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Full text of "Trees and shrubs of the British Isles; native and acclimatised"

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J. M. DENT tf CO. 



All rights reserved 


THIS work has been prepared to enable the reader to identity not only 
the Trees and Shrubby Plants <>t' the British Isles, but also the more 
common cultivated Trees and Shrubs, and of presenting in a concise 
form much valuable information on such subjects as Timber and its uses, 
Insect and Fungoid Pests, the more common Galls, the native habitat, the date 
of introduction to this country, methods of propagation, &c. \c Over 550 
species of Trees and Shrubs are described under the headings of Flowers, 
Inflorescence, Fruit, Foliage, Mode of Growth and Winter Buds, each plant 
under iK natural order, and the characteristics of the Order preceding each 

Although there have been many works produced dealing with Trees, we 

know of none giving detailed descriptions of SUCh a number of species, and 

the Shrubs, it is believed, have never been so dealt with. Many readers 
are well informed as to most of the herbaceous plants so often described 

in popular hooks, yet the) have little or no knowledge of the great majority 
of the Trees and Shrubs which specially help to make this country so beautiful 
It is the Authors' hope that their work will not onl\ enable such persons to 
identify all the sp eies common to these Islands, and many that have been 
introduced, hut will make them familiar with their Habitat, Form, Structure, 
Beauty, I Ises, Sue. 

The work appeals to Art Masters, Botanists, Field Naturalists. Foresters, 

the general reader who wishes to know something of Trees and Shruhs. 

Horticulturists. Natural History and Scientific Societies, Owners of Estates and 
Gardens, Students. Teachers, and to the users of General Reference Libraries. 

'The Authors' wide experience as practical botanists and field naturalists 

has been brought to hear on the subject, and where this has been inadequate, 

most careful research has lie, rj carried out. and no effort spared to make the 
work absolutely reliable and up to date. 'The style of treatment is scientific 
in so far as accuracy of detail is concerned, and whilst technical words have 


been employed where necessary, there is a detailed Glossary of over .'{50 
Botanical terms with derivations of all words used, as well as lists of Latin 
and Greek roots used in Floral nomenclature, and Latin, English, Natural 
Order, and Colour Indices. 

The text is almost wholly the work of Mr. C. S. Cooper, Mr. W. Percival 
Westell, in the capacity of General Editor, having collaborated and been 
responsible for seeing the work through the press. 

The Authors wish to record their great indebtedness to Mr. George Paul, 
.1.1'.. V.M.H., of Cheshnnt, and his staff, who have at all times placed their 
valuable and unique experience at disposal and also enabled many points of a 
difficult nature to be settled from direct observation of the living plants. They 
are also under an obligation to Mr. II. R. Hutchinson, who, in his official 
capacity of Librarian to the Royal Horticultural Society, has always treated 
them with unfailing courtesy; and they desire to acknowledge the help accorded 
in the preparation of the Useful Insects plate by Mr. A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S., 
F.E.S. ; and by Mr. Claude Morley, F.E.S., who kindly supplied specimens of 
Insects; also the valuable assistance accorded by Mr. Wm. Dallimore, of 
the Royal Gardens, Kew, in the compilation of those parts of the Calendar 
dealing with the Conifera?. 

The works of many of the greatest authorities have been rigidly and per- 
sistently consulted, and the titles of some of the most useful of these are given 
at the end of the second volume for the benefit of those who may desire 
more extended information. 

The fine series of illustrations have all been specially drawn for this work 
direct from Nature by Mr. C. F. Newall, and the Artist has spared no pains 
to make his pictures thoroughly l-epresentative, and every detail technically 
correct. He is himself an experienced Botanist and an Artist of no mean 
calibre— a rare combination of great value in the accurate production of illus- 
trative work of this kind. 

c. s. c. 

W, P. w. 







[nflui --"il upon Trei 

[nfluenci upon Soil— M tation 

- udying 1 1 . - 
- in "i Ti-i;: i Bark and I I 
i - Timber and Trees generally 

Plea foi \ ■ ir Day ai 
The .Vli 

ly of Winter Buds 
I nsei ' i • I i 

ire's Lai toi y and • 

Leal i in. and Functions 

\ utumnal B B 

Kl.ii nd Pollination .... 

amercial Products of Fl - ubs 

Fruit and Sei .... 

Fine Fi uiting frees and 8 I 

Pei I i and Shru 

mpanionship of Ti i 
Our Woodlands of T la V < : BLoli 

The M i"i<ni of the 1 

An English W 1 in Springtime 

More Woodland Pictui 

II, .v f of the , > 

D i I, II, and 1 1 1 





\ i 








x vii 



\ \v i i i 








Q M.l.s 



I. Diseases of Roses .... 
II. Diseases of Orchard and Fruit Garden 

III. Pests of the Ornamental Shrubbery . 

IV. Kun^oicl Pests of Koivst Trees . 






Ranuneulacese ...... 1 

Magnoliacese ....... * 

Calycanthacete ........ i a 

Berberidea? ....... 1 o 

Cistinete ........ 18 

Tamaiiscinere ..... 00 

Hypericinese ....... 9 o 

Ternstrcemiaceae ••-... 9C 

Malvaceae ....... oo 

Sterculiacese ...... oa 

Tiliacere ..... . . 01 

Rutaceas ........ o< 

Simarubese ...... 07 

Aquifoliacea; ....... ,n 

Celastrinere . . , , 

• • . 41 



Ampelidea? ..... .q 

Sapindacese .... k 9 

Staphyleaceas ...... r , 

Anacardiaceae . . „„ 

Leeuminosae . ,., 

1 1 

Rosaceae ...... Q , 






Y I I. A \' Magnolia oonspicua | 

COMMON BARBERRY | Berberia irulgaris) 

I' l t8A N i 1 1 \ pei icum A adrossemum 

E( IRSB OB ESTN D (^Esculua Hippocast .num. 












BLACK AND \\ 1 1 111 PI \ II - 

I. SHAPES OF i.KW I - ... 



IV. TRAVELLEB - JO? (Clematis ritall 
V LIME (Tilia vulgaris) 

VI. COMMON BARBERR1 - Berberis vulj 

VII. HOLLY (Ilex aquifolium) 

VIII. si'i \ DLE TB l I Eu • yr 

IX Al DEB I'.i I KTHORN - Rhami u I ila) 

\. II' »RSE l H BSTNU1 B 


Ml. m C \M"i;i<: (Acei Psi udo-pl 

Mil. LABI KM M (Laburnum \ 

\l\ COW M"N BROOM i' parius) . 

XV BLACKTHORN (Prunus spinosa) . 

XVI. COMMON LAI REL (Prui Brasus) 

XVII. HK\\ BERRY (Rubuscassiuf 

XVlll. BRAMBLE (Rubus frutic 


\\ I 


I 2 






Abortion, (li. dborior, abortus ; ab, orior, to rise, 
to grow; ab reverses the meaning.) Failure 
to complete development. 

Accrescent. (L. accreseo, 1 am added, joined to ; 
ad, in addition; cresco, to grow.) Parts 
growing together externally. 

Acerose. (L. acer, sharp; ae, sharp.) Sharp- 
pointed or needle-like leaves. (Plate I., 
Pig. A.) 

Achene. (Gr. a, not; chaino, to open.) A dry 
fruit which does not open. 

Acicular. (L. acicula, a small pin ; acnn, a needle; 
root af, sharp.) Needle-shaped leaves. (Plate 
L. Fig. A.) 

Acuminate. (L. acuminatus, p.p. of acumino; 
aevo, I sharpen.) Apex of leaf gradually 
pointed. (Plate I., Fig. E.) 

Acute. (L. acutus, p.p. of wiio, I sharpen.) 
Pointed at the apex. (Plate VII., Fig. A.) 

Adnate. (L. adnatus, p.p. of adnascor ; ad, to ; 
nascor, to be born.) Growing near to, as 
when the filament grows up against the 

Adpressed, Appressed. (L. ad, to; pressus, -a, -um, 
compressed, close, — premo, I press.) Closely 
pressed to the surface. 

£!cidiospore. (Gr. aikia, injury ; spora, a seed.) 
A spore formed by abstriction in an secidium. 

.Scidium. (Gr. aikia, injury.) The cup-shaped 
organ in which the spores are produced. 

Alternate. (L. alternatus, p.p. of allerno ; alter, 
another.) Placed one above the other on 
opposite sides of the stem. (Plate VII.) 

Amentum or Catkin. (L. amentum, a strap or 
thong.) A deciduous spike bearing uni- 
sexual flowers. (Plate II., Figs. D 1 , D 2 .) 

Amplexicaul. (L. amplexus, p.p. of amplector ; 
ambi, around, plecto, I twine ; caulis, a stem.) 
Leaves encircling the stem at their base. 

Andro-dioecious. (Gr. aner, andros, a man, a 
male ; di, twice ; oikos, a house.) Having 
perfect flowers in one individual, and stami- 
nate only in another. 

Androecium. (Gr. andreios, male ; oikos, a house.) 
The outermost whorl of the reproductive 
organs of the flower, consisting of one or 
more stamens. 

Anemophilous. (Gr. amnios, wind; philos, loved.) 
Fertilised by the wind. 

Anthers. (Gr. an/heros, flowery, blooming; anthos, 
a flower.) The hollow pollen box at the 
summit of the stamen ; usually divided by 
the filament into two halves or lobes. 

Apetalous. Without petals. 

Apiculate. (L. apex, -ids, a point.) Terminated 
in a little point. 

Apocarpous. (Gr. apo, separate ; karpos, a fruit.) 
Pistils having separate carpels. (Plate 

Appendiculate. (L. appendicula, dim. of appen- 
dix ; ad, to ; pendere, to hang.) With appen- 
dages at the throat. 

Approximate. (L. approximatns, p.p. of ap- 
proximo ; ad, to; prorimus, nearest.) Near 

Arborescent. (L. aborescens, pr.p. of arboreseo, to 
grow to a tree). Having a tendency to 
become a tree. 

Aril. (L.L. arilli, dried grapes ; L. areo, I 
am dry.) An extra covering of the fertilised 
ovule or seed, usually fleshy and coloured, 
often falling off when dry. 

Ascus. (Gr. askos, a bag, a wine-skin.) A 
large cell or spore-case, within which spores, 
usually eight in number, are developed. 

Astringent. (L. asiringo ; at/, to ; stringo, I 
close.) Rough to the taste, causing contrac- 

Attenuate. (L. attenuatus, p.p. of attenuo ; ad, 
to; tenuis, thin.) Tapering off. 

Awns. (M.E. axon; aijun ; Ice. iign, chaff, husk ; 
Ger. aline, beard of corn or grass; ac, sharp.) 
Small bristle-like appendages. 

Axil. (L. axilla, the armpit.) The angle be- 
tween leaf oi' bract and the axis bearing it. 

Axillary. (L. axilla, the armpit.) Growing in 



the angle formed between leaf and stem. 
(Plate IX., Fig B.) 

Baccate. (L. baecat 'a, a berry.) Berry- 


Base. (Qr. bat p, a foundation; baino, to 

step.) Pari nearest insertion. 

Basidia. (G ping, base; botno, to go.) 

\1>' her cells from which spores are abjointed. 

Basifixed i ' : < 

I tix, attach.) Base of anther joined to fila- 

Basilar i >r Gynobasic. (GrJ p.) Winn 

the style springs from tin' base of the ovary. 
Berry. (A.S. berie, a berry.) A succulent fruit 

which does nol open, and which coir 

seeds buried in pulp. (Plate III., Figs. 16, 

Binate or Bifoliate. I 


only two leafli 
Bipinnate. (L. bis, twice; pii 

ther.) With leaflets tl 

pinnately divided. (Plate I.. Fig M.) 
Blade. \ - The fully expanded 

a le 
Bracteate | I. 

I : uring brai 
Bracteole. (I. i thin pint \ 

> 1 1 ■ 1 

the individual flower. 
Bracts. ( L. bractea, a thin plate of mi I 

lik' growing between the leaves and 

the flowi 
Bud-scales M ,E 

/•a/, a bud ; 0.1 ! 

bud ; \ - shell, a husk 

enveloping the bud. 
Bullate. (L. p.p. of hullo, '<> bubble; 

bulla, a bubble.) Mist I, puckered, in- 
Caducous. I I fall.) Falling 

ining "f the flower. 
Calyx. (Qr. kalyx ; holy} to; 1 p.) The 

Outer whorl of the ll"'.' 

Calyx tube. (Gr. halux, a coverii I I. 

tubus, a tnl>e ; tuba, a trumpet.) The outer 

whorl of the How. ;■ ll:-. 

Campanulate. (L. 

a bell. ) Bell -haped. 
Canescent. (L .1 become gray, 

I Hoary, approaching to 


Capitate. (L. eapitatus ; caput, the head.) Grow- 
ing in a head. 

Capitulum. (L. dim. of caput, & head.) An in- 
definite inflorescence with shortened axis and 
sile flowert Plate I] I . I I" . !•'-.) 

Capsule. (L. capsula, a small box.) A form of 
fruit which 1 disperses the seeds, 

■ 111 Figs. 7-9.) 

Carcerulus. (L. ■< r, a prison.) A fruit of four 
ore small nutlets or achenes. (Plato 111 , 
18, 19.) 
Carp ellary scale. (Gr. karpos, a fruit ; A. S. 

a husk.) The outer of the t« t< in a 


Carpels. (<ir. karpos, a fruit.) The part-- of 
the pistil which, when ripened, form the 
Cartilaginous. (L, cartilago <ir. kart 

Hard and tough, lik" cartilage. 
Caryopsis. n appear- 

e in which the membrai 
pericarp adhi ' he -ill-. 

Catkin or Amentum. m, of 

ii ing nni- 
I til (Plate II , Figs D 1 , D ) 

I ng upon the stem. 

Ciliate l . H 

hail"\ fril 

Cladode (I young bi 

1 leaf like branch, 
Clavate. (L ' •■ i, a club.) Club-shaped, gradu- 
ally thick. 'lie, 1 tov top, 
Claw. LS 'ijian, 
to stick or hold on.) rrow 
hi ■ ,1-. 
Composite I 

■ : • , I pi 

Compound I ■ , with d 

■ i ; I. 

1 i he lamina 

cut int" a number of distinct died 

Conceptacle. ( I . 

turn, to coni \ 

reproductive cells. 
Concolor. I 

ii throughout. 
Cone. (L. G 

. to sharpen.) A catkin, the carpel- of 



which are scale-like, spread open, and bear 

seeds. Also called a Strobilus. (Plate III., 
32 34 ) 
Conidia. (Gr. konis, dust.) Spores which are 

asexually produced. 
Connate. (L.L. connatus, p.p. of eonnascor ; '■"», 

together; mis -or. nofos, to grow.) United at 

the base. 

Connective. (L. conwecto; '•"», together; Recto, 
1 bind.) The portion of the filament which 

unites the anther lolies. 

Connivent. (L. cunnireo, 1 close the eyes; con, 
together; nico, 1 wink.) Converging, having 
a gradually inward direction. 

Conoid. (Gr. / >. o peak; eidos, form.) Cone- 

Convolute. (L. convolutus, p.p. of conrolro ; con, 
together; oolvo, voltttus, I roll.) Rolled up 
from one side to the other. 

Cordate. (L. cor, cordis, the heart.) Heart- 
shaped, hollowed at base (Plate I., Fig. I.) 

Coriaceous. (L. coriaceous; corium ; Gr. chorion, 
.skin, leather.) Leathery. 

Corolla. (l>. corolla, dim. of corona, a crown.) 
The second whorl of the flower, usually 
coloured, consisting of petals. 

Corolliflorae or Gamopetalse. Dicotyledons in 
which the petals are united. 

Corona or Paracorolla. (Gr. para, besides.) Sub- 
sidiary organs of a petaloid character attached 
to the corolla. 

Corymb. (L. corymbus; Gr. korymbos, the upper- 
most point; korys, a helmet.) A racemose 
inflorescence forming a flat-topped head. 
(Plate II., Fig. C.) 

Cotyledons. (Or. kotyledon, a socket ; kotyle, a 
cup.) The fleshy lobes within the seed. 

Crenate. (L. arena, a notch.) With rounded 

Cuneate. (L. cuneatus, p.p. of cuneo ; cuneus, a 
wedge.) Having shape of a wedge. (Plate 
I , Fig. J.) 

Cupule. (L. cupula, dim. of cupa, a tub.) A 
cup formed of bracts, growing round and 
enclosing the fruit. (Plate III., Fig. 3.) 

Cuspidate. (L. cuspidatus, p.p. of cuspido, I 
sharpen ; cuspis, a point.) Suddenly nar- 
rowed at top and prolonged into a point. 
Cyme. (Gr. kuma, a sprout, a wave.) A general 

name for an indefinite inflorescence. 
Cynarrhodium. (dr. cyn, a combining form; 
rhodon, a rose.) An assemblage of achenes 

within a hollow receptacle. (Plate 111., 
Figs. 30, 31.) 
Cypsela. (Gr. kypsele, any hollow vessel.) An 
inferior, one-celled fruit, hard and dry, often 
crowned by a pappus. (Plate 1 II., Figs. 1,2.) 
Deciduous. (L. deciduus, decido; from de, off; 
cado, 1 fall.) Falling off. 

Decurrent. (L. decurrens, pr.p, of decurro; de, 
down ; curro, cursum, I run.) Leaves with 
base running along the stem. 

Decussate. (L. decussatus, p.p. of decusso, I 
divide in the form of an X ; decussis, ten.) 
Two pairs of leaves arranged at right angles, 
thus crossing in the form of a cross. 

Dehiscent fruits. (L. dehiscens, pr.p. of dehisco ; 
ile, off, and hisco, I gape.) Those which break 
when ripe. 

Dentate. (L. dentatus ; <iens, dentis, a tooth.) 

Denticulate. (L. denticulus, dim. of dens, a tooth.) 
Minutely toothed. 

Diadelphous. (Gr. dis, twice ; ailelphos, a brother- 
hood.) Stamens arranged in two bundles. 

Dichasium or Dichotomous Cyme. (Gr. dichasio, 
division ; dicha, in two ; Gr. dichotomos, dicha, 
in two, temno, to cut.) An inflorescence in 
which the axis ends in a terminal flower after 
producing two daughter axes. (Plate II., 
Fig. H.) 

Dichlamydeous. ((Jr. dis, twice ; cldamus, a cloak.) 
Flowers with both calyx and corolla. 

Dichogamy. (Gr. dicha, in two; gamos, a mar- 
riage.) An arrangement to bring about cross- 
fertilisation through the stamens and pistil 
ripening at different times. 

Dichotomous. (Gr. dichotomos ; dicha, in two ; 
temno, to cut.) Forked. 

Diclinous. (Gr. dis, twice ; Mine, a bed ; klino, to 
recline.) Having stamens and pistils in dif- 
ferent flowers, each being unisexual. 

Dicotyledons. (Gr. dis, twice ; kotyledon, kotyle, 
a cup.) Plants having two cup-shaped leaves 
or lobes in the seed. 

Didynamous. (Or. dis, twice; dynamis, power.) 
Having two long and two short stamens. 

Digitate. (L. digitatus, having fingers ; digitus, a 
finger.) Radiating like fingers. 

Dioecious. (Gr. dis, twice; oikos, a house.) 
Having staminate and pistillate flowers on 
separate plants. 

Discolor. (Gr. dis, twice; and color.) Of two 
colours, as in the scales of catkins. 



Disk. (A.S. disc; L. discus; Gr. diskos, a round 
plate, a quoit ; dislcein, to cast.) An out- 
growth at the base of stamens or ovary, 
generally forming a nectary. 

Distichous. (Gr. distichos ; dis, twice ; siichos, a 
line.) Arranged in two rows. 

Drups. ( L. drupa ; Gr. dryppa, an over-ripe olive ; 
drypepes, very ripe ; drys, a tree ; pepto, to 
ripen.) A succulent fruit containing a stone. 
(Plate III., Figs. 20-22.) 

Drupel. (L. drupa; Gr. dryppa, an over-ripe 
olive; drypepes, ripened on the tree, — drys, 
a tree, and pepto, to ripen.) A little drupe. 

Eglandulose. (L. e, and glandula, a gland; dim. 
of glans, glandis, an acorn.) Without glands. 

Elliptical. (L. L. ellipticus ; Gr. elleiptikos ; 
elleipsis.) Leaves somewhat narrow, being 
broad at the middle, and having rounded 
extremities. (Plate I., Fig. E.) 

Embryo. (Gr. embryon; em, in; bryo, to swell.) 
The young plant in the seed. 

Endophytal. (Gr. endon, within ; phyton, a plant.) 
Originating within the tissues of the host 

Endosperm. (Gr. endon, within ; sperma, a seed.) 
The albumen of a seed; the. nutritive sub- 
stance found within the embryo-sac and 
serving for the early support of the embryo. 

Entire. (Fr. entier ; L. integer, whole ; from in, 
not; tango, I touch.) Leaves having a 
margin without indentations. (Plate IX.) 

Entomophilous. (Gr. entoma, insects ; philos, 
loved.) Flowers pollinated by insects. 

Epicalyx. (Gr. epi, upon ; kalyx ; Italypto, to 
cover.) A series of bracts outside the 

Epigynous. (Gr. epi, upon ; gyne, woman.) The 
attachment of petals and stamens upon the 
ovary. (Plate XXVIIL, Fig. C.) 

Epipetalous. (Gr. epi, upon ; petalon, a leaf.) 
the attachment of stamens to the petals. 
(Plate XLIV., Fig. G.) 

Epiphyllous. (Gr. epi, upon; phyllon, a leaf.) 
Stamens attached to the perianth. 

Epiphytal. (Gr. epi, upon ; phyton, a plant.) 
Growing on the surface of the host plant. 

Erose. (L. trows, p.p. of erodo ; e, off; rodo, I 
gnaw.) Appearing as if gnawed. 

Etaerio. (Gr. hetairia, society ; Jietairos, a com- 
panion.) An aggregation of several ripened 
ovaries. (Plate III., Figs. 26-29.) 

Exserted. (L. exsertus ; p.p. of e.esero, I stretch 

out or forth ; ex, out ; sero, I join.) Pro- 
truding beyond the throat of the corolla. 
Exstipulate. (L. ex, without; stipula, a stalk; 

dim. of stipes.) Without stipules. 
Extra-axillary. (L. extra, beyond, outside of, — 

ex, out, and tra, imper. of the obsolete tro, 

traro ; axilla, the armpit.) Growing from 

above or below the axils of the leaves or 

Falcate. (L. falcatus; falx, a sickle.) Curved 

like the blade of a reaping-hook. 
Fascicled. (L. fasciculus, dim. of fasris, a bundle.) 

In a tuft. 
Fastigiate. (L. fastigatus, p.p. of fastigo, I raise 

to a point; fastigiwm, the top, a gable end.) 

Sloping to a point. 
Female flowers. Those containing a pistil only, 

or occasionally with rudimentary stamens. 
Ferruginous. (L. ferrugineus ; ferrugo, iron-rust ; 

ferrum, iron.) Coloured like iron-rust. 
Filament. (Jj.filvm, a thread.) The thread-like 

stalk supporting the anther. 
Filiform. (L. fUum, a thread.) Having the 

form of a thread. 
Fimbriate. (~L.fimbriatus : fimbrix, fibres, threads, 

fringe ; fibra, a fibre. ) Fringed. 
Fistular. (L. fistula, a pipe.) Hollow like a 

Flaccid, (h. flaccidus ; flaccus, flabby.) Limp. 
Floret. (Fr. fieurette ; L.L. florettus, dim. of flos, 

a flower.) A separate little flower in an 

aggregation of flowers. (Plate II., Fig. F-.) 
Floriferous (L. flos, floris, a flower ; fero, to 

bear.) Flower-bearing. 
Foliaceous. (L. foliaceus ; folium, a. leaf.) Leaf- 
like in appearance. 
Follicle. (L. folliculus ; dim. of follis, a wind 

ball or bag.) A capsule opening along one 

of its edges. 
Free central placentation. Ovules arranged on a 

column in the centre of the ovary perfectly 

free from the walls. 
Fugacious. (L. fugax, fugacis ; from fugio, I flee.) 

Falling off very early. 
Fugitive. (L. fugitivus ; from fugio, I flee.) 

Perishable, as in the petals. 
Furfuraceous. (L. furfur, bran.) Mealy, scaly, 

Fuscous. (L. fuscus, akin to furvus.) Dingy, 

dark, dusky. 
Galbule or Galbulus. (L. galbulus, the nut of 

the cypress.) A berry-like fruit formed 



• 4 * 


- ; 


.«*? -; 

. ,. ■ . •- 


from the BCales of a cone which have become 
succulent and consolidated into a uniform 
Gamopetalx or Corolliflone. (Qr. gamos, a mar 

riage ; prtalon, a leaf.) Dicotyledons with 

united petals. 

Gamopetalous. Having petals united. 
Geminate. (!.. grim'tiar- , -ntum, to pair; gerninus, 

twin.) In pairs. 
Glabrescent. (L. glaber, smooth, akin to ;//»/»<, 

to peel; Gr, glapko, to carve.) Almost 

Glabrous. (L. glaber, .smooth, without hairs, a 

beardless favourite slave.) Smooth; having 

no hairs or any unevenness. 
Gland. (Fr. glande, L. ;//«ks, glandis, an acorn; 

from likeness in shape.) A small cellular 

spot consisting of secretory tissue. 
Glandular disk. Glandular tissue on the floral 

Glans or Nut. (L. glans, glandis, an acorn, a 

beech-nut, &c.) A fruit with a pericarp 

hard and leathery, or of a woody character. 

