Frappe Table. FRONTISPIECE
LUCY G. ALLEN
OF THE BOSTON SCHOOL OF COOKERY
LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY
BY LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY.
All rights reserved
Set up and electrotyped by J . S. Cashing Co., Norwood, Mass. , U.S.A.
FANNIE MERRITT FARMER
THIS work has grown out of years of efficient,
practical teaching by Miss Allen in my school of
cookery, where it is to be used as a textbook in
table-service courses. It has been written in re-
sponse to the demand made by many pupils who
wished the knowledge placed in convenient form for
It is now offered to the larger circle of all home
lovers with the hope that it may help those who are
striving for the beauty of a well-ordered house and
of gracious service.
FANNIE MERRITT FARMER.
Miss FARMER'S SCHOOL OF COOKERY,
I. DUTIES, DRESS, AND REQUISITES OF A WAITRESS . . i
II. CARE OF DINING-ROOM. HARDWOOD FLOORS. WINDOWS.
ANSWERING TELEPHONE AND DOOR BELLS . . 4
III. EQUIPMENT OF BUTLER'S PANTRY. CARE OF PANTRY
SINK. WASHING DISHES. CARE OF SILVER AND
IV. REMOVAL OF STAINS 18
V. GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR LAYING THE TABLE. SPREAD-
ING TABLE-CLOTH. ARRANGEMENT OF COVERS . 24
VI. DIFFERENT KINDS OF SERVICE. GENERAL DIRECTIONS
FOR SERVING. PREPARATIONS FOR SERVING A MEAL.
CLEARING THE TABLE FOR DESSERT. CLEARING THE
TABLE AFTER A MEAL is FINISHED. ORDER OF
VII. LAYING THE TABLE FOR A HOME BREAKFAST AND SERV-
ING IN DETAIL 38
VIII. CARE AND SERVING OF FRUIT. GRAPEFRUIT ORANGES
MELONS STRAWBERRIES CURRANTS BA-
NANAS APPLES PINEAPPLES .... 44
IX. LAYING TABLE FOR A HOME DINNER AND SERVING IN
X. LAYING THE TABLE AND SERVING A HOME DINNER
WITHOUT A MAID 60
XI. LAYING THE TABLE FOR A FORMAL LUNCHEON AND
SERVING IN DETAIL 64
XII. FORMAL AND INFORMAL AFTERNOON TEAS. BUFFET
LUNCHEON AND EVENING SPREADS .... 73
XIII. LAYING THE TABLE FOR A FORMAL DINNER AND SERV-
ING IN DETAIL 81
XIV. SERVING OF WINES AND CORDIALS .... 90
XV. CHAFING-DISH SUPPERS. THE TABLE EQUIPMENT. LIST
OF FOODSTUFFS AND CHAFING-DISH COOKERY . 94
XVI. TRAY SERVICE. SERVING BUTTER IN VARIOUS FORMS 98
XVII. CARE OF SALAD GREENS. SERVING OF CHEESES AND
XVIII. NOTES ON CARVING no
XIX. SUGGESTIONS ON THE MAKING OF MENUS. ACCOM-
PANIMENTS TO THE SEVERAL COURSES. WHAT TO
SERVE WITH SOUP, FISH, MEATS, GAME, SALADS,
DESSERTS, ETC. . 115
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Frappe Table Frontispiece
Sideboard ........ 24
Placing of Luncheon Napkin 26
Formal Dinner Cover in Detail .... 26
Maid Removing Crumbs 34
Diagram of Breakfast Table 38
Table Laid for Breakfast, with First Course of Grape-
fruit in Place 40
Breakfast for Two Laid in Sun-Room, with First
Course of Orange Juice in Place ... 42
Pineapple Arranged for Serving .... 48
Oranges Arranged for Serving . .... 48
Apple Sliced for After-Dinner Service . . -52
Sliced Lemon, and Sliced Orange with Sprigs of
Mint for Afternoon Tea 52
Diagram of Table Laid for Home Dinner Without
Service of Maid 60
Luncheon Cover in Detail 64
List of Illustrations
Table Laid for Formal Luncheon with First Course of
Fruit in Place 68
Table Laid for Formal Tea 72
Informal Tea Service with Equipment for Making Tea 74
Informal Tea Service with Tea Made and Brought In 76
Diagram of a Buffet Table 80
Glasses for Wine 82
Glasses for Water 82
Tray Arranged for Breakfast 98
Tray Arranged for Luncheon 100
Butter Forms 102
Celery Cut Club Style 102
DUTIES, DRESS, AND REQUISITES OF A WAITRESS
THE duties of a waitress center around the serving
of meals. These duties should be performed in
such a manner that the service will be prompt,
orderly, unobtrusive, and with as much regard as
possible for the prevailing style. Other work that
she may be called upon to do will vary according to
the formality with which the household is conducted
and the number of servants employed. Where only
two maids, a cook and a waitress, are employed, the
latter is expected to attend to the duties of a second
maid, which include keeping in order other parts
of the house.
The requisites for a waitress are :
Medium height Cleanliness
Erectness of carriage Quietness
Lightness of foot Order
Quickness of motion
She should be alert, observing, and prompt in
all service. Absolute cleanliness of person and dress
is required under all circumstances.
In summer, her morning uniform should be a
white or light cotton gown, white apron, and soft
leather shoes which give the minimum of noise.
When serving dinner, she should wear a plain black
woolen gown with white collar and cuffs, and a small
fancy apron, unless it is the wish of her mistress that
her dress be wholly white. In extremely warm
weather, the white gown at dinner is preferable.
A cap may be worn, but the custom is not so general
In winter a waitress wears the white or light cotton
gown until after luncheon, unless there are guests
at that meal. If such is the case, she wears the black
gown. Some persons have made the pleasing inno-
vation of providing for their maids uniforms of gray
mohair, in place of the conventional black. A
waitress is expected to be dressed and ready to answer
the door-bell at three o'clock in the afternoon.
Another maid, or some member of the family, attends
to this duty between two and three o'clock.
The duties in regard to the service of meals are as
Care of dining-room and pantry.
Laying of table and serving-table.
Duties, Dress, and Requisites of a Waitress
Serving breakfast, luncheon, and dinner.
Washing table dishes.
Care of silver, glass, china, cutlery, and brasses.
Care of table linen.
Making butterballs, salads, and sandwiches.
Preparation of fruit.
Preparation of celery, radishes, olives, pickles,
jellies, relishes, and hors-d'oeuvres.
Preparation of cheeses.
Making and serving beverages.
Serving table waters and wines.
The waitress should see that the carving-knife
is sharpened before any meal for which it is required.
Under no circumstances should the sharpening be
done at the table.
CARE OF DINING-ROOM. HARDWOOD FLOORS.
WINDOWS. ANSWERING TELEPHONE AND
CARE OF DINING-ROOM
ONCE a week the room should be thoroughly
cleaned. Sweep hardwood floors with a soft hair
brush, then wipe with a long-handled dust-mop.
Clean soiled spots with turpentine applied with a
soft cloth. Never use water. Every day run the
carpet-sweeper or vacuum cleaner over the rug,
wipe the floor with a dry mop, and dust the room.
Place fresh water in all vases containing flowers.
After each meal remove any crumbs which may
have fallen to the floor and see that the room is
Give careful attention to the temperature and
ventilation of the dining-room. Bear in mind that
fresh air warms more quickly than impure air.
Before breakfast, air the room well, taking care
that it is warm before the meal is served. The
temperature of the dining-room should be higher
for breakfast than for any other meal, but this
Care of Dining -Table
is not always possible. The range of temperature
between 67 and 71 Fahrenheit is comfortable to
If an open fire is used for auxiliary heat, the wait-
ress should see that the fireplace is swept and cleaned,
and the fire relaid for the next lighting.
CARE OF DINING-TABLE
After each meal remove stains, if necessary, and
once a week rub the entire surface of the table. A
good polish is made from equal parts of raw linseed
oil, turpentine, and vinegar. Apply with a soft
cloth, then polish with a soft, dry, woolen cloth or
chamois, first rubbing across the grain and afterwards
with the grain. Do not neglect the sides and edges
of the table.
Many persons use a dull-finished table in prefer-
ence to one highly polished, as it not only shows wear
less and requires less care to keep it looking well,
but is also more beautiful. For a table in a country
house or in a household where service is limited, a
good treatment is the application of a very thin coat
of the best spar varnish. This should be put on by
some one who thoroughly understands the work.
A table so treated may be washed again and again,
and the surface always looks well.
CARE OF HARDWOOD FLOORS
The waxing and polishing of hardwood floors
would best be attended to by men who make it their
business. Directions are given, however, for those
who wish to have the work done by the household
Sweep the floor with a soft hair brush, then wipe
with a long-handled dust-mop. Clean soiled places
with turpentine applied with a soft cloth. Never
use water. Moisten a flannel cloth with the best
soft wax to be obtained and rub over the floor. Let
the floor remain in this condition an hour or more,
then polish with a weighted brush. Rub first across
the grain, then with the grain. When a slight luster
comes, cover the brush with a soft, woolen cloth
and rub in one direction only, until a high polish is
An application of spar varnish makes a floor more
durable, and is recommended for those receiving
hard usage, such as the floors of nurseries, kitchens,
and seashore or country dining-rooms. Floors fin-
ished in this way are not injured by water.
CARE OF BRUSH AND CLOTHS
The brush must be kept clean when not in use.
As a protection from dust, slip the brush into a
cotton bag made with a running-string. Once in
Care of Windows
two or three months clean the brush by washing in
tepid water to which ammonia has been added. Let
the brush soak half an hour, rinse, and dry in the
open air with the bristles down. When bristles are
worn out, a new brush may be bought to fit into the
Wash the cloths in hot water and washing soda
and rinse in two quarts of warm water, to which one
tablespoonful of linseed oil has been added to restore
the oil and keep the cloths soft.
Keep all materials used for oiling and polishing
in a covered jar or tin pail to avoid danger of fire
from spontaneous combustion.
CARE OF WINDOWS
In city houses, it is best to have the windows
washed by a man ; but the windows of a suburban
house can usually be washed by the maid, without
difficulty. First clean the woodwork before wash-
ing the glass, using wooden skewers in the corners.
Wash the glass with a cloth free from lint (a good
quality of cheese-cloth is best), wrung out of tepid
water. Rub dry with clean cloths which have ab-
sorbent qualities and polish with soft paper. Some
persons prefer a sponge and a chamois. In winter
it is desirable to add alcohol to the water used for
washing, as it prevents the water from freezing on
the glass. Never wash windows when the sun shines
on them, as the result will be a window glass with
streaks across it. It is best to wash windows on a
mild day. Whatever the temperature, the maid
should be well protected from exposure to the
When answering the door-bell, never open the
door grudgingly. Open it wide, yet use caution
against the intrusiveness of agents. The maid
should have within reach a small tray on which to
receive calling-cards. She should never take the
tray to the door. If the caller does not present a
card, the maid asks whom she shall announce. She
asks the caller to be seated in the reception-room and
then takes the card to her mistress or, if no card is
presented, announces the name.
Returning to the reception-room, she announces
that Mrs. Blank will be down very soon, unless Mrs.
Blank herself comes down as quickly as the maid
could return. If the person at the door be a mes-
senger, he should be offered a seat in the hall while
the maid attends to his errand.
If the maid answers the bell in the morning, while
about her work, she must have a clean white apron
conveniently placed so that she can put it on quickly.
Answering the Telephone
A point to be remembered is that the stairs in the
front part of the house are to be used by the maid
only in conveying communications between the
reception-room and the upper part of the house, and
are not for the maid's convenience in attending the
ANSWERING THE TELEPHONE
The telephone call should always be answered
promptly, pleasantly, and courteously. If the call
is for some person in the house at the time, the maid
asks: "What is the name, please?" If the call is
for some member of the household who is no at home,
the maid adds to her question : "May I take a mes-
sage?" If a message is given, the maid should re-
peat it, to be sure that it is correctly received, and
write it down then and there, using the block of paper
and pencil which should always be at the telephone.
To keep the telephone in sanitary condition, the
mouthpiece should be wiped with disinfectant daily.
EQUIPMENT OF BUTLER'S PANTRY. CARE OF
PANTRY SINK. WASHING DISHES. CARE OF
SILVER AND BRASS
THE BUTLER'S PANTRY
THE butler's pantry should be equipped with :
Strainers for punches, tea, and coffee.
Enamel ware pitchers for ice-water, punches,
Utensils and seasonings for salad making.
Vegetable brushes for cleaning celery and radishes.
Soft brushes for washing cut glass.
Materials for cleaning silver and cutlery.
Soap, ammonia, washing soda, and alcohol.
Matches in a tightly covered tin box.
rjardwood boards for use in cutting bread, meat,
Knives of various sizes.
Refuse can of galvanised iron with cover.
A dish drainer with a folded towel in bottom to
prevent the nicking of dishes.
Glass-towels, hand-towels, dish-wipers, dish-cloths,
The Butler's Pantry
cheese-cloths, and holders, neatly arranged in a
A receptacle for soiled table linen is necessary.
A hamper is best, if there is sufficient space ; if not,
a bag hung on the door is convenient. It is unwise
to place soiled table linen in a drawer, as the odor
of food which clings to it is an invitation to mice.
A towel rack is essential. If the arrangement of the
pantry does not permit the use of a rack which stands
upon the floor, have one screwed to the wall, high
enough and in such a position that one's head
would not be likely to brush against towels hanging
A useful article is a gas, hot-water, or electric
heater for heating dishes and for keeping food hot.
Dishes heated for the table in this way are less liable
to breakage than if they are sent to the kitchen;
then, too, the cook needs all the space she has at her
disposal. A waitress should bear in mind that hot
food should be served hot, and that heated plates
and serving dishes are necessary to accomplish this.
Yet china should be put into an oven only moder-
Certain cold dishes, such as ices and salads, should
be served as cold as possible, and the chilling of plates
and serving dishes assists in presenting them at the
right temperature. The ideal pantry should con-
tain a small ice-box for table butter, cream, and
The best arrangement for the keeping of table
linen is to have in the pantry a linen-closet with
shelves ; but, this convenience lacking, table linen
should be arranged neatly in drawers lined with white
paper. It is well to keep table-cloths in a drawer
by themselves. Fine cloths keep in much better
condition and make a better appearance upon the
table, if ironed with one central fold and then rolled.
Rolls for the purpose may be bought, or satisfactory
ones can be made of many thicknesses of heavy paper.
Never fold centerpieces ; keep flat or rolled. Ar-
range napkins in piles, according to size and design.
Arrange china and glass conveniently and taste-
fully. Hang cups on hooks which come for the pur-
pose, as space is thus economized, and the handles
are less liable to be broken. For the protection of
choice china, "plate savers" (round pieces of cotton
flannel) may be laid between the plates, as they are
piled. This lessens the danger of scratching and
THE PANTRY SINK
Keep the pantry sink in good condition and polish
the faucets often. Once a week, pour down the pipe
or sink drain a strong solution of sal-soda or cop-
peras. The former is preferable, as copperas stains.
Potash should never be used, as in combination with
the grease collected in the pipe, it tends to make
soap, thus clogging the pipe. Sal-soda is the safest
and best cleansing agent, and the proportion of one
cup of sal-soda to five quarts of hot water is gen-
Sort dishes before beginning to wash. See that
they are well cleaned, either by using a rubber scraper
which comes for the purpose, or by wiping with paper
napkins, which should be burned immediately. Be
careful to drain all tea and coffee grounds from cups
and pots. If the silver is collected and put into a
pitcher of water, the washing of it is simplified, and
it is kept by itself as it should be.
Two dish-pans, one for the washing of dishes and
one for hot rinsing water, make the best arrange-
ment, if there is sufficient space for them.
Never leave soap in the dish-pan. Make the water
soapy by using the soap-shaker. Dishes should be
washed in groups, beginning with those least soiled.
Wash and wipe one group of dishes before beginning
another. A few dishes only should be put into the
dish-pan at a time. When choice dishes are to be
washed, it is a good plan to lay in the bottom of the
dish-pan or pantry sink a folded Turkish towel;
then, if a treasured piece of china slips from the hand,
it falls on a soft substance. There is also a rubber
device which slips over the end of the faucet, and
lessens the liability of nicking dishes.
Wash the glasses first, previously rinsing in cold
water any glass which may have contained milk.
Under no condition should a cloudy glass appear
upon the table.
Delicate glass and china cannot be exposed to
extremes of heat and cold without risk of breakage.
The water in which fine china is washed should not
be too hot. Glass and china which are decorated
with gold should never be put into scalding water
or washed with strong soap, for soap will eat off even
pure gold. When two tumblers or glass dishes stick
together so that there is danger of breakage in get-
ting them apart, put cold water into the inner one
and hold the outer one in warm water, and they will
separate at once. For washing cut glass, use a soft
brush and, after wiping, place each piece on a soft,
dry towel. This precaution is necessary for dishes
of a deeply cut pattern, as the towel absorbs any
moisture which cannot be reached in wiping.
A great deal of expensive glass is broken through
ignorance. Most breakages result from taking a
dish out of a warm closet or room and immediately
placing in it something cold. If one tempers a cut
glass dish before using, the coldest substance may
be put into it without danger. To temper cut glass,
pour tepid water into the dish, then a little cold water,
next a few small pieces of ice, and then more pieces
of ice, until the temperature of the dish gradu-
ally approaches that of the substance it is to
Never allow handles of pearl, ivory, or bone to
stand, even for a moment, in water. Neglect of
this precaution tends to discolor and loosen the
handles. After the blades of steel knives are washed,
scour with Bath brick or emery-board.
Silver tarnished by egg should be cleaned as
soon as it is washed, never left until silver-cleaning
Wash water pitchers after each meal. If carafes
are used, they should be washed thoroughly twice a
week. Any sediment may be removed by using a
good soap powder and a small dish-mop. These
mops come in varying sizes for articles which have
small openings, such as carafes, bottles, vases, etc.
Wash the outside of the carafes with a small, stiff
brush. Cruets, mustard jars, and salt dishes should
be kept scrupulously clean. Diluted ammonia is
the effectual agent in the cleaning of vinegar
DIRECTIONS FOR THE CARE OF SILVER
Silver, if washed in plenty of soap and hot water
and rubbed dry with soft, clean towels each time it is
used, need not be cleaned oftener than once a month.
To clean silver, wash in hot suds and wipe dry.
The addition of borax softens the water; a good
proportion to use is one teaspoonful of borax to two
quarts of water. A silver-cleaning paste or soap,
bought of a reliable dealer, is the most satisfactory
cleansing agent. Either one should be applied with
a soft cloth, the silver wiped with a clean, soft cloth,
and polished with chamois. A soft brush will be
required for engraved, grooved, or chased work.
Silver cleaning-pans are liked by many, as the silver
is cleaned quickly and easily; but great caution
should be exercised in their use and they should
not be employed for the cleaning of plated ware.
The cleaning-pans give most gratifying results when
used for solid silver which has become badly tar-
nished from lack of use.
Silver should never be wrapped in bleached flannel,
as the sulphur which has been used in bleaching will
tarnish it. Unbleached cotton flannel or a French
tissue paper which is grass-bleached is best. A
small piece of camphor gum placed with silver when
it is put away will help to prevent tarnish. Rubber
must not be left near gold or silver. Rubber bands
around boxes in which silver is kept will cause the
metal to tarnish, owing to the sulphur in the rubber.
Acids clean brasses readily but cause them to
tarnish quickly. As nearly all patented prepara-
tions contain acids, the cleaning should be followed
by an application of whiting, which will neutralize
the action of the acid and preserve the surface from
corrosion. One can buy a brass polish giving satis-
factory results, or salt and vinegar may be used,
if care is taken to wash the article afterward in hot
water, then to polish with whiting and finish polish-
ing with a soft, dry towel. Brass and copper ar-
ticles, after being perfectly cleaned, retain their
brightness a long time when left in a dry atmosphere,
but when exposed to dampness, tarnish quickly;
at the seashore, therefore, a good treatment, after
cleaning, is a thin coating of white shellac, which
excludes the air and keeps brasses bright under
REMOVAL OF STAINS
ALL spots and stains should be dealt with while
fresh. The longer they are allowed to remain, the
more difficult will be their removal. The first thing
to remember about all stains is that the fundamental
treatment is the same to find some substance in
which the stain is soluble. If the right solvent is
not known, one employs wrong methods, and the
stain becomes "set" when it might have been re-
moved easily. Most stains are made permanent
by the use of hot water and soap. For this reason
it is best to treat a stain before washing. Stains
are much more easily removed from white than
colored materials, as many of the best solvents which
remove stains also remove color.
Stains which call for the use of boiling water may
be more easily removed if the cloth containing the
stained part is stretched tight in an embroidery
frame, then placed over a basin and the boiling water
Removal of Stains
Reagent Method of Removal
Cold water and ivory Wash in soap and
soap with cold raw water and cover
starch. with a paste of
starch and water.
Blotting paper and
Borax with cold and
Place paper on spot
and rub with hot
Sprinkle the stain
with borax. Soak
in cold water.
Use boiling water
as for coffee.
Pour from a height
Wash while fresh.
(Applies to any
stain, but particu-
larly to milk and
Same as for coffee.
(Peach and pear
Wash in soap and
ammonia and cold
water at once.
Reagent Method of Removal
There is an ink eradi-
cates on the
market that is
on white goods.
Or use milk (sweet Soak in milk, or in
or sour) ; salt and salt and lemon
lemon ; water juice.
and chloride of
Lemon and salt ; on- Spread a cloth over
galine, or oxalic a bowl containing
acid. one quart warm
water and one
Apply acid drop
by drop until stain
lightens, then dip
in water in bowl;
or dampen with
cold water, salt,
and lemon juice.
Spread in sun and
keep moist with
Cold water and soap. Wash first in cold
water, then in soap
and cold water.
Removal of Stains
Character of Reagent
MEDICINE STAINS Alcohol.
Same as cream.
Lemon j trice and sun-
Or a paste of soap,
lemon, starch, and
Or chloride of lime.
Method of Removal
Soak in alcohol.
Wash while fresh.
(Applies to any
stain, but particu-
larly to milk and
Cover with lemon
juice and put in
sunshine. Make a
paste of soft soap,
juice of one lemon,
salt ; let remain on
spot 48 hours ;
spread on grass
Make second ap-
plication if neces-
sary or soak in
solution of one
ride lime in four
quarts of water
till mildew disap-
several times in
Reagent Method of Removal
Benzine or turpen-
Rub stain with
Rub stain while
fresh on wrong
side of garment.
Do not have to wet
it. The quicker
it is treated the
Glycerine and boil- Spread stained part
ing water. over bowl. Pour
on glycerine, then
Blotting paper and
Place paper on spot
and rub with hot
iron, changing the
AND STREET OIL
Lard and boiling Rub lard well into
water. grease spot. Pour
boiling water over
the spot to remove
wash in very hot
Removal of Stains
Method of Removal
Yellow laundry soap
Wet the stain with
strong suds made
of hard, yellow,
Then coat the
stain very thickly
starch; and lay it
in the sun. After
one good sun-bath
of two hours or so,
the stain should
disappear. If it
Cover as soon as
possible with a
thick layer of salt.
Then treat as for
After using acids, always wash cloth out in ammonia or borax
Or use salt and
boiling water, or
salt and boiling
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR LAYING THE TABLE.
SPREADING TABLE-CLOTH. ARRANGEMENT OF
THE center of the dining-table should be directly
under the central light, unless this position would
not permit the waitress to pass between the table
and the sideboard. For dinner, lay the silence cloth
upon the table. This cloth may be double-faced
cotton flannel, knitted table padding, or an asbestos
pad ; the latter may be obtained in various sizes.
The first two launder well ; the last is easily handled
and may be protected from soiling by the use of linen
covers, which can be bought to fit the pads. The
table-cloth appears to best advantage when ironed
with few folds, which must be straight. A table-
cloth should be unfolded on the table, not opened
and thrown over it, as the latter method tends to
crumple the cloth. The center fold of the cloth must
form a true line through the center of the table,
having the four corners at equal distances from the
floor. The cloth never should hang less than nine
inches on all sides below the edge of the table.
General Directions for Laying the Table
Place the centerpiece directly in the center of the
table, taking care that the thread of the linen runs
in the same direction as the thread of the cloth.
Place in center of this a fern dish, growing plant,
dish of fruit, or cut flowers. This is the conventional
arrangement to be varied by individual taste. The
decoration varies in elaborateness with the meal
served, but whatever the arrangement, it should be
either so low or so high that an unobstructed view
may be had across the table.
Lay the covers, allowing twenty-four to thirty
inches from plate to plate. A " cover" consists of
the plates, glasses, silver, and napkin to be used by
each person. The covers on opposite sides of the
table should be directly opposite each other, not out
of line. Mark the position of the covers by laying
the service or place plates, which should be not less
than ten inches in diameter. In laying a bare table,
the covers are marked by the plate doilies. A ser-
vice plate is laid for each person, one inch from the
edge of the table ; this plate remains upon the table
until it is necessary to replace it with a hot plate.
Next, lay the silver, which should always be placed
in the order in which it is to be used, beginning at
the outside and using toward the plate. Silver for
the dessert course is never put on with the silver
required for the other courses, except for the dinner
which is served without a maid, when everything
should be done to avoid the necessity of leaving the
table. Neither is the table set with more than three
forks. If more are required, they are placed with
their respective courses. Either bring the salad or
dessert silver in on the plate, or place it from a nap-
kin or tray at the right, from the right, after the
plate is placed. Some persons object to the first-
named method, on account of the possible noise.
The knife or knives are to be placed at the right of
the plate, half an inch from the edge of the table,
with the cutting edge toward the plate. Place
spoons, with the bowls facing up, at the right of the
knife; and forks, with the tines turned upward, at
the left of the plate. The spoon for fruit or the small
fork for oysters or hors-d'oeuvres is placed at the
extreme right or on the plate containing this course.
This statement does not include the serving of oys-
ters or clams on the shell ; then the fork is always
found at the right.
Place the napkin, preferably flat and squarely
folded, at the left of the forks. The hem and selvage
of the napkin should be parallel with the forks and
the edge of the table, this position bringing the
embroidered letter, if there be one, in the right place.
Napkins are sometimes given additional folds to
Placing Luncheon Napkin.
^*. ^*~S \A/*+f
.0 O'o :: - -^
... .Service plaia
Formal Dinner Cover in Detail
General Directions for Laying the Table
Place the water glass at the point of the knife ;
the bread-and-butter plate above the service plate,
a little to the left ; and the butter spreader across
the upper, right-hand side of the bread-and-butter
plate, with the blade turned toward the center of
the plate. At first-class hotels the butter spreader
is often found at the right with the other knives, but
this is not consistent with home table service. Place
all the silver, china, and glass required for one cover
as close together as possible, without having the
pieces touch or appear crowded. The whole table
and the cover itself has a much neater appearance
if the cover is compact, not loosely spread. Salt
and pepper sets are to be placed between each two
covers. If an open salt cellar is used, place the salt-
spoon across the top or on the cloth beside it.
When the table is being laid for a supper or a
spread where no knife is required, place the fork at
the right, as it is to be used in the right hand and
there is sufficient space for it there. A teaspoon,
if called for, would be at the right of the fork.
The table laid, the chairs are placed. They should
not be too near the table, neither entirely away from
it, but where they can be used with slight exertion.
The sideboard was used formerly to hold all extras
required during the serving of a meal. The serving-
table has taken its place, while the sideboard is used
for decorative purposes only, usually holding choice
pieces of silver. The size of the serving-table deter-
mines how much or how little shall be arranged upon
it, and what shall be in the pantry in readiness for
use. A screen is desirable in the dining-room to
shield a person at the table from the draughts of a
swing door, as well as to shut off the view of the
pantry interior. If the tight door is used, fasten it
back during the serving of a meal and place the
screen, which is then even more necessary. Greater
care must be taken in the latter case that no sound of
voice or preparation shall be heard from the pantry.
DIFFERENT KINDS OF SERVICE. GENERAL DI-
RECTIONS FOR SERVING. PREPARATIONS FOR
SERVING A MEAL. ANNOUNCING A MEAL.
CLEARING THE TABLE FOR DESSERT. CLEAR-
ING THE TABLE AFTER A MEAL IS FINISHED.
ORDER OF SERVING
DIFFERENT KINDS OF SERVICE
THERE are three forms of service, the English, the
Russian, and the Mixed. The last, as its name
indicates, is a compromise between the other two.
When deciding how much or how little form is to be
used in the serving of meals, one must first take into
consideration the number of servants employed as
well as one's personal preferences.
The English service is the most practical where
help in table service is limited, as all the food be-
longing to one course is placed in suitable dishes
before the host, hostess, or some other member of
the family, and served from the table.
The Russian service is "from the side" and is in
use entirely for formal dinners and luncheons. It is
in use also for all meals by those who care for form
and have the servants to conduct it well. The
plates are placed, empty, for the successive courses,
and all the food is passed, attractively arranged on
suitable dishes, from which each person helps him-
self; or the food may be arranged on individual
plates and placed before each person, although this
is not the best form of the service.
The combination of the two forms results in the
Mixed service, in which some of the courses are
placed upon the table in the English way, while
others are served from the side in the Russian style.
For example, the soup may be placed (Russian), the
meat carved at the table by the host (English),
the vegetables passed by the waitress (Russian), the
salad served by the hostess (English), or passed by
the waitress (Russian), and the dessert served by
the hostess (English).
GENERAL DIRECTIONS AND PREPARATIONS FOR
Special watchfulness of each person's needs in the
dining-room is expected of a waitress. No person
should be obliged to ask for bread, butter, rolls, or
water. An attentive maid keeps these supplied.
During the progress of a meal she should speak only
The cook and the waitress should be furnished with
Directions and Preparations for Serving
menus of the meals for each day. The service will
be much smoother than if they are obliged to rely
upon their memory.
If the English service is used, the maid should lay
out one more plate for each course than there are
people at the table; this is used for the working
Before serving a meal, the maid should have ar-
ranged in groups, on the serving-table or in the
pantry, the serving silver required for that meal,
also all the silver required for a single cover. Then, if
some piece is accidentally dropped by a person at the
table, it can be quickly and unobtrusively replaced.
The waitress should have, within easy reach, a
soft napkin, which she can bring to absorb any liquid
which may be overturned. The spot should then
be covered with a fresh doily or napkin. She should
have at hand, also, a heavy, damp, woolen cloth to
use in case of accidents, such as candle-shades taking
fire, or the lamp of the tea-kettle or the chafing-dish
burning beyond control. Under no circumstances
should the maid carry out the flaming article, for it
is dangerous to attempt to move it. The flame
should be smothered.
No sound of a voice or of running water or noise
of any kind should come from the pantry, while
people are at the table.
Be sure that all plates and dishes which should
be heated are heated, and all dishes for serving ices
and salads and cold desserts are chilled.
In arranging the various .plates for the courses,
have in mind the color combinations of food on deco-
rated china, and select the china which will har-
monize best with the food to be served.
Always place a linen doily in a plate to be used for
bread, rolls, crackers, sandwiches, or cakes. Paper
doilies are not good form, unless it is necessary to use
a doily with food which would be damaging to a
Avoid filling cups and glasses to the brim. Do
not lift a glass to refill it; if it is difficult to refill,
on account of the closeness of the covers, draw the
glass out on the cloth to a position near the edge of
the table where it can be filled easily. Move the
glass by placing the hand near the bottom, never
over the top.
ANNOUNCING A MEAL
Before announcing a meal, the waitress should
see that all doors and drawers are closed, all shades
properly drawn, and all necessary articles for the
serving of the meal at hand.
Two minutes before a meal is announced fill each
water glass two thirds full of water and set a form of
butter upon each bread-and-butter plate.
Announcing a Meal
In announcing a meal, it is sufficient for the maid
to appear at the door of the drawing-room, standing
in silence for her mistress to recognize her presence ;
or she may announce the meal by the formula
"Dinner is served" " Luncheon is served." If the
family is large and scattered, she may use a Japanese
gong as a summons, but only for the informal meal.
A formal luncheon or dinner is always announced
by the waitress in person. Breakfast is announced
according to the preference of the hostess; some-
times at the chamber doors, sometimes by the Japan-
ese gong, or by personal announcement, if the family
is assembled in one room.
A maid should pass, serve, and place everything
from the left, except beverages and extra silver, which
are served or placed at the right, from the right.
Place and remove plates, one at a time. To facili-
tate service, it is permissible to bring two plates of
food (soup or salad particularly) to the dining-room,
placing one on the serving-table and the other on
the dining-table ; returning to the serving-table for
the second plate rather than to the pantry saves
time and steps.
In exchanging or placing plates, the hand should
grasp the edge of the plate, never allowing the thumb
to be placed over the rim. See that the rims of all
plates and the bottoms of all serving dishes are clean
before taking them to the table. When placing or
removing one plate, always use the left hand. If
removing and placing at the same time, use the left
hand for the plate containing food which might be
spilled if the elbow were jostled, and use the right
hand for the empty plate or the one containing food
less likely to spill.
When presenting any dish containing food, have
a squarely folded dinner napkin on the palm of the
left hand, under the dish. Have the serving silver
placed on the dish in a position convenient for the
person to be served ; this silver should be arranged
in the pantry, not as the dish is being presented.
Two pieces of silver, placed one at either end of
platter, are essential in most cases for the best service.
Hold the serving dish firmly and low, and near the
person to be served. Hold it in the left hand and
if too heavy for one hand, steady or balance it
with the right hand on the edge of the dish. Stand
slightly back of chair and keep as far away from the
person being served as is consistent with good ser-
vice. Close contact should be avoided.
Always pass the most important accompaniment
to a course first and others in the order of their im-
The folded napkin is used under all dishes con-
taining food to be served. The napkin is not used
Clearing the Table for Dessert
when placing or exchanging plates, or in removing
from the table dishes containing food. The serving
tray is used principally when it is necessary to pass
or remove two or more small articles, such as cream
and sugar, or salts and peppers. The tray should
be fitted with a linen doily, which helps to keep the
articles from sliding.
In clearing the table for another course, remove
all dishes containing food, not taking the silver from
them ; first of all the platter or principal dish, plac-
ing the carving-knife and fork side by side on the
platter, if the carver has not already done so ; next,
the soiled plates and silver ; and last, all clean china
and silver which were not used.
Bread-and-butter plates remain upon the table
until after the salad course. Salted nuts, bonbons,
and all water and wine-glasses remain upon the
table to the end of the meal. In some sections of
the country, it is customary to remove the wine-
glasses as each course of wine is finished. The
disadvantage of this custom is the fact that persons
who care for only one kind of wine during dinner
CLEARING THE TABLE FOR DESSERT
In clearing the table for dessert, remove any rel-
ishes which may have been upon the table, the
bread-and-butter plates, and the salts and peppers ;
that is the only time during the meal that a person
is left without a plate before him. Remove the
crumbs from the table, using a small napkin and a
decorated plate for the purpose. The use of a doily
in the plate depends upon individual preference.
CLEARING THE TABLE AFTER A MEAL IS FINISHED
After a meal is over, set the chairs back in their
places, then brush up the crumbs which may have
fallen to the floor, lest they be trodden into the rug.
In clearing a breakfast or tea-table where there has
been no change of courses, remove the glasses and
silver first. Put any food that is to be saved on
small dishes to be set away. Scrape the table
dishes, empty and rinse the cups, and neatly pack
together those of a kind, near where they are to be
washed. Brush the crumbs from the cloth or table,
remove doilies, or fold the cloth in its creases, and
put away carefully.
ORDER OF SERVING
The order of serving depends largely upon the
wishes of the hostess and the occasion.
Serve first the hostess or the guest of honor, then
the next person to the right around the table in suc-
cession, whether a man or a woman.
Order of Serving
The majority of persons prefer serving the hostess
first, and there are advantages in doing so. It
enables her to see if the dish has been properly pre-
pared and provided with suitable serving silver.
Also, if the course is unusual or puzzling, the guest,
by observing the hostess, may learn how to serve
At a formal dinner, two waitresses are usually in
attendance. One begins with the woman guest of
honor at the right of the host and serves to the right.
The other starts with the hostess and continues
around the table to the right, ending with the host.
This method of service gives one of the maids more
persons to serve than the other.
LAYING THE TABLE FOR A HOME BREAKFAST
AND SERVING IN DETAIL
THE HOME BREAKFAST
THE American breakfast has become a much
simpler meal than in years past. The light menu
generally used consists of fruit, followed by cereal,
then the main dish, which may be eggs (cooked in
various ways), bacon, or broiled or creamed fish,
always with hot rolls, muffins, or toast, and coffee.
Some persons prefer tea or cocoa. The Continental
custom of serving honey or marmalade has been
Directions in detail follow for laying the table,
and serving, English style, a simple menu.
LAYING THE TABLE
The practice of using the bare table with doilies
is growing in popularity. The principal reasons are
the saving in laundry and the fresher appearance
of the table. The luncheon set is in almost univer-
sal use at breakfast and luncheon, the table-cloth
still being used at dinner.
Diagram of Breakfast Table.
Laying the Table
First, rub the table-top with a soft cloth and place
the centerpiece. Upon the centerpiece place what-
ever form of decoration one cares to use. Then
mark the covers by placing the plate doilies. On
each doily place the service plate. At the right of
each service plate place a knife and, at the right of
the knife, a spoon for the cereal ; at the left of the
plate, a fork; at the left of the fork, the napkin.
Place the water glass on a small doily matching
the plate doily and centerpiece, at the point of the
knife. Lay the bread-and-butter plate on a small
doily at the tip of the fork. Place the butter spreader
across the upper, right-hand side of the plate. Di-
rectly in front, at the head of the plate, place a doily,
and on that a finger-bowl one third full of tepid water.
Place salt and pepper sets, each set on a small doily,
between each two covers.
In front of the mistress place the coffee service.
This will necessitate slight changes in the cover laid
for her use.
One of the most attractive arrangements is the
large, silver tray holding coffee urn, hot-water pot,
creamer, and sugar-bowl with sugar-tongs, a bowl
for the water which has been used to heat the cups,
and as many cups and saucers as the tray will ac-
commodate. Be sure that the teaspoon is on the
right-hand side of the saucer, the handle of spoon
parallel to the handle of cup. If there is not room
for all the cups required, the maid should bring from
the serving-table to her mistress, a fresh cup, when
she takes from her a full cup. The silver coffee-pot
may be used in place of the urn. Some persons
choose the Russian samovar, of course selecting a
tray to match, with creamer and sugar-bowl of luster
ware or china harmonious in coloring. A simpler
service is to place at the hostess's right a coffee-
pot on a tile, and to arrange the accompanying
hot-water pot, the creamer, and the sugar-bowl in
a half circle in front of her, with the cups and saucers
inside the semicircle. Or the percolator may be put
on in the same way, and either silver or china or
glass, as one prefers, used for the remainder of the
service. If a coffee-pot is used, it should be scalded
before it is filled.
A hostess should ask a guest at table his prefer-
ences as to cream and sugar ; those of the family she
is supposed to know. It is important that cream and
sugar be put into the cup before pouring the coffee.
The flavor is quite different and not satisfactory to
the coffee drinker if the coffee is poured into the cup
and the sugar and cream passed.
See that all doors and drawers are shut, shades
properly drawn, and screen placed. After filling
glasses with water, and placing butter upon the
Serving the Breakfast in Detail
bread-and-butter plate, place upon the service plate
a fruit plate containing the prepared half of a grape-
fruit. The spoon for the grapefruit may be at the
extreme right beside the spoon for cereal or prefer-
ably, on the plate with the grapefruit. After attend-
ing to the service of water and butter, as the last
thing, light the alcohol lamp under the urn or hot-
water kettle, if one is used, and then announce break-
fast in the manner the mistress prefers.
SERVING THE BREAKFAST IN DETAIL
Dropped Eggs on Toast with Rasher of Bacon
I. Remove fruit plate (right hand) and finger-bowl
and doily together (left hand).
II. Place individual cereal dish on service plate (left
III. Pass serving dish containing cereal with serving
spoon in dish (left hand, napkin).
IV. Pass cream and sugar (tray), sugar-spoon, when
presented to the first person, upon the tray be-
side the bowl. Have handle of pitcher and
handle of spoon for sugar in a position convenient
for the person served.
V. Remove service plate with individual cereal dish
(left hand) and place warm plate (right hand).
Soiled plates should be removed to the pantry,
not to the serving-table. Warm plates may be
brought from the pantry or taken one by one
from the serving-table, if previously placed
VI. Place serving silver for eggs and bacon (right side,
right hand, napkin or tray).
VII. Place asbestos mat, fitted with linen cover, in front
of host (left side, left hand).
VIII. Place platter containing eggs and bacon before
IX. Bring warm plate (right hand) and place before
host after taking up (left hand) filled plate.
X. Place filled plate (left hand) before person to be
served, removing first (right hand) warm one
already there, which take to host for serving, and
proceed as before until all are served.
XI. Take cup of coffee from mistress (left hand), change
to right hand, and place (right side). Be sure
that cup is placed so that the handle may be taken
XII. Repeat in same manner until all are served. If
tray or space before mistress is not large enough
for all cups needed, after placing a filled cup go
to serving-table for fresh cup (right hand), and
Serving the Breakfast in Detail
place before mistress when the next filled cup is
taken (left hand).
The person who pours usually hands the filled
cup to the waitress, but the maid herself should
place and take up all plates and other dishes
containing food, such as cereal, salad, dessert, etc.
XIII. Pass plate of toast (napkin).
XIV. Pass marmalade in small dish with spoon in dish
CARE AND SERVING OF FRUIT. GRAPEFRUIT -
ORANGES MELONS STRAWBERRIES CUR-
RANTS BANANAS APPLES PINEAPPLES
ALL fruit has been exposed to dust, dirt, or han-
dling and should be made clean when brought from
market or garden. Pears and apples, if cleansed
by rubbing, will take a high polish, which adds to
their beauty. Peaches should be brushed or wiped
carefully. Grapes should be washed, thoroughly
drained, and the imperfect ones removed, just before
serving. Some persons do not approve of washing
berries, but berries and other small fruits (especially
those that are received through city markets) harbor
insects and other impurities that only washing will
remove. The best way to wash berries is to put
them into a large bowl of cold water and splash them
about, repeating the process with fresh water till
the berries are free from sand and dirt. By this
method, the sand settles to the bottom of the bowl,
whereas if the berries are placed in a colander or
sieve, all the sand does not wash through, but more
or less lodges on the fruit.
Care and Serving of Fruit
It is often advisable to buy fruit in large quantities :
oranges and grapefruit by the box or half box, apples
by the barrel, bananas by the bunch, etc. They
should be kept in a cool place, the drier the better
and looked over often, using those first which ripen
first. Pears picked green and put into a dark place
for ripening do not change all at once, but some be-
fore others, and therefore need frequent inspection.
There is a difference of opinion as to whether or
not fruit should be chilled before serving. Some
epicures think that the flavor of fruit is spoiled by
chilling; but, in the summer time especially, fruit
that is cool is refreshing to most persons.
Much taste may be shown in arranging fruits for
the table. There is a large variety in size, shape,
and design of china, silver, glass, and basket recep-
tacles which are made for holding fruits. Some in
glass and silver are designed to hold both fruit and
When possible, leaves from the tree or bush upon
which the fruit was grown, should be put on the dish
beneath the fruit. Grape leaves under small clusters
of grapes, peaches, and plums, give a bit of cool
color and fill in awkward spaces. In the fall, when
clematis becomes dried, its soft fluffiness gives an
attractive touch to a dish of fruit.
When using pumpkins made into bowl or basket
shape for the fruit dish, as is often done for Thanks-
giving dinners, the vine fills in the spaces gracefully
The most popular fruit and the one longest in
season is the grapefruit. For breakfast it is served
in a simple manner; but for luncheon or dinner it
may be combined with cordials or suitable garnishes
and be made as elaborate as desired. In preparing
grapefruit for breakfast, wipe with cheese-cloth
wrung out of cold water, cut in halves crosswise (not
from end to end) and with a sharp, thin-bladed
knife remove seeds, then cut around pulp within each
section of the fruit, except the outside next rind ;
cut this last of all, severing the membrane where it
joins the rind, and cutting to the bottom of the fruit.
Next, cut the core from the bottom of the grapefruit,
and pull the core upwards ; it should bring with it
the skin between sections of the pulp, leaving pulp
undisturbed in its place. Holding pulp down on one
side with the flat side of the knife and pulling one
side at a time greatly helps in removing the mem-
brane. One must be careful in preparing grapefruit
in this way to avoid too much pressure. It should
be handled lightly, otherwise much juice escapes,
and the fruit is not pleasing in appearance. The
halves of grapefruit are now sprinkled with sugar
or the sugar may be passed, as some persons consider
Care and Serving of Fruit
it more wholesome in the natural state. Grapefruit is
not at its best when prepared the night before serving,
but it is quite desirable that it stand in an ice-box
from ten to fifteen minutes if sugar is served on it.
Grapefruit is served at luncheon or dinner either
as a first or as a dessert course. When grapefruit
is to be served in either of these ways, prepare as
already mentioned or carefully remove the sections
and serve in glasses which come for the purpose, or
in sherbet or champagne glasses. Various cordials
are used for flavoring, and some garnishes answer
the purpose of flavoring as well. The Maraschino
cherry is the most common of these ; another is Bar
le Due currants, either red or white, a spoonful
placed over the fruit or in the center cavity ; cubes
of apple-mint jelly with grapefruit make a combina-
tion pleasing to eye and palate ; candied fruits may
be chopped fine and sprinkled over grapefruit;
whipped cream, sweetened and flavored with Maras-
chino cordial, may be put on the fruit with pastry
bag and tube, and the cream garnished with candied
violets or cherries. When serving the grapefruit
in its skin, select bright yellow, smooth fruit.
Halves of grapefruit are arranged for individual
service on small plates, usually covered with a lace
paper doily. Lycopodium moss makes an attractive
mat and garnish for the fruit, as it gives a soft, light
effect and gracefully fills in the space between fruit
The two most popular ways of preparing oranges
ist. Wipe and serve fruit whole. Each person
eats in the way he chooses, either cutting in halves
crosswise and using the orange-spoon, or peeling and
separating the fruit into sections.
2nd. Wipe fruit, cut in halves crosswise, and ex-
tract juice, using a glass lemon squeezer. Serve in
small glasses two-thirds full. The glasses filled with
the juice are set on small doily-covered plates, placed
in position on the service plate before breakfast is
Other suggestions are given which, though not
practical for the breakfast table, are helpful in
planning for tray service.
ist. Wipe orange, peel, remove fruit in sections,
and free from skin and seeds, preserving shape.
Arrange on small plate around a mound of confec-
2nd. Select and wipe large, firm oranges. Cut
lengthwise through the skin of fruit in eight equal
sections, from blossom end to within one inch of
stem end. Then peel back, tucking each point under
to represent petals. Leave the orange pulp whole,
or partly separate sections.
Pineapple Arranged for Serving.
Oranges Arranged for Serving.
Care and Serving of Fruit
3rd. Wipe and remove the peel from an orange in
such a way that an inch-wide band remains around
the center at equal distance from stem and blossom
ends. Cut the band across once, separate sections,
but do not remove them from the band, and arrange
around a mound of sugar.
4th. Wipe and prepare orange in the same way as
with band and separated sections ; cut the band
once and turn so as to leave the sections outside;
fasten band together with a small skewer (wooden
toothpick) to make a circle.
Melons are served either for the "beginning" or
the "finish" of a meal. Small melons should be
washed, wiped, chilled, and cut in halves, from stem
to blossom end. Remove seeds and objectionable
stringy portion, and serve to each person half a
melon placed on a small plate (with or without
paper doily). Pass sugar on a tray, and salt and
pepper also, if they are not on the table between
every two covers. The flavor is preserved if the
melon is perfectly chilled, but is lessened or destroyed
if pieces of ice are served in it.
Watermelon should be very cold and may be
served in a variety of ways. If a melon is served
with the rind on, wipe, cut in halves, and trim the
rounded end of each half so that it may stand flat
and firm on the serving dish. Then the host may
remove the red portion with a large spoon, in egg-
shaped pieces, and place on individual plates. The
melon may be cut in the pantry in slices three inches
thick ; then the rind cut off in circular pieces, and the
edible center (rounds of pink pulp) removed to a
chop plate or silver platter of ample size. To serve,
cut in wedge-shaped pieces. Another way is to re-
move the pink center of the melon in the pantry with
a spoon, in egg-shaped pieces, and arrange on a large
glass or silver dish, with cracked ice. A few green
leaves or a few sprigs of mint may add to the attrac-
tiveness of the dish.
Choice, large strawberries should be served with
the hulls on, after gently cleaning the fruit with a
soft brush (butter brush). They may be piled in
pyramid shape on a dish, and sugar passed with them,
or they may be served on individual plates around
a small mound of sugar. The mound is made by
pressing confectioner's sugar into a cone-shaped
utensil of the size desired and then unmolding it in
the center of the plate. A pastry tube is of the right
size and shape ; sometimes a cordial glass and again
forms of stiff paper may be used. If the sugar has
been pressed firmly into the cone, and the lower
edge of the mold tapped on the plate directly where
it is to be placed, it will hold its shape, unless handled
or shaken roughly. Small galax leaves, with stems
Care and Serving of Fruit
removed, fitted into one another and placed on the
plate to form a mat, make a good color background
for this fruit, if one cannot obtain strawberry leaves.
Miniature market baskets, obtained at a caterer's
or confectioner's, may be filled with the berries and
placed on the individual plate. (
Currants on the stems should be washed, drained,
and arranged for serving on a dish, preferably glass,
and sugar passed. Large currants should be removed
from stem and washed, then put into a dish with
granulated sugar, and shaken until the currants are
covered with the sugar. This should be done only
just before serving. White and red currants served
together make a pleasing effect. Small fruits like
currants, blackberries, and raspberries may be served
with a little crushed ice ; this is much appreciated on
a hot day, and these fruits, being highly flavored,
bear the slight dilution the melting ice gives.
Cherries may be served on the stems, or stemmed and
pitted and served in individual dishes with sugar
and crushed ice.
Grape scissors are essential when bunches of
grapes are served.
Whole bananas with skins left on are served at
breakfast, or they may be peeled, sliced, and sugar
and cream passed, or peeled, sliced, and sprinkled
with lemon juice and sugar.
Apples are not often served peeled, as the pulp
discolors so quickly; but if prepared nicely, they
make a pleasing finish to a heavy dinner. Select
large, perfect apples and keep them in the ice-box
for several hours before serving. Immediately before
they are to be used, peel, and cut in slices an eighth
of an inch thick from stem to blossom end, be-
ginning at the outside and working toward the core.
Arrange the slices on a flat glass dish with serving
fork and pass as the last course.
Pineapple, when prepared in the simplest way, is
shredded, sprinkled with sugar, and served from a
large dish. To shred pineapple, pare and cut out
eyes. Pick off* pieces with a silver fork, continuing
until all the soft part is removed. It can be made
to look more attractive, however, by serving in other
ist. Cut a slice from both top and bottom of a
large pineapple, then cut off the rind in four pieces,
leaving a pyramid. Cut the pyramid in half-inch
slices, crosswise, leaving in original shape. Serve
2nd. Pare and remove eyes from pineapples. Then
cut in half-inch slices crosswise. Remove hard cen-
ters, using a small biscuit cutter, thus leaving fruit
in rings. Arrange rings, overlapping each other,
in a round serving dish, and sprinkle with granu-
Apples Sliced for After Dinner Service.
Sliced Lemon and Sliced Orange with Sprigs of Mint
for Afternoon Tea.
Care and Serving of Fruit
lated sugar. Leaves from the top of the pineapple
make an attractive garnish. One may be slipped
through each ring with pleasing effect.
3rd. Pare and remove eyes from pineapple. Then
cut crosswise in slices one inch thick. Cut these
slices in halves and arrange them on a serving dish,
straight side down, radiating from a bunch of mint.
4th. Clean thoroughly a selected pineapple. Each
eye has a distinct outline, about an inch in diameter.
With a sharp, pointed knife, cut on this outline to-
ward the center of the fruit, and with a fork detach
and remove the cone-shaped pieces. Arrange pieces
on individual plates around mounds of sugar. They
may be eaten easily with the fingers, as the outside
skin remains on.
LAYING TABLE FOR A HOME DINNER AND
SERVING IN DETAIL
THE HOME DINNER WITH MIXED SERVICE
THE following menu is chosen to illustrate the
home dinner service, not so much that it is attractive
in itself, as that it gives an opportunity for varied
service, that is, the use of the side dish, which is
never seen at a formal dinner, and of a small dish,
set in a plate, for the dessert.
Clam Soup Crisp Crackers
Sirloin Roast of Beef with Franconia Potatoes
Graham Bread Sandwiches
Crackers and Cheese Demi-tasse
LAYING HOME DINNER-TABLE
Lay the silence cloth, the table-cloth, the center-
piece, and the decoration, and follow the general
Laying Home Dinner-Table
directions for laying the table and serving given in a
preceding chapter. Place for this dinner the service
plate, a knife, a spoon for the corn, and a soup spoon ;
two forks, one for meat and one for salad; water
glass, bread-and-butter plate with spreader, napkin,
and salts and peppers. The carving cloth, if used,
is placed now. It is not always desired, but it
protects the cloth from the spatters which are un-
avoidable in carving, and the particles of crisp fat
which are apt to fly. It may be an oblong tray
cloth, a carving cloth with opening for asbestos mat,
or a dinner napkin.
It is as important that the maid prepare and lay
out all necessary dishes, silver, and serving napkins
that will be required during the meal as that she
forget nothing in laying the table. A delay in the
service which is caused by hunting for some piece of
needed serving silver is unpardonable.
When a maid serves from the table, she should
always provide one plate more than the number of
persons to be served, as this is necessary to work
If a salad is served with the meat course, place it
on the right side, from the right. This is one of the
very few exceptions to the rule of "placing everything
from the left except beverages and extra silver."
After passing vegetables, take them to the kitchen
to be kept warm, the mistress ringing if a second
helping is needed.
If the dining-room has no electric table-bell, for
the best service the waitress should remain in the
dining-room, when her duties do not require her
presence in the pantry.
Some persons prefer the conventional method of
having the serving silver placed on the table before
the dish to be served is brought in. Others prefer
the newer way of having the silver brought in on the
platter. The latter saves time and steps.
The soup should be brought to the dining-room
after the family are seated, in order that it may be
served hot. Soup at dinner should always be served
in soup plates, never in bouillon cups, unless one is
serving an iced consomme.
SERVING HOME DINNER IN DETAIL
When the family are seated,
I. Bring two filled soup plates from pantry, leave one
on serving-table (right hand) and place the
other (left hand).
II. Return to serving-table for second plate, place, and
repeat till all are served.
III. Pass plate of crisp crackers (napkin).
IV. Remove soup and service plates together (left hand),
and place heated plate (right hand).
Serving Home Dinner
V. Place carving-knife and serving silver (right hand,
right side) and carving-fork (left hand, left side),
brought to table on napkin or tray.
VI. Place platter of beef and Franconia potatoes (napkin).
VII. While host carves, place dish for canned corn at
left of each plate. Take dishes from serving-table,
one in each hand. Place the one in left hand
at left, change the one in right hand to left hand,
and place; return to serving-table and repeat
till all are placed.
VIII. Take filled plate from host (left hand), and place
heated plate, the extra one for serving (right
IX. Place filled plate before person to be served (left
hand), removing heated plate (right hand), take
to carver, and proceed as before.
X. Pass gravy, ladle in dish (napkin).
XI. Pass canned corn, spoon in dish (napkin).
XII. Pass bread (napkin).
XIII. Remove roast with carving set and spoon on
XIV. Remove carving cloth.
XV. Remove soiled plate (left hand), place plate for
salad (right hand), take up side dish (right
XVI. (a) Place salad fork (right hand, right side), and
salad spoon (left hand, left side) brought on
napkin or tray ; or (b) bring in silver on salad
XVII. Place salad before mistress (napkin).
XVIII. Take filled salad plate from mistress (left hand),
and place empty plate (an extra one) brought
XIX. Place filled salad plate before person to be
served (left hand), first taking up the empty
plate (right hand), which carry to server and
repeat in same manner.
XX. Pass sandwiches (napkin).
XXI. Remove salad bowl and silver.
XXII. Remove bread-and-butter plate (left hand) and
salad plate (right hand), clearing the place
XXIII. Remove salts and peppers and any unused silver
remaining on table (tray).
XXIV. Remove crumbs (napkin and plate).
XXV. Place individual dessert plates, with doily on
plate, small glass dish on doily, and spoon on
right-hand side of plate. In placing, see
that the plate is set down with the spoon in
correct position on right-hand side of person.
XXVI. (a) Place silver for serving dessert, one piece
right side (right hand), second piece left side
(left hand), brought on napkin or tray or
(b) brought in on the dish.
XXVII. Place dessert before mistress (napkin).
XXVIII. Take filled dessert plate from mistress (left
hand) and place the extra doily-covered plate
with glass dish and spoon (right hand).
Serving Home Dinner
XXIX. Place filled dessert plate before person to be
served (left hand), first removing plate
(right hand). Repeat till all are served.
XXX. Pass sugar and cream (tray).
XXXI. Remove dessert dish and silver.
XXXII. Remove dessert plate (left hand) and place
service for next course (right hand), namely :
a finger-bowl on a doily-covered plate and a
small knife on right-hand side of plate.
XXXIII. Pass crackers and cheese, knife on cheese dish
XXXIV. (a) Bring in after-dinner coffee-service and
place before hostess, who pours coffee, which
waitress passes; or, (b) bring coffee in cups
on a tray and place (right side, right hand).
XXXV. Pass cut sugar and cream (tray), sugar-tongs
arranged on sugar-bowl.
LAYING THE TABLE AND SERVING A HOME
DINNER WITHOUT A MAID
ONE can serve meals, without a waitress, in an
orderly and attractive manner. Lay the silence and
table-cloths, a plate for each person, then the silver,
according to preceding directions. Place tumblers,
bread-and-butter plates with spreaders, and napkins,
with salts and peppers between each two covers.
In convenient spaces toward the corners place vine-
gar and oil cruets, a plate of butter with butter-knife
or butter-pick, a pitcher of cold or iced water, and
relishes, if any are used. The carving cloth and carv-
ing set should be in place, with sufficient silver for
each dish to be served.
Special pains should be taken in laying the table
to provide everything necessary, that there may be
as little occasion as possible to go to pantry or serving-
table. Since the soup tureen is rarely used, the soup
is brought from the kitchen, hot, in heated soup plates,
by some young member of the family. Children
should be allowed and taught to help in the serving.
They should have a daily share in such duties as fill-
Diagram of Table Laid for Home Dinner Without Service of Maid.
Serving a Home Dinner without a Maid
ing the water glasses, passing butter or sauces, and
removing the dishes between courses.
In many families the mother is the only one to
leave the table and arrange for the change of courses,
but this duty should devolve upon younger members
of the household.
The butler's assistant, a series of shelves on cas-
tors, to stand at the left of the mistress is a piece of
furniture which is of great assistance in serving with-
out a maid.
It is a help to have some one who sits near the
carver serve the vegetables that are to be on the same
plate with the meat, as passing the plate back and
forth is thus avoided; or the vegetable dishes may
be passed from one to another, each helping himself.
Great care should be taken to pass all the accom-
paniments to the courses, as butter and syrup with
hot cakes ; cream and sugar with cereal ; and con-
diments and relishes when they are needed. Avoid,
however, the confusion of passing many things at
once. It is not practical to carry out, for this
kind of service, all the rules observed by a waitress.
For instance, it is too much to expect of one who has
to prepare and serve a meal to take additional steps
solely for the sake of form. Therefore, for this kind
of serving, it is allowable to leave a person without a
plate and to remove two plates at a time, one in each
hand. In bringing a very hot dish to the table, one
would use a napkin under the dish for protection,
but not for the sake of form. Suppose the menu to
consist of soup, meat, and vegetables, and dessert;
the order of service would be as follows :
I. Take up service and soup plates together, or the soup
plate, if only that is used.
II. Bring to table as many warmed plates as there are
people at table and place before the master of the
III. Bring in meat platter and place before master of the
IV. Bring in dishes of vegetables and gravy and arrange
on table in regular order, parallel with the edge of
the table and directly in front of the persons who
are to serve.
V. Clear table according to general directions except, to
save steps, remove two plates or other articles at
VI. The table cleared and crumbs removed, bring in
plates for dessert and place before mistress
of house. Bring serving silver and then
VII. Bring coffee-service; a convenient place for coffee-
service is the butler's assistant. The arrangement
of clean silver, plates for salad and dessert, finger-
bowl service, upon this useful piece of furniture
saves many steps.
Serving a Home Dinner without a Maid
The home dinner menu for which the accompany-
ing plate was prepared is :
Cream of Pea Soup Croutons
Roast Lamb Brown Gravy
Green Apple Pie
LAYING THE TABLE FOR A FORMAL LUNCHEON
AND SERVING IN DETAIL
THE formal luncheon is almost as popular a form
of entertainment as the formal dinner. Usually
the company is composed of women only ; men being
rarely available at this time of day. The popular
hour at which luncheon is served is half-past one,
although one o'clock is sometimes chosen, especially
if cards are to follow.
The table for a formal luncheon should be laid with
a luncheon set, consisting of centerpiece and doilies,
all of the same pattern, or with a luncheon cloth.
The latter reaches to the edge of the table or hangs
six or seven inches below.
Many people have made for their use, when en-
tertaining, the round, adjustable table-top, at which
many guests may be comfortably seated. The
ordinary sized round table will not seat many, and
as a round table has advantages over the square,
oblong, or elliptical, these tops are of great con-
venience to a hostess. They are more expensive
when veneered with mahogany, but if made of in-
Laying the Table for a Formal Luncheon
expensive wood, demand, of course, the use of the
The table should be rubbed first with a soft cheese-
cloth or chamois, then the centerpiece is placed, and
on that such floral decoration as the hostess chooses.
After the desired effect has been obtained, flowers
should be removed to a cool place until they are
The question of the use of candles at luncheon is
to be decided by the hostess. Artificial light should
not be used unless necessary. If the room is dark, as
is sometimes the case in city houses, one would better
have lighted candles than a gloomy table; again,
sometimes half the guests face windows where the
glare of light is blinding, which affords occasion to
draw the shades and use candles. There are times
when artificial lighting is very much out of place,
as on a pleasant day with sunshine flooding the
If a bare table is used, lay the correct number of
plate doilies at equal distances around the table and
place on each doily a service plate. The cover is
then arranged according to previous directions,
knives, spoons, and silver needed for the first course
at the right, forks at the left, never laying more than
three; if more are needed, place when required.
Place luncheon napkin (sizes thirteen to seventeen
inches square, hemstitched or scalloped) folded in
three-cornered shape, at left of forks. If the napkin
has an embroidered letter, it should, be placed with
the point toward the plate, or folded as in the il-
lustration. If it has no initial, place the long edge
parallel to fork. Sometimes bread or a roll is placed
in the fojds of a napkin or on it, but unless the service
is limited, it is better to pass bread or rolls.
Place the water glass at point of the knife, on a
small doily; an apollinaris glass for the serving of a
"cup" on the same doily, to the right and a little
below the water glass. The wine-glass, if wine is
served instead of a "cup", should occupy the place
of the apollinaris glass. Butter may be, but seldom
is, served at luncheon. For salted nuts, either indi-
vidual nut dishes or larger dishes are used. The in-
dividual dishes, already filled, are placed at the top
of the plate (no doily) ; the large dishes with spoon
are to be taken from the serving-table and passed.
The cover is now complete, with the exception of
the place card, which varies in style and design so
much that the exact position for it must be decided
by the hostess.
Sometimes favors are used and are placed either
at the head of the plate or in groups around the
centerpiece, with ribbons running from them to the
Laying the Table for a Formal Luncheon
Salts and peppers are placed on doilies matching
the set, between each two covers. Dishes containing
candies are placed on doilies, wherever they look best
on the table. The bonbon spoon should be on the
table beside the dish, and when bonbons are passed,
the dish is placed upon a tray and the spoon beside
MENU FOR FORMAL LUNCHEON
Cream of Cress Soup *
Bread Sticks Olives Radishes
Huntington Halibut *
Cucumber Fishes Rolls
Larded Squab Breasts around Hot Ripe Olives
Potato Croquettes en Surprise (Peas)
Spring Salad *
Horseradish Sandwiches *
Coffee and Marron Ice-cream
This luncheon, if for eight or more covers, requires
the service of two waitresses. One waitress serves
the hostess first, then serves in turn to the right, go-
ing half-way round the table. The second waitress
* " A New Book of Cookery " Farmer.
starts at a point directly opposite the hostess and
proceeds to the right. Exception must be made to
the main or heavy course, when the head waitress
serves the meat, beginning with the hostess, to every
one at table, and the second waitress follows with
the first vegetable. The first waitress then passes
the second vegetable, and the second waitress fol-
lows with rolls. When the luncheon is for many
covers, the service may be made more prompt if
two dishes of everything are prepared, each waitress
attending to her side of the table only.
Before luncheon is announced, be sure that the
finger-bowls, garnished and one fourth full of tepid
water, are ready on the serving-table if possible, or
on a shelf just inside the pantry door. There is a
wide range of choice in the garnish for finger-bowls.
A few petals from the flowers used in decoration,
roses, carnations, violets, nasturtium flowers and
leaves, a spray of mignonette, sweet-scented leaves
of rose geranium or lemon verbena, Japanese flowers
which open and float when thrown into water, are
all used. A few drops of rose or violet water are
sometimes added. Wire rims may be bought to
attach to the rims of metal finger-bowls, and flowers
arranged in them to form a wreath. A finger-bowl
which may be presented afterwards as a favor is a
small glass tray with flower-holder ; this may hold a
Laying the Table for a Formal Luncheon
few flowers and a miniature Japanese fish or floating
The coffee-service should be in readiness on serv-
ing-table or sideboard. Have ready a small napkin
and a plate for removing crumbs from the table and
have all serving silver, serving napkins, and filled
water pitcher at hand. If room can be found upon
the serving-table for the dessert plates, put them
there before luncheon is served. If not, bring them
to serving-table, before placing upon the luncheon
table, as this plan saves many steps to pantry.
As all formal dinners and luncheons are served
from the side, the only edibles to be placed and re-
main upon the table are the salted nuts and the
candies ; often not even these are there, although
the candies usually add a desirable touch of
Before going to the table, some hostesses serve in
the drawing-room a light cocktail accompanied by
sandwiches or small wafers.
The first course of a formal luncheon is usually
attractive in appearance and is laid on the service
plate just before luncheon is announced. The plac-
ing of it before or after the guests come to the dining-
room is a matter of personal preference. If this
course is a fruit cocktail, the arrangement would be
to place the glass filled with the fruit on a small
plate fitted with a doily, with the spoon on right-hand
side of plate, then place on the service plate. If
lobster or scallop cocktail is served in place of fruit,
the arrangement is the same, substituting an oyster
fork for the spoon.
SERVICE FOR A FORMAL LUNCHEON IN DETAIL
I. Remove fruit cocktail service, that is, small plate
containing doily, glass, and spoon (left hand).
II. Place bouillon cup and saucer on service plate,
handles directly parallel to edge of table (left
III. Pass bread sticks (napkin).
IV. Pass olives and radishes (napkin).
V. Remove service plate with bouillon cup on it (left
hand), and place warmed plate for fish (right
VI. Pass Huntington halibut with two pieces of serving
silver in position (napkin).
VII. Pass rolls (napkin).
VIII. Pass cucumber fishes (napkin).
IX. Just before ready for meat course, pour claret-cup
(right side, right hand), a small folded napkin in
left hand to catch possible drops from pitcher.
X. Remove fish plate (left hand), place warmed dinner
plate (right hand).
XI. Pass platter containing squab garnished with hot,
ripe olives, with serving silver in position (napkin).
XII. Pass brown sauce, ladle in dish (napkin).
Service for a Formal Luncheon
XIII. Pass potato croquettes with serving silver on dish
XIV. Pass rolls (napkin).
XV. Remove dinner plate (left hand), and place salad
plate (right hand).
XVI. Pass salad with serving silver in position (napkin).
XVII. Pass horseradish sandwiches (napkin).
XVIII. Remove bread-and-butter plate and doily together
(left hand) and salad plate (right hand), thus
clearing the cover at once.
XIX. Remove salt and pepper sets and the doily under
XX. Remove crumbs from table (small napkin and
XXI. Place plates for ice-cream with
(a) ice-cream fork on right-hand side of plate,
or (b) fork and spoon on right-hand side,
or (c) silver placed at right, from right, after
plate is placed.
XXII. Pass ice-cream with serving silver in position
XXIII. Pass cakes (napkin).
XXIV. Remove plate (left hand) and place finger-bowl
service, plate, doily, and bowl containing
, water (right hand).
XXV. Pass bonbons (napkin or tray).
XXVI. Serve coffee in drawing-room. The hostess pours
after-dinner coffee and maid passes, or all cups
are arranged in the pantry, on a large tray with
sugar-bowl, sugar-tongs, and creamer on the
same tray, if there is space; if not, they follow
on a smaller tray. Many like to use the rock
crystals in place of cut sugar; in that case a
spoon would be substituted for the tongs.
If one prefers to serve coffee at the table, as is some-
times done, the maid exchanges the dessert plate for
the finger-bowl service. Then she places coffee at
the right and passes sugar and cream. The finger-
bowl is removed by guest, and the plate used for
bonbons which the maid passes last.
On some less formal occasions, coffee might be
poured by the hostess at the table. In this case the
service is brought to the hostess as the dessert course
is being finished. The maid places a cup of coffee at
the right of each guest and passes sugar and cream ;
after which she replaces the dessert plate with the
finger-bowl service and passes bonbons.
FORMAL AND INFORMAL AFTERNOON TEAS.
BUFFET LUNCHEON AND EVENING SPREADS
SERVICE FOR AFTERNOON TEAS
FOR the informal afternoon tea no table is set.
The maid brings to the drawing-room, living-room,
sun-parlor, or piazza in fact any place but the
dining-room the tray with the tea-service, which
she places on a table previously made ready to
receive it. The tray may be of either silver, mahog-
any, or lacquer. The hostess either makes the
tea and pours it or has it made and brought in for
her to pour. Of course the former service is more
graceful and personal. If tea is made by the hostess,
the maid must see that the equipment for making
and serving it is complete. A teakettle for boiling
water, an alcohol lamp filled, and a box of matches,
a tea-caddy with teaspoon and a tea-ball are es-
sential. The tea-ball is convenient when making a
few cups of tea, but when several cups are to be
poured at once, a teapot is necessary. Cut sugar
or rock crystals, a pitcher of cream, a small dish of
sliced lemon, and cups and saucers, spoon on saucer,
and tea napkins should be in readiness on the tea-tray.
Hot water should be brought in, in the teakettle, and
placed over the lamp, as it soon reaches the boiling
point and the tea is prepared quickly. Plain bread
and butter sandwiches or sandwiches of the simplest
kinds olive, nut, or lettuce should be served,
also small cakes or wafers. Care should be taken
not to have anything elaborate. A curate's assistant
for convenience in passing all sandwiches and wafers
at the same time is much in use for informal after-
Out of doors, in summer, iced tea, iced chocolate, or
punch is often more convenient, as well as more accept-
able than hot tea. For out-of-door service, the tea-
wagon will be found most useful, as the entire service
may be placed upon it and wheeled to the chosen
spot with little trouble.
A tea for which cards are sent out is a formal oc-
casion, really an afternoon reception. Friends of
the hostess serve all the refreshments, but maids
should be in attendance to remove used cups and
plates and to bring in fresh ones; also to replenish
all dishes of food. The table is laid either with a
luncheon cloth or with doilies, and is decorated with
flowers and candles. At one end is the tea-service,
a large tray holding teapot, hot-water pot, sliced
lemons in dish with a small fork, sugar-bowl holding
Informal Tea Service with Equipment for Making Tea.
Service for Afternoon Teas
cut sugar, sugar-tongs, and a cream pitcher. As
many teacups as possible (each with teaspoon on
saucer, the handle being parallel to handle of cup)
should be placed on tray, others being brought as
needed. At some teas, the cups and saucers are
used without plates. At the opposite end of the
table is the coffee, chocolate, or bouillon service.
Here are placed tray, urn, cream, and sugar for
coffee; the chocolate urn, and whipped cream in a
bowl with ladle, if chocolate is the chosen beverage ;
or the urn alone, if bouillon is served. Cups, saucers,
and spoons are arranged the same as for tea.
Friends of the hostess preside at each end of the
table. Often four different ladies are asked to pour,
two for the first hour and two others for the last
hour. A large dinner napkin to protect the pourer's
gown should be near the tray. Plates filled with
sandwiches, others filled with cakes, and dishes
holding candies, with others containing salted nuts,
are arranged symmetrically upon the table. Cakes
are also disposed upon the frappe table and on serv-
ing-table and passed from there. One must avoid
having a crowded table. Individual ices are some-
times served, although frappe (or some frozen cream,
not too rich) is usually preferred, served in frappe
glasses from a frappe bowl by some friend of the
If possible the frappe table is in some room other
than the dining-room, as this arrangement relieves a
sometimes congested spot. The frapp e table should
be covered with a luncheon cloth and be equipped
with punch or frappe bowl and ladle, and frappe
glasses. There should also be small plates in piles
with plate doilies between, always linen, if possible.
Paper plate doilies ate permissible only when one is
entertaining one hundred or more guests. Upon
each of these doily-covered plates a frappe glass is
placed for serving, filled with sherbet, and a sherbet
spoon placed on right-hand side of plate. A tray
holding sherbet spoons should be upon the frappe
table. A filled cake basket and dishes of candy may
be placed there for convenience in serving. Piles
of plates and small napkins (never of paper) are
arranged on serving-table. Young girl friends of
the hostess see that guests reach the dining-room and
are served. To serve, they should take a napkin
and a plate to a guest, or a napkin only, as the service
demands, ask her which beverage she prefers, and
then serve it, passing sandwiches and cakes to her
also. Sometimes a maid stands at each side of the
door at the entrance of the dining-room and pre-
sents a napkin and plate, or a napkin, to each guest
entering, after which the young girls act as the
Informal Tea Service with Tea Made and Brought In.
Salads are offered for an evening spread or pos-
sibly for a light spread after an afternoon at cards,
but not at a tea. Music is frequently provided, but
the musicians should be stationed far enough from
the guests so that only the suggestion and charm of
the music are evident. It should not be overpower-
ing enough to make conversation difficult.
At a buffet luncheon or spread, the guests are not
seated but partake of the refreshments standing.
When "buffet service" is used, the food is placed
upon an attractively laid table, usually all at the same
time, although it may be brought to the table and
served in courses. Plates, silver, and napkins are
arranged upon the table to make the service as quick
and easy as possible.
When luncheon is served at small tables to many
guests, the service is the same as though all were
seated at one table, but it requires a number of maids
to carry out this arrangement. The buffet luncheon
table is preferable to small tables for many reasons ;
it requires less space, can be made to look more at-
tractive, and calls for much less china and silver
and for less service. The luncheon cloth is the pre-
ferred covering and no centerpiece is necessary.
There is so much silver to be laid for serving that the
cloth is not only a protection to the table, but it
lessens the noise of handling the silver.
The arrangement and service of a buffet luncheon
and a buffet spread or supper are practically the
same, except that the luncheon often presents heavier
and more varied courses than would ordinarily be
given at night, and that in the evening lighted
candles are used. The table decoration previously
planned by the hostess is placed after laying the
luncheon cloth. The arrangement of the dishes
depends largely upon the menu and upon the number
of guests to be served. It is better to have the maids
replenish dishes and supplies from serving-table or
pantry than to give the table the appearance of
The menu might consist of two hot and two cold
dishes and two frozen desserts, or one frozen dessert
and one attractively garnished mold of jelly or
cream. One only of each kind mentioned may be the
choice of the hostess, if the occasion does not de-
mand more, though in providing for many persons
it is advisable to present two hot dishes. All food
should be such as can be easily eaten with a fork,
as the use of a knife is impossible. Rolls, sand-
wiches, and perhaps olives, are upon the table, and
cakes, candies, and salted nuts are passed. Both hot
and cold dishes are on the table at the same time,
ices being brought in as a separate course. Whether
the hot and cold refreshments are served on the
same plate or in two courses depends entirely upon
the preference of the hostess. If presenting one hot
and one cold dish, serve each kind from two platters,
as by this arrangement the table appears better
balanced, and the service is facilitated. A good
arrangement of the table is as follows : at the ends
and directly opposite each other place the two plat-
ters or chafing-dishes from which is served the hot
course ; and on the other sides of the table the two
dishes containing salad or cold entrees. Around
these platters group the plates and silver, placing
the serving silver in the most convenient position.
On two opposite corners of the table place the small
napkins in neat piles not too high. Plates of rolls
and sandwiches are placed not too far in from the
edge of table. Rolls are served with the hot course,
and sandwiches accompany the salad. After the
hot and salad courses have been removed, the ices
are brought in. Cakes previously arranged on the
serving-table are passed and then placed on the
dining-table. For beverages, coffee alone, or coffee
and chocolate may be provided. Either one or both
may be served from an urn, or the filled cups may be
brought on a tray from the pantry.
Friends of the hostess usually serve, sometimes the
host and hostess assisting, although occasionally
waitresses are expected to do the serving. The
waitresses must always be observant and prompt to
remove soiled dishes, bring fresh ones, and replenish
A wedding breakfast may be served much like the
formal luncheon, unless the number of guests is so
large that it takes the form of a buffet spread.
The buffet spread for a large reception where
people are coming and going during certain hours
varies from the buffet spread served at a certain
hour to a definite number in that all refreshments,
hot, cold, and frozen, are put upon the table at once.
A list of dishes suitable for buffet spreads or lun-
cheons includes the following suggestions :
Frozen creams and ices
Salads with thick dressings Chocolate
Diagram of a Buffet Table.
LAYING THE TABLE FOR A FORMAL DINNER
AND SERVING IN DETAIL
THE FORMAL DINNER
A HOSTESS, before attempting either a formal
dinner or luncheon, should be sure to have enough
and efficient help. If the cook is to be depended
upon for the cooking, extra help should be engaged
for dish-washing, picking up and generally "lending
a hand", provided there is no laundress or other
member of the household staff to assist. If the cook
is not equal to the extra occasion, employ some per-
son to come in and prepare the dinner, using the
cook as her assistant.
In families where a chambermaid is employed,
she is expected to act as second waitress when nec-
essary ; or, this not being possible, an accommodat-
ing waitress should be engaged to assist. A helper,
also, in the pantry to stack soiled dishes, keep
shelves clear for action, serve soup and pour coffee,
keep iced water in readiness, open wine bottles,
supply crushed ice for cordials, etc., makes the
service more prompt and satisfactory. If a dinner
is suggested without added help, there is often grum-
bling and dissatisfaction on account of the extra
amount of work involved. On the other hand, if
a mistress sees that help is engaged to lighten this
work, the maids look forward with pleasure to the
For the formal dinner, a handsome, perfectly
laundered, damask cloth should be spread on the
table after placing the soft table pad. The laying
of the table is practically the same as for the formal
luncheon, a centerpiece and table decoration, with
the addition of candlesticks placed symmetrically
about the centerpiece. The service plates, flat
silver, and napkins are laid as for luncheon, only,
of course, the dinner napkin, ranging in size
from twenty-four inches to twenty-eight inches, is
Butter is not usually served. Occasionally some
hostess who wishes butter serves it regardless of
custom. Occasionally, too, the bread-and-butter
plate is seen on the table, not for the serving of butter,
but as a convenience in caring for bread, olives,
celery, radishes, etc.
The arrangement of glasses begins with the goblet
at the point of the knives ; the wine-glasses are
placed in a convenient group at the right of the gob-
Glasses for Wine. High Cocktail, Low Cocktail, Sherry, Sauterne,
Claret, Champagne, Cordial, Whiskey.
Glasses for Water Water Goblet, Iced Tea, Water, Apollinaris.
The Formal Dinner
let, the glass to be used first, at the extreme right.
It is not customary to serve more than three wines,
and oftener two or even one is served.
The cover now appears as for the formal luncheon :
service plate, forks and napkin at left of plate,
knives, soup spoon, and oyster fork, if needed, at
right of plate ; water and wine-glasses as indicated ;
individual nut dishes directly in front of the plate ;
salts and peppers between each two covers; and
bonbon dishes placed between candles, the bonbon
spoon on the cloth beside dish. The laying of the
table is finished, with the exception of place-cards,
which the hostess arranges. Two minutes before
announcing dinner, fill water glasses two thirds
full and light candles.
As at a luncheon, the first course may or may not
be placed before announcing dinner. It consists of
a "beginning" such as a canape, oysters or clams on
the shell, or fruit, and in such case is already in place
when guests come to the dining-room. When cock-
tails are served in the drawing-room, a caviare, or
some other sandwich, or a canape is passed. In
the latter case, the dinner should not open with a
A dinner menu consists of the following customary
courses, but the number may be increased or di-
minished at the will of the entertainer.
Roast and Vegetables Coffee
If only one entree is served during a dinner, it
comes before the roast ; if two, the meat or heavier
entree precedes the roast, and the vegetable or
lighter entree follows it.
If both roast and game are served, a frozen punch
should be served as a separate course, after the roast,
and the salad should be served with the game, in-
stead of forming a course by itself. Dessert would
follow. With one meat course only, sorbets and
frozen punches are not served except at large dinners,
and banquets, and at hotels.
Coffee is almost always served in the drawing-
room. This tends to make the serving of crackers
and cheese a custom less general than formerly. At
the formal dinner, even on the rare occasions when
coffee is served at the table, cheese is seldom passed
with the coffee, although it is perfectly good form to
do so. Those who are fond of cheese and do not
care to eliminate it, use it as an accompaniment to
the salad. This seems to be, however, a matter of
The Formal Dinner
MENU FOR A FORMAL DINNER
Cocktails Caviare Sandwiches
Mock Bouillon* Olives Sherry
Rolled Cassava Cakes
Turbans of Flounder*
Dressed Cucumber Rolls
Delmonico Tomatoes *
Roasted Incubator Chickens
Chantilly Potatoes *
Buttered Asparagus Tips Champagne
Grapefruit and Alligator Pear Salad
Montrose Pudding * Small Cakes
The service required for the preceding menu is
here described in detail.
Dinner is announced in the drawing-room by
serving the cocktails and sandwiches, the sand-
wiches being arranged on a doily-covered plate.
Cocktails, poured in the pantry into cocktail glasses,
are served from a tray. If the small cocktail napkins
are used, it is best, if there is room, to place them
on the tray with the glasses. One maid passes
the cocktails and another follows with the sand-
wiches. When these have been served, the host
* " A New Book of Cookery " Farmer.
leads the way to the dining-room with the guest of
honor, who is to be seated at his right. Guests
following find their seats at table by means of the
place cards. The hostess and her escort come
last. The cocktail glasses should be collected after
the dinner is in progress by one maid when she has
the leisure and should be taken from drawing-room
to pantry or kitchen by some other way than through
The first course is arranged on a small plate placed
on the service plate, and is already on the table, -
large strawberries, hulls on, with a small mound of
powdered sugar in center, all on galax leaves (with-
out their stems) fitted into one another to form a
mat. A strawberry fork is placed, though the use
of it is optional. A finger-bowl could be placed with
this course or not. If placed, it should be removed
when the course is finished.
I. Remove fruit plate (left hand) or, if finger-bowl
is used, fruit plate (right hand) and finger-
bowl (left hand) together.
II. Place plates containing soup (left hand).
III. Head waitress pours sherry.
Second waitress passes Cassava cakes (napkin).
IV. Pass olives (napkin).
V. Remove soup and service plates together (left hand)
and place warmed plate for fish (right hand).
The Formal Dinner
VI. Pass fish in platter with serving silver in position
VII. Pass rolls (napkin).
VIII. Pass dressed cucumber with server in place (nap-
IX. Remove fish plate (left hand) and place entree
arranged on plate (right hand).
X. Pour champagne (right side, right hand).
XI. Remove entree plate (left hand) and place warmed
dinner plate (right hand).
XII. Head waitress passes platter of chickens with serv-
ing silver in position (napkin).
XIII. Second waitress passes potatoes with serving silver
in dish (napkin).
XIV. Pass dish of asparagus tips with serving silver in
XV. Pass rolls (napkin).
XVI. Replenish individual nut dishes if necessary.
XVII. Remove dinner plate (left hand) and place salad
arranged on plate, fork on right-hand side of
plate (right hand).
XVIII. Pass sandwiches (napkin).
XIX. Remove salad plate (left hand).
XX. Remove salts and peppers (tray).
XXI. Remove crumbs.
XXII. Place dessert plate
(a) with ice-cream fork on right-hand side of
or (b) with spoon and fork on right-hand side
or (c) place silver at right from right.
XXIII. Pass mold of ice-cream (napkin) with serving
silver in place, the mold already cut, but
XXIV. Pass cakes (napkin).
XXV. Remove dessert plate (left hand) and place
finger-bowl service, plate, doily, and bowl
one fourth full of tepid water and garnished
XXVI. Pass bonbons (napkin or tray).
XXVII. In drawing-room, place coffee-service before
hostess, who pours and maid passes; or, if
preferred, all the cups, filled, may be placed
on a large tray with sugar-bowl, sugar-tongs,
and creamer, and the tray passed by waitress.
Few people take cream, but it is always of-
XXVIII. Head waitress collects coffee cups and removes
XXIX. If only one waitress is serving, she returns with
the cordial-service; if two, then the second
waitress follows with the cordial-service which
may be in a decanter on tray with cordial
glasses, hostess serving and maid passing, or
The Formal Dinner
which may be prepared in pantry and passed.
If the cordial served is one which calls for
shaved ice, the glass is filled two thirds full
of ice, and the cordial poured over it. Some-
times two kinds of cordials are served.
When the gentlemen remain at table, one maid
serves coffee to the ladies in drawing-room, the
second maid remains in dining-room, passes cigars
and cigarettes, with lighted candle or matches on
one tray, then coffee, then cordials, or brandy and
soda. Cordials are prepared while guests are drink-
ing coffee. The maid should collect coffee cups as
soon as the guests have finished with them, but yet
not show undue haste.
An hour after dinner the maid pours charged water
into apollinaris glasses arranged on a tray, which she
passes to guests in drawing-room.
SERVING OF WINES AND CORDIALS
THE best usage sanctions one or two wines at
dinner, though three may be properly served. Fol-
lowing are the wines most commonly used and the
courses with which they may be served.
Soup Sherry or Madeira
Fish Sauterne or Rhine Wine
Meat Champagne or Sparkling Burgundy,
which is continued throughout the
Claret, being a light wine, is sometimes served at
the same time as champagne for those who do not
care for the stronger beverage. Wine should be
poured very slowly, and glasses only two thirds filled.
Every wine except sherry should be poured at the
close of the course preceding the one with which it
is to be served. Sherry should be poured after
placing the soup.
To serve champagne, cut the wire and work the
cork out carefully with an upward pressure of the
thumbs. In opening a bottle, some waitresses take
the precaution of working out the cork under the
edge of the table, as sometimes it pops out with
great force. If one does not use a bottle holder,
have a folded napkin wrapped around the bottle
before pouring. Pour a small quantity of wine into
the glass of the host, not filling it, then begin at
the right of the host and fill the glasses slowly and
not too full.
Claret is usually served from a claret pitcher.
Sherry, Madeira, Port, and Burgundy are served
from a decanter.
Sparkling Burgundy, Champagne, Rhine Wine,
and Sauterne are served from the bottle.
TEMPERATURE OF WINES
35 F. Pack in ice several hours before
serving. If wanted at short
CHAMPAGNE notice, pack in ice and salt
SPARKLING BUR- > half an hour before needed,
GUNDY J but be very careful that it
does not become frapped. In
packing, keep ice away from
neck of bottle.
SWEET CHAM- Should be extremely cold and
PAGNE is improved by being slightly
RHINE WINE 40 F. Cold.
SAUTERNE 50 F. Slightly cold. Some persons
prefer it chilled in the ice
box; some prefer it not so
SHERRY 40 F. Cold.
MADEIRA 65 F. or Temperature of the room.
PORT 55 F. Temperature of the cellar.
CLARET 65 F. or Temperature of the room.
BURGUNDY 70 F. Temperature of the room.
Cordials and liqueurs are stimulating beverages,
very sweet, very strong, and aromatic. They are
always served after the coffee, in cordial glasses
which hold only a small quantity. Some of the cor-
dials are served with crushed ice, some with cream,
and some plain. A popular cordial is Creme de
Menthe, either of a clear white or green color. To
serve this cordial, the glasses should be two thirds
full of finely crushed ice, and a small amount of the
cordial poured over it. Avoid filling glasses too full.
At some hotels and clubs, Creme de Menthe is served
in a slightly larger glass than a cordial glass and ac-
companied by a short straw. This is not often done,
however, for private or home service.
Benedictine, Chartreuse, Apricot Brandy, and
Eau de Vie de Dantzic are the cordials that come
next in favor and are usually served "straight",
though some persons like a dash of cream in Benedic-
tine. Creme de Cacao is served with a dash of
cream, either plain or whipped. Creme Yvette is a
violet colored and flavored cordial, very sweet and
very cloying, and demands cracked ice.
Many other cordials such as Orange Curacoa,
Maraschino, Noyau, and Kirschenwasser may be
served as beverages, but are more acceptable as
flavors for ices, sauces, and puddings.
CHAFING-DISH SUPPERS. THE TABLE EQUIPMENT.
LIST OF FOODSTUFFS FOR CHAFING-DISH
FOR the chafing-dish supper lay the bare table
with either luncheon cloth or luncheon set, flowers,
and candles. Mark the covers with the plate doilies ;
place a plate on each doily, and the necessary silver
according to directions ; the water glass and ginger
ale or beer glass on small doily at right, and the
napkin at left.
If the party is for many persons, provide two chaf-
ing-dishes, one at each end of the table. This not
only affords quicker and better service but adds to
sociability. Always have a metal tray under the
chafing-dish as a protection against fire and stains,
and an asbestos mat under the tray.
The hostess must be sure that everything is in
readiness, all ingredients needed for the dishes
to be cooked and all utensils needed in the cooking.
A teakettle for boiling water is an important item of
the table equipment; an electric toaster, also, is
desirable, though toast or croutons prepared in the
kitchen may be kept warm on an asbestos mat
placed over the chafing-dish flame. Owing to
the lateness of the hour at which some of these
parties are given, the kitchen fire cannot always
be depended upon for making toast. In that event
put a very little butter into one of the blazers
and fry the bread lightly on both sides. The lamp
under the chafing-dish and teakettle should be filled
with alcohol before the guests assemble, and addi-
tional alcohol should be at hand in the pantry. Be
sure the flame is out and the lamp cool before filling,
and also wipe the lamp dry before lighting. One
cannot take too great precaution against fire. Plates
should have been previously heated. Ebony-handled
or wooden spoons are better to use in chafing-dish
cookery than silver, as the latter get too hot to be
handled with comfort. An extra napkin, an extra
fork and spoon to "try with", a box of matches, and
a bowl to hold tasting spoons and burned matches,
should be placed conveniently near the person who
presides over the chafing-dish.
Have measured for the dish to be cooked all
liquid and dry ingredients and seasonings, so that
the work may be simplified, and the time of prepara-
tion at the table shortened. The butter should be
measured beforehand and made into balls, each
containing a level tablespoonful.
Select attractive as well as convenient dishes to
hold the accessories. Small wooden Russian bowls
which do not break are noiseless and ornamental.
Bowls of the Paul Revere pottery and some of the
rice-pattern Chinese bowls are pleasing. Pitchers
holding from half a cup to a pint are necessary.
It is a good plan to arrange upon a single tray the
bowls, pitchers, and small dishes containing all
ingredients for one dish. This may be conveniently
placed at the left of the person presiding over the
Some things are cooked in the blazer or top pan,
directly over the flame. Egg dishes and all creamed
dishes need the hot-water pan beneath, and of course
the hot-water pan is necessary to keep the food warm.
Have at hand a tile on which to place the hot -water
pan when not in use. Be sure that not too much
water is in the pan; about one inch in depth is
sufficient; also watch that the water does not boil
away, leaving the pan dry.
The chafing-dish supper is always an informal
occasion, and the guests may serve themselves if
A list of various foods which may be used in
chafing-dish cookery :
Lamb Crab Meat
Cooked Tongua Terrapin
Chickens' Livers Frogs' Legs
Peas Finnan Haddie
Cooked Fish heated in Sauce
There are many kinds of rarebits varied by the
principal flavor, as tomato, onion, green or red pepper,
etc. Any of the souffles, either cheese or sweet
souffles, are successfully made in the chafing-dish.
Fudges (made with peanut butter, marshmallows,
sultana raisins, nuts, and Canton ginger) are popular
Slices of bread cut in any chosen shape and toasted,
or heated crackers, are an understood part of the
chafing-dish supper. Creamed dishes require toast,
while rarebits call for either crackers or toast. Bev-
erages always accompany a chafing-dish supper.
Among the most popular are ale, beer, cider, mineral
water, wine "cup", punch, and hot coffee.
TRAY SERVICE. SERVING BUTTER IN VARIOUS
OFTEN a maid is asked to prepare a tray for break-
fast or luncheon, to be served to a person in her
room. Certain points are to be remembered in ar-
ranging a tray, which should appeal to sight as well
as taste. Always cover the tray with a fresh linen
cloth with no fold. The dishes used should be small
in size, and those containing hot food should be
covered. Arrange the taller dishes at the back of
the tray, the low ones in front, but never over-
crowd it. Select dainty china, harmonizing in color
with the food to be served.
After the cloth is laid, place a plate in the middle
of the front side. The knife and spoon should be on
the right of the plate, the fork and napkin on the left.
Place the water glass at the point of the knife, the
individual butter plate containing a form of butter,
at the top of the fork. The various dishes to be
served should then be arranged symmetrically. Do
not forget salt and pepper.
Serving Butter in Various Forms
The tray should never be allowed to stand about
after use, therefore the maid should come for it at
what would seem the proper time.
SERVING BUTTER IN VARIOUS FORMS
Butter may be served in prints as it is bought or
may be shaped into various forms. The former is
practical for every-day use; a quarter or a half-
pound cake is placed upon a butter dish, with butter-
knife on dish, and neat, square pieces cut off for
serving. Butter, too, may be bought in half-pound
cakes stamped in individual squares, which are
divided with a knife.
Usually wooden implements are used to shape
butter, such as butter-paddles and molds. These
should be thoroughly scalded and then thoroughly
chilled in ice-water before beginning to shape the
butter. Not less than thirty minutes should be
given to the preparation of utensils, and an hour's
time is better. When they are ready, put the butter
into a bowl of cold water and with a wooden spoon
work it until it is waxy enough to shape. Balls are
the most common, the most easily made, and are the
foundation of other forms. In order that all may be
uniform in size, measure a level tablespoonful of
butter for each ball and roll between the butter-
paddles. Hold the paddle vertically in the left
hand and horizontally in the right, thus placing them
at right angles to each other. Light pressure should
be given and a rotary motion of the paddle in right
hand, holding left one stationary. Practice is usu-
ally necessary to accomplish a well rounded ball.
Drop the balls on a chilled plate and in summer use
a plate of cracked ice upon which to place the balls.
The butter-paddles should be dipped into cold or
iced water after each shaping. As butter readily
absorbs flavors and odors from other articles, it
should be kept in a clean, closely-covered receptacle.
There come for the purpose jars of glass or porcelain,
with handles and tight covers, which are very satis-
factory. Balls may be made up in quantity and kept
in these jars, as no harm comes from piling them;
but more fanciful shapes mentioned must be deli-
cately handled and should be made not long before
serving. One of these is the "shell" made with a
butter scoop or crook. To make these a piece of
butter of some length is required, or two half-pound
prints can be placed end to end and used. First
dip the utensil into a cup of hot water and wipe dry
with a piece of clean cheese-cloth. Then draw it
over the butter lightly and quickly, making a thin
shaving which curls over as it is drawn along. The
crook must be dipped in hot water and wiped clean
each time. For serving, these shells are arranged
Serving Butter in Vancus
on a dish of cracked ice with a few sprigs of parsley
or cress ; for the individual plate, three of them look
attractive placed close together with a very small
sprig of green in the center.
Butter lilies are made by first forming a butter-
ball ; next, place it between the smooth sides of the
paddles and make a smooth surfaced ball rather
than a rough one. Then, still using the smooth
sides of the paddles, slap the ball with one paddle
while it rests on the other, until the ball is a flat
round of uniform thickness. Fold over the two
lower sides to form a point and slightly curve back-
ward the top. Place on a dish of cracked ice. Make
the pistil by rolling a small piece of butter between
the smooth sides of the paddle, exerting greater
pressure on one end than the other. Place the
broader end in the heart of the lily, having the point
come not quite to the top, and not touching the sides
at all. A bit of green at the base of the lily is at-
To make roses, follow directions just given as far
as patting into a circular flat piece and then drop into
cold water. When five have been made, put the
hands under water and mold the five petals into the
form of a wild rose. The bases of the petals should
be joined one to another, and the tops of the petals
bent into irregular shapes. For the center make
three or five of the tiniest possible balls on the cor-
rugated side of the paddle. These roses can be made
small for individual service, or a large butter-rose
may be made and passed, with knife on dish for
Butter may be worked until creamy (or freshly-
churned butter may be used) put through a pastry-
bag and rose-tube into three-inch lengths of pencil
size, or into rosettes, by holding the tube still and
pressing until the butter has piled up to the size de-
sired. Rolls may be made by making first a ball,
patting to about one fourth of an inch in thickness
(holding butter-paddles parallel to each other) and
rolling the circular pat of butter up. Care should
be used to hold the butter-paddles in correct position,
else the butter will not have the vertical creases it
Pats are made by using the small wooden forms,
which come for the purpose and which must be per-
fectly scalded and chilled to get good results. The
butter is packed solidly into the small space, evened
off, and pressure is brought to bear upon the butter
within ; then the wooden form is taken up and the
imprinted butter removed.
Butter forms look more attractive when served
with cracked ice and a few green leaves or a bit of
cress or of parsley.
Celery Cut Club Style.
CARE OF SALAD GREENS. SERVING OF CHEESES
TO PREPARE SALAD GREENS
IT is desirable to attend to lettuce as soon as it
comes from market or garden. Cut off root close
to leaves and remove leaves one at a time, discard-
ing any of the outside ones that may be wilted,
broken, or tough. Wash in a bowl of cold or ice-
water and let stand until crisp. Take up each leaf
separately, shake slightly, arrange in original form
and place in wire basket (which comes for the pur-
pose) or in bag made of cheese-cloth. Hang in re-
frigerator until needed.
The tender heart leaves should always be served
whole, while it is often desirable to shred the outside
To Shred Lettuce.
Roll leaves by twos lengthwise and cut in thin slices
crosswise, using a thin, sharp knife or scissors. Shake
shreds lightly for use in garnishing or making a back-
ground for salads. This should be done as near
serving time as is possible. If the midribs of the
leaves are tough it is desirable to remove them before
rolling the leaves.
Separate leaves and wash, same as lettuce. The
small ones may be served whole, the larger ones cut
in halves lengthwise, then each half cut in three or
four pieces crosswise. It is generally desirable to
remove the midribs.
Escarolle and Chicory.
Separate leaves and wash same as lettuce. The
leaves, being smaller, require more care in the wash-
ing. Discard the coarse green leaves, leaving the
light green and yellow portions for serving.
Cut off roots, separate stalks, and wash in iced
water. Drain thoroughly and shake each piece
Remove and discard outer leaves. Plunge the
remaining stalk into ice-water. When it is crisp,
drain, wipe, separate leaves of stalk, and serve whole,
or the stalk may be shredded.
To Prepare Salad Greens
Cut off roots and leaves (excepting tender ones)
from a bunch of celery. Separate stalks, wash,
scrape, and cut in pieces of uniform length. Chill
in ice-water to which a third-inch slice of lemon has
been added. Drain and serve on a bed of crushed
ice. If tops of stalks are gashed several times
before putting into water, they will curl back and
make celery look more attractive. The inside tender
stalks do not require scraping.
Celery when used for a garnish is often curled.
To Curl Celery.
Scrape thick stalks of celery and cut in two-inch
pieces. With a sharp knife, beginning at outside of
stalks, make five parallel cuts extending one third
the length of pieces; then make six cuts at right
angles to cuts already made. Treat the other end
in the same manner or not, as desired. Put in ice-
water to which a third-inch slice of lemon has been
added and let stand several hours, when ends will
curl back and celery will be found very crisp.
To Serve " Club Style."
Select celery, several bunches of which have been
tied together, not " bunched " by the use of nails.
The root being used here, rusty nail holes are a dis-
advantage. Discard the coarse, outer stalks of
each small bunch. Keep the inner hearts of each
whole, not separating the stalks one from another.
Wash thoroughly with a small vegetable brush and
then trim the root neatly, discarding the outside,
which is discolored. Cut the small bunch of un-
separated heart stalks through the center length-
wise, from point of root to top, and if the halves are
large, divide each again in the same way. Crisp in
ice water, drain, and serve.
Remove leaves, leaving stems half an inch long, and
remove tip of root. Wash, scrape, and serve on a
bed of crushed ice. This treatment is always satis-
factory for long radishes. Globe (otherwise called
round) radishes are pleasing when cut to represent
tulips or chrysanthemums.
To Cut Radishes to Represent Tulips.
Select long, globe radishes and remove leaves,
leaving stems half an inch long, and remove tip end.
Wash, and, beginning at root end, make six incisions
(at equal distances) through skin extending nearly
to stem end. Pass thin bladed knife under sections
of skin and cut down as far as incisions extend.
Place in cold water and let stand an hour or two,
Serving of Cheeses and of Caviare
when sections will fold back giving a tulip-like ap-
pearance. Drain and serve on a dish of cracked ice.
To Cut Radishes to Represent Chrysanthemums.
Select round radishes and remove leaves, leaving
stems half an inch in length, and cut off a thin slice
from the root end. Wash, and scrape radishes in
several places to remove some of the red color. Cut
from top nearly to stem end in thin, parallel slices,
then cut thin slices at right angles to slices already
cut. Place in cold water and let stand until open to
suggest chrysanthemums. Drain and serve on a
dish of cracked ice.
SERVING OF CHEESES AND OF CAVIARE
To serve Edam and Pineapple cheese, the top
should be cut and notched in such a way that
it can be fitted in, when not in use. The best
grocers usually do this upon request. To pass, set
the cheese in the folds of a napkin (which come up
around it) on account of the oiliness of the rind.
Also silver frames come for holding these cheeses.
A silver cheese scoop is used to serve it. When
putting away after serving, if a small, fresh piece of
cheese-cloth is wet with brandy and placed inside
(cover on), the cheese will not become moldy as
readily, and an additional flavor will be gained as
Camembert should be in the ice-box an hour or
two before serving. To serve, scrape off the tin-
foil, then scrape off discoloration under tinfoil.
Place on a plate covered with a lace-paper doily and
cut in wedge-shaped pieces, with a butter spreader
upon the plate for serving. Prepare some time
before serving and keep in ice-box until needed.
Roquefort should be placed upon a plate fitted
with a lace-paper doily, with butter spreader on
plate for serving, or cut in small pieces and placed
on doily-covered plate.
Cream cheese, or Neufchatel, is placed on plate
containing lace-paper doily, with butter spreader
on plate for serving.
American Dairy Cheese should be cut in small
pieces of uniform size and placed on plate covered
with a lace-paper doily.
Caviare is the roe of the sturgeon and can be
bought fresh or salted, the former being the more
expensive. It is used in various ways as an appe-
tizer or hors-d'oeuvre and takes the place, to some
extent, of the raw oyster. It is seasoned and served
in small Swedish timbale cases, on cuts of toast or
crackers, or as a sandwich filling. In combination
with olives, sardines, or a cress butter, it makes a
good sandwich filling to serve with cocktails. After
removing caviare from the can or jar in which it is
bought, season with a few drops of lemon juice and
a dash of cayenne. If using the fresh caviare, salt
also should be added.
NOTES ON CARVING
THE waitress in many households is expected to do
the carving. This work, to be accomplished satis-
factorily, requires a knowledge of the anatomy of
that which is to be carved, which can be gained
only by handling meats before and after cooking.
A person who carves needs a steady hand, a
correct eye, and, above all else, sharp carving-knives
of different sizes and carving-forks provided with
guards which should be up while carving. It can be
plainly seen that a turkey calls for a carving set of
different size from that required for a smaller bird.
Platters, too, should be of suitable size.
If one understands the direction in which the
muscular fibers lie, he knows just how to cut, namely,
across the grain. Remember that slices should be
of uniform thickness and without ragged edges.
To Carve Porterhouse Beefsteak.
The flank end should be removed before cooking.
Cut both the tenderloin and the sirloin from the
central bone, carving the meat in two pieces ; then
Notes on Carving
cut in pieces, with the grain, about one inch in
thickness. Serve a piece of each to a portion, not
forgetting the dish gravy. When carving beef,
always ask a guest if he likes it rare, medium, or
To Carve Roast Beef Rib or Sirloin.
Place roast on platter, skin side up. Press fork
well down into the center of the roast, hold fork
firmly in left hand and with a pointed, thin-bladed,
sharp knife in right hand cut in thin, parallel slices
from crispy, fat edge to bones, then slip knife under
slices and cut from bones. Serve dish gravy with
Back of Rump.
Press the fork well down into center of the roast,
hold firmly in left hand, and with knife in right hand
cut in thin, parallel slices, with grain of meat. By
so doing, some of the less tender muscle will be served
with that which is more tender. Serve dish gravy
with each portion.
To Carve a Fillet of Beef.
Begin at the thick end and cut diagonally across,
having each slice from one fourth to one half of an
inch in thickness.
To Carve a Leg of Lamb.
Place roast on platter with rounding side up and
small bone to the left of the carver. Introduce
carving-fork into center of roast and hold firmly
with left hand, with carving-knife in right hand.
Cut in thin, parallel slices across grain to bone,
then slip knife under slices and remove from bone.
A leg of lamb which has been boned either by cook
or butcher before cooking is more easily carved and
gives better slices.
To Carve a Saddle of Mutton.
Make cuts parallel to backbone from half to
three fourths of an inch apart; then make cross
cuts at right angles to first cuts, from two to two
and a half inches in length. Free meat from
bone by slipping the knife under and cutting pieces
To Carve a Loin of Lamb or Veal.
Before cooking, the backbone of the loin should
be cut at each rib. Cut the roast between ribs,
serving one to each person. A Crown of Lamb is
carved in the same manner.
To Carve Roast Turkey or Roast Chicken.
Place bird on back with drumsticks at right of
carver. Introduce carving fork across breast-bone
Notes on Carving
(at its highest point) and hold firmly in left hand;
with carving knife in right hand cut through skin
between second joint and body, close to body.
With knife, pull back the leg and second joint (in one
piece) and disjoint from the body, then cut off wing.
Carve breast meat in thin parallel slices. Remove
fork and use with knife in separating second joints
from drumsticks ; also carve each of these in slices.
Finish carving one side of a bird before beginning
the other. Serve a portion of light and of dark meat
with some of the stuffing to each person, unless a
preference has been asked and given.
To Carve Broilers.
Cut in halves, and halve each half if the bird is
large, severing at joints as far as is possible. Serve
a quarter or a half, according to the size of the
broiler, to each person.
To Carve Domestic Duck.
Place bird on back, with drumsticks at right of
carver. Introduce carving-fork through breast and
hold firmly in left hand, with carving-knife in right
hand. The joints will be found much farther back
than in turkeys and chickens. Remove wing and
leg. Make cuts in breast meat parallel to breast-
bone, three fourths of an inch apart, and remove by
sliding the knife under the meat. Some rich dark
meat may be obtained from the sides, though in
To Carve Wild Duck.
Remove the breast meat from one side, then from
the other. Allow half a breast to each person.
Both legs and wings are usually too tough for table
use, but may be utilized in the kitchen.
SUGGESTIONS ON THE MAKING OF MENUS.
ACCOMPANIMENTS TO THE SEVERAL COURSES.
WHAT TO SERVE WITH SOUP, FISH, MEATS,
GAME, SALADS, DESSERTS, ETC.
THE MAKING OF MENUS
IN planning menus, the chief points to be con-
sidered are food value, money value, and aesthetic
value. A housekeeper should make a study of
foodstuffs and combinations. A knowledge of what
is in the market at different seasons of the year is
essential, for there is a time when each thing is at
its best and cheapest, and that is the time for its
use. Many buy foods when they first appear in
market on account of their choiceness, but one has
to pay for such gratification.
Care should be used to have courses contrast
decidedly, that a food or a flavor may not be repeated
in the menu. In serving more than one kind of
sauce, have each differ distinctly in color and flavor,
and, if possible, in consistency.
Heavy and light courses should alternate in a
long menu. They should be lighter in character
for a luncheon than for a dinner, with possibly
two exceptions, the soup and the salad. Heavy
dressings, such as mayonnaise and cream dressings,
may be served at luncheon but are too heavy for
For the formal dinner, the soup is invariably thin
and usually clear. For the informal dinner, when
the courses are few and not heavy, cream or heavy
soups are allowable. For the formal luncheon, a
roast is never served except when a roasted bird is
offered. At luncheon two vegetables or their equiva-
lent may be served; if potato is chosen as one, it
should be prepared in some light form. Often rice
or hominy takes the place of potato.
When cocktails are served in the drawing-room, a
caviare sandwich or a canape is passed ; but if the
dinner is begun with a canape, some wafer or plainer
sandwich accompanies the cocktail. With a course
of raw oysters or clams, or any of the cocktails
(lobster, scallop, sardine, oyster, or clam), it is well
to pass a brown or a graham bread sandwich. With
oysters on the shell, served on cracked ice, a horse-
radish sandwich is appetizing. A brown-bread
sandwich or the long oyster cracker may be used.
Condiments are passed with either oysters or clams.
Only one condiment may be used, or a number may
be presented for choice. Tomato catsup, a cocktail
The Making of Menus
mixture, Tabasco sauce, grated horseradish, and
cayenne are some of the customary seasonings, and
if one is serving more than one of these they should
be passed upon a tray. A half lemon is always
served upon the plate with the oysters.
Celery, radishes, and olives are usually served
after the soup has been placed. Sometimes one of
these and sometimes all three are passed. Bread or
crackers are needed with soup; following are a few
suitable combinations :
Consomme Bread Sticks
Parmesan Cheese Sticks
Cream Soups Crisp Crackers
Thick Soups Croutons
Oyster Stew Oyster Crackers
Chowder or Rich Fish Brown Bread and Butter.
There are many garnishings for clear soup, namely :
Italian Pastes Noodles
Royal Custard Shredded Brussels Sprouts
Harlequin Slices Sliced Cooked Chestnuts
Thin Slices of Lemon Boiled Macaroni cut in
eighth-inch pieces, making
Grated Parmesan cheese is often passed with clear
soups, when garnished with Italian pastes.
At Italian stores one may buy, put up in small
boxes, macaroni cut in fanciful shapes, especially in-
tended for soup. Vegetables cut with a small French
cutter into balls the size of peas, then cooked,
drained, and served in a clear soup, are very effective,
especially when of varied colors, as turnips, carrots,
Acid in some form usually accompanies the fish
course in the shape of lemon slices, from which the
seeds have been removed, dressed cucumber, or
dressed tomato. For a formal dinner, a fish not
difficult to eat should be chosen ; that is, either fish
without small bones, or filleted fish (which is fish
freed from skin and bone).
Suggestions follow for suitable combinations with
Broiled fish is improved by being spread with
maitre d'hotel butter, which gives it a moist appear-
ance and improves the flavor. One can vary the
flavor by the addition of chopped red and green
peppers or by using tarragon vinegar in place of
lemon juice. Watercress and slices of lemon garnish
effectively. The lemon may be sliced with or with-
out the rind ; the latter way is newer, but it does
not give so much color. With some fish dishes, it
[i 1 8]
The Making of Menus
is better to serve a lemon cut in quarters or halves,
from which the juice can be extracted more easily.
Fried parsley used as a garnish adds an attractive
touch of color. With fried fish, one may serve the
popular Sauce Tartare and fried potatoes. Serve
with broiled halibut ot pompano, Hollandaise sauce
to which is added chopped, well-drained cucumber.
With broiled or baked shad use a cucumber cream
sauce (merely whipped cream with chopped, drained,
and well seasoned cucumber added). A folded
napkin should be placed on the platter under boiled
fish, to absorb the moisture. Heavy rich sauces,
such as drawn butter, egg sauce, Hollandaise, and
Bechamel are appropriate here. Boiled potato balls,
dressed with maitre d'hotel butter, often accompany
boiled fish. Fillets of flounder or halibut, either
baked or steamed, need a highly flavored sauce,
such as lobster, shrimp, brown caper, or tomato.
With hot boiled salmon use drawn butter, Hol-
landaise, or caper sauce, and with cold boiled salmon,
Sauce Tartare, green mayonnaise, or vinaigrette
When fish is served as a course, in a menu of
many courses, it is seldom accompanied by potatoes
or other vegetables, although peas are appropriate
with salmon, and fried or stuffed tomatoes with a
white fish such as halibut and flounder. If fish is
the main course at a home dinner, potatoes and any
of the vegetables which blend well with the chosen
fish are always served. Winter vegetables, with the
exception of onions and carrots, are not suitable,
but all green vegetables are good. Canned corn and
shell beans are well placed with broiled fish.
Almost all entrees are served with an appropriate
sauce, and crisp bread or a roll is the only accom-
paniment. Patties are served alone, as the pastry
takes the place of bread. Meat croquettes some-
times have peas or pea puree served with them.
With most of the salad greens when simply
dressed, cheese croquettes or cheese balls are par-
ticularly good. A thin, unsweetened cracker
(buttered, sprinkled with mild paprika, and heated),
is good with fruit salads. A simple sandwich is
appropriate also. Whatever is offered, it should be
something to bring out, rather than to overpower
the flavor and seasonings of the salad.
Heavy desserts, such as steamed puddings or
puddings with rich sauces, should not be served
after a heavy dinner. Cold or frozen desserts take
their place and are usually accompanied with small
cakes or wafers. The sweet or dessert course is fre-
quently omitted at a home dinner and a salad takes
its place; a salad composed of fruit is especially
popular in just this place.
Suitable Combinations for Serving
SUITABLE COMBINATIONS FOR SERVING
Hominy and Horse-
Same vegetables as for
Vegetables a la jardi-
Maitre d'hotel Butter,
to which chopped
red and green pep-
pers are added
CORNED Plain Boiled
ROAST LAMB White Potatoes
Cauliflower with cream Sauce
Cauliflower au Gratin
Broiled Egg Plant
Stuffed and Baked Egg
LAMB CHOPS White
Suitable Combinations for Serving
Beets with Sauce Pi-
String Beans au Gratin
Winter or Summer
Fresh Lima Beans
Cauliflower or Brussels
Stuffed and Baked
Any of the green vege-
tables may be added
to this list.
BOILED White Potatoes
BOILED White Potatoes
Turnips. (The English
think these two vege-
tables should always
mutton. An attrac-
tive dish would be
carrots and turnips
cut in dice, boiled sep-
arately and drained,
mixed and covered
with white sauce.)
SADDLE OF All vegetables served
MUTTON with lamb, especially
Fried Rice Balls
CHICKEN White Potatoes
AND FOWL Sweet Potatoes Glazed
Fresh Lima Beans
Fresh Shell Beans
All Summer Vegetables
TURKEY White Potatoes
Cranberry Jelly or
Fresh, crisp Celery
Suitable Combinations for Serving
Same vegetables that
would be served with
poultry. By many,
onions are consid-
ered essential, either
boiled or as a souffle.
Also Fried Hominy.
Brown Giblet Gravy
A salad is more often
served with wild duck
than a vegetable.
Salad greens simply
dressed are to be pre-
ferred, namely :
Orange Salads as :
Orange and Cress
Orange and Walnut
Cumquat and En-
Favorite Sauces are :
Olive and Orange
Jellies are :
Currant and Plum
French Fried Sweet
BROILED Same Vegetables as
GUINEA for Roasted Guinea
Currant Jelly Sauce
Serve on buttered toast
or toast spread with
a puree of cooked
calPs liver moistened
with sherry; or in a
nest of chestnut
Green salads or salads
in which orange
plays a prominent
Suitable Combinations for Serving
If served as the main
course at luncheon,
light vegetables such
Fried Potato Balls
Spinach in Puff Paste
Asparagus on Toast
If served for a game
course, serve same as
Stuffed Baked Potatoes
[I2 7 ]
Cider Apple Sauce
French Fried Sweet Wild Plum Sauce
Brussels Sprouts with
Mushrooms in Brown
French String Beans
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