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I. Till- PARADE WHICH OPENED CKOYDON'S WAR WEAPONS WEEK IN THE NATIONAL SAVINGS CAMPAIGN [l>lanft 
2. PEOPLE RENDERED HOMELESS IN AN AIR RAID ON SOUTHAMPTON SEEK ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATION AT AN 

EMERGENCY CENTRE [Sport and General 
3. A DAY NURSRKY ESTABLISHED IN A FORMER PRIVATE MANSION WHERE THE CHILDREN OF MOTHERS ON WAR WORK 

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4. ROYS BETWEEN l8 AND Icjj YEARS OF AGE, SELECTED AS POTENTIAL OFFICERS IN ONE OF THE CRACK COUPS OF THE BRITISH 

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5. A MEDICAL AID POST ESTABLISHED BY LONDON TRANSPORT IN ONE OF THE 7<) TUBE STATIONS USED AS AIR-RAID 

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6. A DEPTH CHARGE EXPLODING AFTER HE1NG DROPPED ON A SUSPECTED SUBMARINE FROM AN AMERICAN DESTROYER NOW IN 

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7. GROWING FOOD IN THE FRENCH STYLE IN ENGLAND! CAULIFLOWERS BEING CULTIVATED UNDER CLOCHES [Sport and Central 



SUPPLEMENT 



TO 



1942 

BRITANNICA BOOK OF THE YEAR 

Recording developments of particular 

interest to Great Britain and the 

British Empire 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA CO., LTD. 

90 DEAN STRKHT, SOHO SQUARE 
LONDON, W.i 



COPYRIGHT BY 

Till-; ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY, LTD. 
LONDON, J942 



MADK AND 1'RINl'KD IN GRKAT BRITAIN 

BY HA/KI.L, WATSON AND VINEY, LTD. 

LONDON AND AYLKSBURY 



INTRODUCTION 

"N this, the third year of war, we aoain offer to our readers a survey and 
record of the year planned and carried through on the same scheme as 

-proved so successful for the year books issued in 1941 and 1940. 

In pre-war years the BRITANNICA YJLAR BOOK was issued in two separate 
but similar editions, one for American circulation and one for circulation 
in Great Britain and the British Empire. The need for economy in 
materials and in man power compelled the publishers to retain one edition 
only and war conditions dictated that that should be the American edition. 
Only in the United States has it been possible to produce a major work of 
this character. 

As before, the volume is prefaced by an introductory supplement of 
some thirty thousand words, dealing in detail with war time topics of 
specific interest to British readers. 

To non-American readers the 1940 and 1941 year books, which included 
many hundreds of thousands of words from British contributors, proved to 
have a special interest and value ; in the present circumstances of alliance 
and close co-operation the publishers confidently expect that an even 
more valuable service will be performed by this, the 1942 BRITANNICA 
BOOK or THE Yi AR. 

M. D. LAW. 
LONDON, March 1942. 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS AND CONTENTS 



PAC.K 



DIARY OF EVENTS THROUGHOUT THE BRITISH EMPIRE ....... 5 

EMERGENCY LEGISLATION 

United Kingdom <} 

Bv PERCY HENRY WINFIIXD. F.H.A., LL.D., F.K.IIisT.S. 

Rouse Ball Professor of English Law, Cambridge University ; Of the Inner temple, Honorarv Bencher and 

Barrister-at- Law ; Member of the Lord Chancellor's Law Revision Committee. 

British Dominions and India I0 

HonoraV^^ Temple ; Hon. Secretar , Society of Comparative Legislation ; Editor, Legislation 

of the Knipirc ; Author of Australasian Judicial Dirtitniarv. 

FOOD SUPPLY AND NUTRITION PROBLEMS IJ 

By V. II. MOTTRAM. M.A. (CANTAH.) . . 

Sometime Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ; Professor of Physiology in the I mversity ol London ; Head 
of the Departments of Dietetics and Physiology, King's College of Household and Social Science, London. 

MAN POWER, CONTROL AND USE OF 'I 

By JACK STAFFORD, M.A. 

Lecturer in Economics, Manchester Cnivcrsity. 

POST-WAR RECONSTRUCTION: A SURVEY OF THOUGHT AND ACTION IN 1941 it. 

Em^ri^ PdiVica'l Science,' Canibridge. Author of Greek Political Theory : l-^lish Political Thought 

from 1848 to 1014 ; etc. 

PRICES, INCOMES AND STANDARDS OF LIVING lS 

Keader in Statistics. London School of Economics ; Member of the International Institute of Statistics. Author 
of Elementary Statistical Methods. 

PUBLIC HEALTH IN WAR-TIME - 1 

Bv RALPH M. F. PICKKX, B.Sc., M.B., Cn.B,, D.I ML . i .. .. , t ,. 

Mansel Talbot Professor of Preventive Medicine. I'liivcrsity of Wales. Chairman, Public Health Committee. 

British Medical Association. 

SOCIAL WELFARE, MEASURES FOR PROMOTING -3 

Bv MARCSARKT LKTITIA HARFORD 

Chief Woman Officer, National Council of Social Service ; Secretary, Women s Group on Public Welfare ; 

Vice- President, British Association of Residential Settlements. 

WAR FINANCE 25 

Bv O. FJNULAY SHIKKAS, M.A. ,. ,- . 

Professor of Economics and Dean of the ! acuity of Economics and Commerce, University College Exeter ; 
formerlv Principal and Professor of Economics. Gujarat College, University of Bombay, 1926-1940 ; Director of 
Statistics with the Government of India, 1914 ** '. Author of The Science of Public Finance, etc. 



DIARY OF EVENTS THROUGHOUT THE BRITISH EMPIRE 

EXCLUDING THE COURSE OF HOSTILITIES 
From January i, 1941 -December 31, 1941 



1941 

Jan. i : Australia. It was announced 
that 496 survivors of British, French 
and Norwegian ships, including some 
women and children, who had been 
landed by German commerce raiders 
on the island of Emirau in the Bismarck 
archipelago on Dec. 21, had been 
rescued by naval units and brought 
into an Australian port. 

Jan. 3 : India. Under the Defence of 
India rules Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, 
president of the Congress party, was 
arrested. 

Jan. 5 : United Kingdom.- Haling out 
from an aircraft which dived into the 
Thames estuary, Miss Amy Johnson, 
the airwoman, was drowned. 

Jan. 7 : United Kingdom. The arch- 
bishop of York's conference opened at 
Malvern to discuss the Church's oppor- 
tunity for inspiration with regard to a 
new order of society after the war. 

Jan. 8 : Kenya. Lord Baden-Powell, the 
chief scout, died in hLs 84th year. 

Jan. 9 : United Kingdom. In reply to 
President Roosevelt's personal request, 
the Hritish government agreed to allow 
from America limited supplies of vita- 
min concentrates, condensed milk and 
babies' clothing into unoccupied France. 
The ministry of food announced that 
the weekly meat ration, which on Jan. 6 
was reduced to is., and from that date 
included pork and most offals, would 
be fixed weekly within the range of 
15. to is. bd. 

Jan. 15 : Canada. Disagreement over 
consideration of the Uowell-Sirois report 
led to a breakdown of the dominion 
and provincial governments conference 
at. Ottawa on financial and constitu- 
tional reforms. 

Jan. 1 6 : United Kingdom. It was 
announced that monetary aid from the 
colonial empire by the end of 1940 
totalled over 18.250.000. 

Jan. 17 : United Kingdom. -Promotion 
of music and art in war-time was 
guaranteed by a further grant of 
12.500 from the Pilgrim Trust to the 
Council for the Encouragement of 
Music and the Arts, and a similar 
allocation from the treasury. 

Jan. 20 : United Kingdom. 'Orders were 
issued giving details of the government's 
scheme for compulsory fire-prevention. 

Jan. 21 : United Kingdom. Mr. Bcvin 
in the House of Commons outlined his 
plan for industrial registration by age 
groups. 

The Daily Worker and Week were 
suspended under Defence Regulations. 
India. Announcement was made of 
a resolution by Sikh leaders to form a 
Defence of India League to secure the 
maximum effort by the Sikhs in defence 
of India and to ensure Hritish victory. 

Jan. 25 : Hong Kong. The King replied 
to the resolution of devotion and 
loyalty passed by the legislative 
council on the looth anniversary of 
the colony's foundation. 



Jan. 26 : Australia. Serious losses in 
life and property were reported from 
the worst floods in the history of South 
Australia. 

Jan. 27 : South Africa. Additional esti- 
mates for war expenditure totalling 
15,000,000 were proposed in parlia- 
ment. 

Jan. 29 : United Kingdom. The King 
signed a proclamation extending the 
application of the National Service Act 
to six new age groups -men of 18, 19, 
37. 38, 39 and 40. 

Feb. i : United Kingdom. The new Air 
Training Corps was constituted. 

South Africa. Many people, mostly 
soldiers on leave, were injured in 
Johannesburg in serious polit'-cal riot- 
ing, arising from street clashes bciween 
soldiers and members of the Ossewa- 
brandwag. 

l ; eb. 4 : United Kingdom. Stories were 
disclosed of the abnormally severe 
weather experienced in early and mid- 
January. 

South Africa. A national security 
rode for the Union and South-west 
Africa was promulgated with immediate 
application. 

Feb. (> : United Kingdom, Neu sched- 
ules for world broadcasting, totalling 
54 programme hours daily, were 
announced by the director-general of 
the B.B.C. 

Calling for a vote of credit of 
i, 000,000,000 for 1941-42. the than 
ccllor of the exchequer said that the 
daily cost of the war had risen to over 
10,500,000. 

Feb. 13 : United Kingdom. -Sir Kinahan 
Coruwallis was appointed ambassador 
in Baghdad. 

Canada. It was announced that 
during the year the government were 
to construct a chain of airports from 
Alberta to the Yukon as a defence 
measure. 

Feb. 18 : Canada. The largest budget in 
dominion history called for an appro- 
priation of 2 90, 000,000 for war pur- 
poses. 

Northern Rhodesia.- Findings were 
published of the commission of inquiry 
into the April 1940 disturbances in the 
Copperbelt. 

Feb. 20 : Malta. -Regulations were issued 
for compulsory service of males between 
the ages of 18 and 41 in combatant 
capacities. Those between the ages of 
1 6 and 56 became liable for other 
duties. 

United Kingdom. After a tour of 
inspection of the A. 1.1'*. in the middle 
east, Mr. Menzies, prime minister of 
Australia, arrived in England. 
Feb. 23 : United Kingdom. Mr. Amery, 
secretary of state for India, broadcast 
on India's part in the war and empha- 
sized that the declared goal of British 
policy for India was her free and equal 
partnership in the British common- 
wealth. 

Feb. 24 : Newfoundland. Sir Frederick 
Banting, discoverer of the insulin 



treatment for diabetes, who had been 
missing since Feb. 21, was found dead 
in aeroplane wreckage at Trinity Bay. 
March i : New Zealand. The free medical 
service provided for in the Social 
Security Act came into operation. 
March 3 : United Kingdom. To assist 
the national food and shipping problem, 
reductions in service rations were 
announced . 

News was released of the great snow- 
storm in the north in February, 
believed to be the most severe since 
1888. 

March 5 : Eire. Mr. Frank Aiken, 
minister for the co-ordination of defence 
measures, left for the U.S. on an arms- 
and supply-buying mission. 

March 10 : United Kingdom. An order 
was made restricting meals in hotels 
and catering establishments to one of 
five main dishes fish, moat, poultry, 
eggs or cheese. 

March 12 : United Kingdom. Die Zeit- 
ung, a German language newspaper, 
made its first appearance in London. 

South Africa. The new budget intro- 
duced many tax increases and provided 
for a total defence expenditure of 
72,000,000, the balance to be obtained 
by loan. 

Jamaica. Suggested constitutional 
changes in Jamaica were announced in 
the British Mouse of Commons. 

*larih 15 : New Zealand. It was an- 
sii unced by the New Zealand high 
commissioner in London that 20 estates 
comprising 2<.),ooo acres bad already 
been bought by the New Zealand 
government, for settlement of dominion 
soldiers after the war. 

March i(> : United Kingdom. Mr. Krnest 
Bevin announced new arrangements to 
increase man- and woman-power for 
work of national importance, involving 
rhe registration of men between 41 and 
45, and of women of 20 and 21. 

March 17 : United Kingdom. Jam, mar- 
malade, syrup and treacle were rationed, 
the allowance being 8 02. of any one of 
these per person monthly. 

Eire.- In a St. Patrick's day broad- 
cast to the TJ.S.A., Mr. de Valera said 
that neutrality represented the deter- 
mined will of the Irish people. 

March 18 : India. -- The chamber of 
princes adopted a resolution calling for 
the establishment of a war advisory 
council through which the Indian States 
could co-operate with the provincial 
government 1 in prosecution of the war. 

March 19 : Canada. An agreement was 
signed with the United States for the 
immediate development of the Great 
Lakes and the St. Lawrence river 
seaway and power project, 

March 23 : United Kingdom. The King 
and Oueen with the. two princesses 
observed the national day of prayer in 
a small country church. Throughout 
the Empire people joined in the day's 
observances. 

March 25 : United Kingdom. The mini- 
ster of food announced that communal 



DIARY OF EVENTS 



feeding centres, already established in 
over joo towns, were being renamed 
" British Restaurants/' In the London 
area 147 had been set up. 

March 26 : United Kingdom. -The \Var 
Damage bill became law, and the 
National Service bill to make civil 
defence compulsory passed its second 
reading by 176 to 4. 

March 31 : Burma. The now flag was 
hoisted by the governor, Sir Archibald 
Cochranc, at a ceremony in Rangoon. 

Borneo. On the occasion of the 
centenary of the Brooke rule in Sara- 
wak, the Rajah, Sir Charles Vyner 
Brooke, renounced the absolute legisla- 
tive power and proposed that the com- 
mittee of administration be entrusted 
with the drafting of a liberal constitu- 
tion. 

April i : United Kingdom. Supplies of 
animal feeding-stuffs were reduced to J 
of pre-war rations. 

April 2 : Eire. Tea was rationed, the 
allowance being j 02. per person 
weekly. 

April 4 : Australia. The projected estab- 
lishment of a permanent joint com- 
mittee with New Zealand to discuss 
common defence and economic prob- 
lems was announced. 

April 6 : The War. The Germans 
attacked Yugoslavia and Greece. 

April 7: United Kingdom. In the new 
budget income tax was raised to 105. 
in the pound. 

April y : United Kingdom. Total war 
casualties to date were given as 29,856 
civilians killed, and 40,897 wounded, 
and 37,607 members of the armed forces 
killed and missing arid 25,895 wounded. 

April 14 : United Kingdom. The war 
savings campaign reached the 
700,000,000 mark. 

April 16: United Kingdom. The last 
remaining Crystal Palace tower was 
demolished, providing 800 tons of scrap 
iron. 

April 17 : Kenya. The governor an- 
nounced a forthcoming excess profits 
tax of not less than Go per cent. 
Similar measures were being taken in 
Tanganyika. Uganda and Zanzibar. 

United Kingdom. The business as- 
sets insurance scheme under the War 
Damage Act came into operation. 

Palestine. The Emir Abdul Ilah, 
regent of Iraq, arrived in Jerusalem, 
whither he had fled after the Iraqi 
revolt. 

April 19 : United Kingdom. The first 
registration of women under the Em- 
ployment Order 1941, comprising the 
1920 class, took place. 

April 21 : India. Fifty people were 
reported killed and more than 300 
injured in three-day riots at Ahmedabad 
between Sikhs and Moslems. 

April 22 : United Kingdom. The British 
Empire medal was instituted as a 
military and civil award. 

April 24 : South Africa. It was an- 
nounced that, owing to the short wheat 
crop, a standard wholemeal loaf would 
replace white bread throughout the 
Union on May i. 

April 30 : Canada. -Now taxes and sub- 
stantial increases in existing taxation 
were imposed in the new budget, to 
provide an additional revenue of 
$300,000,000 annually. 

Eire. The Dail voted /8, 383, 556 for 
the army for 1941-42. 

May i : United Kingdom. Lord Beaver- 
brook was appointed minister of state, 
and Col. Moore -Brabazon minister of 
aircraft production. A peerage was 



conferred on Mr. F. J. Leathers, who 
was appointed minister of shipping 
and transport. 

May 4 : United Kingdom. Double sum- 
mer time came into operation, clocks 
being put forward two hours in advance 
of Greenwich mean time. 

May 5 : Northern Rhodesia. The govern- 
ment offered 296,000 to Britain for the 
war effort, 50,000 to be for fighter 
aircraft. 

United Kingdom. - Cheese was 
rationed. 

May 6 : South Africa. Parliament, ad- 
journed after a session in which a 
number of social measures passed 
included a workmen's compensation 
act, a factories' act and an act to 
enable South African soldiers outside 
the Union to vote in the South African 
elections. 

May 7 : United Kingdom. A vote of 
confidence in the government was 
carried by 447 votes to 3. Mr. Churchill 
replied in parliament to critics of his 
policy. 

Eire. In t>e new budget income tax 
was raised to 7$. >d. in the pound. 

Canada. Mr. Mcnzies, prime mini- 
ster of Australia, addressed the Com- 
mons from the floor of the house. 

May 8 : United Kingdom. A new 
charter for seamen provided, among 
other measures, for a merchant navy 
reserve pool. 

May 10 : United Kingdom. Rudolf Hess, 
Hitler's deputy, landed by parachute 
near Glasgow and later was held as a 
prisoner of state. 

May 14 : Nyasaland. A gift of 39,1 50 to 
Britain marked the 5oth anniversary 
of the protectorate. 

May i Q : United Kingdom. War credits 
to date amounted to 4,800,000,000, 
and the total increase in taxation since 
the autumn of 1939 \vas 788,000,000. 

May 20 : United Kingdom. The Fire 
Services (Emergency Provisions) bill, 
authorizing the government to estab- 
lish a national fire brigade service in 
war-time, passed all its stages. 

May 24 : South Africa. The King con- 
ferred field-marshal's rank on Gen. 
Smuts on his 71 st birthday. 

May 28 : India. -Communal disturbances 
in Bombay resulted in the deaths of 29 
people and a total of 178 injured. 

June 3: United Kingdom. Clothing, 
including footwear, was rationed. Each 
person was allowed 66 clothing coupons 
for 12 months. 

June 6 : Australia.- The minister for air 
announced that a Royal Australian air 
cadet corps was to be constituted on the 
lines of that in the United Kingdom. 

June ii : New Zealand.- -Married men 
from j 8 to 45 were ordered by proclama- 
tion to enrol for military service. Men 
of 21 to 40 would be balloted for 
overseas service. 

June 12 : India. Details were published 
of the destruction caused by cyclone in 
Bengal on May 25, when more than 
4,000 people were killed. 

June 13 : United Kingdom. Civilian 
casualties for April were 6,065 killed, 
(.,926 injured ; for May, 5,394 killed, 
5,181 injured and 75 missing. 

India. Under a reorganization 
scheme involving units of the Indian 
Territorial force, it was stated that five 
new regiments were being added to the 
Indian army. 

June 14: United Kingdom. Changes in 
the food rationing system included an 
increase in the domestic cheese ration 
and reduction of the butter ration 



from June 30, and doubling of the 
preserves ration from August. 

June 17 : Australia. New measures for 
expanding the war effort included the 
appointment of a minister of supply 
and a minister to co-ordinate civil 
defence, further petrol rationing, im- 
mediate prohibition of strikes and lock- 
outs, and enlistment of women for war 
industries. 

June 1 8 : Canada. More than 2,400 
Canadians were stated to be studying 
for service as radio-location operators 
in Britain. 

United Kingdom. Owen Tudor, 
ridden by \V. Nevett, won the New 
Derby at Newmarket. 

June 20 : United Kingdom. -Mr. Frascr, 
prime minister of New Zealand, arrived 
by air. 

June 22 : The War. Russia, invaded by 
Germany, was promised full aid by Mr. 
Churchill. 

June 26 : United Kingdom. The Com- 
mons passed the Goods and Services 
(Price Control) bill. 

June 2 9 : United Kingdom. Lord 
Beaverbrook was appointed minister of 
supply, Sir Andrew Duncan, president 
of the board of trade, and Mr. Oliver 
Lyttelton to special duties abroad. 

July i : United Kingdom. The secretary 
for petroleum announced a reduction of 
one-sixth in the basic ration of petrol 
for private cars in the August, Septem- 
ber and October period. 

Australia. Senator James Cunning- 
ham, deputy leader of the Labour 
opposition, was elected president of the 
senate. 

July 2 : United Kingdom. It was dis- 
closed that the first three weeks of June 
had provided the most extraordinary 
June weather on record. Only 11 days 
after the coldest June day for five years 
London experienced the hottest June 
day on record. 

July 3 : Newfoundland. For the first 
time for many years the budget showed 
a surplus of income over expenditure. 
From the surplus it was decided to 
present $500,000 to Britain for a 
tighter aircraft squadron, to be manned 
by Newfoundlanders. 

July 5 : Canada. To provide Britain 
with Canadian dollars, the government 
advanced 325,000,000 to the foreign 
exchange control board. 

July 8 : United Kingdom. -The final 
figure for the whole of the war weapons 
weeks in the national savings campaign 
was announced as 395, 000,000. 

Australia. The air minister stated 
that expenditure on the Royal Austra- 
lian air force in the current financial 
year would exceed A. 1,000,000 a week. 

July ii : Australia. Net war expenditure 
in the year ended June 30 was 
JA. 169,857,000, which was A.5, 500,000 
less than the estimate. Revenue for the 
year was A. 2, 121,000 above the esti- 
mate. The income tax yield was more 
than double that of the previous year. 

July 17 : New Zealand. The second war 
budget estimated the country's war 
expenditure at 69,700,000. 

July 20 ; United Kingdom. Government 
changes included the appointment of 
Mr. Duff Cooper, chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster, to a special mission 
in the far east ; of Mr. R. A. Butler as 
president of the board of education ; of 
Mr. Brendan Bracken to be minister of 
information. 

July 21 : India. Exchange of represen- 
tatives between India and America 
having been agreed upon, Sir Girja 



F 

les 



DIARY OF EVENTS 



Shankar Bajpai was appointed the 
Indian representative, to be styled 
agent-general. 

July 22 : Straits Settlements. Rumours 
of impending British action in Irido- 
China were denied in an official broad- 
cast in English and French from 
Singapore. 

India. The secretary of state for 
India announced that the governor- 
genvrai's executive council would be 
enlarged and a national defence council 
established. 

July 27: Canada. -The minister for 
trade and commerce announced the 
conclusion of an agreement under which 
two-thirds of British Columbia's canned 
salmon for 1941, expected to amount 
to more than 1,000,000 cases, would be 
sent to Britain. 

United Kingdom. An i in por tan 1 
stage in the growth of Liverpool cathe- 
dral was reached when the old and new 
sections were used for the first time 
together. Removal of the temporary 
dividing wall revealed a vista of much 
grandeur. 

India. The second session of the 
conference of non-party leaders was 
opened at Poona by Sir Tcj Bahadur 
Sapru, who reviewed events since the 
Bombay conference. 

July 30 : India. Membership of National 
Congress showed a rapid decline under 
Mr. Gandhi's policy of non-violent 
pacifism in relation to the war. Before 
the outbreak of war members numbered 
some 4,500,000. In 1939-40 there were 
3,000,000 and in 1941 the total was 
little over 1,500,000. 

Aug. 7 : Eire. It was announced that 
sugar would be rationed on the basis of 
i Ib. a week per person. 

Aug. 10 : United Kingdom. Double 
summer time ended and clocks were 
put back one hour. 

Aug. ii : United Kingdom. Reclaimed 
land in East Sussex, some of which had 
been unproductive for centuries, would 
yield, it was stated, crops worth 
85,000 in 1941. 

Australia. --The conference of premi- 
ers decided to spend A. 1,000,000 on 
A.R.P. in vulnerable areas, half to be 
paid by the commonwealth, and 
A. 85,000 on supplementary measures, 
including anti-gas equipment. 

United Kingdom. Friendly Germans, 
Austrians and Italians in the country 
began to register for war work. 

It was stated that savings stamps to 
the value of about 20,000,000 had 
been bought since the inception of the 
war savings campaign. 

Aug. 13 : South Africa. -At the Trans- 
vaal congress of the Herenigde party, 
summoned to consider the adoption of 
the federal council's declaration of 
policy, Dr. Malan, the leader, con- 
demned Mr. Pirow's campaign for a 
" new order " based on National 
Socialism. 

Aug. 14 : United Kingdom. Mr. Attler 
announced in a broadcast that Mr. 
Churchill and President Roosevelt had 
met at sea and agreed on the eight- 
point " Atlantic charter " of peace aims. 

Aug. 15 : United Kingdom. With a 
message to Sir Claud Auchinleck, the 
Queen opened the new airgraph letter 
service to forces in the middle east. 

Aug. 20 : United Kingdom. Mr. Mac- 
kenzie King, Canadian premier, arrived 
in the country. 

Aug. 22 : Jamaica. After a three days' 
debate the legislature rejected the pro- 
posals for a new constitution, and an 



amendment favouring full representa- 
tive government was adopted by the 
legislative council. 

Aug. 25 : Australia. Mr. Menzies's pro- 
posal for a national government was 
rejected by the Labour party, who 
demanded the resignation of his govern- 
ment. 

India. The premiers of the Punjab 
and of Assam resigned from the national 
defence council under pressure from the 
Moslem League. 

Aug. 28 : United Kingdom. The minister 
of war transport announced a new 
financial agreement under which the 
government would make an annual 
payment of ^43,000,000 to the four 
controlled railway companies and the* 
London Passenger Transport Board. 

Aug. 28 : Canada. Under a contract to 
become operative 1 in October thc; 
government agreed to provide Britain 
with 600,000,000 Ib. of bacon in a 
year. 

Aug. 29 : Australia. Commissioned to 
form a new cabinet, following the 
resignation of Mr. Mcnzies on Aug. 28, 
Mr. Fadden announced that there 
would be for the present no changes in 
the ministry. Mr. Mcnzies would retain 
the portfolio of dcfcncci co-ordination. 

Sept. 4 : Kenya. The compulsory regis- 
tration of British European women 
between 18 and 60 for war work was 
announced . 

Sept. 6 : United Kingdom. Details were 
announced of arrangements for the 
compulsory registration of men between 
1 8 and 60 for fire guard duties. 

Sept. 7 : United Kingdom. The first 
Sunday following the second anniver- 
sary of the war was observed as a 
national day of prayer. 

Sept. 8 : Canada.- - Production of motor 
cars for sale in 1942 was reduced by an 
order in council to 44 per cent of the 
1940 figure. 

Sept. 10 : India.- Mr. Fazlul Huq, premier 
of Bengal, resigned from the defence 
council and from the working committee 
and council of the Moslem League in 
protest against Mr. Jinnah's attitude 
to participation in the viceroy's defence 
council. 

New Zealand. Mr. Nash, acting 
premier, announced in parliament that 
the King had approved of the designa- 
tion of the New /calami naval forces as 
the " Royal New Zealand Navy." 

Sept. 12 : United Kingdom. A political 
warfare committee, responsible to the 
foreign secretary and the ministers of 
information and economic warfare, was 
set up. 

Sept. 14 : Canada. Roman Catholics and 
Protestants alike observed a reconsecra- 
tion week throughout the country. 

United Kingdom. Details of the re- 
organization of the fire fighting services 
as a national lire service, brought 
secretly into operation on Aug. 18, 
were disclosed. The scheme involved 
the rcconstitution of 1,400 fire brigades 
as 33 fire forces conducted on an entirely 
new system . 

Sept. 15 : India. The voluntary con- 
version of the Territorial force into 
regular units became effective, and it 
was stated that more than 75 per cent 
of the Territorials had volunteered for 
full military service. 

Sept. 17: United Kingdom. The Na- 
tional Trust for Scotland announced 
that the famous falls of Glomach in 
Ross-shire were to be handed over to 
their custody. 

Sept. 18 ; United Kingdom. The result 



of 21 months' salvage collection by 
those local authoritievS which made 
returns to the salvage department of 
the ministry of supply was stated to be 
a total of 1,550,000 tons of waste 
material, which was resold to industry 
for 3, 700,000. 

Sept. 24 : Sarawak. On the centenary 
of the state, the new constitution was 
approved. 

Sept. 25 : Australia. Mr. Fadden agreed 
to the appointment of a royal commis- 
sion of inquiry into the allegations 
against the government regarding the 
use of " secret funds " for counter- 
propaganda against subversive ele- 
ments. 

New tax measures to meet a pro- 
posed expenditure of /A. 2 17, 000,000 
for war purposes were outlined by the 
prime minister in the new budget. 

Oct. 3 : United Kingdom. Col. J. J. 
Llewcllin, joint parliamentary secretary 
to the ministry of war transport, stated 
that in the second year of war 10,073 
people had been killed on the roads, 
against a pre-war average? of 6,500 
deaths a year. 

Australia. A vote of censure on the 
government on the budget was carried 
by 36 votes to 33. On Mr. Faddcn's 
resignation Mr. Curtin undertook lo 
form a new government. 

The royal commission investigating 
the alleged use of public money for 
activities of the Australian Democratic 
front opened its inquiries. 

Oct. 6: United Kingdom. The total 
raised in small savings since the 
inauguration of the national savings 
campaign in November 1939 passed the 
; i, 000,000,000 mark. 

Australia. Mr. Curtin announced 
his new Labour administration in 
which he himself took over the portfolio 
of defence co-ordination. 

India. The first meeting of the new 
national defence council was opened 
by the viceroy. 

Northern Rhodesia and Kenya. 
Reconstruction of the Great North 
Road between Northern Rhodesia and 
Kenya to an all-weather standard at a 
cost of ^355,000 was decided upon by 
the war office. 

Oct. 7 : United Kingdom. The secretary 
for war announced in parliament that 
last minute demands by the German 
government had caused the can- 
cellation of plans for the exchange 
with Germany of sick and wounded 
prisoners of war. 

Australia. A bill authorizing a loan 
of /A. 50,000,000 was passed in parlia- 
ment. 

Mr. Fadden was elected opposition 
leader by the United Australia and 
Country parties. 

Oct. 13 : Straits Settlements. At the 
budget meeting of the legislative 
council a revenue of 59,700,000 Straits 
dollars was estimated^ for 1942, against 
an expenditure of $58,200,000. 

Oct. 14 : Canada. The national income 
was stated to have reached a higher level 
than ever known in dominion history. 
At $3,446,000,000 in the first eight 
months of 1941 it showed an increase of 
10-5 per cent over the same period in 
1940. 

India. Census returns for 1941 
showed that the total population was 
388,800,000. 

Oct. 15 : New Zealand. It was decided to 
postpone the general election to avoid 
disruption of national unity in the war 
effort, and a bill extending the life of 



8 



DIARY OF EVENTS 



parliament to Nov. i f 1942, was passed 
without a division. 

Oct. 1 6 : United Kingdom. -The appeal 
to the House of Lords by Antonio 
Mancini against his conviction for 
murder was dismissed. Mane in i had 
appealed on a point of law against the 
refusal by the Court of Criminal 
Appeal to quash the conviction of the 
Central Criminal Court. 

Australia* The establishment of a 
Japanese air line to Timor was stigma- 
tized in the press as a provocative act. 
Oct. 17 : Australia.- The government 
undertook to send 1,000.000 worth of 
railway stock to Iran. 

India. In spite of war-time difficul- 
ties the British India office announced 
that arrangements had been made to 
transport Moslem pilgrims from India 
to perform the Ilaj in Arabia. 
Oct. 1 3 : Canada. Mr. Mackenzie King 
announced the government's decision 
to give the Wartime Prices Trade 
Board authority for price control of all 
commodities except goods for export, 
and of rent and services. To control 
wages and regulate industrial relations 
a national labour relations board would 
be set up. 

Oct. 21 : United Kingdom. An increase 
in the government grant for free school 
meals was announced. 

Oct. 23 : South Africa.- General Hert- 
zog's advocacy of National Socialism 
ended a political association of more 
than 40 years with Mr. Havenga, 
leader of the Afrikaner party, who 
insisted on maintaining the democratic 
basis of the party. 

Oct. 28 : India. A boycott of the new 
session of the central legislature was 
begun by the Moslem League party. 
Oct. 29 : United Kingdom. Sir Karle 
Page, Australia's special representative, 
arrived in London. 

Australia. -A budget superseding 
that of Sept. 25 during Mr. Fadden's 
administration was introduced by the 
treasurer and showed total expenditure 
as 324,965,000 (compared with 
319,306,000 estimated in the previous 
budget), of which 221.485,000 repre- 
sented war appropriation. Income tax 
on incomes over 2,500 was raised to 
16^. 8d. in the pound. 

Nov. i : United Kingdom.- -The historic 
estate of Wallington in the Middle 
Marches of Northumberland, comprising 
over 13,000 acres of farms and moor- 
lands, was given to the National Trust 
by Sir Charles Trevelyan. 
Nov. 2 : Hong Kong.- -The government 
protested to the Japanese.' government 
against a violation of the border on 
Oct. 29 when Japanese soldiers fired on 
Chinese inside Hong Kong territory. 
Nov. 3 : United Kingdom. IJ Saw, 
premier of Burma, who arrived in 
England on Oct. 10 on a mission from 
his country, expressed dissatisfaction 
with the results of his visit. 

Australia.- Sir Earle. Page, the 
government's special representative to 
Britain, stated in London that Australia 
was fully capable of defending itself and 
taking part in the wider strategy that 
would be involved by war in the Pacific. 



Nov. 6: United Kingdom. Sir Walter 
Monckton was appointed head of the 
propaganda and information services 
in the middle cast under the minister 
of state (Mr. Oliver Lyttelton). 

Canada.- The minister of munitions 
announced an expansion of the ship- 
building programme, and new facilities 
for ship repairing were estimated to cost 
$4,500,000. 

Nov. ii : The Empire. Following ob- 
servances of Remembrance Sunday on 
Nov. 9, when in England Flanders 
poppies covered the Empire field of 
remembrance outside Westminster 
Abbey, Armistice day was commemor- 
ated throughout the Empire. In 
Australia the anniversary was marked 
by the opening of the national war 
memorial by Lord Cowrie. 

United Kingdom. Eight people were 
shot, three fatally, in a remarkable 
shooting affair in west London for which 
a man was later arrested. 

Nov. 12 : Canada. Senator Arthur 
Meighen accepted the leadership of the 
Conservative party. 

Nov. 13 : United Kingdom. First details 
were released of the Avro-Manchester 
twin-engine bomber, disclosing a defen- 
sive armament of eight machine guns. 
India. Mr. Gandhi stated that so far 
as he knew the Congress party would 
neither appreciate nor respond to any 
gesture the government might make in 
releasing the Satyagraha prisoners. 
Invitations would be extended to those 
discharged to offer themselves again 
for civil disobedience if physically fit. 

Nov. 17 : United Kingdom.- Temporary 
increases were made in the domestic 
fat and sugar ration. 

Nov. 1 8 : United Kingdom.- -A token 
stoppage 01 work by Clydesidc shipyard 
workers in opposition to their trade 
union executive was organized to draw 
attention to demands for a, ion. a week 
wages advance. 

Sir John Dill was created a field- 
marshal and appointed governor-desig- 
nate of Bombay. 

Nov. 21 : India. Mr. Thomas M. Wilson, 
first U.S. commissioner to India, pre- 
sented his credentials to the viceroy. 

Nov. 23 : United Kingdom. Under the 
new milk distribution scheme adult 
consumers were entitled to receive not 
more than two pints of fresh milk 
weekly. 

Nov. 27 : Australia.- The findings of Mr. 
Justice liaise- Rogers, reporting as 
royal commissioner investigating the 
USD of " secret funds," were published. 

Nov. 29 ; United Kingdom. In the second 
year of the war savings campaign which 
ended on Nov. 21 ^633,262,731 was 
contributed in small savings, compared 
with ^484,043, 375 in the previous year. 

Dec. i : United Kingdom.- Canned meats, 
fish and beans were rationed under a 
points system. 

Malaya. -A state of emergency was 
declared throughout the Malay States 
and the Straits Settlements. 

Dec. 3: India. Civil disobedience 
prisoners released by the government 
included Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad 
and Jawaharlal Nehru. 



Dec. 4 : United Kingdom. A parliamen- 
tary motion introduced by Mr. Churchill 
and embodying proposals for further 
mobilization of man- and woman-power 
" to achieve the maximum national 
effort " was passed in the Commons. 

Dec. 5 : Australia. Army leave was 
cancelled and emergency measures in 
the Pacific were put into effect. 

Dec. 7 : The War. Britain declared war 
on Finland, Hungary and Rumania, 
and similar declarations followed from 
the Kmpire. 

Dec. 8 : The War. Britain declared war 
on Japan. 

Dec. ii : Australia. Emergency meas- 
ures announced by Mr. Curtin included 
the call-up of single men of 35 to 45 
and married men of 1 8 to 35. 

India. The arrest was announced of 
Sarat Chandra Bose, owing to his con- 
tacts with the Japanese. 

Dec. 13 : New Zealand. Under new 
petrol restrictions no petrol was 
allowed for pleasure, and all motor 
deliveries and passenger services were 
reduced. 

Dec. 16: United Kingdom. The chan- 
cellor of the exchequer stated that 
recent expenditure had risen to nearly 
83,000,000 a week. Total expenditure 
on the war had reached /8, 300,000,000. 
Australia.- New taxation, supple- 
menting the. October budget aimed at 
raising 16,000,000. It included a war- 
time levy on all incomes and an increase 
in company tax. 

Dec. 1 8 : United Kingdom. The Duchess 
of Gloucester gave birth to a son, her 
first child. 

Dec. 19 : United Kingdom. The King 
signed a proclamation making women 
from 20 to 30 liable to call-up under 
the National Service Act which became 
law on Dec. 18. 

Straits Settlements.- Mr. Duff Cooper, 
already in Singapore, was appointed 
resident minister at Singapore for far 
eastern affairs. 

Dec. -2i : United Kingdom. Peerages 
were conferred on four members of the 
Labour party. 

Dec. 23 : United Kingdom. It was dis- 
closed that Mr. Churchill was in the 
U.S. to discuss with the President full 
Allied co-ordination. 

Dec. 25 : United Kingdom. The King's 
Christmas day message to his people 
was broadcast throughout the world. 

Dec. 27 : The War. A state of war with 
Bulgaria as from Dec. 13 was announced 
in Britain. 

Dec. 28 : Malaya. Registration began 
of all civilians in Singapore, and a 
Chinese council was formed to mobi- 
lize the resources of the Chinese com- 
munities. 

Dec. 30 : Canada. Mr. Churchill ad- 
dressed both houses of parliament. 

India* Mr. Gandhi resigned his 
leadership of the Congress party. 

Malaya.- Martial law was proclaimed 
for the settlement of Singapore. 
Dec. 31 : United Kingdom. Rembrandt's 
portrait of Margaret ha Trip, from the 
collection of Lord Crawford and Bal- 
carres, was bought for the nation at a 
cost of 20,000. 




SUPPLEMENT 



EMERGENCY LEGISLATION. The chief character- 
istics of emergency legislation during 194 1 were, first, 
a steadily increasing demand by the state for per- 
sonal services of members of the community and, secondly, 
greater stringency of provisions against economic waste 
and unfair distribution of commodities. Mobili/.ation of 
citizens and national resources for the successful prosecution 
of the \var is the key-note of both these aims. The first 
of them was evidenced not only by the extension of the 
ages of conscription for military service for both youths 
and adults but also in making compulsory the performance 
of certain civil duties connected with the war (e,g., fire- 
watching) and in requiring women between certain ages to 
register for national service. Proofs of the second aim 
appear both in Acts of Parliament and in a multitude of 
statutory rules and orders issued by government depart- 
ments acting under statutory authority. A mere glance 
at the topics with which these orders deal shows the extent 
to which individual freedom of action has been subordin- 
ated to the needs of the war. Various restrictions were 
placed on dealings in specified commodities, e.g., confec- 
tionery, apples, lard, coal, petrol, bulbs, seeds, rabbits, 
and departmental legislation affected such diverse subjects 
as dock-labour, the load-line of ships and the permission 
to public vehicles to take a certain number of standing 
passengers. This article is necessarily limited to a brief 
notice of the more important statutes passed in 1941. 

The National Service Act (4 & 5 Geo. VI, c. 16) extended 
conscription to the Civil Defence Services because it was 
found that, in some areas, the personnel of bodies like the 
Auxiliary Fire Service and the First Aid Associations would 
be insufficient to cope with enemy action. The Act by no 
means abandons the voluntary system here, but reinforces 
it by giving men, who arc liable to be called up for military 
service, the opportunity of choosing service in civil defence, 
subject to vacancies being available and to the prior claims 
of the armed forces of the Crown. A person accepted in 
this way for civil defence becomes a servant of the Crown. 

The intensification of enemy air attacks during 1940 
and the earlier months of 1941 showed that, admirable as 
were the courage and skill of members of the fire-lighting 
service, there were serious defects in the organization of 
the system under which they worked. There was too 
much localization of it and the senior fire officers had not 
enough executive authority. The Fire Services (Emergency 
Provisions) Act (4 & 5 Geo. VI, c. 22) reformed this by enab- 
ling the Secretary of State to make regulations for the co 
ordination of all or any of the lire services provided by 
local authorities, or for the unification in whole or in part 
of any of those services, and for any other matters which 
appear to him to be necessary or expedient for improving 
existing arrangements for fighting fires. 

Probably no statute was of more general interest than 
the War Damage Act (4 & 5 Geo. VI, c. 12) which became 
law on March 26, 1941. Broadly, its purpose is to provide 
state-aided compensation for damage to certain kinds of 
property directly resulting from enemy action, from 
counter-measures against enemy action, or from precau- 
tionary measures against it. Naturally, injury due to air 
raids is the commonest form of such damage, but it is not 
the only instance. The Act applies to England, Wales, 
Scotland and Northern Ireland, Part I of it deals with 
damage to land and this includes buildings and other 
immovables. The proprietor of the land must pay a 



contribution which is in effect a new tax on land. There 
are special provisions relating to land that is mortgaged or 
leased. The period of risk covered by Part I was from 
September 3, 1939, to August 21, 1941, but a later Act 
extended it to August 31, 1942 (4 & 5 Geo. VI, c. 37). 
Part II of the Act relates to insurance of goods against war 
damage. The Board of Trade are to insure goods in the 
ownership or possession of persons carrying on business. 
Under the War Risks Insurance Act, 1939, they insure 
sellers or suppliers of goods in respect of their stocks. 
Part II of the Act of 1941 enables the board also to issue 
insurance policies on private goods, such as household 
furniture and other personal property owned or possessed 
by the insurer, or by members of his household ordinarily 
resident with him, or by his domestic servants. The Act 
is necessarily experimental. Some amendments of it have 
already been made by 4 & 5 Geo. VI, c. 37, and, like most 
emergency legislation, much of its working must depend 
on its adaptation to circumstances by statutory rules and 
orders made in pursuance of it. Nevertheless, both it and 
the Personal Injuries (Civilian) Scheme, 1940, which was 
noted in this article last year and which provides compen- 
sation for injuries sustained by civilians in consequence of 
the war, constitute a wise and courageous acceptance of 
responsibility by the state for alleviating the disasters 
that are incident to the civil population in modern warfare. 
Other and later statutes relating to the same topic are the 
Repair of War Damage Act (4 & 5 Geo. VI, c. 34) and the 
Landlord and Tenant (War Damage) (Amendment) Act 
(4 & 5 Geo. VI, c. 41). The former amended earlier 
legislation as to the powers of local authorities to repair 
buildings rendered unfit for housing purposes by war 
damage and as to state loans to these authorities for giving 
effect to their powers. The latter .amended the principal 
Act passed in 1939, which dealt with the problems arising 
between the landlord and tenant of premises injured by 
war damage, and in particular enabled the tenant to 
disclaim the lease. The chief point in the amending Act 
is that it excepts from disclaimer short tenancies, which 
are defined in effect as those determinate on three months' 
notice ; but it also frees the tenant from liability to pay 
rent if the premises are unoccupied and, if they are occu- 
pied, it allows him to apply to the court for adjustment of 
the rent payable, if he and the landlord cannot agree on 
the amount by which it shall be reduced. 

Among the statutes concerning constitutional law, the 
following must be noticed. Since the time of Queen 
Anne it has been law that acceptance of an office or place 
of profit under the Crown shall disqualify the holder for a 
seat in the House of Commons. There were many exceptions 
to this rule (e.g. commissions in the armed forces of the 
(Town) and several more had been added since the outbreak 
of war. But its exigencies demanded freer and prompter 
action in increasing the exceptions and this was created by 
the House of Commons Disqualification (Temporary Provi- 
sions) Act (4 & 5 Geo. VI, c. 8). It enabled the First Lord 
of the Treasury (i.e., the Prime Minister) to certify that 
the appointment of any member of parliament to any 
office under the Crown is required in the public interest for 
purposes connected with the prosecution of the war. Such 
certificate must be laid before the House of Commons and 
the disqualification of office then does not apply to the 
member's tenure of his seat. The Act was not passed 
without a good deal of criticism in the House itself, on the 



IO 



EMERGENCY LEGISLATION 




British Council] 

FOREIGN LAW COURTS IN LONDON. THE NETHERLANDS MARITIME 
HIGH COURT IN SESSION AT THE MIDDLESEX GUILDHALL 

ground that it seriously invaded the principle of the 
independence of the legislature from the executive, and a 
committee of the House appointed to consider the whole 
question issued its report at the end of 1941. Two other 
statutes originated in problems raised by the migration of 
members of allied governments to England in consequence 
of the war. Diplomatic privileges were conferred on them 
by the Diplomatic Privileges (Extension) Act (4 & 5 Geo. VI, 
c. 7). Much more remarkable is the Allied Powers (Mari- 
time Courts) Act (4 & 5 Geo. VI, c. 21), which made a new 
departure by enabling His Majesty by Order in Council 
to permit any allied power to set up maritime courts with 
criminal jurisdiction in the United Kingdom. The 
jurisdiction is limited to offences committed by persons 
(other than British subjects) on board a merchant ship of 
the power concerned, or by the master or any member of 
the crew against the merchant shipping law of the power, 
or by any person, who is a national and a seaman of the 
power, against its mercantile marine conscription law. 
Provisions are made for the co-operation of the British 
executive authorities in bringing such persons to trial by 
the maritime courts and in compelling the attendance of 
witnesses. Norwegian, Dutch and Polish courts have 
already been set up under this Act. Another constitutional 
innovation was the Isle of Man (Detention) Act (4 & 5 
Geo. VI, c. 16) which enables the government to detain in 
the Isle of Man non-enemy aliens and persons in confine- 
ment under the Defence Regulations. The Act was 
necessary, because technically the Isle of Man is not part 
of the United Kingdom and, apart from the statute, it 
would be unlawful to transport there British subjects or 
non-enemy aliens. 

The Prices of Goods Act, 1939, provided safeguards 
against the " vicious spiral " of inflated prices and deprecia- 
tion in the value of money by fixing basic prices for such 
goods as the Board of Trade should from time to time 
specify. The Act was not altogether effective and was 
amended by the Goods and Services (Price Control) Act, 
1941 (4 & 5 Geo. VI, c. 31), which was designed to put a 
stop to "black markets" in commodities in common 
demand. Any person commits a criminal offence if he 
holds up the sale of stocks of goods which are subject to 
price-control. Holding up includes not only refusal to sell 
the goods but also false statements to a prospective buyer 
that the trader has not the goods. It extends also to 
offers to sell the goods subject to a condition that the 
buyer shall purchase other goods (whether price-controlled 



or not) ; indeed, no condition is permissible except that 
the buyer shall pay the price forthwith or that he shall 
take delivery within a reasonable time. The Act also 
empowers the Board of Trade to fix maximum charges for 
services to goods ; " service " here signifies hiring goods or 
subjecting them to any process. Further, the board is 
enabled to regulate the sale of any class of second-hand 
goods in which it has reason to think that profiteering is 
taking place. 

A considerable number of people have been plunged in 
financial difficulties by the war. Earlier emergency 
statutes had given them some relief, but the Liabilities 
(War-time Adjustment) Act (4 & 5 Geo. VI, c. 24) goes so 
far beyond prior legislation that it has been styled the 
" debtor's charter." " Debtor " under the Act includes, 
as well as individuals, partnership firms and private com- 
panies, but not other corporations. The Act does what 
none of the earlier statutes attempted to, do ; it enables a 
debtor to get, not simply temporary relief, but a settlement 
of his affairs with the prospect of continuing or renewing 
his business in better times ; and he can achieve this 
without the disgrace of bankruptcy, although much of the 
procedure resembles bankruptcy procedure. The settle- 
ment is effected by a newly created body of officials called 
" liabilities adjustment officers." 

The Finance Act (4 & 5 Geo. VI, c. 30) continued the 
principle of its predecessors with respect to taxation during 
the war, which is to restrain the expenditure of money on 
things the supply of which is not equal to demand. The 
most conspicuous feature of the Act was its increase of 
income tax from 8s. 6d. to los. in pound (see INCOME 
TAX ; WAR FINANCE). 

AUTHORITIES. Primary sources are the Statutes and 
Statutory Rules and Orders published by the government ; 
but these are not easily accessible as a whole to most 
readers. The best collection is Butterworths Emergency 
Legislation Service Annotated. It deals separately with 
(i) Statutes ; (2) Regulations and Service, and both are 
kept up to date by the issue of supplements. (P. H. W.) 

Dominions and India. Legislation has been passed in the 
dominions complementary to that enacted at Westminster 
since the declaration of war. 

Canada. The first act of the Canadian parliament in 
1940 was an amendment of the National Defence Act of 
the war of 1914-18 which was repealed towards the end of 
the session by another Act (c. 21) authorizing the appoint- 
ment of a minister of national defence with such additional 
ministers for the army, navy and air force as might be 
found necessary. A more comprehensive measure (c. 13) 
conferred upon the governor in council special emergency 
powers to permit the mobilization of all the effective 
resources of the nation, both human and material, for the 
purpose of the defence and security of the dominion. By 
orders and regulations made under the Act he may do 
anything " deemed necessary or expedient for securing the 
public safety, the defence of Canada, the maintenance of 
public order, or the efficient prosecution of the war." In 
order to carry out the provisions of this Act, the department 
for national war services was created (c. 22) with a 
separate minister entnisted with the duty to conduct a 
national registration of personal services and a survey of 
material contributions for the prosecution of the war and 
the welfare of the nation. In order to secure a united 
effort he was authorized to establish such provincial or 
local councils as might be necessary while enlisting and 
using to the full existing organizations able to assist in 



EMERGENCY LEGISLATION 



1 1 



carrying out the purposes of the Act. While looking to 
the provinces for co-operation in this respect the dominion 
at the same time took reciprocal action to mitigate the 
effects of war conditions in the provinces. Accordingly an 
Act (c. 23) was passed to provide for some contribution by 
the dominion, where circumstances warrant, to supplement 
the measures taken by the provinces towards providing 
assistance to those in need, establishing unemployed persons 
in employment, and training and fitting suitable persons 
for productive occupations, thereby lessening provincial 
and municipal burdens in so far as they might be due to 
extraordinary conditions of unemployment previously 
existing, and at the same time developing the economic 
capacity of the nation to carry on the war. 

While willing to aid in furthering the national effort, the 
government made it clear that they had no intention of 
using this or any other legislation to relieve municipalities 
of their own obligations incurred to bondholders or of the 
sound administration of their own finances. 

The growth of the Royal Canadian Air Force required 
new legislation (c. 15) to define the constitution and 
government. It carries the legislation of the United 
Kingdom relating to the air force into the dominion, 
'subject to the usual provision that it is not inconsistent 
with anything contained in the Canadian Act. 

Another piece of legislation of the Great War requiring 
extension was the War Measures Act (R.S.C., c. 27). Provi- 
sions relating to compensation for the valuing of certain 
property for war purjKDses are now contained in c. 28 of 
1940 dealing with requisition of vessels or aircraft and 
space in ships. 

The Act of 1939 creating a department of munition and 
supply was amended in the following year (c. 31) so as to 
extend the powers of the minister, including the creation 
of a body corporate by charter to undertake the actual 
supply of the munitions of war and the direction of any 
firms providing them. 

The necessity for protection against the enemy within 
the gates found expression in the passing of the Treachery 
Act (c. 43) which expedited the procedure so as to avoid 
delay in dealing with accused persons and laid down 
measures for the transfer of offenders under the direction 
of the attorney general from the civil to the military 
authorities. 

The division of powers between the dominion and 
provincial legislatures required legislation to be passed by 
the latter, as, for example, Acts in Alberta (1940, c. 4) and 
Saskatchewan (1940, c. 109) giving powers similar to those 
contained in the English Courts Emergency Powers Act, by 
which men on active service could be relieved from obliga- 
tions, including exemption of their house property from 
assessment and taxation. The Saskatchewan Act provides 
an example of the extensions which have been found 
necessary to legislation of this kind. In the original Act 
relief was limited to estates assessed at an amount not 
exceeding $2,500. By an Act of 1941 (c. 87) relief up to 
that amount was extended to estates of any value. 

The warmth of the hospitality of the dominions towards 
the scheme for sending children from Great Britain to 
their care found expression in legislation. Ontario, for 
example, assented on April 9, 1941, to the British Child 
Guests Act (c. 9) which made the superintendent of neg- 
lected and dependent children the guardian of any infant 
entering the province after Sept. i, 1939. from Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland. He was given power to 
consent to a surgical operation, medical care and hospital 



treatment in any case where the consent of a parent or 
legal guardian is required and could direct that if necessary 
any child might be taken from the home where it resides 
and bo placed in a foster home approved by a children's 
aid society. The Act does not apply to any child living 
with or subject to the control of cither or both parents 
residing in Canada. 

Parliamentary time has been much occupied with the 
measures necessary to deal with the financial requirements 
of the war. Details are beyond the scope of this survey, 
but broadly speaking it may be said that the main 
principles adopted in the United Kingdom were followed 
in the dominions. 

Australia was particular!}' occupied with a number of 
financial measures during the session of 1940 which had a 
particularly large output of legislation. Similarly the 
states had to devote time to financial legislation though it 
was not wholly concerned with internal affairs. A Tasmania 
Act (No. 37 of 1940-41), for example, enables statutory 
bodies to contribute tip to one per cent or ^100, whichever 
is the greater, to any fund raised within the British 
dominions for the relief of victims of enemy air raids 
or any other patriotic purpose which the governor may 
approve. 

In 1941 the first Commonwealth Act extended the long 
series of measures dating back to 1918, which deal with 
the provision of homes for men of the services. No. 2 
required the employer to deduct the defence tax from the 
wages of the workman, and this by No. 3 was fixed at two 
and a half per cent. The Defence Acts were strengthened 
by No. 4 and the position of civil servants on active service 
protected by No. 5. 

For the more efficient conduct of the war an Act (No. 24) 
increased the number of ministers of state in order to 
provide special ministerial responsibility for aircraft pro- 
duction, civil defence, including air-raid precautions, and 
the problem of the organization of civil resources. During 
the war of 1914 to 1918 the amount appropriated for the 
salaries of ministers of state was increased from ^13,600 
to ^15,300, and this figure has now been raised from 
^18,000 to 21,250. 

Indirectly as a result of war-time conditions, it was 
necessary to increase the endowment for children to five 
shillings for each child, payable to the mother for the 
" maintenance, training and advancement of the child." 
Another measure (No. 26) of a similar character constituted 
a commonwealth council for national fitness " to encourage 
the development of national fitness in each state under the 
direction of a national fitness council appointed by the 
government of the state ... to promote physical educa- 
tion in schools, universities, and other institutions." 

New Zealand was also engaged during 1940 in passing 
legislation to deal with finance, including a measure 
specially devoted to national savings which elsewhere 
have been authorized in the Finance Acts. The governor 
general was given (c. i) similar powers to those exercised 
in Great Britain, Canada and Australia as required by the 
emergency to deal with compensation for property, treat- 
ment of aliens, etc. Faithful to its settled policy, New 
Zealand continued its endeavours to establish social security 
for the people, and by amendment (1941, No. 14) of the 
Social Security Act took a further step in the attempts to 
provide medical benefits. The funds have been supplied 
(1941, No. 4) to extend family allowances to mothers with 
one child instead of, as formerly, to those with three or 
more children. The government established (i94 T No - *?) 



12 



FOOD SUPPLY AND NUTRITION PROBLEMS 



a war damage commission operating on similar lines to the 
English arrangements. The Rehabilitation Act (1941, 
No. 25) covered the subject of post-war reconstruction by 
dealing with the re-establishment of " service men " (which 
includes men of the mercantile marine) in civil life, and 
industrial reconstruction, which is primarily concerned 
with the transfer to peace-time industries of persons who 
have been engaged in war work. 

South Africa. The legislation of South Africa shows 
participation in the empire conflict. The general provi- 
sions for the protection of the community are contained in 
the War Measures Act (1940, No. 13) dealing with the 
maintenance of public order and the prosecution of the 
war, and principally consist of the validation of proclama- 
tions already in operation. In the middle of 1940 an Act 
(No. 20) was passed to provide for the payment of benefits 
to men who had sustained injury and the dependents of 
those killed in action, for payments in certain circumstances 
to members of the Essential Services Protection Corps 
and others on their retirement and to the dependents on 
death, and for a moratorium for the protection of persons 
on military service. Special provision was made for 
clerks articled to attorneys that the period of active service 
might exempt them from part or the whole of their period 
of articles. The conditions under which absent military 
voters are entitled to record their votes were embodied in 
an Act of 1941 (No. 37). Provisions for pensions for men 
on active service dating back to the Boer War were extended 
by No. 45 of 1941. State insurance against war damage 
was authorized by c. 21. 

South Africa also paid attention to the social security of 
its people, and passed a comprehensive measure for the 
control of factories and workshops (KJ.JT, No. 22) giving 
annual holidays with pay and increasing the maternity 
benefit for women in industry. A consolidation and 
extension of the law relating to workmen's compensation 
(No. 30) was another measure of the session, ft established 
a state insurance fund similar to those in operation in 
Canada and Queensland where conditions are more com- 
parable to those of South Africa. 

India. After providing for the registration of British 
subjects (No. i) at the beginning of TQ.JO, the Indian 
legislature proceeded to impose restrictions on foreigners 
(No. 2) by making provision for their entry, their intern- 
ment, and their departure. Extension of service in the 
Royal Indian Navy for the duration of the war was author- 
ized by Act No. 3 and provisions relating to national 
service by European British subjects whether in the armed 
forces or in a civil capacity were contained in No. 18, 
amended in 1941 (No. 6) by providing for the determination 
of the question whether a person is liable to be called up 
for national service. Minor amendments (Nos. 19 and 28) 
were made in 1940 in previous defence measures. Com- 
panies were authorized by No. 37 to make donations to 
public funds formed, and to make investments in govern- 
ment loans floated for the purpose of assisting the prosecu- 
tion of the war. 

The constitution of an air-raid precaution service was 
authorized by No. 4 of 1941, and rendered any persons 
failing to obey lawful orders liable to a fine not exceeding 
fifty rupees. Compensation for injuries during the present 
hostilities was authorized by the War Injuries Ordinance 
(No. vii), and included the purchase or grant of cost of 
artificial limbs or appliances. 

AUTHORITIES. Primary sources are the Acts and 
Ordinances passed by the various legislatures and issued by 



the government printers. Particulars above are also 
taken from a summary supplied by the law draftsman, 
J. Christie, for the annual survey of legislation of the 
empire published by the Society of Comparative Legisla- 
tion. Useful information about legislative measures in 
their passage through parliament is obtainable in the 
Journal of the Parliaments of the Empire published by the 
Empire Parliamentary Association. (C. E. A. B.) 

FOOD SUPPLY AND NUTRITION PROBLEMS. 
The claim has been frequently made in official quarters 
that Great Britain was the best fed nation among the 
belligerents in Europe and was the only nation which 
had been able to increase its rations in the third year of 
the war. While this may be true it is undoubted that the 
diet of the nation did not reach a standard which dietitians 
demand. It is likely that there was still a grave deficiency 
in calcium, iron and possibly of vitamins of class B. The 
consumption of vitamin C had probably declined. 

Rationing during 1941 was in much the position that it 
was in 1940. Bread was unrationed but its price was con- 
trolled. The government-rationed foods were meat, 
butter, margarine, cooking fats, cheese, sugar, jam, tea and 
eggs. Milk was rationed more by supply and price than 
by government action. Fruits, which were almost entirely 
home grown, were rationed by scarcity and their price 
was controlled. Vegetables were fairly plentiful though 
their price was often above that of peace time. Canned 
meats were controlled by a points rationing scheme. While 
the government, quite rightly, attempted to safeguard the 
diet of pregnant and nursing mothers and their children 
up to the age of five, no precautions had been taken to 
feed adolescents or young working women adequately. 
The diet of the child on leaving school and entering trade 
often depreciated because at school there was an oppor- 
tunity unfortunately lessening owing to shortage of 
obtaining cheap milk. Out in the world the adolescent: 
needs more and better food than he gets while at school 
and the probability is that he was getting less and worse. 
Significantly among women between the ages of 20 and 30 
the tuberculosis rate had increased and, generally speaking, 
the decline of tuberculosis a feature of health statistics 
for many years had been arrested. These facts are 
doubtless in part due to inadequate nutrition. 

Judging by health statistics the feeding of the nation 
must have been satisfactory, if not optimal, and the 
ministries of food, health and agriculture could congratulate 
themselves on that achievement. It is clear from reports 
from the ministry of health that there existed a widespread 
fear of epidemic diseases comparable to the waves of 
influenza which swept the globe in 1918 and 1919, but 
these, up to the first months of 1942, had fortunately been 
absent. One explanation may well be that the large part 
of the population which had entered the army and war 
work was fed better than ever before ; that mothers and 
young children of the working classes had had cheap or 
free milk and that unemployment had decreased from a 
figure of over a million to one measured by one or two 
hundred thousand. Those who were rationed by poverty 
in the past and not by government were finding themselves 
able to purchase food up to their rations. 

Bread. The situation as regards bread was much where 
it was in 1940. The average dietitian pressed on the 
government the advantage of a wheatmeal bread fortified 
by calcium. Many would have liked to see such a bread 
made compulsory. There were other reasons, not dietetic, 
for the change over. Shipping space would have been 



FOOD SUPPLY AND NUTRITION PROBLEMS 



saved, for example, and although such a change might 
have resulted in a decrease of milk, pork and eggs (for the 
offal of wheat goes to iced cows, pigs and hens) there 
would have been a gain on balance of iron and vitamins of 
class B in diet. 

In this situation the government havered. It promised 
a white loaf fortified with synthetic vitamin B Jf but 
although it was said that this should be introduced in May 
1941, only a few districts e.g., South Wales -had been 
provided with such fortified bread by the end of 1941. A 
promise was given that early in 1942 areas in the north- 
west would be included. Whether obstacles to the plan 
lay in the milling and baking industries or the manufacture 
of synthetic vitamin B 1 or elsewhere, is not known. 

As regards a wheatmeal loaf the government itself 
widely advertised an 85 per cent extraction flour and 
bread made from it. But despite the advertisement only 
7 per cent of the bread consumption was represented by 
this wheatmeal bread, which resulted in a negligible gain 
in shipping space and but little gain in dietetics. The 
reason given was that the people do not take readily to 
brown bread. The ministry of food never hoped for a 
conversion of more than 25 per cent of the white bread 
caters to brown bread. (The army was expected to con- 
sume half and half.) The game seems hardly worth the 
candle. There could be little doubt that the temper of 
the country was such that if it could have been shown 
that a consumption of nothing but 85 per cent extracted 
wheat was a military necessity such a loaf would willingly 
have been accepted. That it is dictctically desirable had 
made no impression, due to the lack of education of the 
people in dietetics. 

There is one dietetic disadvantage in a change from 
white to wheatmeal bread ; that is the fact, now definitely 
demonstrated, though the work was still unpublished in 
early 1942, that such a change would lower the calcium 
uptake from our diet. That uptake is often dangerously 
low arid would be made lower still. The phytates in wheat- 
meal flour militate against calcium absorption. They 
sterilize not only the small amount of calcium of the 
wheatmeal but in addition some of that of the rest of the 
diet. To counteract this action the committees of nutri- 
tion of the Lister Institute and the Medical Research 
Institute recommended the addition of 14 ox. of calcium 
carbonate to a sack of wheatmeal flour, arid to safeguard 
the calcium uptake of the eaters of white bread an addition 
of 7 oz. to the sack of white flour. No steps appeared to 
have been taken to implement these sound suggestions. 
What difficulty stood in the way was not known. It 
could not be due to the public and it was suggested that 
it was due to the opposition of the milling industry. Even 
in the production of unfortified wheatmeal, looseness in 
the drafting of a statutory order was such that a mixture 
of white flour and bran met the ministry of food's demand 
for an 85 per cent extraction flour. Supplementary but 
not compulsory instructions which would have resulted in 
an 85 per cent extraction were obeyed by smaller firms 
but disregarded by some of the larger firms. The future 
will almost certainly lie with a bread enriched by addition 
of vitamins of the B class, iron and calcium. 

Onions. Some other experiments of the ministry of 
food may be mentioned. In 1940 the onion crop was 
good but owing to the loss of imports from foreign countries 
was equivalent to only a small percentage of the national 
consumption. Consequently the price of onions threat- 
ened to soar. The ministry of food stepped in and fixed 




Keystone ] 

WHEAT I'l ELDS ON THE SUSSEX DOWNS. THIS LAND WAS FORMERLY 
JHvKKLICT AND JIAD REVERTED TO GQRSE, BRAMBLES AND ROUGH 

GRASS 

a price and promptly onions disappeared off the market. 
The price of spring onions was not controlled. In the 
spring of 1941 onions in their second youth were offered 
as spring onions and the ministry stepped in again with a 
definition of a spring onion. Another consequence of the 
price-control of onions was the rise in the price of leeks, 
which touched lod. each in the open market. 

The ministries of food and agriculture proposed not to 
be caught again and made arrangements for a great increase 
in the acreage laid down to grow onions, and people were 
asked to register for the purchase of onions. Many when 
they discovered that they would get only 2 Ib. in the year, 
refused to register, with the result that it appeared as if 
each registered person might get 12 Ib. an amount not 
to be despised. But the English climate stepped in. The 
onion crop was poor and the bulbs formed were often of the 
bottle-neck variety which do not keep. The hopes of the 
registered person fell to 2 Ib. again and it became doubtful 
whether he would get one. 

Vitamin C Supplies. When oranges disappeared, owing 
to shipping shortage, the infant welfare clinics had no 
obvious source of vitamin C for the babies. Swede juice, 
made by mincing, gently cooking and squeezing the pulp 
through muslin, would have done, but the clinics preferred 
black currant puree. In 1941 the government com- 
mandeered the black currant crop and fruit canneries in 
the black currant season made black currant pulp on 
government instructions and sent it to a central assembly 
place, where it was pooled, standardized and made into 
juice or into puree according to the age of the baby for 
whom it was intended. Again the vagaries of the English 
climate intervened. The vitamin C figure of the 1941 
crop of black currants was the lowest known and created 
the greatest difficulty in producing an article with a 
reasonable content. 

Hose hips, the richest common source of vitamin C, were 

also collected and syrup made from them was to be placed 

I on sale early in 1942. It is interesting to note that the 



MAN POWER, CONTROL AND USE OF 




Tk* Times} 

A WEST OF ENGLAND FACTORY WHERE MILLSTONES, SUCH AS ARE 
USED FOR THE GRINDING OF WHKATMKAL, ARE MADE. MILL- 
STONES ARE EXPORTED TO MANY PARTS OF THE EMPIRE 

further north the greater was the amount of vitamin C in 
the hips. Presumably it is due to some varietal reason 
it can hardly bo a dispensation of providence and this 
needs investigation. The Russians have long known and 
used rose hips in countering scurvy and have made, through 
their means and others, the colonization of the Arctic 
Circle a possibility. 

Conclusions. On the whole the rationing system had 
worked well. The attempts of the ministry to safeguard 
the physical welfare of the young and their mothers were 
laudable and efficacious, and while their incursions into 
the control and sale of eggs and onions were less fortunate, 
their handling of the food situation was good and well- 
meaning if timid, especially, it has been suggested, in its 
relations with vested interests. If there is one thing 
which is certain it is that the feeding of a country, either 
in peace or war, can never be satisfactory till the agricul- 
tural policy of the country is subordinate to the demands 
of the ministry of food and these, in turn, subordinated 
to those of the ministry of health. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Lancet, 1941 : articles headed Parlia- 
ment throughout the year ; 1942, vol. i, p. 83. Chem. 
and Industry, 1941, vol. 60, p. 903. Lancet, 1941, vol. ii, 
p. 361 (Widdowson and Alington). (V. M.) 

MAN POWER, CONTROL AND USE OF. Control 
of man power in war-time arises from a number of 
reasons. First and most important is the scarcity of 
labour and the need for economizing its use. Under 
normal conditions the market system effectively solves this 
problem, attracting labour to those jobs and localities 
where it is most needed. In war-time such a solution 
raises further problems. Particularly under a " cost 
plus " system of contracting, wages tend to rise sharply 
and labour turnover tends to be great, with consequent 
loss of time and inefficient planning of production. More- 
over, the fact that men are conscripted into the services 
makes doubtful the equity of such a system. Secondly, 
therefore, control is a deterrent of inflation. Thirdly, 
production in war-time often demands a greater mobility 
of labour between industries, occupations and localities 
than can be obtained in the short run without control. 
Munition industries must be vigorously expanded and 
labour attracted from very dissimilar types of work, 
factories must be situated with regard to strategic con- 
siderations and transport and power facilities, and labour 
drafted to the new sites ; while some localized industries 



must be expanded and labour brought from other districts. 
To achieve these changes with the speed requisite to the 
planning of campaigns and production, control is needed. 
Finally, this war has presented difficult problems of 
organization the expeditious clearing of ships from ports, 
the clearing of air-raid damage and the like and the 
mobilization of labour for tasks of this kind has suggested 
the need for direct control. 

These are the basic reasons, each of which presents many 
aspects, why control in the economy has had to be extended 
to the control of the labour (and consequently of the 
lives) of men and women. 

Methods. Various methods of control have been used. 
The oldest is the reservation from the armed forces of men 
above certain ages, according to their occupations. Men 
in occupations of especial importance to the national effort, 
e.g., engineers of various categories, would be reserved at 
early ages, whereas men whose labour was judged less 
necessary and the supply of which could safely be curtailed 
would be reserved only at a greater age the younger 
men of those occupations would be available for military 
service. This was, of course, a device to maintain in 
employment certain types of workers considered to be of 
greater value in the production of warlike stores, exports 
or essential goods for the home market than they would be 
in the armed forces. Such men might be allowed to 
volunteer for the services, e.g., as tradesmen, for whom 
modern war makes great demands. This flexible system 
allowed continuous changes in the ages of reserva- 
tion as more men could be taken into the armed forces 
and as experience or events showed there was, e.g., labour 
surplus to requirements in certain groups. It has, however, 
proved difficult to rectify mistakes in the other direction : 
men who have joined the services are not easily recalled 
into civilian life. 

A weakness in the method of reservation by occupations 
was that, though it avoided the British failure of the war 
of 1914-18 to retain in industry men needed on the " home 
front," it did not ensure that there should be reserved 
from the services only those men actually engaged on 
essential production. And by reserving men who, despite 
their occupational qualifications, were not so engaged it 
both wasted man power and encouraged men to do other 
than vital work. This is not to suggest that the method 
of reservation by occupation was a mistake ; it was 
probably the most efficient way of making a provisional 
distinction between those who could and those who could 
not be spared from industry to the services. But as the 
man power position became more stringent it became 
desirable to look more closely into the actual work being 
done by reserved men. 

Reservation by occupation and age-group was by 
February 1942 in process of being changed to individual 
reservation according to the importance of the work being 
done by the individual. The change was being brought 
about by the simple expedient of raising by one year every 
month the age of reservation in the different occupations. 
Each month, therefore, a number of men become dereserved 
and the importance of the work they are doing is considered. 
It is upon an assessment of the importance of the work and 
of the scarcity of their skill that a decision is made as to 
whether these men are allowed to continue in their employ- 
ment (as, of course, most will be allowed to do), whether 
they are transferred to other and more vital work, or 
whether they can be released from industry to serve in 
the forces. Each month, therefore, from January 1942 



MAN POWER, CONTROL AND USE OF 



the work of a section of the men of the community was to 
be considered in relation to the needs of the country for 
men for the armed forces, for munitions and instruments 
of war, for civilian supplies and services, and to the supply 
of women to take the places of men in industry. 

The ministry of labour and national service has power 
to register for national service men between 18 and 51 
years and to direct them to leave their employment and if 
necessary their locality to do essential work, and the 
registration of men for national service or the dereservation 
of men provides opportunities for such direction. How- 
ever, local labour supply committees report upon shortages 
and surpluses of different classes of workers, and men 
have been moved on the basis of such intelligence. The 
ministry of labour and national service is empowered to 
direct women to register under the Registration for Employ- 
ment Order, and women so registering may be directed to take 
up work of national importance. It was the intention to 
register women up to the age of 40 years by the spring of 1942. 
In general, unmarried women between 20 and 30 years 
may be directed into one of the women's branches of the 
services, although on registering they are invited to express 
a preference between the services and industry. These 
women are pre-eminently the so-called mobile women who 
will, if necessary, be directed to take up work of national 
importance away from their homes, though women over 
30 without domestic ties may also, in the event, be called 
upon to leave their homes. It is the announced intention 
of the ministry of labour and national service to use the 
services of married women and mothers to the greatest 
possible extent by finding work for them near their homes, 
by arranging where possible part-time work and by organiz- 
ing the care of children. 

Extension of Principle of Conscription, In this way, the 
principle of conscription has been extended from military 
service for men to include the conscription of women into 
the armed forces, and finally to cover the direction of men 
and women to work according to the requirements and 
the interests of the state. And a further extension of the 
interests of the state into the activities of citizens is marked 
by the registration of young persons of both sexes, who 
will not be required but will be persuaded to undertake in 
their leisure hours activities which will be of immediate 
help to the nation, e.g., enrolment in the Home Guard, or 
which will fit them for better service in the course of time, 
as for example by joining the Boy Scout or Girl Guide 
movements. 

A better utilization of labour is achieved by the require- 
ment of the ministry of labour and national service for many 
men and women who have registered for national service 
or for employment to be engaged for employment only 
through labour exchanges. In this way, the movement of 
labour can be guided into the required channels and an 
influx of labour prevented either into industries which it is 
aational policy to contract or into localities where, for any 
reason, an increase in the population is not desired. 

These are the important methods of control, though 
there is other action by the state which may be allowed to 
fall within this term. In the ports, for example, schemes 
have been worked out and adopted whereby a pool of 
labour is formed which can be directed to where it is most 
urgently needed for the loading or unloading of vessels. 
Agreements have been achieved between the state and 
trade unions whereby trade union rules and customs are 
held in abeyance during war-time to allow, e.g., dilution 
and the employment of women on what previously were 















Keystont] 

GIRLS CALLED UP FOR NATIONAL SliRVlCK- REGISTERING AT THEIR 
LOCAL EXCHANGE 

men's jobs. Strikes, without notice of intention, have 
been declared illegal. These are methods of control in 
that, whether or not by agreement, they alter the normal 
methods of work or the peace-time contours of the labour 
market. 

Problems Associated \vith Control. There are a number 
of difficult problems inseparable from the controls adopted 
which have had, of necessity, an effect on the ways 
these controls have been used. Most troublesome, perhaps, 
of all have been those connected with the direction of 
labour entailing movement of people from their homes or 
working in places inconveniently situated in relation to 
their homes. 

Moving workers from one locality to another encounters 
least reluctance when they are enabled to be accompanied 
by their families. But in war-time this is clearly very 
difficult. To find housing accommodation for the families 
of the many workers needed to man new factories has in 
many districts been made less easy by the residence of 
people evacuated from danger areas : to build accommoda- 
tion would place an unbearable strain on man power. 
Hence recourse is necessary to the splitting of families and 
the billeting of workers. This in turn raises problems of 
feeding arrangements, which have been partly solved by 
the establishment of works canteens and British Restau- 
rants. Clearly to use man power wisely and efficiently 
something more is needed than policy and decision. It is 
necessary to help workers to adjust themselves to new 
lives, and this must make demands upon the goodwill of 
the public towards transferred workers. 

Transport presents another difficulty. Workers are 
moved to factories situated far from their homes and new 
factories are built in outlying districts. When railways 
are already under pressure from increased freight traffic, 
road services reduced by fuel rationing and impeded by 
black-out restrictions, the organization of travelling facili- 
ties for war workers to a degree that will maintain efficiency 
presents real problems. Here again co-operation by 
the general public is very desirable so that unnecessary 
travel may be avoided. 

One should mention, too, the strain put upon family life. 
The discomforts that arise when all adult members of the 
family are working or when they are separated are real, 
but in large part unavoidable though they can be eased 



i6 



POST-WAR RECONSTRUCTION 



by provision of meals at the factory, the allowance of time 
for shopping and the provision of efficient transport. But 
the difficulties arising from a young family are less easily 
dismissed and unless met must necessarily reduce the 
woman power available for work. Up to the spring of 1942 
little organized assistance had been extended to the mother, 
who had had largely to rely, if she could and would, on the 
good offices of neighbours or relatives, and few nursery 
schools had been established. 

It is difficulties of all these kinds which hamper the use 
of the very complete powers the state now possesses for 
mobilizing the man and woman power of the country. 

It is true that the use of Britain's labour resources has 
been made less efficient by the absence of any visible long- 
term programme matching the use of labour with the 
programmes of production and of the armed forces. The 
country was hampered by shortages of particular types of 
labour required for the development of production. And 
this could, to some extent, have been avoided had the 
requirements of labour been considered in detail when the 
future production of the different departments was decided 
upon. It could then have been discovered to what extent, 
if at all, these plans were incompatible with one another 
by virtue of their rivalry in the labour market, and to what 
extent assistance could be rendered to achieve these plans 
by taking steps to have adequate supplies of labour of the 
different skills and grades available at the dates at which 
they would be expected to be wanted. For, it must be 
remembered, it may be more difficult to train workers 
than to build factories or even to equip them. 

The same necessity is evident for the planning of the 
location of factories. The same care is needed to obtain 
full information of the demands of different departments 
and of the labour supply available in a particular area. It 
is planning of this kind and resolution, at an early stage, 
to obviate rivalry between different departments and even 
between different contractors, that is necessary if obstacles 
to an extension of production are not to occur because of 
shortages in the labour supply. On the other hand, in so 
surprising a war, with so many changes in strategic needs 
arising from so many appearances and disappearances in 
the ranks of the countries fighting the Axis, efficient and 
consistent planning of the use of British labour would 
have been very difficult indeed. (J. S.) 

POST-WAR RECONSTRUCTION. A Survey of 
Thought and Action in 1941, Reconstruction is a single 
word, but it covers a multitude of things. Looking back, 
at the end of January 1942, over the last year, one noted 
many plans suggested by planners, and a number of things 
done (or at any rate entered on the list of agenda, as things 
to be done) by statesmen. A brief record of both is 
attempted in this article. 

(a) In the realm of recent thought, and among the many 
plans suggested by planners, there were four lines of 
approach which seemed to claim particular notice. The 
first may be called the line of American approach. Here 
Mr. C. K. Streit, who had already published before the 
war his book called Union Now, which led to the movement 
of Federal Union, added, in the course of 1941, a new 
book with the title of Union Now with Britain. It is a 
vigorous and moving plea for an immediate federal union 
mainly on the basis of the American constitution, but 
with some modifications in the direction of the British 
cabinet system between the United States, on the one 
side, and Great Britain and the five Dominions of Australia, 
Canada, Eire, New Zealand and the Union of South 



Africa, on the other. Such a federal union, proclaimed and 
inaugurated even during the course of hostilities, would 
in Mr. Streit's view help to end the war, to establish a 
permanent peace, and to ensure the security of the world. 
Professor Catlin, an Englishman who has held a chair of 
political science in an American university, added a 
pendant to Mr. Streit's Union Now with Britain in a book 
entitled One Anglo-American Nation. His book, too, is 
largely directed to the union of the United States with the 
British Commonwealth, in a common " Anglosaxony." 
But it has also a European side, and it looks to France 
and the northern States of Europe as well as to the 
Anglo-Saxon world ; nor has its argument the swift 
immediacy which is a feature of Mr. Streit's plan. Pro- 
fessor Catlin is wedded to British ideas of gradual and 
progressive effort ; and his scheme is a scheme not for a 
world at war, but rather for a post-war world. 

A second line of approach may be called the line of the 
British Commonwealth. This was the line followed by 
Mr. Lionel Curtis in a brief but pregnant pamphlet published 
in the summer of 1941 under the title of Decision. Mr. 
Curtis deeply versed in the conduct as well as the study 
of affairs for over thirty years past, and already concerned 
in the first beginnings of South African union in the first 
decade of this century had already published, as long 
ago as 1916, a plea for imperial federation in a work called 
The Problem of the Commonwealth. He renews the plea, 
but he also extends its scope, in his Decision of 1941. 
He still argues in favour of turning the British Common- 
wealth into a federal State, with a federal parliament and 
cabinet competent for purposes of foreign policy, defence, 
and the measures of finance required for foreign policy and 
defence, but with the parliament and cabinet of each 
member-State still retaining control of the social composi- 
tion and the economic structure of its own community, and 
thus retaining the power to pass its own immigration 
laws and to impose its own tariffs. He now adds, however, 
a now extension to the scope of his plan. He puts to 
himself the question, " What of countries like Belgium, 
Holland, Denmark and Norway ? " He answers, " Let us 
offer them the chance of joining the union on the same 
terms that Britain and the Dominions have already estab- 
lished between themselves." He puts to himself the 
further point, that " we cannot ignore our responsibilities 
after this war to our allies, Czechoslovakia, Poland, 
Yugoslavia and Greece " ; and he meets the point by 
suggesting that if the democracies of western Europe 
unite with those of the British Commonwealth, the union 
could be opened, on exactly the same footing, to our eastern 
allies. On Mr. Curtis's scheme, therefore, a federated 
British Commonwealth becomes a European magnet, and 
draws into its company, on terms of equality with Great 
Britain and the British Dominions, European States both 
in the east and the west. Indeed he goes further still. 
He suggests that when Germany had acquired a govern- 
ment responsible to Germans at large, the time would be 
ripe for her inclusion. He even dreams that the miracle 
which Mr. C. K. Streit has suggested the union of the 
United States with the British Commonwealth would be 
less unlikely to happen if the people of the United States 
could be presented with a federated British Commonwealth 
which they could join without surrendering (as in the scheme 
of Decision no member-State would be required to sur- 
render) their control of their own immigration laws and 
their own tariffs. 

Scheme for a Federated Europe* A third line of approach 



POST-WAR RECONSTRUCTION 



may be called the European. Unlike the first two (which 
both, if in different ways, depend on the basic idea of 
Anglo-Saxon community, irrespective of continents), this 
line of approach depends on the basic idea of the com- 
munity of the continent to which we belong. One of the 
representatives of this line of approach is Sir George Young, 
in his book called Federalism and Freedom. A European 
diplomatist, versed in European affairs, Sir George is 
perhaps in the line of descent from Aristidc Briand and 
his conception of a United States of Europe. He advocates 
a federation of Europe in which no member-State, unless 
it is itself federal , may have a population of more than 
10,000,000. It follows on his plan that all States with a 
population greater than that amount France, Great 
Britain, Germany, Poland and the rest must decompose 
themselves first into federations in order to join, along 
with the other and smaller States, the Union of Free 
Federated Europe, which would thus be a federation itself 
consisting, in large part, of federations. The model for 
this Union of Free Federated Europe is to be found in the 
constitution of Switzerland. Thus Europe will be set fare 
da se and to achieve its own salvation (with an economic 
constitution on the Portuguese model added to a political 
constitution based on the Swiss) ; and the United States, 
and perhaps the British Dominions, free from the problem 
of Europe, will cultivate their own gardens. 

This is perhaps an airy scheme ; but it brings into relief 
a fundamental difficulty of British policy which inevitably 
confronts all makers of plans the difficulty that Great 
Britain is trilateral, touching on one side the United 
States, on another the British Dominions, and on another 
the continent of Europe. Any feasible plan must be 
accommodated to this fundamental fact, which is also a 
fundamental difficulty. A sober regard for this fact and 
this difficulty is particularly shown in two broadsheets 
issued by the organization called Political and Economic 
Planning, in the latter half of 1941. The first (No. 172), 
which goes by the name of " The Future of Germany," 
suggests that the post-war settlement of Europe should be 
along the lines of the British Commonwealth rather than 
of a written constitution in other words that, instead of 
the British Commonwealth being first federated and then 
used as a magnet to attract western and eastern Europe 
(as Mr. Curtis suggests), it should remain unfederated, as 
it stands, and should serve as a model for some union of 
Europe or some system of a number of regional unions in 
Europe. Not only is the British Commonwealth to serve 
as a model for Europe, according to the argument of this 
pamphlet : Britain must also take an initiative and incur 
responsibility in Europe, " in the long-term interests of 
the European majority and in the convergent interests of 
the U.S.A. and the Dominions." The second pamphlet 
(No. 182), which is called " Britain and Europe," carries 
these ideas into further detail. Assuming that European 
unity involves the leadership of some great power, and that 
Britain is faced by the duty of acting as that power, it 
seeks to suggest the basic principles of a European common- 
wealth which Britain might take the lead in establishing. 
On the political side the argument is once more advanced 
that the approach should be empirical, and based on the 
experience of the British Commonwealth as it stands : 
on the social and economic side a number of suggestions are 
offered (particularly in the matter of the training of a 
service for European reconstruction) which deserve the 
most careful study. The general pattern which emerges 
is that of a new Europe aided and for the time being led 



by Britain, with a European conference at its centre on 
the model of the imperial conference, and with that 
conference regularly attended by all foreign ministers, 
served by a strong permanent secretariat, and regularly 
meeting in London for the discussion of European affairs. 
This is but a jejune sketch of the gist of these two pamph- 
lets, which every reader is advised to read and ponder for 
himself. They show a sobriety and responsibility of 
judgment which should win them the closest attention. 

(6) Active Developments. In the realm of action, and of 
things done or placed on the list of agenda by statesmen, 
there is less to note on the subject of reconstruction, but 
the record, even though brief, is pregnant with importance 
for the future. In the first half of the year 1940 it was 
the development of British relations with France (tending, 
as it then seemed, to a closer and closer union) which 
appeared to be of cardinal importance. The climax 
of this development which also proved, for the moment, 
to be its end was the offer of Anglo-French union made 
by the British Prime Minister on June 16, 1940. What 
negotiations had preceded the scheme, and how far it had 
been sought on the French side as well as offered on the 
British, we do not yet know. What we do know is that 
the scheme now hangs, as it were, in a vacant interstellar 
space, rejected by France in her hour of ruin, and left 
silently on the record by Britain. What we may guess, 
and what many of us cannot but deeply believe, is that in 
any scheme for the reconstruction of Europe a new and 
reconstructed France must be drawn into close alliance 
and active co-operation. A new Europe will need the 
light and leading which we may hope that a new France, 
true again to her old traditions, will wish and be able to give- 
Mean while, in the course of 1941, the development of 
statesmanship turned in other directions. It turned, in 
the first place, in the direction of the United States, and 
towards closer arid closer co-operation between Britain and 
the United States. The result was seen in the Atlantic 
Charter, as it came to be called, of August 1941. Perhaps 
the greatest and most cardinal fact of this charter was not 
its substance, but its signatories ; not the noun " Charter," 
but the adjective " Atlantic." In a word, the fact of a 
joint declaration by the President of the United States and 
the British Prime Minister was the supreme fact. The 
actual substance of the charter was inevitably of a very 
general character ; but some of the provisions (though 
even they must obviously be clarified and specified further) 
were more concrete. Among these were the provision for 
enjoyment by all States of access on equal terms to the 
trade and raw materials of the world needed for their 
economic prosperity, and the provision for economic 
collaboration between all nations for securing improved 
labour standards, economic advancement and social 
security. The charter generally, since its issue in the 
August of 1941, has received a new measure of adhesion 
and a new wealth of signatures both from the Allied govern- 
ments in Great Britain and from the twenty-six govern- 
ments who endorsed it at Washington on Jan. i, 1942. 

" Europe in Britain." Another direction in which 
statesmanship turned was that of the formation of some- 
thing in the nature of a common council of the governments 
of the British Empire and the Allied governments now 
resident on British soil. Interallied War Conferences 
began to be held at St. James's Palace on June 12, 1941 ; 
a second followed on Sept. 24, at which the Atlantic 
Charter was accepted ; and in these meetings may already 
be seen something of a system of consultation and co- 



1 8 PRICES, INCOMES AND STANDARDS OF LIVING 




THE ALLIED AND IMPERIAL CONFERENCE AT ST. JAMES'S PALACE, 

LONDON, IN JUNE 1941. ON THE KING'S LEFT IS GENERAL SIKORSKI 

AND ON HIS RIGHT THE DUTCH PRIME MINISTER. MR. CHURCHILL 

IS AT THE LEFT OF THE PICTURE 

operation between the British Commonwealth on the one 
side and the States of western and eastern Europe on the 
other. Whether or no the British Commonwealth becomes 
a model, or even a magnet, for Europe, and whether or no 
it assumes a responsibility for leadership in Europe, it is 
already engaged in a close connexion with Europe. This 
is a natural result of the residence on British soil of a 
number of European governments (the Norwegian, the 
Dutch, and the Belgian : the Polish, the Czechoslovak, the 
Yugoslav, and the Greek), and of the fact that no small 
part of Europe is now, in a sense, domiciled, so far as its 
governments arc concerned, in Britain. This present 
situation of " Europe in Britain " is the natural germ for a 
future policy of " Britain in Europe/' on the lines sketched 
in the planning broadsheets already mentioned. The 
Interallied War Conferences are already a European organ, 
which may assume a permanent character, in a new and 
amplified form, as new developments provide the stimulus. 
In this connexion the proceedings of the second conference, 
of Sept. 24, were especially important. Not only did the 
members of the conference (including the representatives 
of the Soviet Union) express then- adherence to the common 
principles of the Atlantic Charter, and their intention to 
co-operate in giving them effect. They also adopted a 
resolution in favour of building up a common supply of 
food and raw materials for the post-war needs of European 
countries after their liberation, and for the establishment 
of a joint bureau for this purpose, reporting to a committee 
of Allied representatives. Here is a germ, which may well 
grow, of European co-operation in the work of reconstruc- 
tion. 

A third and last direction in which statesmanship 
turned was that of the preparation of what may 'be called 
regional federations, or unions, between contiguous Euro- 
pean States. Having fallen because they were divided, 
States have resolved to stand united. As long ago as 
November 1940 Poland and Czechoslovakia drew together 
for this purpose, and in January of the present year (1942) 
the governments of both countries agreed on a number of 
essential points with regard to their future confederation 
a confederation which they desire should embrace other 
States with which their interests are vitally linked. The 
governments of Greece and Yugoslavia were also drawn 
together, and initiated, almost simultaneously, a movement 



towards Balkan union, which was warmly welcomed by 
the Polish and Czechoslovak governments as a collaborator 
in assisting the security and developing the prosperity of 
the region between the Baltic and the Aegean seas. The 
regional reconstruction of Europe is thus already begun. 

This survey has been confined to post-war reconstruction 
in the broader sense in which it affects Europe at large. 
Some few words may be added in conclusion on reconstruc- 
tion as it affects Great Britain and so far as it was being 
planned by the government in 1941. (Nothing can be said 
in regard to the numerous voluntary societies and groups 
which were also engaged in planning.) From January 
1941, the minister without portfolio, Mr. Greenwood, as 
chairman of a group of ministers, and pending the forma- 
tion of a separate ministry for this purpose towards the 
end of the war, was responsible for considering the 
practical problems of transition from war to peace and for 
outlining a policy, for the immediate post-war years, likely 
to command national support. Lord Reith, the minister 
of works and buildings, acting within the framework of 
Mr. Greenwood's general study, and assisted by a small 
group of ministers, was responsible for considering the 
general problems of town and country planning, immedi- 
ately in the areas damaged by the war, but ultimately on 
a general scheme. He appointed committees (such as 
the Uthwatt committee for the examination of the problem 
of sites in bombed areas, and the Scott committee for the 
consideration of building and constructional development 
in rural areas) : he instituted a consultative panel of 
advisers on physical planning ; and he had before him the 
report of the Barlow commission (issued in January 1940) 
on the distribution of the industrial population. (E. B.) 

PRICES, INCOMES AND STANDARDS OF 
LIVING. From the outbreak of the war to the end 
of 1941, wholesale prices in Great Britain rose by 
about (K) per cent, retail prices by about 30 per cent and 
wage rates by about 20 per cent. Behind these statements 
of facts, there are hidden vast government schemes of 
restriction and control of materials of all kinds, rationing, 
control and price-fixing of goods sold retail, and wage- 
fixing and wage advances and increases in the hours of 
labour, and increases in output and the national income. 

Wholesale Prices. The increase in wholesale prices was 
not at the same rate during the 2 years and 4 months since 
the outbreak of the war, nor was it distributed equally 
throughout the various items, price records of which are 
included in the construction of price indices. The summary 
table at the top of the following page, gives some detail 
which will illustrate the history of prices from 1939 to 1941. 
With the change over from a peace economy to a war 
economy, and the complete dislocation of foreign trade 
and shipping, costs of importing goods naturally increased 
in addition, there were inevitable increases in rates of 
insurance on ships and cargoes consequently there was a 
greater increase in wholesale prices of food and tobacco 
compared with those of materials at the immediate out- 
break of the war. On the average, in the first four months 
of the war, Sept.-Dec. 1939, the wholesale price index rose 
by 16-3 per cent, the increase in the food and tobacco 
group being 22*1 per cent and that in the materials group 
being 13*4 per cent. Where imports bulk largely in 
British economy, e.g., cereals and cotton, the percentage 
increases were greatest, 35-9 per cent and 32-0 per cent 
respectively. On the other hand, the increase for coal 
was only 5*7 per cent. 
On the average, for the year 1940, prices rose, compared 



PRICES, INCOMES AND STANDARDS OF LIVING 19 



with Aug. 1939, by 39-3 per cent. The largest increases 
were for cereals (64-3 per cent), cotton (54-0 per cent) and 
wool (53*4 per cent), and the smallest was that for coal 
(19*3 per cent). 

BOARD OF TRADE WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX (1930 - 100) 



Group 


Index Numbers 


Percentage Increase 
from Aug. 1939 


AUK. 
1939 


Sept.- 
Dec. 
1939 


Year 
1940 


Year 
1941 


Dec. 
1941 


Sept.- 
I>ec. 

1939 


Year 
1940 


Year 
1941 


Dec. 
194^ 


Cereals . 
Meat, Fish and 
Eggs . 
Other Food and 
Tobacco 


84-0 

84-3 
100' I 


II4-I 
98-9 
II6-8 


138-0 
114-6 
I43'3 


150-4 
118-1 
166-5 


168-0 
1 16-0 
167-5 


35-9 
17-3 
16-7 


64-3 
35-9 
43-1 


79-0 
40-1 
66-1 


100 -0 

38-8 

67-2 


All Food and 
Tobacco 


90-4 


HO'4 


132-7 


146-1 


I50-5 


22*1 


47-3 


61-7 


66-6 


Coal 
Iron and Steel 
Non - Ferrous 
Metals 
Cotton . 
Wool . 
Other Textiles 
Chemicals and 
Oils . 
Miscellaneous . 


117-4 
128-6 

100-7 

81-4 
102-6 
74'i 

93-0 
96-1 


I24-I 
I35-I 

107-0 
107-4 
120-3 
92-3 

99-9 
II5'9 


140-1 

159-2 

123-2 
125-3 
157-3 
108-5 

117-1 
142-6 


159-5 
i8i-x 

123-9 
138-2 
170-1 
120*2 

126-9 
169-1 


162-8 
l8l-7 

124-1 
142-4 
171-9 
126-5 

129-7 
172-6 


5*7 
5'i 

6-3 
32-0 
17-2 
24-6 

7'4 
I9'5 


19*3 
23-8 

22-4 
54-0 
53-4 
46-5 

25-9 
48-4 


35-8 
40-8 

23-0 
69-9 
65-8 
62-3 

36-5 
76-0 


38-6 
4i'3 

23'2 

75-o 
67-5 
70-6 

39-5 
79-6 


All Industrial 
Materials, etc. 


IO2'2 


II5-9 


I38-4 


155-8 


158-4 


13-4 


35-4 


52-5 


55-o 


All items 


98-1 


114-1 


136-6 


152-6 


155-9 


16-3 


39-3 


55-5 


59*o 


Basic Materials 
Intermediate 
Products 
Manufactured 
Articles 


94'5 
104-0 
108-7 


1177 
118-9 
116-8 


M7'3 
145-0 
133-7 


166-7 
165-1 
148-4 


170-5 
167-7 
150-3 


24-6 
I4'3 
7-4 


56-0 

38-4 
23-0 


76-5 
58-8 
36-5 


80-5 
61-3 
38-3 



In the next year the rise in prices generally was slowed 
down. The average for the year 1941 was 55*5 per cent 
above Aug. 1939, i.e. only 11-7 per cent above the general 
level of the year 1940. 

The change in the tempo of increasing prices may be 
indicated by reference to comparisons of Aug. 1939 with 
Aug. 1940 and Aug. 1941. In the first 12 months of the 
war the general level of prices rose by 43 per cent (16-3 per 
cent was the average increase in the first 4 months, Sept.- 
Dec. 1939), in the next 12 months (Aug. 1940 to Aug. 1941)* 
the general level of prices increased by 9 per cent. In the 
next four months, from Aug. 1941 to Dec. 1941, the 
increase was 1-8 per cent. Thus the gradual monthly 
change declined. 

During 1941, many prices were for practical purposes 
stabilized, the relevant indices hardly changing at all. 

The following table shows the individual changes in the 
year 1941. 

BOARD OF TRADE WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX 



? ; Relative Changes 
(Dec. 1940 = 100 ; Increase -H, Decrease ) 


Cereals 




li 


18 

u,o 

s^ 

ll 


i 


Iron and 
Steel 


ji 


3 
3 


I 


Other 

Textiles 


Chemicals 
and Oils 


j 


-M4 


~ 4 


+ 3 


4- 7 


+ I 


+ 1 


M. 


4-3 


+ 15 


+ 6 


+ 7 



The level of prices of the meat, fish and egg group actually 
declined during the 12 months. The largest increases 
continued to be in the cereals and textile groups. 




The 7 imrsj 

COMMUNAL MEALS IN ONE OF THE BRITISH RESTAURANTS 

INSTALLED IN PLYMOUTH FOR FEEDING THE WORKERS WHOSE 

HOMES ARE OUTSIDE THE CITY 

With war-time control and stabilization of some prices, 
and with restrictions on freedom of enterprise, and with 
lack of competition amongst traders, the meaning and 
purpose of wholesale price indices change. The Board 
of Trade figures do enable us to keep in a concise form 
records of changes which occur during war conditions, but 
some doubt must exist as to the exact comparability of the 
series of indices which is now being computed with that 
computed before the war. There are probably difficulties 
in obtaining quotations of prices of certain goods which 
are exactly comparable with those used before the war 
started. 

It is interesting to make a comparison between the 
changes which took place in the first two years of the 
present war with those which occurred in the first two 
years of the war of 1914-18. According to the Statist 
index of wholesale prices, the change was an increase of 

61 per cent from Aug. 1939 to Aug. 1941, the indices 
being 90-4 and 145-1 respectively. According to the 
Economist index of wholesale prices, the increase was 
51 per cent, the respective indices being 70-3 and 106-4. 
From July 1914 to July 1916, the Statist index showed an 
increase of 58 per cent and the Economist an increase of 

62 per cent. Approximately, the same change took place 
in the first two years of the present war as occurred between 
1914 and 1916, an increase of some 50 to 60 per cent. 

Retail Prices. For the first two years of the war of 
1914-18, the Ministry of Labour's cost of living index 
shows a rise of some 45 to 50 per cent, while for the same 
period the food index rose by 61 per cent. These are 
obtained by comparing July 1916 with July 1914. For 
the present period, the same official index indicates a rise 
in the cost of living from Aug. 1939 to Aug. 1941 of 28 per 
cent, the food figure being 22 per cent. There is a striking 
difference between the recent course of these retail indices 
compared with the experience of 25 years ago, and that of 
the wholesale indices. In the present war, government 
management, by rationing, control and subsidies, regulated 
the increase in the cost of living to barely half of that which 
took place in the less restricted conditions of the first two 
years of the last war. 

In the first month of the present war the official cost of 
living index rose 10 points from 155 at Sept. i, 1939, to 
165 at Oct. i, 1939, an increase of 6 per cent. During 
1940 the index rose from 174 at Jan. i to 196 at Jan. i, 
1941, an increase of 12 J per cent. During the year 1941, 
the index changed very little, from 196 to 200, an increase 



20 PRICES, INCOMES AND STANDARDS OF LIVING 



of 2 per cent. The slowing down of the increase in whole- 
sale prices previously noted was thus accompanied by a 
similar slowing down of the increase in the cost of living 
index. Of the constituent items of the cost of living index 
the most important is food. With price regulations, the 
increase in the price of food during the war period was not 
great, apart from that which took place on the outbreak 
of the war. During 1940, on the average, food prices rose 
by 9J- per cent. During 1941, food prices actually declined 
on the average by about 4 per cent. For the md'st part, 
during this period, prices were stable. The chief cause of 
the decline was the lowering of the price of fish and eggs. 

The next most important item in the cost of living index 
is rent. This index has been practically unchanged since 
the war. It was 162 in Aug. and Sept. 1939 and rose to 
164 in May 1940 and remained at the same figure subse- 
quently. The greatest changes were those for the clothing 
index. This was 205-210 at the outbreak of the war; it 
rose to 290 at Aug. 1940, to 380 at Aug. 1941 and to 
395-4 00 a t Dec. 1941. This index increased by about 
90 per cent. The fuel and light figure was 180 at Aug. 
1939, 182$ at Sept. 1939, 212 at Aug. 194, 228 at Aug. 
1941 and 230 at Dec. 1941. There was an increase of 
about 28 per cent in this item. A similar change was 
recorded in the miscellaneous part of the cost of living index. 

Since the beginning of the war, meat prices increased by 
about 20 per cent, bread and flour prices hardly changed, 
sugar and milk prices increased by about 30 per cent, 
butter prices rose by about 20 per cent, the price of 
margarine by about 12 per cent and that of cheese by 30 per 
cent. The price of fish had increased by 100 per cent at 
the middle of 1941, but at the end of the year the increase 
was 42 per cent. During the year, the increase in the 
price of potatoes varied between 30 and 50 per cent. 

The original purpose of the cost of living index number, 
to measure the change in the cost of maintaining a hypo- 
thetical family on a certain standard of living, was neces- 
sarily defeated with the introduction of rationing, particu- 
larly of foodstuffs and clothing. Even before the war 
some doubt had been expressed regarding the appositeness 
of a cost of living index based primarily on budgets which 
had reference originally to the year 1904. The Ministry of 
Labour had, in fact, undertaken to investigate working-class 
budgets on a grand scale in 1937-38, and by the beginning 
of 1942 would probably have introduced a new index based 
on this more recent experience. With the onset of the 
war, much of this work was inevitably postponed, but 
some important results of their inquiries were published in 
the Labour Gazette of Dec. 1940. These related to some 
8,900 industrial households, the original choice of house- 
holds having been a random one. 

The official cost of living index only pretended to have 
regard to basic expenditure, a comparatively small number 
of foodstuffs being included. Jams, cocoa, coffee, fruit 
and vegetables (apart from potatoes) were excluded. 
Only a few items were included under the heading of mis- 
cellaneous : soap, ironmongery, newspapers, tobacco, fares, 
etc. When the relative expenditures on the various items 
which were included in the original computations of the 
cost of living index are obtained from the results of the new 
1937-38 inquiry, and these new figures are used for weight- 
ing purposes in the construction of a cost of living index, 
the final result is not very much different from the official 
figure. Naturally, changes occur if more importance is 
attached to the miscellaneous group, i.e., if entertainment, 
magazines, furniture, more insurances, and so* on are 



included as a basic part of living, and if the list of foods is 
extended to include fruit, preserves, etc. In effect, we 
should be constructing a new index number based on the 
1937-38 experience of the standard of living. 

We can compare the average expenditure obtained from 
the 1937-38 inquiry with that of present day rationing. 
On the average, an industrial household of 3*77 persons 
spent 45. $d. on meat, about ij*Sd. per person. For the 
greater part of 1941, the meat ration was 15. 2d. per person, 
which, allowing for the rise of about 20 per cent in price 
since the war, corresponds to 11-7^. on the basis of pre-war 
prices. Thus, effectively, on the average, instead of 17*8^. 
being spent on meat, the amount is ii'jd., a reduction of 
about 35 per cent. On the average, in 1937-38, the 
industrial household bought 22-4 oz. of bacon ; the present 
ration for 3-77 persons is 15 oz., a reduction of 33 per cent. 
Again, in 1937-38, the industrial household purchased 
48 o/. of butter, margarine and lard. For the greater part 
of 1941, a household of 3*77 persons could purchase only 
30 oz., a reduction of 37 per cent. Moreover, whereas the 
proportion in 1937-38 of butter to margarine and lard was 
3 to 2, in the present rationing scheme the proportion is 
i to 3. As for sugar, the average industrial household 
purchased 4-8 Ib. in 1937-38, and the ration during the 
greater part of 1941 for 3-77 persons was i -9 Ib., a reduction 
of 60 per cent. The ration of fats was increased by 2 oz. 
per person on Nov. 17, 1941, and that for sugar was 
increased by 4 oz. on the same date, and in addition there 
was an extra 8 oz. for four weeks in the summer of 1941. 

Apart from bread and flour, there was, for each person, 
a considerable reduction in the consumption of basic food- 
stuffs. As a result of this reduction, consumers endeav- 
oured to supplement their purchases by buying alterna- 
tives. These gradually were brought under control, and 
rationing was instituted in order to ensure a fair distribu- 
tion. Fish prices soared, compared with other prices. 

Clothing coupons helped to ensure a reasonable distribu- 
tion of necessities to all, and at the same time the purchase 
tax helped to discourage the buying of luxuries. We have 
previously referred to the great increase in the prices of 
clothing since the outbreak of the war. It is practically 
impossible to measure the reduced purchases of clothing 
due to the coupon scheme and the increase of prices, but 
there is no doubt of this reduction for the civilian popula- 
tion. Also, there had been a reduction of travelling 
facilities. Prices of entertainment were higher in 1941 
than in 1938-39- The general standard of living, which 
included all such amenities, at the service of the community, 
had been reduced in certain respects. On the other hand, 
the public social services, health, education, etc., existed 
in 1941 at the same level of excellence as before the war. 

Standards of Living and Incomes. It is difficult to 
assess the extent by which standards of living had changed 
since the war. A vast number of people called up for war 
service had had their lives completely changed, so that 
for them a direct comparison is impossible. A part of the 
civilian population had undertaken part-time service of 
one kind or another, and had thus substituted one method 
of spending leisure for another. Travelling was restricted 
and there was probably more book reading, and certainly 
more smoking. Freedom of choice of ways of spending 
money was curtailed, and there was always present the 
urge to buy war savings certificates. There is one crude 
qualitative method of estimation that of health. Ac- 
cording to reports of the Ministry of Health, the nation's 
health had not deteriorated since the outbreak of the war. 



PUBLIC HEALTH IN WAR-TIME 



In the early part of 1941, a report referred to the large 
number of cases of cerebro-spinal fever in the previous 
year, but the death rate from this cause was considerably 
less than it had been formerly. 

Since the outbreak of the war, advances in wage rates 
had been made to the extent of about 5,000,000 per 
week. This represents an increase of about 20 per cent in 
wage rates. From information obtained by the Ministry 
of Labour (Labour Gazette, Dec. 1941), it is estimated that 
the increase in earnings at July 1941 over October 1938 was 
42 per cent. This was due to longer hours being worked, 
increase in rates of wages, extension of the system of 
payment by results, and changes in the constitution of the 
labour force as to age, sex and occupation. It is pertinent 
to note that, whereas in Aug. 1939 there were about ij 
million unemployed, at the end of 1941 there were only 
about a quarter of a million unemployed, according to the 
Ministry of Labour's unemployment statistics. Thus, to 
compensate for an increase in cost of living of 28 per cent, 
the official figure (or more, if we pay regard to the fact 
that to make up for diminished supplies of foods which 
have not risen greatly in price, workers have to buy other 
foods, such as fish, potatoes and green vegetables, which 
have increased more in price), there was an average increase 
of earnings of 42 per cent. 

Official estimates of national income and expenditure 
published in "An Analysis of the Sources of War Finance 
and an Estimate of the National Income and Expenditure 
in 1938 and 1940 " (Cmd. 6261, 1941) enable one to get a 
picture of changes since the war in the distribution of the 
national income between private and government expendi- 
ture. The following figures are drawn from this report. 

1938 i94i j Percentages, allow- 

(estimated ing for au increase 
! from fourth of 20 per cent in 

1 quarter of | prices 

1940) 1938 1941 



National Income . 



Personal Expenditure . 
Government Expenditure 
| Investment ( + ) or Disinvest- 

i ment ( ) . . 



Amounts in ^million 
4,415 5,804 



3,400 
840 



3,652 
3,892 



100 



77 
19 



175 ~ 1,740 



1094 



69 I 

73* J 

33 I 



In 1938, the total national income was divided up 
between personal expenditure, government expenditure and 
investment in the proportions 77 : 19 : 4. It is estimated 
that the total national effort had increased by 1941 by 
about 9* per cent. But personal expenditure had declined 
from 77 out of 100 to 69 out of 109* ; thus although the 
total output had increased, personal expenditure had 
declined. On account of the war government expenditure 
had increased to 73* out of 109$; this being achieved 
partly by the increase in real output, partly by the decline 
in private consumption, and partly by disinvestment or 
drafts on capital. These figures show briefly the effects of 
the various schemes of price control, rationing and restric- 
tion. In 1938, before the war, the private individual 
consumed 77 per cent of his output. It is estimated that, 
during the year 1941, based on figures for the last quarter 
of 1940, the private individual consumed 69 units out of 
an increased output of 109*, or 63 per cent of his output. 
In a sense, the change from 77 to 69 gives a quantitative 
indication of the decline in the standard of living due to 
the war. The decline, in fact, is greater than this, because, 
under ordinary circumstances, an increasing output brings 
a higher standard of living. (E. C. Rh.) 



PUBLIC HEALTH IN WAR-TIME. After more 
than two years of war it was possible to review in 
retrospect its effect on the health of the people, with 
reasonably good evidence for guidance, The usual annual 
returns of the registrar-general for England and Wales and 
of the ministry of health were not available, but informa- 
tion could be obtained from the weekly and quarterly 
returns, the latter of which had been augmented in 
important respects, and the results of certain special 
inquiries had been published. An analysis made in the 
British Medical Journal shows that the number of deaths 
in large towns fell from 303,271 in 1940 to 262,467 in 1941, 
but the relevance of these figures may have been vitiated 
by movements of the population. The infant mortality 
rate in these towns rose from 61 to 71 per 1,000 live births. 
The United Kingdom came through heavy enemy attacks 
from the air during the winter of 1940-41 without serious 
impairment of the general health ' of the population, 
although, of course, these attacks were reflected in a 
substantial increase in the deaths due to violence, especially 
in large towns. There is no evidence that regular resort 
at night to air-raid shelters had any deleterious effect by 
itself, but it probably contributed to the fatigue of workers 
which may have influenced the increase of tuberculosis. 
Some occurrences of a kind which are usually associated 
with war, and some which were unexpected, deserve special 
mention. 

Acute Infectious Disease. The following table, also 
extracted from the British Medical Journal, shows the 
trend of infectious disease since 1937 as indicated by 
notifications. 



Scarlet fever 

Whooping-cough 

Diphtheria 

Measles 

Pneumonia 

Cerebro-spinal f everj 

Dysentery 

Enteric fever (para- 
typhoid and 
phoid) . . 

Measles and whooping-cough were not generally notifiable 
before 1940, and the significance of their prevalence cannot 
be judged from such short-term statistics, because of the 
large periodical fluctuations which normally occur. In 
large towns the fatality rate of measles rose from 0-26 per 
cent to o34 per cent, and of whooping-cough from 1-3 per 
cent to 1*6 per cent, but the notifications which form the 
basis of these rates are probably too imperfect to justify 
the attachment of much significance to them. It is 
possible, however, that the disturbance of normal life by 
air raids in the latter part of 1940 and the first six months 
of 1941 may have reduced the chance of recovery of young 
children contracting these infections. 