(Plate III., Figs. 3-6.) 
Glaucous. (L. glaucus, bluish ; Gr. glauhos, blue 

or grey ; originally gleaming, akin to 

glausso, to shine.) Sea-green, and usually 

Globose. (L. globo ; globatus, to form into a 

ball : globus, a ball.) Rounded, spherical. 
Glomerule, or Glomerulus. (L. glomus, a ball of 

yarn ; globus, a ball.) A cyme arranged in a 

compact head. (Plate II., Fig. K.) 
Glumaceous. Having flowers invested by scaly 

Glumes. (L. glumo, husk ; glubo, to peel off 

bark.) The scaly bracts in grasses and 

Gynsecium. (Gr. gyne, a woman; oikos, a house.) 

The pistil or female organ of the flower. 
Gynobasic. (Gr. gyne, a female ; basis, a base.) 

Having the central floral axis prolonged 

beyond the calyx, with the carpels attached 

to the base. 
Gynophore. (Gr. gyne, a female; phero, I bear.) 

An elongation of the thalamus bearing the 

Haustoria. (L. haustus, a drinking ; haurio, 

hausi, haustum, I draw up.) The suckers 

by which the mycelium attaches itself to the 

host plant. 
Hermaphrodite. (Gr. Hermaphrodites, the son of 

Hermes and Aphrodite.) Flowers containing 
stamens and pistils; bisexual. 

Hispid. (L. hispidus, rough.) Having rough, 
bristle-like hairs. 

Hoary. (A.S. har, hoary, gray.) Having gray 

Hypanthodium. (Gr. hypo, under; anthos, a 
flower.) The fleshy, enlarged, hollow recep- 
tacle of the Fig. (Plate II., Figs. I, V, I-'.) 

Hypocrateriform. (Gr. hypokraterion, salver; 
hypo, under; krater, a bowl.) Salver-shaped. 

Hypogynous. (Gr. hypo, under; gyne, a female.) 
Having petals or stamens inserted below the 
pistil. (Plate VI., Fig. E.) 

Imbricate. (L. imbricates, p.p. of imbrieo, I cover 
with tiles.) Foliage or flower leaves over- 
lapping one another in bud, but not regularly. 

Imparipinnate. (L. impar, uneven; pinnatus, 
winged.) Leaves in which the leaflets are 
arranged in pairs with a terminal odd leaflet. 
(Plate I., Fig. L.) 

Imperfect flowers. (L. in, not; perfeetus, com- 
plete.) Having either pistils or stamens, 
but not both. 

Incomplete. (L. in, not; completus, p.p. of eom- 
pleo ; com, intensive ; pleo, I fill). Flowers 
in which any of the floral whorls are 

Indefinite. (L. indejinitus ; in, not ; definitus, 
p.p. of rfefinio, I set bounds to.) Numerous, 
but of no definite number. 

Indehiscent. (L. in, not; dehisco, to split open.) 
Fruits which do not break when ripe. 

Inferior. (L. inferior, comp. of inferus, low, from 
infra, beneath.) Placed below; as calyx 
beneath the ovary (Thalamiflorffi) ; or ovary 
when calyx is above (Gamopetalaj). 

Inflorescence. (L. inflorescens, pr.p. of injloresco, 
to begin to blossom.) The arrangement of 
the flowers upon the stem. 

Infra-axillary. (L. infra, beneath ; axilla, the 
armpit.) Below the axil of the leaf. 

Infundibuliform. (L. infumdibulum, a funnel ; in, 
in ; fundere, to pour.) Funnel-shaped. 

Internodes. (L. intemodium ; inter, between, 
noilus, a knot.) The stretches of shoots be- 
tween the nodes. 

Interruptedly pinnate. (L. interruptus, p.p. of 
interrumpo ; inter, between ; rumpo, I break.) 
Pairs of large leaflets alternating with pairs 
of small ones. 

Introrse. (L. introrsus (for introversus) ; intro, 



within, versus, p.p. of rerto, I turu.) Anthers 
turned to face the floral axis. 

Involucre. (L. involucrum, a covering ; involvo ; 
in, in ; volvo, I roll.) The whorl of bracts 
around a .single flower, or a head of 

Irregular. (O.F. irregulier ; L.L. irregularis; 
in, not ; regularis ; regula, a rule ; regere, to 
rule.) Flowers having petals or sepals un- 

Irritable (L. irritabilis ; irrito, I excite.) Re- 
sponding to the touch. 

Keel. (A.S. ceol, a ship, a keel ; cede, the 
bottom of a ship.) The two innermost petals 
of a papilionaceous flower. (Plate XII., 
Fig. B.) 

Labiate. (L. labium, a lip.) Petals or sepals 
arranged in a two-lipped manner. 

Laciniate. (L. lacinia, a fringe, a border.) Cut 
into narrow incisions or lobes. 

Lamina. (L. a plate, a leaf.) The expanded 
portion of the leaf. 

Lanceolate. (L. lanceolatus ; lauceola, dim. of 
laneea, a lance.) Leaves which are lance- 
shaped — long, narrow, and pointed. (Plate 
I., Fig. D.) " 

Latex. (L. lac, lactis, milk.) Milk-like juice. 

Legume. (Fr. legume; L. legumen, pulse; lego, I 
gather.) A one-celled pod opening by its 
edges. (Plate III., Figs. 14, 15.) 

Lenticel. (Fr. lenticelle, dim. of lentieule; L. 
lenticula, dim. of lens, a lentil.) Cork-like 
spots on twigs, branches, and stems which 
admit air. 

Ligulate. (L. ligida, a strap; dim. of lingua, a 
tongue.) A strap-shaped corolla, the lower 
part forming a tube, and the upper portion 
flattened out. (Plate II., Fig. F 2 .) 

Linear. (L. linearis ; tinea, a line, a linen thread.) 
Leaves long and narrow with parallel edges. 
(Plate I., Fig. B.) 

Lobe. (Gr. lobos ; lepo, to peel.) A more or less 
rounded portion of a leaf. 

Lomentum. (L. lomentum, a paste of bean-meal 
and rice for preserving the skin ; lavo, lotwm, 
I wash.) An indehiscent legume with con- 
strictions or transverse articulations between 
the seeds. 

Lyrate. (L. ; Gr. lyra, a harpi) A pinnatifid leaf 
with the terminal lobe large and rounded, and 
the side lobes getting smaller towards the 


Male flowers. Those containing stamens only, or 

occasionally with a rudimentary ovary. 
Margin. (O.F. margine ; L. margo, marginus, a 

brink, a margin.) The edge of the leaf. 
Membranous. (L. membrana, a thin skin; mem- 

hrum, a limb.) Thin, like soft paper in 

Mericarp. (Gr. meros, part ; karpos, a fruit.) 

The one-seeded portions into which some 

fruits break up. 
Midrib. (A.S. mid, middle ; riJib, rib.) A strand 

of vascular tissue running through the centre 

of the leaf. 
Mitraeform. (Gr. mifra, a belt, a turban.) 

Conical, and somewhat dilated at the base. 
Monadelphous. (Gr. monos, alone ; adelphos, a 

brother.) Stamens united by their filaments 

into one bundle. (Plate XIII., Fig. F.) 
Moniliform. (L. monile, a necklace ; forma, 

form.) Like a string of beads. 
Monoecious. (Gr. monos, one ; oikos, a house.) 

Having stamens and pistils in separate flowers 

on the same individual plant. 
Mucronate. (L. mucronaius : mucro, a sharp 

point.) Having a small, sharp point. 
Multicostate. (L. multus, many; costa, a rib.) 

Leaves with a number of chief veins. 
Mycelium. (Gr. myites, a fungus ; elos, a nail or 

wart.) The delicate interwoven threads from 

which the fungus is developed. 
Nectary. (L. nectar, honey ; Gr. nektar, drink of 

the gods.) Glands for the secretion of nectar. 
Neuter. (L. neuter, neither the one nor the other ; 

we, not ; titer, which of two.) Of neither sex ; 

sterile. (Plate XXXIV.) 
Nodes. (L. nodus, a knot.) Places where leaves 

are attached to the shoot. 
Nut. (A.S. knuf ; L. iiii.c, a nut.) An achene 

with hardened walls. (Plate III., Figs. 3-6.) 
Nutlet. A little nut. 
Obcordate. (L. ob, inversely; cor, the heart.) 

Inversely heart-shaped. 
Oblong. (L. ob ; longus, long.) A leaf which is 

long, and fairly broad. (Plate I., Fig. F.) 
Obovate. (L. <i/i, inversely ; ovatus, egg-shaped ; 

ovum, an egg.) Inversely egg-shaped. 
Obsolete. (L. obsoletus, p.p. of obsoleo, I go out 

of use ; ob, and soleo, I use.) All vanished. 
Obtuse. (L. obtusus, p.p. of obtundo, blunt; ob, 

and tundo, tudi, I beat.) Bluntly rounded 

at apex. (Plate I., Fig. K.) 
Opposite. ( L. oppositus, p.p. of oppono ; ob, 

B 2 


before j poiw, I place. Loaves inserted in 

pairs on opposite sides of stem. (Plate 

Orbicular. (L.L. orbicularis; orbicultis, dim. of 
bis, a circle.) Leaves nearly circular. 

(Plate I., Fig. G.) 
Oval. (Ft. ovale; L.L. ovalis ; L. ovum, an egg.) 

In shape of an ellipse. (Plato I., Fig. E.) 
Ovary. (L. ovum, an egg.) The lowest part of 

the | ■ i — i it containing the ovules. 
Ovate. (L. ovatus, egg-shaped; ovum, an egg.) 

Egg-shaped. (Plate I., Fig. H.) 
Ovule. (L.L. ovulum, dim. of ovum, an egg.) 

The .s.rd of a plant in its rudimentary state, 

growing from the placenta. 



scale which hoars the 


Palea. (L. palea, chad'.) The inner scale-like 
glume of grasses. 

Palmate. (L. palmatus; palma, the palm of the 
hand.) A leaf with divisions spreading out 
like an open hand. 

Panicle. (L. panicula, double dim. of partus, 
thread wound on a bobbin) = A tuft on 
plants. A raceme in which the branches 
are themselves branched. (Plate II. , Fig. B.) 

Papilionaceous. (L. papilio, -onis, a butterfly) 
= Butterfly-shaped. A blossom consisting of 
five petals ; one large posterior petal called 
the standard or vexillum, two anterior petals 
forming the keel, and two lateral called the 
wings. (Plate XIIL, Fig. B.) 

Pappus. (L. pappus, thistledown; Gr. pappos, 
down.) A calyx in which the sepals are 
converted into numerous hairs surrounding 
the ovary. (Plate III., Fig. 2.) 

Paraphysis. (Gr. paraphysis, an offshoot ; para, 
beside; phyllon, a leaf.) An erect sterile 
filament accompanying the sexual organs. 

Parietal. (L.L. parietalis ; L. paries, parietis, a 
wall.) The attachment of ovules to the walls 
of the ovary. 

Paripinnate. (L. par, equal ; pinnatus, from 
pinna ( = penna), a feather.) A leaf with an 
equal number of lobes arranged in pairs on 
opposite sides of the central stalk. 

Patens, Patent. (L. patens,, -entis, pr.p. of patere, 
to lie open.) Spreading widely open, or 
diverging from an axis. 

Pectinate. (L. pectinatus ; pecten, a comb ; peeto, 
I • .mm, to comb.) Comb-like. 

Pedate. (L. pedatus, p.p. of pedo, to furnish with 

feet ; pes, pedis, a foot.) A palmate leaf with 

the lobes deeply divided. 
Pedicel. (L. pedtadus, dim. of pes, pedis, a foot.) 

The flower-stalk connecting the flower with 

the peduncle. 
Pedicellate. (L. pedirulux, dim. of pes, pedis, a 

foot.) On a little stalk. 
Peduncle. (L.L. pedv/nculus, dim. of pes, pedis, a 

foot.) The stalk upon which the flowers are 

Pedunculate. Having a stalk. 
Peltate. (L. peltatus, armed with a shield ; pelta ; 

Gr. pelte, a small half-moon shield.) Having 

a stalk in the middle of the lower surface. 
Perfect. (L. perfectus, p.p. of perjkio; per, 

thoroughly ; facio, I do) = Complete. Flowers 

having both stamens and pistil. 
Perianth. (Gr. peri, around; anthos, a flower.) 

Applied to the calyx and corolla when they 

are alike in appearance, especially in Mono- 
Pericarp. (Gr. perikarpion ; peri, around ; karpos, 

fruit.) The outer layer, covering, shell, or 

rind of fruits. 
Peridium. (Gr. peridion, dim. of pera, a wallet.) 

The outer coat or coats of a fungus, forming 

an investment of the fructification. 
Perigynous. (<!r. peri, around; gyne, a female.) 

Petals or stamens attached round the ovary. 

(Plate IX., Fig. D.) 
Perithecium. (Gr. peri, around; tjieke, cover.) 

A narrow-mouthed receptacle containing the 

Persistent. (L. persistans, pr.p. of persisto ; per, 

through ; sistq, I cause to stand ; sto, to 

stand.) Remaining beyond the usual time, 

as when a calyx remains after fruiting. 
Petal. (Gr. petdlon, a leaf ; neuter of petalos, 

spread out) = A flower-leaf. A separate 

part of the corolla. 
Petaloid. (Gr. petalodes ; petalon, a leaf ; eidos, 

form.) Having the form or colour of petals ; 

often applied to a division of the perianth. 
Petiolate. A leaf having a blade and petiole 

Petiole. (L. petiolus, a little foot; a fruit- stal k ; 

dim. of pes, pedis, a foot.) The foot-stalk of a 

Pilose. (L. pilosus, pilus, a hair.) Softly hairy. 
Pinnate. (L. pinnatus, from pinna ( =penna), a 

feather.) A leaf with the leaflets arranged 

in pairs, like the barbs of a feather. 



Pistil. (L. pistillum, a pestle ; pistus, p.p. of 
pisto, to pound.) The inner whorl of floral 
organs, usually divided into ovary, style and 
stigma. So called from its likeness to the 
pestle of a mortar. (Plate VI., Fig. E.) 

Pistillate. A flower having a pistil, but no 
stamens. (Plate LXI.) 

Placenta. (L. placenta, a cake ; akin to Gr. 
plakous, a flat cake, from flax, plalcos, any- 
thing flat or broad.) The part of the ovary 
to which the ovules are attached. (Plate 
XX VIII., Fig. E.) 

Pollen. (L. pollen, fine flour, mill-dust.) The 
microscopic dust within the anthers. 

Pollination. The transference of pollen to the 
stigma of a flower, especially by the aid of 
insects or other external agents. 

Polyadelphous. (Gr. polys, many ; adelphos, a. 
brother.) The cohesion of the stamens into 
several bundles. 

Polygamous. (Gr. polygamos ; j/olys, many ; 
gamos, marriage.) Having male, female, and 
hermaphrodite flowers. 

Polypetalous. (Gr. polys, many ; petalon, a leaf. ) 
A corolla having the petals separate one 
from another. 

Polysepalous. (Gr. polys, many ; L.L. sepalum, 
a sepal ; separattts, separate.) A cnlyx in 
which the sepals are distinct one from the 

Pome. (L. pomum, an apple.) A pseudocarp or 
spurious fruit in which the calyx-tube or 
receptacle has grown up and surrounded the 
pistil, in which case the core is the true 
fruit. (Plate III., Figs. 23-25.) 

Procumbent. (L. procumbens, pr.p. of procumbo, 
I bend forward ; pro, forward ; cubare, to 
lie down.) Trailing; without putting out 

Prostrate. (L. prostratus, p.p. of prostenio, 
prostratvm, I lay flat; pro, before; sterna, 1 
strew.) Flung on the ground. 

Proterandrous. (Gr. proteros, first ; oner, a man.) 
Perfect flowers in which the anthers are 
mature before the stigma is ready to receive 
the pollen. 

Proterogynous. (Gr. proteros, first ; gyne, a 
woman.) Perfect flowers in which the pistil 
is mature before the anthers have ripened. 

Pruinose. (L. pruinosus; pruina, hoar frost.) 
Having a waxy bloom. 

Pseudocarp. Gr. pseudes, false ; karpos,& fruit.) 


A fruit in which some part of the flower is 
attached to the ovary. 

Puberulent. (L. pubes, puber, downy ; pubes, the 
beard.) Having very fine downy hairs. 

Puberulous. L. pubes, puber, downy, pubescent.) 
Minutely pubescent. 

Pubescent. (L. pubes, puber, downy.) Softly 

Pyriform. (L. pirum, a pear ; forma, form.) 

Raceme. (L. raeemus, a bunch.) An indefinite 
inflorescence in which the flowers are con- 
nected with the peduncle by pedicels. (Plate 
II, Fig. A.) 

Receptacle. (L. receptaeulum, a receiving vessel 
or cavity ; receptus, p.p. of reeipio ; re, back ; 
capio, I take. ) A multicellular organ bearing 
spores. The upper portion of the flower-stalk 
upon which the floral leaves are fixed. 

Refiexed. (L. reflexus, p.p. of reflect o ; re, back ; 
tlectere, to bend.) Turned back on its inser- 

Regma. (G. rhegma, a fracture; rhegnymi, to 
break.) A fruit which breaks up into one- 
seeded dehiscent parts called cocci.) 

Regular. (L. regularis ; regula, a rule ; regere, to 
rule.) Having petals alike in general form. 

Reniform. (L. renes, the kidneys ; forma, form) 
= Kidney-shaped. A leaf rounded at the 
apex and hollowed at the base. 

Repand. (L. repandus; re, back ; pandus, bent.) 
Having the margin uneven, slightly sinuous. 

Reticulate. (L. reticulum, dim. of rete, a net.) 
Nettled in appearance. 

Revolute. (L. revolutus, p.p. of revolvo ; re, back ; 
volvere, to roll.) With margin rolled back. 

Rugose. (L. rutjosus, wrinkled ; ruga, a wrinkle.) 
Wrinkled, corrugated. 

Saccate. (L. saccus, a bag.) Having sepals 
swollen at the base. 

Salver-shaped. (L.L. salrare, to save = a plate 
on which anything is presented.) A corolla 
having a long tube with spreading lobes. 
Also called Hypocrateriform. 

Samara. (L. samara, elm-seed.) A dry indehis- 
cent, usually one-seeded, fruit, with a wing. 
(Plate III, Figs. 10-13.) 

Scabrous. (L.L. scabrosus ; L. seedier ; scabo, I 
scratch.) Rough to the touch, like a file. 

Scale leaves. Small hard leaves peculiar to the 

Scarious. (O.F. escorcher, escorcer, to strip off 



the skin; 1. , to strip the skin from ; 

. From, corium, the skin.) Thin, dry, 

membranous ; brown, as if scorched, 
Secund. (L. secundus, Following; sequor, I follow.) 

Unilateral, turning to one side. 
Sepals. [F.sipale; L. separe, to separate.) The 

divisions of the outermosl whorl of floral 

leaves forming the calyx. 
Septate. (L.septatw; septum, a partition ; sepio, 

I hedge in, I fence.) Separated by a par- 

t it ion or septum. 
Serrate. (L, serrate*; serra, a saw.) Having 

the margin cut into saw like teeth pointing 

towards the apex. (Plate V.) 
Serratulate. (L. serrula, a small saw.) Having 

little teeth. 

Serrulate. (L. serrula, dim. of serra, a saw.) 
Finely serrate, with very minute notches. 

Sessile. (L. sessilis, low; sessus, p.p. of sedeo, I 
sit.) Growing directly from the stem, without 
a foot stalk. (Plate XXXVIL, Fig. B.) 

Setaceous. Setigerous, Setose. (L. setosus, bristly ; 
seta or saeta, a bristle, a thick, stiff hair.) 
Beating bristles. 

Sinuate. (L. sinuatus, p.p. of sinuare,to bend.) 
\ margin with indentations large and some- 
what rounded. (Plate XI.) 

Sinus. (L. sinus, a curve.) The interval between 
two lobes. 

Solitary. (L. solitarius; solus, alone.) Flowers 
growing singly on the peduncle. 

Sorosis. (Gr. sows, a heap.) A mass of spurious 
drupes formed by the consolidation of 
numerous ripening ovaries, each surrounded 
by the persistent calyx which has become 
fleshy. (Plate LI., Fig. C.) 

Spathaceous. (L. spatha ; Gr. spathe, a broad 
blade.) Bearing, or having the nature of a 

Spathulate. (L. spatula ; spathula, dim. of spatha, 
a broad blade.) A leaf which is spoon- 
shaped ; rounded near the apex and nar- 
rowing towards the base. 

Spermatia. (Gr. sperma ; speiro, to sow.) Minute 
spores (conidia). 

Spike. (L. spica, an ear of corn.) An indefinite 
inflorescence in which the flowers are 
arranged on the peduncle in a sessile manner. 

Spikelet. (L. spica, a spike, an ear of corn.) A 
secondary spike ; usually a small collection 
of florets, as in the grasses. 

Spinescent, Spinose. (L. spinescens, pr.p. of 

spmesco, to grow thorny ; spina, a thorn ; 
spinosus, thorny.) Having spines. 

Sporidia. (Gr. s/iora, seed; spriro, to sow.) 
Minute secondary spores (conidia) borne on 
a promycelium ; or an ascospore. 

Sporules. (Gr, spora, seed; speiro, to sow.) 
Secondary spores (sporidia) of uredineous 
fungi ; conidia borne in a perithecia-like 

Spur. (A.S. spwra; spora, akin to spar and 
spear.) A prolongation of some part of the 
[lower, usually forming a nectary. 

Squarrose. ( squarrosus, scurfy.) Rough with 
projecting or deflexed scales ; leaves are said 
to be squarrose when their tips are pointed 
and very spreading or recurved. 

Stamens. (L. stamen, a thread ; stare, to stand.) 
The male organs of the flower, collectively 
forming the Andrcecium ; usually consisting 
of a filament or stalk, and anther or pollen 

Staminate. Flowers containing stamens but no 

Staminode. (L. stamen; Gr. eidos, resemblance.) 
An abortive stamen. 

Standard. (A.S. standard; O.F. estandart ; L. 
extendo ; ex, out; tendo, I stretch.) The 
largest petal of a papilionaceous flower ; also 
called Vexillum. (Plate XIII., Fig. B.) 

Stellate. (L. stellaUis, p.p. of stello, set with 
stars; stella, a star.) Star-shaped. 

Stigma. (Gr. stigme, a point.) The upper por- 
tion of the pistil which receives the pollen. 

Stipel. (L. stipes, a stem.) The stipule of a 

Stipitate. (L. stipes, a stem.) Stalked. 

Stipule. (L. stipula, a stalk ; dim. of stipes, a 
stem.) Small outgrowths attached to the 
base of the leaf, often leaf-like in character. 

Stipulate. (L. stipula, a stalk, dim. of s/ijies, a 
stem.) Possessing stipules. 

Striated. (L. striatus, p.p. of stria, I hollow out ; 
stria, a furrow.) Marked with fine longitu- 
dinal lines, streaks, or small grooves or ridges. 

Strobilus. L.L. strohilus, a pine-cone ; Gr. 
strobilos, anything twisted ; strepho, to twist.) 
A cone — the fruit of Pines and Firs, (riate 
III., Figs. 32-31.) 

Stroma. (Gr. stroma, a bed.) The union of 
mycelial threads into a dense layer bearing 

Style. (L.L. stylus, a column ; Gr. stylos, a 



pillar.) The stalk which stands upon the 
ovary and carries the stigma. 

Subrotund. (L. sub, towards ; rotundus — rota, a 
wheel.) A leaf which is nearly round. 

Subulate. (L. subula, an awl.) Awl-shaped. 
(Plate I., Figs. C, 1 C 2 .) 

Sucker. (A.S. suean, sugan, to suck.) A shoot 
rising from a subterranean stem. 

Suffrutescent. (L. sub, slightly ; frutex, a shrub.) 
Slightly shrubby. 

Superior. (L. superior, comp. of swperus, high ; 
super, above.) Placed above. 

Syngenesious. (G. syn, together ; genesis, genera- 
tion.) Stamens united by means of their 

Teleutospore. (Gr. teleute, finishing ; telos, the 
end ; spora, seed ; speiro, to sow. ) The last 
formed or winter spore of the Rust-fungi. 

Tendril. (F. tendrille ; tendre ; L. tener, tender. 
A modified leaf or other part of a plant, 
which, being sensitive to touch, enables the 
plant to cling to foreign objects for support. 

Terete. (L. teres, teretis, rubbed smooth, round ; 
terere, to rub.) Oylindroid, but slightly 

Terminal. (L.L. terminalis ; L. terminus, a bound- 
ary.) Growing singly at the apex of a 

Ternate. (L. term, three each; tres, three.) A 
leaf having three leaflets. (Plate I., Fig. K.) 

Testa. (L. h-sta, a shell.) The outer coat of the 

Tetragonal. (Gr. tetragonon; tetra, four; gonia, 
an angle.) Four-angled. 

Thalamiflorse. (L. thalamus, a bed-chamber; 
flos, jloris,n, flower.) The division of Dicoty- 
ledons having hypogynous stamens and supe- 
rior pistil. "(Plate VI., Fig. E.) 

Thalamus. (L. thalamus, a bed-chamber.) The 
end of the flower-stalk to which the flower is 

Throat. (A.S. fhrote, the throat.) The aper- 
ture of a corolla-tube. 

