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TORREYA 



A Monthly Journal of Botanical Notes and News 




LIBRARY 

JOHN TORREY, I796-1873 NEW YORK 

BOTANIC L 



EDITED FOR 

THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 

BY 

MARSHALL AVERY HOWE 



Volume V. 



NEW YORK 

1905 






POFSE or 

The New Eoa 08.^111.0 Company 

LANCASTER, Pa 



THI: TOKKl'Y P)OTAMCAL CLUP. 



OFFICERS FOR ups 



President, 
HENRY H. RUSBV, M.D. 

Vice Presidents, 
EDWARD S. BURGESS, Ph.D. LUCIEN M. UNDERWOOD, Ph.D. 

A'ecort/inif Secretary, 
EDWARD W. BERRY,* C. STUART GAGER, PH.D.,t 

Passaic, New Jersey. Morris High School, New ^'o^k City. 

Corresponding Secretary, 
JOHN K. SMALL, Ph.D. 

Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York City. 

Editor, Treasurer, 

JOHN HEXDLEY BARNHART, A.M., M.D. FRANCES E. LLOYD, A.M. 

Tarrytown, N. Y. Columbia Univeisity. 

Associate Editors, 

NATHANIEL L. BRITTON, Ph.D. DANIEL T. MACDOUGAL, Ph.D. 

TRACY ELLIOT HAZEN, Ph.D. WM. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D. 

MARSHALL A. HOWE, Ph.D. HERBERT M. RICHARDS, S.D. 

ANNA MURRAY VAIL. 



Meetings the second Tuesday and last Wednesday of each month alternately at the 
American Museum of Natural History and the New York Botanical Garden. 



PUBLICATIONS. Bulletin. Monthly, established 1870. Price I3. 00 per 

year; single numbers 30 cents. Of former volumes only 1-6, 13, and 19-27 can be 
supplied entire. Partial numbers only of vols. 7-1S are available, but the completion 
of sets will be undertaken. 

Memoirs. A series of technical papers published at irregular intervals, estab- 
lished 1889. Price S3. 00 per volume. 

Torreya. Monthly, established 1901. Price 5i. 00 per year. 

All business correspondence relating to the above publications should be addressed 
to Francis E. Lloyd, Treasurer, Columbia L'niversity, New York City. 

* Resigned October lo, 1905. 
t Elected November 14, 1905. 



ERRATA, VOLUME 5 

Page II, 12th and 13th lines from the bottom, /c?;' only one 
embryo-sac in each ovule read ox\\\ one egg-apparatus in the 
embryo-sac. 

Page 1 10, in title and 9th line from bottom, for Stigcocloncum, 
read Stigeoclonium. 

Page 1 1 I. 2d line, for Stigcocloicum, read Stigeoclonium. 

Page I 19, 5th line from bottom, for Mvniiicoeysiis ve^.d Myrine- 
cocystiis. 

Page 120, 4th line from bottom, for pnoiiasus veTid priiniosns. 

Page 121, I 2th line, for Coxine//a read Cocciiiella. 

Page 196, 7th line,/<:^/' 2,000, read 2,500. 

Page 205, 2d line, /c-'r J. N. Painter, read]. H. Painter. 



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Date-s of Publication 

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1-20. 


Issued January 19, 


1905. 


21-36. 


February 28, 


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37-54- 


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Vol. 5 No. 1 

TORREYA MRv 

January, 1905 B<)iANiCAL 

QARDCN 

DISCONTINUOUS VARIATION AND THE ORIGIN 
OF SPECIES* 

By D. T. MacDougal 

That distinct and separate qualities expressed in recognizable 
external characters may appear suddenly, or disappear completely, 
in a series of generations of plants, has been a matter of common 
observation so long that it would be difficult to hunt out and fix 
upon the first instance of record. 

The significance of such phenomena was obviously beyond 
the comprehension of the earlier botanists and it is evident that 
a rational recognition of the phylogenetic value of sports and 
anomalies necessarily awaited the development and realization of 
the conceptions of unit-characters of the minute structures which 
are the ultimate bearers of heredity, and of the inter-dependence 
of the two in such manner as to constitute actual entities as 
embodied in Darwin's pangenesis, de Vries' intra-cellular pan- 
genesis and in Mendel's investigations upon heredity. It is 
equally apparent that a proper interpretation of the facts in ques- 
tion, and their distinction from the results of hybridization was 
possible only by means of the analysis of the collated results of 
observations upon series of securely guarded pedigree-cultures, 
in which the derivation of all of the individuals of several succes- 
sive generations had been noted. For it is now thoroughly 
realized that the main questions of descent and heredity and of 
evolution in general are essentially physiological, and as such 
their solution is to be sought in experiences with living organ- 
isms and not by deductions from illusory " prima facie " evidence, 
which has been so much in vogue in evolutionary polemics, nor 

* Address delivered by invitation before the American Society of Naturalists at 

I'iiiladelphia, December 28, 1904. 

[Vol. 4, No. 12, of ToRREVA, comprising pages 177-201, was issueil December 
30, 1904.] 

1 



by " interpretations of the face of nature " with the accompanying; 
inexact methods and superficial considerations. It was upon 
the safe basis of the first-named conceptions, and by means of 
the methods entailed that de Vries has so successfully grappled 
with the problems involved in the investigation of the part played 
by discontinuous variation in evolution. 

In view of the amount of orderly and well-authenticated evi- 
dence now at hand, it may be assumed as demonstrated that 
characters and groups of characters of appreciable physiological 
value, originate, appear in new combinations, or become latent, 
in hereditary series of organisms in such manner as to constitute 
distinct breaks in descent. 

This is the main thesis of the mutation theory : the saltatoiy 
movements of characters, regardless of the taxonomic value o\ 
the resultant forms. That the derivatives might be considered 
as species by one systematist, and varieties by another is quite 
incidental and of very little importance. The main contention 
lies in the claim that characters of a definite nature appear, and 
become inactive suddenly, and do not always need thousands of 
years for their infinitely slow external realization, or for their 
gradual disappearance from a strain. 

Of course the principal corollary of the mutation-theory is 
that the saltations in question do result in the constitution of new 
species and varieties. As a matter of interest it may be stated 
that all of the .systematists who have seriously examined the 
adult mutants of the evening-primroses cultivated in the New 
York Botanical Garden have held the opinion that certain ones 
were to be considered as species and others as varieties. 

Furthermore, these conclusions are confirmed when the char- 
acters of the mutants are subjected to statistical methods of 
investigation. In the observations of Dr. Shull, which will be 
presented more fully before the Botanical Society of America, it 
has been found that qualities of the mutants, susceptible of 
measurement, depart definitely and clearly from the parental type 
and fluctuate about a new mean, and do not intergrade with the 
parental form. The am[)litude of fluctuation about the new 
center is greater than that of correspondent parental qualities. 



and the decree of correlation is much less in the mutants tlian 
in the i)arent. This is seen by inspection to be true in one 
species during the first year of its existence, and is confirmed by 
the exact observations on other forms a dozen years after their 
mutative origin. Consequently the features in question may not 
be taken to be in any way the result of selection but are in them- 
selves new qualities. 

Lamarck's evenin<^-primrose offers such striking and easily 
recognizable examples of discontinuous variation, and has been 
the object of so much detailed study that we are in danger of 
giving way to the supposition that the mutation -theory rests 
upon the facts obtained from this plant alone. It is to be said, 
however, that if it and all of its derivatives were destroyed, the 
results of experimental studies which have been made upon 
mutations in other species, upon the behavior of retrograde and 
ever-sporting varieties, the occurrence of systematic atavism, antl 
of taxonomic anomalies, pelories and other morphological fea- 
tures would furnish ample support for the conception of unit- 
characters, and serve to establish the fact that mutations have 
occurred in a number of species representing diverse groups. 

It is now becoming plainly apparent that the phenomena of 
hybridization, by the opportunities afforded for the study of the 
included unit-characters in a segregated condition, for the anal- 
ysis of complex characters, and of the various principles gov- 
erning the transmission, activity, dominancy, latency and reccs- 
sivity of characters, promise to yield results of the first magnitude 
concerning the mechanism of descent and heredity. The pos- 
sibilities of crosses between species comparatively widely different 
in morphological and physiological constitution among plants 
indicate that the ultimate generalizations upon hybridism will 
find broader exemplification in plants than in animals. 

It is pertinent to point out in this connection that the un- 
guarded use of the terms " variation " and " mutation " to desig- 
nate phenomena of segregation and alternative inheritance when 
races or species are thrown together in a hybrid strain is bound 
to result in much confusion, especially in dealing with plants, 
since it is well known that direct mutants of either parent occa- 
sionally occur in such mixed strains. 



From this last consideration we pass naturally to a discussion 
of the nature of the material which may be of use in the study 
of fluctuating and discontinuous variability. It needs no argu- 
ment to support the assertion that a successful experimental 
analysis of the behavior of separate characters may be carried 
out only when dealing with series of organisms fluctuating about 
a known mean with a measurable amplitude of variability. 

Systematic species as ordinarily accepted generally consist of 
more than one independent and constant sub-species, or elemen- 
tary species which may not be assumed to interbreed or inter- 
grade, unless actually demonstrated to do so by pedigreed cul- 
tures. So far, but few elementary species have been found to 
interbreed. A due recognition of this simple fact would save us 
a vast amount of pyramidal logic resting on an inverted apex of 
supposition. 

Again the accumulation of observations upon the prevalence 
and effect of self- and cross-fertilization has totally unsettled the 
generalizations current within the last few decades. Briefly 
stated, a moderate proportion of the flora of any region is au- 
togamous, a large proportion both autogamous and heterogam- 
ous, and a moderate proportion entirely heterogamous. The 
relative number of species included in the categories indicated 
varies greatly in different regions. To assert the deleterious 
effects of self-fertilization, of all or a majority of plants, is to base 
a statement upon evidence that lacks authentication and correla- 
tion, as has been strikingly demonstrated by recent results. As 
a matter of fact no phase of evolutionary science is as badly in 
need of investigation as that which concerns the effects of close 
and cross-breeding. 

It is also to be said that current misconceptions as to the ex- 
treme range of fluctuating variability of many native species have 
arisen from a failure to recognize the composite nature of the 
Linnacan, or group-species, upon which observations have been 
based, as I have found with the common evening-primrose. 

The demands of ordinary floristic work are usually met by the 
formulation of collective s|)ecies, which are in fact, an undeniable 
convenience, and necessity perhaps, for the elementary teacher and 



the amateur. Upon the speciaHst in any subject rests the obh- 
gatioii to furnish his non-technically trained constituency with 
conceptions of the facts and principles within the domain of his 
investigations, which will be inclusive, and easy of comprehen- 
sion, l^ut if in accordance with tiiis requirement, the systema- 
tist contents himself with this looser, and with due regard it may 
be said, more superficial treatment, and does not delineate clearly 
the elementary constituents of a flora, or falters in carrying his 
analysis of relationships to its logical end, he fails notably in the 
more serious purpose of his investigations, and his work must be 
supplemented and extended before it becomes an actual basic 
contribution to the physiologic or phylogenetic branches of the 
science. To study the behavior of characters we must have 
them in their simplest combinations. To investigate the origin 
and activity of species we must have them singly and uncom- 
plicated. 

Lastly, we may turn to a phase of the subject which has, as yet, 
received nothing but speculative consideration — that of the 
causes which induce the organization of new characters and which 
stimulate their external appearance. The recurrence of the 
known mutants of Lamarck's evening-primrose, and the occur- 
rence of new mutants of other species has taken place in New 
York and Amsterdam under conditions that lead to the definite 
conclusion that a favorable environment including the most ad- 
vantageous conditions for vegetative development and seed-pro- 
duction facilitates the activation and appearance of latent qualities; 
and the inference lies near at hand that such conditions also 
facilitate the original organization of new unit-characters or 
changes in these entities. We conclude therefore that favorable 
environment promotes the formation of new species as suggested 
by Korshinsky, and that new species do not arise under the 
stress of infra-optimal intensities of external factors as proposed 
by Darwin. 

Furthermore it has been found that certain qualities arise and 
disappear more numerously, and presumably more readily than 
others in a mutating strain. Thus, those embodied in the mu- 
tants Onagra (^Oenothera) obloiiga, and nauclla find external reali- 



6 

zation in many more individuals than those which constitute the 
dififerentiating features in mbrinervis, scintillajis, gigas, clliptica, 
S2(bovata, and others. 

Again tlie inspection of the cultures made in Amsterdam and 
New York demonstrates that the last-named locality offers more 
favorable soil and climate for the evening-primroses. Correlated 
with this I am able to report that careful attention to the cultures 
has resulted in an increase of the proportion of mutants from the 
five per cent, maximum of de Vries to more than six per cent, in 
the last season, in the American cultures, and to say that some 
forms which did not reach maturity, and others which did not 
occur, in Amsterdam, may find in New York a climate in which 
they carry out their entire development. The cultures of 
Lamarck's evening-primrose now being carried on include 14 
recognizable mutants, and it is pertinent to state that I have 
mutants of other species which will be duly described after they 
have completed a cycle of development. 

All components of the environment may not be taken to be of 
equal value in the induction of new qualities, and I by no means 
wish to give the impression that the problem is on the point of 
being solved, but our hopes have been raised to the highest pitch 
that we may soon be able to discern the factors more or less 
directly concerned. 

To be able to bring the causes operative in the formation and 
structural expression of qualities, that is, the moving forces of 
evolution, within the range of experimental investigation would 
be a triumph worthy the best effort of the naturalist ; in that it 
would give us the power to give new positions to qualities and 
thus produce new organisms, its importance would rank well with 
that of any biological achievement of the last half century. 

New York Hotanicai. Garukn. 

A PASPALUM NKW TO TIIK WEST INDIES 

I5y (Jr.oKc;!-, V. Nash 

In working over some grass material secured by Mr. A. H. 
Curti.ss (no. 379) on the Isle of Pines, just to the south of Cuba, 



an interesting species of the genus Paspalum was encountered. 
It was impossible to correlate this with any of the known species 
of the West Indies, and a search among the South American 
forms revealed several specimens of a species from Brazil, the 
Paspalum linearc of Trinius. One of these specimens is no. 763 
of Mr. Spencer Moore, who secured it in the Matto Grosso region. 
It was upon this number that Mr. Moore founded his Panicion 
furccllatuDi (Trans. Linn. Soc. II. 4 : 505. pi. 34. f. 14-22), and 
I am at a loss to understand why the grass was described as a 
Pa)iiciiiii, for it has all of the characters of a Paspalum, as now 
understood, — a secund inflorescence and a spikelet of three scales 
— unless it be the occasional presence of a small fourth scale, an 
occurrence not uncommon in Paspalum. The specimen of 
Moore's 763, referred to above, which is in the herbarium of 
Columbia University, has but one or two of the spikelets with a 
fourth scale, the remainder possessing but three scales. Mr. 
Moore remarks that his species is " treacherously like Paspalum 
tropicum Doell and P. Nccsii Kth.," and if Mr. Moore considers 
Paspalum Neesii Kth. synonymous with P. liucarc Trin., I must 
consider the resemblance most treacherous, for I cannot distin- 
guish the grasses. 

Mr. Moore's plant came from Santa Cruz, better known in 
that region as Barra dos Bugres, a small town about one hundred 
miles to the northwest of Cuyaba. The specimen upon which 
Paspalum liuearc was based was said by its author, Trinius, to 
have been secured by Langsdorfif in Brazil, but no more definite 
location was given. In 1825, the Langsdorfif expedition, of which 
Riedel was botanist, passed through the Matto Grosso region. 
Langsdorff and Riedel journeyed together as far as Cu)'aba, 
where they separated, the latter proceeding eastward, while the 
former went to the northward, along the Arinos and Tapajos 
rivers. This course would have carried Langsdorff within a few 
miles of Santa Cruz, at which place Mr. Spencer Moore, si.xty- 
seven years later, secured the material upon which he based his 
Panicum furccllatuui. 

A word as to the rather complicated history of the names 
which have been applied to this plant may not be out of place. 



Trinius in 1826 (Gram. Pan. 99) published two species of Pas- 
palimi. The first of these appears as follows: ^' Paspahmi 
angustifoliinn N. ab Es.! in Mart. Fl. Bras, ined." He remarks 
that it is similar to the following species, P. lincare, but differs 
especially in the smaller rugose spikelets ; and remarks further 
that the name must be changed on account of the earlier name 
of Le Conte. In 1828, Trinius (Sp. Gram. Ic. iii) figures and 
again describes his Paspahiin hncarc, and cites, as of doubtful 
synonymy, the P. angustifoliinn N. ab Es. of his own publication 
(Gram. Pan. 99), adding in a footnote that what he had received 
previously under this name from Nees himself appears to be a 
different species on account of the much smaller spikelets which 
are subrotund-oblong, transversely rugose and without hairs at 
the base. The plate accompanying this description bears the 
name Paspalian angustifoliiun. In 1829 Nees (Fl. Bras. Enum. 
64) published a Paspahini angnstifoliiun which, judging from the 
description, is identical with the Paspalum lineare of Trinius, pub- 
lished three years previously, and indeed he makes the following 
citation: "Paspahiin lineare Trin. ined." At the same time he 
publishes a variety ;9, characterizing it thus: " glumis trans- 
versim undulatis." As this rugose character of the spikelet 
was employed by Trinius in his publication of P. angustifolitini 
to distinguish it from his P. lineare, Nees, by his procedure, 
attempted exactly to reverse the order of things. But whether 
Trinius was right or wrong in interpreting Nees really is of little 
consequence, for priority requires that we take up the species as 
characterized by Trinius in 1826 ; so the Paspalitin angustifoliinn 
Nees (Fl. Bras. Enum. 64) becomes .synonymous with P. lineare 
Trin., and the variety fi must be considered the same as the 
P. angustifoliinn Nees (Trin. Gram. Pan. 99). In 1829 Kunth 
(Rev. Gram, i : 25), probably aware that the x\^vc\^ angustifoliinn 
was antedated by that of Le Conte, proposed another name for the 
species in the following manner : " Paspalum Neesii. (^Paspalum 
angustifoliinn Nees ab Esenb.) Brasilia." He docs not designate 
whether he meant the name published by Trinius for Nees or that 
I)ub]ishcd by Nees himself, so the former must be understood. 
In the Index Kcwcnsis the three names under discussion are 



9 

considered synonymous, and the two former, /-'. angustifoliuin 
and P. liiiearc, published in 1826, are referred to the P. Ncesii 
Kunth, described in 1829, a rather queer procedure, where the 
rule is that the oldest binomial shall be taken up, for certainly, 
if it is necessary to unite P. angustifolium and P. lincare, the 
former being invalidated by the earlier publication of LeConte's 
name, P. liiicarc is available. 
New York Botanical Garden. 



ONAGRA GRANDIFLORA (AIT.)* A SPECIES TO BE 
INCLUDED IN THE NORTH AMERICAN FLORA 

By Anna Murray Vah, 

In searching through several herbaria for specimens of Onagr'a 
LcDJiarckiana that had grown wild in North America, it became 
apparent that there was a large-flowered evening-primrose which, 
though closely related to 0. Lamarckiaiia, could not be referred 
to that plant as it is known in Europe in the wild state and in 
cultivation. 

The reference by Bartram f to a large-flowered evening-prim- 
rose seen near Tensaw, Alabama, suggested the possibility of 
finding the plant still growing in the locality where he found it in 
August, 1776. Professor S. M. Tracy kindly undertook the 
search for it, and on August 16, 1904, he re-discovered the locality, 
and the plant, described so vividly by Bartram as " the most 
pompous and brilliant herbaceous plant yet known to exist." 

Abundant material was sent to the New York Botanical Garden 
and extensive cultures of 0. grandiflora have been begun, in an 
attempt to establish its relation with its allies. Further details 
will be included in an article now in press. 

OcnotJicra grandifiora Ait. was based on a plant introduced 
from North America by John P'othergill in 1778. The plate 

*Onagra grandiflora {\l\\..) =-. Oenothera gmudijlora. Ait. Hort. Kew. 2: 2. 
1789. 

t Bartram, William. Travels through North and South Carolina, (.">eorgia, East 
and West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the extensive territories of the Muscogulges 
or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws. Dublin, 1793 (reprinted 
from the Philadelphia edition of 1791), p. 404. 



10 

cited after the description (L'Heritier, Stirp. Novae, 2, pi. 2) was 
never published, and repeated search for the original drawing or 
a copy of the unpublished plate has not been successful. 

An herbarium specimen of " Oenothei-a grandiflora MSS. Ait. 
Hort. Kew 2:2" from " Hort. Fothergill 1778 " is preserved 
in the Herbarium of the British Museum, and a traced drawing 
of this specimen was procured for the Garden by Dr. H. H. 
Rusby in August, 1904. A close comparison of the herbarium 
specimens of the Alabama plant collected by Tracy and the 
tracing of the Fothergill plant show them to be identical, and the 
evidence is fairly conclusive that the OenotJiera grandiflora Ait., 
so well and so long established in cultivation, originated from 
seeds sent to Fothergill by William Bartram after his famous 
travels through the southern United States. 

The Alabama plants were shown to Professor de Vries when 
he passed through New York in October, 1904, and he unhesi- 
tatingly stated that they did not in the least resemble the Oeno- 
tJiera Laniarckiana of his experiments. 

Just what is the relationship of Onagra grandiflora (Ait.) from 
Alabama, with other large-flowered species in general cultivation, 
remains to be investigated. The historical records of Onagra 
grandiflora are numerous and most complicated, but it is of un- 
doubted interest at the present time to find the plant spoken of 
by Bartram still growing in the same locality observed by him 
more than a century and a quarter ago, and to find it still true 
in every way to the characters as described by him at the time, 
and which are now still further emphasized by the tracing of the 
plant grown by Fothergill in 1778. 

New York Botanical Gardkn. 



.SIIORTKR NOTICS 

Carex Underwoodii sp. nov. — Stout, glabrous ; culm sharply 
trigonous, i ni. high or more, roughish above. Leaves about 
as long as the culm, 1—2 cm. wide, slightly rough-margined : 
spikes clustered at the summit, the pistillate 4, linear-cylindric, 
4-5 cm. long, about 8 mm. in diameter, the lowest on a slender 
stalk about 2 cm. long, the others sessile or nearly so : staminate 



11 



spike I, very nearly sessile, 4 cm. long, 4 mm. thick : perigynia 
a little inflated, 5 mm. long, narrowly ovoid, strongly several- 
ribbed on both sides, narrowed into a short beak, with 2 subu- 
late nearly erect teeth about i mm. long ; scales pale green, 
3-nerved, a little shorter than the perigynia, ovate, ciliate-mar- 
gined, tipped with an awn about 2 mm. long. 

In Sphagmtin, Salt Hill Marsh, Content Road to Cinchona, 
Jamaica, L. M. Undettvood, January 29, 1903 {no. 138). Re- 
lated to C. Jiystricina Muhl., but very much larger and broader- 
leaved, the perigynia less inflated, their beak shorter and its 
teeth longer. In Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 159, Mr. C. B. Clarke 
records the occurrence of C. hystricina at Salt Hill, Jamaica ; I 
have not seen the specimen that he cites (Herb. Bot. Dept. Jam. 
2081), but I suppose it represents the species here described, 
which is certainly distinct from the widely distributed plant of 
eastern North America. N. L. Britton. 



Twin Pine Embrvos. — Apart from polyembryony resulting 
from adventitious buds on the nu- 
cellus, as exhibited in Citrus and a 
few other genera, it would seem 
probable that a plant like the pine, 
which produces regularly several 
archegonia in its prothallus, would 
more often have several embryos in 
the same seed than would plants 
which produce normally only one 
embryo-sac in each ovule. But 
apparently twin or triplet embryos 
are very rare in the pine ; my 
classes handle hundreds of pine 

seeds and seedlings each term, yet entirely emerged from endosperm ; /', 
,, , . , r 1-^1 larger embryo, with five cotyledons; <•, 

the twin embryos ngured m the ac- *',, / • , , 1 a 

■' ° smaller embryo, witli three long and 

companying drawings are the only two short cotyledons. 

ones I have happened to see. It 

may be an instance of " having eyes and seeing not " ; it so, will 

some one kindly enlighten me? Ida Clendenin. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., 
December, 27, 1904. 




Twin Embryos of Pine 
a. Embryos before cotyledons had 



12 



REVIEWS 

Proceedings: International Conference on Plant Breeding and Hybridization* 

An international conference on plant breeding and hybridiza- 
tion was held in New York City, September 30 and October i 
and 2, 1902, and the papers there presented, together with the 
discussion on them, have been collected and published by the 
Horticultural Society of New York as Memoirs, Vol i, under 
the editorship of the secretary of the society, Leonard Barron. 

The programme of the meeting as given in the Memoirs was 
long as well as comprehensive. Thirty papers were read, thir- 
teen additional were read by title, and all of these save one are 
given in the report of the conference. 

Some idea of the scope of the work presented can be had if 
the titles of half a dozen papers, chosen at random, are given. 
Professor William Bateson, Cambridge, England, gave " Prac- 
tical Aspects of the new Discoveries in Heredity"; Mr. W. A. 
Orton, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, " On the Breeding of Disease- 
resistant Varieties "; Mr. L. C. Corbett, U. S. Dept. of Agricul- 
ture, " Improvement of Roses by Bud Selection "; Professor 
William Saunders, Director of the Central Experimental Farm, 
Ottawa, Canada, " Results of Hybridization and Plant Breeding 
in Canada", and, to cite but one additional title, M. P. de Vil- 
morin, Paris, P'rance, "The everbearing Strawberry." 

Naturally the work of the earlier hybridizer, Gregor Mendel, 
was repeatedly referred to and was the central idea of several 
papers, particularly those of Bateson and de Vries. 

Professor Bateson presented his now well-known views on the 
nature of the sex cells, or gametes, and their relation to the 
segregation of inheritable characters. He showed, among other 
things, that hybrids with certain characters fixed ari.se by the 
union of equivalent gametes (equivalent as regards the character 
in question), to use his terminology such arc homozygotes, and 
that, on the other hand, unstable hybrids arc produced as a re- 
sult of the union of gametes unlike as being bearers of the char- 

* Proceedings International Conference on Plant IJrceding and 1 lyljiidi/.ation. 
Memoirs Hort. Soc. New York, i : 1-271. 1904. 



13 

acters in question, or sucli are heterozygotes. It appears to the 
reviewer that Professor Bateson's terminology is pecuh'arily fit, 
avoiding such circumlocution as " a hybrid with fixed character," 
meaning a homozygote, or " a hybrid with variable characters," 
meaning a heterozygote. 

Professor Bateson speaks of two subjects, but does not dis- 
cuss them at length, which are the theses of a paper by de Vries, 
" On artificial atavism," namely, the resolution of compound 
characters and the reformation of compound characters through 
the combination of simpler ones. 

Without going into this interesting subject in detail, it can be 
said that Professor de Vries by beautiful experiments shows that 
characters apparently simple may be separated into more ele- 
mental ones, and conversely by the combination of the latter the 
compound character may be restored. In case the latter is an 
ancestral character the phraseology "artificial atavism" is well 
taken. 

Generally speaking, the plant breeders had not taken advantage 
of the Mendelian theory in their work, and some of them did not 
know of Mendel or of his experiments before the Conference. 
As exceptions to this statement must of course be included the 
plant breeders from the Department of Agriculture, and of these 
notably Spillman, whose studies on wheat hybrids are well known. 
Curiously enough, the work of Spillman was not presented at the 
Conference. 

Although hybridization formed the theme of perhaps most of 
the papers, not a little of the work was based on selection alone, 
or on selection as an aid to hybridization. The experiments of 
Orton, for instance, by which wilt-resistant varieties of cotton, 
watermelon and cow peas were obtained, consisted merely in the 
selection of individuals which were not subject to the disease in 
spite of the fact that they were growing in fields where it 
abounded. Roberts, on the other hand, succeeded in securing 
improved varieties of wheat by a system of crossing combined 
with rigid selection, and the same is true of other vvorkers. 

Interesting instances of the improvement of varieties by means 
of bud selection were also given. Powell, for example, selected 



14 

buds from the portions of apple trees which had superior fruit 
and used them as scions for grafting on more hardy stock. As 
a result of the third selection (generation) he obtains an apple 
which has the excellence of flavor of the earlier fruit to which 
has been added greater vigor and hardiness of the tree and 
greater uniformity of fruit. 

Altogether, the report of the Conference will be veiy helpful 
to plant breeders as well as to those who are more particularly 
interested in the theoretical phases of the subject, and the Horti- 
cultural Society is to be congratulated on its excellent appearance. 

W. A. Cannon. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CLUB 
Wednesday, November 30, 1904 

The meeting was called to order at the usual' hour at the New 
York Botanical Garden, Professor L. M. Underwood in the chair ; 
twenty members present. 

A painting of the Gloriosa Lily {Methojtica superbd) was 
received through President Brown from Mrs. Annie Eliza Scott 
Guerritore, of Naples, Italy. On motion a vote of thanks was 
ordered transmitted to Mrs. Guerritore and the picture was turned 
over to the Botanical Garden for exhibition purposes. 

The following were elected to membership : Miss Mabel Den- 
ton of Paterson, N. J. ; Mr. C. B. Robinson of New York City, 
and Dr. G. H. Shul! of Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y. 

The first paper on the scientific program was entitled " Recent 
Contributions to our Knowledge of Paleozoic Seed Plants" and 
was by P^dward W. Berry.* It consisted of a brief discussion of 
recent contributions to our knowledge of those Paleozoic pteri- 
dophytes which had formed, or approximated the seed habit, the 
work of Professors Scott, Oliver, Kidston, Grand' P^ury, Zeiller, 
and Renault, l^lspccial attention was given to the work of Scott 
and of Oliver and to what amounted to a demonstration by them 
of seed-bearing in the Cycadofilicean genus Lyginodoidron {Sphen- 
opteris). Discussion by Drs. Britton andMacDougal followed. 

* This paper was published in full in ToRREYA for December, 1904. 



15 

C. B. Robinson presented " Remarks on the Flora of Northern 
Cape Breton." To tlie north of the Bras d'Or Lakes, the island 
of Cape Breton consists of hills 800 to 1,500 feet in height, bor- 
dered by lowland of no great width along much of both coasts 
and in the numerous river valleys. The interior of the island is 
a plateau with large areas covered by barrens and sphagnum 
bogs. In passing eastward from New Brunswick to Nova Scotia, 
the flora becomes distinctly poorer, many species dropping out 
and few new ones appearing. Cape Breton with a smaller area 
than the rest of the province and forming its northeastern limit 
shows a further decrease, although a comparatively large number 
of forms are known from the island that do not occur on the 
mainland, while others grow more luxuriantly there, even at the 
extreme north. Among the former may be mentioned Samolus 
floribnudiis H. B. K. Pcraviiuin Menziesii (Lindl.) Morong, Par- 
nassia parviflora DC, and Galium kamtschaticinn SioW&r ; among 
the latter, Cypripcdiinii regince Walt., Calthapalustris L., Anonone 
canadensis 'L., Bhpharig-lottis B/cphoriglotiis (WWd.) Rydb., Vag- 
nera stellata (L.) Morong, and Riibiis Chauuenionis L. The 
dwarf mistletoe Razoinnofskya piisilla (Peck) Kuntze, apparently 
of wide distribution in northern Nova Scotia, extends at least fifty 
miles up the west coast of the island. 

The ferns are also noteworthy. All the common and a ma- 
jority of the rarer species of the mainland grow at least as well m 
Cape Breton, together with two additional species Dryoptcris 
Filix-mas (L.) Schott and Polysticluiui Lonchitis (L.) Roth, the 
former widely distributed, but the latter known only from two 
widely separated localities. Discussion by Drs. Britton, Mac- 
Dougal and Barnhart followed. 

The third paper by Le Roy Abrams was entitled " Notes on 
the Flora of Southern California." After speaking briefly of the 
topography and general climatic conditions of southern California 
Mr. Abrams called attention to the extreme variation in the flora 
and exhibited a series of specimens illustrating the coastal and 
mountain floras. Among these specimens were three of his re- 
cently described new species : ChcirantJuts suffrutesccns, Heuclura 
chgaus and Godctia Dudleyana. 



16 

Other especially interesting plants exhibited were Romneya 
trichocalyx Eastw., Qncrcus Eiigebuanni Greene, and Calochortus 
Cataliiue Wats. 

The paper was discussed by Dr. Britton and Mr. Nash. 
Adjournment followed. 

Edward W, Berry, 

Secretary. 

NEWS ITEMS 

Mr. William R. Maxon of the U. S. National Museum is 
spending several months in Guatemala, engaged in researches for 
the Bureau of Plant Industry. 

With the January number. The Plant World passes under the 
management and editorship of Professor Francis P>. Lloyd, of the 
Teachers College, Columbia University. 

Professor H. Harold Hume, recently of the University of 
Florida, is now horticulturalist of the State Board of Agriculture 
of North Carolina, with headquarters at Raleigh. 

F. M. Rolfs, lately of the Colorado Agricultural Experiment 
Station, has been appointed professor of botany and horticulture 
in the University of Florida, Lake City, Florida. 

Professor F. S. P^arle, director of the Estacion Central Agro- 
nomica de Cuba, spent the last two weeks of December in New 
York and Philadelpliia, sailing for Cuba again on the 31st. 

At the December convocation of the University of Chicago, 
two candidates in botany, Minton Asbury Chrysler and Clifton 
Durant Howe, received the degree of doctor of philosophy. 

The Apteryx, a quarterly devoted to natural history, published 
by the Roger Williams Park Museum of Providence, Rhode 
Island, C. Abbott Davis, editor, begins its existence with the 
number for January, 1905. 

The daily papers announce the death of Rev. F. D. Kelsey, 
pastor of the Central Congregational Church of Toledo, Ohio, 
and formerly professor of botany in Obcrlin College, at the age 
of fifty-six years. 



17 

Miss Anna M. Clark (A. M., Columbia University, 1904), 
author of a descriptive work on "The Trees of Vermont," has 
been appointed teacher of "science and nature study" in the 
New York City Training School for Teachers. 

We learn from Science that Dr. W. A. Kellerman, professor 
of botany in the Ohio State University, will spend the months of 
January, February and March in Guatemala, studying and col- 
lecting the parasitic fungi of that country. 

At the annual meeting held on January 10, Judge Addison 
Brown resigned the presidency of the Torrey Botanical Club, 
after completing fifteen years of service in that office. Dr. H. 
H. Rusby was chosen as his successor. 

Tlie Boston Evening Transcript notes that Mr. C. G. Pringle 
has recently returned to the University of Vermont with a collec- 
tion of 25,000 specimens of plants, representing about 600 spe- 
cies, secured during an eight months' visit to Mexico. 

Dr. Burton E. Livingston, instructor in plant physiology in 
the University of Chicago, has accepted an appointment to a 
position in the Bureau of Soils of the United States Department 
of Agriculture and expects to begin his new duties on Apnl i. 

The American Mycological Society held meetings in Phila- 
delphia during the Christmas holidays in connection with the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science and other 
affiliated societies. The officers for 1905 are: president, Mr. C. 
H. Peck ; vice-president, Professor F. S. Earle ; secretary, Mr. C. 
L. Shear. 

Nature Study, published at Manchester, New Hampshire, was 
discontinued with the number for July, 1904. The Natnre-Stutfy 
Reviezv, a bimonthly, with Professor M. A. Bigelow of the Teach- 
ers College, Columbia University, as managing editor, has begun 
its first volume with the issue for January, 1905. 

In the discussion of "The Mutation Theory of Organic Evo- 
lution" before the American Society of Naturalists at Philadel- 
phia, December 28, botany was represented by Dr. D. T. Mac- 
Dougal of the New York Botanical Garden, who spoke from the 
standpoint of " Plant Breeding," and b)- Professor Liberty H. 



18 

Bailey of Cornell University, who spoke from the standpoint of 
" Taxonomy." 

The Sullivant Moss Chapter met at the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia, December 31, 1904. There was an ex- 
hibit of specimens and photographs, and five papers were read. 
The officers for 1905 are : president, Mr. Edward B. Chamber- 
lain; vice-president, Mrs. Carolyn W. Harris; secretary. Miss 
Mary F. Miller; treasurer, Mrs. Annie Morrill Smith. 

According to a San Francisco letter in the New York Times 
of Januar}' i, the Carnegie Institution has awarded to Mr. Tuther 
Burbank, of Santa Rosa, California, a grant of $10,000, with pros- 
pect of annual renewal for a period of ten years, in order to fur- 
ther his experiments in plant breeding. We learn from Science 
that Mr. Burbank has been appointed a special lecturer in Stan- 
ford University. 

At the meeting held in Philadelphia, December 27-31, 1904, 
the Botanical Society of America, the Society for Plant Mor- 
phology and Physiology, and the American Mycological So- 
ciety approved a preliminary plan for a proposed merger of these 
three societies under the name of the Botanical Society of Amer- 
ica. The details of the constitution of the new society are to be 
formulated by a joint committee during the coming year. 

The eighth meeting of the Society for Plant Morphology and 
Physiology was held at the University of Pennsylvania, December 
28-30, 1904. Seventeen papers were read. The address of the 
retiring president. Dr. George T. Moore, was upon "Applied 
]3otany and its Dependence upon Scientific Research." The 
following officers were elected fc^r tlic ensuing year : President, 
Professor IC. C. Jeffrey ; vice-president. Dr. C. O. Townsend ; 
secretary-treasurer, Professor VV. F. Ganong. Professor W. G. 
Farlow was chosen delegate to the International Botanical Con- 
gress at Vienna. 

The Wild Flower Preservation Society of America held a 
meeting in liiological Hall, University of Pennsylvania, De- 
cember 30, 1904. The destructive effects of forest fires formed 
the chief topic discussed. Reports of officers were read. Reso- 



19 

lutions dcpl()riii<^ the havoc caused by fires and olTerinj^ the co- 
operation of the society in efforts to lessen this evil were adopted 
for presentation to the American Forest Congress, called to meet 
in Washington, D. C, January 2—6, 1905. Officers for the en- 
suing year are : President, Professor C. I'-. Hessey ; vice-presi- 
dent, Mr. Joseph Crawford ; secretary, Mrs. N. L. Britton ; treas- 
urer, Dr. C. K. Waters. 

The American Association for the Advancement of Science 
held its fifty-fourth annual meeting at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, December 27-31, 1904, under the presidency 
of Professor W. G. Farlow. Papers represented by ij titles 
were offered before Section G (botany), including several by title 
only. Dr. B. L. Robinson occupied the chair. The vice-pres- 
idential address of Professor Thomas H. Macbride, retiring chair- 
man of Section G, was upon " The Alamogordo Desert," and 
was illustrated by numerous lantern photographs. For 1903, 
Dr. l^rwin F. Smith was elected chairman of Section G, Professor 
¥. E. Lloyd continuing to serve as secretary. Professor C. R. 
Barnes, Mr. C. L. Shear and Dr. H. C. Cowles were appointed 
delegates to the International Botanical Congress to be held in 
Vienna in June, 1905. 

The Botanical Society of America held its eleventh annual 
meeting at the University of Pennsylvania December 27-30. 
1904, under the presidency of Mr. Frederick V. Covillc. The 
address of the past-president, Professor C. R. Barnes, was 
entitled "The Theory of Respiration." In addition to the 
address, twenty-one papers were presented. Officers were 
elected as follows: President, Professor R. A. Harper ; vice-presi. 
dent. Professor E. A. Burt; treasurer. Dr. Arthur Hollick ; 
secretary, Dr. D. T. MacDougal ; councillors. Professor L. M. 
Underwood and Professor William Trelease. Grants of $200 to 
Professor G. F. Atkinson to aid investigations on the fungi, and 
of ^75 to Mr. P'rederick V. Coville to facilitate work on the 
relation of plants to moisture were approved. Professor J. C 
Arthur was chosen to represent the Society at the International 
Botanical Congress in Vienna. 



■20 

Botanical visitors in New York since Jul\- i, not already- 
noted in ToRREYA. include Mr. O. W. Barrett, Agricultural Ex- 
[veriment Station, Ma)'aguez, Porto Rico ; Professor Douglas 
]-{. Campbell, Stanford University, California ; Dr. E. H. 
Eames, Bridgeport, Conn ; Professor Vladislaw Rothert, Odessa, 
Russia ; Professor B. M. Duggar, University of Missouri, Co- 
lumbia, Mo. ; Mrs. Flora W. Patterson, Mr. W. F. Wight, Mr. 
William R. Maxon, Mr. C. E. Waters, Mr. Jesse B. Norton, 
md Mr. E. L. Morris, Washington, D. C. ; Dr. Margaret C. 
Ferguson , Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. ; Dr. George 
H. Shull, Station for P^xperimental Evolution, Cold Spring 
Harbor, N. Y. , Mr. Alfred Rehder, Jamaica Plain, Mass. ; 
Dr. C. F. Millspaugh, Ineld Columbian Museum, Chicago ; 
Mr. John F. Cowell, Director of the Botanic Garden, Buffalo, 
N. Y. ; Professor Alexander W. Evans and Professor Arthur 
II. Graves, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. ; Mr. Charles 
Louis Pollard, Springfield, Mass. ; Mr. N, Ohno. Tokyo, Japan ; 
Professors F. S. Earle, and Mel. T. Cook, P^stacion Central 
Agronomica de Cuba. Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba; Pro- 
fessor J. E. Kirkwood, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. ; 
.M-r. John Macoun, Ottawa, Canada ; Professor L. H, Pammel, 
Ames, Iowa ; Dr. W. A. Cannon, Desert Botanical Laboratory, 
Tucson, Arizona . and Professor P. H. Rolfs. Miami, Florida. 



Vol. 5 No. 2 

TORREYA uBRA.v 

NEW \ u:»K 
February, 1905 BOTANUaL 

(JARiJii.N 

GALTONIAN REGRESSION IX THE "PURE LINE"* 

By Gicorck Harrison Shiii.i, 

Among the experiments undertaken this year at the Station 
for Experimental Involution for the purpose of investigating the 
inheritance of characters in plants, was one intended to be essen- 
tially a repetition of Joliannsen's studies f in the inheritance of 
seed-weights in beans. The variety of PJiascolus vulgaris chosen 
for this study proved to be unsatisfactory from a technical stand- 
point and it is not proposed to pursue the experiment further 
with this material, though several subsidiary questions may be 
taken up in other plants. The relation between the results of 
Johannscn on beans and those of Galton on sweet-peas X have 
appeared on further analysis to be in need of reinterpretation 
rather than reinvestigation, and the writer feels justified, there- 
fore, in taking this abandoned experiment as a text for such re- 
interpretation. 

From a number of statistical studies upon various characters 
in man and animals and a single series of experiments in 
sweet-peas, Galton derived his law of natural inheritance and 
its corollary — the law of regression from mediocrity. || The 
law of natural inheritance is, briefly, that the offspring of any 

* Presented before Section G, A. A. A. S., at Philadelphia, December 30, 1904, 
under title of " Inheritance in Pure Lines." 

f Ueber Erblichkeit in Populationen und in reinen Linien. Jena : Fischer, 1903. 

J Natural inheritance. New York : Macmillan & Co., 18S9. 

II This has frequently been called " regression tcnoard mediocrity," but as the co- 
efficient of regression is measured y)('w the mean condition of the population confusion 
has arisen through expressing it in this way. Galton's own inconsistency in discus- 
sions of regression is doubtless responsible for this confusion. He first presents it 
clearly as a deviation from mediocrity, but later says there is "no regression at all " 
when this deviation is etjual in the two kinships under comparison, and the coetficient 
of regression is unity. Cf. Natural inheritance 95-9S with 132-133.) 
[Vol. 5, No. I, of ToRRKYA, comprising pages I-20, was issued January 19, 1905.] 

21 



22 



parentage, when considered in its entirety, inherits one-half its 
characteristics from its parents, one-fourth from its grandparents, 
one-eighth from its great-grandparents and so on. The law of 
regression from mediocrity points out that the children of ex- 
treme parents are not on the average so extreme as their parents, 
though they deviate in the same direction from the mediocre con- 
dition of the race. As an example of regression, take Galton's 
results on sweet-peas : The diameter of parent seeds which pro- 
duced plants having on the average seeds of the same diameter 
was 3.94 mm. Assuming this to be the mediocre condition of 
the strain he was using he found that whatever the parental de- 
\'iation from this diameter the mean filial deviation was in the 
same direction, but only one-third as great. Thus the offspring 
from seeds 5.34 mm. in diameter produced seeds having an aver- 
age diameter of 3.94 4- ^''^ "^ = 4.41 mm. (observed diam- 
eter, 4.44 mm.). 

Johannsen obtained similar results in beans when he compared 
the average weight of seeds in the offspring with the weight of 
the parent seeds, if the latter were selected solely with reference 
to the weight of the indix'idual seeds and without regard to 
the pre-parental anccstrx' ; but when he separated the individual 
" pure lines " he found that the mean weight of seeds in the off- 
spring is the same on the average as that of the preceding genera- 
tions in the .same "line," in other words, plants produced from 
small seeds bear seeds of the same average weight as do plants 
which are produced from large seeds having the same ancestr)'. 

By the " i)ure line" Johannsen means a scries of individuals 
related only through the process of self-fertilization. On a 
priori grounds it seems proper to apply the term to ever)' 
series of individuals that do not combine the elements of two 
or more ancestral lines through the ccjuivalent of a sexual 
process. Thus, so far as hereditary qualities are concerned, 
there should be no reason to expect in a self-fertilizing popula- 
tion, conditions different from those in a population related through 
budding or other method of vegetative reproduction, provided of 
course, that the .self-fertilizing population has not been so re- 



cently modified by a cross as to allow the analysis and recombi- 
nation of characters derived from different ancestral lines. 

The complete return of the offspring of an extreme parent, to 
the mean condition of the "pure line" to which it belongs, or 
in technical language the entire want of " regression ". in the 
"pure line," is presented by Johannsen as a fundamental ex- 
ception to the conclusions of Galton. 

Weldon and Pearson have critici/x-d '•' the work of Johannsen 
in considerable detail and although the tone of their criticism is 
adverse throughout, they grant that his main contention may well 
be true, that small seeds and large seeds of the same plant do 
not give rise to plants bearing small seeds and large seeds re- 
spectively. If read aright, their criticism must be held to be 
confirmatory in so far as Johannsen's data are capable of bio- 
metric analysis. Certainly their conclusion that his results are 
closely identical with those found for other plants and for animals 
when we compare mean parental and mean filial characters, 
agrees precisely with that reached by Johannsen, for these means 
represent the condition in the popjilation or mixture of several 
"pure lines," and not in the individual ''pure line." 

The relation between this work of Johannsen and that of Gal- 
ton on sweet-peas may now be considered. In the first place, 
the actual results were the same when the treatment of the ma- 
terial was the same, and in so far the work of Galton was con- 
firmed ; but when the " pure lines " were followed separately 
they were found to offer an apparent exception in the complete 
return of the offspring of extreme parents to the mean condition 
of the " pure line." Instead of this being fundamentally opposed 
to Galton's results, however, it is the condition which should have 
been derived a priori from Galton's " Law of natural inheritance." 

Regression is lucidly ex[)lained by Galton t as due to the fact 
that the child inherits parth' from his parents, partl\- from his 
more remote ancestry, and that if " traced far backwards his an- 
cestry will be found to consist of such varied elements that they 
are indistinguishable from a sample taken at haphazard from the 

* Inlicrilance in P/i<iseo/iis vulgaris. Biometrika, 2 : 499-503. N 1903. 
t Natural inheritance, 105. 



24 

general population, ... in other words it will be mediocre." 
Now, if the mean condition of the parental generation and of each 
preceding generation in the same line deviates to the same 
degree from the mean condition of the population, it becomes 
an inevitable inference that in so far as hereditary influences are 
concerned, the offspring must have the same mean character 
regardless of the largeness or smallness of the individual seeds 
from which those offspring have developed. 

This " fixity of type " which Johannsen finds in the " pure 
line " was recognized by Galton in his treatment of pure breeds* 
and it seems strange that he did not perceive that his sweet-peas 
which he recognized and described as a self-fertilizing population 
were at variance with this fixity of type in the pure breed. 
Johannsen has brought harmony in Galton's results where there 
was a previously unnoted discord, and has confirmed the laws of 
"natural inheritance" and of "regression from mediocrity" as 
applied to the characters of self-fertilizing populations. 

An important point which is brought out by these results of 
Johannsen both from a scientific and an economic standpoint is 
that the weight or size of an individual seed is not the hereditary 
unit, but the character of all the seeds of each plant considered 
as a whole. A plant which produces small seeds in general, 
may produce some seeds which are larger than the smallest 
seeds of another plant which produces large seeds in general, so 
that when the student of heredity wishes to use seed-characters 
or presumably any other repeated character, he must seek the 
general condition of the character in question in each plant and 
not depend upon the character of single seeds or single other 
repeated organs. 

The economic application of this important principle is obvi- 
ous. It has been very generally maintained by horticulturists 
that varieties deteriorate as the result of the selection of small 
seeds, tubers, etc., for propagation, but this proposition, while 
satisfying a certain sense of logic, has rested on no scientific 
research. The fixity of type in the "pure line " which now ap- 
pears to be established, shows that no such deteriorating effect 

* Natural inheritance, 189. 



25 

will be produced so long as the seeds arc large enough to pro- 
duce vigorous plants. 

The farmer and the plant-breeder may plant the small potato 
tubers or the small seeds without any danger of detenoration in 
the yield and quality of the crop provided they select these 
tubers or seeds from plants which yield the largest quantity and 
the finest quality of tubers or of seeds. 
Station for E.kperimkntal Evolution, 
Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island. 

SOIL WATER IN RELATION TO TRANSPIRATION 

By V. M. Spalding 

In a recent article by the writer on the creosote bush in its 
relation to water supply,* the statement was made that the 
amount transpired appears to stand in direct relation to the 
amount of water available in the soil in which the plant is grow- 
ing. Further observations on this and some other desert plants 
not only confirm this view but go to show that water in the soil 
is a controlling factor, and that even as efficient an agent as light 
may, in comparison, take quite secondary rank. 

The later literature of transpiration, however voluminous in 
general, is extremely limited as regards this branch of the sub- 
ject. t Aloi and Ferruzza have shown that the amount of water 
in the soil is a factor by which the opening of stomata, and con- 
sequently the rate of transpiration, is controlled, and Stenstrom 
has attempted to formulate a mathematical equivalency between 
the rate of transpiration and the ratio of atmospheric and soil 
moisture. The remaining literature dates from the works of 
Sachs and older writers. 

In the summer of 1904, while engaged in observing the influ- 
ence of light of different degrees of intensity on transpiration, I 
found that results apparently conflicting became consistent when 
account was taken of the amount of water supplied to the plants 
under investigation and the time at which it was given. 

* Botanical Gazette, 38: 122. 1904. 

•f- lUirgeisteiii, A. Die 'rranspiration der Ptlanzen. 137. 1904. 



26 

The plants employed were seedlings of the creosote bush 
(^Coz'illed) and palo \'erde {Parki)isonia Torreyajia and P. aatlcata) 
growing in cans and supplied with measured quantities of water 
at stated intervals. The rate of transpiration was determined by- 
placing the plants under a bell-jar, with suitable precautions to 
prevent the absorption or escape of water vapor, the amount of 
water transpired being derived from readings of a hygrometer. 
As details will be given elsewhere, a brief resume of experiments 
and results will be sufficient for the present purpose. 

Beginning with the palo verde, two sets of plants, one serving 
as a check on the other, were used. August ii, the plants hav- 
ing been well watered the day before, the rate of transpiration 
was determined. The following day, August 12, the plants 
meantime having received no water, but having been treated 
precisely as before, as regards light and other controllable condi- 
tions, the rate of transpiration was found to be only 52.6 and 
38.5 per cent, as high as it was on the preceding day, a result 
apparently attributable to nothing else than the diminished 
quantity of water in the soil in which the plants were growing. 

The same plants were again placed under observation August 
18, having been given no water since August 15. External con- 
ditions were favorable to transpiration, full sunlight, a fresh 
breeze, and rather high temperature. At 1 1:40 A. M., after the 
rate of transpiration had been noted, number i was given one 
ounce, and number 2 three ounces of water. At 1:15 P. M., the 
rate of transpiration of number i was found to be the same as at 
the time of the preceding observation, while that of number 2 
was twice as great. At 4 P. M., observations were again made, 
and at this second afternoon reading it was found that number i 
was transpiring twice and number 2 four times as rapidly as at 
the time of the forenoon observation. 

The following forenoon the rate of transpiration of number 2 
was found to be nearly four times as great as that of number i, 
a striking difference when it is considered that only twent\'-four 
hours earlier their rate had been the same, explainable, it would 
seem, only by recalling the fact that when the observations began 
on the morning of August 18, both sets of plants were in dry 



27 

soil, but on the follouinf,^ clay number 2 had received three times 
as much water as number i, and probably on account of sub- 
irrigation was able to utilize a greater percentage of what was 
given to it. 

Experiments with Covillca gave even more striking results. 
September 5, the transpiration of two plants, designated i and 2, 
was determined in the forenoon between i i and i 2, and again in 
the afternoon between 3 and 4 o'clock. Number 2 was given 
three ounces of water at 12:20, none being given to number i. 
At the time of the afternoon observation it was found that num- 
ber 2 was transpiring more than three times as rapidly as it was 
before the water was given to it, and number i, which was not 
watered, was transpiring only one-fifth as rapidly as it was in the 
forenoon. 

Observations were also made for the purpose of ascertaining 
the effect of exposure to direct sunlight in conjunction with water 
supply. It was found that exposure to bright sunlight was uni- 
forml)- followed by accelerated transpiration, whenever the plant 
under observation had a full supply of water, but that otherwise 
such acceleration did not take place. 

It is noteworthy that plants which had all along received a 
meagre supply of water were nevertheless in a position to tran- 
spire rapidly when once a full supply of water was furnished 
them, while plants which from the beginning had received a very 
large amount of water showed promptly a marked lowering in 
rate of transpiration when the water supply was reduced. 

With so complicated a problem general statements may well 
be made with extreme caution, but the evidence in the present 
case is sufficient to show that in studies of transpiration it is alto- 
gether unsafe to attempt to estimate an)- other factors whatever 
without taking due account of water in the soil. 

Desert Bot.\nical Lahoratory of the Carnegie iNsriTiTifiN, 
Tucson, Arizona. 



28 



A KEY TO THE STIPITATE POLYPORACEAE OF 
TEMPERATE NORTH AMERICA — I 

By William A. Murrill 



Key to the Genera 

Surface of liymenophore covered with reddish-brown varnish. A. Ganoderma 

Surface of hynienophore not as above. 

Tubes hexagonal and radially elongated. B. Hexagona 

Tubes not as above. 

Stipe compound. C. Grikola 

Stipe simple. 

Context white. 

Plants fleshy, terrestrial. D. Scutiger 

Plants tough, epi.\ylous. 

Pileus inverted, erumpent from lenticels. 



E. PORODISCUS 

F. PuLYl'ORUS 



Pileus erect, not erumpent. 

Context homogeneous, firm. 

Context duplex, spongy above, woody below. 

G. Abortii'Orus 
Context brown. 

Hymenium concentrically lamelloid. H, Cyclopijrus 

Hymenium poroid. 

Spores white. I, Ro.MELLlA 

Spores brown. 

Pileus erect, stipe central. J. Coltricia 

Pileus inverted, pendent. K. Coltricieli.a 



A. The Stiimtate Stecies ok Ganoderma 
I. Context ochraceous to fulvous ; plant perennial on deciduous trees. 

G. Jlabt'lliforme (Scop.) Murrill 
Context pallid ; plant annual on hemlock. G. Tmgae Murrill 



B. The Stititate Species of He.kagon.v 
Surface glabrous to fibrillose, not distinctly hispid. 2 

Surface hispid ; tubes small ; context thin, translucent. //. floriJana Murrill 

Pileus reniform at maturity ; stipe usually much reduced. 3 

Pileus flabclliform ; stipe usually very distinct, equaling (he pileus at times in 
length; tubes of medium size. //. daeiialea (Link) Murrill 

Tubes large ; surface of pileus decorated with imiiricated reddish-brown fibrils, 
which disappear with age. //. alveola) is (DC.) Murrill 

Tubes much smaller, the mouths rarely over i mm. long and 0.5 mm. broad ; sur- 
face of pileus glabrous. II. viiciopora VixxrrW 



29 

C. TiiK Si'KciKS OK Grifola 

1. Hymenium ochraceous, becoming dirty-yellow with age ; plants terrestrial, irregu- 

larly confluent, olivaceous to greenish-yellow. G. poripes (Fr. ) Murrill 

Hymenium white or pallid, sometimes becoming fuliginous, but never ochraceous. 

2 

2. Surface of pileus gray or grayish-brown to coffee-colored ; stipe intricately branched; 

lobes numerous and small. 3 

Surface of pileus pallid or alutaceous ; stipe not intricately branched ; lobes usually 

few in number and comparatively large. 5 

3. Pileoli centrally attached, circular and umbilicate. 

G. rainosissi»ia (Scop.) Murrill 
Pileoli lateral, spatulate or dimidiate. 4 

4. Hymenium white, not changing color; surface of pileus gray or grayish-brown. 

G. frondosa (Dicks.) S. V. Gray 

Hymenium white, becoming fuliginous on drying or when bruised ; surface of 

pileus coffee- colored. G. Sumstind Murrill 

5. Sporophore of immense size, 20-60 cm. in diameter ; spores echinulate, 8-9 //. 

G. Berkeleyi (Fr.) Murrill 
Sporophore 8 cm. or less in diameter; spores smooth, ovoid, much smaller. 

G.fradipes (B. & C.) Murrill 

D. The Species of Scutiger 

1. Surface of pileus uneven, squamose or rugose. 2 
.Surface of pileus smooth, tomentose or glabrous. 4 

2. Pileus sulfur-yellow, pleuropous ; surface ornamented with imbricated floccose 

wart-like scales ; context white or yellowish ; tubes small, angular, decurrent, 
white, becoming greenish when wounded, yellowish when dry; spores 9X6//. 

S. Ellisii (Berk.) Murrill 
Pileus brown. 3 

3. Tubes large, 1.5 mm. or more in diameter, hexagonal ; surface of pileus smoky- 

brown ornamented with darker imbricated tufts of appressed hairs; context 

white ; stipe e.xceniric, its entire surface reticulate. 

S. retipes (Underw.) Murrill 
Tubes small, 0.5 mm. in diameter, polygonal, decurrent, white ; pileus reddish- 
! brown, rugose ; stipe central, not reticulate. S. dectirrens (Underw.) Murrill 

4. Pileus light-colored : white, yellow or blue. 5 
Pileus dark- colored : gray or brown. 7 

5. Pileus white ; context white ; tubes irregular, dissepiments thin, white ; plants 

small, growing upon grass-roots ; stipe short, dark-brown. 

S. cryptopus (Ell. & Barth. ) Murrill 
Pileus yellow to orange, glabrous ; stipe short, concolorous ; tubes short, small, 
1-2 X 0.2 mm., decurrent ; spores ovoid, hyaline, 4 X S"^/'- 

S. laeticolor Murrill 
Pileus blue when fresh, changing to brown on drying. 6 

6. Tubes entire, becoming reddish-brown on drying ; context ochraceous, and pileus 

and stipe reddish-brown in herbarium specimens. 

5. caerttUoporus (Peck) Murrill 



30 

Tubes lacerate, fading to grayish-brown or dirty white ; context nearly white ; 
pileus and stipe dull smoky-brown when dry. .S". holocyaneus (Atk.) Murrill 

7. Stipe black and rooting. 8 
Stipe neither black nor rooting. 9 

8. Pileus smoky-brown, subtomentose ; margin thin, inflexed ; context white; tubes 

regular, polygonal, entire, 2 mm. long, 0.5 ram. in diameter ; stipe cylindrical, 
light-brown above, black and rooting below ; spores white, elliptical, 7X5/"- 

S. radicatus (Schw.) Murrill 

Pileus drab-colored, nearly glabrous ; margin thin, inflexed when young ; context 

milk-white even when dry ; tubes white, irregular, toothed, I mm. long, 0.25 

mm. in diameter ; stipe short, sooty-black as far as the decurrent tubes, attached 

to buried wood ; spores white, 3-4 X 5-7/'- ^- subradicatus Murrill 

9. Pileus gray, glabrous or nearly so ; margin very thin ; context rosy-gray, soft, 

fleshy, thin when dry ; tubes small, 0.25-0.5 mm., unequal, decurrent ; stipe 
short, concolorous. S. griseiis (Peck) Murrill 

Pileus brown. 10 

10. Stipe dark-purple, very thick ; pileus fulvous-brown, purplish at times, clothed 
with short tomentum, margin very obtuse ; context reddish beneath the cuticle, ' 
marked when dry with a black concentric line limiting growth ; tubes white, 2 
to a mm. 5". persicimis (B. & C. ) Murrill 

Stipe yellowi.sh-brown, usually excentric ; plants cespitose ; pileus yellowish- 
brown, pruinose; margin thin ; context rose-tinted when dry, dark-red next to 
the tubes, which are small, 1-3 X 0.3 mm., decurrent, rose-colored when dry, 
the edges fimbriate. S. Whiteae Murrill 



A PALM FROM THE MID-CRETACEOUS* 

By Edward W. Bkrkv 

The enormous number of exi.sting palms, considerably over 
one thousand species, are about equally divided between the 
oriental and occidental tropics, with many monotypic genera, 
showing well the marked effects of geographical distribution and 
isolation on the formation of species. There are no outlying 
forms, the highest northern latitude reached being about 43° in 
Europe, and the highest southern latitude about 45° in New 
Zealand. 

Lesquereux writing in 1878 t records fossil palms in 52° 
north latitude in both America and hLurope. Since then remains 
have been described from as far north as 80° (Grinnell Land, 
vSpitzbergcn), and two fine species are recorded from the Tertiary 

* Published by permission of the Maryland (Ecological Survey. 
t lertiary Mora. 



31 

of Greenland (latitude 70°). A variety of Paleozoic remains 
have been referred to the Palmae, ranging from Stigman'a trunks 
to Cordaitean leaves and fruits ; the nature of the latter having 
been first rightly conjectured by Brongniart in 1828 *. With 
the marvellous increase, during the last twenty-five years, of our 
knowledge of the vegetation of the Paleozoic, we can now posi- 
tively affirm that palms are unknown from pre-Mesozoic forma- 
tions. 

Stenzel, who has recently monographed t the fossil palm- 
wood of the world, finds the oldest known wood to come from 
the Turanian of France (i species) ; the succeeding formation, 
the Senonian, has yielded him six species ; and, with the usher- 
ing in of the Tertiary, the species become numerous. 

Undoubted remains of palm-leaves occur somewhat earlier, 
and the Mid-Cretaceous, in the light of our present knowledge, 
marks the introduction of this type. 

The Cenomanian of Europe has furnished undoubted palm- 
leaves, and Stur X has described fruit from that formation in Bo- 
hemia, and Fliche from the same horizon in France. The next 
formation, the Senonian, shows species in a variety of genera 
{Nipadites, Flabellaria, etc.). It is in the Tertiary, however, that 
palms become greatly developed and widespread, and the numer- 
ous species founded on stems, leaves, petioles, fruits, and even 
flowers, are referable to a large number of genera {Giowuia, 
Manicaria, PJiocnix, Nipa, Chamacrops, Orcodoxites, Saba/, 
Iriartca, Lata)iites, etc.). In this country the earliest known 
remains are those small fragments of striated leaves, of a rather 
doubtful nature, which Lesquereux described § as Flabdlaria 
minima from the Dakota group (Cenomanian). || 

The Montana group, of Senonian or possibly Danian age, has 
furnished Knowlton^ with the undoubted remains of a large 

♦Prodrome Hist. Veg6t. Foss. 

f Beitr. Palaeont. u. Geol. Oesterr. Ungarn. I-182. //. 1-22. 1904. [Folic] 
(I am indebted to Dr. F. H. Knowlton for an abstract of this work. ) 

jVerhandl. k. k. tleol. Reichsanslalt. Wien. 1S73. 

gCret. Flora, 56. pi. 30. f. 12. 1S74. 

II It is now definitely decided that Hollick's supposed palm, Serenopsis, from the 
Raritan of Long Island, is a Xelumho. 

•"Bull. U. S. Geol. .Sur%-. 163 : 32. 1900. 



32 



palmetto -like form (Sa6a/itcs) * , while the Laramie (Danian) 
furnishes a number of species, some of which, represented by 
both leaves and fruit, continue through the Eocene and help to 
make up the abundant palm flora of the early Tertiary in this 
country. 

The characters of fragments of leaves or rays are rarely 
definite enough for specific or even generic diagnosis, and usage 
has sanctioned their reference, in cases of doubt, to the genus 
Flabcllaria of Sternberg, which, while including some anomalies, 




is properly used for those large flabellate leaves, which from the 
nature of the remains it is impossible to refer positively to Sabal 
{Sabalites), Geotiomifcs, etc., as is the ca.sc with the specimens be- 
fore me. 

Flabellaria raagothiensis sp. nov.. Jigs, i & 2. — Frag- 
mentary remains of large, palmetto-like leaves of considerable 
consistency ; some specimens showing long parallel corruga- 
tions, the finer structure being destroyed {^fig. 2) ; others finely 
veined with .somewhat heavier veins 2 to 4 mm. apart {Jig. /). 

* Daw.son lias also described a Sdliat from tlic upper Crcla'rcoiis of Nanaimo. 



33 

Collected b)' Hibbiii.s ^ Ik-rry at (jiovc Point, Maryland, and 
Deep Cut, Delaware. 

The remains arc most numerous at the former locality, where 
many specimens were collected, the largest 8 cm. square. 

They occur in thin layers of clay intercalated between thicker 
layers of white sand, and from the nature of the deposit and the 
awkward point of outcrop (beneath an overhanging bluff of clay) 
it is impossible to get out anything like complete material. 

I have no doubt that with the expenditure of much time and 
labor, better specimens could be secured, and would have 
deferred publication were it not for the interest attached to so 
early a species of palm, and I have no doubt that it is a palm, 
whatever its generic affinities may subsequently be found to be. 
It is certainly much more positive material than Lesquereux's 
from the Dakota group, and the figures but poorly depict the 
specimens which are particularly difficult to represent. Both of 
the outcrops where these remains occur are in the upper part of 
what Darton* called the Magothy formation, and which Wardt 
and others would include in the Raritan. Dr. \Vm. B. Clark 
has recently % suggested that they may be correlated with the 
exposure at Cliffwood, N. J., thus forming transition beds be- 
tween the Albian and the Cenomanian. The flora of Cliffwood 
has certainly a Cenomanian facies, and it remains for an exhaust- 
ive study of the flora of the Magothy to determine positively its 
exact age according to European standards. 

Passaic, N. J. 

SHORTER NOTES 

Galactia Curtissii sp. nov. — A shrub, 6 dm. high or less, 
widcl}' branched, densely tomentulose all o\er, the branches terete. 
Leaves 3-foliolate ; stipules subulate, 2-3 mm. long; petiole stout, 
2 cm. long or less ; leaflets oblong, oblong-lanceolate or oblong- 
oblanceolate, broadest at about the middle, thick, light-green, ob- 
tuse at both ends, or subcordate at the base, finely and strongK- 
reticulate-veined beneath, 3-6 cm. long, 2 cm. wide or less, the 

* Darton, .Vm. Jour. Sci. III. 45: 407-419. li^pj. 

fWard, Am. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. 8*: 871. 1889; lii,/. 15 : 372. 1S95. 

X Clark, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 18 : 435-440. 1904. 



34 

lateral ones short-stalked, the terminal one 8-12 mm. long: 
spikes shorter than the leaves, simple or compound, interrupted, 
several- to many-flowered : calyx campanulate, about 7 mm. 
long, its teeth triangular-lanceolate, acute, tomentose, the longer 
ones nearly twice as long as the tube : corolla purple ; standard 
nearly orbicular, short-clawed, about 8 mm. in diameter, about 
as long as the longer-clawed wing-petals : legume linear, brown- 
tomentulose, 4-4.5 cm. long, 5 mm. wide: seeds dull, obliquely 
oval, 3 mm. long. 

Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines. Cuba, A. H. Curtiss, 1904, no. 
^02. 

Related to the Mexican Galactia vndtijiora Robinson. 

N. L. Britton. 

Panaeolus acidus sp. nov. — Pileus 1-3 cm. across, convex 
then expanded almost plane, smooth, slightly fleshy at the disk, 
very thin at the margin, brown with yellow tinge ; gills adnate, 
2-3 mm. broad, black with white edge; stem 8-10 cm. high, 
slender, hollow, equal, concolorous, 2-3 mm. thick ; spores black, 
broadly ovate, pointed at each end. 

Growing in a cluster on the bottom of a box in a cellar. The 
box contained a large bottle of acetic acid which had been broken 
and the contents emptied on the bottom of the box. The plant 
grew on this saturated wood. 

In drying the color of the pileus became darker and the edges 
reflexed. In general appearance it resembles Psilocybe fociiisccii 
(Pers.) Fr., but the black spores readily distinguish it from that 
species. 

Type specimens are in tlic Carnegie Museum, Pittsburg, Pa. 

D. R. SUMSTINE. 
KriTA.NMNc, Pa. 

PROC BIDDINGS OF THE CLUB 

TuESD.AY, December 13, 1904 

The meeting was held at the College of Pharmacy, Dr. II. II. 
Rusby in the chair, eleven members present. 

Resignations were accepted from Mi.ss Hannah S. Wingate and 
Mrs. P'.mily H. Terry, and from Messrs. Samuel Sloan, R. II. 
Lawrence and F. W. Kobbc. 



35 

The following were elected to iiiciiiljcrship : Miss Alice A. 
KiiDx, HariKud College, New York City ; Miss Amelia R, Good- 
lattc, Passaic, N. J.; Miss Lenda T. Hanks, Girls' Technical High 
School. New York City; Miss Mary F. liarrett, 19 E\m Street, 
Bloomfield, N. J.; Mr. LcRoy Abrams, N. Y. Botanical Garden. 

The first pajjer on the program was by Professor V. K. Lloyd, 
who spoke of the Desert Botanical Laboratory at Tucson, Ari- 
zona. He pointed out that there were four characteristic types of 
desert \'isiblc with great regularity from the car window westward 
from K\ Paso, as the train passed from mesa to hill country or 
2HCI' 7'frsa. The character-plants of these four deserts, which 
are remarkably distinct and pure, are Yucca, Ephedra, mesquite, 
Parkinsoiiia and Foiiquicria, in abundance. Professor Lloyd spoke 
in some detail of the vegetation in the vicinity of Tucson, illus- 
trating his remarks with numerous excellent photographs, in- 
cluding several good pictures of Ccrcus gigantciis in bloom and 
in fruit. 

It was remarked that the plants with motile leaves, such as 
Cassia, Acacia and Parkiiisonia, all faced the sun at sunrise, but 
did not follow its course during the day. Foiiqjiicria was de- 
scribed in detail, attention being called to its short-lived primar}' 
leaves and curious spines which were cited as an example of 
direct metamorphosis, the rosettes of secondary leaves appearing 
in the axils of the latter. The primary object of Professor Lloyd's 
stay at the laboratory was the determination of the relation be- 
tween stomatal action and transpiration. Numerous experiments 
were made, the results of which are to be reported in detail 
later. 

The second paper, by Mr. George V. Nash, was on the vegeta- 
tion of Inagua. Mr. Nash recently spent four weeks in collect- 
ing there. Inagua includes a large and a small island located 
some sixty miles northeast of Cuba, and with a total area of be- 
tween five and six hundred square miles of mosth' low land, the 
highest point reaching only 132 feet Above the sea. 

The flora is poor, embracing some 350 or 400 species, the 
relatively numerous cacti in the genera Opiiii/ia, Cac/us, Mclo- 
cactits, and Piloccrcus emphasizing the desert-like conditions pre- 



36 

vailing on the islands. Five plant areas were differentiated : — 
(l) that of the Strand; (2) the Scrub, where nearly all the 
endemic species of the islands have been found ; (3) the White 
Sand or White Land as it is called locally, characterized by a 
species of Coccotlirinax ; (4) the Salinas, characterized by the 
shrub Avicennia nitida Jacq.; and (5) the Savannas, where Cono- 
carpus sericea Forst. is the characteristic shrub and Sporobohis 
virginicus the common grass. In the numerous salt-holes is 
found the only fern of the islands, Acrosticlmm auremn. 

Excellent photographs were exhibited showing the dwarfing 
effect of the sharp winds of the southern coast, where the vege- 
tation, elsewhere six or eight feet tall, is reduced to a foot or two 
in height and becomes widely spreading. 

One of the results of Mr. Nash's trip was the extension of the 
range of Pseiidophocnix Sargcnti about 3 50 miles to the south- 
ward ; another the collection of a number of new species. Nu- 
merous photographs, and specimens from each of the plant areas, 
illustrated the speaker's various points. 

Edward W. Berry, 

Secretary. 

NEWS ITEMS 

Dr. and Mrs. N. L. Britton and Dr. Marshall A. Howe, of the 
New York Botanical Garden, and Dr. C. F. Millspaugh of the 
Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, are devoting several weeks 
to botanical explorations in the Bahamas. 

The extensive botanical collections and library of Capt. John 
Donnell Smiith, of Baltimore, have been presented by him to the 
Smithsonian Institution. All the old-world plants, and all of the 
American orchids, grasses, sedges and lower cr}'ptogams, are 
already in Washington. The remainder of the American speci- 
mens, and all of the books, are to remain in Capt. Smith's pos- 
session as long as he may wish to retain them. 



Vol. 5 No. 

TORREYA 

March, 1905 



THE EARLY WRITERS ON FERNS AND THEIR 
COLLECTIONS — IV. Presl, 1794-1852; John- 
Smith, 1798-1888; Fek, 1789-1874; AND • '•'-•■''^•'^Y 
MooKE. 182.-, 887 BOTANICAL 

Hy L. M. Underwood QAl^Dki.N 

The real enlargement of the conception of fern genera com- 
menced with Presl and continued with John Smith, Fee and 
Moore, who were the generic " splitters " in this group of plants. 
The form of the sporangium had early served to distinguish 
families, and genera were characterized by the varied distribu- 
tion of the sporangia over the leaf-surface, combined with the 
shape of the indusium. Under this method of distinguishing 
genera Swartz had recognized 38 genera in 1806, and Willdenow 
43 in 1810 ; Desvaux, more liberal, recognized 70 in 1827, and 
Sprengel the same year foiund only 66. These numbers wert 
nearly up to the Hookerian standard, for in the Synopsis Fi/icuin 
of 1874 only 76 genera were recognized for the orders Ophio- 
glossales, Marattiales, and Filicales. Contrasted with these num- 
bers, the above-named writers increased the number of fern genera 
as follows : 

Presl, 232 genera. 

John Smith, 220 genera. 

Fee, 181 genera (Polypodiaceae, only). 

Moore, 176 genera. 

Karel Boriwog Presl (1794-1852), a native of Bohemia, con.- 
menced publication among the ferns in the Dcliciac Pragcusis 
(1822) and \.\\ft Reliquiae Hacnkeaiuu (1825*) in which he de- 
.scribed numerous species from Brazil, Mexico, Peru, and tht 
Philippines. Then followed his first publication on genera in his 

*riie date on the title page of the first volume is 1830, but the work was put 
lished in parts, the parts containing the ferns in 1825. 

[Vol. 5, \o. 2, of ToRKKVA, comprising pages 21-36, was issued February 2^. 
'905 ] 

37 



38 

Tentamen Ptcridographiae (1836) in which he recognized 116 
genera in the Polypodiaceae and Cyatheaceae. This was fol- 
lowed in 1843 by his Hynienophyllaccae and in 1845 by his Sup- 
pieincntiDn Tentaminis Pteridographiae , which treated the remain- 
ing families. In the former work many new species were de- 
>cribed and the Supplei)icntum was a monograph of the families 
Ophioglossaceae, Marattiaceae, Osmundaceae, and Schizaeaceae. 
His later works were Die Gefdsslnindc/ ini Stipes der Farr// (1842) 
and Epimeliae Botanicae (1849), '" which, besides describing 
many new species, he established 68 additional genera, bringing 
the total number recognized by him to 232. Pres! was among 
the first to recognize the distribution of the fibro-vascular system 
both in the stem and in the leaf as having primary importance in 
the matter of relationship among ferns, and after Robert Brown, 
was the first really to look upon a genus of ferns as a natural 
group of closely allied organisms, instead of a loose assemblage 
of organisms whose superficial and accidental characters brought 
them under a cut and dried definition based on artificial 
resemblances. 

Such unnatural and unholy alliances as the groups of species 
still included in Gymnograuuiie, AcrosticJiuvi, Polypodimn, and 
Davallia in the Synopsis Filicuiii of Hooker and Baker, were 
separated by Prcsl into much more natural groups, and while he 
made errors, as might be expected in a pioneer, his system is in 
many respects the most logical single system that has yet 
appeared. 

Presl's collection of ferns is in the botanical museum of the 
rierman University of Prague, although some of his t)'pes are at 
Vienna. The collection lies in its original sheets, dust-covered, 
unmounted, and unmolested. When we visited the collection in 
1903 it was even impossible to consult any of Presl's voluminous 
writings on ferns in connection with his collection, for the simple 
reason that the extensive botanical laboratory in Prague did not 
possess them. With the single exception of a solitary note by 
Al. Braun there was little to show that any one else had ever con- 
sulted the collection since Presl's death, and yet the collection, 
next to those at Kew, Berlin, and Paris, is probably the inost im- 



portant, ahoimdin^r in novelties and ricli in ihc types of Pre.sl, for 
he published no less than four hundred species of pteridophytes. 

John Smith ( 1 798-1 S88) was the curator of the Kcw Gardens 
who built uj) the splendid collection of living ferns at that estab- 
lishment, lie knew ferns in cultivation better than any man 
before or since his time, and the genera he established were 
founded largely on habital characters which in great measure 
were dependent on the fibro-vascular system, whose importance 
in taxonomy he also clearly recognized. Besides publishing an 
enumeration of the ferns of the Philippines, Smith early published 
an outline of his system of fern classification in Hooker s Journal 
of Botany {z^: 38-70; 147-198. iS42)and afterwards developed 
it in his later publications (i) Cultivated Ferns (1857), (2) Ferns 
British and Foreig)i (1866, 2d ed. 1877) and (3) Historia Fili- 
cuni (1875), in which he also reviewed other systems. 

Smith's collection is at the l^ritish Museum and is interesting 
as the work of a horticulturist, which like that of a pure morphol- 
ogist shows underestimation of the value of a herbarium speci- 
men. As Smith described comparatively few species, his collec- 
tion contains few types. 

Antoinc Laurent Apollinaire Fee (i 789-1874) was professor 
at Strasbourg so long as that city formed a part of France. His 
publications on ferns consist mainly (i) of eleven memoirs on 
ferns, the first four in folio monographing Antrophynni, Vittaria, 
and Acrosticlnini ; the others are in quarto form and comprise 
Genera Filieunt (Memoir 5), descriptions of new species from 
various parts of the world (memoirs 6, 7, 8, and 10), a list of ferns 
of Mexico (Memoir 9), and a similar but more pretentious list of 
the ferns and lycopods of the Antilles (Memoir 11); and (2) 
Cryptoganies vasenlaires dii Bresil (1869), with Siip/y/enient 
(1872—73) similarly in quarto and like the memoirs admirabK' 
illustrated with lithogra[)hic [)lates. These two series contain a 
total of 285 quarto or folio plates and illustrate about eight hun- 
dred species of ferns. 

Fee's collection of ferns once belonged to Dom Pedro II of 
Brazil, and after the death of that unfortunate monarch became 
the property of M. Cosson in Paris, in whose admirable herbarium 



40 

it is now incorporated. Fee's species are largely valid ones, but 
his work has been discredited by the Hookerian school mostly 
without having seen Fee's types. With Paris as near London 
as Washington is near New York, this condition of affairs is posi- 
tively inexplicable, and absolutely without excuse. 

Thomas Moore (1821-1887) commenced the publication of an 
admirable Index Filicuni in 1857-63, which contained his fern 
system (pp. ix— clxii, //. i—S^, and commenced an alphabetical 
enumeration of ferns and their synonyms (pp. 1-396). Publica- 
tion unfortunately stopped in the middle of the letter G. The 
MSS. of the remainder is preserved at Kevv with Moore's exten- 
•sive herbarium, the latter containing a number of types of species 
published largely in the Gardeners' Chronicle. Many have asked. 
Why should this not be published now ? There are many reas- 
ons., and among them either one of two should decide the ques- 
tion in the negative, (i) Over three thousand species of ferns 
have been published since Moore's publication ceased. It would 
-therefore contain less than half of the known species of ferns and 
■so would be notoriously incomplete. (2) In Moore's time the 
jidea of type localities had not become so all-important in the 
unatter of systematic study of ferns as it has at the present time. 
No index can be regarded adequate for modern use that does 
not give, in addition to its citation, the type locality, /. c, the 
source from which the species was first described. 

This brief series of papers would be incomplete did we not refer 
to one other distinguished fern student, Georg Heinrich Mettenius, 
(1823-1 866) for many years professor at Leipzig. Besides various 
■enumerations of the ferns of various countries like Colombia and 
New Caledonia, Mettenius published (i) his Filiccs Iforti Botaiiici 
Lipsioisis ( 1 856), in which he early outlined his rather conservative 
classification, as he recognized only 72 genera, and, (2) a series of 
monographs of various genera : Plicgoptcris, Clicilanthcs, Polypo- 
liiuDi, Aspidiuin, and Asplciiiiim, in his Ucbcr einige Fanigat- 
tungcn. After the untimely death of Mettenius, Kuhn, another 
brilliant but short-lived German pteridologist, published the Rcli- 
qidae Mcttcnianac (Linnaea, 35: 385-394. 1868; 36: 41-169. 
1869), in which some .species were unfortunately published of 



41 



which only iinpcifect ni'itciial is in existence, sonic indeed that 
Mettenius would certainly never have published on such meager 
data. Mettenius' collection is now incorporated with the general 
collection of ferns at Berlin, which is next to Kcwthe most exten- 
sive in the world. 

Other centers of interesting fern collections in Europe are those 
of Copenhagen with Liebmann's Mexican species; Munich, with 
Martius' Brazilian series ; Leipzig, with Kunze's collection ; and 
lastly Madrid with the collection of Cavanilles. Before our fern 
system has been completed all these and the others discussed in 
this series of papers must be studied comparatively from the 
standpoint of t)'pe specimens. 

OTHER FREAKS OF PEAS 

By Ida Clkndknin 

In the November number of Torreya, Dr. A. J. Grout speaks 
of the " queer freaks " one comes across in our large city schools 
in handling the material used by the botany classes. I want to 
describe one of these that has recently come to my notice, though 
it may not be so unusual as the one described by Dr. Grout. 





— t- 



Fig. a. Young seedling, showing hud in axil of cotyledon. </, bud in axil of 

cotyledon ; <•, cotyledon ; /, plumule ; r, radicle ; s. c, scar of cotyledon. 

Fig. B. Young seedling with plumule cut off; shoots from buds in axils of 
cotyledons. 



42 



In making an experiment last fall to find 
out the function of the cot)4edons of the 
pea, b)- placing the radicles of very young 
seedlings in water, eight or ten girls in my 
botany classes reported that they had peas 
with three plumules. When they brought 
them to class, for inspection, I found that 
each of these seedlings had the ordinary 
shoot from the plumule and a shoot from 
the tiny bud in the axil of each cotyledon. 
These buds make their appearance at an 
early stage of germination, whether the peas 
are germinated in earth or on moist blotting 
paper, but among the thousands of seedling 
peas which I have dug up from the germin- 
ating boxes in the Girls' High School, I do 
not remember to have found one in which 
these buds had developed into shoots ex- 
cept in seedlings whose terminal bud (plu- 
mule) had been destroyed. In this emer- 
gency, the growth of one or both of these 
axillary buds is to be expected ; I have often 
Fig. c. Seedling show- induced it by pinching off the plumules of 
ing shoots from plumule young Seedlings growing with the radicles 
and from bud in axil of ^^ water, and it is interesting to note that 

each cotyledon. , , ^ , i , i-r i i 

the shoots irom these buds lilt themselves 
in an arch, just as the shoot from the plumule does. So far as 
my own observations go, the development of shoots from buds 
in the axils of cotyledons in addition to the shoot from the plu- 
mule is rare, and it is difficult to explain why so many seedlings 
should have shown that tendency the past sea.son. 

Girls' IIu;h School, Bkooki.yn, 
December 27, 1904. 




-t.J 



A KEY TO TllK STIPITATI-: POLVPORACKAE OF 
TiaiPICRATl-: NORTH AMICRICA— II * 

]!V WlI.I.IAM A. MlIKKII.I, 
E. TlIK Sl'IXMKS OK PORODISCUS 

Plant miinito, abiindaiu on twigs of chestnut, oak, etc.; stipe attached to tlie 
vertex of the pileus and usually curved at maturity. 

P. peudiilits (Schw. ) Murrill 

F. TlIK Si'IXIES OF POLYI'ORU.S 

1. Stipe pallid or light-brown, not darker than the pileus. 2 
Stipe wholly or partly black or fuliginous, darker than the pileus. 9 

2. Margin of pileus not ciliate. 3 
Margin of pileus ornamented with cilia, which often disappear with age ; tubes 

alveolar. 7 

3. Pileus trumpet-shaped, deeply infundibuliform. P. craterellus B. & C. 
Pileus not trumpet-shaped. 4 

4. Surface tomentose, often becoming glabrous. 5 
Surface glabrous from the first. 6 

5. Tubes decurrent, very short, entire ; pileus dark-purple, with paler radiating 

lines ; known only from Alabama. P. dibaphus B. & C. 

Tubes not decidedly decurrent, denticulate when mature; pileus yellowish to 

smoky-black; common throughout. P. Polyporus (Retz) Murrill 

6. Context light-brown ; tubes decurrent ; known only from South Carolina. 

P. coluinbiemis Berk. 
Context golden-yellow ; tubes remote ; known only from Ohio. 

P. phaeoxauthits B. & Mont. 

7. Pileus very thin, smooth, pellucid; known only from North Carolina. 

P. arcularielliis Murrill 
Pileus opaque. 8 

8. Pileus less than i cm. in diameter, light-gray ; stipe setulose ; known only from 

Tennessee. P. arctilarifortiiis Murrill 

Pileus considerably larger, brown in color; stipe squamulose; common through- 
out. P. arcularius (Batsch) Fr. 

9. Pileus squamose, very large, flabelliform ; tubes large, alveolar. 

P. caudicimis (Scop.) Murrill 

Pileus glabrous ; tubes punctiform. lO 

ID. Stipe ivory-black below ; pileus usually ochraceous, surface scarcely depressed, 

margin even, not becoming extremely thin. P. eles^ans (Bull.) Fr. 

Stipe smoky-black below ; pileus usually chestnut-colored, depressed at the center 

or behind, margin usually very thin and irregular. P. Jissus Berk. 

G. The Species oe AiiORTiPORi's 
Plant rather common about stumps, usually much aborted and often only a mass of 
pores. A. distortus (Schw.) Murrill 

* Continued from p. 30. 



44 

H. The Species of Cycloporus 
Plant very rare, terrestrial, with central stipe and concentrically furrowed liyme- 
nium. C. Greeiiei (Herk.) Murrill 

I. The Species of Romeli.ia 
Plant abundant, large, spongy, hispid, very destructive to conifers. 

Ji. sistolrcvioides (Alb. & Schw.) Murrill 

J. The Species of Coltricia 

1. Pileus concentrically zonate ; context thin. 2 
Pileus azonate ; context rather thick and spongy. 4 

2. Pileus shining cinnamon, strigose, striate, thin, flexible, slightly depressed, the 

margin often fimbriate or pseudo-ciliate. C. cmnavtomea (Jacq.) Murrill 

Pileus dull rusty cinnamon to hoary, velvety to glabrous, deeply depressed, the 

margin thicker and less fimbriate. 3 

3. Tubes small, 0.5 mm. or less in diameter. C. perennis (L. ) Murrill 
Tubes large, i mm. in diameter. C. parvula (Kl.) Murrill 

4. Context homogeneous ; hymenium free from spines. 5 
Context duplex, soft above and woody below ; hymenium beset with spines. 

C. iomaitosa (Fr. ) Murrill 

5. Pileus ferruginous to fulvous, 5 cm. in diameter, surface finely tomentose ; stipe 

swollen and soft at the base. C. obesa (Ell. & Ever.) Murrill 

Pileus darker, fulvous to chocolate-colored, 10 cm. in diameter, surface rough and 

shaggy ; stipe scutate and firm at the base. C. Mdtuinngeri Murrill 

K. The Species of Coltkiciella 

Plant minute, pendant, very rare, on decayed pine wood. 

C. depevdeus (B. & C. ) Murrill 
New York Botanical Garden. 



SHORTER NOTES 

Jacquinia Curtissii sp. nov. — A low shrub. Leaves linear- 
lanceolate, 2—3 cm. long, 3—4 mm. wide, attenuate into a mucro 
2-3 mm. long, glabrous, the rigid margins revolute ; twigs 
puberulent ; inflorescence involucrcd by minute scales, 3- or 4- 
flowered ; peduncle 3-4 mm. long, less than half as long as the 
slender spreading or recurved pedicels ; calyx campanulate, about 
3 mm. long ; sepals rounded, entire, eciliate. 

Isle of Pines, Cuba, April 24, 1904, A. H. Oirtiss. Related to 
J. stcnopJiylla Urban, and to J. brcvifolia Urban, differing from 
both by its larger flowers with longer pedicels. 

N. L. Britton. 

New Binomials in an Index. — It may have escaped the 
notice of botanists that all new varietal or subspecific names 



proposed in tlic Procecdin^rs of the Biological Society of Wash- 
ington appear in the index as binomials. For examples, in these 
Proceedings, Vol. XVII, p. i i 2, 1 described Tctraneuris lincarifolia 
Dodgci,?>\.\h'>\i. n(n-. ; in the index, p. 185, it is called Tctraneuris 
Dodgci. On pj). 175 and 178, Professor A. Nelson described 
Nenicxia Jtcrbacca iiiclica and Jirigcroii Diacranthus iiiiriis ; in the 
index, pp. 182 and 183, they are Ncmcxia jnc/ica and Erigiroti 
inirus. This is not done accidentally ; I learned through corre- 
spondence with Mr. G. S. Miller at the time of the publication of 
my article, that it was held that what are usually called sub- 
species should be expressed by binomials, and it was not without 
protest that I was allowed to publish T. Dodgci as a trinomial. 
While I cannot agree with this view, the position is an intelligible 
one, and the committee has a right to print the names in any 
manner it sees fit, in a part of the Proceedings for which the 
several authors have no responsibility. I take it that the bi- 
nomials printed as stated must be recognized (in the synonymy 
or otherwise, according to one's opinion), and should be credited 
to the publication committee, Messrs. Hay, Miller and White, 
who may be signified by the symbols H. M. W, 

T. D. A. COCKERELL. 
BouLUER, Colorado. 



REVIEWS 

Flora of Los Angeles and Vicinity* 

The great area of California, its many climates and other pe- 
culiar enx'ironmental conditions, give rise to many different floras 
in the different parts of the state, so that local floras are greatly 
desired. The flora of the whole state has been only superfici- 
ally examined and at the present time a compendium of the com- 
plete flora is an impossibility. There yet remain many parts to 
be explored and many groups of plants are but imperfectly 
understood. For some years to come collectors and students 
must work earnestly before such a work can be even planned. 

* Abrams, L. R. Flora of Los Angeles and Vicinity. Svo. I'p. xi -} 474. Stan- 
ford I'niversity, Cal., Stanford University Press. 5 -Ap 1904. 



46 

A popular manual for those students who are satisfied to know 
the genus to which a plant belongs or who wish only to recog- 
nize the great aggregates might be ad\'antageously prepared, but 
the flora for the real student is )'et many years in the future. 

In selecting Los Angeles and vicinity as the subject of a local 
flora, Mr. Abrams has shown discrimination and foresight. His 
book is the first attempt to classify the plants of that populous 
and educated center, outside of mere lists of names and localities. 
The book ought to be much used, but unfortunately he has 
written it more for the rare scientist than for the numerous ama- 
teurs. His adoption of the metric system in a book designed to 
reach the public will militate against its use. The general public 
neither knows nor wants to know this system, and many are 
prejudiced against it because it is foreign. There is not one 
person in a thousand to whom millimeter, centimeter, etc., 
convey any idea. This difficulty might be obviated by the in- 
troduction of a card showing these dimensions. Reforms that 
go into the every-day life of an entire people can be only grad- 
ually brought about. Those enthusiasts whose ideals lead them 
to force reforms prematurel}' have to suffer for their cause. 

The book is neatly gotten up in a convenient size, the type and 
arrangement are good, the families are according to the system 
of Engler and Prantl, and, in general, the modern American sys- 
tem of nomenclature is used, but not the extreme dividing of fam- 
ilies and genera such as prevails in a recent publication. Where 
changes in generic names occur, the former well-known synonym 
is always given both in the text and index. In species-making 
the author has been conservative, especially in some groups that 
are in great need of revision. In these cases the descriptions are 
frequently adapted instead of being original. This appears more 
sensible than giving an original description to a plant whose name 
is uncertain or to a name where the plant is not distinctly rec- 
ognized. 

Of course it is not possible to include cvcr}^ sj)ccies within the 
limits, and so additions will be cropping up all the time. During 
a brief visit to Pa.sadena in May I saw I'io/a practnorsa on Mt. 
Wilson; Epipactis gi^antca along a small shady stream a short 



47 

distance fiom Pasadena ; Lithopliragnia hcUrophyila in a shad)' 
canyon near Pasadena ; Aradis arcuata on Mt. Wilson. Mr. 
George B. (irant reports the following : Polygomnn rainosissi- 
7nuni, 7issn rubra, Reseda hitca, Sphacralcea Fcndlcri Califoniica 
Parish, Lupiiius Stivcrsi and L. formosus, Corctlirogync filagi)ii- 
folia, Avt'ua barbata, Salix si'ssi/ifoiia Hindsiana, Monardclla ina- 
crantJia, Lavatera assurgentifiora, Lcpidiuvi latipcs, and Euphorbia 
maculata. These have all been verified by Parish and others. 

It is easy to find fault, but too much praise cannot be given to 
the painstaking, conscientious care that is evident on every page 
of the book. Those who use it will scarcely have any idea of the 
great amount of work that falls to every pioneer in a new field. 

Alice Eastwood. 



PROSPECTUS OF THE WORK OF THE TOR REV 
BOTANICAL CLUB DURING 1905 

The interest of the members and friends of the Club is earnestly 
solicited in its proposed work for the coming year. During the 
past decade the Club's scientific work and standing have advanced 
greatly, placing it among the foremost scientific societies in the 
world. In the meantime its local work, and the local interest in 
it and in its proceedings, have not benefited proportionately. In 
such a society, located in such a community as ours, the number 
of persons interested as amateurs should be many times greater 
than that of those professionalh' interested in botan}-. The char- 
ter and constitution of the Club clearly set forth that one of its 
principal objects is to extend an interest in botanical subjects, 
which extension is only possible by leading those not interested 
to become so. It is hardly to be expected that this interest will 
be engendered by the presentation alone of the results of abstruse 
researches in subjects which have as yet developed no popular 
features. On the other hand, research work almost invariabl}' 
requires material assistance from without, which can in no other 
way be so well supplied as by the cooperation of an associated 
membership. In return for such cooperation, the society should 
provide matter of instruction and interest of a different character 



48 

or grade from that which specially interests its more advanced 
students. If the Torrey Botanical Club had forced upon it the 
alternative of relapsing into its old days of dilettanteism, it 
would probably be justified in preferring a state of dignified semi- 
starvation ; but no such alternative is presented. It is quite 
practicable for us to enjoy the beauty, grace, and sociability, which 
characterized the Club's life a dozen years ago, while making this 
very gain contributory to its higher scientific life. It is toward 
this object that the various working committees of the Club will 
direct their efforts during the coming year, and for which they 
ask the necessary cooperation of the members. 

The new home of the Club at the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History is convenient, commodious and beautifully furnished 
and equipped, and it is hoped that the members will meet there 
in large numbers and will discuss with animation the very many 
and varied botanical interests which the city now affords. Among 
the interesting features of our afternoon and evening meetings 
during the coming year will be the following : The results of the 
critical studies of local plants made during the last decade will 
be discussed and illustrated. On May 9, there will be a "Violet 
Evening," when all obtainable forms of violets will be ex- 
hibited and discussed, as to identity and habits, and the results 
of cultivation of native violets at the Botanical Garden will be 
presented. In October, an evening will be similarly devoted to 
the stud)' of asters and golden-rods. On both occasions special 
collections will be made in the different characteristic localities of 
our local area. Mr. Nash will devote an evening to the exhibi- 
tion of the principal types of cultivated orchids, and Dr. liritton 
will similarly discuss Cactaceae at" an afternoon meeting to be held 
in the cactus house of the Garden. An evening meeting will be 
devoted to a consideration of the trap-rock flora of Kssex County 
X. J. Dr. Small will give an illustrated paper on the mountain 
flora of the southeastern United States. 

The work of the Field Committee will also be conducted in 
such a way as to provide instruction of a more systematic char- 
acter than heretofore, and will at the .same time be made more 
interesting. Work upon the local flora will be organized by the 



40 

committees haviii|^ it in char^^c, and will be lar^^ely carried out in 
connection with the excursions. One of the Apri-1 excursions 
will be conducted b\' Professor Lloyd, with the particular object 
of illustrating the seasonal adaptations of the earliest spring 
flowers. A sea-side excursion will be devoted to an illustration 
of the local types of marine algae, by Dr. Howe. Dr. Mur- 
rill will devote an afternoon at Scarsdale, New York, to illustrat- 
ing the habits of different classes of fungi. In June there will 
be a " Lupine Excursion " to Pompton, where a large hill en- 
tirely covered by this plant will be visited, and where other floral 
features of great interest and beauty will be enjoyed. On May 
6, Professor Underwood will entertain us at Redding, Conn. Dr. 
Hollick will de\otc a day to pal.x-obotanical collecting at Glen 
Cove, and will explain the appearance of the region and its geo- 
graphical and botanical relations at the time that the plants were 
living. 

Not on!)- arc the members requested to participate more freely 
in the indoor and field-meetings, but they are specially urged 
to increase the Club's membership. There are hundreds of per- 
sons in and about New York who should be members, by virtue 
of their interest in wild plants or in other botanical subjects, but 
to whom the Club is unknown. If our members would, at the 
expense of a very little trouble, seek out such persons and make 
our objects and proceedings known to them, many would be in- 
duced to become members, to their and our mutual advantage. 
We have met people who had been deterred from seeking mem- 
bership through a mistaken idea as to the qualifications required 
or expected, and who promptly presented their applications upon 
learning that an interest in plants sufficient to make our meetings, 
excursions, or literature attractive to them constitutes a sufficient 
qualification to make them welcome as members. 

Henry H. Rusbv, 

Prisiihiit. 



50 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE CLUB 

Tuesday, January io, 1905 

The annual business meeting \vas held at the College of Phar- 
macy, President Brown in the chair and twenty members present. 

W. W. Eggleston of the N. Y. Botanical Garden was elected 
to membership. 

Resignations were accepted from Miss Theresa G. Williamson, 
Miss Nina L. Marshall, Miss Margaret F. Jagger, Mrs. Lillian 
Howard Perry, Mrs. Millie T. Ries and John P. Conroy. 

The annual report of the treasurer showed gross receipts of 
$2,697.80 for the year and expenditures amounting to $2,226.80. 

The report of the recording secretary showed that the club 
had held twelve regular meetings during the year with an average 
attendance of 19, and had listened to 23 stated papers. 

The report of the editor-in-chief showed that the current 
volume of the Bulletin contained 682 pages and 26 plates besides 
numerous text-figures. Vol. 13 of the Memoirs was reported in 
press and partially printed. 

■ Verbal reports were received from the editor of Torreya, the 
corresponding secretary, the chairman of the field committee, 
and the committee on local flora. 

Professor Underwood, chairman of the committee on index cards 
of current botanical literature submitted a report covering four 
years and showing receipts of $783.21 and expenses of $643.21. 
His committee proposed withholding a small reserve fund, and 
signified the intention of turning over $1 15.00 to the Club. 

The following resolution was presented : 

Resolved: That the Torrey Botanical Club, recognizing the 
importance of preserving natural scener}- in public parks, such 
as would be permanently injured by the proposed railway line 
through south lironx Park, heartily joins other organizations in 
protesting against the construction of such road through Bronx 
Park. 

This resolution was unanimously j^assed and copies were or- 
dered mailed to the Rapid Transit Commission and the public 
press. 



61 

A letter was read from President lirown declining a reelection 
and the follo\vin<:j resolution, proposed by Dr. Hritton, was put 
by Vice-President Rusby ;uul unanimously adopted by a rising 
vote : 

Rcsoh't'ii, That the Club receives the letter of its President, ex- 
Judge Addison Brown, refusing a renomination to that office, 
with very deep regret, and 

Resoli't'd, That the Club hereby expresses its gratitude Xo Dr. 
Brown for his valuable services as President during the past fifteen 
years, and its hope and expectation that he will continue to give 
the Club the advantage of his wisdom and advice. 

The Club then proceeded to the election of officers for the en- 
suing year. 

Nominations were made and upon motion the secretary cast 
an affirmative ballot for the following: President, Henry II. 
Rusby ; Vice-Presidents, Edward S. Burgess and L. M. Under- 
wood ; Treasurer, F. E. Lloyd ; Recording Secretary, Edward 
W. Berry ; Corresponding Secretary , John K. Small ; Editor, John 
H. Barnhart ; Associate Editors, N. L. Britton, Tracy P2. Hazen, 
Marshall A. Howe, D. T. MacDougal, W. A. Murrill, H. M. 
Richards, and Anna Murray Vail. 

A short address of acceptance was made by President-elect 
Rusby. 

The question of changing the place of meeting of the first 
meeting in each month from the College of Pharmacy to the 
American ^luseum of Natural History was introduced and after 
discussion it was moved that Drs. Rusby and Britton be consti- 
tuted a committee with power to make such change provided 
that the expense proved to be trifling. 

P^Dw.VKO \V. Bekrv, 

Sec) etary. 

Tuesday, Febru.vrv 14. 1905. 

The meeting was held at the American Museum of Natural 
History, President Rusby in the chair and fifteen members 
present. 

Minutes of the annual meeting were read and approved. 

The president appointed the following standing committees and 
delegates : 



52 

Finance, J. I. Kane, C. F. Cox ; Admissions, E. S. Burgess, 
Delia W. Marble, John K. Small ; Local Flora, PJiancrogamia, 
N. L. Britton, E. P. Bicknell, Fanny A. Mulford, W. W. Eggle- 
ston ; Local Flora, Cryptogamia, L. M. Underwood, M. A. Howe 
W. A. Murrill, Elizabeth G. Britton ; Program, N. L. Britton, M. 
A. Howe, L. M. Underwood ; Field Excursions, Eugene Smith, 
Geo. V. Nash, Marie L. Sanial, E. W. Berry, Percy Wilson, H. 
H. Rusby ; Delegates to the Council of the Scientific Alliance, 
H. H. Rusby, N. L. Britton, Addison Brown ; Delegates to the 
Lnternational Botanical Congress at Vienna, N. L. Britton, L. M. 
Underwood. 

Of the scientific program, the first paper, which was illustrated 
by lantern slides, was by Dr. George H. Shull, and was entitled 
" Stages in the Development of Slum cicutaefolijim." Dr. Shull 
presented briefly the great range of leaf-form in this species at 
different stages of growth, concluding that these various stages 
give no safe indication of ancestral forms. 

The life-cycle of Slum fits it for the conditions under which it 
grows at different stages of its growth, it being mesophytic, hy- 
drophytic and xerophytic in turn. This cycle of changes seems 
to be independent of external conditions and proceeds regularly 
without regard for the environment. The consideration of a 
number of rejuvenated buds shows that rejuvenescence may be 
brought about by submerging senescent buds in water, and that 
the later the stage of senescence the earlier will be the juvenile 
forms which are induced to appear. Evidences were presented 
tending to prove that the proximal leaflets of pinnate leaves are 
homologous in any series of leaves taken from the same plant 
and that the other leaflets are likewise homologous counting from 
the proximal pair. 

The paper was the subject of considerable discussion. 

The .second paper was by Dr. Tracy E. Hazen, on " Recent 
Advances in the Phylogeny of the Green Algae." The subject 
was introduced by a sketch of liorzi's group Confcrvalcs, now en- 
larged into the class Heterokontac, comprising genera showing 
natural affinities, taken from the three old orders Protococcales, 
Confervales and Siphoneae. This new class, accepted by all 



,')•'> 



recent investigators, serves to indicate the artificiality of the tra- 
ditional classification. 

The clearer lines of descent of the chief groups of Chloro- 
phyceae from the unicellular, motile Chlauiydomonas were traced ; 
the first tendency, in the direction of aggregations of motile cells, 
finding its highest expression in Volvox ; the second tendenc)-, in 
the direction of septate cell division, to form non-motile bodies of 
increasing solidarity, leading through the Tetrasporaceae to the 
Ulvaceae (which have been placed in a separate order, Ulvales, 
by some recent authors), and finally, through such forms as 
Stichococcns, to the typical filamentous and branched forms culmi- 
nating in ColeocJiactc. The third, or Endosphaerine tendency from 
Cldmnydonwnas, as suggested by Blackman, was held by the 
speaker to furnish an unsatisfactory origin for the Siphoneae, in- 
asmuch as the endophytic forms associated with Hndosphaera may 
be regarded as too specialized in their mode of life at least. It 
is much more natural to derive the Siphoneae from the septate, 
multinucleate Cladophoraceae. The latter group may well be 
regarded as an intermediate order, easily derived from the Ulo- 
trichaceae through such forms as Honniscia i^Urospora) and Rlii- 
zoclonuim. 

The recent proposition of Bohlin and Blackman to regard the 
Oedogoniaceae as forming a class derived from a separate uni- 
cellular ancestor is at least premature, and it does not appear at 
all impossible that this group may have been derived from a 
Ulothnx-\\V& form as suggested by Oltmanns. The Conjugatae 
furnish a perplexing problem, but the speaker preferred to regard 
this group as forming an order of Chlorophyceae rather than as 
a separate class, in view of present e\'idence. 

Edw.vrd W. Berry, 

Sccrctarv. 



NEWS ITEMS 
The tenth annual winter meeting of the Vermont Botanical Club 
was held at Burlington. January 18-19, with President Ezra 
Brainerd of Middlebury College in the chair. Twenty-two papers 



54 

were presented, representing numerous lines of botanical stud)'. 
The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: Presi- 
dent, Ezra Brainerd ; vice-president, C. G. Pringle ; secretary, Pro- 
fessor L. R. Jones ; treasurer, Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn ; members to 
serve with the officers as executive committee. Professor J. 
W. Votey, Mrs. Sarah K. Lord, and Carlton D. Howe. A com- 
mittee was appointed to investigate the feasibility of attempting 
to publish the proceedings and the papers presented before the 
club. For the summer meeting in July a boat will probably be 
chartered for a cruise among the islands and along the shore of 
Lake Champlain. 

Dr. and Mrs. W. A. Murrill are spending a month in Cuba, 
where they are occupied chiefly in making collections of fleshy 
fungi for the New York Botanical Garden. 

Dr. C. Stuart Gager, assistant in the laboratories of the New 
York Botanical Garden, has been acting professor of botany in 
Rutgers College, New Brunswick, New Jersey, since January. 
Dr. Gager will have charge of the botanical instruction in the 
summer sessions of the New York University. 

The Associated Press dispatches announce that Colonel Valery 
Havard was one of the two American attaches of the Russian 
army who were captured by the Japanese during the recent battle 
of Mukden. Dr. Havard is a well-known member of the Torrey 
Club and is author of several papers relating to American eco- 
nomic plants. He left New York on November \y under com- 
mission to join the Russian army in Manchuria as military 
medical observer for the United States. 

Dr. and Mrs. N. L. Britton and Dr. Marshall A. Howe, of 
the New York Botanical Garden, and Dr. C. F. Millspaugh of 
the Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, have returned from a 
six weeks' collecting expedition to the Bahama Islands. A 
schooner was chartered at Nassau and visits were made to the 
Ikrry Islands, the Great l^ahama, and the islands of the ICxuma 
Chain. The collections include living plants, herbarium speci- 
mens, and fluid-preserved material, representing about 1,400 col- 
lection numbers of spermatoi)hytes and higher cryptogams and 
about 9CO of marine algae. 



Vol. 5 No 

TORREYA 

April, 1905 



NEW YO'IK 
BOfANfCAL 

GAR DUN 



SO Mr: NOTEWORTHY STATIONS FOR PINUS 
PALUSTRIS 

By Roland M. Harper 

While collecting timber specimens for the Georgia State Mu- 
seum during the winter of i903-'04, I had exceptional opportuni- 
ties for studying the distribution of Pinus palustris in the north- 
western quarter of that state. Although it has been known for 
some time that this characteristic tree of the coastal plain is found 
far inland in Georgia and Alabama, scarcely anything has been 
published in regard to its exact distribution in Northwest Georgia.* 

Consequently I was not a little surprised on ascending Pine 
Mountain f in Bartow County, about three miles east of Carters- 

* Tlie occurrence of long-leaf pine in northwest Georgia must have been known to 
the white settlers as soon as that part of the state was taken from the Indians, about 
70 years ago, but I have found no record of this fact in botanical literature dating 
back more than 25 years. Professor Sargent in his Catalogue of Forest Trees, 
published in 1880, says of this tree, "not extending more than lOO miles from the 
coast," and in his report for the Tenth Census, published four years later, he says 
" rarely e-xtending beyond 150 miles from the coast." But Ur. Mohr, in a report 
on the forests of Alabama, published in 1880, vaguely refers to the occurrence 
of this species on the mountains of that State. (And in his "Timber Pines of 
the Southern United States" and "Plant Life of Alabama," published many years 
later, numerous details are given. ^ In 1883 Messrs. J. L. Campbell and \V. 
H. Ruffner, in a pamphlet entitled "A Physical Survey in Georgia, Alabama and 
Mississippi, along the line of the Georgia Pacific Railway, embracing the Geology, 
Topography, Minerals, Soils, Climate, Forests, and Agricultural and Manufactur- 
ing Resources of the Country," mention the occurrence of Pititts />a/us/n's in Polk 
and Haralson counties and adjacent Alabama. In a book entitled " The Com- 
monwealth of Georgia," published by the State Agricultural Department in 1885. 
there is a forestry map showing among other things a narrow belt of long-leaf pine 

(--jentering the state near Tallapoosa and terminating near Kingston. Some car-win* 

^dow observations on this belt by the writer were published a few years ago (Bull. 
Torrey Club, 28: 455. 1901). 

^ t Not to be confused with the Pine Mountains of Meriwether and adjoining coun- 
ties. See Bull. Torrey Club, 30 : 292-294,/ j. 1903. 

T- [Vol. 5, No. 3 ,of ToRREYA, Comprising pages 37-54, was issued March 22, 1905.] 
<C 55 



56 

ville, on December lo, 1903, to find the long-leaf pine common 
on its upper slopes. Pine Mountain, it should be explained, is a 
peak of quartzite rock, about 260 miles from the coast, forming- 
part of the bold escarpment which marks the inland edge of the 
Metamorphic region and overlooks the broad valleys and low 
ridges of Palaeozoic rocks to the northwestward. The summit 
of this mountain, according to the topographic maps of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, is 1,500 feet above sea-level and about 800 
feet above the Etowah River at its southern base. Going up the 
mountain from the river, Pinns paliistris is first encountered at 
about the 1,000-foot contour, and continues the rest of the 
way up, the tops of some of the trees being less than ten feet 
below the summit of the mountain. It is principally confined to 
the southern slope, where it is the predominating tree above 
the altitude mentioned, and is associated with such plants as 
Ptcriduim aqui/imini, Piiius ecliinata, Aiidropogoii scopariiis, A. 
Virginicus, Alctris farinosa, Qncrcns Marylandica, Q. Primis, 
Cracca Virginiana, Ccaiiotliiis Americamis, Viola pcdara, Dasy- 
stoina pectinata, Fjipatormin albmn, Clirysopsis graminifolia, Soli- 
dago odora, Sericocarptis linifoliiis, SilpJmnn compositum, Helian- 
tlnis divaricatus, and Coreopsis viajor Oenilcri, all but one or two 
of which are common inhabitants of dry pine-barrens in the coas- 
tal plain. (A visit to this place in summer would of course re- 
veal a much larger number of species.) A similar flora is found 
in the corresponding portions of Alabama, according to Dr. 
Mohr,* and on the southern slopes of the mountains of south- 
western Middle Georgia.! 

On the date above mentioned, and again three days later, I 
had the novel experience of standing in a forest of long-leaf pine 
while viewing some of the highest mountains in the state, many 
miles to the northeastward, which were covered with snow at 
that time. (I could also see Stone Mountain, 42 miles southeast, 
and many nearer peaks.) Pine Mountain is at present the north- 
easternmost known station for Piiius palustris in the mountain 
region, and is within 40 miles of the known range of Pi)iits 

* Contr. U. S. Nat. Ilcrh. 6 : 59-61. 1901. 
t Bull. Torrey Club, 30 : 294. 1903. 



57 

Sfro/)iLs. Some of the long-leaf pines there are over two feet in 
diameter, and but for their inaccessibility they would probably 
have been cut long ago. 

The distribution of the other pines on the same mountain is of 
sufficient interest to merit a few remarks in passing. Finns 
Tacda was seen only on the lower slopes, and did not seem to 
associate with /'. paluslris 7\\. all. (It rarely ascends over i,ooo 
feet above sea-level in any part of its range.) P. ccliinata ranges 
a little higher, and a.ssociates with P. paliistris at the latter's lower 
limit, near the i,ooo-foot level. P. Vh'giniana occurs at the 
summit and nearly all over the northern slope, and associates with 
P. paliistris at several places east and west of the summit. I 
have never seen Finns Virginiana associated with P. palnstris 
anywhere else, and their ranges are almost entirely distinct, only 
overlapping a few miles in Georgia and perhaps in Alabama. 

I did not see the long-leaf pine elsewhere in Bartow County, 
but the following month, January, 1904, I traced it through some 
of the counties bordering on Alabama, namely, Floyd and Polk 
in the Palaeozoic region and Haralson and Carroll in the Meta- 
morphic. At the same time I was reliably informed of its occur- 
rence in Chattooga County, which is just north of Floyd and must 
be the northern limit of this tree in Georgia. 

In Floyd County, Finns palnstris is frequent on the dry southern 
slopes of Horseleg Mountain near Rome and Heath Alountain 
near Coosa (on Upper Silurian strata and about 1,000 feet above 
sea-level in both cases), and it doubtless grows on other moun- 
tains in the same county. On Horseleg Mountain the other 
three pines mentioned above as occurring in Bartow County are 
distributed in much the same way as on Pine Mountain, Finns 
Tacda prevailing at the lower levels and P. Virginiana at the 
higher levels. The mountain long-leaf pine is usually of lower 
stature than that in the coastal plain, with shorter leaves and 
shorter more crooked branches, all of which is a natural con- 
sequence of the comparative severity of the climate. 

In Polk County, where mountains are scarce and the average 
altitude of the country is about 800 feet, Finns palnstris occurs 
frequently, but nowhere abundantly. Going from Polk County 



58 

south into Haralson, one ascends rather abruptly the escarpment 
(known here as Dugdown Mountain) at the edge of the Meta- 
morphic region, and emerges onto a comparatively level region 
of considerable elevation. In Haralson County the average alti- 
tude is something like 1,300 feet (the extremes about 900 and 
1,600), and Pinus pabistris is very common, though never con- 
stituting a majority of the forest growth as it does in the pine- 
barrens. In Carroll County the general elevation is a little less 
and this pine not quite so abundant, though some individuals of 
it are nearly if not quite three feet in diameter. 

In these two Middle Georgia counties (Haralson and Carroll) 
Piujis Taeda and P. cchiiiata occur commonly with P. pahistris, 
or at least at the same altitudes. P. Jlrgiuiaiia is not known 
south of Floyd County.* 

A rather remarkable feature of the occurrence oi Pinus palustris 
in upper Georgia is its decided preference for high altitudes. In 
t'hat portion of the state northwest of the Chattahoochee River it 
is not often seen below 1,000 feet ; while in the coastal plain, its 
normal home, there is very little of it above 400 feet. In the 
mountains of Alabama it flourishes at even higher altitudes than 
in Georgia, according to Dr. Mohr,t who found it at nearly 2,000 
feet in Talladega County in 1896. 

Why this species grows among the mountains at all is a ques- 
tion which has been very little discussed and never satisfactorily 
answered, j Dr. Mohr thought the nature of the soil fully ac- 
counted for it, but there are other factors to be taken into con- 
sideration. For the present range of /'. palicstns in upper Geor- 
gia is not coextensive with any particular type of soil, and there 
are many places in eastern Middle Georgia which are equally 
sandy but have no long-leaf pine. 

*I should mention here perhaps thai llie " Pin us piiugcns''' which I reported a 
few years ago as occurring in Northwest Georgia (Hull. Torrey Club, 28: 462. 
1901 ) was incorrectly identified, and is really /'. I'iri^iiiidnn. Its appearance in 
Georgia is so difTerent from that of the scrubby specimens which one sees along the 
fall-line in Maryland and Virginia that I did not at first recognize it to be the same. 

t See his " Timber Pines of the Southern United States" (revised edition), p. 73 ; 
also "Plant Life of Alabama," pp. 60, 323. 

X See in this connection Mr. Kearney's interesting paper in Science for November 
30, 1900, where he discusses the occurrence of many other coastal plain plants in the 
mountains of Tennessee and .Mabama. 



59 

Two or three other theories readily suggest themselves. 

P^irst, it might be supposed that the original home of this tree 
was among the mountains, before the coastal plain assumed its 
present form or became adapted to the growth of this species. 
But the fact that it is so much more abundant and widely dis- 
tributed in the coastal plain than in the mountains makes this 
supposition improbable. 

Again, it will be noticed that it is just in this longitude (85 °W,) 
that the fall-line (cast of the Mississippi) bends farthest south, and 
it is possible that the climate or some combination of causes has 
created a tension in the range of Pi)iiis palustris sufficient to 
cause it to break through the barrier '^ here and overflow, as it 
were, into the Piedmont region and mountains beyond for a dis- 
tance of over 100 miles. As the limit of its distribution in this 
region does not coincide w'th any known geological or climatic 
line, it is not unlikely that its range was restricted only by the 
time elapsed since it broke through the fall-line, and it may have 
been still spreading at the time civilized man appeared on the 
scene and stopped it. 

Another possible explanation is this. In most of the counties 
from Floyd southward to the fall-line there are frequently found, 
mostly near streams, considerable areas of unconsolidated deposits 
believed to be of Pleistocene age, lying unconformably on the 
older rocks. These indicate that much of this land was sub- 
merged beneath the sea in comparatively recent geological times, 
probably not antedating the appearance of most of our living 
species of trees. Perhaps Finns palustris and several other species 
which have a similarly anomalous distribution {e. g., Qucrcus 
lyrata, Q. MicJiauxii, Magnolia glauca, flex glal)ra,'\ Nyssa tini- 
flora), retreating before the advance of the Pleistocene sea, found 
congenial homes among these highlands, with soil suited to their 
needs, and have therefore remained ever since. 

Notwithstanding the abundance of long-leaf pine in the region 
under consideration, it seems to be very little used for lumber, 
and not at all for turpentine. A part of the charcoal which is 

*See Bull. Torrey Club, 31 : 10. i',04. 
tSeeC. L. r>oyntoii, Hiltmore Hot. .^tud. i: 144. 1902. 



60 



made in considerable quantities in Bartow, Floyd, and Polk 
counties to supply the iron furnaces in the vicinity doubtless 
comes from this species, but in Haralson and Carroll Counties 
the only evidence I saw of its being used in any way was a few 
logs at a small sawmill in Bremen. It is probably not abundant 
enough in these highlands to make its exploitation profitable at 
present in competition with the much greater supply in the coastal 
plain. A great deal of it was doubtless destroyed in clearing 
the land for agricultural purposes before its timber was as much 

in demand as it is now. 
College Point, Nkw York. 



TERMS APPLIED TO THE SURFACE AND SUR- 
FACE APPENDAGES OF FUNGI 

By Willl!.m a. Murrill 
Glossary of Terms 



Abrupt, terminating suddenly. 

Aculeate, having prickles. 

Aculeolate, having small or few prickles. 

Alveolate, deeply pitted like a honey- 
comb. 

Anastomosing, forming a net-work. 

Annulate, marked with rings or circular 
transverse lines. 

Anodcriit, without a crust or skin. 

Appendiculate, decorated with small frag- 
ments of the veil ; used of the margin. 

Applanate, flattened out horizontally. 

Appressed, lying close. 

Arachnoid, cohweljby ; of slender en- 
tangled hairs, which are fewer and 
longer than in to/iientose. Used chiefly 
of the veil. 

Areolate, marked out into small spaces ; 
reticulate. 

Asperate, rough with short stiff hairs or 
points. 

Barbed, bearded, having stiff hairs. 

Jiarbulate, finely bearded. 

Bibulous, absorbing moisture. 

Bifurcate, forked. 



Based, umbonate. 

Bristly, clothed with stifi" short hairs. 

Biillale, blistered or puckered. 

Byssaccous, byssoid. 

Byssoid, filamentous, cobwebby, as in the 
mycelium . Used chiefly of the margin. 

Callose, having hardened spots or warts. 

Calvous, bald ; destitute of hairs usually 
present. 

Canaliculate, deeply channeled ; used 
chiefly of the stem. 

Caucsccnt, gray or whitish from a coaling 
of fnie hairs. 

Carbonactous, black and brittle like coal 
or charcoal. 

Carnose, fleshy ; soft, but firm. 

Cartilaginous, firn) and tough like carti- 
lage. 

Cerareotts, wa.x-like. 

C/iaff)', covered with thin dry scales. 

Channeled, having deep longitudinal fur- 
rows. 

Chartaceous, with the texture of parch- 
ment or writing-paper. 

Ciliate, fringed with hairs or bristles. 



61 



Circinale^ arranged in a circle. 

Cirrhose, tipped with a wavy thread-like 
appendage. 

Clot/irate, latticed. 

Colliiiilose, covered with iiillock-like ele- 
vations. 

Contuse, bearing a tuft of hairs. 

Conipresscd, llattencd laterally ; used 
chiedy of the stem. 

Concave, incurved. 

Concenlric, having a common center. 

Confervoid, consisting of loose filaments. 

Confluent, running together, blended into 
one. 

Conlortcd, twisted, crooked. 

Con7i'r, arched. 

Coriaceous, of a leathery texture. 

Corky, firm and elastic like cork. 

Corneous, of a horny texture. 

Corrugaled, irregularly crumpled in folds 
or wrinkles. 

Cortex, the rind or bark ; a substantial 
outer layer. 

Corticate, having a rind or cortex. 

Costate, having one or more prominent 
ribs or veins. 

Crenate, furnished with rounded teeth. 

Crenulate, minutely crenate. 

Cribrate, cribrose. 

Cribroie, porose, perforated. 

Cruslaceous, forming a closely adhering 
crust or layer. 

Dealbate, covered with a very white 
bloom or powder, as though white- 
washed. 

Dentate, bearing broad sharp teeth point- 
ing directly outward. 

Denticulate, minutely dentate. 

Depressed, somewhat sunken at the 
center. 

Determinate, having a distinct outline ; 
used of the margin. 

Diaphanous, nearly or cjuite transparent. 

Diffuse, spreading widely, loosely or 
irregularly ; used chiefly of the mar- 
gin. 

Disc, the central portion of the surface of 
the pileus. 



Downy, having a dense covering of short 

weak hairs. 
Dissected, cut deeply into many divisions. 
lichinate, furnished with stiff bristles. 
Echinulate, minutely spinose ; used 

chiefly of the surface of spores. 
Effuse, loosely spreading. 
Effused, efTuse. 
Elastic, returning \o its original position 

when pressed or bent. 
Encrusted, covered with a hard skin or 

crust. 
Entire, destitute of teeth or notches. 
Erose, having the edge ragged as though 

torn or bitten. 
Eroded, erose. 
Evanescent, disappearing at a very early 

stage. 
Even, without elevations or depressions. 
Exasperate, covered with short hard 

points. 
Expanded, spread out. 
Explanate, spread or flattened out instead 

of rolled or folded as usual. 
Earinose, covered with a white mealy 

powder. 
Easeiated, marked with broad parallel 

stripes. 
Eascicled, growing in close bundles or 

clusters. 
Eavose, honey-combed. 
Eibiillose, bearing firni loose fibers or 

threads. 
Eibrous, composed entirely or mostly of 

separable threads. 
Eilaiiientous, slender and thread-like. 
Fimbriate, fringed with loose slender 

processes larger than hairs. 
Fimhi tllate, minutely fringed. 
Fissile, capable of being split or divided. 
Flaccid, relaxed, wilted, not able to hold 

up its own weight. 
Fleshy, soft, but firm, as in a potato. 

Neither gelatinous nor cartilaginous. 
Flexuose, zigzag, winding. 
Floccose, clothed with locks or tufis of 

soft woolly hairs. 
Flocculent, floccose. 



62 



Flocculose, minutely*floccose. 

Foveale, marked with pits or depressions. 

Foveolate, marked with small pits or de- 
pressions. 

Fugacious, fading or falling away in a 
very short time. 

Furfiaaceotis, covered with soft bran- 
like scales or scurf. 

Gibbous, protuberant or swollen at some 
definite part. 

Glabrate, nearly glabrous, or becoming 
glabrous. 

Glabrescent, slightly glabrous. 

Glabrous, free from hair, scales, warts or 
other appendages; not necessarily 
smooth or even, but usually so. 

Glair, a hyaline viscid substance like the 
white of an egg. 

Glaucous, covered with a whitish bloom. 

Glutinous, sticky to the touch. 

Granular, composed of or covered with 
minute grains. 

Grooved, somewhat furrowed length- 
wise; used chiefly of the stem. 

Gut/ate, discolored with small dots. 

Guttulale, apparently sprinkled with 
small drops of oil or resin. 

Gyrate, folded like the surface of the 
brain, convoluted. 

Gyrose, gyrate. 

Hirsute, clothed with rather long hairs, 
coarser than in pubescent and not so 
stiff and erect as in hispid. 

Hirtellous, slightly hirsute. 

Hispid, beset with erect stiff hairs or bris- 
tles, either long or short. 

Hispidulous, minutely hispid. ' 

Hoary, grayish-white on account of a 
fine coaling of hairs. 

Hyalescent, somewhat hyaline. 

Hyaline, transparent or translucent. 

Hygrometric, readily absorbing and hold- 
ing moisture. 

Hygrophanous, apparently water-soaked; 
translucent when wet, opaf)ue when 
dry. 

Imbricate, overlapping like the shingles 
on a roof. 



Imbricated, imbricate. 

Immarginatc, without a'distinct edge or 
border. 

Incancscent, somewhat hoary. 

Incanoits, hoary. 

Incised, deeply cut into irregular project- 
ing parts. 

Indetenniiinte, diffuse ; used chiefly of 
the margin. 

Indurated, hardened. 

hinate, blending with the substance. 

Ititutnescent, swelling up, becoming 
tumid. 

Involute, rolled tightly inward or down- 
ward upon itself ; the opposite of revo- 
lute.'\ 

Labyrinlhine, marked with intricate sin- 
uous lines or grooves. 

Laccate, apparently varnished. 

Lacerate, divided into irregular segments, 
as if torn. 

Laciniate, deeply cut or slashed into nar- 
row segments, which are larger and 
more irregular than in fimbriate. 

Lacinulate, finely laciniate. 

Lacinulose, lacinulate. 

Lacunose, pitted with shallow holes, 
which are larger and less regular than 
in alveolate. 

Lanate, woolly. 

Latticed, interlacing, with spaces between. 

Lax, loose, flaccid. 

Ligneous, woody. 

Lobate, deeply divided into rounded parts 
with broad sinuses. 

Lobed, lobate. 

Lobulate, having small lobes. 

Lucid, transparent. 

Maculate, spotted. 

Maculose, maculate. 

Marbled, faintly and irregularly striped or 
veined. 

Membranaceous, membranous. 

Membranous, thin, .soft and often trans- 
lucent. 

Mcrismoid, subdivided into small pilei. 

Micaceous, covered with glistening par- 
ticles. 



63 



Mucediiioiis, mould like. 

Mufi/oginous, slimy. 

MultifiJ, deeply cleft into many seg- 
ments. 

Aluricatf, rough with short hard points. 

Naked, destitute of the covering usually 
present. 

Nebitlose, clouded. 

Nodulose, covered with pimples or knots. 

Obsolete, suppressed or scarcely apparent. 

Obtuse, rounded, blunt. 

Opaque, having a dull appearance ; 
neither transparent nor shining. 

Osseous, of a bony te.xture. 

Pallescent, somewhat pale. 

Pallid, lacking in color; of an indistinct 
watery or dirty-white color. 

Papillate, having minute soft tubercles 
like those on the tongue. 

Papillose, papillate. 

Papyraceous, papery. 

Patent, spreading ; used of the margin. 

Pectinate, divided into narrow comb-like 
teeth. 

Pellicle, a thin distinct outer layer or skin; 
not thick and hard like a crust. 

Pelliculose, covered with a pellicle. 

Pellucid, translucent. 

Penicillate, bordered with fine hairs like 
those of a camel'shair brush. 

Peridiuni, the outer layer or covering of a 
closed fungus fruit-body, like a puff- 
ball. 

Persistent, firmly attached and lasting. 
'Piliferous, pilose. 

Pilose, bearing long soft hairs, more or 
less erect and separate. 

Pitted, marked with small depressions. 

Plane, flat. 

Plicate, folded lengthwise, as in a fan. 

Plicalulate, minutely plicate. 

Polished, smooth and shiny. 

Porose, pierced with many small, rounded 
openings. 

Premorse, appearing as if bitten ofl". 

Proliferous, producing offshoots. 

Pruinose, covered with a whitish powdery 
bloom as if frosted. 



Puberulent, minutely pubescent ; having 
a few short soft hairs. 

Pubescent, covered with short soft downy 
hairs. 

Pulveraceous, pulverulent. 

Pulverulent, dusty or powdery. 

Punctate, having transparent or colored 
points or dots. 

Pustulate, having pimples or blisters, 
usually somewhat larger than in papil- 
late. 

Radiant, radiating. 

Radiate, radiating. 

Radiating, spreading from a common 
center. 

Ramose, bearing branches, usually many 
in number. 

Recurved, bent backward ninety degrees 
or less. 

Reflected, refiexed. 

Reflexed, bent backward more than ninety 
degrees or, if less, bent more abruptly 
than in recurved. 

Repand, wavy ; used chiefly of the 
margin. 

Resupinate, reversed, inverted. 

Reticulate, marked like a net with 
meshed fibers. 

Revolute, strongly curved or rolled back- 
ward or upward ; opposite of involute. 

Rigescent, nearly rigid. 

Rigid, firm, stiff, unyielding. 

Rimose, marked with numerous clefts or 
cracks. 

Riinulose, minutely rimose. 

Rivulose, marked with fine wavy chan- 
nels or grooves. 

Rotund, rounded. 

Rugose, wrinkled. 

Rugulose, minutely wrinkled. 

Satiny, glossy like satin. 

Scabrate, scabrous. 

Scabrid, slightly scabrous. 

Scabridous, somewhat scabrid. 

Scabrous, rough with minute hard points 
or short stiff hairs. 

Scaly, covered with scales, which are 
usually fibrous. 



64 



Scan'ose, scarious. 

Scarious, dry and membranous. 

Scrobiculate, deeply and irregularly 
pitted. 

Sebaceous^ wax-like. 

Sericous, silky ; covered with line straight 
glossy hairs. 

Serrate, having sharp teeth pointing for- 
ward as in a circular saw. 

Serrulate, finely serrate. 

Setaceous, setose. 

Setige rotes, setose. 

Setose, beset with bristles. 

Setulose, beset with fine bristles. 

Shags^y, villose or hirsute. 

Silky, covered with close-pressed soft and 
straight pubescence. 

Sinuate, strongly waved ; used chiefly 
of the margin. 

Sinuous, curving to the riglit and left. 

Smooth, even, without inequalities. Not 
necessarily glabrous. 

Soft, tender and yielding to the touch. 

Spinose, spine-like or having spines. 

Squamose, covered with coarse scales. 

Squamulose, covered with minute scales. 

Squarrose, rough with projecting scales. 

Sifuarrulose , minutely squarrose. 

Striate, marked lengthwise with fine lines 
or ridges. 

Slrialulate, minutely striate. 

Strigose, covered with small bristles. 

Strumose, swollen on one side. 

Stupose, covered witli matted tow-like 
hairs. 

Sub-, a prefix meaning under, beneath, 
somewhat, or partially. 

Suberose, corky. 

Subulate, awl -shaped. 

Sulcate, marked with one or more con- 
spicuous grooves or furrows. 

Tessellate, checkered ; marked with little 
sf|uares like those on a checker- 
board. 



Tessellated, tessellate. 

