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THIS work has grown out of years of efficient, 
practical teaching by Miss Allen in my school of 
cookery, where it is to be used as a textbook in 
table-service courses. It has been written in re- 
sponse to the demand made by many pupils who 
wished the knowledge placed in convenient form for 
ready reference. 

It is now offered to the larger circle of all home 
lovers with the hope that it may help those who are 
striving for the beauty of a well-ordered house and 
of gracious service. 


BOSTON, 1914. 
































Frappe Table Frontispiece 


Sideboard ........ 24 

Placing of Luncheon Napkin 26 

Formal Dinner Cover in Detail .... 26 

Maid Removing Crumbs 34 

Diagram of Breakfast Table 38 

Table Laid for Breakfast, with First Course of Grape- 
fruit in Place 40 

Breakfast for Two Laid in Sun-Room, with First 

Course of Orange Juice in Place ... 42 

Pineapple Arranged for Serving .... 48 

Oranges Arranged for Serving . .... 48 
Apple Sliced for After-Dinner Service . . -52 

Sliced Lemon, and Sliced Orange with Sprigs of 

Mint for Afternoon Tea 52 

Diagram of Table Laid for Home Dinner Without 

Service of Maid 60 

Luncheon Cover in Detail 64 


List of Illustrations 


Table Laid for Formal Luncheon with First Course of 

Fruit in Place 68 

Table Laid for Formal Tea 72 

Informal Tea Service with Equipment for Making Tea 74 

Informal Tea Service with Tea Made and Brought In 76 

Diagram of a Buffet Table 80 

Glasses for Wine 82 

Glasses for Water 82 

Tray Arranged for Breakfast 98 

Tray Arranged for Luncheon 100 

Butter Forms 102 

Celery Cut Club Style 102 




THE duties of a waitress center around the serving 
of meals. These duties should be performed in 
such a manner that the service will be prompt, 
orderly, unobtrusive, and with as much regard as 
possible for the prevailing style. Other work that 
she may be called upon to do will vary according to 
the formality with which the household is conducted 
and the number of servants employed. Where only 
two maids, a cook and a waitress, are employed, the 
latter is expected to attend to the duties of a second 
maid, which include keeping in order other parts 
of the house. 

The requisites for a waitress are : 

Medium height Cleanliness 

Erectness of carriage Quietness 

Lightness of foot Order 

Quickness of motion 

Table Service 

She should be alert, observing, and prompt in 
all service. Absolute cleanliness of person and dress 
is required under all circumstances. 

In summer, her morning uniform should be a 
white or light cotton gown, white apron, and soft 
leather shoes which give the minimum of noise. 
When serving dinner, she should wear a plain black 
woolen gown with white collar and cuffs, and a small 
fancy apron, unless it is the wish of her mistress that 
her dress be wholly white. In extremely warm 
weather, the white gown at dinner is preferable. 
A cap may be worn, but the custom is not so general 
as formerly. 

In winter a waitress wears the white or light cotton 
gown until after luncheon, unless there are guests 
at that meal. If such is the case, she wears the black 
gown. Some persons have made the pleasing inno- 
vation of providing for their maids uniforms of gray 
mohair, in place of the conventional black. A 
waitress is expected to be dressed and ready to answer 
the door-bell at three o'clock in the afternoon. 
Another maid, or some member of the family, attends 
to this duty between two and three o'clock. 

The duties in regard to the service of meals are as 
follows : 

Care of dining-room and pantry. 

Laying of table and serving-table. 


Duties, Dress, and Requisites of a Waitress 

Serving breakfast, luncheon, and dinner. 

Washing table dishes. 

Care of silver, glass, china, cutlery, and brasses. 

Care of table linen. 


Making butterballs, salads, and sandwiches. 

Preparation of fruit. 

Preparation of celery, radishes, olives, pickles, 
jellies, relishes, and hors-d'oeuvres. 

Preparation of cheeses. 

Making and serving beverages. 

Serving table waters and wines. 

Announcing meals. 

The waitress should see that the carving-knife 
is sharpened before any meal for which it is required. 
Under no circumstances should the sharpening be 
done at the table. 





ONCE a week the room should be thoroughly 
cleaned. Sweep hardwood floors with a soft hair 
brush, then wipe with a long-handled dust-mop. 
Clean soiled spots with turpentine applied with a 
soft cloth. Never use water. Every day run the 
carpet-sweeper or vacuum cleaner over the rug, 
wipe the floor with a dry mop, and dust the room. 

Place fresh water in all vases containing flowers. 

After each meal remove any crumbs which may 
have fallen to the floor and see that the room is 
thoroughly aired. 

Give careful attention to the temperature and 
ventilation of the dining-room. Bear in mind that 
fresh air warms more quickly than impure air. 

Before breakfast, air the room well, taking care 
that it is warm before the meal is served. The 
temperature of the dining-room should be higher 
for breakfast than for any other meal, but this 

Care of Dining -Table 

is not always possible. The range of temperature 
between 67 and 71 Fahrenheit is comfortable to 
most people. 

If an open fire is used for auxiliary heat, the wait- 
ress should see that the fireplace is swept and cleaned, 
and the fire relaid for the next lighting. 


After each meal remove stains, if necessary, and 
once a week rub the entire surface of the table. A 
good polish is made from equal parts of raw linseed 
oil, turpentine, and vinegar. Apply with a soft 
cloth, then polish with a soft, dry, woolen cloth or 
chamois, first rubbing across the grain and afterwards 
with the grain. Do not neglect the sides and edges 
of the table. 

Many persons use a dull-finished table in prefer- 
ence to one highly polished, as it not only shows wear 
less and requires less care to keep it looking well, 
but is also more beautiful. For a table in a country 
house or in a household where service is limited, a 
good treatment is the application of a very thin coat 
of the best spar varnish. This should be put on by 
some one who thoroughly understands the work. 
A table so treated may be washed again and again, 
and the surface always looks well. 


Table Service 


The waxing and polishing of hardwood floors 
would best be attended to by men who make it their 
business. Directions are given, however, for those 
who wish to have the work done by the household 

Sweep the floor with a soft hair brush, then wipe 
with a long-handled dust-mop. Clean soiled places 
with turpentine applied with a soft cloth. Never 
use water. Moisten a flannel cloth with the best 
soft wax to be obtained and rub over the floor. Let 
the floor remain in this condition an hour or more, 
then polish with a weighted brush. Rub first across 
the grain, then with the grain. When a slight luster 
comes, cover the brush with a soft, woolen cloth 
and rub in one direction only, until a high polish is 

An application of spar varnish makes a floor more 
durable, and is recommended for those receiving 
hard usage, such as the floors of nurseries, kitchens, 
and seashore or country dining-rooms. Floors fin- 
ished in this way are not injured by water. 


The brush must be kept clean when not in use. 
As a protection from dust, slip the brush into a 
cotton bag made with a running-string. Once in 


Care of Windows 

two or three months clean the brush by washing in 
tepid water to which ammonia has been added. Let 
the brush soak half an hour, rinse, and dry in the 
open air with the bristles down. When bristles are 
worn out, a new brush may be bought to fit into the 
weighted top. 

Wash the cloths in hot water and washing soda 
and rinse in two quarts of warm water, to which one 
tablespoonful of linseed oil has been added to restore 
the oil and keep the cloths soft. 

Keep all materials used for oiling and polishing 
in a covered jar or tin pail to avoid danger of fire 
from spontaneous combustion. 


In city houses, it is best to have the windows 
washed by a man ; but the windows of a suburban 
house can usually be washed by the maid, without 
difficulty. First clean the woodwork before wash- 
ing the glass, using wooden skewers in the corners. 
Wash the glass with a cloth free from lint (a good 
quality of cheese-cloth is best), wrung out of tepid 
water. Rub dry with clean cloths which have ab- 
sorbent qualities and polish with soft paper. Some 
persons prefer a sponge and a chamois. In winter 
it is desirable to add alcohol to the water used for 
washing, as it prevents the water from freezing on 

Table Service 

the glass. Never wash windows when the sun shines 
on them, as the result will be a window glass with 
streaks across it. It is best to wash windows on a 
mild day. Whatever the temperature, the maid 
should be well protected from exposure to the 


When answering the door-bell, never open the 
door grudgingly. Open it wide, yet use caution 
against the intrusiveness of agents. The maid 
should have within reach a small tray on which to 
receive calling-cards. She should never take the 
tray to the door. If the caller does not present a 
card, the maid asks whom she shall announce. She 
asks the caller to be seated in the reception-room and 
then takes the card to her mistress or, if no card is 
presented, announces the name. 

Returning to the reception-room, she announces 
that Mrs. Blank will be down very soon, unless Mrs. 
Blank herself comes down as quickly as the maid 
could return. If the person at the door be a mes- 
senger, he should be offered a seat in the hall while 
the maid attends to his errand. 

If the maid answers the bell in the morning, while 
about her work, she must have a clean white apron 
conveniently placed so that she can put it on quickly. 


Answering the Telephone 

A point to be remembered is that the stairs in the 
front part of the house are to be used by the maid 
only in conveying communications between the 
reception-room and the upper part of the house, and 
are not for the maid's convenience in attending the 



The telephone call should always be answered 
promptly, pleasantly, and courteously. If the call 
is for some person in the house at the time, the maid 
asks: "What is the name, please?" If the call is 
for some member of the household who is no at home, 
the maid adds to her question : "May I take a mes- 
sage?" If a message is given, the maid should re- 
peat it, to be sure that it is correctly received, and 
write it down then and there, using the block of paper 
and pencil which should always be at the telephone. 

To keep the telephone in sanitary condition, the 
mouthpiece should be wiped with disinfectant daily. 





THE butler's pantry should be equipped with : 

Strainers for punches, tea, and coffee. 

Enamel ware pitchers for ice-water, punches, 
soups, etc. 

Utensils and seasonings for salad making. 

Vegetable brushes for cleaning celery and radishes. 

Soft brushes for washing cut glass. 

Materials for cleaning silver and cutlery. 

Soap, ammonia, washing soda, and alcohol. 

Matches in a tightly covered tin box. 

rjardwood boards for use in cutting bread, meat, 
and cake. 

Knives of various sizes. 

Refuse can of galvanised iron with cover. 

A dish drainer with a folded towel in bottom to 
prevent the nicking of dishes. 

Glass-towels, hand-towels, dish-wipers, dish-cloths, 


The Butler's Pantry 

cheese-cloths, and holders, neatly arranged in a 

A receptacle for soiled table linen is necessary. 
A hamper is best, if there is sufficient space ; if not, 
a bag hung on the door is convenient. It is unwise 
to place soiled table linen in a drawer, as the odor 
of food which clings to it is an invitation to mice. 
A towel rack is essential. If the arrangement of the 
pantry does not permit the use of a rack which stands 
upon the floor, have one screwed to the wall, high 
enough and in such a position that one's head 
would not be likely to brush against towels hanging 
on it. 

A useful article is a gas, hot-water, or electric 
heater for heating dishes and for keeping food hot. 
Dishes heated for the table in this way are less liable 
to breakage than if they are sent to the kitchen; 
then, too, the cook needs all the space she has at her 
disposal. A waitress should bear in mind that hot 
food should be served hot, and that heated plates 
and serving dishes are necessary to accomplish this. 
Yet china should be put into an oven only moder- 
ately heated. 

Certain cold dishes, such as ices and salads, should 
be served as cold as possible, and the chilling of plates 
and serving dishes assists in presenting them at the 
right temperature. The ideal pantry should con- 

Table Service 

tain a small ice-box for table butter, cream, and 
salad ingredients. 

The best arrangement for the keeping of table 
linen is to have in the pantry a linen-closet with 
shelves ; but, this convenience lacking, table linen 
should be arranged neatly in drawers lined with white 
paper. It is well to keep table-cloths in a drawer 
by themselves. Fine cloths keep in much better 
condition and make a better appearance upon the 
table, if ironed with one central fold and then rolled. 
Rolls for the purpose may be bought, or satisfactory 
ones can be made of many thicknesses of heavy paper. 
Never fold centerpieces ; keep flat or rolled. Ar- 
range napkins in piles, according to size and design. 

Arrange china and glass conveniently and taste- 
fully. Hang cups on hooks which come for the pur- 
pose, as space is thus economized, and the handles 
are less liable to be broken. For the protection of 
choice china, "plate savers" (round pieces of cotton 
flannel) may be laid between the plates, as they are 
piled. This lessens the danger of scratching and 


Keep the pantry sink in good condition and polish 
the faucets often. Once a week, pour down the pipe 
or sink drain a strong solution of sal-soda or cop- 


Washing Dishes 

peras. The former is preferable, as copperas stains. 
Potash should never be used, as in combination with 
the grease collected in the pipe, it tends to make 
soap, thus clogging the pipe. Sal-soda is the safest 
and best cleansing agent, and the proportion of one 
cup of sal-soda to five quarts of hot water is gen- 
erally satisfactory. 


Sort dishes before beginning to wash. See that 
they are well cleaned, either by using a rubber scraper 
which comes for the purpose, or by wiping with paper 
napkins, which should be burned immediately. Be 
careful to drain all tea and coffee grounds from cups 
and pots. If the silver is collected and put into a 
pitcher of water, the washing of it is simplified, and 
it is kept by itself as it should be. 

Two dish-pans, one for the washing of dishes and 
one for hot rinsing water, make the best arrange- 
ment, if there is sufficient space for them. 

Never leave soap in the dish-pan. Make the water 
soapy by using the soap-shaker. Dishes should be 
washed in groups, beginning with those least soiled. 
Wash and wipe one group of dishes before beginning 
another. A few dishes only should be put into the 
dish-pan at a time. When choice dishes are to be 
washed, it is a good plan to lay in the bottom of the 


Table Service 

dish-pan or pantry sink a folded Turkish towel; 
then, if a treasured piece of china slips from the hand, 
it falls on a soft substance. There is also a rubber 
device which slips over the end of the faucet, and 
lessens the liability of nicking dishes. 

Wash the glasses first, previously rinsing in cold 
water any glass which may have contained milk. 
Under no condition should a cloudy glass appear 
upon the table. 

Delicate glass and china cannot be exposed to 
extremes of heat and cold without risk of breakage. 
The water in which fine china is washed should not 
be too hot. Glass and china which are decorated 
with gold should never be put into scalding water 
or washed with strong soap, for soap will eat off even 
pure gold. When two tumblers or glass dishes stick 
together so that there is danger of breakage in get- 
ting them apart, put cold water into the inner one 
and hold the outer one in warm water, and they will 
separate at once. For washing cut glass, use a soft 
brush and, after wiping, place each piece on a soft, 
dry towel. This precaution is necessary for dishes 
of a deeply cut pattern, as the towel absorbs any 
moisture which cannot be reached in wiping. 

A great deal of expensive glass is broken through 
ignorance. Most breakages result from taking a 
dish out of a warm closet or room and immediately 

Washing Dishes 

placing in it something cold. If one tempers a cut 
glass dish before using, the coldest substance may 
be put into it without danger. To temper cut glass, 
pour tepid water into the dish, then a little cold water, 
next a few small pieces of ice, and then more pieces 
of ice, until the temperature of the dish gradu- 
ally approaches that of the substance it is to 

Never allow handles of pearl, ivory, or bone to 
stand, even for a moment, in water. Neglect of 
this precaution tends to discolor and loosen the 
handles. After the blades of steel knives are washed, 
scour with Bath brick or emery-board. 

