 


64.24 


50.81 


44.00 


.4356 


87.12 


73.67 


35.50 


.3242 


64.84 


51.30 


44.25 


.4392 


87.84 


74.53 


35.75 


.3273 


65.46 


51.80 


44.50 


.4428 


88.56 


75.40 


36.00 


.3303 


66.06 


52.30 


44.75 


.4464 


89.28 


76.28 


36.25 


.3334 


66.68 


52.81 


45.00 


.4500 


90.00 


77.17 


36.50 


.3364 


67.28 


53.32 


45 . 25 


.4536 


90.72 


78.07 


36.75 


.3395 


67.90 


53.84 


45.50 


.4573 


91.46 


79.03 


37.00 


.3426 


68.52 


54.36 


45.75 


.4610 


92.20 


80.04 


37.25 


.3457 


69.14 


54.89 


46.00 


.4646 


92.92 


81.08 


37.50 


.3488 


69.76 


55.43 


46.25 


.4684 


93.68 


82.18 


37.75 


.3520 


70.40 


55.97 


46.50 


1.4721 


94.42 


83.33 


38.00 


.3551 


71.02 


56.52 


46.75 


1.4758 


95.16 


84.48 


38.25 


.3583 


71.66 


57.08 


47.00 


1.4796 


95.92 


85.70 


38.50 


.3615 


72.30 


57.65 


47.25 


1 . 4834 


96.68 


86.98 


38.75 


.3647 


72.94 


58.23 


47.50 


1 . 4872 


97.44 


88.32 


39.00 


.3679 


73.58 


58.82 


47.75 


1.4910 


98.20 


89.76 


39.25 


.3712 


74.24 


59.43 


48.00 


1 . 4948 


98.96 


91.35 


39.50 


.3744 


74.88 


60.06 


48.25 


1 . 4987 


99.74 


93.13 


39.75 


.3777 


75.54 


60.71 


48.50 


1.5026 


100.52 


95.11 


40.00 


1.3810 


76.20 


61.38 











Specific gravity determinations were made at 60F., compared with water at 60F. 
From the specific gravities, the corresponding degrees Baum6 were calculated by the 

following formula: = 145 

specific gravity 

Baume hydrometers for use with this table must be graduated by the above formula, 
which formula should always be printed on the scale. 

Atomic weights from F. W. Clarke's table of 1901. O = 16. 

ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPERATURE 

At 10-20 Be. HoBe. or .00029 specific gravity = 1F. 
20-30 Be. ^ 3 Be. or .00044 specific gravity = 1F. 
30-40 Be. ^oBe. or . 00060 specific gravity = 1F. 
40-48.5Be. M7Be. or .00084 specific gravity 1F. 

AUTHORITY W. C. FERGUSON 

This table has been approved and adopted as a Standard by the Manufacturing Chemists' 
Association of the United States. W. H. BOWER, JAS. L. MORGAN, 

HENRY HOWARD, ARTHUR WYMAN. 

A. G. ROSENGARTEN, 

New York, May 14, 1903, Executive Committee. 



HYDROCHLORIC ACID 



51 



HYDROCHLORIC ACID 
BY W. C. FERGUSON 



Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 
60 
60* K 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Per cent. 
HC1 


Degrees 
Baum^ 


Specific 

wi* 

GO *' 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Per cent. 
HC1 


1.00 


.0069 


1.38 


1.40 


15.00 


1.1154 


23.08 


22.92 


2.00 


.0140 


2.80 


2.82 


15.25 


1.1176 


23.52 


23.33 


3.00 


.0211 


4.22 


4.25 


15.50 


1.1197 


23.94 


23.75 


4.00 


.0284 


5.68 


5.69 


15.75 


1.1219 


24.38 


24.16 


5.00 


.0357 


7.14 


7.15 


16.0 


1.1240 


24.80 


24.57 


5.25 


.0375 


7.50 


7.52 


16.1 


1 . 1248 


24.96 


24.73 


5.50 


.0394 


7.88 


7.89 


16.2 


1 . 1256 


25.12 


24.90 


5.75 


.0413 


8.26 


8.26 


16.3 


.1265 


25.30 


25.06 


6.00 


.0432 


8.64 


8.64 


16.4 


.1274 


25.48 


25.23 


6.25 


.0450 


9.00 


9.02 


16.5 


.1283 


25.66 


25.39 


6.50 


.0469 


9.38 


9.40 


16.6 


.1292 


25.84 


25.56 


6.75 


.0488 


9.76 


9.78 


16.7 


.1301 


26.02 


25.72 


7.00 


.0507 


10.14 


10.17 


16.8 


.1310 


26.20 


25.89 


7.25 


.0526 


10.52 


10.55 


16.9 


.1319 


26.38 


26.05 


7.50 


.0545 


10.90 


10.94 


17.0 


.1328 


26.56 


26.22 


7.75 


.0564 


11.28 


11.32 


17.1 


.1336 


26.72 


26.39 


8.00 


.0584 


11.68 


11.71 


17.2 


.1345 


26.90 


26.56 


8.25 


.0603 


12.06 


12.09 


17.3 


.1354 


27.08 


26.73 


8.50 


.0623 


12.46 


12.48 


17.4 


.1363 


27.26 


26.90 


8.75 


.0642 


12.84 


12.87 


17.5 


.1372 


27.44 


27.07 


9.00 


.0662 


13.24 


13.26 


17.6 


.1381 


27.62 


27.24 


9.25 


.0681 


13.62 


13.65 


17.7 


.1390 


27.80 


27.41 


9.50 


.0701 


14.02 


14.04 


17.8 


.1399 


27.98 


27.58 


9.75 


.0721 


14.42 


14.43 


17.9 


.1408 


28.16 


27.75 


10.00 


.0741 


14.82 


14.83 


18.0 


.1417 


28.34 


27.92 


10.25 


.0761 


15.22 


15.22 


18.1 


. 1426 


28.52 


28.09 


10.50 


.0781 


15.62 


15.62 


18.2 


.1435 


28.70 


28.26 


10.75 


.0801 


16.02 


16.01 


18.3 


.1444 


28.88 


28.44 


11.00 


.0821 


16.42 


16.41 


18.4 


.1453 


29.06 


28.61 


11.25 


.0841 


16.82 


16.81 


18.5 


.1462 


29.24 


28.78 


11.50 


.0861 


17.22 


17.21 


18.6 


1.1471 


29.42 


28.95 


11.75 


.0881 


17.62 


17.61 


18.7 


1.1480 


29.60 


29.13 


12.00 


.0902 


18.04 


18.01 


18.8 


1.1489 


29.78 


29.30 


12.25 


.0922 


18.44 


18.41 


18.9 


.1498 


29.96 


29.48 


12.50 


.0943 


18.86 


18.82 


10.0 


.1508 


30.16 


29.65 


12.75 


.0964 


19.28 


19.22 


K.i 


.1517 


30.34 


29.83 


13.00 


.0985 


19.70 


19.63 


19.2 


.1526 


30.52 


30.00 


13.25 


1.1006 


20.12 


20.04 


19.3 


.1535 


30.70 


30.18 


13.50 


1.1027 


20.54 


20.45 


19.4 


.1544 


30.88 


30.35 


13.75 


1.1048 


20.96 


20.86 


19.5 


.1554 


31.08 


30.53 


14.00 


1 . 1069 


21.38 


21.27 


19.6 


.1563 


31.26 


30.71 


14.25 


1.1090 


21.80 


21.68 


19.7 


.1572 


31.44 


30.90 


14.50 


1.1111 


22.22 


22.09 


19.8 


.1581 


31.62 


31.08 


14.75 


1.1132 


22.64 


22.50 


19.9 


.1590 


31.80 


31.27 



52 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 
HYDROCHLORIC ACID (Concluded] 



Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 

^2! F 

60 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Per cent. 
HC1 


Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 

! F 
60 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Per cent. 
HC1 


20.0 


1 . 1600 


32.00 


31.45 


22.8 


1 . 1866 


37.32 


36.73 


20.1 


1.1609 


32.18 


31.64 


22.9 


1 . 1875 


37.50 


36.93 


20.2 


1.1619 


32.38 


31.82 


23.0 


1 . 1885 


37.70 


37.14 


20.3 


1 . 1628 


32.56 


32.01 


23.1 


1.1895 


37.90 


37.36 


20.4 


1 . 1637 


32.74 


32.19 


23.2 


1 . 1904 


38.08 


37.58 


20.5 


1.1647 


32.94 


32.38 


23.3 


1.1914 


38.28 


37.80 


20.6 


1 . 1656 


33.12 


32.56 


23.4 


1 . 1924 


38.48 


38 . 03 


20.7 


1 . 1666 


33.32 


32.75 


23.5 


1 . 1934 


38.68 


38.26 


20.8 


1 . 1675 


33.50 


32.93 


23.6 


1 . 1944 


38.88 


38.49 


20.9 


1 . 1684 


33.68 


33.12 


23.7 


1 . 1953 


39.06 


38.72 


21.0 


1.1694 


33.88 


33.31 


23.8 


1 . 1963 


39.26 


38.95 


21.1 


1 . 1703 


34.06 


33.50 


23.9 


1.1973 


39.46 


39.18 


21.2 


1.1713 


34.26 


33.69 


24.0 


1.1983 


39.66 


39.41 


21.3 


1 . 1722 


34.44 


33.88 


24.1 


1.1993 


39.86 


39.64 


21.4 


1 . 1732 


34.64 


34.07 


24.2 


1.2003 


40.06 


39.86 


21.5 


1.1741 


34.82 


34.26 


24.3 


1.2013 


40.26 


40.09 


21.6 


1.1751 


35.02 


34.45 


24.4 


1 . 2023 


40.46 


40.32 


21.7 


.1760 


35.20 


34.64 


24.5 


1 . 2033 


40.66 


40.55 


21.8 


.1770 


35.40 


34.83 


24.6 


1 . 2043 


40.86 


40.78 


21.9 


.1779 


35.58 


35.02 


24.7 


1 . 2053 


41.06 


41.01 


22.0 


.1789 


35.78 


35.21 


24.8 


1.2063 


41.26 


41.24 


22.1 


.1798 


35.96 


35.40 


24.9 


1.2073 


41.46 


41.48 


22.2 


.1808 


36.16 


35.59 


25.0 


1.2083 


41.66 


41.72 


22.3 


.1817 


36.34 


35.78 


25.1 


1.2093 


41.86 


41.99 


22.4 


.1827 


36.54 


35.97 


25.2 


1.2103 


42.06 


42.30 


22.5 


.1836 


36.72 


36.16 


25.3 


1.2114 


42.28 


42.64 


22.6 


.1846 


36.92 


36.35 


25.4 


1.2124 


42.48 


43.01 


22.7 


.1856 


37.12 


36.54 


25.5 


1.2134 


42.68 


43.40 



Specific-gravity determinations were made at 60F., compared with water 
at 60F. 

From the specific gravities, the corresponding degrees Baume" were calcu- 
ated by the following formula : 

145 

Degrees Baume = 145 r^ : 

specific gravity 

Atomic weights from F. W. Clarke's table of 1901. O = 16. 

ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPERATURE 
lO-lS'Be". MoBe. or .0002 sp. gr. for 1F. 
15-22Be. HoBe. or .0003 sp. gr. for 1F. 
22-25Be. H 8 Be. or .00035 sp. gr. for 1F. 
AUTHORITY W. C. FERGUSON 

This table has been approved and adopted as a Standard by the Manufac- 
turing Chemists' Association of the United States. 

W. H. BOWER, JAS. L. MORGAN, 

HENRY HOWARD, ARTHUR WYMAN. 

A. G. ROSENGARTEN, 
New York, May 14, 1903. Executive Committee. 



TABLE OF SULPHURIC ACID 



BY W. C. FERGUSON AND H. P. TALBOT 



54 



HANDBOOK 



SULPHURIC ACTD 
BY W. C. FERGUSON AND'HJP. TAMJOT 



Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 

! F 

60*' 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Per cent. 
H 2 S0 4 


Weight of 
1 cu. ft. in 
Ib. av. 


Per cent. 
O. V. 


Pounds O. V. 
in 1 cui ft. 





1.0000 


0.0 


0.00 


62.37 


0.00 


0.00 , 


1 


1.0069 


1.4 


1.02 


62.80 


1.09 


0.68 


2 


1.0140 


2.8 


2.08 


63.24 


2.23 


1.41 , 


3 


1.0211 


4.2 


3.13 


63.69 


3.36 


2.14 


4 


1.0284 


5.7 


4.21 


64.14 


4.52 


2.90 


5 


1.0357 


7.1 


5.28 


64.60 


5.67 


3.66 


6 


1.0432 


8.6 


6.37 


65.06 


6.84 


4.45 


7 


1.0507 


10.1 


7.45 


65.53 


7.99 


5.24 


8 


1.0584 


11.7 


8.55 


66.01 


9.17 


6.06 


9 


1.0662 


13.2 


9.66 


66. ,50 


10.37 


6.89 


10 


1.0741 


14.8 


10.77 


66.99 


11.56 


7.74 j 


11 


1.0821 


16.4 


11.89 


67.49 


12.76 


8.61 


12 


1.0902 


18.0 


13.01 


68.00 


13.96 


9.49 


13 


1.0985 


19.7 


14.13 


68.51 


15.16 


10.39 


14 


1 . 1069 


21.4 


15.25 


69.04 


16.36 


11.30 


15 


1-.1154 


23.1 


16.38 


69.57 


17.58 


12.23 


16 


1.1240 


24.8 


17.53 


70.10 


18.81 


13.19 


17 


1.1328 


26.6 


18.71 


70.65 


20.08 


14.18 


18 


1.1417 


28.3 


19.89 


71.21 


21.34 


15.20 


19 


1.1508 


30.2 


21.07 


71.78 


22.61 


16.23 


20 


1.1600 


32.0 


22.25 


72.35 


23.87 


17.27 


21 


1.1694 


33.9 


23.43 


72.94 


25.14 


18.34 


22 


1.1789 


35.8 


24.61 


73.53 


26.41 


19.42 


23 


1.1885 


37.7 


25.81 


74.13 


27.69 


20.53 


24 


1.1983 


39.7 


27.03 


74.74 


29.00 


21.68 



Specific Gravity determinations were made at 60F., compared with water 
at 60F. 

From the Specific Gravities, the corresponding degrees Baume" were cal- 

145 

tfulated by the following formula : Degrees Baume = 145 ~ ^ ~ r 

Specific Gravity 

Baume hydrometers for use with this table must be graduated by the 
above formula, which formula should always be printed on the scale. 
66Be*. = specific gravity 1.8354 = Oil of Vitriol (O. V.). 

1 cu. ft. water at 60F. weighs 62.37 Ib. av. 
Atomic weights from F. W. Clarke's table of 1901. O = 16. 

H 2 SO 4 = 100 per cent. 
Per cent. Per cent Per cent. 

H 2 SO 4 O. V. 60 

O. V. = 93.19 = 10000 = 119.98 
60 = 77.67 = 83.35 = 100.00 
50 = 62.18 = 66.72 = 80.06 



SULPHURIC ACID 



55 



SULPHURIC ACID 
BY W. C. FERGUSON AND H. P. TALBOT 



Degrees 
Baume 


Freezing 1 
(melting) 
points, F. 


APPROXIMATE BOILING POINTS 
50Be\, 295F. 






60Be., 386F. 









32.0 


61Be"., 400F. 


1 


31.2 


62Be., 415F. 


2 


30.5 


63Be., 432F. 


3 


29.8 


64Be"., 451F. 


4 


28.9 


65Be., 485F. 


5 


28.1 


66B<., 538F. 


6 


27.2 


FIXED POINTS 


7 


26.3 




8 
9 


25.1 
24.0 


Specific 
gravity 


Per cent. 
HjSO* 


Specific 
gravity 


Per cent. 
H,S04 


10 


22 8 










-1V/ 

11 


tt . O 

21.5 


.0000 


0.00 


.5281 


62.34 


12 


20.0 


.0048 


0.71 


.5440 63.79 


13 


18.3 


.0347 


5.14 


.5748 


66.51 


14 


16.6 


.0649 


9.48 


.6272 


71.00 


15 
16 
17 

10 


14.7 
12.6 
10.2 

77 


.0992 
.1353 
.1736 
.2105 


14.22 
19.04 
23.94 
28.55 


.6679 
.7044 
.7258 
.7472 


74.46 
77.54 
79.40 
81.32 


lo 

in 


. i 

40 


.2513 


33.49 


.7700 


83.47 


J. t/ 


. O 


.2951 


38.64 


.7959 


86.36 


20 


+ 1.6 


1.3441 


44.15 


.8117 


88.53 


21 


- 1.8 


1.3947 


49.52 


.8194 


89.75 


22 


- 6.0 


1.4307 


53.17 


.8275 


91.32 


23 


-11.0 


1.4667 


56.68 


.8354 


93.19 


24 


-16.0 


1.4822 


. 58.14 







Acids stronger than 66B6. should have their percentage compositions 
determined by chemical analysis. 

AUTHORITIES W. C. FERGUSON; H. P. TALBOT. 

This table has been approved and adopted as a standard by the Manu- 
facturing Chemists' Association of the United States. 

W. H. BOWER, 
HENRY HOWARD, 
JAS. L. MORGAN, 
ARTHUR WYMAN, 
A. G. ROSENGARTEN, 
New York, June 23, 1904. Executive Committee. 

1 Calculated from Pickering's results, Jour. Lon. Chem. Soc., vol. 57, p. 363. 



56 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 
SULPHURIC ACID (Continued) 



Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 
60^ 
60 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Per cent. 
H 2 SO4 


Weight of 
1 cu. ft. in 
Ib av. 


Per cent. 
O. V. 


Pounds O. V. 
in 1 cu. ft. 


25 


1.2083 


41.7 


28.28 


75.36 


30.34 


22.87 


26 


1.2185 


43.7 


29.53 


76.00 


31.69 


24.08 


27 


1 . 2288 


45.8 


30.79 


76.64 


33.04 


25.32 


28 


1 . 2393 


47.9 


32.05 


77.30 


34.39 


26.58 


29 


1 . 2500 


50.0 


33.33 


77.96 


35.76 


27.88 


30 


1.2609 


52.2 


34.63 


78.64 


37.16 


29.22 


31 


1.2719 


54.4 


35.93 


79.33 


38.55 


30.58 


32 


1 . 2832 


56.6 


37.26 


80.03 


39.98 


32.00 


33 


1 . 2946 


58.9 


38:58 


80.74 


41.40 


33.42 


34 


1 . 3063 


61.3 


39.92 


81.47 


42.83 


34.90 


35 


1.3182 


63.6 


41.27 


82.22 


44.28 


36.41 


36 


1.3303 


66.1 


42.63 


82.97 


45.74 


37.95 


37 


1.3426 


68.5 


43.99 


83.74 


47.20 


39.53 


38 


1.3551 


71.0 


45.35 


84.52 


48.66 


41.13 


39 


1.3679 


73.6 


46.72 


85.32 


50.13 


42.77 


40 


1.3810 


76.2 


48.10 


86.13 


51.61 


44.45 


41 


1.3942 


78.8 


49.47 


86.96 


53.08 


46.16 


42 


.4078 


81.6 


50.87 


87.80 


54.58 


47.92 


43 


.4216 


84.3 


52.26 


88.67 


56.07 


49.72 


44 


.4356 


87.1 


53 . 66 


89.54 


57.58 


51.56 


45 


.4500 


90.0 


55.07 ' 


90.44 


59.09 


53.44 


46 


.4646 


92.9 


56.48 


91 . 35 


60.60 


55.36 


47 


.4796 


95.9 


57.90 


92.28 


62.13 


57.33 


48 


.4948 


99.0 


59.32 


93.23 


63.65 


59.34 


49 


.5104 


102.1 


60.75 


94.20 


65.18 


61.40 


50 


.5263 


105.3 


62.18 


95.20 


66.72 


63.52 


51 


.5426 


108.5 


63.66 


96.21 


68.31 


65.72 


52 


.5591 


111.8 


65.13 


97.24 


69.89 


67.96 


53 


.5761 


115.2 


66.63 


98.30 


71.50 


70.28 


54 


.5934 


118.7 


68.13 


99.38 


73.11 


72.66 


55 


.6111 


122.2 


69.65 


100.48 


74.74 


75.10 


56 


.6292 


125.8 


71.17 


101.61 


76.37 


77.60 


57 


.6477 


129.5 


72.75 


102.77 


78.07 


80.23 


58 


.6667 


133.3 


74.36 


103.95 


79.79 


82.95 


59 


.6860 


137.2 


75.99 


105.16 


81.54 


85.75 



SULPHURIC ACID 
SULPHURIC ACID (Continued} 



57 



Degrees 
Baume 


Freezing 1 
(melting) 
points F. 




25 


-23 


ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPERATURE 


26 


-30 


At 10Be. .029 Be. or .00023 sp. gr. = F. 


27 


-39 


At 20Be. .036 Be. or .00034 sp. gr. = F. 


28 


-49 


At 30Be. .035 Be. or .00039 sp. gr. = F. 


29 


-61 


At 40Be. .031 Be. or .00041 sp. gr. = F. 






At 50Be*. .028 Be. or .00045 sp. gr. = F. 


30 


-74 


At 60Be. .026 Be. or .00053 sp. gr. = F. 


31 


-82 


At 63Be. .026 Be. or .00057 sp. gr. = F. 


32 


-96 


At 66Be. .0235Be. or .00054 sp. gr. = F. 


33 


-97 




34 


-91 




35 


-81 




36 


70 










Ovl 

37 

38 


-60 
-53 


Per cent. 
60Be. 


Pounds 
60 Be. in 
1 cu. ft. 


Per cent. 
50Be. 


Pounds 
50Be. in 
1 cu. ft. 


39 


-47 










40 


-41 


61.93 


53.34 


77.36 


66.63 


41 


-35 


63.69 


55.39 


79.56 


69.19 


42 


-31 


65.50 


57.50 


81.81 


71.83 


43 


-27 


67.28 


59.66 


84.05 


74.53 


44 


-23 


69.09 


61.86 


86.30 


77.27 


45 


-20 


70.90 


64.12 


88.56 


80.10 


46 


-14 


72.72 


66.43 


90.83 


82.98 


47 


-15 


74.55 


68.79 


93.12 


85.93 


48 


-18 


76.37 71.20 


95.40 


88.94 


49 


-22 


78.22 


73.68 


97.70 


92.03 


50 


-27 


80.06 


76.21 


100.00 


95.20 


51 


-33 


81.96 


78.85 


102.38 


98.50 


52 


-39 


83.86 


81.54 


104.74 


101.85 


53 


-49 


85.79 


84.33 


107.15 


105.33 


54 


-59 


87.72 


87.17 


109.57 


108.89 


55 


. } o 89.67 


90.10 


112.01 


112.55 


56 


91.63 


93.11 


114.46 


116.30 


57 


... f | 93.67 


96.26 


117.00 


120.24 


58 


95.74 


99.52 


119.59 


124.31 


59 


_7 ; ffl 


97.84 


102.89 


122.21 


128.52 



Calculated from Pickering's results, Jour. Lon. Chern. Soc., vol. 57, p. 363. 



58 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 
SULPHURIC ACID (Concluded] 



Degrees 
Baum6 


Specific 
gravity 

62! F 
60 * 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Per cent. 
H 2 SO4 


Weight of 
1 cu. ft. in 
Ibs. av. 


Per cent. 
0. V. 


Pounds O. V. 
in 1 cu. ft. 


60 


1.7059 


141.2 


77.67 


106 . 40 


83.35 


88.68 


61 


1.7262 


145.2 


79.43 


107.66 


85.23 


91.76 


62 


1.7470 


149.4 


81.30 


108 . 96 


87.24 


95.06 


63 


1.7683 


153.7 


83.34 


110.29 


89.43 


98.63 


64 


1.7901 


158.0 


85.66 


111.65 


91.92 


102.63 


64^ 


1.7957 


159.1 


86.33 


112.00 


92.64 


103.75 


64> 


.8012 


160.2 


87.04 


112.34 


93.40 


104 . 93 


64% 


.8068 


161.4 


87.81 


112.69 


94.23 


106.19 


65 


.8125 


162.5 


88.65 


113.05 


95.13 


107.54 


65K 


.8182 


163.6 


89.55 


113.40 


96.10 


108.97 


65^ 


.8239 


164.8 


90.60 


113.76 


97.22 


110.60 


65% 


.8297 


165.9 


91.80 


114.12 


98.51 


112.42 


66 


.8354 


167.1 


93.19 


114.47 


100.00 


114.47 



SULPHURIC ACID 
SULPHURIC ACID (Concluded) 



59 



Degrees 
Baum6 


Freezing 1 
(melting) 
point 


Per cent. 
60B6. 


Pounds 
60Be. in 
cubic foot 


Per cent. 
50Be. 


Pounds 
50Be. in 
cubic foot 


60 


+ 12.6 


100.00 


106.40 


124.91 


132.91 


61 


27.3 


102.27 


110.10 


127.74 


137.52 


62 


39.1 


104.67 


114.05 


130.75 


142.47 


63 


46.1 


107.30 


118.34 


134.03 


147.82 


64 


46.4 


110.29 


123.14 


137.76 


153.81 


64K 


43.6 


111.15 


124.49 


138.84 


155.50 


64^ 


41.1 


112.06 


125.89 


139.98 


157.25 


64% 


37.9 


113.05 


127.40 


141.22 


159.14 


65 


33.1 


114.14 


129.03 


142.57 


161.17 


65^ 


24.6 


115.30 


130.75 


144.02 


163.32 


65^ 


13.4 


116.65 


132.70 


145.71 


165.76 


65% 


- 1.0 


118.19 


134.88 


147.63 


168.48 


66 


-29.Q 


119.98 


137.34 


149.87 


171.56 



60 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



SULPHURIC ACID 
94-100 per cent. H 2 S(V 



H. B. BISHOP 

The acid used in this table was prepared from c.p. 95 per cent, 
sulphuric acid, which was strengthened to 100 per cent, by the 
addition of fuming acid made by distilling fuming sulphuric acid 
(70 per cent, free SO 3 ) into a portion of 95 per cent. c.p. acid, 
The final acid was tested for impurities; residue upon evapora- 
tion, chlorine, niter and sulphur dioxide (0.001 per cent.) which 
was less than the sensitiveness of the determination. 

The analytical and specific-gravity determinations, and the 
allowance for temperature were made in the same manner, anc 
with the same accuracy as in the sulphuric-acid table adoptee 
by the Manufacturing Chemists' Association, the specific gravity 
1.8354 and 93.19 per cent. H 2 SO4 being taken as standard. 

The actual determinations were made within a few hundredth* 
of a per cent, of the points given in the table, the even percentage 
being calculated by interpolation. 



Per cent. H 2 SO4 


Specific gravity 


Allowance for temperature 


66Be-. 93.19 


1.8354 


At 94 per cent. . 00054 sp. gr. = 1F. 


94.00 


1.8381 


At 96 per cent. 0.00053 sp. gr. = 1F. 


95.00 


1 . 8407 


At 97. 5 per cent. 0.00052 sp. gr. = 1F. 


96.00 


1.8427 


At 100 per cent. 0.00052 sp. gr. = 1F. 


97.00 


1.8437 




97.50 


1.8439 




98.00 


1.8437 




99.00 


1.8424 




100.00 


1.8391 





W. W. SCOTT: " Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis," 1917. 



SULPHURIC ACID 61 

AUTHOR'S NOTE. Mr. Ferguson in his article describing the methods used 
in the preparation of the tables adopted by the Manufacturing Chemists' 
Association names several chemists who assisted him, among them Mr. 
Bishop. "Such merit as these tables possess is largely due to these gentle- 
men, but more especially to Mr. Bishop who had immediate charge of and 
participated in most of the determinations, and who shared with the writer 
the preparation of this paper." 



SULPHURIC ACID 
0Be.-100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 

From 0-66Be. the table is from the one of Ferguson and 
Talbot with the following supplementals incorporated : 

Per cent. SO 3 

Pounds SOs per cubic foot 

Pounds H 2 SO 4 per cubic foot 

Per cent, free water 

Per cent, combined water 

Freezing (melting) points calculated in degrees Centigrade from 
the given degrees Fahrenheit. 

Approximate boiling points calculated in degrees Centigrade 
from the given degrees Fahrenheit. 

. Allowance for temperature calculated per degree Centigrade 
from the given, per degree Fahrenheit. 

From 94-100 per cent. H 2 S0 4 is from the table of H. B. Bishop. 
Mr. Bishop gives only the specific gravity and allowance for 
temperature per degree Fahrenheit. All other calculations are 
supplied. 

Freezing (melting) points were calculated after Knietsch, Ber., 
1901. 

It should be noted that the highest percentages show lower 
specific gravities than those just below, the maximum being at 
97.5 per cent. H 2 S0 4 . 



62 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



SULPHURIC ACID 
0B6.-100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 



Degrees 
Baume 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Specific 
gravity 


Lb. av. 
per cu. ft. 


Per cent. 
S0 3 


Lb. SOs 
per cu. ft. 


Per cent. 
H 2 S04 


Lb. H 2 SO 
per cu. ft. 


1 


1.38 


1.0069 


62.80 


0.83 


0.52 


1.02 


0.64 


2 


2.80 


1.0140 


63.24 


1.70 


1.08 


2.08 


1.32 


3 


4.22 


1.0211 


63.69 


2.56 


1.63 


3.13 


1.99 


4 


5.68 


.0284 


64.14 


3.44 


2.21 


4.21 


2.70 


5 


7.14 


.0354 


64.60 


4.31 


2.78 


5.28 


3.41 


6 


8.64 


.0432 


65.06 


5.20 


3.38 


6.37 


4.14 


7 


10.14 


.0507 


65.53 


6.08 


3.98 


7.45 


4.88 


8 


11.68 


.0584- 


66.01 


6.98 


4.61 


8.55 


5.64 


9 


13.24 


.0662 


66.50 


7.89 


5.25 


9.66 


6.42 


10 


14.82 


.0741 


66.99 


8.79 


5.89 


10.77 


7.21 


11 


16.42 


.0821 


67.49 


9.71 


6.55 


11.89 


8.02 


12 


18.04 


.0902 


68.00 


10.62 


7.22 


13.01 


8.85 


13 


19.70 


.0985 


68.51 


11.54 


7.91 


14.13 


9.69 


14 


21.38 


.1069 


69.04 


12.45 


8.60 


15.25 


10.53 


15 


23.08 


.1154 


69.57 


13.37 


9.30 


16.38 


11.40 


16 


24.80 


.1240 


70.10 


14.31 


10.03 


17.53 


12.29 


17 


26.56 


.1328 


70.65 


15.27 


10.78 


18.71 


13.22 


18 


28.34 


.1417 


71.21 


16.24 


11.56 


19.89 


14.16 


19 


30.16 


1.1508 


71.78 


17.20 


12.35 


21.07 


15.12 


20 


32.00 


1 . 1600 


72.35 


18.16 


13.14 


22.25 


16.10 


21 


33.88 


1 . 1694 


72.94 


19.13 


13.95 


23.43 


17.09 


22 


35.78 


1 . 1789 


73.53 


20.09 


14.77 


24.61 


18.10 


23 


37.70 


1 . 1885 


74.13 


21.07 


15.62 


25.81 


19.13 


24 


39.66 


1 . 1983 


74.74 


22.07 


16.50 


27.03 


20.20 


25 


41.66 


1.2083 


75.36 


23.09 


17.40 


28.28 


21.31 


26 


43.70 


1.2185 


76.00 


24.11 


18.32 


29.53 


22.44 


27 


45.76 


1.2288 


76.64 


25.14 


19.27 


30.79 


23.60 


28 


47.86 


1.2393 


77.30 


26.16 


20.22 


32.05 


24.77 


29 


50.00 


1.2500 


77.96 


27.21 


21.21 


33.33 


25.98 


30 


52.18 


1.2609 


78.64 


28.27 


22.23 


34.63 


27.23 


31 


54.38 


1.2719 


79.33 


29.33 


23.27 


35.93 


28.50 


32 


56.64 


1 . 2832 


80.03 


30.42 


24.35 


37.26 


29.82 


33 


58.92 


1 . 2946 


80.74 


31.49 


25.42 


38.58 


31.15 


34 


61.26 


1.3063 


81.47 


32.59 


26.55 


39.92 


32.52 


35 


63.64 


1.3182 


82.22 


33.69 


27.70 


41.27 


33.93 


36 


66.06 


1.3303 


82.97 


34.80 


28.87 


42.63 


35.37 


37 


68.52 


1.3426 


83.74 


35.91 


30. 07 


43.99 


36.84 


38 


71.02 


1.3551 


84.52 


37.02 


31.31 


45.35 


38.33 


39 


73.58 


1.3679 


85.32 


38.14 


32.54 


46.72 


39.86 



SULPHURIC ACID 



63 



SULPHURIC ACID 
0B<.-100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 



Degrees 
Baume 


Per cent, 
free H 2 O 


Per cent, 
combined 
H 2 


Per cent. 
0. V. 


Lb. O. V. 
in 1 cu. ft. 


Freezing (melting) points 


F. 


c. 


1 


98.98 


0.19 


1.09 


0.68 


31.2 


-0.4 


2 


97.92 


0.38 


2.23 


1.41 


30.5 . 


-0.8 


3 


96.87 


0.57 


3.36 


2.14 


29.8 


-1.2 


4 


95.79 


0.77 


4.52 


2.90 


28.9 


-1.7 


5 


94.72 


0.97 


5.67 


3.66 


28.1 


-2.2 


6 


93.63 


1.17 


6.84 


4.45 


27.2 


-2.7 


7 


92.55 


1.37 


7.99 


5.24 


26.3 


-3.3 


8 


91.45 


1.57 


9.17 


6.06 


25.1 


-3.8 


9 


90.34 


1.77 


10.37 


6.89 


24.0 


-4.4 


10 


89.23 


1.98 


11.56 


7.74 


22.8 


-5.1 


11 


88.11 


2.18 


12.76 


8.61 


21.5 


-5.8 


12 


86.99 


2.39 


13.96 


9.49 


20.0 


-6.7 


13 


85.87 


2.59 


15.16 


10.39 


18.3 


-7.6 


14 


84.75 


2.80 


16.36 


11.30 


16.6 


-8.6 


15 


83.62 


3.01 


17.58 


12.23 


14.7 


-9.6 


16 


82.47 


3.22 


18.81 


13.19 


12.6 


-10.8 


17 


81.29 


3.44 


20.08 


14.18 


10.2 


-12.1 


18 


80.11 


3.65 


21.34 


15.20 


7.7 


-13.5 


19 


78.93 


3.87 


22.61 


16.23 


4.8 


-15.1 


20 


77.75 


4.09 


23.87 


17.27 


1.6 


-16.9 


21 


76.57 


4.30 


25.14 


18.34 


-1.8 


-18.8 


22 


75.39 


4.52 


26.41 


19.42 


-6.0 


-21.1 


23 


74.19 


4.74 


27.69 


20.53 


-11.0 


-23.9 


24 


72.97 


4.96 


29.00 


21.68 


-16.0 


-26.7 


25 


71.72 


5.19 


30.34 


22.87 


-23.0 


-30.6 


26 


70.47 


5.42 


31.69 


24.08 


-30.0 


-34.4 


27 


69.21 


5.65 


33.04 


25.32 


-39.0 


-39.4 


28 


67.95 


5.89 


34.39 


26.58 


-49.0 


-45.0 


29 


66.67 


6.12 


35.76 


27.88 


-61.0 


-51.7 


30 


65.37 


6.36 


37.16 


29.22 


-74.0 


-58.9 


31 


64.07 


6.60 


38.55 


30.58 


-82.0 


-63.3 


32 


62.74 


6.84 


39.98 


32.00 


-96.0 


-71.1 


33 


61.42 


7.09 


41.40 


33.42 


. -97.0 


-71.7 


34 


60.08 


7.33 


42.83 


34.90 


-91.0 


-68.3 


35 


58.73 


7.58 


44.28 


36.41 


-81.0 


-62.8 


36 


57.37 


7.83 


45.74 


37.95 


-70.0 


-56.7 


37 


56.01 


8.08 


47.20 


39.53 


-60.0 


-51.1 


38 


54.65 


8.33 


48.66 


41.13 


-53.0 


-47.2 


39 


53.28 


8.58 


50.13 


42.77 


-47.0 


-43.9 



64. 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



SULPHURIC ACID 
0Be.-100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 (Continued} 



Degrees 
Baum6 


Degrees 
Twaddle 


Specific 
gravity 


Lb. av. 
per cu. ft. 


Per cent. 
SOs 


Lb. SOs 
per cu. ft. 


Per cent. 
H 2 S04 


Lb. H 2 S0 4 
per cu. ft. 


40 


76.20 


1.3810 


86.13 


39.27 


33.82 


48.10 


41.43 


41 


78.84 


1 . 3942 


86.96 


40.38 


35.11 


49.47 


43.02 


42 


81.56 


1.4078 


87.80 


41.53 


36.46 


50.87 


44.66 


43 


84.32 


1.4216 


88.67 


42.66 


37.83 


52.26 


46.34 


44 


87.12 


1.4356 


89.54 


43.80 


39.22 


53.66 


48.05 


45 


90.00 


1.4500 


90.44 


44.96 


40.66 


55.07 


49.81 


46 


92.92 


1.4646 


91.35 


46.11 


42.12 


56.48 


51.59 


47 


95.92 


1 . 4796 


92.28 


47.27 


43.62 


57.90 


53.43 


48 


98.96 


1 . 4948 


93.23 


48.43 


45.10 


59.32 


55.30 


49 


102.08 


.5104 


94.20 


49.59 


46.71 


60.75 


57.23 


50 


105 . 26 


.5263 


95.20 


50.76 


48.32 


62.18 


59.20 


51 


108.52 


.5426 


96.21 


51.97 


50.00 


63.66 


61.25 


52 


111.82 


.5591 


97.24 


53.17 


51.70 


65.13 


63.33 


53 


115.22 


.5761 


98.30 


54.39 


53.47 


66.63 


65.49 


54 


118.68 


.5934 


99.38 


55.62 


55.28 


68.13 


67.71 


55 


122.22 


.6111 


100 . 48 


56.86 


57.13 


69.65 


69.98 


56 


125 . 84 


.6292 


101.61 


58.10 


59.04 


71.17 


72.32 


57 


129 . 54 


.6477 


102.77 


59.39 


61.04 


72.75 


74.77 


58 


133.34 


1.6667 


103.95 


60.70 


63.10 


74.36 


77.30 


59 


137.20 


1.6860 


105.16 


62.03 


65.23 


75.99 


79.91 


60 


141.18 


1.7059 


106.40 


63.40 


67.46 


77.67 


82.64 


61 


145.24 


1 . 7262 


107.66 


64.84 


69.81 


79.43 


85.51 


62 


149 . 40 


1 . 7470 


108 . 96 


66.37 


72.31 


81.30 


88.58 


63 


153.66 


1 . 7683 


110.29 


68.03 


75.03 


83.34 


91.92 


64 


158 . 02 


1 . 7901 


111.65 


69.92 


78.07 


85.66 


95.64 


64^ 


159.14 


1.7957 


112.00 


70.47 


78.93 


86.33 


96.69 


64^ 


160.24 


1.8012 


112.34 


71.05 


79.82 


87.04 


97.78 


64% 


161.36 


1.8068 


112.69 


71.68 


80.78 


87.81 


98.95 


65 


162 . 50 


1.8125 


113.05 


72.37 


81.81 


88.65 


100.22 


65^ 


163 . 64 


1.8182 


113.40 


73.10 


82.90 


89.55 


101.55 


65^ 


164 . 78 


1 . 8239 


113.76 


73.96 


84.14 


90.60 


103.07 


65% 


165 . 94 


1.8297 


114.12 


74.94 


85.52 


91.80 


104.76 


66 


167.08 


1.8354 


114.47 


76.07 


87.08 


93.19 


106.67 






1.8381 


114.64 


76.73 


87.97 


94.00 


107.76 






1.8407 


114.80 


77.55 


89.03 


95.00 


109.06 






1.8427 


114.93 


78.37 


90.07 


96.00 


110.33 






1 . 8437 


114.99 


79.18 


91.05 


97.00 


111.54 






1 . 8439 


115.00 


79.59 


91.53 


97.50 


112.13 






1.8437 


114.99 


80.00 


91.99 


98.00 


112.69 






1.8424 


114.91 


80.82 


92.87 


99.00 


113.76 






1.8391 


114.70 


81.63 


93.63 


100 . 00 


114.70 



SULPHURIC ACID 



65 



SULPHURIC ACID 
0Be\-100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 (Continued) 



Degrees 
Baum6 


Per cent. 
HiSOi 


Per cent, 
free 
H Z 


Per cent, 
combin d 
H,0e 


Per cent. 

o. v. 


Lb. 0. V. 
in 1 cu. ft. 


Freezing (melting) points 


F. 


c. 


40 




51.90 


8.83 


51.61 


44.45 


-41.0 


-40.6 


41 




50.53 


9.09 


53.08 


46.16 


-35.0 


-37.2 


42 


.'.'..'..'. 49.13 


9.34 


54.58 


47.92 


-31.0 


-35.0 


43 




47.74 


9.60 


56.07 


49.72 


-27.0 


-32.8 


44 




46.34 


9.86 


57.58 


51.56 


-23.0 


-30.6 


45 




44.93 


10.11 


59.09 


53.44 


-20.0 


-28.9 


46 




43.52 


10.37 


60.60 


55.36 


-14.0 


-25.6 


47 




42.10 


10.63 


62.13 


57.33 


-15.0 


-26.1 


48 




40.68 


10.89 


63.65 


59.34 


-18.0 


-27.8 


49 




39.25 


11.16 


65.18 


61.40 


-22.0 


-30.0 


50 




37.82 


11.42 


66.72 


63.52 


-27.0 


-32.8 


51 




36.34 


11.69 


68.31 


65.72 


-33.0 


-36.1 


52 




34.87 


11.96 


69.89 


67.96 


-39.0 


-39.4 


53 




33.37 


12.24 


71.50 


70.28 


-49.0 


-45.0 


54 




31.87 


12.51 . 


73.11 


72.66 


-59.0 


-50.6 


55 




30.35 


12.79 


74.74 


75.10 


} 


56 




28.83 


13.07 


76.37 


77.60 


Below 


57 




27.25 


13.36 


78.07 


80.23 


-40 


58 




25.64 


13.66 


79.79 


82.95 




59 




24.01 


13.96 


81.54 


85.75 


- 7.0 


-21.7 


60 




22.33 


14.27 


83.35 


88.68 


+ 12.6 


-10.8 


61 




20.57 


14.59 


85.23 


91.76 


27.3 


-2.6 


62 




18.70 


14.93 


87.24 


95.06 


39.1 


+3.9 


63 




16.66 


15.31 


89.43 


98.63 


46.1 


7.8 


64 




14.34 


15.74 


91.92 


102.63 


46.4 


8.0 


64M 




13.67 


15.86 


92.64 


103.75 


43.6 


6.4 


64^ 




12.96 


15.99 


93.40 


104.93 


41.1 


5.1 


64% 




12.19 


16.13 


94.23 


106.19 


37.9 


3.3 


65 




11.35 


16.28 


95.13 


107.54 


33.1 


0.6 


65^ 




10.45 


16.45 


96.10 


108.97 


24.6 


-4.1 


65K 




9.40 


16.64 


97.22 


110.60 


13.4 


-10.3 


6534 




8.20 


16.86 


98.51 


112.42 


-1.0 


-18.3 


66 




6.81 


17.12 


100.00 


114.47 


-29.0 


-33.9 




'94.00 


6.00 


17.26 


100.87 


115.64 


-20.6 


-29.2 




95.00 


5.00 


17.45 


101.94 


117.03 


-7.2 


-21.8 




96.00 


4.00 


17.63 


103.01 


118.39 


+9.9 


-12.3 




97.00 


3.00 


17.82 


104.09 


119.69 


25.3 


-3.7 




97.50 


2.50 


17.91 


104.63 


120.32 


31.3 


-0.4 




98.00 


2.00 


18.00 


105.16 


120.92 


37.4 


+3.0 




99.00 


1.00 


18.18 


106.23 


122.07 


43.3 


6.3 




100.00 


0.00 


18.37 


107.31 


123.08 


50.0 


10.0 



66 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



SULPHURIC ACID 
0B6-. 100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 (Concluded} 



Degrees 
Baum6 


Per cent. 
H 2 S04 


Per cent. 
60Be. 


Lb. 60 in 

1 cu. ft. 


Per cent. 
50Be. 


Lb. 50 in 
1 cu. ft. 


40 
41 
42 

43 




61.93 
63.69 
65.50 

67 28 


53.34 
55.39 
57.50 
59 66 


77.36 
79.59 
81.81 
84 05 


66.63 
69.19 
71.83 
74 53 


44 




69.09 


61 86 


86 30 


77 27 


45 
46 

47 
48 





70.90 

72.72 
74.55 
76 37 


64.12 
66.43 
68.79 
71 20 


88.56 
90.83 
93.12 
95 40 


80.10 
82.98 
85.93 
88 94 


49 




78 22 


73 68 


97 70 


92 03 


50 




80 06 


76 21 


100 00 


95 20 


51 
52 
53 
54 
55 




81.96 
83.86 
85.79 

87.72 
89 67 


78.85 
81.54 
84.33 
87.17 
90 10 


102 . 38 
104 . 74 
107.15 
109.57 
112 01 


98.50 
101.85 
105 . 33 
108.89 
112 55 


56 




91 63 


93 11 


114 46 


116 30 


57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 




93.67 
95.74 
97.84 
100.00 
102.27 
104.67 
107 . 30 
110 29 


96.26 
99.52 
102.89 
106.40 
110.10 
114.05 
118.34 
123 14 


117.00 
119.59 
122.21 
124.91 
127.74 
130.75 
134.03 
137 76 


120.24 
124.31 
128.52 
132.91 
137.52 
142.47 
147.82 
153 81 


64^ 
64^ 
64% 
65 
65M 
65 U 





111.15 
112.06 
113.05 
114.14 
115.30 
116 65 


124.49 
125.89 
127.40 
129.03 
130.75 
132 70 


138.84 
139 . 98 
141.22 
142.57 
144.02 
145 71 


155.50 
157.25 
159 . 14 
161.17 
163.32 
165 76 


65 YA 




118 19 


134 88 


147 63 


168 48 


66 




119.98 


137.34 


149 87 


171 56 




94.00 
95.00 
96.00 
97.00 
98.00 
99.00 
100.00 


121.02 
122.31 
123.60 
124.89 
126.17 
126.46 
128.75 


138.74 
140.41 
142.05 
143.61 
145.08 
145 . 32 
147 . 68 


151.17 
152.78 
154.39 
156.00 
157.61 
159.22 
160.82 


173.30 
175.39 
177.44 
179.38 
181.24 
182 . 96 
184.46 



SULPHURIC ACID 
APPROXIMATE BOILING POINTS 



67 



Degrees Baum6 


Boiling point 


F. 


C. 


50 


295 


146.1 


60 


386 


196.7 


61 


400 


204.4 


62 


415 


212.8 


63 


432 


222.2 


64 


451 


232.8 


65 


485 


251.6 


66 


538 


281.1 



ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPERATURE 



Strength 


Per degree Fahrenheit 


Per degree Centigrade 


10Be. 


. 029Be. 


. 00023 sp. gr. 


.052Be. 


.00041 sp. gr. 


20Be\ 


. 036Be. 


. 00034 sp. gr. 


.065Be. 


.00061 sp. gr. 


30Be\ 


.035Be. 


. 00039 sp. gr. 


. 063Be. 


. 00070 sp. gr. 


40Be\ 


.031Be. 


.00041sp.gr. 


.056B<. 


. 00074 sp. gr. 


50B6. 


.028Bc. 


.00045 sp. gr. 


.050Be. 


. 00081 sp. gr. 


60Be". 


. 026Be. 


. 00053 sp. gr. 


.047Be. 


. 00095 sp. gr. 


63Be\ 


.026Be\ 


. 00057 sp. gr. 


.047Be. 


. 00103 sp. gr. 


66Be\ 


.0235Bo. 


. 00054 sp. gr. 


.042Be. 


. 00097 sp. gr. 


94percent.H 2 SO 4 




. 00054 sp. gr. 




. 00097 sp. gr. 


96 per cent. H 2 SO 4 




. 00053 sp. gr. 




. 00095 sp. gr. 


97.5 per cent. H 2 SO 4 





.00052 sp. gr. 




. 00094 sp. gr. 


100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 




. 00052 sp. gr. 


. 00094 sp. gr. 



68 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



SULPHURIC AciD 1 
50-62B<. 



Degrees Baume' 


Specific gravity 

^2!p 
60 * 


Lb. av. 
per cu. ft. 


Per cent. H 2 SO4 


Per cent. SOj 


50.0 


.5263 


95.20 


62.18 


50.76 


.1 


.5279 


95.30 


62.33 


50.88 


.2 


.5295 


95.40 


62.48 


51 . 00 


.3 


.5312 


95.50 


62.62 


51.12 


.4 


.5328 


95.60 


62.77 


51.24 


.5 


.5344 


95.71 


62.90 


51.37 


.6 


.5360 


95.81 


63.07 


51.49 


.7 


.5376 


95.91 


63.22 


51.61 


.8 


.5393 


96.01 


63.36 


51.73 


.9 


.5409 


96.11 


63.51 


51.85 


51.0 


.5426 


96.21 


63.66 


51.97 


.1 


.5442 


96.31 


63.81 


52.09 


.2 


.5458 


96.42 


63.95 


52.21 


.3 


.5475 


96.52 


64.10 


52.33 


.4 


.5491 


96.62 


64.25 


52.45 


.5 


.5508 


96.73 


64.40 


52.57 


.6 


.5525 


96.83 


64.52 


52.69 


.7 


.5541 


96.93 


64.69 


52.81 


.8 


.5558 


97.03 


64.84 


52.93 


.9 


.5575 


97.14 


64.98 


53.05 


52.0 


.5591 


97.24 


65.13 


53.17 


.1 


.5608 


97.35 


65.28 


53.29 


.2 


.5625 


97.45 


65.43 


53.41 


.3 


.5642 


97.56 


65.58 


53.54 


.4 


.5659 


97.66 


65.73 


53.66 


.5 


.5676 


97.77 


65.88 


53.78 


.6 


.5693 


97.88 


66.03 


53.90 


.7 


.5710 


97.98 


66.18 


54.02 


.8 


.5727 


98.09 


66.31 


54.15 


.9 


.5744 


98.19 


66.45 


54.27 


53.0 


.5761 


98.30 


66.63 


54.39 


.1 


.5778 


98.41 


66.78 


54.51 


.2 


.5795 


98.52 


66.93 


54.64 


.3 


.5812 


98.62 


67.08 


54.76 


.4 


.5830 


98.73 


67.23 


54.88 


.5 


.5847 


98.84 


67.38 


55.01 


.6 


.5864 


98.95 


67.53 


55.13 


.7 


.5882 


99.06 


67.68 


55.25 


.8 


.5899 


99.16 


67.83 


55.37 


.9 


.5917 


99.27 


67.98 


55.50 



1 The values for the even degrees were taken from the preceding table and 
the values for the tenths of a degree calculated by interpolation. 