Thyrsus. (Gr. thyrsos, a light, straight shaft.) 
A panicle-like inflorescence, the branches of 
which pass into cymes. (Plate II., Fig. G.) 

Tomentose. (L. tomentum, material used for 
stuffing cushions ; akin to stuppa or stupa, 
tow.) Loosely or woolly haired. 

Trifoliate. (L. tres, three; folium, a leaf.) 
Having three leaflets. (Plate I., Fig. K.) 


Trigonal. Trigonous. (Gr. trigonon ; tri, tris, 
three; gonia, an angle.) Three-angled. 

Tripinnate. (L. tres, three; pinna, a feather.) 
A bipinnate leaf in which the secondary 
divisions are again divided in a pinnate 

Triquetrous. (L. tres, three ; quetrous, probaby a 
formative.) Three-sided. 

Truncate. (L. truwatus, p.p. of truneo, I cut off ; 
truncus, maimed, mutilated.) Sharply cut off 
at the apex. 

Tubular. (L. tubulus, dim. of tubus, a tube.) 
Drawn out to a tube. 

Turbinate. (L. turbinatus ; turbo, turbinus, a 
top.) Top-shaped, like an inverted cone. 

Umbel. (L. umbella, dim. of umbra, a shade.) 
An indefinite inflorescence in which the 
pedicels spring from one point, and the 
flowers are brought to the same level. 
(Plate II., Fig. E.) 

Unguiculate. (unguiculus, dim. of unguis, a nail 
of the finger) = Clawed. Petals which are 
broad above and form a narrow limb 

Unicostate. (L. units, one ; costa, a rib.) A 
leaf having one chief vein — the midrib. 

Unisexual. (L. units, one; sexus, a sex.) Hav- 
ing the stamens and pistil on separate 

Urceolate. (L. urceolus, dim. of ureeus, a pitcher.) 

Uredospore. (L. uredo, blight; uro, I burn.) 
A non-sexual spore (conidium) in the Rust- 
fungi which, after germination and the for- 
mation of mycelium, gives rise to other 
euredospores, either alone or together with 

Valvate. (L. valvatus, with folding doors ; 
valva, a folding door.) When the young 
leaves in the bud touch each other latterly, 
but do not overlap. 

Ventricose. (L. venter, the belly, a swelling.) 
Swelling unequally, or inflated on one side. 

Versatile. (L. versatilis ; versare, freq. of vertere, 
to turn.) An anther which swings on top of 
the filament. 

Verticillaster. (L.L. verticillus, dim. of vertex, 
a whorl ; aster, a star.) A cymose inflores- 
cence in which the flowers stand tier upon 
tier, having the appearance of whorls. 
(Plate II., Figs. J. J 1 .) 

Vexillum. (L. vexillum, an ensign, a standard; 


vehere, to carry.) The large posterior petal 
of :i papilionaceous (lower. Also called the 
standard. (Plate XIII., Fig. B.) 

Villose, Villous. (L. uillosus, shaggy, rough; 
villus, a tuft of hair.) Velvet like hairi- 

Whorl. (Contr. of M.K. wlmrwhil ; A.S. wlicur 
fan, to turn.) Leaves or parts of flowers 
arranged in a circle around the central 

Whorled. Inserted at the same level around the 

Wing. (Sw. and Da. vinge, a wing.) One of the 
side petals in a papilionaceous flower. (Plate 
XIII., Fig. li.) 

Winged. Having a membranous margin. 

Zoospore. (Gr. zoon, an animal; ?.ao, to live; 
spora, seed ; speiro, to sow.) A spore pos- 
sessing the power of independent motion, 
generally by means of cilia. 


Acer, acris, acre. Sour, tart, acrid. 

Aculeatus, a, um. Prickly, stinging (aculeus, 

a prickle, a sting ; acus, a needle ; acies, a 

sharp point). 
Acuminate, Sharp-pointed (acumen, a sharp point ; 

acuo, I sharpen). 
Affinis. Resembling {lit. related by marriage; 

ad, to; and finis, a boundary). 
Alafus, a, um. Winged (afa, a wing). 
Albus, a, um. White, pale. 

Alpester, tris, tre.*\ Pertaining to the Alps, or high 
Alpinus, a, um. J ground. 
Angustifolia. Narrow-leaved {angustus, a, um, 

narrow; and folium, a leaf). 
Aquaticus, a, um\ Living or growing in water 
Aquatilis. j (aqua, water). 

Arborescens. \ 

i , > Tree-like (arbor, oris, a tree). 

Arboreus, a, um.) x ' 

Argenteus, a, um. Silvery (argentum , silver). 

Arrensis, e. Growing in a field (arrum, a ploughed 

field ; amis, having been ploughed). 
Augustus, a, um. Majestic {augeo, I adorn). 
Aureus, a, um. Golden (aurum, gold). 
Aviumnalis. Autumnal (auctumnalis ; auctumnus, 

autumn, harvest). 
Barbaras, a, um. Bearded (barba, a beard). 
IJi llu.<, a, um. Beautiful, elegant. 
Cceruleus, a, «tm."»Blue, green, greenish (cadum, 
Cuerulus, a, um. ) heaven). 
Ccerulescens. Bluish. 
Campester, tris, ire. Of the field (campus, an 

open field). 
Caneseens. Grey, hoary (canesco, I become grey). 
Caninus, a, um. Fit for dogs (canis, a dog). 

Ganus, a, um. Grey, greyish, white, hoary. 
Capitata. Round-headed (caput, the head). 
Ciliata. \ Having fine hairs (cilium, an eyelid or 
Ciliaris.) eyelash). 
Communis. Common. 
Crispus, a, um. Curled, uneven, wrinkled. 
Cristafus, a, um. Tufted, crested (crista, a head- 
tuft, a cock's-comb). 
Dentatus, a, um. Toothed (dens, deutis, a tooth). 
Ferrugineus, a, um. Rusty-coloured, dusky, dark 

green (jerrugo, inis, iron-rust colour ; ferrum, 

Flavus, a, um. Flaxen-coloured, golden-yellow, 

Flexuosus, a, um. Tortuous (flexus, a bending). 
Floridus, a, um. Flowery. 
Florus, a, um. Flowery (flos, ftoris, a flower). 
Foetid issima. \ Fetid, stinking (fvtor, a strong 
Fosfidus, a, um.) offensive smell). 
Foliatus, a, um.\ 

Folius, a, um. ) Leaf y V olium > a leaf )' 
Formosus, a, um. Beautiful (forma, a fine form, 

Fragilis, e. Fragile, brittle, perishable (frango, 

I break). 
Fragrans, antis. Fragrant, odorous, sweet-scented 

(fragro, to emit a smell). 
Frigidus, a, um. Growing in the cold (frigeo, I 

stiffen with cold). 
Fruticans. ^Shrubby, bushy (frutex, a 

Fruticosus, a, um.) shrub, a bush). 
Giganteus, a, um. Large, tall (gigas, anti.<, a 

Glabrus, a, um. Smooth (glaber, smooth). 



Glandulosus, a, um. Glandular. 

Glaums, a, um. Bluish-grey. 

Globosus, ft, um. Spherical {globus, a ball, a 

Glom&ratvs, a, um. With a globular head {glomus, 

a ball of yarn). 
Gramineus, a, um. Grassy {gramen, grass). 
Grandifolius, a, um. Large-leaved {grandis, 

great ; and folium, a leaf). 
Hirsutus, a, um. Rough, bristly, prickly {hirsus, 

primitive form of Mrtus). 
Hirtus, a, um. Rough, hairy {Jiircus, a he-goat). 
Incanus, a, um. Quite grey, hoary. 
Inodorus, a, um. Inodorous, unperfumed. 
Lanatus, a, um. Downy, woolly {lana, wool, soft 

hair, down). 
Lanceolatus, a, um. Tapering towards both ends. 
Litoralis, e. Of the sea-shore (litus, the sea-shore, 

the coast). 
Lucidus, a, um. Shining (lux, light, brightness). 
Luteolus, ft, um. Yellowish (lufeus, yellow). 
Lutein, a, um. Yellow, golden-coloured (tutum, a 

yellow weed, weld). 
Maculatus, a, um. Spotted (mani/u, a spot). 
Magnus, a, um. Great, tall, broad. 
Marinus, a, um. Marine, of the coast (mare, the 

Maritimus, a, um. On the sea-coast (mare, the 

Masridus, a, um. Male, vigorous {mas, man's, a 

Minor, zis. Smaller. 
Mollis, e. Soft. 
Montanus, a, um. Belonging to the mountains 

(moits, montis, a mountain). 
Nanus, a, um. Dwarf (nanus, a dwarf). 
Nemoralis, e. Of the woods (nemns, oris, a wood, 

a forest). 
Nemoroms, a, um. Of the woods, bushy {nemus, 

a wood, a forest, a grove containing pastures 

and open meadows). 
Niger, nigra, nigrum. Black, dark, dusky. 
Nodosus, a, um. Knotty, full of knots {nodus, a 

Nutans. Nodding (ntifo, I nod). 
Obtusus, a, um. Blunt, obtuse. 
Occidentalis, e. Of the west {occidens, enfis, the 

west ; oi-ciilere, to go down, to set). 
Oilorafus, a, um. Sweet-scented (odoro, I per- 
Officinalis, e. Used medicinally {officina, a work- 
shop, a laboratory). 

Orientalis, e. Of the east (oriens, entis, the East, 

the Orient). 
(trains, a, um. Ovate, egg-shaped {ovum, an egg). 
Palusler, tris, tre. Fenny, marshy, swampy 

(palus, a marsh, a swamp). 
Parviflorus, a, um. Small-flowered {parvus, a, 

um, small ; and flos, floris, a flower). 
I'ectinatus, a, um. Comb-like {pecten, inis, a 

Perennis, e. Lasting the whole year, perennial 

(annus, a year). 
Perfo/iatus, a, um. Growing through the leaf 

{per, through ; and folium, a leaf). 
Perforatus, a, um. Having pellucid dots (perforo, 

I perforate). 

Pilosella. | Tr ■ , ., i • \ 

11 airy (pi I us, a hair). 
Pilosus, a, um. ) 

Pratensis, e. Of the meadow or field (pratum, a 

meadow, a broad field). 
Procumbens. Prostrate, trailing (jprocumbo, I fall 

forward, I lie down). 

Puleellus, re, um. ~\ 

Pulcer, era, crum. „ .. r , 

' VBeautiful, pretty. 

Pulchellus, a, um. 

Pu/rher, chra, chrum.) 

Punctatus, a, um. Dotted (punctum, a point). 

Purpureas, a, um. Purple-coloured, including 

many shades, as red, reddish, violet, &c. 
Pusillus, ft, um. Very small (pusus, a little boy). 
Racemosus, a, um. Like a string of currants 

{racemus, a stalk, a cluster of grapes). 
Repens. Creeping (repo, I crawl). 
Reptans. Creeping (repto, I crawl). 
Rigidus, a, um. Stiff, hard, rigid (rigeo, I am 

stiff, I stand on end). 
Roseus, ft, um. Rose-coloured, rosy {rosa, a rose). 
Rolundif otitis, ft, um. Round-leaved (rotundus, 

round ; rota, a wheel ; and folium, a leaf). 
Ruber, rubra, rubrum. Red, ruddy. 
Rufescens. Reddish (rufus, red). 
Rugosus, a, um. Wrinkled, corrugated {ruga, a 

Rupestris, e. Of rocky places (ruj/es, a crag, a 

Sanguineus, a, um. Blood-red {sanguis, inis, 

' blood). 
Satini*, ft, "/». Sown as in a garden (sero, I 

Sa.i-atilis, e. Found among rocks (saxum, a large 

rough stone, a fragment of rock). 
Sepium. Belonging to the hedge (sepimentum, 

a hedge ; sepio, I hedge in, I enclose). 



r, i, inn. Showy, beautiful (species, a 

sight, an ornament ; specto, I see). 
Spectobilis, \\ orth seeing (specfo, 1 Ionic at). 
iSpjitostis, (i, »m. Full of thorns or prickles, 

thorny {.</u'iih, a thorn, a prickle). 
StellottlS, a, Um. Starry (stella, B star). 
Striatum. Streaked, striped («&t'a, a streak; 

strinrc, alum, to furrow). 
Strietus, a, um. Narrow, straight, erect, drawn 

together (stringo, I draw or hind together). 
Sylvaticus, a, um. Of the woodland or forest 

(silva, a wood, a forest). 
Sylvestris, >. Of the wood, growing wild (diva, a 

wood, a forest, a plantation, an orchard). 

Tinctoria. Used for dyeing (iingere, to dye). 
Toiiiiiitnxtt, urn. Loosely or woolly haired (/«- 

menttt.m, material used for stuffing cushions). 
Trivialis, e. Common (Iririinn, the public street ; 

a place where three ways met ; ires, three ; 

and via, a way, a road). 
Villosus, a, um. I tough (villus, a tuft of hair). 
Viridis, e. Green (vireo, I grow, I am green). 
Viscosus, a, um. Sticky (viscum, bird-lime, 

Vulgaris, e. Common (vulgus, the common 

Vulgatus, a, um. Common (rulgo, I spread among 

the people ; vulgus, the common people). 


Acantha. A thorn (Oxyacantha). 

Ampelos. A vine-plant (Ampelopsis). 

Anthemon. A flower (Helianthemum). 

Brachys. Short (brachyphylla). 

Calyx. A husk, a shell, the calyx of a flower, a 

flower-bud ( Calycanthus). 
Caryon. A nut, a fruit-stone (Garyopteris). 
Gephale. A head (Cephalanfhus). 
Charrwe. On the ground, dwarf (Chamcecyparis). 
Cheima, chima, aldmatos. Winter- weather, cold, 

frost (Chimonanthus). 
Dasys. Thick, thickly covered with hair, downy 

Dendron. A tree (Liriodendron, Rhododendron). 
Hedys. Sweet (Hedysarum). 
Helios. The sun (Helianthemum). 
//</< lor, hydatos, hydar, hydro. Water (Hydrangea). 
Hypo. Beneath, inferior (Hypericum). 
Karpos. A fruit (Podocarpus). 

Le.irion, lirion. A lily (Liriodendron). 

Macros. Large (macrophyllum). 

Micros. Small (mirro/>h)/lla). 

Oxys. Sharp (Oxyacantha). 

Peri. Round (Pericylmenum). 

Philos. Loved, beloved (Philadelphus). 

Phyllon. A leaf (Hypqphyllum). 

Pitys, A pine or fir-tree (Prumnopitys). 

Piatys. Broad, flat (platyphyUos). 

Pseudo. False (Pseudacacia). 

Pteron. Feathers, wings, leaves (Pierocarya). 

Pyr> pyros. Fire .(Pyracantha). 

Rhoilon. A rose (Rhododendron). 

Scias, sciados. A shade, an umbrella (Sciado- 

Spira, speira. A coil (Spiraea). 
Staphyle. A bunch of grapes (Staphylea). 
Syrinx, syringos. A pipe (Syringa). 
Xylan. Wood (Xylosteum). 





Abelia lloribunda 
Abies balsamea 

,, brachyphylla . 
„ cephalonica 
„ cilicica 
„ concolor . 
„ tirma 
„ grandis 
„ nobilis 
„ nordmanniana 
„ pectinata 
„ Pinsapo . 
Abutilon vitifolium . 
Acer campestre 
„ eircinatum 
„ dasycarpum 
„ japonicum 
„ macrophyllum . 
,, monspessulanum 
„ Negundo . 
„ opulifolium 
„ palmatum 
„ pennsylvanicum 
„ platanoides 
„ Pseudo-platanus 
Esculus carnea 
„ glabra 
„ Hippocastanum 
„ parviflora . 
tilanthus glandulosa 
lnus cordifolia 
„ glutinosa 
„ raaritima 
„ oregona . 
„ rhombifolia 
imelanchier alnifolia 

„ canadensis 

Lmorpha canescens 

„ fruticosa 
ndromeda polifolia 
ralia chinensis 
„ spinosa . 
raucaria imbricata 
rbutus Unedo 
rctostaphylos alpina 


Arctostaphylos pungens 
„ Uva-ursi 

Artomisia Abrotannm 

„ tridentata 

Arundo Donax . 
Aucuba japonica 

Berberidopsis corallina 
Berberis Aquifolium 

„ buxifolia 

,, Darwinii 

„ empetrifolia 

,, japonica 

„ nepalensis . 

„ vulgaris 

„ wallicliiana . 

Betula alba 

„ lenta 

„ leutea 

„ nana 

„ nigra . 

„ papynfera 
Broussunutia papyrifera 
Bryanthus taxifolius 
Buddleia Colvillei 

„ globosa 

„ paniculata . 

Buxus balearica 

„ sempervirens 

Csesalpinia japonica . 
Calluna vulgaris 
Calycantbus floridus 
„ glaucus 

„ occideutalis 

Caragana arboresceus 
Carpenteria californica 
Carpinus Betulus 

„ caroliniana 
Carya alba 

Caryopteris Mastacanthus 
Castanea sativa 
Castanopsis chrysopbyll 
Catalpa bignonioides 
„ cordifolia 
„ Ksempferi . 
Ceanotbus americanus 
,, azureus . 


































































\ WIK 





















p M 



























(.Vanotluis dontatus . 

Crataegus Oxyacantha 






















* * 



Cryptomeria japonica 






Cupressus lawsoniana 



Cedrus atlantica 



,, macrocarpa 






,, nootkatousis 


Libani . 




i 'ephalanthufl occidentals 




Cephalotaxua drupacea 






Cydonia japonica 
















,, vulgaris 



Siliquastrum . 



Cytisus albua . 


i !himonanthus fragrana 








i Ihionanthus nrginica 







i listus corbariensis . 



„ crispus . 



Daboecia polifolia 










Daiuua Laurus . 






Daplme blagayana . 










„ monspeliensis 








,, purpureua 



Mezereum . 




Cladrastis amurenaia 





„ tinctoria . 


Daphniphyllum macropod 



Clematis Flammula . 





Deutzia corymbosa . 















,, Viticella 





Diervilla florida 




Clerodendron foetidum 



,, grandiflora . 










Clethra acuminata . 









Elseagnus angustifolia 


Colutea arboi'escens . 





,, argentea . 



,, cruenta 



, , macropbylla 


Cornus florida . 



,, multiflora . 


macrophylla . 


Empetrum nigrum . 







Erica carnea 





,, sanguinea 














Coronilla Emerus 







mediterranea . 




Corylopsis spicata 








Corylus Avellana 




Tetralix . 




,, Colurna 







Cotoneaster affinis 



Eucryphia pinnatifolia 






Euonymus americanus 









„ frigida . 






horizontalis . 

















Fagus sylvatica 






Ficus Carica 


rotundifolia . 



Forsythia suspensa . 










Crataegus coccinea 



Fraxinus excelaior . 




,, cordata 



,, Ornus 



Crus-galli . 



Fremontia californica 



Douglasii . 




Garrya elliptica 







,, orientalis . 



Genista sethnensis . 


* * 


















































Genista angliea 

Ligustrum lucidum . 

,, hispanica 





,, pilosa . 






sinense . 



,, sagittalis 



,, vulgare . 



,, tinctoria 




Liquidambar styraciflua . 


„ virgata 



Liriodendron tulipifera . 



Ginkgo biloba .... 



Loiseleura procumbens 





Gleditschia triacanthos 


Lonicera Caprifolium 



Gymnocladus canadensis . 




,, flava .... 




Halesia tetraptera . 



fragrantissima . 




Hamainelis arborea . 








„ virginica 






v. flexuosa 



Hedera Helix .... 



nigra .... 




Hedysarnm multijugum . 





Periclymenum . 





Helianthemum formosum 







Heliclirysum rosmarinifolium . 






Hibiscus syriacus 





Hippophae rhamnoides 



Lycium chinense 




Hydrangea hortensis 







,, halimifolium 





„ paniculata 



., >. v.grandi- 

Magnolia acuminata . 




flora ..... 




conspicua . 





Hypericum Androsfemum 




,, Fraseri 




,, calyeinum 








,, hookerianum . 












,, moserianum . 







,, patulum 





,, parvirlora . 





Ilex Aquifolium 





,, stellata 




,, crenata .... 


,, tripetala . 





„ dipyrena .... 



Menziesia globularis 



,, opaca .... 



Morus nigra .... 



Indigofera gerardiana 



Myrica Gale .... 
Myrtus communis 





Jasminum fruticans . 




,, nudiflorum 




Neviusia alabamensis 


,, officinale . 





Neillia opulifolia 


,, revolutum 







Nuttalia cerasiformis 



,, wallichianum . 






Juglans regia .... 


Olearia Haastii .... 




Juniperus chinensis . 


„ macrodonta . 



,, communis 


,, stellulata 





,, Sabina 


Osmanthus Aquifolium 



,, virginiana 


Oxycoccus palustris . 




Kalmia angustifolia . 




Passiflora cierulea 






,, glauca .... 



Paulownia imperialis 


,, latifolia 




Philadelphus coronarius . 


Kerria japonica 



Phillyrcea angustifolia 
,, decora 




Laburnum alpinum . 




,, vulgare . 




,, media 


Larix europ:ea .... 



Phlomis fruticosa 



Lavandula vera 




Picea alcockiana 


Laurus nobilis .... 



excelsa .... 


Ledum latifolium 




Morinda .... 


,, palustre 




,, nigra .... 
orientalis . 


Leycesteria formosa . 






Libocedrus decurrens 


„ polita .... 


Ligustrum Ibota 


,, pungens .... 


,, japonicum 



Pieris floribunda 






\ \MK. 

Pieria japonica . 
Pinua Dembra . 

Ooulteri . 

excelaa . 

Laricio . 

v. nigricans 




Strobus . 


Platanus aoerifolia . 
,, oocidentalis 

orientalis . 
Populus alba 


,, v. candicans 

canescens . 
monilifera . 
,, nigra . 
,, „ v. pyramid 

,, tremula 

Potentilla fruticosa 
Prumnopitys elegans 
Primus Amygdalus 
Avium . 
Padus . 
Pseudolarix Ktempferi 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii 
Ptelea trifoliata 
Pterocarya caucasica 
Pyrus americana 
„ amygdaliformis 

,, Aria 
,, Aucuparia 
,, baccata . 
,, communis 
Malua . 
Sorbus . 
,, vestita . 

Quercus Cerris . 
Ilex . 


\ \ M K 

Quercus podunculata 

rubra . 
,, aeasilirlora . 
,, Suber . 


Khamnus Alerternus 

,, cathartica . 

„ Frangula . 

Rhododendron calendulaceum 

,, calif ornicum 

, , catawbiense 

,, ferrugineum 

,, rlavum 

,, Fortunei 

,, nudiflormn 

,, ponticum 

,, racemosum 

„ sinense 

,, Vaseyi 

,, viscosum 

,, yunnanense 

Rhodotypos kerrioides 

Rhus copallina . 


Cotinus . 


typhina . 
venenata . 
Ribes alpinum . 
,, aureum . 
,, Grossularia 
nigrum . 
rubrum . 
sanguineum . 
Robinia hispida 

,, Pseudacacia 
,, viscosa 
Rosa arvensis . • . 
moschata . 
Rosmarinus officinalis 
Rubus biflorus . 
coesius . 
Id;eus . 
Ruscus aculeatus 
,, Hypophyllum 

Salix alba . 



N A M K. 

Salix alba, v. vitellina 
herbacea . 
nigricans . 
purpurea . 
reticulata . 
triandra . 
viminalis . 
Sambucus canadensis 
, , glauca 

,, nigra 

racemosa . 
Sciadopitys verticillata 
Sequoia gigantea 

semper virens 
Skimmia fragrans 
„ japonica 
,, Lanreola 
,, oblata 
, , rubella 
Sophora japonica 
Spartiuni junceam . 
Spirrea bella 

bullata . 
chamiedrif olia 
media . 

prunifolia flore-pl 
Staphylea colchica 
, . pinnata 

Stephanandra Tanakae 
Stuartia pentagyna . 
,, Pseudo-camellia 
,, virginica 
Styrax japonicum 
,, Obassia . 
Symphoricarpus racemosus 
Syringa Emodi . 
,, japonica 


Syringa vulgaris 

Tamarix gallica 

Taxodium distichum 
Taxus baccata . 
Thuya dolabrata 

,, orientalis 
plicata . 
Tilia ameiicana 
,, cordata 
,, platyphyllos 
,, vulgaris 
Tsuga brunoniana 
Sieboldi . 

Ulex europteus . 

Ulmus alata 
, , americana 
,, montana 

Vaccinum Myrtillus 
,, uliginosum 

Veronica buxifolia 

Traversii . 
Viburnum Lantana . 
Lentago . 
,, Opulus 

,, v. sterile 
Tin us 
tomentosum, v. pli 
catum . 
Vinca major 
Viscum album . 
Vitis inconstans 

Wistaria chinensis . 
multijuga . 

Xanthoceras sorbifolia 

Yucca angustifolia . 
gloriosa . 

Zenobia speciosum . 