Mention has previously been made of the low incidence 
of most of the common infections of childhood after the 
outbreak of war, in spite of the expected effect of evac- 
uation of children from dangerous areas. 1 New facts have 
come to light which indicate that this conclusion from general 
observations requires to be modified . Stocks has made a care- 
ful analysis of the areal distribution of scarlet fever and 
diphtheria and shown that, while the incidence of these 
diseases in proportion to the child population as altered 
1 Encycl. Brit. Book of the Year, 1940, Supplement, 25. 





1941 


1940 


1939 


1938 


1937 




57.982 


^5,573 


78,201 


99,4 * 3 


95. 8 59 ' 




169,863 


53>43 


i . 


; 







5,5 


46,683 


j 47,910 


' O5,72O 


61,870: 


. 


4 5,58Q 


407,908 




! _ 


1 




49,547 


47.712 


42.275 


i 45,"7 


55.8x6, 


'er 


10,986 


12,791 


1,506 


J,293 


1,157 


a- 


6,485 


2,843 


1,963 


4,2x0 


4,066 ( 


y- 




4,687 


2,824 


j 1,5*4 


1,347 


2,157 








1 







PUBLIC HEALTH IN WAR-TIME 




JUimiMJiKI A 

CL1NIC 



AT A SCHOUI- 



by evacuation fell in evacuation areas in comparison with 
neutral areas in the first six months or longer after war 
broke out, a substantial increase occurred in receiving areas. 
The mixing of infected immune children with susceptibles 
in protected areas seems therefore to have had the in- 
fluence which had been apprehended before evacuation 
took place. These diseases, however, never reached serious 
epidemic proportions and the effect passed off fairly soon. 

Cerebro-spinal Fever. The high incidence of this disease 
continued in 1941. Although notifications fell by nearly 
2,000 as compared with 1940, the figure far exceeds any- 
thing recorded in other previous years. Cerebro-spinal 
fever seems to be repeating the behaviour it followed in 
the war of 1914-18, and a high but falling prevalence is to 
be expected so long as hostilities last. Accurate records 
of its power to kill are not yet available, but it is evident 
that the use of the sulphonamide group of drugs has very 
greatly reduced the case-mortality rate at all ages. 

Diphtheria* The increase in the amount of diphtheria 
after two years of falling incidence is disappointing in the 
light of the great efforts made by local authorities to 
immunize children in their areas. It is probably correct 
to say, however, that very few populous places in Great 
Britain have yet attained that proportion of immune 
children (about 50 per cent) which has been found necessary 
in other countries before any significant effect on the 
volume of the disease can be expected. Like other infec- 
tious diseases diphtheria has its periodical ebb and flow, 
and it may be that there would have been still more of it 
but for immunization. Investigations in Liverpool by 
Prof. H. D. Wright demonstrate that variations occur 
from year to year in the proportion of cases due to different 
strains of C. diphtheriae l and it may be that a more 
invasive type is now assuming dominance. 
1 J. Path, and Bad., 1941, 52, 283. 



Respiratory Diseases. From the table of notifications 
it is evident that there has been some increase in pneumonia, 
but not to the extent usual in years when influenza occurs 
in epidemic form. In fact the latter disease, which 
caused such devastation in 1918, was not highly prevalent 
in 1940 and 1941. There was a great increase in deaths 
from respiratory causes, however, in 1940 as compared 
with 1939, which gave rise to a suspicion that the stress of 
air raids and shelter life might be causing the spread of 
respiratory infection. Close examination of the figures 
reveals that the increase was due mainly to bronchitis in 
elderly people, that it occurred chiefly in the first quarter 
of the year, before air raids began, and that it coincided 
with exceptionally bitter weather. A rather heavy 
mortality both from pneumonia and bronchitis in the first 
and second quarters of 1941 (not comparable in magnitude 
with that of the first quarter of 1940) may have been 
partly due to the influence of war-time conditions. 

Alimentary Infections* One of the most disturbing 
features of war-time has been the upward tendency of 
enteric fever and dysentery, as shown in the table. The 
decline of these diseases had been one of the brightest 
passages in the long history of the public health movement. 
They were already on the up-grade in 1940, and the 
increase in 1941 was great. It was not due to air-raid 
damage of water or sewage installations ; although damage 
of this kind was common, associated epidemics did not 
occur. Fortunately the increase is little reflected in 
mortality, since it was due, in the case of enteric fever, to 
the milder paratyphoid form, and to a large extent to the 
type of dysentery caused by B. dysenteriae (Sonne) which 
gave rise to a previous epidemic in the winter of 1937-38. 
There is no clear explanation of these occurrences, but 
several of the paratyphoid fever outbreaks were due to the 
consumption of pastries containing synthetic whipped 
cream. As paratyphoid is rarely spread by water, a 
definitely authenticated small outbreak so caused is of 
considerable interest. 1 Outbreaks of a mild form of 
diarrhoea affecting both adults and children were also 
common, but up to early 1942 bacteriologists had failed to 
trace the causative organism and inclined to the view that 
it might be some hitherto unrecognized virus. 

Trichiniasis (trichinosis)* Until recently this disease 
was regarded as extremely rare in Great Britain, and such 
routine post mortem examinations for evidence of past 
infection as have been made confirmed this impression. 
An account of eight small outbreaks, however, occurring 
since 1922 in South Wales has recently been given by 
Nancy Howell. 2 Further, during the winter of 1940-41 
epidemics involving approximately the following numbers 
of cascr occurred in England, viz., Wolverhampton 130, 
Hertfordshire 5, Birmingham 78, Cumberland 50-100. 
Investigation indicated that occasional cases may have 
been occurring in Wolverhampton for a number of years, 
perhaps as the result of the custom of eating raw sausage 
meat, to which the 1941 unprecedented epidemic was 
attributed. Efforts to trace the pigs from which the 
infested flesh responsible for any of these outbreaks was 
derived were unsuccessful, and extensive examination of 
pig carcases confirmed the view that the disease is rare in 
home-bred swine. This makes it unlikely that infection 
is carried on by garbage-feeding of pigs the mode of 
transmission from animal to animal now accepted as 
common in the U.S.A. and suggests that the rat may be 

1 Emetg. Pub. Hlth. Lab. Strv. t Mon. Bull., Feb., 1942, i. 
Pub. Hlth. t 1941, 55, 5- 



SOCIAL WELFARE, MEASURES FOR PROMOTING 23 



still regarded as the important vector for pig-infection in 
the United Kingdom. 

Typhus Fever. The Spanish civil war aroused anxiety 
as to the introduction of typhus into western Europe by 
troops from Morocco, where the disease was prevalent at 
that time, but it was not till later that reports indicated 
its presence in considerable volume in Spain. Since the 
opening of the campaign in eastern Europe in the spring 
of 1941 well-authenticated accounts have been obtained 
of the spread of typhus westward from that area, and 
cases have certainly occurred in Germany. In view oi 
the danger of its introduction into Britain by persons 
returning from an infected area the ministry of health 
issued a memorandum to public health officers l advising 
them as to the precautions which ought to be taken. These 
include the organization of diagnostic and preventive 
teams, the provision of hospital accommodation and 
arrangements for the reduction of louse infestation in the 
community. The Harvard field hospital unit of the 
American Red Cross placed a mobile team at the disposal 
of the ministry and local authorities. 

Pediculosis. In connexion with the problem just 
mentioned it has become apparent from observation of 
evacuated children that louse infestation is commoner 
than was thought, and the inquiries of Kenneth Mellanby a 
have expressed its extent in precise terms. For instance, 
he found that 50 per cent of town girls at ages from two to 
twelve years had lice or nits in their hair. While typhus 
is generally thought to be carried only by the body-louse, 
which is much less common, it is thought possible that 
the head-louse may also act as a vector. The measures 
proposed for the eradication of lice may conveniently be 
mentioned in connexion with the cognate problem of 
scabies. 

Scabies. For a few years before the war school medical 
records showed that itch was definitely increasing. It has 
become a serious problem during the war both among 
soldiers and civilians. Mellanby extended his investiga- 
tions to this disease and found a sharp rise in war-time, 
reaching as many as 40 cases per thousand admitted to one 
hospital for other reasons during the first six months of 
1941. 8 The minister of health therefore made the Scabies 
Order, 1941, which applies also to pediculosis. It enables 
the medical officer of health to require cleansing and 
treatment of verminous persons and articles, to inspect 
contacts and to seek out cases of infestation. In particular, 
health departments are now able to follow up to their 
homes school-children found to be verminous and to treat 
and disinfest the family and premises. 

Tuberculosis. The registrar-general's quarterly returns 
disclose the rise in mortality from tuberculosis anticipated 
in the 1941 year book. Its decline, which had been continu- 
ous for many years and was seriously interrupted only by 
the war of 1914-18, was arrested in 1039 and reversed in 
1940 and the first half of 1941. It seems likely that the his- 
tory of the previous war will be repeated in this respect. The 
war-time increase is probably not due to the discharge of 
sanatorium patients at the outbreak of war, since such 
action was not taken in 1914-15 when a similar rise 
occurred, nor to shortage of food. It may be a consequence 
of overwork, long hours and irregular living, perhaps 
accentuated by the fatigue experienced by workers during 
the air raids of 1940-41. There is evidence of a general 

1 Memo. 25*IMed. t October, 1941. 
1 Mid. Off.. 1941, 65, 39- 
Ibid., 66, 141. 



kind that a similar increase has occurred in other belligerent 
countries, and the state of affairs is said to be serious in 
the occupied low countries where it is probably intensified 
by privation. 

Gaatro-duodenal Disorder. Numerous articles in the 
medical press indicate that one of the greatest causes of 
unfitness among men recruited into the fighting services is 
disorder of the upper part of the alimentary canal, taking 
the form of gastric or duodenal ulcer in a large proportion 
of cases. Whether there is a real increase in such disorders 
as compared with former times, or merely more complete 
ascertainment, it is hard to say. It is at least certain that 
a large proportion of beds in military and emergency 
service hospitals have been occupied by such cases, and 
many men have had to be discharged for this reason. It 
seems unlikely that war-time dietary is responsible. Just 
as recruitment during the South African war revealed the 
presence of much physical defect in adolescence and led to 
the inception of the school medical service, the recent 
records of recruiting boards and the fighting services may 
point to new measures of preventive medicine directed at 
such chronic disability in the young adults of the present 
day. (R, M. F. P.) 

SOCIAL WELFARE, MEASURES FOR PROMOT- 
ING. This war, like that of 1914-18, has turned a searchlight 
on the social life of the people of Great Britain. Like the last 
war too, it has shaken people and institutions out of all kinds 
of ruts. But its impact on individuals and families has been 
far closer. The billeting of industrial workers, teachers, 
staffs of evacuated business firms, service men and women 
and evacuated children and mothers has affected innumer- 
able homes in reception and neutral areas. To be bombed 
out from office, shop or home has been the lot of many in 
towns. Change of occupation, of place and ways of living: 
has been the experience of literally millions of men and 
women in industry and the forces. 

To meet the social needs arising out of these war condi- 
tions new services of many kinds have come into being. 
Some have been developments of social experiments of pre- 
war days, some have been created to meet urgent and often 
unforeseen needs, others have come through the seizing of 
opportunities for new forms of social progress by far-sighted 
people. 

Services* Welfare. Welfare services for serving men and 
women have been greatly extended in this war. Educa- 
tional facilities have also been developed on new lines. The 
creation of an army welfare department at the war office, 
supported by county welfare officers and committees, was a 
new departure. So, too, was the formation of the council 
for voluntary war work to co-ordinate the work of the 
societies which had served the need of the forces in the war 
of 1914-18. Under their auspices over 5,000 canteens 
were set up, in addition to those run by local churches and 
independent bodies. These and the 3,800 institutes pro- 
vided were only some of the ways in which the societies 
concerned were endeavouring to meet the social, educational, 
recreational and spiritual needs of the men and women in 
the new citizen armies. 

Factory Welfare. In 1940 the factory department of the 
home office was transferred to the ministry of labour. This 
was followed by the setting up by the ministry of a factory 
welfare advisory board, charged with the promotion of the 
welfare of industrial workers. Eleven regional welfare 
officers were appointed assisted now by close on 100 local 
welfare officers concerned with matters affecting the 
welfare of workers outside the factory, including transport. 



24 SOCIAL WELFARE, MEASURES FOR PROMOTING 




A CAM KEN loK MINERS AT THE PITHKAU, GLASSHOUGHTON 

COLLIERY 

billeting and recreational facilities. A central consultative 
committee together with specialized sub-committees was 
formed, composed of voluntary organizations with experi- 
ence of various types of welfare service. 

Housing of Workers. Very soon the need for the housing 
of workers became urgent ; billeting was not sufficient, nor 
possible in isolated districts where the new shadow factories 
were sometimes established. The ministry of supply 
accordingly built hostels mainly for women and girl 
workers at the royal ordnance factories. These were 
specially constructed buildings with accommodation for 
100-1,600 workers who sleep in houses surrounding a dining 
and recreation building with community centre facilities. 
The ministry built and equipped the hostels, which were 
staffed and managed respectively by the Y.W.C.A. and 
Y.M.C.A. jointly, the Workers' Travel Association, the 
Holiday Fellowship and the Co-operative Holidays Associa- 
tion. In addition the ministry of supply provided houses 
on small housing estates for married key workers with 
families. These were managed by trained housing man- 
agers, usually directly from the ministry, though in one or 
two cases local housing associations acted as the ministry's 
agents. 

The National Service Hostels Corporation provided 
hostels on behalf of the ministry of aircraft production and 
other factories. Agricultural workers' hostels, including 
those for members of the Land Army, were arranged for by 
the ministry of agriculture through local war agricultural 
committees and voluntary bodies. 

Works canteens were another vital need partly to help 
the family rations, partly for the benefit of workers where 
distances made it impossible to obtain the mid-day meal at 
home, or billet or hostel. Miners' canteens were a specially 
welcome institution. 

Factory Concerts. In factories during the lunch hour, 
concerts became a frequent occurrence, varying from the 
performance of a local concert party to the visit of artists 
belonging to the Entertainments National Services Associa- 
tion (E.N.S.A.), or a recital of chamber music by the staff 
of the Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts 
(C.E.M.A.). The former organization staffed by pro- 
fessional actors and actresses and other artists gave 52,000 
concerts in factories apart from 156,000 performances to the 
forces through tho help of the Navy, Army and Air Force 
Institutes (N.A, A.F.I.). 

The Council for the Encouragement of Music and the 
Arts was the result of a venture by the Pilgrim Trust 



partnered later by the board of education (which after- 
wards assumed full responsibility) to provide opportunities 
in town and country, among the forces and in the work- 
shops, for good music, the production of opera and plays, 
and the study of art. Some 8,000 concerts of all kinds, 
including concerts in shelters and rest centres, were given 
in 1940 and 1941, 1,500,000 people saw plays given by the 
fifteen companies touring the country. Just under 
1,000,000 people saw the " Art for the People " exhibition, 
consisting of original paintings, reproductions and auto- 
graphic prints. A further popular exhibition was that of 
" Living in Cities." 

War-time Nurseries. With the entry of married women 
in increasing numbers into industry, the need for day 
nurseries for children under five became acute in certain 
areas. At the outbreak of war about 150 nursery schools and 
day nurseries, together with various residential nurseries 
in London and large towns, were evacuated to large country 
houses. Vacancies arising through children moving on to 
junior schools or for other reasons were filled by children 
who, through war conditions, had become social casualties. 
As conditions became graver owing to intensive bombing 
more such nurseries were opened. By Feb. i, 1942, the 
number of residential nurseries had increased from the 
original 150 to 362, and the number of nursery places from 
4,600 to 10,750. Of the 212 new nurseries, 114 had been 
provided by voluntary societies, substantially assisted by 
funds derived from the United States and the British 
commonwealth, and the remainder by local authorities, 
individual voluntary efforts and those carried on by the 
British Red Cross Society. 

A new scheme for whole-time and part-time nurseries 
sponsored by the ministry of health and board of education 
and operated by local welfare authorities with the co- 
operation of local education authorities and voluntary 
organizations came into being. It was designed particu- 
larly to meet the needs of industrial workers. By the 
beginning of 1942 276 nurseries were open and over 600 in 
preparation. There was also a large extension of nursery 
classes in elementary schools. 

An official scheme of minders or daily guardians was 
promoted by the ministry of labour to help where nurseries 
were not possible for lack of suitable premises or other 
causes. The ministry also gave grants in aid for the pro- 
vision of play centres by the local education authorities for 
older school children whose parents were working long 
hours in industry and other forms of national service. 

Social Centres* At the beginning of the war and again 
after the heavy bombing of the autumn of 1941, many 
mothers went to the reception areas with their young 
children. Housed very often in billets, they were at a loss 
how to spend their days without being an intolerable 
burden on their hostesses and themselves. So there grew 
up social centres or clubs in halls lent by churches and 
voluntary bodies or in empty houses. At the close of 1941 
there were 443 social centres with occupational facilities 
and 287 without. While many of the mothers had returned 
to their homes in evacuation areas at the end of 1941, an 
official estimate of the mothers remaining in the country 
amounted to 145,000 apart from 100,000 scheduled as 
homeless or with special disabilities. 

British Restaurants. A particularly popular feature was 
the provision in some centres of communal meals such as 
were organized by the South Wales social service clubs for 
their London visitors. These were being transformed into 
" British Restaurants," where satisfying meals were avail- 



WAR FINANCE 



able for all kinds of people. In towns of varying size these 
new forms of communal living were finding a place, intended 
for the public outside the scope of the big factory or 
communal canteens. British restaurants numbered 1,300 
by early 1942. Some were run entirely by local authori- 
ties, though often with the help of voluntary workers. 
Others were run by voluntary bodies such as clubs or 
settlements. 

Post-raid Welfare. The early rest centre leaders in 
London made experiments which influenced the develop- 
ment of the fine chain of rest centres available under the 
London county council. The appointment of a special 
commissioner for the homeless in the same area set on 
foot a remarkable scheme of re-housing and welfare in 
which local authorities, government officials, voluntary 
agencies and a team of experienced social workers co- 
operated. 

Originally started as an aid to civil defence the Women's 
Voluntary Services by the end of 1941 had enrolled over 
1,000,000 volunteers, who played an indispensable part in 
post-blitz work as auxiliaries of the local authorities. 
Another W.V.S. development was a vast clothing scheme 
in close association with government departments and 
local authorities for helping both homeless and evacuated 
families in need. In this, the timely aid of the U.S.A. and 
the Dominions and gifts from all parts of the world were of 
great value. 

Citizens 9 Advice Bureaux. While war conditions were 
creating these various measures of social welfare, one service 
had been foreseen and prepared for since the crisis of 1938. 
The National Council of Social Service had then called into 
being a standing conference of voluntary 'organizations 
in time of war, whose first task had been the prepara- 
tion of an information service to meet the numberless 
inquiries for which the anxious citizen would need an 
answer. The day war broke out a large number of citizens' 
advice bureaux were opened, those in London under the 
direction of the charity organization society, elsewhere 
through the help of local councils of social service, other 
voluntary agencies and public-spirited individuals Their 
main object was to provide for all citizens a centre otadvice 
and information on all kinds of personal and domestic 
problems. Behind the bureaux grew up an intelligence 
service known as Citizens' Advice Notes which, from the 
information department of the National Council of Social 
Service, provided accurate information on legislative enact- 
ments and war-time services of every description. These 
Citizens' Advice Notes (later issued in book form with supple- 
ments as required) reached a circulation of 6,000. In 
addition to the workers of the 1,000 or more citizens' 
advice bureaux in towns over 600 people agreed to act as 
citizens' advisers in villages and isolated districts. 

Old People's Welfare. Amongst the many problems 
dealt with by the citizens' advice bureaux few were less 
easy of solution than those of old people. Many of them 
were made homeless by enemy action, many were left 
stranded in London and the big cities when their sons and 
daughters were transferred to other districts for munition 
work or evacuated to the country. The administration of 
supplementary pensions to old age pensioners undertaken 
by the assistance board revealed the many needs of lonely 
Old people. At the suggestion of the board the National 
Council of Social Service set up a committee to co-ordinate 
and extend work for the welfare of the aged. Old people's 
welfare committees were set up in the provinces and a 
register of homes for the aged was compiled. 



Youth Work, With the introduction of the service of 
youth scheme in 1939 the board of education took a new 
share in the development of youth activities through the 
setting up erf a national youth committee and the encourage- 
ment of local youth committees set up by local authorities. 
All the 146 higher education authorities in the country by 
1941 had formed youth committees, many of them repre- 
sentative of voluntary bodies as well as educational 
interests. Policy showed two tendencies (i) to strengthen 
the work of existing youth organizations by grants in aid 
and (2) by the setting up of new youth centres where 
activities for the 14-20 age group were specially fos* 
tercd. While the majority of schemes were set on foot 
through local youth committees, the board could assist 
individual clubs and usually did so on the recommendations 
of one of the established national youth organizations. 
Clubs of all kinds were accordingly developing rural 
clubs, mixed clubs, old scholars' chibs, us we Itas^the* usual 
boys' and girls' clubs and the uniformed organizations. 
Mixed activities were more and more common both in these 
and in the new war workers' clubs for young adults, financed 
by the ministry of labour and organized by such bodies as 
the Y.W.C.A. and the National Association of Girls' Clubs, 
and other voluntary organizations. 

At the younger end, war conditions and the desire to serve 
found expression in youth service squads which undertook 
numberless services from salvage collection to messenger 
work for the civil defence services. Later, existing pre- 
service training schemes were expanded through cadet 
corps. This was followed by a number of training schemes 
for girls which were co-ordinated through a national 
voluntary committee. 

Other Welfare Services. It would be impossible to 
enumerate even briefly, in the scope of this article, the war- 
time developments in provision for the economic welfare 
of serving men and women and their dependants, for war 
orphans, for the aftercare and training of the disabled and 
for the appointment of almoners in all emergency hospitals 
for after-care work. 

Other tendencies of social welfare in 1941 included 
the growth of regional ization typified by the appointments 
of regional welfare officers of the ministry of health, the 
earlier ones of regional officers of the National Council of 
Social Service and regional administrators of the W.V.S. 
There was, too, the increasing employment of social workers 
by government departments and local authorities. There 
was a growth of co-operation between the state and 
national and local voluntary bodies. This last showed a 
diverse pattern. It might include a ministry of supply 
hostel built and equipped by the ministry and staffed and 
run by voluntary bodies, a communal feeding scheme organ- 
ized by voluntary institutions on behalf of the ministry of 
food, and the whole range of services covered by countless 
women's organizations and the W.V.S. (M. L. H.) 

WAR FINANCE. The most outstanding fact in war 
finance in the third year of war was the large increase in 
national expenditures. This may be illustrated from the 
budgets of the countries concerned, or by expressing the 
expenditures as percentages of the net national income ; 
when national expenditure is expressed as a percentage of 
the national income, it must be borne in mind that part of 
the expenditure is from capital or dissaving. In Great 
Britain, the percentage of expenditure (national and local) 
to national income in 1941-42 was about 67 per cent as 
compared with 59 per cent in 1940-41, and 31 per cent in 
i93 8 -39- Of this total expenditure, the share of war or 



WAR FINANCE 




Kfystonf] 

LONDON'S WAR WEAPONS WEEK IN MAY 1941. A MESSERSCHMITT 
lOQ ON SHOW IN TRAFALGAR SQUARE 

defence was 51 per cent, 42 per cent, and 9 per cent, respec- 
tively. In Germany, the figures were much higher ; it is not 
possible to calculate the percentages because expenditure 
figures were not available, but a statement was issued during 
the year for propaganda purposes to the effect that public 
expenditure, including municipal expenditure, in 1938 was 
42 per cent, in 1939 53 per cent, and in 1940 70 per cent. In 
1941, on this basis, the expenditure would be well over the 
1940 figure. Expenditure, it may be noted, was increasing 
in the Reich at a much faster rate than revenue. In the 
United States, government expenditure (national, state and 
local) was 29 per cent in 1938-39, 28 per cent in 1940-41, 
and 46 per cent in 1941-42, and of this 2 per cent, 7 per 
cent, and 27 per cent, respectively was defence or war 
expenditure. These figures are striking because they show 
that as war proceeds, the national economy of the nations 
concerned is turned over, at the expense of the people, more 
and more, to the production of munitions. In peace time, 
governments are attempting to increase the standard of 
living of all. In war, the contrary is aimed at. The 
restriction of consumption is not the unfortunate by-product 
of war finance ; it is and must be the deliberate object of 
war finance. The expansion of the resources devoted to 
war is the same thing as the compression to the minimum 
of those resources retained for the consumption of the 
people. This transfer of resources was being achieved 
mainly by four methods : (i) taxation, (2) borrowing or the 
utilization of savings, (3) a combination of taxation and 
borrowing, and (4) inflation. Rationing may also be said 
to be a method by which consumption is reduced, making 
available for the use of the government what would other- 
wise have been devoted to consumption. In Germany, for 
example, with the exception of potatoes, amusements and 
books, practically everything was rationed. The result was 
that with full employment and considerable over-time and 
no means of spending, savings were swept into government 
coffers. The limitation of consumption is also possible by 
directly limiting the amount of goods produced for civilian 
use. 

By inflation is meant an increase in the general price 
level as a result of an increase in the public's spending 
power, due to increased government expenditures, while 
goods available for purchase arc not correspondingly 
increased in amount. While taxation and loans take 
money out of the pockets of the people before they can spend 



it, inflation permits them to spend as much as before but 
ensures they get much less for their money. Prices under 
inflation, whether money is printed by the government or 
borrowed from the central bank or other banks, and paid 
out by the government for wages or materials, rise as a 
result of the competition between the government and the 
general public for the purchase of goods and services 
required for the conduct of the war. The government with 
its unlimited resources ultimately outbids the consumer. 
Jt is obvious how unsatisfactory inflation is compared with 
taxation, by which every pound which the government 
spends is withdrawn from the public's income according to an 
agreed plan and not surreptitiously by the inflation of prices. 

The belligerent countries have not all followed the same 
policy as regards the combination of taxation and borrow- 
ing. In Great Britain, the policy has been to tax to the 
utmost and to meet the remainder from loans. Some of this 
taxation was deliberately levied to stop consumption of 
goods in order to set free income for government purposes. 
Up to the beginning of 1942 this had not been successful ; 
the consumption of both alcohol and tobacco much exceeded 
the estimates in the 1941-42 budget, and the rate of release 
of sugar had also been increased ; the yield of the purchase 
tax was well above the budgeted figure. 

The large extent of borrowings in the third year of the 
war is distinctive among all the belligerents in some more 
than in others. In the last war, Germany financed her 
effort mainly by loans, in this war she is following the 
example of Great Britain and the United States by using 
taxation and borrowing. Secretary of State Reinhardt has 
announced that the national debt of the Reich had in- 
creased to Km. 90,000 millions by March 1941. This was 
an increase of, roughly, Rm. 40,000 millions during the 
financial year 1940-41. In other words, the Reich had at 
its disposal in 1940-41 the sum of Rm. 76,000 millions from 
revenue, administrative fees, war contributions of local 
authorities, payment for occupation costs, and borrowed 
capital, which at the rate of Rm. 12 to the pound, works 
out at 6,300 millions. At the beginning of 1942 the 
Reich was spending much more than this figure. In Great 
Britain, an intensive drive for large and small savings was 
producing astounding results. In the second year of the 
war, ending November 1941, 633,262, 731 were in the form 
of national small savings, as compared with .484,043,000 
in the first year. Savings, both large and small, form the 
loan money which must increase with the intensive effort of 
the national savings campaign. During the financial year 
1940-41, the national debt increased from 8,411,221,301 
to 10,872,241,552 an increase of 2,461,020,651. 

The real object of war economics is to mobilize men and 
materials with the utmost efficiency and with the least 
possible c'elay to win the war. Finance in war time ought 
not to be the controlling factor. The main functions of 
money in war economics are positive and negative ; the 
positive function is to see that the burden is distributed 
fairly, the negative function is that nothing should be 
decided on purely financial grounds. This does not mean 
that the control of expenditure should be neglected, and 
that audit is superfluous. Far from it. Control and audit 
sec that the money is spent efficiently and in the way in- 
tended. When we say that finance in war time should not 
be the controlling factor, all we mean is that it should not 
be allowed to impede the solution of the physical problem. 
And it must be admitted that from this viewpoint the 
British war time finance system is far from perfect. For 
financial considerations to hold up the right solution of 



WAR FINANCE 



military problems is bad, but for financial considerations to 
dictate a wrong solution is much worse. Finance cannot 
contribute much to the actual winning of the war, but it 
can see that the burden is spread with equity and that 
the war is won with the minimum of disturbance to 
society. 

The choice between paying for the war from taxation or 
from loans, or from both, is sometimes misunderstood. 
How often we hear it said that by borrowing instead of 
taxing, we are placing the burden on posterity ! This, 
however, is not true. It is clear that by borrowing rather 
than by taxing, the government relieves those actually 
living and working today from paying taxes only to the 
extent that it takes from them by way of loans money 
which belongs to them, thus equally depriving them of 
current spending power. All that borrowing, in preference 
to taxation, does is to place on future generations a technical 
problem, that of taking money from the pocket of the tax- 
payer and putting it in the pocket of the debt-holder. 
Both are members of the same society and both are often the 
same person. This does not impose a real burden on the 
community as a whole, just as the process of raising a loan 
does not relieve a community of its real burden, which is a 
current effort and cannot be put, save with three excep- 
tions, on the past or the future. If a community borrows 
from abroad, it obtains additional resources in the form of 
aeroplanes and other munitions of war. It has to make a 
future deduction from its resources when it pays interest or 
repays capital. When drawing on investments, it also 
increases its present resources but at the expense of having 
less in the future. In the present war, Great Britain was 
drawing on her investments in the United States to pay for 
goods imported. In August 1939, her gold and dollar 
resources were $4,483 millions, but on September i, 194** 
this had fallen to $697 millions. At home, the most im- 
portant factor in domestic dis-investment was the non- 
replacement of trading stocks which were falling to rock- 
bottom levels. 

The third exception, namely, the failure to keep in good 
repair capital in the form of machinery, etc., leaves for the 
future the making good of the deficiencies arising from not 
allowing for depreciation. The rule, however, in spite of 
these exceptions, is that the real burden of the war is on 
bhose who are compelled to do without the goods and 
services which they would have enjoyed had not these been 
made over to the production of munitions. Sacrifice, in 
short, is borne by those living at the present time, who must 
provide the men and materials needed to prosecute the war 
n 1942. 

Great Britain. The fourth war budget was presented to 
the House of Commons on April 7, 1941* an d was the 
nearest approach since the war to what a war budget should 
t>e. It added several million to the number of income tax 
payers, raised the rate of direct taxation on the highest 
ncomes to 195. 6d. in the , and above everything else 
limed at the prevention of inflation. The real menace in 
,var finance, as already shown, is the gap between revenue 
including the borrowing of real savings and other assets) 
it home, and expenditure at home. The chancellor of the 
ixchequer indicated that it would be misleading to take 
iccount of expenditure abroad, especially since the Lend- 
>ase Act had been passed in the United States. In the 
irst 18 months of war, government expenditure was 
^4,650,000,000, while taxation was 2,000,000,000, overseas 
esources 1,000,000,000, and the balance of 1,650,000,000 
vas made up of substantial current receipts of certain extra- 




THE NATIONAL SAVINGS CAMPAIGN t ONE TOWN'S INDICATOR 

SHOWING ITS TOTAL, IN THE FORM OF A SHIPMAST FLYING NELSON'S 

FAMOUS SIGNAL 

budgetary funds, mainly the unemployment fund and funds 
of the government insurance schemes. In addition, the 
government had the advantage of large sums available for 
investment since the normal sums to make good deprecia- 
tion, renewals of buildings and plant and repairs, were 
greater than was required. Most important of all were the 
new savings obtained by the national savings movement and 
other genuine savings seeking investment in government 
funds. The chancellor framed a budget estimate for 
expenditure of only 4,207,000,000 for 1941-42, although 
he indicated that the total war effort represented expendi- 
ture far beyond 5,000,000,000. He summarized the 
financial policy of the government as control of the torrent 
of excess purchasing power fed by the springs of war time 
government expenditure. Revenue he estimated at over 
1,786,000,000. The corresponding figures for 1940-41 
wereexpenditurc 3, 884,000,000 and revenue 1,409,000,000. 
The figures of expenditure in these two years are not 
strictly comparable, as those for 1941-42 exclude the values 
of supplies received under the Lend-Lease Act and pay- 
ments made to the United States, for existing orders at 
the time of the presentation of the budget. 

It is on the revenue side that the budget is of special 
interest. The whole of the additional money required by 
taxation was to come from income tax, 150,000,000 in 
1941-42 and 250,000,000 in a full year. The chancellor 
assumed an increase of between 200 and 300 millions in 
personal savings, and this, added to the new taxation, would 
bridge the prospective gap of 500 millions. This gap was 
obtained as follows : purely domestic expenditure (which is 
vital for the handling of the problem of inflation) he gave 
as 3,700,000,000. Revenue on the 1940-41 basis was 
estimated at 1,636,000,000 and the other offsets a* 
1,522,000,000, a total of 3,i5 8 * 000 > 000 or a S a P of 



28 



WAR FINANCE 



542,000,000. Income tax was increased by is. 6d. t making 
the standard rate 105. in the (6s. bd. on the first 165 of 
taxable income). Personal allowances were reduced for 
married persons from 170 to 140, and for others from 
100 to 80. The exemption limit was reduced from 
120 to 110. The earned income allowance was reduced 
from one-sixth (maximum allowance 250) to one-tenth 
(maximum 150). The extra tax which anyone paid 
because of the reduction of personal allowances and of 
earned income was to be credited to him after the war in 
the Post Office Savings Bank, with a maximum allowance 
of 65. The changes in the income tax increased con- 
siderably the burden of direct taxation on middle 
incomes. The amount of income tax, for example, reached 
the effective rate of 10 per cent on an earned income as 
low as 140 for a single person, 250 for a married couple 
and 400 for a married couple with two children. It 
reached 20 per cent at just over 250, at 400 and at 600 
for these cases. There would be more than 3,000,000 income 
tax payers in 1942 who have never paid income tax before. 

The most important single proposal in the budget was 
the stabilization by subsidy, where necessary, of the pricet 
of all the essential goods entering into the cost of living and 
also the cost of essential services such as coal, gas and 
electricity. It was a bold step to assume a liability of which 
the amount could not be estimated with even approximate 
accuracy. It was, however, essential if wages were to be 
stabilized. The aim was to prevent any further rise of the 
cost of living index number above the then range 25 to 30 
per cent above the pre-war level. During 1941-42, food 
subsidies amounted to about 120 millions. The main 
groups of subsidized foods were cereals, including flour, 
bread, oatmeal, milk, tea, eggs and potatoes. The price of 
food was affected by the subsidies of about 5 millions on 
the transport of coal and by whatever emerged from the 
government's agreement with the railway companies. The 
contribution which the exchequer was making in keeping 
the cost of living stabilized ensured greater benefits, especi- 
ally to the poorest section of the workers, than could be 
obtained by any other measure. It was another proof of 
the determination of the government to wage battle against 
inflation. 

The budget returns of the nine months of the financial 
year, i.e., to December 31, 1941, show that in spite of the 
desire of the chancellor of the exchequer to put the national 
economy into a strait-jacket he was not altogether success- 
ful. Expenditure on consumption goods was still far too 
general and widespread. The consumption of alcohol and 
tobacco was high and it is known that the yield of the 
purchase tax had much exceeded expectation. The 
budgeted increase for the whole year under customs and 
excise was 48 millions, but for the nine months an increase 
of 144 millions had already been realized. During the last 
six months of 1941 a study of the growth of bank deposits 
and the circulation of notes shows that money . incomes 
increased sharply. More taxation to curb spending would 
appear to be called for either in the form of a higher income 
tax, an excess income tax over, say, the pre-war year or the 
pre-rearmament year (1937-38) or heavier consumption 
taxation on goods and services. A greater campaign to 
obtain savings for war purposes is also necessary. So far 
inflation had been moderate, not more than 20 per cent after 
two years of war. 1 Consumption goods were scarce as 
there was not enough man-power to make more, and there 

1 Cf. "Types of War Inflation*' A. C. Pigon, Economic Journal, 
December 1941. 



were not enough ships to bring them to the country. As 
Mr. Keynes stated in December, the total amount which 
could be bought in the shops and spent on rent, light, fuel, 
travelling, entertainment and all else was a fixed amount, 
about 12 millions a day at the prices then ruling. Personal 
wages and other incomes before income tax was paid were 
of the order of 16 millions a day. The excess of 4 millions 
a day must not be spent. Personal savings were 2 millions 
a day and it covered only half the gap. The remainder of 
the balance, 2 millions a day, still remained to be drawn 
off by income tax, and by more intensive saving. Even if 
this were not done the public could buy no more goods than 
they were buying then. 

The future burden of the national debt is a question that 
has arisen from time to time since the outbreak of war. 1 
On March 31, 1941, the total deadweight debt was 
11,513,000,000, the highest in the history of the country. 
From 1919 until 1938 the total stood at the level of 
7,000,000,000, The increase of 2, 467,000 ;ooo during the 
fiscal year 1940-41 was mainly due to a large increase in 
treasury bills outstanding (2,212,000,000) and to the issue of 
loans for the war. On the supposition that prices are kept 
down during the war and are kept up after the war, and 
that the average rates of interest do not exceed those of the 
years 1932-38, the burden will not be great. If the war 
lasts as long as the last war the net increase in the principal 
of the national debt is not likely to be more than 10,000 
millions. The average rate now being paid is 2 per cent 
and at this rate the annual cost will be 200 millions a year. 
This is the gross figure and should be reduced by the 
amount of tax levied on the interest payments. The net 
burden is estimated at less than 150 millions. If the post- 
war price level is that of 1936, then an increase of one-sixth 
in the rates of taxation, i.e., an income tax of 55. 6d. in the 
only will be required. An increase of 20 to 25 per cent 
above the 1936 price level would solve the problem. 

Canada* The year 1941-42 was an annus mirabilis for 
Canada. Canada had raised forces greater in number than 
those raised by the summer of 1916 ; in addition, there had 
been enormous industrial expansion which made the 
production of munitions beyond comparison with those of 
25 years ago. Effective machinery had been set up for 
preventing unnecessary expenditure abroad, for restricting 
the supply of luxuries, for collecting direct taxes from at 
least one -fifth of the whole population. Prices, wages, and 
rents were controlled in this year of pronounced progress. 
Domestic prices were not allowed to exceed the maxima 
charged between September 15 and October u, 1941. 
Basic wage rates had been stabilized in relation to the 
general price level throughout industry, with certain 
exceptions, by a cost of living bonus subject to periodic 
revision. These measures put a brake on the possibility of 
inflation. It may, in the future, be necessary to restrict 
production and the sale of goods unessential to the war 
effort unless the government can obtain borrowings in 
sufficient amount from actual savings. Canadians may, 
with justification, take pride in what has been accom- 
plished. The expenditures of the Dominion government, 
including the assistance given to the United Kingdom, but 
excluding all provincial and municipal expenditures, 
would in 1941-42 amount to nearly 50 per cent of the 
national income. Before the war, it was estimated that 
government federal, provincial and municipal spent 25 
per cent to 30 per cent. 

1 Cf. "The Future Debt Burden" -The Economist, August 16 and 

23, 



WAR FINANCE 



29 



Government expenditure was estimated at more than 
2,800,000,000 ; of which about $1,450,000,000 was the 
stimated direct war expenditure ; $470,000,000 was 
>rovided for non-war expenditure, and $900,000,000 for the 
stimated cost of munitions for Great Britain. Tax 
evenue was expected to yield $1,400,000,000, so that 
ipproximately 75 per cent of expenditures would be met 
rom current revenue, leaving the sum of $1,250,000,000 to 
>e found by borrowings. 

The federal budget provided for a considerable increase 
n taxation. Since the outbreak of war, the taxes on 
;obacco, malt, carbonic acid (for soft drinks), cosmetics, 
ugar, motor cars and similar commodities, have been raised, 
tnd a war exchange tax of 10 per cent placed on imports. 
The personal income tax has been raised three times, so that 
t is now quite severe on the intermediate incomes ($2,000 
o $10,000). A national defence tax of 5 per cent has been 
mposed on single people with incomes between $660 and 
1,200, and of 7 per cent on incomes over $1,200 ; on 
narried persons with incomes of $ 1,200 the rate is 5 per cent. 
The corporate income tax was raised to 18 per cent and an 
excess profits tax imposed, so that 75 per cent of excess 
profits over the basic years is taken. The Dominion has 
tlso invaded the succession duty field with a moderate levy 
iuperimposed on the existing provincial duties. New taxes 
lave been placed on amusements, and a duty of 3 cents per 
jallon on petrol or gasoline, both of which were previously 
mwincial fields. The burden of the personal income tax is 
onsiderably heavier on the middle classes than hitherto. 
Agricultural income, however, has been practically un- 
ouched in the war taxation ; although agricultural incomes 
lave not much increased the agriculturists are relatively 
>etter off than before 1939. Considerable re-distribution 
>f income is taking place, a re-distribution which will have 
:onsiderable social effects. 

The bulk of the increase in the national income has gone 
o re-employed persons and to young persons employed for 
he first time, whose taxable capacity is not high. Employ- 
nent has reached a record level. Half of the workers 
imployed by the Canadian manufacturing industries ,are 
lirectly engaged in munition work and war contracts 
xceed $2,500,000,000. In shipyards, for example, 20,000 
workers are engaged, as compared with only 1,500 men at 
he outbreak of war. Aircraft factory floor space has 
ncreased seven times, and workers from 2,300 to 32,000. 
Vith full employment approaching, it may be necessary for 
he government to curtail civilian production. Another 
actor which has enabled Canada to maintain her civilian 
:onsumption, apart from unemployed resources, is the 
upplies from the United States, which has been a deep 
eservoir. The war, it may be noted, has aggravated the 
endency for Canada to pile up debit balances with the 
Jnited States and a credit balance with Great Britain. 
The shortage of dollar exchange has been met in three ways : 
i) the import of American goods and services has been 
educed by taxation, by import duties and embargoes, and 
>y the ban on free travel in the United States; (2) the 
imerican component in goods purchased for Great Britain 
las been supplied to Canada on lend-lease terms, and (3) 
he United States has also been purchasing from Canada 
nunitions which the latter is able to produce in large 
[uantities. 

A considerable part of the borrowings of Canada are the 
esult of supplies to Great Britain for the winning of the war. 
lie United Kingdom has been in need of Canadian dollars 
s well as American dollars. At first, down to the end of 



1940, the British need for dollars was met by sales of 
British assets in Canada (40 per cent), by Canadian accumu- 
lation of sterling (i.e., short term loans to the British 
government) 20 per cent and the remainder (40 per cent) by 
the shipment of gold. The second phase was the accumula- 
tion of sterling which marked the year 1941. Canada took 
payment in sterling which accumulated in London and was 
invested mainly in treasury bills or other floating debt. 
At the end of January 1942 a third phase began. Sterling 
had accumulated to $700 millions (^160,000,000). It was 
agreed that $295 millions, the proceeds of Canadian securi- 
ties belonging to residents in the United Kingdom, should 
be mobilized and used not in the reduction of debt but to 
pay for further purchases. The $700 millions is to be lent 
the question of the ultimate repayment and the rate of 
interest is to be left for decision after the war. Canada is to 
supply munitions of war, including foodstuffs up to an 
amount of $1,000 millions free, i.e., Canada makes a gift 
of $1,000 millions which is expected to last for a year. 
These are large figures when compared with Canada's total 
revenue. 

The most interesting feature of Canada's war effort, to 
date, is that most of the increase in expenditures has 
been provided by an increased output, and to a less 
extent by drafts on capital, and only to a small extent 
by the reduction of consumption on the part of the 
public. 

South Africa. In no part of the British Commonwealth 
was the financial position more satisfactory than in the 
Union of South Africa. The Union is, as is well-known, the 
chief source of gold production in the British Commonwealth. 
It is true that the passage of the Lend-Lease Act somewhat 
modified the urgency attached to the demand for gold. 
Nevertheless, the Union's gold production was still a most 
important source of purchasing power. It is not possible 
to say what happens to the gold but the most beneficial use 
of it is for providing for exchange. It is interesting to 
note that since the war began there has been an increase of 
70 per cent in the holdings of the reserve bank. Like the 
other Dominions, South Africa had found it necessary to 
check inflation by means of price control and import restric- 
tions, but the problem had been less strenuously tackled 
than in Canada and Australia. Rationing had been 
introduced for some goods, such as petrol, but the control 
of wages had been imposed only in a few industries such as 
the making of footwear, and the building industry. The 
cost of living had risen by only 9 or 10 per cent in spite of a 
rise of nearly 40 per cent in import prices. The inflationary 
danger was that war expenditure was being financed by 
surplus gold rather than by genuine savings. It is desirable 
that surplus funds should be mopped up by government 
loans and utilized for the repatriation of external debt, 
which has been taking place on a considerable scale over the 
last two years. General activity prevailed not only in 
the monetary sphere but in commerce and industry. 
The engineering workshops of the mines and railways have 
been turned into arsenals. The Iron and Steel Corporation, 
known as " Iscor," and other engineering firms, textile, 
clothing, boot and furniture factories, not to mention the 
canning industry, have been harnessed to war production 
and over 600 factories are engaged on the production of 
war supplies. Overtime was being regularly worked, and 
earnings showed a considerable increase. Mines have been 
the mainstay of the Union's economic position and during 
the year 1941 a new high record of production was reached, 
namely, 14,386,361 oz. of gold valued at ^120,845,114, 



WAR FINANCE 



compared with 14,037,741 oz, of gold valued at 
117,917,024 in 1940. Owing to the increase in working 
costs and severe taxation, the industry showed a decline in 
actual profits. 

In the budget for the year ending March 31, 1943, intro- 
duced in February 1942, the government proposed to spend 
/i 39, 855,000, of which 95,500,000 would be from current 
income. Mr. Hofmeyr budgeted for a deficit for 1942-43 
of 210,577. 80,000,000 would be spent on defente in 
1942-43, as compared with 72,000,000 in 1941-42. 
40,000,000 would be provided from revenue and the other 
half from borrowing. The normal gold mines tax was to 
be unchanged, but the gold mines special contributions tax 
was to be raised to 20 per cent, which would yield an 
additional amount of 1,540,000. 

The excess profits tax would remain at 135. 4f/. in the , 
but a new tax would be instituted to be called the trade 
profits special levy. This would be levied on the difference 
between (a) the amount of assessed profits on which the 
excess profits duty was payable by the taxpayer, having 
regard to the pre-war standard based on profits, and (b) the 
amount on which such duty would be payable by the tax- 
payer with a like income but with the minimum pre-war 
standard. This levy was estimated to produce 4,000,000. 
The finance minister also announced variations in the 
normal and supertax on individuals, including a compulsory 
saving scheme, and a surcharge of 10 per cent on all income 
tax payments by individuals, which was estimated to yield 
1,550,000. As a war-time measure he announced the 
further institution of a land sales profit tax, which was 
estimated to produce 450,000. 

Australia* The talc of war finance in the financial year 
which ends on June 30, 1942, can be briefly told. During 
the early part of the year there was some hesitation to 
admit the full logic of the economic necessities of war. 
Gradually, however, as time went on, it was realized that 
surplus purchasing power must be skimmed off and that the 
economy of the nation must be put into a strait- jacket. 
This can best be illustrated by referring to the major 
financial facts of the year. On June 27, 1941, the Loan 
Council met at Canberra to discuss the Commonwealth 
government's proposals. It was clear that the Australian 
war effort would involve an increase in the war expenditure 
of the Commonwealth from A. 80,000,000 to A. 250,000,000 
in the coming financial year. The federal treasurer, Mr. 
Fadden, told the Council that the Commonwealth govern- 
ment foresaw a gap of A. 60,000,000, and that it must make 
very heavy demands on the taxpayer, and that its demands 
must take precedence over those of the States. He stated 
that the States were requested to cease levying income tax 
for the duration of the war, and instead accept a grant 
from the federal treasury. The difficulty arose because 
the amounts levied in State income tax are in some cases 
very high. The taxpayer in Queensland, for example, had 
to pay to the State treasurer more than twice as much as a 
taxpayer earning the same income in Victoria. The con- 
troversy resulted in a decision against the proposal, All the 
State premiers except the premier of South Australia 
opposed the proposal. When the budget for 1941-42 was 
introduced on September 25, 1941, Mr. Curtin, leader of the 
Opposition, indicated that there was fundamental diver- 
gence of opinion between Mr. Fadden 's Coalition govern- 
ment (the United Australian Party and the Country 
Party) and the Labour Party. The Labour Party objected 
to the proposed compulsory loan on the grounds that it 
would dry up the source of war savings certificates. Mr. \ 



Curtin made a frontal attack on the whole plan to extend 
direct taxation to the smaller incomes (down to A.i5o) and 
he denounced as ungenerous the government's treatment of 
Service men and their dependents. On the resignation of 
Mr. Fadden's government, Mr. Curtin 's budget was 
introduced in October ; its real feature was the scaling down 
of the amount provided by new taxes, and an increase in 
the amount to be covered by new borrowings. Only 
A. 2 2, 000,000 was to be found from new taxes against 
A. 32,000,000 under the Fadden budget ; A. 138,000,000 
was to be borrowed in place of A. 12 2,000,000. The 
Australian fighting man was given a substantial increase in 
his pay, and especially in the form of an allowance for his 
dependents. There were increases in old age and service 
pensions. Instead of bringing in those with incomes under 
A.2oo, the new budget took more from those whose 
incomes exceed A. 1,500, at the same time restricting the 
exemptions and allowances at all levels. The sliding scale 
so operates that all incomes over A.2,5oo (or A.2,ooo in 
the case of revenue from property) pay i6s. Sd. in the . 
The new government implemented certain recommenda- 
tions made by the Royal Commission on the monetary 
and banking system of the Commonwealth, " to bring the 
operation of the trade banks under effective control/ 1 pub- 
lishing regulations for the control of banking operations 
under the National Security Act in November 1941. The 
new government, like its predecessor, set its face against 
inflation through banking channels. As a result of the 
policy of the Commonwealth bank, advances were limited 
to the essential needs of war production. 

In December 1941, after the extension of the war to 
the Pacific, more stringent methods were adopted. A 
special war-time tax on individual incomes was passed by 
the federal parliament on Dec. 17, and came into force 
immediately. It tapped a new income field embracing 
hundreds of thousands of wage-earners. The tax was to be 
on the actual income less the amount assessed on that 
income for ordinary federal income tax. It commences at 
6d. in the on incomes of 156 per annum, rising by one 
quarter of a penny in the for every 6 until it reaches is. 
in the on incomes of 300, when it is stabilized at that 
rate. A rebate of tax of is. per week for a wife and for 
each child is allowed. Military pay under 200 per annum 
is exempt from this tax and dependents' allowances are 
exempt from both the new tax as well as the federal income 
tax. A supertax of is. in the was imposed on company 
profits, making the company tax 4$. instead of 3$. in the . 
These increases were estimated to bring in in a full year 
27 millions. 

In February 1942, Mr. Curtin announced that the war 
cabinet had decided to carry out far-reaching measures 
designed to accelerate the marshalling of the national 
resources behind the war effort. Like Canada, Australia 
then decided to adopt the policy of price and wage stabiliza- 
tion. It was a comprehensive plan to keep prices of all 
goods, services and wages at the existing levels. Profits 
were to be pegged at a maximum of 4 per cent ; interest 
rates .were to be controlled and the sale or investment of 
capital except under government licence or for obvious war 
purposes was prohibited. Nothing was said about ration- 
ing, which would appear to be a necessary complement to 
the pegging of prices and wages ; in August 1941, for 
example, the value of retail sales in Melbourne had in- 
creased by 45 per cent, and in Sydney by 35 per cent, as 
compared with the value of sales at the beginning of the 
war, and these rises were much greater than could be 



WAR FINANCE 



attributed to any upward movement of prices. The 
government also decided to require employers to obtain 
labour through the labour bureaux, and the dismissal of 
employees in federal industries was prohibited, as was any 
change of occupation or employer without federal approval. 
Persons engaged in industry were forbidden to absent 
themselves from work for reasons other than sickness or 
recreational leave, and those illegally absent were to be 
subject to drastic penalties. The government may take 
power to put any area under military control in an emer- 
gency, and this includes acute industrial trouble. Specula- 
tion in commodities such as forward dealing in foodstuffs 
and other essentials was also prohibited. 

New Zealand. The second war-time budget of Mr. Nash, 
the New Zealand finance minister, showed a large increase 
in war expenditure. The estimated war expenditure was 
NZ 69,700,000, which is ^NZ 42,500,000 more than was 
spent in the previous year 1940-41. It was expected that 
NZ 31,000,000 of this would be spent overseas and would 
be met from advances made by the British government, the 
remainder being raised and spent in New Zealand. Although 
/NZ 31,000,000 was to be financed as a loan by the United 
Kingdom, New Zealand proposed to pay the advance to 
the full extent that sterling funds permit. Of the 
/NZ 40,000,000 to be spent in New Zealand, taxation was 
to provide NZ 19,346,000, loans ^NZ 13,000,000 and cash 
balances and transfers from the civil budget ^NZ 7,654,000. 
In the civil budget revenue was estimated at ^NZ 39,296,000, 
and expenditure, excluding transfers of war funds, at 
NZ 37,712,000. On both sides of the civil budget there 
was a fall of NZ 1,000,000 below the corresponding figures 
of the previous year. No new taxes were imposed as the 
government recognized the limit to the possibilities of 
increased taxation and the necessity of avoiding killing the 
goose that lays the golden egg. The only new expenditure 
proposed was for additional social security benefits for 
families with low incomes, invalids, and war veterans. 
This expenditure for social security benefits was estimated 
at ^NZ 14,673,000. 

Another interesting feature of the budget was .the 
amendment of the system of taxing the trading banks in 
the Dominion, so as to make them liable for social and 
national security and income taxation only on the actual 
income earned in New Zealand. For more than 40 years 
New Zealand bankers have pressed for a change in the 
method of tax assessment, and with a rising rate of taxa- 
tion and falling earning power, the incidence of banking 
taxation under this system had become almost crippling. 
As in Australia, public works programmes were reduced, 
but provision for essential national development amounted 
to /NZ 20,615,000 including NZ 12,950,000 from loans. 
The government social expenditure prior to the war has 
had much the same effect as war expenditure. The recent 
rapid rise, however, in the latter has diminished the rate of 
advance in the former. National income, it may be added, 
has increased as a result of the war, the main beneficiaries 
being the wage earning classes. 

India* During the year India made vast strides in the 
production of war materials, supplying the Middle East as 
well as the Far East with as many as 40,000 different kinds 
of munitions. The effect of the war on Indian finance has 
been very great but it does not show the entire war effort of 
the Indian empire. Expenditure on defence in the year 
1942-43 will be Rs.i33 crores, 1 three times more than similar 

1 Rs. i crore as Rs. 10,000,000 - 750,000. Rs. i lakh *> Rs. 
100,000 - 7i5<>o. 



expenditure before the war. The Indian defence estimates 
covered only the cost of local defence. The amount of 
expenditure, for example, that the government of India will 
spend on defence services 'and supplies that they will 
recover from the British government under the financial 
settlement between the two countries will exceed Rs. 400 
crores (^300,000,000) in 1942-43. The total budget 
expenditure is estimated at Rs. 187 crores 7 lakhs. Revenue 
at existing levels of taxation when the budget was presented 
on February 28, is estimated at Rs. 140 crores. There is 
thus a deficit of over Rs. 47 crores. To meet this Rs. 12 
crores will be raised by new taxation and Rs. 35 crores by 
borrowing. 

In direct taxation it is proposed to (i) make incomes 
between Rs. 1,000 and Rs. 2,000 liable to taxation, but the 
liability may be discharged if the person assessed deposits 
one and a quarter 'times the amount of tax in defence 
savings, which will be repayable with interest at 2 per cent 
one year after the war ; (2) increase the present surcharge of 
income on a graduated scale ; (3) retain the excess profits 
tax at the existing rate of 66| per cent but the government 
will contribute up to one-tenth of the tax paid to a reserve 
for re-equipment of industry after the war, provided the 
assessed person doubles the amount. The assessee's 
deposit will be repayable within twelve months after the 
end of the war and will earn 2 per cent simple interest. In 
indirect taxation there will be an emergency surcharge of 
one-fifth on all customs import duties except petrol, the tax 
on which is increased from 12 to 15 annas a gallon, raw 
cotton, on which the duty is doubled, and specified imports 
from Burma which are excluded. There is no change in 
the duty on salt but the excise duty on kerosene has been 
raised to the level of the increased import duty. Minor 
increases have been made in post and telegraph rates. 

The most interesting point in the budget is perhaps the 
sterling debt repatriation which has taken place, consequent 
on the piling up of sterling balances in London. The total 
sterling debt has been reduced by ^101,600,000 and the 
annual interest payments in sterling by more than 
^4,000,000. In 1942-43 further repatriation of overseas 
debt will take place. Another feature of considerable 
interest to the Provinces is the fact that Rs. 8 crores 37 
lakhs will be their share of the income tax, and as Sir Jeremy 
Raisman, the finance member, said : " This is considerably 
more than the total sum which, at the time of the Niemeyer 
Award, the Provinces were expected to receive at the end 
of the ten-year devolution period or than ever appeared to 
be possible before the outbreak of war." 

Germany. In 1941-42 revenue was estimated at 
Rrn. 32,000 millions against Rm. 27,200 millions in 1940-41, 
an increase of nearly 18 per cent. To this should be added 
the war contributions of the communes plus the charges 
levied on the occupied countries which should bring in some 
Rm. 13,000 millions a total revenue of Rm. 45,000 millions. 
If borrowing continued at the same rate, the total available 
for public expenditure should be of the order of Rm. 90,000 
millions. In short, revenue, borrowing and foreign tribute 
will exceed four-fifths of the gross national income of 
Greater Germany, a very high proportion. It was, however, 
necessary to " steer " purchasing power by taxation and by 
systematic saving more than ever before. The pressure of 
excess purchasing power in 1941-42 made an increase in 
taxation necessary despite the fact that the revenue from 
taxes was already buoyant. The surcharge on cigarettes, 
cigars and tobacco was raised from 20 per cent to 50 per cent 
of the retail price while the war duty on brandy was 



WAR FINANCE 



increased by Rm. i per litre and that on champagne by 
Rm. 1.50. There was no increase on the price of beer. 
Reinhardt, state secretary of the Reich finance ministry and 
the chief apologist of Nazi financial policy, told the press 
that the aim was to reduce consumption and to prevent 
inflation. The war surcharges on income tax levied after 
the outbreak of war had produced additional revenue but 
had differentiated against certain sections of the population. 
Income tax, the corporation tax and the turnover tax 
accounts for 70 per cent of the revenue. The yield from 
the Profit Stop tax proved to be less than i per cent of the 
total. The taxation of wages (which is important in any 
war tax structure) carries with it in the Reich (i) a 
minimum subsistence of 54 marks a month; (2) a free 
exemption of 52 marks a month of a married woman's 
wage (to encourage married women to go out to work) ; (3) 
an exemption for special overtime pay, i.e., not all overtime 
but only that beyond the maximum working hours fixed by 
the Trustees of Labour wherever such excess is authorized 
by the Trustees ; and (4) an exemption of all savings 
including bonuses saved under the " Iron Savings Scheme." 
The wage earner may deduct a fixed amount up to Rm. 6 a 
week before paying the wage tax and this is credited to a 
special savings account, to be withdrawn twelve months 
after the war. The eight regular deductions (wages tax, war 
surcharge, civic tax, defence tax on men not conscripted, the 
three contributions for social insurance and the contributions 
to the Labour Front and Winter Help) were simplified by 
the amalgamation of the wages tax and the surcharge and 
by the suspension of the defence tax, " Iron Savings " 
were introduced because not until this year was the danger 
of inflation considered likely owing to the gap between the 
large amounts of unspent or unspcndable money on the one 
hand and the decreasing supply of consumption goods on 
the other. 



Next as to borrowing. From April 1933 to March 1941 
Reich revenue was Rm. 119,200 millions and public debt 
Rm. 90,000. In 1941-42 there was a large increase in 
borrowing which indicates a further fall in civilian produc- 
tion and consumption in a national economy now in a 
strait-jacket. The limit of taxation is said to have been 
reached since the present level restrains higher production 
and efficiency. The problem of war finance in the Reich 
to-day is to place at the disposal of the Reich the additional 
purchasing power. 

The occupied countries pay to the Reich over a fifth of 
their total national incomes, of which no part or at least a 
very small part is returned in the form of goods and services. 
Confiscation of state and private property in various forms 
amounts to a large sum. The effect of removing great 
stocks of goods against " promises to pay " is seen in the 
balance sheets of the central banks. Thus from April 1941 
Germany financed her debts in the Netherlands through the 
Bank of the Netherlands and as a result this German indebt- 
edness was in March 1942 the chief asset of the bank. As a 
corollary to this inflation of the bank's assets the note issue 
had greatly risen. German financial necessities were also 
being financed with the liquid balances left with the Dutch 
private banks owing to the decrease in stocks and the 
impossibility of investing these balances in industrial con- 
cerns. Exchange rates were manipulated by the over- 
valuation of the mark, which means that imports from the 
occupied countries were cheaper and exports to them 
earned a greater purchasing power over their products. 
Germany was buying from the occupied countries more than 
they would be normally prepared to sell and the price paid 
was from 15 to 40 per cent below that which would rule 
in a free market. Between one sixth and one quarter 
of the present war effort by Germany is probably the result 
of her exploitation of the countries overrun by her. 

(G. F. S.) 




1942 

BRITANNICA 

BOOK OF 

THE YEAR 



A Record of the March of Events of 1941 



1942 

BBITANNICA 

BOOK OF 

THE YEAR 



Prepared Under the Editorial Direction of 

Walter Yust, Editor of 
; Encyclopaedia Britannica 



^PUBLISHED BY 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, INC., CHICAGO 
ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA OF CANADA, LTD., TORONTO 
THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY, LTD., LONDON 



COPYRIGHT 

IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, I 

BY 
ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, INC 



COPYRIGHT 

IN ALL COUNTRIES SUBSCRIBING 
TO THE BERNE CONVENTION 

BY 
THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY, LTD 



The editor of the BRITANNICA BOOK OF THE YEAR acknowledges with gratitude the 
privilege of using 200 pictures from Life. Acknowledgments of the copyright owner- 
ship of all illustrations may be found on the following three pages. 

THE EDITOR 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



List of Illustrations and Acknowledgment of Copyright 
Introduction ....... 

Editors and Contributors ..... 

Calendar, 1942 ....... 

Calendar of Events, 1941 

Britannica Book of the Year .... 

Index ........ 



v 



Vlll 

ix 
xx 

i 

i? 
737 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

(Acknowledgment of Copyright is to be found in the Parentheses. Asterisks denote Illustrations from Life) 



Air Forces 
Bristol Beaufighter (William Vandivert)* . 32 
Combat planes, U.S. (International) Frontispiece 

Douglas B- 19 (Wide World)* 32 

"Flying wing" (Acme) 32 

Goggles for night-fighting pilots (William Van- 
divert)* 32 

Lockheed Hudson bombers (Rudy Arnold)* . 32 

Parachute troops, U.S. (Acme)* 34 

Air raid shelter, British (Wide World) .... 36 
Air raid shelter, Dutch East Indies (News of the 

Day Newsreel irom International) .... 240 
Allis-Chalmcrs strike, Milwaukee, \\i. (Cour- 
tesy Milwaukee Journal)* 629 

Aluminum collection for U.S. defense (Milwau- 
kee Journal, photo by Edward Farber)* . . 41 
Anti-gaa chamber, Chinese (Carl Mydans)* . . 156 

Aosta, Duke of (Hamilton Wright)* 6 

Archaeology 

"City above the clouds" near Cuzco, Peru 

(Acme) 60 

Palace terrace at Perscpolis, Iran (Courtesy, 
Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, 
and Aerial Survey Expedition, from Erich 
Schmidt, Flights over Ancient Cities of Iran 

[University of Chicago Press})* 62 

"Throne of Solomon, ' fortress in Iran (Cour- 
tesy, Oriental Institute, University of Chi- 
cago, and Aerial Survey Expedition, from 
Erich Schmidt, Flights over Ancient Cities 
of Iran [University of Chicago Press))* . . 61 
Architecture 
Apartment building roof terrace, New York, 

N.Y. (Richard Garrison) 65 

Curtiss- Wright propeller plant, Caldwell, NJ. 
(Courtesy, Architectural Forum, photo by 

Samuel H. Gottscho) 65 

Industrial Tape Corp. plant, New Brunswick, 
NJ. (Courtesy, Industrial Tape Corp., 
New Brunswick, N,J; photo by Robert 

Yarnall Richie) 65 

Klelnhans Music hall, Buffalo, N.Y. (Robert 

M. Damora) 65 

National airport, Washington, D.C. (Inter- 
national) ... 65 

School for Crippled Children. Denver, Colo, 

(Hedrich-Blessing Studio) 65 

Arias, Arnulfo (I.N.P. sound photo)* 11 

Arias, Arnulfo, and President Rafael Calderon 

Guardia of Costa Rica (International) , . 154 
Army, U.S. 

Anti-aircraft crew (Acme) 73 

First troops leaving for Newfoundland (Ron 

Partridge from Black Star)* 477 

Insignia (Courtesy, U.S. War Department) . 220 
Louisiana war games (Ralph Morse)* .... 73 

Ski trooper (Horace Bristol)* 73 

Troops in Alaska (Acme) 37 

Troops training (Acme) 17 



Atom smasher, Notre Dame University (Acme) . 525 

Auchinleck, Sir Claude J. (International)* . . . 7 

Aurora borealis (Press Association, Inc.) .... 80 
Australians welcoming U.S. warship crews (Press 

Association, Inc.)* K2 

Aviation, Civil 

Automatic direction finder (diagram) (Cour- 
tesy, United Air Lines) J H5 

Boeing clipper (J. R. Eyerman)* 84 

Pan- American clipper (Carl Mydans)* ... 86 
"Strato-chamber" (Courtesy, Boeing Aircraft 

Co. [21) 84 

Balloon house (International [21) 336 
Barrage balloon, U.S. (John Phillips)* . . 223 

Batista, Fulgeneio, addressing Cuban soldiers 
(Acme) 207 

Belgian children at soup kitchen (R. Muns and 
courtesy, Commission for Relief in Belgium)* 96 

Bermuda land cleared for U.S. air bases (George 
Strock)* 98 

Bethlehem Steel strike, Bethlehem, Pa. (Wide 
World)* 629 

Bethlehem Steel strike, Lackawanna, N.Y. (Wide 
World)* 677 

Bicycle taxis and chaises, occupied France (In- 
ternational)* 290 

Blackout luminaires, British and U.S. (Courtesy, 
General Electric Co.) 253 

Blackout paint (F. W. Goro)* 505 

Bock, Fedor von (Dever from Black Star)* . . 11 

Bombay, bomb-proof apartments in (Wallace 
Klrkland)* 344 

Boston Evening Transcript suspending publica- 
tion (W. Eugene Smith from Black Star)* . 481 

Boy Scouts in aluminum drive (Milwaukee Jour- 
nal, photo by Elmer J. Staab)* Ill 

Buckingham palace, investiture in (Press Asso- 
ciation, Inc.)* 316 

Budenny, Simeon (Press Association, Inc.)* . . 11 

Camp Blanding, Fla. (Thomas D. McAvoy)*. 127 
Canners' convention, Chicago (Bernard 

Hoffman)* 145 

Carol II (John Phillips)* 3 

Cartoons 

"Afraid to Look it in the Face" 679 

"Another Controversy" 103 

"Delay in the Balloon Ascension" 644 

"Hands Across the Balkans" 128 

"Inferior Decoration" 306 

"It's an 111 Wind That Blows Nobody Some 

Good" 538 

"La Guardia at Work" 484 

"Look Who Says Hess is Crazy" 327 

"New Boarder" 542 

"Optimistic Strong Man" 306 

"Our American Songbirds" 460 

"Rising as One Man" 679 



"Shrinking Violet of Italy" 369 

"Steady Does It!" 681 

"Storm" 134 

"Strange Race Horse" 678 

"Undiplomatic Exit" 105 

"Unexpected Guest" 671 

"War Aim" 330 

"We Understand All That" 124 

Charts 
Agricultural exports and imports, U.S., value 

in terms of farm income 25 

Air-raid casualties compared with traffic cas- 
ualties (Press Association, Inc.) 19 

Aluminum production, world 40 

Chickens and eggs, farm prices of, in U.S., 

World Wars I and II 23 

Coal production, U.S 183 

Coal production, world 184 

Commodity prices, U.S. and world 22 

Cotton and cotton-seed, farm prices of, in U.S., 

World Warn I and II 23 

Cotton production, U.S 201 

Crop production per capita and total exports, 

U.S 25 

Dairy products, farm prices of, in U.S., World 

Wars I and II 23 

Diamond production, world 232 

Exports and imports, U.S 359 

Farm and city wages and farm prices, U.S. . 26 
Farm land, value of, in Iowa, Mississippi and 

Pennsylvania 26 

Farm products, prices of, received by U.S. 

farmers 22 

Farm products, prices of, in U.S., World Wars 

I and II 23 

Farm taxes and prices of farm products, U.S. . 27 
Fruits, farm prices of, in U.S., World Wars I 

and II 25 

Gold production, world 309 

Grains, farm prices of, in U.S., World Wars I 

and II 25 

Industrial production, U.S 674 

Lynchings, U.S 407 

Meat animals, farm prices of, in U.S., World 

Wars I and II 23 

Newspaper advertising linage, U.S 20 

Petroleum production, world 516 

Prices, retail, United Kingdom and U.S. . . 539 
Prices, wholesale, United Kingdom and U.S. . 539 

Silver production, world 605 

Steel production, U.S 365 

Stocks, U.S., 1928-41 624 

Stocks, U.S. sales and price range in 1941 . 624 
Telephones per 100 population, cities .... 648 
Telephones per 100 population, countries . . 647 
Cheese for Britain under lend-lease act (George 

Strock)* 155 

Chiang Kai-shek and Mme. Chiang (Carl 

Mydans)* . 162 



vl 

Chinese coolies working on airfields (Hans Koes- 

ter-Pix)* ............... 170 

Chrysler tank arsenal, Detroit, Mich. (Bernard 

Hoffman)* .............. 407 

Chungking air-raid shelter disaster (Mel Jacoby)* 171 
Churchill, Winston S., and Prcs. Roosevelt at 

"Atlantic Charter" conference (Wide 

World)* ..... ........... 675 

Churchill, Winston S., inspecting house of com- 

mons after bombing (Press Association, 

Inc.)* ................ 403 

Civilian Defense 

Insignia of workers (Courtesy, U.S. Office of 

Civilian Defense) ........... 179 

Volunteer workers at New York air defense 

centre (Charles E, Steinhcimcr)* ..... 180 
"What to Do in an Air Raid" (Courtesy, U.S. 

Officeof Civilian Defense (6J) ...... 178 

Coal, synthetic (Ron Partridge from Black Star)* 159 
Coast guardsmen boarding German tanker, Box- 

ton (International)* .......... 185 

Colette, Paul (International) ........ 79 

Condenser, hydrogen-cooled (Courtesy, General 

Electric Co.) ............. 254 

Conscientious objectors at Camp Patapsco, Md. 

(Acme) ................ 502 

Cooke, Sarah Palfrey (Max Peter Haas)* . . .651 
Copper mine, Chuquicamata, Chile (Milwaukee 

Journal, photo by Robert Dumke)* . . . 628 
Corvette, naval (William Vandivert)* .... 632 
Cotton crop of French Equatorial Africa (George 

Rodger)* ............... 202 

Crime-fighting car (diagram) (Acme) ..... 204 

Cuban officials and families in exile at Miami, 

Fla. (Acme) .............. 206 

Cunningham, Sir Alan G. (Wide World)* ... 14 
Cvetkovitch, Dragishu (Press Association, Inc.)* 3 



^ Denison dam, Tex. (Acme) ....... 211 

Grand Coulee dam, Wash. (International) , 211 

Grand Coulee power plant (Acme) ..... 211 

Roosevelt dam, Ariz. (Acme) ....... 211 

Shasta dam, Calif. (Acme) ........ 211 

Dance 
Amaya, Carmen (Gjon Mili)* . . . . . . .213 

"Boogie-woogie boost" (New York Daily News 

photo)* ................ 213 

"Defense Swing" (Acme) ......... 213 

Labyrinth, ballet (Courtesy, S. Hurok) . . . 213 

Volusia, Kros (Hart Preston)* ....... 213 

Darden, Colgate W., Jr. (Acme) ....... 699 

Da r Ian, Jean (Press Association, Inc.)* .... 6 

Davidson, Jo (Andreas Feininger from Black 

Star)* ................ 589 

Defense agencies, U.S. (diagram) (Courtesy, New 

York Times) .............. 219 

Defense courses in Buffalo, N.Y., high school 

(Eisenstaedt-Pix)* ........... 245 

Defense housing, Grand Prairie, Tex. (William 

Langley)* ............... 337 

Defense poster, U.S. (Courtesy, Cy Hungerford, 

Hungerford & Sherman, Pittsburgh, Pa.) . 20 

Delaware river aqueduct (Acme) ....... 58 

Dentz, Henri (European)* ......... 7 

De Valera, Eamon (William Vandivert)* ... 6 

DiMaggio. Joe (Acme)* ........... 93 

Dinosaur (Acme) ............. 506 

Disasters 

Airliner crash near St. Thomas, Out., Can. 

(Acme) ................ 235 

Carlsbad, N. M., flood (Acme) ...... 285 

Express train wreck, Dunkirk, O. (Acme) . 235 
Marshfield, Mass., fire (Press Association, 

Inc.)* ................ 235 

vSalina, Kan., flood (Acme) ........ 235 

Dress 

British manikins in Buenos Aires (Hart Pres- 

ton)* ................. 69 

Dinner dress (Courtesy, Harper's Bataar; 

photo by Hoyningen-Huene) ...... 273 

Peplum of bullet padding (Courtesy, Harper's 

Bazaar; photo by Martin Munkacsi) . . . 273 
Platform-sole shoes (Courtesy, Harper's Bataar 

and Fritz Henle) ............ 273 

Snood (Courtesy, Harper's Bataar) ..... 273 

Eire's tribute to heroes of 1916 rebellion (Hans 
Wild ................. 251 

Electoral college, U.S., meeting of (Eliot Eliso- 

fon)* .............. ... 252 

Electric power transformer (Courtesy, General 

Electric Co.) ............. 254 

Epidemic in army camp (Myron H. Davis)* . . 260 
Erosion control test (Bernard Hoffman)* . . . 613 
Etching 

"Bowling Green, New York" (Rosenberg) 
(Peter A. Juicy & Son) ......... 262 

"Deep Water" (Wengenroth) (Peter A. Juley 
&Son) ................ 262 

"Distant Haze" (Cheffetz) (Peter A. Juley & 
Son) ................. 262 

"Standard Fisheries" (Winkler) (Courtesy, 
John W. Winkler) ........... 262 

Evacuation camp for New York city school chil- 

dren (Acme) ............. 244 

Explosive rivets (Courtesy, E. I. du Pont de 
Nemours & Co.) . ........... 426 

Finnish women repairing bombed cities (Text 
and Bilder)* ....... .' ...... 279 

"Fire card" dropped by R.A.F. over Germany 
(F. W. Goro)* ............. 156 

Fin* 
Brooklyn pier (British Combine)* ..... 281 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Jersey City waterfront (Acme) 281 

Marshrield, Mass. (Press Association, Inc.)* . 281 
Whiting, Ind., refinery (United Air Lines 

photo, from Acme) 281 

Fish, Hamilton, and Norman Thomas (Inter* 

national)* 609 

Fishery restocking by plane (Arme) 282 

Flame thrower, U.S. (Acme) 156 

Frankensteen, Richard T., addressing strikers 

(Acme)* 195 

Free French troops at Duala, Africa (George 

Rodger)* 294 

French manikins (International)* 291 

Gas mask, plastic (Acme) 156 
Gaulle, Charles dc (British official photo- 
graph)*. 299 

Generator for Grand Coulee dam (Courtesy, 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co.) 254 
Georgia university students staging protest 

(Kenneth Rogers)* 246 

Glass, measuring texture of (Courtesy, Mellon 

Institute of Industrial Research) 307 

Glaucoma instrument (Dmitri KesMol)* .... 268 

Goebbcls, Josef (Acme)* IS 

Golf tournament, U.S. national amateur, Omaha, 

Neb. (Myron Davis)* 310 

Greek peasant troops (\V. Bosshard from Black 

Star)* 318 

Greenland, occupation by U.S. troops (New York 

Daily News photo)* 319 

Gustavus V (Acme) 320 

LJaile Selassie (British official photograph)* . . 263 
Halifax, Viscount (Margaret Bourke- 

White)* 2 

Harley, J. E, (International) 616 

Henderson, Leon (Carl Mydaus)* 10 

Hess, Rudolf, beside Hitler in Reichstag (Inter- 
national)* 304 

Heydrich, Reinhard (European)* 11 

Honolulu hospital burning after Jap raid (Exclu- 
sive photo by Alan Campbell, Acme staff 

photographer) 324 

Hopkins, Harry L. (Carl Mydansj* 2 

Hoppe, Willie, making eight-cushion shot (Gjon 

Milt)* 99 

Hull, Cordell (W. Eugene Smith from Black 
Star)* 6 

Iceland, U.S. forces in (Official U.S. Navy pho- 
tograph)* . 339 

Ickes, Harold L. (Thomas D. McAvoy)* ... 7 
Imperial valley, Calif., irrigation (H. Bristol)* . 366 
Incendiary bomb burning under water (F. W. 

Goro)* 156 

Interior Decoration 

Federal bedroom furniture (Courtesy, Ameri- 
can Furniture Mart; photo by Grignon) . . 356 
Porch remodelled into lounge room (Courtesy, 
G. McStay Jackson, Inc.; photograph by 
Chicago Architectural Photographing Co.) . 356 
Sectional sofa (Courtesy, American Furniture 

Mart; photo by Grignon) 356 

Sitting room in 18th century English style 
(Courtesy, G. McStay Jackson, Inc.; pho- 
tograph by Chicago Architectural Photo- 
graphing Co.) 356 

International Harvester strike, Chicago, 111. 

(Press Association, Inc,)* 629 

International Harvester strike, Richmond, Ind. 

(Fred Albert)* 383 

Iron ore shipments, Great Lakes (Minneapolis 
Star Journal, photo by Roy Swan; courtesy, 

Northwest Airlines. Inc.)* 364 

Italian crew imprisoned in Puerto Rico (Acme) . 552 
Italian prisoners in Great Britain (International)* 314 

Japanese-Manchoukuoan gunboats patrolling 
Amur river (Acme) 411 

Jewish religious service in ruins of London syna- 
gogue (Acme) 374 



Lf immel. Husband E. (Press Association, Inc.)* 15 
* Kodak Ektra camera (Courtesy, Eastman 

Kodak Co.) 524 

land, Emory S. (Newsphotos)* 10 

*- Lindbergh, Charles A. (Acme) 399 

Litvinov, Maxim M. (International)* 15 

Locomotive for mountain hauling (Acme) . , , 561 
Lofoten islands, raid by British (Movietone 

News)* 489 

Louis-Conn fight (International)* 110 

Lupescu, Magda, and Carol II (Acme) 146 

Mac Arthur, Douglas (International)* .... 15 
Madera canal sinhon: Central val 



Maps 



Madera canal siphon; Central Valley proj- 
ect, Calif. (Acme) 



Africa, 1941 720 

Axis advance lato U.S.S.R., 1941, monthly 

stages 723 

Balkan campaign, 1941 718 

Battle of the Atlantic 224 

British empire shipping (British Crown copy- 
right; reproduced by permission of the con- 
troller of H.B.M. Stationery Office)* . . . 359 

Caribbean defenses, U.S 225 

Changes in territorial control by conquest, 

1939-1941 717 

Chinese- Japanese war 1 72 

Ecuador- Peru disputed territory 243 

Europe, end of 1941 716 

Far east, 1941 729 



Ferry plane routes to Great Britain and Africa 226 

Hawaiian islands 325 

Philippine islands 520 

Proposed U.S.-Alaska highways 574 

Rejections of U.S. selectees, by states . . . 594 

Yugoslavia, partition of 735 

Marines, U.S., m landing boats (Dmitri Kessel)* 73 
Marines, U.S., making sea landing (Dmitri Kes- 
sel)* 680 

Marquand, John P. (Walter B. Lane)* .... 49 
Marriage preparation class (Courtesy, Hugh 

Morton, photographer) 416 

Marshall, George C. (U.S. Army Signal Corps) * 7 
Mathematical formula, visual demonstration of 
(Professors Sears and Edgerton; courtesy, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology)* , 420 
Matsuoka, Yosuke (Press Association, Inc.)* . 3 
Medicine 
Field hospital unit, Libya (British official 

photograph)* 638 

Restoration of speech by surgery (Courtesy, 

Dorothy Diamond)* 639 

Salt water treatment for burns(Topical Press)* 424 

Vitamins test for soldiers (Acme) 423 

Meteorology 

Lightning-measuring machine (Acme) . . .427 
"Tele-register" panel (Courtesy, American Air- 
lines, Inc.) 427 

Weather balloon in Little America (Official 
photograph, U.S. Antarctic Service, from 

International) 427 

Weather station, Washington National airport 

(Courtesy, American Airlines, Inc.) . . . 427 
Mexican army irregular (Francis Miller)* ... 431 
Motion Pictures 

Cititen Kane (Courtesy, RKO Pictures, Inc.) . 445 
Great Lie, The (Courtesy, Warner Bros. Pic- 
tures, Inc.) 445 

How Green Wan My Valley (Courtesy, 20th 

Century-Fox) 445 

Keep 'Em Flying (Courtesy, Universal Pic- 
tures) 445 

Sergeant York (Copyright, Vitagraph, Inc., and 
courtesy, Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.) . . 445 

Sieg 1m Westen (Ufa Films, Inc.)* 446 

Suspicion (Courtesy, RKO Pictures, Inc.) . . 445 
Motor Cars 

Concealed running boards (Courtesy, Hudson 

Motor Car Co.) 450 

Ford (Courtesy, Ford Motor Co.) 450 

Full-length streamlined fenders (Courtesy, 
Buick Motor Division, General Motors 

Corp.) 450 

Horizontal grillwork (Courtesy, Chrysler Sales 

Division, Chrysler Corp,) 450 

Mercury (Courtesy, Ford Motor Co.) . . . 450 
Packard (Courtesy, Packard Motor Car Co.) 450 
Parking brake (Courtesy, Buick Motor Divi- 
sion, General Motors Corp.) 450 

Plymouth (Courtesy, J, Stirling Getchcll, Inc.) 450 
Multlflash photograph (Professor H. E. Edger- 

ton, Massachusetts Institute ofl echnology) * 523 
Munitions 

Bombs and their properties (Courtesy, The 

Military Engineer) 454 

Machining of 16-in. gun (Dmitri KeHsel)* . . 408 
M3 medium U.S. tanks (Morse-Pix)* .... 455 

105-mm. U.S. howitzer (Acme) 454 

Music 
Berkshire Symphonic festival rehearsal (Eric 

Schaal)* 459 

Lewisohn stadium, New York, concert (Pix, 

Inc.) 459 

Maazel, Lorin (International) 459 

National music camp, Interlochen, Mich. (Pix, 

Inc.) 459 

My Own Brucie, champion dog (New York Daily 

News photo)* 603 

National airport, Washington, D.C., control 
tower (Courtesy, American Airlines, Inc.) 35 
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 

(Thomas D, McAvoy)* 76 

Navies 

"Arizona" at Pearl Harbor (Acme) 469 

"Ark Royal" sinking (International) .... 469 
"Bismarck" survivors (International)* . . . 469 

"Idaho" (Bob Landry)* 470 

Insignia, U.S. (Courtesy, U.S. Navy Depart- 
ment, headquarters of Ninth Naval Dis- 
trict, Great Lakes, 111.) 221 

"North Carolina," commissioning of (George 

Strode)* 222 

"North Carolina" testing guns (International)* 469 

Range-finding (Dmitri Kessel 121)* 470 

Nelson, Donald M. (Thomas D. McAvoy)* . . 10 

New Zealand training camp (Acme) 485 

New Zealand Women's War Service auxiliary 

(Acme) 485 

Nimitz, Chester W. (Press Association, Inc.)* . 15 
Nomura, Kichisaburo, and Saburo Kurusu 

(Acme) 371 

Norfolk naval air station, inspection by Latin- 
American naval officers (Thomas D. Mc- 
Avoy)* 329 

North American Aviation strike, Inglewood, 

Calif. (Hugh A. Arnott-/-o5 Angeles Times)* 629 
Nursery school. British (Courtesy, Bishop H. 

Marshall)* 166 

/Nddities room, Roosevelt library, Hyde Park, 

\J N.Y. (Wide World) 577 

"Old Faithful," Yellowstone national park (Hen- 
ryk photo) 467 



Pin-measuring instrument (F, W. 
Goro)* 526 

Painting 

"Ah, God Herrings, Buoys, the Glittering 
Sea" (Albright) (Courtesy, The Art Institute 

of Chicago) 504 

"Central Park at Night" (Grosz) (Courtesy, 

The Art Institute of Chicago) 504 

"Henry P. Mcllhenny, Esq." (Watkins) 

(Courtesy, Frank K. M. Rchn Gallery) . . 504 
"Miracle of Dunkerque Arrival at Dover" 
(Bone) (British official photograph, Minis- 
try of Information; crown copyright re- 
served) 504 

"Night Class" (Weber) (Courtesy, Associated 

American Artists) 504 

"Tiger" (Hirshficld) (Courtesy, The Mueeum 
of Modern Art, New York; photograph by 

Soichi Sunami) 504 

Palm oil, African (George Rodger)* 693 

Paris breadline (Pari-Pix)* 292 

Ptain, Henri Philippe (International)* .... 2 
Petroleum pipe line, Portland-Montreal (Walter 

B. Lane)* 518 

Petroleum transport by rail to eastern seaboard 

(Bernard Hoffman)* 517 

Photosynthesis, artificial (Hansel Mieth)* ... 109 
Pigtails fad (Courtesy, Harper's Bazaar; Louise 

Dahl-Wolfe photograph) 273 

Pine bark drying in Great Smoky mountains 

(Walter Sanders from Black Star)* . , . . 238 
Polish civilians on way to execution (Anonymous)* 530 

Polish soup kitchen (European)* 565 

Preaidente Vargas diamond (Acme) 232 

Prison, Green Haven, N.Y. (Acme) 543 

Propaganda in motion pictures, investigation by 

U.S. senate (Thomas D, McAvoy)* .... 545 
Psychological test for infants (Myron Davis)* . 548 

Radio x 

Control room, WABC transmitter (Cour- 
tesy, Columbia Broadcasting System) . . . 556 
Pres. Roosevelt broadcasting after Jap attack 

(International) 555 

Transmitter, WABC (Courtesy, Columbia 

Broadcasting System) 557 

R.A.F. bombers over Dutch fields (British offi- 
cial photograph)* 474 

Railroad tracks, London, repaired after bomb- 
ing (Harris & Ewing)* 560 

Rainbow bridge, Niagara Falls (Acme) .... 116 

Rashid AH (International)* 6 

Red Cross distribution of milk in France (Acme) 435 
Refugees in Lisbon (Pictorial Publishing Co.)* . 533 
Rio Hato, Panama, air base (Thomas D. Mc- 
Avoy)* 508 

Roads and Highways 

Blue Ridge parkway, N.C. (Courtesy, Public 
Roads Administration) 573 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Four-lane highway, Calif. (Courtesy, Public 

Roads Administration) 573 

Inter-American highway, Co*ta Rica (Acme) 573 

Inter- American highway, Nicaragua (Acme) . 573 

Link in proposed U.S.-Alaska highway (Acme) 573 
Roosevelt, F. D.. and Winston Churchill aboard 

"Prince of Wales" (Press Association, Inc.)* 175 
Roosevelt, F. D., asking U.S. Congress for decla- 
ration of war (Acme) 193 

Roosevelt library, Hyde Park, N.Y. (Acme) . . 397 
Rotterdam docks bombed by British (Wide 

World) 571 

Rowing crew, Reed college. Portland, Ore. (Otto 

Hagel)* 579 

Rumanian widows receiving medals (Acme) . . 581 

Rundstedt, Karl von (Dever from Black Star)*. 11 
Russian women harvesting crops (Margaret 

Bourke-White)* 24 

Qalmon derby, Puget Sound (Courtesy, Art 
^ French, staff photographer for Seattle Post- 

Intelligencer)* 54 

Salvation Army at U.S.O. rally (Walter B. Lane)* 585 

Sault Ste. Marie bridge (Acme) 117 

Selective service lottery (Acme) 593 

Sheepherder (Hansel Mieth)* 596 

Shipping 

British freighter launching (International)* . 598 
Merchant ships in New York harbour (New 

York Doily News photo)* 601 

Pascagoula, 'Miss,, shipyards (George 

Strock)* 597 

Simovitch, Dushan (International)* 3 

Smith, Billy (Acme) 640 

Spanish children in breadline (Metcalf from Black 

Star)* 619 

Stalin, Joseph V. (Margaret Bourke-White)* . . 7 

Stambaugh, Lynn U. (Wide World) 47 

Steinhardt, Laurence A. (Margaret Bourke- 
White)* 42 

Stevenson, Coke (Acme) 652 

Submarine attack (diagrams) (Tobias Moss 

(41)* 631 

Suez canal air patrol (Charles E. Brown)* ... 635 
Switzerland's clearing house for war prisoners' 

mail (International) 641 

|-ank lighter, U.S. (Dmitri Kessel)* 415 

Television on full - sized motion picture 

screen (F. W. Goro)* 649 

Theatre 

Lady in the Dark (Karger-Pix)* 655 

Wookey. The (Karger-Pix)* 654 

Timoshenko, Somyon (Sovfoto)* 10 

Tin mine, British Malaya (Carl Mydans)* . . 657 

Tojo, Hideki (International)* 14 

Tokle, Torger (Walter B. Lane)* 606 

Transformers, electric (Courtesy, Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Co.) 254 



vii 



Trinidad base of U.S. army (David E. Scher- 
man)* 709 

Turkish troops reviewed by British general (Press 

Association, Inc.)* 665 

United Service organizations rally (Walter B. 
Lane)* 673 

Uruguayan students in anti-axis demonstration 
(British Combine Photos Ltd.) 691 

Vargas, Getulio, and Jo Davidson (Jean Man- 
zon)* 114 

Vichy residents receiving tobacco rations (Wide 
World)* 698 

ll/allace, Henry A. (Thomas D. McAvoy)* . . 10 

" Warmerdam, Cornelius (Acme) 660 

War Production board, organization of (diagram) 219 

Wavell, Sir Archibald (International) 14 

Westminster cathedral, London (Wide World)* 567 

Wcygand, Maxime (Margaret Bourke-Whitr)* . 14 

Wheeler, Burton K. (Karger-Pix)* 3 

Whirlaway winning Brlmont Stakes (Morse- 

Pix)* 333 

Willkie, Wendell L. (Press Association, liu .)* . 2 
Willkie, Wendell L., at lend-lease hearing (Inter- 
national) 676 

Willkie, Wendell L., at Toronto (Morse-Pix)*. . 141 

Winant, John G. (Wide World)* 2 

Windsor, duke and duchess of (International) . 88 
World War II 
British advancing in Libya (News of the Day 

Newsreel from International) 721 

British evacuating Greece (European)* . . . 718 
British occupying Palmyra. Syria (Interna- 
tional) 722 

German advance in Greece (European)* . .719 
German reserves moving up in U.S.S.R. (Drver 

from Black Star)* 728 

Indian troops in Iran (Acme) 363 

Power plant near Cologne bombed by British 

(British official photograph)* 305 

Russian counterofiensive (International) . 725 

Russian guerrillas (Press Association, Inc.)* 727 

Russian prisoners (Devcr from Black Star)* 669 

Russian sniper (Dever from Black Star)* . . 726 
Tracer shells and searchlights over Greek city 

(British official photograph)* 317 

U.S. battleship "Arizona" after Pearl Harbor 

attack (Acme) 731 

U.S. machine-gunners during Pearl Harbor 
attack (News of the Day Newsreel from In- 
ternational) 730 

WyandQtte cave, Ind. (Acme) 301 

Zhukov, Georgi K., soviet general (Inter- 
national)* 14 



INTRODUCTION 



THE fast Britannica Book of the Year appeared Jive years ago when war seemed only 
a threat. Today the Book of the Tear is presented to a world torn by men's hates and 
ingenuity's weapons of death. A record of the year of our Lord 1941 shows only a few 
small areas of the earth's surface where there is no war. 

Many of the contributions which make up this volume have come from these fateful places 
and from the very men and women who are engaged in the vast battle toward peace. Again, 
as for previous volumes, many manuscripts, by plane and by ship, have won through to 
Chicago in spite of enemy vigilance and not one manuscript has been lost! From Pearl 
Harbor, shortly after the Japanese surprise, a contribution arrived with a letter saying, 
". . . .1 wrote a little too much and cut it with a pencil. Please excuse this but inasmuch as I 
lost all my personal possessions, my typewriter, and my ship in the . . . . attack, you will 
understand. It may interest you to know that one of the files rescued was a water-soaked 
letter from you and my rough notes for the article. . . ." Here in this volume is the evidence of 
the folly of any man's assumption of superiority. Men can live peacefully only when they are 
well-tempered and humble. Those are fated for ultimate disaster who in their desperation 
dare to be dictators. The swollen arrogance of the Hitlers and the Mussolinis deflate, in the 
end, like any other balloon. Here in this volume is the evidence of final defeat for all such 
enemies of decency, understanding and kindness. 



Although the world storms, books get published. One's gratitude must go to five hundred, 
busy men and women who have found time to prepare these articles and to the members of 
Britannica' s staff, who, working under pressure and the obvious emotional difficulties of the 
day, have kept earnestly and tirelessly at work to Mr. John V. Dodge, assistant to the Editor; 
to Mrs. M. H. MacKay, who directed the organization of copy for the printer; to Mrs. Harriet 
Milburn, head proof-reader, and her colleagues; to Mrs. Ruth L. Breed, secretary to the 
Editor, who directed the preparation of the thousands of letters and telegrams and cablegrams 
necessary to bring the contributions from all corners of the available world. Most of all, one's 
gratitude must go to the publishers of Encyclopaedia Britannica, who by careful planning 
and wise direction have made possible the production of this annual volume. 

The Editor 



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 

WALTER YUST, EDITOR OF ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 
AND OF THE BRITANNICA BOOK OF THE YEAR 



LIBRARIAN CONSULTANTS 

ANNE FRASER LEIDENDEKER, Department Librarian, Science and Industry Department, Public Library, Los Angeles, Calif. 
CHARLES F. MCCOMBS, Superintendent, Main Reading Room, New Tork Public Library. 
WINIFRED VER NOOY, Reference Librarian, University of Chicago. 





(Initials and names of contributors to the Britannica Book of the Tear with the principal articles 






written by them. The arrangement is alphabetical by initials.) 




A.B.BU. 


ALFRED BENJAMIN BUTTS, Ph.D., LL.B. Chancellor and Professor of Law, University of Mississippi, Oxford, 


Mississippi 




Miss. 




A.B.HO. 


A. B. HOLTON, B.S. Superintendent of Cleveland Technical Service Department of the Sherwin-Williams Co. 


Paint* and Varnishes 


A.B.Mo. 


ALBERT BURTON MOORE, M.S., M.A., Ph.D. Professor of History and Dean of the Graduate School, University 


Alabama (in part) 




of Alabama, University, Ala. Author of History of Alabama; etc. 




A.C.Ch. 


ARTHUR C. CHRISTIE, M.D., M.S. Professor of Clinical Radiology, Georgetown University Medical School, Wash- 


X-Ray 




ington, D. C. 




A.C.I. 


A. C. IVY, M.D. Nathan Smith Davis Professor in Physiology and Professor of Pharmacology, Northwestern Univer- 


Physiology 




sity Medical School, Chicago. 




A.Da. 


ALLISON DANZIG, A.B. Member of Sports Staff, New York Times. Author of The Racquet Game; etc. 


Football (in part) 


A.D.An. 


ARTHUR D. ANDERSON, A.B. Editor, Boot and Shoe Recorder, Boston. Author of Shoe and Leather lexicon. 


Shoe Industry 


A.E.GI. 


AUGUSTUS E. E. GIEGENGACK. Public Printer of the United States. 


Printing Office, U. S. 






Government 


A.Ep. 


ABRAHAM EPSTEIN, B.S. Executive Secretary, American Association for Social Security. Author of Insecurity A 


Social Security (in part) 




Challenge to America; etc. Editor, Social Security. 




A.Fn. 


ALLAN FERGUSON, M.A., D.So. Assistant Professor of Physics, Queen Mary College, London; Past President of the 


Science and World Order, 




Physical Society; Joint General Secretary of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 


British Association 
Conference on 


A.G.Bn. 


ANSCO G. BRUINIER, Jr. Technical Advertising Manager, Dyestuffs Division, Organic Chemicals Department, 


Dyestuffs 




E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc., Wilmington, Del. 




A.Q.R. 


ALEXANDER G. RUTHVEN, Ph.D., So.D., LL.D. President, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 


Michigan, University of 


A.H.F. 


ABNER H. FERGUSON, LL.B. Administrator, Federal Housing Administration, Washington, D. C. 


Federal Housing 






Administration 


A.M. Ho. 


ALBERT HABIB HOURANI, B.A. (OX ON.). Lecturer in Political Science, the American University of Beirut, Syria, 


Arabia (in part) 




1937-39. 


Iraq (in part) 


AJ.Hp. 


ANGUS JOHN HARROP, M.A., Lltt.D. (N.Z.), Ph.D. (Cam.). Representative in England of the University of New 


New Zoaland, 




Zealand. Editor of The New Zealand News (London). 


Dominion of 


A.J.LI. 


ALFRED J. LIEBMANN, Ph.D., Chom.E. Technical Director, Schenley Distillers Corporation.- 


Liquors, Alcoholic 


AJ.Lo. 


ALFRED J. LOTKA. Assistant Statistician, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. 


Birth Statistics, etc. 


A.K.B. 


A. K. BRYCESON. "Hotspur" of The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post (London). 


Horaa Racing (in part) 


A.UR.L. 


ALAIN LEROY LOCKE, A.B., Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Author of Race 
Contacts and Interracial Relations; The New Negro; The flegro in America; The Negro and His Music; Ntgro Art: Past 


Negroes (American) 




and Present. 




A.M.Bv. 


ALEXANDER M. BAYKOV, Dr. Ju. (Prague). Research Fellow, Russian Economic Research Service, Prague, 1926-30; 


Moscow (in part) 




Lecturer Russian Economics, Czech University, Prague, 1935-39- 




A.M.R. 


SIR ALEXANDER MACDONALD ROUSE Kt., C.I.E., M.I.C.E., F.C.H. Chief Engineer, Ministry of Home 


Air Raid Shelters 




Security. 




A.Mu. 


ARTHUR MURRAY. President, National Institute of Social Dancing. Author of How to Become a Good Dancer; Modem 


Dance (in part) 




Dancing. 




A.M.Wn. 


ARTHUR M. WILSON, M.A., Ph.D. Professor of Biography, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. Author 
of French Foreign Policy during the Administration of Cardinal FUury. 1726-1743. 


Dakar 
France 


A.N.Wt. 


A. N. WILLIAMS. President! The Western Union Telegraph Company, N. Y. 


Telegraphy 


A.P.U. 


ABBOTT PAYSON USHER, Ph.D. Professor of Economics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Corresponding 


American Academy of 




Secretary, American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 


Arts and Sciences 


A.R.N. 


ALBERT RAY NEWSOME, Ph.D. Professor and Head of the Department of History. University of North Carolina. 


North Carolina 




Chapel Hill. N. C. 




A.T.B. 


ALLEN T. BURNS, B.A. Executive VIce-President of Community Chests and Councils, Inc. 


Community Chest 


A.T.L. 


ALFRED T. LARSON, Ph.D. Assistant Professor in History, University of Wyoming, Laramie. Wyoming. 


Wyoming 


A.T.M. 


A. T. MITCHCLSON. Senior Irrigation Engineer, Division of Irrigation. Soil Conservation Service, U. S. Department 


Irrigation 




of Agriculture, Berkeley, Calif. 




A.W.H. 


ALBERT W. HAWKES. President, Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, D. C. 


Chambers of Commerce 


A.WI. 


ALFONS WILE. Technical Adviser with The Schenley Import Corporation. Author: An Introduction to Wims; etc. 


Wines 



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 



A.Wt. 


AUBREY WILLIAMS. Administrator, National Youth Administration, Washington, D. C. 


National Youth Adminis- 
tration 


A.Y.A. 


ABDULLAH YUSUF ALI, M.A., LL.M. (Cantab.), C.B.E. Formerly Indian Civil Service; later Revenue Minister, 
Hyderabad State. Author of The Message of Islam; Cultural History of British India\ etc. 


Islam 


B.B. 


BAKER BROWNELL, A.M. Professor of Philosophy at Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. Former Travelling 
Fellow in Philosophy from Harvard University. 


Philosophy 


B.Bh. 


BOB BUSH. Fishing Editor, Field & Stream. 


Angling 


B.B.W. 


BENJAMIN B. WALLACE, Ph.D. Adviser to U. S. Tariff Commission on international trade policies. 


Tariffs 


B.C.B. 
B.C.S. 


BEN C. BROSHEER. Associate Editor, American Machinist. 
BARRY C. SMITH. General Director, The Commonwealth Fun^L 


Machinery and Machine 
Tools 
Commonwealth Fund, The 


B.Cu. 


BRYSSON CUNNINGHAM, D.So., B.E., F.R.S.E., M.lnst.C.E. Chartered Civil Engineer. Editor of The Dock 
and Harbour Authority. 


Canals and Inland 
Waterways (in par/), etc. 


B.De. 


BYRON DEFENBACH. Author of Idaho: the Place and Its People and other northwest history. 


Idaho 


B.Gm. 


BESSIE GRAHAM. Director, Temple University Library School. Philadelphia, Pa., 1925-1040. Author of The Book- 
man's Manual and Famous Literary Prizes and Their Winners. 


Literary Prizes 


B.H.B. 


SIR BERNARD HUMPHREY BELL, K.B.E. Sudan Government Service (retired); Legal Secretary to the Sudan 
Government, igjo-j6. 


Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 
(in part), etc. 


B.H.P. 


BEN H. PARKER, Sc.D. Associate Professor of Geology, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colo. 


Geology (in part) 


B.J.S. 


BERNARD J. SHEIL. Auxiliary bishop, Archdiocese of Chicago. Founder, Catholic Youth Organization. 


Catholic Youth 
Organization 


B.Me. 


BEATRICE MeCONNELL. Director, Industrial Division, Children's Bureau. U. S. Department of Labor, Washington, 


Child Labour 


B.O'C. 


BASIL O'CONNOR. Treasurer and Chairman, Executive Committee, Georgia Warm Springs Foundation. President, 
The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, Inc. 


Georgia Warm Springs 
Foundation 


Br.S. 


BRUCE SMITH, B.S., M.A., LL.B. Institute of Public Administration, New York. 


Crime (in part), eto. 


B.Ta. 


BOOTH TARKINGTON, Lltt.D. Honorary Chairman of the National Membership Committee of The Seeing Eye. 
Pulitzer prize winner tor literature. 


Seeing Eye 


B.We. 


BENJAMIN WERNE, A.B.. LL.B., S.J.D. Editor, Annual Survey Economic Legislation. Lecturer in Law and Market- 
ing, New York University, New York, N. Y. 


Law, etc. 


B.Y. 


BARNEY YANOFSKY. Editor of Foreign Service and Director of Public Relations, Veterans of Foreign Wars of the 
United States. 


Veterans of Foreign Wars 


B.Z.R. 


B. Z. RAPPAPORT, M.D. Acting Head of Allergy Clinic. University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago. 


Allergy 


C.A.L. 


CARL A. LOHMANN. Secretary, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 


Yale University 


C.A.Sr. 


CHARLES A. SEGNER. Editor, Investor America. Vice-President, American Federation of Investors, Inc. 


Taxation (in Part) 


C.A.T. 


C. A. THAYER. Director, American Spice Trade Association. 


Spices 


C.B.C. 


CHRISTOPHER B. COLEMAN, Ph.D. Director of Indiana State Historical Bureau and of the State Library, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 


Indiana 


C.B.H. 


CHARLES B. HENDERSON, LL.B., LL.M. Chairman of the Board, Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 


Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 


C.B.S. 


CARL B. SWISH ER, Ph.D. Thomas P. Stran Professor of Political Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 
Md. Author of Roger B. Tancy; Stephen J. Field, Craftsman of the Law. * 


Baltimore 
Maryland 


C.BH. 


CARLYLE BURROWS. Assistant Art Critic of The New York Herald Tribune. 


Sculpture 


C.D.Hu. 


CHARLES DE WITT HURD, Ph.D. Professor of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. 


Chemistry 


C.D.Sp. 


CHARLES D. SPENCER, A.B. News editor, The. National Underwriter and business manager of The Accident & Health 
Review. 


Insurance, Accident and 
Health (in part) 


C.E.A. 


CHARLES E. ALLRED, M.S.A., Ph.D. Head of Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Uni- 
versity of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tcnn. 


Tennessee 


C.E.G. 


CECIL EDWARD GOLDING, LL.D., F.C.I. 1., F.S.S. Joint Secretary, Examiners' Committee, London Chartered 
Insurance Institute. 


Insurance. Accident and 
Health (in part),9t*. 


C.C.R.S. 


CHARLES ELY ROSESHERRINGTON, M.C., M.A., M.lnst.T. Secretary, British Railways Research Service, lec- 
turer in Economics. Cornell University, 1922-1924, and lecturer in Transport, London School of Economics (London 
University) 1924-1929. 


Railroads (in part) 


C.F.Ko. 


CHARLES F. KETTERING, E.E., M.E. Vice-Prcsident, General Manager, Research Laboratories Division, Gen- 
eral Motors Corporation. 


Motor Vehicles 


C.F.Lo. 


C. FRANCES LOOM IS, B.A. Editor, Department of Publications, Camp Fire Girls, Inc. 


Camp Fire Girls 


C.F.MoC. 


CHARLES FLOWERS MeCOMBS, B.A., B.L.S. Superintendent of Main Reading Room, New York Public Library, 

New York, N. Y. 


Libraries (in part) 


C.Fo. 


CHARLES FOX, M.A. Director of Training in the University of Cambridge, 1919-1938. Author of Educational Psy- 
chology; The Mind and Its Body; etc. 


Cambridge University 


C.Q.A. 


C. G. ABBOT. Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 


Smithsonian Institution 


C.Gd. 


CALVIN GODDARD, M.D. Lieutenant Colonel, Ordnance Department, U. S. Army. Historical Section, The Army 
War College, Washington, D. C. Member, Board of Direction, Society of American Military Engineers. 


Munitions of War 


C.Q.Fk. 


CHARLES G. FENWICK, Ph.D. Professor of Political Science, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. Member of the 
Inter-American Neutrality Committee. Author of The Neutrality Laws of the United States; International Law; etc. 


Neutrality 


C.Gn. 


CLAYTON GEHMAN. Associate Economist, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, D. C. 


Prices 


C.H.Bd. 


C. H. BINFORD, A.B., M.D. Pathologist, U. S. Marine Hospital, Detroit, Mich. Instructor in Pathology, Wayne 
University Medical School, Detroit, Mich. 


Leprosy 


CJ.Br. 


CHARLES J. BRAND, A.B. Executive Secretary and Treasurer, The National Fertilizer Association, Washington, D. C. 


Fertilizers 


C.K.S. 
C.L.B. 


CLARENCE K. STREIT, LL.D., D.LItt. Author of Union Now. President of Federal Union, Inc. 
CLEMENT LINCOLN BOUVE, A.B. Register of Copyrights, Washington, D.C. 


Union Now 
Copyright 


C.L.P*. 


CHARLES L. PARSONS. Secretary, American Chemical Society. 


American Chemical 
Society 


C.M.An. 


CARLETON M. ALLEN. Lecturer on Wool and Woolen Textiles, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts. 


Wool 


C.M.Br. 


C. M. BREDER, Jr. Director of New York Aquarium. Research Associate, American Museum of Natural History, 
New York. N. Y. 


Aquariums 


C.Mh. 


CONSTANCE MURDOCH. Secretary, Spelman Fund of New York. 


Spelman Fund of New 
York 


C.M.R. 


C. M. RITTENHOUSE. National Director, Girl Scouts, Inc. 


Girl Scouts 


C.N. 


CARL NORCROSS, Ph.D. Major, U. S. Army Air Corps. Managing Editor, Aviation. Author of Getting a Job in 
Aviation and co-author of The Aviation Mechanic. 


Aviation. Civil 



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 



xi 



C.O'D.I. 


COLUMBUS O*D. ISELIN. Director, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Associate Professor of Physical 
Oceanography, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 


Oceanography 


C.P.Co. 


CONWAY P. COE, A.B., LL.B. U. S. Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C. 


Patents 


C.P.S. 


CLIFFORD P. SMITH, LL.B. Editor of Bureau of History and Records of The First Church of Christ, Scientist, 
Boston, Mans. 


Christian Science 


C.R.Mr. 


CLYDE R. MILLER, Ed.D. Founder, Institute for Propaganda Analysis, New York. Associate Professor of Education, 
Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N. Y. 


Propaganda 


C.R.P. 


CHESLEY REYNOLDS PERRY. General Secretary, Rotary International. 


Rotary International 


C.Sa. 


CHRISTINE SANDFORD. Classical Tripos (Camb.) Resident in Ethiopia 15 years. Wife of Brigadier D. A. Sandford, 
D.S.O., O.B.E., principal Military and Political Adviser to the Emperor Haile Selassie 1941. 


Ethiopia (in part) 


C.S.L. 


C. SUMNER LOBINGIER, B.A., M.A., LL.M., Ph.D., D.C.L., D.Jur., J.U.D. Securities and Exchange Commis- 
sion Officer. Lecturer on Law, American University, Washington, D. C. 


Initiative and 
Referendum, etc. 


C.Sn. 


CARMEL SNOW. Editor of Harper's Bazaar. 


Fashion and Dress 


C.T.S. 


CORNELIA TYLER SNELL, B.S., M.A., Ph.D. Co-author with Foster D. Snell of Colorimetric Methods of Analysis. 
Vols. I and II; Chemicals of Commerce, Technical Editor, Soap and Sanitary Chemicals. 


Cellulose Products 


C.W.QI. 


' CHARLES W. GILMORE, B.S. Curator of Vertebrate Palaeontology, United States National Museum, Washington. 
D. C. 


Palaeontology 


C.W.Ra. 


CHARLES W. RAMSDELL, Jr. Author of various historical works. 


Texas 


C.W.S. 


CARL W. STOCKS. Editor, Bus Transportation, New York. 


Motor Transportation 

(in part) 


Cy.M. 


CYRUS MACMILLAN. P.C., Ph.D. Professor of English and Chairman of the Department, Dean of the Faculty of 
Arts and Science, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 


Prince Edward Island 


C.Z. 


CARL ZEISBERG. Former President, United States Table Tennis Association. 


Table Tennis 


D.A.C. 


DOROTHY A. CANNELL. Member of the editorial staff, 141)1 edition, Encyclopedia Britannica. Member of the Egypt 
Exploration Society. 


Aden (in part) 
Iran (in part) 
Netherlands (in part) 


D.An. 


DEAN ACHESON, LL.B., M.A. Assistant Secretary of State, Washington, D. C. 


Trade Agreements 


D.Bru. 


DAVID BRUNT, M.A., Se.D., F.R.S. Professor of Meteorology, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, 
England. 


Meteorology (in part) 


D.B.S. 


DAVID BARNARD STEINMAN, B.S., C.E., Ph.D. Authority on the design and construction of long-span bridges. 


Bridges 


D.C.H.J. 


D. C. HENRI K JONES, F.L.A. Librarian and Information Officer, The Library Association, London. 


Libraries (in part) 


D.C.So. 


DAVID CHURCHILL SOMERVELL, M.A. Author of The British Empire; The Reign of King George the Fifth; Disraeli 
and Gladstone; etc. 