SULPHURIC ACID 



69 



SULPHURIC ACID 
50-62Be. (Continued) 



Degrees Baum6 


Specific gravity 
60 
60 


Lb. av. 
per cu. ft. 


Per cent. HiSCh 


Per cent. SOi 


54.0 


1.5934 


99.38 


68.13 


55.62 


.1 


.5952 


99.49 


68.28 


55.74 


.2 


.5969 


99.60 


68.43 


55.87 


.3 


.5987 


99.71 


68.59 


55.99 


.4 


.6004 


99.82 


68.74 


56.12 


.5 


.6022 


99.93 


68.89 


56.24 


.6 


.6040 


100.04 


69.04 


56.36 


.7 


.6058 


100.15 


69.19 


56.49 


.8 


.6075 


100.26 


69.35 


56.61 


9 


.6093 


100.37 


69.50 


56.74 


55.0 


.6111 


100.48 


69.65 


56.86 


.1 


.6129 


100.59 


69.80 


56.98 


.2 


.6147 


100.71 


69.95 


57.11 


.3 


.6165 


100.82 


70.11 


57.23 


.4 


.6183 


100.93 


70.26 


57.36 


.5 


.6201 


101.05 


70.41 


57.48 


.6 


.6219 


101.16 


70.56 


57.60 


.7 


.6237 


101.27 


70.71 


57.73 


.8 


.6256 


101.38 


70.87 


57.85 


.9 


.6274 


101.50 


71.02 


57.98 


56.0 


.6292 


101.61 


71.17 


58.10 


.1 


.6310 


101 . 73 


71.33 


58.23 


.2 


.6329 


101.84 


71.49 


58.36 


.3 


.6347 


101.96 


71.64 


58.49 


.4 


.6366 


102.08 


71.80 


'58.62 


.5 


.6384 


102.19 


71.96 


. 58.75 


.6 


.6403 


102.31 


72.12 


58.87 


.7 


.6421 


102.42 


72.28 


59.00 


.8 


.6440 


102.54 


72.43 


59.13 


.9 


.6459 


102.65 


72.59 


59.26 


57.0 


.6477 


102.77 


72.75 


59.39 


.1 


.6496 


102.89 


72.91 


59.52 


.2 


.6515 


103.01 


73.07 


59.65 


.3 


.6534 


103.12 


73.23 


59.78 


.4 


.6553 


103.24 


73.39 


59.91 


.5 


.6571 


103.36 


73.56 


60.05 


.6 


.6590 


103.48 


73.72 


60.18 


.7 


.6609 


103.60 


73.88 


60.31 


.8 


1.6628 


103 71 


74.04 


60.44 


.9 


1.6648 


103.83 


74.20 


60.57 



70 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

SULPHURIC ACID 
50-62B6. (Concluded) 



Degrees 
Baume 


Specific 
gravity 
60 
60 


Lb. av. 
per cu. ft. 


Per cent. 
H 2 SO4 


Per cent. 
SOs 


Per cent. 
60Baume. 


58.0 


1.6667 


103.95 


74.36 


60.70 


95.74 


.1 


1.6686 


104.07 


74.52 


60.83 


95.95 


.2 


1.6705 


104.19 


74.69 


60.97 


96.17 


.3 


1.6724 


104.31 


74.85 


61.10 


96.37 


.4 


1.6744 


104 . 43 


75.01 


61.23 


96.58 


.5 


1.6763 


104.56 


75.18 


61.37 


96.80 


.6 


1.6782 


104.68 


75.34 


61.50 


97.00 


.7 


1.6802 


104.80 


75.50 


61.63 


97.21 


.8 


.6821 


104.92 


75.66 


61.76 


97.41 


.9 


.6841 


105.04 


75.83 


61.90 


97.63 


59.0 


.6860 


105.16 


75.99 


62.03 


97.84 


.1 


.6880 


105.28 


76.16 


62.17 


98.06 


.2 


.6900 


105.41 


76.33 


62.30 


98.27 


.3 


.6919 


105.53 


76.49 


62.44 


98.49 


.4 


.6939 


105.66 


76.66 


62.58 


98.71 


.5 


.6959 


. 105.78 


76.83 


62.72 


98.93 


.6 


.6979 


105.90 


77.00 


62.85 


99.13 


.7 


.6999 


106.03 


77.17 


62.99 


99.35 


.8 


.7019 


106 . 15 


77.33 


63.13 


99.57 


.9 


.7039 


106.28 


77.50 


63.26 


99.78 


60.0 


.7059 


106.40 


77.67 


63.40 


100.00 


.1 


.7079 


106.53 


77.85 


63.54 


100.22 


.2 


1.7099 


106.65 


78.02 


63.69 


100.46 


.3 


1.7119 


106.78 


78.20 


63.83 


100.68 


.4 


1.7139 


106.90 


78.37 


63.98 


100.91 


.5 


1.7160 


107.03 


78.55 


64.12 


101.14 


.6 


1.7180 


107.16 


78.73 


64.26 


101.36 


.7 


1.7200 


107.28 


78.90 


64.41 


101.59 


.8 


1.7221 


107.41 


79.08 


64.55 


101.81 


.9 


1.7241 


107.53 


79.25 


64.70 


102.05 


61.0 


1 . 7262 


107.66 


79.43 


64.84 


102.27 


.1 


1 . 7282 


107 . 79 


79.62 


64.99 


102.51 


.2 


1.7303 


107.92 


79.80 


65.15 


102 . 76 


.3 


1.7324 


108.05 


79.99 


65.30 


103.00 


.4 


.7344 


108.18 


80.18 


65.45 


103.23 


.5 


.7365 


108.31 


80.37 


65.61 


103.49 


.6 


.7386 


108.44 


80.55 


65.76 


103 . 72 


.7 


.7407 


108.57 


80.74 


65.91 


103 . 96 


.8 


.7428 


108.70 


80.93 


66.06 


104 . 20 


.9 


.7449 


108 . 83 


81.11 


66.22 


104.45 


62.0 


.7470 


108.96 


81.30 


66.37 


104.67 



FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 71 

FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 
T. J. SULLIVAN 

Clear commercial acid was used in all analytical, specific grav- 
ity and coefficient of expansion (allowance for temperature) 
determinations. 

Specific-gravity determinations were made at 15.56C., com- 
pared with water at 15.56C., a Sartorius hydrostatic specific- 
gravity balance being used for all determinations. Three sepa- 
rate samples at each given point agreed on all determinations. 
The specific gravity 1.8391 of 100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 (H. B. Bishop) 
was taken as standard. 

This table was constructed as a means of obtaining quick 
analysis for plant control and is very satisfactory as fuming acid 
may be checked within 0.1 per cent. SO 3 of the titration analysis. 
Slight deviations may be due to impurities always present in 
commercial acid. 

FIXED POINTS 

Per cent. SOs Specific gravity 

81.63 1.8391 

81.9 1.848 

82.1 1.853 

82.7 1.865 
83 . 3 1 . 877 

83 . 8 1 . 887 

84 . 5 1 . 900 

85.1 1.911 

85.6 1.922 

86.2 1.934 
86.5 1.942 
87.5 1.958 
88.1 

ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPERATURE 
At 82 per cent. SO 3 = 0.00100 per degree C. 

83 per cent. SO 3 = 0.00105 per degree C. 

84 per cent. SO 3 = 0.00110 per degree C. 

85 per cent. SO 3 =0.00110 per degree C. 

86 per cent. SO 3 = 0.00115 per degree C. 

87 per cent. SO 3 = 0.00120 per degree C. 

88 per cent. SO 3 = 0.00125 per degree C. 



72 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 



Per cent, 
total 
S0 3 


Specific 
gravity 
15.56 


Weight 
per cu. ft., 
Ib. av. 


Lb. 80s 
in cu. ft. 


Per cent, 
total 
SOs 


Specific 
gravity 
15.56 


Weight 
per cu. ft., 
Ib. av. 


Lb. S03 
in cu. ft. 


15.56 U ' 


15. 56' 


81.63 


1 . 8391 


114.70 


93.63 


84.4 


1.899 


118.44 


99.96 


81.7 


1.842 


114.89 


93.87 


84.5 


1.900 


118.50 


100.13 


81.8 


1.845 


115.07 


94.13 


84.6 


1.902 


118.63 


100.36 


81.9 


1.848 


115.26 


94.40 


84.7 


1.904 


118.75 


100 . 58 


82.0 


1.851 


115.45 


94.67 


84.8 


1.906 


118.88 


100.81 


82.1 


1.853 


115.57 


94.88 


84.9 


1.908 


119.00 


101.03 


82.2 


1.855 


115.70 


95.11 


85.0 


1.910 


119.13 


101.26 


82.3 


1.857 


115.82 


95.32 


85.1 


1.912 


119.25 


101.48 


82.4 


1.859 


115.95 


95.54 


85.2 


1.914 


119.38 


101.71 


82.5 


1.861 


116.07 


95.76 


85.3 


1.916 


119.50 


101.93 


82.6 


1.863 


116.20 


95.98 


85.4 


1.918 


119.63 


102.16 


82.7 


1.865 


116.32 


96.20 


85.5 


1.920 


119.75 


102.39 


82.8 


1.867 


116.44 


96.41 


85.6 


1.922 


119.88 


102.62 


82.9 


1.869 


116.57 


96.63 


85.7 


.924 


120.00 


102.84 


83.0 


1.871 


'116.69 


96.85 


85.8 


.926 


120.12 


103.06 


83.1 


1.873 


116.82 


97.08 


85.9 


.928 


120.25 


103.29 


83.2 


1.875 


116.94 


97.29 


86.0 


.930 


120.37 


103.52 


83.3 


.877 


117.07 


97.52 


86.1 


.932 


120.50 


103 . 75 


83.4 


.879 


117.19 


97.74 


86.2 


.934 


120.62 


103.97 


83.5 


.881 


117.32 


97.96 


86.3 


.936 


120.75 


104.21 


83.6 


.883 


117.44 


98.18 


86.4 


1.939 


120.94 


104.49 


83.7 


.885 


117.57 


98.41 


86.5 


1.942 


121.12 


104.77 


83.8 


.887 


117.69 


98.63 


87.0 


1.950 


121.62 


105.81 


83.9 


.889 


117.82 


98.85 


87.5 


1.958 


122.12 


106.81 


84.0 


.891 


117.94 


99.07 




f Crystallized at 15 . 56 


84.1 


.893 


118.07 


99.30 


88. 1 1 


\ 1.966 at 18C. 


84.2 


.895 


118.19 


99.52 




1 1 . 944 at 35C. 


84.3 


.897 


118.32 


99.75 







1 Acid of this strength only remains in solution momentarily when cooled 
to 18C. Crystallization starts and the acid solidifies with rise of tempera- 
ture and remains constant at 26C. 



FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 



73 



FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 
Specific gravity at various temperatures degrees C. 



Per cent. 


15.56 


20 


25 


30 


35 


total SOs 


15.56 










82.0 


1.851 


1.846 


1.841 


1.836 


1.831 


82.2 


1.855 


1.850 


1.845 


1.840 


1.835 


82.4 


1.859 


1.854 


1.849 


1.844 


1.839 


82.6 


1.863 


1.858 


1.853 


1.848 


1.843 


82.8 


1.867 


1.862 


1.857 


1.852 


1.847 


83.0 


.871 


1.866 


1.860 


1.855 


1.850 


83.2 


.875 


1.870 


1.864 


1.859 


1.854 


83.4 


.879 


1.874 


1.868 


1.863 


1.858 


83.6 


.883 


1.878 


1.872 


1.867 


1.862 


83.8 


.887 


1.882 


1.876 


1.871 


1.866 


84.0 


.891 


1.886 


1.880 


1.874 


1.869 


84.2 


.895 


1.890 


1.884 


1.878 


.873 


84.4 


.899 


1.894 


1.888 


1.882 


.877 


84.6 


1.902 


1.897 


1.891 


1.885 


.880 


84.8 


1.906 


1.901 


1.895 


1.889 


.884 


85.0 


1.910 


1.905 


.899 


1.893 


.888 


85.2 


1.914 


1.909 


.903 


1.897 


.892 


85.4 


1.918 


1.913 


.907 


1.901 


.896 


85.6 


1.922 


1.917 


.911 


1.905 


.900 


85.8 


1.926 


1.921 


.915 


1.909 


.904 


86.0 


1.930 


1.924 


1.918 


1.912 


1.907 


86.2 


1.934 


1.928 


1.922 


.916 


1.911 


86.4 


1.939 


1.933 


1.927 


.921 


1.916 


86.5 


1.942 


1.936 


1.930 


.924 


1.919 


87.0 


1.950 


1.944 


1.938 


.932 


1.926 


87.5 


1.958 


1.952 


1.946 


.940 


1.934 


88.1 


Cryst. 


1.963 


1.956 


1.950 


1.944 



74 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 
Per cent, free SOs as units 



Per cent, 
free 
SCh 


Per cent, 
total 
S0 3 


Per cent, 
combined 
S0 3 


Per cent, 
combined 
H 2 


Per cent. 
H 2 S0 4 


Per cent. 
100 H 2 S04 





81.63 


81.63 


18.37 


100 


100.00 


1 


81.81 


80.81 


18.19 


99 


100.22 


2 


82.00 


80.00 


18.00 


98 


100.45 


3 


82.18 


79.18 


17.82 


97 


100.67 


4 


82.36 


78.36 


17.64 


96 


100.89 


5 


82.55 


77.55 


17.45 


95 


101.13 


6 


82.73 


76.73 


17.27 


94 


101.35 


7 


82.92 


75.92 


17.08 


93 


101.58 


8 


83.10 


75.10 


16.90 


92 


101.80 


9 


83.28 


74.28 


16.72 


91 


102.02 


10 


83.47 


73.43 


16.57 


90 


102 . 25 


11 


83.65 


72.65 


16.35 


89 


102 . 47 


12 


83.83 


71.83 


16.17 


88 


102.71 


13 


84.02 


71.02 


15.98 


87 


102 . 92 


14 


84.20 


70.20 


15.80 


86 


103.15 


15 


84.39 


69.39 


15.61 


85 


103.38 


16 


84.57 


68.57 


15.43 


84 


103.60 


17 


84.75 


67.75 


15.25 


83 


103.82 


18 


84.94 


66.94 


15.06 


82 


104.05 


19 


85.12 


66.12 


14.88 


81 


104.28 


20 


85.30 


65.30 


14.70 


80 


104.49 


21 


85.49 


64.49 


14.51 


79 


104.73 


22 


85.67 


63.67 


14.33 


78 


104.95 


23 


85.86 


62.86 


14.14 


77 


105.18 


24 


86.04 


62.04 


13.96 


76 


105.40 


25 


86.22 


61.22 


13.78 


75 


105.62 



FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 



75 



FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 
Per cent, free SOs as units (Concluded) 



Per cent, 
free 

S03 


Per cent, 
total 

SO 3 


Per cent, 
combined 
80s 


Per cent, 
combined 
H 2 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


26 


86.41 


60.41 


13.59 


74 


105.85 


27 


86.59 


59.59 13.41 


73 


106.08 


28 


86.77 


58.77 


13.28 


72 


106.29 


29 


86.96 


57 . 96 13 . 04 


71 


106.53 


30 


87.14 


57 .14 12 . 86 


70 


106.75 


31 


87.32 


56.32 12.68 


69 


106.97 


32 


87.51 


55.51 12.49 


68 


107.20 


33 


87.69 


54.69 12.31 


67 


107.42 


34 


87.88 


53.88 12.12 


66 


107.65 


35 


88.06 


53.06 11.94 


65 


107.87 


36 


88.24 52.24 11.76 


64 


108 . 10 


37 


88.43 51.43 11.57 


63 


108.33 


38 


88.61 50.61 11.39 


62 


108.55 


39 


88.79 


49.79 


11.21 


61 


108.77 


40 


88.98 


48.98 


11.02 


60 


109.00 


41 


89.16 48.16 


10.84 


59 


109.22 


42 


89.35 


47.35 


10.65 


58 


109.45 


43 


89.53 


46.53 


10.47 


57 


109.68 


44 


89.71 


45.71 


10.29 


56 


109.90 


45 


89.90 44.90 


10.10 


55 


110.13 


50 


90.82 40.82 


9.18 


50 


111.25 


60 


92.65 32.65 


7.35 


40 


113.50 


70 


94.49 24.49 


5.51 


30 


115.75 


80 


96.33 16.33 


3.67 


20 


118.00 


90 


98.16 8.16 


1.84 


10 


120 . 25 


100 


100.00 0.00 


0.00 





122.50 



76 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 
Per cent, total SO 3 as units 



Per cent, 
total 
S0 3 


Per cent, 
free 
S0 3 


Per cent, 
combined 
80s 


Per cent, 
combined 
H 2 


Per cent. 
H 2 S04 


Per cent. 
100 % H 2 S04 


81.63 


0.00 


81.63 


18.37 


100.00 


100.00 


81.7 


0.38 


81.32 


18.30 


99.62 


100.09 


81.8 


0.92 


80.88 


18.20 


99.08 


100.21 


81.9 


1.47 


80.43 


18.10 


98.53 


100.33 


82.0 


2.01 


79.99 


18.00 


97.99 


100.45 


82.1 


2.56 


79.54 


17.90 


97.44 


100.58 


82.2 


3.10 


79.10 


17.80 


96.90 


100.70 


82.3 


3.64 


78.66 


17.70 


96.36 


100.82 


82.4 


4.19 


. 78.21 


17.60 


95.81 


100.94 


82.5 


4.73 


77.77 


17.50 


95.27 


101.07 


82.6 


5.28 


77.32 


17.40 


94.72 


101 . 19 


82.7 


5.82 


76.88 


17.30 


94.18 


101.31 


82.8 


6.37 


76.43 


17.20 


93.63 


101.43 


82.9 


6.91 


75.99 


17.10 


93.09 


101.56 


83.0 


7.46 


75.54 


17.00 


92.54 


101 . 68 


83.1 


8.00 


75.10 


16.90 


92.00 


101.80 


83.2 


8.54 


74.66 


16.80 


91.46 


101.92 


83.3 


9.09 


74.21 


16.70 


90.91 


102.05 


83.4 


9.63 


73.77 


'16.60 


90.37 


102.17 


83.5 


10.18 


73.32 


16.50 


89.82 


102.29 


83.6 


10.72 


72.88 


16.40 


89.28 


102.41- 


83.7 


11.27 


72.43 


16.30 


88.73 


102.54 


83.8 


11.81 


71.99 


16.20 


88.19 


102 . 66 


83.9 


12.35 


71.55 


16.10' 


87.65 


102.78 


84.0 


12.90 


71.10 


16.00 


87.10 


102.90 


84.1 


13.44 


70.66 


15.90 


86.56 


103.03 


84.2 


13.99 


70.21 


15.80 


86.01 


103.15 


84.3 


14.53 


69.77 


15.70 


85.47 


103.27 


84.4 


15.08 


69.32 


15.60 


84.92 


103 . 39 


84.5 


15.62 


68.88 


15.50 


84.38 


103 . 52 


84.6 


16.17 


68.43 


15.40 


83.83 


103.64 



FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 



77 



FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 
Per cent, total SO 3 as units (Continued) 



Per cent, 
total 
SOs 


Per cent, 
free 
SOj 


Per cent, 
combined 
80s 


Per cent, 
combined 
HzO 


Per cent. 
H Z SO4 


Per cent. 
100% HjSO* 


84.7 


16.71 


67.99 


15.30 


83.29 


103.76 


84.8 


17.26 


67.54 


15.20 


82.74 


103.88 


84.9 


17.80 


67.10 


15.10 


82.20 


104.01 


85.0 


18.34 


66.66 


15.00 


81.66 


104.13 


85.1 


18.89 


66.21 


14.90 


81.11 


104.25 


85.2 


19.43 


65.77 


14.80 


80.57 


104.37 


85.3 


19.98 


65.32 


14.70 


80.02 


104.49 


85.4 


20.52 


64.88 


14.60 


79.48 


104.62 


85.5 


21.06 


64.44 


14.50 


78.94 


104.74 


85.6 


21.61 


63.99 


14.40 


78.39 


104.86 


85.7 


22.15 


63.54 


14.30 


77.84 


104.99 


85.8 


22.70 


63.10 


14.20 


77.30 


105.11 


85.9 


23.24 


62.66 


14.10 


76.76 


105.23 


86.0 


23.79 


62.21 


14.00 


76.21 


105.35 


86.1 


24.33 


61.77 


13.90 


75.67 


105.48 


86.2 


24.88 


61.32 13.80 


75.12 


105.60 


86.3 


25.42 60.88 


13.70 


74.58 


105.72 


86.4 


25.96 60.44 13.60 


74.04 


105.84 


86.5 


26.51 59.99 13.50 


73.49 


105.97 


86.6 


27.05 


59.54 


13.40 


72.94 


106.09 


86.7 


27.60 


59.10 


13.30 


72.40 


106.21 


86.8 


28.14 


58.66 


13.20 


71.86 


106.33 


86.9 


28.69 58.21 


13.10 


71.31 


106.46 


87.0 


29.23 


57.77 


13.00 


70.77 


106.58 


87.1 


29.77 


57.33 


12.90 


70.23 


106.70 


87.2 


30.32 


56.88 


12.80 


69.68 


106.82 


87.3 


30.86 


56.44 


12.70 


69.14 


106.95 


87.4 


31.41 


55.99 


12.60 


68.59 


107 . 07 


87.5 


31.95 


55.55 


12.50 


68.05 


107.19 


87 . 6 32 . 50 


55.10 


12.40 


67.50 107.31 


87.7 33.04 


54.66 


12.30 


66.96 


107.44 


87.8 33.59 


54.21 


12.20 


66.41 


107.56 



78 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 
Per cent, total SO 3 as units (Concluded] 



Per cent, 
total 
80s 


Per cent, 
free 
S0 3 


Per cent, 
combined 

SO 3 


Per cent, 
combined 
H 2 


Per cent. 
H 2 S04 


Per cent. 
100% H 2 SO4 


87.9 


34.13 


53.77 


12.10 


65.87 


107.68 


88.0 


34.67 


53.33 


12.00 


65.33 


107.80 


88.1 


35.22 


52.88 


11.90 


64.78 


107.93 


88.2 


35.76 


52.44 


11.80 


64.24 


108.05 


88.3 


36.31 


51.99 


11.70 


63.69 


108.17 


88.4 


36.85 


51.55 


11.60 


63.15 


108.29 


88.5 


37.40 


51.10 


11.50 


62.60 


108.41 


88.6 


37.94 


50.66 


11.40 


62.06 


108.54 


88.7 


38.49 


50.21 


11.30 


61.51 


108.66 


88.8 


39.03 


49.77 


11.20 


60.97 


108.78 


88.9 


39.57 


49.33 


11.10 


60.43 


108.90 


89.0 


40.12 


48.88 


11.00 


59.88 


109.03 


89.1 


40.66 


48.44 


10.90 


59.34 


109.15 


89.2 


41.21 


47.99 


10.80 


58.79 


109.27 


89.3 


41.75 


47.54 


10.70 


58.24 


109.40 


89.4 


42.30 


47.10 


10.60 


57.70 


109.52 


89.5 


42.84 


46.66 


10.50 


57.16 


109.64 


89.6 


43.38 


46.22 


10.40 


56.62 


109.76 


89.7 


43.93 


45.77 


10.30 


56.07 


109.89 


89.8 


44.47 


45.33 


10.20 


55.53 


110.01 


89.9 


45.02 


44.88 


10.10 


54.98 


110.13 


90.0 


45.56 


44.44 


10.00 


54.44 


110.25 


91.0 


51.01 


39.99 


9.00 


48.99 


111.48 


92.0 


56.45 


35.55 


8.00 


43.55 


112.70 


93.0 


61.89 


31.11 


7.00 


38.11 


113.93 


94.0 


67.34 


26.66 


6.00 


32.66 


115.15 


95.0 


72.78 


22.22 


5.00 


27.22 


116.37 


96.0 


78.23 


17.77 


4.00 


21.77 


117.60 


97.0 


83.67 


13.33 


3.00 


16.33 


118.82 


98.0 


89.11 


8.89 


2.00 


10.89 


120.05 


99.0 


94.56 


4.44 


1.00 


5.44 


121.28 


100.0 


100.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


122.50 



FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 



79 



FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 
Equivalent per cent. 100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 as units 



Per cent. 
100 % 
H 2 S04 


Per cent, 
total 
SOi 


Per cent, 
free 
S0 3 


Per cent, 
combined 
SOs 


Per cent, 
combined 
HzO 


Per cent. 
HzSO* 


100.0 


81.63 


0.00 


81.63 


18.37 


100.00 


100.1 


81.71 


0.44 


81.27 


18.29 


99.56 


100.2 


81.79 


0.89 


80.90 


18.21 


99.11 


100.3 


81.87 


1.33 


80.54 


18.13 


98.67 


100.4 


81.96 


1.78 


80.18 


18.04 


98.22 


100.5 


82.04 


2.22 


79.82 


17.96 


97.78 


100.6 


82.12 


2.67 


79.45 


17.88 


97.33 


100.7 


82.20 


3.11 


79.09 


17.80 


96.89 


100.8 


82.28 


3.56 


78.72 


17.72 


96.44 


100.9 


82.36 


4.00 


78.36 


17.64 


96.00 


101.0 


82.45 


4.44 


78.01 


17.55 


95.56 


101.1 


82.53 


4.89 


77.64 


17.47 


95.11 


101.2 


82.61 


5.33 


77.28 


17.39 


94.67 


101.3 


82.69 


5.78 


76.91 


17.31 


94.22 


101.4 


82.77 


6.22 


76.55 


17.23 


93.78 


101.5 


82.85 


6.67 


76.18 


17.15 


93.33 


101.6 


82.94 


7.11 


75.83 


17.06 


92.89 


101.7 


83.02 


7.55 


75.47 


16.98 


92.45 


101.8 


83.10 


8.00 


75.10 


16.90 


92.00 


101.9 


83.18 


8.44- 


74.74 


16.82 


91.56 


102.0 


83.26 


8.89 


74.37 


16.74 


91.11 


102.1 


83.34 


9.33 


74.01 


16.66 


90.67 


102.2 


83.43 


9.78 


73.65 


16.57 


90.22 


102.3 


83.51 


10.22 


73.29 


16.49 


89.78 


102.4 


83.59 


10.67 


72.92 


16.41 


89.33 


102.5 


83.67 


11.11 


72.56 


16.33 


88.89 


102.6 


83.75 


11.55 


72.20 


16.25 


88.45 


102.7 


83.83 


12.00 


71.83 


16.17 


88.00 


102.8 


83.92 


12.44 


71.48 


16.08 


87.56 


102.9 


84.00 


12.89 


71.11 


16.00 


87.11 


103.0 


84.08 


13.33 


70.75 


15.92 


86.67 


103.1 


84.16 


13.78 


70.38 


15.84 


86.22 


103.2 


84.24 


14.22 


70.02 


15.76 


85.78 


103.3 


84.32 


14.66 


69.66 


15.68 


85.34 


103.4 


84.41 


15.11 


69.30 


15.59 


84.89 


103.5 


84.49 


15.55 


68.94 


15.51 


84.45 


103.6 


84.57 


16.00 


68.57 


15.43 


84.00 


103.7 


84.65 


16.44 


68.21 


15.35 


83.56 


103.8 


84.73 


16.89 


67.84 


15.27 


83.11 


103.9 


84.81 


17.33 


67.48 


15.19 


82.67 


104.0 


84.90 


17.78 


67.12 


15.10 


82.22 


104.1 


84.98 


18.22 


66.76 


15.02 


81.78 


104.2 


85.06 


18.66 


66.40 


14.94 


81.34 


104.3 


85.14 


19.11 


66.03 


14.86 


80.89 



80 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 
Equivalent per cent. 100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 as units (Continued} 



Per cent. 
100% 
H 2 S04 


Per cent, 
total 
S0 3 


Per cent, 
free 
SOs 


Per cent, 
combined 
S0 3 


Per cent, 
combined 
H 2 


Per cent. 
H 2 SO4 


104.4 


85.22 


19.55 


65.67 


14.78 


80.45 


104.5 


85.30 


20.00 


65.30 


14.70 


80.00 


104.6 


85.38 


20.44 


64.94 


14.62 


79.56 


104.7 


85.47 


20.89 


64.58 


14.53 


79.11 


104.8 


85.55 


21.33 


64.22 


14.45 


78.67 


104.9 


85.63 


21.77 


63.86 


14.37 


78.23 


105.0 


85.71 


22.22 


63.49 


14.29 


77.78 


105.1 


85.79 


22.66 


63.13 


14.21 


77.34 


105.2 


85.87 


23.11 


62.76 


14.13 


76.89 


105.3 


85.96 


23.55 


62.41 


14.04 


76.45 


105.4 


86.04 


24.00 


62.04 


13.96 


76.00 


105.5 


86.12 


24.44 


61.68 


13.88 


75.56 


105.6 


86.20 


24.89 


61.31 


13.80 


75.11 


105.7 


86.28 


25.33 


60.95 


13.72 


74.67 


105.8 


86.36 


25.77 


60.59 


13.64 


74.23 


105.9 


86.45 


26.22 


60.23 


13.55 


73.78 


106.0 


86.53 


26.66 


59.87 


13.47 


73.34 


106.1 


86.61 


27.11 


59.50 


13.39 


72.89 


106.2 


86.69 


27.55 


59.14 


13.31 


72.45 


106.3 


86.77 


28.00 


58.77 


13.23 


72.00 


106.4 


86.85 


28.44 


58.41 


13.15 


71.56 


106.5 


86.94 


28.88 


58.06 


13.06 


71.12 


106.6 


87.02 


29.33 


57.69 


12.98 


70.67 


106.7 


87.10 


29.77 


57.33 


12.90 


70.23 


106.8 


87.18 


30.22 


56.96 


12.82 


69.78 


106.9 


87.26 


30.66 


56.60 


12.74 


69.34 


107.0 


87.34 


31.11 


56.23 


12.66 


68.89 


107.1 


87.43 


31.55 


55.88 


12.57 


68.45 


107.2 


87.51 


32.00 


55.51 


12.49 


68.00 


107.3 


87.59 


32.44 


55.15 


12.41 


67.56 


107.4 


87.67 


32.88 


54.79 


12.33 


67.12 


107.5 


87.75 


33.33 


54.42 


12.25 


66.67 


107.6 


87.83 


33.77 


54.06 


12.17 


66.23 


107.7 


87.92 


34.22 


53.70 


12.08 


65.78 


107.8 


88.00 


34.66 


53.34 


12.00 


65.34 


107.9 


88.08 


35.11 


52.97 


11.92 


64.89 


108.0 


88.16 


35.55 


52.61 


11.84 


64.45 


108.1 


88.24 


35.99 


52.25 


11.76 


64.01 


108.2 


88.32 


36.44 


51.88 


11.68 


63.56 


108.3 


88.41 


36.88 


51.53 


11.59 


63.12 


108.4 


88.49 


37.33 


51.16 


11.51 


62.67 


108.5 


88.57 


37.77 


50.80 


11.43 


62.23 


108.6 


88.65 


38.22 


50.43 


11.35 


61.78 


108.7 


88.73 


38.66 


50.07 


11.27 


61.34 



SPECIFIC-GRAVITY TEST 



81 



FUMING SULPHURIC ACID 
Equivalent per cent. 100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 as units (Concluded] 



Per cent. 
100% 
H 2 SO 4 


Per cent, 
total 
SOs 


Per cent, 
free 
SOs 


Per cent, 
combined 
SOs 


Per cent, 
combined 
H 2 O 


Per cent. 
H 2 SO* 


108.8 


88.82 


39.11 


49.71 


11.18 60.89 


108.9 


88.90 


39.55 


49.35 


11.10 60.45 


109.0 


88.98 


39.99 


48.99 


11.02 


60.01 


109.1 


89.06 


40.44 


48.62 


10.94 


59.56 


109.2 


89.14 


40.88 


48.26 


10.86 


59.12 


109.3 


89.22 


41.33 


47.89 


10.78 


58.67 


109.4 


89.30 


41.77 


47.53 


10.70 


58.23 


109.5 


89.38 


42.22 


47.16 


10.62 


57.78 


109.6 


89.47 


42.66 


46.81 


10.53 


57.34 


109.7 


89.55 


43.10 


46.45 


10.45 


56.90 


109.8 


89.63 ' 


43.55 


46.08 


10.37 


56.45 


109.9 


89.71 


43.99 


45.72 


10.29 


56.01 


110.0 


89.79 


44.44 


45.35 


10.21 


55.56 


111.0 


90.61 


48.88 


41.73 


9.39 


51.12 


112.0 


91.43 


53.33 


38.10 


8.57 


46.67 


113.0 


92.24 


57.77 


34.47 


7.76 


42.23 


114.0 


93.06 


62.21 


30.85 


6.94 


37.79 


115.0 


93.87 


66.66 


27.21 


6.13 


33.34 


116.0 


94.69 


71.10 


23.59 


5.31 


28.90 


117.0 


95.51 


75.54 


19.97 


4.49 


24.46 


118.0 


96.32 


79.99 


16.33 


3.68 


20.01 


119.0 


97.14 


84.43 


12.71 


2.86 


15.57 


120.0 


97.96 


88.88 


9.08 


2.04 11.12 


121.0 


98.77 


93.32 


5.45 


1.23 6.68 


122.0 


99.59 


97.76 


1.83 


0.39 2.22 


122.5 


100.00 


100.00 


0.00 


0.00 00 



SPECIFIC-GRAVITY TEST SULPHURIC ACID 

76.07-82.5 per cent. SO 3 

T. J. SULLIVAN 

On account of the irregular specific gravity of. sulphuric acid 
between 76.07 and 81.9 per cent. SOs specific gravity cannot be 
used for determining the strength. The principle of this table 
is to dilute such acids to a strength where specific gravity may 
be used. The table is extended to 82.5 per cent. SOs which is 
very convenient for plant use. Strengths, 81.9 per cent. SOs or 
over may again be determined by using direct specific-gravity 
readings. Over 82.5 per cent. SOs the dilution test cannot be 



82 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



used with accuracy as the sudden evolution of heat upon mixing 
with water causes the solution to splash about and some, there- 
fore, may be lost. 

The table is calculated for mixing equal volumes of water and 
acid at 15.56C. The following formula is used: 

Let A = density of water at 15.56C. (0.99904) 

1 5 56 

B = specific gravity of acid ' C. 

1 o.oo 

C = weight of SO 3 in B 

D = percentage SO 3 in mixture 

E = specific gravity of mixture corresponding to D 



Then 



100 C 



= D 



A + B 

The temperature allowance for each degree Centigrade is 
0.00081 specific gravity. If the specific gravity of the diluted 
solution is observed at any of the following given temperatures, 
above 15.56C. add, below deduct, the corresponding specific- 
gravity correction. Then consult the table under the caption 
''Specific gravity of the diluted solution" for the value of the 
corrected specific gravity. 



c. 


Specific gravity 
correction 


c. 


Specific gravity 
correction 


10 


.0046 


23 


.0060 


11 


.0037 


24 


.0069 


12 


.0029 


25 


.0077 


13 


.0021 


26 


.0085 


14 


.0013 


27 


.0093 


15 


.0005 


28 


.0101 


16 


.0004 


29 


.0109 


17 


.0012 


30 


.0117 


18 


.0020 


31 


.0125 


19 


.0028 


32 


.0133 


20 


.0036 


33 


.0141 


21 


.0044 


34 


.0150 


22 


.0052 


35 


.0158 



SPECIFIC-GRAVITY TEST 



83 



SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF THE DILUTED SOLUTION 



lo.oo 



C. 



Per cent. SOj 


Specific gravity 


Per cent. SOj 


Specific gravity 


76.07 


1.5061 


79.2 


1 . 5345 


76.1 


1.5064 


79.3 


1.5354 


76.2 


1.5072 


79.4 


1.5363 


76.3 


1.5081 


79.5 


1.5372 


76.4 


1.5089 


79.6 


1.5381 


76.5 


.5099 


79.7 


1.5389 


76.6 


.5108 


79.8 


1.5398 


76.7 


.5117 


79.9 


1.5408 


76.73 


.5120 


80.0 


1.5417 


76.8 


.5127 


80.1 


1.5424 


76.9 


.5137 


80.2 


1.5431 


77.0 


.5147 


80.3 


1.5439 


77.1 


.5156 


80.4 


1.5449 


77.2 


.5164 


80.5 


1.5458 


77.3 


.5173 


80.6 


1.5467 


77.4 


.5183 


80.7 


1.5475 


77.5 


.5192 


80.8 


1.5484 


77.55 


.5196 


80.82 


1.5485 


'77.6 


.5200 


80.9 


.5493 


77.7 


.5209 


81.0 


.5501 


77.8 


.5218 


81.1 


.5509 


77.9 


1.5227 


81.2 


.5518 


78.0 


1 . 5237 


81.3 


.5526 


78.1 


1 . 5247 


81.4 


.5534 


78.2 


1.5256 


81.5 


.5542 


78.3 


1.5264 


81.6 


1.5551 


78.37 


1.5271 


81.63 


1.5554 


78.4 


1.5273 


81.7 


1.5563 


78.5 


1.5283 


81.8 


1.5577 


78.6 


1.5291 


81.9 


1.5590 


78.7 


1.5301 


82.0 


.5604 


78.8 


1.5310 


82.1 


.5616 


78.9 


1.5319 


82.2 


.5628 


79.0 


1.5328 


82.3 


.5639 


79.1 


1.5336 


82.4 


.5652 


79.18 


1 . 5343 


82.5 


.5664 



84 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



Two hundred cubic centimeters of acid at 15.56C. and 200 c.< 
of water at 15.56C. are a convenient amount to mix. 

Obtain the temperature of both the acid and water. If the 
vary from 15.56C. use the amounts given below for the variou 
temperatures, calculated as follows: 

200 (specific gravity at 15.56C.) 
specific gravity at tC. 



Temp. 


Acid 


Water 


Temp. 


Acid 


Water 


10C 


199.4c.c. 


199.9 c.c. 


23C. 


200.8 c.c. 


200.3 C.C. 


11 


199.5 


199.9 


24 


200.9 


200.4 


12 


199.6 


199.9 


. 25 


201.0 


200.4 


13 


199.7 


199.9 


26 


201.1 


200.5 


14 


199.8 


200.0 


27 


201.3 


200.5 


15 


199.9 


200.0 


28 


201.4 


200.6 


15.56 


200.0 


200.0 


29 


201.5 


200.6 


16 


200.1 


200.0 


30 


201.6 


200.7 


17 


200.2 


200.1 


31 


201.7 


200.7 


18 


200.3 


200.1 


32 


201.8 


200.8 


19 


200.4 


200.1 


33 


201.9 


200.9 


20 


200.5 


200.2 


34 


202.0 


201.0 


21 


200.6 


200.2 


35 


202.1 


201.0 


22 


200.7 


200.3 









Example. A sample of acid is drawn from a storage tank an 
the temperature is found to be 30C. 

The 'temperature of the water to be used is 24. 

After consulting the preceding tables to ascertain the amount 
to use for those temperatures, 201.6 c.c. acid and 200.4 c.c. wate 
are mixed and the mixture then cooled. 

The specific gravity of the mixture is found to be 1.5388 an 
the temperature at the time of its determination 20. 

The corresponding specific gravity correction at 20 is 0.003( 
1.5388 + 0.0036 = 1.5424 

80.1 per cent. S0 3 corresponds to 1.5424 specific gravity. 



SPECIFIC-GRAVITY TEST 

SULPHURIC ACID 
Per cent. SO 3 corresponding to even percentages H 2 SO 4 



85 



Per cent. 
H 2 S04 


Per cent. 
80s 


Per cent. 
H Z S04 


Per rent. 
SOa 


Per cent. 
H.S04 


Per cent. 
SOj 


1 


.82 


35 


28.57 


68 


55.51 


2 


1.63 


36 


29.39 


69 


56.32 


3 


2.45 


37 


30.20 


70 


57.14 


4 


3.27 


38 


31.02 


71 


57.96 


5 


4.08 


39 


31.84 


72 


58.77 


6 


4.90 


40 


32.65 


73 


59.59 


7 


5.71 


41 


33.47 


74 


60.41 


8 


6.53 


42 


34.28 


75 


61.22 


9 


7.35 


43 


35.10 


76 


62.04 


10 


8.16 


44 


35.92 


77 


62.86 


11 


8.98 


45 


36.73 


78 


63.67 


12 


9.80 


46 


37.55 


79 


64.49 


13 


10.61 


47 


38.37 


80 


65.30 


14 


11.43 


48 


39.18 


81 


66.12 


15 


12.24 


49 


40.00 


82 


66.94 


16 


13.06 


50 


40.82 


83 


67.75 


17 


13.88 


51 


41.63 


84 


68.57 


18 


14.69 


52 


42.45 


85 


69.39 


19 


15.51 


53 


43.26 


86 70.20 


20 


16.33 


54 


44.08 


87 


71.02 


21 


17.14 


55 


44.90 


88 


71.83 


22 


17.96 


56 


45.71 


89 


72.65 


23 


18.77 


57 


46.54 


90 


73.47 


24 


19.59 


58 


47.36 


91 


74.28 


25 


20.41 


59 


48.17 


92 


75.10 


26 


21.22 


60 


48.99 


93 


75.92 


27 


22.04 


61 


49.79 


94 


76.73 


28 


22.86 


62 


50.61 


95 


77.55 


29 


23.67 


63 


51.43 


96 78.36 


30 


24.49 


64 


52.24 


97 79.18 


31 


25.31 


65 


53.06 


98 80.00 


32 


26.12 


66 


53.88 


99 80 . 81 


33 


26.94 


67 


54.69 


100 


81.63 


34 


27.75 











86 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



Per cent. 



SULPHURIC ACID 
corresponding to even percentages SO 3 



Per cent. 
80s 


Per cent. 
H 2 S04 


Per cent. 
80s 


Per cent. 
H 2 S0 4 


Per cent. 
80s 


Per cent. 
H 2 S04 


1 


1.23 


29 


35.53 


56 


67.60 


2 


2.45 


30 


36.75 


57 


68.83 


3 


3.68 


31 


37.98 


58 


70.05 


4 


4.90 


32 


39.20 


59 


71.28 


5 


6.13 


33 


40.43 


60 


72.50 


6 


7.35 


34 


41.65 


61 


73.73 


7 


8.58 


35 


42.88 


62 


74.95 


8 


9.80 


36 


44.10 


63 


76.18 


9 


11.03 


37 


45.33 


64 


77.40 


10 


12.25 


38 


46.55 


65 


78 63 


11 


13:48 


39 


47.78 


66 


79.85 


12 


14.70 


40 


49.00 


67 


81.08 


13 


15.93 


41 


50.23 


68 


82.30 


14 


17.15 


42 


51.45 


69 


83.53 


15 


18.38 


43 


52.68 


70 


84.75 


16 


19.60 


44 


53.90 


71 


85.98 


17 


20.83 


45 


55.13 


72 


87.20 


18 


22.05 


46 


56.35 


73 


88.43 


19 


23.28 


47 


57.58 


74 


89.65 


20 


24.50 


48 


58.80 


75 


90.88 


21 


25.73 


49 


59.03 


76 


93.10 


22 


26.95 


50 


60.25 


77 


93.33 


23 


28.18 


51 


61.48 


78 


94.55 


24 


29.40 


52 


62.70 


79 


95.78 


'25 


30.63 


53 


63.93 


80 


98.00 


26 


31.85 


54 


65.15 


81 98.23 


27 


33.08 


55 


66.38 


81.63 100.00 


28 


34.30 









ACID CALCULATIONS, USE OF SPECIFIC-GRAVITY TABLES, ESTI- 
MATING STOCKS, ETC. 

Correction for temperature must be made when determining 
the specific gravity. As an example illustrating the use to which 
the specific-gravity tables may be put: suppose it is required to 



ACID CALCULATIONS 87 

calculate the number of pounds of 50Be. sulphuric acid in a 
storage tank, the following data being given: 

Calculating the volume in the tank we find 2100 cu. ft. at a 
temperature of 38C. 

A sample taken from the tank and specific gravity determined 
in the laboratory shows 56.88Be. at 33C. Correction must be 
made for temperature in order to reduce it to 15.56C., the tem- 
perature for which the tables are constructed: 

33 - 15.56 = 17.44 difference 

From the table under the caption " Allowance for temper ature" 
it is seen that the allowance for 60Be*. is 0.047Be. for each de- 
gree Centigrade and that the correction for 50Be. is 0.050Be*. 
As the acid in question is about midway between these points, 
the allowance for each degree Centigrade is very nearly 0.048Be\ 

The correction for temperature is 

17.44 X 0.048 = 0.84Be. 

and as the standard temperature, 15.56C., is lower than 33, the 
temperature at which the Baume of the sample was taken, this 
amount must be added. 

The Baume of the acid at 15.56C. is, then, 

56.88 + 0.84 = 57.72Be. 

The Baume of the acid at 38C., the temperature of the acid 
in the tank, is calculated, 

38 - 15.56 = 22.44 difference 
22.44 X 0.048 = 1.08Be. 

and as the density of the acid is lowered as the temperature is 
raised 

57.72 - 1.08 = 56.64Be. at 38C. 



88 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

The easiest way to obtain the specific gravity corresponding 
to this degree Baume is by interpolating the given data: 

57Be\ = 1.6477 specific gravity 
56Be. = 1.6292 specific gravity 
0.0185 difference 

56.64 - 56.00 = 0.064Be. difference 
0.0185 X 0.064 = 0.0118 

1.6292 + 0.0118 = 1.6410 specific gravity correspond- 
ing to 56.64Be 

Then as 2100 cu. ft. are in the tank, the pounds are 

2100 X 62.37 X 1.641 - 214,933 Ib. 57.72Be\ 

If it is required to calculate this acid on a 50Be. basis, the 
pounds of 50Be. corresponding to 57.72Be. is easily found by 
interpolating from the table. 

58Be. = 119.59 per cent. 50Be\ 
57 c Be. = 117.00 per cent. 50Be\ 

2.59 per cent. 50Be. difference 
57.72 - 57.00 = 0.72Be. difference 
2.59 X 0.72 = 1.86 

117+ 1.86 = 118.86 per cent. 50Be. acid cor- 
responding to 57.72Be. acid 
214,933 X 1.1886 = 255,469 Ib. of 50Be. 

If it is required to calculate on a " pounds SO 3 " basis, the per- 
centage S0 3 in 57.72Be. acid is calculated from the table by 
interpolation. 

58Be. = 60.70 per cent. SO 3 

57B6. = 59.39 per cent. S0 3 

1.31 difference 
0.72 X 1.31 = 0.94 

59.39 + 0.94 = 60.33 per cent. S0 3 corresponding to 57.72Be. 
214,933 X 0.6033 = 129,669 Ib. S0 3 . 



DILUTION AND CONCENTRATION 89 

DILUTION AND CONCENTRATION OF SULPHURIC ACID TO FORM 
SOLUTIONS OF ANY DESIRED STRENGTH 

1. To Prepare a Definite Amount of Dilute Solution, by Mixing 
a Strong Solution with a Weak Solution. 

Let X = quantity of weak solution to be used in the mixture 
Y = quantity of strong solution to be used in the mixture 
A = strength of strong solution 
B = strength of desired solution 
C = strength of weak solution 
D = desired quantity 
D(A - B) 

A-C 
Y = D - X 

Example 1. How many pounds of 60.7 per cent. SOs and how 
many pounds of 80.0 per cent. SOa must be mixed to obtain 
70,000 lb. of 76.07 per cent. SO 3 ? 

X = 70,000(80.0 - 76.07)/(80.0 - 60.7) = 14,254 lb. 
Y = 70,000 - 14,254 = 55,746 lb. 

X + Y = 70,000 lb. 

If water is to be used for diluting, the formula may be some 
what simplified. 

X = D - Y 



2. To Prepare a Definite Amount of a Stronger Solution, by 
Mixing a Weaker Solution with a Stronger Solution. This 
formula is the reverse of formula (1). 

Let X = quantity of strong solution to be used in the mixture 
Y = quantity of weak solution to be used in the mixture 
A = strength of strong solution 
B = strength of desired solution 
C = strength of weak solution 
D = desired quantity 
v _ D (B - C) 

A-C 
Y = D - X 



90 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

Example 2. How many pounds of 60.7 per cent. SO 3 and how 
many pounds of 80.0 per cent. SO 3 must be mixed to obtain 
70,000 Ib. of 76.07 per cent. S0 3 ? 

X = 70,000(76.07 - 60.7)/(80.0 - 60.7) = 55,746 Ib. 

Y = 70,000 - 55,746 = 14,254 Ib. 

X + Y = 70,000 Ib. 