Acer dasycarpum 
„ macrophyllum 
„ platanoides 
„ Pseudo-platanus 
„ saccharinum 
.Fsculus carnea 

„ Hippocastanum 
Ailanthus glandulosa 
Aln us cordifolia 
Arbutus Unedo 
Aucuba japonica 
Berberis Aquifolium 

„ vulgaris 
Buxus balearica 

„ sempervirens 
Catalpa bignonioides 

„ cordifolia 
Cistus ladaniferus 
„ laurifolius 
Colutea arborescens 
Crataegus Oxyacantha 
,, Pyracantha 
„ tanacetifolia 
Cupressus lawsoniana 
Cydonia japonica 
Daphne Laureola 

„ Mezereum 
Doutzia crenata 
„ gracilis 
Euonymus europams 

Forsythia suspensa 

„ viridissima 

Fraxinus excelsior 
Ginko hiloba 
Gleditschia triacanthos 
Hedera Helix 
Hibiscus syriacus 
Hypericum calycinum 
Ilex Aquifolium 
Laburnum alpinum 

„ vulgare 

Leycesteria formosa 
Ligustrum vulgare 
Liriodendron tulipifera 
Magnolia acuminata 

„ glauca 
Morus nigra 
Olearia Haastii 
Osmanthus Aquifolium 
Paulownia imperialis 
Phillyrsea decora 

„ latifolia 

„ media 
Pinus Laricio, v. nigricans 
Platanus acerifolia 
„ occidentalis 

„ orientalis 

Populus alba 
„ nigra 
„ tremula 

Primus Amygdalus 
„ Laurocerasus 
„ Padus 
Pyrus Aucuparia 
Quercus Cerris 
Rhamnus Alertemus 
Rhus Cotinus 

„ typhina 
Ribes aureum 

„ sanguineum 

„ speciosum 
Robina Pseudacacia 
Ruscus aculeatus 
Sambucus nigra 

„ racemosa 
Skimmia japonica 
Sophora japonica 
Staphylea colchica 
Syringa vulgaris 
Taxodium distichum 
Taxus baccata 
Tilia cordata 

„ vulgaris 
Thuya dolabrata 
Viburnum Opulus 

„ ,, v. sterile 

„ Tinus 

Ulex europseus 
Vitis quinquefolia 
Yucca gloriosa 



Amelanchier canadensis 
Amorpha fruticosa 
Aralia chinensis 
Arbutus Unedo 

Azalea mollis 
Berberis buxifolia 
„ Darwinii 
Betula alba 


Calycanthus floridus 

„ occidentalis 

Carpinus Betulus 
Cercis Siliquastrum 


Cladrastis tinctoria 

Cotoneaster baccillaris 
„ buxifolia 

„ frigida 

„ microphylla 

„ Simonsii 

Crataegus coccinea 
„ Crus-galli 

Cydonia Maulei 

Cytisus albus 
„ scoparius 

Diervilla grandiflora 

Fagus sylvatica 

Fraxinus Ornus 

Euonymus japonicus 
„ latifolius 

Genista hispanica 

Gymnocladus canadensis 

Halesia totraptera 

Hamamelis virginica 

Hedysarum multijugum 

Hydrangea paniculata, v. grandi- 

Hypericum patulum 

Indigofera gerardiana 

Kerria japonica 

Larix europsea 

Ligustrum japonicum 
„ ovalifolium 

Liquidambar styraciflua 

Magnolia conspicua 
„ Fraseri 

„ stellata 

„ tripetala 

Nuttalia cerasiformis 

Philadelphus coronarius 

Populus monilifera 

Potentilla fruticosa 

Pterocarya caucasica 
Pyrus baccata 
„ coronaria 
„ floribunda 
Quercus coccinea 
„ palustris 
„ pedunculata 
Robinia hispida 

„ neo-mexicana 
,, viscosa 
Rubus deliciosus 
„ odoratus 
Salix alba 

„ babylonica 
Spirsea Douglasi 

„ lindleyana 
Taraarix gallica 
Ulmus campestris 
Wistaria chinensis 


Acer campestre 
„ Pseudo-platanus 
,, saccharinum 
yEsculus Hippocastanum 
Ailanthus glandulosa 
Alnus glutinosa 
Berberis Aquifolium 
„ Darwinii 
„ empetrifolia 
„ vulgaris 
Betula alba 
Carpinus Betulus 
Catalpa bignonioides 
Ceanothus americanus 
Cistus ladaniferus 
Coronilla Emerus 
Corylus Avellana 
Cotoneaster microphylla 

„ Simonsii 

Cratiegus Oxyacantha 
„ Pyracantha 
Cupressus macrocarpa 

„ nootkatensis 
Cytisus scoparius 

Euonymus europams 
„ japonicus 
Fagus sylvatica 
Fraxinus excelsior 
Hedera Helix 
Hippophae rhamnoides 
Hydrangea hortensis 
Ilex Aquifolium 
Juniperus communis 
Laburnum alpinum 
Leycesteria formosa 
Lycium halimifolium 
Phillyraa angustifolia 
„ latifolia 
„ media 
Pinus Laricio 

„ ,, v. nigricans 

,, Pinaster 

„ sylvestris 
Populus canescens 
Prunus Padus 
Pyrus Aucuparia 

„ baccata 

„ coronaria 

Pyrus Sorbus 
Quercus Ilex 
Rbamnus Alaternus 
„ cathartica 
„ Frangula 
Rhododendron catawbiense 

„ ponticum 

Ribes sanguineum 
Rosa rubiginosa 

„ rugosa 

„ spinosissima 
Salix alba 

„ Caprea 

,, cinerea 

„ viminalis 
Sambucus nigra 
Symphoricarpus racemosus 
Tamarix gallica 
Thuya plicata 
Ulex europreus 
Ulmus montana 
Veronica Traversii 




Abies concolor 

,, aordmanuiana 

„ pectinate 

,, Pinsapo 
Acer platanoidos 
Araucaria imbricate 
Arbutus 1'iH'clo 
Aucuba japonica 
Buddleia globosa 
l$uxus balearica 

„ sompervirons 
( folates arborcscens 
Cornus sanguinoa 
Cuprossus lawsoniana 
Cytisus albus 

Daphne Laureola 

Deutzia crenata 

Diorvilla florida 
„ granditlora 

Ekeagnus argentea 

Garrya elliptiea 

Laburnum vulgare 

Laurus nobilis 

Ligustrum vulgare 
„ japonicum 
„ ovalifolium 

Olearia Haastii 

Philadelphia coronarius 

Pieris floribunda 

Pinus Pinaster 

Platanus orientalis 

Populus alba 

ii nigra 

„ tremula 
Planus Avium 

„ Laurocerasus 

„ Padus 
Rhododendron flavum 
Spartium junceum 
Spirrea Douglasi 

„ lindleyana 
Syringa vulgaris 
Thuya occidentalis 
Viburnum Opulus, v. sterile 
,, Tinus 


Abies cephalonica 

„ nobilis 

,, nordmanniana 

„ Pinsapo 
^•Esculus Hippocastanum 
AInus glutinosa 
Amelanchier canadensis 
Amorpha fruticosa 
Aralia chinensis 
Berberis Aquifolium 
Betula alba 
Buddleia globosa 
Calycanthus floridus 
Catalpa bignonioides 
Ceanothus americanus 
Cedrus atlantica 
„ Deodara 
„ Libani 
Cercis Siliquastrum 
Cistus ladaniferus 
C'ladrastis tinetoria 
Colutea arborescens 
Cornus Mas 
Corylus Avellana 
Crataegus Oxyacantha 
„ Pyracantha 
Cupressus lawsoniana 
„ macrocarpa 

„ nootkatensis 

Deutzia crenata 

Deutzia gracilis 
Diervilla florida 
Euonymus japonicus 
Fagus sylvatica 
Fraxinus excelsior 
Garrya elliptica 
Ginko biloba 
Hamamelis virginica 
Hypericum calycinum 
Ilex Aquifolium 
Jasminum nudiflorum 
Juniperus chinensis 
„ communis 

„ Sabina 

„ virginiana 

Kerria japonica 
Larix europrea 
Leycesteria formosa 
Magnolia glauca 
Picea excelsa 
Pinus Cembra 

„ excelsa 

„ Laricio 

„ „ v. nigricans 

„ Pinaster 

„ Strobus 

„ sylvestris 
Populus alba 
Prunus Amygdalus 
„ Laurocerasus 
it it it 

Prunus lusitanica 
„ Padus 

Pyrus Aucuparia 
„ Malus 
„ spectabilis 

Quercus Ilex 

Rhus Cotinus 

Ribes aurcum 
„ sanguineum 

Robinia Pseudacacia 

Rosa rubiginosa 

Salix alba 

Sequoia gigantea 

Spartium junceum 

Spirasa bella 
„ discolor 
„ japonica 
„ lindleyana 

Tamarix gallica 

Taxus baccata 

Thuya occidentalis 
„ orientalis 

Tilia vulgaris 

Ulrnus americana 
„ montana 

Viburnum Opulus 
„ Tinus 

Yucca gloriosa 



Caragana arborescens 
Cercis Siliquastrum 
Cladrastis amurensis 
Colutea arborescens 
Corylus Avellana 
Cupressus lawsoniana 

„ nootkatensis 

Fraxinus Ornus 

Genista virgata 
Halesia tetraptera 
Hamamelis arborea 
Hypericum Androsnemum 
Juniperus communis 

„ Sabina 

Pinus Laricio 

,, ,, v. nigricans 

Pinus Pinaster 
,, sylvestris 
Populus alba 
Taxus baccata 
Thuya plicata 
Ulex europ;eas 
Xanthoceras sorbifolia 
Yucca gloriosa 


Buddleia globosa 
Cercis Siliquastrum 
Corylus Avellana 
Cryptomeria japonica 
Fraxinus Ornus 
Halesia tetraptera 

Hamamelis arborea 
Jasminum nudiflorum 
Leycesteria formosa 
Osmanthus Aquifolium 
Pyrus Torminalis 
(Juercus pedunculata 

Thuya plicata 

,, occidentalis 
Xanthoceras sorbifolia 
Yucca gloriosa 


Abelia fioribunda 
Abies concolor 

„ nobilis 

„ nordmanniana 
Berberis empotrifolia 
Calycanthus occidentalis 
Cedrus Deodara 
Cephalantlms occidentalis 
Cephalotaxus drupacea 
„ Fortuni 

„ pedunculata 

Chionanthus virginica 

Cornus florida 
Cryptomeria japonica 
Cupressus lawsoniana 
„ macrocarpa 

Halesia tetraptera 
Juniperus chinensis 
Larix europrea 
Magnolia glauca 
Myrica Gale 
Pinus excelsa 

„ sylvestris 
Pseudolarix Ksempferi 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii 
Sciadopitys verticillata 
Sequoia sempervirens 
Stuartia pentagyna 

„ virginica 
Taxus baccata 
Thuya occidentalis 
Veronica cupressoides 
Viburnum Opulus 

„ tomentosum, v. plicatum 


Acer campestre 
Aucuba japonica 
Uerberis Aquifolium 
Calycanthus occidentalis 
Cistus ladaniferus 
Cornus Mas 
Dansea Laurus 
Daphne Laureola 

„ Mezereum 
Genista sagittalis 
Hedera Helix 
Hypericum Androsaemum 

Hypericum calycinuin 
Ilex Aquifolium 
Leycesteria formosa 
Ligustrum japonicum 
,, ovalifolium 

Primus Laurocerasus 
Ptelea trifoliata 
Rhododendron ponticum 
Rhus Cotinus 
Rosa rubiginosa 
Rubus nutkanus 
„ odoratus 


Ruscus aculeatus 

„ Hypophyllum 
Symphoricarpus racemosus 
Taxus baccata 
Thuya dolabrata 
Viburnum Tinus 
Vinca major 
,, minor 
Veronica buxifolia 
„ cupressoides 



Acer rubrum 
.Km'uIus parviflora 
Alnus glutinosa 

„ oregoua 
„ rhombifolia 
Arbutus Unoilo 
Betula lutea 
„ nana 
Oalycunthus lloridus 

n oocidentalia 

Catalpa bignonioidea 
Chionanthus virginica 
Clethra acuminata 

„ aluifolia 
Cornus macrophylla 

„ stolonifera 
Corylopsis spicata 
Crataegus coccinea 
„ cordata 
„ Oxyacantha 
„ Pyracantha 
Cryptoraeria japonica 
Cupressus macrocarpa 

Daphne Mezeroum 
Empetrum nigrum 
Erica Tetralix 
Halesia tetraptera 
llamamolis arborea 
Hippophac rhamnoides 
Kalmia angustifolia 
Ledum latifolium 

„ palustre 
Ligustrum vulgare 
Menziesia globularis 
Myrica Gale 
Myrtus communis 
Picea nigra 
Populus alba 

>> »» 

„ canescens 
„ monilifera 
„ nigra 
„ tremula 
Potentilla fruticosa 
Quercus palustris 
Rubus nutkanus 

v. candicans 

Kalix alba 

,, „ v. vitellina 

„ babylonica 

,, Caprea 

„ cinerea 

„ fragilis 

,, nigricans 

,, pentandra 

„ purpurea 

„ triandra 

„ viminalis 
Sciadopitys verticillata 
Spiriea Douglasi 
„ salicifolia 
„ sorbifolia 
Staphylea colchica 
Styrax japonica 
Taxodium distichum 
Thuya dolabrata 

„ occidentalis 
Tsuga canadensis 
Ulmus americana 


Arctostaphylos alpina 

„ pungens 

„ Uva-ursi 

Cistus crispus 

Cotoneaster horizon talis 

Cytisus Ardoini 

Daphne blagayana 
„ Cneorum 

Genista anglica 

„ hispanica 

„ sagittalis 
Juniperus Sabina 
Loiseleuria procumbens 
Myrica Gale 
Potentilla fruticosa 
Rhododendron ferrugineum 

Rhododendron racemosum 
Rubus phcenicolasius 
Spirsea bullata 
Vaccinum Myrtillus 
„ uliginosum 

„ Vitis-idsea 

Veronica cupressoides 
„ pinguifolia 



The scope of this work — Influence of soil upon trees — Influence of trees upon soil — Methods of root- 
ing — Situation and its influence — Shapes of trees — Importance of studying the spray — Main stem 
or trunk — The bark and its uses — Uses of timber and trees generally — Plea for an Arbor Dav 
and re-afForestation — The advent of the Garden City — Study of winter buds — Insect pests 
— Fungoid pests — Age of trees — Nature's laboratory and coal — Leaf structure, form, and 
functions — Autumnal beauty of hedgerow, wood, and garden — Floral structure and pollination 
— Commercial products of flowers, trees, and shrubs — Fruit and seed — Fine-fruiting trees and 
shrubs for decorative effect — Pendulous trees and shrubs — The scent of trees — The beauty 
of the Lime — Companionship of trees — Our woodlands of to-day — A good story by Dean 
Hole — The mission of the trees — An English wood in springtime — Some woodland pictures 
— How to read the story of the year — Conclusion. 


In the present volume it has been the intention of the authors to provide 
some help to the Nature-student and others in the identification of not only 
the British trees and shrubby plants, but also of the more common culti- 
vated trees and shrubs. This branch of Botany has been sadly neglected 
in the past, with the result that although the young student, and even 
those of an older growth, may be familiar with most of the native herba- 
ceous plants, so ably described in the many popular books on wild flowers, 
there is a want of familiarity with the great majority of the trees and flower- 
ing shrubs which one may see in our public and private parks and gardens. 

Not only does this remark apply to the inquiring student, but it is 
astonishing how many so-called gardeners and owners of beautiful gardens 
are unfamiliar with the names and uses of many of the botanical treasures 
which lie at their very feet. Many such will be well informed as to the 
newest and latest varieties of herbaceous plants, but at the same time quite 
unable to say whether a certain tree in the garden is a Deodar or an 
Atlantic Cedar, a Wellingtonia or a Lawson's Cypress. Such at least has 

been the experience of the authors. Or again, how many could identify 

i b 


the Tree of Heaven (Ailantus), the Kidney-bean Tree (Wistaria), Tulip Tree, 
or Evergreen Oak? Yet these are by no means uncommon even in our 
thickly populated towns. 

Naturally all trees appeal to us most strongly when in leaf, but to those who 
will observe, many are the beauties to be found in the leafless tree, and much 
can be done to identify them by their bark, buds, and manner of growth. 

The botanist will of course examine the flowers, but possibly even in 
these days of enlightenment it does not always occur to the unscientific 
that even Oaks and Elms, and all our forest trees, are in their turn laden 
with floral treasures which will well repay close study. 

It has been our endeavour, therefore, to collect together from our personal 
observation and other sources, and present in a condensed form, much valu- 
able information which it is hoped will interest the young student, and lead 
him to ask the why and wherefore of those many facts which he may 
observe around him. 

Our attention is here confined for the most part to the species of hardy 
trees and shrubs which we may find growing either as indigenous plants 
in their natural surroundings, or under cultivation in the modern garden 
of any pretension. The number of hardy trees and shrubs enumerated as 
growing in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, amounts to about 4500, and 
the Conifers reach a total of 700. Of this vast number we have endea- 
voured to mention all our native trees and shrubby plants, and most of 
the more commonly cultivated species. Very few varieties are described 
as their number is an ever - increasing quantity, and often the minor dis- 
tinctions are of but little interest to the serious student, who in such a 
vast subject must be content to work on broad lines. The Kew Hand- 
list gives the names of fifty slight forms of Berbcris vulgaris, which by 
some might be considered as distinct species. The plan of the work is 
rather of the nature of a scientific flora than a popular treatise, but it may 
be worth while to offer the student some suggestions as to how he may 
best utilise the information presented in these pages. The Latin names 
used are those of the Kew Hand-lists. In a few cases it has been found 


advisable to give one or more synonyms, especially when these are in 
common use among horticulturists, but the choice is a matter of great diffi- 
culty, as may be judged when it is remembered that the Hand-list often 
gives ten to fifteen to a species, and as an extreme case we find twenty-four 
allotted to Spircea canescens. The difficulty is especially felt when dealing 
with the Conifers, for many of these have been at different times described 
under the generic names of Abies (Firs), Picea (Spruces), and Pinus (Pines). 
In the case of certain genera which contain several cultivated species 
we have added a few simple cultural directions as to propagation. These 
will be found under the first specimen described, and, unless otherwise 
stated, may be taken broadly to apply to the species generally. 


Having introduced our plant by its popular and scientific names, we 
point out its habits, and much may be learned as to which trees and 
shrubs thrive best in particular soils. Such is the constitution of plants 
that while some must be supplied with soil rich in organic material, some 
few others will make larger bushes and blossom with greater profusion in 
soil which the horticulturist would describe as poor. The Birch, Holly, 
Mountain Ash, and Scots Fir are found wild on the poorest of sandy soils. 

The Maple and Wild Service Tree will thrive in dry situations, whilst 
Willows, Alders, and Poplars will succeed best when near water. 

The Elder, Privet, Colchican Bladder Nut, and many others grow best 
in a moist loamy soil, and the Oak thrives on clay, whilst such as the 
Furze, Tutsan, Bladder Senna, Stone Pine, and Evergreen Cypress prefer 
a sandy soil. Rhododendrons, Azaleas, Kalmias, Ericas, and others of the 
same family require rich soil, readily permeable to moisture, sandy peat 
or heath-mould being the best, but a rich sandy loam mixed with leaf- 
mould and rotten turf will also answer well. Whilst the Heath family 
refuse to grow in soil permeated by lime, the Beech and Yew will flourish 

and do well, and the native flora of our chalk districts includes such 

iii b 2 


well-known trees as the White Ream, Wayfaring Tree, Box, and Purging 


The list of flowering shrubs, deciduous trees, and conifers which may 
be planted on a chalk soil is a long one indeed, and many of these will 
flourish where the layer of soil resting on the chalk is often not more 
than six inches deep. 


We have written at some length as to the influence of soil upon the 
growth of trees, but we may also note that the converse of this is true, 
namely, that trees largely influence the composition of soils in providing 
that humus which is so necessary for vegetable growth. It has been 
estimated "that after a sandy soil in New England is so exhausted that 
it will produce nothing but red mosses, it may be renewed to its pristine 
vigour and productiveness by the growth of trees on it for thirty years." 


Trees and shrubs vary considerably in their method of rooting, for while 
the Ash, Birch, Cedar of Lebanon, Horse Chestnut, Oak, and Plane are 
inclined to root deeply, others, as the Beech, Elm, Lime, and Sycamore, often 
ramify so near to the surface as to kill plants growing near them, and 
frequently make it difficult or impossible for even grass to grow beneath 
their shade. 


Not only does the soil decide the fate of trees and shrubs, but the 

question of sunshine or shade, exposure or shelter, are important factors 

in their life-history. Many will thrive best when able to bask in sunshine, 

as the Satin Flower and Golden Bell, while others delight in shade, as 

the Tutsan and Large-flowered St. John's Wort. 

Many evergreens will do well under the shade of trees, among them 



being Box, Yew, Cherry Laurel, Portugal Laurel, Butchers Broom, and 
Holly-leaved Barberry. 

The outdoor student will probably have but little to do with the roots 
of trees, though many interesting questions are connected with their functions. 
Above ground, however, he has much to interest him and help him in the 
identification of the species at all seasons. 


Viewed from a distance most of our trees will be found to have a more 
or less distinctive shape, and much can be done to take this as a rough 
identification mark, but the peculiar characteristics of each tree are most 
apparent in late autumn and winter when the leaves are fallen and the 
different modes of branching are laid bare. In the Oak, with its expansive 
spread and large rounded head, we then notice the stoutness of its limbs, 
which, continually subdividing at right angles, twist here and there horizontally 
in various contortions, at once adding the idea of great strength to that of 
beauty. On the other hand, the Ash, with its easy-flowing lines and loose 
pendent branches, rather suggests the idea of beauty and elegance. Compare 
again the massive form of the Elms with the light gracefulness of the Silver 
Birch, and the tall spire-like column of the Lombardy Poplar, or the elon- 
gated pyramidal growth of the Deodar, with the broadly pyramidal head or 
flattened top of the Cedar of Lebanon. In their general conical outline, how 
well are many of the Conifers adapted for bearing the masses of snow in their 
native climes. 


To obtain a more accurate idea of the nice peculiarities and distinctions 
of trees we must examine their smaller parts with more precision, and a study 
of the spray is an interesting one for the winter months. We shall see that 
the mode of growth in the spray corresponds with that of the larger branches. 
In the Oak it breaks out in right angles, or nearly so, in a series of long and 
short shoots, giving that abrupt mode of ramification for which the Oak 


is remarkable, and generally springing from the upper side, running in such 
directions as to give the branches a horizontal appearance. The spray of the 
Ash runs in a scries of irregular parallels, the shoots springing out in opposite 
pairs, often only one coining to maturity, and that usually on the under side, 
so as to form elegant pendent houghs. In the Elm we find spray forming a 
series of acute angles with the parent branch, being given off" on alternate 
sides, often becoming pendent with age. The Beech exhibits the same kind 
of altcrnacy, but the acute angles are smaller, the distance between the twigs 
is wider, and the whole runs a kind of zigzag course, becoming pendent, but 
twisted and entangled. The subject may be pursued in other trees, but 
enough has been said to show that much may be learned towards recognising 
the species even in the leafless stage. 


The main stem or trunk of the tree is also in many instances peculiarly 
characteristic, as we may see in the leaden-grey, smooth trunk of the Beech, 
the peculiarly twisted stem of the Sweet Chestnut, or the rough, red-brown 
trunk of the Scots Fir, so frequently bent over near the top and denuded of 
its lower branches. 


The bark also serves very largely as a distinguishing mark, as in the 
thick, deeply furrowed, corky bark of the Oak, the shallower grooves in the 
Ash, the silvery-white peeling layers of the Birch, or the flaking plates of 
the Planes. The outer bark of trees is usually dead and dry, and in many 
cases is corky, giving a rugged appearance to the stem, as in the Elm and 
Oak, whilst in others it is capable of great distension, and presents a smooth 
appearance, as in the Beech. It is a protective tissue, acting as a buffer to 
the soft delicate structures that lie beneath, and one of its chief uses is to 
prevent excessive evaporation of the cell sap. 

In the bark of stem and branches we may often observe small transpira- 
tion pores known as lenticels. They assume characteristic forms according to 



the species, and are well seen in Elder, Beech, and Birch, in the latter being 
conspicuous as narrow slits measuring from a half to four inches in length. 

The bark of many deciduous trees and shrubs is brightly coloured, and 
advantage is often taken of this in planting for winter effect. 

Several of the Dogwoods have red stems, and browns are common among 
the Spiraeas and Syringas {Philadelphus). White is familiar in Silver Birch 
and the White-stemmed Bramble, greens in the Kerrias, Genistas, and Brooms, 
while in the Willows we have all shades of orange, yellow, and purple. 

The bark of many trees is subject to the attacks of Scale insects, Aphides, 
and various species of Bark Beetles, some of which are mentioned in the 
detailed descriptions, while the leaves of trees and shrubs are also largely 
eaten by various kinds of larvae. Man utilises the bark of the Cork Oak in 
many ways, and that of Oak and Birch is much used in tanning, though 
fast being superseded in this country by chemicals. 

The valuable alkaloid quinine is obtained from the bark of several species 
of Cinchona, and the popular Cascara Sagrada or Sacred Bark comes from 
the Rhamnus PursMana, a small tree closely allied to the English Buck- 
thorn, and found in abundance in the United States of America. 


Before leaving the main stem of the tree we may refer to the innumerable 

uses to which the timber is applied. The mere mention of only the principal 

would occupy several pages, and the ever-increasing demand being made on 

the world's forests by the advance of civilisation is becoming a serious problem. 

It has been said that forests have a remarkable influence on climate, especially 

as regards the rainfall, that forests check evaporation, and, by cooling the 

air above them, act as condensers of the aqueous vapour, causing the minute 

particles to unite and form drops which fall through the action of gravity. 