Great Britain and North- 
ern Ireland, United 
Kingdom of (in part) 


D. do S.P. 


DAVID de SOLA POOL, D.Ph. Rabbi, Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue Shearith Israel, New York, N. Y. 


Jewish Religious Life 


D.D.L. 


DON D. LESCOHIER, Ph.D. Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 


Strikes and Look-outs 
Unemployment, etc. 


D.D.W. 


DAVID DUNCAN WALLACE, A.M., Ph.D., Lltt.D., LL.D. Professor of History and Economics in Wofford College, 
Spartanburg, South Carolina. 


South Carolina 


D.G.Wo. 


DOUGLAS G. WOOLF. Editor-in-chief, Textile World. 


Cotton (in part) 
Textile Industry 


D.Ka. 


DANIEL KATZ, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. 


Psychology 


D.M.N. 


DONALD M. NELSON. Chairman, War Production Board. Wash., D.C., which superseded on Jan. 16. 1942, the Supply 
Priorities and Allocations Board, of which Mr. Nelson was Executive Director. 


Supply Priorities and 
Allocations Board 


D.O. 


DOROTHY ODENHEIMER. Research Assistant to the Director of Fine Arts, Art Institute, Chicago. 


Art Exhibitions, etc. 


D.R.G. 


DAVID ROBERT GENT. Rugby Football Critic to The Sunday Times, London. 


Football (in part) 


D.S.Mu. 


DAVID SAVILLE MUZZEY, A.B., B.D., Ph.D. Emeritus Professor of History, Columbia University, New York. 


United States (in part) 


D.St. 


DANIEL STARCH, M.A., Ph.D. Business Consultant and Director of the Department of Research, American 
Association of Advertising Agencies, New York. 


Advertising 
Radio (in part) 


D.V. 


DOUGLAS VEALE, C.B.E., M.A. Registrar of Oxford University. Fellow of Corpus Christi College. 


Oxford University 


D.W.B. 


D. W. BELL, LL.B., B.C.S. Under Secretary of the Treasury. 


War Debts 


D.Y.T. 


DAVID YANCEY THOMAS, Ph.D. Emeritus Professor of the Department of History and Political Science, Univer- 
sity of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark. Visiting Professor of Government, University of Texas, 1941-42. 


Arkansas 


E.Ab. 


EDITH ABBOTT, Ph.D., Lltt.D., LL.D. Professor of Social Economy and Dean, School of Scx-ial Service Administra- 
tion, University of Chicago. 


Social Service 


E.A.G. 


EDWARD ALPHONSO GOLDMAN. Senior Biologist, Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, 
Washington, D. C. 


Fish and Wild Life Service 

(in part) 


E.A.Gd, 


EDGAR A. GRUNWALD. Marketing Editor, Business Week. Formerly Editor, Variety Radio Directory. 


Radio (in part) 


E.A.P. 


EDGAR ALLISON PEERS, M.A. Professor of Spanish, University of Liverpool, England. Author of A History of the 
Romantic Movement in Spain; Studies of the Spanish Mystics; etc. 


Portugal (in part), etc. 


E.A.Wr. 


ERIC ANDERSON WALKER. Vere Harmsworth Professor of Imperial and Naval History, Cambridge; King George V 
Professor of History, Cape Town, 1911-36. 


South Africa, The Union of 

(in part) 


E.Bd. 


EDWIN BORCHARD, A.B., LL.B., Ph.D., LL.D. Professor of International Law, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 


International Law 


E.B.Do. 


EDWARD B. DUNFORD, LL.D. Attorney, Legal Department, The Anti-Saloon League of America. 


Anti-Saloon League 


C.B.L. 


EDGAR B. LAND IS. Trust Officer. Chemical Bank & Trust Company, New York. Former member of the Faculty of 
Columbia University Extension, American Institute of Banking. 


Banking 


E.B.Ph. 


EARLE B. PrIELPS, B.S. Professor, Sanitary Science, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 


Public Health Engineering 


E.B.Rd. 


E. B. REID. Director, Information and Extension, Farm Credit Administration, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Wash., D. C. 


Federal Land Banks 


E.G.. 


EMILE CAMMAERTS. C.B.E., Hon. LL.D. Officier de 1'Ordre de Leopold; Professor of Belgian Studies and Institu- 
tions, University of London; author of Belgium, From the Roman Invasion to the Present Day; Albert of Belgium; etc. 


Belgium (in part) t etc. 


C.C.D.M. 


E. CHARLES D. MARRIAGE, B.A. Librarian, Nevada State Library, Carson City, Nev. 


Nevada 


E.C.Gr. 


E. C. GRIFFITH, M.A., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 


Georgia 


E.Cul. 


ELY CULBERTSON. Editor, The Bridge World Magasine. Honorary Member, American Contract Bridge League. 


Contract Bridge 


C.C.W. 


ERIC C. WILSON, B.A. Editor, University of Iowa News Service. Former Vice- President American College Publicity 
Association. 


Iowa, State University of 


E.D.C. 


ELIOT D. CH APPLE, A.B., Ph.D. Harvard Medical School. Author, with C. S. Coon, of Principles of Anthropology. 


Anthropology 


E.D.F. 


EDWARD D. FOSTER. Director, Colorado State Planning Commission, Denver, Colorado. 


Colorado 


E.D.K. 


ELDRED D. KUPPINGER. Acting Assistant Chief, Special Division, Department of State, Washington, D. C. 


War Relief Contributions 

n~ A-*- A 



xif 



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 



E.E.B. 


EDWARD E. BENNETT, Ph.D. Associate Professor of History and Political Science, Montana State University, 
Missoula, Mont. 


Montana 


E.C.D. 


EDMUND E. DAY, Ph.D., LL.D. President, Cornell University, Ithaca. N. Y. 


Cornell University 


E.E.Ha. 


EDWARD E. HAZLETT, JR. Commander, U.S.N. (retired). Former Submarine Commander. Instructor in the De- 
partment of English, History and Government at the Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. 


Submarine Warfare 


E.E.Wo. 


EDITH ELMER WOOD, Ph.D. Author of Recent Trends in American Housing; etc. 


Housing (in part), etc. 


E.F.D. 


EDWARD F. DOW, Ph.D. Professor of Government and Head of the Department of History and Government, Univer- 
sity of Maine, Orono, Me. 


Maine 


E.F.GI. 


ERIC F. GASKELL. National Secretary, Canadian Author's Association. Editor, Canadian Author and Bookman. 


Canadian Literature 


E.GNI. 


ERNEST GRUENING, M.D. Governor of Alaska. r 


Alaska 


E.H.CI. 


EARLE H. CLAPP, A.B. Acting Chief, Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 


Forests (in part) 


E.H.CO. 


EDWARD H. COLLINS. Associate Financial Editor, New York Herald Tribune. 


Gold (in part) 


E.H.He. 


ERNEST HERMAN HAHNE, M.A., LL.B., Ph.D. Professor of Economic*, Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. 
Contributor to the Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. 


Business Review 


E,H.Kr. 


EDWARD HENRY KRAUS, Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D. Dean of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, University 
of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 


Mineralogy ' 


E.H.Q. 


EDITH H. QUIMBY. A.M., Sc.D. Atwistant Professor of Radiology, Cornell University Medical College, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Associate Physicist, Memorial Hospital, New York City. 


Radiology 


E.I.F. 


E. 1. FARRINGTON. Secretary, Massachusetts Horticultural Society and Editor of Horticulture. 


Horticulture 


E.J.C. 


EDWIN J. CAMERON, Ph.D. Director, Research Laboratories, National Canners Association, 


Canning Industry 


E.J.H. 


ERIC JOHN HODSOLL, C.B. Wing Commander, R.A.F. Inspector General of Civil Defense, Ministry of Home 
Security. 


Civilian Defense: 
Great Britain 


EJ.Pa. 


EDWARD J. PARKER. National Commander, U. S. A., The Salvation Army. 


Salvation Army 


EJs. 


EUGENE JO LAS. Editor of Transition. Author of Mots-Dilute; I Have Seen Monsters and Angels; Words from the Deluge. 


French Literature 


El. Ha. 


ELLIOTT HARRINGTON. Sales Manager, Air Conditioning & Commercial Refrigeration Department, General 
Electric Company, U. S. A. 


Air Conditioning 


E.L.R. 


E. LANSING RAY, LL.D. President and Editor, Si. Louis Globe-Democrat. St. Louis, Mo. 


St. Louis 


E.M.Cn. 


ERNEST M. CULLIGAN. Major, U. S. A. Specialist Public Relations Officer, Selective Service System, Wash., I). C 


Selective Service 


E.M.E. 


EMERY M. ELLINGSON. Pilot; Registered Professional Aeronautical and Airport Engineer; Technical Specialist, 
Safety Bureau, Civil Aeronautics Board. 


Airports and Flying Fields 


ELM. P. 


ERNEST MINOR PATTERSON, Ph.D. President, American Academy of Political and Social Science. Professor of 
Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Amerloan Academy of 
Political and Social 
Science 


E.O.E. 


EDWARD OLIVER ESSIG, M.S. Professor and entomologist, Experimental Station. University of California, Berk- 
eley, Calif. Author of A History of Entomology. 


Entomology 


E.O.U. 


EDWIN O. LEADER. Ph.B., LL.B. Rowing Coach, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 


Rowing 


E.PJ. 


E. P. JORDAN, M.D. Assistant Editor, The Journal of the American Medical Association, Chicago, 111. 


Arthritis 
Cold, Common 


C.PJo. 


E. P. JOSLIN, M.D., So. D. Clinical Professor of Medicine (Emeritus), Harvard University Medical School, Boston, Mass. 


Diabetes 


E.R.E. 


EDWIN R. EMBREE, M.A., Lltt.D. President, Julius Rosenwald Fund. 


Illiteracy 


E.R.G. 


ERNEST R. GROVES, A.B., B.D. Professor of Sociology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. Author of 
The American Family; Marriage; The Family and Its Social Functions; etc. 


Marriage and Divorce 


E.R.H. 


EDWARD R. HARDY, Ph.B. Secretary-Treasurer, Insurance Institute of America, New York. 


Fires and Fire Losses 
Insurance, Fire 


E.R.SS. 


E. R. STEtTINlUS, JR. Administrator, Office of Lend- Lease Administration, Washington, D. C. 


Lend- Lease Administra- 
tion, Office of 


E.S.L. 


EMORY S. LAND. Rear Admiral U.S.N. Chairman, U. S. Maritime Commission, Washington, D. C. 


Shipping, Merchant 
Marine (in part) 


E.T. 


EDWARD TUTHILL, M.A., Ph.D. Professor of History, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. 


Kentucky 


F.A.C. 


FABIAN ARTHUR COLENUTT, M.A. Cantab. Head of the Administrative Section, Bank for International 
Settlements, Basle, Switzerland. 


Bank for International 
Settlements 


F.A.Pt. 


F. A. PEARSON, Ph.D. Professor of Prices and Statistics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 


Agriculture (in Part) 


F.C.Bg. 


FRANKLIN C. BING, Ph.D. Secretary of the Council on Foods and Nutrition of the American Medical Association. 


Vitamins 


F.C.Bo. 


FRANK C. BOWEN. Writer on naval and merchant shipping subjects. 


Shipbuilding (in part), etc. 


F.C.K. 


FRED C. KOCH, Ph.D. Frank P. Hixon, Distinguished Service Professor (Emeritus) of Biochemistry, University of 
Chicago, Chicago, 111. 


Biochemistry 


F.C.St. 


FRANCIS C. STIFLER. Editorial and Recording Secretary, American Bible Society. 


American Bible Society 


F.C.W. 


FRANCIS CARTER WOOD. M.D. Director of Laboratories, St. Luke's Hospital, New York City. Emeritus Director, 
Cancer Research, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, N. Y. 


Cancer 


F.D.R. 


FRANK D. REEVE, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of History, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N. M. 


New Mexico 


F.D.S. 


FRANKLIN D. SCOTT, Ph.D. Associate Professor of History, Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. Author of 
Bernadotte and the Fall of Napoleon, etc. 


Greenland 
Sweden, etc. 


F.E.Do. 


FRANK EARL DENNY, A.B., Ph.D. Plant Physiologist. Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Inc., Yonk- 
ers, N. Y. 


Botany (in part) 


F.E.MoM. 


FRANCIS E. MoMURTRIE. Editor, Jane's Fighting Ships. London Naval and Shipping Correspondent of the Daily 
Telegraph, London. 


Navies of the World 


F.Gn. 


FELICIA GEFFEN. Secretary to the President, The American .Academy of Arts and Letters. 


American Academy of 
Arts and Letters 


F.H.L. 


FRANK H. LA HEY, M.D. Director of Surgery, Lahey Clinic, Boston, Mass. Surgeon- In-chief. New England Baptist 
Hospital; Surgeon-in-chicf, New England Deaconess Hospital. 


American Medleal 
Association 


FJ.B. 


FRANK J. BRUNO, S.T.B. Professor of Applied Sociology and Chairman of the Department of Social Work, Washing. 
ton University, St. Louis, Mo. 

FBAMtt 1 1A/II CSSM /~*U!*f TT!Arf C<*+^ CAM..A+ C .,!.. 1* AM >IM> T"\A*VA*MM* \X7naVtiMvt/% l"\ f* 


Relief 


F.J.W. 
F.L.F. 

Fi 1*1 


FRANK J. WILSON. Chief, United States Secret Service, Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 
FREDERICK L. FAGLEY, D.D. Associate Secretary, General Council of the Congregational and Christian Churches. 

PRANK L WEIL Pr*Mnt Th TiMvlfth Welfare RnarH 


Secret service, U. 5. 

Congregational Christian 
Churches 

Jewish Welfare Board 


kvWW. 

F.M.B. 


r fTMl^ r\ ! WWfcll. FTCIlQCIll, 1 HC JCWISII WCliarC DOttTQ. 

FRANCIS MARSH BALDWIN, Ph.D. Professor of Zoology and sometime Director of the Marine Station, University of 
Southern California, Los Angeles. 


Marino Biology 


F.M.K. 
r M s. 


F. M. KREML. Director, Northwestern University Traffic Institute, Evanston, Illinois. 

F. M. fiCTZLCR. Ph.B. H*nH Curator. D*nartmpnt nf Anthrnnnlrtov Smtthannian Institution. Wajihinffton. D. C. 


Accidents (in part) 



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 



xili 



F.M.V.T. 


FRANCIS M. VAN TUYL, Ph.D. Professor and Head of the Department of Geology, Colorado School of Mines, 
Golden, Colo. 


Geology (in part) 


F.R.Mo. 


FOREST RAY MOULTON, Ph.D., So.D. Secretary, American Association for the Advancement of Science. 


American Association for 
the Advancement of 
Science 


Fr.Ro. 


FREDERICK ROTHE. Chairman, Handball Committee of the New York Athletic Club, New York. 


Hand-ball 


F.R.Y. 


F. R. YERBURY, Hon. A.R.I. B.A. Managing Director, The Building Centre, London. 


Housing (in part) 


F.T.HI. 


FRANK T. MINES, Brigadier General, O. R. C. Administrator, U. S. Veterans Administration, Washington, D.C. 


Veterans Administration 


F.W.Ga. 


FREDERIC WILLIAM GANZERT, M.A., Ph.D. Associate Professor of History and Political Science, University of 
Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. 


Utah 


F.W.Rr. 


F. W. REICH ELDERFER, A.B., D.So. Chief, Weather Bureau, United States Department of Commerce, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 


Meteorology (in part) 


F.X.T. 


FRANCIS X. TALBOT, S.J., Lltt.D. Editor-in-Chief of America, National Catholic Weekly, New York. 


Plus XII 
Roman Catholic Church, 
etc. 


G.A.Ro. 


GAR A. ROUSH, A.B., M.S. Editor, Mineral Industry, New York. 


Copper 
Nickel, etc. 


G.A.SI. 


GORDON A. SISCO, M.A., D.D. Secretary, The United Church of Canada. 


United Church of Canada 


G.B.En. 


GEORGE B. EUSTERMAN, M.D. Head of Section in Medicine, Mayo Clinic. Professor of Medicine. University of 
Minnesota Graduate School, Minneapolis, Minn. 


Alimentary System, 
Disorders of 


G.B.P. 


G. BALEY PRICE, A.B., A.M., Ph.D. Associate Professor of Mathematics, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans. 


Mathematics 


G.D.H.C. 


GEORGE DOUGLAS HOWARD COLE, M.A. Fellow of University and Nuffield Colleges, and Reader in Economics. 
Oxford University; Chairman of the Nuffield College Social Reconstruction Survey. 


Labour Party; Labour 
Unions (in part), etc. 


G.E.Ed. 


GLEN E. EDGERTON, C.E. Brigadier General. Governor of the Panama Canal Zone. 


Panama Canal and 
Canal Zone 


G.E.Ho. 


G. E. HOFMEISTER. Vice-President, Continental Casualty Company, Chicago. 


Insurance, Automobile 

(in part) 


G.Gr. 


GILBERT GROSVENOR, M.A., Lltt.D., LL.D. Editor, National Geographic Magazine. Washington, D. C. 


National Geographic 
Society 


G.H.Ag. 


G. HARVEY AGNEW, M.D. Associate Secretary, Canadian Medical Association; Secretary-Treasurer, Canadian 
Hospital Council; Editor, Canadian Hospital. 


Hospitals 


G.J.N. 


GEORGE JEAN NATHAN, B.A. Critic and author of The Critic and the Drama; Encyclopaedia of the Theatre; Materia 
Critica, etc. 


Theatre (in part) 


GJ.S. 


GUY J. SWOPE. Director of the Division of Territories and Island Possessions, U. S. Department of the Interior. 


Hawaii 
South Sea and Equatorial 
Islands 


G.L.W. 


GEORGE L. WARREN, A.B. Executive Secretary, President's Advisory Committee on Political Refugees. 


Refugees 


G.L.Wf. 


G. L. WOODRUFF. Lt. Commander, U.S.N. (Ret.). Office of Island Government, Navy Department, Washington, 
D. C. 


Midway Islands 
Samoa, American, etc. 


G.M.C. 


GEORGE M. COATES, A.B., M.D., F.A.C.S. Professor of Otorhinology, Graduate School of Medicine, University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. Editor in Chief, Archives of Otolaryngology. 


Ear, Nose and Throat, 
Diseases of 


G.M.Da. 


GAIL M. DACK, Ph.D., M.D. Associate Professor of Bacteriology, Department of Bacteriology and Parasitology, 
The University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 


Bacteriology 


G.M.Du. 


GEORGE MATTHEW DUTCHER, Ph.D., LL.D. Professor of History, Wesley an University, Middletown, Conn. 
Formerly State Historian of Connecticut. 


Connecticut 


G.M.Hy. 


GRANT M. HYDE, M.A. Director, School of Journalism, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 


Newspapers (in part) 


G.MJ. 


G. MeSTAY JACKSON. President, G. McStay Jackson, Inc., Chicago, 111. 


Interior Decoration 


G.N.P. 


G. NEIL PERRY, B.A. Director, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Province of British Columbia, Victoria. D C. 


British Columbia 


G.P. 


G. PARR, Grad.I.E.E. Editor klectronic Engineering] Hon. Secretary, the Television Society. 


Television (in part) 


G.P.Ba. 


G. PHILIP BAUER, Ph.D. Assistant Archivist Jn the Division of Labor Department Archives, The National Ar- 
chives, Washington, D. C. 


Elections 


G.R.G. 


G. R. GEARY, K.C. Barrister and Solicitor, Toronto, Canada. 


Toronto 


G.S.Br. 


G. STEWART BROWN, National Director of Public Information Service, The American National Red Cross, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 


Red Cross (in part) 


G.S.F. 


GUY STANTON FORD, B.L., Lltt.B., Ph.D., LL.D., Lltt.D., L.H.D. Executive Secretary, American Historical 
Association. 


American Historical 
Association 


G.St. 


GLEB STRUVE. Lecturer in Russian Literature at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University of 
London. Author of Soviet Russian Literature. 


Russian Literature 


G.W.Do. 


GEORGE W. DOUGLAS, A.M., Lltt.D. Formerly Chief Editorial writer of The Philadelphia Evening Public Ledger. 
Author of The Book of Days-, The Many-Sided Roosevelt, etc. 


Pennsylvania 
New York, etc. 


H.A.C. 


HOWARD A. CARTER, B.S. In M.E. Secretary, Council on Physical Therapy, American Medical Association. 


Deafness 


H.A.Dr. 


HUGH A. DRUM. Lieutenant General, U.S. Army; Commanding General, First Army; Headquarters First Army; Gov- 
ernors Island, N.Y. Chief of Staff, First Army, A.E.F. 


Armies of the World 
World War II 


H.A.H. 


HOWARD ARCHIBALD HUBBARD, Ph.D. Professor of History, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 


Arizona 


H.A.Mt. 


H. A. MILLIS, A.M., Ph.D. Chairman, National Labor Relations Board. Washington, D. C. 


National Labor Relations 
Board 


H.A.Wai. 


HENRY A. WALLACE, B.S. Vice-President of the United States. 


Economic Warfare, 
Board of 


H.Bce. 


HOWARD BECKER, A.M.. Ph.D. Professor of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Wisconsin. Book Review 
Editor, American Sociological Review. Co-author of Systematic Sociology; Social Thought from Lore to Science; etc. 


Sociology 


H.BI. 


HERSCHEL BRICKELL. Editor, 0. Henry Memorial Award Prite Stories of 1041. Senior Cultural Relations Officer, 
U. S. Embassy, Bogota, Colombia. 


American Literature 


H.Bu. 


HERMAN N. BUNDESEN, M.D. President, Board of Health, Chicago. 


Epidemics and Public 
Health Control 


H.B.V.W. 


H. B. VAN WESEP. Chief, Information Service, The Rockefeller Foundation. New York. 


Rockefeller Foundation 


H.By. 


HAROLD BEELEY, M.A. Lecturer in History, University College, Leicester. 


Palestine (I'M part) 


H.C.Rd. 


HENRY CLAY REED, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of History, University of Delaware, Newark, Del. 


Delaware 


H.O.G. 


H. DON QUSSOW. Editor, Confectionery-lc* Cream World, New York. 


Candy 


H.E.BA. 


HARRY E. BARNARD, B.S., Ph.D., D.So, Research Director. National Farm Chemurgic Council. 


Flour and Flour Milling 


He.Br. 


HENRY BRufcRE, Ph.B. President, Bowery Savings Bank, New York. 


Savings Banks, Mutual 


H.FJL 


HAROLD F. AMBROSE. Senior Administrative Assistant to the Postmaster General, Post Office Department, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 


Post Office (in part) 



xiv 



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 



H.F.D.B. 


H. F. D. BURKE, O.B.E., M.lntt.C.E. Acting Secretary, Netherlands and Netherlands Indies Information Bureau 


Netherlands (in part) 




and the British Chamber of Commerce for the Netherlands East Indies (Inc.), London. 


Netherlands Colonial 






Empire (in part) 


H.Fx. 


HOWARD FOX, M.D. Emeritus Professor of Dermatology and Syphilology, New York University College of Medi- 


Dermatology 




cine, New York. 




H.O.K. 


HENRY G. KNIGHT. Chief, Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and Engineering, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 


Chemistry and Engineer- 




Washington, D. C. 


ing, Agricultural, 
U. S. Bureau of 


H.O.Me. 


HAROLD O. MOULTON, Ph.D., LL.D. President of the Brook ings Institution, Washington, D. C. 


Brooking* Institution 


H.G.S. 


H. GERRISH SMITH. President, National Council of American Shipbuilders, New York. 


Shipbuilding (in part) 


H.H.A. 


HENRY H. ARNOLD. Major General, U. S. Army. Deputy Chief of (Staff for Air, Washington, D. C. 


Air Forces of the World 






(in part) 


H.Har. 


HERBERT HARLEY. Secretary-Treasurer, American Judicature Society. 


American Judicature 






Society 


H.H.Be. 


HUGH H. BENNETT, B.S., LL.D., D.So. Chief of the Soil Conservation Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 


Soil Erosion and Soil 




Washington, D. C. 


Conservation 


H.Hy. 


HUGH HARLEY. Secretary, United Brewers Industrial Foundation, N. Y. 


Brewing and Beer 


HJ.A. 


H. J. ANSLINGER, LL.B. Commissioner of Narcotics, United States Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 


Drugs and Drug Traffic 






(in part) 


HJ.De. 


HERMAN J. DEUTSCH, Ph.D. Associate Professor of History, State College of Washington, Pullman, Washington. 


Washington 


HJt. 


HARLEAN JAMES, A.B. Executive Secretary, American Planning and Civic Association, Washington, D. C. 


Washington, D. C., etc. 


H.Ko. 


HANS KOHN, D. Jur. Sydcnham Clark Parsons Professor of History, Smith College, Northampton, Mass. Author of 


Czechoslovakia 




Force ur Reason; Revolutions and Dictatorships; Not By Arms Alone; etc. 


Communism, etc. 


H.L. 


SIR HARRY LINDSAY, K.C.I. E., C.B.E., Director, Imperial Institute, South Kensington, London, and Trade Com- 


Burma (in part) 




missioner for Burma. 




H.L.B. 


HOWARD LANDIS BEVIS, LL.B., S.J.D. President, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 


Ohio State University 


H.L.Ms. 


HALLAM L. MOVIUS, Jr., Ph.D. Assistant Curator of Palaeolithic Archaeology, Peabody Museum of Archaeology 


Archaeology (in part} 




and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 




H.USt. 


HERBERT L. STONE. Editor, Yachting, New York. Author of America's Cup Races, etc. 


Motor-Boat Racing 






Yachting 


H.N.MaeC. 


HENRY N. MACCRACKEN, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D. President, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York. 


Vassar College 


Ho.J.B. 


HORACE J. BRIDGES, D.LItt. Leader, The Chicago Ethical Society. 


Ethical Culture Movement 


H.P.D. 


HARLAN PAUL DOUGLASS, A.B., A.M., D.D. Secretary, The Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America. 


Christian Unity 




Author of A Decade of Objective Progress in Church Unity, etc. 


Religion 


H.P.R. 


HOMER PRICE RAINEY, Ph.D., LL.D. President, University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 


Texas, University of 


H.R.B. 


HORACE ROBERT BY EPS, A.B., S.M., Sc.D. Associate Professor of Meteorology, University of Chicago, Chicago, 


Drought 




111. Author of Synoptic and Aeronautical Meteorology and numerous scientific articles. 




H.R.Bd. 


H. R. BLANFORD, O.B.E. Former Chief Conservator of Forests, Burma. Editor-General, Empire Forestry Associa- 


Forests (in part) 




tion, London. 




H.R.P. 


HELENA R. POUCH (Mrs. William H. Pouch). President General, National Society Daughters of the American 


Daughters of the 




Revolution, Washington, D. C. 


American Revolution 


H.R.V. 


HENRY R. VIETS, M.D. Lecturer in Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Neurologist, Massachusetts General Hos- 


Psychiatry 




pital. Librarian, Boston Medical Library. 




H.3n. 


HARRY SIMONS. Technical Editor and Publisher, The Clothing Trade Journal, New York. 


Clothing Industry 


H.T. 


HENRY TETLOW, B.A. Henry Tetlow and Company. 


Soap, Perfumery and 






Cosmetics 


H.T.Ch. 


HUNG-TI CHU, Ph.D. Ex-Commissioner of the Kuomintang Central Executive Committee for Yunnan Province. 


China 




Fellow of the Central Government to study in the United States, 1930-1934. Member of the Kuomintang since 1923. 


Chinese-Japanese War, etc. 


H.W.Ch. 


HARRY WOOD BURN CHASE, Ph.D., LL.D., Lltt.D. Chancellor, New York University, New York. 


New York University 


H.W.Do. 


HAROLD W. DODDS, Lltt.D., LL.D. President, Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. 


Princeton University 


H.W.L. 


HARRY W. LAIDLER. Executive Director, League for Industrial Democracy, New York. Member, New York City 


Socialism (in part) 




Council. 




H.W.Pa. 


HAROLD W. PAINE. Director, Arlington Research Laboratory, Plastics Department, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and 


Plastics Industry 




Company, Arlington, N. J. 




H.W.RL 


SIR HERBERT W. RICHMOND, K.C.B., C.B. Admiral, R.N. Master of Downing College, since 1936. President of 
Naval War College, 1920-23. Author of Sea Power in the Modern World, etc. 


Sues Canal 


H.Z. 


HOWARD ZAHNISER. In Charge of Current and Visual Information, Division of Public Relations, Fish and Wildlife 


Fish and Wild Life 




Service, U. S. Department of the Interior. 


Service (in part) 


I.Bn. 


INNIS BROWN, B.A. Managing Editor, The American Golfer, New York. Co-author of A Guide to Good Golf and 


Golf 




Swinging into Golf. 




.Bo. 


ISAIAH BOWMAN, Ph.D., LL.D. President, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. 


Johns Hopklnt University 


.Br. 


IVOR BROWN. Dramatic critic of the Observer, London. Professor of Drama to the Royal Society of Literature. 


Theatre (in part) 


.B.W.S. 


IDA B. WISE SMITH. President, National Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 


Woman's Christian 






Temperance Union 


.L.BI. 


IRENE L. BLUNT. Secretary, The National Federation of Textiles, Inc., New York. 


Linen and Flax, etc. 


.L.K. 


ISAAC LEON KANDEL, Ph.D., Lltt.D. Professor of Education, Teachers Collegt, Columbia University, New York City. 


Education 


.St. 


IRVIN STEWART, Ph.D.. LL.B. Executive Secretary, Office of Scientific Research and Development. Executive 
Secretary, National Defense Research Committee; Executive Secretary, Committee on Medical Research. 


Scientific Research and 
Development, Office of 


J.A.Q. 


J. A. GARY. Editor, Furniture Age, Chicago, Illinois. 


Furniture Industry 


J.A.Ma. 


J. ARTHUR MATHEWSON, K.C. of Mathewson, Wilson and Smith, Barristers, Montreal, Canada. 


Montreal 


J.A.MI. 


JOHN ANDERSON MILLER, Ph.B. Editor of Transit Journal, New York. 


Electric Transportation 


J. A. My. 


J. A. MYERS, M.D. Professor of Medicine and Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Minnesota Medi- 


Tuberculosis 




cal School, Minneapolis, Minn. 




J.A.S.W. 


JAMES A. SCOTT WATSON. Sibthorpian Professor of Rural Economy, University of Oxford. 


Agriculture (in part) 


J.A/To. 


JAMES A. TOBEY, Dr. P. H., LL.D. Director. American Institute of Baking, New York. 


Bread and Bakery Products 


J.B.HU. 


J. B. HUTSON. Preaident, Commodity Credit Corp., U. S. Dcpt. of Agric., Washington, D. C. 


Commodity Credit 
Corporation 


J.B.P. 


JOSEPH B. PEARMAN. Sports essayist, commentator and authority on athletics. Former Olympic athlete. 


Traok and Field Sports 






Wrestling, etc. 


J.C.He. 


JOSEPH CLARENCE HEMMEON, A.M., Ph.D. Professor of Economics and Head of the Department of Economics 
and Political Science. MrGill University, Montreal, Canada. 


Ontario 
Quebec, etc. 



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 



xv 



J.C.Mn. 


JAMESC. MALI N, Ph.D. Professor of History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. . 


Kansas 


J.C.Pa. 


JOHN C. PAGE. Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation, U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 


Aqueducts 


J.E.Ar. 


JAMES E. ARMSTRONG. Secretary of Notre Dame Alumni Association. 


Notre Dam*, University of 


J.E.H. 


J. EDGAR HOOVER, LL.M. Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department of Justice, Washington, 


Federal Bureau of 




D. C. 


Investigation 


J.E.Mo. 


JOY ELMER MORGAN, A.B., B.L.S. Editor of the Journal of the National Education Association, Washington, D. C. 


National Eduoatlon 
Association 


J.Eu. 


JOHN EUSTICE, B.Sc., A.R.S.M., A.M.I.C.E. Formerly Professor of Engineering, and Vice Principal University 


Floods and Flood Control 




College, Southampton. 


(in part) 


J.E.W. 


JAMES EDWARD WEST, LL.B., LL.M., LL.D., M.H. Chief Scout Executive, Boy Scouts of America. 


Boy Scouts 


J.Fe. 


JAMES FORGIE, M.lnst., C.E., M. Am. See. C.E. Internationally known authority on tunnels. 


Tunnels 


J.F.Gr. 


J. F. GARDINER. Bond editor, Chicago Journal of Commerce. 


Bonds 


J.F.Ws. 


JOHN F. WILLIAMS. Major General. Chief of the National Guard Bureau. 


National Guard 


J.G.Bo. 


JOHN G. BOWMAN, A.M., LL.D., Lltt.D. Chancellor of the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Pittsburgh 


J.H.Fa. 


JOHN H. FAHEY. Chairman, Federal Home Loan Bank Board; Chairman, Board of Directors of Home Owners' Loan 


Fodoral Homo Loan 




Corporation, and Board of Trustees for the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, Washington, D. C. 


Bank System, etc. 


J.H.FI. 


JOSEPH H. FUSSELL, D.Th. Secretary General, The Theosophical Society, Point Loma, California. 


Theosophical Society, The 


J.H.L. 


JOHN HOWLAND LATH POP, A.B., B.D., Ph.D., D.D. Minister of the First Unitarian Congregational Society in 


Unitarian Churoh 




Brooklyn, New York. 




J.H.Ts. 


J. H. TOWERS. Rear Admiral U. S. N., Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics. 


Air Foroes of the World (in 


JJ.K. 


J. J. KRAL. Statistician of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce (Retired), U. S. Department of Commerce. 


International Trade, etc. 


JJ.MoE. 


J. J. MoENTEE. Director, Civilian Conservation Corps, Federal Security Agency, Washington, D. C. 


Civilian Conservation 
Corps 


JJ.Sw. 


JAMES JOHNSON SWEENEY. Lecturer, Fine Arts Institute, New York University, New York, N. Y. Author of 


Painting 




Plastic Redirections in Twentieth Century Painting; Joan Miro. 




J.KI. 


JAMES KENDALL, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. Professor of Chemistry in the University of Edinburgh; formerly Lieutenant 


Chemloal Warfare 




Commander in the United States Naval Reserve, acting as Liaison Officer with Allied Services on Chemical Warfare. 




J.L.F. 


J. L. FRAZIER. Editor, The Inland Printer, Chicago. 


Printing 


J.L.He. 


JOHN L. HERVEY. Author of Racing in America; American Race. Horses; The Old Cray Mare of Long Island; etc. 


Horse Racing (in part) 


J.L.J. 


J. L. JOHNSTON. Librarian, Provincial Library, Winnipeg, Manitoba. - 


Manitoba 


J.L.N. 


JOHN LLOYD NEWCOMB, A.B., C.E., Hon.D.Sc., LL.D. President, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. 


Virginia, University of 


J.L.S. 


J. L. SCHLEY. Major General. Chief of Engineers, United States Army. 


Rivers and Harbours 






(in part) , etc. 


J.M.Ca. 


J. M. CALLAHAN, A.M., Ph.D. Research Professor of History, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia. 


West Virginia 


J.M.L. 


JAMES MILLER LEAKE, Ph.D. Professor of History and Political Science, University of Florida, Gainesville. 


Florida 


J.Mr. 


JOHN MAIR. Writer and literary critic. Contributor to The New Slatesman and to the London Neu>s Chronicle. 


English Literature 


J.N.F. 


JEROME N. FRANK, Ph.B., J.D. Chairman, Securities and Exchange Commission. Author of Law and the Modern 


Bankruptcy 




Mind; Save America First. 




J.P.D. 


JAMES P. DAWSON. Writer on baseball and boxing, The New York Times. 


Boxing 


J.P.J. 


JOHN PRICE JONES, A.B. President and Treasurer, The John Price Jones Corporation, New York. Author of The 


Donations and Bequests 




Yearbook of Philanthropy. 




J.R.CI. 


J. REUBEN CLARK, Jr., B.S., LL.B. First Counselor, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Salt Lake City, 


Mormons 




Utah. 




J.R.H. 


JOSEPH RALSTON H AYDEN, Ph.D., LL.D. James Orin Murfin Professor of Political Science and Chairman. Depart- 
ment of Political Science, University of Michigan. Author of The Philippines: A Study in National Development. 


Philippines, Common- 
wealth of the 


J.R.J. 


JAMES R. JOY, Lltt.D., LL.D. Librarian and Historian, The Methodist Historical Society in the City of New York. 


Methodist Churoh 


J.R.Tu. 


JOHN R. TUNIS. Writer on tennis. 


Tennis 


J.S.Br. 


JOHN STEWART BRYAN, M.A., LL.B., Lltt.D., LL.D. President, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, 


Virginia 




Virginia. President and Publisher, Richmond Newspapers, Inc., Richmond, Va. 




J.S.Cu. 


JAMES S. CUNNINGHAM, Jr., M.A. Instructor in Social Studies, San Mateo Junior College, San Mateo, California 


Brazil (in ar/),eto. 


J.S.G. 


JAMES STEELE GOW, A.B., Ed.M. Director, Falk Foundation, Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Falk Foundation, The 






Maurice and Laura 


J.S.L. 


JOHN S. LUNDY, M.D. Professor of Anaesthesia, University of Minnesota Graduate School, Minneapolis, Minn. 


Anaesthesia 




Head of Section on Anaesthesia at the Mayo Clinic. 




J.T.Ar. 


JOHN TAYLOR ARMS, S.B., S.M., M.A., Lltt.D. President, Society of American Etchers. 


Etching 


J.T.C. 


JOHN THOMAS CULLITON, B.A., M.A. Assistant Prof, of Economics and Political Science, McGill Univ. .Montreal, 


Canada (in Part), etc. 




Can. 




J.T.W. 


JOHN T. WINTERICH, A.B. Member of The Dolphin editorial board, New York. Author of A Primer of Book 


Book-collecting 




Collecting; etc. * 




J.V.Do. 


JOHN V. DODGE. Editorial Department. Encyclopedia Britannica. 


Publishing (Book) 


J.V.L.H. 


JOHN V. L. HOG AN. Consulting Engineer. President, Interstate Broadcasting Co., Inc. (WQXR). President, Faxi- 


Television (in part) 




mile, Inc. Author of The Outline of Radio. 


Radio (in part) 


J.W.BI. 


JAMES WASHINGTON BELL, Ph.D. Professor of Banking, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. Secretary- 


American Economic 




Treasurer and Editor of Proceedings, American Economic Association. 


Association 


J.W.So. 


JAMES WALTER SCHADE, A.B. Director of Research (Retired, December 31. 1941). The B. F. Goodrich Company. 


Rubber and 






Rubber Manufacture 


K.B.S. 


KATHLEEN B. STEBBINS. Secretary and Advertising Manager, Special Libraries Association, New York. 


Special Libraries 
Association 


K.F.L. 


KATHARINE F. L EN ROOT, B.A. Chief, Children's Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. 


Child Welfare 


K.Ge. 


KATRINE R. C. GREENE. Assistant Secretary of the American Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations. Co- 


Pacific Relations, 




author of Part II of the Economic Survey of the Pacific Area, Transportation and Foreign Trade. 


Institute of 


K.L.W. 


KARL L. WILDES. Associate Professor, Electrical Engineering, Mass. Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 


Electric Transmission 






and Distribution 


K.R.B. 


KENNETH R. BENNETT. Ph.D. Instructor in Agricultural Prices and Statistics, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 


Agriculture (in part) 




Co-author of Statistical Methods. 




K.S.L. 


KENNETH S. LATOURETTE, D.D.. Ph.D. Professor of Missions and Oriental History. Yale University, New Haven, 


Foreign Missions 




Connecticut. 




K.Sm. 


KAZIMIERZ SMOGORZEWSKI. Polish journalist (Paris, Berlin, etc.); founder (London. 1039) and editor, Fret 


Poland 




Europe; author of Poland's Access to the Sea (London, 1934); etc. 





xvi EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 




K.T.C. 


KARL T. COMPTON, M.S., Ph.B., Ph.D., D.So., LL.D. President, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cam- 


Massachusetts Institute 




bridge, Mass. President, American Association for the Advancement of Science. 


of Technology 


L.A.L. 


LEROY A. LINCOLN. President, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. 


Insurance, Lift 


L.A.M. 


LOUIS A. MCRILLAT, M.D.V., V.S. Editor of the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association and Ameri- 
can Journal of Veterinary Research. Author of Veterinary-Military History of the United States. 


Veterinary Medicine 


L.A.We. 


LUTHER ALLAN WEIGLE, Ph.D., D.D., Lltt.D., S.T.D., LL.D. Dean of the Divinity School, Yale University, 


Sunday Schools 




New Haven, Conn. President, Federal Council of Churches. 


Church Membership 


L.B.Ba. 


LEWIN B. BARRINQER. Glider Speciality. Air Staff, Army Air Forces, Washington, D. C. 


Gliding 


L.B.Br. 


LESTER B. BRIDAHAM. Public Relations Counsel, Art Institute, Chicago. Author of Gargoyles, Chimeres and the 


Art Galleries and Art 




Grotesque in French Gothic Sculpture. 


Museums 


L.B.S. 


LEMUEL B. SCHOFIELD, A.B., M.A., LL.B. Special Assistant to the Attorney-General in Charge of the Immigration 


Immigration and Emigra- 




and Naturalization Service, Department of Justice. Professor of Criminal Law, Temple Univ. , Philadelphia, Pa. 


tion 


L.C.De A. 


LOUIS C. Do ARMOND, A.B., M.A. Department of History, University of California, Berkeley, California. 


Costa Rlea (in part) 






Cuba (in part), etc. 


L.C.S. 


LOUIS CARTER SMITH, B.S., LL.B., LL.M. Secretary-Treasurer, National Archery Association of the United 


Arohery 




States, Boston, Mass. 




L.de B.H. 


L. do BREDA HANDLEY. Honorary coach, Women's Swimming Association of New York. Author of Swimming for 


Swimming 




Women; etc. 




L.D.Sh. 


LESLIE D. SHAFFER, B.S., B.D. Secretary, American Friends Fellowship Council. 


Friends, Religious 
Society of 


L.D.U. 


LENT D. UPSON, Ph.D. Director. Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research, 


Detroit 


L.D.W. 


LEONARD D. WHITE, B.S., M.A., Ph.D. Professor of Public Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 
Author of Introduction to the Study of Public Administration; Government Career Service; etc. 


Civil Service 


L.Ef. 


LOUIS EFFRAT. Member of The New York Times sports staff. 


Billiards 


L.C.L. 


LEWIS E. LAWES, Hon. D.So. Former Warden, Sing Sing Prison, Ossining, New York. 


Prisons 


L.C.T. 


LEON E. TRUESDELL, Ph.D., Se.D. Chief Statistician for Population, United States Bureau of the Census, Wash- 


Census, 1940 




ington. Author of Farm Population of the U. S. 




L.Qn. 


LESTER GIBSON, Director of News Bureau, American Bankers Association. 


American Bankers 






Association 


L.Qu. 


LUTHER QULICK, Ph.D., Lltt.D. Director, Institute of Public Administration, New York, N. Y. Professor of 


Municipal Government 




Municipal Science and Administration, Columbia University, New York. 




L.G.V.V. 


LEWIS GEORGE VANDER VELDE, Ph.D. Professor of History and Director of the Michigan Historical Collections, 


Michigan 




University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 




L.H.D. 


LAWRENCE HAWKINS DAWSON. Author of Introduction to London: etc. Editor. Routledge's Encyclopaedia', The 


George VI, etc. 




March of Man\ etc. 




L.H.Ds. 


LAWRENCE H. DIERKS. Manager, Public Relations Department, Kiwanis International. 


Klwanls International 


L.H.L. 


LEWIS HARPER LEECH, M.A. Editorial writer, Chicago Daily News. 


Chicago 
Illinois 


L.Hn. 


LEON HENDERSON. Administrator, Office of Price Administration, Washington. D. C. 


Prloe Administration, 
Office of 


L.J.Br. 


LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Ph.D., LL.D., Se.D., Eng.D. Director, National Bureau of Standards, U. S. Department 


Standards, National 




of Commerce, Washington, D. C. 


Bureau of 


L.K.F. 


LAWRENCE K. FOX. Secretary, South Dakota State Historical Society, Pierre, S.D. 


South Dakota 


L.Kn. 


LOUIS KAPLAN, B.L.S., Ph.D. Reference Librarian, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Author of Research Mate- 


Wisconsin 




rials in the Social Sciences. Editor of Review Index. 




L.M.F. 


LEONARD M. FANNING. Publisher of Petroleum Code Handbook, 1931-1934. Author of The Rise of American Oil. 


Petroleum 


L.Mo. 


LUIS MONGUI<S. Licenciado en Derecho, University of Madrid, Spain, 1928. Member of the Spanish Diplomatic and 


Spanish- American 




Consular Service from June 1030 to March 1939. Now teaching assistant in Spanish, Department of Spanish and Portu- 


Literature 




guese, University of California, Berkeley, Calif., U.S.A. 




L.M.S.M. 


LEROY M. S. MINER, D.M.D., M.D. Dean of Harvard University Dental School, Boston. Mass. 


Dentistry 


L.O.C. 


LEO OTIS COLBERT, B.S. In C.E., So.D. Rear Admiral U.S.C. & G.S. Director, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 


Coast and Geodetic 




Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C, 


Survey, U. S. 


L.O.P. 


LOUELLA O. PARSONS. Motion Picture Editor. International News Service. 


Motion Pictures (in part) 


L.P.L. 


LELAND P. LOVETTE. Captain, U. S. N., United States Fleet. 


Blockade 


L.Sk. 


LOUIS SKIDMORE. Chief of Design, A Century of Progress Exposition, 1933-34. Consultant for New York World's 


Fairs, Exhibitions, 




Fair, 1939. 


Expositions 


L.SI. 


LEVERETT SALTONSTALL, A.B., LL.D. Overseer of Harvard University. Governor of Massachusetts. 


Massachusetts 


L.T.C. 


LEO T. CROWLEY, Chairman, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Washington, D. C. 


Federal Deposit Insurance 
Corporation 


L.U.G. 


LEROY U. GARDNER, M.D. Director, Saranac Laboratory for Study of Tuberculosis, Saranac Lake, N. Y. 


Sllloosls 


L.U.S. 


LYNN U. STAMBAUGH. National Commander, The American Legion. 


v American Legion 


L.W.Bo. 


LEWIS W. BEALER, Ph.D. Berkeley, California. 


Brazil (in part) 






Mexico (in part), etc. 


L.W.D. 


LEON W. DEAN, A.B. Assistant Professor of English and Vermont History, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 


Vermont 




Director of University News Service. 




L.W.L. 


LANE W. LANCASTER, Ph.D. Professor of Political Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 


Nebraska 


L.Wo. 


LEO WOLMAN, D.Ph. Professor of Economics, Columbia University, New York. 


Labour Unions (in part) 


M.B.M. 


MARY B. MCELWAIN, Ph.D., Lltt.D. Professor of Classical Languages and Acting Dean, Smith College, North- 


Smith College 




ampton, Mass. 




M.C.H.B. 


MARGARET C. HESSLER BROOKES, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Nutrition, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 


Dietetics 


M.C.MI. 


MATTHEW C. MITCHELL, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Political Science, Brown University, Providence, R. I. 


Rhodo Island 


M.Cs. 


MONICA CURTIS. Member of the staff of the International Labour Office. 


Thailand (Slam) (in part) 


M.Dn. 


MITCHELL DAWSON, Ph.B., DJur. Lawyer, writer. Former Editor, Chicago Bar Record. 


American Bar Association 


M.Do. 


MAURICE DOBB, M.A., Ph.D. Lecturer in Economic*, Cambridge University. Author of Russian Economic Develop- 


Union of Soviet Socialist 




ment since the Revolution; Soviet Economy and the War. 


Republics (in part) 


Me. 


JAMES SCORGIE MESTON. 1st Baron Meston of Agra and Dunottar. Secretary to Finance Department, Gov- 


India (IftlarD.ote. 




ernment of India, 1906-191:2. Lieut .-Governor, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 1912-27. 




M.E.Pa. 


MARION EDWARDS PARK, Ph.D. President, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 


Bryn Mawr College 


M.F.C. 


MICHELE F. CANTARELLA. Associate Professor of Italian Language and Literature, Smith College, Northampton, 
Mass. Contributing Editor, Books Abroad. Assistant Managing Editor, Modern Language Journal . 


Italian Literature 



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 



xvll 



M.Fe. 


MAURICE FANSHAWE. Chief Intelligence Officer, League of Nations Union, Central Office, London. 


Mandates (in part) 
League of Nations 


M.FI. 


MORRIS FISHBEIN, M.D. Editor, The Journal of the American Medical Association and Hygtia. Chicago. Editor 
of medical articles, Britannica Book of the Year. 


Medicine, ate. 


M.G.Q. 


MARTIN G. GLAESER, Ph.D. Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 


Public Utilities 


M.Gt. 


MILTON GILBERT, M.A., Ph.D. Chief, National Income Unit, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, U. S. 
Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C. 


Budgets. National 
National Debts, etc. 


M.Ha. 


MANNEL HAHN, B.S. Editor, Postal Markings. Editorial Assistant, The Rotarian. Author of U. S. Post Office, 1851- 
60; U. S. Postal Markings, 1847-51; So You're Collecting Stamps; The Cancellations of Waterbury, Conn., 1865-1890. 


Philately 


M.H.McA. 


MILDRED H. MCAFEE, M.A., LL.D. President, Wellesley College, Wellealey, Mass. Formerly, Dean of Women, 
Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. 


Wellesley Collogo 


M.H.T. 


MILTON HALSEY THOMAS, A.M. Curator of Columbiana, Columbia University, New York City. 


Columbia University 


MJo. 


MELVIN JONES. Secretary-General, International Association of Lions Clubs, Chicago. 


Lions Clubs 


M.L. 


MARGARET LLOYD. Writer on The Dance for The Christian Science Monitor. 


Dance (in part} 


M.L.E. 


MORRIS L. ERNST. Attorney, firm of Greenbaum, Wolff and Ernst, New York. Author of Too Big. 


Civil Liberties 


M.L.M. 


MAX L. MOORHEAD, M.A. Assistant in History, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 


Mexico (in part), ate. 


M.L.W. 


M. L. WILSON. Director of Extension Work, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 


Four-H Clubs 


M.Pr. 


MARTIN POPPER, LL.B. Executive Secretary, National Lawyers Guild. 


National Lawyors Guild 


M.Rd. 


MARGARET READ, M.A., Ph.D. Acting Head of Colonial Department, London UnivcrMity Institute of Education; 
Lecturer in Anthropology, London School of Economics and Political Science. 


British East Afrioa (in part) 
Rhodosla (in part), ote. 


M.Sr. 


MARGARET SANGER. Honorary Chairman, Birth Control Federation of America, Inc. 


Birth Control 


M.S.Ss. 


MARY S. SIMS. Executive, Committee for National Interpretation and Support, the National Board, Young Women's 
Christian Associations of the United States of America. 


Young Woman's Christian 
Assoolatlon 


M.T. 


MICHAEL TIERNEY, M.A. Professor of Greek. University College, Dublin. Member of Council of State, Eire. Vice- 
Chairman, Seanad fiireann. 


Elro (in part) 


M.T.M. 


MALCOLM T. MAC EACHERN, M.D. Associate Director, American College of Surgeons. 


American College of 
Surgeons 


M.V.W. 


MIRIAM VAN WATERS, Ph.D. Superintendent, Reformatory for Women, Framingham. Mass. Author of Youth in 
Conflict; etc. 


Juvenile Delinquency 


N.B.D. 


NEWTON B. DRURY, B.L. Director, National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 


National Parks and 
Monuments 


N.C.B. 


NELSON C. BROWN, B.A., M.F. Professor in charge of forest utilization, New York State College of Forestry, Syra- 
cuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 


Lumbar (in part) 


N.C.Q. 


NATHAN CLIFFORD GROVER, D.Eng. Chief Hydraulic Engineer (retired), U. S. Geological Survey, Department 
of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 


Water Power 


N.E.C. 


NORMAN E. CRUMP, F.R.Stat.S. City Editor, London Sunday Times. 


Bank of England 


N.E.W. 


N. E. WAYSON, M.D. Medical Director. U. S. Public Health Service, National Institute of Health, Division of In- 
fee tio us Diseases. 


Plague, Bubonic 


N.F. 


NORMAN FRENCH, Editor, The Timber Trades Journal and Sawmill Advertiser. 


Lumber (in part) 


N.Ha. 


NICHOLAS HANS, Ph.D., D.LItt. Visiting Professor of Education at Cornell University in 1039. 


Eduoatlon (in part) 


N.H.H. 


N. H. HECK, D.So. Chief of Division of Geomagnetism and Seismology, U. S. Const and Geodetic Survey, Department 
of Commerce, Washington, D. C. 


Seismology 


N.Ke. 


NORMAN KEEP, F.R.I.B.A. Chartered Architect. Head of the Senior Day School and Evening Building Department, 
London County Council School of Building, Brixton, London. 


Building and Building 
Industry (in part) 


N.Ln. 


NATHAN LEV IN SON. Colonel, Signal Reserve, U. S. Army. Chief Engineer, Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc., Burbank, 
Calif. 


Motion Pictures (in part) 


N.L.P. 
N.T. 


NEWTON LACY PIERCE, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. Instructor in Astronomy, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey. 
NORMAN THOMAS, A.B., B.D., Lltt.D. Socialist presidential candidate, 1940. 


Astronomy 
Socialism (in part) 


N.T.R. 


NELLIE TAYLOE ROSS. Director of the United States Mint. 


Coinage 


O.E.P. 


OWEN E. PENCE, A.M. Director, Bureau of Records, Studies and Trends of the National Council, Young Men's 
Christian Association of the United States, New York. 


Young Men's Christian 
Assoolatlon 


O.G.L. 


ORIN GRANT LIBBY, Ph.D. Professor of American History, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks. N. D. 


North Dakota 


O.McK. 


OLIVER MCKEE Jr., B.A. Washington Evening Star, Washington, D. C. 


Democratic Party 
Republican Party, ate. 


O.M.Pn. 


OLGA M. PETERSON. Public Relations Assistant, American Library Association, Chicago, 111. 


Amor loan Library 
Assoolatlon 


P.B.F. 


PHILIP B. FLEMING. Brigadier General, U.S.A. Administrator, Federal Works Agency, Washington, D. C. 


Federal Works Agenoy 


P.Bt. 


PAUL BROCKETT. Executive Secretary, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C. 


National Academy of 
Science* 


P.By. 


PAUL BELLAMY, A.B. Editor, Cleveland Plain Dealer, Cleveland, Ohio. 


Cleveland 
Ohio 


P.C.B. 


PAUL CANFIELD BARTON, M.D. Director of the Bureau of Investigation, American Medical Association. 


Serum Therapy 


P.D.D. 


PAUL D. DICKENS, A.B., Ph.D. Economic Analyst. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, U. S. A. 


Foreign Investments In 
the United State* 


P.D.W. 


PAUL D. WHITE, M.D. Lecturer on Medicine, Harvard University Medical School, Boston, Mass. Physician. Mas- 
sachusetts General Hospital. 


Heart and 
Heart Diseases 


P.E. 


PAUL EDWARDS. Editor, Trailer Topics Magaiine. 


Trailer Coaches 


P.E.R. 


PHILIP E. RYAN, A.B., M.A. Administrative Assistant to Vice Chairman, Insular and Foreign Operations, American 
National Red Cross. 


Rod Cross (in part) 


P.H.P. 


PHILIP H. PARRISH. Editor of the Editorial Page, The Oregonian. Portland, Oregon. 


Oregon 


P.My. 


PHILIP MURRAY. President, Congress of Industrial Organizations. 


Congress of Industrial 
Organisations 


P.Pa. 


PATRICIA PARMELEE. Educational Dance and Activities Director at the International Institute of Boston, Inc. 


Dance (in Part) 


P.T. 


PAUL TITUS, M.D. Secretary, Treasurer and Director of the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 


Gynaecology and 
Obstetrlos 


R.A.G. 


R. A. GIBSON. Deputy Commissioner, Northwest Territories. 


Northwest Territories 


R.A.Ga. 


RUTH A. G ALLAH ER, Ph.D. Associate editor of the State Historical Society of Iowa. Author of Legal and Political 
Status of Women in Iowa, ett. 


Iowa 


R.A.V. 


R. A. VONDERLEHR, M.D. Assistant Surgeon General, U. S. Public Health Service, Washington D. C. 


Venereal Diseases 


R.B.B. 


RALPH B. BRYAN. Editor, Hide and Leather and Shoes. 


Leather 



xviii 



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 



R.B.C. 


ROBERT B. CRAIG. Deputy Administrator, Rural Electrification Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D.C. 


Rural Electrification 


R.B.E. 


R. B. ELEAZER, A.B., A.M. Educational Director, CommiHaion on Interracial Co-operation, Inc., Atlanta, Ga. 


Lynch Ings 


R.BI. 


ROY BLOUGH. Director of Tax Research, U, S. Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 


Taxation (in Pan) 


R.B.S. 


RUTH B. SHIPLEY. Chief of the Passport Division of the Department of State. 


American Citizens Abroad 


R.D.B. 


The RT. HON. SIR RICHARD DAWSON BATES, O.B.E., D.L., M.P. Minister of Home Affairs for Northern 
Ireland. 


Ireland, Northern (in part) 


R.D.Hu. 


ROCKWELL D. HUNT, A.M.. Ph.D., LL.D., Lltt.D. Dean of the Graduate School and Professor of Economics, Uni- 
versity of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. 


Lot Angeles 


R.E.E.H. 


REUBEN E. E. HARKNESS, B.D., Ph.D. President of the American Baptist Historical Society. 


Baptist Church 


R.F.K. 


ROBERT F. KELLEY. Sports Writer, The Neiv York Times. 


Polo 


R.Ft. 


ROBERT FOSS. Editor, University of Wisconsin News Bureau, Madison, Wisconsin. 


Wisconsin, University of 


R.G.Ha. 


ROSWELL GRAY HAM, Ph.D., LL.D. President of Mount Hoi yoke College, South Hadley, Mass. 


Mount Holyoke College 


R.G.Hu. 


RAY G. HULBURT, D.O. Editor, Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 


Osteopathy 


R.GIt. 


ROY GITTINGER, Ph.D., LL.D. Dean of Administration and Professor of English History, University of Oklahoma, 
Norman, Oklu. 


Oklahoma 


R.Q.M. 


R. G. MACDONALD. Secretary, Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. 


Paper and Pulp Industry 


R.Q.S. 


ROBERT G. SPROUL, LL.D. President, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 


California, University of 


R.H.F. 


REGINALD H. FIEDLER. Chief, Division of Fishery Industries, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the 
Interior, Washington, D. C. 


Fisheries 


R.Ht. 


RALPH HAYES, B.A. Executive Director, New York Community Trust. 


Community Trusts 


R.H.So. 


RICHARD HAROLD SHREVE. President. American Institute of Architects. 


American Institute of 
Architects 


R.H.Sh. 


ROBERT HALE SHIELDS, A.M. Assistant in History, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 


California; Spain 


R.It. 


RAPHAEL ISAACS, M.A., M.D. Attending Physician in Charge of Haematology, Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago. 


Anaemia 


R.L.C. 


RUSSELL L. CECIL, M.D. Professor of Clinical Medicine, Cornell University Medical School, New York. 


Pneumonia 


R.L.Fy. 


ROSS LEE FINNEY. American Composer. Pupil of Boulanger, Berg, Roger Sessions, and G. Francesco Malipiero. 
1938 Pulitzer Scholarship, Guggenheim Fellowship. Professor of Music, Smith College, Northampton. Mass. 


Music (in part) 


R.L.W. 


RAY LYMAN WILBUR, A.M., M.D., LL.D., Se.D. President, Stanford University, California. 


Stanford University 


R.M.Le. 


ROBERT M. LESTER. Secretary, Carnegie Corporation of New York. 


Carnegie Trusts 


R.Nt. 


ROLF NUGENT. Director, Department of Consumer Credit Studies, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, N. Y. 


Consumer Credit 


Ro.St. 


ROBERT STEWART, B.S., Ph.D. Dean of College of Agriculture, University of Nevada, Reno. Nev. 


Floods and Flood Control 

(in part) 


Ro.Sto. 


ROBERT STOKES. Secretary, Press and Publications Board, Church Assembly, London. Editor of the Official Year 
Book of the Church of England. 


Church of England 


R.P.Br. 


RALPH P. BIEBER, Ph.D. Professor of History, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri. 


Missouri 


R.R.G. 


ROY R. G PINKER, M.D. Chairman, Neuro-paychiatric Department, Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago. 


Nervous System 


R.R.P. 


RAYE R. PLATT. Secretary, American Geographical Society, New York. 


American Geographical 
Society 


R.R.W. 


RUSSELL R. WAESCHE. Rear Admiral; Commandant, U. S. Coast Guard. 


Coast Guard, U.S. 


R.S.T. 


ROBERTS. THOMAS, B.A., M.A. Associate Military Historian, Historical Section, Army War College, Wash., D. C. 


Defense, National (U.S.) 


R.W.Be. 


RICHARD W. BECKMAN. Director of Publicity, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. 


Iowa State College 


S.An. 


SIRI ANDREWS, B.A. Assistant Professor, School of Librarianship, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. 


Children's Books 


S.A.W. 


SARA A. WHITEHURST (Mrs. John L. Whltohurst). President, General Federation of Women's Clubs. 


Women's Clubs, General 
Federation of 


S.B.F. 


SIDNEY B. FAY, Ph.D., Lltt.D., L.H.D. Professor of History, Harvard Univ. and Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Mass. 


Germany, etc. 


S.B.WI. 


S. B. WILLIAMS, LIU.B., E.E. Editor, Electrical World. 


Electrical Industries 


S.C.H*. 


SIDNEY CHANDLER HAYWARD, B.S., M.A. Secretary of Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. 


Dartmouth College 


S.D.MoC. 


S. D. MCCOMB. Manager, Marine Office of America, New York. 


Insurance, Marine 


S.E.F. 


STEPHEN E. FITZGERALD. Chief, Production Branch, Division of Information, Office for Emergency Management, 
Washington, D. C. 


Priorities 


SJ.Bu. 


SOLON JUSTUS BUCK, Ph.D. Archivist of the United States. Author of The Granger Movement-, etc. 


Archives, National 


SJ.MoK. 


S. JUSTUS MCKINLEY, Ph.D. Professor of History and Social Science, Emerson College, Boston, Mass. 


Boston 


S.J.W. 


SIDNEY JOHN WORSLEY, D.S.O., M.C., T.D. Fellow ot King's College. Academic Registrar, University of London, 
since 1930, and Acting Principal, 1936-37. 


London University 


s.Lea. 


STEPHEN LEACOCK, B.A., Ph.D., Lltt.D., LL.D., D.C.L. Professor Emeritus, McGill University, Montreal. 


Canada (in part) 


S.MoC.C. 


SAMUEL MCCREA CAVERT, D.D. General Secretary, The Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America. 


Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ 


S.MoC.L. 


SAMUEL MCCUNE LINDSAY, Ph.D., LL.D. Professor Emeritus of Social Legislation, Columbia Univ., New York. 


International Labour 
Organisation 


S.M.Hs. 


SHELBY M. HARRISON, LL.D. General Director, Russell Sage Foundation. 


Russell Sage Foundation 


8.O.R. 


SAMUEL O. RICE, Ph.B. Formerly Editor of Capper's Farmer and of the weekly Kansas City Star. 


Cereals 
Livestock, etc. 


S.PJ. 


S. PAUL JOHNSTON, B.S. Formerly Editor of Aviation. Co- ordinal or of Research, National Advisory Committee for 
Aeronautics. 


Air Forces of the World (in 

part) 


S.R.S. 


SAMUEL RAY SC HOLES, Ph.D. Professor of Glasa Technology, New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred Uni- 
versity, Alfred, New York. 


Glass 


S.8.H. 


S. S. HUEBNER, Ph.D.. Se.D. President, American College of Life Underwriters. Professor of Insurance and Com- 
merce, Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Stocks and Bonds 


S.So. 


SAMUEL SOSKIN, M.D., M.A.. Ph.D. Director of Metabolic and Endocrine Research, Michael Reese Hospital. 
Lecturer in Physiology, School of Medicine of the Division of Biological Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 


Endocrinology 


S.Sp, 


SIGMUND SPAETH. Ph.D. President, National Association for American Composers and Conductors, New York. 
Author of The Art of Enjoying Music; Music for Fun; etc. 


Music (in part) 


T.C.B. 


THEODORE C. BLEGEN, M.A., Ph.D., L.H.D. Dean of Graduate School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 
Minn. 


Minnesota 


T.O.S. 


TOM DOUGLAS SPIES, M.D. Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. Director of the Nutrition Clinic, HUlman Hospital, Birmingham, Ala. 


Pellagra 


T.E.D. 


THOMAS E. DEWEY, LL.B., LL.M., LL.D. Former District Attorney, New York County, New York. 


United Service Organ- 
isations 



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 



T.G.K. 


THEODORE G. KLUMPP. M.D. President of VVinthrop Chemical Company, Inc. Formerly Chief, Drug Division, 
Food and Drug Administration. Federal Security Ai^ency, Washington, I). C. 


Chemotherapy 


T.H.MacD. 


THOMAS H. MACDONALD, B.C.E. Commissioner, Public Roada Administration, Federal Works Agency, Hashing- 


Roads and Highways 


T.H.O. 


THOMAS H. OSGOOD, M.A., B.Sc., M.S., Ph.D. Head, Department of Physic*. Michigan State College, East 
Lansing, Mich. Co-author of An Outline of Atomic Physics. 


Physics 


TJ.D. 


THOMAS J. DEEGAN. Publicist, New York. 


Air Races 
Automobile Racing, etc. 


TJ.S. 


REV. THOMAS J. SHANAHAN, S.T.B.. A.M.L.S. Librarian, St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, Minn. President, Catholic 
Library association; Editor, Ninth National Eucharistic Congress; Contributor to Catholic Library World. 


Cathode Library 
Association 


T.M.K. 


THELMA M. KISTLER, Economist, Division of Monetary Research, U.S. Treasury. 


Exchange Control and 
Exchange Rates, etc. 


T.Pk. 


THOMAS PARK, S.B., Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Zoology, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. Editor of Ecology. 


Zoology 


T.RJ. 


T. R. JOHNSTON. Director of Information, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. Author of The Trustees and the Officers 
of Purdue University. 


Purdue University 


T.S.G. 


THOMAS S. GATES, LL.D. President, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Pennsylvanla,Unlversity of 


V.M.K. 


VIRGINIA MERGES KLETZER (Mrs. William Klotzer). President, National Congress of Parents and Teachers. 


Parents and Teachers, 
National Congress of 


V.R. 


VIOLA RIPLEY, B.Sc. Assistant Lecturer in Biology, Huddersfield Technical College, Huddersfield, England, 1026- 
28. 


Zoological Gardens 


v.s. 


VILHJALMUR STEFANSSON, A.M., Ph.D., LL.D. Geographer, Anthropologist; Commander of several arctic ex- 
peditions; since 1932 adviser on northern operations to Pan American Airways. 


Exploration and Discovery 


W.A.Ha. 


WILLIAM A. HAMOR. Assistant Director of Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Industrial Research 


Wa.Wal. 


WALTMAN WALTERS, M.D., Sc.D. Professor of Surgery, Mayo Foundation, Univ. of Minn., Minneapolis, Minn. 


Surgery 


W.B.Pu. 


WILLIAM BARROW PUGH, D.D., LL.D. Stated Clerk, The Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. 


Presbyterian Church 


W.C. 


WILLIAM CROCKER, A.B., A.M., Ph.D. Managing Director, Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Inc., 

Yonkers, N.Y. 


Botany (in part) 


W.C.C. 


WALTER C. COFFEY, B.S., M.S., LL.D. Acting President. University of Minnesota. 


Minnesota, University of 


W.CI. 


WALTER CLARK, Ph.D. Assistant to Vice- President in Charge of Research and Development for the Eastman Kodak 
Company. Author of Photography by Infrared: Its Principles and Applications. 


Photography (I'M part) 


W.D.L. 


WILLIAM DRAPER LEWIS, LL.B., Ph.D., LL.D. Director, American Law Institute, Philadelphia. Pennsylvania. 


American Law Institute 


W.D.Ma. 


WILLIAM D. MARTIN, A.F.I. A. (Australia). Economic and Statistical Research Section, Intelligence Branch, 
Australia House, London, since 1927. 


Australia, Common- 
wealth of 
New South Wales, etc. 


W.E.Bt. 


WILLIAM E. BRANDT, A.B. Manager, Service Bureau, The National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs, New 
York, N. Y. 


Baseball 


W.E.Ga. 


W. E. GARRISON. Litt.D., B.D.. Ph.D. Professorof Church History, Disciples Divinity House and Associate Professor 
of Church History, University of Chicago, Chicago. 


Disciples of Christ 


W.E.O. 


WILLIAM E. OGILVIE. Assistant Manager, International Live Stock Exposition, Chicago. 


Shows (in part) 


W.E.Ss. 


WAYNE EDSON STEVENS, M.A., D.Ph. Professor of History, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. 


New Hampshire 


W.F.B. 


WALTER F. BOGNER. Architect, Associate Professor of Architecture, School of Design, Harvard University, Cam 
bridge, Mass. 


Architecture 


W.F.Br. 


WILLIAM F. BRAASCH, M.D. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Professor of Urology, University of Minnesota 
Graduate School, Minneapolis, Minn. Editorial Committee, Journal of Urology. 


Urology 


W.G. 


WILLIAM GREEN. President, American Federation of Labor, Washington, D. C. 


American Federation of 
Labor 


W.G.Ca. 


WALTER G. CAMPBELL, LL.B. Commismoner of Food and Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, Federal Security 
Agency, Washington, D. C. 


Food and Drug 
Administration, etc. 


W.H.Cam. 


WILLIAM HENRY CAMERON, Managing Director, National Safety Council, Chicago, Illinois. 


Accidents (in part) 


W.H.Ch. 


WILLIAM HENRY CHAMBERLIN. Author and journalist, former correspondent for The Christian Science Monitor 
in the Soviet Union, the Far East and France. 


Japan, etc. 


W.H.Dt. 
W.H.G. 


WILLIAM H. DAVIS. Chairman of the National War Labor Board, which superseded on Jan. 12, 1942, the National 
Defense Mediation Board, of which Mr. Davis was also chairman. 


Defense Mediation Board, 
National 

Lutherans 


WJ.Bt. 


W. J. BRETT. Editor. Fur Trade Review, New York. 


Furs 


WJ.C. 


WILLIAM J. CUNNINGHAM, A.M. James J. Hill Professor of Transportation, Graduate School of Business Adminis- 
tration, Harvard University, Boston, Mass. 


Railroads (in part) 


W.Ju. 


WILL JUDY. Editor of Do* World. 


Shows (in part) 


W.L.Bo. 


WILLIAM L. BENEDICT, M.D. The Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Professorof Ophthalmology, University of Min- 
nesota Graduate School, Minneapolis, Minn. 


Eye, Diseases of 


W.L.PI. 


WARREN LEE PIERSON, LL.B. President, Export-Import Bank of Washington, D. C. 


Export-Import Bank of 
Washington 


W.L.S. 


WILLIAM LOMMER STURDEVANT. Director of Information, Tennessee Valley Authority, since 1933. 


Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 


W.L.T. 


W. L. TREADWAY, M.D. Medical Director, U. S. Public Health Service, Los Angeles, California. 


Intoxication, Alcoholic 


W.MoM. 


WHEELER MCMILLEN, LL.D. Editor in Chief, Farm Journal and Farmer's Wife. 


Chemurgy 


W.P.C. 


WILLIAM PITCHER CREAGER, C.E. Consulting Hydraulic Engineer. Author of Engineering for Masonry Dams, etc. 


Dams 


W.P.HI. 


WALTER P. HALL, Ph.D. Dodge Professor of History, Princeton University, Princeton, N. j. 


Italy 


W.Pr. 


WALTER PRICHARD, M.A. Oflkier d' Academic. Professor and Head of the Department of History, Louisiana State 
University, University Station, Baton Rouge, La. Editor, Louisiana Historical Quarterly. 


Louisiana 


W.P.S. 


WARREN P. SPENCER, Ph.D. Professor of Genetics, College of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio. 


Genetics 


W.R.Ck. 


WILLIAM R. CLARK. On the staff of Newark Evening News, Newark, N. J. 


New Jersey 


W.S.G. 


WALTER S. GIFFORD, A.B., LL.D. President, American Telephone and Telegraph Company, New York. 


Telephone 


W.S.TO. 


WALTER S. TOWER, M.A., Ph.D. President, American Iron and Steel Institute, New York. 


American Iron and Steel 
Institute 


W.T.M. 


WILLIAM T. MANNING, D.C.L., LL.D. Protestant Episcopal Bishop of New York. 


Protestant Episcopal 
Church 


W.T.St. 


W. TETLEY STEPHENSON, M.A., M.lnst.T. Lecturer and Cassel Reader in Transport at the London School of 
Economics and Political Science, 1906-39. 


Motor Transportation (in 

Part) 


W.W.B. 


WILLARD W. BEATTY. Director of Education, Office of Indian Affairs, U. S. Department of the Interior. Wash., D. C. 


Indians, American 


X 


ANONYMOUS. 





19 


41 


JANUARY 

S M T W T F I 
1 2 3 4 


JULY 

S M T W T F S 
....12345 


6678 91011 
12131415161718 
192021 22232425 
26 27 28 29 30 31 


678 91011 12 
13141516171819 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 31 . . . . 


FEBRUARY 
1 


AUGUST 
12 


2345678 
9101112131415 
161718192021 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 . . 


3456789 
1011 1213141516 
1718192021 2223 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 


MARCH 
1 


SEPTEMBER 
..123456 


2345678 
91011 12131415 
161718192021 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 


7 8 91011 1213 
14151617181920 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 


30 31 




APRIL 
.... 1 2345 


OCTOBER 
1 2 3 4 


678 91011 12 
13141516171819 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27282930 


5678 91011 
12131415161718 
192021 22232425 
26 27 28 29 30 31 


MAY 
1 2 3 


NOVEMBER 
1 


4 6 6 7 8 910 
11 121314151617 
18192021 222324 
25262728293031 



2345678 
91011 1213 1415 
161718192021 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 
30 


JUNE 
1234567 

8 91011 121314 
15161718192021 
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 
29 30 


DECEMBER 
..123456 
7 8 91011 1213 
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21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 31 



T942 

JANUARY | JULY 

SMTWTFSSMTWTFS 



1 2 3l 

4 5 6 7 8 910 ! 



1234; 

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111213141516171 121314151617181 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 | 
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 26 27 28 29 30 31 .. 



! FEBRUARY AUGUST 

I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 

1 8 9 1011 121314 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 i 
15161718192021 91011 12 13 14 15 I 
22232425262728 161718192021 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 



MARCH SEPTEMBER | 

'1234567 ....1234 5, 
8 91011121314 678 9101112! 

15161718192021 13141516171819 

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 

29 30 31 27 28 29 30 i 



APRIL 

' 1234 

5678 91011 
, 12131415161718 
i 192021 22232425 
| 26 27 28J930 . . 

MAY 

12 

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1011 1213141516 
1718192021 2223 
24252627282930 
31 



JUNE 

..123456 
7 8 91011 1213 
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21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 



OCTOBER 
1 23 

45678 910 
11 121314151617 
18192021 222324 
25^262728293031^ 

NOVEMBER 

1234567' 

8 91011 121314 

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29 30 i 



DECEMBER 
....12345 

678 91011 12 
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20 21 22 23 24 25 26 | 
2728293031 .. 



1943 


JANUARY 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 


JULY 
S M T W T F S 
1 23 


3456789 
1011 1213141516 
1718192021 2223 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 


4 5 6 7 8 910 
11 121314151617 
18192021222324 
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 


FEBRUARY 

..123456 
7 8 91011 1213 
14151617181920 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 


AUGUST 
1234567 
8 91011 121314 
15161718192021 
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 
29 30 31 


MARCH 

..123456 
7 8 91011 1213 
14151617181920 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28293031 


SEPTEMBER 
1 234 


5678 91011 
12131415161718 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 .. 


APRIL 
1 23 


OCTOBER 
12 


4 5 6 7 8 910 
11 121314151617 
18192021 222324 
25 26 27 28 29 30 . . 



3456789 
1011 1213141516 
1718192021 2223 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 


MAY 
1 


NOVEMBER 
123456 


2345678 
91011 12131415 
161718192021 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 
30 31 


7 8 91011 1213 
14151617181920 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 




JUNE 
.... 1 2 3 4 5 
678 91011 12 
13141516171819 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27282930 


DECEMBER 
1 234 


5678 91011 
12131415161718 
192021 22232425 
262728293031 .. 



JANUARY, 1942 

1 New Year's day. 

6 Second Besfion of 77th U. S. con- 
gress convenes. 

6 Admission of New Mexico to union; 
30th anniversary. 

6 Epiphany, or Twelfth Night. 

7 Christmas in Russian Orthodox 
church. 

8 Jackson day. 

11 Centenary, birth of William Jarnes, 
U. S. philosopher. 

13 Festival of St. Veronica. 

19 Mohammedan New Year, begin- 
ning of year 1361. 

20 Eve of St. AgneH. 

22 Feast of St. Chrysostom. 
26 Foundation day, Australia. 

FEBRUARY 

1 Septuagesima Sunday. 

2 Candlemas. Purification of the 
Virgin. 

2 Ground-Hog day. 

3 Centenary, birth of Sidney Lanier, 
U. S. poet. 

8 Boy Scout day, U.S.A. 

12 Birth of Abraham Lincoln, 1809. 
12 Establishment of Chinese republic; 

30th anniversary. 

14 Admission of Arizona to union; 
30th anniversary. 

14 St. Valentine's day. 

16 Quinquapesima (Shrove Sunday). 

17 Shrove Tuesday. Mardi Gras. 

18 Ash Wednesday. 

22 Washington's birthday, 1732. 
24 Feast of St. Matthias. 

- ' >:.-'' . ' .ft 

MARCH 

1 Admission of Nebraska to union; 
75th anniversary. 

1 St. David's day, patron saint of 
Wales. 

2 Texas Independence day. 

2 Total eclipse of moon begins; ends 
March 3. 

9 Greatest brilliancy of Venus. 
12 Girl Scout day, U.S.A. 

16 Partial eclipse of sun begins; ends 
March 17. 

17 St. Patrick's day, patron saint of 
Ireland. 

21 Equinox. Beginning of spring. 



THE year 1942 of the Christian Era corresponds to the year of Crea- 
tion 5702-5703 of the Jewish calendar; to the year 1360-61 of the 
Mohammedan hegira; to the i'6th of the United States; and to the 
i74th year of the Encyclopedia Britannica. 



25 Annunciation. Quarter day. 

29 Palm Sunday. 

30 Seward day, Alaska; 75th anni- 
versary, purchase of Alaska by 
U.S.A. 

APRIL 

1 All Fools' day. 

2 Maundy Thursday. 

2 Jewish Passover, 1st day. 

2 IT. S. mint established; 150th an- 
niversary. 

3 Good Friday. 

5 Easter Sunday. 

6 U. S. declaration of war on Ger- 
many in World War I; 25th anni- 
versary. 

6 Army day. 
14 Pan-American day. 

23 St. George's day. 

25 St. Mark's day. ""'"' 

26 Confederate Memorial day (also 
May 10, June 3). 

MAY 

1 May day. International labour 
festival. 

5 Cinco de Mayo, Mexican holiday. 
10 Rogation Sunday. ,?' 

10 Mother's day. l 

14 Ascension day. 

21 Death of Hernando de Soto; 400th 
anniversary. 

22 Shebuoth (Jewish Pentecost). 

24 Empire day. Queen Victoria born, 
1810. 

24 Pentecost (Whitsunday). 

27 St. Bede's day. 

30 Memorial or Decoration day, 
U.S.A. 

31 Trinity Sunday. 

31 Union day. South Africa. 

JUNE 

1 Admission of Kentucky to union; 
150th anniversary. 

4 Corpus Christi. 



9 Trooping the colour in honour of 
King George VI's birthday. His 
majesty was actually born on 
Dec. 14. 

11 Feast of St. Barnabas. 
14 Flag day. 

21 Father's day. 

22 Solstice. Beginning of summer} 
longest day. 

22 Second anniversary, signing of 

Franco-German armistice. 
24 St. John's day. 
30 St. Paul's day. 

JULY 

1 Dominion day, Canada; 75th an- 
niversary. 

4 Independence day, 

7 Fifth anniversary, beginning of 
Chinese-Japanese war. 

14 Bastille day. 

15 St. Swithin's day. 

22 Feast of St. Mary Magdalene, 
26 St. Anne's day. 

AUGUST 

1 Swiss Independence day. 

4 Birth of Percy Bysshe Shelley; 
150th anniversary. 

6 Feast of the Transfiguration. 
10 Feast of St. Lawrence. 

12 Partial eclipse of sun. 
15 Assumption. 

24 Feast of St. Bartholomew, 
26 Total eclipse of moon. 

SEPTEMBER 

1 Third anniversary, beginning of 

World War II. 
3 Third anniversary, entrance of 

Great Britain into World War II. 

7 Labor day, U.S.A. and Canada. 
10 Partial eclipse of sun. 

12 Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New 
Year), beginning year 5703. 



14 Election day in Maine. 

16 Mexican Independence day. 

17 Constitution day. 

21 YomKippur (Jewish Day of Atone- 
ment). 

23 Equinox. Beginning of autumn, 
26 Dominion day, N f ew Zealand. 

26 Succoth (Jewish Feast of Taber- 
nacles), 1st day. 

29 Michaelmas. Quarter day. 

30 Feast of St. Jerome. 

OCTOBER 

4 Feast of St, Francis of Assis,. 

12 Columbus day; 450th anniversary, 

discovery of America. 
21 Trafalgar day. 

25 St. Crispin and St. Crispinian. 

27 Navy day, U.S.A. 

30 Mussolini's inarch on Rome; 20th 
anniversary. 

31 Hallowe'en. 

NOVEMBER 

1 All Saints' day. All Hallows. 
3 General election day, U.S.A. 

5 Guy Fawkes' day. 

9 Lord Mayor's show, London. 

11 Armistice day. 

16 Feast of St. Edmund. ,y v : 

26 Thanksgiving day, U.S.A. 

29 First Sunday in Advent; beginning 
of ecclesiastical year. 

30 St. Andrew's day, patron saint of 
Scotland. 

DECEMBER 

5 U.S.S.R. Constitution day. 
7 First anniversary, Japanese at- 
tack on Pearl Harbor. 

7 Birth of Mary, Queen of Scots; 
400th anniversary. 

8 Immaculate Conception. 

8 U.S. declaration of war on Japan; 
1st anniversary. 

17 Aviation day, U.S.A. 

21 Forefathers' day. 

22 Solstice. Beginning of winter; 
shortest day. 

25 Christmas. 

26 Boxing day. English bank holiday. 

28 Childermas. Holy Innocents' day. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS, 1941 



For elections, disasters and assas- 
sinations of 1941, see under those 
headings In the text. For obituaries 
of prominent persons who died 
during 1941, see under the entry 
Obituaries. 



JANUARY 

I Unidentified planes be- 
I lieved to be German raided 
parts of Eire; attacks were re- 
peated during two following 
days, when Dublin was bombed. 

Presence of German war- 
planes and pilots in Italy to 
assist in Mediterranean cam- 
paign against British admitted 
in Rome. 



2 



William Allen White resigned 
as chairman of the Committee to 
Defend America by Aiding the 
Allies after reported rift on 
"short-of-war" policies. 

3 First session of the 77th 
United States congress con- 
vened; Sam Rayburn (Dem,, 
Tex.) re-elected speaker of house. 

4 Syrian high commission- 
er, Gen. Henri Dentz, placed 
under command of Gen. Wey- 
gand by Vichy gov't. 

5 Bard I a occupied by Aus- 
tralian shock troops after 
two-day assault by land, sea and 
air; British claimed capture of 
more than 35,000 Italian prison- 
ers. 

William D. Leahy, new U.S. 
ambassador to France, arrived 
in Vichy. 

BPres. Roosevelt, in annual 
message to congress, declared 
U.S.A. should act as arsenal to 
supply all necessary war sup- 
plies to democracies defending 
themselves against aggressor na- 
tions. 

Office of Production Man- 
agement, new "super-de- 
fense council, established by ex- 
ecutive order of Pres. Roosevelt; 
William S. Knudsen was named 
director general and Sidney Hill- 
man associate director general. 

8 Budget minimum of $17,- 
485,528,049 in expenditures 
for fiscal year 1942, including 
$10,811,314,600 for defense, pre- 
sented to congress by Pres. 
Roosevelt; deficit was estimated 
at $9,210,093,049. 

Husband E. Kimmel named 
commander in chief of U.S. fleet; 
navy was divided into Pacific, 
Atlantic and Asiatic fleets. 

9 Retreat of French forces on 
Cambodian frontier after 
battles with Thai troops admit- 
ted by military authorities in 
Indo-China. 



7 



Harry L. Hopkins, special en- 
voy of Pres. Roosevelt to Brit- 
ain, arrived in London; he con- 
ferred next day with Churchill, 
Halifax and Eden. 

mBilj giving president un- 
limited power to lease or 
loan U.S. materials of war to 
friendly foreign powers intro- 
duced simultaneously in house 
and senate. 

Germany and U.S.S.R. signed 
trade agreement described by 
D.N.B., official nazi press asso- 
ciation, as "largest grain deal in 
history/' 

Fall of Kllsura to Greek forces 
announced in Athens. 

Recapture of Buna in Kenya 
colony announced by British, 
who also claimed capture of El 
Wad in Italian Somaliland and 
start of advance into Eritrea. 

German -I tali an commu- 
nique announced that first 
joint axis air attack in Mediter- 
ranean had damaged four British 
warships on Jan. 10. 

10 Wendell L.Will kieendors- 

\L ed U.S. lend-lease bill, but 
suggested time limit for presi- 
dential powers conferred by 
measure. 

Clarence A. Hathaway, former 
editor of communist New York 
Daily Worker, expelled from 
party. 

10 Gen. Ubaldo Soddu re- 

10 lieved as commander of Ital- 
ian forces in Albania; Gen. Ugo 
Cavallero, chief of staff, suc- 
ceeded him. 

B Hearings on lend-lease 
bill opened by house com- 
mittee on foreign affairs. 

Sir Gerald Campbell, high 
commissioner to Canada, ap* 
pointed British minister to U.S. A. 
to assist Viscount Halifax, new 
ambassador. 

K Immediate appropria- 
tion of $350,000,000 for 200 
new merchant ships requested of 
congress by Pres. Roosevelt. 

11 Weapons, ships and 
1 1 planes, but no armies from 
U.S.A. in 1941, asked by Win- 
ston Churchill in Glasgow speech 
attended by Harry L. Hopkins. 

Kassala in Anglo-Egyptian Su- 
dan recaptured by British. 

W Marshal Retain and 
Pierre Laval composed dif- 
ferences after meeting, accord- 
ing to Vichy communique. 



Republican party would "never 
again gain control of the Amer- 
ican government" if it endorsed 
a blind opposition to lend-lease 
bill, said Wendell L. Willkie in 
address at New York city. 

British aircraft carrier "Illus- 
trious" bombed by nazi planes 
in Mediterranean for thira time 
in eight days. 

MPres. Roosevelt conferred 
with Willkie in Washington 
and gave him personal note for 
Winston Churchill. 

U.S.A. apologized to Germany 
for incident in which U.S. sailor 
ripped swastika flag from nazi 
consulate in San Francisco. 



OC Rioting In Milan and other 
&J northern Italian cities in 
presence of German troops re- 
ported from Belgrade. 



20 



Franklin D. Roosevelt in- 
augurated for third term. 



British mechanized forces pene- 
trated Eritrea to depth of 30 
miles. 

a U.S.A. lifted "moral em- 
bargo" on aircraft and avia- 
tion gasoline levied against U.S.- 
S.R. during Finnish war. 

Renewed disorders between 
Iron Guard and regular army 
broke out in Rumania; hundreds 
killed in clashes of following 
days. 



22 



Tobruk fell to British after 
36-hour attack. 



James C. Me Reynolds resign- 
ed from U.S. supreme court. 

Wendell L. Willkie left aboard 
transatlantic plane for "fact- 
finding" tour of Great Britain. 

Japan offered to mediate Thai- 
French dispute over Indo-China 
border, 

00 Stalemate in European war 
&0 predicted by Col. Charles 
A. Lindbergh in testimony on 
lend-lease bill before house for- 
eign affairs committee; he sug- 
gested a negotiated peace to end 
conflict. 

Dean Q. Acheson nominated 
assistant sec'y of state by Pres. 
Roosevelt. 

04 Viscount Halifax, British 
L'J ambassador to U.S.A., was 
personally welcomed to new post 
by Pres. Roosevelt aboard bat- 
tleship "King George V" in 
Chesapeake bay. 

Bucharest reported collapse of 
Iron Guardist rebellion after es- 
timated casualties of 6,000; gov't 
placed blame for uprising upon 
Horia Si ma, Iron Guard leader. 



26 



Wendell Willkie arrived in 
London. 



OTf SOS supposedly sent by 
L I "Empress of Australia" re- 
ported British liner sinking off 
west Africa, but London declar- 
ed ship was safe and suggested 
message was nazi hoax. 

Japanese Premier Konoye 

asked "forgiveness of the emper- 
or and the people" for "billions 
of yen . . . spent and 100,000 
officers and men sacrificed" in 
Chinese war. 

00 Capture of Murzuk in 
southern Libya by Free 
French after forced march from 
Lake Chad region announced in 
broadcast by Gen. Georges Ca- 
troux, who led assault on Italian 
garrison. 

OQ Alexander Korlzls ap- 
4.V pointed Greek premier fol- 
lowing death of Gen. John Me- 
taxas. 

Of! British entered Derna, 
vU Libya, after unexpected 3- 
day resistance by Italian de- 
fenders. 

Adolf Hitler declared that ships 
of any nationality bringing aid to 
Britain would be torpedoed; he 
prophesied that 1941 would see 
complete axis victory. 

01 Thai-French armistice 
ul signed aboard Japanese 
cruiser at Saigon. 



FEBRUARY 

I Sec'y of Navy Frank Knox 
told senate foreign relations 
committee he was "positive" the 
axis would invade western hem- 
isphere if Britain were over- 
whelmed. 

2 Fierce rioting broke out in 
Johannesburg, South Africa, 
between soldiers and anti- Brit- 
ish demonstrators. 

British armies captured Agor* 
dat, strategic mountain railroad 
town in Eritrea, 100 mi. west of 
Massawa. 

3 Pres. Batista of Cuba oust- 
ed three "seditious" military 
leaders, assumed command of 
republic's armed forces and sus- 
pended constitutional guaran- 
tees for 15 days. 

U.S. supreme court -upheld 
constitutionality of Wages and 
Hours law; in another decision, 



CALENDAR OF EVENTSO941 



FEBRUARY Continued 

the court ruled that disputes be- 
tween unions do not come under 
the Sherman Anti-trust act. 

4 British army of Nile drove 
45 mi. beyond Oerna and 
captured ancient city of Cyrene 
in Libya. 

Wendell Willkle flew to Dub- 
lin for a "frank, free discussion" 
with Hire Prime Minister Kamon 
De Valera. 

Lend-lease bill might involve 
U.S.A. in war in 90 days, Gen. 
Robert K. Wood of America 
First committee told senate for- 
eign relations committee. 

5 U.S. secret service began 
fingerprinting and photo- 
graphing Washington correspon- 
dents assigned to White House. 

Wendell Willkie left London 
for U.S.A.; he asked newsmen to 
"tell the Germans" that M we 
German-Americans hate tyran- 
ny and the nazi regime." 

6 Pres. Roosevelt named John 
G. Winant to be U.S. ambas- 
sador to Great Britain. 

7 British forces in Africa 
captured Bengasi, major Ital- 
ian port in east Libya. 

Germany's annual wartime 
tax bill estimated at 34,0(K),- 
000,000 marks by K.W. Schmidt, 
director of the Deutsche bank. 

8 Lend -lease bill, empower- 
ing Prcs. Roosevelt to trans- 
fer military equipment to Brit- 
ain, passed in house of repre- 
sentatives by vote of 260 to 165. 

9 British need for U.S. tools 
and war supplies rather than 
U.S. soldiers emphasized by 
Churchill in radio broadcast. 

British warships hurled 300 
tons of shells into Genoa, damag- 
ing oil tanks, ships and main 
power plant; 72 civilians killed 
and 226 wounded in bombard- 
ment, Rome announced. 

Pierre Etienne Flandin resign- 
ed from foreign ministry in 
Vichy cabinet and was succeed- 
ed by Adm. Jean Darlan, who 
also took over post of vice- 
premier. , 

N Great Britain broke off 
diplomatic relations with 
Rumania. 



H Wendell Willkie, in U.S. 
after war tour of England, 
urged U.S. to speed aid to Brit- 
ain. 

MBill raising the ceiling on 
U.S. national debt from 
$49,000,000,000 to $65,000,000,- 
000 approved by senate. 

British parachute soldiers 

landed in southern Italy in at- 
tempt to sabotage communica- 
tions; Rome reported all were 
captured. 

1C Pres. Roosevelt dispatch- 
IJ ed James B.Conant, pres- 
ident of Harvard university, to 
Kngland on mission to exchange 
war science data with British. 

1C Britain in desperate and 
ID immediate need of U.S. 

help, declared Harry Hopkins on 
return from 4-week trip in Eng- 
land. 

|"l Japan, through official 
If spokesman, offered its serv- 
ices to end all wars, and blamed 
U.S. and Britain for continued 
conflict. 

Bulgaria and Turkey signed 
nonuggression pact. 

Supreme court upheld decision 
sentencing Earl Browder, general 
sec'y of U.S. communist party, 
to four years in prison for pass- 
port fraud. 

Royal air force, in 1,800-mi. 
round-trip flight, dropped leaf- 
lets over Poland. 

If! Large Australian army 

10 landed at Singapore; Cana- 
dians advised to leave China and 
Japan. 

U.S. Undersec'y of State 
Sumner Welles rejected Jap- 
an's mediation offer; said United 
States was more interested in 
deeds than in words. 

|Q Fortification of Guam 

Iv naval base voted by U.S. 
house of representatives. 

M British armies crossed 
Juba river and penetrated 
Italian Somali land. 

a Soviets expelled Maxim 
Litvinov, former foreign 
commissar, from central commit- 
tee of communist party for "in- 
ability to discharge obligations." 

A "dangerous situation" 

might result from Anglo- Amer- 
ican defense measures in the far 
east, Japanese Foreign Minister 
Yosuke Matsuoka warned. 



Rome gov't slashed rations of 

fats, olive oil and butter by 50%. 

00 Premier Mussolini ad- 
mitted Italian defeats in 

Libya and Greece, but declared 
that German aid would help him 
defeat British and Greeks. 

Sixteen strikes blocked $60,- 
000,000 in defense orders in fac- 
tories throughout U.S. 

O4 Hitler announced in a 
fcT 1 speech in historic Munich 
beer-cellar that he was planning 
a gigantic U-boat war against 
Britain. 

"White race must cede Ocea- 
nia 11 to the Japanese, Foreign 
Minister Yosuke Matsuoka told 
Japanese diet; he defined ' 'Ocea- 
nia" as huge area in Pacific ca- 
pable of supporting 600,000,000 
people. 

Pres. Roosevelt asked congress 
for $3,812,311,197 in appropria- 
tions for army. 

Office of Production Manage- 
ment placed aluminum on pri- 
orities list. 

Communist party of U.S. 

named Robert Minor as general 
sec'y- 

MPres. Roosevelt placed 
bans on export of berylli- 
um, graphite electrodes, atro- 
pine, belladonna, sole leather 
and belting leather. 

Soviet union approved budg- 
et of 215,400,000,000 roubles, 
a third of which was earmarked 
for national defense. 

OfJ British armies captured 
&U Mogadishu, capital of Ital- 
* ian Somaliland, climaxing 220- 
mi. dash in 48 hours. 

01 Italy sent Spain a bill for 
LI 7,500,000,000 lire for ctid 
given Franco during Spanish 
civil war. 

U.S. war department sent two 
squadrons of planes to the Phil- 
ippines and six squadrons to the 
new Alaskan base. 

Ginger Rogers and James 
Stewart won 1940 awards of 
Academy of Motion Pictures for 
best cinema performances of year. 

OO A plan offered by the Office 
of Production Management 
ended C.I.O. strike at Bethlehem 
Steel corporation's Lackawan- 
na plant. 



Senator Wheeler assailed 
lend -lease bill as move to war 
and dictatorship in the U.S. 

U.S. completed secret remov- 
al of $8,500,000,000 in gold from 
New York city to subterranean 
gold vaults at Fort Knox, Ky. 



MARCH 

(Bulgaria signed Rome- Ber- 
lin-Tokyo pact, permitting 
German troops to march into 
Sofia. 

German military authorities 

fined the city of Amsterdam 15,- 
000,000 guilders as a penalty for 
disorders against nazi occupa- 
tion. 

2 Turkey closed Straits of 
Dardanelles to all ships, ex- 
cept those having special per- 
mits. 

Bulgarian Premier Philoff 

told parliament in Sofia that the 
German "mission" in Bulgaria 
was there solely to l 'preserve 
peace" in the Balkans. 



3 



Soviet union denounced 
Bulgarian adherence to axis 
pact. 

Office of Production Manage- 
ment placed magnesium on U.S. 
defense priorities list. 

5 Nazis passed death sen- 
tences on 18 Netherlanders 
convicted of committing acts of 
terrorism and sabotage against 
Germans. 

Ex-King Carol of Rumania 

and Mme. Lupescu fled Spain 
and crossed frontier into Portu- 

**:,;->*: 

6 U.S. requested Italy to close 
two consulates in U.S. and to 
restrict the movements of Italian 
consular agents. 

7 Pres. Roosevelt denounced 
jurisdictional strikes hamper- 
ing defense production. 

Off ice of Production Manage- 
ment placed nickel and neo- 
prene and other synthetic rub- 
bers on defense priorities list. 



The pictures on this page are, 
left to right: 

HOPKINS Jan. 9 

RETAIN Jan. 18 

HALIFAX Jan. 24 

WINANT Fb. 6 

WILLKIE Feb. 11 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS*1941 



MARCH Conf/nt/ed 

All Italian Somali land fell to 
British troops; Italians fled into 
Ethiopia. 



8 



Senate passed lend -lease 
bill by vote of 60 to 31. 



"The democratic way of life" 

in the United States could not 
survive if democracy over the 
rest of the world died, Pres. 
Roosevelt said in radio broad- 
cast. 

Rumanian Premier Antones- 

cu gave Hitler, Goering and 
Mussolini power to veto all Ru- 
manian economic agreements 
with foreign countries. 

Greeks resumed offensive in 

Albania. 

W Marshal Retain appealed 
to U.S. for food to ward off 
famine in France; Vice-Premier^ 
Admiral Darlan said French navy' 
would fight if Britain interfered 
with food convoys. 

France, under Japanese pres- 
sure, ceded Indo-Chinese terri- 
tories to Thailand (Siam). 

Bus strike tied up New York 
city traffic. 



Lend-lease bill signed by 
Pres. Roosevelt. 



Nazis sank 29 ships totalling 
148,038 tons in week ending 
March 2, London admiralty ad- 
mitted. 

10 Pres. Roosevelt urged con- 

\L gress to appropriate $7,000,- 
000,000 to speed arms to the 
democracies. 

Prime Minister Churchill 

thanked the U.S. for enacting 
the lend-lease bill, which he 
termed a "new Magna Carta." 

M Naval bill asking $3,446,- 
585,144 for building of two- 
ocean navy was passed by U.S. 
house of representatives. 

1C Pres. Roosevelt in radio 
Iv speech told U.S. that entire 
nation had to make sacrifices in 
order to defeat dictatorships. 



The pictures on this page are, 
left to right: 

MATSUOKA Feb. 21 

WHEELER Fb. 28 

CAROL Mar. 5 

CVETKOVITCH Mar. 25 

SIMOVITCH Mar. 27 



KNo help could save Brit- 
ain, Chancellor Hitler told 
audience of nazi leaders. 

n The "Bremen," 51,000- 
1 1 ton German liner, was re- 
ported ablaze. 

I A U.S. house of representa- 
10 tives passed bill earmark- 
ing $7 ,000,000,000 to aid "democ- 
racies resisting aggression." 

Pres. Roosevelt announced cre- 
ation of 11 -man board to medi- 
ate strikes involving defense in- 
dustries. 

U.S. and Canada signed pact to 
develop Great Lakes-St. Law- 
rence waterway "for defense pur- 
poses." 



20 



Plymouth shattered by 
nazi air raid. 



Throngs in Sydney cheered ar- 
rival of seven U.S. warships. 

a Three Yugoslav minis- 
ters quit cabinet in protest 
against gov't's readiness to join 
axis. 

New York bus strike ended 
after 11 days. 

OO Grand Coulee dam in 

LL Washington started opera- 
tion, two years ahead of schedule. 

C.I.O. called strike at 

Bethlehem Steel plant, Beth- 
lehem, Pa. 



U.S.S.R. and Turkey ex- 
changed neutrality pledges. 



25 



Yugoslav Premier Cvetko- 
vitch and foreign minister signed 
axis pact in Vienna. 

Marshal Graziani "retired at 
his own request" as commander 
of Italian armies in Libya and as 
chief of the Italian general staff. 

OC Yugoslavs revolted against 

&U axis pact; heavy police de- 
tachments guarded Belgrade. 

French colonial garrisons 

clamped martial law on several 
Syrian cities after uprisings in 
Damascus and Aleppo. 

British cut meat ration to 

six ounces weekly per person. 

01 Yugoslav army ousted pro- 
L I axis government leaders and 
placed young King Peter II on 
throne. Gen. Dushan Simovitch, 
new premier, rushed mobiliza- 
tion of 1,200,000 men; Belgrade 
greeted coup with joy; U.S. 



promised moral and material 
support to new anti-axis regime, 
and Churchill vowed to help 
Yugoslavs "to defend their free- 
dom and native land." 

British troops seized Cheren, 

important city in Italian Kri- 
trea. 

OQ Bethlehem plant in 
LV Johnstown, Pa., and C.I.O. 

strikers signed agreement to end 
walkout, while C.I.O. workers at 
another Bethlehem plant in Cam- 
bria, Pa., started new strike. 

OQ British Mediterranean 
4.J fleet battered Italian naval 
units in fierce engagement off 
Cape Matapan, Greece, sinking 
three cruisers and two destroyers 
and crippling a 35,000-ton bat- 
tleship. 

Ofl U.S. seized 65 axis-con- 
OU trolled ships docked in 
U.S. ports. 

French shore batteries in Al- 
geria fired on British naval units 
attempting to intercept a French 
convoy believed laden with war 
supplies for German units in 
Africa. 

C.I.O. strikers voted to return 
to work at International Harves- 
ter plant in Chicago. 

German and Italian nation- 
als tied from Belgrade. 

01 Germany and Italy pro- 
01 tested to U.S. against ship 
seizures; U.S. department of 
justice issued warrants to arrest 
100 nazi and 775 Italian seamen 
on charges of sabotage. 

Yugoslavia's armed forces 

ready for war, Premier Gen. 
Dusan Simovitch told countrv 
in proclamation; nazi envoy left 
Belgrade. 

Strike launched by 400,000 

soft-coal miners after operators 
and C.I.O. leaders failed to reach 
agreement. 

Violence flared at Allis-Chal- 
mers plant near Milwaukee 
when police used armoured car 
and tear gas bombs to disperse 
3,000 C.I.O. pickets who tried to 
prevent nonunion men from en- 
tering the plant. . < 



APRIL 

(Germans charged Yugo- 
slavs with persecution of 
German racial minorities. 



British forces In Africa cap- 
tured Asmara, capital of Italian 
Eritrea. 

Gov. Heil of Wisconsin ordered 

work halted in Allis-Chalmers 
plant after C.I.O. pickets and 
sympathizers engaged in three- 
hour battle with police. 



2 



C.I.O. strike forced closing 
of Ford's River Rouge plant. 



Four were killed and six 

wounded in riots between soft- 
coal strikers and nonunion min- 
ers in Marian, Ky. 

3 U.S. asked Italy to recall 
her naval attach^ to Wash- 
ington. . ; 

Nazi-Italian armoured units in 
Libya forced British troops to 
evacuate the port of Bengasi. 

4 German armies, pouring 
through Hungary, Rumania 
and Bulgaria, massed at fron- 
tiers adjacent to Yugoslavia and 
Greece. 

Pro-axis leader in Iraq ousted 
pro- British premier in coup 
d'etat. 



Aduwa fell to British troops 
in Ethiopia. 



5 



6 Nazi armies invaded Yu- 
goslavia and Greece; Hit- 
ler denounced Belgrade govern- 
ment for "intriguing" with 
Britain; U.S.S.R. signed 5-year 
11 n aggression and friendship 
pact with Yugoslavia; nazis 
bombed Belgrade. 

U.S. Sec'y of State Hull as- 
sailed nazi invasion of Greece 
and Yugoslavia as "barbarous"; 
controlled soviet press also 
blamed nazis for invasion. 

Addis Ababa capitulated to 
British army in Ethiopia. 

U.S. Defense Mediation board 

won agreement from both man- 
agement and union to end 75- 
day Allis-Chalmers strike. 

7 Royal air force bombed 
Sofia, Bulgaria; Yugoslavs 
took Scutari in Albania after 
launching offensive against Ital- 
ian forces; Greeks lost Thrace to 
nazi armoured units, but re- 
sisted pander thrust into Struma 
valley. 

London severed diplomatic 
relations with Budapest. 

Britain raised basic income 

tax rate 50% to 10 shillings on 
the pound. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS*1941 



APRIL-Conf/nued 

NLRB ordered collective bar- 
gaining elections among workers 
at Ford's River Rouge and Lin- 
coln plants and at Bethlehem 
Steel's Lackawanna plant. 

11 Honour 1 ' forbade French 
attack on British, Marshal 
Retain declared in broadcast to 
nation. 

8 German army broke 
through Varclar valley pass, 
menacing Greek force defending 
Salonika; nazi forces in Yugo- 
slavia took Skoplje. 

Axis forces In North Africa 

captured Libyan port of Derna; 
British retreated to Tobruk. 

9 Nazi army captured Sa- 
lonika, splitting Greece in 
two; Yugoslav army pierced 
Italian line in northern Albania, 
taking two towns; Nish fell to 
German troops advancing in 
Yugoslavia. 

British planes bombed heart 
of Berlin, damaging State 
Opera house and other buildings. 

German and Italian forces In 
Libya captured six British gen- 
erals and 2,000 men; British 
took Massawa, port in Italian 
Eritrea. 

Prime Minister Churchill ap- 
pealed to U.S. for aid in keeping 
Atlantic sea lanes open. 

mU.S. revealed agreement 
with Danish envoy in Wash- 
ington to protect Greenland 
against aggression, giving U.S. 
right to build bases on island. 

80,000 Greek prisoners taken 
in fighting east of Vardar river 
valley, German high command 
announced; Berlin also reported 
capture of 20,000 Yugoslav pris- 
oners and important gains in 
Yugoslavia. Turks ordered evac- 
uation of Istanbul. 

Ten -day Ford strike set- 
_ _ tied by Governor Van Wag- 
oner of Michigan; both Henry 
Ford and C.I.O. agreed to con- 
cessions. 

Nazi mechanized units 

launched fierce attack against 
Anglo-Greek flank in the Fiorina 
area; German troops swept 
through Yugoslavia and made 
contact with their Italian allies; 
Hungarian armies invaded Yu- 
goslavia. 

10 Italians claimed advance 
\L in Yugoslav-Albanian fron- 
tier sector; Hungarian army oc- 
cupied Subotica; U.S.S.R. de- 
nounced Hungary for invading 
Yugoslavia. 

Nazi-occupied Denmark de- 
clared "void" the agreement 
signed between U.S. and Danish 
envoy in Washington. 



B Soviet union and Japan 
signed neutrality pact un- 
der which Russia recognized 
Tokyo's suzerainty over Man- 
choukuo while Tokyo pledged to 
respect the Moscow-dominated 
Outer Mongolian People's Re- 
public. 

Nazi mechanized troops occu- 
pied Bardia in Libya, driving 
British forces back across the 
Egyptian frontier. 

Stiff Anglo-Greek resistance 

slowed German drive in Balkans; 
nazi troops occupied Belgrade. 

Pope Pius, in annual Easter 
message, appealed to all belliger- 
ents to refrain from using "still 
more homicidal" weapons. 

M German-Italian motor- 
ized forces crossed the 
Egyptian frontier, taking town 
of El Sollum. 

British troops retired to new 
defense line in Greece near 
Mount Olympus; German high 
command said Yugoslav army 
was virtually destroyed. 

BNazI army advanced 60 
mi. into Greece; Italian 
forces launched twin offensive on 
the Greek-Albanian frontier; 
Hitler and Mussolini gave recog- 
nition to new, independent state 
of Croatia. 

U.S. army should be prepared 
to fight anywhere, Sec'y of War 
Stimson said. 

Four men were killed, includ- 
ing president and vice-president 
of a coal mine, and a score were 
wounded in gun battle involving 
striking miners and operators of 
coal mine near Middlesboro, Ky. 

M Nazis established new 
line 60 mi. within Greece; 
surrender of the second Yugo- 
slav army based at Sarajevo an- 
nounced by German high com- 
mand; Greek troops abandoned 
Koritza to Italian forces on 
Albanian front. 

Steel prices In U.S. were 
"frozen" at prevailing levels by 
Price Administrator Henderson. 

|"1 Entire Yugoslav army 
If surrendered; German tank 
divisions methodically drove 
back Greek and British armies. 

Axis drive eastward along riorth 
African coast stalled near EJgyp- 
tian frontier. 

U.S. motor car industry vol- 
untarily agreed to cut produc- 
tion by 1, 000,000 cars, beginning 
Aug. 1, 1941. 



18 



Allied armies In Greece 

retired to new lines. 



Retaliating for nazi raid of 

April 16 on London, R.A.F. sub- 



jected Berlin to a heavy bomb- 
ing. 

BNazI troops captured Mt. 
Olympus from Australian 
units. 

British landed strong forces 

in Iraq to guard Mosul oil fields. 

Vichy dispatches said 53 French 

vessels had been "requisitioned," 
presumably by nazis. 

Soviet-Japanese pact aimed at 
"foiling" Anglo-American ef- 
forts to draw U.S.S.R. into war, 
declared Pravda, official com- 
munist party organ. 

0(1 U.S. -Canadian pact for 
Lit co-operation in producing 
war materials for Britain was 
signed by Prime Minister Mac- 
kenzie King and Pres. Roosevelt. 

01 Nazis reported British 
Ll armies in Greece fleeing in 
evacuation ships. 

Emmanuel Tsouderos became 
Greek premier, succeeding Alex- 
ander Korizis, who had commit- 
ted suicide. 

00 King George II of Greece 

LL (led Athens for Crete as the 
Greek army of Epirus and Mace- 
donia surrendered to nazis; Brit- 
ish forces held the mountain 
pass at Thermopylae. 

00 British and Greek troops 
slowed up nazi drive in rear- 
guard action to cover evacua- 
tion; nazi armoured divisions 
broke through Thermopylae 
pass. 

* 

1,000 tons of shells were pour- 
ed into Tripoli by British war- 
ships. 

Allied rear-guard troops 

delayed German forces at 
Thermopylae pass; nazi bomb- 
ers pounded Peiraeeus, port of 
Athens, while German mechan- 
ized divisions advanced to with- 
in 35 mi. of the Greek capital. 

M Immediate extension of 
U.S. neutrality patrol areas 
in Atlantic waters was an- 
nounced by Pres. Roosevelt. 

OC German panzer units 
Lit raced across Corinth canal 
in effort to trap fleeing Allied 
troops near Athens. 

Of Increasing U.S. aid would 
Li help British empire pass 
through the "long, stern, scowl- 
ing valley" of war to victory, 
Churchill declared in a broad- 
cast to the empire and the U.S. 

Nazi mechanized divisions 

marched into Athens; German 
forces also occupied Patras on 
the Peloponnesus. 

00 British Imperial armies 
continued to evacuate 
Greece; Berlin claimed destruc- 



tion of 285,000 tons of British 
shipping in Greek waters; Ital- 
ian troops occupied Corfu. 

Col. Lindbergh resigned his 

commission as a reserve officer 
in the U. S. air corps, declaring 
that Pres. Roosevelt's remarks 
questioning his loyalty left him 
"no honourable alternative." 

U. S. supreme court decision 
ruled that Negroes are entitled 
to train accommodations equal 
to those given white passengers. 

The 28-day strike of the soft- 
coal miners in the U. S. ended as 
coal operators in the southern 
states agreed to a wage boost of 
$1 per clay. 