3. Dilution of a Definite Amount of a Stronger Solution, thus 
Producing a Greater Amount of a more Dilute Solution. 

Let X = quantity of diluting solution that must be added 
A = strength of solution to be diluted 
B = strength of desired solution 
C = strength of diluting solution 
D = quantity of solution to be diluted 
D + X = total quantity of corrected solution 
v _ D(A - B) 
X " B-C 



Example 3. How many pounds of a 60.7 per cent. SO 3 must 
be added to 70,000 Ib. of 80.0 per cent. SO 3 to make a whole ,of 
76.07 per cent. SO 3 ? 

X = 70,000(80.0-76.07)/(76.07-60.7) = 17,899 Ib. 60.7 per cent. 
D + X = 70,000 + 17,899 =87,899 Ib. 76.07 per cent. 



Calculating the same example by ratios, where X = the 
amount of diluting solution that must be added. 

Examples 1 and 2 show 14,254 Ib. of 60.7 per cent. SO 3 must 
be mixed with 55,746 Ib. of 80.0 per cent. SO 3 to make a whole 
of 76.07 per cent.' S0 3 . 



DILUTION AND CONCENTRATION 91 

Therefore we have the ratio 

14,254 : 55,746 :: X : 70,000 
X = 17,899 Ibs. 60.7 per cent, that must be added. 

4. Concentration of a Definite Amount of a Weaker Solution, 
thus Producing a Greater Amount of a More Concentrated 
Solution. 

Let X = quantity of strengthening solution that must be 

added 

A = strength of strengthening solution 
B strength of desired solution 
C = strength of solution to be corrected 
D = quantity of solution to be corrected 
D + X = total quantity of corrected solution 
D(B - C) 
A -B 

Example 4. How many pounds of 80.0 per cent. SO 3 must be 
added to 70,000 Ib. of 60.7 per cent. SO 3 to make a whole of 
76.07 per cent. SO 3 ? 

X = 70,000(76.07 - 60.7)/(80.0 - 76.07) = 273,766 
D + X = 70,000 + 273,766 = 343,766 

This may also be calculated by ratio, where X = the amount 
of strengthening solution that must be added. 

Examples 1 and 2 show 55,746 Ib. of 80.0 per cent. SO 3 must 
be mixed with 14,254 Ib. of 60.7 per cent. S0 3 to make a whole 
of 76.07 per cent. SO 3 . 

Therefore we have the ratio 

55,746 : 14,254 :: X : 70,000 
X = 273,766 Ib. 80.0 per cent, that must be added. 

5. Rectangle Method for Dilution and Concentration of Sul- 
phuric Acid to Form Solutions of any Desired Strength. The 
figures expressing the strengths of the two solutions are written 
in the two left-hand corners of a rectangle, and the figure express- 



92 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



ing the desired strength is placed on the intersection of the two 
diagonals of this rectangle. 

Now subtract the figures on the diagonals, the smaller from 
the larger, and write the result at the other end of the respective 
diagonal. These figures then indicate what quantities of the 
solution whose strength is given on the other end of the respective 
horizontal line, must be taken to obtain a solution of the desired 
strength. 

80T 



00 




If) 



Example 5. To make a 65 per cent. S0 3 acid by mixing an 80 
per cent. SO 3 and a 60 per cent. S0 3 acid we prepare the above 
figure which indicates that we have to take 5 parts by weight 
of the 80 per cent, acid and 15 parts by weight of 60 per cent, 
acid to obtain 20 parts (5 + 15) of the 65 per cent. acid. 

Or %o parts of an 80 per cent. S0 3 and I %Q parts of a 60 
per cent. SO 3 will, if mixed, give 1 part of a 65 per cent. SO 3 . 
Suppose it is desired to mix 500 Ib. Proceed as follows : 
500 X % = 125 Ib. 80 per cent. SO 3 
500 X 1 % Q =_375 Ib. 60 per cent. S0 3 
500" 



Suppose it is required to know how much 60 per cent. SO 3 must 
be added to 500 Ib. 80 per cent. S0 3 to make a whole of 65 per 
cent. SO 3 . 

Proceed as follows: 

cnn 

- 500 = 1500 Ib. 60 per cent. SO 3 



o 



Or 



X 500 = 1500 



Suppose it is required to know how much 80 per cent. S0 3 must 
be added to 500 Ib. 60 per cent. SOs to make a whole of 65 per 
cent. SO 3 . 



DILUTION AND CONCENTRATION 93 

Proceed as follows: 

500 
-is/- - 500 = 167 Ib. 80 per cent. SO 3 

Or { 5 X 500 = 167 

Notes. 1. When mixtures of non-fuming acid are calculated, 
either the SO 3 or H 2 SO 4 percentages may be used. When non- 
fuming and fuming acid are to be mixed or fuming acid of one 
strength to be mixed with fuming acid of another strength, SO 3 , 
percentages should be used unless the H 2 SO 4 percentage of the 
fuming acid be expressed in its equivalent to 100 per cent, H 2 SO 4 . 
"For instance an acid of 85.30 per cent. SO 3 has an actual H 2 SC>4 
content of 80 per cent, and its 100 per cent, equivalent would be 
104.49 per cent. 

2. These formulas are accurate when the weights of solutions 
are considered. If the specific gravities are closely related, the 
formulas may be used for volumes. When this assumption is 
not permissible, the weights may be calculated, and knowing the 
weights of the components, the volumes requisite calculated from 

the formula Mass 

\ olume = 



Weight 

On mixing such solutions, to use this formula, it must be as- 
sumed that the volumes are additive, i.e., no change of volume 
takes place upon mixing. 

To illustrate the use of this formula: Example 1 shows 14,254 
Ib. of 60.7 per cent. SO 3 must be mixed with 55,746 Ib. of 80.0 
per cent. SO 3 to obtain 70,000 Ib. of 76.07 per cent. SO 3 . 

76.07 per cent. SO 3 weighs 114.47 Ib. per cubic foot at 15.56C. 



7O fifin 

- = 611.5 cu. ft. = volume of 70,000 Ib. 76.07 per cent, 
114.47 

60.7 per cent, SO 3 weighs 103.95 Ib. per cubic foot at 15.56C. 

14 9^4. 

T^~~ = 137.1 cu. ft. = volume of 14,254 Ib., 60.7 per cent. 

lUo. t/O 

611.5 - 137.1 = 474.4 

Therefore, 474.4 cu. ft. of 80.0 per cent, mixed with 137.1 cu. ft. of 
60.7 per cent, will make 61 1. 5 cu. ft. or 70,000 Ib. of 76.07 per cent. 



94 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



In using this method it must also be assumed that both acids 
used in mixing are 15.56C., unless the coefficients of expansion 
be calculated for differences in temperature. This, however, is 
unnecessary as very accurate results may be obtained without 
this calculation. 

Table for Mixing 59Ee. 1 Sulphuric Acid 
Giving percentage (by volume) of various strengths weak acid to use with 

various strengths strong acid 
59Be". = 62.03 per cent. SO 3 = 75.99 per cent. H 2 SO 4 



Degrees Baum6 
Weak acid 


Per cent. SOs in strong acid 


79.5 


80.0 


80.5 


81.0 


54.0 


77.4 


78.1 


78.5 


79.2 


54.2 


78.1 


78.7 


79.0 


79.7 


54.4 


78.7 


79.4 


79.7 


80.3 


54.6 


79.4 


80.0 


80.3 


81.0 


54.8 


80.0 


80.7 


81.0 


81.6 


55.0 


80.8 


81.3 


81.6 


82.3 


55.2 


81.5 


82.0 


82.3 . 


82.9 


55.4 


82.1 


82.6 


82.9 


83.6 


55.6 


82.9 


83.3 


83.7 


84.2 


55.8 


83.7 


84.1 


84.6 


85.0 


56.0 


84.6 


84.9 


85.4 


85.9 


56.2 
56.4 


85.4 
86.2 


85.7 
86*5 


86.2 
87.0 


86.7 
87.5 


56.6 


87.0 


87.3 


87.8 


88.3 


56,8 


87.8 


88.3 


88.6 


89.1 


57^0 


88.8 


89.3 


89.6 


89.9 


57.2 


89.8 


90.2 


90.6 


90.7 


57.4 


90.7 


91.2 


91.5 


91.7 


57.6 


91.7 


92.2 


92.5 


92.7 


57.8 


92.9 


93.2 


93.5 


93.7 


58.0 


94.0 


94.3 


94.5 


94.6 


58.2 


95.1 


95.5 


95.5 


95.6 


58.4 


96.3 


96.6 


96.6 


96.6 


58.6 


97.4 


97.7 


97.7 


97.7 


58.8 


98.7 


98.9 


98.9 


98.9 


59.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



1 It is advisable to ship or store 59 instead of 60 during the winter 
months on account of its much lower freezing point. 



DILUTION AND CONCENTRATION 



95 



Table for Mixing 60Be. Sulphuric Acid 

Giving percentage (by volume) of various strengths weak acid to use with 

various strengths strong acid 
60Be\ = 63.40 per cent. SO 3 = 77.67 per cent. H 2 SO 4 



Degrees Baum6 
Weak acid 


Per cent, in strong acid 


79.5 


80.0 


80.5 


81.0 


55.0 


75.3 


76.1 


76.6 


77.2 


55.2 


75.9 


76.8 


77.2 


77.9 


55.4 


76.6 


77.4 


77.9 


78.5 


55.6 


77.2 


78.1 


78.5 


79.2 


55.8 


77.9 


78.7 79.2 


79.8 


56.0 


78.7 


79.4 


79.8 


80.5 


56.2 


79.5 


80.2 


80.7 


81.1 


56.4 


80.3 


81.0 


81.5 


81.8 


56.6 


81.1 


81.8 


82.3 


82.6 


56.8 


82.0 


82.6 


83.1 


83.4 


57.0 


82.8 


83.4 


83.9 


84.2 


57.2 


83.7 


84.2 


84.7 


85.0 


57.4 


84.7 


85.0 


85.5 


85.9 


57.6 


85.7 


86.0 


86.3 


86.7 


57.8 


86.7 


87.0 


87.3 


87.6 


58.0 


87.6 


88.0 


88.3 


88.6 


58.2 


88.6 


88.9 


89.3 


89.6 


58.4 


89.8 


90.1 


90.2 


90.6 


58.6 


90.9 


91.2 


91.4 


91.5 


58.8 


92.0 


92.4 


92.6 


92.7 


59.0 


93.2 


93.5 


93.7 


93.8 


59.2 


94.5 


94.8 


94.8 


95.0 


59.4 


95.8 


96.1 


96.1 


96.1 


59.6 


97.1 


97.4 


97.4 


97.4 


59.8 


98.5 


98.7 


98.7 


98.7 


60.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



96 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



Table for Mixing 66Be\ Sulphuric Acid 

Giving percentage (by volume) of various strengths strong acid to use with 

various strengths weak acid 
66Be. = 76.07 per cent. SO 3 = 93.19 per cent. H 2 SO 4 



Degrees 
Baum6 
Weak 
acid 


Per cent. SOs in strong acid 


79.0 


79.2 


79.4 


79.6 


79.8 


80.0 


80.2 


80.4 


80.6 


80.8 


81.0 


81.2 


81.4 


50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 


87.5 
87.2 
86.7 
86.2 
85.5 
84.9 
84.2 
83.4 
82.4 
81.3 
79.8 
78.1 


86.7 
86.3 
85.9 
85.4 
84.7 
83.9 
83.3 
82.4 
81.5 
80.2 
78.7 
76.9 


85.9 
85.5 
85.0 
84.6 
83.9 
83.1 
82.4 
81.5 


85.0 

84.7 
84.2 
83.7 
83.1 
82.3 
81.5 
80 5 


84.4 
83.9 
83.4 
82.9 
82.3 
81.5 
80.7 
79 7 


83.7 
83.3 
82.8 
82.1 
81.5 
80.7 
79.8 
78 9 


82.9 
82.4 
82.0 
81.3 
80.7 
79. -8 
79.0 
78 1 


82.3 
81.8 
81.1 
80.5 
79.8 
79.0 
78.2 
77 ?, 


81.6 
81.1 
80.5 
79.7 
79.0 
78.2 
77.4 
76 4 


81.0 
80.5 
79.8 
79.0 
78.2 
77.4 
76.6 
75 6 


80.3 
79.8 
79.2 
78.4 
77.6 
76.6 
75.8 
74 8 


79.7 
79.0 
78.4 
77.7 
76.9 
75.9 
75.0 
74 


79.0 

78.4 
77.7 
77.1 
76.3 
75.3 
74.3 
73 


80.579.5j78.5 
79.278.277.2 
77.676.475.5 
75.874.673.5 


77.6 
76.3 
74.5 
72.4 


76.6 
75.3 
73.5 

71.4 


75.8 
74.3 
72.5 
70.4 


75.0 
73.3 
71.5 
69.4 


74.2 
72.5 
70.7 
68.5 


73.3 
71.7 
69.9 
67.6 


72.5 
71.1 
69.1 
66.8 


71.7 
70.2 
68.1 
65.9 



FORMATION OF MIXTURES OF SULPHURIC AND NITRIC ACIDS OF 
DEFINITE COMPOSITION 



( So-called ''Mixed Acids") 

" Mixed acid" is a commercial term, generally meaning a mix- 
ture of nitric and sulphuric acids. Such mixtures are extensively 
used in manufacturing processes. On account of the relative 
high cost of concentrated nitric acid, compared with that of the 
dilute acid, the concentrated acid is diluted with a weak solution 
of the acid, instead of with water, using a minimum quantity of 
concentrated and a maximum quantity of dilute nitric acid. 
Water, as such, is seldom used. 

Example 1. Calculate the quantities of acids necessary to 



FORMATIONS OP MIXTURES 97 

make a mixture ("mix") of 60,000 Ib. of a mixed acid to consist 
of 

Per cent. 

H 2 SO 4 (add as 98 per cent. H 2 SO 4 ) 46 . 00 

HN0 3 (add as 61.4 per cent, and as 95.5 

. percent.) 49.00 

H 2 5.00 

100.00 

60,000 X 0.46 = 27,600 Ib. H 2 S0 4 called for 
60,000 X 0.49 = 29,400 Ib. HNO 3 called for 
60,000 X 0.05 = 3,000 Ib. H 2 O called for 

60,000 

27,600/0.98 = 28,163lb. 98 per cent. H 2 SO 4 totake 
60,000 - 28,163 = 31,837 Ib. still to add 
29,400 Ib. of 100 per cent, nitric acid are called for; the weight 
of material still to be added, after the 98 per cent, sulphuric acid 
is added, is 31,837. This makes 

29,400/31,837 X 100 = 92.35 per cent. HNO 3 to be added 
To make 31,837 Ib. of an acid of this concentration from 95.5 
per cent, and 61.4 per cent, nitric acid, using formula (2). 

31,837 (92.35 - 61.4)/(95.50 - 61.4) = 28,896 Ib. 94.5 per 
cent. HNO 3 to take. 

31,837 - 28,896 = 2,941 Ib. 61.4 per cent. HN0 3 to take 
So, to make the mix, use 

H 2 SO 4 = 28,163 Ib. 98.0 per cent. 
HNO 3 = 28,896 Ib. 95.5 per cent. 
HN0 3 = 2,941 Ib. 61.4 per cent. 
60,000 Ib. 

STRENGTHENING A MIXED ACID BY MEANS OF A FUMING 
SULPHURIC ACID 

Example 2. Let it be required to make 61,320 Ib. of a mixed 
acid of the composition: 

7 



98 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

Per cent. 

HNO 3 (add as 94.5 per cent. HNO 3 ) 56 . 00 

H 2 SO 4 (add as 98.56 per cent. H 2 SO 4 and as 20 per 
cent, fuming sulphuric acid, a minimum of which 

is to be taken) 41 . 00 

H 2 3.00 

100.00 

The tank in which the acid is to be mixed already contains 
2,604 Ib. of the remains of a previous mix of the composition: 

Per cent. 

HNO 3 52.00 

H 2 SO 4 42.50 

H 2 5.50 

Solution. 

61,320 X 0.56 = 34,339 Ib. HN0 3 called for 

61,320 X 0.41 = 25,141 Ib. H 2 SO 4 called for 

61,320 X 0.03 = 1,840 Ib. H 2 called for 

2,604 X 0.52 = 1,354 Ib. HN0 3 in tank 

2,604 X 0.425 = 1,107 Ib. H 2 SO 4 in tank 

2,604 X 0.055 = 143 Ib. H 2 in tank 

Thus we have: 

Required: 25,141 Ib. H 2 SO 4 34,339 Ib. HNO 3 1,840 Ib. H 2 O 
In tank: 1,107 1,354 143 

To be added: 24,034 Ib. H 2 S0 4 32,985 Ib. HN0 3 1,697 Ib. H 2 O 

If the attempt were made to calculate the weights of acid to 
add by the previous method, it would be seen that the method 
would not work as too much water would be added with the 
sulphuric acid and, hence, a nitric acid stronger than 94.5 per 
cent. HN0 3 would have to be used to complete the mix; hence, 
fuming sulphuric acid will have to be employed. 
Thus: 

24,034/0.9866 = 24,385 Ib. 98.56 per cent. H 2 SO 4 
24,385 - 24,034 = 351 Ib. H 2 added with the 98.56 per cent. 

H 2 S0 4 
1,697 - 351 = 1,346 Ib. H 2 remaining 



FORMATION OP MIXTURES 99 

Adding this water with the nitric acid would call for a stronger 
nitric acid than 94.5 per cent. HNO 3 , as is seen from the following: 

32,985 + 1,346 = 34,331 Ib. HNO 3 and H 2 O still to add 
32,985/34,331 X 100 = 96.08 per cent. HN0 3 required to com- 
plete the mix. 

Going back to the original figures after this preliminary calcu- 
lation which has shown the necessity of using fuming sulphuric 
acid; first calculating the weight of nitric acid to be added: 

32,985/0.945 = 34,905 Ib. 94.5 per cent. HNO 3 to add 
34,905 - 32,985 = 1,920 Ib. H 2 added with the 94.5 per cent. 

HN0 3 

But the mix only calls for 1,697 Ib. of water, hence 
1,920 - 1,697 = 223 Ib. H 2 O will be added in excess. This 
water must be taken up with fuming sulphuric acid. Now to 
the acid already in the tank the following quantities of acid must 
be added: 

H 2 SO 4 = 24,034 Ib. 100 per cent. H 2 S0 4 
HNO 3 = 32,985 Ib. 100 per cent. HNO 3 
H 2 = 1,697 Ib. 100 per cent. H 2 

58,716 

In adding 34,905 Ib. of 94.5 per cent. HN0 3 there remain only 
58,716 - 34,905 = 23,811 Ib. of sulphuric acid to add. To 
adjust proportions and not add more acid than called for is done 
by adding fuming sulphuric acid which takes up the water from 
the nitric acid. The percentage strength of the sulphuric acid 
requisite is 

24,034/23,811 X 100 = 100.94 per cent. H 2 S(X 
The percentage of SO 3 in 100.94 per cent. H 2 SO 4 is 0.8163 X 
100.94 = 82.40 per cent. 

In 98.56 per cent. H 2 S0 4 the percentage of S0 3 is 0.8163 X 
98.56 = 80.45 per cent. 

In 20 per cent, fuming sulphuric acid the percentage of SO? is 
0.8163 (100 - 20) + 20 = 85.30 per cent. 



100 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

Then, to make 23,811 Ib. of 100.94 per cent. H 2 S0 4 from 20.00 
per cent, fuming and 98.56 per cent. H 2 S04 require: 

23,811 (82.40 - 80.45)/(85.30 - 80.45) = 9,573 Ib. 20 per 
cent, fuming sulphuric acid, 

23,811 - 9,573 = 14,238 Ib. 98.56 per cent. H 2 S0 4 
So, to make the mix, add to the acid already in the tank: 

HNO 3 = 34,905 Ib. 94.50 per cent. 
H 2 SO 4 = 14,238 Ib. 98.56 per cent. 
H 2 S0 4 = 9,573 Ib. 20.00 per cent. 

The amount of 20 per cent, fuming to use may be calculated by 
another method. Where it is found that 223 Ib. of H 2 O will be 
added in excess, calculate how many pounds of 20 per cent, will 
be necessary to take up this water. 

4.4438 X 223 = 991 Ib. free S0 3 and this is contained in 4,955 
Ib. 20 per cent. 

20 per cent, fuming sulphuric acid is equivalent to 104.49 per 
cent. 100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 . 

The addition of these 4,955 Ib. 20 per cent, corresponds to an 
addition of 

4,955 X 104.49/100 = 5,177 Ib. of 100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 

24,034 - 5,177 = 18,857 Ib. of 100 per cent. H 2 S0 4 that are 
yet to be added. 

Now calculate how much 20 per cent, fuming and 98.56 per 
cent. H 2 SO 4 will be required to prepare this 18,857 Ib. 100 per 
cent. H 2 S0 4 . 

Example 3. It is frequently desired to prepare a "mix" from 
a mixed acid already on hand by adding to it the requisite 
amounts of sulphuric and nitric acid to bring it up to the desired 
concentration. Thus it may be required to fortify a "spent" 
mixed acid, or it may be that after adding the calculated amounts 
of ingredients to make a batch of mixed acid that the mixed acid 
resulting does not analyze up to specifications. It must then 
be adjusted by a further addition of the deficient constituent. 



FORMATION OF MIXTURES: 101 

Thus, suppose a mixed acid of the following ' 
desired : 



H 2 SO 4 


Per cent. 
60 00 


HNO 3 


22 50 


H 2 O 


17 50 







100.00 
and there is on hand a supply of mixed acid of the composition: 

Per cent. 
H 2 SO 4 ........................................ 60.12 

HNO 3 .............................. .......... 20.23 

H 2 .......................................... 19.65 

100.00 

A 97.5 per cent. H 2 SO 4 and a 90.5 per cent. HNO 3 are on hand. 
How many pounds of each of these two acids and of the mixed 
acid on hand must be taken to make each 1000 Ib. of the required 
mixture without adding any water? 
Let x = weight of mixed acid to take 

y = weight of 97.5 per cent. H 2 SO 4 to take 
z = weight of 90.5 per cent. HNO 3 to take 
Then z(0.6012) = weight H 2 SO 4 (100 per cent.) in the mixed 

acid on hand. 
y(0.975) = weight H 2 SO 4 (100 per cent.) actually added, 

when adding the 97.5 per cent. acid. 
z(0.2023) = weight HNO 3 (100 per cent.) in the mixed 

acid on hand. 
0(0.905) = weight HNO 3 (100 per cent.) actually added, 

when adding the 90.5 per cent. acid. 
2/(0.025) = weight H 2 O contained in the H 2 S0 4 (97.5 per 

cent.). 
2(0.095) = weight H 2 O contained in the HNO 3 (90.5 per 

cent.). 

x(0.1965) = weight H 2 O in the mixed acid on hand. 
1000 Ib. of the desired mixture must evidently contain: 
600 Ib. H 2 SO 4 
225 Ib. HN0 3 
175 Ib. H 2 



102 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

Therefore we" have the following equations: 

(1) 3(0.6012) + ?/(0.975) = 600 Ib. H 2 SO 4 

(2) z(0.2023) + z(0.905) = 225 Ib. HNO 3 

(3) 3(0.1965) + ?/(0.025) + z(0.905) = 175 Ib. H 2 O 
y = (600 - zO.6012) /0.975 = 615.38 - z(0.61662) 
z = (225 - zO.2023) /0.905 = 248.62 - z(0.22354) 

Substituting these two equations in equation (3), we obtain: 

0.1965z + 15.38 - 0.01542z + 23.62 - 0.02124z = 175 
0.15984z = 136. 

x = 850.85 Ib. of the mixed acid on hand to take. 

Substituting in equation (1) : 

y = (600 - 511.53)/0.975 = 90.74 Ib. of 97.5 per cent. H 2 SO 4 
to take. 

Substituting in equation (2) : 

z = (225 -- 172.13)/0.905 = 58.41 Ib. of 90.5 per cent. HNO 3 
to take. 

Therefore for each 1000 Ib. of the desired mixture use 

Mixed acid 850.85 

97.5 per cent. H 2 SO 4 90.74 

90. 50 per cent. HN0 3 58.41 



1000.00 

The ratios of these values may be used either to prepare a 
definite amount of mixed acid or to correct a definite amount of 
" spent" acid. Knowing the ratios per 1,000 Ib. the quantities 
requisite for any weight of acid are readily calculated. 

"Melting point" is understood to be the temperature to 
which the mercury of the thermometer, dipping into the solidify- 
ing liquid, rises and at which it remains constant. 

It should be noticed that large quantities of fuming acid, such 
as exists in transportation vessels, frequently do not behave in 
accord with the given data, because during the carriage and 



MELTING POINTS OF SULPHURIC ACID 



103 



storage a separation often takes place in the acid, crystals of a 
different concentration being formed, which, of course, possess a 
correspondingly different melting point. 

The figures given in parentheses signify the melting points of 
freshly made fuming acid, which has not polymerized. 

BOILING POINTS, SULPHURIC ACID 
(Lunge, Ber. 11, 370) 



Per cent. 
H 2 S0 4 


Boiling point, 
C. 


Per cent. 
H 2 SO4 


Boiling point, 
C. 


Per cent. 
HiSO* 


Boiling point, 
C. 


5 


101 


56 


133 


82 


218.5 


10 


102 


60 


141.5 


84 


227 


15 


103.5 


62.5 


147 


86 


238.5 


20 


105 


65 


153.5 


88 


251.5 


25 


106.5 


67.5 


161 


90 


262.5 


30 


108 


70 


170 


SI 


268 


35 


110 


72 


174.5 


92 


274.5 


40 


114 


74 


180.5 


93 


281.5 


45 


118.5 


76 


189 


94 


288.5 


50 


124 


78 


199 


95 


295 


53 


128.5 


80 


207 







100 per cent, begins to boil at 290 and rises to 338 (Marignac). 
MELTING POINTS OF SULPHURIC ACID 

Knietsch (Ber., 1901, p. 4100) gives the following melting 
points of sulphuric acid, non-fuming and fuming from 1 to 100 
per cent. 80s. 

NOTE. Melting and freezing points of sulphuric acid are not the same. 
The mono-hydrate (100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 ) for instance has a freezing point 
of about 0C. and a melting point of 10C. From my own determinations, 
88.1 per cent, total SO 3 for instance, upon cooling gradually, at 18C., begins 
to freeze, solidifies with a rise of temperature and remains constant at 26C. 
18 would really be the freezing point and 26 the melting point. Knietsch 
gives his melting points as the temperature where the solidifying liquid 
remains constant. 

An acid cooled below its melting point will not solidify until it reaches its 
freezing point unless it be agitated or a fragment of a crystal introduced. 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 
SULPHURIC ACID, MELTING POINTS 



Per cent, 
total 
S0 3 


Melting point 


Per cent 
total 
80s 


Melting point 


Per 
cent, 
free 
SOs 


Melting point 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


1 


-0.6 


30.9 


69 


7.0 


44.6 





10.0 


50.0 


2 


-1.0 


30.2 


70 


4.0 


39.2 


5 


3.5 


38.3 


3 


-1.7 


28.9 


71 


-1.0 


30.2 


10 


-4.8 


23.4 


4 


-2.0 


28.4 


72 


-7.2 


19.0 


15 


-11.2 


11.8 


5 


-2.7 


27.1 


73 


-16.2 


2.8 


20 


-11.0 


12.2 


6 


-3.6 


25.5 


74 


-25.0 


-13.0 


25 


-0.6 


30.9 


7 


-4.4 


24.1 


75 


-34.0 


-29.2 


30 


+ 15.2 


59.4 


8 


-5.3 


22.5 


76 


-32.0 


-25.6 


35 


26.0 


78. 8 % 


9 


-6.0 


21.2 


77 


-28.2 


-18.8 


40 


33.8 


92.8 


10 


-6.7 


19.9 


78 


-16.5 


+2.3 


45 


34.8 


94.6 


11 


-7.2 


19.0 


79 


-5.2 


22.6 


50 


28.5 


83.3 


12 


-7.9 


17.8 


80 


+3.0 


37.4 


55 


18.4 


65.1 


13 


-8.2 


17.2 


81 


7.0 


44.6 


60 


0.7 


33.3 


14 


-9.0 


15.8 


81.63 


10.0 


50.0 


65 


0.8 


33.4 


15 


-9.3 


15.3 


82" 


8.2 


46.8 


70 


9.0 


48.2 


16 


-9.8 


14.4 


83 


-0.8 


30.6 


75 


17.2 


63.0 


17 


-11.4 


11.5 


84 


-9.2 


15.4 


80 


22.0 


71.6 


18 


-13.2 


8.2 


85 


-11.0 


12.2 


85 


33.0 


91.4 


19 


-15.2 


4.6 


86 


-2.2 


28.0 


90 


34.0 


93.2 


20 


-17.1 


1.2 


87 


+ 13.5 


56.3 


95 


36.0 


96.8 


21 


-22.5 


-8.5 


88 


26.0 


78.8 


100 


40.0 


104.0 


22 


-31.0 


-23.8 


89 


34.2 


93.6 








23 


-40.1 


-40.2 


90 


34.2 


93.6 










\ Below 


91 


25.8 


78.4 


85 


(27.0) 


(80.6) 


. . 


/ -40.0 


92 


14.2 


57.6 


90 


(25.0) 


(77.0) 


61 


-40.0 


-40.0 


93 


0.8 


33.4 


95 


(26.0) 


(78.8) 


62 


-20.0 


-4.0 


94 


4.5 


40.1 


100 


(15.0) 


(59.0) 


63 


-11.5 


+ 11.3 


95 


14.8 


58.6 








64 


-4.8 


23.4 


96 


20.3 


68.6 








65 


-4.2 


24.4 


97 


29.2 


84.6 








66 


+ 1-2 


34.2 


98 


33.8 


92.8 








67 


8.0 


46.4 


99 


36.0 


96.8 








68 


8.0 


46.4 


100 


40.0 


104.0 









TENSION OF AQUEOUS VAPOR 



105 



SULPHURIC ACID TENSION OF AQUEOUS VAPOR 1 
Readings in millimeters of mercurial pressure 



Per cent. 
H,S0 4 


Per cent. 
SOi 


Approximate 
degrees 
Baume 


Temperatures, C. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 


35 


44 


35.92 


37.0 


4.4 


6.1 


8.5 


11.5 


15.5 


20.9 


46 


37.55 


38.5 


4.0 


5.5 


7.7 


10.5 


14.5 


19.7 


48 


39.18 


39.9 


3.7 


5.0 


7.1 


9.6 


13.4 


18.1 


50 


40.82 


41.4 


3.3 


4.5 


6.5 


8.8 


12.0 


16.4 


52 


42.45 


42.8 


3.0 


4.0 


5.8 


7.9 


10.9 


14.5 


54 


44.08 


44.2 


2.6 


3.6 


5.0 


7.0 


9.5 


12.5 


56 


45.71 


45.7 


2.2 


3.1 


4.3 


6.0 


8.1 


11.0 


58 


47.36 


47.1 


.9 


2.6 


3.5 


5.1 


7.2 


9.1 


60 


48.99 


48.5 


.6 


2.1 


3.0 


4.3 


6.1 


7.5 


62 


50.61 


49.9 


.4 


1.8 


2.6 


3.6 


5.0 


6.5 


64 


52.24 


51.2 


.2 


1.6 


2.2 


3.0 


4.0 


5.5 


66 


53.88 


52.6 


.1 


1.4 


1.8 


2.5 


3.5 


4.5 


68 


55.51 


53.9 


0.9 


1.2 


1.5 


2.1 


3.0 


3.8 


70 


57.14 


55.2 


0.8 


1.0 


1.3 


1.8 


2.5 


3.3 


72 


58.77 


56.5 


0.7 


0.8 


1.0 


1.4 


2.0 


2.8 


74 


60.41 


57.8 


0.5 


0.6 


0.6 


1.2 


1.7 


2.1 


76 


62.04 


59.0 


0.4 


0.4 


0.5 


1.0 


1.4 


1.8 


78 


63.67 


60.2 


0.3 


0.3 


0.4 


0.8 


1.1 


1.4 


80 


65.30 


61.3 


0.2 


0.2 


0.3 


0.6 


0.8 


1.1 


82 


66.94 


62.3 


0.1 


0.1 


0.2 


0.4 


0.5 


0.5 



1 SOREL: Lunge's "Sulphuric Acid and Alkali," vol. I, part I, p. 312, 
4th edition. 

NOTE. The corresponding per cent. SO 3 and approximate degree Baum4 
(American Standard) were calculated from the given per cent. 



106 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



SULPHURIC ACID TENSION OF AQUEOUS VAPOR (Continued) 
Readings in millimeters of mercurial pressure 



Per cent. 
11,804 


Per cent. 
S0 3 


Approximate 
degrees 
Baume 


Temperature, C. 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


65 


44 


35.92 


37.0 


28.1 


37.4 


48.3 








46 


37.55 


38.5 


26.3 


33.6 


44.4 


59.6 


76.5 


96.4 


48 


39.18 


39.9 


23.9 


30.5 


40.1 


53.5 


69.0 


86.8 


50 


40.82 


41.4 


21.4 


27.4 


35.9 


47.4 


61.3 


77.0 


52 


42.45 


42.8 


18.9 


24.1 


31.5 


41.5 


54.0 


67.9 


54 


44.08 


44.2 


16.5 


21.3 


27.8 


36.2 


47.2 


59.9 


56 


45.71 


45.7 


14.2 


18.5 


24.1 


31.0 


41.6 


51.6 


58 


47.36 


47.1 


12.0 


15.8 


20.4 


26.1 


34.5 


44.0 


60 


48.99 


48.5 


10.0 


13.0 


16.9 


21.6 


28.7 


36.7 


62 


50.61 


49.9 


8.1 


10.5 


13.9 


17.7 


23.9 


30.0 


64 


52.24 


51.2 


6.5 


8.2 


10.9 


14.0 


18.7 


23.9 


66 


53.88 


'52.6 


5.4 


6.5 


8.9 


11.5 


15.2 


19.1 


68 


55.51 


53.9 


4.5 


5.4 


7.2 


9.5 


12.3 


15.4 


70 


57.14 


55.2 


3.8 


4.4 


5.9 


7.5 


9.5 


12.1 


72 


58.77 


56.5 


3.2 


3.6 


4.8 


6.0 


7.5 


9.5 


74 


60.41 


57.8 


2.6 


3.1 


3.9 


4.9 


6.0 


7.5 


76 


62.04 


59.0 


2.1 


2.5 


3.0 


4.0 


4.8 


5.9 


78 


63.67 


60.2 


1.7 


2.1 


2.4 


3.0 


3.5 


4.0 


80 


65.30 


61.3 


1.3 


1.6 


1.9 


2.4 


2.9 


3.3 


82 


66.94 


62.3 


0.9 


1.1 


1.4 


1.7 


2.0 


2.3 



TENSION OF AQUEOUS VAPOR 



107 



SULPHURIC ACID TENSION OF AQUEOUS VAPOR (Concluded) 
Readings in millimeters of mercurial pressure 



Per 
cent. 
H,SO 


Per cent 
S0 3 


Approxi- 
mate 
degrees 
Baumg 


Temperature, C. 


70 


75 


80 


85 


90 


95 


44 


35.92 


37.0 














46 


37.55 


38.5 














48 


39.18 


39.9 


107.2 


132.1 










50 


40.82 


41.4 


95.6 


118.1 


152.0 


192.6 


236.7 




52 


42.45 


42.8 


84.5 


104.5 


131.2 


166.5 


207.9 


251.5 


54 


44.08 


44.2 


74.8 


92.6 


116.1 


146.8 


183.5 


222.0 


56 


45.71 


45.7 


65.0 


80.6 


100.9 


128.2 


160.0 


195.0 


58 


47.36 


47.1 


55.4 


68.4 


86.2 


110.6 


138.5 


169.5 


60 


48.99 


48.5 


46.1 


56.7 


72.3 


94.0 


118.7 


146.0 


62 


50.61 


49.9 


37.7 


46.2 


59.7 


78.2 


100.7 


125.0 


64 


52.24 


51.2 


30.3 


37.4 


48.0 


63.8 


83.7 


105.0 


66 
68 


53.88 
55.51 


52.6 
53.9 


24.2 
19.4 


30.3 
24.4 


39.0 
31.4 


52.5 
42.5 


70.0 
56.0 


88.0 
72.0 


70 


57.14 


55.2 


15.5 


19.8 


25.5 


33.9 


44.4 


57.0 


72 


58.77 


56.5 


12.0 


15.4 


20.0 


26.2 


33.7 


43.4 


74 


60.41 


57.8 


9.5 


12.1 


15.4 


19.5 


24.5 


31.5 


76 


62.04 


59.0 


7.5 


9.5 


11.8 


15.0 


18.5 


22.0 


78 


63.67 


60.2 


5.7 


7.0 


8.5 


10.5 


13.0 


15.8 


80 


65.30 


61.3 


4.1 


5.0 


6.2 


7.5 


9.3 


11.0 


82 


66.94 


62.3 


2.7 


3.2 


3.9 


4.7 


5.6 


6.8 



Sulphuric Acid Strength for Equilibrium with Atmospheric Moisture 1 

Ninety-three thousand pounds of sulphuric acid, with an ex- 
posed surface of 1260 sq. ft. and a depth of 10 in., had decreased 
in strength from 86 to 52.12 per cent. H 2 SO 4 after standing in a 
lead pan, protected from rain, for 42 days (Sept. 9 to Oct. 21, 
1916). Air was bubbled through a 2-liter sample of this acid 
for 7 consecutive days, when the solution was tested and found 
to contain 52.18 per cent. H 2 SC>4. The average temperature of 
the laboratory was 74F., the average vapor of the air (7 tests) 

1 W. W. SCOTT: "Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis," 1917, p. 502. 



108 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



was 0.2223 gram H 2 per standard cubic foot. The average 
humidity for September and October was 68 per cent. ; the aver- 
age temperature 62F. The average humidity for the past 33 
years was 72 per cent.; the average temperature 57F. 

Preparation of the Monohydrate (100 Per Cent. H 2 SO 4 ) 

One hundred per cent. H 2 S0 4 cannot be made by concentrating 
a weaker acid. The strongest acid obtainable by concentration 
is about 98.3 per cent. H 2 SO 4 . 

It may be prepared by strengthening a weaker acid with SOs 
or fuming sulphuric acid. 

Acid between about 98 per cent, and 100 per cent, crystallize 
at a little below 0C. One hundred per cent, acid may be ob- 
tained from this strength acid by cooling it to below and 
separating the crystals which form at about that temperature, 
melting them and recrystallizing a few times. 



POUNDS SULPHURIC ACID OBTAINABLE FKOM 100 POUNDS SULPHUR 





Recovery 


Grade 


100 


95 


90 


85 


80 


75 


70 




Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 




cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


50 Baume. 


491 97 


467 37 


442 77 


418 17 


393 58 


368 98 


344 38 


60 Baum6 


393 86 


374 17 


354 47 


334 78 


315 09 


295 . 40 


275 . 70 


66 Baume* 


328 26 


311 85 


295 43 


279 02 


262 61 


246 20 


229 78 


98 per cent. H 2 SO 4 


312.15 


296.54 


280.94 


265.33 


249.72 


234.11 


218.51 


100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 .... 


305 . 91 


290.61 


275.32 


260.02 


244.73 


229 . 43 


214.14 


10 per cent, free SO 3 . . . 


299.17 


284.21 


269.25 


254.29 


239.34 


224.38 


209 . 42 


20 per cent, free SO 8 . . . 


292 . 75 


278.11 


263.48 


248.84 


234.20 


219.56 


204.93 


30 per cent, free SO 3 . . . 


286.57 


272.24 


257.91 


243.58 


229.26 


214.93 


200 . 60 


40 per cent, free SO 3 . . . 


280.65 


266.62 


252.59 


238.55 


224.52 


210.49 


196.46 


100 per cent. SO 3 


249.72 


237.23 


224.75 


212.26 


199.78 


187.29 


174.80 



SULPHUR DIOXIDE IN BURNER GAS 109 

POUNDS SULPHURIC ACID OBTAINABLE FROM 100 POUNDS SO 3 





Recovery 


Grade 


100 


95 


90 


85 


80 


75 


70 




Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 




cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


50 Baume", 


197.01 


187.16 


177.31 


167.46 


157.61 


147.76 


137.91 


60 Baume" ... 


157.72 


149.83 


141 95 


134 . 06 


126 18 


118 29 


110 40 


66 Baume* 


131.45 


124.88 


118.31 


111.73 


105.16 


98.59 


92.02 


98 per cent. H 2 SO 4 . . . . 


125.00 


118.75 


112.50 


106.25 


100.00 


93.75 


87.50 


100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 . . . 


122.50 


116.38 


110.25 


104.13 


98.00 


91.88 


85.75 


10 per cent, free SO 3 . . . 


119.80 


113.81 


107.82 


101.83 


95.84 


89.85 


83.86 


20 per cent, free SO 3 . . . 


117.23 


111.37 


105.51 


99.65 


93.78 


87.92 


82.06 


30 per cent, free SO 3 . . . 


114.76 


109.02 


103.28 


97.55 


91.81 


86.07 


80.33 


40 per cent, free SO S . . . 


112.38 


106.76 


101.14 


95.52 


89.90 


84.29 


78.67 



POUNDS SULPHUR REQUIRED TO MAKE 100 POUNDS SULPHURIC ACTD 












Recovery 








Grade 


100 


95 


90 


85 


80 


75 


70 




Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 




cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


50 Baum6 


20 33 


21 40 


22 59 


23 92 


25 41 


27 11 


29 04 


60 Baum6 


25 39 


26 73 


28 21 


29 87 


31 74 


33 85 


36 27 


66 Baum6 


30 46 


32 06 


33 84 


35 84 


38 08 


40 61 


43 51 


98 per cent. H 2 SO 4 


32.04 


33.73 


35.60 


37.69 


40.05 


42.72 


45.77 


100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 . . . . 


32.69 


34.41 


36.32 


38.46 


40.86 


43.59 


46.70 


10 per cent, free SO 3 . . . 


33.42 


35 . 18 


37.13 


39.32 


41.78 


44.56 


47.74 


20 per cent, free SO 3 . . . 


34.15 


35.95 


37.94 


40.18 


42.69 


45.53 


48.79 


30 per cent, free SO 3 . . . 


34.89 


36.73 


38.77 


41.05 


43.61 


46.52 


49.84 


40percent.freeSO 3 . . . 


35.63 


37.51 


39.59 


41.92 


44.54 


47.51 


50.90 


100 per cent. SO 3 


40.04 


42.15 


44.49 


47.11 


50 . 05 


53.39 


57.20 



THE QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE 
IN BURNER GAS 

Reich's Test 

This is usually determined by Reich's process which consists 
of aspirating the gas through a measured quantity of iodine con- 



110 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

tained in a wide-neck bottle and colored blue by adding starch 
solution. This bottle is connected with a larger bottle fitted as 
an aspirator by a siphon. Water is siphoned from this into a 
500-c.c. graduated cylinder drawing the gas through the reaction 
bottle. As soon as the S0 2 contained in the gas enters the iodine 
solution the free iodine is converted into hydriodic acid and after 
a time the liquid will be decolorized, which at last happens very 
suddenly and can be very accurately observed. The reaction 
takes place as follows: 

21 + S0 2 + 2H 2 = 2HI + H 2 S0 4 

In this process no S0 2 escapes unabsorbed if the reaction 
bottle is constantly shaken. The operation may be stopped when 
the solution is but faint as it generally disappears on shaking a 
little longer. The volume of water in the cylinder is read off. 
It is equal to that of the gas aspirated when increased by that 
of the SO 2 absorbed. 

When several testings have been made, the decolorized liquid 
after a short time, again turns blue, because then its percentage 
of HI has become so large that it decomposes on standing and 
liberates iodine. This liquid must then be poured away and 
replaced with fresh water and starch. 

For estimating burner gas the usual charge in the reaction 
bottle is 10 c.c. of deci-normal iodine solution along with about 
300 c.c. water and a little starch solution. Ten cubic centimeter 
hundredth-normal iodine solution is usually used for estimating 
the exit gas. If the gas is very rich in S0 2 , 20-25 c.c. should 
be used. 

Calculation of Results. One liter of sulphur dioxide weighs 
2.9266 grams at 0C. and a barometric pressure of 760 mm. 

Deci-normal iodine solution contains 12.69 grams iodine per 
liter. Each cubic centimeter of solution contains 0.01269 gram 
I which is an equivalent to 0.003203 gram S0 2 = 1.094 c.c. under 
standard conditions. 

Let v = per cent. S0 2 in gas 



SULPHUR DIOXIDE IN BURNER GAS 111 



, 
c.c. I used 



Then x = 



c.c. gas used 
109.4a 



6 + 1.094a 

Since calculations are under standard conditions it will be 
necessary to convert the volumes obtained in the tests to these 
conditions, using the formula 

V = F o P^^ 

1 760 (1 + 0.00367Q 

V = measured volume 
P = observed barometric pressure 

t = temperature of gas. 
w = aqueous vapor pressure at temperature of test 

For all practical purposes, however, this calculation may be 
neglected. 

Preparation of Iodine Solution. To prepare N/10 iodine solu- 
tion weigh out 12.69 grams of pure resublimed iodine. Dissolve 
about 25 grams potassium iodide with water using just enough 
to put it in solution. Place the weighed iodine in this solution 
and stir until completely dissolved. Fill with water to 1 liter. 

To prepare N/100 iodine solution either weigh 1.269 grams 
iodine, dissolve and dilute to 1 liter or take 100 c.c. of the N/10 
solution and dilute to 1 liter. 

Iodine solution should be kept in a cool place and protected 
from direct sunlight. Well-stoppered dark-colored glass bottles 
are suitable containers. 

Preparation of Starch Solution. To prepare, take about 3 
grams arrow-root starch and mix with water to a thin paste. 
Place this into about a liter of boiling water and continue to 
boil about a half hour. After cooling add a few drops chloro- 
form which preserves it and prevents souring. Keep in well- 
stoppered bottles. 



112 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



REICH'S TEST FOB SO 2 
Per cent. SO 2 corresponding to volume of water 



Burner gas 
10 c.c. I solution 


Exit gas 

10 c.c. I solution 
100 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters 
water 


Per 

cent. 
S0 2 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters 
water 


Per 

cent. 
S0 2 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters 
water 


Per 
cent. 
S0 2 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters 
water 


Per 
cent. 
S0 2 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters 
water 


Per 
cent. 
S0 2 


1,035 


1.0 


385 


2.8 


200 


5.2 


2,185 


.05 


270 


.40 


1,030 


1.1 


375 


2.8 


195 


5.3 


1,820 


.06 


265 


.41 


940 


.1 


370 


2.9 


190 


5.4 


1,560 


.07 


260 


.42 


935 


.2 


360 


2.9 


185 


5.6 


1,365 


.08 


255 


.43 


865 


.2 


355 


3.0 


180 


5.7 


1,215 


.09 


245 


.44 


860 


.3 


350 


3.0 


175 


5.9 


1,090 


.10 


240 


.45 


800 


.3 


345 


3.1 


170 


6.0 


990 


.11 


235 


.46 


795 


1.4 


340 


3.1 


165 


6.2 


910 


.12 


230 


.47 


740 


1.4 


335 


3.2 


160 


6.4 


840 


.13 


225 


.48 


735 


1.5 


330 


3.2 


155 


6.6 


780 


.14 


220 


.50 


690 


1.5 


325 


3.3 


150 


6.8 


730 


.15 


200 


.55 


685 


1.6 


320 


3.3 


145 


7.0 


680 


.16 


180 


.60 


655 


1.6 


315 


3.4 


140 


7.2 


640 


.17 


165 


.65 


650 


1.7 


310 


3.4 


135 


7.5 


605 


.18 


155 


.70 


615 


1.7 


303 


3.5 


130 


7.8 


575 


.19 


145 


.75 


610 


1.8 


300 . 


3.5 


125 


8.0 


545 


.20 


135 


.80 


580 


1.8 


295 


3.6 


120 


8.3 


520 


.21 


130 


.85 


575 


1.9 


290 


3.6 


115 


8.7 


495 


.22 


120 


.90 


550 


1.9 


285 


3.7 


110 


9:0 


475 


.23 


115 


.95 


545 


2.0 


280 


3.8 


105 


9.4 


455 


.24 


110 


1.00 


525 


2.0 


275 


3.8 


100 


9.9 


435 


.25 


105 


1.05 


520 


2.1 


270 


3.9 


95 


10.3 


420 


.26 


100 


1.10 


500 
495 


2.1 

2.2 


265 
260 


4.0 
4.0 




405 
390 


.27 
.28 


95 
90 


1 .15 
1.20 


475 


2.2 


255 


4.1 




375 


.29 


85 


1.25 


470 


2.3 


250 


4.2 




365 


.30 


80 


1.35 


450 


2.3 


245 


4.3 




350 


.31 


75 


1.45 


445 


2.4 


240 


4.4 




340 


.32 


70 


1,55 


440 


2.4 


235 


4.4 




330 


.33 


65 


1.65 


435 


2.5 


230 


4.5 




320 


.34 


60 


1.80 


420 


2.5 


225 


4.6 




310 


.35 


55 


1.95 


415 


2.6 


220 


4.7 




300 


.36 


50 


2.15 


405 
400 


2.6 

2.7 


215 
210 


4.8 
4.9 




295 

285 


.37 

.38 




. 390 


2.7 


205 


5.1 




280 


.39 





TEST FOR TOTAL ACIDS IN BURNER GAS 113 

TEST FOR TOTAL ACIDS IN BURNER GAS 

Since Reich's test takes no account of the SOs always present 
in burner gas it is quite practicable and accurate to estimate 
the total acids (S0 2 + SO 3 ) either along with the Reich's test 
or exclusively. This is performed in the same apparatus, but 
the absorbing bottle is preferably provided with a gas entrance 
tube, closed at the bottom and perforated by numerous pin holes, 
through which the gas bubbles. A deci-normal solution of 
sodium hydroxide is employed of which 10 c.c. are diluted to 
about 300 c.c. and tinged red with phenolphthalein. The gas is 
aspirated through it slowly, exactly as in Reich's test, with con- 
tinuous shaking. Especially toward the end, the shaking must 
be continued for a while (say a half a minute) each time aspi- 
rating a few cubic centimeters of gas through the liquid, until 
the color is completely discharged. 

