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STATE OF ILLINOIS 

HENRY HORNER, Governor 


TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

ILLINOIS STATE 
ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


Volume 33 September, 1940 Number 1 


Special Papers Presented at the Thirty-third 
Annual Meeting, Galesburg, Illinois 

May, 1940 

Memoirs 



Published by the Academy 
Affiliated With the State Museum Division 
Department of Registration and Education 
Centennial Building, Springfield, Illinois. 

(Printed by authority of the State of Illinois) 















■yt 

'**i3'3-3v 


TRANSACTIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 

Price 

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Volumes 23 and following are free to members. Price to non-members is 

$1.50 for complete volume. 


Address orders to The Librarian, State Museum, Springfield, Illinois 















MEMBERSHIP DUES FOR 1940-41 ARE NOW PAYABLE 


Because of postage and bank charges, the cost of collecting the 
yearly dues of $1.00 per member (from all but life members) is ve^y 
high. Members accepting this notice and remitting at once will assist 
in effecting a considerable saving. This is very important on account 
of the small income of the Academy. 

Please pay at once! The attached blank is for your convenience. 

October 1, 1940. 


John Voss, Treasurer 

Manual Training High School 
Peoria, Illinois 


) Check 

Enclosed herewith is \ Money Order for $1.00 for membership dues 

) Cash 


in the Illinois State Academy of Science for 1940-41. 


(Signed) 

(Address) 


(A-29241) 

























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STATE OF ILLINOIS 

HENRY HORNER, Governor 


TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

ILLINOIS STATE 
ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


Volume 33 September, 1940 Number 1 


Special Papers Presented at the Thirty-third 
Annual Meeting, Galesburg, Illinois 

May, 1940 

Memoirs 



Edited by Grace Needham Oliver 


Department of Registration and Education 
State Museum Division, Centennial Building 
SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS 
[Printed by authority of the State of Illinois] 


PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

Entered as second-class matter December 6, 1930, at the post office at 
Springfield, Illinois, under the Act of August 24, 1912. 






STATE OF ILLINOIS 

Henry Horner, Governor 


DEPARTMENT OF REGISTRATION AND EDUCATION 
John J. Halliiian, Director 

STATE MUSEUM DIVISION 
Thorne Deuel, Chief 


ILLINOIS ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
Affiliated with the 
Illinois State Museum 


Officers for 1940-41 

President: V. 0. Graham 
4028 Grace Street, Chicago 

First Vice President: T. H. Frison 
State Natural History Survey, Urbana 

Second Vice President: C. R. Moulton 
Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago 

Secretary: R. F. Pa ton 
University of Illinois, Urbana 

Treasurer: John Voss 
Manual Training High School, Peoria 

Librarian: Thorne Deuel 
Illinois State Museum, Springfield 

Junior Academy Representative: Audry Hill 
Chester High School, Chester 

Editor: Grace Needham Oliver 

i 

State Geological Survey, Urbana 


In addition to the above officers, the Academy Council for 1940-41 includes 
the last two retiring presidents: George D. Fuller, University of Chicago, 
Chicago, and Evelyn I. Fernald, Rockford College, Rockford. 


Printed September, -1040 


( A-20241) 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


Volume 33 September, 1940 Number 1 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Radford, W. H., Applied Science as it Affects our Engineering. 5 

Lee, Oliver Justin, Looking Through Great Telescopes. 10 

Middleton, Margaret, John Wolf, Illinois Naturalist. 12 

Memoirs 

Cowles, Henry Chandler .:. 17 

Smallwood, Mabel Elizabeth . 19 









ANNOUNCEMENTS 


The Committee on Research Grants from the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science announces that each year $200 is granted the 
Academy for use in the aid of research projects. Requests for small grants 
from this fund will be received up to February 1, 1941, and should be accom¬ 
panied by a detailed statement of preceding background, general purpose, and 
estimated expenses. All such requests should be supported by three letters of 
recommendation sent directly by the writers. Customarily grants are made 
only to scientists connected with smaller institutions within the State. Cor¬ 
respondence should be directed to W. O. Blanchard, Geology Department, 
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. 


SECTION CHAIRMEN FOR 1940-1941 

Agriculture: C. H. Oathout, Western Illinois State Teachers College, Macomb. 
Anthropology: Floyd Barloga, 1423 N. Glenn Oak, Peoria. 

Botany: Paul Voth, Dept, of Botany, University of Chicago, Chicago. 
Chemistry: Geo. H. Reed, Knox College, Galesburg. 

Geography: Arthur B. Cozzens, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Geology: Marvin Weller , State Geological Survey, Urbana. 

Physics: Ph. A. Constantinides, Wright Junior College, Chicago. 

Psychology & Education: 0. Irving Jacobsen, Shurtleff College, Alton. 
Zoology: W. V. Balduf, Dept, of Entomology, University of Illinois, Urbana. 


[ 4 ] 


APPLIED SCIENCE AS IT AFFECTS OUR ENGINEERING* 

W. H. Radford** 


T HE CATERPILLAR Tractor Company 
is glad to have the opportunity of 
participating in this meeting and appre¬ 
ciates the honor of presenting its concep¬ 
tion of physics requirements for the 
young engineer who wishes to associate 
himself with its type of industry. It does 
not presume to judge of requirements in 
other industries, and it believes that in 
order to complete the picture certain 
other requirements should be discussed 
which make for success or failure and 
which are not necessarily attainable in 
college training. 

The Company has asked me to present 
this paper because training of men is a 
subject very close to my heart, and not 
because I possess any outstanding ability 
as an orator. I shall try to be construc¬ 
tive in any suggestion I may offer, and 
I trust you will so regard those sugges¬ 
tions. Standing before this representative 
audience of professors and physicists to¬ 
day, there is just an indication on my 
forehead of the cold beads of perspiration 
which, in college days, stood out in pro¬ 
fusion when I entered the presence of the 
professor with my assignment badly pre¬ 
pared. I may deviate from the technical 
limitations implied in the title of this 
paper, but I shall try to present this sub¬ 
ject on a practical basis. 

We have then to consider the training 
of engineers for an industry embracing 
the design, manufacture, sale, and use of 
engines, power units, tractors, road ma¬ 
chinery, and associated equipment. This 
is a rather broad line to cover. It requires 
knowledge in several branches of engin¬ 
eering—mechanical for the application of 
physics to design of prime movers and 
the devices for transmission and applica¬ 
tion of power; metallurgical for the char¬ 
acteristics and treatment of metals from 
ore to finished product; chemical for 
composition of ferrous and non-ferrous 
alloys, fuels, lubricants, and gases; elec¬ 


trical for design and application of 
motors, generators, and instruments; civil 
in earth moving, road building, and exca¬ 
vation; agricultural for soil character¬ 
istics, soil working, terracing, planting, 
cultivating, and harvesting. There are 
others, but these will suffice to indicate 
the range of application. 

Efforts to make improvements, changes 
in, and additions to our industry's prod¬ 
ucts to fit them for an ever increasing 
number of uses may easily end in chaos 
if the development disregards the basic 
laws of physics. Because of the wide 
range of products in our industry, the 
development must be orderly, with a per¬ 
sonnel trained in fundamentals, coopera¬ 
tion, and due respect for a wisely applied 
pinch of the salt of experience. 

If we visualize the plan of industry 
from the doorway of the basic laws of 
physics, we will recognize how engineer¬ 
ing has applied those laws. The produc¬ 
tion application of the laws will be 
reflected in the design, fabrication, assem¬ 
bly, and operation of the products. The 
maintenance of uniformity in the product 
from the standpoint of performance will 
be the result of physics applied in the 
measurement of power, efficiency and 
routine commercial testing. More dis¬ 
tantly revealed in the product and its 
standards of performance will be the 
phases of development by physical laws 
applied in experimentation and commer¬ 
cial and fundamental research. Through 
sales and service to its useful work for 
mankind there still will follow some need 
of those same fundamental laws. 

Out in front of this picture are the 
challenges which urge us on to greater 
and greater efforts to produce better 
materials and methods with which to 
increase efficiency and produce longer 
product life. We can design better power 
plants and machinery when we have 
materials which will withstand stresses 


* Paper presented before the Physics Teachers of Illinois, meeting concurrently with the 
Academy of Science. The Academy Committee on Publications considered it important enough 
to print for the benefit of the general membership. 

** Assistant Chief Engineer, Caterpillar Tractor Company. 


[ 5 ] 



6 


Illinois Academy of Science Transactions 


of 1500 lb. at 900° temperature; when we 
know how to produce perfect combustion 
of fuel; when lubricants will not break 
down at 350°; when we lessen the distor¬ 
tion of metals under heat; when dust and 
dirt can be entirely excluded; when we 
can make non-lubricating surfaces more 
resistant to wear; when we can eliminate 
corrosion; when we can automatically 
dispose of the products of ordinary use 
and wear. The list is endless and the ulti¬ 
mate is a product which a fool cannot 
harm. 

Let us now review some more concrete 
examples of the engineering application 
of physics in our industry. The design 
of the product involves probably more of 
the comprehensive field of engineering 
physics than any other phase of the busi¬ 
ness in calculation, computation, and 
reasoning. 

The entire field of statics is covered in 
the use of force diagrams, moments, 
couples, centers, and equilibrium in the 
design of gear teeth, flywheels, clutch 
level linkage, connecting rod sections, 
track roller frames, motor grader frames, 
tractor frames, power unit frames, track 
shoe grouser placement, general tractor, 
motor grader, and power unit proportions, 
center of draft, articulation of track 
trucks, etc. 

For consideration of bodies in motion, 
we find that knowledge of the fundamen¬ 
tals of dynamics, recognized by the 
familiar “Force=Mass times Accelera¬ 
tion" equation, plays a most important 
part in design problems—forces in pis¬ 
tons, connecting rods and reciprocating 
assemblies; in springs and assemblies 
they actuate; in flywheels, gear trains, 
tracks, and all rotating masses; in fre¬ 
quencies of springs and dampening of 
harmonics and surges; in moving oil 
columns in lubricating systems and fuel 
lines; in tortional vibration in crank¬ 
shafts; in losses through clutches, brakes, 
piston and rings, oil seals, belts, and other 
results of friction; in balancing tractors, 
graders, and other machines so that they 
can operate without failure at various 
angles and positions; in momentum of 
flywheels, gear trains, vibration dampers, 
and of entire machine assembly; in deter¬ 
mination of impact loads by spring oper¬ 
ated assemblies and supporting sections, 
or by operation of machines over all kinds 
of terrain and at various speeds; in hun¬ 


dreds of other examples of the engineer’s 
ordinary bread and butter. 

In dealing with solids we must know 
about modulus of elasticity, yield point, 
ultimate strength, ductility, hardenability, 
erosion and corrosion resistance, fatigue, 
and other properties of materials; the 
hysteresis and dampening effect of rubber 
or synthetic rubber compounds; the speci¬ 
fic gravity and density of materials so 
that the wisest selection of materials can 
be made which embraces the required 
qualities. 

A knowledge of the physical properties 
of liquids is necessary to make any intel¬ 
ligent use of their applications. This sub¬ 
ject is very often neglected. One must 
know such properties as surface tension 
and its effect on oil adhesion, thickness 
of oil films, lubrication properties of oils 
and fuels, action of oil columns under 
pressure, weight and specific heat of fuels 
such as gasoline and kerosene for the 
design of hot or cold manifolds, effect of 
restriction and change of sections on mov¬ 
ing liquids in cooling, lubricating, and 
fuel systems. 

Properties and effects of air and gases 
at rest and in motion under heat and 
pressure sometimes challenge the physi¬ 
cist’s knowledge. For the cycles in 
engines, Boyle’s and Charles’ laws are 
still fundamental and simple but not so 
easy are the problems involved in getting 
air or mixtures into engine cylinders; 
in calculating attendant friction losses 
and the temperature rise and heat trans¬ 
fer through air or gas; in designing mani¬ 
folding and combustion chambers; in 
designing radiators and fans, and more 
recently superchargers for restoring power 
lost by altitude operation; in the action of 
gas and air moving together to cause 
vaporization or atomization of fuel as in 
carburetion or injection equipment. 

The branch of physics dealing with 
various wave motions and wave phe¬ 
nomena has a definite use in locating 
noise which is the result of periodic 
motion in machinery, longitudinal and 
transverse waves in air, combustion and 
injection pressure waves, wave motion in 
steel sheets and other construction mem¬ 
bers, including large castings. A knowl¬ 
edge of the detection of such motion 
affords the opportunity to apply correc¬ 
tive measures for this class of defect 
which very often cannot be foreseen in 
original design. These laws of wave 


Radford — 1939-1940 


7 


motion apply in the design of crankshafts, 
gear trains, fluid flow in injection appar¬ 
atus, to prevent destructive forces. 

In the realm of heat is required fami¬ 
liarity with boiling and freezing tempera¬ 
tures of liquids for cooling systems, 
knowledge of heat transfer from surfaces, 
and the coefficients of heat transfer in 
materials which vitally affect piston and 
piston ring design and thickness of cylin¬ 
der walls and engine cooling cavitation. 
The coefficients of thermal expansion are 
important in designing for proper clear¬ 
ances in valve trains, clutches, bearings, 
and similar problems. Specific heats are 
used to determine the amount of coolants 
which must be circulated by pumps. 

The fundamental laws of electricity and 
magnetism are used in the design of mag¬ 
netos, generators, and starting motors; of 
simple lighting and wiring diagrams used 
at times in tractor and motor grader light¬ 
ing; of switch board control for engine¬ 
generating units or special electrical 
apparatus for carrying on tests of engine 
generator products. Knowledge is neces¬ 
sary of the principles of operation, the 
limitations and the sizes of direct and 
* alternating generators and motors. 

A different collection of fundamentals 
could be cited from a knowledge of the 
requirements demanded by the manufac¬ 
turing phase of the industry. Manufacture 
which includes fabrication, processing, 
and assembling deals with forces required 
to operate stamping, forging, pressing, 
and mechanical advantage machines. It 
deals with aids which eliminate incon¬ 
sistencies in assembly such as definite 
length of leverage wrenches and direct 
torque reading wrenches for stressing 
assemblies to a predetermined load. The 
laws of gravity and friction are used in 
arrangements which transport material 
from place to place. The expansion and 
contraction of parts with proper applica¬ 
tion of heat are commonly and widely 
used in assembly of bearings, valve seat 
inserts, and other tightly fitted parts. 
Necessary is the knowledge of cutting oil 
viscosities, oiliness and cooling properties 
in lubricants used with cutting tools; of 
properties of compressed air as a source 
of power for assembly tools; of hydraulics 
used in drives and controls for machines; 
of temperature control for maintaining 
precise measurements of related high pre¬ 
cision parts and equipment; of the laws 
of conservation of energy which are im¬ 


portant in the efficiency of equipment and 
personnel and are usually translated to 
read, “Maximum work with minimum 
effort.” Knowledge of electricity and 
magnetism in the manufacturing phase 
is useful for various reasons. Magnetic 
holding and lifting devices speed up 
quality work. Electrostatic air filtering 
systems for cleaning dusty places are 
widely used. Problems of resistance heat¬ 
ing in heat treating equipment, and the 
use of resistors and capacitors in the 
control of such devices have been applied 
for a long time and are being extended 
to induction heating and quenching pro¬ 
cesses for selective hardening in crank¬ 
shaft bearings and many other parts. 
Inspection makes use of X-ray machines 
and magnaflux to determine soundness 
of castings or important stress members. 

In foundry work we must know the 
fusion points of sand and metals; the 
means of elimination of physical impuri¬ 
ties by gravity such as in slag removal; 
the placement of risers in the mold; the 
direction and velocity of flow of molten 
metal; the materials which, when mixed 
with others under certain conditions of 
heat or atmosphere will give required 
properties to the mix. 

In plant engineering we are concerned 
with the construction of plant building; 
with heating and ventilating of buildings 
involving movement of large volumes of 
air; with cooling and exhausting fans for 
conditioning air in offices, paint shops, 
carpenter shops and foundry; with the 
entrainment of water in air streams under 
high pressure for cleaning and washing 
processes; with the mounting of high 
speed and precision machine equipment 
to eliminate vibration or to isolate from 
disturbing vibrations; with elimination 
of objectionable noises and with improve¬ 
ment of illumination for increased safety 
and accuracy. 

In the testing of materials and the 
products, one needs to know the physics 
employed by a wide range of testing 
machines and instruments. Tractors and 
motor graders will use field traction dy¬ 
namometers or will move dirt or some 
kind of equipment. Engines and power 
units will be hooked up to hydraulic or 
electric dynamometers or other power 
absorption units. Materials will demand 
the use of tensile, torsion, compression 
and impact machines. 


8 


Illinois Academy of Science Transactions 


In the field of other instrumentation, 
the engineer will encounter the use of 
the stroboscope for arresting motion to 
study moving parts; of the piezo-electric 
properties of crystals in producing cur¬ 
rents when under pressure; of heat meas¬ 
uring instruments such as calorimeters, 
thermocouples, pyrometers, and fusible 
materials; of cathode ray oscillograph in 
combustion studies, torsional vibration 
and spring surge; of vibration pickups 
used with the oscillographs for torsional 
and other vibration tests; of photo-elec¬ 
tric cells for controls and density detec¬ 
tion; of the properties of condensers, 
radio circuits, vacuum tubes, instruments 
for measuring sound levels, microphones 
used with the oscillograph for measuring 
sound frequencies; of lenses and optical 
equipment such as cameras, projectors, 
telescopes, microscopes; of polarized 
light and its application to the examina¬ 
tion of stresses in photo-elastic materials; 
of optical flats and profilometers for 
measuring the degree of perfection of 
surfaces; of many other instruments 
which I haven’t time to mention. 

For the research and development 
fields of the industry, fundamental work 
is going on in fuel injection equipment 
involving hydraulic and mechanical stress, 
strength and fatigue of materials; in the 
thermodynamic analysis of engine com¬ 
bustion efficiency; in sound frequencies 
of gases producing combustion detona¬ 
tion; in fuel spray penetration, drop size 
and velocity; in the ignition quality and 
power producing qualities of fuels; in the 
problems of compounding lubricating 
oils; in the hysteresis effects of rubber 
and steel; in the properties of bearings 
for low coefficients of friction, higher 
melting points, and greater load capacity. 
The list is endless. 

Now that I have made a necessarily 
dry recital of some of the technical re¬ 
quirements in our industry, let us con¬ 
sider the personal element factor in the 
problem and the means at hand for 
selecting young physicists and placing 
them in industry where they can best 
serve themselves and their employers. 

I believe that a comparatively small 
percentage of engineering graduates are 
temperamentally fitted to compete in a 
large industry, and there are others who 
seem unable to acquire a liberal knowl¬ 
edge no matter what the educational 
opportunities may be. But whatever 
knowledge is absorbed helps to place the 


recipient in a better position to make at 
least a degree of success in life. 

Some people claim that an engineering 
education is wasted on most young men. 
I cannot agree with this extreme view. I 
believe that engineering offers one of the 
best preparations in logical thinking for 
any kind of business or walk of life. As 
in any other profession, not all can reach 
the top, but there are many nitches to 
fill in industries of various magnitudes. 
One great service our educational insti¬ 
tutions can give to the young man and to 
industry is to help him to select a level 
that is compatible with his inherent 
ability, and to teach him to be satisfied 
with the degree of success which such a 
level can give. The man of only average 
ability should not be placed in a large 
industry where competition of other men 
will submerge him. He should be placed 
where he can have more time to develop, 
or where the ultimate goal is less difficult 
to reach. 

We too often find young college men 
imbued with an exaggerated idea of their 
value to industry, and it is rather diffi¬ 
cult at times to impress them with the 
fact that industry is making an invest¬ 
ment in them on which it cannot expect 
returns for several years. On the other 
hand, to work through that period before 
industry sees the returns is the toughest 
part of a young engineer’s career, and 
what a tragic disappointment it is to him 
if he has selected an industry which does 
not recognize when the time has arrived 
to pay him dividends on the returns. Here 
again colleges can give good advice to 
the young engineer for estimating his 
own value and for making his choice of 
a career with a fair dealing industry. We 
believe we are a fair dealing organization. 

In selecting young engineers for our 
organization, we try to choose those who 
will he able to advance and grow as we 
grow; those who show evidence of intel¬ 
ligence, vision, and ability; those who 
have promise of carrying on when we are 
no longer able; those who appear trust¬ 
worthy and have commanded the respect 
of teachers and fellow students. 

We stress the value of a high academic 
rating and of accomplishment in a chosen 
course as being an indication of expected 
rapid development. We regard participa¬ 
tion in extra curricular activities as indi¬ 
cation that there is a natural liking for 
others and that leadership will result. 
We feel certain that contribution to the 


Radford — 1939-1940 


9 


expense of education brings earlier ma¬ 
turity, better sense of values, and a surer 
foundation on which to place responsi¬ 
bility. 

We inquire into the young man’s pleas¬ 
ures, hobbies, and means of recreation, 
and family life. Every young man must 
learn how to work, and he should know 
how to play. Only happy men can attain 
the highest accomplishment. 

Because our industry embraces many 
branches of physics and engineering, we 
want men who are broadly and thor¬ 
oughly grounded in as many fundamentals 
as possible. We require knowledge in 
civil, mechanical, electrical, metallurgical, 
chemical, agricultural engineering, and 
the application of these branches overlap 
in design and use of many of our prod¬ 
ucts. The important thing is that we 
have men who have been taught how to 
think and organize their thoughts, and 
where and how to look for information. 
This may be an age of specialists, but a 
young engineer just graduating is in no 
position to choose a highly specialized 
line. It narrows his opportunity while he 
is young and prevents a possible wiser 
choice later on when he has had a chance 
to get a broader view of the work which 
industry has to do. Our experience shows 
that his preferences for certain lines of 
work rapidly change during the two 
years of his training. These lines of 
work may not be what we choose to call 
strictly engineering. They may include 
sales, service, purchasing, or other lines 
for which he may develop aptitude, but 
which will probably require training in 
the engineering department beyond his 
two year period. It is essential that he 
have no preconceived ideas of a definite 
path of advancement. Such advancement 
must be left to our judgment. 

Entering our training course should be 
regarded as a further opportunity for 
education and not as a probational period 
to be endured while the world is anxiously 
waiting to be turned upside down. The 
engineer in training should study the 
products and methods of manufacture 
which he encounters and attempt to inter¬ 
pret them in terms of what he has learned 
in college. If he conscientiously tries to 
do this he will soon discover that the 
compromises which have to be made with 
the pure dictates of physics in producing 
a product which is saleable and which 
will satisfactorily serve mankind, require 
a knowledge of the application of physics 


which cannot easily be attained in aca¬ 
demic training. These compromises are 
the unpredictable headaches which accu¬ 
mulate to make for experience. Nothing 
in a young engineer’s training can make 
up for that experience, and it is best he 
learn early in his career that the gray 
hairs in the chief engineer’s head are an 
indication of tough problems solved and 
not a proof that senility is submerging 
his knowledge of physics and its appli¬ 
cation to the work at hand. 

With the thought in mind that the 
period of training in industry is very defi¬ 
nitely an opportunity to gain further 
knowledge, the graduate must apply him¬ 
self diligently to work immediately be¬ 
fore him. It means hard work, but work 
for which he is being paid. That present 
job in front of him must be the most im¬ 
portant thing on his mind. There is 
nothing he can do about what is past. 
He cannot take the time to dream about 
the future, which must always be more or 
less obscure, for time so spent does not 
register with a training supervisor. The 
job at hand conscientiously and enthusi¬ 
astically done is the only road to future 
success. Now the job at hand is very 
often not a pleasant one, for we expect 
him to learn to use his hands as well as 
his head, and those hands are sure to be 
initiated into dirt and grime; but still 
the necessity exists for knowledge of how 
dust, dirt, grime, and other adverse agen¬ 
cies affect the fabrication and successful 
use of our products. 

To do his work day by day, he must 
cooperate with those with whom he 
comes in contact. Cooperation of many 
individuals is the foundation on which 
successful industry is built. A lone wolf 
hasn’t a chance, and a lone wolf engineer 
in training endeavoring to show authority 
and superiority soon finds barriers which 
he is not able to cross alone and realizes 
too late that by his attitude he has placed 
himself in a position where fellow 
workers or supervisors cannot help him. 
There are plenty of men who seek auth¬ 
ority. There are comparatively few who 
are willing to assume the responsibility, 
which comes from taking the hard knocks 
and accepting the challenge of problems 
involved in fitting themselves into a large 
organization. Once prepared to take re¬ 
sponsibility, they will find that the neces¬ 
sary authority naturally follows, and 
opportunities for constructive changes 
become the ordinary every day work. 


10 


Illinois Academy of Science Transactions 


During two years of training, our young 
engineer must not only become familiar 
with the materials we use and how they 
are processed, assembled, and tested, but 
also how to conduct himself in his per¬ 
sonal contacts. It is essential that he 
learn the languages of all from sweeper 
to president, for problems will be put 
before him in all those languages. His 
will be the task of interpretation in terms 
of engineering or applied physics in order 
to solve those problems. 

In conclusion, I wish to say that our 
educational institutions are doing an ex¬ 
cellent job of training, considering that 
many of them have inadequate equipment 
and personnel. Industry cannot expect 
them to solve its problems, but it does 
expect them to make a thorough job of 

teaching a broad range of fundamentals. 

I wish to acknowledge the help given 
me by our young graduate trained engin¬ 
eers in the preparation of lists of physics 
requirements in this paper. 



LOOKING THROUGH GREAT 
TELESCOPES 

Oliver Justin Lee # 

While showing this six-reel panorama 
of celestial objects I mentioned a num¬ 
ber of focal points of emphasis in current 
research in Astronomy. Among these 
are: 

1. Nature and interplay of forces which 
give instantaneous increments of velocity 
to solar prominences. 2. Exhaustive 
studies of unusual stars such as Novae, 
Epsilon Aurigae, Gamma Cassiopeiae, etc. 

3. The mechanism of stellar radiation. 

4. Extension of studies to fainter classes 
of stars. 5. Amount, nature and distribu¬ 
tion of interstellar material in our galaxy. 
6. Testing the reality of an “expanding 
universe.” 

This film was made from prints of the 
best negatives of the various objects 
obtained at the Mount Wilson, Lick, 
Lowell, Yerkes and Harvard Observa¬ 
tories. The directors of these institutions 
cooperated with Mr. Sibley and myself 
in the most generous manner in making 
this picture possible. Figs. 1 and 2 are 
taken from the film. 



Fig. 1. Top —Nebula in Sagittarius. Bottom 
—Mare Tranquilitatis and Mare Serenitatis 
on the Moon. 


* Director Dearborn Observatory, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. 







Lee — 1939-1940 


11 



Fig. 2. Objects included in the film Looking Through Great Telescopes. Top —Saturn taken 
with 60-inch reflector at Mount Wilson. Bottom —The Dark Horse Head marking in Orion. 








JOHN WOLF, ILLINOIS NATURALIST 

Margaret Middleton 

Canton High School, Canton, Illinois 


A FADED DOCUMENT inscribed in 
German, from the United States Con¬ 
sulate at Bremen, under the date of May 
30, 1833 is a passport “guaranteeing to 
John Wolf and wife and seven children 
of Mittelsinn, Department of Urbs, 
Bavaria, satisfactory traveling conditions 
and friendly reception to the United 
States”; this passport, issued to the 
father of the Illinois naturalist, plus obit¬ 
uary notices and the recollections of two 
of his nephews, one niece, and a few 
older residents of Canton, furnish prac¬ 
tically all of the foundation for this biog¬ 
raphy of Professor John Wolf, noted 
Illinois Naturalist. 

John Wolf was born in Mittelsinn, 
Bavaria, on January 28, 1820, in the 
abovementioned family of seven children 
—six boys and one girl. It is interesting 
to note that all of the brothers were 
named John, though they were called by 
their middle names in order to distinguish 
them from this John. In 1833, the whole 
family, crossing the Atlantic Ocean in a 
sailboat, came to this country and settled 
near Bedford, Pennsylvania. It is prob¬ 
able that they farmed, since one son later 
became a very successful farmer south¬ 
east of Canton, Illinois, near Monterey. 

The family migrated to Illinois in the 
Civil War period and settled in Canton. 
According to a newspaper article written 
at the time of his death and to reports 
of several older residents of Canton, the 
brothers took up the occupation of cob¬ 
bler and John carried on a shoemaking 
business in a small brick building on 
West Elm Street. However, Mr. Charles 
Wolf, a nephew of John Wolf’s, thinks 
this report erroneous. According to him, 
the “eldest son (Reverend George Wolf, 
who died at Garden City, Kansas, some 
years ago after a notable career as minis¬ 
ter, author and missionary to the Indians 
of California) was a cobbler who later 
mastered seven languages. Another 
brother was apprenticed (bound out as 
they then called it) to a shoemaker. He 



JOHN WOLF 
1820-1897 


mastered six languages and became also 
an expert at penmanship and freehand 
pen-and-ink drawing which he taught in 
business colleges. If the father had been 
a shoemaker, the son would not have 
been ‘bound out’ to learn the trade. His 
history and that of his brother George led 
to the assumption that the family were 
shoemaking people and that Professor 
John Wolf was a cobbler.” 

John and his sister Barbara remained 
at home and cared for their parents until 
the death of the latter in the late sixties. 
At one time John was engaged to be mar¬ 
ried to Miss Mary Glass, but they 
quarreled and he remained a bachelor. 
Throughout his life he had a deadly fear 


12 






Middleton— 1939-1490 


13 


of women. After his death, a close friend 
wrote: “What has happened to him in 
heaven, where there are so many 
(women), is a matter of deep conjecture.” 

It was during the period of his life at 
home as youth and man that John 
merged into a naturalist and became a 
linguist. That he attended any institution 
of higher learning is a matter of doubt. 
In fact, he always was held up as an 
example of self-education. Newspaper 
reports of his death say that “He was 
self-taught, loving learning for its own 
sake and, especially attracted toward the 
natural sciences, he ploddingly, perse- 
vereingly, untiringly read, studied and 
examined until his chosen field was fairly 
conquered.” Where or how he got his 
books or what became of them is not 
known. His nephew has a faint impres¬ 
sion that he taught a country school for 
a period. He could read fluently in thirty 
languages but could speak only a dozen 
correctly, which was a great sorrow to 
him. 

Mr. Charles Wolf writes me that “It is 
a matter of record that John Wolf went 
to the Black Hills as an accredited gov¬ 
ernment assayer when gold was dis¬ 
covered in that region in 1874. He 
remained there for several years and 
returned to Canton with forty thousand 
dollars—a fortune in those days.” Does 
this perhaps refer to Wheeler’s expedi¬ 
tion in Colorado in 1873 on which he 
was a field assistant? 

On his return to Canton, Mr. Wolf 
invested in a small one-story brick build¬ 
ing on Elm Street just back of what was 
then the Hoblett Bank. His building was 
rented as a tailor shop for many years 
and produced part of his income. He 
never worked after his return but devoted 
his life to his beloved hobbies—botany 
and geology. He spent his entire time in 
the collecting, studying, classifying and 
cataloguing of botanical, entomological 
and geological specimens. 

About this time he started his museum 
over Blackadore’s harness shop midway 
on the north side of the public square in 
Canton. It was then that he began to be 
called “professor” by the general public. 
His museum was not large but consisted 
of collections of specimens made partly 
by himself and partly obtained by ex¬ 
changes with other naturalists. His col¬ 
lection of the flora and minerals of 
Illinois was most comprehensive and 
accurately classified and was unsurpassed 


for many years. It probably never was 
surpassed by later botanists. He was not 
a world traveler but roamed widely over 
the State of Illinois with a large tin 
vasculum strung over his shoulder for 
the carrying of specimens. Children, who 
had overcome their fear of this “crazy” 
scientist, often accompanied him on his 
collecting trips. His Illinois collection 
was ever the main feature of his museum, 
though he made it more cosmopolitan by 
adding corals, sea-shells, stone-age relics, 
ores, and geological specimens from far 
and wide. Mr. Charles Wolf recalls his 
giving him in later years, some rare 
trilobites and some beautiful calamites 
which John Wolf “fondled as if they were 
diamonds.” He also recalls going with 
him on one of his fall rambles when he 
was eight years old and John about fifty- 
six. “He was so vigorous I could scarcely 
keep up with him. We ate lunch under 
a shellbark hickory tree from which the 
nuts were dropping. After lunch he 
picked up what seemed to be a perfectly 
huge log and used it as a battering ram 
to jolt the shellbark and bring down a 
veritable shower of nuts which he left 
me to pick up while he roamed about 
inspecting fungi and other botanical phe¬ 
nomena.” 

Professor John Wolf was six feet tall 
and powerfully built. His hair and eyes 
were dark and his complexion was ruddy. 
He had a long beard, and a rather promi¬ 
nent nose. His sunburnt complexion 
might have led strangers to think him a 
drinking man—which he was not. In fact, 
he had strong prejudices against smok¬ 
ing, drinking and profanity. About town 
he always wore a somewhat shiny Prince 
Albert coat and a scuffed black silk hat. 
Being generally immersed in his beloved 
hobbies, he was somewhat unsocial and 
consequently often misunderstood. An 
interesting anecdote tells of an invitation 
he received to visit a famous scientist in 
Washington, D. C. He dressed in his 
usual costume, packed his traveling para¬ 
phernalia in a handkerchief, and set out 
for the distant city. Upon arrival at the 
home of the scientist, he was met at the 
door by the butler who was not going to 
admit him. He finally did, but Mr. Wolf 
was not asked to stay! 

A few mannerisms and idiosyncra¬ 
sies, which he was too independent to 
correct, placed Mr. Wolf in the category 
of a “prophet without honor in his own 
land.” Present residents of Canton re- 


14 


Illinois Academy of Science Transactions 


member being frightened by him as chil¬ 
dren for they thought he was crazy! 
However, he was well-known to the 
Smithsonian Institute where there is a 
good sized sheaf of correspondence be¬ 
tween Dr. George Yasey, first Curator of 
the United States National Herbarium 
and Mr. Wolf. He was also a close asso¬ 
ciate of Professor Starr of Chicago and a 
friend of Asa Gray of Harvard from 
whom he received honorable mention for 
specimens contributed. 

A notable activity of his late years was 
research work in genealogy—in the 
course of which he traced his own 
lineage to the House of Guelph (Welf), a 
family which rose in the eleventh century 
and later contested fiercely with the 
Ghibelines for dominance in Bavaria and 
Italy, the Guelphs putting rulers on vari¬ 
ous European thrones, including the 
Bavarian and English. George of Han¬ 
over, who ascended the English throne 
in 1714, was a Guelph. The blood of the 
Guelphs flowed in the veins of Queen 
Victoria and flows today in the veins of 
her great grandson who sits on the 
British throne. 

Dr. J. E. Coleman, in a short history 
of Canton, wrote that “John would sit in 
his chair on the sidewalk in front of his 
office most of the warm afternoons with 
eyes closed, going over materials in his 
mind for a book he was writing on phil¬ 
ology. He completed the book before he 
died and it looked like an engraving, so 
accurately and neatly was it printed by 
hand.” This book, however, was never 
published. 

Mr. Wolf appears to have published but 
little. The card catalogue record of the 
United States Department of Agriculture 
Library is as follows: 

A list of the Mosses, Liverworts and 
Lichens of Illinois. Bulletin of the 
Illinois State Laboratory of Natural 
History, Vol. 1, Part 2, pp. 18-35. 1878. 

List of Trees and Shrubs in Fulton 
County. Geological Survey of Illinois, 
Vol. 4, pp. 109-110. 1875. 

He discovered two new grasses, both 
of which were named after him: Sporo- 
bolus Wolfii (Vilfa minima) and Graphe- 
phorum Wolfii (Trisetum Gilfii). 

Professor Wolf died at the home of 
Mr. and Mrs. Delbert Williamson, where 
he boarded, August 27, 1897. He was a 
deeply religious man and a lifelong mem¬ 
ber of the Presbyterian Church. He left 
his collections and real estate to the First 


Presbyterian Church of Canton. There is 
a plaque to him on the communion table 
of the church. Before his death he had 
found that it did not pay to exhibit his 
treasured specimens and many of them 
were ultimately sold. The Presbyterian 
Church later presented his collections to 
the Canton High School, where it was 
literally “thrown around” in the attics of 
the school for years. The past year, with 
the aid of the Canton Board of Education, 
Superintendent Ben Kietzman and Prin¬ 
cipal Oliver L. Rapp, I have been attempt¬ 
ing to clean and arrange these specimens 
in a museum in the high school. Many 
have diseappeared and most of the labels 
and all of the catalogue are missing. The 
Illinois grass, moss, lichen, and fungi col¬ 
lections, which were in a deplorable con¬ 
dition, have been loaned by the Board of 
Education to the Botanical Herbarium of 
the University of Illinois for ten years 
and is being cared for there. 

John Wolf led an unselfish life and was 
loved by all. His charitable work among 
the poor was unostentatious, but never¬ 
theless he assisted many families through 
hardships and suffering. The following 
is taken from a tribute “to the life and 
character of John Wolf by a friend,” pub¬ 
lished in the Canton Daily Register after 
his death: 

“To him the study of nature was a 
perpetual delight. The tiny blade of 
grass, the minute petal, the little pebble 
told a story that appealed most strongly 
to his nature and that fastened him 
spellbound, entranced. The woods were 
his temples, the fields his shrines and 
he did homage there to the universal 
God, whose works are in no other 
sphere more wonderfully illustrated 
than in the great domain of nature. 

“For years he traveled over hill and 
dale, neither asking nor seeking pecuni¬ 
ary rewards, only intent on adding to 
the rich store house of his chosen pro¬ 
fession. His was an unselfish life and 
he gladly made personal sacrifices that 
science might be the gainer. He lived 
not for himself but for others. Poster¬ 
ity will not forget him. Science, en¬ 
riched, ennobled by his labors, will ever 
do him tribute. Humanity, the bene¬ 
ficiary of his kindly heart, will ever 
claim him as his own.”—G. B. Grant. 
To Mr. Wolf’s niece, Mrs. Laura Snyder 
of Canton, Illinois, and his nephew, Mr. 
Charles Wolf of Seattle, Washington, the 
writer is indebted for most of the facts 
recorded here. 


MEMOIRS 




















. 




















« 











































Memoirs— 1939-1940 


17 


HENRY CHANDLER COWLES 
1869-1939 


ENRY CHANDLER COWLES was 
born at Kensington, Connecticut, on 
February 27, 1869. He died at his home 
in Chicago, Illinois, on September 12, 
1939, after a prolonged illness. He re¬ 
ceived his early education in the public 
schools and in the New Britain High 
School. He entered Oberlin College and 
was graduated with the degree of A. B. 
in 1893. He taught natural science at 
Gates College during 1894-95, and held a 
fellowship at the University of Chicago 
during 1895-96. His graduate studies were 
begun there in geology, but upon the 
appointment of the late John M. Coulter 
as professor of botany, he became a mem¬ 
ber of the first group in that science at 
the University of Chicago. He received 
the degree of doctor of philosophy in 
1898, presenting as his thesis his classical 
paper on the vegetation of the sand dunes 
of Lake Michigan. He then attempted to 
apply the principles of dynamic vegeta¬ 
tion, so evident in sand dunes, to vegeta¬ 
tion in general. The resulting “Physio¬ 
graphic Ecology of Chicago and Vicinity” 
formulated a philosophy of vegetation in 
which the central principle was that 
classification to be valid must be genetic 
and dynamic. In this monograph the con¬ 
cepts of succession and climax were for 
the first time adequately expressed. The 
principles thus enunciated were so vital 
and so fundamentally important that 
scores of graduate students were later 
guided in their researches by these two 
early publications. 

In 1897 he became an assistant in the 
newly organized department of botany in 
the University of Chicago. From that 
time onward he was advanced repeatedly 
in rank until in 1911 he became professor, 
and in 1925 chairman of the department, 
a position he held until his retirement in 
1934. In 1926 he became editor of the 
Botanical Gazette, a task in which he 
had assisted for many previous years and 
relinquished only at his retirement. His 
alma mater, Oberlin College, gave him 
the honorary degree of Sc.D. in 1923. 

He began teaching plant ecology at 
the University of Chicago to an enthusi¬ 
astic group of students in 1897. From the 



start he was a remarkably successful 
teacher and he promptly became a rec¬ 
ognized leader. The regional and geo¬ 
graphic aspects of ecology were always 
happily emphasized in his lectures and 
he kept the research spirit alive in his 
classes. He soon gathered about him a 
group of men and women who have gone 
on to extend his methods and concepts 
throughout the land, developing in this 
country one of the world’s most active 
centers of ecological study. In 1914 the 
Ecological Society of America was organ¬ 
ized, largely through the efforts of Cowles 
and his former students. Cowles was its 
first secretary-treasurer, its president in 
1917 and always a wise counselor regard¬ 
ing its welfare. 

His world-wide leadership in the field 
of plant ecology was recognized in 1930, 
when at the International Congress, 




18 


Illinois Academy of Science Transactions 


meeting at Cambridge, England, he was 
made president of the section of phyto¬ 
geography and ecology. 

In 1911 appeared the “Chicago Text 
Book of Botany” in two volumes, after¬ 
wards expanded to three. Cowles con¬ 
tributed the volume dealing with ecology 
covering the branch of the subject known 
as autecology. In it the theory of me¬ 
chanical causation was stressed rather 
than teleology and adaptation which had 
previously been somewhat widely ac¬ 
cepted. 

No teacher brought his students more 
directly to nature than Cowles. Field 
trips, varying in length from one day to 
many weeks, inspired others to use the 
out-of-doors classroom. This led to his 
useful activities in all lines of conserva¬ 
tion. No one was more influential than 
he in establishing the State Park system 
of Illinois and the Forest Preserves of 
Cook County, Illinois. For many years 
he was president of the Chicago Academy 
of Sciences. He was also a patron and 
trustee of the Geographic Society of 
Chicago and president of the society for 
a term of years. He was a charter mem¬ 
ber of the Illinois State Academy of 
Science and at its first regular meeting, 
held at Decatur in 1908, Cowles presented 
a paper stressing the desirability of a 
systematic ecological survey of the state. 
He served as president of the organiza¬ 
tion for the year 1920-21 and was always 
interested in its welfare. For many years 
he was a member of the Board of Natural 
Resources and Conservation of the State 
of Illinois. 

A member of many other scientific so¬ 
cieties, he served as president of the 
Association of American Geographers in 
1910, as president of the Botanical Society 
of America in 1922 and vice-president of 
Section G of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science in 1913. 


In 1935 the July issue of Ecology, the 
official journal of the Ecological Society, 
was dedicated to Cowles by his students 
and friends. It was filled with articles 
from students and colleagues from Amer¬ 
ica and from several European countries. 
From an appreciation of their friend and 
teacher, written for that issue of Ecology 
by W. S. Cooper, we quote the following 
paragraph: 

“A man may be a great scientist and 
a great teacher and yet inspire in his 
colleagues and students little affection or 
none at all. With Cowles it was far 
otherwise. Something more than mere 
respect for high scientific attainment is 
necessary to account for the fact that, 
when the plan of this special number of 
Ecology was made public, more than three 
hundred persons responded. With almost 
every contribution came a letter express¬ 
ing admiration for Cowles as a scientist, 
as a teacher, and above all, as a man. 
These facts speak for themselves; formal 
tribute is superfluous. And yet, merely 
because it is a joy to do so, we make 
mention of a few of his many lovable 
traits—his unfailing good humor, his far- 
famed ability in telling a story, his readi¬ 
ness to give ungrudgingly of time and 
effort in the service of students and 
friends, his eagerness to discover and 
commend whatever was meritorious in 
the work of a fellow scientist or admirable 
in the man himself. 

“He relinquished his active labors 
secure in the consciousness of work well 
done, confident of achievement beyond 
the ordinary lot. He laid the foundation 
for a new and useful branch of science, 
he constructively influenced the thought 
of hundreds of investigators and teachers, 
and in his professional and personal con¬ 
tacts he made for himself a multitude of 
devoted friends.” 


George D. Fuller. 


Memoirs— 1939-1940 


MABEL ELIZABE 

1867 

W HEN A WOMAN has devoted all the 
active years of her life conscien¬ 
tiously, whole-heartedly, and affection¬ 
ately to teaching the youth of a great 
city, no one can, with any degree of ade¬ 
quacy, give a proper eulogy. And when 
the subject she taught was biology, the 
science of life, which she was so well 
prepared to teach, no one can measure 
her value. Starting from an American 
farm in western New York, she attended 
centers of scientific learning such as the 
University of Chicago, Cold Spring Har¬ 
bor, Woods Hole, and augmented this 
formal training with invaluable hours of 
reading in her own library from choice 
works of science and travel, and with 
delightful and purposeful study of the 
out-of-doors. She had the unusual gift of 
imparting to her pupils not only the facts 
of science and how to find more for them¬ 
selves, but how to think on those facts. 
Her value to society is written indelibly 
in the lives of many of our country’s citi¬ 
zens and young scientists. 

Miss Smallwood was one of the first 
biology teachers to keep living things in 
the laboratory. Her pupils saw and 
helped care for a succession of animals 
—all who could be comfortably housed 
and well fed in a school room. There 
were tropical, native, and gold fish; tur¬ 
tles, salamanders, toads, ring-necked 
doves, white and hooded rats, guinea pigs 
and rabbits. It was her special delight 
to watch the smile on a boy’s face when 
for the first time he held a pet bird or 
mammal in his hands and simultaneously 
opened his heart to the love of Nature. 
She was one of the first science teachers 
to plan a course in biology instead of 
botany and zoology—to adapt the subject 
to the needs of the pupils that they might 
know by name the living things they saw 
daily and feel acquainted with them. 

Her sincere love for her fellowmen was 
another outstanding quality. It came from 
a scientific attitude of helping each indi¬ 
vidual to make the most of his hereditary 
qualities and a fundamental love of de¬ 
mocracy handed down to her from a 
grandfather who landed in 1819 in Alex¬ 
andria, Virginia. He fled from oppression 
and class prejudice abroad, and at his 


1!) 


Til SMALLWOOD 
1939 



first sight of slavery packed his family 
and belongings in a wagon, moved to New 
York, and was an active abolitionist till 
the slaves were freed. Elizabeth was a 
worthy granddaughter. Position, wealth, 
race, age or youth counted as nothing 
with her. She judged all men equally on 
standards of honesty and justice. Her 
gracious manner and smile of friendship 
were extended to all alike. It is fitting 
that at the close of her life her relatives 
and fellow teachers, her pupils, friends, 
and those who served her in various 
capacities, all join in the common testi¬ 
monial, “We loved her.” 

Doris A. Plapp. 



























































, 






















































1 




















£1 ■ E 





































STATE OF ILLINOIS 

JOHN STELLE, Governor 


TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

ILLINOIS STATE 
ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


Volume 33 December, 1940 Number 2 


Papers Presented at the Thirty-third Annual 
Meeting, Galesburg, Illinois 
May, 1940 



Published by the Academy 
Affiliated With the State Museum Division 
Department of Registration and Education 
Centennial Building, Springfield, Illinois 

[Printed by authority of the State of Illinois,] 














TRANSACTIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


Price 

Yol. 1, 1908, published by the Academy. $1.50 

Vol. 2, 1909, published by the Academy. 1.50 

Vol. 3, 1910, published by the Academy. 1.50 

Vol. 4, 1911, published by the State.Gratis 

Vol. 5, 1912, published by the State.Gratis 

Vol. 6, 1913, published by the Academy. 1.50 

Vol. 7, 1914, published by the Academy. 1.50 

Vol. 8, 1915, published by the Academy. 1.50 

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Vol. 11, 1918, published by the State.Gratis 

Vols. 12 (1919)-22 (1929) inclusive, published by the State, (exhausted) 

Vol. 23, 1930, published by the State. Quarterly issues (Nos. 2 and 3 ex¬ 
hausted) 

Vol. 24, 1931, published by the State. Quarterly issues (Nos. 3 and 4 ex¬ 
hausted) 

Vol. 25, 1932. Quarterly issues. 

Vol. 26, 1933. Quarterly issues (No. 3 exhausted) 

Vol. 27, 1934. Quarterly issues (No. 3 exhausted 

Vol. 28, 1935. Quarterly issues (No. 3 exhausted 

Vol. 29, 1936. Quarterly issues. 

Vol. 30, 1937. Quarterly issues (No. 3 exhausted) 

Vol. 31, 1938. Quarterly issues. 

Vol. 32, 1939. Quarterly issues. 

Vol. 33, 1940. Nos. 1 and 2. 


Volumes 23 and following are free to members. Non-members 
may obtain copies by making arrangements with the 
Librarian, Illinois State Museum, Springfield, Illinois. 













STATE OF ILLINOIS 

JOHN STELLE, Governor 


TRANSACTIONS 


NRARY 
AW YORK 
BOTANICAL 


OF THE 

ILLINOIS STATE 
ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


Volume 33 December, 1940 Number 2 


Papers Presented at the Thirty-third Annual 
Meeting, Galesburg, Illinois 
May, 1940 



Department of Registration and Education 
State Museum Division, Centennial Bltldinig 
SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS 
[Printed by authority of the State of Illinois] 


PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

Entered as second-class matter December 6, 1930, at the post office at 
Springfield, Illinois, under the Act of August 24, 1912, 










STATE OF ILLINOIS 
John Stelle, Governor 

DEPARTMENT OF REGISTRATION AND EDUCATION 
John J. Hallihan, Director 

STATE MUSEUM DIVISION 
Thorne Deuel, Chief 


ILLINOIS ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
Affiliated with the 
Illinois State Museum 

Officers for 1940-41 

President: V. 0. Graham 
4028 Grace Street, Chicago 

First Vice President: T. H. Frison 
State Natural History Survey, Urbana 

Second Vice President: C. R. Moulton 
Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago 

Secretary: R. F. Paton 
University of Illinois, Urbana 

Treas'iirer: John Voss 
Manual Training High School, Peoria 

Librarian: Thorne Deuel 
Illinois State Museum, Springfield 

Junior Academy Representatives 
Audry Hill, Chester High School, Chester 
Mary Creager, Vienna High School, Vienna 

Editor: Grace Needham Oliver 
State Geological Survey, Urbana 

The Academy Council for 1940-41 includes also the last two retiring 
presidents: George D. Fuller, University of Chicago, Chicago, and Evelyn I. 
Fernald, Rockford College, Rockford. 

Printed December, 1940 


(A-32661) 


[22] 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


Volume 33 


December, 1940 


Number 2 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 
PAPERS IN AGRICULTURE 

PAGE 


Extract from the Report of the Section Chairman . 27 

Dungan, George H., Influence of age on the value of seed corn. 28 

Hall, D. M., Some basic objectives for agricultural program-building. 30 

Oathout, C. H., The military tract and its agriculture. 32 

Snider, H. J., Probable effect of weeds on the fertility of soils. 34 

Tomlin, B. A., Vocational agriculture in a permanent program of agricultural improvement 36 

Whalin, Oren L., Soil conservation in Illinois in relation to the AAA program. 38 


PAPERS IN ANTHROPOLOGY 

Extract from the Report of the Section Chairman . 41 

Buis, A. R., Prehistoric villages and camp sites of the Peoria, Illinois lake area. 42 

Schoenbeck, Ethel, Prehistoric aboriginal pottery of the Peoria, Illinois region. 44 

Janssen, Raymond E., Indian trail markers in Illinois. 46 


PAPERS IN BOTANY 

Extract from the Report of thf Section Chairman. 49 

Tippo, Oswald, A preliminary report on the comparative anatomy of the Eucommiaceae. ... 50 

Kaeiser, Margaret, Note on embryo development in Hippuris . 52 

Stewart, Wilson N., Phloem histology in stigmarian appendages. 54 

Butts, Dorothy, and Buchholz, J. T., Cotyledon numbers in conifers. 58 

Tehon, L. R., the pycnothyrium in the taxonomic system of the Fungi Imperfecti. 63 

Stevens, Neil E., Recent trends in plant disease control. 66 

Damann, Kenneth E., Phytoplankton study of Lake Michigan. 68 

Britton, M. E., A check-list of Illinois algae with some additions from Cook County. 71 

Vaughan, R. H., Moultrie County mosses. 73 

Richards, Donald, Bryophytes of Starved Rock State Park, LaSalle County, Illinois. 74 

Bubenicek, D., and Wynd, F. L., Relationships of nitrogen metabolism in plants. 77 

Noggle, G. R., The effect of soil moisture on the composition of cereal plants. 79 

Watson, Stanley, The estimation of riboflavin (vitamin B 2 ) in plant tissue. 81 

Wynd, F. Lyle & Bubenicek, D., Grass juice factor in the young leaves of cereal grass ... 83 

Oexemann, Stanley, W., Relation of the effects of growth-promoting substances to photo- 

synthetic activity, the mass law of growth and seed germination. 84 

Fuller, Harry J., Some temperature relations of geotropism. 87 

Myers, R. M., The effect of heteroauxin on the development of debladed petioles of coleus 89 

Jones, G. Neville, A new-comer’s impressions of the botany of Illinois. 90 

Hudson, J. W., The project method in biology. 92 


[23] 































24 


Contents 


PAPERS IN CHEMISTRY 


PAGE 


Extract from the Report of the Section Chairman . 95 

Adams, Howard W. & Eggenberger, Delbert N., The use of calcium hypochlorite in 
gymnasium sanitation. 96 

Bartow, Virginia, Opportunities for women in chemistry. 98 

Bennett, C. E., Home-made structural models.... .. 100 

Cohee, G. V., Geology and its relation to the chemistry teacher. 103 

Finger, G. C., & Reed, F. H., The introduction of fluorine into aromatic nuclei by means 
of ammonium fluoborate. 108 

Ginsberg, Emanuel, Hydrogen bonds involving the C-H linkage. 109 

Gross, C. A., Chemistry teachers’ association of southern Illinois. Ill 

Hill, E. L., Munson, Arthur, & Boettner, Fred, A new series of substituted 1,5-di- 
phenylpyrazoline-3-carboxylic acids and their esters. 112 

Moeller, Therald, Some recent additions to the chemistry of indium. 114 

Nelson, T. A., The future of chemistry as a specialized science in the high school curriculum 116 

Seiler, Frank J. & Rowley, H. H., Etherates of magnesium perchlorate. 117 

Teeter, Howard, Optical isomerism of biphenyl derivatives. 120 

Tuleen, Lawrence F., Adapting chemistry to the needs of the citizen. 121 

Sister M. Joan, & Reedy, J. H., The detection of oxy-halogen anions. 123 

Yohe, G. R., 2-chloro-3, 5-bis(acetylamino)toluene. 125 


PAPERS IN GEOGRAPHY 


Extract from the Report of the Section Chairman. 

Barton, Thos. F., An urban-rural ecotone as exemplified by Hastings, Nebraska. 

Barton, Erselia and Thomas, High school geography in southern Illinois. 

Blanchard, W. 0., The curious Caspian. 

Booth, Alfred, The market factor: its effect on cultural landscapes. 

Brown, Clarence L., The question of the geographical concept, thinking, and usage of the 

term “cycle”. 

Crompton, Mable, Brittany and Devon-Cornwall: geographical twins. 

Cozzens, A. B., Geographic principles and relationship sequences. 

Ellsworth, Elmer W., The new oil industry of Illinois and its implications in the social 
and economic life of Southern Illinois. 

Price, D. A., Climatic Regions of Illinois. 

Voskuil, Robert J., A method of representing the native vegetation of a small area. .. . 


PAPERS IN GEOLOGY 


127 

128 
131 
133 
135 

137 

139 

141 

143 

144 
149 


Extract from the Report of the Section Chairman . 151 

Ball, John R., Typical lower Mississippi valley Silurian lithology in southeastern Wisconsin 152 

Janssen, R. E., Restudy of Lesquereux’s fossil plant types from Illinois. 154 

Cohee, G. V., Recent developments in oil and gas in Illinois. 156 

McDermith, Harry, Aerial photography. 160 

Rowland, R. A., The use of pipette analysis in clay research. 162 

Parks, Bryan C. & McCabe, L. C., Fusain content of fine sizes of Illinois coal. 164 

Robertson, Percival & Brooks, Marshall, Additional notes on the geodes of the Warsaw 

formation. 168 

Wanless, Harold R., The use of color slides as an aid in geologic teaching. 171 

Willman, H. B„ Pre-glacial River Ticona. 172 









































Contents 


25 


PAPERS IN PHYSICS 

PAGE 


Extract from the Report of the Section Chairman . 177 

Bloomenthal, Sidney & Deutch, Isadore, Distinguishing characteristics for particulate 
carbonaceous materials discharged in the atmosphere by fuel burning sources. 178 

Calder, William A., An objective grating for visual stellar photometry. 181 

Constantinides, Ph. A., An unusual lunar spectrum. 182 

Harris, Roscoe E., Measurement of velocity with graflex camera. 183 

Leedy, H. A., Methods and practical application of vibration isolation. 185 

O’Neal, R. D. & Goldhaber, M., A new method for production of radioactive hydrogen of 
atomic weight three. 187 

Railsback, O. L., Electrical properties of the human body. 188 

Smith, Clarence R., Advantages of standard sizes for optical panels. 191 

Swaim, V. F., Wave characteristics with some demonstrations for general college physics. .. . 193 
Verwiebe, E. L., The pressure-volume relation of the toy balloon. 194 


PAPERS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION 

Extract from the Report of the Section Chairman. 

;i Messenger, Helen R., General conclusions on transfer of training. 196 

Jacobsen, O. Irving, The vowel formant and what it means in speech and vocal music. 197 

Erffmeyer, C. E., Validity of rank in high school class and of psychological test, scores in 
predicting academic success in college. 199 


' I 

PAPERS IN ZOOLOGY 

Extract from the Report of the Section Chairman . 205 

I Balduf, W. V., Ambush bug studies. 206 

> Burks, B. D., The host of another Illinois species of Brachymeria (Hymenoptera). 208 


Dougherty, E. R., Paratonsillar myiasis. 209 

Hansen, Donald F., A case of extreme curvature of regenerating fin rays. 211 

' Goodnight, C. J., Insects taken by the southern pitcher plant. 213 


* Knight, Kenneth L., Illinois distribution records of the Black Widow spider. 214 

Essenberg, J. M. & Schwind, J. V., The effects of nicotine and cigarette smoke on pregnant 

female albino rats and their offsprings. 215 

1 Jones, Sarah E., An annotated list of spiders of an east central Illinois forest (Wm. Trelease 
9 Woods, University of Illinois). 216 


Owen, Seward E., Interactions of growth stimulants and proteins. 220 

Wright, Bertrand, Cephalic deformities in embryos of the Massasauga rattlesnake ( Sis- 

trurus c. .catenatus, Raf.). 221 

Robinson, T. W., & Hill, H. C., Jr., Induced ovulation in Rana pipiens . 223 

1 Wright, Gilbert, Observations on the fertility of the Black Widow spider..225 




































ANNOUNCEMENTS 


% 


The Committee on Research Grants from the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science announces that each year $200 is granted the 
Academy for use in the aid of research projects. Requests for small grants 
from this fund will be received up to February 1, 1941, and should be accom¬ 
panied by a detailed statement of preceding background, general purpose, and 
estimated expenses. All such requests should be supported by three letters of 
recommendation sent directly by the writers. Customarily grants are made 
only to scientists connected with smaller institutions within the State. Cor¬ 
respondence should be directed to W. 0. Blanchard, Geology Department, 
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. 


SECTION CHAIRMEN FOR 1940-1941 

Agriculture: C. H. Oathout, Western Illinois State Teachers College, Macomb. 
Anthropology: Floyd Barloga, 1423 N. Glenn Oak, Peoria. 

Botany: Paul Voth, Dept, of Botany, University of Chicago, Chicago. 
Chemistry: Geo. H. Reed, Knox College, Galesburg. 

Geography: Arthur B. Cozzens, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Geology: J. Marvin Weller, State Geological Survey, Urbana. 

Physics: Ph. A. Constantinides, Wright Junior College, Chicago. 

Psychology & Education: 0. Irving Jacobsen, Shurtleff College, Alton. 
Zoology: W. V. Balduf, Dept, of Entomology, University of Illinois, Urbana. 


4 


[26] 











Papers In Agriculture 


Extract From the Report of the Section Chairman 

The Agriculture Section carried six papers, all of which are herewith pub¬ 
lished, in whole or in abstract. 

The fifty-two people attending elected as chairman of the 1940 meeting 
C. H. Oathout, Western Illinois State Teachers College, Macomb, Illinois. 

(Signed) Melvin Henderson, Chairman 


[27] 





28 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


INFLUENCE OF AGE ON THE VALUE OF SEED CORN 


George H. Dungan 
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


In a rapidly expanding business like 
the hybrid seed corn industry overproduc¬ 
tion may be expected in some seasons. 
The question naturally arising is “How 
valuable is seed corn held over from one 
year to the next, and through how many 
years is it practical to hold seed corn.” 

The corn used in an experiment to test 
the value of old seed was Station Yellow 
Dent, an open-pollinated variety that has 
been in production at the Illinois Agri¬ 


cultural Experiment Station for about 
twenty years. The seed of this corn rep¬ 
resented the highest quality obtainable. 
It was plant selected, stored on hangers 
where rapid drying would take place and 
was germinated for the selection of ears 
carrying vigorous and nearly disease-free 
kernels. 

Lots of seed corn produced in different 
years were planted in plots two rows 
wide and ten hills long, and replicated 



Fig. 1 .— Six-day old seedlings produced by 10 kernels of Station Yellow Dent seed corn 
of different ages: A—8 years old; B—6 years old; C—4 years old; D—2 years old; E—1 year* i 
old or new seed. 











Agriculture — 19Jf.O Meeting 


29 


Table 1.—Germinational Behavior, Seedling Characters, and Yield Per Acre as Influenced by Age of 

Station Yellow Dent Seed Corn 


Age 

Viability 

Plumule 

length 1 

Sprout 

value 2 

Weak 
seedlings 
and dead 
kernels 

Average 
yield 
per acre 

1_ 

Years 

perct. 

99 

mm. 

140 

perct. 

43 

perct. 

12 

perc f . 

100.0 

2_ 

100 

120 

43 

29 

102.0 

3... _ 

98 

120 

37 

34 

96.8 

4__ _ 

99 

120 

41 

31 

93.1 

5__ 

92 

136 

40 

29 

91.0 

6_ 

94 

109 

32 

45 

91.5 

7_ 

85 

83 

21 

72 

76.4 

8__ _ 

73 

90 

19 

68 




1 Plumule length was obtained at the end of a 6-day germination test at a temperature of 80-85° F. 

2 Sprout value represents the dry weight of plumules and roots expressed as a percent of the total dry weight of 
the entire seedlings. 


nine times. Data on viability, vigor of 
growth, and yield per acre were obtained. 

Size of seedling development at the end 
of a six-day germination test is shown in 
Fig. 1. Data on germination and yield 
per acre are presented in Table 1. 

A drop in viability occurred in the case 
of five-year old seed, but in plumule 
length, in sprout value, and in percentage 
of strong seedlings the decided drop did 
not show up before the sixth year. Yield 
decline after the second year was gradual 
but it did not fall off sharply until after 
the sixth year. Reduction in yield was 
apparently the result of both lowered 
viability of the seed and a falling off in 
vigor of the surviving plants. 


Deterioration in seed corn probably va¬ 
ries with the quality of the original seed, 
its inherited capacity to survive long 
periods of storage, and the conditions un¬ 
der which it is stored. Some inbred 
strains lose their viability very rapidly. 
In 1939 tests seed of Illinois Hybrid 751, 
grown in 1937, produced a yield only two 
bushels less than 1938 seed of this hybrid, 
whereas, a similar test with Illinois Hy¬ 
brid 877 showed a yield reduction for two- 
year old seed of 18.8 bushels an acre. 
In the light of these results with hybrids, 
Station Yellow Dent seed of good quality 
retained its value for planting to a re¬ 
markable degree. 































30 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


SOME BASIC OBJECTIVES FOB AGBICULTUBAL 

PBOGrB AM-BUILDING 

D. M. Hall 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


Planning means dealing in futures. It 
presupposes that changes are desired in 
present conditions. It involves an under¬ 
standing of the needs of individuals and 
a vision of the future social organization. 

The acceptability of any set of plans 
will depend upon the philosophy of life 
which guides the majority of the genera¬ 
tion. The American philosophy has been 
a dream of an opportunity for each to 
achieve according to his ability and en¬ 
ergy; a dream of a social order in which 
every person may attain his full stature 
regardless of the chance circumstances 
of his birth or position. We call it a bet¬ 
ter life, but what is a richer and better 
life? If we are able to analyze this 
American dream, we may evolve the 
working objectives for program builders. 

1. Governments were devices original¬ 
ly constructed by a group to enable it to 
satisfy its wants. We have found that by 
working together we can get certain serv¬ 
ices that we couldn’t afford individually. 
The American philosophy sanctions the 
organization of groups to obtain goods 
and services. Thus we believe that the 
first objective for agriculture should be 
to build organizations. George W. Rus¬ 
sell, the Irish philosopher, said, “When¬ 
ever rural prosperity is reported of any 
country, inquire into it and it will be 
found that it depends upon rural organi¬ 
zation.” 

2. The American philosophy maintains 
that goods and services should be ob¬ 
tained only through individual vocational 
efficiency. Economic, technical, and job 
knowledge and management skills are im¬ 
portant to vocational success and provide 
the means through which goods, services, 
pleasures, and advancement may be pur¬ 
chased. 

3. The future of the nation depends 
upon the kind of citizens it produces. 
The differences in birth rates between 
farm and city lead us to believe that the 
future population will be reared in the 
farms. Society has a responsibility for 
the health of all the people. We can’t 
expect reasonableness in a person if he 
has a history of poor health, malnutri¬ 


tion, and physical inferiority. i 

4. We expect every person to have i 

some opportunities to enjoy himself. We ( 
run into difficulties, however, when we i 
try to prescribe the exact treatment. It ‘ 
should be noted that there are possibili- I 
ties for intellectual as well as for physi- < 
cal recreation. ] 

5. Society continuously alters its de- ( 

mands upon conduct. The present em- i 
phasis upon the dynamic concept of de¬ 
mocracy which leads to greater social re- : 
sponsibilities places many demands upon i 
the individual. It demands not only ] 
knowledge but certain feeling reactions. ( 
It demands of each the virtues of re- ] 
sponsibility, dependability, determination, t 
sympathy, and fair play. In a word, it t 
demands social-civic efficiency. j 

6. In addition to building social and ] 
civic organizations through which citizen- i 
ship may operate, the American philoso¬ 
phy demands that the resources of the | 
nation be equitably distributed among the 
workers in proportion to the services > 
each renders. It implies full value given 
for value received. It guarantees against 
the taking of unfair advantages. Such a 
philosophy demands that the resources of ; 
the nation be so used that every family 
will have a desirable level of living, yet » 
will be so protected that future genera¬ 
tions will have some chance of maintain¬ 
ing acceptable standards. Protection of 
and planning for the future is a test of 
our acceptance of our social responsibil¬ 
ity. 

These six objectives are broad enough 
to apply to any program-building body, 
but let us consider how they apply to 
agriculture. Agriculture is recognized as 
one of the foundation occupations. It has 
been, and likely always will be, the cus¬ 
todian of the soil and water resources. 

It produces the food and fiber needed by 
the industries. It has provided the na¬ 
tion with its major population replace¬ 
ments. Fifty percent of the population 
increases of the rural areas find employ¬ 
ment in towns. In cities of over 100,000 
persons there was a 33 per cent deficit in 
births to maintain a stable population in 





Agriculture — 19Jf.O Meeting 


31 


\ 


i 




1 


i. 


I 

a- 

a- 


1930. Agriculture has contributed an 
average of $360,000,000 a year to the 
cities in costs of education and transfer 
of inheritances. These services empha¬ 
size the inter-relationship of agriculture 
and other groups and it is not difficult 
to argue that agriculture deserves returns 
in proportion to the services it renders. 
Certainly it should not be hindered when 
it attempts to build organizations to effect 
savings, to prevent losses, to reduce costs, 
to provide adequate health and medical 
services, to provide roads, schools, and 
public utilities, and to secure a fair deal. 
Certainly the people of the future deserve 
to inherit healthy, well nourished bodies. 

Under the present migratory conditions 
agriculture deserves assistance in fi¬ 
nancing its educational system. With 
half of its young people finding jobs in 
towns, any wise vocational educational 
program should include industrial and 
commercial trade training. In addition 
there should be provided in rural areas 
facilities for vocational guidance, and 
placement in city jobs. Certainly all the 
means of recreation should not be in 
towns. No one will dispute the need for 
building citizenship attitudes. However, 
some rebel when requests are made for 
expenditures to set into operation ade¬ 
quate civic programs in rural areas. 

A great deal of discussion has occurred 
during recent years regarding assistance 
given farmers to conserve their resources. 
Since the future is more nearly the re¬ 
sponsibility of the state than it is of any 
individual it is justifiable that the state 
take measures to protect the future 


against being exploited by the present. 
The government should protect all 
natural resources that their use may help 
provide a satisfactory living for future 
generations. Past generations probably 
have had neither the information nor the 
attitudes to properly manage the natural 
resources, but that fact is no argument 
against developing the attitudes now. A 
public conservation program is justified 
if it is based upon the following princi¬ 
ples. 

1. Every land area should be put to 
its best use in view of its long time 
maintenance. 

2. Maintaining a productive soil is 
more profitable than permitting 
yields to decrease because of soil 
exhaustion. When fertility is re¬ 
gained the program should carry 
itself. 

3. Replaceable resources should be so 
used that the reserves will be 
nearly equal as each rotation be¬ 
gins. 

4. Reimbursing farmers for losses sus¬ 
tained in regaining fertility should 
be proportional to the value of the 
fertility conserved. 

5. If a smaller total production is de¬ 
sirable the fertility of those acres 
not needed should be conserved for 
future use. 

Programs should be judged on the basis 
of how well they met these major ob¬ 
jectives. Programs should be aimed to¬ 
ward effecting changes in persons for 
these are the ultimate products of a civili¬ 
zation. 




32 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 

THE MILITARY TRACT AND ITS AGRICULTURE 


C. H. Oathout 

Western Illinois State Teachers College, Macomb, Illinois 


The region of Illinois known as the 
Military Tract is an area lying between 
the Mississippi and the Illinois Rivers 
from their confluence northward to a line 
extending along the north boundary of 
Mercer County from the Mississippi to 
the Illinois, a distance of ninety miles. 
The entire length of the tract north and 
south is 169 miles. It was surveyed in 
1815-16, and contains 207 entire townships 
and 61 fractional townships. 

The Military Tract was established by 
an Act of Congress May 6, 1812, for the 
purpose of paying soldiers and non-com¬ 
missioned officers who volunteered for 
service in the War of 1812. Two-thirds 
of the area was given over for these 
bounties. The overplus not used for this 
purpose was subject to purchase on the 
same conditions as other government 
land. 

The Counties embraced in the Military 
Tract are Calhoun, Pike, Adams, Brown, 
Schuyler, Hancock, McDonough, Fulton, 
Peoria, Stark, Knox, Warren, Henderson, 
Mercer, about forty per cent of Henry 
and Marshall, 25 per cent of Bureau, and 
20 per cent of Putnam. 

This area is one of the finest agricul¬ 
tural regions in the United States. The 
farms are operated with skill and the 
improvements are as a rule well kept. 
The predominating soil is brown silt loam, 
an ideal type for growing corn. It con¬ 
tains on an average in the plowed sur¬ 
face of an acre approximately 4,350 
pounds of nitrogen, 1,100 pounds of phos¬ 
phorus, 33,000 pounds of potassium, 7,300 
pounds of magnesium, and 7,300 pounds 
of calcium according to analyses made 
some years ago by the Illinois Experi¬ 
ment Station. Rainfall and temperature 
during the growing season are also ideal 
for growing corn. 

It is said that many of the soldiers 
receiving deeds from the government for 
farms in this area had no appreciation 
whatever of the value of the land they 
were getting, and they scattered over the 


United States where what appeared to 
them to be better fortune was in store for 
them. Some shrewd and farseeing citizens 
saw here a chance to accumulate a for¬ 
tune in excellent farm land, and set out 
to locate those having deeds to the land. 
When these owners were located it was 
easy to make a trade, in which generally 
a good farm was obtained for very little. 
Sometimes a mule ridden or driven by 
the fortune seeker was traded for a quar¬ 
ter-section of land, afterward worth in 
ordinary normal times, one hundred fifty 
to two hundred dollars an acre. Some¬ 
times it was nothing more than a cheap 
watch that was exchanged for the farm. 
The owner and his wife were glad to have 
the stranger stay for dinner or perhaps 
overnight, and when they learned where 
he was from, conversation led to a search 
for their deed, and after they had learned 
from the stranger that the country was 
wild and worthless, it was easy to make 
the trade. It is said that some of the 
largest land fortunes in the Military 
Tract had their origin in such trades. 
This information came direct from the 
late James C. Burns, an authority on the 
history of Western Illinois. 

Being located as it is in the heart of 
the Corn Belt, the region is outstanding 
in the production and feeding of meat 
animals, cattle, hogs, and sheep and, as 
the United States Bureau of Census shows, 
is one of the leading areas in the United 
States in this regard. 

The following table shows the impor¬ 
tance of the Military Tract in the agri¬ 
culture of Illinois. 

The production of livestock and grain 
is generally spread over all the Military 
Tract. There are however sections noted 
for the production of specific crops. 

Apples are grown extensively in Cal¬ 
houn and Pike Counties in the south end 
of the tract. In the year for which the 
census was taken, these two counties pro¬ 
duced for market 1,388,000 bushels of ap- 



Agriculture — 19J^0 Meeting 


33 






.1 






pies which was 50.5 per cent of all the 
apples produced in the State of Illinois. 
In other words these two counties pro¬ 
duced more apples than the other one 
hundred counties combined. Approxi¬ 
mately 85 per cent of these were grown 
in Calhoun County and, 15 per cent in 
Pike. 

In Hancock County surrounding the vil¬ 
lage of Nauvoo there is an extensive 
region devoted to the production of 
grapes. This region has 372,350 vines, 
18 per cent of all the grapes in Illinois, 
and in the census year it produced 18 
per cent of all the grapes in the state, 
2,403,000 pounds, or 1,200 tons. 

There are several regions devoted main¬ 
ly to the production of watermelons. The 
largest of these is the Oquawka region 
in Henderson County, having 6.5 per cent 
of the total acreage of the state. 

I wish to call attention also to the un¬ 
excelled opportunity offered by the Mili¬ 
tary Tract for the teaching of agricul¬ 
ture in the Vocational Departments of the 
High Schools and in the Western Illinois 
State Teachers’ College, the only college 
in Western Illinois offering a curriculum 
for agriculture which leads to the bache¬ 
lor of education degree. 

In this tract are to be found many of 
the best farm managers and operators. 
The excellent condition of the farms and 
their improvements bear abundant evi¬ 
dence to this statement. Most of the 
farms are fenced so tight as to hold any 
kind of livestock, so that any school has 
available for study, not merely a half- 
dozen head, but hundreds and even thou¬ 
sands of head of the best of livestock. 
The table shows that 26 per cent of all 
the swine in the state, 17^ per cent of 
all the cattle and calves, and 21 per cent 
of all the sheep and lambs are to be found 


in the Military Tract. Many farms have 
at nearly all times of the year hundreds 
of head of choice Hereford cattle, either 
on feed or as stockers, and one farm near 
Table Grove has from 500 to 1,200 head of 
excellent Aberdeen Angus at all times of 
the year. At Bushnell is located one of 
the last outstanding stud farms which, 
until the outbreak of the war, imported 
a considerable number of purebred stal¬ 
lions of different breeds. 

Many of these livestock producers and 
feeders belong to families which have 
followed these enterprises for genera¬ 
tions. They are real experts from study 
and experience. Some of the names of 
these men would be readily recognized 
over a large area as well as at the State 
College of Agriculture. Their lives are 
saturated with their work. 

Without exception these men take keen 
delight in visits of classes of future farm¬ 
ers. They talk freely on points in judg¬ 
ing, feeding, buying, and selling. These 
discussions are of infinite value to the 
young men. They bring out the depth 
and breadth of the knowledge necessary 
to success. The opportunities offered here 
to teachers are unexcelled as this is ex¬ 
actly the way they are going to have to 
teach this work in the future. The dove¬ 
tailing of the study of actual farm prac¬ 
tices with class-room work so that each 
is supplementary to the other is the ideal 
way to teach agriculture. 

These are the opportunities offered by 
the Military Tract for the study and 
teaching of agriculture. Add to this the 
fact that the tract abounds in healthy, 
vigorous, intelligent, and ambitious young 
future farmers and we have the setting 
which augurs well for the future of agri¬ 
culture in the Military Tract. 


Value of Farms. 

Available for crops (acres) 
Full owners, acres owned. . 

Tenants, acres farmed. 

Horses and colts. 

Mules and colts. 

Cattle and calves. 

Sheep and lambs. 

Swine . 

Winter Wheat, acres . 

bushels . 

Hay, acres . 

Corn, total acres. 

for grain, acres. 

bushels . 

Potatoes, acres. 

bushels . 

Chickens raised . 

Eggs produced, dozens. 


Military Tract 

.$342,300,045 
5,930,813 
1,764,915 
2,582,618 
122,820 
13,030 
459,926 
179,477 
849,374 
263,568 
3,780,000 
511,123 
1,119,119 
946,527 
. 20,368,187 

5,091 
272,894 
4,631,753 
. 11,967,213 


State 
of Illinois 

$2,205,899,576 

25,183,187 

8,961,846 

15,556,254 

745,827 

114,618 

2,629,866 

850,896 

3,218,134 

2,047,881 

36,209,694 

3,243,574 

7,804,612 

6,889,686 

152,010,682 

51,264 

3,042,910 

33,400,659 

109,540,562 


The above figures have been compiled from the Census Agricultural Report of 1935. 






















34 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


PROBABLE EFFECT OF WEEDS ON THE FERTILITY 

OF SOILS 

H. J. Snider 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


Weeds, whether native or introduced, 
have been with us so long that they are 
taken for granted. Little attention has 
been given to such a matter as the im¬ 
portant chemical elements they appro¬ 
priate from the fertility of the soil. 

Experimental. —During the autumn sea¬ 
son, October and November, of 1938, some 
50 samples of different species of native 
weeds common in central and northern 
Illinois were collected and a rather com¬ 
plete chemical analysis was made on each 
of the samples; also an analysis was 
made of the soils taken from the areas 
where the weeds grew. Individual plants 
were separated into roots and tops and 
the chemical composition was determined 
on the two portions of the plants. The 
weeds at time of sampling were in a more 
or less mature condition, that is, either 
in bloom or in the seed stage. 

Composition of Soils. —The species of 
wild plants here considered were taken 
from soils which were in a rather high 
state of fertility.* Soil reaction ranged 
from pH 5.2 to 7.1 with an average of 
pH 6.2. Total nitrogen ranged from 5,160 
pounds to 10,700 pounds, with an aver¬ 
age of 8,200 pounds in 2,000,000 pounds 
an acre. Some analytical work reported 
on soils from various Illinois experiment 
fields indicates that the most productive 
of these fields ranged in nitrogen con¬ 
tent from approximately 3,000 pounds to 
5,000 pounds an acre. Soluble phosphorus 
content of these weed soils ranged from 
80 to 300 pounds an acre, and available 
potassium from approximately 200 pounds 
to 400 pounds an acre. Of these three es¬ 
sential elements (N, P, and K) the soils 
had an abundant supply. 

Composition of Weeds. —Prom an agri¬ 
cultural soils viewpoint, probably nitro¬ 
gen might be considered the most impor¬ 
tant chemical element contained in the 
weeds. There was considerable variation 
in the nitrogen content of the thirteen 
species of weeds and also a relatively 
large variation in the nitrogen content 
between the roots and tops within the 
same species. Nitrogen found in the tops 
varied from 3.21 per cent in yellow dock 


(rumex crispus) down to .65 per cent 
found in prairie dock (silphum tere- 
binthinaceum). Nitrogen content of the 
yellow dock compared favorably with the 
best soil-improving legume crops such as 
alfalfa, sweet clover, etc., while the ni¬ 
trogen content of prairie dock compares 
with such low-nitrogen crops as timothy, 
redtop, cornstalks, etc. 

Roots are probably the most important 
portion of the plant in improving or re¬ 
taining the fertility of soils, while the 
tops of weeds are probably an important 
factor in causing losses of fertility. If 
weeds are burned on the land, the nitro¬ 
gen contained in the tops is largely lost; 
while the mineral elements (P, K, Ca, 
Mg, Fe, Mn) are largely retained in the 
ash and may be returned to the soil. 
Whatever disposition is made of the tops, 
the roots of weeds usually remain in the 
soil and may be considerable aid in re¬ 
plenishing some of the elements in a 
more or less available form. 

The high phosphorus content of the 
weeds (tops) .39 per cent in yellow dock 
was slightly higher than an average for 
the spring growth of sweet clover, .34 
per cent and the low of .06 per cent in 
common smartweed (polygonum hydro- 
piper) compares in amount with such ma¬ 
terial as wheat straw and oat straw. 

In comparison with some farm crops 
the potassium content of the weeds was 
relatively high. Alfalfa on the Carlin- 
ville Experiment Field, September 4, 1936, 
had a potassium content in the tops on 
several plots which ranged from .62 per 
cent to 1.17 per cent and in the roots it 
ranged from .46 to .72 per cent. Potas¬ 
sium content of the weed tops ranged 
from .98 per cent in golden rod (solidago 
canadensis) to 2.80 per cent in yellow 
dock and in the roots from .65 per cent 
in milkweed (asclepias syriaca) to 2.44 
per cent in wild parsnips (pastinaca 
sativa). Bluegrass, which is a high-po¬ 
tassium crop, had a percentage which 
ranged from 1.56 per cent to 2.80 per cent. 
Some of the richer samples were taken 
from potash-treated plots on the Clayton 
field May 16, 1938. These analyses in- 



Agriculture — 19^0 Meeting 


35 


dicate a possibility of considerable loss 
of potassium from soils by improper 
handling of weeds. 

The calcium content of the weed tops 
ranged from .60 per cent in common 
smartweed to 2.06 per cent in common 
thistle (circium lanceolatum) and the 
magnesium content ranged from .25 per 
cent in wild lettuce (lactuca canadensis) 
to .87 per cent in yellow dock. Compar¬ 
ing these values with those of alfalfa on 
the Hartsburg field it was found that 
seven plots sampled at three dates dur¬ 
ing 1937 ranged in calcium content from 
1.20 per cent to 1.86 per cent, and mag¬ 
nesium content ranged from .33 per cent 
to .56 per cent. Bluegrass from the Clay¬ 
ton field, in 1938, has a calcium content 
ranging from .14 to .36 per cent and the 
magnesium ranged from .15 to .27 per 
cent. The weeds compared favorably 


with the above two crops, one relatively 
high and the other relatively low in cal¬ 
cium and magnesium. 

Manganese content of the weed tops 
was relatively low because of the rather 
high pH of the soils. The iron and man¬ 
ganese content of the roots was unreport¬ 
ed because it was apparently impossible 
to wash from the roots the adhering parti¬ 
cles of these elements which were pres¬ 
ent in sufficient quantities to contaminate 
the samples and cause the percentages to 
be unusually high. 

Two species of wild native grasses, 
bluestem (andropogon furcatus) and 
slough grass (spartina michauxiana) 
which, technically speaking, are not 
weeds, were included in the table for the 
purpose of comparison. 

All analyses were on air-dry basis. 


Chemical Composition of Some Common Weeds in Illinois 


Plant species with common name 

Part of plant 

N 

P 

Iv 

Ca 

Mg 

Fe 

Mn 



% 

% 

% 

% 

% 

% 

% 

Rudbeckia subtomentosa_ 

Tops_ 

.88 

.15 

1.17 

1.14 

.40 

.03 

.0015 

(nrfnriA mnpflowfir) 

Roots 

1.63 

.18 

1.17 

1.04 

.26 



Pastinaca sativa__ 

Tops. .. 

2.02 

.29 

2.18 

1.10 

.43 

.02 

.0034 

fwilrl nnrsriird 

Roots 

1.06 

.27 

2.44 

.24 

.35 



Lactuca canadensis__ 

Tops... 

.91 

.19 

1.86 

.91 

.25 

.02 

.0030 

(wi 1H Ifittiwfil 

Roots 

.42 

.19 

1.86 

.26 

.19 



Ambrosia trifida__ 

Tops_ . 

1.40 

.30 

1.32 

1.78 

.48 

.01 

.0010 


Roots 

.72 

.16 

1.04 

.58 

.40 



Andropogon furcatus__ 

Tops__ 

1.05 

.17 

1.15 

.42 

.23 

.04 

.0041 

(bhifistfimi 

Roots 

.97 

.06 

.55 

.20 

.22 



Silphium laciniatum_ 

Tops_ 

1.22 

.11 

1.53 

1.20 

.60 

.02 

.0024 

(rosin woorR 

Roots 

2.08 

.17 

1.43 

.50 

.26 



Polygonum hydropiper_ . 

Tops_ 

.93 

.06 

1.90 

.60 

.73 

.01 

.0035 

(mmmnn smfirtwppd) 

"Root,8 

.49 

.04 

1.90 

.14 

.25 



Polygonum muhlenbergia_ 

Tops . _ 

2.08 

.17 

2.15 

.88 

.51 

.12 

.0110 

fswa.mn smartwppd ^ 

Roots 

.96 

.08 

.88 

1.16 

.39 



Solidago canadensis_ 

Tops_ 

.85 

.11 

.98 

1.00 

.54 

.01 

.0015 

(mmmnn gnldonroH) 

13 not,a 

1.30 

.15 

.98 

.42 

.29 



Circium lanceolatum..- 

Tops. _ 

1.70 

.26 

1.80 

2.06 

.68 

.10 

.0024 

(mmmnn thistln) 

Roots 

2.30 

.24 

1.63 

1.94 

.61 



Asclepias syriaca_ 

Tops_ 

1.52 

.24 

1.01 

1.56 

.75 

.02 

.0022 

(mmmnn milkwf^H) 


.85 

.15 

.65 

.60 

.50 



Spartina michauxiana_ 

Tops_ 

.78 

.16 

.91 

.23 

.15 

.01 

.0010 

(si ouch prnssl 

Roots 

.82 

.12 

.81 

.15 

.16 



Rumex crispus_ 

Tops _ 

3.21 

.39 

2.80 

.90 

.87 

.22 

.0088 

(vellow Hook') 


1.06 

.23 

1.63 

1.18 

.73 



Helianthus sp .. 

Tops_ 

1.16 

.14 

1.70 

1.36 

.47 

.01 

.0026 

(wild sunflnwnr) 

R nnts 

1.60 

.30 

1.66 

* .36 

.25 



Silphium terebinthinaceum_ 

Tops_ 

.65 

.09 

1.25 

1.77 

.82 

.02 

.0015 



1.90 

.20 

1.20 

.41 

.38 













* All samples were collected in the field by Herman Wascher of the Illinois Soil Survey. 








































































































36 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IN A PERMANENT 
PROGRAM OF AGRICULTURAL IMPROVEMENT 

B. A. Tomlin 

Carthage High School, Carthage, Illinois 


The title of this paper suggests that 
the framers of the program were of the 
opinion that we are to have a permanent 
program of agricultural improvement. I 
believe that they are correct in this opin¬ 
ion. A few years ago agriculture might 
have been called the forgotten vocation. 
The tillers of the soil were left to shift 
for themselves—to take what they could 
get and like it. The farmer and his fam¬ 
ily were considered by city dwellers and 
business men as adequately provided for 
if they had enough to eat and were able 
to do manual labor. Today we are in a 
much better position, because all voca¬ 
tions are interested in the purchasing 
power of the farmer. 

All of you are familiar with the great 
change which has developed in our farm¬ 
ing operations due to the development of 
the machine age. Operations which form¬ 
erly required long days of labor and con¬ 
stantly held the farmer and his family 
to the farm are now accomplished in a 
few hours by using our mechanized equip¬ 
ment. This led to increased acreage un¬ 
der cultivation and larger harvests. One 
of the most potent factors entering into 
a surplus production has been the 
mechanization of agriculture. This has 
caused economic changes faster than men 
could adjust their enterprises to the new 
situation. The technique of producing 
agricultural products has advanced rapid¬ 
ly, resulting in production of farm crops 
faster than our markets have provided 
outlets. 

With what we call modern conveniences 
the farm folks are in close touch with 
everyday happenings and are as up to 
date in news and developments as anyone 
in the world. With this change of con¬ 
ditions, the farm population has devel¬ 
oped desires for pleasant and comfortable 
living that compare with the circum¬ 
stances of city dwellers. In order to ful¬ 
fill the farm family’s desire for better 
living and at the same time being faced 


with lower prices, the only immediate 
solution was greater production. 

It took a depression of major propor¬ 
tions to convince all groups of people 
that agriculture is a basic industry; that 
if the free flow of money in the money 
cycle was stagnated by low farm income, 
all professions and businesses would suf¬ 
fer. The farm income not only affects 
the farmer but it also affects all industry 
and labor. With these facts so clearly 
demonstrated, it was evident that some¬ 
thing must be done. These conditions led 
to the birth of the farm program. All of 
you are familiar with the changes and 
growth through which that program has 
gone. The experiment stations and our 
universities have long been working to 
develop truths as well as to learn new 
practical facts in connection with agri¬ 
culture. The Seventy-sixth Congress of 
the United States has now passed a meas¬ 
ure as follows: In the Agriculture Ad¬ 
justment Act of 1938 Congress provides 
that “The secretary of agriculture is here¬ 
by authorized and directed to establish, 
equip, and maintain four regional re¬ 
search laboratories, to conduct research 
into and to develop new scientific, chemi¬ 
cal, and technical uses and new and ex¬ 
tended markets and outlets for farm com¬ 
modities and farm products and by-prod¬ 
ucts, thereof.” One of these regional re¬ 
search laboratories is being developed at 
Peoria, Illinois. The major problems at 
this laboratory will concern corn, wheat, 
and agricultural waste products. 

I have mentioned these facts which as¬ 
sure us that agriculture is receiving con¬ 
sideration and in some cases is in a bet¬ 
ter position than it has ever before held. 

All of us know that the establishment 
of experiment stations years ago did not 
make the business of farming less com¬ 
plex, less hazardous, or even solve all 
common farm problems. Likewise, I 
think we should not expect the establish¬ 
ment of research laboratories to be a 



Agriculture — 19J+0 Meeting 


37 


cure-all for farming ills. Farming will 
continue to be very much the same as 
it has been, with the exception of slow 
changes and gradual readjustments. 
Many of our farmers will be successful 
and many will fail. I can see no hope 
for a farmer on poor soil, using anti¬ 
quated methods and possessing poor 
managerial and business ability. In or¬ 
der to farm successfully, at the present 
time, a man must possess abilities as ex¬ 
acting as those required in any other vo¬ 
cation, and should use them wisely. 

A large amount of material is now 
published on agricultural problems, and 
it seems safe to predict even an increase 
of this material in the future. 

Our vocational agriculture departments 
are serving and shall continue to serve as 
the logical clearing house for material 
concerning practical agriculture. Voca¬ 
tional agriculture provides men, trained 
under high specifications and paid sala¬ 
ries from public funds, to serve the agri¬ 
cultural interests of small communities. 
Such men are in close contact with their 
constituents. Under their leadership boys 
learn the latest methods of various phases 
of farming. Adult farmers too are taking 
advantage of vocational agriculture de¬ 
partments by attending evening schools. 
In 1918, we had in this state, 15 such de¬ 
partments, 1923—130 departments, 1928— 
181 departments, 1932—228 departments, 
1937—288 departments and 1940—373 de¬ 
partments. It seems safe to predict that 
we will soon have 500 such departments. 
Then we will have reached the point 
where a large part of our new farmers 
will be the products of our vocational 
agriculture departments. They will enter 
the occupation of farming with a wide 
knowledge of its hazards as well as of its 


possibilities. They know that agriculture 
is due for possible changes in the future 
as it has changed in the past, and in 
order to keep informed on these new de¬ 
velopments, constant study will be re¬ 
quired. Our students who learn to corre¬ 
late study with the application of what 
they learn will be in a position to proffit 
by continued study after graduation. 

The farmer will continue to manage his 
own farm, and upon his managerial and 
business ability will depend his income. 

We are particularly anxious that our 
students make application of new knowl¬ 
edge. Even if it is on a small scale, ne¬ 
cessitating the expenditure of only a few 
dollars, we believe the application is the 
strong point in our program, and if a boy 
is to receive the best training in our de¬ 
partment he will carry out recommended 
practices. 

General interest in vocational agricul¬ 
ture is growing. The agriculture depart¬ 
ment in the high school is in an ideal 
position to serve the agricultural inter¬ 
ests of a community. Its worth is direct¬ 
ly proportional to the quality of leader¬ 
ship which it provides farm people. 

We have unquestionable evidence that 
our agriculture departments are practical 
and that many improved practices have 
been promoted by them. 

Vocational agriculture is organized in 
such a way that it can develop either a 
program of its own or else work coop¬ 
eratively with any or all other agricul¬ 
tural agencies. 

Vocational agriculture in the United 
States is anxious to continue its work 
and improve its facilities to take its place 
in a permanent program of agricultural 
improvement. 


38 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


SOIL CONSERVATION IN ILLINOIS IN RELATION TO THE 

AAA PROGRAM 


By Oren L. Whalin, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 

AN ABSTRACT 


Widespread interest in soil conservation 
in the United States is very recent. Al¬ 
though we have all known that China is 
poverty-stricken because of long-time soil 
erosion, it is only because of the emphasis 
placed on soil conservation through the 
AAA programs here, backed up by our 
experience with the dust storms of 1934 
and 1936, that we have really begun to 
accept the problem as of concern to 
United States citizens, city dwellers as 
well as farmers. 

Just how important is this problem of 
soil conservation? Let me give you the 
answer in the words of Mile. Odette 
Keun: “You must listen to some statistics. 
It is my duty to give them. ... If I, 
a foreigner, have been frightened by 
them, every American should be panic- 
stricken by them. They prove the stag¬ 
gering fact that America is not a per¬ 
manent country; that another century of 
the present processes will leave her un¬ 
able to maintain the agriculture on which 
her civilization rests; and that she is on 
the way to join those decedent or dead 
parts of China, Mesopotamia, and Asia 
Minor, which were once opulent and now 
are stripped forever of their fertility. 
Unless something effective is done, and 
done within a generation, it will be too 
late to cure her earth-diseases. . . . Did 
you hear me? It will be irrevocably too 
late.” 

The facts referred to are these: Of the 
1,900,000,000 acres of land in the United 
States, only 37% is subject to no erosion 
or to only a slight amount; about 41% 
to moderate erosion; and the remaining 
22% to severe erosion or is eroded be¬ 
yond usefulness. The picture for crop 
land is even worse: Less than one-fourth 


of all the land was devoted to crops and 
only 39% of this can be farmed safely 
under present practices. With improved 
practices, however, this figure could be 
increased to 82%. 

The situation in Illinois would seem not 
quite so serious as that of the United 
States in general, but certainly worthy 
of real concern. Forty-seven per cent of 
the total land area in Illinois can be 
classed as subject to slight or no erosion, 
as against 37% for the United States as a 
whole; 35.4% is subject to harmful or 
moderate erosion, with about 17.5% sub¬ 
ject to serious or destructive erosion. 
However, the areas in crop land in Illi¬ 
nois represent nearly 60% of the total 
land as compared with about 22% for 
the whole country. The use of land for 
crops will of course speed up the process 
of erosion unless protective measures are 
taken, and since 89.1% of the land in the 
State is in farms, the problem of soil 
erosion looms large. 

An indication of how the land in har¬ 
vested crops was utilized prior to the 
AAA program and in 1939 is shown by 
the Illinois Crop Reporting Service figures 
given in table I. 

In 1939 the total acreage of crops har¬ 
vested in Illinois was about 6% less than 
the 1930-32 period, even though 1939 was 
an excellent crop year, with little crop 
failure. 

The most important difference in in¬ 
dividual crops harvested in 1939 as com¬ 
pared with the 1930-32 period was the 
striking decrease in corn and oats acre¬ 
age and the increase in soybean acre¬ 
age. This shift to soybeans has come 
about partly because of the interest shown 


Acreages of Important Crops Harvested in Illinois, 1930-32 Period and 1939 

With Decreases and Increases 


Crop 

1930-32 Average 

1939 

Decreases 

Increases 

Corn___ . 

9,603,000 

1,932,000 

4,337,000 

343,000 

74,000 

30,000 

810,000 

194,000 

2,554,000 

19,598,000 

8,051,000 

1,865,000 

3,118,000 

169,000 

88,000 

29,000 

2,726,000 

214,000 

2,877,000 

18,418,000 

1,552,000 

67,000 

1,219,000 

174,000 


Wheat___ 


Oats___ 


Barley_ 


Rye...... 

14,000 

Broomcorn__ ___ 

1,000 

Soybeans______ 

1,916,000 

20,000 

323,000 

Cowpeas_ _ 


Tame Hay...._.. 


Total Harvested Crops__ 

1,180,000 












































Agriculture — 19^0 Meeting 


39 


in the development of a new crop, partly 
because of the replacement of horsepower 
farming by motor-power farming, and 
partly as a result of the influence of the 
AAA program. 

Not only has there been a decrease 
in the acreages of all harvested crops 
and of specific soil-depleting crops, such 
as corn and oats, since the AAA program 
has been in operation, but there has been 
an increase in the seeding of soil-build¬ 
ing legumes and in the amount of lime¬ 
stone spread. The sweet clover acreage 
for 1930-32 averaged about 830,000 acres; 
for 1939 1,100,000 acres. The alfalfa acre¬ 
age increased from an average of 250,000 
acres to about 500,000 acres in 1939. The 
amount of limestone spread in 1930-32 
averaged about 385,000 tons annually as 
compared with the 1,788,000 tons in 1939, 
reported by the farm advisers. This is 
only four tons per 100 crop acres, but 
some AAA cooperators used more and did 
not report it as they did not need the 
credit. The use of phosphates increased 
three-fold over 1938. 

It is not possible to say just how many 
of the changes in cropping practices and 
increases in soil-building practices have 
been due to the influence of the AAA pro¬ 
gram. The AAA program and the educa¬ 
tional work carried on in connection with 
it have stressed good farming and soil 
conservation. Acreage allotment pro¬ 
cedure has given considerable weight to 
good soil management. Payment under 
the AAA program for adjusting special 
soil-depleting crops, such as corn and 
wheat, and for reducing the acreage of 
all soil-depleting crops has indirectly aid¬ 
ed in soil conservation. Soil-building 
practice payments under the AAA pro¬ 
gram for spreading limestone and phos¬ 
phates, for contour farming, for planting 
trees, for seeding legumes, such as alfalfa, 
red clover, mammoth clover, alsike clover, 
sweet clover, and lespedeza, and for seed¬ 
ing grasses, such as red top and timothy, 
have greatly increased these practices 
beyond their normal adoption. Increased 
use of soil-building practices have been 
made by non-cooperators as well as by 
cooperators in the AAA program, prob¬ 
ably due to the extensive educational 
work of the AAA. 

Preliminary figures tabulated in the 
State AAA Office give an indication of 
the extent of the influence of the AAA. 
They show that the cooperating farms in 


1939 included 70% of the farm land and 
75% of the crop land and were given 75% 
of the corn acreage allotment. 

If we assume that the cooperating and 
non-cooperating groups each produced in 
1930-32 total corn acreages proportionate 
to their corn acreage allotments in 1939, 
we find that the cooperators reduced 
their corn acreage nearly 27% below 
their 1930-32 average acreage, while the 
non-cooperators increased their acreage 
slightly more than 12% above their 1930- 
32 average acreage. Perhaps some of the 
non-cooperators received less favorable 
corn allotments than did the cooperators, 
but certainly there are other reasons why 
many of the non-cooperators did not go 
along with the program in 1939. 

Total soil-depleting crop acreage allot¬ 
ments for 1939 represented a reduction 
of about 15% as compared with the 
1930-32 total soil-depleting crop acreage. 

The problems of soil erosion and meth¬ 
ods of control have definitely come into 
the picture. Farming in Illinois has 
changed since the 1930-32 period. Total 
acreage in harvested crops has decreased; 
corn acreage in particular has been great¬ 
ly reduced. There has been a great in¬ 
crease of important soil-building prac¬ 
tices, such as spreading limestone and 
phosphates and seeding legumes and 
grasses. All these factors have worked 
together to decrease soil erosion and to 
increase soil fertility. Many of the prac¬ 
tices incorporated into the AAA program 
encourage, either directly or indirectly, 
greater conservation of the soil. Further¬ 
more, a review of the farming operations 
of the group of farmers participating in 
the AAA program as compared with those 
not cooperating in 1939 shows that the 
cooperators made a much greater reduc¬ 
tion in important soil-depleting crops and 
devoted more of their land to legumes 
and grasses than did those not cooperat¬ 
ing. 

Finally, increased interest in and 
educational emphasis on soil conservation 
on the part of various agencies in Illi¬ 
nois has resulted in increased use of 
limestone and increased seeding of sweet 
clover by non-cooperating farmers, as 
well as by those cooperating in the AAA 
program. Conservation of the soil is defi¬ 
nitely being recognized as an objective 
of a good soil and crop management pro¬ 
gram by a majority of Illinois farmers 
today. 



‘ 





















■ 


















. 


\ 




























Papers In Anthropology 


Extract From the Report of the Section Chairman 

The Anthropology Section carried three papers, all of which are herewith 
published. 

Attendance averaged 40. The incumbent chairman was re-elected for the 
1940 meeting. 

(Signed) Fred Barloga, Chairman 
1423 North Glen Oak, 
Peoria, Illinois. 


[ 41 ] 



42 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


THE PREHISTORIC VILLAGES AND CAMP SITES OF THE 

PEORIA LAKE AREA 

A. R. Buis 

Peoria High School , Peoria, Illinois 
ABSTRACT 


That section of the Illinois River ex¬ 
tending between Peoria and Chillicothe, 
due to its tendency to spread out over the 
river valley, is commonly designated as 
Peoria Lake. While this paper deals pri¬ 
marily with this area, a few sites both 
north and south of it are included. 

The fact that this area was once in¬ 
habited by prehistoric peoples is indi¬ 
cated to the stranger by the presence of 
mounds here and there, both on the bluffs 
overlooking the valley, and on the valley 
floor itself, the larger ones being found 
on the valley floor. 

But one must traverse the shore lines, 
and tramp over the many fertile fields, 
and ascend the streams that flow into the 
river for further concrete evidence of the 
early occupancy of a race that has long 
since disappeared. 

For a number of years members of the 
Archeology Section of the Peoria Acad¬ 
emy of Science and others, have been ac¬ 
tive in making a survey of this area, and 
have located and mapped these sites of 
occupation. 

The survey made to date includes many 
field trips to the various sites when they 
were free of crops and vegetation and 
could be worked to advantage. Surface 
material of every kind in evidence was 
collected and carefully examined and cata¬ 
logued. 

With the exception of the work at 
Kingston Lake and at Mossville, little ex¬ 
cavation work has been done. Trenching 
was done in testing for a house site, and 
tests for the original village floor were 
made at the Rench and Hildemeyer sites. 

No mounds have been opened by the 
group. One mound, the Luthy Mound, at 
the north edge of East Peoria was leveled 
by highway operations. It contained a 
number of burials, but no artifacts were 
found. 

Our purpose in making this survey was 
threefold: — (1) To locate all camp and 
village sites; (2) To ascertain, insofar as 
possible, the cultural classification of the 
aborigines; (3) To record for posterity 


the information obtained. 

Of the sites included in this survey 
seven, Numbers 8, 10, 3, 22, 4, 15, and 24 
are village sites, while four, Numbers 26, 
5, 18, and 23 are campsites. See Fig. 1. 

The Rench site is the most extensive in 
the lake area, and gives evidence of long 
occupation and a large population. 

The Bloomenshine site is a dual camp¬ 
site, one on the apron of the bluff, and 
the other eighty rods north of it in the 
valley of Ten Mile Creek. The former 
appears to be Woodland, and the latter 
Mississippi culture pattern. 

Five conical mounds are located on the 
bluff overlooking the Rench site, and thir¬ 
teen mounds, nine conical and four lin¬ 
ear, the largest being approximately 
twelve feet in height and sixty feet 
in length, are on the bluff overlooking the 
Steuben site. 

Site Number 25 is an aboriginal shell 
heap which appears as an exposure in 
the east side of a roadside cut on the 
highway between Bacon and Spring Bay, 
and one mile south of the Woodford- 
Marshall County line. 

The Hildemeyer site bids fair to be 
one of the most valuable in this area for 
future archeological investigation, but 
unfortunately the present owner forbids 
any one trespassing on the land. 

In the western part of the Gerdes site 
are eight house pits. Seven of these are 
about fifteen feet square, the other being 
eighteen by twenty feet. Trenching was 
done in one of these pits and the original 
floor was found at a depth of one foot 
at the center and three feet at the ridge 
surrounding the pit. These are the only 
known house pits in this area. It is 
hoped that a complete excavation may be 
made of one of the pits during the com¬ 
ing summer. 

The probable cultural classification of 
the sites based upon surface findings are 
as follows:—Woodland Pattern—8, 10, 

3, 22, 5, and 23; Mississippi Pattern: — 

4, 15, 5, and 18. Site Number 26 is un¬ 
classified. Site Number 24 shows evi- 



Anthropology — 19JfO Meeting 


43 



dence of both Woodland and Mississippi 
Patterns or an overlapping of the two. 
Three sites Numbers 10, 3, and, 5 show 
some diagnostic traits of the Hopewellian 
Phase. 

It is not difficult to see why the ab- 
originies inhabited this region. In the 


first place, the river was a natural high¬ 
way upon which boats might be launched 
and paddled upstream or floated down¬ 
stream with the current. It provided an 
abundance of fish and shellfish for food. 
Game was also, no doubt, abundant here. 
The fertile river plains were of light 







































44 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


soil and easily worked. The bluffs af¬ 
forded protection against the winter gales, 
and springs were found in many places 
affording an abundant water supply. 

Some material foreign to this area was 
found. At the Ivy Club and Steuben 
site, and on Dickison Run Creek border¬ 
ing on the Rench site several blades of 
blue-gray southern flint were found. At 
Mossville and at the Rench sites two 
specimens of Number 3 Type Pottery was 
found. (See Cole & Deuel:—Rediscover¬ 
ing Illinois.) This pottery is foreign to 
this area and is found only in sites of 
Hopewellian manifestation in the lake 
region. Members of the Academy have lo¬ 
cated a site on Mauvaise Terre Creek in 


Scott County where 52% of the pottery 
is of this type. 

The presence of foreign material here 
seems to indicate that it was brought in 
through channels of trade or was carried 
in by visiting or migrating peoples. 

One of the obstacles to a more thorough 
study has been the fact that most of the 
members of the group are regularly em¬ 
ployed and were able to pursue the study 
only occasionally. A second obstacle has 
been the antagonism, in a few instances, 
of land owners. The survey is far from 
complete, but the work that has been 
done has proven interesting and, we feel, 
quite worthwhile, and it is hoped that 
further study may reveal more informa¬ 
tion of much value. 


PREHISTORIC ABORIGINAL POTTERY OF THE 

PEORIA REGION 

Ethel Schoenbeck 

Peoria Academy of Science, Peoria, Illinois 


This paper deals with aboriginal pot¬ 
tery of the Illinois River valley around 
Peoria. Its aim is to give a general report 
on the types characteristic of the various 
cultural developments of the area as rep¬ 
resented by ware collected by members 
of the archaeological section of the Pe¬ 
oria Academy of Science. 

Sherds in numbers varying from a few 
to thousands have been yielded by 16 vil¬ 
lages and camps. These reveal materials, 
shapes, sizes, weights, decorations and 
rim treatment. Matching fragments were 
assembled into reconstructed or projected 
vessels. All pottery included is consid¬ 
ered to be prehistoric as no relices show 
evidence of contact with white men. 

Wares are of two temperings, grit and 
shell, characterizing three classifications, 
Woodland, Mississippi, and Hopewell. The 
grit-tempered is dominant at 12 sites and 
the shell, at 4. Foreign sherds indicate 
intercourse. 

The wares differ, also, in forms, num¬ 
ber of forms, finish, and decorative tech¬ 
nique. Each includes smooth and fab¬ 
ric-, or cord- roughened surfaces and sev¬ 
eral weights. The smooth surface pre¬ 
vails in the shell-tempered, and the rough¬ 
ened, in the grit-tempered. Expression 
emphasizes form in the shell-tempered, 
and surface decoration in the grit ware. 
Shell-tempered ware has six forms, and 


handles and effigies occur; the other has 
two forms but neither handles nor effi¬ 
gies. Decoration is on the body in the 
one, and on the neck, in the other. 

Shell-tempered ware prevails at the 
Kingston, Hildemaier, LaMarsh and Ivy 
Club sites but only Kingston yielded a 
large amount. It produced thousands of 
sherds and a number of projected vessels. 
Forms include an olla, shallow bowl-, 
large plate, water-bottle, beaker, cup, and 
variations. Incising in geometrical de¬ 
signs, the common technique, appears on 
olla shoulder, inner plate rim, and side 
of beaker. Kingston 1 ware has been de¬ 
scribed briefly previously and will be con¬ 
sidered in detail in a later report. 

Grit-tempered ware has been collected 
at the Clear Lake, Steuben, Rench, Moss¬ 
ville, Blumenshine, Blalock, Copperas 
Creek, Williams, Dickison, and several 
other sites. A wide-mouthed amphora 
and a globular bowl are the forms. Cord- 
roughening is prevalent and shows no 
cross thread. Decoration employs chiefly 
the punchmark, stamped impression, and 
exterior boss, and, less commonly, incised 
or trailed lines. Stamps, most frequent, 
are the compound punch, cord-wrapped 
cylinder, cord decoration, and crescent, 
and less common, the snowshoe and the 
linear. See Fig. 5. The cord decoration 
is found on globular bowls only. Roulet- 






Anthropology — 19^0 Meeting 


45 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 

Clear Lake Types of Grit Tempered Ware. — 1. Type 3 showing characteristic cross- 
hatched rim and alternate area body decoration. 2. Type 5 showing characteristic cord- 
decoration and raised rim points. 3. Type 2a amphora, projected, type 3a rim, and type 2 
amphora, portion, ii. Type 2 showing punchstamp, boss, (row r 1); punctate, alternate area, 
and snowshoe (row 2). 6. Types 2a, 1 and 6 (row 1); type 7 and undetermined (4?) Crow 2); 

type 2a (row 3). Grit Tempered Ware from Other Sites.—4. Mossville vessels. 7. Steuben 
site rims Crow 1); Blumenshine site rims (row 2); Rench and Mossville sites rims (row 3). 


Shell Tempered Ware from Kingston Site.—8. 

handle, small bowl or cup, water bottle. 

ting or continuous line made with punch- 
stamps placed end to end is infrequent. 

The Clear Lake site 1 2 , previously re¬ 
ported by Doctors Cole and Deuel, has 
yielded in the Simpson and Schoenbeck 
collections, 650 rims, 250 decorated sherds, 
2 amphoras, and hundreds of body sherds, 
—an amount stated by Dr. Deuel to be 
sufficient to affect conclusions. Material 
was excavated, mostly at the 4' to 7' 
depth. The heavy type 2 mostly punch- 
stamped and bossed and but little punc¬ 
tated and the lighter 3a prevail. See Fig. 
3. This report adds to the types already 
credited the distinctive type 3 with the 
channeled collar and the crushed rock 
type 6 and possibly, type 4. 

The Steuben site has produced 165 
rims, and hundreds of sherds. Two types, 


Plate and olla. 9. Shallow bowl, beaker with 

a heavy and a lighter, occur and the pre¬ 
vailing heavy type is characterized by 
crude punching and red clay. Rench pot¬ 
tery consists of 107 rims, mostly stamped, 
a globular pot, and sherds, and includes 
several weights. Sherds are small. Moss¬ 
ville collections include 6 heavy amphoras 
and cord-decorated globular bowls and 
sherds,—all excavated. Ware from Blu¬ 
menshine site shows, almost entirely, a 
cord-decorated shouldered form, with 
short neck, medium weight. Other sites 
show no outstanding dissimilarities. 


1 Bulletin, “The Kingston Village Site” 
published by Peoria Academy of Science, 
1939. 

2 “Rediscovering Illinois” by Cole and 
Deuel, University of Chicago publication, 
1937. 





















46 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


INDIAN TRAIL MARKERS IN ILLINOIS 

Raymond E. Janssen 

University of Chicago, Chicago; Northwestern University, Evanston 


In various areas throughout the Mis¬ 
sissippi Valley and eastward, and particu¬ 
larly in northern Illinois, may be seen 
numerous curiously bent trees. They are 
most numerous in Cook and Lake Coun¬ 
ties north of Chicago. Here they may be 
seen in the woods and along the streets 
of North Shore villages. 

The casual observer would look upon 
these trees merely as malformed growths. 
But careful observation discloses a pro¬ 
nounced peculiarity of deformation which 
ascribes to the trees an aspect quite dif¬ 
ferent from that of ordinary deformed 
growths, bespeaking of deliberate, rather 
than accidental, deformation. This con¬ 
sists of a sharp-angled bend in the main 
trunk at heights varying usually from 
two to five feet above the base. 

Research failed to disclose any scien¬ 
tific treatment relating to such misshapen 
trees. Scattered reports of historians, 
however, indicated that these trees might 
have been bent when young and supple by 
Indians for the purpose of marking routes 
through the forests, t 1 * 6 ) In order to 
verify these reports, if possible, a syste¬ 
matic study was instituted and carried 
on over a period of several seasons. 

The results of this study confirmed the 
reports and indicated that a custom had 
been developed whereby young saplings 
were bent and fastened in position in 
such ways that they became permanently 
deformed. The saplings were not broken, 
but merely bent, with the direction of 
bend paralleling the direction of the route 
to be followed. Consequently, a long line 
of similarly bent trees would be distin¬ 
guishable from the surrounding trees of 
the forest, and could be readily followed 
by proceeding from one to the next ac¬ 
cording to the direction indicated. 

It has been found that various meth¬ 
ods of securing the saplings in position 
were used. Sometimes the saplings, after 
being bent, were weighted down with a 
rock or a pile of dirt. But most frequent¬ 
ly they were tied in position with a strip 
of rawhide or a tough vine* (see figure). 

The deformation of the saplings had a 
serious effect upon their subsequent 
growth. The trunk and branches were 
distorted earthward, and hence could no 


longer function normally. Compensation 
for this treatment occurred only after new 
vertical stems—secondary trunks—began 
to appear along the bent primary trunk. 
During this readjustment period, growth 
was retarded; hence such trees are not 
as large as normal trees of corresponding 
ages. After the new stems became es¬ 
tablished, the extremities of the original 
bent-over trunks usually atrophied and 
decayed away. But occasionally the orig¬ 
inal trunk tip took root at its point of 
secondary contact with the ground. When 
this happened, the tree functioned there¬ 
after with two sets of roots. 

There is a popular motion among many 
individuals that primitive peoples possess 
an infallible sense of direction, and con¬ 
sequently require no trail markers. 
There is no scientific basis for this belief 
which is refuted by most ethnologists. 
Even if this were true, however, it does 
not necessarily follow that a mere knowl¬ 
edge of the right direction is all that is 
needed to travel readily from one point 
to another. 

There are numerous reasons for mark¬ 
ing a trail even though the general di¬ 
rection might be known. A direct route 
from one locality to another might be ob¬ 
structed by natural barriers such as un¬ 
usual elevations or depressions in the ter¬ 
rain, dense thickets of thorny underbrush, 
treacherous swamps, or non-fordable bod¬ 
ies of water. To facilitate travel, a 
marked detour might be advisable. Va¬ 
rious other reasons may also suggest 
themselves. 

On the other hand, long established and 
important routes of travel apparently 
were not marked inasmuch as the paths 
themselves, worn well into the ground, 
were readily followed. In nearly all 
cases, the trails indicated by tree mark¬ 
ers trended at cross angles to the main 
thoroughfares of known Indian travel 
within the region. Consequently, it can 
be concluded that trees were used to 
mark trails of secondary importance, or 
possibly of seasonal or temporary use 
only. They seem never to have been 
used to mark trails which were conspicu¬ 
ous in themselves inasmuch as the mark¬ 
ing of such routes would have been su¬ 
perfluous. 


Anthropology — 19J+0 Meeting 


47 


The casual observer often encounters 
difficulty in distinguishing between trail 
markers and ordinary malformed trees. 
Deformities may occur in many ways. A 
large tree may fall upon a sapling, pin¬ 
ning it down for a sufficient length of 
time to effect a permanent bend. Wind, 
sleet, snow, or depredations by animals 
may cause deformities. Such injuries, 
however, usually leave their marks which 
are apparent to the careful observer, and 
these may serve to differentiate such trees 
from those which were purposely bent as 
markers. 

Observations have shown that the fall 
of a large tree upon a smaller one may 
cause the latter to break, or else to bend 
in a wide arch beginning from the base. 
Indian trail markers are not bent from 
the bases. Also, unless trail markers 
have been subsequently injured, they do 
not bear scars other than the knob left 
by the atrophy and subsequent decay of 
the original trunk extremity. Such knobs 
might be termed remnant-scars as com¬ 



Steps in Development of a Trail Tree 
Marker 


a. Sapling, young enough to withstand 
acute bending near base; b. Usual method 
of securing sapling in position by hitching, 
thereby effecting a sharp bend near base 
of trunk; c. Later, one or more secondary 
stems appear along the bent trunk, replacing 
the original branching structure; d. Sev¬ 
eral seasons later, the new structures have 
made considerable progress while the orig¬ 
inal branches have disintegrated; e. Many 
years later, the portion of the original trunk 
beyond the point of emergence of the farth¬ 
est secondary stem has entirely atrophied 
and decayed away. Such is the general 
appearance of trail tree markers today. 


pared to injury-scars. In any event, a 
line of similarly bent trees, spaced at 
intervals, and all directed parallel toward 
or away from each other, would preclude 
the possibility of accidental deformity. 

The ages of the trail markers in Illi¬ 
nois are all upwards of a hundred years, 
thus placing them well within the period 
of Indian occupancy. The last Indian 
title in Illinois was not extinguished un¬ 
til 1833, the date of the Treaty of Chi¬ 
cago between the Government of the 
United States and the Pottowattomie Na¬ 
tion. But wandering bands of Indians 
continued to inhabit the region for many 
years thereafter because the treaty gave 
them the right to hunt and fish within 
the area as long as title to the land re¬ 
mained vested in the American govern¬ 
ment. Because of the longevity of trees, 
many of the trail markers still stand as 
living reminders of the day when savage 
tribes met in council at old Fort Dear¬ 
born, and bark canoes lined the shores 
of the Chicago River. 


References 

1. Frank Grover et al. Historical Encyclo¬ 
pedia of Illinois & History of Evans¬ 
ton, Illinois, Vol. II, Chapter 2, p. 44. 
Chicago, 1906. 

2. Fredrick Webb Hodge. Handbook of 
American Indians North of Mexico, Part 
2. Smithsonian Institute Bulletin 30, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, p. 800. 
Washington, 1910. 

3. Marian A. White. Book of the North 
Shore, pp. 104-111. Chicago, 1910. 

4. Viola C. Reeling. Evanston, Its Land 
and Its People, p. 61. Evanston, 1928. 

5. Marie Ward Reichelt. History of Deer¬ 
field, Illinois, p. 8. Glenview, Illinois, 
1928. 

6. Katherine Stanley Nicholson. Historic 

American Trees, p. 88. 1922. 

7. Raymond E. Janssen. Indian Trail 

Trees. American Forests Magazine. 
Washington, D. C., July, 1934. 

8. Raymond E. Janssen. Indian Trail 

Signs. Nature Notes. Peoria, Illinois, 
November, 1936. 

9. Raymond E. Janssen. Indian Guide 

Posts. (Mimeographed Leaflet.) Muse¬ 
um of Science & Industry, Chicago, No¬ 
vember, 1936. 

10. Charles E. Randall & D. Priscilla Ed- 
gerton. Famous Trees. U. S. Dept, of 
Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 
No. 295, pp. 23-25. Washington, D. C., 
1938. 

11. Raymond E. Janssen. Indian trail 
markers. Nature Magazine, Washing¬ 
ton, D. C. August-September, 1938. 

12. Raymond E. Janssen. Trail Signs of 

the Indians. Natural History, New 
York, February, 1940. 


* This latter method is reported in use at the present time among the jungle natives of 
the Philippine Islands. Personal communication from Dr. Fay-Cooper Cole, University of 
Chicago. 











. 



' 




































Papers In Botany 


Extract From the Report of the Section Chairman 

The Botany Section carried twenty-one papers, nineteen of which are here¬ 
with published. The titles of the others are: 

Peculiarities in the stems and cones of Knob-cone Pine, by J. T. Buchholz, 
University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Recent migrational trends in the distribution of weeds in Kansas, by Frank 
C. Gates, Kansas State College, Lawrence, Kansas. 

Attendance average 50, and those attending elected as chairman of the 
1940 meeting, Paul D. Voth, Department of Botany, University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

(Signed) Hanford Tiffany, Chairman 


[ 49 ] 





50 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE COMPARATIVE 
ANATOMY OF THE EUCOMMIACEAE 

Oswald Tippo 

University of Illinois\ Urbana, Illinois 


The Eucommiaceae consist of but one 
species, Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. This 
tree is a native of temperate China but is 
widely cultivated in Europe and in the 
United States for it is hardy as far north 
as Massachusetts. Recently, Hanley (4) 
described the qualities which make this 
plant a very desirable ornamental. 

This tree may reach a height of sixty 
feet and may attain a girth of five feet. 
In growth habit it is like some of the 
elms. The leaves likewise resemble elm 
leaves. The plant is dioecious and the 
flowers are naked. The male flower con¬ 
sists of a group of about ten stamens; 
the female flower of two fused carpels, 
one of which usually aborts. Two ovules 
are attached at the top of the carpel. 
The fruits are samaras and resemble elm 
fruits in general appearance. An addi¬ 
tional feature and one of some taxonomic 
importance, is the presence of latex in 
the bark and in the leaves. 

The family is of much interest to the 
phylogenist for it has been placed in sev¬ 
eral different orders by systematists. In 
the first edition of “Die natiirlichen Pflan- 
zenfamilien”, Engler and Prantl (2) 
place the genus Eucommia in the Trocho- 
dendraceae in the order Magnoliales. In 
the second edition of this treatise, Eucom¬ 
mia is put in a separate family in the order 
Rosales and near the Hamamelidaceae. 
Wettstein (8), in his second edition of 
the “Handbuch der systematischen Bo- 
tanik”, classifies the family in the Hama- 
meliadales, near the Hamamelidaceae. 
In his fourth edition, Wettstein places the 
family in the Urticales, near the Ulma- 
ceae. Hutchinson (5) puts the family 
in the Hamamelidales, near the Hama¬ 
melidaceae. Bessey (1) places the fam¬ 
ily near the Hamamelidaceae in the 
Rosales. Hallier (3) classifies the genus 
Eucommia in the Hamamelidaceae of the 
Amentiflorae. 

The present investigation was under¬ 
taken in the hope that the study of the 


anatomy of the groups involved, might 
contribute to the solution of the problem 
of the proper taxonomic position of the 
Eucommiaceae. The six samples, on 
which this report is based, were all taken 
from mature trees, growing in such 
widely separated localities as China, Eng¬ 
land, Massachusetts and Illinois. 

Growth rings are present in all speci¬ 
mens. The wood is diffuse-porous, but 
there is a tendency toward ring-porosity 
in some of the samples. The pores are 
extremely small (ranging in diameter 
from 20 to 35/*; mean 25/0, angular, and 
thin-walled. The pores are mostly soli¬ 
tary, with but a few multiples and clus¬ 
ters. Thick-walled tracheids make up the 
ground-mass of the wood. The paren¬ 
chyma distribution is terminal and dif¬ 
fuse. The rays are chiefly uniseriate and 
biseriate, rarely triseriate. The rays are 
nearly homogeneous, but would be desig¬ 
nated heterogeneous IIB under the ray 
classification of Kribs (6). The vessel 
elements have simple perforation plates. 
These elements are medium-sized in 
length (ranging from 225 to 420/*; mean 
325/0 and have spiral thickenings. The 
end walls of the vessel members form 
angles of 20° to 60°. The intervascular 
pitting is mostly opposite with some al¬ 
ternate. 

The author had previously (7) studied 
the anatomy of the Hamamelidaceae and 
of the Urticales and, therefore, was in a 
position to make comparisons between the 
Eucommiaceae and the families with 
which they have been classified. On the 
basis of this study and of the previous 
investigation cited above, the writer came 
to the conclusion that the Eucommiaceae 
belong in the Urticales near the Ulmaceae. 
Among the reasons for this conclusion are 
the following: The Eucommiaceae and 
the families of the Urticales have simple 
perforation plates, while the Hamameli¬ 
dales have scalariform perforation plates. 
The Eucommiaceae and the families of 



Botany — 19J/.0 Meeting 


51 


the Urticales have short vessel elements, 
whereas the Hamamelidaceae have very 
long (1089/* or over) vessel elements. 
The Eucommiaceae and the families of 
the Urticales have relatively high types 
of rays (i. e. IIB), while the Hamamelida¬ 
ceae have primitive rays—heterogeneous 
I and IIA. There is a tendency toward 
ring-porosity in the Eucommiaceae. This 
tendency is not present in the Hamameli¬ 
daceae but is found in the Urticales. The 
alternate intervascular pitting of the 
Eucommiaceae is suggestive of the Urti¬ 
cales rather than of the Hamamelidaceae 
which are characterized by scalariform 
and transitional intervascular pitting. 
Furthermore, latex, present in Eucommia, 
is not found in the Hamamelidaceae but 
is common in the Moraceae. 

Many features of the external morphol¬ 
ogy of Eucommia ulmoides may be listed 
in support of the conclusion advanced 
above. It has already been pointed out 
that the general habit, that the leaves, 
that the fruits are elm-like. These charac¬ 
ters are, no doubt, responsible for the very 
appropriate specific name— ulmoides. In 
addition, Eucommia is dioecious as are 
some members of the Ulmaceae. The 
flowers are naked as are the flowers of 
some members of the Moraceae. The two 
fused carpels, the abortion of one carpel, 
the pendulous ovules—all are characters 
suggestive of the Ulmaceae. 

The conclusion here presented has some 
measure of support from taxonomic 
sources for Wettstein (8), in the fourth 
edition of his “Handbuch”, places the 
Eucommiaceae in the Urticales. H. 
Harms (2), writing in the second edition 


of “Die nattirlichen Pflanzenfamilien”, 
points out that Eucommia possesses sev¬ 
eral characteristics which link it to the 
Hamamelidaceae and several which indi¬ 
cate affinity with the Ulmaceae. He places 
the Eucommiaceae in the Hamamelidales 
but, in so doing, makes the very signifi¬ 
cant statement that it cannot be denied 
that the genus Eucommia might just as 
well, perhaps even still better, be placed 
in the order Urticales. The present writer 
agrees that the Eucommiaceae have 
many characters which suggest the Hama¬ 
melidaceae on the one hand and the 
Urticlaes on the other. The probable ex¬ 
planation for this situation is that the 
two groups—the Hamamelidaceae and the 
Urticales—are much more closely related 
than is ordinarily recognized. The writer 
is of the opinion that the Hamamelida¬ 
ceae gave rise to the Urticales and that 
the Eucommiaceae form a connecting link 
between the two groups. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bessey, C. E., The phylogenetic taxonomy 

of flowering plants. Ann. Missouri Bot. 
Gard. 2:109-164. 1915. 

2. Engler, A. and Prantl, K., Die natiir- 
lichen Pflanzenfamilien. 1st and 2nd edi¬ 
tions. Engelmann, Leipzig. 1887-. 

3. Hallier, H., Provisional scheme of the 
natural (phylogenetical) system of flow¬ 
ering plants. New Phytol. 4: 151-162. 
1905. 

4. Hanley, H. J., A distinctive ornamental 

tree. Horticulture 15 : 73. 1937. 

5. Hutchinson, J., The families of flowering 
plants. I. Dicotyledons. Macmillan & 
Co., London, 1926. 

6. Kribs, D. A., Salient lines of structural 

specialization in the wood rays of di¬ 
cotyledons. Bot. Gaz. 96: 547-557. 1935. 

7. Tippo, O., Comparative anatomy of the 

Moraceae and their presumed allies. Bot. 
Gaz. 100: 1-99. 1938. 

8. Wettstein, R., Handbuch der systema- 
tischen Botanik. 2nd and 4th editions. 
Deuticke, Leipzig. 1911 and 1935. 




52 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 

NOTE ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN HIPPURIS 


Margaret Kaeiser 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


Hippuris, commonly known as Mare’s 
Tail, has been extensively studied by bot¬ 
anists. Schleiden (1859) used this plant 
in an attempt to prove his theory of the 
origin of the embryo from the pollen 
tube. Its stem tips have long been of 
interest to the histologist. Because of 
the seeming regularity in appearance of 
its histogens i. e., dermatogen, periblem 
and plerome, it has been commonly used 
as an example among angiospermous 
plants to support the histogen theory. 
That such a strict regularity in the ori¬ 
gin of epidermis, cortex and stele from 
these three respective histogens does ex¬ 
ist in all plants has been questioned in 
recent years (Schmidt, Foster, and oth¬ 
ers). In fact, Barratt (1916) has shown 
that in H. vulgaris L. ordinarily the en- 
dodermis and the three inner layers of 
the cortex originate from the plerome. 

Material for this study was collected 
by Dr. W. C. Muenscher during the sum¬ 
mer of 1939 in the state of Washington, 
that of H. montana Ledeb. being obtained 
from Mt. Baker. 

Young proembryos were dissected, 
stained, and mounted according to the 
Buchholz (1938) method for mounting 
conifer embryos. The use of Fast Green 
saturated in absolute alcohol proved ad¬ 
vantageous. The cellular endosperm 
made possible the partial dissection of 
the proembryos from this mass of tissue 
enough that by a somewhat prolonged 
clearing of several days to several weeks 
in glycerin all stages of proembryo de¬ 
velopment from the first division of the 
tip cell onward could be studied. The 
illustrations (figs. 1-6) of these stages 
were drawn from material prepared in 
this manner. Some of the more mature 
embryos were dissected, stained, and 
mounted whole while others were sec¬ 
tioned in the usual manner. 

Juel in 1911 worked on fertilization 
and early embryo development in H. 
vulgaris L. The writer finds the de¬ 
velopment of the early embryo in H. 
montana Ledeb. to be similar to it and, 
in general, both species have what may 
be called Schnarf’s Type I or the Cruci¬ 
fer Type of embryo. 


The first division of the proembryo tip 
cell is vertical (Fig. 1). Figure 2 repre¬ 
sents the eight-celled stage although it 
may serve equally well to illustrate the 
second stage since walls formed after the 
third division are not shown in this view. 
Figure 3 represents the sixteen-celled 
stage, only eight of the cells being shown 
in this plane. The cells of the dermal 
layer are already differentiated and quite 
frequently were found to be vacuolate as 
shown in the figure, thus appearing dis¬ 
tinct from the cells which are to con¬ 
tribute to periblem and plerome. Each 
nucleolus of each interphase nucleus in 
the proembryo and later embryo stages 
is surrounded by a hof. Similarly con¬ 
spicuous hofs have been seen by the 
writer in nuclei of other aquatic seed 
plants ( Elodea, etc.). 

Cells of the suspensor more than two 
cells away from the proembryo tip often 
appeared collapsed in proembryos left 
embedded in the endosperm. The sus¬ 
pensor cells are indefinite in number and 
at times show evidence of later divisions, 
particularly just behind the hypophysis 
cell (fig. 5). 

The lowermost cell derived from the 
hypophysis at time divides longitudinally 
and elongates (fig. 4) before extensive de¬ 
velopment of the embryo proper. More 
often the hypophysis contributes to the 
periblem and dermatogen of the root apex 
in the usual manner, so that at a slightly 
later stage the appearance is usually as 
that shown in Figure 5. 

Figure 6 represents a later stage. A 
sub-dermal cotyledon initial may be ob¬ 
served in the upper left of the figure. 
Only anticlinal divisions were found in 
the dermal layer. The four basal cells 
(two of which are shown) appear as 
shown in Figure 6a. 

The cotyledons may exhibit periclinal 
as well as anticlinal divisions in the peri¬ 
blem region (fig. 7b). The meristematic 
zone of the stem apex likewise shows 
periclinal divisions in this region (fig. 
7a). 

Additional layers (up to five) are add¬ 
ed to the base of the embryos, apparently 



Botany — 19J/.0 Meeting 


53 



(Unless scale is given on plate, all magnifications are x320.) 
Fig. 1. Two-celled tip of proemybryo. Hippuris vulgaris. June 7, 1939. 


Fig. 2. Eight-celled stage; cell beneath is hypophysis. 


Fig. 3. Sixteen-celled stage; vacuoles in outer layer of cells and in suspensor. 


Fig. 4. As above, lower derivative of hypophysis has divided longitudinally, the two 
cells have already elongated and are highly vacuolated. 

Fig. 5. Later stage; cells of dermatogen have divided further anticlinally; cotyledon 
initials are distinct; further divisions in suspensor have occurred; hypophysis has divided 
to contribute to periblem and dermatogen. 

Fig. 6. Older multicellular stage; cotyledon initial discernible at left; anticlinal divi¬ 
sion in cell of dermatogen. 

Fig. 6a. Different optical view of two cells of hypophysis. Elongation of these two 
cells is not as pronounced as those of Fig. 4. 

Fig. 7. Outline of embryo of H. montana, showing young cotyledons. Aug., 1939. 


Fig. 7a. Stem apex of same; periclinal division in meristematic zone of stem apex. 

Fig. 7b. Cotyledon of same showing periclinal division in sub-dermal region. 

Fig. 8. Outline of embryo of H. vulgaris showing greater elongation of cotyledons and 
hypocotyl. July 16, 1939. 

Fig. 8a. Base of embryo similar to that in Fig. 8 showing multi-layered zone. 

—2 


100M 




















































54 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


derived from the region of the hypophy¬ 
sis, and extending around the base of the 
embryo increasing in extent by anticlinal 
divisions. Figure 8a shows four such lay¬ 
ers. These form uniseriate layers which 
eventually merge above with the one-lay¬ 
ered dermatogen. The suspensor cells by 
this time are generally collapsed although 
a small knob of cells at the tip are oc¬ 
casionally seen in sections. 

Except for the smaller size of the em¬ 
bryo in H. montana Ledeb. the develop¬ 
ment is similar. It is hoped that this 
work may be followed by a comparison 
of the stem apices of the vegetative 
shoots of the two species, since they, too, 
differ in size. H. montana L. grows in 
Illinois, although there seem to be but 
few recent records of collections. One 
stem over three feet in length from a 
rhizome growing in the northern part of 
the state is in the writer’s possession. 


It would be interesting to know the pres¬ 
ent distribution of the species in the 
state. 


Literature Cited 




1 . 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6 . 


7. 


Barratt, Kate. Endodermis in the stem 
of Hippuris. Ann. Bot. 30: 90-99. 1916. 

Buchholz, J. T. The Dissection, Staining, 
and Mounting of the Embryos of Coni¬ 
fers. Stain Tech. 13 : 53-64. 1938. 

Foster, A. S. Problems of Structure, 
Growth and Evolution in the Shoot Apex 
of Seed Plants. Bot. Rev. 5: 454-470. 
1939. 

Hanstein, J. Die Scheitelzellgruppe im 
Vegetationspunkt der Phanerogamen. 
Festschr. Niederrhein Ges. Natur.—u. 
Heilkunde: 109-143. 1868. 

Juel, H. O. Studien liber die Entwick- 
lungsgeschichte von Hippuris vulgaris. 
Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Scientf. Upsal. Ser. 
LV. Vol. 2. N. 11. 1-26. 1911. 

Schmidt, A. Histologische Studien an 
phanerogamen Vegetationspunkten. Bot. 
Arch. 8 : 345-404. 1924. 

Schnarf, Karl. Embryologie der Angio- 
spermen. Linsbauer’s Handbuch der 
Pflanzenanatomie. II Abt. 2 T e i 1. 
Archegoniaten. Band X/2. Berlin. 
1929. 


' 


PHLOEM HISTOLOGY IN STIGMARIAN APPENDAGES 

Wilson N. Stewart 1 2 3 


University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


Introduction. — Superficial comparisons 
between the fossil stigmarian appendages 
and the roots of Isoetes have been made 
by several authors. They noted a horse¬ 
shoe shaped cavity about a somewhat ex- 
centrically placed monarch vascular bun¬ 
dle (cf. Figs. 1 and 2), as characteris¬ 
tics common to the appendages of Stig¬ 
maria and Isoetes . 2 3 It has been con¬ 
cluded by some that the location of 
phloem in stigmarian appendages is the 
same as in the roots of Isoetes , 4 but there 
has been no conclusive histological evi¬ 
dence for this identification. Since the 
appendages of these two plants showed 
striking similarities, 5 it was reasonable 
to assume that the phloem of the stig¬ 
marian appendages was located in the 
same relative position as it was in the 


roots of Isoetes. The present paper pro¬ 
vides proof of this assumption and be¬ 
cause of the excellence of preservation in 
the American specimens studied, the char¬ 
acter of the phloem in the stigmarian 
appendages can be described in detail. 

The coal balls studied were provided by 
the Coal Division of the Illinois State 
Geological Survey. They are represented 
by coal balls No. 128 and No. 188 of the 
Illinois Survey collections. Permanent 
slides were made with the aid of the im¬ 
proved nitro-cellulose “peel” technique 
modified after Graham. 6 

The “Phloem Zone” of the Stigmarian 
Appendage. —The “phloem zone” of the 
stigmarian appendage is located next to 
the metaxylem of the monarch vascular 
bundle on the side away from the pro- 


1 By cooperative agreement, the facilities of the Coal Division laboratories of the Illi¬ 
nois State Geeological Survey have been made available for this investigation. The writer 
wishes to express his gratitude to Dr. M. M. Leighton, Chief of the Survey, who made possible 
the use of these facilities; and particularly to Dr. James M. Schopf whose aid was indis¬ 
pensable in preparation of this publication. Published by permission of the Chief, Illinois 
State Geological Survey. 

2 Scott, D. H. Studies in Fossil Botany, I, A. & C. Black Ltd. London, 217-239, 1920. 

3 Lang, W. H. On the Apparently Endogenous Insertion of the Roots of Stigmaria, 
Mem. Proc. Manchester Lit. Phil. Soc. VIII, 68:101-106, 1923. 

4 Williamson, W. C. Monograph on Morphology and Histology of Stigmaria ficoides. Pala- 
entographical Society, XL:l-43, 1886. 

5 Eames, A. J. Morphology of Vascular Plants. McGraw, Hill & Co. New York, 354- 
365, 1936. 

6 Graham, Roy. Preparation of Palaeobotanical Sections by the Peel Method. Stain 
Technology, 8:65-68, 1933. 












Botany — 191+0 Meeting 


55 


toxylem point. (Ph., Figs. 6, 7). It is a 
cap of tissue four to six cells thick. In 
cross section the cells of the “phloem 
zone” vary from isodiametric to rectangu¬ 
lar in shape, as shown in figures 5 and 
7, while longitudinal sections show them 
to be long rectangular cells with a ratio 
of 3-8 to 1, as in figure 4. 

The Cell Wall. —In some appendages, 
the radial and tangential walls of the 
cells that make up the “phloem zone” are 
rather thick (Fig. 6), while in other ap¬ 
parently younger specimens these walls 
are very delicate (Fig. 7). 

The end walls of the “phloem zone” 
cells are best observed in cross section. 
The end walls are not complete, but are 
marked by scalariform and reticulate 
thickenings (Fig 5). In position and 
structure these appear to be sieve plates 
divided into sieve fields. Longitudinal 
sections show further evidence of these 
sieve plates by the incomplete nature of 
the end walls (Fig. 4). 

Cell Contents. —Lying on both sides of 
the sieve plates are curious cap-like de¬ 
posits of brown, glistening, translucent 
substance. On the basis of structure and 
location these may be interpreted as cal¬ 
lus plugs of old phloem elements (CP, 
Fig. 4). On the surfaces of the radial 
and tangential walls of the cells of the 
phloem is a thin irregular layer of floccu- 
lent material that may be interpreted as 
coagulated cytoplasm. Its position, and 
the generally excellent preservation of the 
material, make this interpretation plausi¬ 
ble. Nearly every cell of the phloem 
which was cut in a longitudinal direction 
shows the presence of a single dark ovoid 
body. These bodies were examined care¬ 
fully by several biologists who did not 
hesitate to call them nuclei (Nuc., Figs. 4, 
5), lending further support to the belief 
that this fossil material shows fairly good 
cytological fixation. Since the nuclear 
bodies do not occur in the adjoining 
xylem cells, it does not seem that they 
can be interpreted as artifacts. 

Comparison of the Phloem of Stigmar- 
ian Appendages with the Phloem of the 
Roots of Isoetes. —The root trace phloem 
of Isoetes is located next to the meta- 
xylem of the monarch vascular bundle 
opposite the protoxylem point (cf. Ph., 
Fig. 2) similar to the relative position of 
xylem and phloem in the stigmarian ap¬ 


pendages. In the modern plant the 
phloem consists of a layer of tissue 1-3 
cells thick. These cells, though much 
smaller than the corresponding cells of 
the stigmarian appendage, are similar in 
form. In cross section they vary from 
isodiametric to rectangular in shape. In 
longitudinal section they are long, narrow 
rectangular cells with a ratio of 8-10 to 
1 (cf. Fig. 3). The main difference, aside 
from actual size (cf. scales of magnifi¬ 
cation in connection with figures), is that 
the cells of the Isoetes root phloem are 
relatively a little longer than those of 
the stigmarian appendage. 

The Cell Wall. —The cells which make 
up the root phloem of Isoetes are true 
sieve tube elements. 7 Their thin radial 
and tangential walls are covered with lat¬ 
tices where they come in contact with 
another sieve tube element. The end 
walls of these sieve tube elements show 
scalariform sieve plates, essentially simi¬ 
lar to the sieve plates illustrated in the 
phloem of the stigmarian appendages. 

The Cell Contents. —Callus plugs have 
not been reported in the root phloem of 
Isoetes. This is probably due to the fact 
that the roots last for only one growing 
season of about seven months, and then 
are shed along with the old secondary 
cortex of the main axis. Since callus 
plugs are characteristic of old phloem 
cells, it seems probable that the stigmar¬ 
ian appendages were longer lived than 
the roots of Isoetes. 

The cytoplasm is peripheral, similar in 
location to the apparent cytoplasm of the 
cells of the stigmarian phloem. 

An unusual feature of all the phloem 
cells of Isoetes is the presence of degen¬ 
erate nuclei which are about half the size 
of a normal nucleus. They stain a bril¬ 
liant red with safranin and appear to be 
extremely dense (Nuc., Fig. 3). If the 
nuclei of the cells that make up the 
phloem of the stigmarian appendages 
were of this same dense degenerate na¬ 
ture, their preservation in well preserved 
fossil material would not be unlikely. 

Conclusions. —On the basis of this de¬ 
tailed anatomical study of the phloem 
cells of stigmarian appendages, which 
showed the presence of callus plugs, sieve 
plates, cytoplasm and nuclei, it is evi¬ 
dent that this tissue is true phloem com¬ 
posed chiefly if not entirely of sieve tube 


I 7 West, C. and Takeda, H. On Isoetes japonica. Trans, of Linn. Soc. London 8:333-369, 

1913. 



56 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 



Fig. 1. Diagrammatic cross section of a stigmarian appendage. O.C., outer cortex; 
C.M., cavity of the middle cortex; Ph, phloem; Xy, xylem; I.C., inner cortex; Con., con¬ 
nective. 


Fig. 2. Diagrammatic cross section of a root of Isoetes. For abbreviations see Fig. 1 
above. 


Fig. 3. Longitudinal section of the root trace phloem of Isoetes. S.P., sieve plate; 
Cyt., cytoplasm; Nuc., nucleus. 


Fig. 4. Longitudinal section of the phloem of a stigmarian appendage. From 12SB (Tl) 
Ill. Geol. Survey collection. C.P., callus plug; Nuc., nucleus; Cyt., cytoplasm. 


Fig. 5. Cross section of the phloem of a stigmarian appendage. From 188B], (Tl), Ill. 
Geol. Survey collection. Nuc., nucleus. 





























































Botany — 19J+0 Meeting 


57 




Mx. 

Px. 


Fig. 6. Cross section of the vascular bun¬ 
dle of a stigmarian appendage showing the 
cap of thick-walled phloem and its relation 
to the xylem. From 188Ci(T3). Ph., 
phloem ; Mx., metaxylem ; Px., protoxylem. 

Fig. 7. Cross section of a small vascular 
bundle of a stigmarian appendage showing 
a cap of delicate thin-walled phloem and its 
relation to the Xylem. From 188Ci(Tl). 
Ph., phloem ; Mx., metaxylem; Px., proto¬ 
xylem. 


elements. The position and shape of the 
cells, the scalariform sieve plates on the 
end walls of the cells, the presence of 
nuclei in the cells, all are characteristics 
duplicated in the root phloem of Isoetes, 
which lacks companion cells. 

The greatest point of disparity between 
Isoetes roots and stigmarian appendages 
is in the absolute size, both in gross 


anatomy and in the cells themselves. In 
addition to the similarity of phloem re¬ 
ported above, there are many other points 
of agreement between Stigmaria and 
Isoetes which are to be dealt with in a 
more extensive paper. The evidence is 
strongly in favor of a homologous inter¬ 
pretation of stigmarian appendages and 
Isoetes roots. 








58 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


COTYLEDON NUMBERS IN CONIFERS 

Dorothy Butts and J. T. Buchholz 
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


A study was made of cotyledon num¬ 
bers in the embryos dissected from seeds 
of more than 100 species of conifers. 
Many similar records from germinated 
seedlings have been made by others. 
Nearly all of our records were obtained 
from an examination of seeds that had 
been soaked in water. Samples ranging 
from 3 to more than 300 seeds per species 
were dissected and the cotyledons count¬ 
ed. When the number exceeded 40 or 50 
the results could be tabulated statistical¬ 
ly, showing the range in number of coty¬ 
ledons, the mean number (m) and the 
standard deviation (<*•). Many previous 
records have been summarized, extending 
the entire record to include 193 species 
in which the data on cotyledon numbers 
are known. The records, which were 
used as a basis of comparison, were taken 
from Hoopes 1868, Gordon 1880, Masters 
1889, Dangeard 1892, Sargent 1896, Hill 
and DePraine 1906-09, Buchholz 1919-39, 
Pilger 1926, Rehder 1927, Bailey 1933, 
Dallimore and Jackson 1931, and Boureau 
1939. The appended tabular summary 
gives the details in these records. 

In summarizing our own data together 
with all existing records, by genera and 
families, we find the greatest number and 
also the greatest variability recorded for 
the Pinaceae. Pinus and Cedrus have 
the largest mean number of cotyledons, 
the nine genera of Pinaceae appearing in 
the following order: Cedrus 9, Pinus 8.1, 
Pseudotsuga 6.8, Picea 6.4, Abies 5.9, 
Larix 5.7, Pseudolarix 4.4, Keteleeria 4-2, 
and Tsuga 3.7. It is even more illumin¬ 
ating to consider the range of variation 
found within each genus. It is as fol¬ 
lows: Cedrus 13-5, Pinus 18-3, Pseudot¬ 
suga 12-4, Picea 15-2, Abies 10-2, Larix 
8-3, Pseudolarix 7-4, Keteleeria 4-2, and 
Tsuga 7-2. No other family or sub-family 
of conifers includes species with such 
high numbers of cotyledons whether we 
consider the mean number or the maxi¬ 
mum number of seed leaves. 

In all of the remaining families or 
groups, it appears that certain primitive 


genera may have 3 or more cotyledons, 
but the number tends to become reduced 
to 2 in the higher or more specialized 
genera. Among the Araucarians, we find 
from 4 to 2 cotyledons in four species of 
Araucaria. In Agathis the number is 2. 
Definite records for Araucariaceae are 
very scarce. The mean number for the 
family based on only four species is about 
3 cotyledons. 

In the Taxodiaceae we find the follow¬ 
ing numbers: Taxodium 5.4, Crypto- 
meria 3, Taiwania 2, Cunninghamia 2, 
Sequoiadendron 3.7, Sequoia 2.1, Scia- 
dopitys 2. 

In the Cupressaceae there are several 
species in each of several genera with 
higher numbers of cotyledons but in 
most of the species the number of coty¬ 
ledons has become fixed at 2. Cupressus, 
Juniperus, Chamaecyparis and Tetra- 
clinus include one or more species each, 
with cotyledon numbers in excess of 3. 
The genera Libocedrus, Biota, Thuja, 
Thujopsis, Fitzroya, Callitris, Widdring- 
tonia and Actinostrobus have uniformly 
2 cotyledons. 

The remaining conifers include several 
families of Podocarps and Taxads. Taxus 
has 2 cotyledons; very rarely 3 have 
been reported. Otherwise, our own in¬ 
vestigations, as well as available records 
of previous workers, show that all of the 
conifers belonging to these families have 
2 cotyledons. 

In the following list, which for con¬ 
venience is arranged alphabetically by 
genera, the records of previous investi¬ 
gators have been included. An effort 
has been made to merge names under the 
legitimate name of the species according 
to the current International Rules of Bo¬ 
tanical Nomenclature, but the names un¬ 
der which the records were originally 
published have been retained, with en¬ 
tries given under the name of the orig¬ 
inal source as a synonym, in the categor¬ 
ies that are considered legitimate names 
according to the present practice of tax¬ 
onomists. 





Botany — 19J+0 Meeting 


59 


A few inconsistencies appear which we 
have not attempted to correct, though 
some may be explained. For example, 
Boureau (BO) reported only 5 cotyledons 
in A. magnifica, whereas Hickel (HI) re¬ 
ported 7-8, and Hill and DeFraine (HF) 
reported 9. Our counts of 45 embryos 
in this species gave a mean of 8.7 coty¬ 
ledons. It is possible that Boureau had 
obtained seeds of another species such as 
A. nobilis. 

In the appended bibliography the letter 
symbols used to designate the author cor¬ 
respond to the entries giving the coty¬ 
ledon numbers for each species. Our 
original entries are usually given: Cts. 
57 gave 3-5i m 3.98 ± .05 a .35, which 
should be read: Counts of 57 embryos 
gave 3-5 cotyledons, mean number 3.98 
with probable error .05 and standard de¬ 
viation .35. If all embryos had 2 coty¬ 
ledons we state the number of embryos 
examined:—Cts. 20 gave 2. Abbrevia¬ 
tions used are as follows: 

Cts = counts of 
sp = species 
m = mean 
rly = rarely 
occ = occasionally 

a = standard deviation 


ABIES Mill. 24 sp m 5.9. 

A. alba Mill. 3-7 P, (A. pectinata, DC.) 

5- 7 HI Cts 165 gave 4-6, 5.11 ± .04 a .49. 

A. amabilis (Dougl.) Forb. 8 HF. 

A. arizonica See A. lasiocarpa v. arizonica 
A. balsamea Mill. 4 (occ 5) B; 4 MO; 4 
(rly 5) HI; 4 HF. 

A. brachyphylla See A. homolepis. 

A. bracteata See A. venusta. 

A. cephalonica Loud. 5-6 EH; 6-7 (rly 8) 
HI; 6 BO; cts 18 gave 4-8, m 6.06. 

A. cicilica Carr. 7-8 (occ 9) HI. 

A. concolor (Gord.) Engelm. 6 SU Cts 68 
gave 2-7, 5.7 ± .04 a .36. 

A. concolor violacea (Roezl.) Beiss. Cts 112 
gave 4-8, m 5.84 ± .08 a .74. 

A. firma Sieb. and Zucc. Cts 57 gave 3-5, 
m 3.98 ± .05 a .35. 

A. Fraseri (Pursh.) Poir. 4-6 BO; 5 S; cts 
71 gave 4-5, m 4.09 ± .03 a .40. 

A. grandis Hindi. 5-6 HI; 6 SU; cts 110 gave 
7-12, m 8.58 ± .10 a 1.03. 

A. homolepis Sieb. and Zucc. (A. brachy¬ 
phylla Maxim.) 4 BO. 

A. lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. 4-5 BO; 10 
(’error?) HI usually 4 SU cts 133 gave 3-8, 
m 4.44 ± .15 ct 1.73; cts of 33 by Mr. Phillip 
Haddock gave 4-6, m 4.85 (A subalpina 
Engel.) 5-6 DJ. 

A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica (Merriam) 
Lemm. 4-5 HI; 4 SU. 

A. magnifica Murr. 5 BO; 7-8 HI: 9 HF cts 
45 gave 6-12, m 8.71 ± .02 a 1.09. 

A. magnifica shastensis Lemm. 9-13, usu¬ 
ally 12 SU. 

A. nobilis Lindl. 5-6 (occ 4 & 7) HI; 4-7 H; 

6- 7 SU; cts 57 gave 4-6, m 5.19 ± .05 a .43'. 
A. Nordmanniana (Steven.) Spach. 6-7 (rly 

4 and 5) HI; 5-7 BO. 

A. numidica Carr. 6-7 HI. 

A. pectinata DC. See A. alba. 

A. Pindrow Royle 5 usually, HI. 


A. Pinsapo Boiss. 7 CA; 5-7 BO; 7 HO; 
5-7 HI. Cts 99 gave 4-8, m 6.34 ± .09 a .89. 

A. religiosa Lindl. 5 (occ 6 and 7) HI. 

A. sibirica Ledeb. 4 HI; 3-4 BO. Cts 57 
gave 3-5, m 3.95 ± .08 a .52. 

A. spectabilis (.Don.) Spach. (A. Webbiana 
Lindl.) 5-7 BO; 4 M. 

A. subalpina Engelm. See A. lasiocarpa. 

A. Veitchii Lindl. 3-5, usually 4 BO; HI. 
Cts 25 gave 3-4, m 3.60. 

A. venusta (Dougl.) K. Koch. (A. brac¬ 
teata Nutt.) 5-7 HI, 7 SU; Cts 21 gave 5-7; 
cts 174 by Phillip Haddock gave 6-8, 
m 6.56. 

A. Webbiana. See A. spectabilis. 

ACTINOSTROBUS Miq 2. 

A. pyramidalis Miq. 2 CC, G, L, HF, SA. 

AGATHIS Salisb. (Dammara) 2 G, P. 

ARAUCARIA Jusseau. 4 sp m. 3. 

A. araucana (Moline) K. Koch. (A. im- 
bricata Pav.) 2 D, HI, HF; 2-4 BA, 3 or 4 
Strasb. Cts gave 2 and 4, m 3.60. 

A. angustifolia O. Kuntze. (A. brasiliana 
Rich.) 2 HF. 

A. Bidwilli Hook. 2 HF. 

A. excelsa Br\ 4 HI. 

BIOTA Endl. 2. 

B. orientalis Endl. 2-3 HI (Thuja orien- 
talis B.) 2 D; 2-3 C, L. Cts 33 gave 2-3, 
m 2.06. 

CALLITRIS Vent. 2. 

C. sp. 2 SA, HF (Frenela) 3 G. 

C. quadrivalvis See Tetraclinis articutata. 

CALLITROPSIS Compton 2. 

C. araucarioides Compton. 2 P. 

CEDRUS Trew. 3 sp. m. 9. 

C. atlantica Manetti. 7-11 BO; 8-10 BA; 
8-10 (M9) B; 8-10 (4 rly) HI; 10-11 HF. 
Cts 7 gave 7-10, m 8.86. 

C. Deodara (Roxb.) Loud. 9-15 BO; Up to 
13 HI. Cts 105 gave 7-12 (rly 14) m 

9.99 ± .13 a 1.36. 

C. libani Loud. 8-10 (m 8.8) B; 9-14 (m 
10.90) B; 8-9 BO; 9-10 DJ; 9 G, HO. Cts 
251 gave 5-13, m 9 ± 08 a 1.23. 

CEPHALOTAXUS Seib. & Zucc. 2. 

C. drupacea Sieb. and Zucc. (including var. 
pedunculata OSieb. & Zucc.) Miq.) 2 HF; B. 

CHAMAECYPARIS Spach. sp m 2.25. 

C. Lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Pari. 2; 2 (rly 
3 or 4) S; 3 HI; 2 SU. Cts 200 gave 2-4, 
m 2.05 ± .04 a .29. 

C. nootkatensis (Lamb.) Spach. (Cupressus 
nootkatensis Lamb.) 2 rly 3-4) S; 3 HI. 

C. obtusa (Sieb. and Zucc.) Endl. (Cupres¬ 
sus obtusa K. Koch.) 2 G, HF. 

C. pisifera (Seib. & Zucc.) Endl. Cts 64 
gave 2. 

C. thyoides (L.) B. S. P. (Cupressus thy- 
oides L.) 2 (rly 3 or 4) S. 

CRYPTOMERIA D. Don. 3. 

C. japonica (L. f.) Don. 3 BO; 2-3 LU; 
2 or 3 HF. Cts 168 gave 2-4, m 3.03 ± 
.03 <j .30. 

CUNNINGHAMIA R. Br. ex Rich. 2 +. 

C. lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. (C. sinensis 
R. Br.) 2-3 BO; 2 HO. Cts 43 gave 2-4, 
m 2.07 ± .07 a .45. 

CUPRESSUS L. 11 sp m 2.7. 

C. arizonica Greene. 4 HI; 3-5 SU. Cts 55 
gave 2-5, M 3.78 ± .12 a .87. 

C. arizonica bonita Lemm. (C. glabra 
Sudw.) 3-4 SU. Cts 51 gave 3-5, m 3.90 ± 
.08 a .58. 


60 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


C. Benthamii Endl. See C. lusitanica var. 
Benthamii. 

C. Corneyana Knight. See C. Duclouxiana 
Hickel 

C. funebris Endl. 3 HI; 2 BO; 2-4 S. 

C. glabra. See C. arizonica bonita. 

C. Goveniana Gord. 3, rly 4 G; 2 S; 3, 
occ 4, SU. Cts 63' gave 2. 

C. Lawsoniana (L.) See Chamaecyparis 
Lawsoniana. 

C. Lindleyi. See C. lusitanica. 

C. lusitanica Mill. var. Benthamii Carr. 
('C. thurifera B.S.P.) 2 BO; 3 HI. Cts 22 
gave 2-4, m 3.05. (C. Lindleyi) 3 BO; 
3 or 4 HI; 3 or 6 D. 

C. Macnabiana A. Murr. 2 BO; 3 (occ 4) 
HI; 2 (rly 3-4) S. 

C. macrocarpa Hartw. 3-4 DJ ; 3-4 G; 2-4 
BO; 3 HI; 2 (rly 3-4) S; 3 SU. Cts 18 
gave 3-4, m 3.61. 

C. nootkatensis. See Chamaecyparis noot- 
katensis, 

C. obtusa. See Chamaecyparis obtusa. 

C. pisifera. See Chamaecyparis pisifera. 

C. sempervirens L. 2 HI; 3-4 (5 rly) P. 

Cts 62 gave 2-5, m 2.25 ± .08 a .63. 

C. sempervirens var. horizontalis Gord. 
Cts 90 gave 2. 

C. sempervirens var. stricta Ait. (C. fasti- 
gata DC.) Cts of 76 gave 2. 

C. thurifera. See C. lusitanica var. Ben¬ 
thamii. 

C. thyoides. See Chamaecyparis thyoides. 
C. Duclouxiana Hickel. (C. torulosa Rehd. 
and Wils.) 2-5 BO; 2 G: 3-4 (rly 5) HF. 

(C. torulosa Corneyana Carr.) 2 D. 

DAMMARA Rum. (See AGATHIS). 

FRENELA Mir. (See CALLITRIS). 

FITZROYA Hook. 2. 

F. cupressoides (Molina) Johnston 2 DJ, P. 

JUNIPERUS L. 17 sp m. 2.3. 

J. californica Carr. 4-6 HI, SU, S. Cts 45 
gave 3-6, m 4.29 ± .09 a .58. 

J. Cedrus Webb. Cts 72 gave 2-3, m 2.03 ± 

.02 a .21. 

J. chinensis L. Cts 8 gave 2. 

J. communis L. 2 (occ 3-4) B; 2 HI, Cook. 
Cts 46 gave 2. 

J. conferta Pari. Cts 51 gave 2. 

J. flaccida Schecht. 2 S, SU. 

J. macrocarpa Sibth. Cts 53 gave 2. 

J. monosperma (’Engelm.) Sarg. 2 S, SU. 
J. occidentalis Hook. 2 S, SU. 

J. Oxycedrus L. 2 G. 

J. pachyphloea Torr. 2 S. 

J. rigida Sieb. & Zucc. Cts 88 gave 2-3, 
m 2.02 ± .01 a .15. 

J. Sabina L. 8 G, MO. Cts 15 gave 2. 

J. sabinoides. See J. thurifera. 

J. scopulorum Sarg. Cts 24 gave 2 and 4, 

m 2.08. 

J. thurifera L. (J. sabinoides, Endl.) 2 S, 
SU. 

J. utahensis CEngelm.) Lemm. 4-6 HI, S. 
SU. 

J. virginiana L. 2 BO, HI, S. 

KETELEERIA Carr. 2-4. 

K. Davidiana (Franch.) Beiss. 2-3 (occ. 4) 
HI. 

K. Fortunei (A. Murr.) Carr. 2 HI; 4 B, 
HU. 

LARIX Mill. 5 sp m 5.7. 

L. decidua Mill. (L. europea DC.) 4-7 
(rly 7) BO; 5-7 B; 4-7 HI; 5-7 HO; 5 or 6 
SH. Cts 100 gave 4-7, m 5.94 ± .07 a .70. 

L. leptolepis (Sieb. & Zucc.) Gord. (D. 
Kaempferi Sarg.) 5-7 ('rly 4) BO. Cts of 56 
gave 4-8, m 6.09 ± .11 a .83. 

L. laricina (Duroi.) K. Koch. 5 SU. Cts 21 
gave 5-7. m 5.57. 

L. Kaempferi. See L. leptolepis. 


Larix Lyallii Paul 5 SU. 

L. occidentalis Nutt. 5-6 SH, 6 SU. Cts 81 
gave 3-7, m 5.12 ± .11 a 1.02. 

L. sibirica Ledeb. 5-8 ? BO. 

LIBROCEDRUS Endl. 2 +. 

L. decurrens Torr. 2 BA, G, HO, HI, S; 
2 or 3 CC; 2, (occ 3) HF, SU. Cts 92 gave 
2-3, m 2.04 ± .02 a .21. 

PICEA A. Deitr. 13 sp m 6.4. 

P. Abies (L.) Karst. 6-10 BO; 6-11 P; 
(P. exelsa) 7-9 G, HO. Cts 90 gave 3-4; 

6- 11, m 7.66 ± .18 <j 1.19. 

P. alba. See P. glauca. 

P. ajanensis. See P. jezoensis. 

P. asperta heterolepis (Rehd. & Wils.) 

Cheng. (P. heterolepis) 7-9 DU. 

P. Breweriana S. Watts. 6 SU. 

P. canadensis. See P. glauca. 

P. Engelmanni (Parry) Englm. 6 SU. 

P. excelsa. See P. Abies. 

P. glauca (Moench) Voss. (P. alba, Link.) 
5-7 D, HF; 4-7 (rly 4 and 7) HI. (P. 
canadensis P.S.P. 6-9 SU. Cts 122 gave 
2-8, m 5.01 ± .13 a 1.49. (P. canadensis 

horizontalis.) Cts. 152 gave 5-8, 6.12 ± 
.05 a .62. 

P. Glehnii (Fr. Schmidt) Mast. Cts 191 
gave 4-7, m 5.42 ± .91 a .11. 

P. jezoensis (Sieb. & Zucc.) Carr. Cts. 4-7 
m, 5.13 ± .10 a .78. (P. ajanensis Fisch.) 

4-7 (4 and 7 rly) HI; 6-9 HF. 

P. mariana (M'll.) B.S.P. 6 SU; 3-6 

(m 4.93) B. (P. nigra Link.) 6 or 7 HF. 
P. Morinda. See P. Smithiana. 

P. orientalis (L.) Link 6-10 L; 14 HF. 

Cts 90 gave 7-10, m 8.28 ± .08 a .77. 

P. pungens Engelm. 6-7 (occ 8) HI. Cts 

44 gave 5-8, m 6.39 ± .11 a .68. (P. par- 

ryana) 5-6 SU. 

P. rubens Sarg. (P. rubra Link) 6-7 HI. 

P. sitchensis (Boug.) Carr. 4-6 HI; 4-5 SU. 

P. Smithiana Boiss. (P. Morinda Link.) 

8-10 HI; HF. 

PIN US L. 64 sp m 8.12. 

P. albicaulis Engelm. 7-9 SU. 

P. apachea Lemm. 8-10 SU. 

P, aristata Engelm. 7 G; 6-8 M, 6-7 SU. 

Cts. 104 gave 5-9, m 7.41 ± .08 a .85. 

P. Armandi Franch. 11-13 HI. 

P. attenuata Lemm. 5-8 M. (P. tubercu- 

lata Gord.) 7-8 G; 5-6 HI; 5-8 SU. Cts of 
136 gave 6-8, m 7.08 ± .07 a .74. 

P. Ayacahuite Ehrenb. 12-15 M. 

P. Balfouriana A. Murr. 5 M, SU. 

P. Banksiana Lamb. 3-5 BO; 4 HI; 4-5 SU. 
Cts 35 gave 4-6, mean 4.86. (P. divaricata 

Dum.-Cours.) 12-16 H; 15-14 M. 

P. Benthamiana Hartw. See P. ponderosa. 
P. Bungeana Zucc. 11-12 M. Cts 28 gave 

8- 12. m 10.61. 

P. canariensis Smith. 6-8 (9 and 11 rare) 
BO; 6-8 M; 9 HF; 6-9 HI; 9-12 T. 

P. caribeae Mor'elett. Cts 82 gave 5-10, 
m 7.73 ± .11 a 1.02. 

P. Cembra L, 9-13 HI; 8-14 M; 8-14 P; 

9- 12 T. Cts 67 gave 6-12, m 9.63 ± .15 
a 1.25. 

P. cembroides Zucc. 10-12 G. 8-10 M, 
8-15 SU. 

P. cembroides edulis (Engelm.) Voss. (P. 
edulis 6-10 (11 and 13 rly) BO; 6-10 HI; 

7- 10 M, SU. Cts 319 gave 6-12, m 8.19 ± 
.06 a 1.07. 

P. cembroides monophylla (Torr & Frem.) 
Voss (P. monophylla. Torr.) 6-8 HI; 7-10 
BO: SU; 8-10 C; (P. Fremontiana. Endl.) 

8- 10 G. 

P. cembroides Parryana (Engelm.) Voss 
(P. quadrifolia Parr., P. Parryana En¬ 
gelm.) 8 M, 6-8 SU. 

P. contorta Loud. 3-4 (rly 2 and 5) HI; 
2-6 BO; 3-4 DJ; 3-6 (usually 5) SU. Cts 
54 gave 4-8, m 5.63 ± .14 a 1.09. 







Botany — 19J/.0 Meeting 


61 


P. contorta latifolia S. Wats. (P. Murray- 
ana Balf.) 4-5 HI; 3-5 HF. Cts 111 gave 
4-7, m 5.47 ± .07. 

P. Coulteri Don. 12-13 ('10 and 15 occ) HI; 

8-11 CA; 10-14 P, M; 13 HF; 9-14 SU. 
Cts 7 gave 12-14, m 12.43. 

P. densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. 6-7 (5 and 8 rly) 
BO; 6 G. Cts 99 gave 5-8, m 6.69 ± .08 
a .77. 

P. divaricata. See P. Banksiana. 

P. echinata Mill. 4-7 M; 6 MO (P. mitis 
Michx.) 5-6 HI; 6 G. 

P. edulis. See P. cembroides edulis. 

P. excelsa Wall. 10 BO; 10-12 (6 and 14 occ) 
CA; 9-11 (8, 12, 13 occ) HI; 8-10 D; 8-12 
M, P; 9-11 T. 

P. flexilis James. 8-9 HO, M; 9-14 HI; 6-9 
SU. 

P. Fremontiana. See P. cembroides mono- 
phylla. 

P. Gerardiana Wall. 10 BO, HF; 10 (8 and 
13 rare) HI; 3-8 M. 

P. glabra Walt. 5-6 M. 

P. Gordoniana. See P. Montezumae. 

P. halepensis Mill. 6-8 (9 rly) BO; 7 G, 
HO; 6 HI; 6-9 M. Cts 100 gave 6-9, m 7.17. 

P. inops. See P. virginiana. 

P. insignis. See P. radiata. 

P. Jeffreyi Murr. 10-13 (9 and 14 rly) HI; 
10 T; 7-11 SU. Cts of 98 gave 7-13, m 
9.82 ± .11 a 1.08. 

P. koraiensis Sieb. & Succ. 10-14 HI; 11-13 
HO. Cts 49 gave 9-13’, m 11.08 ± .09 a .96. 

P. Lambertiana Dougl. 12-13 G; 10-16 HI; 
12-16 H; 12-15 M, SU. Cts 97 gave 11-18, 
m 13.58 ± .14 a 1.45. 

P. Laricio. See P. nigra. 

P. leucodermis Antoine cts 72 gave 5-8, 
m 6.75 ± .08 a .73. 

P. longifolia. See P. Roxburghii. 

P. maritima. See P. Pinaster. 

P. Massoniana. 6 G. HO, M. 

P. mitis. See P. echinata. 

P. monophylla. See P. cembroides mono- 
phylla. 

P. montana. See P. mugo. 

P. montana. Mughus. See P. mugo 
mughus. 

P. montana uncinata. Ram. See P. mugo 
rostrata. 

P. monticola Lamb. 7-9 (rly 10) BO; 6-9 
H, SU. 

P. Montezumae Lamb. 6-8 G; 7-10 (rly 
6 or 11) HI. 

P. Mugo Turra. (P. montana Mill.) 3-4 
HF; 5 M; 6 (rly 4 and 7) T. (P. mon¬ 
tana Mughus Willk. 4-6 (3 rly) BO; 3-5 
6 rly) HI. Cts 134 gave 3-7, m 4.69 

~+~ .06 a .74. 

P. mugo Mughus (Scop.) Zenari 4-5 HI. 

P. mugo pumilio (Haenke) Zenari 5-7 HO. 

P. mugo var. rostrata ('Ait.) HO (P. un¬ 

cinata Ramond) 6 (5 & 7 rly) BO. 

P. muricata D. Don. 4-6 BO, HI; 5 G; 4-5 
SU. 

P. Murrayana. See P. contorta latifolia. 

P. nigra Arnold Cts 99 gave 6-10 (rly 4) m 
7.61 ± .10 <7 1.01 (P. Laricio Poir.) 6-8 
(9 and 10 rly) BO; 8 D; 6-8 G, H; 7-8 
HI; 8-10 HF; 4-8 M. Cts 99 gave 5-10 (13 
rly) m 7.45 ± .12 a 1.21. 

P. oocarpa Schiede. 7-8 G. 

P. orientalis L. 6-10 LU. 

P. Orizabae Gord. 7-8 G, HO. 

P. palustris Mill. 7-8 (5 occ 9 rly) BO; 7-10 
M. Cts 125 gave 6-11 m 8.01 ± .08 a .94. 

P. Parryana. See P. cembroides Parryana. 

P. parviflora Sieb. & Zucc. 8-10 CA; 8-12 
(11. 12 rlv) HI; 8-10 GO, HO. Cts 104 gave 
7-13, m 9.55 ± .13 a 1.33. 

P. patula Schlech. 4-7 (mean 4.93) BO. Cts 
99 gave 4-7. m 5.24 ± .7 cr .71. 

P. Peuce Griseb. 9-10 M. Cts 104 gave 8-12 
(6 rly) m 9.92 ± .10 a 1.01. 

P. Pinaster Ait. 7-8 G, HO; 6-8 HI; 6-7 LU; 
7-9 T. (P. maritima Dur.) 9 ('occ 7) D. 
Cts 125 gave 6-10 (12 rly) m 7.65 ± .09 
a .97. 


P. Pinea L. 9-10 G, HI 7-13 HI; 11-13 D; 

9- 11 HO; 10-13 T; 11 BO. Cts 22 gave 9-14, 
m 12.14. 

P. ponderosa Laws. 9 BO; 6-11 M; 9 T; 5-9 
SU. Cts 94 gave 6-10, m 7.93 ± .09 a .86. 

P. pumilio. See P. mugo pumilio. 

P. pungens Lamb. 6-8 G, HO; 7-8 M; 6-7 
(5 occ) HI. 

P. quadrifolia. See P. cembroides Par¬ 
ryana. 

P. radiata Don. 8 G; 7-8 HO; 6-9 M; 5-7 
SU. (P insignis Dougl.) 5-8 (9 rly) HI, 
HF. Cts 100 gave 5-9, m 7.31 ± .10 a .99. 

P. resinosa Ait. 5-7 H; 6 MO; 6-7 M. 

P. rigida Mill. 5-6 HI; 6-10 HO; 4-6 LU; 5 
M; 8-11 T. Cts 87 gave 4-8, m 5.55 ± .07 
cr .64. 

P. Roxburghii Sarg. (P. longifolia, Rox.) 

10- 14 BO, HI. 

P. Sabiniana Dougl. 12-15 (16, 17 and less 
than 12 rare) HI; 11-18 Carriere; 15-18 DJ; 
8-10 G; 7-12 HO; 12-18 M; 12-18 P; 15-16 
SU. Cts 33 gave 12-18. m 14.06. 

P. Strobus L. 9 BO; 8-10 (7 and 11 rly) 
HI; 7-9 CA; 7-14 M. Cts 101 gave 7-10, m 
8.43 ± .09 cr .95. 

P. strobiformis Engelm. 10-12 SU. 

P. sylvestris L. 3-8, (m 7) BO; 6 CV: 6-9 
D; 5-7 G; 5-7 HO; 4-7 H; 3-8 HF. Cts 89 
gave 4-8, m 6.01 ± .08 a .74, combined re¬ 
sults, 1023 gave 3-8, m 6.97 ± .04. 

P. sylvestris rigensis Loud. Cts 125 gave 
4-7. m 5.93 ± .06 a .62. 

P. Taeda L. 7-8 HI; 4-7 P; 5-10 LU. Cts 
88 gave 5-9, m 6.87 ± .09 a .84 
8-10 G; 7-12 HO: 12-18 Mr 12-18 P; 16-16 

P. Torreyana Parr. 12-14 SU. 

P. Thunbergii Pari. 6-7 (8 rlv) BO: 7-8 
HF; 6-8 T: 6-7 HI. Cts 99 gave 4-9, m 6.78 
± .09 cr .91. 

P. tuberculata. See P. attenuata. 

P. uncinata. See P. mugo rostrata. 

P. virginiana Mill. 4-6 M. (P. inops Ait.) 
6-8 G. 

PODOCARPUS Pers. 2. 

P. Bl umei Endl. Cts 3 gave 2-3. 

P. coriaceus L. C. Rich. Cts 11 gave 2. 

P. chilina Rich. Cts 4 gave 2. 

P. imbricatus Bl. Cts 3 gave 2. 

P. nagi Zoll & Moritz Cts 9 gave 2 

P. macrophyllus (Thunb.) Lamb. (P. chin- 
ensis) 2 HF. Cts 14 gave 2. 

P. nankoensis Hayata Cts 5 gave 2. 

PSEUDOLARIX Gord. 1 sp m 4.4. 

P. usumbarensis Pilger. Cts 15 gave 2. 

P. amabilis Rehd. (P. Kaempferi Gord.) 
4-5 BU; 5 G; 4-5 HF. 

PSEUDOTSUGA Carr. 

Mean of 2 sp m 6.8. 

P. macrocarpa (Torr.) Mayr. 6-7 SU. 

P. taxifolia (Pair.) Britton. (P. Douglassi 
Carr.) 5-8 (9 rly) BO: 6-8 (rly 5) HI; 6-7 
SU. Cts of 43 gave 5-9, m 6.87 ± .08 a .76. 

SAXEGOTHAEA Lindl. 2. 

S. conspicua Lindl. 2 DJ, G. Cts 4 gave 2. 

SCIADOPITYS Sieb. & Zucc. 1 sp 2 ± 

S. verticillata Sieb. & Zucc. 2 Hickel: 2-3 
(m 2.08) B. Cts 76 gave 2-4, m 2.07 ± 
.04 a .34. 


SEQUOIADENDRON Buchholz 
S. giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz. 3-6 G. 
CC; 4 (rly 3 or 5) HI; 2-6 B. Cts 234 gave 
3-6, m 3.68 ± .03 a .27. 

SEQUOIA Endl. 1 sp m 2.1. 

S. sempervirens Endl. 2 BO, CC, HF; 2 
or 3 HI, G; 4-6 (error) S, P; 2-3 (m 2.1) B. 
Cts 113 gave 2-4, m 2.14 ± .03 a .35. 



62 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


TAIWAN IA Hayata. 2 +. 

T. cryptomerioides Hayata. 2 B, P. Cts 
4 gave 2, 1 had 3. 

TAXODIUM Rich. 2 sp m 5.4. 

T. distichum Rich. 5-9 G; 5-6 (4 and 7 
rare) HI; 2-3 HO; 4-9 S; 6 MO. Cts 400 
gave 4-8 m 6.09 by K. 

T. mucronatum Tenore. Cts 78 gave 3-5 m 
4.12 ± .04 a .37. 

TAXUS Li. 2 +. 

T. baccata L. 2 DJ, D, G, HO, LU, P, S; 

2-3 HI. Cts 91 gave 2-3, m 2.07 ± .03 <x .25. 
T. brevifolia Nutt. 2 S, SU. 

T. canadensis Marsh. 2 HO. 

T. cuspidata Sieb. & Zucc. Cts 51 gave 

2- 3, m 2.02 ± .02 a .14. 

TETRACLINIS Masters, about 4. 

T. articulata (Vahl) Mast. (Callitris quad- 
rivalis Vent.) 3-5 P, BO; 4 HI. 

THUJA L. 2. 

T. occidentalis L. 2 BO, CO, D, L. Cts 77 

gave 2. 

T. orientalis L. See Biota orientalis. 

T. plicata Lamb. (T. gigantea Nutt.) 2 HI, 
D, S, SU. Cts 66 gave 2. 

T. Standishii Carr. (T. japonica Maxim.) 2 
HF. 

THUJOPSIS Seib. & Zucc. 2. 

T. dolobrata Sieb. & Zucc. 2 G, HI. Cts 29 
gave 2. 

TSUGA Carr. 4 sp m 3.7. 

T. canadensis (L.) Carr. 3 D; 3-4 HI. Cts 
217 gave 2-7, m 4.24 ± .08 a 1.19. 

T. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. 2-3 (4 rly) BO; 

3- 4 SU. 

T. Mertensiana (Bong.) Carr. 3-4 HI; 3-5 
H; 4 SU. Cts 74 gave 3-4, m 3.09 ± .04 a 
.29. 

T. Sieboldii Carr. 3-4 BO. Cts 41 gave 3. 
TORREYA Arn. 2. 

T. californica Torr. 2 S, SU. Cts 3 gave 2. 
T. nucifera (L.) Sieb. & Zucc. 2 C, G. 

Cts 20 gave 1-2, m 1.95. 

T. taxifolia Arn. 2 C, G, HO, S. 

WIDDRINGTONIA Endl. 2. 

W. cupressoides Endl. 2 (rly 3) SA. 

W. Whytei Rendle. 2 HF. 

Literature Cited 

BA Bailey, L. H. Cult. Conifers of N. A. 
1933, N. Y. 

BO Boureau. Edw. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. XI 
1:1-219, 1939. 


B Buchholz, J. T. Am. Journ. Bot. 

6:106-119, 1919; 20:35-44, 1933; 26:93- 
101, 535-38, 1939. 

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 52:311-24, 1925. 
Amer. Nat. 74:279-283, 1940. 

CA Carriere cit. in other ref. 

CV Chauveaud cit. in other ref. 

C Chick, Edith. New Phytol. 2:83-91, 

1903. 

CO Cook, Phyllis. Morphol. Comp, of two 
species of Thuja. 

U. of Ill. Thesis 1939. 

CC Coulter, J. M. & Chamberlain, C. J. 

Morphology of Gymnosperms, Chi¬ 
cago 1917. 

DJ Dallimore, W. & Jackson, A. B. 

Handbook of Conifers London 1931. 
D Dangeard, P. A. Le Botaniste ed 3: 
126-204. 1892. 

DU Ducharte, P. E. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 
Ill 10:207-37. 1848. 

EH Elwes & Henry. Cit. in other ref. 

E Englemann, Geo. American Junipers. 

St. Louis 1877. 

G Gordon, Geo. Pinetum, London. 1S80. 

HI Hickel, R. Bull. Soc. Dendrol. France 
No. 19, 20. 1911. 

HF Hill, T. G. & DeFraine, E. Ann. Bot. 

22:689-712. 1908; 23:189-227, 433-58, 

1909; 27:257-272. 1913'. 

H Hofman, J. V. Bull. U. of Minn. 1918. 

HO Hoopes, J. Book of Evergreens N. Y. 

1868. 

HU Hutchinson, A. H. Bot. Gaz. 63:124- 
34. 1917. 

K Kaeiser, Margaret. Morph. & Emb. of 
Bald Cypress. U. of Ill. Thesis 1940. 
L Land. W. J. G. Bot. Gaz. 34:249-258. 

1902. 

LU Lubbock, Sri J. (Lord Avebury) On 

Seedlings. London. 1892. 

M Masters, M. T. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 

London, 27:226-332. 1891. 

MO Moon, Geraldine M. On the Vase. 

Anat. of Certain Conifer Seedlings. 
U. of Ill. Library MS Thesis 1938. 

P Pilger, R. in Engler & Prantl. Nat. 

Pflanzenfam. 13:121-403. 1926 

R Rehder, Alfred. Man. of Cult.. Trees 

& Shrubs. 1927, ed 2. 1940. 

SA Saxton, W. T. Ann. Bot. 24:557-569, 

1910; 27:321-45, 577-605, 1913; Bot. 
Gaz. 50:30-48, 1910. 

S Sargent, C. S. Silva of N. A. Vol. 10, 
N. Y. 1896. 

SU Sudworth, Geo. B. Forest Trees of 

Pac. Slope, USDA Forest Service 
Oct. 1908; Bulls. 207, 327, 460, 680. 
T Tubeuf. cit. in other ref. 

W Welch. Winona. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 

41:207-213. 1932. 






Botany — -19J+0 Meeting 


63 


THE PYCNOTHYRIUM IN THE TAXONOMIC SYSTEM OF 

THE FUNGI IMPERFECTI 

L. R. Tehon 

Natural History Survey, TJrbana, Illinois 


The two currently approved systems of 
classification for the Fungi Imperfecti, 
Saccardo’s of 1884 and Lindau’s of 1900, 
do not permit the giving of adequate con¬ 
sideration to the striking morphological 
characteristics possessed by certain leaf- 
inhabiting fungi which, as an adjunct to 
sporulation, produce structures known as 
pycnothyria. These fungi, as a conse¬ 
quence, are much misunderstood and, in 
classification, are now interspersed on the 
basis of their spore forms, as required by 
Saccardo’s and Lindau’s systems, among 
only superficially similar fungi. 

Von Hoehnel 1 , in 1910, endeavored to 
set some of these fungi apart by sug¬ 
gesting for them a special family, the 
Pycnothyriaceae, which, it is clear, he 
intended should be wholly distinct from 
the Leptostromataceae, the family to 
which the majority of them has been as¬ 
signed. Diedicke 2 , in 1913, recognizing 
this new family and restating concisely 
von Hoehnel’s morphological distinctions, 
namely, that the pycnothyria are super¬ 
ficial, membranous, and radiately con¬ 
structed and that the conidiophores arise 
from the pycnothyrial cover, nevertheless 
transferred to it a fungus producing sub¬ 
cuticular pycnidia. To this von Hoeh¬ 
nel 3 , in 1915, replied emphatically that 
he intended the Pycnothyriaceae to in¬ 
clude only the imperfect forms of true 
Microthyriaceae, the pycnidia of which 
sit above the surface on the cuticle of the 
leaf and are of inverse structure similar 
to their ascigerous forms. Meanwhile— 
in 1914—Naoumoff 4 had assigned to the 
Pycnothyriaceae a new genus which, al¬ 
though conforming morphologically, was 
not an imperfect form of any Microthyria¬ 
ceae and possessed, as an additional fea¬ 
ture, a central columella immersed basal- 
ly in the parenchyma of the leaf. 

Clements and Shear 5 , in 1931, omitting 
the Pycnothyriaceae from their treatment 
of the Fungi Imperfecti, apparently con¬ 
sidered that recognition of the family 


would “serve no useful purpose.” How¬ 
ever, Grove 6 , in 1937, treating British im¬ 
perfect fungi, acknowledged the value of 
von Hoehnel’s segregation by giving it 
subfamily rank in the Leptostromataceae. 

Thus at present there are recorded and 
to some extent recognized in literature 
three distinct forms of dimidiate repro¬ 
ductive structures: a parenchymatous, 
basally sporuliferous pycnidium situated 
within the host tissues of the plant; a 
radiately constructed, inversely sporulif¬ 
erous pycnidium situated on the surface 
of the host; and a radially constructed, 
superficial pycnidium supported by a 
columella seated in the host. To the last 
two forms the term pycnothyrium has 
been applied. 

The third form, obviously incompatible 
in characteristics with either the Lepto¬ 
stromataceae or the Pycnothyriaceae as 
defined by von Hoehnel and other critical 
students, appears to have been adequately 
described only by Naoumoff ( l.c.) in con¬ 
nection with a single species, Rhizothy- 
rium Abietis, parasitic on Abies in Europe. 
It occurs not uncommonly, however, on 
leafspots of a number of deciduous trees 
in Illinois, notably species of Acer, Carya, 
Fraxinus, Quercus, Sassafras, and Ulmus. 

Study of Illinois material has revealed 
morphological details (Figs. 1, 2, 3) 

which, besides supporting Naoumoff’s 
brief description, give the following char¬ 
acterization. 

The pycnothyria are strictly limited in 
situation to the outside surface of the 
host, possess no external mycelium but 
have an extensive internal mycelium lim¬ 
ited largely to the spongy parenchyma 
of the leaf, are without ostioles and have 
none of the usually recognized means of 
dehiscence, and exist as individual units 
which do not become truly confluent as 
a result of growth. They arise by the 
extrusion through the host’s epidermis 
and cuticle of a single hypha which, at 


64 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 



Fig. 1.— Vertical section of a hypophyllous- 
ly enascent rhizophorous pycnothyrium on 
Quercus palustris Muench., X675, showing 
the columella, the shield attached near the 
apex of the columella, conidiophores pendent 
from the shield near its origin, and conidia 
about to escape beneath the shield margin. 



Fig. 2.— Section of an epiphyllously e- 
nascent rhizothyrium on Fraxinus pennsyl- 
vamca Marsh., X575, showing the isthmus¬ 
like connection between columella and en¬ 
larged hyphal cells which lie in the host’s 
epidermal layer. 

the point of emergence, swells imme¬ 
diately into a thick, cylindrical columella. 

Below the apex of the columella, cells 
are proliferated in a ring. They grow 
radially, branching as they extend, and 
form a subcircular, centrally umbonate 
plate, the margin of which often is made 
fimbriate by the uneven growth of its 
component hyphae. Sporophores arise 
from ventral parts of the cells first pro¬ 
liferated by the columella and project 
downward into the cavity surrounding it. 
Spores, abscissed from the apices of coni¬ 
diophores in the usual manner, escape 
from beneath the margin of the pycno¬ 
thyrium, either because of the pressure 
they themselves create or as a result of 



Fig, 3.—-Section of a hypophyllously e- 
nascent rhizothyrium on Cercis canadensis L,., 
X700, showing, in the host’s cuticle, the pore 
through which a hyphal cell in the host’s 
epidermal layer extrudes the columella. 

the hygroscopic action of the pycnothyrial 
cover. 

The three types of sporuliferous struc¬ 
tures discussed above are readily recog¬ 
nized. For differentiation microtome sec¬ 
tions and high magnifications are not 
necessary. For the most part an ordinary 
hand lens is sufficient, and only the mag¬ 
nifications commonly used in specific iden¬ 
tification are required for determining 
all details. 

Although it was not intended that the 
classification of imperfect fungi should 
parallel the natural classification of their 
perfect forms, the existence of such a 
parallel has been acknowledged for cer¬ 
tain groups. Wherever the recognition 
of parallel relationships will assist in 
grouping together similar kinds of fungi 
and will facilitate recognition and identi¬ 
fication, it would appear to have definite 
value. 

The dimidiate, parenchymatous, inter¬ 
nal pycnidium which von Hoehnel has 
designated as truly Leptostromataceous is 
frequently the imperfect form of a mem¬ 
ber of the Hysteriaceae or the Phacidia- 
ceae. The superficial, radiate, inversely 
sporuliferous pycnothyrium is, by his defi¬ 
nition, the imperfect form of a member 
of the Microthyriaceae, a fact readily de¬ 
termined in most cases by its observable 
connection with characteristic external 
mycelium. The third form, described 
above, is equally readily recognized by 
its radiate construction, its superficial 
situation, and its remarkable connection 
with an internal mycelium. Its perfect 
form is not yet recognized, but its mor- 













Botany — 19^0 Meeting 


65 


phology strongly suggests a connection 
with the Polystomellaceae of the Hemis- 
phaeriales. 

Because of the differences in morphol¬ 
ogy exhibited by the three types of struc¬ 
tures and because it is believed that 
recognition of these differences would 
provide an aid for classification and iden¬ 
tification, it is suggested that the follow¬ 
ing re-arrangements be made: 

1. That the Leptostromataceae be here¬ 
after limited to the inclusion of dimidiate, 
internal, parenchymatic pycnidia with 
basal sporulation and that the family 
shall continue in the Order Phomales of 
Saccardo, the Sphaeropsidales of Lindau, 
as at present. 

2. That a new order shall be recog¬ 
nized under the name Pycnothyriales, 
which shall include external, radiate pyc- 
nothyria with inverse sporulation. In 
general, but not without exception, the 
imperfect forms of the Hemisphaeriales 
will constitute the Order. 

3. That within this Order two families 
shall be recognized: 

1. ) the Pycnothyriaceae of von 

Hoehnel, having essentially the 
characteristics of the Order but 
having the distinctive character¬ 
istic that the pycnothyria are 
connected with an external my¬ 
celium or subiculum. 

2. ) the Rhizothyriaceae, a new fam¬ 

ily, having essentially the char¬ 
acteristics of the Order but hav¬ 


ing the distinctive characteris¬ 
tics that the pycnothyria are 
mounted on columellae and are 
connected with an internal my¬ 
celium. [The term rhizothy- 
rium may distinguish the type 
of pycnotherium found here.] 
Pending further study of described 

genera and species, the two families of 

the Order can be tentatively organized 

as to genera as here indicated. 

PYCNOTHYRIACEAE 

Hyalosporae: Sirothyriella von Hoehn., 

Diedickia Syd., Eriotliyrium Speg., Pel- 
taster Syd., Trichopeltulum Speg. 

Phaeosporae: Asterostomella Speg., As- 

terostomula Theiss., Asteronia Sacc., 
Hyphaster Henn., Ootheciuvi Speg. 

Hyalodidymae: Leptothyriella Sacc. 

Phaeodidymae: D'iplopeltis Pass., Pcyna- 
thyrium Died. 

Hyalophragmiae: Septothyriella von 

Hoehn. 

Phaeophragmiae: Peltosoma Syd. 

RHIZOTHYRIACEAE 

Hyalosporae: Actinothecium Ces. 

Phaeosporae: Pirostoma Sacc., Pirosto- 

mella Sacc. 

Hyalophragmiae: Rhizothyrium Naou- 

moff. 

Scolecosporae: Actinothyrium Kze., Cy- 

lindrothyrium Maire. 


1 Sitzungsb. K. Akacl. Wissensch. Wien 119:451. 1910. 

2 Annales Mycologici 11:172-184. 1913. 

3 Sitzungsb. K. Akad. Wissensch. Wien 124 :131-132. 1915. 

4 Bui. Soc. Myc. France 30:429. 1914. 

5 The Genera of Fungi. The H. W. Wilson Company, N. Y. 1931. 

6 British Stem- and Leaf-fungi (Coleomycetes). Cambridge University Press, London, 
vol. 2, 1937. 



66 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


RECENT TRENDS IN PLANT DISEASE CONTROL 

Neil E. Stevens 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


The purpose of this study was to dis¬ 
cover whether there have been any sig¬ 
nificant changes in emphasis on the type 
of disease control studied and recom¬ 
mended by plant pathologists throughout 
the world during recent years. 

The figures are derived solely from the 
Review of Applied Mycology, which thor¬ 
oughly covers the field of plant diseases 
and their control and is held in high 
regard by all plant pathologists. This, 
of course, involves the possibility of error 
due to the changing interests of the ab¬ 
stractors, a supposition which seems ex¬ 
ceedingly unlikely since the abstracts are 
made by professional abstractors and are 
of a very high order of excellence. The 
period covered is 1922 to 1938, inclusive, 
though Volume 1 (1922) of the Review of 
Applied Mycology is very small and was 
omitted from some of the computations. 

The method was simply to count the 
references to control methods without at¬ 
tempting to weight them. A book or 
article which discussed a single method 
exhaustively counted only one. On the 
other hand, an article which, without any 
special basis for such recommendations, 
suggested 4 or 5 different methods, was 
given one count for each method. In 
other words, we were studying interests 
and opinions, not results. Curves were 
plotted based on 3 or 5 year moving 
averages to bring out trends and from 
these the following conclusions were 
drawn. 

Considering, first of all, the total num¬ 
ber of references to disease control, it was 
evident that following a slight increase in 
the already large number of such refer¬ 
ences, approximately 550 each year, with 
which the period opened, there was a 
sharp drop beginning about 1926 and cul¬ 
minating in 1931 followed by a second in¬ 
crease and a smaller drop in 1935-36. In 
spite of possible errors due to the method, 

I am inclined to believe that at least the 
first big decline indicates a natural loss 
of interest in the control of plant disease 


associated with a marked surplus in agri¬ 
cultural products in most, if not all, of 
the countries in which plant pathology is 
actively studied; and that the increase 
soon after 1930 is also significant since it 
is at least contemporaneous with some 
business recovery, and some control of 
the volume of agricultural production in 
many countries. 

The most significant single fact which 
appears from this study is that through¬ 
out the period spraying and dusting taken 
together make up approximately one-third 
of the total number of suggested control 
measures. While there is, of course, 
some fluctuation from year to year, these 
two closely related methods have retained 
against all competition their supremacy 
in the mind and work of plant patholo¬ 
gists, a development in striking contrast 
to the prediction made by Erwin F. 
Smith in 1902 (Science 15:601-612) “In 
my judgment, the treatment of diseases 
by spraying with copper fungicides has 
reached its climax and is now on the 
wane." 

Next in importance and closely related 
to the foregoing, comes seed treatment 
which shows some decline in popularity 
from its high point of nearly 20 per cent 
about 1926 to a low of about 13 per cent 
in 1933, followed by an increase due very 
probably to the development of new and 
very effective chemical compounds for 
this use. Recommendations for the selec¬ 
tion and breeding of resistant varieties as 
a means of disease control have been 
somewhat more numerous proportionately 
during the last ten years than they were 
at the beginning of the period under dis¬ 
cussion. They still make up only a little 
over 10 per cent of the total suggestions 
for disease control. 

Interest in local sanitation, including 
eradication, as a means of disease con¬ 
trol, has been relatively less during the 
last half of the period under survey than 
earlier, the number of recommendations 




Botany — 19J/.0 Meeting 


67 


1924*25 *26 *27 *28 *29 '30 *31 *32 *33 '34 '35 *36 '37 '38 



TOTAL SUGGESTIONS REGARDING DISEASE CONTROL 

3 YEAR MOVING AVERAGE 


declining from 12-13 per cent to 6-7 per 
cent. 

Control, or rather the avoidance of 
plant disease by seed certification, and 
the use of clean seed and planting stock, 
showed almost continuous decline from 
1924 to 1931 with a very slight rise since 
that time. The actual number of such 
recommendations, however, never reached 
5 per cent of the total. Heat treatments 
which are, of course, always a very small 
proportion (less than 2 per cent) of the 
total, reached the height of their popu¬ 
larity about 1930-31 and have since fallen 
off appreciably. 

It may be argued that some or all of 
these cases in which we find fewer recom¬ 
mendations of a given type, are due to 
the fact that the control methods that 
have been worked out are well known to 
growers and are applied so generally that 
there is no need of further recommenda¬ 
tions. This, however, is not true in the 
case of spraying, the best known and 
most widely used of all control methods. 

A definite and continuous recent change 
appears in those recommendations which 
deal with the addition of small amounts 
of essential chemical elements to correct 
what are now well known as soil defi¬ 
ciency diseases. The earlier recommenda¬ 


tions, of which there were very few, 
usually comprised merely a suggestion 
that better fertility would be beneficial. 
Beginning about 1928-29 there was a de¬ 
cided increase in the number of such 
recommendations and by 1935 ten per cent 
of all suggestions for disease control dealt 
with this phase. At the same time they 
became decidedly more specific. During re¬ 
cent years, instead of general recommen¬ 
dations of higher fertility, there appear 
specific recommendations for the correc¬ 
tion of some particular deficiency. This, 
of course, directly reflects an increase in 
our knowledge regarding the importance 
of the so-called “minor” elements. In this 
development, the different elements have 
shown some competition among them¬ 
selves. The most popular at present is 
boron. The curve for recommendations 
of boron shows a steady upswing begin¬ 
ning in 1930 and apparently the end is 
not yet. 

Except for this single item there is 
little to indicate very marked changes in 
basic principles of disease control dur¬ 
ing this period, which may be taken to 
indicate the inherent conservatism of 
plant pathologists or the difficulty of im¬ 
proving greatly on the basic methods, 
many of which were discovered over a 
century ago. 























68 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


PHYTOPLANKTON STUDY OF LAKE MICHIGAN 

AT EVANSTON, ILLINOIS 1 

Kenneth E. Damann 

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 


As a continuation of a quantitative 
survey of the phytoplankton of Lake 
Michigan started during May, 1937, under 
the direction of Dr. L. H. Tiffany, regu¬ 
lar weekly collecting was taken over by 
the writer during November, 1938. It 
appears (Fig. 1) that due to the fluctua¬ 
tions of various chemical and physical 
factors, the data for any one year scarce¬ 
ly represent, in themselves, a complete 
picture of either the phytoplankton crop 
or its periodicity. 

Although several papers have been pub¬ 
lished on the plankton of Lake Michigan, 
none have dealt with quantitative collec¬ 
tions over any extended period of time. 
Briggs (1872) listed 45 species of diatoms 
found in Lake Michigan. Thomas and 
Chase (1887) brought together a long list 
of 215 species of diatoms found over a 
period of 16 years in the water supply 
of the city of Chicago. Ward (1896) 
worked in the Traverse Bay region on 
the relation of plankton and bottom or¬ 
ganisms to the whiteffish. Jennings, 
Thompson and Kofoid later added ap¬ 
pendices, on rotifers, phytoplankton, and 
protozoa respectively, to Ward’s publica¬ 
tion. 

Eddy (1927) published quantitative 
data obtained from two series of collec¬ 
tions which were made in 1887-88 and 
1926-27. A total of 119 species were 
found, sixty of which were phytoplank- 
ters and fifty-nine were zooplankters. A 
comparison of the more recent collections 
with those made forty years previous, 
showed that very little change had oc¬ 
curred in the general composition of the 
plankton. Diatoms were found to pre¬ 
dominate at all times and constituted the 
majority of the organisms of the plank¬ 
ton. 

Bayliss and Gerstein (1929) in a two 
year study of phytoplankton and zoo¬ 
plankton in the lake water of the Chi¬ 
cago Water Supply found that peaks of 


plankton periodicity were reached in May 
and October of 1927 but only in Septem¬ 
ber of 1928. Ahlstrom (1936) published 
a very complete account of the deep water 
and inshore plankton of Lake Michigan 
at Evanston, Illinois. He recognized the 
need for quantitative studies to establish 
the existence of seasonal periodicity which 
he detected in his qualitative collections. 

Daily (1937) initiated what is expected 
to be an extended quantitative survey of 
the phytoplankton of Lake Michigan at 
Evanston, Illinois. He considered tem¬ 
perature as being important in optimum 
growth but not significant enough to be 
the controlling factor of periodicity. 
Further correlations were made with 
hours of sunlight, turbidity, hydrogen ion 
concentration, and bacteria. 

In the present study, regular weekly 
quantitative collections of phytoplankton 
were made from a breakwater adjoining 
the Northwestern University campus over 
a period of one year, November, 1938 to 
November, 1939. The Sedgwick-Rafter 
method was used exclusively. This 
method consists of filtering water samples 
through sand supported upon 200 mesh 
bolting cloth disks and then calculating 
the number of organisms from the con¬ 
centrate. The formula for such calcula¬ 
tion is found in the Standard Method of 
Water Analysis, 1936 and is represented 
as follows: 

No. of fields 
in a one ml. 

counting cell ml. of 

one mm. deep concentrate 

-X- 

No. of fields ml. of water 

counted filtered 

1000 10 

Thus: -X-= 1 

10 1000 


the 

multiplier 






Botany — 19J+0 Meeting 


69 


Table 1.—Monthly Averages of Algal Classes Expressed in Numbers Per cc and Percentage of the 

Total Yield 



Nov. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Averages 

%- 

Bacillariophyceae_ 

95.9 

95.8 

93.8 

97.1 

97.8 

98.8 

97.5 

89.2 

90.2 

90.3 

91.0 

94.0 

94% 

Per cc. 

403 

364 

272 

134 

94 

266 

631 

612 

388 

328 

266 

366 

343. 

%- 

Chyrsophyceae_ 

1.5 

1.8 

3.1 

0 

0.1 

0.4 

0.5 

4.5 

7.0 

6.6 

5.4 

1.4 

3% 

Per cc. 

6 

7 

9 

0 

1 

1 

3 

31 

30 

24 

16 

5 

11 

%- 

Myxophyceae____ 

1.9 

1.8 

1.7 

2.2 

0.1 

0.4 

0.8 

4.2 

1.0 

1.1 

2.0 

2.3 

2% 

Per cc. 

8 

7 

5 

3 

1 

1 

5 

29 

4 

4 

6 

9 

6.8 

%- 

Chlorophyceae.. 

0.7 

0.6 

1.4 

0.7 

0 

0.4 

1.2 

2.1 

1.6 

1.7 

1.3 

2.3 

1% 

Per cc. 

3 

2 

4 

1 

0 

1 

8 

15 

7 

6 

4 

9 

5 

_ , %- 
Dinophyceae_ 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0.2 

0.3 

0.3 

0 

.06% 

Per cc. 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

1 

1 

1 

0 

.2 

Totals per cc. 

420 

380 

290 

138 

96 

269 

647 

687 

430 

363 

293 

389 

366 


Discussion and Conclusions 

1. The Bacillariophyceae dominated 
every collection averaging 94% of the to¬ 
tal phytoplankton. Chyrsophyceae, Myxo- 
phyceae, and Chlorophyceae were respon¬ 
sible for 3%, 2%, and 1% respectively, 
while Dinophyceae yielded only a small 
fraction of 1% (Table 1). 

2. The maximum weekly yield of 1,052 
organisms per cubic centimeter was re¬ 
corded May 9, 1939 while the minimum of 
81 occurred twice, March 14 and 21, 1939. 
The maximum and minimum monthly to¬ 
tals (Fig. 1) were established during 
June and March respectively. 

3. Two peaks of abundance were evi¬ 
dent in the average monthly totals of 
phytoplankton. The major peak occurred 
in June; the minor in November. 

4. Each genus displayed its own pulse 
independently at some time throughout 
the year. Asterionella and Cyclotella each 
reached a peak in November, Synedra in 
May, Fragilaria in June and Tabellaria in 
July. 


si 

1937 -1938 


June - June 

■ 

1936 - 1939 

Nov — Nov 

FkY1 

—Total Quantity 

of Phytoplankton . 


1300 - 


2084 


1000 - 




650 

bOO- 

550 - 




1951 - 1938 

June -June 

1938-1939 
Nov - Nov 


I64& 


5. The total Bacillariophyceae closely 
parallels the total phytoplankton except 
in June, when the Chyrsophyceae, Myxo- 
phyceae, and Chlorophyceae reached their 
peaks. 

6. Some of the constituent genera of 
diatoms and their relative abundance for 
the year are the following: 


FiCr 2 - Total Quantity 
of Synedra. 


1. 

Synedra . 

.39% 

y 200- 
<u 

2. 

Fragilaria ... 

.17% 

S ,5 °- 

3. 

Tabellaria ... 

.11% 

\ 100 ^ 

4. 

Cyclotella ... 

.11% 

50- 

Fig. 1 

plankton. 

(above) : Total 

quantity of phyto- 

0- 


Fia. 2 ( below 1 • Total onantitv of svnerlra. 
































































































































































































70 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


5. Asterionella . 7% 

6. Navicula . 6% 

7. Melosira . 5% 

8. Nitzschia . 2% 

9. Rhizosolenia . 1% 

10. Stephanodiscus . 0.3% 


Cymatopleura, Amphiprora, Cymbella, 
Pinnularia, and Pleurosigma ranked in 
the order mentioned but with an almost 
insignificant yield. 

7. The Chyrsophyceae represented 
mainly by Dinobryon and Synura were 
present in all monthly averages with the 
exception of February. The average for 
the year was 3% of the total phytoplank¬ 
ton. 

8. The Myxophyceae were never abund¬ 
ant but were present every month of the 
year; ranging from 0.1% in March to 
4.2% in June. The average for the entire 
year was 2% of the total phytoplankton. 
Tiffany (1938) reported an absolute au¬ 
tumnal dominance of the Myxophyceae in 
Lake Erie but no such occurrence has yet 
been detected in Lake Michigan. 

9. The Chlorophyceae, likewise, were 
never abundant but were present every 
month with the exception of March. They 
were responsible for 1% of the total phy¬ 
toplankton. 

10. The Dinophyceae, few in number 
and species, were present during three 
consecutive months only. Ceratium oc¬ 
curred in July and Peridinium in August 
and September. However, the plankton 
tow collections seem to indicate that the 
above mentioned forms were more abund¬ 
ant throughout the year. 

11. Temperature apparently has a pro¬ 
nounced effect upon the total phytoplank¬ 
ton but is not the sole determining factor 
of periodicity. 

12. Hours of sunshine show a positive 
correlation with the total phytoplankton 
during the spring and summer months 
but have little or no relation to the Octo¬ 
ber increase. 

13. A close parallelism is evident be¬ 
tween the 1937-38 and the 1938-39 quanti¬ 
tative studies of the phytoplankton of 
Lake Michigan. However, a comparison 


of the total phytoplankton (Fig. 1) and 
the total Synedra (Fig. 2) reveals a par¬ 
tial explanation of two conspicuous in¬ 
consistencies; the 1937-38 June and 
August totals of phytoplankton. The ex¬ 
ceptionally high increase of Synedra from 
May to June of 1937-38 and a marked de¬ 
cline during June, 1938-39 accounts for 
the first. A second but lower peak of 
Synedra in August, 1937-38 and no such 
occurrence in 1938-39 explains the other. 
The February, 1937-38 yield of Synedra 
failed to alter the consistent character of 
the total phytoplankton curve (Fig. 1). 
The abundance of Fragilaria during No¬ 
vember, December, and January preced¬ 
ing February offset such a possibility. 
From the evidence, now at hand, it ap¬ 
pears that each genus has high and low 
productive years which in turn have a 
pronounced effect upon the total yield of 
phytoplankton for any one year. It is 
probable then, that such evidence would 
support the consistently higher total yield 
of phytoplankton for 1937-38 as due main¬ 
ly to Synedra. Bayliss and Gerstein 
reported similar results during 1927 and 
1928 when Tabellaria was especially 
abundant during 1927 and then 1928 fol¬ 
lowed as a low productive year. The real 
explanation of the problem now lies in 
determining what factors might be re¬ 
sponsible for the high and low productive 
years of the various genera and not alone 
determining what genera are responsible 
for the variations in yield from year to 
year. ( 

References 


1. Ahlstrom, Elbert H., The Deep Water 

Plankton of Lake Michigan, Exclusive of 
the Crustaceae. Trans. Amer. Mic. Soc. 
55:286-299. 1936. 

2. Bayliss, John R., and H. M. Gerstein. 

Micro-organisms in the Lake Water at 
Chicago. Municipal News and Water 
Works. 76:291-296. 1929. 

3. Daily, William A., a Quantitative Study 
of the Phytoplankton of Lake Michigan 
Collected in the Vicinity of Evanston, 
Illinois. Butler Univ. Bot. Studies 4:(6) 
1938. 

4. Eddy, Samuel. The Plankton of Lake 

Michigan. Illinois State Nat. Hist. Surv. 
Bull. 17:203-232. 1927. 


1 A portion of the work done in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master 
of Science Degree in Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. 










Botany — 191+0 Meeting 


71 


A CHECK-LIST OF ILLINOIS ALGAE WITH SOME 
ADDITIONS FROM COOK COUNTY 

M. E. Britton 

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 


In 1938 the writer began a survey of 
the algae of the Chicago Region, includ¬ 
ing counties in Michigan, Indiana, Illi¬ 
nois, and Wisconsin. Over one thousand 
samples are now preserved in the writer’s 
herbarium and are in the process of taxo¬ 
nomic treatment. Only a few of the Illi¬ 
nois collections have been worked over 
thus far, but a few forms from Cook 
County have been identified and are pre¬ 
sented in the following alphabetic list. 
Of these twenty genera and thirty-five 
species and varieties, eleven have not 
been previously recorded in the published 
reports of Illinois algae, and fourteen ad¬ 
ditional species are unrecorded for Cook 
County. 1 

*Aphanothece clathrata W. & G. S. West 
**Chroococcus turgidus (Kiitz.) Nageli 
**Closterium acerosum (Schrank) Ehr. 
**Glosterium acerosum var. elongatum Breb. 
*Closterium lanceolatum Kiitzing 
*Glosterium littorale Gay 
Closterium moniliferum (Bory) Ehr. 
Goleochaete orbicularis Pringsheim 
*Gosmarium cucumis (Corda) Ralfs 
*Gosmarium sexangulare forma minima 
Nordst. 

**Cylindrocapsa geminella var. minor 
Hansgirg 

Dinobryon sertularia Ehrenberg 
**Merismopedia convoluta Breb. 

** Micro thamnion kuetimgianum Nageli 
Oocystis crassa Wittrock 
*Oocystis elliptica W. West 
**Ophiocytium cochleare (Eichwald) A. 
Braun 

**Ophiocytium parvulum (Perty) A. Braun 
Pandorina morum Bory 
**Phacus pleuronectes (O.F.M.) Dujardin 
Pediastmm boryanum (Turpin) Meneghini 
Pediastrum duplex Meyen 
Pediastrum tetras (Ehr.) Ralfs 
* Pediastrum tetras var. tetraodon (Corda) 
Hansgirg 

*Scenedesmus acutiformis Schroder 
*Scenedesmus armatus (Chodat) G. M. 
Smith 

Sphaerocystis schroeteri Chodat 
**Stigeoclonium stagnatile (Hazen) Collins 
** Stigeoclonium subsecundum Kiitzing 
*Teiraedron minimum (A. Braun) Hansgirg 
**Tribonema viride Pascher 
**Tribonema minus Hazen 
*Ulothrix tenerrima Kiitzing 
**Ulothrix variabilis Kiitzing 

Ulothrix zonata (Weber & Mohr) Kiitzing 

Early in this investigation of Illinois 
algae, it became desirable to compile an 
adequate check-list of those algae appear¬ 


ing in the published literature from Illi¬ 
nois. Accordingly a bibliography of 86 
titles, representing the reports of 55 
workers, has been assembled and a com¬ 
plete list of the algae, so far as is now 
known by the writer, has been accumu¬ 
lated in a classified check-list. This list 
includes all known species which have 
been reported from Illinois counties, ad¬ 
jacent rivers—the Mississippi, Ohio and 
Wabash and the Illinois portions of Lake 
Michigan. 

Although the number of papers men¬ 
tioning Illinois algae is relatively large, 
the fact is that but few represent very 
extensive taxonomic treatment. A large 
number of the papers are duplications of 
previous lists, in whole or in part, of the 
original or subsequent workers. Some 
of the included reports are of mono¬ 
graphic nature or are general compre¬ 
hensive treatments. The list of papers 
is further increased by reports dealing 
with fish-food and pollution studies in 
which only a few species, or even only 
genera, of algae are mentioned. 

The principal contributor to our knowl¬ 
edge of Illinois algae has been E. N. 
Transeau whose Annotated list of the 
Algae of Eastern Illinois (1913), among 
other papers, represents the most ex¬ 
tensive list thus far published for the 
State. Other papers which have present¬ 
ed notable lists are those of C. A. Kofoid, 
S. Eddy, L. N. Johnson and C. B. Atwell, 
W. G. Solheim and W. T. Penfound, and 
L. H. Tiffany. Lake Michigan studies 
in the vicinity of Chicago have resulted 
in lists from S. A. Briggs, H. H. Bab¬ 
cock, H. D. Thomas and H. H. Chase, 
and E. H. Ahlstrom, to mention only the 
more extensive ones. The work of P. S. 
Galtsoff, M. Leighton, and W. C. Purdy 
has added several species from the Illi¬ 
nois, Mississippi, and Ohio Rivers. 
Among papers dealing with fish-food and 
pollution studies, should be mentioned 
those of S. A. Forbes and R. E. Rich- 


1 The writer gratefully acknowledges the aid of Dr. L. H. Tiffany in the preparation of 
this report. 

* Species or variety not previously reported for Illinois. 

** Species or variety not previously reported for Cook County. 



72 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


ardson, both of whom included some al¬ 
gae in their various reports. 

The earliest report of Illinois algae 
known to the writer is that of J. W. 
Bailey whose brief list of Infusoria from 
the Mississippi River at St. Louis ap¬ 
peared in 1845. Papers by Babcock and 
Briggs (1872), H. L. Smith (1878), and 
S. A. Forbes (1880-1888) represent a few 
of the earlier reports. Of the entire list 
of publications, 28 appeared in the period 
1872-1900, 28 from 1901-1925, and 29 from 
1926 to date. Of the latter group, 17 
papers have been contributed by four writ¬ 
ers; namely, Ahlstrom, Eddy, Tffany and 
Transeau. 

The check-list represents all forms re¬ 
ported which occur in modern classifica¬ 
tions of the algae. Synonomy has been 
brought up to date in all cases. 

The following summary of algal fami¬ 
lies and classes, including the above list, 
includes 177 genera and 746 species and 
varieties which have been reported from 
56 of the 102 Illinois counties. 


Class: Myxophyceae_ 

Family: 

Chroococcaceae_ 

Oscillatoriaceae_ 

Nostocaceae_ 

Scytonemataceae_ 

Rivulariaceae_ 

Class: Rhodophyceae. . 
Family: 

Batrachospermaceae. 

Thoreaceae_ 

Class: Heterophyceae.. 
Family: 

Botryococcaceae_ 

Ophiocytiaceae_ 

Tribonemataceae_ 

Botrydiaceae_ 


27 


2 

4 


a 

V. 

<u 

e 

<r> 

_ <*> 

.*> ^ ’-2 

{J 2* * r* 

Cj 

£ £ 


74 

10 

17 

7 

35 

5 

16 

3 

3 

2 

3 


2 

1 

1 

1 

1 


12 

1 

2 

1 

5 

1 

3 

1 

2 


Class: Chrysophyceae.. 
Family: 

Mallamonadaceae -. 

Sy ncry ptaceae.. 

Synuraceae_ 

Ochramonadaceae_ 

Rhizochrysidaceae.. 

Class: Diatomophyceae 
Family: 

Coscinodiscaceae_ 

Eupodiscaceae_ 

Rhizosoleniaceae_ 

Tabellariaceae. 

Meridionaceae_ 

Diatomaceae_ 

Fragilariaceae_ 

Eunotiaceae_ 

Achnanthaceae_ 

Naviculaceae_ 

Gomphonemataceae- 

Cymbellaceae_ 

Nitzschiaceae.. 

Surirellaceae_ 

Class: Chlorophyceae.- 
Family: 

Polyblepharidaceae . 
Chlamydomonaceae. 

Volvocaceae_ 

Sphaerellaceae_ 

Palmellaceae_ 

T etrasporaceae_ 

Ulotrichaceae_ 

Microsporaceae_ 

Cylindrocapsaceae.. 

Chaetophoraceae_ 

Protococcaceae_ 

Coleochaetaceae_ 

C la'dophoraceae_ 

Oedogoniaceae_ 

Ulvaceae_ 

Schizomeridaceae_ 

Schizogoniaceae_ 

C hlorococcaceae_ 

Endosphaeraceae_ 

Characiaceae_ 

Hydrodictyaceae_ 

Coelastraceae_ 

Oocystaceae... 

Scenedesmaceae_ 

Vaucheriaceae_ 

Zygnemataceae_ 

Mesotaeniaceae_ 

Desmidiaceae_ 

Class: Dinophyceae_ 

Class: Euglenophyceae. 
Family: 

Euglenaceae_ 

Colaciaceae_ 

Totals. .. 


7 


40 


15 


2 

1 

1 

2 

1 


220 


4 

1 

1 

9 


0 


3 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

3 

1 

3 
13 
2 

4 
3 
3 

89 378 


1 

2 

6 

' 1 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
5 
1 
2 

4 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 

3 
1 

18 

5 
2 
5 

4 
12 

3 

5 


11 

34 


4 

1 

177 


14 

1 

2 

2 

1 

3 

24 

5 

7 

82 

19 

24 

14 

22 


1 

1 

10 

1 

3 

3 

6 

2 

1 

20 

1 

5 

12 

94 

0 

1 

0 

1 

1 

2 

10 

3 

36 

19 

12 

94 

3 

36 


32 

2 

746 












































































Botany — 19J+0 Meeting 

MOULTRIE COUNTY MOSSES 


73 


R. Harold Vaughan 

Sullivan Township High School, Sullivan, Illinois 


Collections for this study were made 
in five different plots representing a wide 
range of environments. These plots and 
their locations are as follows: Horn’s 
Woods located about five miles northwest 
of Sullivan on Illinois Highway one-hun- 
dred-twenty-one; Titus woods located two 
miles south and one quarter mile west 
of Sullivan; woods of the Evans Estate 
located one-half mile east of Bruce; and 
Greenhill Cemetery and Wyman park in 
Sullivan. 

Samples of this collection are deposited 
in the herbarium of Illinois Mosses at 
the University of Illinois, Urbana, by Dr. 
Stella M. Hague, and also are represent¬ 
ed in the author’s private collection. 

Names used are largely those found in 
A. J. Grout’s “Mosses With a Hand Lens 
and Microscope” and “Moss Flora of 
North America”. 

Polytrichaceae 

Catharinea angustata Brid. 
plurilamellata Jennings 
undulata (Hedw.) Web. & Mohr 

Polytrichum juniperum Hedw. 
Fissidentaceae 

Fissidens osmundioides Hedw. 

Dicranaceae 

Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. 

Dicranum scoparium Hedw. 

Dicranella heteromalla Hedw. Schimp. 
varia (Hedw.) Schimp. 

Ditrichum pallidum (Hedw.) Hampe. 

Deucobryum glaucum (Hedw.) Schimp. 

Pleuridium subulatum (Hedw.) Lindb. 
Grimmiaceae 

Grimmia apocarpa Hedw. 

Hedwigia albicans Lindb. 


Tortulaceae 

Astomum Sullivantii Schimp. 

Barbula unguiculata Hedw. 

Tortella caespitosa (Schwaegr.) Limpr. 
Weisia viridula Hedw. 

Orthotrichaceae 

Orthotrichum Schimperi Hamm, 
strangulatum Sulliv. 

Funariaceae 

Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. 
Physcomitrium turbinatum (Mx.) Brid. 
Aulacomniaceae 

Aulacomnium heterostichum (Hedw.) 

B. & S. 

Bryaceae 

Bryum argenteum (L.) 

caespiticium (L.) 

Mnium affine ciliare (Grev.) 
cuspidatum (L.) 
medium (B. & S.) 
punctatum (L.) 
rostratum (Schrad.) 

Pohlia nutans (Schreb.) 

Rhodobryum roseum (Weis.) 

Leskeaceae 

Anomodon attenuatus (Hedw.) Hueben. 
minor (P. B.) Lindb. 
rostratus (Hedw.) Schimp. 

Leskea polycarpa (Hedw.) 

Thelia asprella (Sulliv.) 

Thuidium delicatulum (Hedw.) Mitt. 
Hypnaceae 

Amblystegium serpens (Hedw.) B. & S. 

varium (Hedw.) Lindb. 

Brachythecium oxycladon (Brid.) Jaeger 
& Sauerb. 

Campylium chrysophyllym (Brid.) Bryhn. 

hispidulum (Brid.) Mitt. 

Chamberlainia acuminata (Hedw.) Grout 
Cirriphyllum Boscii (Schwaegr.) Grout 
Entodon cladorrhizans (Hedw.) C. Muell. 

seductrix (Hedw.) C. Muell. 
Eurhynchium serrulatum (Hedw.) Kindb. 
Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw.) Warnst. 
Platygyrium repens (Brid.) B. & S. 

Note: The author is greatly indebted 
to Dr. Stella M. Hague who examined 
each moss in this collection and made 
many helpful suggestions. 


74 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


BRYOPHYTES OF STARVED ROCK STATE PARK, 

LASALLE COUNTY, ILLINOIS 

Donald Richards 

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 


The most interesting area in LaSalle 
County and the best known floristically, 
ecologically and geologically is Starved 
Rock State Park. This report is limited 
to the mosses and liverworts at present 
known to occur in this park. Other areas 
in the county such as Deer Park, Bailey 
Falls, and Buffalo Rock State Park, await 
further collecting and study. 

Starved Rock State Park provides a 
varied array of habitats from moist 
shaded canyons, swampy woods, flood 
plains, heavily forested slopes to prairies. 
A few of the bryophytes found in these 
habitats are xerophytes and are abund¬ 
ant on the bark of trees and others on 
bare sandstone rock. A greater number 
are found in the mesophytic-hydrophytic 
wooded slopes and shaded portions of 
canyons; e. g., Bartramia pomiformis, 
Leucohryum glaucum , Scapania nemorosa . 
Chiloscyphus polyanthus, Conocephalum 
conicum, and Pellia epiphylla. Of the 
plants just named the last two are most 
conspicuous in wet seepage areas on the 
canyon walls. 

Only a few of the canyons and other 
habitats of the park have been thoroughly 
investigated for bryophytes. Further 
study and collection should produce many 
additions to this list. A number of col¬ 
lections made by M. B. Waite in 1884 
and by the Rev. E. J. Hill in 1901 were 
found in the herbarium of the University 
of Illinois. These specimens were made 
available for study through the kindness 
of Dr. J. T. Buchholz and Dr. G. N. Jones. 
Collections made by the late G. E. Nich¬ 
ols in 1910 are in the herbarium of Paul 
D. Yoth. Most of the specimens reported 
on in this paper were collected by Dr. 
Voth in September 1938 and by the writer, 
Dr. Voth, and Dr. Donald T. Ries in 
March and April 1940. A few miscel¬ 
laneous collections are in the Crypto- 
gamic Herbarium of the Field Museum 
of Natural History. 

The following abbreviations designate 
the herbaria in which the specimens are 


to be found: (D) Herbarium of R. V. 
Drexler; (FM) Cryptogamic Herbarium 
of the Field Museum; (I) University of 
Illinois Herbarium; (R) Herbarium of 
Donald Richards; and (V) Herbarium of 
Paul D. Voth. Duplicate sets of speci¬ 
mens collected by the writer have been 
deposited in the herbarium of the Uni¬ 
versity of Illinois and the Cryptogamic 
Herbarium of the Field Museum. 

Dr. A. J. Grout and Dr. A. J. Sharp 
made several of the determinations, for 
which the writer wishes to express his 
appreciation. He is also greatly indebted 
to Dr. Paul D. Voth and Dr. Francis 
Drouet for constant help and advice. Dr. 
Donald T. Ries, Park Naturalist, and the 
Illinois Department of Public Works and 
Buildings, Division of Parks, made possi¬ 
ble the collections in the park. 

HEPATICAE 

Harpanthaceae 

Lofhocolea heterophylla (S c h r a d.) 
Dum.—Prairie above Illinois Canyon, 
Mar. 22, 1940, Richards, Voth, d Ries 
9J t 8 (R). 

Lophocolea minor Nees. — French Can¬ 
yon, Mar. 21, 1940, Richards, Voth, & 
Ries, 863 (R); floor of Aurora Canyon, 
Mar. 21, 1940, Richards, Voth, & Ries 
901 (R); junction of upper and con¬ 
necting trails, Tonti Canyon, Mar. 22, 
1940, Richards, Voth, d Ries 918 (R). 

Chiloscyphus polyanthus (L.) Corda.— 
Swampy woods near west entrance, 
Mar. 21, 1940, Richards, Voth, d Ries 
918 (R). 

Jungermanniaceae 

Plectocolea crenuliformis (Aust.) Mitt. 
Upper French Canyon, Sept. 11, 1938, 
Voth 3461 (V). 

Plectocolea fossombronioides (Aust.) 
Mitt.—Upper French Canyon, Sept. 11, 
1938, Voth 3462 (V). 





Botany — 194-0 Meeting 


75 


Plectocouea hyalina (Lyell) Mitt.—On 
sandstone ledge, Oct. 10, 1937, R. V. 
Drexler 1257 (D, R); upper Illinois 

Canyon, Apr. 28, 1940, Voth & Richards 
956 (R). 

Scapaniaceae 

Scapania nemorosa (L.) Dum.—On wet 
ledges, Aug. 1910, G. E. Nichols (V); 
upper French Canyon, Sept. 11, 1938, 
Voth 3467 (V); idem, upper trail, Mar. 
21, 1940, Richards, Voth, & Ries 874 
(R); near steps to upper trail, Illinois 
Canyon, Mar. 22, 1940, Richards, Voth, 
& Ries 951 (R). 

Scapania undulata (L.) Dum.—Wildcat 
Canyon, Aug. 15, 1912, E. J. Hill 42.1912 
(I). 

Porellaceae 

Porella platyphylla (L.) Lindb.—Up¬ 
per trail, French Canyon, Mar. 21, 1940, 
Richards, Voth, & Ries 866 (R); 

swampy woods near west entrance, 
Mar. 21, 1940, Richards, Voth, & Ries 
885 (R). 

Frullaniaceae 

Frullania eboracensis Gottsche. — On 
Tilia americana, swampy woods near 
west entrance, Mar. 21, 1940, Richards, 
Voth, & Ries 881 (R); idem, on white 
ash, Richards, Voth, & Ries 883 (R); 
on Quercus alba, side of hill above 
Horseshoe Canyon, Mar. 22, 1940, Rich¬ 
ards . Voth, & Ries 933 (R). 

Pelliaceae 

Pellia epiphylla (L.) Corda.—French 
Canyon, July 13, 1901, E. J. Hill 

229.1901 (as Pallavicinia Lyellii, I); 
Canyon back of Lover’s Leap, Aug. 15, 
1912, E. J. Hill 51.1912 (I); upper 

French Canyon, Sept. 11, 1938, Voth 
3471 (V); bluff between Fox and 

French Canyons, Apr. 28, 1940, Voth & 
Richards 954 (R). 

Blasiaceae 

Blasia pusilla L.—Aug. 1910, G. E. Nich¬ 
ols (V). 

Riccardiaceae 

Riccardia pinguis (L.) Gray.—Swampy 
woods near west entrance, Mar. 21, 
1940, Richards, Voth , & Ries 886 (R). 


Marchantiaceae 

Marchantia polymorpha L.—Near steps 
to upper trail, Illinois Canyon, Apr. 28, 
1940, Voth & Richards 955 (R). 

Preissia quadrata (Scop.) Nees.'—Near 
Starved Rock, July 13, 1910, E. J. Hill 
228.1901 (as P. commutata, I, R). 

Conocephalum conicum (L.) Dum.—In 
canyons, Aug. 1910, G. E. Nichols (as 
Pellia epiphylla, Y); face of sandstone 
bluff, Sept. 7-8, 1914, O. E. Lansing Jr. 
2771 (FM, R); French Canyon, June 
1-7, 1910, Greenman, Lansing, & Dixon 
174 (FM); Horseshoe Canyon, June 1-7, 
1909, Greenman, Lansing, & Dixon 175 
(FM); walls of Aurora Canyon, Mar. 
21, 1940, Richards, Voth, & Ries 902 
(R); swampy woods near west en¬ 
trance, Mar. 21, 1940, Richards, Voth, 
& Ries 891 (R); walls of Fox Canyon, 
Apr. 28, 1940, Voth & Richards 953 (R). 

Rebouliaceae 

Reboulia hemisphaerica (L.) Raddi.— 
Wet ledges, Aug. 1910, G. E. Nichols 
(V); on Jacob’s Ladder, Sept. 11, 1938, 
Voth 3475 (V); upper trail, French 
Canyon, Mar. 22, 1940, Richards, Voth, 
& Ries 908 (R). 

Anthocerotaceae 

Anthoceros laevis L.—Canyon back of 
Lover’s Leap, Aug. 15, 1912, E. J. Hill 
39.1912 (I). 

MUSCI 

Sphagnaceae 

Sphagnum Girgensohnii Russ. — Slope 
above Tonti Canyon, Apr. 28, 1940, 
Voth & Richards 960 (R). 

T etraph idaceae 

Tetraphis pellucida Hedw. — Bluff be¬ 
tween Fox and French Canyons, Apr. 
28, 1940, Voth dc Richards 965 (R). 

Polytrichaceae 

Atrichum angustatum (Brid.) B.S.G.— 
Aug. 9, 1884, M. B. Waite 12601 (I); 
north-facing slope, Oct. 10, 1937, R. V. 
Drexler 1274 (D, R); path near Tonti 
Canyon, Sept. 11, 1938, Voth 3482 (V); 
near steps to upper trail, Illinois Can¬ 
yon, Mar. 22, 1940, Richards, Voth, & 
Ries 940 (R). 






76 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


POGONATUM PENSYLVANICUM (Hedw.) 
Paris.—Near steps to upper trail, Illi¬ 
nois Canyon, Mar. 22, 1940, Richards, 
Voth, d Ries 937 (R). 

POLYTRICHUM JTJNIPERINUM Hedw.-Aug. 

9, 1884, M. B. Waite 12677 (I); dry 
ground, July 13, 1901, E. J. Hill 
227.1901 (I); on sandstone ledges, 

Sept. 7-8, 1914, 0. E. Lansing Jr. 3772 
(FM). 

Polytrichum ohioense Ren. & Card.— 
Lower trail on west side of LaSalle 
Canyon, above boatlanding, Mar. 22, 
1940, Richards, Voth, & Ries 935 (R). 

Fissidentaceae 

Fissidens cristatus Wils.—Upper French 
Canyon, Sept. 11, 1938, Voth 3465 (V); 
idem, upper trail, Mar. 21, 1940, Rich¬ 
ards, Voth, d Ries 857 (R). 

Fissidens grandifrons Brid.—Sandstone 
cliff, July 13, 1901, E. J. Hill 224-1901 
(I, R). 

Ditrichaceae 

Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid.— 
Upper French Canyon, Sept. 11, 1938, 
Voth 3468 (V); head of Tonti Canyon, 
Apr. 28, 1940, Voth d Richards 964 (R)- 

Dicranaceae 

Dicranella heteromalla var. orthocarpa 
(Hedw.) Paris.—Aurora Canyon, Mar. 
21, 1940, Richards, Voth, d Ries 903 
(R); near steps to upper trail, Illinois 
Canyon, Mar. 22, 1940, Richards, Voth, 
& Ries 942 (R). 

Leucobryaceae 

Leucobryum glaucum (Hedw.) Schimp. 
—Near connecting trail above Horse¬ 
shoe Canyon, Mar. 22, 1940, Richards, 
Voth, & Ries, 913 (R). 

Pottiaceae 

Barbula fallax Hedw.—Horseshoe Can¬ 
yon, Aug. 15, 1912, E. J. Hill 46.1912 
(I). 

Grimm iaceae 

Hedwigia ciliata f. viridis (B.S.G.) G. N. 
Jones.—Upper Illinois Canyon, Apr. 28, 
1940, Voth & Richards 962 (R). 


Funariaceae 

Funaria hygrometrica (L.) Sibth.—Steps 
to upper trail, Illinois Canyon, Mar. 
22, 1940, Richards, Voth, d Ries 944 
(R). 

A ulacomn iaceae 

Aulacomnium heterostichum (Hedw.) 
B.S.G.—Aug. 9, 1884, M. B. Waite 

12611a (I); bluff between Fox and 

French Canyons, Apr. 28, 1940, Voth d 
Richards 961 (R). 

Bartramiaceae 

Bartramia pomiformis Hedw. — Aug. 9, 
1884, M. B. Waite 12611 (I); upper 
French Canyon, Sept. 11, 1938, Voth 
3464 (V); idem, upper trail, Mar. 21, 
1940, Richards, Voth, d Ries 858 (R). 

Philonotis fontana (Hedw.) Brid.—Up¬ 
per Illinois Canyon, Apr. 28, 1940, Voth 
d Richards 958 (R). 

Bryaceae 

Bryum argenteum Hedw.—Junction of up¬ 
per and connecting trails, Tonti Can¬ 
yon, Mar. 22, 1940, Richards, Voth, d 
Ries 917, 928 (R). 

Bryum caespiticium Hedw.—Steps lead¬ 
ing from Jacob’s Ladder to Bluff trail, 
Sept. 11, 1938, Voth 3473 (V). 

Rhodobryum roseum (Weis.) Limpr.— 
Moist woods, Nov. 1921, L. Sickenberger 
(R); head of Pontiac Canyon, Sept. 11, 
1938, Voth 3481 (V); swampy woods 
near west entrance, Mar. 21, 1940, Rich¬ 
ards, Voth, d Ries 877 (R). 

M niaceae 

Mnium cuspidatum (L.) Leyss.—Jacob’s 
Ladder, Sept. 11, 1938, Voth 3472 (V); 
swampy woods near west entrance. 
Mar. 21, 1940, Richards, Voth d Ries 
895, 896 (R). 

Mnium medium B. & S.—Head of Tonti 
Canyon, Apr. 28, 1940, Voth d Rich¬ 
ards 957 (R). 

Hypnaceae 

Climacium americanum Brid. — Slope 
near Tonti Canyon, Apr. 28, 1940, Voth 
d Richards 959 (R). 






Botany — 194-0 Meeting 


77 


Eurhynchium serrulatum (Hedw.) 
Kindb.—Swampy woods near west en¬ 
trance, Mar. 21, 1940, Richards, Voth, 
& Ries 897 (R). 

Cirriphyllum Boscii (Schwaegr.) Grout. 
—Near steps to upper trail, Illinois 
Canyon, Mar. 22, 1940, Richards, Voth, 
& Ries 949 (R). 

Brachythecium oxycladon (Brid.) J. & 
S.—Above and to south of Jacob’s Lad¬ 
der, Sept. 11, 1938, Voth 3476, 3480 
(V); near upper trail, French Canyon, 
Mar. 21, 1940, Richards, Voth, & Ries 
861 (form with unusually slender 
leaves, R); swampy woods near west 
entrance, Mar. 21, 1940, Richards, Voth, 
& Ries 899 (R); west side of LaSalle 
Canyon, above boatlanding, Mar. 22, 
1940, Richards, Voth, & Ries 936 (R). 

Brachythecium pseudocollinum Kindb.— 
Swampy woods near west entrance, 
Mar. 21, 1940, Richards, Voth, & Ries 
876 (R). This has not previously been 
reported from Illinois as far as I can 
determine. 


Amblystegiella subtilis (Hedw.) Loeske. 
—Above Jacob’s Ladder, Sept. 11, 1938, 
Voth 3477 (V). 

Platygyrium repens (Brid.) B.S.G.—July 
13, 1901, E. J . Hill 225.1901 (I). 

Entodon seductrix (Hedw.) C. M.— 
Swampy woods near west entrance, Mar. 
21, 1940, Richards, Voth, & Ries 882 
(R). 

Leskeaceae 

Thuidium recognitum (Hedw.) Lindb.— 
Upper French Canyon, Sept. 11, 1938, 
Voth 3466 (V); idem, Mar. 21, 1940, 
Richards, Voth, & Ries 862 (R); 
swampy woods near west entrance, Mar. 
21, 1940, Richards, Voth, & Ries 880 
(R). 

Anomodon attenuatus (Schreb.) Hueb.— 
Base of trees and rocks, Aug. 1910, 
G. E. Nichols (V). 

Anomodon rostratus (Hedw.) Schimp.— 
Swampy woods near west entrance, Mar. 
21, 1940, Richards, Voth, & Ries 900 
(R); upper trail, French Canyon, Mar. 
21, 1940, Richards, Voth, & Ries 860, 
870 (R). 


relationships of nitrogen metabolism 

IN PLANTS* 

D. Bubenicek & F. Lyle Wynd 
University of Illinois, Urbaria, Illinois 


Introduction.— The nitrogen anabolism 
of green plants consists of the assimila¬ 
tion of inorganic nitrogen compounds in¬ 
to a system of complex organic sub¬ 
stances. Of these complex substances, the 
amides and amino acids are comparative¬ 
ly simple in structure while the proteins 
and alkaloids are the most intricate. The 
proteins are the most important, since 
they form most of the living substance of 
the protoplasm. In the plant they are 
found in the colloidal, insoluble or 
soluble, amorphous or crystalline state. 

Most of the nitrogen that the plant ob¬ 
tains from the soil is in the form of the 
nitrate ion. This fully oxidized form 
must be reduced to a lower valence form, 
such as ammonia, hydroxylamine or hy- 
ponitrous acid, before it can be utilized in 
synthesis. This reduction requires con¬ 
siderable energy which is made available 
by various respiratory systems. The am¬ 
monia, or the other reduced forms of ni¬ 


trogen, when combined with the organic 
acid residues form the general class of 
compounds known as amides and amino 
acids. These amino acids are further 
combined to form the higher forms of 
nitrogen compounds, until the true pro¬ 
tein molecule finally results. 

It is believed that proteins are synthe¬ 
sized from the same amino acids that 
they yield on hydrolysis, thus the pro¬ 
teins essentially are amino acids con¬ 
densed into chains. There are three 
classes of proteolytic enzymes found in 
the plant tissue, peptases, tryptases and 
the ereptases. The chemistry of these 
is well known but a modern trend of 
biological investigation is concerning the 
role of the less well known “vitazymes”. 

The “vitazymes” represent a group of 
vitamins which exert an enzymatic func¬ 
tion in the tissue when combined with a 
colloidal protein carrier. Thus far, only 
two undoubted cases of “vitazymes” have 



78 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


been described, vitamin B 1 and vitamin G, 
although vitamin C is suspected to act in 
similar manner. A possible role of vita¬ 
min G to nitrogen metabolism in the 
plant is briefly described below. 

Experimental procedure. —A series of 
fifteen samples of young wheat plants 
grown in the field were analyzed for vari¬ 
ous nitrogen fractions, according to the 
procedures of the Committee on Methods 
of Chemical Analysis for the American 
Society of Plant Physiologists. G) The 
distillation of ammonia was the modi(fied 
method of Pucher, Vickery and Leaven¬ 
worth. ( * 1 2 ) The determinations of the 
vitamins were furnished by the research 
laboratory of the American Butter Co. in 
Kansas City. The nitrogen analyses were 
conducted in the Laboratory of Plant 
Physiology at the University of Illinois. 
The following nitrogen fractions were de- 



Vitamin G (riboflavin) micrograme 
per 1 g. dry sample 


Table 1.—Wheat Series 


Plot No. 

%Insoluble 

nitrogen 

%Amino acid 
nitrogen 

%Insol.N 2 

%A 1 n.ac.N 2 

Vitamin G 
mgr/gm dry 
sample 

2........ 

2.97 

0.22 

13.50 

23.9 

3..... 

3.00 

0.18 

16.68 

24.9 

4_____ 

3.01 

0.24 

12.54 

23.3 

5....... 

3.12 

0.16 

19.50 

25.8 

6....... 

3.06 

0.18 

17.00 

24.5 

7 ... . . 

3.00 

0.21 

14.29 

24.6 

9.... 

2.94 

0.25 

11.75 

23.8 

10..... 

2.87 

0.18 

15.95 

23.5 

11... 

2.82 

0.17 

16.60 

23.8 

12.... 

2.90 

0.18 

16.10 

24.4 

13.... 

3.42 

0.21 

16.28 

25.1 

14__ 

3.02 

0.17 

17.78 

24.9 

15___ 

3.32 

0.16 

20.75 

20.7 

16..... .. 

2.58 

0.19 

13.59 

22.6 

17_ 

2.84 

0.25 

11.35 

23.7 


termined; ammonia, amide, amino acid, 
nitrate, residual, soluble, insoluble and 
total. 

Results. —The effect of different 
amounts of vitamin G on the ratio of 
insoluble nitrogen to amino acid is shown 
in table 1 and figure 1. It is seen that 
increasing amounts of vitamin G produce 
relatively increasing amounts of insoluble 
nitrogen per unit amount of amino acid 
nitrogen. This does not necessarily 
mean that vitamin G increases as in¬ 
soluble nitrogen increases or as amino 
acid nitrogen decreases, since only the 
ratio of these forms of nitrogen is af¬ 
fected. It seems apparent that vitamin G 
is concerned with some physiological ac¬ 
tivity which enables the plant protoplasm 
to synthesize more complex forms of ni¬ 


trogen containing compounds from the 
amino acid units. 

Since in the chemical analysis of nitro- 
geneous tissue one cannot differentiate 
between the higher forms of insoluble ni¬ 
trogen, it is evident that the exact sig¬ 
nificance of the enzymatic catalysis of 
vitamin G cannot be postulated. If the 
synthesis and hydrolysis of proteins can 
be postulated by the general equation, 
amino acids^±polypeptids^±proteins, ribo¬ 
flavin is concerned in some way in this 
process. 

* This work was supported by a grant 
from the American Dairies, Inc. 

References 

1. Tottingham, W. E., Plant Physiol. 10,393- 
99, (1935). 

2. Pucher G. W., Vickery H. B., Leaven¬ 
worth C. S., Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 
7,152-6, (1935). 























































Botany — 19^0 Meeting 


79 


THE EFFECT OF SOIL MOISTURE ON THE COMPOSITION 

OF CEREAL PLANTS 

G. R. Noggle 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


Introduction. —Much scientific interest 
is being shown at the present time in 
the nutritive value of cereal grasses. One 
development in this field is the practise 
of cutting young grass before it starts 
to form shoots, drying by special pro¬ 
cesses and selling it for both human and 
animal consumption. Just before the for¬ 
mation of the flowering shoot, there is a 
stage of great vegetative physiological 
activity in the plant and at this time 
the tissue contains significant quantities 
of vitamins and other growth factors. 
In addition to these substances, the value 
of cereal grass as a food, especially when 
used by animals, depends partly on the 
protein content. The present paper is a 
preliminary note on the effect of varying 
amounts of soil moisture on this compo¬ 
nent of cereal grass. 

Numerous data from field and experi¬ 
mental plots indicate that the moisture 
content of the soil has a significant in¬ 
fluence upon the percentage of protein in 
crops. When one considers that soil 
structure, moisture, temperature, supply 
of nutrients, microorganisms, soil reac¬ 
tion and climate may affect plant growth 
in many ways, it is not difficult to un¬ 
derstand why any effort to study a single 
factor such as soil moisture becomes very 
complicated. 

Much of the early work on soil mois¬ 
ture in relation to plant growth was done 
in Germany. Hellriegel in 1883 published 
an account of his researches on the quan¬ 
titative relationship between varying lev¬ 
els of moisture and the yield in dry mat¬ 
ter of green plants. As a consequence of 
this work, Mayer in 1892 conducted re¬ 
searches on the influence of moisture on 
the composition of cereal crops. His re¬ 
sults are shown in Figure 1. These re¬ 
sults are what might be expected except 
for the rather high percentage of pro¬ 
tein under conditions of low levels of 
moisture. Further study on this prob¬ 
lem, done in both Germany and the 


United States, confirmed the fact that the 
usual consequence of increasing the soil 
moisture was to decrease the percentage 
of protein in the green plant. Greaves 
and Carter obtained the results shown in 
Figure 2 on irrigation studies conducted 
at the Utah Agricultural Experiment Sta¬ 
tion. 

Despite the fact that numerous investi¬ 
gators have shown that increasing 
amounts of soil moisture decrease the per¬ 
centage of protein in grasses, it appears 
that under some conditions, increasing 
percentages of protein are obtained with 
increasing water content in the soil. The 
explanation of the causes which call forth 
these apparent exceptions is of great theo¬ 
retical interest to the plant physiologist 
as well as the agriculturist. 

Experimental. — In the laboratory of 
Plant Physiology at the University of Illi- 


0AT8 — Mayer 



AM'T OF WATER ADDED.PERCENT WATER CAPACITY 

Fig. 1. 

































80 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


Table 1—The Effects of Soil Moisture on the Nitrogenous Components of the Soil 


Soil moisture in %. 14.43 21.64 28.85 36.06 43.28 

Nitrate p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. 

April 1, 1940. 142 140 127 103 88 

April 21, 1940. 135 134 174 140 117 

Ammonia 

April 1, 1940. 7.5 7.1 8.0 8.2 8.6 

April 21, 1940. 8.2 8.1 13.1 11.0 11.0 

Total Nitrogen 

April 1, 1940. 236 220 215 227 213 


nois, two varieties of oats, Marion and 
Columbia, are being grown on a fertile 
black silt loam under varying levels of 
moisture. The water-holding capacity of 
the soil was 72%. The moisture was ad¬ 
justed so that five levels of soil moisture 
are being maintained, at 20, 30, 40, 50, 
and 60% of the water-holding capacity 
or 14.43, 21.64, 28.85, 36.06, and 43.28% 
water based on the dry weight of soil. 
Ten pots of each variety are maintained 
at the indicated moisture levels by weigh¬ 
ing every other day and adding water lost 
by transpiration and soil evaporation. A 
complete chemical analysis of the soil as 
well as the pH, base-exchange capacity 
and organic base-exchange capacity was 
made on the soil before the moisture lev¬ 
els were adjusted. Every two weeks a 
similar analysis is made on an unseeded 
control pot at each of the five moisture 
levels. 

At the present time the data are in¬ 
complete but certain changes in the soil 
are already indicated. The ammonia 
content of the soil is progressively higher 
as the water content of the soil is raised, 
and an analysis on the same soils two 
weeks later, the ammonia content is also 
higher under every moisture level. The 
nitrate content of the soil is lower as the 
water content of the soil is raised, and 
on successive analysis the nitrate level 
doesn’t vary greatly. The total nitrogen 
does not vary significantly under the dif¬ 
ferent moisture levels. Cations such as 
Ca ++ , Mg ++ , K + and Na + , which are deter¬ 
mined as exchangeable bases give some 
indication of increasing as the moisture 
content of the soil is raised. A detailed 
report will be published as soon as the 
data are complete. 


55 0.6 

w 

°o .5 

* 0.4 

W 

0 . 

0.3 

0.2 

0.1 

0.0 

















Pol 

aesli 

im 







Ph< 

ispho 

•U 8 



\ 


\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

» 

\ 

1 

» 

1 

_ 

- — — 

~ —- 

— 






Ua ( 

jneeli 

m 


_.<n 


• 1 
i! 

J 

ir» 

~Cai 

1 

il 

— 

— 











5 10 15 20 25 30 35 4 o 45 

INCHES OF IRRIGATION WATER APPLIED 

Fig. 2 


References 

1. Greaves, J. E. and E. G. Carter, The in¬ 
fluence of irrigation water on the com¬ 
position of grains and the relationship to 
nutrition. J. Biol. Chem. 58 : 531-541. 
(1923). 

2. Mayer, A. fiber den Einfluss kleiner 

oder grosser Mengen von Wasser auf die 
Entwickelung einiger Kulturpflanzen. 
Jour, fiir Landw. 46: 167-184. (1892). 











































Botany — 19JfO Meeting 


81 


THE ESTIMATION OF RIBOFLAVIN (VITAMIN B 2 ) IN 

PLANT TISSUE 

Stanley A. Watson 
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


The discovery of Warburg’s “yellow- 
respiratory-enzyme” in 1932 (1), was a 
great stimulus to the study of cellular 
respiration. The significance of its prop¬ 
erties in relation to biological activity in 
the living cell has been the basis for a 
number of important generalizations in 
regard to the metabolic functions of other 
such substances. 

The elucidation of the composition and 
structure of the yellow enzyme (1, 2) has 
shown that it consists of a high molecular 
weight protein carrier to which is at¬ 
tached the chemically active group. This 
prosthetic group is known as riboflavin 
and is essentially an iso-alloxazine nu¬ 
cleus, methylated in the 6 and 7 positions 
and with a phosphorylated d-ribose side 
chain attached in the 9 position. The 
d-riboflavin-5'-phosphoric acid will dis¬ 
sociate from its protein carrier by dialy¬ 
sis but will reassociate with return of 
enzyme activity when again mixed with 
the protein solution (3). The prosthetic 
group appears to be attached to its pro¬ 
tein at two points, i.e., through the phos¬ 
phoric acid and the 3 amino group. It 
is interesting to note the extreme speci¬ 
ficity of this compound in relation to its 
physiological activity. The closest homo¬ 
logs and isomers have only a fraction of 
the vitamin potency and enzyme activity 
that d-riboflavin exhibits. 

Riboflavin occurs widely in nature and 
it has been found present in all living 
materials so far studied (4). Riboflavin 
will probably be found in all plants and 
it is reasonable to assume that it has phys¬ 
iological significance for their growth 
and metabolism. Riboflavin or vitamin 
Bo (formerly called vitamin G) is an es¬ 
sential constitutent of the diet of animals. 

Riboflavin is perhaps the most out¬ 
standing example of a group of biological¬ 
ly active chemical compounds capable of 
two-step oxidation-reduction. The free 
flavin has a high negative potential of 
-0.21 volts (5), which indicates that the 


leuco, dihydroxy form has a strong tend¬ 
ency to lose its hydrogen atoms and re¬ 
turn to the colored, diquinoid form. The 
outstanding example of this function as 
hydrogen transporter is the dehydrogena¬ 
tion of certain hexose esters of phosphoric 
acid which Warburg and Christian (6) 
carried out in vitro and for which they 
proposed the following mechanism: 

(1) Coenzyme II + hexosemonophos- 

phoric acid ^=± reduced coenzyme 
phosphohexonic acid. 

(2) Reduced coenzyme + yellow en¬ 

zyme coenzyme + reduced 
yellow enzyme. 

(3) Reduced yellow enzyme + 0 2 (or 

cytochrome) yellow enzyme + 
H 2 O 2 (or red. cytochrome) 

This system is one of the fundamental 
steps in the oxidation of sugar by respir¬ 
ing cells. The significance of riboflavin 
has recently been given increased empha¬ 
sis through its role in several other 
enzymatic dehydrogenation systems by 
combining with different protein carriers 
and with adenine (7). 

The methods which have been devel¬ 
oped for the estimation of riboflavin fall 
into two general classes; physico-chemi¬ 
cal and biological assay. 

Preparatory to analysis by physico¬ 
chemical means, riboflavin must be ex¬ 
tracted from the tissue and, freed from 
impurities. This may be accomplished 
by the following methods: (1) refluxing 
the ground tissue with water, alcohol, 
alcohol-water mixtures or acetone, (2) 
adsorption on fuller’s earth or other suit¬ 
able adsorption materials and subsequent 
elution with pyridine, ammonia-water 
mixtures or alcohol-water mixtures, (3) 
Precipitation as a heavy metal salt, (4) 
combinations of these methods. 

The riboflavin content of this extract¬ 
ed material is then determined by either 
of three general methods. First, the in¬ 
tensity of the yellow color may be colori- 
metrically compared with a known stand- 








82 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 



R ibofldvme-5'phoshor/c acid 


ard (8). This method is not entirely sat¬ 
isfactory because the color of riboflavin 
in low concentrations becomes too faint for 
accurate comparison. In a second method, 
the intensity of fluorescence of a standard 
riboflavin solution is compared with the 
fluorescence of the unknown flavin solu¬ 
tion by means of a photoelectric photo¬ 
meter (9). The third method depends 
upon the characteristic and specific in¬ 
stability of riboflavin when exposed to 
light in alkaline solution (1). The decom¬ 
position product, lumiflavin (6, 7, 9 trim¬ 
ethyl isoalloxazine) is extracted in chloro¬ 
form and gives a characteristically blue 
fluorescence measurable with a photo¬ 
meter. This method is now little used be¬ 
cause the conversion is not quantitative. 
Technical errors may be encountered in 
any of these three methods as a result of 
incomplete extraction of other colored or 
fluorescing materials. Two prominent 
biological assay methods have been used 
up to the present time. The first was 
based on feeding tests with rats and the 
increase in weight compared to a control 
animal receiving no riboflavin. (11) This 
method is cumbersome, slow and ex¬ 
pensive. 


A promising microbiological assay 
method (10) employs the quantitative re¬ 
sponse of certain lactic acid bacteria to 
different amounts of riboflavin. The bac¬ 
teria are cultured in tubes of flavin-free 
medium to which have been added vary¬ 
ing amounts of the synthetic compound. 
The total metabolism at the end of three 
days is determined by titrating the lactic 
acid formed with standard alkali. When 
mis. of 0.1 N lactic acid produced are 
plotted against the micrograms of ribo¬ 
flavin added, a standard curve results, 
from which may be read the flavin con¬ 
tent of unknown materials. The ribo¬ 
flavin is extracted from plant tissue by 
heating with water in an autoclave. 

The authors claim that if cultures are 
kept free from contamination and care is 
taken with the standard solutions, flavin 
can be determined with an error of about 
±5.0%. This method has several ad¬ 
vantages over previously described meth¬ 
ods: in many cases the crude product 
may be used thus eliminating preliminary 
extraction, only small amounts of ma¬ 
terial are required, the method is fairly 
rapid (3 to 5 days) and requires no ex¬ 
pensive equipment. 


References 

(1) Warburg and Christian. Biochem. Z. 
254, 438, (1932). 

(2) Karrer, et al. Helv. chim. Acta. 17, 
1010, (1934). 

(3) Theorell, H. Biochem. Z. 27 8, 263, 

(1935). 

(4) Wagner-Jauregg, T. Erg. Enz. forsch. 
IV, 333, (1935). 

(5) Michaelis, Schubert and Smythe. Jour. 
Biol. chem. 116, 587, (1936). 

(6) Warburg and Christian. Biochem. Z. 

9Q77 (1 QQQ) 

(7) Ball, Eric G. Cold Springs Harbor 
Symp. Quant. Biol. 7, 50 (1939). Re¬ 
view. 

(8) Koschara. Z. Physiol. Chem. 252, 102, 

(1935). 

(9) Sullivan and Norris. Ind. and Eng. 
Chem., Anal. Ed. 11, 535, (1939). 

(10) Snell and Strong. Ind. and Eng. 
Chem., Anal. Ed. 11, 347, (1939). 

(11) v. Euler, H., et al. Helv. chim. Acta, 
17, 1157 (1934). 


















Botany — 19J/.0 Meeting 


83 


GRASS JUICE FACTOR IN THE YOUNG LEAVES OF 

CEREAL GRASS* 

F. Lyle Wynd and Dalibor Bubenicek 
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


Dried and powdered leaves of young 
grass have long been recognized in Eur¬ 
ope as an important source of protein for 
animals. In this country, there has been 
recently a national wave of interest in the 
use of preparations of young leaves of 
cereal grasses as an article of human 
food. These preparations scarcely can 
compete with a properly prepared steak 
as a source of protein for human beings, 
but there is a much more significant rea¬ 
son why human beings should respectfully 
consider the nutritional possibilities of 
grass, since probably no other natural 
product contains such a rich supply of 
the various vitamins and other growth 
factors necessary for the maintenance of 
health. For example, young cereal grass 
leaves contain significant amounts of the 
following substances: Vitamin A, which 
is concerned with night blindness and cer¬ 
tain skin diseases; Vitamin B complex, 
which is a group of probably 15 related 
vitamins concerned with pellagra and the 
activity of the auditory nerve; Vitamin 
Bi, known chemically as thiamin, which 
exhibits a great variety of physiological 
relationships concerning beriberi, heart 
function, lactation and various nervous 
disturbances; Vitamin B?, chemically 
designated as riboflavin, which is a pre¬ 
ventative for blindness caused by inflam¬ 
mation of the cornea and for certain skin 
ailments; Vitamin C, described by the 
chemists as ascorbic acid is necessary 
for the prevention of scurvy, pyorrhea, 
rheumatic fever, hemorrhage, cataract, in¬ 
somnia, inflammation of the bone mar¬ 
row and in addition aids the healing of 
wounds; Vitamin D, called calciferol, 
prevents rickets, nervous spasms, soften¬ 
ing of the bones and acne; Vitamin E, 
alpha-tocopherol, prevents sterility, mus¬ 
cle weakness and various diseases caused 
by the degeneration of the nerves; Vita¬ 
min K which is intimately concerned 
with blood clotting and the consequent 
prevention of hemorrhage. 


wt. 



The effect of grass juice factor on the 
growth of rats. 

While the leaves of young cereal grass 
contain all of the above substances im¬ 
portant for human beings, there is also 
another important component known as 
the “grass juice factor”. Kohler, Elveh- 
jem and Hart (1) have described this 
component as a substance which is water 
soluble and heat labile which is impor¬ 
tant for the normal growth of rats and 
guinea pigs. Figure 1 shows some of the 
results of these authors. But as might 
be expected, this “grass juice factor” is 
important for other reasons than its ef¬ 
fect on rats or guinea pigs. For instance, 
it is known to have a favorable influ¬ 
ence on chickens, silver foxes, human be¬ 
ings and other animals. The complete 
physiology of this substance is not yet 
known and it is now the subject of study 
in many research laboratories. 

At present, the only known procedure 
for the assay of this important growth 
substance is the observation of its effect 
on various test animals over a period of 
several weeks. 





84 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


Table 1.—Wheat Series 


Plot No. 

%Insoluble 

nitrogen 

%Amino acid 
nitrogen 

%Insol.N 2 

%Am.ac.N 2 

Grass Juice 
Factor 

1__ 

3.14 

0.21 

14.95 

4 

3____ 

3.00 

0.18 

16.68 

3 

4 _ _ 

3.01 

0.24 

12.54 

3 

5. . _ 

3.12 

0.16 

19.50 

5 

6 ... _ 

3.06 

0.18 

17.00 

5 

7_ 

3.00 

0.21 

14.29 

3 

8_____ 

3.04 

0.24 

12.67 

1 

9_ 

2.94 

0.25 

11.75 

1 

10_ 

2.87 

0.18 

15.95 

3 

11_ 

2.82 

0.17 

16.60 

3 

12_ 

2.90 

0.18 

16.10 

3 

13_ 

3.42 

0.21 

16.28 

2 

14_ 

3.02 

0.17 

17.78 

4 

15_ 

3.32 

0.16 

20.75 

4 

16__ 

2.58 

0.19 

13.59 

3 

17_ 

2.84 

0.25 

11.35 

2 





Workers in the laboratory of Plant 
Physiology at the University of Illinois 
are now engaged in the attempt to relate 
the amount of grass juice factor with va¬ 
rious other components of the leaf tissue. 
The preliminary data on a series of sam¬ 
ples of young wheat grown in the field 
is presented in Table 1, and Figure 2 
shows that there is a significant quanti¬ 
tative relationship between this substance 
and the ratio of insoluble nitrogen to 
amino-acid nitrogen. The significance of 
this relationship to the physiology of the 
plant will be made the subject of a de¬ 
tailed report in a later publication. 


Bibliography 

1. Kohler, G. O., Elvehjem, C. A., and Hart, 
E. B., Growth stimulating- properties of 
grass juice. Science, n.s. 83 : 445. 1936. 

* This work was supported by a grant from the American Dairies, Inc. 


RELATION OF THE EFFECTS OF GROWTH-PROMOTING 
SUBSTANCES TO PHOTO-SYNTHETIC ACTIVITY, THE 
MASS LAW OF GROWTH AND SEED GERMINATION 

Stanley W. Oexemann 


University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


Part I. Photosynthetic Activity and 
the Mass Law of Growth. Although a re¬ 
view of the literature on growth-promot¬ 
ing substances gives evidence of their in¬ 
teraction with photosynthesis and the 
mass law of growth, little if anything is 
stated concerning the nature of this re¬ 
lationship. It seemed desirable therefore 
to determine first whether such interac¬ 
tion exists and secondly to determine the 
nature of the relationship. 

The writer germinated two lots, A and 
B, of seed of Phaseolus nanus Auth. Var. 


Stringless Green Pod in a saw-dust me¬ 
dium. Seeds in lot A were germinated in 
the light while those in lot B were germ¬ 
inated in a darkroom. When the seed¬ 
lings had reached a height of about five 
inches, cuttings were made of both lot A 
and lot B by cutting the plants one inch 
above the medium. The cuttings of both 
lots were similarly treated with Hormo- 
din A (indole-butyric acid) solutions of 
1.0, 0.50, and 0.25 per cent concentration 
for twenty-four hours and were then 
placed in a moist sand medium. The cut- 































































Botany — 19J/.0 Meeting 


85 




tings of lot B were kept in the dark while 
those in lot A remained exposed to the 
light. Controls were handled in the same 
manner but were placed in distilled water 
for twenty-four hours instead of in an 
Hormodin A solution before placing into 
sand. 

The cuttings were photographed seven 


days after treatment. Photograph 5 
shows the darkroom beans while photo¬ 
graph 7 shows the beans grown in the 
light. The letters designate concentra¬ 
tion of the treating solution: A—1.0%; 
B—0.50%; C—0.25%; D—control. The 
photographs show: 1. That more roots 
are produced in light than in darkness. 







Fig. 1 

Photograph 5. Bean seedlings grown in the dark. Photograph 7. Bean seedlings 
grown in the light. Photograph 8. Bean seedlings showing effect of leaf area on rooting. 
Photograph 14. Radish: A=Control; B=Seeds treated with powder containing propionic 

l«l acid. 

#|J 


















86 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


2. That the roots produced by plants in 
light decrease in number with a decrease 
in concentration of the treating solution. 

If it is true that there is a correlation 
between growth-promoting substances on 
one hand and photosynthetic activity and 
the mass law of growth on the other, 
the amount of rooting should be more or 
less proportional to the size of the cutting 
and especially to the leaf area. In order 
to study this relationship an experiment 
using cuttings of lot A was performed. 
The cuttings were divided into three sets 
as follows: In the first set, all leaves 
were left intact on cuttings; in the second 
set, half of the leaves were removed; in 
the third set, all of the leaves were re¬ 
moved. All cuttings were treated for 
twenty-four hours with a 0.50% Hormo- 
din A solution and were then placed in 
a moist sand medium. 

Eight days after treatment representa¬ 
tive cuttings were photographed. See 
Photograph 8. A dry weight determina¬ 
tion of the roots was also made. This 
shows the weights to be in a ratio of 
100:60:1 which correlates very closely 
with the ratio of the leaf area of 100: 
50:1. 

Another experiment on Zebrina pendula 
Schnizl and Coleus blumei Benth. was 
also performed. Cuttings with different 
leaf areas were treated for twenty-four 
hours with a 0.50% Hormodin A solution 
and placed in a moist sand medium for 
twenty-one days. It was found that the 
number and length of roots on a cutting 
increased with an increase in leaf area to 
the point where wilting took place. Wilt¬ 
ing takes place when the leaf area be¬ 
comes so great that more water is lost 
by transpiration than can be taken up by 
the stem. 

Part II. Seed Germination. Reports 
have been made in the literature that 


treatment of seeds with growth-promoting 
substances increases the rate and percent¬ 
age of germination. It was the object of 
these experiments to test a few of the 
substances. Seeds of Zea mays L. var. 
Yellow Dent, Phaseolus nanus Auth. var. 
Stringless Green Pod, and Rapha7ius 
sativus L. var. White Icicle were treated 
with a powder containing indole-propionic 
acid. They were germinated as follows: 
Some were placed between paper towels 
on moist saw-dust, some on clay germina¬ 
tion blocks made for this purpose by the 
Ceramics Department of the University 
of Illinois, and others were planted di¬ 
rectly in rich loam soil in the green¬ 
house benches. Controls were not treated 
but were germinated as the above. 

Results show: 1. A retarded and lower 
percentage germination among the treated 
seeds. 2. A slower rate of growth among 
the seedlings produced by the treated 
seeds. See Photograph 14. 

In another experiment seeds of the 
above plants were treated for eighteen 
hours with solutions of indole-butyric 
acid. During the treatment the solutions 
were kept at temperatures of 0, 4, 12, 20, 
and 35 degrees centigrade and the concen¬ 
tration range in percentage was as fol¬ 
lows: Controls, 0.002, 0.004, 0.008, 0.016, 
0.032, 0.064, 0.128, 0.256, 0.512, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 
8.0. The seeds were then germinated on 
germination blocks. 

Results show: 1. A retarded germina¬ 
tion in all seeds treated except in the 
case of Zea mays where there was a 
slight stimulation. 2. Solutions kept at 
20 degrees centigrade during treatment 
show the greatest stimulation in the 
germination of Zea mays and the least re¬ 
tardation in the seeds of the other 
species. 3. The optimum concentration of 
the treating solution according to this ex¬ 
periment is 0.512 of one per cent. 






• Botany — 19J/.0 Meeting 


87 


SOME TEMPERATURE RELATIONS OF GEOTROPISM 

Harry J. Fuller 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


na-l 

m 

£ 

ail 

en: 

till 

re- 

M 

a( 

eil 


Relatively few investigators have made 
quantitative studies of the effects of vary¬ 
ing temperatures upon the presentation 
and latent times of plant tropisms. The 
principal investigations have been those 
of Czapek (1898), Rutgers (1912), and 
Hawker (1933). 

In the present work are described ex¬ 
periments designed to investigate the 
effects of various temperatures upon geo¬ 
tropic latent and presentation times of 
three species of plants: Lathyrus odorar 
tus L. epicotyls, Zeamays L. coleoptiles, 
and Vicia faba L. hypocotyls and to de¬ 
termine the relationship of such effects to 
the age of the plants studied. The ex¬ 
periments were carried out in a room 
darkened except for a phototropically-in- 
active red light, in constant-temperature 
cases designed by Prof. C. F. Hottes. 
Seedlings were grown in wet sawdust in 
2-inch pots. In all cases, the seedlings 
were grown at room temperature (20°- 
22 °C.) until they were ready for testing. 
They were then placed in the temperature 
cases in which they were allowed to re¬ 
main for 24 hours before being subjected 
to gravitational stimulus. The presenta¬ 
tion and latent times were determined 
following stimulation by means of obser¬ 
vation with a horizontal microscope. 

Table I shows the results of experi¬ 
ments upon the effects of various tempera¬ 
tures upon the geotropic presentation and 
latent times of the species investigated. 
In the table, PT and LT indicate re¬ 
spectively presentation and latent time. 
The lengths of the aerial portions of the 
plants are indicated after the names of 
the plants. Each figure represents an 
average of ten determinations. 

Table II shows the temperature co¬ 
efficients calculated from the data of 
Table I. Coefficients are shown only for 
the temperature ranges which showed in¬ 
creased sensitivity, i. e., lowered presenta¬ 
tion and latent times. 

Table III shows the presentation times 


of coleoptiles of Zea mays and epicotyls 
of Latliyrus odoratus of different ages at 
various temperatures. 

The results and conclusions of the 
above experiments are the following: 

1. The geotropic presentation and 
latent times of the plants studied vary 
markedly with temperature changes. In 
Zea mays and Lathyrus odoratus the 
greatest sensitivities, as indicated by the 
shortest presentation and latent times, 
are those at 30 °C. In Vicia faba, the 
presentation and latent times are of ap¬ 
proximately equal value at 25° and 30 °C, 
the range of greatest sensitivity. 

2. In the plants studied, the presenta¬ 
tion times vary to a greater extent with 
changing temperatures than do the latent 
times. These differences in the relative 
sensitivity of presentation and latent 
times are shown by the temperature co¬ 
efficients in Table II. 

3. Geotropic sensitivity, as indicated 
by variations in presentation times at dif¬ 
ferent temperatures; varies with the ages 
of the seedlings. In Zea mays, the great¬ 
est sensitivity occurs when the coleoptiles 
are approximately 3 cm. tall. In 
Lathyrus odoratus, the greatest sensi¬ 
tivity occurs, in most of the temperatures 
used, at an epicotyl length of approxi¬ 
mately 8 cm. This is in agreement with 
the results of Hawker (1933). 

4. It is suggested that, in the study 
of such complex phenomena as tropisms, 
attempts to apply the van’t Hoff law 
should not be regarded seriously as in¬ 
dicating the nature of the processes in¬ 
volved. As is shown in Table II, there is 
considerable variation in the Qio values 
in the different species and at different 
temperatures. Because of such variations 
and because of the obviously complex na¬ 
ture of tropisms, it seems unwise to in¬ 
terpret these reactions upon the same 
basis as would be employed for the study 
of relatively simple physical or chemical 
reactions. 



88 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


Table I. —Presentation and Latent Times in Minutes at Various Temperatures 


Temp. 

Zeamays 
(3 cm.) 

Lathyrus odoratus 
(5 cm.) 

Viciafaba 
(6 cm.) 

PT 

LT 

PT 

LT 

PT 

LT 

5°C....... 

51 

104 

61 

90 

51 

140 

10°... 

26 

73 

45 

62 

32 

96 

15°._.. 

17 

50 

28 

48 

19 

68 

20°_____ 

10 

44 

18 

38 

9 

52 

25°...... 

8 

37 

9 

31 

6 

46 

30°_ 

5 

31 

6 

28 

6 

48 

35°..____ 

6 

41 

11 

41 

12 

58 

40°. . 

28 

74 

28 

55 











Table II. —Temperature Coefficients From Data of Table I 


Temp, ranges 

Zeamays 

Lathyrus odoratus 

Vida faba 

PT 

LT 

PT 

LT 

PT 

LT 

5°—15°.. 

3.00 

2.08 

2.17 

1.87 

2.68 

2.05 

10°—20°. 

2.60 

1.65 

2.50 

1.63 

3.44 

1.84 

15°—25°__ 

2.13 

1.35 

2.44 

1.54 

3.16 

1.47 

20°—30°... 

25°—35°. 

2.00 

1.33 

1.41 

3.00 

1.35 

1.50 

1.08 








Table III. —Presentation Times of Seedlings of Different ages at Various Temperatures 

A. Lathyrus odoratus 


Length of epicotyl 

5°C. 

10° 

15° 

O 

o 

25° 

30° 

0 

CO 

O 

O 

1 cm__ 

68min. 

49 

36 

22 

18 

17 

20 

33 

3 cm.. .. 

60 

41 

28 

18 

16 

10 

16 

29 

5 cm... 

58 

42 

26 

17 

10 

8 

10 

23 

8 cm.... 

60 

35 

18 

11 

10 

7 

12 

20 

10 cm... 

65 

43 

24 

17 

12 

8 

13 

25 


B. Zeamays 


Length of coleoptile 









1 cm.... 

61 

40 

26 

20 

13 

12 

16 

38 

2 cm..... 

56 

34 

20 

12 

10 

8 

12 

39 

3 cm..... 

53 

29 

19 

11 

9 

6 

8 

31 

5 cm...... 

58 

33 

27 

17 

14 

11 

12 

32 


Bibliography 

1. Czapek, F. Weitere Beitrage zur Kennt- 

nis der geotropischen Reizbewegungen. 3. 
Jahrb. wiss. Bot. 32:175-308, 1898. 

2. Hawker, L. E. The effect of temperature 
on the geotropism of seedlings of Lathy¬ 


rus odoratus. Annals of Botany 47 : 505- 
515, 1933. 

Rutgers, A. A. L.. The influence of tem¬ 
perature on the geotropic presentation 
time. Rec. Trav. bot. Neerl. 9: 1-123, 
1912. 




















































































































Botany — 19JfO Meeting 


89 


THE EFFECT OF HETEROAUXIN ON THE DEVELOPMENT 
OF DEBLADED PETIOLES OF COLEUS 


R. Maurice Myers 


Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 






There have been numerous papers (1, 
2, 3, 5) on the production of partheno- 
carpic fruits by the use of growth 
substances (hereafter g. s.) and pollen 
extracts. It has been postulated that 
“normal” fruit usually develops due to 
the g. s. in the pollen and that produced 
in the developing embryos. Gardner and 
Marth (4) say that “it appears that they 
(g. s.) prevent the formation of an 

abscission layer at the base of the flower 
pedicel, thus permitting the flow of 
nutrients necessary for the growth of 
fruits ...”. The literature does not indi¬ 
cate that the effect of g. s. on the devel¬ 
opment of the absciss layer and abscission 
has been fully studied. And in at least 
one plant, tomato, it has been found (6) 
that the absciss layer is formed while 
the flower is quite small and that ab¬ 
scission may take place at any time by 
the separation of cells in this layer. 

In a preliminary report presented be¬ 
fore this academy (7) and in a complete 
report (8) the effect of g. s. on the 
development of the absciss layer and 
abscission of coleus leaves was given. 
The results may be summarized briefly 
as follows: removal of the blade of a 
coleus leaf accelerates development of the 
absciss layer and abscission, but the 
application of g. s. inhibits abscission, 
partially due to a delay in the develop¬ 
ment of the absciss layer, but mostly due 
to a delay in the disintegration of 
lamellae in walls of cells in this layer. 
The absciss layer is formed a consider¬ 
able time before abscission takes place 
and application of g. s. inhibits abscission 
of debladed leaves with mature absciss 
layers for a month or more. Other re¬ 
sults indicated that the production of g. s. 
by the developing blades was correlated 
with the abscission processes in the 
leaves. 

The effect of g. s. on petioles develop¬ 
ment was noted and due to certain 


similarities between this and that of the 
production of parthenocarpic fruit the 
following experiment was carried out. 

A number of coleus plants were propa¬ 
gated by cuttings and when they were 
of a suitable size, 20 plants were selected 
and divided into two lots. These plants 
bore eight pairs of leaves not counting 
those in the terminal bud. The leaves of 
one group were debladed and one of each 
pair of petioles at a node was treated 
with 1 per cent heteroauxin in lanolin 
and the opposite petioles were coated 
similarly with plain lanolin. One leaf at 
each node in the other group of plants 
was debladed and plain lanolin applied to 
it. The petioles of these two groups of 
plants were marked off into % inch seg¬ 
ments with India ink. At the end of two 
weeks the petioles were removed and the 
results tabulated as indicated in Fig. 1. 



Fig. 1. Diagram indicating the amount of 
elongation of coleus petioles during a two 
week period, a, petiole of intact leaf ; b, un¬ 
treated debladed petiole ; c, debladed petioles 
treated with 1 per cent heteroauxin. The 
numbers indicate the position of the leaves 
below the terminal bud. 

The untreated debladed petioles of the 
seventh and eighth pairs of leaves had 
abscised so these were not included. 

Deblading of the blades prevented fur¬ 
ther elongation of the petioles, but the 
applied g. s. caused continued elongation 
of the petioles. The most pronounced 
elongation was in the petioles of the 
younger leaves and there was less in the 
older petioles. The elongation of the 
younger petioles was less than that of 
opposite petioles of the intact leaves. The 
older petioles that were treated became 



































90 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


longer than the petioles of the opposite 
intact leaves. Apparently a supply of 
g. s. favors continued development of 
petioles of intact and debladed leaves and 
this may be correlated with the inhibi¬ 
tion of the abscission processes in the 
petioles. This may be similar to the pro¬ 
duction of parthenocarpic fruits by the 
use of g. s. 

A study of the development of absciss 
layers and abscission in “normal” fruit 
and in parthenocarpic fruit produced by 
the use of g. s. is in progress and this 
may clarify the situation. 

Summary 

1. Removal of the blades of coleus 
leaves stops elongation of the petioles. 

2. Application of a lanolin paste con¬ 
taining 1 per cent heteroauxin inhibits 
abscission of the petioles and causes 
continued elongation of the petioles simi¬ 
lar to that in the opposite intact leaves. 

3. Some relationship between this and 


the production of parthenocarpic fruits 
by the use of g. s. is suggested. 


Literature Cited 

1. Gustafson, F. G. Inducement of fruit 
development by growth promoting chemi¬ 
cals. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 22: 628-636. 

1936. 

2. - Parthenocarpy induced by pol¬ 

len extract. Am. Jr. Bot. 24:102-107. 

1937. 

3. Gardner, F. E. and Marth, P. C. 

Parthenocarpic fruits induced by spray¬ 
ing with growth promoting compounds. 
Bot. Gaz. 99:184-195. 1937. 

4. - Effectiveness of several 

growth substances on parthenocarpy in 
holly. Bot. Gaz. 101:226-229. 1939. 

5. Gardner, F. E. and Kraus, E. J. His¬ 

tological comparison of fruits developing 
parthenocarpically and following pollina¬ 
tion. Bot. Gaz. 99 :355-367. 1937. 

6. Kendall, J. N. Abscission of flowers 

and fruits in the Solanaceae with special 
reference to Nicotiana. Univ. of Calif. 
Publ. Bot. 5:347-428. 1918. 

7. Myers, R. M. Factors affecting the 

abscission of the leaves of Coleus blumei. 
Trans. Ill. Acad. Sci. 32 :80-82. 1939. 

8. - The effect of growth sub¬ 

stances on the absciss layer in leaves of 
coleus. Bot. Gaz. 1940. (In press.) 


A NEW-COMER’S IMPRESSIONS OF THE BOTANY 

OF ILLINOIS 

G. Neville Jones 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 

An Abstract 


During the present academic year study 
of the flora of Illinois lias been directed 
chiefly toward work in the Herbarium of 
the University of Illinois and the collec¬ 
tion of herbarium specimens of vascular 
plants in the eastern and central parts 
of the State. The University herbarium 
consists of approximately 260,000 speci¬ 
mens of vascular plants, bryopliytes, and 
thallophytes, kept in standard herbarium- 
cases. It includes the collections from 
Illinois of the pioneer botanists Brendel, 
Welsch, Schneck, Andrews, Mrs. Agnes 
Chase, Virginius Chase, E. J. Hill, and 
many others, as well as abundant mate¬ 
rial from nearly every part of the United 
States, and many other regions of the 
world. This material, assembled for the 
purpose of scientific study, and supple¬ 
mented by recent personal collections, 
furnishes an adequate datum plane for 
the investigation of the flora of the 
Upper Mississippi Valley. The accumula¬ 
tion of these specimens is the result of 


the labor of more than fifty local bot¬ 
anists, many of them amateurs, who have 
devoted a considerable part of their lives 
to the study of the flora of Illinois. 

After a century and a quarter of 
botanical work, it might be supposed 
that the flora of Illinois has been thor¬ 
oughly studied and that nothing now 
remains to be done. This is not an orig¬ 
inal idea. As long ago as 1870, W. H. 
Leggett, the founder of the Bulletin of 
the Torrey Botanical Club , referred to 
systematic botany as follows: “...this 
field has been so well worked, and is so 
full of workers, that there is little room 
for any new comer to add much to our 
knowledge of this department of botany.” 
Yet, during the thirty-year period from 
1889 to 1929, the journal of the New 
England Botanical Club, Rhodora, under 
the editorship of B. L. Robinson, pub¬ 
lished nearly 2,200 novelties chiefly from 
northeastern North America, a region 
that had been botanized for nearly 300 











Botany — 19^0 Meeting 


91 


years. 1 In addition there were, of course, 
innumerable records of newly-arrived 
weeds, and extension of ranges of species 
already well known. It is probable that 
opportunities for increasing the knowl¬ 
edge of the flora and vegetation of Illinois 
are at least equally great. 

One of the most colorful characters 
among the pioneers of Illinois botany, 
and the one who made the most durable 
studies, was Frederick Brendel of Peoria. 
Brendel’s Flora Peoriana is an 89-page 
book published [English edition] in Peo¬ 
ria in 1887. As stated in the preface, it 
is the result of thirty-five years’ work on 
the flora of the vicinity of Peoria. It 
includes a chapter of general remarks 
on the distribution of plants, one on top¬ 
ography, soil, climate, and discussions 
of the prairie, forest, and several other 
habitats. Most of the book is filled with 
a list of the species of plants, including 
the flowering plants, ferns, mosses, liver¬ 
worts, fungi, and algae of the region. The 
total number of vascular plants attributed 
to the state of Illinois by Brendel is 1,355. 

At the present time, on the basis of 
preliminary studies, I have been able to 
increase this number by almost 900 spe¬ 
cies or, to a total of 2,243. If this number 
of native and naturalized species is an¬ 
alyzed it is found to consist of the fol¬ 
lowing: 





F amilies 

Genera 

Species 

Ferns and fern-allies_ 

8 

23 

78 

Gymnosperms_ 

2 

8 

12 

Monocotyledons_ 

28 

158 

620 

Dicotyledons_ 

129 

556 

1533 

Total_ ..._ 

171 

745 

2243 


The ligneous plants, trees and shrubs, 
belong to 35 families, 80 genera, and 285 
species. Herbaceous plants belong to 136 
families, 665 genera, and 1,958 species. 
Carex is the largest genus with 130 spe¬ 
cies. Of the grasses there are 65 genera 
and 210 species. Panicum is the largest 
genus of grass with 30 species. There 
are 17 genera and 37 species of orchids 


recorded for Illinois. Salix has 19 spe¬ 
cies, and Quercus 21. There are 75 
genera of Compositae and a total of 275 
species. Aster is the largest genus in this 
family with 34 species, and Solidago next 
largest with 18 species. 

These statistics are merely approximate 
and tentative. They are, however, based 
chiefly on herbarium records and there¬ 
fore are reasonably accurate, although a 
good deal of additional study will be 
necessary to bring the subject of the sys¬ 
tematic botany of the vascular plants of 
Illinois to a satisfactory level of scien¬ 
tific accuracy. From the summaries pre¬ 
viously mentioned, certain peculiarities 
stand out clearly: (1) the total number 
of species of vascular plants known to 
occur in Illinois is almost one-half the 
number included in the current edition of 
Gray’s Manual, (2) there is a surprising¬ 
ly large number of ferns and fern-allies, 
and (3) for a “prairie state” the propor¬ 
tion of ligneous species is astonishingly 
high. 

It is almost certain that additional spe¬ 
cies will be listed for the flora of Illinois. 
These are to be sought especially near 
the state boundaries where species al¬ 
ready recorded from adjacent regions 
may be found to actually occur within 
the limits of this state. Then, of course, 
there are always new weeds appearing 
here and there, and likewise those plants 
that Asa Gray quaintly designated as 
“fugitives from cultivation”. And it is 
entirely possible that there may be a few 
undiscovered and undescribed native spe¬ 
cies awaiting scientific investigation, al¬ 
though in a region as well worked as 
Illinois, the number of these is not likely 
to be very large. However, the chief op¬ 
portunities for botanical work on the lo¬ 
cal flora lie not so much in the discovery 
of new species as in the renewed study 
of some of those species that are already 
partly known. There is plenty of fasci¬ 
nating and profitable work along these 
lines awaiting all interested students for 
a great many years to come. 

1 M. L. Fernald, Rhodora 31 : 4. 1929. 




























92 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


THE PROJECT METHOD IN BIOLOGY 

J. W. Hudson 

Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois 


The biology laboratory period is es¬ 
sentially a supervised study period. This 
imposes a difficulty on both the student 
and instructor. Ordinarily, a student will 
study until he feels that he knows the 
material. If he is a good student, he 
will finish in a short time; if he is a poor 
student, he will take a longer time. In 
the laboratory, however, all study for the 
same length of time. The good student 
will finish in a shorter time than the poor 
student, or he will soon learn to work 
at a lower efficiency. In the first case 
the student is apt to become a trouble 
maker. In the second case he becomes an 
idler. 

I developed a method of handling this 
situation, which we have gradually come 
to call the project method. At first these 
projects were very simple affairs designed 
to occupy the ten or fifteen minutes 
spare time of some of the students. For 
instance, in studying the leaf the student 
might be given two or more leaves from 
which the epidermis is to be stripped. 
The problem is to determine the occur¬ 
rence of stomata on one or both surfaces 
of the leaf. One requiring slightly longer 
time would be to count the number of 
stomata in several fields to determine 
the relative frequencies in different leaves. 
Gradually a large number of these items 
was accumulated for daily use. 

From time to time, more ambitious 
projects requiring more time were under¬ 
taken. At the same time definite credit 
was given to the student for the work he 
had done. This credit is given in the 
form of project points, a certain number 
of points being equivalent to a percentage 
which is added to the final grade. In 
practice, projects are evaluated at the 
time they are completed. However, near 
the end of the course, each student is 
examined orally or in writing to deter¬ 
mine what he has actually learned from 
his work, and the various projects are 
again evaluated in the light of these ex¬ 
aminations. No one is allowed to raise 
his mark in this manner by more than 


one-half letter or four percentage points. 

It is difficult to prevent the poorer 
student from neglecting the regular work 
in an ill-advised attempt to improve his 
mark by working on projects. This prob¬ 
lem is partly solved by limiting the 
amount of credit. Students whose mark 
is below C (the average grade) are some¬ 
times not permitted to work on projects 
if this seems advisable. Another diffi¬ 
culty is encountered with the good stu¬ 
dent who has nothing to gain in a mate¬ 
rial way from doing such extra work. 
Special effort is made to reach these 
students by offering them things of an 
especially attractive nature. 

A group of projects is usually centered 
around each exercise in the course. In 
this group are all types from those which 
require five minutes to some which ex¬ 
tend over several months. This is a typi¬ 
cal group of projects based on the study 
of the liverworts. The following require 
only a few minutes. Find a median sec¬ 
tion of a chimney pore; find young stages 
in the antheridium, archegonium, sporo- 
phyte, study a young gemma. These take 
more time: study the complete develop¬ 
ment of the antheridium, the archegon¬ 
ium, the sporophyte; Bower’s theory of 
progressive sterilization as shown in the 
sporophytes of Riccia, Sphaerocarpus, 
Marchantia, Aneura, and Anthoceros. 
Students who draw well are encouraged 
to make wall charts. Collection of ma¬ 
terial for life cycles is often difficult be¬ 
cause of shortness of time and distances 
which must be traveled. Groups are, 
however, taken to Starved Rock and 
White Pines State Parks for the purpose 
of studying liverworts in their natural 
surroundings. 

Problems which require reading, grow¬ 
ing of plants, and original thinking are 
proposed to the entire class, or to selected 
groups. Three examples are given. The 
gemma has two growing points. Does it 
develop two thalli? What are the heavily 
stained cells in the lower layer of cells 
in the thallus? The class is shown the 







Botany — 19JfO Meeting 


93 


usual antheridial and archegonial ma¬ 
terial with elongated stalks. How does 
the sperm reach the egg? 

Within recent years a definite type of 
project has been selected for study for 
each year. Two years ago, wall charts 
were concentrated on. Last year, taxo¬ 
nomic collections were selected, and this 
year photography is being emphasized. 
Much of the work done is fragmentary 
or of such poor quality that it cannot be 
used. In spite of this, a valuable collec¬ 
tion of teaching materials has resulted. 


The advantage of the project method 
is that the student takes an active part 
in the courses having some choice as to 
what he will study. Sometimes the stu¬ 
dent develops an enduring interest in 
some phase of the subject which he first 
became acquainted with as a project. The 
free and informal use of the department’s 
materials, and the close and almost con¬ 
stant association with the instructor 
make the student feel that he is a real 
part of the department. 





































. 




















' — 































































' 

























































■ 



























Papers In Chemistry 


Extract From the Report of the Section Chairman 

The program of the Chemistry Section carried twenty-three papers, fifteen 
of which are herewith published. Titles of the others are: 

Endiols, by R. Y. Lindsey, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Foam stability, by Sidney Ross, Monmouth College, Monmouth. 

Copper in tomatoes, by William J. Shannon, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Chemical analysis by means of the spectrograph .—Russell J. Kiers, Uni¬ 
versity of Illinois, Urbana. 

Synthetic hydrocarbon reactions in petroleum refining .—Gustav Egloff, Uni¬ 
versal Oil Products Co., Chicago. 

Effect of catalysts on structure of vinyl polymers. —E. H. Riddle, University 
of Illinois, Urbana. 

Presentation of atomic structure to college freshmen, 1905-191^0 .—Sister 
Mary Martinette, Mundelein College, Chicago. 

The student, the teacher, and the glands .—Charles L. Haggard, Zeigler 
High School, Zeigler. 

Attendance averaged 45, and George H. Reed, Knox College, Galesburg,, 
was elected chairman for the 1940 meeting. 

(Signed) James W. Neckers, Chairman 



9b 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


THE USE OF CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE IN 
GYMNASIUM SANITATION 

Howard W. Adams and Delbert N. Eggenberger 
Illinois State Normal University, Normal, Illinois 


Prior to 1929, bleaching powder (chlor¬ 
ide of lime) was the most commonly used 
chlorine carrier for use in disinfection. 
Its value was expressed in terms of avail¬ 
able chlorine which might range from 
near zero to 35 per cent. This compound, 
sometimes incorrectly called calcium hy¬ 
pochlorite, was really the hypochlorite 
only in part, for some of its chlorine was 
chloride chlorine and not available for 
disinfection purposes. The preparation, 
as might be expected, was highly hygro¬ 
scopic and when opened to the air quickly 
became pasty and difficult to use. More¬ 
over its available chlorine was rapidly 
lost, thus rendering the preparation value¬ 
less. Because of these characteristics of 
bleaching powder, small scale disinfection 
by use of chlorine and chlorine carrier 
was seriously hindered. Meanwhile, the 
sanitary engineer was extending the use 
of liquid chlorine for sterilization of pub¬ 
lic water supplies and treatment of sew¬ 
age. Because of its nature liquid chlorine 
was not practicable for the small user. 

The time was ripe for an improved 
chlorine carrier when the Mathieson Al¬ 
kali Works 1 in 1929 announced a new 
compound of much higher available chlor¬ 
ine content. This compound, which more 
nearly approached the composition of true 
calcium hypochlorite, was a white non- 
hygroscopic solid of greater stability than 
the earlier bleaching powder and carry¬ 
ing more than double the available chlor¬ 
ine of bleach. Among the other names, 
this product is known as High Test Hy¬ 
pochlorite, H.T.H. The Pennsylvania Salt 
Manufacturing Co. has placed on the 
market a similar product, Percliloron. 

These materials, and others 2 , have 
opened to the sanitarian a convenient 
agency for the use of chlorine as a dis¬ 
infectant. 

One of the most distressing problems 
in gymnasium sanitation has been the 
control of so-called “athlete’s foot’’, a 
ringworm caused by a fungus growth. 


Sodium thiosulfate has been widely used 
in the control of this disease and is still 
so used. It occurred to the senior author 
of this paper that calcium hypochlorite 
might prove effective as a disinfectant 
for athlete’s foot and he suggested to a 
student, troubled in this way, that a lit¬ 
tle of the powder be shaken into the 
shoes, the High Test Hypochlorite being 
at the time a reagent on the laboratory 
side shelf, used for the production of oxy¬ 
gen. A few days later the student re¬ 
ported that his trouble had disappeared. 

At about that time, or a little later, 
our men’s gymnasium had a serious out¬ 
break of the disease and lightly dusting 
the floors of shower baths and dressing 
rooms as well as benches with High Test 
Hypochlorite was practiced for a time. 
It was the expectation that the rather 
high concentration of the hypochlorite on 
the soles of feet resulting from walking 
barefoot over damp floors would prove 
effective. These hopes were not fully 
realized, however, because the care-takers 
failed to spread the material regularly. 

Subsequently compulsory foot baths 
containing solutions of sodium hypo¬ 
chlorite, produced by treating the calcium 
salt with sodium carbonate, were in¬ 
stalled. The foot baths are of rubber and 
are placed in the doorway between the 
shower room and the dressing room so 
that it is, at least, inconvenient for the 
student to avoid stepping into the liquid. 
The solution used contained 1 per cent 
available chlorine (10,000 ppm.), which 
is twice that recommended by the Ma¬ 
thieson Alkali Works for use in such 
cases. The chemical tests began when 
the foot baths were installed, April 18, 
and were continued to September 29,1939. 
The 1 liquid was changed frequently so 
that in no case did the residual available 
chlorine after use drop to lower than 
0.13% (i.e. 1300 ppm.) and in the major¬ 
ity of cases the percentage decrease was 
less than 50 per cent, indicating that the 


Chemistry — 19JfO Meeting 


97 


liquid when discarded still had better 
than 5,000 ppm. of available chlorine. A 
total of 2,076 students used the baths. 
Dr. Rachel M. Cooper, the college physi¬ 
cian, reports that good progress has been 
made in controlling the disease. 


Below are given the data resulting 
from the test of each lot of liquid used. 
The available chlorine was determined 
iodometrically by titration with standard 
sodium thiosulfate. 


Results of Chemical Tests on the Sodium Hypochlorite Foot Baths 


Original Solution 

Available Cl 

Number of 
Users 

Residual Solution 
Available Cl 

Decrease in 
Available Cl 

% 

ppm 


% 

ppm 

% 

1.22 

12200 

33 

0.74 

7400 

39 

1.00 

10000 

33 

0.72 

7200 

28 

0.92 

10000 

40 

0.20 

2000 

78 

0.88 

8800 

40 

0.63 

6300 

31 

1.10 

11000 

45 

0.79 

7900 

28 

1.42 

14200 

52 

0.77 

7700 

45 

1.00 

10000 

61 

0.41 

4100 

59 

1.00 

10000 

61 

0.31 

3100 

69 

1.03 

10300 

75 

0.70 

7000 

32 

1.00 

10000 

81 

0.36 

3600 

64 

1.00 

10000 

91 

0.58 

5800 

42 

1.00 

10000 

91 

0.56 

5600 

44 

1.26 

12600 

93 

0.51 

5100 

60 

1.00 

10000 

100 

0.48 

4800 

52 

1.00 

10000 

97 

0.51 

5100 

49 

1.06 

10600 

101 

0.40 

4000 

62 

1.03 

10300 

102 

0.52 

5200 

50 

1.00 

10000 

105 

0.36 

3600 

64 

1.19 

11900 

109 

0.91 

9100 

23 

1.20 

12000 

112 

0.76 

7600 

36 

1.30 

13000 

116 

0.13 

1300 

90 

1.26 

12600 

131 

0.74 

7400 

41 

1.11 

11100 

145 

0.64 

6400 

42 

1.00 

10000 

162 

0.48 

4800 

52 

Total.. 


2,076 





1 Gage, R. E. Chem. and Met. 36:295 (1929). 

2 Hedgepeth, L. L. Trans. Electrochem. Soc. 67: (1935). 





















98 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN IN CHEMISTRY 

Virginia Bartow 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 

ABSTRACT 


The number of women chemists is 
markedly increasing. At chemical meet¬ 
ings, four or five times as many are pres¬ 
ent as there used to be fifteen years ago. 
This explains the growing desire of these 
women to know what positions they may 
expect to fill. 

A cursory study made of four lists of 
women chemists will present a fair view 
of a cross section of those who have been 
reasonably successful. The first list 
comprises forty-three women who were 
members of the American Chemical So¬ 
ciety in 1903. Of these, twenty were list¬ 
ed then or later in “American Men of 
Science” as heads of departments, Home 
Economics heads, deans of women and a 
few outside of teaching. The second 
group is the three hundred and thirty 
women listed in the latest edition of 
“American Men of Science” who state 
their vocation as chemistry. Of these one 
hundred and ninety-six teach, eighty list 
their profession as research, medical re¬ 
search, government service or work in 
one of the Foundations, and approximate¬ 
ly fifty are scattered in practically as 
many industries. In the American So¬ 
ciety of Biological Chemists there are 
forty-five women who, like all the mem¬ 
bers, were elected by vote. Among them 
eighty-two per cent teach, fourteen per 
cent are research workers and four per 
cent are in industrial positions. The 
last group is the total of thirty-three 
women who have the Ph.D. degree from 
the chemistry department of the Uni¬ 
versity of Illinois. The three Catholic 
sisters, the two Chinese students and the 
nine married women constitute a group 
whose occupations are settled. Of the re¬ 
maining nineteen only five have left their 
first position and again the majority 
teach. From this information, it is evi¬ 
dent that teaching is still the most likely 
field for a woman and that industry is 
difficult to enter. 


The training needed, the access to the 
teaching field and its advantages are self 
evident and need little comment. How¬ 
ever, an individual who enjoys chemistry 
almost always has a desire to do labora¬ 
tory work. Opportunity in the latter type 
of endeavor is more uncertain since the 
industrial people rarely accept a woman. 
The most promising way to enter an in¬ 
dustrial concern is through a side door. 
One door is secretarial work. When a 
woman has added to her chemical train¬ 
ing a good secretarial course, she will 
have the tools for her position and know 
the language of the field. At first she 
will be paid no more than a stenographer, 
but she has a chance for promotion if she 
uses intelligence and discrimination. One 
former secretary is a personnel director, 
another is on the staff due to her enter¬ 
prise in selling the products of the com¬ 
pany when she was a secretary and a 
third is the right hand “man” of an edi¬ 
tor. The second door is library work 
which is becoming increasingly important. 
One can receive real satisfaction in con¬ 
tributing indispensable aid to the men in 
the office, laboratories and plant. One 
such library research worker noted, the 
importance of patents and has become a 
patent attorney. Library work leads to 
mention of the requisite knowledge of 
French and German and the merit of 
knowing other languages, particularly 
Russian. 

Analysis of the situation shows it is 
advantageous to become proficient in some 
field where man’s priority is traditionally 
not so completely accepted. Suggestions 
are X-ray, microscopy, micro-analysis, 
dyes, dry cleaning, foods, nutrition and 
textiles. The latter fields are wide open 
from the Home Economics and Consumer 
point of view. It is a point worth making 
that the woman who will study Home 
Economics and specialize in foods, nu¬ 
trition and textiles is sure to find a po- 




Chemistry—1940 Meeting 


99 


sition if she is a good student. A woman 
who has only a chemical background is 
not so easily assimilated in a Home Eco¬ 
nomics group. 

A plea has been made from the Bureau 
of Home Economics at Washington that 
more women take the Civil Service ex¬ 
amination for chemical positions. Among 
the great numbers who take these exam¬ 
inations, very few are women. More of 
them ought to be seriously considering 
this possibility and get their names on 
the eligible list. 

A woman should enter the chemical 
field only if she is an exceptional student 
and insists upon doing it after she fully 
realizes the many difficulties which are 
a real handicap. She must compete with 
men in a man’s field. While the physical 
and physiological factors are not so seri¬ 
ous, as some try to imagine, the psy¬ 
chological ones definitely exist. As long 
as society proceeds on its present basis, 
a woman’s emotions will minimize her 
obligations. If women are therefore less 
permanent, if they do not always do more 
than is required, if they cannot do as 
much as a man in the same time—all com¬ 
plaints that have been advanced—then 
the business man asks whether she does 
give back to the concern adequate return 
for value received. 

Average professional women have no 
one to help them comparable to a man’s 
wife. Women may grow dull due to over¬ 
conscientiousness which is an asset at 
first but a liability if carried to the ex¬ 
treme where the neurotic woman is not 
adaptable to fellow workers due to her 
exacting continuous labor or overwork. 
Women are not trained from early child¬ 
hood to develop mechanical ingenuity to 
create or repair equipment. Women still 
have to prove that their scholarly work 


will have the quality in recorded scien¬ 
tific history equal to that of great men. 
They have, of course, not had the cen¬ 
turies of apprenticeship in scientific and 
intellectual pursuits. They will have to 
be patient because at present men are 
likely to believe that they will not find 
scientific genius among the women. 

The pessimism which the enumeration 
of difficulties promotes may be counter¬ 
acted by remembering that women are 
considered excellent teachers, that they 
are more expert at fine work and men¬ 
tally no different. If then temperament 
is to be a deciding factor against them, 
those women who will be chemists should 
be forewarned, look the facts over and 
steadily try to eliminate prejudice in the 
minds of their employers. 

Many cases of women who have ex¬ 
cellent positions might be cited to show 
from what poorly paid positions these 
women advanced to their present status. 
They were good chemists. They had per¬ 
severance, seized opportunity, made them¬ 
selves indispensable and did not become 
submerged. There is no doubt that there 
are positions for a woman chemist who 
is above average but the mediocre had 
best not try to fight a situation so diffi¬ 
cult. 

For further reading on this subject 
there is a bibliography on women in 
Industrial Engineering Chemistry, News 
Ed. 14, 206 (1936). There was a sym¬ 
posium on the subject at the Boston Meet¬ 
ing of the American Chemical Society and 
the papers were published in the Decem¬ 
ber 1939 issue of the Journal of Chemi¬ 
cal Education. The Women’s Bureau of 
Professional Relations held a symposium 
last April and a brief report is in The 
Chemist. 






100 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


HOME-MADE STRUCTURAL MODELS 

C. W. Bennett 

Western Illinois State Teachers College, Macomb, Illinois 


For some years the author has been 
interested in models to show the relative 
arrangements of ions in ionic crystals 
and of atom kernels and valence electrons 
in molecules of co-valent substances. The 
models shown are a few of the ones made 
here by the author and one or two spe¬ 
cially skillful NYA students. The ideas 
on the structure of the NaCI, CsCl, CaF 2 , 
and Si0 2 models are taken largely from 
C. W. Stillwell’s excellent series of arti¬ 
cles published in the Journal of Chemi¬ 
cal Education. 1 The wooden balls used 
in most of these models were turned out 
on the college lathe by one of the stu¬ 
dents. It is possible now however to buy 
balls of various colors from the chemical 
apparatus houses. Holes were bored at 
desired angles and dowel sticks were used 
to connect the parts. 

The sodium chloride structure consists 
of a 6:6 coordination where each Na + 
ion is surrounded by six Cl" ions and 
each Cl" ion by six Na + (except at the 
corners and edges, of course). Many 
other salts such as LiBr, NaBr, KBr, 
RbBr, CaO, CaS, CdO, MgS, LiF, LiCl, 
LiBr, Lil, NaF, Nal, KF, KC1, KI, etc. 
show this structure. Larger ions like 
cesium have a coordination of 8 so that 
eight Cs + ions surround each Cl" ion 
and vice versa. Other examples are CsBr, 
NH4CI, Csl, etc. An example of a diva¬ 
lent-monovalent salt is found in the case 
of CaF 2 where each Ca ++ ion is surround¬ 
ed by eight F" ions but each F" ion is 
surrounded by only four Ca ++ ions. The 
final result then is twice as many flu¬ 
orides as calciums. This model is not 
entirely complete but it should be noted 
that alternate cubes made by 8 F" ions do 
not contain Ca ++ ions while the others do. 

The SiO- model is interesting because 
while it is not ionic it shows a continu¬ 
ous structure and that this material is 
actually a high polymer where each sili¬ 
con kernel is surrounded by four oxygen 
kernels but each oxygen by only two sili¬ 


cons. The bonds here are covalent 
formed from one electron from silicon 
and one from oxygen in each case. 

The other models are on a different 
plan and attempt to show the relative elec¬ 
tronic arrangement of some common sub¬ 
stances. No attempt at definitely placing 
electrons has been made since they are 
of course always in a complicated type of 
motion. The electrons are shown in dif¬ 
ferent colors only to help visualize their 
origin and not because electrons from one 
element are different from those of others. 

The methane molecule CH 4 is shown by 
a (black) carbon kernel at the center 
tetrahedrally surrounded by four (yel¬ 
low) hydrogen kernels. Between each 
hydrogen and the central carbon are a 
small yellow and a small black ball rep¬ 
resenting the covalent bond. Ammonia 
(NH 3 ) is shown by a (blue) nitrogen 
kernel with 5 (blue) electrons three of 
which are shared with one (yellow) elec¬ 
tron contributed by each of three hydro¬ 
gens. This leaves a pair of (blue) elec¬ 
trons unshared which could add a hydro¬ 
gen ion (H + ) “landing” without any elec¬ 
tron. To show this a yellow ball was 
fitted with a metal tube from an old cork 
borer just the size to fit on the dowel 
which bears the two blue electrons. This 
new group is the ammonium ion (NH 4 + ) 
and has a positive charge because of the 
shortage of one electron. 

Similarly a water molecule consisting 
of a (red) oxygen kernel with its 6 red 
electrons is joined to two (yellow) hy¬ 
drogens each bringing one electron. 
There are however two pairs of (red) 
unshared electrons. A hydrogen ion 
might take up this position to yield the 
hydronium ion (H 3 0 + ). It is conceivable 
but unlikely that a second H + would share 
the second pair of electrons to produce 
H 4 0 ++ . 

The other two models deal with the 
sulfate and nitrate ions. The sulfate 
(SOr") is made from a (green) sulfur 


iC. W. Stillwell, J. Chem. Ed. 10 590-599, 667-674 (1933), 11 159-168 (1934). See also 
his text “Crystal Chemistry” McGraw-Hill, 1938. 






Chemistry — 19J+0 Meeting 


101 



Hydronium ion 

h 3 o+ 


Methane 

CH 4 


Nitrate ion 

no 3 - 


Sulphate ion 
S0 4 -- 


Ammonia 

NH 3 



Cs+Cl- Si0 2 Ca++F 2 

8:8 2:4 4:8 


Na+Cl- 
6 :6 


kernel at the center with six (green) elec¬ 
trons surrounded tetrahedrally by four 
(red) oxygen kernels carrying six (red) 
electrons each. Two of these oxygens 
are joined to sulfur by a dative covalence 
where the sulfur furnishes the pair of 
electrons in each core (these are shown 
in green). The other two oxygens are 
joined by one red and one green electron 
showing a simple covalence while the val¬ 
ence shell of each of the latter two oxy¬ 
gens is completed by one (yellow) elec¬ 
tron from an outside source, thus giving 
the sulfate a negative charge of two. The 
nitrate ion (N0 3 ") is shown by a (blue) 
nitrogen kernel with its five (blue) elec¬ 
trons and three (red) oxygens each with 
six red electrons. One oxygen shares a 


pair of red and one of blue electrons mak¬ 
ing a double bond. One oxygen shares a 
pair of blue electrons contributed by the 
nitrogen alone (a dative covalence) and 
one oxygen shares a pair consisting of one 
red and one blue electron making a nor¬ 
mal covalence. Its valence shell is com¬ 
pleted by a (yellow) electron from an 
outside source this making the ion bear 
a negative charge of one. 

By varying the colors used the sulfate 
model could be used for SiCh , PCh , 
ClOr, and 0s0 4 , etc., while the nitrate 
model would also illustrate C0 3 “", etc. 
By leaving off some of the dative cova¬ 
lent oxygensi the reduced SOr", POr", 
C10 3 “, CIO 2 ", CIO" ions etc. might be 
shown. 


































* 





































































• 





















































Chemistry — 19J+0 Meeting 


103 


GEOLOGY AND ITS RELATION TO THE CHEMISTRY 

TEACHER* 

George V. Cohee * 1 

State Geological Sui'vey, TJrbana, Illinois 


Introduction. —By the use of rocks, min¬ 
erals, and ores in class room discussion 
the students will have a better under¬ 
standing of the elements and compounds 
used in the laboratory. This unites 
laboratory practice with the occurrence 
of raw materials in nature and their 
economic importance and will dramatize 
the otherwise prosaic concept of materials 
found on the laboratory shelf as pur¬ 
chased from chemical supply houses. A 
knowledge of the geographic distribution 
and extensive economic use of rocks, 
minerals and ores will not only be of 
interest to the students but will aid 
greatly in the interpretation of current 
affairs of world wide importance. Local 
collecting by students quickly develops 
initiative and interest. Certain specimens 
are available in almost every community 
in the State and these which can not be 
found locally may be obtained from the 
State Geological Survey and various min¬ 
eral supply houses. 

^ ^ $ 

Geology, like Chemistry, has an in¬ 
teresting history. Leonardo da Vinci of 
the fifteenth century, Florentine painter, 
sculptor, architect and naturalist wrote 
on “The Earth and the Sea.” In this 
article he gave his ideas concerning the 
nature of fossils, ideas which were revolu¬ 
tionary in his day. During this same 
period Agricola (George Bauer) a Saxon 
physician and professor of Chemistry, 
whose De re metallica was the basis for 
all later metallurgy, wrote “The Structure 
of the Earth and the Forces which 
Change the Earth.” It included discus¬ 
sions of the origin of minerals, under¬ 
ground waters, and the construction and 
destruction of mountains. 

Geology is the history of the earth and 
its inhabitants. It treats of the rocks and 
minerals and of the agencies and pro¬ 
cesses which have made them. The field 
of geology has many subdivisions. As¬ 


tronomic Geology deals with the outer 
relations of the earth. Petrology is the 
study of rocks; Structural Geology deals 
with the arrangement of the rocks in the 
earth’s crust. Dynamic Geology deals 
with the forces involved in geologic pro¬ 
cesses, such as the formation of moun¬ 
tains, volcanic action and sea level 
changes. Physiographic Geology treats of 
the face of the earth or topographic form 
and changes that take place on the earth's 
surface. Paleontology is the study of 
plant and animal fossils in the rocks, 
which are the remains or traces of the 
flora and fauna of the past. Historical 
Geology traces the succession of events in 
the earth’s history recorded in the rocks 
formed through the ages and in the 
fossils they contain. Economic Geology 
is concerned with the industrial applica¬ 
tions of geologic knowledge. Mining and 
Petroleum Geology are important sub¬ 
divisions in this field. Economic Geology 
is of particular interest to the Chemistry 
teacher since it treats of the occurrence, 
utilization and mining methods of rocks 
and minerals of economic value. 

Nature is the great chemist. All the 
processes of nature involve chemical 
changes which are indeed the processes 
of our existence. The chemist observes 
and studies nature’s methods to discover 
means by which he can change her prod¬ 
ucts, create new substances, and adapt 
natural materials to the uses of man. 

Nature brought the atoms of elements 
and molecules of compounds together and 
they acted as they do now in the chemical 
laboratory. The great mass of the earth’s 
crust is composed of chemically combined 
substances. Here and there in the crust 
of the earth were left few elements. 
Among these we find gold, silver, copper, 
platinum and the diamond. 2 

We do not have a full understanding 
about the earth on which we live and 
from which we derive the materials essen- 


* Published by permission of the Chief, Illinois State Geological Survey. 

1 Assistant Geologist, Illinois State Geological Survey. 

2 Morrison, A. Cressy, Man in a Chemical World, (1937) Charles Scribner’s Sons, N. Y. 



104 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


tial for life. We tend to accept as com¬ 
monplace the works of nature because 
they are so familiar. The product of 
nature’s work is about us everywhere if 
we only pause to see it. No doubt at 
some time or other all of us have had the 
curiosity to wonder what some rock, min¬ 
eral or ore might be. We have wanted 
to know of what it was composed, how it 
was formed, and perhaps whether or not 
it had economic importance. 

While teaching chemistry at University 
High School, Urbana, Illinois, some years 
ago, under the direction of Mr. W. E. 
Harnish, we found that students show 
keen interest in mineral and ore speci¬ 
mens used in class room discussion. 
When a certain element or compound was 
to be discussed, hand specimens of min¬ 
erals, ores and rocks in which this ele¬ 
ment or compound occurred were avail¬ 
able for inspection by the students. The 
mode of occurrence, geographic distribu¬ 
tion, value, mining methods and historical 
background were among the topics dis¬ 
cussed. It was noted that many students 
are familiar with some rocks and min¬ 
erals and are eager to learn more about 
their chemical constitution, physical prop¬ 
erties and uses in industry. Some stu¬ 
dents brought specimens from home 
which either they or immediate members 
of their families had collected in their 
own community or in various travels. 

Rock, mineral and ore are commonplace 
terms used in every day life, and the 
geologic definition of each is as follows: 
A mineral is a natural inorganic sub¬ 
stance which has a homogeneous struc¬ 
ture, definite chemical composition, and 
physical properties, and usually a definite 
crystal form. Rocks are composed of min¬ 
erals in a state of mechanical mixture, 
some rocks are almost made up of a 
single mineral, as for instance a very 
pure limestone which is largely calcite. 
The term ore means a natural mineral 
substance from which some metal may be 
profitably extracted, and its value is de¬ 
termined not only by its content of metal, 
but also by the cost of working and trans¬ 
portation. 

As an example of what minerals might 
be used in classroom work when the com¬ 
pounds of sulphur are to be discussed the 
following common ones are suggested: 
Argentite, Ag 2 S, which occurs as an ore 
in the Comstock lode in Nevada; Galena, 
PbS, the most important ore of lead 


which is found in Illinois as well as 
many other states; Chalcocite, Cu 2 S, an 
important ore of copper, Chalcopyrite, 
CuFeS, another important ore of copper; 
Sphalerite ZnS, a zinc ore; Cinnabar, 
HgS, an ore of mercury; Pyrite, FeS 2 , 
and Marcasite, FeS 2 , which are very com¬ 
mon in sedimentary and igneous rocks. 
Marcasite is particularly abundant in the 
coal deposits in Illinois. It is of interest 
to note that marcasite, which has the 
same chemical composition as pyrite, is 
usually found in coal deposits rather than 
pyrite because it is formed under acid 
conditions. An abundance of humic acid 
was present in the swamps of the Coal 
Age when our coal deposits in Illinois 
were formed. Likewise minerals occur¬ 
ring as oxides, carbonates, and silicates 
could be grouped in their respective 
classes for discussion. 

In addition to studying the specimens 
in the classroom the geographic distribu¬ 
tion of the mineral, ore or rock was 
brought out. For example it was men¬ 
tioned that the principal deposits of cin¬ 
nabar are in Spain near Cordova where 
it has been mined for hundreds of years. 
Cinnabar is also found in the Coast 
Ranges of California. A mineral of more 
local interest is Galena, lead sulphide. 
It occurs in many countries throughout 
the world and important deposits in this 
country are found in Missouri and in 
northwestern and extreme southern 
Illinois. 

The history of exploration for, and min¬ 
ing of ores, is of particular interest to 
the students; for example, the history of 
the first mining of lead deposits in north¬ 
western Illinois. The date of the earliest 
use of the lead deposits of the upper 
Mississippi region is unknown. Some of 
the oldest mines had been worked by the 
Indians before the advent of Europeans. 
Nicolas Perrot, an Indian trader and 
French commandant in the West in 1690, 
was probably the first white man actually 
to see the Indian mines. The Indians 
loaded the ore at the bottom of an in¬ 
clined shaft into deerskin bags and dragged 
it to the surface by means of long thongs 
of hide. This work was performed al¬ 
most entirely by old men and squaws. At 
the surface the ore was heaped on a pile 
of logs. The fire was set in the evening 
and in the morning shapeless pieces of 
lead would be found. The mines were 
later operated by the French, Spanish, 





Chemistry — 19J+0 Meeting 


105 


and English prior to American control in 
1816. 3 

The economic importance of ores and 
materials occurring in nature was in¬ 
cluded in the classroom discussions. 
These products of nature have long gov¬ 
erned the destiny of nations and supple¬ 
mental information regarding them 
greatly adds to the students’ interest. In 
our present era of world changes and 
conflicts, minerals and ores play an im¬ 
mensely important part. Many of these 
have been cut off from world markets, 
and it is difficult for some countries to 
obtain supplies sufficient for their needs. 
Tungsten from China was largely cut off 
from the outside world by the conflict 
with Japan. The Swedish iron ores are 
now unavailable to England. Germany 
has a shortage of copper and tin and is 
forced to substitute aluminum wherever 
possible. The United States fears that if 
Japan takes over the Dutch East Indies 
its own major supply of tin will be cut 
off. 

Of greatest importance to a nation in¬ 
volved in war today is an adequate supply 
of petroleum. Should Germany’s supply 
be stopped the war would soon end as 
that country produced only 4,557,000 
barrels of oil in 1939 but consumed 
54,000,000 during the same period. The 
United States, which has the world’s 
greatest supply of crude oil, produced 
one and one quarter billion barrels in 
1939. Illinois produced seven and one 
half per cent of this amount. As a result 
of the discovery of new pools in this 
State and the tapping of deeper produc¬ 
tive formations, it is estimated that Illi¬ 
nois’ production for 1940 will be 150 mil¬ 
lion barrels of crude oil. The economic 
importance of this industry in our own 
State is reflected in many communities in 
southern Illinois. This newly acquired 
wealth has made that part of our State 
much more prosperous. 

Now that topics of interest to stu¬ 
dents concerning specimens used in 
classroom discussion have been touched 
upon briefly one may wonder how to ob¬ 
tain them and which to use. The first 
thing to do is to become familiar with the 
local industries which utilize the natural 
resources. Mines and quarries of our in¬ 
dustrial minerals are to be found through¬ 
out the State: fluorspar mines for ex¬ 


ample, in Hardin County, southern Illi¬ 
nois, yield beautiful specimens of fluorite, 
calcite, galena, sphalerite, barite, and 
limonite. The limestone quarries yield 
specimens of calcite, dolomite, crystal- 
filled geodes and a variety of interesting 
minerals besides the stone itself. At coal 
mines one may obtain various rocks and 
minerals associated with coal deposits. 
Gravel pits offer the opportunities for the 
collection of many different kinds of 
rocks. Almost pure silica sand is quar¬ 
ried near Utica, Illinois; tripoli, a white 
powdery form of silica is quarried in 
Alexander and Union counties; Fuller’s 
earth, a filtering and bleaching clay of 
especial importance to the petroleum in¬ 
dustry, is mined in Pulaski County. Other 
materials of importance to industry, such 
as clays, shales, molding sand, gravel, 
flux stone, wool rock and others, are also 
available in Illinois in inexhaustible 
amounts. 

As a suggestion to increase the stu¬ 
dents’ personal interest in rocks and min¬ 
erals, special projects might be started 
whereby each student would see how 
many different specimens he could collect 
in his own community. As many of these 
as possible should be identified by the 
student without the assistance of the in¬ 
structor. Each student should be respon¬ 
sible for his own exhibit which would 
develop originality in arrangement of 
specimens according to industrial uses as 
well as chemical composition. 

Minerals, rocks, and fossils common to 
Illinois may be obtained from the Illinois 
State Geological Survey, Urbana, Illinois. 
Study units are mounted for wall cabinet 
display and duplicate sets of loose speci¬ 
mens for class handling and study are 
available for $1.50 each. A study manual 
accompanies each set. The Geological 
Survey also conducts Earth History field 
conferences providing authoritative in¬ 
formation on geology, geologic history, 
physiography and resources of local areas 
through the State. Also lectures on 
geology of Illnois or specific local areas, 
mineral resources, geologic history will 
be made upon request. The Survey also 
offers an identification service free of 
charge of rock, mineral and fossil ma¬ 
terial. Address all inquiries or requests 
to Don L. Carroll who is in charge of 
the Educational Extension Services of the 


3 Geology and Geography of the Galena and Elizabeth Quadrangles, Trowbridge, A. C., 
Shaw, E. W., Shockel, B. H., Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin No. 26, (1916) pages 
179-184. 









106 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, 
Illinois. 

In addition to the rocks and minerals 
common to Illinois, it would be desirable 
to obtain specimens not found in our 
State for use in the chemistry classroom. 
These may be obtained from various min¬ 
eral supply houses for little cost. It 
would be desirable to have reference 
books on rocks and minerals which the 
students could use. These would also 
serve as means of identification of speci¬ 
mens they would collect. A book was re¬ 
cently published by McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, “Getting Acquainted with Min¬ 
erals,” which retails for $2.50. It includes 


the following topics: What equipment is 
needed, how to collect minerals, where to 
find minerals, how to buy minerals, how 
to examine and test minerals, facts about 
crystals, descriptions of minerals and 
rocks, and the identification of minerals. 
Such a book would be a valuable addition 
to any chemistry library. 

The following is a list of rocks and 
minerals suggested for use in the Chemis¬ 
try classroom, also a list of reference 
books which might be used, and the name 
of a well known company from which a 
complete supply of rock, mineral and ore 
specimens can be obtained. 


Group 

1. Native Elements 

2. Oxides 


3. Sulphides 


4. Carbonates 


5. Sulphates 

6 . Chlorides 

7. Fluorides 

8 . Nitrates 

9. Silicates 


Mineral Name 
Graphite 
Sulphur 
Copper 
Silver 
Gold 

Hematite 

Limonite 

Magnetite 

Ilmenite 

Chromite 

Cassiterite 

Franklinite 

Pyrolusite 

Bauxite 

Cuprite 

Zincite 

Quartz 

Corundum 

Argentite 

Galena 

Sphalterite 

Cinnabar 

Chalcocite 

Pyrite 

Marcasite 

Pyrrhotite 

Pentlandite 

Chalcopyrite 

Bornite 

Stannite 

Stibnite 

Siderite 

Malachite 

Azurite 

Cerussite 

Smithsonite 

Calcite 

Dolomite 

Magnesite 

Rhodochrosite 

Witherite 

Barite 

Gypsum 

Celestite 

Halite 

Sylvite 

Cerargyrite 

Fluorite 

Cryolite 

Soda Niter 

Borax 

Willemite 

Calamine 

Kaolinite 

Talc 

Muscovite (Mica) 
Othoclase (Feldspar) 


Chemical 

Composition 

C 

s 

Cu 

Ag 

Au 

Fe 2 0 3 

FeO (OH) 

Fe 3 0 4 

FeTiO-i 

FeCr 2 0 4 

Sn0 2 

(FeMnZn) (FeMn)A 
Mn0 2 

AI0O3 2HoO 

CuoO 

ZnO 

Si0 2 

AI0O3 

Ag 2 S 

PbS 

ZnS 

HgS 

CuS 

FeSo 

FeS 2 

FeuSia 

(FeNi)S 

CuFeS 2 

Cu 2 FeS 3 

Cu 2 FeSnS 4 

Sb 2 S 3 

FeCOs 

(Cu0H) 2 C0 3 

Cu(OH ) 2 2 (CuC0 3 ) 

PbC0 3 

ZnCOa 

CaC0 3 

(CaMg) C0 3 

MgC0 3 

MnCO a 

BaC0 3 

BaS0 4 

CaS0 4 .2H 2 0 

SrS0 4 

NaCl 

KC1 

AgCl 

CaF 2 

Na 3 AlF 6 

NaNO s 

Na 2 B 4 O 7 .10H 2 O 

Zn 2 Si0 4 

Zn 2 Si0 4 .H 2 0 

H 4 Al 2 Si 2 O 0 

H 2 Mg 3 (SiO s ) 4 

H 2 KA1 3 ( Si0 4 ) 3 

KAlSi 3 0 8 


Use 

Industrial 

Industrial 

Industrial 

Industry and Arts 

Industry and Arts 

Ore of Iron 

Ore of Iron 

Ore of Iron 

Ore of Titanium 

Ore of Chromium 

Ore of Tin 

Ore of Zinc 

Ore of Manganese 

Ore of Aluminum 

Ore of Copper 

Ore of Zinc 

Industrial 

Industrial 

Ore of Silver 

Ore of Lead 

Ore of Zinc 

Ore of Mercury 

Ore of Copper 

Ore of Sulphur 

Ore of Sulphur 

Ore of Sulphur 

Ore of Nickel 

Ore of Copper 

Ore of Copper 

Ore of Tin 

Ore of Antimony 

Ore of Iron 

Ore of Copper 

Ore of Copper 

Ore of Lead 

Ore of Zinc 

Industrial 

Industrial 

Industrial 

Ore of Manganese 

Industrial 

Industrial 

Industrial 

Industrial 

Industrial 

Industrial 

Ore of Silver 

Industrial 

Ore of Aluminum 

Industrial 

Industrial 

Ore of Zinc 

Ore of Zinc 

Industrial 

Industrial 

Industrial 

Industrial 






Chemistry — 19Jj.O Meeting 


107 


COMMON ROCKS USED BOTH IN INDUSTRY AND AS THE SOURCE OF 

VARIOUS ECONOMIC MINERALS 


1. Igneous rocks (those which have cooled from a molten state) 

Intrusive (Within the earth) Extrusive (Volcanic) 

a. Acid Rocks (Rich in silica or alkalies) 

Granite Rhyolite 

Pegmatite Trachyte 

Syenite Obsidian 

Pumice 

Tuff 


B. Intermediate Rocks 
Diorite 


Andesite 


C. Basic Rocks (Less silica or alkalies than in the acid rocks; iron, magnesium and cal¬ 
cium content much greater) 

Gabbro Basalt 


D. Ultrabasic Rocks (Made up mostly of iron and magnesium minerals) 
Peridotite Limburgite 


2. Sedimentary Rocks (Rocks classified as to mode of deposition) 

A. Mechanical B. Chemical precipitates C. 

Shale Travertine 

Sandstone Gypsum 

Conglomerate Rock Salt 

Chert 

Agate 

Onyx 


Organic accumulations 
Limestone 
Marl 
Peat 
Coal 


3. Metamorphic Rocks (Rocks which were originally igneous or sedimentary that have been 
altered in place without decomposition or disintegration). 

A. Original rock of sedimentary origin: Quartzite, Slate, Marble, Anthracite. 

B. Original rock of igneous (or sedimentary) origin: Gneiss, Schist, Serpentine. 


REFERENCES 

Typical Rocks and Minerals in Illinois—Ekblaw, G. E. and Carroll, Don L. (1931) Illinois 
State Geological Survey. 

Getting Acquainted with Minerals—English, G. L. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 
New York. 

Gems and Gem Materials—Kraus, E. H., and Slawson, C. B. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 
New York, New York. 

Field Book of Common Rock and Minerals—Loomis, F. B. Putnam Sons, New York, New 
York. 

The Mineralogist—Published monthly by the Mineralogist Publishing Company, Portland, 
Oregon. 

Rocks and Minerals—Published monthly, Peekskill, New York. 

Mineral Supply House : Ward’s Natural Science Establishment, Inc., Rochester, N. Y. 


Acknowledgments 

The writer wishes to express his appreciation to Dr. A. H. Bell, Mr. Don L. Carroll and 
Mr. J. E. Lamar of the State Geological Survey for helpful suggestions and criticism of the 
paper. He is also grateful to Mr. W. E. Harnish, Assistant Professor of Education, University 
of Illinois, whose interest in this work was the inspiration for the paper. 


108 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


THE INTRODUCTION OF FLUORINE INTO AROMATIC 
NUCLEI BY MEANS OF AMMONIUM FLUOBORATE* 

G. C. Finger and F. H. Reed 
State Geological Survey, Urbana, Illinois 


Fluorine is most conveniently intro¬ 
duced into the aromatic nucleus by means 
of the diazonium fluoborate synthesis dis¬ 
covered by Bart 1 , and developed by Schie- 
mann 2 . In brief, the reaction involves the 
diazotization of an aromatic amine, con¬ 
version to the insoluble diazonium fluo¬ 
borate, and subsequent thermal decompo¬ 
sition to the aromatic fluoride. It is il¬ 
lustrated as follows: 

ArNH 2 * -> ArN 2 + ArN 2 BF 4 
-> ArF 4- Na + BFs 

The diazonium fluoborates in a relatively 
pure state have characteristic and defi¬ 
nite decomposition temperatures below 
which they are stable, and, in many 
cases, can be stored for indefinite periods 
of time. 

Fluoboric acid was originally used to 
form the diazonium salt. The resulting 
acid medium was exceedingly corrosive to 
glass or metal equipment. Due to the 
commercial significance of this reaction, 
it was improved upon by the use of sod¬ 
ium fluoborate 3 - 4 thus avoiding the use 
of corrosive hydrofluoric and fluoboric 
acids. This improvement has made it 
possible to prepare many aromatic flu¬ 
orine compounds in the laboratory at a 
reasonable, cost in ordinary glass ap¬ 
paratus. 


Ammonium fluoborate has become avail¬ 
able and can be prepared in a much purer 
form on an industrial scale than the 
sodium salt due to its lower solubility. 
This study was made to determine 
whether ammonium fluoborate can be 
used in place of the sodium salt. 

Aniline, o-toluidine, a-naphthylamine, 
and benzidine were converted to the cor¬ 
responding diazonium chlorides. Each 
diazonium chloride solution was then di¬ 
vided into two equal portions, one was 
treated with a calculated excess of sodium 
fluoborate, and the other with an equal 
excess of ammonium fluoborate. Since 
the ammonium salt is less soluble than 
the sodium salt its molar solution volume 
was larger. Each precipitate pair was 
then filtered, washed, dried, and weighed 
in the usual manner under identical con¬ 
ditions. The results are semi-quanti¬ 
tative in nature and are based on the dia¬ 
zonium fluoborates. The data in this 
form are interesting not only from the 
standpoint that the diazonium fluoborates 
can be used to form dyes 5 but the -N 2 BF 4 
group can be replaced by acetoxy 6 , mer¬ 
cury 7 , nitro 8 , and arsonic acid 9 groups. 
Thermal decomposition in all cases gave 
the corresponding nucleated fluorine com¬ 
pound. 


Table I. —Yield of Aryl Diazonium Fluoborates With Sodium Fluoborate and Ammonium Fluoborate 


Amine 

Moles 

of 

Amine 

Moles 

of 

MBF4 

NaBF 4 

NH 4 BF 4 

Grams of 
ArN 2 BF 4 

Yield 
in % 

Avg. 

% 

Grams of 
ArN 2 BF 4 

Yield 
in % 

Avg. 

Aniline..- __ 

0.25 

0.3 

33 

69 


28 

58 



0.5 

0.6 

69.5 

72.5 

70.7 

56 

58 

58 

o-Toluidine . _ 

0.25 

0.3 

31 

60 


34 

65 



0.5 

0.6 

59.5 

58.8 

59.4 

54 

52.5 

58.7 

a -Naphthylamine...... 

0.25 

0.3 

40 

66 


37.5 

62 



0.25 

0.3 

45 

73 

69.5 

47.7 

78 

70 

Benzidine.... 

0.15 

0.34 

49 

85 


43 

75 



0.15 

0.34 

47 

82 

83.5 

53.5 

93 

84 


* Published with permission of the Chief, Illinois State Geological Survey. 




































Chemistry — 19^0 Meeting 


109 


The data in Table I indicate that the 
ammonium salt gives yields as satisfac¬ 
tory as the sodium salt except with ani¬ 
line. Since the solubility of the diazon- 
ium fluoborate is an important factor, the 
decreased yield in the case of aniline may 
be due to the larger volume necessary 
with the ammonium salt. 

Since this study is preliminary in na¬ 
ture, other amines will be studied as well 
as some of the factors involved. The 
authors wish to express their appreciation 
to the Aluminum Ore Co. of East St. 
Louis for furnishing the commercial sam¬ 
ples of the sodium and ammonium fluo- 
borates. 

Conclusions. —Ammonium fluoborate can 
be used satisfactorily in the preparation 

* Ar represents an aromatic radical. 


of some aromatic fluorine compounds by 
means of the Schiemann reaction. 

Bibliography 

1. Bart, Ger. patent 281,055 (Oct. 12, 1914). 

2. Balz and Schiemann, Ber. 60, 1186 (1927). 

3. LeFevre and Turner, J. Chem. Soc. 19SO, 
1158. 

4. Meigs, U. S. patent 1,916,327 (July 4, 
1933). 

5. Ruggli and Casper, Helv. Chim. Act. 18, 
1414 (1935). 

6 . Haller and Schaffer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 
55, 4954 (1933). 

7. Dunker, Starkey and Jenkins, ibid. 58, 
2308 (1936). 

8 . Starkey, ibid. 59, 1479 (1937). 

9. Ruddy, Starkey and Hartung, unpub¬ 
lished results. 


HYDROGEN BONDS INVOLVING THE C-H LINKAGE* * 

Emanuel Ginsberg 
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


Rodebush and Latimer 1 in 1920 pro¬ 
posed the secondary valence of hydrogen 
or “hydrogen bond” to explain the abnor¬ 
mal properties of certain associated liq¬ 
uids. The hydrogen bond is a type of 
semi-polar bond capable of being formed 
between an unshared pair of electrons on 
an oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom and 
a hydrogen atom linked to another atom 
by a sufficiently ionic link. Such a bond 
is illustrated by the ether-chloroform 
complex, I. The atom supplying the elec- 

R 

:O:-> HCCL 

R 

I 

tron pair is called a “donor” atom and 
that containing the hydrogen atom with 
which jthe bond is formed is called an 
“acceptor” atom. 

In the chloroform-ether complex, the 
presence of the strongly electron-attract¬ 
ing halogen atoms on the carbon atom 
loosens the hydrogen and makes it some¬ 
what ionic thus making it available for 
coordination to the oxygen atom. 

This concept of intermolecular hydro¬ 
gen bonding has proved very helpful in 
explaining and predicting abnormally 


high solubility, high heat of mixing, and 
other deviations from “ideal” admixture 
laws of certain types of organic solvent- 
solute combinations. 

Copley, Zellhoefer and Marvel 2 have 
studied the solubility of partially and 
completely halogenated methanes and 
ethanes in a vast array of organic sol¬ 
vents. The results obtained were readily 
explainable by the hydrogen bond con¬ 
cept. It was found that where intermole¬ 
cular hydrogen bonds between solvent 
and solute were possible high solubilities 
were observed; where the solute and sol¬ 
vent were unassociated and there was no 
possibility of intermolecular hydrogen 
bonding solubilities close to those calcu¬ 
lated by Raoult’s Law were observed; 
and where the solvent was strongly as¬ 
sociated through hydrogen bonding con¬ 
siderably less than theoretical solubilities 
were observed. 

The types of compounds which have 
been found to exhibit eleqtron-pair donor- 
ability are in approximately decreasing 
order of ability: amines, dialkyl amides, 
ethers, esters, ketones, nitriles and nitro 
compounds. 

In the present investigation the heats 
of mixing of a number of C-H contain- 


* Contribution from the Noyes Chemical Laboratory, University of Illinois. 

1 Rodebush and Latimer, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 42, 14i9 (1920). 

2 Copley, Zellhoefer and Marvel, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 60, 1337, 2660, 2714 (1938) ; 61, 3550 
(1939) ; 62, 227 (1940). 





110 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


ing acceptor molecules with donor liquids 
have been studied calorimetrically. The 
heat of mixing in such cases has been 
shown to be produced chiefly by the for¬ 
mation of hydrogen bonds. 

One of the problems studied was the 
effect of substitution on the activity of the 
acceptor hydrogen atom. The more elec¬ 
tro-negative the substituent is the more 
ionic the C-H bond becomes and the 
strength of the hydrogen bond increases 
accordingly. In the haloforms and methy¬ 
lene halides one would expect the activity 
of the acceptor hydrogen to increase in 
the order of increasing electronegativity 
of the halogen substituent, i.e., Cl>Br>I. 
This conclusion is borne out by the heat 
of mixing data in Table I. It is seen 
that: 

CHCl 3 >or ~ CHBr s and CH 2 Cl 2 >or = 
CH 2 Br 2 >CH 2 I 2 

Table I.— Heat of Mixing in Calories Per Mole 
of Solution for Equimolar Mixtures 


curves. This seems to indicate a steric 
effect of the same sort as that found by 
Copley and Zellhoefer 4 for the dimethyl 
ethers of polyethylene glycols. 


Table II.— Heat of Mixing in Calories Per Mole 
of Solution for Equimolar Mixtures 



CHCI 3 

CeHs 

(C 6 H 5 )2 


at 3° 

CHCb 

CHC1 



at 3° 

at 14° 

N, N-dimethyl acetamide 

920 

525 

210 

Ethvl ether_ . _ 

700 3 4 

240 

50 

Acetone_ _ . _ 

520 

220 




The bond formed between donor mole¬ 
cules and tetrachloroethane should be 
weaker than those formed with chloro¬ 
form. Actually the heats of mixing are 
found to be about -the same in both cases 
as* shown in Table III. 

Table III. —Heat of Mixing in Calories Per Mole 
of Solution at 3° for Equimolar Mixtures 


CHCI3 CHBrs 
at 3° at 10° 


N, N-dimethyl acetamide 
Ethyl ether_ 


920 

700 3 


920 

520 



CH 2 CI 2 

CH 2 Br 2 

CH 2 I 2 


at 3° 

at 3° 

at 7° 

N, N-dimethyl acetamide 

535 

410 

100 

Ethyl ether_ 

290 

210 

no heat 


The effect on the activity of the hydro¬ 
gen of chloroform as an acceptor on suc¬ 
cessive replacement of the halogen atoms 
by the less electronegative phenyl group 
was studied. The results shown in Table 
II indicate that: CHCl 3 >CeH 5 CHCl 2 > 
(CcH 5 ) 2 CHC1 as acceptor molecules. 

Another compound studied was sym- 
tetrachloroethane. This compound should 
have two active hydrogen atoms but only 
one was indicated by the heat of mixing 



CHCI 3 

CHCI 2 CHCI 2 

N, N-dimethvl acetamide. 

920 

1,100 

Ethyl ether_ .. __ 

700 3 

570 

Acetone. ... . 

520 

630 


This may be due to the fact that forma¬ 
tion of a hydrogen bond in liquid mix¬ 
tures is an equilibrium reaction depend¬ 
ent on the concentration of acceptor hy¬ 
drogen atoms present. In a mole of sym- 
tetrachloroethane there is twice the con¬ 
centration of acceptor hydrogen atoms as 
in a mole of chloroform. 

Summary. —The heat of mixing of ac¬ 
ceptor molecules containing the C-H link¬ 
age with donor liquids has proved valu¬ 
able in showing the presence of hydro¬ 
gen bonds, in approximating the strength 
of bond, and in determining the molecular 
ratio of donor and acceptor in the com¬ 
plex formed. 


3 McLeod and Wilson, Trans. Faraday Soc. SI, 596 (1935). 

4 Copley and Zellhoefer, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 60, 1343 (1938). 
























































Chemistry — 19J^0 Meeting 


111 


CHEMISTRY TEACHERS’ ASSOCIATION OF 
SOUTHERN ILLINOIS 

C. A. Gross 

Carbondale Community High School, Carbondale, Illinois 


In my brief survey of this topic, I shall 
report the purposes, organization, history, 
activities, and future plans of the asso¬ 
ciation. My hope is that this report will 
not only encourage other groups to or¬ 
ganize, but will also encourage the Asso¬ 
ciation of Southern Illinois to continue 
its efforts with renewed strength. 

The purposes of the Chemistry Teach¬ 
ers’ Association are to encourage high 
school and college students in the study 
of chemistry, to promote activities which 
will stimulate students, to provide means 
of adding to the experiences, knowledge, 
and education of its members, to provide 
inducements to discuss problems perti¬ 
nent to the teachers of chemistry, and to 
unite into a growing fellowship the chem¬ 
istry teachers in the area known as 
Southern Illinois. 

The idea that the chemistry teachers 
might organize came to a small group of 
men in an informal conversation. In fact 
no one person wants the credit for 
broaching the idea. Mr. Ray Williams 
of the Anna-Jonesboro Community High 
School book the next step by sending out 
letters inviting chemistry teachers in the 
locality to an organizational meeting. 
Harry Wilson of Murphysboro, Robert 
Whitney of Cairo, E. L. Brock of Mount 
Vernon, Hal Stone of West Frankfort, 
Ray Williams of Anna, and C. C. Logan, 
Harold Catt, Stanley Hays, Dr. T. W. 
Abbott of the Southern Illinois State Nor¬ 
mal University attended the first meeting. 
At this first meeting an organization was 
formed after reasons for organizing were 
discussed. Ray Williams of Anna was 
elected president and Hal Stone of West 
Frankfort became secretary. Plans were 
made to hold monthly meetings in the va¬ 
rious towns of the area. The organiza¬ 
tion continued to grow in membership as 
committees were appointed to direct the 
activities. 

The first meeting of the organization 
was held in Carbondale, Illinois at the 


Southern Illinois State Normal University 
on December 7, 1938. In its short history 
of existence the organization has met 
once each at Anna, Mount Vernon, Ben¬ 
ton, Murphysboro, Cairo, Harrisburg, and 
twice at Marion and Carbondale. By 
meeting in different schools the members 
have had visitation opportunities never 
before obtained. New ideas have been 
gained by direct observation. 

The activities of the association have 
had a dual purpose. One purpose has 
been to provide educational opportunities 
for teachers to visit local industries, to 
hear lectures by men in business fields 
employing some knowledge of chemistry, 
and to widen the educational horizons of 
the teachers of chemistry who wish to be 
professional. Teachers have had the op¬ 
portunity to visit the Cardox Corporation 
Plant in Benton where C0 2 is used to 
make a coal-shattering cartridge and where 
heater matches are also made. The meet¬ 
ing in Harrisburg gave the members a 
chance to see a liquid oxygen plant and 
one of the largest producing coal mines in 
Southern Illinois, the Sahara Coal Com¬ 
pany, which ships on working days about 
three hundred carloads of coal from its 
combination strip and shaft mine. The 
second purpose of |the activities has been 
to stimulate student interest in the fields 
of chemistry. The chief activity in fur¬ 
thering this latter purpose has been a 
Chemistry Laboratory or Field Day to 
which high school students in the area 
have been invited. Two such days or 
meetings have been held at the Southern 
Illinois State Normal University where 
programs consisting of lectures, motion 
pictures, exhibits, lecture demonstrations, 
and campus tours have been given. As a 
pant of the Chemistry Day programs com¬ 
petitive examinations were held and an 
essay contest conducted. Students were 
awarded prizes in the form of engraved 
medals. 









112 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


As for future plans the association 
wishes to enlarge its circulating library- 
plan, to study the changing ideas of cur¬ 
ricular chemistry, to cooperate with other 
educational organizations in the fields of 
science and science teaching, and to find 
other media for unified stimulation of stu¬ 
dents. The association hopes to develop 
interest in other organizations in the 
state which already serve students. It 
was not organized to compete with or 


minimize the influence of other similar 
organizations. 

One gratifying result of the organiza¬ 
tion has been the evidence of the finest 
type of cooperation among the members 
of this group. The members of the as¬ 
sociation have been pleased with the 
number of students who seemed to profit 
by the stimulation emanating from the 
Chemistry Laboratory Days. 


A NEW SERIES OF SUBSTITUTED 1,5-DIPHENYL- 
PYRAZOLINE-3-CARBOXYLIC ACIDS 
AND THEIR ESTERS 


Edward L. Hill, Arthur Munson and Fred Boettner 


Carthage College, Carthage, Illinois 


The synthesis of pyrazole and pyrazo- 
line compounds has been carried out in 
the laboratory of Carthage College and 
their pharmacology has been studied in 
certain medical and pharmaceutical 
laboratories. 

A serious problem in the synthesis of 
pyrazoline compounds is the determina¬ 
tion of the ring structure in the final 
product. In many pyrazoline compounds 
the ring is not very stable. It tends to 
go to the more stable pyrazole structure. 


H H 

i i 

H-C—0—C-H 
i I 

B 

H-N-N 


H 

\ 

H-C— C — C-H 

H-N-N 


PYRAZOLINE 


PYRAZOLE 


Because of this tendency it is very im¬ 
portant to be able to determine which of 
the two ring structures is present in the 
compound under consideration. The ele¬ 
mentary analysis of the compound is not 
adequate as the difference in composition 
is only two hydrogen atoms. The Knorr 1 
test for pyrazolines (intense colorations 
with ferric chloride, chromates, etc.) is 
very sensitive and will give the test even' 
when only traces of the pyrazoline com¬ 
pound is present. As a result pyrazole 
compounds are often considered to be 
pyrazolines due to traces of pyrazolines 
as impurities. 

One of the series of compounds which 
is being studied in our laboratory, and 
which is considered in this paper is the 


substituted l,5-diphenylpyrazoline-3- 
carboxylic acid, in which a methyl group 
is present in the ortho, meta, or para 
positions in the 1-phenyl group. 



p-Methyl-1,5- 
diphenylpyrazoline-3- 
carboxylic acid 

These compounds are quite stable. By 
careful oxidation with permanganate they 
give the corresponding 1,5-diphenyl- 
pyrazole-3-carboxylic acids with distinctly 
different melting points. These pyrazole 
acids on reduction with sodium-amalgam 2 
and alcohol give the original pyrazoline 
acids. 


l,5-diphenylpyrazoline-3- 
carboxylic acid m.p. 196° 


[ 0 ] 

[h] 


l,5-diphenylpyrazole-3- 
carboxylic acid m.p. 185° 

The compounds of this series show 
marked antipyretic and mild analgesic 
properties. 

The synthesis of the l-tolyl-5-phenyl- 
pyrazoline-3-carboxylic acids is as fol¬ 
lows: 

1. Benzaldehyde is condensed with 
pyruvic acid to form benzalpyruvic acid. 3 






















Chemistry — 19J+0 Meeting 


113 


Or 


^ n 

0 -|- CH® C-C-OH 


KOH 


MeOH 


? Hi I 

$=C-C-G- 


OH 


+ h 2 o 


2. Benzalpyruvic acid is treated with 
o-, m-, or p-tolylhydrazine in glacial acetic 


acid to form the corresponding tolylhy- 
drazone. 


H H 




H H 

-f N—N-H- 


H H 



0 «-r- 


■OH + HoO 


cdy 


H-N 


CHj 


3. Refluxing the tolylhydrazone of 
benzalpyruvic acid in glacial acetic solu¬ 


tion will cause the tolylhydrazone to 
rearrange forming the pyrazoline ring. 1 2 3 4 


<^>-U- r S- 


ch *<CO n - 


C—c—OH 

< 


p—C—c 


-» 


H 


N 


CHa< 


■OH 


H- 


The methyl and ethyl esters of these 
acids were prepared by two procedures: 
1. The treatment of the acid with 




OH 


CH 


»< >- s 


absolute methyl or ethyl alcohol in the 
presence of dry HC1 as a catalyst. 


/ \-a—^ — C —C—OCH* 

\-/ H 


N 


+ CH®OH 


CH® 


CD- 


-N 


+ K«0 


2. The benzalpyruvic acid was esteri- 
fied 5 by the same method and this ester 
was used in the preparation of the tolyl¬ 
hydrazone which was rearranged to the 
pyrazoline compound. The esters pre- 

I pared by each method were identical. 

The following are the compounds of 
this series which we have prepared and 
identified: 1- (o-tolyl) -5-phenylpy razoline- 

1. Knorr, L. Ber. 26, 100 (1893). 

2. Tafel, J. Ber., 22, 1854 (1889). 

3. Reimer, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 53, 3147 

(1931). 


3-carboxylic acid, m.p. 187-189°; methyl 

ester, m.p. 114-115°, ethyl ester m.p.; 

1- (m-tolyl) - 5 - phenylpyrazoline - 3 - car¬ 
boxylic acid, m.p. 185-186°, methyl ester, 
m.p. 121.5-122.5°, ethyl ester, m.p. 73-74°; 
1- (p-tolyl) - 5 - phenylpyrazoline - 3 - car¬ 
boxylic Acid, m.p. 178°, methyl ester, 
m.p. 113-114°, ethyl ester, m.p. 91-92°. 


4. 

Ciusa, R. Gazz. chim. ital. 4 9, 
(1919). 

I, 

164 

5. 

Reimer, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 
(1924). 

46, 

783 


















































114 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


SOME RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE CHEMISTRY 

OF INDIUM 

Therald Moeller 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


Although indium was discovered in 
1863, its extreme scarcity has prevented 
extensive investigations of its properties 
and those of its compounds. Within the 
past decade, however, the metal has been 
made available, and of the many papers 
published, only a few can be considered 
here. 

Indium is produced commercially from 
electrolytic zinc concentrates and from an 
ore, of undisclosed location, controlled by 
the Indium Corporation of America and 
assaying 1.93 ounces of indium per ton. 
This ore is ground and concentrated by 
flotation. The concentrate is roasted and 
leached with sulfuric acid. The indium 
is then displaced or precipitated by neu¬ 
tralization and purified. From zinc pro¬ 
cess residues, the indium is recovered by 
solution in sulfuric acid and repeated re¬ 
placement with zinc. No primary ore of 
indium is known, and although widely 
distributed, indium constitutes only 0.1 to 
0.2% of other ores. 

Pure indium is prepared by electrolysis. 
A stable bath developed by Gray of the 
Indium Corporation is made by dissolving 
freshly precipitated indium hydroxide in 
concentrated sodium cyanide solution con¬ 
taining 0.5 gram of d-glucose per gram of 
indium. From this bath indium deposits 
in a satin-like silvery condition. West¬ 
brook of Grasselli Chemicals obtains com¬ 
pact deposits of indium from a sulfuric 
acid bath containing 250 grams of sodium 
citrate per liter. In the absence of some 
“stabilizing” compound, the indium de¬ 
posit is spongy and undesirable. Sucrose, 
glycine, formic acid, etc., can be used. 

Indium of atomic weight purity has 
been obtained by repeated electrolytic 
transport of the metal through indium 
chloride solution. Analyses of the tri¬ 
halides from this product gave 114.76 as 
the atomic weight. Two isotopes, 113 and 
115, are known. 

Indium with a molal electrode poten¬ 
tial of 0.336 volt lies between cadmium 


and tin in the electromotive series. 

A brown hydride, decomposing at 
330 °C„ is said to form when hydrogen is 
passed over molten indium. A salt-like 
hydride apparently forms when atomic 
hydrogen contacts indium at 100-170 °C. 

Isobaric dehydration experiments and 
x-ray examinations have shown that the 
gelatinous precipitate produced at low 
temperatures by the addition of alkali to 
indium salt solutions and the granular 
precipitate produced by digestion at 
100 °C are identical and have the composi¬ 
tion In 2 0 3 .3H 2 0, or In(OH) 3 . The gran¬ 
ular form contains larger particles. Col¬ 
loidal sols also contain In(OH) 3 particles. 
Information on the effects of polyhydroxy 
compounds on the precipitation of the 
hydroxide and on the solution of the 
latter in strong alkalis is still lacking. 

Indium forms basic salts of the type 
(RCOO) 2 InOH with several organic acids, 
and a number of double salts of the 
trichloride and tribromide with substi¬ 
tuted ammonium halides and substituted 
sulfonium chloride are known. Double 
substituted ammonium sulfates have also 
been prepared. 

Trimethyl indium, a white solid liber¬ 
ating two methyl groups as methane with 
water or alcohol and the third with dilute 
acids, has been prepared by digesting in¬ 
dium, dimethyl mercury, and mercuric 
chloride. Triphenyl indium has been ob¬ 
tained in a similar fashion. From it 
substituted bromides and iodides can be 
made. All react with water to give in¬ 
dium hydroxide. A dioxane complex 
forms with indium tribromide and a 
tripyridine salt with the triiodide. 

Indium sulfate solutions containing sul¬ 
furic acid on evaporation deposit 
IN 2 (S0 4 ) 3 • H 2 S04• 7H 2 0 which on heating 
gives In 2 (SC>4) 3 , a convenient water- 
soluble salt. The thermodynamics and 
hydrolysis of indium sulfate solutions 
have been investigated. 


Chemistry — 19J/.0 Meeting 


115 


Indium trifluoride forms by the action 
of fluorine on the sesqui-oxide or on 
warming ammonium hexafluorindate. 
Heated with indium it gives indium diflu¬ 
oride. Indium dichloride is a glassy solid 
resembling anhydrous stannous chloride. 
Selenides and tellurides or both di-and 
tri-valent indium have been prepared. A 
nitride, InN, is formed by cathodic volati¬ 
lization of indium in nitrogen at low pres¬ 
sures. 

New qualitative tests include the pro¬ 
duction of a bright green fluorescence 
with an alcoholic solution of morine 
(sensitivity, ly), the formation of a red 
color when a filter paper moistened with 
solutions of complex indium cyanide and 
alcoholic alizarin is dipped in saturated 
boric acid, and the precipitation of as 
little at 0.7y with quinalizarin in am¬ 
monium hydroxide. 

Recent quantitative methods involve 
precipitation with 8-hydroxyquinoline 
from a buffered acetic acid solution, 
titration in acetic acid solution with 
potassium ferrocyanide using diphenyl- 
benzidine as indicator, precipitation with 
sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide or 
with potassium cyanate, and polaro- 
graphic analyses. 

A 42 per cent indium alloy with silver 
appears to completely resist alkali sulfide 
tarnishing but is extremely hard and 
brittle. Smaller amounts of indium are 
said to render silver tarnish-resistant, but 
this is disputed. A better procedure in¬ 
volves plating with indium and diffusing 
the plate in at higher temperatures. 
Dental amalgams with 10 to 20 per cent 
indium as well as alloys containing in¬ 
dium, gold, palladium, silver, and copper 
are tarnish-resistant and free from ob¬ 
jectionable expansion and contraction 
effects. Gallium and indium give a 24 
per cent indium eutectic melting at 16 °C. 


Adding 18 per cent indium to Lipowitz 
metal gives an alloy melting at 46.5 °C. 
Cadmium-silver-copper and copper-lead 
bearings are rendered resistant to acid 
corrosion by diffused indium plate. 

Indium salts are highly toxic to mice 
and rabbits when given sub-cutaneously 
but less so on oral administration. 
Toxicity may be delayed and results in 
anemia. Treatment of experimental 
syphilis has been reported. 

Indium appears most promising in 
dental alloys, jewelry, fusible alloys, and 
bearing metals. Indium plate could be 
used in reflectors and mirrors. Indium 
or low melting indium alloys in quartz 
tubes could be used for high temperature 
thermometry. Indium oxide (0.05 per 
cent or more) gives yellow glass. 

Pure indium metal can now be obtained 
for $1.00 to $2.50 a gram. Between 1924 
and 1934, some 1000 kg. of the metal were 
produced, and Gray has stated that 50,000 
to 100,000 ounces could be furnished an¬ 
nually if necessary. 

Bibliography 

Because of the number of papers referred 
to, only a few general references can be 
given. These contain complete literature 
citations. 

1. Potratz, H. A., and Ekeley, J. B., Uni¬ 
versity of Colorado Studies. 21 151 

(1934). 

2. Gmelins “Handbuch der anorganischen 
Chemie”, System-Nummer 37: Indium. 
Verlag Chemie, Berlin. (1936). 

3. Hopkins, B. S., “Chapters in the Chem¬ 
istry of the Less Familiar Elements”, 
Ch. 8. Stipes Pub. Co., Champaign, Ill. 
(1939). 

4. Grassman, W., in van Arkel’s “Reine 
Metalle”, 58, p. 465. Verlag J. Springer, 
Berlin. (1939). 

5. Lawrence, R. E., and Westbrook, L. R., 
Ind. Eng. Chem., SO, 611 (1938). 

6. Ludwick, M. T., “A Bibliography of In¬ 
dium, 1934-1940,” Indium Corporation of 
America, Utica, New York (1940). 

7. Linford, H. B., Ind. Eng. Chem., News 
Ed., 18, 62 (1940). 










116 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


THE FUTURE OF CHEMISTRY AS A SPECIALIZED 
SCIENCE IN THE HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM 

T. A. Nelson, Decatur High School, Decatur, Illinois 


Chemistry has enjoyed a steady in¬ 
crease in enrollment since it was first 
introduced into the high school curricu¬ 
lum, but note should be taken that the 
per cent 1 of the high school population 
enrolled in the course is gradually de¬ 
creasing. Why has this taken place in an 
age which is so filled with scientific 
research and development? Some recent 
trends that are taking place in the sec¬ 
ondary schools may throw some light on 
the situation. 

Formerly the high school curriculum 
emphasized preparation for college, today 
the emphasis is on meeting the needs of 
boys and girls in order more nearly to 
prepare them for the future. Evidently 
the college preparatory chemistry is not 
adequately meeting the needs of many 
high school students. Because of this 
there has been organized in the high 
school numerous kinds of chemistry 
courses, and courses in combined physical 
science have been introduced. The data 
given by 2 3 Fred G. Anibal and Philip A. 
Leighton may offer some evidence why 
courses in traditional chemistry and 
physics are not deemed altogether neces¬ 
sary for college. “Out of each 100 stu¬ 
dents graduating from high school, about 
35 enter institutions of higher learning; 
of these 35, fewer than ten will elect to 
specialize in professional fields that re¬ 
quire chemistry and physics, and of these 
ten only two will graduate in these 
fields.” 

An effort to reorganize the chemistry 
course so that it will more nearly meet 
the needs of the students has resulted in 
the revision and the writing of some 
entirely new books in the field. Examina¬ 
tion of some of these books shows new 
trends in organization of subject matter 
around major generalizations in order to 
accomplish new outcomes which are 
stated in terms of needs of students. The 
adoption of any of these new books does 
not guarantee that a different kind of 
chemistry will be taught. The chemistry 
offered in any school will not be any 


better than the teacher teaching it. The 
new text books are a product of the 
thinking of the authors and if these 
books are to be effectively used, the 
teachers must undergo in a measure the 
same thinking in order to get, and like¬ 
wise put over to the students, the correct 
point of view. This then becomes a prob¬ 
lem not of text book adoption but teacher 
education. 

Another change resulting from recent 
trends is the organization of a continuous 
science program from grades one through 
twelve. Such a program calls for elemen¬ 
tary science instruction for grades one 
through six, a three year general science 
program for grades seven, eight, and nine, 
biology for the tenth grade, combined 
physical science, chemistry or physics for 
grades eleven and twelve. The election 
of a specialized science will be optional 
at the beginning of the eleventh year in 
this program. This science sequence will 
postpone or eliminate specialization in 
any specific field. 

Information gained from book com¬ 
panies and State Departments of Educa¬ 
tion indicates that combined physical 
science courses are gaining adoption 
slowly and steadily. If these courses 
were accepted as college entrance require¬ 
ments in science their adoption would 
gain considerable momentum throughout 
the United States. 

Have not the changes been brought 
about because the traditional offerings 
have not fully met the needs of high 
school students? In the face of this I 
can see only a slim and selective future 
for chemistry as a specialized science in 
the high school curriculum. The educa¬ 
tors in the field of chemistry who do not 
wish to see the enrollment decrease as it 
has in some of the other sciences are 
definitely charged with the obligation of 
offering a kind of chemistry that is not 
directed solely toward college preparation 
but directed to do the most possible good 
for the students who will not go to 
college. 


1 Biennial Survey of Education, U. S. Dept, of Interior, Office of Education, Volume II: 

1934-1936, page 20. 

3 Anibal, Fred G. and Leighton, Philip A. “A Plan to Eliminate the Overlapping in 
High School and College Science Courses.” Journal of Chemical Education, 13 : September, 
1936, pp. 437-442. 






Chemistry — 19J+0 Meeting 

ETHERATES OF MAGNESIUM PERCHLORATE 


117 


Frank J. Seiler, Galesburg High School, Galesburg, Illinois 

AND 

H. H. Rowley, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 


j' 

i 


.IM 




jca 


; 


it* 


Magnesium perchlorate was first pre¬ 
pared by Serrullas (1) along with the 
perchlorates of the alkali metals and the 
other alkaline earth metals. Rowley, 
during a study of the three component 
system, water-diethyl ether-magnesium 
bromide, tried determining the amount of 
water in a sample of ether solution by 
the use of anhydrous magnesium per¬ 
chlorate. It was noted that the magne¬ 
sium perchlorate appeared to retain con¬ 
siderable ether even when heated. Since 
other magnesium compounds form ether- 
ates, especially the halides, it was not a 
surprising phenomenon. The ethyl ether- 
ates of the magnesium halides were first 
investigated in detail by Menschutkin 
(2). Later, Meisenheimer (3) (4) and 
his co-workers discussed some of the prop¬ 
erties of the magnesium halide etherates. 
More recently, Evans and Rowley (5) 
studied the properties of the etherates of 
magnesium bromide and determined their 
vapor pressures. This work on the mag¬ 
nesium halide etherates as a background 
led to <this study. It was decided to 
study the solubility of magnesium per¬ 
chlorate in diethyl ether in hopes of prov¬ 
ing the existence of any crystalline ether¬ 
ates and possible transition points. 

Experimental. —Commercial Dehydrite, 
prepared by G. Frederick Smith and Co., 
was used as a starting material. The 
samples used in this investigation were 
freshly dehydrated before use by heating 
to 250° C in an electric furnace for a few 
hours while being connected to a Cenco 
Hy-Vac oil pump. The anhydrous mag¬ 
nesium perchlorate was free from chlor¬ 
ides and when analyzed for magnesium, 
by the standard pyrophosphate method, 
showed a purity of above 99.9 per cent. 
The anhydrous ether was prepared by 
drying reagent ether over sodium, dis¬ 
tilling from sodium on to freshly cut 
sodium. Only the middle fraction of the 
distillate was used, and the ether was 
always kept over sodium. 

The apparatus (fig. 1) for conducting 
the experiment was designed to hold a 
relatively large volume of ether, exclude 
moisture, permit good stirring, and to 





—4 


































































































118 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


allow for easy removal of the liquid 
without contamination. 

Willard and Smith (6) reported the 
solubility as .2908 grams of magnesium 
perchlorate per 100 grams of diethyl 
ether at 25° C. The first results obtained 
during this study were higher than this 
and it was impossible to obtain check re¬ 
sults. However by using the same solid 
for a series of determinations it was no¬ 
ticed that decreasing values were ob¬ 
tained. One typical series of analyses at 
25° C is given in table I to show the 
trend. Rowley (7) had found that small 
amounts of water in ether increased the 
solubility of magnesium bromide. A study 
of the effect of water on the solubility 
of magnesium perchlorate in ether gave 
results as shown in table II. Conse¬ 
quently a new method of carrying out the 
experiments was necessary. 

Several sets of apparatus, as illustrated 
in fig. 2, were made of pyrex glass. Ether 
in flask (A) was dried by means of 
sodium wire. Gentle suction was then 
applied and the flask sealed off at (F). 
The dehydrated magnesium perchlorate 
was then dropped in tube (B) and the 
lower end of the tube surrounded by an 
electric furnace at 250° C. After heating 
for several hours, while the tube was ex¬ 
hausted through the outlet tube with a 
vacuum pump, the outlet was sealed off 
at (C). When cooled, ether was distilled 
over and tube (B) was sealed off at (D). 
This method enables one to prepare both 
the anhydrous ether and the anhydrous 
magnesium perchlorate, and to bring 
them together, without any exposure 
whatever. These tubes were then placed 
in a constant temperature bath and 
turned end over end for at least 24 


Table I.—Solubility of Magnesium Perchlorate 
in Diethyl Ether, Showing the Trend of Values 
Using Same Solid for a Series of Determinations 

at 25°C 


Sample 

G/1000 Et20 


.3354 

#54 

.3354 


.1963 

#55 

.2010 


.1326 

#56 

.1334 


.1181 

#57 

.1238 


Table II. —Effect of Water on the Solubility of 
Magnesium Perchlorate in Ether at 15° and 25°C 



G Mg(C10 4 1 )2/100g Et 2 0 

Mol H 2 O/I Et 2 0 




25°C 

15°C 


.519 

.381 

.016 

.516 

.379 


1.401 


.115 

1.393 



< 


Table III.— Solubility of Anhydrous Magnesium 
Perchlorate in Anhydrous Diethyl Ether 
Grams /100G Ether 


Sample 

25°C 

15°C 

0°C 

#74 

.0591 



#77 

.0674 



#78 

.0663 



#80 


.0588 


#82 



.0438 

#83 



.0436 

Mean 

.0643 

.0588 

.0437 


Table IV. —Analysis of Solids in Equilibrium With Ether Solutions at Various Temperatures 


Temp. 
(Degrees C) 

% 

Mg(Cl0 4 )2 

Mole ratio 
Et 2 0/Mg(C104)2 

25 

63.7 

1.75 

25 

64.7 

1.65 

25 

62.82 

1.79 

25 

58.4 

2.15 

0 

50.2 

2.99 

0 

45.4 

3.64 


Sample 


#74 Approx 

#78 Approx 

#80_ 

#81- 

#1- 

#2- 


Theoretical 

requirement 


60 .2% for 
Mg(C104)2 2 Et 2 Q 


yy yy yy 

50.2% for 

Mg(C104) 2 3 Et a O 

yy yy yy 




















































































Chemistry — 191±0 Meeting 


119 



?r 

s 





013 


s 



tjO 


ii 


tiO 


hours. The results of the analyses of 
the solutions at 25°C, 15°C, and at 0°C 
are given in table III. It will be noticed 
that the solubility is much less than has 
been previously reported. 

Other experimental work was done to 
find, if possible, what etherates existed 
in the solid phase in equilibrium with the 
solution. Various samples of magnesium 
perchlorate, that had been in contact 
with ether for a long time at constant 
temperature, were analyzed and table IV 
indicates the results of such analyses. It 
will be noted that apparently the diether- 
ate is the solid phase in equilibrium at 
25 °C. These analyses were made by 
gently pumping off the ether until the 
white solid remaining just began to ap¬ 
pear dry around the edges. Analysis of 
the solid, either by magnesium determin- 
ajtion or by complete desolvation at 
250 °C, gave the same results. 

The stability of the etherates was de¬ 
termined by pumping off the ether with 
an aspirator through a phosphorus pen- 
toxide tube. At definite intervals the 
pumping was stopped and the loss in 
weight recorded. Figure 3 indicates the 
mole ratio of ether to magnesium per¬ 
chlorate against the actual time of de¬ 
solvation at 25 °C. The graph, represent¬ 
ing the rate at which the etherate decom¬ 
poses, shows a change of slope when the 
mole ratio is one. This indicates that 
the dietherate has a relatively high vapor 
pressure at 25 °C and one of the ether 
molecules is readily lost, leaving the 
monoetherate of magnesium perchlorate. 
This monoetherate is relatively stable at 
25 °C and loses its ether very slowly as 
indicated by the slope of the curve. As 
a matter of fact, the monoetherate is so 
stable that at 100 °C it loses ether very 
slowly under reduced pressure. Complete 
desolvation requires several hours of con¬ 
tinual evacuation and heating. 

At 0°C there is apparently a triether- 
ate of magnesium perchlorate. Sample 
#1 (table IV) was allowed to stand at 
0°C in an ice bath with frequent shak¬ 
ing. After a day or two the aspirator 
was attached until the solid remaining 
began to show dryness around the edges. 
It was weighed and again subjected to 
evacuation. The trietherate loses ether 
quite readily, several hours being suf¬ 
ficient to reduce it to the dietherate. How¬ 
ever, the dietherate is quite stable at 
0°C. Continual evacuation for several 
days results in but a small loss of ether, 


there being 1.93 moles of ether per mole 
of magnesium perchlorate after three 
days of such treatment. 

Sample #2 (table IV) was also allowed 
to stand in contact with ether for a day 
or two. The excess ether was then care¬ 
fully pumped off as in the previous case 
and then weighed. The weight of the 
ether amounted to over three moles per 
one mole of magnesium perchlorate, prob¬ 
ably due to the fact that the sample was 
still a little wet with ether. 

Considerable heat is liberated when 
ether is brought in contact with the 
anhydrous magnesium perchlorate. 

Discussion. —Although a better method 
of studying the various etherates would 
be to measure their vapor pressures, 
enough work was done to show the ex¬ 
istence of three etherates of magnesium 
perchlorate. The monoetherate which is 
quite stable, a dietherate which loses one 
molecule of ether under reduced pressure 
at 25°C but slowly at 0°C, and a tri¬ 
etherate which easily decomposes with 
reduced pressure at 0°C. 

Summary 

1. The solubility of anhydrous mag¬ 
nesium perchlorate in diethyl ether was 
measured at 0°C, 15 °C and 25 °C. The 
value at 25 °C was found to be much 
lower than had been previously reported 
in the literature. 

2. A mono-, di-, and trietherate of 
magnesium perchlorate were found to 
exist. The trietherate is formed at 0°C 
and possibly at 25°C. The dietherate is 
fairly stable at 25 °C and very stable at 
0°C. The monoetherate is fairly stable 
up to and above 100°C. 

3. The heat of solvation of magnesium 
perchlorate in ether seems to be fairly 
high. 

4. The presence of water greatly 
affects the solubility of magnesium 
perchlorate in ether, giving rise to high 
values. 

Bibliography 

1. Serrullas; Ann. Chem. Phys. 2, 46 

(1831). 

2. Menschutkin ; Z. Anorg. Chem., 49, 34 
(1906). 

3. Meisenheimer and Casper; Ber., 54B, 
1655 (1921). 

4. Meisenheimer, Piper, and Lange; Z. 
Anorg. Allgem. Chem., 147, 133 (1925). 

5. Evans and Rowley; J. Am. Chem. Soc., 
52, 3523 (1930). 

6. Willard and Smith; J. Am. Chem. Soc., 
44, 2255 (1922). 

7. Rowley; J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58, 1337 
(1936). 











120 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


OPTICAL ISOMERISM OF BIPHENYL DERIVATIVES 


Howard M. Teeter* 
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illmois 


Solutions of a large number of organic 
chemical compounds possess the power of 
rotating the plane of a beam of polarized 
light. Such compounds are said ,to be 
optically active. In order for optical 
activity to exist it is necessary that the 
molecule itself be constructed in an 
asymmetric manner, so that no plane or 
center of symmetry will be present. 
There are several ways in which this can 
be done. The most common is to provide 
the molecule with a carbon atom to which 
four different groups have been attached, 
resulting in the “asymmetric carbon 
atom”. A simple example would be man- 
delic acid, 

H 

C 6 Hs — C — COOH 
I 

OH 

In the biphenyl type, however, asymmetry 
is obtained by restricting the rotation 
about the bond joining the phenyl 
groups. This is brought about by the me¬ 
chanical interference 1 of groups ortho to 
the bond (i.e., groups in the 2,2',6 and 6' 
positions; the carbon atoms in one ring 
are numbered from 1 to 6, those in the 
other from V to 6'). The rings are thus 
held in a coaxial, non-coplanar position, 
and if the rings are asymmetrically sub¬ 
stituted, the compound will be optically 
active. Usually three or four ortho sub¬ 
stituents are required, but occasionally 
iwo or even one will suffice. 

Adam and Stanley 2 have calculated by 
means of X-ray data the internuclear dis¬ 
tances from the ring to the center of 
various ortho substituents. If the aver¬ 
age of the sums of the internuclear dis¬ 
tances for the groups in the 2,2' and 6,6' 
positions be subtracted from 2.90 A, the 
vertical distance between the 2,2' carbon 
atoms, the interference value is obtained. 
The resistance of biphenyl derivatives to 
racemization upon heating is found to 
parallel the interference value very 
closely. If the interference value is zero, 


the compound can not be resolved; as the 
interference value becomes larger, the 
compound becomes optically more and 
more stable until finally it can no longer 
be racemized. 

A close study of the interference effects 
of various groups has led to the conclu¬ 
sion that only the smaller groups, such 
as methyl, carboxyl, and halogen, behave 
in a simple fashion. In more complex 
groups, such as alkoxyl or substituted 
amide, apparent anomalies are observed. 
Because of the possibilities of free rota¬ 
tion within the grouping itself, the ques¬ 
tion has been raised whether or not the 
atom or group attached to the atom com¬ 
bined with the ring exerts any appre¬ 
ciable effect. 

Thus, in the substituted amides of 2,2'- 
dimethoxy-6,6'-dicarboxybiphenyl, it was 
found 3 that the substituted amide groups 
were more effective than the simple 
amide grouping, CONH 2 . The following 
order was observed for the various sub¬ 
stituted amides studied: 

CONHC 2 H 5 > CONHCHs > CON(C 2 H 5 ) 2 
> CON(CH 3 ) 2 . 

Obviously the effect of the group at¬ 
tached to the C = 0 is important; how¬ 
ever, no completely satisfactory explana¬ 
tion has been given as to why the 
monomethyl should be more effective than 
the diethyl. 

A smilar study 4 was made upon 2-nitro- 
6-carboxy-2-alkoxybiphenyl. The methoxy, 
ethoxy, and n-propoxy derivatives were 
compared. In this case the interference 
effect of the alkoxyl groups followed the 
expected order, methoxy being least and 
propoxy greatest. The extension of this 
series to include the comparison of 
hydroxyl and methoxyl has never been 
carried out. Calculations based upon 
Pauling’s tables 5 of atomic radii indicate 
that hydroxyl should be smaller than 
methoxyl, while indirect experimental 
evidence intimates that the two groups 
should be practically equivalent. 


* Present address: Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria, Illinois. 







Chemistry — 19J/.0 Meeting 


121 




■ 


iff 

as 
tii 1 1 


The writer, under the direction of 
Roger Adams at the University of Illinois, 
undertook a direct comparison of hy¬ 
droxyl and methoxyl groups by studying 
2-methyl-4-carboxy-6 - nitro-2' - methoxybi- 
phenyl and the corresponding hydroxy 
derivative. The first compound was pre¬ 
pared from o-iodoanisole and methyl 3- 
methyl-4-bromo-5-nitrobenzoate by the 
action of copper bronze at 270°. The 
hydroxy derivative was prepared from the 
m e t h o x y compound by demethylation 
with hydrobromic acid. It was found 
that the methoxy acid could be prepared 
in an optically active form which was 
relatively unstable, the specific rotation 
falling to half its initial value during a 
period of 207 minutes. On the other 


hand, the hydroxy compound could not 
be resolved by the use of either brucine 
or strychnine. 

On the basis of this experimental evi¬ 
dence it appears that hydroxyl is sub¬ 
stantially smaller than the methoxyl 
group. A complete generality, however, 
must await the preparation and study of 
a larger number of similar compounds. 

References 

1. Mills, Chemistry and Industry, 45, 884, 
905 (1926). 

2. Adams and Stanley, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 
52, 1200 (1930). 

3. Hsing and Adams, ibid., 58, 587 (1936). 

4. Li and Adams, ibid., 57, 1565 (1935). 

5. Pauling, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S., 
20, 336 (1934). 


ADAPTING CHEMISTRY TO THE NEEDS OF THE CITIZEN 

Lawrence F. Tuleen 

J. Sterling Morton High School , Cicero, Illinois 


Today the problems of secondary edu¬ 
cation are different from those of fifteen 
or twenty years ago. Statistics show that 
a class of young people is enrolled in our 
schools that was absent years ago. In 
many cases this group represents as much 
as fifty per cent of our enrollment and 
is made up of those who, after leaving 
school, will work mainly in unskilled and 
semi-skilled jobs. The present high 
school program offers them very little of 
practical value. The question is, what 
are we going to do about it? 

To us, as science teachers, this problem 
offers a real challenge. Undoubtedly the 
day when the sole duty of the high 
school was to prepare its graduates for 
college entrance has passed. If we wish 
to serve our population in the full man¬ 
ner that a school should serve, curricu¬ 
lum and adjustments must be made. A 
possible solution is the introduction of 
consumer courses. Consumer chemistry 
and consumer physics are relatively new 
courses, yet many high schools are 
already attempting to introduce consumer 
problems in the laboratory work. 

Here another problem confronts us. 
How far are we to go with our consumer 
problems? Should we make our science 
courses recreational and descriptive? 
Should we discontinue stressing those 
principles which have for years served 


as fundamentals for further work in 
science? Consumer work is interesting. 
It is self-motivating. Our experience has 
been that the students enjoy it. 

This work is valuable in itself—but 
it can be made still more valuable if it 
serves a two-fold purpose—the teaching 
of some specific consumer problem, and 
coupled with that—the teaching of some 
fundamental science principle. Rather 
than speak in generalities I am going to 
limit myself to chemistry. And since I 
am best acquainted with our school, 
Morton High School in Cicero, I am go¬ 
ing to speak about our school, our prob¬ 
lems, our students, and state in brief 
what we are doing. Not that we are 
perfect, but it might serve at least as a 
beginning for solving the problem of 
serving the citizen. 

Only a small per cent of the four hun¬ 
dred students enrolled in our chemistry 
courses will ever become chemistry ma¬ 
jors, and I am certain that these condi¬ 
tions exist in other schools. As is well 
known, most text books and manuals are 
aimed directly at those who intend to 
major in chemistry. Therefore, in order 
to try out some of our ideas we have 
had to select and write our own experi¬ 
ments. 

In this program we have endeavored to 
follow the following procedure: First, 














122 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


teach a fundamental principle of chem¬ 
istry- Second, use common materials, 
those which the average citizen will con¬ 
tact in his post-school life, to illustrate 
that principle. Third, emphasize a con¬ 
sumer principle that will be beneficial. 

In teaching the concepts of matter— 
elements, compounds, and mixtures—we 
use as one of our experiments the prep¬ 
aration of a tooth powder. The student 
tests the individual properties of each of 
the ingredients, noting and recording 
which ones will polish, which ones will 
neutralize acids, which ones have tastes 
and flavor. After blending all of the 
materials together to form the mixture, 
he again tests and notes that the original 
properties have been retained. In this 
manner we feel that he has learned the 
characteristics of a mixture and at the 
same time something about tooth powder. 

The principle of neutralization is cer¬ 
tainly one that must receive considera¬ 
tion. We use every day acids and bases 
such as vinegar and household ammonia 
to teach this principle. Titration work 
with standardized solutions are carried 
out. The student calculates the actual 
weight of active ingredient present in 
different commercial brands and finally 
draws his conclusion as to which is the 
best buy. 

In connection with neutralization we 
must always consider hydrolysis. What 
better teaching material can be found 
than the reactions of the common water 
softeners? Following the same line of 
attack used in neutralization we require 
the student to titrate a standardized soap 
solution against hard water and hard 
water which has been softened by differ¬ 
ent commercial water softeners. Here 
again a consumer problem is introduced 


which necessitates the student determin¬ 
ing the best money value. It might be 
interesting to know that the preciseness 
of results secured by high school students 
is quite gratifying. Space and time pre¬ 
vent a further detailed discussion, but let 
me mention that a study of automobile 
anti-freezes is very effective in teaching 
the ionization theory. Colloidal chemistry 
receives a new impetus with the addition 
of a study of cosmetic creams and lotions. 

A study of the flash point of gasolines 
teaches both hydrocarbon and combustion. 
Under foods, the determination of butter 
fat in milk and ice cream can be used to 
illustrate important reactions and their 
causes. Our own students had their eyes 
opened to the chocolate drink that is on 
the market when they discovered the 
difference in butter fat content between 
it and chocolate milk. These are only a 
few examples. The possibilities in this 
line of attack seem endless. Whether or 
not this is one solution to our present 
problem remains to be seen. 

Our chemistry curriculum must be 
changed. But it must not be changed so 
as to eliminate the fundamental principles 
which lead to a scientific method of think¬ 
ing and reasoning. It should not be so 
depleted of chemistry that the future 
science major will find nothing that will 
be beneficial to him. At the present time 
I know of no better way of doing this 
than by teaching the standard and time- 
recognized fundamental principles of 
chemistry by means of present day prac¬ 
tical applications. But if there is a better 
way, we should all be interested in con¬ 
tacting it, because we must never forget i 
we are here to help all students to better 
help themselves to become better citizens. 








Chemistry — 19^0 Meeting 


123 


THE DETECTION OF OXY-HALOOEN ANIONS 

Sister M. Joan, College of St. Francis , Joliet 

AND 

J. H. Reedy, University of Illinois, Urbana. 


Analytical chemists have been slow in 
developing the chemistry of the anions. 
Most of the research in this field has 
come in response to pressure from the 
industries. One group of anions that has 
been notably neglected is the oxy-halogen 
group. These anions have been known for 
a long time, but, with the exception of 
chlorate and hypochlorite, little attention 
has been given to their systematic detec¬ 
tion. Ordinary textbooks do not treat 
them at all, and advanced manuals refer 
to them in a very sketchy way. 

I. The Detection of Perchlorates in the 
Presence of Chlorides and Chlorates. 1 — 
Perchloric acid has now become a very 
important analytical reagent, and a con¬ 
siderable interest in the properties of its 
salts has developed. The perchlorate ion 
forms no salts of sufficient insolubility for 
use in its separation. Neither does it 
show any specific property that may be 
used for its identification. Its detection 
depends upon its conversion into the 
chloride ion, which is detected as silver 
chloride in the usual way. Various re¬ 
ducing agents have been proposed for 
this purpose; for example, zinc, titanous 
salts, hyposulfites, etc. The tests have 
been repeated in the laboratories at the 
University of Illinois, and have been 
found unreliable and worthless. 

Apparently the most satisfactory 
method for converting perchlorate into 
chloride is ignition in an alkaline 
medium. Ordinarily, this requires full 
red heat,—about 600°C. It occurred to 


us that this decomposition might be 
effected more easily by catalytic means. 
This procedure as developed is outlined 
in Table I. The solution is mixed with a 
drop or so of manganous nitrate, alka- 
lyzed by potassium carbonate and evapo¬ 
rated to dryness in a casserole. Upon 
gentle ignition to 250°-300°, the residue 
darkens owing to the formation of man¬ 
ganese dioxide. At the same time the 
perchlorate is broken down into sodium 
chloride and free oxygen. After cooling, 
the residue is extracted with dilute am¬ 
monium hydroxide, and the test for 
chloride is made in the regular way. The 
test is very sensitive: 0.001 mg. in 0.1 o.c. 
gives a distinct opalescence. Care must 
be taken that the manganous nitrate and 
potassium carbonate are chloride-free. 

It remains to be shown whether or not 
the method has quantitative possibilities. 
The chloride determination was made 
both volumetrically and gravimetrically 
on the reduced perchlorate and it was 
found that the average ratio of moles of 
perchlorate to chloride was 1.0-0.98. This 
does point to the fact that this method 
presents a quantitative procedure. This 
scheme of ignition with manganous 
nitrate may have other advantages; for 
example, thiocyanates may be destroyed, 
and their interference with the test for 
chloride thereby obviated. 

Since the above results for the reduc¬ 
tion of the perchlorate were so favorable, 
the detection of the perchlorate in the 
presence of chlorates and halides was 


Table I. —Detection of Cl - , C10 3 ~, and C10 4 ~ in the Presence of Each Other 


CP 

cio 3 - 

CIO.- 


Ag+ + 


I 


f AgCl 

*\ 

A 

Zn 

cio 3 - [ 


1 

O 



A g, Zn 


CIO4- 

Zn++ 


Ag+ -f 


dil. H 2 S0 4 


AgCl 

cio 4 - 

Ag+ 

Zn + + 


Mn ( N0 3 ) 2 + K 2 C0 3 f MnQ _j 
_ > I A gCl 


evaporate, ignite 


s KC 1 

,k 2 co 3 


nh 4 oh 


'MnOo 

Ag(NH 3 ) 2 + 

ci- 

.C0 3 - " 


Ag + + r AgCl 
-H NH> 


HNOa L C o 2 f 
































124 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


Table II.— Analysis of a Solution Containing IO 3 *, B 1 O 3 - , CIO 3 ", I - , Br" and Cl" 


To 5 cc. of the solution add equal volumes of eonc.Ba(C2H302)2 and alcohol. 
Cool in an ice bath, filter and wash precipitate with ice-cold 50% alcohol. 


Precipitate: Ba(I03)2, Ba(BrC>3)2 

. Extract precipitate with hot water. 

Filtrate: 

Solution: Ba(BrC>3)2. Test for BrC> 3 " by (A) 

Residue: Ba(IC>3)2. Dissolve in warm di- 

Ba(C10 3 )2, 

BaR, 

or (B). 

lute HNO 3 . Test for IO 3 " by (C) or (D). 

BaBr 2 , 

(A) Add Zn, HC1 and CCI 4 , and shake well. 
Amber color in CCI 4 indicates Br03*. 

(C) Add Zn, HC1 and CCI 4 and shake. 
Violet color in CCI 4 indicates IO 3 ". 

BaCl 2 . 

Proceed to 

(B) Add H 3 PO 4 and Mn(NOs) 2 . A violet 
color indicates BrC> 3 ". 

(D) Add H 3 PO 4 and starch solution. Cover 
■with a layer of Na2S2C>3. Blue ring indi¬ 
cates IO 3". 3 

Table III. 


Table III. — Analysis of Filtrate Containing C103“, I~, Br* and Cl" 


Evaporate alcohol, add water, AgN(>3 and a few drops of dilute HNO3. 
Wash precipitate with very dilute HNO3. 


Precipitate: Agl, AgBr, AgCl. 

Transfer to beaker, add Zn and dilute H2SO4. 

Filter and test filtrate for I~, Br*, and Cl* in usual way. 


Filtrate: CIO 3 , Ba^. 

Remove Ba ++ with Na 2 SOi. Filter and reduce CIO3" 
to Cl" with Zn + dilute H2SO4. Test for Cl" by AgNC>3 
in regular way. 


Table IV.— Elimination of Certain Halate and Halide Combinations 


Reagent 

Product 

Inferences 

Present 

Absent 

Dil. H 2 SO 4 -. 

None 

CI 2 

Br2 

I 2 

None 

Br 2 

I 2 


CIOs*, or any halate-halide mixture 

I" (or Br")-halate mixture 

I*-halate mixture 

HC 2 H 3 O 2 _ 

CIO 3 *, or a Cl*-halate mixture 
Br*-halate, or Cl*-BrC>3"T mixture 
I*-halate mixture 



Br"-halate, or Cl*-Br03" mixture 
I"-halate, or halide-103" mixture 

Br"-halate mixtures 

I"-halate mixtures 


not difficult, as shown in Table I. The 
choride is first removed as silver chloride. 
Then the chlorate is reduced with zinc 
and sulfuric acid to the chloride and pre¬ 
cipitated and removed as silver chloride. 

II.. The Separation and Detection of 
the Members of the Halate-Halide Mix¬ 
ture . 2 —Another problem in the field of 
the oxy-halogen anions is the detection 
of chlorate, bromate and iodate in the 
presence of each other and in the pres¬ 
ence of halide ions. We will hereafter 
refer to chlorate, bromate and iodate as 
the halate ions. 

This problem involves one very positive 
limitation, namely: A mixture of halates 
and halides must not be acidified. Upon 
acidification, the system undergoes oxida¬ 


tion-reduction, with the destruction of the 
original components and the formation 
of free halogens. This limitation applies 
both to the composition of the unknown 
and the analytical procedure. 

As a preliminary approach to the prob¬ 
lem, a study was made of the solubilities 
of the metallic salts of these anions in 
water, alcohol and acetone. It was hoped 
that this study might reveal a way for 
separating the halide group from the 
halates. For example, it was hoped that 
some cation of the silver group might 
precipitate the halides, leaving the 
halates in solution. The search was un¬ 
successful. Every cation that precipitated 
Cl", Br", and I" with anything like 
analytical completeness also gave insolu- 



































Chemistry—1940 Meeting 


ble salts with certain of the halates, par¬ 
ticularly iodate and bromate. The most 
promising separation was found in the 
precipitation of I0 3 “, and Br0 3 " as their 
Ba ++ salts, using cold 50 per cent alcohol 
as the solvent. The halide ions could 
then be separated from chlorate as their 
silver salts and the halide mixture 
analyzed in the regular way. The pro¬ 
cedure as finally worked out is shown in 
tables II and III. 

Preliminary Procedures for the Detec¬ 
tion of Halates and Halides in a 
Mixture 

Several schemes, preliminary in nature, 
have been devised to indicate the presence 
or absence of the various halates and 
halides before beginning the general pro¬ 
cedure. If the absence of one or more of 
these ions is shown, certain steps may 
be omitted, thereby saving time. 

As indicated in Table IV, the principal 
reagents used are dilute sulfuric and 


125 

acetic acids. The reaction products are 
Ch, Br 2 and I 2 , which may be recognized 
by their reactions with carbon tetra¬ 
chloride. 

The limit of identification of the iodate 
and bromate ions by this procedure is as 
follows: iodate ion 0.2 mg. per cc, bro¬ 
mate 0.5 mg. per cc. The sensitiveness 
of these tests is not high, and the pro¬ 
cedure is admitted not to be quantitative. 
On the other hand, the work seems 
valuable in an exploratory way, opening 
up an approach to what may some day 
be an important problem. 

Bibliography 

1. The Analytical Chemistry of Perchlorates. 
Thesis M. S. Sister Joan Preising, Univer¬ 
sity of Illinois, 1937. 

2. The Separation and Detection of the 
Members of the Halate-Halide Mixtures. 
Thesis, Ph. D., University of Illinois, 
1940. 

3. Feigl, Qualitative Analyse mit Hilfe von 
Tupfelreaktionen. Akademische Verlags- 
gesellschaft. M.B.H. Leipzig, 1931 (pp. 
281 and 387). 


2-CHLORO-3,5-BIS (ACET YLAMINO) TOLUENE* 

G. R. Yohe 

Illinois State Geological Survey, Ui'bana 


Incidental to the identification of o-chlor- 
otoluene in a reaction mixture, 2-chloro- 
3,5-bis (acetylamino) toluene was pre¬ 
pared. This compound is mentioned in 
the literature 1 - 2 but its constants 
apparently have not been published. It 
was prepared by nitration of the fraction 
to be identified, reduction with tin and 
hydrochloric acid, and acetylation of the 
amine with acetic anhydride. Mixed melt¬ 
ing point determinations showed it to be 
identical with the product prepared from 
authentic o-chlorotoluene by the following 
reactions: 

Nitration of o-chlorotoluene with 
HN0 3 -H 2 S04 yielded a semisolid product 
from which 2-chloro-3,5-dinitrotoluene, 
m. 62-3° (cor.) was isolated by repeated 
recrystallization from carbon tetrachlo¬ 
ride. Previously recorded melting points 
are 63-4° 3 , 65° 4 and 45 01 . The last value 


is incorrect. 

The dinitro compound was reduced with 
tin and hydrochloric acid to 2-chloro-3, 
5-diaminotoluene which, after recrystalli¬ 
zation from water, melted at 72-3° (cor.). 
The literature gives 73 01 or 74° 2 . 

The diamine was stirred with a slight 
excess of acetic anhydride until crystals 
formed; these were washed with cold 
water and recrystallized from about 400 
parts by weight of water. 2-chloro-3, 
5-bis (acetylamino) toluene forms fine 
white fibrous needles, m.p. 227-8° (cor.), 
soluble in acetic acid, acetone and alcohol, 
difficultly soluble in ether and benzene, 
almost insoluble in hexane (60-70°) and 
carbon tetrachloride. 

The compound was analyzed by the 
semi-micro Kjeldahl method by Mr. C. A. 
Harman. Calcd. for ChHi 3 C1N 2 0 2 : N, 
11.64%. Found: 11.80, 11.58. 


* Published with permission of the Chief, Illinois State Geological Survey. 
1 H. Nietzke and E. Rehe. Ber. 25, 3005-9 (1892). 

2 G. T. Morgan. J. Chem. Soc. 81, 86-100 (1902). 

3 W. Borsche and A. Fiedler. Ber. 45, 270-3 (1912). 

4 G. Korner and A. Contardi. Atti. accad. Lincei 24, I, 888-96 (1915). 















































' 





























Papers In Geography 


Extract From the Report of the Section Chairman 

The Geography Section carried fourteen papers, ten of which are herewith 
published. Others were titled: 

State planning . —Henry L. Kellogg, Engineer, Illinois State Planning Com¬ 
mission, Chicago. 

Fairmont Rural Study. —Roscoe Letter, University of Illinois, Urbana. 
Selling Geography to the Public School Executive.—Robert G. Buzzard, 
President, Eastern Illinois State Teachers College, Charleston. 
Tackling the erosion problem in high school geography classes. —Clare Sy- 
monds, Quincy High School, Quincy. 

Average attendance was 38, and the chairman elected for the 1940 meeting 
is Arthur B. Cozzens, University of Illinois, Department of Geology, Urbana. 

(Signed) Clare Symonds, Chairman 


Imj 



128 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


AN URBAN-RURAL ECOTONE: AS EXEMPLIFIED BY 

HASTINGS, NEBRASKA 

Thomas F. Barton 

Southern Illinois State Normal University, Carbon&ale, Illinois 
» 


Urban-Rural Ecotones as functional 
areas of land utilization with distinct 
landscapes should be recognized and 
studied by geographers. Each urban- 
rural ecotone contains a landscape which 
is a composite picture containing urban 
and rural features. In contrast with 
other geographic land use areas of cities 
such as residential, industrial, etc. which 
are unifunctional, the urban-rural ecotone 
stands out by its dual function. One of 
its functions, the urban, is related to the 
city which it encloses, and the other, 
rural, is related to the rural use of the 
land in which the city is located. 

Just as a frame encloses a picture and 
serves as a transitional medium between 
the picture and its surroundings, so does 
the urban-rural ecotone frame and enclose 
the urban complex. Geographers who 
wish to depict a city should not only 
paint a word picture of the city that 
others may visualize it, but they should 
also frame the picture by adequately de¬ 
scribing and interpreting the urban-rural 
ecotone. 

In addition to its hybrid landscape and 
dual function the ecotone is an important 
area for geographic study because of its 
comparatively unstable character. Study¬ 
ing the changeable nature of the ecotone 
helps one to interpret the city. With a 
clear understanding of the ecotone one is 
capable of solving such problems as age 
and vitality of the city, possible direction 
of growth, and recent and present ex¬ 
pansion. 

The Urban-Rural Ecotone of Hastings, 

Nebraska 

Description: As one enters the city of 
Hastings, he passes through an urban- 
rural ecotone, which lies as a distinct 
concentric zone of land utilization around 
the urban complex. 

Small barnyards with granaries, barns, 
chickens and pig pens, small haystacks 
and manure piles give an atmosphere 
typical of the farm. Grazing cows and 
goats and fields of hay and grain remind 


one of rural scenes. Within this zone, 
the land occupied by hay and cereals is 
like any other rural area except that 
plots of ground replace large fields and 
are often delimited by streets. 

The street signs, real estate markers, 
truck gardens, factories and the cluster 
of buildings in the background, however, 
assure one that he is entering a city. 
Other signs of city development are the 
paved streets, open storm-water sewers, 
ditches, and fire hydrants. More closely 
spaced houses also indicate that one is 
approaching a city. Yet these houses are 
so sparsely located that they do not give 
the appearance of an urban residential 
area. 

The urban-rural ecotone of Hastings, 
except for a few places, lies within the 
political boundary of the city (fig. 1). 
The width of the zone varies. In some 
places, where the urban development is 
immediately adjacent to the larger fields, 
the zone is almost pinched out, and in 
other places, it is almost half a mile wide. 

Land utilization within this transi¬ 
tional zone generally becomes more in¬ 
tensified from the outermost margin to 
the innermost boundary. In some places 
along the outer margin, in order to make 
the land pro(fitable, specialized farming 
has been temporarily introduced. Some 
day, no doubt, this ecotonal margin will 
be used solely for urban purposes. Thus 
the owner gets a high return from land 
which, at the same time, increases in 
potential urban value. In other places, 
the ground is not occupied, tilled, or used 
in any other active way. It is simply 
held as an investment or abandoned be¬ 
cause of taxes. 

Within the urban-rural ecotone two 
economic forces, the urban and the rural, 
compete for the use of land. Rural 
utilization, yielding lower income than 
the urban one, is the more easily buffed 
about and forced to make way for the 
residential division—the lowest income 
producing use of urban land. Rural land 
utilization within the political limits is 
under the additional handicap of city 
taxes. 








Geography — 19J+0 Meeting 


129 



Land Use: Land uses within the urban- 
rural ecotone may be divided into six gen¬ 
eral classes: (1) commercial, (2) resi¬ 
dential, (3) gardens, (4) specialized 
farming, (5) crop production and barn¬ 
yards, and (6) idle. 

(1) Commercial. A very small 
amount, less than one per cent, of this 
ecotone is used for commercial purposes, 
consisting primarily of community gro¬ 
cery stores and repair shops. 

(2) Residential. Two hundred and 
seventy-one houses lie within this transi¬ 
tional area. Each dwelling occupies a lot 


approximately fifty feet wide and one 
hundred feet deep. Less than five per 
cent of the ecotone is used for this pur¬ 
pose. There are never more than eight 
houses in a block of twenty-four lots, 1 
the average being about three houses, 
and over a third of the blocks are not 
used for residential purposes at all. The 
largest number of dwellings within the 
ecotone is found on the south and west 
side of the city. The residential area of 
Hastings has been expanding rapidly to 
the southwest. Land which would have 
been included in the ecotone in 1930 is 


















































































130 


Illinois State Acade7ny of Science Transactions 


now included in the residential division. 

(3) Gardens and poultry yards. 
Within the urban-rural ecotone approxi¬ 
mately fifty per cent of the area is used 
for poultry yards and vegetable gardens. 
Although these gardens and yards are 
found scattered throughout the ecotone, 
this type of utilization is more prevalent 
south and west of the city. It is less 
conspicuous to the north and northeast. 
The rapid residential expansion of 1920- 
1930 in these two directions converted 
large quantities of potential urban land 
into city use. 

The many small gardens and flocks of 
chickens reflect the efforts of a large 
number of people, chiefly of the laboring 
class, adding to their small income by 
cultivating a few lots and looking aftei 
a small flock of chickens. Some retiied 
farmers follow the same practice. A few 
gardens represent the efforts of boys who 
peddle the vegetables. During the last 
two years many of the gardens have been 
cultivated by unemployed men to whom 
the city allots vacant lots. Few, if any, 
of these people engaged in this type of 
work produce enough to earn a complete 
subsistence. 

(4) Specialized farming. Approxi¬ 
mately fifteen per cent of the area within 
the transitional zone is utilized by six 
small farming areas. From these farms, 
owners expect to receive an income suf¬ 
ficient to maintain themselves. The six 
areas are located on all four sides of the 
city and are used by: (a) two truck 
farms, (b) a dairy, (c) a poultry farm, 
(d) a floricultural area, and (e) a com¬ 
bined truck and poultry farm. (See 

fig. 1.) , 

(5) Crop production and barnyards. 

About five per cent of the urban-rural 
ecotone is utilized for crop production 
and barnyards. Two classes, the retired 
farmers and laboring men, till the soil 
and use the crops as feed for a few heads 
of livestock. The cultivation of a small 
acreage of alfalfa, corn, or sudan grass 
does not take much time. It takes no 
longer to cut alfalfa than it does weeds. 
Most of the cows and goats within the 
city limits are also in this area.- The 
goats feed on weeds along the street, on 
uncultivated lands, and on weedy garden 
patches. 

(6) Idle. About twenty per cent of 
the land in this ecotone remains idle and 
is held for investment only. It is not pro¬ 


ductive from a commercial, residential or 
agricultural standpoint. Except for the 
goats and cows that are grazing on this 
land, it is an expense because the owner 
must pay the taxes and keep the weeds 
down. This land is often quickly put to 
an urban use. And then again, plots of 
this land, as that owned by the railroad, 
are held for investment over a long 
period of time. 

Potential urban land within the eco- 
tonal area is put to a remunerative use, 
for several major reasons: the income 
defrays high taxes placed upon the land; 
when the potential urban land will be 
utilized is uncertain; the land may be 
tilled up to the time when it is used for 
urban purposes; a law requires that land 
within the city limits held for investment 
be kept free of weeds; some retired 
farmers wish to take care of a few acres 
of land and a few head of livestock; and 
some workmen try to increase their in¬ 
come or reduce their living expenses by 
gardening and keeping some livestock. 

Origin and Use of the Word Ecotone 

“Ecotone”, is a Greek word meaning 
tension-zone or a battle front along which 
two forces are endeavoring to occupy the 
same space, but with the final result that 
one wins the struggle and advances over 
the conquered territory. 3 

The word “Ecotone” was first used as a 
geographic term in an article printed in 
the Scientific Monthly entitled, “The 
Commercial-Residential Ecotone.” 4 When 
the writer read a paper entitled “Geo¬ 
graphic Ecotones” before the American 
Association of Geographers, Professor 
Colby of Chicago said he believed the 
word to be better than “periurban.” 
Periurban has been used by some 
geographers in referring to the same land 
utilization area as the writer calls the 
urban-rural ecotone. Periurban is a 
hybrid word which is part Greek and 
part Latin. Urban-rural ecotone, in addi¬ 
tion to indicating location, carries conno¬ 
tation of a conflict between two economic 
uses of land, whereas periurban does not. 
Another advantage in using the word 
ecotone is that it can be applied to the 
transitional area within the commercial 
and residential divisions as well as be¬ 
tween the residential division and the 
surrounding rural land. 




Geography — 19J+0 Meeting 


131 


Existence of Urban-Rural Ecotone 

The urban-rural ecotone is not a unique 
land utilization zone found only in Hast¬ 
ings, Nebraska. Similar transitional areas 
are found surrounding numerous small 
and large cities throughout the United 
States. This phenomenon is believed to 
be especially typical of growing cities 
which are located in a matrix of agricul¬ 
tural land. In most cases the urban use 
encroaches upon and replaces the rural 
use, however, in some cities with a de¬ 
clining population the reverse is some¬ 
times true. In southern Illinois there are 


mining cities with ecotones in which the 
rural use of land has encroached upon 
the urban one. In Negaunee, Michigan, 
mining utilization of land has encroached 
upon the residential division of a city. 5 

Because a traditional land use area 
exists between the city and the surround¬ 
ing rural area in many cities, and be¬ 
cause these areas are conspicuous as 
having a distinct landscape and a dual 
function, the writer believes these areas 
are worthy of geographic treatment. 
“Urban-rural ecotone” is a name sug¬ 
gested for these transitional zones. 


1 The writer arbitrarily set the criterion that if one-third or less of the total number 
of lots in a block were used for residential purposes that the area would be included in the 
ecotone. 

2 The cows and goats in 1933 numbered one hundred head each. 

3 For a more detailed description see Barton, Thomas F., “The Commercial-Residential 
Ecotone,” Scientific Monthly, 1937, Vol. 44, pp. 131-136. 

4 For a more detailed description see Barton, Thomas F., “The Commercial-Residential 
Ecotone,” Scientific Monthly, 1937, Volume 44, pp. 131-136. 

5 Whitaker, J. Russell, Negaunee, Michigan: An Urban Center Dominated by Iron Mining, 
p. 65-66. 


HIGH SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY IN SOUTHERN ILLINOIS 


Erselia M. and Thomas F. Barton 
Carbondale, Illinois 


Geography is steadily becoming an es¬ 
tablished fact in the high school cur- 
riculums of southern Illinois. During the 
last five years alone courses in this sub¬ 
ject not only have been lengthened in 
schools but many other schools have add¬ 
ed it to the curriculums. Most of the 
schools now offer a year of geography; 
two have reached the point where two 
years of work have become necessary. 
This growth of geography in the curricu¬ 
lum is found in both the small and large 
high schools of the area. 

At least three factors are partially re¬ 
sponsible for this development. First, 
more and more superintendents and high 
school principals are becoming aware of 
and interested in geography. Many of 
these administrators have taken some 
work in the subject and appreciate its 
value. Secondly, some high school teach¬ 
ers in other subject-matter fields, espe¬ 
cially the Social Studies, realize that stu¬ 
dents could profitably use additional 
training in geography. In a number of 
other high schools, geography has been 
introduced by teachers whose major is 
history, biology, etc. Thirdly, this growth 
in geography is usually present in high 

( 




schools where the person teaching it has 
been properly prepared. A geography 
class usually is boring and a failure when 
taught by one who is not well prepared 
or interested in the subject matter. 

The trend toward developing two years 
of geography in the four-year high 
schools in southern Illinois is in keeping 
with the growth of geography in the 
schools of larger cities in the northern 
part of the State and in the high schools 
of Wisconsin. 

Southern Division. In the Southern 
Division of the Illinois Educational As¬ 
sociation consisting of fourteen counties, 
there are fifty-eight accredited four-year 
high schools. In securing information 
concerning the amount and kind of geog¬ 
raphy taught in these schools the follow¬ 
ing methods were used: 1) question¬ 
naire, 2) interviewing freshmen students 
enrolled in the Southern Illinois State 
Normal University, and 3) going through 
the Illinois Directory. The last method 
sometimes proved unreliable because 
where the Illinois Directory indicated no 
geography taught, questionnaires revealed 
that a year’s work was being offered. 








132 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


The following list of facts taken from 
the survey apply to geography offered by 
the fifty-eight accredited four-year high 
schools during 1938-1940 (the two-year 
period is used since some small high 
schools alternate their two courses of ge¬ 
ography) : 

A. 47 of the 58 schools offer geog¬ 
raphy. 

B. 17 schools offer a year of geog¬ 
raphy. 

C. 2 schools give 3 semester courses. 

D. 2 schools give two courses of a 
year’s duration each. 

E. 26 schools offered a semester 
course. 

F. Only 11 schools out of the 58 did 
not offer geography. 

G. In six of the counties all the high 
schools offered geography. 

Sifting the information a little further 
revealed the following: 

A. 37 schools offered Commercial, 
Economic, or Industrial Geogra¬ 
phy. 

B. 20 schools offered Physical Geog¬ 
raphy. 

C. 2 schools taught a semester Con¬ 
servation course. 

D. 1 school offered Political Geog¬ 
raphy. 

E. 3 schools taught General Geog¬ 
raphy. 

F. 1 school offered a year of World 
Geography. 

G. 1 school offered just a Geogra¬ 
phy course. 

According to the questinnaires, teachers 
admitted that a Physical Geography 
course should precede an Economic Geog¬ 
raphy course, but that this is not always 
the practice. As revealed in the outline 
above, thirty-seven high schools offer Eco¬ 
nomic Geography and only about half of 
them offer Physical Geography. 

Teachers indicating a need for more 
geography usually put Conservation and 
Physical Geography at the top of the list. 
One of the greatest handicaps to putting 
more Conservation in the high school cur¬ 
riculum is the lack of good texts. 1 The 
chief objection to teaching Physical Ge¬ 
ography is the need of equipment. How¬ 
ever, a properly trained teacher should 
make use of the local natural resources 
with nature furnishing the laboratory 
equipment. 


Political Geography was seldom men¬ 
tioned in the questionnaire. The writers 
believe that this subject would have been 
indicated more often were it not for the 
fact that Political Geography is a com¬ 
paratively new thing in the United States. 
It has been taught at the Southern Illi¬ 
nois State Normal University as a recog¬ 
nized Political Science and Geography 
course only since 1938. During the fall 
of 1939 the Eldorado High School offered 
the first Political Geography course in 
southern Illinois and as far as we know, 
the first in the State. Concerning this 
course Principal Dodd writes, 

“This course (Political Geography) af¬ 
fords an opportunity for a high degree of 
integration among such courses as his¬ 
tory, civics, economics, and high school 
geography. In the past, these courses 
have been considered independent of one 
another in spite of teachers’ insistence to 
the contrary. Since there has been no 
body of information available to weld the 
course contents, Political Geography as 
taught in this school, stresses the rela¬ 
tions existing between Physical Features 
and Political Happenings. It acquaints 
the pupil with the effects of political and 
military campaigns upon national bound¬ 
aries and upon various forms of govern¬ 
ment. 

“After the completion of the first 
course, I am convinced that Political Ge¬ 
ography will not be discontinued and am 
inclined to believe that the amount of 
time devoted to it will be increased as 
soon as the facilities for doing so are 
made available.” 2 

By offering a year of Physical Geogra¬ 
phy, as a basis of geographic study and 
following this course with a year of Eco¬ 
nomic Geography, the Harrisburg High 
School is setting a fine example for other 
schools in Southern Illinois. During the 
fall of 1939, two full-time and one part- 
time teachers taught eight classes of Phy¬ 
sical Geography and one of Economic Ge¬ 
ography. 

The Herrin High and the University 
High School at Carbondale offer courses 
in Conservation. Marion High School is 
pioneering in this area with a year of 
World Geography. Hurst-Bush High 
School is using J. Russell Smiths’ book, 
Men and Resources, for a year’s course. 

Information gleaned from the question¬ 
naires reveal that some schools could 


Geography — 1940 Meeting 133 


make more use of visual aids such as the 
use of specimens, local resources, field 
trips, slides, films, maps and charts in 
the teaching of geography. 

The text book situation is interesting. 
In most of the Economic Geography 
courses, recently published texts such as, 
The Working World by Whitbeck, Dur¬ 
and, and Whitaker, Nations at Work by 
Packard Sinnott, and Overton, Economic 
Geography by Colby and Foster, and Eco¬ 
nomic Geography by Staples and York, 
are used. However, the Physical Geog¬ 
raphy texts are often old publications. 
Whitbeck’s High School Geography, 
Davis’ Elements of Physical Geography 


and Dryer’s High School Geography are 
still being used as texts in some schools. 
Fortunately, a more recent book New 
Physical Geography by Tarr and Yon 
Engeln is used in more than half of the 
Physical Geography courses. 

Summary, in conclusion it may be 
said that geography in southern Illinois 
is being recognized more and more as a 
vital functional subject and an important 
part of the high school curriculum. Ge¬ 
ography is beginning to receive the recog¬ 
nition it educationally deserves and 
which it has been receiving in other 
states and in the countries of Europe for 
a long time. 


1 For more detailed information concerning - Conservation as a high school subject see 
Barton, T. F., “Teaching - Conservation in the High School”, The Illinois Teacher, Volume 38, 

p. 71. 

2 A signed statement issued by Principal T. Leo Dodd to Mr. J. Ward Barnes who offered 
the course. 


THE CURIOUS CASPIAN 

W. O. Blanchard 



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University of Illinois, TJrhana, Illinois 


Although more than twice as large as 
all of our five Great Lakes together, the 
Caspian Sea shows little of the active com¬ 
mercial life which is associated with 
those North American waters. Inland 
lakes are usually a great boon to a 
country but evidently Mother Nature, in 
adding the Caspian Sea to the Soviet 
landscape, tied a couple of “jokers” to 
her gift. Locating that water in a vast 
desert region was bad enough; neglecting 
to provide a water outlet to the ocean 
made matters still worse! In fact this 
last was an almost unforgivable over¬ 
sight. As a consequence, this sea lies far 
off the world’s great commercial routes. 
On a map showing the commercially ac¬ 
tive portions of the earth, the Caspian 
is almost a blank—a sort of “blind spot” 
in a busy world. 

Yet, in many respects, it is an inter¬ 
esting, even curious sheet of water. 

First, to impress one, is its great size, 
for it really is an immense lake. It is 
larger than either the Black or Baltic 
Seas and one could put 70 of our Great 
Salt Lakes on its surface and have room 
to spare. It is by all odds the world's 
largest inland lake! 

Yet, geologists tell us that it is but a 
tiny remnant of its former self. At one 


time it included the Black and Aral Seas 
and extended northward connecting with 
the Arctic. Crustal movement and cli¬ 
matic change shrunk it so that now the 
sea actually occupies only the deepest part 
of that former great depression. The 
surface waters at present stand some 80 
feet below sea level. 

Still more unusual are the contrasts 
between different parts of the lake itself. 
Thus, in the northern part which receives 
the waters of the great Volga and Ural 
Rivers, the shores are flat and marshy, 
the waters shallow, usually less than 75 
feet deep, and quite fresh—in fact, drink¬ 
able. Too shallow to retain much of the 
summer’s heat, this portion is ice bound 
for three or four months each winter. 

Being far inland and in middle lati¬ 
tudes its climate is continental. The 
temperature range, both seasonally and 
geographically, over this region are re¬ 
markably large. The average January 
temperature over the central part of the 
Sea is as cold as southern Iceland some 
2,000 miles farther north, and the tem¬ 
perature range from the north to the 
south shore in that month is greater than 
that from Gibralter to Iceland, a distance 
about three times as great. On the step¬ 
pes of the lower Volga winter tempera- 












134 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


tures of -20 °F. are not infrequent. Un¬ 
fortunately, the rainfall over the border¬ 
ing lands is both scant and irregular. As 
a result, complete crop failures sometimes 
lead to terrible famines. This section of 
European Russia is a land of nomads and 
sheep, of Cossacks and camels. Cossack 
horsemen have contributed a hardy con¬ 
tingent to Soviet cavalry units just as 
Brittany fishermen have furnished many 
recruits for the French navy. 

The southern part of the sea, in con¬ 
trast to those on the north, is closely 
rimmed by mountains, especially the Cau¬ 
casus and Elburz ranges. Only a narrow 
coastal plain margins the water, but on 
this plain are located the chief cities. 
Baku, one of the world’s great oil cen¬ 
ters is the largest. Much of the petro¬ 
leum moves via pipeline overland to Ba¬ 
tumi on the Black Sea, where tankers can 
load for export. Some moves up the 
Volga to the Moscow industrial district. 

The sea bottom in this south portion 
is marked by two deep pits over 3,000 
feet deep. In this south portion the wat¬ 
ers are decidedly salty and quite free 
of winter ice. Contrary to general opin¬ 
ion the average salinity of the whole 
Caspian is less than ,% that of the ocean. 

One of the difficulties of life along the 
southern coastal land is the scarcity of 
fresh water either as surface or ground 
water. Recourse is had in part to con¬ 
denser ships which distill the sea water 
and pipe it ashore. Tanks then distrib¬ 
ute it and peddlers carry it about the 
streets of the cities. 

On the east coast is a shallow bay, al¬ 
most cut off from the Sea. On the bottom 
of this bay is a layer of some seven feet 
of Epsom salts (sulphate of magnesium). 
The deposit is estimated to total a bil¬ 
lion tons. 

With this great variety in depth, sa¬ 
linity and temperature, it is not surpris¬ 
ing to find this area the most richly 
stocked with fish of any inland water of 
the world. Here especially, in the north¬ 
ern section, is the home of the famous 
Russian caviar industry. The sturgeon 
upon which this industry is based are the 
largest fresh water fish in existence. 


Some of them measure 25 feet in length 
and weigh 3,000 pounds! The roe (eggs) 
from which the caviar is prepared may 
form as much as y 3 of the entire weight 
of the female fish. Of the several 
millions of pounds of caviar marketed 
annually some goes to the United States, 
netting the Russian exporters about $1.00 
per pound. Astrakhan on the lower 
Volga is the caviar capital of the world, 
as well as a center for lamb skins, the 
Astrakhan fur of commerce. 

Aside from these features of interest to 
the scientist and to the fishermen, recent 
developments promise to put the Caspian 
on the map as a commercial route as well. 

We have spoken of the Caspian as a 
“blind spot”. All too frequently, however, 
these “waste places” are transformed into 
highly desirable pieces of real estate. The 
discovery of valuable mineral deposits 
changed the frozen Klondike and the arid 
Gadsen Purchase into busy mining camps. 
The development of wireless and air 
transport made many little-known Pa¬ 
cific islands, such as Midway and Wake, 
highly prized as landing fields and wire¬ 
less stations. Irrigation waters have 
turned the Imperial Valley from a desert 
waste into a luxuriant garden. A ship 
canal transformed a Panama jungle into 
one of the world’s busiest highways. And 
so one might continue indefinitely. As 
geographers, then, in a rapidly changing 
world it behooves us to use the labels 
“waste areas” and “useless regions” with 
caution. In many cases man is not using 
these regions because he has not yet 
learned how he can turn them to Kis ac¬ 
count. 

In the case of this area extensive irri¬ 
gation works are transforming the trans- 
Caspian desert into vast cotton planta¬ 
tions. Moscow has been recently joined 
by canal to the Volga and a ship canal is 
planned between the Don and Volga. 
These will give the Caspian direct access 
to the Soviet industrial region and a 
water route to the Mediterranean. We 
may shortly expect another of the world’s 
“bfind spots” will both “see” and “be 
seen”. 







Geography — 19J/.0 Meeting 


135 


THE MARKET FACTOR: ITS EFFECT ON CULTURAL 

LANDSCAPES 

Alfred W. Booth 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


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The geographer, in his task of showing 
cause and effect relationships, is frequent¬ 
ly handicapped by the great many vari¬ 
ables which confront him. Because this 
is the case, a clear-cut illustration of the 
effect of just one explanatory factor is of 
particular value to him. Such a segrega¬ 
tion of just one factor may frequently be 
achieved by comparative regional studies 
as the following, in which the Grand Prai¬ 
rie of Central Illinois 1 is compared to the 
Racine-Kenosha Prairie of Southeastern 
Wisconsin 2 , with a view toward showing 
the importance of the locational or mar¬ 
ket factor. 

The Racine-Kenosha Prairie, because it 
stood out originally as an island of grass¬ 
land within an oak forest, may well be 
considered to be an “outlier” of the 
greater prairie realm of the United States 
of which the Grand Prairie is a portion. 
A number of cultural landscape features 
which these two regions have in common 
attests to the results of this similarity 
of natural vegetation. Perhaps most con¬ 
spicuous is their general treelessness, a 
fact brought into sharp relief by reason 
of the hedge-like rows of planted trees 
found along the highways and field bound¬ 
aries or grouped about farmsteads and in 
settlements. This lack of trees has also 
made large fields, adhering to rectangular 
lines of the original survey, landscape 
features common to both regions. Simi¬ 
larly, in both regions there is a regular, 
almost geometrical, spacing of farmsteads 
and roads. 

This similarity of natural vegetation 
was also mainly responsible for the simi¬ 
larity of soils between the two regions. 
In both are found the deep, rich prairie 
soils of the Carrington and Clarion se¬ 
ries. 

These like soils and like vegetational 
conditions suggest like climates, and this 
is basically the fact, for both are included 
within Koeppen’s Dfa type of climate. 
The Grand Prairie, being farther south, 
has slightly higher means—in annual 
temperature, in July temperatures, and 
in annual rainfall. However, in spite of 
these differences, it is signficant to notice 


that the climate in the Racine-Kenosha 
Prairie is just about as suitable for corn 
growth as that of the Grand Prairie. 
Indeed, in the year 1935 the corn yield 
per acre in the Racine-Kenosha Prairie 
was greater than that of the Grand Prai¬ 
rie. One may safely conclude that any 
crop that may be grown successfully in 
one region can successfully be grown in 
the other. 

Both regions were overridden by the ice 
of the Wisconsin stage of glaciation and 
were left with similar drift coverings, 
thick heavy clays derived from shale bed¬ 
rock. The normal slumping of this clay 
drift, particularly in the marginal mo¬ 
raines, left both regions with very simi¬ 
lar subdued topography featured by low 
relative relief, and smooth, flowing con¬ 
tours, so that distant views within them 
are apt to be monotonous. Neither area 
has been greatly affected by stream ero¬ 
sion, although both contain some extreme¬ 
ly youthful valleys. This combination 
of clay drift, low relief, and undeveloped 
drainage lines has made poor drainage a 
feature of both regions and was one of 
the most serious problems encountered 
when they were first developed for agri¬ 
culture. At present, drainage ditches, 
canalized streams, and the less-conspicu¬ 
ous tile drains are landscape features 
common to both. 

In addition to these physical similari¬ 
ties, it is important to note that both 
areas were settled by similar stocks of 
people, people originating from New York 
and New England, who entered the Mid¬ 
dle West via the Great Lakes. Because 
of the problems associated with settling 
in prairies, both of these areas were set¬ 
tled later than adjacent wooded areas. It 
is not until the decade 1850-1860 that 
they were reasonably well occupied. 

The similarity in the physical environ¬ 
ment and cultural backgrounds of the peo¬ 
ples of these two regions has resulted in 
a number of common cultural landscape 
features, certain of which have been 
enumerated thus far. However, these 
‘areas differ materially in the manner that 
they are utilized agriculturally. These 










136 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


Table I.— Comparative Agricultural Statistics 


Item 


1. Per cent of total area in farms- 

2. Average size of farms (acres)... 

3. Per cent of farmland in crops- 

4. Per cent of farmland in pasture- 

5. Per cent of farmland in woodland pasture. .. 

6 . ' Per cent of cropland in corn----- 

7. Per cent of cropland in cash grains 0 - 

8. Per cent of corn harvested for grain- 

9! Per cent of cropland in oats-.- 

10. Per cent of cropland in all hay------ 

11 Number of dairy cows per 100 acres cropland 
12! Number of livestock units per square mile... 


Champaign 

Co. a 

Yorkville Twp. b 
Racine Co. 

92 

87 

179.6 

90.7 

83 

65 

14 

24 

4 

4 

48 

33 

60 

12 

99 

29 

21 

22 

6 

29 

3.4 

18.3 

61.9 

126.6 


a From United States Census of Agriculture: 1935. ...... , ,, . . .... 

b jp rom Walter H. Ebling, Agricultural Statistician, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture and Markets: 1935. 
0 Corn for grain, soybeans, wheat. 


differences in human use are brought out 
by the following table in which Cham¬ 
paign County has been selected as rep¬ 
resentative of conditions in the Grand 
Prairie, and Yorkville Township, Racine 
County, has been selected as representa¬ 
tive of the Racine-Kenosha Prairie. 

It can be noticed in the above table 
that in only three items are the statis¬ 
tics alike. These are Item 1, which re¬ 
flects the suitability of both environments 
for agriculture, Item 5, which reflects 
a common prairie character, and finally, 
Item 9, which reflects the general require¬ 
ment for a feed grain. All other items 
are in contrast, and all of them bring 
out the fact that the basic agricultural 
economies of these two regions differ 
markedly. Probably the two most signifi¬ 
cant of all are Items 8 and 11 which 
indicate that one region is an area of 
commercial grain farming, while the 
other is a region of dairy farming. The 
importance of commercial grain produc¬ 
tion in the Grand Prairie is also brought 
out by Item 7, while the importance of 
dairying in the Racine-Kenosha Prairie 
is indicated by Item 10. The other items 
in the table also indicate this fundamen¬ 
tal difference, although not to quite as 
great a degree as those already suggested. 

In addition to the difference between 
their land utilization landscapes, there 
are other cultural contrasts between the 


the large red barns, the tall cylindrical 
silos, the ample barnyards, and the milk 
houses of the farmsteads, the milk trucks 
of the highways, and the milk-receiving 
plants of the villages. Indicative of the 
interest in corn production in the Illi¬ 
nois region are the corncribs of the farm¬ 
steads, the dried corn stalks that stand 
in the (fields most of the year, and the tall 
grain elevators of the villages. 

It is thus evident that though the Ra¬ 
cine-Kenosha Prairie is like the Grand 
Prairie physically, economically it is like 
Southeastern Wisconsin, so that all its sig¬ 
nificant cultural features are related to 
the dairying industry, even though they 
are set in an environment like that of 
Central Illinois. To account for this ap¬ 
parent lack of coincidence between the 
environment and man’s use of the area, 
we must turn to the locational or market 
factor. Whereas the Racine-Kenosha 
Prairie is but forty miles from Chicago, 
twenty miles from Milwaukee, and only 
five miles from the cities of Kenosha and 
Racine, the Grand Prairie is, in general, 
too far away from large metropolitan dis¬ 
tricts to make milk shipping worthwhile, 
and so less perishable commodities must 
be produced. In recent years, the exten¬ 
sion into the Racine-Kenosha region of 
truck farming agriculture, featuring cab¬ 
bage, onion, and sugar beet production, 
further emphasizes the growing market¬ 
ing opportunities of the area. 


two regions. Associated with the dairy¬ 
ing interests of the Wisconsin region are 


1 Basic material taken from: Poggi, Edith M., “The Prairie Province of Illinois", 

Illinois Studies in Social Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 3 .. .. 

2 Basic material taken from: Booth, Alfred W., The Geography of the Southeastern 
Dairy Region of Wisconsin, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1936. 



































Geography—1940 Meeting 


137 


THE QUESTION OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL CONCEPT, 
THINKING, AND USAGE OF THE TEEM “CYCLE” 

Clarence L. Brown 

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 


It is the purpose of this paper to raise 
questions concerning the geographical 
concept, thinking, and usage of the term 
“cycle,” and to present facts as found in 
the literature. No attempt has been made 
to arrive at a conclusion. 

The problem to be discussed is not new 
to our field. The question of the validity 
of the term “cycle,” to be used in geo¬ 
graphical terminology, was raised many 
years ago. In 1899 before the Seventh 
International Geographical Congress at 
Berlin, the embryonic scheme of the cycle 
was introduced. Many geographers at 
that time, notably the German writers, 
felt an objection to the term “cycle.” 
Objection was made because the scheme 
is not concerned with anything circular, 
and because the first member of the se¬ 
quence of events in the cycle is unlike 
the last. This problem has continued to 
be a source of irritation and misunder¬ 
standing to the present day. The point 
of emphasis, however, has shifted so as 
to include not only the concept of the 
geographical cycle, but problems of cyclic 
thinking and usage. 

In the Reports of the Conferences on 
Cycles 1 , two facts seemed outstanding: 
the prominence of the personnel, and the 
disagreement as to what a “cycle” embod¬ 
ied. In the Report of the First Confer¬ 
ence on Cycles, 1922, two conflicting 
points of view will be discovered. In the 
Report of the Second Conference on Cy¬ 
cles, 1928, reference is made to the dis¬ 
agreement regarding the principles in¬ 
volved. At the First Conference, F. E. 
Clements said, “In general scientific use 
the word (cycle) denotes a recurrence of 
different phases, of plus and minus de¬ 
partures, which are often susceptible of 
exact measurement. It has no necessary 
relation to a definite time interval,....” 
“....the significance of the term resides 
in the fact of recurrence rather than in 
that of the time interval,....” “In con¬ 
sequence, it seems desirable to use cycle 


as the inclusive term for all recurrences 
that lend themselves to measurement, 
and period or periodicity for those with 
a definite time interval, recognizing, how¬ 
ever, that there is no fixed line between 
the two.” 2 

Again, at the First Conference, C. F. 
Marvin said, “Mere recurrences of natural 
phenomena without reference to the time 
interval between recurrences do not neces¬ 
sarily constitute cycles. To be cyclic 
there must be systematic recurrence.” 3 
Both cycle and period are now confused. 
Thus, we see the two conflicting points 
of view regarding the cycle. At the Sec¬ 
ond Conference, in relation to this dis¬ 
agreement, Dr. Merriam said, “If there 
could be agreement in a general way re¬ 
garding the principles involved in a dis¬ 
cussion of cycles, we would have a start- 
ting point for what seems one of the most 
significant studies of interrelation of sci¬ 
entific factors in the whole field of sci¬ 
ence.” 4 

In any case, it is not the name but the 
scheme that is important. What the idea 
is called matters but little if that idea is 
understood. Attention was next applied 
to the thinking and usage of the term 
cycle in geographical literature. Cases 
were found showing a lack of understand¬ 
ing and agreement. These cases are typi¬ 
cal examples of what exists in geographi¬ 
cal literature. 

Whatever the intention of the author 
may be, it seems to me (in this first ex¬ 
ample) that the emphasis is placed on the 
time element. “The time required for re¬ 
ducing a drainage basin to a base-level 
plain is a cycle of erosion.” 5 

Now we notice another point of view 
stressing the process. A cycle, then, is 
more properly a process than a duration 
of time.” 6 

Again, to give a different opinion, show¬ 
ing stage of development occupying the 
dominant position, C. C. Huntington and 
F. A. Carlson express the idea that the 


138 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


terms applied to the cycle (such as youth, 
maturity, and old age) refer “to the stage 
of development .” * 2 * 4 * * 7 

P. E. James also feels the problem deals 
with the succession of forms developed. 
“The succession of forms developed dur¬ 
ing the wearing down of an upraised sur¬ 
face toward baselevel is called a cycle of 
erosion .” 8 

Another point of view is held by Cham¬ 
berlain. Here the baselevel is the im¬ 
portant factor to observe. “If all of the 
lands in a drainage basin were to be re¬ 
duced to baselevel, the area would have 
completed a cycle of erosion .” 9 It is in¬ 
teresting to note that even this term 
“baselevel” is a matter of dispute and 
confusion. “It is desired to point out that 
too many meanings have been attached 
to the first term, ‘baselevel,’ and that 
some of them should be transferred to the 
other two, ‘grade’ and ‘peneplain.’ ” 10 

An example of casting about for a suit¬ 
able term is evident when Huntington 
says, “Rhythms, pulsations, or cycles 
seem to be the law of organic life .” 11 “Cli¬ 
matic fluctuations....” are also men¬ 
tioned, while other authors call the same 
phenomenon climatic cycles or climatic 
periods. The term evidently covers quite 
a multitude of concepts and usages. 

I do not know to what extent geogra¬ 
phers have avoided the use of the term 
“cycle,” but I do know of one publication 
in which the author has purposely avoid¬ 
ed the use of this term. In Elements of 
Geography, the entire scheme of the cycle 
of erosion is explained , 12 but the term 
“cycle” is not connected with this scheme. 


Nowhere, in the entire discussion, does 
the term “cycle” appear! 

Up to this point the disagreements re¬ 
garding the term “cycle” have been em¬ 
phasized. Here is an example of an 
author’s statement as to the validity of 
the “cycle” itself. “They are either in¬ 
definite, or if they are expressed precisely 
they usually break down when tested 
over long periods .” 13 

Looking at the problem now from an¬ 
other point of view, we find authors ad¬ 
hering to such terms as “Normal Cycles,” 
“Special Cycles,” and “Cycle accidents,” 
(applied to a set of conditions not found 
in the Normal Cycle, and consequently 
thrown into another category). In addi¬ 
tion, we have “Interrupted Cycles,” “In¬ 
complete Cycle s,” “Stages,” “Adjust¬ 
ments,” and “Revived Cycles.” 

From the above discussion, does it not 
seem feasible that our educative program 
may be concerned with the question? 
What is the student of geography to do 
with such a maze of divergent terms? 
Will this loose coinage of geographical 
terminology make for an efficient dissemi¬ 
nation of thought? Does it not seem ad¬ 
visable to foster discussion on the sub¬ 
ject, so that a clear concept of the scheme, 
as well as unified and simplified usage 
may result? Is it advisable to use this 
term “cycle” as it now stands; would it 
be advisable to substitute a more suitable 
term; or would it be advisable to keep 
the term “cycle” with an agreement to in¬ 
sure its universal understanding? I ask 
the opinions of the younger, as well as 
the older, more experienced geographers 
on this question. 


11 Reports of the Conferences on Cycles, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Gibson 
Brothers, Washington, D. C., 1929. 

2 Clements, F. E., Nature of the Problem of the Cycle, p. 3. 

0 Marvin, C. F., Characteristics of Cycles, p. 11. 

4 Ibid, p. 25. 

c Salisbury, Barrows, and Tower, Modern Geography for High Schools, Henry Holt 
and Company, 1914, p. 227. 

a Peattie, R., College Geography, Ginn and Company, 1926, p. 260. 

7 Huntington, C. C.. and Carlson, F. A., The Geographic Basis of Society, Prentice-Hall, 
New York, 1933, p. 178. 

8 James, P. E., An Outline of Geography, Ginn and Company, 1935, p. 387. 

0 Chamberlain, J. F., Geography, Physical, Economic, Regional, Lippincott Companv, 
1921, p. 125. 

M Davis, W. M., Geographical Essays, Ginn and Company, 1909, p. 381. 

11 Huntington, E., The Pulse of Progress, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1926, 
pp. 6 and 7. 

12 Finch, V. C. and Trewartha, G. T., Elements of Geography, McGraw-Hill Book Com¬ 
pany. New York, 1936. 

13 Gregory, Richard Sir, Weather Recurrences and Weather Cycles, Monthly Weather 
Review, December, 1930, vol. 58, No. 12, p. 490. 



Geography — 19J+0 Meeting 


139 


BRITTANY AND DEVON-CORNWALL: 
GEOGRAPHICAL TWINS 

Mabel P. Crompton 

Illinois State Normal University, Normal, Illinois 


The striking similarities between Brit¬ 
tany, the northwestern peninsula of 
France, and Devon-Cornwall, the south¬ 
western peninsula of England, were im¬ 
pressed upon me during a three months’ 
sojourn in Europe in the summer of 1939. 
I took a motor coach trip through Brit¬ 
tany during the middle of June and then, 
after travelling for many miles through 
other countries, I journeyed through De¬ 
von and Cornwall in the middle of Au¬ 
gust. The twinlike nature of these areas 
was outstanding. Like all twins, how¬ 
ever, there were, in spite of numerous 
similarities, enough contrasts to make 
each interesting and individualistic. 

These twins are located one on the 
south side and the other on the north 
side of the wide end of the English Chan¬ 
nel funnel which narrows to the Strait 
of Dover. Although located right along 
this great commercial route of the world 
these areas have not profited by such 
closeness because the freight moves past 
their shores and on nearer the centers of 
the commercial activities to Le Havre 
for France and to Southampton or Lon¬ 
don for England. This happens in spite 
of the fact that at its far west side Brit¬ 
tany has the harbor and city of Brest 
with its direct rail connection with Paris 
and Devon-Cornwall has Plymouth with 
its direct rail connection with London. 
Because of their remoteness from the 
great centers of activity in these two 
countries the peoples of these outlying 
corners still preserve ancient traits and 
customs. 

The present surface conditions of these 
two areas have been developed in much 
the same way. The great series of moun¬ 
tain-building movements toward the end 
of the Paleozoic Period resulted in great 
east-west folds in both. The worn-down 
remnants of these early folds are clearly 
visible today in the east-west stretch of 
moorlands. Although of little value agri¬ 
culturally these are beautiful spots when 


the yellow gorse and purple heather are 
in bloom. 

Great granitic intrusions were forced 
into and through the ancient rocks. This 
granite has been utilized in developing 
the cultural landscape of both regions. 
Most of the present-day buildings, as well 
as the fences, are made of granite blocks, 
the streets of the cities have been paved 
with cobblestones of granite, wayside 
crosses have been cut out of granite. In¬ 
to the granite was carved the stories of 
the Bible for people who could not read. 
These are the calvaries many of which 
are still found in Brittany. They were 
used also in Cornwall but were destroyed 
along with many of the old cathedrals 
during the Reformation. 

Neither of these peninsulas was reached 
by the Ice 1 Invasions hence the soil is 
largely residual, very thin, and infertile 
where the granites and schists outcrop, 
and deeper and richer in many of the 
areas of sedimentary outcrops. In either 
case it is badly leached lacking lime and 
phosphorus. However, there are some 
small areas of deep alluvial soils. 

Brittany and Devon-Cornwall have a 
typical marine climate—cool summers, 
mild winters, and a fairly evenly distrib¬ 
uted rainfall in the form of drizzles, 
mists or light rains. The mildness of 
the climate in the sheltered coastal val¬ 
leys is reflected in the presence of such 
warm climate plants as fuchsia hedges 
and palm trees. 

These two areas are decidedly twin-like 
in their agricultural development. The 
mildness of the winters especially in the 
sheltered coastal valleys plays an impor¬ 
tant role in the production of early vege¬ 
tables and fruits for the London and Paris 
markets respectively. The raising of 
early potatoes and early peas is of es¬ 
pecial importance in both areas. How¬ 
ever, the well-kept 1 gardens of broccoli, 
string beans, onions, cauliflower, brus- 
sels sprouts, and artichokes are an im- 


140 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


portant part of the landscape. The possi¬ 
bility of getting strawberries on the mar¬ 
ket early has led to an important de¬ 
velopment of that crop. The greatest 
development of the fruit and vegetable 
industry has taken place in those coastal 
areas where there are main rail connec¬ 
tions with London or Paris. On slopes 
protected from harsh winds are many ap¬ 
ple orchards and, instead of beer or wine, 
cider has become the local drink. 

In both peninsulas the cool, damp, 
misty marine climate, the rolling to 
rough surface, and the thin rather infer¬ 
tile leached soils have discouraged the 
use of the land for the production of 
grain and encouraged its use for animal 
industries. While the higher moorlands 
and rougher surfaces are used as grazing 
land for sheep, the ploughed areas of the 
less rugged parts are used for the clovers 
and sown grasses or the barley and oats 
grown together and cut green for fodder. 
About 50% of the sown grass is cut for 
hay. In both areas the haystacks are pro¬ 
tected from the large amount of moisture 
by being thatched and in wind-swept sec¬ 
tions the thatch is held in place by a 
weighted rope network. 

This land utilization suggests the im¬ 
portance of the dairy industry providing 
the famous cream of Devon and butter of 
Cornwall and Brittany. These areas are 
too remote from the great centers of milk 
consumption in their respective countries 
to try to develop the whole-milk phase 
of the industry. In both peninsulas hog¬ 
raising and poultry-raising have devel¬ 
oped; as by-product industries of dairying. 

Following the Ice Age the sea invaded 
the land transforming the lower areas in¬ 
to gulfs and bays and the higher ones 
into great promontories or headlands or 
completely separating them from the 
mainland and forming a fringe of rocky 
islands. The sea is constantly at work 
digging away at the rocky headlands and 
building tiny beaches in the peaceful shel¬ 
tered bays. Many are attracted to these 
lovely spots for their holidays. 

Along such an irregular high-latitude 
shoreline with its hundreds of protected 
coves one might expect to find fishing 
villages. Brittany is no exception nor 
is Devon-Cornwall. Lobster pots may be 
piled along the shore and nearby may 
be a canning factory or packing plant. 
The fishing villages of Brittany are es¬ 


pecially picturesque for the hulls of the 
boats are likely to be painted a bright 
blue or green and the thrifty Breton fish¬ 
erman dips his sails in a henna-red pre¬ 
serving fluid which protects them from 
the salt water. The lovely blue nets used 
in the sardine fishing may be billowing 
from the masts or flapping along the rail¬ 
ings along the piers as they dry. No less 
picturesque are the fishermen as they 
clatter about over the cobblestone pave¬ 
ments in their wooden shoes. Their suits 
need protection against the salt water 
and consequent rotting so they also have 
been dyed with a red or a blue preserving 
fluid. 

Similarly, in almost every sheltered 
cove of the Devon-Cornwall rock-girt 
coast is a little fishing village. The chief 
fish caught along this coast is a close 
relative of the sardine, the pilchard. 
Lobster pots also are a common sight in 
many of the Cornish villages. The Corn¬ 
wall fishing village, however, is not near¬ 
ly so interesting as the Brittany one be¬ 
cause it lacks the colorfulness. 

These fishing villages have more than 
supplied their share of recruits for the 
British and the French navies. 

The twins are most unlike in the min¬ 
ing and quarrying industry. Brittany 
has little activity along this line except 
for the securing of granite for buildings 
and fences and slate for shingles and for 
the use of local clays in Quimper for mak¬ 
ing a heavy, figured ware sold extensively 
in northern France. 

In the Cornish peninsula, however, as¬ 
sociated with the granitic intrusions 
were tin, copper and lead lodes. Earlier 
these were of major significance but to¬ 
day they are completely overshadowed 
by the working of the china clay deposits 
which occur in irregular pockets in the 
surface of the granite masses. . This clay 
is dug out, washed to free it from frag¬ 
ments of quartz and other impurities, 
dried, bagged, and sent to The Potteries 
for the famous English china industry 
or it is shipped abroad. 

Thus we see that these geographical 
twins are most nearly alike in their loca¬ 
tion, their surface features, their soil con¬ 
ditions, their climate, their agricultural 
responses and the development of their 
fishing industry and that they are most 
unlike in their mining and quarrying ac¬ 
tivities. 



Geography — 19JfO Meeting 


141 


GEOGRAPHIC PRINCIPLES AND RELATIONSHIP 

SEQUENCES 

Arthur B. Cozzens 
University of Illinois, Urloana, Illinois 


One of the major problems in teaching 
elementary college geography is the de¬ 
velopment of the beginner’s ability to rea¬ 
son logically. All too often the student 
merely memorizes explanations without 
understanding them; consequently, he is 
unable to apply them in other similar 
situations. 

A partial remedy for this condition lies 
in the listing of basic principles, but a 
thorough understanding of relationships 
may be attained only through a study of 
cause and effect sequences. These may be 
presented conveniently by means of dia¬ 
grams which permit easy visualization of 
the explanations. At the left side of each 
diagram are placed statements of funda¬ 
mental principles which, for the most 
part, are laws of physics or facts from 
other natural sciences and from mathe¬ 
matics. At the right of these and con¬ 
nected to them by lines which indicate 
relationships are facts of lesser impor¬ 
tance resulting from the general princi¬ 
ples or representing applications of them. 
From these, in turn, are derived facts of 
a third order of magnitude and so on un¬ 
til the complete sequence of cause and 
effect has been plotted for various ob¬ 
served geographic phenomena. 

One advantage of this system is that it 
permits the representation of complex re¬ 
lationships. For example, several basic 
principles may be required to explain one 
secondary fact, and this, in turn, may 
exert a causal influence upon several 
phenomena of tertiary importance. The 
plan is applicable in varying degrees to 
the different classes of geographical 
material. In meteorology, climatology 
and soil science, the basic principles of 
which are well known, it functions very 
well. In land-form studies it encounters 
some difficulties, due to the impractica¬ 
bility of determining experimentally the 
causes of some observed phenomena. 
And finally, in the investigation of cul¬ 
tural landscapes it should be used with 


caution and the statements duly qualified, 
for, here, we are dealing not only with 
natural processes but with the little- 
known field of human motives. 

Before constructing a diagram, it is 
necessary to isolate basic facts, some of 
which may be stated as follows: 

1. The earth rotates. 

2. The earth revolves about the sun. 

3. The inclination of the earth’s axis 
is constant in amount and direction. 

4. Great circles on the same sphere al¬ 
ways bisect each other. 

5. Moving masses travel in straight 
lines with respect to points in space 
unless acted upon by external forces. 

6. The sun’s rays become progressively 
less direct poleward from the verti¬ 
cal ray. 

7. The energy imparted by rays of sun¬ 
light becomes progressively less con¬ 
centrated with increasing deviation 
from the perpendicular. 

8. Other conditions being equal, the ef¬ 
fect of insolation varies with its dur¬ 
ation. 

9. Gases and liquids expand when heat¬ 
ed and become less dense; contract 
and become more dense when cooled. 

10. The moisture-carrying capacity of a 
given space (with or without air) 
increases with rising temperatures 
and decreases with falling. 

11. The specific heat of water is greater 
than that of land or rock which, in 
turn, is greater than that of air. 

12. Air moves from areas of high pres¬ 
sure to areas of low; it descends in 
highs and ascends in lows. 

13. The steeper the pressure gradient, 
the stronger the wind. 

14. Like pressure areas attract each 
other; unlikes repel. 

15. Ascending air expands and cools; de¬ 
scending air is compressed and be¬ 
comes warmer (adiabatic). 

In addition, we may recognize the fol¬ 
lowing as some of the basic principles 
affecting landform development: 




Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


142 

1. Under identical conditions soft rocks 
weather and erode more rapidly than 
do hard. 

2. The height of the land above base 
level determines the maximum possi¬ 
ble relief. 

3. Running water tends to maintain a 
balance between carrying capacity 
and load. 

For cultural geography three principles 
seem to form the starting points for the 
various relationship sequences. They 
are : 

1. The essential requirements for human 
existence are food, water, shelter and, 
in some climates, clothing. 

2. Man regulates his activities to con¬ 
form to what he conceives to be his 
own best interests. 

3. People as groups ultimately attain a 
more or less satisfactory adjustment 
to their environment with the result 
that certain human activities the 
world over characteristically are as¬ 
sociated with definite physical land¬ 
scape complexes and economic condi¬ 
tions. 

To illustrate a relationship sequence, 
we may consider the causes and effects 
of the deflection, with respect to the com¬ 
pass directions, of moving masses. The 
starting point is the principal that the 
earth rotates. Because of this fact, any 
parallel and meridian intersecting at a 
point not on the equator rotate about that 
point with respect to directions in space, 
the rotation being clockwise in the south¬ 
ern hemisphere, counterclockwise in the 
northern. But, to introduce a second 
basic fact, moving masses travel in 
straight lines with respect to points in 
space unless acted upon by external forces. 
Therefore, moving masses, although fol¬ 
lowing straight courses in space, trace 
curved paths on the earth because of the 
constantly changing directions of paral¬ 
lels and meridians. One of the numer¬ 
ous phenomena which result from this 
deflection is the diversion from due north- 
south courses of the winds of the plane¬ 
tary circulation, giving rise to southwest- 


erlies, northwesterlies, northeast and 
southeast trades and polar northeasterlies 
and southeasterlies. A further result is 
the determination of the width of these 
wind belts, the limits being set by the 
complete elimination, due to deflection, 
of continuous north-south motion. 

Another phenomenon dependent upon 
deflection is the circulation of ocean 
water. In this case, however, supplemen¬ 
tary lines of reasoning are necessary for a 
complete explanation. These lines orig¬ 
inate in the basic facts of the existence 
of friction and the density changes of 
gases and liquids when heated and cooled. 
The prevailing wind directions in middle 
latitudes and in the trade wind belts must 
be considered also. 

One variation of the method outlined 
above is especially suitable for represent¬ 
ing the complex interrelations of soil 
characteristics. A few important soil 
properties serve as the starting points for 
the relationship sequences which extend 
through several stages and include nu¬ 
merous cross-connections. As an illus¬ 
tration, one sequence would be: Coarse 
texture—high permeability—good inter¬ 
nal drainage—low water table. Good in¬ 
ternal drainage also results in good aera¬ 
tion—low specific heat—warm soil. Good 
aeration gives rise to two other branches 
of the diagram: 1) rapid soil weathering 
—abundant plant nutrients; and, 2) ni¬ 
trogen fixation by bacteria on the roots 
of legumes. Another minor series is: 
High permeability—small run-off—slight 
erosion. A second major sequence is: 
Adequate lime content—sweet soil—nu¬ 
merous earthworms—high humus—dark 
color—high absorption of insolation— 
warm soil. This latter series has many 
branches which can be represented ade¬ 
quately only by means of a diagram too 
large to be reproduced in this study. 

Diagrams of the type described in this 
paper may readily be constructed to meet 
individual needs and should prove ex¬ 
tremely useful as reference material for 
students of elementary geography, meteor¬ 
ology and conservation. 




Geography — 191/0 Meeting 


143 


THE NEW OIL INDUSTRY OF ILLINOIS AND ITS 
IMPLICATIONS IN THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC 
LIFE OF SOUTHERN ILLINOIS 

Elmer W. Ellsworth 
Centralia, Illinois 
Abstract 


Southern Illinois, during the past three 
years, lias witnessed an intensive and 
highly successful campaign of oil ex¬ 
ploration and development. Since 1937 
the daily average production of petroleum 
in Illinois has jumped from 15,000 to 
430,000 barrels, raising this state from its 
obscure position as the fourteenth rank¬ 
ing oil state to its present position (May, 
1940) as the third ranking state, sur¬ 
passed only by Texas and California. 

During the initial period of discovery 
of new Illinois oil production, 1937 
through 1938, oil men were attracted to 
Illinois from nearly every oil producing 
region in this country. This movement 
soon developed into a mass migration of 
major proportions and the housing of 
these welcome oil people soon became a 
problem. Hotels, tourist cabins, vacant 
houses and apartments were quickly 
filled in each of the principal towns in 
the Illinois Basin. Rents throughout 
this area went higher, by far, than they 
had ever gone before. Hundreds of auto¬ 
mobile trailer houses were bought by the 
oil people, and many a vacant lot in 
these new oil towns accommodated sev¬ 
eral of these trailers, with families living 
in each one. In Centralia alone, 150 
trailer houses provided living quarters 
for over 400 people. Although accommo¬ 
dations of one kind or another provided 
these new Illinois residents with shelter, 
these crowded living conditions en¬ 
dangered the public health. The sudden 
appearance and growth of the oil boom, 
1937-1938, made it physically impossible 
for the new oil towns to adequately cope 
with the housing problem. 

The principal construction during this 
period consisted of temporary quarters 
housing the many oil field supply and 
service companies. These frame and 
corrugated steel buildings are clustered 


along the outskirts of the principal oil 
towns and although they are a symbol of 
the new prosperity which oil has brought 
to southern Illinois, they themselves 
present a rather unsightly appearance 
and materially lower residential property 
values in their neighborhood. 

During the period of intensive develop¬ 
ment of the new Illinois oil fields, 1939 
and 1940, the influx of oil people to 
southern Illinois has reached a maxi¬ 
mum, and the economic and social sig¬ 
nificance of this is manifest in the new 
problems and conditions found in each of 
the above named oil towns. The housing 
of the oil men and their families is still 
a problem, but permanent relief is being 
sought in the wide-spread construction of 
houses and small apartment buildings. 
The present building boom in each of the 
southern Illinois towns also includes the 
construction of additional office facilities 
for the oil industry, as well as improved 
and also new accommodations for the 
many local business concerns which have 
so prospered under the impetus of the oil 
boom as to require new quarters. 

No less significant are the social im¬ 
plications resulting from the migration 
into southern Illinois of thousands of oil 
people from the southern states. To this 
region these new comers have brought 
the culture, the habits and customs com¬ 
mon to Oklahoma, Texas and the other 
oil states. Southern Illinois is thus the 
scene of many contrasts between old 
established customs and those of the in¬ 
vading oil people. Oil people are char¬ 
acteristically sociable and cooperative, 
with the consequence that in our new 
Illinois oil towns they are found actively 
participating in every local activity, 
whether religious, cultural, or social in 
nature. Through the stimulus given to 
civic movements by the energy which 




144 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


they have displayed in their active co¬ 
operation, the oil people have given new 
strength to many an organized group. 
From a social view point, a significant 
consequence of this invasion of southern 
Illinois is an adjustment in the sense of 
values as is evidenced by a rejuvenated 
interest in social service, in movements 
for civic betterment, and in a broadened 
cultural outlook. There is no doubt but 
what the people of southern Illinois have 
and will continue to profit, in the 
broadest sense, by their close association 
with these thousands of newcomers. 

Outlook for the future of the new oil 
industry of Southern Illinois. Based upon 
his familiarity with the geological aspects 
of our newly-found industry, the writer is 
firmly of the opinion that the industry is 
here to stay,—for many years to come. 
Over a three year period, discoveries of 
new Illinois oil fields have averaged 
better than one a month and there is 
every reason to believe that new discov¬ 
eries will continue to be made in the 
future. Although the great migration of 
oil men into southern Illinois from the 
oil states of the southwest is essentially 


over, these thousands of newcomers now 
look upon Illinois as their adopted home. 

The new oil industry has greatly im¬ 
proved the economic position of southern 
Illinois: business conditions generally 
have been improved, much private in¬ 
debtedness has been wiped out, new 
modern schools have been built, as well 
as new homes, stores and office buildings, 
and many municipal improvements, such 
as the paving of streets have been under¬ 
taken. The oil industry has clearly 
brought prosperity to southern Illinois. 
This newly-found wealth, in the form of 
“black gold" from nature’s storehouse, is 
properly referred to as a wasting asset, 
since the underground supply of oil is 
limited and when once exhausted cannot 
be replaced. Clearly, then, the perma¬ 
nency of the new prosperity of southern 
Illinois can be said to be very largely 
dependent upon the manner in which we 
exploit this great natural resource: If 
guided by established principles of oil 
conservation, this great industrial de¬ 
velopment will continue to bring pros¬ 
perity to the state of Illinois for many 
years to come. 


CLIMATIC REGIONS OF ILLINOIS 

D. A. Price 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


The purpose of this paper is to present 
a brief resume of the characteristics of 
the two climatic regions of Illinois: the 
humid subtropical on the south and the 
humid continental (long summer phase) 
on the north. Many systems of classify¬ 
ing climates have been advanced by as 
many climatologists. The system here 
employed in delimiting regionally the 
climates of Illinois is that of Koppen. 
The use of quantitative values for the 
delimiting of climates has led to the 
world wide use of his formula or some 
modification of it. 

According to the Koppen formula the 
boundary between the Cfa 1 (humid sub¬ 
tropical) and Dfa 2 (humid continental) 
is the 26.6°F. isotherm for the average of 
the coldest month. This line coincides 
quite closely with the 40th parallel and 
passes across the state approximately 
midway between the northern and south¬ 
ern extremities. With the boundary so 
situated, the state therefore reflects the 


transitional aspect of both types of 
climate. As a matter of fact, the regions 
differ more in degree than in kind. For 
instance, average temperatures decrease 
gradually and quite evenly from the 
southern to the northern borders of the 
state; precipitation also decreases in the 
same direction. Continentality and lati¬ 
tude make for great annual ranges of 
temperature in both regions. Summer 
temperatures differ little, but marked 
differences are evidenced between the 
extremes in winter, Cairo’s average for 
January being 16° higher than the Jan¬ 
uary average for the northern extremity. 

Cfa Region 

Temperature. Although the latitudi¬ 
nal extent of this climate is only 3° the 
differences in temperature are well 
marked from south to north, especially 
during the winter months. Average 
monthly isotherms assume for the most 






Geography — 19^0 Meeting 


145 


TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION CHARTS FOR 
CLIMATIC REGIONS OF ILLINOIS 


100 


75' 


50* 


25 ' 


0*F. 


-25* 


100 * 


75* 


50* 


25* 


0* F 


-25° 



ABS. MAX. 


AV. MAX. 

AVERAGE 7EMR 
AV. MIN. 


ABS. MIN. 


D 

CLIMATIC 

BOUNDARY 


HEAVIEST PPT. 


-•-AV. HEAVIEST 
4 

AVERAGE 

AV. LOWEST 
kpm^LOWEST 

Dfa Stations: Bloomington, Chicago, LaHarpe, Marengo, Morrison, Ottawa. 

Cfa Stations: Cairo, Danville, Effingham, Mount Vernon, New Burnside, Quincy, Springfield, 
St. Louis. 





















































146 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


part a definite east-west trend, and de¬ 
crease gradually toward the north, an in¬ 
dication of latitudinal control. January 
is the month of lowest average tempera¬ 
ture for the entire region, 34° being the 
average, and of great extremes, from 
-34 03 to 74 04 —a range of 108°. Isotherms 
representing the absolute minimum and 
the absolute maximum assume no definite 
pattern, indicating controls exerted by 
local topography, its accompanying air 
drainage, and differential heating and 
cooling. Of the 32 Weather Bureau sta¬ 
tions in the region, 18 have registered 
their all-time low temperature in Janu¬ 
ary, generally typical of continental areas. 
The remaining 14, with a February 
minimum, reflect cold air invasions from 
northern U. S. and Canada, and air 
drainage. 

Average temperature increases are not 
so great from January to March because 
too much heat is consumed in taking 
frost out of the ground, but from April 
to July the more direct sun’s rays be¬ 
come very effective in heating the entire 
region. July, with a regional average of 
77.7°, is the month of highest tempera¬ 
ture. Differences between the averages of 
the northern and southern extremities of 
the region are very small during the 
summer months. Except for two stations 5 
the absolute highest temperatures are re¬ 
corded in July; the 115° F. for Greenville 
is the absolute maximum for the region 
as well as for the State, while 41° is 
the regional absolute minimum, making 
the greatest range in July 74°. 

Average monthly temperatures begin to 
decrease very slowly at first, only 1.6° 
from July to August; then with increased 
rapidity. Average monthly isotherms 
maintain the normal wide spacing until 
December, when they assume the definite 
close alignment characteristic of the 
winter season. 

Average annual isotherms are evenly 
spaced and trend in a uniform east-west 
direction. Cairo’s average of 58.3° and 
Lincoln’s 52° make an extreme difference 
for the region of only 6.3°. The regional 
annual average of 55° compares favorably 
with the regional monthly average for 
April. 

Growing Season. Rather marked dif¬ 
ferences in length of the frost free season 
are to be found in the region. In the 
southern tip of the State and along the 
Mississippi River to St. Louis the grow¬ 


ing season is 200 days and over, long 
enough to permit successful cotton culti¬ 
vation. Cairo’s 216 days is the longest 
frost free period in the region; while 
Lincoln’s 165 days is the shortest. The 
regional average is 186 days. 

Precipitation, it seems desirable to 
consider precipitation characteristics 
within each region on the basis of sum¬ 
mer half year and winter half year. 6 
Isohyets trend in a southwest-northeast 
direction for all winter months in the 
region. Cyclonic paths or tracks usually 
cross Illinois. By the time these storms 
reach the State they are importing mari¬ 
time tropical air masses from the Atlantic 
Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Out of a 
compromise between these competing 
sources of moisture evolves the isohyetal 
pattern. 

February is the driest month of the 
entire year, partially because of its 
length, but also because of southerly 
paths taken by many cyclones in crossing 
central United States at this time of the 
year. March is the wettest month of the 
winter half year in the entire region, 
with the greatest amount falling in the 
southeastern section, where a cyclonic 
storm from the northwest is likely to 
unite with a Texas storm in the lower 
Ohio valley. Seven stations in the south¬ 
eastern section 7 have less precipitation 
during the summer half year than during 
the winter half. 

Summer Rainfall. With the advent of 
the summer half year the control of pre¬ 
cipitation gradually changes from cyclonic 
to convectional. In the months of May 
and early June rainfall is the result of 
both these factors; consequently May is 
the rainiest month for 3/5 of all stations 
in the region. For the remaining 2/5, 
June, September and March are most 
commonly the wettest. 

For most of the summer months con¬ 
vection associated with high temperatures 
and monsoonal tendencies is responsible 
for the primary type of rainfall, which as 
a result, is sporadic in character. July 
and August suffer droughts occasionally, 
as do other summer months, as a result 
of slowly moving, non-rainbearing anti¬ 
cyclones. September is second only to 
May in receiving greatest average 
amounts of precipitation. By October, con¬ 
vection’s grip is broken by cyclones. For 
the most part, however, summer half year 
precipitation varies little through the 


Geography — 19J } 0 Meeting 


147 


entire region, the extreme difference being 
only 4.3". 

Average monthly precipitation is great¬ 
est in the southern part of the region 
because it is nearer the sources of mois¬ 
ture, because it receives convectional 
showers earlier in the spring and later 
in the fall, and also because of the 
merging of lows over the lower Ohio val¬ 
ley. A gradual decrease from south to 
north and northwest is noticeable. 
Quincy’s 35" is the lowest annual precipi¬ 
tation; Golconda’s 47" is the greatest. 

Dfa Region 

North of the 26.6° isotherm for the 
coldest month, which coincides roughly 
with the 40th parallel, is located the 
Humid Continental climate, long summer 
phase. The north-south extent is only 
about 175 miles, but within this short 
latitudinal distance sharp contrasts in 
temperature and precipitation are to be 
found as a result of continentality and 
paths of cyclonic storms. 

Temperature. Extremes of temperature 
are evident in this region. Mt. Carroll 
has experienced the lowest temperature 
ever recorded: -35° F. Continentality, 
snow cover which permits excessive cool¬ 
ing during the long winter nights, and 
severe cold waves produce such an ex¬ 
treme minimum. For % of the stations 
February is the month of absolute mini¬ 
mum temperature, January for the re¬ 
maining third; more snow and snow 
cover remaining for a longer time make 
such extremes possible in the region. 
Lake Michigan exerts enough influence 
to prevent absolute minimum tempera¬ 
tures in its vicinity from reaching as low 
a degree as other stations in the region. 
On the whole January is a month of ex¬ 
tremes of temperature. A temperature of 
74° has been recorded in the southern 
section—making an all time absolute 
range for January of 111°. This is greater 
than is found in the Cfa region to the 
south, indicative of higher latitude and 
of more continental position. However, 
the greatest extreme difference of tem¬ 
perature from absolute maximum (114° 
recorded at Bloomington) to absolute 
minimum for the region is 149°, the same 
as for the Cfa region. 

Except for a definite poleward trend 
in the immediate vicinity of Lake Michi¬ 
gan, isotherms assume a definite east-west 


trend. For January the regional average 
is about 23.7°. February is 3° warmer, 
in spite of the fact that 3/5 of the sta¬ 
tions record all time lows in that month. 
By March broader spacing of isotherms 
indicate a definite warming of the earth 
by the sun. During April, isotherms for 
the first time, bend equatorward near 
Lake Michigan, a trend which is noticed 
in that locality definitely until June. 

Typical of continental regions, July is 
the month in which highest average as 
well as absolute maximum temperatures 
occur. From north to south within this 
region the July differences in average 
temperatures are small, only 4°, 75° be¬ 
ing the regional average. August for the 
region is only 2° cooler than July. From 
September to mid-winter the contrast 
between months is much more marked. 
A slight, but decided lag in temperatures 
is obvious for stations in the immediate 
vicinity of Lake Michigan from August 
until late winter, as reflected in the pole- 
ward bending of all isotherms near there. 
For instance, Chicago has an average 
temperature for December equal to that 
of Bloomington, 95 miles to the southwest. 

Influences of Lake Michigan so appar¬ 
ent in monthly temperatures are not 
generally noticeable in annual averages. 
Isotherms have in general characteristic 
east-west trends, bending only slightly 
poleward near the lake, and are rather 
equally spaced. A decrease in tempera¬ 
ture occurs from south to north, with a 
difference between the extremes of the 
region amounting to only 7°. Havana 
with 53° has the highest average annual 
temperature in the region, Marengo with 
46° the lowest. 

Growing Season. Topographic features 
and Lake Michigan make for irregularity 
of isopleths representing the average 
length of growing season. An ill-defined 
decrease in length takes place from south 
to north. Peoria in the Illinois River 
valley and Chicago on Lake Michigan 
share the distinction of recording the 
longest growing season, 187 days. On the 
average, Chicago has 21 days longer 
growing season than Aurora, 40 miles 
westward. Average length of growing 
season for the region is 167 days. 

Precipitation—Winter Half Year. As 
in the Cfa region, February is the month 
of least average precipitation in the Dfa 
region, for the same reasons. April re¬ 
ceives more precipitation than any of the 


148 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


other months in the winter half year 
group, because cyclones take more north¬ 
erly courses, thus exposing the region to 
the rain bearing quadrants of the cyclonic 
storms. Some convectional showers are 
evident by April too, as a result of more 
effective heating by the sun. An irregu¬ 
larity of isohyets reflects this fact. 

Precipitation for the winter half year 
is dominated almost entirely by cyclones 
which are most highly developed in mid¬ 
winter. Averages of precipitation for the 
entire region in the winter half year are 
less than for the summer half. The de¬ 
crease in amount is from southeast to 
northwest. Of the annual total, 44 per 
cent occurs during the winter half year 
in the southern section and only 33 per 
cent in the northwestern section, a reflec¬ 
tion of the more southerly paths of 
cyclones during the winter. 

Precipitation—Summer Half Year. May 
is not the month with highest average 
precipitation for the region, but does rank 
high; for 1/7 of the stations it is highest. 
The high ranking is‘caused by well de¬ 
veloped cyclones moving along northerly 
routes and by convectional showers. June 


is blessed with ample rainfall as a result 
of very abundant convection plus some 
lingering cyclones. Of the other summer 
months July has less precipitation because 
weak, semi-stagnant anti-cyclones with 
low absolute humidity are prevalent then. 
For % of all stations September is the 
month of highest average precipitation, 
and convection is an important cause as 
indicated by an irregular pattern of 
isohyets. For the entire summer half 
year little differences in average precipi¬ 
tation are to be noted within this region. 
Isohyets trend in a more or less irregular 
north-south direction. 

For the most part average annual pre¬ 
cipitation decreases from south to north. 
Clinton, in the southern extremity of the 
region, has the highest annual average, 
42.7"; Galena with 30.6" has the lowest. 
With the Dfa region receiving from 56 to 
67 per cent of its rainfall during the 
summer half year, mostly as a result of 
convection, it follows that an isohyetal 
map of annual average precipitation 
would be irregular and indefinite in 
pattern. 


1 C means average of coldest month over 26.6°F.; f means humid throughout the year; 
a means average of warmest month over 71.6°F. 

2 D means average of coldest month under 26.6°F. ; f and a same as above. 

3 Recorded at Lincoln. 

4 Recorded at Cairo. 

5 Duquoin and Jacksonville’s all-time highs came in August. 

8 May to October, inclusive ; November to April, inclusive. 

7 Mt. Carmel, McLeansboro, Shawneetown, New Burnside, Anna, Golconda, and Cairo. 




Geography — 19JfO Meeting 


149 


A METHOD OF REPRESENTING THE NATIVE VEGE¬ 
TATION OF A SMALL AREA 

Robert J. Voskuil 
University of Illinois , Urbana, Illinois 


A description of the distribution of the 
native vegetation is an essential part of 
a geographic regional study and the 
problem of securing data and presenting 
it in a usable form is one of the most 
difficult tasks confronting a geographer. 
Even when the data are available the 
problem of presentation of the material 
remains. 

The logical method of presenting this 
material is in the form of a map. It is 
the aim, therefore, of this paper to illus¬ 
trate one way in which the distribution 
of the native vegetation of a small area 
may be presented in map form. 

This method is well adapted to areas 
in the Middle West where studies of the 
native vegetation were made by the Gen¬ 
eral Land Office Survey between 1785 and 
1830. Sample or witness trees were re¬ 
corded and located as to site within 
square mile sections based on the Or¬ 
dinance Survey. Their records reveal the 
species, size, and location of the in¬ 
dividual trees. 1 

The method to be explained was ap¬ 
plied to a study of the native vegetation 
of Holland Township, Sheboygan County, 
Wisconsin. 2 The Survey recorded twenty 
different species of trees as existing in 
this area in 1830. The number of times 
each specie was repeated in the descrip¬ 
tion for each section supplied the per¬ 
centages of that specie that existed in the 
area as a whole. By the same method 
the species and the percentage of each 
type found in each section of the Town¬ 
ship were secured. 

The collection and tabulation of such 
material are valuable aids to the geog¬ 
rapher in describing the native vegeta¬ 
tion; however, a method of presenting the 
distribution of these data on a map is 
desirable. 

Figure I shows a way by which findings 
of such a nature may be put in a usable 
map form. A circle, drawn in each sec¬ 
tion, is divided with the desired number 


of lines, each line representing a different 
specie of tree. Species may be grouped 
to represent classes of trees, such as low¬ 
land, upland, etc. The small inner circle 
is employed to facilitate easier construc¬ 
tion and interpretation of the completed 
figure. Each line is then marked off from 
the inner circle to the outer circle to rep¬ 
resent from 0 to 100 per cent. A point 
is found on each line to represent the 
percentage of that particular specie in 
that section. The total of all the points 
would then equal 100 per cent. By con¬ 
necting the points a geometric figure re¬ 
sults. This figure indicates the percen¬ 
tage of each type of tree found in the 
sections of the area. A larger circle may 
represent the Township and be used as a 
key for interpreting the smaller circles. 

Presentation of the native vegetation 
by this method allowed relationships to 
be observed between it and the soils, re¬ 
lief, land types, farmstead classification 
and other elements of the natural and 
cultural landscape. Of the twenty differ¬ 
ent types of trees found in the area, 
beech and sugar maple composed 54 per 
cent and specimens were found in every 
section of the Township. The percentage 
in individual sections varied from 10 per 
cent to 87 per cent. Associated with 
these two types on the well drained up¬ 
lands of clay loam were black oak, white 
oak, white ash, ironwood, yellow birch, 
maple, hickory, hemlock, and butternut. 
In the transition zones between the up¬ 
lands and the more poorly drained low¬ 
land of silt loam an increase of linden, 
birch, and elm were present. On the 
sandy soils along the lake shore consid¬ 
erable areas of white and Norway pine 
were mixed with the hardwoods. Cedar 
replaced the more xerophytic conifers on 
the poorly drained sands. In the swampy 
area in the south central section of the 
Township there were more black ash, 
alder, tamarack, and cedar trees. 


—5 


150 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 



FIG. 1 


This method of presentation makes the able to a geographer in a usable map 
material gathered by the vegetation in- form, 
ventory of the General Land Office avail- 


1 Field note-books of the Land Office Survey may usually be found at the County Court 
House. 

2 Voskuil, R. J., A Geographic Study of Holland Township, Sheboygan County, Wisconsin. 
Unpublished M. A. thesis, Syracuse University. 





















































































































































Papers In Geology 


Extract From the Report of the Section Chairman 

There were sixteen papers on the Geology Section program, nine of which 
are herewith printed. The others were entitled: 

Blowouts and sickle-shaped dunes along southern Lake Michigan , W. E. 
Powers, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

Geographical contributions to social life , G. G. Cole, Wheaton College, 
Wheaton. / 

The research program of the State Geological Survey and its new facilities, 
M. M. Leighton, State Geological Survey, Urbana. 

Coordinate time and stratigraphic terms, A. H. Sutton, University of Illi¬ 
nois, Urbana. 

Glacial Lake Watseka, George E. Ekblaw, State Geological Survey, Urbana. 

Some paleobotanical principles proposed for the investigation of a Pennsyl¬ 
vanian flora, F. C. MacKnight, State Geological Survey, Urbana. 

Strip mining as a competitive factor in the Illinois coal mining industry, 
Gilbert H. Cady, State Geological Survey, Urbana. 

Attendance averaged forty. The new chairman elected for the 1940 meeting 
is J. Marvin Weller, State Geological Survey, Urbana, Illinois. 

(Signed) David M. Delo, Chairman 


[ 151 ] 










152 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


TYPICAL LOWER MISSISSIPPI VALLEY SILURIAN 
LITHOLOGY IN SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN 

John R. Ball 

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 


Introduction. Silurian rocks of Niag- 
aran age cropping out in the lower Missis¬ 
sippi valley possess a peculiar lithology 
which serves readily to identify them. 
The strata commonly are of argillaceous 
limestones with a dense to finely crystal¬ 
line texture associated with a limited 
occurrence of shales. In the lower half 
or third of the section the most distinc¬ 
tive lithological feature is a mottled 
coloration, irregular areas of greenish 
gray resting in a matrix of deep red. 

Above the reddish facies the limestones 
are persistently a pale green, thin and 
platy patches of shale are interbedded, 
and the mottled areas are purple and 
much less conspicuous. The limestone 
of the upper beds is comparatively soft 
and earthy. Near the top of the type 
section of the Bainbridge limestone in 
Missouri the gray to pale green limestones 
grade virtually into a clay near the con¬ 
tact with the Helderbergian rocks. 

Lithology of the general nature in¬ 
dicated above is persistent in the Niag- 
aran Series of the lower Mississippi River 
drainage area and is represented from 
western Tennessee through southern Illi¬ 
nois and in scattered outcrops as far west 
as the Arbuckle Mountains. The litho¬ 
logic features identify the Niagaran 
strata in a general way, but gradational 
changes from one formational unit to an¬ 
other are more difficult to detect. 

Lithology of Niagaran rocks in the up¬ 
per Mississippi basin. The Silurian strata 
in the northern states are well known for 
their dolomitic character, their massive 
bedding, and for the common blue-gray to 
buff coloration which prevails. Chert is 
fairly plentiful and the fossils, when pres¬ 
ent, are larger and more conspicuous than 
in the southern part of the valley. 

The coloring of Niagaran rocks near 
Burlington, Wisconsin. Limited and lo¬ 
cal coloring effects in the lower part of 
the Niagaran strata in Wisconsin have 
been noted occasionally by observers how- 


ever, and several references appear in the 
literature. 1 Some of the red color is in 
strata immediately overlying the iron de¬ 
posits at or beneath the base of the 
Silurian, but Alden 2 in 1918 noted that 
reddish strata lying higher than those 
associated with the iron deposits had 
been penetrated by the wells of south¬ 
eastern Wisconsin. Alden 3 was unable to 
see the ocherous rocks in place, but de¬ 
scribed the general color effects from 
fragments. Inasmuch as the strata are 
well exposed at present, but chiefly be¬ 
cause of the strong resemblances to 
Silurian lithology in the Lower Missis¬ 
sippi Valley, a brief description of the ex¬ 
posure is offered in this paper. 

Red, shaly dolomite in the Burlington 
Quarry. The quarry is one mile west of 
Burlington in the NE 1 ^ NE 1 ^ sec. 36, T. 
3 N., R 18 E., Spring Prairie township. 
It is on the east bank of White River, 
a small stream draining Lakes Como and 
Geneva. The surroundings are of great 
natural beauty and evidently the drift is 
very thin over the thin-bedded dolomite 
exposed in the quarry. The quarry is 
opened to a depth of about 26 feet, but 
only the upper 17 feet are exposed clearly 
in the quarry face. A generalized section 
of the east face of the quarry shows the 
strata as tabulated in table I. 

Floor of Quarry. Above surface of 
pond, reported to be 20 feet deep, well 
bedded strata rising for 3 or 4 feet, are 
seen. These strata are slightly more mas¬ 
sive and apparently of a light yellow to 
greenish color, faintly marked in bands. 

The Fauna. Fossils are gathered in 
sparse numbers from these rocks, the 
Wisconsin Reports listing about one-half 
dozen from this locality, 4 although the 
quarry long has been famous for its 
rather large specimens of Bumastws im- 
perator (Hall). Units 5 and 10 of the 
above section are known to contain 
micro-fossils. George E. Burpee, 6 
working under the direction of R. T. 











Geology — 19^0 Meeting 


153 


Shrock, has noted a foraminiferal zone 
extending through a depth which evi¬ 
dently takes in the horizon of this quarry 
and which in persistent thickness he has 
recognized in other wells. Fragments of 
other fossils in some abundance have 
been recognized by Burpee, including a 
predominance of bracliiopods in about 
the horizon of the No. 10 unit in the sec¬ 
tion. Unit No. 5 of the section contains 
a fragment which is probably Burnet stus 
impercitor , and that fossil is reported by 
the quarrymen as coming from rocks at 


or below the present floor of the quarry. 

Distribution of red and mottled dolo¬ 
mites in Wisconsin and Illinois. Investi¬ 
gators have noted the frequent occur¬ 
rences of red strata in the wells of south¬ 
eastern Wisconsin which are not asso¬ 
ciated with the iron-bearing strata at the 
base of the Silurian. Occasional red 
stains in the Niagaran have been observed 
elsewhere, particularly Brillon, but these 
occurrences will not be traced further in 
this connection. 


Table 1.— Section in Burlington Quarry, NEj, NEj Sec. 36, T 3 N., R. 18 E., Spring Prairie Township, 

Wisconsin. 


Silurian System, Niagaran Series: 

Thickness 

Depth 

Feet 

Inches 

Feet 

Inches 

12. Dolomite, in beds averaging 2\ inches in thickness, dense, yellowish 
gray with faint traces of green and black 

11. Dolomite, in 2 to 3 inch beds, dense, with color bands up to 5 inch in 
thickness, colors faint shades of gray or green . . 

2 

8 

2 

2 

8 

10 

10. Dolomite, shaly, colors about the same as in unit above, the shaly 
portion near the base in large, wavy sheets, bedding surfaces covered 
with a network of long ridges and furrows, resembling algal remains; 
small brachiopods- . . . . --- .. ..... 


8 

3 

6 

9. Dolomite, thin-bedded, indistinct bedding laminae, dense, earthy, 
deep green with occasional lighter bands, a more purple banding 
near the base __ . .. _ . --- . .... 

1 

2 

4 

8 

8 . Shale, grading laterally into green, platy dolomite, the shale light 
green, with limonite and manganese stains. . ... . . 


1 

2 

4 

82 

7. Dolomite, shaly, dark green, poorly laminated. . .. . __ 


5 

5 

n 

6 . Dolomite, shaly, dull gray, weathering to a deeper greenish color_ 


H 

5 

3 

5. Dolomite, flaggy, laminated, with planes of the laminae showing 
mottled coloring, pink in an area of green, fossil fragments and 
solution pits from which fossils have disappeared. 

3 

1 

8 

4 

4. Dolomite, earthy, compact, greenish gray_ __ 


6 

8 

10 

3. Dolomite, a somewhat massive bed, compact, resistant, with prom¬ 
inent color bands, greenish gray alternating with pink above, but 
near the base, in a band 4£ to 5 inches thick, a deep red color appears 

1 

1 

9 

11 

2. Dolomite, thin-bedded, compact, colors not vivid, but in bands of 
faint green, and a less vivid red than above; some concretion centers 
and calcitic vugs... . .. .... .. _ . 

2 

2 

12 

1 

1. Dolomite, in slightly thicker beds, banded colors of deep red, alter¬ 
nating with bands of yellow, yellowish green and limonite; bedding 
surfaces show mottled patches of grayish green in a field of red similar 
to the Dixon or Bainbridge formations of Missouri.. _ _ 

5 

10 

17 

11 


Several interesting occurrences of the 
same type of colored dolomites have been 
observed in northern Illinois. C. L. 
Bieber has directed the writer to old 
quarry workings in Aurora in the north 
part of the city and on the west bank 
of the Fox River. Here, specimens of a 
thin-bedded dolomite, a deep red in color, 
have been secured. A few blocks of a 
brick-red, flaggy dolomite have been built 
into abutments along Highway 25, south 


of Batavia. L. E. Workman 0 has located 
rock of this character in two of the 
quarries near that city. He reports, also, 
that an Aurora well shows the red rocks 
about 20 feet above the top of the Alex¬ 
andrian Series of the Silurian. A quarry 
operating in a silty, thin-bedded yellow 
dolomite is situated several miles south 
of Belvidere, Illinois, but this Silurian 
rock is said to be Edgewood in age. 7 



































154 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


Age of the reddish dolomites. In some 
Silurian studies emphasis naturally has 
been placed upon the convincing evi¬ 
dences for northerly communications dur¬ 
ing middle Silurian times. 8 Other in¬ 
vestigators have considered the probabili¬ 
ties for open connections southerly dur¬ 
ing the same Period. 9 The evidence as 
supported by the macro fossils is not very 
satisfactory, as far as it has become 
known, to supply much detail concerning 
communication channels. Evidence af¬ 
forded through microscopic studies, on 
the other hand, is becoming more convinc¬ 


relations are coming within reach. 

Workman 10 has found that specimens 
from the Burlington quarry submitted by 
the writer, and which include those from 
Nos. 1 and 12 of the section, include the 
numerous foraminifera discovered by 
Burpee. Mr. Workman also finds the 
specimens from the Burlington quarry to 
be identical with those examined earlier 
by him from the Batavia quarries. This 
seems to establish the age of the Burling¬ 
ton quarry rock as Osgood, according to 
Workman’s earlier determinations. 

The writer is indebted to Ira Edwards, 


ing. The work of Dunn, Priddy, Work¬ 
man and others suggests that, on the 
basis of evidence afforded by microscopic 
organisms of a mobile nature, and on the 
basis of insoluble residues, details of cor¬ 


R. R. Shrock, Gilbert Raasch, L. E. Work¬ 
man, for cordial replies to inquiries and 
for assistance rendered through corre¬ 
spondence and conferences concerning 
this study. 


1 Thwaites, F. W., Recent discoveries of Clinton iron ore in eastern Wisconsin; U. S. G. S. 
Bull. 540, p. 341, 1912. 

2 Alden, W. C., The Quaternary geology of southeastern Wisconsin, with a chapter on 
the older rock formations: U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper 106, pp. 89-90, 1918. 

3 Op. cit., page 9 0. 

4 Chamberlin, T. C., Geology of Wisconsin, Vol. II, Pt. II, Geology of eastern Wisconsin, 
pp. 372, ff, 1877. 

5 Burpee, G. E., Insoluble residues of the Niagaran Series in Wisconsin, unpublished 
Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1932. 

6 Workman, L. E., personal communication. 

7 Kremer. Frank, and Lamar, J. E., Limestone resources of Illinois: Ill. Geol. Surv. 
Bull. 46, p. 93, 1925. 

8 Weller, Stuart, The Paleontology of the Niagaran limestone in the Chicago area: Chi. 
Acad, of Sciences, Bull. IV, Part I, pp. 12-22, 1900. 

9 Ulrich, E. O., Revision of the Paleozoic Systems: Bull. G. S. A. 22, pp. 485-486, 1911. 

10 Workman, L. E., Contributions to correlations of Silurian Systems in northeastern 
Illinois through study of insoluble residues: Bull. G. S. A., vol. 50, No. 12, Part 2, p. 2015, 
1939. (Abstract) and personal communication. 


A RESTUDY OF LESQUEREUX’S FOSSIL PLANT 

TYPES FROM ILLINOIS 

Raymond E. Janssen 
University of Chicago , Chicago , Illinois 


The study of paleobotany in Illinois 
had its beginning under the leadership 
of Leo Lesquereux who, as a member of 
the first Geological Survey of the State, 
had been engaged to make studies of the 
coal deposits and associated fossil plant 
remains. The first descriptions of Illinois 
fossil plants resulting from Lesquereux’s 
work were contained in Volumes II and 
IV of the Survey reports, dated 1866 and 
1870, respectively. Included here were 109 
new species, all of Carboniferous age, 
collected from various localities within 
the State. 

The holotype specimens themselves 
presumably became a part of the Worthen 
Paleontological Collection in the Illinois 
State Museum at Springfield. Over¬ 


crowded conditions in the Museum during 
subsequent years required the storage of 
many of the collections with the result 
that these type specimens became lost to 
view. In 1938 it was decided to take 
from storage much of this material, 
thereby bringing Lesquereux’s types again 
to attention. 

In the meantime much had transpired 
in the field of paleobotany, both, in 
America and abroad. Our understanding 
of many forms had been increased by 
subsequent discoveries, reclassifications in 
taxonomy had been made, and improved 
methods of describing and illustrating 
specimens had been instituted. Conse¬ 
quently, upon the suggestion of the late 
Dr. A. C. Noe of the University of Chi- 






Geology — 19JfO Meeting 


155 


cago, it was deemed advisable to make a 
restudy of Lesquereux’s types from 
Illinois. The purpose of the investigation 
was to determine, in the light of present- 
day knowledge, the validity of the new 
species, to revise their taxonomic classi¬ 
fications where necessary, and to ascer¬ 
tain which, if any, might be referable to 
previously known species. 

It was first planned to include in this 
study all of the new species established 
by Lesquereux in Volumes II and IV of 
the State Survey reports. A diligent 
search of the State Museum’s collections 
failed to reveal many of the type speci¬ 
mens, only 59 of the original 109 new 
species being located. It is possible that 
some of the species may have been de¬ 
scribed from privately owned specimens 
which subsequently reverted to their 
owners. Others may have been deposited 
elsewhere without ever having become a 
part of the State’s Worthen collection. 
Attempts were made to locate the miss¬ 
ing specimens, some of which seem actu¬ 
ally to have been deposited in other 
institutions. Some of these, listed in 
catalogues as type specimens, were found 
not to be such. The impossibility of 
locating all of the type specimens at this 
time necessitated a change in plans. Con¬ 
sequently, it was decided to limit the 
study to only those holotypes which are 
in the Illinois State Museum. 

Tabulated results of the completed 
study furnish interesting figures. Of the 
59 species studied, only 18 specific names 
remain valid today. Twenty-six were 
found to be referable to previously estab¬ 
lished species, 2 had been specifically 
renamed, and 13 were such poorly pre¬ 
served examples as to be valueless as 
specific types. Of the 18 which remain 
as valid species, 10 have been referred to 
genera other than those in which they 
were originally included. 


It should not be inferred that all of 
these changes were made solely as a re¬ 
sult of the present study. The validity 
of some of the species had been ques¬ 
tioned by various workers during the 
intervening years, and in some cases 
formal revisions were made by publica¬ 
tion. Usually such changes were made 
without the respective authors having had 
the opportunity of examining the type 
specimens, their judgments being guided 
only by the original descriptions and 
drawn illustrations. In the present study 
some of these revisions were accepted 
and others rejected. 

For the first time the type specimens 
have been photographed and reproduced 
in colotype. Results of the completed 
study constitute a monograph published 
by the Illinois State Museum. 

Included also in this monograph are 
descriptions of ten new species and varie¬ 
ties of fossil plant impressions recently 
collected from the Mazon Creek region of 
Illinois. These were found by George 
Langford, Sr., and George Langford, Jr., 
of Joliet, Illinois, who have been collectors 
of Mazon Creek material for many years. 
They permitted the writer to select from 
their collection of some 50,000 specimens 
those which were considered to be new 
forms, whereupon the holotypes upon 
which the new species were founded 
were permanently deposited in the Illinois 
State Museum. 

The writer wishes to acknowledge the 
assistance given him in this study by the 
late Dr. A. C. Noe prior to his untimely 
death, and by Dr. J. M. Schopf of the 
Illinois State Geological Survey. The 
Langfords are also to be commended for 
their generosity in donating the new 
types to the State Museum for permanent 
deposit. 


156 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN OIL AND GAS IN ILLINOIS 1 

George V. Cohee 

State Geological Survey, Urbana, Illinois 


In the week ending March 16, Illinois 
passed Oklahoma in daily production of 
crude oil for third place among the oil 
producing states of the nation. The daily 
average production for Illinois that week 
was approximately 456,000 barrels which 
represents peak of daily production for 
the State up to that time (fig. 1). in 

1939 Illinois produced 94,302,000 barrels 
of oil. This is approximately three times 
the amount of oil produced at the peak 
in 1908 when development in the south¬ 
eastern Illinois field was at its height 
(fig. 2). For the first three months in 

1940 the State’s production was 36,531,000 
barrels, and production for 1940 is esti¬ 
mated to be 145,000,000 barrels. 

On the basis of posted prices the total 
value of the oil produced in 1939 was 
$94,835,500. Of this amount it is esti¬ 
mated that $11,843,000 was paid to the 
land and royalty owners as the customary 
one eighth royalty income from the oil 
produced. In addition, $3,650,000 is paid 
annually in rentals to the landowners for 
land leased for oil exploration and de¬ 
velopment. This additional income to the 
lesidents of the State is reflected in 
retail sales tax collection from the coun¬ 
ties having oil production where it has 
increased more than 100 per cent in three 
years. In these counties the sales of new 
automobiles are up 85 per cent, bank de¬ 
posits have increased 50 per cent, and 
bank loans only 15 per cent. 

The accompanying chart (fig. 3) shows 
the cumulative production and proved 
reserves by states as of December 31, 
1939. Table 1 includes figures accom¬ 
panying the chart. It is of particular 
interest to note that Illinois was eighth 
in cumulative production to the end of 
1939. However, at the present time it 
ranks seventh. Texas has produced more 
than six. billion barrels of oil which is 
approximately one-sixth of the world’s 
production and has a proved reserve of 
almost 10 billion barrels. California is 
second in cumulative production and has 
produced almost five and one half billion 
barrels of oil and has a future reserve of 


more than three and one half billion 
barrels. Oklahoma, ranking third in cu¬ 
mulative production has produced more 
than four and one half billion barrels 
of oil and has a reserve of slightly 
more than one billion barrels. The 
total cumulative production for Illinois, 
which has produced oil since 1904, is 




APRIL l. 1940 


TEXAS 

'.ALrO«NIA 

O' 1 ahOma 

KANSAS 

PENNSYLVANIA 

LOUISIANA 

OHIO 

ILLINOIS 

ARKANSAS 

WYOMING 

WEST VIRGINIA 

NEW MEXCO 

KENTUCKY 

INDIANA 

MICHIGAN 

NEW YORK 

MONTANA 

COLORADO 

OTKR STATES 



Fig. 1 (top), fig. 2 (middle), fig. 3 (bottom) 


1 Published with permission of the Chief, State Geological Survey, Urbana, Illinois. 


























































































































































Geology — 19J/.0 Meeting 


157 


more than a half billion barrels of oil 
and there is in the State a reserve of 
more than 381 million barrels for future 
production. The estimated proved re¬ 
serves of approximately eighteen and one 
half billion barrels in the United States 
are 82.5 per cent of the total amount of 
oil so far produced in this country. Dur¬ 
ing 1939 the nation’s total oil production 
was slightly more than one and one 
quarter billion barrels. At this rate of 
production our known reserves should 
last approximately fifteen years. Further 
discoveries of new fields and exploration 
of other producing strata in the known 
fields will however increase our known 
reserves and extend the period of oil pro¬ 
duction in the nation. 

From January 1, 1937 to April 2, 1940, 
60 new fields were discovered in Illinois; 
three of these have been abandoned. All 
of the new fields are in the southern part 
of the State, where the Chester series is 
present (fig. 4). Approximately the same 
area was designated by Dr. A. H. Bell 
of the Survey in 1930 as having the best 
possibilities for oil production in the 
State. There were 5,686 oil wells and 43 
gas wells in the new fields as of April 2, 
1940. During 1939, 3,675 wells were com¬ 
pleted in Illinois, 2,946 produced oil, 24 
produced gas, and 705 were dry holes. In 
1939 a total of 7,521,986 feet of hole was 
drilled in the State. Of this amount 
6,079,423 feet was drilled in producing 
wells. Assuming an average cost of $3.00 
per foot the total investment in drilling 
was $22,565,958. This includes both pro¬ 
ducing wells and dry holes. The average 
depth of all wells drilled in the State in 
1939 was 2,026 feet. 

In Illinois the total wildcat footage 
drilled was 1,036,111 feet which is ap¬ 
proximately one eighth of the wildcat 
footage drilled in the United States in 
1939. 2 

After the discovery of Devonian pro¬ 
duction in the old Sandoval pool in west¬ 
ern Marion County, which had produced 
from the Bethel sandstone of the Chester 
series for a number of years, the De¬ 
vonian limestone was tested in the Salem, 
Centralia, and Bartelso pools where it 
was found to be productive. Devonian 
development in these pools was rapid, 
and on April 23 there were 374 wells pro¬ 
ducing from this formation in Clinton 


and Marion counties. This development 
has caused considerable interest in the 
Devonian possibilities in new and old 
fields where the formation has not yet 
been tested. 

Production in the Devonian limestone 
is obtained from a porous dolomite zone 
which occurs at a short distance below 
the top of the limestone. In the Salem 
field the producing zone averages 30 feet 
in thickness and is encountered from 
50 to 55 feet below the top of the lime¬ 
stone which is reached at an average 
depth of approximately 3,330 feet. As the 
producing zone is very porous with some 
cavities as large in diameter as a lead 
pencil, the wells have large initial pro¬ 
duction but decline rapidly. One of the 
early Devonian wells in the Centralia 
field which had an initial production of 
approximately 800 barrels daily had de¬ 
clined to 40 barrels daily in two months. 
During that time it had produced 35,000 
barrels of oil. The average cost of dril¬ 
ling and equipping a well to the Devonian 
in the Centralia field is estimated to be 
$18,000 and in the Salem field from 
$25,000 to $30,000. 

There is also much interest in the pos¬ 
sibilities of production from the “Tren¬ 
ton” limestone in various fields. A well 
is being drilled to this formation in the 
Centralia field. The “Trenton” limestone 
is productive in the Dupo field in St. 
Clair County, in the Westfield pool in 
Clark County, and is expected to be pro¬ 
ductive on large structures in the Illinois 
basin provided that the limestone is 
porous. 

The Carter Oil Company recently 
drilled a well to the St. Peter sandstone, 
encountered at a depth of 4,710 feet, on a 
seismograph structure south of Mattoon, 
Illinois, and obtained a show of oil in 
the Glenwood sandstone that overlies St. 
Peter sandstone. The Glenwood forma¬ 
tion at this locality is interbedded shale, 
sandstone, and sandy dolomite. The St. 
Peter sandstone penetrated in the well is 
typically friable and medium grained. It 
is of interest to note a petroleum residue 
was found in drill cuttings from the Glen¬ 
wood formation in wells drilled in Bond, 
Ford, Bureau and Perry counties. 

This show of oil in the Glenwood 
formation will no doubt add to the in¬ 
terest in drilling to the Glenwood and St. 


2 Lahee, F. H., Wildcat Drilling Activity, 1939, Oil and Gas Journal April 11, 1940, 
page 11. 






158 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


Peter sandstones on known structures in 
Illinois. The St. Peter sandstone was 
tested by the Pure Oil Company in the 
Cisne field in Wayne County but no com¬ 
mercial production was reported below 
the McClosky sand. 

In view of the interest in the deeper 


possibilities in the Illinois basin, it is 
expected that a number of deep tests will 
be started in the near future. The fol¬ 
lowing table lists the depths from the top 
of the Lower Mississippian to the top of 
the St. Peter formation in various areas 
in southern Illinois: 


Field and Co. 

Bartelso 

field 

Clinton 

County 

Centralia 

field 

Clinton, 

Marion 

Counties 

Salem 

field 

Marion 

County 

Mattoon 

field 

Coles 

County 

Cisne 

field 

Wayne 

County 

T. 4 N., 

R. 12 W. 
Lawrence 
County 

Top Lower Mississippian limestone. 

1280 

1510 

1870 

1980 

3100 

1690 

Top Devonian limestone__ 

2420 

2860 

3330 

3170 

4900 

2965 

Top “Trenton” limestone. 

3440* 

4000* 

4280* 

4060 

6300 

4370 

Top St. Peter sandstone... — 

4130* 

4730* 

5080* 

4710 

7100 

5185** 


* Estimated. 

** The Glenwood sandstone overlying the St. Peter sandstone in this well is 70 feet thick. 


Table 1.—Production of Oil and Estimated Proved Reserves in Principal Producing States 1939 



Cumulative production 
in thousands of bbls. as 
of Dec. 31, 1939 1 

Estimated proved reserves 
as of Jan. 1, 1940 in 
thousands of bbls. 2 

Texas.... 

6,087,361 

9,768,371 

California-....-.. - 

5,346,197 

3,532,342 

Oklahoma__ ____ 

4,650,006 

1,063,152 

Kansas...____ 

1,054,337 

725,467 

Pennsylvania.____ — 

979,670 

183,123 

Louisiana........ 

956,232 

1,173,225 


585,218 

31,692 

Illinois----- 

551,269 

381,636 

Arkansas______- 

480,444 

320,148 

Wyoming... ... . — — 

475,212 

305,616 

West Virginia--- 

407,326 

45,888 

New Mexico... . ..... 

235,316 

687,168 

Kentucky_____ _ 

161,933 

44,086 

Indiana___ 

125,838 

14,164 

Michigan___ 

125,156 

51,078 

New York-- 

113,778 

35,392 

Montana-- 

76,726 

93,460 

Colorado-- 

38,257 

20,162 

Other states*----- 

1,121 

6,842 

Total---- 

22,451,397 

18,483,012 


* Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Utah, Nebraska. 

1 U. S. Bureau of Mines. 

2 American Petroleum Institute Committee on Petroleum Reserves estimates. 


Natural gas was marketed from two 
fields in Illinois during 1939: the Russell¬ 
ville gas field in Lawrence County which 
produced approximately 964 million cubic 
feet of gas, and the Ayers gas field in 
Bond County which produced slightly 
more than 13.5 million cubic feet. A con¬ 
siderable quantity of natural gas is pro¬ 
duced with the oil in the new fields, but 
it is not marketed. 

It was estimated recently that 250 mil¬ 
lion cubic feet of gas was being produced 
daily in the Salem field, Marion County; 


100 million in the Storms (field, White 
County; and 30 million in the Louden 
field, Fayette County. Possibly another 
70 million cubic feet of gas is being pro¬ 
duced in the other new fields making a 
total daily production of gas in Illinois of 
approximately 450 million cu. ft. A small 
portion of the gas is being used for re¬ 
pressuring purposes, drilling, operation of 
powers, and local heating and lighting. 
The remainder of the gas is burned in 
flares. 






























































Geology — 19J+0 Meeting 


159 



Fig. 4. 


Acknowledgments 
The writer is grateful to 
Bell, C. W. Carter, and W. 


Drs. A. H. 
H. Voskuil 


of the Survey staff for helpful suggestions 
and criticisms in the preparation of the 
manuscript. 























160 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY 

Harry McDermith 
Urbana, Illinois 


Photographing from the air on a large 
or commercial scale is a comparatively 
new industry. However, since the air¬ 
planes came into use, and especially since 
the start of the great World War, aerial 
photography has become very, popular. 
The first photographs of this type date 
back to about 1865. With a few limited 
exceptions, this work previous to 1914 
was done from kites, balloons and 
dirigibles. Kites and balloons were un¬ 
satisfactory in that they were at the 
mercy of the winds, making it impractical 
to carry out accurate and systematic 
photographic plans. The dirigible is quite 
satisfactory insofar as stability, room for 
operation and speed of motion is con¬ 
cerned; however, it is too expensive to 
operate. The airplane has now proven 
itself to be the most practical and eco¬ 
nomical of all air transports for aerial 
photographing. 

Commercial and army airplanes are 
most commonly used in this. work. The 
Fairchild “71”, Lockheed, and the Cessna 
have been among those extensively used 
in this country. There has not been a 
plane constructed yet that possesses all 
the qualities desired in a photographing 
ship. However, an attempt has been made 
to construct such a plane by the Abrams 
Aircraft Corporation of Lansing, Michi¬ 
gan, in building what they call the 
“Explorer”. This is a pusher type single 
motored monoplane with the cockpit 
enclosed with plexiglass or a similar 
material. The following features of spe¬ 
cial importance are included in this 
plane: wide radius of visibility, rapid 
climbing ability, high cruising speed, 
stability, and the camera is placed ahead 
of the motor. 

Photographing from the air was carried 
on in a very limited scale until the be¬ 
ginning of the World War. Then when 
it was found that these photographs could 
be so effectively used in reconnaissance 
surveys over the enemy lines in deter¬ 
mining the position, size and direction of 
motion of troops as well as in furnishing 


a fine planimetric map of the country, 
aerial photography took a big jump. By 
the end of the war the aerial mapping 
units in all government armies had been 
enlarged considerably. This revolution¬ 
ized military operation completely. After 
the war activity in this field was car¬ 
ried on by the U. S. Geological Survey, 
the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, and 
the U. S. Army Engineers on a rather 
small scale for mapping and planing work. 
In 1985 the Agricultural Adjustment Ad¬ 
ministration, under the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, started a systematic and 
extensive plan of aerially photographing 
this country. The primary purpose was 
for the administration of the crop control 
program. This department has photo¬ 
graphed approximately 2,000,000 square 
miles in this country at an estimated cost 
of $6,900,000 in the last ten years, of 
which 90 per cent has been performed 
since 1934. Aerial photographic operation 
under the AAA began in this State in 
1936 when eleven counties were photo¬ 
graphed. The original photography for 
the entire State was completed in the fall 
of 1939. 

The photography by the AAA is per¬ 
formed with a single-lens, high-precision 
aerial photographing camera mounted in 
a vertical position. The pictures are 
taken at an altitude of 13,500 to 17,000 
feet, with each picture overlapping the 
preceding one about 60 per cent, and 
those in adjacent flight strips 30 per cent. 
The size of the negatives are 7"x7" and 
7"x9", covering respectively approxi¬ 
mately 6 and 7 square miles, depending 
upon height of plane at time of exposure. 
At this height and using a camera having 
an S 1 ^" focal length the scale of these 
negatives are 1:20,000, or approximately 
1" — 1,700 feet. Oblique and vertical pho¬ 
tographs using a multiple lens camera 
have been used extensively in Canada, 
Alaska, and several European countries. 

The bureaus of the various govern¬ 
mental departments that are making ex- 




Geology — 19J+0 Meeting 


161 



HS 


pH 

BHTlr tram 


tensive use of aerial photographs are as 
follows: Department of the Interior—the 
U. S. Geological Survey, General Land 
Office, and Bureau of Biological Survey; 
Department of Commerce—U. S. Coast 
and Geodetic Survey; Navy Department— 
Hydrographic Office; War Department— 
Corps of Engineers; Federal Works 
Agency—Public Works Administration; 
Department of Agriculture—AAA, Forest 
Service, Soil Conservation Service, and 
Bureau of Plant Industry. Other federal 
agencies are Tennessee Valley Authority, 
Mississippi River Commission, Interna¬ 
tional Boundary Commission, Lake Sur¬ 
veys, Post Office Department, National 
Park Service, Rural Electrification, and 
Department of Justice. 

It is impossible in this paper to 
enumerate and elaborate on all the pos¬ 
sible uses of aerial photographs; how¬ 
ever, some of the more interesting uses 


are listed below: a. making of plans for 
auxiliary landing fields; b. studies for 
dam construction and reservoirs; c. drain¬ 
age regulation and canal projects; d. 
planning and erecting communication 
lines; e. topographic and planimetric 
mapping; f. crop control and soil preser¬ 
vation; g. illustrations for tourists and 
passenger guidebooks; h. study of posi¬ 
tion and shape of natural boundary lines, 
mountain ranges, rivers, streams, and 
timber; i. studying and tracing bedrock 
outcrops, faults, limestone sinkholes, 
landslides, underground and surface water 
courses; j. mapping and studying of oil 
and coal field activities; k. military 
operation. 

In conclusion, I wish to state that the 
principal concern of this paper is to 
bring to your attention the endless uses 
that can be made of airplane photographs 
in both private and governmental work. 








162 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


THE USE OF PIPETTE ANALYSIS IN CLAY RESEARCH 

Richards A. Rowland* 

State Geological Survey, TJrbana, Illinois 


One of the methods used in the study 
of clays is the determination of the dis¬ 
tribution of the particle sizes of both clay 
and non-clay mineral material. Of the 
several means available, pipette analysis 
is the most useful, because in addition 
to comparative size data, a sample is ob¬ 
tained from which a miroscopic exam¬ 
ination can be made to determine the 
abundance of each constituent in each 
size. 

There is a tremendous variation in the 
size distribution of clays and a definite 
lower limit at which ordinary mechanical 
analyses will give reproducible results. 
The smallest screen size through which 
a clay may be wet-screened in a reason¬ 
able length of time is the No. 270, the 
openings of which are about 53 microns. 
The largest size particle for which pipette 
analysis will give consistent results is 
about 20 microns. A critical cross-sec¬ 
tion of a clay is obtained by spacing the 
pipette fractions at 20, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 
0.5 microns. When used with the 270 
mesh screen, these sizes make a very 
even spread of data on three cycle semi¬ 
log paper for either a cumulative or dis¬ 
tribution curve. They include the range 
of clay material (less than 20 microns) set 
by the American Foundrymen’s Associa¬ 
tion for the study of bonding clays, the 
U. S. Bureau of Soils upper limit of clay 
(five microns) and the size (two mi¬ 
crons) below which most clay investiga¬ 
tors agree that a clay material is pre¬ 
dominantly clay mineral. 

These sizes lend themselves to a simpli¬ 
fied plotting of Stokes’ law because the 
relation between each diameter is a whole 
number. Stokes’ law, V = 2aR * 2 (Di-D), 


9v 

where a = acceleration due to gravity; 
R = radius of particle; Di = Sp. G. of 
particle; D = Sp. G. of water at temp, 
used; v = viscosity of water at temp. 


used; V = time to fall 1 cm.; for any 
one temperature may be reduced to Y “ 
KR 2 where K is a constant K = 
(2a(Di-D) 


9v 

At any one temperature, therefore, the 
sizes chosen have settling velocities 
which are multiples of each other. For 
example, the velocity varying as the 
square of the radius, for a particle of 
20 microns diameter, R 2 = 100, and for a 
particle of 10 microns R 2 = 25. The ratio 
of the velocities is 4 to 1 or the 20 
micron particle settles 4 times as fast as 
the 10 micron particle. Likewise, the 
0.5 micron settling time is 4 times that 
of 1 micron, 16 times that of 2 microns, 

2 microns is 100 times that of 20 microns, 
0.5 microns is 100 times that of 5 microns 
and 1 micron is 100 times that of 10 
microns. 

The graph (fig. 1) was plotted from 
data computed at 15, 20, 25 and 30 de¬ 
grees Centigrade for particles 20, 10, 5, 
2, 1, and 0.5 microns in diameter assum¬ 
ing an effective specific gravity of 2.65. 
Points were first plotted for 0.5 micron 
using the smallest unit of the paper 
(1/20 inch) as one minute. The scales 
for each of the other sizes were then 
computed to fit the curve drawn through 
the 0.5 micron points. The following 
table gives values for both the large and 
small units of the scale for each particle 
size. 

To obtain the settling time for any of 
the sizes 20, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 0.5 microns, 
choose in the left column the temperature 
best suited to the room or bath in which 
the analysis is to be made. Follow the 
horizontal line on which this temperature 
lies until the heavy black line of the 
graph is reached. Then the vertical line 
which passes through the graph at this 
point marks the time required for each 
particle to settle 1 cm. on each of the 
scales. 


* Assistant petrographer, Illinois State Geological Survey. Article published with per¬ 
mission of the Chief, State Geological Survey. 





Geology — 19^0 Meeting 


163 



Fig. 1. 


Diameter 

Large 

Small 

of 

particle 

units 

units 

0.5 

10 min. 

60 sec. 

1.0 

2.5 min. 

15 sec. 

2.0 

0.625 min. 

3.75 sec. 

5.0 

6 sec. 

0.6 sec. 

10.0 

1.5 sec. 

0.15 sec. 

20.0 

0.375 sec. 

0.0375 sec. 


In practice the most suitable times for 
each particle size have been controlled by 
immersing the pipette to different depths 
(table 1). In this fashion, a complete 
analysis of all particle sizes may be 
finished in 24 hours, or thereabouts. By 
contrast, the usual hydrometer analysis 
in 24 hours would furnish data only to 
about 2 microns. A constant temperature 
bath agitated by bubbling air, not strong 
enough to shake the cylinders but enough 
to circulate the water, and controlled by 
a mercury temperature control attached 
to a switch tube which turns on and off 
a knife type electric heater will give re¬ 
sults reproducible to one tenth of a per¬ 
cent on duplicates from the same sam¬ 
ple. The most usual temperature is 
25° C. Table I has been computed from 
fig. 1. 

In interpreting pipette analysis of clays 
it cannot be too strongly emphasized that 


Table 1 


Diam. of 
particle 

Time to settle 

1 cm. at 25°C. 

Depth of 
settling 

Time of 
settling 

0.5 

11° 2'15" 

2 cm. 

22° 4'30" 

1.0 

2°45'30" 

2 cm. 

5°3T00" 

2.0 

41'23" 

5 cm. 

3°26'55" 

5.0 

6'37" 

10 cm. 

1° 6'10" 

10.0 

1'39" 

10 cm. 

16'30" 

20.0 

24.8" 

10 cm. 

4' 8" 


the data represents only the degree to 
which it has been disaggregated and that 
it is impossible to completely break up 
the aggregates of a clay. In addition the 
particle diameters for each size meas¬ 
ured are only equivalent sizes, that is 
they represent a particle, the mass and 
surface area of which cause it to settle 
at a rate equivalent to the rate at which 
a sphere of the same effective mass might 
settle. 

If these two objections are taken into 
account and a good suspension is ob¬ 
tained beforehand, the data from pipette 
analyses will serve to compare clays 
which have been subjected to an identical 
preparation. 

By using different means of disaggre¬ 
gation it is possible to obtain large 
variations in the size analyses of the 
same clay. 






























































































































































































































































































164 Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 

FUSAIN CONTENT OF FINE SIZES OF ILLINOIS COAL* 

Bryan C. Parks and L. C. McCabe 
State Geological Survey, Urbana, Illinois 


During the past ten years some notable 
changes in coal preparation have taken 
place, particularly in the smaller sizes. 
The wide spread use of the domestic 
stoker and the demand for better fuel for 
it are largely responsible for these 
changes. It is now common practice to 
dedust, wash, dry, and dust-proof the 
stoker sizes. The consumer receives a 
cleaner, more uniform fuel as a result 
but its preparation leaves the producer 
with a serious waste problem as yet un¬ 
solved. 

Ini the most common process of de¬ 
dusting the coal is carried through an air 
column in which the dust smaller than 
10 mesh (1.65 mm) or 48 mesh (.3 mm) 
is removed. Where the coal is wet 
washed without dedusting, the coal finer 
than 48 mesh is Carried into the settling 
pond and is lost. 

There is only a limited market for de¬ 
duster dust in cement and powdered fuel 
plants, and the market value is below the 
average cost of producing coal. Other 
serious difficulties are encountered in the 
transportation and handling of deduster 


dust. At one mine 200,000 tons are 
stacked on the ground (fig. 1), but at 
mines where storage facilities are lacking 
the dust must be hauled away, in one in¬ 
stance, at a cost of thirty-five cents per 
ton. 

The authors estimate that 1,000,000 
tons of dust are produced each year at 
Illinois preparation plants at the present 
time. Assuming the production cost to 
be $1.76 per ton (the Bituminous Coal 
Commission’s average cost of production 
for Illinois) the mining cost is over 
$1,750,000. Storing or hauling on the 
surface adds to the total cost. At many 
mines the carbon sizes (minus % in.), 
made in normal screening procedure, sell 
in the market below the cost of produc¬ 
tion. Between seven and ten million tons 
of these sizes are produced. 

By coking or briquetting, it may be pos¬ 
sible to convert this waste or low-priced 
coal into satisfactory smokeless fuel 
which will bear a proportionate share in 
the price structure. As the composition 
of the raw coal determines the charac¬ 
teristics of the coke or briquettes, a pet- 



* Published by permission of the Chief, Illinois State Geological Survey. 












Geology — 19Jj.O Meeting 


165 


CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BANDED INGREDIENTS 

(DRY BASIS) 



B. t u. 


14.200 



Fig. 2. 



Fig. 4. 


rographic study of the dust and the car¬ 
bon sizes was undertaken during the past 
year. 

Fig. 2 illustrates the chemical compo¬ 
sition of the three most important con¬ 
stituents of Illinois coal. Fusain differs 
greatly from the other two ingredients 
in that it has a very high per cent of 
fixed carbon. While vitrain and clarain 
readily aglutinate or coke, fusain exhibits 
no such tendency. Fusain is character¬ 
istically acicular or needle like in shape 
while clarain and vitrain are granular. 
(Fig. 3.) 

In coking or briquetting the presence 
of some fusain has been found experi¬ 
mentally to be beneficial. The addition 
of small amounts of fusain 1 tends to give 
more blocky and less fractured coke. 
According to Piersol 2 the addition of up 
to 5 per cent of fusain increases the 
strength of briquettes made from high vi¬ 
train coal and high fusain (up to 20 per 
cent) coals produce briquettes having re¬ 
duced smokiness. It is therefore desir¬ 
able to maintain control of the amount 
of fusain in the charge to the coke oven 
or briquetting machine. 

It was the purpose of this study to de¬ 


termine the fusain content of the waste 
or low-priced fine sizes of coal described 
above, thereby to establish a basis for 
determining the effect of definite quanti¬ 
ties of fusain, [first upon the effectiveness 
of the briquetting process, and second 
upon the combustion properties of the 
briquette. Such information would per¬ 
mit the selection of sizes of coal most 
suitable for briquette production. The 
present paper describes the methods of 
study and certain incidental results. 

During this investigation samples were 
secured at 42 mines. A county outline 
map of Illinois (fig. 4) shows the 
boundary of the coal measures and the 
location of 19 mines at which the 27 
samples studied to date were obtained. 
The two mines shown in Saline County 
are operating in No. 5 coal. All other 
mines shown on this map are operating 
in No. 6 coal with the exception of the 
Vermilion County mine which is in the 
Grape Creek bed. 

The following types of waste and low- 
priced fine coals were secured at the 
mines in sample containers holding from 
10 to 50 pounds of material: deduster 
dust from storage piles, wet sludge from 




































166 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 



Fig. 3 (above).—Coal particles 35 x 48 mesh; 
a. fusain; b. vitrain 

Fig. 6 (below).—Fusain in thin section. 


washeries, dry sludge from settling 
basins, -% inch screenings of washed 
coal, and raw carbon from storage piles 
and loading docks. 

Method of Study. In making a petro¬ 
graphic determination of fusain, approx¬ 
imately 500 grams of the fine coal to be 
studied were cut from the mine sample 
with a Jones type riffle. The riffle sample 
was weighed and screened through a bat¬ 
tery of Tyler standard screens having 
openings in the fixed ratio of the square 
root of two. The battery of screens was 
divided into two nests from 4 (4.7mm) 
mesh to 35 (.417mm) mesh and from 
48 (.295mm) mesh to 300 (.046mm) 

mesh. The first set of screens was 
shaken in a Ro-Tap shaker for ten 
minutes and the second set containing 
the finer screens for fifteen minutes. The 
material retained on each screen was 
weighed and placed in a marked con¬ 
tainer. 

The essential purpose of screening was 
to facilitate counting of the coal particles 
by sorting the material into fractions hav¬ 
ing a small size range. An ore-dressing 
type binocular microscope was used in 
identifying the coal particles. Fusain 
particles were separated from the non- 
fusain, and an accurate count of the two 
classes of material was made during the 
process of separation. 

In the calculations it was assumed that 
the percentage of fusain by microscopic 
count also represented weight per cent, 
that is that all coal particles on any 
one screen are of the same volume and 
specific gravity. The validity of these 
assumptions was tested by manually 
separating the fusain from non-fusain on 
seventeen screens and determining the 
actual percentage of each class by weight 
and by count. The average fusain con¬ 
tent of these samples was 2.67 per cent by 
weight and 2.65 per cent by count. 

Goal research workers in Europe and 
in the United States, particularly at Penn¬ 
sylvania State College Experiment Sta¬ 
tion, have developed the Fuchs method 3 
of fusain determination which consists of 
treating the coal sample with nitric acid 
to oxidize the non-fusain which is then 
removed by solution with sodium hy¬ 
droxide. The unoxidized fusain residue 
is ashed and the fusain percentage is cal- 





Geology- — 191+0 Meeting 


167 


ciliated from difference in weight. The 
chemical method indicates that the ma¬ 
terial passing the 300-mesli screen is pre¬ 
dominately fusain and mineral matter. 
In fusain containing no visible mineral 
matter the Fuchs method may indicate as 
much as 15 per cent inherent mineral 
matter. Since it is impossible to count 
fusain in the minus 300-mesh because of 
the extreme variation in particle size, the 
Fuchs method was used to determine it 
in this fraction. 

Results. The results obtained from siz¬ 
ing the fractions and calculating the 
fusain percentage of each size have given 
important incidental information in re¬ 


gard to the variation in friability of 
fusain. It is generally recognized that 
fusain concentrates in the finer sizes of 
coal. It is also understood that fusain 
possesses different degrees of hardness. 
Some workers have used the terms 
“hard” fusain and “soft” fusain. 

The authors have prepared a series of 
curves (Fig. 5) in which the percentage 
of fusain in the material on each screen 
was directly plotted on graph paper and 
a curve drawn through the points. These 
curves show graphically the tendency of 
fusain toward concentration in the finer 
sizes. The lower part of the curves show 
a gradual increase in fusain from screen 



6 8 10 14 20 28 35 48 65 100 150 200 300 -300 

MESH 

. 




FUSAIN PERCENT (DIRECT PLOT) 

Fig. 5 






































































































168 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


to screen in the coarser sizes up to 100- 
mesh. In the sizes finer than 100-mesh 
the fusain increases very rapidly and the 
curves consequently take an abrupt rise 
at this point. The flatness of the curves 
in their lower portion is indicative of the 
presence of fusain of a less friable type. 
This fusain owes its hardness to minerali¬ 
zation of characteristic pore spaces rep¬ 
resenting the original cell lumens (Fig. 6). 

The fusain percentage curves for de¬ 
duster dust, sludge, washed coal screen¬ 
ings, raw carbon, and whole coal samples 
are very similar, although there is con¬ 
siderable range in the total fusain con¬ 
tent of these various types. The fusain 
in washed coal screenings was as low as 
four per cent and as high as 20 per cent 
in deduster dust. The fusain content of a 


whole coal sample cut from the face in a 
Franklin County mine was 4.9 per cent. 
A sample of raw carbon from the tipple 
of the same mine contained 12.07 per cent 
fusain. This relationship indicates that 
the fusain of the whole coal is concen¬ 
trated in the minus %-inch which repre¬ 
sents about % of the total production of 
the mine. 

The quantity of fusain in prepared or 
sized Illinois coal greater than %-inch 
is probably negligible. In the fine sizes 
of coal resulting from natural breakage 
and from preparation there is a relatively 
low but gradually increasing percentage 
of fusain in sizes above 100-mesh. In 
sizes smaller than 100-mesh fusain in¬ 
creases very rapidly reaching a maximum 
percentage in the minus 300-mesh size. 


1 Ill. Geol. Survey, Bull. 64, 116 and 150, 1937. 

2 Personal communication. 

3 Fuchs, W., et al., Penn. State College Bull. 23, 1938. 


ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE GEODES OF THE 

WARSAW FORMATION 

Percival Robertson and Marshall Brooks 
The Principia College, Elsah , Illinois 


The geodes which occur in the Warsaw 
formation were well described by Van 
Tuyl 1 in 1921. They consist of an out¬ 
side layer of chalcedony, usually lined 
with crystalline quartz, and more rarely 
with dolomite, a n k e r i t e, pyrite, or 
spahlerite, or combinations of these, and 
much more rarely with chalcopyrite or 
millerite. Secondary smithsonite, mala¬ 
chite, limonite, hematite stains and kaolin 
were also reported. The geodes generally 
have a cavity in the center. This is 
usually a single chamber, although it 
may be divided. Quite frequently, how¬ 
ever, the size of the opening is so small 
as to be practically negligible. The min¬ 
erals Van Tuyl mentions, with the excep¬ 
tion of chalcopyrite and malachite, have 
been identified in this study, and the 
mineral barite has been added to the list 
of those discovered. 

In considering the origin of geodes 
Van Tuyl comes to the conclusion that: 
“The origin of the geodes in the region 
studied is believed by the writer to be 
related to the calcareous concretions 
which originally must have been very 


abundant in the beds and which are still 
preserved at some localities. These nod¬ 
ules, being more soluble than the inclos¬ 
ing rocks, have been in large part re¬ 
moved, thus affording cavities in which 
the geodes could be formed” 2 , and that 
“The process of geodization evidently 
consisted of the inward growth of crystals 
upon the walls of cavities left by the 
solution of the imbedded concretions. The 
growth was necessarily accomplished by 
deposition from a solution which filled 
the interior completely. As this solution 
became depleted in its mineral content, 
more was introduced by some process of 
diffusion and a continuous deposition 
resulted.” 3 

It has seemed difficult to understand 
not so much how circulating water has 
formed the cavities and later filled them, 
but why it should select an impervious 
shale as the zone through which to per¬ 
colate when soluble limestones lie both 
below and above it. While there seems 
to be no doubt that both solution and 
deposition have produced some crystal 
lined cavities, there are features of the 








Geology — 191±0 Meeting 


169 


geodes found in the Warsaw that have 
caused the senior author to question this 
mode of formation and to propose an 
alternate working hypothesis to account 
for their production in this particular 
formation. To what extent this alternate 
hypothesis succeeds in explaining the for¬ 
mation of geodes in other than the War¬ 
saw formation is beyond the scope of this 
paper. It appears reasonable to believe 
that geodes may have been formed in 
more ways than one. 

As a working hypothesis it is suggested 
that the geodes were syngenetically de¬ 
posited on the sea bottom as colloidal 
masses of hydrated silica. It is thought 
that these hydrosols were probably stiffer 
than the silica gell postulated by Tarr 
as the origin of some chert. They were 
stiff enough or had sufficient surface ten¬ 
sion to permit the masses to assume an 
approximately spherical shape, usually 
more or less oblate. After being covered 
by sediments two principal changes oc¬ 
curred in most of them. At some epoch 
subsequent to their burial the medium 
surrounding them became drier than the 
colloidal masses. This caused transfer of 
moisture from the hydrosol to the sur¬ 
rounding rock. The outside layer of the 
geode stiffened, producing the character¬ 
istic chalcedonic shell. The original silica 
jell was a negative colloid. This produced 
a slight difference in potential between 
it and the surrounding rock which caused 
a slow loss of electrons from the colloid. 
When there was a sufficient loss of elec¬ 
trons, a condition suitable to the forma¬ 
tion of crystals occurred. Thus there were 
two principal changes: 

1. Loss of water producing a stiffer 
jell, resulting eventually in precipitation 
of colloidal chalcedony. (It is presumed 
that the micro-crystalline structure of the 
chalcedony is a much later alteration.) 

2. Loss of electrons produces a condi¬ 
tion favoring deposition of crystalline 
quartz. 

Apparently loss of water usually pre¬ 
ceded loss of electrons, as the outer shell 
is always chalcedonic. Usually the loss 
of electrons followed, as the interior of 
most geodes is crystal lined, but in a 
number of instances the geode contains 
nothing but chalcedony, and in a few in¬ 
stances there is an alteration from chal¬ 
cedony to crystalline quartz, then to 
chalcedony; and in at least one instance 


this is followed by the formation of 
quartz again. This indicates minor 
changes in environment, causing varia¬ 
tions in the rates of loss of moisture and 
electrons. If the original colloid contained 
but little moisture the geode produced 
was nearly solid, but if the jell contained 
much water the resulting geode was rela¬ 
tively hollow. 

In addition to the evidence already 
mentioned, there are other items that 
tend to support this hypothesis of geode 
formation. The shape of the majority of 
geodes resembles a cauliflower. This 
botryoidal structure is usually associated 
with colloidal substances. Such geodes 
usually have a single hollow in the center, 
or more rarely several small ones. But 
some geodes show a starchy fracture on 
the outside. They resemble somewhat the 
cracked crusts seen in overbaked loaves 
of bread. These geodes regularly display 
one or more flattened surfaces. Geodes 
showing such a surface, regularly exhibit 
an internal structure quite distinctly dif¬ 
ferent from the usual cauliflower type. 
The interior is broken up into many 
compartments more or less connected, 
but separated by rather flat partitions 
consisting of masses of tiny crystals. 
One gets the impression that while the 
geode was still a colloidal jelly it was 
partly crushed and cracked. The cracks 
on the exterior still show, and the planes 
of fracture extending through the geode 
provided nuclei for crystal growth. Still 
other geodes show indications of more 
intense pressure as the crusts are 
crushed in. This probably happened 
after the solidification was nearly com¬ 
plete. The geode is flattened, the interior 
cavity collapsed, but the crushed top is 
well cemented to the balance of the 
geode. 

The phenomenon most difficult to ex¬ 
plain on the basis of percolating water 
is the presence of pairs or groups of 
geodes which show definite flattening on 
their mutual planes of contact. Such pairs 
of geodes show chalcedony surfaces 
practically in contact, with only minor 
amounts of shale separating them, and 
the contact surfaces are definitely flat¬ 
tened. It is difficult to see why perco¬ 
lating water would not have removed the 
very thin partitions between two such 
cavities, thereby forming one large one; 
but two colloidal masses in contact 




170 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


would probably behave somewhat as two 
soap bubbles do when brought together 
and form a flat surface of contact. 

Some geodes contain numerous totally 
free doubly terminated crystals within 
them. These are moderately common in 
Jersey County, Illinois. While no statis¬ 
tical record has been kept, one such 
geode may be found among several hun¬ 
dred of those encountered in the field. If 
the percolating waters were as dilute as 
most students seem to believe, it is diffi¬ 
cult to ascribe to them specific gravities 
or viscosities high enough to support a 
crystal so it would be free to grow 
equally in all directions. A stiff colloidal 
medium would be ideal for the growth 
of such crystals. 

If one speculates on the shape that a 
spherical mass of colloidal hydrated silica 
would assume under the conditions pos¬ 
tulated for the formation of these geodes, 
he comes to the conclusion that the shape 
would in all probability be a function of 
the stiffness of the jell. The less water 
in the original colloid the stiffer it would 
be, although it is not implied that there 
is a perfect linear relationship between 
stiffness and degree of hydration. Stiff 
jells containing little water could prob¬ 
ably retain a nearly perfect sphericity. 
Somewhat less viscous jells would find it 
difficult to maintain this shape even under 
their own weight and would become more 
oblate. As the water is removed, such 
geodes would have a relatively larger 
hollow space than the stiffer ones. On 
this basis it would be expected that some 
quite solid geodes could be nearly spheri¬ 
cal in form, but that more hollow ones 
would generally show vertical shortening 
or oblateness. There is no reason why 
many very stiff and therefore solid geodes 
should not be flattened, but it would be 
surprising if many hollow geodes 
approached perfect sphericity. 

If, however, the original colloid was 
very hydrous, as the water was removed 
the geodes would probably be subject to 
extreme flattening or even collapse. This 
would reduce the actual volume of the 
central cavity. Hence one would not ex¬ 
pect to find many very flat geodes with 
large internal cavities, or with a high 
degree of hollowness. 


This latter statement may not apply 
strictly to the smaller geodes where sur¬ 
face tension may be a greater force in 
shaping the geode than its own weight, 
or the pressure of the overlying mud. It 
would be hard to say at just what size 
the line should be drawn and probably 
experimental work would be needed to 
determine it. 


To provide a quantitative check on the 
plausibility of this hypothetical consider¬ 
ation, a study was made of the shape of 
the geodes compared to their degree of 
hollowness. To determine the shape, or 
really the departure from sphericity, the 
longest and shortest axes were measured. 
The longest axis is regularly one of the 
horizontal ones as the geodes are found 
in situ and the shortest axis is the ver¬ 
tical one. The ratio of the shortest axis 
to longest one has been designated as the 
“degree of flattening.” To determine the 
degree of hollowness of the geode, the 
surrounding shale was first removed, then 
the specific gravity of the unbroken geode 
was determined. Thus the degree of hol¬ 
lowness may be computed. A geode 
having a specific gravity of 2.14+ is 20 
per cent hollow, etc. Two distribution 
graphs, showing “degree of flattening” 
and “degree of hollowness” were con¬ 
structed, one for 120 geodes from the 
vicinity of Elsah, in Jersey County, Illi¬ 
nois, and another for 250 geodes from 
the type locality at Warsaw, Illinois. The 
results are shown in tables I and II. 

i 

Table 1. — Relationship between roundness 
and hollowness for 116 geodes collected 
in Mill Creek, Jersey Co., Illinois. 


Degree of roundness (1.0 is spherical) 


1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 

0 3 8 7 5 0 

2 6 5 13 2 3 

2 8 7 11 6 0 

1 3 4 4 3 1 

0 114 10 

0 0 2 2 0 0 


0- 5% hollow 
5-10% hollow 
10-15% hollow 
15-20% hollow 
20-25% hollow 
25-35% hollow 


I 


Table 2. —Relationship between roundness 
and hollowness for 232 geodes collected at 
Warsaw, Illinois. 


Degree of roundness (1.0 is spherical) 

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 

8 40 53 31 12 7 6 0- 5% hollow 

3 11 14 4 8 1 0 5-10% hollow 

2 3 8 3 3 0 0 10-15% hollow 

0 2 4 4 1 1 0 15-20% hollow 

0 2 2 0 0 0 0 20-25% hollow 

0 1 1 2 1 0 0 25-30% hollow 





Geology — 191^0 Meeting 


171 


The data appears to justify the correct¬ 
ness of the speculation. The geodes of 
higher density and therefore less degree 
of hollowness have shapes ranging from 
nearly perfectly spherical to very flat 
forms with the vertical axis less than half 
the longest one; but those with lower 
density and greater degree of hollowness 
have much more restricted forms. They 
are neither as spherical nor as flat as the 
more nearly solid geodes. 


It may be of interest to add that all 
of the primary minerals identified in the 
Warsaw geodes when in a colloidal state 
are negative, as is silica, so it is conceiv¬ 
able that they were present in the original 
mass in a colloidal state, subject to the 
same changes as the silica and deposited 
subsequently to the silica, either due to 
their greater solubility or lesser concen¬ 
tration, or both. 


1 Van Tuyl, Francis M., The Stratigraphy of the Mississippian Formation of Iowa, Iowa 
Geological Survey Annual Report, Vol. XXX, 1921 and 1922. 

2 Ibid ., p. 344. 

3 Ibid., p. 346. 


THE USE OF COLOR SLIDES AS AN AID IN 

GEOLOGIC TEACHING 

Harold R. Wanless 
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


During a year of sabbatical leave 
from the University of Illinois the writer 
had the opportunity to take a large num¬ 
ber of 35 mm. Kodachrome photographs 
of geologic and physiographic subjects 
in the national parks and other interest¬ 
ing places in the United States, Canada 
and Mexico. Many of these slides have 
been used during the current school year 
in teaching courses in general geology, 
physiography, structural geology and sedi¬ 
mentation. The present paper describes 
briefly the procedure followed in taking 
the pictures, mounting the slides and pro¬ 
jecting them, as well as some difficulties 
which may be encountered in obtaining 
satisfactory pictures, preserving them, 
and projecting them in daytime classes. 

The equipment used by the writer con¬ 
sists of a Contax camera with f. 2.8 tessar 
lens, a Weston photometer and a Zeiss 
135 mm. telephoto lens. The photometer 
is always used in determining the correct' 
exposure as the latitude of color film is 
less than that of most black and white 
film. Most of the slides used in this talk 
were taken at 1/50 second exposure with 
stops ranging from f. 4 to *f. 8. Strong 
contrast of light and shadow should be 
avoided when possible but if a partially 
shaded subject is to be photographed the 
light meter reading should be taken on 
the shaded rather than the lighter part of 
the subject. In the writer’s experience 
all colors record satisfactorily except the 
blue violet shade found in such flowers 


as the violet and wisteria. This color 
may photograph nearly white or a very 
pale reddish violet. Under-exposed pic¬ 
tures may have a purplish cast and late 
afternoon or early morning shots may 
show too much red. Color pictures may 
be taken in complete shade, on cloudy 
days, or even during rainstorms, but 
colors in them are generally less bril¬ 
liant than in pictures taken on bright 
days. Color photographs may be taken 
of geologic maps but some difficulty will 
be found in exactly reproducing some 
delicate shades often used on such maps. 
Topographic maps may be satisfactorily 
copied but better results are obtained 
with a section of a quadrangle than with 
a whole map. There was some difficulty 
in securing even indoor illumination of a 
large map, and if outdoor illumination 
is used, care must be exercised to avoid 
even light shadows. Mineral and rock 
specimens may be photographed to % 
natural size with a Zeiss proxar lens 
placed over a telephoto lens and may even 
be enlarged by the use of a long tube. 
Color microphotographs may be taken of 
thin sections with or without crossed 
nicols or of mounted sand grains, but the 
writer has not yet had experience with 
these procedures. 

Although finished films are now cut, 
coated with a colorless varnish and re¬ 
turned in pasteboard mounts the author 
strongly urges that color slides be per¬ 
manently mounted in 2 inch by 2 inch 





172 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


glass slides with an adhesive binding 
tape as soon as possible, for while the 
chance of scratching the films is reduced 
by the varnish finger prints are too easily 
made on the film surface and are difficult 
to remove. 

Colors do not show up to the best ad¬ 
vantage in the presence of outside light 
filtering around the window shades unless 
a projector with strong illumination is 
used. At night a projector with 100 watt 
illumination is adequate for an audience 
as large as one hundred people but in the 
daytime even with heavy shades such a 
projector is adequate only for a group of 
about 30. The projector used in this talk 
is a Spencer with 300 watt bulb equipped 
with a fan which prevents overheating of 
the slides. A 750 watt projector made by 
Spencer is available with fan and will 
show pictures to 10 or 12 feet dimension 
before an audience of several hundred 
even in the daytime in a darkened room. 
A beaded screen gives a more brilliant 


image in a zone about 25° wide on each 
side of the projector but the image is 
notably less brilliant when viewed from 
the front corners of a room. A white 
wall or screen gives a less brilliant but 
more uniform image in all parts of the 
room. 

Little is yet known about the perma¬ 
nence of Kodachrome slides. Some of the 
earliest, taken more than four years ago, 
are said to have begun to fade, but the 
dyes used in their manufacture have been 
changed since that time and it is to be 
hoped that they will now endure for a 
longer time. Overheating slides or leav¬ 
ing them exposed to strong light for long 
intervals will probably hasten their fad¬ 
ing. 

About 40 Kodachrome slides of various 
kinds of geologic subjects were projected 
to demonstrate the advantages of natural 
color slides over black and white pictures 
for use in geologic instruction. 


PRE-GLACIAL RIVER TICONA* 

H. B. WlLLMAN 

State Geological Survey, Urbana, Illinois 


The topography of north-central Illinois 
reflects the glacial history of the area 
and consists of a youthful surface with 
the characteristic forms of glacial deposi¬ 
tion locally modified by stream erosion. 
Study of the topography of the bedrock 
surface in outcrops and in records of 
borings shows that the glacial deposits 
conceal a drainage system strikingly dif¬ 
ferent from the present drainage system. 
The bedrock surface consists of a broad 
gently-sloping surface, above which rise 
elevations 40-50 feet high and in which 
are eroded many deep branching valleys. 
The general picture is that of a dissected 
peneplain in late youth or early maturity. 

The area studied centers about the 
upper Illinois Valley (fig. 1) and in¬ 
cludes most of LaSalle, Kendall, Will, 
Grundy, Livingston, and Putnam counties. 
The bedrock surface in this area was 
drained westward, as at present, by a 
river named River Ticona for the railroad 
station of Ticona, which is located along 
the buried valley a mile northeast of 
Tonica. 

Along the Ticona drainage divide the 
pre-glacial upland surface generally has 


an elevation of 600-625 feet, with some 
hills as high as 650 feet, and locally near 
Lisbon and Fairbury as high as 675 feet. 
The upland surface has an elevation of 
about 625 feet along the axis of the 
LaSalle anticline near the west side of 
the drainage area, and an upland level of 
600 feet is common as far east as Mar¬ 
seilles. Farther east the surface lowers 
and is generally 525-550 feet in the 
eastern part of the drainage area, 
although it rises to the higher areas along 
the drainage divide. The general slope of 
the surface, therefore, is east, although 
the main drainage is westward. 

River Ticona occupied a valley both 
broader and deeper than that of the 
present Illinois River in the same area. 
In the lower part of its course River 
Ticona was entrenched in a steep-walled 
valley at least 300 feet deep and about 
1% miles wide at the top. The valley- 
walls are exposed southeast of Lowell 
where Vermilion Valley crosses Ticona 
Valley almost at right angles. The bed¬ 
rock surface lowers from near the top to 
the bottom of the Vermilion valley-walls, 
about 80 feet, in less than 100 yards. 


* Published by permission of the Chief, Illinois State Geological Survey. 




Geology — 19^0 Meeting 


173 



ILLINOIS STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


Fig. 1 


Only the upper walls of Ticona Valley are 
exposed, as its bottom is far below the 
level of Vermilion River. At its mouth 
the elevation of River Ticona was as low 
as 300 feet, which is 150 feet below the 
level of Illinois River. Although Ticona 
Valley was eroded about 300 feet deep in 
bedrock, the present Illinois valley, 
locally 200 feet deep, has a maximum 
depth in bedrock of only 175 feet. 

Although the course of the main valley 
of River Ticona is westward or directly 
contrary to the general slope of the bed¬ 
rock surface, the tributary valleys mostly 
conform to the regional slopes. North of 
Ottawa and at Streator the tributary 
rivers flowed eastward away from the 
high area along the axis of the LaSalle 
anticline. The tributary river north of 
Ottawa flowed eastward nearly 25 miles 
before it joined Ticona River. In the 
eastern half of the drainage area the 
directions of the streams were more 


normal, leading directly away from the 
drainage divides. 

In the erosion of an anticlinal area 
such as the LaSalle anticline, a relatively 
high area would normally remain along 
the axis of the structure and thus form 
a divide between divergent drainage sys¬ 
tems. Such a high area occurs along the 
LaSalle anticline, but peculiarly enough 
the main drainage line of the area di¬ 
rectly crosses it. It is of interest, there¬ 
fore, to consider some of the events in the 
history of the area which may have re¬ 
sulted in the establishment of River 
Ticona across the anticline. 

Ticona valley contains glacial deposits 
which have been correlated with the 
Kansan stage of glaciation, and it was 
therefore eroded before Kansan time. As 
the youngest bedrock cut by the valley 
is Pennsylvanian in age, the drainage 
system is younger than the Pennsyl¬ 
vanian deposits. On the basis of these 
































174 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


data alone, it might be logically assumed 
that the position of Ticona valley across 
the LaSalle anticline indicates the valley 
is antecedent and was present before the 
folding of the anticline in Late Paleozoic 
time. Because of the great length of time 
since the Paleozoic era, and the varied 
history of the area as indicated by evi¬ 
dence in other areas, it seems unlikely 
that the drainage system of Late Pale¬ 
ozoic time persisted to the Pleistocene 
period. 

Following the folding of the LaSalle 
anticline at the end of the Paleozoic era 
the area was eroded to a relatively flat 
plain. Probably it was reelevated and 
eroded again several times during the 
Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, and at least 
600 feet of Paleozoic strata were eroded 
from the area. It is possible that many 
later strata, of which no remnants are 
now present, may have been deposited 
and also eroded. The area was probably 
eroded to a peneplain during the early 
Mesozoic time as the Cretaceous deposits 
of the Gulf coast embayment overlie the 
peneplaned surface of the older strata. 
During Tertiary time the area was again 
peneplaned, and the present upland sur¬ 
faces of the bedrock are remnants of this 
peneplain. The peneplain truncates the 
LaSalle anticline and all the formations 
from the Shakopee dolomite to the 
youngest Pennsylvanian beds in less than 
two miles, and in spite of their striking 
differences in resistance to erosion, re¬ 
tains a comparatively flat surface. Ero- 
sional surfaces in the unglaciated area in 
northwestern Illinois and southwestern 
Wisconsin have been variously described 
as the result simply of differential ero¬ 
sion, or of one or two periods of pene- 
planation subsequently modified by re¬ 
juvenated erosion. A recent study 1 of 
the problem has indicated that the high¬ 
est upland surfaces are broad remnants 
of a late Tertiary peneplain, named the 
Dodgeville peneplain, and the slope and 
elevation of the peneplain indicates its 
identity with the one recognized in this 
area. 

Although the divide along the axis of 
the anticline might be expected to per¬ 
sist throughout the interval of pene- 
planation, drainage might have been 
established across the natural divides of 
the surface during the uplift of the pene¬ 
plain especially if accompanied by slight 
warping of the surface. 


It is also possible that sometime during 
the Mesozoic era or Tertiary periods flat- 
lying deposits were laid down across the 
structure. If this happened a new drain¬ 
age would be established dependent on 
the slope of the surface of these beds 
and regardless of the underlying struc¬ 
ture. With erosion through these beds 
the drainage would be superimposed on 
the structure. The course of the major 
river might persist across the anticline 
but the courses of the tributaries might 
be altered to follow the regional slopes 
of the old buried surface, and new 
streams developing would likely follow 
the same slopes. Although this inter¬ 
pretation adequately accounts for the 
drainage pattern, it requires the deposi¬ 
tion of beds which have since been com¬ 
pletely eroded and it therefore cannot be 
confirmed. 

In late Tertiary time the area was 
eroded to the level of the Dodgeville 
peneplain, and the fact that the surface 
of the peneplain is slightly higher along 
the axis of the anticline suggests that 
drainage was not established across the 
anticline during the erosion of the pene¬ 
plain. If River Ticona did not extend 
across the anticline during erosion to 
the level of the peneplain, it at least 
took this position on the peneplain be¬ 
fore uplift caused entrenchment of the 
river in the peneplain. Because Ne¬ 
braskan glacial deposits occur on the 
peneplain and not in the valleys, it has 
been suggested 2 that dissection of the 
peneplain did not occur until after Ne¬ 
braskan glaciation but before Kansan 
glaciation. Therefore the course of River 
Ticona may have been established during 
the Nebraskan glaciation. 

There is no direct evidence that the 
Nebraskan ice invaded the Ticona drain¬ 
age area. The nearest deposits correlated 
with the Nebraskan glacier which ad¬ 
vanced from the Keewatin center occur 
in the northeastern corner of Iowa and 
in west-central Illinois. However, the ice 
may have extended farther east and, if 
so, it might well have established new 
drainage lines across the pre-existing 
divides. It is also possible that a Nebras¬ 
kan advance from the Labradorean center 
blocked drainage eastward from the anti¬ 
cline and forced an outlet westward over 
the divide along the anticline. Any 
Nebraskan deposits not eroded during 
the dissection of the peneplain before the 


Geology — 19J+0 Meeting 


175 


Kansan glaciation would be in the most 
favorable place for erosion by the suc¬ 
ceeding glaciers. In the Ticona basin 
the Kansan, Illinoian, and earliest Wis¬ 
consin deposits are found in Ticona val¬ 
ley and its tributaries, and the later Wis¬ 
consin deposits usually rest directly on 
the bedrock on remnants of the pene¬ 
plain. There may be, therefore, in the 
discordant drainage pattern of the bed¬ 
rock surface some evidence of Nebras¬ 
kan glaciation not found in the glacial 
deposits of the area. 

In summary, the position of River 
Ticona across the LaSalle anticline was 
attained in the interval between the 
Pennsylvanian period and the Kansan 
age of the Pleistocene period. It might 
be antecedent on the structure and Late 
Paleozoic in age; it could have been at¬ 


tained during the uplift of the pene¬ 
plains eroded during Mesozoic and Ter¬ 
tiary time; it might have been superim¬ 
posed on the structure during the same 
interval; and it might be the result of 
Nebraskan glaciation. Of these the latter 
seems most likely. 

Ticona Valley was gradually filled with 
deposits during the succeeding glaciations 
but it controlled the main drainage of 
the area through Kansan, Illinoian, and 
early Wisconsin time. The valley may 
have been obliterated by the Blooming¬ 
ton drift, and it certainly was by the 
Cropsey drift, as the Inner Cropsey 
moraine shows no depression where it 
crosses the valley, and by that time 
drainage was established along the pres¬ 
ent course of Illinois Valley. 


1 Bates, R. E., Geomorphic history of the Kickapoo region, Wis., Geol. Soc. Am. Bull, 
vol. 50, 1939, pp. 819-880. 

2 Trowbridge, A. C., The erosional history of the Driftless Area, Univ. of Iowa Studies 
in Nat. Hist., vol. 9, No. 3, 1921. 



* 







-• 
















Papers In physics 


Extract From the Report of the Section Chairman 

The Physics Section carried sixteen papers, ten of which are herewith pub¬ 
lished. The others were entitled: 

High potential and other phenomena , G. C. Godejahn, Central Scientific 
Company, Chicago. 

The use of the R. W. Wood replica diffraction gratings in a study of virtual 
spectra, D. L. Barr, W. M. Welch Manufacturing Company, Chicago. 

Application of high speed photography to some particular ballistic problems, 
Robert L. Womer, Western Cartridge Company, Chicago. 

Some physical properties of uranium , W. L. Hole, Elmhurst College, Elm¬ 
hurst. 

Lifetimes of excited states in some polyatomic molecules , G. M. Almy and 
Scott Anderson, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Temperature, Lester I. Bockstahler, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

Attendance averaged 45, and Ph. A. Constantinides, Wright Junior College, 
3400 North Austin Ave., Chicago, Illinois, was elected Chairman for the 1940 
meeting. 

(Signed) C. N. Wall, Chairman 


[ 177 ] 



178 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS FOR PARTICU¬ 
LATE CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS DISCHARGED IN 
THE ATMOSPHERE BY FUEL BURNING SOURCES 

Sidney Bloomenthal, University of Chicago 

AND 

Isadore Deutch, Chicago Department of Smoke Inspection and Abatement 


During the past fifty years most large 
cities in the midwest have been trying 
to keep the air clean for their citizens. 
Until very recently these attempts have 
been confined mainly to efforts on reduc¬ 
tion of visible smoke, the source of which 
is easily determined. 

However, during the past decade or 
two, the attention of municipal authori¬ 
ties has been directed to contamination 
of the air from fuel burning plants that 
appear to the naked eye to be operating 
with clean chimneys. One such form of 
contamination is the discharge of par¬ 
ticulate carbonaceous materials and ash 
from chimneys. The introduction and 
acceptance by fuel users of the forced 
draft stoker has resulted in the reduc¬ 
tion of visible smoke but has confronted 
municipal authorities with the problem of 
excessive solids being discharged into and 
subsequently settling out of the atmos¬ 
phere. These solids are often discharged 
from stacks not emitting any visible 
smoke. The need for a method of link¬ 
ing carbonaceous material and ash 
(either entrained in or settling out of 
the atmosphere) with the source is very 
urgent. Simply stated, there is a real 
need for a method of “fingerprinting” the 
source of dust. 

This paper presents some of the work 
done to date by the authors in attempt¬ 
ing to find a practical field method for 
determining the source of particulate car¬ 
bonaceous materials and ash. Impetus 
has been given to this work by the gen¬ 
eral recognition of the injurious effects 
for which excess dust in the atmosphere 
is responsible. The cost of cleaning and 
decorating the interior walls and ceilings 
of an apartment house in Chicago exceeds 
the annual fuel bill, according to the ex¬ 
perience of one of the writers. People 
who live in towns outside of Chicago find 
it necessary to do the corresponding work 
but once in four or five years. Schurer 1 
examined the lungs of dead people in 


Pittsburgh and stated that the effect of 
solid atmospheric contaminants upon 
health cannot be ignored. 

It is my purpose to discuss studies 
made in collaboration with Mr. Deutch on 
dust collected out of the gaseous dis¬ 
charge of fuel burning plants in indus¬ 
trial establishments. 

Precipitation of dust from flue gas.— 
The equipment for precipitating dust out 
of flue gas has been described recently. 2 
It consists of a series of impinger bottles 
with associated measuring devices for de¬ 
termining the volume of gas sampled at 
precisely the same velocity in the collect¬ 
ing nozzle as in the furnace breeching. 
Each bottle removes the same fraction of 
the incoming dust as the preceding one, 
and with six bottles in the train, the 
quantity precipitated exceeds 95 per cent 
of the total entering the nozzle. Unique 
features of this sampling method are (1) 
Constant resistance to the flow of gas 
is maintained throughout the run; (2) 
With a 0.657 inch diameter sampling 
nozzle, quantities as large as 10 grams 
can be collected in a five hour run. Since 
a fluid is used, the dust is filtered off in 
the laboratory, carefully dried and 
weighed. The amount that goes into 
solution is also determined. The insol¬ 
uble portion causes the main soiling 
effects. 

Composition and appearance of dust.— 
Table I gives the composition and ap¬ 
pearance of typical dust samples. Size 
determination is made with the aid of a 
325 mesh screen through which the sus¬ 
pensions of dust from the impingers are 
poured. The most objectionable type of 
dust is apparently that found in flue gas 
from the plant burning petroleum coke 
in the powdered form, because it is high 
in carbon and present in large amounts. 
The dust from the oil burner below 40 
microns in diameter has a higher com- 
bustile content than the dust above 40 
microns in diameter, showing that lamp- 


Physics — 19Jj.O Meeting 


179 


black is present. The solid discharge 
from the pulverized coal burning plant 
is 85.2 per cent ash and is present in 
large amounts, requiring the use of a dust 
collector in the stack. Chain grate and 
underfed stokers give dust containing 
nearly 70 per cent ash, and there are 
often clear fused particles of ash of from 
80 to 150 microns in diameter visible 
under the microscope. Hand fired and 
spreader or overfeed stokers give dust 
containing appreciable amounts of com¬ 
bustible material. The particles of grit 
are often nicely rounded off and contain 
many surface craters. The dust from the 
pulverized coal burning plant was light 
gray in color and was not fused. Figures 
on loading apply to the portion of dust 
insoluble in the sulphurous acid collect¬ 
ing fluid. Thus in many cases the ap¬ 
pearance of the particles may indicate the 
type of fuel burning plant responsible for 
discharging them into the atmosphere. 

pH determinations on dust and ash 
sludge. —As an aid in classification of gas 
carbon powders and interpretation of 
their properties, Dr. W. B. Wiegand 3 has 
obtained the pH values of carbon dust 
sludges. He found that “Peerless” ink 
carbon, which is readily dispersed in dry¬ 
ing oil, has a pH for its sludge of 2.6. 
Deactivated rubber carbon, which dis¬ 
perses readily in latex, has a pH of 10.6 
for its sludge. There are many types 
which fall between these limits. 

pH determinations were made on 
sludge of particulate carbonaceous ma¬ 
terials and ash prepared by boiling 0.28 
gram of material for fifteen minutes with 
lOcc of distilled water in a covered lOOcc 
Pyrex beaker. The clear liquid is poured 
off and the cooled sludge is placed in a 
5cc beaker into which the glass and 
calomel electrodes of a vacuum tube po¬ 
tentiometer amplifier dip. The potential 
developed is balanced and the pH value 
read off directly on the dial of the in¬ 
strument. A type of pH instrument 
sponsored by Dr. P. H. Klopsteg of the 
Central Scientific Co. was used in this 
work. 

Table II gives the pH values obtained 
for dust and ash from a number of plants 
investigated. The impinger dust is acid 
in every case. S0 2 is absorbed in the im¬ 
pinger liquid and affects the dust. This 
is evident because the pH of sludge of im¬ 
pinger dust ash is in every case less 
alkaline than the ash of the fuel from 


which it is formed. However, when 
the fuel ash is treated with 0.1 N. HCL 
for an hour, the residue filtered, washed 
and ignited, a new pH test on sludge re¬ 
veals a value, which in every case is 
close to that for the impinger dust ash. 
This is shown for tests No. 12, 14 and 19. 
Ash of dust collected above the breeching 
in a manner which does not affect it 
chemically yields a pH for the sludge, 
which is similar to that for coal ash. 
This is shown for Tests No. 18 and 20. 
A difference in pH of sludge for ash of 
fuels from different coal mines is evident. 
For example the pH for ash of coal from 
Ziegler and Orient (No. 6 vein) in Frank¬ 
lin County, Illinois is 11.7, while that for 
ash of coal from Eastern Kentucky is 
7.6. Pocahontas (W. Ya.) coal ash sludge 
yields a pH value of 9.4. The pH of 
coal ash sludge depends upon the cal¬ 
cium, sodium and potassium present, and 
may also be influenced by other factors. 

A test on pH of sludge of dust and its 
ash collected by a complainant living 
near a laundry in Lake View, a high 


grade residential section of Chicago, was 
made with the following results: 

pH 

Combustion chamber dust of laun¬ 
dry .11.3 

Combustion chamber dust ash.11.8 

Cinders on porch of complainant.... 7.5 
Ash of cinders on porch of com¬ 
plainant .11.1 

There appears to be evidence linking the 


dust on the porch with the furnace in the 
laundry. Each particle has the appear¬ 
ance of those discharged from a spreader 
stoker type plant. The laundry uses a 
spreader type stoker. 

Based upon the evidence presented 
here, it appears likely that pH determina¬ 
tions on sludge will be a valuable aid in 
“fingerprinting” sources of air pollution 
in Chicago through identification of the 
type of coal used. 

Summary 

This paper has been presented to 
record the application of the pH vacuum 
tube potentiometer amplifier in the 
measurement of a physico-chemical prop¬ 
erty of particulate carbonaceous material 
and coal ash. A number of such analy¬ 
ses have been recorded. pH measure¬ 
ments on ash sludge of coals from 
various districts have been made and it 





180 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


has been shown that the values fall in 
the range 7.3 to 11.8 pH units. Differ¬ 
ences in size and shape of dust and fly- 
ash from various types of fuel burning 
equipment, when viewed under the micro¬ 
scope have been observed. 


References 

1. Schnurer, J. Indust. Hyg. Toxicol. 19, 126, 
(1937). 

2. Power, 84, 216, (April, 1940). 

3. Wiegand, Industrial and Engineering 

Chemistry, 29, 953 (1937). Columbian 

Colloidal Carbons, p. 54, New York, 
(1938). 


Table I.— Composition and Appearance of Dust From Fuel Burning Plants 


Test No. 
Run No. 

Source 

Type Fuel 
Burner and 
Fuel 

Size 

Dust 

Microns 

% 

By Wt. 

% Com¬ 
bustible 

% Ash 

Remarks on Appearance 
of Dust 

19. 

R-2 

Office 

Bldg. 

Hand Fired. 
E. Ky. 

+40 

56.3 

50.2 

49.8 

Many Rounded, Black, 
Pitted Coke Particles 

—40 

43.7 

49.0 

51.0 

15. 

R-4 

Ice Cream 
Mfg. Co. 

Oil Burner. 
No. 5 Oil 

+40 

51.6 

42.2 

57.8 

Shiny Black Irregular 
Lumps 

—40 

48.4 

63.6 

36.4 

16. 

R-5 

Soya Bean 
Products Co. 

Spreader 

Stoker. 

S. W. Ind. 

+40 

76.6 

40.2 

59.8 

Pitted Coke Particles 

No Ash Visible 

—40 

23.4 

32.4 

67.6 

17. 

R-l 

Meat 

Packing Co. 

Pulverized 

Petroleum 

Coke 

+40 

75.0 

98.1 

1.9 

Shiny Particles of 
Irregular Form 

—40 

25.0 

93.8 

6.2 

10. 

R-l 

Laundry 

Underfeed 

Stoker. 

E. Ky. 


30.1 

69.9 

Part of Ash Fused into 
Clear Spheres 

14. 

R-4 

Container 
Mfg. Co. 

Chain Grate. 
N. W. Ill. 


31.2 

68.8 

Part of Ash Fused into 
Colored Spheres 

20. 

R-2A 

Can Mfg. 

Co. 

Pulverized 

Coal. 

S. Indiana 


14.8 

85.2 

Unfused Gray Powder 


Table II.—pH Values for Sludge of Dust and Ash 


Test No. 
Run No. 

Source 

Type of 
Fuel 
Burner 

Source 
of Fuel 

pH Value of Sludge 

Impinger 

Dust 

Impinger 

Dust 

Ash 

Fuel 

Ash 

Fuel Ash 
Treated 
With 

O.In.HCL 

Dust 

From 

Collector 

Ash of 
Dust 
From 
Collector 

9. 

R-4 

Laundry 

S 

Western 

Kentucky 

3.8 

7.5 

8.9 




11. 

R-3 

Paint 

Mfg. Co. 

S 

Staunton, 

Illinois 

3.6 

7.1 

9.5 



• 

12. 

R-2 

Laundry 

S 

Ziegler 
& Orient, 
Illinois 

2.9 

7.5 

11.7 

7.5 



14. 

R-4 

Container 
Mfg. Co. 

c 

St. David, 
Illinois 

4.8 

7.2 

11.6 

7.3 



15. 

R-4 

Ice Cream 
Mfg. Co. 

0 

No. 5 Oil 

2.7 

7.0 





16. 

R-2 

Soya Bean 
Products 

s 

Sullivan 

County, 

Indiana 

3.7 

7.5 

9.1 




17. 

R-5 

Meat 

Packing Co. 

Pulverized 

Coke 

Pulv. Pet. 
Coke 

4.7 

9.5 

11.2 




18. 

R-3 

Laundry 

S 

Wilmington, 

Illinois 

4.4 

8.7 

11.0 


11.4 

(Stack 

Washer) 

11.3 

19. 

R-4 

Office 

Bldg. 

Hand 

Fired 

Eastern 

Kentucky 

3.5 

6.7 

7.6 

6.8 



20. 

R-3A 

Can Mfg. 
Co. 

Pulverized 

Coal 

Maumee, 

Indiana 

4.4 

6.3 

8.1 


3.3 

(Bubar 

Collector) 

8.2 












































































































































































































































Physics — 19JfO Meeting 


181 


AN OBJECTIVE ORATING FOR VISUAL STELLAR 

PHOTOMETRY 


William A. Calder 
Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois 


One of the most profitable branches of 
astronomy has been the study of double 
stars. Binary systems give the only di¬ 
rect means of determining the masses 
densities of stars; and the information 
which they have yielded has been of far- 
reaching importance in astro-physics. 
The astonishing frequency of occurrence 
of double stars reveals high cosmical 
significance, and the relations between 
relative magnitudes and spectral class 
are believed to have a promising bearing 
on the matter of stellar evolution. 

Unfortunately, the observation of 
double stars is beset with serious dif¬ 
ficulties due to the minuteness of the 
angles involved. Our present data re¬ 
garding the magnitudes of binary system 
components is the weakest point, inas¬ 
much as most values given are simple 
estimates. Photographic photometry is 
inaccurate because of the overlapping of 
images, the Eberhard effect, and the 
effect of bad “seeing.” The author found 
it impossible to isolate the light of one 
star for measurement with a photoelec¬ 
tric cell. 

A diffraction grating made on evenly 
spaced parallel wires is often used over 
a telescope objective as a photometric ac¬ 
cessory. By this means, each stellar 
image is flanked with a series of spectral 
images whose intensities depend upon 
the ratio of the diameter of the wire,d, 
to the clear space,a. Referred to the free 
aperture of the telescope, the intensities 
of the central image and a diffraction 
image of n th order are 


a 2 


a 


(a + d) 2 and < 


Sin 


a + d 


.n ~ 




n vr 


respectively. 

The chief applications of the objective 
grating have been in photographic photo¬ 
metry: the determination of the effective 
wave-lengths of stars, the calibration of 
plates, and direct comparison of images. 
Hertzsprung and Kuiper have used such 


gratings visually, as means of estimating 
the magnitudes of double stars. They 
used a series of gratings so that the first 
order images of primary stars would be 
within a half a magnitude of the central 
image of secondary components. 

The eye is a sensitive photometric de¬ 
vice in favorable circumstances. It is at 
its best in matching intensities. It would 
seem, then, that visual photometry could 
be made more precise with the help of a 
grating whose ratio a/d could be varied 
continuously. In this way two stars 
could be compared by equalizing the cen¬ 
tral image of the fainter with a diffrac¬ 
tion image of the brighter. Mental in¬ 
terpolation would be eliminated and the 
limit of accuracy would be set by the 
ability of the observer to match inten¬ 
sities. Such a grating has been made by 
the simple expedient of rotating the 
plane of the wires so that the clear spaces 
are foreshortened but the opaque spaces 
are unaffected. A grating with a = 2d 
has been mounted on the 12" reflecting 
telescope, hinged at one end. The in¬ 
clination is read by a graduated arc, and 
a rotation of forty degrees changes the 
magnitude interval between central image 
and first order spectrum from 1.92 to 
1.29 magnitudes. Auxiliary gratings 
could be made to extend the range to 
almost any desired value. 

Rotation of the grating causes a change 
in the dispersion, due to the increased 
number of lines, and also in the total 
light loss, but neither of these influences 
the photometric action. It seems best, 
however, to use only the first order 
images as these are short enough to ap¬ 
pear stellar, whereas higher orders begin 
to show color. It will be possible to in¬ 
vestigate systematic errors, and also the 
mean accidental error of an observation, 
by means of a magnitiude sequence of 24 
stars of similar color, which the author 
established in the Pleiades. Preliminary 
results indicate that this simple modifi¬ 
cation of the objective grating may be of 
service in visual photometry of variable 
stars as well as of binaries. 


—6 












182 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


AN UNUSUAL LUNAR SPECTRUM 

Ph. A. Constantinides 
Wright Junior College, Chicago, Illinois 


A lunar spectrum was observed by the 
writer and two observers on the night 
of October 28, 1939 which is worth re¬ 
cording both because of its unusual form 
and the need for additional data on 
phenomena of this nature. 1 

The phenomenon was observed at 7:30 
P. M. C. S. T. from a point about seven 
miles directly west of the Chicago loop. 
At that time, the altitude of the slightly 
gibbous moon was about 34° and its posi¬ 
tion a few degrees south of prime ver¬ 
tical 2 when, on the surface of cloudlets 
of alto-cumulous 3 type, lying at an angu¬ 
lar distance of about 3 degrees from the 
moon and in the proximity of prime ver¬ 
tical was observed a brilliant lunar spec¬ 
trum of about 3° in width. The spec¬ 
trum at first, rather feeble was colored 
red inside and extended about 15° along 
a circumference whose center was at the 
moon and whose angular diameter was 6° 
approximately. In one minute the spec¬ 
trum reached its maximum intensity and 
at that time appeared the red part of a 
second spectrum in an arc adjacent to 
the blue of the first. The spectral dis¬ 
play was unusually pure and as seen 
against the background of a clear autumn 
night illuminated by an almost full 
moon, surpassed in intensity and beauty 
any optical phenomenon of meteorological 
nature that has come to the attention of 
this observer. The phenomenon lasted 
about five minutes during which interval 
the aspect of the sky around the moon 
was changing rapidly. The cloudlets dis¬ 
appeared and with them the lunar spec¬ 
trum, while the region around the moon 
was covered by a haze of the common 
cirronebula form. Then, through this 
haze could be seen a circular corona of 
an angular radius of about 5° with the 
blue part of the spectrum next to the 
moon; the red outside and diffuse white 
in between. 

Lunar meteorological optical phenom¬ 
ena, although rare, have been known 
since antiquity. Aristotle claims to be 
the first observer of lunar rainbows. 


Newton 4 had observed lunar halos and 
coronas while Fraunhofer and others con¬ 
firmed experimentally Newton’s ideas con¬ 
cerning the nature of the phenomena. 
Since then, solar and lunar optical 
phenomena have been more carefully 
studied and satisfactory explanations 
have been advanced for the more usual 
types. 

It suffices here, to mention that these 
phenomena are divided into two classes 
according to the position of the observer 
with respect to the luminous ring and 
the source of light. In the phenomena 
of the first class, the observer is on the 
line joining the luminary and the center 
of the chromatic display; this class in¬ 
cludes rainbows, anthelia, fog-bows, mist 
halos, and lunar rainbows. In the phe¬ 
nomena of the second class, the center 
of chromatic displays is between the ob¬ 
server and the luminary. To this class 
belong the coronas, halos, parhelia and 
paraselenae. Of these, coronas are of the 
most frequent occurrence. They are red 
on the outside and are due to diffraction 
produced by minute particles of water, 
ice, or dust suspended in the atmosphere. 
Coronas encircle closely the sun or the 
moon and their radii can vary consid¬ 
erably, while the halos are formed only 
at the definite angular distance of 22° 
and 46° from the center of the luminary, 
have the red on the inside and are caused 
by ice crystals in the atmosphere produc¬ 
ing both reflection and refraction of light. 

From the above brief review of the 
characteristics of coronas and halos, it 
appears that the spectral display de¬ 
scribed above cannot be clearly classified 
as belonging to either of the above classes 
because while its geometric character¬ 
istics are those of coronas, the succession 
of colors are those of halos. Again, 
coronas as seen through the haze dis¬ 
play rather clearly only the blue or red 
or both at the edges, while their middle 
remains diffuse and whitish in color. In 
the phenomenon here described the in¬ 
tensity and purity of the spectrum was 


Physics —1940 Meeting 


183 


comparable to that obtained in the 
laboratory when parallel rays originating 
from an intense source are projected on 
a screen after their passage through a 
prism. For this reason the writer is in¬ 
clined to attribute this phenomenon as 
caused by a rather simple type of refrac¬ 
tion produced by spherical drops of water 
or needle-like crystals of ice through 
which the light of the moon passes. To 
the relatively small angular dimensions 
of the cloudlet involved as seen from the 
position of the observer, must be at¬ 
tributed the fact that the spectrum was 
obliterated very little by the overlapping 
of rays coming from the various parts of 
the refracting region. The second spec¬ 
trum whose red part only was clearly 
visible at the fringe of the cloud and 
whose intensity was varying independ¬ 
ently of the first, was conceivably due to 
raindrops or crystals of slightly different 
dimensions, or to repeated reflections and 


refractions. 5 

The writer in his search of the litera¬ 
ture of optical meteorology found very 
little material of observational nature 
outside the classically established phe¬ 
nomena. Also, in his desire to compare 
his own observations with those of others 
he asked many persons with scientific 
training concerning their personal obser¬ 
vations of solar and lunar optical phe¬ 
nomena; however, little information was 
available from those sources. The writer 
feels that much observational informa¬ 
tion concerning meteorological optical 
phenomena must be available before the 
explanation of the phenomena consistent 
with the physical theory of light 6 will be 
definitely established. Naturally, this 
will become possible only when a great 
number of persons with some training 
for this type of observations will be able 
to gather data for the appropriate organ¬ 
izations. 


1 J. Rouch, formerly head of the Meteorological Service of the French Army and Navy 
in his book L' Atmosphere et la prevision du temps (ed. 2, 1931) states “It is important that 
each time a somewhat different halo is observed that a record is kept of its angular and 
other characteristics, since the existing data are as yet very meager. 

2 Moonrise was at 5:15 P.M. C.S.T. Full moon Ohr. 42 min. C.S.T. October 28, 1939. 

3 Similar to that indicated in illustration! Fig. 11 d p. 14. The Drama of the Weather 
Sir Napier Shaw (University Press, Cambridge, England, 1933). 

4 Newton : Optics, Book II part IV. 

5 Rainbow spectra of the third and fourth order due to three and four reflections are 
situated between the observer and the sun, but they are unobservable due to the brightness 
of the sun. 

* In the sense the subject is treated in Humphrey’s Physics of the Air or Pernter-Exner’s 
Meteoroligische Optik. 


MEASUREMENT OF VELOCITY WITH GRAFLEX CAMERA 

Roscoe E. Harris 

Lake Forest College, Lake Forest, Illinois 


The problem of using the distortion 
introduced into a picture of a moving 
object because of the relative motion of 
the object and focal plane shutter to de¬ 
termine the velocity of the object should 
be attacked, first, by making proper 
measurements of the distortion, and 
second by measuring the speed of the 
shutter along the plate. 

The relative motion of the shutter and 
the object may be (1) at right angles, 
(2) in opposite directions, or (3) in the 
same direction. If the object is com¬ 
pletely unknown, the only parts whose 
true geometry may be depended upon are 
the wheels. These are distorted into 
ellipses, either (1) leaning forward at 
the top, in the direction of the object 
speed “v”, (2) flattened in the direction 


of the speed, or (3) elongated in the di¬ 
rection of the speed depending upon 
which of the above relative motions is 
employed. 

In the first case, if “s” is the shutter 
speed and “v” the speed of the object, 
the ratio 

v horizontal displacement of wheel center 

s diameter of wheel 

x 

y 

The wheel center is a point easily ob¬ 
served upon the picture. The point of 
contact of the wheel and ground or track 
is easily estimated. Thus x and y are 
measurable to about 2 per cent accuracy. 





184 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


In the second case, 

v diameter of wheel — apparent width 

s apparent width 

y — x 

x 

y is measurable with sufficient accuracy 
but the sides of the wheel are consider¬ 
ably blurred, introducing great probable 
error in the x measurement. This error 
is aggravated by the operation entering 
into the numerator. This case is not sub¬ 
ject to sufficient accuracy of measure¬ 
ment. In case 3, 

v x — y 

S X 

Even greater diffusion exists at the sides 
of the wheel, but the error is not now 
aggravated by the arithmetical operation. 
The final probable error is about as great 
as in case 2. Case 1 is judged best. 

To reduce diffusion, the shutter aper¬ 
ture must be the smallest and the tension 
as great as the light conditions will per¬ 
mit. The distance from the object should 
be regulated by its speed. A short dis¬ 
tance introduces greater distortion, but 
also greater diffusion. Hence the greater 
“v”, the greater the distance for optimum 
measurement. A distance of 18 feet gave 
a good negative upon a freight train go¬ 
ing 50 miles per hour, the photographic 
measurement differing from the distance 
time measurement by 2%, while the same 
distance from a fast train (90 miles per 
hour) yielded results differing by 10%. 
However, when the distance was 47 feet 
from the fast train, results checked to 
1 %. 

The actual measurements are best made 
by projecting the negative upon a large 
cross sectioned screen. Judgment of the 
contact point of wheel and track depends 
upon observation of shadows and streaks 
over the entire wheel. Attempts to make 
this judgment thru telescopic or micro¬ 
scopic instruments always results in large 
error. 

The second part of the problem, de¬ 
termination of shutter speed, was finally 
solved by using a “Strobotac” after many 
other methods were tried. A vertical slot 
about 1 cm wide was put across the face 
of the Strobotac and the camera focussed 
upon this slot from a distance of about 
3 feet. Flashing frequencies of 233, 200, 


MOTION OF THE FOCAL PLANE SHUTTER. 


I a = 4000 V n = 200 

cm gm sec units 

II a = 3300 V 0 = 161 



Fig. 1.—Velocity of Focal Plane Shutter 
at Various Points Along the Plate 

Different exposures are indicated by dif¬ 
ferent characters. Uniform shutter behavior 
is indicated by these all falling - along - the 
same curve. Curve I for /1000 rating. Solid 
line represented by 

acceleration = 4000 cm/sec/sec. 
initial velocity = 200 cm/sec. 
measured exposure time = / 9 0 0 sec. 
Curve II for /500 rating - . Solid line, 
a <= 3300 cm/sec/sec. 

Vo = 161 cm/sec. 

Calculated exposure time = /760 sec. 

Both curves show greater initial velocity 
than given by uniformly accelerated motion, 
probably caused by elasticity of the shutter 
material. Near the leaving - edge, the ac¬ 
celeration decreases. The middle half of the 
plate exhibits uniform acceleration. 

j 

150, and 100 times per second were em¬ 
ployed. Very sharp images of the shutter 
aperture at these intervals were recorded 
upon the negative. The length of the 
flash in this instrument is very short. 
Precision measurements of distance to 
velocity were possible. Different expos¬ 
ures all gave the same results. As a pre¬ 
caution the shutter was wound and 
tripped several times at the speed to be 
tested just before each exposure. Results 
obtained are indicated in the accompany¬ 
ing figure. 

From these curves, the shutter speed 
"s” may be obtained for that portion of 
the plate where v/s is measured. The 
ground in the picture plane may be 
scaled before making the exposure. Short 
crayon marks at 2 feet intervals are con¬ 
venient. Image velocity in cm per second 
may then be transformed to object ve¬ 
locity in feet per second. 

































Physics—WJfO Meeting 


185 


METHODS AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF 

VIBRATION ISOLATION 

H. A. Leedy 

Armour Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois 


It is everywhere apparent that we are 
becoming more and more noise conscious. 
The employee no longer tolerates exces¬ 
sive noise or vibration; the consumers of 
household appliances are demanding 
quieter operation; and the manufacturer 
is beginning to realize that silence is 
salable. This paper concerns one method 
which is applicable to noise and vibration 
reduction. 

In those cases where it is impossible 
or impractical to reduce the noise or vi¬ 
bration at its source, it is in many in¬ 
stances feasible to isolate these vibrations 
so that they will not be transmitted to 
places where they will be disturbing. A 
common method used in the isolation of 
machine vibrations has been to introduce 
some type of resilient support between 
the machine and the base on which it is 
mounted. In order to determine in ad¬ 
vance the effect of a resilient support, it 
has been common practice to make use of 
calculations giving the “force transmis- 
sibility” to a rigid base. The meaning of 
the term “force transmissibility” may be 
explained by reference to Figure 1. 

In fig. la is shown diagrammatically a 
rigid machine of mass m fastened di- 

I rectly to a rigid base. If an internal or 
external alternating force, FiCos2wrt is 
acting on the machine, the force ampli¬ 
tude transmitted to the base is Fi. In 
fig. lb the same machine is separated 
from the base by a resilient support hav¬ 
ing a stiffness factor K and zero damping 
resistance. If the same alternating force 
is applied to the machine, the force trans¬ 
mitted to the base in this case is no 
longer Fi but some different force am¬ 
plitude F 2 . The ratio of F 2 to Fi is called 
the “force transmissibility,” £. 

The manner in which £ varies with the 
frequency of the applied force is shown 
in fig. 2. Along the abscissa is plotted 
& which is the ratio of the applied force 
frequency v to the natural frequency 
v o of the system of fig. lb. In order to 

li 

( 

i 



Fig. 1 Fig. 3 


show the wide range of values of £ most 
advantageously, 20 login £ (the force 
transmissibility in decibels) has been 
plotted along the ordinate instead of £ 
itself. For all applied force frequencies 

greater than V 2 r 0 , 20 log™ £ < 0 or F 2 
< Fi. 

The use of the curve of fig. 2 has in 
many cases lead to the wrong results be¬ 
cause it has been applied to problems 
where the base on which the machine is 
mounted is not rigid. In fact if the base 
were actually immovable there would be 
no problem of vibration isolation since 
no machine vibrations could be trans¬ 
mitted to the base regardless of the mag¬ 
nitude of the transmitted force. Thus, in 
all problems which are of interest in 






































Illinois Slate Academy of Science Transactions 


186 





Fig. 2 (top); Fig. 4 (middle); Fig. 5 
(bottom) 


practice, it is necessary to consider a 
more complex vibrational system in 
which the base is free to vibrate. 

Fig. 3 shows diagrammatically the case 
in which the rigid base has been replaced 
by a movable base of mass m b and stiff¬ 
ness factor K b . In Fig. 3a the machine 
is mounted directly on the movable base 
and in Fig. 3b it is separated from this 
base by a resilient support. In this dis¬ 
cussion all damping resistances are neg¬ 
lected. If Ai is the steady state ampli¬ 
tude of motion of the base in Fig. 3a and 
A 2 the amplitude in Fig. 3b, then the 


“amplitude transmissibility” £ a is defined 
as the ratio of A 2 to Ai and 20 log™ £ a 
is the amplitude transmissibility in 
decibels. 

The curves of figs. 4 and 5 show how 
the amplitude transmissibility in decibels 
varies with Q which again is ratio of v 
to v 0 , the latter being the natural fre¬ 
quency of the system composed of mass 
m and spring K alone. The force trans¬ 
missibility curve (the dashed curve) is 
shown for comparison. The curves in 
figs. 4 and 5 are for two special cases in 
which different ratios of m to m b and K 
to K b are used. It is evident for values 
of m b of the order of magnitude or less 
than m that the solid curve differs ma¬ 
terially from the dashed curve. How¬ 
ever, as the mass of the base, its stiffness 
factor or both become larger, i.e., as the 
base becomes more rigid, the solid curve 
differs from the dashed curve less and 
less. 

Curves similar to those shown in figs. 
4 and 5 have been very helpful in the 
design of resilient supports for vibrating 
machines mounted on light bases. For 
example, in a computing machine, 
mounted directly on a thin metal base 
which was a part of the case surrounding 
the machine, the vibrations generated 
within the machine were being trans¬ 
mitted directly to the base and case. 
The vibrations of the base and case sent 
out sound waves which were very dis¬ 
turbing to the operator and to those in 
the neighborhood of the machine. By the 
use of a proper resilient mounting, de¬ 
termined by means of the amplitude 
transmissibility curves, it was possible to 
reduce the noise sent out by the machine 
by approximately 10 decibels. 

In another case in which the amplitude 
transmissibility curves have been useful, 
it was desirous to isolate the low fre¬ 
quency vibrations of a small compressor 
unit from a flexible wooden floor. The 
compressor had been mounted on a re¬ 
silient support which according to the 
force transmissibility curves should have 
reduced the force transmitted to the floor. 
However, the particular resilient support 
used actually increased the floor vibra¬ 
tions. By the use of a more resilient 
mounting whose stiffness factor was de¬ 
termined by means of the amplitude 
transmissibility curves, the floor vibra¬ 
tion was reduced to a point where it was 
no longer objectionable. 




























































Physics — 19JfO Meeting 


187 


A NEW METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF RADIOACTIVE 
HYDROGEN OF ATOMIC WEIGHT THREE 

R. D. O’Neal and M. Goldhaber 
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


In the course of an investigation in 
which we attempted to confirm a report 
that Be 10 is formed when B 10 is disin¬ 
tegrated by slow neutrons, and which 
was unsuccessful, we became interested 
in the soft radiation emitted from a beryl¬ 
lium target after bombardment with 
deuterons. This soft radiation which 
had been ascribed to Be 10 had been in¬ 
vestigated by Libby and Lee 1 and re¬ 
ported to have an energy of* 13 ± 5 
k.e.v. We had at our disposal for in¬ 
vestigation a metallic beryllium target 
which had been used for the production 
of neutrons and had been bombarded 
with 1 M.E.Y. deuterons for some time 
in our cyclotron. It had been removed 
from the cyclotron for over six months 
and was therefore well “aged.” In order 
to determine the range of electrons 
emitted we placed the target on the 
inner wall of an outer cylinder contain¬ 
ing a screen wall Geiger counter so that 
the electrons had to pass through only 
two centimeters of the counter filling gas 
in order to be counted. The pressure of 
this gas could be varied. The counter 
filling gas was a mixture of argon and 
alcohol in the ratio 9 to 1 as recom¬ 
mended by Trost. 

Fig. 1 shows the range of the electrons 
emitted from the Be target. The range 
was translated into range in A1 by con¬ 
sidering the stopping powers of argon 
and alcohol relative to Al. By studying 
this logarithmic plot and also the plot of 
actual numbers of counts against thick¬ 
ness of absorber the upper energy of 
these electrons was deduced from the 
range energy relation to be 15 ± 3 
k.e.v. This value is in essential agree¬ 
ment with Libby and Lee’s value. It 
is also seen from this curve that these 
are not monochromatic electrons, but 
must have a spectrum somewhat similar 
to ordinary /I-spectra. No gamma rays 
were observed. 

As no activity was found by bombard- 



Fig. 1 

ing boron with slow neutrons an attempt 
was made to identify chemically the 
radioactive isotope emitting the soft 
radiation observed. A thin surface layer 
of the active Be target was dissolved in 
sulphuric acid. No activity was found in 
the Be precipitate. However, the beryl¬ 
lium target had lost some of its activity. 
Since the energy of these electrons agreed 
with the rough value of the energy of the 
electrons from H 3 as determined by 
Alvarez and Cornog, 2 we thought that H 3 
might have been formed by the reaction. 

Be « + H 2 -> Be 8 + H 3 .(1) 

and that some of the gas escaping in the 
chemical reaction was H 3 . Therefore, in 
a second experiment the gas from the re¬ 
action was collected and introduced into 
a Geiger counter. Considerable activity— 
approximately 3000 counts per minute— 
was observed and no noticeable decay of 
this activity occurred. The half-life of 
H 3 as deduced from the half-life relation 
of Wigner 3 should be approximately 50 
years. Other experiments which we have 
performed indicate a lower limit of 5 
years. 







188 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


A similar radioactive gas could also be 
obtained by heating the beryllium to a 
few hundred degrees, showing that this 
gas was occluded in the beryllium. The 
gas was shown chemically to be hydrogen 
by heating to red heat some lithium in 
the presence of the radioactive gas and 
noting that the activity was reduced. 
This indicated lithium-hydride had been 
formed. 

The conclusions that we have H 3 and 
therefore that reaction (1) occurs is in 
agreement with work reported by Oli- 
phant, Kempton, and Rutherford 4 in 
which they determined the ranges of par¬ 
ticles given off during the bombardment 
of beryllium by deuterons. Reaction (1) 
was tentatively suggested by them to 
explain one of the groups. The range 
of this group was 8 cms. while the range 
of the H 3 particles from 

H 2 + H 2 —> H 3 + H 1 .(2) 

is 1.6 cms. 

This latter value excludes the pos¬ 
sibility that H 3 was formed by bombard¬ 
ing deuterium adsorbed on to the target, 


since this range is equivalent to approx¬ 
imately 1 mg/cm. 2 of beryllium while 
sufficient sulphuric acid to take off 3.7 
mg/cm. 2 was used. Therefore, if reaction 
(2) occurred all the activity of the beryl¬ 
lium target should have been removed. 
However, approximately one half still re¬ 
mained. This would be expected if H 3 
were formed by reaction (1). 

Therefore, it seems H 3 must be formed 
by the transmutation of Be 9 by deuterons. 
Since many laboratories already have 
beryllium which has been bombarded by 
deuterons for the production of neutrons, 
this seems to be a very convenient 
method of obtaining large quantities of 
H 3 in a concentrated form. 

References 

1. W. F. Libby and D. D. Lee, Phys. Rev. 
55 , 245 (1939). 

2. L. W. Alvarez and R. Cornog, Phys. Rev. 
57 , 248 A, (1940). 

3. E. P. Wigner, Phys. Rev. 56 , 519, (1939). 

4. M. E. Oliphant, A. E. Kempton, Lord 
Rutherford, Proc. Roy. Soc. 150 , 241, 
(1935). 


ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF THE HUMAN BODY 

O. L. Railsback 

Eastern Illinois State Teachers College, Charleston, Illinois 


A study was made of the electrical 
conductivity and sensitivity to electrical 
shock of the human body. The possible 
influence of several factors was investi¬ 
gated. The results are separately re¬ 
ported with respect to each factor studied. 

1. Resistance related to contact pres¬ 
sure of the electrodes. A circular metal 
disk of 8 sq. cm. area was placed in con¬ 
tact with the palm of each hand. A con¬ 
stant voltage was applied and the cur¬ 
rent noted as the contact pressure in¬ 
creased. The data are graphed in fig. 1. 
It may be seen that the resistance de¬ 
creased rapidly as the pressure increased 
up to a pressure of about 15 grams per 
sq. cm. and at 50 grams per sq. cm. the 
resistance change with pressure was very 
small. For subsequent testing contact 
pressures were maintained greater than 
this value. 

2. Resistance related to contact area. 

Upon placing the same electrodes at the 
same pressure upon different skin sur¬ 
faces, different resistances were found. 
However, in a restricted region (such as 


the palm of the hand) the resistance re¬ 
mained nearly constant as the electrode 
was moved about. For a contact area of 
8 sq. cm. the average resistance per sq. 
cm. for 21 cases was 277 thousand ohms. 
For a contact area of 4 sq. cm. the aver¬ 
age resistance per sq. cm. for the same 
21 cases was 242 thousand ohms. Twelve 
volts of potential was applied in all these 
cases. The interpretation would seem to 
be that the resistance is essentially a sur¬ 
face or “thin layer” characteristic. In 
further investigation of this question con¬ 
tact was obtained by immersing the 
hands in salt water to a measured depth. 
The area of the hand immersed was com¬ 
puted and the resistance per sq. cm. cal¬ 
culated as before, giving an average re¬ 
sistance of 450 thousand ohms per sq. 
cm. The probable error of the hand area 
measurements is, of course, large. Also 
the character of the surface is not 
homogeneous. However, this value sug¬ 
gests that the salt solution merely serves 
to make good electrical contact at the 
skin surface. 




Physics — 19Jj.O Meeting 


189 



Table I —Polarization Effects 
(Resistance in thousand ohms per sq. cm.) 


Name 

Salt solution 
on hand 

8 sq. cm. electrode 
on hand 

4 sq. cm. electrode 
on hand 

8 sq. cm. electrode 
on arm 


R + 

L+ 

R+ 

L+ 

R + 

L+ 

R+ 

L + 

b 

435 

680 

215 

260 

165 

170 

740 

580 

c 

340 

425 

150 

170 

100 

110 

170 

350 

d 

785 

830 

265 

270 

280 

270 



g 

610 

442 

175 

160 

170 

140 



h 

340 

372 

210 

220 

160 

150 



i 

325 

360 

235 

195 

150 

140 



3 

325 

360 

235 

250 

130 

150 

430 

1900 

k 

320 

340 

225 

165 

180 

180 

2100 

360 

A 

595 

710 

140 

140 

100 

86 

860 

170 

B 

720 

740 

110 

112 

69 

58 

540 

270 

C 

455 

365 

150 

140 

130 

120 

430 

680 

D 

430 

500 

150 

175 

110 

130 

240 

330 

E 

410 

520 

250 

260 

150 

170 



I 

440 

480 

400 

460 

200 

350 



F 

430 

560 

190 

195 

150 

160 



J 

370 

460 

240 

315 

130 

135 



G 

430 

500 

225 

350 

200 

190 



H 

380 

445 

390 

325 

125 

150 




‘ 












































































































































































































































190 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


Table III —Variation of Resistance with Current 


(Resistance in thousand ohms per sq. cm.; Current in MA.) 


Name 

Breakdown 

Voltage 

Breakdown 

Current 

Res. before 
Breakdown 

Res. after 
Breakdown 

Breakdown 

Polarity 

Breakdown 

Current 

opposite 

Polarity 

Ratio of 
Res. before 
and after 
Breakdown 

K 

16 

.36 

600 

133 

L+ 

.06 

4.5 

M 

9 

.30 

150 

28.5 

R+ 

.22 

5.3 

A 

13 

.60 

1000 

57.1 

L+ 

.12 

17.5 

c 

11 

.44 

120 

.40 

R + 

.42 

3 

E 

15 

.60 

400 

30 

R + 

.16 

13.3 

L 

14 

.26 

1000 

50 

R + 

.06 

20 

b 

22 

.30 



L + 

.24 


K 

12 

.22 

5000 

83.3 

R+ 

.14 

60 

I 

15 

.44 

160 

34.8 

L+ 

.22 

4.6 


Table IV. —Sensitivity to Shock With Current 
Threshold Current for Shock in MA 


Name 

Salt 

Solution 

8 sq. cm. 
electrode 
on hand 

4 sq. cm. 
electrode 
on hand 

8 sq. cm. 
electrode 
on arm 

a 


.78 

.66 


A 

.635 

1.12 

1.2 

.04 

b 

.55 

.64 

.59 

.24 

c 

1.65 

1.4 

1.5 

.08 

d 


.65 

.44 


e 


.505 

.46 


f 


.49 

.46 


B 

.70 

.975 

1.1 


C 

1.3 

1.075 

.665 


D 

.725 

1.0 

1.05 


g 

1.75 

1.15 

.92 


h 

1.55 

.82 

.765 


E 

1.45 

.80 

.98 

.60 

i 

1.75 

.89 

1.0 


j 

2.1 

.745 

.925 


K 

1.45 

.96 

.67 

.16 

I 

1.35 

.46 

.69 


F 

1.3 

.92 

.88 


J 

1.85 

.665 

1.4 


G 

.94 

.57 

.51 


H 

1.65 

.88 

1.45 


I 


1.02 

.55 

.19 

M 




.22 

L 




.26 

K 




.035 

AVERAGE 

1.334 

.844 

.858 

.203 


3. Polarization effects. Interesting po¬ 
larization effects were observed under 
suitable conditions by reversing the 
polarity of the applied voltage. In each 
case tested after passing a certain thresh¬ 
old current, at a given applied voltage, 
the current was larger in one direction 
than in the other. In some cases the 
current was larger when the right hand 
was connected to the positive pole, in 
others the left hand. Values of resistance 
with indicated polarity are compiled in 
table I. Counter E.M.F’s may contribute 
to this effect; however the explanation is 
probably not simple. 

4. Variation of apparent resistance 
with current. Assuming the total im¬ 
pedance to flow to be resistance, currents 
were observed for varying values of 
voltage and the corresponding resist¬ 
ances calculated. In all cases the resist¬ 
ances diminished as the current increased. 
Finally, at a certain threshold value the 
resistance seemed to “break down” in an 
unstable manner and the current in¬ 
creased several fold at a given voltage 
applied for a couple of seconds. More¬ 
over, on applying a given lower voltage 
the current was found to be several times 
larger than when tested at the same 
voltage before the break down occurred. 
In those cases tested, a recovery occurred 
in about ten minutes. The data taken in 
a typical case are shown in table II. 
The summary for nine cases showing this 
effect appears in table III. 

5. Relative effects of steady and surge 
currents. In all cases it was found that 
if a slowly rising voltage was applied 
the subject experienced a localized burn¬ 
ing sensation so intense it practically 

















































































































































































































































Physics — 19JiO Meeting 


191 


masked the usual muscular contraction 
sensation. For this reason the sensitivity 
to shock was tested by closing a key to a 
potentiometer circuit for about two sec¬ 
onds and then releasing the key. If, in¬ 
stead of permitting the current to surge 
through on contact, a rheostat was 
manipulated so the current built up over 
a period of a second or two and then 
diminished to zero, the peak current 
reached a much larger value before it 
was felt than when a “surge” current 
was used. Typical data are shown in 
fig. 2. 

6. Sensitivity as effected by polarity. 
In some cases the current necessary to 
produce shock was greater when in one 
direction than the other. However, this 
difference was not as great as the change 
of effective resistance with polarity. Also 
the sensation was sometimes felt much 
more readily in one hand than in the 
other. This difference varied widely 
with individuals. 

7. Sensitivity as affected by the loca¬ 
tion of the electrodes. The tests included 
comparisons of the currents necessary to 
produce sensations when the electrodes 
were placed in the hands and when 
placed on the upper arm. In general the 


current required for sensation was con¬ 
siderably larger for the hands than for 
the upper arms. Also the sensation in 
the hands was usually described as a 
“tingle” whereas the usual word for the 
upper arm was a “prick”. The data per¬ 
taining to shock are summarized in 
table IV. 

Table II.— Effect of Breakdown Current 
(Resistance measured in thousand ohms) 


Name “1” 


left hand + 

right hand + 

volts 

MA 

Res. 

volts 

MA 

Res. 

8 

.05 

160 

8 

.05 

160 

9 

.06 

150 

9 

.06 

160 

10 

.09 

111.1 

10 

.08 

125 

11 

.10 

110 

11 

.10 

110 

12 

.12 

100 

12 

.12 

100 

13 

.16 

81.3 

13 

.14 

92.8 

14 

.19 

73.7 

14 

.18 

77.8 

15 

.44 

34.0 

15 

.22 

68.2 

8 

.23 

34.8 

8 

.12 

66.7 


ADVANTAGES OF STANDARD SIZES FOR 

OPTICAL PANELS 

Clarence R. Smith 
Aurora College, Aurora, Illinois 


The experimenter in optics whose work 
leads him to set up equipment of any 
considerable variety will do well to con¬ 
sider standardization of size for certain 
parts which are in common use. Occasion 
will frequently arise for setting up com¬ 
binations which are more or less compli¬ 
cated but which however, will soon serve 
their time of usefulness and be dis¬ 
mantled, many of the parts to be used 
again for new combinations. Such de¬ 
vices as lens holders, diaphragms, filters, 
etc. will be found more convenient if 
made with overall size and certain other 
dimensions according to a plan of 
uniformity. 

The plan here suggested makes use of 
four basic squares which are as follows: 
5x5 cm, 10 x 10 cm, 20 x 20 cm and 
35 x 35 cm. If panels in any of these 
sizes are to be assembled by means of 


bolts or screws, two holes should be 
placed near each of the four edges of each 
square. The two holes near each edge 
should be symmetrically placed with a 
separation of 0.5L and a distance of 
0.05L from the edge, where L represents 
the length of the edge. Thus a 20 x 20 
cm panel would have near each edge, two 
holes 10 cm apart and 1 cm from the 
edge, while a 5 x 5 cm panel would have 
the holes 2.5 cm apart and 0.25 cm from 
the edge. 

In recommending the use of the above 
four basic squares, no specification is 
intended as to which of the sizes is to be 
used for a given piece of equipment. 
Actual experience has shown the follow¬ 
ing to be convenient and the lists are 
given here merely as suggesting the use¬ 
fulness of the idea. 



































































192 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


5x5 cm 

Light filters, for photography 
Round hole diaphragms of various di¬ 
ameters, one small enough for pin-hole 
photographs 

Slits, single, double and of various widths 
and separations 

Mounted crystals, wedges, etc. for 
polarized light 

“Double star” for resolving power meas¬ 
urements 

Mounted needle point, needle eye, razor 
edge, and central disk for diffraction 
effects 

Parallel wires, woven wire, mounted 
samples of cloth, for diffraction effects 
Simple lenses of small diameter 
Photographic lenses in miniature sizes 
Telescope eyepieces 

Projection lens for 2x2 inch lantern 
slides 

10 x 10 cm 

Photographic lenses in most sizes 
Colored glass squares for general use in 
class demonstrations 
Frames for Polaroid disks 
Object holders for polarized light experi¬ 
ments 

Panel with cut-out and clips to take the 
5x5 cm size 

Lenses, various, too large for 5x5 cm 
panel 

Telescope objective lens 
Projection lens for 3*4 x 4 inch lantern 
slides 

Black and white surfaces for receiving 
images on optical bench 

20 x 20 cm 

Negative holder for photo enlarging 
Lamp-house front for photo enlarging 
Diffusion ground glass for photo enlarg¬ 
ing 

Panel with cut-out and clips to take the 
10 x 10 cm size 

Panel with cut-out and clips to take the 
5x5 cm size directly 
Film holders, various forms as camera 
backs, to take roll films, cut films, etc. 


Photo dark room lamp front, to take 

5x7 inch commercial colored glasses 
Cell for 6-inch telescope mirror 

35 x 35 cm 

Photo enlarging easel 

Photo copying easel or platform 

Dark room window with cut-out for 

20 x 20 cm panel 

Screen for micro projection to small 

group 

It will be found convenient to have for 
the most used sizes, various spacers, dark 
channels, holders, etc., then a great 
variety of combinations can be quickly 
set up. For example, a photographic 
enlarger or lantern slide printer can be 
made from a light source in a housing 
with standard front, a diffusing screen, 
negative holder, and easel, all mounted 
with suitable spacers. A useful laboratory 
camera can be made by constructing a 
basic body to take a 20 x 20 cm detach¬ 
able back and a similar front. Various 
backs can be made for cut film and roll 
film in any desired size. Fronts can be 
made for various types of lenses, shutters, 
and focusing devices. Standardized sizes 
also lend themselves readily to the equip¬ 
ment used in regular practice in focal 
length, magnifying power, diffraction, 
index of refraction, and polarization. 
Any worker continuing in the field of 
optics, who will consistently adhere to 
the sizes recommended, will become more 
appreciative of the advantages of inter¬ 
changeability of parts as his stock of 
equipment increases. 

The 35 x 35 cm size appears in the 
series instead of 40 x 40 cm as might be 
expected, because it is more logically 
adapted to the hole spacing formula, 
and also because it makes a better tran¬ 
sition to a series of still larger sizes 
which might be used, beginning with 
50 x 50 cm. Plans are under way with 
such a series of larger sizes and also a 
series of smaller sizes, but more experi¬ 
mental work is needed before final recom¬ 
mendations are made. 


Physics — 19JfO Meeting 


193 


WAVE CHARACTERISTICS WITH SOME DEMONSTRA¬ 
TIONS FOR GENERAL COLLEGE PHYSICS 

V. F. Swaim, Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria, Illinois 


When the subject of wave motion is 
presented in general physics, the student 
is usually told that there are two types 
of wave motion: the first, known as com¬ 
pression waves, possesses a to-and-fro 
motion in the direction of propagation, 
while the second, known as transverse 
waves, possesses a motion back and forth 
across the line of propagation. He is told 
that any medium which possesses a bulk 
modulus will transmit compression waves, 
while, according to the elastic solid 
theory, a medium must possess a torsion 
modulus in order to transmit transverse 
waves. At this point is introduced a 
study of sound, the waves of which, the 
student is told, are of the compressional 
type. When some of the properties of 
sound waves have been discussed and a 
few experiments performed, the student 
begins the study of light, the waves of 
which are of the transverse type, then 
without much correlation with sound 
waves, the subject of wave motion is dis¬ 
missed and the student leaves the work 
without a good correlation of the two 
types of waves. It is the purpose of 
this paper to present a better correlation 
of the two types of wave motion and' to 
show how the subjects of sound and light 
may be presented to the student so that 
he may understand them more fully. It 
is proposed that the subject of wave mo¬ 
tion first be presented by means of water 
waves. The student should be shown the 
seven characteristics of wave motion; 
namely, a medium is required, the waves 
travel at a constant velocity, they may 
be reflected, refracted, diffracted, they 
may produce the phenomenon of inter¬ 
ference, and they may exhibit the Dop¬ 
pler effect. These characteristics may be 
shown with waves large enough for the 
student to see and he should grasp their 
full meaning. 

The student may now study sound and 
light together, instead of as separate 
entities, and he must look for the char¬ 
acteristics of wave motion which he has 
observed for water waves. He soon finds 
that of all the seven characteristics apply¬ 
ing to sound, only one does not apply to 
light, namely, the medium. Light will 
travel through a vacuum while sound will 
not. However, there is an eighth charac¬ 


teristic of light which may be shown with 
crossed mirrors (Malus’ experiment) 
namely, polarization, which cannot be 
shown for sound. In trying to explain 
this difference between sound and light 
the student will see the reason for trans¬ 
verse waves in light and radio waves. 

The writer believes that the student 
may be given a much better understand¬ 
ing of sound and light by applying the 
eight characteristics of wave motion to 
each and comparing the results. These 
experiments on sound and light, carried 
on together, impress their characteristics 
on the mind of the student and some 
duplication of discussion is eliminated. 

It is impossible to show all of the 
characteristics of wave motion here, but 
some will be shown by means of the 
ripple tank. (See C. A. Dyer, American 
Physics Teacher, Vol. 5, p. 208.) The 
ripple tank is about 1 inch deep with a 
flat glass bottom through which light may 
be projected. If a source of light is placed 
below the tank, one may observe the waves 
on a horizontal translucent screen placed 
above the tank. Either a single wave 
pulse, or a series of pulses are produced 
at regular intervals. Single pulses should 
be observed by a small incandescent light 
below the tank, and the series of pulses by 
means of a stroboscopic light. The series 
of regular pulses will be produced by 
means of a wire stretched across the top of 
the tank between the poles of two perma¬ 
nent magnets. The wire is caused to vibrate 
by passing alternating current through it 
and adjusting the tension by means of a 
screw. Two small aluminum discs are 
used to offset the wire so that it will 
reach the water in the tank. A small 
globule of solder at the center of the wire 
will produce circular waves as it moves 
up and down in the water. When plane 
waves are desired, the tension is reduced 
and the discs are turned until the wire 
without any globules of solder dips into 
the water. The other wires are provided, 
one with two, one with three globules. 

The stroboscope consists of a strobotron 
tube made to flash by the pulses of a re¬ 
laxation oscillator as given by N. S. 
Gingrick in the American Physics 
Teacher, Vol. 5, p. 277. 


194 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


THE PRESSURE-VOLUME RELATION OF THE 

TOY BALLOON 

Frank L. Verwiebe 


Eastern Illinois State Teachers College , Charleston , Illinois 


The peculiar elastic properties of rub¬ 
ber are reflected in the pressure-volume 
relation of the toy balloon. Fig. 1 shows 
how the pressure of a balloon varies with 
its radius when it is blown up. There is 
first a steep rise of pressure which 
reaches a maximum. As more gas is then 
forced into the balloon, the pressure 
drops, reaches a minimum, and then rises 
again until the balloon finally bursts. 

The balloon was inflated with dry air 
and its pressure measured by a water 
manometer. A number of spherical bal¬ 
loons were tried and all showed the same 
sort of relation as indicated by fig. 1. 

It is interesting to compare the pres¬ 
sure-volume relation of the rubber balloon 
with that of the soap bubble. Figure 2 
shows the force-displacement graph typi¬ 
cal of a soap bubble film. In this simple 
case the surface tension force does not 
vary with displacement. By virtue of 
the geometry of a sphere, this relation is 
reflected in a spherical bubble as an in¬ 
verse proportionality between the pres¬ 
sure and the radius of the bubble. As is 
generally known, the larger a soap bubble 
is, the smaller is the pressure it exerts. 
When two soap bubbles of unequal size 
are connected the smaller loses its gas to 
the larger. 

With two balloons of unequal size, the 
situation is more complex. From an in¬ 
spection of the pressure-radius graph it 
is apparent that the direction of flow of 
gas between the two balloons may be 
from smaller to larger or vice-versa. 
Furthermore, equilibrium of pressure 
may exist between two balloons of dif¬ 
ferent size. 

It is interesting also to correlate the 
force-displacement graph, fig. 3, with the 
pressure-radius graph, fig. 1. The rela¬ 
tion between pressure and radius may be 
written in the general form p «= Kr n . 
If the stretching force per cm is inde¬ 
pendent of displacement, n = -1, as in 
the case of the soap bubble. In the case 
of the balloon three different ranges in 
the pressure-radius graph may easily be 
distinguished. During the initial pres¬ 
sure rise n is positive, but probably a lit¬ 





tle less than 1. During the succeeding 
pressure drop n is negative. During the 
final pressure rise n is positive again and 
larger than 1. Three different ranges 
may correspondingly be detected in the 
force-displacement graph. Further analy¬ 
sis of the interrelations of the two graphs 
is in process. 






































































































Papers In Psychology & Education 


Extract From the Report of the Section Chairman 

The Psychology and Education program carried eight papers, three of which 
are herewith published. The others were entitled: 

Implications for education of data on youth, J. M. Hughes, Northwestern 
University, Evanston. 

Social forces and college adjustments, Jordan T. Cavan, Rockford College, 
Rockford. 

An analysis of attitudes tests, Isabel C. Stewart and 0. P. Gallaway, Mac- 
Murray College, Jacksonville. 

A study of the recitation procedure compared with the unit-directed study 
procedure in modern history classes in eight Illinois high schools, Robert 
S. Ellwood, Illinois State Normal University, Normal. 

Trends in science education, Carroll C. Hall, Springfield High School, 
Springfield. 

Attendance averaged 20 and Mr. 0. Irving Jacobsen, Shurtleff College, 
Alton, Illinois, was elected chairman of the 1940 meeting. 

(Signed) J. T. Cavan, Chairman 


[ 195 ] 



19G 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


GENERAL CONCLUSIONS ON TRANSFER OF TRAINING 

Helen R. Messenger 
State Teachers College, DeKalb, Illinois 


For over twenty-five years summaries 
of investigations concerned with the 
transfer of training have been made 
rather periodically. A considerable num¬ 
ber of the investigations summarized 
have been conducted under the artificial 
conditions of a laboratory while most of 
them have been under conditions far re¬ 
moved from the life situations of learning. 

This report is the result of a rather 
critical study and summarization of over 
one hundred investigations in normal 
learning situations. These investigations 
have been, therefore, in education. Those 
in the area of pure psychology have been 
intentionally omitted. The following 
conclusions seem to be conservative, 
reasonable, and based upon the evidence 
produced. 

1. Transfer of training is a fact, but 
it may take place and it may not. It is 
not automatic. 

2. It may be positive, negative, or 
zero. The theory of formal discipline 
seemed to overlook the fact that it was 
not always positive. 

3. Direct training produces a greater 
amount of improvement than indirect. 

4. Training usually results in an in¬ 
crease in the specific function trained. 
Improvements in like functions, if they 
occur, are relatively small, varying “with 
the amount available for transfer and the 
degree to which conditions are made 
favorable” for transference. In relatively 
narrow mental functions transfer does 
exist in useful amounts. 

5. There is no scientific support for a 
belief that an all-round improvement in 
a mental function should be expected 
from training in a specific field. 

6. Wherever there is a noticeable de¬ 
gree of positive transfer there seem to be 
common elements, but the theory of 
identical elements finds no support in 
neurology or physiological psychology. 

7. “There are elements of situations 
so fundamental in their nature that they 
occur again and again in connection with 
almost anything else.” It is reasonable 
to infer that in these cases some transfer 
will be found. 


8. Knowledge of a general theory or 
principle seems to transfer more con¬ 
sistently than other factors. The learner, 
however, can be aided in making a trans¬ 
fer by being made acutely aware of the 
possibilities of the transfer sought. 

9. A small transfer may be very 
valuable. (When no direct method of 
obtaining the trait has been developed, 
example; cooperation through athletics or 
play.) 

10. Transfer must be worked for 
directly. It is a function of teaching. 
Teach for transfer, for it is a worthy aim. 

Some Possible Deductions From the 
Above For Teachers 

1. Teachers should be acutely aware 
of relationships that may result in 
transfer. 

2. Emphasis should be upon direct 
training in concrete, life situations in¬ 
stead of upon abstract training built upon 
anticipated transfer. 

3. A teacher is not justified in specu¬ 
lating upon results occurring from trans¬ 
fer: a) When he could obtain the hoped- 
for results directly; b) When, thereby, 
he is leaving undone training known to 
produce valuable results; c) When no 
recognized authority in the field of 
modern, educational psychology would 
support his opinion as well founded. 

4. A teacher’s duty is to be on the 
lookout for negative transfers, so as to 
avoid them. (The “translation” method 
of teaching foreign languages may result 
in a high school credit, but also may in¬ 
terfere with ability in fluent reading.) 

5. While it may be safe to act upon 
the assumption that a pupil may learn 
better what he practices directly, than 
what he does not, a teacher may safely 
assume that no one knows exactly what 
all factors in the practice are. He must, 
therefore, guard against unfavorable 
concomitant learning such as dislike of 
or boredom with the learning situation. 

6. A teacher may facilitate transfer at 
all times and at every opportunity by: 
a) Selecting situations that carry ele- 


Psychology and, Education — 19JfO Meeting 


197 


merits that are desirable for transfer, 
especially those applying to the child’s 
own life; b) Emphasizing the elements 
that are expected to transfer; c) Help¬ 
ing to develop a conscious ideal that will 
spread the learning to other situations; 
d) Encouraging the transference by sup¬ 
plying and indicating the opportunities 
not incidently, but at every point and in 
specific detail; e) Explaining to students 
just what is being sought; (To the extent 
of explaining to those who can under¬ 
stand the theory of the transfer of learn¬ 
ing; f) Stimulating an alertness to pos¬ 
sibilities of transfer. 

7. In general, in selecting situations 
for teaching purposes, preference should 
be given to those having elements that 
occur in many situations in life. 

8. Transfer has a positive relation to 
intelligence; any pupil may make it by 
chance, but the teacher should not as¬ 
sume that this will occur. 

9. A successful teacher will guide 
pupils in generalizing, in practice in 
applying their generalization, and in 
forming habits of consciously noting and 
seeking opportunities for applying them. 

Whipple’s general conclusions are that 
there is evidence that transfer occurs in 
some' degree and that “some of the most 
important agencies of transfer are to be 


found among higher level relations, in 
generalized attitudes, words, ideals, sets, 
and ways of going about mental opera¬ 
tions.” 

More recently, students of the problem 
are saying that it is now a problem of 
“educational engineering,” “one of so 
organizing the materials and methods of 
instruction to guarantee the largest pos¬ 
sible amount of positive transfer.” 

The following bibliography contains 
summaries of studies in transfer of train¬ 
ing given in time order: 

Rugg, Harold O , The Experimental De¬ 
termination of Mental Discipline in School 
Studies. Warwick and York, Baltimore, 
1916. 

Thorndike, E. L., Educational Psychology, 
Vol. II. Teachers College, Columbia Uni¬ 
versity, New York, 1921, Ch. XII. 

Judd, C. H., Psychology of Secondary Edu¬ 
cation. Ginn & Co , Boston, 1927, Ch. 
XIX. 

Whipple, Guy M., “Transfer of Training.” 
Twenty-seventh Yearbook, Part II, N. S. 
S. E., Public School Publishing Co., Bloom¬ 
ington, Illinois, 1928. 

Orata, P. T , The Theory of Identical Ele¬ 
ments. Ohio State University Press, Co¬ 
lumbus, 1928. 

Norem, Grant M., Transfer of Training Ex¬ 
periments Revalued. Iowa City, la., 1933. 
Orata, P. T., “Transfer of Training and 
Educational Pseudo-science.” Educational 
Administration and Supervision, April, 
1935, Pp. 241-258. 

Brownell, W. A. “Theoretical Aspects of 
Learning and Transfer of Training.” Re¬ 
view of Educational Research. 6:281-90. 
June, 1936. (Reviews and summaries.) 


THE VOWEL FORMANT AND WHAT IT MEANS IN 

SPEECH AND VOCAL MUSIC 

O. Irving Jacobsen 


Shurtleff College, Alton, Illinois 


The vowel formant is merely the fre¬ 
quency region where each individual 
vowel has an unusual amount of energy, 
regardless of the pitch (or overtones) at 
which a vowel is sung. Each vowel has 
its own distinct formant. No two vowels 
are alike, although two vowels do have 
frequency regions in common. Each 
vowel has two or more frequency regions. 
The vowel oo, as in pool, has one fre¬ 
quency region approximately at G (892 
d.v.), and another at G (784 d.v.). If 
this particular vowel is sung on either of 
these pitches, the singer will find it very 
easy to intone. 

The ease with which a vowel may be 
intoned depends upon the relationship of 
the pitch at which it is sung (or the re¬ 
sulting overtones), and the formant or 


frequency region of the particular vowel. 
If the overtones of the given complex 
tone (pitch) fall on the formant, the 
vowel may be sung with ease, and the 
order of ease in singing vowels (at a 
given pitch) will be determined by the 
number of the overtone, that is, funda¬ 
mental, first, second, third, etc., overtones, 
in order, will be most easily sung. 

For example, if the vowel in question 
is oo (pool), with the formant of G (392 
d.v.), the order of ease of singing should 
be G (392) as fundamental; next, G 
(196) since G (392) is the formant or 
first overtone of the complex tone on 
this pitch; and for others, the formant 
G (392) will be as follows; second over¬ 
tone, C (130 d.v.); third overtone, G 
(98); fourth overtone, E-flat (78), etc. 



198 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


The formants of the various vowels 
have been determined definitely by 
physicists, including D. C. Miller, Harvey 
Fletcher, and I. B. Crandall. 

These formants vary with the different 
vowel sounds, and they are entirely dif¬ 
ferent for male and female voices, even 
when the fundamental pitch is the same. 
The author has constructed a complete 
table of all pitches within the ranges of 
both men’s and women’s voices, showing 
the easiest, next easiest vowel, and so on, 
to the most difficult vowel to intone on 
each particular pitch. Thus it is possible 
to select appropriate vowels for vocal ex¬ 
ercises, as well as songs. However, when 
songs are transposed to other keys, this 
relationship is lost. 

D. C. Miller suggested that certain 
songs which are especially effective, owe 
their quality to the proper relation of 
vowel sounds to pitches. Also that the 
“Hallelujah Chorus” from Handel’s 1Mes¬ 
siah has been cited as such a selection. 
The first statement is true, however, the 
author found, on analyzing the “Halle¬ 
lujah Chorus” selection that with the ex¬ 
ception of the “ah” vowel, in the word 
“Hallelujah”, which vowel has three for¬ 
mants, the song does not comply with 
formant requirements nearly as well as 
many other songs which have been 
analyzed. 

Dr. G. W. Stewart has invented an 
acoustic filter in which the frequencies 
above 3000 d.v. are eliminated for any 
complex sound which passes through this 
filter. In other words, the upper over¬ 
tones are eliminated. It so happens that 
the vowels ee (see) and oo (pool) have 
the same lower formants, but ee has also 
a very much higher frequency region or 
formant which oo does not have. In 
singing or speaking the vowel ee into this 
filter, the listener will hear the vowel oo. 
Humorous and distorted meanings can be 
obtained. For instance the words lease, 
glee, he, and three, become loose, glue, 
who, and through, respectively. 

Time will be needed to determine the 
practical use of the vowel formant in 
speech. At present, only theoretical sug¬ 
gestions have been given. Since the 
vowel formant does influence the quality 
and clarity of the vowel, according to 
pitch, it may be possible to make some 
application to speech training. The aver¬ 
age person has a pitch range of one 
octave in his speech, and perhaps if 


stress is given to certain words which 
include vowels on a definite pitch, more 
effective speech interpretation will result. 
However, speech is not like vocal music 
where definite vowels can be sung on par¬ 
ticular pitches, although speech does 
utilize pitch, dynamics, and quality for 
certain expression. Perhaps it will be 
possible to find more practical application 
for the formant, in the future, somewhat 
like the practical use of dynamics in 
speech radio training. 

Since the physicists are quite agreed on 
the vowel formants, so far as their pitches 
are concerned, the important question is: 
How do these formants actually apply or 
agree with vocal production? Therefore 
experimentation has been carried on in 
singing of vowels on the various pitches. 
It was found that this is quite a sub¬ 
jective procedure, and that three influ¬ 
encing factors enter into vocal produc¬ 
tion, namely: prejudice, suggestion, and 
fatigue. Prejudice and suggestion might 
influence both the performer and the 
listener as to the vowel sung with 
greatest clarity on a given pitch, and 
naturally fatigue greatly influence the 
ease of singing, regardless of vowel or 
pitch. If these three factors could be 
kept constant, or be eliminated, the ex¬ 
periment could be made very objective. 

Although the experimentation is by no 
means complete, there are some deduc¬ 
tions which can be made on what has 
been done up to the present time. 

1- Quality of a vowel is definitely 
influenced by the formant. There may be 
a psychological factor involved so far as 
quality is concerned, since the thinking 
of “clear” vowel prior to production, re¬ 
gardless of pitch, has a marked influence 
on the clarity and quality of the vowel. 
However, the author has written two sets 
of words to the melody “Sweet and Low”, 
one being the most easily sung vowels, 
according to the formant requirements, 
and the other, containing the most 
difficult vowels also according to these 
requirements. A pronounced difference in 
quality of vowels can be observed in the 
two performances by the same singer, due, 
no doubt, to the formant differences of 
the two. 

Quality changes, it was found, were 
less apt to occur when intensity was 
varied, if formant requirements were 
followed. Likewise, the same conditions 
were found when changes were made in 


Psychology and Education—ldJfi Meeting 199 


duration; that is, a tone of long duration 
was less apt to show changes in quality, 
if formant requirements were observed, 
than if no attention was paid to the 
formant relationship to pitch. 

2. Intensity is likewise influenced 
greatly by the formant also. Although 
the vowel oo is the most difficult of all 
vowels to sing with great intensity, if it 
is sung on the proper pitches, a great 
difference could be observed. An average 
singer can usually sing with clarity when 
singing “moderately loud”, but when ex¬ 
tremely loud or soft singing is required, 
greater difficulty was observable, even for 
the professional singer, when the formant 
requirements were not followed. 

3. Duration of a vowel sound was 
found to be influenced by the formant 
in exactly the same manner as has been 
mentioned for quality and intensity, 
although the attributes of intensity and 
pitch had had a more pronounced influ¬ 
ence on duration than did quality. 

4 . Pitch is considered of utmost im¬ 
portance in vowel performance. In fact, 
the proper pitch for each vowel deter¬ 
mines the perfection of performance, so 
far as quality, intensity and duration are 
concerned. Although it was believed that 
if the proper pitch were given to each 


vow T el, there would be no danger of 
flatting or sharping. The very difficult 
pitch is not a half-tone above or below 
the tone which is easiest to perform for 
a definite vowel, but perhaps a third or 
fourth interval from this pitch. If a 
vowel is sung on a pitch a half tone be- 
Jow the “best pitch”, that particular 
complex tone has a great deal of energy 
in the overtone nearest the vowel fre¬ 
quency region or formant, and it is fairly 
easy to intone. 

5. Harmony which is so closely re¬ 
lated to pitch and quality is naturally 
influenced by the formant in the same 
manner as these two factors. Sometimes 
two vowels do not seem to blend on cer¬ 
tain pitches, yet this is not observed on 
other pitches for these same vowels. This 
may be due to the relation of the pitches 
to the formants. In the future the choral 
symphonies may become popular in music 
performances, and if so, consideration of 
the vowel formants will be of great im¬ 
portance in determining vowels for hum¬ 
ming or singing the various parts. 

The experimentation in the perform¬ 
ance of vowels on various pitches, so far 
as the quality, intensity, and duration are 
concerned, will be continued and, it is 
hoped, some practical contributions to 
vocal performance will be forthcoming. 


VALIDITY OF RANK IN HIGH SCHOOL CLASS AND 
PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST SCORES IN PREDICT¬ 
ING ACADEMIC SUCCESS IN COLLEGE 


C. E. Erffmeyer 

North Central College, Nayei'ville, Illinois 


During recent years the faculty at 
North Central College has been concerned 
with the fact that a great many students 
were not doing work which was satisfac¬ 
tory from a scholastic point of view. A 
great deal of time and energy have been 
spent by administrative officials, class 
advisers, and teachers in attempting to 
help such students improve their scholar¬ 
ship. In some cases improvement fol¬ 
lowed; in many cases there was no 
improvement in the students’ work. The 
question was raised whether it would not 
be better to refuse admission to students 
who would do unsatisfactory work in 
college, if such students could be deter¬ 
mined at the time of their application for 


admission to college. This paper is the 
report of a study of one phase of the 
problem: How valid are (1) rank in 
high school class, and (2) score on an 
intelligence test in predicting academic 
success in college? 

As subjects for the study, the classes 
entering North Central College as fresh¬ 
men in 1934 and 1935 were chosen. These 
students would normally graduate in 1938 
and 1939, and the college record of each 
of these students was studied for as 
long as he remained at North Central 
College during the four years after ad¬ 
mission. No attempt was made to check 
the record in other colleges or univer¬ 
sities of the few students of this group 



200 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


who transferred to such other in¬ 
stitutions. 

The first criterion of academic success 
in college whose validity was studied was 
the rank of the student in high school 
class. Of the 312 students in the group, 
44 or 14 per cent were from the lowest 
third of their high school class; 84 or 27 
per cent were from the middle third of 
their high school class; and 184 or 59 per 
cent were from the highest third of their 
high school class. Since most colleges 
prefer students who will complete satis¬ 
factorily the full four year course, it is 
interesting to note that the average num¬ 
ber of semesters spent at North Central 
College during four years after admission 
was as follows: by students from the 
lowest third of their high school class, 
4.54 semesters; by students from the 
middle third of their high school class, 
4.80 semesters; and by students from the 
highest third of their high school class, 
6.11 semesters. A tabulation of those re¬ 
ceiving degrees from North Central Col¬ 
lege within four years after admission 
revealed the following: 11 students or 25 
per cent of those from the lowest third 
received degrees; 28 students or 33 per 
cent of those from the middle third re¬ 
ceived degrees; and 100 students or 54 
per cent of those from the highest third 
received degrees. Of the total group of 
312 students, 139 or 45 per cent received 
degrees within four years after ad¬ 
mission. 

The three groups of students were 
next compared with respect to the grade 
index. This grade index was the average 
number of honor points earned for each 
hour of work carried, when each hour of 
grade A work was given three points, 
each hour of B two points, each hour of 
C one point, and grades of D and F re¬ 
ceived no points. It should be stated that 
a grade index of 1.00 was necessary for 
graduation. The median grade index for 
their entire course for the students from 
the lowest third of their high school 
class was .71; for the middle third 1.05; 
and for the highest third 1.84. These 
median grade indices for the entire course 
varied only very slightly from the grade 
indices for the freshman year only. 

One of the most significant phases of 
the study had to do with the record of 
those students who were placed on proba¬ 
tion or who were dropped from college 
because of poor scholarship. Of the 44 


students from the lowest third of their 
high school class, 28 or 64 per cent were 
placed on probation for one or more pro¬ 
bation periods (one month in length); of 
the 84 students from the middle third, 35 
or 42 per cent were placed on probation; 
and of the 184 students from the highest 
third, 17 or 9 per cent were placed on 
probation. From the lowest third, 22 
students or 50 per cent were dropped for 
low scholarship; from the middle third, 
22 students or 26 per cent were dropped; 
and from the highest third, 8 students or 
4 per cent were dropped. From the low¬ 
est third, 33 students or 75 per cent re¬ 
ceived a grade of failure in one or more 
courses; from the middle third, 41 stu¬ 
dents or 49 per cent received failing 
grades; and from the highest third, 29 
students or 16 per cent received failing 
grades. 

A consideration of these data suggests 
some interesting conclusions. If a college 
wishes to adopt a policy of admitting 
only those students who are almost cer¬ 
tain of doing satisfactory work in college, 
the college should admit only those stu¬ 
dents who stand in the highest third of 
their high school class. If the college 
refuses admission to students from the 
lowest two-thirds of their high school 
class it will keep out almost all students 
who are likely to do poor work. This 
does not mean that all students from the 
lowest two-thirds of their high school 
class will fail to do satisfactory work; 
but it does mean that approximately half 
of such students will be placed on proba¬ 
tion, and that one-third of such students 
will be dropped for low scholarship. 

On the other hand, a policy of exclud¬ 
ing students from the lowest two-thirds 
or even from the lowest one-third of the 
high school class will result in excluding 
many students who would do satisfactory 
college work. For example, one fourth 
of the lowest third students, and one- 
third of the middle third students in this 
study were able to complete satisfactorily 
the work required for a degree. It is 
possible that other criteria may be em¬ 
ployed to pick from the students in the 
lowest two-thirds those who will succeed 
in college. Rank in high school class for 
students in the lowest two-thirds is not 
by itself a very accurate basis for predict¬ 
ing academic success in college. In gen¬ 
eral we may conclude that a knowledge 
of rank in high school class may enable 


Psychology and Education — 19J/.0 Meeting 


201 


a college to select students who will suc¬ 
ceed academically in college provided the 
college places the necessary rank high 
enough; on the other hand, knowledge of 
rank in high school class does not enable 
a college to admit students on this basis 
without at the same time excluding many 
students who apparently are able to do 
satisfactory college work. 

The second criterion whose validity for 
predicting academic success in college 
which was studied was the intelligence 
test score. The test used was the Ameri¬ 
can Council on Education Psychological 
Test. It should be noted that the median 
score and the amount of variability on 
this test for the group of North Central 
College students were both very close to 
these measures on the national norms for 
college and university freshmen. Inci¬ 
dentally, while there was a positive cor¬ 
relation between rank in high school class 
and intelligence test score, the relation¬ 
ship was far from perfect. For example, 
the third quartile intelligence score for 
the group from the lowest third of the 
high school class exceeded the median 
score for the middle third, and it also 
exceeded the first quartile score for the 
highest third. 

The 312 students included in the study 
were divided on the basis of intelligence 
test scores into five groups so that the 
fifth of the students whose scores were 
the lowest constituted the lowest group, 
and so on for the other groups. The aver¬ 
age number of semesters spent at North 
Central College during four years after 
admission by these groups were as fol¬ 
lows: by students in the lowest fifth on 
the intelligence test, 4.73 semesters; by 
students in the fourth fifth, 5.90 semes¬ 
ters; by students in the middle fifth, 4.89 
semesters; by students in the second 
fifth, 6.03 semesters; and by students in 
the highest fifth, 6.13 semesters. The 
tabulation of those receiving degrees 
from North Central College within four 
years after admission resulted as follows: 
of the students in the lowest fifth 30 per 
cent received degrees; of those in the 
fourth fifth 50 per cent; of those in the 
middle fifth 34 per cent; of those in the 
second fifth 57 per cent; and of those in 
the highest fifth 52 per cent. 

The comparison of these five groups 
with respect to grade index showed that 
the median grade index for students in 
the lowest fifth was 1.00; for those in the 


fourth fifth 1.23; for those in the middle 
fifth 1.30; for those in the second fifth 
1.91; and for those in the highest fifth 
1.99. 

The next phase of the study concerned 
itself with the record of those students 
who were placed on probation or who 
were dropped from college because of 
poor scholarship. Of the students from 
the lowest fifth on intelligence test scores 
44 per cent were placed on probation for 
one or more periods; of the students 
from the fourth fifth 34 per cent were 
placed on probation; of the students from 
the middle fifth 31 per cent were placed 
on probation; of the students from the 
second fifth 6 per cent were placed on 
probation; and of the students from the 
highest fifth 13 per cent were placed on 
probation. From the lowest fifth 27 
per cent were dropped for low scholar¬ 
ship; from the fourth fifth, 19 per cent 
were dropped; from the middle fifth 21 
per cent were dropped; from the second 
fifth 8 per cent were dropped; and from 
the highest fifth 8 per cent were dropped. 
Of the students in the lowest fifth 54 
per cent received a grade of failure in 
one or more courses; of those in the 
fourth fifth 42 per cent; of those in the 

middle fifth 39 per cent; of those in the 

second fifth 13 per cent; and of those in 

the highest fifth 17 per cent. 

A study of the data obtained when the 
students were grouped according to the 
intelligence test score suggests conclu¬ 
sions very similar to those made on the 
basis of the data obtained when the stu¬ 
dents were _ grouped according to the 
rank in high school class. If a college 
wishes to establish a policy of admitting 
only those students who are almost cer¬ 
tain to make a satisfactory academic 
record, it should accept only those stu¬ 
dents who stand in the highest two fifths 
on the intelligence test. Refusing admis¬ 
sion to students from the lowest three 
fifths on the intelligence test will keep 
out almost all students who are likely to 
do poor work. Again, this does not mean 
that all students from the lowest three 
fifths on the intelligence test will fail to 
do satisfactory work; but the data reveal 
that approximately one third of such 
students will be placed on probation, and 
that nearly one fourth of such students 
will be dropped for low scholarship. 

It should be pointed out in this con¬ 
nection that a policy of excluding stu- 


202 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


dents from the lowest three fifths or even 
from the lowest fifth on the intelligence 
test will result in excluding many stu¬ 
dents who would do satisfactory college 
work. For example, of those students in 
the lowest fifth 30 per cent were granted 
degrees; of those in the fourth fifth 50 
per cent; and of those in the middle fifth 
34 per cent. We must again conclude 
that a college may select students on the 
basis of the intelligence test who will 
succeed academically in college provided 
the required score is placed high enough; 
but admitting on such a basis does not 
enable a college to select students with¬ 
out at the same time excluding many 
students who apparently are able to do 
satisfactory college work. 

A third criterion for selecting students 
may be found in the combination of rank 
in high school class and intelligence test 
score. How accurate is a prediction of 
success or failure which would be based 
on the exclusion of students who were in 
both the lowest third of their high school 
class and the lowest fifth on the intel¬ 
ligence test? Although the number of 
the students in this study who fell into 
both of these groups was but 19, it is in¬ 
teresting to note certain facts about 
them. Of this group of 19 students, 63 
per cent were placed on probation, 53 
per cent were dropped, and 26 per cent 
were able to earn degrees. The accuracy 
of prediction for this group is almost 
exactly the same as for the entire group 
who were from the lowest third of their 
high school class. 

It is very interesting to compare the 
relative accuracy in predicting success in 
college scholarships of these two criteria 
of rank in high school class and of in¬ 
telligence test score. It so happened that 
the number of students from the lowest 
two thirds of their high school class 


(128) was almost the same as the num¬ 
ber of students from the lowest two fifths 
on the intelligence test score (125). It 
was of course also true that the number 
of students from the highest third of the 
high school class (184) was practically 
equal to the number of students in the 
highest three fifths on the intelligence 
test score (187). If we refer to these 
groups as the lower and higher groups on 
the intelligence test score and lower and 
higher groups in high school rank, we 
may compare the lower group on the 
intelligence test score directly with the 
lower group in high school rank, and the 
higher group on the intelligence test 
score directly with the higher group in 
high school rank. Of the lower group in 
high school rank, 30 per cent were 
granted degrees, 49 per cent were placed 
on probation, and 34 per cent were 
dropped; while of the lower group on the 
intelligence test score, 40 per cent were 
granted degrees, 39 per cent were placed 
on probation, and 23 per cent were 
dropped. Of the higher group in high 
school rank, 54 per cent were granted de¬ 
grees, 9 per cent were placed on proba¬ 
tion, and 4 per cent were dropped; while 
of the higher group on the intelligence 
test score, 48 per cent were granted de¬ 
grees, 17 per cent were placed on proba¬ 
tion, and 12 per cent were dropped. It is 
therefore apparent that rank in high 
school class separates more sharply those 
students who will do satisfactory work 
from those who will not do satisfactory 
work than does the intelligence test 
score. Rank in high school class as 
measured among students entering North 
Central College, is appreciably more ac¬ 
curate in predicting academic success in 
this college than is the intelligence test 
score. Tabulations were as found in 
table I. 


Psychology and Education — 19J+0 Meeting 


203 


Table I.—Validity of Rank in High School Class and of Psychological Test Scores in 

Predicting Academic Success in College 


1. Number and Percent from Each Third of the High School Class 

Number Percent 


From lowest third of H. S. Class. 44 14.1 

From middle third of H. S. Class. 84 26.9 

From highest third of H. S. Class. 184 59.0 


Total. 312 100.0 


2. Median American Council on Education Psychological Test Score 




Qi 

Q2 

Q3 

Lowest third of H. S. 

Class. 

. 102 

138 

170 

Middle third of H. S. 

Class. 

. 125 

162 

187 

Highest third of H. S. 

Class. 

. 167 

201 

225 

Median Grade Index 


Freshman 


Entire 



Year 


Course 

Lowest third of H. S. 

Class. 

..68 


.71 

Middle third of H. S. 

Class. 

. 1.10 


1.05 

Highest third of H. S. 

Class. 

. 1.81 


1.84 


4. Average Number of Semesters Spent at North Central College During Four Years After 


Admission 

By students from lowest third of H. S. Class. 4.54 

By students from middle third of H. S. Class. 4.80 

By students from highest third of H. S. Class. 6.11 


5. Number and Percent Receiving Degrees from North Central College within Four Years 
after Admission 

Number Percent 


By students from lowest third of H. S. Class. 11 25.0 

By students from middle third of H. S. Class. 28 33.3 

By students from highest third of H. S. Class..., . 100 54.3 


Total. 139 44.6 


6 . 


Students Placed on Probation for Low Scholarship 


Number on 
Probation 


Av. Number 
Percent on of times on 
Probation Probation 


From lowest third. 
From middle third. 
From highest third 


28 

63.6 

2.4 

35 

41.7 

1.0 

17 

9.2 

0.2 


7. Students Dropped for Low Scholarship 


From lowest third. 
From middle third 
From highest third 


Number 

Dropped 

22 

22 

8 


Percent 

Dropped 

50.0 

26.2 

4.3 


8. Number of Hours of Grades of Failure Received 

Number 
Receiving . 
Such Grades 


Percent 
Receiving 
Such Grades 


Average 
No. of Hrs. of 
Such Grades 


By lowest third. 33 75.0 7.4 

By middle third. 41 48.8 3.9 

By highest third. 29 15.8 0.8 


Intelligence 
Test Score 

Highest fifth . . 
Second fifth . . . 
Middle fifth . . . 
Fourth fifth . . . 
Lowest fifth . . . 

Total. 


with Standing on Intelligence Test 



High School 

Standing 


Lowest 

Middle 

Highest 


Third 

Third 

Third 

Total 

2 

10 

51 

63 

2 

8 

52 

62 

9 

21 

32 

62 

12 

19 

31 

62 

19 

26 

18 

63 

44 

84 

184 

312 


10. Median Grade Index 


Freshman 

Year 


Entire 

Course 


Lowest fifth on intelligence test.88 1.00 

Fourth fifth on intelligence test. 1.10 1.23 

Middle fifth on intelligence test. 1.34 1.3 0 

Second fifth on intelligence test. 1.85 1.91 

Highest fifth on intelligence test.... . 1.94 1.99 















































204 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


11. Average Number of Semesters Spent at North Central College During Four Years After 


Admission 

By students in lowest fifth on intelligence test. 4.73 

By students in fourth fifth on intelligence test. 5.90 

By students in middle fifth on intelligence test. 4.89 

By students in second fifth on intelligence test. 6.03 

By students in highest fifth on intelligence test. 6.13 


12. Number and Percent Receiving Degrees from North Central College Within Four Years 


After Admission 

No. °7o 

By students in lowest fifth on intelligence test. 19 30.2 

By students in fourth fifth on intelligence test. 31 50.0 

By students in middle fifth on intelligence test. 21 33.9 

By students in second fifth on intelligence test. 35 56.5 

By students in highest fifth on intelligence test. 33 52.4 


Total. 139 44.6 


13. Students Placed on Probation for Low Scholarship 


Av. No. of 


14. 


15. 


16. 





No. on 

% on 

Times on 




Probation 

Probation 

Probation 

From lowest fifth. 



28 

44.4 

1.3 

From fourth fifth. 



21 

33.9 

1.0 

From middle fifth. 


• 

19 

30.6 

.8 

From second fifth. 



4 

6.5 

.1 

From highest fifth. 



8 

12.7 

.3 

Students Dropped for Low Scholarship 









Number 

Percent 





Dropped 

Dropped 

From lowest fifth. 




17 

27.0 

From fourth fifth. 




12 

19.4 

From middle fifth. 




13 

21.0 

From second fifth. 




5 

8.1 

From highest fifth. 




5 

8.1 

Number of Hours of Grades 

of Failure 

Received 

Number 

Percent 

Av. No. 




Receiving 

Receiving 

of Hrs. of 




Such Grades Such Grades Such Grades 

By lowest fifth. 



34 

54.0 

4.8 

By fourth fifth. 



26 

41.9 

3.0 

By middle fifth. 



24 

38.7 

3.0 

By second fifth. 



8 

12.9 

.8 

By highest fifth. 



11 

17.5 

1.2 

Comparison of Accuracy of 

Rank in High School 

Class with 

Intelligence 

Test Score in 

Predicting College Success 






Lowest two fifths 

From 

lowest 



in intelligence (125) 

two thirds of H. S. Class 



(Percents) 

(128) (Percents) 


Degrees . 
Probation 
Dropped . 


Degrees . 
Probation 
Dropped . 


40 

39 

23 

Highest three fifths 
in intelligence (187) 
(Percents) 

48 

17 

12 


30 

49 

34 

From highest third 
of H. S. Class (184) 
(Percents) 

54 

9 

4 




































Papers In Zoology 


Extract From the Report of the Section Chairman 

The Zoology program carried sixteen papers, twelve of which are herewith 
published. The others were entitled: 

Comparative populations of game, fur, and other mammals, Carl 0. Mohr, 
State Natural History Survey, Urbana. (Lantern.) 

The family life of the marsh hawk, Charles K. Carpenter, Wheaton. (Lan¬ 
tern.) 

Mexican zoogeography for the touring teacher, Harry Hoogstraal, Uni¬ 
versity of Illinois, Urbana. 

The effect of starvation on the fowl cestode Raillietina Cesticillus, 
W. Malcolm Reid, Monmouth College, Monmouth. (Lantern.) 

Attendance averaged 60, and W. V. Balduf, Department of Entomology, 
University of Illinois, Urbana, was elected chairman of the 1940 meeting. 

(Signed) W. M. Luce, Chairman 


[205 



20G 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


AMBUSH BUG STUDIES. A SUMMARY 

W. Y. Balduf 

University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


Ambush bugs form a family of the 
insect order Hemiptera. They are widely 
distributed in the world. In our area of 
the United States, one species, Phymata 
pennsylvanica, is fairly common. It is 
this species that I have studied in the 
past two years in the vicinity of the Uni¬ 
versity of Illinois. It is about 2/5 inch 
long as an adult, and its color is a rather 
neutral combination of yellow, brown and 
green, with a band of black across the 
middle of the abdomen. Like most of its 
fellow bugs, it has two pairs of wings, 
flies readily when stimulated by hunger 
and heat, and possesses a proboscis con¬ 
taining thread-like piercing and sucking 
instruments. Perhaps its most remark¬ 
able anatomical features are the front 
legs, of which the femur is unusually 
short and powerful, whereas the tibia is 
slender and curved sickle-shaped, and 
folds along the rounded edge of the 
femur. From the structure of these legs, 
you would at once guess correctly that 
the ambush bug lives at the expense of 
other insects which it catches by means 
of these very efficient and wonderfully 
adapted raptorial mechanisms. 

The name “ambush” bugs suggests that 
these insects lie in hiding in order to 
take their victims unawares. Indeed, it 
has been suggested in the earlier litera¬ 
ture, that they are an exceptionally good 
instance of protective coloration, and that 
such coloration is utilized as an adjunct 
in the business of securing a livelihood. 
While it is true that these bugs mostly 
frequent flowers of the same color as 
themselves, they not infrequently also 
await prey in flowers whose colors are 
purple, greyish green and other hues, in 
which the bug is not particularly incon¬ 
spicuous and is not therefore well con¬ 
cealed. My field observations have con¬ 
vinced me time and again that the 
flowers chosen by this bug for ambush 
are not selected according to their con¬ 
cealing color, but by a process of trial 
and error, and the flower, regardless of 
its color, form or size, which attracts the 
necessary number of prey insects, is the 


flower which the bug inhabits. Flowers 
that yield a quantity of nectar sufficient 
to attract bees, flies, moths and butter¬ 
flies, and a rich supply of pollen or tender 
tasty petals that delight the palate of 
beetles and bees, such flowers constitute 
the principal abiding places of this clever 
hunter. 

The technique of this hunter is of the 
watchful waiting type. While many 
predators aggressively pursue their prey 
on foot, the ambush bug sits quietly at 
the edge of the disk of a composite flower 
with the head end elevated and the 
grasping front legs ever ready to flick out 
should a fly, beetle, bee, butterfly or other 
bug come within reach. Or, particularly 
when the air temperature goes up above 
90°F., they cling to the under side of the 
rays of the flowers and poke their heads 
and front legs up between rays in an at¬ 
titude of alert watching. They com¬ 
monly sit nestled down among the rich 
yellow of fresh goldenrod flower clusters, 
or back down caudal end first into the 
hairy disk of thistle flowers. 

In such situations they sit in waiting. 
The only change in posture made usually 
is an orientation movement which keeps 
the grasping mechanism aimed in the 
direction of the prey as it moves over the 
flower. Should it come within the reach 
of the extended front legs, the insect 
visitor to the flower in search of pollen or 
nectar may be caught in the vice-like 
grip of the tibia and tarsus. The un¬ 
suspecting visiting insect may be seized 
by one of several parts, such as an 
antenna engaged in tapping the flower to 
locate food, or a leg, or the extended 
siphon of a butterfly or moth, the 
proboscis of a bee or the labium of a fly 
in search of nectar. Though often several 
times larger than their captor, the captive 
rarely frees itself from this grip, despite 
the almost universal practice of utilizing 
only one front leg in making the catch. 
In this way, it catches and holds victims 
as large as sulphur butterflies, cutworm 
moths, and, under conditions of cool air 


Zoology—1940 Meeting 


207 


in autumn, even large slender-waisted 
wasps and bumblebees. 

As soon as caught, the captive insect is 
brought within reach of the proboscis. 
The stylets, or thread-like piercing 
mandibles and maxillae explore the vic¬ 
tim’s body surface and penetrate the 
skeleton at the junctures of the body 
regions, the segments of the abdomen, 
the joints of the legs and even at the 
mouth. Obviously the next act in the 
feeding process is to inject a secretion. 
This fluid inflates the body of smaller 
prey insects to its maximum extent, and 
also serves to kill the captive within a 
fraction of a minute to several minutes, 
the time required to render it lifeless and 
relaxed depending on the size of the 
insect caught. It is obvious also that the 
fluid injected acts to reduce the tissues of 
the internal organs, and particularly the 
muscles, to fluid form, for the discarded 
body of the insect victim is more or less 
translucent as compared with its opacity 
before capture. This is equivalent to say¬ 
ing that the prey tissues are digested 
before the ambush bug sucks them out. 
The predigested liquefied or comminuted 
tissues, along with the victim’s blood are 
then sucked out. Discarded prey speci¬ 
mens, particularly the smaller ones, have 
the abdomen more or less telescoped into 
the thorax. The males feed only about 
one-fifth as frequently as the somewhat 
larger females. 

In nature, this species succeeds in cap¬ 
turing and feeding on a large range of 
other insects, yet obviously can not over¬ 
come such larger beetles as the Pennsyl¬ 
vania soldier beetles and blister beetles, 
or certain large bee flies. But from sul¬ 
fur butterflies, noctuid moths, drone flies 
and honey bees down to gnats, there are 
not many winged, flower-visiting insects 
that are not subject to seizure. To date, 
I have taken from the grasp of adult 
ambush bugs along the roadsides of Illi¬ 
nois 544 specimens of insects. These 
represent 185 species belonging mostly to 
the order Diptera, Hymenoptera and 
Lepidoptera, and to a lesser extent to the 
Coleoptera and Hemiptera. Of the 544 
insects so obtained, 119 are moths, skip¬ 
pers and butterflies, and 245 are Diptera. 

Another feature of outstanding interest 
is the life history of this ambush bug. 
The male is strongly attracted by the 
female. Accordingly, he may be seen 
most frequently perched upon the back of 


his mate, in a more or less passive way. 
While his burdened mate engages in 
lurking for prey or in feeding, he does 
little more than sit. This coupled rela¬ 
tion is modified frequently to a side-to- 
side position of the two individuals, 
which is the true mating posture. In 
this, the bodies of the two members of 
the pair form a V-shaped design. The 
mating process is often quite prolonged. 
It is of interest that this activity is 
almost entirely restricted to the after¬ 
noon, whereas the coupled relation of the 
pair may be observed in any part of the 
warmer days. 

Each of the two ovaries consists of 3 
tubes, and the mature eggs accumulate in 
them until as many as 21 may be present 
simultaneously in a single female. These 
are then deposited in masses, each 
formed of a single layer, the eggs stand¬ 
ing on end in an inclined position. The 
entire cluster is more or less covered 
with a flocculent matrix that is at first 
golden but soon turns brown. A series 
of eleven females kept isolated with 
males as long as they lived, deposited 
eggs ranging in number per female from 
133 to 350, or an average of 235 per 
female. These females began laying eggs 
from 12 to 21 days after they reached 
adulthood. No one has yet succeeded in 
observing the act of oviposition in the 
field, but it is probable the masses are 
attached to leaves or stems of plants. I 
have, however, succeeded in carrying 
fertile eggs through the winter in both 
1938-1939 and 1939-1940. This result, 
coupled with the frequently observed fact 
that the adults die off in September and 
October, shows the eggs form the over¬ 
wintering stage of this bug. Eggs laid in 
captivity from June to October invariably 
developed to a certain advanced embry¬ 
onic state immediately, but failed to go 
beyond that level until the next spring. 
Preliminary tests show that eggs sub¬ 
jected to natural winter temperatures 
from October to February and March, 
hatched in a week or 10 days after being 
placed in a warm room and kept in an 
atmosphere of high humidity. A con¬ 
clusive explanation of this remarkable 
diapause of 8 or 9 months in the egg has 
not yet been found. 

In nature, the eggs probably hatch dur¬ 
ing May. This is indicated by the occur¬ 
rence of nymphs in the third to fifth 
instars during June and July. In hatch- 


208 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


ing, the nymph pushes a circular flat lid 
off the end of the egg, and sheds its 
embryonic skin either before it has en¬ 
tirely issued from the egg shell, or at 
once thereafter. The nymphal life em¬ 
braces five instars. Twenty nymphs were 
reared in 1939. These required an aver¬ 
age of 42.75 days to complete their de¬ 
velopment from hatching, through the 
five instars, to the adult form. The in¬ 
stars, from first to fifth, averaged 9.7, 
8.2, 5.7, 7.25 and 12.0 days. Of the 
twenty nymphs, 15 became males and 5 
females, and the average developmental 
period of the males was 3.54 days shorter 
than that required by the females. 

Numerous field records of adults re¬ 
vealed the interesting fact that sexes 
underwent a significant seasonal shift in 
ratio of numbers. The daily total of 
males regularly exceeded the daily total 
number of females from July 8 to Sep¬ 
tember 12, 1939. The ratio of male to 
female then vacillated on September 13 
and 14, when after the proportion changed 
consistently in favor of the females over 
the males. From September 15 to Oc¬ 


tober 20, the preponderance of females 
increased. This increase was somewhat 
gradual, and in this respect resembled the 
decrease in superiority of the males ob¬ 
served from July 8 to September 12. 
These changes in sex ratio signify that, 
on the whole, the males reach adulthood 
somewhat earlier in the season than the 
females, and that the males also die off 
somewhat before the females. This fact 
is in part traceable to the shorter time 
required for the development of male 
nymphs. For the season of adults as a 
whole, I recorded 1324 males and 1287 
females,—an insignificant difference of 
only 37 in favor of the males. 

This common ambush bug therefore 
completes a single generation in a year. 
The egg stage begins about mid-July and 
carries through the winter to May of the 
next year. The nymphs hatch in May, 
and all reach the adult form by mid- 
July. The adults occur from early July 
to October, when the cold frosty nights 
finish off a life of wholesale destruction 
of other insects at the hands of as clever 
a hunter as the animal kingdom knows. 


THE HOST OF ANOTHER ILLINOIS SPECIES 
OF BRACHYMERIA (HYMENOPTERA) 

B. D. Burks 

Illinois natural History Survey, Urbana, Illinois 


In the Transactions of this Academy 
for 1936 (vol. 29, pp. 251-254), I presented 
a synopsis of the five species of chalcidoid 
parasites belonging to the genus Brachy¬ 
meria that occur in Illinois. At that 
time the hosts of four of the five species 
were known. This past Summer, the host 
of the remaining species, Brachymeria 
tegularis (Cresson), was determined by 
rearing work carried on in the Natural 
History Survey. 

A number of parasitized specimens of 
the common grasshopper, Melanoplus 
differentialis (Thomas) were collected in 
Wayne and Greene counties. From these 
were reared a number of flies of the 
genus Sarcophaga as well as the tachinid 
Acemyia dentata Coquillett. A single 
puparium of the latter species, however, 
yielded a hyperparasite. This proved to 
be Brachymeria tegularis (Cresson). 

As was noted in my previous paper, 
B. coloradensis (Cresson) is also a sec¬ 


ondary parasite of grasshoppers, so that 
the biologic relationships of coloradensis 
and tegularis are, apparently, quite sim¬ 
ilar. However, the rather meager field 
and rearing data available at present 
concerning these two species indicate that 
they have slightly different habits. B. 
coloradensis has been collected in this 
State only in very dry areas where the 
ammophilous grasshoppers, such as 
Melanoplus angustipennis and M. flavidus, 
Ageneotettix deorum, Scliistocerca alu- 
tacea, Mermiri'a neomexicana occur. It 
may safely be inferred that B. coloraden¬ 
sis is a secondary parasite of some of 
the grasshoppers of that group in Illinois. 
The Illinois locality records for B. tegu¬ 
laris and its known host-relationships in¬ 
dicate that it, however, is associated with 
our ordinary grassland and field-crop 
grasshoppers. 

Both B. coloradensis and tegularis are 
quite rare in this State, but are fairly 
common in the states farther west. 



Zoology—WfiO Meeting 

PARATONSILLAR MYIASIS 


209 


Eugene R. Dougherty 

Springfield Junior College, Springfield, Illinois 


Myiasis is a disease caused by maggot 
infestation and may appear in many 
forms. The invasion by the maggots may 
be either in the form of primary or sec¬ 
ondary invaders and the extent of the 
damage done would depend upon the 
nature of the attack. The most common 
form of myiasis is the cutaneous or 
dermal myiasis which may be the result 
ef a traumatic injury. There are, how¬ 
ever, many forms of myiasis which attack 
the body cavities and which will include 
vaginal, gastric, intestinal, aural, nasal, 
or nasal pharyngal. In rare instances one 
comes across a case of paratonsillar 
myiasis, which is the topic of this 
article. 

In looking over the literature on the 
field, one is astonished by the number of 
cases reported, by the different types of 
myiasis discovered and by the many dif¬ 
ferent causative agents encountered. 
After combing as carefully as possible 
the literature in this field, the author of 
this article was able to discover only two 
reported cases of paratonsillar myiasis. 
It is perhaps this rarity that justified the 
reporting a case of what would otherwise 
be just another case study on myiasis. 

The writer of this article was con¬ 
nected with this case in the role of a 
biologist whose aid was solicited in the 
identification of a maggot which had been 
discovered in the abscessed region of the 
paratonsillar area by Dr. Robert Magill 
of Springfield, Illinois. Dr. Magill later 
called in Dr. Pearson, also of Springfield, 
as consultant in this most unusual case. 
The case history is as follows: The 
patient was a male farmer, aged sixty- 
three, weighing about one hundred and 
fifty pounds. He had a history of good 
health, and in all respects was physically 
sound, with the exception of dental cavi¬ 
ties, which later on necessitated the 
removal of fifteen teeth. 

The patient was first seen when he was 
treated at the office for what was appar¬ 
ently a slight sore throat, accompanied 
by pain in the left side of the face, and 
extending up to and around the ear. 
After the patient had returned to his 
home, the symptoms were intensified. 
Late that night the physician was called 


to his home and opiates were given to 
alleviate the intense suffering. The fol¬ 
lowing morning the patient was removed 
to the hospital, and his throat was 
lanced in the paratonsillar region. In¬ 
stead of the pussy exudate which the 
physician expected, a maggot crawled out 
of the swollen area. Further exploration 
was made, but no more maggots were 
discovered at that time. Since this 
malady was so unusual, the physician in 
charge called in several other medical 
men to observe the case, and the maggot 
was sent to the biology laboratory for 
identification. 

Before any definite conclusion as to the 
identity of the maggot could be made, 
more maggots were discovered by the 
physician. The physician had followed 
the suggestion of the author of this 
article, which was based upon the treat¬ 
ment recommended by Chandler for the 
removal of nasal maggots. This treat¬ 
ment was simply the milk chloroform 
douche, and resulted in the removal of 
maggots in groups of three, three, four, 
seven, until about twenty were removed. 
With their removal the pain decreased, 
the mental apprehensiveness of the 
patient naturally subsided, and complete 
recovery was rapid. The patient was 
finally discharged from the hospital six 
days after entering it. He is now in good 
health, pain has not returned, and no 
more maggots were ever discovered. 

The only clue to the localization of this 
infestation lies in the fact that the patient 
was a mouth breather, and not infre¬ 
quently slept in the vicinity of the barn 
at the noon hour. It is believed that the 
odor which was the result of his poor 
teeth attracted the flies and made it pos¬ 
sible for the implantation of the eggs. 
As Chandler says: “Possibly halitosis, 
however so much exploited in recent 
years, is as much an attraction to the 
fly as it is a repellant to romance.” 

Identification of these maggots was 
made difficult by the treatment given in 
their removal, as they were barely alive 
by the time they arrived at the biology 
laboratory. After hand lens examination, 
and after reading over the literature on 
the field, it was finally decided that this 


210 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


particular maggot was either the 
Cochliomyia americana or the Cochlio¬ 
myia macellaria. Cushing and Patton in 
1935 differentiated between these two and 
defined the Cochliomyia macellaria as 
saprozoic, and the Cochliomyia americana 
as parasitic. At this time Dr. Chandler 
of the Rice Institute was contacted, and 
after the description was given to him he 
had the following observation to make: 
“I think it very likely that your maggots 
belong to the species Cochliomyia ameri¬ 
cana, since a very high percentage of 
primary myiasis of skin or mucous mem¬ 
branes is caused by this species. 
Cochliomyia macellaria and various 
species of Lucillia, Phormia, etc., are 
nearly always secondary invaders. The 
distinction between Cochliomyia ameri¬ 
cana and Cochliomyia macellaria lies 
mainly in the large spiracles and par¬ 
ticularly in the heavily chitinized main 
tracheae tubes of americana as compared 
with those of macellaria.” It is because 
of this differentiation that the final iden¬ 
tification of the Cochliomyia americana 
was felt to be justified. 

Chandler has the following description 
concerning these flies: “The adult fly is a 
handsome insect, nearly twice as large 
as a house fly, of a dark metallic, blue 
green color with whitish dusting, three 
stripes on the thorax, and a rather con¬ 
spicuous orange coloring on the face. It 
belongs to the Calliphorine division of 
the Mascidae, which includes the common 
blow-flies or blue bottle flies, as well as 
Aucheromyia. 

“The larvae are whitish with bands of 
minute spines which give them a screw¬ 
like appearance; they can be distinguished 
from the larvae of Cochliomyia macellaria 
by the much larger spiracles and large 
heavily chitinized main tracheal tubes, as 
well as by other less conspicuous charac¬ 
teristics. Eating away at flesh and even 
bone, they grow to a length of 12 to 15 
millimeters when mature; they then 
spontaneously leave the animals in which 
they have developed, bury themselves in 
loose earth or sand, and pupate. 
Cochliomyia macellaria may complete its 
whole life cycle in nine or ten days, but 
Cochliomyia americana is slower; accord¬ 
ing to investigations of the U. S. Bureau 
of Entomology, the whole life cycle re¬ 
quires from eighteen to twenty-two days 
in summer weather. 


The damage done by maggots may be 
very extensive, and is not infrequently 
fatal. Reports of 179 cases treated in 
public hospitals in certain British 
Colonies over a period of five years, com¬ 
piled by Aubertin and Buxton, show that 
15, or 8 per cent, died. There is usually 
an abundant discharge of pus, blood, and 
scraps of tissue, accompanied by intense 
pain, and often delirium. Not all the 
injury is due to the activities of the 
larvae; part is due to toxic products of 
secondary bacterial invasion. Often 
nervous disturbances such as convulsions, 
visual disturbances, and loss of speech 
are complained of.” 

The relative infrequency of this type of 
disease is no doubt due to the improved 
sanitary condition of the country. One 
wonders how many undiagnosed cases 
terminated fatally in the days when sani¬ 
tation, such as we have it now, was not 
so common. This relative infrequency 
can also be accounted for by the fact 
that in a meat bait trap, less than five 
tenths per cent of the flies caught showed 
presence of the Cochliomyia americana. 
It is such infrequency, however, that 
causes the Cochliomyia americana to be 
of interest to the Parasitologist. 


Bibliography on Myiasis 

Periodicals: 

Bishopp, P. C. “Screw Worms and Other 
Maggots Affecting Animals.” U. S. De¬ 
partment of Agriculture, Farmers’ Bulle¬ 
tin 857. U. S. Government Printing Office, 
1917. 

Borgstrom, F. A. “Myiasis.” The American 
Journal of Tropical Medicine. 18 :395-411. 
July, 1938. 

Maratel, G. “Relationship of Mosquitoes, 
Flies, Ticks, Fleas and other Arthropods to 
Pathology.” In Smithsonian Institution 
Annual Report, 1909. pp. 703-722. 

Miller, A. H. Archives of Otolaryngology. 
25 :501-503. U. S. Government Printing 
Office. October, 1936. 

Wallace, W. R. “Nasal Screw Worm In¬ 
festation” (with case report). Journal of 
the South Carolina Medical Association. 
32:213-215. September, 1936. 

Books: 

Chandler, A. C. Introduction to Human 
Parasitology. Wiley, 1936. 

Craig, C. F., and Faust, E. C. Clinical 
Parasitology. Lea and Febinger, 1937. 

Fox, Carroll. Insects and Diseases of Man. 
Blakiston, 1925. 

Graham-Smith, G. S. Flies in Relation to 
Disease. Macmillan, 1914. 

Hegner, R. W., and Cort, W. W., and Root, 
F. M. Outlines of Medical Zoology. Mac¬ 
millan, 1923. 

Herms, W. F. Medical Entomology. Mac¬ 
millan, 1939. 

Patton, W. S., and Cragg, F. W. Textbook 
of Medical Entomology. Christian Litera¬ 
ture Society for India, 1913. 


Zoology—WJ+O Meeting 


211 


A CASE OF EXTREME CURVATURE OF REGENERATING 

FIN RAYS* 

Donald F. Hansen 

Illinois Natural History Survey, TJrbana, Illinois 


Since the year 1890, there have been 
published in this country and abroad, in 
the neighborhood of twenty papers which 
have dealt with the subject of regenera¬ 
tion in the fins of fishes. Anyone wish¬ 
ing to look up these works may consult 
Birnie (1934) and Nabrit (1929, 1938) 
for references. 

In studies by the writer, not yet pub¬ 
lished, on rate and completeness of re¬ 
generation of fins of sunfishes, one-half 
to three-fifths of the caudal fin was re¬ 
moved from between 75 and 100 speci¬ 
mens, and the regenerated tails were 
subsequently examined. While in two or 
three cases the regenerated tails differed 
slightly in shape from normal tails, the 
regenerated tail in one fish was decidedly 
different from all the rest. 

The kinds of sunfishes used in these 
particular experiments included the blue- 
gill (Helioperca macrochira), the green 
sunfish (Apomotis cyanellus), and some 
hybrids of which these two species were 
the parental types. The operation of 
shortening the tail was conducted by the 
following method. The specimen was 
etherized, then placed on a block of hard 
paraffin, and, with the tail spread natur¬ 
ally, a razor blade was used to make the 
cut. While tail fins from which about 
half the tissue was removed were eventu¬ 
ally restored to almost their original 
proportions, there were certain details of 
pigmentation of the fin and structure of 
the rays which were found to be char¬ 
acteristic of regenerated fins. 

These structural peculiarities may be 
enumerated as follows: 

1. In species in which the tail fin 
contains much dark pigment, as in the 
bluegill and green sunfish, the regen¬ 
erated portion of the fin allows more 
light to pass through it than the 
original basal portion, (Figs. 1 and 2), 
although, by reflected light, this differ¬ 
ence in pigmentation is not so 
apparent. 


2. Both in blue gills and in green 
sunfish, cutting off part of the fin 
causes the dark pigment to disappear 
from the cut ends of the rays in the 
tail stump. In the case of a fish that 
has just been operated on, this disap¬ 
pearance of pigment causes the cut 
edge to be light in color. Since the 
pigment may not be replaced for at 
least a year, the cut ends of the rays 
may show up conspicuously as a row of 
light dots just forward from the line of 
cut. These dots may be seen in 
Figures 1 and 2. 

3. The regenerated rays may, in fact 
often do, bend slightly up or down from 
the point at which they join the old 
part of the fin, and may re-bend again, 
to produce a weak S-shaped fin ray. 

4. Immediately posterior to the line 
of cut, the regenerated rays are some¬ 
times noticeably thicker or thinner 
than the rays that were cut off. 

5. The point of cut on the ray which 
later becomes the point of union be¬ 
tween old and new ray material is 
usually not obliterated. There is, 
however, much more likelihood that 
this line will be obliterated in young 
than in old specimens. It may be 
noted that in the guppy, the point at 
which the rays were cut was difficult 
to find in certain individuals less than 
a month after the operations. 

Figure 1 is typical of the appearance of 
a regenerated caudal fin from which 
about 50 per cent has been removed by a 
straight cut across the rays. The portion 
of the tail which photographed light is 
the regenerated tissue. It should be 
pointed out that the light source was 
behind the fin in making the photographs. 

The case in which the regenerated tail 
was decidedly different from normally 
regenerated tails is shown in Figure 2. 
The two individuals represented in these 
figures were of the same experimental 
group. Both photographs were made 


* Contribution from the zoology laboratory of the University of Illinois No. 546. 















212 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 



from the live animals, thirteen months 
after the operations. 

The animal represented in Figure 1 
had a standard length of 111 mm., while 
the one in Figure 2 had a length of 130 
mm. 


Fig. 1. Normal tail fin regeneration in a 
bluegill. Animal 126g. Standard length, 
111 mm.; original tail length, 28 mm.; length 
of piece removed, 13 mm. Regenerated part 
distinctly lighter than stump. Photographed 
by transmitted light on the live animal 13 
months after the operation. Dark streaks 
in the region of the notch were probably 
caused by folds in the webbing of the fin, 
and not by a difference in pigmentation. 
Date of operation—March 10, 1937. 

Fig. 2. Abnormal fin regeneration in a 
bluegill. Animal 126j. Standard length, 130 
mm.; original length of tail, 32 mm.; length 
of piece removed, 17 mm. Photographed by 
transmitted light on the live animal 13 
months after the operation. Date of opera¬ 
tion—March 10, 1937. 

The development of the tail in Figure 
2 may best be discussed from the stand¬ 
point of the growth of the rays. It will 
be noticed that all of the rays except one, 
at the upper margin, and another ray in 
the middle of the tail, show marked bend¬ 
ing, upward or downward, in the regen¬ 
erated portion. In the upper lobe of the 
fin, three rays make almost full 180 


degree turns, and in the lower lobe, sev¬ 
eral rays are strongly S-shaped. The 180 
degree bend in the upper lobe was not 
found in any other case among all the 
animals worked on. However, the strong 
S-shape bends in the rays of the lower 
lobe of Figure 2 were observed in one or 
two other experimental animals. Rather 
weak S-shape bends in the regenerated 
rays have been mentioned as of common 
occurrence. The sharp downward bend 
of the outer unbranched ray in the lower 
lobe has been observed in one fish caught 
recently from natural waters. This was a 
yellow perch which was taken at Chau¬ 
tauqua Lake, Havana, Illinois, in April, 
1940. 

Aside from the pronounced bending of 
the rays in the fin shown in figure 2, this 
individual showed the typical structural 
characteristics of regenerated fins listed 
above. No clue as to the cause of the 
bending of the rays has so far been 
found. 

Acknowledgment . The writer is in¬ 
debted to Dr. Wilbur M. Luce and to the 
late Professor Charles Zeleny, under 
whom this work was done, for help in 
the course of the work. The writer is 
also indebted to George Svihla for mak¬ 
ing the photographs. 


Bibliography 

Birnie, James H. 1934. Regeneration of the 
tail fins of Fundulus embryos. Biol. Bull. 
66: 316-325. 

Hansen, Donald F. 1938. Studies on regen¬ 
eration in the fins of fishes. Ph. D. thesis, 
University of Illinois. 

Nabrit, S. Milton. 1929. The role of the 
fin rays in the regeneration of the tail- 
fins of fishes. Biol. Bull. 56 : 235-266. 

- 1938. Regeneration in the tail fins 

of embryo fishes. Jour. Exp. Zool. 79: 
299-308. 




Zoology—1940 Meeting 


213 




INSECTS TAKEN BY THE SOUTHERN PITCHER PLANT* 

Clarence J. Goodnight 
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois f 


The Southern Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia 
flava L.) occurs in bogs from Virginia 
south and west to Louisiana. It has 
elongated, trumpet-shaped leaves from 
one to three feet high. The leaves stand 
nearly erect and are very conspicuous. 
Often the pitcher plant is very abundant 
and in some southern bogs may be the 
principal herb vegetation. 

During the later part of August, 1939, 
a pine bog near Adel, Georgia was 
studied. In this community the pre¬ 
dominant species of herb vegetation was 
the pitcher plant. Sphagnum moss was 
also plentiful and saw palmettoes oc- 
cured. On account of the large size of 
the leaves and their abundance the writer 
felt that the pitcher plants must be an 
important factor in the ecology of the 
bog. Accordingly a large number of 
leaves were examined for the insects 
which had been captured by this interest¬ 
ing plant. 

Of the leaves examined all contained a 
large number of insects. Some times as 
many as twenty or more individual in¬ 
sects could be recognized in one leaf. Of 
the large number of insects examined, 
over 80 per cent were Noctuid moths. 
The remainder were mainly beetles 
mostly of the families Lampyridae and 
Chrysomelidae. A few small Diptera and 
Hymenoptera rather badly decomposed 
were also found. 

The large number of Noctuid moths 
can undoubtedly be explained by the 
presence of a saccharine secretion which 
attracts them. Concerning this secretion 
James (1883:285) says: “But a still 
greater difference is found in the fact 
that there is a saccharine secretion found 
on the inner side of the hood, just above 
the punction of the lid with the rim. 
But there is something in regard to this 


secretion which is quite interesting. It 
has been stated by some observers, and 
it is thought with truth, that the secre¬ 
tion possesses intoxicating or stupefying 
qualities. As the insect feeds upon the 
matter it becomes dizzy, loses its hold on 
the surface of the hood, and falls to the 
bottom of the tube. Dr. Gray says in 
regard to this secretion at the orifice of 
the pitcher that ‘This makes its appear¬ 
ance at first in the form of minute drops, 
distinctly visible only under a lens; at 
length it forms flattened drops and even 
patches, distinctly sweetish to the taste 
and viscid to the touch’. Mr. Brady, who 
observed the plants in North Carolina, 
says in regard to some pitchers of this 
species, ‘These, brought into the house, 
and kept fresh by the immersion of the 
base in water, showed the saccharine 
secretion most abundantly about a quar¬ 
ter of an inch above the junction of the 
lid with the rim. . . . Many flies set¬ 

tled on the lids, and feasted on the sac¬ 
charine narcotic. Evident signs of in¬ 
toxication were manifested in each case, 
by their breaking loose repeatedly before 
tumbling into the gulfs’.” 1 

The insects in the leaves were all in 
fair condition in contrast to the state of 
insects found in the Northern Pitcher 
Plant (Sarracenia purpurea L.). This 
was no doubt due to the fact that insects 
do not die by drowning in the southern 
species. James (1883:286) mentions that 
“While all the lower and gradually at¬ 
tenuated part of the tube is filled with 
dead flies in our plants growing in the 
house, there is only a little moisture at 
the very bottom.” The writer observed 
that even though considerable rain had 
fallen before the observations were made 
the tubes of the leaves did not contain 
much water. 


* Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of the University of Illinois, No. 565. 
t Present address: Biology Department, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1 James, Joseph F. 1883. Pitcher Plants. Amer. Nat. 17:283-293. 


, 


—7 















214 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


ILLINOIS DISTRIBUTION RECORDS OF THE BLACK 

WIDOW SPIDER 


Kenneth L. Knight 
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


During the last decade, a biological sub¬ 
ject that never failed to arouse great 
interest was that of the black widow 
spider ( Latrodectus mactans Fabr.). Pop¬ 
ular attention is easily centered upon any 
bit of biology that combines the unusual 
with the dangerous. Naturally then, when 
the black widow spider became noticeably 
abundant in 1934-35, it quickly became 
good newspaper copy. Chamberlin and 
Ivie (1935) have attributed this increase 
in numbers to the mild winter of 1933-34 
with its accompanying drouth. 

This sudden popular interest caused 
scientific observers to publish their records 
of the black widow spider, and in the 
space of a very short time it was apparent 



that it occurred in every state in the 
Union, as well as in Canada and the 
District of Columbia. 

It is of some interest to note the 
rapidity with which observations extended 
the range of the black widow spider. The 
speed with which these observations came 
in was accelerated by Lowrie, who stated 
in Science in 1936 that there were still 
no records from Virginia, Minnesota, 
Iowa, Delaware, New Jersey, Connecticut, 
Rhode Island, and Vermont. Within a 
year of this statement, there were reports 
from each of these states. In some cases 
unpublished records were already in ex¬ 
istence, but in other cases, such as Iowa 
and Minnesota, the black widow spider 
was truly found present for the first time. 
Minnesota was the last state to report its 
presence. 

It was possible to trace this wave of 
interest in the black widow spider and to 
determine in some measure the time at 
which it reached its crest, by checking, 
in the Insect Pest Survey Bulletin, the re¬ 
ports from the entomologists of the vari¬ 
ous states. From 1921 to 1926 there were 
no reports. The first notice came from 
Arkansas in 1927. The number of reports 
climbed gradually thereafter until 45 per 
cent of the total number were made in 
the bulletins for 1935. Since 1935 there 
has been a marked decrease in the num¬ 
ber of black widow spider reports, there 
being only two for 1939. The total num¬ 
ber of 111 reports represents 33 states, the 
District of Columbia, and one Canadian 
province (British Columbia). 

To come to the place of Illinois in this 
picture, we find a scarcity of reports, 
although the black widow spider is a 
common and often-noticed Arthropod in 
the southern areas of the state. At the 
present time there are in my hands 
twenty-nine reports for Illinois, represent¬ 
ing 23 distinct localities of the state. 
Eleven of these 23 have previously been 
published. These records are being 
brought together here in an endeavor to 
point out the apparent absence of the 
spider from a large area in the central 





















































































































Zoology — 19J±0 Meeting 


215 


and north-central part of the state (see 
map). It is felt that the black widow 
spider probably occurs in this area, but 
that as yet there has not been sufficient 
collecting to reveal it. 

For the following records I am indebted 
to the kindness of Professor W. P. Flint 
and Dr. H. H. Ross of the Illinois State 
Natural History Survey, and to Dr. C. L. 
Metcalf and Dr. C. J. Goodnight of the 
University of Illinois. The unpublished 
records are from Pinckneyville (Perry), 
Oblong (Crawford), Vienna (Johnson), 
Valmeyer (Monroe), Marion (William¬ 
son), Cisne (Wayne), Greenup (Cumber¬ 
land), Charleston (Coles), Hanover (Jo 
Daviess), Clay City (Clay), East St. 
Louis (St. Clair), and Gillespie (Macou¬ 
pin). Previously, Townsend (1936) had 


reported the black widow spider from 
Thebes (Alexander), Carbondale (Jack- 
son), Flora (Clay), Belleville (St. Clair), 
Jerseyville (Jersey), Irvington (Washing¬ 
ton), and Barry (Pike). Lowrie (1936) 
reported records from Palos Park (Cook) 
and Momence (Kankakee). Spicer (1935) 
gave records from Pittsfield (Pike) and 
Springfield (Sangamon). 

Literature Cited 

Chamberlin, R. V., and W. Ivie. The black 
widow spider and its varieties in the 
United States. University of Utah Bull. 
25(8): 1-28. Biological Series 3 (1). 1935. 

Lowrie, D. C. New localities for the black 
widow spider. Science 84 (2185) :437. 1936. 
Spicer, W. J. Black widow spider. Insect 
Pest Survey Bulletin 15(9) :419. 1935. 

Townsend, L. H. The black widow spider. 
Science 84(2183) :392-93. 1936. 


THE EFFECTS OF NICOTINE AND CIGARETTE SMOKE ON 
PREGNANT FEMALE ALBINO RATS AND 
THEIR OFFSPRINGS 

J. M. Essenberg, Justin V. Schwind and Anne R. Patras 
Loyola University School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 


Both tobacco smoke and dilute solu¬ 
tions of nicotine were used in these ex¬ 
periments. The dosage of the nicotine 
content in smoke was figured to approxi¬ 
mate human smoking of a package of 
cigarettes per day. Treatment began at 
the time of mating and ended at the time 
of weaning in all the experiments except 
one. This one was designed to check the 
latent effect of tobacco smoke on the 
mothers. It was desired to treat the 
females prior to the development of the 
mammary gland for lactation. If, in so 
doing, anomolous development of the 
young could be demonstrated, the injury 
must reside in organs other than the 
mammary gland. Litter mates of young 
sexually mature females were used in the 
various experiments and controls. The 
results are as follows: 

1. Two-thirds of all the young of 
treated mothers were underweight; 
the young from nicotine-injected 
mothers were more underweight 
than those from smoked mothers. 

2. The underweight group remained 
underweight during the entire 
period of observation; many of the 
young of this group were undersized 
and died early. 


3. Of the females injected, 63.3 per 
cent lost one or more young before 
weaning, and 33.3 per cent lost all 
of their young. 

4. Of the mothers exposed to tobacco 
smoke, 28 per cent lost one or more 
of the young before weaning, and 
13.5 per cent lost all of their young. 

5. Of the mothers smoked prior to 
mating, 23.3 per cent lost one or 
more of their young before wean¬ 
ing, and 25 per cent were under¬ 
weight. 

6. In both groups of the treated moth¬ 
ers, temporary sterility, resorption 
of young in utero, and abortions 
were noted. 

7. Alteration of maternal behavior 
was observed and consisted of can¬ 
nibalism and neglect of the young 
as to care and feeding. 

8. A marked parallelism exists be¬ 
tween the treated rat females and 
their young and human mothers 
and their young in cases where the 
mother is a heavy smoker or is em¬ 
ployed in the tobacco industry. 

9. Individual variation is much in evi¬ 
dence. 









216 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


AN ANNOTATED LIST OF THE SPIDERS OF AN EAST 
CENTRAL ILLINOIS FOREST (WM. TRELEASE 
WOODS, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS)* 


Sarah E. Jones 


University of Illinois , TJrbana, Illinois f 


Though the fauna and flora of Illinois 
have been the subject of many investiga¬ 
tions, there have been but few reports 
upon the spiders of this State. Several 
workers have given accounts of spiders 
in or near Illinois, but the writer has 
found no record of a complete study of 
any part of the state. 

William Trelease Woods (formerly 
University Woods), University of Illinois, 
occupies a 56-acre tract of land located 
six miles northeast of Urbana. Since the 
University purchased the land in 1918 it 
has not been disturbed. This is an elm- 
maple forest, being in part a climax 
community for the region. American 
elm, sugar maple, ash, basswood, and 
blue beech are the predominant trees. 
The most abundant shrubs are papaw and 
spice bush. 

Prom August, 1936, to September, 1938, 
quantitative collections were made. For 
the first four inches of soil a tenth-meter 
iron ring was used. For the herb and 
shrub layers 50 sweeps of an insect net 
30 centimeters in diameter were used as 
representing one square meter. 

Acknowledgements are due to Dr. V. E. 
Shelford of the University of Illinois, who 
directed this work; Miss Elizabeth B. 
Bryant, who aided in the identification of 
the specimens; and Bertrand A. Wright, 
who helped in the preparation of the 
manuscript. To all these the writer is 
indebted. 

In the two years of work 88 species of 
spiders were found. These are listed 
below, those of ecological significance 
being placed before the others. 


Abundant Spiders 


Dictyna foliacea (Hentz) (Dictynidae) 

This small, abundant spider spends the 
summer among herbs and, less, among 
shrubs. Eggs are laid in June or early July, 
and young spiders appear in late July or 
August; these hibernate in the soil and ma¬ 
ture in May or June. The adult forms a 
small web on the upper surface of a leaf of 
spice bush or other plant, the edges of the 
leaf being curled upward slightly; the 
spider spends much of its time sitting in¬ 
conspicuously on the web. The adults re¬ 


produce, live through the summer, and die 
in the fall. Immature spiders may be found 
at any time of the year except the first few 
weeks of July. 

Dictyna has been observed eating muscoids, 
chironomids, craneflies, and leafhoppers ; sev¬ 
eral of these animals were larger than the 
spider. 


j 


Agelena naevia Walckenaer (Agelenidae) 


This common spider overwinters as an egg, 
the cocoons being formed beneath loose bark 
and covered with dirt, wood chips, etc. The 
spiders emerge in May and form funnel 
webs, at first on or near the ground, but 
later on herbs and low shrubs as well. Re¬ 
production occurs in the fall and the female 
often remains by her cocoon, becoming more 
and more sluggish and finally dying. 

Agelena feeds largely on insects, including 
craneflies, various larvae, and nymphs. 
When an animal falls on the web Agelena 
runs out from the funnel, often helps to en¬ 
tangle the prey with silk, and sometimes 
inflicts a bite. The spider may eat on the 
exposed part of the web, though she usually 
carries the food into the funnel to be eaten. 

The cocoons of Agelena naevia are rather 
commonly parasitized in the spring by Gelis 
similis (Strickland), a small ichneumon-fly. 
Often four or more pupae are found in one 
cocoon, in which case all the eggs are de¬ 
stroyed. When there is only one pupa some 
of the eggs are not disturbed, and will 
hatch. 


Hahnia cinerea Emerton (Agelenidae) 

This small, abundant spider seldom leaves 
the ground. Adults, present in all seasons, 
are seen most in winter and early spring, 
and least in early summer. Young spiders 
appear in late summer, and are usually 
mature by winter. Reproduction probably 
occurs in June ; more individuals are seen in 
the summer than in other seasons. 


Pisaurina mira (Walckenaer) (Pisauridae) 

Adults of this common species may be 
seen in June, on the ground or among herbs, 
the females often carrying their cocoons in 
their chelicerae. Young spiders are abun¬ 
dant from June to October; numbers drop in 
the fall when the immature spiders hiber¬ 
nate in the soil. They move to the herbs 
and shrubs in the spring, and .move about in 
search of food, rather than building a web. 


ii 


iri, 


31 


Lycosa frondicola Emerton (Lycosidae) 

Young specimens of this genus are abun¬ 
dant on the ground in March, running about 
actively among dead leaves; their activity 
forms one of the best indications of the shift 
from winter to prevernal season. During the 
summer young Lycosas also live in the herbs 
and shrubs. Specific identification of these 
immature animals is impossible. 

Only two adults of Lycosa frondicola were 
taken, those being seen on a log in June. 


Lycosa pulchra (Keyserling) (Lycosidae) 
Rare adults were found in September and 
April; possibly, unlike L. frondicola, L 
pulchra hibernates as an adult. 


* Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of the University of Illinois, 
t Now at McMurry College, Abilene, Texas. 


6 


*i 






Zoology — 19J+0 Meeting 


217 


Allocosa funerea (Hentz) (Lycosidae) 

Like Lycosa, Allocosa is abundant as an 
immature form on the ground in the winter 
and spring. Occasional adults are seen in 
early summer, and by late summer young 
specimens are numerous. Allocosa has been 
seen parasitized externally by the hippopsis 
stage of a mite, attached to the side of the 
spider’s abdomen. 

Schizocosa oci'eatci (Walckenaer) (Lycosi¬ 
dae) S. ci'cissipes (Walck.) 

Schizocosa is a third, less abundant, genus 
of wolf-spiders seen as immature forms on 
the ground in the winter and early spring. 

S. ocreata adults were found occasionally in 
late summer, usually on the ground. 

Schizocosa saltatrix (Hentz) (Lycosidae) 

Adults of this species were rarely seen in 
late summer. 

Erigone sp. (Linyphiidae) 

This spider, the most abundant of the 
linyphiids, lives largely on the ground, 
though some move to the herbs and shrubs 
in the spring and summer. Adults occur in 
the winter and spring, and again in late 
summer; reproduction probably occurs in 
late spring or early summer. 

Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus) (Argiopi- 
dae) 

This abundant spider reproduces early in 
the summer, and both adults and young 
spiders are found regularly in herbs and 
shrubs during the summer. Adults die' by 
the end of August, and the immature forms, 
active in the upper layers until mid-Novem¬ 
ber, hibernate, some in the soil and some in 
protected places among herbs. Some are 
active in herbs late in March and in April 
and May, but are not consistently present 
until June. 

Tetragnatha laboriosa (Hentz) (Argiopidae) 

This species, much less abundant than 

T. extensa, lives primarily in herbs, occa¬ 
sionally moving upward to shrubs but rarely 
?oing to the ground. Adults are seen mostly 
in May and June, though some live through 
July and August. Reproduction occurs in 
June and young spiders appear in late sum¬ 
mer and fall. They hibernate late, remain¬ 
ing among herbs and becoming active on 
warm winter days. In April they become 
ictive, to mature in about a month. 

4 raneus marmoreus Clerck (Argiopidae) 

This large spider, though less abundant 
:han some of the smaller species, forms one 
)f the most conspicuous elements in the 
woods during the summer. Immature spiders 
mild large orbwebs among herbs and shrubs 
n June, and these webs increase in both size 
and numbers as the season advances and the 
spiders mature. In August it is impossible 
o walk through the woods without destroy- 
ng several webs. Reproduction occurs in 
ate summer, and the spiders apparently pass 
he winter as first instars within the cocoon, 
^robably A. marmoreus is the species which 
orms cocoons by rolling a small leaf to¬ 
gether to form a tube ; the eggs are placed 
n this tube, and the edges are closed with 
?ilk. This sac is suspended from a twig of 
he shrubs by silk, and the cocoon hangs 
hus during the winter. Not over 50 young 
spiders have been seen in such a cocoon, so 
probably each female forms several cocoons. 
)ver 50 cocoons have been seen on one plant. 

A marmoreus has been observed eating 
lick beetles, scarabaeids, nymphalids, and 


even long-horned grasshoppers, though webs 
often contain muscoid flies and other small 
insects. Araneus partially wraps its prey in 
silk. 

Micrathena gracilis (Walckenaer) (Argiopi¬ 
dae) Acrosoma rugosa Emerton 

Slightly less abundant than Araneus mar¬ 
moreus, Micrathena is similar to it in sum¬ 
mer habits, forming large orb-webs among 
herbs and shrubs, and increasing them in 
size and abundance as the summer advances. 
Reproduction occurs in early fall. 

Tmarus angulatus (Walckenaer) 
(Thomisidae) 

This spider, like others of its family, is 
conspicuous in early spring, though it differs 
from most of the Thomisidae in living pri¬ 
marily in herbs and shrubs during this sea¬ 
son. Large immature forms are seen, which 
probably mature in late spring or summer. 
Few spiders are seen in the summer, though 
numbers increase with young specimens in 
the fall. Tmarus forms no web ; it can run 
rapidly, but when motionless is inconspicuous. 

Xysticus elegans Keyserling (Thomisidae) 

This genus of spiders is represented by 
several species which cannot be distinguished 
when immature. These young forms hiber¬ 
nate in the soil, and are abundant on the 
ground in early spring, forming, with the 
Lycosidae, an indication of the shift from 
winter to prevernal season. Adults of 
X. elegans have been found on the ground in 
May; reproduction probably occurs in June, 
and probably this species spends all its life 
on the ground. 

Xysticus fraternus Banks (Thomisidde) 

This species, unlike X. elegans, has been 
seen as an adult from May through July, 
though only rarely. In the summer it lives 
among herbs and shrubs. 

Xysticus funestus Keyserling (Thomisidae) 

Immature and adult spiders were seen 
among herbs in August. 

Xysticus gulosus Keyserling (Thomisidae) 

Like X. elegans, X. gulosus was rarely 
found as an adult in May; but it lived in 
herbs and shrubs rather than on the ground. 

Anyphaena pectorosa L. Koch (Clubionidae) 

This common spider is immature in the 
spring, but matures and reproduces in early 
summer. Young spiders are seen in late 
summer and fall, being more abundant than 
adults in the summer. Late in the fall the 
immature forms hibernate among leaves on 
the ground and become active on warm days, 
when they may even move to the herbs for 
a short time. In early April the spiders 
return to herbs and shrubs, where nests are 
formed; each is made of a leaf rolled 
lengthwise and lined with silk. There is no 
web for capturing prey. 

One specimen was observed to be para¬ 
sitized by a nematode of the family Mermi- 
thidae ; the worm was coiled in the abdomen, 
filling it completely. 

Aysha gracilis (Hentz) (Clubionidae) 

This spider, though less numerous than 
Anyphaena pectorosa, appears to be much 
like it in habits, the main difference being 
that Aysha matures and reproduces earlier 
in the spring than does Anyphaena. It 
leaves herbs and shrubs late in the fall, 
being seen there through November: it also 
appears there early in the spring, living in 
herbs more than shrubs. 



218 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


Phidippus audax (Hentz) (Salticidae) 

This species is not abundant in the woods. 
Adults and large immature spiders hibernate 
in late November, on the ground, or, more 
commonly, in sacs under bark. Reproduc¬ 
tion occurs in mid-summer ; nests are formed 
for the eggs, in empty acorn shells on the 
ground or among leaves of hackberry or wild 
grape. The female remains with the cocoon 
and dies in the fall. Young forms live 
among herbs and shrubs in late summer. 
One nest was found parasitized by larvae 
and pupae of Phalacrotophora epeirae 
(Brues), a phorid; none of the eggs were 
alive. 

Dendrypliantes capitatus (Hentz) 

(Salticidae) 

This, the most abundant salticid, matures 
and reproduces in the summer; adults are 
found in the herbs from late spring through 
the fall. Young spiders appear in late sum¬ 
mer, and hibernate on the ground or in 
rolled leaves among herbs. They become 
active in April and mature in May or June. 
The peak of the year’s abundance is pro¬ 
duced by the young spiders in the fall. 
Dendryphantes has been seen eating can- 
tharids, ants, and other spiders. 

Zygoballus bettini Peckham (Salticidae) 

The adult of this species is slightly more 
abundant than the following one, but the 
immature forms cannot be distinguished. 
Each species is seen only occasionally. 
Z. bettini lives mostly on herbs, less among 
shrubs, and, apparently, not at all on the 
ground Adults are seen in late summer and 
fall, and immature spiders probably hiber¬ 
nate. 

Zygoballus nervosus (Peckham) (Salticidae) 

Like Z. bettini, Z. nervosus may be seen 
as an adult during the summer and fall, 
while young specimens appear in the fall. A 
few were seen on the ground, though the 
majority were in higher layers. 


Infrequent and Incidental Spiders 

Atypus abboti (Walckenaer) (Atypidae) 
Adults and large immature spiders of this 
rare species overwintered on the ground, but 
moved to herbs during the summer. 

Mimetus interfector Hentz (Mimetidae) 

Occasional immature specimens were found 
in herbs and shrubs in the summer, and a 
few adults were taken in June and July. 

Uloborus americanus Walckenaer 
(Uloboridae) 

Immature specimens have rarely been 
seen in the autumn, and adults in the sum¬ 
mer. 

Hyptiotes cavatus (Hentz) (Uloboridae) 
Occasional immature specimens were found 
in herbs and shrubs from May through the 
summer, with adults in August. Evidently 
immature forms overwinter. 

Coelotes sp. (Agelenidae) 

A few immature specimens have been 
found on the ground during the winter and 
early spring. 

Cicurina arcuata Keyserling (Agelenidae) 

Young specimens appeared in June, and 
were frequently found on the ground and 
among herbs and shrubs in August and 
September. Older forms were seen less fre¬ 
quently on the ground in winter and early 
spring. Here on warm winter days Cicurina 


was active among the leaves. No webs were 
seen, though this genus is reported to have 
small webs under stones or in moss. 

Cryphoeca sp. (Agelenidae) 

Young individuals occurred commonly dur¬ 
ing late spring and summer, though no 
adults were seen. 

Dolomedes tenebrosus Hentz (Pisauridae) 

This large spider, less abundant than 
Pisaurina, lives among herbs and shrubs, 
where immature specimens may be seen dur¬ 
ing the summer and fall. Large immature 
forms and adults hibernate beneath bark, 
and mature in June. Though an agile run¬ 
ner, Dolomedes does not move about much, 
but rests with its legs widespread on tree 
trunks and other surfaces. 


Pirata sp. (Lycosidae) 


Immature forms were rarely seen on the 
ground during the winter. 

Pardosa sp. (Lycosidae) 

Young specimens were often found on the 
ground in the fall. 

Euryopis funebris (Hentz) (Theridiidae) 

This spider has seldom been seen, and then 
only in an immature stage in late October; it 
was probably moving down from its summer 
home in the trees to hibernate in lower 
layers (Davidson, 1930). 

Dipoena nigra (Emerton) (Theridiidae) 

One adult was seen in shrubs in June. 

Oedothorax sp. ? (Linyphiidae) 

Adults of this genus were rarely seen on 
the ground in the winter. Their very small 
size makes identification difficult. 

Origanates rostratus (Emerton) 
(Linyphiidae) 

This species, like Oedothorax, is rarely 
found among dead leaves in the winter. 

Cornicularia sp.? (Linyphiidae) 

A few adults were seen on the ground in 
the winter. 

Eperigone tridentatus (Emerton) 
(Linyphiidae) 

One adult was found on the ground in late 
spring. 

Ceraticelus emertoni (Cambridge) 
(Linyphiidae) 

An adult was taken from herbs in August. 

Ceraticelus laetabilis (Cambridge) 
(Linyphiidae) 

Rare adults were seen on the ground in 
early summer and in the fall. 


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Ceratinella brunnea Emerton (Linyphiidae) 

An adult was taken from the ground in stn 
April. 

II tit 

Microneta sp. (Linyphiidae) 

Rare adults were seen on the ground dur¬ 
ing the winter. 

' 

Microneta cornupalpis (Cambridge) 
(Linyphiidae) 

Rare adults were seen on the ground in 
the autumn. 

Microneta maria (Cambridge) (Linyphiidae) ! 

One adult was seen on the ground ir I Pi 
March. 


Zoology — 19J+0 Meeting 


219 


Bathyphantes sp. (Linyphiidae) 

Large immature and adult spiders were 
occasionally found late in the fall. 

Bathyphantes formica Emerton (Linyphiidae) 

Occasional adults were seen on herbs in 
the summer. 

Linyphia communis Hentz (Linyphiidae) 
Rare adults were found on herbs in 
August. 

Linyphia marginata C. Koch (Linyphiidae) 

An adult was found in shrubs late in the 
fall. 

Marxia stellata (Walckenaer) (Argiopidae) 
Araneus stellatus (Walckenaer) 

One immature specimen was seen in April. 

Wixia infumata Banks (Argiopidae) 

One immature specimen was found on 
shrubs in October. 

Araneus thaddeus (Hentz) (Argiopidae) 

This spider has been rarely seen as an 
adult among herbs in the fall. It is smaller 
than Araneus marmoreus, but builds similar 
webs. 

Neoscona benjamina (Walckenaer) 

(Argiopidae) Araneus benjaminus 
(Walckenaer) 

Neoscona is less abundant than Araneus 
marmoreus, and differs from it mainly in 
hibernating as a juvenile, usually remaining 
in shrubs during the winter. 

Neoscona arabesca (Walckenaer) (Argiopi¬ 
dae) Araneus arabesca (Walckenaer) 

This orb-weaver was rarely seen as an 
adult in herbs and shrubs during the sum¬ 
mer. 

Eustala anastera (Walckenaer) (Argiopidae) 

One immature specimen was found in 
shrubs in November. 

Misumena aleatoria (Hentz) (Thomisidae) 

Adults were seen rarely in early summer, 
and young specimens in late summer and in 
the spring, among herbs and shrubs. 

Misumena vatia (Clerck) (Thomisidae) 

One adult was found on the ground in 
July. 

Misumenops asperatus (Hentz) (Thomisidae) 

Occasional adults were seen in herbs and 
shrubs in May ; immature specimens occurred 
in the same layers in the summer and fall. 

Ozyptila americana Banks (Thomisidae) 

Immature specimens usually hibernate, oc¬ 
casionally being found on the ground. Adults 
were seen at scattered intervals during the 
spring and summer. 

Platyxysticus versicolor (Keyserling) 

(Thomisidae) Coriarachne versicolor 
Keyserling 

One adult was found on the ground in 
March. 

Synema sp. (Thomisidae) 

Only immature specimens of this genus 
were seen, these being on the ground on De¬ 
cember. 

Philodromus ornatus Banks (Thomisidae) 
Adults were rarely seen in herbs in June. 


Philodromus rufus Walckenaer (Thomisidae) 

Adults were occasionally seen in herbs and 
shrubs in June, with immature specimens 
occurring in the fall. Presumably these 
hibernate and reproduce in early summer. 

Ebo sp. (Thomisidae) 

One immature specimen was taken from 
shrubs in October. 

Drassylus sp. (Gnaphosidae) 

One immature specimen was seen on the 
ground in November. 

Zelotes sp. (Gnaphosidae) 

One immature specimen was seen on the 
ground in January. 

Clubiona riparia L. Koch (Clubionidae) 

Only immature forms have been found, 
occurring occasionally from May through 
September. 

Phrurolithus sp. (Clubionidae) 

A few adults of this undetermined species 
were seen in late summer; rare immature 
forms occurred in May. 

Phrurolithus delicatulus Gertsch 
(Clubionidae) 

Both adults and immature spiders were 
rarely seen on the ground in the winter. 

Phrurolithus formica Banks? (Clubionidae) 
One adult was found on the ground in De¬ 
cember. 

Phrurolithus pugnatus Emerton (Clubionidae) 

Rare adults were taken from the ground 
during the winter. 

Castianeira cingulata (C. Koch) 
(Clubionidae) 

Occasional mature and immature speci¬ 
mens were seen on the ground during the 
winter, one hibernating in an empty acorn 
shell ; young spiders were rarely found on 
the ground in the summer. 

Castianeira longipalpus (Hentz) 
(Clubionidae) 

Only immature specimens were seen, these 
small individuals being on herbs in late sum¬ 
mer, and larger ones on the ground in early 
spring. Presumably reproduction occurs in 
early summer. 

Thiodina puerpera (Hentz) (Salticidae) 

Like other Salticidae, this large jumping 
spider forms no web, but moves among herbs 
and shrubs to capture its prey. Thiodina 
was seen most in late summer and fall, when 
it matured and reproduced. Probably it 
hibernated as an egg; young individuals 
were occasionally seen in spring and summer. 

Salticus sp. (Salticidae) 

One immature specimen was seen in herbs 
in August. 

Hyctia sp. (Salticidae) 

A few immature representatives were 
taken from herbs in August. 

Marpissa undata (DeGeer) (Salticidae) 

An immature female was seen on herbs in 
May. 

Wala palmarum (Hentz) (Salticidae) 

Only immature specimens were seen, these 
being most abundant in late summer and 
less so in early spring. 






220 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


Phidippus mystaceus (Hentz) (Salticidae) 

One adult was seen on the ground in No¬ 
vember with her cocoon full of young 
spiders. 

Phidippus whitmcinni Peckham (Salticidae) 

This spider, the most abundant member of 
the genus, has been seen immature in the 
spring and mature in June. Like others of 
its family, P. whitmanni stalks its prey; 
one was seen on the back of a cranefly three 
times its size, biting the thorax. 

Dendryphantes flavipedes Peckham 
(Salticidae) 

An immature male was found in herbs 
during October. 

Habrocestum pulex (Hentz) (Salticidae) 

One adult was found in herbs in June. 

Habrocestum parvulum (Banks) (Salticidae) 

One adult was seen on the ground in Sep¬ 
tember. 


Pellenes sp. (Salticidae) 

An immature specimen was taken from the 
ground in September. 

Maevia vittata (Hentz) (Salticidae) 

Occasional immature specimens have been 
seen among herbs and shrubs throughout 
the summer. 

Fuentes lineatus (C. Koch) (Salticidae) 

One adult was seen on the ground in July. 

Bibliography 

Comstock, J. H. The Spider Book. Double¬ 
day, Page, and Company, New York. 1912. 
Davidson, Vera Smith. The tree layer so¬ 
ciety of the maple-red oak climax forest. 
Ecology, 11: 601-606. 1940. 

Peckham, G. W. and Elizabeth G. Peckham. 
Revision of the Attidae of North America. 
Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts and Letters, 
16: 355-646. 1909. 

Worley, Leonard G. and Gayle B. Pickwell. 
The Spiders of Nebraska. University of 
Nebraska Studies, 27 : 1-29. 1931. 


INTERACTIONS OF GROWTH STIMULANTS 

AND PROTEINS* 

Seward E. Owen 

Cancer Research Unit, Veterans’ Administration, Hines, Illinois 




Tissue proliferation stimulants are of 
interest in the field of malignant growth 
and in normal physiological repair. Pro¬ 
liferation is stimulated in the develop¬ 
ment of cancer, Loeb et al (1), Hammett 
(2), Owen (3) and others. 

Among the reported growth stimulants 
are the sulphydryl containing complexes, 
Hammett (4), larva, Baer (5), larval 
preparations, Livingston (6) allantoin, 
Greenbaum (7), urea Hetherington et al 
(8), calcium salts Stewart (9) and dex¬ 
trose, Lafresniere (10). In addition em¬ 
bryo extracts have been long used in 
tissue culture media. In the above sub¬ 
stances free sulphydryl groups may readily 
be demonstrated in the sulphydryl com¬ 
plexes, in appropriate larval preparations 
and in freshly prepared embryo extracts. 
Non-antigenic extracts of embryonic tis¬ 
sues may be made which are effective in 
stimulating growth, Owen and Cutler (11) 
and a discussion of the probable chemical 
mechanisms or growth stimulation has 
been presented by Owen (12). 

The effect of growth stimulants and 
carcinogenic chemicals on protein in vitro 
as regards release of free sulphydryl was 
tested for as follows: saturated solutions 
of the chemical growth stimulants in 
phosphate buffer at either pH 5.8 or 7.4 
were added to equal volumes of solution 
of edestin or crystalline egg albumin or 


to human serum. The mixtures were 
tested immediately and after incubation 
for free sulphydryl by the phosphotung- 
state procedure. Cystine but not cysteine 
was demonstrable in the control proteins 
and in serum. The influence of the car- 
cinogenics were similarly tested. Testable 
sulphydryl appeared in the albumin-urea 
and in the edestin-urea mixtures. Other 
growth stimulants and the carcinogenics 
failed to cause the appearance of free 
—SH. 

It appears that substances which in¬ 
directly or directly release sulphydryl 
groups from proteins should act as 
growth stimulants. Substances which re¬ 
lease urea by mild hydrolysis e. g. 
allantoin, arginase and guanidine deriva¬ 
tives should also stimulate tissue growth. 
Materials which tend to produce a re¬ 
ducing situation in wounds might also be 
expected to cause tissue proliferation as 
a reduction of the sulfur-sulfur linkages 
in tissue proteins would be favored thus 
producing the essential -SH groups. The 
concentration of free sulphydryl (2xl0~ 7 ) 
to cause growth stimulation is extremely 
small and would not be picked up by the 
usual chemical tests. It may be noted 
that solution potential is lowered by 
nearly all reputed growth stimulants, in¬ 
dicating a possible increase in reduction 
value, Owen (13). 


* Published under R. & P. 6727 Veterans' Administration. 











Zoology—1940 Meeting 


221 




The importance of free sulphydryl in 
the probable mechanism of some growth 
stimulants may be summarized as follows: 

A. Free sulphydryl groups stimulate 
tissue growth. 

B. Urea plus appropriate proteins re¬ 
leases free sulphydryl. 

C. Allantoin hydrolyses to urea which 
then acts as in B. 

D. Other guanidine derivatives may 
act as does allantoin. 

E. Arginase releases urea from pro¬ 
teins, the urea then acts as in B. 

F. Alkaline salts plus appropriate pro¬ 
teins release free sulphydryl. 

G. Urease releases ammonia from tis¬ 
sue urea, the ammonia acts as in F. 

H. Reducing conditions favor sulphy¬ 
dryl generation from disulfide groups. 

Bibliography 

1. Loeb, L., Burns, E. L., Suntzeff, V. and 
Moskop, M. 1937. Sex hormones and 
their relation to tumors. Am. Jour. 
Cancer. 30: 47-53. 

2. Hammett, F. S. 1935. The influence of 
sulphydryl on cell proliferation and its 
possible significance in the cancer prob¬ 
lem. Libro de Oro dedicado al Prof. 
Dr. Angel H. Roffo, 501-510. Buenos 
Aires. 

3. Owen, S. E. 1937. Sulphydryl and 
radon induced necrosis. Growth 1: 
130-134. 


4. Hammett, F. S. 1929. The natural 
chemical stimulus essential for growth 
by increase in cell number. Protop¬ 
lasma 7 : 297-372. 

5. Baer, W. S. 1931. The treatment of 

chronic osteomyelitis with the maggot 
(larva of the blow fly). Jour. Bone 
and Joint. Surg. 13. 438. 

6. Livingston, S. K. and Prince, L. H. 

1932. The treatment of chronic osteo¬ 
myelitis with special reference to the 
use of maggot active principle. Jour. 
Am. Med. Assn. 98. 1143. 

7. Greenbaum, F. R. 1936. Allantoin. A 

new granulation tissue-stimulating sub¬ 
stance, with especial emphasis on allan¬ 
toin in ointment form. Am. Jour. Surg. 
54. 250-265. 

8. Hetherington, D. C. and Shipp, M. E. 

1937. Effect of growth of fibro-blasts 
from cardiac explants in tissue culture 
with urea. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol, and 
Med. 37. 238-241. 

9. Stewart, M. A. 1934. A new treatment 

of osteomyelitis. Preliminary Report. 
Surg. Gynec. and Obs. 58. 155-165. 

10. Lafresniere, G. 1936. Dextrose solu¬ 
tion dressing in therapy of atonic 
wounds. Union, med du Canada. 65. 
104-106. 

11. Owen, S. E. and Cutler, M. Unpublished 
data. 

12. Owen, S. E. 1938. Sulphur and 

growth stimulation. Growth 2. 355-361. 

13. Owen, S. E. 1940. Oxidation-reduction 

potentials of growth stimulants and of 
carcinogenics. Proc. Am. Physiol. Soc. 
Mar. 13. 1940. pg. 139. 


CEPHALIC DEFORMITIES IN EMBRYOS OF THE 
MASSASAUGA RATTLESNAKE (SISTRURUS 
C. CATENATUS, RAF.)* 

Bertrand A. Wright, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 


Although the massasauga was at one 
time widely distributed over the prairies 
of Illinois (cf. Garman, 1892; Hay, 1893) 
at the present time there are only a few 
isolated spots where this snake can still 
be found. For a number of years the 
author has been interested in a colony of 
massaugas which is located on the flood- 
plain of the east bank of the Des Plaines 
River just north of the county line be¬ 
tween Lake and Cook Counties (Wright, 
1939). The area in which the snakes of 
this colony breed is confined to a forest 
edge community which is flooded during 
spring and fall. 

During the summers of 1937 and 1938 
the writer had the opportunity to study 
the colony in some detail. A number of 
gravid females were collected at various 
times during the spring months and were 




brought into the laboratory where they 
were kept under observation up through 
the time they gave birth to their young. 

Five gravid females gave birth to 
young on the following dates: August 
20, August 30, August 31, and in two 
cases on September 1. In recording the 
measurements of these litters it was 
noticed that three of the females had dis¬ 
charged undeveloped embryos. (See 
table I.) 

A superficial examination of these eggs 
revealed that the embryos had attained 
various stages of development. Some had 
barely started growth and appeared as a 
small black spot on the surface of the 
egg. Others had reached a stage very 
close to that of newly born snakes with 
the yolk sac completely withdrawn into 
the body cavity. 



Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


999 

/V rsJ /V 


Table I 


Date 

Number of 
young born 
alive 

Undeveloped 

embryos 

discharged 

August 20... . ... . 

8 

none 

August 30 . ... 

12 

1 

Aug. 31. __ .. .. 

8 

11 

September 1.. . _ 

14 

none 

September 1_ 

5 

3 


In all the more advanced embryos it 
was noticed that there was some deform¬ 
ity in the cephalic region. Several of the 
embryos showed a complete lack of the 
frontal and parietal bones on the dorsal 
surface of the head. In these cases the 
skin was deeply invaginated into the 
brain cavity indicating that this organ 
was completely or partially lacking 
(fig. 1). Gross dissection of the embryos 
revealed that in many cases the cerebel¬ 
lum and cerebrum were almost entirely 
lacking. At first the writer assumed that 
some factor or factors of handling either 
during capture or while the snakes were 
in the laboratory might have accounted 
for these deformities. However, several 
important factors indicate that this first 
assumption could not be true and that a 
hereditary rather than an environmental 
influence may have caused the malfor¬ 
mations. 

As has been previously stated, the 
gravid females were collected at various 
times during the gestation period and 
since no unnecessary handling was done, 
the possibility of an environmental factor 
as the cause of such deformities is slight. 
The mechanical injury factor is ruled out 
by the facts that: (1) undeveloped 
embryos at all stages of development 
were discharged by the same female; (2) 
inasmuch as the head is in the center of 
a sphere formed by the body of the snake 
as it develops, it is not very likely that 
the head, which is the most protected 
part of the embryo, would be the only 
part to exhibit injuries. Furthermore, 
all the embryos displayed the same gen¬ 
eral type of deformity. Recently the 
writer had the opportunity of examining 
a number of still-born young extruded 
from a female massauga collected in the 
same area in the spring of 1939. With¬ 
out exception, each still-born snake 
showed cephalic deformities similar to 
those found in the 1937 litters. 

Several other investigators have noticed 



Fig. 1. Still-born snakes from the collec¬ 
tions of 1937. Note the lack of skull bones 
and the deep invagination of the skin into 
the resulting pocket. In both of these snakes 
the cerebrum and cerebellum were only par¬ 
tially developed. (Each square represents 
one-sixteenth square inch.) 

the extrusion of infertile or still-born 
young in snakes. Klauber (1936) states 
that broods in captivity often include in¬ 
fertile eggs or deformed embryos which 
die soon after birth. He further states 
that while the loss of young is greater 
in captive specimens, snakes in nature 
are also subject to the same deformities. 
Swanson (1933) records still-born young 
extruded from massasaugas collected in 
western Pennsylvania. Unfortunately, 
neither of these investigators give any 
indication as to the nature of the de¬ 
formities or the proportion of still-born to 
normal young. 

On the basis of the material presented 
here it seems quite possible that a her¬ 
editary lethal factor might account for 
these embryonic mortalities. This belief 
is further substantiated by the fact that 
all the females collected in northeastern 
Illinois were taken from an area of less 
than a half acre. In such a restricted 
location, inbreeding would surely occur. 
This inbreeding after a period of years 
would be most favorable for the expres¬ 
sion of any lethal factor or factors which 
might be present in the stock. 

References 

Garman, H., A synopsis of the reptiles and 
amphibians of Illinois. Bull. Ill. State 
Lab. Nat. Hist., 3 :215-385. 1892. 

Hay, O. P., The batrachians and reptiles of 
the state of Indiana. Ann. Rept. Dept. 
Geol. Nat. Res. of Indiana, 17 (1891) 534- 
536. 1893. 

Klauber, L. M., A statistical study of the 
rattlesnakes. Occ. Papers San Diego Soc. 
Nat. Hist., 1 :1 -24. 1936. 

Swanson, P. L., The size of Sistrm'us c. 

catenatus at birth. Copeia, 1933 :37. 1933. 
Wright, B. A., Habit and habitat studies of 
the Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus c. 
catenatus, Raf.) in northeastern Illinois. 
1939. 


♦Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of the University of Illinois, No. 564. 



















Zoology — 19JfO Meeting 


223 


INDUCED OVULATION IN BAN A PIPIENS 


T. W. Robinson and H. C. Hill, Jr. 
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 
An Abstract 


The effect of the anterior pituitary 
upon the ovulation process in the frog 
(Rana pipiens) was first studied by Wolf 
(1929). Daily transplants of frog pitui- 
taries into the lateral lymph sac induced 
ovulation after a variable number of 
days. Houssay, Giusti, and Lascano- 
Gonzalez in the same year showed that 
implanted pituitaries stimulate sexual 
activity in toads. Rugh (1934, 1935, 1937, 
1939) has made studies on the frog which 
include induced ovulation, quantitative 
pituitary-ovulation relationships, induced 
sex reactions, and ovulation times. He 
states that frogs and toads should be 
freshly caught while hibernating and 
used within two weeks. Shapiro and 
Zwarenstein (1934) observed that toads 
which were kept in the laboratory longer 
than three to four weeks appeared to be¬ 
come desensitized to the ovulation pro¬ 
ducing substance of pregnancy urine. 
Since our experiences indicated that 
frogs become less responsive to anterior 
pituitary injections the longer they are 
kept in the laboratory a series of experi¬ 
ments were undertaken to test this point 
in a quantitative manner. To do so, a 
more accurate test method for the amount 
of ovulation has been worked out as de¬ 
scribed below. 

The procedure used to induce ovulation 
is in general the same as that used by 
Rugh. The method of obtaining counts 
of the number of eggs ovulated was 
modified as follows. Instead of weighing 
the eggs in the body cavity and uteri and 
the post-ovulation ovaries to obtain per¬ 
centage ovulation, the ovaries were ex¬ 
cised from the frog before ovulation and 
placed in amphibian Ringer’s solution. 
Counts were made periodically of the 
number of eggs ovulated in Ringer’s and 
the rate and total ovulation determined. 

Mature frogs were kept in a cold-room 
whose temperature ranged from 12.5 to 
17° C. or in a refrigerator at 3 to 6° C. 
Host females were removed from the cold- 
room or refrigerator and weighed. The 


pituitaries for injection were removed 
from either males or females and placed 
in distilled water. The standard dose for 
each injection was four female or eight 
male pituitaries in one cubic centimeter 
of distilled water solution. In some cases 
brain tissue was used for the control in¬ 
jections. Otherwise no injection was 
made into the controls. A suspension of 
the glands was obtained by forcing the 
pituitaries in and out of an hypodermic 
syringe, and injection was made through 
a No. 20 needle into the right side of the 
body cavity of the host. About 15 min¬ 
utes after injection the host was placed in 
a bell jar in 44 inch of chlorine-free tap 
water and kept in a dark room at about 
25° C. Several minutes or hours after 
injection, depending upon the experiment, 
the female was single-pithed down the 
spinal cord and the ventral surface of the 
body cavity opened. The right and left 
ovaries were removed by first tying them 
off at the end of a long thread and dis¬ 
secting them out at the mesovarium. 
The ovaries were then suspended just 
beneath the surface in the Ringer’s solu¬ 
tion by this thread. At intervals the 
number of eggs were counted until ovula¬ 
tion ceased. The time of injection was 
used as the zero point for all subsequent 
time intervals. 

In one series of experiments a group of 
frogs (I) arrived and were placed in the 
cold-room at 12.5°C. On subsequent days 
the degree of ovulation in response to a 
standard dose of pituitaries was tested. 
Similarly, for a second group of frogs 
(II). A third group of frogs (III) were 
separated upon arrival, some placed in 
the cold-room and others in a refriger¬ 
ator at 4°C. The results are shown in 
table I. 

All of these series of experiments in¬ 
dicate that there was a gradual decrease 
in the amount of ovulation with time 
when the frogs were kept in the cold- 
room at 12 to 14 °C., but at 4°C. there 



224 


Illinois State Academy of Science Transactions 


Table I.— Effect of temperature and time upon ovulation 



Time since 
Arrival of frogs 
in days 

Final Number of 
eggs per ovary 

Temperature 
of cold-room 
in °C. 

Final Number of 
eggs per ovary 

Temperature 
of refrigerator 
in °C. 

Right 

Left 

Aver. 

Right 

Left 

Aver. 


3 

150 


150 

12.5 





I 

7 

188 

46 

117 

12.5 






11 

0 

— 

0 

12.5 






5 

742 

580 

661 

13.0 





II 

13 

/ 347 

—1 









\177 

168/ 

230 

13.0 






6 

367 

338 

353 

14.0 

298 

684 

491 

4 


11 

261 

175 

218 

14.0 

86 

287 

187 

4 

III 

15 

0 

52 

26 

14.0 

411 

468 

440 

4 


25 

43 

77 

60 

14.0 

338 

246 

292 

4 


28 

70 

63 

67 

14.0 

476 

440 

458 

4 


was as much ovulation on the twenty- 
eighth day as there was on the sixth day. 

In another experiment a group of frogs 
were kept in a refrigerator at ,2°C., and 
the ainount of ovulation was determined 
from ovaries which were removed from 
frogs at increasing intervals of time and 
placed in Ringer’s solution. Each frog 
received a dose of 3 V 3 female and 3 y 3 
male pituitaries. 


Table II.—Relation of Time Ovary is in 
Frog to Amount of Ovulation in 
Ringer’s Solution 


Time ovary remained 
in frog after 
injection 
Minutes 

22 

35 

63 

121 

260 


Average total eggs 
produced per 
ovary 

188 

461 

367 

947 

1603 


These results show nearly a direct pro¬ 
portionality between the length of time 
the ovary was in the body cavity after 
injection and the number of eggs ovu¬ 
lated by the ovary after it was placed in 
the Ringer’s solution. 


Summary and Conclusions 

A new method for a quantitative de¬ 
termination of the number of eggs re¬ 
leased at any time by excised ovaries is 
presented. 

With this method, the following infor¬ 
mation was obtained: 1. When frogs 
which were in hibernation before ship¬ 
ment are kept at 12° C. after arrival in the 


laboratory, the amount of ovulation ob¬ 
tainable decreases after the first few days. 
2 . The amount of ovulation obtainable 
from frogs kept at 4° C. remains relatively 
constant even after 28 days. 3. Ovaries 
receive enough hormone to cause some 
ovulation even though removed from frog 
within 22 minutes after the equivalent of 
five female pituitaries was injected into 
the body cavity. 4 . There is nearly a 
direct proportion between the length of 
time the ovary is in the body carity after 
injection and the number of eggs ovulated 
by the ovary after it is placed in Ringer’s 
solution. 


References 

Houssay, B. A., L». Giusti, and J. M. Lascano- 
Gonzalez. 1929. Implantation d’hypophyse 
et stimulation des glandes et des fonctions 
sexuelles du Crapaud. Comp. rend. Soc. 
de Biol., 102, 864-866. 

Rugh, R. 1934. Induced ovulation and 
artificial fertilization in the frog. Biol. 
Bull., 66, 22-29. 

- 1935. Ovulation in the frog: I 

Pituitary relations in induced ovulations. 
Jour. Exp. Zool., 71, 149-162. 

- 1935. Ovulation in the frog: II 

Follicular rupture to fertilization. Jour. 
Exp. Zool., 71, 163-193. 

- 1937. A quantitative analysis of 

the pituitary-ovulation relation in the 
frog (Rana pipiens.). Physiol. Zool., 10, 
84-100. 

- 1939. Embryonic material for 

laboratory experimentation. Amer. Biol. 
Teacher, 1, 184-187. 

Shapiro, H. A., and H. Zwarenstein. 1934. 
A rapid test for pregnancy on Xenopus 
laevis. Nature, 133, 762. 

Wolf, O. M. 1929. Effect of daily trans¬ 
plants of anterior lobe of pituitary on re¬ 
production of frog (Rana pipiens Shreber). 
Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol, and Med., 26, 692- 
693. 




































Zoology—Wifi Meeting 


225 


i 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE FERTILITY OF THE 

BLACK WIDOW SPIDER 


Gilbert Wright 

Illinois State Museum, Springfield, Illinois 


The following preliminary notes relate 
to the fertility of a captive black widow 
spider, Latrodectus mactans. During the 
past two or three years an increasing 
number of specimens have been reported 
locally. A gravid female was presented 
to the museum on November 16, 1939 by 
Mr. Fred Hanson of Springfield. The 
specimen was placed in a specially con¬ 
structed glass sided box and observed for 
a period of over 5 months. The follow¬ 
ing table presents a summary of the ob¬ 
servations: 


vided and a single meal worm (Tenebrio) 
was fed to the specimen every four or five 
days. 

The young, from each hatching, were 
confined in a 500 cc. container and it was 
noted that they began to feed on each 
other from the 5th to the seventh day 
after hatching. 

After three months egg sac No. 4 was 
opened and found to contain 310 eggs 
somewhat shrivelled. The cause for the 
failure of the eggs to hatch was not 
definitely determined. There were no evi- 


Sac Number 

Date Eggs were Laid 

Date Eggs Hatched 

Period of Incubation 

No. of Young 

1 

Nov. 29, 1939 

Dec. 31, 1939 

32 days 

300 

2 

Dec. 18, 1939 (19 days later) 

Jan. 18, 1940 

31 days 

287 

3 

Jan. 7, i940 (18 days later) 

Jan. 20, 1940 

13 days 

100 

4 

Jan. 22, 1940 (15 days later) 

Did not hatch 



5 

Jan. 30, 1940 (8 days later) 

Feb. 27, 1940 

28 days 

319 

6 

Feb. 20, 1940 (21 days later) 

Mar. 14, 1940 

23 days 

260 

7 

Mar. 3, 1940 (i2 days later) 

April 2, 1940 

28 days 

300 


Total number of young 


1566 


Conditions for egg incubation were 
probably ideal. Temperature of the room 
in which the subject was kept averaged 
70-80° F. Adequate moisture was pro- 


dences of Parasitism. Dehydration is 
suggested as a possible explanation. 

All young were produced from a 
mating that had occurred before the 
specimen was brought to the museum. 



































































. 

















































































































' 























. 




















* 













































' 










i’l I I 























































. 























































' 








. 






























i 




' 






























* 
















































































STATE OF ILLINOIS 
DWIGHT H. GREEN, Governor 


TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

ILLINOIS STATE 
ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


VOLUME 33 MARCH, 1941 NUMBER 3 


PRELIMINARY PROGRAM 
Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting 

Friday and Saturday, May 2 and 3, 1941 
EVANSTON, ILLINOIS 



Published by the Academy 
Affiliated With the Illinois State Museum Division 
. Department of Registration and Education 
Centennial Building, Springfield, Illinois. 


PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

Entered as second-class matter December 6, 1930, at the post office at 
Springfield, Illinois, under the Act of August 24, 1912. 














ANNOUNCEMENTS 


Times mentioned throughout this program are Local Daylight Sav¬ 
ing Time. 

Requests for research grants from the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science are received each year up to February 1st, and 
recipients announced at the May business meeting of the Academy. The 
chairman for the current year has been William 0. Blanchard, Univer- 
sity of Illinois, Urbana. The chairman for the ensuing year (1941-42) 
will be announced in the June issue of the Transactions. 


Members of the Senior Academy cordially urge members of the 
Junior Academy to join them on the Saturday morning field trips. 

9 


Meetings of Affiliated Societies: 

1. State Physics Teachers Association. Meeting in Physics Lec¬ 
ture Room, 106 Science Hall, East IJinman Ave. and Sheridan Road. 
Friday, 10:00-12:00 a. m. Followed by luncheon. 


— 228 — 



OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES 
1940-41 


President: V. O. Graham, 4028 Grace St., Chicago. 

First Vice President: T. H. Frison, Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana. 

Second Vice President: C. R. Moulton, 5712 Kenwood Ave., Chicago. 

Secretary: R. F. Paton, Dept, of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Treasurer: John Voss, Manual Training High School, Peoria. 

Librarian: Thorne Deuel, Illinois State Museum, Springfield. 

Editor: Grace Needham Oliver, Illinois Geological Survey, Urbana. 

Junior Academy Representative: Audry Hill, Chester High School, Chester. 

Committee on Conservation: 

T. H. Frison, Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, Chairman. 

M. M. Leighton, Illinois Geological Survey, Urbana. 

W. H. Haas, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

W. M. Gersbacher, Southern Illinois State Normal University, Carbondale. 

David D. Lansden, Cairo. 

Paul Houdek, 710 N. Cross St., Robinson. 

R. S. Smith, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

J. H. VanCleave, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

W. C. Allee, University of Chicago, Chicago. 

E. L. Stover, Eastern Illinois State Teachers College, Charleston. 

Committee on Legislation and Finance: 

H. B. Ward, University of Illinois, Urbana, Chairman. 

Fay-Cooper Cole, University of Chicago, Chicago. 

Frank W. Aldrich, 1506 East Washington, Bloomington. 

Edson S. Bastin, University of Chicago, Chicago. 

B. Smith Hopkins, University of Illinois, Ui'bana. 

Committee on Affiliations: 

Ildrem Daniels, Chicago, Chairman. 

Paul E. Klopsteg, Central Scientific Co., Chicago. 

V. F. Swaim, Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria. 

Clarence Bonnell, Harrisburg Township High School, Harrisburg. 

Glenn W. Warner, Wilson Junior College, Chicago. 

Harold K. Gloyd, Chicago Academy of Science, Chicago. 

Committee on Membership: 

Louis C. McCabe, State Geological Survey, Urbana, Chairman. 

Lewis H. Brown, Springfield High School, Springfield. 

J. H. Reedy, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

A. H. Sutton, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Verner Jones, P. O. Box 128, Mattoon. 

Lester J. Bockstahler, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

N. D. Cheronis, 5556 Ardmore Ave., Chicago. 

J. F. Stanfield, Chicago Normal College, Chicago. 

Committee on the Conservation of Archaeological and Historical Sites: 

Fay-Cooper Cole, University of Chicago, Chicago, Chairman. 

Frank W. Aldrich, 1504 E. Washington, Bloomington. 

M. J. Herskovits, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

M. M. Leighton, State Geological Survey, Urbana. 

Bruce W. Merwin, 601 West Walnut St., Carbondale. 

J. B. Ruyle, 9 Main Street, Champaign. 

H. B. Ward, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Committee on Research Grants from A. A. A. S.: 

William O. Blanchard, University of Illinois, Urbana, Chairman. 

L. Hanford Tiffany, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

W. C. Rose, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

H. J. VanCleave, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

H. E. Way, Knox College, Galesburg. 

Committee on Publications: 

V. O. Graham, 4028 Grace Street, Chicago, Ex-officio. 

R. F. Paton, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

W. M. Luce, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Committee on Ecological Bibliography: 

A. G. Vestal, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Committee on High School Science and Clubs: 

Chairman: Audry Hill, Chester High School, Chester. 

Assistant Chairman: Mary Creager, Vienna High School, Vienna. 

Chairmen of Exhibits: John C. Ayers, Normal Community High School, and John E. 
Coe, 2024 Sunnyside, Chicago. 

Chairmen of Judging: Allan R. Moore, J. Sterling H. S., Cicero, and John Chiddix, 
201 North School St., Normal. 

Editor, “Science Club Service”: Louis A. Astell, University High School, Urbana. 


— 229 — 








Contributing Editor for Illinois: Rose M. Cassidy, Maine Twp. H. S., DesPlaines. 

Radio Chairman: Rosalie M. Parr, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Advisory Committee: Don Carroll, State Geological Survey, Urbana; S. Aleta McAvoy, 
Rockford H. S., Rockford; Allan R. Moore, J. Sterling Morton H. S., Cicero; Rosalie 
M. Parr, University of Illinois, Urbana ; William Schwab, Jr., Madison H. S., Madi¬ 
son ; Frank Seiler, Galesburg H. S., Galesburg; Lyell J. Thomas, University of 
Illinois, Urbana; C. W. Whitten, 11 South LaSalle St., Chicago. 

Local Arrangements Chairman for 1941 Meeting in Evanston: 

C. H. Behre, Jr., Northwestern University, Evanston. 

Delegate to the A. A. A. S.: 

L. J. Thomas, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Delegate to Conservation Council of Chicago: 

V. O. Graham, 4028 Grace, Chicago. 

Publicity Director, Annual Meeting May 1, 2, 3, 1941 at Evanston: 

John A. Maloney, 10201 St. Lawrence Avenue, Chicago. 

General Chairman: 

C. Robert Moulton, 5712 Kenwood Ave., Chicago. 


— 230 — 







GENERAL PROGRAM 

All Addresses and Section Meetings are Open to the Public 

THURSDAY, MAY 1, 1941 

6 :00 p. m.—Council Dinner and Business Meeting at the University 
Club, 1708 Hinman Ave., Evanston. 

FRIDAY, MAY 2, 1941 
Northwestern University, Evanston 

8 :00 a. m.—Registration by all members and guests. Securing of final 
program, and tickets for the annual banquet. Registration for 
Saturday Field Trips. Lobby of Cahn Auditorium, Scott Hall. 

8 :45—Preliminary business meeting. Appointment of committees on 

nominations, resolutions, and auditing. Adjournment until 5 :00, 
same place. Cahn Auditorium, Scott Hall. 

9 :00 —General Session , Cahn Auditorium, Scott Hall. 

Welcome, by Dean Addison Hibbard, College of Liberal Arts, 
Northwestern University. 

Presidential Address, “Fungi and Man,” by Dr. V. 0. Graham. 

Address, “Patterns of Negro Music,” by Dr. Melville J. 
Herskovits. 

Moving picture, “Wood Duck Studies in Illinois,” by Dr. T. H. 
Frison. 

12 :00—Luncheon. Main dining room, Scott Hall. 

2:00-5:30—Exhibits of Junior Academy members (High School Sci¬ 
ence Clubs) on public display. Gymnasium, Evanston Township 
High School. 

1:30-5:00—Section meetings. Election of Chairmen for 1941-42. 
Papers, demonstrations, and discussions. Northwestern Univer¬ 
sity class rooms. 

All papers to be submitted for publication must be turned in to Section Chairmen at 
this time, in final form. They should be double spaced, clearly typed in dark ribbon, and 
should not exceed 1,200 words in length (including tables and not more than one illustra¬ 
tion) unless special arrangements are made. (This allows 2 printed pages per ai’ticle and 
keeps down cost of reprints). Under the title should appear the author’s name, and in a 
separate line his school and/or town. Address to which proof is to be sent next November 
should appear at end of paper. Drawings in India ink, halftones in gloss print. Do not 
use photostats. Mount illustrative material on separate sheets with legend clearly typed 
below. 


5 :00—Final business meeting, 1941 session. Cahn Auditorium, Scott 
Hall. Election of officers of Senior Academy for 1941-42. An¬ 
nouncement of grantees for A. A. A. S. Research Awards. 


— 231 — 






6 :30—Annual Banquet and announcement of special Academy awards, 
also presentation of medals by the State Archaeological Society. 
Informal, North Shore Hotel Ball Boom, 1611 Chicago Ave., 
Evanston, price $1.25. Reservations made in advance by personal 
application or by mail to Mr. H. B. Ward, Dept, of Geology, Uni¬ 
versity Hall, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. Tickets 
should be called for before 10 :30 a. m. Friday, May 2, at regis¬ 
tration desk, Scott Hall. 

8:30—Annual Public Lecture. Cahn Auditorium, Scott Hall. “A 
Summer in the Tropical Rain Forest of Barro Colorado Island, 
Panama,” by Dr. Ralph Buchsbaum, with motion pictures in 
color. 

Presentation of Junior Academy Awards. 

SATURDAY, MAY 3, 1941 

8 :00 a. m.—Meeting of new Council. Scott Hall Lobby. 

9 :00—Field Trips. 

Transportation will be by chartered buses leaving Scott Hall promptly at 9:00. Round 
trip tickets will cost 30 cents, and are to be secured on Friday at the Senior registration 
desk in Scott Hall or at the Junior Academy registration desk in Evanston Township High 
School. It is important that all registrations be made on Friday so that enough buses may 
be on hand. The Committee is being charged per bus and not per passenger so it is im¬ 
portant that the total number going be as near to even multiples of forty as possible. A 
few over this may be taken care of by private automobile. Buses will reach their destina¬ 
tion around 10:00 o’clock and will remain to return all persons to Evanston. The return 
time will be 12:30 or 1:00, announcement of which will be made on Saturday at the time of 
leaving. 

1. The Museum of Science and Industry, Jackson Park, and the Ori¬ 

ental Institute, 58th Street and University Avenue. 

2. The Chicago Academy of Science, Lincoln Park, and the Shedd 

Aquarium, Grant Park. 

3. The Adler Planetarium and the Field Museum of Natural History, 

Grant Park. 

In some of these, demonstrators will be furnished. In others, such as the Shedd 
Aquarium, no guides are available nor will they be needed. The allowance of two and a 
half to three hours should be ample for each trip with the exception perhaps of those to 
the Field Museum, and the Museum of Science and Industry, both of which are too extensive 
to permit taking in all of their features. 


— 232 — 






JUNIOR SECTION PROGRAM 

Held at 

Evanston Township High School, Evanston, Illinois 

FRIDAY, MAY 2, 1941 

Aiidry C. Hill, Chairman, Chester High School, Chester 

8 :00 a. m.—Registration at the High School. Secure tickets for ban¬ 

quet and for Saturday Field Trips. 

8:00-10:00—Arrangement of Competitive Entries. Exhibits of Scien¬ 
tific Companies. Gymnasium, High School. 

10:00-2:30—Judging of Competitive Exhibits. 

10:15—Meeting of Junior Academy Officers. H. S. Auditorium. 

1:30 p. m.—Luncheon. High School Cafeteria. The regular cafeteria 
style food will be available, and a meal can be selected to suit any 
taste for from 25 to 35 cents. 

1:00-2:30—Meeting of Club Sponsors. 

2:30-5 :00—Exhibits open to the public. 

2:30-4:00—Annual business meeting of official delegates. Auditorium, 
High School. Presentation of Junior Academy officials. 

Roll call and presentation of membership certificates. 

Movie, “Illinois Junior Academy in Action.” 

Report of A. A. A. S. Honorary Members on trip to A. A. A. S. 
meeting in Philadelphia: Jean Parks, Galesburg High School, 
Galesburg; William Best, J. Sterling Morton High School, 
Cicero. 

Demonstration, “Life Cycle of the Black Widow Spider,” by 
William Hahn, Rockford. 

4:00-6 :30—Removal of exhibits. If some exhibits can not be removed 
by 6:30, arrangements can be made to remove them at 8:00 
o’clock Saturday morning. 

6:30-8:00—Annual Banquet. Scott Hall, Northwestern University 
Campus. 75 cents. 

8:30 p. m.—Annual Public Lecture. Cahn Auditorium, Scott Hall. 
“A Summer in the Tropical Rain Forest of Barro Colorado 
Island, Panama,” by Dr. Ralph Buchsbaum, with motion pictures 
in color. 

Presentation of Junior Academy Awards. 

SATURDAY, MAY 3, 1941 

9 :00 a. m.—Special field trips to the Science Museums of Chicago have 

been planned. For detailed description see Senior Academy pro¬ 
gram page. Please note that you are to secure tickets for these 
trips at the registration desk in the High School on Friday. 

Price, 30 cents. 


— 233 — 





PROGRAM OF SECTION MEETINGS 

Illinois Academy of Science, May 2, 1941 

Northwestern University Campus, 1:30-5:00 p. m* 

AGRICULTURE—C. H. Oathout, Western Illinois State Teachers 

College, Macomb, Chairman. 

Fisk 101. 

Election of Chairman for 1942 meeting. 

% 

1. Certain factors affecting the growth of azotobacters in the soil, by 

J. L. Sullivan, Western Ill. State Tchrs. College, Macomb. 

2. The role of hybridization in the improvement of the soybean, by 

C. M. Woodworth, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

3. Corn and pasture fertilization for southern Illinois, by Robert 

Cassell, Southern Illinois State Normal University, Carbondale. 

4. How good is brome grass for pasture? W. L. Burlison and R. F. 

Fuelleman, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

5. Mulching of strawberries, by T. J. Douglas, Illinois State Normal 

University, Normal. 

6. Palatability of pasture crops, by R. F. Fuelleman and W. L. Burli¬ 

son, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

7. Adapting the agriculture teaching program to the community, by 

Burdette Graham, Prairie City. 

8. Relation between moisture content of the soil and the optimum 

depth of planting corn, by George H. Dungan and W. C. Brokaw, 
University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Turn papers in to Chairman at end of meeting. 


ANTHROPOLOGY—F. L. Barloga, Peoria Academy of Science, 

Peoria, Chairman. 

Education 33. 

Election of Chairman for 1942 meeting. 

1. The Chicago portage, by J. B. Ruyle, Champaign. 

2. Cultural objects of Clear Lake village site, by E. Schoenbech, 

Peoria Academy of Science, Peoria. 

3. Middle Mississippi grit tempered ware, by Donald E. Wray, Uni¬ 

versity of Chicago, Chicago. 

4. Two Hopewellian Mounts near Peoria, by Winslow M. Walker, St. 

Louis Academy of Science. 

5. Archaeological exploration sponsored by the Museum, 1940-41, by 

Thorne Deuel, Illinois State Museum. 

6. Possible application of kite photography to archaeology and 

ethnology, by William R. Bascom, Northwestern University, 
Evanston. 


— 234 — 




7. General discussion of papers submitted with panel discussion of 
“Determinants and earmarks of Woodland.” Discussion leader: 
Thorne Deuel. 

Turn papers in to Chairman before leaving. 


BOTANY—Paul D. Voth, The University of Chicago, Chicago, 

Chairman. 

SECTION A—Scott Hall Work Room (1:30-4:30 only) 

Election of Chairman for 1942 meeting. 

1. Seed formation, germination and post-germination development in 

certain Cichorieae, by William Edward Beid Hopper, East Alton- 
Wood Eiver Community High School, Wood River. 

2. Germination and seedling growth-form of two hundred weeds, by 

Anna Pedersen Kummer, Waller High School, Chicago. 

3. Preliminary investigation of root distribution in an oak-maple 

forest, by Norbert J. Scully, University of Chicago, Chicago. 

4. Some aspects of plant interrelationships in an oak-maple forest, by 

Charles E. Olmsted, University of Chicago, Chicago. 

5. A collection of Myxomycetes from east central Illinois, by Ernest 

L. Stover, Eastern Illinois State Teachers College, Charleston. 

6. Bryophytes of Rocky Branch region, Clark County, Illinois, by 

B. Harold Vaughan, Sullivan Township High School, Sullivan. 

7. Gemmae of Funaria hygrometrioci, by E. Elizabeth Barkley, J. 

Sterling Morton High School, Cicero. 

8. A list of diagnostic characteristics for descriptions of dicotyledonous 

woods, by Oswald Tippo, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

9. Techniques useful in the study of fossil plants, by J. Hobart Hos¬ 

kins and A. T. Cross, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

10. A device for solving genetics problems, by J. W. Hudson, Loyola 

University, Chicago. 

11. The trees of Adams County, Illinois, by Bobert A. Evers, Quincy 

Junior High School, Quincy. (By title.) 

12. Growing Marchantia polymorpha on glass cloth with controlled in¬ 

organic nutrients, by Paul D. Voth, University of Chicago, 
Chicago. 


SECTION B—Scott Hall Conference Room (1:30-4:30 only) 

13. Quantitative aspects of phototropic response, by Harry J. Fuller, 

University of Illinois, Urbana. 

14. An evaluation of general methods of “deoxygenation” of water, by 

Bichard D. Wood, Northwestern University, Evanston (intro¬ 
duced by R. 0. Freeland). 

15. Effect of length of day and temperature on the opening of buds of 

dormant twigs, by John Skok, University of Chicago, Chicago. 

16. Physiological effects of virus infection of plants, by F. Lyle Wynd, 

University of Illinois, Urbana. 


235 — 









17. The effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on the vitamin C content of 

cereal grass leaves, by John B. Romig and F. Lyle Wynd, Uni¬ 
versity of Illinois, Urbana. 

18. The use of fluorescent light in experimental work, by Aubrey 17. 

Naylor , University of Chicago, Chicago. 

19. Trace elements in oats and Sudan grass, by Glenn Bay Noggle, 

University of Illinois, Urbana. 

20. Some mineral deficiency symptoms in plants, by John Skok, Uni¬ 

versity of Chicago, Chicago. 

21. Relation of the effects of seed weight to roots and tops of two varie¬ 

ties of soybeans, by Stanley William Oexemann, University of 
Illinois, Urbana. 

22. The tissue culture technique as a means of studying correlation, by 

Bichard B. Stephenson, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

23. Preliminary studies of the effects of growth substances and light 

intensities on Anacharis densa, by Lawrence J. King, University 
of Chicago, Chicago. 

Turn in papers in final form to Chairman before leaving. 


CHEMISTRY—Geo. H. Reed, Knox College, Galesburg, Chairman. 

Chemistry 200. 

Election of new Chairman. 

1. Cation Exchange in Carbonaceous Ion Exchangers, by Harold F. 

Walton, Northwestern University. 

2. The History of Chemistry as Applied to Photography, by J. H. 

Sammis, Peoria. 

3. Some Modern Products of the Oil Industry, by Gustav Egloff and 

F. M. Van Arsdell, Universal Oil Products Co., Chicago. 

4. Investigations on 3-Hydroxy-5-Cholenic Acid, by Melvin F. 17. 

Dunker and Byron Biegel, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

5. The Oxidation of Trivalent Molybdenum. A Study of the Oxida¬ 

tion of Trivalent Molybdenum Using Bimetallic Electrodes in an 
Electron Tube Circuit, by Sister Mary Martinette, Mundelein 
College, Chicago, and L. F. Yntema, Saint Louis University, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

6. Hydrogen Fluoride as a Condensing Agent, by Sydney Archer, 

Northwestern University, Evanston. 

7. The Connotation of the Word CHANCE as Employed in Elemen¬ 

tary Physical Chemistry and Precautions Urged to Prevent Mis¬ 
conceptions. A Mathematical Treatment with Classroom Appli¬ 
cations, by G. M. Schmeing, Loyola University and Mundelein 
College, Chicago. 

8. The Synthesis of Cancerogenic Hydrocarbons Closely Related to 

the Steroids, by Marvin H. Gold and Byron Biegel, Northwest¬ 
ern University, Evanston. 

9. Separation and Identification of Carbohydrates, by B. 17. Liggett, 

K. M. Gordon and Charles D. Hurd, Northwestern University, 
Evanston. 


— 236 — 







10. Acylols, by F. 0. Green, Greenville. 

11. The Structure of Mixed Hydrogenation Catalysts, by Humbert 

Morris, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

12. Dehydration of Hydrated CdBr 2 . 4H 2 0, by Frank J. Seiler, Gales¬ 

burg High School, Galesburg. 

13. The Surface Tension of Strong Electrolytes, by Malcolm Dole, 

Northwestern University, Evanston. 

Turn in papers to Chairman before you leave. 


GEOGRAPHY—Arthur B. Cozzens, University of Illinois, Urbana, 

Chairman. 

University Hall 309. 

Election of new Chairman. 

A. National Defense: 

1. The disseminated urban area of southern Illinois; its in¬ 

terest to geographers and national defense, by Joseph 
Van Riper, Southern Illinois State Normal University, 
Carbondale. 

2. The factor of position in hemisphere defense, by Clarence 

L. Brown, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

B. Meteorology and climatology: 

3. The drought of central United States in the summer of 

1940, by H. 0. Lathrop, Illinois State Normal Univer¬ 
sity, Normal. 

4. Airway weather station at Carbondale, Illinois, by Erselia 

and Thomas F. Barton, Carbondale. By title. 

C. Regional Geography: 

5. Notes on the geography of the Sudbury, Canada, area, by 

Thomas F. Barton, Southern Illinois State Normal Uni¬ 
versity, Carbondale. By title. 

6. Dothan, Alabama—A city and its intra-regional relation¬ 

ships, by A. W. Booth, University of Illinois, Urbana. 
By title. 

D. Other topics: 

7. Recent progress in Soviet inland waterway transportation, 

by W. 0. Blanchard, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

8. The original vegetation of a glaciated area, by Paul 17. 

Icke, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

9. Rural and municipal water supplies in southern Illinois, by 

Annemarie Krause, Southern Illinois State Normal Uni¬ 
versity, Carbondale. 

10. Gopher-hole barite mining in Washington County, Mis¬ 
souri, by A. B. Cozzens, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Turn papers in to Chairman at end of meeting. 

— 237 — 




GEOLOGY—J. Marvin Weller, Illinois Geological Survey, Urbana, 

Chairman. 

University Hall 301. 

Time limit 10 minutes. 

Election of Chairman for 1942 meeting. 

1. Preglacial Drainage of the Great Lakes Region— R. F. Fisher, Illi¬ 

nois Geological Survey. 

2. Stages of Lake Chicago and Development of the Chicago Outlet— 

G. E. Ekblaw, Illinois Geological Survey. 

3. Age of the Dolomite Exposed at Momence, Illinois— A. H. Sutton, 

University of Illinois. 

4. Mississippian Stratigraphy of Ohio— F. T. Holden, University of 

Chicago. 

5. Devonian Section in Yew Mexico— F. V. Stevenson, University of 

Chicago. 

6. Niagaran Ostracods from Burlington, Wisconsin— R. C. Gutschick, 

Lhniversity of Illinois. 

7. A New Edrioaster from the Upper Ordovician of Northern Illinois 

— C. G. Branson, Northwestern University. 

8. Additional Evidence on the Origin of Conodonts— E. P. DuBois, 

University of Chicago. 

9. Foraminiferal Zoning of the Upper Cretaceous in Western Ala¬ 

bama— R. T 7 . Resting. 

10. Heavy Mineral Studies of the Selma, Ripley and Prairie Bluff For¬ 

mations of Western Alabama — F. C. Osment, University of 
Illinois. 

11. The Sedimentology and Physiography of Wisconsin Glacial Out- 

wash along Chippewa River— L. C. Huff, University of Chicago. 

12. Insoluble Residue Studies of Middle and Upper Devonian Lime¬ 

stone of Southwestern Illinois— E. F. Bushman, University of 
Illinois. 

13. Shape and Roundness of Certain Lake Erie Beach Sands— A. C. 

Lundahl, University of Chicago. 

14. Application of Probability Theory to Sediment Sampling— W. J. 

Plumley, University of Chicago. 

15. The Occurrence of Muscovite in Pegmatites— F. W. Hinrichs, 

Northwestern University. 

16. Analagous Structure in Lead-Zinc Deposits of the Upper Missis¬ 

sippi Valley Type— C. H. Behre, Jr., Northwestern University. 

17. The Chemistry of Lead-Zinc Deposition and the Problem of Zoning 

— R. H. Garrets, Northwestern University. 

18. Roof Irregularities of Coal No. 6 in the Staunton-Gillespie Region 

— A. E. Spotti and J. N. Payne, Illinois Geological Survey. 

19. Constituent Plant Particles in Coal and Their Significance in the 

Study of Coal Type Variation— J. M. Schopf, Illinois Geological 
Survey. 

20. Fusain Determination in Coal by Chemical Analysis and Micro¬ 

scopic Count— C. B. Parks and G. 17. Land, Illinois Geological 
Survey. 


— 238 — 






21. Trenton Production in Illinois— G. T T . Cohee, Illinois Geological 

Survey. 

22. Use of Stereoscope with Aerial Photos in Elementary Geology— 

C. G. Johnson, University of Chicago. 

23. Stereoscopic Pairs Projected in Polarized Light — D. J. Fisher, 

University of Chicago. 

Turn in papers to Chairman before you leave. 


PHYSICS—Philip A. Constantinides, Wright Junior College, Chicago, 

Chairman. 

Election of Chairman for 1942 meeting. 

SECTION A—2:00 p. m.—Physics Lab. 106 

1. Two simple pieces of apparatus for lecture demonstration in gen¬ 

eral physics, by M. Alden Countryman, Illinois Institute of 
Technology, Chicago. 

2. Some experiments with a flicker photometer, by David Steinhaus 

(introduced by R. E. Harris), Lake Forest College, Lake Forest. 

3. The lift and drag forces in a model airplane wing, by IE. H. Hinch, 

Central Scientific Co., Chicago. 

4. Radioactivity tips for the lecture table, by Charles T. Knipp, Uni¬ 

versity of Illinois, Urbana. 

5. The electromagnetically driven tuning fork, by Boland Smith, Jr., 

Northwestern University, Evanston. 

6. The production of Geiger Muller tubes, by Francis B. Shonka, W. 

M. Welch Manufacturing Co., Chicago. 

7. The use of the periodogram in the determination of hidden peri¬ 

odicities, by Theodore G. Phillips, Wright Junior College, 
Chicago. 

8. Fluctuational effects in cosmic-ray ionization, by V. A. Long, 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria. 

9. High dispersion photometry of ultra violet absorption spectra using 

Geiger counters, by E. B. Peck, University of Chicago, Chicago. 

10. The emission spectra of the gaseous nebulae, by Thornton Page, 

University of Chicago, Chicago. 

11. Progress in theory and use of concave gratings, by H. Beutler, 

University of Chicago, Chicago. 

12. General plan and equipment of the new Northwestern University 

physics laboratory, by B. G. Spence, Northwestern University, 
Evanston. 

SECTION B—3 p. m.—Physics Lab. 205 

13. The analysis of an A. C. circuit containing R L, and C, by Frank 

L. Verwiebe, Eastern Illinois State Teachers College, Charleston. 

14. A satisfactory method of measuring the coefficient of friction be¬ 

tween rubber tires and road material, by V. F. Swaim, Bradley 
Polytechnic Institute, Peoria. 


— 239 — 








15. Studies of differences of electric potential in leaves of plants, by 

A. Frances Johnson, Rockford College, Rockford. 

16. Observing and measuring sway in a tall building, by Sister Mary 

Therese, B. V. M., Mundelein College, Chicago. 

17. The metering of projection printing, by Roscoe E. Harris, Lake 

Forest College, Lake Forest. 

18. Internal resistance of polarized cells, by D. L. Eaton, Northern 

Illinois State Teachers College, DeKalb. 

The members and guests of the Physics Section are invited to visit 
the Dearborn Observatory of Northwestern University, after the section 
meeting, where Professor 0. J. Lee, Director of the Observatory, and 
members of the staff, will demonstrate various exhibits and will explain 
the work in progress. In the evening the facilities of the observatory 
will be available for the observation of celestial objects of special interest. 

Turn papers in to Chairman by end of meeting. 


SOCIAL SCIENCE —Chairman, D. E. Lindstrom, University of 

Illinois, Urbana. 

Room 201 Locy. 

Election of Chairman for 1942 meeting. 

1. Social scientists in time of crisis, by Professor Florian Znanieclci, 

University of Illinois. Discussion led by J. W. Alljig, University 
of Illinois, Urbana. 

2. Sociological research in Illinois, by Louis Wirth, University of 

Chicago. Discussion led by Charles E. Howell, Northern Illinois 
State Teachers College, DeKalb. 

3. The end of our public domain, by H. 0 . Lathrop, Illinois State 

Normal University, Normal. Discussion led by TP. H. Voshuil, 
Illinois Geological Survey, Urbana. 

Turn in papers to Chairman by end of meeting. 

PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION—0. Irving Jacobsen, Shurtleff 

College, Alton, Chairman. 

Education 25. 

Time limit 15 minutes. 

Election of Chairman for 1942 meeting. 

1. Some roots of vocational education, by Jordan T. Cavan, Rockford 

College, Rockford. 

2. The need for a vocational philosophy of life, by George B. LaJce, 

Editor “Clinical Medicine,” Waukegan. 

3. Student preferences in divisional studies and their preferential 

activities, by K. S. Yum, University of Chicago. 

4. Attitudes as cues to administrative practice, by J. M. Hughes, 

Northwestern University, Evanston. 




— 240 — 


5. Workers’ education and its implications for vocational guidance, by 

Robert L. Cooke, Wheaton College, Wheaton. 

6. Factual maps to guide personnel guidance, by J. A. Melrose, James 

Millikin University, Decatur. 

7. Vocational guidance for deaf pupils, by Daniel T. Cloud, Illinois 

School for the Deaf, Jacksonville. 

8. Guidance testing, by 0. Irving Jacobsen, Shurtleff College, Alton. 

9. Whither guidance? by Charles E. Decker, Illinois State Normal 

University, Normal. 

Symposium on “Current Problems in Vocational Guidance and 
Education,” with Robert C. Woellner of the University of Chicago pre¬ 
siding. 

Turn in papers to Chairman at end of meeting. 


ZOOLOGY—W. V. Balduf, University of Illinois, Urbana, Chairman. 

SECTION A—Room 309 Locy 

Election of Chairman for 1942 meeting. 

1. Welcome. Professor J. William Buchanan, Chairman, Department 

of Zoology, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

2. Introduction of wild life into southern Illinois, by Clarence Bonnell, 

Harrisburg Township High School, Harrisburg. 

3. A correlation between the rate of heart beat and the state of certain 

chromatophores in the shrimp, Palaemonetes, by Harold H. 
Scudamore, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

4. The effects of formalin on development in the bar-eyed race of 

Drosophila melanogaster, by Bernice Hinshaw, Carrollton. In¬ 
troduced by W. M. Luce, University of Illinois. 

5. Analysis of banding of the chimney swift at Charlottesville, Vir¬ 

ginia, by J. B. Calhoun, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

6. Additional records of central Illinois mammals, by E. J. Koestner, 

University of Illinois, Urbana. (By title.) 

7. The effect of castration and treatment with ethinyl testosterone on 

the development of the gonopodium of Gambusa affinis, by Lyle 
St. Amant, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

8. Bacterial response to growth stimulants, by Seward E. Owen, 

United States Veterans Administration, Hines. 

9. Unique flight-formation of blackbirds, by Clarence L. Brown, 

Northwestern University, Evanston. 

10. Modification of a tropism in Lumbricus terrestris, by James 

Sanders, Chicago Teachers College, Chicago, and R. J. Wherry, 
University of North Carolina. 

11. Symposium. Animal Geography of Illinois. 

a. Insects— Herbert H. Ross, State Natural History Survey, 

Urbana. 

b. Fishes— David H. Thompson, State Natural History Sur¬ 

vey, Urbana. 

c. Eeptiles and Amphibians — Howard K. Gloyd, Chicago 

Academy of Science, Chicago. 

— 241 — 





d. Water Fowl— Arthur S. Hawlrins, State Natural History 

Survey, Urbana. 

e. Ecological Distribution of Illinois Birds— 8. Charles Ken- 

deigh, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

f. Mammals-— Carl 0. Mohr, State Natural History Survey, 

Urbana. 

SECTION B—Room 201 Locy 

1. Welcome. Professor J. William Buchanan, Chairman, Department 

of Zoology, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

2. The family life of the Least Bittern, by Charles K. Carpenter, 

Baileyville. 

3. Analysis of activity of the lizard, Cnemidophorus sexlineatus, by 

A. A. Barden, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

4. Observations from a study of the extrahepatic biliary tract in 

mammalia, by Stewart C. Thomson, School of Medicine, Loyola 
LTniversity, Chicago. 

5. A quantitative sampler for aquatic vegetation, by Bertrand A. 

Wright, Oak Park. 

6. The effects of carbon dioxide on Daphnia, by H. Ederstrom, North¬ 

western LTniversity, Evanston. 

7. Relative abundance of Cyclocephala immaculata and C. borealis at 

Urbana, by Garland T. Riegel, State Natural History Survey, 
Urbana. 

8. Abortive ovogenesis in Valvata tricarinata, by C. L. Furrow, Knox 

College, Galesburg. 

9. Distribution and food habits of the mammals of Reelfoot Lake 

region, by J. B. Calhoun, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

10. Symposium. Endocrinology. 

a. Status of our Knowledge regarding Hormonal Activities in 

Invertebrates, by Frank A. Brown, Jr., Northwestern 
University, Evanston. 

b. Hormonal Control of Reproduction and Secondary Sex 

Characters in Fishes, by C. L. Turner, Northwestern 
University, Evanston. 

c. Status of our Knowledge with regard to the Endocrine 

Physiology of the Ovary, by C. Donnell Turner, North¬ 
western University, Evanston. 

Turn papers in to Chairman by end of meeting. 


— 242 — 






GENERAL INFORMATION 

SENIOR ACADEMY REGISTRATION AND HEADQUARTERS 

Scott Hall, Northwestern University 

Telegrams and other messages may be sent to individuals in care of 
Mr. H. B. Ward, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, and called 
for at the registration desk in Scott Hall. Changes of schedule or pro¬ 
gram and other special announcements will be posted near the informa¬ 
tion desk. 

Secure tickets for the banquet before 10:30 a. m., Friday, May 2, at 
the registration desk. If you can not arrive by that time and wish 
tickets, send check or money order to reach Mr. H. B. Ward, Department 
of Geology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, before Wednes¬ 
day, April 30. For your convenience a printed form is enclosed. 

Tickets for the field trips should be secured by 5 :00 p. m. on Fri¬ 
day, May 2, in order that sufficient accommodations may be available. 
Tickets will cost 30 cents and they can be secured at the information 
desk, Scott Hall. 


Hotel and Room Accommodations 

Persons wishing hotel accommodations should write as soon as pos¬ 
sible directly to the hotel desired. May 1-3 is a very bad time for hotels 
in Evanston since this is the active renting season. Nevertheless the 
Committee on Local Arrangements has called in person at every hotel 
and feels sure that all necessary accommodations can be secured. The 
following Hotels will receive requests for reservations: 

North Shore Hotel, 1611 Chicago Avenue, Evanston. 

Pembridge Hotel, 1406 Chicago Avenue, Evanston. 

Evanshire Hotel, 860 Hinman Avenue, Evanston. 

Evanston Hotel, 840 Forest Avenue, Evanston. 

Ridgeview Hotel, 901 Maple Avenue, Evanston. 

Library Plaza Hotel, 1637 Orrington Avenue, Evanston. 

The Homestead Hotel, 1625 Hinman Avenue, Evanston. 

The Georgian Hotel, 422 Davis Street, Evanston. 

The Y. M. C. A., 1000 Grove Street, Evanston. 

The Y. M. C. A. is for men only, and the rooms do not have baths, 
but showers are available near at hand. The price is therefore less than 
for other hotels, from $1.50-$1.75 per person. At the Northshore and 
the Homestead the rates are from $3.50 to $4.00 for single rooms and 
about $2.50 to $3.00 for two persons in a room. At the other hotels the 
rates run around $2.00 to $2.50 per person. Rates may be as low as 
$2.00 per person providing people of the same sex, or married couples, 
will arrange to share connecting rooms and a bath with friends. It is 
strongly urged that groups coming from the same or adjacent cities aim 
to make their reservations in a group so as to make use of the type of 


—243 



accommodations just mentioned. All of the Hotels are within walking 
distance. The Evanston and Evanshire are about one mile from the 
campus and the Ridgeview is about a mile and a quarter, but buses run 
near them which take passengers to within a few blocks, about two or 
three, of the campus. 

JUNIOR ACADEMY REGISTRATION AND HEADQUARTERS 

Evanston Township High School, Evanston 

Telegrams and other messages may be sent to individuals in care of 
Mr. Ben Edman, Evanston Township High School, Evanston, and can 
be obtained at the registration desk at the High School. Changes of 
schedule or program or other special announcements will be posted at 
the registration desk. 

Housing facilities for out-of-town guests attending the Junior Sec¬ 
tion will be provided in private homes and/or similar types of residence 
of Evanston High School students at a minimum cost. Reservations 
should be made in advance with Mr. Ben Edman, Evanston Township 
High School, Evanston, Illinois. Private homes—50 cents per person 
which may or may not include breakfast. Further announcement on this 
point will be made in response to reservations sent, or at the registration 
desk. 

Reservations for the banquet should be made in advance with Mr. 
Edman or purchased at the registration desk before 10 :00 a. m. on Fri¬ 
day, May 2nd. 

SPECIAL NOTICE TO THOSE COMING BY AUTOMOBILE 

It will be wise for those coming by automobile to avoid going 
through the main part of the city of Chicago. Routes should be planned 
which give access to Evanston from the west. Route 58 can be used to 
McCormick Road or one can drive in on Dempster Street. Maps will be 
furnished on request to your Committee on Local Arrangements. The 
Evanston High School is located at Dodge and Church Streets, and Scott 
Hall is at University Place and Sheridan Road. 



(A-43445) 




STATE OF ILLINOIS 
Dwight H. Green, Governor 

Transactions 

of the 

ILLINOIS STATE 
ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


Volume 33 


June, 1941 


Number 4 


Minutes of Council Meetings 
Minutes of Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting 
Reports of Officers and Committees 
Junior Academy Awards 



Printed by the Illinois State Academy of Science 

Affiliated with the 

State Museum Division, Centennial Building 
SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS 













TRANSACTIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


Vols. 23 and following are free to members, except for mailing costs. 
Non-members may obtain copies if proper arrangements can be made 
with the Librarian, Illinois State Museum, Springfield, Illinois. 

Note: Each member is entitled to only one copy of each issue. 
Extra separates if desired should be ordered by author at the time 
proof is returned; if extra copies of the entire volume are desired, 
special arrangements must be made with the Librarian before the 
issue goes to press. 



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TRANSACTIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
Volume 33 June, 1941 Number 4 


CONTENTS 


PAGE 

Minutes of meetings of the 1940-41 Council.251 

Reports of 1940-41 officers: 

Secretary. Minutes of thirty-fourth annual business meeting, Evanston, and 


report of Nominations.254 

Treasurer.256 

Auditing committee’s report.257 

Editor.257 

Librarian . .. 258 

Reports of committees and delegates for 1940-41: 

Affiliations. .259 

Conservation (Paragraph 6. Third Council Meeting Report) .... 252 

Resolutions.263 

Conservation Council.264 

Conservation of archaeological and historical sites.264 

Publications.258 

A. A. A. S. Research Grants ..265 

A. A. A. S. Conference Delegate.265 

Delegate to dedication of Natural Resources Building at Urbana . . . 266 

High School science and clubs.266 

Report on “Science Aids Service,” Junior Academy publication ..... 267 

Winner of awards, Junior Academy.. 268 

List of High School science clubs. 273 


The index to Volume 33 will accompany the September number of Vol. 34 


249 












STATE OF ILLINOIS 
Dwight LI. Green, Governor 

DEPARTMENT OF REGISTRATION AND EDUCATION 
Frank M. Thompson, Director 

STATE MUSEUM DIVISION 
Thorne Deuel, Chief 


ILLINOIS ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
Affiliated with the 
Illinois State Museum 

Officers for 1941-1942 


President: T. H. Frison 
Natural History Survey, Urbana 


First Vice President: F. M. Fryxell 
Augustana College, Rock Island 


Second Vice President: Geo. E. Ekblaw 
Geological Survey, Urbana 


Secretary: R. F. Paton 
University of Illinois, Urbana 


Treasurer: John Voss 
Manual Training High School, Peoria 


Librarian: Thorne Deuel 
Illinois State Museum, Springfield 

Junior Academy Representative: Mary Creager 

Vienna 

Editor: Grace Needham Oliver 
State Geological Survey, Urbana 


In addition to the officers, the Academy Council for 1941-42 includes the last two 
retiring presidents: Evelyn I. Eernald, Rockford College, Rockford, and V. O. Graham, 
4028 Grace St., Chicago. 