Silver tarnished by egg should be cleaned as 
soon as it is washed, never left until silver-cleaning 

Wash water pitchers after each meal. If carafes 
are used, they should be washed thoroughly twice a 
week. Any sediment may be removed by using a 
good soap powder and a small dish-mop. These 
mops come in varying sizes for articles which have 
small openings, such as carafes, bottles, vases, etc. 
Wash the outside of the carafes with a small, stiff 
brush. Cruets, mustard jars, and salt dishes should 
be kept scrupulously clean. Diluted ammonia is 
the effectual agent in the cleaning of vinegar 

Table Service 


Silver, if washed in plenty of soap and hot water 
and rubbed dry with soft, clean towels each time it is 
used, need not be cleaned oftener than once a month. 
To clean silver, wash in hot suds and wipe dry. 
The addition of borax softens the water; a good 
proportion to use is one teaspoonful of borax to two 
quarts of water. A silver-cleaning paste or soap, 
bought of a reliable dealer, is the most satisfactory 
cleansing agent. Either one should be applied with 
a soft cloth, the silver wiped with a clean, soft cloth, 
and polished with chamois. A soft brush will be 
required for engraved, grooved, or chased work. 
Silver cleaning-pans are liked by many, as the silver 
is cleaned quickly and easily; but great caution 
should be exercised in their use and they should 
not be employed for the cleaning of plated ware. 
The cleaning-pans give most gratifying results when 
used for solid silver which has become badly tar- 
nished from lack of use. 

Silver should never be wrapped in bleached flannel, 
as the sulphur which has been used in bleaching will 
tarnish it. Unbleached cotton flannel or a French 
tissue paper which is grass-bleached is best. A 
small piece of camphor gum placed with silver when 
it is put away will help to prevent tarnish. Rubber 


Cleaning Brass 


must not be left near gold or silver. Rubber bands 
around boxes in which silver is kept will cause the 
metal to tarnish, owing to the sulphur in the rubber. 


Acids clean brasses readily but cause them to 
tarnish quickly. As nearly all patented prepara- 
tions contain acids, the cleaning should be followed 
by an application of whiting, which will neutralize 
the action of the acid and preserve the surface from 
corrosion. One can buy a brass polish giving satis- 
factory results, or salt and vinegar may be used, 
if care is taken to wash the article afterward in hot 
water, then to polish with whiting and finish polish- 
ing with a soft, dry towel. Brass and copper ar- 
ticles, after being perfectly cleaned, retain their 
brightness a long time when left in a dry atmosphere, 
but when exposed to dampness, tarnish quickly; 
at the seashore, therefore, a good treatment, after 
cleaning, is a thin coating of white shellac, which 
excludes the air and keeps brasses bright under 
unfavorable conditions. 


ALL spots and stains should be dealt with while 
fresh. The longer they are allowed to remain, the 
more difficult will be their removal. The first thing 
to remember about all stains is that the fundamental 
treatment is the same to find some substance in 
which the stain is soluble. If the right solvent is 
not known, one employs wrong methods, and the 
stain becomes "set" when it might have been re- 
moved easily. Most stains are made permanent 
by the use of hot water and soap. For this reason 
it is best to treat a stain before washing. Stains 
are much more easily removed from white than 
colored materials, as many of the best solvents which 
remove stains also remove color. 

Stains which call for the use of boiling water may 
be more easily removed if the cloth containing the 
stained part is stretched tight in an embroidery 
frame, then placed over a basin and the boiling water 


Character of 







Removal of Stains 

Reagent Method of Removal 

Cold water and ivory Wash in soap and 
soap with cold raw water and cover 
starch. with a paste of 

starch and water. 

Blotting paper and 

warm iron. 

Borax with cold and 
boiling water. 

Boiling water. 
Cold water. 

Boiling water. 

Naphtha soap 
warm water. 



Place paper on spot 
and rub with hot 
iron, changing 
paper often. 

Sprinkle the stain 
with borax. Soak 
in cold water. 
Use boiling water 
as for coffee. 

Pour from a height 
with force. 

Wash while fresh. 
(Applies to any 
stain, but particu- 
larly to milk and 

Same as for coffee. 
(Peach and pear 
need frost.) 

Wash in soap and 
water. Apply 
ammonia and cold 
water at once. 

Character of 




Table Service 

Reagent Method of Removal 

There is an ink eradi- 
cates on the 

market that is 

most satisfactory 

on white goods. 
Or use milk (sweet Soak in milk, or in 

or sour) ; salt and salt and lemon 

lemon ; water juice. 

and chloride of 

lime; ongaline. 

Lemon and salt ; on- Spread a cloth over 

galine, or oxalic a bowl containing 

acid. one quart warm 

water and one 

teaspoon borax. 

Apply acid drop 

by drop until stain 

lightens, then dip 

in water in bowl; 

or dampen with 

cold water, salt, 

and lemon juice. 

Spread in sun and 

keep moist with 


Cold water and soap. Wash first in cold 
water, then in soap 
and cold water. 

Removal of Stains 

Character of Reagent 





Same as cream. 
Cold water. 

Lemon j trice and sun- 

Or a paste of soap, 
lemon, starch, and 

Or chloride of lime. 

Method of Removal 

Soak in alcohol. 

Wash while fresh. 
(Applies to any 
stain, but particu- 
larly to milk and 

Cover with lemon 
juice and put in 
sunshine. Make a 
paste of soft soap, 
juice of one lemon, 
one tablespoon 
powdered starch, 
salt ; let remain on 
spot 48 hours ; 
spread on grass 
during treatment. 
Make second ap- 
plication if neces- 
sary or soak in 
solution of one 
tablespoon chlo- 
ride lime in four 
quarts of water 
till mildew disap- 
pears. Rinse 
several times in 
clear water. 


Character of 


Table Service 

Reagent Method of Removal 

Benzine or turpen- 

Rub stain with 

Rub stain while 
fresh on wrong 
side of garment. 




Do not have to wet 
it. The quicker 
it is treated the 

Glycerine and boil- Spread stained part 
ing water. over bowl. Pour 

on glycerine, then 
boiling water. 


Blotting paper and 

warm iron. 

Place paper on spot 
and rub with hot 
iron, changing the 
paper often. 


Lard and boiling Rub lard well into 
water. grease spot. Pour 

boiling water over 
the spot to remove 
grease. Then 
wash in very hot 


Removal of Stains 

Character of 




Method of Removal 

Yellow laundry soap 
and pulverized 

Wet the stain with 
strong suds made 
of hard, yellow, 
laundry soap. 
Then coat the 
stain very thickly 
with pulverized 
starch; and lay it 
in the sun. After 
one good sun-bath 
of two hours or so, 
the stain should 
disappear. If it 
remains, repeat 
the process. 
Cover as soon as 
possible with a 
thick layer of salt. 
Then treat as for 
coffee stains. 

After using acids, always wash cloth out in ammonia or borax 

Or use salt and 
boiling water, or 
salt and boiling 




THE center of the dining-table should be directly 
under the central light, unless this position would 
not permit the waitress to pass between the table 
and the sideboard. For dinner, lay the silence cloth 
upon the table. This cloth may be double-faced 
cotton flannel, knitted table padding, or an asbestos 
pad ; the latter may be obtained in various sizes. 
The first two launder well ; the last is easily handled 
and may be protected from soiling by the use of linen 
covers, which can be bought to fit the pads. The 
table-cloth appears to best advantage when ironed 
with few folds, which must be straight. A table- 
cloth should be unfolded on the table, not opened 
and thrown over it, as the latter method tends to 
crumple the cloth. The center fold of the cloth must 
form a true line through the center of the table, 
having the four corners at equal distances from the 
floor. The cloth never should hang less than nine 
inches on all sides below the edge of the table. 


General Directions for Laying the Table 

Place the centerpiece directly in the center of the 
table, taking care that the thread of the linen runs 
in the same direction as the thread of the cloth. 
Place in center of this a fern dish, growing plant, 
dish of fruit, or cut flowers. This is the conventional 
arrangement to be varied by individual taste. The 
decoration varies in elaborateness with the meal 
served, but whatever the arrangement, it should be 
either so low or so high that an unobstructed view 
may be had across the table. 

Lay the covers, allowing twenty-four to thirty 
inches from plate to plate. A " cover" consists of 
the plates, glasses, silver, and napkin to be used by 
each person. The covers on opposite sides of the 
table should be directly opposite each other, not out 
of line. Mark the position of the covers by laying 
the service or place plates, which should be not less 
than ten inches in diameter. In laying a bare table, 
the covers are marked by the plate doilies. A ser- 
vice plate is laid for each person, one inch from the 
edge of the table ; this plate remains upon the table 
until it is necessary to replace it with a hot plate. 

Next, lay the silver, which should always be placed 
in the order in which it is to be used, beginning at 
the outside and using toward the plate. Silver for 
the dessert course is never put on with the silver 
required for the other courses, except for the dinner 


Table Service 

which is served without a maid, when everything 
should be done to avoid the necessity of leaving the 
table. Neither is the table set with more than three 
forks. If more are required, they are placed with 
their respective courses. Either bring the salad or 
dessert silver in on the plate, or place it from a nap- 
kin or tray at the right, from the right, after the 
plate is placed. Some persons object to the first- 
named method, on account of the possible noise. 
The knife or knives are to be placed at the right of 
the plate, half an inch from the edge of the table, 
with the cutting edge toward the plate. Place 
spoons, with the bowls facing up, at the right of the 
knife; and forks, with the tines turned upward, at 
the left of the plate. The spoon for fruit or the small 
fork for oysters or hors-d'oeuvres is placed at the 
extreme right or on the plate containing this course. 
This statement does not include the serving of oys- 
ters or clams on the shell ; then the fork is always 
found at the right. 

Place the napkin, preferably flat and squarely 
folded, at the left of the forks. The hem and selvage 
of the napkin should be parallel with the forks and 
the edge of the table, this position bringing the 
embroidered letter, if there be one, in the right place. 
Napkins are sometimes given additional folds to 
save space. 


Placing Luncheon Napkin. 




^*. ^*~S \A/*+f 

.0 O'o :: - -^ 

... .Service plaia 

Formal Dinner Cover in Detail 

General Directions for Laying the Table 

Place the water glass at the point of the knife ; 
the bread-and-butter plate above the service plate, 
a little to the left ; and the butter spreader across 
the upper, right-hand side of the bread-and-butter 
plate, with the blade turned toward the center of 
the plate. At first-class hotels the butter spreader 
is often found at the right with the other knives, but 
this is not consistent with home table service. Place 
all the silver, china, and glass required for one cover 
as close together as possible, without having the 
pieces touch or appear crowded. The whole table 
and the cover itself has a much neater appearance 
if the cover is compact, not loosely spread. Salt 
and pepper sets are to be placed between each two 
covers. If an open salt cellar is used, place the salt- 
spoon across the top or on the cloth beside it. 

When the table is being laid for a supper or a 
spread where no knife is required, place the fork at 
the right, as it is to be used in the right hand and 
there is sufficient space for it there. A teaspoon, 
if called for, would be at the right of the fork. 

The table laid, the chairs are placed. They should 
not be too near the table, neither entirely away from 
it, but where they can be used with slight exertion. 

The sideboard was used formerly to hold all extras 
required during the serving of a meal. The serving- 
table has taken its place, while the sideboard is used 


Table Service 

for decorative purposes only, usually holding choice 
pieces of silver. The size of the serving-table deter- 
mines how much or how little shall be arranged upon 
it, and what shall be in the pantry in readiness for 
use. A screen is desirable in the dining-room to 
shield a person at the table from the draughts of a 
swing door, as well as to shut off the view of the 
pantry interior. If the tight door is used, fasten it 
back during the serving of a meal and place the 
screen, which is then even more necessary. Greater 
care must be taken in the latter case that no sound of 
voice or preparation shall be heard from the pantry. 





THERE are three forms of service, the English, the 
Russian, and the Mixed. The last, as its name 
indicates, is a compromise between the other two. 
When deciding how much or how little form is to be 
used in the serving of meals, one must first take into 
consideration the number of servants employed as 
well as one's personal preferences. 

The English service is the most practical where 
help in table service is limited, as all the food be- 
longing to one course is placed in suitable dishes 
before the host, hostess, or some other member of 
the family, and served from the table. 

The Russian service is "from the side" and is in 
use entirely for formal dinners and luncheons. It is 
in use also for all meals by those who care for form 


Table Service 

and have the servants to conduct it well. The 
plates are placed, empty, for the successive courses, 
and all the food is passed, attractively arranged on 
suitable dishes, from which each person helps him- 
self; or the food may be arranged on individual 
plates and placed before each person, although this 
is not the best form of the service. 

The combination of the two forms results in the 
Mixed service, in which some of the courses are 
placed upon the table in the English way, while 
others are served from the side in the Russian style. 
For example, the soup may be placed (Russian), the 
meat carved at the table by the host (English), 
the vegetables passed by the waitress (Russian), the 
salad served by the hostess (English), or passed by 
the waitress (Russian), and the dessert served by 
the hostess (English). 


Special watchfulness of each person's needs in the 
dining-room is expected of a waitress. No person 
should be obliged to ask for bread, butter, rolls, or 
water. An attentive maid keeps these supplied. 
During the progress of a meal she should speak only 
when addressed. 

The cook and the waitress should be furnished with 


Directions and Preparations for Serving 

menus of the meals for each day. The service will 
be much smoother than if they are obliged to rely 
upon their memory. 

If the English service is used, the maid should lay 
out one more plate for each course than there are 
people at the table; this is used for the working 

Before serving a meal, the maid should have ar- 
ranged in groups, on the serving-table or in the 
pantry, the serving silver required for that meal, 
also all the silver required for a single cover. Then, if 
some piece is accidentally dropped by a person at the 
table, it can be quickly and unobtrusively replaced. 

The waitress should have, within easy reach, a 
soft napkin, which she can bring to absorb any liquid 
which may be overturned. The spot should then 
be covered with a fresh doily or napkin. She should 
have at hand, also, a heavy, damp, woolen cloth to 
use in case of accidents, such as candle-shades taking 
fire, or the lamp of the tea-kettle or the chafing-dish 
burning beyond control. Under no circumstances 
should the maid carry out the flaming article, for it 
is dangerous to attempt to move it. The flame 
should be smothered. 

No sound of a voice or of running water or noise 
of any kind should come from the pantry, while 
people are at the table. 

Table Service 

Be sure that all plates and dishes which should 
be heated are heated, and all dishes for serving ices 
and salads and cold desserts are chilled. 

In arranging the various .plates for the courses, 
have in mind the color combinations of food on deco- 
rated china, and select the china which will har- 
monize best with the food to be served. 

Always place a linen doily in a plate to be used for 
bread, rolls, crackers, sandwiches, or cakes. Paper 
doilies are not good form, unless it is necessary to use 
a doily with food which would be damaging to a 
linen one. 

Avoid filling cups and glasses to the brim. Do 
not lift a glass to refill it; if it is difficult to refill, 
on account of the closeness of the covers, draw the 
glass out on the cloth to a position near the edge of 
the table where it can be filled easily. Move the 
glass by placing the hand near the bottom, never 
over the top. 


Before announcing a meal, the waitress should 
see that all doors and drawers are closed, all shades 
properly drawn, and all necessary articles for the 
serving of the meal at hand. 

Two minutes before a meal is announced fill each 
water glass two thirds full of water and set a form of 
butter upon each bread-and-butter plate. 


Announcing a Meal 

In announcing a meal, it is sufficient for the maid 
to appear at the door of the drawing-room, standing 
in silence for her mistress to recognize her presence ; 
or she may announce the meal by the formula 
"Dinner is served" " Luncheon is served." If the 
family is large and scattered, she may use a Japanese 
gong as a summons, but only for the informal meal. 
A formal luncheon or dinner is always announced 
by the waitress in person. Breakfast is announced 
according to the preference of the hostess; some- 
times at the chamber doors, sometimes by the Japan- 
ese gong, or by personal announcement, if the family 
is assembled in one room. 