The calculation is made exactly as with the iodine test, count- 
ing all the acids as SO 2 . 

If the ore contains much organic matter as when coal gases 
are burnt, the carbon dioxide acting on the phenolphthalein will 
render this method inaccurate. 

Methyl orange cannot be used with any degree of accuracy 
as it acts differently toward sulphurous acid and sulphuric acid. 
It can, however, be used if the SO 2 is determined at the same 
time and then proper calculations made. 

CALCULATING THE PERCENTAGE OF SO 2 CONVERTED TO SO 3 

WHEN THE S0 2 IN THE BURNER AND EXIT GASES IS 

KNOWN AS USED IN THE CONTACT PROCESS 

1. If a equals the quantity (not per cent.) of S0 2 in one volume 
of entrance gas and X equals the fraction of this that is converted 
to S0 3 , then aX equals the quantity of S0 2 converted to SO 3 . 
As two volumes of SO 2 combine with one volume of oxygen to 



114 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

form two of SO 3 the contraction due to the formation and ab- 
sorption of SOa is equal to 

3aX 3aX 

and the final volume is 1 - 



If 6 equals the fraction that the SO 2 is of the exit gas 
b M -- j equals the quantity of unconverted SO 2 in the 

3aX\ 



a ~ b ~ 
exit gas and X = - 



Or reducing to its simplest form 

2a- 2b 



X 



2a - Sab 
And WQX equals the per cent, of S0 2 converted to S0 3 . 

2. Or let x = per cent, conversion 

a = per cent. S0 2 in roaster gas. 
6 = per cent. S0 2 in exit gas 
100 2 (2a - 26) 



x 



200a - 3a5 



SO 2 CONVERTED TO SO, 



115 



PER CENT. SO 2 CONVERTED TO SO 3 



Per cent. 
SO Z 
Burner 
gas 


Per cent. SO* in exit gas 


0.05 


0.10 


0.15 


0.20 


0.25 


0.30 


0.35 


0.40 


2.0 


97.6 


95.1 


92.7 


90.3 


87.8 


85.4 


82.9 


80.5 


2.1 


97.7 


95.4 


93.1 


90.8 


88.4 


86.1 


83.8 


81.4 


2.2 


97.8 


95.6 


93.4 


91.2 


89.0 


86.8 


84.5 


82.3 


2.3 


97.9 


95.8 


93.7 


91.6 


89.5 


87.4 


85.2 


83.1 


2.4 


98.0 


96.0 


94.0 


91.9 


89.9 


87.9 


85.9 


83.8 


2.5 


98.1 


96.1 


94.2 


92.3 


90.3 


88.4 


86.5 


84.5 


2.6 


98.2 


96.3 


94.5 


92.6 


90.7 


88.9 


87.0 


. 85.1 


2.7 


98.2 


96.4 


94.7 


92.9 


91.1 


89.3 


87.5 


85.7 


2.8 


98.3 


96.6 


94.9 


93.1 


91.4 


89.7 


88.0 


86.2 


2.9 


98.4 


96.7 


95.0 


93.4 


91.7 


90.1 


88.4 


86.7 


3.0 


98.4 


96.8 


95.2 


93.6 


92.0 


90.4 


88.8 


87.2 


3.1 


98.5 


96.9 


95.4 


93.8 


92.3 


90.7 


89.2 


87.6 


3.2 


98.5 


97.0 


95.5 


94.0 


92.5 


91.0 


89.5 


88.0 


3.3 


98.6 


97.1 


95.7 


94.2 


92.8 


91.3 


89.9 


88.4 


3.4 


98.6 


97.2 


95.8 


94.4 


93.0 


91.6 


90.2 


88.8 


3.5 


98.6 


97.3 


95.9 


94.6 


93.2 


91.8 


90.5 


89.1 


3.6 


98.7 


97.4 


96.1 


94.7 


93.4 


92.1 


90.8 


89.4 


3.7 


98.7 


97.4 


96.2 


94.9 


93.6 


92.3 


91.0 


89.7 


3.8 


98.8 


97.5 


96.3 


95.0 


93.8 


92.5 


91.3 


90.0 


3.9 


98.8 


97.6 


96.4 


95.2 


93.9 


92.7 


91.5 


90.3 


4.0 


98.8 


97.7 


96.5 


95.3 


94.1 


92.9 


91.7 


90.5 


4.1 


98.9 


97.7 


96.6 


95.4 


94.3 


93.1 


91.9 


90.8 


4.2 


98.9 


97.8 


96.6 


95.5 


94.4 


93.3 


92.2 


91.0 


4.3 


98.9 


97.8 


96.7 


95.6 


94.5 


93.4 


92.3 


91.2 


4.4 


98.9 


97.9 


96.8 


95.7 


94.7 


93.6 


92.5 


91.3 


4.5 


99.0 


97.9 


96.9 


95.8 


94.8 


93.8 


92.7 


91.7 


4.6 


99.0 


98.0 


97.0 


95.9 


94.9 


93.9 


92.9 


91.9 


4.7 


99.0 


98.0 


97.0 


96.0 


95.0 


94.0 


93.0 


92.0 


4.8 


99 1 


98.1 


97.1 


96.1 


95.2 


94.2 


93.2 


92.2 


4.9 


99.1 


98.1 


97.2 


96.2 


95.3 


94.3 


93.4 


92.4 



116 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



PER CENT. SC>2 CONVERTED TO SO 3 (Continued] 



Per cent. 
SO 2 
Burner 
gas 


Per cent. SO2 in exit gas 


0.45 


0.50 


0.55 


0.60 


0.65 


0.70 


0.75 


0.80 


2.0 


78 


75.6 


73.1 


70.6 


68.2 


65.7 


63.2 


60.7 


2.1 


79.1 


76.8 


74.4 


72.1 


69.7 


67.4 


65.0 


62.7 


2.2 


80.1 


77.9 


75.6 


73.4 


71.2 


68.9 


66.7 


64.4 


2.3 


81.0 


78.9 


76.7 


74.6 


72.5 


70.3 


68.2 


66.0 


2.4 


81.8 


79.8 


77.7 


75.7 


73.6 


71.6 


69.5 


67.5 


2.5 


82.6 


80.6 


78.7 


76.7 


74.7 


72.8 


70.8 


68.8 


2.6 


83.3 


81.4 


79.5 


77.6 


75.7 


73.9 


72.0 


70.1 


2.7 


83.9 


82.1 


80.3 


78.5 


76.7 


74.9 


73.0 


71.2 


2.8 


84.5 


82.8 


81.0 


79.3 


77.5 


75.8 


74.1 


72.3 


2.9 


85.1 


83.4 


81.7 


80.0 


78.4 


76.7 


75.0 


73.3 


3.0 


85.6 


84.0 


82.4 


80.7 


79.1 


77.5 


75.9 


74.2 


3.1 


86.1 


84.5 


82.9 


81.4 


79.8 


78.2 


76.7 


75.1 


3.2 


86.5 


85.0 


83.5 


82.0 


80.5 


79.0 


77.4 


75.9 


3.3 


87.0 


85.5 


84.0 


82.6 


81.1 


79.6 


78.2 


76.7 


3.4 


87.4 


85.9 


84.5 


83.1 


81.7 


80.3 


78.8 


77.4 


3.5 


87.7 


86.4 


85.0 


83.6 


82.2 


80.9 


79.5 


78.1 


3.6 


88.1 


86.8 


85.4 


84.1 


82.8 


81.4 


80.1 


78.7 


3.7 


88.4 


87.1 


85.8 


84.6 


83.2 


81.9 


80.6 


79.3 


3.8 


88.8 


87.5 


86.2 


85.0 


83.7 


82.4 


81.2 


79.9 


3.9 


89.1 


87.8 


86.6 


85.4 


84.2 


82.9 


81.7 


80.5 


4.0 


89.4 


88.2 


87.0 


85.8 


84.6 


83.4 


82.2 


81.0 


4.1 


89.6 


88.5 


87.3 


86.1 


85.0 


83.8 


82.6 


81.5 


4.2 


89.9 


88.8 


87.6 


86.5 


85.4 


84.2 


83.1 


81.9 


4.3 


90.1 


89.0 


87.9 


86.8 


85.7 


84.6 


83.5 


82.4 


4.4 


90.4 


89.3 


88.2 


87.2 


86.1 


85.0 


83.9 


82.8 


4.5 


90.6 


89.6 


88.5 


87.5 


86.4 


85.3 


84.3 


83.2 


4.6 


90.8 


89.8 


88.8 


87.8 


86.7 


85.7 


84.6 


83.6 


4.7 


91.0 


90.0 


89.0 


88.0 


87.0 


86.0 


85.0 


84.0 


4.8 


91.2 


90.3 


89.3 


88.3 


87.3 


86.3 


85.3 


84.3 


4.9 


91.4 


90.5 


89.5 


88.6 


87.6 


86.6 


85.7 


84.7 



SO, CONVERTED TO SO, 



117 



PER CENT. SO 2 CONVERTED TO SO 3 (Continued) 



Per cent. 
S0 2 
Burner 
gas 


Per cent. SOi in exit gas 


0.85 


0.90 


0.95 


1.00 


1.05 


1.10 


1.15 


1.20 


1.25 


2.0 


58.2 


55.8 


53.3 


50.8 


48.3 


45.7 


43.2 


40.7 


38.2 


2.1 


60.3 


57.9 


55.6 


53.2 


50.8 


48.4 


46.0 


43.6 


41.2 


2.2 


62.2 


59.9 


57.6 


55.4 


53.1 


50.8 


48.6 


46.3 


44.0 


2.3 


63.9 


61.7 


59.5 


57.4 


55.2 


53.6 


50.9 


48.7 


46.5 


2.4 


65.4 


63.4 


61.3 


59.2 


57.1 


55.1 


53.0 


50.9 


48.8 


2.5 


66.9 


64.9 


62.9 


60.9 


58.9 


56.9 


54.9 


52.9 


51.0 


2.6 


68.2 


66.3 


64.4 


62.5 


60.6 


58.7 


56.7 


54.8 


52.9 


2.7 


69.4 


67.6 


65.8 


63.9 


62.1 


60.2 


58.4 


56.6 


54.7 


2.8 


70.5 


68.8 


67.0 


65.3 


63.5 


61.7 


60.0 


58.2 


56.4 


2.9 


71.6 


69.9 


68.2 


66.5 


64.8 


63.1 


61.4 


59.7 


58.0 


3.0 


72.6 


71.0 


69.3 


67.7 


66.0 


64.4 


62.7 


61.1 


59.5 


3.1 


73.5 


71.9 


70.4 


68.8 


67.2 


65.6 


64.0 


62.4 


60.8 


3.2 


74.4 


72.9 


71.3 


69.8 


68.3 


66.7 


65.2 


63.6 


62.1 


3.3 


75.2 


73.7 


72.2 


70.8 


69.3 


67.8 


66.3 


64.8 


63.3 


3.4 


76.0 


74.5 


73.1 


71.7 


70.2 


68.8 


67.3 


65.9 


64.4 


3.5 


76.7 


75.3 


73.9 


72.5 


71.1 


69.7 


68.3 


66.9 


65.5 


3.6 


77.4 


76.0 


74.7 


73.3 


72.0 


70.6 


69.2 


67.9 


66.5 


3.7 


78.0 


76.7 


75.4 


74.1 


72.8 


71.4 


70.1 


68.8 


67.5 


3.8 


78.6 


77.4 


76.1 


74.8 


73.5 


72.2 


71.0 


69.7 


68.4 


3.9 


79.2 


78.0 


76.7 


75.5 


74.2 


73.0 


71.7 


70.5 


69.2 


4.0 


79.8 


78.6 


77.4 


76.1 


74.9 


73.7 


72.5 


71.3 


70.1 


4.1 


80.3 


79.1 


77.9 


76.8 


75.6 


74.4 


Y3.2 


72.0 


70.8 


4.2 


80.8 


79.7 


78.5 


77.4 


76.2 


75.0 


73.9 


72.7 


71.6 


4.3 


81.3 


80.1 


79.0 


78.0 


76.8 


75.7 


74.6 


73.4 


72.3 


4.4 


81.7 


80.6 


79.5 


78.5 


77.4 


76.3 


75.2 


74.1 


73.0 


4.5 


82.2 


81.1 


80.0 


79.0 


77.9 


76.8 


75.7 


74.7 


73.6 


4.6 


82.6 


81.5 


80.5 


79.5 


78.4 


77.4 


76.3 


75.3 


74.2 


4.7 


83.0 


82.0 


80.9 


79.9 


78.9 


77.9 


76.9 


75.8 


74.8 


4.8 


83.4 


82.4 


81.4 


80.4 


79.4 


78.4 


77.4 


76.4 


75.4 


4.9 


83.7 


82.7 


81.8 


80.8 


79.8 


78.8 


77.9 


76.9 


75.9 



118 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



PER CENT. SO 2 CONVERTED TO SO 3 (Continued} 



Per cent. 
SO 2 
Burner 
gas 


Per cent. SOz in exit gas 


0.05 


0.10 


0.15 


0.20 


0.25 


0.30 


0.35 


0.40 


5.0 


99.1 


98.2 


97.2 


96.3 


95.4 


94.4 


93.5 


92.6 


5.1 


99.1 


98.2 


97.3 


96.4 


95.5 


94.5 


93.6 


92.7 


5.2 


99.1 


98.2 


97.3 


96.4 


95.6 


94.7 


93.8 


92.9 


5.3 


99.2 


98.3 


97.4 


96.5 


95.7 


94.8 


93.9 


93.0 


5.4 


99.2 


98.3 


97.4 


. 96.6 


95.7 


94.9 


94.0 


93.2 


5.5 


99.2 


98.3 


97.5 


96.7 


95.8 


95.0 


94.1 


93.3 


5.6 


99.2 


98.4 


97.5 


96.7 


95.9 


95.1 


94.3 


93.4 


5.7 


99.2 


98.4 


97.6 


96.8 


96.0 


95.2 


94.4 


93.6 


5.8 


99.2 


98.4 


97.6 


96.9 


96.1 


95.3 


94.5 


93.7 


5.9 


99.2 


98.5 


97.7 


96.9 


96.1 


95.4 


94.6 


93.8 


6.0 


99.3 


98.5 


97.7 


97.0 


96.2 


95.4 


94.7 


93.9 


6.1 


99.3 


98.5 


97.8 


97.0 


96.3 


95.5 


94.8 


94.0 


6.2 


99.3 


98.5 


97.8 


97.1 


96.3 


95.6 


94.9 


94.1 


6.3 


99.3 


98.6 


97.9 


97.1 


96.4 


95.7 


95.0 


94.2 


6.4 


99.3 


98.6 


97.9 


97.2 


96.5 


95.8 


95.0 


94.3 


6.5 


99.3 


98.6 


97.9 


97.2 


96.5 


95.8 


95.1 


94.4 


6.6 


99.3 


98.6 


98.0 


97.3 


96.6 


95.9 


95.2 


94.5 


6.7 


99.3 


98.7 


98.0 


97.3 


96.6 


96.0 


95.3 


94.6 


6.8 


99.3 


98.7 


98.0 


97.4 


96.7 


96.0 


95.4 


94.7 


6.9 


99.4 


98.7 


98.1 


97.4 


96.8 


96.1 


95.4 


94.8 


7.0 


99.4 


98.7 


98.1 


97.4 


96.8 


96.2 


95.5 


94.9 


7.1 


99.4 


98.7 


98.1 


97.5 


96.9 


96.2 


95.6 


94.9 


7.2 


99.4 


98.8 


98.1 


97.5 


96.9 


96.3 


95.7 


95.0 


7.3 


99.4 


98.8 


98.2 


97.6 


97.0 


96.3 


95.7 


95.1 


7.4 


99.4 


98.8 


98.2 


97.6 


97.0 


96.4 


95.8 


95.2 


7.5 


99.4 


98.8 


98.2 


97.6 


97.0 


96.4 


95.8 


95.2 


7.6 


99.4 


98.8 


98.3 


97.7 


97.1 


96.5 


95.9 


95.3 


7.7 


99.4 


98.9 


98.3 


97.7 


97.1 


96.5 


96.0 


95.4 


7.8 


99.4 


98.9 


98.3 


97.7 


97.2 


96.6 


96.0 


95.5 


7.9 


99.5 


98.9 


98.3 


97.8 


97.2 


96.6 


96.1 


95.5 


8.0 


99.5 


98.9 


98.4 


97.8 


97.3 


96.7 


96.1 


95.6 



SO 2 CONVERTED TO SO 3 



119 



PER CENT. SO 2 CONVERTED TO SO 3 (Continual) 



Per cent. 
SOs 
Burner 
gas 


Per cent. SOi in exit gas 


0.45 


0.50 


0.55 


0.60 


0.65 


0.70 


0.75 


0.80 


5.0 


91.6 


90.7 


89.7 


88.8 


87.9 


86.9 


86.0 


85.0 


5.1 


91.8 


90.9 


90.0 


89.0 


88.1 


87.2 


86.3 


85.3 


5.2 


92.0 


91.1 


90.2 


89.3 


88.4 


37.5 


86.6 


85.6 


5.3 


92.1 


91.3 


90.4 


89.5 


88.6 


87.7 


86.8 


85.9 


5.4 


92.3 


91.4 


90.6 


89.7 


88.8 


88.0 


87.1 


86.2 


5.5 


92.5 


91.6 


90.8 


89.9 


89.1 


88.2 


87.4 


86.5 


5.6 


92.6 


91.8 


90.9 


90.1 


89.3 


88.4 


87.6 


86.8 


5.7 


92.7 


91.9 


01.1 


90.3 


89.5 


88.7 


87.8 


87.0 


5.8 


92.9 


92.1 


91.3 


90.5 


89.7 


88.9 


88.1 


87.3 


5.9 


93.0 


92.2 


91.4 


90.7 


89.9 


89.1 


88.3 


87.5 


6.0 


93.1 


92.4 


91.6 


90.8 


90.1 


89.3 


88.5 


87.7 


6.1 


93.3 


92.5 


91.7 


91.0 


90.2 


89.5 


88.7 


87.9 


6.2 


93.4 


92.6 


91.9 


91.2 


90.4 


89.7 


88.9 


88.2 


6.3 


93.5 


92.8 


92.0 


91.3 


90.6 


89.8 


89.1 


88.4 


6.4 


93.6 


92.9 


92.2 


91.5 


90.7 


90.0 


89.3 


88.6 


6.5 


93.7 


93.0 


92.3 


91.6 


90.9 


90.2 


89.5 


88.8 


6.6 


93.8 


93.1 


92.4 


91.7 


91.1 


90.4 


89.7 


89.0 


6.7 


93.9 


93.2 


92.6 


91.9 


91.2 


90.5 


89.8 


89.1 


6.8 


94.0 


93.4 


92.7 


92.0 


91.3 


90.7 


90.0 


89.3 


6.9 


94.1 


93.5 


92.8 


92.1 


91.5 


90.8 


90.2 


89.5 


7.0 


94.2 


93.6 


92.9 


92.3 


91.6 


91.0 


90.3 


89.7 


7.1 


94.3 


93.7 


93.0 


92.4 


91.7 


91.1 


90.5 


89.8 


7.2 


94.4 


93.8 


93.1 


92.5 


91.9 


91.2 


90.6 


90.0 


7.3 


94.5 


93.9 


93.2 


92.6 


92.0 


91.4 


90.8 


90.1 


7.4 


94.6 


94.0 


93.3 


92.7 


92.1 


91.5 


90.9 


90.3 


7.5 


94.6 


94.0 


93.4 


92.8 


92.2 


91.6 


91.0 


90.4 


7.6 


94.7 


94.1 


93.5 


93.0 


92.4 


91.8 


91.2 


90.6 


7.7 


94.8 


94.2 


93.6 


93.1 


92.5 


91.9 


91.3 


90.7 


7.8 


94.9 


94.3 


93.7 


93.2 


92.6 


92.0 


91.4 


90.8 


7.9 


95.0 


94.4 93.8 


93.3 


92.7 


92.1 91.5 


91.0 



120 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



PER CENT. SO 2 CONVERTED TO SO 3 (Continued] 



Per cent. 
S0 2 
Burner 
gas 


Per cent. SO 2 in exit gas 


0.85 


0.90 


0.95 


1.00 


1.05 


1.10 


1.15 


1.20 


1.25 


5.0 


84.1 


83.1 


82.2 


81.2 


80.3 


79.3 


78.4 


77.4 


76.4 


5.1 


84.4 


83.5 


82.6 


81.6 


80.7 


79.7 


78.8 


77.9 


76.9 


5.2 


84.7 


83.8 


82.9 


82.0 


81.1 


80.2 


79.2 


78.3 


77.4 


5.3 


85.1 


84.2 


83.3 


82.4 


81.5 


80.6 


79.7 


78.8 


77.9 


5.4 


85.4 


84.5 


83.6 


82.7 


81.6 


80.8 


79.9 


79.1 


78.3 


5.5 


85.6 


84.8 


83.9 


83.1 


82.2 


81.3 


80.5 


79.6 


78.6 


5.6 


85.9 


85.1 


84.2 


83.4 


82.5 


81.7 


80.9 


80.0 


79.2 


5.7 


86.2 


85.4 


84.5 


83.7 


82.9 


82.1 


81.2 


80.4 


79.6 


5.8 


86.5 


85.6 


84.8 


84.0 


83.2 


82.4 


81.6 


80.8 


79.9 


5.9 


86.7 


85.9 


85.1 


84.3 


83.5 


82.7 


81.9 


81.1 


80.3 


6.0 


86.9 


86.2 


85.4 


84.6 


83.8 


83.0 


82.2 


81.4 


80.6 


6.1 


87.2 


86.4 


85.7 


84.9 


84.1 


83.3 


82.6 


81.8 


81.0 


6.2 


87.4 


86.7 


85.9 


85.2 


84.4 


83.6 


82.9 


82.1 


81.4 


6.3 


87.6 


86.9 


86.2 


85.4 


84.7 


83.9 


83.2 


82.4 


81.7 


6.4 


87.8 


87.1 


86.4 


85.7 


84.9 


84.2 


83.5 


82.7 


82.0 


6.5 


88.1 


87.3 


86.6 


85.9 


85.2 


84.5 


83.8 


83.0 


82.3 


6.6 


88.3 


87.6 


86.9 


86.1 


85.4 


84.7 


84.0 


83.3 


82.6 


6.7 


88.4 


87.8 


87.1 


86.4 


85.7 


85.0 


84.3 


83.6 


82.9 


6.8 


88.6 


88.0 


87.3 


86.6 


85.9 


85.2 


84.5 


83.9 


83.2 


6.9 


88.8 


88.2 


87.5 


86.8 


86.1 


85.5 


84.8 


84.1 


83.4 


7.0 


89.0 


88.3 


87.7 


87.0 


86.4 


85.7 


85.0 


84.4 


83.7 


7.1 


89.2 


88.5 


87.9 


87.2 


86.6 


85.9 


85.3 


84.6 


84.0 


7.2 


89.3 


88.7 


88.1 


87.4 


86.8 


86.1 


85.5 


84.9 


84.2 


7.3 


89.5 


88.9 


88.3 


87.6 


87.0 


86.4 


85.7 


85.1 


84.5 


7.4 


89.7 


89.0 


88.4 


87.8 


87.2 


86.5 


85.9 


85.2 


84.6 


7.5 


89.8 


89.2 


88.6 


88.0 


87.4 


86.8 


86.1 


85.5 


84.9 


7.6 


90.0 


89.4 


88.8 


88.2 


8.7.6 


87.0 


86.4 


85.8 


85.2 


7.7 


90.1 


89.5 


88.9 88.3 


87.7 


87.1 


86.6 


86.0 


85.4 


7.8 


90.3 


89.7 


89.1 88.5 


87.9 


87.3 


86.7 


86.2 


85.6 


7.9 


90.4 


89.8 


89.3 ; 88.7 


88.1 


87.5 


86.9 


86.4 


85.8 












1 





SO 2 CONVERTED TO S0 3 



121 



PER CENT. SO 2 CONVERTED TO SO 3 (Continued) 



Per cent. 
SO* 
Burner 
gas 


Per cent. SOa in exit gas 


0.50 


0.55 


0.60 


0.65 


0.70 


0.75 


0.80 


0.85 


8.0 


94.5 


93.9 


93.3 


92.8 


92.2 


91.7 


91.1 


90.5 


8.1 


94.5 


94.0 


93.4 


92.9 


92.3 


91.8 


91.2 


90.7 


8.2 


94.6 


94.1 


93.5 


93.0 


92.4 


- 91.9 


91.3 


90.8 


8.3 


94.7 


94.1 


93.6 


93.1 


92.5 


92.0 


91.5 


90 9 


8.4 


94.8 


94.2 


93.7 


93.2 


92.6 


92.1 


91.6 


91.0 


8.5 


94.8 


94.3 


93.8 


93.3 


92.7 


92.2 


91.7 


91.2 


8.6 


94.9 


94.4 


93.9 


93.3 


92.8 


92.3 


91.8 


91.3 


8.7 


95.0 


94.5 


93.9 


93.4 


92.9 


92.4 


91.9 


91.4 


8.8 


95.0 


94.5 


94.0 


93.5 


93.0 


92.5 


92.0 


91.5 


8.9 


95.1 


94.6 


94.1 


93.6 


93.1 


92.6 


92.1 


91.6 


9.0 


95.2 


94.7 


94.2 


93.7 


93.2 


92 7 


92.2 


91.7 


9.1 


95.2 


94.7 


94.3 


93.8 


93.3 


92.8 


92.3 


91.8 


9.2 


95.3 


94.8 


94.3 


93.8 


93.4 


92.9 


92.4 


91.9 


9.3 


95.3 


94.9 


94.4 


93.9 


93.4 


93.0 


92.5 


92.0 


9.4 


95.4 


94.9 


94.5 


94.0 


93.5 


93.1 


92.6 


92.1 


9.5 


95.5 


95.0 


04.5 


94.1 


93.6 


93.1 


92.7 


92.2 


9.6 


95.5 


95.1 


94.6 


94.1 


93.7 


93.2 


92.8 


92.3 


9.7 


95.6 


95.1 


94.7 


94.2 


93.8 


93.3 


92.9 


92.4 


9.8 


95.6 


95 .2 


94.7 


94.3 


93.8 


93.4 


93.0 


92.5 


9.9 


95.7 


95.2 


94.8 


94.4 


93.9 


93.5 


93.0 


92.6 


10.0 


95.7 


95.3 


94.9 


94.4 


94.0 


93.5 


93.1 


92.7 



122 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



PER CENT. SO 2 CONVERTED TO S0 3 (Concluded) 



Per cent. 
S0 2 
Burner 
gas 


Per cent. SCh in exit gas 


0.90 


0.95 


1.00 


1.05 


1.10 


1.15 


1.20 


1.25 


8.0 


90.0 


89.4 


88.8 


88.3 


87.7 


87.1 


86.6 


86 


81 


90.1 


89.5 


89.0 


88.4 


87.9 


87.3 


86.7 


86.2 


8.2 


90.2 


89.7 


89.1 


88.6 


88.0 


87.5 


86.9 


86.4 


8.3 


90.4 


89.8 


89.3 


88.7 


88.2 


87.7 


87.1 


86.6 


8.4 


90.5 


90.0 


89.4 


88.9 


88.4 


87.8 


87.3 


86.7 


8.5 


90.6 


90.1 


89.6 


89.0 


88.5 


88.0 


87.5 


86.9 


8.6 


90.8 


90.2 


89.7 


89.2 


88.7 


88.1 


87.6 


87.1 


8.7 


90.9 


90.4 


89.8 


89.3 


88.8 


88.3 


87.8 


87.3 


8.8 


91.0 


90.5 


90.0 


89.5 


89.0 


88.5 


87.9 


87.4 


8.9 


91.1 


90.6 


90.1 


89.6 


89.1 


88.6 


88.1 


87.6 


9.0 


91.2 


90.7 


90.2 


89.7 


89.2 


88.7 


88.3 


87.8 


9.1 


91.3 


90.9 


90.4 


89.9 


89.4 


88.9 


88.4 


87.9 


9.2 


91.4 


91.0 


90.5 


90.0 


89.5 


89.0 


88.5 


88.1 


9.3 


91.6 


91.1 


90.6 


90.1 


89.6 


89.2 


88.7 


88.2 


9.4 


91.7 


91.2 


90.7 


90.2 


89.8 


89.3 


88.8 


88.4 


9.5 


91.8 


91.3 


90.8 


90.4 


89.9 


89.4 


89.0 


88.5 


9.6 


91.9 


91.4 


90.9 


90.5 


90.0 


89.6 


89.1 


88.6 


9.7 


92.0 


91.5 


91.1 


90.6 


90.1 


89.7 


89.2 


88.8 


9.8 


92.1 


91.6 


91.2 


90.7 


90.3 


89.8 


89.4 


88.9 


9.9 


92.2 


91.7 


91.3 


90.8 


90.4 


89.9 


89.5 


89.0 


10.0 


92.2 


91.8 


91.4 


90.9 


90.5 


90.0 


89.6 


89.2 



COMPOSITION OF DRY GAS 



123 



21 
20 
19 
18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 

9 

8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 


Theoretical Composition of Dry Gas 
from the 
Roasting of Metallic Sulphides 
Dry Air Composition 20.8.* O 2 =79.2< N 2 by Volume 
Reactions Equations of Gas Composition 
2 ZnS + 3O 2 =2 Zn O + 2 SOa *O 2 = 20,8-1.396 x <SOj *N 2 = 79.2-1- 0.396 x jJSOj 
2 PbS-f 30.= 2 Pb O+2SO 2 *O 2 = 20.8-1.396 x jtSO 2 : *N 2 = 79.2+ 0.396 x *SO. 
^ 4 FeSj+llO, = 2 FeaOs+S SO 2 *O = 20.8-1.297 X *SO S : *-N 2 = 79.2 + 0.297 x SO 2 
\4FeS+ 7OJ|=2Fe s Os+4SOj >O 2 =20.8-1.594x %SO t : SfN 2 =79^ + 0-594 xjfSOj 


1 


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P0^ 


Gft*j 


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87 



S4 



4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
Per Cent Sulphur Dioxide 



124 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



21 
20 
19 
18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 
11 

9 

7 
G 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 








Theoretical Composition of Dry Gas 
from the 
Combustion of Sulphur 
Dry Air Composition - 20. 8% O 2 :79.2% N 2 by Volume 
leaction Equations of Gas Composition 
+ O 2 =SO 2 %>O 2 =20.8- %SO 2 : %N 2 = 79.2 




= 


S 3 g 

Per Cent Nitroeen 


\ 








\ 


3 
\ s 












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Per Cent Nitrogen 




























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34567 



8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 
Per Cent Sulphur Dioxide 



QUALITATIVE TESTS SULPHURIC ACID 125 

QUALITATIVE TESTS SULPHURIC ACID 
Nitrogen Acids 

Diphenylamine Test. A few grams diphenylamine is dissolved 
in strong sulphuric acid, free from nitrogen oxides. Put about 
2 or 3 c.c. of the acid to be tested in a test-tube and add about 
1 c.c. of the diphenylamine solution so that the layers overlay 
gradually. In case of dilute acids proceed in the opposite man- 
ner. The slightest trace of nitrogen acids is proved by the ap- 
pearance of a brilliant blue color at the point of contact of the 
liquids. In the presence of selenium the diphenylamine test 
fails as the same color is produced. 

Ferrous-sulphate Test. A saturated solution of ferrous sul- 
phate is added to the acid to be tested in a test-tube. Incline 
the test-tube so the layers overlay gradually. Hold the tube 
upright and tap gently. In presence of nitric acid a brown ring 
forms at the junction of the two solutions. Ferrous sulphate 
should be present in excess, otherwise the brown color is de- 
stroyed by the free nitric acid. If only a trace of nitric acid is 
present a pink color is produced. 

Selenium 

Ferrous-sulphate Test. Selenium in sulphuric acid can be 
recognized by adding a strong solution of ferrous sulphate. A 
brownish-red color will make its appearance which after a while 
turns into a red precipitate (not vanishing upon heating) like 
the brown color produced by nitrogen acids. 

Sodium-sulphite Test. Overlay about 4 c.c. weak hydro- 
chloric acid containing a granule of sodium sulphite dissolved. A 
red zone on warming shows the presence of selenium. 

Lead 

Dilute the acid to about five times its volume with dilute 
alcohol. If any lead is present it will be precipitated as the white 
sulphate, PbS0 4 . 



126 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

Iron 

Boil the acid, if free from nitrogen, with a drop of nitric acid 
to oxidize the iron. Dilute a little, allow to cool and add a solu- 
tion of potassium thiocyanate. A red color proves the presence 
of iron. 

Arsenic 

Marsh Test. In the presence of nascent hydrogen, both 
arsenic and arsenious compounds are reduced, and arsine (or 
arseniuretted hydrogen) AsH 3 is evolved. 

Hydrogen is slowly generated from zinc and dilute sulphuric 
acid, both materials being free from arsenic. The issuing gas is 
passed through a piece of tube which has been drawn out so as to 
produce one or two constricted places in its length. As soon as 
the air is expelled from the apparatus, the issuing hydrogen is 
inflamed. 

A small quantity of the acid to be tested is then introduced 
and a piece of cold white porcelain depressed upon the flame. 
If any arsenic is present, a rich brown-black metallic looking 
stain will be deposited. The deposit being volatile and the flame 
very hot, the stain will again disappear if the flame is allowed to 
impinge for more than a moment or two on the same spot. 

If the drawn-out tube is heated near one of the constrictions, 
the arseniuretted hydrogen will be decomposed and an arsenic 
mirror will be deposited in the tube. 

Hydrogen-sulphide Test. The acid is diluted and hydrogen 
sulphide gas passed through. If any arsenic is present it will 
be precipitated as yellow arsenious sulphide, A 2 S 3 . 

THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SULPHURIC ACID 

The quantitative analysis of sulphuric acid, volumetrically, 
is made by titrating a weighed quantity. The titration is per- 
formed by means of a standard normal sodium-hydroxide solu- 
tion which is controlled by a standard normal sulphuric-acid 
solution and results are either expressed as per cent. 80s or per 



QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 127 

cent. H 2 SO 4 . In the following methods all calculations will be 
for per cent, of SOs. The methods may easily be extended to 
express as per cent. H 2 S0 4 if desired. 

Standard Normal Acid 

The strength of the standard normal sulphuric-acid solution 
is fixed by chemically pure sodium carbonate which is the ulti- 
mate standard for acidimetric and alkalimetric volumetric 
analysis. 

Preparation of Sodium Carbonate 

Sodium bicarbonate made by the ammonia-soda process may be 
obtained in exceedingly pure form. The impurities that may be 
present are silica, magnesium, ammonia, arsenic, lime, sodium 
sulphate and sodium chloride. With the exception of silica and 
lime the impurities may be readily removed by washing the 
sodium bicarbonate several times with cold water and decanting 
the supernatant solution of each washing from the difficultly solu- 
ble bicarbonate. The washing is continued until the material is 
free from chlorine, as sodium chloride is the principal impurity, 
and its removal leaves an exceedingly pure product. The bi- 
carbonate is then dried between large filter papers in a hot-air 
oven protected from acid gases, at 100C. and kept in a sealed 
bottle until used. 

Sodium carbonate is made from this pure sodium bicarbonate 
by igniting in a platinum crucible at 290-300C. to constant 
weight in an electric oven. If a constant-temperature oven is 
not available a simple oven may be improvised by use of a sand 
bath and a sheet-iron or clay cylinder shell covered at the upper 
end. A thermometer passing through this shield registers the 
temperature and at the same time serves as a stirrer as it should 
be stirred occasionally. The sand on the outside of the crucible 
should reach the same level as the bicarbonate inside so the con- 
tents is entirely surrounded by an atmosphere of comparatively 
even temperature. 



128 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

Sodium carbonate intended for standardization of acids should 
not be heated over 300C. and if heating is carried on at this 
temperature for a sufficient length of time (1 to 5 hours) constant 
weight will be obtained and one may be sure that neither bi- 
carbonate or water is left behind and yet no sodium oxide -or 
carbon dioxide has been formed as may happen if heating is 
carried on to a low red heat. While the carbonate is still hot 
place about 2 grams each in several small tared glass-stoppered 
weighing bottles. Keep in a desiccator up to the time of weigh- 
ing and titrating, allowing plenty of time to cool. 

To test for purity dissolve about 5 grams in water which ought 
to yield a perfectly clear, colorless solution. If after acidifying 
this solution with nitric acid, no opalescence is caused by barium 
chloride or silver nitrate, the salt may be taken as sufficiently 
pure. 

For exceedingly accurate work the material is analyzed and 
allowance made for impurities that still remain. The error 
caused by any such impurities is so small, that for all practical 
purposes it may be neglected. 

Chemically pure sodium carbonate prepared by a reliable 
manufacturer is sufficiently pure but should be ignited at 290- 
SOO^C. for 1 hour as a precaution. 

Standardizing the Standard Acid 

Wash each weighed amount of sodium carbonate (as titrated) 
into a 350-c.c. beaker and add enough water to dissolve. Methyl 
orange is 'used as an indicator and the cold solution of sodium 
carbonate is colored just perceptibly yellow by adding a drop or 
two of the indicator. If too much is used the color will be too 
intense and the transition too pink on neutralization will be less 
sharp. A change to pink takes place only when all the carbonate 
has been neutralized and the solution slightly acidified. An 
excess of acid (0.5 to 1 c.c.) is added as this is necessary to drive 
out all the carbon dioxide. The solution is then heated to boiling 
to aid in expelling the CO2. Upon heating the color fades, but 



QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 129 

as soon as the carbon dioxide has been expelled, cool by placing 
the beaker in running water and the pink color will return. 
Transfer the solution from the beaker into the titrating vessel 
washing very carefully. The excess of acid is titrated with 
standard sodium hydroxide, the caustic being added drop by 
drop, then cutting the drops from the tip of the burette until a 
fraction of a drop produces a yellow straw color. A comparison 
solution having the color of the end point sought for may be 
prepared by using a slight amount of methyl orange, a few drops 
of standard alkali and diluting to about the same amount as the 
solution to be titrated. 

If all the CO 2 is not expelled an intermediate color is observed 
due to its action on the indicator, the color passing from pink 
through orange to yellow and vice versa. This transition through 
orange, however, is much more noticeable when weaker standard 
solutions, fifth normal, etc., are used. 

Phenolphthalein as an indicator is colorless in an acid solution 
and a pinkish-red in an alkaline solution. If phenolphthalein is 
used, special precautions must be taken as to the exclusion of 
CO 2 . The solution must be well boiled, the standard solutions 
should be C02-free; C0 2 -free water should be used and some 
chemists even claim that the C0 2 contained in the air, which 
comes into contact with the liquid upon cooling, may cause 
trouble in accurate work. 

Preparation and Calculation of the Standard Acid 

A normal solution of sulphuric acid contains 40.03 grams S0 3 
per liter (0.04003 gram per cubic centimeter). To prepare, 
determine the per cent. SO 3 in the chemically pure acid that the 
solution is to be prepared from. 

Let x = grams c.p. acid to be used per liter 

y = per cent. SO 3 in c.p. acid 

rp, 100 X 40.03 

Then x = - 

y 



130 - SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

Titrate an aliquot portion of the newly prepared solution 
against a weighed quantity of sodium carbonate or if accurate 
standard alkali solution is at hand it may similarly be employed 
for examining the provisional acid. Adjustment to normal 
strength may now be made. 

Thus far standard solutions have been considered as being ad- 
justed to normality. Calculations are simplified to a great ex- 
tent by using normal solutions, but to adjust solutions to be 
just normal is a matter of considerable difficulty. It is a general 
practice to calculate the strength of the standard solutions, not 
attempting to have the normality more than approximate, the 
exact strength, however, always being known and used in all 
calculations. 

Following is given the method for calculating the grams SO 3 
per cubic centimeter in the standard acid solution. The grams 
SO 3 per cubic centimeter may be used directly in calculations or 
reduced to per cent, normality. For instance, a normal solution 
contains 0.04003 gram SO 3 per cubic centimeter. Suppose a 
solution is found to contain 0.0395 gram per cubic centimeter. 
Then the per cent, normality of this solution would be : 

- - 9868Ar 

Molecular weight SO 3 = 80.06 
Molecular weight Na 2 C0 3 = 106.005 

QO r\r* 

' n = 0.7552 = gram S0 3 neutralized by 1 gram Na2CO 3 
lUb.UUo 

Let x = gram S0 3 per cubic centimeter in standard acid 
a = grams Na2C0 3 neutralized 
b cubic centimeters standard acid neutralized (cubic 

centimeters acid cubic centimeters alkali in back 

titration.) 

a X 0.7552 
X " ~b~ 

It is necessary to know the relative strengths of the standard 
acid and alkali solutions so that the value of the alkali solution 



QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 131 

used in producing the desired neutralization may be ascertained. 
When the two solutions are exactly equivalent cubic centimeters 
to cubic centimeters, subtraction of the alkali used from the acid 
used gives the correct amount of acid used. If the solutions are 
not exactly equivalent the alkali reading should be multiplied 
by a factor of its per cent, relation to the acid solution in order 
to equalize the two. For example, in determining the relation 
between the acid and alkali we find it requires 29.7 c.c. of alkali 
to neutralize 30 c.c. of acid. 
The factor then would be: 

& - 1 - 0101 

The temperature of the standard acid should be observed at 
the time of its standardization for future use. The coefficient 
of expansion is 0.000325 c.c. or 0.000013 gram SO 3 per cubic 
centimeter per degree Centigrade for average laboratory tem- 
peratures (25C.). 

Example: 

Weight of Na 2 CO 3 used = 2 grams 

Cubic centimeters acid used = 39. 17 c.c. 

Cubic centimeters alkali used = 0.92 c.c. 

29.7 c.c. alkali will neutralize 30 c.c. of acid = 1 .0101 (factor) 
Temperature of acid = 23C. 

0.92 X 1.0101 = 0.93 
39.17-0.93 =38.24 
o y ft 7552 

- = 0.039498 gram SO 3 per cubic centimeter at 23C. 

5o.^4 

Standard Sodium Hydroxide 

A normal solution of sodium hydroxide contains 40.008 grams 
NaOH per liter (0.040008 gram per cubic centimeter). It is not 
essential to have the solution "just normal" but for simplifying 
calculations it should be as nearly equivalent to the standard 
acid as possible. 



132 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

Standard sodium hydroxide is prepared by dissolving approxi- 
mately 50 grams NaOH per liter. The solution may then be 
adjusted to proper strength. This solution is controlled by 
standardizing against the standard sulphuric-acid solution using 
methyl orange as indicator. 

Run a quantity of the standard alkali into the titrating vessel, 
add a drop or two of the indicator which will give a yellow straw 
color. Now titrate with the standard acid, toward neutraliza- 
tion drop by drop then cutting the drops from the tip of the bu- 
rette until a fraction of a drop produces a pink color. 

Observe the temperature of the standard acid and if it varies 
from the time of its standardization use the given coefficient of 
expansion and calculate to the temperature observed at the time 
of the alkali standardization. 

Let x = gram S0 3 equivalent per cubic centimeter standard 

alkali 

a = gram SO 3 per cubic centimeter standard acid 
b = cubic centimeters standard acid used 
c = cubic centimeters standard alkali used 
a X b 

X = T 

Observe the temperature of the standard alkali at the time of 
its standardization for future use. The coefficient of expansion 
is 0.00026 c.c. or 0.000011 gram S0 3 equivalent per cubic centi- 
meter per degree Centigrade for average laboratory tempera- 
tures (25C.). 
Example: 

Gram S0 3 per cubic centimeter standard acid at 23 
= 0.039498 

Temperature acid at time of alkali standardization = 27 

27 - 23 = 4 
4 X 0.000013 = 0.000052 

0.039498 - 0.000052 = 0.039446 gram SO 3 per cubic centi- 
meter standard acid at 27C, 



QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 133 

Cubic centimeters standard acid used = 30 
Cubic centimeters standard alkali used = 29 . 7 
Temperature standard alkali = 26 

0.039446 X 30 . . 

= 0.039844 gram SOa equivalent per cubic 

tu .7 

centimeter standard alkali at 26C. 

Sodium hydroxide purified by alcohol is not suitable for pre- 
paring a standard solution as it does not drain properly in the 
burette, producing an oily appearance. 

When employing methyl orange as an indicator an ordinary 
sodium hydroxide solution may be employed without any special 
precautions. When intended to be used with phenolphthalein 
it should be as free as possible from carbonate as this would inter- 
fere with the indicator. Also the solution should be protected 
against the absorption of CC>2 from the air. COz free water 
should be used. 

A' solution entirely free from carbonate is difficult to prepare 
and preserve when in constant use. By adding 1 to 2 grams of 
barium hydroxide or barium chloride per liter of the standard 
solution the carbonate will be precipitated. It is advisable to 
add only an amount to precipitate the carbonate as the presence 
of barium would produce an opalescence with sulphuric acid 
when titrated. Or a better method would be to add the barium 
hydroxide in slight excess to precipitate the carbonate, then add 
enough sulphuric acid to precipitate the excess barium. 

Protecting the Strength of the Standard Solutions 

The standard solution containers should be well stoppered and 
the air drawn into the bottle purified from CO 2 and acid fumes. 
This can be accomplished by drawing the air through a sodium- 
hydroxide solution or sodium calcium oxide then through calcium 
chloride. Some chemists claim that if vapor is lost from the 
standard reagents and this replaced by dry air, as is the common 
practice, the solution gradually changes in strength. They rec- 



134 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

ommend drawing through a sodium-hydroxide solution only, 
thus purifying the air from C0 2 and acid fumes and at the same 
time saturating the air with moisture. 

Burettes 

Fifty cubic-centimeter burettes, graduated in tenths, with 
a mark passing entirely around the tube are very convenient. 
The eye can be held so that the marks appear to be a straight 
line drawn across the tube, thus lessening chances of error in 
reading. One hundred cubic-centimeter burettes graduated in 
tenths would be too long for convenient manipulation. 

In extremely accurate work, where it is desired to have a 
titration of 75 to 100 c.c., the chamber burette is convenient. 
The chamber located in the upper portion of the tube holds 75 
c.c. and the lower portion drawn out into a uniform bore tube 
holding 25 c.c., is graduated. 

Burettes should be connected to the reservoir of standard 
solutions by means of an arm at the base. 

Burettes should be allowed to drain 2 min. before taking 
readings. Readings should be in hundredths of a cubic centi- 
meter. Meniscus readers are of great value. 

Observing Temperature 

Thermometers may be suspended from the stoppers of the 
reservoirs. 

The burette may be water-jacketed with a large glass tube 
and the thermometer suspended along side of the burette. 

The thermometer may be inserted in the upright siphon tube 
from the reservoir at the base of the burette. 

Titrating Vessels 

White porcelain dishes (500-c.c. capacity) or 4-in. casseroles 
are best adapted for titrating vessels on account of the clear 



QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 135 

white background, enabling the analyst to see the end point 
clearly. 

Preparing Indicator Solution 

Methyl orange may be prepared by dissolving 1 gram of the 
reagent per liter of water. 

Phenolphthalein may be prepared by dissolving 1 gram of the 
reagent per liter of neutral 95 per cent, alcohol. 

Methods of Weighing Acid 

Non-fuming. Tared, glass-stoppered, conical-shape weighing 
bottles about 15-c.c. capacity are very convenient. Weigh 
about 1.5 to 2 grams for each titration. Wash into the titrating 
vessel, dilute to 150-200 c.c. and titrate. 

Fuming. Fuming acid must be confined during weighing and 
until diluted with water without loss of SO 3 . If the acid is 
wholly or partly crystallized, heat moderately until it becomes 
liquid and mix thoroughly before sampling. Acid which is not 
far removed from real SO 3 in composition would give off too 
much SO 3 in this operation. Such acid should be weighed out 
in a stoppered bottle and mixed in this with a known and exactly 
analyzed quantity of a weaker acid at a temperature from 30 
to 40C. In this way an acid that will remain liquid at ordinary 
temperatures can be formed. Of course the amount of diluting 
acid added will have to be taken into calculations. 

A few methods for weighing follow: 

1. Lunge -Rey Pipette. This consists of a small bulb with a 
stop-cock at each end, the tube from one being capillary. The 
capillary tube is covered with a ground on light glass cup which 
is weighed with the pipette. The whole apparatus is weighed, 
the stop-cock next to the capillary is closed and the air in the 
bulb exhausted by applying suction at the other (upper) tube, 
the stop-cock is closed thus sealing the vacuum. The capillary 
tube is then dipped into the acid to be sampled, the lower stop- 



136 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

cock then opened and the acid will be drawn into the bulb. The 
lower stop-cock is closed and the capillary covered with the cup 
and the whole again weighed. The pipette is emptied by placing 
the capillary under water, opening both stop-cocks and allowing 
the acid to run out, then washing thoroughly. Dilute to 150 to 
200 c.c. and titrate. 

2. Glass-tube Method. Some chemists use glass tubes bent 
in different shapes for weighing fuming acid. The acid is drawn 
into the tube by applying suction and emptied by submerging 
under water and allowing to run out by gravity, regulating the 
outflow by placing a finger over the end of the tube or by regu- 
lating the flow of water sometimes used to force the acid out. 

3. Glass-bulb Method. In the bulb method thin glass bulbs 
of about 2-c.c. capacity are used. The bulbs have a capillary 
tube from two sides, one about J^ in. long which is sealed and 
used as a handle and the other about 3 in. long. These bulbs 
may be easily made by an amateur glass blower. After weighing 
the bulb, heat moderately over a low alcohol flame, then place 
the long tube into the acid to be sampled and allow to cool. 
The contraction of the air upon cooling will draw the acid into 
the bulb. Draw 1.5 to 2 grams. Seal the end with the flame, 
wipe the acid off carefully and weigh. Insert the bulb along 
with about 50 c.c. water in a well-stoppered bottle, large enough 
to allow the bulb to be placed loosely. Give the bottle a vigor- 
ous shake so as to break the bulb. A sudden vibration occurs 
from the contact of the acid with the water and clouds of SO 3 
rise which will be absorbed by a little shaking. When the SOs 
fumes are completely absorbed, open the bottle and crush the 
capillary tubes with a glass rod. Wash into the titrating vessel, 
dilute to 150-200 c.c. and titrate. 