Tomentose, covered with densely matted 

woolly hairs. 
Tovientous, tomentose. 
Toinentulose, minutely tomentose. 
Toiiientuvi^ matted woolly hairs. 
Tortuous, turning in various directions. 
Tremelloid, gelatinous. 
T-uncate, abrupt, as though cut off ; 

used chiefly of the margin. 
Tuberculose, covered with small irregular 

pimples. 
Tumid, swollen. 
Tunicate, covered with a thin separable 

coat. 
Umbilicate, having a small abrupt central 

depression. 
Utnbonate, having a rather prominent 

rounded elevation in the center. 
Untbonulate, subumbonate. 
Unctuous, having an oily or greasy ap- 
pearance. 
Undulate, waved or uneven near the 

margin. 
Velutinous, velvety. 
Velvety, closely and evenly covered with 

fine erect hairs. 
Vcrnicose, varni.shed. 
Vcrrucose, covered with wart-like eleva- 
tions. 
Verruculose, minutely verruculose. 
Villose. covered with long, weak, nearly 

straight hairs, which are softer and 

denser than in pilose. 
Virgate, streaked. 
Viscid, sticky, glutinous. 
Vitreous, hyaline, transparent like glass. 
Vittate, longitudinally striped or ridged. 
Woolly, clothed with long twisted or 

matted hairs. 
Wrinkled, contracted and crumpled. 
Zotiate, marked with concentric lines or 

bands of color. 
Zoned, zonate. 



Synoi-sis ok Tkrms* 
A. General terms applied to the Surface as a whole. 

1. Relating to form. 

2. Relating to texture. 

3. Relating to color due to texture. 

15. Terms ap]ilied to the Margin in paiticuiar. 

C. Surface Markings. 

1. Rounded markings. 

a. Dots. 

/>. Depressions. 

c. Elevations. 

2. Elongated markings. 

<7. Irregular. 
/>. Regular. 

D. Surface Coverings. 

1. Mucilage. 

2. Powder. 

3. Scales. 

4. Hairs. 

a. Kinds of hairs. 
f>. Fine hairs. 
c. Coarse hairs. 
</. Stiff hairs. 

5. Sharp elevations. 

.\. Gknkkai. Tkrms Applied to the Surface as a Whole 

1. Relating to form : 

applanate, plane, glabrous, smooth, ter;/, depressed, concave, expanded, exi>la- 
nate, contorted, convex, compressed, resupinate, crustaceous. 

2. Relating to texture : 

mucedinous, confervuid, fibrous, gelatinous, tremelloid, soft, waxy, sebnceous, 
cemceous, fleshy, carnose, membranous, Dwnibranaceous, spongy, bibulous, 
hygromelric, scariose, scarious, papery, papy'acious, charlaceoiis, crustaceous, 
carbonaceous, cartilaginous, leathery, coriaceous, corky, subo'ose, woody, 
ligneous, indurated, bony, osseous, horny, corneous, rigescent, rigid, elastic ; 
anoderm, tunicate, pelliculose, corticate, encrusted, pellicle, cortex, jieridium. 

3. Relating to color due to texture : 

opaque, pallid, pnllescent, hygrophanous, polished, unctuous, translucent, liyales- 
cent, pellucid, hyaline, diaphanous, lucid, transparent, vitreous. 

R. Terms Ai'pliko to the Margin in Particular 
immarginate, truncate, abrupt, obtuse, rotund, tumid, acute, patent, recurved, 
retlexed, reflected, revolute, involute ; undulate, striatulate, striate ; entire, repand, 
sinuate, determinate, diffuse, effuse, indeterminate, byssoid, byssaceous, penicillate, 
ciliate, fmibrillate, fimbriate, lacinulate, lacinulose, laciniate, pectinate, cirrhose, 
appendiculate ; serrulate, serrate, denticulate, dentate, crenulate, crenate, erose, 

* Words in italic arc strictly or practically synonymous with those immediately 
preceding them. 



66 

eroded, premorse, lacerate, fissile, lobulate, lobed, lobate, incised, dissected, mul- 
tifid, proliferous, nierismoid. 

C. Surface Markings 

1. Rounded Markings. 

a. Dots : 

punctate, guttulate, guttate, maculate, macii/ose. 
•I). Depressions : 

umbilicate, pitted, foveate, foveolate, alveolate, favose, lacunose, scrobicu- 
late, porose, cribrose, latticed, clathrate. 
c. Elevations : 

papillate, /<7/77A'5^, pustulate, tuberculose, verruculose, verrucose, nodulose, 
colliculose, callose, bullate, intumescent, tumid, gibbous, strumose, sub- 
umbonate, U7)ibonulate, umbonate, bossed. 

2. Elongated Markings. 

a. Irregular : 

sinuous, llexuose, tortuous. 

nebulose, marbled, rivulose, rugulose, rugose, wrinkled, labyrinthine, cor- 
rugated ; rimulose, rimose. 

b. Regular : 

confluent, anastomosing, radiating, radiant, radiate, concentric, circinate; 

reticulate, areolate, tessellate, tessellated ; plicatulate, plicate, virgate, vit- 
iate, costate ; grooved, channeled, crt«tf/;V«/rt^f/ annulate, io\\2A.'t, zoned, 
fasciated, sulcata, gyrose, gyrate. 

D. Surface Coverings 
I. Mucilage: 

viscid, glutinous, glairy, slimy, mucilaginous, varnished, vernicose, lactate. 
J2. Powder : 

pruinose, glaucous, dealbate, farinose, pulverulent, pulveraceous, granular. 

3. Scales : 

furfuraceous, chaffy, micaceous, squamulose, squamose, scaly, imbricate, imbri- 
cated, squarrulose, squarrose. 

4. Hairs. 

a. Kinds of hairs : 

obsolete, evanescent, fugacious, persistent, appressed, innate, filamentous, 
arachnoid, flaccid, lax, fascicled, ramose. 

b. Fine hairs : 

glabrate, glabrescent, naked, calvous, hoary, canesccnt, incanous, incanes- 
cent, satmy, silky, sericeous, puberulent, pubescent, downy, velvety, velu- 
tinotis. 

c. Coarse hairs : 

fibrillose, villose, pilose, pilifcrous, tomentose, tonientous, hirlellous, hirsute, 
shaggy, stuposc, woolly, lanate, flocculose, i\occose., Jlocculcnt, comose. 

d. Stiff hairs : 

hispidulous, setulose, barljulate, strigose, bearded, barbed, setose, setigerous, 
setaceous, bristly, hispid, echinatc. 

5. Sharj) elevations : 

scabridous, scabrid, scabrous, scabratc, asperate, exasperate, muricate, aculeo- 
late, aculeate, spinose. 
New York Botanical Garden. 



67 

EXPERIMENT TO SHOW THAT THE ABSENCE OE 
LIGHT ALONE WILL PREVENT THE PROC- 
ESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS 

By Cyrus A. King 

In the Botanical Gazette of November, 1903, Bernice L. Haug 
discusses the question as to whetlicr or not Detmer's experi- 
ment to show that H^^ht is essential for pliotosynthesis is rehable, 
and concludes that it is not. 

By means of melted paraffine, she shows that the leaves of 
Primula obconica, even though the plant be in good sunlight, can- 
not produce starch when the stomata, which are found only on 
the under surface, are closed. This experiment shows also, as 
she has pointed out, that CO2 is not readily diffused through the 
intercellular spaces of the leaf. 

To determine the effect of the cork disks of Detmer's experi- 
ments, she cut a circular opening in the upper disk and then 
fastened the cork ring through the leaf to the disk below. This 
allowed the light to reach the leaf from above and, at the same 
time, held the disk belovv precisely as if the upper disk had been 
entire. No starch was formed under the cork ring, as one would 
expect ; neither was starch formed in the central portion which 
was exposed to light. The absence of starch in the latter posi- 
tion must have been due to the fact that CO., was cut off by the 
close-fitting disk on the under surface. 

In performing some physiological experiments two of the 
writer's students, Messrs. R. C. Paris and J. H. Tilley, tried this 
experiment, using narrow strips of black cloth about as coarse- 
meshed as cheese-cloth. Through the kindness of Mr. Olsen. 
Superintendent of the Central Park green houses, the experi- 
ments were tried there on several genera. The most pronounced 
results were obtained from the experiments on hydrangea and 
rose. The leaf in the accompanying photograph was removed 
from a hydrangea plant after it had been exposed to the sunlight 
during the entire day. The black cloth strips used were cut 
more than twice as long as the width of the leaves and one was 
wrapped around each leaf near the middle. One pin was used 



68 



to fasten the ends of the strips and another was inserted into the 
leaf to hold the cloth close to the leaf. The photograph, which 

was taken by Mr. Til ley shows that 
no starch was formed under the 
black strips. 

It seems perfectly obvious that 
this experiment is free from the in- 
accuracy of Detmer's experiment 
which was pointed out by Miss 
Haug. The cloth, in many places, 
was not in contact with the leaves. 
Even assuming that diffusion did 
not take place through the meshes 
of the cloth, there were certain 
parts under the strips which must 
have been in conditions essentially 
similar to those outside the strips, 
excepting, of course, the factor of light. Since light is the only 
factor eliminated by the cloth strips, the experiment proves that 
the absence of light alone will prevent photosynthesis. 

DkWht Clinton High Sciiooi,, 
New York City. 




Preventiijn of Photosynthesis 
in Hydrangea. 



BIRDS AND MISTLETOE: A CORRECTION 



By S. B. Parish 



In this journal for July, 1902 (2 : 105), the writer ventured 
to question whether the berries of the common mistletoe of his 
region, Plioradcndron flavcsccns, were eaten by birds, and the 
seeds disseminated by their evacuations. This doubt was sug- 
gested by observing the undigested appearance of the seeds so 
abundantly adhering to twigs and other objects, at the season 
of ripening. Recently I happened on a note by the late Thomas 
Meehan, published in the Botanical Ga.'^ctte, for Eebruary, i8<S2 
(7: 22), in which he expresses the same doubt, but founds it on 
a different premise. Mr. Meehan says : 



09 

" Birds do not seem to use the berries. As they are so viscid 
that the famous bird-h'me is made from some species, it is proba- 
ble that the very viscidity would prevent the free use of the beak 
in any attempt to use the seeds. But it is believed that by 
becoming attached to the feet or feathers of birds, the seeds are 
widely distributed, and that in this way the plant has all the 
advantage necessary for distribution in the struggle for life." 

Nevertheless, birds do eat the berries of the mistletoe, and 
do distribute the seeds by their evacuations. The wa.xwing 
{Ainpc/is ccdroruDi Vieill.) and Phaiiiopcpla {P. nitois Swans.) are 
particularly fond of them. In North American Fauna (7 : 113. 
1863), Dr. A. K. Fisher makes the following record concerning 
the food o( t\\Q Phdinopepla in the Inyo" County deserts : "A 
fine male was secured at the mouth of Surprise Cafion, April 23. 
Its stomach was filled with the berries of the mistletoe, which is 
a parasite on the mesquite. Several were seen at Resting 
Springs, about the middle of February, feeding on the same 
berries, which appear to be their principal food." The mistletoe 
here referred to must have been Phoradendron Californicuvi Nutt., 
which is common in the desert region on Prosopis jidiflora DC. 
An ornithological friend informs me that he has shot the wax- 
wing and the Phai)iopcpla when they were so gorged with the 
berries that they extruded in handling. 

A careful examination of the deposited seeds will show, in many 
cases, some sign that they have passed through the stomach of a 
bird — this is by no means alwa)'s the case, and when the deposit 
is fresh, it is easily evident that very little of the viscid coating of 
the seed has been removed in the passage. It would appear that 
in digestion only the epidermis and little, if any, of the viscid 
matter, is utilized. This is a fortunate provision, for were this 
viscid coating digestible, the seeds would be freed from the very 
substance which serves to glue them to the bark on which they 
are to germinate. As it is, the passage through the stomach of 
the bird serves to remove the non-viscid epidermis, and leaves the 
sticky coating in a condition for performing its office. 

San Bernardino, California. 



SHORTER NOTES 

The Name Melampodium. — In the Illustrated Flora, 3 : 405, 
we read that McIaDipodiitni, Greek for black-foot, is without sig- 
nificance. No doubt, however, it refers to the black achenes of 
the common species, which might be thought to resemble little 
black feet. These achenes (of the ray florets) are not nearly 
filled by the ovule, constituting apparently moist chambers sim- 
ilar in function to the bladder-like pods of some Astragalines. 

T. D. A. Cockerell. 
Boulder, Colorado. 



procr£dings of the club 

Wednesday, Fehruary 22, 1905 

This meeting was held at the N. Y. Botanical Garden, Profes- 
sor L. M. Underwood in the chair and twenty-one members 
present. 

A letter was read from Dr. MacDougal explaining his inability 
to present his announced paper on " The Origin of Species by 
Mutation or Saltation." 

A contribution to the knowledge of the local flora by Mrs. 
Livingston and Miss Crane was communicated by Dr. W. A. 
Murrill and read by Professor Underwood. The authors had 
worked on the fungi, and had identified 195 species in 82 genera 
and 17 families, all from Scarsdale, N. Y. The remainder of the 
program consisted of remarks on the genus Lycopodiuvi, being 
some of the results of the joint labors of Professor F. E. Lloyd 
and Professor L. M. Underwood, which will soon be published in 
the Ihillctin ; Professor Lloyd spoke from a morphological stand- 
point and Professor Underwood from the systematic and general. 
Professor Lloyd called attention to the diagnostic differences which 
were brought out by the wet method used for the investigations, 
differences not distinguisliable in dried material. The Lycopods 
fall naturally into two physiological groups as shown by their 
morphological characters, dependent upon habit — a radially 
symmetrical type for those species which arc erect or jiendent, 



71 

and a bilaterally syiiimctrical t)'pe, which may be purely physi- 
ological due to a twisting of leaves or stems or to the develop- 
ment of dimorphism in the leaves. Many interesting features 
were brought out with the aid of blackboard drawings. 

Professor Underwood spoke of the number of new species 
brought to light by recent exploration and comparative study of 
material from the American tropics. The Lycopods, which in 
our latitude are inconspicuous and comparatively infrequent, in 
the tropics occasionally become weeds of large size and great 
beauty, growing especially in high altitudes ; in fact most of the 
more interesting tropical Pteridophyta are found above the 5,000- 
foot level. Many specimens were exhibited, some of which 
admirably contrasted the old and the new methods of collecting 
herbarium material. 

After considerable discussion, adjournment followed. 

Edward W. Bekrv, 

Sec re I dry. 
Tuesday, March 14, 1905 

The meeting was held at the American Museum of Natural 
History, President Rusby in the chair and twenty-five additional 
members present. 

The Field Committee presented a formal report for 1904, which 
was received and filed. 

Miss Helen L. Palliser, of Brooklyn, N. Y., was elected an 
active member. 

The first paper on the scientific program was by Dr. N. L. 
Britton, and was entitled " A Botanical Cruise in the Bahamas." 

The speaker had just returned from several weeks' exploration 
in the Bahamas and gave a general account of the trip. 

The numerous islands — there are over 2,700 islands, keys, 
and projecting rocks — are all of the same general type in that 
they consist of coral limestone. The group is so scattered, ex- 
tending for more than four degrees of latitude and somewhat 
farther from east to west, that there is considerable variation in 
temperature and rainfall. 

A remarkable feature of the islands is the abundant and almost 
impenetrable thickets growing directly out of the rock ; in fact, 



there is very little soil except that known as " red land," which 
occurs in the bottom of sink-holes and locally in swales, and the 
" white land," formed from the crumbled rock either disintegrated 
in place or accumulated as sand dunes. These two formations 
represent practically all the tillable land of the islands. Owing 
to the porous nature of the material there are no known perma- 
nent fresh-water streams although there are a number of salt- 
water creeks of considerable size. Occasionally there are fresh- 
water ponds and marshes, mostly of small size. These very 
local ponds and marshes furnish many of the botanical novelties. 
Salt-water ponds which rise and fall with the tide are abundant 
and sometimes of large size. 

The Bahamas are very recent geologically, the Bahamian up- 
lift being placed not earlier than the late Tertiary, so that they 
offer excellent opportunities for the study of plant migration and 
evolution. The flora is of southern derivation, a large number 
of the known indigenous species being common to the near-by 
and older islands of Cuba and Hayti, while many other species 
are closely related to plants from these islands. The chief agents 
in the introduction and distribution of the plant population are 
migratory birds, supplemented b}- winds and ocean currents. 
Notwithstanding the geologically short period that the Bahamas 
have been above the sea, they have witnessed the evolution of 
numerous species, there being many endemic species known and 
many more which will be made known as the result of the recent 
explorations. Many of these, it is believed, will prove to be 
examples of rapid evolution (mutation). 

Dr. Britton's observations were followed by remarks on " Col- 
lecting Algae in the Bahamas," by Dr. Marshall A. I lowc. The 
shores of the islands were said to offer a considerable variety of 
jjjiysical conditions and to have a marine flora which is on the 
whole varied and rich, though apparcnlK' less so than that of 
the Florida Keys. The shore-lines are usually rocky, but there 
are often stretches of white sand which are nearly destitute of 
algae. The tide rises and falls ordinarih- from one to four feet, 
but the withering effect of the sunshine is such that few sjiecies 
are found in the strictly littoral zone except under shelving rocks 



7.*i 

or where the shore is subject to an almost continuous spraying 
from the waves. A deeply shaded shelf under a remarkable rock 
overhang on the Cave Cays of the Exuma Chain furnished some 
of the most interesting algae obtained on the recent expedition. 
The so-called creeks constitute good collecting grounds, cspc- 
ciall}' if well exposed to tidal currents, and the roots of the red 
mangrove, which commonly borders such, always harbor algae 
of interest, particularly when standing in water that is three feet 
or more deep at low tide. Nearly all the larger islands have 
brackish ponds which ha\'e a peculiar flora, \'ar\'ing in character 
with the salinity of the water. Hundreds of square miles in the 
Bahamian region are occupied by the " banks," on which the 
water is very shallow, mostly from five to twenty feet deep ; these 
banks often consist of clean wliite sand with little visible organic 
life, )'et in many places are found, more or less abundantly, repre- 
sentatives of such genera as Pciiicillus, Rliipoccphalits and Uciotca, 
growing directly out of the sand, and Jllicrodictyon, Gyiniiosonts, 
]Viirdeinaiuiia, Lauiriicia, CJiondria, Hcrposiplionia and others, 
attached to sponges, corals, sea-fans, etc. In the winter and 
spring months, at least, very little is found washed ashore except 
species of Sargassuui and their epiphytes. 

The speaker remarked upon the desirability of extensive dredg- 
ing operations in order to complete our knowledge of the marine 
flora of the Bahamian archipelago. A few characteristic speci- 
mens of Bahamian marine algae were exhibited. Special attention 
was directed to four species of Piiiicillns, viz., P. capitatus, P. 
diiiiictosi/s, P. Lainoiirouxii, and the recently described Penicillus 
pyrifoniiis. RJdpoccpJialus PItocnix and R. oblougiis, and \'arious 
species of Udotca^ Avraiiivdlca and Haliineda were also discussed. 

Mrs. Britton, who accompanied the expedition, spoke more par- 
ticularly of the flora of the island of New Providence, where she 
spent the time collecting, while the other members of the part)- 
were cruising. Several excecdingl)' fine photographs of the local 
scenery were exhibited. 

EinV.AKI) W. Bl'.KKV, 

Sfcrctarv. 



NEWS ITEMS 

Mr. O. F. Cook, of the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, is in Guatemala, working upon various botanical problems 
of an economic character. 

Mr. John F. Cowell, director of the Botanic Garden at Buffalo, 
N. Y., returned in the latter part of March from a collecting 
expedition to Panama. 

Professor A. D. Selby, botanist of the Ohio Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Woostcr, Ohio, returned early in April from 
a several months' visit to Europe. 

Professor E. C. Jeffrey, of Harvard University, has been 
awarded from the Elizabeth Thompson Science Fund a grant of 
$200 " for the study of cupressineous conifers." 

Dr. D. T. MacDougal, accompanied by Mr. G. G. Copp, left 
New York on March 10 to continue his studies of desert vegeta- 
tion in the lower part of the valley of the Colorado River. He 
is expected to return late in April. 

Colonel Nicolas Pike, a veteran naturalist, known to botanists 
chiefly by his collections of marine algae in the vicinity of New 
York, in Portugal, and in Mauritius, died in New York City, on 
April 1 1 at the age of eighty-seven years. Pikca, a Califor- 
nian genus of red algae, was named in his honor by Harvey 
in 1853. 

Volume 9 of the Contributions from the United States Na- 
tional Herbarium is an alphabetical annotated list of " The Use- 
ful Plants of the Island of Guam, with an introductory account 
of the natural history of the island, of the character and history 
of its people, and of their agriculture," written by William 
Edwin Safford. The volume is well illustrated and contains 
much of general interest. 

Professor I'rancis IC. Eloyd, of the Teachers College, Colum- 
bia University, has been awarded a grant of ^^500 by the Carnegie 
Institution to further his studies of stomatal action and transpira- 
tion in desert plants. He will spend the summer at the Desert 



liotanical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution at Tucson, 
Arizona, where he will continue the researches which he began 
there during the summer of 1904. 

Popular interest in the study of American trees will be stimu- 
lated by the recently published " Manual of the Trees of North 
America (exclusive of Mexico) " by Charles Sprague Sargent, 
director of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. The 
descriptions are accompanied by text-figures. A recent work of 
more general scope but with special reference to the native and 
cultivated trees of Great Britain is entitled " Trees : A Hand- 
book of Forest Botany for the Woodlands and the Laboratory" 
and is written by Professor H. Marshall Ward, of Cambridge 
University. This is in two small octavo volumes and forms a 
part of the Cambridge Biological Series. 

Under the patronage of the Caroline and Olivia Phelps Stokes 
P\mdof the New York Botanical Garden, the Wild Flower Pres- 
ervation Society of America has printed on cloth (10 x 12 in.) 
numerous copies of the following notice : " The Gathering of 
Wild Mowers and Ferns and the Cutting or Injuring of Any Tree 
or Shrub, or the Starting of Fires on these Premises, is Strictly 
Forbidden under Penalty of the Law." Any one desiring to 
make use of such notices will be supplied with them gratis on 
application to Mrs. N. L. Britton, Secretary of the Wild Flower 
Preservation Society of America, New York Botanical Garden, 
Bronx Park, New York City. 

An experiment is being made at the New York Botanical 
Garden in the direction of active cooperation with the nature-stud}' 
work of the public schools of New York City, the experiment 
being begun with the children of the " 4 B " grade of the Bor- 
ough of the Bronx. The course consists of three illustrated 
lectures, supplemented by demonstrations in the museums and 
greenhouses, and also out of doors, with the cultivated and native 
plants of the Garden. The first lecture of the series has been 
given by Dr. Marshall A. Howe, assistant curator ; the second 
will be given by Mr. George V. Nash, head gardener, and the 
third by Dr. N. L. Britton, director-in-chief, other members of 



76 

the Garden staff assisting in the demonstrations. The lectures 
are dehvered to groups of 700 to 800 children, who are after- 
wards arranged in squads of 40 or 50 for the demonstrations. 

Professor Hugo de Vries, whose visit to America last year 
was such a genuine pleasure to all who met him, has just pub- 
lished a volume of 438 pages on his impressions of America 
under the title " Naar Californie " illustrated with numerous half- 
tones. He includes chapters on the land and people, fruit cul- 
ture, new varieties of fruit (with an account of two visits to Lu- 
ther Burbank), irrigation, and the mountains and flora, ending 
with " Persoonlijke Herinneringen," giving account of his land- 
ing at New York, the commencement exercises at Columbia 
University, where he received the degree of Doctor of Science, his 
journey to California by the way of the Desert Laboratory at 
Tucson, and his return by the northern route including a stop 
at Chicago where he made the convocation address and received 
a second honorary doctorate at the University of Chicago. The 
work is full of botanical observations, as might be expected by 
those who know its writer personally. 

In Bulletin no. 71 of the Bureau of Plant Industry, entitled 
"Soil Inoculation for Legumes," Dr. George T. Moore brings 
to the attention of the public another triumph of modern botani- 
cal science in its relation to agriculture. It has long been known 
that certain bacterial organisms living in the roots of leguminous 
plants and commonly causing tubercles upon them have the 
power of fixing free nitrogen, which is later taken advantage of 
by the host plants. Leguminous plants with root-tubercles are 
not only, as a rule, especially in a sterile soil, much more vigor- 
ous than those that are destitute of them, but the soil upon 
which they grow and decay is thereby enriched in nitrogenous 
materials as well as in the carbon compounds. Dr. Moore and 
his associates in the Bureau of Plant Industry have now perfected 
an inexpensive method of inoculating the soil with the proper 
microorganism. More than 12,000 tests have been made by 
practical farmers upon various leguminous crops and in nearly 
all the states of the Union, and the reports indicate a distinct 



77 

success for the method. The processes have been patented by 
the Department of Agriculture in the name of ])r. Moore in order 
to protect them for the use of the pubhc. 

Invitations and prch'minary programs for the International 
Botanical Congress, meeting in Vienna, June ii-iS, 1905, have 
been distributed. A four weeks' excursion to Illyria has been 
arranged to take place before the meeting of the Congress, and 
after the Congress are scheduled excursions to the Austrian 
coast, to the eastern Alps, and to the Lower Austrian mountains 
and the valley of the Danube. Shorter excursions in the neigh- 
borhood of Vienna have been arranged for the week of the Con- 
gress. In addition to the discussion of the nomenclature question, 
which is to be made a special feature of the convention, papers 
bearing upon various aspects of botany are to be read, and there 
will bean exhibition comprising three sections, as follows: (i) 
Historical, (2) Modern Appliances for Research and Instruction, 
(3) Horticultural. The American delegates, elected and, accord- 
ing to the rules of Congress, entitled to vote in the deliberations 
upon the nomenclature question, are, so far as we have learned, 
the following : Members of the International Nomenclature Com- 
mission, .V. L. Britton, E. L. Greene, B. L. Robinson, J. D. Smith; 
Delegates from Section G, American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, C. R. Inirnes, H. C. Cozules, C. L. Shear ; from 
the Botanical Society of America, /. C. Arthur ; from the Society 
for Plant Morphology and Physiology, W. G, Farloiv ; from U. 
S. Department of Agriculture, A. F. Wocds ; from the Torrey 
Botanical Club, A^. L. Britton, L. M. Underwood ; from the New 
York Academy of Sciences, L. M. Undenvood ; from the New 
York l^otanical Garden, y. H. BarnJiart ; the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, the New England Botanical Club, the Bos- 
ton Society of Natural History, and the Vermont Botanical Club 
will be represented by B. L. Rolunson. 

The program of the spring lectures at the New York Botan- 
ical Garden, to be delivered in the lecture hall of the museum 
building, Bronx Park, on Saturday afternoons, at 4:30 o'clock, is 
as follows : 



78 

April 29, " The Indian and his Uses for Plants," by Mr. Fred- 
erick V. Coville ; May 6, " The Pines and their Life History," by 
Professor Francis E. Lloyd ; May 13, " Botanical Aspects of the 
Deserts of Arizona, California, Sonora and Baja California," by 
Dr. D. T. MacDougal ; May 20, " The Coralline Seaweeds," by 
Dr. Marshall A. Howe ; May 27, " Cuba," by Dr. W. A. Mur- 
rill ; June 3, " Vegetable Poisons and their Strange Uses," by 
Dr. H. H. Rusby. 

Mr. Harlan Harvey York, who for the past two years has 
been an assistant in botany in the Ohio State University at Co- 
lumbus, has been appointed fellow in botany in Columbia Univer- 
sity for the year i905-'o6. Mr. York received the degree of 
B.S. from De Pauw University in 1903. 



Vol. 5 No. 5 

TORREYA 

LIBRARY 

May, 1905 NEW YOJUC 

BOTANlCAi. 

OARDGN 

TllK CLASSIFICATION OF LICHENS 

By Alhert Schneider 

Systcmatists have for a long time awaited the coming of the 
man witli convictions sufficiently strong and insight sufficiently 
keen to [Moducc order out of the long existing lichen chaos. In- 
dividual workers have not been wanting who were ready and 
willing to propose temporary makeshift systems of classification, 
which in the light of further scientific research proved inadequate 
and untenable. ( )nl)' within very recent years has our knowledge 
of this group of plants become sufficiently advanced and com- 
plete to make possible an attempt at a natural system of classifi- 
cation, or at least a system sufficiently concise to give it equal 
rank with the systems of other comprehensive plant groups. 
This was made possible by the epoch-making observations and 
researches of Schwendener, Bornct, Zukal, Reinke and others. 
In the Lieferungen of Engler and Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien, de- 
voted to lichens, we have perhaps the first more complete sum- 
mary of modern lichenology and the first effort at formulating a 
natural system in accord with recent research. Funfstiick's ex- 
position and discussion of general lichenology in Lieferung 180 
is complete, concise and quite impartial. This masterpiece of 
lichenological literature appeared in 1898 and will remain the 
.standard authority for some years to come. An English transla- 
tion with annotations and additions issued as a separate volume 
would prove of great value to English students of lichenology 
and it is to be hoped that some one will undertake this task at 
an early date. 

The only number (Lieferung) thus far issued on the classifi- 
cation of lichens, by A. Zahlbruckner, did not appear until 1903. 
While the lichens are treated separately, both by Funfstiick and 

[Vol. 5, No. 4, of T<)RREY.\, comprising pages 55-7S, was issued April 27, 1905.] 

7!) 



so 

Zahlbi'Lickner, they nevertheless place them with fungi, parasit- 
ically associated with algae. This is all the more remarkable 
since Funfstiack very concisely sets forth those morphological, 
physiological and chemical characteristics of lichens, which clearly 
indicate their autonomous nature. He refuses to look upon the 
relationship of fungus and alga as mutually beneficial, and desig- 
nates it as a special or peculiar form of parasitism (" eine beson- 
dere Art von Parasitismus "). It is furthermore a misapprehen- 
sion of the expression " mutualistic symbiosis" to interpret it as 
meaning that the several symbionts are equally benefited. The 
term simply implies that the several symbiotic components are 
benefited (which is frankly admitted by Fiinfstiick) but that one 
may receive the greater return favor or benefit. There are some 
botanists who refuse to recognize in this wonderful biological 
relationship anything more than ordinary parasitism. Such a 
deduction is possible only when the components or symbionts are 
considered separately and not in their mutual relationship. For 
example, in like manner it is possible to reach the conclusion 
that the domestic animal is injuriously affected through the influ- 
ence of man, or that civilized man himself is merely a parasitized 
or degenerate form of the ignorant savage. To speak of the 
algal (gonidial) symbiont as imprisoned and parasitized is as irra- 
tional as to speak of the imprisoned and parasitized horse or cow. 
It is very true, man uses the milk, the hide, the hair, the teeth, 
the meat, the bones, the hoof, in fact every part of the animal. 
It does look like a clear case of the most pronounced one-sided 
parasitism, but the aspect is changed markedly as soon as we con- 
sider both animals, the cow and the man, in their mutual relation- 
ship. Had it not been for man, the cow would perhaps not exist at 
all ; as it is, millions of these animals enjoy a life of luxury as com- 
pared with the life they would be compelled to lead as indepen- 
dent unparasitized wild animals. Who can then say that the 
relationship is not mutualistic? I^y analogy the same argument 
applies to the alga and fungus in the lichen-group, only here we 
have a true .symbiotic relationship. It would be a waste of effort 
again to present the familiar arguments in favor of lichen auton- 
omy or lichen mutualism. The interested reader is referred to 



81 

the work of r'unfstiick. I wish to refer to one point only. While 
it is (generally atimittec! that the lichen components or symbionts 
may develop and exist independently under artificial conditions, 
at least up to a certain stage, there is no evidence that such is 
the case in nature. The statement has been made that the algal 
symbiont may escape from the thallus and vegetate independently 
on bark, etc., but it lacks proof. Iwen though that were the 
case, the fungal symbiont does not exist independently in nature 
and hence a lichen is an impossibility without the mutualistic 
association of alga and fungus. No one has yet succeeded in 
forming a lichen by associating a true alga {Cystococcus) with a 
true ascomycctous fungus. If this were possible we might reason- 
ably expect spontaneously synthetic lichen formations in nature, 
which is certainly not the case. Lichens invariably arise from 
preexisting lichens. Some authorities state that a fungus may 
attack nostoc colonies and transform them into collematous 
lichens but this statement requires verification. 

Therefore, without entering into what would merely be useless 
discussion and repetition, it would appear to the writer that the 
most plausible and reasonable attitude to take toward lichen clas- 
sification is to consider them as a distinct class. This is the con- 
clusion reached after a perusal of the more important literature 
on the subject and a rather careful study of the morphology 
(gross and minute) and ecology of the more important represen- 
tatives of this very interesting group of plants. 

While the system proposed by Zahlbruckner is undoubtedly 
the best in existence, there are nevertheless several changes 
which would appear to be desirable. Fiinfstiick calls attention 
to the fact that our knowledge of certain lichen structures, 
organs, functions, etc., etc., is as yet not well understood owing 
to the fact that our knowledge of lichen evolution and licherv 
ecology is very incomplete. This accounts for our indefinite and 
variable terminology. With few exceptions we know practically 
nothing of the delimitations of species. While this applies espe- 
cially to the lower forms, it applies also to some of the higher 
forms, as, for example, Usnca barbata, many of the Parmelias, 
some of the Cladonias, and others. In consideration of these con- 



82 

ditions, it is highly absurd for Hchen systematists to enter into 
lengthy and detailed descriptions of species, varieties, subvarieties 
and even forms. As Fimfstiick states, " Bei der ausserordentlich 
schvvankenden Abgrenzung der Arten bei den verschiedenen 
Autoren ist es geradezu unmoglich eine sichere Orientierung 
uber die Arten zahl zu gewinnen." His further statement that 
there are in all probability thus far not more than 4,000 good 
species known harmonizes with the estimates of several other 
lichenologists. Contrasting this very fair estimate with the fact 
that some 20,000 species, varieties and forms are actually de- 
scribed it is very evident that there lies an enormous task before 
those who will attempt to balance this difference. Special care 
will be necessary in the study and revision of the lower groups. 
For example, over 100 species, varieties and forms of Vcrriicaria 
are described. It is more than likely that there are not half that 
number of good species. This applies also to the genus ArtJio- 
nia as well as to other genera. It may be advisable in some 
instances to subdivide certain genera. It would appear that 
Zahlbruckner gives too much systematic importance to the thecial 
characters, which is however to be expected from one who recog- 
nizes the lichens as modified fungi. Too much systematic impor- 
tance is ascribed to the pycnoconidial apparatus (spermogonia), 
since the function and occurrence of this organ or structure is 
but little understood. In brief the subject of lichen classification, 
as understood at the present time maybe summarized as follows : 

1 . While some authorities are satisfied that lichens deserve to 
be recognized as an autonomous group, others are not ready to 
admit this. This difference of opinion docs not cause any serious 
confusion in the conception of lichen groups and species. 

2. There is great confusion with regard to the delimitation of 
lichen species. The number of good species is in all probabil- 
ity less than one fifth of those actually described. 

3. The system of classification proposed by Zahlbruckner is ex- 
cellent and should be generally adopted. This would very mate- 
rially facilitate the work of studying the various groups more care- 
fully, thus perfecting our knowledge of lichens more and more and 
making it possible to form a more perfect system in the near future. 

Cai.iiornia Coi.legk of I'marmacy, San Francisco. 



83 

THE COURSE OF THE POLLEN TUBE IN HOUS- 
TONIA: A PRELIMINARY NOTE 

I5y Francis E. Li.ovd 

In 1902* I announced that in certain Rubiaceac, namely in 
the genus Honstoiiia, the ovule is not supplicfl with an integu- 
ment, realizing the '' nucellus 7iudns" of Schleiden, a condition 
supposed erroneously by him to obtain in the Rubiaceae in gen- 
eral. At present lloustotiia is the only genus of this family in 
which this peculiar and unexpected condition has been announced 
to occur, although it has recently been found by me that other 
genera closely allied to Houstonia are similar to it in this regard. In 
the paper above cited it was also shown that the course of the pollen 
tube in other Rubiaceous genera, namely Richardsonia and Diodia, 
is also of especial interest. In Ricliardsojiia pilosa, the species 
studied, the pollen tube takes an intercellularcourse, the path being 
constant in its direction. This is true also of /)^W/V^/'^;r.y. D. \lr- 
giniana, on the other hand, offers a contrast in that for a part of 
the path the tube moves freely in the ovarian cavity, though in a 
direction in general similar to that in the other species studied. 
The significance of this remarkable dissimilarity I have discussed 
elsewhere f but it may be added that similar relations have been 
observed by Longo in an entirely different group of plants, the 
Cucurbitaceae. 

The fact that the pollen tube in some of the Rubiaceae is inter- 
cellular in its mode of growth, coupled with the further fact that 
in Iloiistoiia no micropyle is present, a condition due of course to 
the absence of the integument, led me to the belief that the course 
of the pollen tube in the latter also would be found upon exami- 
nation to be intercellular. This hypothesis was strengthened 
again by the similarity of the topography of the ovary in Ricli- 
ardsonia, Diodia, and Houstonia, apart from the placental struc- 
ture, together with the disposition of the ovules in the last named. 

* Lloyd, F. E. The Comparative Embryology of the Rubiaceae. Memoirs of the 
Torrey Botanical Club, 8 : 27-112. //. 5-/J. 15 F 1902. 

fThe Pollen Tube in the Cucurbitaceae and Rubiaceac. Torreya, 4 : S6-9I. 
Je 1904. Pertinent literature is here cited. 



84 

Accordingly, at my suggestion, Mr. Chester A. Mathewson un- 
dertook an examination of a lot of material which I had pre- 
viousl}' collected for the purpose, and has been able to follow the 
pollen tube from the papillae to the funicle of the ovule. A full 
account of Mr. Mathewson's observations will appear later when 
the work is completed. At the present it is of interest to point 
out that the expectation entertained by me has proved correct 
and that the course of the pollen tube is throughout intercellular. 
Through the stylar tissue and the stylar elements of the ovarian 
partition the tube movies precisely as described for RicJiardsonia 
and Diodia. At the lower edge of the stylar tissue the tube 
encounters the basal portion of the dissepiment. It then turns 
abruptly, pursuing a path at right angles, roughly speaking, to its 
previous course, but for only a short distance. It may turn out 
that this is not invariably the case, though it is certainly the rule, 
in which event the tube would penetrate into the tissue of the 
basal element of the partition directly. Before emerging- into the 
ovule, as it would if it kept on in the direction described, namely 
at right angles to its stylar course, it turns again abruptly, pene- 
trating from one to several layers deep, gradually turning so as 
to pursue a path parallel to the axis of the placental stalk. 
Through the parenchymatous mass of the placenta the path is 
less direct, but in the main leads with little irregularity to one or 
another of the ovules. On reaching one of these, the tube may 
emerge into the sinus between the ovule and the placenta and 
then repenetrate the ovule laterally ; or, as I believe to be the 
more usual, the tube enters the ovule through the funicle. From' 
this point it goes more or less obliquely and irregularly toward 
the &^'g pole of the embryo-sac, at least in the few cases in which 
the course has been followed. It will be of further interest to 
see if in any instances the course is through the chalazal tissues. 
A further question presents itself As is well known, Hous- 
to7iia produces a goodly number of ovules in each of the two 
locales. These are distributed upon the knob-shaped placentae, 
which originate in a manner similar to the single ovules of the 
Galieae and in a similar position. It seems not unlikely that 
these ovules develop ccntrifugall}', the ones placed nearest the 



85 

stylar partition maturing the embryo-sac somewhat earher than 
those next in position, and these in turn earher than the follow- 
ing and so on. If this should turn out to be the case, certain 
ovules should be first prepared to attract the entering pollen 
tubes on the theory that the direction of these is determined by 
the presence of a stimulant which works chemotactically upon 
them, a view advanced by Molisch and supported by my studies 
of the Rubiaceae upon physiological-anatomical grounds. This 
inference would have to be made in view of the fact that there 
appears to be no special conductive tissue within the placental 
parenchyma for the guidance of the tubes which, as above pointed 
out, travel through it. 

The facts thus made out serve, to emphasize the contention 
advanced by Murbeck, Longo and myself, to the effect that the 
phenomena observed in the behavior of the pollen tube in the 
various plants examined by us have a physiological meaning only. 
This view is opposed to that which was previously advanced by 
Treub and by Nawaschin, who ascribed rather a phylogenetic 
significance to the matter. The fact that in widely different fam- 
ilies, including the Rosaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Rubiaceae, as 
well as the so-called primitive dicotyledons, similar behaviors of 
the pollen tube have been observed, loosens the grasp of those 
who hope upon these grounds to construct a phylogeny of plants 
of even the most crencral kind. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE RECORDED FUNGUS AND 
SLIME-MOULD FLORA OF LONG ISLAND 

By G. a. Reichling 

A list is given below, comprising a few additions to Dr. Jel- 
liffe's Flora of Long Island in the fungi and myxonnxetes. 
The specimens have been collected for the most part at Jamaica 
and Flushing during last summer. Flushing seems to have a 
particularly rich and interesting flora. 

In the list the nomenclature of Macbride is employed for the 
myxomycetes. The localities are given with the names. 



86 

MVXOMVCETES 

Tilviadoche polycephala (Schw.) Macbr, Near Sheepshead Bay. 
Mucilago spongiosa (Leyss.) Morg. Flushing. 
Coniatriclia laxa Rost. Flushing. 
Oligoncnia nitcns (Lib.) Rost. Flushing. 

FUNGI 

Phycomvcetes 
Evipusa Muscae Cohn. Brooklyn. 

ASCOMYCETES 

Giiignardia Bidivellii (Ell.) V. «& R. Near St, Albans. 

B ASI DIOxM YCETES 

Amanitopsis vaginata (Bull.) Roze. Near St. Albans. 

Omphalia campanclla Batsch. Near Flushing. 

Russula atropnrpnrea Peck. Near Flushing. 

Pkitais ccrvinus (Schaff.) Fr. Brooklyn, Flushing. 

Galera tenera Schaff. Vandeveer Park, Flatbush. 

Pholiota adiposa Fr. Brooklyn. 

Psilocybe foenisecii Pers. Brooklyn. 

Hypholoma capnoides Fr. Forest Park, Jamaica. 

HypJiolojua sublatcritiuin Schw. Rockaway Junction. 

Panacohis cainpanulahis L. Brooklyn. 

StrobUomyces floccopus Vahl. Flushing. 

Dacdalea coufragosa (Bolt.) Pers. Flushing, Jamaica, etc., 
common. 

Ganodcnna Tsugae Murrill. Jamaica, Rockaway Junction. 

Polyporus picipcs Fr. Forest Park, Jamaica. 

The writer wishes to acknowledge the kindness of Prof. T. H. 
Macbride, of the State University of Iowa, for determining a slime- 
mould {Coviatriclia laxa Rost.) and verifying two other determi- 
nations. The specimens of the slime- moulds were meager and in 
a particularly bad condition making the determination a matter 
of difficulty. Sfrobiloniyccs floccopus Vahl agrees with the descrip- 
tion given in Peck's Po/cti and Saccardo's Sy//ogc, but it is prob- 
able that the species is not distinct from .S". strobilaccus Ikrk., in 



87 

the United States at least. Tin's opinion is expressed by Pro- 
fessor Peck in Bolcti, p. 1 59. Nearly all the fungi and slime 
moulds given are common species and have probably been col- 
lected by others who have studied the mycologic flora of our 
island. 

127 Putnam Avenue, 
Brooklyn, New York. 

SHORTER NOTES 

Three Cotvi.edoxs ix Juglan.s. — A whorl of three cotyle- 
dons has been recorded in a great variety of dicotj-ledons. 
]-5raun (1869) mentions a considerable number of such ca.ses, 
Masters (1869) records nine different genera in which this abnor- 
mality occurs, and many other references are scattered through 
botanical literature. 

During the last winter I ran across a nut of the so-called 
pjiglish walnut { Jiig/aiis rcgia L.) which was perfectly thrce- 
valved and which contained an embryo with three, apparently 

normal, cot)'ledons. 

Edward W. Berrv. 
Passaic, New Jersey. 

A NEW RosELLiNiA FROM NICARAGUA — Roselliiiia Bakcri 
sp. nov. Perithecia scattered or collected in groups of l—^, 
touching each other but not confluent, or in short series of 3 or 4, 
globose, slightly roughened, except the small, papilliform, black 
ostiolum, base slightly sunk in the wood, about 0.5 mm. in diam- 
eter : asci cylindrical, short-stipitate, spore-bearing part 55-65// 
X 7—8 fi : sporidia uniseriate, acutely elliptical, more so at one 
end, subinaequilateral and slightly compressed, 8-10/^ x 4—4.5 '>■ 
or 3-3.5/^ when viewed edgewise. 

On Urcra, Chinandega, Nicaragua, December, 1903 {C. F. 
Baker, jgi^o). 

R. coniprcssa E. & D. has smaller perithecia and larger sporidia. 

J. B. Ellis. 

Newi-iei.d, New Jersey. 

A MUCH-NAMED Fern — One ordinarily looks for carelessness 
of citation as a feature of the systematic (or unsystematic?) bot- 
any of the early years of the nineteenth century rather than of 



the present period. Redescription of species and unwarranted 
changes in names, also, were characteristic of the writers of a 
century ago. But in these recent days we sometimes receive 
rude shocks from our German friends who occasionally display 
unexpected unfamiliarity with standard American literature as 
well as unwarranted laxity of principles in the matter of shifting 
plant names, all resulting in unnecessary synonymy. 

A little Bolivian fern collected by Bang was described just a 
decade ago by Mrs. Britton as Acrosticluun Moorei, following the 
then current interpretation of Acrosticlmm in the wide sense in 
which it is still employed at Kew. This appeared in our Mem- 
oirs which ought to be accessible to German writers on ferns, if 
not in the original then surely in at least two reviews that have 
appeared in standard German publications, viz. : Just's Bot. 
JaJircsbcriclit, 23: 433. 1897, and Hcdwigia, 34: (109). 1895, 
the latter also " redigiert von Prof Georg Hieronymus ! ", and 
both of which mention this species by name, author, collector, 
and type locality ! 

In spite of this, the fern was destined to be redescribed under 
two new generic and two new specific names, and after American 
intervention had called attention to the error, and the original 
specific name had been restored, the latest emanation from Ber- 
lin overlooks all of this citation, redescription and restoration 
and boldly places the plant in its fourth (and correct !) genus but 
with its third (and most recent) specific name ! And all this is 
German systematic (?) botany of the twentieth century instead 
of the nineteenth, where it would not so much surprise us ! 

The following corrected synonymy gives the details of the 
story : 

Microstaphyla Moorei (E. G. Britton) 
AcrosticJium Moorei E. G. Britton, Mem. Torrey Club, 4: 273. 

1895. (Type from Bolivia, Bang §^8). 
R/ii/>ido/>Uris Rusdj'i Christ, Farnkr. der Erde, 46. 1897. (Type 

from Bolivia, Bang jjS /). 
Elaplwglossum Baiigii Christ, Monog. l^laphoglossum, 99. 1899. 

(Type from Bolivia, Bang ^^8 /). 
Elaphoglossum {Microstaphyla) Bangii Christ, \\\\\\. Herb. Bcmss. 

II. I : 588. 1901. 



89 

Elaplioglossum Moort'i (E. G. Britton) Clirist, P.ull. Herb. Boiss. 

II. 3: 148. 1903. 
Microstaf^liyla Bangii (Clirist) Micron, l^ot. Jahrlj. Mnglcr, 34 : 

539. 1904. 

It is to be liopcd that after this tedious experience the poor 
fern will rest in peace ! 
■>- LuciEN M. Underwood. 

CoLUMHiA University, 
20 April, 1905. 

^ REVIEWS 

Species and Varieties; Ttieir Origin by Mutation* 

To write two similarly comprehensive works upon the same 
subject, treated from the same point of view, and not displace the 
first by the second, nor make the second superfluous is a prob- 
lem of no small magnitude. In presenting a second work on 
the mutation theory, Professor Hugo de Vries has solved this 
problem in a most admirable fashion. 

"Species and Varieties : Their Origin by Mutation " is in no 
sense a rendering into English, of " Die Mutationstheorie," and 
is much more valuable in many respects than such translation 
could be made. The author was doubtless greatly aided in the 
successful solution of the problem by the difference of oi'igin of 
the two works. " Die Mutationstheorie " is primai'ily a detailed 
exposition of the results of research, and was addressed to sci- 
entists who would appreciate — nay, demand — all the evidence 
on which are based the far-reaching generalizations involved in 
the theory of mutation. "Species and Varieties," on the other 
hand, having grown out of a series of lectures delivered by the 
author, before the students of a university, assumes in conse- 
quence a much less rigid scientific aspect, becoming b\- necessit)' 
intelligible to a wider circle of readers. A technical scientific 
work may be pored over by those immediately intei-ested in its 
subject matter until all its important details are comprehended ; 
but the successful lecturer must make himself instantly intel- 
hgible to his audience. 

* De Vries, H. Species and Varieties : Their Origin by Mutation. Edited by D. 
T. MacDougal. 8vo, pp. xii + 847. Chicago : The Open Court Publishing Co. 
F 1905. 



90 

The unusual simplicity, directness and beauty of the language 
used, the purity of its Anglo-Saxon English, in connection with 
the largeness of its theme, renders the new book at once a classic, 
and although " Die Alutationstheorie " must always stand as the 
cpocli-iiiaking work, it is " Species and Varieties " that will be 
found most frequently back to back with Darwin's *' Origin of 
Species " on the shelves of the general libraries, and that will 
make the name of de Vries known as Darwin's is to every man 
and woman of intelligence regardless of vocation. 

As compared with " Die Mutationstheorie," the new book 
shows many evidences that the author has profited by the dis- 
cussions which have been aroused by that work, and he has very 
carefully defined his position in regard to points in which he has 
been misconstrued. Ardent Darwinians immediately attacked 
the new theory because it appeared to be offered as a substitute 
for the theory of " Natural Selection." In evident response to 
these attacks, the author has joined his views in a masterful way 
to those of Darwin, showing that there is no conflict, and making 
the reader feel that the theory of mutation was the next step 
logically, as it certainly has been the next important step histori- 
cally in the development of a satisfactory conception of the 
origin of specific and varietal differences. 

The basis of the author's views is the conception of character- 
units as the ultimate bearers of herfedity, a conception that, 
though seemingly too simple and inelastic to be entirely satisfy- 
ing to the physiologist, has been brought into the greatest promi- 
nence and furnished support amounting at least to partial demon- 
stration in the work of Mendel and of those who have since 
confirmed and extended Mendel's results, in the renaissance and 
extension of which Professor dc Vries himself had such promi- 
nent part. 

Recognizing as did Darwin tliat by far the greater part of our 
knowledge of evolutionary processes is necessarily based upon 
the results of economic practice, Professor dc Vries has made a 
careful experimental analysis of horticultural and agricultural 
processes, and it is this part of his work which commends itself 
especially to the thinking scientist. 



By showing that the years devoted by the horticulturist to 
"fixing" new garden varieties have for their purpose the ehmi- 
nation of the effects of " vicinism," /. i'., the chance crosses with 
neigliboring species or varieties, and by distinguishing between 
ever-sporting varieties and those which possess only an ordinary 
degree of fluctuating variability, the way has been cleared for a 
proper appreciation of the true relations between the garden and 
nature. It is doubtful however whether physiologists will agree 
tliat the cases of "double adaptations" in nature, and the rela- 
tion of juvenile to adult leaf-characters, are to be classed with the 
ever-sporting varieties of the garden, for in the former cases def- 
inite laws of occurrence of the alternative characters are discern- 
ible, while in the ever-sporting varieties no such laws have yet 
been detected and they seem in many instances to be closely 
related to fluctuating variations. 

The book is divided into six sections. After an introductory 
lecture on the theories of evolution and methods of investigation, 
the conception of elementary species as distinct from systematic 
species is developed, and a definite and distinctive significance is 
attached to the term, "variety," which is quite different from its 
usually loose usage for any assemblage of forms less extensive 
than the systematic species. A variety as conceived by de Wies 
is not qualitatively like a species, being distinguished from the 
species to which it belongs and from which it has been derived in 
the possession or lack of some single definite character, or two 
or three single characters at most while species differ from one 
another in almost ever>^ character. The several different kinds of 
varieties, progressive, retrogressive, degressive, and ever-sporting, 
are thoroughly considered, along with the included subjects of 
latency and atavism. 

The fifth section deals with mutations, the evening-primroses 
naturally having an important place, but the number of other 
fully authenticated cases described will doubtless gi\'e surprise to 
some readers who may have thought that the mutation theory 
rests only on the behavior of Onagra Lamayckiana. 

The last section is devoted to individual and partial variability 
or "fluctuation" as it is called. This process, which has been 



92 

held by Wallace and the " Neo-Darwinians " as practically the 
only source of evolutionary changes, is held by Professor de Vries 
to have no effect whatever in giving rise to new specific and 
varietal distinctions, though it is of great importance both in 
nature and in culture, in that it allows a certain amount of adap- 
tive change or amelioration within the species. 

The editor professes to have changed as little as possible the 
original diction of the author, and for this the reader will be 
grateful both because it leaves unmodified the simple, genial flavor 
of the author's personality and because no material change is 
conceivable which would not have resulted in a more involved 
style. Some changes might have been introduced, however, 
w^hich would have been distinct improvements, and it is to be 
hoped that in succeeding editions these changes will be made. 
Thus the description of the zygomorphic or bilateral flowers of 
Digitalis as "symmetrical" is using in an unusual though liter- 
ally correct sense a word that has long been in use in descriptive 
botany with a totally different meaning. Another even less' de- 
sirable practice of quite similar character is the interchangeable 
use of "retrogression" and "regression" for the mutative loss 
of a character. " Retrogression " was the term first applied by 
the author to this process and there is no reason why it should 
not be used exclusively in biological terminology in this very 
definite sense. " Regression " already has a distinctive signifi- 
cance in connection with " fluctuation " and is used in its proper 
sense in Section F. which is devoted to that subject. Much con- 
fusion will be avoided if in future editions " retrogression " be 
substituted for " regression " wherever the mutative loss of a 
character is intended. An added complication in this connection 
is found on page 221, where, presumably by a typographical 
error, " degressive evolution" is rendered " regressive evolution." 
A number of other typographical errors occur, but in most cases 
the context prevents misinterpretation. Aside from these the 
press-work leaves little to be desired. 

The year 1904 will always be memorable in the annals of 
American science because of the number of distinguished foreign 
scientists who visited this country during that summer. Of these 



93 

none was received with inf)re t^enuine a[)preciation and honor 
than Professor dc Vries. No more fitting memorial of his sum- 
mer in America could have been left to his delighted hosts than 
this series of charming lectures on the most fundamental prob- 
lems of biology, and one may safely predict that the work will 
further stimulate the interest that has awakened everywhere in 
experimental research in variation and heredity, the two funda- 
mental processes of organic evolution. 

George Harrison Shull. 

Station for Experimkntal Evolution, 
Cold Spring Harbor, Nkw York, 
April, 1905. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CLUB 
Wednesday, March 29, 1905 

This meeting was held at the New York Botanical Garden, 
Vice-President Underwood in the chair and twenty-three addi- 
tional members present. 

Mrs. L. Schoney, of New York, and Miss Caroline S. Romer, 
of Newark, were elected to membership. The scientific program 
consisted of " Remarks on Californian Conifers " by Le Roy 
Abrams. 

The conifers of California have been of extreme interest to the 
botanical world from the time that that region was first explored. 
Nowhere do we find such unique trees as the sequoias, and no- 
where is there such a profusion of genera and species. Nearly 
two thirds of the species of the United States, and all but two of 
the genera occur within the state. The distribution of these 
species, especially of some of the more local ones, is of con- 
siderable interest, and it was upon this subject that Mr. Abrams 
chiefly dwelt. 

By far the greater number of species occur in the extreme 
northern part of the state. Here, within a radius scarcel}- ex- 
ceeding one hundred miles no less than eleven genera and at 
least thirty species may be met with. This great profusion is 



94 

due mainly to the fact that we have in this region a mingling of 
the typical Californian species with those of the Northwest. 

Nearly all of the local species are confined to the coastal 
region. Some of these, such as Phms Torreyana, Abies veniista 
and Ciiprcssiis macrocarpa are extremely local. This peculiar 
distribution along the coast is of great interest and suggests a 
field for investigation which is full of possibilities. Mr. Abrams 
was of the opinion that present climatic conditions together with 
the broken and unconnected mountains were no doubt largely 
responsible for the present status of distribution. He suggested 
that the great changes in land areas to which this region has 
been subjected during very recent geological time must have had 
much to do with shaping the destiny of the flora. 

Edward W, Berry, 

Secretary. 
Tuesday, April ii, 1905 

The meeting was held at the American Museum of Natural 
History, President Rusby in the chair and twenty-two additional 
members present. Miss Mary Price and Dr. Grace E. Cooley, 
both of the Newark High School, were elected to membership. 
The paper of the evening was on "Some Edible Seaweeds" by 
Professor H. M. Richards. 

After reference to the indirect importance of plankton organ- 
isms as a source of food for animal life in the sea, the speaker 
referred to those forms of algae which are used directly by man 
as food-stuffs. They were grouped roughly under four heads : 
blue-green, grass-green, brown, and red algae. 

In the first group, specimens were shown of a form, which is 
according to good authority Nostoc couiniune jJagellifornic . This 
becomes highly gelatinous when soaked in warm water and is 
used as a thickening or sauce. It is much prized by the Chinese. 
A Japanese form, " Su-zen-ji-nori," of more doubtful nature, but 
probably an AplianotJicce, was also shown. 

Among the grass-green forms, mention was made of various 
species of Ulva and EnterovwrpJia, which in dried form go under 
the name of " laver " in the liritish isles and " ao-nori " among 
the Japanese, Among the brown forms, only one of the Fucaceae 



95 

was iiicntioncd as an article of food, namely Duy^'ilUa utilis, 
which is saitl to be eaten b)' the natives in certain parts of Chili. 

The Laminaria forms, however, include a large number of edi- 
ble species. Alaria esailenta, common both here and in Europe, 
was at one time eaten occasionally in the Occident. At the pres- 
ent time the Japanese and Chinese make great use of these forms, 
indeed, after fish, they constitute the chief article of export of the 
Hokkaido. They are exceedingly plentiful in that region and 
their collection and preparation for market is a thriving business. 

In this connection, the report of Professor Miyabe and others 
was passed around and attention was called to the illustrations 
showing the mode of harvesting the seaweeds. The two most 
important species seem to be Laniinaria saccliariiia {LaDiinaria 
japonicii) and Uiidaria pi}iuatifida (perhaps identical with Uii- 
daria distaiis more recently separated by Miyabe and Oka- 
mura) which are known under the respective names of " Kombu " 
and "Wakame" by the Japanese. Many other forms are eaten 
however. After reference to the well-known examples "Irish 
moss" {CJiondnis crispus) and "dulse," it was said that the two 
types most used are the delicate Poipliyra forms and the more 
massive cartilaginous kinds such as various Gigartina, Gclidium, 
Gloiopeltis species. PorpJiyra has also been eaten by Europeans 
and is said to be used by the natives in parts of Alaska, but it is 
most highly prized by the Japanese and Chinese. Under the 
name of " Asakusa-nori " it is put up in neat tin boxes and 
largely .sold in the Tokio markets. It is used by itself or 
for thickening, giving a very glutinous mixture with hot water. 
"Fu-nori," used chiefly as we use starch, is a mixture of 
species of Gloiopeltis and Endotrichia, and like all these forms 
is sold dried. The speaker referred to agar-agar, which on 
Wiesner's authority is said to come from different species in 
different regions. That of Ceylon is from Gracilaria liclunoides, 
that of Java from Encheiima spinosum, while the Japanese variety 
is furnished by Gelidiuin cornaini and cartilaginaim, and Gloio- 
peltis tenax. Agar, in addition to its uses as a culture medium 
in bacteriological research, is said to be employed sometimes, as 
an adulterant in the jellies of commerce, where it ma\' be recog- 



96 

nized by the siliceous frustules of diatoms, etc., from which it is 
never free. Other forms of Florideae are used as food-stuffs,, 
attention being called to their figures in a Japanese popular work 
on the useful plants of Japan. In regard to the food value of 
algae it appears that many of them, especially the blue-green 
forms, contain a very high percentage of proteids, though not 
much else of value. The gelatinifying substances obtained from 
the red forms appear to be a substance called gelose, which is 
similar to, or identical with, the pectic substances so commonly 
found, either deposited in the middle lamellae of the cells of 
higher plants, or in the walls themselves. Mention was inci- 
dentally made of the use of seaweeds in the manufacture of iodine 
and soda-ash. 

Dr. Rusby exhibited specimens of Fiictis vcsicitlos?is and an 
unnamed species of the same genus, which are used medicinally. 

Dr. Howe spoke of dulse as an article of food and of its occur- 
rence in the markets of New York. 

After further discussion, adjournment followed. 

L. H. LiGHTHIPE, 

Sec. pro iciu. 

NEWS ITEMS 

Professor L. M. Underwood sailed for Antwerp on May 20. 
He will spend a large part of the summer at Berlin and Kew. 

Mr. L. J. K. Brace, of Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas, is 
making collections in the western part of the Great Bahama for 
the New York Botanical Garden. 

The fifth annual exhibition of the Horticultural Society of New 
York was held at the New York Botanical Garden on May 10 
and I I. l^rizes amounting to about $500 were offered. 

Dr. John Hendlcy Barnhart sailed for l{!urope on May 13 to 
attend the International Botanical Congress at Vienna. During 
the two or three months of his absence, the editor of Torrkva 
will have charge of editorial matters relating to the Jhillcti)i of 
the Torrey liotauical CItib. 

The first Walker prize, of $75, has been awarded b)' the l^os- 
ton Society of Natural History to Dr. W. \\. MacCalluni, of the 



c!c[)artiiiciit of botany of the University of Chicago, the subject 
of his [)apci- bcin<^ " Physiological Analysis of the Phenomena of 
Regeneration of Plants." 

Mr. Le Roy Abrains, who lias held the University fello\vshi[j 
in botany in Columbia University during the present scholastic 
year, has been appointed assistant curator in the Division of 
Plants of the United States National Mu.seum, and will take up 
the duties of his new position on October i. 

Dr. V. K. Clements, assistant professor of botany in the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska, has recently been promoted to be a.ssociate 
professor of plant physiology in that institution. Dr. F. D. 
Heald, adjunct professor of plant physiology, has been elected 
botanist of the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and 
associate professor of botany in the University School of Agri- 
culture. 

The second edition of Britton's " Manual of the P'lora of the 
Northern States and Canada " was published about the first of 
May. The stereotyped plates of the first edition have been 
revised where practicable and descriptions of over one hundred 
species have been added to the appendix. Artificial keys to the 
families of the angiosperms and to the genera of composites, 
prepared by Dr. Karl M. Wiegand of Cornell University, have 
also been added. 

It is stated in Sde?ice that Professor D. H. Campbell of Stan- 
ford University will devote next year to an extensive trip through 
Europe, Africa, and Asia. He expects to attend the Internat- 
ional Botanical Congress at Vienna and the meeting of the Brit- 
ish Association at Cape Town. In the same issue of Science, it 
is announced that Professor Willis L. Jepson of the University of 
California will spend next year in Europe and in the tropics, 
gathering material for the botanical museum at Berkeley. 

The second annual field symposium of botanists will be held 
during the week beginning July 3, 1905, at Ohio Pyle, a point 
on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in Fayette County, south- 
western Pennsylvania, where arrangements have been made for 
the accommodation of the party. Information concerning details 
of the trip and the proposed program may be obtained from 



98 

either Mr. Joseph Crawford, 2824 Frankford Avenue, Phila- 
delphia, representing the Philadelphia Botanical Club, from Dr. 
J. A. Shafer, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, N. Y. 
City, representing the Torrey Botanical Club, or from Dr. J. N. 
Rose, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C, representing 
the Washington Botanical Club. The pleasant and profitable 
experiences gained by those who attended the first of these meet- 
ings, held at McCall's Ferry, Pennsylvania, in July of last year, 
give reason to believe that there will be a large attendance at 
Ohio Pyle. A detailed report of the proceedings at McCall's 
Ferry will be found in the February issue of the Plant World. 



Vol.5 No. 6 

TORREYA 

June, 1905 LfBRARY 

NEW YO ',:»:< 



SOME PTELEA SEGREGATES 

I!y FdWAKIi I.. f]RKFNK 



BO; 

UA.. 



Ptelea Carolina sp. no v. 

Shrub probably large, apparently glabrous or very nearly so in 
all its parts ; red-brown twigs of the season slightly rugose : 
leaves large, on stout petioles 3 to 5 inches long ; odd leaflet 
commonly 5 inches long and nearly 3 in breadth, of somewhat 
rhombic-ovate outline, cuneate at base, cuspidately pointed at 
apex but the cusp not acute, usually blunt and commonly even 
emarginate, the whole margin faintly crenate, upper face deep 
green, lower glaucous, lateral leaflets nearly one-third smaller, 
not strongly inequilateral : samaras small for the plant, hardl)' 
more than one-half inch in diameter, nearly orbicular, retuse at 
both ends, the body nearly central, round-oval, distinctly rugose, 
moderately punctate between the ridges ; reticulation of wing 
not at all pronounced. 

Mountains of North Carolina, along the French Broad River, 
in Madison Co., 2 August, 1880, John Dontiell Simth \ the 
copious type specimens all in his private herbarium. Readily dis- 
tinguished from the common Virginian and northern P. irifoliata 
by the absence of all pubescence, and the small samaras, these 
being of only about one-third the dimensions and much less 
reticulate as to the narrow wing. 

Ptelea obcordata sp. nov. 

Shrub 10 feet high or more ; twigs with red-brown bark finely 
rugulose and glabrous, as are all the parts of the shrub : 
leaves of a vivid green on both faces, scarcely paler beneath ; 
odd leaflet 2 to 3.5 inches long, somewhat elliptic-lanceolate, 
merely acute, not taper-pointed, the margin faintly crenate, the 
lateral pair about one-third smaller, very inequilateral : samaras 
very large, some quite an inch long, round-obcordate, abrupt!)' 
acute at base, the summit with a short sinus between the rounded 

[Vol. 5, No. 5, of ToRREYA, comprising pages 79-98, was issued May 25, 1905.] 

99 



100 

lobes, the body of the samara plainly transverse-rugose and 
strongly and densely glandular-punctate between the ridges. 

Vicinity of Eustis, Florida, June, 1894, George V. Nas/i,2iCCOvd- 
ing to specimen in U. S. Herbarium. Unlike P. trifoliata by its 
narrow foliage glabrous even when young, and of the same hue 
on both faces. The samaras also have their marks as unlike 
those of the northern shrub. 