A maid should pass, serve, and place everything 
from the left, except beverages and extra silver, which 
are served or placed at the right, from the right. 
Place and remove plates, one at a time. To facili- 
tate service, it is permissible to bring two plates of 
food (soup or salad particularly) to the dining-room, 
placing one on the serving-table and the other on 
the dining-table ; returning to the serving-table for 
the second plate rather than to the pantry saves 
time and steps. 

In exchanging or placing plates, the hand should 
grasp the edge of the plate, never allowing the thumb 
to be placed over the rim. See that the rims of all 
plates and the bottoms of all serving dishes are clean 


Table Service 

before taking them to the table. When placing or 
removing one plate, always use the left hand. If 
removing and placing at the same time, use the left 
hand for the plate containing food which might be 
spilled if the elbow were jostled, and use the right 
hand for the empty plate or the one containing food 
less likely to spill. 

When presenting any dish containing food, have 
a squarely folded dinner napkin on the palm of the 
left hand, under the dish. Have the serving silver 
placed on the dish in a position convenient for the 
person to be served ; this silver should be arranged 
in the pantry, not as the dish is being presented. 
Two pieces of silver, placed one at either end of 
platter, are essential in most cases for the best service. 

Hold the serving dish firmly and low, and near the 
person to be served. Hold it in the left hand and 
if too heavy for one hand, steady or balance it 
with the right hand on the edge of the dish. Stand 
slightly back of chair and keep as far away from the 
person being served as is consistent with good ser- 
vice. Close contact should be avoided. 

Always pass the most important accompaniment 
to a course first and others in the order of their im- 

The folded napkin is used under all dishes con- 
taining food to be served. The napkin is not used 


Clearing the Table for Dessert 

when placing or exchanging plates, or in removing 
from the table dishes containing food. The serving 
tray is used principally when it is necessary to pass 
or remove two or more small articles, such as cream 
and sugar, or salts and peppers. The tray should 
be fitted with a linen doily, which helps to keep the 
articles from sliding. 

In clearing the table for another course, remove 
all dishes containing food, not taking the silver from 
them ; first of all the platter or principal dish, plac- 
ing the carving-knife and fork side by side on the 
platter, if the carver has not already done so ; next, 
the soiled plates and silver ; and last, all clean china 
and silver which were not used. 

Bread-and-butter plates remain upon the table 
until after the salad course. Salted nuts, bonbons, 
and all water and wine-glasses remain upon the 
table to the end of the meal. In some sections of 
the country, it is customary to remove the wine- 
glasses as each course of wine is finished. The 
disadvantage of this custom is the fact that persons 
who care for only one kind of wine during dinner 
are inconvenienced. 


In clearing the table for dessert, remove any rel- 
ishes which may have been upon the table, the 

Table Service 

bread-and-butter plates, and the salts and peppers ; 
that is the only time during the meal that a person 
is left without a plate before him. Remove the 
crumbs from the table, using a small napkin and a 
decorated plate for the purpose. The use of a doily 
in the plate depends upon individual preference. 


After a meal is over, set the chairs back in their 
places, then brush up the crumbs which may have 
fallen to the floor, lest they be trodden into the rug. 
In clearing a breakfast or tea-table where there has 
been no change of courses, remove the glasses and 
silver first. Put any food that is to be saved on 
small dishes to be set away. Scrape the table 
dishes, empty and rinse the cups, and neatly pack 
together those of a kind, near where they are to be 
washed. Brush the crumbs from the cloth or table, 
remove doilies, or fold the cloth in its creases, and 
put away carefully. 


The order of serving depends largely upon the 
wishes of the hostess and the occasion. 

Serve first the hostess or the guest of honor, then 
the next person to the right around the table in suc- 
cession, whether a man or a woman. 


Order of Serving 

The majority of persons prefer serving the hostess 
first, and there are advantages in doing so. It 
enables her to see if the dish has been properly pre- 
pared and provided with suitable serving silver. 
Also, if the course is unusual or puzzling, the guest, 
by observing the hostess, may learn how to serve 

At a formal dinner, two waitresses are usually in 
attendance. One begins with the woman guest of 
honor at the right of the host and serves to the right. 
The other starts with the hostess and continues 
around the table to the right, ending with the host. 
This method of service gives one of the maids more 
persons to serve than the other. 





THE American breakfast has become a much 
simpler meal than in years past. The light menu 
generally used consists of fruit, followed by cereal, 
then the main dish, which may be eggs (cooked in 
various ways), bacon, or broiled or creamed fish, 
always with hot rolls, muffins, or toast, and coffee. 
Some persons prefer tea or cocoa. The Continental 
custom of serving honey or marmalade has been 
generally adopted. 

Directions in detail follow for laying the table, 
and serving, English style, a simple menu. 


The practice of using the bare table with doilies 
is growing in popularity. The principal reasons are 
the saving in laundry and the fresher appearance 
of the table. The luncheon set is in almost univer- 
sal use at breakfast and luncheon, the table-cloth 
still being used at dinner. 


Diagram of Breakfast Table. 

Laying the Table 

First, rub the table-top with a soft cloth and place 
the centerpiece. Upon the centerpiece place what- 
ever form of decoration one cares to use. Then 
mark the covers by placing the plate doilies. On 
each doily place the service plate. At the right of 
each service plate place a knife and, at the right of 
the knife, a spoon for the cereal ; at the left of the 
plate, a fork; at the left of the fork, the napkin. 
Place the water glass on a small doily matching 
the plate doily and centerpiece, at the point of the 
knife. Lay the bread-and-butter plate on a small 
doily at the tip of the fork. Place the butter spreader 
across the upper, right-hand side of the plate. Di- 
rectly in front, at the head of the plate, place a doily, 
and on that a finger-bowl one third full of tepid water. 
Place salt and pepper sets, each set on a small doily, 
between each two covers. 

In front of the mistress place the coffee service. 
This will necessitate slight changes in the cover laid 
for her use. 

One of the most attractive arrangements is the 
large, silver tray holding coffee urn, hot-water pot, 
creamer, and sugar-bowl with sugar-tongs, a bowl 
for the water which has been used to heat the cups, 
and as many cups and saucers as the tray will ac- 
commodate. Be sure that the teaspoon is on the 
right-hand side of the saucer, the handle of spoon 


Table Service 

parallel to the handle of cup. If there is not room 
for all the cups required, the maid should bring from 
the serving-table to her mistress, a fresh cup, when 
she takes from her a full cup. The silver coffee-pot 
may be used in place of the urn. Some persons 
choose the Russian samovar, of course selecting a 
tray to match, with creamer and sugar-bowl of luster 
ware or china harmonious in coloring. A simpler 
service is to place at the hostess's right a coffee- 
pot on a tile, and to arrange the accompanying 
hot-water pot, the creamer, and the sugar-bowl in 
a half circle in front of her, with the cups and saucers 
inside the semicircle. Or the percolator may be put 
on in the same way, and either silver or china or 
glass, as one prefers, used for the remainder of the 
service. If a coffee-pot is used, it should be scalded 
before it is filled. 

A hostess should ask a guest at table his prefer- 
ences as to cream and sugar ; those of the family she 
is supposed to know. It is important that cream and 
sugar be put into the cup before pouring the coffee. 
The flavor is quite different and not satisfactory to 
the coffee drinker if the coffee is poured into the cup 
and the sugar and cream passed. 

See that all doors and drawers are shut, shades 
properly drawn, and screen placed. After filling 
glasses with water, and placing butter upon the 




Serving the Breakfast in Detail 

bread-and-butter plate, place upon the service plate 
a fruit plate containing the prepared half of a grape- 
fruit. The spoon for the grapefruit may be at the 
extreme right beside the spoon for cereal or prefer- 
ably, on the plate with the grapefruit. After attend- 
ing to the service of water and butter, as the last 
thing, light the alcohol lamp under the urn or hot- 
water kettle, if one is used, and then announce break- 
fast in the manner the mistress prefers. 



Dropped Eggs on Toast with Rasher of Bacon 

Buttered Toast 

Orange Marmalade 


I. Remove fruit plate (right hand) and finger-bowl 

and doily together (left hand). 

II. Place individual cereal dish on service plate (left 

III. Pass serving dish containing cereal with serving 

spoon in dish (left hand, napkin). 

IV. Pass cream and sugar (tray), sugar-spoon, when 

presented to the first person, upon the tray be- 
side the bowl. Have handle of pitcher and 


Table Service 

handle of spoon for sugar in a position convenient 
for the person served. 

V. Remove service plate with individual cereal dish 
(left hand) and place warm plate (right hand). 
Soiled plates should be removed to the pantry, 
not to the serving-table. Warm plates may be 
brought from the pantry or taken one by one 
from the serving-table, if previously placed 

VI. Place serving silver for eggs and bacon (right side, 
right hand, napkin or tray). 

VII. Place asbestos mat, fitted with linen cover, in front 

of host (left side, left hand). 

VIII. Place platter containing eggs and bacon before 
host (napkin). 

IX. Bring warm plate (right hand) and place before 

host after taking up (left hand) filled plate. 
X. Place filled plate (left hand) before person to be 
served, removing first (right hand) warm one 
already there, which take to host for serving, and 
proceed as before until all are served. 

XI. Take cup of coffee from mistress (left hand), change 
to right hand, and place (right side). Be sure 
that cup is placed so that the handle may be taken 

XII. Repeat in same manner until all are served. If 
tray or space before mistress is not large enough 
for all cups needed, after placing a filled cup go 
to serving-table for fresh cup (right hand), and 


Serving the Breakfast in Detail 

place before mistress when the next filled cup is 
taken (left hand). 

The person who pours usually hands the filled 
cup to the waitress, but the maid herself should 
place and take up all plates and other dishes 
containing food, such as cereal, salad, dessert, etc. 

XIII. Pass plate of toast (napkin). 

XIV. Pass marmalade in small dish with spoon in dish 





ALL fruit has been exposed to dust, dirt, or han- 
dling and should be made clean when brought from 
market or garden. Pears and apples, if cleansed 
by rubbing, will take a high polish, which adds to 
their beauty. Peaches should be brushed or wiped 
carefully. Grapes should be washed, thoroughly 
drained, and the imperfect ones removed, just before 
serving. Some persons do not approve of washing 
berries, but berries and other small fruits (especially 
those that are received through city markets) harbor 
insects and other impurities that only washing will 
remove. The best way to wash berries is to put 
them into a large bowl of cold water and splash them 
about, repeating the process with fresh water till 
the berries are free from sand and dirt. By this 
method, the sand settles to the bottom of the bowl, 
whereas if the berries are placed in a colander or 
sieve, all the sand does not wash through, but more 
or less lodges on the fruit. 


Care and Serving of Fruit 

It is often advisable to buy fruit in large quantities : 
oranges and grapefruit by the box or half box, apples 
by the barrel, bananas by the bunch, etc. They 
should be kept in a cool place, the drier the better 
and looked over often, using those first which ripen 
first. Pears picked green and put into a dark place 
for ripening do not change all at once, but some be- 
fore others, and therefore need frequent inspection. 

There is a difference of opinion as to whether or 
not fruit should be chilled before serving. Some 
epicures think that the flavor of fruit is spoiled by 
chilling; but, in the summer time especially, fruit 
that is cool is refreshing to most persons. 

Much taste may be shown in arranging fruits for 
the table. There is a large variety in size, shape, 
and design of china, silver, glass, and basket recep- 
tacles which are made for holding fruits. Some in 
glass and silver are designed to hold both fruit and 

When possible, leaves from the tree or bush upon 
which the fruit was grown, should be put on the dish 
beneath the fruit. Grape leaves under small clusters 
of grapes, peaches, and plums, give a bit of cool 
color and fill in awkward spaces. In the fall, when 
clematis becomes dried, its soft fluffiness gives an 
attractive touch to a dish of fruit. 

When using pumpkins made into bowl or basket 


Table Service 

shape for the fruit dish, as is often done for Thanks- 
giving dinners, the vine fills in the spaces gracefully 
and fittingly. 

The most popular fruit and the one longest in 
season is the grapefruit. For breakfast it is served 
in a simple manner; but for luncheon or dinner it 
may be combined with cordials or suitable garnishes 
and be made as elaborate as desired. In preparing 
grapefruit for breakfast, wipe with cheese-cloth 
wrung out of cold water, cut in halves crosswise (not 
from end to end) and with a sharp, thin-bladed 
knife remove seeds, then cut around pulp within each 
section of the fruit, except the outside next rind ; 
cut this last of all, severing the membrane where it 
joins the rind, and cutting to the bottom of the fruit. 
Next, cut the core from the bottom of the grapefruit, 
and pull the core upwards ; it should bring with it 
the skin between sections of the pulp, leaving pulp 
undisturbed in its place. Holding pulp down on one 
side with the flat side of the knife and pulling one 
side at a time greatly helps in removing the mem- 
brane. One must be careful in preparing grapefruit 
in this way to avoid too much pressure. It should 
be handled lightly, otherwise much juice escapes, 
and the fruit is not pleasing in appearance. The 
halves of grapefruit are now sprinkled with sugar 
or the sugar may be passed, as some persons consider 


Care and Serving of Fruit 

it more wholesome in the natural state. Grapefruit is 
not at its best when prepared the night before serving, 
but it is quite desirable that it stand in an ice-box 
from ten to fifteen minutes if sugar is served on it. 

Grapefruit is served at luncheon or dinner either 
as a first or as a dessert course. When grapefruit 
is to be served in either of these ways, prepare as 
already mentioned or carefully remove the sections 
and serve in glasses which come for the purpose, or 
in sherbet or champagne glasses. Various cordials 
are used for flavoring, and some garnishes answer 
the purpose of flavoring as well. The Maraschino 
cherry is the most common of these ; another is Bar 
le Due currants, either red or white, a spoonful 
placed over the fruit or in the center cavity ; cubes 
of apple-mint jelly with grapefruit make a combina- 
tion pleasing to eye and palate ; candied fruits may 
be chopped fine and sprinkled over grapefruit; 
whipped cream, sweetened and flavored with Maras- 
chino cordial, may be put on the fruit with pastry 
bag and tube, and the cream garnished with candied 
violets or cherries. When serving the grapefruit 
in its skin, select bright yellow, smooth fruit. 

Halves of grapefruit are arranged for individual 
service on small plates, usually covered with a lace 
paper doily. Lycopodium moss makes an attractive 
mat and garnish for the fruit, as it gives a soft, light 


Table Service 

effect and gracefully fills in the space between fruit 
and plate. 

The two most popular ways of preparing oranges 
are : 

ist. Wipe and serve fruit whole. Each person 
eats in the way he chooses, either cutting in halves 
crosswise and using the orange-spoon, or peeling and 
separating the fruit into sections. 

2nd. Wipe fruit, cut in halves crosswise, and ex- 
tract juice, using a glass lemon squeezer. Serve in 
small glasses two-thirds full. The glasses filled with 
the juice are set on small doily-covered plates, placed 
in position on the service plate before breakfast is 

Other suggestions are given which, though not 
practical for the breakfast table, are helpful in 
planning for tray service. 

ist. Wipe orange, peel, remove fruit in sections, 
and free from skin and seeds, preserving shape. 
Arrange on small plate around a mound of confec- 
tioner's sugar. 

2nd. Select and wipe large, firm oranges. Cut 
lengthwise through the skin of fruit in eight equal 
sections, from blossom end to within one inch of 
stem end. Then peel back, tucking each point under 
to represent petals. Leave the orange pulp whole, 
or partly separate sections. 

Pineapple Arranged for Serving. 

Oranges Arranged for Serving. 

Care and Serving of Fruit 

3rd. Wipe and remove the peel from an orange in 
such a way that an inch-wide band remains around 
the center at equal distance from stem and blossom 
ends. Cut the band across once, separate sections, 
but do not remove them from the band, and arrange 
around a mound of sugar. 

4th. Wipe and prepare orange in the same way as 
with band and separated sections ; cut the band 
once and turn so as to leave the sections outside; 
fasten band together with a small skewer (wooden 
toothpick) to make a circle. 

Melons are served either for the "beginning" or 
the "finish" of a meal. Small melons should be 
washed, wiped, chilled, and cut in halves, from stem 
to blossom end. Remove seeds and objectionable 
stringy portion, and serve to each person half a 
melon placed on a small plate (with or without 
paper doily). Pass sugar on a tray, and salt and 
pepper also, if they are not on the table between 
every two covers. The flavor is preserved if the 
melon is perfectly chilled, but is lessened or destroyed 
if pieces of ice are served in it. 

Watermelon should be very cold and may be 
served in a variety of ways. If a melon is served 
with the rind on, wipe, cut in halves, and trim the 
rounded end of each half so that it may stand flat 
and firm on the serving dish. Then the host may 

Table Service 

remove the red portion with a large spoon, in egg- 
shaped pieces, and place on individual plates. The 
melon may be cut in the pantry in slices three inches 
thick ; then the rind cut off in circular pieces, and the 
edible center (rounds of pink pulp) removed to a 
chop plate or silver platter of ample size. To serve, 
cut in wedge-shaped pieces. Another way is to re- 
move the pink center of the melon in the pantry with 
a spoon, in egg-shaped pieces, and arrange on a large 
glass or silver dish, with cracked ice. A few green 
leaves or a few sprigs of mint may add to the attrac- 
tiveness of the dish. 

Choice, large strawberries should be served with 
the hulls on, after gently cleaning the fruit with a 
soft brush (butter brush). They may be piled in 
pyramid shape on a dish, and sugar passed with them, 
or they may be served on individual plates around 
a small mound of sugar. The mound is made by 
pressing confectioner's sugar into a cone-shaped 
utensil of the size desired and then unmolding it in 
the center of the plate. A pastry tube is of the right 
size and shape ; sometimes a cordial glass and again 
forms of stiff paper may be used. If the sugar has 
been pressed firmly into the cone, and the lower 
edge of the mold tapped on the plate directly where 
it is to be placed, it will hold its shape, unless handled 
or shaken roughly. Small galax leaves, with stems 


Care and Serving of Fruit 

removed, fitted into one another and placed on the 
plate to form a mat, make a good color background 
for this fruit, if one cannot obtain strawberry leaves. 
Miniature market baskets, obtained at a caterer's 
or confectioner's, may be filled with the berries and 
placed on the individual plate. ( 

Currants on the stems should be washed, drained, 
and arranged for serving on a dish, preferably glass, 
and sugar passed. Large currants should be removed 
from stem and washed, then put into a dish with 
granulated sugar, and shaken until the currants are 
covered with the sugar. This should be done only 
just before serving. White and red currants served 
together make a pleasing effect. Small fruits like 
currants, blackberries, and raspberries may be served 
with a little crushed ice ; this is much appreciated on 
a hot day, and these fruits, being highly flavored, 
bear the slight dilution the melting ice gives. 
Cherries may be served on the stems, or stemmed and 
pitted and served in individual dishes with sugar 
and crushed ice. 

Grape scissors are essential when bunches of 
grapes are served. 

Whole bananas with skins left on are served at 
breakfast, or they may be peeled, sliced, and sugar 
and cream passed, or peeled, sliced, and sprinkled 
with lemon juice and sugar. 

Table Service 

Apples are not often served peeled, as the pulp 
discolors so quickly; but if prepared nicely, they 
make a pleasing finish to a heavy dinner. Select 
large, perfect apples and keep them in the ice-box 
for several hours before serving. Immediately before 
they are to be used, peel, and cut in slices an eighth 
of an inch thick from stem to blossom end, be- 
ginning at the outside and working toward the core. 
Arrange the slices on a flat glass dish with serving 
fork and pass as the last course. 

Pineapple, when prepared in the simplest way, is 
shredded, sprinkled with sugar, and served from a 
large dish. To shred pineapple, pare and cut out 
eyes. Pick off* pieces with a silver fork, continuing 
until all the soft part is removed. It can be made 
to look more attractive, however, by serving in other 

ist. Cut a slice from both top and bottom of a 
large pineapple, then cut off the rind in four pieces, 
leaving a pyramid. Cut the pyramid in half-inch 
slices, crosswise, leaving in original shape. Serve 
with sugar. 

2nd. Pare and remove eyes from pineapples. Then 
cut in half-inch slices crosswise. Remove hard cen- 
ters, using a small biscuit cutter, thus leaving fruit 
in rings. Arrange rings, overlapping each other, 
in a round serving dish, and sprinkle with granu- 

Apples Sliced for After Dinner Service. 

Sliced Lemon and Sliced Orange with Sprigs of Mint 
for Afternoon Tea. 

Care and Serving of Fruit 

lated sugar. Leaves from the top of the pineapple 
make an attractive garnish. One may be slipped 
through each ring with pleasing effect. 

3rd. Pare and remove eyes from pineapple. Then 
cut crosswise in slices one inch thick. Cut these 
slices in halves and arrange them on a serving dish, 
straight side down, radiating from a bunch of mint. 

4th. Clean thoroughly a selected pineapple. Each 
eye has a distinct outline, about an inch in diameter. 
With a sharp, pointed knife, cut on this outline to- 
ward the center of the fruit, and with a fork detach 
and remove the cone-shaped pieces. Arrange pieces 
on individual plates around mounds of sugar. They 
may be eaten easily with the fingers, as the outside 
skin remains on. 





THE following menu is chosen to illustrate the 
home dinner service, not so much that it is attractive 
in itself, as that it gives an opportunity for varied 
service, that is, the use of the side dish, which is 
never seen at a formal dinner, and of a small dish, 
set in a plate, for the dessert. 

Clam Soup Crisp Crackers 

Sirloin Roast of Beef with Franconia Potatoes 
Brown Gravy 
Canned Corn 


Dressed Lettuce 
Graham Bread Sandwiches 

Blanc Mange 
Crackers and Cheese Demi-tasse 


Lay the silence cloth, the table-cloth, the center- 
piece, and the decoration, and follow the general 


Laying Home Dinner-Table 

directions for laying the table and serving given in a 
preceding chapter. Place for this dinner the service 
plate, a knife, a spoon for the corn, and a soup spoon ; 
two forks, one for meat and one for salad; water 
glass, bread-and-butter plate with spreader, napkin, 
and salts and peppers. The carving cloth, if used, 
is placed now. It is not always desired, but it 
protects the cloth from the spatters which are un- 
avoidable in carving, and the particles of crisp fat 
which are apt to fly. It may be an oblong tray 
cloth, a carving cloth with opening for asbestos mat, 
or a dinner napkin. 

It is as important that the maid prepare and lay 
out all necessary dishes, silver, and serving napkins 
that will be required during the meal as that she 
forget nothing in laying the table. A delay in the 
service which is caused by hunting for some piece of 
needed serving silver is unpardonable. 

When a maid serves from the table, she should 
always provide one plate more than the number of 
persons to be served, as this is necessary to work 

If a salad is served with the meat course, place it 
on the right side, from the right. This is one of the 
very few exceptions to the rule of "placing everything 
from the left except beverages and extra silver." 

After passing vegetables, take them to the kitchen 


Table Service 

to be kept warm, the mistress ringing if a second 
helping is needed. 

If the dining-room has no electric table-bell, for 
the best service the waitress should remain in the 
dining-room, when her duties do not require her 
presence in the pantry. 

Some persons prefer the conventional method of 
having the serving silver placed on the table before 
the dish to be served is brought in. Others prefer 
the newer way of having the silver brought in on the 
platter. The latter saves time and steps. 

The soup should be brought to the dining-room 
after the family are seated, in order that it may be 
served hot. Soup at dinner should always be served 
in soup plates, never in bouillon cups, unless one is 
serving an iced consomme. 

When the family are seated, 

I. Bring two filled soup plates from pantry, leave one 
on serving-table (right hand) and place the 
other (left hand). 

II. Return to serving-table for second plate, place, and 
repeat till all are served. 

III. Pass plate of crisp crackers (napkin). 

IV. Remove soup and service plates together (left hand), 

and place heated plate (right hand). 


Serving Home Dinner 

V. Place carving-knife and serving silver (right hand, 

right side) and carving-fork (left hand, left side), 

brought to table on napkin or tray. 

VI. Place platter of beef and Franconia potatoes (napkin). 

VII. While host carves, place dish for canned corn at 

left of each plate. Take dishes from serving-table, 

one in each hand. Place the one in left hand 

at left, change the one in right hand to left hand, 

and place; return to serving-table and repeat 

till all are placed. 

VIII. Take filled plate from host (left hand), and place 
heated plate, the extra one for serving (right 

IX. Place filled plate before person to be served (left 
hand), removing heated plate (right hand), take 
to carver, and proceed as before. 
X. Pass gravy, ladle in dish (napkin). 
XI. Pass canned corn, spoon in dish (napkin). 
XII. Pass bread (napkin). 

XIII. Remove roast with carving set and spoon on 


XIV. Remove carving cloth. 

XV. Remove soiled plate (left hand), place plate for 
salad (right hand), take up side dish (right 

XVI. (a) Place salad fork (right hand, right side), and 
salad spoon (left hand, left side) brought on 
napkin or tray ; or (b) bring in silver on salad 


Table Service 

XVII. Place salad before mistress (napkin). 
XVIII. Take filled salad plate from mistress (left hand), 
and place empty plate (an extra one) brought 
from serving-table. 

XIX. Place filled salad plate before person to be 
served (left hand), first taking up the empty 
plate (right hand), which carry to server and 
repeat in same manner. 
XX. Pass sandwiches (napkin). 
XXI. Remove salad bowl and silver. 
XXII. Remove bread-and-butter plate (left hand) and 
salad plate (right hand), clearing the place 
at once. 

XXIII. Remove salts and peppers and any unused silver 

remaining on table (tray). 

XXIV. Remove crumbs (napkin and plate). 

XXV. Place individual dessert plates, with doily on 
plate, small glass dish on doily, and spoon on 
right-hand side of plate. In placing, see 
that the plate is set down with the spoon in 
correct position on right-hand side of person. 
XXVI. (a) Place silver for serving dessert, one piece 
right side (right hand), second piece left side 
(left hand), brought on napkin or tray or 
(b) brought in on the dish. 

XXVII. Place dessert before mistress (napkin). 
XXVIII. Take filled dessert plate from mistress (left 
hand) and place the extra doily-covered plate 
with glass dish and spoon (right hand). 


Serving Home Dinner 

XXIX. Place filled dessert plate before person to be 
served (left hand), first removing plate 
(right hand). Repeat till all are served. 
XXX. Pass sugar and cream (tray). 
XXXI. Remove dessert dish and silver. 
XXXII. Remove dessert plate (left hand) and place 
service for next course (right hand), namely : 
a finger-bowl on a doily-covered plate and a 
small knife on right-hand side of plate. 

XXXIII. Pass crackers and cheese, knife on cheese dish 


XXXIV. (a) Bring in after-dinner coffee-service and 

place before hostess, who pours coffee, which 
waitress passes; or, (b) bring coffee in cups 
on a tray and place (right side, right hand). 
XXXV. Pass cut sugar and cream (tray), sugar-tongs 
arranged on sugar-bowl. 




ONE can serve meals, without a waitress, in an 
orderly and attractive manner. Lay the silence and 
table-cloths, a plate for each person, then the silver, 
according to preceding directions. Place tumblers, 
bread-and-butter plates with spreaders, and napkins, 
with salts and peppers between each two covers. 
In convenient spaces toward the corners place vine- 
gar and oil cruets, a plate of butter with butter-knife 
or butter-pick, a pitcher of cold or iced water, and 
relishes, if any are used. The carving cloth and carv- 
ing set should be in place, with sufficient silver for 
each dish to be served. 

Special pains should be taken in laying the table 
to provide everything necessary, that there may be 
as little occasion as possible to go to pantry or serving- 
table. Since the soup tureen is rarely used, the soup 
is brought from the kitchen, hot, in heated soup plates, 
by some young member of the family. Children 
should be allowed and taught to help in the serving. 
They should have a daily share in such duties as fill- 


Diagram of Table Laid for Home Dinner Without Service of Maid. 

Serving a Home Dinner without a Maid 

ing the water glasses, passing butter or sauces, and 
removing the dishes between courses. 

In many families the mother is the only one to 
leave the table and arrange for the change of courses, 
but this duty should devolve upon younger members 
of the household. 

The butler's assistant, a series of shelves on cas- 
tors, to stand at the left of the mistress is a piece of 
furniture which is of great assistance in serving with- 
out a maid. 

It is a help to have some one who sits near the 
carver serve the vegetables that are to be on the same 
plate with the meat, as passing the plate back and 
forth is thus avoided; or the vegetable dishes may 
be passed from one to another, each helping himself. 
Great care should be taken to pass all the accom- 
paniments to the courses, as butter and syrup with 
hot cakes ; cream and sugar with cereal ; and con- 
diments and relishes when they are needed. Avoid, 
however, the confusion of passing many things at 
once. It is not practical to carry out, for this 
kind of service, all the rules observed by a waitress. 
For instance, it is too much to expect of one who has 
to prepare and serve a meal to take additional steps 
solely for the sake of form. Therefore, for this kind 
of serving, it is allowable to leave a person without a 
plate and to remove two plates at a time, one in each 


Table Service 

hand. In bringing a very hot dish to the table, one 
would use a napkin under the dish for protection, 
but not for the sake of form. Suppose the menu to 
consist of soup, meat, and vegetables, and dessert; 
the order of service would be as follows : 

I. Take up service and soup plates together, or the soup 

plate, if only that is used. 

II. Bring to table as many warmed plates as there are 
people at table and place before the master of the 

III. Bring in meat platter and place before master of the 


IV. Bring in dishes of vegetables and gravy and arrange 

on table in regular order, parallel with the edge of 
the table and directly in front of the persons who 
are to serve. 

V. Clear table according to general directions except, to 
save steps, remove two plates or other articles at 
a time. 

VI. The table cleared and crumbs removed, bring in 
plates for dessert and place before mistress 
of house. Bring serving silver and then 

VII. Bring coffee-service; a convenient place for coffee- 
service is the butler's assistant. The arrangement 
of clean silver, plates for salad and dessert, finger- 
bowl service, upon this useful piece of furniture 
saves many steps. 


Serving a Home Dinner without a Maid 

The home dinner menu for which the accompany- 
ing plate was prepared is : 

Cream of Pea Soup Croutons 

Roast Lamb Brown Gravy 

Mashed Potatoes 


Mint Jelly 


Green Apple Pie 




THE formal luncheon is almost as popular a form 
of entertainment as the formal dinner. Usually 
the company is composed of women only ; men being 
rarely available at this time of day. The popular 
hour at which luncheon is served is half-past one, 
although one o'clock is sometimes chosen, especially 
if cards are to follow. 