Advantages of the bulb method: 

1. Convenience in handling as compared to the awkwardness 
of the other methods. 

2. To facilitate drying the tubes or pipette, requires that they 
be rinsed in alcohol, followed by ether, then heating, dry air 



QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 137 

being aspirated through. This requires a great deal of time and 
work which is eliminated by the bulb method. 

3. In diluting, strong fuming acid cannot be run directly into 
water in an open vessel without great chances of loss. SOa fumes 
may escape unabsorbed. Also loss may occur through the bump- 
ing and splashing caused by the sudden evolution of heat when 
the acid comes into contact with water. The bulb method does 
not have these objections. 

4. If solid acid is being analyzed, using the bulb method it 
only has to be kept liquid long enough to draw into the bulb 
while with the other methods it also must be kept in the liquid 
state to empty from the tube or pipette. 

Titration of Acid 

As indicator methyl orange is used and so much is only taken 
than the pink color produced is quite visible, say a drop. A 
yellow straw-colored end point is sought for and to be certain of 
neutralization it is best to titrate back, cutting a fraction of a 
drop off the tip of the burette until a faint trace of pink is 
observed. 

If phenolphthalein is used as an indicator titrate with alkali 
until a pinkish-red is observed. 

Nitrous acid destroys the coloring matter of methyl orange, 
but commercial acid seldom contains sufficient amount to cause 
any trouble. If any difficulty is encountered, the indicator 
should be added or renewed shortly toward neutralization or an 
excess of alkali added, then methyl orange, and the solution then 
titrated back with standard acid. 

Let x = per cent. SO 3 

a = gram SOs equivalent per cubic centimeter in stand- 
ard alkali 

b = cubic centimeters standard alkali neutralized (cubic 
centimeters alkali used cubic centimeters acid used) 

c = grams acid (weight of sample) 

a X b X 100 

x = 



138 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

If the temperature of the standard alkali differs from the time 
of its standardization adjust the temperature correction before 
making calculations. 

Example: 

Grams acid (weight of sample) = 1 . 9845 

Cubic centimeters standard alkali used = 40 . 00 

Temperature of standard alkali = 22C. 
Gram SO 3 equivalent per cubic centi- 

meter standard alkali at 26C. = 0.039844 

26 - 22C. = 4.0 

4 X 0.000011 = 0.000044 

. 039844 + . 000044 = . 039888 

0.039888 X 40 X 100 ar . 

= 80.39 per cent, SO 3 



Thus far all operations have been carried on under the assump- 
tion that no S0 2 is present in the sulphuric acid. If SO 2 is pres- 
ent, operations and calculations must be extended according to 
the indicator used. 

Sulphur dioxide dissolves in water forming sulphurous acid. 
When phenolphthalein is used as an indicator the reaction is 

H 2 SO 3 + 2NaOH = Na 2 S0 3 + 2H 2 

With methyl orange, the point of neutrality is reached when 
the acid salt NaHSO 3 has been formed thus requiring only one- 
half as much alkali for neutralization as when phenolphthalein is 
used 

H 2 S0 3 + NaOH = NaHS0 3 + H 2 

Determine the amount of S0 2 present by titrating a separate 
sample with N/10 iodine using starch as an indicator. The end 
point is reached when a blue color is observed. 

Let x = per cent. SO 2 

a = cubic centimeters N/10 1 used ; 1 cc. = . 0032 gram SO 2 
b = grams acid in sample 



X = 



QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 139 

a X 0.0032 X 100 



SO, _ 80.06 _ 

S0 2 " 64.06 " 

Using phenolphthalein : 

Per cent. S0 3 as total acidity (per cent. SO 2 X 1.25) = 

actual per cent. S0 3 . 
Using methyl orange: 

Percent. SO 3 as total acidity - 0.5 (percent. SO 2 X 1.25) = 

actual per cent. SOa. 

If it is desired to calculate fuming acid as per cent, free SO 3 , no 
SO 2 being present, the formulas given under the caption " Form- 
ulas for use in sulphuric-acid calculations" may be used. If SO 2 
is present it should be calculated as follows: 

Example. Methyl orange is used as indicator: 

Total acidity per cent. SO 3 = 83.5 
Per cent. SO 2 = 2.0 

Per cent. 

Actual total SO 3 = 83.5 - 0.5 (2 X 1.25)= 82.25 

H 2 O = 100.0 - (82.25 + 2.0) = 15.75 

Combined SO 3 = 15.75 X 4.4438 =69.99 

Free SO 3 = 82.25 - 69.99 = 12.26 

H 2 S0 4 = 15.75 + 69.99 = 85.74 

Therefore the composition of the acid would be: 

Per cent. 

H 2 SO 4 = 85.74 

FreeSO 3 = 12.26 

SO 2 = 2.00 

100.00 

QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF LEAD, IRON AND ZINC IN 
SULPHURIC ACID 

Lead 

Weigh 100 grams of the acid and dilute with an equal volume 
of water and twice its vo'ume of alcohol. Upon cooling the lead 



140 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

settles as a white precipitate of sulphate. Filter directly on an 
asbestos mat in a tared Gooch crucible, wash several times with 
dilute alcohol, dry and weigh as lead sulphate. 

1 gram PbS0 4 = 0.68324 gram Pb. 



Iron 

Weigh 100 grams of the acid, add a few drops of hydrogen 
peroxide to oxidize the iron. Make alkaline by adding ammonia 
which will precipitate the iron, heat to boiling and filter. Dis- 
solve the precipitate from the filter with dilute sulphuric acid, 
wash with hot water, add about 10 c.c. concentrated sulphuric 
acid and pass through pure zinc shavings. Wash the latter 
thoroughly and then titrate with potassium permanganate. 
This is best employed as an empirical solution prepared by dis- 
solving 564 mg. KMnO 4 per liter. 

1 c.c. = 0.001 gram Fe or 0.001 per cent. Fe on a 100-gram 
sample. 

Zinc 

Weigh 100 grams acid, dilute to about 400 c.c., neutralize with 
ammonia and filter off the iron. Pass through H 2 S gas, allow 
the ZnS to settle. Decant the supernatant liquor. Dissolve 
the precipitate with hydrochloric acid, neutralize with ammonia, 
add a small amount of ammonium chloride and an excess of 10 
c.c. hydrochloric acid. Dilute to about 250 c.c., heat to boiling 
and titrate while hot with potassium ferrocyanide using uranium 
nitrate on a spot plate as indicator. 

THE ANALYSIS OF MIXED ACID AND NITRATED SULPHURIC 

ACID 

Mixed acid is the technical name for a mixture of strong sul- 
phuric acid and nitric acid. The analysis includes the deter- 
mination of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 and lower oxides which may be cal- 



ANALYSIS OF MIXED ACID 141 

culated as N 2 O 3 , N 2 O 5 , HNO 2 or even as N 2 O 4 and in the case 
of faming sulphuric acid being present the determination of SO 3 . 
In the presence of the latter HNO 3 is supposed to lose its com- 
bined water according to the reaction: 

2HNO 3 + S0 3 = H 2 S0 4 + N 2 O 5 

If any SO 2 should be present it is assumed that it is oxidized 
to SO 3 with the formation of H 2 S0 4 and the anhydrides SO 3 and 
N 2 O 3 according to the reaction: 

N 2 O 5 -f H 2 O + 2SO 2 = N 2 O 3 + SO 3 + H 2 SO 4 
Some chemists prefer to express the reaction: 
2HNO 3 + SO 2 = H 2 SO 4 + N 2 O 4 

The analysis is carried out by three titrations: 

(a) Determination of total acidity. 

(6) Determination of sulphuric acid, including free SO 3 in the 
case of fuming acid. 

(c) Determination of lower oxides of nitrogen. 

(a) Total Acidity. The sample is accurately weighed by one 
of the procedures recommended for fuming sulphuric acid and 
diluted with water as described. If methyl orange is employed 
as indicator, either add it only toward the end of the titration 
or renew it as destroyed or add an excess of alkali, then the indi- 
cator and titrate back. Calculate as per cent. SO 3 . 

(6) Sulphuric Acid. A second sample is weighed and diluted 
as in the case of total acids. The solution is evaporated on a 
steam bath to expel the volatile acids, lower oxides and nitric. 
The evaporation is hastened by blowing a current of hot, dry, 
pure air over the sample. About 5 c.c. water are added and this 
again evaporated. The acid is then diluted with water and 
titrated with the standard alkali. Calculate as per cent. SO 3 
which gives the actual per cent. 

(c) Lower Oxides. A third sample is weighed and diluted as 
in the case of total acids. The solution is titrated immediately 



142 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

with N/10 KMn0 4 , the reagent being added rapidly at first and 
finally drop by drop as the end point is approached. The reac- 
tion at the end is apt to be slow so that time must be allowed for 
complete oxidation. The titration is completed when a pink 
color is obtained that does not fade in 3 min. 

Organic matter is also oxidized by KMnO 4 hence will interfere 
if present. If organic matter is present the titration should be 
made with N/10 iodine solution. 

KMnO4 reacts with nitrous acid or a nitrate as follows: 

2KMn0 4 + 5HN0 2 + 3H 2 SO 4 = K 2 SO 4 + 5HNO 3 + 

3H 2 O + 2MnSO 4 

4KMnO 4 + 5N 2 O 3 + 6H 2 SO 4 = 2K 2 SO 4 + 4MnSO 4 + 

5N 2 O 5 + 6H 2 

Therefore 1 c.c. N/10 KMnO 4 = 0.0019 gram N 2 3 

0.0046 gram N 2 O 4 
0.00235 gram HNO 2 

The KMn0 4 solution is standardized against sodium oxalate. 
Reaction : 

5Na 2 C 2 4 -|- 2KMn0 4 + 8H 2 SO 4 = 

K 2 SO 4 + 2MnSO 4 + 5Na 2 S0 4 + 10CO 2 + 8H 2 O. 

Example. Mixed acid analysis free S0 3 absent. 
The total acidity in terms of S0 3 is found to be 67.76 per cent. 
The total S0 3 after evaporation = 34 . 55 per cent. 
The N 2 O 3 = 0.096 per cent. 

To calculate the composition of the mixed acid : 

67.76 - 34.55 = 33.21 per cent. HNO 3 + HNO 2 as SO 3 . 
The amount of acidity as nitric acid is: 
2HNO 3 2(63.018) 



S0 3 80.06 



X 33.21 = 52.27 per cent. HN0 3 + 



HNO 2 as HNO 3 . 



ANALYSIS OF MIXED ACID 143 

The equivalent of N 2 O 3 in HNO 3 is: 

2HNO 3 2(63.018) v 

-N^7 ^7o2- X 0.096 = 0.16 per cent 

The amount of nitric acid present is: 

52.27 - 0.16 = 52.11 per cent. HNO 3 . 
The amount of sulphuric acid present is: 

^ = Sx34.5 5 = 42.33 per cent. H 2 so, 

From these figures the analysis of the mixed acid is : 

H 2 S0 4 = 42.33 

HNO 3 = 52.11 

N 2 O 3 = 0.10 

By difference H 2 O = 5.46 



100.00 per cent. 

Example. Mixed acid analysis free SO S present. 
Nitric acid in the presence of free SO 3 is assumed to be the 
anhydride N 2 Os. 

The total acidity in terms of SO 3 is found to be 84 per cent. 
The total SO 3 after evaporation 82 per cent. 
84 - 82 = 2 per cent. SO 3 difference. 
The equivalent N 2 Os is: 

cent. 



Water = 100 - (82 + 2.698) = 15.302 per cent. 

Combined S0 3 = 15.302 X 4.4438 =68.00 

Free SO 3 = 82-68 = 14.00 

H 2 SO 4 = 68 + 15.30 =83.30 



144 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

From these figures the analysis of the mixed acid is: 

H 2 SO 4 = 83.30 

FreeSO 3 = 14.00 

N 2 5 = 2.70 

100.00 per cent. 

Du Pont Nitrometer Method 

The principle of the nitrometer method for the determination 
of nitrogen acids in sulphuric acid and mixed acid is the reaction 
between sulphuric acid and nitrogen acids in the presence of 
mercury. This converts all nitrogen acids into NO: 

2HN0 3 + 3H 2 SO 4 + 3Hg. = 4H 2 O + 3HgSO 4 + 2NO 

There are several types of nitrometers, the Du Pont having 
proved to be the most accurate and convenient, in fact, in the 
United States it is now practically accepted as the standard 
nitrometer apparatus. The United States government uses it ex- 
clusively in all nitrometer work. By use of this apparatus, direct 
readings in per cent, may be obtained, without recourse to cor- 
rection of the volume of gas to standard conditions and calcula- 
tions such as are required with ordinary nitrometers. 

The apparatus consists of a generating bulb D of 300 c.c. capac- 
ity with its reservoir E connected with heavy walled rubber tub- 
ing. D carries two glass stop-cocks as is shown in illustration. 
c is a two way stop-cock communicating with either the cup or 
the right angle capillary exit tube. C is the chamber reading 
burette, calibrated to read in percentages of nitrogen and gradu- 
ated from 10 to 14 per cent., divided into one-hundredths. Be- 
tween 171.8 and 240.4 c.c. of gas must be generated to obtain a 
reading. B is the ungraduated compensating burette very simi- 
lar in form to the reading burette C. A is the leveling bulb 
which is connected with B and C with heavy walled rubber tubing 
by the glass connection y. By raising or lowering this bulb the 
standard pressure of the system may be obtained. F is a meas- 
uring burette- that may be used in place of C where a wider range 



ANALYSIS OF MIXED ACID 



145 



of measurement is desired. It can be used for the measurement 
of small as well as large amounts of gas. It is most commonly 
graduated to hold 300.1 milligrams of NO at 20C. and 760 mm. 
pressure and this volume is divided into 100 units (subdivided 
in tenths) each unit being equivalent to 3.001 milligrams of NO. 





rt 



When compensated, the gas from ten times the molecular weight 
in milligrams of any nitrate of the formula RNO 3 (or five times 
the molecular weight of R(NO 3 ) 2 ) should exactly fill the burette. 
This simplifies all calculations; for example, the per cent, nitric 
acid in a mixed acid would be : 

Burette reading X 63.02 

Grams acid taken X 100 = *** pent ' HN 3 
10 



146 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

Standardizing the Apparatus. The apparatus having been 
arranged and the various parts filled with mercury, the instru- 
ment is standardized as follows: 

20 to 30 c.c. of sulphuric acid are drawn into the gene- 
rating bulb through the cup, and at the same time about 
210 c.c. of air; cocks c and d are closed and the bulb well 
shaken; this thoroughly desiccates the air which is then run 
over into the compensating burette until the mercury is about 
on a level with the 12.30 per cent, mark on the reading burette, 
the two being held in the same relative position, after which the 
compensating burette is sealed off by closing stop-cock a. A 
further quantity of air is desiccated in the same manner and run 
into the reading burette so as to fill up to about the same mark; 
the cock b is then closed and a small glass U-tube filled with sul- 
phuric acid (not water) is attached to the exit tube of the reading 
burette; when the mercury columns are balanced and the enclosed 
air cooled down, the cock b is carefully opened and when the sul- 
phuric acid balances in the U-tube, and the mercury columns in 
both burettes are at the same level, then the air in each one is 
under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. A read- 
ing is now made from the burette and the barometric pressure and 
temperature carefully noted using the formula: 

FoPo(273 + fl 

V t = ~ 



The volume this enclosed air would occupy at 760 mm. pressure 
and 20C. is found. The cock b is again closed and the reservoir 
A manipulated so as to bring the mercury in both burettes to the 
same level and in the reading burette to the calculated value as 
well. A strip of paper is now pasted on the compensating bu- 
rette at the level of the mercury and the standardization is 
complete. 

The better and most rapid method of standardizing is to fill 
the compensating chamber with desiccated air as stated in the 
previous method and then to introduce into the generating cham- 



ANALYSIS OF MIXED ACID 147 

ber 1 gram of pure potassium nitrate dissolved in 2 to 4 c.c. of 
water, the cup is rinsed out with 20 c.c. 66Be. sulphuric acid, 
making three or four washings of it, each lot being drawn sepa- 
rately into the bulb. The generating bulb is then shaken 
vigorously, care being taken that stopcock d is open, until ap- 
parently all gas is formed. Then close cock d and repeat the 
shaking for two minutes. The generated gas is then transferred 
into the measuring burette. The columns in both burettes are 
balanced so that the reading burette is at 13.85 (per cent. N in 
KNO 3 ). A strip of paper is pasted on the compensating burette 
at the level of the mercury and the standardization is accom- 
plished. By this method the temperature and pressure readings 
and the calculations are avoided. 

Making the Test. The acid is weighed, the amount being gov- 
erned by its nitrogen content and transferred into the cup of the 
generating bulb. If any free SO 3 is present the acid should be 
mixed after weighing with 95 per cent, reagent sulphuric acid. 
The sample is drawn into the bulb; the cup is then rinsed with 
three or four washings of 95 per cent, sulphuric acid, the total 
quantity being 20 c.c. Care should be exercised that no air 
enters the bulb when drawing the acid in. 

To generate the gas, the bulb is shaken vigorously until ap- 
parently all the gas is formed, taking care that stop-cock d has 
been left open; this cock is then closed and the shaking repeated 
for two minutes. The reservoir A is then lowered until about 
60 c.c. of mercury and 20 c.c. of acid are left in the generating 
bulb. There will remain then sufficient space for 220 c.c. of gas. 
If too much mercury is left in the bulb the mixture will be so 
thick that it will be found difficult to complete the reaction, a 
long time will be required for the residue to settle and some of 
the gas is liable to be held in suspension by the mercury, so that 
inaccurate results follow. 

The generated gas is now transferred to the reading burette, 
and after waiting a couple of minutes to allow for cooling, both 
burettes are balanced, so that in the compensating tube the 



148 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

mercury column is on a level with the paper mark, as well as 
with the column in the reading burette ; the reading is then taken : 

HNO 3 63.018 



N 14.01 



= 4.4981 



Burette reading TTAT/^ 

r X 4.4981 = per cent. HN0 3 



Weight acid taken 

Note. The generating bulb should be flushed out with 95 per 
cent, sulphuric acid after every determination. 

A test should always be made to see whether the glass stop- 
cocks are tight. They will hardly remain so without greasing 
occasionally with vaseline, but this ought to be done very slightly, 
so as to avoid any grease getting into the bore, for if it comes 
in contact with acid, troublesome froth will be formed. 

Ferrous-sulphate Method 

Nitric acid may be estimated quantitatively in sulphuric acid 
and mixed acid by titration with ferrous sulphate in the presence 
of strong sulphuric acid. The strong sulphuric acid is used as the 
medium in which the titration is performed. This method checks 
the nitrometer method very well and very accurate results may 
be obtained. 

The following equation represents the reaction taking place : 

4FeSO 4 + 2HNO 3 + 2H 2 SO 4 = 2Fe 2 (S0 4 )3 + N 2 3 + 3H 2 

For detailed procedure the analyst is referred to Scott's 
''Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis." 

CALIBRATION OF STORAGE TANKS AND TANK CARS 

One of the problems often confronted in acid practice is the 
accurate calibration of storage tanks and tank cars. When 
these are merely of upright cylindrical shape, the solution is very 
simple, but when the cylinder has bumped ends and lies on its 



CALIBRATION OF STORAGE TANKS 149 

side, it becomes more complicated as there are two variables to 
be considered, that is, the cylinder and the spherical segments at 
the ends. 

Methods based on the assumption that the tank is a true cylin- 
der are applicable with accuracy only to cases when the tank has 
flat heads. In the majority of cases met with in practice, how- 
ever, the mechanical advantages to be gained have required that 
the heads of the tanks be bumped. To such tanks it is impossi- 
ble to apply the aforementioned method of calculation without 
the introduction of considerable error. 

General practice of tank design is to have the radius of the tank 
head equal to the diameter of the tank. On account of the almost 
universal acceptance of this practice of construction, the proposi- 
tion will be confined to the above condition. In subsequent 
calculations, therefore, advantage of the above condition will be 
taken, which results in making the diameter of the base of the 
spherical segment equal to the radius of the sphere. 

Procedure. Treat the tank as consisting of two component 
parts : 

1. The content of the material in the cylindrical portion of the 
tank, i.e., the tank exclusive of the bumped ends. 

2. The content of the material held by the bumped ends. 
Treating the two component volumes separately, designate 

them as: 

Vol. A = volume of cylinder. 
Vol. B = volume of single bumped end. 
Total volume = Vol. A + 2 Vol. B. 

Vol. A is equal to the product of the length of the cylinder and 
the area of the segment of the circle. 

Vol. B may be expressed as the volume of a portion of a spher- 
ical segment. 

To calibrate a tank for each vertical inch of height, determine 
these component volumes for every inch of height and add them 
together. 



150 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



Determination of Vol. A 
Calculate the height of the segment as a decimal fraction of 



the diameter of the tank y . Consult the following table and 
find the corresponding coefficient. 

Vol. A = (Coefficient) X (Square of diameter) X (Length of tank) 
If the tank is filled to over one-half, calculate the volume of 
the empty space and deduct this from the total capacity of the 
cylinder. 

Then Vol. A = (Total capacity of cylinder) 

(Volume of empty space) 



h 

d 


Coefficient 


h 
d 


Coefficient 


h 
d 


Coefficient 


h 
d 


Coefficient 


.001 


.00004 


.021 


.00403 


.041 


.01093 


.061 


.01972 


.002 


.00012 


.022 


.00432 


.042 


.01133 


.062 


.02020 


.003 


.00022 


.023 


.00462 


.043 


.01173 


.063 


.02068 


.004 


.00034 


.024 


.00492 


.044 


.01214 


.064 


.02117 


.005 


.00047 


.025 


.00523 


.045 


.01256 


.065 


.02166 


.006 


.00062 


.026 


.00555 


.046 


.01297 


.066 


.02216 


.007 


.00078 


.027 


.00587 


.047 


.01339 


.067 


.02265 


.008 


.00095 


.028 


.00619 


.048 


.01382 


.068 


.02316 


.009 


.00114 


.029 


.00653 


.049 


.01425 


.069 


.02366 


.010 


.00133 


.030 


.00687 


.050 


.01468 


.070 


.02417 


.011 


.00153 


.031 


.00721 


.051 


.01512 


.071 


.02468 


.012 


.00175 


.032 


.00756 


.052 


.01556 


.072 


.02520 


.013 


.00197 


.033 


.00791 


.053 


.01601 


.073 


.02571 


.014 


.00220 


.034 


.00827 


.054 


.01646 


.074 


.02624 


.015 


.00244 


.035 


.00864 


.055 


.01691 


.075 


.02676 


.016 


.00269 


.036 


.00901 


.056 


.01737 


.076 


.02729 


.017 


.00294 


.037 


.00938 


.057 


.01783 


.077 


.02782 


.018 


.00320 


.038 


.00976 


.058 


.01830 


.078 


.02836 


.019 


.00347 


.039 


.01015 


.059 


.01877 


.079 


.02889 


.020 


.00375 


.040 


.01054 


.060 


.01924 


.080 


.02944 



CALIBRATION OF STORAGE TANKS 



151 



h 
d 


Coefficient 


h 
d 


Coefficient 


h 

d 


Coefficient 


h 

d 


Coefficient 


.081 


.02998 


.116 


.05081 


.151 


.07459 


.186 


.10077 


.082 


.03053 


.117 


.05145 


.152 


.07531 


.187 


.10155 


.083 


.03108 


.118 


.05209 


.153 


.07603 


.188 


. 10233 


.084 


.03163 


.119 


.05274 


.154 


.07675 


.189 


.10312 


.085 


.03219 


.120 


.05339 


.155 


.07747 


.190 


.10390 


.086 


.03275 


.121 


.05404 


.156 


.07819 


.191 


.10468 


.087 


.03331 


.122 


.05469 


.157 


.07892 


.192 


. 10547 


.088 


.03387 


.123 


.05535 


.158 


.07965 


.193 


. 10626 


.089 


.03444 


.124 


.05600 


.159 


.08038 


.194 


. 10705 


.090 


.03501 


.125 


.05666 


.160 


.08111 


.195 


.10784 


.091 


.03559 


.126 


.05733 


.161 


.08185 


.196 


.10864 


.092 


.03616 


.127 


.05799 


.162 


.08258 


.197 


. 10943 


.093 


.03674 


.128 


.05866 


.163 


.08332 


.198 


.11023 


.094 


.03732 


.129 


.05933 


.164 


.08406 


.199 


.11103 


.095 


.03791 


.130 


.06000 


.165 


.08480 


.200 


.11182 


.096 


.03850 


.131 


.06067 


.166 


.08555 


.201 


.11263 


.097 


.03909 


.132 


.06135 


.167 


.08629 


.202 


.11343 


.098 


.03968 


.133 


.06203 


.168 


.08704 


.203 


. 11423 


.099 


.04028 


.134 


.06271 


.169 


.08779 


.204 


.11504 


.100 


.04088 


.135 


.06339 


.170 


.08854 


.205 


.11584 


.101 


.04148 


.136 


.06407 


.171 


.08929 


.206 


.11665 


.102 


.04208 


.137 


.06476 


.172 


.09004 


.207 


.11746 


.103 


.04269 


.138 


.06545 


.173 


.09080 


.208 


.11827 


.104 


.04330 


.139 


.06614 


.174 


.09156 


.209 


.11908 


.105 


.04391 


.140 


.06683 


.175 


.09231 


.210 


.11990 


.106 


.04452 


.141 


.06753 


.176 


.09307 


.211 


. 12071 


.107 


.04514 


.142 


.06823 


.177 


.09384 


.212 


. 12153 


.108 


.04576 


.143 


.06892 


.178 


.09460 


.213 


. 12235 


.109 


.04638 


.144 


.06963 


.179 


.09537 


.214 


.12317 


.110 


.04701 


.145 


.07033 


.180 


.09614 


.215 


. 12399 


.111 


.04763 


.146 


..07103 


.181 


.09690 


.216 


.12481 


.112 


.04826 


.147 


.07174 


.182 


.09768 


.217 


.12563 


.113 


.04889 


.148 


.07245 


.183 


.09845 


.218 


.12646 


.114 


.04953 


.149 


.07316 


.184 


.09922 


.219 


. 12729 


.115 


.05017 


.150 


.07388 


.185 


.10000 


.220 


.12811 



152 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



h 
d 


Coefficient 


h 
d 


Coefficient 


h 
d 


Coefficient 


h 
d 


Coefficient 


.221 


. 12894 


.256 


. 15876 


.291 


. 18996 


.326 


.22228 


.222 


.12977 


.257 


. 15964 


.292 


. 19087 


.327 


.22322 


.223 


. 13061 


.258 


. 16051 


.293 


.19177 


.328 


.22415 


.224 


.13144 


.259 


.16139 


.294 


. 19269 


.329 


. 22509 


.225 


. 13227 


.260 


. 16226 


.295 


. 19360 


.330 


.22603 


.226 


.13311 


.261 


.16314 


.296 


. 19451 


.331 


.22697 


.227 


. 13395 


.262 


. 16402 


.297 


. 19542 


.332 


. 22792 


.228 


.13478 


.263 


. 16490 


.298 


. 19634 


.333 


.22886 


.229 


. 13562 


.264 


. 16578 


.299 


. 19725 


.334 


.22980 


.230 


. 13647 


.265 


. 16666 


.300 


.19817 


.335 


.23075 


.231 


.13731 


.266 


. 16755 


.301 


. 19909 


.336 


.23169 


.232 


.13815 


.267 


. 16843 


.302 


.20000 


.337 


.23263 


.233 


. 13900 


.268 


. 16932 


.303 


.20092 


.338 


.23358 


.234 


. 13984 


.269 


. 17020 


.304 


.20184 


.339 


.23453 


.235 


. 14069 


.270 


.17109 


.305 


.20276 


.340 


.23547 


.236 


.14154 


.271 


.17198 


.306 


.20368 


.341 


.23642 


.237 


. 14239 


.272 


. 17287 


.307 


.20461 


.342 


.23737 


.238 


. 14324 


.273 


.17376 


.308 


.20553 


.343 


.23832 


.239 


. 14409 


.274 


. 17465 


.309 


.20645 


.344 


.23927 


.240 


. 14495 


.275 


. 17554 


.310 


.20738 


.345 


. 24022 


.241 


. 14580 


.276 


. 17644 


.311 


.20830 


.346 


.24117 


.242 


. 14666 


.277 


.17733 


.312 


. 20923 


.374 


.24212 


.243 


.14751 


.278 


. 17823 


.313 


.21016 


.348 


.24307 


.244 


. 14837 


.279 


.17912 


.314 


.21108 


.349 


.24403 


.245 


. 14923 


.280 


. 18002 


.315 


.21201 


.350 


. 24498 


.246 


. 15009 


.281 


. 18092 


.316 


.21294 


.351 


. 24594 


.247 


. 15095 


.282 


. 18182 


.317 


.21387 


.352 


.24689 


.248 


.15182 


.283 


. 18272 


.318 


.21480 


.353 


. 24785 


.249 


. 15268 


.284 


. 18362 


.319 


.21573 


.354 


. 24880 


.250 


. 15355 


.285 


. 18452 


.320 


.21667 


.355 


.24976 


.251 


. 15441 


.286 


. 18543 


.321 


.21760 


.356 


.25072 


.252 


. 15528 


.287 


. 18633 


.322 


.21853 


.357 


.25167 


.253 


.15615 


.288 


. 18724 


.323 


.21947 


.358 


.25263 


.254 


. 15702 


.289 


.18814 


.324 


. 22040 


.359 


. 25359 


.255 


. 15789 


.290 


. 18905 


.325 


.22134 


.360 


.25455 



CALIBRATION OF STORAGE TANKS 



153 



h 
d 


Coefficient 


h 
~d 


Coefficient 


h 

d 


Coefficient 


Coefficient 
d 


.361 


.25551 


.396 


.28945 


.431 


.32392 


.466 


.35873 


.362 


.25647 


.397 


.29043 


.432 


.32491 


.467 


.35972 


.363 


.25743 


.398 


.29141 


.433 


.32590 


.468 


.36072 


.364 


.25840 


.399 


.29239 


.434 


.32689 


.469 


.36172 


.365 


.25936 


.400 


.29337 


.435 


.32788 


.470 


.36272 


.366 


.26032 


.401 


.29435 


.436 


.32887 


.471 


.36372 


.367 


.26129 


.402 


.29533 


.437 


.32987 


.472 


.36471 


.368 


.26225 


.403 


.29631 


.438 


.33086 


.473 


.36571 . 


.369 


.26321 


.404 


.29729 


.439 


.33185 


.474 


.36671 


.370 


.26418 


.405 


.29827 


.440 


.33284 


.475 


.36771 


.371 


.26515 


.406 


.29926 


.441 


.33384 


.476 


.36871 


.372 


.26611 


.407 


.30024 


.442 


.33483 


.477 


.36971 


.373 


.26708 


.408 


.30122 


.443 


.33582 


.478 


.37071 


.374 


.26805 


.409 


.30220 


.444 


.33682 


.479 


.37171 


.375 


.26901 


.410 


.30319 


.445 


.33781 


.480 


.37270 


.376 


.26998 


.411 


.30417 


.446 


.33880 


.481 


.37370 


.377 


.27095 


.412 


.30516 


.447 


.33980 


.482 


.37470 


.378 


.27192 


.413 


.30614 


.448 


.34079 


.483 


.37570 


.379 


.27289 


.414 


.30713 


.449 


.34179 


.484 


.37670 


.380 


.27386 


.415 


.30811 


.450 


.34278 


.485 


.37770 


.381 


.27483 


.416 


.30910 


.451 


.34378 


.486 


.37870 


.382 


.27580 


.417 


.31008 


.452 


.34477 


.487 


.37970 


.383 


.27678 


.418 


.31107 


.453 


.34577 


.488 


.38070 


.384 


.27775 


.419 


.31206 


.454 


.34676 


.489 


.38170 


.385 


.27872 


.420 


.31304 


.455 


.34776 


.490 


.38270 


.386 


.27970 


.421 


.31403 


.456 


.34876 


.491 


.38370 


.387 


.28067 


.422 


.31502 


.457 


.34975 


.492 


.38470 


.388 


.28164 


.423 


.31601 


.458 


.35075 


.493 


.38570 


.389 


.28262 


.424 


.31699 


.459 


.35175 


.494 


.38670 


.390 


' .28359 


.425 


.31798 


.460 


.35274 


.495 


.38770 


.391 


.28457 


.426 


.31897 


.461 


.35374 


.496 


.38870 


.392 


.28555 


.427 


.31996 


.462 


.35474 


.497 


.38970 


.393 


.28652 


.428 


.32095 


.463 


.35573 


.498 


.39070 


.394 


.28750 


.429 


.32194 


.464 


.35673 


.499 


.39170 


.395 


.28848 


.430 


.32293 


.465 


.35773 


.500 


.39270 



154 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

Determination of Vol. B 

Calculate the height of the portion of the spherical segment 
as a decimal fraction of the diameter of the tank H) . Consult 



.05 
.10 
.15 
.20 
.25 
.30 
.35 
.40 
.45 
.50 



the following table and find the 
Coefficient corresponding coefficient or inter- 
polate to find the approximate co- 

.00017 efficient if necessary. 

.00085 

.00221 Vol. B = (Coefficient) X (Cube of 

00420 diameter) 

.00687 

01048 If the tank is filled to over one- 

half, calculate the volume of the 
02234 empty space and deduct this from 

02697 the total capacity of the bumped 



end. 



Then Vol. B = (Total capacity of bumped end) 

(Volume of empty space) . 

Determination of Total Capacity 

Calculate one-half the volume of the tank by the previous 
methods. Double this result which gives the total capacity. 
Or Vol. A = (Square of diameter) X (0.7854) X (Length of tank) 

Vol. B = 0.5236 X h(3a 2 + h 2 ). 
Where a = radius of base of segment 
h = height of segment 
r = radius of sphere 

The height of the segment can better be calculated than 
measured. 

If h = height of segment 
R = radius of sphere 
r = radius of base of segment 
h = R - 



Total capacity = Vol. A + 2 Vol. B. 

Cubic feet X 7.48 = gallons 



MATHEMATICAL TABLE 



155 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OP CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE 
AND CUBE ROOTS 






x/ 

O 


n*- 

X T 




n 1 


n 


\AT 


^T 


1.0 


3.142 


0.7854 


1. 000 


1.000 


1.0000 


.0000 


1.1 


3.456 


0.9503 


1.210 


1.331 


1.0488 


.0323 


1.2 


3.770 


1.1310 


1.440 


1.728 


1.0955 


.0627 


1.3 


4.084 


1.3273 


1.690 


2.197 


1 . 1402 


.0914 


1.4 


4.398 


1.5394 


1.960 


2.744 


1.1832 


.1187 


1.5 


4.712 


1.7672 


2.250 


3.375 


1.2247 


.1447 


1.6 


5.027 


2.0106 


2.560 


4.096 


1.2649 


.1696 


1.7 


5.341 


2.2698 


2.890 


4.913 


1.3038 


.1935 


1.8 


5.655 


2.5447 


3.240 


5.832 


.3416 


.2164 


1.9 


5.969 


2.8353 


3.610 


6.859 


.3784 


.2386 
















2.0 


6.283 


3.1416 


4.000 


8.000 


.4142 


1.2599 


2.1 


6.597 


3.4636 


4.410 


9.261 


.4491 


1.2806 


2.2 


6.912 


3.8013 


4.840 


10.648 


.4832 


1.3006 


2.3 


7.226 


4.1548 


5.290 


12.167 


.5166 


1.3200 


2.4 


7.540 


4.5239 


5.760 


13.824 


.5492 


1.3389 


2.5 


7.854 


4.9087 


6.250 


15.625 


.5811 


1.3572 


2.6 


8.168 


5.3093 


6.760 


17.576 


.6125 


1.3751 


2.7 


8.482 


5.7256 


7.290 


19.683 


.6432 


1.3925 


2.8 


8.797 


6.1575 


7:840 


21 . 952 


.6733 


1.4095 


2.9 


9.111 


6.6052 


8.410 


24.389 


.7029 


1.4260 


3.0 


9.425 


7.0686 


9.00 


27.000 


.7321 


1.4422 


3.1 


9.739 


7.5477 


9.61 


29.791 


.7607 


.4581 


3.2 


10.053 


8.0425 


10.24 


32.768 


.7889 


.4736 


3.3 


10.367 


8.5530 


10.89 


35.937 


.8166 


.4888 


3.4 


10.681 


9.0792 


11.56 


39.304 


.8439 


.5037 


3.5 


10.996 


9.6211 


12.25 


42.875 


1.8708 


.5183 


3.6 


11.310 


10.179 


12.96 


46.656 


.8974 


.5326 


3.7 


11.624 


10.752 


13.69 


50.653 


.9235 


.5467 


3.8 


11.938 


11.341 


14.44 


54.872 


.9494 


.5605 


3.9 


12.252 


11.946 


15.21 


59.319 


.9748 


.5741 

















156 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued} 



n 


m 

O 


n 2 
4 




n 2 


n 


Vn 


j/n 


4.0 


12.566 


12.566 


16.00 


64.000 


2.0000 


1.5874 


4.1 


12.881 


13 . 203 


16.81 


68.921 


2.0249 


1 . 6005 


4.2 


13 195 


13.854 


17.64 


74.088 


2.0494 


1.6134 


4.3 


13 . 509 


14.522 


18.49 


79.507 


2.0736 


1.6261 


4.4 


13.823 


15 . 205 


19.36 


85.184 


2.0976 


1.6386 


4.5 


14.137 


15.904 


20.25 


91.125 


2.1213 


1.6510 


4.6 


14.451 


16.619 


21.16 


97 . 336 


2.1448 


1.6631 


4.7 


14.765 


17.349 


22.09 


103.823 


2.1680 


1.6751 


4.8 


15.080 


18.096 


23.04 


110.592 


2.1909 


1 . 6869 


4.9 


15.394 


18.857 


24.01 


117.649 


2.2136 


1.6985 


5.0 


15.708 


19.635 


25.00 


125.000 


2.2361 


1.7100 


5.1 


16.022 


20.428 


26.01 


132 . 651 


2.2583 


1 . 7213 


5.2 


16.336 


21.237 


27.04 


140.608 


2.2804 


1.7325 


5.3 


16.650 


22.062 


28.09 


148.877 


2.3022 


1 . 7435 


5.4 


16.965 


22.902 


29.16 


157.464 


2.3238 


1.7544 


5.5 


17.279 


23.758 


30.25 


166.375 


2.3452 


1.7652 


5.6 


17.593 


24 . 630 


31.36 


175.616 


2.3664 


1 . 7758 


5.7 


17.907 


25.518 


32.49 


185.193 


2.3875 


1.7863 


5.8 


18.221 


26.421 


33.64 


195.112 


2.4083 


1.7967 


5.9 


18.535 


27.340 


34.81 


205.379 


2.4290 


1 . 8070 


6.0 


18.850 


28.274 


36.00 


216.000 


2.4495 


1.8171 


6.1 


19.164 


29.225 


37.21 


226.981 


2.4698 


1.8272 


6.2 


19.478 


30.191 


38.44 


238.328 


2.4900 


1 . 8371 


6.3 


19.792 


31 . 173 


39.69 


250 . 047 


2.5100 


1.8469 


6.4 


20.106 


32.170 


40.96 


262.144 


2.5298 


1.8566 


6.5 


20.420 


33.183 


42.25 


274.625 


2.5495 


1.8663 


6.6 


20.735 


34.212 


43.56 


287 . 496 


2.5691 


1.8758 


6.7 


21.049 


35.257 


44.89 


300.763 


2.5884 


1.8852 


6.8 


21.363 


36.317 


46.24 


314.432 


2 . 6077 


1.8945 


6.9 


21.677 


37.393 


47.61 


328.509 


2.6268 i 1.9038 



MATHEMATICAL TABLE 



157 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued) 



It 


-n 




n^ 

T T 

. 


n- 


n 


Vn 


^T 


7.0 


21.991 


38.485 


49.00 


343.000 


2.6458 


.9129 


7.1 


22.305 


39.592 


50.41 


357.911 


2.6646 


.9920 


7.2 


22.619 


40.715 


51.84 


373 . 248 


2.6833 


.9310 


7.3 


22.934 


41.854 


53.29 


389 . 017 


2.7019 


.9399 


7.4 


23.248 


43.008 


54.76 


405.224 


2.7203 


.9487 


7.5 


23.562 


44.179 


56.25 


421.875 


2.7386 


1.9574 


7.6 


23.876 


45.365 


47.76 


438.976 


2.7568 


1.9661 


7.7 


24.190 


46.566 


59.29 


456.533 


2.7749 


1.9747 


7.8 


24.504 


47.784 


60.84 


474.552 


2.7929 


1.9832 


7.9 


24.819 


49.017 


62.41 


493.039 


2 . 8107 


1.9916 


8.0 


25.133 


50.266 


64.00 


512.000 


2.8284 


2.0000 


8.1 


25.447 


51.530 


65.61 


531.441 


2.8461 


2.0083 


8.2 


25.761 


52.810 


67.24 


551.368 


2.8636 


2.0165 


8.3 


26.075 


54.106 


68.89 


571 . 787 


2.8810 


2.0247 


8.4 


26.389 


55.418 


70.56 


592 . 704 


2.8983 


2.0328 


8.5 


26.704 


56.745 


72.25 


614.125 


2.9155 


2.0408 


8.6 


27.018 


58.088 


73.96 


636.056 


2.9326 


2.0488 


8.7 


27.332 


59.447 


75.69 


658.503 


2.9496 


2.0567 


8.8 


27.646 


60.821 


77.44 


681 . 472 


2.9665 


2.0646 


8.9 


27.960 


62.211 


79.21 


704.969 


2.9833 


2.0724 


9.0 


28.274 


63.617 


81.00 


729.000 


3.0000 


2.0801 


9.1 


28.588 


65.039 


82.81 


753.571 


.0166 


2.0878 


9.2 


28.903 


66.476 


84.64 


778.688 


3.0332 


2.0954 


9.3 


29.217 


67.929 


86.49 


804 . 357 


3.0496 


2.1029 


9.4 


29.531 


69.398 


88.36 


830.584 


3.0659 


2.1105 


9.5 


29.845 


70.882 


90.25 


857.375 


3.0822 


2.1179 


9.6 


30.159 


72.382 


92.16 


884 . 736 


3.0984 


2.1253 


9.7 


30.473 


73.898 


94.09 


912.673 


3.1145 


2.1327 


9.8 


30.788 


75.430 


96.04 


941 . 192 


3.1305 


2.1400 


9.9 


31.102 


76.977 


98.01 


970.299 


3.1464 


2.1472 



158 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OP CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued] 



n 


TT/l 
O 


n- 

% 


2 


ns 


Vn 


^n 


10.0 


31.416 


78.540 


100.00 


1,000.000 


3.1623 


2.1544 


10.1 


31 . 730 


80.119 


102.01 


1,030.301 


3.1780 


2.1616 


10.2 


32.044 


81.713 


104.04 


1,061.208 


3.1937 


2.1687 


10.3 


32.358 


83.323 


106.09 


1,092.727 


3.2094 


2.1757 


10.4 


32.673 


84.949 


108.16 


1,124.864 


3.2249 


2.1828 


10.5 


32.987 


86.590 


110.25 


1,157.625 


3.2404 


2.1897 


10.6 


33^301 


88.247 


112.36 


,191.016 


3.2558 


2.1967 


10.7 


33.615 


89.920 


114.49 


,225 . 043 


3.2711 


2.2036 


10.8 


33.929 


91 . 609 


116.64 


,259.712 


3.2863 


2.2104 


10.9 


34.243 


93.313 


118.81 


,295.029 


3.3015 


2.2172 


11.0 


34.558 


95.033 


121.00 


,331.000 


3.3166 


2.2239 


11.1 


34.872 


96.769 


123.21 


,367.631 


3.3317 


2.2307 


11.2 


35.186 


98.520 


125.44 


,404.928 


3.3466 


2.2374 


11.3 


35.500 


100.29 


127.69 


,442.897 


3.3615 


2.2441 


11.4 


35.814 


102.07 


129.96 


,481.544 


3.3754 


2.2506 


11.5 


36.128 


103.87 


132.25 


,520.875 


3.3912 


2.2572 


11.6 


36.442 


105.68 


134.56 


,560.896 


3.4059 


2.2637 


11.7 


36.757 


107.51 


136.89 


,601.613 


3.4205 


2.2702 


11.8 


37.071 


109.36 


139.24 


,643.032 


3.4351 


2.2766 


11.9 


37.385 


111.22 


141.61 


,685.159 


3.4496 


2.2831 


12.0 


37.699 


113.10 


144.00 


,728.000 


3.4641 


2.2894 


12.1 


38.013 


114.99 


146.41 


,771.561 


3.4785 


2.2957 


12.2 


38.327 


116.90 


148 . 84 


,815.848 


3.4928 


2.3021 


12.3 


38.642 


118.82 


151.29 


,860.867 


3.5071 


2.3084 


12.4 


38.956 


120.76 


153.76 


,906.624 


3.5214 


2.3146 


12.5 


39.270 


122.72 


156.25 


1,953.125 


3.5355 


2.3208 


12.6 


39.584 


124.69 


158.76 


2,000.376 


3.5496 


2.3270 


12.7 


39.898 


126.68 


161.29 


2,048 . 383 


3 . 5637 


2.3331 


12.8 


40.212 


128.68 


163.84 


2,097.152 


3.5777 


2.3392 


12.9 


40.527 


130.70 


166.41 


2,146.689 


3.5917 


2.3453 



MATHEMATICAL TABLE 



159 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued] 



n 


irn 

o 


n* 

T T 




n 


n< 


v^T 


^T 


i 










13.0 


40.841 


132.73 


169.00 


2,197.000 


3.6056 


2.3513 


13.1 


41.155 


134.78 


171.61 


2,248.091 


3.6194 


2.3573 


13.2 


41.469 


136.85 


174.24 


2,299.968 


3.6332 


2.3633 


13.3 


41 . 783 


138.93 


176.89 


2,352.637 


3.6469 


2.3693 


13.4 


42.097 


141.03 


179.56 


2,406 . 104 


3.6606 


2.3752 


13.5 


42.412 


143.14 


182.25 


2,460.375 


3.6742 


2.3811 


13.6 


42.726 


145.27 


184.96 


2,515.456 


3.6878 


2.3870 


13.7 


43 . 040 


147.41 


187.69 


2,571.353 


3.7013 


2.3928 


13.8 


43.354 


149.57 


190.44 


2,628.072 


3.7148 


2.3986 


13.9 


43.668 


151.75 


193.21 


2,685.619 


3.7283 


2.4044 


14.0 


43.892 


153.94 


196.00 


2,744.000 


3.7417 


2.4101 


14.1 


44.296 


156.15 


198.81 


2,803.221 


3.7550 


2.4159 


14.2 


44.611 


158.37 


201.64 


2,863 . 288 


3.7683 


2.4216 


14.3 


44.925 


160.61 


204.49 


2,924.207 


3.7815 


2.4272 


14.4 


45.239 


162.86 


207.36 


2,985.984 


3.7947 


2.4329 


14.5 


45.553 


165.13 


210.25 


3,048.625 


3.8079 


2.4385 


14.6 


45.867 


167.42 


213.16 


3,112.136 


3.8210 


2.4441 


14.7 


46.181 


169.72 


216.09 


3,176.523 


3.8341 


2.4497 


14.8 


46.496 


172.03 


219.04 


3,241.792 


3.8471 


2.4552 


14.9 


46.810 


174.37 


222.01 


3,307.949 


3.8600 


2.4607 


15.0 


47.124 


176.72 


225.00 


3,375.000 


3.8730 


2.4662 


15.1 


47.438 


179.08 


228.09 


3,442.951 


3.8859 


2.4717 


15.2 


47 . 752 


181.46 


231.04 


3,511.808 


3.8987 


2.4772 


15.3 


48.066 


183.85 


234.09 


3,581.577 


3.9115 


2.4825 


15.4 


48.381 


186.27 


237.16 


3,652.264 


3.9243 


2.4879 


15.5 


48.695 


188.69 


240.25 


3,723.875 


3.9370 


2.4933 


15.6 


49.009 


191.13 


243.36 


3,796.416 


3.9497 


2.4986 


15.7 


49.323 


193.59 


246.49 


3,869 . 893 


3.9623 


2.5039 


15.8 


49.637 


196 . 07 


249.64 


3,944.312 


3.9749 


2.5092 


15.9 


49.951 


198.56 


252.81 


4,019.679 


3.9875 


2.5146 



160 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued) 