But recent research tends to prove this to be somewhat exaggerated, though 

over forests the rainfall may be slightly greater than in the open. In 

many districts, where the land has been cleared of trees, a diminution in 

the rainfall has occurred. The presence of trees tends directly to keep up and 


*■ t -. 




* « . • w 


render more uniform the water supply, by reducing the mechanical force of 
very heavy rain, and by means of their roots and the accumulation of humus 
retarding the passage of water through the soil. 


This state of things can be remedied only by scientific methods of re- 
planting, and in India and many parts of Europe a great deal is done to 
replace the timber-trees which have been cut down, while in Canada and 
the U.S.A. the younger generation are encouraged to plant trees on 
Arbor Day, a day set apart in each year for that purpose. That an Arbor 
Day will soon be instituted in this country is our earnest wish, for there can 
surely be no better or more commendable manner of commemorating any 
event than by planting a tree. Some barren spot will, as a consequence, be 
made brighter, some neighbourhood will become healthier, some poor mortal 
may perchance shelter under its welcome shade, some bird build its mossy 
cradle among its pliant branches. 

A land without trees is as hopeless, and as barren, as a well without water ! 

The very thought is sufficient to send a shudder through the frame of any 

man or woman worthy of the name, and in view of the continual outcry 

that we are hearing as to the means to be adopted for bringing people back 

to the land, here is one of the most cogent answers to the appeal. Dr. John 

Nisbet, in his revised edition of " Our Forests and Woodlands," gives a resumi 

of the progress of British Forestry since the first edition of the book appeared 

some seven years ago, and the important question of State afforestation is 

treated of briefly but with telling effect in view of our present enormous 

imports of hewn timber for pit-wood and of wood pulp for paper-making. 

We imported over two and a half million loads of pit-wood and more than half- 

a-million tons of wood pulp in 1907 ; and if our waste lands and poor pastures 

can be afforested with profit at all, it is precisely this class of coniferous 

timber that could be grown on them, and it would take thirty million acres 

of well-managed woodlands to simply supply these, our present imports. 



While a great deal more might be done by judicious husbandry in utilising 
waste lands and making desolate places beautiful, affording work" for those 
willing to till the soil, and generally encouraging a love for the country, 
fortunately the tendency seems to be in the right direction. 


The Garden City, for instance, has come to stay. It is the beginning of 
a new era. It is as yet neither Paradise nor Utopia, but it is a start on 
the road to better housing, healthier conditions for the people, more social 
intercourse, a love for the country, gardening, outdoor recreation, pursuits, 
and pleasures. " And what," you may ask, " has the advent of Garden 
Cities to do with trees?" The answer is obvious, for, if a Garden City 
is to be worthy of the name, trees and shrubs must of necessity play 
an important part in its upbuilding, its charm, its attractions, and its 

In more than one Garden City of our acquaintance we have been pleased 
to observe that tree planting is one of the chief and essential features that 
attract attention. Not long since we paid an interesting visit to a certain 
locality — now a Garden City — where there previously existed a six square 
mile area of pastoral country, sparsely wooded for the most part, excepting 
for two or three choice spots, prominent among them being a delightful 
common of seventy-eight acres, covered with Privet, Buckthorn, Blackthorn, 
Whitethorn, Elder, Wild Rose, and other trees, shrubs, and herbaceous 
plants. Now as the city develops the streets are being planted with many 
kinds of trees ; the common and its wild beauty is being rigorously pre- 
served ; the fostering of a natural inclination for gardening, hedgerows, trees, 
everything that is not an eyesore, is encouraged. It is, so far as has been 
possible in the short time at command, a Garden City in the truest sense 
of the word, and although we of to-day may not appreciate it as we should 
do, nor live to see its complete accomplishment, there are generations as 

yet unborn who will, we venture to predict, be thankful a thousand times 



that there was created for them a place of quiet beauty and restfulness, a 
city with pure air, blue sky, green grass, soaring larks, verdant trees, where 
they might find solace, comfort, and recreation far from the busy turmoil 
of the great City and the rush of the work-a-day world. 


The study of winter buds is a subject of great interest, and they are so 
definite and constant in their character that trees can be easily identified by 
this means. The twigs usually bear a terminal bud at the end, and others, 
known as axillary buds, arranged along the sides in a definite order. In the 
Ash, Horse Chestnut, and Sycamore they are in opposite pairs at right 
angles to each other up the stem. 

Then again in the Beech, Elm, and Plane we find them arranged more 
or less alternately, and we have a spiral arrangement in the Poplar and 
Oak. In the latter we also find a terminal cluster of five or six buds in- 
stead of the large solitary bud usually seen in that position. 

The young leaves within the bud are usually protected by bud scales, 
varying in number from a few to very many, as in the Oak, where we find 
twenty or more pairs of scales before a leaf is seen. The outer scales are 
often leathery, and may be either covered with hairs, or with a resinous 
secretion, so familiar in the buds of the Horse Chestnut. These are all 
means for keeping out damp and moisture, and for moderating the changes 
of temperature within, where any sudden freezing or thawing might rupture 
the delicate tissues. When the bud-scales die they leave rings of scars, and 
the distance between each set of rings represents a year's growth, so that 
it is easy to tell the age of a twig by counting these intervals. The fallen 
leaves also give characteristic scars, differing very much according to the 
species, but this is well seen in the Horse Chestnut, where they have the 
likeness of a horse-shoe, the resemblance to the nails being conspicuous in 
the ends of the fibro-vascular bundles of the leaf. 

The bud-scales vary much in colour, reds, browns, and greens being most 



common, whilst in the Ash they are of so dark a shade of olive-green as 
to appear almost black in the distance. 


The timber of trees in the living state is subject to attack from insect 
larva?, two of the most common being those of the Goat Moth (Cossus ligni- 
perda) and the Wood Leopard Moth (Zeuzera cesculi). The former is most 
frequently associated with Willows, but is also partial to Oak, Lime, and 
fruit trees, especially Apple, Pear, and Plum. The latter attacks Ash, Beech, 
Birch, Elm, Walnut, and the before-mentioned fruit trees. 

The larvae of Wood Wasps, especially the Giant Sirex (Sirex gigas), often 
bore into the Fir trees, and those of many beetles work havoc in the wood 
of other trees. 


Among fungoid diseases which affect decay in timber, two of the best 
known are the Canker Fungus {Nectria ditissima), which is common in Apple 
trees, but also attacks Pear, Plum, Oak, Beech, Ash, &c, and the Larch 
disease or Larch Canker, which probably owes its origin to the spores of 
Peziza Wilkommii. 


In spite of their many enemies trees often attain great age, and though 
it is impossible to accept the estimates that have been made by the older 
naturalists, there is little doubt that individuals have remained in a flourishing 
condition for over a thousand years. 

Tradition places the age of some of the Cedars of Lebanon at about 
3000 years, and probably the Yew has attained as great an age. The speci- 
mens at Fountains Abbey are believed to have been flourishing twelve cen- 



turies ago, and Lime trees near Friburg have existed as long. Oaks, too, are 
long-lived, and several in England have probably stood for 800 to 1500 years. 
Space will not permit ns to pursue the subject further, but among others of 
the longest-lived may be mentioned the Cypress, Larch, and Elm, whilst the 
Wellingtonias and other giants of Western America carry us back in ima- 
gination beyond the dawn of history. 


We have spoken of the uses to which we put trees in the present age of 
high civilisation. Rut what shall we say of those vast primeval forests which 
m the course of bygone ages were annihilated, and in the hidden recesses of 
Nature's laboratory transmuted into what we now know as coal? We can 
scarcely imagine what would be the industrial conditions of to-day without 
our seemingly inexhaustible supplies of this universal commodity, and the 
innumerable by-products which man in his ingenuity extracts from it. Yet 
what do we know of its origin ? Truly little indeed, and even that little 
only through the patient toiling of the geologist and botanist, who have 
combined to probe Nature's secrets and build up for us a feeble picture of 
the luxuriant vegetation which clothed these antediluvian wilds in those days 
which we call the Carboniferous Period. By patient research these workers 
have pieced together the story, and they tell us that among the largest 
forms which composed those forests were certain Lycopodiums or Club-mosses 
known as Sigillaria± and Lepidodendra. 

The Sigillariae attained a height of 60 to 70 ft., the unbranched stem having 
a number of longitudinal rows of diamond-shaped leaf-scars, and being some- 
what hollow, so that where the trees have fallen and been subjected to great 
compression, the fossil remains are simply the thickness of the double bark, 
that is, the two opposite sides of the envelope which covered the trunk when 

The Lepidodendra had much-branched stems, 100 ft. or more in length, 

also beautifully marked with scars, whilst the branches bore at their ex- 



Plate I. 

(For description of Plate see page XXV III) 



tremities cylindrical sporangia filled with minute spores. The bituminous coal 
in many instances is made up almost entirely of these spores and spore-cases. 

Another important group of trees which reached their maximum in the 
Carboniferous Period were the Conifers, represented to-day by our Firs and 
Pines. Those found in the coal-beds were closely related to the Araucarias, 
and in many districts their fossil fruits have been found in great quantities. 

There were also at this time lofty trees or bushes with multipinnate 
leaves several feet in length, in the shade of which other smaller species 
grew and flourished. 

Through the eons life and death marched hand in hand, and the accumu- 
lations of vegetable material, caused by the steady yearly shedding of leaves, 
fronds, and spores, and the decay of fallen giants, continued to grow, being 
subjected to an ever-increasing pressure, and gradually being covered by 
sedimentary deposits, beneath which they might remain till the genius of 
man should extract them from the depths of the earth to serve the wants of 
industry and his own dwelling. 


We have referred to the more aesthetic beauty of trees as exemplified in 
their general outline and ramification, but it is probably the foliage, with its 
ever-varying form and colours, and its niceties of light and shade, which will 
appeal most to the casual observer. 

We cannot here enter into a systematic description of the various forms 
of leaves, but it is a matter of vital importance in the identification of 
species, and, owing to the fact that the life of the flowers is at most a short 
one, it is often our chief guide. 

Not only do leaves vary greatly in their arrangement on the stem and 

in their outline, but they exhibit many minute differences in colour and 

texture, each with its own appellation, and for the meaning of these the 

student must be referred to the Glossary. This infinite variety of leaf form 

and structure is intimately connected with the environment of the plant. 

The deep incisions and clefts which give such beauty to the outline of 

xiii C 


compound leaves, and the disposition of the leaves on the stem, and of the 
leaflets on the petiole, are definitely related with the admission of light, 
without which the activity of the green tissues would be much impaired, 
if not altogether arrested. The texture of leaves is associated with the pre- 
vention of excessive exhalation and the consequent danger from heat, and 
among the devices adopted to shield the epidermis from the direct rays of 
the sun, and reduce transpiration, may be mentioned the coriaceous membranes 
with which many leaves are provided, the woolly or siliceous hair-like 
structures which are especially prevalent on their under-surfaces, and the 
revolute margins of many which grow in exposed situations. 

Among the contrivances adopted as a protection against animate nature 
may be mentioned the various forms of stinging hairs, spines, and prickles to 
be found on the leaves, petioles, stems, and branches of various plants. In 
the struggle for existence, and in the face of the incessant depredations of 
animal visitors, these modifications of plant structures have undoubtedly 
been the salvation of the race. In the case of the lower forms of animal 
life, more especially as regards the insect world, the signs of warfare are 
many and numerous, whole colonies of trees and shrubs sometimes being 
denuded of foliage by insect larvae, and volumes have been devoted to the 
description of the various galls which owe their origin to insect agency. 
Many of these attack the leaves, and attention is drawn to a few in the 
descriptive pages. The foliage also is especially susceptible to fungoid diseases, 
and an interesting study may be made of these at all seasons of the year. 
The life-history of many is at present but imperfectly known, and a wide 
field of research here lies open to the earnest worker. 



Before leaving this part of our subject we will for a moment direct 

attention to the autumnal beauty of our hedges, woods, and gardens. Few 

dwellers in the country can have failed to notice the infinite variety of 

colour which attaches to the dying foliage, and even those in towns must 




be familiar with the exquisite colouration of the Horse-Chestnut leaves in 
the early stages of decay, and the many beautiful gradations through which 
the leaves of the Elms pass in their change from the sombre green of summer 
to the golden yellow at their fall. 

In an Oak wood we may see every variety of green and every variety 
of brown, while among the Beeches we have a long range from modest 
brown to glowing orange. In the Hedge Maple we find every shade of 
green, brown, and orange suffused with gold, and among the Brambles and 
on the Hawthorn we get every possible variation in green, orange, yellow, 
red, and brown. 

Space will not permit of our going through the list of all our common 
trees, but we must pause to mention a few of our cultivated trees and 
shrubs which may be depended on in most years to put on their autumnal 
livery of crimson, scarlet, and gold. The various species of Maple provide 
us with examples of red, orange, yellow, and scarlet, and all the species of 
JEsculus turn yellow. Many of the Thorns (Crataegus) take on brilliant 
shades of red, bronze, orange, and scarlet, and among the many fine examples 
of yellows may be placed the Poplars, Sycamore, Tulip Tree, Honey Locust, 
and Maidenhair Tree. Among shrubs some of the most striking are the 
Sumachs (Rhus), most of which turn red, while the Barberries furnish us 
with red, purple, and scarlet. The exact nature of the subtle chemical 
changes which take place in the cell-contents of the leaf and produce this 
autumn colouration is not clearly understood, nor is the reason clear as to 
why it varies so much in different seasons, but, as a rule, it seems to be 
best when a warm, moist summer is followed by a dry, sunny autumn, and 
many species colour best when growing in a soil which is not over-rich. 


Let us for a moment turn our attention to the flowers. We are not 

here concerned with their structure, for that is dealt with fully in the detailed 

descriptions, but we should like to direct the student to the many interest- 

xv c 2 


ing problems connected with the question of their pollination and fertilisa- 
tion. Nearly all the species dealt with in this work belong to one or other 
of two great classes of Flowering Plants, the Dicotyledons and Gymnosperms, 
the Monocotyledons being represented by a very few species. The Gymno- 
sperms, or plants with naked ovules, have flowers which are unisexual and 
destitute of calyx and corolla, and are entirely wind-fertilised. There is a 
general broad resemblance of structure in the various genera and species, 
and the fertilised ovules take from one to three years to become ripe seeds. 
In the Dicotyledons we have a marvellous diversity of floral structure, and 
there is no doubt that each peculiarity has its own significance. 

Generally speaking, self-fertilisation is not advantageous to the plant, and 
the structural differences are usually a means of preventing this, and at the 
same time an aid to cross-pollination. Our catkin-bearing trees are con- 
spicuous examples of this, for their flowers are nearly all anemophilous, the 
females having well-developed and usually projecting stigmas, and the male 
flowers being easily shaken in the wind, while, as an aid to the better dis- 
persal of their pollen by the wind, they almost universally blossom before 
the leaves are fully developed. Irregular and conspicuously coloured flowers 
are nearly always pollinated by insects, and our trees and shrubs provide us 
with many examples, the greater number perhaps belonging to the Order 
LeguminosEe. The latter are for the most part pollinated by bees, but 
among entomophilous flowers we have many which for the perpetuation of 
the species are dependent on the visits of butterflies or moths, wasps, flies, or 
beetles. We cannot stay to discuss the many questions connected with colour, 
perfume, nectaries, &c, but will direct the reader to the very admirable 
chapters on the subject to be found in various well-known botanical works. 



As commercial products the flowers of trees and shrubs are of not much 

value, but in two instances the unopened flower-buds are used commercially, 

viz., in the case of Capers, which are produced on a small shrub (Cappa?'is 



(For description of Plate see page XX VI II) 

Plate IT. 



spinosa) grown in South Europe, and with Cloves, which are the product of 
an East Indian tree (Caryophyllus aromaticus) belonging to the Order Myrtaceae, 
which includes other such useful products as Allspice, Pomegranate, and the 
many species of Eucalyptus. Another most interesting example is provided 
in the Fig, popularly regarded as a fruit, and used as such in dessert, but 
which is in reality an inflorescence or collection of flowers. 


In our review of the tree we now come to the most essential point, the 
fulfilment of the Creator's command, " Let the earth bring forth grass, the 
herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose 
seed is in itself upon the earth." Since the dawn of creation Dame Nature has 
been working out this scheme, and the results of her handiwork are around 
us in the endless variety of shape and form evolved by the fruit and seed, 
and the innumerable mechanical contrivances adopted for their dispersal. 

Time and space will not permit of our entering into details of the Classi- 
fication of Fruits, but we shall find that the majority of those dealt with 
may be placed under the headings of pomes, drupes, berries, capsules, 
samaras or cones. The first three are fleshy fruits containing seeds, and in 
their dissemination birds and other animals take an active part. The 
succulent portion of such fruits is greedily devoured, but the seeds usually 
resist digestion, and are sometimes transported to great distances where, 
under favourable conditions of soil, moisture, and temperature, they may 
continue the race. 

The true capsules liberate their seeds through toothed openings or pores, 

or by forcibly bursting open in well-defined directions. The pod or legume, 

which is often described as a capsule, also bursts to disperse its seeds, and 

sometimes propels them a considerable distance. In the samaras or winged 

fruits, and in the winged seeds of the cones, we have aids for their dispersal 

by the wind, and many other interesting forms of fruit and seeds of less 

frequent occurrence may be met with. 



Among the useful products of trees may be mentioned the orange, lemon, 
citron, lime, banana, and date: nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, chestnuts, 
and walnuts ; and useful beverages are obtained from cocoa and coffee. 

Many fruits and seeds are subject to attack from insect larva?, especially 
of beetles, many of which are known as weevils. Many trees and shrubs 
lend beauty to the autumn through the charming effects produced by their 
conspicuous and brightly coloured fruits, and to the student of Nature they 
have the additional merit of encouraging bird-life, for the delicacies displayed 
in such profusion are eagerly devoured by our feathered visitors. 


Of all the natural orders into which our plants are grouped none is so 
prolific of fine fruits as the Rosacea?, and many familiar examples are to 
be found among the Roses, Pyruses, Thorns, and Cotoneasters. Many of 
the Rose fruits are extremely beautiful, the most conspicuous being the 
bright red orange-shaped hip of Rosa rugosa, measuring 1 inch or more 
across, and surrounded by leaf-like persistent sepals H inches long. The 
Dog Rose, so familiar in our hedges, is also worthy of note, being deserving 
of a place in the garden, its fruit being, like many others of the genus, a 
beautiful red. 

Varying shades of red, orange, and yellow are provided by the genus 
Pyrus, which includes the Crabs, White Beam, and Mountain Ash. Many 
of the Thorns are very effective, and rarely fail to carry a good crop of 
brightly coloured fruit. Among the best examples we may place the Cock- 
spur, Fiery Evergreen, and Washington Thorns. The Cotoneasters may supply 
us with specimens for the lawn, shrubbery, wall, or rockery, differing so 
widely in habit that one or more can be found for almost any position 
seldom failing to provide an autumn show of handsome berries. 

Of the many other showy species we need only mention the inflated 



Plate III. 

{For description of Plate see -pays XXI' III) 



pods of the Bladder Nuts and Bladder Sennas, the conspicuous white fruits 
of the Snow-berry, those of the Arbutus resembling ripe strawberries, the 
bright orange berries of the Sea Buckthorn, and the Spindle trees with their 
open red fruits revealing the orange-coloured seeds within. The list could 
be extended almost indefinitely, but we have said enough to prove that 
to those who will look for them there are beauties in our trees and shrubs 
at all seasons of the year. 


As a last word on the subject of beauty we will call attention to the 
many varieties of pendulous trees and shrubs which we may find in 
cultivation. Very few of these are species coming true from seed, but have 
mostly originated as sports, and are propagated by grafting, cuttings, or 
layers. Some of the best known and most frequently met with are the 
weeping varieties of the Ash, Birch, Elm, Poplar, and Willow. The genus 
Primus gives us several forms of Cherry, and there are pendulous varieties 
of Alder, Hazel, Hornbeam, and Oak. The weeping forms of Holly are 
the best of all evergreen trees with a pendulous habit, and among Conifers 
we have pendulous varieties of Cedar, Cypress, Juniper, Larch, Yew, and 
others to choose from. All such trees and shrubs are seen to the best 
advantage when growing on an open lawn or on the margin of a lake 
or stream. 


The scent given off 1 by some kinds of trees and shrubby plants — and the 
latter especially — is one of the many features of the countryside and the 

Whilst comparatively few of our commoner British trees are aromatic, 

exception must be made in the case of the Lime. When laden with its light 

yellowish tassels of bloom during the wealth of summer, when the honey 

bees are taking toll from the nectar and so energetically pursuing their 


A s 



sweet pillage amongst the flowers, then it is that few scents in the country- 
are more beautiful or enticing. Perchance the lovely breath from the sweet 
violet wafted on the breeze from some sun-kissed bank, or the delicious 
perfume from the meadow-sweet along some secluded streamside, or the 
fresh, invigorating air after a shower of rain, or the scent from the hayflelds, 
may vie with the Lime in luxury of aroma, but the latter surely eclipses 
all. Of an evening, when the heat and dust of the day have departed, and 
twilight replaces the dawn, when the little pipistrelle bat is commencing 
its nocturnal exploitations, and the bees have gone home to slumber after the 
day's pillaging among the flowers, then it is the Lime is at its best. We 
really do not know of any other British tree which gives to the country 
such a delightful scent, nor — with the exception of the male Sallow blossoms 
in the early spring, the Brambles in the summer, and the Ivy in the autumn 
and winter — one that attracts such an abundance of insect visitors. 

It is astonishing to notice, however, how few people appear to hear 
the pleasing monotone, or stop to inhale the sweet aroma. Yet most of 
us seem to love trees, and nearly every one is passionately fond of flowers. 
Many of our more unfortunate fellows, penned up in town or city, who for 
a few brief hours pass a week end with us in the country, crave for a sight 
of, and a meander through, some tangled and untrammelled piece of wild 
England, some lonely copse, some secluded greenwood where the squirrel 
loves to gambol in the tree tops playing hide-and-seek, and the jay and 
the woodpecker delight in sounding their loud clarion cry. 


There is companionship in trees. Shakespeare has written of sermons in 
stones. Verily, if there be sermons in stones, there are sermons and music 
and congregation combined in trees. 

Have you ever wandered alone through some favourite belt of wood- 
land listening to the feathered choir, stooping to caress some vegetable 
treasure at your feet, watching the rabbits scuttle away at your approach, 

or a crafty weasel creeping snake-like through the undergrowth ? You 




inhale the pure air, gain inspiration from Nature's inexhaustible storehouse 

at every step you take into her sacred fastnesses ; the wood is in itself a 

rich museum, a fairy forest, full of wonders untold, secrets as yet unravelled, 

pathways as yet untrod, and the trees seem so very near that you know not 

solitude during your interviews and association with them. 

" At the gates of the forest," says Emerson, " the surprised man of the 

world is forced to leave his city estimates of great and small, wise and foolish. 

The knapsack of custom falls off his back with the first step he makes into 

these precincts. . . . Here is sanctity which shames our religions, and reality 

which discredits our heroes. . . . The tempered light of the woods is like 

a perpetual morning, and is stimulating and heroic. Here no history, or 

church, or state is interpolated on the divine sky and the immortal year ! " 

Yet, while the birds and other animals interest and amuse you with their 

winning ways, and you note the smaller plants, the crafty woodbine and 

the twining bryony, that by force of youthful sap thrust themselves over and 

around their fellows, it is the larger trees which look down upon you and 

seem to preach a living sermon, seem to proclaim a real message. The 

wind gently rustles the leaves so that they shimmer in the sunlight and 

thus produce a kind of woodland lullaby, a whisper of welcome, a message 

of friendliness, a spirit of companionship, a symphony of love. 

Never need one be dull or morose when in the neighbourhood of trees, 

and if people generally realised what we owe to them for the purposes of fuel, 

food, medicine, raiment, and timber, they would undoubtedly be much more 

highly regarded than they are to-day. They are happy sanctuaries for birds, 

squirrels, bats, a vast array of insects, and other animals ; they improve the 

landscape, temper the winds, consolidate the soil, give off an abundance of 

life-giving oxygen and breathe in the bad gases that we breathe out, and 

generally add a complete charm to the town or countryside such as no other 

branch of Dame Nature's fruitful family can ever hope to do. 

Surely our natural love is for trees, for the little copse, the wild woodland, 

or the virgin forest. From the latter we have, as it were, not long since 

emerged ; our woodcraft in some remote districts has lost none of its cunning. 



Far hack in distant ages we learn of tree-worship, of the mysterious in- 
fluence surrounding the grove. "Trees," says Pliny, "were the first temples,'' 
and although we have lost some of the poetic fancy connected with trees 
we have learned much of their life histories. The mystery, however, is still 
there, and to probe into the secrets affords an abundance of wonder and 


To-day, when the woodman uses his axe so largely and so often, our 
great forests and woods are denuded of the monarchs among which the deer, 
the wild boar, the bear, the wolf, and other animals once roamed, and we 
see in many instances the wood of our youth converted into the homeliness 
of the spinney or the copse. And what a remarkable change takes place in 
the living garment when light and air are let into the woodland. Presto ! 
was ever anything more magical or remarkable ? Have you never witnessed 
such a transformation ? If not, then your experience has been very dissimilar 
to our own. Fresh plants have sprung up with amazing rapidity and car- 
peted the ground with their virgin growth ; a new young wood has been 
silently ushered into the world, and between the few remaining trees of an 
older growth that stood sentinel-like, the earth was literally festooned with 
a profusion of herbage. 

The whole panorama requires to be actually seen to be appreciated, and 
as the various wild tenants inhabit the copse, and plants appear, disappear, 
and re-appear, there is a whole succession of interesting phenomena displayed 
to view which cannot fail to fill one full of gratitude and wonder. 


"'Tis a beautiful tree," our neighbours say, and that is mostly the only 

comment they have to make. That is the Alpha and Omega of it all! 

This reminds us of a story told by the late Dean Hole in his charming 




book, "Our Gardens." It is worth retelling here. The Dean is writing in 
his own inimitable way of the various persons he approached as to their 
opinion of what a garden was for, and he says that "the unkindest cut of 
all, so common that it makes one callous, comes from those visitors who 
' would be so delighted to see our garden ! ' and they come and see, and for- 
get to be delighted. They admire the old city walls that surround it, they 
like to hear the cawing of the rooks, they are pleased with the sun-dial and 
the garden chairs, but as for horticulture they might as well be in Piccadilly ! 
They would be more attracted by the fruit in Solomon's shop than by all 
the flowers in the border. I heard a lady speaking to her companion of ' the 
most perfect gem she had ever seen,' and when, supposing that reference 
was made to some exquisite novelty in plants, I inquired the name and 
habitation, I was informed that the subject under discussion was ' Isabel's 
new baby.' ' Ladies,' I remarked, with a courteous but scathing satire, ' I 
have been a baby myself, and am now a proprietor, but I am constrained to 
inform you that this is a private, and not a nursery, garden.' ' 


It is an undisputed fact that few people stop to admire a tree's 
symmetry, its bark, its chaste and delicate filigree and lacework during 
winter, or to study the functions of the leaves, the flowers, the roots, the 
branches, the fruit, its uses ; just its beauty, that is all. 

Why do trees unfold themselves with such lavish and remarkable 
splendour I Why are so many so comely, so attractive, so inspiring, so 
friendly, so companionable, so neighbourly (often more so than their human 
prototypes) ? No flower " is born to blush unseen, and waste its sweetness 
on the desert air," for, although many please and satisfy us, it is not for us 
alone that they have, through the countless ages, evolved into the wonder- 
ful floral treasures we see before us to-day. 

No tree or shrub, nor herbaceous plant, wastes its sweetness on the desert 



air. Each in its way has a mission to fulfil, business to carry out, a 
message to deliver, a duty to perform. 

Their beauty is not meant for sentiment nor display, but, as the late 
Hugh Macmillan has so truly said, "for use in the economy of the plants 
that produce it, so that they could not be spread over the earth, over those 
desert places themselves, without that beauty." 


To be in an English wood in the early springtime, to observe the Hazel 
catkins swinging like so many fairy bells on the leafless branches, is one of 
the greatest delights which could come to any one interested in outdoor life. 
The noting down systematically, season after season, of the first leafing of the 
green canopy above, and the date of flowering, fruiting, and fall ; the arrival of 
some favourite bird among the pliant branches ; the appearance of the first 
brimstone or tortoiseshell butterfly ; the songs of newly awakened birds ; 
the peeping from its woodland and leaf-strewn bed of the pale primrose ; 
the hum of insects ; the frolics of wild folks, and generally the resurrection 
of everything that lives out of doors and likes the sun, — all these tend to 
make an April morning in the wild greenwood the very essence of quiet 
and unobtrusive enjoyment, and result in a rich harvest to those possessing 
the seeing eye. 

Here one may note and appreciate to the full the music of the feathered 
choir, the murmur of the wind, the ripple of the leaves, the distant lullaby 
of the sheep-bell, and receive with reverence the message of the trees. 

There is no doubt, as Richard Jefferies has said, that " if you wish your 

children to think deep things, to know the holiest emotions, take them to 

wood and hills, and give them the freedom of the meadows. Under the 

green spray, among the Hazel boughs, where the nightingale sings, they 

shall find a secret, a feeling, a sense that fills the heart with an emotion 

never to be forgotten." 





There is a peculiar fascination in being in a wood at any time, but 
especially so in the early morning when the sun is just flashing its rays 
across the dew-spattered meadows and through the fast-leafing woodland of 
the first days of spring. 

Towards the gloaming hour, too, when the chorus of thrushes and 
blackbirds is such a feature of our English springtime, there is some in- 
describable charm in wandering silently through a wood, and again, in the 
very heart of summer, it is cool and refreshing to dive into the greenwood's 
welcome shade. The birds have by then mostly ceased their minstrelsy ; 
perchance a startled rabbit skips away as you tread on a piece of dead 
wood which goes off with a loud report ; an inquiring robin and a few 
tits are busy on the moss-strewn tree trunk yonder, but even the indus- 
trious insects seem to be taking life very quietly and soberly. 

How still everything is ! Not a leaf stirs. The trees bear the full com- 
plement of their summer dresses ; they are simply wreathed in foliage, and 
many are already in fruit. You rest awhile near the old spot you know 
and love so well. A turtle-dove slips silently off her nest, and you would 
not have noticed her at all only your eye chanced to wander towards the 
spot from whence she rose. 

What pictures come to mind as you sit there soliloquising. You think first 
of those cheerless winter days when it was cold and blustering in the open, 
but mild and inviting among the trees. Then later comes the remembrance 
of the first little tuft of red upon the Hazel, the bursting of the Sallow into 
a blaze of splendour, the feathery tufts upon the Larch, the green carpet 
afforded by the Dog's Mercury, the gradual robing of the woodland, the 
mating of birds, the hum of insects, and finally the full glow of spring. 

These thoughts have often occurred to us as we have sought refuge in the 

wood from the rush and bustle of everyday life. We have tested it at all 

times and at all seasons, and it has never disappointed us. When within 

xxv d 


it we are happy ; we are on familiar terms with every tree almost ; we 
feel somehow that we are part and parcel of the green canopy above and 
the soft verdure beneath, but when we leave it behind and step out into 
the wide and often unthinking world, we feel we have lost a friend. Yet 
we are contented to know that we may, and shall, return to seek com- 
panionship and fellowship with the trees and flowers again, and thank 
Heaven that we have imbued within us a sense of the beautiful in Nature's 

The quietude of summer in the woodland is so entirely different from the 
full gush of spring, when the re-leafing of the trees, the thrusting above 
earth's surface of the first flowers, and the fussy courtships of birds engage 
and occupy one's attention. 

To our mind one of the greatest experiences is to commune with 
Nature in solitude during the full glow of summer in some sylvan retreat, 
some lonely copse, some secluded woodland glen. 


To know and appreciate a wood properly, and to be on intimate terms 
of acquaintance with trees, birds, and flowers, it is essential to walk 
lovingly and trustfully with them at all seasons of the year. 

It has been our pleasant and profitable enjoyment to ramble through 
woodlands far from the madding crowd for many years past, and through- 
out the whole year. It is only by this means that one can appreciate the 
rich charm of Nature, and be able to piece together in a humble way the 
great story of the year. 

As a result one indelibly associates the environment of a bird, an insect, 

a flower, or other inhabitant of the fairyland of living things, with the 

particular object one has in mind. When we think of the wood wren we 

at once associate it with a Beechwood, among the stately temples and 

avenues of which this bird delights to pass the summer hours. 

When we think of squirrels and jays, of golden-crested wrens and 




doves, the groves of sombre, thickly-matted Firs and Pines at once come 
into view. The Oakwood reminds us of the nuthatch, the woodpecker, the 
wryneck, the tree creeper, and insects far too numerous to mention. 

The tall Elms are indivisibly connected with the sable rooks ; the ivy- 
clad ruins and the hollow trees with their near relative the starling. The 
mossy nest of the chaffinch is inseparably associated with the milk-white 
bloom of a hedgerow, the nightingale brings to mind the thick retreat of a 
blossoming thorn. 

It is a good thing to be cognisant of the environment of an animal or 
plant, for it is only by this means that a full measure of enjoyment can be 
obtained. Without a knowledge of the habitat of any of Nature's children 
one half the interest and the beauty vanishes, and whilst we are the first to 
recognise the educational advantages of Museums and Gardens, Pestalozzi 
was right when he said : " Lead your child out into Nature ; teach him on 
the hill-top and in the valleys. There he will listen better and the sense of 
freedom will give him more strength to overcome difficulties. But in these 
hours of freedom let him be taught by Nature rather than by you. Should 
a bird sing or an insect hum on a leaf, at once stop your talking ; bird and 
insect are teaching him ; you may be silent." 

If in any measure this work helps to create an interest in, and a love 
for, trees and shrubs, we shall feel amply repaid for the great amount of 
labour expended in its compilation, and it is our earnest hope that not only 
will these trees and shrubs be regarded from the standpoint of beauty, 
form, colour, design, usefulness, ornament, or service, but that those who 
honour us by a perusal of these pages will be able to enter fully into the 
spirit of the lines : — 

" Ye bright mosaics that with storied beauty 
The floor of Nature's temple tessellate, 
What numerous emblems of instructive duty 
Your forms create ! " 

xxvii d 2 


Description of Plate I 

l. ACEROSE, OB ACICULAR (Sootoh Pine). 

li. 1.1 N i: \K (Sea Buokthorn). 

■■'. SUBULATE (Funse) ; C. Singleleaf. 



P. OBLONG (Common Laurel). 

(,'. ORBICULAR (Hazel). 

II. OVATE (Lilac). 

/. CORDATE (Mulberry). 

./. OUNEATE (Leaflet of Horse-Chestnut). 



.1/. BIPINNATE {ttlcditichia triacanthos). 

Description of Plate II 

.4. RACEME (Bird Cherry). 

li. PANICLE (Traveller's Joy). 

ft CORYMB [Pyrtii sorbus). 

IiK CATKIN (Hazel). 



E. UMBEL (Dwarf Cherry). 


G. THYRSUS (Lilac). 
//. DICHASIUM (Euonymus). 


./. VERTICILLASTER (Jerusalem 



Description of Plate III 









CYPSELA— Head of Olcaria Haastii in seed. 18. 

,, Single parachute seed of same. 

GLANS, OB NUT — Sweet Chestnut, cupule open, show- 19. 
ing the three nuts. 

„ Longitudinal section of nut of 20. 

same. 21. 

„ A single nut of same. 22. 
Section of young fruit. 

CAPSULE of Euonymus Europceus. 23. 

,, of same, open and empty. 24. 

,, of same, open, with seeds in position. 25. 

SAMARA— Single samara of Elm. 26. 

,, Single samara of Ash. 27. 

,, Double samara of Sycamore. 28. 

,, Section of half of same, showing enclosed 29. 

cotyledonous leaves. 30. 

LEGUME— Pod of Broom, closed. 31. 

,, Pod of Broom, open. 32. 

BERRY— Wild Gooseberry. 33. 
„ Section of same (Transverse). 


CARCERULUS— Fruit of Phlomis fruticosa, with part of 
,, Fruit of Phlomis fruticosa, splitting into 

four nuts or achenes. 
DRUPE— Cherry. 

,, Section of same, showing stone. 

„ Complete section of same, showing kernel within 

POME— Crab-apple. 

,, Transverse section of same. 

Longitudinal section of same. 
ETiERIO of Follicles — Magnolia conspicua. 

,, ,, Vertical section of same. 

ETiERIO of Drupes— Blackberry. 

,, ,, Vertical section of same. 


,, Vertical section of same. 

STROBILUS— Spruce Fir, closed cone. 

,, ,, winged seeds of same, within 

,, Weymouth Pine, open cone. 



The number of insects injurious to plants is very large, and their rapid 
increase is often alarming, as in only comparatively few cases are effectual 
remedies available. It is our intention to take a hasty glance at the more 
important of those insects which cause material injury to Trees and Shrubs. 
With the space at our disposal the descriptions must necessarily be brief. 

Among the Coleoptera or Beetles there are many which may be classed 
as Pests. 

The Cockchafer or "May-bug" (Mclolantlia vulgaris) is a large heavy- 
looking reddish-brown insect about 1 in. long. The head and thorax are 
black, the abdomen being of the same colour, with stripes of white hairs 
on the underside. The pointed tip of the abdomen projects beyond the 
elytra. The larvae or " White-grubs " devour the roots of Roses and seedling 
trees, young Oaks and Fir-trees often suffering severely. The adult insects 
live on the foliage of fruit-trees, Roses, and such forest-trees as the Oak, 
Chestnut, and Beech, the needles of Larch and Spruce, and the male cones 
of Scots Pine. The beetles fly in the evening, so must be collected and 
killed during the day. The larva?, which live in the ground for three years, 
may be trapped in pieces of turf laid with the grass downwards. 

The Summer Chafer (Rhizotrogus solstitialis) appears in June and July. 
It somewhat resembles the larger Cockchafer, but is only about jj in. long. 
The larva? live about two years in the ground, and the adult beetles live 
partly on the foliage of Rose-trees. They must be collected in the daytime. 

The Garden Chafer or Bracken-clock {Phijllopertha horticola) is known 

in Wales as the Coch-y-bonddu, and appears in May and June. It is 

about h in. long, the front part of the body being of a metallic greenish 

colour, and the elytra or wing cases of a reddish-brown hue, the male being 



very hairy. The larva lives about a year, and the beetle feeds largely on 
the foliage of fruit-trees and Hoses. Being a day-flier, and very active in 
the sunshine, it must be attacked late in the day or when the weather is 

The Hose Chafer (Cetonia aurata) is a handsome beetle about '-\ in. long, 
with golden green wing-cases marked with transverse creamy spots, and 
the body coppery beneath. The larvae live underground for two or three 
years, eating the rootlets of Rose-trees, and gnawing off the skin of the 
larger roots. The adult beetles feed largely on the anthers and petals of 
Roses. They are most easily collected on dewy mornings, when they are 
sluggish, or at night. 

The Pine Beetle (Hylesinus (Hylurgus) piniperda) is one of the most 
destructive of forest insects. The mature beetle is about 1 in. long, of 
a dark brown to glossy black colour, thinly covered with brown hairs 
springing from little tubercles, which, on the elytra, are disposed in rows 
between lines of punctures. Eggs are laid in March and April in the thick 
rough bark of recently felled trees, especially Scots Pine and Black Austrian 
Pine. The female lays about 100 eggs, which produce larva? in about a 
fortnight. The larva? feed on the bast or inner bark. The young beetles 
appear in June and July, and then usually bore into the young shoots 
of Pines about 2 ins. beneath the terminal bud, and, tunnelling upwards, 
cause the death of the shoots. The best method of prevention consists of 
leaving autumn or winter felled trees in or near the wood, in order to 
attract the beetles in the breeding season, and then removing the bark 
during May, when the larva? may be destroyed by exposure. 

The Spruce-bark Beetle (Bostrichus {Tomims) typographies) and others 
of the genus destroy Fir-trees by tunnelling just below the bark. As a rule 
they attack sickly trees, but may extend their depredations to healthy 
specimens also. Prevention consists of the timely removal of sickly or 
uprooted trees, and in stripping the bark from logs left lying in the woods 
over summer. 

The Elm-destroying Beetle (Scohjtus destructor), a small creature less 




i. Lackey Moth (Malacosoma neustria). i a. Larva, i b. Eggs, in ring round stem. 

2. Mottled Umber Moth (Hvbernia defoliaria). 2a. Wingless Female. 2is. Larva. 

3. March Moth (Anisopteryx .<escularia). 4A. Female. }n. Larva. 

4. Brown Tail Moth (Euproctis chrysorrhcea). 4B. Larva. 

5. Magpie Moth (Abraxas grossulariAta). 5A. Larva. 

6. Winter Moth (Cheimatobia brcmata.) }a. Female. 6a. Larva. 

7. Wood Leopard Moth (Zeczera pyrina). ~ a. Larva. 

8. Goat Moth (Cossus ligniperda). 8a. Larva, in Willow. 

9. Green Oak Moth (Tortrix viridana). q a. Larva, descending trom rolled leat. 
10. Codlin Moth (Carpocapsa pomonella). ioa. Larva, on Apple. 

r 1. Cockchafer Beetle (Melolontha vulgaris). 

12. Rose Chafer Beetle (Cetonia aurata). 

13. Pine Beetle (Hylesinus piniperda) — enlarged. 

14. Garden Chafer, or June Bug (Phyllopertha horticola). 

15. Gooseberr\' Saw-flv (Nematus RiBEsii). 15A. Larva'. 

A. Blackthorn. B. Oak. C. Gooseberry*. D. Hawthorn. 

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than i in. long, makes up in numbers what it lacks in size, for it is stated 
that as many as 80,000 have been found in one tree. The female beetle 
excavates the bark, making a tunnel about 2 ins. in length, and laying 20-50 
eggs as she advances. These are hatched in about two months, and the 
larva? eat out galleries on either side of the main tunnel. They pupate 
and emerge as perfect insects at the end of May in the second year. 
Brushing the tree with coal-tar is said to have the effect of driving away 
the perfect insects, but if the larvae are allowed to commence their ravages 
there is but little hope of saving the tree. Other members of the genus 
attack the Oak. 

The Fruit-tree Beetle {Scolytus rcgulowts) is a species which frequently 
attacks Apple-trees, and in a less degree the Pear, Plum, Cherry, and Peach. 
The insect seems to have a decided preference for sickly trees and parts of 
branches where there is the least flow of sap. It is barely T \, in. long, and 
black in colour, except the ends of the wing-cases, legs, and antenna?, which 
are of a russet tinge. The eggs are laid in April in a gallery about }, in. 
long, and hatch in a few days. There are at least two generations during 
the year, and the winter is passed in the larval state. Not much can be 
done in the way of prevention except to cut out and burn all infested 
branches during June and remove all sickly trees. 

The Pine Weevil (Hylobius abictis) is a beetle very harmful to the Scots 
Pine, Norway Spruce Fir, and other Conifers, as it feeds in the perfect state 
on the bark of the young shoots. It is dull black in colour, with scattered 
tufts of yellow hairs, and appears in the summer months (May to July). 
It gnaws the buds and bark of the twigs, thus interfering with the develop- 
ment of the tree. The evil is difficult to deal with, but the weevils are 
sometimes trapped in small pieces of bark laid at regular intervals, and kept 
in place by a stone being put over each. In sandy soils trenches are some- 
times dug surrounding new plantations, and into these the weevils fall, and 
may be gathered and killed. 

Other Pine- weevils are Pissodes notatus and P. Pi/ii, both of which destroy 
the branches of Conifers by boring small holes in them and sucking the sap. 




The Apple Blossom Weevil {Anthonomus pomorinn) is a small brown 
beetle, about \ in. long. At the beginning of spring, the female lays 15-20 
eggs, placing one in each flower bud. The larva hatches in 5-9 days, and 
proceeds to feed on the essential parts of the blossom. In about 8 10 days 
the larva changes to pupa, and at the end of another 10 days the perfect 
weevil appears and escapes by boring a hole through the petals. Through 
the summer it lives among the leaves of fruit-trees and hibernates under 
moss or bark, or beneath stones and rubbish around the trees. The best 
preventative is clean culture, all lichens, moss and rough bark being removed 
from trees. On dull days the beetles may be shaken from the branches 
into cloths, and as many as 1000 weevils have been shaken from a tree 
at one time. 

The C lay-coloured or Raspberry Weevil (Otiorrhynchus picipes) is about 
J in. in length, and has the somewhat brown elytra thickly covered with 
light-coloured scales, giving it the colour of clay. Eggs are laid in the 
summer in the ground, and the larva? feed on roots of raspberries, straw- 
berries, and other plants throughout the autumn until the spring. The pupal 
stage lasts about a fortnight, and the perfect weevils then appear, starting 
on a life of depredation, feeding on the leaves and young shoots of rasp- 
berries and fruit-trees. The weevils may be caught by holding tarred boards 
near the ground at night, and tapping the stakes so that the insects fall 
into the tar. 

The Red-legged, or Plum Weevil (Otiorrhynchies tencbricosus) is J jj in. 
long, black and shiny, with dull red legs. The eggs, laid underground, hatch 
in August and September, and the larvae feed upon strawberry and other 
roots till the following March or April. The perfect beetle is particularly 
partial to the foliage of Plum-trees, but is also destructive to the Raspberry, 
Cherry, Peach, Apricot, and Nectarine. Being nocturnal in its habits, it is best 
caught at night. 

The Nut-Weevil (Balaninus micurn) is \ in. long, dark brown or black, 

with a long, reddish-brown beak supporting elbowed antenna? at about the 

middle of its length. In June one egg is laid in each nut. The larva feeds 



upon the seed, or kernel, and when full grown emerges from the shell, 
leaving behind a mass of dark, powdery excrement. The pupa lives in the 
ground till the following May, when the beetle comes forth and feeds on 
the young buds of the Hazel. The wild plant should not be allowed to 
grow near cultivated Hazels or Filberts. All fallen nuts should be collected 
and burned. The weevils may be shaken from the trees into cloths or on 
to tarred boards. 

The Order Hymenoptera includes the Bees, Wasps, Ants, Gall-flies, 
Saw-flies, and Ichneumons. Many of these may be considered as injurious 
insects, some in relation to our present subject. 

The Rose Leaf-cutting Bee {Megachile centuncularis) causes much annoyance 
to Rose growers by cutting out semicircular pieces from the foliage. The 
pieces are used for lining a circular tube formed either in decaying wood 
or in brick walls, or sometimes in the ground. At the bottom of the tube, 
which is often some inches in length, the female bee lays an egg, and, having 
provided a store of food consisting of pollen and honey, closes up the cell 
with more circular leaf-sections, and continues the process until six or more 
cells have been formed. Complete metamorphosis takes place in the cell, 
and the leaf-cutting bee emerges in the next season. 

The Common Wasp (Vespa vulgaris) does great injury to ripe fruits. 
The nest is commenced by a single female, which has survived the winter, and 
is afterwards enlarged by the exertions of her progeny, the work continuing 
till the cells may number many thousands. Prevention is best secured by 
encouraging the capture of the females or Queens in the spring. Nests in 
holes and trees may be destroyed in various ways, and the insects may be 
caught in simple traps made of bell-glasses inverted one over another, or 
even a bottle containing a sweet fluid. 

The so-called Wood- wasps include two well-known injurious insects, the larva.' 
of which feed in the wood of Conifers, boring tunnels about ■?. inch in 

The Giant Sirex {Sirex gigas) is the first of these. The female is yellow, 
with two black bands, and a stout ovipositor, the body measuring from 



lj in. to 1.1 in., and the ovipositor being about half as long as the 
body. By means of the "saw" contained in the ovipositor the insect bores 
into the bark of Spruce and Silver Firs, and occasionally Larch, depositing 
1 egg in each hole made. The length of the larval stage is not easily 
ascertainable, but the perfect insects emerge from July to September. 

The Steel-blue Sirex (Sirecc juvencus) is slightly smaller than the first 
species, and is usually of a dark steel-blue colour, with red-brown feet ; in 
the males several segments of the abdomen are rusty-red. The wings in 
both sexes are yellowish. This species prefers the Scots Pine. 

It is impossible to destroy the larvae in infested trees. All that can 
be done is to cut down such trees, and remove all sickly trees and fallen 
brandies and trunks. The timber is of little value, save as firewood. 

The next section of the Hymenoptera contains a large number of boring 
insects known as Saw-flies, the boring instrument being modified into a 
pair of toothed saws, which are used for cutting incisions in leaves, or in 
the tender bark of twigs, in which to deposit the eggs. The larva? much 
resemble caterpillars in appearance and habits, and the pupa? are enclosed 
in cocoons. 

The Pine Saw-fly {Lophyrus pini) bores into the needles of Scots Pine, 
and deposits a large number of eggs. The female is pale yellowish-white, 
with black head and breast, the wings expanding £ in. The male is 
black, and the wings measure h in. across. The light greenish-yellow larvae 
are gregarious, and do much damage by gnawing and totally destroying the 
needles. There may be two generations in the year. In gardens and young 
plantations hand-picking may be found an effectual remedy, but in older 
woods it is impossible to cope with the pest. 

There are several species of Lophyrus which attack Conifers, and also 
some species of Lyda. The latter are semi-social, spinning a common web, 
but each also spinning an inner tube for itself. Various species attack fruit- 
trees, Alders, Birches, and Willows. 

The Gooseberry and Currant Saw-fly (Nematus ribesii) is very trouble- 
some in plantations and gardens in some seasons, and is probably the most 



familiar. When once established it is most difficult to eradicate, and the 
larvae will often completely strip the bushes of their leaves, together with 
the young fruit. The fly appears in April, the female being about ?. in. 
long, with a wing expanse of over \ in. Eggs are laid on the underside 
of the leaves, and hatch in about eight days. After the first change of skin 
the larvae are green, with numerous black spots. Having fed for about twenty 
days, they spin cocoons upon, or just beneath, the surface of the earth, and 
may produce a summer brood after another twenty days. They may, how- 
ever, burrow more deeply in the ground, and remain there till the next spring. 
Hand-picking and spraying may be resorted to in the earliest stages, or lime 
may be dusted over the bushes when wet. The ground under infested bushes 
should be dressed with quick-lime in the autumn, being dug deeply to destroy 
the cocoons, and the ground is sometimes beaten down in spring to prevent 
the flies coming up from the cocoons. 

The Pear and Cherry Saw-fly {Eriocampa limacina) and others of its genus 
are known in the larval stage as Slugworms, a name made very appropriate 
by reason of the dark, green, slimy exudation which covers the body in the 
early period of its growth. At this time the larva resembles a malformed 
slug or tadpole, and it spends the time in eating away all the soft tissues 
from the upper surface of the leaf. It attains a length of nearly h in. at 
the end of a month, and after losing its slug-like character, pupates in the 
ground in a cocoon of silk and earth. The pupal stage lasts two weeks in 
the summer, and there may be two or more broods. The late brood pass 
the winter in the larval stage beneath the earth, and pupate in the spring. 
The larva? infest fruit-trees, especially Pear and Cherry, and are occasionally 
seen on some species of Thorns, as well as Oak, Birch, and other forest-trees. 
Paris Green, Hellebore wash, or arsenate of lead are sometimes used before 
the fruit is ripe. The ground round infested trees should be well dug and 
prong-hoed in early spring, and quick-lime hoed in, after which the earth 
may be beaten down to prevent the flies coming up. 

The Rose Slugworm {Eriocampa rosw) works in much the same way as 
the previous species. The larva is pale yellowish-green, with a darker line 



down the back. Eggs arc laid in May in the midribs of the leaves, and the 
lame are busily feeding in June. After two or three weeks they pupate in 
the ground, emerging soon afterwards to give rise to a second brood of larvae 
in August or September. The larva- may be killed by spraying the Hose 
bushes with Hellebore wash or Paris Green. The surface soil may be 
removed in winter, and either deeply buried or burnt, fresh mould being 
put over the roots. 

The Leaf-rolling Saw-fly (JBlennocampa pusiHa) attacks both wild and 
cultivated Roses. The short, stumpy, green larva? fold down the sides of 
the leaflets and live in the retreats. This folding over prevents the leaf 
performing its proper functions, and causes it to shrivel and die, after which 
the larva removes to another leaf. The larvae enter the soil in August, 
pupate in the early spring, and the flies emerge in May and June. The best 
treatment is to pick off the folded leaves when first seen, and destroy them 

The Rose Emphytus (Emphytus cinctus) is another common and hurtful 
species. The larvae are green, and covered with small white spots. They 
eat the leaves entirely away, holding on by their front feet to the edge, and 
curling the rest of the body in all manner of shapes. When at rest they 
lie curled up in a ball on the underside of the leaves. The full-fed larvas 
bore into the branches and pupate in the following spring. 

Many other Saw-flies belonging to the Genera Emphytus, Cladius, Hylo- 
toma, Poecilosoma, and Lyda are injurious to Roses. The chief remedies 
are (1) hand-picking, (2) spraying with Hellebore wash or arsenate of lead, 
(3) removal of surface soil to a depth of a few inches in autumn, and (4) the 
burning of all dead wood and loose dead leaves, &c. 

The Order Lepidoptera — Butterflies and Moths — includes a very large 
number of injurious insects. We can call attention to only a few. 

The Goat Moth (Cossus Ugniperda or Trypanus cossus) is one of the largest 
and most destructive of British Moths. The perfect insect measures 3 ins. 
across the fore-wings, which are ashy brown clouded with grey, the hind- 
wings being brownish-grey. The larva is smooth, with short scattered hairs ; 
the sides and under surface are a dirty yellowish or flesh-colour ; the back is dark 



red, and the head black. When fully grown the caterpillar measures 4 ins. 
in length, and is as thick as a man's finger. It lives in the wood of Willows, 
Poplars, Ash, Oaks, Birch, and fruit-trees. After two or three years it 
makes a cocoon of chips of wood in which to pass the pupal stage, and 
emerges as a perfect insect in June or July. Infested trees are of little 
use but for firewood. 

The Wood Leopard Moth (Zeuzera cesculi or Zeuzera pyrind) is white, 
with numerous blue-black spots on the wings and thorax. The female mea- 
sures 2|-2f ins. across the wings, and the male about half the size. The 
larva is nearly 2 ins. long, yellow, with black spots. It lives in the wood 
of various trees, principally Pear, Apple, Elm, Willow, and Plum. The 
moth is seen from June to August. Flying somewhat heavily in the even- 
ing, and resting in the daytime on the trunks of trees, it becomes an easy 
prey to many birds. Titmice and other small birds eat the eggs, and the 
green woodpecker is serviceable in taking the caterpillars from infested trees. 
Little can be done to prevent the attack or to check its progress. 

The Pine-shoot Tortrix (Retinia buoliana) is a small moth with reddish- 
orange fore-wings measuring nearly 1 in. across. In July the eggs are 
laid singly on the terminal buds of young trees of Scots Pine. The small 
dirty brown larva spends the winter in the bud, and in the spring hollows 
out the leading shoot and most of the lateral buds, causing the stem to take 
an objectionable twist. 

The Pine Looper or Bordered White Moth (Bupahts piniarius or Fidonia 
piniaria) abounds in Fir-woods in May and June. The male is whitish or 
yellowish-white and the female yellowish-brown. The green larva feeds on 
the needles of Scots Pine from August to October. The humus matter 
should be searched for pupae in autumn, and if many are present the leaf 
litter should be burned. 

The Pine Beauty (Panolis (Trachea) piniperda) is found in Fir-woods in 
March and April. The patches of pale orange on the reddish-brown fore- 
wings make it impossible to mistake this moth, which is often seen on Sallows. 

The larva is green, with five white longitudinal stripes, and feeds on the 

xxxvii e 


needles of Scots Tine in July and August, and may completely defoliate 
the tins. The pupal stage is passed in the leaf litter on the surface of 
the soil. 

The Tale Tussock Moth (DasycMra pudihiinda) has pale-grey wings measuring 
14 2\ ins. across in the female, and somewhat smaller in the male. It is found 
in May and June. The beautiful larva is known as the Hop-dog from being 
found in hop-gardens. It is greenish-yellow, with velvety black incisions 
and four yellow tufts of hair on the back, and a single dull-red tuft on 
the last segment. It feeds from August to October on the foliage of Lime, 
Oak, Beech, Birch, Hazel, Willows, Poplars, Walnut, Fruit-trees, and Roses. 
Infested trees may be banded with tar at about 9 ft. from the ground, before 
the eggs are hatched. Rose-bushes may be sprayed with arsenate of lead. 

The Black Arches or Nun Moth {Psilura (Lymantria) monacha) is somewhat 
local in England, but on the Continent it is one of the worst of forest pests. 
The wings are 1-2| ins. across, white, with numerous irregular, transverse 
black markings, and the terminal half of the body is pinkish. The female 
is provided with a long ovipositor, used for laying the eggs in deep crevices 
of the bark. The moth appears in July and August. The larva is brownish- 
green, grey or black, with tubercles bearing blue and red hairs. It feeds 
from May to July on the needles of Spruce and Scots Fir, and on the leaves 
of Oak, Beech, Birch, and Apple. In the pine forests the caterpillars waste 
as much as they devour, biting the pine-needles through at the middle, and 
eating only the short stump. Rings of tar will prevent the larva? from 
reaching the tree-tops, both when newly hatched, and after letting themselves 
down by long silken threads. The sticky band intercepts their progress up 
the trunk, and they die in thousands for want of food. It is said that on the 
Continent this treatment has saved many forests. 

The Oak-leaf Roller or Green Oak Moth (Tortrix viridana) abounds at 
the end of June and in July. The fore-wings are bright light green with 
sulphur-coloured fringes, and expand f in. The hind-wings and abdomen 
are grey. The larva is light green, ornamented with small black dots, and 
feeds on Oak, Hornbeam, and Sallow, living in such quantities on the first- 




named as to become a pest. The leaves are at first slightly bitten, then 
rolled into a tube and more thoroughly devoured. This continues through 
May and June, and about midsummer a cocoon is formed on the bark or 
amongst the twigs and remnants of leaves, the winged insect appearing in 
about three weeks. 

The Larch Mining Motli (Coleophora laricella) is a small narrow-winged 
moth measuring about \ in. across the fore-wings, which are greyish fuscous. 
The eggs are laid in the needles in May and June. The small larva lives 
in a case formed from a hollowed-out Larch needle. In this it hibernates 
through the winter, and on again becoming active, it doubles its accommodation 
by attaching a second empty needle to the side of the first, and then passes 
through the pupal stage, the moth appearing at the end of June or in July. 
The workings of this pest are said to be a predisposing influence to the 
attack of Larch Canker. Prevention seems to consist in planting Larch 
upon suitable situations where the soil is good and naturally well-drained, 
with free circulation of air about the crowns. 

The Lackey Moth or Tree Lackey (Clisioeampa (Malacosoma) neustria) and 
the next species to be described are often called " Tent Caterpillars " on account 
of the larva? forming tent-like nets of silk on the trees, in which to live 
during their early existence. The Lackey is very variable in size and 
colouring, measuring in in. across the wings, which are rusty reddish- 
brown, yellowish-brown, ochreous, or brick-dust red, the hind-wings being 
often paler. It is common in the south, west, and middle of England, not 
occurring beyond York, and is on the wing in July and August. The eggs 
are deposited in a kind of bracelet around the smaller shoots of several trees, 
and hatch in the following April or May, the larva? living till June under 
a common web. Almost black at first, they afterwards become brilliantly 
coloured, being bluish-grey with orange-red stripes and a white dorsal line ; 
the head also is bluish-grey, with two black dots. Having reached H in. 
in length, the larva spins a cocoon of silk, colouring it with yellow crystals of 
oxalate of lime, and attaching it to leaves or bark, or on wall, fences, &c, 

indeed almost anywhere above ground. The pupal stage lasts 2-3 weeks. 

xxxix e 2 


The larvae do considerable damage to Apple, Pear, and Plum, and are also 

frequently found on Hawthorn and Blackthorn, and less often on Oak, Elm, 

and Hazel. As preventatives, all egg-bands should be collected and burnt 

in winter: tents should be collected and burnt in summer on a dull day 

or in the evening, boards or a cloth being held underneath to catch the 

larva? which fall. Spraying with arsenate of lead has the advantage of killing 

the larva 1 without damaging the foliage ; Paris Green or London Purple 

may also be used for spraying. 

The Brown-tail Moth (Porthesia (Euproctis) chrysorrhcea) has white wings 

and body, and a tuft of brown hairs at the end of the abdomen. The 

moth appears towards the end of July and in August, and the female lays 

a patch of golden-coloured eggs on the under surface of the leaves, covering 

over the batch with hairs from her tail. The eggs hatch in August, and 

the larva. 1 live at first in a common web. They are afterwards greyish-black, 

with reddish hairs ; two reddish-brown lines run down the back, beneath 

which is a row of whitish streaks ; a tuft of hair proceeds from a fleshy 

protuberance on each side of the head. The larva? feed on the same trees 

as the Lackey, and the preventive treatment is the same. 

The Small Ermine Moth (Hyponomeuta padella) is a tiny moth with a 

wing stretch of about f in. The fore-wings are white with a greyish tinge, 

traversed longitudinally by three rows of black dots, about thirty in 

number; the hind-wings are brownish-grey, with light fringes. The moth 

appears in July and August. The larvae are grey, with black spots. They 

appear in May, and live gregariously in a veil-like web on Apple, Plum, 

Hawthorn, Sloe, Mountain Ash, and other trees, often doing considerable 

damage. Other species feed on Spindle. The webs should be destroyed 

in the early stages, being pulled down and burned. The trees may be 

syringed with various solutions, one of the best being made with paraffin 

and soft soap. 

The Winter Moth (Chrimatobia brumata) is abundant in October and 

November, and later in mild seasons. The male measures slightly over 1 in. 

in expanse, the fore-wings being greyish-brown, with several indistinct wavy 



lines. The female has only rudimentary wings, and crawls up the stems 
of fruit-trees and others to lay groups of eggs in the chinks of the bark, 
as many as 200 eggs being laid by one moth. Roses growing in kitchen 
gardens or near orchards are sometimes badly damaged. The pale green 
or yellowish " looper " caterpillars are busy in May, and few larvae do greater 
damage. " Grease-banding " is the most effective method of preventing the 
passage of the wingless females up the trees in autumn and winter. Spray- 
ing with quassia chips or paraffin solution will make the foliage unpleasant 
and distasteful to the caterpillars, so that they die of starvation or fall 
from the trees. 

The Mottled Umber or Great Winter Moth {Hybernia defoliaria) is well 
deserving of its specific name, for sometimes the trees which it attacks are 
left as bare as in winter. The fore-wings of the male are dull yellow, sprinkled 
with rusty brown, expanding about If in. ; the hind- wings are yellowish- 
white, with a small central dot. The apterous female has a stout ochre-yellow 
body, with two longitudinal rows of black spots. As many as 400 eggs 
may be laid by one female. The larva is reddish-brown, with a broad 
sulphur-yellow stripe on the sides. It feeds on fruit-trees, as well as Lime, 
Oak, Beech, Birch, Elm, Blackthorn, Whitethorn, Hazel, and Hornbeam. 
It is prevalent in May and June, and the moth is seen in October and 
November. The treatment is the same as for the Winter Moth. 

The March Moth {Amsopteryx aesmlaria) resembles the previous two 
species in the apterous condition of the female, and the eggs are laid round 
twigs, somewhat similarly to those of the Lackey. The male moth is found 
in March and April, being often seen on gas lamps. The fore-wings are 
of a grey-brown tint, with a darker central transverse band, edged on either 
side with a pale wavy line. The green larva is abundant everywhere in 
May, feeding on Hawthorn, Blackthorn, Oak, Elm, and Lime. 

The Vapourer (Orgyia antiqua) is common not only in the country, but 

may be seen flying about the crowded thoroughfares of large cities. The 

male varies from f in. to 11 in. across the fore- wings, which are of various 

shades of rich chestnut brown, with a white spot near the hinder angle ; 



the hind-wings are rust coloured. It Hies from .July to October. The 
female is wingless, and merely crawls from the inside of the cocoon to the 
outside, there depositing the eggs, often completely covering the silken 
case. The larvae appear at intervals lasting over several weeks or even 
months. They range from 1 \ in. to 2 ins. in length, being dark grey, spotted 
with small red tubercles; there are four tufts of ochreous hairs standing 
up from the back of the 5th to 8th segments, two long blackish tufts on 
the 2nd segment pointing forwards, a slender lateral tuft on each side of the 
5th and 6th segments, and one long one on the 12th segment pointing 
backwards. When mature the caterpillar spins a cocoon amongst the 
leaves and shoots, or on the trunk of a tree, or often on a fence. It feeds 
on most trees and shrubs, even including the Cherry Laurel : it is specially 
fond of fruit-trees, Oaks and Roses. All cocoons seen in winter should be 
burned ; spraying with arsenate of lead is useful ; caterpillars may be picked 
by hand, or swept into a cloth and destroyed. 

The Codlin Moth (Carpocapsa pomonclla) is a small species, but its larva? 
are exceedingly destructive to the apple crop. The moth appears in June 
and July. The fore-wings are grey, with wavy lines of a brown hue, and at 
the extremities there are oval patches of a golden colour ; the hind-wings 
have a coppery lustre. The female lays from 50 to 100 eggs, putting one 
on each apple or pear. The pinkish larva bores into the fruit, usually enter- 
ing at the " eye " or calyx, and following the core down to the pips, upon 
which it feeds for some three or four weeks. When full grown, it bores a 
hole to the outside, and, seeking a place of shelter in the cracks and crevices 
of the bark, or other suitable spots, it rests during the winter and pupates 
in the spring. All " windfalls " should be cleared away as soon as possible, 
and if not fit for sale should be given to pigs; strips of cloth or sacking 
should be tied round the trees near the base, and will serve as traps for 
the larva?; spraying with London Purple or Paris Green will kill the larvae 
before they bore into the fruit. 

The Magpie Moth {Abraxas grossulariata) appears in July and August, 

and is common everywhere in gardens. It varies in colouring, but the 



fore-wings are white, with generally several rows of black spots ; there is 
a yellow blotch at the base, and an orange band beyond the middle ; the 
hind-wings are white, with black spots. The larva resembles the parent 
in being white, with black spots. Emerging from the egg in September, it 
feeds for a short time, then hibernates amongst the leaves and rubbish, 
and reappears in the spring. During May and early June it feeds princi- 
pally on Currant and Gooseberry foliage, but also on Raspberry and Black- 
thorn. The pupa is black, ornamented with three orange rings, and is often 
suspended upon the bushes. If the larva j appear in the autumn, powdered 
quicklime should be dug in during early winter; in the early spring the 
ground should be well hoed, and lime and soot applied ; spraying with Paris 
Green in September will kill the young larva?. 

" Rose Maggots " are the larva? of several small moths belonging to the 
Family Tortricidce, of which there are considerably over 300 British species, 
the best-known being the Green Oak Tortrix. Spraying with arsenate of 
lead will kill the larva? in the early stage, but the more general method is 
to employ the tedious process of picking out or pinching the grubs in the 
leaves, often after much damage has been done. 

The Frog-hopper, Frog-spit, or Cuckoo-spit Insect (PMlaenus (Aphrophora) 
spumaria) is the most common of the seven British " Frog-flies." It attacks 
the tender parts of plants, including the young shoots, leaves, and flower- 
buds, sucking the juices, and thereby weakening the whole plant. Roses 
are often badly attacked, especially when growing against a wall or fence. 
The perfect insect is found from July to October. It is about \ in. long ; 
the fore-wings are of a stout consistency and uniform in colour, and the 
hind-wings transparent. It can jump a considerable distance. The larva 
lives under a mass of spittle-like froth. Roses attacked should be well 
syringed with plain water to remove the spittle, and then sprayed with 
strong tobacco wash and soft-soap. For more hardy plants dilute paraffin 
emulsion may be syringed. 

The Apple Sucker (Psylla mail) somewhat resembles some of the Frog- 
hoppers in appearance and habits. It is a minute insect, but sometimes 



does considerable injury to the apple-crop by sucking away the juices from 
the stalks of blossoms and blossom-buds. Eggs are laid usually on the young 
shoots from September to early November. The larva? emerge in early spring, 
and at once enter the flower buds, there to suck the juices and prevent the 
formation of fruit. The perfect insect appears from the middle of May 
to the middle of .June. Early spraying with quassia wash has proved the 
most effectual remedy. 

The Apple Mussel Scale (Mylilaspis pomorum) belongs to one of the 
most destructive families among insects — the Coccida? or Bark-lice. The 
mussel-shaped scale is about J in. long, pale brown or grey, and in neglected 
orchards or gardens may be seen almost covering the trunk and branches. The 
wingless female lives under the scale, and lays a number of eggs, which hatch 
towards the end of May or the beginning of June. The larva becomes 
stationary after a few days, inserting its beak in the bark and sucking the 
juices. The scale gradually forms over it, and by the middle of August the 
female louse has laid a mass of eggs, there to remain till the spring under 
the dead body of the parent. The bark of trunk and branches should be 
scraped in winter, and then washed or sprayed with caustic alkali wash. 

Several other injurious insects will be dealt with under the heading of 
" Galls." 



It is well to remember that insects are not all harmful. On the contrary 
many plants have become dependent on insect agency for the perpetuation 
of the species, and this useful work is especially carried on by Bees, 
Butterflies, and Moths. But besides this, there are many insects which 
are indirectly beneficial by reason of their carnivorous habits, being either 
predatory or parasitic species living upon injurous forms. Were it not for 
their presence in the enemy's camp certain insect scourges would often 
get beyond human control. We will endeavour to point out a few of 
the more important useful species in the hope that it may induce cultivators 
to pause before they contract the habit of killing every creature that 
creeps, crawls, runs or flies. 

The Order Coleoptera furnishes several examples of useful insects. 

The Green Tiger Beetle (Citindela campestris) is a voracious creature 

both in the larval stage and when it becomes a perfect insect. It inhabits 

bare banks and sandy heaths, preying indiscriminately on other insects, 

often mounting upon the wing with the rapidity of a blue-bottle fly. It 

measures i in. or more in length, and is of a fine green colour, glossed 

with coppery red, and having five yellowish-white spots on the margin of 

each elytron, and another towards the middle. It is one of the most 

beautiful of British beetles. The larva lives in a cylindrical hole in the 

sandy soil, lying in ambush at the entrance with jaws expanded ready 

to seize its prey. The excavation is nearly perpendicular at the mouth, 

and the grub anchors itself to the side by means of two strong fleshy 

tubercles rising from a hump on its back near the tail. When about to 

pupate the grub seals the entrance and retires to the bottom of the hole. 

The Bombardier or Artillery Beetle {Brachinus eocplodens) has the head 



and thorax dull red, and the elytra blue. It is about \ in. long, and is 
found under stones in the vicinity of river-banks or the seashore. If 
alarmed or molested it discharges a slightly acid fluid, which immediately 
volatilises into smoke, each discharge being accompanied by a slight ex- 
plosion. Like the first species it is carnivorous in its habits. 

The Violet Ground Heetle {Carabus violaceus) is one of the commonest 
and largest of its genus, and is frequently found in gardens, hiding under 
stones or clods of earth. It sometimes exceeds an inch in length, and is 
deep violet in colour, with the margins of the elytra and thorax a rich 
burnished golden-violet. In common with the rest of its genus it has 
only rudimentary wings, the elytra being soldered together, and not used 
for flying. It runs swiftly over the ground, preying on other insects, 
and is a voracious creature both as a larva and a perfect beetle. When 
handled it emits from its mouth a blackish fluid which stains the fingers, 
and has a disagreeable odour. 

The Devil's Coach-horse, or Fetid Rove Beetle (Ocypus olem) belongs to 

the group of beetles known as Cocktails, so named from their habit of bending 

their bodies upwards when alarmed. This species is dull, dead black in 

colour, with very small elytra, and a long abdomen; two yellow tubercles at 

the end of the tail exude a secretion with a very objectionable odour. The 

beetle is an inch or more in length and very ferocious in aspect. It is 

common in gardens, and sometimes finds its way into houses. It will feed 

on carrion if procurable, but will attack and kill any insect which may come 

in its way, thus doing much good in gardens, and for this reason should 

never be destroyed. It is predacious both in the larval and perfect stages. 

Its eggs are r \, in. in length, being larger than those of any other British 

insect. It may be found throughout the year, except in May, when it 

pupates, but is most common in autumn. It flies with great rapidity, and 

runs swiftly over the ground ; hence its generic name (Gr. okus, swift, potis, 

a foot) ; its specific name referring to its evil-smelling secretion (L. olens, 


The Glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca) belongs to the group of Soft-skinned 




beetles, the body being soft and flexible, and covered with a yellowish-grey 
down. The female has neither wings nor elytra, and has the power of emitting 
a strong phosphorescent light from the underside of the last three segments 
of the body. The male has well-developed wings and elytra, and emits only 
two tiny spots of light. The larva greatly resembles the perfect female, and 
does great service for the agriculturalist in attacking and devouring snails. 
During April or May the larva pupates, and the perfect insect appears in 
a fortnight or a little more. 

The Seven-spot Lady-bird (Coccinella septempunctata) is a great friend of 
the horticulturalist and agriculturalist, waging incessant war on the aphides, 
preserving for the use of man much which would otherwise be lost. The 
perfect insect has a black head and thorax, and red elytra usually bearing 
seven black spots, three on each elytron, and one near the base of the suture. 
The larva? are slaty and yellow, with black spots and hairy tubercles down 
the back, mixed with orange spots. They are popularly known as " niggers," 
and are exceedingly voracious, soon clearing a plant of aphides, literally by 
the thousand. So serviceable are they that they should never be disturbed. 
When full-fed they attach themselves to a twig or leaf by the end of the 
tail, and hang downwards, and the pupa? remain in the larval skin till 
changing into the perfect form. The disagreeable odour attached to the 
Lady-birds is connected with a yellowish liquid secreted from the joints of 
the limbs. 

The Two-spot Ladybird {Coccinella bipunctata) is another common species. 
The wing-cases are usually scarlet, bearing a black spot on each, but the 
colouring varies considerably from red and black to entirely black. 

The Sun Beetles (Ptcrostichus) number more than twenty species. They 
are very varied in colour, generally green, bronze, or bluish-black, the elytra 
being marked with regular stria?. They are very voracious, feeding on a 
large number of insects, darting swiftly over the ground when in quest 
of food. 

The Lacewing Fly (Chrysopa vulgaris) is one of man's best friends in 

the garden and orchard. The Hy is a delicate and beautiful insect, not 



easily mistaken for any other species. Its body, head, and thorax are leaf- 
green : its eyes golden-green, large and conspicuous; and its wings wide, 
thin, gauzy, and glossed with changing hues of green and pink. It flies 
chiefly at night, and in the daytime may be seen at rest, with the wings 
pressed against the sides of the body. It possesses an evil odour, which 
attaches itself strongly to the finger that crushes it. The larva is extremely 
predacious, feeding voraciously on the aphides, covering itself with the emptied 
bodies of its victims as a protection. It pupates in a cocoon of extremely 
tough silk. The eggs are deposited on leaves, each being fixed to the end 
of a slender stalk about I in. long. They are pure white, and bear a re- 
semblance to the capsules of certain mosses. 

The Ichneumon Flies, of which there are probably over 2000 species in 
England, are of inestimable benefit to man, their chief function in the 
economy of nature being the maintenance of a balance amongst the various 
insect tribes. They are parasitic insects, belonging to the Order Hymenoptera, 
being provided with four wings, and the female being furnished with a sharp 
ovipositor. Many of them puncture the bodies of caterpillars, depositing an 
egg in each wound. The larvas, when hatched, devour the caterpillar alive, 
feeding on the soft but less vital parts of the host, and when full-grown 
quit the body of their victim, frequently forming their cocoons around it. 
Almost every species of caterpillar, grub, aphis, or other form of insect 
life, has one or more parasites which keep it in check. One of the species 
most frequently seen at work is Microgaster glomeratus, which lays from 
thirty to sixty eggs in a single caterpillar of the Large Cabbage White 
Butterfly. When about to pupate, the larvas gnaw their Avay out, and 
each spins a yellow silken cocoon, generally beside the empty skin of the 
caterpillar or upon its surface. 

The Chalcidkke are a family of Ichneumons, for the most part exceed- 
ingly small, and many being parasitic upon other parasites. Some deposit 
their eggs in various galls, where they feed upon the rightful inhabitants. 
Others work havoc among the aphides. 

The Proctotrupida?, a family of minute Ichneumons, comprise some of 



the smallest known Hymenoptera. They deposit their eggs in the eggs of 
other insects, particularly those of moths and butterflies, and are so minute 
that a single butterfly's egg will suffice for the support of several ichneumon 
larva?. By this means many eggs of the Lepidoptera must be destroyed, 
and our gardens and crops are thus protected by insects scarcely visible to 
the naked eye. 

The Hover Flies or Hawk Flies (Syrphidce), belong to the Diptera, in- 
sects possessing only two wings. They have a peculiar habit of hovering 
in the air, darting away like an arrow when disturbed, and hovering 
again at the end of their flight. They are common from spring to autumn, 
but more especially numerous from July to September. In appearance 
many resemble bees or wasps, but may be known by the manner of their 
flight and the number of the wings. 

The female fly deposits a single white egg in a colony of aphides, and 
the leech-like larva feeds ravenously upon them, sucking the juices and 
rejecting the empty skins. It is said that a hungry larva will devour a 
hundred aphides in an hour. When full-fed the maggot fixes itself to a 
leaf, stem, or other object by the tail, making the attachment by means of 
a sticky excretion. The pupa is developed within the larval skin, and in a 
few days the perfect fly emerges. 

Syrphus (Scctva) pyrastri is a fine species of Hawk-fly, whose larva may 
be found feeding on the aphides infesting Rose-trees. The insect is blackish- 
blue, with a whitish-grey down ; usually there are on each side of the abdomen 
three short bands varying from white to golden yellow. 

Another typical species is Syrphus lucorum. It is a pretty insect, somewhat 
variable in colour and the extent of its markings, but its general colour is black, 
the thorax being covered with brown hairs, and the base of the abdomen with 
golden down. 

Many of the genus Volucella are hairy species, strikingly like wasps and 
bees. Their larva? are short maggots with pointed tubercles on the seg- 
ments, living in the nests of wasps and bees, where they act as scavengers 

or feed on the larvae of their hosts. 

xlix f 


In the great family of Muscidce, to which the House-fly and Blow-fly 
belong, we have a genus which consists of flies in some respects resembling 
the Ichneumons. Nearly two hundred British species have been described. 

One of the best known is Tacltina ferox. This species has the head 
tinged with grey : and the abdomen is yellowish, shining like horn, and 
black along the middle. The female lays her eggs upon the bodies of 
various caterpillars, and the young larva 1 penetrate into the body of the 
caterpillar, and feed upon the fatty tissues. Not only are the caterpillars 
of Butterflies and Moths attacked, but various species are known to infest 
the larva 1 of some Coleoptera. Hymenoptera. and even the bodies of spiders. 

The species Tachina grossa is so large and hairy that it might be easily 
mistaken for a black humble-bee. Its body measures J in. in length, and 
the wings have an expanse of 1| in. 

"We will conclude this brief review of some of the gardener's friends with 
a mere reference to one which he would scarcely care to encourage, but which, 
nevertheless, does him good service in keeping down the number of his enemies. 
It is the Hornet (J^espa crabro), the largest and most formidable of British 
wasps. The queen may measure 11 in. in length, and the wings may expand 
over 2 ins., but many of the workers are no bigger than the common wasp. 
The nest is usually built in outhouses or the hollows of trees. The food of 
the Hornet consists of other insects, and is largely composed of wasps. 



The study of galls and gall-producers is a fascinating one, and may be 
pursued at all seasons of the year. The British galls number nearly 300, 
and occur on all parts of plants. They are in most cases the result of 
insect agency, but some are due to the presence of nematoid worms within 
the tissues of the plants, and yet others are the result of attacks by fungi. 
No plants are more susceptible to galls than are the various species of Oak, 
and of the many kinds of oak-galls which have been described the greater 
number are produced by gall-wasps, insects belonging to the Cynipidae, a 
family of the Hymenoptera. A wonderful feature connected with the life- 
history of these gall-producers is the phenomenon of alternating generations, 
in which we have an insect producing an offspring, which at no time re- 
sembles its parent, but which, on the other hand, itself brings forth a 
progeny, which returns in its form and nature to the parent insect, so that 
the latter does not meet with its resemblance in its own brood, but in 
another generation. The two generations produce galls of very different 
character. One generation consists of females only, the other includes both 
males and females. We will now call attention to a few of the more 
common and interesting oak-galls, and give examples of this strange re- 

The Cherry Gall (Dryophanta scutellaris) is found on the under-surface 
of the leaf, attached to the midrib and its offshoots. As its name implies, 
it resembles a cherry in size, form, and colour, having a diameter of about 
f in., and being yellow, yellowish-green, pale-green or rose-coloured. It is 
found from July to October, and the imago emerges during the autumn and 
winter. It is the largest and most brightly coloured of the leaf-galls. The 

alternate sexual generation is found in the next species. 

li fi 


The Purple Velvet-Bud Gall (Spathegaster Taschenbergi). This is a dainty 
little violet or purple gall found in dormant adventitious buds of the bark 
and small twigs. It may be sought for in April or May, and best on sunny 
days, but is not common. The imago emerges in May or June. 

The Cupped Spangle Gall {Neuroterus f'umipennis) is found on the under- 
surface of the leaf, and much resembles the Common Spangle, but is 
slightly smaller, being J in. in diameter. The prevailing colour is rose- 
madder, this being due to the presence of numerous microscopic stellate 
hairs. Nearly 500 of these galls have been counted on a single leaf. They 
may be found from July to September, and the imago emerges in the 
following May. The alternate sexual generation is seen in 

The Hairy Pea Gall {Spathegaster tricolor). This forms a conglomerated 
mass of 15-20 pea-like excrescences on the underside of the leaf, being most 
frequently found on scrub-oak bushes, and stunted, and hedge-trimmed 
growth along road-side banks. It is white, pale green, or yellow in colour. 
It may be seen during the summer (May to August), and the imago emerges 
in July. 

The Common Spangle Gall (Neuroterus lenticularis) is the largest and 
most abundant of the lenticular galls. It is found from July to October, 
scattered all over the under-surface of the leaf. It is greenish-yellow, 
covered with crimson or reddish hairs, and measures about \ in. in diameter. 
The imago emerges during March and April. The alternate sexual gene- 
ration is 

The Currant Gall (Spathegaster baccarum), which is found on the stam- 

inate catkins, and on leaves. It consists of a sappy and soft cellular tissue 

containing an abundance of a whitish, tasteless fluid, and when growing on a 

catkin peduncle the aggregation much resembles a "string" of red currants, 

the galls being generally suffused with pink, or spotted or striped with red. 

It is the most common of the globular galls, and may be found in June. 

The imago emerges during June, the entire metamorphosis occupying less 

than two weeks. 

The Silk-Button Spangle Gall (Neuroterus numismatis) is perhaps the 



most beautiful of the lenticular galls, and one of the most abundant, nearly 
700 having been counted on a single leaf, covering practically the whole of 
the under-surface. It appears as a small flat disc, about -J- in. in diameter, 
the prevailing colours being golden yellow, bright ochre, and golden brown. 
It is common from August to October, and the imago emerges during 
March or April, earlier than those of any other leaf gall. The alternate 
sexual generation is seen in 

The Blister Gall (Spathegaster vesicatriv). This, as its name implies, takes 
the form of a small blister in the blade of the leaf. It may be found from 
May to October, but is not easy to detect. 

The Oak Apple {Term terminals) is, on the other hand, familiar to every 
country school-boy, and is largely in evidence on the 29th of May, the day 
of all others most closely associated witli "King Charles's Apple." It is 
usually developed from a terminal bud, but those from axillary buds are 
also of very frequent occurrence. It is yellowish-white, suffused with pink 
and red, and measures 1-2 ins. in diameter. Growth is complete by the 
end of June, but the "apple" may be found throughout the year. The 
imagines emerge during June and July. The alternate asexual generation is 
found in 

The Root Gall (Biorhiza aptera). This usually takes the form of a con- 
glomerated cluster on the roots and rootlets, and may measure H in. in 
diameter. It may be pink, red, or of varying shades of brown. Growth is 
complete by the end of October, and the imago emerges during the winter 
or spring. The females are mostly wingless. After leaving the gall the 
female creeps up the bole of the tree, along a limb, and selecting a terminal 
bud, bores holes with her ovipositor, the ova being pushed down the holes 
till they form a mass at the base of the bud. The resulting gall is the Oak 

The Marble Gall, or Oak Marble, is the work of Cynips Kollari. It is 
one of the most familiar galls, and is often erroneously spoken of as the 
oak-apple. It is usually noticed when the hedgerows are leafless, and then 

has much the appearance of marble, being spherical, and brown in colour. 



They may l>e found growing either singly, in groups of 3-0, each being 

perfect in shape, or in conglomerate clusters consisting of several galls more 

or less fused together. They are not usually borne by fully developed trees. 

The ova are deposited in a leaf-bud towards the end of September or early 

in October. A small swelling is formed on the twig, but does not increase 

much in size till the following April or May. Growth then continues, and 

by the end of September the gall has become firm and hard, and is of a 

yellowish-brown or reddish-brown hue. It may remain attached to the twig 

for several years. The question of an alternate sexual generation is still an 

open one, but it has been considered likely that it will be found in the 

Turkey Oak Hud Gall (Andricus circulans). 

The species of galls above mentioned are some of the easiest to find, but 

there are many more of extreme interest, and the reader who wishes to 

pursue the study may be referred to Connold's " British Oak Galls," a work 

to which we are indebted for much recent information. 

The Robin's Pincushion, Rose Bedeguar or Moss-gall, is the work of 

Rhodites roses, an insect belonging to the Cynipidae. The greenish, pink, 

or crimson gall is formed by ova being deposited in a leaf-bud, each egg 

becoming surrounded with layers of sap, and ultimately making a mass of 

30-45 cells concealed beneath a covering of many-branched fibres. The 

globular conglomeration of cells may reach nearly 2 ins. in diam. The 

larvae pupate in the gall, and the imagines emerge during June. 

Rhodites eglanteriae forms small, smooth, globular galls on the leaves and 

petioles of Dog Rose and Sweet Briar. They are attached by a delicate 

pedicel, and are unilocular and unilarval. They may be found from July 

till October. The larva pupates in the gall, and the imago emerges during 

the following spring. 

Horse-bean Galls, so familiar on the edges, and on either side of the 

midrib of willows, is caused by a Saw-fly (Nematus galMcola). The gall is 

equal in proportion on both surfaces of the leaf, and is green, suffused with 

red, pink, or purple. The larvae, when full fed, generally burrow into the 

soil, and there pupate. The imagines, which emerge in August and Sep- 



tember, lay eggs in early autumn, and the larva 1 pass the winter within 
the gall, the resulting brood appearing in April or May. 

Of the many thousands of Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths) whose larva 
feed in or on plants, only about half-a-dozen are known to produce galls, and 
of these two only need be mentioned here. 

Hedya aceriana is a dull cream-coloured moth with the fore-wings expanding 
T 7 ^ of an inch, and appears in July or August. The dirty-brown larva eats 
its way into the young shoots of poplars, and the irritation causes an unsightly 
swelling. The gall may be found from June to August. 

The Resin-gall Moth (Retima resinella) belongs to a group of the Tortricida 
which inflict damage on Scots Pine and other Conifers. The egg is laid among 
the buds at the extremity of a young shoot, and the larva feeds upon, and 
bores into the stem, causing an exudation of resin not unlike a half walnut 
in form, and somewhere near the size. The larva pupates in the gall of resin, 
and the imago emerges in March. The fore-wings measure fy \\ in. and 
are dark blackish-grey with silvery streaks. The moth is mostly confined to 
Scotland and the north of England. All shoots showing signs of attack 
should be removed and burned. 

The Aphides or Plant-lice belong to the Homoptera, in which the fore- 
wings are uniform in structure from base to apex. They are minute in size, 
soft-bodied, and generally long-legged ; the mouth is provided with a curious 
beak or rostrum for sucking the juices of plants, and nearly every plant 
has its own peculiar Aphis. Many kinds secrete " honey-dew " from two 
cornicles or honey-tubes at the end of the abdomen, and this, falling on 
the leaves, prevents respiration. Their rate of increase is marvellous, and 
reproduction is carried on in two ways. In the spring the wingless females 
produce living young, which soon mature and produce other wingless females, 
the process continuing with gi-eat rapidity till the plant may become completely 
covered. At the end of the season males and females both are produced, 
and sexual reproduction takes place, the eggs being laid upon the plant, 
and lying dormant through the winter. In the spring the eggs hatch out, 

and the cycle is again begun. The irritation set up in the plant by the action 



of the aphides often causes abnormal growths, and it is some of these with 
which we are concerned in this chapter. 

The Woolly Aphis or Apple Root Louse, often called American Blight 
(Schizoneura lanigera), causes large warty excrescences on every part of the 
trunk and limbs of Apple-trees. These swellings are the result of the con- 
tinuous punctures of the rostra of the aphides, the sap accumulating into 
soft pulpy masses which harden in winter, cracking in all directions on the 
surface, and producing scabby hypertrophies or "canker-like" growths which 
often attain large dimensions. The presence of the aphides in summer is 
readily apparent from the presence of a white cottony substance formed as 
an excretion in the back of both young and mature females. The wool some- 
times hangs in festoons from the trees, and, being blown about by the wind, 
acts as a means of dispersal of the pest, but the infection is most frequently 
spread by means of nursery stock. This species is not provided with cornicles, 
and does not produce honey-dew. The wingless females are purplish-brown, 
and the lice or larva? are dull yellowish to reddish in colour. The best pre- 
ventative of the pest is clean cultivation, the trunks and boughs being kept 
free from lichens and moss, and no rank grass being allowed to grow beneath. 
In winter the trees may be cleansed of the vegetal encumbrances with a 
caustic alkali wash, and the trunks may be lime-washed after the removal 
of all rough bark. 

The Currant Blister Aphis (I.) (Rhopalosiphum ribis) causes convex or 
concave blisters on the foliage of Currants, red, black, and white, but especially 
the first. The leaves attacked shrivel away, and the fruit often falls, owing 
to loss of sap, long before the leaves die. The wingless viviparous female, or 
" Mother Queen," is shiny green, mottled with darker green, and the cornicles 
are green. The lice turn to pupa?, from which arise winged, viviparous females, 
yellowish-green in colour, with black head. Later on the egg-laying female 
deposits eggs on the twigs, and these hatch in the following spring. This 
aphis also attacks the Gooseberry, and has been found on the Guelder Rose. 

The Currant Blister Aphis (II.) (Myzus ribis) is distinguished from the 

former by differences in colour in the various stages. The wingless female 



is shiny yellowish-green, with dark green mottlings ; and the cornicles are 
pale green. The winged viviparous females are bright green, with pale 
olive head. This species often causes the leaves at the apex of the shoots 
to curl and twist up. It attacks Gooseberries as well as Currants. Early 
spraying with paraffin emulsion is the best treatment, but little can be done 
when once the lice have got a hold. 

The Elm Aphis {Sckizoneura ulmi), frequently rolls, blisters, and distorts 
the foliage of Elms. The galled leaves may be found from June to October. 
Usually only one half of the leaf is attacked, curling downwards and under, 
forming a roll within which the life stages are passed, as in the case of the 
Currant Aphis. The unaffected part of the leaf does not appear to suffer 
much from the attack, but the galled portion is gradually denuded of all 
sap, and turns to a yellowish-green, and finally to a pale ashy grey. 

Pemphigus bursarius, or Aphis bursaria, forms an attractive gall on the 
petioles of Black Poplar, and sometimes the Lombardy Poplar. The gall 
consists of a pear-shaped or oval purse-like swelling, green in colour, suffused 
with pink. It is usually % in. long and about 1\ in. in girth. It is very 
plentiful from July to September, and on badly infected trees some branches 
may have 25 per cent, of their leaves attacked. The queen aphis 
punctures the petiole of the leaf, and the sap exuding, gradually surrounds, 
and finally encloses her, and the work of reproduction goes on. The winged 
aphides make their exit through a small opening at the apex of the gall. 

The Pine-apple Gall, so common on young trees of Norway Spruce Fir, 
is the work of an Aphis {Adelges (Chermes) abietis). The queen emerges in 
June, hybernates through the winter, and in the following spring punctures 
the shoot at the axils of the young leaves, causing their bases to thicken 
by an accumulation of sap. The thickened bases form a kind of false cone 
in which innumerable eggs are laid, the resulting colony numbering perhaps 
1800-2000 insects. The dry galls may remain on the trees for several years 
before final disintegration, the infected shoots being often distorted and some- 
times killed. 

The order of Diptera includes over a hundred gall-making insects, usually 



called Gall-gnats and Gall-midges, and the greater number of these belong 
to the sub-genus Cecidomyia. 

Cecidomyia cratcegi causes a cluster or rosette of 8-40 deformed leaves 
at the extremity of a shoot on the Hawthorn. The leaflets in the centre 
are stunted in growth, curl inwards, and provide shelter and food for 
numerous larva 1 during the summer months. The larvae pupate in the 
ground, and the gall-flies emerge in the spring. 

Kosette Galls are to be found on several kinds of Willows, and are the 
work of Cecidomyia rosaria. The single larva feeds upon the end of the 
shoot, preventing its further growth, and a rosette is formed, consisting of 
30-60 leaves in all stages of development, the outer ones occasionally 
being woody. The larva pupates in the gall, and the fly emerges in the 

Cecidomyia marginem-torquens causes the margins of the leaves of Osiers 
to roll along the under-surface towards the mid-rib. The margins become 
variously coloured, yellow, red, purple, and chocolate-brown being the pre- 
vailing tints. The larva? feed in the gall from June to October, pupate in the 
ground during the winter, and the flies emerge in spring. 

Cecidomyia salicis forms peculiar lemon-shaped swellings on the twigs 
of Grey Sallow {Salix cinerea), and sometimes the Round-eared Sallow 
{Salix aarita). The galls are nearly an inch long, and about h in. in diam. 
The larvae, from three to thirty in number, pupate in the gall, and the imagines 
emerge in May, leaving about half of the puparium projecting from the hole, 
after the manner of the Goat Moth when emerging from its cocoon. 

The Gall-mites belonging to the Order Acarina are microscopic creatures 
which live on plants, by preference in the bud, and produce galls of various 

The Black-Currant Mite {Eriophyes (Phytoptus) ribis) causes the buds 

to swell unnaturally, so that they produce neither leaves nor fruit. From 

some infested buds a few stunted leaves may come forth, but they fall in 

the early summer, and no blossoms are formed. The mite is indistinguishable 

with the naked eye, but can be seen with a good pocket lens. The body is 



cylindrical, and consists of about 70 rings. Eggs are found in the buds 
nearly all the year round. The mites stray about the shoots when the buds 
shrivel up, and later find their way into the embryonic buds. In January 
the buds contain adults and eggs, in February the eggs are in abundance, 
by March there are hundreds of young mites and several adults, and by 
April there are mites in all stages. In June they may travel from the old 
buds to the new, and by July there are eggs, young and adults in the 
young buds, thus continuing the infestation for the next season, and making 
remedial measures of little avail. Infested bushes should be pruned very 
hard, and all cuttings burned. The best plan to adopt is to cultivate from 
clean stock, carefully examining all new bushes, and rejecting any which 
show any indication of unnaturally swollen buds. 

" Witch-knots," " Witches' Brooms," and " Rooks' Nests " are names 
given to large bunches of distorted twigs often to be seen on the Birch. 
They vary in size from a few inches to many feet in circumference. They 
are caused by a gall-mite {Eriophyes rudis), which lives in the buds, absorbing 
nourishment, and preventing proper development. The growth of the twig 
is arrested, and as the new buds appear, they are attacked by the mites and 
rendered abortive. The mites increase in numbers very rapidly, and when 
the work of thousands is concentrated at one spot it causes the many twigs 
to grow outwards in all directions, while the common centre becomes a hard, 
solid, and woody core. In cases where the mites are distributed along the 
branches a dense bushy tangle of long and slender twigs is formed. Apparently 
the presence of these galls does little or no harm to the general growth and 
development of the tree. Similar growths are caused by a Fungus. 

Eriophyes (Phytoptus) Icevis causes variously-coloured pimple-like galls 
on the upper surface of the leaves of Alder. They are green, yellow, red, 
purple, or brown, and may number as many as 400 on a leaf. When 
numerous they cause the leaf to curl and fold up in a very distorted manner. 

" Nail-galls " on the foliage of Limes are the work of Eriophyes tilice (typicus), 

They are of varying shades of greenish-yellow, red, crimson, purple, and brown^ 

and have the appearance of tacks projecting through the upper surface of 



the leaf. They are hollow, the interior containing a quantity of long hairs, 
giving shelter to innumerable mites. A single leaf may support as many 
as 1.50 of these galls. 

The leaves of the Common Maple are often literally covered with smooth, 
semi-globular pimples, the work of a gall-mite] {JEriophyes macrorhyneus). At 
first greenish-yellow, the galls pass through shades of yellow, orange-yellow, 
red, crimson, and purple, and finally become brown. Many leaves will support 
400-500 galls ; some may even bear as many as 800, and a somewhat large 
leaf has been crowded with nearly 1400. 

The Maple foliage is also attacked by a somewhat similar, but larger 
gall, made by the mite Eriopln/es macrochelus. A leaf may have 50-200 
of these globular galls, which vary considerably in shape and appearance, 
being usually green, orange-yellow, red, or brown in colour. Occasionally 
they may be seen on the underside of the leaf, but are most often situated 
on the upper surface. 



INTRODUCTION. In the treatment of fungoid pests it is essential to 
know that parasitic fungi may be placed in two groups, each with a different 
mode of development, and each necessitating a different method for their 
prevention or cure. The first, or epiphytal group, includes those fungi which 
establish themselves on the surface of leaves, stems, or other green parts of 
living plants, their whole career being external and superficial. Many of these 
can be held in check or destroyed by powdering or spraying. The Hop Mildew 
and Rose Mildew are familiar examples of this class, the first being kept in 
check by the application of sulphur, and the second by spraying with potassium 
sulphide solution. In the early stages of attack the mildews present themselves 
as patches of white mould consisting of a stratum of delicate interwoven threads, 
forming a mycelium, from which arise fertile threads producing myriads of 
spores to carry on the infection. Later in the season other spores are 
formed which will rest during the winter, and germinate in the following 

The second group of parasites are endophytal, originating in the tissues 
of the host-plants, and manifesting themselves externally only when the 
damage is beyond control. In these cases all efforts must be directed towards 
destroying the spores, and preventing the future infection of healthy plants. 
The " rot moulds " belong to this group, and are among the most devastating 
of fungoid pests. The mature mould, when it appears on the surface, pro- 
duces a profusion of spores, or conidia. From these there issue minute 
zoospores provided with delicate cilia enabling them to swim in any thin 
film of moisture. If this be on a leaf, the zoospore may enter one of the 
stomata, and give rise to a mycelium within the tissues. From this there 

issue fertile threads, reaching the surface through the stomata, to carry on 

lxi g 


the work of reproduction through conidia as hefore. Resting spores are 
produced within the tissues, and carry on the attack anew in the spring. 

A large and important group of endophytes is that known as the 
Uredines, in which there are three distinct stages of development, each 
of which may he considered as a fungoid disease. 

The first stage is known as the "cluster cups," or aecidium form, and 
consists of clusters of little cups, partly imbedded in the substance of the 
leaf or twig of the host-plant. The margin is usually white and fringed, 
and the interior filled with orange subglobose spores, termed a?cidiospores. 
A species, exceedingly common in spring, may be found on the under- 
surface of the leaves of the Lesser Celandine or Figwort {Ranunculus ficaria). 
Less frequently it occurs on other species of Ranunculus, and is known as 
the Crowfoot Cluster-cups. The " cluster cups " form of parasitic fungus is 
found on many trees and shrubs. 

The second stage is reached in the summer, when on the same leaves, 
or others, there are developed small brownish pustules, which at length split 
irregularly, exposing a mass of minute brownish spores, each borne on a 
short thread. These powdery spores, known as uredospores, constitute the 
" rusts " which attack many plants. 

The third stage consists of teleutospores. These are produced in pustules 

similar to those of the second stage, and may sometimes be found mixed 

with them. They are more or less elongated, being supported on hyaline 

threads, and divided across the middle into two cells. Each of these cells 

may give rise to a germ tube or promycelium, and the apical cell may also 

produce secondary spores by cell-division. These last are eligible for the 

production of mycelium which on entering a new host plant will commence 

the cycle again. ^Ecidiospores, uredospores, and teleutospores may or may 

not be all produced on the same plant, but there are many variations, and 

the cycle is not always complete. Mycologists are divided in opinion, and 

there is still much to be learned before many of these life-histories are fully 


Having given this brief sketch of their various phases, we will turn our 



attention to some of the more common of these Fungoid Pests, and will 
group them under four heads, viz. — 1. Roses ; 2. Orchard and Fruit Garden ; 
3. Ornamental Shrubs; 4. