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TKAKSACTIONS 



OF THE 



WISCONSIN 






INCLUDING 



ADDRESSES AND PAPERS PRESENTED, AND PROCEEDINGS 

AT THE SUMMER AND WINTER MEETINGS 

OF THE YEAR 1883-4. 



VOL. XIV. 



Mrs. H. M. LEWIS, Secretary. 




MADISON, WIS.: 

DEMOCRAT PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTER& 

1884 



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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



To His Excellency, Jeremiah M. Rusk, 

Governor of the State of Wisconsin: 
Sir: In compliance with the laws of the state, I have the 
l^onoT to transmit to you, for publication, th^ fourteenth vol- 
ume of the transactions of the State Horticultural Society, 
including a full statement of the receipts and expenditures 
of the Society, and a portion of the papers read at its meet- 
ings, in 1883-4. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Mrs. H. M. LEWIS, 

Secretary. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Letter of Transmittal ; 2 

List op Officers for 1884 6 

List of Members for 1884 7 

Recommended Fruit List 9 

Recommended List of Trees, Shrubs, etc 11 

Act of Reorganization. 12 

Constitution 14 

By-Laws 15 

Publication Laws 16 

Timber Laws 17 

Proceedings at Ripon Meeting 19 

Our Birds in Relation to Horticulture, Prof. F. H. King 19 

Shade and Ornamental Trees, President J. M. Smith 29 

♦Strawberry Notes from the Patch, G. J. Kellogg 

t Leaves, Nothing but Leaves, Mrs. H. M. Lewis 

The Blackberry as a Market Fruit, C. H. Hamilton 35 

Recreation and Employment for Women, Mrs. Ida E. Tilson. ... 40 

♦Retrospect and Prospect, J. C. Plumb 

t The Native Place of Our Exotics, Mrs. C. F. Tracy 

Discussion on Apples 44 

MEETmG AT State Fair 50 

Proceedings at Green Bay Meeting 65 

The Waupaca Seedlings, W. A. Springer 60 

t LsLsectivorous Plants, Mrs. C. A. Willard 

Roses in Wisconsin, Samuel Barter 64 

The Flower Mission, Mrs. H. M. Lewis 69 

Horticultural Notes, Oliver Gibb«, Jr 77 

The Work of To-day, Mrs. Vie. H. Campbell 84 

Piemium List for Winter Exhibition, Green Bay. 91 

Responses to Toasts 9S 

♦Waste Places, B. S. Hoxie 

* Some of the Gardens in Literature, Oliver Gibbs, Jr 

♦ The Horticultural Outlook, G. J. Kellogg 

Transactions at Annual Meeting 94 

President's Address 94 

Secretary's Report 99 

* Omitted from Transactions for lack of space. 

t Printed in the Transactions of Agricultural Soeiety. 



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Contents. 5 

Transactions at Annual Meeting— Page, 

Keports of Delegates 103 

Report of Committee on Nomenclature * 104 

Revision of Fruit List 106 

Election of Officers 107 

Resolutions on the Death of Dr. John A. Warder 108 

Chestnut Growing North of 40° , Oliver Gibbs, Jr Ill 

fThe Russian Fruits, A. G. Tuttle 

Treasurer's Report 113 

Resolutions on International Exhibit at New Orleans 115 

Reports op Local Societies 118 

Grand Chute Society 118 

Janesville Society 119 

Fremont Society 120 

Markesan Society 121 

Northwestern Society 12X 

Waupaca County Society 127 

Report op Committee op Observation 128 

Our SoaETY, B. S. Hoxie 131 

Some Things I WouiId Like to Know, A, L. Hatch 137 

The Orchard Lessons op the Last Year, N. N. Palmer 141 

The Distribution op Seeds by Nature, Mrs. C. A. Willard 144 

Vines por Our Homes, Mrs. D. Huntley 151 

Experience with Apples, Andrew Anderson 1^7 

The Pansy, William Toole 162 

A Quarter op a Century op Failures in Fruit Culture, A. W. 

Sias '. 169 

Why Don't Our People Raise More Fruit? J. Wakefield; 171 

Climatic Conditions op the Year 1883, in their Relation to the 

Apple, J. C. Plumb. 174 

The Northern and the Southern Home, Mrs. Ida E. Tilson 179 

The Violet and the Lily. Mrs. Helen A, Manville 186 

Does the Flower Garden Pay? Oliver Gibbs, Jr 188 

The Orchard 191 

Stray Thoughts 195 

Birds 198 

* Omitted from the Transactions for lack of space, 
t Printed in Transactions of A^cultural Society. 



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Wisconsin State Horticultural Societt. 



LIST OF OFFICERS. 



PRESIDENT. 

J. M. SMITH, Green Bat. 

VICE PRESIDENT. 

J. C. PLUMB, Milton 

RECORDmO SECRETARY. 

MRS. H. M. LEWIS, Madison 

corresponding SECRETARY. 
B. S. HOXIE, COOKSVILLE. 

TREASURER. 

M. ANDERSON, Pine Bluff. 

. superintendent. 
B. F. ADAMS, - Madison 



MEMBERS OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTER 

Ex Officio, 

the above officers. 

Members by Election. 



Dist 

Ist S. Hunt, Evansville. 

2d. Geo. C. Hill, Rosendale. 

3d. B. F. Adams, Madison. 

4th. J. S. Stickney, Wauwatosa. 



Dist 

5th. W. Reynolds, Green Bay. 
6th. D. Huntley, Appleton. 
7th. A. J. Philips, west Salem. 
8th. E. G. Partridge, Warren. 



9th. Wm. Springer, Fremont. 

COMMITTEE ON NOMENCLATURE AND NEW FRUITS. 

J. C. Plumb, Milton. Geo. P. Peffer, Pewaukee. 

Geo. J. Kellogg, Janesville. 

COMMITTEE OF OBSERVATION. 



Dist 

1st G. J. Kellogg, Janesville. 
2d. G. C. Hill, Rosendale. 
3d. B. F. Adams. Madison. 
4th. J. S. Stickney, Wauwatosa. 



Dist 

5th. E. W. Daniels, Auroraville. 
6th. D. Huntley, Appleton. 
7ih. Z. K Jewett, Sparta. 
8tb. E. G. Partridge, Warren. 



9th. Wm. Springer, Fremont 

FINANCE COMMITTEE. 
H. C. Adams, Madison; R S. Hoxm, Cooks ville; N. N. Palmer, Brodhead. 



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List of Members, 1884. 



MEMBERS, 1884. 



Adam, John Markesan Wisconsin. 

Adams, B. F Madison Wisconsin. 

Adams, H. C Madison Wisconsin. 

Alcott, Wm Brodhead Wisconsin. 

Anderson, M Pine Bluff Wisconsin. 

Anderson, Andrew Neenah Wisconsin. 

Arnold, A. A Galesville Wisconsin. 

Barnes, A. D Campbellsport Wisconsin. 

Bartei, S Markesan Wisconsin. 

Baumbach, W. von Wauwatosa Wisconsin. 

Bennett, A S. Weyauwega Wisconsin . 

Campell, Henry Evansville Wisconsin. 

Campbell, Mrs. V. H Evansville Wisconsin. 

Chappel, F. H Rutland Wisconsin. 

Coe, JK. J Ft. Atkinson Wisconsin . 

Cole, W. H Brodhead Wisconsin. 

Cotta, J. V Lannark Illinois. 

Daniels, E. W Auroraville Wisconsin. 

Daugherty, Wm. F Preble Wisconsin. 

Dibble, i>. W Evansville Wisconsin . 

Dickerson, H. J Appleton Wisconsin. 

Dore, J. S Neillsville Wisconsin. 

Eaton, C. F Fremont Wisconsin. 

Field, S. F East Troy Wisconsin. 

Floyd, H Berlin Wisconsin. 

Freeborn, S. J Ithaca Wisconsin . 

Gill, Wm Dayton Wisconsin . 

Goss, B. F Pewaukee Wisconsin. 

Graves, S. W Brooklyn Wisconsin. 

Greenman, C. H Dodge Center Minnesota . 

Hacker, T. L. Madison : Wisconsin. 

Haight, Nicholas Syene Wisconsin. 

Hanchett, Mark Footville Wisconsin. 

Hatch, A. L Ithaca Wisconsin. 

Hill, Geo. C Rosendale Wisconsin. 

Hirschinger, Chas Baraboo Wisconsin. 

Holt, M. A Madison Wisconsin . 

Hoxie, B. S Cooksville Wisconsin . 

Howie, John Waunakee Wisconsin. 

Hunt, Samuel Evansville Wisconsin. 

Huntley, D Appleton Wisconsin. 

Innis, W. T West Rosendale Wisconsin. 

Jeffrey Geo Milwaukee, 630 Chestnut St. . . Wisconsin. 

Jewett, Z. K Sparta Wisconsin. 

Kellogg, Geo. J Janesville Wisconsin . 

Kellogg, Emily L Janesville Wisconsin . 

King, Edmund Whitewater Wisconsin . 

Kingsbury, A Fitzwilliam New Hampshire. 

Lawrenge, F. S Janesville Wisconsin. 

Le Roy, J. H De Pere Wisconsin. 

Lewis, Mrs. H. M Madison Wisconsin. 

Libby, F. D Madison Wisconsin. 

Lowe, Victor Palmyra Wisconsin . 

Mahon, John Preble Wisconsin. 



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8 



Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 



McDonald, D Verona Wisconsin . 

Mills, Simeon Madison Wisconsin. 

Morrison, W. H Elkhorn Wisconsin. 

Newton, Miss M. E De Pere Wisconsin. 

Noehle, Theodore GreenBay Wisconsin. 

Olds, B. B Clinton Wisconsin. 

Palmer, N. N Brodhead WiecDnsin. 

Partridge, E. Q Warren ... Wisconsin. 

Peffer, Geo. P Pewaukee Wisconsin. 

Phillips, A. J West Salem Wisconsin. 

Pilgrim, D. T West Granville Wisconsin . 

Plumb, J. C Milton Wisconsin. 

Potter, C. W Mauston Wisconsin. 

Reid, Wm., Sr North Prairie Wisconsin. 

Reid, Wm., Jr North Prairie Wisconsin. 

Reynolds, Werden Green Bay Wisconsin. 

Scribner, Jos Rosendale Wisconsin . 

Smith, Alfred Madison Wisconsin. 

Smith, J. M Green Bay Wisconsin. 

Spencer, R. C Milwaukee Wisconsin. 

Springer, Wm Fremont Wisconsin. 

Springer, John Clinton Wisconsin . 

Stickney, J. S , Wauwatosa Wisconsin. 

Stone, I. N Fort Atkinson Wisconsin. 

Snydam, J. V Green Bay Wisconsin 

Thompson, H. M St Francis Wisconsin 



Trelease, Wm. Madison . 

Tuttle, A. G Baraboo 

Vaughan, J. C Chicago 

Warren, A. A. Green Bay. . . . 

Wilson, R. D Platteville. . . 

Wrightman, E. W Weyauwega . 

West, J. R Evansville. . . 

Wilcox. E Trempealeau . 

Williams, Daniel Summit 

Wood, J. W Baraboo 



Wisconsin. 

Wisconsin. 

Illinois. 

Wisconsin . 

Wisconsin. 

Wisconsin. 

Wisconsin . 

Wisconsin. 

Wisconsin . 

Wisconsin. 



honorary MEMBERa 

LIFE. 

Dr. Joseph Hobbins, ex-President; F. C. S., Corresponding Member Royal 

Horticultural Society, England, Madison, Wisconsin. 
O. S. Willey, ex-Recording Secretary. 
Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minnesota. 
F. W. Case, ex-Recording Secretary, Madison, Wisconsin. 

ANNUAL. 

A. W. Sias Rochester Minnesota. 

J. S. Harris. La Crescent Minnesota . 

Mre. Ida E. Tilson West Salem Wisconsin. 

Mrs. C. A. Willard De Pere Wisconsin. 

Oliver Gibbs, Jr. Lake City Minnesota. 



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Fruit List, 



FRUIT LIST. 



APPLES. 



Seven Varieties best adapted to Wisconsin^ Hardiness, Productiveness 
and Qtuxlity taken into consideration — Duchess, Wealthy, Pewaukee, Fam- 
euse, Plumb's Cider, Tallman Sweet, Wolf River. 

Additional list for special locations,— Tetofski, Red Astrachan, St Law- 
rence, Fall Orange, Fall Spitzenberg, Price's Sweet, Alexander, Utter, 
Westfield Seek-no-Further, Willow Twig, Golden Russett, Walbridge. 

List for trial on sandy soils, — Duchess, Fall Spitzenberg, McMahan. 

CRAB APPLES. 

For general cultivation, — Whitney's No. 20, Gibb,*Hyslop, Sweet Russet, 
Transcendent. 

Note.— The question of adaptation of varieties is one so largely dependent upon local 
Gonditiens of soil, elevation and asi)ect, that a general list will not answer fully the wants 
of every planter, and at best can only be a general guide in the selection of varieties. 

For more specific directions, the following rules and lists are furnished by the committee 
chosen for this purpose: 

1. Locations comparatively elevated and well drained, with a cool northern aspect and 
fine gravelly clay soil, not very rich, may extend the general list named above to an in- 
deflaile extent, with fair prospect of success in southern and eastern districts of the state. 
But for warm, sheltered locations and rich soils, which induce a great growth, no section of 
our state can safely plant other than those varieties known to be extremely hardy. 

2. The best guide in the selection of varieties is for each to plant laigely of such varieties 
as are found successful in locations similar to that each must plant upon. For all unfavor • 
able locations, and extreme northern districts, only the most hardy, well tried apples of the 
Russian or Siberian types should be chosen for general planting. 

S. In the extreme northern districts, only the crown of the hills should be chosen for the 
orchard, with a firm soil and porous subsoil, and if these materials are wantmg naturally, 
they should be supplied artificially. 

STRAWBERRIES. 

For General Cultivation — Wilson, Crescent, Downing, with Longfellow 
and Mt. Yemon as late fertilizers of the pistilate Crescent. 

For Trial — Kentucky, Cumberland, Bidwell, Longfellow, Vick, Sharp- 
less, Piper. 

Special List for Light Soils — Crescent, Wilson, Downer, Manchester. 

♦Gibb Crab— Originated by Geo. P. Peffer, at Pewaukee, Wis. Produced from blossoms 
of oblate yellow Siberian, fertilized by pollen from Fall Greening, in 1859. Tree low and 
spreading in habit; leaf thick and wooly; fruit oblate, light yellow, firm, crisp, subacid. 
Season, September to November, size of Hyslop; productive and non-blighting. 

2— HORT. ^ T 

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10 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 



GRAPES. 

For Oeneral Cultivation — Worden, Concord, Delaware, Janesville, 
Brighton, Moore's Early. 

For Favorable Locations — Israella, Elvira, Champion, Duchesse, Rock- 
ington, Prentiss, Jefferson, Lady, Lady Washington. 

RASPBERRIES. 

For Oeneral Cultivation -^B\a.ck: Gregg, Miami, Doolittle. Red: 
Cutbbert, Philadelphia, Turner, Brandy wine. 
For Trial — Black : Ohio, Souhegan, Tyler. Red : Shaf er . 

BLACKBERRIES 

Fpr General Cultivation — Snyder, Stone's Hardy, Ancient Briton, (tJie 
latter with winter protection). 
For Trial — Bartel's Dewberry, Taylor. 

PEARS. 

Most Lilkey to Succeed for General Cultivation — Flemish Beauty. 
For Trial — Ananas d'Ete, Early Bergamot, Bartlet, Swan's Orange, 
Seckel, Winter Nellis, Clapp's Favorite, Beurre d'Anjou, Doyenne d'Ete. 

PLUMS. 

For General Cultivation — De Soto. 

For Special Locations — Lombard, Imperial Gage, Magnum Bonum, 
Yellow Egg, Eldridge, Duane's Purple. 
For Trial — Cheney.* 
•On recommendation of J. S. Harris. 

CHERRIES. 

For General Cultivation ^I^arly Richmond, Late Richmond, English 
Morello. 



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Teee and Shrub List. 



11 



TREE AND SHRUB LIST. 



EVERGREENS. 



For General Cultivation — Norway Spruce, White Pine, Arbor Vitae, 
Scotch Pine, Balsam, White Spruce. 

For Ornamental Planting — Austrian Pine, Norway Pine, Hemlock, 
Siberian Arbor Vitse, Red Cedar, Dwarf Pine {Pinus Montana), 

For Timber — White Pine. 

For Live Fence Posts — Norway Spruce. 

DECIDUOUS PLANTS. 



Qreen Ash. 



TREES FOR TIIABER. 

I European Larch. 



Trees for lawn, (Valuable in order named.) 



Weeping Cut-leaved Birch. 

Linden. 

Hackberry. 

Green Ash. 

European Mountain Ash. 

Oak-ieaved Moimtain Ash. 

European Larch. 



American Mountain Ash. 
Horse Chestnut 
Wisconsin Weeping Willow . 
New American Weeping Willow, 
Kilmarnock Willow. 
Weeping Golden-barked Ash. 
Weeping Mountain Ash. 
Weeping Poplar. 



Shrubs for lavm, (Valuable in order named.) 



Snow balL 

Lilacs (three yarieties). 

Syringa. 

I>eutzia. 

Weigelia. 

Upright Honeysuckles 

Pyrus Jax)onica. 



Flowering Almonds. 
Spiraeas. 

Strawberry Shrub. 
Cut-leaved Sumach. 
Fringe or Smoke Trees. 
Purple-leaved Barberry. 
Hydrangea Grandidura. 



ROSES. 

Climbers — Queen of Prairie, Gem of Prairie, Baltimore Belle. 
Hybrids and June — (With protection) Persian, Yellow Harrison, Madame 
Plantier, General Jacqueminot, La France, General Washington. 



CLIMBING VINES. 



American Ivy (Ampelopis). 
Scarlet Honeysuckles. 



Fragrant Honeysuckles. 
Clematis Jackmanni. 



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12 Wisconsin State Horticjultural Societt. 



ACT OF REORGANIZATION 



OF THE 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Chapter 151, Laws of 1879. 

Section 1. The executive committee of the Wisconsin State Horticul- 
tural Society shall hereafter consist of the president, secretary and treas- 
urer of said society, and of one member from each congressional district 
of the state; said members from the congressional districts to be chosen 
annually by the county and local horticultural societies in the respective 
districts. 

Section 2. The present officers and executive committee of said society 
shall hold their respective offices until the Tuesday next succeeding the 
first Monday in February, 1880, and until their successors are appointed. 

Section 3. It shall be the duty of the said society to aid in the formation 
and maintenance of county and local horticultural societies, to promote the 
horticultural interests of the state by the holding of meetings for discussion; 
by the collection and dissemination of valuable information in regard to 
the cultivation of fruits, flowers and trees adapted to our soil and climate,, 
and in every proper way to advance the fruit and tree growing interests of 
the state. 

Section 4. The annual meeting of the society shall be held on the Tues- 
day next succeeding the first Monday in February of each year, for the 
election of its officers, the transaction of general business, and the consid- 
eration of questions pertaining to horticulture. 

Section 5. All vacancies in the offices of said society may be filled by 
the executive committee; and should there be a failure to elect a member 
of the executive committee in any district, the vacancy may be filled by a 
two-thirds vote of the members of the society present at any regularly 
appointed meeting. 

Section 6. It shall be the duty of the secretary of said society to make 
an annual report to the governor of the state of the transactions of the 
society, including an itemized account of all moneys expended during the 
year, in addition to such matters as are now specified in the law relating 
to the same. 

Section 7. The number of printed pages of said report shall not exceed 
three hundred and fifty, and the number of copies shall be limited to three- 



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Act of Reorganization. 13 

thousand five hundred. In all other respects, the publication and distri- 
bution of said report shall be in accordance with the provisions of the law 
now in force concerning the same. 

Section 8. The sum of $C0O is hereby appropriated out of any money in 
the state treasury not otherwise appropriated, to aid the said society in 
carrying out the provisions of this act; said sum to be paid by the state 
treasurer upon the order of the president of said society, in such sums and 
at such times as shall best contribute to the prosperity of the society and 
the interests it represents. 

Section 9. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its 
passage and publication. 

Approved March 1, 1879. 



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14 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 



CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 

As Amended February 1883 and February 1884. 



constitution. 



Art. I. This Society shall be known as the Wisconsin State Horticultural 
Society. 

Art. U. Its object shall be the advancement of the art and science of 
horticulture throughout the state. 

Art. III. Its members shall consist of annual members, paying an annual 
fee of one dollar; which shall entitle the wife of such member to the pri- 
vileges of full membership; of life members, paying a fee of ten dollars at 
one time; of honorary life members, who shall be distinguished for merit 
in horticultural or kindred sciences, or who shall confer any particular 
benefit upon the society; and honorary annt^Z members, who may, by vote, 
be invited to participate in the proceedings of the society. 

Art. IV. Its oflScers shall consist of a President, Vice President, Record- 
ing Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, Treasurer, Superintendent, and an 
Executive Board consisting of the foregoing officers and additional mem- 
bers, one from each congressional district of the state, five of whom shall 
constitute a quorum at any of its meetings. In addition to the foregoing 
officers, the presidents of all local horticultural societies reporting to this 
society shall be deemed honorary members and ex officio vice presidents of 
his society. All officers shall be elected by ballot, and shall hold their 
office for one year thereafter, and until their successors are elected; pro- 
vided, the additional executive members may be elected by the county or 
local horticultural societies of their respective districts. 

Art V. The society shall hold its annual meeting for the election of 
officers, oh the Monday next preceding the first Tuesday in February. It 
shall also hold a meeting in December of each year, at such place and time 
as may be decided upon by the society or its executive committee, for the 
exhibition of fruit aad for discussions, and such other meetings for discus- 
sions and exhibition as the executive committee may direct, at such time 
and place as the executive board shall designate. 

Art. VL This constitution, with the accompanying by-laws, may b© 
amended at any regular meeting, by a two-thirds vote of the membeia 
present. 



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Constitution and By-Laws. 16 



BY-LAWS. 

L The president shall preside at meetings, and, with the advice of the 
recording secretary, call all meetings of the society and have general super- 
vision of the affairs of the society; and shall deliver an annual address upon 
some subject connected with horticulture. 

II. The vice president shall act in the absence or disability of the presi- 
dent, and perform the duties of the chief officer. 

Ill The secretary shall attend to all the correspondence, shall record 
the proceedings of the society, preserve all papers belonging to the same, 
and superintend the publication of its reports. He shall also present a de- 
tailed report of the affairs of the society, at ifcs annual meeting. He shall 
also endeavor to secure reports from the various committees, and from local 
societies, of the condition and progress of horticulture in the various dis- 
tricts of the state ^nd report the same to the society. It shall be the duty 
of the secretary to make an annual report to the governor of the state, of 
the transactions of the society, according to the provisions of the statutes 
for state reporta 

IV. The treasurer shall keep an account of all moneys belonging to the 
society, and disburse the same on the written order of the president, coun- 
tersigned by the secretary, and shall make an annual report of the receipts 
and disbursements, and furnish the secretary with a copy of the same, on 
or before the first day of the annual meeting. The treasurer elect shall, 
before entering upon the discharge of the duties of his office, give good 
and sufficient bonds for the faithful performance of his duties, subject to 
the approval of the executive committee. 

V. The executive board may, subject to the approval of the society, 
manage all its affairs and fill vacancies in the board of officers; three of 
their number, as designated by the president, shall constitute a finance 
committee. 

VL It shall be the duty of the finance committee to settle with the treas- 
urer, and to examine and report upon all the bills or claims against the 
society which may have been presented and referred to them. 

VIL The standing committees of this society shall be as follows: let. 
Committee on Finance, consisting of three members; 2d, Committee on 
Nomenclature and New Fruits, consisting of three members; 3d, Commit- 
tee on Observation, as now provided. Said committees to be be appointed 
annually by the executive committee of the society. 



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16 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 



LAWS relating TO THE PUBLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF 
THE TRANSACTIONS OF THE WISCONSIN STATE HORTICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY. 

Revised Statutes, 1878. 

Section 339. There shall be printed annually by the state printer, on the 
order of the commissioners of public printing, * * * three thousand 
copies of the transactions of the Wisconsin] State Horticultural Society, 
together with abstracts of reports of county and other hortictQtural socie- 
ties, and such other matter pertaining, to fruit growing and other horticul- 
tural interests of the state as shall be deemed important. The volume 
may include such engravings as shall be necessary to illustrate the printed 
matter; the cost of said engravings not to exceed the sum of one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars in any one year, and to be paid out of the state treas- 
ury. 

Section 363. The transactions of the State Horticultural Society shall be 
distributed as follows: Five copies to each member of the legislature; fifty 
copies to each town or coimty horticultural society that shall report its or 
ganization, with ofGLcers elect, number of members, and an abstract of its 
proceedings, for .publication in said volume, to the Secretary of the State 
Horticultural Society; fifty copies to each county agricultural society re- 
porting to the secretary of state; fifty copies to the State Agricultural Society; 
fifty copies to the State University; twenty-five copies to the State Historical 
Society; and all remaining copies to the State Horticultural Society. * * 
* The member of the printed pages of the transactions * * * of said 
horticultural society shall not exceed two hundred, and all such transac- 
tions shall be printed on good book paper and bound in muslin covers, uni- 
form in style with the previous volumes published. 

Chapter 151, Laws of 1879. 

Section 6. It shall be the duty of the secretary of said society to make 
an annual report to the governor of the state of the transactions of the 
society, including an itemized account of the moneys expended during the 
year, in addition to such matters as are now specified in the law relating 
to the same. 

Section 7. The number of printed pages of said report shall not ex- 
ceed three hundred and fifty, and the number of copies shall be limited to 
three thousand ^ve hundred. In all other, respects, the publication and 
distribution of said report shall be in accordance with the provisions of the 
law now in force concerning the same. 

Chapter 320, Laws of 1888. 

Section 7. There shall be printed annually by the state printer, and on 
the order of the [commissioners of public printing, the following docu- 
uments. 



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Law Relating to Tree Belts. 17 

1. Twelve thousand copies of the transactions of the Wisconsin State 
Agricultural Society, together with abstracts of the reports of the county 
agricultural societies, and such other matters pertaining to the industry of 
the state as shall be deemed important; provided the number of pages shall 
not exceed five hundred. 

2. Twelve thousand copies of the transactions of the Wisconsin State 
Horticultural Society, together with such abstracts of reports of county 
and other horticultural societies, and such other matters pertaining to fruit 
growing and other horticultural interests of the state as shall be deemed 
important; provided, the number of pages shall not exceed two, hundred. 

8. Twelve thousand copies of the transactions of the State Dairymen's 
Association, and such other matters pertaining to the dairy interests of the 
state as shall be deemed most important; provided the number of pages 
shall not exceed one hundred and fifty. 

4. Twelve thousand copies of the report of the department of agricul- 
ture of the State University; provided the number of pages shall not ex- 
ceed one hundred. 

Section 8. Eleven thousand five hundred volumes of said report shall 
be bound in cloth, uniform in style, with volumes previously published, 
each volume to contain one copy of each of the reports designated in the 
preceding section, and shall be distributed as follows: Thirty copies to 
each member of the legislature; one hundred copies to the State Historical 
Society; twenty-five copies to each county agricultural society and district 
industrial association which embraces two or more counties and furnishes 
the State Agricultural Society a. report of its proceedings; one hundred 
copies to the State Horticultural Society; twenty-five copies to each county 
horticultural society that shall report its organization, with oficers elect' 
and give an abstract of its proceedings for publication in said volume to 
the secretary of the State Horticultural Society; one hundred copies to the 
State Dairymen's Association; fifty copies to the State University; five 
copies to the Wisconsin Humane Society; two copies to each public library 
in the state; and the remaining copies to the State Agricultural Society for 
distribution by its secretary. 

Section 9. Five hundred copies of the transactions of the State Agricul- 
tural Society, and five hundred copies of the transactions of the State 
Horticultural Society, shall be bound singly, in cloth; hve hundred copies 
of the transactions of the State Dairymen's Association, and five hundred 
copies of the report of the department of agriculture of the State Univer- 
sity, shall be bound in paper, for the use of these several societies and de- 
partments for distribution or exchange. 



LAW RELATING TO TREE BELTS. 

* Revised Statutes, 1878. 

Section 1469. Every owner or possessor of five acres of land, or more, 
who shall successfully grow by planting with forest trees, consisting of the 



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18 Wisconsin State Horticultural Soqiety. 

following kinds, or such species thereof as will grow to the height of fifty- 
feet or more, viz. : axbor vitae, ash, balsam fir, ba8sw9od, beech, birch, but- 
ternut, cedar, black cherry, chestnut, coffee tree, cucumber tree, elm, hack- 
berry, hemlock, hickory, larch, locust, maple, oak, pine, spruce, tulip tree 
and walnut, tree belts in the manner and form prescribed in the next sec- 
tion, shall be entitled to have the land on which such tree belts grow until 
they shall reach the height of twelve feet, and after they shall have at- 
tained that height, to receive an annual bounty of two dollars per acre for 
each acre so grown. 

Section 1470. Such tree belts shall be planted on the West or south sides 
of each tract of land, be of uniform width through their entire length, con- 
tain not less than eight trees at nearly equi-distance, on each square rod of 
land, and be at least thirty feet wide for each five acre tract, sixty feet 
wide for each ten acre tract, and one hundred feet wide for each square 
forty acre tract, and upon all square tracts of land, upon two sides thereof. 
All tree belts owned by the same land owner must be planted not to exceed 
a fourth of a mile apart, and on the west and south sides of every squar^ 
forty acres, and shall not exceed one-fifth of the entire tract of land on 
which the same are planted; provided, that when the east and north sides, 
or either, of any tract of land, is bounded by a public highway, a tree belt 
one rod wide may be planted next to said highway, although it, with the 
others on the west and south sides, shall exceed one-fifth of the whole 
tract; and tree belts may be planted on any other lines within each forty 
square acres, by permission of the assessor. 

Section 1471. The assessor shall, upon the application of the owner 
thereof, in each year, at the time of assessing the personal property in his 
district, make a personal examination of all tree belts for which bounty or 
exemption from taxation is claimed, and ascertain whether they hav« 
been planted as required in the preceding section, and are thriftily grow- 
ing, and if he shall be satisfied thereof, he shall not assess the same for 
taxation unless the trees therein shall have attained the height of twelve 
feet, and in that case he shall deliver to the owner a certificate that he is 
entitled to an annual bounty of two dollars for each acre of such tree belts, 
stating therein the whole amount of such bounty and giving a description 
of the the entire land of which the tree belts form a part, and the amount 
of such bounty shall be credited by the treasurer in payment of any taxes 
assessed on such land, as so much cash; but if not so satisfied, the assessor 
shall assi^ss the land for taxes or refuse to grant any certificate for the 
bounty, as the case may require; and if, after any certificate for such 
bounty shall have been issued, the owner of any such tree belts shall suffer 
the same to die out by want of cultivation or otherwise, or shall cut the 
same down, or in any other way allow the same to be thinned out, that 
in the opinion of the assessor he ought no longer to receive such bounty, 
he shall give the treasurer written notice thereof, and thereafter no further 
bounty shall be allowed until such owner shall again receive a certificate 
therefor. 



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PROCEEDINGS 

AT THE 

SUMMEB MEETING 

HELD BY THE 

Wisconsin State Horticnltnral Society, 



RiPON, June 28-29, 1883. 



Meeting called to order at 11 A. M. by President J. M. 
Smith, of Green Bay. Moved and carried that L. G. Kel- 
logg act as secretary of the convention, in the absence of 
Secretary Trelease. Moved and carried that a committee on 
programme be appointed by the chair and also one on 
resolutions. 

The first paper read was the following: 

OUR BIRDS IN RELATION TO HORTICULTURE. 

By Prop. F. H. King, River Falls. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: — Given a continually increasing 
population and a steady encroachment upon unclaimed ter- 
ritory; nothing can be more certain than that, if a healthy 
advancement towards " complete living " is to follow with 
the same measured pace a sound, progressive system of 
economy must lead the way. If there is one thing more 
than another pervading and stimulating the intense activity 
of to-day, it is the notion that the channels through which 
available energies are running to waste must be closed or 
that these energies must be deflected in such ways as to con- 
tribute useful results. Day by day the printed page comes 
to us aglow with the glad tidings that some one has made a 



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20 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

valuable discovery and thereby converted a waste substance 
of some great manufacturing industry into a useful product. 
Perhaps no more forcible illustration of what is here meant 
can be given than tJiat furnished by the utilization of the 
by-products of the illuminating gas manufacture. Dr. C. 
W. Siemans, in his inaugural address, delivered last August 
before the British Association, states that the value of the 
annual production of by-products from the manufacture of 
gas in the British Isles is more than $40,500,000, and that 
this sum exceeds the value of the coal used in the production 
by over $13,500,000. This sum of $40,500,000 is over and 
above the value of the illuminating gas which was the di- 
rect object of the manufacture, and in the earliest stages 
of gas manufacture these by-products were almost alto- 
gether wastages — some of them got rid of only at great 
expense. Dr. Siemans states that there is up to this day a 
dead waste of about 120,000 tons of sulphur annually from 
the gas factories of the British Isles, which has yet to be 
turned into some remunerative channel. 

From the nature of the elements involved, and the mag- 
nitude of the industry itself, there can be no other which 
can in any way present the enormous wastage totals which 
have, thus far, been inseparably connected with agricultural 
enterprises of all kinds. These wastages too, are, of such a 
nature, and are so distributed as to make the problem of 
converting them into remunerative elements perhaps the 
most diflBcult with which man is called upon to deal. It is 
a problem, however, which must press harder and harder for 
solution, as the demands for food-stuflfs increase. 

There is, perhaps, no greater waste in your business and 
in farming generally, than that which comes through the 
necessity of feeding such vast numbers of living beings in 
the form of insects and weeds which can in no way be 
turned to account so as to result in appreciable reward. 
With a most limited knowledge of the insects infesting cul- 
tivated plants and a very small reference library relating to 
the subject at my command, I can enumerate a dozen ene- 
mies of the strawberry plant, forty-one insects destructive 
to grapes, and more than sixty which prey upon the apple. 



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Our Birds in Relation to Horticulture. 21 

These numbers are certainly much too small to express the 
facts as they exist, and other cultivated fruits and plants are 
hot more fortunate. These insects are small, and when consid- 
ered singly are insignificant, but the vast numbers of them 
make the grand total of waste through their depredations 
almost beyond computation. How to lessen or prevent this 
great wastage must be a problem of growing importance as 
the demands upon the soil increase. 

The great family of modern birds, some 10,000 species in 
all, of which Wisconsin has nearly 300, or about one-thirty- 
fifth of the whole bird population of the world, appears to 
owe its sustenance very largely to insect life. Indeed these 
birds are the result of nature's methods of reducing wast- 
ages and making the most out of littles; and since each of 
the 10,000 species of birds probably counts its individuals by 
the millions or tens of millions, it must appear that the 
numbers of insects annually consumed by birds are well 
beyond the range of figures, and that the amount of vege- 
tation consumed by the insects is stupendous. 

It does not appear possible for man to exterminate many, 
if, indeed, any, of the vast hordes of destructive species of . 
insects which prey upon his crops, and the only method 
which appears to be practicable, is that of holding these in- 
sects at the least possible expense within the narrowest 
possible limits. How to do this is a question of more than 
national interest. The cases are rare indeed where it is at 
all practicable to meet these enemies hand to hand. They 
must be controlled in some manner indirectly. As already 
indicated, birds have long been one of nature's means of 
holding insects within bound, but from the horticultural 
point of view, and especially from the small fruit side of 
that question the objection comes, that while the birds are 
destructive to insects they are at the same time destructive 
to the same crops which they should protect. 

While it must be admitted that a few of our birds, like the 
robin, cat bird, brown thrush and cherry bird do feed to some 
extent upon small fruits, it must not be overlooked that our 
birds, as a class, are not to any noteworthy extent thus in- 
jurious. In proof of this I can present the fact that out of 



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22 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

«orae 1,800 birds whose stomacWs I have examined only 62 
birds had eaten fruits of any kind, and of the 62 only 24 had 
•eaten cultivated fruits. Only 51 of our 295 species of birds 
are accused by any one of eating fruits, wild or cultivated. 
Prof. S. A. Forbes, state entomologist of Illinois, presents 
some specific facts bearing upon this same point which he 
has obtained from extended and careiful observations. He 
has examined the stomachs of 114 robins, 70 cat birds and 
'64 brown thrushes shot during the small fruit months — June, 
July^and August — and finds that 51 robins, 41 cat-birds and 
■24 brown thrushes had eaten cultivated or wild fruits, 32 per 
cent, of the food of the robins, 52 per cent, of that of the 
•cat-birds and 24 per cent, of the brown thrushes, consisting 
of fruits,>wild or tame. Expressing these results in the ag- 
igregate of 248 birds examined during the fruit season, 116 
•or less than one-half, had eaten fruits, and the fruit eaten 
comprised but 36 per cent, of the whole food of these 248 
birds. 

Presenting part of these facts in a little different way still, 
43 of the 248 birds had eaten blackberries, 11 raspberries, 33 
cherries, 7 currants, 12 grapes and only 5 strawberries. Black- 
berries formed 13 per cent, of the whole food, raspberries 3^ 
iper cent., cherries 8J, currants 1, grapes 3i and strawberries 
less than one per cent. From my own experience with these 
three birds — the robin, cat bird and brown thrush — I can 
say that Prof. Forbes' estimate of the per cent, of fruits 
•eaten by them is, in my judgment, quite large enough. Do 
these three species render a sufficient service in destroying 
insects to pay for the fruits they consume? 

In other lines of work you do not expect to have services 
rendered without due compensation. You board the horse 
the year through and give him lodging for the services he is 
abl6 to render; you expect the hired man will pick from the 
vines some of the berries and eat an apple now and then, 
•and if he is a faithful servant you are glad to see him do so. 

During the six or seven months these three birds are labor- 
ing with us, certainly less than one fifth of their food con- 
sists of cultivated fruits, while more than sixty per cent, of 
their food is insects. These ratios are as one to three, the 



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Our Birds in Relation to Horticulture. 23 

amount of insect food being three times that of fruit. Now 
would you consider it an unwise investment to contract with 
some person to give him one quart of strawberries for every 
three quarts of leaf -rollers he would gather from your vines or 
one peck of plums for every three pecks of curculios brought 
to you dead, or a bushel of currants for every three bushels 
of canker-worms destroyed. Of course you would be will- 
ing to do very much more than reverse these ratios, for a 
bushel of curculios and a bushel of plums, a bushel of cut- 
worms and a bushel of corn, a bushel of chinch-bugs and a 
bushel of wheat are manifestly not to be counted as equiva- 
lent values on the opposites of any account. But the robin, 
cat bird, brown thrush and cherry bird stand very much in 
the same relation as that occupied by the assumed con- 
tractor. Their case is of course exaggerated so far as the 
particular insects named are concerned but certainly not as 
related to insects as a class. Of course no one suffers as 
heavily from these four birds as do the small fruit growers 
l)ut many of them in our state have other and larger inter- 
ests besides, and to such these birds are indispensable. How 
destructive the cherry birds are to caterpillars, at times, is 
shown conclusively by Prof. Forbes in one of his excellent 
reports on the food of birds. He says, in discussing the food 
of some birds which were collected in an orchard, severely 
attacked by canker-worms in May 1881: "Next comes the 
gera of our ornithological beauties, the cedar bird, some- 
times called the cherry bird, and greatly persecuted for its 
love of cherries. A flock of about thirty of these birds had 
apparently taken up their residence in this orchard. The 
food record of the seven which were killed is brief — canker- 
worms, one hundred per cent., expressed it all. The num- 
ber of canker-worms in each stomach, determined by actual 
count ranged from seventy to one hundred and one, and was 
usually nearly one hundred. Assuming that these consti- 
tuted a whole day's food, the thirty birds were destroying 
three thousand worms a day, or ninety thousand for the 
month during which the caterpillar is exposed." 

Notwithstanding the many times the cherry bird has been 
sentenced to extirpation because it is especially fond of cher- 



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24: Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

ries, the justice or injustice of such decisions yet remains to 
be established. And this leads me to suggest that it may- 
yet be found advisable for farmers to plant small fruit trees 
for the express purpose of attracting birds about their 
premises. Many of our farmers are not only scrupulously 
careful to cut down every tree that may be growing in their 
fields, but they are often equally careful to grub out those 
which remain along the fences. In view of the geat serv- 
ice which insectivorous birds render to agriculture, and the 
conditions which must be observed in order to retain them 
in abundance in agricultural districts, the destruction of 
trees to which I have referred must be regarded as false 
economy. There are very few of our birds which can or 
will withstand the piercing rays of the mid-summer noon- 
day sun unprotected by shade of some sort, and a still 
smaller number of the insectivorous species which are so 
common and useful now can possibly remain so after the 
groves and woods are gone unless some special provisions 
are made for them. The planting of shade trees along the 
streets which so many are doing is a step in the right direc- 
tion and the setting of trees along line fences which a few 
on the prairies are attempting is a move to the point. 

I believe that nearly every stationary fence on the farm 
should have its row of deep-rooted shade trees, and especially 
should this be true on the prairies. Such trees could per- 
form four very important functions: (1.) They could not fail 
to increase the annual amount of rain as has been proved 
by the increasing rain fall of KansaS) where trees are being 
largely planted. (2.) They would mitigate very much the 
extreme heat of summer. This I can aflSrm, not only upon 
a priori reasons, but from experiments I have tried bearing 
upon this point. Holding a thermometer on the leeward 
side of a small tree but not in the shade, allowing the air to 
pass through the tree top before coming upon the thermome- 
ter the temperature was two degrees lower than indicated 
when the general current of air passed over the thermome- 
ter held not twenty feet distant. (3.) These trees could be 
used as perpetual posts for wire fences. Lastly, though by 
no means least, they would serve as breeding places for 



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Our Birds in Relation to Horticulture. 25 

birds. It has seemed to me that it would be very desirable 
to have a fair sprinkling of cherry trees in these rows, and 
especially the choke cherry and wild black cherry. There 
is no fruit more attractive to birds than these. The choke 
cherry ripens early enough to draw the birds from the rasp- 
berries, and and the black cherries would serve also to draw 
the burden of the attack from the blackberries, which come 
on later. It might even be desirable to allow some of the 
red raspberries and cultivated cherries to grow along these 
fences for the same purpose. 

But if such steps as these are undesirable or impracticable 
there are other birds which are purely insectivorous and 
capable of becoming abundant if suitable encouragement 
were offered to them. Such birds are the house wren, blue 
bird, summer yellow bird — not the thistle bird or wild 
canary as it is sometimes called — the chippy or little 
streaked, gray bird with a chestnut crown, so common about 
the dooryard, building a delicate nest in trees and lining it 
with horsehair, and the warbling vireo — a small, olive green 
bird coming to be more common in orchards; all of tliese 
birds are insect destroyers of the most extreme type and 
neither of them is destructive to fruits or seeds of cultivated 
plants The blue bird and wren may be encouraged by put- 
ting up suitable houses for them, enough and to spare. You 
can encourage the others greatly by discouraging the cats. 
These animals are expensive traps in more ways than one 
and the minimum number of them should be kept for use. 
About zero is a large enough number for well regulated and 
rightly composed families. Other enemies of these birds 
are the blue jay, the white-rumped shrike and the cow bird. 
The blue jay has the habit of plundering bird's nests of both 
their eggs and their young, killing even half-grown robins. 
The shrike, which is an ash-colored bird a little smaller than 
the blue jay and which has black wings and a black stripe 
through the eyes, has the habit of pouncing hawk-like upon 
small birds and killing them. These two birds should re- 
ceive no encouragement and should not be allowed to breed 
about dwellings, in orchards or in gardens. The cowbird 

3— HORT. 



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26 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

is the black bird which follows cattle and horses about in the 
pasture. 

It has the strange habit, outside of the human family, of 
imposing the labor of rearing its children upon other birds. 
This it does by laying its eggs singly in the nests of other 
birds. I have known seven out of fourteen pewees nests 
visited during one spring in a single locality to contain a 
cow bird's egg each. Since it is a general rule that in such 
cases only the cow bird's egg hatches it is evident that in 
these cases if events had transpired as they had been 
planned there could have been but seven cow birds to stand 
in the place of from twenty-eight to thirty-five pewees. Such 
is the check this bird imposes upon the pewee. If, as is 
generally believed, each cow bird represents a brood of young 
birds whose birth has been prevented, the number of cow 
bird's existing at any time represents a deficiency in the 
bird population of a country of some three times their 
number; and as the nests in which this parasite usually de- 
posits her eggs are those of the most exclusively insectivor- 
ous species we have, it is evident that the cow bird must 
prevent the destruction of many more insects 'than it is 
capable of devouring. 