n 


xn 



n 2 




n2 


n3 


Vn 


^ 


16.0 


50.265 


201.06 


256.00 


4,096.000 


4.0000 


2.5198 


16.1 


50.580 


203.58 


259.21 


4,173.281 


4.0125 


2.5251 


16.2 


50.894 


206.13 


262.44 


4,251.528 


4.0249 


2.5303 


16.3 


51 . 208 


208.67 


265 . 69 


4,330.747 


4.0373 


2.5355 


16.4 


51 . 522 


211.24 


268.56 


4,410.944 


4.0497 


2.5406 


16.5 


51.836 


213.83 


272.25 


4,492 . 125 


4.0620 


2.5458 


16.6 


52.150 


216.42 


275.56 


4,574.296 


4.0743 


2.5509 


16.7 


52.465 


219.04 


278.89 


4,657.463 


4.0866 


2.5561 


16.8 


52.779 


221.67 


282.24 


4,741.632 


4.0988 


2.5612 


16.9 


53 . 093 


224.32 


285.61 


4,826.809 


4.1110 


2.5663 


17.0 


53 . 407 


226.98 


299.00 


4,913.000 


4.1231 


2.5713 


17.1 


53.721 


229 . 66 


292.41 


5,000.211 


4.1352 


2.5763 


17.2 


54.035 


232.35 


295.84 


5,088.448 


4.1473 


2.5813 


17.3 


54.350 


235.06 


299.29 


5,177.717 


4.1593 


2.5863 


17.4 


54 . 664 


237 . 79 


302.76 


5,268.024 


4.1713 


2.5913 


17.5 


54.978 


240.53 


306.25 


5,359.375 


4.1833 


2.5963 


17.6 


55.292 


243.29 


309.76 


5,451.776 


4.1952 


2.6012 


17.7 


55.606 


246.06 


313.29 


5,545.233 


4.2071 


2.6061 


17.8 


55.920 


248.85 


316.84 


5,639.752 


4.2190 


2.6109 


17.9 


56.235 


251 . 65 


320.41 


5,735.339 


4.2308 


2.6158 


18.0 


56.549 


254.47 


324.00 


5,832.000 


4.2426 


2.6207 


18.1 


56.863 


257.30 


327.61 


5,929 . 741 


4.2544 


2.6258 


18.2 


57.177 


260 . 16 


331.24 


6,028.568 


4.2661 


2.6304 


18.3 


57.491 


263 . 02 


334.89 


6,128.487 


4.2778 


2.6352 


18.4 


57.805 


265.90 


338.56 


6,229.504 


4.2895 


2.6400 


18.5 


58.119 


268.80 


342.25 


6,331.625 


4.3012 


2.6448 


18.6 


58.434 


271.72 


345.96 


6,434.856 


4.3128 


2.6495 


18.7 


58.748 


274.65 


349.69 


6,539.203 


4.3243 


2.6543 


18.8 


59.062 


277 . 59 


353 . 44 


6,644.672 


4.3459 


2 . 6590 


18.9 


59.376 


280.55 


357.21 


6,751.269 


4.3474 


2.6637 



MATHEMATICAL TABLE 



161 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued) 



n 


TTH 
O 


2 

T T 


n2 


7i3 


\AT 


^ 


19.0 


59.690 


283.53 


361 . 00 


6,859.000 


4.3589 


2.6684 


19.1 


60.004 


286.52 


364.81 


6,967.871 


4.3703 


2.6731 


19.2 


60.319 


289.53 


368.64 


7,077.888 


4.3818 


2.6777 


19.3 


60.633 


292.55 


372.49 


7,189.057 


4.3942 


2.6824 


19.4 


60.947 


295.59 


376.36 


7,301.384 


4.4045 


2.6869 


19.5 


61.261 


298.65 


380.25 


7,414.875 


4.4159 


2.6916 


19.6 


61.575 


301 . 72 


284 . 16 


7,529.536 


4.4272 


2.6962 


19.7 


61.889 


304.81 


388.09 


7,642.373 


4.4385 


2.7008 


19.8 


62.204 


307.91 


392.04 


7,762.392 


4.4497 


2.7053 


19.9 


62.518 


311.03 


396.01 


7,880.599 


4.4609 


2.7098 


20.0 


62.832 


314.16 


400.00 


8,000.000 


4.4721 


2.7144 


20.1 


63.146 


317.31 


404.01 


8,120.601 


4.4833 


2.7189 


20.2 


63.460 


320.47 


408.04 


8,242.408 


4.4944 


2.7234 


20.3 


63.774 


323.66 


412.09 


8,365.427 


4.5055 


2.7279 


20.4 


64.088 


326.85 


416.16 


8,489.664 


4.5166 


2.7324 


20.5 


64.403 


330.06 


420.25 


8,615.125 


4.5277 


2.7368 


20.6 


64.717 


333.29 


424.36 


8,741.816 


4.5387 


2.7413 


20.7 


65.031 


336.54 


428.49 


8,869.743 


4.5497 


2.7457 


20.8 


65.345 


339.80 


432.64 


8,998.912 


4.5607 


2.7502 


20.9 


65.659 


343.07 


436.81 


9,129.329 


4.5716 


2.7545 


21.0 


65.973 


346.36 


441.00 


9,261.000 


4.5826 


2.7589 


21.1 


66.288 


349.67 


445.21 


9,393.931 


4.5935 


2.7633 


21.2 


66.602 


352.99 


449.44 


9,528.128 


4.6043 


2.7676 


21.3 


66.916 


356.33 


453.69 


9,663.597 


4.6152 


2.7720 


21.4 


67.230 


359.68 


457.96 


9,800.344 


4.6260 


2.7763 


21.5 


67.544 


363.05 


462.25 


9,938.375 


4.6368 


2.7806 


21.6 


67.858 


366.44 


466.56 


10,077.696 


4.6476 


2.7849 


21.7 


68.173 


369.84 


470.89 


10,218.313 


4.6583 


2.7893 


21.8 


68.487 


373.25 


475.24 


10,360.232 


4. -6690 


2.7935 


21.9 


68.801 


376.69 


479.41 


10,503.459 


4 . 6797 


2.7978 



11 



162 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued) 



n 


irn 

o 


n2 
"T 


7l2 


n 


vv 


#n 


22.0 


69.115 


380.13 


484.00 


10,648.000 


4.6904 


2.8021 


22.1 


69.429 


383.60 


488.41 


10,793.861 


4.7011 


2 . 8063 


22.2 


69.743 


387.08 


462.84 


10,941.048 


4.7117 


2.8105 


22.3 


70.058 


390.57 


497.29 


11,089.567 


4.7223 


2.8147 


22.4 


70.372 


394.08 


501.76 


11,239.424 


4.7329 


2.8189 


22.5 


70.686 


397.61 


506.25 


11,390.625 


4.7434 


2.8231 


22.6 


71.000 


401 . 15 


510.76 


11,543.176 


4.7539 


2.8273 


22.7 


71.314 


404.71 


515.29 


11,697.083 


4.7644 


2.8314 


22.8 


71.628 


408.28 


519.84 


11,852.352 


4.7749 


2.8356 


22.9 


71 . 942 


411.87 


524.41 


12,008.989 


4.7854 


2.8397 


23.0 


72.257 


415.48 


529.00 


12,167.000 


4.7958 


2.8438 


23.1 


72.571 


419.10 


533.61 


12,326.391 


4.8062 


2 . 8479 


23.2 


72.885 


422.73 


538.24 


12,487.168 


4.8166 


2.8521 


23.3 


73.199 


426.39 


542.89 


12,649.337 


4.8270 


2.8562 


23.4 


73.513 


430.05 


547.56 


12,812.904 


4.8373 


2.8603 


23.5 


73.827 


433.74 


552.25 


12,977.875 


4.8477 


2.8643 


23.6 


74.142 


437.44 


556.96 


13,144.256 


4.8580 


2.8684 


23.7 


74.456 


441.15 


561.69 


13,312.053 


4.8683 


2.8724 


23.8 


74.770 


444.88 


566.44 


13,481.272 


4.8785 


2.8765 


23.9 


75.084 


448.63 


571.21 


13,651.919 


4.8888 


2.8805 


24.0 


75.398 


452.39 


576.00 


13,824.000 


4.8990 


2.8845 


24.1 


75.712 


456.17 


580.81 


13,997.521 


4.9092 


2.8885 


24.2 


76.027 


459.96 


585.64 


14,172.488 


4.9192 


2.8925 


24.3 


76.341 


463.77 


590.49 


14,348.907 


4.9295 


2.8965 


24.4 


76.655 


467.60 


595.36 


14,526.784 


4.9396 


2.9004 


24.5 


76.969 


471.44 


600.25 


14,706.125 


4.9497 


2.9044 


24.6 


77.283 


475.29 


605.16 


14,886.936 


4.9598 


2.9083 


24.7 


77.597 


479.16 


610.09 


15,069.223 


4.9699 


2.9123 


24.8 


77.911 


483.05 


615.04 


15,252.992 


4.9799 


2.9162 


24.9 


78.226 


486.96 


620.01 


15,438.249 


4.9899 


2.9201 



MATHEMATICAL TABLE 



163 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued) 



n 


n* 

o V 


n 


v^T 


^ 


25.0 


78 540 


490.87 


625.00 


15,625.000 


5.0000 


2.9241 


25.1 


78.854 


494.81 


630.01 


15,813.251 


5.0099 


2.9279 


25.2 


79.168 


498.76 


635.04 


16,003.008 


5.0199 


2.9318 


25.3 


79.482 


502.73 


640.09 


16,194.277 


5.0299 


2.9356 


25.4 


79.796 


506.71 


645.16 


16,387.064 


5.0398 


2.9395 


25.5 


80.111 


510.71 


650.25 


16,581.375 


5.0497 


2.9434 


25.6 


80.425 


514.72 


655.36 


16,777.216 


5.0596 


2.9472 


25.7 


80.739 


518.75 


660.49 


16,974.593 


5.0695 


2.9510 


25.8 


81.053 


522.79 


665.64 


17,173.512 


5.0793 


2.9549 


25.9 


81.367 


526.85 


670.81 


17,373.979 


5.0892 


2.9586 


26.0 


81.681 


530.93 


676.00 


17,576.000 


5.0990 


2.9624 


26.1 


81.996 


535.02 


681.21 


17,779.581 


5.1088 


2.9662 


26.2 


82.310 


539.13 


686.44 


17,984.728 


5.1185 


2.9701 


26.3 


82.624 


543.25 


691 . 69 


18,191.447 


5.1283 


2.9738 


26.4 


82.938 


547.39 


696.96 


18,399.744 


5.1380 


2.9776 


26.5 


83.252 


551.55 


702.25 


18,609.625 


5.1478 


2.9814 


26.6 


83.566 


555.72 


707.56 


18,821.096 


5.1575 


2.9851 


26.7 


83.881 


559.90 


712.89 


19,034.163 


5.1672 


2.9888 


26.8 


84.195 


564.10 


718.24 


19,248.832 


5.1768 


2.9926 


26.9 


84.509 


568.32 


723.61 


19,465.109 


5.1865 


2.9963 


27.0 


84.823 


572.56 


729.00 


19,683.000 


5.1962 


3.0000 


27.1 


85.137 


576.80 


734.41 


19,902.511 


5.2057 


3.0037 


27.2 


85.451 


581.07 


739.84 


20,123.648 


5.2153 


3.0074 


27.3 


85.765 


585.35 


745.29 


20,346.417 


5.2249 


3.0111 


27.4 


86.080 


589.65 


750.76 


20,570.824 


5.2345 


3.0147 


27.5 


86.394 


593.96 


756.25 


20,796.875 


5.2440 


3.0184 


27.6 


86.708 


598.29 


761.76 


21,024.576 


5.2535 


3.0221 


27.7 


87.022 


602.63 


767.29 


21,253.933 


5.2630 


3.0257 


27.8 


87.336 


606.99 


772.84 


21,484.952 


5.2725 


3.0293 


27.9 


87.650 


611.36 


778.41 


21,717.639 


5.2820 


3.0330 



164 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued] 



n 


n-n 




n 2 
* 4 




n 2 


n^ 


^n 


^T 


28.0 


87.965 


615.75 


784.00 


21,952.000 


5.2915 


3.0366 


28.1 


88.279 


620.16 


789.61 


22,188.041 


5.3009 


3.0402 


28.2 


88.593 


624.58 


795 . 24 


22,425.768 


5.3103 


3.0438 


28.3 


88.907 


629.02 


800.89 


22,665.187 


5.3197 


3.0474 


28.4 


89.221 


633.47 


806.56 


22,906.304 


5.3291 


3.0510 


28.5 


89.535 


637.94 


812.25 


23,149.125 


5.3385 


3.0546 


28.6 


89.850 


642.42 


817.96 


23,393.656 


5.3478 


3.0581 


28.7 


90.164 


646.93 


823.69 


23,639.903 


5.3572 


3.0617 


28.8 


90.478 


651.44 


829.44 


23,887.872 


5.3665 


3.0652 


28.9 


90.792 


655.97 


835.21 


24,137.569 


5.3758 


3.0688 


29.0 


91 . 106 


660.52 


841.00 


24,389.000 


5.3852 


3.0723 


29.1 


91.420 


665.08 


846.81 


24,642.171 


5.3944 


3.0758 


29.2 


91.735 


669.66 


852.64 


24,897.088 


5 . 4037 


3.0794 


29.3 


92.049 


674.26 


858.49 


25,153.757 


5.4129 


3.0829 


29.4 


92.363 


678.87 


864.36 


25,412.184 


5.4221 


3.0864 


29.5 


92.677 


683.49 


870.25 


25,672.375 


5.4313 


3.0899 


29.6 


92.991 


688.13 


876.16 


25,934.336 


5.4405 


3.0934 


29.7 


93 . 305 


692.79 


882.09 


26,198.073 


5.4497 


3.0968 


29.8 


93.619 


697.47 


888.04 


26,463.592 


5 . 4589 


3.1003 


29.9 


93.934 


702.15 


894.01 


26,730.899 


5.4680 


3.1038 


30.0 


94.248 


706.86 


900.00 


27,000.000 


5.4772 


3.1072 


30.1 


94.562 


711.58 


906.01 


27,270.901 


5.4863 


3.1107 


30.2 


94.876 


716.32 


912.04 


27,543.608 


.5.4954- 


3.1141 


30.3 


95.190 


721.07 


918.09 


27,818.127 


5.5045 


3.1176 


30.4 


95.504 


725.83 


924.16 


28,094 . 464 


5.5136- 


3.1210 


30.5 


95.819 


730.62 


930.25 


28,372.625 


5.5226 


3.1244 


30.6 


96.133 


735.42 


936.36 


28,652.616 


5.5317 


3.1278 


30.7 


96.447 


740.23 


942.49 


28,934.443 


5.5407 


3.1312 


30.8 


96.761 


745.06 


948.64 


29,218.112 


5.5497 


3.1346 


30.9 


97.075 


749.91 


954.81 


29,503.629 


5.5587 


3.1380 



MATHEMATICAL TABLE 



165 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued) 



n 


*-n 

O 


n- 

*T 




n* 


n* 


v^ 


^T 


31.0 


97.389 


754.77 


961.00 


29,791.000 


5.5678 


3.1414 


31.1 


97.704 


759.65 


967.21 


30,080.231 


5.5767 


3.1448 


31.2 


98.018 


764.54 


973.44 


30,371.328 


5.5857 


3.1481 


31,3 


98.332 


769.45 


979.69 


30,664.297 


5.5946 


3.1515 


31.4 


98.646 


774.37 


985.96 


30,959.144 


5.6035 


3.1549 


31.5 


98.960 


779.31 


992.25 


31,255.875 


5.6124 


3.1582 


31.6 


99.274 


784:27 


998.56 


31,554.496 


5.6213 


3.1615 


31.7 


99.588 


789.24 


1,004.89 


31,855.013 


5.6302 


3.1648 


31.8 


99.903 


794.23 


1,011.24 


32,157.432 


5.6391 


3.1681 


31.9 


100.22 


799.23 


1,017.61 


32,461.759 


5.6480 


3.1715 


32.0 


100.53 


804.25 


1,024.00 


32,768.000 


5.6569 


3.1748 


32.1 


100.85 


809.28 


1,030.41 


33,076.161 


5.6656 


3.1781 


32.2 


101.16 


814.33 


1,036.84 


33,386.248 


5.6745 


3.1814 


32.3 


101.47 


819.40 


1,043.29 


33,698.267 


5.6833 


3.1847 


32.4 


101.79 


824.49 


1,049.76 


34,012.224 


5.6921 


3.1880 


32.5 


102.10 


829.58 


1,056.25 


34,328.125 


5.7008 


3.1913 


32.6 


102.42 


834.69 


1,062.76 


34,645.976 


5.7056 


3.1945 


32.7 


102.73 


839.82 


1,069.29 


34,965.783 


5.7183 


3.1978 


32.8 


103.04 


844.96 


1,075.84 


35,287.552 


5.7271 


3.2010 


32.9 


103.36 


850.12 


1,082.41 


35,611.289 


5.7358 


3 . 2043 


33.0 


103.67 


855.30 


1,089.00 


35,937.000 


5.7447 


3.2075 


33.1 


103 . 99 


860.49 


1,095.61 


36,264.691 


5.7532 


3.2108 


33.2 


104.30 


865.70 


1,102.24 


36,594.368 


5.7619 


3.2140 


33.3 


104.62 


870.92 


1,108.89 


36,925.037 


5.7706 


3.2172 


33.4 


104.93 


876.19 


1,115.56 


37,259.704 


5.7792 


3.2204 


33.5 


105.24 


881.41 


1,122.25 


37,595.375 


5.7879 


3 . 2237 


33.6 


105.56 


886.68 


1,128.96 


37,933.056 


5.7965 


3.2269 


33.7 


105 . 87 


891 . 97 


1,135.69 


38,272.753 


5.8051 


3 . 2301 


33.8 


106.19 


897.27 


1,142.44 


38,614.472 


5.8137 


3.2332 


33.9 


106.50 


902.59 


1,149.21 


38,958.219 


5.8223 


3.2364 



166 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued} 



n 


irn 

o 


n- 


n- 


n* 


w 


^r 


34.0 


106.81 


907.92 


1,156.00 


39,304.000 


5.8310 


3.2396 


34.1 


107.13 


913.27 


1,162.81 


39,651.821 


5.8395 


3.2424 


34.2 


107.44 


918.63 


1,169.64 


40,001.688 


5.8480 


3.2460 


34.3 


107.76 


924.01 


1,176.49 


40,353.607 


5.8566 


3.2491 


34.4 


108.07 


929.41 


1,183.36 


40,707.584 


5.8751 


3.2522 


34.5 


108.38 


934.82 


1,190.25 


41,063.525 


5.8736 


3.2554 


34.6 


108.70 


940 . 25 


1,197.16 


41,421.736 


5.8821 


3 . 2586 


34.7 


109.01 


945.69 


1,204.09 


41,781.923 


5.8906 


3.2617 


34.8 


109.33 


951.15 


1,211.04 


42,144.192 


5.8991 


3 . 2648 


34.9 


109.64 


956.62 


1,218.01 


42,508.549 


5 . 9076 


3 . 2679 


35.0 


109.96 


962.11 


1,225.00 


42,875.000 


5.9161 


3.2710 


35.1 


110.27 


967 . 62 


1,232.01 


43,243.551 


5 . 9245 


3 . 2742 


35.2 


110.58 


973.14 


1,239.04 


43,614.208 


5.9326 


3.2773 


35.3 


110.90 


978.68 


1,246.09 


43,986.977 


5.9413 


3.2804 


35.4 


111.21 


984.23 


1,253.16 


44,361.864 


5.9497 


3.2835 


35.5 


111.53 


989.80 


1,260.25 


44,738.875 


5.9581 


3.2860 


35.6 


111.84 


995 . 38 


1,267.36 


45,118.016 


5 . 9665 


3.2897 


35.7 


112.15 


1,000.98 


1,274.49 


45,499.293 


5.9749 


3 . 2927 


35.8 


112.47 


,006.60 


1,281.64 


45,882.712 


5.9833 


3.2958 


35.9 


112.78 


,012.23 


1,288.81 


46,268.279 


5.9916 


3.2989 


36.0 


113.10 


,017.88 


1,296.00 


46,656.000 


6.0000 


3.3019 


36.1 


113.41 


,023.54 


1,303.21 


47,045.881 


6.0083 


3.3050 


36.2 


113.73 


,029.22 


1,310.44 


47,437.928 


6.0166 


3 3080 


36.3 


114.04 


,034.91 


1,317.69 


47,832.147 


6.0249 


3.31H 


36.4 


114.35 


1,040.62 


1,324.96 


48,228.544 


6.0332 


3.3141 


36.5 


114.67 


1,046.35 


1,332.25 


48,627.125 


6.0415 


3.3171 


36.6 


114.98 


1,052.09 


1,339.56 


49,017.896 


6.0497 


3.3202 


36.7 


115.30 


1,057.84 


1,346.89 


49,430.863 


6.0580 


3.3232 


36.8 


115.61 


1,053.62 


1,354.24 


49,836.032 


6.0363 


3 . 3262 


36.9 


115.92 


1,069.41 


1,361.61 


50,243.409 


6.0745 


3.3292 



MATHEMATICAL TABLE 



167 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued) 



n- 

irn IT -r 
J 


n- 


n 


\AT 


^T 


37.0 116.24 


1,075.21 


1,369.00 


50,653.000 


6.0827 


3.3322 


37.1 


116.55 


1,081.03 


1,376.41 


51,064.811 


6.0909 


3.3352 


37.2 


116.87 


1,086.87 


1,383.84 


51,478.848 


6.0991 


3.3382 


37.3 


117.18 


1,092.72 


1,391.29 


51,895.117 


6.1073 


3.3412 


37.4 


117.50 


1,098.58 


1,398.76 


52,313.624 


6.1155 


3.3442 


37.5 


117.81 


1,104.47 


1,406.25 


52,734.375 


6.1237 


3.3472 


37.6 


118.12 


1,110.36 


1,413.76 


53,157.376 


6.1318 


3.3501 


37.7 


118.44 


1,116.28 


1,421.29 


53,582.633 


6.1400 


3.3531 


37.8 


118.75 1,122.21 


1,428.84 


54,010.152 


6.1481 


3.3561 


37.9 


119.07 1,128.15 


1,436.41 


54,439.939 


6.1563 


3.3590 


38.0 


119.38 


1,134.11 


1,444.00 


54,872.000 


6.1644 


3.3620 


38.1 


119.69 


1,140.09 


1,451.61 


55,306.341 


6.1725 


3 . 3649 


38.2 


120.01 


1,146.08 


1,459.24 


55,742.968 


6.1806 3.3679 


38.3 


120.32 


1,152.09 


1,466.89 


56,181.887 


6.1887 


3.3708 


38.4 


120.64 


1,158.12 


1,474.56 


96,623.104 


6.1967 


3.3737 


38.5 


120.95 


1,164.16 


1,482.25 


57,066.625 


6.2048 


3.3767 


38.6 


121.27 


1,170.21 


1,489.96 


57,512.456 


6.2129 


3.3797 


38.7 


121.58 


1,176.28 


1,497.69 


57,960.603 


6.2209 


3.3825 


38.8 


121.80 


1,182.37 


1,505.44 


58,411.072 


6.2289 


3.3854 


38.9 


122.21 


1,188.47 


1,513.21 


58,863.869 


6.2370 


3 . 3883 


39.0 


122.52 


1,194.59 


1,521.00 


59,319.000 


6.2450 


3.3912 


39.1 


122.84 


1,200.72 


1,528.81 


59,776.471 


6.2530 


3.3941 


39.2 


123.15 


1,206.87 


1,536.64 


60,236.288 


6.2610 


3.3970 


39.3 


123.46 


1,213.04 


1,544.49 


60,698.457 


6.2689 


3.3999 


39.4 


123.78 


1,219.22 


1,552.36 


61,162.984 


6.2769 


3 . 4028 


39.5 


124.09 


1,225.42 


1,560.25 


61,629.875 


6.2849 


3.4056 


39.6 


124.41 


1,231.63 


1,568.16 


62,099.136 


6.2928 


3 . 4085 


39.7 


124.72 


1,237.86 


1,576.09 


62,570.773 


6.3008 


3.4114 


39.8 


125.04 


1,244.10 


1,584.04 


63,044.792 


6.3087 


3.4142 


39.9 


125.35 


1,250.36 


1,592.01 


63,521 . 199 


6.3166 


3.4171 



168 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Contim 



n 


7T7J 

o 


n2 
V ^ 




7l2 


n 


Vn 


JK 


40.0 


125.66 


1,256.64 


1,600.00 


64,000.000 


6.3245 


3.4200 


40.1 


125.98 


1,262.93 


1,608.01 


64,481.201 


6.3325 


3.4228 


40.2 


126.29 


1,269.24 


1,616.04 


64,964.808 


6.3404 


3.4256 


40.3 


126.61 


1,275.56 


1,624.09 


65,450.827 


6.3482 


3.4285 


40.4 


126.92 


1,281.90 


1,632.16 


65,939.264 


6.3561 


3.4313 


40.5 


127.23 


1,288.25 


1,640.25 


66,430.126 


6.3639 


3.4341 


40.6 


127.55 


1,294.. 62 


1,648.36 


66,923.416 


6.3718 


3.4370 


40.7 


127.86 


1,301.00 


1,656.49 


67,419.143 


6.3796 


3 . 4398 


40.8 


128.18 


1,307.41 


1,664.64 


67,917.312 


6.3875 


3.4426 


40.9 


128.49 


1,313.82 


1,672.81 


68,417.929 


6.3953 


3.4454 


41.0 


128.81 


1,320.25 


1,681.00 


68,921.000 


6.4031 


3.4482 


41.1 


129.12 


1,326.70 


1,689.21 


69,426.531 


6.4109 


3.4510 


41.2 


129.43 


1,333.17 


1,697.44 


69,934.528 


6.4187 


3 . 4538 


41.3 


129.75 


1,339.65 


1,705.69 


70,444.997 


6.4265 


3.4566 


41.4 


130.06 


1,346.14 


1,713.96 


70,957.944 


6.4343 


3.4594 


41.5 


130.38 


1,352.65 


1,722.25 


71,473.375 


6.4421 


3.4622 


41.6 


130 . 69 


1,359.18 


1,730.56 


71,991.296 


6.4498 


3.4650 


41.7 


131.00 


1,365.72 


1,738.89 


72,511.719 


6.4575 


3 . 4677 


41.8 


131.32 


1,372.28 


1,747.24 


73,034.632 


6.4653 


3.4705 


41.9 


131.63 


1,378.85 


1,755.61 


73,560.059 


6.4730 


3.4733 


42.0 


131.95 


1,385.44 


1,764.00 


74,088.000 


6.4807 


3.4760 


42.1 


132.26 


1,392.05 


,772.41 


74,618.461 


6.4884 


3.4788 


42.2 


132.58 


1,398.67 


,780.84 


75,151.448 


6.4961 


3.4815 


42.3 


132.89 


1,405.31 


,789.29 


75,686.967 


6.5038 


3.4843 


42.4 


133.20 


1,411.96 


,797.76 


76,225.024 


6.5115 


3.4870 


42.5 


133.52 


1,418.63 


,806.25 


76,765.625 


6.5192 


3.4898 


42.6 


133.83 


1,425.31 


,814.76 


77,308.776 


6.5268 


3.4925 


42.7 


134.15 


1,432.01 


,823.29 


77,854.483 


6.5345 


3.4952 


42.8 


134.46 


1,438.72 


,831.84 


78,402.752 


6.5422 


3.4980 


42.9 


134.77 


1,445.45 


,840.45 


78,953.589 


6.5498 


3.5007 



MATHEMATICAL TABLE 



169 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued) 



n 


irti 

o 


n- 

T T 




n* 


H* 


vV 


y; 


43.0 


135.09 


1,452.20 


1,849.00 


79,507.000 


6.5574 


3.5034 


43.1 


135.40 


1,458.96 


1,857.61 


80,062.991 


6.5651 


3.5061 


43.2 


135.72 


1,465.74 


1,866.24 


80,621.568 


6.5727 


3.5088 


43.3 


136.03 


1,472.54 


1,874.89 


81,182.737 


6.5803 


3.5115 


43.4 


136.35 


1,479.34 


1,883.56 


81,746.504 


6.5879 


3.5142 


43.5 


136.66 


,486.17 


1,892.25 


82,312.875 


6.5954 


3.5169 


43.6 


136.97 


,493.01 


1,900.96 


82,881.856 


6.6030 


3.5196 


43.7 


137.29 


,499.87 


1,909.69 


83,453.453 


6.6106 


3 . 5223 


43.8 


137.60 


,506.74 


1,918.44 


84,027.672 


6.6182 


3.5250 


43.9 


137.92 


,513.63 


1,927.21 


84,604.519 


6.6257 


3.5277 


44.0 


138.23 


,520,53 


1,936.00 


85,184.000 


6.6333 


3.5303 


44.1 


138.54 


,527.45 


1,944.81 


85,766.121 


6.6408 


3.5330 


44.2 


138.86 


,534.39 


1,953.64 


86,350.888 


6.6483 


3.5357 


44.3 


139.17 


,541.34 


1,962.49 


86,938.307 


6.6558 


3.5384 


44.4 


139.49 


,541.30 


1,971.36 


87,528.384 


6.6633 


3.5410 


44.5 


139.80 


1,555.28 


1,980.25 


88,121.125 


6.6708 


3.5437 


44.6 


140.12 


1,562.28 


1,989.16 


88,716.536 


6.6783 


3.5463 


44.7 


140.43 


4,569.30 


1,998.09 


89,314.623 


6.6858 


3.5490 


44.8 


140.74 


1,576 ..33 


2,007.04 


89,915.392 


6.6933 


3.5516 


44.9 


141.06 


1,583.37 


2,016.01 


90,518.849 


6.7007 


3.5543 


45.0 


141.37 


1,590.43 


2,025.00 


91,125.000 


6.7082 


3.5569 


45.1 


141.69 


1,597.51 


2,034.01 


91,733.851 


6.7156 


3.5595 


45.2 


142.06 


1,604.60 


2,043.04 


92,345.408 


6.7231 


3.5621 


45.3 


142.31 


1,611.71 


2,052.09 


92,959.677 


6.7305 


3.5648 


45.4 


142.63 


1,618.83 


2,061.16 


93,576.664 


6.7379 


3.5674 


45.5 


142.94 


1,625.97 


2,070.25 


94,196.375 


6.7454 


3.5700 


45.6 


143.26 


1,633.13 


2,079.36 


94,818.816 


6.7528 


3 . 5726 


45.7 


143.57 


1,640.30 


2,088.49 


95,443.993 


6.7602 


3.5752 


45.8 


143.88 


1,647.48 


2,097.64 


96,071.912 


6.7676 


3.5778 


45.9 


144.20 


1,654.68 


2,106.81 


96,702.579 


6.7749 


3.5805 



170 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued) 



n 


0* 


n~ 
"4 




n' 1 


n 


^n 


^V 


46.0 


144.51 


1,661.90 


2,116.00 


97,336.000 


6.7823 


3 . 5830 


46.1 


144.83 


1,669.14 


2,125.21 


97,972.181 


6.7897 


3.5856 


46.2 


145.14 


1,676.39 


2,134.44 


98,611.128 


6.7971 


3.5882 


46.3 


145.46 


1,683.65 


2,143.69 


99,252.847 


6.8044 


3.5908 


46.4 


145.77 


1,690.93 


2,152.96 


99,897.344 


6.8117 


3.5934 


46.5 


146.08 


1,698.23 


2,162.25 


100,544.625 


6.8191 


3 . 5960 


46.6 


146.40 


1,705.54 


2,171.56 


101,194.696 


6.8264 


3.5986 


46.7 


146.71 


1,712.87 


2,180.89 


101,847.563 


6.8337 


3.6011 


46.8 


147.03 


1,720.21 


2,190.24 


102,503.232 


6.8410 


3 . 6037 


46.9 


147.34 


1,727.57 


2,199.61 


103,161.709 


6 . 8484 


3 . 6063 


47.0 


147.65 


1,734.94 


2,209.00 


103,823.000 


6.8556 


3.6088 


47.1 


147.97 


1,742.34 


2,218.41 


104,487.111 


6.8629 


3.6114 


47.2 


148.28 


1,749.74 


2,227.84 


105,154.048 


6.8702 


3.6139 


47.3 


148 . 60 


1,757.16 


2,237.29 


105,823.817 


6.8775 


3 . 6165 


47.4 


148.91 


1,764.60 


2,246.76 


106,496.424 


6.8847 


3.6190 


47.5 


149.23 


1,772.05 


2,256.25 


107,171.875 


6.8920 


3.6216 


47.6 


149.54 


1,779.52 


2,265.76 


107,850.176 


6.8993 


3 . 6241 


47.7 


149.85 


1,787.01 


2,275.29 


108,531.333 


6.9065 


3 . 6267 


47.8 


150.17 


1,794.51 


2,284.84 


109,215.352 


6.9137 


3.6292 


47.9 


150.48 


1,802.03 


2,294.41 


109,902.239 


6.9209 


3.6317 


48.0 


150.80 


1,809.56 


2,304.00 


110,592.000 


6.9282 


3.6342 


48.1 


151.11 


1,817.11 


2,313.61 


111,284.641 


6.9354 


3 . 6368 


48.2 


151.42 


1,824.67 


2,323.24 


111,980.168 


6.9426 


3 . 6393 


48.3 


151.74 


1,832.25 


2,332.89 


112,678.587 


6.9498 


3.6418 


48.4 


152.05 


1,839.84 


2,342.56 


113,379.904 


6.9570 


3.6443 


48.5 


152.37 


1,847.45 


2,352.25 


114,084.125 


6.9642 


3.6468 


48.6 


152.68 


1,855.08 


2,361.96 


114,791.256 


6.9714 


3.6493 


48.7 


153.00 


1,862.72 


2,371.69 


115,501.303 


6.9785 


3.6518 


48.8 


153.31 


1,870.38 


2,381.44 


116,214.272 


6 . 9857 


3.6543 


48.9 


153.62 


1,878.05 


2,391.21 


116,930.169 


6.9928 


3.6568 















MATHEMATICAL TABLE 



171 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Continued) 



n 


n 2 
m T 

* 


n* 


n 


V^ 


V* 


49.0 


153.94 


1,885.74 


2,401.00 


117,649.000 


7.0000 


3.6593 


49.1 


154.25 


1,893.45 


2,410.81 


118,370.771 


7.0071 


3.6618 


49.2 


154 . 57 


1,901.17 


2,420.64 


119,095.488 


7.0143 


3 . 6643 


49.3 


154.88 


1,908.90 


2,430.49 


119,823.157 


7.0214 


3.6668 


.49.4 


155.19 


1,916.65 


2,440.36 


120,553.784 


7.0285 


3.6692 


49.5 


155.51 


1,924.42 


2,450.25 


121,287.375 


7.0356 


3.6717 


49.6 


155.82 


1,932.21 


2,460.16 


122,023.936 


7.0427 


3.6742 


49.7 


156.14 


1,940.00 


2,470.09 


122,763.473 


7.0498 


3.6767 


49.8 


156'. 45 


1,947.82 


2,480.04 


123,505.992 


7.0569 


3.6791 


49.9 


156.77 


1,955.65 


2,490.01 


124,251.499 


7.0640 


3.6816 


50.0 


157.08 


1,963.50 


2,500.00 


125,000.000 


7.0711 


3.6840 


51.0 


160.22 


2,042.82 


2,601.00 


132,651.000 


7.1414 


3.7084 


52.0 


163.36 


2,123.72 


2,704.00 


140,608.000 


7.2111 


3.7325 


53.0 


166.50 


2,206.19 


2,809.00 


148,877.000 


7.2801 


3.7563 


54.0 


169.64 


2,290.22 


2,916.00 


157,464.000 


7.3485 


3.7798 


55.0 


172.78 


2,375.83 


3,025.00 


166,375.000 


7.4162 


3.8030 


56.0 


175.93 


2,463.01 


3,136.00 


175,616.000 


7.4833 


3.8259 


57.0 


179.07 


2,551.76 


3,249.00 


185,193.000 


7.5498 


3.8485 


58.0 


182.21 


2,642.08 


3,364.00 


195,112.000 


7.6158 


3.8709 


59.0 


185.35 


2,733.97 


3,481.00 


205,379.000 


7.6811 


3.8930 


60.0 


188.49 


2,827.44 


3,600.00 


216,000.000 


7.7460 


3.9149 


61.0 


191.63 


2,922.47 


3,721.00 


226,981.000 


7.8102 


3.9365 


62.0 


194.77 


3,019.07 


3,844.00 


238,328.000 


7 . 8740 


3 . 9579 


63.0 


197.92 


3,117.25 


3,969.00 


250,047.000 


7.9373 


3.9791 


64.0 


201.06 


3,216.99 


4,096.00 


262,144.000 


8.0000 


4.0000 


65.0 


204.20 


3,318.31 


4,225.00 


274,625.000 


8.0623 


4.0207 


66.0 


207.34 3,421.20 


4,356.00 


287,496.000 


8.1240 


4.0412 


67.0 


210.48 3,525.66 


4,489.00 


300,763.000 


8.1854 


4.0615 


68.0 


213.63 


3,631.69 4,624.00 


314,432.000 


8.2462 4.0817 


69.0 


216.77 


3,739.29 1 4,761.00 


328,509.000 


8.3066 4.1016 



172 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF CIRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SQUARE AND 
CUBE ROOTS (Concluded) 



n 


n-n 

o 


7l2 

T T 




n 2 


n 


VV 


VZ 


70.0 


219.91 


3,848.46 


4,900.00 


343,000.000 


8.3666 


4.1213 


71.0 


223.05 


3,959.20 


5,041.00 


357,911.000 


8.4261 


4.1408 


72.0 


226.19 


4,071.51 


5,184.00 


373,248.000 


8.4853 


4.1602 


73.0 


229.33 


4,185.39 


5,329 . 00 


389,017.000 


8.5440 


4.1793 


74.0 


232.47 


4,300.85 


5,476.00 


405,224.000 


8.6023 


4.1983 


75.0 


235.62 


4,417.87 


5,625.00 


421,875.000 


8.6603 


4.2172 


76.0 


238.76 


4,536.47 


5,776.00 


438,976.000 


8.7178 


4.2358 


77.0 


241.90 


4,656.63 


5,929.00 


456,533.000 


8.7750 


4.2543 


78.0 


245.04 


4,778.37 


6,084.00 


474,552.000 


8.8318 


4.2727 


79.0 


248.18 


4,901.68 


6,241.00 


493,039.000 


8.8882 


4.2908 


80.0 


251.32 


5,026.56 


6,400.00 


512,000.000 


8.9443 


4.3089 


81.0 


254.47 


5,153.01 


6,561.00 


531,441.000 


9.0000 


4.3267 


82.0 


257. 6i 


5,281.03 


6,724.00 


551,368.000 


9.0554 


4.3445 


83.0 


260.75 


5,410.62 


6,889.00 


571,787.000 


9.1104 


4.3621 


84.0 


263.89 


5,541.78 


7,056.00 


592,704.000 


9.1652 


4.3795 


85.0 


267.03 


5,674.50 


7,225.00 


614,125.000 


9.2195 


4.3968 


86.0 


270.17 


5,808.81 


7,396.00 


636,056.000 


9.2736 


4.4140 


87.0 


273 . 32 


5,944.69 


7,569 . 00 


658,503.000 


9.3274 


4.4310 


88.0 


276.46 


6,082.13 


7,744.00 


681,472.000 


9.3808 


4.4480 


89.0 


279.60 


6,221.13 


7,921.00 


704,969.000 


9.4330 


4.4647 


90.0 


282.74 


6,361.74 


8,100.00 


729,000.000 


9.4868 


4.4814 


91.0 


285.88 


6,503.89 


8,281.00 


753,571.000 


9.5394 


4.4979 


92.0 


289 . 02 


6,647.62 


8,464.00 


778,688.000 


9.5917 


4.5144 


93.0 


292.17 


6,792.92 


8,649.00 


804,357.000 


9.6437 


4.5307 


94.0 


295.31 


6,939.78 


8,836.00 


830,584.000 


9.6954 


4.5468 


95.0 


298.45 


7,088 . 23 


9,025.00 


857,375.000 


9.7468 


4.5629 


96.0 


301.59 


7,238.24 


9,216.00 


884,736.000 


9.7980 


4.5789 


97.0 


304.73 


7,389.83 


9,409.00 


912,673.000 


9.8489 


4.5947 


98.0 


307.87 


7,542.98 


9,604.00 


941,192.000 


9.8995 


4.6104 


99.0 


311.02 


7,697.68 


9,801.00 


970,299.000 


9.9499 


4.6261 


100.0 


314.16 


7,854.00 


10,000.00 


1,000,000.000 


10.0000 


4.6416 



DECIMALS OF A FOOT 



173 



DECIMALS OF A FOOT FOB EACH 



IN. 



Inch 


in. 


'I in. 


2 in. 


3 in. 


4 in. 5 in. 








.0833 


.1667 


.2500 


.3333 


.4167 


K 4 


.0013 


.0846 


.1680 


.2513 


.3346 


.4180 


y*2 


.0026 


.0859 


.1693 


.2526 


.3359 


.4193 


%4 


.0039 


.0872 


.1706 


.2539 


.3372 


.4206 


He 


.0052 


.0885 


.1719 


.2552 


.3385 


.4219 


%4 


.0065 


.0898 


.1732 


.2565 


.3398 


.4232 


%2 


.0078 


.0911 


.1745 


.2578 


.3411 


.4245 


K* 


.0091 


.0924 


.1758 


.2591 


.3424 


.4258 


H 


.0104 


.0937 


.1771 


.2604 


.3437 


.4271 


%4 


.0117 


.0951 


.1784 


.2617 


.3451 


.4284 


%2 


.0130 


.0964 


.1797 


.2630 


.3464 


.4297 


i y*4 


.0143 


.0977 


.1810 


.2643 


.3477 


.4310 


Ke 


.0156 


.0990 


.1823 


.2656 


.3490 


.4323 


^4 


.0169 


.1003 


.1836 


.2669 


.3503 


.4336 


7/ 
>32 


.0182 


.1016 


.1849 


.2682 


.3516 


.4349 


J ^4 


.0195 


.1029 


.1862 


.2695 


.3529 


.4362 


>4 


.0208 


.1042 


.1875 


.2708 


.3542 


.4375 


^4 


.0221 


.1055 


.1888 


.2721 


.3555 


.4388 


^2 


.0234 


.1068 


.1901 


.2734 


.3568 


.4401 


J %4 


.0247 


.1081 


.1914 


.2747 


.3581 


.4414 


He 


.0260 


.1094 


.1927 


.2760 


.3594 


.4427 


2 ^4 


.0273 


.1107 


.1940 


.2773 


.3607 


.4440 


% 


.0286 


.1120 


.1953 


.2786 


.3620 


.4453 


2 %4 


.0299 


.1133 


.1966 


.2799 


.3633 


.4466 


% 


.0312 


.1146 


.1979 


.2812 


.3646 


.4479 


2 %4 


.0326 


.1159 


.1992 


.2826 


.3659 


.4492 


% 


.0339 


.1172 


.2005 


.2839 


.3672 


.4505 


2 %4 


.0352 


.1185 


.2018 


.2852 


.3685 


.4518 


Ke 


.0365 


.1198 


.2031 


.2865 


.3698 


.4531 


2 %4 


.0378 


.1211 


.2044 


.2878 


.3711 


.4544 


% 


.0391 


.1224 


.2057 


.2891 


.3724 


.4557 


3 ^4 


.0404 


.1237 


.2070 


.2904 


.3737 


.4570 


>^ 


.0417 


.1250 


.2083 


.2917 


.3750 


.4583 



174 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



DECIMALS OF A FOOT FOR EACH 



IN. (Continued) 



Inch 


6 in. 


7 in. 


8 in. 


9 in. 


10 in. 


11 in. 





.5000 


.5833 


.6667 


.7500 


.8333 


.9167 


^4 


.5013 


.5846 


.6680 


.7513 


.8346 


.9180 


Hs 


.5026 


.5859 


.6693 


.7526 


.8359 


.9193 


%4 


.5039 


.5872 


.6706 


.7539 


.8372 


.9206 


He 


.5052 


.5885 


.6719 


.7552 


.8385 


.9219 


%4 


.5065 


.5898 


.6732 


.7565 


.8398 


.9232 


Hi 


.5078 


.5911 


.6745 


.7578 


.8411 


.9245 


%4 


.5091 


.5924 


.6758 


.7591 


.8424 


.9258 


H 


.5104 


.5937 


.6771 


.7604 


.8437 


.9271 


%4 


.5117 


.5951 


.6784 


.7617 


.8451 


.9284 


H 2 


.5130 


.5964 


.6797 


.7630 


.8464 


.9297 


*H4 


.5143 


.5977 


.6810 


.7643 


.8477 


.9310 


Me 


.5156 


.5990 


.6823 


.7656 


.8490- 


.9323 


*%4 


.5169 


.6003 


.6836 


.7669 


.8503 


.9336 


%2 


.5182 


.6016 


.6849 


.7682 


.8516 


.9349 


X %4 


.5195 


.6029 


.6862 


.7695 


.8529 


.9362 


M 


.5208 


.6042 


.6875 


.7708 


.8542 


.9375 


*%4 


.5221 


.6055 


.6888 


.7721 


.8555 


.9388 


"32 


.5234 


.6068 


.6901 


.7734 


.8568 


.9401 


*%4 


.5247 


.6081 


.6914 


.7747 


.8581 


.9414 


X\ 


.5260 


.6094 


.6927 


.7760 


.8594 


.9427 


2 ^4 


.5273 


.6107 


.6940 


.7773 


.8607 


.9440 


l Ha 


.5286 


.6120 


.6953 


.7786 


.8620 


.9453 


2 %4 


.5299 


.6133 


.6966 


.7799 


.8633 


.9466 


H 


.5312 


.6146 


.6979 


.7812 


.8646 


.9479 


2 ^4 


.5326 


.6159 


.6992 


.7826 


.8659 


.9492 


1 8J 


.5339 


.6172 


.7005 


.7839 


.8672 


.9505 


2 %4 


.5352 


.6185 


.7018 


.7852 


.8685 


.9518 


He 


.5365 


.6198 


.7031 


.7865 


.8698 


.9531 


2 %4 


.5378 


.6211 


.7044 


.7878 


.8711 


.9544 


15 /S2 


.5391 


.6224 


.7057 


.7891 


.8724 


.9557 


3 K4 


.5404 


.6237 


.7070 


.7904 


.8737 


.9570 


H 


.5417 


.6250 


.7083 


.7917 


.8750 


.9583 



DECIMALS OF A FOOT 



175 



DECIMALS OF A FOOT FOR EACH ^4 IN. (Continued) 



Inch 


in. 


1 in. 


2 in. 


3 in. 


4 in. 


5 in. 


3 %4 


.0430 


.1263 


.2096 


.2930 


.3763 


.4596 


17,^ 2 


.0443 


.1276 


.2109 


.2943 


.3776 


.4609 


3 ^4 


.0456 


.1289 


.2122 


.2956 


.3789 


.4622 


KG 


.0469 


.1302 


.2135 


.2969 


.3802 


.4635 


3 %4 


.0482 


.1315 


.2148 


.2982 


.3815 


.4648 


1-Ko 


.0495 


.1328 


.2161 


.2995 


.3828 


.4661 


3 %4 


.0508 


.1341 


.2174 


.3008 


.3841 


.4674 


% 


.0521 


.1354 


.2188 


.3021 


.3854 


.4688 


4 K4 


.0534 


.1367 


.2201 


.3034 


.3867 


.4701 


2L^ 2 


.0547 


.1380 


.2214 


.3047 


.3880 


.4714 


43^ 


.0560 


.1393 


.2227 


.3060 


.3893 


.4727 


^le 


.0573 


.1406 


.2240 


.3073 


.3906 


.4740 


4 %4 


.0586 


.1419 


.2253 


.3086 


.3919 


.4753 


2 3 ^ . 


.0599 


.1432 


.2266 


.3099 


.3932 


.4766 


47,^ 


.0612 


.1445 


.2279 


.3112 


.3945 


.4779 


?4 


.0625 


.1458 


.2292 


.3125 


.3958 


.4792 


4 %4 


.0638 


.1471 


.2305 


.3138 


.3971 


.4805 


2^ 2 


.0651 


.1484 


.2318 


.3151 


.3984 


.4818 


5 ^4 


.0664 


.1497 


.2331 


.3164 


.3997 


.4831 


% 


.0677 


.1510 


.2344 


.3177 


.4010 


.4844 


5 %4 


.0690 


.1523 


.2357 


.3190 


.4023 


.4857 


2^^ 


.0703 


.1536 


.2370 


.3203 


.4036 


.4870 


5 %4 


.0716 


.1549 


.2383 


.3216 


.4049 


.4883 


% 


.0729 


.1562 


.2396 


.3229 


.4062 


.4896 


5 %4 


.0742 


.1576 


.2409 


.3242 


.4076 


.4909 


2^2 


.0755 


.1589 


.2422 


.3255 


.4089 


.4922 


5 %4 


.0768 


.1602 


.2435 


.3268 


.4102 


.4935 


l y\& 


.0781 


.1615 


.2448 


.3281 


.4115 


.4948 


6 K4 


.0794 


.1628 


.2461 


.3294 


.4128 


.4961 


3 ^^2 


.0807 


.1641 


.2474 


.3307 


.4141 


.4974 


6 %4 


.0820 


.1654 


.2487 


.3320 


.4154 


.4987 


1 












| 







176 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



DECIMALS OF A FOOT FOR EACH ^ 4 IN. (Concluded) 



Inch 


6 in. 


7 in. 


8 in. 


9 in. 


10 in. 


11 in. 


3 %4 


.5430 


.6263 


.7096 


.7930 


.8763 


.9596 


1 ^2 


.5443 


.6276 


.7109 


.7943 


.8776 


.9609 


35,^ . 


.5456 


.6289 


.7122 


.7956 


.8789 


.9622 


Jfe 


.5469 


.6302 


.7135 


.7969 


.8802 


.9635 


37^ 4 


.5482 


.6315 


.7148 


.7982 


.8815 


.9648 


ia^2 


.5495 


.6328 


.7161 


.7995 


.8828 


.9661 


3 %4 


.5508 


.6341 


.7174 


.8008 


.8841 


.9674 


% 


.5521 


.6354 


.7188 


.8021 


.8854 


.9688 


4 ^4 


.5534 


.6367 


.7201 


.8034 


.8867 


.9701 


2 /^2 


.5547 


.6380 


.7214 


.8047 


.8880 


.9714 


4 %4 


.5560 


.6393 


.7227 


.8060 


.8893 


.9727 


1 Ke 


.5573 


.6406 


.7240 


.8073 


.8906 


.9740 


4 %4 


.5586 


.6419 


.7253 


.8086 


.8919 


.9753 


2 %2 


.5599 


.6432 


.7266 


.8099 


.8932 


.9766 


4 %4 


.5612 


.6445 


.7279 


.8112 


.8945 


.9779 


?4 


.5625 


.6458 


.7292 


.8125 


.8958 


.9792 


4 %4 


.5638 


.6471 


.7305 


.8138 


.8971 


.9805 


2^ 2 


.5651 


.6484 


.7318 


.8151 


.8984 


.9818 


51^ . 


