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TORONTO 

DOES HER “BIT” 



COMPILED BY 

HUBERT GROVES 

Director Municipal Intelligence Bureau 

ASSISTED BY 



WALTER G. FESSEY 
MARGARET LILLIS HART 



PUBLISHED BY 

MUNICIPAL INTELLIGENCE BUREAU 

Suite 215, 57 Queen Street West 
TORONTO . CANADA 



Copyright, Canada, 1918 
Hubert Groves 







MUNICIPAL 

INTELLIGENCE BUREAU 

Suite 215 , 57 Queen Street West 

Phone Adel. 5534 
ADVISORY BOARD 

Chairman, George Wright Controller Maguire 

Member Board of Trade Member City Council 

W. Nelson Wilkinson William A. Proctor 

Managing Editor Sunday and Daily World Bank of Toronto 



PURPOSE 

The Municipal Intelligence Bureau is now ready to furnish in- 
formation about the City of Toronto; also to furnish information 
about any other city in the Dominion of Canada. 

ASK US ABOUT 

Conduct of the city’s business, public men, churches, schools, 
theatres, business houses, election returns, clubs, societies, Board of 
Trade, etc. 

SPECIAL FEATURE 

A special feature of the Municipal Intelligence Bureau is the 
publication of the Toronto Municipal Year Book, the purpose of which 
is to give accurate, intelligent and ready information about the City 
of Toronto. 

Hubert Groves, director of the M.I.B., is a former Toronto news- 
paperman, having been municipal reporter at the City Hall for the 
W orld and News. 

HOW THE BUREAU IS SUPPORTED. 

Sale of Year Book. 

The Municipal Intelligence Bureau does not solicit public sub- 
scriptions. It is self-supporting. Through the sale of the Toronto 
Municipal Year Book the Bureau maintains itself, and establishes its 
Service Bureau. Charge is also made for written reports. 

Membership. 

Anyone can become a member of the Bureau by purchasing two 
copies of the Toronto Municipal Year Book. One dollar per volume. 
Each member is asked to send one copy outside of Toronto, to 



“ BOOST TORONTO ” 



THE SOLDIERS’ FRIEND 




MAYOR THOMAS LANGTON CHURCH 

TO WHOM THIS BOOK 
IS DEDICATED 



4 




FOREWORD 



I N the compilation of this volume 
I have taken the deepest pleasure, 
and I wish to add that it has been a 
sacred trust to send forth a lasting 
record of what the City of Toronto has 
done during the Great War. 

Many of Toronto’s sons sleep be- 
neath the poppies of “Flanders” and 
“Somewhere in France,” and their 
gallant deeds have placed our fair city 
on the map of the World in blood red. 

To the Mothers, Wives, Sisters, 
Sweethearts and Friends of these vali- 
ant heroes, there are no words expressive 
enough to fully convey an appreciation 
for the many comforts afforded the boys 
overseas, through their untiring efforts. 

Hubert Groves. 



Toronto, March i, 1918 



CIRCULATION IN CHARGE OF 

Pte. H omer W. Walker 
Pte. Charles E. Thomas 
3rd “Toronto” Battalion 



6 



TORONTO DOES HER “BIT” 



LIST OF BATTALIONS FORMED IN TORONTO. 
INCIDENTS ABOUT SAME. PATRIOTIC 
AND RED CROSS WORK. TORONTO 
WOMEN’S ACTIVITIES. 



T HE eyes of the entire world are focused upon the Dominion 
of Canada, and Toronto through the valiant service of her 
gallant sons in “Flanders” and “Somewhere in France,” 
shines as one of the brightest gems of the British Empire. 

Toronto has contributed more men for active service than any 
other city in Canada. 

Toronto has given the largest contribution to the Patriotic and 
Red Cross Funds of any city in the British Empire. 

Toronto made a larger Subscription to the “Victory Loan” than 
any other city in the Dominion of Canada, and established a world’s 
record for a like campaign. 

Toronto has indeed played a large part in the Great World War 
and her efforts have been one continual earnest endeavor to finish the 
war as soon as possible. 

Some Facts and Figures 
to March ist, 1918 



Enlistments from Toronto (bona fide residents) 44,000 

Total deaths 3,12 4 

Paid out by city to dependents (on ihsurance) 12,097,000 

Patriotic Fund 2,000,000 



Toronto Casualties in Four Battles 



Somme Zillebeke Vimy Lens 

Killed 525 157 251 405 

Wounded 1,771 595 810 1,213 

Missing and prisoners 117 129 50 109 

111 40 ... 11 24 



Total 2,453 881 1,112 1,751 



7 



MAJOR-GENERAL MERCER, C.B, 



TORONTO GENERAL GIVES HIS LIFE FOR HIS COUNTRY. 

T HERE’S not a finer officer or gentleman in all the Canadian 
Army,” was the expression used by one of the gallant 2nd 
Battalion soldiers of the ist Canadian Contingent in des- 
cribing the late Major-General Malcolm Smith Mercer, C.B., the 




General Mercer C.B. 



Toronto “Queen’s Own” commander, who as officer directing the 
movements of the Canadian division which barred the German 
Army’s path when it tried to break through to Calais, “saved the 



situation” for the Allies. In recognition of the great service rendered 
to the British Empire on that critical occasion, General Alderson of 
the British forces sent a special message to General Mercer’s family- 
expressing his appreciation of the Toronto officer’s achievement. 

Was Wise to Germans 

Like several of the British Army generals, including such notables 
as Lords Roberts and Kitchener, it has had to be recorded that the 
life of Major-General Mercer was lost to the service of the Empire 
before the great war had been two years in progress. Major-General 
Mercer was making a tour of the front-line trenches on a morning in 
June of 1916. He had some premonition that the Germans on this 
particular morning intended an offensive and was making an inspection 
to ensure that everything, down to the last detail, was in readiness to 
repel the attack. True to his expectation, the Germans suddenly 
“sent over” a hail of shells which formed a “barrage” between the 
front-line trenches and the Canadian divisional headquarters. Gen- 
eral Mercer was stunned by the explosion of a shell which burst 
close by, killing and wounding several of his staff officers. Realizing 
the importance of returning to headquarters, General Mercer tried 
to fight his way there in spite of the “barrage” danger facing him, 
but he fell, mortally wounded, while making the brave attempt. 
This was on June 2nd. His body was found, with three wounds in 
it, in Armagh Wood. He was buried at the front, at Poperinghe. 

An incident related by the men at the front throws a sidelight on 
the kindness of General Mercer and explains why he was held in such 
high esteem by the men, of all ranks, who were his comrades-in- 
arms. 

Corporal Saves Him 

A corporal of the 2nd Battalion was standing in a sheltered position 
during a rebombardment by the Germans of a section of the enemy 
front which the Canadians had just won by an early-morning surprise 
attack. He noticed another soldier standing unconcernedly at a spot 
where the German gunners were apparently trying to direct their fire. 

Anxious to prevent his comrade from unnecessarily risking his 
life and also at a loss to understand the other’s action, he called loudly, 
in language of vigorous terms, to him to seek shelter. In a few 
moments the other soldier joined the corporal but the latter’s astonish- 
ment can be imagined when he discovered he had been giving direc- 
tions to General Mercer. The General, however, at once thanked 
the corporal for the warning he had given, remarked that he had 
done right in calling to him, and said, “I guess you and I will go down 



9 



below together for awhile.” The corporal was Pioneer-Corporal 
Smith, better known as “Smissy,” who had enlisted at Oshawa, Ont. 

Had a Big Heart 

After that, it frequently happened that when General Mercer was 
on his inspectional tours, although accompanied by a retinue of staff 
officers, he would halt for a moment or so to chat with the corporal, 
such occasions being of course times of mystery and wonderment to the 
other members of the corporal’s battalion. 

General Mercer’s “gallant and distinguished conduct in the 
field” was the cause of his twice being mentioned in war despatches 
by General Sir Douglas Haig. On three different occasions General 
Mercer’s family in Toronto have received letters from His Majesty, 
King George, referring to the General’s part in the great war. 

The divisional command held by General Mercer was succeeded to 
by Major General David Watson, who went overseas in command of 
the 2nd Battalion, the regiment of the First Canadian Contingent 
which contained a large number of soldiers who had enlisted in Toronto, 
their unit distinguishing itself at St. Julien, Festubert and Givenchy. 

Toronto Pays Tribute 

The tribute paid to the memory of General Mercer by Toronto, 
Ontario and the whole Dominion, was the great service held in St. 
Paul’s Anglican Church, on Sunday evening, July 5th, 1916. 

Those present at the service included Brig-Gen. Sir Henry Pellatt, 
representing the Duke of Connaught; Sir William H. Hearst, Premier 
of Ontario; Lieut. -Col. Alex. Fraser, representing the Lieut.-Governor, 
Sir John Hendrie; Lieut. -Col. Herbert Bruce, representing Major- 
General Sir Sam Hughes, Minister of Militia; Hon. Dr. R. A. Pyne, 
Minister of Education for Ontario; Lieut.-Col. R. C. Levesconte, 
Lieut. -Col. Arthur G. Peuchen, Lieut.-Col. W. G. Mitchell; and 
Controller R. H. Cameron, officially representing the City of Toronto. 

The mourners included Mr. Frederick T. Mercer, Mr. John Mercer, 
Mr. Frank Mercer, and Mr. S. Bradford, the deceased General’s 
law partner. 

The sermon was preached by Lieut.-Col., Ven. Archdeacon H. J. 
Cody. He said the example set by General Mercer was an inspiration 
to all Canadians. In an eloquent tribute, he described the General 
“as one of Canada’s greatest military leaders, the pride of his regi- 
ment, a philosopher by nature, a lawyer by profession, a soldier by 
instinct, and above all a gentleman, a scholar and a Christian.” 

Major-General Malcolm Smith Mercer, C.B., was born in York 
County, near the City of Toronto. 



10 



WORK OF COL. NASMITH 




C.M.G. Conferred on Him by King George 

P ROMINENT among the Toronto officers who have given war 
services of high value because of their scientific knowledge is 
Col. George G. Nasmith, C.M.G., now on the Medical Health 
Staff of the city, who went to England with the ist Canadian Contin- 



EiEut.-Col. Nasmith, C.M.G., Ph.D. 

(Inventor of the Gas Mask) 

gent as advisor on sanitation and an expert on water purification, and 
later, in France, had charge of the Canadian Mobile Laboratory. 

A work of extreme importance not only for the Canadian Army 
but for the Allies in general was Colonel Nasmith’s invention of gas 



i 



masks to be worn by the troops when the Germans made a gas 
attack. He also devised a system which provided a supply of pure 
drinking water for the soldiers and also did other immensely valu- 
able work in sanitation and hygiene. It was because the Imperial 
authorities recognized the indebtedness of the nation to Colonel 
Nasmith for services accomplished that he was decorated by the King 
as a Companion of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and 
St. George. 

In Charge of Field Laboratory 

When the ist Canadian Division crossed from England to France, 
Colonel Nasmith became officer in charge of the Field Laboratory 
attached to the British Army. For eighteen months he carried 
on his work in France, always just in touch of the firing line. He 
returned to Toronto at the end of the year 1916 to resume his duties 
in the Department of Public Health. Since returning, Colonel 
Nasmith has written a book descriptive of his experiences in France. 
It is not only interesting and informative, but also important. The 
book is entitled, “On the Fringe of the Great Fight.” 

THE CALL TO ARMS 

MORE THAN 65,000 TORONTO MEN DON THE KHAKI. 

T ORONTO City has more than 65,000 men on the overseas 
honor-roll of volunteers who joined the colors from the opening 
of the war in August, 1914, to the proclamation of compulsory 
service on October 13th, 1917. All the members of the Toronto 
regiments, both officers and men, who had any chance of being found 
eligible, volunteered almost to a man for active service. In the 
sudden crisis, the Toronto militia officers put forth every dollar in the 
regimental treasuries to rush the work of mobilization, and went 
$50,000 into debt before the Recruiting League was formed, which 
carried the recruiting campaigns forward with great success until 
Toronto city and district outstripped all other parts of Canada in the 
proportion of its sons in khaki. 

First Military Camp 

Major-General F. L. Lessard, C.B., established the first military 
camp at Exhibition Park in October, 1914, and was succeeded on 
January ist, 1915, by Major-General W. A. Logie, who was then a 
colonel, and has since been promoted to the rank of brigadier-general 
and then to major-general, in recognition of his efficient administration 



12 




of the Toronto Military District. The appointment has met with the 
complete approval of the entire military and best civilian elements of 
the district. 