Ptelea mesochora sp. nov. 

Foliage of less than half the size of that of P. trifoliata, com- 
monly about one-third as large, glabrous or nearly so, very pale 
and glaucous beneath ; odd leaflet 2 or 3 inches long, rhombic- 
ovate, merely acute, not acuminate or even cuspidate, the laterals 
rather more than half as large, more or less inequilateral : samaras 
of the largest, commonly i inch long, round-obovate or even 
slightly obcordate, truncate or subcordate at base, the very broad 
wing apt to be full and wavy, strongly reticulate, the body oval, 
small in proportion, excentric, nearer the summit than the base, 
distinctly rugose, the intervals rather closely punctate. 

Of the region of the upper Mississippi valley and vicinity of 
Lake Michigan ; the best specimens by Uvibaeli, from Miller's, 
Indiana. 30 July, 1897; Canton, 111., 1875, /. JVo/fe ; Oquawka, 
111., Patterson, 1874. Distinct from P. trifoliata by its much 
smaller foliage and even larger fruits. 

CYTOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PAL- 

MELLA AND FILAMENTOUS FORMS 

OF STIGEOCLONEUM 

By Naohidk Vatsu 

It has long been known that Stigeocloncuin takes two different 
forms according to environmental conditions. In dry atmosphere 
the alga is spherical and is known as the palmella form, while 
in a wet place it becomes filamentous. Four years ago. Dr. B. 
E. Livingston * succeeded in changing one form into the other 
simj)ly by transferring the alga from one culture solution to 
another of different strength. At the suggestion of Dr. Mac- 

* Livingston, 15. V.. On the stimulus wliich causes the change of form in poly- 
morphic green algae. Bot. (jaz. 30: 289-361. 1900. 



Dougal I imdcrtool^ the cytological stud)- of the two forms of 
Stigcocloiuimt. ( )\viiig to the minuteness of the cells, I could 
not satisfactorily cany out the study, yet I think I obtained a 
few points of interest. I ani under j^'reat oijligation to iJr. Mac- 
Dougal for his kindly suggestions and criticisms, and also to Dr. 
Livingston, who not only has put some of his materials and solu- 
tions at my disposal, but also has given me much invaluable 
information. 

I. Methods 
l^oth the palmella and filamentous forms were examined in 
the living state. Especially was the transformation from one 
form to the other carefull)' studied. After several fixing fluids 
had been tried, I found that Boveri's picro-acetic acid proved 
better than any other. This, therefore, was used almost ex- 
clusively. All the preparations were stained /// toto with 
borax-carmine ; the sections were stained either with Auerbach's 
fluid (mixture of methyl green and fuchsin S) or with iron-alum- 
haematoxylin. To make total preparations of the filament, the 
following method was used. A clean cover-glass was touched 
on the surface of the water in a culture dish, where the filaments 
were floating. Then the cover-glass was dipped in the fi.xing 
fluid, which killed and fastened the algae at the same time. To 
obtain the total preparations of very young filaments, a drop of 
weaker solution was put on a cover-glass and a few palmella cells 
were kept in this drop for a week or so until the young filaments 
reached the two- or three-celled stage. Then all the solution was 
drawn off by means of filter paper, and the cover-glass was put 
in fixing fluid, which, as already stated, fixed and fastened the 
algae. To cut filaments into sections the following devices were 
used. A piece of Ulva, which had been preserved in alcohol, 
was washed with water and was fastened with albumen on a 
cover-glass. Then the Ulva was touched to the surface where 
filaments were floating and the cover-glass with the Ulva was put 
in the fixing fluid. After being clarified, the Ulva pieces with algae 
were peeled off from the cover-glass and cut into sections. 
The palmella cells were wrapped up in frog's epidermis to be cut. 



10-2 



II. Observations 
A. Filainentoiis Form. — In tlie filamentous form, individual 
cells are cylindrical, two or three times as long as wide. The 
cell wall is very thin ; the protoplasm spreads along the cell wall 
as a thin layer, the central part being occupied by a large vacu- 
ole. On one side there is a thickening of proto- 
plasm, which sometimes reaches the other side, so 
that the central vacuole is cut into two. The ter- 
minal cell is somewhat different from others ; it is 
usually longer than the rest of the cells and tapers 
toward the tip. The terminal cell has protoplasm of 
uniform thickness along all the walls. The' central 
vacuole in it reaches the tip of the cell as a fine 
canal. 

Chlorophyll granules of small size are found 
throughout the protoplasm. 

The nucleus as a rule lies in the thickening of 
protoplasm just mentioned. It is difficult to see 
the nucleus in life. When stained it appears as a 
homogeneous black body. It consists mostly of 
chromatin. The presence of the nuclear membrane 
is in no way demonstrable. 

Besides the nucleus there is a refringent pyrenoid 
body embedded in protoplasm. The position of 
this is not fixed ; sometimes it is found near the 



-O.. 



iO 



KiG. I. Fila- 
ment of Sli^t^eo- 

cloniiitn, show- nucleus, while in other cases it lies on the side op- 

ing transforma- pQ^ji-g j-q the nucleus. Quite often it is surrounded 

tion from the pal- '^ 

mella form (two ^X ^ ^'^''^'' Space. In borax-carmme preparations on 

lower cells) to the Other hand, it remains colorless or very light 
the filamentou.s rgj^ {],(. nucleus being stained dark red. In cell- 
form (three upper ,. . . •, 1- • 1 ._ . • ^ 1-1 ii 

,, ?• ^, ^^ division it divides into two in a way not unlike tiie 
cells), X iJSo. ' 

The dark bodies nucleus. 

represent the nu- Xhe first filament from the spore contains much 

clei ; the lit'hter, pj-Qfopiasm resembling that of the palmella form. 
the pyrenoids. ' 

The vacuole develops later. At the two-ceiled 

stage the terminal cell can be distinguished from the other cells. 

The branches can be sent off from any cell, the tranvcrsc division 

taking place only at the tip. 



B. Faluuila Form. — The palmella cells are spherical, or quite 
often two, three or four cells make a sphere. The walls are thick 
compared with those of the filament. No vacuoles are found in 
the protoplasm. The chloro{)h)ll f^ranules are much larj^^er than 
those found in the filament. In size and other characters of the 
nucleus one cannot find any difference between the two forms. 
Palmella cells have much larf^er pyrenoids than the filaments. 

The palmella cells can be directly transformed into the filament 
by thinniuL,^ of the walls, acquiring of the vacuoles, etc. In 
several cases, therefore, the intermediate forms are found. 

The palmella form, being put into the weaker solution, usually 
produces zoospores, two or four in a cell or sometimes as many 
as eight. The zoospore has two flagella and a red eye-spot. 
The spores after swimming for a while acquire a firm wall or shell. 
Voung filaments, even as late as the three-celled stage, often 
carry the empty shell at one end. 

III. Conclusion 

Recapitulating the differences : the filamentous form of Stige- 
oclonitini has thinner wall, central vacuole, smaller chlorophyll 
granules, and smaller pyrenoids, whereas the opposite prevails 
in the palmella cells. These cytological characters change, as 
Livingston states, if one form is transferred from one solution into 
another of different strength. Mow the solution acts upon the 
cells I do not know. It is however certain that these compli- 
cated structural changes cannot be accounted for simply as phys- 
ico-chemical action of the solution just as would be the case on 
an inorganic body. Livingston cites a case in which a dead cell 
changed its form, when transferred into a solution of different 
strength. The form change which constitutes a part of the above 
complicated modification may be due to the osmotic action, but 
we cannot at all explain from physical point of view how the 
thickening of the cell-wall, enlargement of the pyrenoid, etc., 
are brought about. 

It is not an easy matter to find out whether or not the adapta- 
tion in this case is purposive. It seems to me however, that the 
increase of the thickness of cell wall and the enlargement of the 



104 

p)Tenoid (reservoir of nutritive substance) ma)' be indispensable 
to withstand desiccation or a drier atmosphere. 
\k\v York Botanical Garukn. 

FLOWERING OF YUCCA AUSTRALIS 

By S. B. Parish 

In 1878, the late Dr. C. C. Parry collected, in northern Mexico, 
seeds of a remarkable tree Yucca, which he had not been able to 
identify with any described species. On his next visit to Cali- 
fornia, in 1880, he gave some of these seeds to the writer. They 
germinated readily and the young plants were distributed to 
several friends in San Bernardino valley. They have grown well 
and have now attained a height of fifteen to twenty five feet, ac- 
cording to cultural conditions. Five years ago, the first of them 
flowered, producing, on a short, abruptly reflexed peduncle, a 
massive, compact panicle of pure white flowers, very much resem- 
bling in texture and shape the flowers of Yucca viohavciisis, one 
of the common indigenous species of this region. It was readily 
recognized as that species of many synonyms, to which Trelease 
has given the name Yucca australis (Engelm.), perhaps the most 
distinct of the whole genus. 

After flowering, this tree, which, like the others, was un- 
branched, divided into four short branches, and in the spring of 
the present year three of these produced each its panicle of 
flowers. It is shown by the illustration, which is reproduced 
from a photograph. 

The tree is strikingly beautiful when in flower, far handsomer 
than it appears in the plate in Trelease's Yucceae, which is from 
a photograph taken in its native habitat in Me.\ico. Our trees 
have produced no fruit, doubtless by reason of the absence of the 
proper Fronuba. Yucca cinstralis was introduced into the gar- 
dens of southern I^' ranee about i860, from seed collected by 
Roc/.l, the first tree flowering in its sixteenth )'ear, and is there 
known under a variety of names. In the United States, the San 
Bernardino trees arc probably the only flowering specimens, but 
it is well worth cultivation wherever the climate is suitable. 

San Bernardin'), Cai.uornia. 



lOo 




Vi/fiii australis in llower at San IJcinaidino, Caliloiiiia. 



10(3 
BOTRVCHIUM SILAIFOLIUM PRESL 

By LrciF.N M. Uni>er\yood 

This species was originally described from Nootka Sound, and 
all the American writers on ferns, commencing with D. C Eaton, 
have confused a Californian species with it. I was led into the 
same error some years ago and wish now to make a correction. 
The collection of a large amount of material in the State of 
Washington by Mr. J. B. Flett and by Professor C. V. Piper has 
.'^hown that the species of that region is nearer to Presl's type 
than any of the Californian material as j'et collected and there 
seem to be no intermediate forms between the species of north- 
ern California and the one of the states farther north. On the 
other hand, Mr. Flett's specimens show gradations from my B. 
occidentalc to the typical equiwilents of B. silaifoliuui Presl. 
After I reached this conclusion two years ago, I learned that Mr. 
Piper had independentl\' come to the same conclusion, viz., that, 
B. silaifoliuui Presl and B. occidentalc Underw. were really one 
species. B. occidentalc was described from tall rather slendei" 
plants of the species quite in contrast with the more compact 
form as originally described by Presl and represents an extreme 
development of the species. The relation of D. C. Eaton's 
'' snb-var. intcrvicdiinn'' to this species was pointed out to me 
long ago by Mr. Gilbert and I am inclined to regard that form 
as representing the eastern extension of the western species or 
vice versa. I am not yet read}' to locate this latter form as a 
variety or species, and hope that further collection and stud\' 
will clear up some doubts in the matter. 

The synonymy of the w estern species then is as follows : 
BoTRVCHiUM siLAiFOLiu.M Presl, Rel. Ilaenk. i: 76. 1825. 

(Type from " Nootka-Sund.") 

Botryehiuui occidentalc Underw. Hull. Torrey Club 25: 538. 
1898. (Type from New Westminster, British Columbia.) 

Range: Washington to liritish Columbia. 

This transfer of the Washington and British Columbia plants 
to B. silaifolinni leaves the Californian plants hitherto referred to 
that species without a name. The)- nia\- be described as follows : 



^ Botrychium californicura sp. nov. 

The largest of our species, with lea\es 20-35 cm. across, the 
leaf of the precedin*,^ year usually lonj^ persistent. Roots fleshy, 
stout, fibrous : common stalk \ery short, 3-4 cm. lonj{, subter- 
ranean ; leaf-.stalk 10-16 cm. long, stout, fleshy ; leaf-blade 20- 
35 cm. wide, 15-25 cm. long, the three main divisions copiously 
tripinnate or often quadripinnatifid, the lower divi.sions rnore com- 
pound on the lower side of the base ; segments 9-13 or more to 
each pinnule, obliquely oval, the larger more or less lobed, the 
margins crenate or eroded: sporophyl 15-25 cm. long, quadri- 
pinnatc or more, on a stalk 30-45 cm. high. 

This species was figured by D. C. Eaton, Ferns N. A. i : />/. 
20a (lowermost figure only) and called b}' him " var. aii&tralc " 
of his all-embracing BotrvchiuDi tcniatinn, the name australc com- 
ing from one of the smaller (Au.straHan) species of the group, 
while this is one of the largest. It appears to be confined to 
northern California. Specimens have "been studied as follows : 

Sisson, Siskiyou County, 30 July, 1894, M. A. Hcnoc ; Sierra 
County, 1874, Lcuiuioii ; Quincy, Plumas QoMX\\.y, Mrs. R. M. 
Austin (type), Mrs. C. C. Bruce ; Emigrant Gap, A. Kellogg ; all 
in the collections at the New York Botanical Garden, which in- 
clude the collections of Columbia University and those of the 
writer, now^ incorporated in a single series. 

' CoLUMiUA University, 
12 May, 1905. 

SHORTER NOTES 

Amelanchier arguta * Nutt. — This species has been mis- 
taken for Amelanchier oligocarpa (IMichx.) Roem. It differs in 
smaller, round-oblong fruit, calyx-lobes ovate, acute, about 2 
mm. long, leaves ovate-oblong, cuneate at both ends, fineh' ser- 
rate. A. oligocarpa has larger, pear-shaped fruit, calyx-lobes 
lanceolate, acuminate, 3-5 mm. long, leaves oblong, more 
coarsely .serrate. Specimens examined : 

The technical type is a sheet in the herbarium of Columbia 
University inscribed ''Amelanchier arguta Xutt. Waychusett, 
Mass." 

*./. iirgiilii Nutt. in herb. Torrey ; Hritton, Man. io66. 1905 [Ed. 2]. 



108 

Most of the description was taken from my no. ii ig. Cedar 
Swamp, Fairhaven, Vt., altitude loo meters, May 14, 1898, and 
June 27, 1899, and iios. ig6o and /p<5y, Blueberry Hill Bog, 
Rutland, Vl. 

Xo. ^2d, O. A. Farwell, Keweenaw County, Mich. (Columbia 
University herb.) and a specimen collected by J. A. Morton, at 
Wingham, Ont. (Eggleston herb.) are of the same species. 

This species seems confined to the cold swamps of low alti- 
tude, while A. oligocarpa is arctic-alpine. 

W. W. Eggleston. 

Xrcw York Botanicai. Garden. 

N.ature's Engrafting. — About two years ago while wander- 
ing over a cypress flat, I found Picris niiida growing from the 
trunk of Taxoduiiii iiiibricanum. The branch was in a healthy, 
vigorous condition and grew more than a foot from the ground, 
as perfect a specimen of engrafting as could be done by the hand 
of man. 

The tree was on the outer edge of the flat. The undergrowth 
showed no indication of having been inundated for a year at 
least. A few yards away there were numerous trees {Taxodiuni) 
standing in water a foot or more in depth, each surrounded by a 
luxuriant growth o^ Picris. In the course of time I found the 
flat perfectly dry, as is the way with these cypress ponds of the 
pine-barren districts. I lost no time in further investigating the 
matter. Imagine my surprise, on brushing aside the dense foli- 
age to find many of the trees encircled by a luxuriant growth of 
the Picris, like a green collarette, quite high from the ground 
and having no connection with it. In Torkkv.a of February, 
1903, Mr. Roland M. Harper reported the peculiar habit of Picris 
phUlvrcaefolia as seen by him in the Okefinokee Swamp climbing 
the Taxodiuni, explaining that it crept under the bark from the 
ground, and after ascending quite a height, branched out, having 
the appearance of a parasite. He also quoted Dr. Chapman's 
ob.servations with regard to the same peculiar habit of this 
"make-believe" vine. There was no evidence of such a condi- 
tion in this ca.se. The plants had every appearance of having 
flourished and fruited for years. Mk.s. Augustus P. Taylor. 

TiioMAsvii.i.p;, Gkokgia. 



I 

A NKw CiKNi'iAX i-KoM Boi.iviA. — Geotiana dolichantha 
Gilc^ s{). nov. Pcicnnaiis. Raciicc ? : rhi/.oniatc ccrtc decum- 
bente rcliq.uii.s folioruni cvanidorum obtccto, ajDicc folia pauca 
laxe vel laxiuscule rosulata gerente : foliis lanceolatis vel lincari- 
lanccolatis, apicc acutissimis, basi vix an<^iistati.s sctl Iiaud con- 
ncctis, sub anthcsi semper manifeste recurvatis, utiinquc nitidis, 
subchartaceis, solemniter 3-nervatis : floribus 6-mei'is puniceis, in 
apice caulis erccti parce foliosi in cymam 3-floram dispositis, in 
axillis foliorum infcriorum semper solitariis, tenuissime longe pedi- 
cellatis, sub anthcsi x^erisimiliter nutantibus : sepalis in parte 3/^ 
alt. in calycem campanuliformem le\iter lo-angulatum connatis, 
lobis liberis lanceolato-triangularibus, acutissimis : corollae tubo 
cylindraceo vel anguste cylindraceo, superne paullo ampliato, 
lobis tubi vix ^ longit. aequantibus orbicularibus, breviter 
apiculatis. 

Caule repente <S-i2 cm. longo, parte erecta 17-25 cm. Foliis 
basalibus rosulatis quam cetera caulina baud majoribus, adultis 
4-5 cm. longis, 4-5 mm. latis ; internodiis 2.5-4, rarius usque 
5 cm. longis. Pediccllis 1.5-4 cm. longis. Calycis tubo ca. 8 
mm. longo, 5-6 mm. crasso, lobis 2.2-2.8 mm. longis, 2 mm. 
latis. Corollae tubo 2.2—2.3 cm. longo, 8-9 mm. crasso, lobis 
ca. 7 mm. diametro metientibus. 

BoLivi.\ : Pelichuco, 11,500 ped. s. m. {Wi/Iiaiiis, 11. 2^Sg. 
Flores maio 1902). 

Species nova affinis G. f>iiiiict\ic Wedd., sed floribus majoribus 
longius tubulatis calyceque alte connato campanulato diversa. 

Ernst Gilg. 

liKKLIN. 

A Trio of Grasses new to the West Indies. — Among the 
plants collected by Mr. W. E. Broadway, in Granada in 1904, 
is a specimen of Polytrias pracviorsa Hack., secured at St. 
George's, growing in pasture land. This grass is native in Java, 
and its appearance as an introduction into the West Indies is 
rather interesting. 

A word in reference to the nomenclature of this species may 
be appropriate here. In Hackel's treatment of the Andropogo- 
neae (D. C. Monog. Phan. 6: 189), in the synonymy under his 
P. prac'iiiorsa, in reference to the Aiidropogon divcrsijforus Steud. 
(Syn. Gram. 370), the following statement is made: " nomen 
specificum a me rejectum quia in speciminibus bene evolutis 



110 

spicLilae omnes $ , in niacris tantum et raro pedicellatae hebe- 
tatae inveniuntur." Of course this is not a valid reason for dis- 
carding a name properly published, and cannot be countenanced. 
Immediately following his publication o'i Andropogon divcrsifiorns, 
and on the same page, Steudel describes another species, Audro- 
pogoii fj-iiiandits, which Hackel also cites in the synonymy. For 
some reason unexplained, this specific name is not taken up, 
although tenable, and the name pyacinorsa adopted, first pub- 
lished by Steudel in the same work (/. c, 409) under the genus 
Polliiiia. Steudel cites no specimen as the type of this species 
but simply indicates that the plant came from Java. The 
description he gives certainly does not apph' to the monot\'pic 
genus Polytrias, as described by Hackel, for a generic require- 
ment of that genus is that the spikes shall be borne singly, and 
yet Steudel in the description referred to above distinctly states 
that in Pollinia pracuiorsa the spikes are in twos or threes. I am 
aware that Hackel follows his reference to this name with an ! , 
but certainly if this is so the generic character of a single spike 
breaks down. Of course this question as to the rxd^vn^ prcujiiorsa 
really is of little importance, for the name to be used is divcrsi- 
flon/s, and the combination should stand as follows : 

/ Polytiias diversiflora (Steud.) 

Andropogon dii'trsijlorns Steud., /. c. 

A second member of the Andropogoneae, also, has made its 
advent into the West Indies. This is Ischaiiniim riigosuni 
Salisb., a native of Asia. A specimen of this was obtained by 
Mr. A. H. Curti.ss, at Madruga, Cuba, on November 24, 1904, 
no. jJJ. One other species of this genus, /. latifoliunt^ is quite 
extensively found in the West Indies and on the mainland of 
South America. 

The third introduction is from the New World, and is Opizia 
stolonifcra Presl, a member of the Chlorideae, with monoecious 
spikelets, a native of Mexico. It was first secured by Dr. J. A. 
Shafer on dry soil, at Regla, Province of Habana, Cuba, April, 
1903, no. 482 ; and it has now been again secured at Habana, 
on December 19, 1904, by Mr. A. II. Curtiss, ?io. 57/. 

Nkw York lic/rAMCAi. Gaki.kn. GeokcE V. NaSH. 



RFAHl-WS 

North American Flora* 

About ten years ago it was proposed to i)ublisli under the 
title "Systematic Botany of North America" a descriptive ac- 
count of all plants L^rowing without cultivation in Xorth America, 
north of Mexico. As orii^inally planned, the work was to consist 
of seventeen volumes, eight of which were to be devoted to the 
Angiosperms. The different families of plants were assigned to 
specialists for elaboration, and the following botanists constituted 
the board of editors : Professors Atkinson, Britton, Coulter, 
Greene, Halsted and Underwood, and Messrs. Coville and Hol- 
lick. For some reason no part of this work ever reached publi- 
cation, with the exception of a short pamphlet on the Hepaticae 
by Professor Underwood, in which the species of the single genus 
Riccia were described. 

Recent!)', however, it has become possible for the New York- 
Botanical Garden to assume responsibility for this important un- 
dertaking and to carry it on in a somewhat more extended sense 
than was originally intended. The title has been changed to 
" North American Flora," and the region treated will include 
not only the whole of the North American continent, north of 
Colombia, but also the majority of the West Indian islands. 
The new publication will be edited by Professors Underwood and 
Britton and will consist of thirty volumes. Thirteen of these 
will be devoted to the Thallophytes, two to the Bryophytes, one 
to the Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, and the remainder to 
the Angiosperms. The parts will be issued as rapidly as possible, 
and different volumes will be in course of publication at the same 
time. 

The part that has just appeared may serve to indicate the plan 
of the whole work and treatment which the various groups are 
to receive, although it is possible that this treatment will have 
to be more or less modified in the case of some of the lower cr}-p- 

* \i)ith American Flora, 22 : I-80. Resales, by J. K. Small ; Podostemonaceae, 
by G. V. Nash; Crassulaceac, by N. L. Britton and J. N. Rose; Pentlioraceae and 
Parnassiaceae, by P. A. Rydberg. The New ^'ork IJotanical Garden, 22 My 1905. 



112 

togams. After a general account of the Resales, with an anal\'t- 
ical key to the twent}' four families included in this order, the 
genera and species in four of these families are described. The 
Podostemonaceae are represented by 5 genera with 10 species, 
the Crassulaceae by 25 genera with 284 species, 30 of which are 
new, the Penthoraceae by a single genus with one species, and 
the Parnassiaceae by a single genus with 13 species, 4 of which 
are new. Under the Crassulaceae, 4 new genera are proposed, 
and many other recently proposed genera are recognized. An 
important feature of the work is found in the analytical keys, 
each genus (unless represented by a single species) having a key 
to the species and each family a key to the genera. 

As a rule the descriptions, both generic and specific, are con- 
cise. Under each genus the description is supplemented by an 
enumeration of the synonyms and the name of the type species. 
Under each species, in addition to a full synonymy, the type 
locality and the geographical distribution are described, and refer- 
ences are given to all published illustrations. In the case of a 
new species, the type locality is described more fully, the name 
of the collector antl the date of collection being added. In most 
cases, however, no reference is made to the time of flowering or 
fruiting. It should also be noted that very few of the descriptions 
are accompanied by critical remarks, these being rendered un- 
necessary by the numerous keys. 

Perhaps the feature of the work which will be most criticized 
is its strong tendency toward the segregation of large and com- 
prehensive genera into smaller and more rigidly defined genera. 
A similar tendency is also to be observed in the limitation of 
species. Both of these tendencies are especially well seen in the 
treatment of the Crassulaceae. It should be remembered, how- 
ever, that the descriptions in this difficult family are nearly all 
drawn from living specimens, and that the .segregations are there- 
fore based upon a very intimate knowledge of the plants. 

Alex,\ndkr VV. Evans. 

Vai,k Umvkrsity. 



PROCEEDINGS OF Till-: CLUB 
Wednesday, April 26, 1905 

Tliis meeting was licld at the museum oi' tlie New York 
Botanical Garden, with seventeen persons present and President 
Rusby in the chair. 

A letter from the Brookl)'n Institute of Ails and Sciences pro- 
posing cooperation in the field excursions of the Club was read 
and referred to the chairman of the field committee with power 
to act. 

The announced paper by Dr. P. A. Rydberg on "The Com- 
position of the Rocky Mountain Flora" was omitted b}- reason 
of the absence of the author. 

" Notes on the Wire-Grass Country of Georgia " was the title 
of the paper presented by Mr. R. M. Harper. 

The wire-grass country takes its name from the wire-grass, 
Aristida stricta, which is common all over it. In a broad sense, 
the wire-grass country coincides with the pine-barrens, which 
constitute about two thirds of the coastal plain of Georgia, but for 
the present purposes the term is restricted to the Altamaha Grit 
region, an area of about 11,000 square miles. 

The climate of the region, as compared with New York Cit\-, 
is about 18° warmer in winter and 9° warmer in summer. The 
rainfall averages about 50 inches a year, and most of it falls in 
the growing season. The geographical conditions are remarka- 
bly uniform throughout, and on account of this uniformit)- the 
flora is not very rich, only about one half as many species being 
known there as in the state of New Jersey, though the area is 
larger. 

The region is naturall\' forested throughout, but the forests 
are mainly of long-leaf pine, which gives little shade. Conse- 
quently, the most striking feature of the vegetation as a whole is 
the adaptation to sunlight, usually manifested by reduction of 
leaf-surface. 

The plants of the wire-grass country can be classified accord- 
ing to habitat jnto i 5 or 20 groups. The principal habitats are 



114 

rock outcrops (constituting perhaps about one one-hundredth of 
one per cent, of the area), pine-barrens (over half the area), 
swamps, ponds, sandhills, hammocks and bluffs, some of these 
with several subdivisions. 

Civilization has influenced the flora principally through agri- 
culture, lumbering, turpentining and fires. Only a small propor- 
tion of the land may be said to be under cultivation. Lumbering 
has little effect on the herbaceous flora, for the removal of the 
pine trees does not appreciably diminish the amount of shade. 
The turpentine operators have been practically all over that part 
of the country, and have done great damage to the forests. 
Fires sweep over most of the region every spring, being set pur- 
posely by stock-raisers to burn off the dead grass, but the fires 
do little damage where lumbering and turpentining operations 
have not been carried on. 

The known flora of the Altamaha Grit region consists of about 
725 native species of flowering plants, 75 weeds, 20 pteridophytes 
and 60 bryophytes and thallophytes. The lower cryptogams 
have been little studied. The largest families are Compositae, 
100 species, Cyperaceae, 83, Gramineae, 68, Leguminosae, 50, 
Scrophulariaceae, 30. 

Some of the commonest species of the region are Piinis palus- 
tris, P. Elliottii, P. scrotina, Taxodinvi iinbricari/im, Aristida 
stricta, Screnoa scrnUata, Eriocaulon decangiilarc, Qucrcjis Ca- 
tcsbaci, Eriogonuni toincntosuui. Magnolia virgiinaiia, Sarracciiia 
flava, S. minor, Kiihnistcra pijuiata, Cliftoiiia uioiiopliylla, Nyssa 
biflora, N. Ogcchc, Oxypolis filiforinis and Pinckncya pubcns. 

The following species are common in the wire-grass country 
(each being known from at least three counties), but are seem- 
ingly confined to Georgia : Sporobolus (a species with terete 
leaves), R/iyiic/iospora solitaria Harper, pjiocaidoii lincarc Small, 
Polygonclla Crooinii Chapm., SipJioiiychia paiiciflora Small, Viola 
dcnticulosa Pollard (with leaves a foot and a half long), Diccrandra 
odoratissima Harper, Pcntstciiwn dissectus Mil., Haldioinia atro- 
pnrpurca Harper, MarsJiallia raiuosa Beadle & l^oynton, and 
Mesadcnia sp. (near lanccolata^. 

One of the most interesting features of the piac-barrcn flora, 



lir> 

not generally known to botanists, is that the whole region was 
submerged beneath the sea in Pleistocene times, consequently 
the species now confined to the pine-barrens (from New Jersey 
to Texas), i:)crhaps several hundred in number, have probably 
originated since that time. 

Mr. Harper's remarks were illustrated by many photographs 
and specimens. The paper was discussed by Drs. Britton and 
Rusby. 

Mrs. Britton then spoke of certain interesting southern mosses, 
especially of Erpodiuiii, a curious genus having the habit of a 
Frnllaiiia or Lcjcu)ica. A species of this collected many years 
ago by Sullivant at Augusta, Georgia, was published by Austin 
as a hepatic under the name Lcjcitnea biscviata. Mrs. Britton 
discussed and exhibited also numerous mosses from the extreme 
southern part of Florida. A few of these appear to be unde- 
scribed but most of them are of species that are widely distributed 
in the West Indian region. 

Dr. Rusby showed specimens of spurious ipecac roots which 
have found their way into the markets. The true ipecac (from 
Ccpluiiiis IpccacuanJia of the family Rubiaceae) is now hard to 
obtain and high-priced. Some of the spurious root comes from 
other species of the same genus, but the most common adul- 
terant is from the genus lonidiiini {^Calceolaria) of the family Vio- 
laceae. Dr. Rusby exhibited also specimens of PortcraiitJius 
stipulahis, which is sometimes called the North American ipecac. 

Dr. Britton showed living plants of two species of Crassulaceae 
which had come into flower in the greenhouses of the New York 
Botanical Garden. One was Scdiim Ncvii, hitherto described 
from dried material, a species collected originally in southwestern 
Virginia, but since found to extend to Indiana. The other was 
a Pach)phytiiin from Mexico. Dr. Bntton stated that in North 
America north of the Isthmus, 284 species of Crassulaceae may 
be recognized, distributed in 25 genera. Representatives of all 
these genera have now been studied in the living state. 

Before adjourning, it was voted to hold the next meeting at 
the Botanical Garden in the afternoon instead of at the Museum 
of Natural llist(^r\-in the evening. M.\ksh.\ll A. Howe, 

Secretary pro teiii. 



116 



NEWS ITEMS 
INIiss IMarion E. Latham, A.M. (Columbia, 1905), has been 
appointed assistant in botany in Barnard College, Columbia Uni- 
versity. 

Professor George F. Atkinson, of Cornell University, is spend- 
ing the summer vacation in Europe, engaged chiefly in his stud- 
ies of the fleshy fungi. 

Dr. P. A. Rydberg, of the New York Botanical Garden staff, 
left New York on ^lay 29, to spend most of the summer in 
making botanical collections in Utah. 

Miss Alice A. Knox, who for the past two years has been 
assistant in botany in Barnard College, is now assistant in the 
laboratories of the New York Botanical Garden. 

Professor and Mrs. Francis E. Lloyd left New York on June 
3, for Tuscon, Arizona, where Professor Lloyd will continue his 
researches at the Desert Botanical Laboratory of the Carnegie 
Institution. 

Mr. E. W. D. Holway, of the University of Minnesota, has 
begun the publication of a quarto work entitled " North Amer- 
ican Uredineae." Part I of volume I, consisting of 32 pages and 
10 plates, was issued April 15. 

It is learned from Sc-n^ufc that Dr. B. M. Duggar, professor of 
botany in the University of Missouri, sailed for Europe on May 
20 and that he will devote the coming year to work in various 
botanical laboratories on the Continent. 

Dr. and Mrs. N. L. Britton sailed for Europe on May 27 to 
attend the International Botanical Congress in Vienna. They 
will visit also the botanical establishments in Paris, Geneva, Ber- 
lin and Kew, returning to New York in the latter part of July. 

Mr. ¥. V. Covillc and Mr. W. V. Wight, of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, were among the American delegates 
tf> the International Botanical Congress which met in Yienna, 
June II to 18. Their names were omitted in tiie partial list of 
Aincrican delegates published in Torkev.\ for April. 



117 

The annual field mcctinfr of the Vermont Botanical Club and 
the Vermont Bird Club will be held July 4 and 5, taking this 
year the form of a cruise to various points of interest on the 
islands and northern shores of Lake Champlain. A steamer has 
been chartered for the occasion. 

Bulletin No. 68 of the Bureau of Plant Industry is a mono- 
graph of the " North American Species of Agrostis " by A. S. 
Hitchcock. Most of the type specimens involved in the study 
have been seen by the author either in this country or in Europe. 
The te.xt is accompanied by 37 plates. 

The second annual field "symposium" under the joint auspi- 
cies of the Philadelphia Botanical Club, the Washington Botan- 
ical Club and the Torrey Botanical Club, which will be held at 
Ohio Pyle in southwestern Pennsylvania July 3 to 8, promises 
features of unusual interest. The region is said to have an ex- 
ceedingly rich flora, including many southern elements which 
are scarcely found elsewhere in the state. Dr. J. A. Shafer and 
Dr. W. A. Murrill will act as guides on behalf of the Torrey 
Club. 

Fascicle I of " Orchidaceae : Illustrations and Studies of the 
Family Orchidaceae issuing from the Ames Botanical Labora- 
tory, North P^aston, Massachusetts," by Oakes Ames, was 
published in April. The 16 plates in this fascicle illustrate 19 
species, including five new ones from the Philippines. Papers 
under the titles, "A descriptive List of the Orchidaceous Plants 
collected in the Philippine Islands by the Botanists of the United 
States Government," "An Oncidiiun new to the United States," 
and " Contributions toward a Monograph of the American Spe- 
cies of SpirantJics " complete the fascicle. 

From the Olivia and Caroline Phelps Stokes P^und for the 
Protection of Native Plants, the New York Botanical Garden 
offers the following prizes, payable December 15, 1905 : 

1. A prize of $25.00 for the best essay on local needs in the 
vicinity of New York City, not to exceed one thousand words. 

2. A prize of $15.00 for the best essay indicating local needs 
in the parks of New York, not to exceed one thousand words. 



11 H 

3. A prize of Si 0.00 for the best essay not to exceed five 
hundred words, indicating needs of any locaHty. Essays maj' 
be submitted not later than November i, to the Director-in-chief 
of the New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York 
City. 



Vol. 5 No 7 

TORRl^YA mPARv 

NEW YO;?K 

I^ly' '905 BOfANfCAL 

AN i:x AMPLE OF coMiM.i-x 1 .11" i:-ri:lationship 

i;v Air.KKr SniNKiDKK 

The plant as well as llic animal kin^^doni [)rcscnts numerous • 
very intcrcstinij^ and complex life-relationships whicli the biolo- 
gist recofjnizes as synibioses, the naturalist as striu^gle for exist- 
ence, and the socialist, if he is scientifically inclined, as competi- 
tion. 

A somewhat remarkable instance of symbiosis has recently 
come under my observation. Durini^ the vacation months ( May, 
June, and early July) of 1904, my liltlc daughter and myself 
were in the habit of taking short morning rambles in the vicinity 
of our Berkeley home. On Hillegass Avenue near Dwight Way, 
we noted a row of hawthorns [Cra/acgiis Oxyacaiifha), about 
twelve feet high. Most of the plants were well infested with 
plant-lice [Aphis Cratacgi) at this time of the year (June). 
These pests were found most abundant on the under surface of 
the leaves and on the young terminal branches and buds, and 
wherever the bark was unusually thin, injured or abraided ; that 
is, in places where the cell sap was most readily obtainable. 
Upon closer examination, it was found that some of the plant- 
lice were of a black color, due to a fungus attacking them. The 
remarkable feature was that the parasitized plant-hce seemed, at 
first, to be quite uniformly distributed among the green healthy 
individuals. Gradually the fungus disease spread, until perhaps 
one-third to one-half of all the i)lant-lice on one particular haw- 
thorn were blackened, but not dead. Many were no doubt 
killed and fell to the ground. A thin scattering stream of ants 
(the honey ant, Mvnnicocystis mc/Iigcr) was continuously moving 
u[) and down the trunk and branches of the hawthorns. The 
ants visited the Aphis and took from them the sweet secretion 
(honeydew) found in the posterior glands. Occasionally an ant 
[No. 6, \'ol. 5, of '1\)RKK.VA, coinprisiiifi jxiges 99-liS, was issued June 24, 1905. J 

110 



120 

was seen carrying a plant-louse, usually a young one, down the 
trunk. WHiat the fate of these plant -lice was we were unable to 
determine. Perhaps they were intended to serve the purpose of 
starling new colonies on other plants but more likcl)^ they were 
taken to the home of the ants to serve as food, for ants feed 
on plant-lice when the appetite is upon them, just as man keeps 
cows both for milk and meat. I am, however, inclined to doubt 
the statements of man)- naturalists who speak of the carefully 
conducted hx'gicnic aphis-dairying industries of ants. In coun- 
tries with suitable climatic conditions, as, for example, California, 
aphides arc very plentiful and widely distributed upon a great 
variety of plants, and ants cannot well avoid running across them 
■on hawthorns, roses, chenopodiums, thistles, plum-trees and a 
.host of other plants. 

The starting of new colonics of Aphis seems wholly unneces- 
sary, yet who is there to know all of the factors concerned in 
the ant commercial competition ? Be that as it may, the ant is 
not the only organism that finds the Aphis iw\ available economic 
victim. We noted several species of beetle of the ladybird 
■variety, quite numerous and quite constantly present in the grass 
>{Poa) and on other plants near the infested hawthorns. The 
brown-winged ladybird {Hippodaiuia cotivcrgois) was found to 
feed very voraciously upon the plant-lice. It was roughly con- 
jectured that one ladybird would destroy (feed upon) its own 
weight of plant-lice in the course of one night. Some of these 
handsome little beetles were found basking in the morning sun, 
evidently digesting a heavy meal. Others were busily engaged 
with their breakfast. This ladybird i)romises to be of economic 
value in the extermination of plant-lice. A report on its pos- 
sible uses is about to be published h\- the Dept. of Agriculture 
of the University of California. .Another beetle (dark green 
elytra with black spots) {Diabrotica Soror) was also quite con- 
stantly present and seemed to feed ujjon Aphis, although it also 
feeds upon the black fungus on the hawthorn antl the di.sea.sed 
plant-lice above referred to. A liglitning bug {Podabrus priiiii- 
asus) is also an occasional visitor and feeds upon plant-lice. The 
ants and beetles pay no attention to each other, evidently bccau.se 
they reali/.e the fact that tlicy are incapable of harming each other. 



1:^1 

A spL'cics of yclKnv -jacket {]'ts/>(i) visits the hawthorn for the 
purpose of sccurinf^ phiiit lice for its huvae. Various species of 
flics (Diptcra) were found to visit the phmt-lice to take from 
them the sweet honeydew and these winded aerial marauders 
take care to keep out of reach of the ants, which they are read- 
ily enabled to do. Another and larger species of ant was occa- 
sionally found on the hawthorn. While it was quite evident that 
it was also in quest of the honeydew of the /Iphis, it was equally 
evident that it was mortally afraid of the smaller but decidedly 
more pu^Miacious honey-ant, making ever)' effort to keep out of 
the way. 
• Another la(l\'bird iyCoxincUa caHfoniica) also feeds upon the 
Aphis, but is nuich less voracious in its appetite than the I lippo- 
daiiiia. The ladybirds were however not sufficiently numerous 
to destroy all of the aphides which multiply so rapidly that there 
seemed to be no diminution in their number, in spite of these 
numerous life-destroying enemies. Later in the season (the 
latter part of July and the early part of August), the Aphis 
began to disappear gradually so that practically none remained 
b)' the middle of September. This sporadic and often sudden 
disappearance of ApJds has been noted frequently but is not as 
yet satisfactorily explained. The natural enemies as ladybirds 
and the fungus referred to are evidently not the only factors con- 
cerned in these disappearances. Various birds, as sparrows and 
others, are often seen to feed upon the Aphis, scooping them up 
in large numbers by a peculiar side twist of the bill. 

A black fungus lives upon the leaves, leaf-stalks and }'ounger 
branches of the hawthorns, causing them to become unsightly in 
ap[)earance, although no serious damage is done. It is very 
evident that the plant-lice are the cause of this fungous invest- 
ment as the growth staits in \.\\c .Iphis and then spreads over the 
plant. Besides this fungus, there are other vegetable symbionts, 
as various algae, bacteria and other fungi, which, however, have 
no apparent influence upon the life history of the host plant 
(hawthorn). The various more serious diseases of the hawthorn, 
due to fungi and insects, are not touched upon in this paper as 
this would further complicate the biological relationship and 



122 

furthermore constitutes a condition essentially different from that 
discussed in this paper. 

This interesting symbiosis or biological relationship may be 
summarized as follows : 

1. The bone of contention seems to be the plant-lice [Aphis 
Cratacgi) which are antagonistically associated with the hawthorn 
{^Crataegus Oxyacanthd), feeding upon the cell sap of leaves, 
growing tips and injured or thin portions of the young bark. 

2. A hyphal fungus infests the plant-lice, destroying many of 
them and finally spreading over the exterior of leaf and stem of 
the hawthorn. The fungus is therefore decidedly antagonistic 
to the Aphis and rather indifferently antagonistic to the hawthorn. 

3. Two species of ant, antagonistic to each other and mutual- 
istic to the hawthorn, feed upon the honeydew of the Aphis and 
upon the Aphis itself and are therefore antagonistic to these 
organisms. 

4. Several species of beetles, indifferently associated with each 
other but mutualistically associated with the hawthorn, feed upon 
the Aphis, forming therefore a decided antagonism to the Aphis. 

5. One species of ladybird {Diabvotica Soror) feeds upon the 
fungus and diseased Aphis, thus forming a mutualistic (though 
perhaps not pronounced) association with both Aphis and 
hawthorn. 

6. The yellow-jacket feeds upon the Aphis thus forming an 
antagonistic association with these as well as with the ants, but 
mutualistic with hawthorn. 

7. A similar association exists between birds, Aphis, ants and 
hawthorn. 

8. Flies are antagonistic to the interest of ants as well as Aphis 
and mutualistic to the hawtiiorn itself. 

From this ma/.c of complicated biological relationship it 
would appear that the plant-lice must be at a decided disadvan- 
tage in the struggle for existence, since it is very evident that 
they have numerous enemies and apparently no true friends. 
Furthermore, as compared with these enemies they are physically 
helpless, being mostly wingless, slow of motion and without 
means of offense or defense. These deficiencies are however 



123 

more tlian balanced by tlieir rapid propa<^ation. In spite of the 
numerous aids and friends of the hawthorn, thecombined work 
of the A/>/iis and the black fungus succeed in makini^ the plants 
quite unsiL,dul)- durinf^ the summer months, thou<^h none are 
actually killed. 

In conclusion it may be stated that plant-lice arc quite easily 
controlled by spraying and fumigation, directions for which may 
be obtained from almost any state experiment station or from the 
Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. The behavior of the 
black fungus would suggest a cure by distributing the diseased 
Aphis among the infested plants ; or if large numbers of diseased 
Aphis are available, they might be crushed and mixed with water 
to be applied as a spray, thus spreading the disease more quickly 
and uniformly. This method would seem especially feasible 
during a rainy period as moisture favors the spreading of the 
disease, whereas dry weather promptly checks it. This is cer- 
tainl}^ worthy a trial and further study. It will also be interest- 
ing to find what the California Agricultural College may recom- 
mend in regard to the possibilities with the ladybird beetles. 

California College of Pharmacy, San Francisco. 

QUELQUES MOTS SUR L'ARTICLE DE MR. UNDER- 
WOOD : "A MUCH-NAMED FERN" 

By II. Christ 

Dans le no. 5, vol. 5 (Mai 1905) de Torreya, Mr. Lucien 
Underwood relevc le fait, regrettable sans doute, que j'ai rebap- 
tise une petite fougcre, nommee d'abord AcrosticJiiim Moord E. 
G. Britton, sans connaitre son nom primitif, et que j'ai change 
plus tard mon nom a plusieurs reprises. Avec la verve critique 
qui lui est propre, il se recrie : "And all this is German syste- 
matic (?) botany of the twentieth ccntur}' instead of the nine- 
teenth, where it would not so much surprise us." 

Je me hate de revendiquer ce compliment exquis pour moi 
e.Kclusivement, pour moi qui ne suis point Germain, mais humble 
Suisse, absolunicnt ncuti-c dans la lutte acharnee des grandes 
nations cjui s'infiltre partout, mcnie dans la Science aimable ! 



124 

Car, si Air. Hieronymus — de race Germaiiique celui-hi — a com- 
mis aussi une petite erreur en fait de la nomenclature de cet 
AcrostichuJii, ce n'est qu'une peccadille, a laquelle il a ete entraine 
par moi. 

Admettons done que j'ai " overlooked " la publication de Brit- 
ton, et confessons notre peche. Est-ce un peche veniel ou non? 
Je n'ose le discuter, mais y a-t-il un seul botaniste systematique, 
y compris les Americains las plus avances, dont la conscience est 
parfaitement limpide a cet cgard ? * 

Mais Mr. Underwood m'accuse d'avoir rebaptise la plante 
plusieurs fois encore, et telle accusation lancee sans explication 
aucune, doit diminuer singulicrement I'appreciation de mes tra- 
vaux aux yeux de mes confreres Americains. Heureusement, 
je suis un peu nioins noir que le grand critique de Bronx Park se 
plait a me depeindre, car je n'ai pas rebaptise a tort et a travers, 
par inadvertance ou incurie, mais par des motifs serieux, comme 
Mr. Underwood a di^i savoir, et je lui reproche de ne pas avoir 
eclaire le lecteur sur ces motifs-la, car alors le lecteur aurait du 
juger autrement de mon travail. 

Mr. Underwood doit savoir qu'il y a des cas oil il est non 
seulement permis, mais ou il e.st de rigueur de changer des noms, 
droit dont il a use lui-meme sur une enormc echelle, en changeant 
presque tons les genres gencralcment admis jusqu'-ici et adniis 
par lui-meme auparavant. 

Eh bien, montrons au lecteur trcs-bricvcment comme je suis 
arrive a changer ce nom : 

J'ai place la plante que je croyais nouvcllc et non decrite alors, 
dans mon livre Earnkr. dcr Erde 46 dans le genre Rliipidoptcris, 
en 1 'appelant A'. Riishyi. 

Dans ma monographic du genre I'Llaphoglossum 99 ou j'ai 
reuni, je crois par de bonnes raisons, le genre Rhipidoptcris comme 
une section au grand genre lUapJioglossnin, j'ai nomme la plante 
IL. Bniigii. On pcut critiquer le changement du nom sp(?cifique 

* I)u resle, lorsque Mr. Uiulerwofirl ni'a iciidii altLiilif, jiar leitre ]iiivt^e anion 
erreur, je me sui.s hftld- de la reclilier (voyez Hullct. Herb. l^ois.s. II. 3 : 148. 1903) 
et j'avoue que les usages enlre confreres, au nioins ceux (jui sent en vigucur en Kuro] e 
au 20(ime si(*de, auraient autoris6 Mr. Underwood de se contcnter de ce peccavi 
pul^lic, sans le relever encore une fois dans la 'I'okkkya. 



1-25 

ail point (Ic vue des relics cic Geneve, mais jc suis un vieux 
roLitinici- (lui ;ii commence ma botanique deja dans la premiere 
moitie du I Qe siccle, et je me suis laissc cntrainci- par un senti- 
ment de justice envers celui qui a decouvert la plante : Mr. lian^, 
dont j'ai voulu rappeler le nom a I'occasion du chan^emcnt du 
<jenre. C'est une infraction au code, j'en conviens, mais on sait 
qu'il y a de ces tetes carrees, aimant la liberie, qui se permettront 
toujours de ces ecarts-ci. Plaignons-les, mais consolons-nous, 
car ce sont de vieux troupiers qui heureusement ne vivront plus 
en pen d'annees, ct laisseront Ic champ libre aux nomcnclaturistes 
corrects du plein 2oe siecle. 

Plus tard, j'ai eu le grand plaisir d'obtcnir le premier echan- 
tillon sorifere de notre plantule, dont je n'avais vu auparavant 
que des pieds steriles. C'etait pour moi une revelation, sous 
I'impression de laquelle j'ai ecrit mon article qui porte inscription 
un pcu emphatique : " Elaphoj^Iossinn {Aficrostaphj'/a) Bangii, 
une fougere ancestrale." (Bullet. Herb. Boiss. II. I : 5S8.) J'ai 
demontre pour la premiere fois et victorieusement, car Mr. Under- 
wood I'admet apres moi, que la plante n'est point un Polybotrya 
comme on a cru auparavant, mais a les plus grands rapports avec 
le Microstapliyla de Ste. Ilelene et sert a mettre en lumiere cette 
espece isolee en la liant intlmement aux Elaphoglosses. 

Mr. Underwood qui aime a voir des genres la ou d'autres ne 
voient que des sections, s'est donne la satisfaction de rebaptiser 
notre plante [)our la ciiiquidiic fois, tout en suivant ma maniere 
de voir, en I'appelant Microstap/iyla Moorci {Y.. G. Britton) 
Underw., procede auquel nous n'avons rien a objecter. 

II rcsulte de ces " details of tlie story " que nous avons rcmanie 
les noms, non par plaisir ou par negligence, mais successivement 
a la recherche des affinites naturellcs de la plante. affinites que 
nous avons pu fixer cnfm. 

A mon humble a\is, Mr. Underwood aurait agi plus correctc- 
mcnt en disant deux mots de tout cela aux lecteurs de la Tor- 
REV.v, au lieu de les placer sous I'impression que les Germains 
changent les noms par pure " carelessness." La science a son 
developpement qui est soux-cnt laboricu.x et necessite des amend- 
eiiicnts, des changcmcnts. II y a pcu d'esprits absolument 



120 

primesautiers qui troiu'ent infailliblement le juste au premier 

essai ; mcme en Amerique ils sont rares. La science fait done 

bien de se contenter aussi d'ouvriers modestes qui arrivent au 

resultat avec plus de peine, en tatonnant. 

Bai.k, Suisse, 

i6 Juin, 1905. 

DERIVATION OF THE NAME CHAMAECRISTA 

By Edward I>. Greene 

Called on not long since in pn\^ate for an explanation of the 
meaning of the generic name Chamaccrista, I think it may be 
well to offer here in detail the answer which I then gave in brief, 
and orally to the enquirer ; for the name has never been ex- 
plained in any book, the genus itself dating, practically, from my 
own defense of its validity made publicly only a few years ago.* 

The derivation of Cliamaccrista is so inseparably connected 
with the history and nomenclature of an older and nearly related 
genus that one must go back to the botany of more than two 
centuries ago for the real origin of the name in question. 

One of the most graceful and elegant, if not the most show}-, 
among many ornamental trees and shrubs of the family of the 
Caesalpiniaceae is that to which Linnaeus gave the name Poinci- 
ana piilcJicrrinia, a shrub now common in parks and gardens in 
all tropic and subtropic lands and often to be seen in conserva- 
tories far northward. In its large clusters of few and large flow- 
ers, the bright red stamens are more conspicuously beautiful than 
the yellow corollas. There ai'c ten of these to each flower, the 
greatly elongated glossy filaments each surmounted by its anther, 
and all standing out away beyond the corolla ; and this cluster 
of stamens evidently suggested to the first botanical observer 
and investigator of the shrub, that crest of slender graceful 
round-topped feathers that adorns the head of a peacock ; and, 
as this superbly flowering shrub was then new and in need of a 
name, the botanist, whom I shall jircsentl)' mention, called it 
Crista Pavonis. 

* I'illonia, 3 : 238. 



127 

The author was Jacob Breyne, whose fine foho of descriptions, 
with excellent copper-plate engravings, of one hundred new or 
rare exotics, was publislied at Dantzic, in the year 1678, and 
now numbers itself among the rich classics of seventeenth-cen- 
tury botany. Up to that time, as well as even somewhat later, 
botanical nomenclators were indifferent as to whether a generic 
name were made up of one word or of two, or even three ; and 
Breyne, in the present instance, offered to the public a choice be- 
tween two names for this new type, each of them a generic name 
of two terms, each alluding to that semblance of a peacock 
crown presented by the stamens. It might be denominated 
" Frutcx Pavoiiiims, sive Crista Pavonis'' ; and contemporary 
botanists adopted the second of the two ; and this latinization of 
peacock's crest remained the accepted name of this beautiful 
genus until Tournefort — something of a reformer in nomencla- 
ture — renamed it Poinciaiia. 

Thus far we seem to have arrived at no more than the origin 
of the last half of the name Cliaviaccrista ; but the history of 
the first half may be told more briefly. 

In the selfsame volume in which Crista Pavonis was published 
as a genus, Breyne proposes a second new genus belonging to 
this same family ; the type of this a low herb, yet in some of its 
aspects so much like Crista Pavoiiis that he names this one 
Chainaccrista Pavonis, the low, or dwarf peacock's crest. This 
plant so named by Breyne is the historic type of the modern 
genus CJiaviavcrista. Linnaeus, in 1753, decided that it might 
be viewed as a species of the genus Cassia, and, dropping the 
second term, Pa^'oiiis, of Breyne's double-worded generic name, 
the great reformer assigned the plant the binary name Cassia 
Chauiaccrista. 

In restoring to its well-merited rank this genus originally pro- 
posed by Breyne, it was fitting that it should bear the name 
Chainaccrista rather than Breyne's original and too sesquipedalian 
CJiamaccristapavonis. We realize our general indebtedness to 
the Swedish reformer of nomenclature, who knew so well how 
to abbreviate names that seemed too long ; and we seem likely 
to need him again, or some other in his place, by and by ; for 



1-28 

Chauiaccristapavonis, long as it looks, is but by one syllable 
longer than a somewhat recent generic name Pseudocyuwptenis, 
and is of just the same length as Xcoivasliingtoina, still more 
recently proposed. 
Washington, D. C. 

TWO MISINTERPRETED SPECIES OF XYRIS 

By Roland M. IIarpkk 

The name Xyi'is ficxuosa Muhl. has been almost always ap- 
plied to a certain widely distributed species which is about the 
only representative of its genus over most of the glaciated region 
of the northeastern United States.* This name is usually con- 
sidered as dating from the first edition of Muhlenberg's Catalogue, 
published in i8 1 3, but in that work there is nothing by which the 
species can be definitely identified, and indeed no specific descrip- 
tions were attempted in the whole catalogue. (The words in the 
fourth column, on which so much stress was laid by Mr. Bick- 
nell and Dr. Robinson in discussing the identity of certain species 
oi Agrimonia a few years ago, are expressly stated b\' Muhlen- 
berg in his preface to be merely the English names of the species, 
and they cannot therefore be regarded as descriptions.) For the 
original description of Xyris flex2iosa we must turn to the first 
part of the first volume of Elliott's Botany of South Carolina and 
Georgia, published in 18 16, in which four species o{ Xyris were 
recognized. Two of these were new, based on the collections of 
Dr. Baldwin in Georgia, and another was identified by Elliott 
with X. brcvifolia Mx., but was later found by Dr. Chapman to 
be quite different, and named by him Xyris Elliottii. The remain- 
ing one is X. Jlcxiiosa Muhl., and the description, habitat, and 
time of fiowering assigned to it ponit clearly enough to a plant 
with corkscrew-like stem aiid twisted leaves which we now know 
to range from New Jersey to Florida and Texas, mostly in the 
pine-barrens, and which was known to nearly all 19th century 
authors as X. toria. P^lliott gives as a synonym X. caroliniana 
Walt., but this s[)ccics can hardly be identified, since it was the 

*.Sce I\l)i)(li)ra 7 : 73. 1905. 



only Xyris mentioned by Walter, and the description gives none 
of the characters by which the several species are now distin- 
guished from each other. There is said to be no specimen bear- 
ing this name in Walter's herbarium, but even if ther-e was it 
would not validate a totally inadequate description, so the name 
X. caroliniana Walt, should be dropped entirely, unless we 
accept the interpretations of Lamarck, Vahl and other authors 
wIki published between the times of Walter and Elliott. In i860 
Elliott's Xyris flcxuosa was identified by Dr. Chapman with his 
own X. platylcpis, and if this identification was correct X. platylepis 
would become a synonym ; but it was evidently not correct, and 
Dr. Chapman himself questioned it in the last edition of his 
Flora, in 1897. 

As for Xyris torta, described by J. E. Smith in the 39th volume 
of Rees's Cyclopedia in 18 19, Dr. A. B. Rendle showed a few 
years ago * that that was really the common northern plant 
known for years as X. flcxuosa ; and on this representation 
X. torta was relegated to synonymy in Britton's Manual and 
Small's Flora. Ikit according to the evidence brought out above, 
both names seem to be valid, though they will have to be inter- 
changed, as follows : 
XvKis i-LEXUOSA Muhl.; h:il. Bot. S. C. & Ga. i : 51. 1816. 

/ X. caroliniana WdAt.VX. Car. 69. 1788. (Unrecognizable.) 

" X. torta J.E.Smith" Kunth, Enum. 4 : 14. 1843; and 
many subsequent authors. 

.V. arciiicola Small, Fl. S. E. U. S. 234. 1903. 

Range : New Jersey to Florida and Texas, in the coastal 
plain, especially in the pine-barrens. 
XvKis TORTA J. E. Smith (no. i i), Rees's C}'cl. 18 19. 

X. Imlbosa Kunth, Imuuii. 4 : 11. 1843. 

''• X. flcxuosa Muhl." Chapm., Fl. S. U. S. 500. i860; and 
all or nearly all subsequent authors. 

Range : Eastern United States and adjacent Canada, chiefly in 
the glaciated region. 

Other synonyms can be found in the paper by Dr. Rendle 
mentioned above. Dr. Small, who has given this genus consid- 

* Jour. Hot. 37: 497-499- 1S99. 



130 

erable study, belie\'es the Cuban A', conoccpliala Sauv. (proposed 
as a substitute by Dr. Rendle) distinct from the North American 
pine-barren species. 

College Point, Xe\\' York. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CLUB. 
Tuesday, May 9, 1905. 

This meeting was held in the afternoon at the N. Y. Botanical 
Garden, President Rusby in the chair and 42 members and visi- 
tors present. 

Miss Caroline R. Dana, of Newark, and Dr. Wilhelm K, 
Kubin, of New York, were elected to membership. 

The meeting was devoted to the exhibition and discussion of 
the various forms of American violets. 

The following persons exhibited living material : A. Cuthbert, 
Augusta, Ga., Viola Caroli)ia ; C. D. Beadle, Biltmore, N. 
C, V. villosa and V. tripartita ; Y. M. Rolfs, Lake City, Fla., 
V. inn/ticaiilis diUd J\ Carolina; President Ezra Brainerd, Mid- 
dlebury, Vt., V. scpteiitrionalis, V. Braincrdi, V. LeContcana, 
]\ rotiDidifolia, V. rostrata and V. arcnaria ; Geo. E. Osterhout, 
New Windsor, Col., V. ncplirophylla, V. rctiisa and V. Nutallii ; 
Miss F. A. Mulford, Hempstead, N. Y., V. pedata, V. Mul- 
fordac, V. Brittoniana and V. sagittata ; Professor H. H. Rusby, 
Forest Hill, N. J., V. vi/iosa, F. sagittata, V. palniata, V. pubcs- 
ccns, V. scabriiiscula, V. cu cull at a and f. labradorica ; Miss 
Lillie Angell, Orange, N. J., V. Angellae ; Miss Delia W. Mar- 
ble, Bedford, N. Y., V. pubesceiis, V. papilionacca, V. paliiiata, 
V. cuciillata and V. blanda ; Dr. J. Schneck, Mount Carmel, 
Ills., V. striata, J^ /'<?////6';/c?r^vj: (three forms), and V. Rafinesijuci ; 
R. C. Schneider, V. laiiccolata ; Percy Wilson, V. cucullata, V. 
papdiofiacca, V. lanccolata, V. rotuudifolia, V. scabriuscula, V. pu- 
bcsccns, V. labradorica, V. Jiinbriatida ^m\ W palniata ; Quercus 
Shafer, V. palviata, V. cucullata, ] \ oblicjua d^nd V. blanda ; and 
\\^ W. I^gglcston, V. obliqua, /' paluiata, V. sororia, V. cucul- 
lata, V. Portcriana, /'. fuuhriatula and V. palniata. 

Extensive herbarinin material was also exhibited. 



The discussion was opened by Dr. X. L. Britton who spoke 
of the recent specific differentiations by various authors. He was 
of the opinion that many of these were doubtful and that while 
we had perhaps twice as many <^ood species as were rccoj^nized 
in Gray's time, we have only about half as many species as have 
been proposed. The speaker then gave a general sketch of the 
group, n()tin<4- tiiat while preeminently north temperate' they ex- 
tend into the southern hemisphere along the highlands in both 
the Orient and the Occident. There is only a single endemic 
and one introduced species known from the West Indies. Mexico 
furnishes perhaps half a dozen species, and there are numerous 
species in the highlands of South America. Our violets fall 
naturally into two habit groups, the acaulescent and the stemmed. 
A rather common character is the occurrence of cleistogamic 
flowers, which are borne on horizontal or erect scapes according 
to the species. The speaker passed the various species in re- 
view, paying particular attention to those of eastern North 
America. 

Stewardson Brown, of the Philadelphia Botanical Club, was 
called upon to review Dr. Britton's remarks. He said that in 
the main he agreed with Dr. Britton's views of specific validity. 
He called attention to a form from the vicinity of Philadelphia 
which Stone recently identified as Viola scptcinloba LeConte, of 
the paluiata group, and which the speaker believed to be some- 
thing different. Attention was directed also to Viola obliqiia, one 
of the earliest and most abundant violets in the Philadelphia 
region. The speaker described the sagittata-fiuibriatitla group 
as one of the most intergraded and least understood of any of the 
groups of acaulescent blue violets. 

Continuing the discussion, W. W. I'.ggleston mentioned the 
occurrence of what he believed to be a hybrid form. He also 
called attention to President Brainerd's methods of studying 
violets under cultivation and observing their fruit characters. 

L. H. Lighthipe discussed Viola AngcUac, holding it to be 
distinct from Viola palinata, the differences showing in the char- 
acter of the flowers and of the summer leaves. Miss Angell, 
w'ho was present, told of her studies of this species and called 



132 

attention to the extraordinary size of the summer leav^es. Dr. 
Rusby in the course of his remarks mentioned a very early form 
which is apparently the variety cordata of Viola cncullata of Gray. 
This form has been studied extensively by Miss Sanial, one of the 
club members. 

Dr. Rydberg spoke of the violets of the Rocky Mountain 
region, passing in review the various species from that section 
and directing attention to the occurrence of the common European 
Viola hiflora, which reappears in Colorado. 

Dr. ShuU spoke of the difficulty he had experienced in germi- 
nating violet seeds, and in the discussion it was brought out that 
violet seeds are apt to lose their vitality upon drying. 

Dr. MacDougal spoke of the difficulties attendant upon muta- 
tion experiments with the violets, and advocated experiments to 
test any possible theories as to hybrids. 

After some further discussion by Dr. Britton and others, this 
most interesting meeting was brought to a close. 

Edward VV. Bekky, 

Sccrctaiy. 
NEWS ITEMS 

Dr. and Mrs. N. L. Britton returned from their European trip 
on July I 5. 

We are informed that the death of Mr. Henry Eggert of East 
St. Louis, Illinois, who was well known as a botanical collector, 
occurred a year ago last April. 

Mr. George V. Nash and Mr. Norman Taylor of tiic New 
York Botanical Garden sailed on July 6 to spend several weeks 
in making botanical collections in Haiti. 

It is stated in a recent number of Science that l^'rcdcrick C. 
Newcombe has been appointed professor of botany, and Charles 
A, Davis curator of the herbarium at the University of Michigan. 

It is stated in the Stanford Alumnus that Dr. E. B. Copeland, 
who has been engaged in botanical work in the Philippines for 
about two years, has resigned his position there and will return 
to the United States this summer. 

Dr. William C. Coker, professor of botany in the University 
of North Carolina, Chapel Hill,.N. C. ; Dr. Raymond H. Pond, 



1^4 

<|iicsti(Mis of taxonoinic iioincnclatiirc, wliicli ccjiistitutcd one of 
the principal ends of the Congress, were carried on under the 
chairmanship of M. Charles Flaliault, director of the botanical 
institute of Montpellier, France. The consideration of the nomen- 
clature of cryptogams (outside of the Pteridophyta) was referred 
to a commission to report to the next international congress five 
years hence. The Congress then proceeded to vote upon various 
nomenclatorial propositions, following the " Texte Synoptique " 
arranged and published in advance by Dr. J. l^riquet of Geneva, 
reporter general of the international nomenclature commission. 
The following risimic of the action of the Congress regarding 
some of the more important principles under discussion has been 
extracted from a private letter and is subject to official modifica- 
tions. I 753-1754. as the double initial date for the nomencla- 
ture of vascular plants, was approved by a vote of 150 to 19. 
The proposition to formulate a list of a generic names to be pre- 
served regardless of all rules was favored by a vote of 133 to 36 
and the preparation of such a list was referred to a committee. 
The " Kew Rule" principle, involving the maintenance of the 
first specific name combined with the accepted generic name, was 
rejected, but with certain exceptions which were regarded as being 
so much in the nature of a compromise that only two votes were 
recorded in opposition to the articles that finally prevailed. 
Duplicate binomials (r. g., Taraxacum Taraxacuui) were rejected 
by a vote of 116 to 72. The idea of fixing the application of 
generic and specific names by the " method of types " advocated 
in the " American Code " was not accepted, an alternative propo- 
sition being approved by a vote of 106 to 74, man}' of those who 
voted with the minority favoring some method of " types " for 
the future without retroactive provisions. By a vote of 105 to 
88, it was voted, in substance, that after January i, 1908, the 
publication of a new name must be accompanied by a diagnosis 
in Latin. The actions of the Congress may be said to be, on 
the whole, rather encouraging to the optimisticall)' inclined who 
believe that a few more such international congresses at intervals 
of five years may result in the establishment of a series of rules 
of nomenclature which shall be tolerably final and stable. 



professor of botan\' In the Northwestern University School of 
Pharmacy, Chicago, 111. ; and Howard J. Banker, professor of 
biology in De Pauw University, Greencastle, Indiana, are devot- 
ing parts of the summer vacation to special studies at the New . 
York Botanical Garden. 