The table for a formal luncheon should be laid with 
a luncheon set, consisting of centerpiece and doilies, 
all of the same pattern, or with a luncheon cloth. 
The latter reaches to the edge of the table or hangs 
six or seven inches below. 

Many people have made for their use, when en- 
tertaining, the round, adjustable table-top, at which 
many guests may be comfortably seated. The 
ordinary sized round table will not seat many, and 
as a round table has advantages over the square, 
oblong, or elliptical, these tops are of great con- 
venience to a hostess. They are more expensive 
when veneered with mahogany, but if made of in- 

Laying the Table for a Formal Luncheon 

expensive wood, demand, of course, the use of the 

The table should be rubbed first with a soft cheese- 
cloth or chamois, then the centerpiece is placed, and 
on that such floral decoration as the hostess chooses. 
After the desired effect has been obtained, flowers 
should be removed to a cool place until they are 

The question of the use of candles at luncheon is 
to be decided by the hostess. Artificial light should 
not be used unless necessary. If the room is dark, as 
is sometimes the case in city houses, one would better 
have lighted candles than a gloomy table; again, 
sometimes half the guests face windows where the 
glare of light is blinding, which affords occasion to 
draw the shades and use candles. There are times 
when artificial lighting is very much out of place, 
as on a pleasant day with sunshine flooding the 

If a bare table is used, lay the correct number of 
plate doilies at equal distances around the table and 
place on each doily a service plate. The cover is 
then arranged according to previous directions, 
knives, spoons, and silver needed for the first course 
at the right, forks at the left, never laying more than 
three; if more are needed, place when required. 
Place luncheon napkin (sizes thirteen to seventeen 


Table Service 

inches square, hemstitched or scalloped) folded in 
three-cornered shape, at left of forks. If the napkin 
has an embroidered letter, it should, be placed with 
the point toward the plate, or folded as in the il- 
lustration. If it has no initial, place the long edge 
parallel to fork. Sometimes bread or a roll is placed 
in the fojds of a napkin or on it, but unless the service 
is limited, it is better to pass bread or rolls. 

Place the water glass at point of the knife, on a 
small doily; an apollinaris glass for the serving of a 
"cup" on the same doily, to the right and a little 
below the water glass. The wine-glass, if wine is 
served instead of a "cup", should occupy the place 
of the apollinaris glass. Butter may be, but seldom 
is, served at luncheon. For salted nuts, either indi- 
vidual nut dishes or larger dishes are used. The in- 
dividual dishes, already filled, are placed at the top 
of the plate (no doily) ; the large dishes with spoon 
are to be taken from the serving-table and passed. 

The cover is now complete, with the exception of 
the place card, which varies in style and design so 
much that the exact position for it must be decided 
by the hostess. 

Sometimes favors are used and are placed either 
at the head of the plate or in groups around the 
centerpiece, with ribbons running from them to the 


Laying the Table for a Formal Luncheon 

Salts and peppers are placed on doilies matching 
the set, between each two covers. Dishes containing 
candies are placed on doilies, wherever they look best 
on the table. The bonbon spoon should be on the 
table beside the dish, and when bonbons are passed, 
the dish is placed upon a tray and the spoon beside 


Fruit Cocktail 

Cream of Cress Soup * 

Bread Sticks Olives Radishes 

Huntington Halibut * 

Cucumber Fishes Rolls 

Larded Squab Breasts around Hot Ripe Olives 

Brown Sauce 
Potato Croquettes en Surprise (Peas) 


Spring Salad * 

Horseradish Sandwiches * 

Coffee and Marron Ice-cream 

Small Cakes 


This luncheon, if for eight or more covers, requires 
the service of two waitresses. One waitress serves 
the hostess first, then serves in turn to the right, go- 
ing half-way round the table. The second waitress 

* " A New Book of Cookery " Farmer. 


Table Service 

starts at a point directly opposite the hostess and 
proceeds to the right. Exception must be made to 
the main or heavy course, when the head waitress 
serves the meat, beginning with the hostess, to every 
one at table, and the second waitress follows with 
the first vegetable. The first waitress then passes 
the second vegetable, and the second waitress fol- 
lows with rolls. When the luncheon is for many 
covers, the service may be made more prompt if 
two dishes of everything are prepared, each waitress 
attending to her side of the table only. 

Before luncheon is announced, be sure that the 
finger-bowls, garnished and one fourth full of tepid 
water, are ready on the serving-table if possible, or 
on a shelf just inside the pantry door. There is a 
wide range of choice in the garnish for finger-bowls. 
A few petals from the flowers used in decoration, 
roses, carnations, violets, nasturtium flowers and 
leaves, a spray of mignonette, sweet-scented leaves 
of rose geranium or lemon verbena, Japanese flowers 
which open and float when thrown into water, are 
all used. A few drops of rose or violet water are 
sometimes added. Wire rims may be bought to 
attach to the rims of metal finger-bowls, and flowers 
arranged in them to form a wreath. A finger-bowl 
which may be presented afterwards as a favor is a 
small glass tray with flower-holder ; this may hold a 


Laying the Table for a Formal Luncheon 

few flowers and a miniature Japanese fish or floating 

The coffee-service should be in readiness on serv- 
ing-table or sideboard. Have ready a small napkin 
and a plate for removing crumbs from the table and 
have all serving silver, serving napkins, and filled 
water pitcher at hand. If room can be found upon 
the serving-table for the dessert plates, put them 
there before luncheon is served. If not, bring them 
to serving-table, before placing upon the luncheon 
table, as this plan saves many steps to pantry. 

As all formal dinners and luncheons are served 
from the side, the only edibles to be placed and re- 
main upon the table are the salted nuts and the 
candies ; often not even these are there, although 
the candies usually add a desirable touch of 

Before going to the table, some hostesses serve in 
the drawing-room a light cocktail accompanied by 
sandwiches or small wafers. 

The first course of a formal luncheon is usually 
attractive in appearance and is laid on the service 
plate just before luncheon is announced. The plac- 
ing of it before or after the guests come to the dining- 
room is a matter of personal preference. If this 
course is a fruit cocktail, the arrangement would be 
to place the glass filled with the fruit on a small 


Table Service 

plate fitted with a doily, with the spoon on right-hand 
side of plate, then place on the service plate. If 
lobster or scallop cocktail is served in place of fruit, 
the arrangement is the same, substituting an oyster 
fork for the spoon. 

I. Remove fruit cocktail service, that is, small plate 

containing doily, glass, and spoon (left hand). 
II. Place bouillon cup and saucer on service plate, 

handles directly parallel to edge of table (left 


III. Pass bread sticks (napkin). 

IV. Pass olives and radishes (napkin). 

V. Remove service plate with bouillon cup on it (left 
hand), and place warmed plate for fish (right 
VI. Pass Huntington halibut with two pieces of serving 

silver in position (napkin). 
VII. Pass rolls (napkin). 
VIII. Pass cucumber fishes (napkin). 
IX. Just before ready for meat course, pour claret-cup 
(right side, right hand), a small folded napkin in 
left hand to catch possible drops from pitcher. 
X. Remove fish plate (left hand), place warmed dinner 

plate (right hand). 

XI. Pass platter containing squab garnished with hot, 
ripe olives, with serving silver in position (napkin). 
XII. Pass brown sauce, ladle in dish (napkin). 


Service for a Formal Luncheon 

XIII. Pass potato croquettes with serving silver on dish 


XIV. Pass rolls (napkin). 

XV. Remove dinner plate (left hand), and place salad 

plate (right hand). 

XVI. Pass salad with serving silver in position (napkin). 
XVII. Pass horseradish sandwiches (napkin). 
XVIII. Remove bread-and-butter plate and doily together 
(left hand) and salad plate (right hand), thus 
clearing the cover at once. 
XIX. Remove salt and pepper sets and the doily under 

them (tray). 
XX. Remove crumbs from table (small napkin and 

XXI. Place plates for ice-cream with 

(a) ice-cream fork on right-hand side of plate, 
or (b) fork and spoon on right-hand side, 
or (c) silver placed at right, from right, after 
plate is placed. 

XXII. Pass ice-cream with serving silver in position 

XXIII. Pass cakes (napkin). 

XXIV. Remove plate (left hand) and place finger-bowl 

service, plate, doily, and bowl containing 
, water (right hand). 
XXV. Pass bonbons (napkin or tray). 
XXVI. Serve coffee in drawing-room. The hostess pours 
after-dinner coffee and maid passes, or all cups 
are arranged in the pantry, on a large tray with 


Table Service 

sugar-bowl, sugar-tongs, and creamer on the 
same tray, if there is space; if not, they follow 
on a smaller tray. Many like to use the rock 
crystals in place of cut sugar; in that case a 
spoon would be substituted for the tongs. 

If one prefers to serve coffee at the table, as is some- 
times done, the maid exchanges the dessert plate for 
the finger-bowl service. Then she places coffee at 
the right and passes sugar and cream. The finger- 
bowl is removed by guest, and the plate used for 
bonbons which the maid passes last. 

On some less formal occasions, coffee might be 
poured by the hostess at the table. In this case the 
service is brought to the hostess as the dessert course 
is being finished. The maid places a cup of coffee at 
the right of each guest and passes sugar and cream ; 
after which she replaces the dessert plate with the 
finger-bowl service and passes bonbons. 





FOR the informal afternoon tea no table is set. 
The maid brings to the drawing-room, living-room, 
sun-parlor, or piazza in fact any place but the 
dining-room the tray with the tea-service, which 
she places on a table previously made ready to 
receive it. The tray may be of either silver, mahog- 
any, or lacquer. The hostess either makes the 
tea and pours it or has it made and brought in for 
her to pour. Of course the former service is more 
graceful and personal. If tea is made by the hostess, 
the maid must see that the equipment for making 
and serving it is complete. A teakettle for boiling 
water, an alcohol lamp filled, and a box of matches, 
a tea-caddy with teaspoon and a tea-ball are es- 
sential. The tea-ball is convenient when making a 
few cups of tea, but when several cups are to be 
poured at once, a teapot is necessary. Cut sugar 
or rock crystals, a pitcher of cream, a small dish of 
sliced lemon, and cups and saucers, spoon on saucer, 


Table Service 

and tea napkins should be in readiness on the tea-tray. 
Hot water should be brought in, in the teakettle, and 
placed over the lamp, as it soon reaches the boiling 
point and the tea is prepared quickly. Plain bread 
and butter sandwiches or sandwiches of the simplest 
kinds olive, nut, or lettuce should be served, 
also small cakes or wafers. Care should be taken 
not to have anything elaborate. A curate's assistant 
for convenience in passing all sandwiches and wafers 
at the same time is much in use for informal after- 
noon teas. 

Out of doors, in summer, iced tea, iced chocolate, or 
punch is often more convenient, as well as more accept- 
able than hot tea. For out-of-door service, the tea- 
wagon will be found most useful, as the entire service 
may be placed upon it and wheeled to the chosen 
spot with little trouble. 

A tea for which cards are sent out is a formal oc- 
casion, really an afternoon reception. Friends of 
the hostess serve all the refreshments, but maids 
should be in attendance to remove used cups and 
plates and to bring in fresh ones; also to replenish 
all dishes of food. The table is laid either with a 
luncheon cloth or with doilies, and is decorated with 
flowers and candles. At one end is the tea-service, 
a large tray holding teapot, hot-water pot, sliced 
lemons in dish with a small fork, sugar-bowl holding 


Informal Tea Service with Equipment for Making Tea. 

Service for Afternoon Teas 

cut sugar, sugar-tongs, and a cream pitcher. As 
many teacups as possible (each with teaspoon on 
saucer, the handle being parallel to handle of cup) 
should be placed on tray, others being brought as 
needed. At some teas, the cups and saucers are 
used without plates. At the opposite end of the 
table is the coffee, chocolate, or bouillon service. 
Here are placed tray, urn, cream, and sugar for 
coffee; the chocolate urn, and whipped cream in a 
bowl with ladle, if chocolate is the chosen beverage ; 
or the urn alone, if bouillon is served. Cups, saucers, 
and spoons are arranged the same as for tea. 

Friends of the hostess preside at each end of the 
table. Often four different ladies are asked to pour, 
two for the first hour and two others for the last 
hour. A large dinner napkin to protect the pourer's 
gown should be near the tray. Plates filled with 
sandwiches, others filled with cakes, and dishes 
holding candies, with others containing salted nuts, 
are arranged symmetrically upon the table. Cakes 
are also disposed upon the frappe table and on serv- 
ing-table and passed from there. One must avoid 
having a crowded table. Individual ices are some- 
times served, although frappe (or some frozen cream, 
not too rich) is usually preferred, served in frappe 
glasses from a frappe bowl by some friend of the 


Table Service 

If possible the frappe table is in some room other 
than the dining-room, as this arrangement relieves a 
sometimes congested spot. The frapp e table should 
be covered with a luncheon cloth and be equipped 
with punch or frappe bowl and ladle, and frappe 
glasses. There should also be small plates in piles 
with plate doilies between, always linen, if possible. 
Paper plate doilies ate permissible only when one is 
entertaining one hundred or more guests. Upon 
each of these doily-covered plates a frappe glass is 
placed for serving, filled with sherbet, and a sherbet 
spoon placed on right-hand side of plate. A tray 
holding sherbet spoons should be upon the frappe 
table. A filled cake basket and dishes of candy may 
be placed there for convenience in serving. Piles 
of plates and small napkins (never of paper) are 
arranged on serving-table. Young girl friends of 
the hostess see that guests reach the dining-room and 
are served. To serve, they should take a napkin 
and a plate to a guest, or a napkin only, as the service 
demands, ask her which beverage she prefers, and 
then serve it, passing sandwiches and cakes to her 
also. Sometimes a maid stands at each side of the 
door at the entrance of the dining-room and pre- 
sents a napkin and plate, or a napkin, to each guest 
entering, after which the young girls act as the 


Informal Tea Service with Tea Made and Brought In. 

Buffet Spreads 

Salads are offered for an evening spread or pos- 
sibly for a light spread after an afternoon at cards, 
but not at a tea. Music is frequently provided, but 
the musicians should be stationed far enough from 
the guests so that only the suggestion and charm of 
the music are evident. It should not be overpower- 
ing enough to make conversation difficult. 


At a buffet luncheon or spread, the guests are not 
seated but partake of the refreshments standing. 
When "buffet service" is used, the food is placed 
upon an attractively laid table, usually all at the same 
time, although it may be brought to the table and 
served in courses. Plates, silver, and napkins are 
arranged upon the table to make the service as quick 
and easy as possible. 

When luncheon is served at small tables to many 
guests, the service is the same as though all were 
seated at one table, but it requires a number of maids 
to carry out this arrangement. The buffet luncheon 
table is preferable to small tables for many reasons ; 
it requires less space, can be made to look more at- 
tractive, and calls for much less china and silver 
and for less service. The luncheon cloth is the pre- 
ferred covering and no centerpiece is necessary. 
There is so much silver to be laid for serving that the 


Table Service 

cloth is not only a protection to the table, but it 
lessens the noise of handling the silver. 

The arrangement and service of a buffet luncheon 
and a buffet spread or supper are practically the 
same, except that the luncheon often presents heavier 
and more varied courses than would ordinarily be 
given at night, and that in the evening lighted 
candles are used. The table decoration previously 
planned by the hostess is placed after laying the 
luncheon cloth. The arrangement of the dishes 
depends largely upon the menu and upon the number 
of guests to be served. It is better to have the maids 
replenish dishes and supplies from serving-table or 
pantry than to give the table the appearance of 
being crowded. 

The menu might consist of two hot and two cold 
dishes and two frozen desserts, or one frozen dessert 
and one attractively garnished mold of jelly or 
cream. One only of each kind mentioned may be the 
choice of the hostess, if the occasion does not de- 
mand more, though in providing for many persons 
it is advisable to present two hot dishes. All food 
should be such as can be easily eaten with a fork, 
as the use of a knife is impossible. Rolls, sand- 
wiches, and perhaps olives, are upon the table, and 
cakes, candies, and salted nuts are passed. Both hot 
and cold dishes are on the table at the same time, 


Buffet Spreads 

ices being brought in as a separate course. Whether 
the hot and cold refreshments are served on the 
same plate or in two courses depends entirely upon 
the preference of the hostess. If presenting one hot 
and one cold dish, serve each kind from two platters, 
as by this arrangement the table appears better 
balanced, and the service is facilitated. A good 
arrangement of the table is as follows : at the ends 
and directly opposite each other place the two plat- 
ters or chafing-dishes from which is served the hot 
course ; and on the other sides of the table the two 
dishes containing salad or cold entrees. Around 
these platters group the plates and silver, placing 
the serving silver in the most convenient position. 
On two opposite corners of the table place the small 
napkins in neat piles not too high. Plates of rolls 
and sandwiches are placed not too far in from the 
edge of table. Rolls are served with the hot course, 
and sandwiches accompany the salad. After the 
hot and salad courses have been removed, the ices 
are brought in. Cakes previously arranged on the 
serving-table are passed and then placed on the 
dining-table. For beverages, coffee alone, or coffee 
and chocolate may be provided. Either one or both 
may be served from an urn, or the filled cups may be 
brought on a tray from the pantry. 

Friends of the hostess usually serve, sometimes the 


Table Service 

host and hostess assisting, although occasionally 
waitresses are expected to do the serving. The 
waitresses must always be observant and prompt to 
remove soiled dishes, bring fresh ones, and replenish 

A wedding breakfast may be served much like the 
formal luncheon, unless the number of guests is so 
large that it takes the form of a buffet spread. 

The buffet spread for a large reception where 
people are coming and going during certain hours 
varies from the buffet spread served at a certain 
hour to a definite number in that all refreshments, 
hot, cold, and frozen, are put upon the table at once. 

A list of dishes suitable for buffet spreads or lun- 
cheons includes the following suggestions : 

Hot bouillon 
Hot entrees 
Cold entrees 

Frozen creams and ices 

Small cakes 


Salads with thick dressings Chocolate 

Hot rolls 

Light sandwiches 



Diagram of a Buffet Table. 




A HOSTESS, before attempting either a formal 
dinner or luncheon, should be sure to have enough 
and efficient help. If the cook is to be depended 
upon for the cooking, extra help should be engaged 
for dish-washing, picking up and generally "lending 
a hand", provided there is no laundress or other 
member of the household staff to assist. If the cook 
is not equal to the extra occasion, employ some per- 
son to come in and prepare the dinner, using the 
cook as her assistant. 

In families where a chambermaid is employed, 
she is expected to act as second waitress when nec- 
essary ; or, this not being possible, an accommodat- 
ing waitress should be engaged to assist. A helper, 
also, in the pantry to stack soiled dishes, keep 
shelves clear for action, serve soup and pour coffee, 
keep iced water in readiness, open wine bottles, 
supply crushed ice for cordials, etc., makes the 


Table Service 

service more prompt and satisfactory. If a dinner 
is suggested without added help, there is often grum- 
bling and dissatisfaction on account of the extra 
amount of work involved. On the other hand, if 
a mistress sees that help is engaged to lighten this 
work, the maids look forward with pleasure to the 

For the formal dinner, a handsome, perfectly 
laundered, damask cloth should be spread on the 
table after placing the soft table pad. The laying 
of the table is practically the same as for the formal 
luncheon, a centerpiece and table decoration, with 
the addition of candlesticks placed symmetrically 
about the centerpiece. The service plates, flat 
silver, and napkins are laid as for luncheon, only, 
of course, the dinner napkin, ranging in size 
from twenty-four inches to twenty-eight inches, is 

Butter is not usually served. Occasionally some 
hostess who wishes butter serves it regardless of 
custom. Occasionally, too, the bread-and-butter 
plate is seen on the table, not for the serving of butter, 
but as a convenience in caring for bread, olives, 
celery, radishes, etc. 

The arrangement of glasses begins with the goblet 
at the point of the knives ; the wine-glasses are 
placed in a convenient group at the right of the gob- 


If? f 

Glasses for Wine. High Cocktail, Low Cocktail, Sherry, Sauterne, 
Claret, Champagne, Cordial, Whiskey. 

Glasses for Water Water Goblet, Iced Tea, Water, Apollinaris. 

The Formal Dinner 

let, the glass to be used first, at the extreme right. 
It is not customary to serve more than three wines, 
and oftener two or even one is served. 

The cover now appears as for the formal luncheon : 
service plate, forks and napkin at left of plate, 
knives, soup spoon, and oyster fork, if needed, at 
right of plate ; water and wine-glasses as indicated ; 
individual nut dishes directly in front of the plate ; 
salts and peppers between each two covers; and 
bonbon dishes placed between candles, the bonbon 
spoon on the cloth beside dish. The laying of the 
table is finished, with the exception of place-cards, 
which the hostess arranges. Two minutes before 
announcing dinner, fill water glasses two thirds 
full and light candles. 

As at a luncheon, the first course may or may not 
be placed before announcing dinner. It consists of 
a "beginning" such as a canape, oysters or clams on 
the shell, or fruit, and in such case is already in place 
when guests come to the dining-room. When cock- 
tails are served in the drawing-room, a caviare, or 
some other sandwich, or a canape is passed. In 
the latter case, the dinner should not open with a 

A dinner menu consists of the following customary 
courses, but the number may be increased or di- 
minished at the will of the entertainer. 


Table Service 

A "Beginning" 

Soup Salad 

Fish Ices 

Entree Fruit 

Roast and Vegetables Coffee 

If only one entree is served during a dinner, it 
comes before the roast ; if two, the meat or heavier 
entree precedes the roast, and the vegetable or 
lighter entree follows it. 

If both roast and game are served, a frozen punch 
should be served as a separate course, after the roast, 
and the salad should be served with the game, in- 
stead of forming a course by itself. Dessert would 
follow. With one meat course only, sorbets and 
frozen punches are not served except at large dinners, 
and banquets, and at hotels. 

Coffee is almost always served in the drawing- 
room. This tends to make the serving of crackers 
and cheese a custom less general than formerly. At 
the formal dinner, even on the rare occasions when 
coffee is served at the table, cheese is seldom passed 
with the coffee, although it is perfectly good form to 
do so. Those who are fond of cheese and do not 
care to eliminate it, use it as an accompaniment to 
the salad. This seems to be, however, a matter of 
individual preference. 

The Formal Dinner 


Cocktails Caviare Sandwiches 

Selected Strawberries 

Mock Bouillon* Olives Sherry 

Rolled Cassava Cakes 

Turbans of Flounder* 

Dressed Cucumber Rolls 

Delmonico Tomatoes * 
Roasted Incubator Chickens 

Chantilly Potatoes * 

Buttered Asparagus Tips Champagne 

Grapefruit and Alligator Pear Salad 

Paprika Crackers 

Montrose Pudding * Small Cakes 

Coffee Cordials 

The service required for the preceding menu is 
here described in detail. 

Dinner is announced in the drawing-room by 
serving the cocktails and sandwiches, the sand- 
wiches being arranged on a doily-covered plate. 
Cocktails, poured in the pantry into cocktail glasses, 
are served from a tray. If the small cocktail napkins 
are used, it is best, if there is room, to place them 
on the tray with the glasses. One maid passes 
the cocktails and another follows with the sand- 
wiches. When these have been served, the host 

* " A New Book of Cookery " Farmer. 


Table Service 

leads the way to the dining-room with the guest of 
honor, who is to be seated at his right. Guests 
following find their seats at table by means of the 
place cards. The hostess and her escort come 
last. The cocktail glasses should be collected after 
the dinner is in progress by one maid when she has 
the leisure and should be taken from drawing-room 
to pantry or kitchen by some other way than through 
the dining-room. 

The first course is arranged on a small plate placed 
on the service plate, and is already on the table, - 
large strawberries, hulls on, with a small mound of 
powdered sugar in center, all on galax leaves (with- 
out their stems) fitted into one another to form a 
mat. A strawberry fork is placed, though the use 
of it is optional. A finger-bowl could be placed with 
this course or not. If placed, it should be removed 
when the course is finished. 

I. Remove fruit plate (left hand) or, if finger-bowl 
is used, fruit plate (right hand) and finger- 
bowl (left hand) together. 
II. Place plates containing soup (left hand). 

III. Head waitress pours sherry. 

Second waitress passes Cassava cakes (napkin). 

IV. Pass olives (napkin). 

V. Remove soup and service plates together (left hand) 
and place warmed plate for fish (right hand). 

The Formal Dinner 

VI. Pass fish in platter with serving silver in position 

VII. Pass rolls (napkin). 

VIII. Pass dressed cucumber with server in place (nap- 

IX. Remove fish plate (left hand) and place entree 
arranged on plate (right hand). 

X. Pour champagne (right side, right hand). 

XI. Remove entree plate (left hand) and place warmed 

dinner plate (right hand). 

XII. Head waitress passes platter of chickens with serv- 
ing silver in position (napkin). 

XIII. Second waitress passes potatoes with serving silver 

in dish (napkin). 

XIV. Pass dish of asparagus tips with serving silver in 

dish (napkin). 

XV. Pass rolls (napkin). 
XVI. Replenish individual nut dishes if necessary. 

XVII. Remove dinner plate (left hand) and place salad 
arranged on plate, fork on right-hand side of 
plate (right hand). 
XVIII. Pass sandwiches (napkin). 
XIX. Remove salad plate (left hand). 
XX. Remove salts and peppers (tray). 
XXI. Remove crumbs. 


Table Service 

XXII. Place dessert plate 

(a) with ice-cream fork on right-hand side of 

or (b) with spoon and fork on right-hand side 

of plate, 
or (c) place silver at right from right. 

XXIII. Pass mold of ice-cream (napkin) with serving 

silver in place, the mold already cut, but 
shape retained. 

XXIV. Pass cakes (napkin). 

XXV. Remove dessert plate (left hand) and place 
finger-bowl service, plate, doily, and bowl 
one fourth full of tepid water and garnished 
(right hand). 

XXVI. Pass bonbons (napkin or tray). 
XXVII. In drawing-room, place coffee-service before 
hostess, who pours and maid passes; or, if 
preferred, all the cups, filled, may be placed 
on a large tray with sugar-bowl, sugar-tongs, 
and creamer, and the tray passed by waitress. 
Few people take cream, but it is always of- 
XXVIII. Head waitress collects coffee cups and removes 


XXIX. If only one waitress is serving, she returns with 
the cordial-service; if two, then the second 
waitress follows with the cordial-service which 
may be in a decanter on tray with cordial 
glasses, hostess serving and maid passing, or 

The Formal Dinner 

which may be prepared in pantry and passed. 
If the cordial served is one which calls for 
shaved ice, the glass is filled two thirds full 
of ice, and the cordial poured over it. Some- 
times two kinds of cordials are served. 

When the gentlemen remain at table, one maid 
serves coffee to the ladies in drawing-room, the 
second maid remains in dining-room, passes cigars 
and cigarettes, with lighted candle or matches on 
one tray, then coffee, then cordials, or brandy and 
soda. Cordials are prepared while guests are drink- 
ing coffee. The maid should collect coffee cups as 
soon as the guests have finished with them, but yet 
not show undue haste. 

An hour after dinner the maid pours charged water 
into apollinaris glasses arranged on a tray, which she 
passes to guests in drawing-room. 




THE best usage sanctions one or two wines at 
dinner, though three may be properly served. Fol- 
lowing are the wines most commonly used and the 
courses with which they may be served. 

Soup Sherry or Madeira 

Fish Sauterne or Rhine Wine 

Entree Claret 

Meat Champagne or Sparkling Burgundy, 

which is continued throughout the 


Claret, being a light wine, is sometimes served at 
the same time as champagne for those who do not 
care for the stronger beverage. Wine should be 
poured very slowly, and glasses only two thirds filled. 

Every wine except sherry should be poured at the 
close of the course preceding the one with which it 
is to be served. Sherry should be poured after 
placing the soup. 

To serve champagne, cut the wire and work the 
cork out carefully with an upward pressure of the 


Wine Service 

thumbs. In opening a bottle, some waitresses take 
the precaution of working out the cork under the 
edge of the table, as sometimes it pops out with 
great force. If one does not use a bottle holder, 
have a folded napkin wrapped around the bottle 
before pouring. Pour a small quantity of wine into 
the glass of the host, not filling it, then begin at 
the right of the host and fill the glasses slowly and 
not too full. 

Claret is usually served from a claret pitcher. 

Sherry, Madeira, Port, and Burgundy are served 
from a decanter. 

Sparkling Burgundy, Champagne, Rhine Wine, 
and Sauterne are served from the bottle. 


35 F. Pack in ice several hours before 
serving. If wanted at short 

CHAMPAGNE notice, pack in ice and salt 

SPARKLING BUR- > half an hour before needed, 

GUNDY J but be very careful that it 

does not become frapped. In 
packing, keep ice away from 
neck of bottle. 

SWEET CHAM- Should be extremely cold and 

PAGNE is improved by being slightly 


RHINE WINE 40 F. Cold. 


Table Service 

SAUTERNE 50 F. Slightly cold. Some persons 

prefer it chilled in the ice 
box; some prefer it not so 

SHERRY 40 F. Cold. 

MADEIRA 65 F. or Temperature of the room. 

PORT 55 F. Temperature of the cellar. 

CLARET 65 F. or Temperature of the room. 

BURGUNDY 70 F. Temperature of the room. 

Cordials and liqueurs are stimulating beverages, 
very sweet, very strong, and aromatic. They are 
always served after the coffee, in cordial glasses 
which hold only a small quantity. Some of the cor- 
dials are served with crushed ice, some with cream, 
and some plain. A popular cordial is Creme de 
Menthe, either of a clear white or green color. To 
serve this cordial, the glasses should be two thirds 
full of finely crushed ice, and a small amount of the 
cordial poured over it. Avoid filling glasses too full. 
At some hotels and clubs, Creme de Menthe is served 
in a slightly larger glass than a cordial glass and ac- 
companied by a short straw. This is not often done, 
however, for private or home service. 

Benedictine, Chartreuse, Apricot Brandy, and 
Eau de Vie de Dantzic are the cordials that come 
next in favor and are usually served "straight", 
though some persons like a dash of cream in Benedic- 


Wine Service 

tine. Creme de Cacao is served with a dash of 
cream, either plain or whipped. Creme Yvette is a 
violet colored and flavored cordial, very sweet and 
very cloying, and demands cracked ice. 

Many other cordials such as Orange Curacoa, 
Maraschino, Noyau, and Kirschenwasser may be 
served as beverages, but are more acceptable as 
flavors for ices, sauces, and puddings. 





FOR the chafing-dish supper lay the bare table 
with either luncheon cloth or luncheon set, flowers, 
and candles. Mark the covers with the plate doilies ; 
place a plate on each doily, and the necessary silver 
according to directions ; the water glass and ginger 
ale or beer glass on small doily at right, and the 
napkin at left. 

If the party is for many persons, provide two chaf- 
ing-dishes, one at each end of the table. This not 
only affords quicker and better service but adds to 
sociability. Always have a metal tray under the 
chafing-dish as a protection against fire and stains, 
and an asbestos mat under the tray. 

The hostess must be sure that everything is in 
readiness, all ingredients needed for the dishes 
to be cooked and all utensils needed in the cooking. 
A teakettle for boiling water is an important item of 


Chafing-Dish Suppers 

the table equipment; an electric toaster, also, is 
desirable, though toast or croutons prepared in the 
kitchen may be kept warm on an asbestos mat 
placed over the chafing-dish flame. Owing to 
the lateness of the hour at which some of these 
parties are given, the kitchen fire cannot always 
be depended upon for making toast. In that event 
put a very little butter into one of the blazers 
and fry the bread lightly on both sides. The lamp 
under the chafing-dish and teakettle should be filled 
with alcohol before the guests assemble, and addi- 
tional alcohol should be at hand in the pantry. Be 
sure the flame is out and the lamp cool before filling, 
and also wipe the lamp dry before lighting. One 
cannot take too great precaution against fire. Plates 
should have been previously heated. Ebony-handled 
or wooden spoons are better to use in chafing-dish 
cookery than silver, as the latter get too hot to be 
handled with comfort. An extra napkin, an extra 
fork and spoon to "try with", a box of matches, and 
a bowl to hold tasting spoons and burned matches, 
should be placed conveniently near the person who 
presides over the chafing-dish. 

Have measured for the dish to be cooked all 
liquid and dry ingredients and seasonings, so that 
the work may be simplified, and the time of prepara- 
tion at the table shortened. The butter should be 


Table Service 

measured beforehand and made into balls, each 
containing a level tablespoonful. 

Select attractive as well as convenient dishes to 
hold the accessories. Small wooden Russian bowls 
which do not break are noiseless and ornamental. 
Bowls of the Paul Revere pottery and some of the 
rice-pattern Chinese bowls are pleasing. Pitchers 
holding from half a cup to a pint are necessary. 
It is a good plan to arrange upon a single tray the 
bowls, pitchers, and small dishes containing all 
ingredients for one dish. This may be conveniently 
placed at the left of the person presiding over the 

Some things are cooked in the blazer or top pan, 
directly over the flame. Egg dishes and all creamed 
dishes need the hot-water pan beneath, and of course 
the hot-water pan is necessary to keep the food warm. 
Have at hand a tile on which to place the hot -water 
pan when not in use. Be sure that not too much 
water is in the pan; about one inch in depth is 
sufficient; also watch that the water does not boil 
away, leaving the pan dry. 

The chafing-dish supper is always an informal 
occasion, and the guests may serve themselves if 
they prefer. 

A list of various foods which may be used in 
chafing-dish cookery : 


Chqfing-Dish Suppers 

Sweetbreads Tomatoes 

Chicken Cheese 

Lamb Crab Meat 

Cooked Tongua Terrapin 

Beef Lobster 

Bacon Oysters 

Ham Shrimps 

Venison Scallops 

Chickens' Livers Frogs' Legs 

Eggs Sardines 

Mushrooms Salmon 

Peas Finnan Haddie 
Cooked Fish heated in Sauce 

There are many kinds of rarebits varied by the 
principal flavor, as tomato, onion, green or red pepper, 
etc. Any of the souffles, either cheese or sweet 
souffles, are successfully made in the chafing-dish. 

Fudges (made with peanut butter, marshmallows, 
sultana raisins, nuts, and Canton ginger) are popular 
chafing-dish possibilities. 

Slices of bread cut in any chosen shape and toasted, 
or heated crackers, are an understood part of the 
chafing-dish supper. Creamed dishes require toast, 
while rarebits call for either crackers or toast. Bev- 
erages always accompany a chafing-dish supper. 
Among the most popular are ale, beer, cider, mineral 
water, wine "cup", punch, and hot coffee. 






OFTEN a maid is asked to prepare a tray for break- 
fast or luncheon, to be served to a person in her 
room. Certain points are to be remembered in ar- 
ranging a tray, which should appeal to sight as well 
as taste. Always cover the tray with a fresh linen 
cloth with no fold. The dishes used should be small 
in size, and those containing hot food should be 
covered. Arrange the taller dishes at the back of 
the tray, the low ones in front, but never over- 
crowd it. Select dainty china, harmonizing in color 
with the food to be served. 

After the cloth is laid, place a plate in the middle 
of the front side. The knife and spoon should be on 
the right of the plate, the fork and napkin on the left. 
Place the water glass at the point of the knife, the 
individual butter plate containing a form of butter, 
at the top of the fork. The various dishes to be 
served should then be arranged symmetrically. Do 
not forget salt and pepper. 


Serving Butter in Various Forms 

The tray should never be allowed to stand about 
after use, therefore the maid should come for it at 
what would seem the proper time. 


Butter may be served in prints as it is bought or 
may be shaped into various forms. The former is 
practical for every-day use; a quarter or a half- 
pound cake is placed upon a butter dish, with butter- 
knife on dish, and neat, square pieces cut off for 
serving. Butter, too, may be bought in half-pound 
cakes stamped in individual squares, which are 
divided with a knife. 

Usually wooden implements are used to shape 
butter, such as butter-paddles and molds. These 
should be thoroughly scalded and then thoroughly 
chilled in ice-water before beginning to shape the 
butter. Not less than thirty minutes should be 
given to the preparation of utensils, and an hour's 
time is better. When they are ready, put the butter 
into a bowl of cold water and with a wooden spoon 
work it until it is waxy enough to shape. Balls are 
the most common, the most easily made, and are the 
foundation of other forms. In order that all may be 
uniform in size, measure a level tablespoonful of 
butter for each ball and roll between the butter- 
paddles. Hold the paddle vertically in the left 


Table Service 

hand and horizontally in the right, thus placing them 
at right angles to each other. Light pressure should 
be given and a rotary motion of the paddle in right 
hand, holding left one stationary. Practice is usu- 
ally necessary to accomplish a well rounded ball. 
Drop the balls on a chilled plate and in summer use 
a plate of cracked ice upon which to place the balls. 
The butter-paddles should be dipped into cold or 
iced water after each shaping. As butter readily 
absorbs flavors and odors from other articles, it 
should be kept in a clean, closely-covered receptacle. 
There come for the purpose jars of glass or porcelain, 
with handles and tight covers, which are very satis- 
factory. Balls may be made up in quantity and kept 
in these jars, as no harm comes from piling them; 
but more fanciful shapes mentioned must be deli- 
cately handled and should be made not long before 
serving. One of these is the "shell" made with a 
butter scoop or crook. To make these a piece of 
butter of some length is required, or two half-pound 
prints can be placed end to end and used. First 
dip the utensil into a cup of hot water and wipe dry 
with a piece of clean cheese-cloth. Then draw it 
over the butter lightly and quickly, making a thin 
shaving which curls over as it is drawn along. The 
crook must be dipped in hot water and wiped clean 
each time. For serving, these shells are arranged 


Serving Butter in Vancus 

on a dish of cracked ice with a few sprigs of parsley 
or cress ; for the individual plate, three of them look 
attractive placed close together with a very small 
sprig of green in the center. 

Butter lilies are made by first forming a butter- 
ball ; next, place it between the smooth sides of the 
paddles and make a smooth surfaced ball rather 
than a rough one. Then, still using the smooth 
sides of the paddles, slap the ball with one paddle 
while it rests on the other, until the ball is a flat 
round of uniform thickness. Fold over the two 
lower sides to form a point and slightly curve back- 
ward the top. Place on a dish of cracked ice. Make 
the pistil by rolling a small piece of butter between 
the smooth sides of the paddle, exerting greater 
pressure on one end than the other. Place the 
broader end in the heart of the lily, having the point 
come not quite to the top, and not touching the sides 
at all. A bit of green at the base of the lily is at- 

To make roses, follow directions just given as far 
as patting into a circular flat piece and then drop into 
cold water. When five have been made, put the 
hands under water and mold the five petals into the 
form of a wild rose. The bases of the petals should 
be joined one to another, and the tops of the petals 
bent into irregular shapes. For the center make 


Table Service 

three or five of the tiniest possible balls on the cor- 
rugated side of the paddle. These roses can be made 
small for individual service, or a large butter-rose 
may be made and passed, with knife on dish for 

Butter may be worked until creamy (or freshly- 
churned butter may be used) put through a pastry- 
bag and rose-tube into three-inch lengths of pencil 
size, or into rosettes, by holding the tube still and 
pressing until the butter has piled up to the size de- 
sired. Rolls may be made by making first a ball, 
patting to about one fourth of an inch in thickness 
(holding butter-paddles parallel to each other) and 
rolling the circular pat of butter up. Care should 
be used to hold the butter-paddles in correct position, 
else the butter will not have the vertical creases it 
should have. 

Pats are made by using the small wooden forms, 
which come for the purpose and which must be per- 
fectly scalded and chilled to get good results. The 
butter is packed solidly into the small space, evened 
off, and pressure is brought to bear upon the butter 
within ; then the wooden form is taken up and the 
imprinted butter removed. 

Butter forms look more attractive when served 
with cracked ice and a few green leaves or a bit of 
cress or of parsley. 


Butter Forms. 

Celery Cut Club Style. 




IT is desirable to attend to lettuce as soon as it 
comes from market or garden. Cut off root close 
to leaves and remove leaves one at a time, discard- 
ing any of the outside ones that may be wilted, 
broken, or tough. Wash in a bowl of cold or ice- 
water and let stand until crisp. Take up each leaf 
separately, shake slightly, arrange in original form 
and place in wire basket (which comes for the pur- 
pose) or in bag made of cheese-cloth. Hang in re- 
frigerator until needed. 

The tender heart leaves should always be served 
whole, while it is often desirable to shred the outside 

To Shred Lettuce. 

Roll leaves by twos lengthwise and cut in thin slices 
crosswise, using a thin, sharp knife or scissors. Shake 
shreds lightly for use in garnishing or making a back- 


Table Service 

ground for salads. This should be done as near 
serving time as is possible. If the midribs of the 
leaves are tough it is desirable to remove them before 
rolling the leaves. 


Separate leaves and wash, same as lettuce. The 
small ones may be served whole, the larger ones cut 
in halves lengthwise, then each half cut in three or 
four pieces crosswise. It is generally desirable to 
remove the midribs. 

Escarolle and Chicory. 

Separate leaves and wash same as lettuce. The 
leaves, being smaller, require more care in the wash- 
ing. Discard the coarse green leaves, leaving the 
light green and yellow portions for serving. 


Cut off roots, separate stalks, and wash in iced 
water. Drain thoroughly and shake each piece 


Remove and discard outer leaves. Plunge the 
remaining stalk into ice-water. When it is crisp, 
drain, wipe, separate leaves of stalk, and serve whole, 
or the stalk may be shredded. 


To Prepare Salad Greens 


Cut off roots and leaves (excepting tender ones) 
from a bunch of celery. Separate stalks, wash, 
scrape, and cut in pieces of uniform length. Chill 
in ice-water to which a third-inch slice of lemon has 
been added. Drain and serve on a bed of crushed 
ice. If tops of stalks are gashed several times 
before putting into water, they will curl back and 
make celery look more attractive. The inside tender 
stalks do not require scraping. 

Celery when used for a garnish is often curled. 

To Curl Celery. 

Scrape thick stalks of celery and cut in two-inch 
pieces. With a sharp knife, beginning at outside of 
stalks, make five parallel cuts extending one third 
the length of pieces; then make six cuts at right 
angles to cuts already made. Treat the other end 
in the same manner or not, as desired. Put in ice- 
water to which a third-inch slice of lemon has been 
added and let stand several hours, when ends will 
curl back and celery will be found very crisp. 

To Serve " Club Style." 

Select celery, several bunches of which have been 
tied together, not " bunched " by the use of nails. 
The root being used here, rusty nail holes are a dis- 

Table Service 

advantage. Discard the coarse, outer stalks of 
each small bunch. Keep the inner hearts of each 
whole, not separating the stalks one from another. 
Wash thoroughly with a small vegetable brush and 
then trim the root neatly, discarding the outside, 
which is discolored. Cut the small bunch of un- 
separated heart stalks through the center length- 
wise, from point of root to top, and if the halves are 
large, divide each again in the same way. Crisp in 
ice water, drain, and serve. 


Remove leaves, leaving stems half an inch long, and 
remove tip of root. Wash, scrape, and serve on a 
bed of crushed ice. This treatment is always satis- 
factory for long radishes. Globe (otherwise called 
round) radishes are pleasing when cut to represent 
tulips or chrysanthemums. 

To Cut Radishes to Represent Tulips. 

Select long, globe radishes and remove leaves, 
leaving stems half an inch long, and remove tip end. 
Wash, and, beginning at root end, make six incisions 
(at equal distances) through skin extending nearly 
to stem end. Pass thin bladed knife under sections 
of skin and cut down as far as incisions extend. 
Place in cold water and let stand an hour or two, 


Serving of Cheeses and of Caviare 

when sections will fold back giving a tulip-like ap- 
pearance. Drain and serve on a dish of cracked ice. 

To Cut Radishes to Represent Chrysanthemums. 

Select round radishes and remove leaves, leaving 
stems half an inch in length, and cut off a thin slice 
from the root end. Wash, and scrape radishes in 
several places to remove some of the red color. Cut 
from top nearly to stem end in thin, parallel slices, 
then cut thin slices at right angles to slices already 
cut. Place in cold water and let stand until open to 
suggest chrysanthemums. Drain and serve on a 
dish of cracked ice. 


To serve Edam and Pineapple cheese, the top 
should be cut and notched in such a way that 
it can be fitted in, when not in use. The best 
grocers usually do this upon request. To pass, set 
the cheese in the folds of a napkin (which come up 
around it) on account of the oiliness of the rind. 
Also silver frames come for holding these cheeses. 
A silver cheese scoop is used to serve it. When 
putting away after serving, if a small, fresh piece of 
cheese-cloth is wet with brandy and placed inside 
(cover on), the cheese will not become moldy as 

Table Service 

readily, and an additional flavor will be gained as 

Camembert should be in the ice-box an hour or 
two before serving. To serve, scrape off the tin- 
foil, then scrape off discoloration under tinfoil. 
Place on a plate covered with a lace-paper doily and 
cut in wedge-shaped pieces, with a butter spreader 
upon the plate for serving. Prepare some time 
before serving and keep in ice-box until needed. 

Roquefort should be placed upon a plate fitted 
with a lace-paper doily, with butter spreader on 
plate for serving, or cut in small pieces and placed 
on doily-covered plate. 

Cream cheese, or Neufchatel, is placed on plate 
containing lace-paper doily, with butter spreader 
on plate for serving. 

American Dairy Cheese should be cut in small 
pieces of uniform size and placed on plate covered 
with a lace-paper doily. 


Caviare is the roe of the sturgeon and can be 
bought fresh or salted, the former being the more 
expensive. It is used in various ways as an appe- 
tizer or hors-d'oeuvre and takes the place, to some 
extent, of the raw oyster. It is seasoned and served 
in small Swedish timbale cases, on cuts of toast or 


Russian Caviare 

crackers, or as a sandwich filling. In combination 
with olives, sardines, or a cress butter, it makes a 
good sandwich filling to serve with cocktails. After 
removing caviare from the can or jar in which it is 
bought, season with a few drops of lemon juice and 
a dash of cayenne. If using the fresh caviare, salt 
also should be added. 


THE waitress in many households is expected to do 
the carving. This work, to be accomplished satis- 
factorily, requires a knowledge of the anatomy of 
that which is to be carved, which can be gained 
only by handling meats before and after cooking. 

A person who carves needs a steady hand, a 
correct eye, and, above all else, sharp carving-knives 
of different sizes and carving-forks provided with 
guards which should be up while carving. It can be 
plainly seen that a turkey calls for a carving set of 
different size from that required for a smaller bird. 
Platters, too, should be of suitable size. 

If one understands the direction in which the 
muscular fibers lie, he knows just how to cut, namely, 
across the grain. Remember that slices should be 
of uniform thickness and without ragged edges. 

To Carve Porterhouse Beefsteak. 

The flank end should be removed before cooking. 
Cut both the tenderloin and the sirloin from the 
central bone, carving the meat in two pieces ; then 


Notes on Carving 

cut in pieces, with the grain, about one inch in 
thickness. Serve a piece of each to a portion, not 
forgetting the dish gravy. When carving beef, 
always ask a guest if he likes it rare, medium, or 
well done. 

To Carve Roast Beef Rib or Sirloin. 

Place roast on platter, skin side up. Press fork 
well down into the center of the roast, hold fork 
firmly in left hand and with a pointed, thin-bladed, 
sharp knife in right hand cut in thin, parallel slices 
from crispy, fat edge to bones, then slip knife under 
slices and cut from bones. Serve dish gravy with 
each portion. 

Back of Rump. 

Press the fork well down into center of the roast, 
hold firmly in left hand, and with knife in right hand 
cut in thin, parallel slices, with grain of meat. By 
so doing, some of the less tender muscle will be served 
with that which is more tender. Serve dish gravy 
with each portion. 

To Carve a Fillet of Beef. 

Begin at the thick end and cut diagonally across, 
having each slice from one fourth to one half of an 
inch in thickness. 


Table Service 

To Carve a Leg of Lamb. 

Place roast on platter with rounding side up and 
small bone to the left of the carver. Introduce 
carving-fork into center of roast and hold firmly 
with left hand, with carving-knife in right hand. 
Cut in thin, parallel slices across grain to bone, 
then slip knife under slices and remove from bone. 
A leg of lamb which has been boned either by cook 
or butcher before cooking is more easily carved and 
gives better slices. 

To Carve a Saddle of Mutton. 

Make cuts parallel to backbone from half to 
three fourths of an inch apart; then make cross 
cuts at right angles to first cuts, from two to two 
and a half inches in length. Free meat from 
bone by slipping the knife under and cutting pieces 
from bone. 


To Carve a Loin of Lamb or Veal. 

Before cooking, the backbone of the loin should 
be cut at each rib. Cut the roast between ribs, 
serving one to each person. A Crown of Lamb is 
carved in the same manner. 

To Carve Roast Turkey or Roast Chicken. 

Place bird on back with drumsticks at right of 
carver. Introduce carving fork across breast-bone 


Notes on Carving 

(at its highest point) and hold firmly in left hand; 
with carving knife in right hand cut through skin 
between second joint and body, close to body. 
With knife, pull back the leg and second joint (in one 
piece) and disjoint from the body, then cut off wing. 
Carve breast meat in thin parallel slices. Remove 
fork and use with knife in separating second joints 
from drumsticks ; also carve each of these in slices. 
Finish carving one side of a bird before beginning 
the other. Serve a portion of light and of dark meat 
with some of the stuffing to each person, unless a 
preference has been asked and given. 

To Carve Broilers. 

Cut in halves, and halve each half if the bird is 
large, severing at joints as far as is possible. Serve 
a quarter or a half, according to the size of the 
broiler, to each person. 

To Carve Domestic Duck. 

Place bird on back, with drumsticks at right of 
carver. Introduce carving-fork through breast and 
hold firmly in left hand, with carving-knife in right 
hand. The joints will be found much farther back 
than in turkeys and chickens. Remove wing and 
leg. Make cuts in breast meat parallel to breast- 
bone, three fourths of an inch apart, and remove by 

Table Service 

sliding the knife under the meat. Some rich dark 
meat may be obtained from the sides, though in 
small pieces. 

To Carve Wild Duck. 

Remove the breast meat from one side, then from 
the other. Allow half a breast to each person. 
Both legs and wings are usually too tough for table 
use, but may be utilized in the kitchen. 




IN planning menus, the chief points to be con- 
sidered are food value, money value, and aesthetic 
value. A housekeeper should make a study of 
foodstuffs and combinations. A knowledge of what 
is in the market at different seasons of the year is 
essential, for there is a time when each thing is at 
its best and cheapest, and that is the time for its 
use. Many buy foods when they first appear in 
market on account of their choiceness, but one has 
to pay for such gratification. 

Care should be used to have courses contrast 
decidedly, that a food or a flavor may not be repeated 
in the menu. In serving more than one kind of 
sauce, have each differ distinctly in color and flavor, 
and, if possible, in consistency. 

Heavy and light courses should alternate in a 
long menu. They should be lighter in character 

Table Service 

for a luncheon than for a dinner, with possibly 
two exceptions, the soup and the salad. Heavy 
dressings, such as mayonnaise and cream dressings, 
may be served at luncheon but are too heavy for 

For the formal dinner, the soup is invariably thin 
and usually clear. For the informal dinner, when 
the courses are few and not heavy, cream or heavy 
soups are allowable. For the formal luncheon, a 
roast is never served except when a roasted bird is 
offered. At luncheon two vegetables or their equiva- 
lent may be served; if potato is chosen as one, it 
should be prepared in some light form. Often rice 
or hominy takes the place of potato. 

When cocktails are served in the drawing-room, a 
caviare sandwich or a canape is passed ; but if the 
dinner is begun with a canape, some wafer or plainer 
sandwich accompanies the cocktail. With a course 
of raw oysters or clams, or any of the cocktails 
(lobster, scallop, sardine, oyster, or clam), it is well 
to pass a brown or a graham bread sandwich. With 
oysters on the shell, served on cracked ice, a horse- 
radish sandwich is appetizing. A brown-bread 
sandwich or the long oyster cracker may be used. 
Condiments are passed with either oysters or clams. 
Only one condiment may be used, or a number may 
be presented for choice. Tomato catsup, a cocktail 


The Making of Menus 

mixture, Tabasco sauce, grated horseradish, and 
cayenne are some of the customary seasonings, and 
if one is serving more than one of these they should 
be passed upon a tray. A half lemon is always 
served upon the plate with the oysters. 

Celery, radishes, and olives are usually served 
after the soup has been placed. Sometimes one of 
these and sometimes all three are passed. Bread or 
crackers are needed with soup; following are a few 
suitable combinations : 
Consomme Bread Sticks 

Parmesan Cheese Sticks 
Cream Soups Crisp Crackers 

Souffled Crackers 


Thick Soups Croutons 

Oyster Stew Oyster Crackers 


Chowder or Rich Fish Brown Bread and Butter. 

There are many garnishings for clear soup, namely : 
Italian Pastes Noodles 

Royal Custard Shredded Brussels Sprouts 

Harlequin Slices Sliced Cooked Chestnuts 

Thin Slices of Lemon Boiled Macaroni cut in 

eighth-inch pieces, making 


Table Service 

Grated Parmesan cheese is often passed with clear 
soups, when garnished with Italian pastes. 

At Italian stores one may buy, put up in small 
boxes, macaroni cut in fanciful shapes, especially in- 
tended for soup. Vegetables cut with a small French 
cutter into balls the size of peas, then cooked, 
drained, and served in a clear soup, are very effective, 
especially when of varied colors, as turnips, carrots, 
beets, etc. 

Acid in some form usually accompanies the fish 
course in the shape of lemon slices, from which the 
seeds have been removed, dressed cucumber, or 
dressed tomato. For a formal dinner, a fish not 
difficult to eat should be chosen ; that is, either fish 
without small bones, or filleted fish (which is fish 
freed from skin and bone). 

Suggestions follow for suitable combinations with 

Broiled fish is improved by being spread with 
maitre d'hotel butter, which gives it a moist appear- 
ance and improves the flavor. One can vary the 
flavor by the addition of chopped red and green 
peppers or by using tarragon vinegar in place of 
lemon juice. Watercress and slices of lemon garnish 
effectively. The lemon may be sliced with or with- 
out the rind ; the latter way is newer, but it does 
not give so much color. With some fish dishes, it 

[i 1 8] 

The Making of Menus 

is better to serve a lemon cut in quarters or halves, 
from which the juice can be extracted more easily. 
Fried parsley used as a garnish adds an attractive 
touch of color. With fried fish, one may serve the 
popular Sauce Tartare and fried potatoes. Serve 
with broiled halibut ot pompano, Hollandaise sauce 
to which is added chopped, well-drained cucumber. 
With broiled or baked shad use a cucumber cream 
sauce (merely whipped cream with chopped, drained, 
and well seasoned cucumber added). A folded 
napkin should be placed on the platter under boiled 
fish, to absorb the moisture. Heavy rich sauces, 
such as drawn butter, egg sauce, Hollandaise, and 
Bechamel are appropriate here. Boiled potato balls, 
dressed with maitre d'hotel butter, often accompany 
boiled fish. Fillets of flounder or halibut, either 
baked or steamed, need a highly flavored sauce, 
such as lobster, shrimp, brown caper, or tomato. 
With hot boiled salmon use drawn butter, Hol- 
landaise, or caper sauce, and with cold boiled salmon, 
Sauce Tartare, green mayonnaise, or vinaigrette 

When fish is served as a course, in a menu of 
many courses, it is seldom accompanied by potatoes 
or other vegetables, although peas are appropriate 
with salmon, and fried or stuffed tomatoes with a 
white fish such as halibut and flounder. If fish is 

Table Service 

the main course at a home dinner, potatoes and any 
of the vegetables which blend well with the chosen 
fish are always served. Winter vegetables, with the 
exception of onions and carrots, are not suitable, 
but all green vegetables are good. Canned corn and 
shell beans are well placed with broiled fish. 

Almost all entrees are served with an appropriate 
sauce, and crisp bread or a roll is the only accom- 
paniment. Patties are served alone, as the pastry 
takes the place of bread. Meat croquettes some- 
times have peas or pea puree served with them. 

With most of the salad greens when simply 
dressed, cheese croquettes or cheese balls are par- 
ticularly good. A thin, unsweetened cracker 
(buttered, sprinkled with mild paprika, and heated), 
is good with fruit salads. A simple sandwich is 
appropriate also. Whatever is offered, it should be 
something to bring out, rather than to overpower 
the flavor and seasonings of the salad. 

Heavy desserts, such as steamed puddings or 
puddings with rich sauces, should not be served 
after a heavy dinner. Cold or frozen desserts take 
their place and are usually accompanied with small 
cakes or wafers. The sweet or dessert course is fre- 
quently omitted at a home dinner and a salad takes 
its place; a salad composed of fruit is especially 
popular in just this place. 


Suitable Combinations for Serving 






White Potatoes 

Sweet Potatoes 


Hominy and Horse- 
radish Croquettes 


Brussels Sprouts 



Sweet Corn 


String Beans 

Lima Beans 

Egg Plant 



Same vegetables as for 
roast beef 

White Potatoes 

Vegetables a la jardi- 


Yorkshire Pudding 
Horseradish Sauce 
Mushroom Sauce 
Sauted Bananas 

Mushroom Sauce 

Bearnaise Sauce 

Maitre d'hotel Butter, 
to which chopped 
red and green pep- 
pers are added 


Table Service 

Meats Vegetables 

CORNED Plain Boiled 

BEEF Potato 







Dandelion Greens 

ROAST LAMB White Potatoes 
Sweet Potatoes 
Jerusalem Artichokes 
Carrot Timbales 
Green Peas 

Cauliflower with cream Sauce 
Cauliflower au Gratin 
String Beans 

Broiled Egg Plant 
Stuffed and Baked Egg 


BROILED Potatoes 





Stuffed Baked 




Banana Croquettes 
Baked Bananas 
Mint Sauce 
Mint Jelly 
Mint Sherbet 
Currant Jelly 

Suitable Combinations for Serving 

Meats Vegetables 

Beets with Sauce Pi- 


Creamed Carrots 
String Beans au Gratin 
Winter or Summer 


Fresh Lima Beans 
Cauliflower or Brussels 




Stuffed and Baked 


Any of the green vege- 
tables may be added 

to this list. 

BOILED White Potatoes 

LAMB Carrots 


BOILED White Potatoes 

MUTTON Carrots 

Turnips. (The English 
think these two vege- 
tables should always 
accompany boiled 
mutton. An attrac- 
tive dish would be 
carrots and turnips 




Caper Sauce 

Table Service 

Meats Vegetables 

cut in dice, boiled sep- 
arately and drained, 
mixed and covered 
with white sauce.) 
SADDLE OF All vegetables served 
MUTTON with lamb, especially 

String Beans 
French Peas 
Rice Croquettes 
Fried Rice Balls 
CHICKEN White Potatoes 

AND FOWL Sweet Potatoes Glazed 
Rice Croquettes 
Hominy Croquettes 
Chestnut Croquettes 
Corn Fritters 
Fresh Lima Beans 
Fresh Shell Beans 
Onions Squash 
All Summer Vegetables 
TURKEY White Potatoes 

Sweet Potatoes 
Brussels Sprouts 



Mint Sauce 
Currant Jelly 

Cranberry Jelly 
Cranberry Sauce 
Chestnut Sauce 
Celery Sauce 
Mushroom Sauce 
Curry Sauce 
Oyster Sauce 

Cranberry Jelly or 
Cranberry Sauce 
Fresh, crisp Celery 
Sage Stuffing 
Chestnut Stuffing 
Oyster Stuffing 
Sausage Stuffing 

Suitable Combinations for Serving 





White Potatoes 





Brussels Sprouts 

Same vegetables that 
would be served with 
poultry. By many, 
onions are consid- 
ered essential, either 
boiled or as a souffle. 
Also Fried Hominy. 

Brown Giblet Gravy 
Apple Sauce 


A salad is more often 
served with wild duck 
than a vegetable. 
Salad greens simply 
dressed are to be pre- 
ferred, namely : 




Cress or 

Celery, or 

Orange Salads as : 

Orange and Cress 

Orange and Walnut 
on Lettuce 

Cumquat and En- 

Table Service 



Favorite Sauces are : 

Olive and Orange 
Jellies are : 

Currant and Plum 



Potato Croquettes 
French Fried Sweet 

String Beans 
French Peas 
Celery Croquettes 

Bread Sauce 

BROILED Same Vegetables as 

GUINEA for Roasted Guinea 

CHICKEN Chicken 

Currant Jelly 
Currant Jelly Sauce 



Serve on buttered toast 
or toast spread with 
a puree of cooked 
calPs liver moistened 
with sherry; or in a 
nest of chestnut 

Green salads or salads 
in which orange 
plays a prominent 

Suitable Combinations for Serving 




If served as the main 

course at luncheon, 

light vegetables such 


Fried Potato Balls 
Spinach in Puff Paste 

Asparagus on Toast 
String Beans 
French Peas 
If served for a game 

course, serve same as 


Potatoes Chantilly 
Creamed Potatoes 
Stuffed Baked Potatoes 
Escalloped Potatoes 
Beet Greens 
Brussels Sprouts 





Brussels Sprouts 

[I2 7 ] 

Currant Jelly 

Champagne Sauce 
Cider Sauce 

Apple Sauce 
Cider Apple Sauce 
Sauce Soubise 
Piquante Sauce 
Fried Apples 
Apple Croquettes 

Table Service 





White Potatoes 






String Beans 



White turnip 

Saratoga Potatoes 


Brown Gravy 
Sauce Soubise 

Currant Jelly 

French Fried Sweet Wild Plum Sauce 

Brussels Sprouts with 

Mushrooms in Brown 

Madeira Sauce 
French String Beans 
French Peas 



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