It is to be remembered that the total of 65,000 Toronto men on 
active military service includes a large number of drafts of Artillery- 



Major-General Logie 
.G.O.C. Military District No. 2 

men. Cavalry, Engineers and members of the Cyclists, Signallers, 
Army Service Corps, Army Medical Corps, Veterinary Corps, Dental 
Corps, Pioneer Corps, Forestry and Railway Construction Corps, and 
the Mechanical Transport Section. 

The Toronto militiamen who formed the First Canadian Contin- 
gent from this city went from Toronto as drafts from the various 






Regiments, not being welded into battalion form until after reaching 
the Valcartier mobilization camp. 

It was on August 20, 1914, that the first drafts that were to see 
active service as infantrymen went eastward from Toronto. They 
consisted of 360 members of the 12th York Rangers Regiment, 230 
from the 36th Peel Regiment, and about 150 men each from the 
Governor-General’s Body Guard and the 9th Mississauga Horse. 

Great Send-off 

Nearly 1,200 more Torontonians left to take part in the war on 
August 23, 1914, thousands of the citizens being at the station to 
cheer them off. That day’s quota from Toronto comprised 800 
members of the Queen’s Own Rifles and about 350 members of the 
10th Royal Grenadiers. 

Off to Valcartier — 15TH Battalion 

A thousand members of the 48th Highlanders, under command 
of Col. John A. Currie, M.P., left Toronto for Valcartier on August 




Col. John A. Currie, M.P. 

14 




29, I9 I 4- Although it was pouring with rain at the time, 25,000 of 
Toronto’s citizens were at the station to bid the Kiltie soldiers farewell. 
Like the other Toronto regiments forming the first contingent from 
Canada, the 48th played a prominent and noble part in stemming the 
Hun forces when they tried to break the Allied line at Langemarck 
and St. Julien. At the front the Highlanders were known as the 
15th Battalion. 

Three other drafts from Toronto also went eastward on the 29th 
of August. The Queen’s Own sent away 200, the Royal Grenadiers 
80, and the Mississauga Horse, 75. 

Toronto City has sent, or largely contributed the following in- 
fantry battalions to the Canadian front in France and Flanders: — 

2nd Battalion 

2nd Battalion, First Canadian Contingent, Lt.-Col. David Watson, 
commander, contained several hundred Toronto men, picked from the 
Governor-General’s Body Guard and the 9th Mississauga Horse. The 
commander of the 2nd Battalion, who prior to enlisting, was man- 
aging-editor of the Quebec Chronicle, is now a major-general, in the 
4th Canadian Division. The 2nd Battalion members have made 
themselves justly famous, having participated in the same important 
engagements as the “Toronto” 3rd Battalion and the “Fighting 
Fourth.” 

3RD Battalion 

3rd Battalion, First Canadian Contingent, Lt.-Col. R. Rennie, 
commander, contained several hundred members from both the 2nd 
Queen’s Own Rifles, 10th Royal Grenadiers, and a good contingent 
from the G.G.B.G. It has been on the firing line in France and Flan- 
ders from the outset of the Canadian soldiers’ participation in the 
fighting when the First Contingent stemmed the Germans’ terrific 
onslaught at Langemarck, and has nobly “done its bit” by taking 
part in many decisive battles during the last three years. It is 
often, and quite properly, referred to as the 3rd “Toronto” Bat- 
talion and owing to its many casualties has been heavily reinforced 
by Toronto infantry drafts. 

Lt.-Col. “Bart” Rogers is the present O.C., and he went overseas 
with the 3rd as a lieutenant. Col. Rogers and one other soldier are 
the only two of the original 3rd Battalion now at the front. 

On the elevation of General Rennie to the command of the 4th 
Brigade, Lt.-Col. W. D. Allan was given command of the 3rd Battalion, 
which command he held until he died, as a result of an operation 
necessitated by wounds received in action. Col. Allan won the re- 



spect and esteem of all the men of his battalion. If he had been spared, 
he was in line for promotion to the command of a brigade. 

Colonel Allan joined the Queen’s Own Rifles as a private in “K” 
Company in 1895 un der General Rennie, then captain of the company. 
Granted a commission in 1900, he finally became Captain of “K” Com- 




Brig.-Gen. R. Rennie 



pany which he commanded at the outbreak of the war. “K” Company 
joined No. 1 Company of the 3rd Battalion, 1st Canadian Contingent. 

Major A. E. Kirkpatrick joined “K” Company (Old University 
Company), Queen’s Own Rifles, as private, 1893; was promoted to 
corporal, sergeant, and finally colour-sergeant of “K” Company; 
was appointed Lieutenant in 1897, First Lieutenant 1900; was ap- 
pointed Captain of “E” Company in 1904; gazetted as Brevet-Major 
1914; gazetted Major in 1915. 

At the outbreak of War in August, 1914, he was appointed in 
command of No. 1 Company, and left with that battalion for Val- 
cartier; at Valcartier was appointed junior major of the 3rd Battalion. 
After training at Valcartier and Salisbury Plains he left for France 



with his battalion and, shortly after the arrival of the battalion there, 
was appointed second in command of the battalion. In the second 
battle of Ypres he had command of “C” and “D” Companies of that 
battalion, took up an advance position on the left of St. Julien and 
earned the title of “Hang-on Kirkpatrick,” owing to the fact that he 
held the position until entirely surrounded by the Germans, and was 
taken prisoner with what were left of his men. After twenty-two 
months a prisoner in Germany, owing to ill-health he was transferred 
to Switzerland, and not making sufficient progress towards health, 
he was later repatriated after twelve months in Switzerland, and 
returned to Canada. 

Lieut. Alexander Douglas Kirkpatrick was an officer in the 
Governor-General's Body Guard at the outbreak of war. Finding 
that Cavalry would not be taken, he transferred to Queen’s Own Rifles 
and was chosen as Lieutenant in the Expeditionary Force, and left 
with the 3rd Battalion for Valcartier. He trained with the battalion 
at Valcartier and Salisbury Plains; accompanied the battalion to 
France and was lieutenant of “C” Company, which was part of 
Major Kirkpatrick’s command, and was ordered to occupy a position 
on the left of St. Julien in the second battle of Ypres and was killed 
while leading his platoon against the enemy, April 23, 1915. 

Pte. C. E. Thomas, who is in charge of the circulation of this 
volume, was at Lieut. Kirkpatrick’s side when he fell. 

Capt. Gerald B. Muntz joined the Queen’s Own Rifles as a private, 
and was appointed Lieutenant soon after. At the outbreak of war 
he was appointed in command of “B” Company of the 3rd Battalion, 
and accompanied the battalion to Valcartier; trained with the bat- 
talion at Valcartier and Salisbury Plains; accompanied the battalion 
to France in command of “B” Coy.; was wounded in the second 
battle of Ypres while reconnoitring to ascertain whether it would be 
feasible for his company to occupy a certain position. He was re- 
moved to a hospital in Boulogne, and died in forty-eight hours after 
admission to the hospital. 

“Fighting Fourth” 

The 4th Battalion, known as the “Fighting Fourth,” Lt.-Col. 
A. P. Birchall, commander, has rendered distinguished service. As 
it went originally to the front it was composed of detachments from 
the 1 2th York Rangers, 36th Peel Regiment, 38th Dufferin Rifles 
(Brantford), 19th Lincoln Regiment and also representations from 
Haldimand and Bruce counties. The “Fighting Fourth” has taken 
part in many of the war’s big engagements including St. Julien, 
Festubert, Kemmel Hill, Givenchy, 3rd Battle of Ypres, Vimy Ridge, 



and Passchendaele. It was at St. Julien that the 4th Battalion played 
an especially gallant part. Situated on the left flank of the brigade 
it had to advance through an avalanche of shells and machine-gun 
fire, but due to the undaunted spirit of the members and the fearless 
leadership of Col. Birchall, pressed on to the objective point. Col. 
Birchall fell mortally wounded at the head of his battalion. 

Princess Patricias Leave Toronto 

A large contribution of men has been made by Toronto to the 
famous Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry. The first 
company of P.P.C.L.I. men left Toronto in the early fall of the year 
1914. Since then, several hundred more men have gone from Toronto 
to reinforce the P.P.C.L.I., and owing to the great distinction achieved 
by the regiment several of the drafts have been made up to a large 
extent by students from the University of Toronto. 

19TH Battalion 

19th Battalion, Lt.-Col. John I. McLaren, commander, was the 
first infantry regiment of the Second Canadian Contingent contri- 
buted to by Toronto men. The 19th Battalion was formed in the 
autumn of 1914. It was made up of about two-thirds Toronto men and 
over 400 men from the City of Hamilton. After training at Exhibition 
Camp during the winter and spring months, the 19th left for overseas 
in May, 1915. 

35TH Battalion 

35th Battalion, Lt.-Col. F. C. McCordick, commander, was 
organized in Toronto in the early spring of 1915. It was made up of 
recruits from the Royal Grenadiers, Queen’s Own Rifles, 48th High- 
landers, 1 2th York Rangers, and the 109th Regiment. The 35th 
Battalion trained at Niagara Camp during the summer of 1915, and 
went overseas from that point in drafts. 

58TH Battalion 

58th Battalion, Lt.-Col. H. A. Genet, commander, which was 
recruited in the summer of 1915, contained a good representation of 
Toronto City men. The battalion spent the summer and fall at 
Niagara Camp. It took part in the trek of troops from Niagara to 
Toronto, and after a few weeks at Exhibition Camp, left for the east 
in the early winter. 

74TH Battalion 

74th Battalion, Lt.-Col. R. C. Windeyer, commander, was organ- 
ized during the’ summer of 1915, its membership being composed equal- 



18 




ly of men contributed by the 2nd Queen’s Own Rifles, loth Royal 
Grenadiers, 36th Peel Regiment and the 48th Highlanders. The 
battalion was made up almostly entirely of Toronto City men. After 
being recruited in quick time, the 74th went from Toronto to Niagara 
Camp, where its 1,200 men put in several months of hard training. 
During the winter of 1915-1916, the battalion was quartered at 
Exhibition Camp, Toronto. It left for overseas in the late spring 
of ’16. 

75TH Mississauga Battalion 

75th Mississauga Battalion, Lt.-Col. S. G. Beckett, commander, 
was recruited in the late summer of 1915, the 9th Mississauga cavalry 



Lieut. -Col. S. G. Beckett 



regiment being the parent unit. Col. Beckett, its commander, was 
killed in action while gallantly leading his men during one of the 
Canadian advances on the western battlefront. The chaplain of the 
75th, Major Rev. W. L. Baynes-Reed, rector of St. John’s, Norway, 




Anglican Church, is now on active duty with the troops on the firing 
line. 

8 1 st Battalion 

8 i st Battalion, Lt.-Col. B. H. Belson, commander, was organized 
in the early fall, 1915, three of the companies being composed of 
Toronto men and one of men recruited in St. Catharines. Its com- 
mander was an officer in the 1st Canadian Contingent and was wounded 
while serving with the famous “Fighting Fourth” Battalion, at 
Langemarck. 

83RD Queen’s Own 

83rd Queen’s Own Battalion, Lt.-Col. Reginald G. Pellatt, comman- 
der, was recruited mainly through the efforts of the Queen’s Own 




Lieut. -Col. Reginald G. Pellatt 



Rifles Regiment in the summer of 1915. Only a few weeks were 
needed to recruit it. The 83rd trained during the late summer and 
early fall months at Niagara Camp, and in the winter of 1915-1916, 



20 




in Toronto. Its winter quarters were the old General Hospital building 
on Gerrard Street East. The battalion left for overseas in the early 
summer of 1916, entraining at the Union Station. 

84TH Battalion 

84th Battalion, Lt.-Col. W. T. Stewart, . commander, was raised 
by the 109th Regiment, Toronto, early in 1915, and. went under canvas 
at Niagara Camp for the summer and fall. During the winter the 
battalion was divided in half, the headquarters staff and two com- 
panies of the unit being quartered at Brantford and the other two 
companies at Oshawa. Prior to going east in the spring of 1916, 
the battalion was remobilized for a few weeks at Exhibition Park 
Camp. 