The Venezuelan congress elec- 
ted Gen. Isaias Angarita Medina 
president of Venezuela. 

M Soviet union banned ship- 
ment in transit through 
U.S.S.R. of war materials des- 
tined for foreign use. 

British authorities evacuated 
women, children and aged from 
Plymouth after a series of fierce 
nazi air raids. 

OH British succeeded in evac- 
OU uating 48,000 of the 60,000 
troops originally landed in 
Greece, Churchill told commons. 

Russian press reported that 
12,000 German troops, equipped 
with tanks and big guns, had 
landed at Abo in southern 
Finland. 

MAY 

IU. S. Maritime commis- 
sion announced plans were 
underway to shift 50 U. S. oil 
tankers to the service of Britain. 

Lord Beaverbrook was trans- 
ferred from the ministry of air- 
craft production and became 
British minister of state. 

Iraqi troops massed at Hab- 
bania airdrome after the British 
rejected an ultimatum from the 
pro-axis Baghdad government to 
evacuate the airfield. 

Sale of U. S. defense bonds 

and stamps was opened to the 
public. 

2 Iraqi artillery shelled the 
British forces holding the 
Habbania airdrome. 

3 British beat back Iraqi 
troops in the Basra area while 
R.A.F. planes bombed Iraqi 
batteries shelling British garri- 
son in Habbania airfield. 

Italy annexed Ljubljana, cap- 
ital of Slovenia a Yugoslav ter- 
ritoryand the area surround- 
ing it. 

Federal Communications 
commission adopted new regu- 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS*1941 



MAY-Conf/nued 

lations designed to prevent mo- 
nopolies in radio broadcasting. 

4 Pres. Roosevelt declared 
the U. S. "ever ready to fight 
again" for its existence; Hitler 
boasted that Germany and her 
allies could defeat "any possible 
coalition in the world.' 

5 Robert E. Sherwood won 
the annual Pulitzer prize for 
drama with his play There Shall 
Be No Night\ the New York 
Times and Westbrook Pegler, 
columnist, also won Pulitzer 
awards. 

Two French freighters with 
14,000 tons of U. S. flour in their 
holds reached Marseilles. 

6U. S.Sec'yof WarStimson 
urged the United States to 
use its navy to escort war sup- 
plies to Britain. 

Joseph Stalin assumed the pre- 
miership of the soviet union 
following the resignation of 
Vyacheslav Molotov from that 
office; Molotov, however, con- 
tinued in the post of foreign 
commissar. 

Eleven American fliers, who 

ferried planes across the Atlantic 
from Canada to Britain, were 
reported among the 122 persons 
lost at sea when the boat on 
which they were travelling was 
sunk by a torpedo. 

The U. S. banned all exports to 
the soviet union of machinery 
or equipment needed for U. $. 
defense production. 

Halle Selassie returned to the 
Ethiopian throne he lost in 1936 
to Italian armies. 

7 House of representatives 
voted 266 to 120 to seize 
foreign vessels tied up in U. S. 
ports. 

House of commons approved 
Britain's war policy in a 447 to 3 
vote of confidence given to 
Churchill. 

British land forces, aided by 
the R.A.F., succeeded in break- 
ing the siege laid by Iraqi troops 
around Habbania airdrome. 

German authorities, in a deal 
with French Vice-Premier Dar- 
lan, agreed to cut the cost of 
military occupation of France 
by 25%. 

8 Waves of nazi bombers 
swarmed over Britain, strik- 
ing particularly at the Hull area; 
British reported shooting down 
50 of the raiders in 30 hours. 

Axis planes raided the Suez 
canal zone. 

Germany, in a note delivered 
to the state department, pro- 



tested the U.S. government's 
move to seize German ships tied 
up in U.S. ports. 



9 



Three hundred British 
planes poured tons of bombs 
over Hamburg and Bremen. 



Soviet Russia withdrew diplo- 
matic recognition from the exiled 
governments of Yugoslavia, Bel- 
gium and Norway. 

mNazi bombers "blitzed" 
London, subjecting the Brit- 
ish capital to a fierce battering. 

1,443 merchantmen totalling 
5,961,044 tons employed in Brit- 
ish interests had been sunk since 
the war began, the admiralty 
disclosed. 

Eleven shipbuilding plants in 

the San Francisco area working 
on defense contracts were shut 
down by a strike. 

Rudolf Hess, Hitler's personal 
deputy, flew to Scotland and 
made a parachute landing near 
Glasgow; he broke his ankle on 
landing, was rushed to a hospital 
and held incommunicado. 

Nazi bombers showered 
London with 100,000 bombs, 
destroying house of commons 
chamber and damaging West- 
minster abbey, Westminster hall, 
the Egyptian section of the Brit- 
ish museum and Big Ben. 

10 German statement on the 

\L flight of Rudolf Hess to 
Scotland said the nazi leader 
was suffering from "hallucina- 
tions and a mental disease." 

Adm. Darlan, Vichy vice-pre- 
mier, conferred with Adolf Hitler. 



13 



Germans proclaimed the 
northern part of the Red 
sea a war zone. 

MB! 1 1 increasing the crop 
loan rate from 75 to 85% of 
parity was passed in the senate. 

Twenty-one "flying fortress* 

es" completed a secret mass 
flight to Hawaii. 

B General Motors corp. 
averted a strike of 250,000 
workers at 61 plants by accept- 
ing a National Defense Media- 
tion board peace plan and giving 
workers a 10-cent-an-hour wage 
boost. 

Marshal Retain placed his 
stamp of approval on the Dar- 
lan-Hitler talks and appealed to 
the French people to follow him 
on the road of "honour and 
national interest." 

Pres. Roosevelt, concerned over 
Franco-German "collaboration," 
appealed to the French people 
not to support the Retain policy. 



U.S. Coast Guard, acting on 
the president's orders, seized 
every French vessel, including 
the giant liner, "Normandie," in 
U.S. harbours. 

Bolivian gov't decreed expro- 
priation of the Lloyd Aereo Boli- 
viano, a German airline operat- 
ing in Bolivia. 

Completed five months ahead 
of schedule, the 35,000-ton U.S. 
battleship "Washington" joined 
the fleet. 

K Royal Air Force planes 
bombed German troop- 
carrying planes based at air- 
dromes in Syria; Britain an- 
nounced that Syria was "enemy- 
occupied territory" and pro- 
claimed the Syrian coast a danger 
zone. 

Key town of El Soil urn on the 

Libyan border was stormed and 
recaptured by British. 

II The axis air forces and 
1 1 the R.A.F. traded blows in 
the near east, with German 
planes bombing British positions 
and British raiders attacking 
German and Italian concentra- 
tions in French-controlled Syria. 

The soviet gov't concluded a 
diplomatic and trade agreement 
with the new Iraqi gov't. 

10 A postwar reconstruction 
10 program giving all nations 
access to raw materials and ban- 
ishing nationalistic trade barriers 
was suggested by Sec'y Hull in a 
radio address. 

The Duke of Spoleto, cousin 
of King Victor Emmanuel III, 
became king of Croatia. 

M Mayor La Guardia was 
named by Pres. Roosevelt 
to head Office of Civilian 
Defense. 

91 ,000 hard-coal miners ended 
a one-day strike after anthracite 
operators agreed to a demand for 
wage increases and paid vaca- 
tions. 

Agents of the "Big Five" rail- 
road brotherhoods voted to 
demand a 30% increase in wages 
to meet the increased cost of 
living. 

Italian force of 7,000 com- 
manded by the Duke of Aosta 
surrendered to British forces in 
Alagi, Ethiopia. 

MThe nazis launched an 
aerial invasion of Crete, 
landing 7,000 parachute troops 
from gliders; Churchill admitted 
a serious battle was under way 
for mastery of the island. 

British troops seized Feluja, 
Iraq, 35 mi. west of Baghdad. 

Egyptian steamer "Zamzam" 

was sunk in the south Atlantic in 



mid-April, it was announced in 
Berlin; all 312 passengers, in- 
cluding 138 Americans, and the 
ship's crew were reported safe. 

Of The German foreign of- 
41 flee asked the U.S. to with- 
draw its diplomatic representa- 
tives from Paris, the state dep't. 
announced. 

A submarine, presumably Ger- 
man, sank the U.S. freighter 
"Robin Moor" in the south 
Atlantic. 

00 Air-borne nazi parachute 
LL troops won a foothold on 
Crete, seizing Candia and the 
Maleme airport; Churchill ad- 
mitted that the R.A.F. with- 
drew from the Crete battle be- 
cause its single airdrome on the 
island was hopelessly battered; 
German dive-bombers claimed 
the sinking of four British crui- 
sers and several destroyers in 
the Crete action. 

British forces in Iraq estab- 
lished new positions only 20 mi. 
from Baghdad. 

A warning to Vichy that Brit- 
ain would bomb strategic areas 
in unoccupied zones unless the 
French immediately halted their 
German collaboration policy was 
sounded by Foreign Minister 
Anthony Eden. 

The C.I.O. won a sweeping vic- 
tory in the collective bargaining 
poll in two Detroit Ford plants, 
defeating the A.F. of L. by a 
vote of 5 1,866 to 20,364. 

M German planes landed re- 
inforcements at Maleme air- 
drome as nazi air-borne con- 
tingents renewed their drive to 
oust Allied forces from Crete. 

R.A.F. bombers crushed an 
Iraqi counterattack against Brit- 
ish forces at Feluja, 

OJThe "Hood," 42,500-ton 
fc*T British battle cruiser, was 
blown to bits by the 35,000-ton 
German battleship "Bismarck" 
between Greenland and Iceland. 

German parachute troops 

were firmly entrenched in west- 
ern Crete while nazi bombers 
continued to blast British war- 
ships. 

OC U.S. convoys aiding Brit- 
L J ain would be regarded as a 
"plain act of war?' German 
Grand Admiral Erich Raeder 
announced in an interview. 

Britain threw a giant naval 
dragnet around the northeastern 
Atlantic in the quest for the Ger- 
man battleship "Bismarck." 

Narrowly escaping capture, 

King George of Greece fled Crete 
for Cairo. 



26 

N.J. 



A 15-mlnute test black- 
out was staged in Newark, 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS. 1941 



-Continued 

A new draft of all men who 

reached 21 after the first regis- 
tration was ordered by Pres. 
Roosevelt; it was estimated 
1,000,000 youths would be 
affected. 

German forces in Crete drove 
back British imperial armies to 
points 15 mi. from Suda bay. 

Eire Prime Minister De Va- 
lera warned Britain not to apply 
conscription to Ulster. 

The German battleship 
"Bismarck" was sunk 400 
mi. off the French coast after a 
running sea battle with British. 

Pros. Roosevelt proclaimed an 
unlimited national emergency to 
place the U.S. on a war footing. 

Churchill abandoned the plan 
to apply conscription to northern 
Ireland to avoid friction with the 
government of lure. 

00 Germany's air-borne 
&0 army captured Canea, cap- 
ital of Crete, and pressed drive to 
oust British warships from Suda 
bay. 

R.A.F. planes, raiding an Ital- 
ian convoy near French Tunisia, 
bombed port of Sfax and scored 
direct hit on a French freighter. 

M British armies started to 
evacuate Crete following 
nazi seizure of Suda bay and 
Candia. 

A general preference order de- 
signed to give defense and vital 
civilian needs first call on all 
steel products was signed by 
K. R. Stettinius, priorities direc- 
tor of OPM. 

Mlraq Premier Rashid AM 
tied to Iran as British troops 
reached the outskirts of Baghdad. 

German forces controlled the 
whole northern coast of Crete 
as Anglo-Greek resistance col- 
lapsed. 

01 Secretary of Interior 
Jl Ickes was appointed by 
Pres. Roosevelt as Petroleum 
Co-ordinator for National De- 
fense. 

An armistice was signed in 
Baghdad between Britain and 
Iraq, ending month-old war. 

The British Board of Trade 

announced that, clothing would 
be rationed, starting June 1. 



Four big bombs were dropped 
on Dublin by unidentified planes, 
killing 27 and injuring 200. 

JUNE 

I The abandonment of 
Crete to the axis was ad- 
mitted by the British war office 
in an announcement declaring 
15,000 troops were safely eva- 
cuated from the island. 

2 Hitler and Mussolini con- 
ferred for five hours at the 
Brenner pass on axis military 
and political moves. 

Charles Evans Hughes retired 
as chief justice of the U.S. 
supreme court. 

3 The British Labour party 
voted at its 40th annual con- 
vention to continue the war until 
the axis was crushed. 

4 The R.A.F. bombed Beirut, 
in preparation for an inva- 
sion of tne French mandated 
territories of Syria and Lebanon. 

Axis planes staged their first 
air raid over Alexandria, Kgypt, 
killing an estimated 150 persons 
and injuring 200 others. 

SSec'y Hull warned Vichy 
that a policy of collaboration 
with Germany would meet with 
sharp disapproval in the U.S. 

6 Rumours that the British 
were seeking peace were 
branded by Pres. Roosevelt as 
falsehoods deliberately circulated 
by na/is. 

Bill authorizing the U.S. to 

requisition foreign ships lying 
idle in U.S. harbours was signed 
by Pres. Roosevelt. 

8 An Allied force of British 
and Free French troops in- 
vaded Syria from three points. 

9 U.S. army took over strike- 
bound North American Avia- 
tion plant upon order of Pres. 
Roosevelt. 

The Selective Service admin- 
istration ordered reclassifica- 
tion of essential defense workers 
"where they have ceased to per- 
form their jobs." 

A strike of C.I.O. die-casters 

closed the Cleveland plant of the 
Aluminum Co. of America. 

Allied forces pushing into Syria 
n eared the key cities of 
Damascus and Beirut. 



MA majority of strikers at 
the North American Avia- 
tion plant voted to return to 
their jobs. 

The U.S. was already in the war, 

declared Premier Mussolini in a 
speech to the Italian nation. 

H C.I.O. strikers at alumi- 
num plant in Cleveland ac- 
cepted U.S. Defense Mediation 
board's plan to resume work on 
defense orders totalling $60,000,- 
000. 

The massing of nazi troops on 

soviet frontiers increased tension 
between the reich and U.S.S.R. 

10 Harlan Fiske Stone was 
\L appointed chief justice of 
the U.S. supreme court by Pres. 
Roosevelt; Sen. James F. Byrnes 
(Dem., S.C.) and Attorney-Gen- 
eral Robert II . Jackson were 
named associate justices. 

BU.S. war dep't asked for a 
50% slash in motor car pro- 
duction. 

MPres. Roosevelt ordered 
immediate free/ing of all 
assets of axis and axis-occupied 
countries; Japan was not in- 
cluded in the order. 

1C Italy retaliated for U.S. 
13 action in holding axis assets 
by free/ing U.S. funds in Italy. 

K Closing of all German 
consulates,! ravel and prop- 
aganda agencies in the U.S. was 
ordered by the state department. 

Sec'y Ickes banned shipment of 
252,000 gal. of lubricating oil 
bound for Japan. 

Thirty-five survivors of the 

U.S. freighter "Robin Moor," 
assertedly sunk by a German 
U-boat, were rescued by a Brit- 
ish vessel, thus accounting for all 
passengers on the torpedoed 
boat. 

U.S. state department 

ordered a ban on the entry 
of refugees with relatives in Ger- 
many and German-occupied ter- 
ritory. 

Ifl 9 ermany and Turkey 
10 signed a 10-year friendship 
treaty. v ^Y 

Joe Louis, heavyweight boxing 
champion, knocked out Billy 
Conn in the 13th round of a close 
bout. 



prisal for action closing all axis 
consulates in the U.S. 

The OPM announced plans to 
ration rubber in an effort to 
reduce U.S. domestic consump- 
tion by 25%. 



20 



Finland ordered general 
mobilization. 



Pres. Roosevelt branded the 

sinking of the freighter "Robin 
Moor' as an act of "piracy" and 
as a German effort to intimidate 
the U.S. 

Pres. Roosevelt placed a curb 
on oil shipments from the Atlan- 
tic coast to all countries, save the 
Allies and Latin-American na- 
tions. 

Ford Motor company signed 
union shop contract with the 
United Automobile Workers 
(C.I.O.). 

01 The U.S. ordered the Ital- 
Zl ian gov't to shut all its con- 
sulates in U.S. territory. 

Damascus, ancient city and 
capital of Syria, fell to British 
and Free French forces. 

The Moscow radio announced 
that 1,500,000 Russian children 
would leave large soviet cities 
"to participate in various scien- 
tific expeditions"; this move co- 
incided with reports that Rus- 
sian civilians were fleeing western 
frontiers. 

,-.. ' : >'' 

OO German armies launched 
LL an invasion of U.S.S.R. on 

three huge fronts stretching from 
the Baltic to the Black sea; nazi 
panzer units penetrated Russian 
Poland. 

British Prime Minister 
Churchill promised economic 
and technical support for U.S. 
S.R.; any state that fought 
against Hitler would have Brit- 
isn aid, he added. 

Following the lead of her axis 
partner, Italy declared war on 
U.S.S.R.; Turkey proclaimed her 
neutrality. *'.> j j 



23 



German mechanized for- 
ces captured Brest-Litovsk. 



19 



Germany and Italy ex- 
pelled U.vS. consuls in re- 



The pictures on this page are, 
left to right: 

DARLAN May 12 

HULL May 18 

AOSTA May 19 

DE VALERA May 26 

RASHID ALI May 30 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS*1941 



JUNE Continued 

M Warsaw and Constanta 

fcT bombed by soviet planes; 
German forces reported gains on 
all sectors of Russian front. 

Pres. Roosevelt pledged U.S. to 
give U.S.S.R. all possible aid 
and ordered the release of $40,- 
000,000 in soviet credits frozen 
June 14. 

OC Nazi panzer divisions 
L J penetrated soviet lines south 
of Kaunas and east of Warsaw; 
Russian troops repulsed German 
attacks on the Bcssarabian 
front; Russian planes bombed 
Finnish cities; Sweden affirmed 
her neutrality, but announced 
that permission had been grant- 
ed for the passage of one nazi 
division from Norway across 
Swedish territory to Finland; 
Turkey assured the soviet union 
of her neutrality; Pres. Roose- 
velt announced the neutrality 
act would not be invoked against 
Russia. 

Leon Henderson, federal price 
control administrator, stated 
that the gov't would fix all 
motor car prices. 

German motorized divi- 
sions cracked Russian lines 
between Grodno and Bialystok 
to reach lines 50 mi. from Minsk; 
another panzer force reached the 
sector between Luck and Brody; 
Russian air force pounded nazi 
bases in Rumania and Hungary; 
Finland entered the war on the 
side of the nazis in a "defensive 
capacity," according to Pres. 
Risto Ryti. 

Pope Pius XII, in a message to 
the 9th national eucharistic con- 
gress in St. Paul, Minn., warned 
that a current of "black pagan- 
ism" was menacing the world. 

01 Russian troops retreated 
L I along a broad sector stretch- 
ing from Lithuania to the Pripet 
marshes to prepared positions 
defending Minsk; Hungary de- 
clared war on the soviet union. 

U.S. Senate passed bill provid- 
ing $10,384,821,624 for army 
appropriations. 



The pictures on this page are, 
left to right: 

ICKES Jun*16 

AUCHINLECK July 1 

MARSHALL July 3 

STALIN July 3 

DENTZ July9 



Douglas B-19, giant 82-ton 
bombing plane, successfully com- 
pleted test flight in California. 

OO 4,000 German and Rus- 
&0 sian tanks engaged in a 
gigantic battle in the Luck sec- 
tor of Russian-held Poland; nazi 
divisions neared Minsk; nazi- 
Kinnish forces launched a dual 
drive aimed at capturing Mur- 
mansk and Leningrad. 



29 



German tank divisions 

passed beyond Minsk. 



Pres. Roosevelt ordered the in- 
duction of 900,000 more men 
into U.S. land forces for the year 
beginning July 1, 1941. 

F.B.I, seized 29 suspects in the 
New York area on charges of 
espionage and conspiracy. 

Churchill appointed Lord Bea- 
verbrook minister of supply. 

Qft Minsk fell to twin German 
OU armies converging on the 
road leading from Borisov to 
Smolensk; a third nazi army 
based at Prxernysl pierced 
Ukraine defenses and captured 
Lwow. 

The Vichy gov't severed diplo- 
matic relations with U.S.S.R. 



JULY 

I German armies captured 
Riga; Berlin admitted stiff 
Russian resistance. 

Gen. Sir Archibald Wavell was 

relieved of the British middle 
east command and replaced by 
Gen. Sir Claude Auchinleck; 
Gen. Wavell took over the India 
command left by Gen. Auchin- 
leck. 

Soviet Russia asked the U.S. 
for help and offered to pay for 
war supplies, U.S. state depart- 
ment announced. 

Germany and six axis satellites 
recognized the Japanese-control- 
led puppet regime in Nanking. 

Gen. Hershey, selective service 
head, ordered the deferment of 
all prospective conscripts over 28 
years of age j>ending final con- 
gressional action on a bill to that 
effect. .,:-. 

Federal Power commission 

ordered creation of a 17-state 
power pool in the southeast U.S. 



2 



German columns reputed- 
ly trapped two Russian 



armies in the Bialystok sector, 
capturing 160,000 prisoners; so- 
viet forces sped new defense lines 
along the Berezina river. 

The North American Avia- 
tion co. at Inglcwood, Calif., 
taken over by the army on 
June 9 after a strike closed the 
plant, was returned to the 
owners. 

3 Soviet Premier Josef Sta- 
lin exhorted the Russian 
people to defend their soil by 
adopting a "scorched earth" 
policy. 

Russian and German panzer 
units fought fiercely for control 
of the Berezina river in the 
Bobruisk and Borisov sectors; 
Germans admitted bad weather 
and Russian resistance slowed 
the nazi drive; Finnish-German 
columns pushed toward Lenin- 
grad. 

Gen. Marshall, U.S. chief of 
staff, asked for immediate legis- 
lation to extend the military 
service of conscript sand national 
guardsmen and to permit use of 
U.S. armed forces beyond the 
western hemisphere. 

4 Red army halted the nazi 
drive to cross the Berezina; 
Moscow said nazi casualties and 
prisoners since the beginning of 
the campaign totalled 700,000 
troops; Berlin claimed the cap- 
ture of 200,000 Russians and put 
Russian casualties at 600,000. 

5 Powerful soviet counter- 
attacks checked nazi ar- 
moured divisions in the Baltic 
and White Russian arenas of the 
Russian front; panzer divisions, 
far ahead of the nazi main lines, 
reached outpostsof the Stalin line 
at the Dnieper river, only 300 mi. 
from Moscow. 

R. A. F. u n i ts bombed t he F rench 
"invasion coast" and Rhenish 
industrial cities for the 21st con- 
secutive day. 

6 A century-old border 
wrangle between Peru and 
Kcuador flared into clashes be- 
tween border patrols and rival 
air forces. 

Red army took the offensive in 
k the Lepel and Borisoy sectors; 
German panzer divisions were 
halted at the Dvina river; nazi- 
Rumanian army was repulsed 
north of Jassy. 

Southern coal operators sign- 
ed a collective bargaining con- 
tract with C.I.O. miners. 



Ten Italian generals and 5,000 

Italian troops surrendered to 
British armies in Ethiopia. 

7 Occupation of Iceland by 
U.S. naval and marine units 
announced to congress by Pres. 
Roosevelt. 

China would fight on 4 or 14 

years to victory, Chungking For- 
eign Minister Quo Tai-chi de- 
clared in a broadcast commem- 
orating the fourth anniversary of 
the Sinojapanese war. 

8 Nazi war machine was 
stalled on five principal sec- 
tors of the Russian front by 
heavy soviet counterattacks; 
Maxim Litvinov, former soviet 
foreign commissar, exhorted the 
British to hurl their full weight 
against the Germans in the west. 

U.S. occupation of Iceland 

was branded as "a stab in the 
back" by a German foreign 
office organ. 

9 German mechanized units 
resumed their drive into 
U.S.S.R. 

Gen. Henri Dentz, commander 
of the Vichy forces in Syria, was 
authorized by the Petain govern- 
ment to ask the British for an 
armistice. 

in Pres. Roosevelt asked con- 
IU gress for additional defense 
appropriations of $4,770,065, 588. 

Iceland parliament approved 
by a 39 to 3 vote the Reykjavik 
government's agreement permit- 
ting U.S. armed forces to occupy 

the island. 

U.S. Navy warned shipping that 
mines had been laid in the ap- 
proaches to San Francisco bay. 

H Additional appropria- 
tions of $3,323,000,000 for 
the navy and the merchant 
marine were asked by Pres. 
Roosevelt. 

Belfast authorities confirmed 
the presence of U.S. technicians 
and labourers in northern Ire- 
land. 

10 Breaching of the Stalin 
\L line at all decisive points 
was announced by the German 
high command; nazi forces took 
Vitebsk and crossed the Dvina 
river, menacing Smolensk. 

An armistice to end the war in 

Syria was concluded between the 
British and Free French forces 
and the Vichy command. 





8 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS.1941 



JULY-Conf/m/td 

B Great Britain and soviet 
Russia signed a mutual aid 
pact; each pledged full war aid 
assistance to the other and 
agreed not to sign a peace pact 
except by mutual consent. 

German tank columns con- 
tinued to pound the Stalin line; 
Moscow admitted the loss of 
250,000 men, but claimed the 
nazis had lost 1,000,000. 

H Thirteen German troop- 
ships, two destroyers and a 
tank-laden barge were sunk in 
the Baltic, Moscow announced. 

Japan closed the port of Kobe 

to foreigners for a 10-day period. 

B German planes blasted a 
path for tank columns mov- 
ing on Leningrad; a nazi force 
swept to within 100 mi. of the 
northern metropolis; Russian 
counterdrives pushed back Ger- 
man armies along the Dniej>er 
river. 

Thirty-three persons were in- 
dicted in a federal court in 
Brooklyn on charges of acting 
as German espionage agents. 

Churchill told commons that 
the soviet- British mutual aid 
pact meant that "the Russian 
people are now our allies." 

ID German high command 

Id claimed capture of Smo- 
lensk, 230 mi. from Moscow; 
Russian forces checked nazi units 
in the Bobruisk and Novograd 
Volynsk sectors; Russian air 
fleet bombed Ploesti oil fields in 
Rumania; rationing of foodstuffs 
and manufactured goods de- 
creed in Moscow. 

Cabinet of Prince Fumimaro 
Konoye in Tokyo resigned. 

17 An estimated 9,000,000 
If men were locked in battle 
along the entire Russian front. 

Pros. Roosevelt issued a black- 
list order freezing funds in the 
U.S. of 1,800 Latin-American 
firms having axis ties. 

Gen. Franco denounced the 
U.S. for refusing to ship wheat 
to Spain. 

Joe Dl Magglo of the New York 
Yankees established a modern 
baseball record by hitting safely 
in 56 consecutive games. 

The second draft lottery to 

determine the order in which an 
estimated 750,000 youths 21 
years old would be drafted into 
the U.S. army was held in 
Washington. 

B Japanese Premier Prince 
Konoye formed a new cabi- 
net, the third headed by him. 



B Germans announced the 
"disintegration" of the 
Russian front, declaring that 
Leningrad, Moscow, Kiev and 
Odessa were threatened by nazi 
armies; Stalin assumed the post 
of defense commissar of the 
soviet union. 

Bolivia nipped a subversive plot 
laid to axis agents, declared a 
state of siege and demanded the 
ouster of tne German minister. 

The U.S. called upon private 
shippers to transfer an addition- 
al 100 oil tankers to Britain. 

9fl Tne Brltlsn launched a 
L\i propaganda campaign called 
the "V for Victory* drive and 
designed to stir revolts in axis- 
occupied countries. 

a Pres. Roosevelt urged con- 
gress to speed legislation to 
keep trainees in the army for 
more than the statutory year 
limit. 

A nationwide drive to collect 
scrap aluminum for defense 
needs was launched in the U.S. 

00 German-Finnish forces 

LL pressed drive on the Lenin- 
grad front; Moscow admitted 
nazi gains in the southern 
Ukraine sector. 

00 Vichy yielded to Tokyo's 
demands for military bases 
in Indo-China, in return for 
which Japan agreed to "protect" 
that colony from British and 
Free French "domination. " 

O J Russian armies claimed to 
fc4 have stopped German drives 
in vicinities of Leningrad and 
Smolensk. 

OC Acting together to balk 
&u further Nipponese aggression 
in the far east, the U.S. and 
Britain froze all Japanese assets. 

00 Pres. Roosevelt placed 
L\J armed forces of Philippines 
under U.S. command; Japan 
froze U.S. and British assets; 
U.S. defense agencies froze all 
stocks of raw silks; Great Britain 
gave notice of its intention to 
terminate British-Japanese-In- 
dian-Burman trade treaties, 

01 All possible U.S. aid to 
LI U.S.S.R. was pledged by 
Harry Hopkins, lend-Iease co- 
ordinator, in a broadcast from 
London. 

OQ Dutch East Indies sus- 
LO pended oil agreement with 
Japan in a general order freezing 
all Japanese assets. 

MNazi forces in the Smo- 
lensk area were dislodged 
by counterattacking Russian 
units, the red army claimed. 

Of) Pres. Roosevelt asked con- 
Oil gress for authority to estab- 
lish ceilings on living costs to 
avert inflation. 



U.S.S.R. and Polish govern- 
ment*! n -exile signed agree- 
ment ending state of war between 
the two countries; U.S.S.R. 
agreed to recognize the Polish 
frontiers prior to the soviet-nazi 
pact of Sept. 1939. 

Washington protested to Tok- 
yo over the bombing of an 
American gunboat, "Tutuila," 
at Chungking, China. 

01 Japan's prompt apology 

01 for the bombing of the 
"Tutuila" was accepted by the 
U.S. 

Pres. Roosevelt created an 
economic defense board and 
named Vice- President Henry 
Wallace to head the new agency. 

The R.A.F., in the first direct 
military support given by Brit- 
ain to Russia, attacked the 
Finnish port of Petsamo and the 
nazi-held port of Kirkenes in 
Norway. 

AUGUST 

I Pres. Roosevelt banned ex- 
port of aviation gasoline and 
oil to all points outside the 
western hemisphere, excepting 
the British empire and <4 countries 
resisting aggression.*' 

OPM ordered Immediate 
stoppage of all raw silk proces- 
sing by nondefense industries. 

ZUndersec'y of State Welles 
assailed Vichy's cession of 
Indo-China bases to Tokyo. 

U.S. ordered rationing of ray- 
on yarn to avert complete dis- 
location of silk mills employing 
some 175,000 workers. 

3 Voluntary curfew on gaso- 
line sales from 7 p.m. to 7 
a.m. went into effect in 13 east- 
ern states. 

4 Tax bill of $3,206,200,000 
was voted, 369 to 40, by the 
U.S. house of representatives. 

5 Germans claimed to have 
widened the Smolensk gap in 
their drive on Moscow; Russians 
reported the halting of twin nazi 
drives on Kiev. 

6 German high command 
claimed capture of 895,000 
prisoners in the Russian cam- 
paign and estimated soviet cas- 
ualties at 3,000,000 dead and 
wounded. 

16,000 workers went on strike 

at shipyard in Kearny, N.J., 
halting work on defense con- 
tracts totalling about $450,- 
000,000. 

7 Bill to extend army serv- 
ice to 30 months passed in 
U.S. senate by 45 to 30 vote. 

Soviet Information bureau 

put German casualties since the 



beginning of the Russian cam- 
paign at 1, 500,000, whileestimat- 
mg Russian losses at 600,000. 

8 Twenty-five soviet divi- 
sions were trapped in a nazi 
pincer movement in the Ukraine, 
according to a German high 
command claim; Moscow ad- 
mitted withdrawal of troops in 
the Ukraine area and said Berlin 
was twice raided by the red air 
forcS; Vichy military observers 
estimated nazi losses at 1,500,000 
and Russian losses at 2,000,000 
in the first 48 days of warfare on 
the Russian front. 

9 Germans hurled large 
masses of men and material 
in a new attack on all three 
major fronts of the Russian 
theatre of war. 

Steel was placed under full 
OPM control. 

Russian armies defending 
the Odessa and Krivoi Rog 
sectors in the Ukraine area were 
reported perilled by a German 
4 'pocket" movement. 

Pres. Roosevelt ordered the 
federal reserve board to place a 
curb on instalment-credit pur- 
chasing. 

GBill extending army serv- 
ice to 30 months was ap- 
proved by single vote in house of 
representatives; final ballot was 
203 to 202. 

Marshal Retain pledged his 
Vichy regime to collaboration 
with Adolf Hitler's "new order." 

German panzer divisions, 

reached the Black sea coast near 
Odessa and Nikolayev. 

IQ R.A.F. bombers, in a wide 

Iv sweep over Germany, set 
fires in Berlin and blasted the 
Krupp works in Essen. 

Mln a historic meeting 
aboard a British battleship 
"somewhere in the Atlantic, 
Pres. Roosevelt and Prime Min- 
ister Churchill agreed on an 
eight-point declaration of war 
and peace aims and pledged 
themselves to the common goal 
of "destroying nazi tyranny. 

German armies captured Kri- 
voi Rog in the southern Ukraine; 
Russians admitted the loss of 
Pervomaisk and Kir6vo, key 
towns in the defense of Odessa. 



15 



300 big British bombers 

blasted three German cities. 



Leon Henderson, OPACS ad- 
ministrator, ordered a temporary 
10% cut in gasoline deliveries to 
retailers in 17 eastern states. 

B Soviet Premier Stalin ac- 
cepted a proposal submitted 
by Pres. Roosevelt and Prime 
Minister Churchill to receive 
"high American and British of- 
ficials 1 / in Moscow to discuss 
long-term plans to fight the axis. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS*1941 



AUGUST- Continued 

The Germans announced twin 
drive on Leningrad and new offen- 
sive in the central sector. 

|7 The fall of Nikolayev, 

II Black sea naval base, was 
admitted in Moscow. 

Great Britain and the soviet 
union jointly warned Iran to 
curb infiltration of nazi "tour- 
ists" and technicians. 

Anglo-soviet trade treaty was 

signed, under which London 
would lend Moscow 10,000,000 
to facilitate commerce exchanges. 

Ferrying of oombat planes to 

British near east via Brazil and 
Africa announced by Pres. Roose- 
velt. 

Russian troops withdrew from 
Kingisepp, 70 mi. southwest of 
Leningrad, Moscow commun- 
iqu said. 

A number of French deputies 
and senators were placed under 
"administrative custody" be- 
cause of their outspoken criticism 
of the P6tain regime. 

U.S. Ambassador Joseph 
Grew protested against Japan's 
refusal to allow the departure of 
a group of U.S. citizens stranded 
in Japan. 

The U.S. ordered a census of all 
foreign-owned property. 

BU.S. war department 
measure to release drafted 
men and national guardsmen 
from active duty after 14 to 18 
months of service wasannounced. 

The German army hammered 
Russian forces falling back to- 
ward Leningrad; the Germans 
laid siege to Odessa and claimed 
victories in salients near the 
Dnieper river. 

M Marshal Vproshllov ap- 
pealed to citizens of Lenin- 
grad to defend the city to the 
death; Marshal Budenny, com- 
mander of the Russian Ukraine 
armies, was reported to have 
blown up the huge Dnieper dam. 

01 German troops took the 
L\ cities of Narwa, Kingisepp 
and Novgorod in their drive on 
Leningrad; Russians admitted 
the fall of Gomel in the Kiev sec- 
tor, while the nazis claimed cap- 
ture of Kherson, a river port on 
the lower Dnieper. 

Two alleged communists were 
executed and scores were ar- 
rested in Paris. 

OPM and OPACS ordered a 
26.6% cut in passenger motor 
car production from Aug. to Dec. 
1941. 

00 Finnish troops announced 
LL the capture of Kaekisalmi, 
75 mi. north of Leningrad; Sov- 



iets evacuated Nikopol on the 
Dnieper's west bank, Moscow 
said. 

German authorities in Paris 
warned that they would shoot 
French hostages if attacks on 
Germans in the city continued. 

00 The U.S. took over the 
&U Federal Shipbuilding and 
Dry Dock co. in Kearny, N.J., 
where construction of naval and 
merchant ships had been halted 
by a strike. 

Red army forces launched 
counterattack in Gomel sector. 

Marshal Retain established and 
empowered military courts in un- 
occupied areas to impose death 
sentences in cases of terrorism 
and sabotage. 

01 Prime Minister Church- 
fc 1 ! Ill told Japan that Britain 
would range itself on the side of 
the U.S. in the event of far 
eastern trouble. 

Twenty-five merchant ships 

in a British convoy were sunk by 
nazi U-boats and surface craft, 
Berlin said. 

OC Russian and British 
u troops simultaneously 
marched into Iran. 

Moscow admitted the evacua- 
tion of Novgorod ; a heavy battle 
raged in the Dnieper river area. 

Vichy reported 20,000 German 
troops were assigned to help 
French police crush agitation 
rampant in Paris and its suburbs. 

9R U.S.S.R. warned Japan 

&U that any effort to interfere 
with Russo- American - trade in 
the far east would be considered 
an unfriendly act. 

British troops occupied vital oil 
areas in southern Iran while Rus- 
sian forces to the north marched 
into Tabriz. 

Hitler's armies captured Dne- 
propetrovsk in the Ukraine. 

01 German forces crossed the 
L I Dnieper river and seized 
Zaporozhe, Berlin reported. 

00 In an effort to speed up 
LQ arms production, Pres. 
Roosevelt created a seven-man 
Supply Priorities and Allocations 
board, headed by Vice- President 
Wallace with Donald M, Nelson 
as executive director. 

Moscow confirmed destruction 
of the huge Dnieper river dam. 

New Iran government ended 
resistance to the invasion of 
soviet and British troops. 

In swift reprisals for the wave 
of sabotage sweeping France, the 
Vichy gov't had three men exe- 
cuted on the guillotine. 



OQ Adolf Hitler and Ben I to 

19 Mussolini held a 5-day par- 
ley on the Russian front. 

German land, sea and air 
forces took Tallinn, capital of 
Estonia, after bitter nghting, 
Berlin announced. 

U.S. war department an- 
nounced plans to release 200,000 
men from army service by Dec. 
10, 1941 with special considera- 
tion given to dependency cases, 
conscripts and national guards- 
men over 28 and enlisted men 
with three years of duty. 

W. Averell Harriman, U.S. 
minister to London, was ap- 
pointed by Pres. . Roosevelt to 
head the U. S. delegation to the 
Anglo- American- Russian confer- 
ence in Moscow. 

French firing squads in Paris 
shot 8 men on charges of espio- 
nage and terrorism. 

M Finns captured Viborg, 
taken by the Russians after 
the Russo- Finnish war of 1939- 
40. 

0| Soviet forces launched 
01 heavy counterassaults 
against nazi positions in the cen- 
tral sector and along the Dnieper 
river in the Ukraine. 



SEPTEMBER 

I Pres. Roosevelt called for 
more energy to defeat Hit- 
ler's "insane violence" and de- 
clared he could not betray the 
cause of freedom with a nego- 
tiated peace. 

Mexican President Avila Ca- 
macho pledged Mexican armed 
forces to western hemisphere de- 
fense, but declared that Mexico 
desired to stay out of the war. 

Vichy persuaded German au- 
thorities in Paris to abandon 
plans for mass execution of Jew- 
ish hostages, according to Fer- 
nand de Brinon, Vichy's envoy 
to Paris. 

2 Berlin reported nazi troops 
entered the suburb of Kras- 
noeSelo, only 20 mi. from Lenin- 
grad. 

Mussolini and Hitler decided 
at their Russian front meeting to 
unite all Europe into a single 
axis-dominated state based on 
"harmonious co-operation of all 
European peoples," // Popolo 
d' Italia, Duce's newspaper, an- 
nounced. 

3 German resistance on a 
30-mi. front in the Smolensk 
area crumbled under lashing 
Russian attack, Moscow re- 
ported; German armies in 
Ukraine drove toward Kharkov. 

Japanese Premier Konoye 

warned that Nippon faced grav- 



est crisis in history and appealed 
to his countrymen for unity. 

U.S. shipyards, in speedup of 
operations, would turn out 130 
to 134 ships in 1941, according to 
figures made public by Adm. 
Land, chairman of maritime 
commission. 

4 Nazi U-boat attacked U.S. 
destroyer "Greer," which 
wasenroute to Iceland with mail; 
the "Greer" counterattacked 
with depth charges. 

U.S. plane production in Aug- 
ust 1941 reached a record high of 
1,854, OPM announced. 

Pres. Roosevelt authorized use 
of lencl-lease funds "to supply 
Polish troops in Canada with 
war equipment and supplies. 

U.S. state department sanc- 
tioned sale of oil to Spain. 

5 Long-range German artil- 
lery shelled Leningrad; Mos- 
cow said Russian troops counter- 
attacked in the Leningrad area. 

U.S. senate adopted 1941 reve- 
nue bill, calling for additional 
$3,583,900,000 in taxes, by a 67 
to 5 vote. 

British submarines torpedoed 
five Italian vessels, including 
23,635-ton liner "Duilio" and a 
10,000-ton cruiser, in Straits of 
Messina. 

6 Berlin admitted that Ger- 
man submarine fired at U.S. 
destroyer "Greer," but declared 
"Greer" fired first; U.S. navy 
dep't denied charge. 

Russian defenders of Lenin- 
grad hurled nazi columns back 
from city in furious battle; Mos- 
cow reported new nazi thrusts at 
Kiev were repulsed and said 
soviet armies on lower Dnieper 
river still held city of Zaporozhe. 

7 Red army forces gave 
ground slightly before nazi 
troops pressing toward Lenin- 
grad. 

Moscow ordered removal of Vol- 
ga Germans to Siberia in move 
to forestall possible sabotage. 

Martin Dies accused Leon Hen- 
derson and four aides of com- 
munist affiliations; Henderson 
denied charge. 

Robert L. Rigqs won U.S. men's 
singles title ana Mrs. Sarah Pal- 
frey Cooke won the women's 
singles. 

U.S. freighter, "Steel Sea- 
farer, 11 was bombed by an un- 
identified plane in Red sea. 

8 British war office announ- 
ced that an Allied force 
landed on Spitsbergen and de- 
stroyed coal mines and a radio 
station. 



10 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS*1941 



SEPTEMBER -Confmued 

German motorized units took 

Schlusselburg and reached the 
Neva river in the drive to ring 
Leningrad, Hitler's headquar- 
ters announced; Germans ad- 
mitted fierce Russian resistance 
west of besieged city. 

German authorities in Paris 
arrested 100 leading French Jews. 

Heavy R.A.F. raid on Berlin in 
which 27 persons were killed was 
branded "terroristic" and "crim- 
inal assault" by German press. 

9 Marshal Timoshenko's 
red army troops tore 15-ini. 
gap in nazi central front posi- 
tions and recaptured Elnya. 

U.S. state department an- 
nounced that the "Sessa," a 
U.S.-owned freighter under Pan- 
amanian registry, had been tor- 
pedoed and sunk Aug. 17, 300 
mi. southwest of Iceland. 

U.S. and Britain reached trade 
agreement under which latter 
agreed to cut drastically its ex- 
port trade to remove suspicion 
that Britain had been using lend- 
lease materials to compete un- 
fairly against the U.S. 

Sen. Nye, in senate movie probe, 
charged that a small group of 
motion picture producers "f)orn 
abroad" had been injecting pro- 
war propaganda into films. 

W Threaten ing unrest 
among Norwegian workers 
led nazi authorities to place Oslo 
area under martial law. 

Red army troops pursued re- 
treating German units in the 
Gomel and Smolensk sectors. 

HPres. Roosevelt ordered U. 
S. navy to shoot first if axis 
raiders entered American defense 
zones; he said U.S. warships and 
planes would protect ships of 
every flag engaged in commerce 
in U.S. sea zones and said there 
would be no "shooting war" un- 
less Germany continued to seek 
it. 

The "Montana, 11 U.S.-owned 
freighter, was torpedoed in wat- 
ers 260 mi. southwest of Iceland. 

Emperor Hirohito was placed 
in direct command of a new Jap- 
anese general defense headquar- 
ters. . f 

Prime Minister Churchill de- 
fended his minister of aircraft 
production, J. T. C. Moore-Bra- 



bazon, against charges that lat- 
ter was cool to British efforts to 
aid Russia. 

Soviet Foreign Commissar 
Molotpv formally charged that 
Bulgaria was serving as axis 
base. 

Charles A. Lindbergh charged 
at an America First rally in Des 
Moines that "the three most 
important groups which have 
been pressing the U.S. toward 
war are the British, Jewish and 
the Roosevelt administration." 

10 Authorized German 
\L spokesman asserted that 
President Roosevelt's "shoot 
first" order would compel the 
reich to take fitting counter- 
measures. 

German high command an- 
nounced that 22 ships in a con- 
voy of 40 had been sunk in 
Atlantic. 

Russian high command an- 
nounced withdrawal of red army 
troops from Chernigov, key city 
midway between Kiev and Go- 
mel; Stalin promoted Generals 
Ivan S. Koncv and Andrei 
Yeremenko to the rank of 
colonel general. 

German authorities made 
mass arrests in Norway to foil 
possible revolt by 350,000 trade 
unionists, Swedish reports said. 

Leon Henderson froze anthra- 
cite coal prices. 

10 Russians claimed Marshal 

10 Semyon Timoshenko's cen- 
tral front armies hurled back 
German thrust at Bryansk, 220 
mi. southwest of Moscow; two 
nazi tank corps commanded by 
Col. Gen. Heinz Guderian were 
reported routed. 

MAn R.A.F. wing, complete 
with ground crews and ma- 
teriel, arrived in U.S.S.R., Brit- 
ish air ministry announced. 

Finnish hopes for early peace 

were voiced by Vaino Tanner, 
Finnish trade and communica- 
tions minister. 

Four time bombs exploded in 
Zagreb's central telephone ex- 
change, crippling the city's tele- 
phone system and injuring a 
German major and 13 others. 

1C Sec'y of Navy Knox told 

IJ American Legion conven- 
tion in Milwaukee that, begin- 
ning Sept. 16, the U.S. navy 
would start to protect ships 



carrying lend-lease aid between 
the American continent and 
Iceland. 

President Roosevelt's report 
to congress on lend-lease aid dis- 
closed that $6,281,237,421 had 
been allocated for aid and that 
$388,912,115 of this amount had 
been spent up to Aug. 31. 

OPM ordered Dec., 1941 pas- 
senger motor car production cut 
to 48.4% below production of 
Dec. 1940. 

Argentine Chamber of Depu- 
ties approved a resolution cen- 
suring German Ambassador Bar- 
on fcdrnund von Thermann for 
abusing his diplomatic privileges. 

Red and blue armies clashed 
as U.S. war games, involving 
more than 400,000 troops, 
opened in Louisiana, Texas and 
Mississippi. 

ID Reza Shah Pahlevi of 

U Iran abdicated because of 
"failing health"; his son, 21- 
year-old Mohammed Re/a Pah- 
levi, succeeded to throne of 
Iran. 

Pres. Roosevelt made Edward 
R. Stettinius Jr. his special aid 
and gave him broad powers to 
speed arms shipments to Britain 
and her allies. 

U.S. navy dept. announced 
that all contracts for the 2,831 
ships needed for two-ocean fleet 
had been awarded. 

U.S. and Norwegian govern- 
ment-in-exile disclosed plans to 
use additional 50 to 150 mer- 
chantmen in transatlantic con- 
voy service under U.S. navy 
protection. , 

German military authorities 

announced execution of 10 more 
hostages in Paris; French "gun- 
men," ignoring reprisals, shot at 
two nazi soldiers. 

II German armies widened 
1 1 their bridgehead on east 
bank of Dnieper. 

RFC contracted for purchase 

of $100,000,000 in soviet metal 
ores in return for Russian pur- 
chases of U.S. goods. 

U.S. senate approved new tax 
bill of $3,553,400,000 and sent it 
to Pres. Roosevelt for signature. 

Bulgaria asked Turkey to open 
Straits of Dardanelles to 13 
warships. 



American Legion in annual 
convention at Milwaukee adopt- 
ed resolution backing Roose- 
velt's foreign policy and approv- 
ing use of U.S. forces on foreign 
soil if war became unavoidable. 

10 Pres. Roosevelt asked con- 
10 gress for new appropriation 
of $5,985,000,000 under lend- 
lease program. 

Stalin ordered conscription 

of all civilian males in U.S.S.R. 
between 16 and 50 not already 
in military service, for training, 
after working hours, in use of 
war weapons. 

Lynn U. Stambaugh was 

named national commander of 
American Legion. 

IQ Gen. Heinrich von 
Iv Stuelpnagcl, German mil- 
itary commander for occupied 
France, clamped a rigid curfew 
on Paris. 

"Pink Star, 1 ' U.S.-owned 
freighter, flying under Panama- 
nian flag, was sunk between 
Greenland and Iceland. 

German panzer spearhead 

entered Kiev; nazi drive 200 mi. 
south captured Poltava. *$ 

In first announcement of 
German losses in Russian war, 
nazi high command reported 
total casualties of 402,865 dead, 
wounded and missing, in first 71 
days of fighting. 

Axis -dominated Croat gov- 
ernment executed 50 "com- 
munists and Jews" charged with 
having "instigated" bomb explo- 
sions in central telephone ex- 
change of Zagreb. 

Berlin reported Germar 
troops were mopping u{ 
Kiev and pocket to east when 
200,000 soviet soldiers were saic 
to be trapped; Moscow esti 
mated nazis lost 150,000 men ii 
Kiev battle. 

Pres. Roosevelt signed new taj_ 
bill of $3,553,400,000. ; 

Rome dispatches said a fleet 
of Italian mosquito boats raided 
Gibraltar harbour and sank 
three British supply ships. 



The pictures on this page are, 
left to right: 

HENDERSON Aug. 15 

NELSON Aug. 28 

WALLACE Aug. 28 

LAND Sept. 3 

TIMOSHENKO Sopt. 13 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS1941 



11 



SEPTEMBER Continued 

a Nazi panzer divisions 
breached Russian lines and 
reached Sea of Azov, cutting off 
Crimea; Berlin reported Mar- 
shal Budenny's force of 150,000 
men trapped east of Kiev faced 
total annihilation. 

OO Japan ordered new re- 
LL ductlons in production of 
non-military steel and iron 
goods. 

OQ Pres. Roosevelt disclosed 
U.S. plan to arm merchant 
ships. 

U.S. should send Britain 

$1,000,000,000 in food by Feb. 
1942 to prevent her defeat, 
Sec'y of Agriculture Wickard 
told house appropriations com- 
mittee. 

Sec'y of Navy Knox urged re- 
peal of neutrality act in speech 
at launching of new 35,000-ton 
battleship "Massachusetts." 

Argentine troops occupied two 
vital airdromes in move to foil 
plot of young aviation officers 
laid to nazi inspiration. 

Nine Mexicans were slain 

when soldiers guarding home of 
Pres. Avila Camacho fired into 
1,700 workers protesting against 
labour conditions in munitions 
plants. 

Federal Reserve board ordered 
increase of one-seventh in re- 
serve requirements of member 
banks. 

Formation In London of 

French National council to serve 
as a provisional government was 
announced by FYee French 
Leader Gen. Charles de Gaulle. 

M Eleven allied govern- 
ments pledged adherence 
to Roosevelt-Churchill "Atlan- 
tic Charter" and mapped plans 
to set up food pool to rehabili- 
tate Europe during postwar 
period. v > v> 

OC U. S. S. R. hurled great 
Lu masses of troops at nazi 
concentrations east of Dvina 
river 300 mi. below Leningrad. 



The pictures on this page are, 
left to right: 

BUDENNY Sopt, 21 

HEYDRICH Spt. 27 

BOCK Oct. 7 

RUNDSTEDT Oct. 7 

&RIAS Oct. 9 



Widespread activities of Ser- 
bian guerrillas led Rome to 
dispatch Italian troops to re- 
occupy Croatian demilitarized 
zone. 

0"7 Rome- Berlin -Tokyo axis 
L I aimed to create "new order" 
for world, Japanese Foreign Min- 
ister Teijiro Toyoda said in 
speech on first anniversary of 
Japan's adherence to tripartite 
pact. 

Capture of 665,000 Russians 

in Kiev battle claimed by nazi 
high command. 

Nazi stuka planes strafed Ser- 
bian guerrillas while bombers 
and big guns razed the town of 
Uzice, centre of rebellion. 

Italy announced drastic cut 

in bread rations to seven oz. 
daily per person. 

"I.C. White," 7,052-ton U.S.- 
owned tanker under Panamanian 
registry, torpedoed and sunk in 
south Atlantic. 

Fourteen U.S. merchantmen 

were launched in nationwide 
"liberty fleet day" celebration. 

Reinhard Heydrich, nazi chief 
of security police, named reich 
protector of Bohemia- Mora via. 

OQ Nazis arrested Czech Prc- 
1.0 mier Gen. Alois Elias and 
declared state of emergency in 
six sections of Bohemia- Moravia. 

Strike of 17,000 C.I.O. steel 
workers at three big plants in 
Birmingham area ended when 
Gov. Dixon withdrew home 
guardsmen. 

OQ Nazi firing squads shot 
&U three Czech generals and 21 
other "conspirators" for an at- 
tempted plot to restore Czech 
independence. ..-.'-.. 

R.A.F. battered Turin, Genoa, 

Spezia and Milan. 

Joe Louis knocked out Lou 
Nova in 6th of scheduled 15- 
round fight. 

W. Averell Harriman, head of 
U.S. mission to Moscow, pledged 
fullest U.S. support to IJ.S.S.R. 
at opening of Anglo- U.S. -Soviet 
parleys in soviet capital. 

M Prime Minister Churchill 
reported British gains in 
military strength but warned 
that Germany still held initia- 



tive in all military fields except 
air. 

Freedom of worship as well as 
right to propagandize against it 
guaranteed by constitution of 
U.S.S.R., as by the U.S. consti- 
tution, said President Roosevelt 
in press conference. 



OCTOBER 

I Delayed dispatch from 
Reykjavik announced land- 
ing of new force of U.S. army 
units in Iceland under command 
of Maj. Gen. Charles H. Bone- 
steel. 

New U.S. excise tax of 10% on 

retail goods went into effect; 
many luxury products were hit 
by new levy. 

U.S. and Britain should police 
world for at least 100 years after 
defeat of axis to ensure peace en- 
forcement, Sec'y of Navy Knox 
said in address before American 
Bar association. 

Execution of Czech premier 

Elias was reported but later 
denied. 

U.S. and British missions 

agreed to fill all soviet needs for 
war supplies, at close of three- 
power parley in Moscow. 

Chinese military dispatches 

said Japanese armies had retreat- 
ed in disorder from Changsha. 

2 Intensive drive against 
Moscow along a 3 75 -mi. front 
launched by German armies. 

German bombers blasted five 
English towns in first big raids 
over Britain since beginning of 
Russian campaign. 

Fifty-seven Czechs were exe- 
cuted by nazis for terrorist or 
treasonous activities. > 

Sec'y of Treasury Morgen- 
thau urged U.S. bankers to de- 
fer loans for nondefense proj- 
ects. 

3 Mayor Otakar Klapka and 
a number of city council 
members of Prague were exe- 
cuted by nazis for alleged con- 
spiracy against German protec- 
torate. 

German armies had broken 
backbone of Russian resistance, 
Hitler told German people. 

British authorities called last- 
minute halt to scheduled ex- 
change of some 3,000 German 
and British war prisoners. 



Australian Prime Minister 
Arthur W. Fadden's govern- 
ment fell after debate on budg- 
et; John Curt in, labourite, ac- 
cepted commission to form new 
government. 

Charles A. Lindbergh told 
America First rally in Ft. Wayne 
that Pres. Roosevelt was leading 
U.S. along road which might in- 
volve suspension of congressional 
elections in 1942. 

Pres. Roosevelt revealed that 
he had been pressing U.S. rep- 
resentatives in Moscow to prod 
U.S.S.R. to permit freedom of 
religious worship. 

Six Jewish synagogues were 
blown up in Paris; Marshal 
Petain commuted death sentence 
of Paul Colette, young French- 
man who shot Pierre Laval and 
Marcel Deat, to life imprison- 
ment. 

Pope Pius XII denounced steri- 
lization, racial marriage laws and 
"mania for divorce." 

4 Soviet troops made 18-mi. 
advance in the Ukraine sec 
tor, Moscow reported. 

Norwegians were warned by 

Nazi Commissioner Josef Ter- 
bovcn to accept Maj. Quisling's 
"new order" or be annexed to 
reich. 

5 Soviet spokesman put Ger- 
man losses at 3,000,000 dead, 
wounded and missing; and Rus- 
sian losses at 230,000 killed, 
720,000 wounded and 178,000 
missing. 

6 Federal court In New York 
city cleared Aluminum Com- 
pany of America of monopoly 
charges, 

Panama's cabinet forbade 

arming of ships flying Panama- 
nian flag. 

New York Yankees beat Brook- 
lyn Dodgers, four games to one, 
to win 1941 baseball world series. 

7 German Field Marshal 
Fedor von Bock's forces 
drove to within 130 mi. of Mos- 
cow; Field Marshal Karl von 
Rundstcdt's armies seized ports 
of Mariupol and Berdiansk on 
Sea of Azov. 

Finnish government rebuffed 
Britain's demand to cease war on 
U.S.S.R. 

8 Recapture of Ichang in 
Hupeh province by Chinese 
admitted by Japs in Shanghai. 



12 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS.1941 



OCTOBER-Conf/m/oo! 

Ruffians admitted loff of 

Orel. 

FBI agents arrested George 
S. Vie reck on charges of with- 
holding information from state 
dep't concerning his activities as 
an agent for Germany. 

9Pres. Roosevelt asked eon* 
gress for immediate author- 
ity to arm U.S. merchantmen. 

Arnulfo Arias, who banned 
arming of Panama merchant 
ships, was ousted as president of 
Panama; cabinet selected Ricar- 
do Adolfo de la Guardia as his 
successor. 

SPAB banned use of defense 
materials for public or private 
construction not vital to de- 
fense or public health. 

m German panzer divisions 
reached point 105 mi. south 
of Moscow. 

Britlfh War office disclosed 
that shock troops known as 
"commandos" were being drilled 
for "invasion manoeuvres." 

Plans to build up health of 
200,000 youths rejected from 
military service because of physi- 
cal or mental ailments were an- 
nounced by Pres. Roosevelt. 

British shipment of arms and 

munitions to U.S.S.R. under 
"lend-leasc plan" was revealed 
by Lord Beaverbrook. 

HU.S. naval vessel discov- 
ered and "disposed of" Ger- 
man radio station operating in 
Greenland, navy dep't an- 
nounced. 

Russian women and children 

were evacuated from Moscow as 
nazi armies pushed closer to 
capital. 

10 Germans advanced In 
\L Vyazma sector; red army 
admitted that Germans had 
taken Bryansk. 

10 German troops occupied 
IV Vyazma, 130 mi. west of 
Moscow. 



German forces reached 
Mofhaifk and Kalinin 



14 

areas. 

BNazI armies captured 
Kalinin, 100 mi. northwest 
of Moscow. 

George E. Browne, indicted 
president of Stage Employees 
and Motion Picture Operators 
unions, was replaced as llth 
vice president of A.F. -of L. at 
latter s convention in Seattle; 
convention also instructed all 
A.F. of L. central' bodies to re- 
fuse seating to any union dele- 
gate convicted of "serious wrong- 
doing." 



Japanese Premier Fuml- 
maro Konoye's cabinet 

resigned after ministers failed to 
agree on national policy. 

Rumanian troops captured 
Odessa after two-month siege; 
nazis reported capture of Ka- 
luga. 

U.S. -owned freighter, "Bold 
Venture," flying under Panama 
flag, was sunk 500 mi. south of 
Iceland. 

Rome dispatches said Vladimir 
Matchek, former Croat peasant 
leader, had been placed under 
police surveillance. 

17 U.S.S. "Kearny," 1,630- 
II ton destroyer, was torpe- 
doed and damaged while on 
patrol duty 350 mi. southwest of 
Greenland. 

U.S. navy dep't ordered U.S. 
merchant ships in Asiatic waters 
to put into friendly ports. 

Bill amending neutrality act 

to permit arming of U.S. mer- 
chantmen was passed in house of 
representatives by vote of 259 
to 138. 

U.S. Ambassador Laurence 
A. Stein hardt and other envoys 
to U.S.S.R. left Moscow. 

Recapture of Orel reported in 
Russian broadcast. 

B Strong Ruffian counter- 
attacks blocked nazi thrusts 
in Kalinin and Moshaisk sectors. 

Lt. Gen. Hldekl Tojo formed 
new Japanese cabinet and took 
over portfolios of prime minis- 
try, war and home ministries; 
Shigenori Togo was made for- 
eign minister. 

Hundreds of Yugoslav rebels 

were executed in an effort to 
stamp out the revolt of Chctniks, 
Serb patriots. ^ 

Canada'f decision to control 
wages and prices was an- 
nounced by Prime Minister W. 
L. Mackenzie King. 

BU.S. navy dep't said sub- 
marine that torpedoed 
"Kearny" was "undoubtedly 
German"; damaged destroyer 
reached port with 11 missing 
and 10 injured. 

U.S. merchant thlp"Lehlgh f> 

sunk in south Atlantic by sub- 
marine. 

Moscow and adjoining areas 

were placed under state of siege. 

Germans captured port of 
Taganrog in Donetz basin. 

Names of 1,124 alleged com- 
munists or "subversive affili- 
ates" on federal pay rolls were 
sent to Attorney-Gen. Biddle by 
Chairman Martin Dies of Un- 
American Activities committee. 



M Moscow diplomatic corps 
reached Kuibyshev (Sa- 
mara), temporary headquarters 
for foreign envoys in soviet 
union. 

Sec'yofTreafuryMorgenthau 

disclosed U.S. had advanced 
$30,000,000 to soviet union 
against promise of gold delivery. 

Panama's new government 

revoked ban on arming mer- 
chant ships. 

Sec'y of State Hull denounced 
torpedoing of destroyer 
"Kearny"; Hitler's newspaper 
Voelkischer Beobachter asserted 
U.S. had "staged" "Kearny" 
incident. 

a Nazis executed 50 French 
hostages in Nantes, France, 
in reprisal for slaying of German 
officer by two unidentified civil- 
ians; German military command- 
er warned unless slayers were 
apprehended by midnight Oct. 
22, 50 more would be executed. 

Russians declared all Ger- 
man drives on Moscow had 

been stopped; Berlin announced 
capture of Stalino, and occupa- 
tion of Dagoe island at mouth 
of Gulf of Finland. 

William Fox, former movie 
producer, was sentenced to year 
and day in federal penitentiary 
and fined $3,000 on charge of 
conspiracy to obstruct justice. 

OO Germans seized 100 more 
LL French hostages after 
slaying of nazi major in Bor- 
deaux. 

Rumania denounced Vienna 
pact in effort to regain part of 
Transylvania surrendered to 
Hungary in Aug. 1940. 

Gen. Robert E. Wood, acting 
chairman of America First com- 
mittee, appealed to Pres. Roose- 
velt to submit question of war or 
peace to vote of congress. 

Zagreb newspaper disclosed 
that nazis had executed 200 
"Jews and communists" as re- 
prisal for attack on two German 
soldiers in Belgrade Oct. 17. 

00 Gregory K. Zhukov, chief 
&v of soviet general staff, took 
over command of central zone 
Operations following shakeup of 
red army command; Marshal 
Timoshenko was shifted to south- 
ern front while Marshals Buden- 
ny and Voroshilov were charged 
with formation of new Russian 
armies. 

German authorities ordered 
execution of 100 French host- 
ages in reprisal for slaying of nazi 
commander of Nantes. 

Petroleum Coordinator 
lokes asked OPM to lift ban on 
gasoline sales on U.S. east coast 



U.S. war dep't announced plans 
to expand air force combat 
groups from 54 to 84 and to in- 
crease air force personnel to 
400,000 by June 30, 1942. 

04 Fifty French hostages 

Lr\ were shot by Germans in re- 
taliation for slaying of nazi offi- 
cer in Bordeaux. 

Arthur Starnef, parachutist, 

dropped 29,300 ft. before open- 
ing his 'chute in record free fall 
from plane over Chicago. 

OC German troopf captured 

J Kharkov and launched new 
drive against Moscow. 

9ft Fifty -three thousand C. 
fcU I.O. mlpers in captive coal 
pits of big steel corporations 
stopped work after John L. 
Lewis rejected Pres. Roosevelt's 
appeal to halt strike. 

SPAB Director Donald M. 
Nelson barred use of defense 
metals for trimmings on auto- 
mobiles. 



27 



Heavy rains on Moscow 
front bogged nazi armies. 



00 Sen. Taft of Ohio 
2.0 charged that Pres. Roose- 
velt had "tricked 11 U.S. onto 
road to war. 

Mussolini, in speech marking 
20th year of fascism, boasted 
that "coalition of bolshevism 
and its European and American 
allies" would be shattered by 
axis. 

M Charles Fahy was named 
U.S. solicitor general by 
Pres. Roosevelt. 

ASCAP music became avail- 
able to NBC and CBS radio net- 
works as organization of compos- 
ers signed agreement with radio 
companies ending dispute over 
royalties that began Jan. 1. 

MPres. Roosevelt ordered 
U.S. troops to take over Air 
Associates plant in Bendix, N.J., 
after nonstriking workers twice 
forced ouster of reinstated C.I.O. 
workers. 

John L. Lewis called off captive 
mine coal strike until Nov. 15. 

1 ,1 90-ton U .S.dectroyer' ' Reu- 
ben Jamef " was torpedoed and 
sunk while on convoy duty west 
of Iceland; 76 of crew missing. 

01 German troops pierced 
ill outer* defenses of Tula. 

U.S. naval tanker "Salinas/ 1 

16,800 tons, was torpedoed with* 
out warning southwest of Ice- 
land ; no casualties were reported 
and vessel proceeded to port un- 
der own power. 

Marshal Borla Shapoehnlkov 

was renamed chief of staff of red 
army. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS. 1941 



13 



NOVEMBER 

I Reich formally charged 
U.S. with attacking Germany 
in naval incidents involving U.b. 
destroyers "Greer" and 
"Kearny," 

Pros. Roosevelt conferred 
with Canadian Prime Min- 
ister Mackenzie King on con- 
certed program to speed aid to 
U.S.S.R. 

German troops advanced in 
Kalinin area, 95 mi. northwest 
of Moscow; Russians admitted 
nazi spearheads had entered 
Tula. 

2 Pros. Roosevelt placed 
entire coast guard under 
navy dep't. 

Gen. Sir Archibald Wavell 

reached Singapore. 

Germans captured Simfero- 
pol, Crimean capital. 

3 Sec'y Hull indicated at press 
conference that U.S. had been 
exerting pressure on Finland to 
end war with U.S.S.R. 

Reich rejected U.S. request 

for compensation of $2,%7,092 
for torpedoing of U.S. freighter 
"Robin Moor" in south Atlantic 
May 21, Sec'y Hull revealed. 

4Fiorello La Guardia was re- 
elected mayor of New York 
city, polling 1,187,978 votes to 
1,050,397 for his opponent, Wil- 
liam O'Dwyer, democrat. 

British warships seized six 
vessels in Vichy convoy trying 
to run contraband for Germans 
in south Atlantic, London ad- 
miralty reported. 

Nazi divisions captured The- 
odosia, Crimean port near 
Kerch. 

Women hurled eggs and to- 
matoes at British ambassador 
Lord Halifax in Detroit. 

5 Japanese goy't announced 
that veteran diplomat Saburo 
Kurusu was enroute to Washing- 
ton on mission to establish basis 
for peace in Pacific areas. 

6 U.S. loan of $1 ,000,000,000 
in lend-lease aid to U.S.S.R. 
was arranged through exchange 
of letters between Roosevelt and 
Stalin, state dep't revealed. 

Soviet government announced 
appointment of Maxim Litvinov 
to succeed Cpnstantine Ouman- 
sky as Russian ambassador to 
Washington. 

Premier Stalin urged creation 
of second front and forecast "in- 
evitable doom" of Hitler in 
broadcast on 24th anniversary of 
October revolution; he put Ger- 



man war casualties at 4,500,000 
and Russian losses at 1,748,000. 

Nazi propaganda minister 
Qoebbels warned Germans they 
would face "inferno" if reicn 
lost war. 

George Browne and Willie Bi- 
off, who won control of A.F. of 
L. stage union, were found guilty 
by federal court in New York 
city of violating anti-racketeer- 
ing statute. 

U.S. cruiser seized "Odenwald," 
axis raider disguised as U.S. 
merchant ship, in Atlantic equa- 
torial waters,* navy announced. 

7 After 11 days of bitter de- 
bate, U.S. senate voted 50 to 
37 to amend Neutrality act to 
permit arming of U.S. merchant- 
men and entrance of U.S. ships 
into war /ones. 

Russians launched counter- 
offensive from Kalinin to Volo- 
kolamsk. 

8 German warships would 
fire on U.S. vessels only if 
attacked, Adolf Hitler declared 
in speech marking 18th year of 
Munich beorhall putsch. 

9 Destruction of 11 Italian 
merchantmen in Mediter- 
ranean by British naval squad- 
ron was announced by admiralty 
in London. 

Nazi authorities announced 20 
Czechs had been executed for at- 
tempting to disrupt Vienna's 
food supply organization. 

m Churchill pledged U.S. 
that Britain would declare 
war on Japan "within the hour" 
if Japan and U.S. should go to 



National Mediation Defense 
board rejected C.I.O. demand 
for closed shop in captive coal 
mines. 

U.S. navy department ordered 
commandant at San Diego area 
to proceed with work on naval 
construction despite strike of 
building trade workers. 

Finland rejected U.S. re- 
quest to stop fighting 
against U.S.S.R. 

Manuel Quezon was re-elected 
president of the Philippines by 
estimated 7-to-l margin over his 
nearest opponent. 

K Executives of "Big Five" 
operating railroad brother- 
hoods set Dec. 7 as date of 
scheduled strike. 

Churchill told house of com- 
mons Battle of Atlantic was 
turning in Britain's favour. 

B House of representatives 
voted 212 to 194 to amend 
Neutrality act. 



Counterattacking Russian 
troops made new gains in Tula 
sector; nazi forces reported cap- 
t urine coast positions south of 
Kerch in Crimea. 

M"Ark Royal," 22,500-ton 
British aircraft carrier, was 
torpedoed and sunk by axis sub- 
marine about 25 mi. east of 
Gibraltar. 

U.S. marines were ordered by 
Pres, Roosevelt to leave garri- 
sons in Shanghai, Peiping and 
Tientsin. 

BU.M.W. A. officials orclmd 
53,000 miners in captive coal 
pits to cease work at midnight. 

If* C.I.O. national executive 

10 board voted unanimously 
to back John L. Lewis and Unit- 
ed Mine Workers' Union in 
strike for union shop in captive 
coal pits. 

British Labour Minister Er- 
nest Be vin declared 1,000,000 
married women were needed for 
munitions work. 

11 Japanese Premier Hideki 
1 1 Tpjo set as terms for peace 
in Pacific; hands off China, lift- 
ing of economic blockade against 
Japan and end of military en- 
circlement. 

Pres. Roosevelt and Saburo 
Kurusu, special Japanese en- 
voy, conferred on Pacific crisis. 

Germans claimed capture of 
Kerch, key city in Crimea. 

Hitler placed conquered areas 
of U.S.S.R. under civil admin- 
istration of Alfred Rosenberg, 
chief nazi ideologist. 

Some 53,000 miners in captive 
pits stopped work following col- 
lapse oi negotiations. 

Pres. Roosevelt asked congress 
for $7,082,419,046 in supplemen- 
tal appropriations for armed 
forces and for defense housing. 

Pres. Roosevelt signed law re- 
pealing Neutrality act. 

U British forces launched a 
surprise sea, air and land 
offensive into Libya, advancing 
50 mi. in first 24 hr. ; Lt. Gen. 
Sir Alan Gordon Cunningham 
led land forces, while his brother, 
Adm. Sir Arthur Browne Cun- 
ningham, commanded navy 
units, 

C.I.O., in its fourth constitu- 
tional convention, unanimously 
endorsed foreign policy of Pres. 
Roosevelt. 

Lt. Gen. Sir Alan Brooke was 

named to succeed Gen. Sir John 
G. Dill as chief of British imperi- 
al general staff; Lt. Gen. Bernard 
C Paget was appointed com- 
mander in chief of home forces, 
the post vacated by Gen. Brooke. 



Japan's special emissary Sa- 
buro Kurusu and Ambassador 
Kichisaburo Nomura asked To- 
kyo for further instructions after 
three-hour parley with Sec'y 
Hull. 

Russians admitted situation 

was "grave" in Crimea as red 
army forces withdrew from 
Kerch. 

U.S. and Mexico reached ac- 
cord under which Washington 
agreed to stabilize peso, make 
silver purchases and finance 
Mexican road program, while 
Mexico agreed to make pay- 
ments on U.S. claims and at- 
tempt settlement of oil dispute. 

Of) British desert armies 
LM captured Rezegh, 10 mi. 
south of besieged Tobruk. 

Churchill told house of com- 
mons that goal of Libyan drive 
was to destroy axis armies. 

Gen. Maxime Weygand "re- 
tired" as Vichy proconsul in 
Africa; Gen. Alphonse Juin was 
named head of French armies in 
North Africa and Gen. Jean Bar- 
rau chief of units in west Africa. 

U.S. halted all economic aid 

to French North Africa on 
grounds that Weygand was oust- 
ed on express demand of Hitler. 

a Eleven C.I.O. pickets were 
shot and wounded in gun 
battle at a captive coal pit in 
Eden born, Pa. 

Sixth major offensive against 
Moscow in three weeks was 
halted at Volokolamsk and Tula. 

OOAnzac troops captured 
LL Fort Capuzzo, Italian 
stronghold in Libya. 

Berlin announced that Ger- 
min troops had captured Rostov. 

John L. Lewis called off strike 
in captive coal mines and ac- 
cepted Pres. Roosevelt's pro- 
posal for. arbitration of union 
shop issue. 

00 Anzac forces recaptured 
&v Bardia on Libyan coast 
while British and nazi tank 
armies engaged in battle at 
Rezegh. 

Germany cut occupation cost 

levied against French by 100,- 
000,000 francs daily. 

U.S. consulate in Saigon, 

French Indo-China wrecked by 
bomb; none were injured. 

OPM announced use of lead 
and tin foil for wrapping cigar- 
ettes, candy and similar products 
would be prohibited after March 
15, 1942. 

01 U.S. sent troops to Dutch 
fcT Guiana under agreement 
reached with Netherlands gov- 
ernment in London; Brazil 



14 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS1941 



NOVEMBER Continued 

agreed to co-operate in military 
measures to protect Dutcn 
Guiana. 

U.S. would extend lend -lease 

aid to Free French movement, 
Gen. DC Gaulle's delegation in 
Washington announced. 

British reported capture of 

Gambut in Libya. 

German forces reached point 
31 mi. west of Moscow. 

U.S. supreme court ruled as 
unconstitutional California anti- 
migrant law designed to check 
influx of "Okies" into that state. 

OC British tank units in 
J Libya recoiled under count- 
er blows of Gen. Erwin Rom- 
mel's panzer divisions. 

Pres. Roosevelt appointed 
William C. Bullitt as his special 
representative in near east. 

Thirteen nations, including 
Finland, signed anti-comintcrn 
pact in Berlin. 

Sec'y Hull submitted new 
proposals for readjustment 
of U.S. -Japanese relations to 
Nippon envoys Kurusu and No- 
mura. 

German troops driving toward 
Stalinogorsk flanked Tula. 

Axis forces captured 5,000 
British soldiers, including two 
generals, in Libyan desert war, 
Home dispatches said. 

0"? Pres. Roosevelt and Sec'y 

LI Hull conferred with Jap- 
anese envoys Kurusu and No- 
mura amid reports that Nip- 
ponese were massing troops in 
Indo-China. 

Anzac troops joined forces with 
section of British garrison in 
Tobruk; New Zcalanders re- 
captured Rezegh. 

Argentina agreed to sell U.S. 

all its tungsten production for 
three-year period; Japan had 
previously bought 50% of Ar- 
gentina's tungsten output. 

George S. Messersmith ap- 
pointed ambassador to Mexico. 

German reinforcements and 

"volunteer" native units battled 
organized Serb guerrillas in Yu- 
goslavia. 

Italian garrison in Gondar, 
last Italian outpost, in Abyssinia, 
surrendered to British after 
seven and one-half months' 
siege. 



00 Bill providing for creation 
LQ of five-man board to con- 
trol prices was passed in house of 
representatives, 224 to 161. 

Shanghai dispatches reported 
70 troop transports were moving 
30,000 Japanese troops south- 
ward. 

Pres. Manuel Quezon asserted 
Philippines were unprepared for 



Acting Pres. Ram6n Castillo 

ordered Argentine police to ban 
5,000 meetings throughout coun- 
try scheduled by pro- British 
Accion Argentina. 

M Russians recaptured Ros- 
tov, routing Col, Gen. Paul 
von Kleist's armies. 

Japanese Premier HldekiTojo 

declared Anglo-American "ex- 
ploitation" of Asiatic peoples 
must be "purged with a ven- 
geance." 

British submarines in Arctic 

sank eight nazi supply ships car- 
rying troops and supplies to Ger- 
man armies in northern U.S.S.R. 
British admiralty said. 

House military affairs com- 
mittee announced plans to probe 
charges that "defense brokers" 
had secured millions in commis- 
sions on promises to obtain 
government contracts. 

OH Japanese Foreign Minls- 
OU ter Shigenori Togo reject- 
ed as "fantastic" U.S. proposals 
for settling far eastern crisis. 

A state of emergency was de- 
creed in Singapore and new rein- 
forcements of British and Indian 
troops reached Rangoon, Burma. 

Cairo dispatches said mecha- 
nized British patrols reached Gulf 
of Sidra after 300-mi. advance 
across Libyan desert. 



DECEMBER 

I Pres. Roosevelt conferred 
with Adm. Stark and Sec'y 
Hull on Japanese crisis; Japanese 
Ambassador Nomura told press 
"there must be wise statesman- 
ship to save the situation"; To- 
kyo decided to continue parleys 
after hearing report by Foreign 
Minister Togo. , v 

Moscow dispatches said 102 
German planes were destroyed 
and 1 1 8 tanks and 2 10 guns were 
captured from nazis in Rostov 
area. 



Marshal Retain and Marshal 
Goering met in St. Florcntin in 
nazi occupied France. 

Compromise wage agreement 

arranged by Pres. Roosevelt's 
fact-findingboard a verted threat- 
ened nation-wide railway strike 
of 1,200,000 workers. 

2 Pres. Roosevelt asked Ja- 
pan for explanation of move- 
ment of troops, planes and ships 
into French Indo-China. 

British warship squadron, 

headed by battleship "Prince of 
Wales" and battle cruiser "Re- 
pulse," arrived at Singapore. 

Prime Minister Churchill 

asked commons for authority to 
draft 3,000,000 more men into 
armed forces and to require wom- 
en to join uniformed services. 

Gen. Rommel's axis tank 
units seized Rezegh, Libya. 

Russian forces in Dpnetz area 
pursued German units fleeing 
west along shore of Sea of Azov. 

Sixty persons charged with 
plotting to assassinate Mussolini 
appeared before tribunal in 
'1 rieste. 

3 House of Representatives 
passed an ti -strike bill by vote 
of 252 to 136. 

Pres. Roosevelt announced that 
he had authorized shipments of 
lend-lcase supplies to Turkey. 

4 Reuters dispatch said Vichy 
had agreed to grant Hitler 
naval and air bases in north 
Africa. , 

House of commons passed 
British conscription bill by vote 
of 326 to 10. 

5 Japan told Pres. Roosevelt 
that reinforcements to Indo- 
China were only a precaution 
against Chinese troop move- 
ments along colony's northern 
border; official Tokyo spokes- 
man said Washington parleys 
would continue and that both 
sides were sincere. 

Russian armies In Don basin 

swept 11 mi. past Taganrog. 

House of representatives 

passed by 300 to 5 vote defense 
appropriation bill, authorizing 
$8,243,830,031 to expand U.S. 
army to 2,000,000 men. 

6 Russians began counter- 
offensive along entire Mos- 
cow front. 



Pres. Roosevelt made person- 
al peace appeal to Emperor 
Hirohito after hearing reports of 
heavy troop concentrations in 
Indo-China; Philippine cabinet 
asked all "non-essential" civil- 
ians to leave Manila and other 
danger zones. 

Britain announced declara- 
tion of war on Finland, Hun- 
gary and Rumania. 

U.S. ordered all Finnish ships 

in U.S. ports put under protec- 
tive custody. 

7 Striking without warning, 
Japanese naval and air forces 
attacked and severely damaged 
U.S. ships in Pearl Harbor naval 
base, Hawaii, and also attacked 
strategic points- in Philippines 
and Guam; Nipponese planes 
bombed Hongkong and Singa- 
pore; Japanese troops landed in 
Malaya and moved on Thailand 
from French Indo-China; Japa- 
nese envoys were delivering To- 
kyo reply to U.S. note at time of 
attack on U.S. possessions; note 
rejected U.S. terms and said U.S. 
and Britain were "conspiring" 
against Japanese interests in 
Asia. 

Netherlands government In 
exile in London declared war on 
Japan; Canada and Costa Rica 
also declared war. 

Sec'y of Treasury Morgen- 
thau impounded $131,000,000 
in Japanese investments in U.S. 
and banned all trade dealings 
with Japan; FBI agents re- 
ceived orders to round up certain 
Japanese nationals in U.S. 

Russian armies broke Ger- 
man line on Moscow front at 
two points and destroyed two 
divisions. 

Pres. Roosevelt's 3-man arbi- 
tration board ruled that all 
workers in captive mines should 
be required to join C.I.O. ^ 

8 U.S. congress declared war 
on Japan after Pres. Roose- 
velt denounced Japanese aggres- 
sion and "treachery" in address 
to joint session; senate voted 82 
to and house voted "88 to I; 
Representative Jeanette Rankin 
(Rep., Mont.) was lone 1 dissenter. 



The pictures on this page are, 
left to right: 

ZHUKOV Oct. 23 

WAVELL Nov. 2 

TOJO Nov. 17 

CUNNINGHAM, ALAN Nov. 18 

WEYGAND Nov. 20 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS*1941 



15 



DECEMBER-Confmved 

Prime Minister Churchill de- 
clared war on Japan in speech 
before house of commons; China 
declared war against Germany, 
Italy and Japan, Foreign Minis- 
ter Quo Tai-chi announced in 
Chungking; Free French govern- 
ment declared war against Ja- 
pan, as did I londuras, San Salva- 
dor, Guatemala, Haiti and Do- 
minican Republic. 

Thailand capitulated to Ja- 
pan, 18 hours after first attack; 
Singapore dispatches said Brit- 
ish troops repulsed Japanese 
landing party in Malaya; Japa- 
nese planes raided Hongkong; 
Tokyo radio announced capture 
of Wake and Guam islands and 
said sinking of two U.S. battle- 
ships* and damaging of four other 
capital ships in Hawaii hat! given 
Japanese naval mastery in Pacific. 

San Francisco was blacked 

out after reports that enemy 
craft were sighted over c\\y: oth- 
er west coast cities ami military 
bases were also blacked out. 

Berlin spokesman admitted 

that winter had stopjK'd German 
drive on Moscow and that cap- 
tun- of Russian capital wa.s not 
expected before spring. 

9Pres. Roosevelt said U.S. 
hat! suffered serious reverses 
in Hawaii and told nation to ex- 
|.HH:t long war. 

False air raid alarms upset 
New Yorkers. 

Japanese landed strong forces 

in Kota Bharu area of northern 
Malaya; British armies in Hong- 
kong checked a Nipponese land- 
ing party. 

Cuban congress voted to de- 
clare war on Japan; Nicaraguan 
congress approved declaration of 
war on Japan; BraziHroze axis 
funds ; Argentina and Chile grant* 
cd U.S. special status as "non- 
belligerent." 

Washington agreed to give 
transit over U.S. territory to 
Mexican troops sent to protect 
Lower California. 

Russian armies recaptured 
Tikhvtn on Leningrad front, re- 
opening road to Moscow. 



The pictures on this page are, 
left to right: 

LITVINOV Dc. 13 

NIMITZ D. 17 

KIMMEL D*c. 17 

MacARTHUR DM. 19 

GOEBBELS DM. 20 



M Japanese torpedo planes 
sank 35,000-ton battleship 
"Prince of Wales," ami 32,000- 
ton battle cruiser "Repulse" off 
Malaya; more than 2,000 sur- 
vivors were rescued from both 
ships; 55 wen? listed as missing. 

Japanese forces approached 
Kota Bharu, important Malay- 
an air base 350 mi. north of 
Singapore; British declared two 
Japanese attacks on Hongkong 
had been repulsed; Japs landed 
strong forces on northern Luzon 
coast while air raiders launched 
heavy attacks on Cavjte naval 
base near Manila; U.S. planes 
were reported to have bombed 
three Japanese transports, one 
of which capsized. 

Los Angeles was blacked out 

for three hours. 

Sec'y Hull urged Pan Ameri- 
can union to convoke Latin 
American foreign ministers for 
parley on hemisphere defense in 
Rio de Janeiro early in l42; 
Chile anil Argentina opened ne- 
gotiations to permit Chile to 
fortify Strait ot Magellan. 

Soviet troops captured more 
towns in Orel sector. 

British armies in Libya com- 
pletely freed Tobruk garrison 
and captured (lumbut. 

H Germany and Italy de- 
clared war on U.S. and 

signed new pact with Japan to 
preclude separate peace; U.S. 
congress dtn:lared war on G<T* 
many and Italy; senate vote was 
88 to for war against reich and 
90 to for war against Italy; 
house vole was 3*M to against 
Germany and 399 to against 
Italy; both houses of congress 
removed restrictions against use 
of U.S. troops outside western 
hemisphere. 

Mexico broke off relations 
with Germany and Italy; Cu- 
ba, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Gua- 
temala and Dominican Republic 
declared war on Germany and 
Italy. 

Filipino army division re- 
pulsed Jap unity 150 mi. north of 
Manila; U.S. navy communique 
announced U.S. fliers had sunk a 
Japanese battleship of 29,300- 
ton Kongo class, a cruiser and 
destroyer in Pacific action; a sec- 
ond Japanese battleship was re* 
ported damaged. 

Sec'y of Navy Knox arrived in 
Honolulu for inspection tour. 



Axis hopes of separate peace 

with U.S.S.R. were vain, soviet 
radio broadcast said, 

BU.S. forces battled Japa- 
nese invaders on three sides 
of Luzon island; Japanese 
strengthened their landing forces 
at Aparri and Vigan and landed 
troops oil Zambales province and 
at Legaspi; small U.S. garrisons 
still held Wake and Midway 
islands. 

British withdrew from ad- 
vanced positions in Hongkong; 
Japanese said their troops had 
captured Kowloon; Chinese 
troops a Hacked all along Kwang- 
tung front to relieve Japanese 
pressure on Hongkong; with- 
drawals in Malaya near /Hiai 
border acknowledged by Britain. 

U.S. Senate voted $10,572,- 
350,705 defense bill to .strength- 
en army and navy air forces. 

U.S. seized 83,000-tpn liner 
"Normandie" and 13 other 
French ships. 

BU.S. armies recaptured 
Lingayen beach-head in 
Philippines and wiped out Japa- 
nese invasion force; Netherlands 
navy announced its submarines 
had sunk four Jap troop trans- 
ports off Thailand; British ad- 
mitted withdrawing to new posi- 
tions in Kedah in Malaya. 

Premier Hideki Tojo cautioned 
Japan against over-optimism and 
warned of long, hard war. 

U.S. seised 20,000-ton Swed- 
ish liner "Kungshotm" under 
right of angary. 

Gen. von Stuelpnagel, com- 
nmnder of nazi forces in France, 
ordered immediate execution of 
100 French hostages. 

Allied destroyers in Mediter- 
ranean sank two Italian cruisers 
while a British submarine sank a 
third cruiser, British admiralty 
announced. 

U.S.S.R. would concentrate 
all efforts toward smashing Hit- 
ler's armies and did not envisage 
opening second front against Ja- 
pan, Ambassador Maxim Litvi- 
nov told U.S. press. 

Red Army troops captured 
Volkhov on Leningrad front. 

MU.S. bombers sank four 
Japanese troopships and 

damaged iw<: others off northern 
Luzon; U.S. marines on XVako 
island repulsed new Japanese 
attacks; Hongkong rejected an 
ultimatum to surrender. 



Turkey told U.S. she would 
remain neutral in new con- 
flict; Premier Kamon De Valera 
reaffirmed Eire's neutrality. 

H Sec'y Knox revealed that 
32,600-lon battleship "Ari- 
zona,** three destroyers, a mine- 
layer and target whip had been 
sunk in Japanese attack on Pearl 
Harbor, Dec, 7; he also said 
battleship "Oklahoma'* was cap- 
sized but could be repaired; navy 
casualties in attack were 91 offi- 
cers and 2,638 men killed; army 
casualties were 168 men and 
officers; Knox said Hawaii de* 
fense forces were "not on the 
alert,** but that japan had failed 
in its objective to destroy U.S. 
naval supremacy* 

Pres. Roosevelt accused Em- 
peror Hjrohito of personal com- 
plicity in Japan's treacherous 
attack on U.S. 

Japanese mechanized armies 

entered sou them Kedah in Ma- 
laya; British garrison in Hong- 
kong dug in behind barricade*. 

Moscow reported recapture of 
Klin, and announced new vic- 
tories on all Russian fronts* 

Both houses of congress voted 
bill calling for $10,077,077,005 
m emergency war appropriat ions. 

K Filipino army division 
hold Lingayen beach after 
72-hour battle. 

Japanese submarine shelled 
port of Rahul ui on island of 
Maui, 100 mi, southeast of Hon- 
olulu. 

British command in Hong* 
kong ad nutted evacuating main- 
land section on night of Dec, 
11-12. 

Both houses of congress adopt- 
ed bills granting Pres. Roosevelt 
virtually unlimited war powers, 

Pres. Roosevelt appointed 
Byron Price director of U.S. 
censorship. 

Russian troops recaptured Ka- 
linin, Petrovskand Volovo; Mos- 
cow siiid th German army corps 
had been destroyed. 

Argentina proclaimed state of 
siege to "fulfil international 
pledges** and maintain order, 

1*1 Japanese invaders in 
If northern Luzon were re- 
pelled; U,S. air squadrons de* 
strayed 26 Japanese planes at 
Vigan* 





16 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS1941 



DECEMBER-Continued 

U.S. commanders of army, 
navy and air forces in Hawaii 
were ousted; Rear Adm. Chester 
W. Nimitz was named com- 
mander-in-chief of Pacific fleet, 
relieving Adm. Husband E. 
Kimmel; Lt. Gen. Delos C. 
Emmons was assigned to com- 
mand the Hawaiian department, 
relieving Lt. Gen. Walter C. 
Short; Brig. Gen. Clarence L. 
Tinker was assigned to com- 
mand Hawaiian air forces, re- 
lieving Maj. Gen. Frederick L. 
Martin. 

British forces blew up oil 
wells and refineries in British 
Borneo as Japanese units made 
successful landing; Japanese 
troops in Malaya were reported 
in province of Wellesley; two 
Chinese armies continued drive 
to ease Japanese siege at Hong- 
kong. 

Soviet armies between Lake 
Onega and Murmansk launched 
new drive on Finnish and Ger- 
man armies. 

W Tokyo communiqu^ said 
Japanese force had landed 
on island of Hongkong; Nether- 
lands and Australian forces oc- 
cupied Portuguese section of 
Timor; British admitted Pcnang, 
island base off Malayan coast, 
had been cut off by Japanese; 
Australian planes bombed Jap- 
anese island in Caroline group. 

U.S. reached naval agreement 

with French authorities of Mar- 
tinique. 

British armies broke axis 
lines west of El Gazala in Libya. 

B Thirty Japanese planes 
bombed port of Iloilo on 
Philippine island of Panay; Lt. 
Gen. Douglas MacArthur, com- 
mander of Philippine military 
forces, was raised to rank of full 
general; Portuguese Premier Sa- 
lazar demanded evacuation of 
Timor island by Allied force; 
British garrisons withdrew from 
Penang. 

House and senate voted bill to 
set draft age at 20 to 44 inclu- 
sive. 

British motorized forces oc- 
cupied Derna airport in Libya. 

Russian troops recaptured 
Ruza and a score of other towns 
in central front drive. 

Spain announced "nonbellig- 
erent" status in Pacific war. 

OA Japanese troops landed 
L\l at Davao on Mindanao 
island, 600 mi. south of Manila, 
and engaged U. S. forces. 

Enemy submarines off west 
coast attacked two U.S. tank- 
ers; navy reported axis U-boats 



were also operating off Atlantic 
coast. 

British forces in Malaya or- 
ganized new line south of Krian 
river, 300 mi. above Singapore. 

Adm. Ernest J. King was 

named commander-in-chief of 
U.S. fleet; Rear Adm. Royal E. 
Ingersoll was named commander 
of Atlantic fleet, post vacated by 
Adm. King. 

Russian armies recaptured Vo- 
lokolamsk. 

British force occupied Derna 

as two other armies pursued axis 
units in Libya. 

Goebbels appealed to Ger- 
man people to donate warm 
clothing for nazi armies on Rus- 
sian front; he read message from 
Hitler who admitted nazis were 
fighting "enemy superior in men 
and materials.' 

a U.S. naval forces had 
probably sunk or damaged 
14 enemy submarines in Atlan- 
tic, Sec'y Knox announced; 32 
survivors of U.S. tanker "Emi- 
dio" were rescued after their 
ship was torpedoed 20 mi. off 
Pacific coast. 

Adolf Hitler removed Field 
Marshal Walther von Brau- 
chltsch as commander-in-chief 
of German army and assumed 
post himself. 

Axis armies retreated in Libya 

as British periled Bengasi. 

00 Prime .Minister Church- 
LL III made secret trip to 
Washington to confer with Pres. 
Roosevelt. 

U.S. and Filipino armies bat- 
tled heavy Japanese force landed 
in Lingayen area from 80 Japa- 
nese transports carrying esti- 
mated 80,000 to 100,000 troops. 

U.S. senate voted to increase 
navy enlisted personnel from 
300,000 to 500,000, and marine 
corps enlistments from 60,000 to 
104,000; Pres. Roosevelt signed 
amended selective service bill. 

Marshal KM me nil Voroshi- 

lov was assigned to command 
red army in Eastern Asia. 

Wake Island occupied by Japa- 
nese after 14-day resistance by 
garrison of 385 U.S. marines. 

00 Pres. Roosevelt disclosed 
Lu that he and British Prime 
Minister Churchill were confer- 
ring on plans for definite unity 
of action in Pacific; anti-axis 
war plans should be based upon 
defeating Germany not by an- 
ticipation of internal collapse 
but by external military blows, 
Churchill declared in dual press 
conference with Pres. Roosevelt 
at White House. 



Batavia dispatches said Neth- 
erlands submarine sank three 
Japanese transports and tanker; 
three more U.S. ships were at- 
tacked, one was sunk off Califor- 
nia coast. 

Generalissimo Chiang Kai- 
shek named T. V. Soong Chi- 
nese foreign minister to replace 
Dr. Quo Tai-chi. 

J Free French naval force 

fc4 commanded by Vice- Ad- 
miral Emile Muselier occupied 
Vichy-governed islands of St. 
Pierre and Miquelon. 

New Japanese landing near 
Atimonan on Luzon's east coast 
was announced by U.S. army 
headquarters in Philippines; 
British batteries shelled Japa- 
nese forces attacking on Ma- 
layan coast 300 mi. north of 
Singapore. 

Pope Plus XII, in annual 
Christmas message, broad- 
cast five-point peace program, 
and condemned anti-Christian 
movements, aggression, oppres- 
sion of minorities and small 
countries, and economic slavery 
of nations. 

British troops In Libya took 
Barcc and Benina, advancing to 
within 12 mi. of Bengasi. 

OC British garrison at Hong- 
fed kong surrendered to Japa- 
nese after 16-day siege; sinking 
of an enemy submarine by an 
army bomber off California an- 
nounced by U.S. army com- 
munique. 

Ninety-eight per cent of St. 

Pierre's male population voted 
for Free French rule in plebi- 
scite; U.S. state department as- 
sailed Free French occupation of 
St. Pierre and Miquelon and 
asked Canada what steps she 
would take to restore status quo. 

British armies captured Ben- 
gasi. 

00 Gen. MacArthur de- 
U clared Manila an "open 

clty n to spare it f romair orground 
attack; Jap tank units struck 
heavily at Lamon bay; Nip- 
ponese spearhead reached Binan- 
gpnan, 110 mi. north of Manila; 
British admitted Japanese "patrol 
activity" north of Kenaman on 
Malayan east coast only 1 75 mi. 
north of Singapore; Air Chief 
Marshal Sir Robert Bropke- 
Popham was relieved of British 
far east high command and re- 
placed by Lt. Gen. Sir Henry 
Pownall. 

U.S. Maj. Gen. George Brett, 

British Gen. Sir Archibald 
Wavell and Chinese Generalis- 
simo Chiang Kai-shek created 
an "ABC" (American- British- 
China) war council in Chung- 
king. 

Addressing joint session of 
U.S. congress, British Prime 



Minister Churchill declared that 
anti-axis forces would probably 
launch victory drive in 1943. 

OPA Administrator Leon 
Henderson placed new tires 
under permanent rationing pro- 
gram. 

01 Japanese planes launch- 
LI ed heavy air attack on 

"open city" of Manila; Nip- 
ponese troops steadily advanced 
on Manila from both north and 
south. 

Russian forces advanced on 
wide sweep along Oka river and 
captured Likhvin, rail juncture 
30 mi. south of Kaluga. 

British "commando'* units 

staged raids on Vaagsoe and 
Maaloy islands off Norwegian 
coast, admiralty announced. 

00 Pres. Roosevelt assured 

Philippines that their free- 
dom would be redeemed, as U.S. 
navy promised "positive as- 
sistance" to hard-pressed islands; 
undefended Manila was bombed 
anew by Japanese planes; Nip- 
ponese armies intensified drive 
about 45 mi. north* of Manila; 
Tokyo war office spokesman said 
Japanese armies refused to be 
bound by U.S. "arbitrary and 
unilateral" announcement of 
Manila as open city; Netherlands 
armies battled Japanese para- 
chute troops in Dutch Sumatra 
near the Medan airport. 

London revealed that Foreign 
Secretary Anthony Eden was 

in Moscow. 

MGen. MacArthur short- 
ened his lines as Japs con- 
tinued drives on Manila bay; 
Nipponese forced spearhead 
through Ipoh, Malaya, and ad- 
vanced to Kuan tan on east 
coast. 

OH Russian forces, covered 
OU by soviet Black sea fleet, 
captured Kerch and Theodosia; 
Russian armies on central front 
also recaptured Kaluga. 

$50,000,000,000 yearly, half 
U.S. national income, would 
be expended for war production, 
Pres. Roosevelt announced. 

Churchill addressed Canadian 
parliament in Ottawa on Al- 
lied plans to defeat axis powers. 

Charles A. Lindbergh offered 
his services to U.S. army air 
forces. 

Mohandas K. Gandhi quit 
leadership of All- India National 
congress party because it aban- 
doned civil disobedience policy. 

01 Tokyo dispatches said 
yl Nipponese troops reached 
lines 2(Hni. from Manila. 

Hitler, In New Year's mes- 
sage, warned German people of 
hard fighting ahead in 1942. 




AAA: Sec AGRICULTURE. 



flhroch/QO 
nUldolVtfOi 



cnan S m requirements resulting from the de- 
velopment of the automotive industry have led to 
marked expansion in the production, use and varieties of abra- 
sives, and the increased industrial activity incident to the defense 
program has been responsible for increased demand for certain 
types of abrasives, especially the artificial types and some of the 
high-grade natural varieties. The table on p. 18 lists the produc- 
tion of the various types of abrasives in the United States from 
1937-40. 

Corundum. The United States has no domestic production of 
corundum, a natural oxide of aluminum, but depends entirely on 
imports, mainly from South Africa, which furnishes the bulk of 
the world supply. United States imports, usually of the order of 
2,000-4,000 tons annually, were 2,609 l n g tons in 1940. South 
African sales rose from 2,625 short tons in 1939 to 4,211 tons in 
1940, of which 3,375 tons went to the United States and 836 tons 
to Great Britain. 

Diamonds. A large share of the world's diamond output is 
used for abrasive work, but little definite information is available 
outside of the United States imports, which have more than dou- 
bled since 1937, and have increased more than twenty fold since 
1930. This phenomenal growth in demand was due partly to the 
use of diamond-pointed tools for many types of fine machine 
work, and partly to the growing use of special types of high-speed 
machine tools, such as tungsten carbide, which require a bonded 
diamond wheel for dressing. Since this type of work was largely 
centred in the automobile and aeroplane industries, the defense 
program resulted in an increased demand for diamond abrasives. 



United States imports were mainly under the classification of 
glaziers', engravers' and miners' diamonds, but there were in 
addition small imports under the heading of bort and of diamond 
dust. The 1940 imports included 3,809,071 carats valued at 
$11,026,563 under the first heading, 785 carats of bort valued at 
$19,660, and diamond dust valued at $2,515, and 1941 was ex- 
pected to show a further increase. (See also DIAMONDS,) 

Emery. In addition to the output reported in the table the 
United States imports rmery from Turkey and Greece, the two 
chief sources of world supply, each of which produces 10,000- 
15,000 tons annually. Imports vary widely from year to year, 
being 426 long tons in 1938, 1,956 long tons in 1939 and 5,105 
long tons in 1940. 

Flint. Imports of silex for liners and flint pebbles for medium 
grinding in ball mills were cut off by the German occupation of 
Belgium, Denmark and France, the former sources of supply, and 
the shortage was being supplied from domestic sources and by sub- 
stitutes. Production was reported from Jasper, Minn., Lilesville, 
N.C., Carlsbad, Calif., Iron City, Tenn., Salisbury, N.C., and 
Los Angeles, Calif., as well as from Gouverneur and Knollys, 
Sask., and from beach deposits in Newfoundland. Substitutes be- 
ing tried included topaz, granite blocks, corundum pebbles, balls 
of porcelain and of compressed silica flour with a sodium silicate 
binder, and lumps of the same material being ground. 

Garnet. There was little production of garnet outside of the 
United States, although there was some in Spain, South Africa 
and Sweden. The United States output comes from the Adiron- 
dack regions of New York and New Hampshire. 

Grindstones, Millstones and Pulpstones. Little information 
was available on these products aside from the production data in 

17 



18 



ABYSSINIA ACCIDENTS 



Un/fed Stoto Production of Abroi/vei 

(In short tons, or as indicated) 





1037 


IO.J8 


IQ39 


1940 


st/Mmiiwiu /16rci5im 
Corundum 1 
Emery 


*,o5 
3-zo 


2,131 


2,029 
765 


2,989 
1,046 


Carbon A brasives 
Industrial diamonds, carats' 

Silica A brasives 
Quartz 
Sand (abrasive) 
Sand and sandstone (ground) 
Tripoli 


i,S,g70 

I i,O!2 
? 
.4*3, 1 5<> 

J4V3^ 


I,.K)7,J08 

1 8,6 1 1 
? 
2.17, If>7 
22,188 


3,500,111 

34.0SQ 
668,027 
310,5" 
33,474 


3,809,856 

31,865 
856,309 
342,218 
30,212 


Silica Stone Abrasives 
Grindstones 
Millstones (value) . 
Pulpstones 
Sharpening stones .... 
Silicate Abrasives 
Garnet 


",617 

W,;v>s 

i,024 
8lO 

4,863 


4,653 
$3,743 
1,553 
5U 

2,660 


7,017 
$11,084 
2,5*7 
620 

4,056 


8,790 
$6,558 
4.533 

4,716 


Pumice 
Artificial Abrasives 
Silicon carbide 1 
Aluminum oxide 3 .... 
Metallic abrasives 2 


71,007 

30,.|65 
86,401 
28,031 


65,742 

25,346 
53,220 
25,771 


89,159 

24,206 
50,468 
42,015 


82,407 

33,042 
98,531 
50,016 



Imports; no domestic production. 'Includes Canada also. 

the table, except that the output was supplemented to a minor 
degree by imports. 

Pumi'c*. In addition to the production of pumice and pumicite reported 
in the table, U.S. imports of crude material in 1939 were 6,656 short tons, 
decreasing to 3,758 tons in 1940; imports of manufactures were valued at 
$29,221 in 1939 and $6,468 in 1940. 

Rotterwtone. Produced only in Pennsylvania, and used as a base in pol- 
ishing compounds, the output of rottenstone is included with that of tripoli. 

Sharpening Stones. The output of sharpening stones shown in the table, 
including whetstones, oilstones and hones, was supplemented by small 
amounts of imports. 

Sond and Sandstone. Included in the outputs reported in the article SAND 
AND GRAVEL, and under Sandstone in the article STONE, there were material 
outputs of ground sand and sandstone, used largely for abrasive purposes, 
as well as of abrasive sand. About one-quarter of the ground sand and 
sandstone reported in the table is used in abrasives, while the abrasive sand 
is used in sand blasting, grinding glass, the manufacture of sandpaper, and 
other types of abrasive use. 

Tripoli. The output of tripoli reported in the table included also that of 
rottenstone, a product closely related in both character and uses. Demand 
in the United States is satisfied almost entirely from domestic sources, 
imports amounting to about i % of production. 

Artificial Abrasives. For comparison with the demand for natural abra- 
sives, the output of the chief types of artificial abrasives in the United 
States and Canada is reported in the table. (G. A. Ro.) 

Abyssinia: see ETHIOPIA. 

Academic Freedom: see EDUCATION. 

Academy of Arts and Letters, American: see AMERICAN 

ACADEMY or ARTS AND LETTERS. 

Academy of Arts and Sciences, American: see AMER- 

ICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 

Academy of Political and Social Science, American: 

see AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE. 



I941 acc ^ ent t0 ^ m tne United States was: 
. killed, 101,500; injured, 9,300,000; the cost, 
$3,750,000,000. 

Huge as it was, the 1941 toll was not the highest on record. In 
1936 there were 110,052 deaths, or 8% more than in 1941. The 
year 1937 also topped 1941. The 1941 death rate per 100,000 pop- 
ulation was 76-2. Only n of the 40 years up to 1941 had lower 
rates. The lowest rate was 68-3 in 1921. 

The 1941 accidental death totals for the U.S., by classifications, 
were : 





ZQ4I 


1940 


Change 


AH accident** 
M^or vehicle 
Home 
Occupational . 
Public (not motor vehicle) 


101,500 
40,000 
33,000 
18,000 
14,500 


96,885 
34,501 
33,ooo 
17,000 
15,000 


3% 



The all-accident totals are approximately the sums of the other figures, minus the 
duplication of occupational and motor vehicle deaths. This duplication in 1041 amounted 
to about 3,000, The 1040 all-accident and motor vehicle toUw are U S. Census Bureau 
figures. All others are National Safety Council estimates. 



Increased activity in all fields largely attributable to the ever- 
increasing tempo of national defense was the key to the greater 
accident toll. Against a backdrop of the nation's pressing need 
for man power, these facts stood out sharply: 

1. The 1941 accident toll among men in the expanded selective service 
age bracket (20 to 45) was 26,000 equal to the destruction of almost two 
full army divisions. 

2. Approximately 18,000 workers were killed by occupational accidents. 
An additional 29,000 were killed in off-the-job accidents. This loss of man- 
power represented labour sufficient to build 20 battleships, 200 destroyers 
and 7,000 heavy bombers. 

Accidents were the fifth most important cause of death in 1941. 
exceeded only by heart disease, cancer, cerebral haemorrhage and 
nephritis. One out of every 14 persons in the United States suf- 
fered a disabling injury during the year. 

The traffic toll of 40,000 was an all-time high. Since traffic 
deaths went up 16% and travel increased only 11%, the mileage 
death rate rose 4%. In industry, however, the 6% increase in 
deaths was far less than the 17% rise in employment in manufac- 
turing industries and the 9% gain in total nonagricultural em- 
ployment. 

The estimated economic loss of $3,750,000,000 covers both fatal 
and nonfatal accidents and includes wage losses, medical expense, 
the overhead costs of insurance, and property damage from motor 
vehicle accidents and fires. There were other large but less tan- 
gible losses, such as interruption of industrial production, which 
cannot be estimated. 

Persons 65 years and older were the only group with a better 
accident record in 1941 than in 1940. Deaths dropped i% to 
27,650. The school child group (5 to 14 years) had a 10% in- 
crease, with deaths totalling 7,100. This increase was exceeded 
only by the 12% rise shown for the 15-24 year group, where 
deaths totalled 14,250. The 25-64 year group accounted for 
45>35o fatalities a 5% rise. There were 7,150 deaths of children 
under five years of age, a 4% increase. 

Deaths from falls were about the same in 1941 as in 1940 
approximately 26,000 each year. Falls are second only to motor 
vehicle accidents as a cause of accidental death. 

Deaths from burns were approximately 6,900 in 1941 a 5% 
drop from 1940. Drownings increased about 2% to 7,000. 

The year 1941 was the first in ten years in which no catas- 
trophe took as many as 100 lives. A Brooklyn, N.Y., ship and 
pier fire took 37 lives. A picnic boat explosion in Maine killed 36. 
The number of accidents in which five or more persons were 
killed was higher, however, than in 1940. This was largely be- 
cause of multiple-death motor vehicle, military aviation and 
water transportation accidents, according to Metropolitan Life 
Insurance company reports. As in other years, nearly all acci- 
dents were one-or-two death cases. 

The year 1941 can be characterized as a year of mobilization of 
accident prevention resources. Motivated by the rising accident 
tolls, President Roosevelt on Aug. 18 designated the National 
Safety council to lead an all-out attack on accident hazards in 
every field of activity, but with special attention to accidents in- 
volving workers since they constituted an indirect sabotage of 
the defense production program. 

The National Committee for the Conservation of Man Power 
in Defense Industries, sponsored by the U.S. department of labor, 
was effective in developing an awareness of accidents, and a de- 
termination that they could be prevented, in many branches of 
industry hitherto unreached by safety materials. (See also DEATH 
STATISTICS; DISASTERS.) (W. H. CAM.) 

Trqffie Accidents. The total of 40,000 deaths in 1941 was 5,500 more 
than in 1940* The death rate on a population base showed an increase of 
14.9%. During 1941, 30 persons were killed for every 100,000 population 
and 12.6 persons lost their lives for each 100,000,000 motor vehicle miles 
travelled. 

While the 1 6% rise in traffic deaths is attributed in part to an 11% in- 
crease in travel, a contributing factor was the 5% increase in the total num- 
ber of motor vehicles in use. Other contributing factors included the in- 



ADEN ADVERTISING 



19 



UNITED STATES 



KILLED 
AUTOMOBILES 



tttttt 



INJURED 

IY 
AUTOMOBILES 




BRITISH ISLES 



KILLED 

IN 
AIR RAIDS 



Ittt 



WOUNDED 

IN 
AIR RAIDS 



. 5.000 

- PERSONS 

I. 100.000 
J- PERSONS 



(TOTALS ARE FOR 12 MONTHS ENDING AUG. 1. 1941) 



AIR-RAID CASUALTIES of the first full year of German raids on the British 
isles, compared with motor traffic casualties In the U.S. during the same period 

creased tempo resulting from the national emergency, the loss of trained 
enforcement personnel to selective service and the conscripting of many 
experienced, professional drivers to military service. 

Outstanding achievements in the field for 1941 may be summarized under 
the headings of the model highway safety program which was developed and 
endorsed by 12 leading organizations interested in safety in the United 
States. 

Legislation. Adoption by three additional states (Florida, Utah and 
Ohio) of the uniform act regulating traffic on highways as drafted by the 
National Conference on Street and Highway Safety; continued adoption by 
cities of the model municipal traffic ordinance; passage of bills in a majority 
of states increasing size of state police agency; passage of acts in two addi- 
tional states (New York and Oregon) providing for use of evidence obtained 
through scientific tests for intoxication; speed limits increased early in the 
year by several state legislatures, but toward the end of the year the trend 
was reversed as a means of tire and motor vehicle conservation. Several 
states began the consideration of bills for the control of traffic during black- 
outs and air raids. 

Motor Vehicle Administration. Establishment by the American Associa- 
tion of Motor Vehicle Administrators and the National Safety council of a 
joint project for driver improvement through suspension and revocation of 
drivers' licences. 

Enforcement. Study and development of emergency measures for the 
control of traffic during possible wartime disaster; stepped-up enforcement 
to relieve accidents and congestion resulting from increased use of motor 
vehicles for defense and production purposes; inauguration of the nation- 
wide emergency traffic law enforcement program by the International Asso- 
ciation of Chiefs of Police and n other national organizations. 

Education. Academic credit courses in safety education conducted in 82 
colleges and universities in 33 states during the summer of 1940; courses in 
driver training offered in approximately 8,000 high schools, 400 of which 
supplemented classroom work with actual road lessons; inclusion of 300,- 
ooo children in grade school safety patrols in 3,500 cities and towns; en- 
listment by two states of parental co-operation in training student drivers. 

Engineering. Departments established in an increased number of cities 
and states for the planniag of traffic facilities, safeguards and regulations'. 

Training Personnel. Inauguration of emergency training courses for 
police in wartime traffic control; continued increase in the training of traffic 
safety engineers, educators and enforcement personnel; continued co-opera- 
tion of colleges and universities in conducting traffic officers' training 
schools. Principal training agency for educators was the New York Uni- 
versity Center for Safety Education; for traffic police, the Northwestern 
University Traffic institute; for engineers, the Yale University Bureau for 
Street Traffic Research. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Maxwell Halsey, Traffic Accidents and Congestion; In- 
ternational Association of Chiefs of Police and Northwestern University 
Traffic Institute, The State and Provincial Police; Institute of Traffic Engi- 
neers and National Conservation Bureau, Traffic Engineering Handbook; 
National Safety Council, The Traffic Court in the Traffic Accident Emer- 
gency, Trying Traffic Cases and committee reports dealing with intoxication, 
night driving, winter driving hazards, speed, pedestrian control and the 
bicycle problem. (F. M. K.) 



Aff0n ^ en * s a British c l n y> seaport and territory in Arabia, 
MUCH, situated in 12 45' N. and 45 4' E., including Perim 
island, etc., in the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb between Africa and 
Arabia. 

Area 80 sq.mi.; pop. (est. 1939) 48,338. Aden protectorate, 
including Sokotra on the Red sea coast, 112,000 sq.mi.; pop. 
(est.) 600,000. Governor: Sir J. Hathorn Hall. Language: Eng- 
lish and Arabic ; religion : Mohammedan. 

History. The collapse of Italian operations in northeast Africa 
early in 1941 removed from Aden the threat of air raids and, al- 
lowing for war conditions, the colony and protectorate enjoyed a 
comparatively normal year. From the beginning of the war to 
Dec. 1941, Aden had made war contributions totalling 95,000,- 
528, of which 61,000,900 were contributed in 1941, a particularly 
generous response in view of the small population, Of the total, 
50,000 represented repayment of a government loan, while 45,- 



ooo consisted of gifts and contributions to the general war effort, 
Subscriptions for aircraft, mobile canteens, etc., amounted to 
30,000. 

In the late summer the chief secretary paid a visit to the king 
of the Yemen, and the governor represented Aden on the middle 
east war council set up under the chairmanship of the minister of 
state, Oliver Lyttelton. Aden was also represented at the con- 
ference of the middle east supply centre which opened in Cairo 
in November. 

During the war an Arab chief in the protectorate, the Fadhli 
Sultan of Shuqra, was deposed for misgovernment and oppressive 
rule, and was succeeded by a cousin elected by the tribe. 

(D. A. C.) 

Finance. Revenue (1938-39) 148,586; expenditure (1938-39) 127,- 
96v, currency, legal tender: rupee (Rs.i)-u. 6rf.=30.3 U.S. cents. 

Trade and Communication. External trade 1938 (merchandise and treas- 
ure on private account): imports, by sea, Rs. 6, 78, 60,400; by land Rs.29,- 
40,602; exports, by sea Rs. 4 j,4i,4s.28i ; by land Rs.is.95,929; (treasure) 
imports Rs. 1,23, 69,439; exports Rs.72,so,784. Communication: shipping 
(1938), 2,079 merchant vessels (1.361 British) entered, total tonnage 
8,650,411 net tons: motor vehicles registered (Sept. 30, 1939), 733 cars 
and taxis, 207 commercial vehicles. 

Production. (1938-39) Tobacco (approx. value of crop) Rs. 500,000; 
salt 282,994 tons; (export) 248,784 tons; coffee (export) 4,900 metric 
tons. 

Adjusted Compensation: see VETERANS ADMINISTRATION. 



^ Austrian author and professor of 
f t music, was born in Eibenschuetz, Moravia, 
then part of Austria-Hungary, on Nov. i. A professor of musical 
science at the University of Vienna, Adlcr in 1894 undertook the 
editing of the Denkntdler der Tonkunst in Osterreich, a publica- 
tion of Austrian musical works, which in 1941 was in its goth vol- 
ume. He was the author of books on Richard Wagner and Franz 
Joseph Haydn, and while at the University of Vienna founded an 
institution for musical history. Adler died in Vienna in February. 

Adult Education: see EDUCATION 



Aril/Ortioinff ^ e l em ^ ease program, priorities and finally 
ftUVClUolllg. entrance of the United States into World War 
II were the dominating factors in business and, consequently, in 
advertising in 1941. Priorities and shortage of certain materials, 
particularly metals, began to affect certain classes of goods. Con- 
tinuance of the war kept advertising activity in the United King- 
dom at about half its normal level. Advertising rates rose to off- 
set in part the smaller volume. In the United States, advertising 
expenditures were $1,736,000,000 in 1941, an increase of 4-6%. 
Newspaper linage increased 3-8%; radio, 11-0%; magazines, 
3-3%; outdoor, IM%; farm papers, 0-5%. Direct mail adver- 
tising volume increased 5-8%. These estimates are based upon 
studies reported in Printers' Ink. 

Governments used advertising on a larger scale than ever be- 
fore for increasing enlistments in military service and for the sale 
of bonds. Great Britain and Canada sold bonds at the low selling 
cost of 1-5%. The U.S. treasury engaged an experienced adver- 
tising consultant for the defense bond campaign. 

South America. Considerable progress was made in the standardization 
of space rates. The rate situation had been rather chaotic. Although rate 
cards were published, they were regarded as the basis of energetic dicker- 
ing which usually resulted in securing sizeable reductions by the more 
persuasive advertisers. This was no longer the case in 1941. Card rates 
held for all. The circulation of many papers in new industrial areas in- 
creased greatly. This resulted in the installation of high-speed presses and 
improved printing. There was no guarantee of circulation statements by 
publishers and there was no prospect of establishing independent audits of 
circulation. One peculiarity of the South American field was the supplying 
of radio talent by the station management without extra charge. In the 
United States, radio talent is specifically paid for by the advertiser. 

Copy and Layout. There was an increasing use of humour. In the past, 
humour had been handled cautiously and sparingly. This trend began in 
1940 and continued with greater strength in 1941 in the growing use of 
humorous situations, the injection of humour into the strip continuity, and 
the use of already established comic personalities. 



20 



ADVERTISING 



While defense and war had produced important effects, they had not, 
however, turned advertisers away from product selling. In a survey it was 
estimated that only 4% of advertisements were not built around product 
selling. The other 96% were directed definitely at selling goods and serv- 
ices. The 4% of advertisements tied in with war and defense fell into two 
groups. The first group consisted of advertisements which showed either a 
man in uniform using the product or a military scene in the background. 
The second group consisted of advertisements of companies devoted entirely 
to the making of war goods. These advertisements were usually institutional 
and described the contribution of the company to the defense effort. Some 
companies, although they had no goods to offer to the public, still advertised 
their products on the ground that they would be available as soon as the 
war was over. 

The Federal Trade commission continued its surveillance of advertising^ 
causing advertisers to be cautious in the use of product claims. 

Radio. Advertisers in the United States spent $107,500,000 for time on 
the three major networks in 1941, an increase of 11%. In addition they 
spent $35,000,000 on programs, an increase of 24%. This increase was due 
in part to some shifting from quiz programs, which are relatively inexpen- 
sive, to the more costly variety shows. News broadcasts greatly increased 
with the spread of the war, by means of listening posts in the U.S. and a 
large staff of correspondents throughout the world. Advertisers capitalized 
on this interest by increasing their commercial sponsorship of news. Sta- 
tions and sponsors contributed generously of their time to the defense effort. 
The "Treasury Hour" was perhaps the most important one. It was esti- 
mated that stations on the average devoted 760 min. and 227 announce- 
ments to the defense effort in the month of July 1941 alone. With the entry 
of the United States into the conflict, most stations entered on a 24-hr, 
schedule and broadcast news every hour or half hour. Radio achieved its 
largest audience, estimated at 90,000,000 persons, with the broadcast of 
Pres. Roosevelt's address on Tuesday, Dec. 9. (See also 'RADIO.) 

Newspapers. Total circulation of daily and Sunday newspapers reached 
an all-time high of 41,500,000 copies, a gain of 2% over 1940. During the 
year, the Chicago Sun was founded. There was some increase in the use of 
colour in newspapers. (See also NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES.) 

Magazines Twenty-one leading magazines issued a total of 1,103,000,000 
net paid copies during the 12 months ending June 30, 1941, a gain of 5.5% 
over the corresponding 1940 period. Two or three magazines began to dis- 
tribute their copies in substantial numbers by air express in South America. 

Direct Mail. Tnere were no material changes in expenditure for direct 
mail, in number of advertisers using this medium, in postal regulations or 
in methods of mechanical reproduction. However, there was a reduction in 
novelty mailing pieces due, probably, to their greater cost. There was much 
publicity concerning the over-use of the congressional franking privilege, 
referred to in the press as the "franking fraud." It was alleged that con- 
gressmen condoned the use of their franking privilege by pressure groups 
of both American and foreign origin. Users of direct mail felt that it de- 
creased the effectiveness of their own mailing pieces because of the competi- 
tion for attention with franked propaganda. 

Outdoor. The year 1941 was marked by a practically complete standardi- 
zation of structures and services. This was due partly to the Outdoor Ad- 
vertising association and partly to the extension of the services of the 
Traffic Audit bureau which audited practically every outdoor plant in the 
United States triannually. Every panel was given a rating by the bureau 
and plant operators undertook to re-locate low-rated panels in places where 
they would receive higher ratings. With this standardization of ratings, the 
purchase of outdoor advertising circulation became comparable to the pur- 
chase of space and time in other major media. The growth of self-service 
merchandising, the increase in super-markets and the expanding use of open 
display in all types of retail outlets reduced or eliminated salesclerk influ- 
ence on consumer purchases and placed greater emphasis on product and 
label identification and on the use of panels in shopping centres or on traffic 
arteries approaching them. There also was a tendency for national adver- 
tisers in a wider variety of fields to use the outdoor medium. 

Television.- July i, 1941, marked the birthday of commercial television. 
Commercially sponsored programs were televised for the first time on that 
day. Three stations offered programs, WCBW (CBS), W2XWV (Dumont) 
and WNBT (NBC). There were 2? stations and approximately 6,000 re- 
ceiving sets. (See also TELEVISION.) 

Point of Purchase. The Point of Purchase Advertising institute got under 



1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 
1941 

(HMO, 

194* 
( 














































































































































'"'' 




















) 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 

MILLIONS OF LINES 




NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING (total linage In 52 ciiiei of the United States): 
average per month. Compiled by Media Records, (no. 



If something looks suspicious 
around the place/ report it 
Quietly and Promptly to the Boss 
... It may be important! Have it 
checked by EXPERTS... &*&fa// 
* * * 

You are a PRODUCTION SOLDIER . . . 

America's First Line of Defense is HERE 

HUMOROUS POSTER with a serious message, drawn by Cyrui Hungerford In 
1941 for display in U.S. defenie plants 

way and endeavoured to provide information regarding this medium, to 
check on sales effectiveness of displays and to co-ordinate this form of ad- 
vertising with other media. 

Retail Advertising. The major development was the increase in the 
amount of information the retailer was required to give. Under the labelling 
act administered by the Federal Trade commission, textiles, for example, 
must be labelled to show the percentages of the different kinds of materials 
in them. Drugs, likewise, must be properly described. Another outstanding 
trend in retailing was the growth of the cash-and-carry system and self- 
service in department stores. The variety chains originated the movement 
some years ago. Super-markets grew by leaps and bounds during 1941. 
There was even a tendency to use self-service in women's ready-to-wear 
stores and in basement sections of department stores. Ways were being de- 
vised so that customers might examine practically all of the stock without 
need of salespersons. Complete labelling and more factual adveriising be- 
came a part of the movement. 

After the fall of France and the disappearance of Paris as the fashion 
centre, the New York Dress institute was organized and made an aggressive 
start toward establishing New York as the world's fashion centre by in- 
augurating an extensive advertising campaign. 

Consumers. The year 1941 witnessed a widening interest of consumers 
in their economic role as consumers. Objectives of the "consumer move- 
ment" became integral parts of the thought and action of consumers in 
1941. Although these activities received impetus from the defense programs, 
none was initiated solely because of defense. Heading the list of activities 
was consumer education, including choice-making, market selection, use 
and care of products and emphasis upon the relation of the consumer to 
the economic order. Numerous educational units were organized t> including 
women's clubs, local consumer groups, church groups, co-operatives, com- 
munity centres and defense-Inspired consumer councils. Emphasis was 
placed on conservation and reduction of waste. Consumers were being edu- 
cated to select essential goods, to have more concern for the use and care 
of appliances, to salvage used materials, to understand the importance of 
national resources, national defense and nutrition, to check the abuse of 
the returned-goods privilege, to cut down on deliveries and to perform some 
of the distribution services themselves. 

Consumers were insisting more upon facts to guide them in buying and 
in the use and care of products, through more informative advertisements, 
better-informed salespersons, informative labels, grade labels and buying 



AFGHANISTAN AGRICULTURE 



21 



guides. The demand for standards increased with the growing scarcity of 
goods. Consumers became less reformist toward business and more realistic 
and willing to co-operate with business groups, as witnessed, for example, 
by the Committee on Consumer Relations in Advertising and the National 
Consumer-Retailer council. 

Consumer groups were also interested not only in the enactment of pro- 
tective legislation but also in securing a voice in the administration of such 
measures through the growing demand for a federal department of the con- 
sumer in the cabinet. 

There was clear evidence of a shift in consumer income. The net spend- 
able income of the higher and middle groups was being reduced by heavier 
taxes. The lower groups were less affected by taxation and were receiving 
a larger share of the gross dollar income. Many marginal consumers were 
being brought into the active spending groups. 

Rtstarch. An outstanding achievement was the completion of the four- 
year study of the economic effects of advertising under the direction of Neil 
Borden and an advisory committee of the Harvard Graduate School of Busi- 
ness Administration. The study was financed by a grant by Mrs. A. W. 
Erickson as a memorial to her late husband who had been a noted adver- 
tising agency executive. It was carried out under the auspices of the Ad- 
vertising Research foundation. 

The findings of this research are set forth in a volume of nearly x,ooo 
pages. 

The year 1941 also marked the completion of ten years of continuous 
measurement of the readership of advertisements in magazines, known as 
the Advertising Rating Service, conducted by Daniel Starch and staff. In 
this continuing program, approximately 120,000 individual interviews are 
conducted each year. The reports give the number of readers attracted by 
each advertisement in the magazines covered and the per-reader cost. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, Among the 1941 books on advertising and related fields 
were: Neil H. Borden, The Economic Effects of Advertising; A. J. Brewster 
and H. H. Palmer, Introduction to Advertising (4th ed.); K. M. Goode, 
Advertising; H. W. Hcpner, Effective Advertising; O. Kleppner, Advertis- 
ing Procedure (3rd. cd.); W. A. Lowen and L. E. Watson, How to Get a 
Job and Win Success in Advertising. (D. ST.) 

^ Muslim kingdom lying between India and 
Persia; area 250,000 sq.mi.; pop. (est. 1937) 
10,000,000; chief towns: Kabul (cap., 80,000), Kandahar (60,- 
ooo), Herat (50,000), Mazar-i-Sharif (30,000). Ruler: Muham- 
mad Zahir Shah; languages: Persian, Pushtu, and some Turki in 
the north; religion: Mohammedan. 

History. Under its enlightened monarch the country was ad- 
vancing steadily in education and in the industries which are ex- 
pected to exercise a civilizing influence on its turbulent people. 
But endeavours to stir up trouble were not lacking. The ex-Amir 
Aman-ul-lah was hanging on to the other side of the frontier and 
was believed to be under nazi orders to foment disaffection. The 
faqir of Ipi, an old campaigner among the tribes, was also intrigu- 
ing. The king, however, was most correct in his neutrality, and 
his handling of the German colony in the country in the closing 
months of 1941 gave proof of his sincerity. German nationals 
organized themselves as a foreign branch of the nazi party, and 
were developing active pro-Hitler propaganda on the approved 
fifth-column lines. Their position was one of some strength; they 
were employed as experts in economic development and in educa- 
tion, as engineers and as suppliers of machinery and plant for in- 
dustrial enterprises. On British representations, however, the gov- 
ernment ordered the deportation of all German and Italian na- 
tionals; and a considerable danger to India was thus averted. 
During the year, Sir Francis Wylie succeeded Sir William Fraser- 
Tytler as British minister at Kabul. (ME.) 

Education. Elementary schools exist throughout the country, but sec- 
ondary schools exist only in Kabul and provincial capitals; both are free. 
There were, in 1940, 130 primary schools and one normal school for teach- 
ers in Kabul. In addition there were 4 secondary schools and 13 military 
schools. Technical, art, commercial and medical schools exist for higher 
education. The Kabul university was established in 1932; only a medical 
faculty existed in 1940. 

Defontt. Army, compulsory service; peace strength 60,000. 

Financ*. Revenue and expenditure about Rupees (Afghan) 150,000,000; 
currency: Rs. 3-95 (Afghan) = Rs. i (Indian). Rs. i (Afghan) = $d. 
approximately, or about 8.4 cents, U.S. 

Trad* and Communication. (i939~4o) Exports to India: Afghan mer- 
chandise Rs. 3,97,06,681; treasure Rs. 16,655; non-Afghan merchandise 
Rs. 2,008. Imports: Indian produce Rs. 72,79,399; other produce (im- 
ported through India and in transit) Rs. 1,96,25,197. 

Persian lambskin is one of the most important exports. Other exports 
are carpets, fruit, wool and cotton. Roads: trade routes, Kabul to Peshawar 
(India), 210 mi., and Kandahar to Chaman, 70 mi.; there were about 
2,265 ml. of unmetalled roads connecting the chief towns. At the beginning 
of 1941 there were five wireless stations in the country. 

Agriculture Wheat, rice, millet, maize, sheep, Persian lambskin, wool 
(1938) 6,800 metric tons. 

BIBUOOKAPHY, Sir Percy Sykes, A History of Alshanistan, a vob. ( 1 940) . 



A. F. of L: see AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR. 
Africa, British East: see BRITISH EAST AFRICA. 
Africa, British South: see BRITISH SOUTH AFRICAN PROTEC- 
TORATES. 

Africa. British Wost: see BRITISH WEST AFRICA. 
Africa. French Equatorial: see FRENCH COLONIAL EMPIRE. 
Africa. French West: see FRENCH COLONIAL EMPIRE. 
Africa. Italian East: see ITALIAN COLONIAL EMPIRE. 
Africa, Portuguese East and West: see PORTUGUESE CO- 
LONIAL EMPIRE. 

Africa, Spanish West: see SPANISH COLONIAL EMPIRE. 
Africa, Union of South: see SOUTH AFRICA, THE UNION OF. 
Agricultural Adjustment Administration: see AGRICUL- 
TURE. 

Agricultural Chemistry and Engineering, U.S. Bureau 
of: see CHEMISTRY AND ENGINEERING, AGRICULTURAL, U.S. BU- 
REAU OF. 

Agricultural Machinery: see FARM MACHINERY. 
Agricultural Marketing Service: see AGRICULTURE. 

Crops. Following the severe droughts of 
1934 and 1936, the United States had five con- 
secutive years of exceptionally good crops. During these five 
years, total production of $3 important crops ranged from 4% to 
13% above the xo-year average, 1923-32. Probably never before 
have there been five consecutive years of such good crops. 

These five crops would have been even larger had the acreages 
of the '2os been planted. Acreages were 3% to 8% below those 
of 1923-32, whereas yields were 13% to 21% above the ten-year 
average. The increase in yields more than offset the decrease in 
acreage. The year 1941 brought the highest yields and the second 
largest production in history. 

The 1941 production and yields of wheat, corn and sorghum 
were the best from 1936-41 (Table I). The only major crops 
with relatively low production for 1941 were cotton and tobacco. 
The small crops of cotton and tobacco were due in part to smaller 
acreage and in part to lower yields. 

On the whole, the United States had been favoured since 1936 
with good weather conditions for crop production. The good 
weather more than compensated for attempts to decrease produc- 
tion. Hence the nation was indebted to weather for placing it in 
a strong position for meeting extra wartime demands. 

Livestock. The severe droughts of 1934 and 1936 caused a 
drastic liquidation of the numbers of livestock on farms in the 
United States. With five consecutive good grain crops, forage 
crops and pasture that followed the droughts, stockmen restored 
their herds as rapidly as feed and breeding practice permitted. 

The index of meat animals on farms rose from 103 on Jan. i, 
1937, to 112 in 1941 (Table II). The numbers of animals on 
farms Jan. 1942 were even higher. The supply of meat animals on 
farms in 1941 was 12% greater than during the ten years pre- 
ceding the drought, greater than the peak year of the *2os, and 
much greater than at any previous high point in history. 

The greatest expansion and contraction were in numbers of 
hogs. The largest number of hogs during the *2os, 69,000,000, 
dwindled to 43,000,000 after the droughts of the early '305 (Table 
II). However, with the good corn crops of 1937 to 1939, the num- 
ber increased rapidly, reaching 60,000,000 by 1940. Beef cattle 
numbers declined from a high of 40,000,000 during the '203 to 
31,000,000 during the '305. Since 1939 they have steadily in- 
creased. The numbers of dairy cattle have increased steadily re- 
gardless of droughts. The total number of cattle in 1941 was 10% 
above the drought level and about the same as the high point of 
the '2os. Numbers of sheep and limbs have steadily increased 
since the '205 and were in 1941 near the highest in history. 



22 



AGRICULTURE 



By 1941 the index of meat animals per capita, 101, had risen 
to slightly above the average of 1923-32. Even though per capita 
numbers of livestock were high relative to drought years, they 
were considerably below the high point of the 'aos, 122. Although 
the total supplies of meat animals were the highest in history, 
the amount of meat available to each individual was considerably 
less than the peak of the '205 and much less than the earlier 
peaks. (See also LIVESTOCK.) 

Prices. The outstanding phenomenon of the agricultural situa- 
tion during 1941 was the sharp rise in prices of all farm products. 
During the year ending in Sept. 1941, United States farm prices 
rose more than 40%. The rise was widespread. The greatest per- 
centage advances occurred in prices of cotton and hogs, which 
rose 91% and 80%, respectively. Most farm products rose from 
30% to 50%. 

The products which rose the most were not necessarily those 
with the highest prices. For example, in Sept. 1941, prices of cot- 
ton and hogs were very little more than the average of all farm 

Table I. Crop Production in fh United Stares 





193 i~ig32 


Drought 


Five good crop years 


Crop 


average 


i 03ft 


















1937 


1038 


1939 


1940 


1941* 


Corn, million bu 


2r583 


1,507 


2,651 


2,52 


2,602 


2,461 


2,673 


Wheat, million bu. . . . 


jo 


627 


876 


Q32 


751 


812 


046 


Oats, million bu 


ii*.*7 


786 


1,162 


1,068 


936 


1,246 


1,176 


Barley, million bu. . . . 


*M 


M7 


220 


2 53 


275 


310 


359 


Rice, million bu. . 


40 


50 


53 


53 


54 


54 


54 


Grain snrghums.million Ui. 


100 


55 


,)8 


QU 


83 


i-vS 


154 


Soybeans, million bu. . . 


ot 


30 


45 


63 


01 


77 


107 


Potatoes, million bu.. , . 


360 


332 


395 


.174 


363 


378 


358 


Apples, million bu. . . 
Hay, million tons ... 


101 

72 


76 
64 


116 
73 


82 
Hi 


143 

76 


114 

5 


126 
82 


Cotton, million bales. . . 


14 


12 


IQ 


12 


12 


13 


11 


Tobacco, million Ib. . . 


i, 377 


1,155 


l,5f'3 


1,376 


1,858 


1,456 


1,280 


Index of 53 crops . 


100 


70-5 


ii.v6 


105-5 


103-0 


108.1 


III.O 



*Decembcr i estimate. 



t 1924-3 2 average. 



products. Hogs were not as high as lambs or beef cattle. In gen- 
eral, prices of livestock and livestock products were much higher 
than grains and other foods. 

The rise in prices of farm products was due to a combination 
of several factors. Higher government loan rates for products 
sealed under the farm program contributed to increased prices of 
grains and cotton. Purchases by the government for British ac- 
count raised prices of certain livestock products. A short crop, 
high domestic consumption, and rigid restriction on sales of 
government-held cotton raised cotton prices. 

Some persons contended that the advance in farm prices was 
due to increased consumer purchasing power. However, it is 
doubtful whether the demand for food increased with incomes. 
The additional incomes went for automobiles, clothing and other 
nonfood items. 

One of the reasons farm prices in the United States rose was 
that world prices of these products rose. Since the gold content 
of the dollar was fixed, United States prices necessarily followed 
world prices. World prices rose probably because production in 
war areas declined and because the demand for food products rose 
relative to the demand for money. (See also PRICES.) 

Parity Farm Prices. The concept of a parity for farm prices 
was developed during the depression of the early '305. At that 
time, prices farmers received were only about one-half the prices 
they paid for articles bought. It was argued that prices should 
be raised so that farmers would have as much purchasing power 
in terms of things they bought as they had during 1910-14. Farm 
prices have tended to be high relative to farm costs when the 
general price level was rising; and low, when falling. 

The period 1910-14" was chosen as one during which a normal 
rdationship existed between farm prices and costs because the 
price level was relatively stable following a period of gradual ad- 
vance. When the price level fell from 1920 to 1932, prices that 




TTTSr 1 IT 1922 1926 1930 1934 1938 1942 



Fig. 1. INDEX NUMBERS OF 
PRICE* RECEIVED BY FARMERS 
FOR FARM PRODUCTS, PRICES 
PAID (INCLUDING INTEREST AND 
TAXES), AND THE PURCHASING 
POWER OF FARM PRODUCTS, 1914 
to 1941. Prices received by farmers 
fluctuated more violently than prices 
of articles they bought. With deflation, 
the purchasing power of farm products 
fell; and, with rising prices, It rose 



farmers received fell more rap- 
idly and by a greater amount 
than prices they paicj. Thus, the 
purchasing power of farm prod- 
ucts declined to about one-half 
of parity. Since 1932 the vari- 
ous farm programs have aimed 
at restoring parity farm prices; 
that is, a purchasing power 
equal to 1910-14. The purchas- 
ing power of farm prices rose 
sharply with the droughts of 
1934 and 1936 (fig. i). Farm 
prices almost reached parity 
during a brief period in the 
spring of 1937, but net farm in- 
comes did not reach parity be- 
cause of the very low produc- 
tion during the drought years. 
From Aug. 1939 to Oct. 1941, farm prices rose from 70% to 
101% of parity. At the same time, production levels continued 
high. As a result of parity prices and good crops, farmers probably 
received parity incomes in 1941 for the first time since 1919. 

During 1941 there was much controversy over the level of 
prices fair to farmers. In the debates on price fixing, some persons 
contended that there was no justification for farm prices as high 
as parity. It was argued that the 1910-14 base period was one of 
abnormal prosperity for farmers. It was contended that, since 
farm prices had been below parity for two decades, their normal 
level should be lower than 1910-14. It was not recognized that 
farm prices were low during the '205 and '303 primarily because 
of the effect of falling prices on the price structure rather than 

because of any fundamental 
changes in agriculture. The 
low purchasing power of farm 
prices during those years was 
not normal. This is further 
indicated by the fact that, 
when the general price struc- 
ture rose during 1941, farm 
prices reached parity in spite 
of large crops. With a further 
rise in the general price level, 
it was to be expected that 
farm prices would rise to 1 10% 
to 115% of parity, or even 
higher. The most justifiable 
level of farm prices may not 



INDEX 




1929 



1931 



1933 



1935 



1937 



1939 



1941 



Fig. 2. INDEX NUMBERS OF PRICES* OF 40 BASIC COMMODITIES FOR 
THE UNITED STATES AND THE WORLD, IN GOLD, 1929 TO 1941. From 
1929 to 1933, United States prlcei fell with world prices; from 1935-37 and 
1939-41, they rose with world prices 



AGRICULTURE 



23 



IN 
175 
165 
155 
145 




'17 


&?*/ 


1 r 


AUGUST i< 


09 -JULY 11 


14-100/ 






/ 




WORLD W/ 


Rl / 


135 
125 






r/ 




> 


7 


115 
105 
95 

85 

JULY 
AUO 


WORLD 


WAR II -V 


/ 


=,r 




^^ 


,X 








'U JULY '15 JULY '16 JULY 

'39 AUG. '40 AUG. '41 



Fig. 3. INDEX NUMBERS OF FARM 
PRICES OF ALL FARM PRODUCTS 
IN THE UNITED STATES, WORLD 
WAR I AND WORLD WAR II. During 
the first 24 months of World War II, 
prices paid to producers for farm prod- 
ucts followed approximately the same 
course as that for World War I 



be the low level of 1921 or 1932 
following deflation, nor the high 
levels of 1917-18, nor some 
high level in the early '408 fol- 
lowing inflation. The best esti- 
mate of equitable prices for 
farmers must be made from 
some period such as 1910-14 
when the whole price level was 
in equilibrium. 

In 1941 the 1910-14 farm 
price relationships were defined 
by law as parity; that is, these 
relationships purported to place 
agriculture on a parity with 
other industries. However, 
there is considerable justifica- 
tion for farm prices which 

would give farmers more purchasing power than in 1910-14. 
For more than a century prior to 1910 the purchasing power 
of farm prices had gradually risen. With declining per cap- 
ita food production, this upward trend should have continued. 
Of course it was interrupted by the maladjustments in the 
price structure following World War I. However, in the 
long run, the upward trend will probably continue. Higher pur- 
chasing power for agriculture is also justified by the higher 
purchasing power of city workers. At the same time that farm 
prices reached parity during the summer of 1941, the purchas- 
ing power of city wages in terms of city costs of living rose 
to 84% above parity. City wages were above parity continuously 
during the '205 and '305. In view of these facts, it would seem 
that the rising farm prices of 1941 merely restored to farmers a 
part of their rightful standard of living. 

Table II. Number of livestock on Farms in fhe U. $., January 1942 





ooo's omitted 


Index of 














meat 


Yrar 


Sheep 
and 
lambs 


Hogs 
and 
pigs 


Beef 
cuttle 


Dairy 
cattle 


Chickens 


animals 


Total 


Per 
















Capita 


1923-32 average 


4-u.Hoo 


59,000 


30,200 


32,000 


446,000 


10 


IOO 


Low year of '20* 


3Moo 


S 2,IOO 


2(>,2OO 


29,800 


370,000 


94 


u6 


High year of '20* 


48,400 


()Q,3OO 


40,100 


31,000 


475,000 


107 


122 


1937, after 
















droughts . . 


5*,5oo 


42,800 


.U.SOO 


35,300 


420,000 


103 


95 


IQJ8 


52,700 


44,200 


^l.OOO 


35,100 


387,000 


103 


94 


1939 


53,8oo 


49,300 


30,000 


35,900 


413,000 


105 


95 


1940 


5 4,500 


60,20O 


32,200 


30,0oo 


429,000 


ill 


101 


1941 . 


55.000 


53,000 


34,300 


37,400 


414,000 


112 


101 



World and United States Prices. -The spectacular rise in 
prices of farm and other basic commodities during 1941 was 
world- wide (fig. 2). Prices in the United States merely followed 
the trend of prices in other countries. In terms of gold, prices 
have usually been about the same in different parts of the world. 
By 1934, both world and United States prices in gold had fallen to 
one-half their 1929 level. Both made a moderate recovery from 
1934 to 1937, but lost these gains from the spring of 1937 to the 
summer of 1939. From the outbreak of World War II to the fall 
of 1941, both the United States and world prices had risen 40%, 
back to the peak of 1937. 

As long as the United States price level in gold is tied to the 
world price level in gold and the dollar is a fixed amount of 
gold, United States prices in terms of dollars will also be tied 
to world prices in gold. This is a very simple but important 
principle not commonly understood or taken into consideration in 
efforts to control prices. 

The efforts of neither the Farm board of the Hoover administra- 
tion nor the AAA program of the Roosevelt administration were 




Fig. 4. -INDEX NUMRERS OF FARM PRICES OF MEAT ANIMAJ-S AND 
DAIRY PRODUCTS FOR WORLD WARS I AND II. During the second year 
of World War II, prices rose more rapidly and by a greater amount than during 
the same period of World War I. This held true for both meat animals and 
dairy products 



successful in raising world prices or raising United States prices 
in gold relative to the rest of the world. Similarly, efforts to 
curb advancing prices in 1941 were, arid would probably be in 
1942, harassed by an advancing world price level. 

Prices during World Wars I and II. During the first 24 mo. 
of World War II, world and United States prices of basic com- 
modities rose about the same amount as during the comparable 
period of World War I. Similarly, United States farm prices rose 
about the same amount during the first two years of both wars 
(fig.. 3). The rise in farm prices during World War II was a little 
greater than during World War I, because farm prices were 
especially depressed relative to other prices at the outbreak of 
World War II. 

During the first 24 mo. of World War II, prices of meat animals 
rose much more rapidly than was the case in World War I (fig. 
4, left). Prior to World War I, the United States raised more 
meat than it consumed. However, prior to World War II, con- 
sumption was practically equal to production. The United States 
had less meat to spare at the outbreak of World War II than at 
the beginning of World War I. Consequently, additional wartime 
demands for meat raised prices faster during the later conflict. 

Prices of dairy products also rose faster during World War II 
(fig. 4, right). Prior to 1914, the United States exported small 
amounts of dairy products, whereas prior to 1939, imports were 
the rule. Because of the shortage in the United States, the addi- 
tional demand for export to Great Britain raised prices sharply. 

Prices of cotton and cotton-seed, chickens and eggs and fruits 
during the first part of World War II followed their World War I 
patterns (figs. 5 and 6). Grain prices rose by about the same 
amounts during the first two years of both wars. However, the 
level of grain prices was somewhat lower during 1939 to 1941 than 
1914 to 1916. 



iNDEXr 




.. ., ._ "tJuLY'i? JULY '14 " JULY ; ii JULY '16 JULY '17 

AUG. '39 AUG. '40 AUG '41 AUG. '39 AUG. '40 



AUG. '41 



Fig. 5. INDEX NUMBERS OF FARM PRICES OF COTTON AND COTTON- 
SEED AND CHICKENS AND EGGS FOR WORLD WARS I AND II. After the 
first twelve months of World Wars I and II, prices of cotton began to rise. 
During World War II, the rise was especially sharp during 1941. During the 
first two years of both wars, prices of chickens and eggs followed about the 
same course 



24 



AGRICULTURE 




WHILE THE GERMAN ARMIES drove deeper into the U.S.S.R. In the summer 
of 1941, women collectivist farmers toiled long hours to get the harvest in 
before the enemy arrived 

AAA Farm Program. From 1939 to 1941, farmers were op- 
erating under the AAA act of 1938, which continued the soil con- 
servation program and commodity loans. The act improved mar- 
keting agreements and quotas and added the new features, parity 
payments, crop insurance and surplus commodity disposal. Dur- 
ing these years, greater compliance with the various farm pro- 
grams was encouraged by parity payments and by the threat or 
actual existence of more widespread marketing agreements. 

In 1939-40 the agricultural program cost the United States 
almost $1,000,000,000 (Table III). More than half this amount 

Table III. Cosh of Agricultural Adjustment Program, Fiscal Year 7939-40 

Agricultural conservation payments $518,000,000 

Parity payments 215,000,000 

Payments for purchase of agricultural commodities 67,000,000 

Payments under Sugar act 47,000,000 

Expenses, county 43,000,000 

Expenses, Washington, D.C ; 18,000,000 

Total $008,000,000 



was for conservation payments. The next largest item was parity 
payments, aggregating $215,000,000. Continental sugar producers 
collected $27,000,000; and Hawaii and Puerto Rico producers, 
$20,000,000. The costs of administration averaged about 7% of 
the payments. The 1940-41 agricultural program cojt about the 
same as the 1939-40 program. ' 

TabU IV. Payments to farmers under f/ie - ._:,$ 

1939-40 Agricultural Ad/ujfmnf Program 



Cotton $215,000,000 

Corn 150,000,000 

Wheat 138,000,000 

Sugar 47,000,000 

Other crops* 20,000,000 



Range $ 14,000,000 

Gcncralf 172,000,000 

%, : ; :"\> $756,000,000 



. *Tobacco, potatoes, rice, vegetables, naval stores and peanuts, in order named. 
tOcneral division, $71,000,000; and soil-building practices, $101,000,000. 

Most of the money paid farmers under the 1939 farm program 
went to cotton, corn and wheat producers (Table IV). Sugar was 
also favoured. For all other crops, the farmers collected prob- 
ably less than 5% of the total; where these crops represented 
more than half the total value of all crops. The specific pay- 



ments to cotton producers were about 40% of the value of the 
crop; wheat, 27%; corn, 10%; and other crops, less than i%. 

The largest payment in any one state went to Texas, $99,000,- 
ooo (Table V). There were n states that received from $27,000,- 
ooo to $61,000,000. In general, the most favoured states were in 
areas of intensive corn, cotton or wheat production. Payments in 



Table V. Approximate Distribution of Gov'f Expend/fares to Starts, 1939-40 

Texas $00*000,000 North Dakota $3:2,000,000 

Iowa 61,000,000 Minnesota 31,000,000 

Illinois 43,000,000 Oklahoma . 20,000,000 

Nebraska 37,000,000 Missouri 28,000,000 

Kansas 36,000,000 Arkansas 28,000,000 

Mississippi 33,000,000 Alabama 27,000,000 

40 states and territories, average $9,000,000 

southern states were approximately 18% of the farm value of all 
southern crops; and in northern states, 14%. 

After eight years of AAA programs in the United States, some 
generalizations can be made concerning their effect on farmers 
and agriculture. 

As a relief measure for farmers, cash payments no doubt raised 
the standard of living of many farmers relative to the rest of the 
U.S. These payments were much needed and gratefully received. 
They were the farm counterpart of city relief cheques. However, 
unlike city relief, farm payments were given in proportion to re- 
duction in production rather than in proportion to needs. 

One of the effects of the AAA program of reducing production 
was to raise prices. However, raising prices by reducing produc- 
tion did not raise farm income. Prices and production tended to 
be compensating factors; that is, a large crop at low prices 
brought about as many dollars as a small crop at high prices. 
Another effect of reducing production and raising prices in the 
United States was to encourage high-cost producers in other coun- 
tries to increase production. Thus the program tended to turn 
U.S. foreign markets over to foreign producers. To regain these 
foreign markets, the American farmer could eliminate this for- 
eign competition only by selling his product at unremunerative 
prices for several years. 

It is difficult for a democracy to operate a successful ever- 



AGRICULTURE 



25 



iNDEXr 

210 

180 

150 

120 

90 



GRAINS 



WORLD WAR I 



AUGUST 1909- 
JULY 1914-100 



60 
JULY "14 
AUG. '39 



JULY '15 
AUG. '40 



-WORI 



ILDWARII 



JULY '16 
AUG. '41 



JULY '17 




Fig. 6. INDEX NUMBERS OF FARM PRICES OF GRAINS AND FRUITS FOR 
WORLD WARS I AND II. During the first two years of World War I and World 
War II, there was relatively little rise in the price of grains. Prices of fruits 
followed about the tame course during the two wars 

normal granary. The tendency is to put everything in and take 
nothing out. The only salvation for an ever-normal granary is an 
unpredictable sharp rise in prices because of severe drought, war, 
or some other force. Schemes for holding crops fail miserably 
when prices fall for several years. The Farm board, which oper- 
ated from the late '205 to the early '305, gave an excellent illus- 
tration of an ever-normal granary when prices were falling. 

An avowed advantage of the ever-normal granary has been to 
carry part of large production in good crop years over into poor 
crop years. However, in the case of cotton, this was formerly 
done by farmers and the trade. In the case of grains, the excesses 
of good years were carried over into following crop years largely 
in the form of livestock. When grain was plentiful and relatively 
cheap, it was profitable to feed more to the existing livestock. 
With continued good crops, the numbers of livestock continued 
large; but, when short crops occurred, feeding was no longer 
profitable and the slaughter of livestock temporarily increased, 
thereby reducing the number. During drought years, the live- 
stock produced from current poor crops necessarily declined, but 
the deficiency was made up from the slaughter of the excess ac- 
cumulated during the good crop years. Thus farmers tended to 
operate their own ever-normal granary. They kept the grain in 
the form of meat animals rather than in corn cribs and grain ele- 
vators. In many ways, the farmer's system was preferable to the 
AAA system because the surplus was kept in a form more quickly 
available to city consumers and for emergencies, such as addi- 
tional foreign demands in time of war. 

The conservation aspects of the farm program have been effec- 
tive in encouraging better soil-building practices, reseeding of 
pastures, erosion control, protective summer fallowing, green 
manure and cover crops, and the like. Undoubtedly, a somewhat 

Fig. 7. INDEX NUMBERS OF THE PHYSICAL VOLUME OF CROP PRO- 
DUCTION PER CAPITA AND OF TOTAL AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS OF THE 
UNITED STATES, 1880-1941. From 1880 to about 1915, there was some 
tendency for the production of crops per capita to increase slightly. Since that 
time, they have declined. The physical volume of exports rose to about the turn 
of the century. Thereafter, a decline set In and continued to 1941. The only 
interruption was during and immediately following the war from 1915 to 1922 




greater-than-otherwise future production has been provided for. 
Of course it must be realized that this was accomplished at the 
expense of a somewhat reduced immediate production. 

A provision for government sponsored crop insurance was in- 
cluded in the AAA act of 1938. An agency was set up to write 
insurance against loss in wheat yields. Considerable insurance was 
written against the wheat crops of 1939 to 1941, particularly in 
the great plains area. In general, the popularity of this part of 
the program depended on the size of the crop the preceding year. 
Where farmers carried insurance every year, their incomes from 
wheat were more or less stabilized. 

From 1935 to 1941, one of the features of the AAA was the 
Surplus Marketing administration which bought farm products 
for government account and gave them to those in lovy-income 
groups. This action was supposed to serve two purposes: first, to 
take troublesome surpluses off the markets so that farmers would 
obtain better prices; and second, to improve the diets of those 
with low incomes. This part of the AAA program was probably 
more effective as an urban relief measure than as an aid to farm- 
ers. Farmers' benefits depended only on the extent to which 




I860 



1890 



1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 



Fig. 8. VALUE OF NET U.S. EXPORTS OR IMPORTS OF FOOD IN PER 
CENT OF FARM INCOME, 1882-1940. From about 1890 to about 1900, net 
exports mounted relative to production. From 1900 to the war in 1914, the 
excess of exports vanished. During and after the war from 1915 to 1922, there 
was an excess of exports of food. Since 1923, imports of food have exceeded 
exports; and In 1936, were 5% of farm Income. Even after four good crop 
years, about 3% more food was consumed in 1940 than produced in the nation 

prices were raised. No doubt some prices were raised, but pos- 
sibly prices of products not purchased under the program were 
correspondingly lowered. The rise in the average price of farm 
products depended on the rise in the average food consumption 
in the U.S. Whether the consumption of the low-income classes 
was actually increased is debatable. People tend to eat about the 
same amounts of food whether their incomes are high or low and 
whether they obtain this food with money from their own earn- 
ings, with relief cheques, or directly from the Salvation Army, or 
the Surplus Marketing administration. 

Conflict Over Agricultural Policy. As a result of the de- 
pression and low prices, efforts were made to raise prices by re- 
ducing production. As a result of rising prices in 1941, some per- 
sons contended that production should be increased to prevent 
prices from rising. 

It has been the AAA policy to restrict production and raise 
prices. This policy was to continue for 1942 in spite of increased 
demands for livestock products for export. Although the AAA co- 
operated with the United States department of agriculture in en- 
couraging increased livestock production during the fall of 1941, 
the AAA contracts for 1942 called for continued restricted acre- 
ages of corn and wheat. 

Diametrically opposed to the AAA policy was that of the Office 
of Price Administration (q.v.)* which wanted greater production 
and low prices. Any price control bill is at cross-purposes with 
the AAA. 



26 



AGRICULTURE 



240 
210 
180 
150 
120 
90 

60 
19 




r 








-+ 


S>C\T\ V\ 


'AGES 


/ 




A 


,.." 
/-" 




\ 


/\ 


/> 


/ 


n 






\ ,< 


^ 




i 


* V- 


,*'** 

>'s\ 


\ 


\ 






/ 


u 


^ " 


^\ 


V FAR 
k \ 


M WAGES 


/ 


/ 




FARM F 


RICES 


\ \ 


^ 


Zs 


PRE-WORLD WAR 1 - 1 
i i i I i i i I i i i 


00 

i i i 


V? 


i i i 


i i i 


14 1918 1922 1926 1930 1934 1938 1942 



Fig. 9. -INDEX NUMBERS OF FARM AND CITY WAGES AND FARM PRICES, 
1914-41. Although farm wages tend to be a compromise between farm prices 
and city wages, they have followed farm prices more closely than city waget 

The price control advocates represent the interest of urban con- 
sumers who desire cheap food and clothing. 

The interests of the farmer are not represented by either the 
AAA or the Office of Price Administration. The farmer wants 
neither low production and high prices nor high production and 
low prices. He wants high production and high prices. If it were 
not for the AAA or the Office of Price Administration, he might 
get both in 1942. High production and high prices would be more 
to the advantage of both farmers and consumers than any other 
combination. The interests of the farmer have been represented 
most truly by the agricultural elements of congress and the United 
States department of agriculture. The farm bloc in congress has 
attempted to safeguard the farmer by insisting on what appeared 
at the time to be fair levels for agricultural price ceilings. 

The United States department of agriculture has agreed with 
the farm bloc on the 110% of parity ceilings. It has also gone as 
far as it can in advocating increased production without conflict- 
ing with the AAA. 

The formerly small agency, the Surplus Marketing administra- 
tion of the AAA, was occupied with purchasing farm products 
for relief groups. In 1941 this agency expanded rapidly into an 
organization to purchase food for Britain under the lend-lease 
program. Prior to 1941, expenditures for relief aggregated $50,- 
000,000 to $75,000,000. Late in 1941, expenditures for lend-lease 
were at a rate of about $500,000,000 a year. Expenditures in 
1942 were expected to reach $1,000,000,000. 

For 1942 United States farmers were urged to increase their 
total production about 7% over that of 1941. This was necessary 
to provide Britain with the food that it would need. During World 
War I, Great Britain imported dairy, poultry and pork products 
from Denmark and the Netherlands. In 1942, this would be im- 
possible. Most of the increases called for were not in crop pro- 
duction but rather in the conversion of good crops into livestock 
and livestock products. 

TabU VI. /ntorufa* Fxporfi of Food for 1942 from fhe (M/ftcf Stofe* 



Commodity 


Exports 


Increase 
of 1942 
over 
normal 


Increase 
as a per 
cent of 
1036-740 
production 


Actual 
Average 
1936 to 

IQ41 


Goal 
1942 


Livestock Products 
Milk, million pounds 


-208 
3 

101 

"5 
-155 

54 
*5 
20 

t 
- x 
3 

4-3 
410 


5,io8 
504 
1,350 
640 
- -So 

30 
10 
25 

4 

6 

I.O 
441 


-f S,3i6 
+ 501 

f 1,240 
+ 425 
+ 15 

24 

- is 

!i 

r 3<3 

f 31 


+++++ 1 ++++ 1+ 


Eggs, million dozens 
Pork, million pounds 
Lard, million pounds 
Beef and veal, million pounds . 
Pood crops 
Wbeat, million bushels . 


Corn, million bushels . . . 
Rice, million bushels 
Dry beans, million batrs .... 
Canned vegetables million case* 
Canned fruit, million cases . . 
Nonfood cropt 
Cotton, million bales 
Tobacco, million pounds 



Exports of dairy products desired for 1942 are the equivalent 
of 5,000,000,000 Ib. of milk (Table VI). These exports of cheese, 
butter, canned milk, etc., are equivalent to about one pint of 
whole milk for each Briton, every three days. 

The expected shipments of eggs were expected to be about 
500,000,000 doz., or three eggs per person per week. 

It was hoped that the U.S.A. could supply Britain with 1,350,- 
000,000 Ib. of pork and 640,000,000 Ib. of lard in 1942. This is 
equivalent to about two-thirds Ib. of pork and one-third Ib. of lard 
per week per capita. 

Because the United States eats more beef than it produces, it 
would not be able to ship Great Britain any beef except at the 
expense of domestic consumption or from imports from other 
countries. 

From the standpoint of U.S. agriculture, supplying millions with 
these products meant an increase in production over the 1936-40 
average. The increase in milk and dairy products was 5% of 
normal production. 

Foreign Trade. Since about 1920, the exports of 'farm prod- 
ucts per capita have been more than halved (fig. 7). This was 
due primarily to a decline in farm production per capita. Even 
with the five good crops since 1936, the production per capita has 
not reached that of the '208 or of the World War I period. Prior 
to the } 2os, the United States produced more food than it con- 
sumed, and exports were large. Since then, food production has 
not kept pace with population, and exports declined and imports 
rose. Since 1923, the United States, the world's greatest and most 
efficient food producer, has continuously imported more food than 
it exported (fig. 8). 

Agricultural exports for 1940-41 aggregated about $350,000,- 
ooo, the lowest in 69 years. Agricultural exports have not only 
declined in terms of dollars, but have declined even faster rela- 
tive to exports of other commodities. The 1940-41 agricultural 
exports declined to 9% of the total exports and to 3% of agri- 
cultural income (fig. 8). The decline in exports of agricultural 
products up to 1941 was due to (a) the long-time tendency for 
population to overtake food production, and (b) the short-time 
effects of the blockade of Europe. Most of the short-time re- 
duction was in the exports of cotton. The riext most important 
reductions due to the blockade were in exports of fruits, tobacco, 
grains, feeds and lard. 

Exports of many other farm products increased. For instance, 
evaporated and condensed milk increased from $3,000,000 in 
1939-40 to $20,000,000 in 1940-41. Cheese exports rose $400,000 
to $4,700,000. However cheese exports were still only slightly 
more than imports of cheese. Exports of eggs rose from $1,000,- 
ooo to $4,500,000. Although the increases in exports of these live- 
Flo. 10. INDEX NUMBERS OF VALUE OF FARM LAND PER -VCRE IN 
IOWA, MISSISSIPPI AND PENNSYLVANIA, 1912-41. During World War I, 
land values rose much higher In Iowa and Mississippi than in Pennsylvania. 
With deflation, land values fell least In Pennsylvania 




50 
1912 



1917 



1922 



1927 



1932 



1937 



1942 



AGRICULTURE 



27 



stock products were relatively great compared with former ex- 
ports, they were small compared with the decreases in exports of 
cotton, tobacco, fruits and grains. Likewise, these increases in 
exports of livestock products were generally small compared with 
their production. 

From 1939-40 to 1940-41, the total imports of agricultural 
products rose about 20%. Imports of cheese, olive oil, wines and 
tung oil declined about one-half. Imports of wool trebled. Im- 
ports of cocoa increased about 60%; hides, 50% and molasses, 
35%. Most of these changes were due to wartime conditions. 

In 1940-41 agricultural imports were more than four times 
exports. About one-half of these imports were products which 
did not compete with American agriculture, but the other half 
did. When only farm products produced in the United States are 
considered, that nation has normally sent abroad a very small 
excess of $300,000,000 in net exports. This has been about 3% 
of the total United States farm production. 

When all agricultural products raised throughout the world are 
considered, the United States has had net imports of about 3% 
of United States production. Net imports of food have averaged 
about 5% of United States food production. 

World Conditions and American Agriculture. The British 
attempt to blockade Europe and the axis efforts to blockade Great 
Britain increased the dangers of ocean transportation and raised 
transportation rates. This has had two types of effect on Amer- 
ican agriculture. First, the exports of farm products, which were 
previously large, such as cotton, tobacco and fruit, have greatly 
declined. The largest part of the previous market, continental 
Europe, has been shut off. Secondly, exports of certain foods, 
such as livestock products, have increased. Great Britain, which 
in peacetime obtained these foodstuffs from continental Europe 
and from distant parts of the world, was forced to buy from the 
United States because of (i) the blockade of Europe and (2) the 
shortage of shipping space. 

Farm Population. The total population of the continental 
United States increased from 4,000,000 in 1790 to 132,000.000 in 
1940. During this century and a half, the proportion of persons 
living on farms or engaged in agriculture declined from about 
85% to about 25%. 

The farm population increased steadily until 1910 although at 
no time did it increase as fast as the total population. From 
1910 to 1930, the rate of increase in total population slowed, and 
farm population actually declined about 6%. Increasing effi- 
ciency enabled farmers to feed an increasing urban population. 
From 1930 to 1940, the total population increased, but the farm 
population remained unchanged. 

Normally, there has been a movement of population from farms to cities. 
Cities have needed an influx of farm population for two reasons. First, 
industrial activity in the United States has increased rapidly; and second, 
city people have not borne enough children to reproduce themselves, let 
alone to increase the population. 

In 1940 the urban population produced only 74% of the number of chil- 
dren required to maintain a stable population (Table VII). Farmers have 
exported a surplus of population to the cities for two reasons: (T) agricul- 
ture has not grown so fast as industry; and (2) farmers have raised more 

Table Vll.-Nef Reproduction Rofei (%) for ffo UnifW Sfotot 



Group 


1930 


1940 


Urban 


88 


74 


Farm rural 
Total 


ISO 
in 


3 



children than needed to reproduce their kind. In 1940 the rural farm popu- 
lation produced 44% more children than was required to maintain a stable 
rural farm population. Farmers have always produced a surplus of replace- 
ments because: . , 

1. The cost of raising children was comparatively low. 

2. Children were relatively useful on farms. 

3. A relatively high percentage of the population was married, and a 
relatively low proportion was gainfully employed in other industries. 

4. Married people living on farms average younger ages than those in 
cities. 



INDEX 




110 
80 



50 
1891 



1901 



1911 



1921 



1931 



1941 



Fig. 11. INDEX NUMBERS OF TAXES PAID PER ACRE AND PRICES OF 
FARM PRODUCTS, 1891-1940. Taxes have risen relative to prices. The great 
depression of the early '30s was the only force sufficient to reduce farm taxei 
materially 

In 1940 the excess farm births were not sufficient to compensate for the 
deficiency in urban births, and the U.S.A. produced only 96% of the chil- 
dren required to maintain a stable population (Table VII). In 1930, after 
several years of urban prosperity, the United Stales was producing m% 
of the children required to maintain a stable population. The decline from 
m% in 1930 to 96% in 1940 was probably due to the effect of the pro- 
longed depression. Birth rates declined during this period both in cities and 
on farms. The deficit in the city birth rate increased from 12% to 26%, 
and the surplus in the farm birth rate decreased from 59% to 44%. 

The United States department of agriculture estimates the movement of 
persons to and from farms. During the urban prosperity of the '205, the 
net farm export to cities was 630,000 persons per year. During the next 
decade, the net movement away from farms averaged only 218,000 persons 
per year. 

The average annual movement away from farms during the '205, 630,000, 
was accompanied by a decline of about 1,450,000 in the farm population. 
During the '305 the net movement declined materially, and the farm popu- 
lation did not change. 

The surplus of farm population during the '205 was 485,000 per year. 
If only this number had been sent to the cities, farm population would have 
been stable. During the *2os, the surplus all went to the cities, and more 
went along in addition because in ban times were good. However, during the 
'305, only the surplus went to cities, because during the urban depression 
there were few opportunities in cities and the cost of living in cities was 
high relative to that on farms. 

In i94r high wages in war and other city industries attracted large num- 
bers from farms. Military service also reduced the farm population. It is 
probable that at least i.ooo.ooo persons left farms for other work during 
I94i. 

Farm Wages. During Oct. 1941 the average hired man in the United 
States received $37-45 per month with board, the highest wage since 1930. 
Farm wages with board varied from $16 in South Carolina to $62 in Cali- 
fornia. Farm wages were generally highest in the northwest and in the 
Rocky mountain and Pacific states and lowest in the south. 

During the 12 months, Oct. 1940 to Oct. 1941, farm wage rates rose 
28%. 

Over the last 30 years, farm wages have been affected by two factors. 
city wages and farm prices (fig. 9). The upward trend in city wages, plus 
the competition for labour between cities and farms, have resulted in some 
rise in farm wages relative to farm prices. However, farm wages have fol- 
lowed the major fluctuations in farm prices. During the depression of the 
early '305. farm wages, which declined 60%, were more flexible than city 
wages, which declined only 32%. 

During sharp rises in farm prices, farm wages follow with only a few 
months' lag. From 1916 to 1917 farm prices rose about 50% and wages 
25% (Table VIII). During 1918 wages rose to the level of farm prices In 
1917. By the end of the war, both prices and wages had about doubled. 

Table VI 1 1. -form Waat and Farm Prrce*, World Wort \ and // 



Year 


World War 1 


Year 


World War 11 


Farm 
wages 


Farm 
prices 


Farm 
wajjcs 


Farm 
prices 


IOH 

1915 
1916 

1917 

IQl8 - 

1919 


100 
102 
Hi 

140 
7S 
205 


100 

07 
117 
173 

300 
311 


' 1930 


100 

102 

119* 


TOO 

105 
130* 


1940 - 
1941 



^Preliminary. 

During the first two years of World War II, farm wages again responded 
to the advance in farm prices. In 1941 farm prices were about one-third 
higher than the 1939 level; and wages, one-fifth higher (Table VIII). 

Farm land The total value of farm land in the United States is about 
$35,000,000,000. The farm land between the Rocky and Appalachian moun- 
tains, north of the Ohio river, is worth almost one-half the total. The farms 
of the south are worth about $10,000,000,000. The farm lands east of the 
Appalachians and in the Pacific states are worth about the same, more than 
$3,000,000,000 in each of the regions referred to. The mountain states, 
which occupy a large area, are worth about $2,000,000,000. 



28 



AGRICULTURE AGUIRRE CERDA, PEDRO 



From prc-World War I to 1920 the United States experienced a spectacu- 
lar rise in prices of farm products. A part of this rise was reflected in the 
price of farm land. Farm land in Iowa, Mississippi, and several other cen- 
tral and southern states, doubled in price (iig. 10). In eastern United 
States, land prices rose 30% to 50%; and in the far west, about 50%. 
From 1920 to 1933 prices of both farm products and farm land fell dis- 
astrously. Iowa land prices fell more than 70%; and Mississippi land 
prices fell almost as much. On the other hand, land values in the eastern 
states fell only 20% to 40%. 

Relative to their long-time relationship, Iowa land was higher than Penn- 
sylvania land in 1920, but the reverse was true in 1933- 

From 1933 to 1941 prices of farm real estate in the United States gen- 
erally rose. Although land values in the Dakotas and Nebraska fell still r 
further, values in the eastern part of the corn belt and the southern states 
rose as much as 40% to 50%. In general, land values in Atlantic and 
Pacific coastal areas rose 5% to 15%. 

From March i, 1940 to March 1941 land values in the United States 
changed very little, rising only i%. Southern land values east of the 
Mississippi rose the most, about 3%. It is probable that land values rose 
slightly more during the summer of 1941 when prices of farm products rose 
rapidly. 

Farm Taxation. Farm real estate bears most of the direct taxes paid by 
farmers. About two-thirds of farm taxes are real estate taxes. Personal 
property taxes represent about 10%; gasoline taxes and automobile licences 
about 25%. Other taxes are negligible, about 2% to 3% of the total. 

For at least a century, farm taxes in the United States have steadily 
risen. This long-time increase has been due to expanding expenditures by 
state and local governments. With passing time, people tend to supply 
themselves collectively with greater and greater amounts of services. This 
tendency has persisted throughout most parts of the world. Roads have 
been modernized with the coming of the automobile. Schools have become 
larger with more instruction given and better attendance, and school teach- 
ers have more training and receive higher salaries. 

Although farm taxes have risen with passing time, they have been some- 
what related to changes in farm prices. For example, from the Civil War 
to the '903, farm prices fell and taxes rose very little. From the '903 to 
1914, both prices and taxes almost doubled (fig. n). During and imme- 
diately following World War I, prices more than doubled and so did taxes. 
During the '208, farm prices fell, but taxes continued to rise slowly, With 
the great depression of the early '308, farm prices were halved and taxes 
were reduced by one-third. This was the first time for which records are 
available that farm taxes were materially reduced. 

Farm taxes paid in 1941 were slightly above the low point of 1935 but 
about 30% below the peak of 1930. 

Form Credit. In 1941 the federal government and semi-governmental 
agencies had outstanding loans to agriculture upwards of $4,000,000,000, 
about one-half of which were mortgages on farms. During the year ending 
June 30, 1941 there was an increase in prices paid to farmers for farm 
products, and delinquent loans decreased about one-fifth. On June 30, 1940 
delinquent Federal Land bank mortgage loans were 19% of outstanding 
mortgages, compared with 16% June 30, 1941- Altogether, there are about 
$7,000,000,000 of mortgages on farms in the United States. Individuals 
and the government each have 40% of the total loans outstanding, life in- 
surance companies, about 13%; and commercial banks and joint stock land 
banks, the remainder. Since 1930 there has been a steady decline in farm 
mortgage foreclosure sales in the United States. Foreclosure sales declined 
from 93 per 1,000 farms mortgaged in 1934 to 14 in 1940. Because of 
high prices of farm products, foreclosures in 1941 were still less. In addi- 
tion to land mortgages, the government lends funds to co-operatives. Sept. 
1941 there were $105,000,000 outstanding. Co-operatives borrowed almost 
twice as much money in 1941 as in 1940- The government also makes short- 
term loans to farmers for various types of production credit. These loans 
aggregated about $1,000,000,000 in 194*- 

The amount of mortgage loans made in the nine months ending Sept. 30, 
1941 was only 3.3% of the mortgages outstanding; whereas, in the case of 
loans to co-operatives and production loans to farmers, the loans were a 
little more than the outstanding loans. 

The Farm Security administration was organized to assist farmers who 
could not obtain credit through other agencies. They lend funds for a 
4O-year period at 3% for practically the total value of the real estate and 
chattels. They make loans for the operation of a farm and its purchase. 
Most of these loans are in the south to aid tenants to become landowners 
and to^aid small landowners to make a living. There were in 1941 about 
13,000 loans, averaging about $5,800. 

Farmers also received government credit through crop and feed loans, 
rural electrification loans, and commodity loans under the AAA. 

Probably at no other time in history have farmers had the credit facilities 
that were available in 1941. (Sec FARM MORTGAGES; COMMODITY CREDIT 
CORPORATION.) 

Experiment Stations. Since agriculture is an industry with small units, 
the individual farmer cannot carry on research work concerning the many 
problems of agriculture, nor even on those peculiar to his farm. For this 
reason, the United States and most other countries of the world have 'de- 
veloped experiment stations to study problems of pure and applied science 
in agriculture. 

For three-quarters of a century there has been a gradual expansion in 
the number of such agencies and in the type of work undertaken. In 1941 
there were agricultural experiment stations in the 48 states, Alaska, Hawaii 
and Puerto Rito. These institutions have about 4,600 workers conducting 
research on more than 8,500 projects. The work costs about $21,000,000, 
one-thfrd of which is supported by federal appropriations and two-thirds by 
state funds. The average cost of this work is about $3 per farm. 

(F.A. PE.; K. R. B.) 

Great Britain. The system of state control of British farming, exercised 
through the agency of county war executive committees, was continued 
during 1941 and was extended to embrace almost every section of the in- 
dustry. The general objective remained unchanged; this was to increase 
the output of essential food crops especially wheat, oats, potatoes, beet 
sugar and the more productive and nutritious vegetables along with milk 



and other dairy products. The means used, which were many, included the 
following: 

First, a considerable area of land that had become derelict was reclaimed. 
This involved large-scale drainage operations, the clearing of wide areas QJ 
scrub, the application of mass doses of lime and fertilizers and the use of 
special plows and other heavy implements of tillage. The necessary dredg- 
ing and bush-clearing equipment and track-laying tractors were produced 
in Britain in considerable numbers and others were imported. There were 
some quite spectacular achievements, and the total result was highly satis- 
factory. 

Second, the year's program included the plowing up of a further 2,000,- 
ooo ac. of grassland for arable cropping. Despite difficult seasonal condi- 
tions the program was more than completed, thanks largely to the generous 
supply of tractors and implements from the United States, Canada and 
Australia. 

Third, there was an intensive drive to raise the general level of farming 

by better cultivation combined with the use of increased quantities of 
lime and fertilizers. There was a greatly increased British output of nitro- 
gen compounds and of lime, with increased imports of phosphate rock. 
These fertilizers were offered at low prices in order to encourage their use. 
Potash was the only fertilizer that was not freely available, and special 
measures had to be taken to restrict its use to specially deficient soils and 
to highly responsive crops. The inspection of farms by the war agricultural 
committees was tightened up; farms were classified as "A," "B" and "C," 
and the last group was kept under fairly constant supervision. A consider- 
able number of inefficient farmers were deprived of their farms. 

Fourth, much thought had to be given to the numbers of larm livestock 
that the land could maintain under the changed conditions. Apart from the 
large loss of grazing area and of hay meadow, there was a heavy reduction 

from about 8,000,000 to about 5,000,000 tons in imports of animal 
feeding stuffs. Dairy farmers, and also owners of high-class pedigree stock 
of all kinds were encouraged, by rather liberal allowances of feeding stuffs, 
to maintain or even to increase the number of their animals. Conversely, 
the reduction of commercial pig herds and poultry flocks was enforced by 
reducing food allowances. A further measure was the use of compulsory 
powers for the slaughter of poor and unhealthy cattle. 

Finally, there was an intensive campaign for the utilization of many by- 
products. Surplus grass was converted into silage; considerable quantities 
of straw were converted into useful fodder by a new method of soda treat- 
ment; and there was a great development in the collection of town waste, 
both for stock feeding and for manure. 

No official estimate was published in 1941 of the actual outcome of all 
these measures, but it is obvious that they led to a substantial increase in 
the output of food, and this despite the fact that there was a large trans- 
ference of man power from agriculture to the armed forces. The loss was 
partly made good by the employment of women. 

Seasonal conditions, on balance, were favourable. The winter, for the 
second successive year, was severe, especially in the north of England and 
throughout Scotland; the consequence was a small crop of lambs from 
mountain pastures. Spring was cold and dry, and there was an acute short- 
age of grass, even in the lowlands, during the early part of May. Spring 
frosts were severe in some areas, with the consequence of a poor fruit crop. 
The weather during early summer was, however, favourable and all crops 
were heavy. Hay was secured under excellent conditions. During July and 
August heavy rains occurred in the south, and these caused some damage to 
early grain crops; but conditions in September were favourable for hacvest. 
The quantity of grain secured was the largest that Great Britain has ever 
produced, and most of the other essential crops were fully up to average. 

Britiih Emplrt. The problem of the dominions remained one of market- 
ing. The greater part of continental Europe, which was in need of large 
quantities of foodstuffs, was cut off from the world markets. Russia, Spain 
and Portugal were the only remaining customers. Moreover the length of 
the haul from Australasia greatly restricted the transport to Europe of the 
bulkier commodities such as wheat, apples and canned fruit. Third, there 
was a shortage of refrigerated cargo space, which restricted the amount of 
perishable food butter, cheese and eggs especially that could be carried 
through the tropics. Finally, there was a natural reluctance on the part of 
Britain to accept luxury articles such as empire wines. 

Some of these problems, however, were on the way to partial solution. 
Thus Canada's surplus grain was increasingly being converted into bacon. 
Additional plants for making dried-milk powder were erected in Australia 
and New Zealand. An increasing proportion of fruit was exported in dried 
form. Some promising experimental shipments were made of other substi- 
tute products clarified butterfat (which does not need refrigeration) in 
place of butter; boned meat in place of whole carcasses (to allow fuller 
use of refrigerator space) and even minced and dried meat which, carried 
in ordinary hold space, has a food value per ton about five times as high 
as that of meat in carcass form. (J. A. S. W.) 

For agricultural statistics of countries other than the U.S.A.. see the 
subheading Agriculture in the articles on those countries, also the articles 
on various crops and agricultural products. (See also ALPALFA; CENSUS, 
1940: Occupations; CHEMURGY; CORN; DROUGHT; FARMERS' CO-OPERA- 
TIVES; FARM INCOME; FARM MACHINERY; FARM MORTGAGES; FERTIL- 
IZERS; HAY; HORSES; IRRIGATION; LAW; OATS; PRICES; SOIL EROSION 
AND SOIL CONSERVATION; WHEAT; etc.) 

Agriculture. U.S. Department of: see GOVERNMENT DE- 
PARTMENTS AND BUREAUS. 



Chilean statesman, 
was born Feb. 6 in Los Andes, 
Chile. Educated at St. Felipe college and the Pedagogic institute, 
he taught at the army subofficers' academy in 1900 and began the 
practice of law in 1904. He was elected deputy to the Chilean 



AIR CONDITIONING AIR 

parliament in 1915 and was named minister of education and jus- 
tice in 1918 and interior minister in 1920. 

Aguirre Cerda became the candidate of a popular front coalition 
for president and was elected in 1938 by a slim 4,ooo-vote margin. 
A champion of social reform, he announced plans for a Chilean 
new deal to aid the "forgotten man," but the tragic earthquake of 
Jan. 1939, which razed 20 cities and killed 8,000, compelled him 
to delay his social legislation in ordr to speed reconstruction. 

He had served less than half his term as president when he died 
in Moneda palace in Santiago, after a short illness, Nov. 25. 



Air PnnHltinninir ^ e a i r " con ditioning sales volume for 
nil uUIIUIUUlllllg. I94I a g a in exceeded the volume for the 
previous year by a substantial margin, thus indicating a healthy 
growth of the industry and an increasing public acceptance for the 
benefits of air conditioning to comfort and health. This increased 
sales volume resulted largely from improved products and greater 
national income. 

The first half of 1941 showed an abnormally high sales increase. 
Because of material shortages resulting from the national defense 
program, this rate of increase was not maintained during the 
second half of 1941 in comfort air-conditioning equipment, al- 
though the sale of air conditioning for industrial and process work 
was maintained at a high rate. 

The United States continued to be the principal centre of all 
air-conditioning activity, Although various portions of Latin 
America were making progress along air-conditioning lines. Air- 
conditioning developments in the nations at war were more or less 
shrouded in mystery, although there was indication that various 
modifications of a complete air-conditioning process had been 
adopted for certain air-raid shelters and for the blackout type 
of manufacturing plant. 

Air-conditioning Technique. During 1941 there were no radical improve- 
ments in the technique of air conditioning. However, during 1941 various 
detailed improvements in product design were made, particularly in the 
small portable type of room cooler and in the small packaged type of cen- 
tral plant winter air-conditioning unit. 

Increased attention was given to the benefits of the small forced-circula- 
tion type of window ventilator for use in office, hotel and apartment rooms, 
as well as homes. 

More compact, lower cost and generally reliable window ventilators were 
available. 

National Dtfente. The air-conditioning industry was called upon to make 
substantial contributions to the all-important program of national defense. 
These contributions applied first to manufacturing plants where for process 
or for blackout reasons the plant would be quite impractical without the 
use of air conditioning. Also, in the rapid expansion of housing facilities 
for defense industry areas, it was shown that small, compact packaged types 
of central plant winter air conditioners might be applied at costs equal -to 
or lower than the costs of ordinary and less satisfactory heating systems, 
and with definite benefits to the occupants of the home. 

Further, considerable confidential research was under way, working to- 
ward the improving of the various defense operations for utilizing one or 
more of the principles of air conditioning. All of this was in addition to the 
manufacture of primary defense equipment in the "gun, tank and plane" 
class. 

Future of Air Conditioning It was indicated that the industry would con- 
tinue in 1942 to make important contributions to national defense on essen- 
tial equipment. This meant that 1942 sales figures would show a reduction 
in air conditioning of the purely comfort type, but a substantial increase in 
air conditioning as applied to defense housing and to industrial and process 
work. It was indicated that forced changes in plans and designs, due to 
certain material shortages, would in the long run produce benefits in cost 
reduction and improved performance which would give the purchaser more 
for his dollar. (See also PUBLIC HEALTH ENGINEERING.) (L. HA.) 



Air Forces of the World. 



U.S. Army. The year 1941 
saw accelerated the great- 
est peacetime expansion of the army air forces in United States 
history. During the fiscal year 1939 congress appropriated $73,- 
556,972; appropriation for the fiscal year 1940 was $243,631,388; 
for the fiscal year 1941 appropriation was $3,892,769,570. , 

The fiscal year 1941 was a marked increase above the 1940 pro- 
gram, begun in 1939 and calling for 5,500 aeroplanes under the 
2 5 -group program, including 5 heavy bombardment groups, 6 



FORCES 29 

medium bombardment groups, 2 light bombardment groups, 2 pur- 
suit fighter groups, 7 pursuit interceptor groups and 3 composite 
groups, with 4,663 officers and 43,337 enlisted men. 

Between this and the 54-group program there was a jump to 41 
combat groups, with 10,846 officers and 89,672 enlisted men. The 
first aviation objective followed, including 56 combat groups and 
6 transport groups, with 13,575 officers and 145,000 enlisted men. 
This program embraced 6,004 aeroplanes; 4,006 combat types in 
organizations, 1,998 in reserve. 

Orders were placed for aircraft far above stated requirements, 
to expand facilities and anticipate British needs and air force 
expansion. During 1941 the air corps ordered and requisitioned 
approximately 28,500 aeroplanes. 

Pilot training rate was expanded to 30,000 a year and rate of 
training enlisted technicians to 100,000 annually. Technical 
schools were increased by facilities at Biloxi, Miss.; Wichita 
Falls, Tex.; and Ft. Logan, Colo. The month of June 1941 found 
these other schools: primary (civilian) 29; basic (air corps) 7; 
advanced (air corps) 11; and special 13, including technical, gun- 
nery, navigation and bombardier. 

With air power universally recognized as a determining factor 
In modern warfare in which "so many owed so much to so few," 
the war department gave the air forces distinctive status. An as- 
sistant secretary of war for air was appointed. Also appointed was 
a deputy chief of staff for air, in addition, chief of the army 
air forces, controlling the air force combat command (formerly 
GHQ air force) and the air corps. A new air council included the 
assistant secretary of war for air (ex-ofiicio), chief of the army 
air forces (president), chief of the air force combat command, 
chief of the war plans division of the war department general 
staff and chief of the air corps. 

Providing close air support for army ground units, 5 air support 
commands were created, including observation aviation, light 
bombers, dive bombers, photography planes, gliders and air trans- 
port for parachute troops. The ist, 2nd, 3rd and 4th air support 
commands operate with the respective field armies, and the 5th 
with the armoured force. (See also ARMIES OF THE WORLD.) 

(H.H.A.) 

U.S. Navy. The Naval Aeronautical organization on July 19, 
1940, was authorized by U.S. congress to increase its strength to 
15,000 aeroplanes. 

During the fiscal year 1941 the bureau of aeronautics directed 
its efforts toward the early completion of this program. A parallel 
training and base facilities program was established to support the 
increased procurement plan. 

At the end of the fiscal year, June 30, 1941, there were 3,956 
aeroplanes on hand, with 6,054 <> n order. 

All combat ships of the navy, with the exception of destroyers 
and submarines, carry a complement of aeroplanes, ranging in 
number from two or three on the battleships, to approximately 75 
on each aircraft carrier. 

The type of aircraft carried is determined by the mission of 
the surface ship to which it is attached. From the requirements 
of these missions, four basic types of aeroplanes have evolved : 

1. The fighting plane, whose primary mission is attacking enemy aircraft 
with gunfire. 

2. Torpedo and bombing planes, including the dive bomber, designed to 
attack heavy enemy vessels or shore bases. 

3. Scouting and observation planes, the eyes of the fleet, designed with 
emphasis on speed, range, gunnery defense and communication facilities. 

4. The patrol plane, the largest type of plane in service, is self-protecting 
and carries out long-range scouting flights. 

Surface ships supporting aircraft were modernized in the light of lessons 
learned during the early months of World War II. and additional ships 
were added for the support of naval aircraft, including 18 aircraft carriers 
on hand, under construction or authorized. 

The carriers in commission in 1941 were: the "Yorktown," "Enterprise," 
"Ranger/' "Wasp," "Hornet/' "Lexington and "Saratoga." 



30 



AIR FORCES 



Future carriers, in order of their construction, would be: the 
"Essex," "Bon Homme Richard/' "Intrepid," "Kearsarge," 
"Franklin," "Hancock," "Cabot," "Bunker Hill," "Oriskany," 
"Randolph" and "Ticonderoga." 

To expedite the training program, maximum use was made of 
existing facilities, and on March 18, 1941, a directive was issued 
for the additional shore stations required. Shore facilities of the 
naval air arm, as of Oct. 1941, comprised 29 naval air stations 
in commission and four under construction. In addition, 16 U.S. 
naval reserve aviation bases were in commission, providing elim- 
ination flight training for prospective naval aviation cadets. 

The training of navy aircraft personnel necessarily was co- 
ordinated with procurement and expansion of shore facilities. 
In June 1940 the only existing naval aviation training centre was 
at Pensacola, Fla. Pilot entry rate was 100 students per month. 
By July 1941 the navy had three additional training stations at 
Jacksonville, Fla., Corpus Christi, Tex,, and Miami, Fla., with 
a combined entry rate of 800 students per month directed at the 
goal of 17,000 trained pilots for naval aviation. The training 
of enlisted personnel, mechanics, metal smiths, ordnance men and 
radio men reached a rate of 12,000 men every four months. 

Concurrent with the expansion program, experimentation in 
glider usage was conducted and legislation authorized a lighter- 
than-air program of 48 nonrigid airships with shore facilities. 

Plane performance and design progressed, with emphasis on 
manoeuvrability, speed, range and armament protection. Effort 
in every field was expended to increase the general efficiency of 
naval aviation. (J. H. Ts.) 

The World. 1 jRw^w.Throughout 1940 the theatre of action 
for air warfare was largely restricted to western Europe. With 
Russia inactive and with the late 1939 campaigns to the east com- 
pleted, the entire strength of the German luftwaffe was thrown 
against the British Isles. That effort failed to win the war for 
Hitler. During 1941, as new fronts were established in an effort 
to accomplish what direct attack could not do, the war in the air 
spread over the entire world. As the year ended, the R.A.F. 
was in action against Mussolini's air force and the luftwaffe in 
North Africa; Russian fighters were beating off German bomb- 
ing attacks from the Arctic ocean to the Black sea; British and 
American air patrols were sweeping the north Atlantic, and 
American and Japanese squadrons were fighting for air supremacy 
from Honolulu to Hongkong. 



CompoTof/ve Air Force Strength of Chief Warring Powers* 

(Combat Units) 

ALLIES Axis 

No. of Planes No. of Planes 

United States 3,000-5,000 Germany 5,500-8,500 

Great Britain 4,500-5,500 lapan 5,ooo? 

Russia ? Italy 1,500-3,000 

China 100-200 Hungary 400-000 



Netherlands Indies 



500-600 



Finland . 
Bulgaria 
Rumania 



Taken from New York Times of Dec. 14, ig4i. 
"Corrected for known losses up until Dec. 12. 



200-300 
100-300 
500-700 



Twice during 1941 the shifting pattern of international alli- 
ances upset the balance of air power. In June German aggres- 
sion made Russia an active axis foe rather than acquiescent part' 
ner. In December Japan made its bid for supremacy in the Pa- 
cific, Interest was therefore focused on two air forces that pre- 
viously had played only minor parts in the war in the air. 

Russian aviation had been an enigma for many years. Few 
American or British observers were permitted more than a glimpse 
of its fields and factories. It was known that large numbers of 
aircraft had been built during the middle 19305. It was known 

'All assertions or opinion* contained in this section of this article are the private ones 
of the writer and are not to be conn trued a* official or reflecting the views of any govern- 



ment service. 



also that thousands of pilots and parachutists had been trained. 
Soviet planes arid pilots put up a fair showing in Spain, but 
were ultimately overwhelmed by the superior numbers and per- 
formance of German and Italian squadrons. 

It was generally believed, however, that the quality of the ma- 
teriel and personnel was below par, and serious doubts existed 
as to the ability of soviet industry to turn out replacements on 
a scale commensurate with modern war. 

r But from the meagre accounts corning out of the Russian cam- 
paign up to Jan. i, 1942, Russia's fighting squadrons were giving a 
good account of themselves. Germany obviously underestimated 
Russian air strength when it made up the timetables for its ad- 
vance on Moscow and Leningrad. As usual, claims of losses on 
both sides may well be discounted. Germany claimed that Russia 
had lost more than 50% of its initial fighting strength. How much 
it cost the luftwaffe in the process was unknown, but it was cer- 
tain that the campaign cut deeply into Hitler's first-line planes 
and pilots. 

Although large numbers of soviet aeroplanes were obsolete in 
1941, some of the newer fighter and bomber designs stacked up 
with those of the rest of the world. The latest fighters were re- 
ported to be in the 3$o-m.p.h. to 40o-m.p.h. class. The new 1-26 
was said to resemble the British Spitfire in appearance and in 
performance. Other fighters included the two-place monoplane 
1-2 1 with two i,300-h.p. engines, armed with two 20-mm. cannons 
and six machine guns; the single-seater 1-20 with one i,3oo-h.p. 
engine, one 20-mm. cannon and six guns; and the I-i8 single- 
seater with a i,25o-h.p. engine and the same armament as the 1-20. 
In reserve as second-line fighters were the I-i6 and I-iy single- 
seaters of about 8oo-h.p. which were used in Spain and later on 
the Manchoukuoan border. 

A number of dive bombers and medium bombers were built 
under American licences. A modification of the old Boeing P-i2 
fighter with a Russian-built Cyclone engine was fitted for dive 
bombing and a considerable number of American-built Vultee 
attack planes were modified for that purpose. 

In the medium bomber field the Martin and Boeing influence 
was evident. Few details of performance were known, but photo- 
graphs showed that these types were thoroughly modernized. 
They should have been able to perform with corresponding types 
of the luftwaffe. For example, the CKB-26 medium bomber with 
two i,ooo-h.p. M-63 engines was in service with many squadrons. 
It could do about 250 m.p.h. and had a range of approximately 
2,500 mi. witn 1,000 Ib. of bombs. A newer and sleeker-looking 
machine, the DB-3A, had two liquid-cooled engines of better than 
1,000 h.p. It was used both as a medium bomber and as a two- 
place fighter. Performance details were lacking. 

In heavy bombers, the soviet air force appeared to be deficient. 
It had a number of very large and very slow six-engine machines 
of a type long since outmoded. Some of them were almost as large 
as the American 6-19 bomber. Some were equipped to transport 
light tanks. For many years the Russians had been interested in 
aircraft for extremely long ranges, as witness the several flights 
across the north pole to the United States, but few authoritative 
reports were forthcoming of concentrated raids by heavy Russian 
bombers against German industry. 

Because of the necessity of defending thousands of miles of 
coast line, Russia had a large but unknown number of naval air- 
craft, mostly of small patrol types. Since 1930 a great deal of 
experience had been gained with these machines, as well as with 
land types, in arctic operations. There was no doubt that the 
soviet air forces had more experience in winter flying than any 
air force in the world a factor that might carry considerable 
weight in the campaign against the Germans during the winter of 
1941-42. It was well known that Russia had thousands of trained 



AIR FORCES 



31 



paratroops and large numbers of troop transports, although no 
extensive use of this tactic had been reported, The Soviets also 
pioneered in the transportation of troops by glider. But again, 
no actual demonstration of strength in this field had been made 
by the close of 1941. 

Japan. The sudden eruption of Japanese aggression in the 
Pacific focused attention on another air force about which com- 
paratively little was known. In spite of the fact that Japan scored 
initial successes in surprise air attacks against Hawaii and the 
Philippines, there was no question but that its air forces, both 
naval and military, were second-rate. Some of its medium-class 
bombers were of reasonably modern design. The Nakajima IQS 
used by the army appeared to be in a class with American B-i8s. 
The Mitsubishi Soyokaze twin-engine naval bombers showed a de- 
cided German Junkers (JU-86K) influence. Neither of these 
machines, however, was very fast possibly 250 mi. an hour. 
Among the best of the bombers (a machine that probably was used 
against Manila from bases in Formosa and in China) the Mitsu- 
bishi 92 bore close resemblance to the Martin 166 long since con- 
sidered obsolete by the U.S. army air forces. This machine had 
two i,ooo-h.p. radial engines, and probably cruised at around 
250 m.p.h. 

Japanese light bombers, of which the Mitsubishi 97 was typical, 
were single-engine two-place monoplanes resembling closely the 
outmoded U.S. Northrop A- 17 attack ship. 

Whether or not the Japanese air forces had any large four-engine 
bombers was problematical. The Japanese government purchased 
the Douglas DC-4 commercial prototype and the manufacturing 
rights. A bomber version of this large machine might have been 
built, but no actual evidence came to hand. It was known, how- 
ever, that the Japanese navy had a number of large four-engine 
flying boat patrol bombers, somewhat similar to earlier U.S. Sikor- 
sky 8-42 clippers. Ships of this type might have taken part in the 
bombing of Hawaii, although direct evidence was lacking. 

As far as was known, Japan had no fighters that compared with 
modern British, German or American machines. Nothing like the 
Spitfires or Hurricanes or U.S. P-39S or P-40S appeared. The 
fighters operating from carrier decks were similar in appearance 
and probably in performance to machines that were designed about 
1936. It would seem probable that shore-based fighter squadrons 
in Japan were equipped with more modern machines, but up to the 
end of 1941 no direct contact had been made with them. In view 
of alliances with Germany and Italy, it would be a fair assump- 
tion that new German designs or actual German and Italian air- 
craft had been supplied to the Japanese forces in Japan. It was 
well known that German officers were instructing Japanese squad- 
rons in the latest fighting tactics. 

In the first few days after the attack on Pearl Harbor it was 
popularly supposed that German pilots manned many of the Japa- 
nese aircraft. That assumption soon proved untenable. Although 
there was little doubt that the major strategy was mapped out on 
the Wilhelmstrasse, the actual execution was carried out by Japa- 
nese naval pilots in Japanese naval planes. Strategists had been 
prone to underrate Japanese aviation because of the comparatively 
poor showing that had been made in China. Possibly the contrast 
between performances in China and against U.S. possessions in the 
Pacific might be accounted for partly by the fact that Chinese 
operations were in the hands of the Japanese army, and the latter 
were conducted wholly by the navy. Technical training of Japa- 
nese personnel ranked with that of most navies of the world. It 
might be argued that their naval aviation was better than that of 
their army -only the future could prove or disprove the point. 

Italy. Italy's disastrous campaign in Greece and in north 
Africa in the latter half of 1940 cost Mussolini a high percentage 
** hie *< f/*rr AS a result, Italian air activity during 1941 



was not outstanding. Army pilots were continuously engaged 
against the R.A.F. in Africa, and in late September, a mass tor- 
pedoplane attack against a large convoy in the Mediterranean 
was claimed by Rome to have been highly successful, but was dis- 
counted in London. 

During 1941, however, Italian designers a v nd builders were 
not idle. The country had some first-rate men and some first-rate 
plants. Indications were that a nirtnber of new fighters, bombers 
and torpedo carriers, of a calibre to be reckoned with, would ap- 
pear on Italo-axis fronts in 1942. 

The new fighters were largely in the "hush-hush" class. Photo- 
graphs of only one or two came to the U.S.A. but they had all 
the earmarks of modernity with a strong Germanic flavour. The 
Reggione Re2Ooi, for example, was a single-engine single-seater 
monoplane of excellent appearance. It exhibited the Italian trend 
away from radial air-cooled engines to the liquid-cooled in-line 
power plant for fighters. The ducted radiator treatment matched 
the best British or American practice. Certain new designs with 
extension shaft drives similar to those of the U.S. Bell Airacobra 
were rumoured. The general trend seemed to be toward rela- 
tively light single-seaters with great fire power. 

In the bomber field, a number of new machines came out into 
the open. A few, like the Fiat B.S.A., were two-engined. Some, of 
which the Savoia-Machetti 84 and Piaggio 23R were typical, clung 
to the three-engine arrangement which had almost disappeared 
elsewhere. Four-engine "heavies" which resembled U.S. Boeing 
Flying Fortresses were in production. The Piaggio P-50 and P-io8 
were in this class. They were fitted with engines in the 1,200- to 
i,35o-h.p. range. A secret twin-engine dive bomber, probably 
similar to the Breda 88, was said to be under test. 

The Italian navy was taught a costly lesson by the British at 
Taranto. After that disaster it redoubled its efforts in the 
development of torpedo-carrying seaplanes. Several new types 
were in the offing fast ships capable of carrying one or two 
torpedoes for long distances. The Fiat RS-I4 was a twin-engine 
torpedo bomber. The Savoia-Machetti SM-94 had three engines. 

With Russia's air forces barely holding their own on the eastern 
front, and with the weight of fresh Italian and Japanese squad- 
rons on the axis side of the balance, increased production of 
better planes for the Allies was of paramount importance. The 
war might be won or lost in the aircraft factories as much as in 
the air. 

Great Britain. In the early weeks of 1941, after a long series 
of destructive raids against British industry, there was some 
reasonable doubt as to Britain's ability to maintain aircraft 
production rates in competition with the German factories. Two 
things turned the tide. One, the relief of pressure from air 
attack due to the opening of the Russian front in June, and two, 
the increasing weight of American industry behind Britain's air 
effort. In the early months of 1941 that effect was possibly 
more psychological than real, but as the year grew older, in- 
creasing numbers of American-built planes appeared on R.A.F. 
aerodromes from the Scottish moors to the sands of North Africa. 
Day and night, winter and summer of 1941, an ever-growing 
stream of bombers winged across the north Atlantic, and every 
convoy from American shores for British possessions carried, in 
its holds and on its decks, replacements for R.A.F. squadrons. 

The list of U.S.-built aircraft serving with the R.A.F. in 1941 
is impressive. In addition to hundreds of trainers of all types fur- 
nished to Canada and to Britain, the following were on R.A.F. 
rosters: Fighters Bell Airacobra, Brewster Buffalo, Curtiss Kitty- 
hawk, Curtiss Tomahawk, Curtiss Mohawk, Douglas Havoc, Grum- 
man Martlet, Lockheed Lightning and North American Mus- 
tang. Bombers Boeing Flying Fortress (four-engine), Brewster 
Bermuda, Consolidated Catalina (flying boat), Consolidated Lib- 




MILITARY "FLYING WING" demonstrated at Hawthorne, Calif., In Oct. 1941. It has no fuselage or tail surface 




THE BRISTOL BEAUFIGHTER, equipped with a radio locator in its nose, be- 
came a potent British weapon against German night raiders in 1941 

THE DOUGLAS B-19, largest bomber In the world, as it was rolled out of the factory at 
Santa Monica, Calif., to undergo Its first test flight, June 27, 1941. Close by is a 
standard-sized civilian transport plane 





1 



DARK GOGGLES worn by night-fighting pilots of the R.A.F. to ac- 
custom them to seeing in the dark 



LOCKHEED HUDSON BOMBERS lined up at Floyd Bennett field, 
Brooklyn, before shipment to Britain in the spring of 1941 




AIR FORCES 



33 



erator (four-engine), Curtiss Cleveland, Douglas Digby, Douglas 
Boston, Douglas Nomad, Lockheed Hudson, Martin Maryland, 
Martin Baltimore, Vega Ventura and Vought Chesapeake. Prac- 
tically all of these machines were counterparts of production 
types for the U.S. army and navy. They were of the latest U.S. 
production designs and were fitted out with the best equipment 
U.S. factories knew how to build. The timing of the Japanese at- 
tack against the United States in early December was undoubtedly 
set by Germany in an effort to stem the flow of aeroplanes and 
other supplies to Britain after the failure of the submarine and 
aerial blockade to pinch them off in the Atlantic. Before the out- 
break of the war in the Pacific, statistically minded aviation ob- 
servers estimated that the combined production rates of the 
United States and Great Britain in aeroplanes and engines would 
be in a fair way to match the probable output of axis factories 
by the spring of 1942. 

This did not mean necessarily that the total air strength of 
the Anglo-American air forces would then be at parity with the 
axis powers. It must be remembered that Germany and Italy (and 
even Japan) had secured a lead of several years, both in planes 
and pilots. It seemed likely, however, that with the accelera- 
tion in U.S. industry, and assuming that the German situation 
did not change materially, the fall of 1942, or at latest, the 
spring of 1943, should see air superiority shifted to the side of 
the Allies. 

Whether this shift would occur sooner or later depended to a 
great extent upon the situation in Russia. In spite of the fact 
that Russia was an ally for more than six months, very little 
was known of its potential contributions to the production pic- 
ture. Whether or not the factories were in a position to replace 
soviet losses without drawing too heavily upon the already over- 
taxed production facilities of Britain and America remained to 
be seen. It was, perhaps, too much on the optimistic side to ex- 
pect that any surplusage of machines or motors would be avail- 
able for Allied use. The most that could be hoped was that Rus- 
sian industry could replace its own losses. 

Losses. Statements of losses to enemy ships or aircraft during wartime 
are always subject to considerable question. In mass air fighting it is ex- 
tremely difficult to keep track of enemy planes shot down. There is always 
fc tendency to overestimate on one side and to understate on the other. Ex- 
perience has indicated, however, that such statements by the British are 
reasonably reliable. With these reservations in mind then, the following are 
the figures Riven out by the British air ministry covering losses in combat 
and by anti-aircraft fire from the beginning of the war in Sept. 1939 to 
Nov. 9, 1941 (not including the losses in the Russian campaign): 

Aeroplanes lost by the axis air forces 7.458 

Aeroplanes lost by the imperial air forces 3,596 

Personnel losses by the axis air forces 20,565 

Personnel losses by the imperial air forces 10,295 

Performance Next to high output, improved performance for all types 
of aircraft was the continuous objective of designers on both sides. But 
they were in 1941 approaching performance ceilings that were going to be 
extremely difficult to break through. Fighter speeds, for example, had been 
pushed slowly upward by the application of power and more power, but 
seemed by the end of 1941 to be levelling off at somewhere over 400 mi. 
an hour. Until some radical departure in design was to put iu an appear- 
ance, speeds much above that figure would probably cost too much in en- 
gine power to be practical for military aircraft. In spite of the fact that 
the output of the best aeroplane engines advanced after 1939 from 1,200 to 
close to 2,000 h.p., the advance in speeds was not anything like com- 
mensurate. Most of the power went for carrying more and bigger guns, 
more ammunition and better armour. 

The big drive was to fly at higher levels. Where air strategists in 1940 
mapped out campaigns at 25,000 ft., the talk in 1941 was of 35,ooo to 
40,000 ft, Here again physical limitations impose tremendous dimculties. 
With air pressures at 40,000 ft. only one-quarter of sea-level values, the 
problem of supercharging men and motors is complicated and difficult, In 
addition, the effects of low pressures and low temperatures on the operation 
of ignition systems, radio seta, machine guns and other auxiliaries bring up 
new problems that have heretofore been dormant. 

In this connection, the behaviour of American-built Flying Fortresses in 
the hands of the British was a surprise, both to the R.A.F. and to the 
Germans. Thank* to the turbo-superchargers with which these four-engine 
Boeing bombers were equipped, the British were able to conduct a number 
of effective daylight raids against German industrial centres at levels gen- 
erally out of reach of anti-aircraft fire or of most interceptor fighters. 

High altitude bombing caused a noticeable shift in thinking with respect 
to interceptors. Heretofore, with bombers unable to get up over 20,000 or 
25,000 ft,, it was relatively easy to build heavily armed and heavily ar- 
moured interceptors that could easily outmanoeuvre them. Such machines, 



however, are at a decided disadvantage at 35,ooo-ft. levels. The latest 
single-engine Messerscbmitt I09F was lightened by the removal of all ar- 
mour plate and by reducing the armament to one cannon and two machine 
guns. A lightly armed aeroplane that will manoeuvre well at 35,000 ft. is 
superior to a more heavily armed machine that is barely able to fly at such 
altitudes. The same trend was noted with respect to Italy's fighters. 

Bombers. Bomber design in Britain shifted definitely toward big types 
with loads and ranges far in excess of the Wellingtons, Whitleys and Hamp- 
dens with which the R.A.F. started the war. During 1941 the four-motored 
Shorj Stirlings and Handley-Page Halifax machines appeared in quantity 
in the squadrons of the bomber commands. Later, the Avro Manchester*, 
with a pair of 24-cylinder Rolls-Royce Vulture engines reported for active 
duty. These were supplemented by increasing numbers of U.S.-built Boeing 
Flying Fortresses and Consolidated Liberators delivered via the north At- 
lantic route. It was with such machines that the R.A.F., come the spring 
of 1942, expected to overcome the handicap of distance which separates 
British aerodromes from German industrial centres. All signs pointed to 
intensive preparation for assuming the offensive and for carrying the war 
in the air deep into German territory. 

Fighter*. Nothing radically new appeared during 1941 in the fighter 
class in any of the belligerent countries. Spitfires and Hurricanes in im- 
proved models continued to implement R.A.F. fighter squadrons. Only one 
of the twin-engine British interceptors that were forecast in the fall of 1940 
as antidotes for the ME-nos put in an appearance the Bristol Beau- 
fighter. This machine had enough range to convoy bombers to Berlin and 
return. The best night fighter of the R.A.F. proved to be the U.S. Douglas 
Havoc. This machine was a modification of United States A-2O light bomb- 
er, with a noseful of guns substituted for the original bombing equipment. 

The Spitfires and Hurricanes of late 1941 were far more powerful weap- 
ons than their 1940 predecessors. Fire power was increased to the limit 
of practical wing loadings. Hurricanes appeared late in 1941 that carried as 
many as four 2O-mm. cannons mounted in their wings. In fact, few fighters 
were being considered for production carrying fewer than 10 or 12 wing- 
mounted 30 to 50 calibre guns, or the equivalent in cannons. This heavy 
armament was supplemented in some cases by the addition of two 250-lb. 
bombs slung beneath wings. Squadrons of Hurricanes with 12 machine 
guns and 2 bombs were used against the German-held channel ports in mid- 
December. These machines, although too heavily loaded to be effective as 
fighters during the cross-channel flight, regained their normal fighting char- 
acteristics once they unloaded their bombs on targets on the French coast. 

Germany carried on with improved models of the Messerschmitt no two- 
engine fighter that first appeared in quantities in 1940, and with the light- 
ened version of the original single-seater (Me-i09F) mentioned above. New 
and more radical types were rumoured in the making, but had not appeared 
on any front at year's end. 

Commerce Raider*. Germany continued the use of big bombers as com- 
merce raiders far out at sea. The Focke-Wulf Kurier with four i,ooo-h.p. 
engines was supplemented for such work by the four-engine Bloehm and 
Voss seaplane bombers and the newer twin-engine Heinkel no torpedo car- 
rier. It was claimed that 3,000,000 tons out of the 13,500,000 tons of 
British shipping that had been sent to the bottom since the beginning of 
the war were accounted for by the lujtwaffe. Some of these sinkings took 
place as much as 1,000 mi. off shore. As an antidote, British and American 
aircraft were convoying across the Atlantic route from Canada to Britain. 
Both shore-based patrol aircraft (operating from Greenland and Iceland) 
and shipboard fighters were being employed. It was rumoured that certain 
British merchantmen were fitted with catapults from which single-seat 
fighters might be launched when attacks were made by the German bombers. 

"Eriatz" Aircraft, There was a popular notion that German aircraft were 
inferior to British and American machines because of Germany's extensive 
use of "ersatz" materials. That this was merely a form of wishful thinking 
was proved over and over again by detailed examination of captured Ger- 
man aircraft and engines. Some of the materials employed were not those 
that could be conventionally specified, but in most instances the substitute 
material was found to be the equal, if not better, than the non-German 
articles. Flying equipment captured on all fronts down through the end of 
1941 was of excellent design and construction. All accessories, equipment, 
instrumentation, radio, etc., were up to standards that were acceptable else- 
where. Tests on captured engines indicated performance, reliability and 
length of life on a par with other engines of the same class. Fuel and oil 
from the tanks of German aeroplanes were analyzed and found to be per- 
fectly adequate for the job at hand. There was no indication that quality 
of German aircraft suffered for lack of any essential materials. 

As a matter of fact, there were indications that German research had un- 
covered new fuels and materials that might be better than those considered 
standard. For example, reports from British fighter pilots, as well as the 
evidence on captured German fighters, indicated that special emergency fuel 
in small quantities was carried that might be used to give a temporary 
burst of power to enable the fighter either to overtake or to run away from 
an opponent. Also, there was some reason to believe that assisted takeoffs 
for heavy bombers by some form of rocket motor was used on an experi- 
mental scale. It was known, of course, that some experimental work, along 
these lines was conducted in Germany several years before the war. In this 
connection, several reports came out of Germany, Britain and Italy, of new 
types of aircraft to operate at high speeds at high altitudes on rocket or jet 
propulsion methods. Few details were available in 1941. 

Icing. All belligerents flying in Europe during the winter months -had 
difficulty with icing of aircraft and engines. Ice is frequently encountered 
on the north Atlantic ferry routes. Several planes were lost on transatlantic 
delivery flights, and on one occasion, 37 British bombers were lost over the 
North sea in the course of a long-range raid into Germany, probably be- 
cause of icing. A great deal of effort was being made on both sides to elimi- 
nate this hazard. The Germans were probably having less trouble from 
icing of engines because of the widespread use of direct fuel injection in 
place of the more common carburet ion. They also made considerable prog* 
ress in the direction of controlling icing on wings and tail surfaces by the 
application of heat from the engine exhausts a technique that was undei 
intensive study in the U.S. 




Anti-aircraft Protection.- -Although no startling new methods or devices 
for anti-aircraft protection in the way of guns, balloon barrages, search- 
lights, etc., came into use during 1941, great strides were made in methods 
of detecting the approach of hostile aircraft. The older aural listening de- 
vices gave way to radio detection methods that were very accurate and 
which covered far greater distances. Hy the use of these detectors, supple- 
mented by reports from ground observers, the British developed an elaborate 
and successful control system which permitted the plotting of the courses 
of aircraft approaching the British Isles, and from which orders were issued 
to aerodromes all over Britain for the sending up of interceptors and fighters. 
This system, together with the improved arming and performance of Brit- 
ain's night fighters, was an important factor in reducing the severity of 
German night raiding over (ireat Britain. 

Tactical Innovations. -If technical surprises were few, some tactical in- 
novations were startling and of considerable significance. The use of para- 
troops was already well established before the end of 1940. Key points 
in Norway, Holland and Belgium were taken by the sky troops. There 
had been persistent rumours, however, of possible invasion of Great Britain 
by transporting large numbers of troops in glider trains. None such ap- 
peared over the English channel, but the taking of Crete might well have 
been a dress rehearsal for an attempt in that direction. Not only were 
paratroops used in large numbers, but for the first time troop-carrying 
gliders were towed over an objective and landed successfully on enemy 
terrain. The machines used carried eight to ten fully armed men and had 
a wing span of some So-odd feet. They were of steel and plywood construc- 
tion and were stout enough to be landed safely on rough ground. Trains 
of three to five of them were towed behind JU-52 transports. How many 
hundreds of troops were put down on Crete in this manner was not defi- 
nitely known, but the manoeuvre was successful enough to cause every air 
force in the world, including that of the United States, to make a hasty 
reassessment of the value of motorless aircraft as a military weapon. 

Air Power v. Sea Power. However, a series of events of world-shaking 
importance with respect to aviation took place in the closing months of 
1941. For the first time in the history of aviation, the proponents of air 
power versus sea power could point to definite examples to prove their 
arguments, rather than having to rely entirely on theoretical considerations. 
The number of capital ships sunk by aerial bombardment, both in the 
open sea and while lying in harbours, was not fully known. The British 
success against the Italian navy at Taranto was only a beginning. The toll 
was rising steadily. Although the German battleship "Bismarck" was sunk 
by naval action, it was hunted down and brought to bay by aircraft. Out 
of a clear sky, Japanese airmen dropped into Pearl Harbor and inflicted 
losses on the U.S. Pacific fleet that were not, up to Jan. i, 1942, fully 
evaluated in public. Some three days later, the English-speaking world 
was plunged into gloom by the destruction of the British warships "Re- 
pulse" and "Prince of Wales" when they were caught off Singapore without 
air protection. Naval people everywhere who had counted on the invul- 
nerability of modern battleships had to face the uncomfortable fact that 
no surface vessel could fight off, without adequate aerial protection, a de- 
termined assault by large numbers of bombers and torpedo carriers deter- 
mined to destroy it at any cost. 

Gen. William Mitchell, who resigned from the U.S. army air corps in the 
middle J 20s as a result of his unorthodox opinions, may not have been 
entirely right in claiming absolute superiority for air power over naval 
power. There is little doubt, however, that the lessons of 1941 were having 
a profound effect on naval thinking and naval tactics all over the world. 
[See also AVIATION, CIVIL; DEFENSE, NATIONAL (U.S.): Armed Forces; 
MUNITIONS OF WAR; WORLD WAR II.] (S. P.J.) 

Air Mail: see POST OFFICE: United States. 

Ai*nA*+A AN*| riiMn/v r: A |l A Transportation and civili- 

Airports and Flying Fields. zation p have a iway s ad. 

vancecl hand in hand, and United States engineering genius has 
always played a large part in improving transport facilities. 
In 1941, however, that genius was directed toward war, another 
world war, with the aeroplane its chief weapon. Airports in the 
U.S., far from being solely a factor in the nation's commercial 
development, became a vital factor in its national defense. Each 
civil airport, whether small or large, must be considered a poten- 
tial military airport in time of war. Thus, every consideration 
must be given to its utility and adaptability to war. Scientific 
aids to flight which had been developed were being improved 
under emergency pressure. 

In order to provide the nation with enough adequate airports 
from which planes may defend it in case of attack, $40,000,000 
was appropriated for airports in the 1941 budget, and for 1942 
an additional appropriation of $94,977,750 was made by congress 
to the Civil Aeronautics administration. This airport construc- 
tion program, while closely co-ordinated with defense efforts, 
was of double value as an investment for it not only met an im- 



PARACHUTE TROOPS of Camp Benning, Qa. dropping at regular Intervali 
from U.S. army traniport planei. By the fall of 1941 the number of such 
troopi had grown from 48 to more than 4,000 

34 



mediate and urgent defense need, but also represented a perma- 
nent contribution to aviation in general. 

Construction or improvement projects were to be conducted on 
288 airports in the United States during 1941-42. These locations 
involved a total estimated expenditure of $80,810,110, of which 
$534093oo would be spent on 26 locations in the initial pro- 
gram but not in 1941 placed under construction, and 149 new loca- 
tions in the continental United States. New locations mean those 
not heretofore included in the Civil Aeronautics administration 
program. A total of $18,968,871 was to go toward continuing 
work on 113 other projects in the United States started in the ini- 
tial program authorized in Oct. 1940. It was anticipated that all 
work would be completed during the early part of 1942. In the 
over-all Civil Aeronautics administration airport program which 
began Oct. 1940, completion of this program would mean 
that the national total of airports would be increased by 43 class 
4, 246 class 3, 14 class 2, and 2 seaplane ramps as a result of 
the Civil Aeronautics administration program. Class ratings are 
by runway lengths, class i having runways of 2,500 ft. or less; 
class 2, 2,500 ft. to 3,500 ft.; class 3, 3,500 ft. to 4,500 ft.; and 
class 4, 4,500 ft. or more. 

Airport construction and improvement projects under the super- 
vision of the Civil Aeronautics administration were limited to 
airports owned by local governmental authorities. The work 
undertaken on these airports was restricted to the development of 
landing facilities. All other improvements, including hangars 
and other buildings, must be done by local enterprises or local 
government. The airports must be operated in the general public 
interest, must remain in public ownership, and local government 
must agree to maintain and operate them. 

Federal Airways System of the United States. Under the 
stimulus of national defense, the Civil Aeronautics administration 
continued its rapid expansion of the federal airways system dur- 
ing the fiscal year 1941. 

As of July i, 1941, the total mileage of lighted operating air- 
ways in the United States had risen to 30,913 mi. There were 
1,945 ml - of airways under construction and 921 mi. under survey. 
Other indications of the progress made in this direction are the 
following figures for air navigation facilities in operation as 
of July i, 1941: 2,276 airway beacons, 280 intermediate landing 
fields, 29 lighted airports maintained by the Civil Aeronautics 
administration, 114 full-power radio stations, 139 medium-power 
radio range and communication stations, 39 low-power radio range 
and communication stations, 38 nondirectional radio marker sta- 

Air Navigation Facilitiet of the U.S., Dec. I, 7947 

Sourer: Civil Aeronautics Journal 



AIRPORTS 



,018 
298 
398 
691 



1,082 



Airports with servicing 1 . . 

Airports with paved runways 

Airports with two-way radio 

Lighted airports* 

Airports by class: 

Municipal " - 

Commercial ............ QOI 

Private ,....,.. 31 

Army 78 

Navy 38 

Misc. govt. 40 

CAA intermediate fields . . . 283 

Total 2,453 

SEAPLANE BASES 

Army, navy, coast guard, marine 
corps 36 

Other seaplane bases and anchor- 
ages 3*8 



Total .......... 

Seaplane bases having any night 
lighting equipment ..... 



364 



RADIO AIDS 

Ranges (n in Alaska, 2 in Ha- 
waii) , . .JO7 

Range stations, simultaneous 
with voice (loin Alaska, 2 in 
Hawaii) 106 

Range stations, nonsimultanc- 
ous with voice 09 

Range stations, no voice (i in 

Alaska) ja 

Broadcast stations (it In Alaska. 

2 in Hawaii) 120 

Broadcast stations, simultane- 
ous (10 in Alaska, 2 in Ha- 
waii) .......... ix; 

Hroadcast stations, nonsimulta- 
neous (i in Alaska) ... 3 

Marker stations 35 

Fan markers 149 

Voice (only) stations (5 in 

Alaska) 18 

7. markers (not at range stations) 2 



Servicing: hangar, repairs and fuel available. 

'Lighted airport: boundary and beacon and/or floodlights. 




CONTROL TOWER of the National airport at Washington, D.C., most modern 
In the world at the time of the a'rport's opening June 16, 1941. It hat radio 
receivers for each airline using the field 

tions, 118 ultra-high frequency fan markers and 2 modified Z-type 
markers. 

Over a network of 13,292 mi. of teletype wires were transmitted 
instructions and information needed for the orderly direction of 
airways traffic from 133 traffic control stations. Invaluable 
weather information was supplied from 414 weather reporting sta- 
tions, with a teletype mileage. of 29422 mi. 

Traffic along this vast chain also must be guided 24 hr. a day, 
a job that requires the unceasing vigilance of more than 3,000 
employees and costs more than $1,500,000 a month to maintain. 

The major development in 1941 was the establishment of ultra- 
high frequency radio ranges and radio landing systems at various 
points throughout the country. Congress appropriated $2,477,000 
to the Civil Aeronautics administration for this purpose. The 
New York-Chicago airway was the first link in what the Civil 
Aeronautics administration technicians believe would be the even- 
tual conversion of the entire 35,000 mi. of federal airways from 
intermediate frequencies in the 200-400 kilocycle band to ultra- 
high frequencies between 119,000 and 126,000 kilocycles. The 
utilization of ultra-high frequency radio waves not only eliminates 
interruptions due to static interference inherent in the low fre- 
quencies, but assures uniformity of signal strength in the pilot's 
headphones. (. M. E.) 



Alt RflPP^ Thc s P reac * ing war conditions and governmental 
fill !\<JUUO. acquisition of most aeroplane production lines, 
reduced civilian air races throughout the world to a new low. 
Naturally European countries had no air races scheduled at all and 
even in the United States, not at war until almost the end of 
1941, numerous air race events were cancelled. Chief among the 
annual races thus postponed for the duration, was the 1941 Na- 
tional Air races which for a score of years before had been a 
world-famous classic. The Bernarr Macfadden Trophy race also 
had to be called off. However, this was the one event whose can- 
cellation was not due to the unsettled world conditions, but rather 
to unsettled weather. 

Other air race attractions which were temporarily shelved in- 
cluded the Firestone Trophy race for aerial flivvers; the Colonel 
Batista Cup race for aerobatics; and the Culver Trophy races in 
California. 

35 



36 



AIR RAID SHELTERS 



One event for women, a 25-mile race at Miami, Fla., was won 
by Virginia Snodgrass of Waterloo, la. She stepped up her ma- 
chine to 104.035 miles per hour. (T. J. D.) 



Air Raid Shelters. 



Public and domestic air raid shelters 
are provided in Great Britain by local 
authorities under the statutory powers conferred upon them 
by the Air Raid Precautions act 1937 and by the Civil Defence 
act 1939. The latter act also places certain duties on the own- 
ers or occupiers of factories, commercial buildings and mines 
employing more than 50 persons to provide shelter of a standard 
not less than that of the code referred to in section 13 of the 
act. 

These acts are administered by the minister of home security. 
The responsibility for the execution of the work rests upon the 
local authority in respect of public and domestic shelters, and 
upon the owners or occupiers of factories, commercial buildings 
and mines. 

Domestic shelter was originally provided free by the local 
authority on a grant-aided basis for all persons whose income was 
less than 250 per annum. Persons with higher incomes were ex- 
pected to provide shelter for themselves. Domestic shelter was 
in 1941 provided as far as possible for persons whose income was 
less than 350 per annum, and the cost was reimbursed in full to 
the local authority. 

The conception before the war was that the populace should be 
dispersed to the maximum possible extent, taking refuge in their 
own homes and at their work. Public shelter was intended only 
for those caught by a raid out of reach of home and place of work. 

Experience of raids had shown beyond question the value of dis- 
persal and while daylight raids were frequent the original system 
of shelter was satisfactory. The defeat of the day raids and 
the adoption of night bombing, however, led to a demand for dor- 
mitory shelter in the more vulnerable towns. Both public and 
domestic shelter which was only designed for short periods of 
occupation, therefore, had to be remodelled to provide dormitory 
accommodation by the provision of suitable bunks, lighting, heat- 
ing, etc. Experience and research led to modifications in the de- 
sign of shelters. 

It was decided that deep or bombproof shelters should not be 
provided, the chief reasons being the impossibility of provid- 
ing such shelter for all and the obvious undesirability of every- 
one going to ground during raiding. In the absence of adequate 
data it was decided that shelter should provide protection against 
blast, splinters and debris and the standard requirements were 
set out in the code referred to above. The shelters so con- 
structed in the main stood up to bombs at closer range than their 
design provided for, but experience indicated that the earth 
waves set up by a bomb exploding after penetrating the ground 
led to more failures of shelters than any other cause, and shelters 
were redesigned to meet these effects and existing shelters modi- 
fied accordingly. 

The first domestic shelter to be designed, manufactured and 
issued by the government was the "Anderson" shelter. This con- 
sisted of corrugated iron sheeting upon a light angle-iron frame 
sunk three or four feet into the ground and covered with earth as 
a protection against splinters. 

This shelter proved its value abundantly and, moreover, owing 
to its ductile properties, withstood the effect of the earth waves 
from bombs so close that the shelter was on the very edge of the 
crater and sometimes even closer. 

For both domestic and public shelter, basements were also 
largely used. This form of shelter was popular as there was a 
tendency among many people to go to ground in air raids. The 
roofs of such basements were shored to prevent their collapse 




ANDERSON AIR-RAID SHELTER installed in the bedroom of a private home 
in Glasgow, Scotland 



under the debris of the building above. Here again the design of 
the shoring was modified to meet the effects of earth shock. 

A large proportion of the domestic and public shelter provided 
was brick and concrete structures, the designs of which were re- 
vised from time to time in the light, of actual bombing and ex- 
periment. 

Experience also showed that the protection against splinters 
and blast afforded by the average dwelling house is greater than 
was expected and that the chief danger therein is from debris 
due to collapse. This and the desire to provide shelter in the 
home in pursuance of the policy of dispersal led to the adoption 
of an indoor shelter designed to protect the shelterers against 
debris. The "Morrison" shelter, which consists of a strong steel 
framework supporting a steel table top and having a spring mat- 
tress, was issued in large quantities and proved its value in 
saving life, many persons having been rescued uninjured from 
houses which have collapsed on the shelter. $.' 

Public shelter was also provided in trenches, railway arches 
and disused tunnels. Trenches were the first type to be provided, 
the best being those lined with in-situ reinforced concrete. 
While trenches have of course been immune from splinters, blast 
and debris, except from a direct hit, they have been liable to 
damage from earth shock and steps were taken to strengthen them. 

Experience indicated the value of modern fully framed build- 
ings of reinforced concrete or steel, particularly the latter. Their 
resistance to collapse under even direct hits makes them emi- 
nently suitable for shelter. Wherever possible such buildings 
were used for shelter purposes. 

Mention has been made of the use of existing tunnels as shel- 
ters. Many of these and old quarry workings, such as the Chisle- 
hurst caves, were adopted as shelters by the public without au- 
thority. Some of those so adopted were, unlike the Chislehurst 
caves, by no means bombproof and the calamity risk in the event 
of penetration was, of course, serious. Wherever suitable tunnels 
existed opportunity was taken to render them safe. 

In London the stations of the tube railways were thrown open 
to the public for shelter when night raiding was heavy. Bunks 
and other amenities were provided. 

Additional tube shelters were also being prepared against 
future emergencies by constructing portions of tube railways on 
the lines of future railway extension, some of which were ready 
for occupation in 1941. The provision of shelter was throughout 
hampered by the shortage of suitable material or of labour, but at 
the end of 1941 there was shelter accommodation for about 21,- 



A. L. A.- 

000,000 people in public and domestic shelter in addition to shel- 
ter provided by householders at their own expense and the shelter 
provided in factories, commercial buildings and mines. For or- 
ganization against air raids in the U.S.A., see CIVILIAN DEFENSE, 
OFFICE OF. , (A. M. R.) 

A.L.A.: see AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. 

Alabama is one f the "deep south" states of the 
, United States, admitted to the union 1819. Area, 
51,609 sq.mi.; pop. (1940) 2,832,961. Capital, Montgomery (78,- 
084). Cities with larger population were Birmingham (267,583) 
and Mobile (78,720). Of the state's population in 1940, 855,941 
were urban, or 30-2%. There were, in 1940, 1,847,850 whites; 
983,290 Negroes; 574 of other races; 2,821,004 native-born; n,- 
957 foreign-born; 47-2% of the total population was rural. 

History. Chief officers of the state in 1941, elected for 
service beginning Jan. 16, 1939 were: governor, Frank M. Dixon; 
lieutenant governor, A. A. Carmichael; state auditor, Howell 
Turner; secretary of state, John Brandon; state treasurer, C. E. 
McCall; attorney general, T. S. Lawson; superintendent of edu- 
cation, A. H. Collins; commissioner of agriculture and industries, 
J. H. Paterson. 

Education. A well defined system of elementary and high schools and 
colleges for both races is maintained. Elementary education is free between 
the ages of 6 and 21, and compulsory between the ages of X and 16. State 
appropriations in 1941 amounted to $14,795,041. Total revenues from all 
sources were $24,910,789. Illiteracy among whites between 10 and 20 years 
was 1.9%, Negroes 2.6%. There are seven state-supported institutions of 
higher education for whites and .three for Negroes. Several colleges are 
maintained by the Methodists, Haptists and Catholics. 

Charities and Correction, The state supports many philanthropic and 
penal institutions: institutions for the deaf and blind of both races; hospitals 
for the insane of both races; a school for feeble-minded children; training 
schools for wayward white boys and girls; and a reformatory school for 
Negro boys, etc. 

Banking and Finance. In 1941 there were 66 national banks with capi- 
tal stock, surplus and undivided profits of $50,462,000, deposits of $233,- 
731,000 and total assets of $268.659,000; 151 state banks with a capital 
stock surplus and undivided profits of $22,224,499, deposits of $96,320,940 
and total assets of $111,644,504. Revenue sources include a property tax, 
income tax, sales tax, privilege taxes and levies on gasoline, tobacco, beer 
and liquor. Receipts for the fiscal year 193940 were $66,128,786; dis- 
bursements, $65,046,810; state debt, $64,703,000. 

Agriculture. The total income of farmers in Alabama in 1940 was $115,- 
463,000. divided as follows: cash income from crops, $62,006,000; cash 

Table I. Leading Agricultural Products of A/abomo, 794? ana* 1940 



ALASKA 37 

Table \\.-Principal Mineral Products of Alabama, 1939 and 1938 



Crop 


I94t 


1940 


Corn, bu 


50, 580,000 


43,450,000 


Oats, bu. 


4,875,000 


^,000,000 


Cotton, bales . 


768,000 


770,000 


Potatoes, bu . .... 


5,400,000 


4,176,000 


Peanuts, Ib. 


210,000,000 


205,800,000 


Turnc and wild hay tons ..... 


747,000 


636,000 


Tobacco, Ib 


362,000 


415,000 



income from livestock, $27,606,000; government payments. $25,851,000. 
In 1939 farm lands and buildinxs were valued at $408,782,488. 



Mineral 


Value, 1939 


Value, 1938 


Pig iron 


$41,903,68 1 


$29,100,091 


Coal . . >.,, >; t -rf->" 
Coke . . '.'. . ;".'''; 


27,708,000 
10,917, 5*0 


26,769,000 
9,888 292 


Iron ore . . . , 


971 024 


7 34! 620 


Cement 


6,690 765 


114 246 


Stone ... . 


2 eifi *8d 


1 8OU 17G 


Clay products 


2,306,712 


1,487 067 









Manufacturing. -In 1939 there were 2,052 manufacturing establishments 
hiring 126,215 workers and producing goods valued at $574,670,690. The 
leading manufactures were cotton textiles (valued at about $92,000,000; 
spindles in operation, 1,835,909), iron and steel and electricity. Corpora- 
tion and municipal production of electricity amounted to about 900,000 
h.p., and the TVA plants were capable of producing slightly more. There 
were more than 6,000 mi. of rural electric lines. Other important indus- 
tries: lumber, blast furnace products, cast iron pipes and fittings, coke oven 
products, cotton-seed oil and meal, paper, aluminum, cement, chemicals, 
fertilizers, meat packing and shipbuilding. War demands caused expansion 
of old industries and the rise of new industries, such as powder manufac- 
turing, in 1941. 

Mineral Production. The total value of Alabama's mineral production in 
1939 was $54,^24,382; in 1938 it was $46,296,293. (A. B. Mo.; X.) 

Alaska, one of the two incorporated territories of the 
United States, 586,400 sq.mi. in extent, approximately 
one-fifth of the area of the 48 states, lies between the meridians 
130 W. longitude and 173 E. longitude and between the paral- 
lels of 51 and 72 N. latitude. It is bounded on the north by the 
Arctic ocean, on the west by the Arctic ocean, Bering strait and 
Bering sea, on the south and southwest by the Pacific ocean, and 
on the east by Canada. The eastern boundary from the Arctic 
ocean to the Pacific in the neighbourhood of Mt. St. Elias is the 
i4ist meridian; thence eastward to Portland canal the boundary 
is irregular but runs approximately parallel to the shore at a dis- 
tance some 30 mi. inland. 

In the year 1941, the territory reached an all-time high in 
population. The 1940 census (actually taken in Alaska Oct. i^ 
1939, six months earlier than in the states) showed a total popu- 
lation of 7.1,524 an increase of 22-3% over the 1930 figure of 
59,278 and substantially higher than the previous high in 1910 
of 64,356. The taking of the census, however, preceded the in- 
auguration of a far-flung national defense program in Alaska, 
which by the end of the calendar year 1941 approached $200,- 
000,000. Not counting the troops stationed in Alaska, it is con- 
servatively estimated that the population of the territory at the 
end of 1941 exceeded 80,000. ; 

History. Military and naval construction, begun in 1940, was 
greatly increased in 1941 and included the establishment, with 
the navy posts at Sitka, Kodiak and Dutch Harbor, of army posts 
respectively named Fort Ray, Fort Greeley and Fort Mears, A 



THE FOURTH OF JULY, 1941, was celebrated in Anchorage, Alaska with a 
parade of newly-arrived U.S. troops 




38 



ALASKAN HIGHWAY ALBERTINI, LUIGI 



new post at Seward, southern terminus of the Alaska railroad, 
was named Fort Raymond all these after army officers who had 
rendered distinguished service in the territory in earlier days. The 
scat of the Alaska defense forces at Fort Richardson, near An- 
chorage, was put under the command of a major general, with a 
brigadier in direct command of Fort Richardson itself. A great 
program of military and commercial airports and flying fields 
was also well under way, with major fields at Annette island to 
serve Ketchikan, the southern gateway to the territory at 
Juneau, Yakutat, Cordova, Seward, Bethel, Nome, East Ruby, 
Big Delta and Moose Creek, just west of the Alaska- Yukon terri- 
tory boundary near the Tanana river. The construction on Ladd 
field near Fairbanks as an experimental station for fliers was com- 
pleted. Commercial radio-beam stations, previously lacking in 
Alaska, were likewise installed. An important by-product of the 
defense program was the construction begun and well under way 
in 1941, of a trunk highway from Palmer to Copper Center con- 
necting the Anchorage and Fairbanks system of roads and making 
a total central road network in Alaska of 1,392^ mi. The terri- 
torial legislature, convening in the spring of 1941, enacted for the 
first time a territorial traffic law. 

Commerce. The salmon run in southeastern Alaska during the 1941 sea- 
son was unprecedented in size. For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1940 
gold production also reached unprecedented levels; namely, $26,178,000. 
Tourist travel was impaired by the requirements of defense personnel and 
the withdrawal of certain steamers for defense purposes elsewhere. The year 
1941 was the most prosperous year in Alaska's history. The defense pro- 
gram brought great activity throughout the territory, and wages soared to 
unprecedented heights. (E. GRU.) 

Alaskan Highway: see ROADS AND HIGHWAYS. 

A kingdom, united with the Italian empire, in the 
western part of the Balkan peninsula. Area, 10,629 
sq.mi.; population (census 1930) 1,003,124. Capital, Tirana, 
Chief cities: Tirana (30,806); Scutari (29,209); Kortcha (22,- 
787); Elbasan (13,796); Valona (9,100). Religion; Mohamme- 
dans (688,280); Orthodox Christians (210,313); Roman Catholic 
(104,184). King: Victor Emmanuel III, king of Italy. Prime 
minister: Mustafa Merlika Kruja. 

History. Albania shared during 1941 the general fate of the 
Balkan peninsula. At the beginning of the year the Italian fas- 
cist troops under strong Greek pressure were everywhere in retreat 
and the Greek armies were in occupation of a large part of Al- 
banian territory in the east and in the southeast of the country, 
where they restored the Albanian law as it had existed before the 
fascist invasion of the country on Good Friday, 1939, and its 
union with Italy. In the first months of 1941 the Greeks suc- 
ceeded in holding all Italian attempts at a reconquest of the lost 
territory, and even expanded their hold on the country. On Jan. 
10 they captured Klisura and pressed toward Tepeleni. In March 
Premier Mussolini himself visited the Albanian front and assumed 
personal direction of the operations. Nevertheless the Italian 
offensives all failed with very heavy losses for the fascist army. 
Neither, however, were the Greek forces strong enough to cap- 
ture the long-assaulted Tepeleni on the central front and Va- 
lona on the sea. But the Albanian situation changed fundamen- 
tally, not through any Italian efforts but through Germany's 
active participation in the war against Greece. On April ,6, 
1941, the German forces began active operations against Yugo- 
slavia and Greece. By April 18 the Yugoslav army had surren- 
dered, the Greeks were pushed far back and were unable to hold 
the Albanian front any longer. Under these conditions the Italians 
could rtoccupy the parts of Albania evacuated by the Greeks, and 
on April 22 even cross the Greek frontier. The next day the 
Greek army in the Epirus surrendered to the advancing Germans 
(see WORLD WAR II). 

From that moment Albania came again under fascist adminis- 



tration, and fascist laws were reintroduced throughout the coun- 
try. With the Italian occupation of large parts of Yugoslavia and 
Greece certain rectifications of the Albanian frontier, by the 
inclusion of Greek and Yugoslav parts, were envisaged. 

Education, Finance, Tradt Albania had, in 1939. 66^ state elementary 
schools with 38,988 boys and 17,948 girl pupils; in addition, 18 secondary 
schools for boys and one for girls. The Albanian currency is pegged to the 
Italian currency. An Albanian franc equals 6.25 lire (32.89 cents U.S., 
June 1941). In the last year of normal independent Albanian life, in 1938, 
the imports amounted to 22,397,890 Albanian francs (of which 8,337,109 
came from Italy, 1,350,413 from the U.S.A.), the exports to 9,749,959, of 
which there went to Italy 6,665,257 and to the U.S.A. 435,537. Chief arti- 
cles of export were hides and furs, wool, cheese and cattle; chief articles 
of import were cotton and cotton goods, corn and sugar. 

Communication and Minerals. Albania had no railroads in use in 1941, 
but the Italians have very much improved, for military reasons, the road 
system, though communications outside the main roads remained primitive 
in 1941. The main port of the country is Durazzo. With the economic 
life of the country still on a very primitive level, there exists practically no 
modern industry. The Italians have made efforts to exploit the mineral 
resources of the country, especially oil and copper. (See also GREECE; 
ITALY.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Vandeleur Robinson, Albania's Road to Freedom 
(i94O. (H. Ko.) 



Alharto ^ e most wester ty f ^ e P^irie provinces of Can- 
filUul Idi ada, Alberta was created a province by act of the 
dominion parliament Sept. i, 1905. Area, 255,285 sq.mi.; the 
population by the census of 1941 was 788,393. Seat of govern- 
ment, Edmonton (92,404). The principal cities and their popula- 
tions (1941 census) are: Calgary (87,264), Lethbridge (14,238) 
and Medicine Hat (10,473). The province sent 17 members to 
the house of commons at Ottawa, and six senators to the Cana- 
dian senate, as of 1941. 

History. William Aberhart, the premier in 1941, was first 
elected to office Sept. 3, 1935, at the head of a new party, called 
the Social Credit party. His government was returned to office at 
the general elections held in March 1940, securing 36 out of the 
57 seats a loss of n seats when compared with 1935. All at- 
tempts to put the social credit plan into operation had failed by 
1941, and all unorthodox monetary and financial legislation passed 
by the Alberta legislature had been declared ultra vires by the 
supreme court of Canada, as for example, in Dec. 1941, the Al- 
berta Debt Adjustment act of 1937. 

Education. The province has autonomous control over formal education. 
In 1939, daily average school attendance was 138,392; teachers numbered 
5.963; government grants and tax revenue amounted to $10,196,906. 

Communication In 1940 there were 3,456 mi. of surfaced roads and 
12,309 mi. of improved earth roads. Total expenditure for 1939 was 
$3,749,141. 

Finonc*. The province continued to default on its bond maturities during 
the year. The total in default as of Dec. i, 1941, was slightly in excess of 
$22,000,000. Ordinary revenue (1940) was $24,410,040; ordinary expendi- 
ture, $21,922,189. 

Agriculture. The following figures as reported by the Dominion bureau 
of statistics, show the value of the principal field crops for 1941: wheat, 
$43,200,000; oats, $22,630,000; barley, $9,720,000; rye, $760,000; flax- 
seed, $1,331,000; potatoes, $1,222,000; hay, clover, $3,775*000; alfalfa, 
$2,183,000; grain hay, $6,500,000, and sugar beets, $1,782,000. The total 
value of crops in 1941 was $93,331,000, as compared with $139,659,000 
in 1940. 

Mineral Production. The production of crude oil in Canada for 1941 
reached an all-time high of some 9,990,000 barrels. Of this volume, 97% 
was produced from the Turner valley field, which showed an increased out- 
put of 15% over 1940. The producing rate for this field, as assigned by the 
Alberta Petroleum and Natural Gas Conservation board for the conserva- 
tion and maximum economic recovery of the oil and gas resources, was 
supplemented by the production stabilization program of the oil controller 
for an increased volume of output and a uniform rate of production during 
1941. Thirty-nine new wells were completed up to Dec. i, 1941. Explora- 
tory drilling resulted in an extension of i# mi. to the known productive 
area in the north end of the Turner valley. During the year the production 
o! crude oil was commenced from the bituminous deposits of Athabaska, 
and some deliveries of refined products were made at McMurray. 

(J.T. C.) 

Alhortini Illiffi ( X *7i-i940, Italian journalist and poli- 
fllUCl Ulll, LUIgl tician, was born Oct. 19 at Ancona. He 
was named to the senate in 1914. Albertini was editor and chief 
owner of // Corriere delta Sera, Milan newspaper, from 1909 until 
1925, when he was ousted by Mussolini for his outspoken criticism 
of fascism. A Berne dispatch of Dec. 30 carried the news of his 
death in Rome. (See Encyclopedia Britannica.) 



ALCOHOLIC INTOXICATION ALIMENTARY SYSTEM 

Alcoholic Intoxication: see INTOXICATION, ALCOHOLIC. 
Alcoholic Liquor: see BREWING AND BEER; LIQUORS, ALCO- 
HOLIC; WINES. 



Alexander, Robert 



(1863-1941), U.S. general, was born 
Oct. 1 7 in Baltimore, Md, He quit his 
law practice in 1886 to join the army and saw service in the Sioux 
Indian campaigns of 1890-91, the Spanish-American War, the 
Philippine insurrection and the Mexican campaign. During World 
War I he rose swiftly from the rank of colonel to major general 
and was placed in command of the 77th division in Aug. 1918. His 
troops participated in the Vesle-Aisne advance, the Argonne drive 
and the big push on Sedan in 1918. Gen. Alexander, who was 
awarded the D.S.C. and the Croix de Guerre, retired from the 
army in 1927. He died at the Veterans' Administration hospital 
in the Bronx, N.Y., Aug. 26. 

Alfalfa Production of alfalfa hay in the United States in 1941 
Alldlld. W as 32,346,000 tons from 14,929,000 ac., compared 
with 30,206,000 tons from 13,908,000 ac. in 1940, and a ten-year 
(i 93-39) average, including two extreme drought years, of 24,- 
907,000 tons from 12,867,000 ac. The yield was 2-17 bu. per ac. 
in 1941 and in 1940, the ten-year average yield being 1-93 bu. per 
ac. Nearly a quarter of the crop was from three states: Michigan, 
Wisconsin and Minnesota. Production of alfalfa seed in 1941 
was 1,017,100 bu. (61,026,000 lb.), 32% under the output of 
1,489,900 bu. (89,394,000 lb.) in 1940. The ten-year average was 
1,028,220 bu. (61,693,200 lb.). The 1941 acreage harvested for 
seed was 791,000 compared with 962,700 ac. in 1940 and a ten- 
year average of 556,150 ac. The 1941 yield was 1-29 bu. per ac.; 
1-55 bu. in 1940 and a ten-year average of 1-87 bu. (See also 
HAY.) 

U.S. Alfalfa Hay Production in Leading Sfofei, 1941 and 1940 



State 


1941 
tons 


1940 
ton* 


State 


1941 
tons 


1940 
tons 


California , . . 
Minnesota . . 
Wisconsin . . . 
Iowa ..... 


3,198,000 
2,776,000 
2,698,000 
2,502,000 


3,477,000 
2,264,000 
2,866,000 
2,120,000 


Illinois .... 
Colorado . . . 
Kansas .... 
Montana , . . 


,370,000 
,363,000 
,247,000 
,147,000 


1,157,000 
1,196,000 
882,000 
96^,000 


Idaho 


1,911,000 


1,950,000 


Nebraska . . . 


,106,000 


764,000 


Michigan 


1, 8 1 },ooo 


2,202,000 


Utah 


,043,000 


948,000 















(S.O.R.) 

Alfonso XIII: see ALPHONSO XIII. 

Algeria: see FRENCH COLONIAL EMPIRE. 

Alitns: see CENSUS, 1940: Race and Nativity; IMMIGRATION 

AND EMIGRATION. 



Alimentary System, Disorders of. 

Camiel and Loewe state that features common to all tumours in- 
volving the upper third part of the oesophagus are: location at 
or near the uppermost portion, paralysis or paresis of one or 
both vocal cords, inability to swallow, aspiration of food into 
the tracheobronchial tree, pulmonary complications due to aspira- 
tion, and the frequent occurrence of club fingers. With the 
oesophagoscope Faulkner showed that disturbing thoughts and 
emotions produce generalized oesophageal spasm, and that certain 
oesophageal strictures, cardiospasm and pressure diverticula can 
have their origin in disturbing emotional influences. Garlock 
believes that the skilled surgeon approaches the serious prob- 
lem of oesophageal carcinoma with gradually increasing chances 
of some success from proper operative procedures. 

Stomach and Duodenum. Reports from army and navy hos- 
pital centres in Britain and from recruiting centres in Canada 
lend clinical proof that dyspeptic persons are the largest sin- 
gle group of patients in the armed forces. Difficulties of di- 



gestion, from several points of view, constitute the most impor- 
tant medical problems of the war. About one in four dyspeptic 
persons has a gastric or duodenal ulcer, the latter predominating. 

Little advance has been made in the recognition of gastric can- 
cer in its earlier, operable stages. In a consideration of the 
early roentgenologic diagnosis of this disease Bucker included 
Konjetzny's description of the macroscopic appearance of the 
smaller cancers: (i) well defined verrucose, crusted or polypoid 
mucosal thickening, (2) circumscribed flattened, frequently small, 
inconspicuous mural thickening with superficial irregular erosions. 
(3) large superficial erosions with mucosal rims, giving the im- 
pression of superficial ulcers, (4) saucerlike shallow ulcers, 
and (5) typical chronic ulcers. The fact that gastric cancer can 
masquerade as benign ulcer, not only with the symptoms and 
signs, but occasionally even reacting in response to treatment, is 
being amply confirmed by competent observers. The intravenous 
and intramuscular use of coagulants derived from shepherd's- 
purse, having as their active principle oxalic acid and related di- 
carboxylic acids, in the treatment of acute haemorrhage, and 
diacetyltannin-silver-protein compound in the treatment of in- 
flammatory states of the gastrointestinal mucous membrane, 
deserves an extended trial. (See also CANCER.) 

Biliary Tract and Pancreas. In the United States the tradi- 
tional use of the high carbohydrate, low fat and protein diet in 
the treatment of diseases of the biliary tract is undergoing revi- 
sion. Experimental and clinical observations confirm the impor- 
tance of an adequate intake of protein. The protective action of a 
high protein diet for the liver against the necrotizing action of 
certain anaesthetic agents and the deleterious influences of other 
hepatotoxins such as arsphenamine have been demonstrated by 
Ravdin and others. In the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis Patek 
and Post advocated a nutritious diet containing a moderate 
amount of protein (114 gm.) and fat, and dietary supplements 
rich in the vitamin B complex. Broun and Muether have had en- 
couraging results with a diet low in animal fat and cholesterol, 
the use of casein and vegetable proteins, and the administration 
of a 25% watery solution of flavoured choline chloride. 

The principal clinical features in a series of 18 cases of pan- 
creatic lithiasis were, according to Snell, colic, motor disturbances 
of the stomach and small intestine, diabetes, actual and latent, 
loss of weight and fatty diarrhoea. The diagnosis depends chiefly 
on the roentgenologic evidence of stones. 

Intestines. Sulphonamides loom increasingly important in the 
medical and surgical treatment of intestinal disturbances. Bacil- 
lary dysentery and other infections caused by the so-called colon- 
typhoid-dysentery group of organisms are reported to respond 
favourably to this form of chemotherapy. Sulphanilylguanadine 
is particularly recommended because of its low toxicity. Whether 
it possesses any real advantage over the other sulphonamides re- 
mains to be seen. Fatalities arising from acute appendicitis and 
its complications seem likely to be reduced by the augmentation 
of chemotherapy with intelligently used gastrointestinal decom- 
pression. The curative effect of sulphanilamide and sulphapyri- 
dine in the treatment of abdominal as well as other forms of 
actinomycosis appears to be confirmed by the observations of 
Dorling and Eckhoff. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. W. B. Faulkner, Jr., "Objective Esophageal Changes 
Due to Psychic Factors: an Esophagoscopic Study with Report of 13 
Cases/' Am. J. M. Sc. (Dec. 1940); G. C. Dorling and N. L. Eckhoff, 
"Chemotherapy of Abdominal Actinomycosis," Lancet (Dec. 7, 1940); J. 
Bucker, "Die Friihdiagnose des Magenkrebscs im Rontgcnbild," Fortschr. 
a.d. Geb. d. Rontgcnstrahlen (Jan. 1941); J. H. Oarlock, "Problem of Can- 
cer of Esophagus," J. Mt. Sinai Hasp. (Jan.-Feb. 1941); I. S. Ravdin, 
"Some Factors Involved in the Care of the Patient Seriously III with Biliary 
Tract Disease," California 6- West. Med. (April 1941); M. R. Camiel and 
Leo Loewe, "A Syndrome of Upper Esophageal Stenosis," Ann. Int. Med. 
(July 1941); A. M. Snell and M. W. Comfort, "The Incidence and Diag- 
nosis of Pancreatic Lithiasis," Am. J. Digest. Dis. (July 1941). 

(G. B.EN.) 



40 



ALLERGY ALUMINUM 



^ ues ^ on whether sensitivity in humans (allergy) 
i s comparable to similar conditions in animals (an- 
aphylaxis) is of more than academic interest, because of the ap- 
plication of observations in animal experiments to allergy in 
humans. The relationship of the two conditions was demonstrated 
by the study of typical spontaneous hay fever in a dog (Wittich). 
The animal gave positive skin, eye and nasal reactions to the 
suspected pollens. The similarity of anaphylaxis (induced sen- 
sitization in animals) and allergy was confirmed by Cohen an4 
Weller, who succeeded in demonstrating the presence of antibodies 
known as precipitins in the blood of typically allergic patients. 
Such antibodies heretofore had been found only in the blood of 
sensitized animals, particularly in rabbits. 

Another interesting contribution in the field of experimental 
sensitization was reported by Loveless. Three non-allergic pa- 
tients who were suffering from incurable conditions permitted 
themselves to be transfused with the blood of pollen-sensitive 
cases. All three developed symptoms of pollen sensitivity lasting 
up to 24 days. 

A number of new causes for allergic symptoms were reported 
during 1941. A patient with hives of 15 months' duration was 
found sensitive to acrolein and other common, related aldehydes 
(Rappaport and Hoffman). Since acrolein is common as a com- 
bustion product of fats, as in the frying of foods, and since many 
aldehydes (in perfumes and aromatic foods) are related to acro- 
lein, it may indicate a new and important cause of allergic symp- 
toms. Ascher reported nasal allergy caused by the use of psyllium 
seeds as a laxative. To the many known causes of asthma were 
added paprika (Gelfand), and gum acacia (Bohner, et a/.). While 
acacia was previously reported as a rare cause of allergy, the 
authors found ten patients with asthma due to its use as an offset 
spray in printing. Insect emanations, as a cause of asthma, were 
given added importance by the reports of asthma due to moths 
(Urbach), to beetles (Sheldon and Johnston), and to a crusta- 
cean known as the water flea (Way). 

Most important contributions were toward improvement in the 
treatment of pollen sensitivity. Most of the work was limited 
to changes in pollen solutions involving the preparation of a 
material which would be absorbed more slowly, and would permit 
fewer injections for immunization. Spain and his co-workers re- 
duced the rate of absorption of pollen by adding gelatin to the 
solution, with excellent results in the treatment of a group of 
patients. Strauss and Spain reported the chemical union of rag- 
weed pollen with sulphanilic acid. This conjugated product re- 
tained its potency as demonstrated by skin tests. Naterman re- 
ported excellent results in 90% of hay fever cases treated with a 
tannic acid precipitate of pollen. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. F, W. Wittich, "Allergy (Atopy) in the Lower Animal," 
/. Allergy, 12:247-51 (1941); M. B. Cohen and R. R. Weller, "Precipitins 
in the Sera of Patients with Clinical Allergy," ibid., 12:242-43 (1941); 
M. H. Loveless, "Sensitization of Man Through Transfusion," /. Immunol- 
ogy, 41:15-34 (1941); B. Z. Rappaport and H. M. Hoffman, "Urticaria 
Due to Aliphatic Aldehydes, A Clinical and Experimental Study," J.A.M.A., 
116:2656-59 (1941); M.S. Ascher, "Psyllium Seed Sensitivity," /.Allergy, 
12:607-09 (1941); H. H. Gelfand, "Vasomotor Rhinitis and Asthma Due 
to Paprika," ibid., 12:312-13 (1941); C. B. Bohncr, J. M. Sheldon and 
J. W. Tennis, "Sensitivity to Gum Acacia," ibid., 12:290-94 (1941); E. 
Urbach and P. M. Gottlieb, "Asthma from Insect Emanations," ibid., 
12:485-91 (1941); J. M. Sheldon and J. H. Johnston, "Hypersensitivity 
to Beetles (Coleoptera)," ibid., 12:493-94 (1941); K. D. Way, "Water 
Flea Sensitivity," ibid., 12:495-97 (1941); W. C. Spain, A. M. Fuchs and 
M. B. Strauss, "A Slowly Absorbed Pollen Extract for the Treatment of 
Hay Fever," ibid., 12:365-7? (1941); M. B. Strauss and W. C. Spain, 
"Immunologic Studies with Conjugated Ragweed Pollen Extracts," ibid. t 
12:543-48 (1941); H. L. Naterman, "The Treatment of Hay. Fever by 
Injections of Suspended Pollen Tannate," ibid., 12:378-87 (1941). 

fr (B. Z. R,) 

Allocations and Allotments: see BUSINESS REVIEW; SUP- 
PLY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS BOARD. 
Alloys: see BERYLLIUM; MAGNESIUM; METALLURGY; MOLYB- 
DENUM; MONAZITE; NICKEL; TITANIUM; VANADIUM. 



Alphonso 



VIII (1886-1941), king of Spain, was born May 17 



in Madrid. Two weeks before his death the 
former monarch issued a manifesto, renouncing his rights to the 
throne in favour of his son, Don Juan, whom a monarchist faction 
hailed as the future Juan III. In 1939 the Franco government de- 
creed the restoration to Alphonso of property valued at about 
$8,500,000, which had been confiscated by the Spanish republic in 
1932, the year after he fled the throne. He died in Rome, Feb. 28. 
The Franco government granted permission for his burial in the 
royal pantheon of the Escorial near Madrid. For his earlier career 
see Encyclopaedia Britannka. 

The estimatecj worlc * production of aluminum 
(also spelled aluminium) increased from 670,000 
metric tons in 1939 to 785,000 tons in 1940, of which 240,000 
tons are attributed to Germany, 188,000 tons to the United States, 
95,000 to Canada, 55,000 to the Soviet Union, 50,000 to France, 
36,000 to Italy, 32,000 to Japan, 29,000 to Switzerland, 20,000 to 
Norway, and smaller amounts to minor producers. No estimates 
were received for 1941, but the growing demand for military uses 
assures an even greater increase in 1941 than that of 1940. 

The United States output increased 29% in 1940, to 206,280 
short tons and would show a further heavy increase in 1941. No 
specific figures had been made public, but an expansion program 
that called for an output of about 340,000 tons by midyear was 
known to have been approximately achieved, and good progress 
was reported on further additions that would add a similar ton- 
nage early in 1942, and still further additions would probably 
be made. Secondary recovery increased to 68,045 tons in 1940, 
and was expected to keep pace with new output in 1941. Demand 
from abroad kept exports well ahead of imports during 1939 and 
1940, but in 1941 exports were limited and this, in connection 
with lack of accessibility to foreign sources of supply, cut both 
imports and exports to below normal. 

Following a reduction in price from 20 cents per Ib. to 17 cents 
during 1940, the price was further reduced to 15 cents on Oct. 
i, 1941. 

Production conditions outside of the United States were kept 
so well under cover that only inferences can be drawn. The dis- 
tance between Great Britain and sources of bauxite supply made 
it likely that there would be little increase in British production, 
as it was more feasible to take British Guiana bauxite to Canada, 
and such increases as might be made were more likely to come in 
Canada than in Britain. Two-thirds of the Russian capacity was 
on the Dnieper river, and had presumably been destroyed. Ger- 
many had direct access to bauxite supplies in Hungary, Yugo- 




1915 1917 1919 1921 1923 1925 1927 1929 W3I 1933 19 5 1937 1939 1941 
ALUMINUM PRODUCTION OF THE WORLD and thi chief producing coun- 
tries, ai compiled by The Mininl Industry 




DISPLAYS OF USED ALUMINUM contributed by housewives and otheri lo pur- 
poses of national defense appeared throughout the U.S.A. in the spring and 
summer of 1941 

' '.'. .'' ' * 

slavia and Greece, from Italy if needed, and probably from France 
as well; this assured a plentiful supply, and if German output 
were restricted in any way, it would not be likely to be from lack 
of ore supplies. Italian production probably was enlarged, and 
also that of Japan. While the Norwegian smelters were entirely 
under German control, it was expected to be extremely difficult to 
keep them supplied with ore, and it was doubtful if they could be 
kept going. While Switzerland was still nominally independent of 
German control, the smelters were dependent on ore supplies that 
were under complete German control, so that it was likely that 
Swiss production was in 1941 largely for German benefit. The 
growing subservience of Vichy France to German domination 
probably put both the French ore supplies and smelters under 
German control insofar as they might have been needed, even 
though they were located in the unoccupied area. (See also 
CYROLITE.) (G. A. Ro.) 



Ambassadors and Envoys. 



to 

and from the United States and to and from Great Britain Jan. 
i, 1942. 

To and From the United States 

('^ambassadors; unstarred, envoys.) 

To the United States Country From the United States 

Espil, Felipe A ......... Argentina 

Casey, Richard G ........ Australia 

Straten Ponthoz, Count Robert 

van der ........... Belgium 



*Armour, Norman 
Johnson, Nelson T. 



Biddle, Anthony J. D., 
Jr. 8 



To the United States 
Guachalla, Dr. Luis F. . 

* Martins, Carlos 

McCarthy, Leighton , 

*Michels, Rodolfo . . <:,, 

*HuShih, Dr. .... . 

"Turhay, Dr. Gabriel . . 
Fernandez, Dr. Luis . . 

*Concheso, Dr. Aurclio F. 



Uurban, Vladimfr Czechoslovakia 



Kauffmann, Henrik de 

Troncoso, Dr. J. M 

*Alfaro, Capt. Col6n E. 1 . . . . 

Hassan Bey, Mahmoud . . . . 

Brennan, Robert 

Castro, Dr. Hector D. (absent) . 

Kaiv, Johannes 2 

Procope, Hjalmar J 

*lienry-llaye, Gaston 

*1 1 all fax. Viscount 

Diamanto{X)ulos, Cimon P. . . 

Recinos, Dr. Adrian 

Dennis, Fernand 

Caceres, Dr. Julian R 

Thors, Thor 

Schayesteh, Mohammed. . . . 

{jilmanis, Dr. Alfred 

Zadeikis, Povilas 

Le Gallais, Hugues 

"Castillo Najera, Dr. Francisco . 



Loudon, Dr. A Netherlands 



Country From the United States 

Bolivia .... Jenkins, Douglas 
Brazil .... *Caffcry, Jefferson 
Canada .... Moffat, Jay Pierrepont 

Chile 'Bowers, Claude (i. 

China .... *Gauss, Clarence E. 
Colombia . . . *Braden, Spruille (absent) 
Costa Rica . . Lane, Arthur Bliss 
Cuba *Braden, Spruillc (ap- 
pointed) 

Diddle, Anthony J. D., 
Jr. 8 

Atherton. Ray (absent) 

Scotten, Robert M. 

Long, Boaz 

Kirk, Alexander C. 4 

Gray, David 

Frazer, Robert (absent) 



Denmark . . . 
Dominican Rep 

Ecuador . . . 

Egypt . . . . 

Eire (Ireland) . 

El Salvador . . 

Estonia . . . . 

Finland . . . 

France . . . . 

Great Britain . 

Greece . . . . 



Schoenfeld, H. F. Arthur 
*I,cahy, William D. 
*\Vinant, John G. 
Biddle, Anthony J. D., 

Jr. 3 

Des Portcs, Fay A. 
White, John C. 
Erwin, John D. 
MacVeagh, Lincoln 

Iran Dreyfus, L. G., Jr. 6 

Latvia 

Lithuania 



Guatemala 
Haiti . . . 
Honduras . 
Iceland 



DeBayle, Dr. Le6n 

Munthe de Morgenstierne,Wilhclm 

*Ja6n Guardia, Ernesto 

Soler, Dr. Juan Jos6 

*Freyre y Santander, Manuel de . 
*Ciechanowski, Jan 



Bianchi, Joao A. de 
*Cardenas, Juan F. de 

Bostrorn, W 

Bruggmann, Charles 



Luxembourg. . Moffat, Jay Pierrepont* 
Mexico . . . ,*Messersmith, George S. 

(appointed) 
Biddle, Anthony J. D., 

Jr.* 

Boal, Pierre de L. 
Biddle, Anthony J. D., 

Jr. 8 

Panama. . . . *VVilson, Edwin C. 
Paraguay . . . Frost, Wesley 

Peru *Norweb, R. Henry 

Poland . . . .*Biddle, Anthony J. D., 

Jr. 3 
Portugal . . . Fish, Bert 



Nicaragua 
Norway . 



Spain 
Sweden . . 
Switzerland 



Seni Promo j, Rajawongsc . 
*Ertegiin, Mehmet M. . . . 



Close, Ralph W 

*Litvinov, Maxim . . . , 

*Rlanco, Dr. Juan C. . . 
*Escalante, Dr. Di6genes 
Fotic, Constantin . . , 



Thailand . . . 

Turkey . . . . 

Union of South 

Africa . . . 

U.S.S.R. . . . 

Uruguay . . 

Venezuela . 

Yugoslavia . . 



Weddell. Alexander W. 
Sterling, Frederick A. 
Harrison, Leland 
(absent) 



*Steinhardt, Laurence A. 
(appointed Jan. 1042) 

Keena, Leo J . 
*Steinhardt, Laurence A. 

(absent) 

*Dawson, William 
. *Corrigan, Frank P. 

Biddle, Anthony J. D., 
Jr.' 

*Rank of ambassador for duration of boundary negotiations between Ecuador 
and Peru. 'Acting consul general, in New York city. 'Accredited to govern- 
ments of Belgium. Czechoslovakia, Greece, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland 
and Yugoslavia, all established in England. Accredited also to Saudi Arabia; 
resident in Cairo. Accredited also to Afghanistan; resident in Tehran. 'Minis- 
ter to Canada but accredited also to government of Luxembourg, established in 
Canada. 



To and From Great Britain 

(* Ambassador; unstarred Envoy-Extraordinary; 
-Charg6 d'Affaires.) 



Minister Resident; 



To Great Britain 
Sardar Ahmed Alt Khan . . . , 
Carcano, Dr. Miguel Angel . 
*de Marchienne, Baron E. dc-C. 



Patifio, Antenor ...... 

*de Aragao, J. J. Moniz . . . 

*Bianchi, Manuel 

*Koo, Dr. V. K. Wellington. . 

Jaramillo Arango, Dr. Jaime . 

(Vacant) 

de Blanck, Guillermo . . . . 

Lobkowicz, Maximilian . . , 



2 Reventlow, Count Eduard 
Henriquez-Urefia, M. . . . 



Puig-Arosemena, Alberto 
'Hassan Nashat Pasha . . 

Torma, August 

Simopoulos, Charalambos 



Country 
Afghanistan . 
Argentina 
Belgian Govt. 



Bolivia . . . . 

Brazil . . . . 

Chile 

China .... 

Colombia . . . 

Costa Rica . . 

Cuba . . . . 

Czechoslovak 
Provis. Govt 
(in London) 

Denmark . . . 

Dominican 
Republic . 

Ecuador . . . 

Egypt . . . . 

Estonia . . , 

Greece . . . 



From Great Britain 

Wylie, Sir F. V. 
*Ovey, Sir Esmond 
*Oliphant, Sir Lancelot 
(returned to London 
Sept. 30, 1941) 

Dodcls, J. L. 
*Charles, Sir Noel N. IL 
*Orde, Sir Charles W. 
Kerr, Sir Archibald Clark 

Snow, T. M. 
iLyall. G. 

Ogilvie-Forbes, Sir G. 



, P. B. B. 



tPatcrson, A. S. 
JBullock, G. H. 
*Lampson, Sir Miles 



Palairct, Sir Charles M. 



'British representative. "Charged informally with the protection of certain 
Danish interests not under enemy control. 

41 




u/\urftnii;c. f\. aicirariAnui, u.d. amoassaoor to me u.d.d.n., conauctea DUSI- 
ness as usual July 24, 1941, the mornino after a German bomb had spattered 
the Moscow embassy with wreckage 



To Great Britain 
|Figueroa, Dr. Francisco A. . . 


Country 
Guatemala . 
Haiti 


From Great Britain 
3 Lechc, J. H. 
JHillyer RAN. 


Benediktsson Pe'tur 


Honduras . 
Iceland 


Kemball, C. G. 
Smith C Howard 


Mohammad Ali Moghadclam . 
Sayid Ata Amin 
Xarine, Charles 


Iran 
Iraq ... 
Latvia , . . . 


. Bullard, Sir R. VV. 
. *Cornwallis, Sir K. 


Jde Lyndon, Baron Robert Aernout 
Balutis, Bronius 


Liberia . . . . 
Lithuania 


. Routh, A. C. 


Diaz, Alfonso R 
Gen. Shingha Shamsher Jung . . 
Bahadur Rana 
van Verduynen, Dr. Michiels . . 

Herdocia, Dr. C 


Mexico . . . 

Nepal . . . 
Netherlands 
Govt. (in 
London) . 
Nicaragua 


Bateman, Harold 
. Bet ham, Lt. Col. G. L. 

. Bland, Sir N. 
(iOoden, A. . ' 


Colban, E. A 


Norwegian 




Sandoval, R. Rivera 


Govt. (in 
London) . 
Panama 


. Collier, L. 
Dodd, C. E. S. 


( Vacant) 
Benavides, A 
*Raczynski, Count Edward .... 

*Monteiro. Dr. Armindo Rodrigues 
de Sttau 


Paraguay . 
Peru 
Polish Govt. 
(in London) . 

Portugal . . . 


JBrickell, D. F. H. 
Forbes, V. C. W. 

*Dormer, Sir Cecil ** 
"Campbell, Sir R. 


(Vacant) 
Sheikh Ha6z Wahba 
*The Duke of Alba 


Salvador . . 
Saudi Arabia . 
Spain 


(Henderson, I. I,. 
Stonehewer-Bird, F H.W 
*Hoarc, Sir Samuel 


Prytz, Bjorn Gustaf 
Thurnheer, Walter 
Vimolnart, Phra Manuvedya . . 
*Aras, Dr. Tewiik Riistu 


Sweden . . . . 
Switzerland . 
Thailand . 
Turkey . . 


Mallet, V. A. L. 
. Kelly, D. V. 
Crosby, Sir Josiah 
* Knatchbull-Hugessen, 


*Winant, John G. . . . **. . . . 


United States 


Sir H. M. 
*Halifax, Viscount 


Castcllahos, Dr Daniel ,' . . v . 


Uruguay 


Stevenson, R. C. S. 


*Maisky, Ivan. , ; '; 


USSR 


*Cripps, Sir Stafford 


.Godfrey, Mgr. \V. 
(Apostolic Delegate) 
Carnevali, Dr. Atilano 
Soubbotitch, Ivan 


Vatican . . 
Venezuela 

Yugoslav Govt 


Osborne, F. d'A. G. 
Gainer, D. St. C. 




(in London) 


Rendel, G. W. * 



American Academy of Arts 

n j I o M. orc This organization was founded in 1904 by the 
dlllJ LBllBlS. National Institute of Arts and Letters. It is 
an honorary educational body limited to 50 members, who are 
elected from the membership of its parent body, the National 
Institute of Arts and Letters, also an honorary educational body 
limited to 250 members qualified by notable achievement in art, 
music or literature. 

Throughout 1941 a joint exhibition of the works of Childe 
Hassam and of Edwin Austin Abbey, both deceased members of 
the academy, was shown in the art gallery and was to continue in- 
definitely. The Abbey paintings were lent by Yale university. 
The art gallery and the permanent museum are open and free 
to the public from i to 5 P.M. weekdays (closed Mondays) and 
from 2 to 5 P.M. Sundays and holidays. 

The officers of the academy for 1941 were: Walter Damrosch, 
president; James Truslow Adams, chancellor and treasurer; Wil- 
liam Lyon Phelps, secretary. The other six directors were 
Stephen Vincent Benet, Van Wyck Brooks, William Adams De- 
lano, Charles Dana Gibson, Deems Taylor and Chauncey B. 
Tinker. . ; (F. GN.) 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

The academy is limited to 800 fellows and 130 foreign honorary 
members, divided among four classes: mathematical and physical 
sciences, natural and physiological sciences, the social arts, 
the humanities. The officers for the year 1941 were: president, 
Harlow Shapley; corresponding secretary, Abbott P. Usher; 
recording secretary, Hudson Hoagland; treasurer, Horace S. 
Ford. The following papers were presented at regular monthly 
meetings: Tenny L. Davis, "The Identity of Chinese and Euro- 
pean Alchemical Theory" ; Edward L. Thorndike, 'The Develop- 
ment, Retention and Attraction of Superior Men"; Fletcher G. 
Watson, "The Approaching Comet"; James G. Baker, "Trends in 
Astronomical Optics"; Donald H. Menzei, "Motions in the Solar 
Atmosphere"; Thomas Head Thomas, "The Hitler War and 
Hemisphere Defense"; Harold E. Edgerton, "Stroboscopic Light 
and its Applications"; Herbert Brown Ames, "Canada's Major 
Contribution in the Present War"; Kenneth J. Conant, "The 
Architectural Revolution: an Historical Background for the 
New Architecture in America." 

May 14, 1941 awards were made from the Francis Amory fund 
for distinguished contributions to the treatment and cure of 
disease and derangement of the human genitourinary organs. 
Awards were made to Dr. Joseph F. McCarthy, to Dr. Carl Rich- 
ard Moore, to Dr. Hugh H. Young, and to a scientist in nazi- 
occupied Europe whose name was withheld. The recipients of 
prizes gave brief descriptions of their work. 

The following papers were read by title: Tenny L. Davis and 
Chao Yun-ts-'ung, "Four Hundred Word Chin Tan of Chang 
Po-Tuan"; J. H. Bartlett and R. E. Watson, "The Elastic Scat- 
tering of Fast Electrons by Heavy Elements"; Charles T. Brues, 
"Photographic Evidence on the Visibility of Color Patterns in 
Butterflies to the Human and Insect Eye." 

Grants in aid of research were made from the Rumford fund, 
the C. M. Warren fund and from the Permanent Science fund. 

(A.P.U.) 

American Academy of Political and 



Qnionno 

uUICllUc. 



'Minister and consul-general. 



4 anc * 5 ' I941 there was held the 

45th annual meeting, with the general sub- 
ject "Defending America's Future," the proceedings of which, to- 
gether with a number of additional articles, appeared in the 



42 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATIONS AND SOCIETIES 



43 



July issue of The Annals. Other meetings included a session on 
"Canada and the United States*' held on Feb. 4, at which the Hon. 
Athanase David of Ottawa, Canada and John MacCormac of 
Washington, D.C. were the speakers, with Dr. F. Cyril James of 
McGill university presiding; a meeting on March 4, addressed 
by Gerhard Colm of the treasury department, Prof. 0, M. W. 
Sprague of Harvard university, and the Hon. Arthur A. Ballan- 
tine of New York, formerly undersecretary of the treasury, with 
Alexander Biddle of Philadelphia presiding, on "How to Finance 
National Defense"; and, on Nov. 14, a session on "When the 
War Ends," addressed by Senor Julio Alvarez del Vayo of Spain, 
Count Carlo Sforza of Italy and Sir Norman Angell of Great 
Britain. 

The volumes of The Annals, the academy's bimonthly journal, 
are unique in that each is a symposium of some special subject of 
current interest. During 1941 the six issues, including the July 
volume, had the following titles: "New Horizons in Radio" 
(January); "Billions for Defense" (March); "America and 
Japan" (May); "Defending America's Future" (July); "Crime 
in the United States" (September) ; "Public Policy in a World 
at War" (November). 

Student memberships, announced during 1940, totalled by the 
end of 1941 approximately 275. Under this arrangement students 
enrolled in educational institutions receive all of the privileges 
of regular membership, but at a cost of only $3 per year in- 
stead of the usual $5. 

The officers for the year were: Ernest Minor Patterson, presi- 
dent; J. P. Lichtenberger, secretary; Charles J. Rhoads, treas- 
urer; Thomas S. Hopkins, assistant treasurer; Herbert Hoover, 
Carl Kelsey and C. A. Dykstra, vice-presidents. Headquarters 
are at 3457 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (E. M. P.) 

American Association for the Advancement 

I Onlimmi The officers of the American Association for 
Ul vClullUvi the Advancement of Science for 1941 were 
Irving Langmuir, associate director of the research laboratory of 
General Electric company, president; Forest Ray Moulton, per- 
manent secretary; Otis W. Caldwell, general secretary; Charles 
Carroll Morgan, treasurer; and Sam Woodley, assistant secretary. 
The retiring president, Dr. Walter B. Cannon, delivered an 
address on 'The Body Physiologic and the Body Politic." 

In 1941 the membership of the association passed 21,500. Its 
affiliated and associated societies, 181 in number, had a com- 
bined membership, including duplications, of nearly 1,000,000. 
The association held three meetings in 1941, its annual meeting in 
Philadelphia, Pa., which closed on Jan. 2, a joint meeting at 
Durham, N.H., June 23-28, and a meeting at Chicago, 111., Sept. 
22-27. The attendance at the annual meeting was about 6,000, 
including representatives from 46 states, four dependencies and 
nine foreign countries. At this meeting a total of 2,164 addresses 
and papers were delivered or read. The annual association $1,000 
prize was awarded to Drs. D. R. Hoagland and D. I. Arnon for 
their investigations on plant nutrition. Eighteen grants in aid of 
research were given. One of the features of the meeting was a 
symposium on "Human Malarto," including 43 contributions by 
leading authorities, which has been published by the association 
as a 406-page volume. This is the i$th volume in its symposium 
series. Strange Malady The Story of Allergy, by Dr. Warren T. 
Vaughan, was published during the year as one of the associa- 
tion's non-technical series. The June meeting was held in con- 
nection with the celebration of the 75th anniversary of the found- 
ing of the University of New Hampshire, and the September 
meeting in connection with the celebration of the $oth anniversary 
of the founding of the University of Chicago. (F. R. Mo.) 



Amman Barters Association. 

ing field during 1940-41 under the administration of P. D. Hous- 
ton, chairman of the board of the American National bank, 
Nashville, Tenn. 

Four new divisions of the association, a consumer credit de- 
partment, a department of research in real estate and mortgage 
loans, a department of customer relations and a department of 
economics, all of which were established tentatively during 
1939-40, proved effective in their operations and were made a 
permanent part of the association's activities. 

Both the new departments and the previously established divi- 
sions, sections and commissions of the A.B.A. devoted a sub- 
stantial part of their efforts to problems dealing with national 
defense financing, working in co-operation with congress and 
various government departments and agencies. 

Officers elected at the 6;th annual convention of the associa- 
tion in Chicago, Sept. 28-Oct. 2, 1941, for the ensuing year 
were: president, Henry W. Koeneke, Ponca City, Okla.; first 
vice-president, W. Linn Hemingway, St. Louis, Mo.; second vice- 
president, A. L. M. Wiggins, Hartsville, S.C.; treasurer, William 
F. Augustine, Boston, Mass.; executive manager, Dr. Harold 
Stonier, New York, N.Y.; secretary, Richard W. Hill, New York, 
N.Y.; senior deputy manager, Frank W. Simmonds, New York, 
N.Y.; national bank division, president, W. C. Bowman, Mont- 
gomery, Ala.; vice-president, S. A. Phillips, Louisville, Ky.; 
savings division, president, Stuart C. Frazier, Seattle, Wash.; 
vice-president, W. W. Slocum, Detroit, Mich.; state bank divi- 
sion, president, James H. Penick, Little Rock, Ark.; vice-presi- 
dent, Frank P. Powers, Mora, Minn.; trust division, president, 
Richard G. Stockton, Winston-Salem, N.C.; vice-president, 
Louis S. Headley, St. Paul, Minn.; state secretaries section, pres- 
ident, William Duncan Jr., Minneapolis, Minn,; first vice-presi- 
dent, Fred Bowman, Topeka, Kan. (L. GN.) 



American Bar Association. 



lish, Canadian and Latin-American jurists discussed hemispheric 
solidarity and world order. During the year the committee on 
national defense, headed by Edmund R. Beckwith, organized 
state and local bar committees to co-operate in the administra- 
tion of the Selective Service act, give free legal aid to men in 
service and their families, and furnish leadership in the main- 
tenance of civilian morale. Under the chairmanship of Judge 
John J. Parker, the committee on improving the administration 
of justice promoted its nation-wide program to integrate the 
judiciary, improve the jury system, simplify trial and appellate 
practice and the rules of evidence, and improve the procedure 
of administrative tribunals. 

Awards: annual medal of the association to George Wharton 
Pepper, former U.S. senator, for conspicuous service in the cause 
of United States jurisprudence; Ross prize of $3,000 to Willard 
Bruce Cowles of Washington, D.C., for an essay on "The Pros- 
pective Development of International Law in the Western 
Hemisphere as Affected by the Monroe Doctrine"; awards of 
merit to the Colorado Bar association and the Bar Association 
of St. Louis, Mo. 

Elected at the 1941 meeting were: Walter P. Armstrong, pres- 
ident; Guy R. Crump, chairman of the house of delegates; Harry 
S. Knight, secretary; John H. Voorhees, treasurer; Joseph D. 
Stecher, assistant secretary. (M. DN.) 



The 1 25th annual meeting of 
the American Bible society 
was held in May 1941. John T. Manson is president. Gilbert 



American Bible Society. 



44 



AMERICAN CHEMICALAMERICAN CITIZENS ABROAD 



Darlington is treasurer. General secretaries are Rev. Dr. Eric M. 
North, in charge of translation and foreign activities, and Rev. Dr. 
Frederick W. Cropp, in charge of activities in the United States. 
Rev. Dr. Francis C. Stifler is editorial and recording secretary. 
The society distributes about 3,700,000 volumes of Scripture 
annually in the United States. In co-operation with the British 
and Foreign Bible society, the Scottish Bible society and other 
missionary organizations, the Scriptures were translated into 1,051 
languages up to the end of 1940, and more than 25,000,000 vol- 
umes of Scripture were distributed in 1940 throughout the world. 
The society's principal office is at Park avenue and 57th street, 
New York city, with branch offices in n cities in the United 
States and agencies, depositories and publishing offices in many 
other countries, in co-operation with the British and the Scottish 
Bible societies. The American Bible society elects a vice-president 
from each of the 48 states and among those so chosen have been 
Chief Justice Hughes, John R. Mott, William Lyon Phelps, J. L. 
Kraft and General Evangeline Booth. (F. C. ST.) 

AmoripQn Phomiral ^nniotv The society operates un 

AmCriUdll UllGllllUdl OUUtiiy. dcr a national charter 
from the 75th congress. In 1941 the presidency passed from Dr. 
S. C. Lind of the University of Minnesota to Dr. William Lloyd 
Evans of Ohio State university with Dr. Harry N. Holmes of 
Oberlin college as president-elect. Holmes became president 
Jan. i, 1942. National meetings in St. Louis and Atlantic City- 
showed attendances of 3,960 and 5,021 with 462 and 550 papers, 
respectively. The 96 local sections were more active than ever. 
The awards of the society: Karl A. Folkers, American Chemical 
society award in pure chemistry; David Rittenberg, Eli Lilly and 
company award; Claude S. Hudson, Borden award; Thomas 
Midgley, Jr., Priestley medal; Alexander Silverman, Pittsburgh 
award; Ferdinand G. Brickwedde, Hillebrand award; Linus Paul- 
ing, Nichols medal; Arthur W. Burwell, Schoellkopf medal; Ed- 
ward A. Doisy, Willard Gibbs medal. Membership passed 28,000. 

(C. L. Ps.) 



Aierican Citizens Abroad. 



American citizens living abroad, as of Jan. i, 1941, compiled from 
reports received from U.S. consulates in all parts of the world. 
This estimate includes only those whose residence abroad has a 
permanent or semipermanent character and therefore excludes 
tourists and all others whose sojourn abroad was considered to be 
only transitory. 

Attention is called to the fact that because of the disturbed 
conditions existing in certain areas of the world, it has been 
impossible in many cases for consular officers to obtain exact 
figures as to the number of U.S. citizens residing in their respec- 
tive districts. However, this statement, based on all available 
sources of information, may be considered as a reasonably accu- 
rate estimate of Americans living abroad as of Jan. i, 1941. 



SOUTH AMERICA 

Argentina 3.oog 

Bolivia 5*o 

Brazil 4,240 

Chile 1,281 

Colombia 2,797 

Ecuador 562 

Paraguay 92 

Peru 1,692 

Uruguay 210 

Venezuela 3.394 

Total 17,787, 



MEXICO AND CENTRAL 
AMERICA 



British Honduras. 
Costa Rica . . . 



160 
1,237 



MEXICO-Cont. ' 

El Salvador .... 283 
Guatemala .... 1,128 

Honduras 1,076 

Mexico 13,014 

Nicaragua 649 

Panama 7,222 

Total 24,760 



WEST INDIES AND BERMUDA 

Bahamas 235 

Barbados 345 

Bermuda 588 

Cuba ....... 5.531 

Curacao i,743' 

Dominican Republic 3,158 

Haiti 467 



WEST INDIES Cont. 

Jamaica 703 

Trinidad 637 

Total 13,407 

CANADA AND 
NEWFOUNDLAND 

Canada 164,354 

Newfoundland . . 614 
St. Pierre et 

Miquelon . . q 
Total 164,977 



EUROPE Cont. 
Union of Soviet 
Socialist 

Republics .... 213 
Yugoslavia . . . . 1,521 

Total 50,001 

AFRICA 



EUROPE 



Albania 

Belgium 

British Isles. . . . . 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia . . . 
Danzig, Free City of 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Gibraltar 

Greece 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Luxembourg . . . . 

Malta 

Netherlands . . . . 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 



Lisbon . 

Oporto 

Madeira 

Azores 
Rumania 
Spain and Canary 

Islands . . . 
Sweden .... 
Switzerland . . 



589 
530 
230 
4,. 5 00 



170 

57 

6,145 

80 

218 

10 

895 

38 

337 

3,000 

5,iu 

S 

2,086 

358 

2,382 

14,567 

70 

140 

14 

145 

774 

726 

239 

5,855 



Algeria 


60 


Belgian Congo . . . 
Egypt 


940 
552 


iT 6JK 
Kenya 

Liberia 


437 
261 


Morocco 


no 


Nigeria 


543 


Union of South 
Africa 
Tunisia 
Total 


1,046 
05 



4.944 



ASIA 

Arabia 35 

Ceylon 74 

China 6,700 

French Indo-China . 124 

Hongkong 1,280 

India 3,509 

Iran ; 117 

Iraq 497 

Japan 5,295 

Netherlands East 

Indies .... 476 

Palestine 8,500 

Straits Settlements . 450 

Syria 1,446 

Thailand 90 

Turkey (including 

Turkey in Europe) 263 

Total 



FIJI ISLANDS 

SOCIETY ISLANDS . . 



28,946 
15 
13 



1,409 
1,261 



AUSTRALIA AND 
NEW ZEALAND 

Australia 1,832 

New Zealand ... 293 

Total 2,125 

GRAND TOTAL .... 307,884 



The following information concerning persons procuring pass- 
ports or renewals was compiled from passport and renewal appli- 
cations received by the department of state during the calendar 
year ending Dec. 31, 1940. 



OCCUPATION 

Accountant 

Actor 

Architect 

Artist 

Banker, broker' .... 
Buyer, exporter, importer 
Clerk, secretary .... 

Contractor 

Doctor 

Draftsman 

Druggist 

Engineer 

Executive 

Farmer, rancher .... 

Florist 

Housewife , 

Interior decorator . . . , 
Labourer (common) . . , 
Labourer (skilled) . . . . 

Lawyer 

Librarian , 

Manufacturer 

Merchant 

Miscellaneous , 

Missionary 

Musician 

None 

Nurse 

Religious ..-,...., 

Restaurateur 

Retired . . , 

Salesman 

Scientific 

Servant 

Student 

Teacher 

Technician 

Tradesman 

Writer 



Total 



385 
223 
69 
i59 
408 

404 

1,840 

83 

459 

63 

IQ 

I,4Q<) 

1,467 

361 

26 

3,194 

U 

516 

3,U9 

413 

59 

269 

406 

095 

775 

172 

1,809 

400 

506 

78 

385 
1,0 1 H 

3S3 

210 

2,270 

1,408 



438 
26,253 



DESTINATION 

Africa 396 

Australia & New Zealand . 570 

Bermuda 1,945 

Canada and Newfoundland . 728 

Eastern Europe 48 

Far east 5,291 

Latin America 15,508 

Near east 607 

Western Europe 1,528 

OBJECT OF TRAVEL 

Commercial 3,628 

Education 601 

Employment 3,439 

Family affairs 706 

Health . 185 

Personal business 5,4^4 

Pleasure 10,380 

Professional 446 

Religious 1,352 

Scientific ' 102 

APPLICANT 

Native 22,963 

Naturalized 3.290 

Male 16,661 

Female . 9,59 2 

ADDITIONAL PERSONS 
INCLUDED IN PASSPORTS 

Adults 2,325 

Minors 2,712 

PREVIOUS PASSPORTS 
Number having been previ- 
ously issued American 

passports 8,882 



AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS A. F. OF L* 



DISTRIBUTION BY STATES, 1940 

Alabama 107 Nevada 38 

Alaska 17 New Hampshire 61 

Arizona 239 New Jersey 1,302 

Arkansas 77 New Mexico 81 

California 5,330 New York city 4,262 

Colorado ig 7 *New York state .... 2,148 

Connecticut 517 North Carolina 156 

Delaware 79 North Dakota 22 

Dist. of Columbia .... 333 Ohio 856 

Florida 554 Oklahoma 280 

Georgia 151 Oregon 208 

Idaho 56 Pennsylvania 1,216 

Illinois 1,364 Rhode Island 124 

Indiana 265 South Carolina 68 

Iowa 160 South Dakota 34 

Kansas 126 Tennessee 118 

Kentucky 05 Texas 1,067 

Louisiana . , 407 Utah 144 

Maine 113 Vermont 30 

Maryland 2g7 Virginia 251 

Massachusetts 1,200 Washington 462 

Michigan 467 West Virginia 60 

Minnesota 265 Wisconsin 216 

Mississippi 85 Wyoming 31 

Missouri 358 

Montana 87 26,253 

Nebraska 72 

* Exclusive of New York city. (R. B. S.) 

Travel Outside the Western Hemisphere. Because of the 
war, U.S. passports were not valid in 1941 for use in countries or 
territories outside the western hemisphere, unless the name of the 
country to be visited and the object of the visit were specifically 
stated on the passport by the department of state or under the 
department's authority. Persons desiring permission to travel 
outside the hemisphere were required to submit documentary evi- 
dence of the necessity for such trips. Citizens of the U.S. visiting 
countries within the hemisphere but travelling on belligerent ves- 
sels in the Atlantic ocean north of 35 N. lat. and east of 66 W. 
long, were required to obtain special permission from the depart- 
ment of state. Failure to do so might subject the traveller to 
prosecution under the terms of the neutrality act of 1939. 

American College of Surgeons. 

500 surgeons of the United States and Canada, under the leader- 
ship of the late Dr. Franklin H. Martin, to ensure a standard of 
professional, ethical and moral requirements for every graduate in 
medicine who practises general surgery or any of its specialties. 
Fellowship, 1942: 13,300. Chairman, board of regents, Dr. Irvin 
Abell, Louisville, Ky.; president, 1941-4-; Dr. W. Edward Gallic, 
Toronto, Ont.; president-elect, Dr. Irvin Abell, Louisville, Ky.; 
treasurer, Dr. Dallas B. Phemister, Chicago, 111.; secretary, Dr. 
Frederic A. Besley, Waukegan, 111.; associate director and chair- 
man, administrative board, Dr. Malcolm T. MacEachern, Chicago, 
111.; associate director, Dr. Bowman C. Crowell, Chicago, 111.; as- 
sistant directors, Dr. E. W. Williamson and Dr. Harold Earnheart, 
Chicago, 111. The organization originated hospital standardization, 
1918, formulating minimum standards for approval and starting 
periodic surveys; 2,873 hospitals in United States, Canada and 
other countries were on the 1941 approved list; 376 cancer clinics 
in hospitals and 959 medical services in industry were approved 
in 1941. An approved list of medical motion picture films is also 
issued yearly. The college maintains a medical library and literary 
research department. The committee on graduate training for 
surgery was organized in 1937. Committees on cancer, archives of 
cancer, fractures and other traumas, and the Hall of the Art and 
Science of Surgery function through a department of clinical re- 
search. Sectional meetings were held in 1941 in Minneapolis, 
Minn.; Pittsburgh, Pa.; and Salt Lake City, Utah. The $ist 
Annual Clinical congress and the 24th Annual Hospital Standard- 
ization conference, attended by 3,000 surgeons and 1,500 hospital 
executives, were conducted by the college in Nov. 1941, in Boston, 
Mass. (M.T.M.) 



45 

American Economic Association. 

nomic association (founded in 1885) is to encourage economic 
research, issue publications on economic subjects, and stimulate 
thought and discussion of current problems from an economic 
point of view. The publications of the association consist of a 
quarterly, the American Economic Review, the Proceedings of the 
annual meetings, occasional monographs on special topics and a 
biennial handbook or directory of its membership and an informa- 
tion booklet. The program of the 54th annual meeting, held in 
New York city, in Dec. 1941, was devoted to current economic 
problems of vital importance affecting war and postwar adjust- 
ments. 

Officers for the year 1942 were: president, Edwin G. Nourse, 
Brookings institution; vice-presidents, Frederic B. Carver, Uni- 
versity of Minnesota; Frank D. Graham, Princeton university; 
secretary-treasurer, James Washington Bell, Northwestern univer- 
sity; elected members of the executive committee, J. Douglas 
Brown, Princeton university; George W. Stocking, University of 
Texas; Stacy May, Rockefeller foundation; Edwin E. Witte, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin; William L. Crum, Harvard university; 
Leonard L. Watkins, University of Michigan. The 1942 edition of 
the handbook, in the form of a specialized "who's who," contained 
a list of approximately 3,500 members and 1,300 libraries and 
other subscribers. (J. W. BL.) 



American Federation of Labor. 



During 1941, as pre- 
viously, the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor was mainly concerned with raising the 
level of life and work for the wage earners. The membership of 
the American Federation of Labor reached an all-time peak of 
4< 569,056 members in good standing as of Aug. 31, 1941 the time 
of the annual report. 

The federation pledged its full and unqualified support of the 
government in its war program and subscribed to a no-strike 
policy on all defense projects. All unions were urged to forgo 
strikes during the period of the emergency. This means that the 
members of the American Federation of Labor voluntarily relin- 
quished their right to strike on defense production for the dura- 
tion of the war. At the same time the federation insisted that the 
workers be free from legislative restrictions on their economic 
rights, in the firm belief that the greatest benefit to all would 
accrue from voluntary action. 

The federation continued its efforts to raise the living stand- 
ards of the wage earners through increasing the share received 
by workers in accord with their increased productivity and re- 
sultant higher income from the industry to which they were at- 
tached. In its annual report the executive council of the federa- 
tion called attention to the fact that American industry had been 
able to increase wages substantially and at the same time main- 
tain profits. 

The federation kept watch over pending legislative proposals to 
make sure that provisions were incorporated for the enforcement 
of labour laws and other government activities of particular in- 
terest to labour. 

All efforts were made to prevent any impairment of the social 
gains made by labour in the past, such as fair labour standards 
and social security. 

The executive council of the American Federation of Labor and 
international executives of affiliated organizations pledged whole- 
hearted support to the government for the duration of the war 
in support of democratic principles. The federation and its affili- 
ates invested millions of dollars in defense bonds and were ex- 
pected to continue investments regularly. 

The American Federation of Labor also urged advance planning 



46 



AMERICAN 



for postwar adjustments. (See also CONGRESS OF INDUSTRIAL 
ORGANIZATIONS; LABOUR UNIONS; STRIKES AND LOCK-OUTS; 
UNITED STATES: History.) (W. G.) 



American Geographical Society. ":;"":, 

Fourth Wood Yukon expedition under the sponsorship of the 
American Geographical society was carried out under the leader- 
ship of Walter A. Wood, head of the society's department of 
exploration and field research, completing a program of aerial 
mapping begun in 1935 and continued on subsequent expeditions 
in 1937 and 1939. Mt. Wood (15,800 ft.) and Mt. Walsh (14,- 
800 ft.) were both climbed in successful tests of the feasibility 
of supplying expeditions in mountainous terrain by parachute. A 
second expedition sponsored by the society and led by William 0. 
Field, Jr., of the society's staff spent several weeks studying 
glacier changes in southeastern Alaska in continuation of the 
leader's earlier studies in the region. The topographical map 
of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, South America, 
constructed from aerial photographs taken in 1939 under the 
society's sponsorship by the Cabot Colombian expedition was 
completed and published. Only one gold medal award was made 

the Charles P. Daly medal to Julio Garzon Nieto, chief of the 
office of longitudes and boundaries of the Colombian government. 

The society's publications during the year included an addition 
to the Special Publications series entitled "Focus on Africa" 
(a volume of aerial photographs taken on a journey in their own 
plane from Capetown to Cairo, with accompanying narrative and 
geographical description, by Richard U. Light and Mary Light) 
and a brochure entitled "European Possessions in the Caribbean 
Area." Compilation and drafting was also completed on a 3-sheet 
map of Latin America on the scale of i : 5,000,000 based chiefly 
on the sheets of the society's map of Hispanic America on the 
scale of i : 1,000,000. 

The publication of the society's quarterly journal, The Geo- 
graphical Review, was continued during the year, and to its 
other periodical publication. Current Geographical Publications 

a classified list of titles of books, articles and maps selected 
for inclusion in the Society's Research catalogue, which is issued 
in mimeographed form monthly except for July and August a 
new section, consisting of an annotated list of published photo- 
graphs of geographical interest, was added. (See also EXPLORA- 
TION AND DISCOVERY.) (R. R. P.) 

American Historical Association :' ,':':;:,:: 

1889 "for the promotion of historical studies . . . and for kin- 
dred purposes in the interests of American history and of history 
in America." It had (Oct. i, 1941) a membership of about 3,600, 
chiefly recruited from the teachers and writers of history in U.S. 
and Canadian schools and colleges. Its national headquarters were 
in 1941 at study room 274, library of congress annex, Wash- 
ington, D.C. It was governed by a council elected at the annual 
meeting and supported by annual dues ($5) and by the income 
of an endowment fund of about $250,000. Its officers for the 
year 1941 were: president, Arthur M. Schlesinger, Harvard uni- 
versity; first vice-president, Nellie Neilson, Mt. Holyoke college; 
second vice-president, William L. Westermann, Columbia uni- 
versity; treasurer, Solon J. Buck, the National Archives; execu- 
tive secretary and editor, Guy Stanton Ford, Washington, D.C.; 
assistant* secretary-treasurer, Patty W. Washington. 

During 1941 it continued the publication of The American 
Historical Review, the leading historical journal in the U.S., and 
participated in the publication of Social Education, devoted to the 
problem of teaching the social studies in the school. (G. S. F.) 



SOCIETIES 

American Indians: see INDIANS, AMERICAN. 

American Institute of Architects. 

stitute of Architects is the national organization of the architec- 
tural- profession in the United States. It is composed of upwards 
of 3,100 individual members, each of whom is a qualified archi- 
tect. The members are grouped in 71 local chapters and 21 state 
associations. Through these organizations more than 8,000 archi- 
tects of the United States are under its aegis. The objects of the 
organization are: to organize and unite in fellowship the archi- 
tects of the United States; to combine their efforts so as to pro- 
mote the aesthetic, scientific and practical efficiency of the pro- 
fession ; to advance education in architecture and in the arts and 
sciences allied therewith, and to make the profession of ever-in- 
creasing service to society. Its principal activities are directed 
toward the achievement of the above stated objects of the 
organization. The officers of the institute were in 1941 : presi- 
dent, R. H. Shreve, New York; vice-president, Walter R. Mac- 
Cornack, Boston, Mass.; secretary, Charles T. Ingham, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.; treasurer, John R. Fugard, Chicago, 111. Its head- 
quarters were at 1741 New York avenue, N.W., Washington, 
D.C. (R. H. SE.) 



part 



American Iron and Steel Institute. 

tivities of the American Iron and Steel institute during 1941 
related to the steel industry's function in the national defense 
program. In connection with that program, the institute co- 
operated with the Office of Production Management, with the 
war and navy departments and with other government agencies 
concerned with defense. Important in the institute's defense 
activities was the compilation of statistical information relative 
to production, capacity, shipments, etc., from individual com- 
panies in the industry and the transmittal of such information to 
the defense agencies. In addition, numerous committees of metal- 
lurgists and other technical people within the industry served on 
institute committees, dealing with such problems as government 
specifications for iron and steel products, standardization and 
similar related technical subjects. Although activities in con- 
nection with the defense program were of major importance 
during 1941, the regular activities of the institute were con- 
tinued. Among these were the publication and distribution of 
booklets and' the compilation and publication of a series of 
freight tariffs on iron and steel products, from important origin 
points to principal destinations. Another important activity was 
the providing of accurate information concerning the industry 
to editors, writers and the public generally. Thousands of re- 
quests for such information were handled during the year. 

(W. S. To.) 

American Judicature Society. Tl :,, -,:'"::,:. ' 

incorporated in 1913 under the laws of Illinois to promote the 
efficient administration of justice. It first issued a series of 
bulletins surveying the fundamentals of judicial administration, 
and in 1917 began publication of the bi-monthly Journal, in its 
25th volume (^941). The society's interest embraces the whole 
field of judicial administration, civil and criminal, state and 
federal, and it aids in improvement of bar and court organiza- 
tion, judicial selection and tenure, civil and criminal procedure, 
and legal education and admission to the bar. It has laid the 
foundation for virtually every reform accomplished and under 
way in its field. During its first 12 years it was supported en- 
tirely by Charles F. Ruggles, a layman. In 1941 it had 2,600 



AMERICAN LAW INSTITUTE AMERICAN LEGION 

members, mostly lawyers, law teachers and judges. Membership 
is open to all, with dues at $5 a year. Subscriptions to the 
Journal are free. The society co-operates closely with the Amer- 
ican Bar association and with state and local bar organizations, 
all of which its Journal serves in the field of judicial admini- 
stration. Officers in 1941 were David A. Simmons, president; 
John J. Parker, Merrill E. Otis, Homer Cummings, Edward R. 
Finch and John G. Buchanan, vice-presidents; Thomas F. Mc- 
Donald, chairman of the board; Herbert Harley, secretary- 
treasurer; and Glenn R. Winters, assistant secretary-treasurer. 
Offices are in llutchins hall, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
Mich. ,, , (H.HAR.) 



47 



law 

LdW 



since its or * anization > thc chief 

work of the American Law in- 
stitute has been a Restatement of the Law, best described as an 
orderly statement of the present common law. While the sections 
into which the restatement is divided arc written in statutory 
form, they are not presented to legislatures for adoption. The 
object of the restatement is to clarify and simplify the common 
law, but not to prevent its continued development by judicial 
decision. Prior to 1941, 15 volumes of the restatement, were pub- 
lished, including the law of contracts, conflict of laws, agency, 
trusts, restitution and security, besides large portions of the law 
of property and torts. During 1941 work on the restatement of 
the subjects, judgments, security and the fourth volume of the 
restatement of the law of property went forward. Work on the 
volume on the restatement of security was concluded and pub- 
lished. The institute was also engaged on two other projects of 
importance the drafting of a model code of evidence and 
statutes dealing with the administration of the criminal law in 
so far as it affects youths between 16 and 21 convicted of, crime. 
A model statute creating a treatment board to which such con- 
victed youths will be sentenced was adopted at the annual meet- 
ing in May 1940 and steps were taken in 1940 and 1941 to 
secure its consideration by state legislatures. In July 1941 the 
act was adopted in California. An act creating a model youth 
court was adopted at the annual meeting in May. 

The American Law institute was organized in Feb. 1923. Its 
object is to carry on constructive scientific work for the improve- 
ment of the law. Aside from the official members, who are those 
holding the leading judicial, bar and law school faculty positions, 
there are 725 life members; membership being a distinct profes- 
sional honour. The governing body is a council of 33. The 
members meet each year in Washington, D.C. All legal and other 
official publications of the institute must be first approved by 
the council and by a meeting of members. The president in 1941 
was George Wharton Pepper; William Draper Lewis was director 
and chief of the editorial staff. The executive office is at 3400 
Chestnut street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, (W. D.L.) 



I oninn 

LuglUIlt 



the Amcrican 

tically went on a complete war basis 
to throw the full weight of its manpower, prestige and influence 
into America's all-out national defense effort. All its other ac- 
tivities were co-ordinated with this main program. 

During 1941 the Legion registered 900,000 of its members for 
national defense service; sent a mission at its own expense to 
Great Britain to study civilian defense functions in modern 
warfare; published the first handbook in the United States on 
civilian participation in air-raid warning and air-raid precaution- 
ary services; enrolled and trained tens of thousands of observers 
for air-raid warning posts; organized thousands of air-raid ob- 
servation posts; established a division of defense at national 
headquarters; participated in numerous air-raid warning tests 




LYNN U. STAMBAUGH waving to delegates of the American Legion convention 
at Milwaukee after his election as national commander Sept. IS, 1941. Beside 
him L Milo J. Warner, retiring commander 

conducted by the army and received high commendation; spon- 
sored test blackouts in many cities; conducted a recruiting cam- 
paign for the navy; pledged itself to promote service as flying 
cadets for the army and navy; suggested and participated in the 
aluminum collection campaign; invested post, department and 
national funds in defense bonds and supported bond-buying cam- 
paigns; established blood banks; organized "ham" radio networks 
for emergency service; enterec 1 into a nation-wide physical edu- 
cation campaign; worked with the FBI against spies and 
saboteurs; extended its free rehabilitation services to all mem- 
bers of the present armed forces; aided in finding employment 
for discharged conscripts. 

There was further expansion of the Legion's youth-training 
activities, with many thousands of pupils in 4') states participat- 
ing in a high school oratorical contest; 15,000 selected boys 
enrolled in 34 Boys' States in which they were taught the 
mechanics of American self-government; and with 400,000 boys 
under 17 playing in junior baseball. 

The long-range child welfare objective was fixed as the 
physical fitness of American childhood, and the known total of 
$6,279,469.67 was expended in emergency financial aid to 629,- 
993 needy children, mostly for food, clothing and medical 
treatments; a rehabilitation program recovered grants totalling 
$2,603,747.49 in contested benefits for disabled veterans and 
their dependents. Membership was at the highest point in the 
American Legion and its four affiliated organizations. 

The 23rd annual national convention was attended by 200,000 
members and their families in Milwaukee, Wis., Sept. 15-18, 
1941. The convention went on record for repeal of the neutrality 
act, removal of geographic limitation on the movement of U.S. 
troops, indorsement of the forrign policy of the president and 
the congress, upholding the traditional U.S. policy of freedom 
of the seas, opposition to any appeasement toward the aggressor 
nations (Germany, Italy and Japan). 

The 1,462 official delegates, representing 58 continental and 
outlying departments and four posts not attached to any de- 
partment, named Lynn U. Stambaugh, Fargo, N.D., attorney, to 
succeed Milo J. Warner, Toledo, 0., as national commander, and 
chose New Orleans, La., as the 1942 convention city. 

National headquarters of the American Legion, and of its af- 
filiated organizations, the American Legion auxiliary, the Forty 



48 AMERICAN LIBRARY ASS'N AMERICAN LITERATURE 

Membership, American leg/on and Affiliated Organizations, Dec, 31, 1941 












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*\ew high, t'^'crt-usf. 

and Eight, and the Sons of the American Legion, remained at the 
War Memorial building, Indianapolis. The Eight and Forty has 
headquarters elsewhere in Indianapolis. Frank E. Samuel, national 
adjutant, and principal administrative officer of the American 
Legion, was re-elected by the national executive committee at its 
meeting in Milwaukee, immediately following adjournment of the 
national convention. (L. U. S.) 



'< 



American library Association. 

librarians, library trustees and others interested in libraries. While 
most members are from the United States and Canada, all conti- 
nents are represented in the membership of 16,000. The associa- 
tion was founded in 1876, and is the oldest and largest organiza- 
tion of its kind in the world. Headquarters are at 520 North 
Michigan avenue, Chicago. Charles H. Brown, Ames. la., was pres- 
ident for 1941-42, and Carl H. Milam was executive secretary. 

The development of library service in the United States and 
Canada is the major objective of the association. Most recent 
figures reveal there are 47,000.000 people without public libraries 
in the two countries. The headquarters staff and many volunteer 
committees work to raise standards of library service, to main- 
tain standards of professional training, to improve the status of 
the profession, and integrate its interests with those of the 
federal and local governments. 

Committees contribute important service in book buying, anal- 
ysis of reading interests, federal and international relations, library 
administration, microphotography, work with the blind and for- 
eign-born. Of special significance during 1941 were the policies 
and programs for action, planned to adjust library service for 
maximum efficiency under defense and wartime conditions, 

A policy statement, ''Libraries and the War.'' was adopted at 
the annual midwinter conference, Dec. 28-3 r, 1941, and outlined 
the American public library's wartime program. Libraries will 
act as war information centres; sources of research material and 
books on technical and industrial skills; disseminators of authen- 
tic information about ideas and interpretations of events of vital 
importance to the civilian in \Vorld War II. Libraries also looked 
forward to a postwar "world order of decency, security and 
human dignity," in which the American people would make wise 
decisions based on knowledge the public library can supply. 

In a statement to the press in Jan. 1942, Mrs. Eleanor Roose- 
velt, assistant director of the Office of Civilian Defense, endorsed 
the service of libraries as war information centres, and announced 
official participation by the Office of Civilian Defense along lines 
recommended by the American Library association. 

More than 4,000 librarians and friends of libraries attended 
the 63rd annual conference in Boston, Mass., June 19-25, 1941. 
The theme of the conference was "Deeds, Not Words." Much time 
was devoted to the necessity of adjusting libraries to an enormous 
industrial expansion, a problem not then overshadowed by the li- 
brary's wartime responsibilities for civilian information. 

Awards, The Newbery award for the best contribution to chil- 



dren's literature during 1940 was conferred on Armstrong Sperry's 
Call It Courage. Robert Lawson received the Caldecott medal for 
They Were Strong and Good, judged the most distinguished pic- 
ture book for children published in the United States during 1940. 
Anne Eaton won the James Terry White award for her book Read- 
ing With Children. For the first time, two library trustees were 
officially cited by the association for their service to American 
libraries. They were Rush Burton of Lavonia, Ga,, and William 
E. Marcus of Montclair, NJ. 

National Book Drive. During the conference preliminary ac- 
tion was taken on plans for a national book drive for soldiers and 
sailors, sponsored by the American Library association. United 
Service Organizations and the American Red Cross. Althea War- 
ren, librarian of the Los Angeles public library, was named as 
national director. The campaign opened Jan. 12, 1942. 

Publications. More than 150 publishing projects were in vari- 
ous stages of completion during 1941. Of the total, 29 were pub- 
lished. Funds from the Carnegie corporation made possible the 
publication of 14 bibliographies and two surveys concerned with 
industrial and technical training for defense, the preservation of 
democracy and international understanding. Among books pub- 
lished during the year were Introduction a la Prdctica Biblio- 
tecaria en los Rstados Unhios by Carnovsky; Teacher-Librarian's 
Handbook by Douglas; Subject Index to Poetry by Bruncken; a 
preliminary American second edition of A. LA. Catalog Rules and 
Administering Library Service in the Elementary School by Gardi- 
ner and Baisden. 

In addition to books, bibliographies, indexes and pamphlets the 
association publishes the A.L.A. Bulletin, a monthly which in- 
cludes the annual reports; the Booklist, a semimonthly guide to 
the selection and purchase of current books; the Subscription 
Books Bulletin, a quarterly presenting critical estimates of sub- 
scription books and sets sold by canvassing agents; the Journal of 
Documentary Reproduction, a quarterly; College and Research 
Libraries, a quarterly published by the Association of College 
and Reference Libraries, a division of the A.L.A., and the Hos- 
pital Book Guide, a quarterly which evaluates books from the 
point of view of the invalid and convalescent. 

Finances. The association's endowment was in 1941 approxi- 
mately $2,152,000. The income of the organization in 1940-41 
(excluding cash balances of $45,160 on Sept. i, 1940) was $369,- 
240. About $194,220 was derived from membership dues, con- 
ference income, sales of publications, advertising, subscriptions, 
etc., and was used primarily tor membership and publishing ac- 
tivities; $98,900 came from outside sources in the form of grants 
for specific purposes. 

These grants supported such activities as relations with Latin- 
American libraries; provision of books for public libraries in 
Europe; purchase and storage of research material for the rehabil- 
itation of scholarly European libraries after the war; publication 
of book lists; the national defense program. (0. M. PN.) 



American Literature. 



The course of American literature 
in 1941 did not differ markedly 
from the general directions of the year before, but tendencies al- 
ready observable were strengthened by the flow of events. For ex- 
ample, the trickle of books on South America grew to a river, 
while increasing tension in the far east gave rise to the publication 
of a number of volumes discussing the position of the United 
States and Japan, and interest in the U.S. past continued unabated 
in fiction as well as nonfiction. In fact, the only strong trend in 
the novel continued to be toward the historical, although there 
were also a number of works of regional nature, and in several 
excellent series various rivers, cities and parts of the country 
found their students and historians. 



The popularity of John Gunther's Inside Latin America, one of 
the most widely read books, might have been at least partly attrib- 
utable to its author's reputation as a continental reporter, but 
it is safe to assume that the timeliness of the subject matter 
had much to do with its success. The latter quality, coupled 
with an excellent journalistic style, also played a large part in 
the reading of William L. Shirer's Berlin Diary: The Journal of 
a Foreign Correspondent, 1934-1941, the most popular of a num- 
ber of similar publications. Of books concerned with U.S. his- 
tory, Margaret Leech's Reveille in Washington, a detailed account 
of life in the nation's capital during the period of the American 
Civil War, won thousands of shocked and fascinated readers, and 
was also a landmark in the progress of social history, written 
with emphasis upon the details of daily living, rather than upon 
battles and politics. Of somewhat the same general nature was 
Carl Van Doren's The Secret History of the American Revolu- 
tion, subtitled An Account of the Conspiracies of Benedict 
Arnold and Others, and based upon a study of important docu- 
ments hitherto unexamined, a more scholarly and less popular 
work than that of Miss Leech, but one of first importance. 

The increasing significance of Pres. Roosevelt's position in 
world affairs added interest to two books about the presidency, 
Matthew Josephson's The President-Makers: The Culture of 
Politics and Leadership in an Age of Enlightenment, 1896-1919, 
and Edward S. Corwin's The President: Office and Powers, with 
the subtitle A History of Analysis and Opinion, a thorough 
study. The president continued his own account of his steward- 
ship in the second four-volume set of The Public Papers and 
Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, presented with a special 
introduction and explanatory notes, and covering the years be- 
tween 1937 and 1940, with the following separate titles: 1937: 
The Constitution Prevails; 193$: The Continuing Struggle for 
Liberalism; 1939: War And Neutrality; 1940: War And Aid 
to the Democracies. 

Another of the important publications of the year was The 
Dictionary of American History in five volumes, edited by James 
Truslow Adams, with R. V. Coleman as managing editor. It 
was designed to be a companion set to the famous Dictionary of 
American Biography. 

In fiction, an average number of fresh new talents made their 
appearance, while older novelists contributed books up to their 
accustomed standards, although the year was without a startling 
novel, either from the point of view of exceptional popular suc- 
cess or artistic merit. A new short story writer of distinction, 
Eudora Welty, published her first collection, A Curtain of 
Green, with an introduction by Katharine Anne Porter, and also 
won second prize in the 0. Henry Memorial competition. 

Worthy of mention in poetry was the appearance of a number 
of long poems of merit, more or less^ evenly divided among poets 
of established reputation and younger people. Among these were 
William Rose Bcnet's autobiography in verse, often of high 
quality, The Dust Which Was God, Mark Van Doren's novel of 
pioneer days, The Mayfield Deer, John Gould Fletcher's story 
of Arkansas, South Star, Harry Brown's The Poem of Bunker 
Hill and Delmore Schwartz's Shenandoah, the title being taken 
from the name of the protagonist, a Jew born in the Bronx. 
Universal interest in aviation was evidenced by the popularity of 
Selden Rodman's excellent anthology of poems about flying, 
The Poetry of Flight. An important body of the work of Horace 
Gregory was represented in Poems: 1930-1940, and a complete 
collection of the verse of Ridgely Torrence in Poems by Ridgely 
Torrence, while all Edna St. Vincent Millay's sonnets were gath- 
ered into one volume called The Collected Sonnets of Edna St. 
Vincent Millay. 

The NovelOf older writers of fiction, John P. Marquand con- 




JOHN P. MARQUAND published another belt-seller about Boston, H. M. Put- 
ham. Enquire, in 1941. He is pictured in his home in New York city, under 
Grant Wood's "Parson Weems' Fable" 



tinued his ironical and penetrating analysis of the New England 
scene and character with H. M. Pulham, Esq., a novel about a 
Bostonian-cum-Harvard who longed for the rleshpots of Manhat- 
tan, but had to be content with the baked beans of his native 
city, while Ellen Glasgow produced another of her serious stories 
called In This Our Life, marked by her usual grasp of the 
fundamentals of the struggle for spiritual survival. The year 
saw the loss to American letters by death of Elizabeth Madox 
Roberts, whose last novel, Not by Strange Gods, gave further 
evidence of her unusual talent, although it did not reach the 
heights of her masterpiece, The Time of Man, and of F. Scott 
Fitzgerald, who left behind the unfinished manuscript of a novel, 
The Last Tycoon. Concerned with the career of a Hollywood 
magnate, it was published as a fragment along with The Great 
Gatsby and some selected stories, and served to emphasize the 
impressive and only partly realized possibilities of its author. 
The last of Thomas Wolfe's literary remains, a collection of 
fragments and stories called The Hills Beyond, seemed unlikely 
to bring about any change in the author's reputation. 

49 



50 



AMERICAN LITERATURE 



Booth Tarkington, the most productive of the older writers of 
fiction, was represented by two titles, The Heritage of Hatcher 
Ide y a story of American youth in the depression, and The Fight- 
ing Littles, less important, but amusing. Robert Nathan also pro- 
duced two of his exquisite short novels, They Went on Together 
and Tapiola's Brave Regiment, both allegories for these times. 
Ben Ames Williams, one of the most prolific writers of fiction in 
the whole history of American letters, was represented by The 
Strange Woman, perhaps his finest and most ambitious work, 
while Mary Ellen Chase's Windswept, another panel in her Maine 
series, was generally regarded as her best work. Edna Ferber's 
Saratoga Trunk was reliable Ferber, full of colour and action, and 
headed, like Louis Bromfield's story of old New Orleans, Wild Is 
the River, straight for Hollywood, with very few changes. Evelyn 
Scott's uneven and still distinguished talent was in evidence in 
The Shadow of the Hawk, and Josephine Herbst's Satan's Ser- 
geants disclosed a pleasantly lighter side to the work of a novelist 
who has often seemed to suffer from an excess of social con- 
sciousness. Upton Sinclair's Between Two Worlds continued the 
story of our times begun in World's End in a readable fashion. 

Of a round hundred novels that represented 1 941*5 serious con- 
tribution to the annals of American literature, some 30 were his- 
torical, covering many parts of the U.S. and many periods of time. 
Carl Carmer, hitherto known as a poet and social historian, made 
his debut in this field with Genesee Fever, a well done story of 
post-revolutionary days in the part of the country which the au- 
thor knows thoroughly, while Frank 0. Hough continued his ac- 
count of war in Westchester county with The Neutral Ground. 
Other novels of the early days of the republic included Tom 
Pridgen's Tory Oath, with the Scottish Cape Fear country as its 
background; Captain Paul by Commander Edward Ellsberg, a 
stirring fictionization of the career of John Paul Jones; One Red 
Rose Forever by Mildred Jordan, based on the life of William, 
called Baron, Stiegel, the famous glassmaker; Waters of the 
Wilderness by Shirley Seifert, a stirring romance with George 
Rogers Clark as the hero; Green Centuries by Caroline Gordon, a 
novel of early days in Kentucky; Not Without Peril by Mar- 
guerite Allis, the story of Jemima Sartwell, Indian captive, and 
the upper Connecticut valley from 1742 to 1805; and Richard 
Pryne by Cyril Harris, a super-spy story of Long Island and New 
York in the days of the Revolutionary War. 

Two relatively unknown fiction writers swept to the front dur- 
ing 1941 with unusual books. One of them was Marcus Goodrich, 
whose Delilah was the tale of an over-age destroyer, with the 
Philippines as the background, which won universal praise from 
the reviewers for its originality, while the other was Budd Schul- 
berg, whose What Makes Sammy Run? was a stinging portrait of 
a Hollywood producer. Other younger writers whose work bright- 
ened the literary horizon included George Stewart, whose Storm, 
coming at the end of the year, promised to carry over well into 
1942 and perhaps to start a new literary genre as well; Josephine 
Pinckney, hitherto known as a poet, whose Hilton Head was an ex- 
cellent historical novel of her own South Carolina; Maritta M. 
Wolf, whose Whistle Stop was a moving study of everyday people 
in a middle western community; Paul Engle, whose Always the 
Land marked the entrance into the fiction ranks of a good young 
poet; Mary King's Quincie Bolliver, the story of a girl in an oil 
town which had striking life and gusto the oil town boom also 
found treatment in Edwin Lanham's Thunder in the Earth and 
Robert Paul Smith, whose So It Doesn't Whistle was a shrewd 
and* ..entertaining story of life in contemporary New York. 

Short Stories. The death of Edward J. O'Brien after 27 years 
of editorship of The Best American Short Stories marked the end 
of the work of a man whose taste for a certain type of short 
story had had marked effect upon a whole generation. The 1941 



volume was completed by Martha Foley, of Story magazine, who 
will continue the anthology. Harry Hansen surrendered the edi- 
torship of the 0. Henry Memorial Prize Short Stories to Herschel 
Brickell, whose first volume, the 23rd in the series, contained 20 
stories, the prize winners being Kay Boyle's "Defeat," Eudora 
Welty's "A Worn Path," Hallie Southgate Abbett's "Eighteenth 
Summer" and Andy Logan's "The Visit." 

Biography. The important biographies of the year fell into 
two main groups, studies of famous families of great wealth, and 
of noted military and political leaders, principally of the revolu- 
tionary period. Among the first, the notable examples are Wayne 
Andrews's The Vanderbilt Legend: 1794-2940, a detailed account 
of this famous family and all its members; Harvey O'Connor's 
The Astors, which performs a like service for another clan of 
plutocrats; and Alfred I. du Pont: The Family Rebel by Marquis 
James, a full-length and colourful portrait of the most unusual 
member of the du Ponts of Delaware. In the second classification 
were The Admirable Trumpeter: A Biography of General James 
A. Wilkinson, by Thomas Robson Hay and M. R. Werner, a fine 
biography of one of the most complex and fascinating rascals in 
U.S. history; Horatio Gates: Defender of American Liberties by 
Samuel White Patterson, a strongly biased but important book 
about a neglected leader; James Madison: The Virginia Revolu- 
tionary by Irving Brant, an excellent full-length portrait of one of 
the most important of the founding fathers; and Anthony Wayne 
by Harry Emerson Wildes, an attempt to do justice to Mad 
Anthony, by a competent and scholarly biographer. Two naval 
commanders were given handsome treatment in Hulbert Footner's 
Sailor of Fortune: The Life and Adventures of Commander Bar- 
ney, U.S.N., and in Charles Lee Lewis's David Glasgow Farragut: 
Admiral in the Making, while a Civil War hero who was also 
found in the Spanish-American War was presented in full detail 
by John P. Dyer in Fightin 9 Joe Wheeler. 

Other notable biographies of the year included Blanche Colton 
Williams's sympathetic and engaging life of Clara Barton, sub- 
titled Daughter of Destiny; Garrett Mattingly's Catherine of 
Aragon, a triumph of American scholarship, since it was regarded 
as the best study yet made of Henry VIII's Spanish queen; 
William Henry Welch and the Heroic Age of American Medicine 
by Simon Flexner and James Thomas Flexner; The Doctors Mayo 
by Helen Clapsaddle, the full account of the careers of the magi- 
cians of Rochester, Minn.; Mr. Dooley's America: A Life of Fin- 
ley Peter Dunne by Elmer Ellis, an excellent portrait of the crea- 
tor of one of the best known of imaginary Americans and Irving 
Stone's Clarence Darrow for the Defense. 

Rivers and Regions. Books of a regional character have been 
published in ever-increasing numbers and 1941 had its full share. 
Additions to the excellent Rivers of America series, which was 
started under the editorship of the late Constance Lindsay Skin- 
ner and which was being carried on under the guidance of Stephen 
Vincent Benet, include The Kaw.\ The Heart of a Nation by Floyd 
Benjamin Streeter; The Brandywine by Henry Seidel Canby; and 
The Charles by Arthur Bernon Tourtellot. Other books 'about riv- 
ers, not in the series, included Great River of the Mountains: The 
Hudson, with photographs and text by Croswell Bowen, and an in- 
troduction by Carl Carmer, and Flowing South by Clark B. Fire- 
stone, more about the Mississippi. A fine new collection, called 
the American Folkway series, under the editorship of Erskine 
Caldwell, got under way with three excellent volumes, Desert 
Country by Edwin Corle, Pinon Country by Haniel Long and 
Short Grass Country by Stanley Vestal. Additions to the Ports of 
America series were Northwest Gateway: The Story of the Port 
of Seattle by Archie Binns, and Baltimore on the Chesapeake by 
Hamilton Owens. 

Other important books in this field included Joseph Henry 



AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 



SI 



Jackson's rousing history of early California, Anybody's Gold: 
The Story of California's Mining Towns; Dorothy Gardner's 
West of the River, the story of the Missouri country from the 
arrival of the first explorers to the coming of the first railway; 
J. Frank Dobie's The Longhorns, an account of the great days 
of range cattle raising in the west; Jeremiah Digges's In Great 
Waters, a book about the Portuguese fishermen of New England; 
Shenandoah and Its Byways by William 0. Stevens; and The 
Farthest Reach by Nancy Wilson Ross, a book about Washington 
and Oregon. Vermont and North Carolina, mountain states 
north and south, inspire people to write books about them in 
quantities, and the latest crop included The Reluctant Republic: 
A History of Vermont by Frederick F. Van der Water; Winter 
in Vermont by Charles A. Crane, with many beautiful photo- 
graphs taken by the author, and The Covered Bridge by Herbert 
Wheaton Congdon, with photographs by Edmund Homer Royce. 
Archibald Henderson wrote a two-volume history of his native 
North Carolina, The Old North State and the New, and Jonathan 
Daniels produced an impressionistic study in The Tar Heels: 
A Portrait, an addition to a new series of biographies of the 48 
states. Oliver Carlson tried, with some success, to put all of 
California into A Mirror for Californians, and other books in 
this classification ranged from WiUiamsburg: Old and New by 
Hildegarde Hawthorne, the last volume illustrated by E. H. 
Suydam before his death, to Sodom by the Sea: An Affectionate 
History of Coney Island, by Oliver Pilat and Jo Rawson. 

South America. In addition to John Cunther's Inside Latin 
America, which found considerably less favour among South 
Americans than among Gunther's fellow countrymen, a number 
of good books on the neighbouring continent, its peoples and its 
problems, appeared during the year. Of those covering large 
areas with thoroughness were W. L. Schurz's Latin America, a 
sound and carefully accurate study, made by a veteran observer; 
Hubert Herring's Good Neighbors, which devoted most of its 
attention to the ABC powers, Argentina, Brazil and Chile, but 
which also covered the 17 remaining republics, and which was 
the result of long and patient study; The Other America by 
Lawrence Griswold, covering ten South American republics, with 
Panama and the Guianas thrown in, and written by a dis- 
tinguished archaeologist and geographer; A Pageant of South 
American History by Anne Merriman Peck, covering the whole 
story from pre-Columbian days to 1941, and an indispensable 
book on the subject; Charles Morrow Wilson's Central America: 
Challenge and Opportunity, which adds Colombia, Jamaica and 
Cuba to its nations of middle America, and Carl Crow's Meet the 
South Americans, interesting reading, but much more superficial 
than any of the other volumes mentioned. 

The question of hemisphere defense was also treated in several 
valuable books, such as Charles Wertenbaker's A New Doctrine 
of the Americas, which contains many sketches of the personali- 
ties helping to put the new doctrine into action, and which also 
discusses military and economic matters; Strategy of the Amer- 
icas by Cushman Reynolds and Fleming MacLeish, explaining 
the paths of possible attack and indicating defense resources; 
Hands Offt by Dexter Perkins, a complete history of the Monroe 
Doctrine; and United We Stand: Defense of the Western 
Hemisphere by Hanson W. Baldwin, the noted military and 
naval expert. 

Far East. The surprise attack of the Japanese on Pearl Harbor 
might have been avoided if the numerous books on the far 
eastern situation had been read by the commanders of the 
American forces. Most surprisingly prophetic of these was 
Hawaii, Restless Rampart , by Joseph Barber, Jr., which revealed 
fully the activities of the Japanese fifth column. Florence Horn's 
book on the Philippines, Orphans of the Pacific, was equally wise 



in its predictions, while many other books revealed the attitude 
of Japan toward the United States. Among them were the work 
of the veteran newspaper correspondent, Hallett Abend, called 
Japan Unmasked; Wilfred Fleisher's equally well informed Vol- 
canic Isle; Claude A. Buss's scholarly War and Diplomacy in 
Eastern Asia; and William C. Johnstone's The United States and 
Japan's New Order. A full discussion of the war strength of the 
two nations was set forth in Th,e Armed Forces of the Pacific: 
The Military and Naval Power of the United States and Japan 
by Capt. W. D. Puleston, U.S.N., retired, somewhat optimistic 
in tone from the American point of view. Mark J. Gayn's Fight 
for the Pacific was much more pessimistic and therefore closer 
to the mark. Both are valuable sources of information. Other 
important books on the far east included Edgar Snow's The 
Battle for Asia, a history of the Sino- Japanese War by one of 
the most noted correspondents in the orient; Joy Homer's Dawn 
Watch in China, a young writer's account of Chinese youth in 
wartime ; and Emily Hahn's The Soong Sisters, a lively biography 
of China's three outstanding women, the wives of Chiang Kai- 
shek and H. H. Kung, and the widow of Sun Yat-sen. 

Belles Lett res. The year produced at least one literary study 
of first magnitude in F. C. Matthiesen's American Renaissance: 
The Art of Expression in the Age of Emerson and Whitman, a 
long and profound discussion not only of the two giants men- 
tioned in the title, but also of Melville, Thoreau and Hawthorne. 
Edmund Wilson's The Wound and the Bow consisted of seven 
studies in literature, ranging from Dickens to Hemingway, and 
was done with this critic's usual perspicuity. The Opinions of 
Oliver Allston by Van Wyck Brooks, set forth in an unconven- 
tional autobiography Brooks's thoughts on life and letters, and 
was a positive declaration of faith, which called upon writers to 
help make a better -future. Literary biographies of note included 
That Rascal Freneau: A Study in Literary Failure by Lewis 
Leary, a book about the first U.S. poet; American Giant: Walt 
Whitman and his Times by Frances Winwar; and Crusader in 
Crinoline by Forrest Wilson, a life of Harriet Beecher Stowe. 

Autobiography. Among autobiographies of literary men, 
William Alexander Percy's Lanterns on the Levee was widely 
popular because it not only showed that a distinguished poet 
could write distinguished prose, but it revealed also a whole 
attitude toward life, that of a wellborn southerner, and it was a 
very plum pudding of anecdote. Ray Stannard Baker's Native 
American: The Book of My Youth, a kind of double auto- 
biography, since Baker and his nom de plume, David Gray son, 
have led separate careers, was valuable not only as history, but 
as a setting forth of the American way of life. In Young Man 
of Caracas T. R. Ybarra, the well known journalist, wrote a 
charming account of his family, truly Pan-American, since his 
father came from Venezuela and his mother from Boston. Mar- 
garet Deland's Golden Yesterdays, memories of Pennsylvania 
and New England, had a delightfully reminiscent quality, and the 
second volume of Josephus Daniels' long autobiography, Editor 
in Politics, was filled with good reading, as was Irvin Cobb's Exit 
Laughing and Rex Beach's Personal Exposures. 

Miscellaneous. The most notable volume of letters of the 
year was The Holmes-Pollock Letters: The Correspondence of 
Mr. Justice Holmes and Sir Frederick Pollock, 1874-1932, which 
was edited by M. A. De Wolfe Howe and which had an introduc- 
tion by John Gorham Palfrey, the civilized correspondence of 
two great men. (See also ENGLISH LITERATURE.) (H. BL.) 

American Medical Association. ':,' 

eludes more than 121,000 physicians. It is a democratic or- 
ganization, with representation in a house of delegates to which 



52 



AMERICAN RED CROSS ANAEMIA 



is elected yearly, on the basis of the number of physicians from 
each state, a given number of delegates. Its purpose is to guard 
and promote medicine in all of its branches. It maintains a de- 
partment quite similar to- the bureau of standards in Washington, 
D.C., in which are critically investigated and passed or rejected, 
drugs, medical apparatus, food and all types of materials which 
relate to medicine. It ascertains in these materials which are ad- 
vertised whether or not they are what they purport to be in their 
advertisements, and if they are not, their advertisements are not 
accepted in any reputable medical journal. It maintains a council 
on medical education and hospitals, with investigators who are 
constantly critically observing medical schools to be certain that 
they are maintaining the standards which are required for grade A 
rating in medical schools. It publishes the Journal of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association weekly, which has the largest circulation 
of any medical journal in the world. It also publishes 1 2 special 
journals such as the Archives of Surgery, Archives of Internal 
Medicine, etc. The officers of the association for 1941-42 were: 
president, Frank H. Lahey; president-elect, Fred W, Rankin; 
vice-president, Charles A. Dukes; secretary and general manager, 
Olin West. 

The American Medical association supports an annual meeting 
with lectures of general interest, given by recognized authorities, 
for the first two days, and sectional meetings of special interest, 
including one for general practitioners, for the last three days 
of the meeting. Before these sections are read papers having to 
do with the new developments in medicine. At the same meeting 
it organizes and presents a scientific exhibit in which everything 
that is new in medicine is presented in exhibits; with outlines, 
charts, figures, moulages, X-rays, statistical data, and with the 
exhibitors present who are familiar with all of their details, to 
discuss and demonstrate them to those who desire to learn from 
them. 

The American Medical association sent questionnaires to 
more than 180,000 physicians and tabulated under the punch 
card system more than 160,000 physicians as to their availability 
for military service. Doctors in various specialties were tabu- 
lated as to their specialty, but also rated as to their qualifications. 

At the meeting of the American Medical association in Cleve- 
land, a motion was passed by the house of delegates and for- 
warded to the president of the United States, the secretary of war, 
the secretary of the navy and the surgeons general of the army, 
navy and public health, advising the establishment of an agency 
for the procurement and assignment of medical personnel for the 
various departments of the government related to war. This 
agency, appointed by the president, was functioning in 1941 and 
was ready to supply medical men for the armed forces, selected 
through corps area, state and county committees, having in mind 
that no area is to be depleted and that the names be selected in 
terms of age, training and requirements of the armed forces. 

The headquarters of the American Medical association in Chi- 
cago employs 630 persons who conduct its many bureaus and pro- 
duce its publications. (F. H. L.) 

Amtrlcan Notional Rod Cross: see RED CROSS. 
Amtrican Samoa: see SAMOA, AMERICAN. 
American Youth Congress: see YOUTH MOVEMENTS. 

Renewed attention was directed to the haemolytic 
anaemias (due to blood destruction). In 1941, 
studies were reported on march haemoglobinaemia, favism, parox- 
ysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, Baghdad spring anaemia, bush- 
tea haematuria, and haemolytic reactions to transfusions from 
anti-Rh haemolysins, or from isoimmunization of group A2 indi- 
viduals against group AI blood, Haemolytic lysolecithin develops 



in stagnant blood. In the acute haemolytic anaemia following 
sulphanilamide or sulphapyridine poisoning, 30% of circulating 
blood corpuscles may be dissolved in 12 to 48 hours, resulting in 
shock. Haemoglobin is released from the cells and methaemo- 
globin and methaemalbumin are produced. Erythrocytes in the 
blood of patients with familial acholuric jaundice undergo auto- 
haemolysis (self-blood destruction) more rapidly than normal red 
blood cells, in vitro, at 37. 

Red blood cell survival after storage up to 1 8 days is but little 
inferior to fresh blood when transfused into patients with anaemia 
and the cells may be detected in the circulation for from 70 to 
90 days. Symptomatic haemolytic anaemia, secondary to der- 
moid cysts, chronic lymphatic leukaemia, Hodgkin's disease, lym- 
phosarcoma, severe liver disease or pneumonia can be relieved 
only with the improvement of the underlying condition. The hae- 
moglobinuria in blackwater fever appears to be due to the action 
of the abnormal amount of bile salts, released from the affected 
liver, on the red blood cells injured (decreased lytic resistance) 
by the malarial infection. Extensive studies on the technical 
aspects of blood preservation (bank blood) for transfusion in 
anaemia were reported. Blood transfusions may be given directly 
into the bone marrow. Among blood substitutes for restoring 
blood volume are pectin and isinglass. Transfusions of concen- 
trated saline suspensions of red blood cells are effective in treat- 
ing anaemia. "Universal blood" (group 0) may be made safe for 
transfusion by the addition of group specific substances A and B. 
Combined universal blood (group cells and group AB plasma) 
may be given to patients of any group without previous testing or 
subsequent reactions. However, danger is not present in giving 
blood from a universal donor directly to patients, regardless of 
the donor's serum agglutinins. The regeneration of blood in trans- 
fusion donors is eight times more rapid when iron is given than 
when medication is not given. After the loss of 500 c.c. of blood, 
the return to normal, with iron therapy, requires n days. 

Anti-Rh factor in a mother has been reported as a cause of ery- 
throblastosis foetalis in infants who are Rh-positive. Depriva- 
tion of placental blood in the newborn results in a lowering of the 
red blood cell count and a decrease in the haemoglobin content 
of the blood. Lysine is an essential amino acid in haemoglobin 
regeneration. Casein digests parenterally have been used to form 
blood plasma protein. The stimulus to haemoglobin formation is 
greater when anaemia is more severe and regeneration is propor- 
tional to the degree of anaemia. Haemoglobin regeneration in 
anaemic trout is more rapid after the feeding of fly maggots, than 
after liver. Primary deficiency macrocytosis appears in persons 
with deficient nourishment. A familial microcytic anaemia, re- 
fractory to treatment, was described in an Italian family. 

Deficiency in natural prothrombin with prolonged bleeding time, 
as well as idiopathic hypoprothrombinaemia, have been found to 
be causes of haemorrhagic disease. Haemorrhagic anaemia of the 
newborn is prevented by the intravenous injection of 4-amino-2 
methyl- 1 naphthol hydrochloride (vitamin K) into the mother 
before delivery. Vitamin B has been recommended for the treat- 
ment of residual neurologic complications in pernicious anaemia. 
In mild hypochromic anaemia in the adult, the addition of 3 mg. 
of copper sulphate to iron and ammonium citrate does not increase 
the effectiveness of irop in haemoglobin regeneration. Arrest of 
haemorrhage is produced by contraction of blood vessels (capil- 
laries) for from 20 to 120 min., during which time a clot forms 
and seals the opening. (R. Is.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. P. Robinson, "Favism in Children," Am, J. Dis. Chil- 
dren, 62:701-707 (1941); G. C. Ham and H. M. Horack, "Chronic Hemo- 
lytic Anemia with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinemia; Report of Case 
with Only Occasional Hemoglobinuria and with Complete Autopsy," Arch. 
Int. Med., 67:735-745 (1941); A . S. Wiener, "Subdivisions of Group A 
and Group AB; Isoimmunization of \2 Individuals against Ai Blood, with 
Special Reference to Role of Subgroups in Transfusion Reactions/' /. fm- 



ANAESTHESIA ANDREWS, FRANK M. 



53 



munol., 41:181-199 (1941); A. S. Wiener, "Hemolytic Reactions Follow- 
ing Transfusions of Blood of Hemologous Group; Further Observations on 
Role of Property Rh, Particularly in Cases without Demonstrable Isoanti- 
bodies," Arch. Path., 32:227-250 (1941); K. Singer, "Lysolecithin and 
Hemolytic Anem ,< . Significance of Lysolecithin Production in Differentia- 
tion of Circulating and Stagnant Blood,"./. Clin. Investigation, 20:153-160 
(1941); C. L. Fox, Jr. and R. Ottenberg, "Acute Hemolytic Anemia from 
Sulfonamides," /. Clin. Investigation, 20:593-602 (1941); A. P. Richard- 
son, "Comparative Effects of Sulfonamide Compounds as to Anemia and 
Cyanosis," /. PharmacoL and Exper. Therap., 72:99-111 (1941); P. L. 
Mollison and I, M. Young, "On Survival of Transfused Erythrocytes of 
Stored Blood," Quart. J. Exper. Physiol., 30:313 327 (1941); G. Mer, D, 
Birnbaum and I. J. Kligler, "Lysis of Blood of Malaria Patients by Bile 
or Bile Salts," Tr. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. and Ilyg., 34:373-378 (1941); 
F, W. Hartman, V. Schclling, H. N. Harkins and B. Brush, "Pectin Solu- 
tion as Blood Substitute," Ann. Surg., 114:212-225 (1941); N. B. Taylor 
and E. T. Waters, "Isinglass as Transfusion Fluid in Haemorrhage," Canad. 
M.A.J., 44:547-554 (i940; E. Witebsky, N. C. Klendshoj and P. Swan- 
son, "Preparation and Transfusion of Safe Universal Blood," J.A.M.A., 
116:2654-2656 (1941); P. Levine, E. M. Katzin and L. Burnham, "Isoim- 
munization in Pregnancy; Its Possible Bearing on Etiology of Erythblasto- 
sis Foetalis," LAMA., 116:825-827 (1941); S. C. Madden, L. J. Zeldis, 
A. D. Hengerer, L. L. Miller, A. P. Rowe, A. P. Turner and G. H. Whipple, 
"Casein Digests Parenterally Utilized to Form Blood Plasma Protein," 
J. Exper. Med., 73:727-743 (1941); G. P. Bohlcndcr, W. M. Rosenbaum 
and E. C. Sage, "Antepartum Use of Vitamin K in Prevention of Prothrom- 
bin Deficiency in Newborn," J.A.M.A.. 116:1763-1766 (1941); R. G. 
MacFarlane, "Critical Review: Mechanism of Haemotosis," Quart. J. Mcd. t 
10:1-29 (1941). 



e American Board of Anes- 
thesiology, Inc., became a major independent 
board whereas previously it had been an affiliate of the American 
Board of Surgery. The officers were: president, Ralph M. Waters, 
Madison, Wis.; vice-president, Henry S. Ruth, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
secretary, Paul M. Wood, New York city. 

In June 1941 the section on anaesthesiology of the American 
Medical association met for the first time at the annual meeting 
of the American Medical association in Cleveland, 0. The chair- 
man was Ralph M. Waters, Madison, Wis.; vice-chairman, 
Thomas J. Collier, Atlanta, Ga.; secretary, John S. Lundy, 
Rochester, Minn. 

In 1941 the National Research council set up medical and 
surgical advisory boards. One of the subcommittees to the com- 
mittee on surgery was the subcommittee on anaesthesia. The 
officers were; chairman, Ralph M. Waters, Madison, Wis.; sec- 
cretary, E. A. Rovenstine, New York city. The members were: 
Lewis S. Booth, New York city; Ralph M. Tovell, Hartford, 
Conn.; and John S. Lundy, Rochester, Minn. This subcommittee 
made recommendations concerning anaesthesiology problems to 
the surgeons general of the army, navy and public health. They 
prepared a manual entitled " Fundamentals of Anesthesia" for 
the use of officers and others employing anaesthetic agents or 
supervising administration of them. This manual was published 
by the American Medical association. Thus the specialty of 
anaesthesiology was finally and for the first time formally estab- 
lished on a basis of a relative equality with other specialties. 

"Recommended Safe Practice for the Use of Combustible 
Anesthetics in Hospital Operating Rooms," was an outline de- 
veloped by the conference committee on operating room hazards. 
Their recommendations tended to renew confidence in cyclopro- 
pane and other inflammable anaesthetic agents in institutions in 
the United States where an attempt had been made to avoid the 
use of these agents, although because of their great value their 
loss was keenly felt. 

The contribution of Lemmon of the method of continuous 
spinal anaesthesia was used in a greater number of cases. Re- 
ports of a number of variations in the technique of its use 
appeared. This is an outstanding development in anaesthesia and 
each year should see it gain in favour. 

Use of intravenous anaesthesia continued to increase, and a 
new agent was being investigated in 1941 which, it is hoped, will 
be an improvement on evipal soluble (n-methyl-C-C-cyclo- 
hexamyl-methyl barbituric acid) and pentothal sodium (sodium 
ethyl [i-methylbutyl] thiobarbiturate). Indications for, and 



contraindications to, its use have not been established definitely. 
It is of the greatest value when it is combined with other agents 
and methods and when the dose of it that is used is not larger 
than from i gm. to 2 gm. The administration of oxygen or the 
mixture of half oxygen and half nitrous oxide considerably in- 
creased the usefulness of the method. 

The activity of anaesthetists in connection with aspiration of 
material from the tracheobronchial tree during and after opera- 
tion was greatly stimulated by reports of excellent results ob- 
tained when this procedure is available and is used early. Not 
only is it of value as a prophylactic measure, but it is of definite 
therapeutic value in the treatment of atelectasis. 

Investigations were concerned chiefly with new anaesthetic 
agents, especially for intravenous use. An attempt was being 
made to explain why certain agents should be avoided in the 
presence of shock, not only in civilian practice but in military 
practice. (See also SURGERY.) (J. S, L.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.- American Medical association, "Fundamentals in Anes- 
thesia" (in publication); Report of Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry, 
"Cyclopropane (with Special Reference to Explosions)," /.A.M. A., 116: 
2502-2504 (1941); W. T. L'emmon and G. W. Paschal, Jr., "Continuous 
Spinal Anesthesia, with Observations on First Five Hundred Cases," Penn- 
sylvania M.J., 44:975-981 (1941); R. C. Adams and J. S. Lundy, "Intra- 
venous Anesthesia: Its Increased Possibilities when Combined with Various 
Other Methods of Anesthesia," Southwestern Med., 25:8-10 (1941); J. S. 
Lundy, "Choice of Anesthetic Agents and Methods- Their Relative Value 
and Recent Associated Advances," Proc. Inter st. Postgrad. M.A. North 
America (1940) pp. 298-301 (1941); Achilles L. Tynes, William W. Nichol 
and Sidney C. WiRgin, "Anesthesia for Military Needs," War Medicine, 
1:789-798 (1941). 

(1876-1941), U.S. author, Was 

born Sept I3 in Camden, Ohio. 
He was the third child in a family of eight arid his father was a 
struggling harness maker. Young Anderson showed little interest 
in school; at 14 his schooling stopped and at 17 he became an 
itinerant housepainter. He wandered through the bustling mid- 
western states, keenly alive to the growth of industrialization in 
the 'QOS. In 1898 he joined the army, saw service in Cuba during 
the Spanish-American War and returned to Ohio a hero. He 
became manager of a paint factory, but, dissatisfied with office 
routine, he quit suddenly and went to Chicago where he worked 
in an advertising agency. There he met, through his brother 
Karl, a magazine artist, Chicago's literary titans Dreiser, Sand- 
burg and Hecht. Under their influence he wrote his first novel, 
Windy McPher son's Son, published in 1916. In 1919 he wrote 
Winesburg, Ohio, a collection of short stories about small-town 
life, regarded as his best and most lasting work. Later he bought 
a small-town weekly in Virginia and edited this paper for a 
while before turning it over to his son. Among his publications 
are Tar (1927); Hello Towns (1929); Perhaps Women (1931); 
Beyond Desire (1933); Death in the Woods (1933); No Swank 
(1934) ; Puzzled America (1935) ; Kit Brandon (1936), and Plays 
(1937). He died March 8 in Colon, Panama; he had been tour- 
ing South America with his wife. (See Encyclopedia Britannica.) 

Anrirou/c Frank Uavwpll (l884 ~ > u s army offi " 

AllUICfVd, rlallll MdAWCll cer, was born Feb. 3 in Nash- 
ville, Tenn. He was graduated from West Point, 1906, became a 
cavalry lieutenant and was promoted through the grades to 
colonel in 1935. Gen. Andrews saw service in the Philippines, 
1906-07, and in Hawaii, 1911-13. He was a major with the 
signal corps during World War I and served with the U.S. army 
of occupation in Germany, 1920-23. Upon his return to the 
U.S. he became executive officer of Kelly field, 1923-25, and was 
a member of the war department general staff, 1934-35., He was 
appointed temporary major general of the air corps in 1935 and 
major general commanding G.H.Q. air force, 1936-39. While in 
the latter post, Andrews piloted an army air corps amphibian 



ANGLING ANTARCTIC EXPLORATION 



bomber 1,425 mi. from San Juan, Puerto Rico, to Langley field, 
Va., setting a new world's distance and straight-line record for 
amphibian planes. In 1939 he was named assistant chief of staff 
for all army air operations and training. In Sept. 1941 he was 
promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and head of the 
Caribbean defense command and the Panama canal department. 

Women anglers in 1941 established four new marks 
j n corn p e tjtion strictly for their sex. But it fell 
to men to contribute the year's two outstanding catches. 

The most notable of these was a 737-lb. blue marlin, taken 
July 1 6 by J. Victor Martin at Bimini, British West Indies. This 
huge fish, caught on 39-thread line, established a new all-tackle 
record for the species. It was 13 feet i inch in length. 

The second all-tackle world's record was set in the channel 
bass division by Captain B. R. Ballancc, off Cape Hatteras, 
North Carolina, on Nov. 29. His catch tipped the scales at 75 
Ib. 8 oz., breaking a record that had existed for 1 2 years. 

The outstanding women's catch was made by Mrs. Maurice 
Meyer, Jr., at Bailey's Island, Maine, Aug. 3, when she landed 
an 8i8-lb. tuna in 3! hours to establish a new women's all-tackle 
record for this species. Second largest catch fell to Mrs. Sarah 
Farrington a 659~lb. broadbill swordfish caught June 12 off 
Tocapilla, Chile. This new women's all-tackle record for the 
species also constituted an all-time record for 24-thread line. 

Other women's all-tackle records established during 1941 
were a wahoo of no Ib., taken April i at Walker Cay, British 
West Indies, by Mrs. B. Davis Crowninshield on 39-thread line 
in eight minutes' time, and a dolphin of 58 Ib. caught May 10 
off Morro Castle, Havana, Cuba, by Mrs. James Simpson, Jr. 
This fish was caught on 9-thread line. 

THE BOATS OF 800 FISHERMEN dotted Puget sound, Wash, at dawn o Sept. 
7, 1941 as the annual Ben Paris salmon derby got under way. The prize catch 

A! 4h *4\j uuoiohA^ OK. Ih r \ nunPAt 




There were no new world's records established by fresh-water 
anglers. On the basis of all information available, the largest 
inland-water fish taken during the year was a muskalonge of 56 
Ib. 8 oz., caught by Robert D. Shawvan at Lake-of-the-Woods, 
Ontario. It fell short of the world's record established in 1940 
by Percy P. Haver by a full six pounds. (B. BH.) 

A territory under the joint sov- 
ereigmy l Girt. Britain and 

Egypt in northeastern Africa, south of Egypt. Area 967,500 sq. 
mi.; pop. (est. Jan. i, 1941) 6,362,852. Chief towns: (pop. Jan. 
i, 1941) Khartoum, incl. Khartoum North (61,641); Omdurman 
(117,041); Port Sudan (26,255); Atbara (19,757); El Obeid 
(33328). Governor-general: Lt.-Gen. Sir Hubert Huddlcston; 
languages: English and Arabic; religion: Mohammedan. 

History. The security of the Sudan, which in view of its long 
common frontier with Eritrea and Abyssinia had been seriously 
threatened by the entry of Italy into the war, showed signs of 
rapid improvement at the beginning of 1941. The Italians had 
already been forced to leave Gallabat, and on Jan. 20 the Sudan 
government was able to reoccupy the important frontier town of 
Kassala. Meanwhile revolt was spreading in Abyssinia and by 
the end of January the Emperor Haile Selassie had moved into 
Abyssinia to put himself at the head of his own people. The 
Italians evacuated Kassala without offering serious resistance and 
retired to the mountains round Cheren after Agordat and 
Barentu had been taken early in February. Kurmuk, the last 
post on Sudan soil remaining in the hands of the Italians, was 
reoccupied Feb. 20. The Italian positions round Cheren were 
strong and were stubbornly defended; and it was not until March 
27 that this city was taken after severe fighting. Asmara was 
not defended, and with the occupation of Addis Ababa on April 
5 and the surrender at Amba-Alagi on May 20 the campaign so 
far as the Sudan was concerned was virtually at an end. There 
remained an Italian force at Gondar which was left undisturbed 
during the rainy season but which was compelled to surrender 
on Nov. 27. The fear of invasion and destructive air raids on 
Khartoum was thus removed. Throughout the campaign the 
Sudan defense force, consisting of Sudan native troops, per- 
formed its part in a manner which reflected credit on its mem- 
bers and its leadership. The strain on the resources of the Sudan, 
particularly the railways, caused by the movement and main- 
tenance of large bodies of troops, was heavy but was adequately 
met. Commerce was active and the economic position of the 
country generally was good; the cotton crop found a ready mar- 
ket and trading in the other staple products of the Sudan was 
maintained. (B.H. B.) 

Education. (Jan. i, 1941) Government schools: elementary schools 137, 
scholars 17,184; intermediate schools n, scholars 357; Gordon Memorial 
college, scholars 1,308; state-aided Koranic schools 501, scholars 23,000; 
scholars at non-government (mission) schools, 12,925. 

Banking and finance. In 1940: revenue 7,143,731; expenditure 7,- 
052,899; public debt (Dec. 31, 1940) 10,023,570. 

Trade and Communication. In 1940 imports were valued at 3,695,776; 
the value of exported merchandise was 5,024, 088, of which cotton ac- 
counted for 2,894,833 and gum 680,969; re-exports 209,871. Com- 
munication: roads, suitable for motor traffic, all weather, c. 1,000 mi.; rail- 
ways 1,991 route mi.; river service 2,325 mi.; motor vehicles licensed 

(1937) 4.354 cars, commercial vehicles and cycles; telephone subscribers 

(1938) 2,383- 

Agriculture and Mineral Production. (1938-39) Production: (in metric 
tons) cotton-seed (1939-40) 102,000; ginned cotton (1939-40) 50,600; 
millet (1937-38) 315,000; sesamum 33,200; maize 10,300; wheat 8,200; 
groundnuts 8,600; barley 1,600; gold (1938) 252 kg. 

Angola: see PORTUGUESE COLONIAL EMPIRE. 

Animal Fats: see VEGETABLE OILS AND ANIMAL FATS. 

Annam: see FRENCH COLONIAL EMPIRE. 

Anniversaries and Centennials: see CALENDAR, 1942, 

page xx. 

Antarctic Exploration: see EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



55 



* m P rtant development in an- 
thropology in 1941 was the formation of 
the Society for Applied Anthropology to "promote scientific 
investigation of the principles controlling human relations and 
to encourage the wide application of these principles to prac- 
tical problems." 

Since 1920, anthropology has provided the unifying centre for 
the various specialists concerned with the study of human rela- 
tions. This is due to the fact that anthropology is primarily a 
field science and deals with man as. a whole, that is, with all 
aspects of human relations in all environments, all institutions 
and for all peoples. Because of this general point of view, 
anthropological methods and principles have more and more 
come to be used in the fields of business and political administra- 
tion, in psychiatry, social work, education, etc., in the solution of 
practical problems of human relations. In order to further this 
development, and in particular, to encourage the testing of 
hypotheses as a routine process in the field of human relations, 
the Society for Applied Anthropology was formed. 

The first issue of its journal, Applied Anthropology, is good 
evidence of the way in which the anthropologist deals with prob- 
lems of his own society even more than with problems of the 
non-European groups. It includes an analysis of personnel and 
labour difficulties in industry together with suggestions as to 
ways in which they can be eliminated or kept under control 
("Organization Problems in Industry/' E. C. Chappie); an in- 
vestigation of the lack of success of settlement houses in ac- 
complishing their objectives, which is shown to be due to the 
failure to base their policies upon the actual situation in the 
groups whom they are trying to help, and also includes a case 
where the use of natural leaders from foreign groups brought 
about the successful completion of a project ('The Social Role 
of the Settlement House/ 5 William F. Whyte); a general discus- 
sion of the way a national morale program should be adminis- 
tered in the United States ("On Implementing a National Morale 
Program," Margaret Mead); an analysis of the failure of the 
program of the department of interior to make the Eskimo self- 
supporting in terms of a reindeer economy because of not adapt- 
ing the program to Eskimo ways of life ("Native Economy and 
Survival in Arctic Alaska," Froelich Rainey) ; a detailed analysis 
of the administration of a resettlement project in western Penn- 
sylvania with special emphasis on the human factors which condi- 
tion successful planning ("Community Resettlement in a De- 
pressed Coal Region," F. L. W. Richardson, Jr.); and a critical 
review of Roethlisberger and Dickson's, Management and the 
Worker, the first systematic use of anthropological methods in 
industrial research ("Towards a Control System in Industrial 
Relations," C. M. Arensberg). 

The year 1941 also saw the publication of the first results of 
two important researches on present-day United States com- 
munities which had been under way for over a decade under the 
direction of Professor W. L. Warner of the University of Chi- 
cago, formerly of Harvard university (The Social Life of a 
Modern Community, W. L. Warner and P. S. Lunt, Yale Uni- 
versity press, New Haven; Deep South, A. Davis, B. B. Gardner 
and M. R. Gardner, University of Chicago press, Chicago). The 
first of these is a study of a New England community, called 
"Yankee City," and the volume which appeared (other volumes 
were to follow) is a statistical and qualitative description of the 
six social classes postulated by the authors and a discussion of 
their interrelationships. Deep South is a similar study of a 
southern city and its rural hinterland in which the emphasis is 
on the relations of Negroes to the whites. According to the 
authors, each of these groups forms a caste, and the two castes 
are 4hen subdivided into classes, much in the same way that 



Yankee City is said to be. After describing the differences in 
cultural activities of each class and caste, an analysis is given of 
the economic system of the area with special emphasis on 
tenancy, the plantation system as well as upon the kind of 
economic organization of the urban area. 

Outside of the work done in the United States, a number of 
studies appeared in 1941 which were of interest in furthering 
knowledge of the relationships between non-European and 
European groups, the field commonly called acculturation. A 
general survey of the situation in Polynesia, Melanesia and 
Micronesia was completed by Felix Keesing (The South Seas in 
the Modern World, F. Keesing, with a foreword by J. B. Cond- 
liffe, Institute of Pacific Relations International Research series, 
John Day, New York). This book is an attempt "to define com- 
prehensively the political, strategic and economic role these 
oceanic islands play in the world today, and especially the mod- 
ern experience and problems of the peoples native to them." 
The book is, of course, extremely timely, but it is primarily im- 
portant as an analysis of the way in which vast human and 
economic resources have been wasted through lack of skilful 
planning by responsible administrators, which is primarily due to 
the failure to base planning policies upon the existing systems of 
human relations in the several islands. Another book in the 
oceanic field which appeared in 1941 is a general survey of the 
Maori of New Zealand with the stress laid on their present-day 
situation (The Maori People Today, edited by I. L. G. Suther- 
land, Oxford University press, Oxford). The book provides the 
reader with an excellent account of the way these fine people 
have adjusted themselves to modern civilization. 

In the field of acculturation, several other studies are of in- 
terest. In January, the American Anthropologist published a 
group of papers prepared under the leadership of M. J. Hersko- 
vits ("Some Comments on the Study of Culture Contact," M. J. 
Herskovits; "Some Aspects of Culture Change in the Northern 
Philippines," Fred. Eggan; "Culture Change among the Nilgiri 
Tribes," D. G. Mandelbaum ; "World View and Social Relations 
in Guatemala," Sol Tax; "Acculturation among the Gullah Ne- 
groes," W. R. Bascom; "Some Aspects of Negro-Mohammedan 
Culture-Contact among the Hausa," J. H. Greenberg; American 
Anthropologist, vol. 43, no. i). Of particular interest is a study 
by J. F. Embree of the Japanese in Hawaii ("Acculturation 
among the Japanese of Kona, Hawaii," J. F. Embree, Memoirs 
of the American Anthropological Association, no. 59). There is 
considerable evidence given which can provide a background for 
administrative action and which can ?erve as a basis for future 
work in defining the status of different elements of the Japanese 
population in Hawaii. As Embree shows, the primary division in 
loyalties is between the older generation who look towards Japan 
for leadership and the younger who are loyal to the United 
States. For the purposes of the administrator, an analysis of the 
intra-family relationships of groups of Japanese would quickly 
provide the touchstone for testing where disloyalty would occur. 

In contrast to the above methods generally used in the study 
of acculturation, Robert Rediield contrasted four communities in 
Yucatan, ranged in order of complexity, a village of tribal Indians, 
a peasant village, a town serving as trading centre between Spanish 
and Indian groups, and the city of Merida (The Folk Culture of 
Yucatan, R. Redfield, University of Chicago press, Chicago). Red- 
field found that there is a progressive increase, as one moves from 
the tribe to the city, in what he calls the "disorganization" of 
culture as judged by the fact that "meanings attached to acts 
and objects are relatively few and inconsistent," in the amount 
of "secularization," and in "individualization." As a ^result, 
he postulates for Yucatan in the future a merging of the Spanish 
and Indian influences and the formation of a class society with 



56 



ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUNS ANTI-SEMITISM 



racial and cultural differences disappearing. 

Also of interest in the Central American field are two mono- 
graphs, one on Guatemala and one on the Maya ("Economics of a 
Guatemalan Village," C. Wagley, Memoirs of the American An- 
thropological Association, no. 58; Maya Indians of Yucatan, M. 
Steggarda, publication 531, Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

Other studies of general interest include Whiting's study of 
teaching and learning among the Kwoma of the Sepik river, New 
Guinea (Becoming a Kwoma, J. W. M. Whiting, Yale University 
press, New Haven) in which he describes childhood, adolescence 
and adulthood among these people and then analyzes the data in 
terms of learning theory; Ford's autobiography of a Kwakiutl 
chief (Smoke from their Fires, C. S. Ford, Yale University press, 
New Haven) ; and Schapera's discussion of the changes in the 
family system of the Kgatla of Bechuanaland after white influence 
for over a century (Married Life in an African Tribe, I. Schapera, 
with an introduction by B. Malinowski, Sheridan house, New 
York). 

The year 1941 also saw the publication of the Sapir Memorial 
volume (Language, Culture and Personality, Essays in Memory of 
Edward Sapir, edited by L. Spier, A. I. Hallowell, S. S. Newman, 
Sapir Memorial Publication fund, Menasha, Wis.). This volume 
is divided into four major sections: the first deals with problems 
of linguistic classification, the second with linguistic behaviour 
and thought, the third with the development of culture patterns 
and the fourth with culture norms and the individual. The con- 
tributors, all former students of Sapir, provide an effective im- 
plementation of Sapir's point of view. 

National Defense. W T ith the outbreak of war, and indeed for 
some time previous, anthropologists were increasingly concerned 
with activities connected with national defense. There are roughly 
three major headings under which these activities may be grouped 
First, the use of anthropologists as experts on those parts of 
the world in which they have done research and on which they are 
specially fitted, by the fact of doing field work, to give advice 
useful in military and economic warfare. Second, the use of an- 
thropologists in the United States to assist in the many problems 
connected with the war. These include the study of industrial 
and community morale, the analysis of the various problems of 
ethnic groups, the study of food habits with its special emphasis 
upon raising the national standard of diet, the study of methods 
of administration and organization, etc. Third, the use of anthro- 
pologists in preparing the groundwork for a sound peace settle- 
ment. Many responsible persons believed that World War II was 
the result of ignoring the factor of human relations in the peace 
settlement after World War I. For that reason, several agencies, 
both governmental and private, began to gather information about 
the important countries in the world so that any organization set 
up after the war would be based upon known facts about the way 
in which human beings behave in the several countries in question. 
In this area, anthropologists played an important part in guiding 
the research activities. (E. D. C.) 

Anti-Aircraft Guns: see MUNITIONS OF WAR. 
Antlqua: see WEST INDIES, BRITISH. 
Antilles, Grtattr and Ltsstr: see WEST INDIES. 
Anti-Lynching Legislation: see LYNCHINGS. 

Although there was some production of antimony 
metal in the United States from domestic ores 
during World War I, since then ore production has been small, and 
the only metal recovery was that in antimonial lead. During 1941 
there was a large smelter in Laredo, Tex., operating on Mexican 
ores and producing metal and oxide; a smaller plant near Los An- 
geles, Calif., has also been working Mexican ore, and other 



plants have been producing oxide from Mexican and South Ameri- 
can ores. Output at both of the smelters was increased in 1941, 
and the Laredo plant reported the treatment of some domestic ore. 
In addition, a third smaller smelter was started at Kellogg, Ida., in 
March 1940. The output reported in 1940 included 494 short tons 
of recoverable metal in ores and concentrates, 2,077 tons of anti- 
mony in antimonial lead, part of which was recovered from for- 
eign ores, and 11421 tons of secondary metal. Imports of metal, 
needle antimony and oxide were reduced sharply, the respective 
amounts being 209 tons, 228 tons and none in 1940, while there 
was a two-thirds increase in the metal content of imported ores 
to 15,733 tons, 35% of which came from Bolivia, 4% from Peru, 
and 60% from Mexico. Ore imports at the end of the third quar- 
ter of 1941 were approximately equal to the total for 1940. 

Chinese operations and shipments were seriously cramped by 
Japan, and in December with the United States at war with Japan, 
shipments from China might no longer be possible, although loans 
were made to China by the United States, payment of which was 
to have been made in antimony. Increasing demand in the United 
States would have to be met from Mexicb and South America. 
Moderate tonnages of 50% ore were shipped from South Africa 
to England, and a plant for the recovery of by-product antimony 
from the treatment of other ores was installed at Trail, B.C., 
Canada. (G. A. Ro.) 

Anti-Saloon League of America, Inc. 

America is a nonpartisan, interdenominational, federated organi- 
zation formed in 1895 for the purpose of temperance education 
and legislation. Its work in 1941 was devoted to public educa- 
tion on the alcohol problem, advocacy of total abstinence from 
all alcoholic beverages and of legislation to minimize the evils 
growing out of their use. 

During 1941 the legislatures of 43 states met. Some states 
tightened restrictions on sales to minors; women bartenders were 
prohibited in Illinois and Pennsylvania; a number of states in- 
creased penalties for drunken driving, and New York and Oregon 
provided for chemical analyses of body fluids for had-been-drink- 
ing drivers involved in accidents. Numerous other restrictive 
laws were enacted. Many attempts to liberalize existing liquor 
laws were defeated. 

In South Carolina the league supported the enactment of a state- 
wide prohibitory law, which the people in an advisory referendum 
in 1940 had instructed the legislature to pass with a provision 
to replace liquor revenue by some other form of taxation. This 
measure failed of enactment because of inability to agree upon 
tax legislation to replace liquor revenue. 

The league continued its efforts for local option during 1941. 
Preliminary returns indicated that no-licence prevailed in the 
elections in the proportion of 5 to 4. 

Following the passage of the Selective Training and Service act 
on Sept. 1 6, 1940, the league urged the enactment of protective 
measures against vice and liquor in the vicinity of military 
and naval establishments. Congress enacted the May bill on July 
n, 1941, authorizing the establishment of zones against com- 
mercialized vice in such areas. Owing to the opposition of the 
secretaries of war and the navy, a section which had been adopted 
by the senate authorizing the establishment of zones against 
the sale of alcoholic beverages was stricken out on reconsider- 
ation. The national headquarters are at 131 B. st. S.E., Wash- 
ington, D.C. (E. B. Du.) 

Anti Qomiticm ^ s * n ^ e year x ^ ^ e v '' ent ant i-Sem- 

nllU'Oulmllolll. itism which forms one of the fundamental 
points of the program and activities of national socialist j3er- 



ANTI-TANK GUNS APPLES 



57 



many not only continued unabated during 1941, but as a result 
of further national socialist conquests it spread to such an ex- 
tent that it became a problem of an intensity and of dimensions 
unknown in history before, even in the so-called dark ages, While 
the possibilities for emigration diminished rapidly, until at 
the end of the period under discussion they totally disappeared, 
the national socialist regime not only intensified its anti- 
Semitic legislation to an unheard-of degree, but carried its 
treatment of the Jews with even greater violence into the newly 
conquered territories in the soviet union, territories which belong 
to the most densely populated, as far as Jews are concerned. 
Though the Jews had been deprived of all possibilities of economic 
earning in Germany, they were ordered on Jan. 20, 1941, to pay 
15% additional gross income tax, "to compensate for their social 
inferiority." Jews remained barred from any professional or 
social contact with non-Jews and excluded from any visit to cul- 
tural or recreational places or institutions. They received no 
ration cards for clothing, shoes or coal, and much smaller 
rations for food than non-Jewish citizens. On Sept. 6, all Jews 
over six years of age were ordered to wear the Star of David in 
yellow on their coats or dresses with the inscription "Jew" in black 
and were forbidden to leave the areas in which they resided with- 
out special police permission. In the fall a systematic enforced 
transportation of all Jews living within the greater German reich 
began to eastern Poland. They were allowed to take with them 
only a minimum of clothing and money. All their property, per- 
sonal belongings, clothing, furniture, money and funds were con- 
fiscated. The propaganda minister, Dr. Goebbels, promulgated a 
ten-point charter, inciting to an undying hatred of the Jews as 
the mortal enemies: "Anyone who still cultivates private rela- 
tions with the Jew, belongs to him and must be appraised and 
treated the same as the Jew." Simultaneously similar curbs were 
applied to the Jews in the German-occupied countries of Nether- 
lands and Belgium. The fascist government in Italy promulgated 
during the summer a Jewish "final law" aiming at the elimination 
of the Jews from any contact with life in Italy. 

The fascist government in Vichy France imitated the national 
socialist legislation which had first been applied to the German 
occupied zone only. Sweeping racial curbs excluded Jews from 
practically all fields, not only of cultural, but also of economic 
activity. Xavier Vallat, a former extreme rightist member of 
the old parliament and a violent anti-Semite, was appointed on 
March 29 commissioner-general for Jewish questions. Under him 
the famous Nurnberg laws of the third reich were not only applied 
in all their rigour in German-occupied France, but introduced in 
rapid succession in the nonoccupied zone. The original Jewish 
statute, proclaimed by Vichy on Oct. 3, 1940, was amplified by a 
new law on June 14, 1941, and its strict measures were extended 
to all the French colonies under Vichy control, especially Algeria 
and Morocco. Only those parts of the French empire under con- 
trol of the Free French remained free from anti-Semitism. 

In view of the adherence of Japan to the "new order" it is not 
astonishing that for the first time an anti-Jewish association 
was organized in Japan on Sept. 7, under the leadership of Gen. 
Senjuro Hayashi with the motto "Jews are the enemies of the 
world." The war was regarded as a conflict between Jews and anti- 
Jews. Similarly in all other countries, especially in the United 
States and in Latin America, anti-Semitism became a characteris- 
tic of movements which supported directly or indirectly the "new 
order," and even of many persons and movements who wished to 
keep their own countries "neutral" in what national socialist Ger- 
mans proclaim as a war of fascism against the Jews. National 
socialist anti-Semitism does not aim only at the extinction of the 
Jews; it serves, above all, as a most important weapon in the ef- 
fort to undermine democracy and the will to resistance in the 



democratic countries. (See also FASCISM; JEWISH RELIGIOUS 
LIFE; JEWS, DISTRIBUTION OF; REFUGEES.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Leo W. Schwarz, Where Hope Lies (1940); Israel Gold- 
stein, Toward a Solution (1941); the Atlantic Monthly (July-Nov., 1941); 
Isaque Graeber and Steuart H. Britt, Jews in a Gentile World (1941); 
Koppel S. Pinson, Essays on Anti-Semitism (1942). (H. Ko.) 

Anti-Tank Guns: see MUNITIONS OF WAR. 



Antonescu, Ion 



(1882- ), Rumanian soldier and states- 
man, was born in Transylvania June 2 and 
fought with the Rumanian armies during World War I, after which 
he was promoted to the rank of colonel. He later became military 
attache of Rumania in London and Rome, chief of the army's 
general staff and war minister. He was named prime minister by 
King Carol (q.v.) Sept. 5, 1940, in the midst of the disorders that 
followed, the partition of Rumania. Antonescu's first act was to 
demand the abdication of Carol. The prime minister then as- 
sumed dictatorial powers and on Sept. 14, 1940, formally promul- 
gated a totalitarian rule. He proceeded to restore temporary quiet 
in his country and established working relationships with the 
axis by signing the German-dictated pact of Nov. 23, 1940. 

After subduing the Iron Guardist anti-Semitic riots of late 
Jan. 1941, Antonescu tightened his grip on the government, with 
German backing, and decreed the death penalty for acts of terror- 
ism and disorder. In a controlled plebiscite of early March, 
Rumanians approved his regime by a vote of 2490,944 to 2,816. 
Iron Guardists continued to be his principal opponents, and in 
April he announced a plot by the organization to assassinate 
him during Easter services in Bucharest. Antonescu began to 
mobilize his army early in June and marched against the U.S.S.R. 
on the same day (June 22) that Hitler's troops crossed the Russian 
border. Before assuming the title of generalissimo and commander 
of the Rumanian armies in Bessarabia, he was reported to have 
relinquished the premiership to his nephew, Mihai Antonescu. 
Rumanian casualties in 1941 were heavy, especially around Odessa, 
and in recognition of the country's sacrifices in the "anti-Bol- 
shevik" crusade, Hitler personally conferred the iron cross on 
Antonescu Aug. 6, 1941. (See also RUMANIA.) 



commerc * a l cr P f apples in the United States 
in 1941 was estimated by the department of agricul- 
ture as 126,076,000 bu., compared with 114,391,000 bu. in 1940 
and a six-year (1934-39) average of 125,310,000 bu. The com- 
mercial crop includes apples for processing and those sold for 
fresh consumption. The war affected seriously the export of U.S. 
fruit in 1941. In the year ending June 30, 1941 only 868,000 bu. 
were exported, compared with 3,216,000 bu. in 1940 and an an- 
nual average of 12,870,000 bu. in the six years, 1931-36. The 
1941 apple crop in Canada was by preliminary estimate, 3,436,- 
400 bbl, or about 20% below the 1940 crop. 

Table I. U.S. App/e Production in Leading Slate, 194? and 1940 



State 


1041 
bu. 


Xy 4 
bu. 


State 


1041 
bu. 


1940 
bu. 


Washington 
New York 
Virginia . 
Pennsylvania 


28,350,000 
16,120,000 
11,505,000 
9,313,000 


27,469,000* 
12,936,000 
10,660,000 
9,100,000 


Indiana . . . 
Massachusetts 
Maryland . . 
Idaho. . . . 


2,230,000 
2,174,000 
2,070,000 
1,998,000 


1,225,000 
2,174,000 
2,077,000 
2,160,000* 


California 
Michigan 
Ohio . . 
West Virginia 
Illinois , . 
New Jersey 
Oregon . . 


7,092,000 
7,520,000 
7,064,000 
5,024,000 
3,509,000 
3,150,000 
2,673,000 


6,498,000 
5,967,000 
5,074,000 
4,868,000 
1,876,000 
3,296,000 
3,263,000 


Delaware . 
Missouri. . 
North Carolina 
Connecticut 
Colorado . 
Arkansas . 
New Hampshire 


1,794,000 
1,708,000 
1,365,000 
1,267,000 
1,265,000 
1,025,000 
817,000 


1,900,000 
1,616,000 
062,000 
1,210,000 
1,564,000* 
765,000 
925,000 



*Includes the following Quantities harvested but not utilized owing to excessive callage: 
Idaho, 216,000 bu.; Washington, 1,280,000 bu.; Colorado, 50,900 bu. 

A greatly reduced production in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas and 
northwest Missouri was due to an Armistice day, 1940, freeze 



APPLIED CHEMISTRY ARABIA 



which killed or damaged many trees. 

Tablo II. Canadian App/t Production by Provinces, 194? and 1940 





104' 
barrels 




ig-ji 
barrels 


1040 
barrel^ 


British Columbia 

Nova Scotia 
Ontario . . . 


1,415.100 
1,148,000 

55.U>oo 


l,uS i.ooo | 
1, IS I.OOO 

78.1,000 


Quebec . t 
New Brunswick 


252,700 
67,000 


3^i,.soo 
53,^00 



(S.O.R.j 

Applied Chemistry: see CHEMISTRY. 

Applied Psychology: see PSYCHOLOGY. 

Appropriations and Expenditures: sec BUDGETS, NA- 

TIONAL. 

The New York aquarium closed its doors for the 
last time on Oct. i. It was originally estab- 
lished in 1896 by the city of New York and had been operated by 
the New York Zoological society since 1902. This closure was 
considered necessary by the city, incident to construction work 
in Battery park. The recorded public attendance reached more 
than 84,000,000 persons from 1902 to 1941, inclusive. The bulk 
of the collections was distributed among the public aquariums 
in Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Pa. and Boston, Mass.; the re- 
mainder were being held for public exhibition in a small display 
under construction in the New York Zoological park, to be opened 
in the early part of 1942. Research activities formerly centred 
at the aquarium were continued, in part at the New York Zoologi- 
cal park and in part at the American Museum of Natural History. 
Other aquariums as far as reported or able to report were sur- 
viving, Collecting in all cases was greatly restricted and as the 
war continued they all, of necessity, became increasingly exhibits 
of localized collections. (C. M. BR.) 



r * ver Aqueduct, constructed by the 
Metropolitan Water District of Southern Cali- 
fornia at a cost of approximately $200,000,000 extends 241 mi. 
from Parker dam on the Colorado river to Cajalco reservoir, 12 
mi. south of Riverside, Calif. This aqueduct is capable of deliver- 
ing 1,000,000,000 gal. daily to Los Angeles and 12 neighbouring 
coastal cities. With the last of the tunnels on the distribution 
system completed in 1941, the entire system totalling 392 mi. was 
in complete operation on Aug. 18, 1941. The Delaware river aque- 
duct, an 85-mi. pressure tunnel, being built by the board of 
water supply of New York, is an important feature of the $298,- 




GRAVITY-ARRESTER of the Delaware river aqueduct, under construction in 
1941 lo add 540,000,000 gal. daily to the water tupply of New York city. The 
series of steps slows the rush of water as It issues from a tunnel, so that It 
will flow smoothly through open-country channels 



000,000 Delaware project which will add 540,000,000 gal. daily to 
New York city's water supply, thus increasing the supply 50%. 
The last of the major tunnelling jobs was holed through Sept. 17, 
1941, completing 83-8 mi. of the aqueduct which will carry water 
300 to 1,000 ft. underground from the watersheds of the Catskill 
mountains to Hillview reservoir on the northern boundary of New 
York city. Final holing through of the entire tunnel is expected 
in the spring of 1942. The All-American canal, biggest irrigation 
ditch in the United States, was in operation its full length dur- 
ing 1941. It carries water diverted from the Colorado river 
by Imperial dam a distance of 80 mi. into Imperial valley. With 
its i30-mi. Coachclla branch canal, excavation for about half of 
which is completed, water will be supplied for 1,000,000 ac. of 
land in southern California. As a part of the Boulder canyon 
project, the All-Amcrican canal system was being built by the 
bureau of reclamation at an estimated cost of $38,500,000. The 
boring of a 13-1 -mi. tunnel, which will carry water from the 
western slope through the Continental Divide to irrigate agri- 
cultural lands in northeastern Colorado was proceeding from both 
ends, with approximately one-third of the entire length either 
completed or under contract in 1941. Two tunnels of a 40-mi. 
aqueduct to convey water from Deer creek reservoir in Provo can- 
yon over mountain slopes to Salt Lake City, Utah, were completed 
and work was under way on a pipe line in 1941. On the Central 
valley project in California the first 29 mi. of the 46-mi. Con- 
tra Costa canal were in use serving fresh water to industries, 
cities and farms; and work was in progress on the 4o-mi. Madera 
canal to carry water from Friant reservoir to thirsty lands in the 
San Joaquin valley. A pipe line aqueduct project was put in 
service in 1941 bringing to Toledo, 0., a supply of good water 
from Lake Erie to replace the old and unsatisfactory supply from 
the Maumce river. Construction of the Key West aqueduct, to 
extend from the mainland near Miami, Fla., to the tip of the Key 
West peninsula, a distance of 134 mi., was planned for immediate 
construction in Dec. 1941 to supply fresh water for the navy and 
the Key West civilian population. (See also CANALS AND INLAND 
WATERWAYS; DAMS; TUNNELS.) (J. C. PA.) 

Arohio Total area ( est -) 1,000,000 sq.mi. Total pop. (est., 
HldUld. 1937) 9,300,000; Saudi Arabia, 4,500,000; Yemen 
3,500,000; Oman and Muscat 500,000; Kuwait 80,000; Trucial 
Sheikhs 80,000. Language: Arabic; religion: Mohammedan. 
Rulers: Saudi Arabia, King Abdul Aziz Ibn Sa'ud; Yemen, Imam 
Yahaya Muhammad Hamid ed Din; Oman and Muscat, Sultan 
Sayyid Said bin Taimur; Kuwait, Sheikh Ahmed Ibn Jabir al 
Subah. 

History. The year 1941 opened with the discovery of a con- 
spiracy in Mecca against King Ibn Sa'ud's regime. In spite of its 
suspected instigation by the axis, it was not a very important 
affair and was easily suppressed; one of the personalities in- 
culpated was executed and several others were imprisoned. This 
wah practically the only untoward event in a year during which 
the Arabian peninsula remained as a whole tranquil and untouched 
by the war, except insofar as war conditions considerably re- 
duced the number of pilgrims journeying to the Hejaz from over- 
seas for the pilgrimage. 

King Abdul Aziz Ibn Sa'ud continued to abide loyally by his 
friendship with Great Britain. Thus during Rashid Ali's revolt 
in Iraq in May he refused to render any help, either diplomatic 
or military, to the insurrectionary regime, in spite of Rashid 
Ali's move in sending one of his ministers, Naji Suwaydi, on a 
mission to Riyadh. He also interned German and Italian military 
refugees from East Africa. The Imam of the Yemen took up a 
more ambiguous attitude, and the activities of axis agents in his 
territories seem to have continued in 1941. 



ARCHAEOLOGY 



59 



If the policy of King Ibn Sa'ud was pro-British, still more was 
it pro-Arab. He continued to take a close interest in the affairs 
of Syria, Palestine and other Moslem and Arab countries, and to 
do what he could to further the interests of their populations. 
His concern for the welfare of his fellow-Moslems was shown in 
the speech which he made during the pilgrimage in January. "Not 
one night," he declared, "do we lie down without anxiety for the 
cause of all Moslems, anxiety for the cause of our brethren of 
Syria, Palestine, Iraq and Egypt." His strong pan-Arab and Is- 
lamic sentiment was shared, it is probable, by a large proportion 
of his subjects, no less than by the imam of the Yemen and the 
other rulers of the peninsula. (A. H. Ho.) 

TRADE. With India (1938-39): Oman and Muscat, imports 283,987; 
exports 153,568; other states of Arabia, imports 485,932; exports 
48,172. With the United Kingdom (1938): Saudi Arabia and Yemen, 
imports 94,960; exports 28,871; Oman and Muscat, Trucial Sheikhs and 
Kuwait, imports 40,262; exports 18,354. Total trade of Oman and 
Muscat (1938-39): imports Rs. 48,76,193; exports Rs. 33,31,939; Kuwait 
(1937-38): imports 410,812; exports 174,006. (See also ISLAM.) 

Western Hemisphere. Archaeological field 
wori^ during the year 1941, diminished in the 
United States and increased in Mexico and especially in South 
America. Reallocation of Work Projects administration funds 
toward defense work reduced the number of state-wide archaeolog- 
ical projects ; on the other hand, the Institute of Andean Research 
launched several important archaeological expeditions in Mexico, 
Central and South America. 

In the United States archaeological efforts centred around the 
problems of: (i) the antiquity of man in North America; and (2) 
the more sedentary aboriginal cultures. 

1. The association of man-made objects with extinct animal 
forms still constituted the earliest human horizon in America. 
No direct association of human skeletal remains had. up to 1941, 
been recovered. The Smithsonian institution excavated a new site 
ten miles south of San Jon, N.M., where various types of stone 
implements were found in association with both extinct and mod- 
ern bison and extinct mammoth. The University of Michigan con- 
tinued explorations of old beach lines formed some 10,000-15,000 
years ago by the waters of Lake Huron, along the northern shore 
of that lake near Killarney, Manitoulin Island, Ont., Canada. 
Archaeologists from the University of Pennsylvania museum ex- 
cavated Yuma sites in southwestern Wyoming near the town of 
Eden. 

2. Sedentary aboriginal cultures: 

In Alaska the American Museum of Natural History continued 
explorations at an important site known as Ipiutak on a barren 
gravel spit of Point Hope, I3o'mi. above the Arctic circle. More 
than 500 tombs were excavated in an area of six miles leading 
from the ancient town. The Ipiutak culture is distinguished by 
its ivory art, finely chipped flat tools, and emphasis on land 
hunting gear. Laboratory analysis of the artifacts and human 
skeletal material may furnish valuable information concerning 
the migrations from Asia to North America. 

The Eastern Washington State Historical society, the University 
of Washington and Washington State college combined efforts in 
continuing an archaeological survey near Hellgate, which revealed 
two distinct levels of occupation. Other sites were excavated 
between Kettle .Falls and the Canadian boundary. The Los An- 
geles museum continued a survey and excavation of caves and 
shell middens among the Channel Islands off the coast of Califor- 
nia. One cave at the southern end of San Clemente Island pro- 
duced drilled and tarred planks from a plank canoe, fish harpoons, 
woven cloth, fishhooks, sea otter robes, etc. material similar to 
that obtained from the natives by Capt. Vancouver in 1793. The 
University of California collected archaeological specimens from 



vated in the coast region north of Golden Gate. The desert labora- 
tory of the Southwest ' museum worked two large sites near 
Twenty-nine Palms, Calif. 

The University of New Mexico explored small house ruins in 
Chaco canyon. The Field Museum of Natural History continued 
excavations of an important site near Reserve, N.M. In a large 
rock shelter on the Papago Indian reservation, near Tucson, Ariz., 
significant additions were made to the prehistoric chronology by 
the University of Arizona. Within the 15 ft. of trash deposit a 
record was obtained, extending from modern times back through 
pre-pottery and pre-agricultural levels. The Amerind foundation 
continued work at Tres Alamos on the San Pedro river in south- 
eastern Arizona. The Carnegie Institution of Washington spon- 
sored excavation of a Basket Maker II site along the Animas 
valley near Durango, Colo. The Colorado Museum of Natural 
History continued archaeological explorations in western Colorado. 
The University of Utah carried out extensive surveys and some 
excavations in central and northern Utah. 

The North Dakota Historical society proceeded with an archae- 
ological survey and exploration of Mandan and Arikara sites along 
the Missouri river in central North Dakota. The museum of the 
University of South Dakota excavated more than 200 protohistoric 
Arikara house sites, refuse middens and a smaller fortified village 
along the Missouri river in Hughes county, S.D. Excavations by 
the Nebraska State Historical society indicated that maize was 
cultivated by some of the earlier cultural horizons. Excavations 
were directed in Oklahoma by the state university. 

The University of Minnesota excavated sites at Lake Shetek in 
southwestern Minnesota, and other villages at Tuttle and Fox 
lakes near the Iowa line in central Minnesota. The University 
of Missouri carried on excavations of Siouan sites in Missouri. 
The Academy of Science of St. Louis made archaeological investi- 
gations in Jefferson and New Madrid counties in eastern Missouri. 
In Illinois the state museum and state parks division excavated 
a mound within the famous Cahokia mound group near East St. 
Louis; and the University of Chicago continued large-scale explor- 
ations at the Kincaid site in the southern part of the state. The 
Indiana Historical society carried on excavations throughout 1941 
at the Angel site in southwestern Indiana. The Ohio State museum 
directed the excavation of a small Adena mound north of 
Chillicothe, 0. 

Under the sponsorship of the University of Kentucky, archaeo- 
logical excavations were begun in the area to be flooded after 
the building of the Kentucky dam by the Tennessee Valley 
authority in the southwestern part of the state; other important 
excavations were completed in central and western Kentucky. The 
University of Tennessee directed the excavation of other basin 
sites to be flooded by the building of Tennessee Valley authority 
dams, work being concentrated in the Watts Bar dam and on the 
Tennessee side of the Kentucky dam reservoir areas. The national 
park service sponsored excavations of small sites within the Oc- 
mulgee national monument at Macon, Ga. Most of the agencies in 
the Mississippi river valley were assisted by labour furnished 
through the Work Projects administration. 

Historical archaeological excavations at Jamestown island, Va., 
by the national park service, continued to reveal numerous ob- 
jects associated with the early i;th century settlement on the 
island. Similar excavations near Plymouth, Mass., were inaugu- 
rated under private sponsorship in connection with the remnants 
of houses erected by the Pilgrims. The Massachusetts Archaeo- 
logical society tested early Indian occupation sites in various sec- 
tions of eastern Massachusetts. The Long Island chapter of the 
New York Archaeological association explored a section of an 
important site on the north branch of Long Island. Vassar's Hud- 



ARCHAEOLOGY 



zons along the Hudson river in New York. The Pennsylvania His- 
torical commission recovered evidence of Hopewell-like cultural 
material near Warren in northeastern Pennsylvania. 

The Smithsonian institution and the National Geographic soci- 
ety jointly sponsored archaeological excavations at a large prehis- 
toric site at Cerro de las Mesas in the southern part of Veracruz, 
Mex. Two sculptured calendar stones with dates in the first and 
fourth katuns of the Maya calendar were uncovered. More than 
eight tons of cultural material were obtained through stratigraphic 
excavations. A remarkable cache of 782 specimens of precious 
jade some the finest examples of sculptured jade from the west- 
ern hemisphere was discovered in one of the large mounds. The 
Smithsonian institution also sponsored an archaeological expedi- 
tion in the state of Coahuila in northern Mexico, where intensive 
excavations in two caves and one rock shelter produced well pre- 
served cultural material consisting of feathers, baskets, sandals, 
throwing sticks, fur robes, grooved clubs and desiccated bodies. 
The Direccion de Monumentos Prehispanicos of the Mexican gov- 
ernment directed explorations in Yucatan, Palenque, Monte 
Alban, Cholula, Michoacan and Hidalgo; other organizations 
sponsored work near Acapetlahuaya and in the state of Jalisco. 

The Peabody museum of Harvard university directed research 
upon Chiriqui ceramic types in Panama. Middle American Re- 
search institute of Tulane university sponsored an archaeological 
survey in Honduras and Costa Rica. Carnegie Institution of 
Washington included in their archaeological program explorations 
in Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador and Nicaragua, where a large 
section of buried volcanic strata containing human footprints was 
uncovered in such a manner as to preserve these imprints of man 
in situ. 

Under the direction of the Institute of Andean Research archae- 
ological expeditions were inaugurated in the following states of 
South America : Venezuela, Colombia, northern Peru and Ecuador, 
southern Peru and the north Chile coast, southern Peru and the 
Bolivian highlands. These excavations were made possible through 
a grant from the Co-ordinator's Committee on Commercial and 
Cultural Relations Between the American Republics and the 
wholehearted co-operation of archaeologists in those states of 
South America. The Peruvian government continued archaeolog- 
ical explorations near Lima, especially at Pachacamac, Tambo 
Colorado in Pisco, and a site in the Nazca valley. Other states in 
South America continued their archaeological explorations, 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Many technical archaeological reports were published 
during 1941 (vol. 43, American Anthropologist, and vol. 7, American 
Antiquity). The most outstanding publication for 1941 was Aztecs oj 
Mexico, by George C. Vaillant, which describes, on the basis of archaeologi- 
cal evidence and historical documents, the origin, rise and fall of the Aztec 
nation (1941). (F. M. SF.) 

SECTION of "the city above the clouds,' 1 one of the two lott Inca cities dis- 
covered near Cuzco, Peru by the Wenner-Qren expedition in 1941. The granite 
houiet. walti and italrwavi are remarkably well preserved 




Eastern Hemisphere. In a very real sense the following sum- 
mary of old world archaeological activity during 1941 is a tribute 
to those scientists who, in spite of the war, managed to make 
significant contributions to knowledge. The list is by no means 
exhaustive, since communication with several countries was virtu- 
ally impossible. In addition to many new discoveries, eight im- 
portant books were published, notwithstanding the fact that sev- 
eral of the authors were actively engaged in war work. Indeed 
the war provided many archaeologists with an opportunity for as- 
similating the tremendous bulk of new material that was brought 
to light since 1930. At the conclusion of this article a bibli- 
ography is given for those desiring further information; other 
references are cited in the text. 

The Palaeolithic Period. Further details were published by 
Time concerning the Altamira-like cave paintings from the Grotte 
de Lascaux, near Montignac in the Dordogne region of south-cen- 
tral France, the discovery of which was announced in 1940. Six 
of the scenes, including one 39 ft. long showing a herd of woolly 
horses, two goats and a wild row, are reproduced in the Time arti- 
cle, which should be consulted by all students of primitive art. 

Dr. F. W. Wulsin's book, The Prehistoric Cultures of North- 
West Africa, published by the Peabody museum of Harvard uni- 
versity, is the first complete account of the archaeological material 
from Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco that has ever been compiled. 
An enormous body of facts, especially those dealing with the Old 
Stone Age, was collated and synthesized by the author. This book, 
intended primarily for reference purposes, demonstrates the im- 
portant role played by northwest Africa from early times down to 
the historic period in the diffusion of culture into Europe. It like- 
wise points the direction which future research should take in this 
region by emphasizing the existing problems. 

The Mugharet el 'Alyia (High cave), an important cave in Tan- 
gier, northwest Africa, which contained both atypical Upper 
Palaeolithic and Neolithic levels, as well as a mandible fragment 
and a molar tooth of Neanderthaloid affinities, was in 1941 com- 
pletely excavated. In 1939 Prof. Carleton C. Coon of Harvard 
university dug a large trench through the deposits, but the war 
prevented him from returning to finish the work. However, in 
spite of very difficult circumstances, this was successfully achieved 
by Dr. Ralph Nahon and Hooker Doolittle, both former residents 
of Tangier. The material was placed in 1941 in the Peabody 
museum, Cambridge, Mass., where the complete excavation report 
was being prepared for publication by Bruce Howe. 

At Sidi Abdcrrahman, near Casablanca (Morocco) on the At- 
lantic littoral of northwest Africa, Prof. Breuil announced that 
MM. Neuville arid Ruhlmann had discovered an important Lower 
Palaeolithic archaeological horizon. The latter yields large flakes 
manufactured by the so-called Clacton technique in association 
with hand axes of Abbevillian type. Since the site is situated 
on an ancient dune 90 mi. above present sea level, and since the 
implements are in situ in it, Sidi Abderrahman furnishes definite 
evidence that western Morocco was occupied by man during early 
post-Sicilian times. 

In 1941 Prof. C. van Riet Lowe, director of the bureau of 
archaeology of the Union of South Africa, and E. J. Wayland 
director of the geological survey of Uganda, jointly prepared an 
extensive report covering the Pleistocene geology and Palaeolithic 
archaeology of Uganda. It is understood that the conclusion? 
of these authorities differ in several fundamental respects from 
those arrived at by T. P. O'Brien, whose book on The Prehis- 
tory of Uganda Protectorate appeared in 1939. The report, al- 
ready submitted to the Uganda government, was planned to be 
published after the war. 

To provide a basis for dating archaeological material in South 
Africa (not only finds directly associated with recognized geo- 



ARCHAEOLOGY 



61 



logical horizons, but also those obtained by .excavation in cave 
sites) H. B. S. Cook summarized the known facts pertaining to the 
Late Cenozoic deposits of the region. His report, A Preliminary 
Survey of the Quaternary Period in Southern Africa, published by 
the bureau of archaeology of the Union of South Africa, includes 
a discussion of raised beaches, river terraces, non-fluviatile de- 
posits, Pleistocene mammals and caves. The author's tentative 
conclusions regarding the correlation of the main events are out- 
lined in tabular form. 

A large and carefully documented series of palaeolithic imple- 
ments, comprising Acheulean, Levallois and Upper Palaeolithic 
types, was collected by Peter D. Cornwall, working for the Uni- 
versity of California and Harvard university, on the mainland of 
Arabia adjacent to the island of Bahrein. The assemblage also 
includes mesolithic, neolithic and Bronze Age material, in addition 
to the contents of graves contained in tumuli roughly dated 600- 
300 B.C. The importance of Cornwall's work in the hitherto little 
known archaeological region cannot be overestimated. 

Preliminary excavations at the cave of Amir-Temir in the moun- 
tains of Uzbekistan established the presence of three palaeolithic 
horizons in central Asia. The oldest of these, very similar to the 
upper level of Teshik-Tash, was referred to the Mousterian. The 
work at this place, the second palaeolithic site to be reported from 
this important region, was being, directed by Dr. A. P. Okladni- 
kov of Tashkent. 

All students of early man welcomed the publication of Dr. H. 
de Terra's views on the Pleistocene of China (Pub. No. 6 of the 
Inst. Gco-Biol., Peking). The most important single contribution 
of the work is that it focuses attention on the evidence of former 
glaciations in China. In the far east, as elsewhere in the old 
world, the Pleistocene climate underwent a series of major fluc- 
tuations, making it possible to date early human fossils as well 
as Stone Age implements more precisely than heretofore. Accord- 
ing to de Terra, the Sinanthropus deposits at the famous site of 
Chou Kou Tien may now be correlated with the 2nd Interglacial 
period in northwest India. 

Fossil Man. A, D. Lacaille of the Welcome Historical Medical 
museum, London, reported that he has been working on a large 
collection of Lower Aurignacian (Chatelperronian) flint and bone 
implements from the important site of Chatelperron. Associated 
with this material, excavated some years ago, a hitherto unpub- 
lished Upper Palaeolithic skull was "discovered," which was being 
studied by Prof. Morant. Of interest are the facts that the vault 
is extraordinarily thick and that it is very like the Combe-Capellc 
specimen in many respects. 

In a communication to the writer, Prof. C. van Riet Lowe 
stated that his assistant, Dr. B. D. Malan, excavated a cave with 
great success in the Union of South Africa. The site yielded "a 
Neanderthaloid skull with quantities of implements made on flakes 
struck from advanced Levallois (Middle Stone Age in South Afri- 
ca) cores plus a good fauna.' 1 This discovery is important for 
two reasons : (a) the human fossil is the first Neanderthaloid to be 
found in a definitely dated horizon in southern Africa (the age 
of Rhodesian man is uncertain), and (b) it is the only skull that 
has ever been found in this iegiun in an undisputed Middle Stone 
Age context. The Carnegie Institution of Washington announced 
that Dr. G. H. R. von Koenigswald had discovered a very heavy 
human mandible belonging to an absolutely new type of fossil 
man in the upper part of the Lower Pleistocene beds (Djetis hori- 
zon) of Java. In several respects this new specimen, the second 
Lower Pleistocene human fossil to be found in Asia, differs from 
Pithecanthropus erectus the Java ape-man. Presumably it would 
be accorded a new generic status. 

Neolithic and Later: The Near East. Florence E. Day estab- 
lished that the Islamic Omayyad (A.D. 661-750) ceramics found 



at Tarsus in Cilicia were actually manufactured at the site. This 
green glazed pottery has affinities with T'ang dynasty (A.D. 617- 
906) wares of China evidence that further confirms the intimate 
contact between the near and far east which existed at this period. 
For on the basis of A.D. 8th century Chinese records, it has been 
revealed that there were Chinese artisans at Kufa in Iraq during 
T'ang times. 

On the northern outskirts of modern Hama, situated in Syria 
on the Orontes river halfway between Damascus and Aleppo, exca- 
vations were made on a large mound by the Carlsbcrg foundation 
of Copenhagen from 1930-38. The work, details of which were 
available in 1941 for the first time, was directed by Dr. H. Ingholt. 
Twelve different levels of civilization (the last city was destroyed 
by Sargon in 720 B.C.) were revealed. The oldest level, which 
goes back to the 5th millennium B.C., overlies virgin soil, and it 
is characterized by burnished or fluted brown and black pottery. 
Stratum n contains characteristic Tel Halaf painted ware, to- 
gether with stone artifacts, a terra cotta seal and an animal 
figurine of clay. 

Above these neolithic strata are ten more levels which throw 
light on the development of Bronze and Iron Age culture at 
ancient Hama. 

In Palestine joint excavations by the American School of Orien- 
tal Research and the Hebrew university, near the school's property 
in Jerusalem, uncovered the remains of the old city wall. A 
stretch 23 mi. long, including a large tower, was exposed. This 
segment is on a line with previously discovered remains which to- 
gether cover a total length of some 600 mi. This so-called "third 
wall," referred to by Josephus, was built by Herod Agrippa and 
the Jews between A.D. 40 and 70. The pottery found overlying 
the portion discovered in 1941 demonstrates that by the Byzan- 
tine period this old wall had been completely stripped of its super- 
structure blocks for building purposes. 

Europe (General). From the point of view of European archae- 
ology it is difficult to overemphasize the importance of C. F. C. 

Hawkes's book, Prehistoric Foundations of Europe to the Myccncan Age. 
The author's conclusions differ in several respicls from those of Prof. V. G. 
Childe, whose second edition of The Dawn of European Civilization was 
hitherto the only up-to-date general book of a similar nature that had 
appeared in the English language. Both Hawkes and Childe stress the 
importance of the principles of diffusion and geographical factors with 
regard to the interpretation of the development of culture. Both attempt to 
synthesize the sum total of the evidence social, cultural and economic 
rather than certain classificatory abstractions. Although the scope of 
Hawkes's book is broader than that covered by Childe, there are available 
for students o( fhc prehistoric aspects of occidental civilization two authori- 
tative and unbiased accounts of the cultures that flourished in Europe up to 
the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. 



THE "THRONE OF SOLOMON," a fortrest In northwestern Iran, as seen from 
the air by members of the 1935-37 expedition of the Oriental Institute of Chi- 
cage. This photograph appeared in Flights over Ancient Cities of Iran, pub- 
lished in 1941 





DETAILS OF THE ANCIENT PALACF, TERRACE of the Persian kings at 
Persepolis stand out In bold relief in this aerial photograph taken by the Oriental 
Institute of Chicago during its expedition of 1935-37 and published in 1941 in 
Flights over Ancient Cities of Iran 

Cyprus. On the basis of new data obtained by careful excavation at the 
stratified site of Kourion, it was possible to study the history of the script 
used in Cyprus during the Classical period. According to Dr. J. F. Daniel, 
this was the last direct descendant of the Minoan linear scripts. At Kourion 
it first appears in the Late Cycladic I-A level and remains in use through 
L.C. III-A timesfrom about 1500-1150 B.C. Since the characters are 
derived directly from the Minoan linear script A and are devoid of Helladic 
influence, the new evidence demonstrated that the Late Bronze Age syllabary 
of Cyprus cannot have been introduced by Achaean colonists. 

Greece, Prof. W. B. Dinsmoor's detailed analysis of the dates when 
architectural and sculptural repairs were made on the temple of Zeus at 
Olympia resulted in his recognition of the fact that these repairs were ren- 
dered necessary by an earthquake which occurred during the first half of 
the 2nd century B.C. Thus it was shown that the much disputed substitute 
statues (Enutzfigurcn), discovered more than 60 years ago among the pedi- 
mental sculptures of the temple, may be dated between 169 and 165 B.C. 

Italy. In early 1941 mention was made of a steatopygous statuette, 
found near Reggio Emilia and originally attributed to the Upper Palaeolithic 
period. Subsequent excavations at this site, however, revealed that the 
locality where the statuette was discovered -Chiozza di Scandiano is an 
extensive neolithic cemetery containing numerous graves. These yielded 
implements of flint and polished stone, as well as typical neolithic pottery. 
Since the figurine was undoubtedly associated with one of these burials, 
views regarding its antiquity based on typological analogies have had to be 
somewhat modified. 

An exhaustive study of the published reports dealing with excavations at 
Terra Mare settlements in northern Italy, as well as a complete analysis 
of all the important collections from those sites, convinced Gosta Saflund 
(Skrifter Utgivna av Svcnska Institutct i Rom. vol. vii) that the plan of 
the typical Terrarnara, as reconstructed by Pigorini (on the basis of his i9th 
century work at Castcllazzo), is only a figment of the excavator's imagina- 
tion. For in reality a Terramara is a squalid Bronze Age village containing 
round or rectangular huts, which may or may not be raised on piles. As 
Dr. G. M. A. Hanfmnnn pointed out in his review of Saflund's book (see 
Anter. lour. Arch., xlv: 308-314 (1941]), those sites cannot conceivably 
be regarded as the forerunners of Roman camps. Nor does the evidence 
uphold Pigorini's theory that the Terra Mare were the originators of metal 
working in northern Italy. From a chronological point of view the Terra 
Mare arrived in Italy about the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. (1600 
B.C. at the very earliest) and began their decline during the Iron Age in- 
vasions (c. 900 B.C.), according to Hanfmann. On the basis of cultural 
analogies, this group is to be regarded as representing a prehistoric infiltra- 
tion of people from central Europe during Bronze Age times. 

As a result of building and constructional work, including the cxca\ -ttion 
of a deep-level underground railway, many new details pertaining to ancient 
Rome came to light. Among these were the remains of the temple of Bel- 
lona, dedicated a few years after it was vowed by Appius Claudius in 
296 B.C. 

The year 1941 witnessed the culmination of the huge official project for 
uncovering the major portion of Ostia, the port of ancient Rome, on which 
Guide Calza and his staff were engaged for some years. During the final 
season a large courtyard, without arcades and surrounded by more than 
20 rooms, was uncovered at that site. Several fine examples of statuary be- 
longing to the A.D. 2nd and 3rd centuries were found. 

Portugal. European archaeologists were eagerly awaiting further in- 
formation concerning Prof. H. Breuil's survey of prehistoric sites and an- 
cient monuments conducted on behalf of the Portuguese government. It 

62 



was understood that Breuil's report 
would be published in Lisbon. 

England. Although the war put 
a temporary stop to archaeological 
research in England, it had by no 
means halted intellectual activity. 
Indeed it offered an opportunity for 
synthesizing the tremendous collec- 
tion of facts that had been accumu- 
lating since 1932. Two of the fore- 
most British archaeologists Prof. 
V. G. Childe and Dr. Grahame Clark 
produced books of a fundamen- 
tally different nature. Childe's Pre- 
historic Communities of the, British 
/slcs was intended for students of 
European archaeology, whereas Pre- 
historic Britain by Dr. Clark was 
written primarily for the general 
public. Each authority stressed the 
importance of the social life of pre- 
historic man as the key to interpret- 
ing problems involving cultural de- 
velopment, economic activity and 
chronology a far cry from the now 
obsolete approach based entirely on 
typological considerations. 

Scotland. Prof. V. Gordon Childe 
of Edinburgh university announced 
that he had successfully dug out a 
Viking house at Freswick, which was 
brought to light during the course of 
commercial excavations. The site be- 
longs to the A.D. 1 3th century or 
later. 

Prof. Childe's survey of the rela- 
tion of chambered cairns to recent 
settlement on Rousay disclosed the 
interesting fact that each group of 

cairns corresponds closely to a recent township (croft) in the islands. This 
suggests that an economy very similar to that of the 2oth century charac- 
terized Late Bronze Age life on Rousay. The cairns themselves do not 
appear to be the burial places of rich chieftains, but rather genuinely com- 
munal. 

Ireland. 'In Eire pollen analysis as a means of accurately dating archaeo- 
logical finds from bogs and other unaerated deposits was making rapid 
strides. Drs. Mitchell, O'Leary and Raftery demonstrated that a Bronze 
Age halberd and a typically Irish looped spearhead in reality may be as- 
signed, on the basis of the palaeobotanical evidence, to periods that do not 
correspond to those suggested by the typology of the objects themselves. 
Professor Sean P. O'Riordain of University college, Cork, continued 
his excavations at Lough Gur in County Limerick during 1941. In a small 
house site enclosed partly by low upright stones, and partly by natural 
rock, fragments of pottery in association with stone implements were found. 
This evidence, strongly suggesting a neolithic occupation in the Lough Gur 
region, is in accord with the implications of Professor O'Riordain's previous 
discovery of quantities of Windmill Hill (neolithic) pottery at the site. 

Northern Europe- -Carl-Axel Mobcrg's Zonenglicdcrungen dcr vorchrist- 
lichen Eisc.nzeit in Nordcuropa (Lund, 1941) is a comprehensive treatise 
on the fifth and sixth periods of the Northern Bronze Age, the three periods 
of the Pre-Christian Iron Age, and the earlier part of the so-called Roman 
Iron Age in northern Europe. This work was welcomed by a wide circle of 
old world archaeologists. It is an excellent reference book in which the 
author attempted to define the relationships of the several cultures involved 
on the basis of geographical and climatic factors. 

Swcdcn.--\n important series of pagan monuments found on the island 
of Gotland and dating from the 5th to the nth centuries was described 
by Dr. Sune Lindqvist in his book, Gotland* Bildsteinc. These monu- 
ments are sculptured with figures of horsemen, warriors, ships, etc. The 
book adds a great deal to existing knowledge of the culture of Gotland dur- 
ing dnrk age times when this island was an important trading centre con- 
necting ihe east, via the Russian rivers, with the Baltic and Atlantic sea 
routes. 

U.S.S.R. (Uzbekistan). From the A.D. 9th to the isth centures U/be- 
kistan (Russian Turkestan) was the centre of an extensive state. In fact 
during the Samanid period its control extended to northern Afghanistan. 
Khurasan and otlrr parts of Persia. In the two most important cities 
Samarkand and Bukhara there were many important architectural monu- 
ments, which were falling into a bad state of repair. It was gratifying to 
learn, therefore, that the soviet government established a Committee for 
the Preservation and Study of Monuments of Material Culture. In 1941, 
80 of the most important Samanid buildings were being restored. 

With regard to prehistoric times the potentialities of Uzbekistan cannot 
he overemphasized. Huge tells, such as Afrasiyab the site of ancient 
Samarkand were identified. By the close of 1941 there had been very few 
controlled excavations on this or any of the other ruined cities in the region. 
A series of burial mounds between the Chirchik and Boz-Su rivers, near 
Kaunchi-Tepe, wa.s bc.-ing excavated by the newly formed Uzbekistan ' Com- 
mittee for the Preservation and Study of Monuments and Material Culture. 
These barrows contained thousands of burials representing three periods:' 
(a) typical Late Bronze Age tumuli similar to those of central Europe and 
the Ukraine, (b) a group of Iron Age burials of about 500 B.C., and (c) 
catacomb graves containing elaborate funerary furniture and attributed to 
A.D. 3rd and 4th centuries. 

Iran. Erich Schmidt's book, Flights over Ancient Cities of Iran (Sp. 
Pub. Oriental Inst. Uni. Chicago), is not only an outstanding contribution 
to Iranian archaeology, but also a brilliant demonstration of the infinite 
possibilities which aerial photography offers the archaeologist; for (a) ex- 
plorations and general survey work can be accomplished quickly and cffi- 



ARCHERY ARCHITECTURE 



63 



cienfjy, (b) it is possible to document prehistoric sites in their topographical 
environment, and (c) the vertical air view provides the excavator with a 
base-map a 'complete record of surface clues often invisible from the 
ground. Indeed, the air-map is actually superior in many respects to the 
ground survey, which requires several months to complete and considerable 
expenditures. The publication of Flights over Ancient Cities oj Iran may 
be considered the archaeological "event of the year" as far as the old world 
is concerned. In addition to being the most elaborate and comprehensive 
work that has ever appeared in the field of aerial archaeology, this book 
points the direction along which research will be conducted in the future. 

Information was in 1941 available regarding the 1937 excavations by 
the American Institute of Iranian Art and Archaeology at Kuh-i-Dasht in 
southern Luristan. In a circular stone sanctuary a considerable number of 
small bronzes, revealing a superlative skill, were brought to light. These 
votive figures chiefly represent goats, frogs and a miniature unicorn all in 
the round as well as an interesting series of repoussS disks. Several of 
the latter, known from other sites in Iran and the Caucasus, display As- 
syrian affinities. It was established that they were used as cult standards 
rather than as hairpins, For the most part the Kuh-i-Dasht bronzes may 
be dated to the end of the 2nd millennium B.C. (c. 1200 B.C.). 

China. Sites containing Late Neolithic black pottery, hitherto kjiown 
only from Shantung, Honan and Anhwei in eastern China, were reported by 
Sterling S. Beath from the vicinity of Hangchow in Chekiang province, 
south of the Yangtze valley. This ware is for the most part wheel-made and 
burnished on the wheel when nearly dry. Its eggshell thinness indicates a 
highly developed ceramic technique: 

Philippines. Rev. J. F. Ewtog, SJ,, was in the Philippines in 1941, 
where he secured a large anthropometric series from the island of Mindanao. 
He also announced that he had discovered rich mesolithic as well as neo- 
lithic sites in this area, Although Father Ewing did no actual digging, nor 
was he likely to during the war, it was very significant that stone imple- 
ments and pottery, of the same types as those found by Dr. Beyer in the 
vicinity of Manila, also occur on Mindanao. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Palaeolithic period: Dordogne cave, Time, xxxviii, No. 
4, pp. 48-50 (July 28, 1941); Northwest Africa, Papers of the Peabody 
museum, xix: 1-173 (1941); South Africa, Bur. of Arch, of the Union of 
South Africa, Dept. of the Interior,- Pretoria, Arch. Ser., No. iv (1941); 
Uzbekistan cave, Inst. Material Culture, U.S.S.R., Short Communications. 
vi: 67-69; Early Man in China, Inst. Geo-Biol., Pekin, Pub. No. 6, pp. 1-54 
(1941). Neolithic and Later: The Near East: Tarsus, Asia, xli, No. 3, pp. 
143-146 (1941); Hama, Asia, xli, No. 4, pp. 199-202 (1941); Jerusalem 
Bull. Amer. Schools Oriental Res., No. 81, pp. 6-10 (1941); ibid., No. 83. 
pp. 4-7 (1941); Cyprus, Amer. Jour, Arch., xlv, No. 2, pp. 249-282 
(1941); Greece, ibid., xlv, No. 3, pp. 399-427 (1941); Italy, ibid., xlv. 
No. 3, pp. 451-475 (1941); Ireland, Proc., Roy. Irish Acad., xlvi, sec. C. 
pp. 287-298 (1941); Irish Travel, pp. 141-142 (April 1941); Sweden 
(Island of Gotland), Kungl. Vitterhets historic och antikvitets akademien 
(Stockholm, 1941); U.S.S.R. (Uzbekistan), Asia, xli, No. 2, pp. 102-106 
(1941); ibid., xli, No. 5, pp. 243-244 (1941); ibid., xli, No. 12, pp. 725- 
727 (1941); Iran, III. London News, March i, May 31 and Sept. 6 (1941); 
China, Asia, xli, No. i, pp. 47-50 (1941). (H. L. Ms.) 



Architecture. 



annua ^ tournament of the National Arch- 
ery association, which was held at Portland, Ore., 
Aug. 5-9, 1941, was noteworthy because in every target event the 
record was either broken or tied. Larry Hughes of Burbank, 
Calif., won the men's championship and set up records of 141- 
827 in the Single York and 90-744 in the Single American. Miss 
Ree Dillinger of Bloomfield, N.J., won the ladies' championship 
by the narrow margin of one point over Miss Mildred Miller of 
Milwaukee, Wis., the final standing being Miss Dillinger 2,098, 
Miss Miller 2,097. Miss Dillinger made a new record of 72-584 
in the Single Columbia and Miss Miller made a new record of 
72-522 in the Single National. Dorothy Axtelle of Tacoma, 
Wash., won the girls' championship and established a new record 
of 144-1,022 in the Double Columbia. Billy West of Joplin, Mo., 
won the boys' championship and hung up a new record of 180- 
1,426 in the Double Junior American. 

The 1 2th Annual Intercollegiate contest sponsored by the National Arch- 
ery association was held in May with 148 teams (S archers to a team) 
representing 95 colleges competing. In the women's division, first place 
was taken by Team I from the University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., 
and in the men's division, first place was taken by the team representing 
Los Angeles City college, Los Angeles, Calif. 

In May 1941 the National Archery association also sponsored an inter- 
scholastic contest between teams (6 archers to a team) representing high 
schools. First place in the girls' division went to Bloomfield high school, 
Bloomfield, N.J., and first place in the boys' division to Forest Grove Union 
high school, Forest Grove, Ore. 

The National Field Archers association inaugurated and successfully 
carried out a series of field archery contests by mall. 

An outstanding performance of the 1941 archery season was that of Larry 
Hughes, the national champion, in making a Single York round score of 
142-910 in a competitive event. (L. C. S.) 

Architects, Amtrfccm Institute of: see AMERICAN INSTI- 
TUTE or ARCHITECTS. 



The war was too dominant a factor in the 
daily and national life of 1941 to allow archi- 
tecture to continue along its normal progress as an "art of build- 
ing." The buildings in which individuals were free to choose their 
form of expression and .carry out their experimentations could 
no longer be built. The international exchange of thought which 
had stimulated architectural progress had ceased. No new the- 
ories as important as those of Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier 
or Walter Gropius were expressed. 

The architecture of the war period became a science of build- 
ing, which dealt with the problems of supplying as expeditiously 
as possible the buildings needed for the expansion of the armed 
forces, of the industries producing war material, and of the 
housing and incidental building required for the security of na- 
tions. The war imposed limitations; shortages in materials 
were felt, air-raid precautions had to be considered, govern- 
mental 'control was increased, and construction had to proceed 
with unusual speed. The combination of these factors with the 
increasing complexity of architecture led toward greater co-oper- 
ation between specialists. Large-scale planning was undertaken, 
not only in dealing with the emergency, but also in preparation 
for the postwar period. 

Design and Planning. The design of buildings for abnormal 
war-time needs demanded, aside from rapidity of construction, 
unusual economy and efficiency. 

In industrial architecture the one-story factory established 
itself as the prevalent type due to the manufacturers' desire 
for large, clear areas unobstructed by columns, stairs or ele- 
vators. Such buildings allowed for the proper "flow" in produc- 
tion and easily facilitated changes which came as a result of 
research, the making of new products or the installation of higher 
speed machinery. Progress in fluorescent lighting and air condi- 
tioning made the design of windowless factory buildings practi- 
cable. Under the consideration of blackouts, night shifts and the 
effects from solar radiation through glass areas, this type had 
many advantages to offset its increased initial expense. 

In the design of housing for the workers (see HOUSING) the re- 
quirement of low cost was mandatory with the insistence that the 
rent to the occupant be kept within a reasonable percentage of 
his earnings (not more than one-fifth). In American defense 
housing, the cost per family unit was substantially below that of 
similar units built during the war of 1914-18. Savings were 
achieved without loss of comfort by cheaper and more efficient 
construction, the elimination of all unessential features, a par- 
ing down of the spaces to minimums established for decent living, 
and the omission of wasteful attics, cellars or rooms for dining. 
Labour costs were reduced by the use of mass production methods, 
standardization and prefabrication. To provide the dwellings 
in as short a time as possible and to avoid "ghost towns" after 
the war, the government established three classifications of de- 
fense housing : permanent, demountable and portable. 

In general, a greater concern over the problems of town and re- 
gional planning was shown. In Great Britain, this found expres- 
sion in the formulation of policies for postwar reconstruction. In 
America, building programs were prepared as a "work reserve" for 
the period of demobilization. In both places, further need for a 
central planning authority was indicated. 

Materials and Methods. The shortage of building materials 
was particularly felt in the metals, where the difficulty of obtain- 
ing steel had far-reaching consequences. Aluminum was com- 
pletely unavailable for building purposes and difficulties were en- 
countered in the procurement of tin, brass, copper and the alloys. 
To deal with these shortages, gpvernmental regulations allowed 
building only wherever necessary for defense or essential to the 
health and safety of the people. In Great Britain, special authori- 



ARCHITECTURE 



zation was required for building operations costing more than 
100. The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, 
London, issued bulletins dealing with wartime construction meth- 
ods as affected by fire risks, the vulnerability of glazing under 
aerial bombardment, the provision of adequate lighting in working 
spaces combined with methods for blackouts, and the shortages of 
materials; in all recommended procedures, an attempt was made 
to maintain comfort at the normal level.' 

In the United States, a general priorities plan was worked out 
by the Office of Production Management of the national govern- 
ment to provide materials for essential construction. To accom- 
plish this, a priority rating was required for the purchase of 
critical building materials. No private residential building was 
considered acceptable for priority if costing more than $6,000 
per family unit or demanding rent of more than $50 per month. 
The feature of demountability, which was adopted for houses and 
schools in communities to be dismantled after the emergency, gave 
prefabrication a long-awaited opportunity. The shortage in steel 
increased the structural use of wood in America, and caused its 
revival as a building material for the construction of industrial 
buildings. Larger spans of lighter sections worked into trusses 
or lamella (lattice-type) roofs became characteristic of modern 
A f ood construction in opposition to the heavier beams and short 
spans of the older mill-type construction. 

Among the materials which were outstanding in the progress of 
their development were glass and plywood. Both played an im- 
portant role in that phase of progress in architectural design 
which grew out of technological changes. The use of glass blocks 
increased. Sheets of glass rendered unbreakable by heat treat- 
ment found popular appeal, particularly in store entrances where 
they permitted the elimination of supporting and enframing mem- 
bers and thereby gave increased vision. 

With the development of two-directional bending of plywood 
for aeroplane construction came suggestions for the application of 
the new opportunities thus gained, in architecture and interior 
design. A chair was developed by Saarinen and Eames, which was 
moulded out of plywood to fit the human form. The 4o-year-old 
method of plywood production in the United States saw the per- 
fection of lathes capable of unwinding a continuous veneer 16 ft. 
wide and i in. thick and a mile in length from an average 6 
ft. diameter "peeler" log. The discovery of new types of glues 
and of synthetic resin bonding agents further improved the quality 
of plywood and lowered its cost. 

Plastics came into wider use for all types of building acces- 
sories, hardware and lighting fixtures. 

A system of providing comfort by radiating heat at a lower 
temperature from labyrinths of pipes within the floors or ceilings 
of rooms gained further acceptance in the United States, where 
fluctuations of extremes of temperature had hitherto prevented 
the ready appeal of this method. In keeping with the need for 
low-cost housing, new types of heating apparatus, economical both 
as to the use of space and the initial as well as operation cost, 
were manufactured. 

Examples of Recent Architecture. In England, according to 
an official statement from the ministry of works and buildings, 
more than 200 firms of architects in private practice, employing 
upward of 650 technical assistants, were engaged in the construc- 
tion of hospitals, hostels, camps, stores, etc. In addition, 
panels which contained the names of more than 350 firms of archi- 
tects were drawn upon for the development of air-raid shelter 
schemes and government buildings, to report on air-raid damage 
and advise on the precautions to be taken for the safeguarding of 
historic buildings. The design of shelters for protection from 
air raids was approached from a scientific basis, taking into ac- 
count the destructive effect of bombs, standards necessary for 



the preservation of morale, the cost, and the distribution of 
shelters with regard to accessibility. Bomb-proof shelters were 
advocated by Tecton, architects, in the forms of cylinders built 
downward into the earth with several stories arranged in spiral 
fashion. (See also AIR RAID SHELTERS.) 

In the United States, construction contracts for 1941 indicated 
the largest volume of building for any year since 1929. The types 
of buildings which constituted this volume were primarily in the 
fields of military construction, industrial building and housing 
for defense workers. Buildings which in normal times occupied 
the majority of architects had declined in volume. 

A few examples of civilian architecture, unaffected by the war, 
were completed. Kleinhans Music hall, Buffalo, N.Y., F. J. and 
W. A. Kidd, architects, Eliel Saarinen, associate, echoed that type 
of design in which interest in form and the texture of material 
were supplemented by a decorative treatment of the surfaces. In 
the arrangement of the architectural masses the curved shapes of 
two music halls (dedicated to chamber music and orchestral per- 
formances) were brought into interesting interplay. The walls, 
both inside and out, were enriched by geometric patterns obtained 
through the jointing of the stone and plywood used for the pan- 
elled walls. In the design for the Washington airport building, 
Howard L. Cheney, consulting architect, the symmetry about the 
central axis and the classic proportion of the principal motives 
of the facades, showed in a dominant central portion the continu- 
ing popularity of traditional architecture. In contrast, the 
hangars of this airport, with their undecorated functional use 
of curved steel trusses, expressed modern functionalism which in 
part was also discernible in the broad ribbons of glass of the 
wings of the airport building. The Crow Island school at Win- 
netka, 111., Eliel and Eero Saarinen, designers, was built of glass 
and brick in a modern design ; the unusual plan produced in addi- 
tion to a maximum of natural light for the classrooms and lobby 
an unusually cheerful atmosphere. In this building, it was shown 
that recent modern architecture had departed from the boxlike 
starkness by which it was characterized when it first appeared 
in Europe. 

Regional characteristics of modern residential architecture 
found their expression on the west coast in the work of the archi- 
tects of Los Angeles and San Francisco, on the east coast by 
the architects of New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Washing- 
ton, and in the midwest, in Chicago. Among these, the work of 
Edward D. Stone of New York showed a use of glass which al- 
lowed for an uninterrupted visual combination of the outdoors 
with the inner spaces. It also demonstrated that modern architec- 
ture could express in designs the characteristics of the individuals 
for whom they were intended, instead of being impersonal state- 
ments of the dogmas of a style. 

Many factories were built of unprecedented size with unusual 
rapidity. Opinions were divided on the use of natural lighting. 
The Ford factoiy at Dearborn, Mich., Giffels & Vailet, Inc. and 
L. Rossetti, architects, was an example of windowless construc- 
tion. Speed of construction was demonstrated in the building 
of a 380,000 sq.ft. propeller plant for the Curtiss-Wright corpora- 
tion at Caldwell, N.J., Albert Kahn, Inc., architects, which was 
ready for operation within 68 working days from the beginning 
of excavation. 

The housing project at Indian Head, Md. was devoted to experi- 
mentation with and demonstration of prefabrication for residential 
buildings. Although most houses kept the traditional appearance 
typified by sloping roofs and the application of some ornamen- 
tal features to satisfy popular demand, they; .varied substan- 
tially in their systems of construction. At Grand Prairie, Tex. 
it was demonstrated that an entire building could be erected and 
completed on the site within one day. Houses of cylindrical and 








Above, left: PROPELLER PLANT of the Curtiss-Wright corporation 
at Caldwell, N.J., completed in 68 days in 1941; Albert Kahn, 
architect 



Above, right: BALCONY of the Washington, D.C., airport's adminls- 
tration building, opened June 16, 1941; Howard L. Cheney, con- 
sulting architect 



Upper centre: ROOF TERRACE of apartment building at 240 
Central Park South, New York city; Albert Mayer, architect 



Lower centre: PLANT of Industrial Tape corporation, New Bruns- 
wick, N.J.; R. G. and W. M. Cory, architects 



Below, left: ENTRANCE of the School for Crippled Children, Denver, 
Colo.; Burnham Hoyt, architect 



Below, right: KLEINHANS MUSIC HALL, Buffalo. N.Y.; F. J. and 
W A. Kidd, architects, and Eliel Saarinen, associate 




66 



ARCHIVES, NATIONAL AREAS AND POPULATIONS 



domed forms were proposed as answers to the problems of low- 
cost housing and pref abrication. Buckminster Fuller demonstrated 
the conversion of a mass produced steel grain bin into a demount- 
able house. A number of dome-shaped residences designed by 
Wallace A., Neff, architect, were built at Falls Church, Va., by 
spraying concrete (Gunite) over inflated balloons. Thirty thou- 
sand dwelling units, out of an estimated demand of 300,000 for 
workers in defense industries, were designed by independent prac- 
tising architects under the direction of the division of defense 
housing of the Federal Works authority. The size of the projects 
ranged from 20 to 1,690 family units. Row houses and single fam- 
ily buildings, with flat or sloping roofs, were typical of these. At 
Vallejo, Calif, the largest project, William Wurster, architect, 
interesting methods of mass production and assembly were applied. 
Also other government agencies, such as the Federal Security ad- 
ministration and the Public Building administration, were greatly 
active in this field. (See BUILDING AND BUILDING INDUSTRY.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Sigfried Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture (Cam- 
bridge, 1941); Frederick Gutheim, Frank Lloyd Wright on Architecture 
(1941); Tecton, Architects, Planned A.R.P. (1941); Decorative Art, 1941, 
The Studio Yearbook (1941); Department of Scientific and Industrial Re- 
search, Wartime Bulletins (London, 1941); Office for Emergency Manage- 
ment, division of defense housing co-ordination, Standards for Defense 
Housing (1941); National Resources Planning board, After 
What? (1941); periodicals for the year 1941, The Architect 
(London); Journal of the R.LB.A. (London); The Architectu 
Architectural Record. ( 



Arohiuoc Motinnal 

nlUIIVGo, lldllUlldl. 



This institution ' created 

congress in 1934 and administered by 
the archivist of the United States, has as its pri 
the concentration and preservation in the National Archives build- 
ing of such noncurrent records of the government of the United 
States as have permanent value and their administration so as to 
facilitate their use for governmental or research purposes. 

Because of its services during the emergency of 1941, the Na- 
tional Archives was designated in Oct. 1941 as one of the national 
defense agencies of the government. More than half of the 81,000 
cu.ft. of records transferred to the National Archives 
the fiscal year 1941 came from the war and navy departments and 
other defense agencies, and the total of 330,000 cu.ft. of material 
in its custody included many records of World War I that were 
especially useful to defense agencies seeking info 
cerning that war. Chiefly as a result of this use, the 
of requests for services on records received during the year ex 
ceeded in number those received during the two preceding years 
combined. 

The Franklin D. Roosevelt library at Hyde Park, N.Y., which is 
also administered by the archivist, was dedicated on 
1941. The museum portions of the building, opened to the public 
on that day, were visited by nearly 30,000 persons by Sept. 30. 

Solon J. Buck took office as archivist of the United States on 
Sept. 18, 1941, succeeding Dr. R. D. W. Connor, the first archi- 
vist, who resigned to accept a newly endowed professorship at 
the University of North Carolina, 

Arctic Exploration: see EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY. 

Areas and Populations of the Countries 

nf thp World The table that follows & ives the latest avail - 

Ul UIB Itllllll* able figures for the area in square miles, the 
population in thousands and the population per square mile of 
the different countries of the world, 



Area 

Name of State (in Square 

Miles) 

Andorra 191 

Argentina x, 079,965 

Australia, Commonwealth of ... 3,157,936 

Belgian colonial empire 930,887 

Belgium ",775 

Bohemia- Mora via, Protectorate 
of (as of March 1939) (Czecho- 
slovakia) 18,914 

Bolivia (adjusted area) 420,740 

Brazil 3,285,246 

British colonial empire 3,713,029 

Bulgaria 39,825 

Burma 261,610 

Canada 3,694,863 

Chile 286,396 

China, total 4,480,092 

China Proper 2,003,475 

Manchuria (excl. of Kwantung) 482,440 

Mongolia 625,783 

Tibet 469,294 

Colombia 439,997 

Costa Rica 23,000 

Cuba 44J44 

Danzig (as of Sept. i, 1 93Q) . . . 754 

Denmark (exclusive of Greenland) 16,598 

Dominican Republic 19,326 

Ecuador (excl. of uninhabited terri- 
tory) 175,630 

Egypt (excl. of uninhabited terri- 



Population 

(ooo's 
omitted) 

6 
13,130 

7,984 
14,140 

8,396 



6,794 

3,350 

44,116 

70,725 

6,305 

16,119 

11,301 

4,684 

457,836 

422,708 

29,328 

2,078 

3,722 

8,702 

639 

4,253 

405 

3,825 

1,656 

3,200 



Population 



Name of State 



Afghanistan 
Albania 



Area 

(in Square 
Miles) 

250,900 
10,800 



Population 

(ooo's 
omitted) 

r 0,000 
1,063 



3L4 

12.2 

2.5 

15.2 

713.0 



359-2 
8.0 

13-4 
19.0 

158.3 

61.6 

3.1 

16.4 

IO2.2 

145 6 

60.8 

33 

79 

19.8 

27.8 

96.3 

537-1 

230.4 

85-7 

18.2 



Defense 


tory) 


383,000 


16,522 


43-1 


ral Review 


Estonia 


18,533 


1,134 


61.2 


ral Forum; 


Finland 


147,811 


3,800 


25-7 


W.F.B.) 


France 


212,659 


41,980 


197 4 




French colonial empire 


4,687,336 


7U74 


15-2 


r 


Germany (as of May 1939. Incl. 








>y act of 


Memel) 


226,196 


79,364 


350.9 


istcrcd by 


Great Britain and Northern Ire- 










land, United Kingdom of ... 


94,279 


47,745 


506.4 


purposes 


Greece 


50,147 


7,io8 


I4I.7 


ves build- 


Guatemala 


45,452 


3,284 


72.3 




Haiti 


10,204 


3,000 


294.0 


he United 


Honduras 


46,332 


1,106 


23 9 


n so as to 


Hungary (as of April 1939) . . . 


40,530 


10,186 


251.3 




Iceland 


39,709 


1 20 


30 


JS. 


India (exclusive of Burma) .... 


1,575,187 


362,828 


230.3 


, the Na- 


Iran (Persia) 
Iraq 


634,360 
116,600 


15,000 
3,700 


23.6 
31-7 


e national 


Ireland (Eire) 


26,601 


2,968 


in. 6 




Italian colonial empire 


1,346,415 


13,129 


9-8 


he 81,000 


Italy 


119,764 


43,993 


367 3 


es during 
nents and 


Japan . 
Japanese empire 
Latvia 


147,702 
115,321 
25,395 


72,876 
31,762 
1,951 


403 4 
275 4 
76.8 


" material 


Liberia 


46,000 


2,500 


54-3 




Liechtenstein 


65 


12 


184.6 


that were 


Lithuania (exclusive of Memel) 


22,959 


2,879 


125,4 


tinn rnn- 


Luxembourg 


1,000 


30i 


301.0 


LlV/ll CUii 


Mexico 


763,944 


19,546 


25-6 


e number 


Monaco 


0-59 


24 


40,678.0 




Netherlands 


13,203 


8,865 


671.4 


year ex- 


Netherlands colonial empire . . 


789,962 


67,719 


88.3 


ing years 


Newfoundland and Labrador . . 


152,734 


296 


19 




New Zealand 


104,751 


1,700 


16.2 




Nicaragua 


49,000 


1,172 


23 9 


, which is 


Norway (including Svalbard) . . . 


148,850 


2,952 


10.8 




Oman and Muscat 


80,000 


500 


6.3 


June 30, 


Panama (exclusive of Canal Zone) 


28,950 


548 


18.9 


Jie public 


Paraguay (area adjusted) .... 
Peru (revised areas) 


154,165 
482,258 


955 
7,200 


6.2 

14 9 


pt. 30. 


Poland 


150,470 


35,ooo 


233.2 


CfatAe nn 


Portugal (incl. Azores and Madeira 








OUtlCo UIl 


Ida.) 


35,490 


7,539 


2T2.4 


rst archi- 


Portuguese colonial empire. . . . 


803,638 


9,46o 


xi. 8 




Rumania 


113,919 


20,045 


176.0 


orship at 


Salvador 


13,176 


1,745 


132.4 


I Bu.) 


San Marino 


38 


14 


368. 4 




Saudi Arabia 


800,000 


4,500 


5-6 




Slovakia. 


18,914 


2,691 


142.3 


RY. *' 


South Africa, Union of 


472,550 


10,341 


21.9 




Spain 


194,^08 


3597S 


133 7 




Spanish colonial empire 


128,690 


1,005 


78 




Sweden 


'73,347 


6,341 


36.6 




Switzerland 


15,944 


4,216 


264.4 




Thailand (Siam) 


200,148 


15,718 


78.5 


cst avail- 


Turkey 


300,214 


17,870 


59 5 


nilpc tViA 


United States . * 


3,022,387 


131,670 


43-6 


lliiCS) LUC 

e mile of 


United States territories and pos- 
sessions 


712,822 


18,952 


26.6 




Uruguay. 


73,153 


3,'i47 


29.8 




U.S.S.R 


8,176,000 


170,467 


20. 8 


Population 
per Square 
Mile 


Vatican City 
Venezuela 
Yemen 
Yugoslavia . 


0.17 

75,000 
95.576 


x 

3,6iS 
3,500 
15,703 


5,882.4 
10.3 
46.7 
164.3 


39-9 
984 


World Totals 


51,237,706 


3JS9,X33 


43.x 



ARGENTINA 



07 



^ republic on the Atlantic coast of southern South 
America and second largest country of the conti- 
nent; language Spanish; Capital, Buenos Aires; President, Dr. 
Roberto M. Ortiz (acting president, Dr. Ram6n Castillo). The 
area is 1,079,965 sq.mi., slightly over a third of that of the United 
States. The religion is Roman Catholic. 

No official census has been taken since 1914, but official esti- 
mates placed the population at 13,318,320 as of Dec. 31, 1940. 
No other American country except Canada has as large a propor- 
tion of whites. Native-born persons of European stock aggregated 
76.9%, mixed bloods 3-2% and foreign-born (almost entirely 
European) 19-9%. A majority of the population is of pure 
Spanish stock, nearly a third is Italian or part-Italian, and an 
estimated 250,000 are German or part -German. Buenos Aires 
had a population of 2,515,729 (1941 municipal census), or 3,700,- 
ooo with its suburbs. Other cities (with est. pop.) include: Ro- 
sario (513,000) ; Avellaneda (suburb of Buenos Aires) (386,000) ; 
La Plata (248,000); Cordoba (213,000); Santa F6 (147,000); 
Tucuman (147,000); Bahia Blanca (115,000); Mendoza (82,- 
ooo); Parana (72,000). In 1916-41, cities and villages of 1,000 
or more inhabitants increased their total population by 108% 
and aggregated 75% of the whole in 1941, while the rural popula- 
tion remained stationary. Around 45% of the population lives in 
Buenos Aires province and in the Federal District (the city of 
Buenos Aires). 

Government is federal in form, with legislative power vested 
in a bicameral congress. There are 14 provinces, a federal dis- 
trict and 10 territories. The constitution is modelled broadly 
on that of the United States. The provinces, however, have in 
general less autonomy than do the individual North American 
states. 

History. Argentine history in 1941 was marked by sharp in- 
ternal political conflict, by serious international frictions, notably 
in regard to nazi propaganda activities, and in general by a closer 
relationship with the rest of the Americas. In short, Argentine 
development during the year followed the general course of 
world events, which vitally affected it, but policies and procedure 
were conditioned by domestic political considerations. 

Domestic politics played an important role. With a Conserva- 
tive acting-president and a chamber of deputies controlled by 
the opposition Radical (i.e. f Liberal) party, the year was marked 
by almost constant political strife. Tension increased as the 
year wore on, and lessened only with the adjournment of congress 
in October. 

Much of the political confusion arose from the continued ill- 
ness of President Ortiz, who, prior to withdrawing in favour of 
Vice-President Ramon Castillo in July 1940, had enforced a 
policy of fair elections. Under Ortiz, the Radical party, after 
wandering in a political wilderness since 1930, had gained control 
of the lower house of congfess and several provincial govern- 
ments. Neutral observers conceded that the Radical party had 
the confidence of the country, and for this reason the party de- 
manded annulment of fraudulent provincial elections in Mendoza 
(Dec. 15, 1940) and Santa Fe (Jan. 5, 1941). The Radical party 
adopted an obstructive policy in congress and refused to pass 
essential legislation, hoping thus to force free-election pledges 
from Acting-Pres. Castillo. By May only a handful of bills had 
been acted upon, no budget for the year had been approved, and 
no ratification made of the $100,000,000 U.S. Export-Import 
bank loan to Argentina. When Castillo by executive decree ex- 
tended the 1940 budget and declared his intention of governing 
by decree if necessary, the Radical deputies terminated their boy- 
cott (May 6). Meanwhile, in January, two outstanding cabinet 
members likewise resigned, reportedly in protest against Castil- 
lo's election policy Foreign Minister Julio A. Roca (vice-presi- 



dent from 1932 to 1938) and Finance Minister Federico Pinedo. 

Amid this heavily charged atmosphere came another serious 
problem that of nazi and fascist propaganda and other activity 
in Argentina. Charges of totalitarian propaganda in the army and 
of subversive activities in other quarters were aired in congress 
in June. In response to a formal congressional demand, Interior 
Minister Culaciatti officially admitted intense nazi activities in 
many directions but denied their importance (June 18). The 
chamber of deputies thereupon named a committee, headed by 
Deputy Raul Damonte Taborda, to investigate "activities con- 
trary to the institutions and sovereignty of the Argentine Re- 
public." The Damonte committee, although denied administrative 
and police aid, made a sweeping investigation, and during late 
August and September presented a series of reports with startling 
disclosures. It formally charged that the nazi party, although 
formally dissolved by presidential decree of May 15, 1939, still 
existed with an organization on military lines throughout Argen- 
tina, with the German ambassador directing its activities. German 
embassy expenditures, it was shown, were 36 times as great 
(5*983,000 pesos) in the year ending June 30, 1941 as in 1938-39; 
500,000 pesos in bearer checks had been issued in a single week, 
part to the nazi propaganda organ El Pampero; the German news 
agency Transocean was disclosed to be purely a subsidized propa- 
ganda vehicle. Evidence was given, too, of active axis agents 
among German schools in the Argentine, of German control of 
2,000,000,000 pesos of Argentine business through nazi conquests 
in Europe, a regular system of assessment of Germans resident 
in the Argentine, and presence of at least 60,000 nazis in Buenos 
Aires alone. At the same time, there was revealed the existence of 
strategically located German groups, not only in Argentine areas 
such as Patagonia and Misiones territory (the northernmost finger 
of Argentina), but in other South American countries as well. 
(See BRAZIL; HISPANIC AMERICA AND WORLD WAR II.) 

The chamber of deputies quickly passed, by a vote of 88 to i, a 
resolution declaring German Ambassador Baron Edmund von 
Thermann persona non grata and demanding his expulsion. Von 
Thermann himself refused to withdraw, and in September, Acting- 
Pres. Castillo formally "dissociated" his administration from the 
congressional demand, an act recalling Pres. Irigoyen's flat dis- 
regard, in 1917, of a similar congressional resolution after dis- 
closure of German anti-Argentine activity. 

Indicative of the administration's unwillingness to antagonize 
the axis powers was its cautious, legalistic policy toward axis 
shipping in Argentine harbours. Refusing to follow the lead of 
the United States, in seizing axis and axis-controlled ships, the 
government entered into negotiations with Italy and after long 
delay purchased 16 Italian ships totalling 88,000 gross tons. 
These were made the nucleus of a state-owned merchant marine. 

Meanwhile, Argentina had moved toward a hemisphere econ- 
omy, taking steps in the direction of a qualified Pan Americanism, 
notably by ratification, in July, of the Havana conference pacts 
by unanimous vote of both houses of congress. As a result of the 
Rio de la Plata regional conference in Jan. 1941, a treaty was 
signed with Brazil (Nov. 21) providing reciprocal progressive 
reduction of duties on non -competitive commodities, tariff exemp- 
tion of new industrial products, and improvement of communi- 
cations between the two countries. Other trade pacts were made 
with Bolivia and Cuba, and negotiations were started with Chile, 
Paraguay and Uruguay. 

Most important of all trade agreements, however, because of its 
dual political and economic implication, was one with the United 
States, signed on Oct. 14 after long and protracted negotiations. 
Under this agreement, tariff duties on 84 items, which accounted 
for 93% of Argentina's 1938 and 1939 exports to the United 
States, were cut roughly 50%, while Argentina reduced her duties 



68 



ARGENTINA 



on a variety of United States exports by 25% to 50%. The most 
important Argentine commodities affected were canned meat, 
wool, hides, linseed and casein. Although the status of Argentine 
fresh meat was unchanged its importation into the United States 
having been banned since 1927 on grounds regarded by Argentina 
as not only flimsy but gratuitously insulting the general effect of 
the agreement was to remove a major impediment to hemispheric 
solidarity. Meanwhile, a British contract was made for 500,000 
tons of Argentine beef (the entire exportable surplus) in the year 
ending Oct. 1942. Similar large-scale cotton and grain contracts, 
were made with Spain (see SPAIN). 

Conflicting territorial claims in the Antarctic continued to be 
an issue with Chile; parleys on the subject, although amicable, 
were without concrete result. Spread of World War II to the 
Americas raised another question with Chile revision of an 1881 
treaty forbidding fortification of Magellan strait (see CHILE). 
Argentine claims to the Falkland islands were likewise aired dur- 
ing the year, but with much less fervour than in the past. 

Late in September the political situation was suddenly obscured 
by sudden infantry occupation of military airports and grounding 
of all army planes in what was widely reported to be suppression 
of a nascent plot. This, and the president's sudden removal of 
the entire municipal council of Buenos Aires, accentuated the 
friction between Castillo and the Radicals. The Radicals refused 
to pass important financial measures until Pres. Castillo promised 
to permit free provincial elections in December. Castillo re- 
mained adamant, however, and congress adjourned with the 
breach still wide. The elections resulted in the expected Con- 
servative victory. Public attention, however, was diverted by the 
outbreak of inter-hemisphere hostilities. 

Japan's attack on the United States came as a hard shock to 
Argentina's complacent neutrality. Pres. Castillo promptly de- 
clared that the United States would not be treated as a belligerent, 
and on Dec. 16 put Argentina in a formal state of siege, with 
a suspension of constitutional guarantees. Newspapers were for- 
bidden to print anything "affecting the neutrality of the Argen- 
tine nation" or against the government, political regime, head 
of state, or officials of any belligerent nation. Demonstrations, 
whether pro- or anti-axis, were forbidden, and permission for 
a mass meeting to pay homage to Pres. Roosevelt was refused. 
Press and public opinion, however, were so strongly and openly 
anti-axis that Pres. Castillo recalled the Argentine ambassador 
to Germany "for consultation," and, on Dec. 31, made a formal 
declaration of Argentine solidarity with the United States. 

Education. Education is free and compulsory. In 1940 there were 13,615 
elementary schools, with 1,929,818 enrolment; 6,463 of these (enrolment: 
927,580) were under complete federal control, the remainder under provin- 
cial, with federal support, however. An additional 1,167 private schools 
(as of 1939) had an enrolment of 139,917. Secondary schools of all types 
numbered 445, and had 75,903 pupils. Six national and one private uni- 
versities had enrolments aggregating nearly 30,000. 

Defense. Military or naval service is compulsory. The standing army in 
1941 was estimated at 45,000, with potential reserves of 281,000. Modern 
equipment was almost entirely lacking. The navy comprised 2 battleships, 
3 cruisers, 16 destroyers and 3 submarines. Air strength was around 300 
planes, A military mission was sent to the United States late in 1941 to 
make extensive purchases of needed materials. A five-year rearmament plan 
allotting 712,000,000 pesos for naval and 646,000,000 for military expan- 
sion was approved by congress in October. Lend-lease aid from the United 
States approximating $70,000,000 was reported to have been made. 

Finance. The monetary unit, the peso, had an official exchange value of 
26.8 cents U.S. and an unofficial rate of approximately 23 ft cents U.S. in 
1941* Budget estimates for 1942 called for an expenditure of 1,600,000,000 
pesos (a 46,246,000 peso increase). A 1941 deficit well in excess of early 
estimates of 150,000,000 pesos was expected. Government revenues are 
largely from customs duties. Income tax rates reach a maximum of 7% at 
250,000 pesos. 

The public debt on June 30, 1940 totalled 7,724,535,000 pesos (national, 
5,291,382,000 pesos; provincial, 1,584,408,000; municipal, 848,745,000), 
of which 1,952,998,000 pesos, including $190,500,000 in U.S. dollar bonds, 
were internal. Argentine credit was the highest of any Hispanic American 
republic in 1941. In Nov. 1941, approximately 2,500,000,000 pesos of 5% 
internal bonds were converted at 4%. 

Foreign Trade Argentine imports in 1940 totalled 1,498,757,000 pesos, 
a 12% gain over 1939; exports were 1,427,933,000 pesos, a 9.2% decline. 
The United States supplied 29.1% of all imports (1939: 17.2%), Great 



Britain 19.8% (19.9%), Brazil 7.8% (6.5%), Curasao 4-9% (4.0%), 
British India 4-3% (3-9%), Peru 3-9% (4.0%), France 3.1% (S-6%), 
Belgium 2.8% (6.5%), British Asia (except India) 2,4% (2.2%), Canada 
2.3% (1.2%). Great Britain took 36.4% of all exports (1939: 35-9%), 
United States 17.5% (12%), France 5.8% (4.9%), Brazil 5.3% (4-3%), 
Spain 3.9% (1.9%), Netherlands' 3.7% (8.1%), Italy 3.4% (2.1%), 
Belgium 2.5% (7.1%), Uruguay 1.7% (i%), Japan 1.5% (0.7%), 
Sweden 1.4% (2.1%). 

The principal imports in 1940 were: fuels and lubricants, 17.5%; tex- 
tiles, 17.4%; machinery and vehicles, 9.9%; iron and iron goods, 9.2%: 
chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, etc., 8.5%; foodstuffs, 7.2%; metal goods (ex- 
cept iron), 6%; paper goods, 5.8%. Proportions varied only slightly from 
those of 1939^ The principal exports were, by value: wheat 19.9% (1939: 
17.5%), chilled and frozen beef 13.1% (13-2%); unwashed wool 8.4 % 
(7.6%), linseed 8.4% (10.8%), hides 7.1% (6.3%), maize 6% (12.9%), 
washed wool 8.4% (2%), canned meats 3.1% (3.2%), chilled and frozen 
mutton 2.9% (2.2%), quebracho extract 2.1% (2.7%). While export 
totals were the lowest, with one exception, in ten years, eight of the ten 
leading commodities increased in average unit price. The tonnage of cereal 
exports in 1940 was: wheat, 3,646,603 (1939: 4,745,944), maize 1,874,- 
463 (3,196,073). linseed 752,191 (1,183,203), oats 223,382 (3S9,79i), 
barley 388,867 (194.851), rye 166,414 (194,851), birdseed 9,255 (6,877). 
Meat exports totalled 562,658 tons (1939: 669,300 tons), hides 131,450 
tons (147,556 tons), sheepskins 11,815 tons (15,518 tons), washed wool 
25,146 tons (17,471 tons), unwashed wool 99,027 tons (122,691 tons). 
Quebracho extract exports were 121,375 tons (1939: 195,863 tons), logs 
21,853 tons (74,948 tons). Fresh fruit exports declined from 52,700 tons 
in 1939 to 24,500 in 1940. 

In the first nine months of 1941, imports declined 25.6%, with the 
United States supplying 27.8% of the total, Great Britain 18.7%, Brazil 
12.8%, Peru 5-8%, India 5%, Curasao 4.8%, Japan 3.6%, Canada 3.3%. 
Exports were 7.1% less in value, 40.9% less in volume. The United States 
took 36% of total values (14% in the same period of 1940), Great Britain 
32.7%, Brazil 5-8%, Spain 4.6%. Japan 3-5%, Uruguay 1.9%, Chile 
1.8%, Bolivia 1.5%, Switzerland 1.2%, Paraguay i%. The decline in vol- 
ume was due almost entirely to reduced grain and linseed exports, above all 
of maize, which was one-fifth the 1940 total. Wool tonnage rose 52%, hides 
22%, meat 4-7%, dairy products 80.8%. Most of the declines were regis- 
tered early in the year; by August, however, the downward trend had been 
reversed, and export values for the first 10 months were off only 3.5%, ex- 
port volume about 37}4%, while imports were up to 75% of 1940 values. 

Communication. The greater part of Argentine external commerce is han- 
dled through Buenos Aires, which is served by numerous steamship lines and 
is the hub of the country's railway system. Rosario, on the Parana, how- 
ever, handles more wheat and maize tonnage than does Buenos Aires. Bahia 
Blanca, to the south, is also an important cattle and grain port. Comodoro 
Rivadavia, in southern Patagonia, is the centre of the petroleum industry. 

Argentina has the most extensive railway system in Latin America. The 
country is linked by rail with Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay, and by rail 
and bus with Chile (through the Transandine railway route and Bariloche 
in the south). In 1941, 42,112 km. of railways (12,702 km. state-owned) 
were in operation. Government policy is to extend the state railway system. 
The Transandine railway, purchased in 1940, was under reconstruction, and 
unsuccessful negotiations were carried on for acquisition of the six British- 
owned lines, operating 59% of all mileage and representing an investment 
of around $627,000,000. An Argentine government-financed rail line into 
the Bolivian oil-fields was in process of construction by agreement with 
Bolivia in 1941. During 1941 work was accelerated on the Salta-Antofagasta 
railway, in construction since 1921. A 6,soo,ooo-peso annual expenditure 
until 1946 was expected to carry the line to the Chilean frontier at Socompa. 

Air transport by Pan American airways provides extensive service to all 
parts of America, with almost daily connections to Chile and Brazil. The 
Italian "LATI" line began service from Europe (via Brazil) on July 30, 
but a gasoline boycott compelled cessation in December. State-operated air 
routes' aggregated some 10,000 km. in 1941, and plans for further exten- 
sion, including lines to Bolivia and Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil, were 
announced Sept. 19. A private aviation training school was opened near 
Buenos Aires early in 1941. There were 22 glider clubs, with 32 gliders and 
i ,000 members in 1941. 

The Argentine merchant marine aggregated some 300,000 gross tons in 
1941, most of it state-owned. Under war conditions, strenuous efforts at 
further expansion were made. 

In 1941 there were 308,248 km. of roads of all types, with 55,403 km. 
additional under construction. Approximately 65,000 km. were national, 
although the federal government contributes toward provincial highway 
development as well. Maintenance is cfiiefly through a gasoline tax, with 
annual expenditures around 100.000,000 pesos (101,715,000 in 1941). Al- 
though highway mileage was greatly expanded after 1930. the number of 
automobiles declined from 435,822 to 423,942 in 1939, because of import 
restrictions, with an increased age of cars in actual service from 7.5 to 
1 1. 9 years. 

Agriculture. Argentina's resources are principally agricultural and pas- 
toral, with 10.8% (74,130,000 ac.) and 44.4% (306,404,000 ac.), respec- 
tively, of the country's area devoted to them in 1941. Together they ac- 
count for well over 90% of all export values. 

The chief agricultural products are cereals and linseed. In 1941-42 the 
area devoted to principal crops (in hectares; i hect. = 2,471 ac.) was 1 
wheat, 7,190,000; maize (1940-41), 6,097,600; linseed, 2,733,000; oats, 
1,440,000; barley, 702,000; rye, 947,ooo; birdseed, 54,000; rice (1940-41) 
30,500; sugar cane (1939-40), 188,714; vineyards (1939-40), 137,934; 
cotton (1940-41), 336,600; sunflower seed (1940-41), 530,000; alfalfa 
(1939-40), 5,402,400; potatoes (1940-41), 241,800. Total cereal and lin- 
seed acreage was 4.4% less than in 1940, despite an increase in wheat 
Tonnage produced was: wheat 7,380,200; linseed 1,459,600; maize 10,450,- 
ooo; oats 539.500; barley 789,000; rye 212,200; sugar cane 5,835,075 
(1939-40); cotton 154,794; sunflower seed, 370,000; rice 57,000 (11,089 
tons imported in 1940); potatoes 1,053,000; grapes 953,866 (1939-40) 
In 1940, 1,455,725 tons of wheat, 539,443 of sugar and 6,706,804 of 
grapes were processed, nearly all for domestic consumption, 



Oflkial estimates as of June 30, 1938 showed a total of 45,916,768 sheep, 
34.317,663 cattle, 8,262,057 horses, 4,760,755 goats, 3,381,439 swine and 
791,199 asses and mules in Argentina. During 1940, 6,983,694 cattle, 
7,518,169 sheep and 1,176,469 hogs were slaughtered, of which 2,120,877 
cattle, 4,582,452 sheep and 169,186 hogs were for export. Official 1940 
production estimates were: 7,800,000 cowhides, 11,100,000 sheepskins, 
176,000 tons of wool. 

The dairy industry was increasing in importance in 1941. Production in 
1939 was 34,248 tons of butter, 51,065 tons of cheese and 20,781 tons of 
casein. 

Some 9,208 tons of eggs were exported. The small fishing industry was 
being expanded in 1941. 

Forestry. ~ -Timber is limited except in the subtropical north, where que- 
bracho, source of tannin, and yerba mate (Paraguay tea) arc well devel- 
oped, the latter for domestic consumption as well as export. Argentina nor- 
mally produces most of the world supply of both. 

Manufacturing. Manufacturing underwent extensive development after 
1935. 

Comparative figures from the 1939 and 1935 industrial censuses showed a 
32.7% increase in the number of establishments (to 53,866) and 30.4% 
in number of employees (to 618,606). Subsequently, a probably much 
greater increase took place. The chief production is in foodstuffs, textiles, 
forestal products, paper, printing and chemicals and Pharmaceuticals. Prac- 
tically all manufacturing is for domestic consumption. 

Mineral Production. Argentina ranked nth in the world production of 
petroleum in 1941. In 1940 petroleum production, 3,276,496 metric tons, 
was 10.7% greater than in 1939. 

Approximately 60% came from state-owned wells. The first nine months 
of 1941 showed a further increase of 10.67%. Some 75% came from the 
( omodoro Rivadavia fields in Chubut territory (in southern Patagonia), 
the rest from Ncuqu&i territory and Salta and Mendoza provinces along 
the Andean foothills. 

During 1940 mining advanced considerably, as axis buyers acquired con- 
trol of some 50% of the tungsten and mica output, the only metals pro- 
duced regularly. Some beryllium, lead concentrates, tartarate of lime and 
borax are exported irregularly. In 1941 Japanese control of the tungsten 
supply was thwarted by a United States purchase agreement with the Argen- 
tine government. (L. W BF ) 

The "Apache state" lies in the southwestern part 
of the United States of America. It borders Mexico 
on the south; the Colorado river forms most of the western 
boundary. 

Arizona and New Mexico are the youngest of the United States, 
both being admitted in 1912. By federal census of 1940, the area 
is 113,5^0 sq.mi.; pop. 499,261, 65-2% rural and 34-8% urban. 
Native and foreign-born whites (including Mexicans) numbered 
389>955 an d 36,837 respectively; Negroes, 14,993; other races 
(mostly Indians), 57,476. 

The capital is Phoenix with a population of 65,414. Chief 
cities are: Tucson (36,818); Douglas (8,623); Mesa (7,224); 
Globe (6,141); Prescott (6,018); Bisbee (5,853); Yuma (5,325) 
and Flagstaff (5,080). 

History. The state officials in 1941 were: chief justice, Al- 
fred C. Lockwood; governor, Sidney P. Osborn; secretary of 
state, Harry P. Moore; attorney-general, Joe Conway; treasurer, 
Joe Hunt. Governor Osborn in 1941 proposed the consolidation of 
bureaus and offices, a new board of control for the state hospital, 
and an increase of old-age pensions from $30 to $40 per month. 
The last two measures were formulated into law. 

Education. According to the report of 1939-40 the enrolment and teach- 
ing force of the various branches stood, respectively, as follows: elementary 
schools 87,960 and 2,670; high schools 22, ^45 and 934; University of Ari- 
zona at Tucson 2,906 and 275; State Teachers college at Tempe 1,505 and 
72; State Teachers 1 college at Flagstaff 545 and 41. In addition, there were 
32 private, parochial and federal Indian schools with a total enrolment of 
7,208. 

Public Welfare, Charities, Correction. In Nov. 1941 there were 38,872 per- 
sons receiving assistance from the state department of social security and 
welfare, with a total state expenditure for the month of $330,911. In \ov. 

1940 there were 38,664 persons receiving $443,170. State aporopriations for 

1941 were as follows: industrial school $57,370; juvenile girl offenders 

loodmg Agricultural Products of Arizona, 1941 and 1940 



Crop 


ig-ji U'st.) 


iy40 


Wheat, bu. . 


465,000 


819,000 


Oats, bu 


^ 7 7,000 


2Q7.OOO 


Sorghum Rruin bu . .... 


1,508,000 


880 ooo 


Corn, bu 


406,000 


362,000 


Cotton lint, bales . , . , :, 
(irapefruit, boxes , :,- ; i ^ 
Oranges, boxes . ,' 


203,000 
3.000,000 
600,000 


IQ5.OOO 

>, 650,000 

5OO,OOO 


Horses, head . , 


70,000 


70,000 


Cattle, head . 


800,000 


864,000 


Sheep und larnl>s head 


70 \ ooo 


755 ooo 










BRITISH MANIKINS modelled the latest creation* of London dressmaker* at 
Buenos Aires and other South American capitals in May 1941 in a concerted 
drive to capture the Latin American style trade 

$50,000; pioneer home $75,630; prison $181,540; state hospital for insane 
$298,675; school for deaf and blind $83,870. 

Communication The total road mileage in 1941 was 28,291; 3,453 mi. 
were improved and 3,644 were under the state system. Total railroad mile- 
age, Dec. 31, 1939, was 2,234. 

Bonking and Finance National banks in 1941 had deposits of $70,202,- 
ooo, loans of $34,911,000 and investments of $17,595,000. Stale banks 
had deposits of $30,451,000, loans of $11,124,000 and investments of $12,- 
466,000. 

Agriculture. C'trus fruit, cotton, lettuce and beef cattle ordinarily com- 
prise three-fourths of the value of farm products of Arizona. 

Manufacturing. Only 3.4% of the population were engaged in manufac- 
turing in the state in 1941. The most important industries were food, tex- 
tile, metal and lumber products. 

Mineral Production. Seven districts ordinarily contributed 99% of the 
output of copper for the state. The copper output for 1941 was estimated 
at 671,000,000 Ib. The value of all mineral products for 1941 was esti- 
mated at $100,000,000. (H. A. H.) 

In the s uth-central U.S., Arkansas was the 25th 
state admitted to the union (1836). Its older 
popular name is "Bear state," the newer (by act of the legisla- 
ture), "Wonder state." Area, 55,336 sq.mi.; pop. (1940) 1,949,- 
387. The population is predominantly rural, although the 1940 
census showed a slight movement to the cities, the urban popula- 
tion having increased from 20-6% in 1930 to 22-2% in 1940. The 
white population was 1,466,084; Negro, 482,578; other races, 
725; foreign born, 7,692. Only 3,210 aliens registered in 1941 
under the federal law. The capital is Little Rock (88,034). Other 
cities are Fort Smith (36,584); Hot Springs (21,370); Pine Bluff 
(21,290); North Little Rock (21,137); El Dorado (15,858); 
Tcxarkana (11,821). 

History. The following state officials, all Democrats, were 
inaugurated on Jan. 14, 1941, for a two-year term: Homer M. Ad- 

69 



70 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



kins, governor; Bob Bailey, lieutenant governor; C. G. Hall, sec- 
retary of state; Jack Holt, attorney-general; Otis Page, land com- 
missioner; Earl Page, treasurer; J. Oscar Humphrey, auditor; 
J. S. Holt, associate justice of the supreme court. The outstand- 
ing act of legislation in 1941 was the refunding of the highway 
debt with the RFC at a lower rate of interest. To make assur- 
ance doubly sure, court proceedings and a referendum were held 
on the bill. Other acts of importance were: allowing cities of the 
first class to levy taxes to pay salaries and pensions of firemen 
and policemen; establishment of civil service in cities with r a 
population of 20,000 and more; authorizing the governor to 
join interstate compacts for the conservation of oil and gas; 
forbidding political parties to name candidates except through 
primaries or conventions (this was a slap at the Democratic state 
central committee for naming a candidate for U.S. senator) ; ex- 
empting servants, farm labourers and others from the workmen's 
compensation law; reorganizing the board of trustees of the Uni- 
versity of Arkansas and taking the governor and the secretary 
of the board of education off the board. According to the old 
plan of congressional apportionment, Arkansas would have lost 
one seat in the U.S. house of representatives and Michigan would 
have gained one. Congress, however, amended the law for "equal 
proportions" for representation instead of "major fractions/' 
and Arkansas held its seven seats in 1941. 

Arkansas had received, by the end of 1941, defense contracts 
amounting to $12,610,000, among them a munitions plant at 
Jacksonville and a $33,000,000 aluminum plant on Lake Ca- 
therine, near Hot Springs. A $20,000,000 power plant was con- 
templated, but in the meantime a tie-up with Grand river dam in 
Oklahoma was to supplement local power. 

Education. The enrolment in the public schools in 1941 was: grades one 
to eight, 398,246; grades nine to 12, 73.708, a total of 471,954; teachers 
numbered 13,173; expenditures were $14,023,914. At the state university 
in the fall semester, 1941, the enrolment was 2,443; teachers numbered 186. 
Enrolment in state teachers' colleges was 1,040; teachers, 82. 

Public Welfare, Charities, Correction Appropriations for welfare in 1941 
amounted to $7,000,000, plus $884,440 for administration; confederate 
pensions, $300,000; firemen's pensions, $300,000; teachers' retirement, 
$207,000; food and cotton stamps, $200,000; employment, $91,000. The 
penitentiary had 900 white inmates, 800 Negro (including 45 women); the 
state farm for women had 68. The legislature appropriated $528,800 for 
the penitentiary; $67,960 for the boys (white) industrial school; $50,390 
for the girls' industrial school; $64,350 for the Negro boys industrial school. 

Communication. The state had 9,289.3 mi. of highways in 1941, of which 
1,242.7 were concrete, 486.8 asphalt, 1,357.1 bituminous and 5,575.8 
gravel. The appropriations for 1941-43 were: $19,650,000, including 
$3,000,000 county highway fund, $10,000,000 federal, and $6,650,000 state 
highway. The railway mileage was 4,538. 

Banking and Finance. State bank and trust companies numbered 167 in 
1941; building and loan associations, 9. The resources of the former 
amounted (Sept. 24, 1941) to $121,062,240; deposits, $108,159,436. The 
national banks numbered 50 with $143,121,585 in assets and $128,831,694 
in deposits (Dec. 31, 1940). 

State revenue received in 1939-41 was $63,016,301.78. On Dec. 31, 
.1941 the debt was $146,850,223, a reduction of $4,611,629 from Nov. 1939. 

Agriculture The total value of crops produced in Arkansas in 1940 was 
$169,000,000. The cotton crop in 1940 uas valued at $69,712,000; corn, 
$24,884,000; rice, $6,919,000. 

To bio I. leading Agricultural Products of Arkantai, 1940 and 1939 





Crop 


1940 


1939 


Cotton, 
Corn, bi 
Rice bu 


bales 
i. 


1,540,000 
42,003,000 
9 741,000 


1,351,209 

2 fftS 242 











Manufacturing. In 1939, the industries of Arkansas turned out products 
valued at $160,166,984 ami employed 39,438 persons to whom they paid 
wages of $30,787,479- 

TofeU II. Principal lnduttrh$ of Arkama*, 1939 and 1937 



Industry 


Value of Products 


J939 


1937 


Sawmills tad kindred works 
Cottotseed oil, etc 
Petroleum refining . . 
Nonalcoholic beverages 


$35,222,273 
17,340,538 
14,327,824 
5,632,283 
5,441,196 
4,910,418 
3.818.381 


135,963,098 
14,383,526 
21,320,560 
878,381 
6,627,435 
5,384,284 
3.661.077 


Household and office furniture . . 
Bread and bakery products 
Newspaper publishing and printing 



Mineral Production. The total value of mineral production in Arkansas 
in 1940 was $33,705,929; in 1939 it was $28,563,693. 

Table III. Principal Mineral Products of Arkantat, 1940 and 1939 



Mineral 


Value, 1940 


Value, 1939 


Petroleum 


$21,239,515 


$16,931,240 


Coal 
Bauxite 
Manganese 
Natural gas 


4,480,713 
2,804,144 
126,290 
578,808 


4,103,020 
2,293,455 
89,178 
545,g36 


Natural gasoline ... 


520,669 


754i79 









Armies of the World. 



(D. Y. T.) 

During the year 1941, 30 armies of 
the world engaged in warfare as 
World War II extended widening circles of conflict on land and 
sea and in the air. The preceding 16 months had seen some armies 
disappear following defeat in major engagements. Others were 
ineffective and offered no serious resistance to attack. Victorious 
armies continued the march of conquest and consolidated fresh 
gains in new territories. Large armies remained engaged in major 
conflicts. New armies entered the war within the closing weeks 
of the year.. 

In Russia, Germany and Finland opposed the enormous and 
partially tested strength of the Soviet Red army. In western 
Europe, North Africa, the near east, the far east and in China the 
armies of the dictatorships remained opposed to the forces of the 
democracies. In the western hemisphere, the United States, at- 
tacked by Japan, without declaration of war and in the midst of 
peaceful efforts, entered the war on Dec. 8, 1941. There had been 
widespread unprovoked attacks on U.S. outposts in the Pacific 
before the Japanese declaration of war. Japan also declared 
war against Great Britain while the British and the nations as- 
sociated with them entered the war against the Japanese. In a 
world of conflict all armies of the world were affected in large or 
small degree. Each played a role, first in relation to national 
policy, and second, dependent upon international demands. A 
limited military analysis of the armies of the world without 
weighing these policies emphasizes principally the results of 
military action, For the most part, the armies examined here par- 
ticipated in campaigns during 1941. A brief examination is in- 
cluded of those armies preparing for but up to Jan. i, 1942 not 
actively engaged in combat. Any contemporary analysis of the 
principal armies of the world is limited by the restrictions im- 
posed by warfare censorship. All factual information is presented 
after careful selection from material secured from the best avail- 
able sources. 

Germany. By Jan. i, 1941 the German armies had overrun 
Denmark and Norway; repulsed British attempts to dislodge 
them ; invaded and defeated Luxembourg, Holland and Belgium ; 
outflanked the ill-famed Maginot defenses; eliminated effective 
British and French opposition on the continent; acquired an 
Italian ally; and closed 16 months of combat marked by a rising 
tide of nazi supremacy on modern battlefields. All German theory 
of the conduct of military combat has been based upon the im- 
mutable principles of war. Political circumstances, as well as the 
application of modern machinery, demanded changes in the mod- 
ern application of this theory. The results of defeat in World 
War I, the restrictions of the Versailles treaty, the complete co- 
ordination of all political, social, industrial and military strength 
within a unified plan of grand strategy, the full exploitation of 
diplomatic geographical advantages, increased mobility gained 
by the development and application of the combustion engine, im- 
proved techniques in propaganda and the war of nerves, the re- 
lentless pursuit of perfection in details; these plus an inspired 
and cultivated national determination to re-establish the invin- 
cibility of German arms, combined to produce a national military 
machine unprecedented in power, secured by resounding success, 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



71 



and prepared to extend the area of conquest during the year 1941. 
Organization. Never before in history had the principle of a 
1 'nation in arms" been so fully developed. The whole nation had 
been organized and blended as a unit for the sole purpose of 
aggressive war. The German armies wfere organized as a part of 
the large team combining all effective elements of national 
strength. A principal factor peculiar to the German organization 
was the co-ordination of high command in the realization of the 
single purpose : the prosecution of war. Tables I and II present a 
brief analysis of the national organization and the relation of the 
military forces to all other national efforts. 

Table I 







The Nation 

The Fuehrer 
Adolf Hitler 

. i 


Production 
Gocring 


Party Propaganda 
(?) Gocbbels 


Police 
Himmler 


Labour 
. Ley 


Finance 
Funk 


For. A/. 
Ribbentrop 


Mil. A/. 
Keitel 



Table II 

The Armed Forces 

Commander in Chief 
Adolf Hitler 

I 

Chief of General Staff 
Keitel 



Army 
Commander 

General Staff 
Chief 



Navy 
Commander 

General Staff 
Chief 



Air Forces 
Commander 

General Staff 
Chief 



These tables illustrate the concentration of power and effort, 
and the simple channels of command, and suggest the relative 
ease with which unified control can be assured for any plan or 
project. No table can solve specific problems, and any solution 
must rest upon the co-ordination of many parts and the resolu- 
tion of many intangibles. However, all planning within this chan- 
nel of command appears to rest upon a single principle. That 
principle, in the popular language of the German press, has been 
stated as follows: "The right man is everywhere and always put 
in the right place." 

The method of arriving at a solution to a specific problem 
appealed to be as follows: The national and international aspects 
of the political, economic and social elements of the problem 
are examined and a decision announced by the national organiza- 
tion outlined in Table I. This decision is presented to the chief 
of the general staff as a mission by the commander-in-chief of 
the armed forces. The chief of the general staff then translates 
this mission into a directive which, when approved by the com- 
mander-in-chief, is discussed at a meeting of the commanders 
of the three armed services, army, navy and air forces. Above all 
other consideration, the primary decision reached by this group 
is the selection of a single commander to whom full responsibility 
as well as all available resources are given to accomplish the par- 
ticular task. This commander may be a member of any one of 
the three armed services. His selection is made principally de- 
pendent upon the nature of the mission to be performed and 
because he is considered to be the individual most likely to suc- 
ceed. Once chosen, this commander becomes directly responsible 
to the chief of staff of the armed forces and to the commander- 
in-chief for the successful accomplishment of the mission. In 
addition, it is an established policy to grant to the commander 
in these cases not only the full responsibility and the available 
means, but also the widest exercise of initiative in carrying out 
his mission. 

The task force system results in the organization of fighting 
teams composed of units from the army, the navy and the air 
forces. This system substitutes interdependence among the fight- 



ing branches for the independent or separate control method 
sought by the army, navy and air forces in other nations. By 
carefully determining the forces, i.e., the tools, required to per- 
form the task, this system permits close control and full co- 
ordination in accomplishing the particular objective. So far as 
Germany is concerned, and insofar as the German armies reflect 
the national will, this type of organization was successful during 
more than two years of modern warfare. 

Tactics. The outstanding military development shown by the 
German action in campaigns has been the successful use of 
armoured and air forces in close and continuous co-ordination 
with other ground troops. During 1941, and principally in the 
campaigns in the east, the German armies developed and applied 
tactics popularly known as the "wedge" and the "kessel." The 
panzer, or armoured divisions, formed the spearhead of a gigantic 
phalanx moving toward the opposition. Immediately in rear of 
the spearhead, motorized divisions are grouped and move for- 
ward at the same speed. This phalanx, or armoured wedge, sought 
to create openings in the enemy line. As the advance of the wedge 
continues, second line infantry divisions move up on the flanks 
increasing the width of the wedge and decreasing gaps between 
wedges. The strategic rate of speed of the whole force is based 
on the march rate of the infantry divisions. Once the shock 
wedges create gaps, they form the walls dividing the parts of 
the enemy line which have become separated. The shock wedges 
then swing right or left to surround the sectors which have been 

Table III Comparative Strength of fh CWef Warring Powers* 



Arm and Population 




Area (sq. mi.) 


Population 


Allies 
United States. . 
Great Britain (Empire) 
Russia 
China (Unoccupied) ... 
Netherlands Indies 

Total 


3,738,395 
U.530,ii3 
8,810,791 
4,060,092 
738,267 


132,000,000 
504,218,200 
19*1695,710 
207,000,000 
70,500,000 


30,896,558 


1,106,413,910 


Axis 
Germany (before Sept. 1939) 
Japan (before July 1937) ... 
Italy 
Hungary 
Finland 
Bulgaria . . 
Rumania. . 

Total 


263,618 
260,644 
119,800 
59,380 
131,588 
42,808 
72,5^5 


93,000,000 
97,697,555 
44,557,000 
13,507,093 
3,834,662 
6,549,664 
14,098,850 


950,363 


273,245,7*4 


Armies 




Men 


Divisions 


Allies 
United States 
Great Britain 
Russia 
China 
Netherlands Indies 


1,600,000 
3,000,000-3,500,000 
3,000,000-5,000,000 

2 ,000,000-6,000,000 

100,000 


60-70 
150-250? 

? 




Axis 
Germany 
apan ... 
taly 
Hungary . 
Finland . . 
Bulgaria . . 
Rumania 


6,000,000-8,000,000 
x, 800,000 
1,500,000 
180,000-450,000 

200,000- 2 5O,OOO 

180, 000-450,000 
800,000- 1 , 200,000 


280-300 
60-66 
60 

10-20 

*4 

1O-2O 

30-;,5 





Taken from New York Times of Dec. 14, 1941. 

For naval forces see NAVIES OF THE WORLD. For aircraft combatants see AIR FORCES 
OF THE WORLD. 

The United States department of commerce census bureau according to a New York 
Times dispatch dated Dec. 17, 1941 estimates Allied manpower between 18 and 35 years 
of age to oe 56,643,000. The same dispatch indicates a census bureau estimate of Axis 
manpower in the same age group to be 28,560.000. The newspaper account indicates that 
these totals do not include figures for China, India and the Dutch East Indies. Including 
these nations the Allied total is estimated as 163,887,000. 

The reported estimates appear to be based upon the following: 

Allies Axis 

United States and possessions . a 2,796,000 Japan 10,839,000 

Russia . . . ... . . . . . 23,574,000 Germany n,a8i,ooo 

England (not including India) . 10,273,000 Italy 6,440,000 



56,643,000 
^Corrected for known losses up until Dec. 12, 1041. 



28,560,000 



72 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



split off from the main body of the opposition. Then the infantry 
divisions in rear of the cutting edge of the wedges move forward 
and carry out the encirclement and destruction of the enemy 
groups which have been separated and cut off. This encirclement 
and destruction represent the final play of the tactical move. 
This action is known as the "kessel." The word "kessel" is 
adapted from a hunting term applied to the practice of encircling 
game, driving it toward the centre, and destroying it. In the 
tactical sense, the rapid creation of gaps at weak points in enemy 
lines, the cutting off of sectors of the line between gaps, the rapid 
inrush of infantry troops to encircle these sectors and eventually 
destroy the opposition, have all become a continuous sequence of 
the German tactics as practiced on the modern battlefield. 
Throughout this type of operation the combat air forces prepare 
the way and then give continuous support to the ground forces. 
Overhead the air forces operate immediately in front of the ad- 
vancing elements of the wedges and later join in the destruction 
of the encircled enemy forces. The outstanding characteristics of 
the whole tactical operation can be summarized as follows : 

A. Concentration of armoured forces and motorized infantry elements in 
a spearhead or wedge attack. 

B. Shock action to create gaps at one or more weak spots. 

C. Rapid separation of the enemy line into several sectors. 

D. Swift encirclement and relentless destruction of the surrounded ele- 
ments, 

The adoption by the German army of the task force organiza- 
tion, and the tactical development of the "wedge" and "kessel" 
type of air-ground action, do not indicate excessive rigidity in the 
composition of forces or in the conduct of operations. On the 
contrary, this type of organization and the co-ordination of all 
arms which it insures permit great flexibility within command 
channels, and introduce fluidity in tactical movement. The task 
force may be of any size and may include a few or several units 
from one or all the armed services. The close co-ordination of 
air and ground combat units allows maximum mobility and 
rapidly brings pressure against predetermined weak spots. 

Other elements of interest in the composition of the German 
armies as indicated in reports of operations during 1941 are dis- 
cussed in the following paragraphs under appropriate headings. 

Combat Troops. During 1941 two types of armoured division, 
the large and the small size, appeared. The main difference is 
noted in the tank brigade, either medium or light, which is inte- 
gral with the large division while the small division has a light 
tank regiment. 

Motorized Division. Motorized divisions consisting of artillery 
on self-propelled mounts, motorized reconnaissance units, some 
tank units and motorized infantry, have accompanied the 
armoured divisions. The result is that a strong infantry-artillery 
team is thus made available to capitalize on the advantages gained 
by the air-ground support and armoured divisions. 

The German armies have developed a number of anti-tank 
weapons which are moved on self-propelled mounts. These 
weapons have similar characteristics in that each is designed to 
deliver effective fire power from a mobile base or platform. In 
use these anti-tank weapons are grouped in "tank destroyer" units 
which appear to be loosely organized and as yet not cc-ordinated 
in any fixed form applicable to all parts of a German field force. 
The development is significant since it emphasizes that experi- 
ence gained in actual combat indicates a need for an organic anti- 
tank force. The trend of development appears to be toward 
masses of roving mobile guns, capable of offensive as well as de- 
fensive action, comprising mainly self-propelled armoured gun 
mounts, accompanied by air and ground reconnaissance units as 
wcH*as some motorized infantry and pioneer services. 

Miscellaneous. Other developments in the German armies in- 
clude the appearance of parachute troops in large numbers, some 
units equipped with camouflaged chutes; air-borne infantry in 



transport planes and, in some cases, in towed gliders; flame- 
thrower units for close-in attack of small fortifications; the sub- 
stitution of the German civilian "volkswagen," or small commer- 
cial passenger automobile adapted for military use, in place of the 
motorcycle; amphibian tanks of medium size, 25-30 tons, trans- 
ported to coastal waters on shallow-draught carriers and also ca- 
pable of making river and stream crossings; the employment of 
dogs with ground reconnaissance and patrol units; the develop- 
ment of reconnaissance units consisting of light troops including 
cavalry, horse and mechanized cyclists, armoured and scout cars, 
and a co-ordinated messenger service, the wide use of inflated 
rubber pontoons and other boats and improvised rafts ; the front 
line employment of pioneer units incorporated in motorized divi- 
sions and also in the reduced size panzer or armoured divisions. 

In addition to these developments mention should be made of 
the German perfection of their methods for combat exercise 
training; march discipline; traffic control; supply; medical, veteri- 
nary, provost and postal services; extension of the labour bat- 
talion service; and the introduction of a semi-military corps of 
civilian officials performing rear area duties and releasing large 
numbers of military personnel for combat zone service. 

Above and beyond all these particular developments, each im- 
portant as an example of actual combat experience, are the im- 
provements in air power and especially the co-ordination between 
air and surface (both ground and water) units and the substitu- 
tion of mass air bombings for the time-honoured duel between 
masses of artillery guns. 

Summary. The German nation is organized for continuous and 
unlimited support of the single purpose: the prosecution of 
total warfare. The type of organization employed permits the 
creation of flexible task forces incorporating predetermined per- 
centages of army, navy and air force units, trained to accomplish 
a specific job under the command of a single commander chosen 
for the particular task. Combat experience indicates that interior 
organization of combat units permits rapid reorganization to meet 
local needs with a marked tendency toward increase in air forces 
and panzer tir armoured divisions. In all cases there has been 
improvement in combat air operations co-ordinated directly with 
ground operations, while strategic air combat continues as a 
separate air activity. 

German authorities without underrating the importance of the 
support received from all elements of the home front, attributed 
the success of German armies to the following military factors: 

A. The strategic and tactical employment of air power. 

B. The employment of armoured forces and motorized infantry. 

C. The aggressive action of ground divisions on foot accomplishing the 
complete elimination of effective opposition. 

Great Britain. After 16 months of warfare the British armies 
by Jan. 12, 1941 had been forced out of the principal areas of 
western Europe and had been limited to operations in Africa, the 
near east and the defense of the British Isles. During 1941 in- 
creasingly large forces from the British dominions and colonies 
joined with British forces to extend military operations in new 
theatres of war. These developments introduced several changes 
in the British types of army organization and required 
modification in the application of the basic British theory of 
combat. 

While the campaigns in Greece and Crete, the operations in 
Libya and Egypt, and the British success against Italian armies in 
East Africa all varied in particulars, each contributed marked 
changes resulting from actual combat experience. The conduct of 
the several campaigns is discussed under WORLD WAR II, An ex- 
amination of. the British armies indicated the following basic 
developments. 

Theory of Combat. The general war policy of the British has 
been based upon defense of the outlying posts of the empire and 



Above, left: ANTI-AIRCRAFT BATTERY in action at Lake 
Charles, La., during war games of the 3rd U.S. army in 
Aug. 1941 



Above, right: U.S. MARINES rehearsed in landing boats in 
1941 alongside the ex-liner "Manhattan/* converted into a 
troop transport ship 



Left: THE TRAINING OF U.S. TROOPS for ski-patrol duty 
began at Mt. Rainier, Wash., during the winter of 1940-41 



Below: CIRCLE OF FIRE lighted by U.S. troops as a night 
target for messages dropped from a friendly observation 
plane, during the army's large-scale war games in Louisiana 
in Sept. 1941 




74 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



the defense of the British home front. This theory has not 
changed in its basic' concept, but the development of methods to 
accomplish these objectives, and the application of these methods, 
resulted in changes in army organization and battlefield tactics. 
While beyond the home front limited campaigns have been con- 
ducted, at home the theory of defense still applies with greater 
emphasis on air and anti-air activities defensively, plus develop- 
ment of offensive air power, coupled with widespread civilian 
defense and industrial mobilization. 

The results of these activities have been seen in the creation 
of a large armed force in England. The first step in this develop- 
ment was a careful selection of men for service with the army, 
the navy and the air forces. This selection process permitted 
the assignment of men especially qualified for each branch, and 
also permitted the adoption of a school system wherein men were 
trained for specific duties. In conjunction with this selection 
system, the British started large-scale training programs to de- 
velop apprentices in all war industries, and adopted a civilian 
draft law which permitted the assignment of all able-bodied men 
and women to civilian tasks according to ability. Within the 
British Isles the whole population was included in plans for home 
defense. Civilian air-raid warning service was established. Air- 
raid precaution programs engaged millions of civilians as wardens, 
firemen, medical attendants and in associated tasks. In the 
military services the development of radio and other means for 
detection of enemy aircraft, the improvement in anti-aircraft 
defenses, and the great increase in air defense over the islands as 
well as air offensives against the invasion coast and against mili- 
tary objectives in Germany, all marked the changes in defense 
of the British home front. The national productive capacity was 
organized to meet the requirements of the war effort. Meanwhile, 
defense plans had to provide protection for vital water and land 
communications. The whole character of British defense methods 
had been changed to meet the continued air attacks and the ever- 
present threat of invasion. Considerable success had been made 
in the development and in the actual operations of all these 
methods of defense. Particular success had been accomplished 
in air tactics, anti-aircraft defenses and the civilian air-raid warn- 
ing and precautions agencies. 

In both cases the British theory, while modified by develop- 
ments in 1941, still necessarily rests heavily upon the use of 
naval power and still employs naval strength to establish con- 
fining blockades, to maintain communications between combat 
zones and the home front, and to insure the uninterrupted flow 
of supplies for war purposes. Any discussion of the British 
armies must include reference to this initial reliance upon sea 
power, the rapid development of air power both defensively and 
offensively, and the demands for interior reorganization of units 
resulting from actual combat experience. 

Some of the other developments within the British armies in- 
cluded: increases in mobile artillery operating with ground in- 
fantry; creation of mobile anti-tank defense units; gradual 
growth of tactical air combat co-ordination with ground forces; 
application of battlefield mobility particularly in open desert war- 
fare; improvement in battlefield communications. Weaknesses 
noted included shortages in modern tanks, anti-tank weapons and 
mobile anti-tank weapon carriers; failure to secure flexibility in 
organization of armoured forces permitting large-scale operations 
for sustained periods; inadequacy of motor maintenance and sup- 
ply systems; shortage in combat aviation for co-ordinated use 
with ground forces. 

Summary. At the close of 1941, British armies were denied a 
foothold on the western European peninsula. Brilliant success 
had marked the stubborn advance of independent forces in East 
Africa, and periodic but erratic success had been accomplished in 



open mechanized ground and air combat in northern Africa. On 
the whole, British forces were employed in long-range defensive 
warfare with occasional aggressive actions resulting in limited 
gains except in East Africa where decisive results were achieved. 
A gradual scheme of reorganization was noted, more pronounced 
in the campaigns in North Africa than in other theatres. All land 
action appeared to be greatly influenced by naval action and 
strategic air combat as well as more extensive employment of 
armoured and mechanized ground forces. Morale appeared to be 
superior on all fronts. The British armies appeared to be slowly 
approaching the strength required to launch sustained attacks 
seeking a decisive victory. 

Engaged with enemies in Europe employing land-based armies 
relatively independent of sea-borne supply and communications, 
and forced to employ her navies for both Atlantic blockade and 
convoy duty as well as open warfare in the Pacific, Great Britain 
continued to rely on naval strength and air power to establish an 
eventual superiority permitting her reorganized and re-equipped 
land armies opportunities for decisive operations. 

Italy. Italian armies continued to play a minor role in the operations of 
nxis forces during 1941. The Italian theory of combat has always included 
the creation of a strong defensive base within Europe, permitting the 
initiation of limited offensives supported by naval action and strong combat 
air action. The first 16 months of combat proved that the Italian theory 
could not be supported in practice. Severe defeats were inflicted by the 
Greeks in western Greece and in Albania. Initial success in Libya had been 
seriously threatened by the rapid sweep of British forces to the west. In 
East Africa, victories over poorly equipped native forces were subject to 
strong British offensives. All Italian action during 1941, on a scale large 
enough to allow analysis of strategic and tactical importance, was confined 
to northern and eastern Africa. Italian operations in the Greek and Russian 
theatres appeared to be minor, and existed apparently despite Italian inac- 
tivities. 

East Africa. In this theatre Italian^ armies, estimated at about 1 10,000- 
200,000, were engaged at widely separated points by independent British 
forces during 1941. Shortages in basic supplies of food, fuel and ammuni- 
tion; limited capacities for motor maintenance; the loss of supply routes 
due to inferior naval and air power; and the guerrilla warfare employed by 
native troops, all contributed to Italian defeats. Italian organization in- 
cludes modern armoured forces as well as motorized divisions and especially 
emphasizes the characteristics of units trained and equipped for mountain 
operations and desert warfare. It is unlikely that the full strength of the 
Italian forces was ever employed in East Africa since the lack of basic 
supplies and the continued inferiority in the air and naval strength precluded 
the initiation of long-range offensive action. The armies appeared to split 
up into independent forces, each adopting local defense tactics and all em- 
ploying to the fullest extreme the advantages of the difficult terrain. De- 
fense tactics indicated excellent organization of the limited field artillery 
forces and stubborn local defenses within the limitations of available equip- 
ment. 

Summary. The Italian armies were engaged in numerous campaigns in 
Greece, Albania, North Africa, East Africa and the Ukraine during this 
period. No major offensive produced decisive results. Defensive actions in 
East Africa were stubbornly fought and indicated improvement in Italian 
artillery organization despite the loss of the defended areas. The Albanian 
offensive was a failure. Minor offensives were launched in Africa on lim- 
ited objectives by Italian mechanized and motorized forces. Joint Italian 
and German forces launched larger offensives in northern Africa, and Italian 
ground and air forces operated in Greece and in the Russian theatre with 
German columns. Shortages in modern mechanized equipment, limitations 
on air action, probably due to inadequate pilot and ground organizations, 
and the ever-present restrictions on land operations in Africa where supply 
lines by sea were subject to British naval and air attack, all contributed to 
reducing Italian operations to minor importance. In addition it became 
apparent that the Italian civilian support was not wholehearted and many 
were not in favour of Italian participation in the war. All Italian army 
activities were seriously affected by geographical distributions within the 
continent and overseas in Africa, by the primary importance of naval and air 
action in the Mediterranean sea, and basic limitations on modern supplies 
made available from an apparently reduced and disorganized Industrial 
capacity. 

Russia. The Russian armies were engaged in major offensive action with 
the German armies during the period June to Dec. 1941. The Russian the- 
ory of combat has been based upon a strong defense of the land frontiers 
Of the far-flung soviet union with emphasis upon air and ground action and 
with naval strength considered a secondary part of the national defense. 
Early indications of Russian army organization, noted during the Finnish 
campaigns ahd during the westward expansion of the Russian state during 
1939 and prior to the German attacks in 1941. suggested that numerically 
Russia was strong in manpower and in machines. However, the conduct 
of operations In those periods indicated many faults in the leadership and 
organization of this strength for use in battle. The first six months of war- 
fare against Germany showed a change in Russian strength and in the con* 
duct of operations. Without launching a large co-ordinated land and air 
attack, Russian armies fought brilliant delaying actions and adopted dag- 
ger-thrust attacks of limited extent in ground distance, but of serious coun- 
ter-effect against German columns until the start of full-scale offensives In 
mid-December. Siege operations at Leningrad and Odessa and later at Mos- 
cow indicate a complete organization of both armed services and civilian 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



75 



population for land defense, Russian tactical doctrine appears to include 
strong resistance in depth coupled with stubborn delaying action in all 
cases, frequently including adoption of minor siege operations where large 
forces were surrounded by the opposition. In equipment the Russian armies 
appear to have considerable numbers of all classes of vehicles and weapons. 
Some doubt appears to exist as to the efficiency of this equipment as much 
of it seems to be below the standard of modern design. Maintenance of 
mechanized equipment appears adequate wherever relatively stable condi- 
tions of warfare permit. In the air, Russian operations have given indica- 
tions of larger air forces than expected. The campaign has produced no un- 
usual characteristics of Russian organization or doctrine except the success 
achieved in delaying actions and the extent of losses inflicted on German 
air and ground forces. The operations in the closing weeks of 1941 indi- 
cate an adherence by the Russians to their old tactical conception of weak- 
ening an enemy through attrition, weather and length of supply lines, when 
counteroffensives for decisive results are undertaken. The offensive was 
undertaken in the southern area near Rostov and the Moscow front at the 
close of the year. 

Summary- The Russian armies, engaged in full-scale operations along 
an extensive land front, fought brilliant defensive actions both in the air 
and on the ground. After the initial onrush of the Germans, they seemed to 
regain cohesion and adopt co-ordinated offensive action. Local defense 
actions, principally the defense of cities, indicated a high degree of perfec- 
tion in artillery and infantry organizations. Except for the offensive action 
undertaken in the southern and Moscow theatres late in December little 
opportunity was afforded observers to examine Russian tactical doctrine. 
Equipment at the beginning of the war appeared satisfactory. Large de- 
mands were made on American industry to meet Russian calls for assistance 
in securing replacements of all classes. All Russian army activities were 
affected by the successful extension of industrial capacity from western 
a.reas to the Ural mountain districts; the increase in British and United 
States assistance; the continuation of German attacks despite heavy losses; 
and the developments in the far east. Only limited observations were avail- 
able by report due to the small number of foreign observers given access to 
records, the extent of the area involved and the necessary limitations im- 
posed by censorship. 

Japan. The Japanese armies extended the area of operations during 1941 
by moving to the south into Indo-China, and by the joint army and navy 
operations undertaken in December against the United States and Great 
Britain in the far east and the Pacific. The Japanese theory of combat has 
been offensive, dependent upon the home islands as a base of operations sup- 
porting joint naval and land action in Asia. In practice the Japanese armies 
have been engaged principally on the continent against large but relatively 
unorganized and poorly equipped Chinese forces. Japanese organization 
parallels the modern army types, modified to suit the requirements of ter- 
rain and opposition encountered in China, and the limited Japanese raw 
materials. Some success has been accomplished against organized Chinese 
forces and fortified Chinese positions. At all times Japanese forces appeared 
less effective against unorganized Chinese guerrilla attacks. Japanese opera- 
tions in the air appear to be extensive against weak opposition from enemy 
air and ground defenses. All Japanese army operations were mainly de- 
pendent upon the maintenance of sea-borne supplies and the continued in- 
crease of national industrial capacity. The naval fleet and air operations, 
particularly in the closing weeks of 1941 which marked the opening of ma- 
jor warfare against the United States and Great Britain, overshadowed the 
army operations. However, extensive army attacks were developing against 
the Philippine Islands, Singapore and Hongkong, which fell on Dec. 25. 

Summary. It appears that the Japanese armies are fairly well equipped 
with modern machinery and capable of maintaining more than 2,000,000 
experienced soldiers in the field. During the prolongation of the combat 
operations in China, large numbers of Japanese units -have received actual 
battlefield experience. AH army operations have been characterized by the 
type of Chinese resistance which appears to have been for the most part 
unorganized and of the guerrilla rather than modern field army form. No 
decisive land actions have resulted from Japanese army operations. Con- 
siderable co-ordination has resulted from joint naval and army actions, and 
extensive experience has been gained from air activities against weak re- 
sistance. The limited period of Japanese operations during the closing weeks 
of 1941 indicated more naval and air activity than army activity, although 
landings were made against Hongkong and in the Philippines and on the 
Malayan peninsula by ground forces. Limitations of censorship and the 
brief period covered by these operations preclude extensive analysis of Japa- 
nese army characteristics. 

China. The Chinese forces were engaged in major warfare with Japa- 
nese armies throughout 1941. Chinese armed forces were estimated at about 
5,000,000 including unorganized but effective guerrilla groups. Wherever 
stable, organized units existed, the Chinese army resembled the modern 
field armies, but were short of modern equipment. In all cases, the glaring 
shortages of modern equipment rendered ineffective any large-scale attempts 
to engage in full-size tactical operations. Limited offensives were under- 
taken with frequent spectacular success wherever equipment and training 
permitted. For the most part, air operations were unco-ordinated with 
ground operations and were limited to harassing bombing activities. The 
Chinese theory of combat is entirely defensive in character. The initiation 
of offensive tactics in all case* depended upon supplies of all classes, the 
training of guerrilla groups tor joint action within larger organized field 
forces, and the gradual extension of a national understanding of the need 
for and support of a major co-ordinated effort against the invader. 

Summary. Limited offensive actions were undertaken by relatively small 
but determined forces. Industrial capacity was low and imports limited 
to supplies received over the Burma road. All army operations were af- 
fected by the extent of the area involved, the delay in creating a national 
effort, and the extension of the war outside the Chinese mainland. Japan 
was unable to secure decisive results against Chinese forces. 

United State* During 1941 the United States continued large-scale ma- 
noeuvre training programs within continental limits, increased the strength 
and defenses of newly acquired bases and existing overseas garrisons, and 
approached the close of the year with a greatly improved and considerably 
larger army than the nation had ever known in times of peace. On Dec. 7. 



1941, Japan launched surprise attacks on Pacific garrisons and declared 
war on the United States. On Dec. n, 1941, Germany and Italy declared 
war on the United States. These events, followed by prompt U.S. declara- 
tions and the extension of military service to the close of hostilities, empha- 
sized not only the results attained to date but the serious duties facing the 
army in the future. The theory of combat of the United States army has 
always been offensive. Foreign- wars have always been fought by joint 
naval and land operations based upon a strong home front furnishing re- 
quired replacements of men and supplies. Overseas garrisons have always 
been reduced to a minimum strength frequently considered far below po- 
tential needs. During times of peace, and particularly following World 
War I, the natural desire of a civilized state to abjure war and refrain 
from hostilities resulted in a drastic reduction in numbers and severe limi- 
tations on training and adequate procurement of modern supplies for even 
a small force. 

The rise of dictatorships and the spread of World War II resulted in an 
increase in strength, principally by means of a draft. As the tempo of war 
increased, the United States turned to the production of war supplies for 
the armies opposed to Germany, Italy and Japan, and in turn to meet the 
expanding needs of its own army. The year 1941 was marked particularly 
by the organization and transportation of modern units to defend outlying 
bases and possessions, by the completion of large-scale field army ma- 
noeuvres, by advancing the organization of large army units, and by the 
organization of a vast production plant. (See also DEFENSE, NATIONAL 
[U.S.]: Armed Forces.) 

Organization. The United States armies are organized as field forces for 
administration and training within the continental limits, and as task force 
garrisons within outlying bases and possessions. The air forces remain as 
parts of both the army and the navy and do not constitute an independent 
army, but within the army have virtually an independent status. 

In 1941 the creation of higher staffs and the organization of field army 
and army corps troops and higher air force echelons developed concur- 
rently with the expansion in numbers of ground divisions, air and other 
units. The outstanding development in these respects was the separation of 
tactical field forces under a general headquarters (GHQ) from the terri- 
torial administration and supply activities within nine geographical areas. 
At the close of the year, these changes had proved to be desirable and rapid 
advances had been made in the conduct of training and the gradual crea- 
tion of large-sized field army fighting teams. All developments within these 
armies were subject to the gradual acquisition of adequate modern equip- 
ment. In general, the training program progressed at a rate permitting all 
ranks to be prepared to use the new equipment as rapidly as it was re- 
ceived. Some shortages existed at the close of the year and some elements 
of training, notably combat firing, had been delayed due to these shortages. 
At the close of 1941, faced with war against three nations in Europe and 
the far east, the United States army was far beiter prepared for action than 
it had been when it entered World War I in April 1917. 

Tactical Doctrine. The experience gained in World War I plus devel- 
opment and utilization of modern armament had created within the field 
army command the basic elements of modern battlefield tactics demon- 
strated by nazi forces since Sept. 1939, but formulated to suit American 
characteristics. This doctrine included the close co-ordination of combat 
aviation with ground forces; the maximum development of battlefield mo- 
bility as well as strategic mobility; the rapid advance of striking forces to 
create gaps at weak spots; followed by the eventual encirclement and de- 
struction of the opposition. While the forces comprised infantry and cav- 
alry divisions, armoured divisions and air forces, the doctrine contemplated 
a close integration of all these branches; at the same time making the air 
forces available for independent action. 

Factors beyond military control resulted in postponement of such organ- 
ization or training until 1941. During this year, the gradual increase in 
manpower and the increasing supplies of modern machinery permitted the 
resumption of original plans for reorganization and large-scale training pro- 
grams. Armoured divisions were organized and some motorized divisions 
were created. Ground infantry divisions were reduced in size (triangular) 
within the regular army, and a start was made in similar reorganization 
with national ^.uard (square) divisions. The air forces were grouped into 
higher commands, each comprising a bombing command, interceptor com- 
mand and an air ground support command. 

An outstanding development, resulting from the final army manoeuvres 
completed in November, was the success achieved in the use of small, highly 
mobile "tank attacker" units in offensives against armoured and mechanized 
attacks. These units, improvised for the particular manoeuvres, consisted 
of 50 calibre, 37-mm. and 75-mm. weapons mounted for direct fire from 
protected self-propelled mounts, motorized infantry, combat engineers, light 
reconnaissance elements and small, included, combat and observation avia- 
tion. This introduction of "tank attacker" units; the development of ac- 
companying air support units; the extension of mobile reconnaissance agen- 
cies; the organization of ground and air warning units; and the perfection 
of supply services, all under a single commander, were marked improve- 
ments in tactical development within a field army. 

Summary. The United States army numbered approximately 1,800,000 
at the close of 1941. Extensive problems remained unsolved in the procure- 
ment of officer personnel; the rapid reorganization of required tactical field 
forces; the acquisition of adequate modern equipment; the continued ex- 
pansion of enlisted replacements; the perfection of air-ground co-ordina- 
tion; the organization of armoured forces and expansion of anti-tank and 
anti-mechanized units; and the acceptance of a system of unified command 
for combat forces including all elements of the armoured services and de- 
signed to accomplish specific combat missions. The national support nec- 
essary to meet all these requirements was crystallized and guaranteed by 
the declarations of war made by Germany, Italy and Japan in Dec. 1941. 
The broad outlines of the combat phase ahead indicated extensive Joint 
naval and land operations with increased importance for all strategic and 
tactical air operations. 

The year 1941 closed with an aroused and powerful nation rapidly pre- 
paring to organize, equip, train and lead in combat the most powerful 
armed force the world has ever known. The actual operations daring the 
last weeks of the year were limited in scope and the details shrouded in 



76 



ARMOUR, A. V.. 



the necessary safeguards of wartime censorship. 

Other Armies of the World. After 28 months of warfare, the armies of 
ihe following countries disappeared as organized independent forces, either 
us a result of defeat in battle or due to change in national political associa- 
tion with axis powers: Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Es- 
tonia, Latvia, Lithuania, France, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Hungary, 
Rumania, Greece, Poland, Yugoslavia. NO information had become avail- 
able of the size and composition of armies absorbed within the German 
system. Finland was considered allied to Germany. 

Whenever small forces escaped to join governments in exile the nucleus 
of a new army had been formed and joined the Allies. Nations so repre- 
sented included: Holland in the Dutch East Indies, Free France in Africa, 
Poland, Norway, Belgium, Czechoslovakia and Greece. These forces varied 
from a few patriots to forces small in size but well organized and partly 
equipped. r 

For a complete list of the nations allied against Germany and of those 
allied with Germany, see table on page 731, in WORLD WAR II. 

Neutral states as of Jan. i, 1942, included the following: Argentina, Bra- 
zil, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Turkey and Venezuela. 

Conclusion. The spread of World War II brought nearly all of the or- 
ganized armies of the world into conflict at the close of 1941. Table 111 on 
page 71 indicates the nations engaged and the size of armies participating 
in warfare. (See also AIR FORCES OF THE WORLD; CHEMICAL WARFARE; 
MARINE CORPS; MUNITIONS OF WAR; NATIONAL GUARD; NAVIES OF THE 
WORLD; WORLD WAR II.) (H. A. DR.) 



r Allknn Vinnpnt C' 86 *- 1 ^), u.s. yachtsman 

r, AIIIMJII VllllClll and specialist in plant and ar- 
chaeological research, was born March 18 in Chicago. Sponsored 
by the department of agriculture, he made eight voyages aboard 
his yacht to remote regions for plant and biological research. In 
1932, on a trip to the West Indies, he collected rare plants and 
vegetables which might be introduced into southeastern U.S., and 
he also made important archaeological discoveries on the islands. 
In 1931 Armour received the Frank M. Meyer medal, awarded 
by the American Genetic association for plant exploration. He 
was an honorary fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences. 
Armour died in New York city, March 6. 



ART EXHIBITIONS 

Arnnlrl Uonrv H (l886 ~ } us army officer ' was 

MIIIUIU, nCllljf II. born June 25 in Gladwyn, Pa. He was 
graduated from West Point in 1907 and served in the Philippines 
until 1909. He set an altitude record in 1912, was awarded the 
Mackay trophy for a reconnaissance flight in the same year and 
was the first aviator to use radio in reporting artillery fire ob- 
served from a plane. During World War I, he headed the infor- 
mation service of the signal corps's aviation division and later 
became assistant director of military aeronautics. Gen. Arnold 
led a round-trip flight of army bombers to Alaska in 1934 and 
was awarded the distinguished flying cross in the same year. He 
was named assistant chief of the air corps, 1935, and major gen- 
eral, chief of the air corps, 1938. In Oct. 1940, he became the 
nation's first acting deputy chief of staff in charge of co-ordinat- 
ing all matters pertaining to the air corps. In May 1941 Pres. 
Roosevelt made him a full-fledged deputy chief of staff. He 
went to England in the spring of 1941 to exchange technical 
ideas with British air experts and on Dec. 15, 1941, Pres. Roose- 
velt named Arnold for temporary promotion to the rank of lieu- 
tenant general. 



Arnault! De La Periere, Lothar Von 

admiral, was born March 18 in Posen, Germany. The son of a 
former government official in Potsdam, and a descendant of a 
French immigrant who became a major general in the army of 
Frederick the Great, the young Arnauld de la Periere received his 
early training in cadet schools and at the age of 17 entered the 
imperial navy. In 1906 he became an officer and from 1913 to 
1915 he was adjutant to the chief of staff. From 1915 to 1918 he 
was commander of two U-boats in the Mediterranean. Germany 
claimed that he was responsible for the sinking of 200 Allied ships 
totalling more than 500,000 tons during World War I. Named 
commander of the German naval forces in occupied France in 
1940, he was killed Feb. 24 in an accident, the details of which 
were not divulged by German authorities. 



Arsenic. 



Art Exhibitions. 




World consumption of commercial arsenic that is, 
the white oxide, and not the metal itself is of the 
order of 60,000 metric tons annually, about one-third of which is 
produced in the United States; other producers of importance 
are Sweden, Mexico, Australia, Belgium, Germany and Japan. 
The United States is the largest consumer, taking about half of 
the total. The 1940 output increased to 24,983 short tons, and 
sales to 23,339 tons, which was supplemented by 9,929 tons of 
imports, less 1,600 tons exported, leaving a total supply of 31,700 
tons. Both exports and imports decreased about half. Sweden 
alone recovers enough crude arsenic to supply the entire world 
demand, but only a small fraction of it is refined and used, the 
surplus being held in storage, this having been found to be the 
cheapest way to dispose of the heavy arsenic content of the Boli- 
den gold ores, even though transportation charges and cheap sup- 
plies in other countries prevent its shipment and use. 

(G. A. Ro.) 

Arf: see AMERICAN LITERATURE; ARCHITECTURE; PAINTING; 
SCULPTURE; etc. 

The war necessarily confined most exhibi- 
tions to the western hemisphere, where 
surveys of the art of a people or period proved popular. Spanish 
Painting was shown at the Toledo Museum of Art and Paganism 
and Christianity in Egypt at the Brooklyn museum. Baroque 
Italian Painting was reviewed at San Francisco's California Palace 

of the Legion of Honor and In- 
dian Art of the United States 
was featured at New York's 
Museum of Modern Art. Aus- 
tralian Art began a tour of the 
United States with a first show- 
ing at the National gallery, 
Washington, D.C. The Metro- 
politan Museum of Art and the 
Art Institute of Chicago ex- 
hibited French paintings and 
drawings lent by the museums 
and collectors of France. The 
influence of world affairs was 



THE NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 
at Washington, D.C., gift of Andrew 
Mellon, was dedicated March 17, 1941 
by President Roosevelt 



ART GALLERIES AND ART MUSEUMS 



77 



evident not only in the prominence given Australian art but also 
in the display of Modern Mexican Painters at the Boston Insti- 
tute of Modern Art and in the special section devoted to Mexico 
and Latin America in the Art Institute of Chicago's Twentieth 
International Exhibition of Water Colors. A national tour of 
Latin-American prints was sponsored by the International Busi- 
ness Machines corporation, which also backed the collection of 
contemporary art of the western hemisphere seen throughout 
North America. Three exhibitions of North American art circu- 
lated in Latin America as a result of the co-operation of the 
official Pan-American cultural relations committee and a group of 
American museums. America and Americans came to the fore in 
such exhibits as the new Santa Barbara museum's Painting Today 
and Yesterday in the United States, the Whitney museum's This 
Is Our City, the Baltimore Museum of Art's A Century of Balti- 
more Collecting. Fifty Oncoming Americans were on view at the 
Springfield Museum of Fine Arts and at the Boston Institute of 
Modern Art. Outstanding among the annuals and biennials were 
the Art Institute of Chicago's Fifty-second Annual Exhibition of 
American Paintings and Sculpture, for the first time chosen en- 
tirely by the museum, the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh's Di- 
rections in American Painting, which gave a chance to those 
Americans who had never shown in its International, and the 
Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts' tenth exhibition of ceramics, 
which for the first time included work from all the Americas. 

The most noteworthy exhibitions in 1941 devoted to the art of 
one man were the Art Institute of Chicago's superb Art of Goya 
Paintings, Drawings, and Prints; and Duveen's review of 
Renoir. Other interesting one-man shows, featuring the work of 
iQth or 20th century artists, included Faggi at the Albright Art 
gallery in Buffalo, Max Weber at the Associated American Artists, 
Iver Rose and Louis Bosa at the Schneider-Gabriel galleries, 
Nordfeldt at Lilienfeld's, Esther Williams at Kraushaar's, Robert 
Gwathmey at the A.C.A. gallery, Speicher at the Rehn galleries. 
Mary Cassatt was shown at the Baltimore Museum of Art, Man- 
gravite at the Art Institute of Chicago, Jerome Myers at the 
Whitney, Joan Miro and Salvador Dali at the Museum of Modern 
Art. The late Emil Ganso was on view at the Whitney, at the 
Philadelphia Art Alliance and at Weyhe's. Sepeshy was seen at 
the Midtown, Souto at Knoedler's, Mario Carreno at the Perls 
gallery, and George Grosz both at the Walker galleries and the 
Museum of Modern Art. Old masters featured included El Greco 
at Knoedler's and Joos De Momper at Mortimer Brandt's. 

Among the most unusual exhibitions of the year were the fol- 
lowing: the Metropolitan's China Trade and Its Influences; 
Knoedler's show in honour of Cortissoz's 50th year as an art 
critic; Italian Drawings, 1330-1780, at the Smith College Museum 
of Art; prints and books published by Vollard at the Brooklyn 
museum; the First Century of Printmaking at the Art Institute 
of Chicago. (D. 0.) 

Art Galleries and Art Museums. 

in art galleries and museums. In England 1941 opened with some 
of the heaviest bombings of London in which priceless monu- 
ments and churches were destroyed by the enemy, including the 
famous auction rooms of Christie's. On March 17 the United 
States sounded a note of hope and gave refuge to unique works of 
European art with the opening of the National gallery in Wash- 
ington. On Dec. 7 with Japan's attack on the United States, 
decades of progressive art collecting changed direction, and cura- 
tors* plans were revised overnight from that of solely acquiring 
works of art to protecting them also from bombs. Following the 
example of England, museum directors emphasized the importance 
of art in wartime, as air raids of the kind that would be attempted 



in the United States would be directed not so much at killing peo- 
ple or destroying military objectives as at crushing morale. In 
England more books were printed than ever before, and art maga- 
zines came out regularly even wherf bombed out of their offices. 

Certainly the most important event of 1941 was the opening 
of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., on March 17, 
when President Roosevelt accepted the gifts of the late Andrew 
J. Mellon and Samuel H. Kress and others for the nation. The 
late Andrew J. Mellon gave the building with an endowment and 
bequeathed 122 outstanding European paintings and 23 pieces of 
sculpture of the finest European schools. Samuel H. Kress 
donated 375 paintings and 18 pieces of sculpture of notable 
quality. By July 27, four months after the opening, the mil- 
lionth visitor had entered the museum. 

The summation of losses from enemy bombs to museums and 
contents in Europe during 1941 served two purposes: first, to 
make all realize the extent to which axis dictators will go in 
destroying civilian property which has no military value what- 
ever; and secondly, to demonstrate the disadvantages of anti- 
quated museum architecture in coping with the problems of life 
today. The extent of the damage to the superb early Greek ob- 
jects in the museum at Candia, Crete, had not been published up 
to Jan. i, 1942. Irreparable injury was caused in London when 
(on the night of Dec. 19, 1940) the enemy dropped 10,000 incen- 
diary bombs on the city, destroying nine churches, among them 
Wren's St. Lawrence Jewry, St. Vedast and St. Bride's. The 
Guildhall, built in 1411-35, was burned down to the walls. Sta- 
tioner's hall (built 1670) was devastated with a loss of 5,000,- 
ooo books. Grave damage was done to Trinity house and to 
Dr. Johnson's house in Gough street. The Inns of Court were in 
ruins. 

Similar damage was done in Liverpool, where the City museum 
was destroyed by fire while the Walker gallery had a narrow es- 
cape. In May the Portsmouth City museum was demolished. The 
Bristol museum had already met a like fate. The Southampton 
Art gallery was badly damaged when a bomb crashed into a shel- 
ter full of children. The Bootle Museum and Art gallery, the 
Sunderland Public Museum and Art gallery, the Williamson Art 
Gallery and Museum in Birkcnhead, the Birmingham City Muse- 
um and Art gallery, and the Coventry museum all suffered severe 
damage. In Hull, Old Time street with its series of original store 
fronts was completely demolished. The Museums and War Dam- 
age act was set' up to insure museums against losses. 

Reports from France stated that the Louvre, the Trocadero and 
the Luxembourg museum had not been stripped by the nazis but 
were left partially open to the public for their value as im- 
portant tourist attractions after the war. However, important 
Jewish collections were confiscated and many of them were on 
view in the Jeu de Paume museum, where they were being sold 
for relief funds, for example the i7th and i9th century art and 
the 1 8th century paintings, and the silver collection of Maurice 
de Rothschild. Everywhere pictures were in great demand for in- 
vestment purposes, as they were easy to transport and their value 
remained constant. The Jewish-owned galleries were open and 
doing a good business (under the direction of the enemy). 

In the United States the public enjoyed displays of refugee art 
from Europe: the masterpieces of French art from David to 
Picasso, lent by the Louvre and museums of France, were shown 
exactly as they left France (before the war) only at the Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago. Several prominent refugee artists came to the 
United States and enriched its culture : Leger, Kisling, Ozenfant, 
Berman, Mondrian, Masson and Chagall, and the sculptors Zad- 
kine and Lipschitz. Exhibitions of paintings and of books were 
sent on tour to the Central and South American republics in an 
effort to promote better inter-American relations. Several mu- 



78 



ARTHRITISASBESTOS 



seums abolished pay days: the Metropolitan museum in New York 
and the Cleveland museum, The following were among the im- 
portant gifts of the year to museums : Mrs. James Ward Thorne 
of Chicago presented 97 of her architectural models in miniature 
to the Art Institute of Chicago to be used for educational pur- 
poses. The Boston Museum of Fine Arts received the significant 
Karolik gift of furniture and arts and crafts of the i8th century in 
the colonies and original states. Yale university acquired an un- 
usual bequest of 450 works of modern art from Katherine S. 
Dreier. In March, Robert Moses, the New York commissioner of 
parks, issued a detailed statement stressing what was wrong with 
New York museums and how they were not relating themselves to 
the public. In July, William Church Osborn was chosen president 
of the Metropolitan Museum of Art to succeed the late George 
Blumenthal, who made significant gifts to the museum in his will. 
The Metropolitan added a junior museum consisting of a restau- 
rant, workrooms and galleries for children. New York department 
stores sold works of art from the Hearst, the Clarence Mackay 
and the W. S. McCall collections. Various exhibits demonstrated 
the national importance of the art of the American Negro. The 
new Santa Barbara museum opened in California. (L. B. BR.) 



Arthritis. 



Approximately one-fourth of all patients with 
chronic arthritis fail to become re-employable due 
solely to the severity of their disease. The permanent invalidity, 
however, is a subject which deserves further study. Judging 
from a review of the effect of the bombing of London on patients 
with "rheumatism," the added exposure and shock seems to have 
resulted in some increase in the amount of the disease; individual 
patients, however, have adjusted themselves well as a rule. 

Several studies on the blood chemistry of patients with rheu- 
matoid arthritis failed to demonstrate any significant differences 
from normal, except in the case of the so-called formol-gel reac- 
tion in the blood plasma, which has been found reasonably suit- 
able as an index of the extent of systemic activity of the disease 
process. In this respect, it is similar to the blood sedimentation 
reaction. Ordinarily, chronic infectious or rheumatoid arthritis 
has not been considered as a disease which affects the heart. 
However, heart lesions have been demonstrated at necropsy in 
four-fifths of a small group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. 

Further studies of the spontaneous polyarthritis of rats, dis- 
covered some years before as having a marked similarity to human 
arthritis, resulted in one report, implying that two strains of the 
pleuropneumonia group, one obtained from rats and the other 
from a patient with acute rheumatic fever, were identical. In 
connection with the effect of jaundice on arthritis, Snow and 
Hines found that ligation of the common bile duct of rats prior 
to or shortly after injection of a culture of a pleuropneumonia- 
like organism would delay the onset of arthritis and the subse- 
quent degree of joint involvement was diminished. This is an ad- 
ditional element of similarity to the human disease. Using an en- 
tirely different type of organism the haemolytic streptococcus 
Rothbard produced an acute multiple arthritis in 45 out of 51 
albino rats by the intravenous injection of a strain of this organ- 
ism. 

Numerous additional studies on the role of gold salts in the 
treatment of arthritis appeared ; one of them was reported as an 
effective chemotherapeutic agent for a variety of haemolytic 
streptococcus arthritis in rats. Certain gold compounds also were 
found to exert a curative effect on experimental arthritis pro- 
duced in mice by a filtrable micro-organism of the pleuropneu- 
monia group. Several groups of investigators, especially in the 
United States and Great Britain, reported favourable results with 
certain gold salts in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. All 
however stressed the toxic effects and cautioned against the 



dangers. The council on pharmacy and chemistry of the Amer- 
ican Medical association took a conservative attitude toward the 
use of gold salts for this purpose. Considerable work was done 
on the prevention of deformities in arthritis and on reconstructive 
surgery of joints which had been already badly damaged. The 
results of repair in some cases were little short of phenomenal. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. B. I. Comroe, Arthritis and Allied Conditions; R. H. 
Freyberg, W. D. Block and S. Levey, "Metabolism, Toxicity and Manner 
of Action of Gold Compounds Used in the Treatment of Arthritis. I. Hu- 
man Plasma and Synovial Fluid Concentration and Urinary Excretion of 
Gold During and Following Treatment with Gold Sodium Thiomalate, Gold 
Sodium Thiosulfate, and Colloidal Gold Sulfide," /. Clin. Investigation, 
20:401-412 (1941); Philip S. Hench, ct al., "The Problem of Rheumatism 
and Arthritis, Review of American and English Literature for 1939 (Sev- 
enth Rheumatism Review)," Ann. Int. Med., 14:1383-1448 and 1631- 
1701 (1941); "Proceedings of the American Rheumatism Association," 
J.A.M.A., 117:1560-66 and 1646-50 (1941). (E. P. J.) 

Artillery: see ARMIES OF THE WORLD; MUNITIONS OF WAR; 
WORLD WAR II. 



Art Qoloo ^ e war * n l ^ 1 st * mu ^ ate( ^ ra th er than depressed 
fill OdlCO. the auction market. In New York, Parke-Bernet's 
gross sales were $3,606,381, an increase of 54% over the previous 
year and the biggest total since 1929. The sale of the Mrs. Henry 
Walters collection was the high spot of the season, bringing a 
total of $646,684. Important prices realized were $12,500 for 
Clodion's "Nymph and Satyr" and $16,500 for Boucher's "Le 
Moulin" and "Le Cours d'Eau." Although the Walters collection 
was famous for its i8th century French art, the sale's sensation 
occurred when a Persian silver-woven silk rug was started at 
$1,000 and climbed steadily to $16,000, the price paid by Miss 
Berenice C. Ballard of St. Louis. Nearly $500,000 in two days is 
the record of the sale of the Mrs. B. F. Jones, Jr., collection. 
Romney's "Captain William Kirkpatrick" went for $31,000 and 
Romney's "Miss Frances Berresford" for $39,000. A Hobbema 
landscape brought $30,000, a Nattier $19,500, a Gainsborough 
rustic scene $16.000, and Turner's "Fish Market on the Sands" 
was secured by Billy Rose for $15,500. Art property from the 
estate of the late J. Horace Harding aggregated $183,152. At this 
sale the record price of the year was reached by Goya's "Victor 
Guye," for which an anonymous collector paid $34,000. The 
Plaza Art galleries announced a total of $1,178,789, the result of 
6 1 sales, in the 1940-41 season. 

In England the normal activities of the great salesrooms of 
Sotheby's and Christie's continued and even took on new interest 
and importance. On April 17 the famous Great Rooms of Chris- 
tie's were bombed and destroyed, but by May the firm was in- 
stalled in temporary quarters in Derby house, Stratford place. 
The jewels which had awaited sale in a safe survived the ordeal 
of fire and produced a total of 17,700 when sold at Derby house. 
One of the most successful silver sales was that of the late Sir 
Lionel Faudel-Phillips' collection. A total of 43,86i was realized 
by 305 lots. A total of 32,408 was recorded at Christie's in July 
when gems came under the hammer. From an anonymous source 
a superb diamond pendant found a buyer at 9,500. At Sotheby's 
sale of the late H. K. Burnet's Chinese collection 405 lots ob- 
tained 6,131 135. An early Chou wine vessel was knocked down 
for 230. Sotheby's in conjunction with Lofts and Warner sold 
the H. Yates Thompson collection, which achieved a total of 
11,504 igs. (D. 0.) 

Arts and Sctatcfti, American Aeodtmy of: see AMERI- 
CAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 

Following are the salient data of the asbestos in- 
dustry in the United States in 1940: production 
19,174 short tons, sales 20,060 tons, imports 246,613 tons, exports 



ASBESTOS! S ASTRONOMY 



79 



4,474 tons, available supply 262,199 tons; all figures are in- 
creases over preceding years. More than half of the world sup- 
ply comes from Canada, where 1940 sales declined slightly to 
345,581 tons. Second in importance is Southern Rhodesia, with 
58,313 tons in 1939 and 1940 not reported. South Africa pro- 
duced 27,392 tons in 1940 and exported 22,187 tons. Production 
was begun in Swaziland in 1939; no figures were available for the 
year, but output during the first seven months of 1940 was at the 
rate of nearly 2,000 tons monthly. Nothing was reported from 
Cyprus after the first quarter of 1940, and operations were prob- 
ably discontinued. (G. A, Ro.) 

Asbestosis: see SILICOSIS. 

ASCAP: see PERFORMING RIGHT SOCIETIES; RADIO: Literary- 
Musical Property. 

Ascension: see BRITISH WEST AFRICA. 
Asia: see AFGHANISTAN; CHINA; INDIA, ETC. , 

Acnholt United States production of asphalt includes only 
no|Jlldll. comparatively small amounts of the native varieties 
(32,000 short tons in 1940, against 37,360 tons in 1939). The 
production of bituminous rock rose from 422,484 tons in 1939 to 
458,665 tons in 1940; this has an asphalt content of about 10%, 
and so accounts for a somewhat larger amount of asphalt produc- 
tion. Of far greater magnitude is the output of manufactured 
asphalt, which was recovered in the refining of petroleum to the 
extent of 5,069,823 tons from domestic and 1,289,132 tons from 
imported petroleum in 1940. There are moderate imports of both 
native and manufactured varieties, but these are more than offset 
by exports, especially of petroleum asphalt. 

Trinidad is the world's largest producer of native asphalt, with 
an output of 130,315 long tons in 1939, but exports have declined 
nearly one-half since 1929, due largely to competition from petro- 
leum asphalt. Egypt produces about the same amount as the U.S., 
and there are a number of minor producers. (G. A. Ro.) 

ftccaccinatinnc The assassinations of ^i, actual or at- 

noodoolllduUIIO. tempted, included the following: 




March 1 1 Istanbul, Turkey. Time bombs hidden in suitcases exploded as 
British minister to Bulgaria, (ieorge \V. Rendel, and his party of 67 
entered hotel; Rendei escaped injury, but six of his entourage were 
killed and 17 injured. 

May 24 Tirana, Albania. A Greek poet attempted to assassinate King 
Victor Emmanuel and Albanian Premier Shevket Verlaci during the 
former's visit to Tirana; the (ireek fired several times into the 
king's motor car, but all his shots missed, 

July 26 Near Montelimar, France. Marx Dormoy, former socialist leader 
and interior minister in the 1'opular Front cabinet of prewar France, 
was killed by a time bomb left by unknown persons in his hotel 
room. 

Aug. 14 Tokyo. Baron KiichiroHiranuma, Japanese vice-premier, was shot 
in the neck and jaw by a 33 year-old assassin who forced his way 
into the baron's residence in Tokyo; the assailant was apprehended 
by the police. 

Aug. 27 Versailles, France. Pierre Laval, former French premier, and 
Marcel Dtfat, pro-nazi editor, were shot and seriously wounded by 
Paul Colette, a young Frenchman, while they were reviewing a 
French ant i -communist legion in a Versailles barracks. 

Sept. 5 Paris, France. Marcel Gilt on, French ex communist leader and 
former deputy, died of injuries inflicted Sept, 4 by unidentified 
assailant. 

Nov. 9 Baghdad, Iraq. Fakhri Bey Nashashibi, Arab leader and Head of 
Defense party, was assassinated as he was leaving his hotel. 

Association for the Advancement of Science, Ameri- 
can: see AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF 
SCIENCE. 



Aetrnnnitllf 
nOUUIiUlllj. 



PAUL COLETTE (centre) being held by French gendarmes Immediately after 
hit attempted aitaislnatlon of Pierre Laval and Marcel Deat Aug. 27, 1941 
at Versailles 



^ m P rtancc f lne Schmidt-type telescope as 
a new tool in astronomical research is empha- 
sized by the number of these instruments placed in use or under 
construction during 1941. Two 24-in, Schmidt telescopes were in- 
stalled in the United States, while two larger instruments were 
soon to be installed, one in the United States and one in South 
Africa. 

Solar System. The Sun, One of the great unsolved problems concerning 
the solar spectrum has been the identity of the lines in the spectrum of the 
corona. It has been known that these lines, 22 of which have been meas- 
ured by Lyot, could not be due to any unknown chemical element but must 
arise from well known elements under unusual conditions. Edlen, in the 
course of systematic studies of the spectra of highly ionized atoms, has 
succeeded in identifying 15 of these lines. Two of the lines are due to 
highly ionized atoms of calcium, seven are due to highly ionized iron and 
six to highly ionized nickel. The seven lines which remained unidentified 
in 1941 are all faint, the 15 identified lines contributing approximately 
97% of the total radiation from the corona. Several of these identified lines 
have not as >ec been observed in the laboratory, but enough was known 
about the highly ionized states of these atoms to make Edlen's predictions 
reasonably certain. 

The variation of brightness over the solar disk from the centre to near 
the limb has been accurately measured, but unsteadiness of the image, due 
to the effect of the earth's atmosphere, makes such measurement difficult 
very close to the limb. The best means of escaping this difficulty is to 
measure the brightness of the crescent phases of a total solar eclipse. 
Ferwerda, Uitterdijk and Wesselink succeeded in doing this at the Russian 
eclipse of 1936 by an ingenious photographic method. Their results, pub- 
lished in 1941, indicate that the brightness near the sun's limb varies ap- 
proximately as the tenth root of the distance from the limb, whereas the 
brightness nearer the centre of the disk varies as the cube root of this dis- 
tance. Simultam jus measures of colour show that even during the last 
minute before totality, when the light was only i/ioo its initial value, 
there was no change of colour. This constancy of colour suggests that there 
must be a nearly isothermal layer near the solar surface. Similar results 
have been arrived at in different ways by Plaskett and by Miss Adam. 

1'lanetory System. Six comets were discovered during 1941. Two of 
these were rediscoveries of previously known comets, the others being new 
objects, one of which was readily visible to the naked eye in the southern 
hemisphere. 

One of the great co-operative observational programs instituted by the 
International Astronomical union was the program for observing Eros at 
the opposition of 1931. At this opposition Eros was only 16,000,000 mi. 
from the earth, and this close proximity of Eros made it an especially 
favourable object to observe for the purpose of determining a new value of 
the solar parallax. Jones announced the results of his analysis of thousands 
of observations made at more than 30 co-operating observatories. After 
systematic errors of some of the observatories had been allowed for, he ob- 
tained the following values for ihe solar parallax: from all right ascension 
observations, 8".7875o".ooo9, and from all declination observations, 
8".7907o".ooii. He concluded that the solar parallax must be very close 
to the value 8". 790. This material also yielded a new value of the mass 
of the moon. By using the value 8".790o".ooi for the sun's parallax, 
Jones obtained for the ratio of the mass of the earth to that of the moon 
the value 8 1.2 71 0.021, 

A comparison of Newcomb's theory of the motion of Neptune with all 
observations from 1795 to 1938 has been made by Wylie. After reducing 
all positions to a homogeneous system he obtained corrections to the orbital 
elements of Neptune which have gratifyingly small probable errors. A by- 
product of this investigation is a new determination of the mass of Pluto, 
which Wylie found to be (o.3ooo.028)X io~ 5 sun's mass. The mass of 
the earth is o.3oixio~ 5 sun's mass. Pluto, therefore, appears to have a 




AURORA BOREALIS outshone the brilliance of New York city's lights on the 
night of Sept. 18, 1941. The display was visible throughout much of the 
northern U.S.A. 

mass practically identical with that of the earth. 

Observations of the satellite of Neptune by Alden yielded a new value 
of the mass of this satellite. Alden finds that the ratio of the mass of the 
satellite to the mass of the system is 0.0013^0.0003. Since the mass of 
Neptune is about 17 times that of the earth this figure makes the mass of 
Neptune's satellite 0.022 the earth's mass, or i.H limes the mass of the 
moon. 

Stars. Special Stars and Stellar Structure. In a study of the atmos- 
pheric structure of Zeta Aurigae, Roach combined his own photoelectric 
observations with those previously made by Guthnick and by Kron. After 
adjusting all observations to the same effective wave length, he found that 
they could best be represented on the assumption that the eclipse is due 
entirely to absorption of light of the 1> star by the extensive atmosphere of 
the K star. An estimate of the number of hydrogen atoms in the line of 
sight, based on observed intensities of the hydrogen lines in the spectrum, 
agrees well with the extinction theory of the eclipse. 

One of the most interesting and puzzling of the eclipsing binaries is the 
third magnitude star Beta Lyrae. Thousands of photometric and spectro- 
graphic observations of this star have been made in an attempt to solve 
the puzzling problems it presents. A concerted attack on the problem by a 
number of astronomers seems to have pretty well solved the puzzle. Kopal 
and Kuiper treated the problem from the theoretical standpoint and Struve, 
(jreenstein, Page and Miss Gill contributed spectrographic investigations. 
Notable among these are the discussions of Kuiper and Struve. Beta Lyrae 
consists of two highly elliptical stars which revolve about their common 
centre of gravity. Kuiper's mathematical analysis, when combined with 
Struve's spectrographic results, indicates that the two components of this 
binary system are so nearly in contact as they revolve about each other 
that their atmospheres merge. Because of different densities, the attraction 
of the more dense star on pnrticles between the two will tend to set up a 
current in their atmospheres. Much of this moving gas will continue to 
circulate about the two stars, but some of it will escape and form a great 
spiral of gas about the stars which will take the form of a disk of material 
lying in the plane of the orbit. The plane of the orbit must be almost edge- 
wise toward us so that the gas in this spiral will come between us and the 
stars. This is a remarkable model of a celestial object, but it depends on 
careful dynamical calculations and on a thorough study of the spectra. It 
explains almost all of the hitherto puzzling features of this system, com- 
bining ihe perplexing observational facts into a consistent and intelligible 
picture. 

Observational investigations of Cepheids and cluster-type variables by 
Fath and by Schwarzschild indicated secondary periods in the light varia- 
tions. Analysis of this material by Schwarzschild indicated that not only 



the fundamental mode of pulsation but also higher modes or overtones occur 
in these stars. Analytical solutions for a standard stellar model indicated 
the nature of the period-density relation which pulsating stars should fol- 
low if they pulsate in the first overtone of the fundamental period. Com- 
bining his observed mean colours and mean magnitudes of the stars in the 
cluster Messier 3 with new periods for these stars determined by Martin. 
Schwarzschild found an observed period-density relation for the shorter 
period stars which agrees well with the predicted relation. It appears, 
therefore, that the snorter period cluster-type stars pulsate in the first 
overtone of the longer observed periods for these stars. This conclusion 
is of considerable importance for the interpretation of the mechanism ol 
pulsation. 

Stellar Syitem. A survey of the proper motions of stars in the southern 
hemisphere, based on series of plates obtained at the southern station of 
the Harvard observatory, has been carried out by Luyten. The first results 
of this monumental task appeared during 1941, consisting of the proper 
motions of 28,505 stars between declination 50 and the south pole. 
When completed, the analysis of Luy ten's results will add very materially 
to our knowledge of stellar motions in our galaxy. 

Determination of the distances of galactic star clusters involves consid- 
erable uncertainty due to absorption by interstellar matter. Cuffey studied 
three clusters in the uniformly rich region of the Milky Way in Monoceros 
and Cam's Major and found that both the selective and general absorption 
in this direction is very small to a distance of 3,300 parsecs. The absence 
of appreciable absorption to this distance, coupled with the absence of extra- 
galactic nebulae from these star fields, suggest that there must be consider- 
able absorption at greater distances in this direction. This may indicate 
the existence of a spiral arm containing absorbing clouds and extending to 
a greater distance than the average radius of our galactic system would sug- 
gest. 

Prediction of the presence of molecules of CH in interstellar space by 
McKellar was confirmed by Adams from high dispersion spectra of Zeta 
Aurigae. He found a number of additional interstellar lines and concluded 
that the pAi'stenre of interstellar CH and CN seemed well established. 

External Galaxies. A new investigation of the dimensions and shape of 
the Andromeda nebula was made by Williams and Hiltner with a new 
direct -in tensity microphotometer designed to trace isophotal contours. This 
instrument, called an isophotometer, was used to trace isophotaf contours 
from a negative of the nebul.t obtained by Hubble with the i8-in, Schmidt 
telescope at Mt. Palomar. Previous measures of the extreme dimensions of 
the Andromeda nebula by Redman and Shirley gave 2 6 7' x 89'. Williams 
and Hiltner find the values 4Oo'X9i'. Adopting currently accepted esti- 
mates of the distance of the nebula, the real diameter along the major axis 
must be at least So.ooo light years. 

An investigation by Wyse and Mayall of the distribution of mass in the 
spiral nebulae Messier 31 and 33, based on radial velocity measures made 



80 



ATHLETICSAUSTRALIA 



81 



at varying distances from the centre of each nebula, indicated that the mass 
in each case is widely spread throughout the system, with very small con- 
centration of mass at the centre. This result contrasts markedly with the 
high concentration of light near the centre and indicates that there is no 
apparent relation between mass distribution and the distribution of lumi- 
nosity. Observations of the rotation of our own galaxy have heretofore 
been interpreted as indicating a high central concentration of mass. This 
may be true, but such an interpretation does not necessarily follow from the 
observations and the distribution of mass in our galaxy may be similar to 
that found in these two extragalactic spirals. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Lloyd A. Brown, Jean Domcnique Cassini and His 
World Map oj 1696 (1941); Fletcher G. Watson, Between the Planets 
(1941); Bart J. Bok and Priscilla F. Bok, The Milky Way (1941). 

(N. L. P.) 

Athletics: see TRACK AND FIELD SPORTS; etc. 

Athlnno let Carl nf (ALEXANDER AUGUSTUS FREDERICK 
/UIIIUIIG, I SI tall Ul WILLIAM ALFRED GEORGE CAM- 
BRIDGE) (1874- )> British statesman, was born April 14 at 
Kensington palace, the third son of the ist duke of Teck. Edu- 
cated at Eton and the royal military college, Sandhurst, he served 
in Matabeleland, Southern Rhodesia, in 1896 and saw action dur- 
ing the Boer war, receiving the Queen's medal with five clasps. 
During World War I he was mentioned twice in dispatches, and 
in 1917 he was created ist earl of Athlone. He was governor 
general of the Union of South Africa from 1923 to 1931. In 
1931 he was made governor of Windsor castle, in 1932 chancellor 
of London university and in 1936 grand master of the Order of 
St. Michael and St. George. In the latter year he was also ap- 
pointed personal aide-de-camp to the king. He was appointed 
i6th governor general of Canada April 3, 1940, to succeed the 
late Lord Tweedsmuir. 

Atlantic Charter: see DEFENSE, NATIONAL (U.S.): "The At- 
lantic Charter jt \ ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN DELANO; UNITED 
STATES: Foreign Relations. 



(1884- ), 
British army offi- 



Auchinleck, Sir Claude John Eyre 

cer, was born in England, the son of Col. John Claude Auchin- 
leck. He served in India in 1902, and was stationed in Egypt and 
Mesopotamia during World War I. In 1933 and 1935 he distin- 
guished himself on the northwest Indian frontier in engagements 
with native tribesmen. In the spring of 1940 he was made com- 
mander of the Allied forces in northern Norway. He took Nar- 
vik but was forced to evacuate the city when the Allies failed to 
make additional landings in the south. In the summer of 1940, 
after the collapse of France, Auchinleck was appointed general 
officer commanding the English southern command, and he or- 
ganized the first defenses of England to forestall the threatened 
German invasion. In Dec. 1940 he returned to India as com- 
mander in chief. In July 1941 he was made commander in chief 
of British middle east armies, succeeding Gen. Sir Archibald 
Percy Wavell (q.v.), who was transferred to Auchinleck's post in 
India. Auchinleck's armies in Libya, under Gen. Sir Alan Cun- 
ningham (q.v.), launched an offensive against axis forces Nov. 18, 
1941. Auchinleck's plan to cut off axis supplies met with initial 
successes, but when the British desert armies were temporarily 
halted, Cunningham was replaced by Gen. Neil Methuen Ritchie 
(q.v.). Thereafter the British drive gathered momentum and 
Bengasi was captured Dec. 25, 1941. 

Austin, Frederick Britten a nd 



May 8 at Hackney Downs, England. The day after England de- 
clared war on Germany in 1914, Mr. Austin, then a stock ex- 
change clerk, enlisted in the London rifle brigade. He served for 
30 months with the British overseas armies and was demobilized 
in 1919 with the rank of captain, A keen student of military 
strategy, Austin predicted as far back as 1913 that mechanized 



armies would displace cavalry and infantry in future wars. This 
prophecy was made in an early novel, In Action, published in 
1913. Among his other works are: The Shaping of Lavinia 
(1911); Battlewrack (1917); The Road to Glory (1935); and 
Told in the Market Place (1935). He died at Weston-super- 
Mare in Somersetshire on March 12. 

Anctin Uorhort Anotin IST BARON (1866-1941), Brit- 
ftUSllll, nClDcll rtuSUII, ish motor car manufacturer, 
was born Nov. 8 at Little Missenden, Buckinghamshire. Educated 
at Brampton college, he went to Australia where he served an ap- 
prenticeship in engineering at a Melbourne factory. He later 
went to work as a salesman and repairman for a sheep-shearing 
machine company. He returned to England in 1893, became in- 
terested in motor cars then a pioneer industry and designed 
and built his first car in 1895. In 1900 he became manager of a 
motor car factory and drove his own product, a Wolseley, in a 
i ,ooo-mi. endurance rally in the same year. In 1905, he formed 
the Austin company, which produced 50 cars the first year; by 
1914 the plant was turning out 1,000 cars a year. During the war 
the factory was converted into a munitions plant. In 1922 Austin 
went back to motor cars and produced the first "Baby Austin." 
By 1927 the Austin works had turned out 100,000 of the cheap, 
7-h.p. cars. Lord Austin gave more than $1,250,000 to the Caven- 
dish Laboratory of Experimental Physics at the University of 
Cambridge. He was a member of parliament from 1919 to 1924 
and was created first Baron Austin in 1936. He died May 23 at 
Lickey Grange, near Bromsgrove, Worcestershire. 



nf 
or. 



A self -&vemmg 
ber of the British com . 

monwealth of nations, situated in the southern hemisphere be- 
tween longitudes ii39' E. and I5339' E. and latitudes io4i' S. 
and 4339' S.; national flag, a blue ensign, with the Union flag in 
the quarter and six white stars in the field. Ruler, King George 
VI; governor-general, the Rt. Hon. Lord Cowrie, V.C.; prime 
minister, J. Curtin; language, English; religion, Christian (census 
1933: Anglican, 2,565,118; Roman Catholic, 1,161,455; Presby- 
terian, 713,229; Methodist 684,022; other Christians, 603,914). 

Area and Population. Area, 2,974,581 sq.mi.; population 
(est. Dec. 31, 1940), 7,068,689. Chief towns (pop, Dec. 31, 
1940): Sydney (1,310,520), Melbourne (1,076,000), Adelaide 
(330,000), Brisbane (335,520), Perth (228,000), Hobart (66,- 
620), Newcastle (116,000). Capital, Canberra. 

History. The political upheavals which were a constant threat 
to stable government throughout 1941 and which culminated in 
the downfall of the national government in September must have 
appeared to be strangely out of harmony with Australia's mag- 
nificent war effort to observers unfamiliar with the background of 
Australian politics. It is important therefore to record that the 
Labour opposition declared more than once in the most emphatic 
terms its determination to prosecute the war to its ultimate vic- 
tory with all the vigour of which the nation was capable. The 
reason for Labour's persistent refusal to join in an all-party 
government must be sought in the history of a trade union move- 
ment of unbounded vitality and supreme confidence in the ability 
of the working class movement to undertake all the responsibili- 
ties of administration. It regards the United Australia party as 
representative of the bankers and industrialists and is unshak- 
ably convinced that the bankers squeezed the Labour adminis- 
tration out of office during the 1930 depression. It regards the 
building of an Australian nation, possessed of a standard of life 
hardly equalled anywhere in the world, as the achievement of a 
people possessed of initiative and vitality and capable through 
the Labour movement of leading the nation to victory. 




CITIZENS OF SYDNEY burrowed a U.S. custom and threw paper and confetti 
for the first time March 20, 1941 to welcome the visiting crews of seven U.S. 
warships 

In February, Prime Minister Menzies left Australia for a visit 
to the United Kingdom, inspecting the Australian imperial forces 
in the middle east en route. While in England he sat at meetings 
of the war cabinet, and postponed his departure in order to take 
part in vital decisions necessitated by the Greek campaign. Dur- 
ing his absence A. W. Fadden, elected leader of the Country 
party in March, became acting prime minister. In March the 
Child Endowment bill, which had Labour's full support, was 
passed by both houses. The act provides for the payment of 55. 
a week for every child after the first, and was estimated to cost 
13,000,000 annually. The advisory war council was increased 
from 8 to 10 in order to permit the Labour nominee, Dr. Evatt, 
to join the council. Fadden again urged the formation of an all- 

82 



party government, but the offer was rejected by the Labour caucus 
in May. 

Menzies, after his return by way of the U.S.A., called for a 
more urgent war effort and announced drastic new measures by the 
government (see Economic Affairs, below) but was unsuccessful 
in inducing Labour to join the government. After the evacuation 
of Greece and Crete, there had been a general feeling in Australia 
that the commonwealth should have a more direct voice in dis- 
cussions of major policy by the British war cabinet. As the other 
dominions did not appear to favour the formation of an imperial 
war cabinet, the most obvious solution was for the commonwealth 
prime minister to return to London, and that Menzies proposed. 
The suggestion was opposed, not only by Labour, but by some of 
Menzies' own party, and revealed the existence within the govern- 
ment ranks of a section who lacked complete confidence in Men- 
zies' leadership. In the interests of national unity Menzies re- 
signed his post in favour of Fadden, who was sworn in as prime 
minister on Aug. 31. Menzies retained his portfolio as minister 
for defense co-ordination, and no other cabinet changes were 
made. The Fadden administration lasted only five weeks. After 
surviving, by a majority of one, a vote of censure on the use of 
public funds for subsidizing anti-subversive propaganda, the 
government was defeated on its budget proposals by a majority 
of three, the two Independent members voting with the opposi- 
tion. Fadden advised the governor-general to call upon Curtin, 
the Labour leader, to form a government and pledged the support 
of his followers so long as the new government vigorously prose- 
cuted the war. Curtin announced that the change of government 
would not affect any diplomatic appointments and authorized Sir 
Earle Page, who was on his way to London, to continue his mis- 
sion. 

External Affairs. Sir Bertram Stevens, former premier of New 
South Wales, was appointed Australian representative of the east- 
ern supply group, Delhi, in Jan. 1941. In July, Sir Frederic 
Eggleston was appointed Australian minister to China and took up 
his post at Chungking. 

Economic Affairs. On his return from the United Kingdom 
and America, Menzies announced his "prospectus of an unlimited 
war effort." This program involved drastic control by the govern- 
ment of finance, trade and industry. The government was given 
powers to take over factories and plants and to decide what each 
organization should produce; a board was appointed to control and 
direct the production and distribution of coal. All interstate ship- 
ping was placed under government control, and all rail-road trans- 
port facilities were made subject to a federal executive body. 

Side by side with such measures for the control and direction 
of the means of production the government had to face drastic 
changes in agricultural economy necessitated by shipping short- 
ages, particularly of refrigerated space. Plans included the estab- 
lishment of new secondary industries for the canning of meat, 
sausages and bacon, and the production of meat concentrates and 
dried eggs. Cheese and dried milk production had to be increased 
to replace butter exports. As stated by the minister of commerce 
(Sir Earle Page): "Our entire agricultural economy is being 
planned and streamlined to meet the needs of war." 

Total war expenditure for the financial year 1940-41 was 181,- 
000,000, of which 11,000,000 was recoverable for services and 
supplies on behalf of other governments. This compared with the 
estimate of 186,500,000. Of this sum, 65,000,000 was provided 
from revenue. The total non-war expenditure from revenue was 
85,400,000. Total revenue was 3,000,000 above the estimate. 
In presenting his budget for 1941-42 on Sept. 20, Fadden (prime 
minister and treasurer) announced that, despite Lend-Lease aid, 
expenditure for 1941-42 was estimated at 217,000,000, of which 
160,000,000 would be expended in Australia. Expenditure on all 



AUSTRALIA, SOUTH AVIATION, CIVIL 



83 



services other than war was estimated at 102,300,000. After 
providing for non-war services, only 63,000,000 was available 
from revenue for the war cost of 217,000,000. The treasurer 
proposed to borrow 122,000,000 from the public and banking 
system and to raise 32,000,000 by new taxation and wartime con- 
tribution, which involved a system of compulsory savings to be 
levied on every income. However, the government was defeated 
on its budget proposals and at the close of the year it remained 
to be seen how the new treasurer, J. B. Chifley, proposed to meet 
the gap between revenue and proposed expenditure. 

Education. In 1937: state schools, 10,205; average attendance, 768,848; 
private schools, 1,880; average attendance, 210,101; technical education, 
net enrolments, 102,496; business colleges, average attendance, 21,139; uni- 
versities, number of students, 11,098. 

Defense. The year 1941 witnessed for the most part the development, 
intensification and extension of plans which had been prepared during the 
earlier months of the war. In addition to maintaining reinforcements of 
men and material for the Australian imperial forces in the middle east, a 
large contingent was dispatched to Singapore in February for service at 
various stations in the Malay peninsula. Further contingents arrived there 
in August and October. 

In January the government announced its intention to raise and equip 
an armoured division, fully equipped with tanks and more than 1,000 other 
armoured vehicles, and with a personnel of more than 10,000 officers and 
men. Training was proceeding at the end of the year. 

A 3rd Forestry company arrived in England in July to join the two com- 
panies which had been sent there for service during the previous year. 

The Australian imperial forces played a prominent and valorous part in 
the campaigns in Greece, Crete, Libya and Syria. According to revised rec- 
ords received from General Blarney in June the Australian casualties in 
Greece and Crete numbered 261 officers and 5,690 men. Seven medical 
officers and 150 other ranks voluntarily stayed behind in Greece to care 
for the wounded. 

Lieut. -Gen. Sir Thomas Blarney, general officer commanding the Aus- 
tralian imperial forces, middle east, was appointed deputy commander in 
chief, middle east, in April and was promoted to the rank of general in 
September. 

Because of the increased tension in the Pacific, the government plans for 
the building of a fully-trained home army of 250,000 were accelerated. 
In February, the army minister announced that military camps would be 
extended from 70 to 90 days and that in the future more than half of the 
total personnel of the military forces would be in camp. 

The government decided to appoint a commander of home forces, and in 
August General Sir Ivcn Mackay was recalled from the middle east to take 
over this command. It was estimated that at the end of the year the 
strength of the Australian imperial forces stood at 200,000 and the total 
armed forces in the commonwealth at more than 250,000. 

In March, Vice-Admiral Sir Guy Royle was appointed chief of the Aus- 
tralian naval staff in succession to Admiral Sir Ragnar Colvin. 

The training of air personnel for the expanding royal Australian air 
force and for the empire air training scheme proceeded ahead of schedule. 
Most of the advanced training was being completed in Australia in 1941 
instead of in Canada as originally planned. The first personnel to complete 
their training in Canada arrived in the United Kingdom on Christmas day 
1940, and the first contingent of those who completed their training in Aus- 
tralia arrived in Feb. 1941. From that date they were arriving in ever- 
increasing numbers almost weekly. By October, 205,000 volunteers had 
enlisted in the R.A.A.F. and for the empire air training scheme- and more 
than 50,000 had been selected for training. In June the government de- 
cided to form an R.A.A.F. cadet corps to consist of 78 squadrons, which 
was to provide for the training of 20,000 boys between 16 and 18. 

In spite of the drain of man-power necessitated by the maintenance of 
military forces, remarkable developments in the industrial sphere of war 
production were achieved. Before the war there were only five manufac- 
turers of machine tools in the commonwealth; in 1941. 85 firms were en- 
gaged in producing all classes of jigs and precision tools. Besides am- 
munition of all kinds, Australia in 1941 produced hand grenades, aircraft 
bombs, naval mines and gun forgings and manufactured guns and engines 
for the royal navy. Anti-aircraft guns, Bren guns and 25-pounder howitzers 
were being turned out in increasing quantities. One thousand Australian- 
produced aircraft were actually in service, by October. Among the many 
naval vessels launched from Australian shipyards during the year was in- 
cluded H.M.I. S. "Punjab" for the Indian navy. 

Banking and Finance. Revenue (actual 1940-41), Mi 50, 500,000; (est. 
1941-42) Ai95,ooo,ooo; expenditure (actual 1940-41) Ai 50, 500,000; 
ordinary (est. 1941-42), A 102, 306,000; defense, A95,ooo,ooo; public 
debt (June 30, 1941), A 1,4 2 6, 000,000; notes issued (July 7, 1941), 
A67, 000,000; gold and sterling reserve (Dec. 31, 1940), Ai7, 705,000; 
exchange rate, Ai25~ioo sterling. 

Trade and Communications. Overseas trade 1940-41 (merchandise): im- 
ports, A 1 3 6, 3 oo ,000; exports, A 13 6, 400,000; (bullion and specie 1938- 
39): imports, A3, 562,000; exports, Ai8,96j,ooo. Communications and 
transport: 1939, roads, total mileage, c. 500,000; metalled, c. 200,000 mi.; 
railways open to traffic, 27,961 mi.; airways (1939-4), distance flown, 
12,822,751 mi.; passengers carried, 142,797: goods carried, 1,770,738 lb,; 
mails carried, 416,996 lb.; shipping with cargo and in ballast, in net tons, 
entered (monthly average 1938-39). 558,ooo; (monthly average 1939-40), 
508,000; cleared (monthly average 1938-39), 553.ooo; (monthly average 
i939~4o) 502,000; motor vehicle registrations (March 31, 1941): cars, 
548,451; commercial vehicles, 263,219; cycles, 72,923; wireless receiving 
set licences, 1,282,787; telephones, number of lines, 520,037. 

Agriculture, Manufacturing, Mineral Production. Production (in metric 
tons): wheat (1940-41), 2,286,000; gold (1939), 51,187 km.; wool 



(1940), 512,800; cane sugar (1939-40), 943,000; coal (1939), 12,438,- 
ooo; lignite (1939), 3,720,000; iron ore (metal content) (1938), 2,287,- 
ooo; pig iron and ferro-alloys (1938), 945,ooo; wine (1938-39), 680,000 
hectolitres; oats (1938-39), 282,000; barley (1938-39), 245,000; maize 
(1938-39), i79,ooo; potatoes (1938-39), 278,000; butter (1939-40), 
216,900; lead (smelter production) (1939), 185,000; zinc (smelter produc- 
tion) (1938), 70,000; copper (smelter production) (1938), 17,400; tung- 
sten ore (1938), 540; antimony ore (1938), 900; silver (1939), 385. 
Labour and employment: employment in factories (1928-29 = 100) March 
1941, 151-5; number (average March 1941), 654.500; unemployment, trade 
union returns (March, 1941), 5-3%; recorded material production (1938- 
39), A 4 64,993,ooo. (W. D. MA). 

Australia, South: see SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 
Autobiography: see AMERICAN LITERATURE; ENGLISH LIT- 
ERATURE; etc. 

Automobile: see MOTOR VEHICLES; MOTOR TRANSPORTATION. 
Automobile Accidents: see ACCIDENTS; DISASTERS; INSUR- 
ANCE, AUTOMOBILE. 



fliitnmnhilp 

nlllUIIIUUIIC 



Once again the annual Memorial 

. 5 oo-mile Indianapolis classic was the 
high light event of the auto racing featured during 1941. This 
time it was particularly noteworthy because two drivers shared 
the distinction of piloting the winning car. While 160,000 en- 
thralled spectators watched, probably the largest crowd ever lured 
to the event, Mauri Rose of Indianapolis and Floyd Davis of 
Springfield, III, successfully combined their skill and courage to 
achieve the victory. They drove their car at a speed of 115.117 
miles per hour over the soo-mile distance to share first prize 
money, totalling $29,985. They are listed in the record books as 
co-winners. 

Davis, famed dirt track contestant, started the race in the 
winning machine owned by Lou Moore, retired Indianapolis 
driver. Rose, one of the most consistent finishers in speedway 
competition, relieved Davis at 177^ miles after Rose's own car, of 
which Moore was the manager, was forced out at the 15 2-mile 
mark by carburettor trouble. 

Fifteen of the thirty-one starters, comprising the fixture's small- 
est field since 1936, completed the race. The runner-up for the 
second successive year was Rex Mays of Glendale, Calif., who 
was more than two and one-half miles behind Rose at the end. 

Harley Taylor of Atlanta, Ga., set a record for 50 miles in a 
stock car on a dirt track by doing 100 laps on the half-mile South- 
ern States fair grounds track at Charlotte, N.C., in 59-54-3. Ray 
Hall of the same city, won the 2oo-milc stock car auto race at 
the Langhorne, Pa., speedway, averaging 69 miles per hour. 

The midget automobile racing tracks again proved popular cen- 
tres of entertainment for thousands of fans in numerous cities 
and towns. 

Among the leaders of feature events in the midget class was 
Mike Joseph who set a new record for 20 laps at the New York 
coliseum in 3-37'42. Another winner was Lloyd Christofer of 
Miami, Fla., who won the Union, N.J., 25-lap midget feature in 
5-47-85. 

Foremost among those involved in accidents was Wilbur Shaw 
of Indianapolis, victor in 1937, 1939 and 1940. Seeking to become 
the lone four-time winner, Shaw was leading when he crashed into 
the wall at the 3oo-mile mark. The noted pilot escaped serious 
injury. 

Mays, with his second at Indianapolis and firsts at Milwaukee. 
Wis., and Syracuse, N.Y., retained the American Automobile as- 
sociation national point championship. He was credited with 
1,225 tallies. (T. J. D.) 



Civil ^^ * e exce P^ on * activities in North 
, bill). and South America, and a few international 
air lines such as Pan American Airways and K.L.M., civil aviation 
continued to diminish in 1941 from previous years. In nations 



84 



AVIATION, CIVIL 




A STEEL "strato-chamber" demonstrated In 1941 reproduce* conditions of high- 
altitude flights. The upper picture shows a test being conducted inside the 
chamber, which simulates the interior of a high-flying plane and Is equipped 
with air pumps, recording instruments, pressure controls and a dry-ice refrig- 
erating plant. Below is an exterior view of the three-ton laboratory tank 

at war, military aviation completely dominated all phases of 
what had previously been civil aviation. 

International Transport. With the war spreading to new 
countries, some air transport routes died a quick death, while 
others, just as suddenly, made their appearance for the first time. 
As the theatre of war shifted from one stage to another, so did 
air transport systems change their routes and terminals. 

The outstanding name in international air transport in 1941 was 
that of Pan American Airways. In addition to flying its previ- 
ously established routes through Mexico, Central and South Amer- 
ica, to Alaska, and across both the Atlantic and Pacific, Pan 
American, at the request of both U.S. and British governments, 
established a new route across the South Atlantic to several cities 
in the interior of Africa. As the year closed routes were extended 
across Africa, the Indian ocean and Burma to China. 

On Aug. 1 8, after his meeting at sea with Prime Minister 
Churchill, President Roosevelt announced that Pan American Air- 
ways s would shortly begin operations of a new air line between the 
U.S. and Africa. In less than three months the new line was in 
operation. Planes flew from Miami, Fla., down the east coast of 
South America to either Trinidad or Natal, Brazil, and across the 



South Atlantic to various bases on the west coast of Africa and 
thence to Khartoum, Cairo and other African cities. It is this 
route which was extended to connect with Singapore and other 
points in that general area after the U.S. entered the war in Dec. 
1941. 

The U.S.-New Zealand route was kept open after war began, 
but the Pacific service beyond the Hawaiian Islands to the Philip- 
pines and China was discontinued. 

Until the outbreak of war, Pan American's Atlantic service 
was one of the most outstanding jobs ever done by any commer- 
cial air line. In December the sooth crossing was made since the 
line was inaugurated in May 1939. During 1941 passenger miles 
flown on this route increased from 13,000,000 in 1940 to 23,600,- 
ooo. Miles flown had jumped to 1,200,000 from 500,000 in 1940. 
This route had become the only fast scheduled run in operation, 
as the sailing of steamships was irregular. 

In Central and South America Pan American's activities also 
increased. Miles flown were 5,815,000 compared with 4,019,074 
in 1940. Passengers carried increased from 89,650 to 107,580. 
There was a 63% increase in air express carried, from 579,000 
to 950,000 Ib. 

The Brownsville-Guatemala-Canal Zone-Trinidad trunk line was 
placed on a daily basis and passenger traffic increased 20% and 
express volume more than doubled. Pan American-Grace activ- 
ities along the west coast of South America were enlarged by the 
addition of approximately 50% more mileage. Panagra's 1941 
operations included 2,267,000 revenue passenger