Printed June, 1941 


MINUTES of MEETING of 1940-41 COUNCIL of the 
ILLINOIS STATE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


The first meeting was called to order by Dr. T. H. Prison, the vice-president, as Dr. V. 
O. Graham, the president-elect, was unable to be present. Members of the Council present 
were Dr. Fernald, Dr. Fuller, Dr. Moulton, Miss Hill and the secretary. The staff of 
officers responsible for the affairs of the Academy for the coming year was reviewed and 
found complete. In order to improve the support which the Senior Academy could give the 
Junior group, it was voted to establish a new grade of membership called sustaining. This 
membership would be available to interested firms and scientific societies at a minimum 
annual dues of $10,00. It was agreed that all income from such members would be used by 
the Senior Academy to support the work of the Junior group. The secretary was instructed 
to proceed with the membership committee to solicit such members. There being no other 
business requiring the attention of the council, it was agreed that the council would con¬ 
vene in November at the time of the High School Conference at Urbana, after which it 
was voted to adjourn. 

(Signed) R. F. Paton, Secretary 


The second meeting was called to order by President Graham at 2:00 p.m., November 
2, 1940, in room 132, Natural Resources Building. All the members of the council were 
present. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The Treasurer’s report indicated a balance of $114.00 in the bank, with some rather 
large bills remaining unpaid from the Junior Academy account. On motion, a small print¬ 
ing bill was approved for payment. 

The Council approved the new sustaining membership and agreed that funds from 
such memberships should all go to the support of the Junior Academy. On motion of Dr. 
Fernald it was agreed to present this in the form of an amendment to the Constitution of 
the Academy at the next annual business meeting. 

An invitation from the State Natural History Survey and the State Geological Survey 
to send a representative to the dedication ceremony of the new Natural Resources Building 
was presented. On motion, Drs. Graham and Paton were appointed to represent the 
Academy at the ceremony. 

A request for the privilege to recognize a new social science section under the auspices 
of the Academy was presented and approval voted by the Council. T he Secretary was in¬ 
structed to communicate with the group and to instruct them to proceed as planned. 

T he resignation of Dr. Gloyd as chairman of the committee on affiliation was accepted 
and Dr. lldrem Daniel was appointed his successor. 

Mrs. Creager, representing the Junior Academy on the Council was instructed to 
furnish the nominating committee with a slate for the Junior Academy at the time of the 
annual meeting. 

After some discussion, on recommendation of the President, Mr. O. D. Frank was 
appointed chairman of exhibits for the Junior Academy and John E. Coe chairman of 
arrangements. 

A communication from Dr. Charles Behre, Jr., inquiring if the Academy would be 
interested in cooperating with the American Society of Scientific Workers in an essay 
contest to be held in connection with the annual meeting was read. Dr. Fuller was ap¬ 
pointed to discuss the details with Prof. Behre and make recommendations at the next 
Council meeting. 

Because of the excellent facilities which would be available, it was voted to accept the 
invitation from Northwestern University at Evanston to hold the general and sectional 
division meetings of the annual meeting at that institution and to proceed as originally 
planned to cooperate with the museums in Chicago in regard to inspection trips on Satur¬ 
day. Dr. Moulton, second vice-president, was instructed to arrange details. 


251 








252 


Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


A letter from the Kansas State Academy of Science asking if the Illinois Academy had 
developed any activity in science which would be available for the students of college level 
was read. 

Dr. Fernald pointed out that there had already been considerable discussion of the 
problem at Rockford and that a need was felt for such work. The President was instructed 
to appoint a committee to investigate the possibility of developing sections in which college 
students could report on scientific investigations. 

There being no further business, the meeting adjourned at 5:00 p.m. with the under¬ 
standing that the Council meet again in Chicago in February to complete plans for the 
annual meeting. 

(Signed) R. F. Paton, Secretary 


The third meeting was called to order by President Graham at 11:30 a.m. Saturday, 
February 8, 1941, at the University Club, 1704 Hinman Avenue, Evanston, Illinois. 
Besides several members of the local committee on arrangements, nine members of the 
council were present. 

The main business of the meeting was a discussion of the program and arrangements 
for the annual meeting in May. After the reading and approval of the minutes of the 
previous meeting President Graham called for announcements of plans for this meeting. 
Formal appreciation and acceptance of President Snyder’s invitation to hold the meeting 
at Northwestern was voted unanimously and the committee on program was instructed 
to invite President Snyder to address the Academy at the general session Friday morning, 
May 2. The secretary reported that he had heard from each section chairman and that 
plans for the program ol each section seemed well under way. Dr. Moulton outlined the 
local plans and it was agreed that these seemed shaping up nicely. 

On voted motion, President Graham appointed Drs. Fernald, Fuller, Paton and Wan- 
less as a nominating committee to prepare a slate for 1941-42 to be presented for election 
at the meeting in May. At 12:30 the Council adjourned briefly for luncheon. Business was 
resumed formally at 1:30. It was moved, seconded and voted that Dr. Asteil be encouraged 
to continue the publication of Science Aids Service and that he be assured of continued 
support from the Illinois group. 

On motion it was voted that the Academy accept the invitation of the University of 
Chicago to send delegates to their 50th Anniversary Celebration next fall and that Dr. 
Fernald and Dr. Graham be these delegates. 

A tentative report of the Academy’s A. A. A. S. delegate, Dr. T homas, was read. 
General appreciation of the support given both the Junior and Senior Academy by the 
national organization was expressed. 

The Secretary read a letter from the National Research Council inquiring concerning 
the desire of the Academy to cooperate with the National Defense Program. It was agreed 
that the State Academy Committee on Conservation of Natural Resources would be in 
position to cooperate with the National Government in many ways and the secretary was 
instructed to inform the National Research Council of this fact. 

Some time w r as spent in discussion of details of the Junior Academy plans for the 
annual meeting and a committee was sent to contact local school officials. This committee 
reported back favorably. 

Possibilities for cooperating with local museums in connection with the annual meet¬ 
ing were discussed and it was agreed that several trips to these museums by interested 
groups among the Academy members would be arranged for Saturday morning, May 3. 

After some discussion of publicity arrangements for the annual meeting the council 
adjourned at 4:00 p.m. 

(Signed) R. F. Paton, Secretary 



Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting 


253 


The fourth council meeting of the Illinois Academy of Science for 1940-1941 was called 
to order by President Graham at 7:30 p.m. at the University Club, 140 Hinman Avenue, 
Evanston, Illinois, May 1, 1941. 

Those present were Officers Behre, Creager, Deuel, Fernald, Frison, Fuller, Graham, 
Hill, Moulton, Oliver, Paton, Voss. 

Minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The main business of the council was a checking of details for the forthcoming annual 
meeting with the local committee on arrangements. It was evident that an excellent job 
had been done in planning by these men, and no difficulty was encountered. 

The council received an invitation from President Willard of the University of Illinois 
to hold the next meeting at Urbana and voted unanimously to accept it. 

There was some informal discussion of the reports of officers to be presented in the 
annual business meeting the next day. It was agreed that the editorial fee should not be 
dropped in view of the difficulties of the times. 

The council was pleased to note that sustaining memberships had yielded $245.00 for 
Junior Academy support and there was a fair chance that these funds would enable the 
Junior group to complete their year with all bills paid. 

People to fill vacancies in the council and committees of the Academy were discussed 
and a few suggestions were made for use of the nominating committee to be appointed the 
next morning. 

Possible dates for the annual meeting were reviewed, there being some objection to 
the present tradition of the first week end in May. The same time was agreed on for next 
year as it was discovered that any change would cause more serious conflicts than those 
encountered under the present scheme. 

The payment of the bill for postage incurred by the Secretary in canvassing for new 
members was presented and approved for payment. 

The support for Science News Service requested by Mr. Astell was also voted ap¬ 
proved. 

Miss Hill announced that the winners of awards in the Junior Academy had been 
invited to speak over N. B. C. and that arrangements had been made for this for 10:30 
a.m. Saturday morning at the Chicago Station WMAQ. 

Miss Hill announced the formation of the Southern Division of the Illinois Junior 
Academy and told of a very successful meeting held at Carbondale. This group asked to 
affiliate with the other scientific groups of the State Academy and the council voted 
unanimously to grant this request for affiliation. Just what support the Senior Academy 
could give such groups was discussed and it was felt that special requests for support 
should come from the group itself. 

Other possible divisions were discussed and it was recommended that the nominating 
committee be advised to put a representative from each Normal school in the state on the 
Advisory Committee of the Junior Academy to foster this movement. 

The bill for traveling expenses for Mrs. Creager and Miss Hill was approved by special 
vote of the council. (For attending February Council meeting.) 

The time and place for the fall council meeting was decided upon so that it would 
coincide with that of the High School Conference at Urbana. 

The meeting was adjourned at 10:30 p.m. 

(Signed) R. F. Paton, Secretary 






254 


Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


REPORTS FOR 1940-1941 


Secretary: 

Preliminary business meeting, Northwestern University Campus, Evanston, May 2, 
1941, 9:15 a.m. 

Called to order in Cahn Auditorium, Scott Hall. No minutes read at this meeting. 

President appointed Committees as follows: 

Nominating: Drs. Fernald, Fuller, Wanless. 

Resolutions: Clarence Bonnell, Wilbur Luce, Harold B. Ward. 

Auditing: Walter W. Thomas, Henry R. Pratt, A. G. Adamson. 

Meeting adjourned till 5:00 p.m. same place. 

Final Business Meeting: 

Called to order and minutes read of preliminary meeting. 

Reports of officers and of standing committees called for and turned in to Secretary 
for publication in this issue. 

The following amendment to the constitution was proposed and voted on favorably: 

Article III, paragraph 1, to be changed to read, “Membership in the 
Academy shall consist of national, local, and sustaining members.” 

(Italics indicate addition.) 

and, as a consequence of this amendment, Article IV is to include the following paragraph: 

“Sustaining members are those individuals or affiliated societies or 
other organizations who pay an annual dues of at least $10.00. Funds 
from such members are to be used by the Senior Academy to help 
further the program of the Junior Academy in such manner as the 
council of the Senior Academy shall by majority vote determine.” 

The nominating committee submitted a slate of officers for the ensuing year which 
was voted on favorably and is printed following this report. 

Meeting adjourned, so that members could attend the annual banquet, held at the 
North Shore Hotel where awards were made by the State Archaeological Society to 
Charles E. Brown, Madison, Wis. and to J. B. Ruyle, Champaign, Ill. After the ban¬ 
quet, the group adjourned to Scott Hall, where Dr. Frank Buchsbaum presented a most 
enlightening and enjoyable colored moving picture and lecture on “A Tropical Rain 
Forest in Barro Colorado Island, Panama.” 

(Signed) R. F. Paton, Secretary 

OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES OF THE ILLINOIS ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 

1941-1942 

President: T. H. Prison, Natural History Survey, Urbana. 

First Vice President: F. M. Fryxell, Augustana College, Rock Island. 

Second Vice President: Geo. E. Ekblaw, Geological Survey, Urbana. 

Secretary: R. F. Paton, Physics Department, University of Illinois. 

Treasurer: John Voss, Manual d raining High School, Peoria. 

Librarian: Thorne Deuel, Illinois State Museum, Springfield. 

Editor: Grace Needham Oliver, Geological Survey, Urbana. 

Junior Academy Representative: Mrs. Mary Creager, Vienna High School, Vienna. 
Junior Academy Representative Assistant: Allen R. Moore, Cicero. 



Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting 


255 


Committee on Conservation: H. J. 
Van Cleave, Chairman , University 
of Illinois. 

M. M. Leighton, Ill. Geological Survey. 
W. H. H aas, Northwestern University. 
W. M. Gersbacher, Carbondale. 

David D. Lansden, Cairo. 

Paul Houdek, Robinson. 

Geo. Bennett, Natural Hist. Survey. 

R. S. Smith, University of Illinois. 

W. C. Allee, University of Chicago. 

E. L. Stover, Charleston. 

Rev. Geo. M. Link, Grafton. 

Committee on Legislation and Fi¬ 
nance: H. B. Ward, Chairman , 
Univ. of Illinois. 

Fay-Cooper Cole, Univ. of Chicago. 

F. W. Aldrich, 1506 E. Washington St., 

Bloomington. 

F. S. Bastin, Univ. of Chicago. 

B. S. Hopkins, Univ. of Illinois. 

Committee on Affiliations: Ildrem 
Daniel, Chairman , Chicago Schools. 
Paul E. Klopsteg, Cent. Scientific Co. 
Chicago. 

V. F. Swaim, Bradley Polytechnic In¬ 

stitute, Peoria. 

Clarence Bonnell, Harrisburg. 

Glenn Warner, Wilson Jr. College, Chi. 
H. K. Gloyd, Chicago Acad, of Science, 
Chi. 

Committee on Membership: J. F. Coe, 
Chairman , Chicago. 

J. H. Reedy, Univ. of Illinois. 

L. J. Bockstahler, Northwestern Univ. 

N. D. Cheronis, 5556 Ardmore Ave., Chi. 

J. F. Stanfield, Chicago Normal School, 

Chi. 

Geo. F. Ekblaw, Natural Resources 
Bldg., Urbana. 

Floyd Barloga, Peoria. 

G. N. Hufford, Joliet. 

W. B. Welsh, Carbondale. 

D. L. Eaton, DeKalb. 

K. G. Larson, Augustana College, Rock 

Island. 

Committee on Conservation of Ar¬ 
cheological and Historic Sites: 
F. C. Cole, Chairman , Univ. of Chi. 
F. W. Aldrich, Bloomington. 

M. J. Herskovits, Northwestern Univ. 

M. M. Leighton, Ill. Geological Survey. 
Bruce W. Merwin, Carbondale. 

J. B. Ruyle, Champaign. 

H. B. Ward, LJniv. of Illinois. 

Committee on Research Grants from 
A. A. A. S.: 

W. C. Rose, University of Illinois. 

L. Hanford TifFany, Northwestern Univ. 


H. J. Van Cleave, Univ. of Illinois. 

H. E. Way, Knox College. 

R. S. Smith, Univ. of Illinois. 

Committee on Budget: 

C. L. Furrow, Knox College, Galesburg. 

John Voss, Manual d raining High School, 
Peoria. 

W. H. Voskuil, State Geological Survey, 
Urbana. 

Committee on Publications: 

T. H. Frison, ex-officio. 

R. F. Paton, ex-officio. 

Neil E. Stevens, Univ. of Illinois. 

H. J. Van Cleave, Univ. of Illinois. 

Committee on Ecological Biblio¬ 
graphy: 

A. G. Vestal, Univ. of Illinois. 

Committee on High School Science 
and Clubs: 

Chairman: Mrs. Mary Creager, Vienna. 

Assistant Chairman: Allen R. Moore, 
Cicero. 

Chairman of Exhibits: John C. Ayres, 
Normal. 

Assistant Chairman of Exhibits: Dwight 
L. Barr, Chicago. 

Co-Chairman of Judging: John Chiddix, 
Normal, and Harry Givens, Joliet. 

Editor: “Science Club Service’’—Louis A. 
Astell, University High School, 
Urbana. 

Correspondent: Blanche McEvoy, Nor¬ 
mal. 

Contributing Editor: Audry Hill, Chester. 

Radio Chairman: Rosalie M. Parr, 
Urbana. 

Advisory Committee: 

Lyell J. Thomas, Univ. of Illinois. 

S. Aleta McEvoy, Rockford. 

C. W. Whitten, Chicago. 

J. W. Neckers, Carbondale. 

L. W. Miller, Normal. 

Mrs. Dorothy Phipps, Chicago. 

O. L. Railback, Charleston. 

H. Waldo Horrabin, Macomb. 

C. E. Montgomery, DeKalb. 

Delegate to A. A. A. S.: R. F. Paton, 
University of Illinois Physics Dept., 
Urbana. 

Delegate to Conservation Council: 
V. O. Graham, 4028 Grace Street, 
Chi. 

Publicity Director: J. S. Ayars, 
Natural History Survey, Urbana. 






256 


Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


General Chairman Annual Meeting 
1942: Geo. E. Ekblaw, Geological 
Survey, Urbana. 


Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) Evelyn I. Fernald, Chairman 
Geo. D. Fuller 
Harold R. Wanless. 


Treasurer: 


Reports 


For the fiscal year May 1, 1940 to April 30, 1941 

Receipts 


Balance on hand April 30, 1940.$ 692.12 

Dues and initiation fees: 

Annual members.$682.76 

Libraries. 1.00 683.76 


Sale of Transactions. 

Editorial and excess pages fees.... 
Research grants by the A. A. A. S 
Junior Academy: 

Dues and initiation fees. 

Grants for trophies. 

Sustaining memberships. 


Expenditures 

Expenses of the Annual Meeting, Galesburg, 1940: 

Officers’ expenses. 

Annual addresses . 

Section Chairmen, expenses. 


5.00 

122.00 

200.00 


106.40 

6.00 

245.00 357.40 


$2060.88 


43.08 

41.50 

45.83 130.41 


Expenses of Editor of Transactions. 

Expenses of President. 

Expenses of Treasurer. 

Postage and Transportation of Transactions 

Printing of Transactions. 

Zinc etching. 

Printing of programs. 

Council Dinners, Urbana and Evanston. 


Research grants: 

C. L. Furrow. 75.00 

Frank O. Green. 75.00 

Fred R. Cagle. 50.00 


10.00 

6.12 

.90 

69.62 

234.30 

10.56 

12.75 

23.37 


200.00 


V. O. Graham, delegate expenses. 13.50 

Secretary, honorarium. 150.00 

Editor, honorarium. 150.00 

Conservation Council. 2.00 

Bank charges. 3.50 

Junior Academy: 

Honorarium, Editor Science Service. 10.00 

Exhibit expenses. 3.00 

Officers’ expenses. 76.54 

Trophies. 52.37 

Printing certificates. 28.33 

Films. 44.94 










































Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting 


257 


Printing Science Club Service. 10.00 

Refund on Trophy. . 3.05 

Balance in Commercial Merchants National Bank and Trust Company of 

Peoria. 815.62 


$2060.88 


Statement of Resources, April 30, 1941 

815.62 

value 
un¬ 
known 

value 
un¬ 
known 


3 815.62 

The membership of the Academy consists of 67 life members, 530 members paid up 
to and including the year 1941, 148 members one year in arrears, 75 members two years in 
arrears, and 49 members three years in arrears. 

The total membership is 888 which includes 68 new members but does not include the 
members who are three years in arrears. 

During the year 16 members have resigned, 7 have died, and 43 have removed leaving 
no forwarding address. 

The Academy has added 6 new Junior Academies, 27 are fully paid up, 12 are one year 
in arrears, 17 two years in arrears, and 6 three years in arrears. 

Too much praise cannot be given Doctors Moulton, Paton and McCabe for their 
efforts in behalf of the Sustaining memberships. Two hundred forty-five dollars were 
added to the treasury by the new sustaining members. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) John Voss, Treasurer 


Balance in Commercial Merchants National Bank and Trust Company, of Peoria 
Certificate of Deposit No. 760 for Meyer Block Bonds (Chicago) for an Aggregate 
Principal Amount of 3300.00. 

Certificate of Interest No. 13 for Forbes Building (Chicago) for original value of 
3300.00. 


This is to certify that we have examined the preceding accounts for the year May 1, 
1940 to May 1, 1941, and find them correct. The balance of 3815.62 is on deposit with the 
Commercial Merchants National Bank and Trust Co., of Peoria. 

(Signed) Walter W. Thomas, Chairman 
Henry R. Pratt 
A. G. Adamson 


Editor: 

Four issues of the Transactions have been published since the last report, three 
of these with State funds. Although it appears that the Academy will have sufficient 
moneys to sustain publication during the ensuing biennium, it is deemed advisable to 
continue the editorial fee assessment of one dollar per article of two pages in length. It is 
hoped that a better quality paper for halftone reproduction can be used in the December, 
1941 issue. 

(Signed) Grace Needham Oliver, Editor 












258 


Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


Publications Committee: 

The two-column format employed for the past two years in the December issue is 
considered a successful experiment and will be continued (1) to make for legibility, (2) to 
economize in printing costs, and (3) to save on reprint cost to authors. 

Copy from authors is definitely better in form, due to use of double spaced manu¬ 
scripts, separate mounting of illustrations, and an understanding of the proper length (1200 
words) for a 2-page printed article. The plan of having articles in shape to turn over to 
chairmen at the annual meeting has worked for a better publication and a more timely one. 

The Publications Committee concurs with the Council in advising continuation of the 
editorial fee to help defray high printing costs. 

(Signed) V. O. Graham 


Li BRARIAN : 

During the past year a total of ten institutions have been added to the Academy 
exchange list. Sets of the Transactions, so far as it was possible to supply them, were sent 
in exchange for complete files of the publications of these institutions. To date a total of 
sixty-five institutions are now exchanging their publications for those of the Illinois 
State Academy of Science. 

A total of 253 copies of the Transactions were mailed by the Librarian in response to 
special requests, most of these requests coming from new members, and institutions lack¬ 
ing certain issues. 

In accordance with a policy recently adopted by many scientific societies, both here 
and abroad, the Librarian has notified exchange institutions of Europe that their copies 
of the Transactions are being held in storage for the duration of the war after which they 
shall be sent. 

The mailing list of the Academy, the plates for which are filed in the multigraph 
bureau, has been checked and kept up to date. Corrections have been received from the 
Treasurer, and in addition plates have been removed when Transactions were returned 
to the Librarian. New exchanges only have been added by the Librarian. 

Twenty-five copies of the mailing list were supplied to the Secretary. 

During the past year the following surplus publications were received from the mul¬ 


tigraph bureau and placed in storage: 

Volume 32 No. 4, received July 6, 1940.317 copies. 

Index to Volume 32 received Oct. 22, 1940.441 copies. 

Volume 33 No. 1 received Oct. 22, 1940.333 copies. 

Volume 33 No. 2 received Feb. 10, 1941.336 copies. 

Volume 33 No. 3 received April 8, 1941 .229 copies. 


During the year the supply of the following numbers became exhausted: Volume 1, 
Volume 23 No. 4, Volume 26 No. 1. Altogether the following issues are now entirely out 
of print: 

Volumes 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22. 

V olume 23 numbers 2, 3, and 4. 

Volume 24 numbers 3, and 4. 

Volume 25 number 1. 












Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting 


259 


Volume 27 number 3. 

Volume 28, number 3. 

Volume 29, number 3. 

Volume 30, number 3. 

Volume 31 number 3. 

During the past year arrangements for an exchange of publications were made with 
the following scientific organizations: 

1. Geological Survey of Alabama, University, Alabama. 

2. New Hampshire Academy of Science, Durham, New Hampshire. 

3. Texas Academy of Science, College Station, Texas. 

4. South Carolina Academy of Science, Columbia, South Carolina. 

5. U. S. S. R. Society for cultural relations with Foreign Countries, Moscow, Russia. 

6. Illinois State Archaeological Society, 604 Caroline, Peoria, Illinois. 

7. Academy of Science of St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri. 

8. Southern California Academy of Sciences, Los Angeles, California. 

9. Louisiana Academy of Science, Louisiana State University Library, University, 

Louisiana. 

10. Iowa Academy of Science, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) Thorne Deuel, Librarian 


Committee on Affiliations: 

The committee is pleased to report a request for affiliation with the academy and a 
sustaining membership in it by the Chicago Biology Round Table, Chicago, Illinois. This 
organization is composed of teachers of biology in and near Chicago and others who are 
interested in the study and progress of the biological sciences. It has been continually 
active since its foundation in 1898 and at the present time has an active membership of 
about two hundred. It has eight dinner meetings during the school year and takes an all¬ 
day field trip each spring and fall. The Chicago Biology Round Table was active in the 
founding of the National Association of Biology Teachers, and was honored to have its 
president chosen as the first president of the association. 

The Illinois Academy of Science welcomes the Chicago Biology Round Table as one of 
its affiliated societies. 

The Southern Illinois Division of the Junior Academy of Science, which is 
now welcomed as an affiliated society of the Senior Academy, held its first meeting in 
April at Southern Illinois State Normal University, Carbondale. Over 30 high schools 
were represented. Miss Audry Hill, Chester, and Mrs. Mary Creager, Vienna, were instru¬ 
mental in bringing together this enthusiastic group of promising scientific workers. 

Your committee of affiliation is pleased to submit reports ot the activities of the fol¬ 
lowing affiliated societies and organizations for the year: 

Alpha Eta Chapter, Theta Chi Delta of Carthage College, Carthage, Illinois, reports 
an active year in which many papers have been presented on current problems and dis¬ 
coveries in the field of chemistry. During the course of the year, the senior members of 
the chapter have reported on their senior research problems. T his year these have in¬ 
cluded reports on sulfanilamide derivatives and vapor pressures of the orthoformic esters. 
The report was submitted by Mary E. Gent, Secretary. 


260 


Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


Beta Pi Sigma, St. Xavier College, Chicago, Illinois, holds its meetings on the 
first Tuesday of each month from October through May. Social meetings are omitted 
from this account. 

November: Four papers were given by representatives from each department. Mary 
Corkery from the Biology department discussed the Relations of Insects to Man and il¬ 
lustrated her lecture with pictures and specimens of the different insects mentioned. 
Marie Beyer of the Math department gave a short history of mathematics and its relation 
to the other sciences. Practical experiments in physics were demonstrated by Betty 
Barrett. Kathleen O’Donnell read a paper on the relation of chemistry to national defense. 
This meeting was attended by students and members of the faculty. 

January: Short movies were shown pertaining to the lives of Louis Pasteur, Florence 
Nightingale, Robert Koch, and others, A comic skit on “How to Live Well” was also given. 

March: A business meeting was held at which it was decided to donate a picture of 
Linnaeus to the Biology department and one of Pasteur to the new Science hall. This 
building was formally opened at a tea dance on February 23. It has four laboratories (1) 
quantitative and organic, (2) general and qualitative, (3) physical chemistry and research, 
(4) physics. There are also a lecture room, library, faculty offices, and animal room. The 
building replaces the old Rosslyn Annex. Representatives from the club were sent to the 
Youth Program of the seventh annual Chemurgic conference at the Stevens Hotel on 
March 28. Reports of the meeting were given at the next meeting. 

May: Representatives will be sent to the annual meeting of the Illinois State Academy 
of Science. A report will be given by them to those students who cannot attend. A farewell 
party for the seniors in The Division of Exact and Experimental Sciences will be held late 
in May. 

The Beta Pi Sigma will act as hostesses for the student affiliate meeting of the Ameri¬ 
can Chemical Society. Papers are to be presented by students from almost every college 
in the Chicago area. 

(Signed) Kathleen O’Donnell, President 

The Cyclothem Club, Urbana, Illinois, derives its name from the sequence of sedi¬ 
mentation of the same name, which sequence is especially well shown in the Illinois section 
of the Pennsylvania rocks. 

The Cyclothem Club is concluding a successful year of programs on May 20, 1941, 
when Dr. George V. Cohee, of the Oil and Gas Division of the Illinois State Geological 
Survey, is to discuss the Geology of the Illinois Oil Fields. During the school year 1940- 
1941, the club sponsored talks on various subjects by several noted geologists, who are 
well acquainted with their particular fields. Interspersed with these meetings were other 
meetings at which students, both graduate and undergraduate, presented papers recording 
their experiences of the past summer in field work, or accounts of research problems 
handled during the school year. In addition to these topics, two meetings were devoted 
to the review and summary, by undergraduate students, of several outstanding papers, 
which were of common geologic interest—for example, one of the articles reviewed was the 
Geological Society of America Special Paper 24 , which dealt with the Lead and Zinc De¬ 
posits of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by Dr. Edson S. Bastin. 

Dr. W. FI. Voskuil, Mineral Economist of the Illinois State Geological Survey, pre¬ 
sented the war economics situation as regards coal and iron ore among the European 
powers today. He showed how Sweden, with her wood pulp and iron, both of which Germ¬ 
any wants, can bargain for more favorable trade relations with Germany than can Nor¬ 
way, which has to pay 80% more for coal than Sweden, because of her lack of commodities 
that Germany desires. The main point of the talk was that Germany has obtained most 
of the coal resources of Europe, except the British coal (and Russian, which may be con¬ 
sidered of the Near East). Because of this, Germany has a means of exchange for other 
materials and has a strangle hold on the other countries, which depend on her for her coal. 

Another interesting and instructive talk was given by Mr. Irving Schwade, then of the 
Subsurface Division of the Illinois State Geological Survey, now with the Cerro de Pasco 
Mining Company in Peru, who told about Mining in the Phillipines. He mentioned that 






Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting 


261 


the Chinese knew of the Phillipine mineral wealth in the third century, that the oldest 
rocks on the Islands are Miocene in age, that the minerals occur in four types of veins. 
An important point was that most of the manganese (which is an extremely important 
war material) that is mined goes to Japan. 

A summary of a very interesting three months of Geological Exploration in the Gulf 
of California was presented by Dr. F. P. Shepard of the University of Illinois Department 
of Geology faculty. He stated that there is more vegetation on the west side of Gaudelupe 
Island than on the east side because of the fogs that come in over that side. Some of the 
islands look snow-covered from a distance, but upon closer inspection reveal their character 
as being guano, which is mined in places. The east coast of the Gulf of Mexico seems to be 
submerged, while the west coast seems to be elevated. Gypsum, showing the structure 
of an anticline, is mined on one of the islands. Salt is mined on one island, where a bar has 
enclosed a lake from which evaporation takes place. It is said that a group of troublesome 
Yaqui Indians atGuaymas were transported to Timbarana Island in the north part of the 
Gulf of Mexico, where the savage Seri Indians live. They disappeared, but later the Seri 
Indians were reported to be sporting some fancy necklaces composed of Yaqui fingers. 

In the spring, Dr. M. M. Leighton, Chief of the Illinois State Geological Survey, told 
us of the interesting and varied research program ot the Survey, conducting the Club on a 
tour of the new Natural Resources Building on the University of Illinois campus. 

Dr. H. R. Wanless, of the University of Illinois Department of Geology, told the 
Club about his work with the Coal Measures of the Southern Appalachian Coal Fields 
during the past few years. 

The most pertinent talk of the year was that given by Mr. Don Carroll, of the Division 
of Education Extension of the Illinois State Geological Survey, entitled, “How to Make 
?1,000,000.” He pointed out the occurance in Illinois of undeveloped deposits of: 

Potash shales , which can be leached for their potash content. Western and Southern 
Illinois. 

Greensands (glayconite), which can be used as fertilizer. Lee County, especially. 

Crystalline Mississippian limestones , which can be quarried for marble. Western and 
Southern Illinois. 

Kaolin clays —some use in pottery, but mostly for the paper industries of Wisconsin 
and Minnesota. Union County. 

Gumhotil as a base for drilling muds. Vermillion and Gallatin Counties, especially. 

Ordovician limestone of Calhoun County, which has a high percent of wax or residues 
in the cavities. 

Other talks presented before the Club were: 

Earth Resistivity —Mr. M. B. Buhle, of the Subsurface Division ot the Illinois State 
Geological Survey. 

Colored Slides of Illinois—Dr. J. M. Weller, of the Division of Stratigraphy and 
Paleontology of the Illinois State Geological Survey. 

Stratigraphy of Oklahoma —Mr. C. L. Cooper, of the Micropaleontology Division of 
the Illinois State Geological Survey. 

Devonian Stratigraphy of the Illinois Basin— Mr. L. E. Workman, of the Subsurface 
Division of the Illinois State Geological Survey. 

In addition to these talks, several recent books pertaining to phases of geology were 
reviewed. These dealt with such subjects as sedimentation, stratigraphic nomenclature, 
foraminifera, economic geology, and geologic terms. 

A news-letter account of the Club and its activities, the members and their activities, 
will come off the press early in May. The editor is Miss Dorothy Quirke, and her assistant 
is Jack Simon. 



262 


Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


A field trip of P/i days duration is being planned for a weekend early in May. This 
field trip is to view the geology of the Ste. Genevieve, Missouri, area. 

(Signed) Allen F. Agnew, Program Chapman 


The Illinois Nature Study Society, Fred G. Paulus, President, was organized in 1920 
as the Elgin Wild Flower Preservation Society; in 1923 the name was changed to the 
Illinois Nature Study Society. 

Ten regular meetings were held during the past year. At each meeting an interesting 
paper was read, some book on nature or conservation reviewed, or pictures taken by mem¬ 
bers on vacation trips shown. 

On February 27, 1940, the twentieth anniversary of the society was celebrated with 
a dinner attended by thirty-one members and guests. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(Mrs.) Margaret Atchison, Secretary 


Joliet Botanical Club, Joliet, Illinois. 

About a year and a half ago we began a study of trees and their identification, study¬ 
ing winter characteristics and using a winter key for identification purposes. Then we 
followed this with spring and summer studies of trees. This past winter we have collected 
materials and photographs to show winter characteristics. This spring and summer we will 
continue the project. When the collection of materials is completed we plan to make up a 
set of “Tree-study mounts” which we will present to the Joliet Museum and Art Gallery 
for exhibition and circulation throughout the Joliet schools to use in their studies of trees. 

Along with this project plan we have had a number of reports and sets of colored 
slides presented by various members of the club on topics of botanical interest in the fields 
of economic botany, plant geography, plant physiology, tree distribution and uses and 
plants we find at home and on trips. 

One of the features of the year is our Annual Banquet. At the last banquet which was 
our thirty-fourth, our guest speaker was Dr. Paul Voth of the University of Chicago who 
told about his visit to Barro Colorado Island at Panama and showed a set of most interest¬ 
ing pictures which he had taken during that trip. We are looking forward to our 35th 
Annual Banquet in the near future. 

(Signed) C. Beecher Petersen, Secretary 


Nature Study Society of Rockford, Illinois, reports twenty-nine members this year. 
Their special interest has been the formation of a museum in the City Park Board Building. 
They have had twelve meetings and study trips this year. Among the places of interest 
they have visited are: the Blackhawk Park, The Pines, Brookfield Zoo, Kiebuik Forest 
Preserve, the Page Farm, the Dells, and Morton Arboretum.The officers are Mrs. Matthew 
Whelan, President, and Miss Rose Cassidy, Secretary-Treasurer. The society is governed 
by a board of directors of six members and its activities are conducted by five committees 
as follows: Birds and Butterflies, Flowers and T rees, Museum, Telephone, and Refresh¬ 
ment. 


Peoria Academy of Science, Peoria, Illinois, reports a very active calendar during 
the past year. In addition to the regular public monthly meeting of the academy, section 
meetings are held each month. At the present time there are six of these sections active. 
They are the Archeology section, the Astronomy section, the Botany section, the Ento¬ 
mology section, the Geology section, and the Orinthology section. The officers for 1941 are 
Arthur E. Gault, President; Dr. John Voss, Vice-President, and Anna H. Tjaden, Secre¬ 
tary. 





Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting 


263 


The Southern Illinois Science Club, Carbondale, Illinois. Wm. M. Bailey, Botany 
Department, Southern Illinois State Normal University, reports that this organization 
has ceased to function. Its work has been taken over by organizations in the various science 
fields and to a certain extent by the Southern Illinois Division of the Junior Academy of 
Science. 

Other affiliated societies from whom reports were not received in time to print are: 

Chicago Academy of Sciences, Museum of Natural History, Chicago. 

Illinois Section American Chemical Society, Urbana. 

Illinois State Ass’n. of Physics T eachers, Urbana. 

Ch'cago Nature Study Club, Elgin. 

College of St. Francis, Joliet. 

Illinois Nature Study Society, Elgin. 

Illinois Ass’n. of Biology Teachers, Decatur. 

Illinois State Archeological Society, Peoria. 

Knox County Academy of Science, Galesburg. 

Illinois Ass’n. of Chemistry, Bloomington. 

Major Powell Science Club, Normal. 

Normal Science Club, Normal. 

Sigma Xi, University of Illinois Chapter, Urbana. 

Springfield Nature I eague, Springfield. 

Rockford College Science Club, Rockford. 

(Signed) I. P. Daniel, Chairman 

Report of Resolutions Committee: 

WHEREAS —Many conservation practices are more or less under political patronage, and 

WHEREAS —The Illinois Academy of Science is distinctly against such political control, 

BE IT RESOLVED —That the Academy go on record as opposing any partisan politics 
in the administration of the Conservation of our Natural Resources. 

WHF.REAS —T he Illinois State Academy of Science has lost by death the following mem¬ 
bers during the past year: 

Cassidy, Rose M., Des Plaines 
Dougherty, Eugene, Springfield 
Black, J. D., Winnetka 
Earle, C. A., Des Plaines 
Johnson, C. M., Chicago 
Martin, G. W,, Crawfordsville, Ind. 

Norbury, E. P., Jacksonville 
Porter, J. F., Chicago 
Sonnenschein, R., Chicago 
Tumpeer, I. H., Chicago 
Zeleny, Charles, Urbana 

BE IT RESOLVED -That the Academy extend its sympathy to the families of the de¬ 
ceased and the Secretary be instructed to express these sentiments to them. 

WHEREAS- The following have contributed toward making these meetings a success: 

1. T he officers of the Academy. 

2. The officials of Northwestern University. 

3. T he Police of the City of Evanston. 

4. The High School and its faculty, and 






264 


Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


WHEREAS —The following individuals have aided much in the success of the meetings,* 

President Franklyn Bliss Snyder 
Dean Addison Hibbard 
Prof. Chas. M. McConnell. 

Prof. Ben Edman 
Dr. C. R. Moulton 
Dr. C. H. Behre, Jr. 

Dr. Harold B. Ward 
Mrs. Lenoir Britton 
Mrs. H. B. Ward 
Mrs. H. R. Ward 

Mr. John E. Coe and his committee, Messrs. Herskovits, Freeland, Howland, Sel- 
wood, Britton, Bockstahler, Cady, Webb, and Park. 

BE IT RESOLVED —That the Academy express its appreciation to these and to all 
others who have by their efforts helped the meetings. 

WHEREAS —In times of national stress and emergency there is a tendency to curtail 
the support of scientific research and activity, 

BE IT RESOLVED —That the Academy go on record as favoring the maintenance of 
these activities at as high a level as possible under the conditions pertaining. 

(Signed) Clarence Bonnell. 
W. M. Luce 
Harold B. Ward 


Report of Delegate to the Conservation Council: 

During the past year the Conservation Council has met the third Thursday of each 
month from October until May inclusive, to consider current local, state and national 
changes in the field of conservation. The council has approved a commission form of con¬ 
servation administration for the State of Illinois. This provides that the affairs of the con¬ 
servation department be placed in the hands of a non-partisan, non-salaried commission 
of six persons appointed for a term of six years, on a staggered basis so that not more than 
two appointive terms expire at one time. Many of the needed changes in the state are pre¬ 
vented by a constitution which is now but little changed from the one written when. 
Illinois first became a state. Our commission plan is reported unconstitutional. Efforts to 
legalize mining in National Parks and to extend the power of lease holders in national 
forests are examples of the recurring efforts to break the national park standards and to 
infringe upon the government owmed lands. Locally, the Cook County forest preserves are 
in the process of enlargement beyond 35,000 acres. The extension provides for better pro¬ 
tection for sanctuaries and for widening of strips now too narrow for proper preservation. 

(Signed) Verne O. Graham 


Preservation of Archaeological and Historical Sites: 

There is very little to report directly from the committee as we have been unable to 
determine how to get definite action toward a decrease in vandalism. As a matter of fact, 
there seems to be less of this in Illinois at present than there was at the time the Com¬ 
mittee was set up. You will recall that we had plans for the drawing up of a bill which 
would require a license for all excavators. This would have been a feasible scheme if we 
had the proper agencies to act as the licensing body, the only organization which could 
function satisfactorily would be the State Museum. However, they are so short-handed 
that Dr. Deuel does not feel that they can take on additional duties at this time. He is as 


Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting 


265 


interested as any of us in controlling the responsible work, but I think it is clear that he is 
in no position to undertake more now. 

However, the Committee on Basic Needs of American Archaeology of the National 
Research Council is considering the whole subject of state laws, and may have within a 
few months some very definite recommendations to make to all of the states. 

(Signed) Fay-Cooper Cole, Chairman 


A. A. A. S. Research Grants: 

The Academy Committee on Awards for 1941-42 have recommended unanimously 
the following assignments, assuming there is a total of £200.00 available. 

1. Professor C. L. Furrow, Professor of Biology, Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois, for 
continuing his studies of sex-conditions in the genus Valvata—£50.00. 

2. Mr. C. Clayton Hoff, graduate student, Department of Zoology, University of Illi¬ 
nois, Urbana, Illinois, for collection of materials and preparation for publication of his 
investigation of the biology and taxonomy of the Ostracoda of Illinois—£50.00. 

3. Professor J. Fisher Stanfield, Department of Science, Chicago Teachers College, 
Chicago, Illinois, for a study involving the use of nutrient solutions with various vitamin 
treatments and, if possible, a study of the growth of a dioecious plant in soil and in nutrient 
solutions with the addition of amino acids to observe the expression on sex expression in 
the plant in question—£50.00. 

4. Mr. P. H. Kinsel, High School, Edwardsville, Illinois, for completing the study of 
four Mexican towns—£50.00. 

The committee feels very strongly that an effort should be made to have (1) much 
more information about the projects and those applying for aid, and (2) more publicity 
among research workers regarding the availability of this aid. 

The first might be accomplished by preparing a mimeographed sheet of information 
to be sent applicants for aid. This should require them to furnish detailed information 
regarding their project, a careful estimate of costs, supporting letters from those in a po¬ 
sition to judge of the value of the proposal and the ability of the applicant to carry it 
through, together with any reprints of applicants’ publications, and any other pertinent 
data. 

In accord with the second suggestion, would it not be possible to announce at the 
general and sectional meetings the availability of this grant and the procedure applicants 
should employ in getting aid. 

It is difficult at best for the committee to judge the relative importance of various 
proposals, doubly so when information is largely lacking. We feel that in justice to all 
concerned a greater effort should be made to administer the funds efficiently. 

(Signed) W. O. Blanchard, Chairman 


Delegate to A. A. A. S. Meeting at Philadelphia: 

The meeting of the Committee on Science Clubs of the A. A. A. S. was called to order 
at 9:00 a.m. Sunday, Dec. 29, 1940, by Dr. F.. C. Miller, chairman, and was attended by 
the other members, Dr. H. H. Sheldon, Dean Howard E. Enders, Dr. J. C. Gilman, Dr. 
Bert Cunningham and the undersigned. Dr. S. W.Bilsing, invited to sit in on the session. 

The aims and objectives of the American Institute of the City of New York were 
presented by Dr. Sheldon. Dr. Enders made some suggestions for the cooperative efforts 
of the Institute and Junior Acedemies, to be attempted in the near future if present plans 

hold. 






266 


Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


It was moved and voted that the Junior Academy Committee be continued for another 
year and that the president be empowered to fill any vacancies in this committee. It was 
also moved and voted that this committee submit a progress report at the next meeting 
of the conference at Dallas. In a discussion of the Junior Academy of Science movement 
the following suggestions were offered: 

1. That those who are awarded junior memberships be rewarded with a subscription 
to one of the two official A. A. A. S. periodicals. 

2. That the periodical be sent to the library of the science club to which the junior 
belongs who was awarded the junior membership 

3. That the secretary of this Special Committee request the Secretary of the A. A. 
A. S. to formulate a procedure of nomination of the “Best Boy’’ and “Best Girl” as Honor¬ 
ary Members of the A.A.A.S. which may be sent to the several affiliated state academies 
of science: also that the A. A. A. S. formulate some procedure that will recognize the Junoir 
Honorary members each year at its annual meeting. 

The subject of establishing a collegiate division in the academies was discussed at 
length. It was suggested that this topic be made one of the main subjects of discussion at 
the Dallas meeting. The Texas and Kansas Academies have such sections functioning. 

The committee adjourned, after agreeing to meet in Dallas, Texas, next December. 

(Signed) Lyell J. Thomas 


Dedication of Natural Resources Building: 

Your delegate to the dedication of the Natural Resources Building, including the 
Mineral Industries and Wild Life conferences,wishes to report that he came away with a 
feeling of hope and expectation for the State of Illinois. It seemed to him as he inspected 
the facilities provided by and within this building that Illinois still retains a fine sense of 
values, and that the facilities for thorough and useful surveys are provided. The two con¬ 
ferences, bringing delegates from all parts of the country, served a useful purpose in giving 
Illinois not only cooperation but also the surveys their rightful place among the scientific 
institutions of North America. 

(Signed) Verne O. Graham 


Committee on High School Science and Clubs: 

The committee met in Urbana on November 1, 1940. Mr. Allen R. Moore, Chairman 
of Judging, presented a new method of tagging exhibits, which was accepted unanimously. 
The possibility of adding an Engineering Division was discussed and Mr. William Schwab 
of Shelbyville was appointed to promote this new division. It was not possible to include 
this division in the exhibits this year but work has been done which we hope will lead to 
engineering exhibits next year. Mr. Louis Astell, Supervisor of the “Science Aids Service,” 
offered the services of the University of Illinois Extension Bureau in sending out the News 
Letters. This was gratefully accepted by the committee. Several members of the committee 
were appointed to advertise the Junior Academy in the various School Bulletins and 
magazines throughout the State and nation. 

The possibility of obtaining sustaining memberships in the State Academy was dis¬ 
cussed and Miss S. Aleta McAvoy was appointed to take charge of a campaign for mem¬ 
bers. 

An excellent radio science series of programs, “Science on the Air,” has been given 
weekly over Station WILL. 1'hese programs were arranged by Dr. Rosalie M. Parr, Chem¬ 
istry Department at the University ol Illinois. Six Radio Notebooks, prepared from these 
programs, were entered in the exhibits. 

Under the sponsorship of the General Chairman, Miss Audry Hill, and the Assistant 
General Chairman,Mrs. Mary Creager, an All Science Field Day was held on the campus 
of the Southern Illinois State Normal University at Carbondale, Illinois. This event was 



Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting 


267 


attended by over thirty-three schools, and 600 high school students registered. The pro¬ 
gram included both student science exhibits and exhibits prepared by the College Science 
Department. Science teachers attending the meeting voted to become the Southern Divi¬ 
sion of the Illinois Junior Academy of Science subject to the approval of the Academy of 
Science Council. At the meeting of the Academy Council May 1st at Evanston, this group 
was admitted as the Southern Division. 

The annual meeting of the Junior Academy held in conjunction with that of the Senior 
Academy at Evanston, May 2-3, was attended by 460 high school students from 21 schools. 
165 exhibits were on display and judged during the meeting. Awards to winners were pre¬ 
sented after the annual lecture in Scott Hall Auditorium, and winners’ names are listed 
in this number of the Transactions. 

At the annual business meeting, the following officers were elected for 1941-42: 

President: Jack Frenzen, J. Sterling Morton, Cicero. 

1st Vice President: Clark Hylander, Galesburg. 

2nd Vice President: Albert Straka, J. Sterling Morton, Cicero. 

Secretary: John Douglas, University High, Normal. 

The Honorary Members elected to A. A. A. S. for this year are: 

Mary Cathrine Rowley, Canton. 

Bill Hahn, East Rockford. 


(Signed) Audry Hill, General Chairman 

Mary Creager, Assistant General Chairman 


Science Aids Service: 

During the current academic year Science Aids Service , published under the auspices 
of the Division of University Extension in the University of Illinois and with aid of the 
Illinois and Indiana Academies of Science, for the benefit of science clubs affiliated with 
the Junior Academy of Science wherever located has been published in three issues, repre¬ 
senting a total of approximately 14,000 words of information specifically related to the 
needs of science clubs, science club sponsors, as well as officials who are concerned with the 
possible values and general welfare of the Junior Academy of Science movement. 

The following facts are of interest in connection with the publication: 

(1) The Indiana Junior Academy of Science has voluntarily maintained its “Sustain¬ 
ing Membership’’ for the sixth consecutive year. 

(2) The Illinois State Academy of Science with the aid of other state Academies of 
Science as indicated in the minutes of the Transactions published heretofore has made 
possible the issuance of Science Aids Service and its predecessor for the past eight years. 
In that time approximately 114,000 words of information designed to aid in the develop¬ 
ment of the science clubs and the Junior Academy movement have been released in printed 
form. 

As a further aid to science clubs affiliated with the Illinois Junior Academy of Science, 
the following new duties have been assumed by Science Aids Service as a unit of University 
Extension: 

(1) The development of kits on “Science Clubs and the Junior Academy Movement.” 
Fifteen duplicates of this kit are now available on a five-day rental basis. Each contains 
ninety items including a number of books, reprints, and other items, a number of which 
are not available from any other source. Other kits on science and engineering subjects 
have been and are being prepared as a basis for club program and may be had on the same 
five-day rental basis. 

(2) A mailing list involving the officials of chemistry and biology organizations as well 
as the Illinois Senior Academy of Science officials in Illinois has been maintained for the 
issues of Science Aids Service. 







268 


Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


(3) A plan has been put in operation whereby the affiliated clubs issuing news-letters 
send a sufficient quantity to Science Aids Service for all affiliated clubs in the state. These 
news-letters are packaged in order to assure that each club receive the entire file at no cost. 

By way of a concluding statement it will be noted that the Illinois Junior Academy, 
its sponsors and related organizations have had the benefit that could be made from three 
issues of Science Aids Service for the cost of a single issue of the leaflet. 

(Signed) Louis A. Astell, Supervisor 
“Science Aids Service” 

Junior Academy Winners of Awards 


I. BIOLOGY 
Poster—I ndi vidual 

1. Robert Lahr, Chester High Biology 
Club. 

2. Mathew Gage, Science Club, Vienna 
Township High. 

3. Dorothy Clark, Normal Community 
High Biology Club. 

Honorable Mention—May bell Hef- 
ron, Blue Island High Biology Club. 

Group Poster 

1. Leonard Weber, Donald Decker, 
Charles Bevirt, Ferreters Club, Biology 
Division, Chester High. 

2. Carol Kudrna, June Jarm, Morton 
High Biology Club, Cicero. 

3. Maxine Crump, Mary Jean Hen- 
ninges, Normal Community Biology 
Club, Normal Community High. 

Project—Individual 

1. William Hahn, East Rockford High 
School Biology Club. 

2. Gus Liebenou, Morton High School 
Biology Club, Cicero. 

3. Peter Kaczmarek, Biology Club, 
Blue Island High School. 

Honorable Mention—Leonard Weber, 
Ferreters Club, Biology Division Chester 
High School. 

Project—Group 

1. Marcella Carr, Helen Karan, June 
Keine, Gladys Kwczynsky, Nellie Birn- 
off, Elaine Vaculik, Morton High School 
Biology Club, Cicero. 

2. Juanita Mueller, Marie Welten, 
Sybil Coffey, Bernice Frager, Lydell 
Herte, Chester High School Biology Club. 

3. Norman Scott, Charles Holz, Ward 
Scott, University High School Biology 
Club, Normal. 

Honorable Mention—Elmer Smith, 
John Johnson, Lawrence Mays, Normal 
Community High School Biology Club. 

Individual—Commercial Project 

1. Virginia Read, Major Powell Club, 
University High School, Normal. 


2. Dorothy De Rousse, Chester High 
School Biology Club. 

3. Ruth Thompson, Normal Com¬ 
munity High School Biology Club. 

Group—Commercial Project 

1. Frances Johnston, Leona Braman, 
Charles Jensen, Joliet Township High 
School Biology Club. 

2. Major Powell Club, University 
High School, Normal. 

3. James Robinson, Dan Rogers, Zoo 
Club, East High School, Rockford. 

Honorable Mention—Robert Roades, 
Dale Biedenharn, Biology Club, Normal 
Community High School. 

Individual—Collection 

1. Juanita Mueller, Ferreters Club, 
Chester High School. 

2. Mary Sopel, Vienna Township High 
School Biology Club. 

3. Beverly June Beilis, Biology Club 
Morton High School, Cicero. 

Honorable Mention—June Anderson, 
Normal Community High School Biology 
Club. 

Collections—Group 

1. Robert L. Sharp, David Rabinov, 
Frances Watson, Frances Hornicak, 
Grace Zoener, Joliet Biology Club, Joliet 
High School. 

2. Jim Whitson, Norma LJffelman, 
Chester High School Biology Club. 

3. Kenneth Uphoff, Dorothy Clark, 
Marian Gates, Normal Community High 
School Biology Club. 

Honorable Mention—Frace Poggen- 
see, Robert Nejdl, Morton High School 
Biology Club, Cicero, Ill. 

Models—I ndi vidual 

1. Robert J. Havlik, Biology Club, 
Morton High School, Cicero. 

2. Gail Willbrand, Chester High School 
Biology Club. 

3. Edgar Anderson, Normal Com¬ 
munity High School Biology Club. 





Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting 


269 


Science Notebooks—Individual 

1. Ralph Herman, Joliet High School 
Biology Club. 

2. Cecelia Sheila, Morton High School 
Biology Club, Cicero. 

3. Margaret Hinshaw, Biology Club, 
Normal Community High School. 

Honorable Mention—Lu Dean Lentz, 
Vienna Township High School Biology 
Club, Vienna. 

News-Letter—Group 

1. Chester High School Biology—The 
Zoo Club, Rockford Senior High School. 

2. Bloom Township High School Biol¬ 
ogy Club, Chicago Heights. 

3. Biology Club, Joliet High School. 

Radio Notebook—Individual 

1. June Anderson, Bios Club, Normal 
Community High School. 

2. Bernadine McGuire, Chester High 
School Biology Club. 

Group 

1. Dora Jean Waters, Helen Beyert 
Normal Community High School Biology 
Club. 

Extra Entries—Geology 
Individual Poster 

1. Kenneth Gutschick, Morton High 
School Biology Club, Cicero, Ill. 

2. Individual Model Geology—Evelyn 
Hilton, Bios Club, Normal Community 
High School. 

Photography 

1. Major Powell Club, University High 
School, Normal. 

2. Mary Cecil Craig, Chester Township 
High School Biology Club. 

3. Doris Lesher, Biology Club, Normal 
Community High School. 

Astronomy 

1. Glodine Welge, The Ferreters, Ches¬ 
ter High School. 

Honorable Mention—Edward Marten- 
son, Bios Club, Normal Community 
High School. 

Outstanding Award 

Marcella Carr, Helen Koran, June 
Keine, Gladys Kwczynsky, Nellie Birn- 
off, Elaine Vaculik—Group Project- 
Nutrition Experiment, Morton High 
School Biology Club, Cicero, Ill. 

II. CHEMISTRY 
Poster—Individual 

1. Robert Cox, Morton High School, 
Cicero. 


2. Imogene Fisher, Normal Community 
High School. 

Honorable Mention—George Dewell, 
Maine High School Chemistry Club, 
Des Plaines. 

Group Posters 

1. George Linhart, Parke Shee, Morton 
Chemistry Club, Cicero, Ill. 

3. Marilyn Crandall, Roger Reeter, 
Normal Community High School Chem¬ 
istry Club. 

Projects—I ndividual 

1. Dorcas Kerr, Galesburg High School 
Chemistry Club. 

2. Joseph Argabrite, Maine Township 
High School Chemistry Club, Des 
Plaines, Ill. 

3. Clifford Kwasigroh, Normal Com¬ 
munity High School Chemistry Club. 

Honorable Mention— Robert Blume, 
Maine Township High School Chemistry 
Club, Des Plaines, Ill. 

Group Projects 

1. Ed Jungman, Bill Martin, John 
Megginson, Morton High School Chem¬ 
istry Club, Cicero, Ill. 

2. Marlyn Crandall, Roger Reeter, 
Norma] Community High School Chem¬ 
istry Club. 

3. Barnett Cook, Don Walley, Maine 
Township High School Chemistry Club. 

Commercial Products— Individual 

1. Joe Odehnal, Morton High School 
Chemistry Club, Cicero, Ill. 

2. Ray Cameron, Galesburg High 
School Chemistry Club. 

3. Bill Lusher, Normal Community 
High School Chemistry Club. 

Honorable Mention—John Seipp, 
Maine Township High School Chemistry 
Club, Des Plaines, III. 

Group 

1. Edward Stika, Earl Ruesch, Morton 
High School Chemistry Club, Cicero, Ill. 

2. Donald Brown, jay Buslee, Maine 
Township High School Chemistry Club, 
Des Plaines, Ill. 

3. Shirley Luttrell, Marjorie Dixon, 
Galesburg High School Chemistry Club. 

Collections—Individual 

1. Dorothy Veague, Morton High 
School Chemistry Club, Cicero, Ill. 

2. Herman Deisenroth, Maine Town¬ 
ship High School Chemistry Club, Des 
Plaines, Ill. 

Group 

1. Tom Nohejl, George Jindra, Morton 
High School Chemistry Club, Cicero, Ill. 






270 


Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


2. Tom Sams, Carson Gallagher, Maine 
Township High School Chemistry Club, 
Des Plaines, Ill. 

Models—Individual 

1. Matt Benes, Morton High School 
Chemistry Club, Cicero, Ill. 

2. Bob Korapp, Maine Township High 
School Chemistry Club, Des Plaines, Ill. 

Science Notebooks—Individual 

1. Marilyn Crandall, Chemistry Club, 
Normal Community High School. 

2. William Kasperski, Chemistry Club, 
Morton High School, Cicero, Ill. 

3. Imogene Fisher, Normal Community 
High School Chemistry Club. 

Honorable Mention—Dorothy Veague, 
Morton High School Chemistry Club, 
Cicero, Ill. 

News-Letter—Group 

2. Maine Chemistry Club, Maine 
Township High School, Des Plaines, Ill. 

Extra Entries—Geology 

Group Collection—Honorable Men¬ 
tion—Richard L. A. Sterba, Robert E. 
Johnson, Chemistry Club, Morton High 
School, Cicero, Ill. 

Photography—Group Slides 

3. Roger Moran, Lewis Smith, Joe 
Grove, Lou Gambino, Morton Chemistry 
Club, Morton High School, Cicero. 

III. GEOLOGY 

Poster—Individual 

3. Dave Theobald, Geology Club, 
Bloomington Township High School. 

Honorable Mention—Helen Oselka, 
Weather Club, Morton High School, 
Cicero, Ill. 

Group 

2. Bill Baumgart, Dave Theobald, 
Gavin Steele, Bloomington High School. 

Proj ect—I ndi vidual 

2. Frances Lee Whiteside, Vienna 
Township High School Science Club. 

3. Robert Lebduska, Weather Club, 
Morton High School Cicero, Ill. 

Group 

1. Preston Hyatt, James Peck, Joliet 
High School Jr., Mineralorist Club. 

2. Jack Frenzen, Jim Steiner, Weather 
Club, Morton High School, Cicero, Ill. 

^ 3. Robert Brown, Charles Griffin, 
Campbell Holton, Bloomington High 
School. 


Commercial Products—Individual 

1. Richard Ariagno, Joliet High School 
Jr. Mineralorist Club. 

2. Doris Hall, Ferreters Club, Chester 
High School. 

Individual Collections 

1. Kenneth Gutschick, Weather Club, 
Morton High School, Cicero, Ill. 

Individual Model 

1. Kenneth Gutschick, Weather Club, 
Morton High School, Cicero, Ill. 

Honorable Mention—Gavin Steele, 
Bloomington High School. 

Group News-Letter 

1. Morton Weather Club, Morton 
High School, Cicero, Ill. 

Science Notebook 

1. Kenneth Gutschick, Weather Club, 
Morton High School, Cicero, Ill. 

2. Bruce Duncan, Geology Club, 
Bloomington High School. 

IV. PHOTOGRAPHY 

Project—Individual 

Honorable Mention—Genelda Smith, 
Joliet Aremac Club, Joliet Township 
High School. 

Group 

1. Jean Adcock, Galesburg High School 
Chemistry Club. 

2. Joliet Aremac Club, Joliet Township 
High School. 

Lantern Slides—Individual 

2. Vera Creager, Vienna Township 
High School Science Club. 

3. Mick Brown, Joliet Aremac Club, 
Joliet High School. 

Individual Collection 

3. Bruce Frederickson, Joliet Township 
High School Aremac Club. 

Individual Commercial Photography 

2. George Thayer, Lombard Jr. High 
School Science Club, Galesburg, Ill. 

3. Florence Hojnacki, Joliet Township 
High School Aremac Club. 

Moving Objects, Photographs 

2. Florence Hojnacki, Joliet Township 
High School Aremac Club. 

3. Vera Creager, Vienna Township 
High Science Club. 

Individual Photographs 

3. Vera Creager, Vienna Township 
High School Science Club. 



Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting 


271 . 


Still Life Photographs 

2. Margaret Matichak, Joliet Town¬ 
ship High School Aremac Club. 

Handicraft News Letter 

3. Joliet Aremac Club, Joliet Township 
High School. 

V. PHYSICS 

Posters—Individual 

1. Juanita Parks, Vienna Township 
High School Physics Club, Vienna, Ill. 

2. Marye A. McElvaine, Galesburg 
Senior High School Physics Club, Gales¬ 
burg, Ill. 

3. Clifford Hall, Morton High School 
Physics Club, Cicero, Ill. 

Group 

1. Frances Dunkle, Walter Howland, 
Physics Club, Galesburg High School. 

Projects—Group A: Mech. Sound.— 
Individual 

1. Jack Frenzen, Physics Club, Morton 
High School, Cicero, Ill. 

2. James R. Ewing, Galesburg High 
School Physics Club. 

Group 

1. Steve Erst, John Mitros, Richard 
Schimff, Morton High School Physics 
Club, Cicero, Ill. 

2. Hendrick Van Vliet, Bob Hunicut, 
Ready Kilowatt Club, Galesburg High 
School. 

Projects—Group B: Heat, Light 

1. Waite Howland, Theodore Schmidt, 
Ready Kilowatt Club, Galesburg High 
School. 

2. Shirley Hrudka, Ida Wright, Morton 
High School Physics Club, Cicero, Illinois. 

3. Wilda Parker, Mary Ellen Allen, 
Vienna Township High School Physics 
Club. 

Projects—Group C: Elect., Mag.— 
Individual 

1. Earl G. Ruesch, Morton High School 
Club, Cicero, Ill. 

2. John Smith, University High School 
Physics Club, Normal, Illinois. 

3. Ken Hawkins, Galesburg High 
School Physics Club. 

Honorable Mention—Irwin Tolle, 

Galesburg High School Chemistry Club. 

Group 

1. Henry Koci, Erwin Koci, Physics 
Club, Morton High School, Cicero, Ill. 

2. Phillip Mariner, Galesburg Senior 
High School Physics Club. 


Science Notebooks—Individual 

1. Laddie Nesetvil, Morton Physics 
Club, Morton High School, Cicero, Ill. 

News-Letter—Group News-Letter 

3. Ready Kilowatt Physics Club, 
Galesburg High school. 

Extra Entries—Geology Individual 

1. Oris Holt, Morton Physics Club, 
Morton High School, Cicero, Illinois. 

Astronomy 

1. Frances Di Prima, Galesburg Chem¬ 
istry Club, Galesburg High School. 

Photography 

Honorable Mention—Individual Col¬ 
lection: Lawrence Schleyer, Morton 
Physics Club, Morton High School, 
Cicero, Ill. 

VI. JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
Poster—Individual 

1. Eileen Alexander, Lombard Junior 
High School, Galesburg. 

Group 

1. Jerry Johnston, Tom Underwood, 
Lombard Junior High School, Galesburg. 

Project—Individual 

1. Bobby Olrich, Lansdowne Science 
Club, Lansdowne Junior High School, 
East St. Louis. 

2. Frank Plilton, Lombard Junior High 
School, Galesburg. 

Honorable Mention—Edward Whit¬ 
more, Ottawa Township High School 
Science Club. 

Group 

1. Clark Highlander, Paul Dixon, Bill 
Lukes, Eugene Griffet, Lombard Junior 
High School, Galesburg, Ill. 

Individual Commercial Product 

Honorable Mention—Betty Harler, 
Lombard Junior High School, Galesburg. 

Group Commercial Product 

Honorable Mention—Betty Harler, 
Edna Mergenthaler, Lois Hampton, 
Lombard Junior High School, Galesburg. 

Collection—Individual 

1. George Thayer, Lombard High 
School, Galesburg. 

Group 

3. Harold Stites, Richard Hansel, 
Lombard Junior High School, Galesburg. 

Individual Model 

1. Richard Hansel, Lombard Junior 
High School, Galesburg. 




272 


Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


Science Notebook 

1. Jack Brooking, Lombard Junior 
High School, Galesburg. 

2. Marvin Fuller, Lombard Junior 
High School, Galesburg. 

Astronomy Project 

1. Jerry Johnston, Lombard Junior 
High School, Galesburg. 

OUTSTANDING EXHIBITS 

These won special recognition by receiv' 
ing Senior Academy Certificates o' 
Award: 

Biology —Nutrition Experiment 

Marcella Carr, Helen Koran, June 
Keine, Gladys Kwczynsky, Nellie Birn- 
off, Elaine Vaculik, Group project of the 
Morton High Biology Club, Cicero. 

Chemistry -Individual Model 

Matt Benes, Morton High, Cicero. 

Geology —Group Project 
Preston Hyatt, James Peck; Joliet 
Mineralorist Club, Joliet High. 

Photography —Individual Project, 
Photomicrographs 
Ferreters Club, Chester High. 

Physics— Individual Project 
Earl Ruesch, Physics Club, Morton 
High, Cicero. 

Junior High School— Individual Project 

Bobby Olbrich, Lansdowne Jr. High, 
East St. Louis. 

DIVISION WINNERS 

Cups to First, Junior Academy Certfi- 
cates of Recognition to Second and 
Third: 


Junior High School 

1. Lombard Junior High, Galesburg. 

2. Lansdowne Science Club, Lans¬ 
downe Jr. High, East St. Louis. 

Photography 

1. Joliet Aremac Club, Joliet Twp. 
High. 

2. V.T.H.S. Science Club, Vienna Twp. 
High. 

Biology 

1. Club award, Ferreters Club, Chester 
High. 

2. Morton Biology Club, Morton High, 
Cicero. 

3. The Bios, Community High, Nor¬ 
mal. 

Honorable Mention—Bio Club, Joliet 
High. 

Physics 

1. Morton Physics Club, Morton, Cic¬ 
ero. 

2. Ready Kilowatts Physics Club, 
Galesburg Sr. High. 

Chemistry 

1. Morton Chemistry Club, Morton 
High, Cicero. 

2. Maine Chemistry Club, Maine Twp. 
High, Des Plaines. 

3. Normal Chemistry Club, Normal 
High. 

Geology 

1. W eather Club, Morton High, Cicero. 

2. Joliet Junior Mineralorist Club, 
Joliet Twp. High. 

3. Geology Club, Bloomington High. 

All Round Division 

1. V.T.H.S. Science Club, Vienna Twp. 
High. 

2. Major Powell Club, University 
High, Normal. 

3. Galesburg Chemistry Club, Gales¬ 
burg High. 



Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting 


273 


Hi gh School Science Clubs Affiliated with the 
Illinois Academy of Science 

Galesburg: Chemistry Club, High School; Frank J. Seiler. 

Ready Kilowatts, High School, John Aitchison. 

General Science Club, Hitchcock Jr. High School, Cassius Armstrong. 
Biology Club, Senior High School, Mrs. Velma L. Whipple. 

Lombard Jr. High School Science Club, Lombard Jr. High. 

Danville: Danville Science Club, High School, C. O. Johnson 

Jacksonville: David Prince Science Club, David Prince Jr. H. S., Anna L. Stevenson. 

East St. Louis: East Side Science Club, High School; T. W. Galbreath. 

Lansdowne Science Club, Jr. High School; Elsie Hoenig. 

Chester: The Ferreters, H. S.; Audry Hill. 

Des Plaines—Park Ridge: Maine Chemistry Club, High School, Rose Cassidy. 
McLeansboro: McLeansboro Science Club, High School; Edna Woodruff. 

Vienna: V. T. H. S. Science Club, High School; Mary Creager. 

Madison: Youth Science Society, High School, Wm. Schwab, Jr. 

Royalton: Science Club, High School; Harry Batley. 

Canton: Biology Seminar Club, High School; Margaret Middleton. 

Alt. Carmel: Mt. Carmel Science Club, High School; B. D. Arrick. 

Nornal: Bios Club, Community High School, John C. Ayres. 

Chem-Mystery Club, Community High School; J. C. Chiddix. 

Major Powell Science Club, University High School; Blanche McAvoy. 

Chicago Heights: Audubon Club, Bloom Twp. Eligh School; Altha Haviland. 

Joliet: Joliet Jr. Mineralorists Club, Joliet Twp. High School; Ben Hur Wilson. 

Chemistry and Photography Club, Joliet Twp. High School; C. M. Eggman. 
Joliet High School Biology Club, Joliet Twp. High School; H. V. Givens. 

Ottawa: Biology Club, High School; Charles Alikonis. 

Clinton: Bugology Club, High School; Charles R. Evans. 

Blue Island: Biology Club, High School; Elizabeth White. 

Cicero: J. Sterling Morton High School; Biology Club; C. B. Hitch. 

Chemistry Club; W. L. Muehl, L. F. Tuleen, G. S. Porter. 

Photography Club, Edward Bedrava. 

Physics Club; D. L. Barr. 

Weather Club; Allen R. Moore. 

Rockford: Zoo Club; Aleta McEvoy, Rockford Senior High School. 

Roodhouse: Scientia Fratres, High School, H. D. Barr. 

East Moline: Bio-Chemics Club, East Moline High School; H. W. Pratt. 
Bloomington: Bloomington Geology Club, High School; Harry L. Adams. 




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TRANSACTIONS 


OF THE 


. ILLINOIS STATE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


INDEX TO VOLUME 33 
1940-41 






( 5157 ) 








INDEX TO VOLUME 33 
1940-1941 


ILLINOIS STATE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 

NOTE.—Articles are listed alphabetically by authors, and also are grouped, by 
title, under the following subjects: Agriculture, Anthropology, Botany, Chemistry, 
Geography, Geology, Physics, Psychology and Education, and Zoology. Inasmuch as 
the Transactions are issued four times a year—in September, December, March and 
June—the number 1, 2, 3, or 4 preceding the colon indicates the quarterly issue in 
which the item occurs. 


A 

Academy Business 

A.A.A.S. Research Grants. 1941-42. 
4:265. 

Affiliations committee report. 4:259-63. 
Archaeological and historical sites 
committee report. 4:264-5. 

Council meeting minutes. 4:251-3. 
Delegates’ reports. Conservation coun¬ 
cil, 4:264. Philadelphia meeting of 
AAAS 4:265-6. Natural Resources 
Building at Champaign-Urbana, 4: 
266. 

Editor’s report. 4:257. 

Junior Academy. Committee on High 
School science and clubs, 4:266-7. 
List of affiliated High School science 
clubs, 4:273. Science Aids Service, 
4:267. Winners of awards, 4:268-72. 
High School Science and Clubs com¬ 
mittee report. 4:266-7. 

Librarian’s report. 4:258-9. 

Memoirs: Henry Chandler Cowles, 

1:17-18. Mabel Elizabeth Smallwood, 
1:19. 

Officers and committees for 1941-42. 
4:254-6. 

Publications committee report. 4:258. 
Resolutions at Evanston meeting. 4: 
263-4. 

Secretary’s report. 4:254. 

Treasurer’s report. 4:256-7. 

Acids, l,5-di-phenylpyrazoline-3. Hill, Mun¬ 
son and Boettner. 2:112-3. 

Adams, Howard W. and Eggenberger, 
Delbert N., The use of calcium hypo¬ 
chlorite in gymnasium sanitation. 2: 
96-7. 

Aerial photography. Harry McDermith. 
2:160-1. 


Agriculture 

Agriculture program-building; some 
basic objectives. Hall. 2:30-1. 

Dungan, Geo. H., Influence of age on the 
value of seed corn. 2:28-9. 

Hall, D. M., Some basic objectives for 
agricultural program-building. 2:30-1. 

Oathout, C. H.. The military tract and 
its agriculture. 2:32-3. 

Seed Corn, Influence of age on value 
of. Dungan. 2:28-9. 

Snider, H. J., Probable effect of weeds 
on the fertility of soils. 2:34-5. 

Tomlin, B. A., Vocational agriculture 
in a permanent program of agricul¬ 
tural improvement. 2:36-7. 

Whalin, Oren L., Soil conservation in 
Illinois in relation to the AAA pro¬ 
gram. 2:38-9. 

Algae, Illinois check-list with some addi¬ 
tions from Cook County. Britton, M. E. 

2:71-2. 

Ambush bug studies. Balduf. 2:206-8. 

Anthropology 

Buis, A. R., Prehistoric villages and 
camp sites of the Peoria, Illinois 
lake area. 2:42-4. 

Janssen, Raymond E., Indian trail 
markers in Illinois. 2:46-7. 

Schoenbeck, Ethel, Prehistoric aborig¬ 
inal pottery of the Peoria, Illinois 
region. 2:44-5. 

Astronomy 

Looking through great telescopes. Lee. 
1 : 10 - 11 . 

B 

Balduf, W. V., Ambush bug studies. 

2:206-8. 

Ball, John R., Typical lower Mississippi 

valley Silurian lithology in southeast¬ 
ern Wisconsin. 2:152-4. 


275 




276 


Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


Barton, Thos. F., An urban-rural eco- 
tone as exemplified by Hastings, Neb¬ 
raska. 2:128-31. 

Barton, Erselia and Thomas, High school 
geography in southern Illinois. 2:131-3. 

Bartow, Virginia, Opportunities for wom¬ 
en in chemistry. 2:98-9. 

Bennett, C. E., Home-made structural 
models. 2:100-1. 

Biology, The project method in. Hudson. 
2:92-3. 

Biphenyl derivatives, Optical isomerism 
of. Teeter. 2:120-1. 

Black Widow spider, Illinois distribution 
records of. Knight. 2:214-15. 

Black Widow spider, Observations on the 
fertility of. Wright. 2:225. 

Blanchard, W. O., The curious Caspian. 
2:133-4. 

Bloomenthal, Sidney, and Deutch, Isa- 
dore. Distinguishing characteristics 
for particulate carbonaceous materials 
discharged in the atmosphere by fuel 
burning sources. 2:178-80. 

Boettner, Fred, Hill, E. D., and Munson, 
Arthur, A new series of substituted 
l,5-diphenylpyrazoline-3-carboxylic acids 
and their esters. 2:112-13. 

Booth, Alfred, The market factor; its 
effect on cultural landscapes. 2:135-6. 

Botany 

Britton, M. E., A check-list of Illinois 
algae with some additions from Cook 
County. 2:71-2. 

Buchholz, J. T., and Butts, Dorothy, 
Cotyledon numbers in conifers. 2: 
58-62. 

Butts, Dorothy, and Buchholz, J. T., 
Cotyledon numbers in conifers. 2: 
58-62. 

Bubenicek, D., and Wynd, F. L., Re¬ 
lationships of nitrogen metabolism 
in plants. 2:77-8. 

-, Grass juice factor in the 

young leaves of cereal grass. 2:83-4. 
Damann, Kenneth E., Phytoplankton 
study of Lake Michigan. 2:68-70. 
Eucommiaceae, A preliminary report 
on the comparative anatomy of. 
Tippo. 2:50-1. 

Fuller, H. J., Some temperature rela¬ 
tions of geotropism. 2:87-8. 
Hippuris, Note on embryo development 
in. Kaeiser. 2:52-4. 

Hudson, J. W., The project method in 
biology. 2:92-3. 

Jones, Neville, A new-comer’s impres¬ 
sions of the botany of Illinois. 2: 
90-1. 


Kaeiser, Margaret, Note on embryo de¬ 
velopment in Hippuris. 2:52-4. 

Myers, R. M., The effect of heteroauxin 
on the development of debladed peti¬ 
oles of coleus. 2:89-90. 

Noggle, G. R., The effect of soil mois¬ 
ture on the composition of cereal 
plants. 2:79-80. 

Oexemann, S. W., Relation of the ef¬ 
fects of growth-promoting substances 
to photosynthetic activity, the mass 
law of growth and seed germination. 
2:84-6. 

Richards, Donald, Bryophytes of 
Starved Rock State Park, LaSalle 
County, Illinois. 2:74-7. 

Stevens, Neil E., Recent trends in 
plant disease control. 2:66-7. 
Stewart, Wilson N., Phloem histology 
in stigmarian appendages. 2:54-7. 
Tehon, L. R., The pycnothyrium in the 
taxonomic system of the Fungi Im- 
perfecti. 2:63-5. 

Tippo, Oswald, A preliminary report on 
the comparative anatomy of the 
Eucommiaceae. 2:50-1. 

Vaughan, R. H., Moultrie County 
mosses. 2:73. 

Watson, Stanley, The estimation of 
riboflavin (vitamin B 2 ) in plant tis- 
tue. 2:81-2. 

Wynd, F. Lyle, and Bubenicek, D., 
Grass juice factor in the young 
leaves of cereal grass. 2:83-4. 

-——Relationships of nitrogen 

metabolism in plants. 2:77-8. 

Botany of Illinois, A new-comer’s im¬ 
pressions of. Jones. 2:90-1. 

Brittany and Devon-Cornwall: geograph¬ 
ical twins. Crompton. 2:139-40. 

Britton, M. E., A check-list of Illinois 
algae with some additions from Cook 
County. 2:71-2. 

Brooks, Marshall, and Robertson, Per- 
cival, Additional notes on the geodes 
of the Warsaw formation. 2:168-71. 

Brown, Clarence L., The question of the 
geographic concept, thinking, and us¬ 
age of the term “cycle”. 2:137-8. 

Bryophytes of Starved Rock State Park, 
LaSalle County, Illinois. Richards. 2: 
74-7. 

Bubenicek, D., and Wynd, F. L., Grass 
juice factor in the young leaves of 
cereal grass. 2:83-4. 

-, Relationships of nitrogen me¬ 
tabolism in plants. 2:77-8. 









Index to Vol. 33 — 1940-1941 


277 


Buchholz, J. T., and Butts, Dorothy, 
Cotyledon numbers in conifers. 2: 
58-62. 

Buis, A. R., Prehistoric villages and 
camp sites of the Peoria, Illinois lake 
area. 2:42-4. 

Burks, B. D., The host of another Illinois 
species of Brachymei'ia (Hymenop- 
tera). 2:208. 

Butts, Dorothy, and Buchholz, J. T., (See 
Buchholz) 

C 

Calcium hypochlorite, its use in gym¬ 
nasium sanitation. Adams and Eggen- 
berger. 2:96-7. 

Calder, William A., An objective grating 
for visual stellar photometry. 2:181. 

Caspian, The curious. Blanchard. 2:183-4. 

Cereal grass, Grass juice factor in the 
young leaves of. Wynd and Bubenicek. 
2:83-4. 

Cereal plants, The effect of soil moisture 
on the composition of. Noggle. 2:79-80. 

Chemistry 

Adams, H. W., and Eggenberger, D. N., 
The use of calcium hypochlorite in 
gymnasium sanitation. 2:96-7. 
Adapting chemistry to the needs of 
the citizen. Tuleen. 2:121-2. 

Bartow, Virginia, Opportunities for 
women in chemistry* 2:98-9. 
Bennett, C. E., Home-made structural 
models. 2:100-1. 

Boettner, Fred A., Hill, E. L., Munson, 
Arthur, A new series of substituted 
1,5 - diphenylpyrazoline - 3 - carboxylic 
acids and their esters. 2:112-13. 
Calcium hypochlorite, The use of, in 
gymnasium sanitation. Adams and 
Eggenberger. 2:96-7. 

Cohee, G. V., Geology and its relation 
to the chemistry teacher. 2:103-7. 
Eggenberger, D. N., and Adams, How¬ 
ard W., (See Adams) 

Finger, G. C., & Reed, F. H., The Intro¬ 
duction of fluorine into aromatic 
nuclei by means of ammonium fluo- 
borate. 2:108-9. 

Ginsberg, Emanuel, Hydrogen bonds 
involving the C-H linkage. 2:109-10. 
Geology and its relation to the chem¬ 
istry teacher. Cohee. 2:103-7. 

Gross, C. A., Chemistry teachers’ as¬ 
sociation of southern Illinois. 2: 
111 - 12 . 

High school curriculum and the future 
of chemistry as a specialized science 
therein. Nelson. 2:116. 


Hill, E. L., Munson, Arthur, & Boett¬ 
ner, Fred. (See Boettner) 

Hydrogen bonds involving the C-H 
linkage. Ginsberg. 2:109-10. 

Indium, Some recent additions to the 
chemistry of. Moeller. 2:114-15. 
Magnesium perchlorate etherates. Sei¬ 
ler & Rowley. 2:117-19. 

Models, Home-made structural. Ben¬ 
nett. 2:100-1. 

Moeller, Therald. Some recent addi¬ 
tions to the chemistry of indium. 
2:114-15. 

Munson, Arthur, Hill, E. L., & Boett¬ 
ner, Fred. (See Boettner) 

Nelson, T. A., The future of chem¬ 
istry as a specialized science in the 
high school curriculum. 2:116. 
Optical isomerism of biphenyl deriva¬ 
tives. Teeter.' 2:120-1. 

Oxy-halogen anions, The detection of. 

Reedy and Sister M.,Joan. 2:123-5. 
Reed, F. H., & Finger, G. C. (See 
Finger) 

Reedy, J. H., & Joan, Sister M., The 
detection of oxy-halogen anions. 2: 
123-5. 

Rowley, H. H., & Seiler, Frank J., 
Etherates of magnesium perchlorate. 
2:117-19. 

Seiler, Frank J., & Rowley, H. H. (See 
Rowley) 

Sister M. Joan & Reedy, J. H. (See 
Reedy) 

Teachers’ association of southern Illi¬ 
nois. Gross. 2:111-12. 

Teeter, Howard, Optical isomerism of 
biphenyl derivatives. 2:120-1. 
Tuleen, Lawrence F., Adapting chem¬ 
istry to the needs of the citizen. 2: 
121-2. 

Women’s opportunities in Chemistry. 
Bartow. 2:98-9. 

Yohe, G. R., 2-chloro-3,5-bis(acetylam- 
ino)toluene. 2:125. 

Chemistry teacher, Geology and its rela¬ 
tion to the. Cohee. 2:103-7. 

Clay research, The use of pipette anal¬ 
ysis in. Rowland. 2:162-3. 

Climatic regions of Illinois. Price. 2: 
144-8. 

Coal, Illinois, Fusain content of fine 
sizes. Parks & McCabe. 2:164-8. 

Cohee, Geo. V., Geology and its relation 
to the chemistry teacher. 2:103-7. 

-, Recent developments in oil 

and gas in Illinois. 2:156-9. 

Conifers, Cotyledon numbers in. Butts 
and Buchholz. 2:58-62. 






278 Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


Constantinides, Ph. A., An unusual lunar 
spectrum. 2:182-3. 

Cozzens, A. B., Geographic principles 
and relationship sequences. 2:141-2. 

Crompton, Mable, Brittany and Devon- 
Cornwall: geographical twins. 2:139-40. 

“Cycle,” The question of the geograph¬ 
ical concept, thinking, and usage of 
the term. Brown. 2:137-8. 

D 

Darnann, Kenneth E., Phytoplankton 
study of Lake Michigan. 2:68-70. 

Deutch, Isadore, and Bloomenthal, Sid¬ 
ney, (See Bloomenthal) 

Dougherty, E. R., Paratonsillar myiasis. 
2:209-10. 

Dungan, Geo. H., Influence of age on the 
value of seed corn. 2:28-9. 

E 

Eggenberger, D. N., & Adams, H. W., 
(See Adams) 

Electrical properties of the human body. 
Railsback. 2:188-91. . 

Ellsworth, Elmer W., The new oil in¬ 
dustry of Illinois and its implications 
in the social and economic life of 
southern Illinois. 2:143-4. 

Engineering, Applied science as its af¬ 
fects our. Radford. 1:5-10. 

Erffmeyer, C. E., Validity of rank in high 
school class and of psychological test 
scores in predicting academic success 
in college. 2:199-204-. 

Essenberg, J. M., & Schwind, J. V., The 
effects of nicotine and cigarette smoke 
on pregnant female albino rats and 
their offsprings. 2:215. 

Eucommiaceae, A preliminary report on 
the comparative anatomy of. Tippo. 
2:50-1. 

F 

Finger, G. C., & Reed, F. H., The intro¬ 
duction of fluorine into aromatic nuclei 
by means of ammonium fluoborate. 
2:108-9. 

Fin rays, A case of extreme curvature of 
regenerating. Hansen. 2:211-12. 

Fluorine, Introduction of into aromatic 
nuclei by means of ammonium fluo¬ 
borate. Finger & Reed. 2:108-9. 

Fuel burning sources, Distinguishing 
characteristics for particulate carbon¬ 
aceous materials discharged in the at¬ 
mosphere by. Bloomenthal and Deutch. 
2:178-80. 

Fuller, Harry J., Some temperature re¬ 
lations of geotropism. 2:87-88. 


Fungi Imperfecti, The pycnothyrium in 

the taxonomic system of. Tehon. 2: 

63-5. 

Fusian content of fine sizes of Illinois 

coal. Parks and McCabe. 2:164-8. 

G 

Geography 

Barton, Thos. F., An urban-rural eco- 
tone as exemplified by Hastings, Ne¬ 
braska. 2:128-31. 

Barton, Erselia & Thomas, High school 
geography in southern Illinois. 2: 
131-3. 

Blanchard, W. O., The curious Caspian. 
2:133-4. 

Booth, Alfred, The market factor: its 
effect on cultural landscapes. 2:135- 
6 . 

Brittany and Devon-Cornwall: geo¬ 
graphical twins. Crompton. 2:139-40. 

Brown, Clarence L., The question of 
the geographic concept, thinking, and 
usage of the term “cycle”. 2:137-8. 

Caspian, The curious. Blanchard. 2: 
133-4. 

Cozzens, A. B., Geographic principles 
and relationship sequences. 2:141-2. 

Crompton, Mable, Brittany and Devon- 
Cornwall: geographical twins. 2:139- 
40. 

“Cycle,” The question of the geo- f 

graphic concept, thinking, and usage 
of the term. Brown. 2:137-8. ' p 

Ecotone (urban-rural) as exemplified 
by Hastings, Nebraska. Barton. 2: r , 

128-31. 

Ellsworth, Elmer W., The new oil in¬ 
dustry of Illinois and its implica¬ 
tions in the social and economic life 
of southern Illinois. 2:143-4. 

Geographic principles and relationship 
sequences. Cozzens. 2:141-2. 

Geography in southern Illinois high 
schools. Barton. 2:131-3. 

Illinois, Climatic regions of. Price. 2: 
144-8. 

Market factor: its effect on cultural 


landscapes. Booth. 2:135-6. 

Oil industry of Illinois, new, and its 
implications in the social and eco- ^ !Q sl 
nomic life of southern Illinois. Ells¬ 
worth. 2:143-4. > ;Gold{ 

Price, D. A., Climatic regions of Illi- O’N 
nois. 2:144-8. Good] 

Voskuil, Robert J., A method of repre¬ 
senting the native vegetation of a Gra$ g 
small area. 2:149-50. a| eal 












Index to Vol. 33 — 1940-1941 


279 


Geology 

Aerial photography. McDermith. 2: 
160-1. 

Ball, John R., Typical lower Mississippi 
valley Silurian lithology in south¬ 
eastern Wisconsin. 2:152-4. 

Brooks, Marshall, & Robertson, Perci- 
val, Additional notes on the geodes 
of the Warsaw formation. 2:168-71. 
Clay research, The use of pipette an¬ 
alysis in. Rowland. 2:162-3. 

Cohee, G. V., Recent developments in 
oil and gas in Illinois. 2:156-9. 

-, Geology and its relation to the 

chemistry teacher. 2:103-7. 

Geodes of the Warsaw formation, Ad¬ 
ditional notes on. Robertson and 
Brooks. 2:168-71. 

Janssen, R. E., Restudy of Lesquereux’s 
fossil plant types from Illinois. 2: 
154-5. 

Lesquereux’s fossil plant types from 
Illinois, Restudy of. Janssen. 2: 
154-5. 

McDermith, Harry, Aerial photography. 
2:160-1. 

McCabe, L. C. & Parks, Bryan C., Fus- 
ain content of fine sizes of Illinois 
coal. 2:164-8. 

Oil and gas in Illinois, Recent de¬ 
velopments in. Cohee. 2:156-9. 

Parks, Bryan C. & McCabe, L. C. (See 
McCabe) 

Pre-glacial River Ticona. Willman. 2: 
172-5. 

Robertson, Percival, & Brooks, Mar¬ 
shall, (See Brooks) 

Rowland, R. A., The use of pipette 
analysis in clay research. 2:162-3. 
Wanless, Harold R., The use of color 
slides as an aid in geologic teaching. 
2:171-2. 

Willman, H. B., Pre-glacial River Ti¬ 
cona. 2:172-5. 

Wisconsin, southeastern, Typical lower 
Mississippi valley Silurian lithology 
in. Ball. 2:152-4. 

Geotropism, Some temperature relations 
of. Fuller. 2:87-8. 

Ginsberg, Emanuel, Hydrogen bonds in¬ 
volving the C-H linkage. 2:109-10. 

Goldhaber, M., & O’Neal, R. D., (See 
O’Neal) 

Goodnight, C. J., Insects taken by the* 
southern pitcher plant. 2:213. 

Grass juice factor in young leaves of cer¬ 
eal grass. Wynd & Bubenicek. 2:83-4. 


Gross, C. A., Chemistry teachers’ asso¬ 
ciation of southern Illinois. 2:111-12. 

Growth-promoting substances, Relation 
of effects of to photosynthetic activ¬ 
ity, the mass law of growth, and 
seed germination. Oexemann. 2: 
84-6. 

Growth stimulants and proteins, Inter¬ 
actions of. Owen. 2:220-1. 

H 

Hall, D. M., Some basic objectives for 
agricultural program building. 2:30- 
1. 

Hansen, Donald F., A case of extreme 
curvature of regenerating fin rays. 
2 : 211 - 12 . 

Harris, Roscoe E., Measurement of ve¬ 
locity with graflex camera. 2:183-4. 

Heteroauxin, its effect on the develop¬ 
ment of debladed petioles of coleus. 
Myers. 2:89-90. 

High school curriculum, The future of 
chemistry as a specialized science in 
the. Nelson. 2:116. 

Hill, E. L., Munson, Arthur, & Boett- 
ner, Fred (See Boettner) 

Hill, H. C. Jr., & Robinson, T. W., In¬ 
duced ovulation in Rana pipiens. 2: 
223-4. 

Hippuris, Note on embryo develop¬ 
ments in. Kaeiser. 2:52-4. 

Hudson, J. W., The project method in 
biology. 2:92-3. 

Hydrogen bonds involving the C-H 
linkage. Ginsberg. 2:109-10. 

I 

Illinois 

Algae check-list with some additions 
from Cook County. Britton. 2:71-2. 

Black widow spider distribution rec¬ 
ords. Knight. 2:214-15. 

Brachymeria (Hymenoptera) The host 
of another species of Illinois. Burks. 
2:208. 

Botany, A new-comer’s impression. 
Jones. 2:90-1. 

Bryophytes of Starved Rock State 
Park, LaSalle County. Richards. 2: 
74-7. 

Chemistry teachers association (south¬ 
ern). Gross. 2:111-12. 

Climatic regions. Price. 2:144-8. 

Fusain content of fine sizes of coal. 
Parks & McCabe. 2:164-8. 

High school geography in southern 
Illinois. Barton. 2:131-3. 

Indian trail markers. Janssen. 2:46-7. 



280 


Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


John Wolf, naturalist. Middleton. 1: 
12-14. 

Lesquereux’s fossil plant types from 
Illinois, A restudy. Janssen. 2:154-5. 

Moultrie County mosses. Vaughan. 2: 
73. 

Oil. New oil industry and its social 
and economic implications. Ells¬ 
worth. 2:143-4. Recent developments 
in oil and gas. Cohee. 2:156-9. 

Pre-glacial River Ticona. Willman. 2: 
172-5. 

Prehistoric pottery in the Peoria re¬ 
gion. Schoenbeck. 2:44-5. 

Prehistoric villages and camp sites of 
the Peoria, Illinois lake area. Buis. 
2:42-4. 

Soil conservation in its relation to AAA 
program. Whalin. 2:38-9. 

Spiders of an east-central forest, An 
annotated list of. Jones. 2:216-20. 

Insects taken by the southern pitcher 

plant. Goodnight. 2:213. 

Isomerism, optical, of biphenyl deriva¬ 
tives. Teeter. 2:120-1. 


J 


Jacobsen, O. Irving, The vowel formant 
and what it means in speech and vocal 
music. 2:197-9. 

Janssen, Raymond E., Restudy of Les¬ 
quereux’s fossil plant types from Illi¬ 
nois. 2:154-5. 

-, Indian trail markers in Illinois. 

2:46-7. 

Jones, G. Neville, A new-comer’s impres¬ 
sions of the botany of Illinois. 2:90-1. 

Jones, Sarah E., An annotated list of 
spiders of an east central Illinois for¬ 
est (Wm. Trelease Woods, University 
of Illinois). 2:216-20. 

Junior Academy. See Academy Business. 


K-L 

Kaeiser, Margaret, Note on embryo de¬ 
velopment in Hippuris. 2:52-4. 

Knight, Kenneth L., Illinois distribution 
records of the Black Widow spider. 2: 
214-15. 

Lake Michigan, Phytoplankton study of. 
Damann. 2:68-70. 

Lee, Oliver Justin. Looking through 
great telescopes. 1:10-11. 

Leedy, H. A., Methods and practical ap¬ 
plication of vibration isolation. 2:185-6. 

Lesquereux’s fossil plant types from Illi¬ 
nois, Restudy of. Janssen. 2:154-5. 

Lunar spectrum, An unusual. Constan- 
tinides. 2:182-3. 


M 

McCabe, L. C., & Parks, Bryan, Fusain 
content of fine sizes of Illinois coal. 
2:164-8. 

McDermith, Harry, Aerial photography. 
2:160-1. 

Magnesium perchlorate etherates. Seiler 
& Rowley. 2:117-19. 

Massasauga rattlesnake, Cephalic de¬ 
formities in embryos of. Wright. 2: 
221 - 2 . 

Memoirs. See Academy Business. 

Messenger, Helen R., General conclusions 
on transfer of training. 2:196-7. 

Middleton, Margaret. John Wolf, Illinois 
naturalist. 1:12-14. 

Military tract and its agriculture. Oat- 
hout. 2:32-3. 

Models, Home-made structural. Bennett. 
2 : 100 - 1 . 

Moeller, Therald, Some recent additions 
to the chemistry of indium. 2:114-15. 

Mosses of Moultrie County, Illinois. 
V.aughan. 2:73. 

Munson, Arthur, Hill, E. L., & Boettner, 
Fred (See Boettner) 

Myers, R. M., The effects of heteroauxin 
on the development of debladed peti¬ 
oles of coleus. 2:89-90. 


N-0 

Native vegetation of a small area, A 
method of representing. Voskuil. 2: 
149-50. 

Nelson, T. A., The future of chemistry 
as a specialized science in the high 
school curriculum. 2-116. 

Nicotine and cigarette smoke, The ef¬ 
fects of on pregnant female albino rats 
and their offsprings. Essenberg & 
Schwind. 2:215. 

Nitrogen metabolism in plants. Buben- 
icek & Wynd. 2:77-8. 

Noggle, G. R., The effect of soil moisture 
on the composition of cereal plants. 
2:79-80. 

Oathout, C. H., The military tract and 
its agriculture. 2:32-3. 

Oexemann, Stanley W., Relation of the 
effects of growth-promoting substances 
to photo-synthetic activity, the mass 
law of growth and seed germination. 
2:84-6. 

Oil and gas in Illinois, Recent develop¬ 
ments in. Cohee. 2:156-9. 

Oil industry (new) of Illinois and its 
implications in the social and eco¬ 
nomic life of southern Illinois. 2:143-4. 


Ol 

O' 

O' 

0 : 


Fa 


Pa 

( 

Pe 

( 

[Pei 

Ph 

I 


C 


D 


C 

I 

H 




L< 


O’ 

Of 

Go 

( 

Ha 

( 

% 


1 

Ste 

ii 

k 














Index to Vol. 33 — 1940-1941 


281 


O'Neal, R. D., & Goldhaber, M., A new 
method for production of radioactive 
hydrogen of atomic weight three. 2: 
187-8. 

Optical panels, Advantages of standard 
sizes for. Smith. 2:191-2. 

Ovulation induced in Rana pipiens. Rob¬ 
inson & Hill. 2:223-4. 

Owen, Seward E., Interactions of growth 
stimulants and proteins. 2:220-1. 

Oxy-halogen anions, The detection of. 
Sister M. Joan & J. H. Reedy. 2:123-5. 

P 

Paratonsillar myiasis. Dougherty. 2:209- 

10 . 

Parks, Bryan, & McCabe, L. C., (See Mc¬ 
Cabe) 

Peoria, Illinois, region, Prehistoric ab¬ 
original pottery. Schoenbeck. 2:44-5. 

Peoria, Illinois, lake area, Prehistoric 
villages and camp sites. Buis. 2:42-4. 

Physics 

Bloomenthal, Sidney & Deutch, Isa- 
dore, Distinguishing characteristics 
for particulate carbonaceous materi¬ 
als discharged in the atmosphere by 
fuel burning sources. 2:178-80. 
Calder, William A., An objective grat¬ 
ing for visual stellar photometry. 2: 
181. 

Deutch, Isadore, & Bloomenthal, Sid¬ 
ney, (See Bloomenthhl) 
Constantinides, Ph. A., An unusual 
lunar spectrum. 2:182-3. 

Harris, Roscoe E., Measurement of 
velocity with graflex camera. 2: 
183-4. 

Leedy, H. A., Methods and practical 
application of vibration isolation. 2: 
185-6. 

O’Neal, R. D., & Goldliaber, M., A new 
method for production of radio-active 
hydrogen of atomic weight three. 2: 
187-8. 

Optical panels, Advantages of stand¬ 
ard sizes for. Smith. 2:191-2. 
Goldhaber, M., & O’Neal, R. D. (See 
O’Neal). 

Railsback, O. L., Electrical properties 
of the human body. 2:188-91. 

Smith, Clarence R., Advantages of 
standard sizes for optical panels. 2: 
191-2. 

Stellar photometry, An objective grat¬ 
ing for visual. Calder. 2:181. 

Swaim, V. F., Wave characteristics 
with some demonstrations for gen¬ 
eral college physics. 2:193. 


Verwiebe, F. L., The pressure-volume 
relation of the toy balloon. 2:194. 
Phytoplankton study of Lake Michigan. 
Damann. 2:68-70. 

Plant disease control, Recent trends in. 
Stevens. 2:66-7. 

Plant tissue, The estimation of riboflavin 
(vitamin B 2 ) in. Watson. 2-81-2. 
Pre-glacial River Ticona. Willman. 2: 
172-5. 

Pressure-volume relation of the toy bal¬ 
loon. Verwiebe. 2:194. 

Price, D. A., Climatic regions of Illinois. 
2:144-8. 

Psychology and Education. 

Messenger, Helen R., General conclu¬ 
sions on transfer of training. 2: 
196-7. 

Jacobsen, O. Irving, The vowel form¬ 
ant and what it means in speech and 
vocal music. 2:197-9. 

Erffmeyer, C. E., Validity of rank in 
high school class and of psychologic¬ 
al test scores in predicting academic 
success in college. 2:199-204. 
Pycnothyrium in the taxonomic system 
of the Fungi Imperfecti. Tehon. 2: 
63-5. 

R 

Radford, W. H., Applied science as it 
affects our engineering. 1:5-10. 
Radioactive hydrogen of atomic weight 
three, New method for production. 
O’Neal & Goldhaber. 2:187-8. 
Railsback, O. L., Electrical properties 
of the human body. 2:188-91. 

Reed, F. H., & Finger, G. C. (See Finger). 
Reedy, J. H., & Joan, Sister M. (See 
Sister M. Joan). 

Riboflavin (vitamin B 2 ). The estimation 
of in plant tissue. Watson. 2:81-2. 
Richards, Donald, Bryophytes of Starved 
Rock State Park, LaSalle County, Il¬ 
linois. 2:74-77. 

Robertson, Percival & Brooks, Marshall, 
(See Brooks). 

Robinson, T. W., & Hill, H. C. Jr., In¬ 
duced ovulation in Rana pipiens. 2: 
223-4. 

Rowland, R. A., The use of pipette an¬ 
alysis in clay research. 2:162-3. 
Rowley, H. H., & Seiler, Frank G., Ether- 
ates of magnesium perchlorate. 2: 
117-9. 

S 

Sanitation, gymnasium, Use of calcium 
hypochlorite in. Adams & Eggenberger. 
2:96-7. 



282 


Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 


Schoenbeck, Ethel, Prehistoric aboriginal 
pottery of the Peoria, Illinois, region. 
2:44-5. 

Schwind, J. V., & Essenberg, J. M. (See 
Essenberg). 

Seiler, Frank J., & Rowley, H. H. (See 
Rowley). 

Sister M. Joan, & Reedy, J. H., The de¬ 
tection of oxy-halogen anions. 2:123-5. 

Smith, Clarence R., Advantages of stand¬ 
ard sizes for optical panels. 2:191-2. 

Snider, H. J., Probable effect of weeds 
on fertility of soils. 2:34-5. 

Soil conservation in Illinois in relation 
to the AAA program. Whalin. 2:38-9. 

Soil moisture, Its effect on the composi¬ 
tion of cereal plants. Noggle. 2:79-80. 

Spiders, An annotated list of an east 
central Illinois forest (Wm. Trelease 
Woods, University of Illinois). Jones. 
2:216-20. 

Starved Rock State Park, LaSalle Coun¬ 
ty, Illinois, Bryophytes of. Richards. 
2:74-7. 

Stellar photometry, An objective grating 
for visual. Calder. 2:181. 

Stevens, Neil E., Recent trends in plant 
disease control. 2:66-7. 

Stewart, Wilson N., Phloem histology in 
stigmarian appendages. 2:54-7. 

Swaim, V. F., Wave characteristics with 
some demonstrations for general col¬ 
lege physics. 2:193. 

T-U-V 

Teachers association, Chemistry, of 
southern Illinois. Gross. 2:111-12. 

Teeter, Howard, Optical isomerism of 
biphenyl derivatives. 2:120-1. 

Tehon, L. R., The pycnothyrium in the 
taxonomic system of the Fungi Imper- 
fecti. 2:63-5. 

Tippo, Oswald, A preliminary report on 
the comparative anatomy of the Eu- 
commiaceae. 2:50-1. 

Tomlin, B. A., Vocational agriculture in 
a permanent program of agricultural 
improvement. 2:36-7. 

Transfer of training, General conclusions 
on. Messenger. 2:196-7. 

Tuleen, Lawrence F., Adapting chemistry 
to the needs of the citizen. 2:121-2. 

Urban-rural ecotone as exemplified by 
Hastings, Nebraska. Barton. 2:128-31. 

Validity of rank in high school class and 
of psychological test scores in predict¬ 
ing academic success in college. 2: 
199-204. 

Vaughan, R. H., Moultrie County mosses. 
2:73. 


Verwiebe, F. L., The pressure-volume 
relation of the toy balloon. 2:194. 
Vocational agriculture in a permanent 
program of agricultural improvement. 
Tomlin. 2:36-7. 

Velocity measurement, with graflex cam¬ 
era. Harris. 2:183-4. 

Vibration isolation, Methods and prac¬ 
tical application of. Leedy. 2:185-6. 
Vitamin Bo (riboflavin) in plant tissue. 

Estimation of. Watson. 2:81-2. 
Voskuil, Robert J., A method of repre¬ 
senting the native vegetation of a 
small area. 2:149-50. 

Vowel formant and what it means in 
speech and vocal music. Jacobsen. 2: 
197-9. 

W 

Wanless, Harold R., The use of color 
slides as an aid in geologic teaching. 
2:171-2. 

Warsaw formation, Additional notes on 
the geodes of. Robertson & Brooks. 
2:168-71. 

Watson, Stanley, The estimation of ribo¬ 
flavin (vitamin B 2 ) in plant tissue. 2: 
81-2. 

Wave characteristics with some demon¬ 
strations for general college physics. 
2:193. 

Weeds, their probable effect on the fer¬ 
tility of soils. Snider. 2:34-5. 

Whalin, Oren L., Soil conservation in 
Illinois in relation to the AAA pro¬ 
gram. 2:38-9. 

Willman, H. B., Pre-glacial River Ticona. 
2:172-5. 

Wolf, John, Illinois naturalist. Middle- 
ton. 1:12-14. 

Women in chemistry, Opportunities for. 
Bartow. 2:98-9. 

Wright, Bertrand, Cephalic deformities 
in embryos of the Massasauga rattle¬ 
snake (Sisturus c. catenatus, Raf.). 2: 
221 - 2 . 

Wright, Gilbert, Observations on the 
fertility of the Black Widow spider. 
2:225. 

Wynd, F. Lyle & Bubenicek, D., Grass 
juice factor in the young leaves of 
cereal grass. 2:83-4. 

-, Relationships of nitrogen met¬ 
abolism in plants. 2:77-8. 

Y-Z 

Yohe, G. R., 2-chloro-3,5-bis (acetylamino) 
toluene. 2:125. 

Zoology 

Balduf, W. V., Ambush bug studies. 2: 
206-8. 












283 


Index to Vol. 33 — 1940-1941 


Black Widow spider, Illinois distribu¬ 
tion records of. Knight. 2:214-15. 

Burks, B. D., The host of another Il¬ 
linois species of Bracliymeria (Hy- 
menoptera). 2:208. 

Cephalic deformities in embryos of 
the Massasauga rattlesnake ( Sistru- 
rus c. catenatus, Raf.) Wright. 2: 
221 - 2 . 

Dougherty, E. R., Paratonsillar myiasis. 
2:209-10. 

Essenberg, J. M., & Schwind, J. V., The 
effects of nicotine and cigarette 
smoke on pregnant female albino 
rats and their offsprings. 2:215. 

Goodnight, C. J., Insects taken by the 
southern pitcher plant. 2:213. 

Growth stimulants and proteins, their 
interaction. Owen. 2:220-1. 

Hansen, Donald F., A case of extreme 
curvature of regenerating fin rays. 
2 : 211 - 12 . 

Hill, H. C. Jr., & Robinson, T. W., 
Induced ovulation in Rana pipiens. 
2:223-4. 

Jones, Sarah E , An annotated list of 
spiders of an east central Illinois 
forest (Wm. Trelease Woods, Uni¬ 
versity of Illinois). 2:216-20. 

Knight, Kenneth L., Illinois distribu¬ 
tion records of the Black Widow 
spider. 2:214-15. 


Myiasis, Paratonsillar. Dougherty. 2: 
209-10. 

Nicotine and cigarette smoke, its effect 
on pregnant female albino rats and 
their offsprings. 2:215. 

Owen, Seward E., Interactions of 
growth stimulants and proteins. 2: 
220 - 1 . 

Rana pipiens, Induced ovulation in. 
Robinson & Hill. 2:223-4. 

Rattlesnake, Massasauga, Cephalic de¬ 
formities in embryos of, ( Sistrurus 
c. catenatus, Raf.). Wright. 2:221-2. 

Regenerating fin rays, A case of ex¬ 
treme curvature. Hansen. 2:211-12. 

Robinson, T. W„ & Hill, H. C. Jr. (See 
Hill). 

Schwind, J. V., & Essenberg, J. M. 
(See Essenberg). 

Southern pitcher plant, insects taken 
by. Goodnight. 2:213. 

Spiders of an east central Illinois for¬ 
est (Wm. Trelease Woods), An an¬ 
notated list. Jones. 2:216-20. 

Wright, Bertrand, Cephalic deformities 
in embryos of the Massasauga rattle¬ 
snake (Sistrurus c. catenatus, Raf.). 
2 : 221 - 2 . 

Wright, Gilbert, Observations on the 
fertility of the Black Widow spider. 
2:225.