.5664 


.6497 


.7331 


.8164 


.8997 


.9831 


1 ^le 


.5677 


.6510 


.7344 


.8177 


.9010 


.9844 


5 %4 


.5690 


.6523 


.7357 


.8190 


.9023 


.9857 


27,^2 


.5703 


.6536 


.7370 


.8203 


.9036 


.9870 


5 %4 


.5716 


.6549 


.7383 


.8216 


.9049 


.9883 


% 


.5729 


.6562 


.7396 


.8229 


.9062 


.9896 


5 %4 


.5742 


.6576 


.7409 


.8242 


.9076 


.9909 


2&^ 2 


.5755 


.6589 


.7422 


.8255 


.9089 


.9922 


5 %4 


.5768 


.6602 


.7435 


.8268 


.9102 


.9935 


1 Ke 


.5781 


.6615 


.7448 


.8281 


.9115 


.9948 


61/ 4 


.5794 


.6628 


.7461 


.8294 


.9128 


.9961 


31 4o 


.5807 


.6641 


.7474 


.8307 


.9141 


.9974 


63^. 


.5820 


.6654 


.7487 


.8320 


.9154 


.9987 


1 












1 . 0000 



DECIMALS OF AN INCH 



177 



DECIMALS OF AN INCH FOR EACH 



H 2 ds 1 H*th9 


Decimal Fraction 

i 


H 2 ds 


K*ths 


Decimal 


Fraction 




1 


.015625 






33 


.515625 




1 


2 


.03125 




17 


34 


.53125 






3 


.046875 






35 


.546875 




2 


4 


.0625 


1-16 


18 


36 


.5625 


-16 




5 


.078125 






37 


. 578125 




3 


6 


.09375 




19 


38 


.59375 






7 


. 109375 






39 


.609375 




4 


8 


.125 


1-8 


20 


40 


.625 


5-8 




9 


. 140625 






41 


.640625 




5 


10 


. 15625 




21 


42 


.65625 






11 


.171875 






43 


.671875 




6 


12 


.1875 


3-16 


22 


44 


.6875 


11-16 




13 


.203125 






45 


.703125 




7 


14 


.21875 




23 


46 


.71875 






15 


.234375 






47 


.734375 




8 


16 


.25 


1-4 


24 


48 


.75 


3-4 




17 


. 265625 






49 


.765625 




9 


18 


.28125 




25 


50 


.78125 






19 


.296875 






51 


.796875 




10 


20 


.3125 


5-16 


26 


52 


.8125 


13-16 




21 


.328125 






53 


.828125 




11 


22 


. 34375 




27 


54 


.84375 






23 


.359375 






55 


.859375 




12 


24 


.375 


3-8 


28 


56 


.875 


7-8 




25 


.3Q0625 






57 


.890625 




13 


26 


.40625 




29 


58 


.90625 






27 


.421875 






59 


.921875 




14 


28 


.4375 


7-16 


30 


60 


.9375 


15-16 




29 


.453125 






61 


.953125 




15 


30 


.46875 




31 


62 


.96875 






31 


.484375 






63 


.984375 




16 


32 


.5 


1-2 


32 


64 


1.0 


1 



BELTING RULES 



To Find Speed of Belt. Multiply the circumference of either 

pulley in inches by the number of its revolutions per minute. 
12 



178 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

Divide by 12 and the result is the speed of the belt in feet per 
minute. 

To Find Length of Belt. Multiply the distance between the 
shaft centers by 2 and add to the result one-half the sum of the 
circumferences of ; the two pulleys. 

To Find Diameter of Pulley Necessary to Make Any Required 
Number of Revolutions. Multiply the diameter of the pulley, 
the speed of which is known, by its revolutions, and divide by 
the number of revolutions at which the other pulley is required 
to run. 

To Find Diameter of Driving Pulley. Multiply diameter of 
driven pulley by its revolutions and divide the product by the 
revolution of the driving pulley. 

To Find Revolution of Driving Pulley. Multiply diameter of 
driven pulley by its revolution and divide the product by the 
diameter of the driving pulley. 

To Find the Approximate Length of Belting in a Roll. Add 
together the diameter of the roll and the hole in the center, in 
inches. Multiply by the number of coils in the roll, and then 
multiply by 0.131. The result will be the approximate number 
of feet of belting in the roll. 

ANTI-FREEZING LIQUIDS FOR PRESSURE AND SUCTION GAGES 

33Be*. sulphuric acid is a very good anti-freezing liquid to use 
in permanent pressure and suction gages. This acid has a specific 
gravity of 1.295 and a freezing point of 97F, If a gage is to 
be made with two separate glass tubes, construct as follows: 
Bend the tubes on the bottom at right angles so they meet join 
with rubber tubing and wire fast then wrap with ordinary elec- 
trician's friction tape. In this way a connection is made that 
resists weather and the acid will have but little action on the 
rubber. To obtain water readings from the acid readings it is, 
of course, necessary to multiply by 1.295. 

For gages where high suction and pressures are to be read, 



ANTI-FREEZING LIQUIDS 



179 



mercury with a specific gravity of 13.595 and a freezing point of 
39.1F. is very satisfactory. 

ANTI-FREEZING SOLUTIONS FOB SUCTION AND PRESSURE GAGES. READINGS 
IN INCHES CONVERTED INTO APPROXIMATE INCHES OF WATER 

33B6. sulphuric acid = 1.295 specific gravity = 97F. freezing point 



Acid 


Water 


Acid 


Water 


Acid 


Water 


Acid 


Water 


Acid 


Water 


1 


1M 


7K 


9K 


14 


18 


20^ 


26K 


27 


35 


V4 


2 


8 


IOK 


14K 


19 


21 


27 


27^ 


35^ 


2 


2K 


8K 


11 


15 


19^ 


21^ 


28 


28 


36^ 


2X 


3 


9 


UK 


15K 


20 


22 


28^ 


28^ 


37 


3 


4 


9K 


12K 


16 


20^ 


22^ 


29 


29 


37^ 


3K 


4K 


10 


13 


16K 


21^ 


23 


30 


29^ 


38 


4 


5 


IOK 


13K 


17 


22 


23^ 


30^ 


30 


39 


*K 


6 


11 


14 


17K 


22^ 


24 


31 


30^ 


39^ 


5 


6K 


UK 


15 


18 


23^ 


24^ 


31K 


31 


40 


5K 


7 


12 


15K 


18K 


24 


25 


32K 


31^ 


41 


6 


8 


12K 


16 


19 


24^ 


25K 


33 


32 


41^ 


6K 


8K 


13 


17 


19M 


25}.$ 


26 


33^ 


32^ 


42 


7 


9 


13K 


17K 


20 


26 


26>^ 


34.^ 


33 


42^ 



Mercury = 13.595 specific gravity = 39.1F. freezing point 



Hg 


H 2 


Hg 


H 2 


Hg 


H 2 


Hg 


H 2 


Hg 


H 2 


M 6 


1 


% 


12 


1% 


23 


2K 


34 


3^6 


45 


y 8 


IK 


% 


12K 


1% 


24 


2K 6 


35 


3% 


46 


KG 


2K 


1 


13 K 


1^6 


24K 


2% 


35K 


3Ke 


47 


.^ 


3K 


1K6 


14K 


1% 


25K 


2^6 


36K 


3K 


47K 


5 /16 


4K 


IK 


15K 


1% 


26K 


2^ 


37K 


3^6 


48K 


H 


5 


WG 


16 


2 


27 


2% 


38 


3% 


49K 


KG 


6 


1M 


17 


2K 6 


28 


2% 


39 


3^6 


50 


K 


7 


W6 


18 


2K 


29 


2% 


40 


3% 


51 


KG 


7K 


1% 


18K 


2% 6 


29K 


3 


41 


3% 


52 


5 /s 


8K 


IKe 


19K 


2K 


30K 


3K 6 


41K 


3% 


52K 


% 


9K 


IK 


20K 


2^6 


31K 


3K 


42K 


3% 


53K 


% 


10 


iHe 


21K 


2% 


32 K 


3% 6 


43K 


4 


54K 


l Me 


11 


1% 


22 


2K6 


33 


3M 


44 


4Me 


55 



180 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS 

Much confusion has resulted in the past, due to the various 
standards for flange dimensions and bolting adopted by manu- 
facturers and engineering societies. In 1912, the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Master Steam and Hot 
Water Fitters' Association adopted what is known as "The 1912 
U. S. Standard," and in the same year, at a meeting of manu- 
facturers in New York City, the " Manufacturer's Standard" 
was promulgated. The disadvantages of having two standards 
in existence were immediately recognized, and committees of the 
A. S. M. E. and the manufacturers united in a compromise known 
as the " American Standard," to be effective after Jan. 1, 1914. 

Notes on the American Standard. The following notes apply 
to the American Standard for flanges and flanged fittings: 

(a) Standard and extra heavy reducing elbows carry the same dimensions 
center-to-face as regular elbows of largest straight size. 

Standard and extra heavy tees, crosses and laterals, reducing on run only, 
carry same dimensions face-to-face as largest straight size. 

Flanged fittings for lower working pressures than 125 Ib. conform to this 
standard in all dimensions except thickness of shell. 

. Where long-radius fittings are specified, reference is had only to elbows 
made in two center-to-face dimensions and known as elbows and long-radius 
elbows, the latter being used only when so specified. 

Standard weight fittings are guaranteed for 125 Ib. working pressure and 
extra heavy fittings for 250 Ib. 

Extra heavy fittings and flanges have a raised surface }{$ in. high inside 
of bolt holes for gaskets. Standard weight fittings and flanges are plain- 
faced. Bolt holes are ^ in. larger in diameter than bolts, and straddle the 
center line. 

The size of all fittings scheduled indicates the inside diameter of ports. 

The face-to-face dimension of reducers, either straight or eccentric, for all 
pressures, is the same as that given in table of dimensions. 

Square-head bolts with hexagonal nuts are recommended. For 1%-in. 
and larger bolts, studs with a nut on each end are satisfactory. Hexagonal 
nuts for pipe sizes up to 46 in. on the 125-lb. standard, and up to 16 in. on 
the 250-lb. standard can be conveniently pulled up with open wrenches of 
minimum design of heads. For larger pipe sizes (up to 100 in. on 125-lb., 
and to 48 in. on 250-lb. standard) use box wrenches. 



FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS 181 

Twin elbows, whether straight or reducing, carry same dimensions center- 
to-face and face-to-face as regular straight-size ells and tees. 

Side outlet elbows and side outlet tees, whether straight or reducing 
sizes, carry same dimensions center-to-face and face-to-face as regular tees 
having same reductions. 

(6) Bull-head tees, or tees increasing on outlet, have same center-to-face 
and face-to-face dimensions as a straight fitting of the size of the outlet. 

Tees, crosses and laterals 16 in. and smaller, reducing on the outlet use the 
same dimensions as straight sizes of the larger port. Sizes 18 in. and 
larger, reducing on the outlet or branch, are made in two lengths, depending 
on sizes of outlet or branch as given in dimension table. 

(c) The dimensions of reducing flanged fittings are always regulated by the 
reductions of the outlet or branch. 

(d) For fittings reducing on the run only, always use the long-body pattern. 
Y's are special and are made to suit conditions. 

(e) Double-sweep tees are not made reducing on the run. 

Steel flanges, fittings and valves are recommended for superheated 
steam. 



182 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



AMERICAN STANDARD 
Names of Fittings 







Elbow Reducing Elbow Side Outlet Elbow Twin Elbow 






Long, Radius Elbow 45 Elbow Tee Single Sweep Tee 






Double Sweep Tee Side Outlet Tee Reducing Tee Reducer 





Reducing Reducing 

Single Sweep Tee Side Outlet Tee 



Cross Reducing Cross 






Lateral 



Reducing lateral 



FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS 



183 



TEMPLATES FOR DRILLING STANDARD AND LOW-PRESSURE FLANGED 

VALVES AND FITTINGS l 

American Standard 



Size, inches 


Diameter of 
flanges, inches 


Thickness of 
flanges, inches 


Bolt circle 
diameter, 
inches 


Number of 
bolts 


Size of bolts, 
inches 


1 4 KG 


3 


4 


KG 


IK 


4K 


H 3% 


4 


KG 


IK 


5 


KG 


3% 


4 


H 


2 


6 


% 


4% 


4 


% 


V/2 


7 


X K 6 


5K 


4 


% 


3 


7K 


% 


6 


4 


% 


3K 


8K 


^6 


7 


4 


H 


4 


9 


^6 


7K 


8 


H 


4K 


9K 


% 


7% 


8 


% 


5 


10 i^e 8K 


8 


% 


6 


11 


1 9K 


8 


H 


7 


12K 


IMe 10% 


8 


H 


8 


13M 


IK 


11% 


8 


% 


9 


15 


IK 


13^ 


12 


% 


10 


16 


1%6 


14K 


12 


H 


12 


19 


IK 


17 


12 


% 


14 


21 


1% 18% 


12 


\ 


15 


22K 


1% 20 


16 


i 


16 


23^ 


!Ke 21K 


16 


i 


18 


25 


IMe 


22% 


16 


IK 


20 


27M 


1^6 


25 


20 


IK 


22 


29K 


1^6 


' 27K 


20 


IK 


24 


32 


IK 


29K 


20 


IK 


26 


34K 


2 


31% 


24 


IK 


28 


36^ 


2Ke 


34 28 IK 


30 38% 2% 36 28 1% 



1 These templates are in multiples of four, so that fittings may be made 
to face in any quarter and bolt holes straddle the center line. Bolt holes are 
drilled K in. larger than the nominal diameter of bolts. 



184 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 











FLANGED FITTINGS 



185 



.SS.5.2 

.Sg.2^ 

5 .SO 



to to 



-2 

8-8 
3 < 



\<N\<N 

l-(\rH\ 



\"*\<N 

C<1<M(MO<C<I^ICOCOCOCO 



\e> VN \<N 

^^^"sasssasbasaaasag 

\N \N \N \(M 

i-~ : 

) n 

- 

\IM \N \<N \O \C<I \N \(M\M \PQ 

\(N \^< \N\(N \IM\IN\C 

O CO CO TJH TJ< VO 4O U5 O O t^ l^ 

iCi^iNc^e^coeScoco'5 

^^^.-(^H^H^H^HC^^C^r^Cv, 

I CO -^ TjH Tfl Tf O 

Nfl'l \(M \IM 
iH\ rH\ i-H\ 






si 



186 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



GENERAL DIMENSIONS OF STANDARD REDUCING TEES AND CROSSES (SHORT- 
BODY PATTERN) 
American Standard 




Size, 
inches 


Size of outlets and 
smaller 1 


Center-to-face run, 
A 


Center-to-face outlet, 
B 


1 to 16 


All reducing fittings from 1 to 16 in. inclusive have the 
same center-to-face dimensions as straight-size fittings 







i 


18 


12 


13 


15^ 


20 


14 


14 


17 


22 


15 


14 


18 


24 


16 


15 


19 


26 


18 


16 


20 


28 


18 


16 


21 


30 


20 


18 23 



Long-body patterns are used when outlets are larger than given in the 
above table, therefore have same dimensions as straight-size fittings. The 
dimensions of "reducing flanged fittings" are always regulated by the 
reduction of the outlet. 

Fittings reducing on the run only, the long-body pattern will always be 
used, except double-sweep tees, on which the reduced end is always longer 
than the regular fittings. 

Bull heads or tees having outlets larger than the run will be the same 
length center-to-face of all openings as a tee with all openings of the size of 
the outlet. For example, a 12 by 12 by 18-in. tee will be governed by the 
dimensions of the 18-in. long-body tee, namely, 16H in. center-to-face of all 
openings and 33 in. face-to-face. 

Reducing elbows carry same center-to-face dimension as regular elbows of 
largest straight size. 



FLANGED FITTINGS 



187 



GENERAL DIMENSIONS OF STANDARD REDUCING LATERALS (SHORT-BODY 

PATTERN) 
American Standard 




Size, 
inches 


branch and | F ^<* 
smalleri run ' C 


Center-to-face 
run, D 


Center-to-face 
run, E 


Center-to-face 
branch, F 


1 to 16 


All reducing fittings 1 to 16 in. inclusive have the same center- 




to-face dimensions as straight-size fittings 


18 


9 26 


25 


1 


27^ 


20 


10 


28 


27 


1 


29^ 


22 


10 


29 


28K 


H 


31 K 


24 


12 


32 


31K 


y* 


34 K 


26 


12 


35 


35 





38 


28 


14 


37 


37 





40 


30 


15 


39 


39 





42 



1 Long-body patterns are used when branches are larger than given in the 
above table, therefore have same dimensions as straight-size fittings. 

The dimensions of "reducing flanged fittings" are always regulated by the 
reduction of the branch ; fittings reducing on the run only, the long-body pat- 
tern will always be used. 



188 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 






si 






O 







FLANGED FITTINGS 



189 






~1 

> 

re 
i 

row 

(NfNfNCOCOCOCC'^'* 
<N <Nf eV'eVcVcO CO CO Co'cO^ '-*"O O O~CO o"<> l^ CO 00 O5 O ' 

\<N \C<I\N \N \N\N\iN\e<>^ 
i-K i-K'-'X HN, r4\r4\i-!\iW\!-J\ 

COt > OOO5O'^C s ?CO^iOt > -O5OC v ?^t | t s -' 'CO^t^OCOl^* 

^HyH^-lTHr-HT-Hi li ((NlMfNC^COCOCOCO^t 1 ^^ 

\N\C<I \p\IM\C<l\lN\<N\e<\IM\(M\<N \(N \P 

r^tHX r^\t-t\r<\rH\i-H\r- (\iH\i-H\i-H\ r-t\ f\ 

O5 CO t>- O5 
(M CO CO CO 

^ ^. -^-^-^weo^jg 

f-K i^\ W\i-(\ !-4\i-f\r-<\W\ 



S 
fe^^ 



ll-i 

* 



(.4 



si 
i 



190 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



GENERAL DIMENSIONS OF EXTRA HEAVY REDUCING TEES AND CROSSES 
(SHORT-BODY PATTERN) 

American Standard 




Size, 


Size of outlets 


Face-to-face run, 


Center-to-face 


Center-to- face 


inches 


and smaller 1 


AA 


run, A 


outlet, B 


1 to 16 


All reducing fittings 1 to 16 in. inclusive have the same center- 




to-face dimensions as straight-size fittings 


18 


12 


28 


14 


17 


20 


14 


31 


15H 


18K 


22 


15 


33 


163^ 


20 


24 


16 


34 


17 


21M 


26 


18 


38 


19 


23 


28 


18 


38 


19 


24 


30 


20 


41 


20K 


25^ 



1 Long-body patterns are used when outlets are larger than given in the 
above table, therefore have same dimensions as straight-size fittings. The 
dimensions of "reducing flanged fittings" are always regulated by the reduc- 
tion of the outlet. 

Fittings reducing on the run only, the long-body pattern will always be 
used, except double-sweep tees, on which the reduced end is always longer 
than the regular fitting. 

Bull heads or tees having outlets larger than the run will be the same 
length center-to-face of all openings as a tee with all openings of the size of 
the outlet. For example, a 12 by 12 by 18-in. tee will be governed by the 
dimensions of the 18-in. long-body tee, namely, 18 in. center-to-face of all 
openings and 36 in. face-to-face. 

Reducing elbows carry same center-to-face dimension as regular elbows of 
largest straight size. 



FLANGED FITTINGS 



191 



GENERAL DIMENSIONS OF EXTRA HEAVY REDUCING LATERALS (SHORT-BODY 

PATTERN) 



n 



American Standard 




Size, 
inches 


Size of 
branches and 
smaller 1 


Face-to-face 
run, C 


Center-to-facc 
run, D 


Center-to-face 
run, E 


Center-to-face 
branch, F 


1 to 16 


All reducing fittings 1 to 16 in. inclusive have the same center- 




to-face dimensions as straight-size fittings 


18 


9 


34 


31 


3 


32^ 


20 


10 


37 


34 


3 


36 


22 


10 


40 


37 


3 


39 


24 


12 


44 


41 


3 


43 



1 Long -body patterns are used when branches are larger than given in the 
above table, therefore, have same dimensions as straight-size fittings. 

The dimensions of "reducing flanged fittings" are always regulated by the 
reduction of the branch; fittings reducing on the run only, the long-body 
pattern will always be used. 



192 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



TEMPLATES FOR DRILLING EXTRA HEAVY FLANGED VALVES AND FiTTiNGS 1 
American Standard 



Size, 
inches 


Diameter of 
flanges, 
inches 


Thickness of 
flanges, 
inches 


Bolt circle 
diameter, 
inches 


Number of 
bolts 


Size of 
bolts 


1 


4K 


% 


3M 


4 


K 


1M 


5 


% 


3% 


4 


X 


IK 


6 


% 


4^ 


4 


5 A 


2 


6H 


% 


5 


4 


5 /8 


2K 


7K 


1 


5% 


4 


% 


3 


8K 


IK 


6% 


8 


% 


3K 


9 


1%6 


7^ 


8 


% 


4 


10 


1M 


7% 


8 


H 


4K 


IOK 


We 


8K 


8 


% 


5 


11 


1%' 


9M 


8 


% 


6 


12K ' 


IKe 


10% 


12 


H 


7 


14 


IK 


11% 


12 


% 


8 


15 


1% 


13 


12 


% 


9 


16M 


1% 


14 


12 


i 


10 


17K 


1% 


15M 


16 


i 


12 


20K 


2 


17% 


16 


IK 


14 


23 


2^ 


20^ 


20 


IK 


15 


24K 


2Ke 


21K 


20 


IK 


16 


25K 


2^ 


22K 


20 


IK 


18 


28 


2% 


24% 


24 


IK 


20 


30K 


2K 


27 


24 


l% 


22 


33 


2^ 


2934 


24 


IK 


24 


36 


2^ 


32 


24 


1% 


26 


38K 


2^6 


34K 


28 


1% 


28 


40% 


2^6 


37 


28 


i% 


30 


43 


3 


39K 


28 


1% 



1 These templates are in multiples of four, so that fittings may be made to 
face in any quarter and bolt holes straddle the center line. Bolt holes are 
drilled K in. larger than nominal diameter of bolts. 



FLANGED FITTINGS 



193 



WEIGHTS OF CAST-IRON FLANGED FITTINGS 
(American Standard Dimensions) 



Size, 
inches 


Approximate weight per piece, pounds 


Standard (125 Ib.) 


Extra heavy (250 Ib.) 


Ell 


45 Ell 


Tee 


Cross 


Ell 


45 Ell 


Tee 


Cross 


2 


18 


15 


26 


34 


23 


20 


38 


80 


2H 


22 


20 


34 


43 


34 


29 


50 


85 


3 


30 


27 


45 


58 


46 


38 


70 


90 


3M 


37 


33 


55 


74 


57 


44 


75 


115 


4 


45 


38 


67 


89 


67 


61 


100 


140 


4K 


46 


43 


75 


100 


85 


70 


120 


170 


5 


63 


53 


90 


121 


95 


85 


130 


190 


6 


75 


68 


115 


152 


125 


105 


190 


250 


7 


100 


90 


150 


200 


160 


145 


235 


325 


8 


120 


100 


170 


236 


190 


175 


280 


370 


9 


150 


130 


220 


305 


240 


195 


330 


480 


10 


205 


160 


285 


400 


320 


250 


450 


580 


12 


285 


230 


430 


570 


450 


380 


680 


900 


14 


390 


300 


550 


750 


640 


520 


970 


1,300 


15 


440 


330 


660 


800 


750 


570 


1,050 


1,400 


16 


525 


400 


760 


1,000 


840 


675 


1,255 


1,675 



13 



194 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



NOMINAL WEIGHT OF CAST-IRON PIPE WITHOUT FLANGES, POUNDS 

PER FOOT 1 



Inside 
diameter, 
inches 


Thickness of metal in inches 


K 


H 


* 


H 


H 


y* 


i 


IK 


IK 


2 


5.5 


8.7 


12.3 


16.1 


20.3 


24.7 


29.5 


34.5 


40.0 


2H 


6.8 


10.6 


14.7 


19.2 


24.0 


29.0 


34.4 


40.0 


46.0 


3 


7.9 


12.4 


17.2 


22.2 


27.6 


32.3 


39.3 


45.6 


52.2 


3/>i 


9.2 


14.3 


19.6 


25.3 


31.3 


37.6 


44.2 


51.1 


58.3 


4 


10.4 


16.1 


22.1 


28.4 


35.0 


41.9 


49.1 


56.6 


64.4 


4;Hj 


11.7 


18.0 


24.5 


31.5 


38.7 


46.2 


54.0 


62.1 


70.6 


5 


12.9 


19.8 


27.0 


34.5 


42.3 


50.5 


58.9 


67.7 


76.7 


5M 


14.1 


21.6 


29.5 


37.6 


46.0 


54.8 


63.8 


73.2 


82.8 


6 


15.3 


23.5 


31.9 


40.7 


49.7 


59.1 


68.7 


78.7 


89.0 


7 


17.8 


27.2 


36.8 


46.8 


57.1 


67.7 


78.5 


89.7 


101.0 


8 


20.3 


30.8 


41.7 


52.9 


64.4 


76.2 


88.4 


101.0 


114.0 


9 


22.7 


34.5 


46.6 


59.1 


71.8 


84.8 


98.2 


112.0 


126.0 


10 


25.2 


38.2 


51.5 


65.2 


79.2 


93.4 


108.0 


123.0 


138.0 


11 


27.6 


41.9 


56.5 


71.3 


86.5 


102.0 


118.0 


134.0 


150.0 


12 


30.1 


46.6 


61.4 


77.5 


93.9 


111.0 


128.0 


145.0 


163.0 


13 


32.5 


49.2 


66.3 


83.6 


101.0 


119.0 


137.0 


156.0 


175.0 


14 


35.0 


52.9 


71.2 


89.7 


109.0 


128.0 


147.0 


167.0 


187.0 


15 





56.6 


76.1 


95.9 


116.0 


136.0 


157.0 


178.0 


199.0 


16 




60.3 


81.0 


102.0 


123.0 


145.0 


167.0 


189.0 


212.0 


18 




67.7 


90.8 


114.0 


138.0 


162.0 


187.0 


211.0 


236.0 


20 






101.0 


127.0 


153.0 


179.0 


206.0 


233.0 


261.0 


22 








110.0 


139.0 


168.0 


197.0 


226.0 


255.0 


285.0 


24 






120.0 


151.0 


182.0 


214.0 


245.0 


278.0 


310.0 


26 






130.0 


163.0 


197.0 


231.0 


265.0 


299.0 


334.0 


28 
30 


.... 




140.0 
149.0 


175.0 
188.0 


211.0 
226.0 


248.0 
265.0 


284.0 
304.0 


321.0 
343.0 


358.0 
383.0 







1 Approximate weight of each flanged joint = weight of 1 ft. of pipe. 
Values in table are theoretical, and based on cast iron weighing 450 Ib. per 
cubic foot. 



CAST-IRON PIPE 



195 




CO * 00 (N rt< CO 00 



Tf< 



196 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



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foot head 
unds press 



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Flanges drilled 
inch larger than 



inc 
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pe 



tely 1^ times thickness of p plus 
heavy flanged fittings. Bolt holes dri 
hort for gaskets. 



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WROUGHT-IRON AND STEEL PIPE 



197 



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198 



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WROUOHT-IRON AND STEEL PIPE 



199 



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fill 



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Nomina 
internal, 
inches 



200 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



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STEEL PIPE 



201 



M 



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Q 

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202 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 




Reducer. 



STANDARD SCREWED FITTINGS 
(Approximate Weights and Dimensions) 



Malleable iron 



Dimensions in inches 



Weight in pounds per 100 pieces 



Ells 45 Ells Tees Crosses 



2% 



2% 

3K 



2 

2% 



tffc. 



6 



2 



2% 



6^6 



3% 

4% 



IMe 
IKe 

1% 



13 

17 

27 

39 

60 

105 

131 

232 

420 

637 

940 

1,100 



11 

14 

21 

32 

50 

80 

111 

197 

350 

483 

665 

775 



14 

23 

35 

55 

80 

136 

183 

285 

428 

742 

1,000 

1,200 



21 

42 

54 

96 

152 

197 

340 

575 

960 

1,040 

1,550 



Cast iron 



2K 



3% 



6K 

7^6 

7% 
9 



6 



IK 



tO 

M 

\CO 



^- ! 
01 



Oi 

\W 

h-\ 



h- 
OS 



2K 
3 

3K 

4% 
5M 



to to 

'n\'-K' 

r-l r-t i 

cOO 
i i(N 



3% 

4K 



2K 

2K 



6 

6% 
7% 

8K 

9K 



12K 
13% 



to <O 
rH \H <0 

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i-t\cO\co 
<M <M < 



0\00\00 
t-\i-t\ 
<N CO 



V* 
!-K 

Tt< 



14 

24 

40 

55 

93 

152 

192 

318 

500 

700 

920 

1,250 

1,600 

2,100 

3,000 

4,400 

5,500 

7,800 

11,100 

16,800 



24 

37 

55 

84 

138 

196 

284 

440 

660 

850 

1,125 

1,450 

1,650 

2,500 

3,500 

4,600 

6,900 

8,600 

12,500 



20 

32 

53 

81 

122 

200 

268 

430 

650 

1,000 

1,325 

1,780 

2,330 

2,620 

4,000 

5,500 

7,900 

10,200 

14,900 

21,500 



70 

100 

150 

238 

350 

530 

785 

1,100 

1,550 

2,150 

2,700 

3,000 

4,300 

6,600 

8,300 

13,600 

15,400 

25,500 



'SCREWED FITTINGS 



203 



EXTRA HEAVY SCREWED FITTINGS 
(Approximate Weights and Dimensions) 





Malleable iron 



Size, 
inches 


Dimensions in inches Weight in pounds per 100 pieces 


A 


# 


C 


Ells 


45 Ells 


Tees 


Crosses 


y 


iMe 







20 


20 


34 


42K 


H 


IK 


% 




38 


25 


64 


81 


l /2 


IK 


1 


.... 


62 


49 


92 


106 





1% 


IK 




97 


69 


133 


163 


1 


2 


IMe 


2M 


134 


105 


200 


236 


IK 


2K 


IK 


3 


223 


175 


320 


378 


IK 


2K 


I 1 He 


3K 


316 


232 


420 


503 


2 


3 


2 


4 


460 


370 


660 


800 


2K 


3K 


2K 


4% 


720 


538 


1,000 


1,200 


3 


4K 


2K 


5K 


1,065 


763 


1,600 


2,000 


3K 


4% 


2% 


6K 


1,500 


920 


2,200 


2,600 


4 


5^ 


2% 


7 


2,000 


1,250 


2,950 


3,240 



Cast iron 



1 


2 


1H 




196 


155 


285 


305 


IX 


2K 


IK 


4% 


292 


248 


400 


510 


IK 


2^6 


m 


5% 


403 


335 


525 


680 


2 


3 


1% 


6M 


650 


548 


925 


1,080 


2K 


3K 


2K 


7% 


900 


950 


1,400 


1,750 


3 


4K 


2K 


8% 


1,350 


1,400 


2,000 


2,980 


3K 


4% 


2^6 


9% 


1,900 


1,750 


2,600 


3,300 


4 


5y 8 


2% 


10% 


2,500 


2,300 


3,800 


4,900 


4K 


5K 


3 




3,000 


2,800 


4,400 


6,300 


5 


6K 


3^6 




3,900 


3,600 


6,000 


7,200 


6 


7M 


3% 


.... 


6,200 


5,500 


9,000 


11,300 


7 


&M 


4 


.... 


8,800 


7,500 


12,700 


16,300 


8 


$X 


4^ 


.... 


12,500 


9,800 


17,500 


22,000 


10 


nH 


4% 


... 


28,000 


15,000 


39,000 


49,000 


12 


13% 


5K 


.... 


40,000 


20,300 


60,600 


70,400 



204 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 




+ 



. _ 

1! 5 li 



03 " 3 js 

I Hi 1 

Bq b, H Q 



'+ 

~\% 
X 

+ 



X 



T + + + 

1111 

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OJ 0) 0) <V 



PIPE THREADS 



205 



oo oo -*-<<i-< 1-1 1-1 *-i oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo 000000000000 






IOCS' iCOOCCOO'^t^.OO 

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CO -^ CO t^ Oi <N ^O 00 Ol l> CO 00 CO OO 1 ^ iO iO O'* O O O 00 GO 00 00 00 00 




d 



206 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



LEAD PIPE 



Inside 
diam- 
eter, 
inches 


Kind 


Weight 
per foot, 
pounds 


Inside 
diam- 
eter, 
inches 


Kind 


Weight 
per foot, 
pounds 


y* 


Aqueduct 
Ex. light 
Light 
Medium 
Strong 
Ex. strong 
Ex. ex. strong 


0.50 
0.56 
0.75 
1.00 
1.50 
2.00 
2.63 


IK 


Aqueduct 
Ex. light 
Light 
Medium 
Strong 
Ex. strong 
Ex. ex. strong 


2.00 
2.50 
3.00 
3.75 
4.75 
6.00 
6.75 


Yi 


Aqueduct 
Ex. light 
Light 
Medium 
Strong 
Ex. strong 
Ex. ex. strong 


0.63 
0.75 
1.00 
1.25 
1.75 
2.50 
3.00 


1M 


Aqueduct 
Ex. light 
Light 
Medium 
Strong 
Ex. strong 
Ex. ex. strong 


3.00 
3.50 
4.00 
5.00 
6.00 
7.50 
9.00 


H 


Aqueduct 
Ex. light 
Light 
Medium 
Strong 
Ex. strong 
Ex. ex. strong 


0.75 
1.25 
1.75 
2.00 
2.50 
3.00 
3.50 


1 3 4 


Aqueduct 
Ex. light 
Light 
Medium 
Strong 
Ex. strong 


3.00 
3.75 
4.50 
5.50 
6.50 
8.00 


H 


Aqueduct 
Ex. light 
Light 
Medium 
Strong 
Ex. strong 
Ex. ex. strong 


1.00 
1.50 
2.00 
2.25 
3.00 
3.50 
4.00 


2 


Aqueduct 
Ex. light 
Light 
Medium 
Strong 
Ex. strong 
Ex. ex. strong 


3.00 
4.00 
5.00 
7.00 
8.00 
9.00 
10.50 


H 


Aqueduct 
Ex. light 
Light 
Medium 
Strong 


1.50 
2.00 
2.50 
3.00 
3.50 


2>^ 


Aqueduct 
Light 
Medium (% 6 in. thick) 
Strong (14 in.) 
Ex. strong (% 6 inch) 
Ex. ex. strong (% in.) 


4.00 
6.00 
8.00 
11.00 
14.00 
17.00 


1 


Aqueduct 
Ex. light 
Light 
Medium 
Strong 
Ex. strong 
Ex. ex. strong 


1.50 
2.00 
2.50 
3.25 
4.00 
4.75 
5.50 


3 


Aqueduct 
Ex. light 
Light 
Medium (% 6 in. thick) 
Strong (24 in.) 
Ex. strong (% 6 in.) 
Ex. ex. strong (% in.) 


4.00 
4.75 
6.19 
9.00 
12.00 
16.00 
20.00 



LEAD PIPE 
LEAD PIPE (Concluded) 



207 



Inside 
diam- 
eter, 
inches 


Kind 


Weight 
per foot, 
pounds 


Inside 
diam- 
eter, 
inches 


i Weight 
Kind per foot, 
pounds 


4 


Aqueduct 
Ex. light 
Light 
Medium 
Strong (y in. thick) 
Ex. strong (Y\ in.) 
Ex. ex. strong (% in.) 


5.00 
6.00 
8.00 
10.00 
16.00 
22.00 
25.00 


6 


Aqueduct 10 . 00 
Ex. light 13.00 
Light (Y in. thick) 24.00 
Medium (% in.) 36.50 
Strong (Y 2 in.) 50.00 


5 


Aqueduct 8 . 25 
Ex. light 11.00 
Light '14.63 
Medium (% in. thick) 20 . 00 
Strong (% in.) 30.25 
Ex. strong (H in.) 40.00 


8 


Light 30 . 50 
Medium 39 . 25 
Strong 48 . 00 



SHEET LEAD 



Pounds per 
square foot 



Thickness in inches 



Fraction 



Decimal 



2 H 2 


0.032 


3 


^4 


0.048 


4 


h* 


0.066 


5 


%4 


0.082 


6 


3 /32 


0.098 


7 


K* 


0.115 


8 


X 


0.134 


9 


%4 


0.145 


10 


5 /Z2 


0.164 


11 


1 X* 


0.180 


12 


3 /16 


0.198 


13 


1 H* 


0.214 


14 


7 /32 


0.230 


15 


X 


0.248 


16 


y 


0.264 


20 


5 A G 


0.332 


25 


2 %4 


0.414 


30 


y* 


0.496 


60 




0.992 



208 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 




s >. 

a: m 
u 

co a 



5 2 

< 0) 



CM 



L. ' 2 

CL < 
Q O 2 > 






BRICK SHAPES 



209 




14 



210 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



FIBER ROPE KNOTS AND HITCHES AND HOW TO MAKE THEM 1 

The principle of a knot is that no 2 parts which would move 
in the same direction if the rope were to slip, should lie alongside 

ABC D 




of and touching each other. This principle is clearly shown in 
the square knot (I). 

1 From LIDDELL'S "Metallurgists and Chemists' Handbook." 



FIBER ROPE KNOTS AND HITCHES 211 

A great number of knots have been devised, of which a few of 
the most useful are herewith illustrated by courtesy of C. W. 
Hunt Company, of New York. In the engravings they are 
shown open, or before being drawn taut, in order to show the 
position of the parts. The names usually given to them are: 

A. Bight of a rope. 

B. Simple or overhand knot. 

C. Figure 8 knot. 

D. Double knot. 

E. Boat knot. 

F. Bowline, first step. 

G. Bowline, second step. 
H. Bowline, completed. 

I. Square or reef knot. 

J. Sheet bend or weaver's knot. 

K. Sheet bend with a toggle. 

L. Carrick bend. 

M. " Stevedore" knot completed. 

N. " Stevedore" knot commenced. 

0. Slip knot. 

P. Flemish loop. 

Q. Chain knot with toggle. 

R. Half-hitch. 

S. Timber-hitch. 

T. Clove-hitch. 

U. Rolling-hitch. 

V. Timber-hitch and half-hitch. 

W. Blackwall-hitch. 

X. Fisherman's bend. 

Y. Round turn and half-hitch. 

Z. Wall knot commenced. 
AA. Wall knot completed. 
BB. Wall knot crown commenced. 
CC. Wall knot crown completed. 
DD to HH. Eye splice commenced and completed. 



212 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

The bowline (G) is one of the most useful knots; it will not 
slip, and after being strained is easily untied. It should be tied 
with facility by everyone who handles rope. Commence by 
making a bight in the rope, then put the end through the bight 
and under the standing part, as shown in the engraving, then 
pass the end again through the bight, and haul tight. 

The square or reef knot (I) must not be mistaken for the 
" granny" knot that slips under a strain. Knots (H, K and M) 
are easily untied after being under strain. The knot (M) is 
useful when the rope passes through an eye and is held by the 
knot, as it will not slip, and is easily untied after being strained. 

The wall knot looks complicated but is easily made by pro- 
ceeding as follows: 

Form a bight with strand 1, and pass the strand 2 around the 
end of it, and the strand 3 around the end of 2, and then through 
the bight of 1, as shown in engraving Z. Haul the ends taut, 
when the appearance is as shown in the engraving AA. The 
end of the strand 1 is now laid over the center of the knot, 
strand 2 laid over 1, and 3 over 2, when the end of 3 is passed 
through the bight of 1, as shown in the engraving BB. Haul 
all the strands taut, as shown in the engraving CC. 

The " stevedore" knot (M), (N) is used to hold the end of a 
rope from passing through a hole. When the rope is strained 
the knot draws up tight, but it can be easily untied when the 
strain is removed. 

If a knot or hitch of any kind is tied in a rope, its failure under 
stress is sure to occur at that place. Each fiber in the straight 
part of the rope takes proper share of the load, but in all knots 
the rope is cramped or has a short bend, which throws an over- 
load on those fibers that are on the outside of the bend and one 
fiber after another breaks until the rope is torn apart. The 
shorter the bend in the standing rope, the weaker is the knot. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 213 



U. S. CUSTOMARY WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

Length 

12 inches = 1 foot 

3 feet = 1 yard 

5% yards = 1 rod 

320 rods 



1760 yards 



1 mile 



5280 feet 

Nautical Units 
6080.2 feet = 1 nautical mile 

6 feet = 1 fathom 

120 fathoms = 1 cable length 

1 nautical mile 

per hour = 1 knot 

Surveyors Measure 
7.92 inches = 1 link 
100 links 



66 feet 



= 1 chain 



4 rods 
80 chains = 1 mile 

Area 

144 square inches = 1 square foot 
9 square feet = 1 square yard 

30^ square yards = 1 square rod 

160 square rods 1 

\ = 1 acre 
10 square chains J 

640 acres = 1 square mile 

Volume 

1728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot 
27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard 
1 cord of wood = 128 cubic feet 

Liquid Measure 

4 gills = 1 pint 
2 pints = 1 quart 
4 quarts = 1 gallon 
7.4805 gallons = 1 cubic foot 



214 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



Apothecaries Liquid Measure 

60 minims = 1 liquid dram 
8 drams = 1 liquid ounce 
16 ounces = 1 pint 

Dry Measure 

2 pints = 1 quart 
8 quarts = 1 peck 
4 pecks = 1 bushel 

Avoirdupois Weight 



16 drams =437.5 grains 
16 ounces =7000 grains 
100 pounds 

2000 pounds 

2240 pounds 



= 1 ounce 
= 1 pound 
= 1 cental 
= 1 short ton 
= 1 long ton 



Troy Weight 

24 grains = 1 pennyweight (dwt.) 

20 pennyweights = 1 ounce 
12 ounces = 1 pound 

Apothecaries Weights 
20 grains = 1 scruple 

3 scruples = 1 dram 

8 drams = 1 ounce 
12 ounces = 1 pound 

METRIC MEASURES 
Length 



Unit 


Symbol 


Value in meters 


Micron 




000001 


Millimeter 
Centimeter 
Decimeter 


mm. 
cm. 
dm 


0.001 
0.01 
1 


Meter (unit) .... 


m 


1 


Dekameter. . 


dkm 


10 


Hectometer 


hm 


100 


Kilometer 


km 


1 000 


Myriameter . 


IVIm 


10 000 


Megameter 




1 000 000 









WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 
Area 



215 



Unit ' 


Symbol 


Value in square meters 


Sq millimeter 


mm. 2 


0.000001 


Sq. centimeter 
Sq decimeter 


cm. 2 
dm. 2 


0.0001 
0.01 


Sq meter (centiare) 


m. 2 


1.0 


Sq dekameter (are) 


a. 


100.0 


Hectare 


ha. 


10,000.0 


Sq kilometer 


km. 2 


1,000,000.0 









Volume 



Unit 


Symbol 


Value in liters 


Milliliter 


ml. or cm. 3 


0.001 


Liter (unit) 


1. or dm. 3 


1.0 


Kiloliter 


kl. or m. 3 


1,000.0 


Also 
Centiliter 


cl. 


0.01 


Deciliter 


dl. 


0.1 


Dekaliter 
Hectoliter . . 


dkl. 
hi. 


10.0 
100.0 









CUBIC MEASURE 



Unit 


Symbol 


Value in cubic 
meters 


Cubic kilometer 
Cubic hectometer 


km. 3 
hm. 3 


10 9 
10 6 


Cubic dekameter 
Cubic meter 


dkm. 3 
m. 3 


10 3 
1 


Cubic decimeter 


dm. 3 


10~ 3 


Cubic centimeter. . 


cm. 3 


io- 6 


Cubic millimeter 
Cubic micron 


mm. 3 
M 3 


10~ 9 
10~ 18 



216 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 
Weight 



Unit 


Symbol 


Value in grams 


Microgram 




0.000001 


IVlilligram 


msr 


001 


Centigram 


C. 


01 


Decigram 


dg. 


0.1 


Gram (unit) 
Dekagram 


g- 

dkg. 


1.0 
10 


Hectogram 


hg 


100 


Kilogram 


kg. 


1,000.0 


Myriagram 


Mg. 


10,000.0 


Quintal ... . 


Q. 


100,000 


Ton.. 


t. 


1,000,000.0 



EQUIVALENTS OF METRIC AND CUSTOMARY (U. S.) WEIGHTS 
AND MEASURES 1 



Length 



METRIC 
1 millimeter 
1 centimeter 
1 'meter 
1 meter 
1 meter 
1 kilometer 

U. S. STANDARD 
1 inch 
1 inch 
1 foot 
1 yard 
1 mile 



METRIC 

1 square millimeter 
1 square centimeter 
1 square meter 
1 square meter 
1 square kilometer 
1 hectare 



Area 



U. S. STANDARD 

0.03937 inch 

0.3937 inch 
39 . 37 inches 

3. 28083 feet 

1.09361 yards 

0.62137 mile 

METRIC 
25.4001 millimeters 

2 . 5400 centimeters 

. 3048 meter 

0.9144 meter 

1 . 60935 kilometers 

U. S. STANDARD 
0.00155 square inch 
0. 1550 square inch 
10 . 7640 square feet 
1 . 1960 square yards 
0.3861 square mile 
2.471 acres 



Table of equivalents, U. S. Bureau of Standards. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



217 



U. S. STANDARD 

1 square inch 
1 square inch 
1 square foot 
1 square yard 
1 square mile 
1 acre 



Area (Continued) 



METRIC 



645 . 16 square millimeters 
6 . 452 square centimeters 
. 0929 square meter 
0.8361 square meter 
2 . 5900 square kilometers 
0.4047 hectare 



Volume 



METRIC 

1 cubic millimeter 
1 cubic centimeter 
1 cubic meter 
1 cubic meter 

U. S. STANDARD 

1 cubic inch 
1 cubic inch 
1 cubic foot 
1 cubic yard 



U. S. STANDARD 

. 000061 cubic inch 
0.0610 cubic inch 
35.314 cubic feet 
1 . 3079 cubic yards 

METRIC 

16,387.2 cubic millimeters 
16.3872 cubic centimeters 
0.02832 cubic meter 
0.7646 cubic meter 



Capacity 



METRIC 

milliliter (c.c.) 

milliliter 

milliliter 

liter 

liter 
1 liter 
1 liter 
1 dekaliter 
1 hectoliter 
1 hectoliter 



U. S. STANDARD 

0.03381 liquid ounce 
. 2705 apothecaries' dram 
0.8115 apothecaries' scruple 
1 . 05668 liquid quarts 
0.9081 dry quart 
0.26417 liquid gallon 
0.11351 peck 
1 . 1351 pecks 
2. 83774 bushels 
26.4176 liquid gallons 



218 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



Capacity (Contin ued) 



U. S. STANDARD 

1 liquid ounce 

1 apothecaries' dram 

1 apothecaries' scruple 

1 liquid quart 

1 dry quart 

1 liquid gallon 

1 peck 

1 peck 

1 bushel 

1 bushel 



METRIC 



29.574milliliters (c.c.) 
3.6967milliliters 
1 . 2322 milliliters 
0.94636 liter 
1 . 1012 liters 
3 . 78543 liters 
8 . 80982 liters 
0.88098 dekaliter 

35 . 239 liters 
. 35239 hectoliter 



METRIC 



Mass 



1 gram 
1 gram 
1 gram 
1 kilogram 
1 kilogram 

U. S. STANDARD 

1 grain 

1 avoirdupois ounce 

1 troy ounce 

1 avoirdupois pound 

1 troy pound 



U. S. STANDARD 

15. 4324 grains 
. 03527 avoirdupois ounce 
0.03215 troy ounce 
2 . 20462 avoirdupois pounds 
2.67923 troy pounds 

METRIC 

. 0648 gram 
28 . 3495 grams 
31 . 10348 grams 

0.45359 kilogram 

0.37324 kilogram 



THERMOMETRIC SCALES 



219 



COMPARISON OF THERMOMETRIC SCALES 

Fahrenheit degrees as units 

C. = %(F. - 32) 



F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


-40 -40.0 


+3 


-16.1 


+46 


+7.8 


+89 


+31.7 


+ 132 


+55.6 


+ 175 


+79.4 


39 


39.4 


4 


15.6 


47 


8.3 


90 


32.2 


133 


56.1 


176 


80.0 


38 


38.9 


5 


15.0 


48 


8.9 


91 


32.8 


134 


56.7 


177 


80.6 


37 


38.3 


6 


14.4 


49 


9.4 


92 


33.3 


135 


57.2 


178 


81.1 


36 


37.8 


7 


13.9 


50 


10.0 


93 


33.9 


136 


57.8 


179 


81.7 


35 


37.2 


8 


13.3 


51 


10.6 


94 


34.4 


137 


58.3 


180 


82.2 


34 


36.7 


9 


12.8 


52 


11.1 


95 


35.0 


138 


58.9 


181 


82.8 


33 


36.1 


10 


12.2 


53 


11.7 


96 


35.6 


139 


59.4 


182 


83.3 


32 


35.6 


11 


11.7 


54 


12.2 


97 


36.1 


140 


60.0 


183 


83.9 


31 


35.0 


12 


11.1 


55 


12.8 


98 


36.7 


141 


60.6 


184 


84.4 


30 


34.4 


13 


10.6 


56 


13.3 


99 


37.2 


142 


61.1 


185 


85.0 


29 


33.9 


14 


10.0 


57 


13.9 


100 


37.8 


143 


61.7 


186 


85.6 


28 


33.3 


15 


9.4 


58 


14.4 


101 


38.3 


144 


62.2 


187 


86.1 


27 


32.8 


16 


8.9 


59 


15.0 


102 


38.9 


145 


62.8 


188 


86.7 


26 


32.2 


17 


8.3 


60 


15.6 


103 39.4 


146 


63.3 


189 


87.2 


25 


31.7 


18 


7.8 


61 


16.1 


104 40.0 


147 


63.9 


190 87.8 


24 


31.1 


19 


7.2 


62 


16.7 


105 


40.6 


148 


64.4 


191 


88.3 


23 


30.6 


20 


6.7 


63 


17.2 


106 


41.1 


149 


65.0 


192 


88.9 


22 


30.0 


21 


6.1 


64 


17.8 


107 


41.7 


150 


65.6 


193 


89.4 


21 


29.4 


22 


5.6 


65 


18.3 


108 


42.2 


151 


66.1 


194 


90.0 


20 


28.9 


23 


5.0 


66 


18.9 


109 


42.8 


152 


66.7 


195 


90.6 


19 


28.3 


24 


4.4 


67 


19.4 


110 


43.3 


153 


67.2 


196 


91.1 


18 


27.8 


25 


3.9 


68 


20.0 


111 


43.9 


154 


67.8 


197 


91.7 


17 


27.2 


26 


3.3 


69 


20.6 


112 


44.4 


155 


68.3 


198 


92.2 


16 


26.7 


27 


2.8 


70 


21.1 


113 


45.0 


156 


68.9 


199 


92.8 


15 


26.1 


28 


2.2 


71 


21.7 


114 


45.6 


157 


69.4 


200 


93.3 


14 


25.6 


29 


1.7 


72 


22.2 


115 


46.1 


158 


70.0 


201 


93.9 


13 


25.0 


30 


1.1 


73 


22.8 


116 


46.7 


159 


70.6 


202 


94.4 


12 


24.4 


31 


0.6 


74 


23.3 


117 


47.2 


160 


71.1 


203 


95.0 


11 


23.9 


32 


0.0 


75 


23.9 


118 


47.8 


161 


71.7 


204 


95.6 


10 


23.3 


33 


+0.6 


76 


24.4 


119 


48.3 


162 


72.2 


205 


96.1 


9 


22.8 


34 


1.1 


77 


25.0 


120 


48.9 


163 


72.8 


206 


96.7 


8 


22.2 


35 


1.7 


78 


25.6 


121 


49.4 


164 


73.3 


207 


97.2 


7 


21.7 


36 


2.2 


79 


26.1 


122 


50.0 


165 


73.9 


208 


97.8 


6 


21.1 


37 


2.8 


80 


26.7 


123 


50.6 


166 


74.4 


209 


98.3 


5 


20.6 


38 


3.3 


81 


27.2 


124 


51.1 


167 


75.0 


210 


98.9 


4 


20.0 


39 


3.9 


82 


27.8 


125 


51.7 


168 


75.6 


211 


99.4 


3 


19.4 


40 


4.4 


83 


28.3 


126 


52.2 


169 


76.1 


212 


100.0 


2 


18.9 


41 


5.0 


84 


28.9 


127 


52.8 


170 


76.7 






1 


18.3 


42 


5.6 


85 


29.4 


128 


53.3 


171 


77.2 









17.8 


43 


6.1 


86 


30.0 


129 


53.9 


172 


77.8 






+ 1 


17.2 


44 


6.7 


87 


30.6 


130 


54.4 


173 


78.3 






2 


16.7 


45 


7.2 


88 


31.1 


131 


55.0 


174 


78.9 







220 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



COMPARISON OP THERMOMETRIC SCALES 

Centigrade degrees as units 

F. = %C. + 32 



c. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


c. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


-40 


-40.0 


-4 


+24.8 


+32 


+89.6 


+68 


+ 154.4 


39 


38.2 


3 


26.6 


33 


91.4 


69 


156.2 


38 


36.4 


2 


28.4 


34 


93.2 


70 


158.0 


37 


34.6 


1 


30.2 


35 


95.0 


71 


159.8 


36 


32.8 





32.0 


36 


96.8 


72 


161.6 


35 


31.0 


+ 1 


33.8 


37 


98.6 


73 


163.4 


34 


29.2 


2 


35.6 


38 


100.4 


74 


165.2 


33 


27.4 


3 


37.4 


39 


102.2 


75 


167.0 


32 


25.6 


4 


39.2 


40 


104.0 


76 


168.8' 


31 


23.8 


5 


41.0 


41 


105.8 


77 


170.6 


30 


22.0 


6 


42.8 


42 


107.6 


78 


172 A 


29 


20.2 


7 


44.6 


43 


109.4 


79 


174.2 


28 


18.4 


8 


46.4 


44 


111.2 


80 


176.0 


27 


16.6 


9 


48.2 


45 


113.0 


81 


177.8 


26 


14.8 


10 


50.0 


46 


114.8 


82 


179.6 


25 


13.0 


11 


51.8 


47 


116.6 


83 


181.4 


24 


11.2 


12 


53.6 


48 


118.4 


84 


183.2 


23 


9.4 


13 


55.4 


49 


120.2 


85 


185.0 


22 


7.6 


14 


57.2 


50 


122.0 


86 


186.8 


21 


5.8 


15 


59.0 


51 


123.8 


87 


188.6 


20 


4.0 


16 


60.8 


52 


125.6 


88 


190.4 


19 


2.2 


17 


62.6 


53 


127.4 


89 


192.2 


18 


0.4 


18 


64.4 


54 


129.2 


90 


194.0 


17 


+ 1.4 


19 


66.2 


55 


131.0 


91 


195.8 


16 


3.2 


20 


68.0 


56 


132.8 


92 


197.6 


15 


5.0 


21 


69.8 


57 


134.6 


93 


199.4 


14 


6.8 


22 


71.6 


58 


136.4 


94 


201.2 


13 


8.6 


23 


73.4 


59 


138.2 


95 


203.0 


12 


10.4 


24 


75.2 


60 


140.0 


96 


204.8 


11 


12.2 


25 


77.0 


61 


141.8 


97 


206.6 


10 


14.0 


26 


78.8 


62 


143.6 


98 


208.4 


9 


15.8 


27 


80.6 


63 


145.4 


99 


210.2 


8 


17.6 


28 


82.4 


64 


147.2 


100 


212.0 


7 


19.4 


29 


84.2 


65 


149.0 






6 


21.2 


30 


86.0 


66 


150.8 






5 


23.0 


31 


87.8 


67 


152.6 







WATER 



221 



WATER 1 



Density 
Weight in grams of 1 c.c. of water free 
from air 


Volume 
Volume in cubic centimeters of 1 gram of 
water 


Temperature, C. 


Density 


Temperature, C. 


Volume 





0.999868 





1.000132 


1 


0.999927 


1 


1.000073 


2 


0.999968 


2 


1.000032 


3 


0.999992 


3 


1.000008 


4 


1.000000 


4 


1.000000 


5 


0.999992 


5 


1.000008 


6 


0.999986 


6 


1.000032 


7 


0.999929 


7 


1.000071 


8 


0.999876 


8 


1.000124 


9 


0.999808 


9 


1.000192 


10 


. 999727 


10 


1.000273 


11 


0.999632 


11 


1.000368 


12 


0.999525 


12 


1.000476 


13 


0.999404 


13 


1.000596 


14 


0.999271 


14 


1.000729 


15 


0.999126 


15 


1.000874 


16 


0.998970 


16 


1.001031 


17 


0.998801 


17 


1.001200 


18 


0.998622 


18 


1.001380 


19 


0.998432 


19 


1.001571 


20 


0.998230 


20 


1.001773 


21 


0.998019 


21 


1.001985 


22 


0.997797 


22 


1.002208 


23 


0.997565 


23 


1.002441 


24 


0.997323 


24 


1.002685 


25 


0.997071 


25 


1.002938 


26 


0.996810 


26 


1.003201 


27 


0.996539 


27 


1.003473 


28 


0.996259 


28 


1.003755 


29 


0.995971 


29 


1 . 004046 


30 


0.995673 


30 


1.004346 


31 


0.995367 


31 


.004655 


32 


0.995052 


32 


.004972 


33 


0.994729 


33 


.005299 


34 


0.994398 


34 


.005634 


35 


0.994058 


35 


.005978 



1 According to THIESEN, SCHEEL and DIESSELHORST: Wiss. Abh. der 
Physikalisch-Technischen Reichsanstalt., 3, 68-69, 1900. 



222 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



DENSITY OF SOLUTIONS OF SULPHURIC Acm 1 (H 2 SO 4 ) AT 20C. 2 
(Calculated from Dr. J. Domke's table. 3 Adopted as the basis for standardi- 
zation of hydrometers indicating per cent, of sulphuric acid at 20C.) 



Per cent. 
H 2 S0 4 


*?c. 


Per cent. 
H 2 S04 


n 20 

z> T c. 


Per cent. 
H 2 S0 4 


fr. 





0.99823 


30 


1.21850 


60 


1.49818 


1 


1.00506 


31 


1.22669 


61 


1.50904 


2 


1.01178 


32 


1 . 23492 


62 


1.51999 


3 


1.01839 


33 


1 . 24320 


63 


1.53102 


4 


1.02500 


34 


"1.25154 


64 


1.54213 


5 


1.03168 


35 


1 . 25992 


65 


1.55333 


6 


1.03843 


36 


1.26836 


66 


1.56460 


7 


1.04527 


37 


1.27685 


67 


1.57595 


8 


1.05216 


38 


1 . 28543 


68 


1 . 58739 


9 


1.05909 


39 


1.29407 


69 


1 . 59890 


10 


1.06609 


40 


1 . 30278 


70 


1.61048 


11 


1.07314 


41 


1.31157 


71 


1.62213 


12 


1.08026 


42 


1.32043 


72 


1.63384 


13 


1.08744 


43 


1 . 32938 


73 


1.64560 


14 


1.09468 


44 


1.33843 


74 


1 . 65738 


15 


1 . 10199 


45 


1.34759 


75 


1.66917 


16 


1 . 10936 


46 


1.35686 


76 


1 . 68095 


17 


1.11679 


47 


1.36625 


77 


1.69268 


18 


1 . 12428 


48 


1 . 37574 


78 


1.70433 


19 


1 . 13183 


49 


1.38533 


79 


1.71585 


20 


1 . 13943 


50 


1 . 39505 


80 


1.72717 


21 


1.14709 


51 


1 . 40487 


81 


1.73827 


22 


1 . 15480 


52 


1.41481 


82 


1 . 74904 


23 


1 . 16258 


53 


1 . 42487 


83 


1.75943 


24 


1 . 17041 


54 


1.43503 


84 


1.76932 


25 


1 . 17830 


55 


.44530 


85 


1.77860 


26 


1 . 18624 


56 


. 45568 


85.5 


1.78300 


27 


1 . 19423 


57 


.46615 


86 


1 . 78721 


28 


1 . 20227 


58 


.47673 


86.5 


1.79124 


29 


1.21036 


59 


.48740 


87 


1 . 79509 



SULPHURIC ACID 



223 



DENSITY OF SOLUTIONS OF SIJLPHURIC AciD 1 (H 2 SO 4 ) AT 20C. 2 (Concluded) 
(Calculated from Dr. J. Domke's table. 3 Adopted as the basis for standardi- 
zation of hydrometers indicating per cent, of sulphuric acid at 20C.) 



Per cent. 
H Z S04 


*?* 


Per cent. 
HiS04 


*?c. 


Per cent. 
H 2 SO4 


*& 


87.5 


1 . 79875 


93.0 


1.82790 


96.0 


1.83548 


88.0 


1.80223 


93.2 


1.82860 


96.1 


1 . 83560 


88.5 


1.80552 


93.4 


1.82928 


96 2 


1.83572 


89.0 


1.80864 


93.6 


.82993 


96.3 


1.83584 


89.5 


1.81159 


93.8 


.83055 


96.4 


1.83594 


90.0 


.81438 


94.0 


.83115 


96.5 


1.83604 


90.2 


.81545 


94.2 


.83172 


96.6 


1.83613 


90.4 


.81650 


94.4 


.83226 


96.7 


1.83621 


90.6 


.81753 


94.6 


.83276 


96.8 


1.83628 


90.8 


.81853 


94.8 


.83324 


96.9 


1.83634 


91 >0 


1.81950 


95.0 


.83368 


97.0 


1.83637 


91.2 


1.82045 


95.1 


.83389 


97.1 


1.83639 


91.4 


1.82137 


95.2 


.83410 


97.2 


1.83640 


91.6 


1.82227 


95.3 


.83430 


97.3 


1.83640 


91.8 


1.82315 


95.4 


.83449 


97.4 


1.83639 


92.0 


.82401 


95.5 


.83469 


97.5 


1.83637 


92.2 


.82484 


95.6 


.83486 


97.6 


1.83634 


92.4 


.82564 


95.7 


1.83503 


97.7 


1.83629 


92.6 


.82641 


95.8 


1.83520 


97.8 


1.83623 


92.8 


.82717 


95.9 


1.83534 


97.9 


1.83615 










98.0 


1.83605 



1 For general use the more extensive and elaborate "Standard Tables" 
under the caption, " Sulphuric acid 0Be. 100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 ," should 
always be referred to. 

2 United States Bureau of Standards, Circular No. 19, 5th edition, March 
30, 1916, p. 28. 

The density values in this table are numerically the same as specific 
gravity at this temperature referred to water at 4C. as unity. 

3 Wiss. Abh. der Kaiserlichen Normal-Eichungs-Kommission, 5, p. 131, 
1900. 



224 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



TEMPERATURE CORRECTIONS TO PER CENT. OF SULPHURIC AciD 1 DETER- 
MINED BY HYDROMETER (STANDARD AT 20C.) 2 

(Calculated from the same data as the preceding table, assuming Jena 16 m 
glass as the material used. The table should be used with caution, and only 
for approximate results when the temperature differs much from the stand- 
ard temperature or from the temperature of the surrounding air.) 



Observed 
per cent. 
H 2 S0 4 


j-trni.ptM.ai/uic: ui iat;j^j wo v^iitJgi au.f 





5 


10 


15 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


Subtract from observed 
per cent. 


Add to observed per cent. 


o 










0.16 


0.35 


0.59 


0.86 


1.17 


1.5 


1.9 


2.1 


5 


0.59 


0.49 


0.36 


0.20 


0.24 


0.50 


0.79 


1.11 


1.45 


1.8 


2.2 


2.6 


10 


0.92 


0.72 


0.51 


0.27 


0.29 


0.60 


0.93 


1.28 


1.65 


2.0 


2.4 


2.8 


20 


1.39 


.06 


0.72 


0.36 


0.37 


0.75 


1.14 


1.53 


1.93 


2.3 


2.7 


3.1 


30 


1.64 


.23 


0.82 


0.41 


0.41 


0.82 


1.24 


1.65 


2.07 


2.5 


2.9 


3.3 


40 


1.65 


.24 


0.82 


0.41 


0.41 


0.82 


1.22 


1.62 


2.03 


2.4 


2.8 


3.2 


50 


1.56 


.17 


0.78 


0.39 


0.38 


0.77 


1.15 


1.52 


1.90 


2.3 


2.6 


3.0 


60 


1.52 


.14 


0.76 


0.38 


0.37 


0.74 


1.11 


1.48 


1.84 


2.2 


2.6 


2.9 


70 


1.54 


.15 


0.76 


0.38 


0.38 


0.75 


1.13 


1.50 


1.86 


2.2 


2.6 


3.0 


80 


1.72 


1.30 


0.87 


0.44 


0.45 


0.90 


1.36 


1.83 


2.31 


2.8 


3.3 


3.8 


81 


1.76 


1.34 


0.92 


0.44 


0.47 


0.93 


1.42 


1.93 


2.44 


3.0 


3.5 


4.0 


82 


1.84 


1.41 


0.96 


0.47 


0.50 


1.00 


1.51 


2.04 


2.58 


3.1 


3.7 


4.3 


83 


1.94 


1.48 


.00 


0.50 


0.53 


1.06 


1.59 


2.18 


2.78 


3.4 


4.0 


4.6 


84 


2.05 


1.57 


.06 


0.53 


0.55 


1.12 


1.74 


2.36 


3.0 


3.7 


4.4 


5.1 


85- 


2.20 


1.67 


.13 


0.57 


0.61 


1.23 


1.88 


2.57 


3.3 


4.0 


4.9 


5.8 


86 


2.36 


1.80 


.22 


0.62 


0.66 


1.35 


2.08 


2.84 


3.7 


4.6 


5.5 




87 


2.54 


1.95 


.32 


0.67 


0.73 


1.50 


2.31 


3.2 


4.1 


5.2 






88 


2.75 


2.12 


.44 


0.74 


0.81 


1.67 


2.59 


3.6 


4.7 


6.0 






89 


3.01 


2.31 


.58 


0.82 


0.89 


1.86 


2.91 


4.1 


5.6 








90 


3.27 


2.53 


.73 


0.91 


0.99 


2.10 


3.4 


4.9 










91 


3.57 


2.78 


1.93 


1.01 


1.13 


2.44 


4.1 












92 


3.91 


3.06 


2.13 


1.12 


1.32 


3.00 














93 


4.29 


3.38 


2.37 


1.26 


1.64 
















94 


4.75 


3.77 


2.69 


1.46 


















95 


5.29 


'4.26 


3.12 


1.76 


















96 


5.96 


4.88 


3.65 


2.19 


















97 


6.78 


5.68 


4.42 


2.90 



















1 For general use the more extensive and elaborate " Standard Tables" 
under the caption, "Sulphuric acid 0Be. 100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 , " should 
always be referred to. 

2 United States Bureau of Standards, Circular No. 19. 5th edition, 
March 30, 1916, p. 29. 



SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID 225 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID 1 

Table I. Lunge, Isler and Naef (Zeit. angew. Chem. Ind., 1890, 

15 
131; Chem. Ind., 1883, 39). Specific gravities at -JQ- in vacuo. 

Table II. In 1909 Lunge publishes this table with the follow- 
ing note: "This table is based on that which the author formerly 
worked out with Isler and Naef; some corrections introduced by 
the Imperial Standards Commission are incorporated." The 
table appears under the caption "Specific gravity of sulphuric 
acid at 60F." (No mention is made to a comparison with water.) 

The entire table is not reproduced here as all strengths up to 
166 Twaddell have the same values as Table I. 

Again in 1913 Lunge republishes Table I and no mention is 
made of his corrected table of 1909. 

NOTE. The given degrees Baume in these tables do not check 
with the American Standard Baume scale. This is the Baume 
scale mostly used on the continent of Europe and is calculated 
by the following formula: 

. fi .. 144.3 

Specific gravity -= 144 . 3 _ degrees Baume 

Water at 15 being put = and sulphuric acid of 1.842 
specific gravity at 15= 66Be. 

1 These tables are published very extensively but cannot be recommended 
for general American use. The more extensive and elaborate "Standard 
Tables" should always be referred to. These can be found under the 
caption "Sulphuric acid - 0Be\ - 100 per cent. H 2 SO 4 ." 



15 



226 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

TABLE I. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID 
Lunge, Isler, and Naef 



Specific gravity 

at 15 
at 40 

in vacua 


Degrees 
Baume 


Degrees 
Twaddell 


100 parts by weight 
contain, grams 


1 liter contains in 
kilograms 


S0 3 


H ? S0 4 


S0 3 


H 2 SO4 


1.000 


0.0 





0.07 


0.09 


0.001 


0.001 


1.005 


0.7 


1 


0.68 


0.83 


0.007 


0.008 


1.010 


1.4 


2 


1.28 


1.57 


0.013 


0.016 


1.015 


2.1 


3 


1.88 


2.30 


0.019 


0.023 


1.020 


2.7 


4 


2.47 


3.03 


0.025 


0.031 


1.025 


3.4 


5 


3.07 


3.76 


0.032 


0.039 


1.030 


4.1 


6 


3.67 


4.49 


0.038 


0.046 


1.035 


4.7 


7 


4.27 


5.23 


0.044 


0.054 


1.040 


5.4 


8 


4.87 


5.96 


0.051 


0.062 


1.045 


6.0 


9 


5.45 


6.67 


0.057 


0.071 


.050 


6.7 


10 


6.02 


7.37 


0.063 


0.077 


.055 


7.4 


11 


6.59 


8.07 


0.070 


0.085 


.060 


8.0 


12 


7.16 


8.77 


0.076 


0.093 


.065 


8.7 


13 


7.73 


9.47 


0.082 


0.102 


.070 


9.4 


14 


8.32 


10.19 


0.089 


0.109 


.075 


10.0 


15 


8.90 


10.90 


0.096 


0.117 


.080 


10.6 


16 


9.47 


11.60 


0.103 


0.125 


.085 


11.2 


17 


10.04 


12.30 


0.109 


0.133 


1.090 


11.9 


18 


10.60 


12.99 


0.116 


0.142 


1.095 


12.4 


19 


11.16 


13.67 


0.122 


0.150 


1.100 


13.0 


20 


11.71 


14.35 


0.129 


0.158 


1.105 


13.6 


21 


12.27 


15.03 


0.136 


0.166 


1.110 


14.2 


22 


12.82 


15.71 


0.143 


0.175 


1.115 


14.9 


23 


13.36 


16.36 


0.149 


0.183 


1.120 


15.4 


24 


13.89 


17.01 


0.156 


0.191 


.125 


16.0 


25 


14.42 


17.66 


0.162 


0.199 


.130 


16.5 


26 


14.95 


18.31 


0.169 


0.207 


.135 


17.1 


27 


15.48 


18.96 


0.176 


0.215 


.140 


17.7 


28 


16.01 


19.61 


0.183 


0.223 


.145 


18.3 


29 


16.54 


20.26 


. 0.189 


0.231 


.150 


18.8 


30 


17.07 


20.91 


0.196 


0.239 


.155 


19.3 


31 


17.59 


21.55 


0.203 


0.248 


.160 


19.8 


32 


18.11 


22.19 


0.210 


0.257 



SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID 227 

TABLE I. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID (Continued) 



Specific gravity 
15 
at -50 
in vacua 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Degrees 
Twaddell 


100 parts by weight 
contain, grams 


1 liter contains in 
kilograms 


SOj 


H Z S04 


SO, 


HiSO4 


1.165 


20.3 


33 


18.64 


22.83 


0.217 


0.266 


1.170 


20.9 


34 


19.16 


23.47 


0.224 


0.275 


1.175 


21.4 


35 


19.69 


24.12 


0.231 


0.283 


1.180 


22.0 


36 


20.21 


24.76 


0.238 


0.292 


1.185 


22.5 


37 


20.73 


25.40 


0.246 


0.301 


1.190 


23.0 


38 


21.26 


26.04 


0.253 


0.310 


1.195 


23.5 


39 


21.78 


26.68 


0.260 


0.319 


1.200 


24.0 


40 


22.30 


27.32 


0.268 


0.328 


1.205 


24.5 


41 


22.82 


27.95 


0.275 


0.337 


1.210 


25.0 


42 


23.33 


28.58 


0.282 


0.346 


1.215 


25.5 


43 


23.84 


29.21 


0.290 


0.355 


1.220 


26.0 


44 


24.36 


29.84 


0.297 


0.364 


1.225 


26.4 


45 


24.88 


30.48 


0.305 


0.373 


1.230 


26.9 


46 


25.39 


31.11 


0.312 


0.382 


1.235 


27.4 


47 


25.88 


31.70 


0.320 


0.391 


1.240 


27.9 


48 


26.35 


32.28 


0.327 


0.400 


1.245 


28.4 


49 


26.83 


32.86 


0.334 


0.409 


1.250 


28.8 


50 


27.29 


33.43 


0.341 


0.418 


1.255 


29.3 


51 


27.76 


34.00 


0.348 


0.426 


1.260 


29.7 


52 


28.22 


34.57 


0.356 


0.435 


1.265 


30.2 


53 


28.69 


35.14 


0.363 


0.444 


1.270 


30.6 


54 


29.15 


35.71 


0.370 


0.454 


1.275 


31.1 


55 


29.62 


36.29 


0.377 


0.462 


1.280 


31.5 


56 


30.10 


36.87 


0.385 


0.472 


1.285 


32.0 


57 


30.57 


37.45 


0.393 


0.481 


1.290 


32.4 


58 


31.04 


38.03 


0.400 


0.490 


1.295 


32.8 


59 


31.52 


38.61 


0.408 


0.500 


1.300 


33.3 


60 


31.99 


39.19 


0.416 


0.510 


1.305 


33.7 


61 


32.46 


39.77 


0.424 


0.519 


1.310 


34.2 


62 


32.94 


40.35 


0.432 


0.529 


1.315 


34.6 


63 


33.41 


40.93 


0.439 


0.538 


1.320 


35.0 


64 


33.88 


41.50 


0.447 


0.548 


1.325 


35.4 


65 


34.35 


42.08 


0.455 


0.557 


1.330 


35.8 


66 


34.80 


42.66 


0.462 


0.567 



228 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

TABLE I. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID (Continued) 



Specific gravity 

-V 

in vacua 


Degrees 
Baume 


Degrees 
Twaddell 


100 parts by weight 
contain, grams 


1 liter contains in 
kilograms 


S0 3 


H 2 S0 4 


S0 3 


H 2 SO 4 


1.335 


36.2 


67 


35.27 


43.20 


0.471 


0.577 


1.340 


36.6 


68 


35.71 


43.74 


0.479 


0.586 


1.345 


37.0 


69 


36.14 


44.28 


0.486 


0.596 


1.350 


37.4 


70 


36.58 


44.82 


0.494 


0.605 


1.355 


37.8 


71 


37.02 


45.35 


0.502. 


0.614 


1.360 


38.2 


72 


37.45 


45.88 


0.509 


0.624 


1.365 


38.6 


73 


37.89 


46.41 


0.517 


0.633 


1.370 


39.0 


74 


38.32 


46.94 


0.525 


0.643 


1.375 


39.4 


75 


38.75 


47.47 


0.533 


0.653 


1.380 


39.8 


76 


39.18 


48.00 


0.541 


0.662 


1.385 


40.1 


77 


39.62 


48.53 


0.549 


0.672 


1.390 


40.5 


78 


40.05 


49.06 0.557 


0.682 


1.395 


40.8 


79 


40.48 


49.59 0.564 


0.692 


1.400 


41.2 


80 


40.91 


50.11 0.573 


0.702 


1.405 


41.6 


81 


41.33 


50.63 0.581 0.711 


' 1.410 


42.0 


82 


41.76 


51.15 0.589 0.721 


1.415 


42.3 


83 


42.17 


51.66 0.597 ' 0.730 


1.420 


42.7 


84 


42.57 


52.15 0.604 ; 0.740 


.425 


43.1 


85 


42.96 


52.63 0.612 0.750 


.430 


43.4 


86 


43.36 


53.11 0.620 0.759 


.435 


43.8 


87 


43.75 


53.59 i 0.628 


0.769 


.440 


44.1 


88 


44.14 


54.07 


0.636 


0.779 


.445 


44.4 


89 


44.53 


54.55 


0.643 


0.789 


.450 


44.8 


90 


44.92 


55.03 


0.651 


0.798 


.455 


45.1 


91 


45.31 


55.50 


0.659 


0.808 


.460 


45.4 


92 


45.69 


55.97 


0.667 


0.817 


.465 


45.8 


93 


46.07 


56.43 


0.675 


0.827 


.470 


46.1 


94 


46.45 


56.90 


0.683 


0.837 


.475 


46.4 


95 


46.83 


57.37 


0.691 


0.846 


.480 


46.8 


96 


47.21 


57.83 


0.699 


0.856 


.485 


47.1 


97 


47.57 


58.28 


0.707 


0.865 


.490 47.4 


98 


47.95 


58.74 


0.715 


0.876 


.495 47.8 


99 


48.34 


59.22 


0.723 


0.885 



SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID 229 

TABLE I. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OP SULPHURIC ACID (Continued) 



Specific gravity 

at 
in vacua 


Degrees 
Baume 


Degrees 
Twaddell 


100 parts by weight 
contain, grains 


1 liter contains in 

kilograms 


SOi 


HiS0 4 


SO, 


H Z SO 


.500 


48.1 


100 


48.73 


59.70 


0.731 


0.896 


.505 


48.4 


101 


49.12 


60.18 


0.739 


0.906 


.510 


48.7 


102 


49.51 


60.65 


0.748 


0.916 


.515 


49.0 


103 


49.89 


61.12 


0.756 


0.926 


.520 


49.4 


104 


50.28 


61.59 


0.764 


0.936 


.525 


49.7 


105 


50.66 


62.06 


0.773 


0.946 


.530 


50.0 


106 


51.04 


62.53 


0.781 


0.957 


.535 


50.3 


107 


51.43 


63.00 


0.789 


0.967 


.540 


50.6 


108 


51.78 


63.43 


0.797 


0.977 . 


.545 


50.9 


109 


52.12 


63.85 


0.805 


0.987 


.550 


51.2 


110 


52.46 


64.26 


0.813 


0.996 


.555 


51.5 


111 


52.79 


64.67 


0.821 


.006 


1.560 


51.8 


112 


53.12 


65.08 


0.829 


.015 


1.565 


52.1 


113 


53.46 


65.49 


0.837 


.025 


1.570 


52.4 


114 


53.80 


65.90 


0.845 


.035 


1.575 


52.7 


115 


54.13 


66.30 


0.853 


.044 


1.580 


53.0 


116 


54.46 


66.71 


0.861 


.054 


1.585 


53.3 


117 


54.80 


67.13 


0.869 


.064 


1.590 


53.6 


118 


55.18 


67.59 


0.877 


.075 


1.595 


53.9 


119 


55.55 


68.05 


0.886 


.085 


1.600 


54.1 


120 


55.93 


68.51 


0.895 


.096 


1.605 


54.4 


121 


56.30 


68.97 


0.904 


.107 


1.610 


54.7 


122 


56.68 


69.43 


0.913 


.118 


1.615 


55.0 


123 


57.05 


69.89 


0.921 


.128 


1.620 


55.2 


124 


57.40 


70.32 


0.930 


.139 


1.625 


55.5 


125 


57.75 


70.74 


0.938 


.150 


1.630 


55.8 


126 


58.09 


71.16 


0.947 


.160 


1.635 


56.0 


127 


58.43 


71.57 


0.955 


.170 


1.640 


56.3 


128 


58.77 


71.99 


0.964 


.181 


1.645 


56.6 


129 


59.10 


72.40 


0.972 


.192 


1.650 


56.9 


130 


59.45 


72.82 


0.981 


.202 


1.655 


57.1 


131 


59.78 


73.23 


0.989 


.212 


1.660 


57.4 


132 


60.11 


73.64 


0.998 


.222 


1.665 


57.7 


133 


60.46 


74.07 


1.007 


.233 



230 SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 

TABLE I. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID (Contin 



Specific gravity 

at^ 
in vacua 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Degrees 
Twaddell 


100 parts by weight 
contain, grams 


1 liter contains in 
kilograms 


S0 3 


H 2 S04 


80s 


H 2 SO4 


1.670 


57.9 


134 


60.82 


74.51 


1.016 


1.244 


1.675 


58.2 


135 


61.20 


74.97 


1.025 


1.256 


1.680 


58.4 


136 


61.57 


75.42 


1.034 


1.267 


1.685 


58.7 


137 


61.93 


75.86 


.043 


1.278 


1.690 


58.9 


138 


62.29 


76.30 


.053 


.289 


1.695 


59.2 


139 


62.64 


76.73 


.062 


.301 


1.700 


59.5 


140 


63.00 


77.17 


.071 


.312 


1.705 


59.7 


141 


63.35 


77.60 


.080 


.323 


1.710 


60.0 


142 


63.70 


78.04 


.089 


.334 


1.715 


60.2 


143 


64.07 


78.48 


.099 


.346 


1.720 


60.4 


144 


64.43 


78.92 


.108 


.357 


1.725 


60.6 


145 


64.78 


79.36 


.118 


.369 


1.730 


60.9 


146 


65.14 


79.80 


.127 


.381 


1.735 


61.1 


147 


65.50 


80.24 


.136 


.392 


1.740 


61.4 


148 


65.86 


80.68 


.146 


.404 


1.745 


61.6 


149 


66.22 


81.12 


.156 


.416 


1.750 


61.8 


150 


66.58 


81.56 


.165 


1.427 


1.755 


62.1 


151 


66.94 


82.00 


.175 


1.439 


1.760 


62.3 


152 


67.30 


82.44 


.185 


1.451 


1.765 


62.5 


153 


67.65 


82.88 


1.194 


1.463 


1.770 


62.8 


154 


68.02 


83.32 


1.204 


1.475 


1.775 


63.0 


155 


68.49 


83.90 


1.216 


1.489 


1.780 


63.2 


156 


68.98 


84.50 


1.228 


1.504 


1.785 


63.5 


157 


69.47 


85.10 


1.240 


1.519 


1.790 


63.7 


158 


69.96 


85.70 


1.252 


1.534 


1.795 


64.0 


159 


70.45 


86.30 


1.265 


1.549 


1.800 


64.2 


160 


70.94 


86.90 


1.277 


1.564 


1.805 


64.4 


161 


71.50 


87.60 


1.291 


1.581 


1.810 


64.6 


162 


72.08 


88.30 


1.305 


.598 


1.815 


64.8 


163 


72.69 


89.05 


1.319 


.621 


1.820 


65.0 


164 


73.51 


90.05 


1.338 


.639 


1.821 






73.63 


90.20 


1.341 


.643 


1.822 


65.1 




73.80 


90.40 


1.345 


.647 



SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID 231 

TABLE I. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID (Concluded) 



Specific gravity 
in vacua 


Degrees 
Baum6 


Degrees 
'Twaddell 


100 parts by weight 
contain, grams 


1 liter contains in 
kilograms 


S0 3 


H.SO, 


SOa 


HzSOi 


1.823 






73.96 


90.60 


1.348 


1.651 


1.824 


65.2 


.... 


74.12 


90.80 


1.352 


1.656 


1.825 




165 


74.29 


91.00 


1.356 


.661 


1.826 


65.3 




74.49 


91.25 


1.360 


.666 


1.827 






74.69 


91.50 


1.364 


.671 


1.828 


65.4 


.... 


74.86 


91.70 


1.368 


.676 


1.829 
1.830 
1.831 


..... 


166 


75.03 
75.19 
75.35 


91.90 
92.10 
92.30 


1.372 
1.376 
1.380 


.681 
.685 
.690 


65.5 


.832 






75.53 


92.52 


1.384 


.695 


.833 


65.6 


.... 


75.72 


92.75 


.388 


.700 


.834 






75.96 


93.05 


.393 


.706 


.835 


65.7 


167 


76.27 


93.43 


.400 


.713 


.836 






76.57 


93.80 


.406 


.722 


.837 




.... 


76.90 


94.20 


.412 


.730 


.838 


65.8 




77.23 


94.60 


.419 


.739 


.839 






77.55 


95.00 


.426 


.748 


.840 


65.9 


168 


78.04 


95.60 


.436 


.759 


.8405 







78.33 


95.95 


.451 


.765 


.8410 




79.19 


97.00 


.458 


.786 


.8415 




79.76 


97.70 


.469 


.799 


.8410 





.... 


80.16 


98.20 


.476 


.808 


.8405 






80.57 


98.70 


.483 


.816 


.8400 






80.98 


99.20 


.490 


1.825 


.8395 






81.18 


99.45 


.494 


1.830 


.8390 







81.39 


99.70 


.497 


1.834 


.8385 






81.59 


99.95 


.500 


1.838 



232 



SULPHURIC ACID HANDBOOK 



ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPERATURE 

(Lunge) 

Per degree Centigrade 

Up to 1 . 170 = 0. 0006 specific gravity 
1.170 to 1.450 = 0.0007 specific gravity 
1.450 to 1.580 = 0.0008 specific gravity 
1.580 to 1.750 = 0.0009 specific gravity 
1.750 to 1.840 = 0.0010 specific gravity 

TABLE II. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID AT 60F. 

(Lunge) 



Specific 
gravity 


Degrees 
Twaddell 


100 parts by weight contain 


1 liter contains in kilograms 


SOs 


H 2 SO4 


SOs 


H 2 S04 


1.830 


166 


75.19 


92.10 


1.376 


1.685 


1.831 




75.46 


92.43 


1.382 


1.692 


1.832 




75.69 


92.70 


1.386 


1.698 


1.833 




75.89 


92.97 


1.391 


1.704 


1.834 


. . 


76.12 


93.25 


1.396 


1.710 


1.835 


167 


76.35 


93.56 


1.402 


1.717 


1.836 




76.57 


93.80 


1.405 


1.722 


1.837 


. . . 


76.90 


94.20 


1.412 


1.730 


1.838 




77.23 


94.60 


1.419 


1.739 


1.839 




77.55 


95.00 


1.426 


1.748 , 


1.840 


168 


78.04 


95.60 


1.436 


1.759 


1.8405 




78.33 


95.95 


1.441 


1.765 


1.841 




78.69 


96.30 


1.448 


.774 


1.8415 


. . 


79.47 


97.35 


1.463 


.792 


1.8410 




80.16 


98.20 


1.476 


.808 


1.8405 




80.43 


98.52 


1.481 


.814 


1.8400 




80.59 


98.72 


1.483 


.816 


1.8395 




80.63 


98.77 


1.484 


1.817 


1.8390 




80.93 


99.12 


1.488 


1.823 


1.8385 




81.08 


99.31 


1.490 


1.826 



SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SULPHURIC ACID 



233 



SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FUMING SULPHURIC Acio 1 
(Knietsch, Ber. 1901, p. 4101) 



Per cent, 
free 
SOi 


Per cent, 
total 
SO, 


Specific 
gravity 
35C. 


Per cent, 
free 
SOj 


Per cent, 
total 
SO. 


Specific 
gravity 
35C 





81.63 


1.8186 


52 


91.18 


1.9749 


2 


81.99 


.8270 


54 


91.55 


1.9760 


4 


82.36 


.8360 


56 


91.91 


1.9772 (max.) 


6 


82.73 


.8425 


58 


92.28 


1.9754 


8 


83.09 


.8498 


60 


92.65 


1.9738 


10 


83.46 


.8565 


62 


93.02 


1.9709 


'12 


83.82 


.8627 


64 


93.38 


1.9672 


14 


84.20 


.8692 


66 


93.75 


1.9636 


16 


84.56 


1.8756 


68 


94.11 


1.9600 


18 


84.92 


1.8830 


70 


94.48 


1.9564 


20 


85.30 


1.8919 


72 


94.85 


1 . 9502 


22 


85.66 


1.9020 


74 


95.21 


1 . 9442 


24 


86.03 


1.9092 


76 


95.58 


1.9379 


26 


86.40 


1.9158 


78 


95.95 


1.9315 


28 


86.76 


1.9220 


80 


96.32 


1 . 9251 


30 


87.14 


1.9280 


82 


96.69 


1.9183 


32 


87.50 


1.9338 


84 


97.05 


1.9115 


34 


87.87 


1.9405 


86 


97.45 


1.9046 


36 


88.24 


1.9474 


88 


97.78 


1.8980 


38 


88.60 


1 . 9534 


90 


98.16 


1.8888 


40 


88.97 


1.9584 


92 


98.53 


1.8800 


42 


89.33 


1.9612 


94 


98.90 


1.8712 


44 


89.70 


1.9643 


96 


99.26 


1.8605 


46 


90.07 


1 . 9672 


98 


99.63 


1.8488 


48 


90.41 


1.9702 


100 


100.00 


1.8370 


50 


90.81 


1.9733 









1 For more extensive tables on Fuming sulphuric acid, the tables of the 
author under the caption "Fuming sulphuric acid" are referred to. 



INDEX 



Acid calculations, 86, 89, 96 
methods of weighing, 135 
standard, 127 

Acids in burner gas, test for, 113 
Allowance for temperature, hydro- 
chloric acid, 52 
nitric acid, 50 
sulphuric acid, 57, 60, 67, 71, 

224, 232 

Ammonium sulphate, 31 
Analysis of mixed acid, 140 

of nitrated sulphuric acid, 140 

of sulphur dioxide, 109 

of sulphuric acid, qualitative, 

125 

quantitative, 126, 139 
of total acids in burner gas, 113 
Anhydride, sulphuric, 33 
Anti-freezing liquids, 178 
Approximate boiling points, sul- 
phuric acid, 55, 67 
Aqueous vapor, tension of, sulphuric 

acid, 105 

Arbitrary scale hydrometers, 5 
Area of circles, 155 
Atomic weights, 1 

B 

Baume* degrees, specific gravity 

equivalents, 11 

corresponding to specific grav- 
ity, 16 



Baume" hydrometer, 8 

Belting rules, 177 

Boiling points, sulphuric acid, 55, 67, 

103 

Brick shapes, 208 
Briggs pipe threads, 204 
Burettes, 41, 134 

C 

Calculations, acid, 24, 86 
Calibration of tanks, 148 
Cast-iron pipe, 194 
Centigrade scale, 219, 220 
Circles, circumference and area of, 

155 

Circumferences of circles, 155 
Cleanliness of hydrometers, 8 
Coefficient of expansion, 29 

hydrochloric acid, 52 

nitric acid, 50 

sulphuric acid, 57, 60, 67, 71. 

224, 232 

Comparison of metric and U. S. 
Weights, 216 

of thermometric scales, 219, 

220 

Composition of dry gas, 123, 124 
Concentration of sulphuric acid, 89 

108 
Conversion of density basis, 3 

of SO 2 to SO 3 , 113 
Corrections, specific gravity, 2 
Cube roots of numbers, 155 
Cubes of numbers, 155 



235 



236 



INDEX 



Decimals of a foot, 173 

of an inch, 177 

Degrees Baume" corresponding to 
specific gravity, 16 

equivalent specific gravity of, 1 1 

Twaddle corresponding to spe- 
cific gravity, 21 
Density, conversion of basis, 3 

definition of, 1 

hydrometers, 5 

of sulphuric acid, 222 

of water, 221 

Description of preparation of stand- 
ard acid tables, 27 
Dilution of sulphuric acid, 89 
Diphenylamine test, 125 
Du Pont nitrometer, 144 



K 



Elements, names of, 1 

symbols of, 1 
Equivalents of Baume" degrees and 

specific gravity, 11, 16 
of Metric and U. S. weights, 216 
of Twaddle degrees and specific 

gravity, 21 
Estimating acid stock, 86 



Formulas for sulphuric acid calcula- 
tions, 24, 89 
Freezing points, sulphuric acid, 55. 

63 
Fuming sulphuric acid, 23, 71 

for strengthening mixed acid, 97 
methods of weighing, 135 
specific gravity of, 72, 73, 233 
tables, 72, 73, 74, 76, 79, 233 



Gages, pressure and suction, 178 
Gas, composition of, 123, 124 
Glass bulb method, 136 
tube method, 136 



II 



Hitches, rope, 210 
Hydrochloric acid, allowance 
temperature, 52 

specific gravity of, 51 

table, 51 

preparation of, 44 
Hydrogen sulphide test, 126 
Hydrometers, 2, 5 

Baum6, 8 

manipulation of, 5 

Twaddle, 20 



for 



Fahrenheit scale, 219, 220 
Ferrous sulphate method, 125, 148 
Fibre rope knots and hitches, 210 
Fittings, flanged, 180 

screwed, 202 
Flanged fittings, 180 
Flanges, 180 
Formation of mixed acid, 96 



Indicator solution, preparation of, 
135 

Influence of temperature, hydro- 
meters, 6 

of surface tension, hydrometers, 
7 

International atomic weights, 1 

Iodine solution, preparation of, 111 



INDEX 



237 



Iron, analysis of, in sulphuric acid, 
126, 140 



K 



Knots, rope, 210 



Lead, analysis of, in sulphuric acid, 
125, 139 

pipe, 206 

sheet, 207 

Lock-nut threads, 204 
Lunge-Rey pipette, 135 



M 



Manipulation of hydrometers, 5 
Marsh test, 126 
Mathematical table, 155 
Measures, Weights and, 213 
Melting points, sulphuric acid, 55, 

63, 103 
Metallic sulphides, gas composition 

from roasting, 123 
Methyl orange solution, preparation 

of, 108 

Metric measures, 214 
Mixed acid, 23 

analysis of, 140 
formation of, 96 
Mixing table, 59 Be Sulphuric 

acid, 94 

60 Be Sulphuric acid, 95 
66 Be" Sulphuric acid, 96 
Mohr, specific gravity balance, 1 
Mono-hydrate, 23, 32 

preparation of, 108 
Muriatic acid, see Hydrochloric add. 



N 

Names of flanged fittings, 182 
Nitric acid, allowance for tempera- 
ture, 50 

specific gravity of, 49 

table, 49 

preparation of, 41 

Nitrogen acids, analysis of, in sul- 
phuric acid, 125, 140 
Nitrometer, Du Pont, 144 
Nomenclature of sulphuric acid, 22 
Nordhausen oil of vitriol, 23 



Observing hydrometer readings, 5 
Oil of Vitriol, 22 

Nordhausen, 23 
Oleum, 23 



Per cent, hydrometers, 5 

Per cent. SO 3 corresponding to per 

cent. H 2 SO 4 , 85 
H2SO4 corresponding to per 

cent. SO 3 , 86 

Phenolphthalein solution, prepara- 
tion of, 135 
Pipe, cast-iron, 194 
lead, 206 
steel, 197 
threads, 204 
wrought-iron, 197 
Preparation of standard acid tables, 

description of, 27 
Pressure gages, 178 
Pycnometer, 1 

Q 

Qualitative tests, sulphuric acid, 125 
Quantitative analysis, sulphuric 
acid, 126, 139 



238 



INDEX 



R 



Rectangle method for dilution and 

concentration, 91 
Rope Knots and Hitches, 210 
Rules, belting, 177 



Sartorius specific gravity balance, 1 
Scales, thermometric, 219 
Screwed fittings, 202 
Selenium, test for, in sulphuric acid, 

125 

Shapes, brick, 208 
Sheet lead, 207 
SO 2 converted to SO 3 , 113 
Sodium carbonate, 30, 31, 34, 127 
hydroxide solution, standard, 

39, 131 

sulphite test, 125 
Specific gravity, balances, 1 
corrections, 2 
corresponding to degrees 

Baume, 11 

to degrees Twaddle, 21 
definition of, 1 

determinations in preparation 
of standard acid tables, 28 
equivalent degrees Baume, 16 
hydrometers, 5 
methods of determining, 1 
of hydrochloric acid, 51 
of nitric acid, 49 
of sulphuric acid, 54, 60, 62, 68, 

72, 73, 222, 225 
tables, use of, 86 
test, sulphuric acid, 76.07-82.5 

per cent. SO 3 , 81 
Square roots of numbers, 155 
Squares of numbers, 155 



Standard acid tables, preparation 

of, 27 

normal acid, 127 
sodium hydroxide, 39, 131 
solutions, protecting strength 

of, 133 

observing temperature of, 134 
Standardization of standard acid, 

128 
of standard sodium hydroxide, 

131 

Starch solution, preparation of, 111 
Steel pipe, 197 
Stock, estimation of, 86 
Storage tanks, calibration of, 148 
Suction gages, 178 
Sulphanilic acid, 33 
Sulphides, metallic, gas composition 

from roasting, 123 
Sulphur, acid obtainable from 100 

lb., 108 
dioxide, estimation of in burner 

gas, 109 
estimation of in sulphuric 

acid, 138 

gas composition from combus- 
tion of, 124 
required to make 100 lb. acid, 

109 
trioxide, obtainable from 100 

lb., 109 

preparation of, 33 

Sulphuric acid, allowance for tem- 
perature, 57, 60, 67, 71, 
224, 232 

boiling points, 55, 67, 107 
coefficients of expansion, 57, 60, 

67, 71, 224, 232 
concentration of, 89, 108 
density of, 222 
dilution of, 89 



INDEX 



239 



Sulphuric acid, examination for 

arsenic, 126 
for iron, 126, 140 
for lead, 125, 139 
for nitrogen acids, 125 
for selenium, 125 
for zinc, 140 

freezing points, 55, 63, 103 
fuming, 23, 71 

for strengthening mixed acid, 

97 

methods of weighing, 135 
specific gravity of, 72, 73, 233 
tables, 72, 73, 74, 76, 79, 233 
mixing 59 Be., table for, 94 
60 Be\, table for, 95 
66 Be\, table for, 96 
monohydrate, 23, 32, 108 
nitrated, analysis of, 140 
nomenclature of, 22 
obtainable from 100 Ib. sulphur, 

108 

from 100 Ibs. SO 3 , 109 
per cent. SO 3 corresponding to 

per cent. H 2 SO 4 , 85 
H 2 SO 4 corresponding to per 

cent. SO 3 , 86 
qualitative tests of, 125 
quantitative analysis of, 126 
specific gravity of, 54-, 60, 62, 

68, 72, 73, 222, 225 
test 76.07-82.5 per cent. 

SO 3 , 81 

strength for equilibrium with 

atmospheric moisture, 107 

sulphur required to make 100 

Ib., 109 
tables, 54, 60, 61, 68, 225 

standard, preparation of, 46 
tension of aqueous vapor, 105 
Sulphuric anhydride, 23 
Symbols of elements, 1 



Tanks, calibration of, 148 
Temperature correction, hydro- 
chloric acid, 52 
nitric acid, 50 
specific gravity, 2 
sulphuric acid, 57, 60, 67, 71, 

224, 232 

Templates for drilling, 183, 192 
Tension of aqueous vapor, sulphuric 

acid, 105 
Theoretical composition of dry gas, 

123, 124 

Thermo-hydrometers, 5 
Thermometric scales, 219, 220 
Threads, pipe and lock-nut, 204 
Titrating vessels, 134 
Titration of acid, 137 
Total acids in burner gas, test for, 

113 
Twaddle hydrometer, 20 

degrees corresponding to spe- 
cific gravity, 21 

U 

Use of specific gravity tables, 86 
V 

Vitriol, oil of, 22 
Volume, of water, 221 

W 

Water, density and volume of, 221 
Weighing acid, methods of, 135 
Weights and measures, 213 
Westphal specific gravity balance, 1 
Wrought-iron pipe, 197 



Zinc, analysis of, in sulphuric acid, 
140 



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