I have said that there are purely insectivorous birds capa- 
ble of becoming abundant if proper encouragement were , 
offered them, but only one among those I named could be 
expected to render material service in your strawberry fields. 
This is the little chippy. Its services are especially valuable 
because it is so much upon the ground where ifand the robin, 
about dwellings and in orchards and gardens, are almost 
alone. During rainy days it may often be seen with a cut- 
worm in its mouth. So far as I know it is harmless to garden 
seeds and never molests grains while it feeds to some extent 
upon small heteropterous insects, some of them only .09 of 
an inch long. I mention this because it is a form related to 
the new strawberry enemy which has proved so disastrous 
in our sister state, Illinois. This new enemy of the straw- 
berry, Prof. Forbes informs me, is no other than the very 
common Lycus Lineolaris found everywhere, and he has 
done me the further kindness of sending some of the pests 



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Our Birds in Relation to Horticulture. 27 

in all stages of development. These I have brought with 
« me thinking you would be glad to see them. There are at 
least three other hemipterous insects destructive to straw- 
berries, the strawberry plant louse, the false chinch-bug, and 
the flea negro bug, all of which are small but still as large 
or larger than those related forms upon which the chippy^ 
feeds. Then again there are feeding upon these plants three 
small beetles, the strawberry crown-borer, the strawberry 
root- worm and the grape-vine colapsis, the adult forms of 
which range between 1-12 and 1-5 of an inch in length. Such 
small beetles are also preyed upon by this bird, and as one of 
these beetles, the crown-borer, is wingless, only such birds 
as get their food upon the ground would be likely to destroy 
it. Two strawberry span-worms are also reported as injur- 
ious and to such forms as these in the caterpillar stage, 
chippy, and indeed most small birds, are exceedingly destruc- 
tive, and this is especially true while the young are being 
reared. One of these span-worms is double brooded, the larvae 
appearing on the vines first in May or June and again in 
July; but this is the case also with the chipping sparrow and 
its two families of four or five members each, which during 
two long weeks are all of them hungrier than any school- 
boy ever dreamed of being, are in rearing at the same pe- 
riods. The strawberry worm {emphytis maculatus) counted 
among the most destructive of enemies, like the last, is 
double brooded, the two broods occurring at the same seasons 
in which the chippy is pressed so hard to obtain a suflScient 
supply of food for her young. Upon these i,t is to be expected, 
this bird feeds, though I cannot say that it does from actual 
observation. 

There is, perhaps, no more destructive insect to the straw- 
berry vine than the strawberry leaf-roller, which in the larval 
state, is little more than a third of an inch in length, and 
which has learned to shield itself from the attacks of birds 
and other enemies by crumpling and folding the leaves over 
itself, forming a leafy home in which it feeds in comparative 
safety. This leaf -roller is only one of a very large number 
of insects infesting cultivated and wild plants which thus 
wrap themselves in strong leaf -cases, but we have at least 



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28 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

one bird which has learned their hiding places and which 
diligently destroys them. I refer to the Baltimore or Golden 
Oriole, whose strong, sharp beak fits it admirably for such 
work. An instance of the destructiveness of this bird to 
leaf-rollers came under my observation. While walking 
through a dense grove of young oaks, my attention was 
attracted by a loud noise of tearing leaves. X)n approaching 
the spot a family of orioles flew to a large neighboring tree 
and the noise ceased. In the stomach of one of these birds 
I found twenty leaf -rollers which were then so common on 
the oaks. I do not know that the oriole feeds upon the 
strawberry leaf -roller, but since it is often in strawberry 
patches and has this habit, it would be quite the proper 
thing to do to see whether or not it does before it is accused 
of being there for the sole purpose of .ea.ting the berries. 
You doubtless are aware that this bird is accused of destroy- 
ing more fruit than it wants to eat. The fact I have not 
been able to verify, but if it be true, it may be that it is in 
quest of larvae hidden within, and that point should be defi- 
nitely settled before the bird is condemned. 

I have thus far called your attention to insects located 
upon the plants themselves, but nearly all of these species 
pass into an adult stage, during which they are upon the 
wing much of the time, some of them in the day-time and 
others in the evening or during the night. Birds have 
learned these habits, too, and certain groups of birds make 
it their especial business to secure those forms. Such birds 
are our swallows, the pewee and king bird tribe and the 
chimney swift. The swallows and fly-catchers feed only 
during the day, while the chimney swift or chimney swallow, 
as it is usually called, during the breeding season is out all 
night long in quest of food for its hungry young. 

You have doubtless often heard this bird rumbling down 
the chimney at intervals during the nights. Now this di- 
vision of labor which birds have assumed, in the face of the 
profusion of life from which they may choose, is conclusive 
evidence to me that the power which they exert over the 
abundance of insect life is far fron being inappreciable. 
What we need to aim at, then, in regulating 'the bird fauna 



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Shade and Ornamental Trees by the Wayside. 29 

of agricultural districts is to make it combine in sufficient 
abundance all of those species which do peculiar but import- 
ant work. We need, in fact, to adopt just those divisions of 
labor which nature has been so long in working out, and, 
perhaps, without modification, except so far as changing 
conditions make it necessary that new relations should be 
established. 

To expect the robin, with an unlimited abundance, to do 
the work of the kingbird or pewee, or that these birds can 
do the work of the vireos is absurd. Neither can the short- 
flighted, slow winged pewee and king bird, although they are 
fly catchers, be expected to do what the swallows are able 
to accomplish with their long, swift, gyratory and zigzag 
flights. Each species has fitted itself by long practice for 
its own peculiar work, and does it more effectually than 
another species can. Viewed in this light, it is evident that 
some birds, even though they may be somewhat destructive 
to particular crops, must, nevertheless, be protected, simply 
because they do an important work which other birds do 
not. 



Under order of business the committee an Programme 
was appointed, viz.: L. G. Kellogg, C. H. Hamilton and 
Geo. J. Kellogg. » 

On motion the convention adjourned until 2 o'clock P. M. 



Afternoon meeting called to order by President J. M. 
Smith, who then addressed the convention on the subject: 

SHADE AND ORNAMENTAL TREES BY THE WAY- 

SIDE. 

When I consider how many thousands of the most beauti- 
ful trees of the different varieties we have in our forests, 
that only need to be transplanted and properly cared for, to 
made our highways beautiful and the farms made much 
more beautiful, as well as more valuable than at present, I 
am sorry that so little attention is paid to this branch of 
horticultural improvement. 



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30 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

Of the varieties of our native trees fitted for this pur- 
pose, the elm undoubtedly stands at the head of the list. In 
fact, I am told that some European horticulturists have de- 
clared it to be the most magnificent shade tree in the world. 
But this high praise can with truth only be applied to one 
variety of them. We have in our forests four distinct varieties 
of elms, besides some that seem to be, and doubtless are inter- 
mediates. The Rock Elm is found only upon dry land, and 
has a tall, straight trunk, light colored, rough bark, and 
straight grain that splits readily. The top is small, the 
branches short, crooked, and unsightly, and it never makes 
a handsome shade tree, although valuable for timber. It 
sometimes grows very large; I saw one last summer upon the 
Michigan peninsula that was about five feet in diameter at 
the stump, and shot up at least sixty feet without limb or 
blemish of any kind, almost as true and round as if turned 
in a lathe. The Red or Slippery Elm is only moderate in 
size, has long, drooping branches, though not enough of 
that to make either an ornamental or a good shade tree. 
The Brook Elm is generally small in size, unsightly in ap- 
pearance, and is one of the most utterly worthless trees to 
be found in our forests. Fortunately it is a rare tree, and is 
found only in swamps, or very wet places. Lastly, comes 
the majestic and beautiful elm of our towns and cities, and 
I wish I could say, so common by our road sides. It is for- 
tunately, more widespread than either, or in fact than all 
the other varieties combined. Its native habitat is upon 
rather low, moist ground, although it will flourish nicely 
upon almost any soil except a swamp or a dry sand. It is 
easy to transplant, is a thrifty grower and a long lived tree. 
There are many beautiful specimens of it in the city of 
Green Bay, that have been set within the last twenty-five 
to thirty years. They have by no means yet reached their 
prime, although they add wonderfully to both the beauty 
and comfort of our city. To me it is a more beautiful and 
stately tree than the far famed Live Oak of the south. 

Next to the elm come the maple. Of these we have two 
varieties, commonly termed the "hard" or ''sugar" maple 
and the "soft" or "red" maple. The last is so named from 



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Shape and Ornamental Trees by the WAYsmE. 31 
> 
its red blossoms appearing early in the spring. The hard or 
sugar maple is much the more desirable of the two. It is a 
slow grower, but is a beautiful tree in its foliage, almost 
from the beginning. In its form and in its dense foliage it 
resembles the magnolia of the south. 

It bears transplanting well, and I know of no tree that 
better repays extra care and fertilizing than our hard ma- 
ples. In the fall, after our first hard frosts, it assumes a 
gorgeous beauty not easy to describe. Many years since, 
during a beautiful day in the fall, I rode nearly all day with 
a friend along the slope of a mountain in one of the eastern 
states. A valley was upon our right and beyond it another 
mountain slope. Its sides were covered with timber of va- 
rious kinds, and interspersed among them were clusters of 
the sugar maple in all the glory of fall foliage. For me to 
describe the beauty of the scene would be simply impossible. 
But the memory of that day will not leave me until I cease 
to remember the days that are past and gone. 

The common linden or basswood is .also a valuable shade 
tree. It is, when grown alone, rather cone-shaped, a rapid 
grower, of fine foliage., and when in bloom exceedingly beau- 
tiful. 

Of the poplar family the whitewood and the silver leaf 
are the best; still I cannot confess to much enthusiasm for 
any of the varieties, and think that Thomas Jefferson was 
not in his most appropriate business when he introduced the 
Lombardy poplar into our country. They have been set by 
thousands in and about Green Bay, and if the same amount 
of money and labor had been expended in setting and caring 
for elms and maples, I verily believe that Green Bay would, 
to-day, have been the most beautifully ornamented city, of 
its size, in the United States. She has a very large number 
of beautiful shade trees; still much time and money has 
been wasted in trying to make something both ornamental 
and useful out of the Lombardy poplar, but the failure has 
been complete. 

We have two varieties of ash. The black ash growing 
in our swamps and low lands is an ill-shaped and unsightly 
tree, almost invariably beginning to decay at the top as soon 



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32 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

« 
as it gets to be of fair size. The other variety, the white, or 
as it is often called the Blue Ash, is a beautiful tree. When 
growing alone the top is cone shaped, making a fine shade, 
and it is clean and altogether fine in its appearance. It 
grows rapidly, provided it has a rich dry soil, but will not do 
its best in aiiy other. 

The oak family is but little used for transplanting. It is 
more diflScult to handle, a slow grower, and not as beautiful 
when grown as some of those already named. The shellbark 
hickory, when it grows alone, is one of the most beautiful 
trees in our latitude. In Brown county there are hundreds, 
and perhaps I might say thousands of them, that in form and 
foliage, would rival the far-famed magnolia of the south. 
In the form of the leaf, and shape of the top, they are very 
similar to it. But they are diflScult to transplant and are 
very slow growers even at their best. Hence they are rarely 
used for this purpose. If one wishes to use evergreens for 
a portion of his wayside trees, there is nothing to me so 
beautiful as the white pine. There are clusters of them a 
few miles north of Green Bay that are certainly the most 
beautiful evergreen trees that I ever saw. 

I have thus named some of the characteristics of what 
seem to me the most desirable trees for ornamenting our 
streets and highways. I have confined myself to our foj-est 
trees, because they are accessible to all, and cost but little 
beyond the labor of digging and hauling from their native 
home to the spot where they are wanted; and to me they 
are more beautiful than any of the imported trees that I 
have seen. 

And now a few words about the time, place, and manner 
of setting and caring for them. The spring is with us the 
most appropriate time, and perhaps the earlier the better 
after the ground is in good condition to work. One of the 
worst faults of those in setting trees, is that they are set too 
close together. If elms are set 40 or even 50 feet apart and 
properly cared for, they will soon make a perfect shade and 
the branches be interlocked with each other. The oiher va- 
rieties named should be set closer, from 20 to 30 feet apart. 



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Shade and Ornamental Trees by the WAYsmE. 33 

HOW SHALL THEY BE SET ? 

I have sometimes thoughfc that of all the neglected things 
upon some of our neglected farms, the poor shade trees, if 
indeed there were any at all, fared the worst. And even 
those, who in some repects are good farmers, are far from 
perfect in their treatment of their shade and ornamental 
trees. 

In fact, they sometimes remind me of a little anecdote. 
A number of years since a tree peddler, who was making 
his way through one of our newly settled timber counties, 
called at the house of one of my friends, and as he had one 
of the finest farms in the county, and it was not well stocked 
with fruit trees, the peddler was determined not to be put 
off without making a sale. He |;old of the hardiness of his 
trees, and the great value of the fruit, and the certainty of 
large profits in connection with the fruit interest, until my 
friend told him that if the trees would stand his method of 
setting and culture he would purchase, and he could also 
sell to his neighbors. 

The peddler wanted to know the method though he was 
certain his stock would stand the test. " Well," said my 
friend, " we take the young trees and an axe, and carry them 
out into a meadow that has never been plowed. It is a very 
heavy sod. We cut them back severely; in fact we cut the 
tops all off with the axe. We then cut off the roots and 
sharpen the butt to a point, drive it into the heavy sod 
ground, and leave it, and do not go near it again except to 
gather the fruit. As a rule our orchards are failures; but if 
your trees will succeed with this mode of culture, we want 
some of them." I have sometimes been surprised that the 
peddler did not give the guarantee and make the sale; but I 
presume that he was one of the modest and honest ones that 
we sometimes find engaged in the business, for he frankly 
confessed that he had doubts about his trees enduring both 
the climate and the treatment, and of course lost the sale. 

My friends, I believe that you and I have seen trees set 
that were expected to become shade trees at some future 
day, that received but little better treatment than my friend 
proposed for the young orchard. And then the owners are; 



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34: Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

very likely to complain that their trees do not grow. I have 
known a few men who were noted for being able to make 
trees grow under almost any circumstances. One of them, 
an eastern gentleman, was proverbial for the certainty as 
well as the rapidity with which he made his trees grow. 
But I do not now recollect of ever seeing a hole dug even 
for a small tree that would measure as little as two feet 
either in diameter or depth. But I do remember them as 
large as four feet in diameter and equally deep. The earth 
returned was rich and mellow, and when the young tree 
stood in its new home, it was, as a rule, a very much better 
one than that from which it had been removed. Nor was 
this all. The young trees were carefully mulched with 
coarse manure. If thft weather was very dry they were 
watered. 

Friends, I have worked in the soil long enough to become 
thoroughly convinced that whatever is worth doing in it at 
all, is worth doing well. This principle is as applicable to 
setting and caring for our shade and ornamental trees, as it 
is to growing strawberries or corn, I have neither the time 
nor the inclination to pursue this subject at length. My 
wish has been to bring it before you for discussion, merely 
touching some of the more prominent points and hoping 
that its discussion would .do something toward showing its 
importance to our fellow citizens. 



discussion. 

A. G. Tuttle, of Baraboo, thought the elm tree the tree 
above all others. Hard maple comes next — needs higher 
trimming than it ever gets, as it makes too dense shade. 

Mr. Smith would like more trees transplanted from the 
forests, such as elm, hard maple, and evergreens like the 
white pine. 

Mr. J. 0. Plumb thought that the soft maple should have 
a place, as it can be grown quickly. The hard maple will 
succeed anywhere in the north — the red maple is often mis- 
taken for it. 



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The Blackberky as a Market Fruit. 35 

The next paper read was one on " Our Society/' by B. S. 
Hoxie, Cooksville, Wisconsin. 

Mr. Hill, of Rosendale, said they had an improvement so- 
ciety which grew out of a meeting of the State Horticultural 
Society there last summer. 

An address was given by G. J. Kellogg, of Janesville, on 
the subject, " Strawberry Notes From the Patch." 

During the discussion Mr. Hatch said that plants like trees 
of different varieties need different soils. 

In the absence of Mrs. H. M. Lewis, of Madison, her paper, 
" Leaves, Nothing but Leaves," * was read by Mrs. Powers, 
of Appleton. 

Prof. Trelease's paper was omitted as he was not present. 

Mr. A. L. Hatch said the society must be resorted to when 
diflScult qustions were to be solved. 

Mr. Hatch said that a sprout from a strawberry cannot be 
got that differs from the genuine, for its individuality must 
remain the same. 

Mr. Plumb said that by a little change of circumstances a 
fruit could be greatly changed for better or worse. 

Adjourned until eight P. M. 



Meeting called to order by President Smith, at 8:25 P. M. 
The question was asked, " Of what use is the tree peddler?" 

Mr. Hoxie said they supplied some new trees; they seemed 
to be a necessary evil. 

A paper was given on 

THE BLACKBERRY AS A MARKET FRUIT. 
By C. H. Hamilton, of Ripon, Wis. 

By request of our local society I will endeavor to read to 
you a short paper on the blackberry. I will acknowledge 
at the beginning, that this to me is rather a thorny under- 
taking, and as the subject of the cultivation of the black- 
berry as a market fruit, is engrossing the attention of the 
public in this and other portions of the state, I will endeavor 

* Printed in Transactions of the Agricultural Society. 

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36 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

to consider the blackberry as a market fruit. I will give 
you a few practical hints as to the mode of cultivation and 
care of this small f rait, a branch of the rose family, that is 
assuredly entitled to respect, when it is remembered that 
the blackberry is the blackest sheep in it. The bush is, in 
truth, what the ancients called it, a brar^ble, and one of the 
eastern Highland wild cats could scarcely scratch more vi- 
ciously than it, if treated too familiarly. 

But with judicious respect and good management, it will 
yield large and beautiful berries, fruit that will give a person 
the encouragement that his labors have amounted to some- 
thing, as he views with pleasure the fine specimens hanging 
in large and beautiful clusters upon his well cared for vines. 
It would seem that nature had given her mind more to 
blackberries than to strawberries, for instead of merely five 
species she has scattered about one hundred and fifty species 
up and down the globe. To undertake to describe all of these 
would be a thorny experience, indeed, and not being quali- 
ified to undertake a task of such magnitude I will leave you 
to search out, and be satisfied that it would rob the hearer of 
his patience as completely as he would be bereft of his 
clothing should he literally attempt to go through them 
all. 

Having had some considerable experience in planting and 
the care of the blackberry, I will endeavor to explain to you 
how to plant and care for them, and, as no one man as a 
general thing cultivates and uses the same modes, I hope 
that by comparing notes we may be enabled to handle this 
black sheep without gloves. The treatment of the blackberry 
can best be induced by merely noting, where in its require- 
ments it differs from the raspberry and kindred fruits. It 
seems to do the best on light soils that are warm and well, 
drained. In preparing your ground, select a piece that is not 
so low that water will settle upon it, as water will most cer- 
tainly kill or injure the plants. The question is often asked 
shall we manure the ground? Certainly, as the blackberry 
luxuriates in good soil as well as a crop of corn or other 
crops; it seems to show an appreciation of high manuring and 
cultivation by throwing up a st^rong stocky cane, as the 



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The Blackberry as a Market Fruit. 37 

blackberry in its wild state seems to be found thriving on 
land that is sandy or very light. Is it not here where many 
of our hardy kinds may originate and do well and be taken 
up and put on soil of same nature. Ripening in the woods 
and seemingly a prize worth the while to be heralded all 
abroad as something hardy, it has stood thirty or forty below 
zero. But when this variety is planted in heavier and damper 
soil, there is where we miss the points of hardiness that we 
desired. When the variety is found that after being trans- 
planted into our gardens and cultivated, that will stand our 
Wisconsin changeable winters and bear good crops upon all 
the different soils without protection, we may well cry 
Eureka. I do not think we are fully justified in saying that 
this or that variety is a humbug in blackberry or strawberry 
till we are familiar to some extent at least, as to the quality 
or kind of soil that it does thrive well upon, but where 
plants are protected if the land is not so, that water settles 
upon them and they receive good care, I have as yet to see 
the ground that the blackberry does not thrive upon, and 
amply repay for all labor and care bestowed upon it. 

More room should be given the blackberry than the rasp- 
berry. In planting blackberry, for field culture, plant in 
rows seven feet apart and plants three feet apart in the rows, 
which will enable you to cultivate easily. They need to be 
cared for by cultivating and hoeing the same as you would 
a piece of corn. The season having been favorable, you will 
likely find that with a few exceptions you are progressing to- 
wards a foundation or start in blackberry culture. But after 
the first year is passed in the culture of the blackberry, and 
you have every hill well established, comes the time which 
is of vital importance to the fruit grower. It then stands 
you in hand to look after and take care of the new wood 
which is your promise for the fruit crop the next year. At 
this stage erf growth they require support and may be staked 
or be supported by setting a post at the end of each row and 
at equal distances along the row, and stretching a small wire 
along on each side of the row, which answers for a sup- 
port to the fruit canes and the new shoots which are apt to 
be broken by the wind. The ideal treatment of the black- 



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38 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

berry is management rather than culture. More can be 
done with thumb and fingers at the right time than with the 
most savage pruning shears after a year of neglect. Three 
to four feet is considered a fair average height to nip back 
the new growth. If we were living in a warmer climate 
where we were not liable to the severe changes that we 
have here in our somewhat northern climate, the labor in 
blackberry culture would be comparatively nothing. 

Here in this latitude to insure a crop it is necessary to 
protect the plants, and to those unacquainted with the mode 
of laying them down, the task is thought far greater than it 
really is, for two good men will lay down and cover 1,000 of 
them in a day. It may not be amiss to explain briefly the 
mode of laying the plants down, as is practiced here where 
blackberry culture is a success. 

Beginning at the end of the row, we will say running 
north and south, we dig away a small quantity of dirt on 
the north side of the hill, with a garden fork, which is less 
liable to injure the roots, than with a spade. We step to the 
opposite side of the bush, placing the foot at the crown or close 
to the ground, and the fork in the top of the bush. We push 
lightly with the fork, and with the foot hard enough to bend 
the roots, not the tops, and in less time than it takes to write 
this, the bush is nicely secured and covered ready for a long 
cold, changeable winter. When spring again comes, take a 
four-tined fork, loosen the crust, and placing your fork under 
the plant raising up and press the dirt back firmly where you 
had taken it out. In the fall your bush will again look as it 
did in the fall. After the row is all taken up, string your 
wires at oncey if possible, and your vines are protected from 
the winds. Then we wait the prospects of the coming crop, 
which in my experience in handling for the last six years, 
and from my observations of the last twelve, I have never 
seen a failure. t 

It may not be amiss to name the variety which is chiefly 
raised in this vicinity with success. The variety is the Ancient 
Britton, which was first sent here from Wales to a gentle- 
man in the southern part of this state. I think there were 
less than a half dozen plants, and now after eighteen years 



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The Blackberry as a Market Fruit. 39 

of trial in diflferent localities, we will place it at the head of 
anything that has been tested as a shipping berry as to pro- 
ductiveness. And as to hardiness, it will compare well with 
anything as yet tested in this vicinity. As to the profits in 
the cultivation of the blackberry, we are sorry to say that 
we have riot the exact amounts that have been raised, but from 
4,000 to 5,000 boxes is about an average yield per acre. The 
amount that may be raised is certainly enormous, and as yet 
the supply is far from filling the demands, and the demand 
is increasing, and it is a pleasure to ship for they are sure to 
arrive in good order, unless our express companies handle 
too many. 

I think that the price that has been received for the fruit 
in the market will average in the last four years at about 
twelve and one-half cents, and during the last season I 
think thjsre were but a very few cases that sold for less than 
seven cents, and the year before the crop was mostly sold 
at eighteen cents. 

As this paper has already taken up considerable of your 
time, I will close by extending to you an invitation to look 
over our diflferent fields of growing blackberries, and view 
the signs of promise in the blossoms and partly grown fruit. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Hamilton said he cut his bushes within three and a 
half feet from the ground, put his posts about two rods 
apart and his wires about twelve or fourteen inches apart. 
Takes out the old canes as soon as the fruit is oflf the vines. 

Mr. J. C. Plumb said a new way is being tried, by clipping 
the vines two or three feet from the ground, not wiring or 
laying them down during the winter. For ordinary farm- 
ers, thinks this the better way. 

Mr. Hamilton had tried this plan and it had failed; too 
much labor and expense to give a stake to each vine. 

Mr. Pilgrim, of West Granville, thought that a point had 
been gained, viz.: that blackberries could be raised with suc- 
cess. They must be laid down in winter. 

Mr. L. G. Kellogg's experience had been the same; he 



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40 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

would clip at two and a half feet, and the side branches one 
foot. 

Mr. A. L. Hatch said he could not afford to grow them in 
that way. It is a question of locality, largely; could not 
afford to clip and trace up vines, but must clip them shorter^ 
and not bury them, but turn soil against them by horse 
power. 

Mr. B. S. Hoxie argued against the theoretical remedy 
as given by Mr. Hatch. 

Mr. Hatch said that he had had experience. 

Mr. Plumb had tried Mr. Hatch's plan and succeeded. It 
is the best for his place. 



The next paper read was 

RECREATION AND EMPLOYMENT FOR WOMEN. 
By Miss Ida R Tilson, of West Salem, Wis. 

American people are fast livers. As children they are in 
a hurry. The popular school-teacher is she who promotes 
most rapidly. Pupils cram with feverish eagerness for ex- 
aminations, and talk less of a well-rounded education than 
of passing into higher classes. They enter society young, 
and grow prematurely old. The climate is peculiarly stimu- 
lating. Thousands of fertile acres west are given away for 
the asking. Excited emigrants thither load trains and fill 
ihotels. Every day there comes the shock and pain of part- 
ing with friends. Omnipresent telegraphs and newspapers, 
every day tell the people the murders and accidents in two 
hemispheres. Advertising devices weary by their number 
and pertinacity. A late Sunday School Times truly said 
"Our fathers dwelt by a quiet pool, we have ever the roar of 
an ocean in our ears." Even fashion has its iBerce compe- 
titions. 

It is a saying " as well be out of the world as out of fashion," 
^certainly as well be out the United States. Parisians, though 
they invent the fashions and coax away the dollars, them- 
selves use far plainer furniture, food and clothing. Ameri- 
ican families of but moderate means, go through one round 



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Recreation and Employment for Women. 41 

of twisting, turning, planning, and economizing to keep up 
appearances. Is it strange that insane asylums are numer- 
ous, spacious and well-filled, or that new varieties of nervous 
diseases are constantly being discovered? Herbert Spencer 
has given his word of warning. Women, with their sensi- 
tive and delicate organizations, are perhaps greater sufferers 
than men, and especially need relief and recreation. 

The usual agency employed to relieve overstrained nerves, 
is a multiplication of artificial amusements which but con- 
tinues the fatal excitement. Where accessible, theatres and 
operas are crowded. Can glare of lights and gay costumes, 
constrained sitting, late hours and appeals to emotion, pre- 
pare one for repose? Does reading high-pressure novels, 
whirling in the dance or jolting in the cars give tranquility? 
There may be intellectual or artistic merit in these enter- 
tainments, but not rest. If recreation is to renew, or re- 
fresh, it must supply what every-day occupations do not, 
natural, unstudied pleasures. The average woman is con- 
fined within doors much more than the average man, and 
her work is more monotonous. Her recreation, therefore^ 
ought to be out of the house and away from dull routine. 

A physician, coming into Wisconsin at an early day, wasi 
told there would be no business for him. "I will wait," he 
replied, "till folks finish oflf their houses, furnish, and shut 
them up; then I'll have business." In well- ventilated rooms 
there is liable to be some carbolic acid from breaths, or drain 
and cellar germ-life, or dust of disintegrating walls and fur- 
niture, or too much shade. Pure outdoor air has never had 
a reputation for making people sick. Sunshine itself, is a 
highly recommended medicine. Communion with nature 
constantly brings one into contact with fresh air influences^ 
The earth is forever sweeping on to new positions in space. 
There are never two days, nor two sunsets, nor two trees 
precisiBly alike. 

Horticulture furnishes forms of enjoyment not properly 
utilized by women. A well-arranged yard is as convenient 
as an orderly house. People who raise their own vegetables 
and fruits, can have them when they are firm but not unripe, 

4— HORT. 



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42 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

and juicy but not decayed. They will eat their greens 
earlier and of tener than one dares who purchases at market 
prices. Lawn mo wers, garden rakes, and hoes, are not beyond 
the strength of a creature that can roll pie-crust and wash 
clothes. Gathering and planting seeds is light work. Women 
have just the promptness to insure success in early garden- 
ing. It does not require genius to graft and bud trees. 
Several women have practiced this art successfully, one of 
whom has lately written on the subject an interesting article 
for The Youth's Companion, A fine flower-bed permits its 
owner to enjoy the luxury of giving. Its lovely blossoms 
will not only decorate home tables and mantels, but also 
ornament the house of God, cheer the sick-room, and soften 
death's hard outlines. Not all can offer costly gifts, nor does 
every one care to be under obligations for such. Flowers 
and fruits make delicate and inexpensive presents, which 
any one may give or freely accept. A walk or ride is soon 
over, pies and cakes disappear with alarming rapidity, dishes 
have to be re washed three times a day; but flower beds are 
bright for weeks, and tasteful grounds grow in beauty with 
years. 

Those excellent outdoor exercises, riding, walking, and 
croquet, already accepted and appreciated, whose claims, 
therefore it is not so necessary to urge, they are very delight- 
ful when horticulture has preceded them. Pleasant streets 
and roads are always resorts. Visitors and friends are 
taken to see them. And in proportion as such places grow 
more handsome, are they more frequented. Croquet and 
kindred games are hardly practicable without a smooth 
lawn. Convenient seats often allure one into a game. The 
possessor of a garden plot frequently inspects its flowers 
and fruits, and whoever has a vine and a fig tree of her 
own, naturally rests in their shade. Thus horticulture not 
only brings its rewards, but brings people out to see what 
those rewards are. 

If possible, every person ought daily to learn something 
new and valuable though not necessarily from books. " It is 
not all of life to live." Unfortunately, many a woman's 
education is finished in her teens, just when she is beginning 



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Eecreation and Employment for Women. 43 

properly to study and think. Horticulture summons many 
sciences to its aid, and combines with recreation fine intel- 
lectual opportunities. The habits of plants are learned, the 
nature of soils, the effects of moisture and heat, and the 
depredations of insects. Without knowing it, one becomes 
a botanist, a geologist, a meteorologist and an entomologist. 
Chemistry teaches how to compound and where to apply 
fertilizers, and explains why some of them are potent at 
once, and others only in time. Isaac Newton watched a 
falling apple and discovered that great law of gravitation 
which governs myriads of worlds. The wonderful machines 
for farm and garden use, ^inventions mainly of practical 
workmen, are often but extended applications of principles in 
natural philosophy. To discover laws of nature and habits of 
plants and insects, there must be close and long-continued ob- 
servation. By the time the facts are gathered there will have 
been much excellent mental exercise and discipline besides. 
So great is the variety of grasses, plants, trees, flowers and 
fruits, that there is as much scope for judgment and taste in 
arranging yards and gardens, as in designing and painting 
pictures. Landscape gardening indeed rises to the dignity 
of a fine art. To be sure, one may ignorantly plant and 
successfully gather, yet such is not likely to be the case. 

Women are expected to be the teachers of refinement. 
They ougjit, therefore, to fit themselves for this work in 
God's great normal school of beauty. A story is told about 
a plant, which was given to a poor family, who could not see 
it through their dirty window, and in consequence washed 
the glass. Then the room, by contrast seemed grimy and 
was cleaned throughout. The flower looked so well they 
added other adornments to their home. Neighbors caught 
their enthusiasm, and ultimately the aspect of a block was 
changed by the ministry of a flower. ^'Picciola" relates 
how Count de Charney, gay, accomplished and skeptical, 
being cast into prison, was cured of his moral and physical 
disorders by a little plant, which achieved what neither 
books nor men had been able to do. The prisoner wrote on 
his cell wall, "Chance is the sole author of the creation." A 
flying dove dropped a solitary seed into his prison yard; the 



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44 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

seed was trodden under foot, but a fleshy envelope affording 
protection to its first, tender leaves, helped the plumule 
through the hard crust above it. A frosty night came; the 
thick bristles upon its stalk were covered with rime, but the 
plant itself was uninjured. Hail fell, and its leaves closed 
about the stem, presenting a series of points only. Though 
nourished by the same soil, peduncle, leaves and blossom, 
each in some way appropriated its hue, when high winds blew 
" perhaps " to what he had written before on chance. Ill, a 
devotion of the leaves cured him. Erasing all that was on 
his cell wall, he then wrote: " I believe in Providence.'' In 
one severe storm he stationed himself near his favorite, and, 
bending over, devoted himself like a lover, to its protection. 
The coarse, rough jailor became interested; he even matured 
the plant, and removed one of the flag-stones which hin- 
dered its growth. Visitors heard the story. The Empress 
Josephine was petitioned for Charney's release. Now Jo- 
sephine was an enthusiastic admirer of flowers; she therefore 
became Charney's willing advocate, and he was soon liber- 
ated, it is needless to say, a changed man. A faded blossom, 
in a valuable locket, long told the story to his descendants. 

Mr. A. L. Hatch said that the people had come out of town 
at great sacrifice. He asked that all, including the people 
of Ripon, should ask questions and give their views. 

Adjourned. 

JUNE.29, 1883, 9:30 A.M. 

Meeting called to order by President Smith. 

Mr. A. G. Tuttle opened the discussion on the apple 
question. A practical fruit grower, he had been trying to 
get a class of apples adapted to Wisconsin. Believed that 
it could be done. Russian apples are perhaps the best for 
us, as the Duchess of Oldenberg. Fifteen years ago he got 
some varieties from Russia, and later again the same. In 
1870 the Governor imported several varieties. He has many 
varieties as hardy as the Duchess of Oldenberg. An early 
apple the White Transparent, or the Yellow Transparent 
which surpasses any other in the country in quality. Arabian, 
and the Alexander are also a good class, but the latter is 



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Discussion. 45 

subject to blight, which they will out-grow in time. The 
Longfield is a very large tree, an excellent bearer, the apple 
good, good showing for fruit. 

The Pewaukee is the best tree to plant for market purposes. 
Golden Russet is th^ best late bearing apple this year. Tal- 
man Sweet has done nothing for ten years. 

Mr. W. T. Innis, of Rosendale, said that the Talman Sweet is 
not bearing this year, but last year did heavily. 

The English Golden Russet had been a great success with 
him. The best fruiting trees are the old kinds. 

Mr. Peflfer said the Walbridge was an excellent keeper, 
but needs rich soil, and dry air, or it will mildew. 

An address was given by A. L. Hatch of Ithaca, subject 
"Stray Thoughts." 

After a few preliminary remarks on the general merits of 
agriculture, an interesting discussion was opened on the 
pruning of grape vines. 

Part of the state has glacial drift, and part granite soil. 
Different kinds of fruit, particularly apples, must have soil 
adapted to its wants. 

The following committees were appointed by the President: 

Committee on Strawberries — J. L. Fish, D. T. Pilgrim and 
Geo. C. Hill. 

Committee on House Plants — C. H. Hamilton, Rev. S. M. 
Newman and E. Babcock. 

Committee on Vegetables — B. F. Mason, W. O. Hargrave 
and J. L. Pasco. 

An address was given by Mr. J. C. Plumb, Milton. Sub- 
ject: " Retrospect and Prospect." 

A statement was made by Mr. Plumb on the present rela- 
tion of the association to the state. By an act of the last 
legislature the Society was limited to 200 pages in the publi- 
cation of their reports, and to 500 volumes, in place of 2,000 
as before. The appropriation to the Society remaining the 
same, viz., $500 per annum. The size of the agricultural 
report has also been doubled, making them unwieldy, and 
delaying their publication still more. C. A. Willard said 
that officers of the association should be present at the legis- 
lature to secure what the association needs. 



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46 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

President Smith said the legislature was not asked for 
such an act, no officer knew about it. 

Mr. M. Anderson said the legislature meant to benefit the 
Society. He thought the present arrangement better. The 
large size of the volume was really no objection. 

Mr. Plumb said that he did not wish to cast a slur upon 
the legislature, but since we had manipulated in favor of 
the other societies, the legislature was perhaps not to blame. 

Mr. Kellogg said that a protest should be entered and 
probably the association could get what it wants in the 
course of two years. 

Adjourned. 

2 P.M. 

Meeting was called to order by President J. M. Smith. 

The next paper was " The Native Place of Our Exotics," * 
by Mrs. C. F. Tracy, of Ripon, Wisconsin. 

Following this was a paper read by Mrs. C A. Willard, of 
De Pere. Subject, " The Distribution of Seeds." 

Mr. A. L. Hatch said the two papers presented were of 
much practical value to all horticultural workers. 

Mr. A. G. Tuttle said that he had always enjoyed the ladies' 
papers. 

Mr. Hoxie said that cabinets of minerals, growing plants, 
etc., should be placed in every school house. This would not 
be expensive, and would be beneficial in many ways. 

Mr. Plumb said the Wisconsin Horticultural Society has 
the honor of introducing the productions of the ladies on 
horticultural and kindred subjects. The time should come 
when every child could name every plant and tree in his 
vicinity. 

The following resolution was read and adopted: 

Resolved, That we invite the ladies of Wisconsin to become members of 
the State Horticultural Society. 

Mrs. E. Y. Richmond's paper was read by her daughter, 
Mrs. Eva R. Powers, of Appleton, subject, " The Curse of 
Gold." 

Mrs. D. Huntley read a paper, subject, " How to Adorn our 
Homes with Plants and Vines." 

♦Printed in Transactions of the Agticultural Society. 

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Discussion. 47 

It was moved and carried that a vote of thanks be ex- 
tended to the ladies who had read papers before the associa- 
tion, and that they become honorary members. 

Rev. Mr. Loomis, of Rosendale, said that the result of the 
meeting of the association at Rosendale last year, was the 
organization of a society for literary and scientific advance- 
ment, held twice a month, with an average attendance of 
twenty-five. 

Rev. Mr. Newman said, five years ago the streets of Ripon 
were full of cows, trees were barked and broken, and gates 
could not be left open. A change had come over the place, 
fences were coming down, lawns were improved, and trees 
were appearing everywhere; and they intended keeping up 
the enterprise. The Horticultural Society needs the support 
and loyalty of all our people. The knowledge gained is 
very valuable, and he prizes the reports very much. 

Rev. Mr. Cooke was glad that the Horticultural Society 
had had an opportunity to visit the beautiful city of Ripon 
vt such a favorable season of the year. 

The following resolutions were adopted: 

Whereas, Horticulture is an industry and an art most intimately con- 
nected with our advancing civilization, and worthy of a most cordial sup- 
port in every community; therefore 

. Resolved^ That the summer meeting of the Wisconsin State Horticultural 
Society has been one of the brightest and best of the series, and long to be 
remembered. Its memory to be treasured as a green spot in life's journey. 

That we, the members of the State Society, and lovers of Horticulture 
from abroad would express our hearty thanks for the cordial reception 
given us at the homes of the good people of this city, in return for which 
we will wish them to escape summer drought and unseasonsible frosts, 
with many days of summer Wessedness, and with full maturity of the best 
fruits of their goodness and of their lives. 

That the fine exhibition of plants and flowers, here presented, are sure 
indications of a gro wring love of horticulture, and the possibilities which we 
trust you will reach in the near future, under the inspiration of this 
meeting. 

That we tender to the Chicago and Northwestern, and the Chicago, Mil-» 

waukee and St. Paul Railway Companies our thanks for the favor in 

the return of our members. 

J. C. PLUMB. 

M. ANDERSON. 

MRS. C. L. TRACY. 

Committee on Resolutions. 



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48 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

AUOy he it resolved. That we, the members of the Ripon Horticultural 
Society and citizens of Ripon, would express to the State Horticultural So- 
ciety our hearty thanks for the sessions of the Society with us at this time, 
and for the pleasant social meeting, with the friends from abroad, and in 
partis g, we would say come next year and we will give you a most cordial 
welcome . 

Mrs. C. T. TRACY, 

Of the Committee, 



The question being asked, What has the winter done for 
us? Mr. Kellogg said, many trees in the nursery were killed. 

Mr. J. C. Plumb said that it was owing to the rain in the 
fall before freezing up in the winter. One tree which he 
knew split open its bark in the winter, and then lost its bark 
in the spring. The trees must be grown so as to mature the 
wood before winter. 

Mr. A. G. Tuttle said that the winter had taught him that 
he must have more hardy trees. His grapes had all stood 
exposed during the winter, and had lived and were thriving. 
Moore's Early is a very hardy grape, larger and a little 
earlier than the Concord. 

Mr. Peffer said his trees died because of injury to the 
foliage by mildew. They have even lost their leaves in 
August and then died. 

Mr. Hatch thought apple trees would rarely stand 30° be- 
low zero without impairment of their vitality and perhaps 
killing them. 

Mr. Jeffrey, of Milwaukee, said that the Pewaukee had 
stood the winter, but the Walbridge had not. Talman Sweet 
had stood it well. He ascribed it to ashes which he had placed 
around his trees. His Golden Russetts had come through 
very well. Raspberries had stood it well, afterwards not so 
well. His grapes had blossomed full. His Zanesvilles and 
Concords were his best old vines. 

Adjourned. 



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Discussion. 49 

8:20 P. M. 
Meeting called to order by the President. The question, 
" What has our winter taught us? " was further discussed. 

Resolved, That owing to the great increasing injury done our general 
farm crops by the white grub the time has come when we should do some- 
thing if it is in the line of the possible to destroy them, or at least prevent 
their increase. 

During the discussion the statement was made that the 
land must not be kept seeded down for more than two years, 
if it was desired to get rid of them. 

Mr. Pilgrim thought salt a benefit to the land, also destruc- 
tive to the white grub. 

Mr. Anderson said that if salt enough was put on the land 
to kill the grub the growing crops would be killed. 

Mr. Hargrave's experience with the grub was that salt 
would not kill them. 

Mr. Anderson said that to keep cattle from bloating on 
clover plenty of ashes and salt must be kept before them. 

Mr. Plumb thought late fall plowing would destroy the 
white grub. They may also be destroyed by poisoning the 
beetle. 

The question, "How can we regulate the size of our 
fruit boxes?" was then discussed. 

The next question was, " How can we get our fruit handled 
more carefully on the railroads ? " 

Mr. Hatch thought by showing courtesy to the officers and 
employees of the road. 

The following resolution was adopted: 4 

JResolvedy That the President is authorized to sanction, and the treasurer 
to pay, all railroad bills of the regular members, and of those ladies who 
have read papers at this, the December meeting. 

On motion, the Society adjourned sine die. 

L. G. KELLOGG, 

Secretary Pro Tern. 



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50 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 



SPECIAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY MEETING, 

Capitol, State Fair, September 12, 1883. 

CaUed to order at 7:45 P. M. 

President Smith in the chair — twenty to thirty members 
present. 

President Smith remarked that the fruit crop was so poor 
in quantity and quality this year that it would be impossible 
for the Society to make a creditable display in December, as 
decided on last year, and asked the opinion of the members 
present on the question. 

Mr. Adams reported little fruit in this part of the state, 
and almost nothing about Madison. He thought a good dis- 
play doubtful, although in a few sections there is some little 
fruit. 

Mr. Olds felt that in his section there was not fruit enough 
to justify an exhibit, and had heard similar reports from all 
sides. The largest picking he knew of was eight bushels 
St. Lawrence from two trees — a very poor yield. He also 
reported that nearly all the eastern favorites are dying oflf. 
Leaf blight, though bad, is not quite so bad as in 1882. Ben 
Davis is fairly good. 

Mr. Tuttle reported that we cannot make a display of win- 
ter fruit. Fall fruit is very poor, but there is no winter fruit 
fit to exhibit. He had not a barrel of merchantable Fameuse, 
though this has been a very profitable variety for him. The 
trouble is the scab, which was also very troublesome last 
year. He aftributes this to moisture on the leaves, etc. 
Among grapes, the Concord, even, now rots and mildews 
very badly. Since dry weather has set in these fungoid dis- 
eases are disappearing. Duchess and Alexander have come 
through perfect in fruit and foliage, in all sorts of exposure, 
on clay loam. He advises that no attempt be made to hold 
a December exhibit. 

Mr. Wood moved that the fruit exhibition at the December 
meeting be omitted. 

The motion being seconded, Mr. Plumb said that it would 
be very discouraging to vote down the winter exhibition, 



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Discussion. 51 

and thought it best to authorize the Executive Committee to 
make a suitable oflfer of premiums, to call out a display from 
the Green Bay region, where the conditions for fruit growth 
were better than here. If there were any chance for an ex- 
hibit, there ought to be a provision allowing it to be secured 
then. 

Mr. Hoxie favors holding a winter meeting. He thought 
we would find that some fruit is very good, if we tried to 
bring it out. 

Mr. Peflfer thought it unneccessary to call for an exhibi- 
tion unless we should learn now that it is likely to be suc- 
cessful. 

Mr. Huntley thought that county could do very little. 
Though there is some summer fruit, there is very little win- 
ter fruit. 

Mr» Hirschinger said that there would be good specimens 
of winter fruit in this county. Golden Russets and Ben 
Davis will be good when they have finished their develop- 
ment. 

The society ought not to be expected to make half as good 
a display as it did last winter. 

Mr. Philips had favored this exhibition but his fruit had 
failed. He has no fruit that will do credit to his section. 
He feels that no one from his part of the state can exhibit. 
He favors dispensing with the exhibit. 

Mr. Tuttle reports that the leaf disease and the same show 
of blossoming, followed by a failure to fruit, is reported from 
New York and New England this year. 

Mr. Jeffrey has some fruit that will keep, and had intended 
to exhibit it in December. He is willing to go with the ma- 
jority, though for personal reasons he should like to have 
the exhibit attempted. 

Mr. Palmer has no fruit, nor have his neighbors. 

Mr. Wood remarked on the harmony pervading the meet- 
ing on this subject. He recommended, however, that a part 
of the premiums be offered for the scabbiest apples, to allow 
of a reasonable competition. • 

Mr. Plumb remarked that there was clearly something in 
the way of our meeting at Green Bay next winter, and as 



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52 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

our President seemed disposed to discourage the appropria- 
tion, he thought we ought to dispense with the display. 

Mr. Smith said that he wished it understood that although 
he thought it undesirable to hold the exhibit, he did not wish to 
influence the society, and should do all in his power to make 
the meeting a success, if it was decided on. 

The motion was carried. 

Mr. Hoxie then moved that the December meeting at Green 
Bay be dispensed with. 

After the motion was seconded, Mr. Tuttle said that in his 
opinion it is important to hold a convention at that time, 
and if any members have fruit to show they can exhibit it, 
although no premiums are to be offered. Fruits in Wiscon- 
sin should now be fully and freely discussed. He has full 
faith that Wisconsin is to be as successful an apple state as 
Michigan, when we discard unreliable varieties and rely on 
those which are certain. There are such varieties. 

Mr. Hoxie thought that now that the proposed fruit ex- 
hibit has been abandoned, a meeting at Green Bay would 
detract from the annual meeting in Madison. The Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural societies by combining, ought to 
make the annual meeting unusually successful, if the Green 
Bay meeting were not held. He agreed with Mr. Tuttle 
that the orchard is badly in need of discussion and revision. 

Mr. Palmer agreed with Mr. Hoxie. He thinks that a dis- 
play of what we have, at the annual meeting, would be de- 
sirable, even though it were poor. He reports the Roman 
Stem as a hardy and very satisfactory variety with him. 
They have done well with him since 1850. 

Mr. Adams suggested that the proposed meeting at Green 
Bay would undoubtedly call out a local attendance that 
would be of benefit, and favored the holding of such a meet- 
ing, as carrying out a plan previously proposed by the 
Society. 

Mr. Huntley agreed with Mr. Adams. 

Mr. Stickney thought the meeting should be held at Green 
Bfey, because of the good it would do in making the work of 
the Society generally known. He suggested that if we do 
not decide not to hold the meeting, each member should 



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Discussion. 53 

make it a personal duty to attend it. He favors the union 
of the Society with local societies in meetings throughout 
the state. 

Mr. Plumb does not feel that it is wise for us to now decide 
against the proposed December meeting. He off erred as a 
substitute for the motion under discussion, the following: 

Resolved, That the executive committee be authorized to arrange for a 
meeting in December wherever they may deem best 

This was seconded. 

He remarked that by withdrawing our proposed premiums 
we have forfeited all claim on their hospitality, and there 
may be reasons why we should hold this winter meeting at 
some other point. 

By vote, the substitute was lost. 

The original resolution to dispense with the December 
meeting at Green Bay was then carried. 

Mr. Plumb moved that the executive committee be in- 
structed to provide for a December meeting north of Madison, 
in case they decide that this will be advantageous. 

The motion was carried without discussion. 

Mr. Hatch then expressed himself as follows, on the part 
of ladies in our conventions: 

"As co-workers in creating and maintaining homes, and 
as co-laborers in much of horticulture, ladies have been 
recognized as appropriately entitled to a place in the conven- 
tions of the Wisconsin Horticultural Society. As usually 
conducted there are times in the meetings when gentlemen 
are transacting business and discussing field topics relating 
to the orchard and vineyard, that the ladies are neither in- 
terested nor entertained. At such times, if properly arranged, 
the ladies could hold adjunct meetings for the consideration 
of subjects of interest to themselves but not of general in- 
terest to gentlemen. The idea is one of propriety and court- 
esy — not of separation and discord. Let a programme be 
arranged so that while gentlemen transact business and dis- 
cuss men's work, ladies can at the same time and at another 
place discuss topics of interest to ladies alone, thus: for gen- 
tlemen, field topics and business; for the ladies, floriculture 
and home subjects; for both ladies and gentlemen, subjects 



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54: Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

of mutual interest, such as picking and handling fruit, gar- 
dening, influence of horticulture in homes, etc. 

To bring out discussions among ladies, an exhibit of a few 
samples of canned and preserved fruits, kitchen tools, and 
ladies' implements for horticultural work would be valuable." 

Mr. Toole thought that if this could be carried out it 
would be well; but he thought that joint attendance at the 
discussions is advantageous to both ladies and gentlemen. 

Mr. Philips was afraid that any such action as that pro- 
posed might cause a separation of the ladies from the Society. 

Mr. Toole favored Mr. Hatch's plan, but thought it would 
require much thought to prepare a suitable scheme. He 
hoped that the time would come when the ladies' papers 
would not be lumped together as now. 

After some farther remarks, the Society adjourned at 
9:20 P.M. 



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PROCEEDINGS 

AT THE 

WINTEB MEETING 

HELD BY THE 

Wisconsin State Horticoltoral Society, 



Green Bay, Dec. 19-20, 1883. 

In accordance with a resolution of the Executive Commit- 
tee, passed Sept. 13, 1883, the society convened for its extra 
winter meeting and fruit display in Klaus' Hall, Green 
Bay, Dec. 19, at 10:30 A. M., President Smith in the chair. 

A fair attendance of members of the state society was 
remarked, and delegates from the following societies re- 
ported: 

Minnesota Horticultural Society. — Sec. Oliver Gibbs, Jr. 

Oshkosh Fruit Growers' and Market Gardner's Cluh— President J. P. Roe. 

Markesau Horticultural Society. — Hon. Samuel Barter. 

Fremont Horticultural Society — Prest. C. F. Eaton. 

Waupaca County Horticultural Society — Wm. A. Springer. 

Janesville Horticultural Society— Geo. J. Kellogg, Emily L. Kellogg. 

Brown County Horticultural Society — Wm. F. Dougherty. 

Mr. Pilgrim moved the appointment of the usual commit- 
tees. 

The motion being carried, the following committee was 
announced: 

Resolutions and Toasts— J. C. Plumb, B. S. Hoxie, Mrs. H. M. Lewis, D. 
Huntley. 

On the recommendation of the exhibitors of fruit, the fol- 
lowing judges were appointed: 

Seedlings— Oliver Gibbs, Jr., J. C. Plumb, B. F. Adams. 

Other Fruit and Flowers— A. G. Tuttle, D. T. Pilgrim, J. P. Roe. 



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5(> Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

The secretary, being called on for a report on the relations 
of the Agricultural and Horticultural societies, presented 
the following statement: 

" On the 22d of November, I called at the office of the sec- 
retary of the State Agricultural Society to arrange for the 
two or three horticultural papers that we had expected to 
have at the convention next February. As I understand it, 
these joint convention programmes have not usually been 
arranged until some time later than this; but I was informed 
that this year the programme was already complete at this 
time, the appointing of a winter meeting at Green Bay hav- 
ing been interpreted by the Agricultural Society as a with- 
drawal on our part from the customary joint convention. I 
explained to Mr. Babbitt that the Green Bay meeting had 
no relation to that in February, except that it was expected 
to relieve the joint sessions of the long fruit discussions that 
have heretofore followed the horticultural papers. I also 
told him that in my estimation neither society would gain by 
a separation at this time, and requested him to see if room 
could not still be found for the papers that should represent 
the Horticultural Society. When I left the office I under- 
stood that the secretary could make no alteration in the 
programme, but that some action tending to this end might 
be taken by the executive board of the Agricultural Society 
at its settling meeting, to be held early in December; and if 
the societies were not to meet together, the fact would not 
be made public before that meeting. Imagine my surprise, 
therefore, at reading the following statement in the State 
Journal of the next day (November 23d) : 

farmers' convention. 

The State Horticultural and State Agricultural societies will hold inde- 
pendent meetings this winter for the first time in their history, though 
why the change is made is not stated. The Horticultural Society rather 
withdrew from the combination, by deciding to hold its meeting at Green 
Bay upon the 19th and 20th of December, while heretofore it has been 
held in this city. The Agricultural Society intends to hold its meeting in 
the capitol during the '.first week in February, as usual, and preparations 
are already in progress which indicate that it will be one of the most suc- 
cessful in the history of the society. Beginning upon Tuesday evening, it 
will probably continue ;^ throughout nearly the entire week. The pro- 



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Discussion. 67 

^amme is to be varied and will possess some features which will lend the 
chsirm of novelty to it. 

Miss Francis E. Willard, of Jackson, Michigan, President of 'the National 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and a lady who is celebrated 
throughout the length and breadth of the country as an eloquent advocate 
of temperance, has been invited by the State Agricultural Society, under 
whose auspices the convention is held, to lecture upon the subject of 
**Temperance and Amusements at State and County Fairs," and as the oc- 
casion is an excellent one for the dissemination of temperance doctrines, 
it is expected that Miss Willard will gladly take advantage of it. 

A cordial invitation has been extjended to MLss Ella Wheeler to read an 
appropriate poem, and it is expected that H. P. Armsby, professor of agri- 
cultural chemistry in the State University, will, as he is invited to do, speak 
upon some subject of his own selection. Prof. G. E. Morrow, of Cham- 
paign, 111., a gentleman who has a reputation as an able agricultural 
writer, is to be present, if possible, and deliver a lecture, which will be of 
special interest to stockbreeders, upoa **The Fat Stock Show and Its Lea- 
sons." Other prominent persons have been invited to take positions upon 
the programme, and everything indicates that the convention will be un- 
precedented in point of excellence in the history of farmers* meetings in 
this state. 

This information was afterward said by the State Jour- 
nal (Nov. 28) to have come direct from the officers of 
the Agricultural Society, and it was immediately carried 
to the Western Farmer by the Secretary of that Society for 
further publication. Since its circulation numerous state- 
ments have been made by members of the Agricultural So- 
ciety, including its president and members of its executive 
committee, which place the responsibility for the present 
relations of the two societies entirely on their respective 
secretaries, and as much regret appears to be entertained by 
that society as by our own. This being the case, I have felt 
it necessary to state the facts plainly, in self-defense, 
although personal friendship for Secretary Babbitt would 
have rendered it pleasanter not to make them public. It has 
been thought by members of the Agricultural Society that a 
proper desire for co-operation has not been manifested by 
myself, in that I have spent very little time in the Agricul- 
tural rooms at the capitol. I regret this impression very 
much, but, as the members of this society know, I have not 
even a desk in the capitol, and we shall not have an 

5— HORT. 



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58 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

oflfice there until the new wings are finished. For this reason 
I have been in the capitol only when I have had temporary- 
business there; but the fact that most of my time has been 
given to my business elsewhere has not prevented me from 
taking a lively interest in the mutual work of the sister 
societies. 

From what has been said it appears that the rejection of 
my proposal for a share in the February convention was un- 
authorized by the Agricultural Society, but as yet that 
society has taken no steps toward giving us such share in 
the approaching session. It may intend to do so yet, but my 
absence from the state until a fei?v days before the opening 
of the convention will now render delays inevitable, and 
may prevent any satisfactory arrangement from being made. 
It will, therefore, be well for this society to take some action 
expressing its views as to the desirability of arranging an in- 
dependent programme to be carried out in connection with its 
annual meeting this year, in case no joint convention is 
held; but I trust that no action will be taken which shall 
preclude the arrangement of a joint session in case the 
Agricultural Society shall desire it. If that society sustains 
its secretary in his action, we may feel that we have just 
cause for withdrawal, but I do not think that it can wish to 
allow an evident mistake to interrupt the harmony which 
has so far existed between us, and I know that I voice the 
sentiments of this society in saying, as I did to Mr. Babbitt, 
that we have no wish to withdraw from the common 
work that both are trying to do. 

On motion of Mr. Plumb, these reports were ordered pub- 
lished. 

Several members then spoke briefly on the subject under 
consideration, most of them favoring the continuation of the 
old plan of holding joint sessions, and expressing the belief 
that, as a whole, the Agricultural Society felt similarly dis- 
posed, although several of the speakers thought that the 
Horticultural Society would gain in strength by a separation 
if this were forced upon it. 

Mr. Pilgrim, on behalf of the Agricultural Society, stated 
that no desire for independent session? was entertained by 



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Discussion. 69 

that society, and that there seemed to be a mistake some- 
where. He then inquired if the Secretary had not lately 
received a request from Secretary Babbitt for a conference, 
with a view to arranging a joint session programme. Mr. 
Trelease answered that he had not received any message of 
the kind. Mr. Pilgrim then said that in his presence about a 
week since, Mr. Babbitt had asked a young man who was 
unknown to him (Pilgrim), to request Mr. Trelease to call at 
the agricultural rooms to arrange such a programme, at the 
same time handing him a memorandum of some papers fur- 
nished the Horticultural Society for publication in its trans- 
actions. Mr. Trelease said that the memorandum, which 
was a shipping label of the Agricultural Society, bearing 
the names of the authors of three papers, the stenographer's 
report of the discussions of which had been kindly sent us 
by Mr. Babbitt, had been handed him by one of his students, 
who had delivered no message concerning the arrangement 
of a programme. Mr. Pilgrim then asked where the office of 
the Secretary of the Horticultural Society was located, saying 
that Mr. Babbitt did not know where to find him. The secre- 
tary answered that he had at present no office — not even a 
desk — in the capitol, the old room of the Society being now 
occupied by the State Board of Supervision, but that he was 
to be found at his rooms in the State University daily from 
9 to 12, with very few exceptions, and that his horticultural 
work was done in part there and in part at his residence on 
Langdon street, at either of which places visitors were 
always welcome at any reasonable hour of the day or night; 
while mailed communications never failed to reach him, if 
directed to him simply at Madison. It was jocosely sug- 
gested by Mr. Hoxie, that probably no other man in the state 
who knew his name would have trouble in reaching Prof. 
Trelease, if he wanted to communicate with him. 

On motion of Mr. Hoxie it was decided that no separate 
programme should be arranged for the February conven- 
tion, but if joint sessions were not held, such meetings for 
discussions as were thought desirable, were to be called by 
the president and secretary, during the time of holding the 
annual meeting. 



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60 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

On motion of Mr. tlumb, Mr. Oliver Gibbs^ Jr., secretary 
of the Minnesota State Horticultural Society, and the ladies 
reading papers at the convention were made honorary an- 
nual members of the society. 

President Smith stated that he had hoped for the presence 
of Parker Earle the president of the Mississippi Valley 
Horticultural Society, and secretary Garfield of the Michigan 
Horticultural Society, but both had been obliged to remain 
at home — the latter by a press of work, the former on account 
of severe cold. He also mentioned the prospective fruit ex- 
hibition to be held in New Orleans next year, and suggested 
that it would be well for us to consider the feasibility of 
taking part in that exhibition. 

On motion of Mr. Plumb the president was requested to 
send a dispatch of greeting to the Illinois Horticultural 
Society now in session at Bloomington, together with a 
statement of the extent and condition of our display of 
fruit — about 600 plates. 

The regular programme was opened by the reading of the 
following paper on the Waupaca seedlings, by Mr. W. A. 
Springer, of Fremont: 

THE WAUPACA SEEDLINGS. 
Wm. a. Spbinger, Fremont. 

I have been asked to give an account of Waupaca county's 
seedling apples. I will say that the Wolf River leads. It 
is one of the first of Waupaca's seedlings. The old original 
tree is thirty-two years old, perfectly healthy, has not missed 
a crop since 1862, and stands in one of the most trying 
places, where its roots touch the waters of the Wolf river. 
The young trees are all doing well. I have no trees that 
gave me so many apples, this year, as my twelve year old 
Wolf River trees. 

The Wrightman orchard of seedlings at Weyauwega, ten 
of which you have before you, are all healthy trees, and 
nearly all of them good bearers. The Weyauwega has 
borne from a fair to a very heavy crop every year for the 
last fifteen years, and is an excellent keeping apple. The 



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The Waupaca Seedling. 61 

Wrightman Blush is also an excellent keeper and good 
bearer. The Flora is a heavy bearer and good keeper. The 
Martha is a fair bearer but a slow grower. The Waupaca, 
although a large, beautiful apple and great grower, is not a 
great bearer. The other varieties not named, are all excel- 
lent trees and good bearers. 

The Bennett orchard of seedlings, at Royalton, many of 
which are very choice, and ten of which we have here, are 
every tree perfect and all good bearers. Mr. Bennett has 
one of the best orchards in the county; it stands on a south- 
easterly slope. His seedlings are mostly numbered so I will 
say nothing now of any except the Bennett which is a beauty, 
a great bearer of excellent flavor, and one of the best market 
apples he has. 

Mr. Ma Whinney, of Lind, has about ten varieties of seed- 
lings, some of which are before you. All the trees are 
healthy and are fair bearers. The Helen is an excellent 
keeper and great bearer. His orchard is on quite high ground 
but is quite level. 

The Gibson orchard, of Lind, is nearly all seedlings. Mr. 
Gibson has many very nice apples and good trees. His 
Sprawler, as friend Plumb called it, is a good keeper, a good 
apple and a perfect tree. 

The Streit orchard, set out thirty-three years ago, and 
numbering one thousand seedlings, now contains many 
choice apples and trees. 

Mr. Balch, of Weyauwega, has a seedling orchard num- 
bering over one hundred, many of which are splendid trees, 
great ^ bearers and good keepers, ten of which we have 
on exhibition. He has probably more apples in his cellar 
to-day than any other man in the county, though they 
lack color, and in size are not up to others of which we have 
spoken. His trees on the whole are a success. 

There are many others of which we might speak, some of 
which we have on exhibition. In our town the Hickman 
orchard, thirty-five years old, perfectly hardy. Mrs. Hick- 
man tells me they picked five barrels this fall, and then 
shook off more than another barrel. It bore a fair crop last 



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62 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

year. It stands in low, level ground. Although it lacks color 
it is a very good tree to have this year. 

I have never seen as many good seedlings from any other 
quarter and why are they so hardy? Living and thriving 
when so many of our standards have failed. The old Wolf 
River is alone where three hundred other trees have died; 
not a good tree in the orchard. In every instance the seeds 
of these trees were from Maine, Northern New York and 
Canada East or seeds that grew here. 

I think the place to look for hardier trees is from our north- 
em seedlings, and that to use our northern seeds to grow roots 
to graft is better than to get the seeds of southern apples or 
seeds from the south. 

I will say that there have been many very nice seedling 
apples raised here that have died like our tender standard 
sprts, but all of which we have spoken have perfect trees. 

When I first came to this county thirty-four years ago, I 
brought trees with me. Set the first apple tree, and raised 
the first apple in the county. Many of these trees are alive 
and healthy, and bore well this year. 



The President, in opening the question for discussion, in- 
vited all persons present, whether members of the society or 
not, to take part in the proceedings of the convention. 

Mr. Peflfer thought our native seedlings would supply our 
wants, without forcing us to import Russian varieties. 

Mr. J. P. Roe of Oshkosh, mentioned a good late fall seed- 
ling of his own, from the Duchess. The fruit is larger than 
the Duchess. Equal to it for cooking, and superior for dessert 
fruit. 

This seedling blights a very little, and the one tree is 
hardy. Its grafts have not yet been tested; cions were 
taken this year for the first time. The tree has the habit of 
the Duchess. 

He also mentioned a good dessert summer apple from seed 
of Tallman Sweet; and another winter seedling from the 
same parent. Both have the characteristic ring of the Tall- 



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Discussion. 63 

man Sweet. In habit the summer tree resembles the parent, 
but somewhat less spreading branches. 

Mr. Plumb referred to the general unreliability of most 
seedlings, and stated that many of those seedlings which 
prove valuable are so only on the peculiar soil on which they 
have originated, proving worthless in new localities. 

President Smith inquired if these Waupaca seedlings — 
doing well in Waupaca county — would not do well in 
Brown county. 

Mr. Plumb answered that the latter was a very diverse 
county, in some places drift hills, etc. These would probably 
do well. Pears thrive in such localities. 

Mr. Roe stated that seeds for planting in our climate should 
be obtained f ropi the most extreme northern limit of growth 
of good fruit. 

Mr. Kellogg reported the Duchess well preserved in Mr. 
Hirschinger's collection now on exhibition, showing that it 
was rather more than a fall variety. He thought northern 
seeds would not give hardier seedlings than those from 
southern regions. 

Mr. Tuttle reported that seedlings of value were very rare 
on this continent. Excepting the AVealthy, there is no such 
variety of American origin that is equally hardy with the 
Duchess. In his estimation, our reliance for the future must 
be placed on Russian varieties. No variety can be called 
thoroughly tested for our climate in less than twenty years. 

The Society adjourned at 12:30 P. M. 



December 19th, 2:30 P. M. 

The Society was called to order by the President, and Mr. 
Plumb presented his paper. 

After some vigorous discussion the programme was con- 
tinued by the reading of a paper entitled "Insectivorous 
Plants," by Mrs. C. A. Willard. After the discussion of 
Mrs. Willard's paper the following paper was read: 



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64 Wisconsin State HoRTicuiiTURAL Society. 

ROSES IN WISCONSIN. 
By Samuel Baxter, Markesan. 

That roses can be successfully grown in every part of our 
beautiful state of Wisconsin, is fully demonstrated by the 
experience of all who have been earnestly engaged in their 
cultivation. 

Much has been written on the subject of "roses," but most 
of the articles published apply to their cultivation in the 
eastern states, mainly in the state of New York. 

I wish to discuss the subject from a Wisconsin stand- 
point, and furnish what information I may be able to im- 
part, as the result of my own individual experience and 
observation. 

Now that the summer and winter protection of the rose 
bush is no longer an experiment in this state, the wonder is 
that so few Wisconsin homes are decorated and enlivened 
by their presence in their surroundings. Said a lady when 
speaking of pleasant surroundings: " Whenever I pass by a 
home with beautiful flowers, I always think they are nice 
people who live there." This sentiment is, doubtless^ recog- 
nized by us all, though not always so candidly expressed. 
The multiplicity of names given to the different classes of 
roses, such as "Tea Roses," "Hybrid Perpetual," "Ben- 
gal," " Bourbon," " Noisette," etc., while they may be under- 
stood by the professional florist are certainly very confusing 
to the amateur. For the information of the general public 
I prefer to class them as " Hardy " and "Tender Roses," and 
subdivide them into three kinds, viz.: The annual or "Jime 
Roses," the occasional bloomers known as " Hybrid Perpet- 
uate " and the "Ever-blooming Roses," the latter kind being 
all, or nearly so, too tender to survive our Wisconsin winters 
when left out in the ground. The "June Roses " and "Hybrid 
Perpetuals" are all hardy and can be easily protected in the 
winter, the same bushes continuing for a number of years 
to produce a rich abundance of beauty and fragrance. I 
wiU name a few of the "June Roses " that bloom only once 



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EosES EST Wisconsin. 65 

in each summer. This includes all the " Moss Roses " and the 
yellow and white " Scotch Roses " also " Madame Plantier " 
(the best of white roses), " Seven Sisters/' " Cinnamon Rose," 
"Hundred Leaf/' etc. 

The best of occasional bloomers or " Hybrid Perpetuals " 
that have been grown under my observation are, " Louis 
Adier/' " Joseph Paxton/' " Gen. Washington/' " Gen. Jack- 
quiminot/' " La France/' and " Madam Chas. Wood." These 
are the most profitable kind of roses to cultivate, as some of 
them will be likely to produce buds and blossoms continu- 
ously from June to October. 

Of the tender roses known as Everbloomers there are 
many beautiful specimens. Perfect roses are often grown 
on young and very small bushes. They produce some ex- 
quisite gems of beauty during the summer, but the plants 
must be dug up and set in boxes of earth to be housed dur- 
ing the winter. The names of a few of the best kind are, 
Pefle des 'Jardins, Madam Lambard, Etoile de Lyon, Mal- 
maison, Safrano, the Palyantha or Miniature Roses, Madam 
Welshe, Marechal Neil, and Duchess de Brabant. 

I have been very successful in the cultivation and protec- 
tion of the above named rose bushes. I have not the least 
fear of any of the hardy kinds being winter killed. The 
mode of protection is very simple, and attended with but 
little trouble. Simply bend the bushes to the ground; hold 
them there with stakes and cord, or lay some sticks of wood 
on them, and cover with straw. They should not be cov- 
ered too early in the fall. From the first to the tenth of No- 
vember is the best time. One or two hard freezes will not 
injure them. My experience teaches me that they will en- 
dure a zero test in the fall. The bushes should be uncovered 
and straightened up in the spring from the first to the tenth 
of April, and tied to a lathe or other support driven into the 
ground. Rose bushes have been subjected to a test of tem- 
perature as' low as twenty degrees above zero, after being 
raised in the spring, without injury. 

The mode of protection for the tender or '^Everblooming 
Roses/' attended with the least trouble, is to keep them in 
flower pots or wooden boxes, in the cellar in winter, carry- 



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66 Wisconsin State Hoktioultural Society. 

ing them in about the fifteenth of October, bring them out 
some time in April or the beginning of May, and set the 
boxes in the ground without removing the plants from them. 
The rose bush having few or no fibrous roots, almost inva- 
riably loses its leaves by transplanting, and sometimes its 
life. 

The summer care and protection of rose bushes of all kinds 
is attended with but little trouble. If prompt attention is 
given them at the proper time, they thrive best in rows or 
beds; it is a good plan to spade up the ground in the spring 
between the rows, with a spading fork, and hoe the ground 
a few times during the summer to keep the weeds from 
growing. 

About the first of June a small insect appears on the leaves 
of the rose bush, so minute at first, that it can hardly be 
seen without the aid of a magnifying glass, but it grows fast 
and multiplies rapidly. It honeycombs the leaf, and if ap- 
pearing in sufficient numbers, and left undisturbed, will sqpn 
sap the life of the bush. This insect is what is known as the 
^^ Rose Slug," and is the only really formidable summer en- 
emy of the rose bush. It is a small worm, its mature growth 
being about one-half of an inch in length. This contempti- 
ble insect can be very easily destroyed, and as there is only 
one crop of them it does not require constant watchfulness. 
Many things are recommended for their destruction. It is 
said that road dust will destroy them; white helebore will 
kill them, but a little Paris Green mixed with water in the 
proportion of a teaspoonful to a ten quart pail of water and 
applied to the bushes with a whisk broom or sprinkler, will 
act on the slugs like magic, generally destroying them all 
with a single application. 

All kinds of roses can be propagated by layering. This is 
probably the easiest and best method for amateurs to adopt, 
who wish to increase the number of their bushes for them- 
selves, or for the purpose of donating them to friends. The 
process is easy and simple; choose one of the new shoots of 
the bush starting out near the ground, dig a small trench in 
the ground, and bend the shoot down into it, being careful 
not to separate it from the parent bush. Cut into the shoot on 



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EosES IN Wisconsin. 67 

the under side, from about three-fourths of an inch below 
each joint up to the center of the joint, being careful not to 
cut it entirely off, fasten the shoot firmly into the trench 
with hooked sticks and cover with earth or sand. This can be 
done at any time, in the spring, summer or early fall. When 
well rooted, a separate rose bush can be cut off and dug up 
from each joint of the shoot. Rose bushes should be moved . 
or transplanted early in the spring. Before a new growth is 
started in this way they will bloom well the same year. 

The ancient poets say that the first rose was brought into 
the world by the hands of the '"god of love," and the occa- 
sion was a desire to bribe Harpocrates, the god of silence, 
to an engagement that he would discover none of the se- 
crets of Venus; hence it became a custom to place a rose in 
rooms devoted to mirth and entertainment as a symbol, in 
the presence of which all restraint might be laid aside. Ac- 
cordingly the proverb "under the rose" denotes secrecy and 
inviolable silence. The rose is also, from the same cause, 
the direct emblem of silence. 

Besides the use of the rose at the feast and convivial meet- 
ings of the ancients, it was also frequently laid upon the 
tombs of the dead, either to signify the silence of death or 
as an offering grateful to the deceased. 

I quote from "Poetry of Life," by Miss Sarah Stinckney, 
published more than thirty years ago, the beautiful lan-s 
guage that a lady only can use: "From the majestic sun- 
flower, towering above her sisters of the garden and 
faithfully turning to welcome the god of day, to the little, 
humble and well-known weed that is said to close its crim- 
son eye before impending showers, there is scarcely one 
flower which may not, from its loveliness, its perfume, its 
natural situation or its classical association, be considered 
highly poetical^ 

The " lady rose," as poets have designated this queen of 
beauty, claims the latest consideration in speaking of the 
poetry of flowers. In the poetic world the first honors have 
been awarded to the rose, for what reason it is not easy to 
define, unless from its exquisite combination of perfume, form 
and color, which has entitled this sovereign of flowers in one 



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68 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. ' 

country to be mated with the nightingale in another, to be 
chosen with the distinction of red and white as the badge of 
two honorable and royal houses. The common wild rose is 
produced without the aid or interference of man. Bloom- 
ing in the sterile waste, this lovely flower is seen unfolding 
its fair leaves where there is no beauty to reflect its own, 
and thus calling back the heart of the weary traveler to 
thoughts of peac6 and joy, reminding him that the wilder- 
ness of human life, though rugged and barren to the discon- 
tented beholder, has also its sweet flowers, not the less 
welcome for being unlocked for, nor the less lovely for 
being cherished by a hand unseen. 

Friends, the rose still maintains her supremacy in every 
part of the world. She has long been recognized as queen in 
all the floral kingdom, and while we concede to all the flower 
producing plants the full measure of praise for their num- 
berless beauties, peculiarities, and attractions, we should 
accord to the *^rose" the tribute of our highest admiration, 
and cheerfully welcome her to our homes and surroundings 
Supply her with that care and protection which is so essen- 
tial to her supremacy and success in this, our northern clime, 
and she will bountifully repay us with a brilliant display of 
her unrivaled glories in the coming joyous summer days- 

'' From the weather-worn house on the brow of the hill. 

We are dwelling afar in our manhood to-day; 

But we see the old " roses " asd hollyhocks still. 

As they looked when we left them to wander away. 

FareweU to the friends of our bright boyhood days, 

To the beautiful vales, where the * roses ' did bloom, 

To the fathers and mothers, now gone from our gaze, 

From the weather-worn house to their heavenly home 

Where they wait, where they watch, and will welcome us still, 

As they waited and watched in the house on the hill." 



A paper by Professor Trelease, on '' Apple Scab and Leaf 
Blight, or Mildew," was then read. 

On this question Mr. Roe stated that trees of Fameuse on 
limestone gravel knolls were perfect, while others on poorly 
drained clay loam were ruined by scab; but fire-blight was 
more evident on the former soil. 



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The Flower Mission. 69 

Mr. Tuttle stated that the Fameuse was grown here twenty 
years without the scab, while other older varieties scabbed 
badly at the same time. Young trees of Fameuse scab as 
badly as old ones; the scab appears even when the apple is 
as small as a pea. Mr. Tuttle attributes the disease to cool, 
damp weather about and soon after the time of flowering. 

Mr. Smith stated that Fameuse trees near Green Bay have 
been planted forty years, or about that, and never scab. 

Mr. Tuttle mentioned a tree of the same variety on the 
north side of a clay hill, which was perfectly free from scab^ 

The Society adjourned at 5 P. M. 



December 19, 7:30 P. M. 

The Society was called to order by the President. 

The Secretary read a telegram of greeting from the Preei- 
dent of the Illinois State Horticultural Society, which sent 
its congratulations and good wishes. 

Mr. John C. Nevin then delivered an address of welcome 
to the State Horticultural Society, on behalf of the citizens 
of Green Bay. 

Mr. D. Huntley, of Appleton, spoke fittingly in response 
to the address of Mr. Nevin. After which the Society lis- 
tened to the following paper: 

THE FLOWER MISSION". 

By Mrs. H. M. Lewis. 

A few months ago an item appeared in the Western 
Farmer in regard to the Flower Mission of Chicago. 

A gentleman remarked after reading it: " How sad it is 
that not one person in fifty knows anything about this noble 
humane association, that blesses the giver as well as the re- 
ceiver." 

To such as these we would say that the Flower Mission 
had its origin in Boston little more than twelve years ago. 
The object of the society is to send gifts of cut flowers, pot 
plants, fruits, etc., to the asylums, hospitals and other places 
where they will be most beneficial. It may be some sultry 



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YO Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

day to a work-house, jail, factory, as well as the asylums 
and hospitals. Practical workers in the society that interest 
and inform themselves on the subject, know just when and 
where they will do the most good. 

We, who have kind friends, comfortable homes, the 
necessaries as well as many of the luxuries of life, know 
but little of the needs, the heart aches, and the discour- 
agements of the suffering poor, who are making desperate 
efforts to keep soul and body together during the heated 
term of summer. Many of these unfortunate people are 
herded together in close hot rooms, in alleys or attics, where 
fresh, pure air, is almost unknown. 

The benevolent, joyous young lady teacher in the suburbs 
of Boston little knew what magical seeds she was sowing 
and what beautiful flowers would bloom from her simple 
acts of kindness — for by giving flowers to the ragged, dirty 
children at the street corners, behind the asylum gates, and 
in the basement tenement houses, the great . flower mission 
had its birth. 

Each week the enthusiastic teacher's coming was hailed 
with joy, for her face was like :the sunshine. Dirty little 
hands were ever ready to receive the gift of flowers, for 
children, notwithstanding they are kept unclean and un- 
learned, love every thing in nature. 

After a time the growing demand for flowers became so 
great that the little teacher could not meet it alone; and 
after consulting with friends she resolved to ask for public 
contributions. 

On the following Sunday a notice was read in several 
churches inviting people to bring contributions of flowers 
and fruit to HoUis street church as it would be open to re- 
ceive them on Monday's from eight to twelve. Although 
the church was Unitarian it was only selected because of its 
central location, for the society has no sectarian bias. 

On Monday morning the ladies were ready to receive the 
gifts, little dreaming of the great work they were inaugurat- 
ing. The record says: 

" The first to come were two bright eyed girls, who, glow- 
ing with the air of their lovely country homes, and excite- 



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The Flower Mission. 71 

ment from the thought of the pleasure they had the means 
of giving, appeared with baskets filled with honstonias, cow- 
slips, violets, and anomenes, nicely tied up in pretty bunches; 
then two more with baskets filled with English violets; and 
again another with field flowers. So far all were personal 
friends; the next contribution, however, was from a stran- 
ger — lovely hot house flowers, and ripe, red strawberries. 
Again a silver wedding gift of twelve beautiful bouquets, 
seeming to the donors the pleasantest memorial they 
could have of their own happiness. Again a Lady Bounti- 
ful sends her carriage laden with cut flowers, pot plants, and 
bunches of flowering shrubs, placing her carriage also at 
the service of the ladies — a welcome gift indeed, for it is 
no light task to carry the large flat flower-laden baskets to 
their destination." 

Surely an auspicious beginning; contributions from thir- 
teen sources; distributions to one hundred and fifty persons. 

For several years the mission had no president, or other 
officer, everyone worked as inclination prompted, but for 
the past five years, for the sake of doing the best work in 
the least time, a full corps of officers are elected yearly. 

Nearly 8,000 boquets were distributed the first year, besides 
loose fiowers and pot plants. One man, called the " Pansy 
man," brought to the mission nearly 2,000 pansies, I38OO 
boquets and 1,200 pond lilies. He was as faithful the fifth 
year as the first. Indeed it is said that people who have 
given themselves once to the work never turn back. Were 
we to gather up the many incidents of the Flower Mission — 
publish the grateful letters, etc., we could fill volumes, for 
many stories are very touching and interesting. Every day 
brings forth fresh experiences. 

We cannot say that everybody is benefited by flowers 
(O, that we could), but we believe that the majority of 
people, particularly women, are so blessed and benefited. 

The day for receiving and distributing flowers in Chicago 
is Wednesday. The Flower Mission rooms are now at the 
Atheneum, 50 Dearborn street. 

In Madison the flowers are gathered Tuesday afternoons, 
kept a while in water, in a cellar or dark room; then loosely 



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72 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

packed in boxes or baskets, between wet newspapers or cot- 
ton batting. They go by the night express, arriving in 
Chicago by daylight the next morning, as beautiful as if 
gathered fresh from the woods and gardens. The railroads 
transport all flowers for the Flower Mission free of charge, 
and the expressmen seem to take special delight in the work. 

The annual fee for the Society is fifty cents. These fees 
from gentlemen constitute the carriage fund. Many inva- 
lids during the year have the benefit of a free carriage ride. 

The Country Home department is a branch of the Flower 
Mission, controlled by a separate committee. It has for its 
object providing comfortable homes for a limited time to 
poor invalids in the country. This department is rapidly 
growing in popularity, as much good has resulted from it, 
and it is destined to become one of the most worthy chari- 
ties of our country. 

At Christmas time the ladies aim to have a Christmas 
wreath of evergreen with a "Merry Christmas Card" at- 
tached, for every bed in the hospitals. This part of the work 
could be done by people living in the country, and I know 
of no pleasanter Christmas work. It is not medicine at all 
times that the sick need most. It is something that takes 
the mind from brooding and disquieting thoughts. A kind, 
hopeful, cheerful word, a sympathizing grasp of the hand, a 
little token of remembrance, will s')me times cure when 
medicine f a-ils. The mind is often more diseased than the 
body. 

Through the medium of fiowers, shy, sensitive natures are 
many times reached when they can be by no other means. 
The case of a woman supposed to be in great poverty was 
reported to the ladies of the Flower Mission, but no one 
dared proffer her assistance, for she was proud and high- 
spirited and would bitterly resent any overtures of charity. 
So the ladies resorted to a bit of strategy. A handful of 
roses and other flowers wer flrst carried to her; at the next 
visit a pitcher full of wild flowers and ferns just from the 
woods; these brought enthusiastic words of praise from her 
lips, and glad, happy tears from her eyes; next came a box 
of mignonette, a small fuchsia and other green growing 



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The Flower Mission. Y3 

plants for her to look at and care for. These were the step- 
ping stones that took her out of her own morbid self for a 
little. After them came jelly, fresh eggs, nourishing food 
and other comforts for herself and child. 

One morning one of the new made friends called upon her 
and informed her that on the following morning she was to 
go out for a ride. " Oh, but my dear " exclaimed the invalid, " I 
can not go. Don't you know that I have not been out of this 
. bed for more than a year." " Never mind " said Mrs. G. " I 
have permission from the doctor and John has strong arms 
you know, and he will carry you; and the carriage will be half 
full of pillows. We will try the experiment and if it fails 
we will not attempt it again." Sweet new hope came to her 
that day like an angel of light, and that eventful ride proved 
to be the turning point in her life. She began to feel now for 
the first time in years that life still held some joy for her and 
perhaps after all it was worth living. 

Let us follow the flower carriers on their rounds during a 
July morning. The air is hot and sultry out of doors. In 
the great sale-room it is like a heated furnace. All the clerks 
are in full dress, everyone looks and feels unhappy and irri- 
table; they think of the cool waters and green pastures, and 
long to be among them. We will follow on into the great 
work-room above where overcoats and other garments are 
being manufactured for the winter's trade; men and women 
are at work cutting, sewing, padding, and steaming with 
hot irons the heavy goods. To such as these give flowers. 

The modest Sweet Brier spoke at last, 

" My humble lot I long to cast ' 
Among the poor, who toil and sin, 

Amid the city's ceaseless din. 

I will recall their early days. 

Of simple joys and peaceful ways; 
The country walks wherein they strayed. 

Through sunny field, or woodland shade. 

And through these memories of youth. 

With aU its innocence and truth, 
A tender ray of hope divine, 

To cheer their present gloom should shine." 



6— HOET. 



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^4: Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

It was my pleasure to get a glimpse of what fresh flowers 
could do for the sufferers in hospitals during the war. 
Whenever they were brought into the sick rooms, men and 
boys would reach out and beg for them, saying, "please 
don't pass me by." Pinks, roses, lilacs, pansies and sweet 
geraniums were favorites; but the old double pink most of 
all. I have seen a man in bed with amputated limbs shed 
tears over them, and almost pray to them, for he seemed to 
see his mother's eyes in her good old garden pinks. 

I have seen a man too sick to hold the tin cup of roses in 
his hands, ask to have it placed near his pillow, that he 
might enjoy all the fragrance and beauty. Another man 
asked that his hands might be filled with sweet flowers, mig- 
nonette and roses, when a severe operation was being per- 
formed. If flowers afford such comfort to men, what must 
the comfort be to women, sick in prisons and hospitals. 
Physicians tell us when difficult operations are to be per- 
formed at the hospitals, they take special pains to have them 
done on Wednesday's after the distribution of flowers, for 
at that time the whole atmosphere of the place seems changed. 

I am not prepared to give an opinion in regard to jail and 
prison work. I will leave others to investigate the subject; 
no doubt many times good work can be done there. Good, 
sound judgment must be used, however, in this matter. It 
is sometimes a mistake to make these places too attractive; 
for indolent people who do not like to take care of them- 
selves will take advantage of it. Prisoners should have, 
except in extreme cases, kind treatment, but at all times 
clean, well ventilated, healthy rooms. 

In cases of life long imprisonment, no doubts on the 
flower question are entertained; brighten the life of the 
prisoner with pleasant things, give him books pictures, 
growing vines and plants by all means, for they will give him 
sweet growing thoughts that will lead him upward to a bet- 
ter life. 

A woman prisoner (a desperate character), in one of our 
western cities is breathing out her life to-day behind prison 
bars that are hidden with a drapery of green from her grow- 
ing vines. The effect that the cultivation of flowers has 



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The Flower Mission. 75 

had upon her life is said to be almost incredible, in fact mir- 
aculbus.' 

Let us enlist with the flower workers of the cities if we 
can, but if we cannot, let us establish flower missions of our 
own in our homes for the sick and unhappy about us; we 
can easily do so by getting the younger members of the 
family interested. We will cut our geraniums into slips in 
the early spring that the geranium beds may be enlarged; 
we will make an additional pansy bed, plant new shrubs, 
vines and flowers, with the old time sort that are ever ready 
to give up their flowers. Then is flower growing glorious 
employment. If doubts arise on the subject, I pray you try 
the experiment for one year. 

Right here, let me say to our people, that we have several 
insane asylums in our state filled with hundreds of insane pa- 
tients that are greatly in need of our flowers. Many of these 
unfortunates have lived among and cared for flowers during 
the best part of their lives. What rest and balm it wouid be to 
their weary, restless, longing souls to receive every Wednes- 
day a basket or boquet pt sweet, fresh flowers just from the 
woods and gardens. We hope the day is not far distant when 
fresh flowers will ever be seen upon the tables of the insane 
patients. 

"I gave unto a brown and tired hand 

A stem of roses ^weet and creamy white; 

I knew the bells rung merry tunes that night. 

Lo, it was Christmas time throughout the land, 
And all the skie^ were hung with lanterns bright, 
The brown hand held my roses gracelessly. 

They seemed more white within their dusky vase. 
A scarlet wave suffused the woman's face; 
" My hands so seldom hold a flower," said she, 

" I think the lovely things feel out of place." 
Oh, tired hands that are unused to flowers! 
Oh, feet that tread on nettles all the way! 

God grant His peace may fold you round to-day. 
And cling in fragrance when the Christmas hours. 
With all their mirthfulness have passed away. 

Hadison, Wisconsin. 



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Y6 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

Mr. Roe spoke warmly of the good influence of flowers in 
the walks of life and under all circumstances, touching feel- 
ingly upon his home experience. 

Messrs. Hoxie and Plumb followed with appropriate re- 
marks, after which Secretary Oliver Gibbs, Jr., of the Minn- 
esota State Society, introduced and read a paper on *^Some 
of the Gardens in Literature" which showed much study 
and appreciation of the passages quoted. The paper was 
in every respect a gem. 

President Smith then read a paper on Horticultural 
Progress. 

Mr. Roe spoke in praise of the Worden grape which he 
thought much of as surpassing the Concord in sweetness 
and quality, while equally so in size and hardiness. Messrs. 
Kellogg, Springer and Daniels also spoke very favorably of 
the Worden. 

Mr. Plumb thanked Mr. Smith for his commendation of 
the Western Farmer, and mentioned that he saw at least 
twelve correspondents of the Farmer in the audience. He 
gave a short account of the origin and prospects of the 
Farmer, 

Mr. Gibbs spoke of the soundness of the president's State- 
ment as to the market test fixing the value of varieties, but 
called attention to the short time since our standard varieties 
were transferred from the experimental to the recommended 
lists. Few varieties get the general market test. He stated 
that the Minnesota society proposes offeriiag premiums of 
$1,000 for the production of a new seedling in any part of the 
world that shall prove superior to the Wealthy for the North- 
west. 

The society adjourned at 9 P. M. 



December 20, 10 A. M. 

The society was called to order by the president. 

Secretary Gibbs of the Minnesota State Society invited 
the members of this society to send delegates and exhibit 
fruit at the approaching convention of their society. 



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Horticultural Notes. 77 

Mr. Tuttle then read a paper upon Russian Apples.* 

This was followed by N. N. Palmer's paper on "The 
Orchard Lessons of the Past Year." 

George J. Kellogg then followed with a paper on "The 
Horticultural Outlook." 

In the discussion which followed the papers, many mem- 
bers spoke on apples in the Northwest, giving their expe- 
rience in the past and their prophecies for the future. 

After which the following paper was listened to with 
much interest: 

HORTICULTURAL NOTES. 

B7 Oliver Gibbs, Jr, of Lake City, Minnesota, Secretary of the Minnesota 
State Horticultural Society. 

RUSSIAN APPLES. 

The only place where I have found any of the Russian 
apple trees, of recent importations, growing in orchard 
in Minnesota as root grafts (except one or two of 
the Anis) is upon the farm of Andrew Peterson, near Waco- 
nia, in Carver county, a little below the latitude of St. Paul. 
Here is a small orchard, grafted in 1876 from the cions of 
the Agricultural Department Importation of 1870, kept per- 
fectly clean, the season through, well cultivated, 
and forced by severe pruning into high heading 
and upright growths which gives a test of a few va- 
rieties that is fairer than top-working on crabs and 
is worthy of study. Here are the Lieby, No. 240; Charla- 
moflf. No. 262; Hibernal, No. 378; Little Seedling, No. 410, and 
Astrakoflf Glass, No. 472 — all as hardy in appearance as the 
black oaks in adjacent woods. The soil is a light colored, ■ 
clay loam, the exposure Southerly, with timber on the north 
some thirty rods away. All have the smooth bark of the 
Duchess, all the thick and wooly leaf common to the Rus- 
sian trees, but all except the Little Seedling are irregular 
and scrawny though vigorous in growth. Charlamoff is a 
large, oblong, striped summer apple of excellent quality. 
Leiby, Hibernal and Astrakoflf Glass are also large, but flat- 

* Printed in Transactions of the State Agricultural Society, 

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78 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

tish, conical, red-streaked or greenish yellow tint; season 
early winter, but may keep late with extra care; and quality 
very good for cooking, being mildly sub-acid and fair for 
dessert. Little Seedling is a long keeper, quality unknown. 
Beside and among these trees are other grades of Russians 
showing tenderness and blighting habits. Of these I have 
postponed taking notes, as Mr. Peterson will give our so- 
ciety a full history of his tests of Russians, this winter. 

As tap grafts I have seen the Anis in orchard at the nur- 
sery of A. St. Sias, in Rochester, and one or two as root- 
grafts in farmers' orchards in the vicinity. Have had no 
opportunity to test the fruit, but the trees in orchard and 
nursery are perfectly winter hardy and I believe they are 
reported as blight proof. At Anderwood and Emory's at 
Lake City, I have also seen as tap grafts, with every appear- 
ance of hardiness and freedom from blight and also in full 
bearing, the Cross apple. No. 413, and the Yellow Transpar- 
ent. The Cross is medium rigid, glossy red, excellent qual- 
ity in its season, which appears to be December, but then 
fails quickly by an internal dissolution before giving any 
outward sign, but in this case it may be owing to some pe- 
culiarity of the soil or season. The Yellow Transparent is 
the best summer apple yet fruited in Minnesota. It is large, 
even in size, oblong, yellow, an enormous bearer, hardy, and 
its quality very good for dessert. It comes in ahead of the 
Duchess and as stated by A. G. Tuttle, of Baraboo, who has 
fruited it for years, those who have it, have no further use 
for the Tetof ski. 

THE OSTHEIM CHERRY, ETC. 

In the garden of Andrew Krause, n^ar Waconia, stands a 
cherry tree six, to eight inches in diameter and twenty-five 
to thirty feet high, having a smooth, perfectly hardy look> 
and bearing in f vaorable seasons, in abundance, large sweet 
cherries, so large that Mr. Krause hunted for some time 
among a lot of common sized Siberian crab apples, lying 
frozen on the ground in November to find one large enough 
to state the size of the cherry in comparison. The tree was 
obtained from Charles Ludluff, of Carver. On applying to 



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Horticultural Notes. 79 

Mr. Ludluflf, he informed me that it was the Ostheim Weis- 
chel cherry. The original stock was sent him in the shape 
of root sprouts by a pomological friend in Germany, over 
twelve years ago, and he has since propagated the trees in 
the same way and distributed them to some extent among 
his neighbors and friends in Carver county. According to 
Mr. Ludluff, these trees have shown themselves to be per- 
fectly adapted to the Minnesota climate, being entirely 
hardy, great bearers, and the fruit in favorable seasons very 
large and good. The fruit is oblate in shape, color dark red, 
changing to almost black when ripe; flavor sprightly, sweet 
and refreshing, nearly freestone, stem about two inches 
long'. The tree I saw at Mr. Krause's has a forest tree ex- 
pression, like our American black cherry; but Mr. Ludluff 
says it generally does best when grown in dwarf form, and 
if grafted it must always be worked on sweet cherry stocks. 
That such a variety has been growing and doing well for 
twenty years as far north as Minnesota, at almost 45° is 
most encouraging and suggests the query if we can raise 
the German Ostheim in the north at all, what may we not 
expect in cherry growing when Prof. Budd and Charles 
Qibb shall have disseminated their still hardier Russian 
Vladimirs, and it suggests another thought to me, which 
may or may not be important in Wisconsin, that all the wis- 
dom in horticulture and all the important facts on the sub- 
ject cannot be found inside of our societies; that some of 
these quiet, shy farmers with their foreign education in 
their schools of pomology and forestry are getting ahead of 
us; that it is our duty to seek them out, invite them and en- 
courage them to join our societies, and that they can be of 
great help to us in our work. I have lately found a few such 
who wear as large horticultural hats as any of us. One of 
them who had never seen an American horticultural report 
tiU I gave him one of ours this fall wrote me as follows a 
few weeks after in his imperfect English: 

'* Now the days been short, the night very long, and a 
man have now a good chance to reading in the evening. So 
I did. I look through the Minnesota Horticultural Report, 



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80 Wisconsin State HoRTicuLTURAii Society. 

1883, and I was to be interested that when I look what time 
it was, it was two o'clock in the inorning, and with all the 
brain food I had taken I went to bed and slept nicely." If 
Brother Trelease can make his Wisconsin Report as interest- 
ing as that we will exchange for any number of copies. 

IMMEDIATE INFLUENCE OP POLLEN. 

At the recent meeting of the American Pomological 
Society there was an interesting discussion upon facts pre- 
sented by J. T. Lovett, of Little Silver, New Jersey, and 
others, indicating that in planting staminate strawberries to 
fertilize the pistillates, the latter are not only made fruitful, 
as all well posted growers know, but the color, texture, size 
and perhaps even the flavor will sometimes vary according 
to the character of the staminate variety used in the proc- 
ess. Many facts were given to support this theory, which 
if true, gives us more power in the improvement ol our 
small fruits than has heretofore been thought possible. Upon 
this basis we may possibly correct faults even in the stami- 
nates themselves; the Sharpless, for instance, by having 
some neighbor more prepotent than itself in the influence of 
its pollen, may be given an outside finish that will resist the 
rot in hot and rainy weather that so often spoils the largest 
specimens of the berries before the picker can '' get there." 
On my own grounds, in a small experimental bed last sum- 
mer, I found a row of Crescents having throughout the 
season, the color and firmness of the Wilson. I was puzzled 
with it then; but now under this new theory I can account 
for it by referring the change to the benefit from the row of 
Wilsons that grew next to it; and my Glerdales growing 
alongside of Wifsons were very bright in color, although 
said by others to be often of a dull, dirty hue. And why may 
not some of the many variations of apples upon the same 
tree or neighboring trees of some sorts be due to this imme- 
diate influence of prepotent pollen either at the time or 
through reversion or heredity. Ic is usually supposed that 
the change in the character of fruit from the effect of foreign 
pollen becomes apparent only in the next generation through 
the seeds, yet any one who will read Darwins " Variation of 



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HORTICULTUBAL NOTES. 81 

Plants and Animals under Domestication " will see that 
cases of the contrary kind are not very rare — the most 
notable one being that of the St. Vallery apples, whose 
stamens being themselves abortive, the children in the neigh- 
borhood carry to the trees pollen from other varieties of 
apples, and attaching each their own name to the spur or 
blossom fertilized by them, claim and receive from the tree 
each a different fruit at the ripening season. This study of 
blossoms and seeds lies at the very ba&e of all systematic 
improvements in fruits as well as flowers, and we in Minne- 
sota are under great obligations to one of the members of 
the Wisconsin Society for aiding us with his studies in this 
interesting field of knowledge. May the pleasant reunions 
in the annual " Peflfer resurrection " * continue as long as our 
stalwart friend can enjoy them. 

THE LAW OF CROSS-BREEDING. 

In reference to fruits, trees and plants, all the facts I can 
find, new or old, by reading, by observation or injuiry, point 
one way in this that the mother tree or plant is most likely 
to give constitution, habits of growth and external finish to 
the new seedlings, and the male parent the quality and 
season of the fruit. Mr. Peflfer has always, I think, found 
this to be true in his experiments; and Dr. E. Lewis 
Sturlevant at the New York experiment station at Geneva, 
who is very cautious in statement, told me .last fall that so 
far the facts developed in his work indicate the same, 
although he did not claim to have found enough to prove it 
to be a law. In illustration he showed me a lot of seedlings 
from the Turkish Cap tomato, a rot proof variety. 

The tomatoes on all of these seedlings were like those of 
the female parent plant, in respect to being free from rot; 
although their size, shape, color, and quality was as various 
as might be expected from the mixtures which the winds and 
insects had made in the un-isolated pollen. It may reason- 
ably be expected that in this case when both pistils and pol- 
len shall be perfectly isolated, and the pollen being taken 

* The anniversary of G. P. Peffer's resurrection from beneath thirty feet 
of gravel in a caving well. 



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82 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

from a choice hardy variety, among some of the seedlings 
will be found a good tomato on a stock that will make it 
rot-proof, whose character may be fixed as a distinct variety. 
Gardeners as well as fruit growers and farmers have much 
to hope for in the work of the Agricultural Experiment 
Stations. We need many more of them in our efforts to get 
better and long keeping apples. By seedling production we 
shall save much time and labor, heretofore wasted in bap- 
hazard work, where not one seedling tree in ten thousand is 
ever an improvement, if we find out and apply to the laws 
of variation whereby improved conditions around the parent 
plants import a tendency to improvement in the progeny, 
and the law of cross-breeding, whereby these tendencies are 
developed, united and fixed. Wo shall find analogous facts 
for guides in these things in close observations of all plant 
and animal life. Races improve in reproduction solely 
through improved conditions in the parent life, and through 
proper imions of strength and fine quality. We cannot 
attend too carefully to these conditions in the culture of all 
living things over which we have control, as there is abund- 
ant evidence of the certainty that every mood of the parent 
life is liable to transmission, for better or for worse. 

Mr. Saunders at Washington told me of two interesting 
experiments that he had made some years ago. Wishing to 
fix the strong, upright stem and other vigor of the Fill- 
more strawberry upon some new plant having a better berry, 
he fertilized the Fillmore pistils with pollen from one of the 
black varieties — he had forgotten the name of it, probably 
the Black Defiance — and planted the seed. Among the new 
seedhngs was a plant having the very character he sought 
to produce, vigorous foliage and the stout stem holding its 
fruit clear of the ground — and the berry of excellent qual- 
ity. The name given to the new plant was Patuxet. It was 
lost in the mud of the overflow from the Potomac into the 
department grounds caused by the filling up of the old canal, 
but Mr. Saunders thought some of the plants sent to A. M. 
Purdy of Palmyra, New York, may have been preserved. 

The other experiment was with raspberries. Doolittle black 
cap blossoms were fertilized with pollen from the Philadelphia 



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Discussion. 83 

red, and among the seedlings was this remarkable variation: 
a raspberry bush of the black cap form, bearing red berries 
like the male parent. This was also buried in the mud, and 
though Mr. Saunders searched carefully with tears and in 
long rubber boots to dig it up, it could not be found. 

The practical lesson should be otten stated and reiterated: 
Choose for seed bearing the hardiest and thriftiest forms of 
best habits of growth, and as far as possible fertilize by hand 
with carefully isolated pollen from the sorts whose quality 
and the season of ripening suit us best; never forgetting, how- 
ever, that there must be as careful isolation of the pollen as 
of the pistils; and not expecting too certain results in every 
case, for with the utmost accuracy and care in our work, 
lusty nature in her stealth will sometimes get the better of 
our inclosures, and astonish us with new puzzles in the next 
generation; and more than this, perhaps is the fact that we 
have always to encounter the forces of heredity and rever- 
sion a9 to previous mixtures of which we may know nothing 
whatever. 



December 20, 1883, 2:30 P. M. 

The Society was called to order by the President. To 
relieve the secretary somewhat, Mr. J. C. Plumb was ap- 
pointed recording secretary pro tern. 

On motion the President was authorized to appoint dele- 
gates to the approaching annual meetings of the Minnesota, 
Iowa, and Northern Illinois Societies; and named the fol- 
lowing delegates: Minnesota, J. C. Plumb; Iowa, J. M. Smith; 
Northern Illinois, Geo. J. Kellogg. 

B. S. Hoxie then read an interesting essay on " Waste 
Places." 

After a very instructive and entertaining discussion of 
Mr. Hoxie's paper, the programme was continued by " The 
Northern and Southern Home," a paper read by Mrs. I. E. 
Tilson of West Salem, followed by one on 



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84 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

THE WORK OF TO-DAY. 

By Mrs. Vie H. Campbell, of Evansville, Wis. 

" Go work in my vineyard." 

*' The harvest truly is great but the laborers are few." 

" Work, for the night is coming; 

Work through the morning hours; 
Work, while the dew is sparkling, 

Work, 'mid sprin6:ing flowers; 
Work, when the day g^'ows brighter, 

Work, in the glowing sun; 
Work, for the night is coming. 

When man's work is done." 

"Work, for the night is coming; 

Work through the sunny nooD ; 
Fill brightest hours with labor; 

Rest comes sure and soon. 
Give every flying minute 

Something to keep in store, 
Work, for the night is coming. 

When man works no more." 

The work of to-day is so great that, as I contemplate its 
vast proportions, as it rises before me, I stand aghast; but 
only for a moment do I falter as I perceive, that by one 
thing at a time with united and persistent effort, as it is yet 
early dawn, much may be accomplished though the day 
may be short. 

The preparatory step, is to summon our laborers; and to all 
who are willing to unite with us for good and to do good, do 
we appeal. Attending the meeting of this society last win- 
ter, for the first time, I saw, with surprise, the dearth of 
ladies, and I thought, surely, the ladies of Wisconsin can not 
know how much good they may do, and how much receive by 
being present at these interesting sessions. Let no one allow, 
herself to become dilatory from thinking " there is so little 
I can do;" it is the little we can do, which is always soiessen- 
tial. Little things make the grand whole of life. There are 
seldom more than one, or two at best, great events in the 



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The Work of To-Day. 85 

lives of our most eminent men, but they are replete with 
the perfect fullness of the little things which the beautiful 
harmony of those lives we emulate. 

One little kind act, however unthinkingly performed, will, 
dropped on the ocean of humanity like the pebble in the sea, 
constantly widen its circle, on and on, until it has reached 
the out-bound shore. What a mighty influence is wielded 
by a tiny flower ! If you doubt it, cultivate a few; cultivate 
them to give away. Flowers thrive best for those who love 
them so well as to bestow them on those who have not; 
spend an hour or two each week in that employment, a short 
time and will hardly be missed. You can take it when 
wearied from the performance of other duties, and the 
change will be refreshing and restful, for " rest is not quit- 
ting the busy career," and see if the little while thus spent 
will not, in good influences felt, repay you a hundred fold — 
" The bread cast upon the waters." Make the experiment, 
and I know you will derive more real pleasure thereby than 
you would from ten times the amount of time invested in 
the production of the most elaborate and fantastic '' crazy 
quilt " woman's ingenuity ever invented. 

Illustrations multiply; I will give one. This morning as I 
am at work among my flowers, a little boy comes along on 
his way to school. Rather untidy and unkempt, he pauses 
a moment to look at their beauty. I ask him if he would 
like a bouquet, and I know by his eager look ere he answers 
" yes'm." I give him one and tell him to call to-night and he 
can have one for his mother. He looks rather askance at 
his dirty fingers and I guess rightly that when he calls to- 
night he will have made an attempt at cleanliness; and well 
I know those flowers will shed their influence all day in the 
school-room, softening all, giving new inspirations. I well 
remember, while engaged in teaching, that I never could 
find the heart to so harshly chide the little mischief who had 
that morning brought me a fresh bouquet. 

Did I regret that my Feverfew, too closely cut in July to fill 
the basket of white fiowers as a floral tribute to one 
who had passed beyond painful suffering, gave me 
no more of bloom until September. No, because well 



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86 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

I know that the fragrance and beauty of those flowers 
will be fresh in the memory of those children, long 
after the features of that mother have faded from their 
recollection; and the scene will often, as years go on, present 
itself, acting as a check to many a harsh word and selfish 
act. 

Who can set the limit of thfe influence of little things? 
Although we spin not, neither do we weave, much more is 
expected of us to-day than there was of our grandmothers. 
The spirit of exactness, that pervaded the daily lives of those 
worthy dames, has not diminished with the tide of years. 
Duties, grave and stern, meet us at the very threshold of the 
lives of those for whom we have to care. Upon our failures 
and successes to-day depend the destinies of the men and 
women of to-morrow. Our physical inheritance is largely 
against us, for, inasmuch as the wealth and luxuries of a 
nation increase, so the physical development decreases, for 
labor makes us strong, perfectly develops the muscular sys- 
tem. A life of ease, so often thought to be conducive to our 
happiness, is detrimental to progress. 

Some evils come slowly and insidiously upon us, that at 
the outset might have been checked, but now have assumed 
such proportions that they almost baffle our attempts to sub- 
due them. For instance, the cultivation of tobacco, that at 
the first was limited to the experimental half -acre, has now 
increased to such an extent that the very best of the south- 
ern portion of our state is devoted to its production. I often 
wonder how a thinking man can expend so much labor in 
that which is a curse to humanity, when the same labor 
rightly invested might bring unnumbered blessings. I think 
I could not enjoy the luxuries obtained by the sale of this 
weed without some misgivings. 

Few, at the outset, realized the direct results of this great 
evil. That our boys, from employment in its cultivation and 
preparation for market, have become habituated to its use, 
hundreds to-day can tetisf y. I call it an evil because I know 
of no good use of tobacco. I will not make the charge some- 
times made, that it is a common stepping stone to dram 
drinking, but all our inebriate asylums consider it useless to 



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The Work of To-Day. 87 

try to reform a patient so long as he is allowed to continue 
the use of tobacco. 

It is an active, narcotic poison, that while its use does not, 
perhaps, cultivate a desire for stronger stimulants, befogs 
all the senses, and blunts the finer susceptibilities. The 
man who, at first, occasionally smokes, will ask you if it, 
will be offensive if he lights a cigar; but bye and bye he will 
have become so oblivious to all courtesy that he will light 
his old pipe and puflf away in your face as unconcernedly as 
possible, never heeding, little caring, that he is depriving 
you of one of God's best gifts, pure air. 

It used to be rare, indeed, to see a young gentleman 
smoking in the presence of a young lady, but now the vice 
has been so long endured that it is by no means uncommon 
to see him riding with two young ladies complacently puff- 
ing away. Young ladies, is it not patent what part of the 
day's labor ye have to perform? 

Last summer, as the excursion trains rolled out from the 
several towns, laden with those who attended the S. S. As- 
sembly on children's day, I was surprised, as well as pained, 
to know that little boys with their buckets of fruit and nuts 
to sell, to add to the S. S. treasury, carried also boxes of 
cigars to sell, and likewise, at some of our fairs, this fall they 
were sold by young ladies at the church booths. " Now ye 
defile my sanctuary!" And I thought, what good end could 
be attained by so foul a means? 

We build grand and stately edifices for the use of our 
legislators, furnish them with luxurious conveniences, import 
beautiful carpets, so pleasing to the eye, and so soft that 
scarce a foot-fall is heard, and then decorate each geometri- 
<;al figure with a huge white spittoon. Verily, ought we not 
to-day to be engaged in ridding ourselves of our hoggishness 
rather than building such palaces. 

Another evil assuming serious magnitude and threatening 
us with dire consequences, is of a mental character, and I 
hope you will not deem me too severe when I say that 
parents are guilty of gross neglect, if not positive indiscre- 
tion in their children's taste for reading. This is an Age of 
Books; our children come into a world full of printed matter. 



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88 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

which sooner or later they are bound to read. The first 
books we buy for them begin to form their taste in that 
direction, and wisely selected, no fear of their tastes 
becoming deformed. If we do not attract our children 
towards books, by giving them those that are interesting, if 
we do not cultivate their tastes for the good and pure in lit- 
erature, they will, ere long, acquire a taste for the flashy 
stuff with which the country is flooded, called in England 
"penny dreadfuls." We must watch carefully over our 
children's reading; it is a subject demanding our diligent 
investigation. We must give them strong, bright, interest- 
ing reading, with the blood and sinew of real life in it — 
heartsome, pleasant reading that will waken them to a closer 
observation of the best things around them. 

A former mayor of one of our large cities once said that 
he could rid the jails of a large per cent, of the juvenile 
criminals in the next year if he could put certain books out 
of print. A suggestive fact; it is the part of the fathers 
and mothers to clear the jails in future. No mayor can help 
them. A false impression almost invariably given to young 
people is, that seeing the world necessarily means seeing the 
badness of the world. Once let children understand that to 
see the world in a fair way, they must see also its good side, 
its nobleness and true progress, and you at once put their 
souls in the way of a wholesome growth. 

It is right and natural for a child to want to see the world. 
It is right and natural for him to wish to read books that 
according to his light show him what the world is. The 
wrong and unnaturalness are in the careless way in which 
parents ignore this want or fail to meet it in a proper man- 
ner. Vile writers and worse publishers are fattening on this 
tendency of children and carelessness of parents. Good 
writers and honest publishers are offering the means of rem- 
edying the great evil and are showing the youth of the 
country how they may see the world and yet remain pure 
and true. Which class shall win the race? 

When the evil has advanced to that stage that children, 
of ten or twelve years of age, carefully hoard their pennies 
to invest them in the purchase of miserable " dime novels " 



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The Work of To-Day. 89 

and "nickel libraries," then, indeed, have we great cause for 
alarm. What can we expect of minds fed on such trash? 
It is a lamented fact, but I know of newsdealers, who are 
bright and shining lights in the church societies of which 
they are members, who are constantly supplying their coun- 
ters with this abominable stuff. 

I went into the store of one of them in a neighboring city, 
not long since, well known for his uprightness and consci- 
entiousness. Thinking perhaps, he did not deal in the like, I 
asked for cards: "Playing cards," said he in a rebuking 
tone, "I never kept such a thing in my store!" As I really 
wished to purchase stationery I did not feel the rebuke, but 
just before I left the store he asked me if I "did not wanfr 
something in the book line?" He "had cheap editions of all 
the standard novels." And, as I looked them over, I saw 
many that were considerably below the standard. 

I could not help thinking how much I would rather my 
children would play cards every evening in the week than 
that their minds should become warped as they would by 
reading even one evening such books, and I wondered how 
the good man's conscience could be so elastic on the one 
hand and so rigid on the other. 

Ere leaving the subject of reading matter, perhaps it 
would not be inopportune for me to briefly suggest to you the 
importance of heartily contributing our support and sustain- 
ing influence to our only medium of communication, by the 
printed page in our state, and hardly need tell you that I 
refer to the Western Farmer, a paper that should find a 
welcome in every rural home — a journal whose purity of 
thought is unquestionable. 

Its proprietors are ever willing and desirous of allowing 
us to use its columns fftr the furtherance of our industry. 
As a question of economy, no farmer can afford to do with- 
out the valuable and practical suggestions it contains. " A 
wcrd to the wise is sufficient." 

As a class, we agriculturists, are becoming quite a beacon 
light; at least, people note all the ill we do, and are oft re- 
peating the question: "Why do we license the sale of in- 
toxicating liquors and gambUng institutions upon our fair 

7— HORT. 

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90 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

grounds? " Our purpose is to yearly bring for exhibition, the 
very best of our products. Shall we allow that purpose to 
become subverted, and instead, an exhibition of the very 
worst than man can do. Shall we, who have all these years 
been carefully teaching our sons the withering curse of the 
wine cup and the gaming table, send them here where we 
sanction such things unblushingly? 

You would not give a thief license to come in and pick the 
pockets of one-half the people? You would not station gate- 
keepers armed with sabres, to give every hundredth man a 
thrust that would disfigure him for life. Oh no, but you do 
allow men to come in, who have no ostensible object save 
to fleece the pockets of those who are young in years as well 
as in experience, by the side of whom a common pickpocket 
would be considered honorable, because every one knowing 
his calling would be guarded thereby. 



On motion of Mr. Trelease, the rules of exhibition of the 
American Pomological Society were referred to the Com- 
mittee on Nomenclature, for their consideration, with a 
view to bringing the rules of this Society into conformity 
with them, so far as practicable; their report to be made at 
the approaching annual meeting. 

premium list for the winter exhibition op the WIS- 
CONSIN STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, TO BE HELD AT 
GREEN BAY, WISCONSIN, DECEMBER, 19TH AND 20TH, 1883. 

The judges reported the following awards on the fruits 
and flowers exhibited. 

Best ten rarieties of winter apples adapted to Wisconsin, Chas. 

Hirschinger Baraboo •. $7 50 

Second best, Geo. Jeffrey, Milwaukee 5 00 

Third best, Geo. P. Peffer, Pewaukee 3 00 

Fourth best, Wm. F. Dougherty, Preble 1 00 

Best five varieties of winter apples adapted to Wisconsin, Wm. 

Springer, Fremont 3 00 

Secorid best, Geo. Jeffrey, Milwaukee 2 00 

Third best, Chas. Hirschinger, Baraboo 1 00 

Fourth best, Geo. P. Peffer, Pewaukee 50 

Best five varieties of winter apples for market purposes, Chas. 

Hirschinger, Baraboo 8 00 

Second best, (>eo. Jeffrey, Milwaukee 2 00 

Third best, W. F. Dougherty, Preble 1 00 



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Premium List for Winter Exhibition. 91 

Best five varieties of fall apples, with written statement of manner 

of keeping, Wm. Springer, Fremont $3 00 

Additional first premium, Joh • Mahon, Preble 8 00 

Second best, Chas. Hirschinger, Baraboo 8 00 

Third best, Geo. Jeffrey, Milwaukee 1 00 

Best plate Plumb's Cider, Chas. Hirschinger, Baraboo 3 00 

Best plate Haas, Wm. Springer, Fremont 2 00 

Second best, Chas. Hirschinger, Baraboo 1 00 

Best plate Fameuse, Miss M. R Newtoo, Green Bay 2 00 

Second best, Chas. Hirschinger, Baraboo 1 00 

Best plate Walbridge, Geo. Jeffrey, Milwaukee 2 00 

Best plate Westfleld Seek-no-Furthen Mi^s K E. Newton, Green Bay. 2 00 

Second best, Chas. Hirschinger, Baraboo 1 00 

Best plate Tallman Sweet, Wm. Springer, Fremont 2 00 

Second best, Wm. F. Dougherty, Preble 1 00 

Best plate Golden Russet, Geo. Jeffrey, Milwaukee 2 GO 

Second best, Chas. Hirschinger, Baraboo 1 00 

Best plate Willow Twig, Chas . Hirrchinger, Baraboo 2 00 

Best plate Wealthy, Chas Gould, Lake City, Minn 2 00 

Second best, Geo Jeffery, Milwaukee 1 00 

Best plate Pewaukee, Geo. P. Peffer, Pewaukee 2 00 

Second best, Chas. Hirschinger, Baraboo 1 00 

Best plate Utter, Wm. Springer, Fremont 2 00 

Second best, Chas. Hirschinger, Baraboo 1 00 

Best plate Alexander — Discretionary premium — John Adam, 

Markesan 2 00 

Best plate Ben Davis, Qteo. Jeffrey, Milwaukee 2 00 

Second best, Wm. Springer, Fremont 1 00 

Best plate Wolf River, Wm. Springer, Fremont 2 00 

Second best, E. W. Daniels, Auroraville 1 00 

Best display of Show Apples, not ^to exceed ten varieties, Geo. Jeff- 
rey, Milwaukee '. 5 00 

Second best, Wm. Springer, Fremont 8 00 

Third best, Chas. Hirschinger, Baraboo 2 00 

Best exhibition or show of Seedlings, not to exceed ten varieties, E. 

Wrightman, Weyauwega 5 00 

Second best, A. S. Bennett, Weyauwega 3 00 

Third best, Wm. Springer, Fremont 2 DO 

Best Local or County Societv exhibition. Brown Co. Hort Society. . . 10 00 

Second best. Waupaca County Horticultural Society 7 00 

Third best. Freedom Horticultural Society 5 00 

Best New Variety, Wolf River, Wm . Springer, Fremont 2 00 

Best single Winter Variety Seedling, Northwestern Greening, R W. 

Daniels, Auroraville 3 00 

Second best, Wm. Springer, Fremont 2 00 

Third best, Geo. Jeffrey, Milwaukee 1 00 

Best and greatest display of crab apples, Geo. P. Peffer, Pewaukee. . 2 00 

Second best, Geo. Jeffrey, Milwaukee 1 00 

Best and greatest display of pears, Geo. Jeffrey, Milwaukee 2 00 

Second best, Geo. P. Peffer, Pewaukee 1 00 

Best and greatest display of grapes, with written statement of manner 

of keeping, Greo. P. Peffer, Pewaukee 5 00 

Best plate single variety of grapes, Geo. Jeffrey, Milwaukee 2 00 

Second best, Geo. P. Peffer. Pewaukee. • 1 00 

Largest and best display of fruits, all kinds, Geo. Jeffrey, Milwaukee 7 00 

Second best, George P. Peffer, Pewaukee 5 00 

Third beflt, Chas. Hirschinger, Baraboo 3 00 

Best exhibition of Flowers, T. Noehle, Green Bay 3 Oq 

A. G. TUTTLE, OLIVER GIBBS, JR, 

D. T. PILGRIM, J. C. PLUMB, 

J. P. ROE, B. F. ADAMS. 

Committee, 



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92 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

RULES OF exhibition. 

FOR EXHIBITORS. 

I. All articles must be entered in the name of the grower, 

II. All exhibits must be upon the tables by Wednesday, December 19th, 
at 2 P. M. (unavoidable delays excepted), properly arranged and labeled, 
and accompanied with a complete list of the same, by the exhibitor. 
After that hour no change will be allowed until after passed upon by the 
Judges. 

III. Exhibitors, if requested, must certify to the Judges that the articles 
were grown by them. 

Persons not members of the State Horticultural Society may become ex- 
hibitors by the payment of an entry fee of one dollar to the President or 
Secretary at the time of making application. This fee will entitle them to 
all the rights and privileges of members of the Society for the coming year. 
Impartial judges will be appointed at the meeting. 

The Committee on Nomenclature will assist in naming fruits if desired. 

Printed labels will be furnished to exhibitors by the secretary. 

FORJUDGES. 

L No article can compete in two or more classes, or twice in the same 
clas?, except in exhibitions made by local societiea 

II. Where the premium list specifies the number of each kind necessary 
to compete, the exact number must be presented — npmarey no Uss, 

III. "Best" shall be understood to include: 1. Adaptation; 2. Produc- 
tiveness; 3. Quality; 4 Size and color. 

IV. Three specimens should go to a j>late, except for show displays. 

J.M. SMITH, 
WILLIAM TRELEASE, President 

Secretary. 

In connection with the reports placed on record at this meeting on the 
history and present condition of the seedling apple trees in this state, your 
committee would say that they have been much gratified with the credit- 
able showing of the fruit of these trees, of whichthere are on your table 
about fifty varieties. Their size, color and form are up to a high standard, 
and there are many of good cooking quality and a few that are really 
choice in texture and flavor. The display of seedlings is very encouraging. 
It is an evidence of the value of the [efforts being made by farmers and 
others to produce desirable varieties by planting selected seeds, and we 
hope the best of these sorts will be distributed widely and given a trial to 
test their general adaptations. 

Of two single varieties given first prizes, we have very strong testimony 
as to hardiness and general adaptation, while the large size and high colors 
of one (Wolf. River), and the fine quality, size and beauty of the othjar 
(Northwestern Greening),'give_both varieties a conspicuous position among 
the fruits of this class in the northwest O. GIBBS, JR., 

Chairm^an, 



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Discussion. 93 

The following resolutions were entered by Mr. Huntley: 

Whereas, The Horticultural Society is in need of greater facilities for 
the enlarged work it is called upon to do, in giving proper direction to the 
horticultural industiies of this great state; and 

Whereas, This society is dependent on the good will of the people for 
the necessary funds to successfully prosecute this work; therefore. 

Resolved, That we hereby urge the officers of the Wisconsin State Hor- 
ticultural Society to ask the state at the next session of our legislature for 
Buch an increase of the annual appropriations to this society as will enable 
it to secure the services of an efficient entomologist, in the interest of agri- 
culture in general, and of horticulture in particular; and also to provide 
such additional clerical assistance as will enable the society to preserve and 
place before the people the discussions and the work of the society. 

Resolutions of thanks were also adopted to the several 
railway companies who had granted reduced fare to mem- 
bers, and to the citizens of Green Bay for their unbounded 
hospitality to members from abroad. 

In the evening the members of the Society enjoyed a sup- 
per provided by the ladies of the Presbyterian church, and 
the following toasts and responses were given: "The State 
Horticultural Society," response by Pres. Smith; "The 
Needs of Our Society," by Treas. Matt. Anderson, of Dane 
county; " The State University," by Prof. Wm. Trelease, of 
Madison; "The Agricultural Press," by J. C-. Plumb, of 
Milton; "The Need for Lady Workers in our Society," by 
Mrs. V. H. Campbell, of Evansville; " Woman's Work," by 
Mrs. I. E. Tilson, of West Salem; " Aims of Horticulture," 
G. J. Kellogg, of Janesville: " '63 and '83," by S. Barter, of 
Markesan; "Green Bay and its Harbor," by A. G. Tuttle, of 
Baraboo; " The Ladies of Green Bay," by B. S. Hoxie, of 
Cooksville; " Does the Flower Garden Pay?" by O. Gibbs, Jr., 
of Minnesota; Homes of the People," J. P. Roe, of Oshkosh; 
*^^ Citizens of Green Bay," by B. F. Adams, of Madison; 
^^ Turkey," by H. J. Huntington, Esq., of Green Bay. 

These five-minute speeches brought out the sentiment of 
both speaker and topic, and were especially useful, showing 
the humor and pathos, the sense and nonsense, as well as the 
real " timber " of the working members of the State Horti- 
cultural Society." 



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94 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT MADISON, 

Board of Supervision Room, 

Capitol, February 4, 1884. 

In pursuance to notice, the society was called to order at 
7:30 P. M., President J. M. Smith in the chair. After a few in- 
formal remarks on the plan of the meeting, the following 
address was read by the President: 

Members and friends of our State Horticultural Society: 
It has been said of a celebrated astronomer, that he was as 
much pleased when he demonstrated some theory to be un- 
true, some supposed facts not to exist, as if both had proven 
to be well founded in truth. " For," said he, " they are now 
shown to be worthless and untrue, and no one need spend 
any farther time in their investigation." 

If this maxim be correct, the friends and followers of 
horticulture in this state have in this respect done a great 
work within the last twenty or twenty-five years; and should 
meet together with great rejoicing, although, as a rule, their 
pockets are not well lined with either greenbacks or govern- 
ment bonds. Do you ask what they have done? 

Twenty-five years ago, horticulture in our state, was in 
its infancy. Our nurserymen and orchardists just getting 
started, and were full of hope, zeal and enthusiasm. 

They had their fathers' experience at the east, as well as 
their own knowledge to aid them upon the road to a grand 
success. Why should not the most desirable of the apples and 
pears of New England do well here? The snow was no 
deeper, if as deep, here in winter as in Maine. The weather 
no colder than in New Hampshire and Vermont. The win- 
ters were no longer, if as long, as in northern New York. 

There was no apparent reason, and like practical business 
men, they invested both time and money in their laudable 
pursuits. The awakening came gradually, until the years 
from 1870 to 1875, when they were told in language not to be 
misunderstood, that their supposed theories were untrue,, 
that their well believed facts did not exist. 

In short, of all the varieties that were considered reliable 



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President's Address. 95 

at the east, what one of them can we count upon to-day as 
fairly safe to set in all portions of the state? In the north- 
eastern portion of it, the Fameuse and the Golden Russet 
have done fairly well. But this cannot be said of them in 
all parts of even the settled portions of it, to say nothing of 
the great northern district, as yet almost unbroken by the 
plow. Other varieties have succeeded, either wholly or par- 
tially, in other portions of the state. Still, as a whole, gen- 
eral failure must be recorded as the final result of so much 
expense, labor and time; What must or could be done? Our 
nurserymen were not of the class to stand still, or to give up 
the contest after a single failure, even though it was a serious 
one, and one that struck a sad blow at the financial interests 
of more than one of them. For the last twelve or fifteen 
years efforts have been made in many directions for such 
fruit trees as might be fairly commended in all portions of 
the state. That we are nearing such a point of time I fully 
believe. I cannot and will not yet believe that all the efforts 
that have been put forth, and are now being put forth to 
obtain, or to grow new and valuable seedlings will be in 
vain; or that the introduction of so many of the Russian 
varieties from the vast plains of Russia, where the winters 
are so much more severe in all respects than with us, and 
where the summers are shorter, are to result in failure. That 
all, or even a large proportion of them will prove to be of 
great value to us, perhaps none of us expect; but that all 
will be failures, I for one cannot and will not yet believe. I 
am glad that our friend Mr. Tuttle is demonstrating his faith 
in them in such a practical manner. I am sure that I only 
speak the wish of every friend of horticulture in our state, 
when I say that I most sincerely hope that his large young 
orchard of Russians will prove to be a splendid success. 

Here comes in an element of great danger. Parties are 
already in the field selling what they call Russian trees. 
Can we not send out a note of warning that will reach some 
at least of those who would otherwise purchase this fraudu- 
lent stock, and save them from the consequent loss and dis- 
appointment attending it? 

I presume that it is known to most or all ot you that dur- 



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96 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

ing the winter of 1884-5 there is to be a world's exposition 
at New Orleans. I have for some time been in correspond- 
ence with President Earle in connection with it. The man- 
agers have appropriated $100,000 for the purpose of building 
a Horticultural Hall, and have agreed to put in from $12,000 
to $15,000 in premiums for that department. The intention 
is to have the largest and finest horticultural exhibition that 
the world has ever seen. 

President Earle has been made general superintendent of 
that department, and from my knowledge of him, I do not 
believe they could have selected a better man. He, of 
course, saw our exhibition at the well-known New Orleans 
convention of the Mississippi Valley Horticultural Society. 
The Missouri collection alone exceeded our own, either in 
numbers or in appearance. 

He is very anxious for us to make a very large exhibit there 
next winter. I have urged upon him the necessity of also 
having a complete vegetable department connected with it. 
Of course none of the details are yet arranged. 

It seems to me that this is an opportunity for a display of 
the products of Wisconsin that we cannot afford to ignore, 
or in any manner neglect. It will show to the country 
and to the world what we have done, and what we can do. 
If we ignore the opportunity thus offered, it will be taken 
for granted, by thousands and tens of thousands of those 
who attend from other parts of the world, that we have not 
or can not grow fruit. This, none of us are willing to ad- 
mit, though we have met with many disappointments in our 
efforts to make it a complete success. The late exhibition 
at Green Bay, I think, demonstrated the fact that even in a 
season of as near a complete a failure as we may ever ex- 
pect, we still have some fruit worthy of exhibition. There 
will doubtless be some expense attending this exhibit, if one 
is attempted, and it may interfere with some of our home 
worker at least make it necessary that our members should 
attend conventions entirely at their own expense. 

I will leave the matter with you, hoping that you will take 
some active measures in regard to it, and assuring you that 



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PREsroENT's Address. 97 

you may rely upon my active co-operation in any practical 
measures that you may adopt. 

Circumstances have lately compelled me to think more 
than usual about the future of our Society. There has been 
a feeling existing for some time past among some of our old 
and hard-working members that it would be better for us if 
Ave should do all of our work entirely separate from the 
State Agricultural Society. It has not in the past seemed to 
me that such a plan would be for the best, and I have 
favored a joint convention with the Agricultural Society, 
although I have been well aware that we could not but lose 
at least some part of our identity as a society by so doing; 
but hoped that the extra numbers that we could reach, and 
possibly influence, might compensate for the inconvenience, 
or perhaps more properly speaking the family feeling that 
has ever been one of the prominent characteristics of our 
Society, and which we cannot but partially or wholly lose 
in a joint convention. 

We need, and by pursuing a good and systematic course, 
I believe we may secure a large list of annual members. I 
would recommend that hereafter in all of our conventions 
this be made one of the features. We need funds to enable 
us to pay our secretary for more of his time than he. can 
afford to give us for his present allowance of $100 per year. 
I have lately received letters from members of the horti- 
cultural societies in some of our sister states in reply to some 
of my inquiries in regard to their finances. President Earle 
writes: "Our state society receives $2,000 per year from the 
state. We have our membership fees in addition, $1 each per 
year. We publish our own volume of transactions which is 
far better than having it done by the state." 

Secretary Garfield writes as follows: "The state prints 
our volumes for us, 8,400 copies. Our sources of revenue are 
as follows: 1st. Membership fees of annual members. 2d. 
One-half of the fees of the annual members of our twenty- 
nine branch societies. 3d. The interest upon the fund cre- 
ated by life membership; principal about $2,000. 4:th. We 
enter into a contract with the State Agricultural Society, 
guaranteing them a large horticultural exhibition, getting 



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98 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

it up and managing it in all of its details. Last year we 
did it for $1,400, and the [amount of the premiums, $800 
more. The fair costs us from $500 to $600, aside from 
the premiums. The entire amount of money received from 
branch societies is used in prosecuting that part of the work. 
In Kansas,' the state pays the salary of the officers, leaving 
the membership fees, etc., for incidental expenses." 

Secretary Ames, of Iowa State Society, writes: "Our 
society receives $1,000 per year from the state, and 5,000 cop- 
ies of our report from 500 to 600 pages each." 

Secretary Qibbs, of Minnesota State Society writes: " Our 
society receives $1,000 per year from the state, and our re- 
port printed, 3,500 copies and 500 pages." 

Gentlemen, I will not comment upon these statements but 
leave them with you for your consideration. 

Since receiving the above letters, I see by papers and other 
letters received, that some of these states are expecting 
much larger aid from their present legislatures than they 
have heretofore received. Two things are certain in this 
connection; one is that our state, although its finances are 
in a splendid condition, and our citizens generally prosper- 
ous, renders to our society far less assistance than is given 
in this manner by our sister states. Another is, that our 
society is doing: far mo^'e work for the amount of aid re- 
ceived than any other organization in the state. 

I do not say this by way of complaint, or for the purpose 
of asking that other appropriations may be reduced, but 
simply to state the facts as they seem to me to exist. Neither 
would I have our own society do any less than in the years 
past, but on the contrary more. Let us do more work and if 
possible do it better than we have ever done. I have the 
faith to believe that we shall eventually compel a recogni- 
tion from both our fellow citizens and our state legislators 
that will be more in accordance with the needs of the work 
that we all know should be done. New railroads are being 
built in all directions through the northern portions of the 
state, new homes by hundreds and thousands are now, and 
for some years to come will be springing up on every new 
line of road, and it will be but a few years more before 



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Discussion. 99* 

nearly the whole of noTtJiem Wisconsin that has hitherto 
been comparatively an almost unknown region, will be 
dotted with new homes. What shall they be, homes of 
beauty, comfort and happiness, or rude hovels where the 
inmates and owners simply eat, sleep and are sheltered from 
the cold and storms. The answer will depend much upon 
the friends of Horticulture, and let us see that our part is 
done promptly and done well. 



On the conclusion of the address, Mr. Plumb spoke briefly^ 
upon the importance of acting on any suggestions made by 
the President tending to advance the prosperity of the So- 
ciety, and introduced a resolution, referring the subject- 
matter of this address to a committee of three, who should 
carefully review it and report officially during this meeting.. 
The resolution was carried, and the following committee 
was appointed by the chair: J. C. Plumb, Hon. B. F.. 
Adams, and Hon. Matt. Anderson. 

The president called attention to the necessity of action 
being taken by this Society, with respect to the international 
fruit exhibition, to be held at New Orleans, in connection 
with the World's Fair, and, on motion of Mr. Plumb, the 
part to be taken was referred to the following committee ap- 
pointed by the chair: J. M. Smith, G. J. Kellogg, and A. G. 
Tuttle. 

On motion the President appointed the following regular 
committees: 

Programme — B. F. Adams, Samuel Hunt, and 

Marsh. 

Resolutions — Geo. J. Kellogg, I. N. Stone, B. S. Hoxie. 

The Society then listened to the following: 

secretary's report. 

While there seems no occasion for a lengthy report at this 
meeting, several points of vital interest to the Society should 
be brought before you, and I feel sure of your courteous at- 
tention while they are briefly passed in review. 

In accordance wiih the past custom of the Society, dele- 



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100 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

gates have been sent to the meetings of several local socie- 
ties. iSo much has been said in favor of this means of 
miif ying the numerous bands of workers whose labors tend 
in the same line with our own, that I need not enlarge upon 
the theme here; suffice it to say that wherever our delegates 
go they receive a most cordial welcome and come back with 
a live interest in the work of the society they have visited; 
while, on the other hand, these societies, laboring of neces- 
sity under greater disadvantages than those lying in the path 
of the State Society, appreciate the encouragement and good 
will we carry to them. While I am not prepared to express 
an opinion entirely favorable to the holding of local fruit 
and flower displays, the expense of which shall fall to any 
great extent upon the State Society, while it has at its dis- 
posal but a small sum of money each year, I am most 
heartily in sympathy with all measures within our power 
likely to cement a bond of union between the isolated work- 
ers of the state. The State Society has more than once given 
the stimulus requisite for the organization of new local so- 
cieties, but experience shows that we should do more than 
this. The state has generously put us upon a footing 
which renders it possible for us to encourage and assist 
these societies, and the more prosperous and active they be- 
come through our instrumentality, the more confident ought 
we to feel that we are faithfully fulfilling the duty with 
which we are charged by the state. 

The Society is very much in need of additional room. At 
present we enjoy the use of a few alcoves in the room occu- 
pied by the State Board of Supervision in the capitol. These, 
however, are insufficient for the proper arrangement of the 
small but growing library of the Society, and it is now next 
to impossible for anyone to find certain volumes that should 
be readily accessible. Your secretary has not even a desk 
in the capitol, all of his official duties being performed else- 
where. This is a misfortune to the Society as well as to its 
officer, for persons interested in horticulture when visiting 
the city, naturally go to the capitol, where they get the im- 
pression that this Society, being without a local habitation, 
is likewise almost without a name. 



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Secretary's Report. lOl 

It will be readily seen, however, that until you can employ 
the exclusive service of a secretary, you cannot count on his 
or her presence in any office of the Society for but a limited 
time, and I would most urgently bespeak the active influence 
of each member of the Society in an effort to secure such 
additional aid from the state as shall enable you to control 
all of the time of a secretary and librarian. 

Closely connected with the question of a library is that of 
instructive collections. The subject of wax fruit has already 
been considered, but the executive committee has added no 
new models to those procured two years ago. The suitable 
display of such models, properly labeled, requires far more 
case room than we now have. 

Natural History collections of interest to the farmer and 
fruit grower ^e much needed in this, the capital of an im- 
portant agricultural state. The information which can 
be conveyed to casual or special visitors by a well dis- 
played series of carefully selected specimens of weeds 
and useful plants, or of noxious and beneficial insects or 
birds, beside being of a practical nature, is often such as to 
lead to an interest in botany and zoology, which later mani- 
fests itself in the performance of good work in these lines. 
While trained scientists are not made in this way, many a 
close observer of nature owes his first stimulus to the inspec- 
tion of a well arranged synoptical room. 

But the formation and display of such collections is a 
matter of much time and labor, involving not only the serv- 
ices of specialists, whose time is often largely occupied with 
other duties, but the preparation of suitable rooms and cases 
in which the objects may be seen, while protected against 
careless handling. For these reasons the formation of such 
collections cannot now be undertaken with any prospect of 
success by this society, although the nucleus of an entomo- 
logical collection has generously been tendered by Dr. Hoy. 
Such^coUections are, however, now being formed in the de- 
partments of the State University most closely connected 
with horticulture, though suitable provisions for their ar- 
rangement and display are made but slowly. The Horticul- 
tural Society and other state organizations whose aim is the 



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102 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

promotion of agriculture and agricultural science, cannot do 
a better work than to aid in this effort which is being made 
in their interest. 

At the Green Bay meeting in December, action was taken 
w^ith a view to securing the services of a state entomologist. 
No more important step can be taken than the appointment 
•of such an oflBcer, and every farmer in the state, of what- 
ever society or political party, should feel a personal interest 
in this movement. While the duty of giving instruction in 
economic entomology in the University devolves upon me, I 
am endeavoring to perform in part the work of a state en- 
tomologist, by answering inquiries; but this is the least im- 
portant part of the work, and we should have a competent 
man able to devote the greater part of his time to original 
investigation. Such a man would gain in strqpgth by a con- 
nection with the University which should demand of him 
nothing but the required instruction in economic entomology 
given to agricultural students, and it is to be hoped that 
when we secure such a man, the farmers of the state may 
thus receive from him a twofold service. 

Presumably all of the members of this society are aware 
that the present publication law restricts the size of its 
annual volume of transactions and proceedings to two 
hundred pages, a size far too small for the amount of horti- 
cultural matter that the society collects each year for publi- 
cation. The major part of the edition is also bound, by law, 
in a large volume, over the distribution of which this society 
has no control. While there are arguments in favor of such 
an arrangement, it appears to me prejudicial to the best per- 
formance of the duties of the society as outlined in the act 
for its reorganization and in its constitution, and your atten- 
tion is respectfully called to the desirability of some action 
-calculated to secure a restoration of the former publication 
privileges accorded to the society. 

Respectfully submitted, 

February 4, 1884. WM. TRELEASE, 

Secretary. 



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Discussion. 103 

On the conclusion of the report Mr. Plumb called up the 
recommendations of the secretary for consideration and 
adoption. On motion, the chair was instructed to appoint a 
committee of three to secure, if possible, a suitable room in 
the capitol for the use of the Horticultural Society, and the 
following committee was named: Hon-. Matt. Anderson, 
Hon. H. C. Adams and J. C. Plumb. 

The need of an entomologist among the state aids to Agri- 
culture was discussed at some length, and Mr. Trelease was 
assured of the hearty support of the Society in the efforts 
making for the appointment of such an officer. 

On motion of Mr. Kellogg, Hon. H. C. Adams and Hon. 
Matt. Anderson were appointed as a committee to memorial- 
ize the next legislature with regard to the state publication 
law as applying to the the transactions of this society, with 
a view to securing such alterations as in their judgment and 
that of the society may seem desirable. 

After listening to and adopting a programme for the busi- 
ness sessions of the ensuing day, presented by the commit- 
tee on programme, the society adjourned at 9:4QP. M., to 
reconvene the next morning at 9. 



February 5, 1884. 

The society met at 9:30 A. M., President Smith in the 
•chair. Before the regular programme was taken up the 
Society listened to some remarks by Mr. A. W. Sias, of 
Rochester, Minn., the delegate of the Minnesota State 
Society 

Oliver Qibbs, Jr., of Lake City, Minn., Secretary of the 
Minnesota Society, spoke briefly, assuring the members of 
the Wisconsin Society that Minnesota horticulturists 
always feel at home in their state, and that they always 
esteem it a special pleasure to make Wisconsin men at home 
on their side of the boundary lines between the sister states. 

On motion, J. S. Harris and A. W. Sias were made hon- 
orary members of this Society for the next year, and cor- 
dially invited, with Mr. Gibbs, who was similarly elected at 
Oreen Bay, to take an active part in our doings. The treas- 



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104 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

urer's report was then read and referred to the Finance 
committee. 

The committee on Nomenclature offered a report on the 
rules of the American Pomological Society, referred to them 
at Green Bay for action. After some discussion and a few 
slight modifications, the following rules were adopted: 

REPORT OF committee ON NOMENCLATURE. 

At the last meeting of the American Pomological Society, 
the venerable president, Marshall P. Hilder, in his opening 
address, recommended a radical reform in the department 
of nomenclature, by which we would in time secure more 
sense and less of show in our names of fruits. 

"We should have a system of rules consistent with our science, refculated 
by common sense, and which shall avoid ostentatious, indecorous, inappro- 
priate and superfluous names. Such a code your Committee have in hand, 
and I commend its adoption. Let us have no more Generals, Colonels or 
Captains attached to the names of our fruits; no^more Presidents, Grover- 
nors, or titled dignitaries; no more Monarchs, Kings or Princes; no more 
Mammoths, Giants, or Tom Thumbs; no more Nonesuches, Seek-no-f urthers, 
Ne plus ultras. Hog-pens, Sheep-noses, Big Bobs, Iron Clads, Legal Tenders, 
Sucker States, or Stump-the- World. Let us have no more long, unpro- 
nounceable, irrelevant, high-flown, bombastic names to our fruits, and, if 
possible, let us dispense with the now confused terms of Belle, Beurre, 
Calebasse, Doyenne, Pearmain, Pippin, Seedling, Beauty, Favorite, and 
other like useless and improper titles to our fruits. The cases are very few 
where a single word will not form a better name for a fruit than two or 
more. Thus shaU we establish a standard worthy of imitation by other 
nations, and I suggest that we ask the co-operation of all pomological and 
horticultural societies, in this and foreign countries, in carrying out this 
important reform. 

As the first great national Pomological Society in origin, the representa- 
tive of the most extencive and promising territory for fiTiit culture, of 
which we have any knowledge, it became our duty to lead in this good 
work. Let us continue it, and give to the world a system of nomenclature 
for our fruits which will be worthy^of the Society and the country-^ a 
system pure and plain in its diction, pertinent and proper in its applica- 
tion, and which shall be an example, not only for fruits, but for other 
products of the earth, and save our Society and the nation from the disgrace 
of unmeaning, pretentious and nonsensical names, to the most perfect, 
useful and beautiful productions of the soil the world has ever known." 

Your committee recommend the adoption of the above 
suggestions, and also the following concerning the naming 



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/ 

Eeport of Committee on Nomenclature. 105 

and exhibition of fruits under the auspices of our Society, 
both substantially as adopted by the American Society. 

SECTION I. 

NAMING AND DBSCMBINa NEW FRUITS. 

Rule 1 — The originator or introducer (in the order named) has the prior 
right to bestow a name upon a new or unnamed fruit. 

i^tiZe 2 — The Society reserves the right, in case of long, iaappropriate, 
or otherwise objectionable names, to shorten, modify, or wholly change 
the same, when they shaU occur in' its discussions or reports; and also to 
recommend such changes for general adoption. 

Rule 8 — The names of fruits should, preferably, express as far as prac- 
ticable, by a single word, the characteristics of the variety, the name of 
the originator, or the place of its origin. Under no ordinary circum- 
stances should more than a single word be employed. 

Rule 4 — Should the question of priority arise between different names 
for the same variety of fruit, other circumstances being equal, the name 
first publicly bestowed will be given precedence. 

Rule 5 — To entitle a new fruit to the award or commendation of the 
Society, it must possess (at least for the locality for which it is recom- 
mended) some valuable or desirable quality or combination of qualities, in 
a higher degree, or equal to any previously known variety of its class and 
season. 

Rule 6 — A variety of fruit, having been once exhibited, examined and 
reported upon, as a new fruit, by a committee of the Society, will not 
thereafter be recognized as such, so far as subsequent reports are con- 
cerned. 

SECTION II. 

COMPETITIVE EXHIBITS OF FRUITS. 

Rule 1. — A plate of fruit must contain not less than three nor more than 
six specimens, except in the case of single varieties, not included in col- 
lections. 

Rule 2.— To insure examination by the proper committees, all fruits 
must be correctly and distinctly labeled, and placed upon the tables during^ 
the first day of the exhibition. 

Rule 8. — The duplication of varieties in a collection will not be permit- 
ted. 

Rule 4. — In all cases of fruits intended to be examined and reported by 
committees, the name of the exhibitor, together with a complete list of the 
varieties exhibited by him, must be delivered to the Secretary of the Society 
on or before the first day of the exhibition. 

Rule 5. — The exhibitor will receive from the Secretary an entry card, 
which must be placed with the exhibit, when arranged for exhibition, for 
the guidance of committees. 

8— HORT. 

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106 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

Rule 6.— All articles placed upon the tables for exhibition must remain 
in charge of the Society till the close of the exhibition, to be removed 
sooner only upon express permission of the person or persons in charge . 

Rule 7. — Fruits or other articles intended for testing, or to be given away 
to visitors, spectators, or others, will be assigned separate space, where they 
may be dispensed at the pleasure of the exhibitor, who will not, however, 
be permitted to sell and deliver articles therein, nor to call attention to 
them in a boisterous or disorderly manner. 

SECTION III 

EXAMINING AND AWARDINa COMMITTEES. 

Ride 1 — All competition exhibitions must be first examined by the com- 
mittee on Nomenclature, whose duty it is to assist so far as they can in 
giving and presenting the correct names of all fruits. 

Rule 2 — In estimating the comparative values of collections of fruits 
committees are instructed to base such estimates strictly upon the varieties 
in such collections which shall have be^n correctly named by the exhibitor, 
oif after action thereon by the committee on Nomenclature. 

RuleS — In instituting such comparison of values, committees are in- 
structed to consider: 1st, the values of the varieties for the purposes to 
which they may be adapted; 3d, the color, size, and evenness of the speci- 
mens; 3d, their freedom from the marks of insects and other blemishes; 
4th, the apparent carefulness in handling, and the taste displayed in the 

arrangement of the exhibit . » 

J. C. PLUMB, 

GEO. J. KELLOGG, 

GEO. P. PEFFER, 

Committee. 

The society took up the revision of the fruit list on the 
conclusion of this business, leaving it as it stands in this 
volume. 

Mr. Plumb moved the appointment of a committee by the 
chair whose duty it should be to examine and report on new 
fruits. The motion was carried, and the duties devolving 
upon such committee were assigned by the chair to the stand- 
ing committee on Nomenclature. 

Adjourned to 2 P. M., at 12:30 P. M. 



The society reassembled at 2 P. M., President Smith in the 
chair, and proceeded to the election of officers. The first 
ballot resulted in the re-election of the old board of officers . 
Mr. Trelease stated that his University and other duties so 



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Discussion. 107 

fully occupied his time, that he did not feel able to fill the 
office of secretary to the society for another year, nor could 
he give the society the time that its present needs demanded 
of its secretary, and while he was in hearty sympathy with 
the society and should work for and with it to the extent of 
his ability, he felt obliged to decline re-election, although 
this proof of its confidence was very gratifying to him. A 
ballot was then cast for secretary, resulting in the unani- 
mous election of Mrs. H. M. Lewis of Madison. The execu- 
tive committee was then completed as it now stands, and 
on behalf of this committee the other standing committees 
were appointed as they appear in this volume. 

After listening to the reports of the committee of Obser- 
vation, and the reports of local societies, the Society was 
invited by President J. S. Harris, of the Northwestern Hor- 
ticultural Society, to hold its next summer meeting in La 
Crosse, in connection with the latter society. On the sug- 
gestion of the President, action on this invitation was de- 
ferred until the evening session. 

On motion. Article VII of the By-Laws was amended by 
the insertion oE the words " and new fruits " after ^^commit- 
tee on Nomenclature." 

And the committee appointed reported a programme for 
Wednesday, February 6. 

After which the society adjourned until evening. 



The following resolutions, introduced by Mr. Plumb, yere 
unanimously adopted: 

Whereas, * During the past year there has deceased,' Di*. John A. War- 
der, of Ohio, of world wide reputation sis a horticulturist, and most 
prominent in our coi^ntVy as a practical pomologist^ one whom this society 
has occasion to hold in grateful remembrance for his invaluable contribu- 
tions to western apple j^rowing and forestry, as weU as for his genial nat- 
m'e, which mada him welcome in aU our social and convention work in 
the interestaof science and humanity, 

Resolved, That a brief memorial history of the life and services of Dr. 
Warder in the interests of pomology, be furnished by a committee of this 
society for its next volume of report. , 



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108 WISCON3IN State Horticultural Society. , 

In accordance with the above action, the committee ap- 
pointed for the purpose presented the following: 

IN MEMORIAM. 

Dr. John A- Wabder. 

This eminent pomologist died at his home in North Bend, Ohio, July 14, 
1883, in the 72d year of his age. Bom near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
his early life was spent in a suburban home called **Woouside," where he 
early showed his love of nature, which he cherished through life, always a 
careful observer of nature. 

When at eighteen years of age,moving with his parents into the then wilder- 
ness of central Ohio, he became identified with the progress of that state in 
its science, art and agriculture. Graduating from the Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege of Philadelphia, in 1836, he settled in Cincinnati the next year, where the 
most of his active and studious life was spent, identifying himself with its 
pubhc school system and other kindred interests as a philanthropist. He 
became a member of the American Science Association in 1851, and for 
many years was an active official in various state and national associations 
for the advancei](ie)it of the sciences, president of the Ohio State Horti- 
cultural Society, the American. Forestry Association, and vice-president of 
the American Pomological Society. 

As a writer. Dr. • Warder was prolific, poetical and practical, having 
rare combination of elements which made his contributions welcome in all 
the literature of science. 

In fruit growing, his great work is Warder's Pomology, which is yet 
standard authority in the west, and second only to Downing's great text- 
book, in America. 

The American Journal of Forestry for August 1883, gives a list of 
twenty-five important papers, furnished to the public, on the subject of 
Forestry and Tree growing within the last eight years. Warder's " Hedges 
and Evergreens" is probably the best work on those topics extant. 

Since 1855, when he removed to his home at North Bend, his life had 
been devoted to the advancement of horticulture and kindred arts. He 
was a member of the Society of Friends, and himself a living witness to 
the gospel of love, peace and good will, with no shade of doubt as to 
the Creator of the world of nature he loved so well. 

One has well said of our departed friend, " a pious philanthropist, a 
polished philosopher, and a practical pomologist. The world gives us 
but few such shining examples, and we mourn his departure." 

J. C. PLUMB, 
B. F. ADAMS. 

Committee. 



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Discussion. io9 



EVENING SESSION. 



President Smith in the chair. The question of the World's 
Exposition at New Orleans came up. Mr. Smith asked if 
Wisconsin should have an exhibit. 

Mr. Peflfer said that the prospect for fruit was good, but no 
exhibit could be made without an appropriation for personal ' 
and state premiums. 

Mr. Gibbs said Minnesota made an exhibit of apples and 
grapes at Philadelphia on $400 but that was not enough to 
make an exhibit at New Orleans. 

The matter was now before congress asking for $500,000 to 
aid all the states in this work. 

Resolutions adopted by the Mississippi Valley Horticultural 
Society were read by Mr. Gibbs. He spoke of the great bene- 
fits arising to the state for advertising the products of the 
same. 

Mr. Hoxie said if the funds can be provided we should 
make an effort. Our own state is niggardly in making 
horticultural appropriations. We ought to unite and co- 
operate with Minnesota in a grand northwest movement. 

Mr. Tuttle stated that we could make a creditable show 
with or without state aid. 

Mr. Peflfer said a committee should be appointed to make 
ample collections and arrangements — using the facilities of 
cold storage to continue and replace early fruit. 

On motion, the invitation of President Harris to meet with 
and co-operate with the North Western Society as usual in 
holding a summer convention at La Crosse, the motion pre- 
vailed. 

Mr. Gibbs made some remarks on experimental stations in 
the United States. He considered that great good resulted 
from them. He spoke of the great importance of having a 
national station which should disseminate knowledge to the 
rural districts of the states. 

Resolutions of the Mississippi Valley Horticultural Society 
were read and adopted. 

Mr. Tuttle spoke of the list of cion importations by the 
United States. He said they were not from the central por- 



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110 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

tions of Russia. Fruit from the central and southern part 
will be found applicable to our whole land, north and south. 

Mr. Harris believed we should find in them fruit suited to 
our wants, for they were adapted to all climates. 

Mr. Sias had tested many varieties, both apple and crab — 
finds apple stocks best. He gave a list of choice Russian 
•apples. 

Mr. Tuttle told of his successes and failures of top working 
on crabs, etc. 

Mr. Daniels gave his experience in top working on crabs. 

Mr. Peflfer believes the hybrids from the New Russians 
will bring the best variety of fruits; the children will be 
better than the imported stock. 

The researches in Russia show pears to be grown one de- 
gree further north than apples — the roots penetrate deeper 
than apple; trees with-tap roots after passing two years on 
dry high soil will succeed. 



February G, 7:30 P. M. 

The first thing in order was the report of committee on 
conference with Agricultural Society, committee composed 
of Messrs. Martin and Newton, of the Agricultural Society, 
and Messrs. Anderson, Plumb and Adams of the Horticul- 
tural Society, on the question arising between the secretaries 
of the two societies. The committee from the Horticultural 
Society exonerated Prof. Trelease from all blame in the 
general arrangement of programme. 

The following resolution presented by B. S. Hoxie from 
committee on resolutions passed unanimously: 

Whereas, Prof. Wm. Trelease. owing to a press of duties in other direc- 
tions declines a re-election and the work assigned to him in the State Uni- 
versity precludes him from giving the time which ought to be devoted to 
our society. Therefore, in view of these facts we, as members of the 
Wisconsin State Horticultural Society tender to Mr. Trelease our thanks 
for his untiring zeal and work for our interest during the past year and 
further affirm that in our opinion no blame can attach to him for the lack 
of harmony which seems to exist between the two societies Agriculture 
and Horticulture; and further that in parting company with him as a sec- 



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Chestnut Growing. Ill 

retary of our society we hope that he may in the future find time to assis t 
us in the work of our society not conflicting with his duties in the Uni- 
versity. B, S. HOXIE, 

G. J. KELLOGG, 
I. N. STONE. 



CHESTNUT GROWING NORTH OF 44°. 
By Oliver Gibbs, Jr., of Lake City, Minnesota. 

Mr, President and Members of the Wisconsin Horticultu- 
ral Society: At your recent meeting in Green Bay, men- 
tion was made of some chestnut trees growing and doing 
well in Waupaca county, in your state, and their hardiness 
was attributed in a speech by John P. Roe, of Oshkosh, to 
their having been grown from northern seed. 

For the following facts about them, obtained since that 
meeting, I am indebted, first, to Mr. A. L. Hutchinson, post- 
master of Weyauwega, who placed me in communication 
with the grower, and second, to the grower himself. 

I give the questions submitted and the answers fur- 
nished: 

1. Name and P. O. address of the grower. Alvin S. Bennet, Weyau wega 
"Wisconsin . 

2. Number of trees. Ten. 

3. When planted. Seed in 1858, transplanted to fence corners in 1859. 

4. Location where the seed was grown. Groton, Massachusetts. 

5. Soil and exposure of the tree. Sandy soil, gravelly subsoil; northern 
slope. 

6. Present condition of the trees. Good; A. No. 1. 

7. How cold was it at Weyauega in the winter of 1882-8. 40' below 
zero. 

8. Latitude where the trevs are growing. 44°, nearly 45°. 

9. Any other information as to treatment of seeds, how planted and 
cared for. 

After answering all the forgoing questions except the 
ninth Mr. Bennett writes me as follows, in a letter dated 
January 9 : 

" My experience would be to get the seeds for chestnut- 
growing as far north as they will mature before the frost 
opens the burs. Keep them moist till the following spring. 



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112 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

but be careful not to let them mold. Plant in drills, cover 
about two inches deep, make as much growth the first year 
as possible. Mulch the ground around the roots every winter 
till some of the roots get down below the lowest line of frost. 
When my trees do not make a good growth the first year, I 
heel them in my cellar and reset them in the spring. 

" I have never lost any chestnut trees by the frosts or the 
cold winters. I have no trees for sale." 

Mr. Bennett sent me with the above letter specimens of 
the wood of these trees said to be of 25 years growth, and 
burs of the season of 1883, which are herewith presented for 
inspection. As will be readily seen the wood shows no sign 
of weakness or injury. 

Mr. Gibbs presented a fine sample of the wood, and some 
finely developed burrs. He thinks the dwarfish condition 
of the trees is what gives the key to success. 

Mr. Peffer has had trees thirty-one years. They should 
be planted where they are to stand. 

Mr. Sias saw trees bearing in Minnesota. He has trees 
growing from the nuts he has planted. Mr. Tuttle thinks 
proper soil and slow growth the result of success. 

Mr. Harris, of Minnesota, thought they would not succeed 
on clay soil. He had them growing on different soils. 

Mr. Daniels and Mr. Palmer both have them growing. 

The secretary, Mrs. Lewis, read a letter from J. S. Stickney, 
in Florida. 

Mr. Gibbs and Mr. Kellogg discussed the fruit and soil 
questions. They argued that the soil of Florida was poor 
and almost worthless for nearly everything but oranges and 
a few kinds of vegetables. 

Senator Anderson spoke enthusiastically of California as 
the land of fruit. 

Mr. Tuttle read a paper upon " The Russian Fruits."* He 
prefaced it with a few remarks upon the physical geography 
of Russia. 

After the readins: of the paper, Mr. Smith asked how many 
varieties of Russian apples Mr. Tuttle had. Mr. Tuttle said 

* Printed in the Transactions of the Agricultural Society. 

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Treasurer's Eeport. 113 

he had two hundred trees, but if he had a dozen varieties of 
good reliable apples, he should be content. One variety is 
the earliest and best of any variety he knows. This early 
apple is better than the Tetof sky, beautiful and free from 
scab. 

Mr. Plumb asked if Mr. Tuttle had fruited the Champaign; 
he did not consider it valuable. Mr. Plumb had little faith 
in Russian apples. 

Mr. Tuttle had Russian apples in bearing five years. 

Mr. Gibbs believed that temperature, dampness, etc., was 
the cause of success or failure. Fruit was raised in Russia, 
700 miles north of Madison. If we could get the proper va- 
rieties of apples, they could be raised as far north as Manitoba. 

Mr. Plumb questioned Mr. Tuttle in regard to quality; 
while some apples keep well, they will not be valuable be- 
cause they lose flavor and quality. He said, if we succeed 
in getting ten or even five varieties that will grow and do 
well in our climate, we should be well paid. 

Mr. Adams read a report on Finance. 

The committee on Finance, to whom was referred the re- 
port of the Treasurer, respectfully report that they^ have 
examined the same, with accompanying vouchers, and find 
the report to be correct. B. F. ADAMS, 

I. K STONE, 
B. S. HOXIE, 
Committee. 

treasurer's report. 

Members of the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society: 
Your Treasurer has to report the following as the busi- 
ness transactions of the past year: 

RECEIPTS. 

1883. 

Feb. 1. By balance in treasury $420 19 

Feb. 28. By amount from F. W. Case, membership 23 00 

May 5. By amount from Secretary Trelease, member- 
ship 10 00 

June 6. By order of President Smith on State Treasurer 500 00 
June 27. By cash from Jo& Scribner, Rosendale, member- 
ship 100 

June 27. By cash from W. T. Innis, West Rosendale, 

membership 1 00 

Total $955 19 

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114 



Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 



1883. 


Feb. 


6. 


Feb. 


6. 


Feb. 


6. 


Feb. 


7. 


Feb. 


7. 


Feb. 


8. 


Feb. 


8. 


Feb. 


8. 


Feb. 


8. 


Feb. 


8. 


Feb. 


8. 


Feb. 


8. 


Feb. 


8. 


Feb. 


8. 


Feb. 


8. 


Feb. 


8. 


Feb. 


8. 


Feb. 


8. 


Feb. 


8. 


F..-b. 


9. 


Feb. 


9. 


Feb. 


9. 


Feb. 


9. 


Feb. 


9. 


Feb. 


9. 


Feb. 


14. 


Feb. 


14. 


Mar. 


13. 


Mar. 


15. 


April 


2. 


May 


5. 


June 29. 


June 29. 


June 29. 


June 29. 


June 29. 


June 29. 


June 29. 


June 29. 


June 29. 


June 29. 


June 29. 


June 29. 


June 


29. 


Dec. 


20. 


Dec. 


20. 


Dec. 


20. 


Dec. 


20. 


Dec. 


20. 


Dec. 


20. 


Dec. 


20. 


Dec. 


20. 


Dec. 


20. 


Dec. 


20. 


Dee. 


20. 


Dec. 


20. 


Dec. 


20. 


Dec. 


20. 



DISBURSEMENTS. 

To voucher No. 167 '. $26 00 

To voucher No. 168 14 90 

To voucher No. 169 13 00 

To voucher No. 170 30 00 

To voucher No. 171 50 00 

To voucher No. 172 21 00 

To voucher No. 173 37 75 

To voucher No. 174 5 00 

To voucher No. 175 6 50 

To voucher No. 176 16 00 

To voucher No. 177 6 00 

To voucher No. 178 3 00 

To voucher No. 179 14 CO 

To voucher No. 180 3 50 

To voucher No. 181 50 

To voucher No. 182 2 00 

To voucher No. 183 3 00 

To voucher No. 184 1 50 

To voucher No. 185 5 00 

To voucher No. 186 30 65 

To voucher No. 187 13 05 

To voucher No. 188 11 00 

To voucher No. 189 11 46 

To voucher No. 190 8 82 

To voucher No. 191 4 25 

To voucher No. 192 8 55 

To cash paid G . J. Kellogg, expenses to Rich- 
land and Marengo conventions 9 54 

To cash paid G. J. Kellogg, expenses to Baraboo 

convention 6 35 

To cash sent F. W. Case, as per account 17 19 

To voucher No. 193 5 00 

To voucher No. 194 37 00 

To voucher No. 197 4 50 

To voucher No. 199 9 70 

To voucher No. 208 6 00* 

To voucher No. 205 9 15 

To voucher No. 206 5 00 

To voucher No. 207 5 20 

To voucher No. 208 5 80 

To voucher No. 209 6 85 

To voucher No. 210 3 45 

To voucher No. 211 5 00 

To voucher No. 212 55 60 

To account of President Smith, as per receipts 29 55 

To order paid Ripon Horticultural Society 50 00 

To voucher No. 213 6 60 

To voucher No. 214 6 75 

To voucher No. 215 41 00 

To voucher No. 216 8 80 

To voucher No. 217 8 80 

To voucher No. 218 1 40 

To voucher No. 220 8 02 

To voucher No. 231 13 26 

To voucher No. 222 28 60 

To voucher No. 223 25 02 

To voucher No. 224 3 00 

To voucher No. 225 4 00 

To voucher No. 226 26 22 

To voucher No. 227 4 08 



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Treasurer's Eeport. 115 



DISBURSEMENTS.— CONTINUED. 

1883 

Dec. 20. Td voucher No. 228 7 20 

Dec. 20. To voucher No. 229 14 04 

Dec. 20. To voucher No. 230 7 20 

Dec. 20. To voucher No. 231 54 20 

Dec. 20. To voucher No. 232 9 00 

Dec. 20. To voucher Nb. 233 5 00 

Dec. 20. To voucher No. 234 4 00 

Dec. 20. To voucher No. 235 8 00 

Dec. 20. To voucher No. 236 2 00 

Dec. 20. To voucher No. 237 5 00 

Dec. 20.' To voucher Ne. 238 3 00 

Dec. 20. To voucher No. 239 7 00 

Dec. 20. To voucher No. 241 2 22 

Dec. 20. To voucher No. 242 3 00 

Dec. 20. To voucher No 243 2 00 

1884. 
Jan. 20. Paid J. C. .Plumb expenses to Minnesota Horti- 
cultural Society 19 00 

Feb. 4. Balance in hands of Treasurer 6 22 

$955 19 



All of which is respectfully submitted. 

M. ANDERSON, 

Treasurer. 



The committee report on International Exhibit of Wiscon- 
sin Fruit at New Orleans, was reported, read and passed 
imahimously. It is as follows: 

Madison, Wisconsin, February 6, 1884. 

Whereas, The managers of the World's Fair and Cotton Centennial, to 
be held at New Orleans, have provided for a grand international exhibition 
of horticultural products, to be opened December 4, 1884, and said depart- 
ment of horticulture having been placed in the care of the Mississippi Val- 
ley Horticultural Society, thereby enlisting the best efforts of western 
horticulturists, and promising the largest competitive exhibition of fruits 
ever known in this country or the world. And believing that Wisconsin 
can excel any other state in the Union in the display of varieties and of win- 
ter fruits, therefore, 

Resolved, We hereby indorse the action of the Mississippi Valley Horti- 
cultural Society in their efforts to secure a full exhibition of the horticul- 
tural products of the entire Union, at this first international fruit exposition 
of the world; and we hereby request our representatives in both houses of 
congress to urge the passage of a bill to secure to each state an appropria- 
tion from the general government, sufficient to enable the several states 
to make a full and creditable display of their industries at said exposition. 



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116 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

And should such an appropriation be made, we hereby pledge the Wis- 
consin State Horticultural Society to do its utmost to make said exposition 
a grand success." 

Attest: J. M. SMITH, President. 

J. C. PLUMB, Vice-President 

Mrs. H. M. LEWIS, Recording Secretary. 

JEREMIAH M. RUSK, 

Governor of Wisconsin. 
DAVID ATWOOD, 
Commissioner to the World's Fair and Cotton Centennial. 



Society called to order at 7:30 P. M., President Smith in 
the chair. Mr. Plumb gave a report of the joint conference 
of the executive committee of the State Horticultural and 
Agricultural Societies. 

Mr. Gibbs, secretary of the Minnesota State Horticultural 
Society, and Mr. Sias, delegate of that society extended a 
cordial invitation to the Wisconsin society to attend their 
summer meeting. 

The society then listened to paper by Mr. A. L. Hatch, 
'' Trouble Enough.'' 

Mr. Harris thought too close planting the main reason for 
the destructiveness of the leaf blight and scab fungus 
{fusecladlum dendreticum). ^ 

Messrs. Harris, Kellogg and Tuttle thought the apple 
gouger the worst foe of the apple; they did not know how to 
prevent its ravages. 

Mr. Daniels spoke of a gray-haired caterpillar, very de- 
structive to the foliage of the hickory and black walnut. 
Prof. Trelease said he had seen it many times. He was 
making a critical examination of its habits; he was rearing 
it into perfect state. 

The society then listened to a paper by Mrs. Lewis, of 
Madison, on " The Flower Mission." 

At the conclusion of the reading. President Smith and Mr. 
Gibbs, of Minnesota, spoke briefly in praise of the work the 
ladies of the society were doing. 

In behalf of the Northwestern Society, Mr. Harris, of Min- 



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Discussion. 117 

nesota, requested Mrs. Lewis to read the paper on Flower 
Missions, at the summer meeting at La Crosse. 

The committee on Resolutions introduced the following 
resolutions, which were unanimously adopted, after remarks 
from several members heartily indorsing the subject matter: 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Society are due, and we heartily tender 
them to the Milwaukee and St. Paul and the Chicago and Northwestern 
Railway Companies, for their courtesy to us in returning at one-fifth fare. 

Besolved, That we hereby express our thanks to Governor Rusk for the 

use of the Senate chamber, and for his th3ught in so providing a room 

and attendance upon our wants as a Society. 

B. S. HOXIE, 

GEO. J. KELLOGG, 

I. N. STONE, 

Committee, 

Mr. Plumb moved an appropriation of $25.00 to President 
J. M. Smith, for incidental expenses. Adopted. 

Mr. Plumb reported the result of an informal interview — 
President Smith and himself, with Gen. David Atwood, the 
State Commissioner of the World's Exposition at New 
Orleans. 

On motion of Mr. Hoxie, President Smith was authorized 
to fill out the committee called for by Mr. Plumb's plan for 
exhibit at his convenience. 

Mr. Plumb introduced the following resolution, which was 
carried: ; 

Resolved, That we respectfully ask Professor Wm. Trelease to continue 
his scientific researches for the benefit of the fruit growers of the north- 
west during the ensuing year, especially in the line of insects and fungoid 
affections of our trees and plants. 

Mr. Kellogg put the following resolution, which was 
carried: 

Resolved, That this Society urge upon representatives in congress to do 
all in their power to procure the passage of a bill providing for experi- 
mental stations in horticulture and forestry. 

The following resolution, introduced by Mr. Kellogg, was 
unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That we belie ve the best interests of the Wisconsin State Hor- 
ticultural Society demand, that we plan for an annual convention and an 
exhibit of winter fruits, with at least three days convention in some hall or 
room separate from any other society. GEO. F. KELLOGG, 

B. F. ADAMS. 



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118 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

On motion of Mr. Trelease, the committee appointed to 
memorialize the legislature with regard to the publication 
privileges of the society be charged to take steps to secure 
such a modification of the organic law of the society as shall 
allow it to hold its annual meeting at points other than 
Madison whenever it shall seem best for the society to do so. 

Mr. Hoxie moved the following amendment to the consti- 
tution, which was carried. 

Resolved, That Article 3 of our constitution be so amended as to read 
annual members shall be those who pay the fee of one dollar, which shall 
entitle the wife of such member to the privileges of full membership. 

Mr. Kellogg moved the appropriation of $100 for the salary 
of the Secretary for the ensuing year. 
Adjourned sine die. 



REPORTS OF LOCAL SOCIETIES. 

REPORT OF GRAND CHUTE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The meetings of this society have been held quarterly the 
past year, at the homes of the members; the attendance has 
been larger than any former year. The most interesting 
meetings have been those held in mid-day with picnic din- 
ner and papers and discussions in the afternoon, closing at 
4 oclock P. M. For a farming community this is far prefer- 
able to an evening session. The exhibitions of fruits have 
been very creditable to exhibitors. 

Plants and cut flowers have been shown at all our meet- 
ings. Our members are all much interested in the growth and 
beauty of the garden and lawn, and never cease to admire 
the plants and flowers of the conservatory and green house, 
but we have done no greater work the past year than in the 
many that have preceded it. 

The last season has been one of many discouragements in 
fruit culture; many orchards have borne no fruit. Those 
who grow the Fameuse and Duchess had a medium crop. 

Several of our members will set the Wealthy the coming 



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Reports From Local Societies. 119 

spring; those who have fruited it believe it to be the best va- 
riety for this locality. 

Cherries were an entire failure in this section. Currants 
have nearly disappeared from our gardens — in fact but few 
care to grow this old-time fruit. 

Strawberries and raspberries are grown by many of the 
members; a few have set Stone's Hardy blackberry and find 
the fruit delicious. 

The annual meeting of the society was held January 19th. 
The former officers were elected, viz.: L. L. Rkndall, presi- 
dent; Mrs. D. Huntley, secretary; A. H. Busch, treasurer. 

MRS. D. HUNTLEY, 
Secretary, 

REPORT OF THE JANESVILLE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Janesville, January 7th, 1884. 

We would respectfully report that this Society is in a pros- 
perous, condition with a membership of fif fcy-two. 

Efforts were made last winter to form a county society, 
but withbut success. A summer meeting was held in July 
with rather a small attendance, and past experience proves 
to us that a summer meeting cannot be made a success in 
this section. 

The annual meeting was held in November. The report 
of the committees during the past year was made, received 
and placed on file. The treasurer's report was read, showing 
the finances to be in good condition, there being $98.80 
remaining in the treasury after all the expenses for the year 
had been paid. 

The secretary's report showed the amount received from 
the Rock county society to be $109, of which $93 was paid 
in premiums and $14 for the expenses for the year, leaving 
two dollars in the hands of the secretary. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
President, Geo. J. Kellogg; Vice President, E. L. Dimock; 
Secretary, E. B. Heimstreet; Treasurer,J.B. Whiting; Board 
of Trustees, B. Spence, J. J. R. Pease, D. E. Fifield, James 
Helms, A. B. Wickham and Dr. O. P. Robinson. 

E. B. HEIMSTREET, 

Secretary. 

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120 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

FREEDOM horticultural SOCIETY. 

At the annual meeting, held January 19th, 1884, the fol- 
io wmg officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, 
Charles Hirschinger, Baraboo; vice-president, L. T. AUbee, 
North Freedom; secretary, George Faller, Baraboo; treas- 
urer, George Armbuater, Jr., Baraboo; executive committee, 
S. D. Slentz, M. F. Nippert, and A. M. Petys. 

GEORGE FALLER, 

Secretary, 



FREMONT HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The horticultural society of the town of Fremont, Wau- 
paca county, was organized December, 1880. It has eighteen 
members, citizens of the town, who take an interest in hor- 
ticulture, are admitted by signing the constitution and pay- 
ing 25 cents. The officers are a president, vice-president 
secretary, treasurer and executive board, elected annually. 
Two meetings are to be held ea^ch year, one during Sep- 
tember, and one the second Thursday in January, at which 
time the officers are elected. 

Our meetings are interesting, and much interest is mani- 
fested by most of our members. In July last we had a straw- 
berry festival and a fine show of berries; and some very 
nice flowers were exhibited. 

This part of Waupaca county is probably as well adapted 
to raising fruit as any part of northern Wisconsin, but the 
year 1883 has been too much for us, and we have been forced 
to content ourselves with the few inferior crabbed things 
left us by the most parsimonious year "within the memory 
of our oldest inhabitant." 

Our officers are: President, C. F. Eaton; vice-president, J. 
M. Brown; secretary, J. Wakefield; treasurer, J. Steiger; 
executive board, W. A. Springer, chairman; Paul Scheisser, 
H. C. Isbell. J. WAKEFIELD, 

Secretary. 



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Eeports From Local Societies. 121 



MABKESAN HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Markesan, January 21st, 1884. 

The oflScers of this society the past year were: President, 
Miss Fannie L. Matter; vice-president, Mr. Chas. Lambert; 
secretary. Miss Enid Whittier; treasurer, Mrs. C. Whittier. 

Several interesting meetings were held during the past 
year, at each of which were read instructive papers followed 
by a general discussion of same, music to cheer, when spirits- 
lagged, and at many of the meetings roll was called where 
the response was to consist of some horticultural truth or 
maxim. This last proved to be quite an interesting feature of 
the meeting, calling forth certain members who before could 
not be induced to take part although they seemed much in^ 
terested in the workings of the society. 

A few meetings were held in the country where a picnic 
supper was served on the lawn. 

Mr. S. Barter was sent as delegate to Green Bay to attend 
the State Horticultural Meeting in December, and reported 
very favorably. Our society has gained but few new mem- 
bers the past year. We hope the coming year will find many 
new names added to our roll of membership. We are weak 
but full of courage, are willing to work hoping to see good 
resulting in the near future. 

The transactions of the State Horticultural Society for 
1881 and 1882 received and many distributed. 
Respectfully, 

MISS FANNIE L. MATHER, President. 
MISS ENID WHITTIER, Secretary. . 



THE NORTHWESTERN HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

There was a large attendance at the meeting of the horti- 
cultural society, Tuesday afternoon, June 26, 1883. The dis- 
play of strawberries, flowers, plants and vegetables was very 
complete. The strawberry exhibit far surpassed anything 
ever shown here. Among the exhibitors were Messrs. E. 
Wilcox, J. S. Harris, E. Markle, J. Kraemer, J. Van Loon, 

9— HOKT. 



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122 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

N. Hintgen, Henry Guilmea and J. Petty. Mr. Hintgen had 
two varieties never before exhibited, one a seedling and one 
a foundling, a variety that was discovered among the other 
plants. Both of them bear remarkably fine fruit, have won- 
derful growths, and are loaded down with berries. Mr. Van 
Loon entered the Bidwell, a new variety not before exhib- 
ited. Mr. Petty had his seedling on exhibition, a large, lus- 
cious berry that is very prolific. Mr. Harris presented one 
plate of Charles Downing, the only one on exhibition. The 
strawberry table was a leading attraction. The Sharpless 
variety seemed to include the largest specimens. 

Mr. A. J. Phillips, of W est Salem, who was chairman of this 
department, announced the premiums as follows: 

Five varieties: first, N. Hintgen; second, J. Krsemer. 

Plate of Wilson: first, J. S. Harris; second, N. Hintgen. 

Charlos Downing: J. S. Harris. 

Crescent-seedling: first, K Wilcox; second, J. Krsemer. 

Sharpless: first, N. Hintgen; second, J. Krsemer. 

Captain Jack: J. Krsemer. 

New variety: first, J. Petty; second, J. Krsemer. 

The green-houses contributed largely to this exhibit. 
Kienahs & Son had a large collection, all choice specimens, 
including a splendid show of petunias, a century plant, a pas- 
sion flower in bloom, cacti, etc. Mr. Salzer had a fine display 
also, the plants being remarkably clean and healthy. 

Mr. Bork, from Oakwood green-house, had a beautiful 
exhibit. His ferns and begonias were particularly admired; 
particularly the Beethoven begonia, the leaf of which dis- 
plays so many colors when exposed to the sun. 

Mrs. G. C. Hixon had a stand of fine plants from her 
private collection. Among them was a moss rose bush, 
about eighteen inches high, which had about twenty large 
buds. 

The award of prizes was as follows: 

Collection of green-house plants: First, Paul Bork; second, John A. 
Salzer. 

Collection of hot house plants by amateur, Mrs. G. C. Hixon. 

Collection of plants in bloom, H. Kienahs. 

Best roses by amateur, Mrs. G. C. Hixon. 

Best bouquet of wild flowers, Alice Douglas. 

Best pot-growing pansies (special, $5), H. Kienaha 

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Eeports From Local Societies. 123 

The exhibit in the vegetable line included, lettuce, onions, 
raddishes, asparagus, pie-plant, etc., by the well known 
gardeners, J. S. Harris, J. C. Krsemer, D. Van Loon, H. Kien- 
ahs, Mrs. Henry Gillian, N. Hintgen. 

Premiums were awarded as follows: 

Display of vegetables, N. Hintgen. 

Six bunches asparagus, J. Krsemer. 

Six bunches of onions, N. Hintgen. 

Six bunches of radishes, N. Hintgen. 

Six stalks pie-plant, J. S. Harris. 

Six heads lettuce, Mrs. Henry Gillian. 

Best peck peas, N. Hintgen. 

Best cauliflower, Mrs. H. Gillian. 

Cucumbers, H. Hienahs. 

The flower stand was a great attraction. There were 
several entries for the prizes, besides many complimentary 
bouquets and baskets. Mr. Salzer had a floral ship in full 
rig, sailing on a sea of roses and other blossoms. It was a 
very beautiful design and attracted great attention. Kienahs 
& Son had a beautiful basket with cups on the sides and 
handle which gave it a pyramidal form. The little basket 
of roses sent in by Mrs. P. S. McArthur, in the opinion of 
the reporter, was as beautiful as any of the floral entries. 
There were only a few roses in the basket, but they were 
large red roses and white ones intermingled, making a beau- 
tiful effect. Mrs. McArthur gathered them from her own 
collection of flowers. 

White Beaver had offered a special premium for the best 
pot of pansies. Mr. Kienahs was the only entry and he 
took the premium. 

Mesdames K. Hoegh, H. Cramer, A. Clinton, P. S. McAr- 
thur and C. B. Solberg sent in elegant baskets, not for com- 
petition, but for ornament. Mrs. Hosmer and Messrs. Wilcox 
and Petty showed several varieties of peonies and roses. 

Alice Douglas took the first premium for the best bunch 
of wild flowers. Fred Powers and Charles Pettingill sent 
in their herbariums, showing school work in botany. They 
were very nicely prepared. 

Miss Kienahs had a bouquet of wild flowers beautifully 
arranged in the afternoon display. 



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124 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

Miss Clara Shepard, who was superintendent of the floral 
and house-plant display, is entitled to much praise for her 
painstaking and tasty manner in which everything was ar- 
ranged and marked. 

A paper was read in the afternoon by Mr. G. M. Reed for 
Dr. Renggley, who had prepared an essay for the occasion 
on the relation of the flora to poetry, art, religion and the 
mental culture of mankind. 

Following the reading the society passed a vote of thanks 
to the doctor for preparing so admirable and interesting a 
paper. 

Messrs. Sabin and Jewett of Sparta were present and were 
invited to address the meeting. Mr. Jewett said he would 
not take the time of the nieeting. The Horticultural fair at 
St. Louis which he had just returned from was a great suc- 
cess. During his trip he had learned that fruit in many 
localities was destroyed and in others was not injured. 

An intermission was then taken of twenty minutes to in- 
spect the exhibits and make the awards. This over, Mr. 
Louis Pammel, Jr., a student of the State University, gave 
a practical lecture on injurious insects and fungoid growths 
and there was some brief discussion of the subject. 

A letter from Rev. Robert Nourse was read, setting forth 
the merits of Mr. Salzer's early peas. 

The afternoon closed with a general tour of the room and 
visits to the refreshment room, where strawberries and cream 
were served. 

Secretary M. H. Cram, who has done everything he could 
to make the fair a success, having been actively engaged in 
the work for some time, is much pleased at the result and 
is entitled to great credit. 

The meeting was called to order at eight o'clock, and a 
very pretty song, " The Fairest Daughter of the Year,'' was 
sung by the Glee Club in a most correct and charming man- 
ner. An essay was then read by Mrs. Ida Tilson, of West 
Salem, on " Horticulture as a Suitable Employment and Re- 
creation for Women." She said that in these days when we 
lived so fast, we all required recreation, and especially women 
as being more sensitive and delicate than men. As women's 



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Eeports From Local Societies. 125 

work was mostly confined to the house, they ought to find 
healthy outdoor recreations. Croquet and riding and walk- 
ing did not altogether fill the bill; something of more prac- 
tical use was required. That was supplied by horticulture, 
the practical character of which is unquestionable. Horti- 
culture is a valuable moral and physical exercise, and one 
quite within the scope of woman's powers, and taste and 
culture are greatly developed by it. Mrs. Tilson told the 
touching story of " Picciola," in illustration of the divine in- 
fluence of a plant, which could bring a man from scepticism 
to Christianity. Moreover, a woman who has a garden, can 
educate her children in a most valuable way by object les- 
sons and practical demonstrations. Women have been found 
who could manage a farm, and bees, poultry and silk culture 
are especially appropriate to them. The raising of fruit, 
berries and vegetables is easy and pleasant, and economical 
withal. Flowers are always useful for decorations, and as 
presents to one's friends, as well as for one's own pleasure. 
Again, women often become collectors of botanical specimens 
for museums, and this is most charming employment. 
Western tree claims are also becoming fashionable, and the 
work of forestry associations is excellent. No neglect of 
house work is entailed by these recreations, since they make 
women stronger and healthier and better abl^ to do their 
work. Finally the examples of Queen Victoria, Mrs. Stowe 
and other eminent ladies were cited to sustain the argument. 

After this very interesting address, which was much ap- 
plauded, a quartette was sung by Miss Kate Lewis, Mrs. 
Smiley, Prof. Cleveland, and Dr. O verpeck. It was a beau- 
tiful song entitled "Twilight on the Sea," by Sudds, and it 
was excellently rendered. 

Mr. Haskell read an essay on the "Utility of the Beauti- 
ful." He said that the beautiful was an expression of man's 
growth towards perfection. Horticulture was an agent of 
civilization and a cultivator of taste for aesthetic beauty. 
Flowers and fruits have essential value in improving our 
minds and characters. They are useful as a diversion from 
the concentrated eflf ort of every day life. They have a posi- 
tive influence in inspiring the intellect. Linnaeu's passion 



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126 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

for the beautiful led to his discovery of 300,000 species of 
vegetables, and brought him two centuries in front of his 
time. The beautiful prepares us for grander conceptions of 
religious matters, and influences our emotional andaffec- 
tional natures to a high degree. It opens up the elevation 
of the whole race. It is God's divine agency for that pur- 
pose. The city parks and public gardens are a witness of 
this. Especially with the addition of music they are pro- 
ductive of the most sublime pleasure of which man is capa- 
ble. Nor ought we to leave out of our calculations all the 
unwritten music and poetry. Every other influence, how- 
ever, culminates in religious influence. In the Lord's Prayer 
we pray for the coming of a reign of perfect beauty. All 
souls are won to religion by the beautiful. The speaker 
concluded by quoting Keats' lines, beginning "A thing of 
beauty is a joy forever." 

Mr. Cram moved a resolution of thanks to all who had 
contributed to the success of the meeting, namely, the county 
officials, the donators of funds and provisions, and the choir. 
The resolution was carried. Mr. Harris, the chairman, then 
moved that $10 be given to Mr. Cram from the funds of the 
Society, to reimburse him for his expenditure of time and 
trouble. Mr. Cram declined this, but it was put to the vote 
and carried. 

Mr. Harris addressed the meeting, congratulating the 
society on the encouraging progress it had made, and speak- 
ing hopefully of the future. He said that people could be- 
come members at any time by the payment of $1 and leaving 
their names with Mrs. Powers, the treasurer of the society. 

After a long recess, wherein strawberries and cream 
played their part, the exercises were concluded by the chorus, 
" O'er Forest, O'er Mountain and Meadow," from the oratorio 
of " Moses in Egypt." Miss Lewis, as soloist, acquitted her- 
self capitally and was much applauded, and certainly the 
singing of last evening helped to verify Alderman Losey's 
speech at the Ssengerf est, wherein he claimed for La Crosse 
the sweetest voices of the state. 



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Reports From Local Societies. 12T 

WAUPACA county HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The present oflBcers of this Society are: President, O. A. 
Rich, Weyauwega; vice-president, Alvin S. Bennett, Wey- 
auwega; secretary, J. Wakefield, Fremont; treasurer, J. A. 
Matthews, Weyauwega; executive committee, W. A. 
Springer; chairmen, E. W. Wrightman, Geo. W. Taggart. 

W. A. Springer, delegate to State Society. 

At our fall meeting, held September 20, on the fair grounds 
in Weyauwega, Hon. Geo. J. Kellogg, of Janesville, was 
present, and gave an excellent address. The show of fruit 
was good, especially of grapes. A nice picnic dinner was 
discussed jointly with the members of the ^^Old Settler's 
Society. 

Our winter meeting, at which our oflBcers were elected, 
was held in Weyauwega, January 26, 1883. Hon. J. M. 
Smith, of Green Bay, President of the State Society, met 
with us, and read a very interesting and well-received paper. 
He told us about increasing garden truck — how to doit, 
and how not to do it. He also spoke of raising small fruits, 
especially strawberries, and gave us much sound advice. 
He closed by a few laudatory words in reference to our 
Waupaca county seedlings then on exhibition. 

The following persons had apples on exhibition: Presi- 
dent Rich, Springer, Matthews, Alvin S. Bennett, Hallis, 
Gibson, Mawhinney. Wrightman, of course, was on hand 
with his never-yet-beaten seedlings. 

We have had another severe " trial of our faith " the past 
season. Some of our trusted friends have proved ^' not equal 
to the occasion." Another abridgment of our list of ^^ hardy 
varieties" must be the result. Must we discard them all? 
We hope not. There certainly must be at least one variety 
that will not fail us, for we still believe that we can raise 
apples in Wisconsin. 

We have forty -nine members, and our meetings are gener- 
ally pretty well attended. The reports of the Society are 
eagerly sought after, and there should be some arrangement 
so that copies could be obtained by members of the local 
societies. J. WAKEFIELD, 

Secretary. 



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128 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 
REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF OBSERVATION. 

sixth district — ANDREW ANDERSON. 

In making out my annual report for the sixth fruit district 
for the counties of Winnebago, Waushara, Adams, Green 
Lake, Sheboygan and Marquette, I will start out by saying 
I have taken such observation as my limited time would 
permit me to do. I commenced April 20 to examine my 
trees and look over the orchard and here I found the Fameuse, 
Pewaukee, Alexander, Ben Davis, all killed. From that time 
till May 18, cold, windy, wet, and several light frosts at 
night. May 22, a heavy frost. Last night the Duchess of 
Oldenburg, budding out, was somewhat hurt by the frost. 
From this time till June 30 we had wet, cold, stormy hail, 
frost, and in fact all the elements of nature went against us; 
it was the worst spring for all kinds of fruit known as more 
trees were killed and weather blighted in this county in May 
and June than ever before — trees came out in blossom all 
right, and in a few days it would commence to turn yellow, 
sick, and fall off, and then up in June dead; this happened 
among the Fameuse, Haas, Alexander, Ben Davis, and kept 
dropping off the small apples as big as hazel nuts from the 
Talman Sweet, Utter and Walbridge. In corresponding 
with several persons all over my district I found in general 
no apple except the Oldenburgg, and they seem to stand all 
the different changes of the atmosphere, and pay fifty per 
cent, better than any other kind growing; it is harder than 
the Russian crab, and all other crabs as far as I know. The 
blight was noticed more around here in Winnebago, Outa- 
gamie and Waushara than ever before. Those that suffered 
most were the Fameuse and Pewaukee. I have noticed it for 
years and kept a daily record of it, and I am now not much 
wiser than four years ago. I found the less top healthy 
roots, in others a well balanced tree stood it well. Those I 
stirred the ground around, say every few days, blighted the 
most, but it was always in the night. It could be noticed 
the next day in the middle of the forenoon to commence to 
wither, but out of 150 Duchess of Oldenburgs not one bunch 



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Report of Committee on Observation. 129 

was withered. Among the trees which are in my judgment 
unworthy to grow are the Ben Davis, Paul Janette, Price's 
Sweet, Perry Russett and Red Astrachan, as the latter is 
always sick in some form or other, and I have never known 
any one to get a crab off of them only once in five or six 
years; they cannot be depended on. Tetofsky is not a tree 
to be depended upon, it has been too highly recommended; 
in short we have only five or six kinds we can plant and de- 
pend on— i even those are looking rather poorly. 

The Wealthy have not been fruited around here so I don't 
know its merit; it will have to be tried — tested several years 
— then we will know about it; like the Pewaukee, which years 
back was considered frost proof and blight proof, but I have 
seen them die both of cold and heat. The Wolf River trees 
I have seen grow both in summer and winter, and they seem 
to be hardy and far better than the Walbridge, and I think 
it now stands at the head of all our fall or winter apples, as 
far as I have seen. During the summer of 1883, 1 visited 
Waupaca^ Winnebago, Green Lake, Fond du Lac and Outa- 
gamie counties, and found but very little fruit except the 
Duchess, and one-fourth crop of Fameuse; all others seem to 
be barren. The apple tree peddlers have it all their own way 
up here, selling Russian Siberian and all kinds of wonder- 
fully hardy trees for fifty cents a piece, and they seem to 
continue this practice on the ignorant public year after year, 
and the trees never live to tell any one why, or what kind 
they are. As far as Winnebago county is concerned, the 
orchards are in a very poor, neglected state all over. But 
the great fault of all Wisconsin nurserymen who have trees 
for sale, is not advertising them in the Western Farmer, at 
Madison, Wis. The public have no way to find out where they 
are, nor the prices they ask. Here in my district (8) are two 
or three nurseries, but not one advertises. This is all wrong. 
Wisconsin stock is fifty per cent, better than what is im- 
ported from other states. I have taken the statement of 
several hundred farmers who have planted apple trees for 
the last two years, and all came from Rochester, N". Y.; not 
one in fifty has one tree from our state. I have almost 



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130 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

come to the conclusion that Barnum is right when he said 
the American people liked to be humbugged. In con- 
clusion, on looking over the apple trees for 1883, it looked 
discouraging for new beginners, and we all lose faith in the 
work, as people will say, and tell me we are fools to bother 
with them; this is not a climate for fruit no way, so we won't 
try again. That is the sentiment of the public on the future 
apple raising. 

In regard to small fruit, grape, strawberry, /aspberry 
and currants, there is more planted all over, and especially 
strawberries, and around Oshkosh the strawberry was or 
has been almost overdone. In regard to the grape crop, it 
was a failure all over. The best paying was the Champion, 
next the Delaware. The Concord is the leading grape for 
all time to come. The Delaware is going to be the most 
profitable grape to plant in the future for Wisconsin. The 
Roger grape don't come up to my expectation. They all 
mildewed, and so did the Salem. The Creoling has been 
abused, kicked and cast away, and it still has and holds bet- 
ter qualities than the Roger grape. Raspberry is not half 
enough planted. Blackberry I would not recommend to the 
coming farmer to try to cultivate, as they will have to cover 
as graves. That farmers will not do, so plant raspberries, 
black or red. I visited John P. Roe's vineyard, near Oshkosh, 
in October, and found all his different vines strong but lack- 
ing grapes, except the old Concord was about half a crop. 

I cannot give any information that will aid our Society, 
and as they know more than I can tell, and I cannot in a 
short paper of observation for a few counties, give much 
light. I have kept a daily record of the wind and rain, how 
leaf blight and mildew worked every day and night, how 
I caught the May beetle bugs, how I cultivated for 1883, 
from April 20th to October 16th. I could not give it, nor 
could I get it in a short report as this, and I do not know 
and I don't think it would throw much light on blight more 
than we have in our Society report. 



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Our Society. 181 

third district— george c. hill. 

Counties — Jefferson^ Dodge, Columbia^ and Fond du 
Lac. — There is nothing very encouraging to report from this 
district, in regard to the condition and prospects of the 
apple orchards. From over-bearing in 1882, the severe win- 
ter following, and the cyclones of the past summer, the old 
orchards present a discouraging appearance. 

The larger share of farmers have neglected to plant young 
trees, consequently are, or soon will be out of fruit. There 
are others who must and will have apples and with faith 
that, in the new varieties, something will yet be found which, 
with those already tested, will give a variety for all seasons, 
have been, and continue to plant. 

Few apples were grown the past season. These were 
mostly Duchess, Fameuse and Golden Russet. But if there 
is any lack of interest in apple culture, there is none in 
small fruits. Strawberries, raspberries and blackberries are 
being planted on almost every farm. The home markets 
were well supplied with the finest of berries the past season, 
and an increasing number of farmers' families are enjoying 
these luxuries in their season. 

The Crescent is the leading strawberry in the garden and 
in the market. Black Cap, Philadelphia and Hudson River 
Antwerp are the raspberries most largely cultivated. The 
Ancient Britton blackberry, so largely cultivated in the 
vicinity of Ripon, continues to be the variety preferred 
above all others. Judging from the fine appearance of the 
plantations, and the quantity and lusciousness of the fruit 
in market, it would seem as though the cultivation of this 
berry is brought near perfection. 



OUR SOCIETY. 
By B. S. HoxiE, Corresponding Secretary, Cooksville. 

• Such a thing as a society devoted to the interest of horti- 
culture was not known eighty years ago, and indeed the 
word itself hardly had a distinctive meaning; so if every 



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132 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

desert place has not budded and blossomed as the rose, let us 
take courage and be thankful that there is so much of beauty 
as I see before me to-day in fruit and flower. 

The Wisconsin Horticultural Society was an outgrowth of 
the old Wisconsin Fruit Growers' Association, which was 
organized in 1853, but for some cause it did not meet with 
very good success, and held its last meeting in Whitewater, 
in 1860. Other interests of such magnitude at this period of 
history engrossed the attention of our entire nation and the 
peaceful pursuits of cultivating the flowers, or training the 
vine, were for the time being laid aside, for we hardly knew 
whether we were a nation to perpetuate our name as a re- 
public or not. But the cloud was lifted, our nation was saved, 
but the homes were filled with sorrow. 

Early in September, 1865, J. C. Plumb issued a call to or- 
ganize a new society, which was effected at Janesville, Sep- 
tember 29, 1865, and the following oflScers were elected: 
Hon. B. F. Hopkins, of Madison, president; J. C. Plumb, of 
Madison, secretary; F. C. Curtice, of Columbus, treasurer; 
and the executive committee were Geo. J. Kellogg, Janes- 
ville, and L. P. Chandler, of Dane. The first annual meeting 
was held in Madison, February 6, 1866, at which time the 
following were ejected as oflScers: Dr. Joseph Hobbins, 
president; L. P. Chandler, vice-president; J. C. Plumb, sec- 
retary; F. C. Curtice, treasurer, with authority to appoint 
•one vice-president from each county in the state. Our 
worthy friend, J. C. Plumb, drafted the first constitution, 
and has from that time up to the present, been an earnest, 
active, working member. This, then, was the beginning of 
our society, and I quote the organic act, ^' The object of this 
society shall be to improve the condition of horticultural 
adornment and landscape gardening, and for this purpose 
may be allowed to hold property not to exceed $5,000." 

In 1879 this act was amended as follows: " It shall be the 
duty of the said society to aid in the formation and main- 
tenance of county and local horticultural societies, to pro- 
mote the horticultural interests of the state by holding 
meetings for discussion, by the collection and dissemination 



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Our Society. 133 

of valuable information in regard to the cultivation of fruits, 
flowers, and trees adapted to our soil and climate, and in 
every proper way to advance the fruit and tree-growing in- 
terest of our state." 

The clause relating to property holding not exceeding 
$5,000 was not disturbed, nor indeed will it be necessary to 
do so for the next twenty years, unless funds accumulate in 
some unheard of way that now is all in the dark to us. But 
the fund of knowledge gained by its members and imparted 
to others, together with the satisfaction of aiding so import- 
ant an object — this is without price. 

All the world are our neighbors, and we are put in posses- 
sion of facts gathered by every society of a similar character 
in this, and the old world. And, indeed, from the fact that the 
population of Wisconsin is made up of so many nationalities, 
we, as a society, have more privileges and more opportuni- 
ties for observation and study than some of our sister states, 
for the emigrant brings with him whatever of tree, plant, 
fruit, or shrub, that delighted his eye or palate in the old 
country, and in many instances like the owner, the home of 
its adoption was more fruitful in all respects than the native 
one. 

So, by experiment and experience we have acquired many 
fruits, shrubs and plants, that at first our climate and our 
northern latitude seemed to forbid. Twenty years ago it 
was supposed that the Clinton was about the only grape we 
could raise, and this was considered good enough by some, 
for it is a little better than the wild ones growing by the 
wayside. 

But we have since learned that our hot and dry August 
and September, will fruit for us grapes almost as luscious as 
the famous suns of Italy can do. .'i.nd I have eaten Concord 
grapes grown in Wisconsin which were nearer perfection for 
that variety than any grown elsewhere. 

It is not my object or intention to laud our Society or any 
of its members, for among so many true and faithful work- 
ers I would not discriminate, but I can without boasting say 
that the Wisconsin Horticultural Society has taken a front 



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134: Wisconsin State Horticultijral Society. 

rank among all the societies for the number and value of 
the papers read at our meetings, and for the scientific and 
practical truths which they have elucidated. 

Possibly the patrons of this Society have made a mistake 
in its aims and objects, for none of them have accumulated 
vast wealth. But which are the best educators of the race — 
the homes adorned with fruit and flowers, or those garnished 
with the pipe and tobacco? Can we blame our sons for 
wanting to leave the farm and the home of bleakness and 
baldness, and the girls for not wanting to become farmers' 
wives? 

Every home of comfort with flowers, plants, vines and 
trees is an educator of our race, and a standing monument 
of our nation's virtue and integrity. Not very many of our 
bad men and women were ever reared in such homes, for 
corruption and pollution is not indigenous to such an atmos- 
phere as surrounds them. It was a happy thought in the 
mind of the mover of the resolution before congress, that 
we should observe the 30th day of May as a national holi- 
day, and a part of the public exercises of the day was to be 
the decoration of the soldiers' graves with flowers. And 
many are the bright memories kept evergreen by this token, 
not only of soldiers but of others on the other shore. For, 
however hardened the heart, flowers possess a softening and 
refining influence. 

With all the experience and experimenting by members of 
our society, the losses and repetitions of failures, not one is 
lost to the enterprise or to the science of horticulture; a 
seeming loss is a possible success. The old plan of root 
grafting gave way to seedling roots with crown and tap, and 
now we have a few among us who say plant the iron clad 
seeds where you want the orchard of the very best seed you can 
get We must not discard all the lessons of nature, and it 
may be yet found out that she will throw off the tap-root to 
an apple tree like the tail to a tadpole when it is not wanted. 

The probabilities of our Society are among the possibilities, 
and if the average legislator is not up to the average citizen 
in point of culture, and withholds by his vote the sympathy 



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Our Society. 135 

and pittance asked for, to aid in a work of great importance 
to us as a state and a people, it is of no use to find fault, be- 
cause if the "mountain will not come to us we must go to 
the mountain." 

Among the possibilities of our Society is one to assist in 
organizing a village " Improvement Club " in every village 
in the state; and we will have " Tree Planters " day, when 
the young men and old will dig and plant the trees, and I 
am sure that the ladies will give all the aid necessary to the 
enterprise, by their presence and a picnic supper in the hall 
or on the lawn. Some of our villages already have such a 
club organized, and I sincerely hope the disease may be 
catching, until it shall prove to be a widespread and univer- 
sal contagion. Have you in mind one or more villages with 
street-lined trees and well kept lawns? Make diligent in- 
quiry and you will find that some generous-hearted, whole- 
souled man did the most by his means and his example, 
and it may be you will find that he was not worth a thous- 
and dollars in the world; but he possesses a world of wealth 
nevertheless. The neighboring woods or the local nursery 
will most generally afford all the advantages for this work just 
for the digging, or at about cost price. But do not expect 
the nurseryman to do the greater part of the work in har- 
vest time, for his harvest time is quite apt to be in the spring 
of the year. 

Among the probabilities, is one that we shall at some future 
time have the means within our power to provide seeds, 
cions and cuttings, pt^re and true to name, or compel others 
to do so at such places as will accommodate the patrons for 
such articles. This is no uncertain problem, for if it was 
known that no seeds could be offered for sale in our state by 
the great commercial seed house, without first being tested by 
an authorized committee, the worthless trash that now finds a 
place in most every store would be consigned to the flames, 
or fed to pigs and poultry, and thousands of dollars saved 
every year to those who not only lose their money, but when 
too late, find they have lost their crop also. 

Another one of the probabilities of our Society is that the 



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136 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

ladies of Wisconsin will soon be amonp: our best members. 
It is true that we have been favored, not only with their 
presence at all of our meetings, but the papers written by 
them are among the very best which grace the pages of our 
Transactions. And one lady writes me, why not give them 
the privilege of becoming life members and working mem- 
bers, as well as honorary members. And why not? 

I have mentioned Decoration Day as a happy thought to 
commemorate the work of our fallen heroes and to make 
their memory sacred to every one in this republic. But there 
is left more to this service than to commemorate the service 
of the dead. For when the children gather the flowers, as I 
saw them do by scores this spring, it creates in them a 
love of the true and the beautiful while engaged in their 
pleasant task. Then, not only the Grand Army of the 
Republic but let every horticulturist in Wisconsin assist in 
this work. 

The Flower Mission first started by that brave little school 
teacher in Massachusetts and since inaugurated by the 
benevolent ladies in our cities, is one of the enterprises that 
should call forth the admiration of all lovers of our race, 
and if we could only see the smile lighting up the wan face 
of the thousands of children and hospital patients who are 
the recipients of these favors, I am sure the donors would 
take new life and new courage in a work that is so silent 
and so potent in its influence for good. In fact, there are 
many ways in which we could make life more worthy of its 
possession than the present, and the world better for the 
boon to us given. 

In conclusion to this short paper I wish to make the fol- 
lowing quotation from Longfellow's " Poem of Flowers: " 

" Everywhere about us they are glowmg, 

Some, lik*^ stars, to teU us spring is here, 
Others, their blue eyes with tears overflowing, 

Stand like Ruth amid the golden corn. 

In all places, then, and in all seasons. 
Flowers expand their bright and soul-like wings, 

Teaching us, by most persuasive reasons, 
How akin they are to human things. 



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Some Things I Would Like to Know. 137 

And with child-like, credulous affection, 

We behold their tender buds expand; 
Emblems of our own great resurrection, 

Emblems of the bright and better land." 



SOME THINGS I WOULD LIKE TO KNOW. 
A. L. Hatch, Ithaca, Richland County. 

We have about a hundred bearing trees of Haas apples 
we want to top-graft in the spring with some better and later 
keeping kind. On account of the severe cold weather we 
are now having, we shall not attempt it as we are sure they 
will not be in good condition to grow grafts and heal the 
necessary wounds. Some winters we might not be so cer- 
tain whether trees would do to graft or not, and we might 
find some kinds where the line of demarkation between 
good condition and poor condition would be less clearly de- 
fined. Very naturally, then, we'd like to know how to dis- 
tinguish this difference, and in what way injury by cold 
takes place. Perhaps there is always more or less bursting 
of the cells of the wood and sometimes actual seasoning of 
it by long continued dry spells. And here we are brought 
to consider the method of nature in restoring moisture to 
the tree during winter. Sometimes we have weeks together 
when the mercury does not rise to the thawing point of ice. 
During such times we often have hoar frosts that cover the 
trees with glittering gems. Can there be any actual restora- 
tion of moisture to the tree during such time? 

Some have strenuously maintained that when we have deep 
snows and severe cold, fruit trees may be saved from winter- 
killing by packing the snow about the roots to allow the 
ground to freeze. 

These persons believe in a winter " flow of sap " during 
warm days. To us the trouble seems for want of it. Still 
we would like to know more about it. 

Last fall we whitewashed several hundred of our fruit trees 
in the orchard. We would have done so to all but for want 
of time, and would have been glad if we could have done it last 

10— HORT. 



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138 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

spring. Still we think it will help to reflect the sunshine 
from the trunks during winter and if there is any virtue in 
that we shall have it. For several years we have banked 
our trees in the fall to prevent mice from girdling them dur- 
ing winter. We had also fenced the orchards to keep the 
rabbits out. The fence is now getting old and so we thought 
perhaps we could make the white wash protect the trees 
from rabbits and mice by putting some paris green in it. 
On the smooth barked trees we wish we had applied it 
thicker as it seems to have mostly fallen off. On the rough 
bark it adheres better. There was so much moss and fungi 
on many trees we thought we would also add some sulphur, 
but found great diflSculty in getting the sulphur to mix with 
the lime — most of it would float on the surface. We have 
also a hope that the whitewash will lessen fire-blight. We 
do not remember to have ever seen a whitewashed tree fire- 
blight, and Mr. C. G. Patten, nurseryman, of Charles City, 
Iowa, says he has not. Now we would like to understand 
this better. 

We have grafted several kinds on bearing apple trees, but 
of all kinds we think Wealthy is the model for the top, but 
we want a late keeper. We have some good Ben Davis and 
Pewaukee, but both suffered with cold the first winter after 
grafting. Contrary to what many suppose, we found the 
first winter so trying to the top graft that a very hardy sort 
is desirable. Now we would like to top graft a lot of trees 
with Golden Russet. Still the Golden Russet branches so 
much and is so liable to blight that we would expect trouble 
with it. Possibly, if we had a mild winter following the 
season of grafting, we might carry it through all right, but 
we would expect it to 'grow so rankly we would fear blight, 
and if we escaped that we might get a top miserably poor 
in shape. Yet we want more Golden Russet because they 
are such fine apples here on our light clay soil where 
Fameuse and Walbridge are so scabby and poor. On ac- 
count of dissimilarity in grain and hardness, Hyslop and 
several other crabs are poor stocks for top grafting. Haas 
apple is excellent for a stock. Now shall we risk Golden 



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Some Things I Would Like to Know. 139 

Russet on them or had we best use something else? If so 
what shall it be? 

The scabbing of apples we referred to we presume to be a 
fungus of some sort. It appears in black circular spots. 
Sometimes it can be scraped clear from the skin of the 
apple, but generally checks its growth and causes rotting. 
Walbridge, Fall Wine Sop and Fameuse, on light soils were 
badly damaged last season, while on richer soils they were 
quite good. Duchess, Tetofsky, Pewaukee and Golden Rus- 
sett were nice as could be, right along beside the scabby 
Fameuse and Walbridge. 

So we conclude this scab is worse on some soils than oth- 
ers and that some kinds are free from it everywhere. If it 
is fungus we'd like to know it, and if we may look for relief 
from its attacks by the use of sulphur, by good cultivation, 
or by using fertilizers about the trees. We'd like to know 
if the rust and dark fungus we saw on our apple tree leaves 
last summer injured their vitality or the fruit prospects for 
next year, and if it will then appear worse than ever. Per- 
haps next season maybe one of those hot, dry ones we most 
generally complain of, but which [may bless us in untold 
measure by lessening the crop of these fungi so abundant in 
wet seasons. 

If we have a hot, dry season, perhaps we may have another 
good crop of grafpes next year. Then, perhaps, we may for- 
get the loss, last season, of all Roger's hybrids and half our 
Concords. "How did we lose them?" That is what we'd 
like to know. We suppose we had that parasitic fungus 
Peronospora; we certainly had the mildewed appearance on 
the leaves. Whether this caused ,the foliage to fall or the 
grapes to rot before maturing we don't know. Full-grown 
grapes, while green, were affected internally with brown 
particles through the flesh and refused to ripen, although 
adhering to the stem and often turning dark colored. 

There are some botanical classes of grapes not affected by 
the root gall louse. Phylloxera: The Labrusca class, to 
which belong Concord and Worden, is one not hurt by them. 
Riparia and Cordifolia, including Janesville and Clinton are 
very much affected by Phylloxera. Vines containing foreign 

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140 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

blood like the Roger's hybrids are also affected. Now, if 
Ohio loses a thousand acres of vineyard a year from this 
cause, and if French vineyards are being renewed with vines 
made by grafting on our American Phylloxera'Tesisting 
roots, isn't it time we ceased to plant such vines as must 
sooner or later yield to their ravages? What should we 
plant? Who can tell? 

Last October, fruit sold very low in this part of Wisconsin. 
Fall apples were not easily sold and many good winter 
apples were sold at very low prices. It is always so. The 
multitude of small producers in reach of our village, who 
bring in a few bushels at a time in poor order for keeping, 
demoralize the market and do not furnish stability in quan- 
tity, quality, or variety from year to year. After frosts along 
in November apples were ready sale at 75 cents, and in 
December they were worth $1.25 per bushel. Many of the 
apples sold in October, if carefully handled, might have been 
carried along for these better prices. With proper storage 
this would seem to be an opportunity for the painstaking 
orchardist to save money if any one can. If fruit could be 
kept quite cold in cold cellars, and if apple-growers 
all had good cellars, it would seem a sensible plan to hold 
the fruit until the usual crowding of home markets is 
past. When cool nights and frosts come, cellars can be 
cooled down to keep fruit by opening them at night and 
closing in the day-time. Probably a temperature of 39° above 
zero is best, as at that temperature water is the most dense. 
But how can this low temperature be secured in September? 
If there is money in saving fruit, and if cold will do it, then 
we need this cold storage. Our crates of berries and our 
baskets of grapes need cooling often over night in a cold 
cellar or store-room before being sent to market. To keep 
ice for this purpose all through summer to use in July, 
August and September, is hardly practicable. How shall we 
do it then? 

We are now having severe, cold weather. If we could only 
store up some of this frigid temperature and save it to use 
next summer and fall it would be useful then. 

At twenty-five feet depth the annual variation of the tem- 



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The Orchard Lessons op the Past Year. 141 

perature of the earth is said to be only about two degrees, 
being coldest in June. The daily changes of temperature do 
not reach deeper than about three and one-half feet. If a cellar 
was protected above with about forty inches of non-conduct- 
ing material, it would be below the effect of daily changes, 
and, without being over ten feet deep, would be subject to but 
slight changes of temperature during summer. If, in the win- 
ter it was thrown open and allowed to freeze and have its 
walls, ceiling and floor reduced to the lowest temperature the 
winter could afford, and then closed while intensely cold, it 
seems to us this would form a store house of frost that would 
linger lovingly in its seclusion for us to use during the 
heated term. Subterranean pipes, properly arranged, could 
bring this coolness to our dwellings to be used in small par- 
cels as our comfort required. As ice at the freezing point 
absorbs a large amount of latent heat, and as the cellar 
might be reduced to a much lower temperature almost any 
winter, it seems to us this cold would endure a long time if 
only well protected. Once made and arranged, we should 
have an automatic ice-house, and when northern ^^ blizzards" 
came down upon us with all their keenness, making our very 
teeth chatter and our bones ache, we'd open our cellar and 
bid old Boreas "walk in!" And why not? We have long 
dreaded severe winters as blasting our hopes and wasting 
our fortunes. Now let us turn the scales and make these 
cold waves serve us a good purpose, and while the stock 
farmer rejoices over his new-fangled silo, the dairyman over 
his self-acting creamer, the beekeeper over his honey ex- 
tractor, and the general farmer over his improved tools and 
machines, let us rejoice that for once, at least, we can make 
old winter do our bidding, and make happy, if possible, that 
hopeful, courageous class, known as Wisconsin fruit growers. 



THE ORCHARD LESSONS OF THE LAST YEAR. 
ByN. N. Palmer, Brodhead. 

The orchard lessons of the last year make it plain that it 
is very uncertain and unsatisfactory to set in orchards the 
old standard varieties of trees, grown in more favorable lo- 

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142 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

calities, especially of the long keeping apples. We must 
look to the Russians and seedlings grown in the northwest, 
from seed of our most hardy kinds, for trees to stand 
our varied climate, and until we get them we must keep on 
setting the best we have to take the place of those that are 
killed, so we may have plenty of fruit in favorable years at 
least. It will be pretty safe to set any kind of trees that we 
can find that were grown in this state and come through the 
last season without injury. I think we have a fair prospect 
for a good crop of apples another year. It will not surprise 
me much if we hear the men who are complaining now that 
we can't raise apples in this country, saying it does not pay 
to grow them. In order to profit by the last year's lessons 
it is first necessary to try and find out the full cause 
of the failure of fruit, and the destruction of trees. If it 
were not for the fact that orchards in the central part of the 
state bore much more fruit and of better quality than those 
of the southern part, and the so-called "iron clads," did not 
do as well as some others that were considered less hardy, 
we should say at once that the severe winter was the only 
cause; but from the above facts and some observations I 
have made in other years, I am of the opinion that an unfa- 
vorable spring is as damaging to fruit trees as the coldest 
winter. 

Could we have had a favorable spring, I think we should 
have had a fair crop of apples; but with a bad spring, fol- 
lowing the coldest winter I ever knew, the result was what 
we might have expected — a failure. I think all will agree 
with me, that the last year has been the most disastrous to 
the orchardist that has ever been known since the state was 
settled; and perhaps if we had any way of knowing, it was 
the worst for five hundred years. So it is not best to be dis- 
couraged, but hope that we have seen the worst year that is 
to come for the next five hundred years. 

I suppose every one who has given the subject much 
thought has some theory of the cause of the failure, whether 
right or wrong. My theory is, that there are nearly as many 
trees killed by the spring, as by the cold of winter, and that 



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The Orchard Lessons op the Past Year. 143 

our fruit failures come more from the spring than the win- 
ter. Especially was this the case last spring. I think the 
damage is done by the cold winds, after the leaves and blos- 
soms make their appearance, when we generally think the 
danger is mostly past. The first time my attention was 
turned in this direction was several years since, when my 
Haas trees blossomed very full, and looked as though we 
should have a fine crop of apples from them. About that 
time we had several days of cold east winds; the trees soon 
began to look as though they were dying, and they did not 
recover all summer. Last spring there were blossoms 
enough, especially on Perry Russet and Talman Sweet, but 
the apples did not grow, neither did the trees much. 

Nearly all my orchard trees show more or less injury. 
The Donathan was killed outright. Saxton nearly all killed 
(not much less). The Gilpin, Rawles, Jannett and Yellow 
Bellflower were injured more than most others. The two 
varieties that came through the season in perfect health, 
were the Sops of Wine and Roman Stem, neither of which 
have been classed as iron clads. The Sops of Wine is the 
only variety that bore a full crop of fine, smooth apples, 
and bore heavily last year. In the same row and next to them 
is the Duchess. There were but few apples on these trees, 
and it was hard to find a perfect one among them. The 
Roman Stem was set in 1850. They bore a good crop last 
year. They set reasonably full last spring, and I think only 
for the fact of the wet summer, that made the apples spabby, 
and the codling moth, we should have had an average 
crop. As it was we got little more than a barrel from six 
trees, more than one-fourth of the apples we had at gather- 
ing time from our six hundred trees. They are one of the 
best eating apples that I grow, maturing about the time the 
Fameuse are gone. Now I do not claim that the Sops of 
Wine or Roman Stem are as hardy as the Duchess, but it 
was some peculiarity of the season that was unfavorable to 
the Duchess and most orchard trees. 

The very cold winter undoubtedly gave them a severe 
shock. Then, at a critical time in the spring, just as they 



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144: Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

were putting out leaves and blossoms, we had extremely 
unfavorable weather and continued cold winds. I think 
trees are as often injured at this time as by the coldest 
winters; and here, I think, is the cause of the Sops of Wine, 
Roman Stem and the trees of the central part of the state 
producing so much better this year. Either they had not 
got far enough along, or else had got past the most tender 
stage. Perhaps, if our trees had been mulched heavily 
before the snow and ground thawed last spring, it would 
have kept them back and saved us a fair crop of apples. I 
think they would be safe every spring if we would keep 
them back, and the mulching would do them good all sum- 
mer. Right here, allow me to say, I have a theory, although 
I have never tried it, that if we could enclose our Miner 
plum trees for a while, about the time they blossom, during 
all cold winds, they would not blight, and we could raise 
full crops of delicious plums. I would suggest to those who 
have tents for camping out, to try it next spring. I will not 
use up anymore of your valuable time, but leave the subject 
to more able heads. 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF SEEDS BY NATURE. 
By Mrs. C. A. Wu^lard, WestDepere. 

As we observe the bewildering variety of plants and flow- 
ers, and as we often are surprised at the appearance of some 
new variety, the query naturally arises, how and by what 
means does this wonderful distribution occur? 

It is the purpose of this paper to suggest some of the 
methods nature employs, and hope at the same time that 
these suggestions may be useful in a practical way, in dis- 
covering how it may be possible to prevent the distribution 
of injurious and troublesome seeds, the presence of which in 
growing crops are not only a surprise but a perplexing an- 
noyance and loss. The seeds of trees and plants are of 
almost as great a variety of shapes and kinds as the flowers 
themselves. 



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The Distribution of Seeds by Nature. 145 

As seeds are not, like animals, endowed with locomo- 
tive organs, they must depend upon the elements to trans- 
port them; but still they possess many advantages over 
animals as regards the power of dispersal, since they are all 
propagated by seeds, or spores, which are hardier than the 
eggs of even insects, and retain their vitality for a much 
longer time. Seeds may be dormant for many years, and 
then vegetate, while they endure extremes of heat, of cold, 
of drought, of moisture, which would almost always be fatal 
to animals. 

Seeds have a variety of appendages attached to them. 
The ash and maple have wings, catalpa seeds have a fringe- 
like wing or tuft at each end. The seeds of pine are winged 
at one end; other seeds have cottony or feathery tails, as the 
thistle, anemoni and clematis. All these tufts and wings 
are contrivances for rendering such seeds buoyant, so that 
when shed they may be dispersed by the wind. 

Many are so minute, as to be visible to the eye only in the 
form of smoke, and are so numerous as to be almost uncounta- 
ble. This is specially the case with fungi, mosses, lichens, 
and some species of ferns. The spores of fungi are so min- 
ute as to require a microscope to see them, and so numer- 
ous that Fries says that he counted 10,000,000 in a single 
specimen, so that when plants have seeds so minute and so 
numerous, it is not so much of a wonder that they are so 
generally distributed. 

We can easily imagine the wind capable of carrying these 
minute spores to immense distances over land and ocean. 
Many plants not possessing small seeds are carried off bodily 
by the wind to distant localities. There is a plant called the 
wind witch, that grows on the steppes or elevated plains of 
central Russia; a poor thistle plant, says Schlieden; it di- 
vides its strength in the formation of numerous dry, slender 
shoots, which spread out on all sides and are entangled with 
one another. The domes which it forms upon the dry turf 
are often three feet high, and sometimes ten to fifteen in cir- 
cumference, arched over with naked, delicate, thin 
branches. 



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146 Wisconsin State Horticultukal Society. 

In the autumn the stem of the plant rots off, and the globe 
of branches dries up into a ball light as a feather which is 
driven through the air by the autumnal winds over the 
steppe. Numbers of such balls often fly at once over the 
plain with such rapidity that no horseman can catch them, 
now hopping with short, quick springs along the ground, 
now whirling in great circles around each other, rolling on- 
ward in a spirit-like dance, over the turf, now caught by an 
eddy, rising suddenly a hundred feet in the air. Often one 
wind witch hooks on to another, twenty more join company 
and the whole gigantic, yet airy mass rolls away before the 
strong east wind. Another plant, called the " Rose of Jer- 
icho," has a somewhat similar method of dissemination. 
Prof. Lindley says of it, at the end of its life, and in conse- 
quence of drought, its texture becomes almost woody, its 
branches curve up into a sort of a ball, the valves of its pods 
are closed and the plant holds to the soil by nothing but a 
root without fibers. In this state the wind always so pow- 
erful on plains of sand, tears up the dry ball and rolls it 
upon the desert. If in the course of its violent transmission 
the ball is thrown upon a pool of water, the humidity is 
promptly absorbed by the woody tissue, the branches unfold, 
and the seed vessels open, the seeds, which if they had been 
dropped upon the dry sand, would never have germinated, 
sow themselves naturally in the moist soil where they are 
sure to be developed and the young plants will be certain of 
nourishment. 

The Lelaginella, one of Lycopodiums, and a native of 
South America, has the same habit, for when the ground 
where it grows becomes parched and dried up, it curls itself 
up in a ball, loosens itself from the earth, and is then whirled 
along over the ground by the wind. When it finds a moist 
place suitable for its growth, it uncurls itself, takes root, and 
flourishes until its new home is dried up, when it betakes 
itself in the same manner to a new locality. 

We have plants in our own country that have much the 
same habit. Mr. J. E. Todd, of Beloit, made an extended 
trip in Dakota last summer. He says of the Proralea Ar- 



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The Distribution of Seeds by Nature. IIT 

gophylla, that it was a daily companion. So abundant is it^ 
that it gives large areas of the prairie a silvery whiteness. 
In the latter part of August a hot, south-west wind blew for 
several days, which so blocked the roads in places with the 
loose "tops" or stems of this plant, as to considerably retard 
a team in traveling, reminding one of similar experience 
with the tumble weed and tickle grass near cultivated fields 
after a frost. He also says that the fashion followed by 
these utterly diverse plants, is beautifully adapted for scat- 
tering seed over the prairies. 

Hence the violent hurricanes of the tropics, and the torna- 
dos and cyclones of this country would contribute largely 
to a dispersion of seeds and plants which otherwise would 
be but slightly distributed. 

We have seen that as a general thing, only light seeds, or 
those with a downy appendage (or sailors, as the children 
call them), are capable of being distributed by the wind. 
The waves also can assist materially in the distribution of 
seeds, but they are of an entirely different character from 
those distributed by wind. This must necessarily be the case,, 
for those capable of resisting the action of sea water for a 
long time, must be inclosed in hard shells. 

The Gulf Stream, that river of the ocean, is of great use in 
this work. By its means seeds of various plants of the 
West Indies and tropical America are annually thrown upon 
the shores of Ireland, Scotland, Norway, and even as far 
north as Spitzbergen. 

If the climate were only suitable, there is no doubt but 
that many of the seeds would be capable of germinating. 
Logs of wood and bodies of Indians, which had been con- 
veyed by ocean currents from the West Indies, have been 
cast on the shores of the Azores and Madeira Islands. The 
soap-berry tree of the West Indies, was raised from a seed 
found on the shore of one of the Bermuda Islands. 

The coral islands of the Pacific ocean have been planted 
with the cocoa-nut palm by ocean currents. Growing as it. 
does, in close proximity to the shore, and thriving in salt and 
salt water, the nuts could be easily carried out on the ocean 



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148 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

by the tide, and then be drifted miles away from the place 
of growth. 

Mr. Darwin made a few experiments to see how far seeds 
could resist the action of sea water. Out of eighty-seven 
kinds of seeds, sixty-four germinated, after an immersion 
of twenty-eight days, and a few survived an immersion in 
salt water of one hundred and thirty-seven days. 

Now, as oceanic currents vary from thirty to sixty miles a 
day, such plants, under the most favorable circumstances, 
might be carried 5,000 miles. But even half of this is ample 
to enable them to reach any oceanic island, and before they 
were completely water-logged they might be driven along 
at a much greater rate of speed by the wind. 

Darwin came to the conclusion that the seeds of one-tenth 
of the plants of a flora, after being dried, could be floated 
across a space of sea 900 miles wide, and would then, if 
driven to a favorable locality, be capable of germination. 

Wallace says, rafts of islands are sometimes seen drifting 
a hundred miles from the mouth of the Ganges, with living 
trees growing on them. The Amazon, Mississippi, Colum- 
bia, Congo, and most great rivers, produce similar rafts. 
When we were at Sawyer's Bay, Door county, several years 
ago, while walking at the water's edge, on the Green Bay 
shore of a little peninsula between Sawyer's Bay and Green 
Bay, we found the beautiful blue lobelia that is used so 
much for hanging baskets, growing in crevices so small in 
the rocks that you could scarcely insert a knife blade. I found 
several specimens in overhanging rocks with the roots grow- 
ing upwards, and the plants and blossoms hanging down- 
wards. Now, I cannot conceive of any possible way that 
these seeds could get there except they were carried and 
washed up by the waves, as many times we have seen the 
waves dash far beyond they place where the were found. 

Near the stone quarry, at a point about opposite of what 
is now called Idlewild, on the same peninsula, I found a 
thrifty specimen of Allegany vine, or mountain fringe, in 
bloom. 

The name of mountain fringe seems exceedingly appro- 



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The Distribution op Seeds by Nature. 149 

priate as this specimen was growing on a depth of not more 
than two inches of soil above the rocks. I should think that 
in this case the soil, as well as the seeds, had been 
washed up by the waves, as no doubt but only a few 
years have elapsed since stone was taken from that identical 
place. 

Here I would suggest that it is possible for the seeds of 
troublesome weeds and plants to be distributed by means of 
rainfall inducing overflows and washings from the places 
where these plants are allowed to grow. 

The banks of rivers and streams always show a variety 
of growth that clearly indicate that quantities of seeds have 
been floated down with the water, until lodged in soil 
adpated to their germination. 

Birds can hardly fail to be highly effective agents in the 
transportation of seeds. Many fruits having a seed incased 
in a hard shell are surrounded by a juicy pulp. These are 
eaten by birds which assimilate the pulp, cast the stones in 
their excrement. 

The parasitic mistletoe has no way of being disseminated 
but by birds, these swallowing the berries, use the pulp, and 
if the stone happens to be cast upon branches of trees suita- 
ble for their growth, they will take root and flourish. 

Several years ago we saw a very curious instance of this 
parasite growth at Sawyer's Bay. It was of one kind of 
evergreen as a parasite upon an evergreen tree on an en- 
tirely different variety. The parasite had attained a height 
of three or four feet and at the place where the roots would 
ordinarily be, the branch had swollen so as to form a knob 
as large as one's head. 

Passenger pigeons have been killed in the neighborhood 
of New York with their crops still full of rice, collected by 
them in the rice fields of Georgia and North Carolina. Af- 
ter a bird has found and devoured a large supply of food, it 
is asserted that all the grains do not pass into the gizard for 
twelve or even eighteen hours. A bird in this interval 
might easily be blown to the distance of from 300 to 500 
miles, and hawks are known to be on the lookout for tired 



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150 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

l>irds, and the contents of their torn crops might easily get 
scattered. 

Birds also assist in the distribution of seeds by means of 
the dirt and dried mud adhering to their legs and feet. Dar- 
win records an instance when Prof. Newton sent him a leg 
of a red legged partridge which had been wounded and 
•could not fly, the ball of earth adhering to it, weighing six 
and a half ounces. The earth had been kept three years, 
but when broken, watered and placed under a bell glass no 
less than eighty-two plaints sprang from it. 

Wading birds, which frequent the muddy edges of ponds, 
if suddenly flushed, would be most likely to have muddy 
feet. Birds of this order wander more than any other. 

Darwin tried an interesting experiment with the mud upon 
the edge of a little pond. He took three tablespoonf uls from 
beneath the water at different points. When this mud was 
dried it weighed six and three-quarter ounces. He kept it 
covered up for six months, pulling up and counting each 
plant as it grew. The plants were of various kinds, and were 
altogether 537 in number. Fish also eat seeds, and birds 
devour the fish. Animals also perform their part in the work 
of distribution. Many seeds are furnished with hooks and 
prickles, which enable them to cling to the hair and wool of 
animals. We all know by our own experience how diflScult 
it is to pick out from our clothing some of these clinging seeds. 
There is still another method of transport in which man plays 
an important part in* the work. Fresh surfaces of soil or 
rock, such as are presented by railway cuttings and embank- 
ments, often produce plants strange to the locality; seeds are 
lodged on the platform of the cars, are carried along by the 
wind created by the passing trains, and in many other ways 
are distributed along the track. 

For instance, the euphorbia marginata, a species of milk- 
weed which is a native of Kansas, is slowly but surely work- 
ing its way towards the east by means of the railroads. 

Florists keep men out searching for plants both in Alpine 
and tropical countries, which they cultivate, improve, and 
bring out as novelties. 



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Vines for Our Homes. 151 

Wallace says that in Tasmania, whenever the virgin for- 
est is cleared in that island, there invariably comes up a 
thick crop of a plant known as fire- weed, a species of senecia. 
It never grows except where the fire has gone over the 
ground, and is unknown except in such places. A corre- 
spondent of his says that in the autumn he went back about 
thirty-five miles through a dense forest, along^a track marked 
by some prospectors the year before, and on the spot where 
they had camped and the fire had burned the fallen logs, 
there was a fine crop of fire-weed. All around, for many 
miles, there was a forest of the largest trees, and dense scrub. 
Here we have a case in which burnt soil and ashes favor 
the germination of a particular plant, whose seeds are easily 
carried by the wind, and it is not difficult to see how this 
peculiarity might favor the dispersal of the species for enor- 
mous distances. 

In our own state, at Peshtigo and other places where for- 
ests have been burnt down, there comes up the next season 
a dense crop of fire- weed; possibly it is not exactly the same 
variety, but no doubt it belongs to the same species. Thus 
we have seen how plants are naturally distributed by means 
of the air, the water, birds, fishes, animals, and lastly man, 
each performing their several offices, and each liable to con- 
tribute in various ways to the distribution of desirable and 
undesirable seeds. 

A more perfect knowledge of nature's methods in the dis- 
tribution of seeds may enable cultivators to anticipate the 
possibility of being overrun with noxious and unprofitable 
growths, and protect their lands against such a result. 



VINES FOR OUR HOMES. 
By Mrs. D. Huntley, Appleton. 

The climbing vines are nature's drapery, and with them 
she covers beauty and deformity alike with a mantle of love- 
liness. Nothing that art can produce can equal their elegant 
grace. " As the lilies surpass in beauty, the robes of royalty, 
so these tender climbers surpass all the decorator's skill." 



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162 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

Every tree and shrub of the forest takes on new beauty 
when entwined and caressed by the clinging tendrils of the 
Ivy or the Clematis, and the vine-clad trees and vine-covered 
doorway become a picture in the landscape which we never 
forget. 

It is often said, " You can not have something for nothing," 
but we come very near proving the saying false when we 
deal with nature. If we plant the tiny seed, or set the roots 
of vines by window or doorway, by rustic arbor or trellis, 
and then do just what all have ever done who have accom- 
plished anything good or beautiful, wait, wait and see what 
nature will do for you; the vines will grow while you are 
waiting, and soon, without money and without price, your 
home — whether lofty or lowly — will be adorned with nat- 
ure's finest drapery, and neither rain nor sunshine will ever 
deface it. 

The easiest way to secure vines for the home is to plant 
the hard-wooded, hardy climbers. They will live many 
years with little care, and become more beautiful with in- 
creasing age. The best of this class is the Ampolopsis Quin- 
quefolia, now everywhere known as the American Ivy. It 
grows so easily and rapidly that there is danger that we 
shall fail to appreciate its worth. The late lamented Mr. 
Vick said: "This vine has done more to beautify rural vil- 
lages than any fifty plants in existence." It is highly prized 
in Europe, where it is largely used in preference to the Eng- 
lish Ivy. The latter often becomes rusty and bare, while 
the American Ivy has immense foliage, and needs no special 
care, unless it should be necessa,ry to cut back its rampant 
growth. We often see this beautiful vine adorning city 
homes, but many of the people of the country have not yet 
learned how attractive their dwellings could be made by 
the Ivy, which grows wild on their own farms. 

The climbing Bitter Sweet, Celastrus Scandens, is a hardy 
vine, and in many places can be found in the forest, but it 
is not so often used for the porch and piazza as the Ivy. We 
know one city home where the Bitter Sweet was saved 
when the forest was cleared for the dwelling; it has become 



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. Vines for Our Homes. 163 

an immense vine, of great beauty. Its foliage is handsome, 
and its berries of scarlet and orange are very showy and 
much prized for winter decoration. 

Another hardy vine is the Moonseed, so-called from its 
crescent-shaped seed. This, too, grows wild in many places 
in our state. It is a slow grower, but in time becomes large 
and handsome, and in autumn has clusters of purple berries. 

The wild Clematis, which is very abundant in the woods 
seems quite at home when transplanted to our gardens. It 
is not so hardy as either of the other vines mentioned, and 
will sometimes winter-kill nearly to the ground, but its 
growth is so rapid, it soon covers any support with foliage 
and in summer is a mass of sweet white flowers that are 
very lovely. There are many varieties of Clematis, both will 
and cultivated, that are very desirable. That known as 
*' Travellers Joy " we have had several years in the garden, 
and in the most exposed situations the roots survived our 
severest winters. No objection can be made to this vine on 
account of injury to buildings. If better known it would be 
greatly prized. 

The Matrimony vine, with its willow-like streamers, is a 
pretty thing in appropriate places, and in some localities is 
very abundant. We have always admired it, at a distance, 
for it has persistently resisted all our efforts to make it grow 
in the garden. 

All these can be easily obtained, are very ornamental and, 
best of all, when once planted, you will always have them. 
They can be trained upon the buildings, on a rustic arbor or 
cross in the door yards, and, in any of these places, give pleas- 
ure whenever run. There are many other good climbers which 
are more rare, such as "Dutchman's Pipe," "Trumpet 
Creeper," " Clianthus," and many others which if one has 
room and time for their culture, will be found very satisfac- 
tory. 

Then there is a large number of herbaceous perennial 
climbers which die to the root in winter and every spring 
come up again to gladden us with new beauty, and long 
before the end of summer give a wonderful growth of foliage 

11— HORT. 



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164: Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

and bloom. Of these the "Cinnamon vine," "Chrimyam/' 
and " Madeira vine " are most common. The roots of the 
latter must be taken up before the ground freezes. Among 
this class of plants there is a vine with halberd-shaped leaves 
and large, double, rose colored flowers, which is sometimes 
called the "rose creeper;" it grows wild in many places and 
is sometimes considered troublesome, but with good culture 
it can be kept from spreading, and when well-trained it 
makes a pretty screen. Another wild vine with very simi- 
lar foliage has pure white flowers much like the morning 
glory. This was one of the vines that in our childhood we 
called the white creeper. Then it was our admiration; we 
remember one eccentric old lady who trained it through her 
window, and around her tall old fashioned clock, but we had 
never seen it in the west, till one day last summer when re- 
turning from the home of our worthy President we passed 
the " white creeper " of childhood's memory in the woods 
near the Oneida settlement. With tenderest care we took 
it in our garden but all our efforts to make it live were un- 
availing. Sometime, however, we expect to see it growing 
in all its old time beauty. 

Besides the perennial vines we have a large number of 
annual climbers which all can have, even in new or transient 
homes; wherever spring finds us, the little packet of seeds 
may be planted, and long before the summer is gone, we 
have a profusion of flowering vines. First among them are 
the dear old Morning Glories. There never was, nay, never 
will be any vine lovelier than these glories of the morning. 
Then the Nosturtium with its golden and scarlet bloom, 
spicy stems, and curious seeds; and the canary vine with 
its little bird like flowers perched about among the pretty 
foliage;' and the sweet peas, too, with their delightful frag- 
rance. O who could be content without these reminders of 
the old home gardens. Then we have the newer vines some 
of them of surpassing loveliness, and they must have a 
place in the conservatory or veranda. Passion vines, Cobia 
Scandins, Star Ipoima, the delicate. Cypress vine and the 
golden Thunbergia are all easily grown, but for constant 



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Vines for Our Homes. 155 

growth aud beauty there is nothing quite equal to the Eng- 
Ush Ivy and the wax vine, Hoya Garnosa. An old plant of 
the latter has been in bloom all winter, sometimes bearing 
thirty clusters of its waxy flowers at one time. Both these 
vines need much time to perfect their beauty, and when 
there is any danger of frost the quicker growing vines are 
much more satisfactory. 

- Of this class the German ivies are best. It is said by some 
writers that these are not ivies, but they have so long borne 
the name, we think them entitled to it by possession. 

The variegated German Ivy, " Senecio Scandens " is much 
like the English Ivy in appearance, ha3 thick glossy leaves 
and is a rapid grower. • The common German Ivy is the 
best vine for the wall in partially shaded situations that we 
have ever seen. It will grow many yards in length and 
covers a large space in a few weeks. A pretty way to grow 
this ivy is to train it around an oval frame of wire or 
rattan of any size you wish and, when well covered with 
foliage, take vase and frame to the parlor to decorate a pic- 
ture. 

For hanging baskets a well grown ivy is very handsome; 
so also is the Maurandia and if the three colors, white, pink 
and purple are grown together the effect is very pleasing. 

Another excellent vine for baskets and a comparatively 
new one is Pilogyne Suavis. This is a rapid grower. The 
leaves and tendrils resembling the grape; flowers are small 
and cream colored. But of all the vines the Smilax is the 
daintiest thing for all decorating purposes. Its glossy leaves 
add grace to everything it touches. 

The Smilax is prettiest, grown in some ornamental pot or 
box that can be easily moved. Each vine should be trained 
on a separate string. When needed for decoration part 
can be used without injuring the whole. When the vine is 
well grown take it to the parlor to adorn a picture or place 
it at the window at the edge of a lace curtain, taking care 
not to keep it from the sunshine. 

Another exquisite little vine is the climbing fern, Lygo- 
dium Scandens. This is not so common as the Smilax, but 
wherever grown it is thought to be fully its equal. Its foliage 



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166 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

is airy and graceful and when cut, will remain fresh a long 
time. It is best grown in the manner described for Smilax. 

Besides the climbers there are a large number of trailing 
vines which are indespensable for basket or boxes, or in any 
place where a drapery of foliage is needed. Of all this useful 
class of plants, if we could have but one, it should be the 
Kenilworth Ivy, which will grow anywhere, requires but 
little earth, and will cover brackets and baskets with a cur- 
tain of green. A tiny part of this pretty trailer upon a 
bracket is a fine ornament for any room. 

The Tradiscantias, also, are among the best of trailing 
plants; they will grow beautifully where there is not a bit 
of sunshine. There are four varieties of this plant, often 
called the "Wandering Jew." The newest is the pink, 
white and green; this is a wonderfully attractive thing, and 
in a basket with the other varieties would be charming. 
Some of the Sedams are good for this purpose. 

Then we have the garden Moneywort, which will grow 
yards in one ''summer, and the old gp-ound ivy which some 
think a pest, but we like it for its old-time, suggestive name 
"Up the Hill to Happiness," by which our grandmothers 
called it. 

But time would fail to tell of all the lovely things which 
we find everywhere around us in boundless profusion. We 
pause in wonder when we contemplate the beauties of the 
floral world, and can only exclaim, 

OI who that has an eye to see, . 

A heart to feel, a tongus to bless, 
Can ever undelighted be, 

With nature's magic loveliness. 

How can we live amid so much transcendent beauty, and 
fail to appropriate to our use and pleasure, the countless 
treasures of nature's realm. 

We meet each year in the sweet moath 

"When lilac trees from nodding plumes, 
Have spoken incense like perfumes." 

We exchange kind greetings, talk of our failures and re- 
joice over our successes, and with a higher appreciation of 
the glory of the summer we say : 



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Experience With Apples. 157 

" No discord mars the low, sweet tune 
To which is set this day of June, 
A poem from the heart of God, 
Wrote out on sky, and tree, and sod, 
And we who love to work away . 
The long hours of the happy day, 
Have talked with nature, and have heard 
Her voice in brook, and breeze, and bird. 

O, such strange things as she has told. 
The secret thing of sunshine's gold. 
The mystery of the tasseled corn, 
How roses break apart at morn! 
This happy day we have been near 
To nature's heart, and felt it beat. 
So close that we could feel and hear . 
Her loving thoughts and fancies sweet." 

There is a blessing and an inspiration in a time like this. 
We should find a lesson in the words of wisdom we ha^e 
heard, in every tree, and leaf and flower we have seen; in 
the beautiful gardens and lavely homes of this delightful 
city, and in the generous hospitality of her cultured people. 
Yes, we will long remember the pleasures of this glad day,, 
and return home to our daily work, resolved to make the 
world not only better, but more beautiful because we have 
lived in it. • 



EXPERIENCE WITH APPLES. 

By Andrew Anderson, Neenah. 

Without attempting a history of our apples, since others 
have done that more ably than I could, I should like to re- 
cord my orchard experience for a number of years. 

At the horticultural meeting held in connection with the 
state fair, in 1867, I saw for the first time what could be done 
with apples in this state, and determined to profi 
lesson I had learned. So in 18*68, 1 planted 300 apple trees, 
seventy-five plum trees and a considerable number of rasp- 
berries, blackberries, grapes and currants. Of course I left 
the selection of varieties to the agents who supplied n^e. 
They knew just what was wanted. Result: In the spring 



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158 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

of 1876, one tree out of nearly 400 was living — a monument 
to the memory of the Hon. Tree Peddler ! 

Meantime I had attended the Horticultural conventions 
of 1873-5, and when, as I said, the spring of 1876 found me 
exactly where I began, I took counsel of the State Horticul- 
tural Society, and planted Duchess and Fameuse, bought of 
Brainard Bros., of Oshkosh. Up to this time (Feb. 1, 1883), 
not one tree has died from any cause. Since these were set 
out I have added several hundred trees from the same firm, 
my list including Duchess, Fameuse, Pewaukee, Utter, 
Walbridge, Haas, Tetof sky. Plumb's Cider, Red Astrachan, 
Wealthy, Alexander, Ben Davis and Price's Sweet. In the 
winter of 1880-1, the last two varieties killed down to the 
root. 

My method of treating the orchard is as follows: About 
the first of November I take particular pains to see that the 
ground is well set against the stem of the tree, so that no 
water can penetrate. A bank say four to six inches is then 
raised round the tree so that sleet and water shall not work 
roimd or freeze to the tree. It will be noticed that in the 
wet fall weather the soil works loose from the tree, so that 
this precaution is necessary to prevent the destruction of the 
roots by the freezing of water in contact with them. This 
is my fall treatment. My winter treatment consists in 
placing the snow tightly about the trees after the first fall. 
By taking this precaution, I have never had a tree gnawed 
by mice or rabbits yet. 

In the spring I remove the dirt from the trees to the level 
of the surrounding ground, after which I break the soil with 
a potato fork, for a distance of two to six feet about the tree. 
In May, after one or two good rains, I mulch the trees with 
wet straw or marsh hay, covering the mulch with two to 
four inches of soil. This remains moist till I remove it in 
the early part of September. . 

I do not agree with many of our horticulturists, who be- 
lieve in allowing the mulch to remain longer. Leaving it 
through September and October prevents the trees from get- 
ting the full benefit of the fall rains, which they need. In 
1879, 1 tried leaving the mulch about one tree, and on the 



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Experience With Apples. 15^ 

20th of October I found the ground about it as hard and dry- 
as in August. Had I not watered it, this tree would have 
died from drought, as many a young tree has done. After 
removing the mulch, I dig about the tree as in the spring,, 
so that the tree shall receive the full benefit of the rains. I 
have seen hundreds of trees in grass die from thirst. 

After washing the trees with soap suds in the spring, I tie 
paper about the trunk. When this is removed in October, 
the bark is as smooth as in the spring. It is true that worms 
will gather under the paper, but they are easily destroyed. 

I have found that fall or spring pruning will not do for the 
Fameuse, on account of bleeding, which could not be reme- 
died. This variety is now always pruned in June. Other 
varieties we can prune in fall or spring, but the safest time 
with these is June. I should follow this rule in future; 
but I have now adopted the practice of pinching back the 
buds which I do not want to grow, and so have little use for 
the ax, saw and knife. 

Beside the young orchard I have an old one, set out in 1861» 
This receives the same treatment as the other. One thing 
about our old trees which is shamefully neglected, is moss» 
This green moss has no business on a tree, and it is easily 
removed when wet. An hour's work on a wet day, will 
clean a large tree, and if the trees are properly washed when 
young it will never be very troublesome. 

I have been watching, examining and taking notes in 
hopes of discovering the secret of blight, if it be a secrete 
During the seasons of 1880, '81 and '82, a daily record of my 
trees was kept, with a view to learning which were most 
subject to the disease. In 1879 I had no blight, nor, so far as I 
could see, was a single limb attacked in 1880 or 1881. On the 
night of July 20th, 1882, one Fameuse tree was stricken, and 
one or two branches withered by nine o'clock the next morn- 
ing. Some twenty other trees of the same variety escaped. 

This tree had been stirred all around for six or eight feet,, 
almost every other day, from May 20 to August 1. One Tet- 
ofsky, planted in 1879, was blighted. A Tallman Sweet,, 
planted in 1859, a Red Astrachan, planted in 1868, and one 
limb of a Duchess, planted in 1880, blighted the same night. 



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160 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

These were the only trees out of one hundred and seventy. 
These four trees had also been worked about more than the 
others, and had been stirred about every forty-eight hours> 
since May 20. They had more top than the others. I have 
found in every year from J879-1882 that the trees with no 
more top than they should have, stand the blight best. In 
short, healthy trees with no more top than roots are not lia- 
ble to the disease. During the past season I believe I have 
seen hundreds of trees blighted, all over Winnebago, Wau- 
paca, Shawano and Outagamie counties. They had received 
all kinds of treatment, grew on all sorts of soil and had every 
exposure. Crabs were as bad as the rest; they all had more 
top than was good. But I have seen very few blighted limbs 
on clean trees with small tops, so that each branch could get 
nourishment enough from the roots. I claim that the tree 
is overtaxed with limbs and fruit. By watching our trees 
we can soon tell how much fruit each can bear without over- 
straining itself. I shall go on in this line, giving more roots 
and less top, with clean, loose culture. We feel that we can 
safely plant more trees, relying on the varieties con^nended 
by the Horticultural Society of your state, between 1876 and 
1882, provided we buy from Wisconsin nurserymen, and 
leave the tree-peddler severely alone. 

In May, ,1882, 1 put cotton around several trees, about six 
inches from the ground, to keep the bug off. I had also 
lamps burning over several tubs of water from May 30 to 
August 1; salt was put around some trees, some six to ten 
inches. As a result, I caught several hundreds of insects 
every warm night, I have never seen before. On cold nights 
I caught none. 

I examined the cotton around the trees every morning 
and found sometimes as many as six to ten female May- 
beetles entangled in the cotton on a single tree. I could 
examine about fifteen trees an hour, and destroy about a 
himdred insects a morning, but I found I caught more on 
warm dark nights than on cold nights. Neither salt no^ 
ashes did any good. In the fail I had worm-stung apples on 
all the trees, more or less, but there were fewer on those on 
which I had put the cotton, so I find I can master them to 



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Experience With Apples. 161 

some extent, after all.* When these experiments were tried 
the orchard was cultivated with potatoes. I think in 1883 
I shall not have so many of the unknown insects in my 
orchard, as I know that several thousand were killed by the 
light or water in my traps. 

Now will it pay to plant trees and fuss around thom so? 
Are we not crazy or nearly so? We can't raise apples, 
people tell us. Ought we not to give it up, since there is no 
use in spending time and money on what can't be done? Let 
us see. 

In 1875 I planted one Duchess, price 35 cents. Number 201. 
In 1879 I sold apples from it for $5.35; in 1880, $3.00; in 1881, 
$5.00; in 1882 would not permit it to bear at all. — Total, $13.35. 
I have several trees set out at the same time, nearly as good, 
and altogeth-er 170 trees of this variety. Will it pay? I say 
it will if we understand our business; but we must learn 
what is to be done winter and summer, fall and spring; we 
must know our trees, what they need and what is to be done 
for them; then they will not often disappoint us. Remember, 
thoufirh, one can not grow golden apples with his hands in 
his pocket, and a cigar in his mouth, condemning the trees, 
on street corners. They must be watched as carefully as we 
watch over our children, and even then some will die. 

The reports sent out by our Society should be rdad. I dare 
say we shall not go far astray if we follow their advice. It 
takes years of waiting, watching and toil, with many dis- 
appointments, to get a good orchard, and I admit it seems 
hard to dig up thirty old apple trees every spring, but where 
is the^man who has not done it? We like lessons in the a, 
b, c's yet, and it takes years to go through the alphabet. 
We owe the members of our Society a debt of gratitude for 
the information they have given us in the annual volumes, 
and we will be long in paying it. Mr. Stickney's advice to 
plant two trees for every one that dies is well worth remem- 

*NoTE. — [If Mr. Anderson refers to the codling moth, the cause of 
most worminess in apples, a better remedy would have been spraying the 
trees with Paris-green or London purple, and water (a tablespoonful of 
the poison to two gaUons of water) by a fountain pump. One application 
about two weeks after blossoming, and another a month later effectually 
checks the ravages of the insect, according to Prof. Cook. — Ed.] 



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162 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

bering. I only wonder that, after having been to the an- 
nual meeting in 1873, 1 could have been such a fool as to let 
an agent take my order for trees. Let the tree peddler 
alone; have nothing to do with him under any circumstances! 
but buy of responsible Wisconsin men, known to us and to 
our Society. At the present rate, we shall have no fruit 
trees in ten or fifteen years. The peddler still has it his own 
way in Winnebago county. Years back we had a Horticul- 
tural Society, but it is gone — dead, like the trees. 

Let farmers who swear that we can't raise fruit, try it. I 
have an acre of grapes growing, as well as strawberry, rasp- 
berries and currants, but neither plums nor pears, for I con- 
sider it useless to try and raise them. The rest are as 
certain as wheat or corn. Frequently a neighbor's wife or 
daughter comes to pick some of our delicious fruit, though 
they have large farms themselves, but not a berry on them. 
Try to please the ladies by growing fruit. They all like it, 
as you do yourselves. 

In the future I shall try to experiment with the insect ene- 
mies of our fruit trees. Friend Philips' faith in my work is 
encouraging. I have faith in the future of Wisconsin fruit 
growing, but I shall keep inside of the recommended list of 
the Horticultural Society. I should advise anyone to have 
few varieties, and not to plant a single tree unless it is to be 
cared for. 



THE PANSY. 

By William Toole, North Freedom, Wis. 

"When is the best time to sow pansy seeds?" '-'Will they 
flower the same season in which they are sown?" "Ought 
they not always to be planted in the shade?" "Do they not 
grow best in sandy soil?" "Don't they do best, to sow them- 
selves?" "Won't pansies soon run out if people save their 
own seed?" "Do not the diflferent kinds mix if grown near 
each other?" "Where do you buy the best pansy seed?" 
"How do you save pansy seeds?" "How do you keep the 
plants through the winter?" etc. 



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The Pansy. 163 

If pansy plants are grown for sale, the seeds should be 
sown late in August or early in September, and when large 
enough to be transplanted, the young plants should be set 
out closely in a cold frame for winter protection. These 
plants if forwarded in frames early in spring can be offered 
to customers in bloom. The buyers give them a warm situ- 
ation, where they bloom freely for a short time, and then 
comes disappointment, for the plants with their efforts to 
bear seed soon exhaust themselves; they succumb to mid- 
summer heat, and in autumn when they should be in their 
glory, they are gone. 

If buyers would insist on receiving stocky plants, even 
though obliged to wait a little longer for them, and after 
planting would carefully remove buds and flowers until the 
plants are well established, the flowers would be finer, the 
colors more rich, and the life of the plants would be much 
more prolonged. 

When the hot summer weather comes, and the branches 
are long and straggling, they should be cut back to induce a 
new growth, which will furnish flowers during late summer 
and fall. 

No plant shows more plainly than does the pansy, the 
truth of the saying that, " threatening the life of a plant, 
hastens its tendency to flower and bear seed;" or another, 
equally true, that any plant having borne seed freely, shows 
less instinct for self-preservation. For these reasons, plants 
started early in the fall previous, are in condition to bloom 
early and be exhausted by the time hot weather comes. 

Plants started early in green house, hot bed or window, will 
give a fine show of spring fiowers, continuing well into the 
smnmer; but their later blooming must be sacrificed, if more 
is to be required of them in the fall. To give a succession 
of flowers throughout the season, either fall or very early 
spring sowing is required — perhaps we should say late win- 
ter — to be followed by sowing after spring has commenced. 

As transplanting induces the plant to run up to flower, 
which must be checked for durability, it would be better for 
decorating public grounds in summer, to transplant the spring 
seedlings into three-inch pots in which they may be kept in 

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164 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

reserve in a nursery bed, from which they could be removed, 
after robustness has been secured, to the place vsrhich it is 
intended tjiey shall decorate. Spring plants thus treated 
will, during the hot weather of July, give a fine display of 
flowers. Even on private grounds, which are somewhat 
public in location or character, absence of display for any 
considerable length of time is not desirable, nor, with judi- 
cious nursery treatment of plants, is it necessary. 

But people generally buy plants of all kinds in early spring, 
when the planting fever prevails. They must have them in 
bloom, and dealers could not sell enough of better plants to 
pay for keeping them in stock. 

Those who grow their plants from seed, should, if sowing 
but once in the year, do so early in spring, when the weather 
is cool and the air moist. If sown as early in the spring as the 
weather will permit early garden work, shading may not be 
necessary; but it is better to provide some kind of shade to 
shield from drying winds, and the seed bed should be watered 
as often as is necessary, to prevent the surface from baking, 
for if the seeds are once dried after the germs have started, 
another planting will be necessary, no matter how good the 
seeds were. 

I have used, at different times to prevent drying, glass, 
sheeting, evergreen and other leafy branches, boards and 
laths. Glass is desirable only to cover very early planting, 
because the warmth admitted, though desirable in April, 
might be too great in June, for pansy seeds will not grow 
with too high a temperature, even when all other conditions, 
are favorable. For shading in late summer, I like leafy 
branches better than anything else, because there seems to 
be a coolness resulting from evaporation through them, 
while the seed may be watered without their removal, and 
the soil does not become packed after heavy rains. The 
branches may be removed gradually, to accustom the seed- 
lings to full light and air, to which they should be inured as 
quickly as they can bear the change. 

Those who sow but few seeds will find it most convenient 
to stretch muslin or sheetins: over a box without bottom for 
shading the seed bed; but for starting plants from seed on a 



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The Pansy. 165 

large scale, I have found nothing more convenient than a 
covering of laths, raised about eight inches above the seed 
bed, and placed quite near each other, until the seedlings 
have come up, when the spaces can be made wider, until the 
plants are rooted deep enough to need no shading. These 
remarks about shading apply also to celery, as well as to the 
different species of Dianthus, and many other kinds of 
flowers. 

For my seed bed I use recently decayed fibrous vegetable 
mold mixed with some sand and thoroughly decayed manure; 
the mixture being]passed through a sieve from an oldf anning 
mill. The surface of the bed is raked smooth and level, and 
then pressed even with a board, after which shallow furrows 
are made about one-sixteenth of an inch deep, by pressing 
down the sharpened edge of a lath. 

The seeds are scattered thinly in the rows and covered 
carefully with the fingers, and when the covering is com- 
pleted, the bed, is again pressed with the board. Watering 
with a fine rose, if carefully done, is better than heavy rains 
for any delicate kind ol seed. If there is danger of the plants 
becoming drawn and slender with overcrowding, they should 
be soon transplanted, but, if the seeds have not been sown 
too thickly, the plants will bear removal better if not trans- 
planted until they have six or eight leaves. 

For pansies a* rich loam or clayey loam is preferable to a 
sandy soil, because the colors of the flowers are richer, and 
the flowers finer and more lasting during hot and dry 
weather than if they are grown on a sandy, or stiff clay 
soil. Taking the chances of the season through, I do not 
like a shady situation for pansies, but prefer an eastern or 
northern slope, if possible, away from trees or buildings 
which may sometimes deprive the plants of the benefit of 
several successive rains, but I seldom shade the plants even 
after transplanting, for, if the bed has been kept fine for 
. sometime before the plants are set out, watering and shading 
are seldom necessary, if the soil is well pressed about the 
roots. 

If it is intended to grow the different classes or colors sepa- 
rate from each other, selections may be made and the plants 



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166 Wisconsin State Hoktzcultukai* Sogekty. 

reset, after they commence to flower, which they will do late 
in June or early in July, if from early sown seeds. I have 
never yet bought seed of any particular class which was 
entirely free from mixtures. 

After transplanting, the flowers and buds should always 
be removed until the plants show signs of being well estab- 
lished in their new situation. 

Flowers may be had early in June from seeds sown in the 
window, or a hot-bed, in March, but few persons will give 
the care necessary to prevent the plants damping oflf or be- 
coming drawn. 

No matter what may be the natural fertility of the soil it 
can be improved for pansies by an application of thoroughly 
decayed manure, while no satisfaction need be expected if 
the soil is poor, or neglected after cultivation. 

As I grow many plants I prefer to set them in long rows, 
about eight inches apart in the rows, and the rows about 
eighteen inches asunder, with a path between each ^two 
rows. 

After the middle of August an application of well deeayed 
manure, as a light mulch, is beneficial if there are no hens to 
assist in spreading. As they sadly overdo their work, it had 
better be omitted if their assistance cannot be prevented. 
The young plants can be saved from being scratched out by 
hens, by sticking over each plant in a slanting position a 
piece of shingle, hazel switch, or other stick, about ten 
inches long, so that about six inches may be out of the 
ground. 

If the flowers are grown on a poor soil, or during very hot, 
dry weather, the inexperienced would scarcely realize the 
beauty possible from the same plants, with more favorable 
conditions. The possible beauty of flowers from any plant 
is seldom shown in the first blossoms. The colors in the fall 
are much richer and deeper, so much so, that plants, which 
have shown nearly pure white flowers through the summer, 
will, later in the season, have an amount of color which is 
disappointing if white ones are desired. 

There is, with the pansy, a tendency to change in two di- 
rections; one to differ from the parent, either by mixing or 



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The Pansy. 167 

through natural tendency to variation; the other to revert to 
the original form and colors of the species, as shown in the 
Johnny-jump-ups, of the old fashioned gardens, which are, 
hke the original type, growing wild in the fields of England. 

If self-sown plants are depended upon, they rapidly degen- 
erate, because those nearest to the original type are most 
prolific of seeds, and more hardy than improved varieties. 
The same holds true if seeds are saved without careful se- 
lection, though the process of reversion will be somewhat 
slower; but if we desire to improve what we have, we must 
select seeds with certain objects in view, such as distinct- 
ness or peculiarity of markings, size of flowers, good form, 
that is, round, and not long or triangular flowers, beautiful 
colors and robust growth of plants. 

.If a selection is made with a view of flxing any peculiar 
shade of color or markings, it is interesting to notice how 
the flowers of future plants will, while having a general re- 
semblance to the parent, differ in many respects from each 
other. 

A few years ago a plant attracted my attention, its flow- 
ers being shaded with a peculiar blending of purple over the 
other colors. I thought I was going to bring out a novelty, 
and was intending to call it ^^Rainbow " but last season 
I found that my Rainbow, much improved, had been 
brought out by the dealers as "Quadricolor." 

I would say, then, from my own experience, that pansies 
will not run out in the hands of careful, amateur growers, 
but will steadily improve in proportion to the care taken in se- 
lection, but it is a question for each to decide for himself if the 
pleasure derived will pay for the time expended. Perhaps 
those who do not love pansies suflBciently to make them a 
hobby, would do better to depend on purchased seed. 

Even when the characters of a variety are in some meas- 
ure fixed, as with the Emperor William, there will seldom be 
two plants with flowers alike, so that when people read de- 
scriptions of new varieties, they should understand that 
they apply only in a general way, for it would take a long 
time, if it be at all possible, to make any particular markings 
constant. 



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168 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

Some varieties do not bear seed so freely as others. This 
is particularly true of the "Odier" or five blotched, and the 
best [specimens of black. On the other hand, I sometimes 
pull up and throw away plants having only the fault of 
seeding too freely, because their style might be too often 
represented in the future. 

To what extent pansies will mix, if the different varieties 
are grown in proximity, I do not know. That changes more 
striking result from mixing than from inherent tendency to 
vary, many years of observation have shown me; but as my 
desire has been mainly to have the best, in great variety, I 
have not made much endeavor to keep varieties pure by iso- 
lation, and have only tried to prevent mechanical mixture 
of the seeds which requires care, because the seeds will shoot 
from the pods several feet when drying. 

As to which dealers furnish the best varieties, it is a diffi- 
cult question to answer. Of the many dealers patronized, 
all have pleased me, and each have at some time or other 
given disappointment. 

While pansies are largest and most beautiful in cool, moist 
weather, they seed more abundantly when the weather is 
tolerably dry and warm. 

Constant watchfulness is required when sowing the seed, 
or the divisions of the pods will close together, shooting 
the seeds in all directions just before one thinks they are 
ready to be picked. After the pods are full grown, watch 
them closely, and when the next pod above has reached its 
full size, the first will be about ready to pick; and so with 
each succeeding pod. 

When they have reached their stage of growth, the di- 
visions where the pods will separate, should have a hard, 
bony appearance; then they should be gathered. 

The seeds should have commenced to turn brown before 
being gathered, and a close observer, after opening a few 
pods, can soon tell, by the external appearance, when they 
should be picked. The pods should be dried in an airy place, 
and not allowed to become mouldy, whicw hill happen if 
they lie too closely together. They should be covered, when 



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Failures in Fruit Culture. 169 

drying, with mosquito netting or other open fabric, to pre- 
vent the seeds from scattering. 

Those who do not care to save the seeds, should remove 
the flowers as soon as they have withered; for by so doing 
they will improve future flowers, and make the plants more 
enduring. If fine flowers are desired for any particular oc- 
casion, we can, by keeping all flowers from expanding for a 
couple of weeks, until a few days before the time, greatly 
promote the desired object. Plants which have commenced 
to flower early and have borne seeds freely, until the close 
of the season, will not live over winter, even with the best 
of care, except in very mild seasons. Young plants, with 
the same protection, stand the winter much better than old 
ones, but if those which have flowered much are cut back 
early enough to promote new growth before winter, their 
chances for living will be greatly enhanced. 

A cold-frame furnishes the best protection for young or 
old plants, but most persons, including the writer, must use 
some substitute, for which nothing is better than a covering 
of light branches, among which forest leaves have been 
shaken, or straw may be substituted for the leaves. 

Precautions should be taken before winter sets in, to guard 
against ice or water collecting around the plants. 



A QUARTER OF A CENTURY OF FAILURES IN 
FRUIT CULTURE. 

By A. W. SiAS, Rochester, Minn. 

Some one has said of the poet Tennyson, that his " vanity> 
egotism and self absorption are so great as to leave no room 
for manners." Now while I do not covet such a reputation 
as this, I am at a loss to know how to relate all our failures- 
without talking much about myself, and in that case 
of course I might be mistaken for an egotist, but as- 
I have the enviable reputation of being a modest 
member of the Minnesota State Horticultural Society,. 
I shall try hard to maintain this distinction of which 
I am so justly proud, as this is a rare bird on our side 

12— HORT, 

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ITO Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

of the river among '^ Tree Peddlers." This is the first oppor- 
tunity I have had in meeting in connection with this so- 
ciety, although I have been slowly plodding along in this 
good work just. across the '^Father of waters," for about 
twenty-five years, and after meeting in our own state such 
worthy members of your Society as President Smith, Geo. 
Peffer, A. J. Philips, E. Wilcox, J. C. Plumb, and others, it is 
not strange that I had looked forward to this meet- 
ing with high anticipations of pleasure and profit. To under- 
take to show up all the failures that we have met with time 
during the past twenty-five years, would require all the 
usually devoted to one of your winter sessions. 

The first cause of failure that came under my observation 
on my arrival in Minnesota, was that of planting trees that 
originated in New England and the Middle States, none of 
which proved of sufficient hardiness to withstand our higher 
and dryer climate. 2d one: Great cause of failure was lack 
of care and cultivation, allowing the trees to dry up during 
seasons of drought. Have never yet seen an orchard in our 
state that was plowed and cultivated as much as it should 
have been. Every time you plow and drag an orchard 
you destroy millions of insect eggs, and at the same time 
kill myriads of insects that play such sad havoc on both 
tree and fruit. Thorough cultivation serves the double 
purpose of ridding the soil of injurious insect life, and 
bringing the trees safely through a season of protracted 
drought, which without such thorough cultivation some- 
times causes the death of more trees than our most 
severe winters. There is no substitute for moisture in the 
orchard, it must be constantly kept up or your trees will 
surely perish. The more you cultivate, the better is the soil 
prepared to utilize the moisture from the atmosphere, and in 
no other way can you successfully combat the oft repeated 
objection that Minnesota is too high and dry for successful 
fruit culture. 

3d. Failures caused by locating orchards in low, frosty val- 
leys, and in many cases too closely and heavily sheltered by 
tall forest trees, thus shutting out a free circulation of air, 
which is so essential in districts subject to blight. Have 



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Why Don't Our People Eaise More Fruit. lYl 

seen rows of Duchess blighted to the ground in such unfav- 
orable situations, and have never known them to suffer from 
the effects of blight in any other locations. 

4th. Another prolific cause of failure in Minnesota, has 
recently been found to consist in planting too many Siberian 
Crabs and Hybrids, so called, thus furnishing the best pos- 
sible plants as far as we know, for the successful propaga- 
tion of the blight, and at the same time crowding the market 
with fruit, as a rule of inferior size and quality, that will 
seldom command over one-half the price of a good standard 
apple. When Chas. Gibb, of Abbotsford, Province of Que- 
bec, and Prof. Budd, of Iowa, shall have succeeded in bring- 
ing our long list of Russian fruits out of the mist and fog 
that surrounds them, and shall have boiled them down and 
seasoned them to our taste, then I predict we may safely sub- 
stitute them for our Siberian crabs. Yes, and for the most 
of our so-called Hybrids too. 



WHY DON'T OUR PEOPLE RAISE MORE FRUIT? 
By J. Wakefield, Fremont. 

Our people are not all Smiths, Plumbs, Kelloggs, and 
some others I might mention, and I suppose that is one 
reason why they don't raise more fruit. 

I shall attempt to giveJ some of the reasons why the thing 
is so generally neglected, prefacing my remarks with the 
information that I am but a novice in the business, and have 
lived, for the past quarter of a century, away up north, 
among the pine stumps of Waupaca county, where, until 
quite recently, the majority of us, " natives," were not very 
well posted in horticultural matters, hardly knowing the 
difference between a standard apple and a crab, or whether 
dried apples were raised on trees or vines. 

Did you ever know a man, woman, or any body else, who 
wasn't fond of ripe, mellow apples, or delicious grapes or 
berries? And yet, how very few raise them. Because our 
earliest progenitors^ had a taste for wild crab apples, is no 



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172 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

reason why we should relish such things. They could get 
nothing better, while we may if we will. 

We are obliged to admit that fruit raising in Wisconsin 
has been attended with many disappointments and failures. 
But those who have profited by past experience and, instead 
of becoming discouraged, have tried again, and kept trying, 
have generally been successful, and now reap the reward. 

Can we expect anything desirable without working for it? 
It is a law of nature that we must earn our blessings, or 
steal them. But few of us have rich, old uncles, or rich 
aunts, who are anxious for the privilege of willing us un- 
counted ducats, which we do not deserve, and for which they 
have toiled and saved just to empty into our leaky pockets. 

As with money, so with everything else; it is the diligent 
that win. And it is best so. If everything grew ready for the 
plucking, we would soon be too lazy to pluck. I once heard 
a neighbor remark that he wished he had been Adam in 
that ancient garden, where he could have had so siany nice 
things just for the picking. I told him I wished so too, for 
in that case, he would have been too lazy to eat the fruit, 
even after the old lady had plucked it for him, and, conse- 
quently, there would have been no " transgression." 

Some won't set out trees because it takes so long for them 
to grow. They can't wait. 

A few years ago I was setting out an orchard of some two 
hundred quite small trees. A neighbor made light of a gray 
headed man like me setting out -such small trees, and ex- 
pecting ever to receive much benefit from them. But I kept 
on just the same, and the past season we had from those 
same trees nearly all the apples we shall need, and we ex- 
pect with average luck, to live and drink barrels of cider 
made from the fruit raised in that orchard, and my neigh- 
bor hasn't even a crab tree yet. I expect to keep on setting 
out trees while I live. I may never have any grandchildren 
to thank me for my labors, but I presume somebody else 
will. 

Others refuse to raise fruit because they have no time to 
bother with the "plaguey things." They consider the time 
spent in the orchard, garden or vineyard, as just so much 



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Why Don't Our People Eaise More Fruit. 173 

thrown away. And thus they live from year to year, no flow- 
ers, in cool, pleasant groves about their houses, no trees in 
the spring loaded with beautiful blossoms, soon to be replaced 
by rich and health-giving fruit; no attractions to make their 
sons love the old homesteads, or their daughters ambitious 
to become farmers' wives. It is true, they may become rich, 
but — that is all. If man can find nothing nobler to do in 
this world than getting rich, the sooner he sneaks out of it 
the better. Delving is only a part of man's mission here. 

It requires the exercise of at least a little plain common 
sense to achieve success in raising fruit. Some people know 
it all at the start, but the successful man gets his informa- 
tion at the other end of the route. Experience is said to be 
a good teacher, but what a dearth of apt scholars ! Horticul- 
ture, as any other science, must be learned. Nothing comes by 
intuition, and that is the reason why so many fail. They 
won't learn. One failure settles them. They never try 
again, and their wives must continue to work up their 
neighbors' fruit on shares, while their boys are bound to 
steal theirs. 

Years ago our society resolved that fruit would grow in 
Wisconsin, but that didn't prevent the majority of our apple 
trees from growing black-hearted the next winter. Our 
faith didn't save us that time. Our orchards went up, all 
the same. But other orchards were planted, and yet others, 
while our neighbors jeered at us, and predicted all sorts of 
evil, and would have nothing to do in the matter. But our 
faith still held out, and we kept on planting, failing some- 
times, but always trying to grow wiser from eadh failure, 
until to-day Waupaca county takes no " back seat" among 
the fruit growing counties of northern Wisconsin. Our seed- 
lings are among the finest in the state, both in flavor, hardi- 
ness and productiveness. 

And yet the howl goes up from two-thirds of our people, 
^^ fruit raising is a failure in Wisconsin." So it is — with 
them. And it ought to be. They don't deserve anything 
better than Soulard Crabs, because they won't half try for 
anything better. 

We may fail again. Our trusted seedling may '' go back 



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174 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

on us." An Arctic blast may chill the life out of kinds 
that we now deem invulnerable. But " sufficient for the day 
is the evil thereof." We do raise good fruit, and that is 
more than our faint-hearted neighbors can boast of. 

If our people could be induced to take and read more Ag- 
ricultural and Horticultural books, and in addition to home 
journals, papers like the Western Farmer, Prairie Farmer 
and kindred publications, there would be a great change for 
the better among the masses. There is nothing like the in- 
dependent, practical, honest press to educate the people, and 
Brother Plumb and his co-laborers are doing a good work. 
May they be encouraged, for they earn all they get. 

Our local and state horticultural societies are a power in 
the good work, and should receive liberal aid from the state, 
and no bill in the legislature last winter received a heartier 
^'aye" from me than the one giving the state society the pit- 
tance asked for. It ought to have been doubled. So with 
the state agricultural societies, and the grant ought not to 
have been rendered worthless by being loaded down with 
inconvenient, if not insulting conditions. 

There is an increasing desire on the part of our own peo- 
ple to obtain the publications of our state society, and 
greater facilities should be afforded for their more general 
dissemination. Also, lecturers are needed, and a moiety of 
the funds now appropriated to enable a few gentlemen to 
occasionally parade the streets of our cities and exhibit their 
ball coats and brass buttons, to the great wonder and de- 
light of the small gamins and envy of the bigger ones, 
could be profitably expended in paying such lecturers. 
While the cities could be no worse oflf, the country would 
certainly gain by the economy. 



CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE YEAR 1883, IN 
THEIR RELATION TO THE APPLE. 

By J. C. Plumb, Milton, Wisconsin, Green Bay, December, 1883. 

One of the most interesting phenomena of the past year 
from a pomological stand-point, is the general failure of the 
apple crop, within a wide area, known as the most natural 
apple region of our country. 

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Climatic Conditions in Eelation to the Apple. 175 

This area may be roughly outlined, as that between lati- 
tude 40 on the south, and 44 on the north, or a width of four 
degrees, about 280 miles, extending from the Missouri river 
to the Atlantic sea board. 

This limit in our meridian may be stated as reaching from 
Champaign, Illinois, to Oshkosh or Menasha, Wisconsin, on 
the north. The width of this belt is often variable, but 
marked enough to call for special investigation as to the 
cause of this general and remarkable failure of the apple 
crop within this area the past season of 1883. 

I say remarkable, because in the last thirty years of my 
experience in the west, as my memory now serves me, no 
such wide spread and general failure has before occurred, 
and all the more remarkable, because within the last twenty 
years there has been great advance in the art and practice 
of growing this fruit. New varieties have been introduced, 
having largely increased adaptation; better locations have 
been chosen for orchard sites: more intelligent ideas of, and 
increased facilities for destroying insects prejudicial to this 
fruit, are now well known. 

And yet we have this great dearth of apples, while to the 
north of this belt we find a full average crop was produced, 
and south of it we find the same, and in some cases much 
more, and that following the excessive yield of the previous 
year, 1882. 

So far, my extensive reading goes to show that this re- 
markable phenomenon is yet unaccounted for by any writer 
since the fact became known. 

In my investigations of this subject I have brought up in 
turn the ordinary influences which are known to affect the 
apple in the following order: 

First, spring frosts; second, insects; third, want of vitality 
in the tree; fourth, infertilization; fifth, mis-nutrition. 

First. Was it spring frosts affecting the embryo fruit at 
or soon after blooming? If so, then we might reasonably 
expect the hill tops and water slopes, which are always least 
affected by untimely frosts, to have have produced the most 
fruit. On the contrary, sheltered locations gave the most, 
and that most perfect. 



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176 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

Second. Were destructive insects uncommonly plenty? 
It is well known that the year following an abundant crop 
of apples, is the time to expect an overflow of insects which 
prey upon that fruit, for the reason, that in the fruitful year 
they breed with comparative security and with great rap- 
idity, and so come forth the next year in corresponding 
numbers and vigor. But as 1882 was not a year of great 
abundance of apples in this belt, we saw no great destruc- 
tion by them, until other causes intervened to shorten the 
crop this year. So while insects were "in at the death," as 
usual, the general failure cannot be laid to their charge this 
year. 

Third. Were our trees weakened by the very severe win- 
ter of 1882-3? Undoubtedly they were; many of them, un- 
usually so, but not this even can account for the barrenness 
of the Siberians and hybrids, which are among the hardiest 
of the apple species, while the Golden Russett, not even an 
ironclad, bore almost its usual crop throughout all this region. 
The winter of 1881-2 was not in any sense a very severe 
one on fruit trees in our state., and yet the Siberians, as a 
class, failed to perfect their fruit, giving us even less than 
the half hardy apples. In 1 882, both Michigan and New 
York had less than a full average crop of apples, and in 
both states there was, this past season, the most entire fail- 
ure ever known in that crop. I have not heard a word from 
any fruit grower in either of those states indicating a de- 
bilitated condition of the tree, as the cause of barrenness. 

If weakness from the effects of winter were a cause, then 
why do we find such a show of fruit at this meeting from 
Minnesota, and why the grand display which that state 
made at the meeting of the American Society, at Philadel- 
phia last fall, which was nearly all produced north of this 
barren belt which I have described to you. There were, no 
doubt, cases, in which overbearing last year was a good 
and sufficient reason for the short crop this year, such being 
the case with the orchard of friend Phillips, in La Crosse 
county, and which lies just on the border of this belt, but 
not so the great mass of the barren orchards within this 
belt. 



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Climatic Conditions in Eelation to the Apple. 177 

Fourth. Three common causes of barrenness, either sep- 
arate or combined, failing to account for the short crop of 
apples the past season, we turn to the most potent and 
yet more subtile and often least suspected of any. 

infertilization. 

The principles involved in the poUenization of plants are 
well understood and defined, and the laws which govern it 
are taught in all our higher schools. But the processes are so 
quiet, and dependent upon so many conditions that few 
can trace them to their success or failure. When all other 
conditions fail to prove a suflScient cause for the absence of 
fruit, we may well inquire as to tlie efficiency of this process 
in the case in hand. 

So we turn to this as the first great cause of the barren- 
ness of our apple trees the past summer within the belt de- 
scribed. 

The atmospheric conditions of successful poUenization of 
the apple are warm sunshine and gentle showers, which 
favor both the proper secretions of the organs of the flower 
and its distribution mid-air, or by the help of insect life. 

We are told that the apple blossom is especially depend- 
ent upon insects for its proper fertilization; some varieties 
being so weak in staminate action as to require the help of 
other and stronger flowers, which they get mainly through 
the help of insects which flit from flower to flower. 

Now, were the atmospheric conditions favorable to these 
processes last spring at blooming time? I find on referring 
to my record, that we had from the 16th to the 28th of May 
but one day in which pollen of the apple would develop, or in 
which bees would carry it from flower to flower, which was 
the 24th. This was my judgment at the time, from frequent 
observations. There were in that time stated seven days in 
which a cold rain fell, or of cold, cloudy weather, and sim- 
ilar conditions doubtless prevailed over the entire north. 

As the result of this want of fertilization, the young fruit 
did not set as profusely as usual, and that which did form 
seemed lacking in some essential of success, and most of it 
fell to the ground before the apple worm had made any 
serious inroads upon it. 



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178 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

Now, you may ask, why did not the apple north of or 
south of that belt suffer from the same cause?. In answer 
to which we reply, simply because the bloom was not out 
during the period of unfavorable weather north of the belt, 
and south of it the blooming was passed. In other words, 
both sides of this barren belt had more genial skies during 
the critical period of fertilization. 

From the 24th to the 30th of May inclusive, we had five 
days out of the seven, most favorable for pollenization, and 
we found that the section where the apple would be in bloom 
during those days produced an abundant crop of fruit. On 
the other hand, from the 7th to the 16th of that month there 
were five days or more of favorable weather for the apple 
bloom; hence, the usual crop of fruit in southern Illinois. 

Unfavorable general conditions of weather seemed to 
continue at spells through all the early summer, and conse- 
quently nearly all varieties of apples were checked in their 
leaf growth, failing to make well developed foliage, and 
here we have the fifth cause — want of nutrition. Such 
half-formed, imperfect foliage could not assimilate plant 
food, neither for the tree nor its fruit, and consequently, those 
varieties which did set young fruit well could not hold it, 
and a common remark was, " our apples don't grow any." 
This was truly the case until the hot, dry weather of August 
came on, which soon gave a better foliage and enlarging of 
the fruit rapidly. 

This was the case with our St. Lawrence and Golden Rus- 
sett, but the former, with most of the earlier varieties, lost 
its fruit when less than one-fourth size, while the latter held 
its fruit as before stated. This effect of too much cold, wet 
weather in early summer, was seen more plainly in the nur- 
sery, where some of our most vigorous varieties of both ap- 
ple and crab, under high culture, failed to make more than 
one-half the growth usual to them, while other varieties 
seemed at home and throve whatever the weather might be. 
Such was the Duchess and Hyslop, but the same varieties 
failed to fruit generally in this belt. 

So we have this last cause of failure, closely allied to that 



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The Northern and the Southern Home. 179 

of infertilization, as nutrition follows germination in the 
natural order of progress in life. 

I know that most of our observers will ascribe this fruit 
failure to the "blight" and showing its presence at that time 
will rest their case there, against the universal bacteria. But,, 
believing as I do, that blight is not a primary, but a second- 
ary cause, which is dependent upon peculiar conditions of 
climate and soil, and vital force in the plant for its exten- 
sion, and its power to injure the plant, I look upon its ap- 
pearance as the result of, or the concomitant of these various 
unfavorable natural conditions which weaken the plant, and 
load it with morbid matter, when it becomes an easy prey to 
this universal scavenger, blight. 

It would be an interesting study to follow next year, the 
same line of observations, and also to note the effect on the 
health of the tree, and its fruit bearing next year, both as a 
result of this year's affection and the next year's causes. As 
horticulturists we need to know all the conditions of success 
or failure if it be possible, that we may overcome them, 
evade them, or bear more patiently what we cannot help. 

This paper was designed to be more suggestive than dis- 
coursive, therefore we trust you will give the subject your 
most careful attention. 



THE NORTHERN AND THE SOUTHERN HOME. 

By Mrs. Ida E. Tilson, West Salem, Wis. 

The chances are that a northern visitor's first impressions 
of any part of the south will be disappointing, though, of 
course, each person will see with somewhat different eyes. 
Oranges, palms, magnolias, camellias, and even wild flowers, 
do not grow in such profusion as expected. One need not 
go far beyond New Orleans to find dismal marshes, nor much 
further to sandy barrens. The streets of Jacksonville, at no 
great great distance, end in palmetto scrub or pine woods. 
Log huts and primitive looking premises are not unknown 
round about Nashville. Yet quaint New Orleans recalls 
oriental tales and pictures, lovely Jacksonville is the Florida 



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180 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

of one's imagination, and stately Nashville is long remem- 
bered for its rich and tasty homes. A vast number of semi- 
tropical trees, shrubs, flowers and fruits, will grow, with 
proper care, in the southern states. Tea, coffee, cassava, 
date-palm, Japanese magnolia, and a long list of Chinese 
fruits, are among more recent introductions, while the well- 
tested orange and the native growths are justly celebrated. 
Some houses have delightful yards and gardens. If the 
northern visitor wonders why there are so few such sur- 
roundings, he ought also to wonder why his own section of 
country has so few apple and plum orchards, and why the 
black walnut, butternut, snow-ball, clematis, and other val- 
uable and beautiful northern horticultural materials, are riot 
more utilized. 

We may conclude, then, that homes, south as well asi 
north, thrive only under rational cultivation. In all, work 
is essential to success, and in none does work seem to be a 
perfectly natural and easy exercise. 

The horticulturist looking for a location, may profitably 
consider the comparative claims of these two parts of our 
country, and can, to some extent, correctly judge one region 
by the other. 

I am aware of little stony soil south, except in some of 
the border states and in parts of Louisiana. Every variety 
of clay, sand, muck, and loam can be found. There is still 
much unoccupied land. A portion was never improved, other 
portions, cultivated before the war, have reverted to govern- 
ment for unpaid taxes, etc. Excellent land has been sold in 
Mississippi and Florida for $1.25 per acre; $30 an acre would 
often be considered a high price. Certain tracts require 
drainage, and equally so in Illinois. The rainfall is abund- 
ant, except in western Texas. Thus far, the north, and 
especially Dakota and the whole northwest, can probably 
claim equal advantages. 

Dr. Jacques, author of several descriptive works, concedes, 
aU things considered, to southern Alabama and Greorgia and 
northern Florida, the finest climate in the world. Neverthe- 
less, Nevada, Iowa, and Minnesota, rank higher in point of 
healthfulness than any southern states, Florida alone ex- 



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The Northern and the Southern Home. 181 

cepted. Fever and ague are formidable rivals of catarrh 
and consumption. Many people highly prize relief from 
coal-stove gases and from cellar germs attendant on some 
furnaces, so-called causes of diphtheria, and choose to dwell 
where ancient fire-places still linger, and only grates and 
small stoves are in requisition. They, however, retain the 
privilege of taking cold; for sharp winds stray from the 
north, and seasons vary as with us. To illustrate dissimilarity 
of temperatures, I can recall three chance tarryings in Ten- 
nessee, in three different months, January, March and 
October, when I neither had nor needed fires. In Alabama 
and Florida, at similar seasons of year, extra warmth has 
been very acceptable. 

It is pleasant to be surrounded all the while by verdure, 
flowers and growing food crops. In Florida the tired house- 
wife does not need to house her choice plants, and elsewhere 
the shelter of a porch, or occasional coverings at night, are 
sufficient. The fruit grower less often mourns an untimely 
frost, and if it does come he finds compensation in its check 
to insects and its hardening of wood. Houses with their 
longest sides turned toward streets and front yards, and 
composed largely of halls and piazzas, hint of winter's gentle 
sway and summer's mellow moonlight evenings. Nothing 
can be more restful than this constant communion with 
nature, with a beauty that never loses its peace. Mrs. Stowe, 
you remember, in her " Palmetto Leaves," says that winter 
is a tidy dame, north, where with her broom of winds she 
sweeps every tree clean, and lays over all the earth a snowy 
mantle of purity. November and December do produce 
some changes in a southern landscape; vegetation wears a 
more sickly hue, yellow leaves are dropping simultaneously 
with the coming of young green ones, till January makes 
everything as good as new. Generally, tedious summers is 
the price paid for mild winters. The brief and varied north- 
ern season give our eyes no hint how such continual glare 
and sunshine try weak optics. 

From a financial stand-point, an " all round the year " sum- 
mer may be desirable. The southern market gardener raises 
his produce at a time when his northern rival cannot corn- 



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182 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

pete. He will, therefore, get more for a bushel of early veg- 
etables than for half a dozen bushels later. Nor, as the year 
advances, need he leave the field, but can go right on and 
equal northern results. 

Gardening ordinarily begins with January. I have seen 
it commence at that time in both Mississippi and Florida. 
An acquaintance in Tennessee made her garden in January 
of this year. Early efforts might need guarding from frost. 
I have heard of people building bonfires for such a purpose. 
Later plantings sometimes have a rough arbor built over 
them to exclude the sun's attentions. In Florida a second 
regular planting season begins with September. 

While the months now roll around, each will be found to 
have, not a presiding deity, but a presiding bug. The horti- 
culturist, who is, or ought to be, a practical man, will be 
relieved to learn that these pests are chiefiy blood-relations to 
mosquitoes, gnats, fieas, etc., who prey upon his unmarketable 
self rather than on his fruits. Our hardy curculio, potato 
bug, rose bug, aphis and their friends are comparatively 
rare south of the Potomac and the Ohio. Whether they 
have not yet learned the way thither, or whether the climate 
is unsuitable, naturalists do not seem to be decided. 

Strawberries are not a northern product alone. They are 
raised in northern Florida, and very extensively about 
Charleston, South Carolina. I have eaten beauties in April 
at Charleston, and seen large quantities shipped the same 
month. Huckleberries and blackberries have a wide range. 
The woods of Wisconsin and Florida are equally full. The 
first American vineyard was in Virginia. South Carolina 
has long been noted for its native grape, the Scuppernong, 
vines of which often reach an immense size. Florida has a 
grape, really the same variety, more commonly known there 
as BuUace's. The Catawba itself was first found wild in 
Maryland, but northern soil has seemed more congenial, 
noticeably about Cleveland. A few fine hybrids from native 
and exotic kinds have been produced in South Carolina. 
On the whole, grape culture has received little attention 
south, and New York and Connecticut growers can exhibit 
much greater areas, better methods, and more solid pecuniary 



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The Northern and the Southern Home. 183 

success Maryland has long rivaled JSTew York and New 
Jersey in peach culture. Mr. Barbour, in a recent work, 
says: *' Near Orange City, Florida, is undoubtedly the largest 
tree of this kind in America, with a spread of branches over 
seventy feet in diameter." I never saw it; have eaten its 
fruits, however, and believe in the tree. 

Georgia is now rapidly developing into a peach state. 
While the cultivation is extending south, Michigan and 
Nebraska are boasting: of equal success. Some late reports 
from Michigan seem to indicate that peach orchards, under 
a like, patient, scientific care, will pay almost as well as 
orange groves themselves. There is perhaps less danger of 
overdoing orange production. Not all of Florida, and small 
areas comparatively of California, Louisiana and California, 
can be fitted for this tree. It demands more labor, money, 
and time, than the peach, not often bearing till six or eight 
years old, and seldom giving an income before fifteen or 
seventeen years of age. Its whole life, fortunately, is on 
the same leisurely plan, and Floridians say an orange tree is 
in the very prime when 'tis one hundred. It has its own 
special enemies, and, at present, there is a great variety of 
methods in planting and cultivation, the whole more or less 
experimental. Apples grown south are usually so small 
hard, and bitter, they are popularly known as " horse apples." 
As far north as Missouri, I have eaten excellent specimens 
of this fruit in March, a testimony to their keeping qualities. 
I have heard Floridians and Alabamians say an apple is 
more delicious than an orange. Here again, "distance 
lends enchantment." The dainty quince finds congenial spots, 
south as well as north. Pomegranates, figs, and pine-apples 
are semi-tropical to be sure. In compensation, our bright, 
tart currants reach only to Kentucky, and raspberries to 
Georgia. Pecans, almonds, and other nuts, which thrive 
from Arkansas on down, are rather more appetizing than 
our butternuts and hickory nuts. Shade often being desir- 
able south, to raise vegetables among trees, thus getting a 
double use of the land, is more common and feasible than 
here. 

The horticulturist's wife may be interested in a more ex- 



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184 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

tended notice of ornamental plants. I shall always remem- 
ber a flower garden in Florida, self-sown with Drummond's 
phlox, almost as thick as grass. The yellow jessamine, ver- 
bena, cactus, passion-flower, yucca, and parent rose of the 
Baltimore Belle and Prairie Queen, grow wild in many parts 
of the south. Yet we have the same rose, called the Michi- 
gan climber, in northern woods. Wisconsin shares in the 
honeysuckle, Pennsylvania in the laurel and jessamine, and 
the plains of the west in the cactus. Licorice is also found 
about Lake Erie, and wild verbenas and passion vines grow 
in Illinois. Arbor vitae and juniper, though used as far south 
as Florida, to my mind make the most beautiful hedges in 
the middle and border states. 

Among foreign plants, the pelargonium, or geranium, is 
fond of heat. Within my yard in Florida, there grew a fish 
geranium which, with only fair care, was almost a shrub, 
and had at once twenty-six full clusters of blossoms, and 
for about three months had at no time less than sixteen clus- 
ters. Calla's, in contrast with our hot water treatment, ask 
there for the north side of a house. The Cherokee rose, now 
known to be originally from China, likewise the McCartney 
rose, grow in many localities like natives. Some hedges are 
in full vigor, fifty years old, with shoots twenty and forty 
feet long. In eastern Mississippi and about Mobile, such 
hedges are a beautiful feature of the yards and fields. I 
have admired finer specimens of English Ivy in the shelt- 
ered streets of Philadelphia and New York than I have seen 
south. The general appearance of yards is, perhaps, no finer 
than with us. Our velvety lawns are infrequent outside the 
border states. Northern grasses do not thrive; Bermuda 
grass has a sickly green; clover is practically an annual. 
Oats are pretty when young, and sometimes beautify yards 
in spring. In January, a Georgian's hotel grounds, green 
with oats and with young blades of corn growing in mounds, 
elicited admiration from guests. At first glance I did not 
recognize old acquaintances, and asked mine host what new 
kinds of grasses he was cultivating. Bays, magnolias, m;yr- 
tles, jasmines, and a great number of flowering trees, are a 
showy feature of yard decoration. As has been suggested. 



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The Northern and the Southern Home. 185 

we do not enough appreciate our syringas, lilacs and 
snow-balls. 

Surroundings indirectly affect our homes. A few wordfe 
on public parks and streets, may not be out of place. With 
few exceptions, ordinary trees and lawns are the only horti- 
cultural cultivation exhibited in southern parks. Constant 
summer and verdure very likely make people indifferent ta 
special effects. Our excellent roadways and substantial 
walks are rather ahead of southern achievements. Plank 
decays sooner than here, owing to climatic differences. In 
places like Jackson, Tennessee, and Columbus, Mississippi,, 
aside from a few brick pavements, the streets are native 
clay in the natural state, half impassable in wet weather. 
Mobile and the larger cities use some asphaltum, more bri^k, 
shells, and gravel, and the usual amount of sand or clay. 
New Orleans with some of the best granite pavements i in 
the world, has fine streets that are often either dusty or 
muddy. Too much praise cannot be given the hard, smoo ^h, 
shell drives in the suburbs of New Orleans, Mobile and gulf 
towns. The south, on an average, is very thinly settled for 
an old country, perhaps one cause of poor country roads. 
The tendency is to wide streets. Canal street. New Orleans, 
is two hundred feet wide, a central portion, for street-car 
tracks, etc., is twenty-five feet wide, bordered each side 
by a row of trees and a walk. I recollect one street with 
three rows of trees, so both car car tracks were embowered. 
Macon, Georgia, has streets one hundred and fifty feet wide. 
Savannah has broad, shaded thoroughfares, and at many of 
the principal crossings are open squares with trees. Orange 
city, Florida, a new town, has all its streets sixty feet wide, 
I believe. Baltimore has, in some quarters, double drives 
with pretty, inclosed grass plots in the center. 

The horticulturist who is a sociable person would prob- 
ably, unless he emigrated with a colony, miss his old friends. 
Southerners are exceedingly polite, kind and generous in 
any one's emergency or trouble. On ordinary occasions, 
they mingle as little with strangers, as oil with water. 

To go outside of merely neighborhood environments, the 

13— HORT. 



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186 Wisconsin State Horticultubal Socibty. 

nearness to Philadelphia, Washington, Cincinnati and other 
great fruit markets and commercial centers, is worth con- 
sidering. 

In conclusion, no state has been left by our Creator with- 
out its own peculiar advantages and opportunities. The 
right kind of a man, aided by the right kind of a woman, 
can, in any reasonably fertile spot, either of the '^ sunny 
south " or breezy north, make a charming home. Neither 
wealth nor certain locations are first essentials. Taste, pa- 
tience, and industry will everywhere make homelike homes. 



THE VIOLET AND THE LILY. 
By Mrs. Helen A. MANVUiLE. 

Under the shelter of an oak 

A modest violet grew; 
The most contented little soul, 

I'm sure I ever knew, 
Sitting within the shadow, in 

Her dress and cloak of blue. 

She never felt the sunlight on 

Her head in blessing lay, 
Yet most serenely did she smile. 

And to herself would say: 
"** How blue the sky, how bright the sun 

Does shine day after day." 

Other and statelier flowers grew 

Upon a taller stem, 
And yet her best friends never knew 

Her once to envy them; 
Nor did she wish her dress of blue 

Had ornament or gem. 

A regal lily standing near. 

Smiled on her with disdain 
(She being of her own fair looks 

Most wondrously vain,) 
To see her so contented, in 

Her simple suit so plain. 



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The Violet and the Lily. 187 

And all the day her robes so gay 

Did flaunt with much ado. 
Until sometimes they almost touched 

The humble suit of blue, 
'Most putting on her neighbor's skirt 

Her dainty crimson shoe. 

The summer passed by like a dream, 

Her beauty on the wane; 
The stately lily did not seem 

The while so wondrous vain, 
Her drens grew tt ottered in the wind, 

Nor could she mend again. 

But yet the violet never lost 

Her brightness and her bloom, 
And always happy was within 

Her little, narrow room. 
Because she knew the sunlight lay ^ 

Beyond its walls of gloom. 

Her eyes ^ad just as glad a light 

When came the chilly days, 
Her dress was always clean and bright, 

Still modest were her ways. 
And all her songs from mom 'till night 
Were songs of sweetest praise. 

Two lovers at the sunset hour, 

Walked the green meadows through; 
Whtre many a tall and regal flower 

In shining raiment grew; 
And led by some resistless power, 

Stopped by the violet blue. 

" My darling," said Paul, *' do you know 

This flower would be my choice 
Of all the beauteous flowers that grow ? 

It seems to have a voice, 
A voice that always speaks of you, 

The flower of my choice." 

** It speaks to me of peace and rest. 

Of days of joy to be, 
Of future days, when, happy blest 

For all time, dearest, we. 
And so the violet is the best 

Of all sweet flowers to me." 



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188 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

Just then the maiden's raiment touched 

The lily's shabby dress, 
But neither of the lovers saw 

Her in their happiness; 
And very wroth the lily was, 

I candidly confess. 

" To think that they should both prefer 
That simple little wight; 
That they should give the choice to her. 

When I was here in sight." 
Alas! alas I she shook so in 
Her rage, that left and right 

Her bright leaves dropped upon the sward; 

Her red hood, rent in twain, 
Fell to her feet. She had no word 

Of vanity again. 
Of her own self the most abhorred, 

She sank upon the plain. 

The violet nestling in her hair. 

The sunlight on her head, 
The maiden made a picture fair, 

As, with reluctant tread. 
She left the cool, green meadow, where, 

Unwept, uncomforted. 

The lily in her death-throes lay, 

Shorn of her every leaf, 
Her crimson vest all torn away, — 

Faded most past relief, — 
Robbed of all bloom — her vanity 

Even as her day as brief. 

The moral which I would convey. 

Let not your beauty make 
You ever vain, day after day 

Your share of sunlight take. 
And if your'e ever loved, you'll be 

Loved for your own sweet saka 



DOES THE FLOWER GARDEN PAY ? 
Responded to by Oliver Gibbs, Jr., at the Green Bay Banquet. 

Mr. President: My wife, who keeps the statistics in our 
family, notified me about a month ago, that the clock which 

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Does the Flower Garden Pay. 189 

tells the years for us had struck fifty-one for the ostensible 
head of the establishment; and now as I am on the shady 
side of life, I realize more clearly than ever before that there 
are employments for us in this world that pay tolerably well 
and yet whose remuneration may not be accompanied by the 
crinkle of greenbacks, or the clink of specie; and of all the 
branches of horticulture that pay us in the pleasure they 
afford and the good they enable us to do, I take the affirma- 
tive on the proposition that the flower garden rather has the 
lead. 

You who do not grow flowers think you love and admire 
them. Probably you do. I guess everybody loves flowers. 
But you can never begin to imagine how much pleasure they 
can confer till you come to have a flower garden and tend it 
with your own hands. 

The flower garden pays especially well in its influence 
upon children in the family. Whatever flxes the attention 
or engages the affections of the young, either elevates or 
debases them. When they take to flowers, who ever thought 
of a bad influence from it. Flowers are as good medicine 
for the mind as fruits are wholesome for the body. 

My wife and I have brought up a family of girls. We 
have one son, and he is the only one, I do not speak here to 
advertise the girls for the matrimonial market. All but one 
are gone, and we do not want anybody to come after her. 
But I was thinking when this toast conundrum was pro- 
pounded to me, how much good the rose garden at our home 
has done the girls and their associates. How convenient it 
has been when the young gentlemen from other wigwams 
were hanging around, and the old folks in the way, for the 
girls to help the cads out of their embarrassment by saying, 
" Come out and see the roses, Joe," or words to that effect." 
And as my wife and I have sat on the front porch and 
watched the evening shadows chase the retreating sunshine 
up the eastward bluffs, we may have thought to ourselves 
that lessons in horticulture were being taught the boys out 
there among the roses that would be of some use to them 
by and by, when their wives wanted a man to handle the 
old briars, or dig in the rose garden, or foot the bills for a 



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190 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

reasonable supply of seeds or plants for house or garden. 
Who could refuse, remembering the flower garden of young 
love's dream? We may have thought, too, that the girl 
who gives a young gentleman such lessons in horticulture, 
and who pins a flower upon his coat or places a bouquet in 
his hand, as she bids him good-night over the front gate, 
does her part to make a husband for somebody who will be 
more of the lover in married life for it, and who will find 
flowers in his home that are more attractive for his evening 
or other leisure hours than society at the clubs or cross-roads 
groceries, and who will " treat his wife, may be, as the most 
splendid flower " of all. 

I remarked that we have but one son in the family. At 
present he is not much of a horticulturist. If he follows the 
plow with any pleasure it is when some neighbor has bor- 
rowed it and is taking it off the premises, or when it is badly 
crippled and going to the blacksmith shop. He does not feel 
the need of exercise in the garden. He loveth not the hoe, 
and the dibble is an abominaticn. Also the spade; and he 
would actually go without his strawberries than to pick 
them for himself. Yet for all this there is hope for even 
him. He may be eminent in horticulture some day. For 
after his mother has bossed the job, and I have done the 
work to grow a few choice free blooming roses, we notice 
now that when he comes home from the shop and flxes him- 
self up for his evening walk, he, too, goes round the corner of 
the house to the flower garden and cuts a bloom of some- 
thing for his coat collar, and liberally helps himself to 
enough of the pink moss roses to stock a school graduation; 
and when his mother watches his crossing the lawn towards 
the city she knows these flowers are not going to the beer 
saloon or the billiard hall; and she knows, too, that they will 
carry a silent message to some other mother that says we can 
trust our children when they wear the badge or carry the 
tokens or study together the lessons of the flowers. 

How often a timely gift of flowers pays us for our labor 
in growing them. How delicately can we confer a favor or 
repay an obligation in this way, and how many fine lessons 
can be impressed by flowers. One day last summer I saw a 

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The Orchard. 191 

railroad conductor, a young man, new on the road, interfere 
to protect a passenger from the insolence of a baggage mas- 
ter. The next trip he made through our to.wn he found the 
best bouquet the place afforded a. waiting him at the station, 
indorsed with the compliments of Lake City, for politeness 
to passengers. When that bouquet went home to his mother, 
wife, sister or sweetheart, at Hastings, while the givers re- 
flected how it paid to grow flowers, I dare say he was think- 
ing and would never forget that it paid to exercise common 
sense and politeness in the management of a railroad train. 

The flower garden pays in the aid it gives us in the regu- 
lation of our lives. There are no creeds here to better the 
mind, no conventionalities to hinder our study into the laws 
of life. When we study the organs and growth of plants 
and flowers, we are led directly and irresistibly to apply the 
knowledge we gain by analogy to ourselves as only higher 
forms of life; and seeing one great law of variation, improve- 
ment, or degredation and heredity governing all, we learn to 
reverence the provisions that nature makes for man to work 
out his own relief; and to understand that there is no escape 
from the dreadful consequences of inattention to or vio- 
lations of natural law, either for ourselves or our posterity. 

We now understand, as pomologists,that the fundamental 
condition of success is a knowledge of fruit blossoms. Let 
us note and give due credit to the fact that all or nearly all 
our advancement here has had its beginning in the work of 
florists, in the study of the nature and uses of the organs of 
flowers; and here we find that the flower garden has paid us 
as the greatest promoter of our art. 



THE ORCHARD. 
By D. Huntley. 

When our worthy President suggested that I should write 
something for the summer meeting, I thought I certainly 
would not do so, for the very good reason that I could say 
nothing that would be new or interesting, nothing but what 
the most of you already know, and then the experience pfc j 

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192 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

the last year has been anything but encouraging to fruit 
growers in our section of the state, and to write as I felt 
would hardly do. It was suggested (ironically) by Mrs. 
Huntley, that I could write a very good article on the grow- 
ing of apple trees for fire wood, as I had been doing quite an 
extensive business in that line this spring. 

In the spring of 1862, 1 set 100 apple trees. Nearly all of 
them lived to bear fruit. We watched them with a good 
deal of interest and anxiety. The first that gave us any 
fruit was the Saxton or Fall Stripe. They were grown in a 
Janesville nursery, I do not know by whom, were purchased 
by a tree dealer who bought most of his trees from eastern 
nurserymen. When the trees came to Appleton he refused 
to accept them, and an agent was sent on from Janesville to 
sell them at auction. I think the reason he gave was that 
they were not properly pruned, too low and bushy; were not 
as fine in appearance as the eastern trees. Several farmers, 
myself included, examined these trees closely and concluded 
to buy if they did not go too high. We did so, and they 
proved a success, not that they all lived or all bore fruit, but 
most of them did. Three Talman Sweet, two Sops of Wine, 
and one Golden Russett are still standing. The Golden 
Russett may hold on a year or two longer, the Sops of Wine 
are more healthy, and the Talmans are still better. Three 
varieties, viz., the Swar Wine Sop and Northern Spy, all 
died before they bore any fruit. The Pommil Gris and Early 
Harvest bore a few partial crops, but commenced dying 
nearly as soon as they commenced bearing, while the Perry 
Russetts and Col verts did a little better, but are all gone now. 
This lot contained no Red Astrachan, Duchess or Fameuse, 
but two years later, 1864, 1 bought 100 trees of J. C. Plumb, 
and 200 of Elwanger & Barry, of those trees. The Fameuse 
was the most profitable. Duchess next, and the Red Astri- 
chan still less; but the Red Astrachan trees are still healthy 
and thrifty but very shy bearers. 

I have bought and set trees nearly every season since, 
trying new varieties to a limited extent as they came up for 
public favor, but in the spring of 1881, 1 found quite a num- 



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The Orchard. 193 

ber of trees in the orchard dead; and others with a very 
sickly' appearance, that were healthy and vigorous and bore 
full crops of apples the year before. The dead ones I cut 
into fire wood. The sickly ones or those more or less injured 
I left standing, thinking I might get a partial crop before 
dying. The leaves on some of these turned yellow before 
they were half grown, others lived through the spring, but 
had a very sickly appearance, and, by the first of June, in 
spite of all the fighting I could do for them, they were en- 
tirely defoliated by the tent caterpillar, and never leaved out 
again; others showed some life till this spring, when they too 
gave up the ghost, and I commenced harvesting the last 
crop, a crop of fire wood. Now whether it was the large 
crop of apples they bore during the season of 1881, the very 
severe winter which followed the ravages of the tent cater- 
pillar, or all three of these causes combined, that killed them, 
I can not say. I do not think they would have died had it 
not been for the very severe winter. They might have with- 
stood the winter had they not borne so large a crop the sum- 
mer before, and some that could endure both of these no 
doubt, had to succumb to the additional weight of the tent 
caterpillar, for it is the last feather that breaks the camel's 
back. There are still many trees that show no signs of be- 
ing injured, but none of the tender varieties. 

Of the younger and more vigorous trees, I lost every one 
of the Jonathan Minkler, Cole's Quince, Yellow Bellfiower, 
and Ben Davis all of which bore the year before, and some 
of them a very full crop. The Jonathan, Red Romanite and 
Ben Davis, kept till apples came again, and I had begun to 
feel very much elated with the prospect of a continuous sup- 
ply of good apples during the whole year. But alas for 
human hopes and expectations, for they had to give place to 
grief and disappointment. Among other kinds still alive but 
injured, are the Hass, Plumb's Cider, Golden and Perry Rus- 
setts, and Seek-no-further, the Golden Russett least of all. 
None of the crabs, or Duchess, or Tetofsky, appear injured 
at all, and the Red Astrachan, Fameuse and Talman Sweet, 
only an occasional tree. 

Of trees set at different times since I commenced to grow 

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194 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

an orchard, the following varieties never lived long enough 
to bear, viz. : Golden Sweet, Early Joe, Sweet Bough, Primate, 
Early Strawberry, Fall Wine, King of Tompkins County, 
Wine Sop, and Haskills Sweet. Of those set which lived to 
bear apples but not with any profit, and all of which are now 
dead, are the C. Red, June Keswick, Codlin, Autumn Straw- 
berry, Fall Pippin, Munson Sweet, Pumpkin Sweet, Rawles 
Jeanette, English Russett, Wagner White, Winter Pearmain, 
Early Harvjest, and Ribston Pipin, and twenty ounce Pipin, 
Coles Quince, Red Romanite, Minkler Jonathan. Of those 
set with profit either in money or for home use are the fol- 
lowing about in the order named: Famuese, Duchess, Talman 
Sweet, Sops of Wine, Golden Russett, Saxton, Seek-no- 
further, Perry Russett, St. Lawrence, Tetofsky, Red As- 
trachan and Bailey Sweet. And were I to commence setting 
a new orchard on a new place, I should plant many more of 
the best varieties of Crabs than I ever have done, more of 
the Duchess, Fameuse, and Talman Sweet, some Saxton 
or Fall Stripe, Sops of Wine, St. Lawrence and Red 
Astrachan, and less of those not known and recognized as 
hardy. More Crabs or Siberian apples because there is more 
pleasure in growing trees that will live and grow thrifty, 
and bear fruit, than there is in growing varieties that are 
better in quality but die oftener than they live, so that 
disappointment has become the rule instead of the exception, 
and again, because they are very much better than no fruit 
and a real ornament to the orchard in blossom and foliage 
and quantity of fruit. 

I have heard many say the present season that there was 
no profit in growing or trying to grow fruit, or none except 
the small fruits, and that they should plant no more trees, 
and I have felt the force of this remark. But when I look 
around me I find that those that set no trees, as a rule buy 
little fruit, and consequently go without, and have little or 
no pleasure that those take who have even a few of the more 
hardy kinds. And if I did no more, I would certainly set 
three varieties of Crabs, viz.: Transcendent, Whitney^s ITo. 
20, and Lake Winter, and two each of summer, fall and win- 
ter apples, viz.: the Duchess and Sops of Wine for summer; 

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Stray Thoughts. 195 

St. Lawrence and Fameuse for fall, and Talman Sweet and 
Golden Russett for winter; and were I to add another for 
each of the three seasons, it would be t^he Tetof sky, Wealthy 
and Seek-no-further. 

Notwithstanding all the drawbacks and discouragements 
that we all have who try to grow fruit in this state, and es- 
pecially in my own portion of it; notwithstanding our very 
severe winters, which are so sure to visit us every five' or seven 
years, and to destroy so many of our hopes; notwithstand- 
ing the bark lice, and the borer, and the canker worm, and 
the tent caterpillar, and the mice and the rabbits; yes, and 
the cattle and the sheep; notwithstanding all these and 
many more enemies that we have to fight, yet I do believe it 
pays to grow an orchard, not in dollars and cents, perhaps, 
but for the fruit we shall certainly get in more or less quan- 
tities for ourselves and our children to eat; for the pleasure 
of seeing it grow and gathering it into the cellar to bring out 
during the long winter evenings of midwinter — and the 
fact that it does require the care, the intelligence and the 
unceasing vigilance to succeed in this undertaking brings 
us all the more pleasure in the end. What pleasure is there 
immixed with pain. Does the mother love her child any 
the less because of the care and pain it causes her; of 
the many sleepless nights and tiresome days that she be- 
stows upon it through helpless infancy and wayward youth. 
Nay, these only increase her love and make her all the 
more vigilant and watchful in her efforts for its welfare. 
And it is thus with horticulture in all its branches, if every- 
thing grew spontaneous, or with little or no effort, there 
would be little or no value given to the production, whether 
of fruit or flowers. So let us take courage and bring to our 
calling a higher intelligence, a more persevering industry; 
and our efforts will be crowned with success. 



STRAY THOUGHTS. 

By A. L. Hatch, Ithaca. 

In the presence of such an audience as this, it is evident 
that every word spoken should be valuable; that every4dea t 



196 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

expressed should be useful; that no thought should be mis- 
leading. It is our misfortune to belong to that large, and 
we hope respectable, class whose chief aim in life has been 
to get a living. And it is our further misfortune that, in 
getting that living, we have found it necessary to give such 
constant attention and such personal application, that we 
have found little or no opportunity to secure that polish of 
manner, that refinement of conduct, that easy grace of rhe- 
torical finish to our conversation, which professional and 
semi-professional employments may secure. It is to be re- 
gretted that the severe drudgery of rural life so generally 
denies to us those privileges of leisure and cheerful recrea- 
tion so desirable and necessary to the fullest enjoyment of 
life. It is very natural that we sometimes envy professional 
men, their success and positions in life, forgetting, perhaps, 
that their toil, care and anxiety may have become drudgery 
and distasteful in the extreme. "There is no excellence 
without labor." 

While we may envy the apparent excellencies of profes- 
sional laborers, we should not overlook those of our own, nor 
loose opportunities for their improvement and enjoyment. 
The true measure of value is utility, and from this stand- 
point rural occupations rise in grandeur above the artificial 
occupation of the lawyer, as Mount Blanc rises in magnitude 
above the foot-hills besides the plains. Not because the law is 
without utility, but because it is so largely connected with the 
follies and foibles of life that it often descends from the true 
dignity which should always surround life's labors. 

It is the peculiar province of rural labor to create homes 
— those centers of civilization and human comfort, where 
our mothers, our wives, our daughters shall reign queens of 
our hearts. It is to the model farm home, beautified, elevated 
and refined by horticultural influence, that the weary pro- 
fessional man turns at last as a haven of rest, where he may 
secure the comforts and blessings of life while treading 
softly down the vale of silvery-headed age. It is well, then, 
to endeavor to lessen the drugery of home work, to add to the 
beauty of our homes that we may enjoy for ourselves and 
dear ones the highest blessings that homes secure. There is. 



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Stray Thoughts. 19T 

and we should feel it, a dignity in productive pursuits, a 
grandeur in creative rural labor that shall elevate and cheer 
every moment of our lives. 

It is not possible to entertain everybody with the same 
things. Much of the work of such a convention as this 
must necessarily be over old beaten roads, and upon sub- 
jects already familiar to many. Yet it must be borne in 
mind that once in the life of each individual, everything 
under the sun is new. No sensible conclusion can be arrived 
at to guide any work, unless all the modifying circumstances 
are known and properly considered. Each and every method 
must be complete in itself. The variety in soils, sites, slopes, 
elevations and depressions that Wisconsin furnishes; the 
many shades of conditions presented to every planter; the 
ever varying phases of new varieties constantly presented, 
all tend to create constant problems in horticulture. As a 
sample of some of these problems, grape-growing may be 
taken. 

Among the stray thoughts that have come to us during 
this convention, there is one lesson of generosity peculiarly 
appropriate. We may expect that the birds, while they 
labor for us in freeing our trees and vines from insects, will 
also help themselves to a portion of our fruits. And surely, 
if the laborer is worthy of his hire, we must yield to our 
feathered friends a fair remuneration foF their services. 
That justice may be done, our planting must be more liberal, 
our plantations broader and more generous. 

And the flowers, jewels of nature, teach us another lesson 
of wisdom. Whenever we take from the plant any of its 
beautiful flowers, nature, relieved of the burden of perfect- 
ing seeds, sends out new buds and flowers in increased num- 
bers, showing clearly that generosity brings its rewards, for 
they who give most may have most. 

Truly nature might have made earth without flowers. 
Beautiful colors might all fade. And suppose they did! 
What if God decreed that henceforth every line, tint, shade, 
and marking of color should be abolished from the earth! 
Would not mankind be cursed as never before? The lavish 
combinations of color, the beautiful outlines and markings 



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198 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

of form have been created £o^ our enjoyment. If we do not 
enjoy them, if they do not make us better and cheer us by 
their beauty, it is not because of our own disposition toward 
them. 

One of the harmonies of life is found in the fact that if a 
person once experiences happiness it is a source of continued 
happiness. Pleasant memories are some of the elements of 
pleasurable emotions. What we can remember without 
remorse, that which produces only pleasant memories, is a 
perpetual well sf^ring of pleasure. If our own meeting here 
shall leave you only pleasant memories, and if it shall encour- 
age to a broader planting, a better cultivation, more skilful 
training, and a more generous supply of fruits and flowers, 
th^i it will not have been held in vain; for we consider it 
the mission of the Wisconsin Horticultural Society to 
cheapen fruits for all our people, and to improve and bless 
every Wisconsin hpme. 



BIRDS. 



A club for the destruction of sparrows and other birds was 
in formation in one of the counties of England. At the in- 
augural meeting the following facts were elicited: 

One farmer having destroyed upwards of 10,000 small 
birds in the season, yet his crops were not even up to the 
average of the neighboring farmers, being eaten up with 
wire worms and grubs. 

Another farmer having killed five birds that morning 
opened their crops, and found that a crow or rook which 
was busy with his beak at the roots of the barley, which was 
just springing from the ground, when shot, contained noth- 
ing in his crop but cockchafer grubs, worms, and some mag- 
gots of the cornfly. The truth is that the rook does not, as 
a rule, attack the healthy blades of corn, but sees with the 
wonderful quicksight with which his Maker has endowed 
him those which are fading and perishing, and knows by in- 
stinct that there is a worm at the roots of such blades. It is 



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Birds. 199 

the worm he digs for, not the corn, though he will eat that 
when there is nothing else to get — in the winter, for in- 
stance, or dry weather, when the ground is too hard to dig 
below it. But their natural food is grub^ and insects; the 
wire worm and larvae of the click beetle they are particu- 
larly fond of. They can be seen following close to the heels 
of the plowman. Of course, they cannot then be picking 
up grain as none has been sown, but are devouring the 
grubs and insects which are waiting to devour the crops. 
We therefore need not grudge them a little of the ripened 
€orn when they are driven to it afterwards by hunger, for 
they have more than earned their share of it. 

Some years ago an entire district was nearly deprived of 
its com harvest, in consequence of the rooks having been 
killed by order of some of the local authorities; the grubs in- 
creased to such an extent that they ate up all the crops. 

The same thing happened in France before the revolution 
of 1789. The government found it necessary to oflfer re- 
wards for the best method of destroying the grubs, and yet the 
farmers ignorantly went on shooting rooks and other insectiv- 
orous birds, as if they had been their greatest enemies. In one 
instance a mob of people were so enraged against one of the 
land owners, who had a rookery in his grounds, that they 
went to his house in a body, dragged him forth and hanged 
him on a branch of a tree, after which they shot his rooks 
in triumph. The proper way to have delivered their fields 
from the grubs which ravished them, would have been to 
encourage rather than to have killed the rooks, and have 
thanked the owner. 

If every rook's nest in this land were pulled to pieces to- 
morrow, there is no doubt that you would all wish them in 
their places again, and well filled, too, before this time next 
year. 

Next bird, a swallow. He had no trace of fruit or any 
kind of vegetable substance in his crop, nothing but flies 
and gnats in very great numbers, which, if they had been 
suffered to live, would have given birth to thousands of 
others. Indeed, if there were no swallows or other small 
birds to kill gnats for us, we should soon be as badly off a s 



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200 Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. 

the Egyptians were when God sent " all manner of flies," 
upon them for their sins. Among the flies found in the 
swallow's crop are some of the tipulse kind — ''daddy long 
legs " some call them. These creatures deposittheir eggs in 
great numbers under the soil, and are there hatched and 
produce larvse in the form of elongated worms, having horns 
with which they cut and bruise their food, which is the fibres 
of the roots of cereals, such as wheat and barley. They also 
do considerable mischief by disturbing the soil and expos- 
ing the sprouting seeds to the sun. Therefore, we should be 
thankful to the swallows for destroying the flies before they 
give birth to these pests.— Canadian Horticulturist. 



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