92ND Battalion 

92nd Highland Battalion, Lt.-Col. George Chisholm, commander, 
was another of the Toronto C.E.F. infantry regiments recruited in 
quick time in the late summer of 1915, the 48th Highlanders being the 
parent unit. The 92nd put in a brief training period at Niagara and 
then returned to Toronto, going into quarters at the old General 
Hospital building, until the spring of 1916, when it left for overseas. 
The departure of the 92nd Highlanders from Toronto was one of the 
city’s outstanding war-time events. One of the estimates placed the 
number of Torontonians who witnessed the 92nd’s departure at 
twenty-five thousand. The send-off to the 92nd, which took place at 
Riverdale Station, will be always remembered as an historic occasion. 

95TH Battalion 

95th Battalion, Lt.-Col. R. K. Barker, commander, was also 
organized in the fall of 1915, and also had a short training under canvas 
at Niagara. It spent the winter and spring training seasons in the 
Process Building at Exhibition Camp, and went overseas in the late 
spring of 1916. The 95th left Toronto on a Sunday afternoon, up- 
wards of 10,000 people taking part in the send-off. 

97TH Battalion 

97th Battalion, Lt.-Col. F. Jolly, commander, better known as the 
97th American Legion, was organized early in January, 1916. To 
be eligible for membership in the 97th, recruits had to be either born 
in the United States or be the sons of United States citizens. The 
unit was recruited to a total strength of about 1,200 before it left 
for England, in May, practically all of this battalion’s officers being 



21 



men who had seen service as officers in the army or the navy of the 
United States. A special feature of the 97th was a trumpet band, 
this taking the place of the usual bugle band. The 97th’s men partici- 
pated in the capture of Vimy Ridge, where they suffered heavy 
casualties. 

123RD Royal Grenadiers 

123rd Royal Grendiers Battalion, Lt.-Col. H. B. Kingsmill, com- 
mander, was recruited during the latter two weeks of December, 1915. 
Prospective recruits were urged to “offer themselves as a Christmas 
present to their country.” The unit had winter quarters in the 
Givens and Crawford Public School buildings. The 123rd left for 
overseas in the early summer of 1916. 

124TH “Pals” Battalion 

124th “Pals” Battalion, Lt.-Col. Vaux Chadwick, commander, 
was also recruited up to complete strength in a two weeks’ whirlwind 
campaign. It only took from the day after Christmas, 1915, until 
the end of the first week in January, 1916, to secure one thousand men 
for this popular unit. The 124th put in its Canadian training at 
Toronto, Camp Niagara and Camp Borden. The unit left for over- 
seas in August, 1916, and on reaching France became a “pioneer” 
battalion. 

126th Peel and West Toronto 

126th Peel and West Toronto Battalion, Lt.-Col. F. J. Hamilton, 
commander, was organized through the efforts of the 36th Peel 
Regiment and contained a good proportion of Toronto City men. 
It trained at Toronto, Niagara and Camp Borden prior to going 
overseas. 

127TH York and North Toronto 

127th York and North Toronto Battalion, Lt.-Col. F. F. Clarke, 
commander, contained several hundred men recruited in the City 
of Toronto. The unit was familiarly known as “Clarke’s Foot 
Horse,” owing to the prowess it displayed in making long route 
marches without fatigue. The 127th trained at North Toronto and 
at Camp Borden, leaving the latter place for overseas early in August, 
1916. On reaching France the battalion was turned into a railway 
construction unit. 

134TH Highlanders 

134th Highlander Battalion, Lt.-Col. Duncan Donald, commander, 
was recruited in quick time in the spring of 1916. Its commander, 



22 



at that time also officer commanding the popular 48th Kiltie Regi- 
ment, met with little difficulty in rallying recruits for the overseas 
unit. The 134th was the third overseas battalion of Highlanders to 
be raised by the City of Toronto. After training at Exhibition 
Camp, the 134th went to Camp Borden, where it put in about six 
weeks of strenuous outdoor work and then left for overseas. Its 
members were used to reinforce the Highland units at the front that 
went from Canada with the First Contingent. The 134th band was 
chosen for Dominion Day service 1917 in Westminster Abbey. 

i66th Queen’s Own 

1 66th Queen’s Own Battalion, Lt.-Col. R. C. Levesconte, comman- 
der, was another of the overseas units organized through the Queen’s 
Own Rifles regiment. The 166th was recruited during the spring 
and early summer of 1916. The unit, after mobilization, spent the 
first two months of its training at Exhibition Park. It was one of 
the first battalions from Toronto to go under canvas at Camp Borden. 
The 1 66th left Camp Borden for the east during the early fall of 1916. 

169TH Battalion 

169th Battalion, Lt.-Col. Jesse G. Wright, commander, was the 
second overseas unit raised entirely through the work of the 109th 
Regiment of Toronto. The 169th was recruited in a little over two 
weeks during a whirlwind campaign, in the early spring of 1916. 
Officers representing the 169th addressed meetings of factory employees 
and on the first Sunday of the campaign spoke for volunteers for over- 
seas infantry service from the pulpits of a great many of the city 
churches. After spending an entire summer in training at Niagara 
Camp the battalion left from that point for the east in the early fall 
of 1916. 

170TH Mississauga 

170 Mississauga Battalion, Lt.-Col. L. G. Reed, commander, was 
the third overseas regiment raised with the backing of the 9th Mis- 
sissauga cavalry regiment, the other two being the 75th and the 
124th. Organization of the 170th took place during the spring of 
1916. A feature of the 170th Battalion’s recruiting campaign was the 
allotting of men from the same profession or trade into special sections 
or platoons and the use of this unique plan as a magnet to get vol- 
unteers to sign up. The 170th had several months of outdoor camp 
life at Borden and in the autumn of 1916 went from there overseas. 



23 



Sportsman’s Battalion, i8oth 

180th Sportsman’s Battalion, Lt.-Col. Richard H. Greer, com- 
mander, was one of the best known overseas regiments raised by the 




Lieut.-Col. R. H. Greer 



City of Toronto, including as it did many Toronto athletes not only 
of country-wide reputation but of world-wide note. These included 
such athletic stars as Lieut. “Bob” Dibble, contestant for the “Dia- 
mond Sculls” at Henley, England, and international sculling champion 
of America. Every branch of sporting activity supplied of its best 
to this battalion, with the result that the unit’s representatives 
carried off many athletic trophies at the field games held in Canada, 
including the military championship at the Canadian National Ex- 
hibition, Toronto, and also when the battalion competed at field 
days held in England and France. The 180th put in nearly four 
months of training at Camp Borden and went overseas in October 
of 1916. Capt. Tom Flanagan was prominently identified with the 
raising of the Sportsman’s Battalion. 

Lt.-Col. Greer is now at Ottawa directing the work of the Military 
Service Council’s legal department which has to do with the ap- 
prehension of Military Service Act defaulters. 



24 




Capt. Flanagan is now Chief of Dominion Police for the great- 
er part of Ontario, including New Ontario, his special work being 
the organizing and putting into effect of a police campaign for the 
arrest of men who try to avoid military service under the draft act. 

Lieut. “Bob” Dibble, who was seriously wounded while on active 
service on the western battle-front, is assistant to Capt. Flanagan 
in his Dominion Police work in Ontario. 

198TH “Buffs” Battalion 

198th Canadian-Buffs Battalion, Lt.-Col. John A. Cooper, com- 
mander, started recruiting in the late spring of 1916 and was up to a 
total of about 1,200 by the time it left Toronto at the end of June, 
to go under canvas at Camp Borden. By special permission of the 
Imperial authorities, the 198th was affiliated with the famous “Buffs” 
regiment of Kent county, England, and allowed to wear the hand- 
some gold dragon crest of that regiment as the badge on the uniforms 
of its members. The Canadian Buffs trained at Exhibition Camp, 
Toronto, and at Borden. The unit went to England on February 
23, 1917. 

201 st Battalion 

201 st Battalion, Lt.-Col. E. W. Hagarty, commander, better 
known as the Toronto Light Infantry, was recruited in the spring 
of 1916, most of its members being high school cadets. The members 
of the Toronto Light Infantry Battalion made a name for themselves 
both in military affairs and in athletics. At Camp Borden the 201st 
carried off the championship at one of the camp athletic field days. 
Owing to the fact of the battalion’s total strength being several 
hundred men below the required establishment of 1,200, it lost its 
identity, an arrangement being made in the fall of 1916 by which 
one-half of its members were alloted to the 198th Buffs Battalion and 
one-half to the 170th Battalion. 

Beavers Battalion, 204TH 

204th Beavers Battalion, Lt.-Col. W. H. Price, commander, which 
started its recruiting early in the spring of 1916, was sometimes re- 
ferred to as the “Parkdale” Battalion, owing to the large number of 
its members gained from that section of the city, also because its 
chief officer is a member of the Ontario Legislature, representing the 



2 5 



west end. As a matter of fact every part of Toronto furnished a large 
quota of men for the Beavers Battalion, due to the enlistment cam* 




Lieut.-Coe. W. H. Price, M.P.P. 



paign of the unit having been carried out on a city ward basis. The 
204th spent a few weeks’ preliminary training at Exhibition Park, 
went north to Camp Borden for four months and then returned to 
Exhibition Park, where several more months were spent in drill, 
the unit leaving Toronto for England in the spring of 1917. 

2o8th “Irish” Battalion 

208th Canadian-Irish Battalion, Lt.-Col. T. Herbert Lennox, 
M.P.P., commander, held the first rally of its recruiting campaign on 
March 17th, 1916, St. Patrick’s Day. The 208th was affiliated with 
the noth Irish Regiment, which militia unit aided the overseas 
battalion in its sweep for recruits and also supplied a number of 
officers for overseas service with it. The 208th trained at Exhibition 



26 




Camp for a short time, at Camp Borden during the summer and fall 
of 1916, and then at Toronto until the spring of 1917 when it left for 




LiEut.-Col. T. H. Lennox, M.P.P. 



overseas. While in London, Eng., the 208th took part in the Lord 
Mayor’s Procession. Controller Capt. “Joe” Thompson signed up 
with this battalion. 

213TH Battalion 

213th Battalion, Lt.-Col. B. J. McCormack, commander, was the 
second “American Legion” Battalion formed in eastern Canada with 
Toronto as the headquarters and mobilization point. This unit 
started organization work in the early spring of 1916 and 'signed on 
several hundred recruits by the early summer, gained not only from 
all parts of the eastern United States, but also in considerable numbers 
from the United States-born residents of Toronto. The 213th trained 
at Exhibition Camp, at Borden and then during the early winter of 
1916-17 at St. Catharines. Its members went overseas in drafts from 
the latter city. 

“Bantams” Battalion 

216th (Bantam) Battalion, Lt.-Col. F. L. Burton, commander, 
was recruited during the late spring and early summer of 1916. At 



27 




first the battalion’s zone of recruiting campaign activities was limited 
to the City of Toronto, but later by special permission of the Ottawa 
authorities its scope of work was first extended to take in the whole 
of Toronto Military District and then the major part of the Province 
of Ontario. Upwards of a thousand men were recruited for the unit 
and then it went to Camp Borden, where it stayed until late October. 
Coming back to Toronto, the 216th Battalion was in training until 
the spring of 1917 when it left for overseas duty. The 2i6th’s second 
in command was Major Alex. Lewis, Secretary of the Toronto Harbor 
Commission. Major Lewis was wounded and “gassed.” He was 
invalided back to Canada and is now second in command of the 2nd 
Battalion, 2nd Central Ontario Regiment. 

22oth York Battalion 

220th York Battalion, Lt.-Col. B. H. Brown, commander, which 
started to organize during the summer of 1916, contained many 
recruits from the northern part of Toronto. The battalion went 
overseas early in the next year. 

234TH Battalion 

234th Battalion, known as the Peel County Battalion, had its 
headquarters in West Toronto and probably contained as many 
Toronto men as from the county. It was commanded by Lt.-Col. 
Wellington Wallace. The battalion started its recruiting campaign in 
the summer of 1916 and went overseas in the late spring of 1917. 
The unit trained at West Toronto and Exhibition Camp. 

255™ Queen’s Own 

255th Queen’s Own Battalion, Lt.-Col. George C. Royce, com- 
mander, Gen. -Manager and Secretary of the Toronto Suburban 
Railway Company, commenced its recruiting in the late fall of 1916. 
The second in command was Lt.-Col. S. W. Band, who gave up the 
command of the Q.O.R. to go overseas as a major in the 255th. 
Its campaign for members was featured by the “Give-us-his-name” 
scheme, citizens in general being urged to contribute names of men 
considered eligible for army service, to be followed up by the unit’s 
recruiting sergeants. Thousands of names were received and the 
system yielded many recruits. The 255th went east in May of 1917. 

256TH Battalion 

256th Railway Construction Battalion, Lt.-Col. Walter McConnell, 
commander, had headquarters in Toronto and obtained several 
hundred of its recruits from Toronto and vicinity. 



28 




257™ Battalion 

257th Railway Construction Battalion, Lt.-Col. H. T. Martin, 
commander, also secured several hundred of its men in Toronto. 

Both these railway units commenced recruiting in January of 
1917. Within about two months they had signed on enough men to 
bring them up to strength and then left immediately for France. 

Eaton Motor Machine Gun Corps 



Sir John Eaton, Kt. 

The Eaton Motor Machine Gun Corps, Major R. J. Morrison 
(now in charge of Toronto Jail Farm), commander, was formed in 



29 



Toronto during the winter of 1914-15. It was featured by a number 
of very large armored cars, donated by Sir John Eaton, and built by 
the Russell Motor Car Company. The armored cars were fort-like 
in construction, and in design something similar to the famous British 
“tanks.” The Eaton Motor Machine Gun Corps trained at both 
Exhibition and Niagara Camps before going overseas in the summer 
of 1915. Its membership included a great many university men, 
men highly skilled as motor-mechanics, also some experts in wireless 
telegraphy work. Present commander, Capt. R. D. Harkness. 




Brig.~Gen. Sir Henry M. Peeeatt, M.C.V.O., 
Commander Queen’s Own Rifles 



30 



4TH C.M.R. 

The 4th Canadian Mounted Rifles Regiment, organized in the 
fall of 1914, under command of Lt.-Col. Vaux Chadwick, was mainly 
composed of members of the Governor-General’s Body Guard and the 
9th Mississauga Horse, cavalry regiments of Toronto. Mobilization 
of the 4th Canadian Mounted Rifles took place at Exhibition Camp, 
where the unit was in training until the late spring of 1915, when it 
went to Niagara Camp. In the early summer, the 4th C.M.R., 
which has the distinction of being the only complete cavalry regiment 
formed in Toronto for overseas service in the great war (the other 
horsemen going as squadrons or drafts), was transferred to Valcartier, 
Que., from where after a brief period it left for overseas. Col. Chad- 
wick, business partner in Toronto of Lt.-Col. S. G. Beckett who was 
killed in action while leading his command, the 75th Battalion, did 
not go overseas with the 4th C.M.R., but later went to the front in 
command of the 124th “Pals” Battalion of Toronto. 

On the western front in France and Belgium, the 4th Canadian 
Mounted Rifles has served as an infantry unit and taken part in many 
of the fiercest battles, including those at Sanctuary Wood, the Somme, 
Vimy Ridge and Passchendaele. Its commanders have included 
Lt.-Col. S. F.i Smith, Lt.-Col. J. F. H. Ussher, Lt.-Col. H. D. Lockhart 
Gordon, and 'Lt.-Col. Wm. Patterson. 

t' 

RECRUITING BUREAU 

W HEN the fact became known to the Ottawa authorities that 
Canada would have to be represented at the Front by several 
divisions, a Government recruiting bureau was established in 
Toronto, which was first officially called the Toronto Recruiting 
Depot. This was organized by Major (now Lt.-Col.) LeGrand Reed, 
who was succeeded by Major R. J. Christie, Q.O.R. 

Sacrifices Business 

Major Christie placed to one side, in large measure, his important 
business interests as head of the Christie, Brown & Co., Limited, and 
other important financial responsibilities, to devote himself to the 
duties as commander of what is now the Toronto Mobilization Centre. 
Under Col. Reed and Major Christie over 60,000 men have been given 
military medical examination in the Toronto Armouries. 



3 1 




Major Christie has two sons on active service. Gunner W. L. 
Christie went overseas as a Lieutenant in the 35th Battalion and is 
now in France with the Divisional Ammunition Column. 

I. Huntley Christie is now overseas serving as a Lieutenant in the 
Royal Flying Corps. 



Major R. J. Christie: 

STAFF OFFICERS 

The Staff Officers, who under direction of Major-General Logie 
direct the military affairs of Toronto Military District, are: — 
General Staff Officer — Col. H. C. Bickford. 

General Staff Officer, 2nd — Lt.-Col. W. R. Lang. 

32 



Assistant Adjutant-General (in charge of administration) — Lt.-Col. 
James George. 

Deputy Assistant-Adjutant and Quartermaster-General — Major 
F. P. Healey (86th Battalion). 

D.A.A. and Q.M.G. 2. — Lt.-Col. G. F. Morrison, D.S.O. (1 8th 
Battalion). 

Orderly Officer — Lieut. C. T. Clark (4th C.M.R.). 

Camp Engineer — Major R. B. McGiffin. 

Assistant Camp Engineer — Capt. E. H. Yeigh. 

Assistant Director of Supplies and Transportation — Col. G. A. 
Dodge, S.P.A.S.C. 

Assistant Director of Medical Services — Lt.-Col. E. S. Ryerson, 
late of No. 4 General Hospital, C.E.F. 

Deputy A.D.M.S. — (1) Sanitation — Lt.-Col. J. W. S. McCullough, 
Provincial Health Officer. 

Deputy A.D.M.S. — (2) Sanitation — Major J. C. Fitzgerald. 

Officer in Charge of Dental Services for Toronto Military District — 
Lt.-Col. W. G. Thompson. 

Toronto District Paymaster — Lt.-Col. J. R. Forbes, C.A.P.C. 
Senior Ordnance Officer — Lt.-Col. A. de L. Panet, C.O.C. 

Chief Veterinary Officer — Major F. S. Macdonald, C.A.V.C. 
Assistant Judge Advocate General — Lt.-Col. J. A. Macdonald. 

District Intelligence Officer — Capt. A. F. Coventry, Corps of 
Guides (late 55th Battalion). 

Senior Chaplain Toronto Military District — Lt.-Col. Geo. H. 
Williams. 

Officer in Charge of Records and Statistics — Capt. J. F. R. Wilkes 
(late Royal Field Artillery). 

District Signalling Officer — Major S. de W. Dunn. 

Senior Musketry Officer — Lt.-Col. G. V. Massey, C.O.T.C. 

Administration Staff Branch — Lt.-Col. R. C. Windeyer (late 74th 
Battalion). 

District Provost-Marshal — Major E. F. Osier 

Assistant Provost-Marshal — Major James Widgery (late 75th 
Battalion). 

Officer Clerk — Capt. J. C. Armstrong, C.M.S.C. 

School of Infantry — Lt.-Col. H. D. LePan, commandant. 



33 



ROYAL CANADIAN DRAGOONS 

Toronto Regular Army Unit from Stanley Barracks 

A MOST enviable war-service record is that of the Royal Canadian 
Dragoons, the Toronto regular army unit which has head- 
quarters at Stanley Barracks, known for a hundred years by 
Toronto and “Muddy York” citizens as “the Old Fort.” Since the 
present war started, this noted cavalry regiment has sent overseas 
in excess of a thousand of its members, all highly trained and all up 
to the Royal Canadian Dragoons physical standard. Major E. A. 
Hethrington is the officer commanding the Royal Canadian Dragoons 
at Stanley Barracks. 

Among the prominent Toronto officers who were identified with 
the Royal Canadian Dragoons and now serving overseas are Lt.-Col. 
C. M. Nelles, C.M.G., Major C. V. Van Straubenzee, and Major 
A. V. S. Nordheimer. 

ROYAL FLYING CORPS 

Toronto is One of the Greatest Aviation Instructional 
Centres of the British Empire 

W ITHOUT a doubt the work carried on by the Imperial Royal 
Flying Corps in the Toronto Military District is on a scale 
rivalling that of any aviation centre in the whole British 
Empire. Under the direction of the Royal Flying Corps headquarters 
in Toronto City, five great aviation camps are operated: at Borden, 
Leaside, Armour Heights, Long Branch and Deseronto. Two of 
these, Leaside Camp and Armour Heights Camp, are in the limits of 
Greater Toronto itself, at the north side of the city. Officers of the 
Royal Flying Corps, who have visited Toronto as representatives of 
the British Army authorities, have been unstinted in their praise of 
the equipment and arrangements of the Toronto aviation grounds. 
In fact, they declared without hesitation that there was nothing in the 
British Isles to surpass them. 

Aviation Centre 

Toronto is the aviation training centre for the whole Dominion 
of Canada, and during the summer of 1917 to a large extent also for 
the North American Continent, inasmuch as hundreds of members 
of the United States Army Flying Corps were sent to Toronto to be 
trained in aviation work. 



34 



General Hoare at the Head 

Lt.-Col. C. G. Hoare of the Imperial Royal Flying Corps and a 
staff of officers were sent to Canada by the British War Office to 
organize a Canadian Flying Corps Division, with headquarters estab- 
lished in Toronto. In consequence of the rapid growth of the Can- 
adian aviation work it was recognized by the Imperial authorities 
promoting Col. Hoare to the rank of General. 

Spent Ten Million 

Ten million dollars has been expended by the British Government 
for the establishment of the aviation plants and training grounds in 
Canada, practically all being within the Toronto District Royal 
Flying Corps area. Five great aviation training camps and one 
very large airplane factory were in full operation in Toronto District 
by the end of 1917, and within a few weeks the sixth training camp 
will be completed. It is at Beamsville. 



GREAT WAR VETERANS’ ASSOCIATION 

Started in Flanders 

O NE of the City of Toronto’s most rapidly growing organizations 
is the Great War Veterans’ Association. It has 3,400 Toronto 
members. Three thousand of them were enrolled during the 
year 1917. To go back to the beginnings of the Great War Veterans’ 
Association it is necessary to go to Flanders, for it was on the Canadian 
fighting line in Belgium that the idea of forming such an association 
was first thought of. It was after one of the biggest battles on the 
Canadian front at St. Eloi, in which some of the Ontario battalions 
suffered exceptionally heavy losses, that the idea was broached of 
forming an organization of war-veterans, for “comradeship” of those 
who had survived the battle of that day. Of course, since that time 
the association has added to its objects those of mutual assistance, and 
of being a club to stand strongly behind the dependents of the brave 
men who “Went West” and see that they were aided in every possible 
way. 

First Local Meeting 

When first organized in Toronto the war-veterans’ club was named 
the Returned Soldiers’ Association. It was established at a meeting 
of returned soldiers held in St. John’s Church, Portland Street, on 
May 22, 1916. Provisional officers were appointed as follows: — 
President, Regt. Sergt.-Major W. Rowe Whitton, W.O., 20th Bat- 



35 



talion; Treasurer, Ralph Humphries, 15th Battalion. The organ- 
ization was chartered as the Great War Veterans’ Association during 
January, 1917. By a re-arrangement recently adopted the Toronto 
and all the branches of the association in the county have been 
merged into the York County Great War Veterans’ Association, 
officered as follows: — Pres., Lt.-Col. E. B. Hardy, D.S.O.; Vice- 
Pres., H. F. Meredith; Treas., Major G. A. Sampson; Secretary, 
J. C. O’Connor. 

Executive — H. W. Parson, James Tweedle, Lt.-Col. C. G. Williams, 
Capt. H. Marani, Major Carson McCormick, Capt. McCallum, M.C., 
and Comrades Walker, Perkins, Cameron and Graham. For many 
months the secretaryship of the Toronto branch of the association was 
held by Sergt. Wm. Turley, a returned soldier, whose energy and 
executive ability has contributed much towards the success of the 
G.W.V.A. He is now secretary of the Ontario Great War Veterans’ 
Association. Two of his brothers were killed in action on the western 
battle-front. 

Five Toronto Branches 

There are five Toronto branches of the G.W.V.A. They are: — 
A Company (Riverdale) — Pres., Major G. A. Sampson; B Companv 
(Central) — Pres., James Tweedle; C Company (West Toronto) — 
Pres., Capt. H. Marani; D Company (Parkdale) — Pres., J. Cameron; 
Earlscourt Company — Pres., T. Campbell. 



SPORTSMAN’S PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 

Formed Sportsman’s Battalion 

T HE Sportsman’s Patriotic Association was founded in the month 
of August, 1916, with R. H. Greer, President; T. C. Flanagan, 
Vice-President; Fred Sutherland, assisted by Miss Nora Leigh, 
as Secretary, for the purpose of buying athletic goods for the soldiers’ 
training camps for overseas. The idea met with such instant favor, 
and such sums of money were contributed by the public, that Messrs. 
George Wright, T. Herbert Lennox, and James Pearson were appointed 
a Board of Trustees to handle the funds, and arrangements were made 
to establish branches throughout Ontario in such places as Hamilton, 
London, Ottawa, Brockville, Windsor, and Calgary for the West. 
Each organization was carried as a subsidiary to the Toronto organ- 
ization and given the right to use the name, and a button was issued 
to be used as a symbol of membership throughout Canada. In all the 
sum of $30,000 was handled by the Toronto organization in addition 

36 




to monies that were received by the local organizations throughout 
the country, and the necessity for supplying overseas units with goods 
as well as entertaining the men of the various camps, was entered on 
along broad lines and with uniform success. Much assistance was 



George Wright, 

Trustee S.P.A. 

given to the military authorities in recruiting, largely through the 
theatres on Sundays, which were used through the generosity of the 
theatrical profession both as a financial and enlisting agency to aid 
recruiting and finance the necessities of the soldiers. 



37 



Formed i8oth Battalion 



The Toronto organization was asked to organize the 180th Overseas 
Battalion, which was done and given the name of the Sportsman’s 
Battalion, to which many famous athletes were attached, both as 
officers and non-commissioned officers and men, and after a short 
training of eight months, arrived in England, where it was recognized 
as one of the best of our Canadian battalions and was subsequently 
broken up for drafts as reinforcements for the Front. 

On the departure of Lieut. -Col. R. H. Greer and Capt. T. C. 
Flanagan overseas with the battalion in 1916, the duties of the organ- 
ization were taken over by the Sportsman’s Patriotic Association, 
which was incorporated under the original name, and many of the well- 
known newspaper men of Toronto are interested in it. Mr. Patrick 
J. Mulqueen is president, and the executive is composed of such 
men as Frank Nelson, of the “Globe;” W. J. Hewitt, of the “Star;” 
Mr. J. Shea, of Shea’s Theatre, and James Norris. 

Xmas Cheer 

The “Christmas Tree” entertainments given each year in Toronto 
for the wives, mothers, and children of the “soldiers overseas,” under 
the auspices of the Sportsman’s Patriotic Association, constitute a form 
of war-time cheer worthy of much praise. The events are held in 
Massey Hall. During the Christmas holiday season just past about 
30,000 gifts from “Santa Claus” were placed in the hands of the 
children of the fighting men overseas. The gifts cost nearly $7,000. 



THREE TORONTO V.C.’S 

T HREE Torontonians have won the V.C. The first Victoria 
Cross was won by Sergt. Frederick Hobson. This hero did not 
survive the wounds received at the time he performed the 
valorous deed for which he gained the coveted award. 

Second Award 

The second was won by Corp. Colin Barron, 23-yeat-old teamster, 
who went overseas, after only two months’ training, in 1915. He 
came from Banffshire, Scotland, and was only in Toronto three years 
when he enlisted with Lt.-Col. McCordick’s Battalion. He was 
absolutely without any military experience, and after two months’ 
training at the Exhibition Camp, went overseas in June, 1915. For 
two years he has been constantly on the firing-line and has escaped 
injury. His father, Joseph Barron, lives in Scotland. 

38 




Corp. Colin Barron, single-handed, rushed enemy guns, killed 
four of the crews and captured the others, and then turned the 
captured guns on the retiring enemy, causing severe casualties. 

Third Award 

Lance-Sergt. S. Robinson, of the Canadian Infantry, also won this 
enviable distinction. 

PATRIOTIC FUND 

Organized August, 1914. More than $6, 500,000 Collected in 
Three Whirlwind Campaigns. How Money Was Disbursed. 
1918 Campaign Brought $3,133,348.39 



Hon. Sir William Mulock, K.C.M.G., 
President Toronto and York Patriotic Fund. 



39 



Organized at City Hall 



A FEW days after the declaration of the war, August 4, 1914, 
at the instance of several public-spirited citizens, a meeting was 
held at the City Hall Council Chamber, to discuss ways and 
means of augmenting the financial resources of families of soldiers 
who were to go on active service. This meeting was held on August 
14, and the Toronto and York County Patriotic Fund Association was 
founded. Sir William Mulock was made the president and an ex- 
ecutive and organization committee was formed. 

Organization 

It was decided at a meeting held at the City Hall, August 20, 1914, 
to hold a Mass Meeting at Massey Hall and inaugurate a campaign to 
solicit funds from the public during a four-day campaign. The aim 
was to raise one million dollars. The meeting was held the following 
Monday after the 20th, and the campaign more than came up to the 
expectations of the organizers. 

Raise Over One Million 

The amount collected from that campaign amounted to $1,005,- 
552.46. 

Offices were opened at 30 King West, and by the end of December, 
1914, 900 families had been cared for and $21,567 had been spent on 
relief work. 

Up until Oct., 1915, 5,427 families had been cared for and $88,817.08 
had been expended. 

At the end of Dec., 1916, 9,621 families had been cared for and 
$148,388.34 expended. 

Up until the end of 1917, 8,306 families had been cared for and 
$142,336.10 expended during the month of Dec., 1917. 

The 1916 campaign brought $2,363,356. 

The 1917 campaign brought $3,195,780.98. 

The amount of moneys expended in the carrying on of the work 
was only $79,505.96 up until the end of December, 1916. 

The total number of dependents, women and children, in receipt 
of aid from the funds during December, 1917, 22,859, as against 
26,753, December, 1916, and about 14,000 in the month of October, 
1915. 



40 




H. H. Williams, 

Chairman Patriotic Fund Executive — 1917 



Officers 

Patron, His Excellency the Duke of Devonshire. 

Hon. Pres., Sir John S. Hendrie, K.C.M.G. 

Hon. Pres., Hon. Sir William Hearst, K.C., LL.D. 

President, Sir William Mulock, K.C.M.G. 

Hon. Treasurer, E. R. Wood. 

Hon. Solicitor and Secretary, E. T. Malone, K C. 

Asst. Treasurer, A,, S. Muirhead. 

Asst. Secretary, C. D. Gower. 

Business Manager, J. A. McElroy. 

Offices: Corner Yonge and Wellington, and Room 914, C.P.R. 
Building (Subscription Dept.). Phone Main 1986-7-8. 



41 



A large measure of the great results attained through the cam- 
paigns is due to the sterling activities of Col. W. S. Dinnick, the 
organizer, and H. H. Williams, chairman of the 1917 executive, and 
team captains and workers. 

1918 Campaign, $3,133,348.39* 

The result by teams and special subscriptions in the 1918 campaign, 
Jan. 22, 23, 24, 25, is as follows: — 



Chairmen. Totals. 

C. Marriott $ 245,442.00 

Rotary Club 324,601 .00 

H. B. Wills 226,534.07 

T. Findley 363,194.68 

Thos. Roden 290,200.50 

Justice Ferguson 67,762.76 

Women’s Committee 205,613.38 

City 1,000,000.00 

York County 300,000.00 

Civic Employees 36,000.00 

Civil Servants 12,000.00 

University of Toronto 1 2,000 . 00 

T. Eaton Co 50,000 . 00 



#3.133.348-39 

CANADIAN RED CROSS- TORONTO BRANCH 

More than $ 3 , 000, 000 Raised in Cash and Material 
Contributions 

T HE Toronto Branch of the Canadian Red Cross Society was 
organized 2nd September, 1914. 



The value of materials contributed is as follows: — 



I9 J 4 $ 18,330.98 

1915 108,580.71 

19 16 263, 741.65 

1917 102,082.63 



#49 2 .735-97 

The amount of money received each year:— 



Year ending Sept. 30th, 1915 $166,872.31 

Year ending Sept. 30th, 1916 171,485.08 

Year ending Sept. 30th, 1917 301,506.33 



42 



1639,863.72 



British Red Cross 

In the fall of 1915, the British Red Cross sent in an appeal to all 
cities of the British Empire for aid. Toronto made the following 
contributions in 3 three-day whirlwind campaigns: — ' 



1915 toM 73 

699,533 

i9‘7 835,000 



Total contributions to Red Cross were more than $3,000,000. 




Lieut. -Col. Noel Marshall, 
Chairman Canadian Red Cross 



Executive, Canadian Red Cross 
Chairman, Lt.-Col. Noel Marshall. Hon. Rec. Secty., B^ S. MacGinnis. 

Hon. Secty., Mrs. (Canon) A. M. Plumptre. 

Offices: Imperial Oil Bldg., cor. Church and King. Phone Main 3560. 

43 




Toronto Executive 



Pres., Kenneth J. Dunstan. 

Chairman and Hon. Treas., Senator Nicholls. 

Vice-Pres., A. E. Ames and A. F. Rutter. 

Hon. Treas., J. J. Gibson. 

Hon. Secty., C. N. Candee. 

Hon. Asst. Secty., F. A. Mulholland, C.R.C. 

Offices: 92 King W. Mrs. R. Stearns Hicks in charge. Phone 
Adel. 784. 

A life membership in the C.R.C. costs $25. 

The Canadian Red Cross receive a portion of the money collected 
on the Patriotic Fund Campaign, and from the 1918 campaign they 
received one-third. 



VICTORY LOAN 

Toronto Creates World’s Record for Number of 
Subscribers 

T ORONTO created a world’s record by subscribing $76,256,315. 
The number of Torontonians subscribing being 126,390. This 
announcement was made Monday, December 3, 1917, at 
Massey Hall. The campaign lasted virtually two weeks, and 
created a world’s record with respect to the number of subscribers. 

Toronto Executive 

Honorary Chairman — Sir Edmund Osier. 

Chairman — J. W. Mitchell. 

Vice-Chairman — H. R. Tudhope. 

Secretary — G. A. Warburton. 

Chairmen of Districts: 

District “A” — W. N. Mcllwraith. 

“ “B” — Major O. Heron. 

“ “ C Lt.-Col. F. H. Deacon. 

“ “D” — John A. Tory. 

“ “E”— H. H. Williams. 

Publicity Committee — W. P. Gundy, Chairman. 

Industrial Groups Committee — CoL.W. K. McNaught, Chairman. 
Committee — T. Bradshaw, W. C. Noxon, F. G. Osier, H. M. Pea- 
cock, D. H. Pettes, W. E. Rundle, Lieut. A. F. White, E. G. Willis, 
G. H. Wood. 



44 



WAR WORK OF Y.M.C.A 

Red Triangle a Welcome Sign. 

F EW institutions have rendered the same amount of assistance 
to the boys as the Y.M.C.A., and this work has not been 
confined to the trenches. Directly a young man enlisted he 
came under the influence of this organization, which followed him on 
all his travels, and, finally on his return to Toronto, his first meal on 
landing would invariably be obtained at the Central Y.M.C.A. 

From the outset, the Y.M.C.A. took a prominent interest in the 
boys who enlisted, and even those whose physical condition prevented 
their enlistment were taken in hand, and by dint of much training 
and exercise they were made fit and able to pass the examination. 

At the various camps throughout the city, the Y.M.C.A. was 
always represented; in fact, the Y.M.C.A. war worker is ubiquitous. 
He took charge of the canteens, and supplied everything for the well- 
being and interest of the soldiers. 

House for Soldiers. 

At the city hospitals a special selection of secretaries was made 
for the express purpose of brightening the lives of the young fellows 
who have fallen by the wayside through over-exertion in training, 
and other causes not brought on by themselves. 

For those who come to Toronto on leave, or visit the city en route 
for some other encampment, the Y.M.C.A. placed the Red Triangle 
Club, corner Queen and Victoria Streets, at the disposal of the boys. 

A great deal of this organization was of a voluntary character, 
the supervision being, of course, under men whose life training has 
made them specially adapted for the work. The business men of 
the city have contributed a great deal of time and money to this work. 
A staff of approximately 20 men at the Exhibition Camp handle the 
3,000 and more men there. The Red Triangle Club, with a staff of 
15 men, take care of 3,000 men a week, for beds and meals, to say 
nothing of the thousands constantly making use of the club for reading, 
writing, billiards and general recreation purposes. 

One secretary is stationed at the Toronto Base Hospital, and he 
has some 725 men to look after. At the Orthopedic Hospital, one 
secretary looks after 700 men. 

The committee which looks after this work consists of Messrs. 
L. F. Moneypenny, Chairman; T. F. Brown, W. H. Scott, John 
Westren, Jr., Geo. Ross, P. J. Lee, Secretary. 

George A. Warburton is the General Secretary, with offices at 
the Central Y.M.C.A., 34 to 36 College Street. Telephone N. 8400. 



45 



TORONTO WOMEN’S NOBLE WORK 



Thousands of Mothers, Wives, Sisters and Sweethearts 
do Their “Bit” 

Lady Hendrie Gave Generous and General Support 

L ADY HENDRIE, wife of the Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario, 
has been associated with the War Work of Toronto since its 
^ very inception. She has attended numberless meetings, by 
which she gave encouragement and assistance to many patriotic 
projects, and has been an undoubted strength to the work of the women 
of Toronto. She gave personal time and superintendence to the 
Duchess of Connaught Prisoners’ of War Fund, which turned out so 




Lady Hendrie 
46 



successfully. She has also taken keen interest in the work of the 
children in the schools, receiving their donations to various patriotic 
campaigns, delighting teachers and children by her enthusiastic re- 
cognition. Measuring up to the needs of the times the response of 
Lady Hendrie to patriotic calls has been gracious and general. 



WORK OF LADY HEARST 

Sympathetic Assistance of Premier’s Wife 

N ATURALLY sympathetic, Lady Hearst, the wife of Sir William 
Hearst, the Premier of Ontario, has found many ways in 
which to help in the various avenues by which Toronto’s 
women have assisted the soldiers both overseas and at home. In 




Lady Hearst 



47 



various campaigns she has given personal service and was Convener 
of the S.O.S. Committee in the last British Red Cross Campaign. 
She has also done her “bit” by knitting and sewing, and has ever 
been at the call of meetings and gatherings where her presence might 
lend support to the patriotic work of the times. 

DEEDS THAT WILL LIVE 

What Toronto Women Have Done 

W OMEN’S War Work in Toronto began on the very day that 
Great Britain declared war on Germany. On August 4th, 
1914, the first meeting of women for war purposes took place 
on the large verandah and grounds of “ Deancroft,” the home of Mrs. 




A. E. Gooderham. A telegram, dated Aug. 3rd, from a Toronto girl, 
Miss Mary Plummer, then in Victoria, B.C., had been received by the 
Daughters of the Empire in Toronto. The telegram asked that the 
organization throughout Canada get together and work for an Hospital 

48 



Ship. The meeting held at the home of the President of the Order 
was the response to the request. Mrs. R. S. Wilson, Regent of the 
Municipal Chapter, presided, and during the course of the meeting 
Miss Plummer arrived, coming direct from the train. 

The Women of Canada 

On Aug. 6th a second meeting was held and organization was 
completed for the work of the Hospital Ship, which it was decided 
should be the offering of no special organization but that it should 
come from the Women of Canada. The objective was $ 100,000 . 
The result surpassed all expectations, amounting to $284,000. It was 
later found that the Hospital Ship was not needed, and after consulta- 
tion it was decided that $100,000 should be given to the British War 
Office for the Canadian Women’s Ambulances, the remaining $184,000 
to go for a group of buildings at the Hasler Naval Hospital, Ports- 
mouth, England. In addition to collecting Toronto’s share of the 
gift on “Flag Day,” all the executive work in connection with the 
enterprise was done by the women of Toronto, with Mrs. A. E. Gooder- 
ham as President, Miss Plummer, Secretary, and Mrs. John Bruce, 
Treasurer. Miss Plummer, and Miss Joan Arnoldi, another Toronto 
girl, went to England, where both were given commissions and have 
since been overseas working in connection with the superintendence 
of the Field Comforts’ Commission. 

Toronto Women’s Patriotic League 

The next big movement was that which resulted from a gathering 
held in the City Hall on August 18th, to which all Toronto women, 
and especially representatives of all societies, were invited. On 
that morning the rain came down in torrents, but that did not prevent 
a wonderfully large and enthusiastic turn-out. The object of the 
meeting, broadly speaking, was to prepare for any service that women 
could do. Many names were suggested, and after debate, the name 
Toronto Women’s Patriotic League was decided upon, and Mrs. 
Willoughby Cummings was elected President. Headquarters were 
procured through the offer of a beautiful and commodious house at 
559 Sherbourne Street, and various activities were carried on there 
until headquarters were changed to their present address, 80 King 
Street West. 

Varied Activities 

The activities carried on by the Patriotic League were colossal, 
embracing comforts for soldiers, which meant the making and re- 
ceiving of thousands of socks, pyjamas, handkerchiefs, mitts and other 



49 



articles; supplying clothes and other needs to the destitute of the city, 
a class very numerous in the early days of the war; sending supplies 
to the Belgians; giving and getting employment for women and girls,, 
and assisting in any way that the emergency seemed to demand. 
The officers of the “League,” in addition to the President, Mrs. Cum- 
mings, were: Vice-Presidents, Mrs. H. D. Warren, Mrs. McClelland; 
Secretary, Mrs. F. Featherstonhaugh; Treasurer, Mrs. Hamilton 
Burns. The work became so heavy that it was thought advisable 
to divide it in charge of Sub-Committees, which since then have been 
working under various names. Their activities are given under their 
Sub-Committee name. 

WAR WORK OVERSEAS 

Mrs. A. E. Gooderham’s Services 

P ATRIOTISM of the women of Toronto has not stopped short 
at the boundaries of our City. Some have followed our men 
overseas and have done noble things to add to their comfort 
and safeguard their interests. Among those who have done this is 
Mrs. A. E. Gooderham, who spent many months in England, and while 
there saw to the equipping and furnishing of the Daughters of 
the Empire Hospital, near High Park, London. The funds for this 
were given by Col. Gooderham, and the beautiful and generous furnish- 
ing was all done under instructions from Mrs. Gooderham. The 
institution is for officers and will accommodate twenty-five. The 
house was secured for the duration of the war through the influence of 
an English friend of Mrs. Gooderham, and placed under the auspices of 
the Red Cross Department of the Daughters of the Empire. She 
also interested herself largely in the Maple Leaf Club, which has two 
I.O. D.E. Annexes for the entertainment of soldiers. 

Other Activities 

In addition to overseas work, Mrs. Gooderham, as President of the 
National Chapter of the Daughters of the Empire for Canada, has 
been interested more or less directly in all the vast activities of the 
Order, the work of which goes through the head office in Toronto. 
She is also on the Board or in some way connected with almost every 
patriotic endeavor, and it was in her home, “Deancroft,” that the 
initial meeting — that which launched the idea of the Hospital Ship — 
was held. Recently her influence has gone through the Dominion 



5 ° 




Mrs. A. E. Gooderham 



for the purpose of inspiring the project of the I.O.D.E. Home for 
Nurses in England. Mrs. Gooderham is undoubtedly among the 
women of Toronto who have spent themselves unstintingly in patriotic 
service. 

WORK FOR WAR VETERANS 

Miss Church a Big Factor 

O UTSTANDING is the work of Miss Church, sister of Mayor 
Church, for the Great War Veterans, for whom she was in- 
strumental in procuring a large and handsome home to be used 
as Club quarters. Much preliminary work led to “Women’s Tribute 
Night,” Nov. 30th, 1916, memorable for the enthusiastic scene in 



5 



Massey Hall, when the returned heroes were given their first general 
recognition and the sum of $8,500 was either received or promised by 
the audience of women. The quarters at 22 Carlton were rented and 
the 26 rooms furnished at a cost of about $3,200. The total collected 




Miss R. Church 



is now about $2,800. The example of Toronto stimulated other 
centres, and Hamilton, Brantford and Winnipeg followed in having 
a “Tribute Night” to the returned soldiers and other work in their 
interest. 

WORK OF MRS. AMBROSE SMALL 

One of Toronto’s Best Assets 

% MONG the women who have worked along individual lines 
r\ as well as taking part in practically all the big campaigns that 
x have been launched since the war, is Mrs. Ambrose Small, 
who was one of the first interested in the Citizens’ Recruiting League, 
for which she procured meeting places such as theatres, also orchestras, 
besides taking personal charge of all the monies collected at the Sunday 





Mrs. Ambrose Small 



meetings. On some Sundays no less than ten meetings were held at the 
same time. She was also chairman of the Ways and Means Committee 
which raised over $75,000 for overseas Battalions and recruited about 
1,100 men. 

Italian Red Cross 

The founding of the Italian Red Cross Society was the work of 
Mrs. Small, through which 1-7,500 lira was sent to Italy in the first 
few months. For thisrcwork this indefatigable Toronto worker re- 
ceived letters of recognition from the Minister of Foreign Affairs in 
Italy. Mrs. Small was President of this Society for three years and 



53 



Hon. President of the Italian Patriotic Society, her knowledge and 
facile use of the Italian language making her of great use to these 
organizations. 

Mother of “Irish” Battalion 

Another channel in which Mrs. Small did exceptional service was 
in connection with the 208th Irish Battalion, which she “mothered” 
from the time they were started until they went overseas, and for 
which she raised $25,000. To this work she gave almost her entire 
time, having an office down town to facilitate her various activities in 
this connection. 



Other Patriotic Service 

She also raised money for different patriotic interests through 
lectures given in different parts of the country, and with the assistance 
of various committees raised $1 5,400 for Patriotic and Red Cross Funds 
in ten campaigns in which she took part, and sold $40,000 of Victory 
Bonds. She is now President of the Women’s Auxiliary of the Great 
War Veterans, Central Branch, Toronto, and Honorary Regent of the 
War Veterans’ Chapter in Hamilton. In the first year of the war 
she had a Milk and Bread Fund, supplying 400 families with money 
raised through private donations and entertainments. As Regent of 
Sir Henry Pellatt Chapter, I.O.D.E., Mrs. Small has to her credit a 
fair representation of the activities reported through the Municipal 
Chapter. 



TORONTO COUNCIL OF WOMEN 

Mrs. A. M. Huestis, President 

T HE Toronto Council of Women, of which Mrs. A. M. Huestis 
is President, is composed of a federation of seventy-two societies, 
every one of which in addition to regular activities has done 
“war work” of one kind or another, the total amount handled an- 
nually amounting to thousands of dollars. 

The President has formally represented the Council in every 
patriotic campaign since the work began, and together with the 
members has shared the responsibilities. 

The Executive directly distributed all posters and cards for the 
National Service Board. It did not take a war to make the Council 
patriotic, its work for twenty-five years being along those lines. 



54 




Mrs. A. M. Huestis 

EMERGENCY WORK-ROOM 

T HE Emergency Work-room of the Patriotic League was in charge 
of Mrs. H. D. Warren, which got its employees through the In- 
dustrial Employment Bureau opened by the organization. 
Through this avenue many women were placed both in the city and 
country. The total number of registrations until the Bureau was taken 
over by the Government was 6,127, the number placed 1,684, °f which 
481 were out of town. Day’s work through the work-rooms were 20,903 
and work through the knitting department to be taken home 259. 
A work-room for unemployables who could not be left to starve was 
filled to capacity for many months, the simplest work being found for 
them. The making of rag dolls was a feature of the Emergency work, 
many being sold in different parts of Canada, and in New York, 
Boston and different parts of the States. In connection with the 
knitting-rooms of the Patriotic League there were two departments, 
one in charge of Mrs. Lewis and the other under the direction of Mrs. 
Van Nostrand. 



55 




Mrs. Arthur Van Koughnet 

56 



Mrs. H. D. Warren 



Apart from her connection with the League, Mrs. Warren has 
from the very beginning of the need for service spent herself in many 
directions; and by the noble way in which she continued her work 
under the trying sorrow that came to her early in the war in the loss 
of her son overseas, proved an inspiration and example for other 
women, thousands of whom have since had the same sad experience. 
Mrs. Warren gave a large room at her home, “Red Gables,” where 
work has been carried on continuously. She also gave the Officers’ 
Hospital on Jarvis Street, and has helped in almost every movement 
launched for war service. Mrs. Warren has been decorated with the 
insignia of a Lady of Grace of St. John of Jerusalem, an honor which 
she bears with the modesty that distinguishes her whole life-work. 



SOLDIERS’ COMFORTS DEPARTMENT 



ytMONG the women who have been on duty without relief 
jT\ guard since the first blast of the bugle sounded the call “to 
arms,” is Mrs. Arthur Van Koughnet, who has applied herself 
to many things which she found at hand to do, and to many others 




that found her for their doing. As Convener of the Soldiers’ Comforts 
Department of the Patriotic League, “Comforts” in the shape of 
shirts, socks, service shirts, slippers, towels, pillows, sheets, bags, 
cigarettes, hot-water bottles, surgical-dressings, musical instruments, 
games, toilet articles, and multitudes of other articles for the comfort 
of the men here and overseas have passed through her hands, the 
total amounting to 328,169 articles valued at $338,448.00. 

TORONTO RED CROSS 

Women Spare Neither Time Nor Money 

T HE Toronto Red Cross — which is a branch of the Canadian 
Red Cross — with headquarters at 88 King Street West, has been 
in operation almost since the first call to arms sounded through 
the land. Its principal mission has been to supply needs and com- 
forts to the men in the Hospitals, and most heartily and systematically 
has the work been carried out. 

The material has been supplied through various channels, largely 
through circles of which there are now three hundred in Toronto, 
many attached to various church organizations and others to various 
groups of women working in different parts of the city. A feature of 
the work is, that every circle finances itself, so that when the supplies 
come in they are altogether unencumbered and a free gift from the 
women. Through the instructions issued by the “War Work,” which 
is published quarterly by the Canadian Red Cross, the articles made 
are turned out according to directions which are carefully followed, and 
the work of the women may be said to be standardized and exquisitely 
finished. Some of the circles work almost continuously, others having 
special days of the week upon which to assemble for sewing and 
knitting. 

4,491,627 Articles Shipped 

To imagine the bulk and number of articles that have passed 
through the hands of the workers at 88 King Street West, seems almost 
an impossibility. Their bulk was many tons and they numbered 
4,491,627 articles. The supplies included thousands of pairs of 
socks, bed-linen, pyjamas, bandages, warm comfortable dressing- 
gowns and jackets, property-bags, bandages, and scores of other 
much appreciated articles. The value of money and material collected 
from the beginning by the Toronto Red Cross amounts to $545,517.57 
at the date of report — Feb. 18th. Headquarters have sent out 
21,000 letters and cards of acknowledgment, and 25,150 bulletins, 
copies of “War Work” and patterns. 



57 



Xmas Cheer in Trenches 



Another most interesting part of the work was the Christmas 
Cheer sent annually to the boys in the Hospitals overseas. Every 
season since the men and boys of Toronto crossed the Atlantic they 
have been remembered, the Christmas of 1917 seeing no less than 
1,100 of the most beautiful and generous Christmas stockings piled 
up to greet the men at Christmas-tide. So generous was this last 
response that it was made possible to give a special treat to the 
men at the Base Hospital and to the convalescents at the Exhibition 
Camp. 




Mrs. R. Stearns-Hicks 

The work at headquarters has been all superintended by Mrs. 
R. Stearns-Hicks, who took over the honorary office at the beginning 
and has since been one of the most devoted of war-workers, giving her 
day’s attention and labor and often her night’s thought to the interest 
of the things that go to guard and comfort our sick soldiers. 

Toronto’s total collection for the British Red Cross since the 
beginning of the war is 12,123,716.00. 

58 



HAS WORKED NATIONALLY 

Mrs. Plumptre’s Activities 

T HERE have been few if any women who have stuck closer to 
patriotic service than Mrs. Plumptre, but as a large portion of 
her time and talents have been given to the Canadian Red Cross, 
results may not be given in figures as the offering of Toronto alone. 
Mrs. Plumptre has convened the Women’s Committee of the British 
Red Cross Campaigns, and in the interests of the cause toured Western 
Canada. A keen observer of men and things, her advice and exec- 
utive ability have been of great value to many undertakings. As a 
logical and interesting speaker she has often been called upon to 
represent various interests, her addresses being always entertaining 
and informing. Mrs. Plumptre gives almost daily personal attention 
to the work at the headquarters of the Canadian Red Cross. 





UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL SUPPLY 
ASSOCIATION 

Lady Falconer Directs Work 

T HIS group of women workers, of which Lady Falconer is the 
President, began work in April, 1915, for the purpose of equipping 
No. 4 General Hospital. In three months the equipment of 
bed linen, surgical and other supplies was complete. Since then the 
work has gone on for the Canadian Red Cross, a certain proportion 
of the socks being sent to the Canadian Field Comforts Commission. 
The supplies are packed in cases ready for overseas shipment, and 
consist of sheets, pillow cases, towels, surgical shirts, bed-jackets, 
bed-socks, dressing-gowns, pyjamas, shirts, socks, personal property 
bags, and other useful and necessary articles. Towels numbering 
42,005, socks 22,211, pyjamas 18,769, and surgical shirts 14,516, 
have been despatched in 2,146 cases and 16 bales, under the convener- 
ship of Mrs. Hilda Kenrick. 

MUNICIPAL CHAPTER, I.O.D.E. 

Hundreds of Women Give Their Services 

S OME idea of the colossal work of the Imperial Order Daughters 
of the Empire in Toronto, may be gleaned from the following 
figures, which, however, only cover the activities to March, 1918. 
From the beginning of patriotic service until that date the Order in 
Toronto has sent 700,000 articles to the Red Cross, 75,000 pairs 
of socks to Red Cross and overseas, 40 layettes containing 1,500 
articles of clothing to soldiers’ wives in Toronto, canned fruit, tobacco, 
cigarettes, maple sugar, maple syrup, chewing-gum in unlimited 
quantities to the Military Convalescent Homes and Hospitals in 
England and France; gave a Drum and Bugle Band to the 35th 
Battalion C.E.F. 

Equipped Gymnasium 

The Municipal Chapter, I.O.D.E., also equipped the Gymnasium 
at Exhibition Camp for the first Battalions that were quartered there. 
Cots were given, and wards in Military Hospitals and Base Hospitals, 
also the Sun-room at Davisville Hospital, were furnished. Cots were 
supplied to the Duchess of Connaught Hospital at Cliveden and to 
the Hospital at Shorncliffe. Six Ambulances to be used in France 
and Toronto were among the gifts from the I.O.D.E. Another 
branch of the work was that of visiting the dependents of soldiers, 
for the Toronto and York County Patriotic Fund, ten thousand 
families being on the list in January, 1917, though the number has 
since decreased. 



60 



Other Patriotic Work 



In addition to strictly war work the I.O.D.E. of Toronto have 
supported 10 cots in the “Preventorium,” where children predisposed 
to tubercular diseases are assisted to perfect health. A thousand 
baskets of Christmas Cheer is provided annually for poor children. 
Through the efforts of the Westminster Chapter the beautiful gates 
at the High Park Boulevard entrance to High Park were completed. 

Money Raised 

Money raised for all purposes from 1914 to 1917 totalled $261,- 
196.91. This was distributed amongst the Canadian Red Cross, 
British Red Cross, Patriotic Fund, Prisoners of War Fund, Belgian 
Fund, French Relief Fund, Maple Leaf Club in London, England, 
Canadian Navy League, Great War Veterans’ Club, Preventorium and 
other Homes for children. In addition, War appeals of many kinds 
were more or less assisted, the summary being highly creditable 
to the patriotism of the members and to the executive ability of the 
President, Mrs. R. S. Wilson, and to her assistants, Mrs. Angus 
MacMurchy the Treasurer and Miss Elizabeth C. Dixon the Secretary, 
for upon these ladies devolved a great deal of the responsibility and 
real hard work of the organization. 

THE BELGIAN RELIEF COMMITTEE 

A Splendid Work Done 

T HE Belgian Relief Committee is a development of the Women’s 
Patriotic League, and under its chairman, Mrs. Arthur Pepler, 
has done continuous work since its institution shortly after war 
conditions had begun, October 14th, 1914, being the date of its organ- 
ization. Its headquarters are at 88 King Street West, and here the 
business of the Committee goes on daily in just the same systematic 
manner as if it were a large commercial concern in which the staff 
were paid workers instead of being as they are — volunteers doing their 
“ bit” for the cause. 

The primary object of the Belgian Relief was to despatch clothing 
and supplies to Belgium as quickly as possible, and so expeditiously 
was the first call answered that through many channels of publicity 
12^2 tons of clothing and supplies were gathered and shipped to a 
relief ship in Halifax in four days. 

Since then cash has been collected up to date, Feb. 15th, 1918, 
amounting to $132, 582.1 1. The greater part of this has been expended 



61 



on wheat and other foodstuffs. A few of the methods used to raise 
this amount were a Tag Day, through which $24,519.72 were raised; 
distribution of 18,000 circulars in Toronto; distribution of Christmas 
envelopes by Boy Scouts and mail, resulting in $10,187.32; Easter egg 




Mrs. Arthur Pepler 



posters, $1,853. 27; Special Sunday School appeal, $1,295.50; Children’s 
Milk Fund, largely due to the initiative of Mrs. Littlejohn, $1,500; 
concerts, lectures, golf tournaments; advertising in 50 Ontario papers 
and circulation of 120,000 leaflets — results not yet ascertained. 

Relief to Belgian Canal Boat Fund 

Especially interesting is the help given the Belgian Canal Boat 
Fund, a work taken over by a Toronto woman, Mrs. Agar Adamson, 
who has been assisted overseas by two other women from Toronto, 
Mrs. Innis-Taylor, who is still with the work, and Miss Margaret 
Saunders, a journalist who was wounded by a bomb and had to with- 
draw her physical assistance though not her interest. 

The principal effort of these ladies was for the succor of Belgian 
children, the nuns who taught them in the schools, and refugees 

• 62 



generally. Through the Belgian Relief of Toronto from 400 to 1,000 
children and 300 refugee families have been fed and clothed during the 
past two and a half years. The total value of clothing and supplies 
sent being $215,439.25. This clothing came from 453 places in Ontario 
outside of those sent from Toronto citizens, but it was all handled, 
packed and sorted by the staff at the Belgian Relief of Toronto. The 
Women’s Institutes have been most generous, especially those in the 
counties nearest the city, also many patriotic and church circles, 
organizations such as the I.O.D.E., U.E. Loyalists, private sewing 
circles and individuals. 

A unique feature of Belgian Relief in Toronto is that its mainten- 
ance, such as printing, postage, stationery, telephone, have been met 
by the twenty-nine members of the Committee and their friends, also 
the entire work of administration has been carried out by voluntary 
effort. The first Hon. Treas. was Mrs. H. C. Rae, her successor being 
Miss Isabella L. George. The Hon. Treasurer of the Maintenance 
Fund is Mrs. C. S. Laidlaw; Hon. Secretaries, Miss Constance B. 
Laing and Miss Mabel Cory. 



Committee 

Mrs. Arthur Pepler (Chairwoman); Miss C. B. Laing, Miss M. 
Cory, Hon. Secretaries; Mrs. C. S. Laidlaw, Treasurer of Maintenance 
Fund; Mrs. M. Alexander, Mrs. Arthur Barnard, Mrs. E. H. Bickford, 
Mrs. R. C. Brown, Mrs. B. E. Bull, Mrs. C. E. Burden, Mrs. T. 
Brough, Mrs. W. H. Cawthra, Mrs. R. J. Christie, Mrs. Lionel Clarke, 
Mrs. R. Connable, Mrs. Ganong, Mrs. Hanning, Miss W. Hoskin, 
Mrs. A. Johnson, Madame Ledoux, Miss H. Leys, Miss Lizars, 
Mrs. H. C. Rae, Mrs. Campbell Reaves, Mrs. Robert F. Scott, Mrs. 
S. H. Thompson,' Mrs. Van Der Linde, Mrs. B. P. Watson, Mrs. 
F. C. Williams. 



WORK OF SECOURS NATIONAL 

Pledged to Rebuild Vimy 

T O help the people in the devastated areas of France is the work 
of the Secours National, with headquarters at 14 King Street 
West. By means of special appeals, such as French Flag Day 
and various other devices, coupled with an infinity of hard work, the 
organization, of which Mrs. William Beardmore is chairman of the 

6 3 



Women’s Committee, has been able to send to France cash amounting 
to 156,628.39; foodstuffs valued at $10,575.16; socks (28,573 pairs) 
valued at $21,429.75; supplies such as clothing, bedding, boots, 
flannel, amounting to $160,810; Red Cross and Hospital supplies 
valued at $52,100; 12 motor cars, valued at $5,581; and a portable 




Mrs. William Beardmore 



house worth $100. The Society is now working enthusiastically for the 
rehabilitation of the historic town of Vimy, which they hope through 
the generosity of Canadians everywhere to completely reinstate, as 
far as living comforts make this possible. 



Officers and Executive 
Patron — H.R.H. The Duke of Connaught. 

Honorary President — His Honor Colonel Sir John S. Hendrie, 
K.C.M.G., C.V.O. 



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Officers 



President — The Honorable Sir Glenholme Falconbridge, C.J., K.B. 
Honorary Treasurer — W. R. Johnston, Esq. 

Honorary Secretary — John M. Lyle, Esq. 

Chairman Ladies’ Executive — Mrs. W. W. Beardmore. 
Vice-Chairman Ladies’ Executive — Miss Enid Hendrie. 

Secretary Ladies’ Executive — Miss Helen Cattanach. 

Treasurer Ladies’ Executive — Mrs. K. C. Mcllwraith. 

Chairman Sewing Committee — Mrs. Grayson Smith. 

Chairman French Red Cross Committee — Miss Dorothy Walker. 
Chairman Relief Committee — Mrs. P Gilbert. 

Chairman Ways and Means Committee — Mrs. W. W. Beardmore. 
Chairman Sock Committee — Madame Rochereau De La Sabliere. 
Chairman Town Adoption Committee — Mrs. Trumbull Warren. 
Chairman House Committee — Mrs. G. G. Adams. 

Lady White, Mrs. Sidney Small, Mrs. N. W. Rowell, Mrs. J. B. 
MacLean, Mrs. Strachan Johnston, Mrs. G. Plunkett Magann. 

SERBIAN RELIEF 

Aid War-Ridden People 

T O aid the Serbians in their dire necessities of flight from home 
and its accompaniment of famine, together with all the other 
excruciating suffering that came to the Serbian people as the 
result of war, the Canadian Serbian Relief was formed with head- 
quarters in Toronto. At the beginning it was women who interested 
themselves in the movement, and clothes and other supplies were 
sent overseas. Latterly assistance has been confined to money con- 
tributions. The sum of $54,185.47, prior to January, 1918, passed 
through the Toronto offices. In 1916 the work was reorganized and 
there are now two women on the Board, Mrs. L. A. Hamilton, First 
Vice-President, and Miss Naomi Boulton, Corresponding Secretary. 

THE FRANCO-BRITISH SOCIETY 

Do Their “Bit” for France 

T HIS Society had its origin in a group of women who thought 
they would like to do their “bit” for suffering France. Mde. 
Malaval was in Europe at the beginning of the war and returned 
to Canada, thinking she could serve her country better here than there. 
She with Mrs. William Rose, Mrs. Squair and the Misses Beatrice 

65 



Lmbree and Neelands, got together for the little organization which has 
since done such good service. Their first care were the Belgian refu- 
gees, then the blind soldiers, and suffering France generally. 

They have succeeded in raising about $2,000 a year — about 
$8,000 in all having been sent to the Mayor of Nantes for distribu- 
tion. The staff of the University, particularly Prof. Keys and Prof. 
Kittredge, helped through the lectures given by several of its mem- 
bers and by the aid they gave in the presentation of French plays, 
by which methods most of the money was raised, private contributions 
also forming a means of revenue. Prof. Squair is President, Sir 
William Mulock, Hon. President, and Mrs. Plunkett Magann, Vice- 
President. 

NURSES FROM TORONTO HOSPITALS 

Hundreds Serving Overseas 

T ORONTO Nurses are represented overseas and were among 
the first to be organized for service. The Toronto General 
Hospital sent 85, and 25 are in Military work at home; St. 
Michael’s has 17 overseas and 9 in different Military Hospitals in 
Toronto and Hamilton; the Western Hospital has 22 overseas and 17 
at home, and Grace Hospital sent 35 overseas and has 15 in Toronto. 
One of the nurses from the Western Hospital — Miss Davis — gave her 
life, dying in England from an illness contracted in Saloniki. War 
reports have chronicled the splendid work these fine women and 
girls have done; but it is the men who in the Hospitals have come 
under their ministration who are their best recorders, and from them 
no praise is adequate for the work of Toronto nurses. 

WOMEN’S EMERGENCY CORPS 

Inaugurated Women’s Work in Munition Plants 

A S its name implies, the Women’s Emergency Corps was organized 
r\ to do anything that might arise and required doing in the 
^ - interests of the country. Formed in January, 1916, with 

Mrs. Willoughby Cummings as President, Vice-Presidents Mrs. 
Adam Ballantyne and Mrs. R. J. W. Barker, Treasurer Mrs. W. E. 
Groves and Secretary Miss Florence Boland, the Corps concentrated 
on the registration of women for the purpose of relieving men to go 
to the Front. To this side of the activities Mrs. Austin Hutchinson 



66 



gave a great deal of* time and attention, having charge of all the clerical 
work and much of the interviewing of factories and firms that followed. 
The City was divided into seven districts, to each of which officers 
were appointed and an educational campaign launched for the pur- 
pose of inducing wives and mothers to relinquish their men willingly. 




Mrs. Willoughby Cummings 



Speakers were sent to many Red Cross and other meetings and re- 
cruiting assisted through this medium. A Bureau was also established 
for the registration of women and the things they could do in taking 
the place of men. Through the Emergency Corps women were 
first taken into the munition plants. 

The Corps continued its services until their activities were taken 
over by Dr. Riddell in the name of the Government, when the Ontario 
Government Bureau was established. 



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WOMEN’S CONSERVATIVE CLUB 

Send “Goodies’’ to the Boys 

T HIS is another organization that has worked in season and out 
of season for patriotism. The things they have done to raise 
money and the various comforts they have sent overseas would 
make a book in themselves. Their total is 1,445,513 articles, 
besides 35 barrels of jam, 800 pounds of lump sugar, and specially 
addressed boxes and packages of Christmas cheer. Mrs. Van Kough- 
net is the President. 

MILITARY HOSPITALS COMMISSION WORK 

More of Mrs. Van Koughnet 

I T is a Toronto woman, too, who has charge of the work in con- 
nection with Comforts for Military Districts 1, 2 and 3. Mrs. 
Van Koughnet as Hon. Superintendent, with offices at 71 King 
Street West, has had charge of comforts to the value of $13,899.00. 

CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES 

Toronto Newspaper Women Active 

ANOTHER channel through which patriotism has and is expend- 
/"% ing itself is the women’s work in the Government enterprise 
for the Conservation of Resources. This teaches and incul- 
cates Food Production and Conservation together with general 
economy in the interest of the country. Mrs. L. A. Gurnett, formerly 
of the “Mail and Empire” of Toronto, is in charge of the women’s 
work of the Province. 

Miss I. M. Ross, formerly of the “News,” is now identified with 
the Food Control Office at Ottawa. 

THE THRIFT COMMITTEE 

U NDER its energetic chairman, Mrs. Losemore, the Thrift 
Committee carried on a successful campaign, principally as 
an educative factor to teach economy to the housewives and 
citizens generally. It was very successful in the work of its Garden 
Committee, through the leadership of Mrs. J. M. Tyrrel and Mrs. 
J. M. West; its Savings Committee under Mrs. H. D. Warren; the 
distribution of the Food Pledge Cards and its general principles of 
conservation. Mrs. L. A. Gurnett was able to give the work much 
assistance through her knowledge of food conditions. Miss Church 
was Secretary of the organization. 

68 



WAR RELIEF AUXILIARY 



T HE War Relief Auxiliary, formerly called the Suffragist War 
Auxiliary, was organized in Nov., 1916, to give aid in any war 
work that seemed necessary. The needs were met through 
various committees, the names of which show their function: The 

Recruiting Committee, Registration Committee, Camp Kapuskasing 




Mrs. A. B. Ormsby 



Committee, Blind Aid Committee, Brittany Hospital Committee, 
Northern Fire Sufferers’ Committee and the Foresters’ Battalion 
Committee. Some of these committees are now dissolved, having 
accomplished the specific work for which they were formed. The 
Serbian Committee raised about $4,000, also large supplies of clothing. 
The Blind Aid sent about $2,300 to the National Library for the 
Blind. The Brittany Committee have forwarded $3,400 to the Brit- 
tany Hospitals and 200 cases of Hospital supplies. Mrs. A. B. 
Ormsby, President, has been leader in this work. 



69 




TORONTO WOMEN’S LIBERAL ASSOCIATION 



N ONE have worked more assiduously than the members of the 
Liberal Women’s organization, who through their various 
circles did splendid things in the way of piling up thousands 
of various articles for the comfort of the men overseas and for those 
on this side of the ocean. One of the most important things they have 
done is that in connection with furnishing wards in hospitals and 
other attentions for the comfort of sick soldiers. The President is 
Mrs. G. S. Deeks. 



SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS 

W HAT Toronto schools and teachers have done would fill 
a good-sized volume. One of the teachers some time ago 
attempted to make a summary but gave it up, as any record 
would be incomplete. Here a very general statement may be made. 
When it is said they have collected and distributed many thousands 
of dollars and prepared and distributed other thousands in materials 
and supplies for Red Cross and soldiers generally, besides attending 
to the needs of the civil portion of our own community, the statement 
may be accepted in as large a way as the mind may see fit, for there 
is scarcely any limit to the things done. From University to Kinder- 
garten all have done their share and have done it nobly. 



AN ENTHUSIASTIC RECRUITER 

Mrs. L. A. Hamilton a Worker 

M RS. L. A. HAMILTON was one of the first to jump into the 
breach to bring success to the Empire and her Allies. Like 
others among the most ardent workers, her efforts in many 
directions have extended outside of Toronto and may not be listed 
here. One direction, however, in which she was conspicuous and to 
which she gave much strenuous work and time was when she did 
personal recruiting, speaking throughout the whole winter season in 
Toronto and in the country districts to enthuse men to answer the call 
to the colours. 



70 



MRS. F. H. TORRINGTON 

President N. C. of W. 

A NOTHER woman who has been associated with much of the 
interest evoked by war conditions, is Mrs. Torrington, President 
of the National Council of Women, but while she has been 
ready to respond to any call that might reach out to her— and these 
were many — it was for the most part in a national or provincial way 
that she was able to give official assistance. This being so, while 
we may not tabulate and claim for ourselves the many enterprises 
of the National Council of Women and other large organizations, we 
may note Mrs. Torrington as a Toronto woman whose influence in 
war work has reached out through her societies from coast to coast 
of the Dominion. 

DR. MARGARET PATTERSON 

Honored by King Edward 

D R. MARGARET PATTERSON was already an experienced 
worker at the outbreak of the war, having spent ten years in 
India, where she was one of the leaders in combating the 





Bubonic Plague, for which service she was decorated at the time of the 
coronation of King Edward. 

At the formation meeting of the Patriotic League, Dr. Patterson 
was appointed Convener of Red Cross work, and during the first year 
gave three hundred addresses to various groups of women. She 
organized “First Aid” and “Home Nursing” classes, in which a thou- 
sand women have received training, and formed the “College Volun- 
tary Aid Division,” of whose members forty are now overseas on 
active service and thirty are giving daily aid in the Hospitals and 
Convalescent Hospitals here. The roll-call has two hundred and 
thirty names. 

Dr. Patterson has devoted all fees from classes to patriotic work. 



SUMMARY 

T HIS record of Women’s War Work is by no means complete, 
and but touches on the women who by their office were at the 
head of organizations. The thousands who have given of 
their nights and days, together with financial assistance, may not be 
mentioned — the Women’s Institutes who did colossal work, the 
Women’s Christian Temperance Union, the Battalion Auxiliaries 
who have worked incessantly for their men, the Women’s Musical 
Club who raise thousands by their concerts, Hebrew Women’s Associ- 
ations, the various Church circles, the Catholic Ladies’ Literary 
Association who were among the first to work for the Mrs. Adamson’s 
Belgian Children, Rosary Hall Association, Rosary Hall Guild, the 
Colleges and Convents that have opened their houses for Red Cross 
and other activities along patriotic lines, the Women’s Canadian 
Club, the Women’s Press Club, the Heliconian Club, the Women’s 
Volunteer Corps, the Association for the Welfare of the Blind, with 
Mrs. Fred. Leach as president, which has done so much for the blind, 
and incidentally for blind soldiers; Mrs. Frank Ball, who has done 
much in a special way for the entertainment of the men in the 
hospitals and from overseas; the Alumnae of the various Colleges, 
Queen Mary’s Needlework Guild, Women’s Historical Society — these 
and scores of others have worked incessantly and well, and their 
example should be an awakener for the many who unfortunately are 
not yet aroused to the fact that it is their place and duty to have a 
share and do their part in what is Toronto’s splendid showing in doing 
her “bit” for the cause of democracy and the liberty of civilization. 



72