Mr. Arthur Woodbury Edson, assistant physiologist. Bureau 
of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, died 
suddenly at Waco, Texas, on June 23. Mr. Edson was a 
graduate of the University of Vermont and was appointed a 
scientific aid in the Bureau of Plant Industry in 1901. He was 
engaged in experiments in plant-breeding upon cotton in Texas 
and had already obtained wiluable results in the way of produc- 
ing early ripening varieties which escape the worst ravages of the 
boll-weevil and possess other desirable qualities. 

Botanical visitors in New York since January 20, not already 
mentioned in Torreya, include Dr. C. F. Millspaugh, Field 
Columbian Museum, Chicago ; President Ezra Brainerd, Middle- 
bury College, Middlebury, Vt.; F. V. Coville, C. V. Piper, and 
William R. Maxon, Washington, D. C; Dr. R. G. Leavitt, 
Ames Botanical Laboratory, North Easton, Mass.; Professor ¥.. 

C. Jeffrey, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; George K. 
Osterhout, New Windsor, Colorado; C. G. Pringle, University 
of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. ; W. H. Blanchard, Westminster, 
Vt.; Dr. G. Hochreutiner, University of Geneva, Switzerland ; 
Dr. Anstruther Davidson, Los Angeles, California ; Dr. Clifton 

D. Howe, Biltmore Forest School, Biltmore, North Carolina ; 
Dr. Otis W. Caldwell, Illinois State Normal School, Charleston, 
Illinois ; Dr. George H. Shull, Station for Experimental Fivolu- 
tion, Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y. ; Dr. Forrest Shreve, Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. ; Professor William L. Bray, 
University of Texas, Austin, Te.xas ; and Professor W. L. Jcpson, 
University of California, Berkeley, California. 

At the International Jiotanical Congress held in Vienna, June 
12-17, the American botanists in attendance were Arthur, Atkin- 
.son, Barnes, Barnhart, Britton, N. L., Britton, ¥.. G., Brown, E., 
Campbell, Coville, Duggar, Knoche, Perkins, J., Rehder, Robin- 
son, B L., Shear, Trelea.se, Underwood. The deliberations upon 



Vol.5 No-S 

TORREYA LIBRARY 

NEW YOTiK 
August, 1905 BOTANJCAL 

OARDtZN 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE FLORA OF THE ISLE OF 
PALMS, CHARLESTON, S. C. 

Bv W. C. COKER 

There has been Httle done in recent years toward the classi- 
fication of the coast flora of South Carolina into its component 
parts, or toward determining the northern limit of a number of 
subtropical species that reach our shores. Several of our southern 
states have been or are now being investigated in a rather thorough 
manner, and it is to be hoped that the useful work of the neigh- 
boring states will be extended into South Carolina. Lloyd and 
Tracy have published on the insular flora of Mississippi and 
Louisiana ; in Alabama, Mohr has completed a valuable botanical 
survey of the state ; and in Georgia, Harper is now working along 
similar lines. Kearney has published two important papers on 
the littoral flora of North Carolina, and Johnson has published 
notes on the flora of Beaufort, N. C. To the northward this 
work has been extended into New Jersey and Delaware by 
Harshberger and by Snow. There is little to be found on the lit- 
toral flora of Florida except a few notes by Dr. H. J. Webber in 
Science, 1898. 

In the hope of adding a little to our knowledge of the dis- 
tribution of the South Carolina coast flora I took the opportunity 
while on the way to Florida in 1903 to stop a few days in 
Charleston and make a survey of the western end of the Isle of 
Palms. Not until recent years has this island been easily acces- 
sible and I know of no botanists who have visited it except rep- 
resentatives of the U. S. Department of Agriculture who collected 
grasses there a few years ago. The Isle of Palms is in shape 
somewhat like a ham, with the large end eastward and the west 
end tapering to a rounded point, which is separated from Sullivan's 
Island by a narrow channel. The island faces the open ocean 

[No. 7, Vol. 5, of ToRRKYA, comprising pages 1 19-134, was issued July 27, I905.] 

135 



136 

to the south and is separated from the mainland by wide marshes 
dotted with a few small islands. The Isle of Palms is about four 
and one-half miles long and one mile across at the broadest part. 
The time at my disposal being limited, I did not attempt to study 
the entire island, but confined myself to the western half Within 
this small area, however, there is as great a diversity of ecological 
conditions as is generally found over a much more extended 
region. From the few struggling and half-buried halophytes of 
the beach one may pass over the outer dunes with their grasses 
and the inner dunes with their palms, then across a narrow 
marshy strip and into a dense forest of oaks and pines, with trees 
over forty feet in height — and all within a distance of three 
hundred yards. 

It will probably be best to begin by describing the vegetation 
as it appears in passing from the shore on the south side to the 
marshes on the north. 

TJie Upper Beach. — Just above ordinary high tide there is an 
area of varying width where the sand remains constantly damp 
and is occasionally flooded by very high water. At places along 
this narrow strip of damp sand there was coming up an immense 
quantity of seedling sea-oats [Utiio/a paniculatd), which was 
preparing to hold the sand together for a new line of dunes. 
Although I have observed shores fringed with .sea-oats at various 
places in North Carolina, South Carolina and the Bahama Islands, 
this is the first time that I have ever noticed the Uniola seeding 
itself in any quantity. Besides the Uniola there was very little 
else to be found in this strip except an occasional specimen of 
Salsola Kali, Croton punctatus, Atriplcx arenaria and AmarantJius 
pumilus. This is as far south as this interesting species of 
Ainarantlius is known to occur. 

The Dunes. — Beginning with the low ridges just back of the 
upper beach, the dunes rise gradually by broken and irregular 
ridges and knolls until they terminate abruptly in an elevated 
ridge, sometimes twenty or more feet above sea-level, which is 
slowly advancing in places to cover and destroy the dense growth 
in the marshy strip behind it. The tops of the low outer dunes 
arc held by several sand-binding grasses, each of which seems to 



l:;7 

dominate particular elevations. Uiiiola, which is most abun- 
dant, covers many of the ridges, Sporobolus virginict4S has pos- 
session of others, and Paiiicum aiiianiin and Spartiiia polystacliya 
occur in considerable quantit)'. Kearney has called attention to 
a fact just mentioned — that each species seems to have complete 
control over certain areas and a mixture of several is rarely seen. 
Excluding the grasses, the vegetation is very scanty. Croton 
niaritiiiiiis, Iva ivibricata and Salsola Kali are the only species 
that seem capable of existing here. The Iva and the Salsola are 
extremely succulent, the CrotoJi less so, but well protected by 
shining scales. In the depressions behind the outermost dunes, 
where moisture prevents the sand from being easily disturbed, 
several other plants appear in addition to the ones just mentioned. 
Euphorbia polygonifolia and Ooiotlicra Jiuniifusa are not rare in 
such positions, and the troublesome grass Ccnchrus tribuloidcs is 
abundant. LcptocJiloa fascicularis, a grass that is rather common 
here, assumes among these outer dunes a very different form from 
the specimens in more stable soil. Its branches are here long 
and straggling and of a reddish color, while on the landward side 
of the island it is much more delicate and turf-like. At certain 
places the tide makes in between the outer ridges and floods the 
depressions behind them. On the borders of one of these flooded 
depressions I was delighted to find a beautiful growth of the trail- 
ing tropical sand-strand plant Ipouioca littoralis (L.) Boiss., which 
takes the place here which is generally occupied farther south by 
the much more common Ipoiiioca Pcs-Caprac. In Fig. i is gixen 
a photograph of this spot with Ipomoca littoralis in the foreground. 
It will be noticed that the tips of some of the long runners are 
submerged at high tide. As far as I can determine, this is as 
far north as this plant has been recorded on our shores. The 
other plants represented in the photograph are Spartiiia poly- 
stacJiya, covering a little knoll in the middle to the left. Uniola 
paiiic?ilata in center and left of background, Panicinn auiaruui in 
background to right, and a few clumps of Salsola Kali in center 
to right. 

In the somewhat sheltered depressions among the dunes there 
are also present a few scattered specimens of Yucca gloriosa. 



138 



About two-thirds of the way back to the inner ridge the tropical 
palmetto {Inodcs Palniettd) suddenly appears in abundance and 
extends backward over the inner dunes (avoiding only the un- 
stable crest where they terminate) into the fresh marsh and the 
woods behind. The long irregular line of luxuriant palmettoes 
capping the dunes presents a most attractive picture and gives 
to this island a clear title to its name. Among the palmettoes 




Jmc. I. Strand- and saiul-duiie vegefatioii, Isle of I'alins, S. C. See page 137. 

occur large clusters of the familiar poke-berry {Phytolacca dccan- 
dra). The capacity of this weed to flourish in such unfavorable 
situations was a surprise to me, and I have not seen it mentioned 
as a strand plant by others. Scattered here and there on the 
almost bare sand are clumps of Sa/so/a Kali with its succulent 
spiny leaves and an occasional specimen of Yucca aloifolia. Here 
also was found a little Physalis pubcsccns and the very interesting 
Polygonum inaritinium, which in habit and appearance scarcely 
recalls the other species of the genus. Of the four sand-binding 
grasses mentioned as prominent on the outer ridges, only Uniola 
extends backward among the palms, but Ccnchrus tribuloidcs is 
everywhere present in dry soil except on the most unstable .sand. 
In certain places the inner ridge was lower and more broken and 



l.-i'J 



in such spots the live oak, Qncrcus virgiuiana, forms low and con- 
torted thickets, over which twines the yellow jessamine {Giiseinuim 
scvipennniis). 

A photograph of the dunes taken from their inmost edge is 
given in Fig. 2. In the center of the photograph, between the 
palmettoes is a large clump of Phytolacca dccaiidra ; sea-oats 
[Uniola) occupy the ridges in background; in foreground is 
Ccnchrus tribiiloides. In foreground to left is shown half of a 
plant of Salsola Kali. 

As mentioned above, the dunes terminate at this part of the 
island in a high unstable ridge which is in places being constantly 




Flc. 2. Sand-dunes from inmost edge, Isle of Palms, S. C. Sec text above. 

extended landward by the pouring of sand down its inner slope. 
The inward advance of the dunes, however, has not been suffi- 
cient, so far, to cover to any extent the forest behind and produce 
the " graveyards " of trees that are so conspicuous at some 
places along our coast. 

Even where the sand is in motion, a nimiber of vines nearh' 
always succeed in gaining a position on the incline, and though 
constantly covered by the moving sands their tips as constantly 
emerge and continue their growth. The vines that most suc- 
cessfully contended with this shifting sand were At)ipilopsis ar- 



140 



borca {Cissiis bipi)inatd), the Virginia creeper {PartJicnocissns 
quinqitcfolid), the poison ivy {Rhus radicans) and the wild musca- 
dine (yVitis rotundifolid). These would frequently succeed in 
stopping the sand march, and would then cover its dune slope 
with a dense mat of green. Other vines also took a part in this 
struggle : may -pop [Passiflora incaruatd) with its fine purple 
flowers and yellow fruits, and Sviilax Bona-nox were common. 
In situations where the dune slope had become fixed by vegeta- 
tion, a number of trees, shrubs and herbs were well established. 
The live oak (^Oiiercus virginiana), red bay [Pcrsca Borboiiia), 
and red mulberry {Monis nibra) often attained the proportions of 
trees, and almost reached the top of the dunes. The following 
shrubs often formed dense clumps in such places : French mul- 
berry {Callicarpa aiiiericana) with handsome purplish fruits, 
Myrica carolincnsis and Ilex vomitoria. In Fig. 3 is shown the 




Fig. 3. Ridge of sand-dunes with swamp and forest beliind, Isle of Palms, S. C. 
See text below. 

ridge of the dunes with the marshy strip and forest behind. To 
the left a palmetto is being covered by the sand. The vines 
climbing up the slope around the palmetto are Avipclopsis ar- 
borca, Parthenocissus qidnqiiefolia and Passiflora incaniata. The 
large live oak to the left with its top sheared by the wind is being 



Ill 

slowly killed. The two dead oaks in center were probably killed 
by an increase in the amount of moisture in the soil. In fore- 
ground to ri{^ht is shown the low vegetation of the marshy strip. 

In addition to the trees mentioned above as occurring on the 
inward faces of the dunes, others may be found in the best pro- 
tected situations. These are Qiicrcus laurifolia (laurel oak), 
Salix fluviatilis d^wd Jiiiii penis virginiana. The only fern discov- 
erable here was the ubiquitous Ptcridhnn aquilimim. 

As the narrow western end of the island is approached the 
dunes become sharper and higher, the palms disappear, and the 
forest gradually runs out into a lower hammock growth, disap- 
pearing about one mile from the point. The inner faces of these 
higher dunes are covered with Uiiiola, among which Strophostylcs 
lu'lvola, the beach bean, is so abundant as almost to hide the 
sand. Among these two dominating species there is a good deal 
of Cro/oii piDictatiis and Passijiora iucarnata. Behind the dunes 
at this point there is along depression, in places slightly marshy, 
which is covered with a dense mixed coppice of shrubs about ten 
feet high. The most abundant species here is Myrica carolin- 
cnsis, but with it are red bay {^Pcrsea Borbonid), cedar i^Jioiipcnis 
virginiana), red mulberr}' {Moj-iis I'ubra) and live oak [Qucrcus 
vii'giniaiia). In places Snii/ax Beyrichii and Anipclopsis arborea 
{Cisstis bipiniiata) form a dense canopy over the shrubs. On the 
bare ground beneath a good quantity of Agaricus canipcstris was 
growing. On the edges of the coppice grew Callicarpa auuri- 
cana, BaccJiaris halimifolia, Solaniiin nignnii, Monarda punctata, 
Rubus trivialis and Ascyrum stans. 

The Fresh Marsh. — Returning to that part of the island further 
to the east, represented in Fig. 3, we find behind the inner faces 
of the dunes a low narrow marshy area in some places covered 
with several inches of water, in others barely wet. The princi- 
pal trees of this marshy strip are the old field pine {Finns Tavda), 
the palmetto, and in places that are only damp, the li\'e oak. 
The palmetto can grow in quite wet soil and is frequently seen in 
standing water. Cormts stricta and Baccharis Jialiniifolia are the 
principal marsh shrubs, but in places that are not too wet Myrica 
caro/incnsis also occurs. The following \-incs are luxuriant here 



142 

and cover the trunks of most of the trees : Anipclopsis arborca, 
PartJienocissiis quinqnefolia and Gclscniinm scnipervirens. Ber- 
cJicuiia scandcns is rare. In the shallow water grows Hydroco- 
tyk vanuucnloidcs, and on the damp borders are Lippia nodiflora, 
Diodia virginiana, Micrantlicminn orbiciilatiim, Liidwigia virgata 
and Ridnts trivialis. The fern Dryoptcris TJiclyptcris is found in 
considerable quantity in shallow water. Other herbaceous plants 
in this area were Boclivicria scabra, Lactuca elongata, Polygonum 
setacenvi and Bidcns frondosa. A species of Lccliea was also 
plentiful. The beautiful malvaceous plant, Kostclctzkya altJiaci- 
folia, while not seen here, was found in a marshy place further 
inland. 

The Forest. — In the forest which covers the whole interior of 
the island the trees are of vigorous growth, reaching a height of 
thirty to forty feet. The pines {Pimis Taeda) and oaks {Oucrcits 
virginiana and Qiicrais laiirifolia) are the dominant forms, but 
a number of other species are more or less plentiful. Large 
specimens, 40 feet high, of Jjinipcrns virginiana were seen, and 
the following, though not so large, reached the proportions of 
trees — Persea Borbonia, Ilex opaca, Morns rubra, Osniantlius 
{Oled) americana, Celt is occidcntalis, Prunus serotina, Burnelia 
tenax and Salix fluviatilis. In sandy or damp places the pal- 
metto forms a conspicuous part of the vegetation (Fig. 3). On 
the oaks the gray moss {Tillandsia us7ieoidcs) hung in long fes- 
toons, while mistletoe {PJioradcndron Jlavescens) and the fern 
Polypodiuni polypodioides were not uncommon on the trees. The 
undergrowth was made up of the following shrubs, Lauroccrasus 
caroliniana, Callicarpa americana, Myrica carolinensis. Ilex vonii- 
toria, Rhus copallina and Fagara Clava-Hcrcidis. In addition to 
these, OsuiantJins americana and Bumclia tenax, already men- 
tioned as trees, are more often found as shrubs in the under- 
growth. The live oak, too, is frequently low and almost 
procumbent, forming a large part of the shrubby growth even 
under large trees of the same species. In the woods as well as 
near the dunes the woody vines are conspicuous. The yellow 
jessamine, the poison ivy and the Virginia creeper are abundant. 
Berchemia scandcns was not so common. The principal herba- 



ceo US vines were Willugbaeya scandots, Ipomoca spcciosa and 
Galactia vohtbilis. One specimen of Vincttoxicuui subcrosuvi was 
seen. Excludini^ the grasses the herbaceous undergrowth was 
very scarce. FJcpliantopus caroli)iianus, Eupatorium Icucolepis, 
Riibiis trivia/is, Galiuui hispiditlmn, Opuntia Opiintia and Ascyrnvi 
stans were the only species noted. The most abundant grasses 
here were Paiiicuui lamigiiiosiiiii, E/ciisiiic indica, Sporoboliis iiidi- 
cus, Uniola laxa and Paspaluvi altissimum. 

The Haviniocks. — Just above the pavihon, which is about one 
and one-half miles from the western end, the forest narrows to a 
width of about 300 yards and assumes the character of hammocks. 
The trees become lower, more spreading, and less densely 
crowded. The dry sandy soil is often almost bare. A little 
shrubbery appears in scattered clumps, but grasses and vines 




Fig. 4. Hammock vegetation. Isle of I'alms, S. C. See page 144. 



form most of the covering. The trees are principally live oak 
and laurel oak. Cedar, red bay and palmetto are occasional. 
The shrubbery is composed in great part o{ Fagara Clava-Hcr- 
culis and Ilex vouiitoria, with a little Laurocerasus caroliniana, 
Bunielia tenax, Callicarpa aiiierieana and Myrica carolinensis. 
Yucca filavientosa, Opuntia Opuntia and Opuntia Pes-Con'i appear 



144 

in the driest positions. The grasses are Stcnotaphntm ameri- 
caiiKin, which is much used in Charleston as a lawn grass, Cyno- 
doH Dactylon, also a good lawn grass, Leptochloa fascicularis, 
Sporobobis indicns and Panicuiii lannginosuui. Stropliostylcs lui- 
vola and Galactia volubilis are the principal vines. The herbs 
noted were Moiiarda punctata, Eiipatoriiini Iciicolcpis, Galiinn 
hispididiiin, Bidcns frondosa, Saiiicula canadensis and species of 
Mciboniia. In Fig. 4 is shown a part of this hammock growth. 
In center is a live oak, with a cedar to left. The shrubs are 
Callicarpa to right, Fagara Clava-Hcrculis in front of oak, and 
Myi'ica caro/incnsis to left. In foreground is the grass Leptochloa 
fascicularis, through which is running the vine Stropliostylcs 
helvola. 

The Salt Flats and Marshes. — On the north side of the island 
the character of the shore varies considerably. Towards the 
western end there is a low sandy plain just above high-tide mark 
which is covered with an association of fva frutesccns, Borrichia 
frutescens and several species of sedge. A few scattered clumps 
of Myrica project above the general level, and the pretty little 
Sabbatia stcllaris adds dashes of color at intervals. Just beyond 
this sandy plain and separated abruptly from it by a line of drift 
is a low flat of sandy mud covered at high tide by a few inches 
of water. This flat is covered with a dense and beautifully level 
growth of Borrichia frutescens and Sporobolus virginicus in almost 
pure association. The Borrichia stood about one foot high, the 
Sporobjlus about six inches. Among these was a little Salieornia 
anibigua and Aster subulatiis. This growth ends abruptly and is 
followed by a dense strip of pure Salieornia andngua about twenty 
feet wide. Adjoining this, in the black wet inud, commences the 
extensive marsh-grass [Spartina patens) flats which stretch across 
to the mainland. 

Tow.ird the east, the Hoi-riehia-Sporobolus fiat just mentioned 
ends rather abruptly in a shghtly lower and more muddy area, 
when the growth changes quickly to an inner strip of Spartina 
poiystachya and an outer strip of Sporobolus 7'irginicus, both of 
quite pure growth. At one point on the back beach was noticed 
a fine lot of Sesu7'iu)n Fortulaeastrun/. 



14.', 



Around a little garden back of the pavilion were found the 
following weeds : Acnlypha gracilois, Acalyplia ostryacfulia, 
FyrrhopappJts caroli}iiaiiiis, Sida rhouilnfolia, /linarant/iiis spinosus, 
Datura Stramonium and Physa/is pubescciis. 

Following is the list of grasses and sedges collected on the 
island. Most of them were indentified by Professor A. S. Hitch- 
cock, to whom I wish to express my thanks. 
Cyiwdon Dactyloii (L.) Pers. Jumbristy/is spadicea (L.) Vahl 

Elcusinc indica (L.) Gaertn. Lcptochloa fascuularis (Lam.) 

Spartina polystacJiya (Michx.) Gray 



p:ii. 

Panicuui virgatnm L. 

Pa)nciim laiiugiitosum \\\\. 

Panic It m amanun Ell. 

Panicum agrostoides Sprang. 

Scleria triglomerata Michx. 

Stcnotaphrum dimidiatum (L.) 

Brong. 

PIdcum pratense L. 

Sporobohis indicus (L.) R. Br. 

SporoboltLs virginicus L. 

University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, N. C. 



Disticldis spicata (L.) Greene 
SyntJierisma filiformc (L.) Nash 
Paspaliim altissimum LeConte 
Unio/a laxa (L.) B. S. P. 
U idol a patiiculata L. 
Ccnchriis tribuloidcs L. 
Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. 
Cy perns pseudovegettis Steud. 
Cyperus escidentus L. 
Cypcrus Nitttallii P'.ddy 



SHORTER NOTES 

Names of Insects. — It is continually observed, that when 
entomologists have occasion to refer to plants, they seem to 
think that " any old name " will do. For example, Dr. H. G. 
Dyar has in Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, 1902, an article on larvae 
of moths found in Colorado. The entomological part of the 
article is admirable ; but some of the references to the plants on 
which the caterpillars fed are extraordinary. The queerest error 
occurs on page 409, where Onosmodinin is metamorphosed into 
Pnosmodium, and a new moth bred from it is actuall}' named 
Gracilaria pnosmodiella by Mr. Busck ! Opposed as I am to 
changing the form of names, I shall feel obliged to refer to this 
insect as Gracilaria onosviodiella. Having admitted the sins o 



146 

entomologists (and I myself have sometimes been led astray), I 
must confess that botanists are rarely observed to err when re- 
ferring to insects ; but this no doubt is because they rarely refer 
to them. Unfortunately, the July issue of Torreya, pp. 1 19-123, 
contains an article the entomology in which is no better than the 
botany in the paper cited above. The plant-louse called Ap/iis 
cratacgi may have been Macrosiphuni cratacgi {Sipho7iophora 
cratacgi, Monell, 1879), hitherto known from the Central States, 
or it may have been Aphis cratacgifoliac Fitch, or A. fitcliii 
Sanderson, or something else. That the ants were the Mexican 
Mynnecocystus (not " Myi^micocysiis" ) mcUiger Llave, one may 
venture to doubt. Podabnts prninosiis LeConte (not '' pruiii- 
asiis " ) has long been known to be a synonym of P. toiuentosus 
Say. It is Coccinclla, not " Coxinclla'' ; and Diabrotica sovor is 
not a ladybird, but is a plant-feeder of the family Chrysomelidae. 

T. D. A. COCKERELL. 
Boulder, Colorado. 

A Note regarding the Discharge of Spores of Pleuro- 
TUS OSTREATUS. — A few evenings since a friend brought me a 
fine plant of the above species, consisting of about twenty-five 
pileoli, growing from a common base and arranged in the form 
of a large rosette, about twelve inches in diameter and of about 
the same height. Knowing the plant to be very fresh, not yet 
forty-eight hours old, I decided to keep it and cook it upon the fol- 
lowing day. For the night it was left upon my study table, in the 
same position in which it grew (gills downward). Farly the next 
morning my attention was called to the plant by my wife who 
asked me to come and observe it. It happened to be exposed to 
a very strong morning sunlight, which entered the window three 
or four feet away. The spores were arising from the plant like 
tiny spirals of smoke or steam, to the height of two or three 
feet, making to us a very strange sight. At first I doubted if the 
"smoke" was really the spores, but after a careful microscoj^ic 
examination of some which were caught upon a slide this point 
was definitely .settled. Perhaps other agarics spore in a similar 
manner, but never having had conditions favorable before I can- 
not say. Certainly the fact was interesting to mc and for this 



reason I publish it. I liavc upon numerous occasions observed 
the momentary expulsion of spores from fungi such as Bulgaria 
rufa and SarcoscypJia floccosa, but with these plants the spore- 
discharge seems to occur when they are first touched, and then 

only. 

C. C. Hanmek. 

East Hartford, Conn., 
July 27, 1905. 

REVIEWS 

Mutants and Hybrids of the Oenotheras' 

The literature of mutation grows apace. One of the latest 
contributions to the subject is a publication of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington with the above title. The work is 
copiously illustrated with many fine half-tone plates and cuts. 
Professor MacDougal a year or two ago secured seeds of Oeno- 
thera Laniarckiana and several other mutants from Professor 
de Vries in Amsterdam. In a carefully guarded and securely 
enclosed experimental ground at the New York Botanical Gar- 
den experiments were instituted to determine the influence of 
American conditions on the mutants of Oenothera secured by de 
Vries. The results of the work of Professor MacDougal to date 
constitute the basis of the report herein reviewed. 

It was deemed important to establish the original habitat of 
Oenot/iera Laniarckiana if practicable. During the visit of Pro- 
fessor de Vries to America in the summer of 1904, a visit was 
paid, in company with the reviewer, to the herbarium of the Phila- 
delphia Academy of Sciences, where a sheet considered to be 
that of Oenotliera Laniarckiana was found, the specimen having 
been collected by C. W. Short near Lexington, Kentucky. The 
interest of a number of southern botanists was elicited in the 
search for the plant, but up to the present no living wild plants 
of Oenotliera Lainarckiana have been found. In connection with 
this search, Professor S. M. Tracy rediscovered 0. grandiflora in 
the original locality of Bartram. These discoveries, coupled with 

* MacDougal, D. T., assisted by Vail, A. M., Shull, G. H., and Small, J. K. 
Mutants and Hybrids of the Oenotheras. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publi- 
cation No. 24. 1905. Papers of Station for Experimental Evolution at Cold Spring 
Harbor, New York. No. 2. 



148 

the experiments described below, indicate that there are two 
groups of evening primroses in the eastern United States : (i) 0. 
biennis, 0. iiiuricata, 0. Onkcsiana and 0. cniciata, with compara- 
tively small flowers, in which self-pollination is possible and fre- 
quent ; (2) 0. argillicola, 0. grandijlora, and O. Laviarckiatia of 
a southern range and with flowers large and accessory structures 
favorable to cross -pollination. 

The experimental work consisted in growing Ocnotlicra biennis 
in order to observe the changes produced by cultivation. Care- 
ful measurements of the plants were made, and it was further 
established that 0. biennis is capable of self-fertilization by rea- 
son of the superior length of the stamens. A new wild species, 
0. argillicola Mackenzie, was tested and its distinctive characters 
demonstrated. 0. cruciata (Nutt.) Small, also, was grown in the 
experimental grounds, and the evidence at hand seems to confirm 
the suggestion as to the mutability of the species. It was, there- 
fore, found important by the experimenters, aided by the critical 
descriptive study of the experimental plants by Miss A. M. Vail 
and Dr. J. K. Small, to give the characters of the forms of this 
species secured. Professor MacDougal has also been careful to 
hybridize 0. LajnarcJdana and 0. cruciata, as well as 0. Lainarck- 
iana and O. biennis, 0. Lanmrckiana and O. nutricata, in order 
to determine by this analysis the relationships between O. Lain- 
arckiana and other species of the genus. It was shown that the 
hybrid progeny in the cultures, made in the New York Botan- 
ical Garden and in Amsterdam, included a series of types which 
ranged, in the aggregate of characters included, from those rep- 
resenting pure strains of both parents through goneoclinic forms 
to intermediates in which parental characters were, more or less, 
equally apparent. The experiments show also that the hybrid 
0. Laviarckiana X O. biennis includes four distinct and separate 
forms, none of which is identical with the unilateral monotypic 
hybrid obtained in the same cross in Amsterdam. Attention 
was paid to the occurrence of mutants among the hybrids, and 
with a description of these the first part of the paper closes. 

The .second part of the publication is a statistical comparison 
of Oenothera Laviarckiana with two of its mutants by Dr. G. H. 



Shull, which shows that some of the unit characters of the 
mutants have a much ^n-eater variabihty than the corresponding 
features of tlie parent form, and the greater amphtude of the 
fluctuations is coupled with a decreased correlation. Thus the 
coefficient of variability of iiaiidla is 3 1.84 ±3.16 per cent., 
while of Laiiiairkiana it is 5.37 d= 0.44 per cent. The greater 
variability of the mutants does not, however, seem to result in 
any diminution of the gap that separates them from the parent 
form, and no movement in this direction has been observed in the 
long period which has elapsed since the new species came into 
existence. A bibliography is added. 

John W. Harshberger. 

University ok Pennsyi.va.nia. 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE CLUB 
Wednesday, May 31, 1905 

The meeting was held in the evening at the American Museum 
of Natural History, President Rush)- in the chair and eleven per- 
sons present. 

A report was received from President Rusby of the favorable 
action of the Council of the Scientific Alliance on Professor 
Richards' application for a grant from the Herrman fund. At- 
tention was called also to the movement on the part of the Al- 
liance toward raising a fund of :5 10,000, the income of which 
would be used to lighten the present assessments of the individual 
societies. 

A communication from Dr. A. J. Grout, President of the Hulst 
Botanical Club of Brooklyn, requesting that it be allowed to 
cooperate witli the Torrey Club in the excursions was referred to 
the Field Committee with power. 

The following were elected to membership : Miss ^ladeline 
Pierce, Miss INIary McOuat, Miss Anna M. Clark, Miss Clara K. 
Hicks, Mr. C. C. Doorly, and H. J. Goeckel, Phar.D., New York 
City; Miss Dorothy Young, Passaic, N. J.; and Norman Taylor. 
Yonkers, N. Y. 

On motion, a resolution was adopted authorizing the member- 



150 

ship committee, during the summer interruption of meetings, to 
receive applications for membership accompanied by the fee, and 
to accord such appHcants all the privileges of regular membership. 

The first paper on the scientific program was by Dr. C. Stuart 
Gager, and was entitled " Preliminary Notes on the Effect of 
Radio-activity on Plants." Plants grown in the presence of 
radium are subject to four different influences : (i) the a-rays, 
composed of a stream of material particles bearing a charge of 
positive electricity ; (2) the y5-rays, made up of a stream of par- 
ticles I / 2,000 the size of those of the r/-rays and carrying a charge 
of negative electricity ; (3) the ^--rays, analogous to X-rays, but 
much more penetrating ; (4) the emanation, which in a process 
of "decay" gives off a-rays as described, and eventually the [i- 
and /'-rays mentioned above. The emanation behaves like a 
very heavy gas and may be condensed on a solid surface at a 
temperature of 150° C. The influence of radium upon plants, 
therefore, is of the nature of radiant energy. 

The radium was employed in the form of the salt, radium 
bromide, of three strengths of activity, 1,500,000, 10,000, and 
7,000, enclosed in sealed glass tubes ; and also in the form of 
celluloid rods and cylinders covered with Lieber's radium coating 
of 10,000 and 25,000 activity. The glass shuts off practically 
all the a-rays ; the /5-rays penetrate through the glass more 
easily, while the T'-rays pass through glass very readily. By the 
use of the coated rods and tubes all three kinds of rays as well as 
the emanation are available. 

The experiments indicate that the rays act as a stimulus, which 
varies in intensity with the strength and amount of radium used, 
the thickness of the seed-coats, distance of exposure and the in- 
tervention of moist soil between the radium and the plant. If 
the stimulus ranges between a minimum and an optimum, ger- 
mination and subsequent growth are accelerated. Within these 
limits the rate of alcoholic fermentation is at first increased, but 
continued exposure may result in over-stimulation and conse- 
quent decrease in rate. 

Viy over-stimulation, germination and growth of seeds, gemmae 
of Ilepaticae, and pollen-grains arc retarded and may be com- 



\r,\ 

pletely inhibited. Under the influence of the rays, chloroplasts 
change their position in the cell, as under too intense illumi- 
nation, and they are eventually destroyed, as is embryonic tissue 
in stems and roots. 

Results similar in kind to the above are obtained by the use 
of radio-tellurium in a sealed glass tube. The influence here is 
confined chiefly to the «-rays. Experiments with a rod coated 
with poUonium, which gives off «-rays exclusively, have thus 
far given negative results. 

Growth is retarded and may be inhibited by growing plants in 
an atmosphere containing the radium emanation, such as may be 
drawn from a cylinder lined with Lieber's coating. 

Photographs of the experiments, and specimens of the various 
radio-active preparations were exhibited. The paper was the occa- 
sion of considerable discussion. The second paper entitled "Some 
interesting Plants from Colombia " was by Dr. H. H. Rusby. 

In view of the lateness of the hour Dr. Rusby stated that he 
desired to reserve his paper, as planned, for some future meeting 
when he could take the time to treat it more adequately, and for 
the present he would show some of the more interesting speci- 
mens and comment briefly upon them. 

The collections were made by Herbert H. Smith, who spent 
four years collecting in the United States of Colombia near the 
town of Santa Marta, which is about fifty miles from the coast in 
the Sierra Nevada mountains. Although this territory was col- 
lected over quite extensively by Karsten, whose collections are 
at St. Petersburg and consequently not readily accessible, and 
by \Vm. Purdy and various orchid collectors, Mr. Smith's 
efforts disclosed many novelties. 

The total collection studied contained about 3,000 numbers, 
embracing between 2,300 and 2,400 species, of which number 
about fifteen per cent, are likely to prove new to science. 

The specimens exhibited were most interesting, embracing 

arborescent Violaceae, handsome twining Bignoniads and Sene- 

cios, showy Vacciniaceae, numerous anomalous Compositae, and 

many other things unfamiliar to collectors in temperate climes. 

Adjournment followed. ,- ii- ti 

•^ Edw.\kd \\ . Bekkv, 

Sirntarj'. 



152 



THE BOTANICAL SYMPOSIUM AT OHIO PYLE, 
PENNSYLVANIA 

The second Botanical Symposium, held at Ohio Pyle, Penn- 
sylvania, during the week of July 2 to 9, as announced in 
previous numbers of this Journal, was voted a great success by 
the thirty persons in attendance. That we should come so far 
was well appreciated by our Pittsburgh friends, who, although 
concentrating their efforts on " Pittsburgh Day," did much 
toward the general success of the meeting. Especial credit in 
this connection is due to the young ladies, some of whom seemed 
none the less attractive on account of their botanical innocence. 

Ohio Pyle is a small village at an altitude of about 1,200 feet, 
situated among the western ranges of the Alleghany Mountains 
on the Youghiogheny River at a point where that tortuous 
stream almost forms a loop on itself by turning abrupt!)- nearly 
backwards and after a course of several miles comes to within 
a few rods of the point of departure, but some 80 feet nearer 
sea-level ; in this distance it tumbles over a very pretty "falls" 
and traverses a series of mad rapids, the rocky banks of which are 
frequently inundated for short periods. The sandy pockets of 
these banks are exceedingly rich in plants, many of them of 
great interest and often of southern affinities. 

The more precipitous places are covered by a mass of Rhodo- 
dendron maxiiiiuiii, at this time gorgeous in its profusion of 
bloom. The so-called peninsula formed by the bend of the river 
is a low flat forest of oak and chestnut, with a goodly number of 
cucumber and tulip trees interspersed and an occasional white 
pine and hemlock on the margin. Here many interesting plants 
arc found but at this time the forest was especially attractive to 
the mycologists on account of the richness of its fungus flora, 
which had been brought out by the copious rains of the pre- 
vious weeks. The steep and rocky mountain-sides and the 
brooklets on the opposite sides of the river furnished much addi- 
tional variety. 

The most interesting trees were the vMleghany bircli, cucumber 
tree and I'ennsylvania maple ; o{ shrulxs, there were Pyrularia 



153 

pubera. Spiraea virgiuiana. Ilex monticola and Din a palustris. 
I lerbaceous plants of interest were Arisaona Stewardsonii, Ci?ni- 
cifiiga ainericana, Aconitum iincinatum, Trautvetteria carolinensis, 
Ranunculus allcglianicnsis, Adluuiia fungosa, Htuclicra Curtisii, 
Saxifraga niicranthidifolia, Dalibarda repcfis, Scutellaria saxatilis, 
Iloustonia serpyllifolia, II. purpurea and Marshallia grandijlora ; 
among tlie pteridophytes, Caniptosorus rhizophyllus, Aspleniuvt 
piniiAtifidiitn, A. montanum and Lycopodiuni tristacliyuui. The 
violaists found much of interest, but the crataegists saw very httle 
in their hne except a type bush of one of Mr. Ashe's species. The 
bryologists were overwhelmed with the abundance and variety of 
their favorites. The mycologists were simply deluged with species 
and individuals, but lichens were very scarce and algae almost 
entirely absent. A full list of the plants noted is to be published 
by Recorder Crawford at a later date. 

The headquarters, the Rainier Hotel, an ancient summer resort 
with an air of abandonment quite suitable to the occasion, was all 
that could be wished for, especially as we were in advance of the 
season and had the place practically all to ourselves. The large 
pavilion in the grove was provided with a musical instrument and 
an abundance of tables and chairs — this was taken advantage of 
by the mycologists, who installed a " mushroom exhibit " in 
which about seventy-five species were shown under proper labels. 
Here, too, in the open, in fact right in the forest, our evening 
meetings were held ; these should be attended to be appreciated, — 
their instructiveness, informality and mirth are beyond my poor 
descriptive power. Refreshments, from a mysterious source, 
such as candy, lemonade and ice-water were frequently passed 
around, while the absence of the mosquito was remarked by our 
friends from New Jersey. Our disappointment, however, was the 
failure of the mycological contingent to " make good " their 
" mushroom feast." 

The peculiar success of these meetings is to be attributed, be- 
yond a doubt, to their total lack of formality — the only vestige 
of which was due to a conspiracy of the " inner man " and the 
hotel management, which required that each one should report at 
the dining hall, in person and at stated intervals, but we know of 



154 

no instance in which that was particularly objected to. On the 
whole, this meeting seemed to demonstrate that a considerable 
party could go on a week's herborizing, in quest of recreation, 
with as much success as if hunting, fishing or lounging at the 
seashore. It showed that a widening of the scope of territory 
covered was thoroughly practicable. It indicated that the sym- 
posium as the occasion of a mid-summer gathering or reunion of 
botanists is now assured and it proved that an absolutely in- 
formal gathering is not only most desirable but eminently suc- 
cessful. 

It was decided to hold the next meeting somewhere in the 
highlands of New York, so as to make it practicable for the New 
England botanists to avail themselves of an invitation to join 
us, and it is predicted that next year's symposium will prove even 
a greater success ; at all events we all promised ourselves to be 
on hand in 1906. 

J. A. Shafek. 

NEWS ITEMS 

J. Franklin Collins was appointed assistant professor of bot- 
any in Brown University at a meeting of the corporation of that 
institution held on June 22, 1905. 

Dr. George T. Moore has resigned his position as algologist 
and physiologist in charge of the laboratory of plant physiology. 
Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Mr. Otis W. Barrett has resigned his post as entomologist and 
botanist of the Porto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station and 
has been appointed "plant introducer" in the Bureau of Plant 
Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Dr. John Mendlcy Barnhart, editor-in-chief of the publications 
of the Torrey Botanical Club, who attended the recent Interna- 
tional Botanical Congress at Vienna as delegate from the New 
York Botanical Garden, returned to New York on August 2. 



Vol. 5 No. 9 

TORREYA 

September, 1905 LIBRARY 

NEW Y0;j4C 



URKilN UF RHUS BIPINNATA 

Hv Kdwaki) L. CJkeknk 



BO( AN'!'A|. 



From the annals of botany and of horticulture a list of some 
length might be made of so-called varieties of trees and shrubs, 
each differing from its specific type by more or less deeply cut or 
cleft leaves or leaflets ; and the varietal name iaciiiiata, by the way, 
is almost uniformly employed to designate this kind of morpho- 
logical aberration. One meets with it in genus after genus, and 
it is found associated with the mutations of more than one spe- 
cies witliin the same genus, as in the case of R/iiis, when we have 
Rli/ts ^i^-iabra laciniata, and an earlier R/ins typliiiia lacininta. 

Heretofore this not unusual type of variability has not seemed 
significant to botanists, if one may judge b}' the brief and slight- 
ing allusions made to them in our books of botany, where they 
are apt to be treated as if not deserving varietal names ; so that 
for any even half-adequate account of them one must consult 
books or journals of horticulture — this even in the case o{ Rliiis 
bipitiiiata, which originated not under cultivation, but was found 
wild in the woods of eastern Pennsylvania ; a shrub so widely at 
variance with its nearest allies that the finder did not even guess 
it to be a Rhus at all. 

In the light of the mutation theory, newly advanced and 
already meeting with wide acceptance, the class of morphologic 
deviations to which this '[m-\c sumac belongs attains a new sig- 
nificance. Every such plant deserves from systematic botany 
better treatment than that of being passed by without a name. 

In the heading of these notes I shall seem to have promised 
an account of the origin of the form under consideration. Hut 
my meaning is rather to indicate how far we are from knowing 
how the shrub originated ; hoping, however, to incite those living 

[No. S, Vol. 5, of ToKKK.VA, comprising pages 135-154. was issued August 26, 

1905.] 

155 



156 

near its original habitat to make, if it be not too late, a thorough 
investigation of the matter. 

The earliest mention I find made of this sumac in any book of 
botany is that by Darlington,* who gives an excellent description 
of its characters, as far as known ; and this is the most respect- 
able mention I find of it in any flora. The locality where it was 
found is within the limits of Chester County, where Darlington 
lived ; but it does not appear that he ever sought it out in its 
wild state. Its discoverer was Mr. Kilvington, concerning whom 
I obtain the information through Mr. Meehan : " Concerning 
Robert Kilvington ; our Mr. Joseph Meehan recalls him per- 
fectly and says that he lived on Woodland Avenue, West Phila- 
delphia. He and his generation, however, have passed away. 
Kilvington was a botanist of considerable local note, and his 
attainments were highly appreciated by those who knew him. 
He was a private gardener for a time near Philadelphia, later 
going into business for himself as a florist." f 

According to the late Thomas Meehan J Mr. Kilvington must 
have cultivated and propagated his fine discovery, though into 
southern Europe, where it was greatly prized, it was introduced 
by the botanist Elias Durand, of Philadelphia ; § and ten years 
after it was first described, but namelessly, by Darlington, 
Carricre named and described it as Rhus glabra laciiiiata. Only 
a few of the leaflets in even Carricre's figure are properly lacini- 
ate, most of them being pinnately divided, so that the foliage as 
a whole is, as Darlington said, bipinnate ; and in the considerable 
mumber of herbarium specimens now before me, from various 
gardens, all the leaves have pinnate leaflets, none being merely 
laciniate. 

It is of touching personal interest to know that this beautiful 
mutation has been planted at the grave of Dr. Darlington, who 
gave the earliest account of it; for I {\W([, in the herbarium that 
belonged to the late M. S. Bebb, and whicli is now the property 

* Flora Cestrica, y\ Ed., 457. 1853. 
fS. Mendelsolin Median in lilt., Aug. 22, I905. 
J Gardener's Monthly 18: 355. 
.?Carri6re, Rev. Hort. 1863: 7. 



of the P'ickl Columbian Museum, a large leaf of it, the sheet on 
which it is mounted bearing the following legend in Mr. Bebb's 
hantl : 

" In September, 1863, I made an excursion to the pine barrens 
of New Jersey and far down along the eastern shore of Mary- 
land, my companion and ver)' helj^ful guide to localities of 
special interest being my friend William M. Canby. Together 
we visited the grave of Dr. Darlington, and finding this shrub 
growing upon it, I took a single leaf as a memento." * 

It seems as if it would be a worthy undertaking on the part of 
some of the botanists of eastern Pennsylvania to investigate this 
shrub, so interesting as to the problem of its derivation. It 
would certainly be well to explore its original habitat, or an\' 
other that may chance to have been recorded, with a view to 
determining whether it seems to have originated as a seedling 
from A', glabra or as a mere offset from another individual. 

I find no record in either botany or horticulture of the shrub's 
having borne flower or fruit ; but in the National Herbarium we 
have a specimen communicated long ago by Mr. Commons, of 
Delaware, which bears a panicle of immature fruit. This sample 
was taken from a cultivated specimen, but where it was grown is 
not indicated. 

U. S. N.\TIONAL MUSF.UM. 

NEW FASCIATIONS 

Bv J. .Arthur Harris 

Perhaps the most common of all structural anomalies is that 
known as fasciation. Occurring in so many forms as it does, it 
is familiar to everyone and requires no description. In some 
species, as in the sweet potato and the coxcomb, it is to be ob- 
served with such frecjuenc)' as to almost deserve the designation 
of a varietal characteristic. 

The following cases of fasciation, most of which are not de- 
scribed in Penzig's admirable compendium of vegetable teratology, 

* Herb. Field Mus., sheet 14074. 



158 

have come to my notice and are presented in the thought that 
they may have a statistical value. 

The anomaly is very frequent in the inflorescence o^ Aiiibrosici 
trifida and A. hidcutata, usually leading to a terminal division of 
the inflorescence. 

In two specimens of Coitaiirca Moscliata, pronounced fascia- 
tion of the stem was noticed, beginning near the base and ex- 
tending to the tip. In one case the stem reached the breadth 
of about five-eighths inch. At the top was produced an in- 
florescence which was necessarily much convoluted, forming 
more than one complete turn and having a length of nearly 
five inches (taking the measurement at the contracted portion of 
the involucre, the narrowest portion of the head, and not from 
the tips of the expanded florets) as compared with a width of 
about a quarter of an inch, the thickness of the head being 
slightly over one-half inch. The second case was very similar 
in nature, but the phenomenon was not so marked. Penzig 
gives for C. nigrcsccns : " Eine Art Fasciation der Stangelspitze, 
mit drei verschmolzenen Inflorescenzen ist * '^ * erwahnt." De 
Candolle in his Organographie Vegetale, figures a fasciated stalk 
of C. Scabiosa bearing dt the tip two distinct and apparently nor- 
mal inflorescences. The present inflorescences were apparently 
normal except for theii" greater diameter in one direction. 

Slight fasciation of the stem was noticed in Coreopsis tinctoria 
atropurpwca. 

In the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden is a fine 
fasciated specimen of Dioscorca divaricata collected on the 
grounds in 1898 by Air. J. B. S. Norton. Brongniart * records 
the fasciation of the whole climbing stem of this species. Penzig 
gives other examples of torsion and fasciation. 

A head of HcUanthus sp. sent from Morahome, Ma., by T. 
Tilden, Jr., shows a broad fasciation of the head and of the stem 
for some distance. P'asciation in I IcHautluis has several times 
been noted in the literature. 

Several more or less extensively fasciated stalks of Hihisciis 
Moscluutos were noticed in a group of pkuits cultivated in the 
Missouri liotanical Garden and in Tower Grove I'ark. 

* Hull. Soc. Hot. France 12: 49. i.S<'>5. 



1.",!) 

Fasciation of th(.' stem in the Coiivolviilaccae has been several 
times noted in the literature. I have seen it in Ipomoca fan- 
durata and in the sweet potato, wiieie it ma\- almost be regarded 
as a normal occurrence. 

Conard * has published detailed observations on the phenom- 
enon. He attributes the first published notice to Macfarlane.t 
apparentl}- not beini^ aware of the much earlier observation of 
Fermond,;}; who describes a fasciation of one meter in length and 
ten to twelve centimeters in width. 

Fine examples of fasciation were noticed in sprouts from the 
stump of a tree of Mclia Azedaracli ten or fifteen feet in height 
which had been winter-killed the preceding winter. Fasciation 
has already been described for this s{)ecies. 

It is hardly necessar)- again to record branching of the spike 
of Plantago lanccolata. 

Dudley § states that the spike of Planttigo Rugelii is frequently 
fasciated at the tip and Gerard || records more or less branched 
spikes. I have frequenth' noticed spikes which were fasciated or 
in which the fasciation had extended to apical branching. 

Fasciation of the stem was noticed in a vigorous young plant 
of Rhus typJdna. Penzig records fasciation in the twig of R. 
glabra. 

The leaves of SUpJdiiin trifoliahiui are described as in whorls 
of three or four. One bed of plants in the Missouri Botanical 
Garden showed leaves arranged largely in whorls of five, those 
of three and four being found much less frequently. Some of 
the stems were markedly fasciated toward the tip. One stalk of 
Silpldum intcgrifoluun with 3-whorled leaves was found at Mera- 
mec Highlands. 

Fasciation in the stem is again noticed in Spinacia olcracca. 
Marked fasciation of the stem o{ StcpluDiotis fioribuiida was noted 
for me by Mr. G. E. McClure. Fasciation of the spike of \\r- 

* Conard, H. S. Fasciation in the Sweel Potato. Contr. Hot. I.ah. Lniv. Tenn., 
2: 205-213. //. ig. 1901. 

tMacfarlane, J. M. Science II. 5 : 940. 1S97. 

i Fcrmond, Cli. Essai de Phvtomorphie, i : 299, 301. Paris, 1S64. 

§ Uiidley, \V. R. The Cayuga Mora. Pull. Cornell Univ. 2 : 64. 1SS6. 

II Gerard, \V. R. lUill. Torrey Club 7 : 67. iSSo. 



160 

bcna stricta with sometimes a division into two similar branches 
was not uncommon during August, 1902. 

A fasciated specimen of ]\-rno)iia angnstifolia is preserved in 
the Missouri Botanical Garden herbarium. 
The LuiRARV, Missouri Botanical Garden. 



NOTE ON BOTRYCHIUM VIRGINIANUM (L.) SW. 

Bv Ivar Tidestrom 

The species of Botryc/iiiiin often present interesting modifica- 
tions of their normal form ; they seem to vary as to form be- 
tween very wide limits and their variations appear to be independ- 
ent of climatic or other conditions. This became obvious to me 
while out on a collecting trip along the western shore of Chesa- 
peake Bay, some thirty miles east of Washington. Along with 
typical forms of B. virginiaimm grew the slender form described 
by Pursh under the name o{ B. gracile [Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 2 : 
656. 1 8 14]. Some very large plants were also found, one of 
which is nearly 5 dm. high. Plants of this size are often found 
in the shaded ravines in the Potomac basin, which region appears 
to be a choice locality for this species. The most interesting 
form, however, was discovered among a number of normal plants 
at Chesapeake Beach, Md. It is represented in Fig. i. Only one 
specimen was discovered ; it proved interesting in having two 
fertile pinnules on the sterile segment — a case which is rarely 
met with in this species ; the forking sporophyll and the two 
normal panicles are also interesting. Mr. Homer D. House 
informs me that the latter deviation from the normal form is not 
so rare. 

As this species is very common in low woodlands, it is within 
easy reach of botanists and is well worthy of study. Some inter- 
esting data might be gathered and addctl to the history of this, 
our finest species of Botrychinin. 

Of other species, the following have been recorded as occur- 
ring within the limits of the Washington P'lora : B. Jicglectum 
Wood, of which a single plant was discovered by Mrs. F. S. 



01 




Fig. I. A form of Boh vihimn -.•iii^iiiidiiiini. 



1G2 

Steele, within four miles of this city ; B. disscctiiin Spreng. is fre- 
quent in rich woodlands ; B. obUquuni Muhl., occurring in low 
damp woods, is not so common. 

I am indebted to Messrs. R. V. Raile\' and H. Hungerford for 
the photograph of B. virginiaiiniii. 

W.^SIIINGTON, D. C, 

May 29. 1905. 



SOME LARGE SPECIMENS OF SMALL TREES 
IN GEORGIA 

By Roland M. Harpkr 

Two winters ago while collecting timber specimens in Georgia 
I came across some unusually large examples of four species 
which are ordinarily shrubs. The following notes on them may 

be of interest. 

Rhus coi'allina L. 

About two years ago * I reported the occurrence of arbor- 
escent specimens of this on the banks of the Chattahoochee 
River in Early County near Saffold, at or near the inland edge of 
the Lower Oligocene region of the coastal plain. In February, 
1904, I revisited the spot and found more of them (the fact that 
there are almost no evergreens on alluvial banks in that part of 
the country making it easier to see the trees in winter). The 
trunk of the largest specimen observed was eleven inches in 
diameter near the base, but as it forked about three feet from the 
ground (see Fig. i) I had to select a smaller one for the col- 
lection. The largest specimens averaged about thirty feet tall.f 

On March 26 I saw along the bluff of McRean Creek in the 
southeastern corner of Richmond County a specimen of R. 
copnl/ina which I estimated to be forty feet tall. Its trunk was 
only si.\ inches in diameter. 

* Hull. 'Jorrey Club 30 : 291. 1903. 

f I looked in vain for the large specimens of /^/v/Z/rt spiitosa which I had seen near 
the same place in 1901, and was afterward informed that the demand for the bark 
("prickly-ash bark") as an ingredient of some patent medicine had caused their 
destruction between my two visits. 



(;;; 



Rhus (;laiika L. 

This docs not scciii to be classed as a tree in any of the books. 
In December, 1903, I fretiuently found specimens o\cr three 
inches in diameter and twenty feet tall <^rouin^ on the Cambrian 
shales along the Oostanaula 
and other streams in Gordon 
County, and on Januar}' 5, 
1904, I fountl on the same 
formation, in a cane-brake 
on the bank of the Coosa 
River, in Floyd County, 
about twelve miles below 
Rome, veritable little grove 
of this species, in which 
many of the specimens were 
as much as seven inches in 
diameter and thirty feet tall, 
with the lowest branches 
higher up than I could reach. 
These trees seemed perfectly 
sound and healthy, and I cut 
a log from one of them which 
astonished even the natives 
who saw me wrapping it up 
for shipment. 

This species is readily distinguished from R. copalliiia in winter 
by several characters which are rarely if ever mentioned in 
descriptions. These characters may be contrasted as follows : 

A', ghxbra \ R. copallina 

Heart-wood deep \-ellow, Heart-wood pale greenish-}-el- 
sharply distinguished from low, not sharpl\- distinguished 

the narrow white sap-wood. from the sap-wood. 

Fruiting panicles erect. Fruiting panicles drooping. 

Drupes bright scarlet. I Drupes dull dark-red. 

There are also some differences in the bark, almost impossible 
to describe. 




Fic. I. Trunk of Rhus copallinn, II 
inches in diameter. Early County, Febru- 
ary, 1904. 



164 

The nati\'es in northwest Georgia commonly call R. glabra 
" red sumac " and R. copalliiia " black sumac," doubtless on ac- 
count of the difference in color of the fruit. 

Ilex mvrti folia Walt. 

In the swamp of the Suwannee River (rather an unusual habitat 
for it) in Clinch County I noticed in February, 1904, some speci- 
mens of this handsome little tree about thirty feet tall, with 
trunks a foot in diameter, though this species has not hitherto been 
recognized as a member of our sylva. During the same winter 
and following spring I noticed other arborescent specimens of it, 
in pine-barren ponds, in Sumter, Berrien, Lowndes, Clinch, Ware, 
and other counties in the coastal plain. 

A characteristic feature of this species is that its trunk is never 
strictly erect, but always ascending or curved. 

Staphvlea tkifolia L. 

This too does not seem to have ever been credited with becom- 
ing a tree. On January 7, 1904, I found one specimen on the 
right bank of the Etowah River in Floyd County about four miles 
above Rome, on the Knox Dolomite (Lower Silurian) formation, 
which had a straight erect trunk five or six inches in diameter, 
with the lowest branches about si.x feet from the ground. There 
were a few shrubby specimens of it near by, but apparently no 
other arborescent one. 

Specimens of these four little trees formed part of Georgia's 
exhibit at St. Louis last year, and are now presumabh' in the 
forestry collection in the state capitol in Atlanta. 

College Point, Nkw York. 

COTYLEDON- AND LEAF-STRUCTURE IN CERTAIN 
RANUNCULACEAE 

Uv Neaia Ci.akk 

This paper covers a brief study of the leaves and cotyledons 
of four of the Ranunculaccac, viz.: Aqidlcgia coerulea James, 
Anemone ninltifuia Poir., Piibalilla hirsntissivia (Tursh) liritton, 



105 

and Ox]\c;rapliis Cynibalaria {V\xvi=,\\) Prantl. The work was done 
at the suggestion of Professor Francis Ramaley. 

The cotyledons in the four species examined are all more or 
less ovate in outline, being of the usual Ranunculaceous type. 
The leaves in the first three species are much cut and divided 
while in Oxygt-apJiis they are cordate-ovate with much branched 
veins. In no case does the cotyledon resemble the leaf in form. 
In O.vygrap/iis Cynibalaria the cotyledon-stalks arc connate from 
their bases almost to the blades. 

No constant difference of striking character was noticed in the 
epidermis of cotyledons and leaves. However, it was seen that 
the number of stomata was much smaller for a given area of 
cotyledon than for a similar area of leaf surface. No stomata 
were seen in the upper epidermis of either leaf or cotyledon of 
Aquilcgia cocrulca. " Twin stomata," i. e., stomata in contigu- 
ous pairs, were seen in the lower epidermis of both leaf and coty- 
ledon in this species. In the literature at hand there seems to 
be no mention of this peculiarity as having been noted in Ranun- 
culaceae. Long, simple hairs occur on the under surface of the 
cotyledon of Pulsatilla hirsutissima and on both surfaces of the 
leaf. 

In the internal structure of leaf and cotyledon the one-row 
palisade is characteristic of all, the single exception is the coty- 
ledon of OxygrapJiis in which the palisade might be described as 
two-layered. The spongy tissue of the cotyledons corresponds 
to that of the leaves, especially in the shape of the cells and in 
the size of the air-spaces. The vertical sections, excepting in Pul- 
satilla hirsutissima, showed about the same thickness, but in that 
species the cotyledon was about twice as thick as the leaf. This 
difference in thickness is brought about by the greater size of the 
cells in the cotyledon. 

The leaf-petioles are quite different from the cotyledon-stalks 
in the four species. Figures i to 8, which are diagrams of cross- 
sections, show these differences* plainly. In each case the leaf- 
petiole is somewhat cylindrical with about three vascular bundles 
while the cotyledon-stalk is more flattened and has only a single 
small bundle. Figures i and 2 are oi Aquilcgia cocrulca, ^'gwxcs 



1G() 



3 and 4 are of Aiiciiionc uiultifida, fiy^ures 5 and 6 are of Pulsa- 
tilla Jiirsutissima and figures 7 and 8 are of OxygrapJiis Cyinlm- 
laria. As above noted, the cotyledon-stalks in the last-named 
species are connate for nearly their entire length. This species 
should, therefore, be added to the list * published by Miss Sar- 




FlGS. 1-8. Sketches illustrating cotyledon- and leaf-structiue in Aquiltgia, Anem- 
one, Piilsalilla, and Oxygmpliis. 

gant, of plants in which the cotyledon-stalks form a petiolar tube. 
On the whole, it may be said that while there are slight differ- 
ences in the epidermis of cotyledons and leaves and in their 
internal structure, yet the greatest differences are in the leaf- 
petioles and cotyledon-stalks. The differences, recorded here 
for these species of Ranimculaceae, are on the whole, much the 
same as those i)rcviously noted in other plants by Ramaley.t 

UNiVKRsnv OK Colorado, 
JJoUl.UKR, Coi/). 

* Annals of I'olany 17 : 73. I903. 

f Minn. 15ot. Studies 2: 417. 1900 ; also, I'nivcisily of Colorado Studies 2: 
255. 1905. 



(i( 



siiortI':r X(yri-:s 

Lksi'kdkza vki.l riNA HicKNKLi- A IloMONYM. — Iiistaiiccsare 
not rare in which a homonym is pubh'shcd so soon after the first 
use of the name that the r)ccurrLnce can scarcely be laid to 
negHgence on the jxirt of its author in selecting a valid name. 
The following case appears to be one of such instances. 

^ Lespedeza Bicknellii nom. nov. 

Lcspcdcza vtiutiita Bicknell, Torreya i : 102. 28 S 1901. Krit- 

ton, Manual 1048. O 1901 ; ed. 2, 1068. 1905. 

Not Lcspcdcza vclutiua Dunn ; Hook-er, Icones Plantarum 7 : 
pi. 2JOO. F 1901. A native of China. 

The type of L. vcluliiia Bicknell and therefore of L. Bicknellii 

is, "from Woodlavvn, N. Y. \\\. P. Bicknell], August 28, 1898, 

flowers; September 25, 189S, fruit: in the herbarium of the 

,New York Botanical Garden." H. D. Hou.se. 

Washington, D. C. 

REVIEWS ^ 

English Edition of Qonbel's Organographie der Pflanzen* 

The English form of Professor Goebel's important work, which 
has been awaited for several years, has at last been completed, 
and the second part is now issued and is the most recent publi- 
cation of classical botanical productions which the Clarendon 
Press has given to the t^nglish-speaking world. While the 
discrepancy of time between the appearance of the second part in 
the two languages is rather long, we remember that the transla- 
tion has been a task of no mean magnitude. 

The botanists of the present moment are at a point in the his- 
tory of their science which is unique. Looking backward we 
may see that, at the beginning of what we may call modern 
botany, all its students trod the same path. During this period 
the science was purely descriptive of the externals of the plant 

* Organography of Plants, especially of the Archegoniatae and Spermophyta, by 
Dr. K. Goebel, Professor in the University of Munich ; authorized English edition by 
Isaac Bayley Balfour, Kings Botanist in Scotland. Part T., General (Organography, 
i-xvi -1- 1-270, y! 1-130. 1900.53.10; Part II., Special Organography, i-x.\iv -|- 
1-708,/ i-^rj. 19^5. $7.00; royal Svo. Oxforil, Clarendon Press. 



1().S 

organism. Occasionally, men in other fields of scientific work 
attempted to solve some of the riddles of internal structure and 
of physiology, but when they claimed admission to the ranks of 
the botanists they were regarded as interlopers. Botany remained 
for a time a virgin science, whose fecundity was revealed only 
after union with physics and chemistry. From the time when 
the botanist accepted the wider definition of his science, the 
original path became divided at first into two, one of which 
was directed toward the goal of physiology and the other 
toward that of description. The latter trend of study led to 
the necessity of common descriptive terms and of this necessity 
was produced a morphology which culminated in classification 
of plant parts by referring them to a "few elementary forms" 
which forms, however, have a subjective reality only. This 
is the idealistic morphology of Goethe, which in its time 
served well its purpose. The " uniformity " of life discovered by 
this morphology was a conception which prepared the mind for 
the theory of descent, under which the variety of organic life 
could be subsumed. It soon overleaped itself, however, and 
became a mere formalism. The plasticity of nature was lost 
sight of in the rigidity of subjective conceptions. So markedly 
true has this been in some quarters, that the belief is held to with 
a tenacity which would be more praiseworthy if exerted in a 
better cause, that the sole business of morphology is to say that 
things are so rather than how they come to be so. There are 
certainly two ways of viewing an organ. We may look at it 
simply as such, restricting our legitimate curiosity, and content- 
ing ourselves with a mere description of it ; and then we may 
search about in the limitless field of observation, and when we find 
a similar form, seize upon it, and with a sigh of satisfaction, call it 
a homology, thinking our task done, much as a curiosity collector 
does in finding a particular object of his cupidity. Or we may 
see in form a measurable expression of forces at work in the 
living organism ; we may by experiment get at some more ade- 
quate notion of its service in the economy of the plant ; we may 
by searching find out why similar forms are produced in different 
organisms and why in similar organisms, different structures are 



produced ; in this way wc may fjct at some conception of why the 
plant is as it is. These are the real aims of causal morpholoj^y. 
" Even if we had the story of development spread out clearly 
before us, we could not content ourselves with the simple deter- 
mination of the same ; for then we should be constrained to ask 
ourselves how it has been brought about." In the realm of 
plant morphology, therefore, the point of view of i)h)'siolog)' helps 
us to see that by the method of causal morphology we may ulti- 
mately attain to the knowledge which we seek. 

The chief prophet of causal morphology is Goebel, and the 
" Organography " is his prophecy. There are few books so rich 
in observation and so suggestive of discovery as his. The sharp 
delimitations drawn between our knowledge and our ignorance, 
the fearless denunciation of self-delusion, make this task well 
worth the sustained effort which it cost the author. It will be 
most regrettable, now that the results are available in English as 
well as German, if the coming years do not bring a harvest to 
the master workman. We believe that no book of the present 
day is of deeper significance for the development of botanical 
knowledge. We can only feel a certain disappointment that the 
task became, in its latter part, so very great that the author was 
compelled, by circumstances, some of which were beyond his 
control, to curtail a portion which would have been of much 
greater value if it had been treated more at length. 

F. E. Llovd. 

NEWS ITEMS 

The September Junrtial of Botany announces that owing to ill 
health Mr. George Murray has resigned the keepership of the 
Department of Botany of the British Museum. 

Dr. and Mrs. N. L. Britton, of the New York Botanical Garden, 
and Mr. Stewardson Brown, of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, were in Bermuda for the first three weeks of 
September. 

Mr. Edward W. Berry, secretary of the Torrey Botanical Club, 
has removed to Baltimore, where he will be engaged in palaeo- 
botanical work for the Maryland Geological Survey, with head- 
quarters at Johns Hopkins University. 



]70 

Professor Ellis A. Apgar, for twenty years state superintendent 
of public instruction of New Jersey, and one of the authors of 
" Apgar's Plant Analysis," died in East Orange, N. J., on August 
28, at the age of seventy years. 

Dr. W. A. IMurrill of the New York Botanical Garden, and 
Mr. P. L. Ricker of the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, devoted a month in August and September 
to the collection and study of fungi in the Mt. Katahdin region 
of Maine. 

Dr. Burton E. Livingston of the Bureau of Soils, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture ; Dr. Forrest Shreve of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, and Professor Elias J. Durand of Cornell University, have 
recently spent a few weeks in special studies at the New York 
Botanical Garden. 

Professor L. M. Underwood, of Columbia Universit}', returned 
from his summer's visit to Europe on September 18. After 
attending the International Botanical Congress in Vienna, several 
weeks w^ere given by him to the study of the fern-collections at 
Prague, Berlin, Paris and Kew. 

Professor Francis E. Lloyd, of the Teachers College, Colum- 
bia Uni\'crsity, returned to New York late in August after a 
summer's work at the Desert Botanical Laboratory of the Car- 
negie Institution at Tucson, Arizona, where he was engaged 
chiefly in a study of transpiration of .xerophilous plants. 

Dr. C. Stuart Gager, recently assistant in the laboratories of 
the New York Botanical Garden and acting professor of botany 
in Rutgers College, New Brunswick, New Jersey, has accepted 
an appointment as teacher of biology in the Morris High School, 
Borough of the l^ronx. New York City. 

Mr. George V. Nash of the New York l^otanical Garden, 
returned on September 8 from a si.x weeks' visit to Haiti, bring- 
ing with him a large quantity of herbarium material, living plants, 
.seeds, etc. On the return voyage ten days were spent on the 
Grand Turk of the Turks Islands group, where Mr. Norman 
Taylor, who accompanied Mr. Nash, remained for two weeks 
longer. 



^ 



Vol. 5 No. 10 

TORREYA 

October, 1905 

NOTES ON THE GRAY POLYPODY 

LIBRARY 

I'.Y IVAR TlDF.STROM K-r'*?/ .,^ ., 

NEW YO..'K 
Marginaria polypodioides (L.) BOiaN!..al 

AcrosticJiiiDi polypodioides L. Sp. PI. 1068. 1753. 

? Polypodiuui virginianuin L. /. c. 1085. [Syn. Plumier only.] 

? Polypodiuui fcrriiginosuiJi L. Sp. PL, ed. 2, 1525. 1763. 

PolypodiiiDi incanum Swartz, Prodr. 131. 1788. 

Polypodiuui cctcraccinuui L. C. Rich ; Michx. Fl. 2 : 271. 1803. 

Gouiophlcbiuui incanuui J. Sm. Jour. Bot. 4: 56. 1841. 

Lepicystis iucaua J. Sm. Cult. Ferns, 2. 1857. 

Polypodiuui polypodioides A. S. Hitchc. Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 4 : 
156. 1893. 

The history of this little fern, its variations in form, and its 
geographical distribution, are of great interest to botanists. 

The plant was without doubt first recorded by Plukenet [Phy- 
togr. //. 8g. /.p. 1 691] under the name Filicifolia s. Polypo- 
diuui tcuuifolium uiinus Virgiuiauuiu, and later enumerated in 
Almag. Bot. 153. 1696. Plukenet cites as a pos.sible synonym 
" Caticad s. Polypodiuui Brasilicuse Pisouis [lib. iv., fol. 233] but 
since the latter author describes his plant as having " caulcs 
cubituui altiy its identity must be questioned. 

Polypodiuui radicc tciiui & rcpcutc of Plumier [Descr. PI. Am. 
25,//. j(5. 1693, and Fougeres de I'Amer. 60. //. jy. 1705] 
reported from San Domingo, and Polypodiuui uiiuus, etc. 
[Sloane, Cat. PI. Jam. 16. 1696, and Nat. Hist. Jam. i : 79. 
1707] refer also to our plant. Plumier says of this fern " J't^y 
roicoutrt plusieurs fois cctte Plaute daus Ics forests de Pisle Saiut 
Domiugue. C est le petit Polipode a piuuules rares & ceudries par 
dessous du S*'. Sloaue Cat. Plaut. Jauiaic. 16." 

The name given to it by Morison [PI. Hist. 3: 563. sec. 14. 

CZ5 [No. 9, Vol. 5, of ToRREYA, comprising pages 1 55-1 70, was issued September 
^ 23, 1905.] 

171 

h- 



172 

pi. 2. f. j. 171 5] is also characteristic: Polypodiiim minus J7r- 
giniamnn foliis brcvioribus suhtus argentcis ; he says of his plant 
" ElcgantcDi lianc spcciein e Virgiiiia acccptain habcimis." It is 
recorded from this region also by Gronovius [Fl. Virg. 2 : 19S. 
1743] who described it under the name Acrosticlunii froiidc pin- 
na ta, etc. 

In 1753, Linnaeus described the species under the name Acro- 
stichnni polypodioidcs but it is well-nigh certain that Plumier's 
synonym cited under Polypodiuni virginiamun properly belongs 
here. Linnseus' remark, however, under the latter species, "ajitc- 
ccdcnti [/. e., P. vulgar c\ siniillinia, scd minor, & subhts glabra" 
pertains undoubtedly to some small form of P. vulgarc, so com- 
mon in the Potomac Valley and elsewhere. This view was held 
by the illustrious Willdenow, who makes this statement in re- 
gard to P. virginiamim : * * * " Ex America borcali semper P. 
vulgarc sub hoc nomine accepi." [Willd. Sp. PI. 5 : 1 74. 1 8 10.] 

The Jamaican plant described by Patrick Browne and named 
Polypodiuni fcrrugifiosum by Linnaeus [Sp. PI., ed. 2, 1525. 
1763] has been referred by later authors to the species in 
question. 

Swartz described the species from the West Indies under the 
name P. incanuni [Sw. Prodr. 131. 1788; Fl. Ind. Occ. 3: 
1645. 1806; Syn. Fil. 35. 1806] giving as hab. " adnasci/ur 
truncis vctustis in motitibus sununis Jamaicacy 

We find the plant under still another name, P. cctcraccinum, in 
the works of Michaux [L. C. Rich. ; Michx. Fl. 2 : 271. 1803] 
who records it as " parasiticum in Kentucky, Tennassee, Florida y 

Bory de Saint-Vincent included the species in his genus Margin- 
aria [Diet. Class. Hist. Nat. 6: 587. 1824; 10: 176. 1826], 
which name is evidently the earliest generic name for Polypodiuni 
species having scaly fronds and the sori along the margin. In 
1828, the same author applies this generic name to one of his 
species Marginaria vnnima [Duperrey, Voy. 2' : 264. pi. 31. f. 
2. 1828] of which he says : * * * " tres voisinc de cclle que les 
botanistes ont cojnmuncinoit appelce Polypodiuni incanum, a etc 
confonduc a7>ec ellc. Ellc en dijf'ere cepeiuiant en ce qu'elle est trois 
on quatre fois plus petite et d'un aspect bioi plus elegant." 



173 



It is therefore quite evident that the generic concept of Maj-- 
ginaria Bory api)he.s to such plants as the species in question 




and, since this group has been recognized as distinct from the 
Polypodia, the genus Marginarin Bory merits recognition. J. 



174 

Smith referred this group to Goniophlehmm (§ Lepicystis) [Jour. 
Bot. 4: 56. 1841.] and to genus Lepicystis in 1857 [J. Sm. 
Cult. Ferns 2]. The latter genus has been adopted by Diels 
[Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. i^ ; 322. 1899] but in a 
wider sense. In both instances, the scales on the surface of the 
frond serve as the principal distinguishing character. 

The geographical range given for this species extends from the 
southern United States to Chile and Argentina, and in Africa 
from the Cape of Good Hope to the Zambesi region. The Afri- 
can plants do not seem to differ sufficiently from ours to merit a 
distinct specific name. The character upon which Polypodinin 
Eckloni Kunze [Linnaea 10 : 498. 1836] was founded do not 
seem to be constant, the frond being described as having the 
lowest pinnae longer than the upper ones and the upper surface 
of the frond devoid of scales {^" supra niidis''). In our American 
plants the absence of scales on the upper surface of the frond is 
very uncommon. A few specimens collected in the United States 
agree perfectly with the description of P. Eckloni. In typical 
plants there are some differences, but apparently not sufficiently 
marked to warrant segregation. Perhaps when we have more 
material at hand and know the plants better, the African plant 
may prove to be a distinct species. 

Specimens collected in Brazil and deposited in U. S. National 
Museum agree with the description o{ Marginaria viiiiiiiia Bory. 
In these the fronds are at the most 8 cm. high with the pinnae, 
except the uppermost, nearly of the same length [6 mm., more 
or less] and subopposite. There is also a marked difference in 
the scales, those of M. iniiwna being acuminate. 

Dr. Lindman [Arkiv for Botanik i : 243. 1903] describes 
two forms of P. incanum from Brazil ; one " plantac parvae " from 
Rio Grande do Sul, the other ''plantac maximac'' from Matto- 
Grosso. There is, therefore, some indication that typical plants 
are found at least at far south as Central l^ra/.il. 

Mr. A. Ernst [Jour. Bot. 3 : 323. 1865] reports P. incamnn 
growing " o)i roofs of houses" in Caracas, Venezuela. In Costa 
Rica it grows on coffee-trees \fPonduz, 1904]. Mr, W. R. 
Maxon reports it from Jamaica, as common on rocks and trees 



175 

in open or partially shaded situations from the sea-level to about 
5,000 feet altitude. Dr. J. K. Small [Tokkeva 3 : 141. 1903] 
reports it " from sea-level to almost 4,000 feet altitude on the 
eastern slopes of the Blue Rid^je. * * * It is confined to trees 
only when rocks are lackin^^" Mr. C. L. Pollard [Plant World 
5: 133. 1902] records a locality discovered by Mr. W. P. 
Hay, near the Potomac River and within fifteen miles of Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; this is possibly the most northern locality 
known for this fern. This little colony of plants, from which the 
figured specimen was taken, grows on a steep rocky slope ; it 
consists of numerous plants matted together and covering many 
square feet of surface. In this respect it differs from another of 
the rock-loving ferns, Chcilanthes lanosa, which forms small clus- 
ters along the fissures of the rocks. 

Our specimen is of interest also on account of its forking 
frond — a rare phenomenon in this species — which, may I state 
it, holds its own in beauty. ChcilantJies lanosa may possibly 
excel it as an ornament in its native haunts. 

Washington, D. C. 

THE ARTIFICIAL INDUCTION OF LEAF FORMA- 
TION IN THE OCOTILLO* 

By Francis E. Lloyd 

The post-pluvial appearance of foliage within a very short time 
upon desert plants which remain through periods of drought in 
a leafless condition is a phenomenon which has very often been 
remarked. The behavior in this regard is most striking in deserts, 
where there is prolonged lack of rain. Although in some regions 
the rain penetrates into the ground very rapidly, nevertheless it 
has seemed improbable to many, no doubt, that the absorption 
of this water from the soil alone gives the necessary stimulus to 
leaf formation. Led by this idea, attempts have been made to 
find in many of the superficial structures of plants the means for 
the absorption of water, or water vapor, and it may ver}' well be 

*This work was clone at the Desert Botanical Laboratory, Tucson, .\rizona, under 
a grant from the Carnegie Institution, of Washington, during the summer of 1905. 



17G 

that experimental research will in the future throw light upon the 
extent of adaptation, as evidenced by anatomical structures, to 
which plants have attained in this matter. It was during a con- 
versation upon such points with Dr. W. A. Cannon at the Desert 
Botanical Laboratory that the suggestion was made by him that it 
would be instructive to see if any light could be obtained upon 
the influence of meteoric water upon the development of leaves 
in Fouqiiicria splcndens, the ocotillo of the southwest. I accord- 
ingly planned three experiments which were carried out upon a 
perfectly leafless plant, all alike in principle, but differing in de- 
tails. In one case, the only one I shall describe, a reservoir, con- 
sisting of a gallon bottle, was attached to the neighboring limbs 
of a " palo verde," and a siphon arranged to lead water to a string 
of cheese-cloth, which in turn led the water to a bandage of the 
same cloth tied about a stem of the ocotillo three feet from the 
ground. The fierce winds several times played havoc with my 
arrangements, but finally I managed to adjust the apparatus to 
the swinging of the stems by allowing slack in the cheese- 
cloth string. The siphon ended in a capillary tube, so that 
the flow of water Avas small and, while it ran down the oco- 
tillo stem at times, it did not reach the ground in any case. The 
reservoir was replenished daily, but the flow of water was discon- 
tinuous. The result was, of course, a closer simulation of the 
actual occurrences at the time of the rainy season. 

The first run of water was ai^plied on the morning of the first 
of July, and this was repeated each day. The stem was thus 
kept more or less wet for half the time. On the evening of the 
fourth, the leaves along 12-15 inches of the stem below the ban- 
dage showed marked development, being i centimeter long ; and 
by the sixth of July, at three P. M., their length was 1.5 centi- 
meters. On July 9, the largest leaves were 2 centimeters long, 
and the branch in question, together with its neighbors were 
photographed (Fig. i). In looking at this picture one must 
realize that all the stems shown were at first equally leafless. It 
will be instructive to compare the above facts with those observed 
after rain. 

On July I I, at 5 P. M., we hat! the fust shower of the rainy 



season, the amount of precipitation being one and one-tenth inches 
within two liours, drenching, of course, all the vegetation. On 
the following day (the 12th) at four P. M., it was quite evident to 
the eye that the buds had made a start. By July 13, the slender 
conical buds along the whole extent of the stems were 7 to 8 milli- 
meters long. On July 14 at five A. M., the rosettes of leaves 
were well formed; the length of the largest leaves was 1.5 centi- 




FiG. I. Fouquieria splmdens, showing a branch which had been irrigated during 
four days. 

meters, their size being, however, quite uniform. On July 15, 
the photograph forming the second figure was taken. It will be 
noted that the leaves on the irrigated stem were at that time much 
larger than the freshly formed leaves, that is, those produced after 
the rain, and as a result of the stimulus thereby given. 

It will be noted that the development after the rain was more 
rapid than after irrigation, notwithstanding that the water was 
applied artifically from time to time during the period of growth 
under observation, while the wetting by rain occurred but once. 
The fact, however, must not be lost sight of, that following the 
rain there is a marked rise in the relative humiditv, though I re- 



178 



gret that I did not take observations on this point at the position 
of the plant. Then, too, the ground got a good soaking, and it 
is remarkable how rapidly the soil becomes moist for a consider- 
able depth. Undoubtedly this fact was contributory to the rapid 
growth of the post-pluvial foliage. In the experiment detailed 
above, the total growth in a few days was due wholly to the water 
available on the surface of the stem, and the inference is not 
strained, I believe, if we conclude that, normally, the first stimulus 
to growth in the leaves is due to the water taken up, probably, at 
or near the buds. In view of the very thick coating of waxy 




Fk;. 2. Fotiquii I ,ii \]<l,ii,i, >i. — tlic same as in I'U;. I, tliii'e clays after a rain. 

bark it seems unlikely that the water would find entrance else- 
where, though we may be wrong in this, since there are rifts through 
which conceivably the water might enter. 

It may also be noted that the buds of the ocotillo arc minute, 
sometimes indeed scarcely visible, and covered by, at most, a few 
light-brown, thin, chaffy scales. The repeated loss of leaves at the 
same place results in a rough area surrounding the base of the 
bud at which water may, wc may well believe, be taken up. There 
is otherwise no evidence of the presence of any special adaptive 



17!) 

structures to this end, and their absence in a very marked desert 
type of plant is not to be overlooked. That the absorption of 
water by the stem is of no very ^n-cat importance, if any, in the 
economy of the ocotillo, may perhaps well be maintained ; while 
on the other hand we might argue that in regions where the rain 
is very scarce the very rapid production of foliage would be of so 
great importance that even the little water absorbed would be 
equally so. At any rate, the question here barely touched upon 
is one of a host of similar ones which need elucidation by con- 
stant study under just such special conditions as are to be found 
in the desert. 

Tkaciikrs College, Columbia University. 



AN OLD SWAMP-BOTTOM 

By Edward W. Berry 

We all make our pilgrimage to the swamp : the lover of flowers 
for the pink lady's -slipper, giant rhododendron, fragrant pogonia 
and Indian tea-kettle [Sarracoiia) ; the collector for these and for 
coptis, the sun-dew, and the ferns and sedges that haunt the in- 
accessible tangles of verdure which no swamp ever lacks. There 
are swamps and swamps, but all are of unfailing interest, whether 
the pilgrim be botanist, entomologist, or merely a seeker for 
cranberries or blueberries. They have equally their vernal and 
autumnal coloration. In the spring, the violet and marsh-mari- 
gold ; in the fall, the closed gentian and bidens. 

No swamp is of more interest than a fossil swamp, and it is my 
purpose to take you on a little journey to one such — not to one 
of those gigantic examples of buried marshes where in the far-oft 
Carboniferous age was laid down the world's supply of coal, but 
to the remains of one of those smaller swamps that flourished 
during the Cretaceous and was like the many swamps that dot 
the country at the present time, where the mosquito and h\-la 
flourish and the magnolia blooms. 

Going back a few million years, three to five is a reasonable 
estimate, wc come upon a time when deposition was active along 



180 

our eastern coast; a time when the clays and sands of the Rari- 
tan formation were being laid down and a long-continued series 
of fresh or lacustrine deposits had culminated by a slow sinking 
of the land, which presently substituted marine conditions. 
The series of beds comprising the Cliffwood clays and Magothy 
sands represents the results of this transition period. In one 
locality clays were forming while close by sands were being 
deposited. 

All through these beds we have abundant evidence that the 
adjoining land supported a luxuriant vegetation, and that this 
land was not far removed from the area of sedimentation ; pos- 
sibly we have to do with a series of islands or inlets, which would 
well explain the varying character of the deposits and the con- 
tained plant remains. This evidence is furnished by the abun- 
dance of sulphates and carbonates of iron, the dark color of the 
clay due to carbonaceous matter, the layers of lignite intercalated 
with the sand beds, and to thicker layers of lignite which are 
everywhere present. Some of these lignite beds have all the 
appearance of having been old swamp-bottoms. 

In mining the overlying and underlying clays, immense logs of 
lignite are uncovered, lying as if overwhelmed by a sudden influx 
of sediment. I have seen logs of this sort three or four feet in 
diameter and what was left of them, ten feet or more in length, 
and if the statements one hears about the pits are to be relied 
upon, much larger remains arc often uncovered. 

Such a lignite bed in the pits of the Cliffwood Brick Company 
has interested me exceedingly. It is situated on Whale Creek 
about a mile southwest from Raritan Bay, in Monmouth County, 
New Jersey. The lignite consists of matted vegetation but 
slightly triturated, showing a mixed mass of partially decayed 
leaves, bits of sticks and small stems, scales of cones and various 
fruits and seeds, exactly such things as you would find at the 
bottom of some woodland pool at the present time, (^nc never 
tires of the fascination of breaking open these lignite masses, 
exposing the faint impression, perhaps of a large leaf, or the 
remains of what was a button-ball in the far-off days, or the 
thousand and one evanescent promises of what was once definite 
living matter. 



1«1 



Exposure after such a long entombment soon reduces these 
lignite masses to fragments. A satisfactory way to study their 
flora, however, is to bring away large pieces of the lignite and 
macerate thcni in water at leisure moments, when they may be 
easily separated into their component parts and any remains of 
definite shape can then be more readily seen. 

Distributed through the lignite beds arc little globules and 
tear-shaped masses of amber ; one hears of large masses being 
found occasionally, but the largest piece that I have taken out is 




Fig. I. Some of the fruits, seeds, twigs and cone scales washed out of the lignite. 

about the size of a lima bean. This amber is the fossil resin of 
some of the trees of the period, the weight of the evidence point- 
ing to the Sequoia, as little leafy twigs of two or three species are 
found all through the lignite, while cones occur elsewhere in the 
neighboring clays. 

A clay pit is a most desolate looking place all the year round. 
Under a scorching July sun, with the thermometer standing at 
over 1 00° and no shade, one has a perfect imitation of an oven, 
and the imagination almost fails to picture the verdure of this 
identical spot in the ancient days. Here flourished tall sequoias 
and plane-trees, close by grew ancient spruces and cycads and 
semi-tropical ferns. In the spring, the magnolia and sheep-berry 
bloomed. In the fall, the figs ripened, and the autumnal tints of 
the oak and maple vied with the vernal coloration. 

Besides the larger pieces of stems and fragments of leaves as 
well as an abundance of needles of Sequoia and Ciouiingliamitcs, 



182 

I have found the following : Twigs of Juiiipcnis liypiioidcs Heer 

and Sequoia Rdcliciibaclii (Gein.) Heer; aments of probably a 

Sequoia ; eight or ten varieties of seeds ; several varieties of 

fruits, including Myrica and Platanus ; leaves o{ Bracliypliyllum ; 

five or six varieties of cone scales, including Daininara and Picea ; 

and a miscellaneous assortment of undeterminable remains. 

Maryland Geological Survey, 
Baltimore, Md. 

MESADENIA LANCEOLATA AND ITS ALLIES 

By Roland M. Harper 

In the genus Mesadeiiia Raf. [Cacalia L. in part) there is a 
small group of species growing in moist places in the coastal 
plain of the southeastern United States and flowering in late sum- 
mer, characterized by terete stems, leaves with parallel or sub- 
pinnate primary veins, and involucral bracts not keeled. These 
plants are distinguished from each other by comparatively slight 
morphological characters, but differ more in range and habitat. 

The first published species of this group is M. laneco/ata, 
described by Nuttall in 1818 from specimens collected in Georgia 
and Florida (presumably in the maritime counties) by Dr. Bald- 
win. Its leaf-blades are glaucous, especially beneath, and lance- 
olate to oblanceolate in outline. 

In 1822 Elliott described a plant collected by himself on his 
trip to the Alabama territory, identifying it with Cacalia ovata 
Walt. According to Elliott's description, and specimens which 
have since been collected in the same general region, this plant 
differs from Nuttall's Cacalia lanceolata chiefly in having leaf- 
blades nearly as broad as long ; but its range and habitat are so 
different that there is little danger of confusing the two species in 
the field. 

]^ut the identity of IClliott's Cacalia ovata with Walter's is by no 
means certain, since the former is not now known east of the 
Ocmulgcc River, while the latter presumably came from South 
Carolina, There are also some serious discrepancies between 
Elliott's description and that of Walter, as was noted by Torrey 



18:} 

and Gray, who retained the name ovata for the plant described 
by ElHott, and referred Walter's description doubtfully to Cacalia 
tubcrosa Nutt., a species chiefly confined to the Mississippi valley, 
as far as we know at present. In 1892, MacMillan (Met. Minn. 
555) wentastep further and formally substituted Walter's specific 
name for Nuttall's tubcrosa, transferring it at the same time to 
Senccio, in which the Orif^inal species {citriplicifolia) was placed by 
Hooker. 

Ikit C. tubcrosa is not known to range farther east than Ala- 
bama, so it is highly improbable that Walter ever saw it. His 
description is rather unsatisfactory, as usual, but what there is of 
it will apply much better to Cacalia sulcata Fernald,* a recently 
described species allied to C. tJiberosa. This, too, has a restricted 
range, being known as yet only from Southwest Georgia and 
West Florida, but the chances of its being found hereafter in the 
vicinity of Walter's home are doubtless greater than in the case 
of the two comparatively well-known plants just discussed. 

From the foregoing it is pretty evident that the plant described 
by Elliott is now without a name, so I have provided one for it 
below. 

A third member of the laiiccolata group is common in moist 
pine-barrens in some of the " wire-grass " counties of Georgia 
(see ToRREYA, 5: 114, second line from bottom). It differs 
from M. lanceolata in having shorter leaves, which are not at all 
glaucous but yellowish-green throughout, and being scarcely 
more than half as tall. Its range seems to be entirely distinct, 
for I have seen it only in the Altamaha Grit region, and J/. 
lanceolata only in the flat countiy south and east of there. A 
plant described by Elliott from specimens sent from Louisville, 
Georgia, by James Jackson, and doubtfully referred to Cacalia 
lanceolata, was probably the same as mine from the Altamaha 
Grit region. Louisville is not in this region, but Mr. Jackson 
may have collected the Mcsadoiia some distance south of Louis- 
ville, as he is believed to have done in the analogous case of 

* P)Ot. Gaz. 33 : 157. 1 902. See also Bull. Torrey Club 30 : 342. 1903 ; 31 : 
27. 1904. Mesadenia dentata Raf. (New Y\. N. A. 4 : 79. 1836), described 
from Alabama, is possibly synonymous with this. 



184 

Pentstemon disscctus Ell. * Elliott describes the leaves as " slightly 
glaucous underneath," but they appear more so in the dried 
state than when living. For the present it seems best to treat 
this bright-green plant as a variety rather than a species, since 
its chief character is scarcely distinguishable in herbarium speci- 
mens. 

The nomenclature and known distribution of these three plants 
may be summarized as follows : 

Mesadenia Elliottii 

^''Cacalia ^2;^/^ Walt"; Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 2: 310. 1822. 

T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2 : 435. 1843 ; Chapm. Fl. S. U. S. 244. 

i860; Wood, Class-Book, 463. 1861 ; Gray. Syn. Fl. i" : 

395. 1884. 
''Mesadenia ^z/rt/« (Walt.) Raf." Small, Fl. S. E. U. S. 1301. 

1903. 

Grows mostly in damp woods, ranging from Georgia and 
Florida to Louisiana in the coastal plain. Elliott said of it : 
" Grows in the western parts of Georgia. f Common in the high- 
lands near the Alabama." Wood reported its having been col- 
lected in the vicinity of Macon, Ga., by Dr. Mettauer. Dr. 
Mohr reported it from Lee and Montgomery counties in the 
Cretaceous region of Alabama, which is probably just about 
where Elliott saw it. In Georgia I have seen it in the counties 
of Houston, Early and Berrien {jio. 1701), and only in places 
where the Lafayette formation seems to be absent. I have ex- 
amined the following specimens besides my own : 

Georgia : Without further data, Boykiii. " Clearing in edge 
of swamp near Smithville," Aug. 26, 1901, A. //. Ciirtiss 
{no. 6884). 

Florida : Middle Florida, Cliapniaii {no. J2ji). 

Alabama : Vicinity of Auburn, Lee Co., .several collections 
by Jiarlc and others, without indication of habitat. 

Mississii'i'i : Mendenhall, Simpson Co., Aug. 18, 1903 (with- 
out further data), 5. M. Tracy {no. 86yi). 

*See Bull. Torrey Club 32 : 166, 167. 1905. 

t Presumably near the fall-line, and jirobably not far from Columbus. .See Bull. 
Torrey (^lul), 31 : 12. 1904. 



18.-) 

Louisiana: Without further data, Lcavcmvorth. "Damp 
valleys in pine woods, FeHciana. August," Witi. Carpcnlcr. 

Mesadknia lanceolata (Nutt.) Greene,* Pittonia 3 : 182. 
1897. Cacalia la)iccolata^\x\X. G&\-\. 1\ 138. 1818. 

In Georgia I have seen this in flat damp pine-barrens in Mcln- 
tosli (especially around Darien Junction), Glynn, and Brooks {jio. 
16 J i) counties. In Alabama Dr. Mohr reported it from Mobile 
and Baldwin counties, in various situations varying from moist 
pine-barrens to brackish marshes. (Dr. Chapman gave brackish 
marshes as its only habitat.) Specimens examined show it to 
range southward to the Everglades of Florida and westward to 
Louisiana. 

^ Mesadenia lanceolata virescens var. nov. 

Stem 9-10 dm. tall ; leaves yellowish-green on both surfaces, 
not glaucous, the lowest 16-1S cm. long. Otherwise much like 
M. lanceolata. 

Apparently confined to the Altamaha Grit region of Georgia, 
where it grows in moist pine-barrens, with both Lafa}'ette and 
Columbia formations present. Flowers in September and Octo- 
ber. It is represented in my collections by 110. 66.^, collected 
September 19, i900,t and no. i6j8, collected September 26, 
1902, both from Tifton, Berrien county. I will designate no. 
idyS as the type because I have distributed more specimens of 
it than of the earlier number, but the two collections are abso- 
lutely identical, their stations being only a few feet apart. 

I have noted the same plant also in the counties of Dodge, 
Telfair, Appling, Coffee, Wilcox, Irwin, Dooly, Worth, Colquitt 
and Thomas ; and I have little doubt that it grows also in Bul- 
loch, Emanuel, Tattnall and Montgomery, which counties I have 
not yet visited at the proper season for identifying it. Jackson's 
plant mentioned by Elliott, if it is the same as mine, probably 
came from Emanuel County. 

College Point, N. V. 

* The authorship of this combination is usually credited to Rafinesque, but he 
gave neither description nor synonyms. 

t See Bull. Torrey Clul), 28 : 459 (first par.igraph). 1900. 



186 



NEWS ITEMS 

Professor John M. Coulter, of the University of Chicago, sailed 
for Europe on October 7, expecting to remain abroad until next 
April. 

I\Ir. George V. Nash, of the New York Botanical Garden, 
lectured October 21 at the Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, 
on " Hayti, the Negro Republic." 

Mr. Louis Harman Peet, author of "Trees and Shrubs of 
Prospect Park," and " Trees and Shrubs of Central Park," died 
suddenly at his home in Brooklyn on October 18. 

"A Nature Study of Maryland Plants," is the title of an attrac- 
tively illustrated and popularly written pamphlet by Frederick 
H. Blodgett, which has recently appeared as vol. 2, no. i of the 
Maryland Agricultural College Bulletin. 

The program of the autumn lectures of the New York Botan- 
ical Garden, to be delivered in the lecture hall of the Museum 
Building, Bronx Park, on Saturday afternoons, at 4:30 o'clock, is 
as follows : October 7, " Autumn Features of Native Trees and 
Shrubs," by Dr. N. L. Britton ; October 14, " Botanical Explora- 
tions in Hayti," by Mr.Geo. V. Nash ; October 21, "The Facul- 
ties of Plants," by Dr. D. T. MacDougal ; October 28, " A Sum-- 
mer in the Desert," by Professor Francis E. Lloyd ; November 
4, " The Sea-Gardens of Tropical America," by Dr. M. A. Howe ; 
November 11, " P'arming and Fruit-Growing in Cuba," by Dr. 
W. A. Murrill; November 18, "Fossil Plants," by Arthur Hol- 
lick ; November 25, "Tropical Fruits," by Professor H. H. 
Rusby, 



Vol. 5 No. II 

TORREYA NElfC^ 

November, 1905 Q '. 

Till': PLANT FORMATIONS OF THE ADIRON 
DACK MOUNTAINS 

\'<\ J'.ll.N W. lI.\RSIIlii:K(;KK 

Geolof^ically and phj'siographically, the life-histoiy of the 
Adirondack Mountains has been long and complex. Commenc- 
ing at some period of Archean time, long before the beginning 
of the known geologic record, they have maintained a land con- 
dition almost, if not quite, down to the present time. Since the 
earliest time many thousands of feet of strata have been re- 
moved, until now the various elevations stand revealed to us in 
a plancd-down character. We now find them to be mountains 
of considerable elevation, somewhat rugged in outline, but much 
less rugged than the Andes, Alps, or Rocky Mountains. There 
are few lofty, inaccessible cliffs, but instead, refunded, easily 
scaled hills and mountain peaks, reaching only very rarely to a 
height greater than one mile above sea-level. This rounded 
form has been emphasized by the scouring action of the ice of 
the glacial period, which covered the highest peaks of these 
mountains. Mt. Tahawus (Mt. Marcy) is the highest peak 
(5,344 feet) and Mt. Mclntyre comes next (5,1 12 feet). 

The plant formations have been developed in the period of 
time since the retreat of the glacial ice-sheet. One can clearly 
trace the sequence of development, not only in the conversion of 
lakes into bogs and bogs into mountain meadows, but also in the 
forest formations and associations themselves. The following 
brief account presents the result of a study of these formations 
made in the summer of 1904, when the author had the pleasure 
of botanizing with IJr. Oscar Drude, professor of botan\' in the 
Dresden Technical High School and director of the Royal Bo- 
2^ tanic Garden, Dresden. The elevations were determined by 

-^ [No. 10, Vol. 5, of ToRRKVA, comprising pages 171-1S6, was issued Oclobe 
=^ 27, I.;05.] 

> 187 






188 

Professor Drude, who brought an aneroid barometer with him to 
America. 

Deciduous Forest Formation. — The forest at the base of 
Mt. Tahawus along the Au Sable River and about the Au Sable 
lakes, according to my observations, consists of the following 
dominant species : * Bctiila Intca, Fagus aviericana, Acer sac- 
clianiui, Tsiiga canadensis, Thuja occidentalis, Pinus Strobns, 
Abies balsainca and Betula papyrifera (the Fagiis-Accr-BeUda 
fades), while as secondary trees grow Acer rubrnui, Acer pcnn- 
sylvanintvi, Popnliis trevuiloides, Sorbns americana and beneath 
the latter Vibnrnttin aliiifoliiim, Ritbus odoratus and ]lburu?tin 
cassiiioides. Such are called in Adirondack phraseology, hard- 
wood lands, which occupy in general the elevated flats and slopes 
where the deciduous-leaved trees are the characteristic species. 
Acer sacchariivi, Betula hi tea and Fagus americaua attain their 
best development on these lands, while Tsuga canadensis is of 
inferior quality to that found on the moister soil of lower ground. f 
Along the Au Sable River, near its source, in a deep gorge were 
found in 2iSsoc\dii\oy\ Acer sacchanun, Tsuga canadensis diud Betula 
lutea as the dominant species, while the beech, Fagus aviericana, 
seems to have a crown which never rises quite above that of 
the trees mentioned {Tsuga-Fagus facies). The herbaceous 
plants of the forest floor are Viola rotuiidifolia, Tiarella cordi- 
folia, Medeola virginica. Mite Julia re pens, Unifoliuni canadcnse, 
Clintonia borealis, Trillium utidulatunt, Streptopus antplexifolius, 
Pyrola chlorantha, Oxalis Acetosclla, Aralia raceviosa, Dalibarda 
repens and Lycopodiuni luciduluui. Taxus canadensis forms a 
.secondary element in the Ts?iga-J'agus facies. Polypodiuni 7'ul- 
gare forms mats in undisputed possession of the tops of boulders, 
while the rock sides are distinguished by the presence of species 
of Untbilicaria. Dryopteris noveboracensis forms extensive patches 
in the deep recesses of the forest. 

The siiores of lower Au Sable Lake, which are mountainous 
and stcej), arc covered with Betula papyrifera a.ssociated with 
Abies balsantea and Populus trcjuuloides, while near the u])per end 

* Names accorfling to Hritlon's Manual, igoi. 

t I'inchot, (i. The .Xciiroiulack Spruce, 12. 1S9.S. 



180 

of this lake grow Sor/)iis aincricaim, Picca Mariana and Acer 
sacc/ianiin, ami Thuja occidciitalis becomes more abundant and 
virtually supplants the paper birch, Bctula papyrifcra. The vege- 
tation of the forest lloor here consists of Clititoiiia borcalis, Oxalis 
Acctosii/a, Qsiiiuiuia C/ayloitiaiia (= O. iiitcrriipta^, O. cinna- 
vioinca, Cliiogcncs Jiispidula, Uiiifolutm catiadcnse and / 'cratrttm 
viridc. 

The forest al)out Ra(iuette Lake is a mixed one of broad- 
leaved and coniferous trees, the latter predominating. Such are 
the spruce flats of the lumbermen, where the soil is fresh and 
deep, with Picca Mariana {= P. nidciis Sargent), of medium 
height and diameter. These flats form the lower limit oi Acer 
sacchanivi, which is common on higher ground. Abies bal- 
saiiica is small. The principal species, in the order in which they 
occur, are : Picca Mariana (= P. nibcns Sargent), Bctula lulca, 
Abies balsaiiica, Tsiio-a canadensis, Fagns anicricana, Acer saccJia- 
rum and Pinus Strobus i^Picea-Bctnla facies). With these are 
associated Thuja occidentalism Picca Mariana, Larix anicricana, 
Pinus rcsinosa, Acer saccharinuni (= A. dasycarpus) and Pctu/a 
populifolia, with scattered Fraxinus anicricana and Prunus scro- 
tina. Populus trciniiloidcs and Prunus pcnnsylvanica are found on 
the burned-over land with an undergrowth in the primeval forest 
of Viburnum alnifoliuni, Acer pennsylvanicuni and Acer spicatuin. 
Here, the characteristic swamp species are Picca Mariana (red 
spruce = P. rubens Sargent), Abies balsamea, Picca Mariana 
(black si^ruce), Pinus Strobus, Larix anicricana, while on the 
gravelly knolls in the swamps occur Pinus Strobus, Tsiiga cana- 
densis, Picca Mariana {= P. rubens Sargent), Abies balsamea, 
etc. Thuja occidentalis and Larix americana grow on the poorest 
drained land.* 

The forest about Tupper Lake is characterized by Picca Ma- 
riana (= P. rubens Sargent), Acer sacc/iarum, Fagus americana, 
and Bctula lutca. The sugar maple, Acer saccharuin, and beech, 
Fagus anicricana, have the advantage over Bctula lutca on the 

* Ilosiner, K. S., and Bruce, E. S. A Forest working Plan for Township 4°- 
Hulletin 30, Division of Forestry, U. S. Department Agriculture. 1901. 

Graves, H. S. Practical Forestry in the Adirondacks, Hulletin 26, Division of 
Forestry. 1899. 



190 

better soils, because the latter is less tolerant of shade. The fol- 
lowing list shows the relative degree of tolerance beginning with 
those that require the most light : Larix americana, Popuiiis 
trcniii/oidcs, Pniuiis pcnnsylvanica, Pimis St7'obus, Bettda lutca, 
Acer nibnivi^ Abies bahauiea, Picea Mariana {= P- riibens Sar- 
gent), Tsuga canadensis, Fagus anicricana and Acer saceharnvi, 
while the best soils support Fagns amcricana. Acer saccJiarnvi 
and species in general ma}- be arranged according to edaphic re- 
quirements, beginning with the most requiring : Prunns serotina, 
Acer saccliariiui, Fagus aviericaiia, Acer rnbrnni, Pinus Strobns, 
Abies balsamca and Picca Mariana { ^ P. nibens Sargent). 

As one ascends, the facies in some places consists of the de- 
ciduous species mentioned with such ferns and herbs on the 
ground as AdiaiUnni pedatuvi, PolysticJiuni acrosticJioides, Mono- 
tropa uniflora, Chiogenes /dspid?da, Clintonia borealis, Corniis 
canadensis and Pajiicularia elongata. At 3,600 feet, especially 
on the southern flanks of Mt. Tahawus, the forest formation con- 
sists of Picea Mariana (red spruce = P. rnbens Sargent), Betula 
lenta, Betula lutea, Sorbus anui-ieana, Abies balsamca and Tliuja 
occidentalis ; and Veratrnni viride occurs on the forest floor with 
Vacciniiun canadense, Lycopodiuni annotinnni, L. luciduluni, Aster 
acuminatus, Solidagojlexicaulis, Coptis trifolia, Linnaea amcricana 
and Strepfopus aniplexifolius. Solidago flexicaulis may be the 
lowland representative of the alpine Solidago alpcstris. 

CoMFEKOUS FoKMATiox. — Thcsc southem slopes are the 
spruce slopes, according to the designation of the lumbermen, 
because Picea Mariana (= P. rubens Sargent) is dominant. The 
absence o( Acer sacc/iarum, Acer rubrum and Viburnum alnifolium 
is due to elevation and is noteworthy. Abies balsamca on an 
elevated saddle of the mountain forms a pure forest with shrubby 
and herbaceous companions {^^Ibies facies), and in open swampy 
places surrounded by the balsam occur Osmunda cinnamomea 
and Veratrnm vindc. 

The " Kruinm-holz," or dwarf timber, is reached at 5,000 feet 
( 1 ,5 50 m.) on Mt. Tahawus (Mt. Marcy). Here Abies balsamca is 
about five feet high, with its base covered by Hypnum splendens, 
H. Crista-castrensis and Dicranum sj)., with Linnaea amcricana, 



Chiogencs hispidnla ?is\A Cornns canadensis beneath, while I'acci- 
niuin canadetisc and Sorbus amcricana are prominent shrubs. At 
1,550 meters trees are only 1-2 feet hij^h, and disappear entirely, 
bein<4 replaced in exposed places hy Ledum qrotnUuidicuni, Vacci- 
fiiuin uligiuosuni and l\ cacspilosnni {I'accininni-Lcdjun associa- 
tion), Euipctruni nigrum [Einpeinnn association), Alnus alnohctula 
{Alnus association), and in sheltered places are found Spiraea 
sa/ieifolia, Gottiana linearis, J ^eratruvi viride and Linnaea ajner- 
icana. 

Ali'ine Plant Formation. — The plants on the bare top 
(5,300 feet), collected by the writer,* are Coptis trifolia, Viola 
blanda, Arenaria groen/andica, Oxalis Acetosella, Sibbaldiopsis 
tridentata, Rubus strigosus, Sorbus aniericana, Spiraea salicifolia, 
Ribes prostratnm, Cornus canadensis, Linnaea aniericana, Hous- 
tonia caenilea, Solidago a/pestris, Nabalus Bootii, Vaccinia ni caespi- 
tosuni, ]''. pcnnsylvanicuni, V. peiinsylvanicuui angustifoliuni, V 
uliginosuni, Oxycoccus Oxycoccus, C/iiogenes hispidula, Chaniae- 
dapline calycidata {Cassandra calyculata), Ledum grocnlandicum, 
Kalmia glauca, RJiododendron lapponicttm, Rhinanthus Crista- 
Galli, Trientalis anicricaiia, Diapcnsia lapponica, Gentiana linearis, 
Empetrum nigrum, Bctula glandulosa, Alnus ahiobetula, Salix 
Uva- Ursi, Abies balsamea, Veratrum viride, Eriophorum vaginatum 
and Lycopodium Selago. A singular lichen, Thamnolia vermic- 
nlaris, attracts the attention by its pure white color, and its 
cylindric, hollow sharp-pointed podetia 2-4 inches long, growing 
among mosses and on the thin soil of the mountain-top under 
sterile conditions. It is more plentiful, according to Professor 
Peck, on Mt. Mclntyre than on Mt. Tahawus (Mt. Marcy). 
Lonicera coerulea ascends almost to the top of the mountain. It 
occurs behind the sheltering rocks but a short distance south of 
the signal station. Carex Bigelovii is the only sedge on the 
highest part of the mountain. f 

Bog Formation. — Two small marshy areas form a part of the 
open summit of Mount Tahawus. One is a decided depression 

* The ascent was made by Professor Drude and the writer on August 26, 1904. 
t I'eck, C. H. Plants of the Summit of Mt. Marcy. Bulletin New York Slate 
Museums: 657. 1899. 



192 

in the northeast slope ; the other is on the eastern slope and is 
much nearer the top of the mountain. Here were found by 
me, Kalmia glauca, Ledum grociilaiidiaoii, Oxvcocais Oxycoccns, 
Eriophoruvi vaginatum, Vcratnim viridc, Vacciniwn tdiginosum 
and several species of Carcx. 

Giant Mountain (4,622 feet) is not bare at the summit, except 
where shelving rocks occur. Here were found by me Ledum 
groenlandicum, Arenaria grocnlandica, Marcliantia polymorpha 
(in burned areas), Agrostis rubra, Vaccinium pennsylvanicum, 
Linuaea auiericana and Cornus canadensis. The summits of 
lower mountains, Mt. Hopkins (3,136 feet) for example, are not 
above timber-line, but frequently they are bare owing to rock 
exposures. On this mountain, a smooth rock surface is found, 
in the broken parts of which grow Sibbaldiopsis tridentata 
{Sibbaldiopsis association), while Vaccinum uliginosum (V. uli- 
ginosum association), Alnus alnobctula {Alnus association), Vac- 
cinium pennsylvanicum, V. pennsylvanicum angusiifolium and V. 
canadense are found along the edge of the forest, which consists 
at this elevation of Picea Mariana, Betula papyrifera, B. Icnta, 
Primus pennsylvanica, Acer pennsylvaincum, Pimis Strobus, Populus 
tremuloides, Thuja occidcntalis and Abies balsamea, that reach to 
the top of the mountain. 

Hemlock Formation. — The hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, 
forms a pure forest upon the ridges at the foot of Giant Moun- 
tain. Here the beech, Fagus aniericana, Acer rubrum and Acer 
pennsylvanicum are subordinate species with a few spruce trees 
[Picea) intermixed. The herbaceous undergrowth is typical of 
such forests, consisting of Linnaea aniericana (in mats), Mitc/iella 
rcpens, Cornus canadensis, Pyrola chlorantha, Oxalis Acetosclla, 
Clin (o Ilia borealis, Peramium re pens (Goody era rcpens), Medeola 
virginica, Pyrola sccunda, Viola rotundifolia, CJiimapJiila u,nbel- 
lata, Gaultlieria procumbens, Coptis trifolia, Unifolium canadense, 
Cypripedium acaule, Lysias orbiculata [Habenaria orbiculata) and 
Lycopodium lucidulum. This is the same association of species 
that one finds in southeastern Pennsylvania under the hemlocks, 
with the addition in the Adirondacks of Linnaea aniericana^ 
Clintonia borealis and Coptis trifolia. 



In more elevated situations, on Giant Mountain, one finds the 
forest to consist of Picca sp. and Abies balsauua, together with 
Bettila papyrifcra, Acer nibmm, Betiila lettta and B. lutea, with a 
fern, Dennstaedtia piinctilobula (= Dicksonia pilosiuscuia), abun- 
dant, together with Rlbcs prostratuui and Rtibiis strigosus {Picca 
facies). 

Pi)iiis rcsiiiosa, in a few localities, as on the southeastern slopes 
of Baxter Mountain (2,400 feet), makes a formation {Piiuis rcs- 
inosa formation). Sometimes Piints Strobus is intermingled with 
Junipcrus comnuoiis alpi)ia together with Vacciiiiimi pcniisylvcmi- 
cuin, V. catiadensc and Pteridiiun aqinlirunn on the rocks {Junip- 
crus- Vacciuium association). Near these rocks grow Populus 
trcDiuloidcs, Ainelaiichicr oligocarpa, Betula papvrifcra. Spiraea 
salicifolia and Diervilla trifida. The two pines dominate the 
southwest slopes of Baxter Mountain down to the lowest ridges, 
where Qucrcus rubra, Acer penusylvanicum, Tsuga canadensis 
are in association, finally changing below to Tsuga canadoisis, 
Fagus aiiiericana, Abies balsainea and Acer saccJiaruni. 

The ponds, or small lakes of the Keene Valley neighborhood, 
are fringed by Cliamacdaphne calyculata, Cornus alteniifolia, Thuja 
occidentalism Bettda papyrifera, Abies balsainea, Picea Mariatia 
(= /'. rubens Sargent) and Pinus Strobus, together with Galium 
asprellum and fmpatiens bifiora, while in the shallow water occur 
Nymphaea advena {Nuphar advena), Lobelia Dortnianna, Eriocau- 
lon sp. and Sparganium simplex (lake-plant formation). The 
ferns of the forest, near such ponds, are Polypodi?im vulgare (on 
boulders), Adiant2tin pedatum, Botrychium virginianum and Poly- 
stichum acrostichoidcs. 

Rock-Gorge Formation. — This is typicall)' developed in the 
Au Sable Chasm in the northern part of the Adirondack area. 
The Au Sable River has cut a narrow gorge, or occupied a fault, 
with almost straight sides and a few overhanging shelves of rock. 
Along the crest of the precipices and in the gorge, according to 
my observations, are found Pinus resinosa, Betula papyrifera, 
Tsuga ca/mdensis. Thuja oceidentalis, Betula lutea and Acer ru- 
brum, while somewhat back from the gorge together with the 
above-mentioned trees are Pinus Strobus, Betula populifolia. 



194 



Quercus rubra, Q. alba and O. nigra, beneath which occur Avic- 
lanchier ca)iade?isis, Hamaniclis virginica and Gaylusaccia rcsinosa. 
The rock crevices show Campanula rotnndifolia Langsdorfiana, 
Polypodium vulgarc, Aralia raccniosa, Rubus odoratns and Ribes 
rotiindifolium, and, on the ledges, clumps of Riibns strigosits. 
University of Pennsylvania. 

A KEY TO THE BROWN SESSILE POLYPOREAE 
OF TEMPERATE NORTH AMERICA 



By William A. Murrill 

The pileate species of Polyporaceae have been recently grouped 
under three subfamilies ; the Polyporeae, with porose hyme- 
nium and annual hymenophore, the Fomiteae, with porose hyme- 
nium and perennial hymenophore and the Agariceae, with fur- 
rowed hymenium. The plants treated in the present key are 
Polyporeae with brown context and without a distinct stipe. 



Kkv to the Genera. 








Hymenophore sessile. 








Spores hyaline. 








Context light-brown. 








Context at first fleshy, becoming slightly cor 


■ky. 


A. 


ISCHNODER.MA. 


Context tough from the first. 








Surface encrusted. 




B. 


Antrodia. 


Surface not encrusted. 








Surface glabrous or nearly so. 








Hymenium alveolate. 




C. 


Favolus. 


Hymenium normally poroid. 




D. 


Hapalopii.us. 


Surface distinctly hairy. 




E. 


FUNAI lA. 


Context dark-brown. 








Context friable. 




F. 


rHAEOLUS. 


Context tough. 








Tubes entire, pileus heavily bearded. 




G. 


Pogonomyces. 


Tubes soon splitting into teeth, pileus ve 


Ivety. 


H. 


CeRRENEI LA. 


Spores brown. 




I. 


Inonotus. 



A. The Species ok Ischnoderma. 
Plant large, brown, resinous. /. fuliginosum (Scop.) Murr, 

B. The Si'Ecie.s oe Antrohia. 
Plant small, brown, zonatc, encrusted. A. //W/i'-f ( Sommerf. ) Karst. 



195 

C. 'I'lIK, HKOWN Sl'KCIICS OK F/WrjI.US. 

Plant tliin, sinof)tli, piirplisli-zonale. F. variegatus (Berk.) Murr. 

D. TiiK Specif.s of H.M'ai.oimi.us. 

1. Ilyincniiun concolorous ; pilous snioolli, azonate ; context soft and friable. 

//. rutilans ( I'crs. ) Murr. 

Hymenium differently colored ; pileus rarely smooth ; context rigid or corky, ^ot 

frial)Ie. 2. 

2. Hymenium lilac-colored, tubes i cm. or more in length ; pileus concentrically sul- 

cate. //. suhlilacintis (Ell. & Kv. ) Murr. 

Hymenium dark-brown, tubes shorter. 3. 

3. Context rigid ; pileus azonaie or with few and indefinite markings. 

//. gilvHs (Schw. ) Murr. 
Context flexible; pileus plainly and detmitcly multizonate. 

H. licnoides (Mont.) Murr. 

E. THK Sl'ECIES OF P'UNALIA. 

Plant thick and firm ; a northern species. Funalia sttippea (Perk.) Murr. 

Plant thin, soft and Hexible ; found in Louisiana and Florida. 

Finialia 7'illosn ( Sw. ) Murr. 

F. The SPECiris of Phaeoi.is. 

A large brown spongy plant, usually stipitate, but with puzzling ses.sile forms. 

P. sistotrenioides (Alb. & Schw.) Murr. 

G. The Specie.s of Pogonomyces. 

A plant easily known by its dense covering of rigid hairs and minute firm pores. 

P. /ivdnoidfsl{?>\\'.) Murr. 

H. The Species of Cerrenella. 

Hymenium concolorous, teeth bright-brown in color. C. tahaciva (B. & C) Murr. 
Hymenium of a different color from the pileus, teeth covered with a greenish bloom. 

C. ioriacea (B. & Rav. ) Murr. 

I. The Specif..s of Inonotus. 

1. Spores deep-brown in color. 2. 
Spores faintly tinted with brown. 3. 

2. Surface hirsute, tubes luteous. /. hirsutm (Scop.) Murr. 
Surface conspicuously tomentose, tubes not luteous. /. perplextts (Peck) Murr. 
Surface glabrous or finely tomentose. /. dryophilus (Berk. ) Murr. 

3. Plants soft, anoderm ; found on living shrubs. /. aiiip!ccl(tis Murr. 
Plants hard, becoming encrusted ; found on dead wood. 

/. radiattis (Sowerby) Karst. 
New York Botanical Garden. 



196 



ON THE OCCURRENCE OF DAUCUS CAROTA 
IN HAITI 

By Norman Taylor 

During a recent trip to Haiti, a rather remarkable example of 
the adaptability of our common wild carrot to tropical condi- 
tions was noticed at Marmelade, a small town about fifty miles 
from the north coast. At an approximate elevation of 2,000 feet 
I found a field very fairly covered with this weed. It was not a 
case of its recent introduction in corn or hay, as the town is much 
too far from the sea, and the natives much too poor to import 
seeds or forage from other countries. 

In colonial times, however, a great deal of Indian corn and 
seeds of all kinds were taken to the island, and it is only in this 
way that we can plausibly account for the substantial coloniza- 
tion of the plant. It must have maintained itself for a hundred 
years or more, and I later had evidences of its migratory ten- 
dencies. Along a tiny stream which runs very close to the road 
from Marmelade to San Michel, an occasional plant was notice- 
able for ten or fifteen miles, until we came out to a xerophytic 
plain, where all traces of it were lost. It would be interesting, 
at some future time, to go over this area again and ascertain how 
far it had spread 

This is not the first time this troublesome weed has been re- 
ported from the West Indies, as I find in the herbarium of the 
New York Botanical Garden a specimen collected at Guadeloupe ; 
Perc Duss' no. 401 j. 

With the somewhat unusual occurrence of this Daiicus in 
mind I began looking for other northern species, which from 
previous reports * might be expected in Haiti, and I was not dis- 
appointed. In Marmelade, among what passes for the paving 
stones of a Haitian .street I found a single plant of Tamxacum 
Taraxacum (L.) Karst. Whether, from the sterility of its en- 
vironment, the great heat of the sun, or from a combination of 
the.se causes, I do not know, but the plant was much stunted, 

* Wilson, P. .Some inlroduccd I'lants in Cuba. loncya 4 : l<S<S. 1904. 



197 

the scape very short, and the head twisted and otherwise deformed. 

I found, also, a normal plant of Plantago major L. at Plaisance, 
at an elevation of about 2,200 feet, 

A close watch of the country adjacent to the sea-coast failed 
to bring to light any of these species, and it would seem that it 
is only in the comparatively cool air of the mountains that they 
were able to survive. 

Nkw York Botanical Garden. 

SHORTER NOTES 

ToMOPHAGUS FOR Dendkophagus. — My attention has been 
kindly called by Mr. C. V. Piper to the fact that the generic 
name DeiidropJiagiis, recently used for a new genus of the Poly- 
poraceae (Bull. Torrey Club, 32 : 473. 1905), was assigned by 
Tourney in 1900 to a slimc-mould causing the disease known as 
" crown-gall " (Bull. Univ. Ariz. Agric. Exper. Sta. 33 : 7-64. 
/. /-?/. 1900). I therefore substitute the name Tomophagus 
for the one preempted, with Tomophagus colossus (Er. ) as the 
type. William A. Murkill. 

Nkw York Botamcai, Garden. 

The Gray Polypody in Ohio. — In the October number of 
ToRREYA, in the article " Notes on the Gray Polypody," the 
author, Ivar Tidestrom, states (p. 175) that " This is possibly iJic 
most northern locality for this fern" — referring to the station 
noted by C. L. Pollard, at which place, " near the Potomac 
Ri\'er and within fifteen miles of Washington," the plant was 
found by W. P. Hay. 

I have a station for the plant which I take to be a little farther 
north than that mentioned above. At any rate it may be of 
sufficient interest to report that this fern was collected in 1900 in 
the northern part of Adams County (Ohio) at a place called 
Beaver Pond. I also found plants at the village of Mineral 
Springs, a short distance from the former localit}'. In the Ohio 
State Herbarium we have a specimen collected at Batavia 
Junction, Hamilton County, by Dr. B}'rnes, and one collected at 
Plainville, close to the preceding station, b}' Mr. Langden. 

W. A. Kellerman. 



198 

A LACiNiATE RuBUS. — Dr. Greene's suggestive paper on Rhus 
bipinnata leads me to recall an instance within my own knowl- 
edge, which may throw light on the origin of a cultivated plant. 
Many years ago I found in a hedge of Ridnts rusticaims, in Kent, 
England, a single plant which bore laciniate leaves, but did not 
seem to differ otherwise from true rusticamis. In Science Gossip, 
August, 1889, I gave some account of it, and proposed to call it 
R. rusticamis var. incisus. Later I sent a specimen to Kew, and it 
was identified as R. laciniatus Willd., a well-known garden plant 
of uncertain origin. It appears to me nearly certain that the 
plant of incisus originated where I found it, from rusticamis 
ancestry ; but it can hardly be doubted that R. laciniatus itself 
had a like history, at some time and place now wholly forgotten. 

T. D. A. COCKERELL. 
Bori.DER, Colorado. 

• Duplex Names. — In my work over a Patagonian flora I 
have been compelled to face the problem of giving twin names 
to species whose original specific names have been raised 
to generic standing. Provisionally and under protest, I have 
accepted such names, and even added to the list. But I have 
never been satisfied with the system which they represent ; and 
I am satisfied that Turczaninow would not have erected the new 
genus Ugni for Molina's old species Myrtus Ugni, if he had for- 
seen as its outcome the ultimate name Ugni Ugni (Mol.) Macl., 
a system that duplicates priorities for the old specific name and 
extinguishes the priority of the other part C)f the first name. 

As the question was re-opened at the recent International Bo- 
tanical Congress in Vienna, I venture to submit, not for immedi- 
ate acceptance, but for consideration, and for acceptance, if ap- 
proved, the following rule — Whenever a specific name of a plant 
has been promoted so as to become its generic name, then the 
previous generic name shall be demoted so as to become the new 
specific name ; the original authorit}' to be parenthesized. Thus 
the .species which I have reluctantly called Ugni Ugni (Mol.) 
should become Ugni Myrtus (Mol.), the priority of both the prim- 
itive names being in this case preserved. This rule would give 
Fagopyrum Polygonum (L.), Sassafras Laurus (L.), etc. 



199 

I cannot forecast how the proposal will strike experienced bot- 
anists ; but it appears to me to be at least worthy of their consid- 
eration. 

George Maci.oskie. 

Princeton Univkksitv, 
October lo, 1905. 

REVIEWS 

Campbell's flosses and Perns* 

The second edition of Professor Campbell's work on the 
mosses and ferns will, we are sure, be welcomed by botanists, 
since the earlier book has been for some time out of print. The 
value of this book has by no means been small, and its extension 
to over a hundred pa<:^es beyond the limits of the original produc- 
tion, together with the changes made necessary by recent ad- 
vances in our knowledge, will make it still more useful. Typo- 
graphically, the new edition is not up to the standard of the first. 
Cuts which appeared clean-cut before are now blurred, a result 
no doubt partly due to the damage done to the blocks during 
storage, and partly to inferior printing. 

Among the more noticeable changes in the descriptive part of 
the work we note that the author adopts the view that the 
Anthocerotes are coordinate in rank with the Hepaticae and 
Musci, and that the treatment of this interesting segregate is 
fuller. The practical limitations of book-making have prevented 
excursions into detail which, however desirable, would easily 
have doubled the volume in size. Nevertheless, the author has 
deemed it well to deal somewhat fully with the maturer phases 
of the sporophytic generation in the more highly organized 
groups with which he deals, so far as the scope of his task 
would permit. We are of the opinion that in many instances he 
has been led into retailing very well-known or easily attainable 
information, accessible in many reference books. To this slight 
extent the descriptions smack of compilation without sufficient 
•critical knowledge of the more obvious points of structure, 

* Campbell, D. H. The Structuie and Development of the Mosses and Kerns 
(Archegoniatae). 8vo. 1-657. y". 1-322. New York, The Macmilian Company. 
1905. Price, $4.50 



200 

points which, though readily observable, cannot be said to be the 
less important. The reviewer may speak only of those matters 
of which he claims to have some personal knowledge and would 
cite the instance on pages 493-4 where Lycopodiuin vohibile is 
said to have but four rows of leaves in common with L. coui- 
platiatuui. This is an error, but one which is made also in the 
" Pflanzenfamilien " of Englerand Prantl. So also the statement 
that in some species the leaves are of two kinds, that is, dimor- 
phous. As a matter of fact, the leaves on the foliage shoots of 
L. alpimini are of three kinds, those on the dorsal and ventral 
surfaces being markedly different from each other and also from 
the lateral ones. Those among us who chiefly disregard matters 
lying without the range of microscopic vision would complain 
rather loudly were similar misapprehension of the structure and 
variety of, say, archegonia, to obtain, but it is difficult for some 
minds at least to see that error attaching to the observation of, 
humanly speaking, large things is any less to be shunned. 

There arc welcome additions to the older book in the form of 
a discussion of alternations of generations, and a brief but sug- 
gestive chapter on fossil archegoniates. In the forme* we are 
glad to notice that there is an indication of a tendency to seek 
for physiological explanations of the remarkable facts of alterna- 
tion of generations — this in the last {^"^ paragraphs. 

The book, we may say in closing, is the product of much study 
and betokens a dashing vigor of mind which attains the large 
ends in view, and it should continue to be an important stimulus 
to a better knowledge of the forms which botanists in this country 
know rather too little about, 

F. I^. I.LOVD. 
Fitrlow's Bibliographical Index <if North American Fungi* 

The magnitude of the work begun b}' Professor Farlow under 
the above title is apparent from the fact that this first part, con- 
sisting of over three hundred pages, covers only the genera an- 
terior to Hadhamia in the alphabetical sequence. In the inter- 

* Farlow, \V. (J, Bihliograpliical Index of North American Fungi. Vol. I. 
Pari I. Carnegie Institution of Washington, I'liMicnlion No. 8. 1905. 8vo, 
i-xxxv -j- 1-312. 



201 

estinr^ jircfacc is a history of the circumstances under which the 
conception of such a work originated and developed. " Nortli 
America " is construed in its widest sense, including the West 
Indies, Bermuda, and the continent north of the Isthmus of 
Panama. The species are arranged alphabetically, under their 
respective genera and the citations of literature are disposed 
chronologically under each. The literature lists impress one as 
being very full, though any attempt to make them complete is 
modestly disclaimed ; they have been compiled with the idea of 
lightening the labor of the systematic mycologist and papers of 
a purely technical or agricultural bearing and many of a physio- 
logical character have been omitted. The Bacteria and Saccha- 
romycetes are not included. 

In a work dealing so largely with plant names, the author's 
views on the "scabrous subject" of nomenclature are of especial 
interest and one is not disappointed in finding them tersely and 
forcibly expressed in the preface, partly as follows : " At the 
present day the Syllogc of Saccardo and the Pflanzenfaniilien of 
Engler and Prantl may be said to be the two works on tJie clas- 
sification of fungi in most general use, and we have preferred to 
follow them as far as possible. * * * There are two categories 
of botanists : those who believe that nomenclature is an end 
rather than a means, to whom the changing of names to adapt 
them to a uniform, automatic system, seems to be the important 
aim in science ; and those who regard nomenclature as a neces- 
sary evil which can be mitigated by making as few changes as 
possible. Of these two categories, it is hardly necessar}' to say 
that we should prefer to be classed with the latter. * * * It is 
best not to make too violent attempts to interpret the older ni}'- 
cologists but to be content with letting the dead bury their dead. 
The business of reviving corpses has been carried altogether too 
far in mycology." After perusing this conservative platform, one 
is slightly shocked to find the author adopting Albugo of S. F. 
Gra}', revived by Otto Kuntze and b}' Schroter, for the genus for 
which the name Cystopiis \\-a6. become " classic " in both taxo- 
nomic and morphological literature — a name which the next 
InternatiDual l^otanical Congress, if the committee having the 



202 

matter in hand happens to be suitably constituted, may place 
upon its list of noi/iina conscrvanda. This support of a Kuntzean 
innovation by one who prefers to be classed among those who 
change names as little as possible inclines us to the belief that 
the line of division between his "two categories of botanists " is 
perhaps as elusive as the limits of some of the currently accepted 
genera of the larger fungi. It is a pleasure to note that the 
oldest specific name is maintained, — a practice which, happily, 
already has the sanction of most mycologists. The author's re- 
mark that Agaricus cavipcstj'is L. is the type of the genus Agari- 
cus is of interest in connection with Dr. Murrill's recent action in 
XzS/iiin^ Agaricus querciiiiis L. as the type and thus transferring the 
name Agaricus to the genus ordinarily known as DacdaUa. 

Critical notes and comments are numerous — mostly written 
by the author but partly by Mr. A. B. Seymour, whose coopera- 
tion in the work receives a special acknowledgement in the pref- 
ace. The " Bibliographical Index of North American Fungi," as 
planned and thus, in part, executed, will prove a valuable time- 
saver and aid to American mycologists and will receive from 
them a most grateful welcome. 

Marshall A. Howe. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CLUB 

OCTOIJER lO, 1905. 

This meeting was held at the American Museum of Natural 
History, with President Rusby in the chair and twenty-two per- 
sons present. 

A letter was read from Mr. Edward W. Berry, tendering his 
resignation as recording secretary of the Club owing to his re- 
moval to Baltimore. Dr. Chamberlain moved that the resigna- 
tion be accepted and that a letter be sent to Mr. Berry, express- 
ing to him the Club's high appreciation of his services and the 
regret of the Club at his removal. This motion was carried by 
a unanimous vote. 

The announced program for the evening consisted of informal 



203 

reports on the summer's work and observations. Several from 
whom reports were expected were unable to be present. 

Professor Francis K. Lloyd gave an account of his summer's 
experiences at the Desert Botanical Laboratory of the Carnegie 
Institution at Tucson, Arizona. On the way thither a visit was 
made to the Tularosa Desert in southern New Mexico. This 
desert is largely an old lake-bed of a comparatively recent geolog- 
ical period. The moving white sands which compose the desert 
overlie the ;//isa and consist chiefly of gypsum, and a little below 
the surface there is a considerable amount of available water, 
which, however, is saline. The vegetation of the region is pecu- 
liar, showing various adaptations to the intense light. Several 
interesting cases were observed showing how Yuccas and other 
plants are able by continued vertical growth to keep their tops 
above the drifts of sand and how in the process they help to build 
up and hold the dunes. R/i?is trilobata and also a shrubby labi- 
ate form very marked pillar dunes. The gypsum sand is partly 
soluble and it solidifies about the vertically elongating roots and 
stems ; the outer parts of the dune may then erode and be re- 
moved by the wind, leaving an isolated pillar-like mass sur- 
mounted by the tops of the living shrubs. An interesting and not 
especially common plant of the region of Tucson is Cercus Grcggii, 
of a habit so peculiar and aberrant that it does not seem to be a 
Ccrciis at all. Like certain other desert plants it has an under- 
ground storage system which is very large in comparison with the 
above-ground parts. The rapidity with which foliage appears 
on desert plants after rains has been often noted and it has been 
a question in how far growth of leaves may be stimulated by the 
direct access of water to the above-ground parts without the in- 
tervention of the root-system. This point was tested during the 
past summer by experiments at the Desert Botanical Laboratoiy. 
By means of a siphon, water was supplied directly to the leaf- 
buds and stems, in such a way as to prevent the water from 
reaching the ground. It was found that the desert plants thus 
stimulated produce leaves in the cour.se of a few days. \'ery 
noticeable changes occur within twent\--four hours, both when 
plants are stimulated as described and after natural irrigation b}- 



204 

rains. Professor Lloyd further observed diurnal nutations and 
nyctitropic movements in an amaranth growing near the Desert 
Laboratory. Photographs were shown illustrating the observa- 
tions commented upon. 

Dr. William A. Murrill spoke briefly of his collections of fungi 
during the summer at Ohio Pyle, Pennsylvania, in the District 
of Columbia, and in the Mt. Katahdin region of Maine, describ- 
ing also some of his camping experiences in the Maine woods. 
Dr. Murrill was impressed by the boreal character of the fleshy 
fungi found about Mt. Katahdin, many of them recalling spe- 
cies that he had collected in Sweden. 

President Rusby reported on a Torrey Club excursion to 
Pompton Plains, New Jersey, where Capnoides fiavulnm was 
among the rare plants obtained ; also on a club excursion to 
Great Island, New Jersey. Great Island is a hummock of sand 
surrounded by a salt marsh and lying between Newark and P>liza- 
beth ; it has numerous interesting plants, some of them being 
characteristic of the pine-barren flora of the region further south. 

Professor E. S. Burgess remarked upon his summer's visit to 
the Pacific Coast. Collections and field studies of asters were 
made in New Mexico, Arizona, California and Oregon. Mt. 
Hood, Oregon, proved an especially interesting field. Asters 
were found growing there in close proximity to snow and ice. 

Mrs. Britton alluded briefly to collecting experiences in Ber- 
muda during September. Most of the species of ferns, mosses 
and hepatics arc found there only in the " caves " or sink-holes. 
Her collections indicate considerable additions to the list of 
mosses published in the Report of the Challenger P^xpedition. 

Dr. J. H. Barnhart spoke of the International Botanical Con- 
gress held at Vienna in June, which he attended as a delegate 
from the New York Botanical Garden. 

Adjournment followed. 

Marshall A. Howe, 

Secretary pro fciii. 



205 



NEWS ITEMS 

Dr. J. N. Rose and Mr. J. X. Painter, of the U. S. National 
Herbarium, returned to Washington late in September from a 
three or four months' collecting expedition to Mexico. 

Mr, William R. Maxon, of the U. S. National Herbarium, has 
been spending a month at the New York Botanical Garden en- 
gaged in a study of Central American and West Indian ferns. 

Dr. Charles F. Millspaugh, of the Field Columbian Museum, 
Chicago, was at the New York Botanical Garden for two weeks 
in the latter part of October and the first part of November, 
studying some of his collections of Bahamian plants. 

Mr. H. A. Gleason, A.M., recently instructor in botany in the 
University of Illinois, is pursuing graduate studies in botany in 
Columbia University. Mr. Harlan H. York, A.M.. recently 
assistant in botany in the Ohio State University, is the pre.sent 
incumbent of the fellowship in botany in Columbia University. 

Roland M. Harper, Ph.D. (Columbia, 1905), who has been 
occupied with botanical studies at Columbia University and the 
New York Botanical Garden for a large part of the last six years, 
has accepted a position with the Geological Survey of Alabama, 
with headquarters at University, Ala. He will be engaged for 
several months in a study of the economic plants of that State and 
also, incidentally, of some phytogeographical problems. 

In the Ludwick Institute courses of free lectures on the natural 
sciences and their applications, under the auspices of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, the program for 1905-1906 
includes a course of five lectures in Noxember and December by 
Dr. John W. Harshberger under the general title of a "Scientific 
Account of Marvelous Plants " and a course of five lectures in 
February and March by Mr. Stewardson Brown on " Wild 
Flowers and Seasons." 

Botanical visitors in New York since July 15, not otherwise 
mentioned in Torkfaa. include P. L. Ricker, Washington, D. C; 
Dr. Robert B. Wylie, Morningside College, Sioux City, Iowa ; 
Professor F. L. Stevens, Raleigh, N. C; Eugene A. Rau, Beth- 
lehem, Pa.; C. O. Rosendahl, University of Minnesota; S. H. 



20G 

Burnham, Albany, N. Y.; Professor George Macloskie, Princeton 
University ; President Ezra Brainerd, Middlebury College, Mid- 
dlebury, Vt.; Perley Spaulding, St. Louis, Mo.; Dr. Duncan S. 
Johnson, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.; Dr. ¥.. H. 
P^ames, Bridgeport, Conn.; W. H. Blanchard, Westminster, Vt.; 
David G. Fairchild, U. S. Department of Agriculture ; and Pro- 
fessor George E. Stone, Amherst, Mass. 

Mr. R. S. Williams returned to New York on October 24 from 
a two years' visit to the Philippine Islands, where he has been 
making botanical collections for the New York Botanical Garden. 
His collections, which include spermatophytes, pteridophytes, 
bryophytes and lichens, have been secured in central and northern 
Luzon, in southern Mindanao and in Jolo. Mr. Williams had 
the misfortune to lose the results of about three months' work- 
by a fire, but his collection remains one of the most extensive 
and doubtless the best in quality of an)- that have been brought 
from the Philippines. 



Vol. 5 ^o. 12 

TORREYA ..BRA«v 

NEW YORK 

December, 1905 



rtOTANICAL 
GARDEN. 



A STATISTICAL METHOD I-OR COMPARING 11 11-: 
AGE OE DIEEICRI'.NT E LOR AS 

l>v Rui.ANi) M. IIakpkr 

It is a well-known principle of ])hytogeography that when an 
area devoid of vegetation and true soil, such as one which has 
recently been covered with water or ice for a long period, is first 
invaded by plants, the lower forms tend to predominate at first, 
and gradually pave the way for higher ones.* It is also gen- 
erally conceded by botanists that monocotyledonous plants as a 
class are of lower rank than dicotyledons. Putting these two 
conceptions together, a method is at once suggested for deter- 
mining roughl)' the age of a given flora, for a study of the rela- 
tive proportion of monocotyledons and dicotyledons in any essen- 
tially homogeneous region ought to throw some light on the 
length of time that that region has been continuously occupied 
by vegetation.! The application of this method, crude as it may 
seem, gives some remarkably consistent results for regions be- 
lieved to be of the same age geologicallx'. 

The glaciated region of the northern states is believed to have 
been entirely devoid of vegetation — at least as far as flowering 
plants are concerned — as late as fifteen or twenty thousand years 
ago ; and most of the coastal plain of the southeastern states was 
probably submerged beneath the sea at about the same time. 

* Prof. N. S. Shaler's very interesting paper on "The origin and nature of soils" 
{i2th .Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv., pp. 213 et seq. ) should be consulted in this con- 
nection. 

fThis method is so simple that it can hardly be claimed as original, but it prob- 
ably has not been applied to so many different parts of Eastern North America before. 
MacMillan came very ne^r it in some of the statistical discussions in his " Mela- 
spermae of the Minnesota Valley" in 1892, but did not use it for comparison in this 
way. 

CO [No. II, \'ol. 5 of TORKliVA, comprising pages 1S7-206, was issued Novem- 

g ber 25, 1905.] 

"- 207 



208 

The floras of these two regions ought therefore to be among the 
most recent in existence. The southern Alleghanies and adja- 
cent Piedmont region, on the other hand, have probably been 
continuously covered with vegetation ever since the Palaeozoic 
period, a time long antedating the appearance of any species of 
plants now living. 

Below are given the proportions of monocotyledons to the 
total number of species of angiosperms in several parts of tem- 
perate Eastern North America whose floras have been written up 
with some care. After the name of each region are given the 
author and date of the flora from which the statistics were de- 
rived, and then the percentage of monocotyledons. It is of 
course only native plants that are of significance in this connec- 
tion, but in some local floras no distinction is made between 
native and introduced species. So two columns of percentages 
are given, one for native species alone and the other for native 
and introduced. 

The regions in the first list are wholly included in the glaciated 
region. 

Maine (Fernald, 1892), 

Vermont (Hrainerd, Jones & Eggleston, 1900), 

Essex County, Mas.sachusetts (Robinson, 1880), 

Middlesex County, Massachusetts (Dame & Collins, 1888), 

Worcester County, Massachusetts (Jackson, 1894), 

Amherst and vicinity (Tuckerman & Frost, 1875), 

Connecticut (Bishop, 1901), 

New Haven and vicinity (Berzelius catalogue, 1878), 

Southington, Connecticut (Hissell & Andrews, 1902), 

Cayuga Lake basin. New York (Dudley, 1886), 

Monroe County, New York (I'cckwitli & Macauley, 1896), 

Michigan (Heal, 1904), 

Minnesota Valley (MacMillan, 1892), 

New Jcr.sey is about half coastal plain and the remainder of the 
state mostly glaciated. The corresponding figures for it (liritton, 
1889) are 33.2 per cent, and 29.3 per cent. 

The following areas lie wholly in the coastal plain : 

N.ilivc and 
Native Introduced 

Dismal Swamp and vicinity (Kearney, 1901), 3°-9 

Vicinity of Wilmington, N. C. (Wood & McCarthy, 1887), 28.6 

Okefmokee .Swam]) and vicinity (Harper, incd.), 29.3 



Native 


Native and 
Introduced 




29 


35-7 


32-3 




30.6 


35 


30.6 




28.4 


34-3 


32.2 




30 


31 


29.2 
28 




31.8 




30 




30 

28.4 



Native 


Native and 
Introduced 


30 


29.6 
28.4 




34-9 




29.4 
28.5 



20!) 



Altamaha (irit region of Georgia (Harper, 1906), 
Florida (Hitchcock, 1899-1901), 
Lee County, Florida ( Hitclicocl<, 1902), 
Plaquemines Parisli, Louisiana (Langlois, 1881), 
Losver Louisiana (Langlois, 1887), 

It is rather unfortunate that local floras of parts of Eastern 
North America which include neither coastal plain nor glacial 
drift are not numerous. There is not yet even one for the 
southern AUeghanies from which any such calculations as these 
can be made. The following regions, however, include none of 
the Pleistocene areas above mentioned, or such a small proportion 
of them that it does not seriously impair the results. 

Chester County, Pennsylvania (Darlington, 1853), 

West Virginia (Millspaugh, 1892), 

West Virginia (Millspaugh & Nuttall, 1S96), 

Tennessee (Gattinger, 1901) 

Jackson County, Missouri (Mackenzie & Bush, 1902), 

Athens and vicinity. Middle Georgia (Harper, I900), 

Metamorphic region of Alabama (Earle, 1902), 

In this list some of the percentages which are higher than the 
averages are capable of explanation. In Chester County, Penn- 
sylvania, Muhlenberg's work on the grasses and sedges of the 
vicinity early in the century may have had something to do with 
the relatively high proportion of monocotyledons recorded. 
And in Earle's Flora of the Metamorphic Region of Alabama 
the southern boundary of the region is so loosely drawn (as the 
author admits in his preface) that a considerable coastal plain 
element is included. 

The discrepancies between different figures in any one of these 
three lists may be due as much to personal equation as anything 
else, and it is remarkable that they are not greater. But with all 
sources of error included, the above statistics nevertheless seem 
to show that no glaciated or coastal plain area contains less than 
30 per cent, of native monocotyledons, while none of the older 
regions has more than 27 per cent. If authors of future local 
floras will bear this method in mind and tabulate their species 



Native 


Native and 
Introduced 


27 
21.8 


25-7 
20.6 




20.7 




24 


19.8 
26.7 


27 
25.6 



210 

accordingly we can ultimately determine how universally this 
relation holds good. It is interesting to note that in every case 
above where both figures are given there is a smaller proportion 
of monocotyledons among the introduced species than among 
the natives. 

In applying this statistical method to other regions some 
cautions must of course be observed. For instance, extreme 
accuracy could not be expected where the number of species in- 
volved is much less than a thousand. And it would hardly be 
advisable to compare areas too widely separated, for the pro- 
portion of monocotyledons may vary considerably on different 
continents, or in different climatic zones. 

A similar method applied to different habitats in the same 
region indicates roughly not the age of the flora of each habitat 
but its affinities with other regions and its place in the order of 
succession. In the Altamaha Grit region of Georgia for instance, 
the flora of river-bluffs, which represent the extreme of meso- 
phytic conditions for that region and have about 90 per cent, of 
species in common with the Piedmont region and mountains, 
contains only 13 per cent, of monocotyledons. On the other 
hand the moist pine-barrens have only about 20 per cent, of their 
species ranging beyond the limits of the coastal plain, and 44 
per cent, of monocotyledons. 

Some other kinds of statistics may perhaps hereafter be found 
equally useful for the same purposes. For example, the ratio of 
Gamopetala; to Polypetala^, of grasses to sedges, or of woody 
plants to herbs. In the glaciated region and coastal plain, sedges 
seem usually to outnumber the grasses, while the reverse is true 
in most other parts of the world ; and woody plants tend to be 
more numerous in old regions than in new, if the climatic condi- 
tions are not too different. 



211 



ARTIFICIAL COLORING OF FLOWLRS 

r.V lIl.NKY KkAK.MKK 

In the Popular Science Moitldy for August there is an inter- 
esting account of " A Visit to Luther Burbank " by Professor 
de Vries, and in commenting on the production of a blue poppy 
by Ikiihank he advances the idea that " j)robably the change in 
color is caused by the combination of pigments in some flowers 
and the chemical constituents of cells of others." For several 
years I have been making a study of the color substances of 
plants both chemically and microscopically, and my results have 
led me to suppose that changes in the colors of flowers could be 
effected by cultural methods, that is, by feeding the plants with 
certain chemicals. F'or about a year I have been carrying on 
experiments along this line, but so far have obtained no marked 
results. This may be due to the fact that I have not yet attained 
exact control conditions, or that the proper chemicals have not 
been used, or we may find that it is not possible radically to 
change any of the so-called inherent characters of plants, of 
which color is one. 

In the course of my work I have also become interested in the 
artificial coloring of flowers. I have used both plant color-sub- 
stances and aniline dyes, obtaining the most satisfactory results 
with the latter class of substances. Aqueous solutions of these 
dyes were supplied the living plant through the soil, or stems of 
cut flowers were placed directly in the solutions. W hile I have 
actually succeeded in getting the growing plant to take up some 
of these substances under control conditions, as in the produc- 
tion of a blue carnation, the most striking results have been ob- 
tained with cut flowers. When the flowers are not too far 
advanced even though they have been cut several days, the 
effects are frequently observed in from lo to 15 minutes, and 
usually in less than an hour the maximum effects are obtained. 
Apparently all white flowers will take up the dyes which I shall 
enumerate, being changed to )'ellow, orange, blue, green, 
purplish-red or magenta, crimson, purple, salmon-pink and gra}-. 



2]2 



These dy^es may be used also to intensify flowers having a pale 
color, as of pale-yellow carnation, pink rose, etc. In some 
cases the natural colors can be modified, as in the production 
of a yellowish-red flower of snapdragon from a yellow flower. 
In the accompanying table the following data are given : 

1. The colors produced in white flowers when the stems are 
placed in aqueous solutions of the dyes. 

2. The common names of the dyes. 

3. The composition of the dyes. 

4. The colors of the dyes or mixtures used. 

5. Colors of the aqueous solutions. 



Color Produced 


Common Name 




Color of Dye or 


Color of Aqueous 


in 


of Dye. 


Composition of Dye. 


Mixture. 


Solution. 


White Flowers. 










Canary yel- 


Acid Yellow 


Sodium salt of disulpho- 


Bright orange- 


Golden-yel- 


low. 


A. T.(C). 


diphenylazin-dioxytar- 
taric acid. 


yellow. 


low. 


Orange. 


Orange G. 


Sodium salt of benzene- 


Yellowish- or 


Brownish- 




G. (C). 


azo-H-naphthol-disul- 
plionic acid. 


carmine-red. 


red. 


Blue. 


Cyanole F. 


Sodium salt of metaoxy- 


Dark-blue. 


Deep pur- 




F. (C). 


diethyl-diamidophenyl- 
ditolyl-carbinol-disul- 
phonic acid. 




plish-blue. 


Green. 




A mixture of equal parts 
of Acid Yellow A. T. 
and Cyanole F. F. 


Deep bluish- 
gray. 


Dark-green. 


Purplish-red 


Acid Magenta 


Sodium salt of the tri- 


Deep-brown. 


Purplish-red. 


or magenta. 


(C). 


sulphonic acid of ro- 
saniline. 






Crimson. 




A mixture of equal parts 
of Acid Yellow A. T. 
and Acid Magenta. 


Yellowish- 
brown. 


Oimson. 


Purple. 




A mixture of equal parts 
of Cyanole F. ¥. and 
Acid Magenta. 


Grayish-blue. 


Purple. 


Salmon-pink. 


Brilliant Cro- 


.Sodium salt of benzene- 


Brick-red. 


Light-crim- 




ceine M. 


azo-bcnzene-azo H- 




son. 




0. 0. (C). 


naphthol-disul phonic 
acid. 






Pale salmon- 


Crystal Scar- 


Sodium salt of a naphly- 


Reddish- 


Rose-red. 


pink. 


let6R.(C). 


lamine-azo- H-napthol 
disulphonic acid. 


brown crys- 
tals with 
golden re- 
flect. 




Dark gray or 


Naphtol 


Sodium salt of di.sulpho- 


Bluish-black. 


Deep violet. 


blackish. 


Black B. 

(C). 


B-naphlhalene-azo-A- 
naphthalcne-azo-B- 
naphtol-disulphonic 
acid. 







2i:5 

These dyes are readily soluble in water, and the solutions are 
made by simply dissolving the dye in water, the proportion being 
about i/^ ounce of dye to i pint of water. This solution can be 
diluted as much as ten times and still be effective. When the 
desired effect has been produced, which is usually in an hour or less, 
the flowers should be transferred to water. The solutions will keep 
for some days, and a pint of solution will color a large number 
of flowers. 

While the artificial coloring of flowers in the manner described 
is of more or less interest from the scientific point of view, it has 
also a practical application. In decorative schemes where a par- 
ticular color is selected, this method could be used for producing 
flowers all of one color. Or in some instances, where the demand 
for flowers of a certain color is greater than the supply, artifici- 
ally colored flowers could be produced from white ones. Then 
again in the production of novelties, as of green carnations and 
green roses, the method can be utilized. The color produced by 
Naphtol Black B is a delicate gray or grayish-black, and it has 
been suggested that roses and carnations so colored would furnish 
appropriate mourning flowers. Another use of these dyes is in the 
coloring of wild flowers for decorative purposes. For example, 
wild carrot when colored with the blue dye gives a beautiful 
effect, being suggestive of a head of small forget-me-nots. 

Finally it should be stated that the odor of flowers is not affected 
by this treatment, and that they keep as well as cut flowers 
ordinarily do. The colors are furthermore, permanent, and when 
the flowers are preserved in the dried condition, as is sometimes 
done with hydrangeas, a color can be selected according to the 
fancy, as blue, green, yellow, red, and so on. 

Pini.ADELrillA COLLEGK UF PHAR.MACY. 

A KFA' TO THE AGARICEAE OF TEMPER.\TE 
NORTH AMERICA 

BV WlLI.I.'.M .\. iMUKKll.I. 

The Agariceae arc not ordinar)- gill-fungi, but are a subfamily 
of the Polyporaceae with furrowed hymenium. They differ from 



214 

the plants usually called agarics in being corky or woody instead 
of fleshy. Many of the species are ver)' difficult because of the 
wonderful variations they undergo, especially in the appearance 
of the hymenium. 

Kkv to the Gknkra. 
Context white. 

Surface glabrous, liymenium usually labyriiithiform. A. Ao.VRlCUS. 

Surface pubescent or hirsute. 

Hymenium at first labyrinthiform, soon becoming irpiciform. 

B. Cerrena. 
Hymenium lamellate, not becoming iipiciforni. C. I.ENZITES. 

Context brown. 

Hymenophore sessile, furrows radiate. D. Gl.OF.OPHYl.l.UM 

Ilymenophore stipiiate, furrows concentric. E. CvcLOi'ORl'S. 

A. The Spkcucs ov Agaricus 

1. Tubes one to several millimeters in transverse diameter ; surface usually brown or 

discolored. 2. 

Tubes less than one millimeter in transverse diameter ; surface whiteor yellowish ; 

plants confmed to the southern states. /}. Aescii/i (Schw. ) Murr. 

2. Pileus thick, triangular, margin obtuse ; tubes large, daedaleoid, dissepiments 

obtuse ; context wood-colored ; plants abundant on oak and chestnut. 

.'/. tjiiiTcimts I.. 

Pileus thick, triangular, margin obtuse ; tubes large, daedaleoid, dissejtiments 
obtuse ; context white ; ])lants rare on red cedar. A. Junipt'iiiiiis Murr. 

Pileus thin, applanate, multizonate, margin very acute ; hymenium poroid, dae- 
daleoid or lamelloid, dissepiments acute. A. fon/ragosits (Itolt. ) Murr. 

B. The Stecies of Cerrena 

Surface hairy, hymenium soon splitting into numerous teeth ; plants very common on 
dead deciduous wood. CdirnKi iiii{<o/or (Hull.) Murr. 

C. The Si'EciES oi Len/.iies 

Surface tomenlose, hymenium lamellate ; very common on dead wood. 

l.ctizitcs bctiiliiia ( L. ) Fr. 

D. The S)'Ern:s ok Gi.oeoi'hyi.i.u.m 

1. Context ferruginous to chestnut. 2. 

Context avellancous to umber, furrows only h:ilf a millimeter in width, surface 

usually azonate. C. pnllitiofulvutn ( Herk. ) Murr. 

2. Surface hirsute. (/. hiraulunt (Schaedf. ) Murr. 
.Surface fmely lomentose or glabrous. G. I^crkeleyi ( Sacc. ) Murr. 

E. The Si-ecies oe Cvci.oroKus 
A rare and remarkable plant, easily known by its concentrically furrowed hymenium 
and central sti|)e. Cydoporus Grcctici (Herk.) Murr. 

New V'okk BoiAMfAi, Garden. 



SHORTER NOT]:S 

TiiK CuHAN CoLUMNKAS. — The mountains of eastern Cuba 
contain two species of this ^enus of Gesncriaceae. Coluunica 
tiiicia (iriscb., based on W'riglit's no. JjS, collected on tree- 
trunks in the forest near Monteverde is a climbing vine with a 
bright-red calyx and yellow corolla ; it was found also by Baron 
Eggers near Pinal de Santa Ana ( no. jojo ), also by Linden on 
Mt. Liban near Santiago ( 710. 1^62), and on 1^1 Yunque moun- 
tain near l^aracoa by Pollard & Palmer [no. IJJ) and bj' I'udcr- 
ivood & Itarlc [no. 10 ij). 
o^ Columnea cubensis (Urban) Britton {C. saiigninca var. cubcti- 
sis Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 359; Collandra saiignifica Griseb., 
not Bcslcria sangninca Pers.), based on Wright's no. jjy from 
eastern Cuba, is also a vine growing on trees, as observed by 
Professors Underwood and Earle in collecting their no. S6() at 
Cooper's Ranch, base of ¥A Yunque ; it was also found by 
Baron P2ggers on the Pinal de Santa Ana {iio. jo^/p). A com- 
parison of the specimen collected by Undciivood & Earlc with 
the Haitian Coliininca saiiguinca (Pers.) Hanst., as illustrated by 
Nash 6r Taylor, no. ii6y, from Mount Maleuvre, shows that the 
Cuban plant is distinct. I am indebted to Dr. B. L. Robinson 
for an examination of Wright's specimen. 

N. L. Britton. 

Astragalus lotiflorus xebkaskensis.* — It is a curious 
fact that the plant described in the American Xainralisf b)' me 
in 1895 should not have been reported b}' an\- one since. I 
have been studying it continuously and have found it since then 
in four towns and three additional counties of Nebraska : Ains- 
worth, nine miles from the original find ; Callawa\', Custer 
Count)', eight)' to ninet)' miles south, where it was fairl)' abun- 
dant ; Red Cloud, Webster County, three large plants, one 
hundred miles southeast of Callaway ; and in two towns and 
counties west of Red Cloud, viz. : Naponee, two or three large 
plants; and Orleans, one plant. In the northern station, A. loti- 
florus was very common in both forms, the long-peduncled and 

* Hates, .Am. N.al. 29 : 670. 1S95. 



216 

the short. In this southern station, A. lotiflonis has not been 
found in three years of collecting. As my plant seeds lavishly 
here, its scarcity cannot be easily accounted for. The Red 
Cloud plants have all been heavily affected with Astragalus-rust 
{Uromyces Astragali^, but the seeds have matured well, at least 
five hundred on one plant. These southern plants vary in no 
particular from the original find, except that they average larger, 
the largest spreading two feet in diameter. 

As the result of these studies, and of the use of the term 
"species" in modern Hterature, it has seemed best to give the 
plant specific rank. I am utterly opposed to the subdivision 
that has characterized Crataegus and some other genera of late. 
But the more I see of this form, the less it resembles A. lotiflonis. 
That is very variable. This is invariable. The resemblance lies 
in size and color of the flower. If I had found it first here, with 
its plants of noble size and unassociated with A. lotiflonis, I can 
see that I should not have thought of it as a variety, but as a 
congener. 

It is accordingly now published as Astragalus nebraskensis 
Bates. The name seems most appropriate, and the original 
description holds good in every particular but the size. 

J. M. B.VTES. 
Rkd Ci.ouij, Nk.hraska. 

A CURIOUS Cactus Fruit. — One day early in August an odd 
looking "joint" of a prickly pear cactus {Opuntia Engclmaiinii) 
was observed on a plant not far from the laboratory building. It 
was somewhat smaller than the other joints of the year ; like them 
it was spinose, but instead of being green over the whole surface 
a portion of it was dark-red. Upon closer inspection the red 
portion was seen to be somewhat thicker than the remainder and 
bore a flower scar on its tip. A longitudinal section of the joint 
showed the red part to be fruit with a red fleshy outer portion 
and many seeds. The following measurements were taken : 
Length of joint, 8 cm. ; width, 5 cm. ; length of the fruiting 
portion, 3.4 cm. ; width, 2.5 cm. A normal fruit from a neigh- 
boring plant of the same sort measured in length 4.5 cm., and in 
width 3.5 cm. 



217 

This is the only monstrosity of its kind on tliis species which 
has come to my notice. It is of interest to note the resemblance 
of fruit and joint in such cylindrical opuntias as the cholla {0. 
fub^ida), in which there occurs normally and year after year a 
buddinj^-out from fruits in manner apparently quite like the 
branching of the joints of the plant. As a consequence of this 
proHfcration and where undisturbed the fruits of cholla are very 
numerous, forming large clusters. In other opuntias also the 
fruits bear both spines and prickles and in this habit they recall 
the purely vegetative part of the plant. Whether, however, the 
peculiar fruit of the prickly pear above described is to be con- 
sidered as indicating a caulomic tendency as exhibited b}' cholla 
and in other ways by other opuntias might be questioned.* 

W. A. Cannon. 

Deskrt Botan'icai, Laboratory, 
Tucson, Arizona. 

REVIEWS 

Christensen's Index Filicumf 

The lack of a satisfactory index to the species of ferns has 
been one of the greatest drawbacks to the systematic study of 
this group of plants. Moore's attempt % in the early si.xties 
proved unsatisfactory and incomplete, since the printing ceased 
before the genera commencing with the letter G were completed. 
The parts that were published are not sufficiently exact for pres- 
ent day citation, since dates of publication were rarely given. 
Salomon's Nomenclator§ was carried through the alphabet but 
was incomplete at best and gave no citations whatever, thus 
proving a scarcely useful list of mere names. The need of a 
thorough index has been so much the more keen (i; since 

* Compare also the sketch of Optintia Ficits-iiidiia in Engler & Prantl's Die 
Natiirliclieii Pflanzenfamiiien, 3'''': 170, in which the fruit is shown sending out roots 
and new shoots quite like the joints of the plant. 

tChristensen, C. Index Filicum, sive enumeratio omnium generuni specierunKjue 
Filicum et Hydropteridum ab anno 1753 ad annum 1905 descriptorum adjectis synon- 
ymis principalibus, area geographies, etc. Hafniae 1905 apud 11. Hagerup. [Price 
3s. 6d. per fascicle.] 

J Moore, T. Index Filicum. London, 1857-1863. 

^ Salomon, C. Nomenclator der Gefasskryptogamen. Leipzig, 1883. 



218 

Hooker i:^ Baker's Synopsis \Fificuiii (1867-74), by omitting 
most synonyms and most species not represented in the Kew 
herbarium, does not account for more than two thirds of the 
species now recognized as vahd from^among those pubHshed be- 
fore 1874; and (2) because the unwonted activity in fern study 
in the last generation has resulted in adding nearly two thirds as 
many more species to the list as were recognized in 1 874. Baker* 
attempted to supply this latter deficiency in 1891 in a list of 
about 1,100 species described between 1874 and 1891, but these 
were arranged in accordance with the Kew conception of specific 
sequence, instead of alphabetically, and the work has always 
been difficult for rapid consultation. Since 1891 more species 
have been described than in any corresponding period since 
species-writing commenced. 

At last, we have the beginning of a modern, accurate index of 
the ordeis Ophioglossales, Marattiales, and Filicales, and the 
five fascicles (320 pages) already published promise to furnish a 
much more valuable reference book for the fern students than the 
corresponding Index Kczvensis has proved for students of the 
higher plants, largely because it is being prepared by a fern 
specialist who is familiar not only with fern literature but with 
ferns themselves. It gives in alphabetical sequence all names 
published under each genus, using practically the American 
system of citation and referring synonyms to the proper genera 
in the same line. From an American standpoint, the work lacks 
only one element to make it complete and that is the citation 
of the t}'pc collection number or type locality of the original 
species described, but this was too much to expect, from a Euro- 
pean standpoint .since the importance of the problem of type 
localities has not yet permeated pAiropean taxonomy as it is sure 
to do in the near future. 

The work is an essential to every student of ferns, and should 
be in every botanical librar)'. It is the more important that 
friends of botany should see that subscriptions arc placed in 

* Haker, (. O. A summary of llie New Kerns wliich linvc l)ccn tliscovcred t)r de- 
scribed since 1874. Oxford, 1892. [Ori^;inally pulilislicd in Annals of Hotany, 5: 
181-221, 301-332, 455-500- 189I.] 



219 

public and college libraries since the publication is undertaken as 
a personal venture by Herr Christensen and up to date, only 
sufficient subscriptions are received to pay for one half the actual 
expense of printinf^ and its completion is dependent on doubling 
the present list of subscribers. 

The nomenclature is mainly a rational one, foUouint; largely 
Die iKU'i'irlichoi Pjlaiizcufaviilicn but giving attention to more 
recent monographic work. It will probably shock some of our 
more conservative (?) fern students that he takes up Dcmistacdtia, 
CyclopJiorus (for Nif^Jiobolus), and (following Professor Urban's 
example from Ik-rlin) Dryoptcris for Ncphrodhun. Some of the 
larger genera may prove a surprise in the number of species 
listed under them, as, for example, Acrostichuni 750,* Adicmtuin 
520, AlsopJnla 380, Aspiduini 1,400, Asplcinum 1,600, Davallia 
360, etc. This will also give some idea of the magnitude of the 
accurate, painstaking and indispensable work for which the whole 
fern world is under an eternal debt of gratitude to Herr Chris- 
tensen. LuciEx M. Underwood. 

CuI.UMUIA Univkrsity, 
Dec. 14, 1905. 

PROCEEDINGS OE THE CLUB 

October 25, 1905 

The Club met at the New York Botanical Garden, with Pro- 
fessor Underwood in the chair and 18 persons present. 

The following new members were elected : Dr. C. Stuart 
Gager, Morris High School; Mrs. Robert T. Morris, 152 West 
57th St.; Miss Pauline Kaufman, 173 East 124th St.; Miss 
Daisy Levy, 329 West 83d St. ; Mrs. Henry Dinkelspiel, 254 
West 88th St. ; Dr. Charles C. Godfrey, 340 State St., Bridge-, 
port, Conn. 

The announced program consisted of " Eurthcr Remarks on the 
Vegetation of the Bahamas," by Drs. N. L. Britton and C. E. 
Millspaugh. 

* These are given in round numbers and of course include many species now re- 
ferred to other genera and many more synonyms of other species in the list. Oi the 
750 listed under Acrostichiim only three are printed in the bold-face type which indi- 
cates species which still stand under the genus. 



220 

♦ Dr. Millspaugh in opening the discussion remarked that the 
flora of the Bahamas is so locally distributed that all the islands 
must be visited before a complete enumeration can be attempted, 
and that a thorough exploration of the archipelago at an early 
date is very desirable. He then reviewed the history of the ex- 
ploration of the Bahamas, mentioning the work of Brace, Britton, 
Catesby, Coker, Cooper, Eggers, Hitchcock, Howe, Madiana, 
Millspaugh, Nash, Mrs. Northrop, and Swainson (?) ; and sum- 
marizing the work done upon each island. 

It is pretty certain that the islands have been all submerged 
at a very recent geological period, so that the question as to 
whether the}' were ever previously connected with the mainland 
has no significance for the present plant population. The flora 
seems to have more in common with Cuba and Haiti than with 
any other region. 

Dr. Britton then described some of the noteworthy features of 
the flora, exhibiting specimens of several of the recently dis- 
covered endemic species and of the palms. 

Dr. Howe discussed some of the marine algae of the Bahamas, 
remarking upon the apparently very local distribution of some 
of the species. He exhibited specimens of a new Halinitda and 
of a new genus, Cladocephalus, soon to be described by him in 
the Bulletin. 

Dr. Barnhart remarked that he had recently found some evi- 
dence about one Swainson, who is supposed to have collected 
plants in the Bahamas between 1830 and 1842. Some doubts 
had been expressed as to whether this could have been William 
Swainson, the zoologist, who is not known to have been in that 
part of the world at the time indicated, but the evidence goes to 
show that the specimens in (picstion had been collected for 
Swainson by some unknown correspondent, and by him com- 
municated to the herbarium at Kew where they arc now found. 

Dr. MacDougal exhibited a mounted scries of leaves of two 
hybrid oaks, Qucrcus Rudkiid liritton (supposed to be a hjbrid 
between Q. Marylandica and Q. Phcllos), the original specimens 
of which were recently found to be still growing near Cliffwood, 
N. J., and (J. Iictcrof^liylln J^artr. (sup[)()sc(] to be a hybrid 



2-21 

between Q. IVicllos and Q. rubra) from Staten Island. The 
specimens exhibited showed an interesting range of variation, 
and acorns of both h)'brids have been planted, so that they can 
be stLulicd hereafter in the light of recent theories of evolution. 

Roland M. Haki'ek, 

Secretary pro tcm. 

NovEMiJKK 14, 1905 

This meeting was called to order by President Rusby in the 
American Museum of Natural History. Twenty persons were 
in attendance. 

Dr. C. Stuart Gager was elected recording secretary to suc- 
ceed Mr. Edward W. Berry, resigned. 

The Rev. John Charles Roper, D.D., 3 Chelsea Square, New 
York City, was elected to membership. 

The scientific program consisted of a paper by Dr. D. T. 
MacDougal on " Bud-Sports ; Occurrence and Hereditary 
Qualities." 

The speaker gave an outline of the subject of bud-sports and 
described some illustrative cases. Three striking examples from 
the cultures of the evening primroses in the New York Botanical 
Garden in 1905 were discussed. In one, a hybrid gave a flower- 
ing branch which sported into the characters of a sister hybrid ; 
in the second, a fixed hybrid produced a branch constituting a 
reversion to one of the parents ; a third, a mutant of the common 
evening primrose, produced a branch which resembled the par- 
ental form. Attention was called to the fact that all mutations 
are essentially vegetative and therefore a greater terminology 
would necessitate the use of the terms "bud-sport" or "bud- 
mutant," and "seed-sport" or "seed-mutant." While seed- 
mutants may theoretically be traced to one cell, it seems diffi- 
cult to do this in the case of bud-sports. The action of the 
growing point in the protection of buds was illustrated with dia- 
grams, and an enlarged [photograph of one of the bud-sports was 
exhibited. 

The paper was discussed by President Rush}' and Professor 
Lloyd. 



009 



Dr. Tracy Hazen exhibited a hybrid between Asl^lcuiiiin Ruta- 
muraria and A. Tricliouiaius from Vermont. 
Adjourned until the ne.xt stated meeting. 

C. Stuart Gager, 

Secretary. 

NEWS ITEMS 

Dr. Nathaniel L. Britton was elected president of the New 
York Academy of Sciences at the annual meeting held on De- 
cember 1 8. 

Francis E. Lloyd has resigned his professorship in the Teachers 
College, Columbia University, to become a member of the staff 
of the Desert Botanical Laboratory of the Carnegie Listitution at 
Tucson, Arizona. 

Professor William A. Kellerman, of the Ohio State Universit)', 
sailed from New Orleans December 21 for Guatemala, where he 
will continue his collections and field studies of the parasitic fungi 
of that region. He is accompanied by a student assistant, Mr. 
A. W. Smith. 

Dr. D. T. MacDougal has resigned his position as assistant 
director of the New York Botanical Garden to accept that o{ 
director of the department of botanical research of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington. His address for the coming year will 
be Desert Botanical Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona, except from 
May I to September i, when it will be the New York Botanical 
Garden. 

The course of lectures and demonstrations in connection witli 
the nature-study work of the 4 B grade of tlie i)ublic schools of 
the Borough of the Bronx, begun by the New \'ork l^otanical 
Garden as an experiment last spring, has been continued during 
the months of October, November and December, and has been 
extended so as to include also the work of grade 5 B. The 
exercises have been attended by nearly four thousand different 
pupils and teachers, those of grade 5 W attending three times, 
those of 4 B twice. Lectiucs have been given by N. L. liritton, 
H. II. Rusby, (i. V. Nash, W. A. Murrill and M. A. Howe. 



INDEX TO VOLUME V. 



New names and the names of new genera and species are printed in boldface type. 



Abies, 190; halsamea, 188-193; ven- 

usta, 94 
Abortiporus, 28, 43 ; distortus, 43 
Alirams, L. R., Notes on the Mora of 
Southern California, 15 ; Remarks on 
Californian Conifers, 93 ; personal, 35, 

97 

Abrams' Flora of Los Angeles and Vi- 
cinity, 45 

Acacia, 35 

Acalypha gracilens, 145 ; ostryaefolia, 

145 
Acer dasycarpum, 189 ; pennsylvanicum, 

18S, 192, 193 ; rubrum, 1S8, 190, 192, 

193; saccharum, 188, 189, 190, 193 ; 

spicatum, 189 
Aconituni uncinatum, 153 
Acrostichum, 38, 39, 88, 124, 219; 

aureum, 36; Moorei, 88, 123; poly- 

podioides, 171, 172 
Adiantum, 219 ; pedatum, 190, I93 
Adirondack Mountains, The Plant For- 
mations of the, 1S7 
Adlumia fungosa, 153 
Agariceae of Temperate North America, 

A Key to the, 213 
Agaricus, 202, 214; Aesculi, 214; cam- 

pestris, 141, 202; confragosus, 214; 

juniperinus, 214; quercinus, 202, 214 
Agrimonia, 128 
Agroslis rubra, 192 
Alaria esculenta, 95 
Albugo, 201 
Aletris farinosa, 56 
Algae in the Bahamas, Collecting, 72 
Algae, Recent Advances in the I'hy- 

logeny of the green, 52 
Alnus, 191, 192; alnobetula, 191, 192 
Alsophila, 219 
Amanitopsis vaginata, 86 
Amaranthus, 136; pumilus, 136; spino- 

sus, 145 
Ambrosia bidentata, 158; trifida, 158 
Amelanchier arguta, 107 ; canadensis, 

194; oligocarpa, 193 
Ames. O. , personal, 117 
Ampelis cedrorum, 69 
Ampelopsis arborea, 139-142 . 
Andropogon diversillorus, 109, 1 10; fir- 

mandus, Iio; scoparius, 56; virgini- 

cus, 56 

223 



Anemone, 166 ; canadensis, 15 ; nuihi- 
(ida, 164, 166 

Angell, L., 130, 131 

Antrodia, I94 ; mollis, I94 

Anlro|)hyum, 39 

Apgar, E. A., death of, 170 

Aphanolhecc, 94 

Aphis, 1 19-123 

Aquilegia, 166 ; caerulea, 164, 165 

Arai)is arcuata, 47 

Aralia racemosa, 188, I94 ; spinosa, 162 

Arenaria groenlandica, 191, 192 

Arisaema Stewardsonii, 153 

Aristida stricta, 1 13, 1 14 

Arlhonia, 8l 

Arthur, J. C, personal, 19, 77, 133 

Ascyrum stans, I41, I43 

Aspidium, 40, 219 

Asplenium, 40, 219; montanum, 153; 
pinnatifidum, 153; Ruta-nniraria, 222 ; 
Trichomanes, 222 

Aster acuniinatus, 190 

Astragalus, 216; lotiflorus nebraskensis, 
215 ; lotiflorus, 215, 216; nebrasken- 
sis, 216 

Atkinson, G. F., personal, 19, I16, 133 

Atriplex arenaria, 136 

Avena barbata, 47 

Avicennia nitida, 36 

Avrainvillea, 73 

Baccharis halimifolia, I41 

Badhamia, 200 

Bahamas, A botanical Cruise in the, 71 ; 
Collecting Algae in the, 72 

Bailey, L. H., personal, 17 

Baldwinia atropurpurea, II4 

Banker, II. J., personal, 133 

Barnes, C. R., personal, 19, 77, 133 

Barnhart, J. H., personal, 77, 96, 133, 
154, 204 

Barrett, M. F., 35 

Barrett, O. W., personal, 20, 154 

Bates, J. M., Astragalus lotiflorus nebras- 
kensis, 215 

Beadle, C. D., 130 

Berchemia scandens, 142 

Berry, E. W., A Palm from the Mid- 
Cretaceous, 30 ; An old Swamp-Bot- 
tom, 179; Recent Contributions to Our 
Knowledge of Paleo/oic Seeil I'lants, 



224 



14 ; Three Cotyledons in Juglans, 87 ; 

Proceedings of the Club, 14, 34, 50, 

70, 93, 130, 149; personal, 51, 52, 

169 
Besleria sanguinea, 215 
Hessey, C. E., 19 
Hetiila glandulosa, 191 ; lenla, I90, 192, 

193; lutea, 188, 189, 190, 193 ; papy- 

rifera, 188, 189, 192, 193 ; populifolia, 

189, 193 
liicknell, E. P., personal, 52 
l^idens frondosa, 142, I44 
liigelow, M. A., personal, 17 
Binomials in an Index, New, 44 
Birds and Mistletoe, 68 
Blanchard, \V. 11., personal, 133, 206 
Blephariglottis Blephariglottis, 15 
Blodgett, F. H., personal, 186 
Bolivia, A new Gentian from, 109 
Boehmeria scabra, 142 
Borrichia, 144 ; frutescens, 144 
Botanical Cruise in the Bahamas, A, 71 
Botanical Laboratory at Tucson, Arizona, 

35 
Botanical Meetings in Philadelphia 

(1904), 18, 19 

Botanical Meeting at Lake Champlain, 
117 

Botanical Symposium at Ohio Pyle, 
Pennsylvania, The, 97, 1 1 7, 152 

Botrychium virginianum, Note on, 1 60 

Botrychium, 160; australe, 107 ; cali- 
fornicum, 107 ; dissectum, 162 ; 
gracile, 160; intermedium, 106; neg- 
lectum, 160; obliquum, 162; occi- 
dentale, 106; silaifolium, 106; ter- 
nalum, 107 ; virginianum, 160, 161, 
162, 193 

Brace, L. J. K., personal, 96 

P>rachyphyllum, 182 

Brainerd, E., 130 ; personal, 54, 133, 
206 

I5ray, W. L. , personal, 133 

Brif|uet, J., 134 

Britton, E. G., Collecting Experiences in 
Bermuda, 204; Flora of the Lsland 
of New Providence, 73; Southern 
Mosses, 115; personal, 52, 75, 133 

Britton, N. L., A Botanical Cruise in the 
I'.ahamas, 7 1 ; Carex Underwoodii, 
10 ; Galactia Curtiasii, 33 ; Jac- 
quinia Curtissii, 44 ; I'unlur Re- 
marks oil the VcgL-tatioii of tlic Ba- 
hamas, 219; Manual of the Flora of 
the Northern States and Canada, 97 ; 
The Cuban Columneas, 215; Species 
of Crassulaceae, 115 ; personal, 36, 51, 
52, 54, 75. 77. «'^'. i.?2, 133, 169, 
186, 222 

Brown, A., [lersonal, 17, 51, 52 



Brown, E. , personal, 133 

Brown, S., 131 ; personal, 169, 205 

Bulgaria rufa, 147 

Bumelia tenax, 142, 143 

Burbank, L. , personal, 18 

Burgess, E. S., Remarks on summer's 
visit to the Pacific Coast, 204 ; per- 
sonal, 51, 52 

Burnham, S. IL, personal, 205 

Burt, E. A., personal, 19 

Cacalia, 182; atrijilicifolia, 1S3; lanceo- 
lata, 182, 183, 185 ; ovata, 182-184; 
sulcata, 183 ; tuberosa, 183 

Cactus, 35 

Caclus Iruit, A curious, 216 

Calceolaria, 1 15 

Caldwell, O. W., personal, 133 

Californian Conifers, Remarks on, 93 

California, Notes on the Flora of southern 

15 

Callicarpa, 144; aniericana, 140, I4I, 
142, 144 

Caltha palustris, 15 

Campanula rotundifolia Langsdorliana, 
194 

Campbell's Mosses and Ferns, 194 

Campbell, D. H., personal, 20, 97, 133 

Camptosorus rhizophyllus, i;^^ 

Cannon, W. A., A curious Cactus Fruit, 
216 ; Proceedings International Confer- 
ence on Plant Breeding and Hybridiza- 
tion, 12 ; personal, 20 

Cape Breton, Remarks on the Flora of 
northern, 15 

Capnoides llavulum, 204 

Carex Bigelovii, 191 ; hystricina, II ; 
Underwoodii, 10 

Cassandra calyculata, I9I 

Cassia, 35, 127; Chamaecrista, 127 

Ceanothus americanus, 56 

Cellis occidenlalis, 142 

Cenchrus tribuloides, 137, 138,139, I45 

Centaurea Moschata, 158 ; nigrescens, 
158 ; Scabiosa, 158 

Cephaelis Ipecacuanha, 1 15 

Cereus, 203 ; giganteus, 35 ; Greggii, 203 

Cerrena, 214; unicolor, 214 

Cerrenella, 194 ; coriacea, 195 ; tabacina, 

195 
Chamaecrista, Derivation of the Name, 

12b 
Chamaecrista, 1 26, 127; Pavonia, 127 
('hamaecristapavonis, 127, 128 
Chamacdaphne calyculata, 191, 193 
Chamacrops, 31 
Chamberlain, 1''. B., 18 
Cheilanthes, 40; lanosa, 175 
Cheiianihus suffrutescens, 15 
Chim.'iiiliila uinbcllata, I92 



225 



Chingenes hispidula, i8y-iyi 

Chlainydomonas, 53 

Chondria, 73 

Chondrus crispus, 95 

Cliristensen's Index Kilicum, 217 

Chrysler, M. A., personal, 16 

Chrysopsis fjraininifolin, 56 

Ciniicifuga aniericana, 1 53 

Cissus liipiniiata, 140, 141 

Citrus, 1 1 

Cladonia, 81 

Clark, A. M., personal, 17, 149 

Clark, N., Cotyledon and Leaf- Structure 

in certain Kanunculaceae, 164 
Classiticalion of Lichens, The, 79 
Clements, I*". E., personal, 97 
Clendenin, L, Other Freaks of Peas, 41 ; 

Twin Pine Knil)ryos, II 
Cliftoiiia inunophylla, 114 
Cladoccphalus, 220 
Cliiitoiiia borealis, 188, 1S9, 150, 192 
Cockerell, T. D. A., A laciniate Rubus, 

198 ; Melampodium, 70 ; Names of 

Insects, 145 ; New Binomials in an 

Index, 44 
Coccothrinax, 36 
Coker, W. C, Observations on the Flora 

of the Isle of Palms, Charleston, S. 

C. , 135; personal, 132 
Colcochaete, 53 
Collins, J. F., personal, 154 
Coltricia, 28, 44; cinnamomea, 44; 

Memmingeri, 44 ; obesa, 44 ; parvula, 

44 ; perennis, 44 ; tomentosa, 44 
Coltricielia, 28, 44 ; dependens, 44 
Coluiniioas, Tiie Cuban, 215 
Columnea cubensis, 215 ; sanguinea, 

215 ; tincta, 215 
Collandra sanguinea, 215 
Comatricha laxa, 86 
Conifers, Ivemarks on Californian, 93 
Conocarpus sericea, 36 
Contril)utions to Fungus and Slime- 
Mould Flora of Long Island, 85 
Cook, M. T., 20 
Cook, O. F. , ])ersonal, 74 
Cooley, (i. E., 94 
Copeland, E. B., personal, 132 
Coptis trifolia. lgo-192 
Copp, C. G., personal, 74 
Corei)psis major Oemleri, 56; tinctoria 

atropurpurea, 158 
Corethrogyne filaginifolia, 47 
Cornus alternifolia, I93; canadensis, 

190-192 ; stricta, 141 
Cotyledon and Leaf-Structure in certain 

Kanunculaceae, 164 
Coulter, J. M., personal, l86 
Coville, F. v., personal, 19, 78, 1 16, 

^33 



Covillea, 26, 27 

Cowell, J. I'., personal, 20, 74 

Cowles, IL C, personal, 19, 77 

Cox, C. F., |)ersonal, 52 

Cracca virginiana, 56 

Crassulaceae. species of, 1 15 

Crataegus, 216; ' Oxyacantha, 119, 120 

Crawford, J., 19, 98 

Crista Pavonis, 126, 127 

Croton, 137 ; marilimus, 137 ; punctalus, 

136, 141 
Cuban Columneas, The, 215 
Cunninghamites, 181 
Cupressus macrocarpa, 94 
Cuthbert, A., 130 
Cyclophorus, 219 
Cycloporus, 28, 44, 214 ; Oreenei, 44, 

214 
Cynodon Dactylon, 144, 145 
Cy|ierus esculentus, 145 ; Nuttallii, 145 ; 

pseudovegetus, 145 
Cypripedium acaule, 192; reginae, 15 
Cystococcus, 81 
Cystopus, 201 
Cytological Differences between the Pal- 

mella and filamentous Forms of Stigeo- 

clonium, loo 

Daedalea, 202; confragosa. 86 

Dalibarda repens, 153, 18S 

Dammara, 182 

Dana, C. R.. 130 

Dasystoma pectinata, 56 

Datura Stramonium, 145 

Daucus Carota in Haiti, On the Occur- 
rence of, 196 

Davallia, 2^, 219 

Davidson, A., personal, 133 

Davis, C. Abbott, 16 

Davis, Charles A., personal, 1 32 

Dendrophagus, 197 

Denton, M., 14 

Dennstaedtia, 219; punctilobula, 193 

Desert Botanical Laboratory, 35 

DeV'ries' Species and X'arieties ; their 
origin by mutation, 80; personal, 76 

l)iaiH'iisia lapponica, 191 

Diccrandra odoratissima, 1 14 

Dicksonia pilosiuscula, 193 

Dicranum, 190 

Diervilla trifida, 193 

Digitalis, 92 

Dinkelspiel, Mrs. H., 219 

Diodia, 83, 84; teres, 83; virginiana. 
83, 142 

Dioscorea divaricala. 15S 

Dirca |ialustris, 153 

r)isticlilis spicata, 145 

Doorly, C. C, I49 



226 



Dryopteiis, 219; Filix-mas, 15; nove- 

boracensis, iSS; Thelypteris, 142 
Dugoar, H. M., personal, 20, 116, 133 
Diiraiid, E. J., personal, 170 
Durvillea utilis, 95 

Karnes, E. H., personal, 20, 206 
Earle, F. S., personal, 16, 17, 20 
Eastwood, A., Abrams' flora of Los 

Angeles and Vicinity, 45 
Edson, A. \V., death of, 133 
Eggert, H., death of, 132 
Eggleston, W. \V., Amelanchier arguta, 

107; personal, 50, 52, 130, 131 
Eiaphoglossum, 124; Bangii, 8S, 124, 

125 ; Moorei, 89 
Eiephantopus carolinianus, I43 
Kleusine indica, 143, 145 
Ellis, J. B., A new Rosellinia from 

Nicaragua, 87 
Empetrum, 191 ; nigrum, 191 
Empusa Muscae, 86 
Endosphaera, 53 
Endotiichia, 95 
Enteromorpha, 94 
Ephedra. 35 
Epipactis gigantea, 46 
Krigeron macranthus mirus, 45 
Eriocaulon, 193; decangulare, 114; lin- 

eare, 1 14 
I'riogonum tomentosuni, I 14 
l'".riophoruni vaginatum, loi, 192 
Erpodium, 1 15 
Eucheunia sjiinosum, q5 
Eupatorium album, 56; leucolepis, 143, 

144 
Euphorbia maculata, 47 ; polygonifolia, 

»37 
Evans, A. W., North American I'lora, 

III; |)crsonal, 20 
Example of Complex Life-Relationship, 

An, 119 
Ex|5crinicnt to show that the Absence of 

Light alone will prevent the Process of 

Photosynthesis, 67 

I'agara f 'laval Icrculis, I42-I44 
Fagopyrum Polygonum, 19.S 
Fagus ainericana, iS.S, 189, 190, 192, 193 
l-'airchild, I), (j., ])ersonal, 206 
Farlow's liibliogra|)hical Index of North 
American Fungi, 200; personal, 18, 

19. 77 
Favolus, 194; variegatus, 1 95 
I'crguson, M. C, 20 
F"ern, A much-named, 87, 123 
Ferns, 'l"he early Writers on, 37 
Filicifolia. 17 1 
Fimbristylis spadicea, 145 
Flabcllaria, 31, 32 ; magothiensis, 32 ; 

minima, 31 



Flahault, C, personal, 134 

Flora of the Isle of Palms, Charle>ton, 
S. C, Observation on the, 135 

Flora of southern California, Notes on 
the, 15 

Flora of northern Cape P.relon, Remarks 
en the, 15 

Flora of Los Angeles and Vicinity, 
Abrams', 45 

Floras, A statistical Method for compar- 
ing the Age of different, 207 

Flowers, Arliticial Coloring of, 21 1 

Flowering of Yucca australis, 104 

1-lynn, N. F., personal, 54 

Fouquieria, 35; splendens, 176-178 

I'Vaxinus americana, 189 

Frullania, 1 15 

Frutex Pavoninus, 127 

Fucus vesiculosus, 96 

Funalia, 194; stuppea, 195; villosa, 195 

Fungi, Terms applied to the Surface Ap- 
pendages of, 60 

Fungus and Siime-Mould I'lora of Long 
Island, Contribution to, 85 

Gager, C. S. , Preliminary Notes on the 

Effect of Radio-activity on Plants, 150 ; r. 

Proceeding of the Clujj, 221 ; jiersonal, , ^ 

54, 170 
Galactia Curtisii, 33; muhinora, 34; 

volubilis, 143, 144 
(Jnlera tenera, 86 
Cialium as|)rellum, 193 ; hispidulum, 143, 

144 ; kamtschaticum, 15 
Galtonian Regression in the " pure 

line," 21 
Ganoderma, 28 ; ilajjelliforme, 28, Tsu- 

gae, 28, 86 
Ganong, W. F., personal, 18 
(lauitheria procumbens, 192 
Gaylussacia resinosa, 194 
Gelidium, 95 ; cartilagineum, 95; cor- 

neum, 95 
Gelsemium sempervirens, 139, I42 
GtMitinn from I'.olivia, A new, 109 
Gentiana dolichantha, 109 ; linearis, 

191 ; punicca, 109 
(ieonomites, 32 
Geonoma, 31 
Georgia, Some large Specimens of small 

Trees in, I' 2 
(iigarlina, 95 
(iilg, K., A new (jentian from Bolivia, 

109 
Glcason, H. A., personal, 205 
Glc()|)hyllum, 214; I5crkelcyi, 214 ; 

hirsiitum, 214; palli<lofulvum, 214 
Gloiopcllis, 95 ; tenax, 95 
(iodfiia hudleyana, 15 
(Jodfrey, C. C, 219 
Goeckel, II. J., 149 



'221 



Cioniopiileljiuin, 174; incaiium, 17 1 

Goodlatte, A. K., 35 

Goodyera repens, 192 

Gracilaria liclieiioides, 95 

Grasses new to the West Indies, A Trio 
of, 109 

Graves, A. II., 20 

Greene, K. I,., Derivation of tlie Name 
Cliamaecrisla, 126; Orif^in of Klius 
bipinnata, 155 ; Some I'lelea Segre- 
gates, 99; personal, 77 

Grifola, 28; Ik-rkeleyi, 29; fractipes, 29; 
frondosa, 29 ; poripes, 29 ; ramosis- 
sima, 29 ; Siimstinei, 29 

Grout, A. J., 149 

Guignardia Bidweliii, 86 

Gymnogramine, 38 

Gymnosorus, 73 

Ilabenaria orbiculata, 192 

Haiti, On the Occurrence of Daucus 
Carota in, 196 

I lalinieda, 73, 220 

I lamamelis virginica, 194 

Hanks, L. T., 35 

Ilanmcr, C. C, A note regarding the 
Discharge of Spores of Pleurotus ostre- 
atus, 146 

Ilapalopilus, 194; gilvus, I95 ; licnoides, 
195 ; rulilans, 195 ; sublilacinus, 195 

Harper, R. A., 19 

Harper, K. M., A statistical Method for 
comparing the Age of different Floras, 
207 ; Mesadenia lanceolaia and its 
Allies, 182 ; Notes on the Wire-Grass 
Country of Georgia, 113; Some large 
S|iecimens of small Trees in Georgia, 
162 ; Some noteworthy Stations for 
Pinuspalustris, 55 ; Two misinterpreted 
Sjiecies of Xyris, 12S ; Proceedings of 
the Club, 219; personal, 205 

Ilarshberger, J. W., MacDougal, Vail, 
Sluill, & Small's Mutants and Hy- 
brids of the Oenotheras, 147 ; '1 he 
Plant Formations of the Adirondack 
Mountains, 1S7 ; personal, 205 

Harris, C. W., 18 

Harris. J. .V., New Fascialions, 157 

Ilavard, \'., personal, 54 

Hazen, T. E.. Recent Advances in the 
Phylogeny of the Green Algae, 52 ; 
personal, 51, 222 

Heald, F. D., personal, 97 

Ilelianthus, 158; divaricatus, 56 

IIerposi]ihonia, 73 

Heuchera Curtisii, 153; elegans, 15 

Hexagona, 2S ; alveolaris, 28 ; daedalea, 
28 ; tloridana, 28 ; microjiora, 28 

Hibiscus Moscheutos, 1 58 

Hicks, C. K., 149 



Hitchcock, A. S., work of 117 

ilochreutiner, Cj., personal, 133 

Ilollick, A., 19, 186 

Ilolway, F. W. D., personal, 116 

I lormiscia, 53 

Horticultural Society of New York, fifth 

annual I-.xhibition of, 96 
House, 11. D. , I.'espede/a velntina I'ick- 

nell a Homonym, 1 67 ; Lespedeza 

Bicknellii, 167 
Houstonia, The Course of the Pollen 

Tube in, 83 
Houstonia, 83 ; caerulea, 191 ; purpurea, 

153 ; serpyllifolia, 153 
Howe, C. D. , personal, 16, 54, 133 
Howe, M. A., Colleciing Algae in the 

Hahamas, 72; Farlow's Iiibliograph- 

ical Index of North American Fungi, 

200; Proceedings of the Club, 1 1 3, 

202; personal, 36, 51, 52, 75, 78, 

186, 222 
Hume, H. H., personal, 16 
Hydrangea, 67 

Ilydrocotyle ranunculoides, I42 
Hvpholomacapnoides, 86 ; sublateritium, 

86 
Ilypnum Crista-caslrensis, 190; splen- 

dens, 190 

Ilex glabra, 59; monticola, 153 ; myrti- 

folia, 164 ; opaca, 142 ; vomitoria, 

140, 142, 143 
Impatiens biflora, 193 
Index, New ijinomials in an, 44 
I nodes Palmetto, 138 
Inonotus, 194; amplectens, 195 ; dryo- 

philus, 195 ; hirsutus, 195 ; perplexus, 

195 ; radiatus, 195 
Insects, Names of, 145 
International Botanical Congress, 133,134 
lonidium, 1 15 
Ipomoea littoralis. 137 ; pandurata, 159; 

PesCaprae, 1 37; speciosa, 143 
Iriartea, 31 
Ischaemum laiifolium, 1 10; rugosum, 

no 
Ischnoderma. 194; fuliginosum, I94ata, 
Iva, 137; frutescens, 144; imbricata, 

137 

|ac(iuinia brevifolia, 44 ; Curtissii, 44 ; 

stenophylla, 44 
Jeffrey, E. C, personal, 18, 74, 133 
Jepson, W'. L., personal, 97, 133 
lohnson, D. S.. personal, 206 
lones, L. R., personal, 54 
Juglans, Three Cotyledons in, 87 
luglans regia, 87 
lunijierus communis alpina, 103; liyp- 

noides, 182; virginiana, 141, 142 



228 



Kalmia glauca, 191, 192 

Kane, J. I., personal, 52 

Kaufman, 1'., 219 

Kelsey, V. D., death of, 16 

Kellerman, \V. A., The Gray Polypody 
in Ohio, 197 ; personal, 17, 222 

Key to the Agariceae of temperate North 
America, A, 213 

Key to the brown sessile Polyporeae of 
temperate North America, A, 194 

Key to the stipitate Polyporaceae of tem- 
perate North America, A, 28, 43 

King, C. A., Experiment to show that 
the Absence of Light alone will pre- 
vent the Process of Photosynthesis, 67 

Kirk wood, J. E. , 20 

Knox, A. A., 35; personal, 1 16 

Kosteletzkya althaeifolia, 142 

Kraemer, H., Artificial Coloring of 
Flowers, 211 

Kubin, \V. K., 130 

Kuhnistera pinnata, 114 

Lactuca elongata, 142 

Laminaria, 95 ; japonica, 95 ; saccharina, 

95 

Larix americana, 1S9, 190 

Latanites, 31 

Latham, M. K., personal, 1 16 

Laurencia, 73 

Laurocerasus caroliniana, 142, 143 

Lavatera assurgentillora, 47 

Leavitt, R. G., personal, 133 

Lechea, 142 

Ledum groenlandicum, 190-192 

Lejeunea, 115; biseriala, 115 

Lenzites, 214; betulina, 214 

Lepicystis, 174; incana, 171 

Lepidium latipes, 47 

Le|)tochl()a fascicularis, 137, I44, 145 

Lespedeza BicknelUi, 167 ; velutina, 
167 

Levy, I)., 219 

Lichens, The Classification of, 79 

Lighthipe, L. IL, Proceedings of the 
Club, 94; personal, 131 

Linnaea americana, 190-192 

Lijjjiia nodi flora, I42 

Litliophragma hcterophylla, 47 

Liviiigslon, 15. E. , personal, 17, 170 

Llf)yfi, F. E. , Cam])bcirs Mosses and 
Ferns, 199; Desert Hotanical Labora- 
tory at 'fucson, Arizona, 35 ; I'-nglish 
edition of Cjoebel's Organographie der 
Pflanzen, 1 67 ; Remarks on the (ienus 
Lycopodium, 70; Summer's ICxperi- 
ences at Ihe Desert I'otanical Labora- 
tory of the Carnegie Institution, 203 ; 
The arlificiHl Induction of Leaf Forma- 
tion in the Ocotillo, 175; The Course 



of the Pollen Tube in Houstonia, 83 ; 

personal, 16, 19, 51, 70, 74, 78, 1 16, 

170, 186, 222 
Lobelia Dortmanna, 193 
Long Island, Contril)ution to Fungus and 

Slime-Mould I'lora of, 85 
Lonicera caerulea, 191 
Lord, S. K., personal, 54 
Los Angeles, Abrams' Flora of, 45 
Ludwigia virgata, 142 
Lupinus Stiversi, 47 ; formosus, 47 
Lycopodium, 70; alpinum, 200 ; anno- 

tinum, 190 ; complanatum, 200 ; lu- 

cidulum, 188, 190, 192; Selago, 191 ; 

tristachyum, 153; volubile, 200 
Lyginodeiidron, 14 
Lysias orbiculata, 192 

Macliride, T. IL, 19 

MacCallum, W. B., personal, 96 

MacDougal, D. T. , Bud-Sports; Occur- 
rence and Hereditary Qualities, 221 ; 
Discontinuous \'ariation and the Origin 
of Species, I ; MacDougal, \ ail, 
Shull, it Small's Mutants and Hybrids 
of the Oenotheras, I47 ; personal, 17, 
19, 51, 70, 74, 78, 132, 186, 222 

Macloskie, G. , Duplex Names, 198 ; per- 
sonal, 206 

Macoun, J., 20 

Magnolia glauca, 59; virginiana, 1 14 

Manicaria, 31 

Marble, D. W., personal, 52, 130 

Marchantia polymorpha, 192 

Marginaria, 172, 173; minima, 172, 
174; polypodioides, 171, 173 

Marshallia grandillora, 153; ramosa, 
114 

Maxon, W. R., jiersonal, 16, 20, 133, 
205 

McOuat, M., 149 

Medeola virginica, 188, 192 

Meibomia, 144 

Melampodium, 70 

Melia Azedarach, 159 

Mclocactus, 35 

Mesadenia lanceolata and its Allies, 182 

Mesadenia, 144, 182, 183; dentata, 1S3; 
Elliottii, 184; lanceolata, 114, 182, 
183, 185; lanceolata virescens, 1S5; 
ovata, 184 

Methonica sujierba, 14 

Micranlhemum orbiculatum, I42 

Microdictyon, 73 

Miri().stai)liyla, I 25 ; Bangii, 88, 89, 125 ; 
Moorei, 8.S, 125 

Miller, M. F., personal, 18 

Millspaugh, C. F., Further Remarks on 
the Vegetation of the Bahamas, 219; 
personal, 20, 36, 54, 133, 205 



229 



Mistlctoi-, Ilirds and, 68 

Mitcliella repcns, 188, 192 

Monanla |>unctala, 141, 144 

Monardella rnacranllia, 47 

Monotropa imillorn, 190 

Moore, (i. T., personal, iS, 76, 154 

Morris, K. L., 20 

Morris, Mrs. K. T., 219 

Morns rubra, 140-142 

Mucilafjo spongiosa, 86 

Mulford, F. A.', 130; personal, 52 

Murray, G., personal, 169 

Murrill, W. A., A Key to the Agariceac 
of temperate North America, 213; A 
Key to the stipitate I'olyporaceae of 
temjierate North America, 28,44; Sum- 
mer follections of ]'"un<^i, 204; Terms 
a|)plie(l to the Surface and Surface A]i- 
jjcndages of l'untj;i, 60 ; Tomophagus 
for I)endrophagus, 197; personal, 50, 
52, 70, 78, 117, 170, 186, 222 

Myrica, 144, 182 ; carolinensis, 140-143 

Myrtus Ugni, 198 

Nabalus Kootii, 191 

Names, Duplex, 198 

Names of Insects, 145 

Nash, Ci. W, A Paspalum new to the 
West Indies, 6 ; A Trio of Grasses 
new to the West Indies, 109; The 
Vegetation of Inaguas, 35 ; personal, 
52, 75, 132, 170, 186, 222 

Nature's Engrafting, 108 

Nelumbo, 31 

Nemexia herbacea niclica, 45 ; melica, 

45 

Neowasliingtonia, 1 28 

Nephrodium, 219 

News Items, 16, 36, 53, 74, 96, 116, 
132, 154, 169, 186, 205, 222 

Newcombe, F. C, personal, 132 

New Binomials in an Index, 44 

New Fasciations, 157 

New CJentian from Bolivia, A, 109 

New Rosellinia from Nicaragua, A, 87 

Nicaragua, A new Rosellinia from, 87 

Nipa, 31 

Nipadites. 31 

Niphobolus, 219 

North America, A Key to the Agariceae 
of temperate, 213 ; A Key to the Stipi- 
tate I'olyporaceae ot temperate, 28, 
43 ; Onagra grandiflora in, 9 

Norton, J. B., 20 

Nostoc commune llagelliforme, 94 

Notes on the (.Jray Polypody, 1 71 

Note regarding tiie Discharge of Spores 
of Pleurotus iistreatus. A, 146 

Note on Hotrychium virginianum, 160 

Noteworthy Stations for Pinus palustris. 
Some, 55 



Nuphar ad vena, 1 93 
Nymphaea ad vena, 193 
Nyssa biflora, 114; (Jgechc, i J4 ; uni- 
(lora, 59 

Observations on the Flora of the Isle of 

Palms, C"harleslon, S. C, 135 
Ocotillo, The ariilicial Induction of Leaf 

formation in the, 175 
Oenotheras, Mutants and Hyljrids of the, 

147 
Oenothera, 5, 147 ; argillicola, 148 ; 

biennis, I48 ; cruciata, 14S ; grandi- 

llora, 9, 10, 147, 148 ; humifusa, 137 ; 

l.amarckiana, 10, 147, 148 ; inuricata, 

148 ; Oakesiuna, 148 
Ohio Pyle, Botanical Symposium at, 1 52 
Ohio, 1 he (Jray Polypody in, 197 
Ohno, N., 20 
Olea americana, 142 
Oligonema nilens, 86 
Omphalia camjianella, 86 
Onagra grandiflora in North America, 9 
Onagra elliptica, 6 ; gigas, ; grandi- 
flora, 9, 10 ; Lamarckiana, 9, 91 ; 

nanelia, 5; rubrinervis, 6 ; scintillans, 

; subovala, 6 
Oncidium, 1 17 
Opizia stoionifera, 1 10 
Opuntia Fngelmannii, 216 ; Ficus-indica, 

217 ; fuigida, 217 ; Opuntia, 143 ; 

Pes-Corvi, 143 
Oreodoxiies, 31 
Origin of Rhus bipinnata, 155 
Osnianlhus americana, I42 
Osnuinda cinnamomea, 189, I90 ; Clay- 

toniana, 189 ; iiuerrupta, 189 
Osteriiout, G. K., 130; personal, 133 
Oxalis Acetosella, 18S-192 
Oxy coccus Oxycoccus, 19I, 192 
Oxygraphis, 165, 166; Cymbalaria, 165, 

166 
Oxypolis filiformis, 114 

Pachyphytum, 1 15 

Palm from the Mid-Cretaceous, .V, 30 

Palliser, H. L., personal, 71 

Pammel, L. H., 20 

Panaeolus acidus, 34 ; campanulatus, 86 

Panicularia elongata, 190 

Panicum, 7 ; agrostoides, 145 ; amarum, 

137, 145 ; furcellatum, 7 ; lanugi- 

nosum, 143, 144 ; virgatum, I45 
Painter, J. II., personal, 205 
Parish, .S. B., Birds and Mistletoe, 68; 

Flowering of Yucca australis, 104 
Parkinsonia, 35; aculeata, 26; Torrey- 

ana, 26 
Parmelia, 8 1 
Parnassia parviflora, 15 
Parthenocissus quintiuefolia, 140, 142 



230 



Paspalum new to the West Indies, A, 6 

Paspalum, 6, 7, 8 ; ahissimum, 143, 
145 ; angustifolium, 89 ; lineare, 7, 8, 
9; Neesii, 7, 8, 9 ; tiopicuni, 7 

Passiflora incarnaia, 140, 141 

Patterson, F. \V., 20 

Peas, Other Freaks of, 41 

Peck, C. H., 17 

Peet, L. H., death of, 186 

Penicillus, 73 ; capitatus, 73 ; dumeto- 
sus, 73 ; Lamourouxii, 73 ; pyriformis, 

73 
Pentstenion dissectus, 114, 184 
Peramium Menziesii, 15 ; repens, 192 
Perkins, J., personal, 133 
Persea Borbonia, 140, 141 
Phaeoius, 194 ; sistotremoides, 195 
Phaseolus vulgaris, 21 
Phegopteris, 40 
Phleum pratense, 145 
Phoenix, 31 
Pholiota adiposa, 86 
Phoradendron californicum, 69 ; flaves- 

cens, 68, 142 
Photosynthesis, Experiment to show that 

Absence of Light alone will prevent 

the Process of, 67 
Phycomycetes, 86 
Physalis pubescens, 138, 145 
Phytolacca decandra, 138, 139 
Picea, 1S2, 193 ; Mariana, 189, 190, 192, 

193; rubens, 189, 190, I93 
Pierce, M., 149 
Pieris, 108 ; nitida, 108 ; phillyreaefolia, 

108 
Pike, X., death of, 74 
Pikea, 74 
Pilocereus, 35 
Pinckneya pubens, 1 14 
Pine Fmbryos, Twin, li 
Pinus .palustris. Some noteworthy Sta- 
tions for, 55 
Pinus echinala, 56-58; Elliottii, 114; 

palustris, 55-59, 114; pungens, 58; 

resinosa, 189, 193; serotina, 114; 

Strobiis, 56, 188, 189, 190, 192, 193; 

Taeda, 57, 58, 141, 142 ; Torreyana, 

94;Virginiana, 57, 58 
Piper. C. v., pers<jnal, 133 
Plantago lanceolata, 159; major, 197; 

Rugelii, 159 
Plant Breeding and Hybridization, Pro- 
ceedings; International Conference f)n, 

12 
Plant Formations of the Adirondack 

Mountains, The, 1 87 
Plants, Fund for Protection f)f native, 

117 
Platanus, 182 
Pieurotus oslreatus, A Note regarding 

the Discharge of Spores of, 146 



Pluteus cervinus, 86 

Poa, 120 

Pogonia, 179 

Pogonomyces, 194; hydnoides, 195 

Poinciana, 1 27; pulcherrima, 126 

Pollard, C. L., 20 

Pollen Tube in Houstonia, Course of the, 

Pollinia, no; praemorsa, iio 

Polybotrya, I 25 

Polygonella Croomii, 114 

Polygonum maritimum, 138 ; ramosissi- 
mum, 47 ; setaceum, 142 

Polypodium, 38, 42, 172; lirasiliense 
Pisonis, 171 ; ceteraccinum, 171, 172; 
Eckloni, 174 ; ferruginosum, 171, 172 ; 
incanum, 171, 172, 174'; polypodioides, 
142, 171 ; virginianum, 171, 172; 
vulgare, 172, 188, 193, 194 

Polypody, Notes on the Gray, 171 

Polypody in Ohio, The firay, 197 

Polyporeae of temperate North America, 
A key to the stipilale, 28, 43 ; A key 
to the lirown sessile, 194 

Polyporus, 28, 43 ; arculariellus, 43 ; 
arculariformis, 43 ; arcularius, 43; cau- 
dicinus, 43 ; columbiensis, 43 ; crater- 
ellus, 43 ; dibaphus, 43 ; elegans, 43 ; 
fissus, 43 ; phaeoxanthus, 43 ; Poly- 
porus, 43 

Polystichum acrostichoides, 190, 193 ; 
Lonchitis, 15 

Polytrias diversiflora, no; praemorsa, 
109 

Pond, R. H., personal, 132 

Populus tremuloides, 188, 189, 190, 192, 

193 
Porodiscus, 28, 43 ; pendulus, 43 
Porphyra, 95 

Porteranthus stipulatus, 1 15 
Price, M., 94 
I'rimula obconica, 67 
I'ringle, C. O., personal, 17, 54, 133 
Proceedings of the C^lub, 14, 34, 50, 70, 

93, 113, 130, 149, 202, 219 
Prospectus of the Work of the Torrey 

Botanical Club during 1905, 47 
Prosopis Jul i flora, 69 
Prunus ])cnnsylvanica, 189, 190, 192 ; 

serotina, 142, 189, 190 
Pseudocymoptcrus, 128 
Pseudophocnix Sargenti, 36 
Psilocybc foenisecii, 34, 86 
I'ti-lea Segregates, Some, 99 
Ptelea Carolina, 09 ; mesochora, 100 ; 

obcordata, 90; trlfoliata. oo, 100 
Pttridiiim ai|tiiliiium, 56, I4I, I93 
i'ulsatilla, 166 ; hirsulisFima, 164-166 
I'yrola chlorantha, 188, 192; secunda, 

192 
Pyrrhopappus carolinianus, 145 



ryrulaiia puljcra, 152 

Quercus, 130 ; alba, 194; Calesbaei, 
114; heteropliylla, 220; laurifolia, 
141, 142; lyrala, 59; inarylandica, 
56, 220; Michauxii, 59; iiif^ra, 194; 
I'licUos, 220, 221 ; I'rinus, 56; rubra, 
193, 194, 221; Rudkini, 220; vir- 
giiiiana, 139-142 

Ranunculus alleghaniensis, 153 

Rau, K. A., personal, 205 

Razouniofskya pusilla, 15 

Rehder, A., personal, 20. 133 

Reichling, G. A., Contributions to the 
recorded Kungus and Sliine-Mould 
Flora f)f Long Island, 85 

Remarks on Californian Conifers, 93 

Reseda lutea, 47 

Reviews : Abrams' Flora of Los Angeles 
and Vicinity, 45 ; Campbell's Mosses 
and I'erns, 199; Christensen's Index 
Filicum, 217; De Vries' Species and 
Varieties ; Their Origm by Mutation, 
89 ; Farlow's IMbliographical Index of 
North American I'ungi, 200 ; Goebel's 
Organography of Plants, 167 ; Mac- 
Dougal, Vail, Shull, and Small's Mu- 
tants and Hybrids of the Oentheras, 
147; North American Flora, III; 
Proceedings Iniernational Conference 
on Plant Bieeding and Hybridization, 

12 

Rhinanthus Crista-Galli, 191 

Rhipidopteris, 1 24; Rusbyi, 88 

Rhipocephalus, 73 ; oblongus, 73 ; Phoe- 
nix, 73 

Rhizoclonium, 53 

Rhododendron, 179; lapponicum, 191 ; 
maximum, 152 

Rhus bipinnata, (Vigin of, 155 

Rhus, 155; bipinnata, 155, I98 ; copal- 
lina, 142, 162-164; glabra, 157, 159, 
163, 164; glabra laciniata, 155, 156; 
laciniata, 155 ; radicans, 140; trilo- 
bata, 203; typhina, 159; typhina 
laciniata, 155 

Rhynchospora solitaria, 1 14 

Ribes jirostratum, 191, 193; rotundi- 
folium, 194 

Riccia, 1 11 

Richards, H. M., Some edible Sea- 
weeds. 94 ; personal, 51, 149 

Richardsonia, 83, 84 ; pilosa, 83 

Ricker, P. I,., personal, 205 

Robinson, C. P., 14; Remarks on the 
I'lora of northern Cape Hreton, 15 

Robinson, 15. L., 19; personal, 77, 133 

KoKs, 1''. M., 130; personal, 16 

Romellia, 28, 44 ; sistotremoides, 44 

Romer, C. S., 93 



Roper, J. (". , 221 

Rose, 1. N., ii'-rsDiial, 98, 205 

Rosellinia Bakeri, 87 ; comprcssa, 87 

Roseiulalil, t". O., personal, 205 

Rothert, V., 20 

Rubus, A laciniate, 1 98 

Rubus, 198; Chamaemorus, 15 ; incisus, 
198; laciniatus, 198; odoralus, 188, 
194; rusticanus, I98 ; slrigosus, I9I, 
193. 194; trivialis, 141-I43 

Rusby, IL H., Ipecac roots, 1 15; Pros- 
pectus of the Work of the Torrey 
hotanical Club during 1905, 47 ; Re- 
port of Torrey Club Excursion to 
Pompton Plains, New Jersey, 204 ; 
Some interesting Plants from Colom- 
bia, 151 ; personal, 17, 51, 52, 78, 
96, 130, 132, 149, 196, 221, 222 

Russula atropurpurea, 86 

Rydberg, P. A., personal, 116 

Sabal, 31, 32 

Sabalites, 32 

Sabbatia stellaris, 144 

Safford, \V. E.. 74 

Salicornia ambigua, I44 

Salix floviatilis, 141, 142; sessilifolia 

Ilindsiana, 47; Uva-Ursi, 191 
Salsola, 137 ; Kali, 136-138 
Samolus floribundus, 15 
Sanial, M. L., personal, 52, 132 
Sanicula canadensis, 144 
Sarcoscypha floccosa, 147 
Sargassum, 73 
Sargent, C. S. , personal, 75 
Sarracenia, 179; flava. II4; minor, 1 14 
Sassafras Laurus, 198 
Saxifraga micranthidifolia, 153 
Schneck, J., 130 

Schneider, A., An Example of Complex 
l,ife Relationship, 1 19; The Classifi- 
cation of Lichens, 79; personal, 130 
Schoney, L., 93 
Scleria triglomerata, 145 
Scutellaria saxatilis, 153 
Scutiger, 28 ; caeruleoporus, 29 ; crypt- 
opus, 29 ; decurrens, 29 ; Ellisii, 29 ; 
griseus, 30 ; holocyaneus, 30 ; laeti- 
color, 29 ; persicinus, 30 ; r.ndicatus, 
30; retipes, 29; subradicatus, 30; 
Whiteae, 30 
Seaweeds, Some edible, 94 
Sedum Nevii, 115 
Selby, A. D., personal. 74 
Senecio, 151, 1S3 ; atriplicifolia, 1S3 
Sequoia, iSi, 1S2 ; Reichenbachi, 182 
Serenoa serrulata, 1 14 
Serenopsis, 31 
Sericocarpus linifolius, 56 
Sesuvium Portulacastrum, 144 



232 



Shafer, J. A., Tlie Botanical Symposium 
at Ohio Pyle, Pennsylvania, 152 ; per- 
sonal, 98, 117 

Shear, C. L., personal, 17, 19, 77, 133 

Shreve, F. , personal, 133, 170 

Shull, G. H., De Vries' Species and Va- 
rieties : Their Origin by Mutation, 89 ; 
Oaltonian Regression in the " Pure 
Line,'' 21 ; Stages in the Development 
of Sium cicutaefolium, 52 ; personal, 
14, 20, 132, 133 

Sibbaldiopsis, 192 ; tridentata, 191, 192 

Sida rhombifolia, 145 

Silphium composituni, 56; integrifulium, 
159 ; trifoliatum, 159 

Siphonychia ]iaucinora, 114 

Sium cicutaefolium. Stages in the De- 
velopment of, 52 

Small, J. K., personal, 51, 52 

Smith, A. M., personal, 18 

Smith, E. F. , personal, 19 

Smith, E., personal, 52 

Smith, H. H., 151 

Smith, J. D., personal, 36, 77 

Smilax Beyrichii, 141 ; Honanox, 140 

Solanum nigrum, 141 

Solidago alpestris, 190, 191 ; flexicaulis, 
190 ; odora, 56 

Soil Water in Relation to Transpiration, 

Sorbus americana, 1 88-1 91 

Spalding, V. M., Soil Water in Relation 

to Transpiration, 25 
Sparganium simplex, 193 
Spartina patens, 144, 145 ; polystachya, 

137, 144, 145 
Spaulding, P., personal, 206 
Species, Discontinuous Variation and the 

Origin of, I 
Sphaeralcea Fendleri californica, 47 
Sphaynum. II 
Sphenopteris, 14 
Spiraea salicifolia, I91, 193 
Si)iranthes, 1 17 
Spiraea virginiana, 153 
Sporobolus, 114, 144; indicus, 143- 

145 ; virginicus, 36, 144, 145 
Staphylea trifolia, 164 
Stations for Pinus palustris^ Some note- 
worthy, 55 
Statistical Method for comparing the Age 

of different Floras, A, 207 
Stcnotaphruni amcricanum, 144 ; dimi- 

diatum, 145 
Steplianotis tloribunda, 159 
Stevens, F. L. , personal, 205 
Slichococcus, 53 
Stigeoclonium, Cylological Differences 

between the Palmella and Filamentous 

Forms of, 100 



Stone, G. E., personal, 206 
Streptopus amplexifolius, 188, 190 
Strobilomyces floccopus, 86 ; strobila- 

ceus, 86 
Strophostyles helvola, 141, 144 
Sumstine, D. R., Panaeolus acidus, 34 
Swamp-bottom, An old, 179 
Syntherisma filiforme, 14:; 

Taraxacum Taraxacum, 196 
'I'axodium, loS; imbricarium, 108, 1 14 
Taxus canadensis, 188 
Taylor, A. P., Nature's Engrafting, 108 
Taylor, N., On the Occurrence of Dau- 

cus Carota in Ha'ili, 196 
Terms applied to the Surface and Surface 

Appendages of Fungi, 60 
Tetraneuris Dodgei, 45 ; linearifolia 

Dodgei, 45 
Thamnolia vermicularis, 191 
Thuja occidentalis, 188, 189, 190, 192, 

Tiarella cordifolia, 188 

Tidestrom, I., Note on Potrychium vir- 

ginianum, 160 ; Notes on the Gray 

Polypody, 171 
Tillandsia usneoides, I42 
Tilmadoche polycephala, 86 
Tissn rubra, 47 

Tomophagus for Dendrophagus, 197 
Tomophagus colossus, 197 
Torrey liotanical Club, Proceedings, 14, 

34,50, 70. 93, 113- 130, 149, 202, 

219 
Torrey Botanical Club, Prospectus of the 

Work of the, 47 
Townsend, C. O. , personal, 18 
Transpiration, Soil Water in Relation to, 
,,25 

'I'rautvetteria carolinensis, 153 
Trees in Georgia, Some large Specimens 

of small, 162 
Trelease, W., personal, 19, 133 
Trientalis americana, 191 
Trillium undulatum, 188 
Trio of Grasses new to the West Indies, 

A, 109 
Tsuga canadensis, 188, 189, 190, I92, 

, '93 
Two misinterpreted S[)ecics of Xyris, 128 

Udolea, 73 

Ugni, 198 ; Myrtus, 198 ; Ugni, 198 

riva, 94, loi 

Umbilicaria, 188 

Undaria distans, 95 ; pinnatifida, 95 

Underwood, L. M., A much-named I'"ern, 
87, 123 ; Hotrychium silaifolinm Presl, 
106 ; Chrislcnsen's Index I'ilicum, 
217 ; Remarks on the Genus Lycopo- 



9->"> 



dium, 70 ; I'lie early Writers 011 Ferns 
and their Collections, 37 ; personal, 19, 
50, 51, 52, 70, 77, 96, 133, 170 

Unifolium canadensc, 188, 189, 192 

Uniola, 136-139, 141 ; laxa, 143, 145; 
|>aniculata, 136, 137, 145 

Urera, 87 

Uromyces Astragali, 216 

Urospora, 53 

Usnea l)arhata, Si 

Vacciiiiuni canadense, 190-193; caespi- 
tosiini, 191; pennsylvanicum, 191-193; 
pennsylvanicum angustifoliuin, 191, 
192; uliijinosum, 191, 192 

Vail, A. M., Onagra grandiflora : A 
Species to be included in the North 
American Mora, 9; personal, 51 

Vagnera stellata, 15 

Variation, Discontinuous, and the Origin 
of Species, i 

Vegetation of Inagua, The, 35 

Veratrum viride, 189-192 

Verbena stricta, 159 

Vernonia angustifolia, 160 

Verrucaria, 82 

\'ienna, liotanical Congress in, 77, 130, 

\'iburnum alnifolium, lS8-igo ; cassi- 
noides, 18S 

Vincetoxicum suberosum, 143 

Viola Angellae, 130, 131 ; arenaria, 130 ; 
biflora, X32 ; blanda, 130 ; Brainerdi, 
130; iJriltoniana, 130; Carolina, 130 ; 
cordata, 130 ; cucullata, 130, 132 ; 
denticulosa, 1 14; fimbriatula, 130 ; 
labradorica, 130; lanceolata, 130 ; Le- 
Conteana, 130; Mulfordae, 130 ; rnul- 
ticaulis, 130 ; nephrophylla, 130; Nut- 
tallii, 130; obliqua, 130, 131 ; palmata, 
130, 131 ; papilionacea, 130 ; pedata, 
56, 130; I'orteriana, 130; praemorsa, 
46 ; pubescens, 130 ; Rafinestjuei, 130 ; 



rctusa, 130; rostrata, 130 ; rotmidi- 

folia, 13c, 18S, 192; sagittata, 130 ; 

scabriuscula, 130 ; sepleniioLa. 131; 

se|)tentrionalis, 130 ; tripartita, 130; 

villosa, 130 
Vitis rotundifolia, 140 
V'ittaria, 39 
Volvox, 53 
Votey, J. W., personal, 54 

Ward, H. M., personal, 75 

Waters, C. K. , 19, 20 

West Indies, A Paspalum new to the, 6 ; 

A Trio of Grasses new to the, 109 
Wiegand, K. M., personal, 97 
Wight, W. F., personal, 20, 116 
Wilson, P., 130 ; personal, 52 
Williams, R. S., personal, 206 
Willugbaeya scandens, 143 
Woods, A. F. , personal, 77 
Writers on Ferns and their Collections, 

The early, 57 
Wurdemannia, 73 
Wylie, R. B., personal, 205 

Xyris, Two misinterpreted Species of, 
128 

Xyris, 128, 129; arenicola, 129; brevi- 
folia, 128 ; bulbosa, 129 ; caroliniana, 
128, 129; conocephala, 130; Klliottii, 
128; flexuosa, 128, 129; platylepis, 
129 ; torta, 128, 129 

Yatsu, N., Cytological Differences be- 
tween the Palmella and filamentous 
Forms of Stigeoclonium, lOO 

York, II. H., personal, 78, 205 

Young, D., 149 

Yucca australis, Flowering of, 104 

Yucca, 35, 104 ; aloifolia, 138 ; australis, 
104, 105; fdamentosa, 143; gloriosa, 
137 ; mohavensis, 104 



Vol. 5 January, 1905 No. i 

TORREYA 

A Monthly Journal of Botanical Notes and News 



EDITED FOR 



THE TORREY botanical CLUB 



MARSHALL AVERY HOWE 




JOHN TORKEV, 179(5-1873 

CONTENTS 

Discontinuous Variation and the Origin of Species : D. I". Mai:DOUoai i 

A Paspalum new to the West Indies: CIkorge V. Nash '■ 

Onagra grandiflora (Ait.) a Species to be included in the North American 

Flora: Anna Murray \'aii 

Shorter Notes : 

Carex Underwoodii sp. nov. : N. L. Britton i 

Twin Pine Embryos : IdaClknuenin ii 

Reviews : 

Proceedings International Conference on Plant Breeding and Hybridiza- 
tion : \V. A. Cannon i- 

Proceedings of the Club : Edward W. Berry.. 

News Items i 

Published for the Ci-ub 

At North Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa, 
BY The New E«a Primting CoMTAhnr 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



OFFICERS FOR 1905 



President, 
HENRY H. RUSBY, M.D. 

Vice-Presidents, 
EDWARD S. BURGESS, Ph.D. LUCIEN M. UNDERWOOD, Ph.D. 

Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, 

EDWARD W. BERRY, JOHN K. SMALL, Ph.D. 

Passaic, New Jersey. Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York City. 

Editor, Treasurer, 

JOHN HENDLEY BARNHART, A.M., M.D. FRANCIS E. LLOYD, A.M. 
Tarrytown, N. Y. Columbia University. 

Associate Editors, 

NATHANIEL L. BRIXTON, Ph.D. DANIEL T. MACDOUGAL, Ph.D. 

TRACY ELLIOT HAZEN, Ph.D. WM. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D. 

MARSHALL A. HOWE, Ph.D. HERBERT M. RICHARDS, S.D. 

ANNA MURRAY VAIL. 



ToRREYA is furnished to subscribers in the United States and 
Canada for one dollar per annum ; single copies, fifteen cents. To 
subscribers elsewhere, five shillings, or the equivalent thereof. Postal or 
express money orders and drafts or personal checks on New York City 
Ijanks are accepted in payment, but the rules of the New York Clearing 
House compel the re([uest that ten cents be added to the amount of any 
other local checks that may be sent. Subscriptions are received only 
for full volumes, beginning with the January i.ssue. Reprints will be 
furnished at cost prices. Subscriptions and remittances should be sent 
to Treasurer, Torrey Botanical Club, 41 North Queen St., Lancaster, 
Pa., or Columbia University, New York City. 

Matter for publication should be addressed to 

Marshall A. Howe 

New York Botanical Garden 

Bronx Park, New York City 



OTHER PUBLICATIONS 



TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



(I) BULLETIN 

A monthly journal devoted to general botany. Vol. 31, 
published in 1904, contained 682 pages of text and 26 full page 
plates. Price 53-00 per annum. For Europe 14 shillings. 
Dulau & Co., ■i^'] Soho Square, London, are agents for England. 

Of former volumes, only 1-5 and 19-31 can be supplied 
entire from the stock in hand, but the completion of sets will be 
undertaken. Yearly volumes 1-5 (i 870-1 874), one dollar 
each. Vols. 19-27 (1892- 1900) are furnished at the published 
j)rice of two dollars each ; Vols. 28-31, three dollars each. 

Single copies (30 cts.) will be furnished only when not 
breaking complete volumes. 

(2) MEMOIRS 

The Memoirs are published at irregular intervals. Volumes 
i-ii are now completed and No. i of Vol. 12 has been issued. 
The subscription price is fixed at ;^3.oo per volume in advance. 
The numbers can also be purchased singly. A list of titles of the 
mdividual papers and of prices will be furnished on application. 

(3) The Preliminary Catalogue of Anthophyta and 
Pteridophyta reported as growing within one hundred miles of 
New York, 1888. Price, $1.00. 

Correspondence relating to the above publications should 
he addressed to 

THE TORREY Botanical Club 

Columbia University 

NEW YORK CITY 



Vol. 5 February, 1905 No. 2 

TORREYA 



A Monthly Journal of Botanical Notes and Newj 



EDITED FOR 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



MARSHALL AVERY HOWE 




JOHN TORREY, I796-1873 

CONTENTS 

Galtonian Regression in the "Pure Line": (Jkorge Hakkisdn Siiiii 21 

Soil Water in Relation to Transpiration : \'. M. Spai.dinc 25 

A Key to the Stipitate Polyporaceae of Temperate North Americi — I : 

Wll. 1,1AM A MlRlvlll. ^ 

A Palm from the Mid-Cretaceous: F.dwakd W. P)KKK\..' 

Shorter Notes : 

Galactia Curtissii sp. nov. : N. L. BrittonA v, 

Panaeolus acidus sp. nov. : D. R. .Sumstink. ;4 

Proceedings of the Club : Mdwakd W. Hkkky.. 34 

News Items ;<> 

PUBI.ISUED FOR TIIK ClAU: 

At North Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

BY The New Era Phinting Company 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



OFFICERS FOR 1905 



President, 
HENRY H. RU8BY, M D. 

Vice - Pre si den ts, 
EDWARD S. BURGESS, Ph.D. LUCIEN M. UNDERWOOD, Ph.D. 

Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, 

EDWARD W. BERRY, JOHN K. SMALL, Ph.D. 

Passaic, New Jersey. Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York City. 

Editor, Treasurer, 

JOHN HENDLEY BARNHART, A.M., M.D. FRANCIS E. LLOYD, A.M. 
Tarrytown, N. V. Columbia University. 

Associate Editors, 

NATHANIEL L. BRITTON, Ph.D. DANIEL T. MACDOUGAL, Ph.D. 

TRACY ELLIOT HAZEN, Ph.D. WM. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D. 

MARSHALL A. HOWE, Ph.D. HERBERT M. RICHARDS, S.D. 

ANNA MURRAY VAIL. 



ToRRKYA i.s furnished to subscribers in the United States and 
Canada for one dollar per annum ; single copies, fifteen cepts. To 
subscribers elsewhere, five shillings, or the equivalent thereof. Po.stal or 
express money orders and drafts or personal checks on New York City 
banks are accepted in payment, but the rules of the New York Clearing 
House comj)el the request that ten cents be added to the amount of any 
other local checks that may be sent. Subscriptions are received only 
for full volumes, beginning with the January issue. Reprints will be 
furnished at cost prices. Subscriptions and remittances should be sent 
to Treasurer, Torrey Botanical Club, 41 North Queen St., Lancaster, 
Pa., or Columbia University, New York City. 

Matter for publication should be addressed to 

Marshall A. Howe 

New York Botanical Garden 

Bronx Park, New York City 



OTHER PUBLICATIONS 



TORRE Y BOTANICAL CLUB 



(I) BULLETIN 

A monthly journal devoted to general botany. Vol. 31, 
published in 1904, contained 682 pages of text and 26 full page 
plates. Price ;^3.oo per annum. For Europe 14 shillings. 
Dulau & Co., T^j Soho Square, London, are agents for England. 

Of former volumes, only 1-5 and 19—31 can be supplied 
entire from the stock in hand, but the completion of sets will be 
undertaken. Yearly volumes 1-5 (i 870-1 874), one dollar 
each. Vols. 19-27 (1892- 1900) are furnished at the published 
price of two dollars each ; Vols. 28-3 i , three dollars each. 

Single copies (30 cts.) will be furnished only when not 
breaking complete volumes. 

(2) MEMOIRS 
The Memoirs are published at irregular intervals. Volumes 
i-i I are now completed and No. i of Vol. 12 has been issued. 
The subscription price is fi.xed at $3.00 per volume in advance. 
The numbers can also be purchased singly. A list of titles of the 
individual papers and of prices will be furnished on application. 

(3) The Preliminary Catalogue of Anthophyta and 
Pteridophyta repoitcd as growing within one hundred miles of 
New York, 1888. Price, $1.00. 

Correspondence relating to the above publications should 
be addressed to 

THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 
Columbia University 

NEW YORK CITY 



Vol. 5 March 1905 No. 3 

TORREYA 

A Monthly Journal of Botanical Notes and News 

EDITED FOR 

THE TOR RE Y BOTANICAL CLUB 

BY 

MARSHALL AVERY HOWE 







^ 



JOHN TORKEY, 179O-1873 

CONTENTS 

The Early Writers on Ferns and their Collections — IV. Presl, 1794-1852; 
John Smith, 1798-1888; Fee, 1709-1874; and Moore, 1821-1887: I M 

Unokkwood \7 

Other Freaks of Peas: Ida Ci.kndeninx 4' 

A Key to the Stipitate Polyporaceae of Temperate North America— II : 

Wll.I.IAM A. MUKKII.I , 4,^ 

Shorter Notes : 

Jacquinia Curtissii sp. nov. : N. L. Britton... 44 

New Binomials in an Index : T. D. A. Cockkreli 44 

Reviews : 

Abrams' Flora of Los Angeles and Vicinity : Ai u 1 Ha^iuuhi) 45 

Prospectus of the Work of the Torrey Botanical Club during 1905 : 

lil.NRV II. Rl'SliY 47 

Proceedings of the Club : Edward W. Berry.)..... ."^o 

News Items ^^ 

Published for the Ci.uh 

At North Quben Street, Lancastek, Pa. 
BY The New Era Pkinting Company 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



OFFICERS FOR 1905 



President, 
HENRY H. RUSBY, M.D. 

Vice-Presidents, 
EDWARD S. BURGESS, Ph.D. LUCIEN M. UNDERWOOD, Ph.D. 

Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, 

EDWARD W. BERRY, JOHN K. SMALL, Ph.D. 

Passaic, New Jersey. Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York City. 

Editor, Treasurer, 

JOHN HENDLEY BARNHART, A.M., M.D. FRANCIS E. LLOYD, A.M. 

Tarry town. N. Y. Columbia University. 

Associate Editors, 

NATHANIEL L. BRI'ITON, Ph.D. DANIEL T. MACDOUGAL, Ph.D. 

TRACY ELLIOT HAZEN, Ph.D. WM. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D. 

MARSHALL A. HOWK, Ph.D. HERBERT M. RICHARDS, S.D, 

ANNA MURRAY VAIL. 



ToRREYA is furnished to subscribers in the United States and 
Canada for one dollar per annum ; single copies, fifteen cents. To 
subscribers elsewhere, five shillings, or the equivalent thereof. Postal or 
express money orders and drafts or personal checks on Nevv^ York City 
banks are accepted in payment, but the rules of the New York Clearing 
House compel the recjuest that ten cents be added to the amount of any 
other local checks that may be sent. Subscriptions are received only 
for full volumes, beginning with the January issue. Reprints will be 
furnished at cost prices. Subscriptions and remittances should be sent 
to Treasurer, Torrey Botanical Club, 41 North Queen St., Lancaster, 
Fa., or C'olumbia University, New York City. 

Matter for publication should be addressed to 

Marshall A. Howe 

New York Botanical Garden 

Bronx Park, New York City 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



OFFICERS FOR 1905 



President, 
HENRY H. RUSBY, M.D. 

Vice-Presidents, 
EDWARD S. BURGESS, Ph.D. LUCIEN M. UNDERWOOD, Pii.D. 

Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, 

EDWARD W. BERRY, JOHN K. SMALL, Ph.D. 

Passaic, New Jersey. Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York City. 

Editor, Treasurer, 

JOHN HENDLEY BARNHART, A.M., M.D. FRANCIS E. LLOYD, A.M. 
Tarrytown, N. Y. Columbia University. 

Associate Editors, 

NATHANIEL L. BRITTON, Ph.D. DANIEL T. MACDOUGAL, Ph.D. 

TRACY ELLIOT HAZEN, Ph.D. WM. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D. 

M.VRSHALL A. HOWE, Ph.D. HERBERT M. RICHARDS, S. D. 

ANNA MURRAY VAIL. 



ToRREYA is furnished to subscribers in the United States and 
Canada for one dollar per annum ; single copies, fifteen cents. To 
subscribers elsewhere, five shillings, or the equivalent thereof. Postal or 
express money orders and drafts or personal checks on New York City 
banks are accepted in payment, but the rules of the New York Clearing 
House compel the re(iuest that ten cents be added to the amount of any 
other local checks that may be sent. Subscriptions are received only 
for full volumes, beginning with the January issue. Reprints will be 
furnished at cost prices. Subscriptions and remittances should be sent 
to Trea-surer, T'orrey Botanical Club, 41 North Queen St., I^ncaster, 
Pa., or Columbia University, New York City. 

Matter for j)ublication should be addressed to 

Marshall A. Howe 

New York Botanical Garden 

Bronx Park, New York City 



OTHER PUBLICATIONS 



TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



(1) BULLETIN 

A monthly journal devoted to general botany. Vol. 31, 
published in 1904, contained 682 pages of text and 26 full page 
plates. Price ;^3.oo per annum. For Europe 14 shillings. 
Dulau & Co., 37 Soho Square, London, are agents for England. 

Of former volumes, only 1-5 and I9-31 can be supplied 
entire from the stock in hand, but the completion of sets will be 
undertaken. Yearly volumes 1-5 (i 870-1 874), one dollar 
each. Vols. 19-27 (1892- 1900) are furnished at the published 
price of two dollars each ; Vols. 28-31, three dollars each. 

Single copies (30 cts.) will be furnished only when not 
breaking complete volumes. 

(2) MEMOIRS 

The Memoirs are published at irregular intervals. Volumes 
I -I I are now completed and No. i of Vol. 12 has been issued. 
The subscription price is fixed at ;^3.00 per volume in advance. 
The numbers can also be purchased singly. A list of titles of the 
individual papers and of prices will be furnished on application. 

(3) The Preliminary Catalogue of Anthophyta and 
Pteridophyta reported as growing within one hundred miles of 
New York, 1888. Price, ^i.oo. 

Corre.spondence relating to the above publications should 
bo addressed to 

The TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 

Columbia University ' 

NEW YORK CITY 



Vol. 5 May 1905 No. 5 

TORREYA 

A Monthly Journal of Botanical Notes and News 

KOITEI) I" OK 

THE TORREY botanical CLUB 

BY 

MARSHALL AVERY HOWE 

IV 




JOHN TORKliY, 179O-1873 

CONTENTS 

The Classification of Lichens : Albert Schneider 7'> 

The Course of the Pollen Tube in Houstonia : A preliminary Statement : 

I'uAMis E. Lloyd ^*^3 

Contributions to the recorded Fungus and Slime-Mould Flora of Long Island : 

('.. A. Reich LING '^5 

Shorter Notes : 

Three Cotyledons in Juglans : Edward W. Berry.... 87 

A new Rosellinia from Nicaragua : J. B. Ellis 87 

A much-named Fern : LuciEN M. Underwood.'' ^^7 

Reviews : 

De Vries' Species and Varieties: George Harrison SHyi-M '^1 

Proceedings of the Club : Edward \V. Berry.. 

News Items - 

Published for thf. L i.i 1; 

At Nohth Quebn Strket, Lancastkk, I'a. 
BY The New Era Printing Company 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



OFFICERS FOR 1905 



President, 
HENRY H. RUSBY, M.D. 

Vice-Presidents, 
EDWARD S. BURGESS, Ph.D. LUCIEN M. UNDERWOOD, Ph.D. 

Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, 

EDWARD W. BERRY, JOHN K, SMALL, Ph.D. 

Passaic, New Jersey. Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York City. 

Editor, Treasurer, 

JOHN HENDLEY BARNHART, A.M., M.D. FRANCIS E. LLOYD, A.M. 
Tarrytown. N. Y. Columbia University. 

Associate Editors, 

NATHANIEL L. BRITTON, Ph.D. DANIEL T. MACDOUGAL, Ph.D. 

TRACY ELLIOT HAZEN, Ph.D. WM. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D. 

MARSHALL A. HOWE, Ph.D. HERBERT M. RICHARDS, S.D. 

ANNA MURRAY VAIL. 



ToRREYA is furnished to subscribers in the United States and 
Canada for one dollar per annum ; single copies, fifteen cents. To 
subscribers elsewhere, five shillings, or the equivalent thereof. Postal or 
express money orders and drafts or personal checks on Nevir York City 
banks are accepted in payment, but the rules of the New York Clearing 
House compel the request that ten cents be added to the amount of any 
other local checks that may be sent. Subscriptions are received only 
for full volumes, beginning with the January issue. Reprints will be 
furnished at cost prices. Subscriptions and remittances should be sent 
to Treasurer, Torrey Botanical Club, 41 North Queen St., Lancaster, 
Fa., or Columbia University, New York City. 

Matter for publication should be addressed to 

Marshall A. Howe 

New York Botanical Garden 

Bronx Park, New York City 



OTHER PUBLICATIONS 



TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



(1) BULLETIN 

A monthly journal devoted to general botany. Vol. 31, 
published in 1904, contained 682 pages of text and 26 full page 
plates. Price ^3.00 per annum. For Europe 14 shillings. 
Dulau & Co., 37 Soho Square, London, are agents for England. 

Of former volumes, only 1-5 and 19-31 can be supplied 
entire from the stock in hand, but the completion of sets will be 
undertaken. Yearly volumes 1-5 (i 870-1 874), one dollar 
each. Vols. 19-27 (1892- 1900) are furnished at the published 
price of two dollars each ; Vols. 28-31, three dollars each. 

Single copies (30 cts.) will be furnished only when not 
breaking complete volumes. 

(2) MEMOIRS 

The Memoirs are published at irregular intervals. Volumes 
i-i I are now completed and No. i of Vol. 12 has been issued. 
The subscription price is fixed at ;^3.0o per volume in advance. 
The numbers can also be purchased singly. A list of titles of the 
individual papers and of prices will be furnished on application. 

(3) The Preliminary Catalogue of Anthophyta and 
Pteridophyta reported as growing within one hundred miles of 
New York, 1888. Price, ;^ 1. 00. * 

Correspondence relating to the above publications should 
be addressed to 

The TORREY Botanical club 

Columbia University 

NEW YORK CITY 



Vol.5 



June 1905 



No. 6 



TORREYA 



A Monthly Journal of Botanical Notes and News 

EDITED I'OR 

THE TORREY botanical CLUB 

BY 

MARSHALL AVERY HOWE 




:W YORK 

botanical 

CiARDEN. 



JOHN TORREY, 1796-1873 

CONTENTS 

Some Ptelea Segregates ; Edward L.Greene 99 

Cytologicil Differences between the palmella and filamentous Forms of Sti- 

geoclonium : >..\t)HiuE V.vrsu 100 

Flowering of Yucca australis : S. B. Parish. .\ 104 

Botrychium silaifolium Presl : Lucien M. Underwood: 106 

Shorter Notes : 

Amelanchier arguta Nutt. : VV. W. Eggleston 107 

Nature's Engrafting: Mks. Augustus P.Taylor 108 

A new Gentian from Bolivia : Ern.st GiLG , 109 

A Trio of Grasses new to the West Indies : George V. Nash..^ 109 

Reviews : 

North American Flora: Alexander W. Evans 11 1 

Proceedings of the Club : Marshall A. Howe iij 

News Items 1 16 

Published for the Club 

At 41 North Qubbn Street, Lancaster, Pa. 
BY The New Eka Prii*tinc Company 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



OFFICERS FOR 1905 



President, 
HENRY H. RUSBY, M.D. 

Vice-Presidents, 
EDWARD S. BURGESS, Ph.D. LUCIEN M. UNDERWOOD, Ph.D. 

Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, 

EDWARD W. BERRY, JOHN K. SMALL, Ph.D. 

Passaic, New Jersey. Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York City. 

Editor, Treasurer, 

JOHN HENDLEY BARNHART, A.M., M.D. FRANCIS E. LLOYD, A.M. 
Tarrytown, N. Y. Columbia University. 

Associate Editors, 

NATHANIEL L. BRITTON, Ph.D. DANIEL T. MACDOUGAL, Ph.D. 

TRACY ELLIOT HAZEN, Ph.D. WM. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D. 

MARSHALL A. HOWE, Ph.D. HERBERT M. RICHARDS, S.D. 

ANNA MURRAY VAIL. 



ToRREYA is furnished to subscribers in the United States and 
Canada for one dollar per annum ; single copies, fifteen cents. To 
subscribers elsewhere, five shillings, or the equivalent thereof. Postal or 
express money orders and drafts or personal checks on New York City 
banks are accepted in payment, but the rules of the New York Clearing 
House compel the request that ten cents be added to the amount of any 
other local checks that may be sent. Subscriptions are received only 
for full volumes, beginning with the January issue. Reprints will be 
furnished at cost prices. Subscriptions and remittances should be sent 
to Treasurer, Torrey Botanical Club, 41 North Queen St., Lancaster, 
I'a., or Columbia University, New York City. 

Matter for publication should be addres.sed to 

Marshall A. Howe 

New York Botanical Garden 

Bronx Park, New York City 



OTHER PUBLICATIONS 



TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



(1) BULLETIN 

A monthly journal devoted to general botany. Vol. 31, 
published in 1904, contained 682 pages of text and 26 full page 
plates. Price ;^3.oo per annum. For Europe 14 shillings. 
Dulau & Co., 37 Soho Square, London, are agents for England. 

Of former volumes, only 1-5 and 19-31 can be supplied 
entire from the stock in hand, but the completion of sets will be 
undertaken. Yearly volumes 1-5 (1870-1874), one dollar 
each. Vols. 19-27 (1892- 1900) are furnished at the published 
price of two dollars each ; Vols. 28-31, three dollars each. 

Single copies (30 cts.) will be furnished only when not 
breaking complete volumes. 

(2) MEMOIRS 

The Memoirs are published at irregular intervals. Volumes 
i-ii are now completed and No. i of Vol. 12 has been issued. 
The subscription price is fixed at ^3.00 per volume in advance. 
The numbers can also be purchased singly. A list of titles of the 
individual papers and of prices will be furnished on application. 

(3) The Preliminary Catalogue of Anthophyta and 
Pteridophyta reported as growing within one hundred miles of 
New York, 1888. Price, ;$ 1. 00. 

Correspondence relating to the above publications should 
be addressed to 

The TORREY Botanical club 

Columbia University 

NEW YORK CITY 



Vol. 5 July 1905 No. 7 

TORREYA 



A Monthly Journal of Botanical Notes and News 



KDITEIJ I-OR 



THE TORREY botanical CLUB 



MARSHALL AVERY HOWE 




JOHN TOKKEY, 179O-1873 

CONTENTS 

An Example of complex Life -Relationship : Ai."KRT Schnkidf.r i i<j 

Quelques Mots sur I'Article de Mr. Underwood: "A much-named Fern ": H. 

Christ 123 

Derivation of the Name Chamaecrista: Edward L. Gr ken k 1 j' 

Two misinterpreted Sp?cies of Xyris : Roland M. Harpkk 12S 

Proceedings of the Club: Edward \V. Berry 130 

News Items 13- 

Published for the Club 

At 41 North Qubbn Strket, Lancaster. Pa. 
BY Thb Nrw Era Pkinting Company 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



OFFICERS FOR 1905 



President, 
HENRY H. RUS13Y, M.D. 

Vice-Presiden ts, 
P:D\VARD S. burgess, Ph.D. LUCIEiV M. underwood, Ph.D. 

Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, 

EDWARD W. BERRY, JOHN K. SMALL, Ph.D. 

Passaic, New Jersey. Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New Yorli City. 

Editor, Treasurer, 

JOHN HENDLEY BARNHART, A.M., M.D. FRANCIS E. LLOYD, A.M. 

Tarrytown, N. Y. Columbia University. 

Associate Editors, 

NATHANIEL L. BRITTON, Ph.D. DANIEL T. MACDOUGAL, Ph.D. 

TRACY ELLIOT HAZEN, Ph.D. WM. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D. 

MARSHALL A. HOWE, Ph.D. HERBERT M. RICHARDS, S.D. 

ANNA MURRAY VAIL. 



ToRREYA is furnished to subscribers in the United States and 
Canada for one dollar ])er annum ; single copies, fifteen cents. To 
subscribers elsewhere, five shillings, or the equivalent thereof. Postal or 
express money orders and drafts or personal checks on New York City 
banks are accepted in payment, but the rules of the New York Clearing 
House compel the request that ten cents be added to the amount of any 
other local checks that may be sent. Subscriptions are received only 
for full volumes, beginning with the January issue. Reprints will be 
furnished at cost prices. Subscriptions and remittances should be sent 
to Treasurer, Torrey Botanical Club, 41 North Queen St., T^ncaster, 
Pa., or Columbia University, New York City. 

Matter for publication should be addressed to 

Marshall A, Howe 

New York Botanical Garden 

Bronx Park, New York City 



OTHER PUBLICATIONS 



TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



(1) BULLETIN 

A monthly journal devoted to general botany. Vol. 31, 
published in 1904, contained 682 pages of text and 26 full page 
plates. Price ;^3.oo per annum. For Europe 14 shillings. 
Dulau & Co., 37 Soho Square, London, are agents for England. 

Of former volumes, only 1-5 and 19-31 can be supplied 
entire from the stock in hand, but the completion of sets will be 
undertaken. Yearly volumes 1-5 (i 870-1 874), one dollar 
each. Vols. 19-27 (1892- 1900) are furnished at the published 
price of two dollars each ; Vols. 28-31, three dollars each. 

Single copies (30 cts.) will be furnished only when not 
breaking complete volumes. 

(2) MEMOIRS 

The Memoirs are published at irregular intervals. Volumes 
i-i I are now completed and No. i of Vol. 12 has been issued. 
The subscription price is fixed at ;$3.oo per volume in advance. 
The numbers can also be purchased singly. A list of titles of the 
individual papers and of prices will be furnished on application. 

(3) The Preliminary Catalogue of Anthophyta and 
Pteridophyta reported as growing within one hundred miles of 
New York, 1888. Price, $1.00. 

Correspondence relating to the above publications should 
be addressed to 

The TORREY Botanical club 

Columbia University 

NEW YORK CITY 



Vol.5 



August, 1905 



No. 8 



TORREYA 



A Monthly Journal of Botanical Notes and News 



EDITED KOR 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



MARSHALL AVERY HOWE 




L.IBRARY 

sew YORK 
.(►TANICAL 



JOHN TORREY, 1796-1873 

CONTENTS 

Observations on the Flora of the Isle of Palms, Charleston, S. C: W. < . 

C O K K R 135 

Shorter Notes ; 

Names of Insects: T. D. A. CncKERElxl 145 

A Note regarding the Discharge of Spores of Pleurotus ostreatus : C. C. 
IIanmkk 146 

Reviews : 

MacDougal and others on Mutants and Hybrids of the Oenotheras : John 

w. H.\KSHHKR(".r.K ..;....:.. 147 

Proceedings of the Club: Kkwakd W. Bkrky.V 149 

The Botanical Symposium at Ohio Pyle, Pennsylvania; J. A. Shakf.k 152 

News Items '54 

Published fou the Club 

At 41 North Qubbn Street, Lanxastbr, Pa. 
Bv The New Era Pkinting Companv 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



OFFICERS FOR 1905 



President, 
HENRY H. RUSBY, M.D. 

Vice - P rest den ts, 
EDWARD S. BURGESS, Ph.D. LUCIEN M. UNDERWOOD, Ph.D. 

Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, 

EDWARD W. BERRY, JOHN K. SMALL, Ph.D. 

Passaic, New Jersey. Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York City. 

Editor, Treasurer, 

JOHN HENDLEY BARNHART, A.M., M.D. FRANCIS E. LLOYD, A.M. 
Tarrytown, N. Y. Columbia University. 

Associate Editors, 

NATHANIEL L. BRITTON, Ph.D. DANIEL T. MACDOUGAL, Ph.D. 

TRACY ELLIOT HAZEN, Ph.D. WM. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D. 

MARSHALL A. HOWE, Ph.D. HERBERT M. RICHARDS, S.D. 

ANNA MURRAY VAIL. 



ToRREYA is furnished to subscribers in the United States and 
Canada for one dollar per annum ; single copies, fifteen cents. To 
subscribers elsewhere, five shillings, or the equivalent thereof. Postal or 
express money orders and drafts or personal checks on New York City 
banks are accepted in payment, but the rules of the New York Clearing 
House compel the recjuest that ten cents be added to the amount of any 
other local checks that may be sent. Subscriptions are received only 
for full volumes, beginning with the January issue. Reprints will be 
furnished at cost prices. Subscriptions and remittances should be sent 
to Treasurer, Torrey Botanical Club, 41 North Queen St., Lancaster, 
Pa., or Columbia University, New York City. 

Matter for publication should be addressed to 

Marshall A. Howe 

New York Botanical Garden 

Bronx Park, New York City 



OTHER PUBLICATIONS 



TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



(1) BULLETIN 

A monthly journal devoted to general botany. Vol. 31, 
published in 1904, contained 682 pages of text and 26 full page 
plates. Price 1^3.00 per annum. For Europe 14 shillings. 
Dulau & Co., 37 Soho Square, London, are agents for England. 

Of former volumes, only 1-5 and 19-31 can be supplied 
entire from the stock in hand, but the completion of sets will be 
undertaken. Yearly volumes 1-5 (i 870-1 874), one dollar 
each. Vols. 19-27 (1892- 1900) are furnished at the published 
price of two dollars each ; Vols. 28-31, three dollars each. 

Single copies (30 cts.) will be furnished only when not 
breaking complete volumes. 

(2) MEMOIRS 

The Memoirs are published at irregular intervals. Volumes 
i-ii are now completed and No. i of Vol. 12 has been issued. 
The subscription price is fixed at $3.00 per volume in advance. 
The numbers can also be purchased singly. A list of titles of the 
individual papers and of prices will be furnished on application. 

(3) The Preliminary Catalogue of Anthophyta and 
Pteridophyta reported as growing within one hundred miles of 
New York, 1888. Price, ;^i. 00. 

Correspondence relating to the above publications should 
be addressed to 

The TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 

Columbia University 

NEW YORK CITY 



Vol. 5 September, 1905 No. g 

TORREYA 



A Monthly Journal of Botanical Notes and News 



KI>ITE1J lt)K 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUR 



MARSHALL AVERY HOWE 




f 



JOHN TORREY, 179O-1873 

CONTENTS 

Origin of Rhus bipinnata : Kduard L. Greenk..: 155 

New Fasciations : J. Arthlik Harris 157 

Note on Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. : Ivar Tidestrom 160 

Some large Specimens of small Trees in Georgia: I\(ii.AND M. Harper. ? 162 

Cotyledon- and Leaf-Structure in certain Ranunculaceae : Neata Clark.... 164 
Shorter Notes : 

Lespedeza velutina Bicknell a Homonym: II. D. Hoisi-: 167 

Reviews : 

English Edition of Goebel's Organographie der Pflanzen : Y. E. Lloyd. 167 
News Items 169 

Published for the Club 

At 41 North Quben Street, Lancaster, Pa. 
BY The New Era Printing COmpan-y 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



OFFICERS FOR igo. 



Presuhnt, 
HENRY H. RUSHY, M.D. 

Vice-Presidents, 
EDWARD S. BURGESS, Ph.D. LUCIEN M. UNDER\Y0()1), Ph.D. 

Reco7-ding Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, 

EDWARD W. BERRY, JOHN K. SMALL, Ph.D. 

Passaic, New Jersey. liotanical Garden, Bron.x Park, New York City. 

Editor, Treasurer, 

JOHN HENDLEY BARNHART, A.M., I\LD. FRANCIS E. LLOYD, A.M. 

Tarrytown, N. Y. Columbia University. 

Associate Editors, 

NATHANIEL L. BRPPTON, Ph.D. DANIEL T. MACDOUGAL, Ph.D. 

TRACY ELLIOT HAZExN, Ph.D.. W^M. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D. 

MARSHALL A. HOWE, Ph.D. I1I';RI;ERT M. RICHARDS, S.D. 

A\NA MURRAY YAIL. 



ToRREYA is furnished to subscribers in the United States and 
Canada for one dollar per annum ; single copies, fifteen cents. To 
subscribers elsewhere, five shillings, or the etiuivalent thereof. Postal or 
express money orders and drafts or personal checks on New York City 
banks are accepted in payment, but the rules of the New York Clearing 
House compel the request that ten cents be added to the amount of any 
other local checks that may be sent. Subscriptions are received only 
for full volumes, beginning with the January issue. Reprints will be 
furnished at cost prices. Subscriptions and remittances should be sent 
to Treasurer, Torrey Botanical Club, 41 North Queen St., I^ancaster, 
Pa., or Columbia University, New York City. 

Matter for publication should be addressed to 

Marshall A. Howe 

New York Botanical Garden 

Bronx Park, New York City 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



OFFICERS FOR 1905 



President, 
HENRY H. RU8BY, M.D. 

Vice-Presidents, 
EDWARD S. BURGESS, Ph.D. LUCIEN M. UNDERWOOD, Ph.D. 

Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, 

EDWARD W. BERRY, JOHN K. SMALL, Ph.D. 

Passaic, New Jersey. Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York City. 

Editor, Treasurer, 

JOHN HENDLEY BARNHART, A.M., M.D. FRANCIS E. LLOYD, A.M. 
Tarry town, N. Y. Columbia University. 

Associate Editors, 

NATHANIEL L. BRIXTON, Ph.D. DANIEL T. MACDOUCiAL, Ph.D. 

TRACY ELLIOT HAZEN, Ph.D. WM. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D. 

MARSHALL A. HOWE, Ph.D. HERBERT M. RICHARDS, S.D. 

ANNA MURRAY VAIL. 



ToRRF.YA is furnished to subscribers in the United States and 
Canada for one dollar per annum ; single copies, fifteen cents. To 
subscribers elsewhere, five shillings, or the equivalent thereof. Postal or 
express money orders and drafts or personal checks on New York City 
banks are accepted in payment, but the rules of the New York Clearing 
House compel the recjuest that ten cents be added to the amount of any 
other local checks that may be sent. Subscriptions are received only 
for full volumes, ])eginning with the January issue. Reprints will be 
furnished at cost prices. Subscriptions and remittances should be sent 
to Treasurer, Torrey Botanical Club, 41 North Queen St., Lancaster, 
Pa., or Columbia University, New York City. ^ 

Matter for publication should be addressed to 

Marshall A. Howe 

New York Botanical Garden 

Bronx Park, New York City 



OTHER PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



TORRE Y BOTANICAL CLUB 



(i) BULLETIN 

A monthly journal devoted to general botany. Vol. 31, 
published in 1904, contained 682 pages of text and 26 full page 
plates. Price ^3.00 per annum. For Europe 14 shillings. 
Dulau & Co., "i^y Soho Square, London, are agents for England. 

Of former volumes, only 1-5 and 19-31 can be supplied 
entire from the stock in hand, but the completion of sets will be 
undertaken. Yearly volumes 1-5 (i 870-1 874), one dollar 
each. Vols. 19—27 (1892- 1900) are furnished at the published 
price of two dollars each ; Vols. 28-31, three dollars each. 

Single copies (30 cts.) will be furnished only when not 
breaking complete volumes. 

(2) MEMOIRS 
The Memoirs are published at irregular intervals. Volumes 
i-i I are now completed and No. i of Vol. 12 has been issued. 
The subscription price is fi.xed at $3.00 per volume in advance. 
The numbers can also be purchased singly. A list of titles of the 
individual papers and of prices will be furnished on application. 

(3) The Preliminary Catalogue of Anthophyta and 
Pteridophyta reported as growing within one hundred miles of 
New York, 1888. Price, 5 1. 00. 

Correspondence relating to the above publications should 
he adfh-csscd to 

THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 

Columbia University 

NEW YORK CITY 



Vol.5 



December, 1905 



No. 12 



TORREYA 



A Monthly Journal of Botanical Notks and News 



KDITED FOK 



Tin: TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



MARSHALL AVERY HOWE 




LI 



JOHN TOKKEY, 1796-^1873 

CONTENTS 

A statistical Method for comparing the Age of different Floras: Khiam M. 

Haki'kr 207 

Artificial Coloring of Flowers : Henry Kraemkr -ti 

A Key to the Agariceae of temperate North America : Wir.i.iAM A. Mikkiii.. 2\; 
Shorter Notes 

The Cuban Columneas : N. L. Br n ton 2\ ^ 

Astragalus lotiflorus nebraskensis : J. AI. Bates -'15 

A curious Cactus Fruit : W. A.Cannon :!i' 

Reviews 

Christensen's Index Filicum: Lucien M. L'nuekwuok -17 

Proceedings of the Club : Kor.ANi> M. Harper, C. Stuart (Jagkr -i , 

News Items - 

Published for the Club 

At 41. North Queen Strfbt, Lancastkk. Pa. 
iiY The New Era Pkintinc. Co-u a-.\ 



THE TOKREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



OFFICERS FOR 1905 



President, 
HENRY H. RUSBY, M.D. 

Vice-Presidents, 
EDWARD S. BURGESS, Ph.D. LUCIEN M. UNDERWOOD, Ph.D. 

Reco7-ding Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, 

C. STU.\RT GAGER, Ph.D. JOHN K. SMALL, Ph.D. 

Morris High Schoo), New York City. Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York City. 

Editor, jyeasurer, 

JOHN HENDLEY BARNHART, A.M., M.D. FRANCIS E. LLOYD, A.M. 
Tarrytown, N. Y. Columbia University. 

Associate Editors, 

NATHANIEL L. BRITTON, Ph.D. DANIEL T. MACDOUGAL, Ph.D. 

TRACY ELLIOT HAZEN, Ph.D. WM. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D. 

MARSHALL A. HOWE, Ph.D. HERBERT M. RICHARDS, S.D. 

ANNA MURRAY VAIL. 



ToRRKVA is furnished to subscribers in the United States and 
Canada for one dollar per annum ; single coj)ies, fifteen cents. To 
subscribers elsewhere, five shillings, or the equivalent thereof. Postal or 
express money orders and drafts or personal checks on New York City 
banks are accepted in payment, but the rules of the New York Clearing 
House compel the request that ten cents be added to the amount of any 
other local checks that may be sent. Subscrii)tions are received only 
for full volumes, beginning with the January issue. Reprints will be 
furnished at cost prices. Subscriptions and remittances should be sent 
to Treasurer, Torrey Botanical Club, 41 North Queen St., I^ncaster, 
I'a., or Columbia University, New York City. 

Matter for publication should be addressed to 

Marshall A. Howe 

New York Botanical Garden 

Bronx Park, New York City 



OTHER PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



(1) BULLETIN 

A monthly journal devoted to general botany. Vol. 31, 
published in 1904, contained 682 pages of text and 26 full page 
plates. Price ^3.00 per annum. For Europe 14 shillings. 
Dulau & Co., 37 Soho Square, London, are agents for England. 

Of former volumes, only r-5 and 19-31 can be supplied 
entire from the stock in hand, but the completion of sets will be 
undertaken. Yearly volumes 1-5 (1870-1874), one dollar 
each. Vols. 19—27 (1892- 1900) are furnished at the published 
price of two dollars each ; Vols. 28-31, three dollars each. 

Single copies (30 cts.) will be furnished only when not 
breaking complete volumes. 

(2) MEMOIRS 

The Memoirs are published at irregular intervals. Volumes 
i-i I are now completed and No. i of Vol. 12 has been issued. 
The subscription price is fixed at ;^3.00 per volume in advance. 
The numbers can also be purchased singly. A list of titles of the 
individual papers and of prices will be furnished on application. 

(3) The Preliminary Catalogue of Anthophyta and 
Pteridophyta reported as growing within one hundred miles of 
New York, 1888. Price, $1.00. 

Correspondence relating to the above publications should 
be addressed to 

The Torrey Botanical Club 

Columbia University 

NEW YORK CITY 



Vol. 5 December, 1905 No. 12 



TORREYA 



A Monthly Journal of Botanical Notes and News 

KDITED FOR 

I 

THE TORREY botanical CLUI5 

itv 

MARSHALL AVERY HOWE 




Lf 



JOHN Ti'l 1 ' ; , /•-1873 

CONTENTS 

a statistical Method for comparing the Age of different Floras: 1\<iiani' M. 

Haki'ik 2 ; 

Artificial Coloring of Flowers: IIf.nkv Krakmi k i 

A Key to the Agariceae of temperate North America : Wh.iiam A. McRRii i . ji 
Shorter Notes 

The Cuban Columneas : N. L. Br n ton -i ■ 

Astragalus lotiflorus nebraskensis ; J. M. Batk- - 1 ■ 

A curious Cactus Fruit : W. A. Cannon -i' 

Reviews 

Christensen's Index Filicum: I.ucikn M. Underwoou .. i 

Proceedings of the Club: Koi and M. Hari-kk, C. Stuari CiAc.kr... 
News Items 

Published for the Club 

At 41 NoKTH QUBEN Strkbt, Lancastkk. Pa, 
HY The New Era Pkinting Company 



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



OFFICERS FOR 1905 



President, 
HENRY H. RUSBY, M.D. 

Vice-Presidents, 
EDWARD S. BURGESS, Ph.D. LUCIEN M. UNDERWOOD, Ph.D. 

Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, 

C. STUART GAGER, Ph.D. JOHN K. SMALL, Ph.D. 

Morris High School, New York City. ' Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York City. 

Editor, Treasurer, 

JOHN HENDLEY BARNHART, A.M., M.D. FRANCIS E. LLOYD, A.M. 

Tarrytown, N. Y. Columbia University. 

Associate Editors, 

NATHANIEL L. BRITTON, Ph.D. DANIEL T. MACDOUGAL, Ph.D. 

TRACY ELLIOT HAZEN, Ph.D. WM. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D. 

MARSHALL A. HOWE, Ph.D. HERBERT M. RICHARDS, S.D. 

ANNA MURRAY VAIL. 



ToRREYA is furnished to subscribers in the United States and 
Canada for one dollar per annum; single copies, fifteen cents. To 
subscribers elsewhere, five shillings, or the equivalent thereof. Postal or 
express money orders and drafts or personal checks on New York City 
banks are accepted in payment, but the rules of the New York Clearing 
House compel the request that ten cents be added to the amount of any 
other local checks that may be sent. Subscriptions are received only 
for full volumes, beginning with the January issue. Reprints will be 
furnished at cost prices. Subscriptions and remittances should be sent 
to Treasurer, Torrey Botanical Club, 41 North Queen St., Lancaster, 
I'a., or Columbia University, New York City. 

Matter for publication should be addressed to 

Marshall A. Howe 

New York Botanical Garden 

Bronx Park, New York City 



OTHER PUBLICATIONS 



OF THE 



TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 



(1) BULLETIN 

A monthly journal devoted to general botany. Vol. 31, 
published in 1904, contained 682 pages of text and 26 full page 
plates. Price $3.00 per annum. For Europe 14 shillings. 
Dulau & Co., T^y Soho Square, London, are agents for England. 

Of former volumes, only 1—5 and 19-31 can be supplied 
entire from the stock in hand, but the completion of sets will be 
undertaken. Yearly volumes 1-5 (i 870-1 874), one dollar 
each. Vols. 19-27 (1892- 1900) are furnished at the published 
price of two dollars each ; Vols. 28-31, three dollars each. 

Single copies (30 cts.) will be furnished only when not 
breaking complete volumes. 

(2) MEMOIRS 

The Memoirs are published at irregular intervals. Volumes 
i-i I are now completed and No. i of Vol. 12 has been issued. 
The subscription price is fixed at $3.00 per volume in advance. 
The numbers can also be purchased singly. A list of titles of the 
individual papers and of prices will be furnished on application. 

(3) The Preliminary Catalogue of Anthophyta and 
Pteridophyta reported as growing within one hundred miles of 
New York, 1888. Price, $l.oo. 

Correspondence relating to the above publications should 
be addressed to 

The TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB 
Columbia University 

NEW YORK CITY 



York Botanical G»'<1«" ,V,m 1 1 



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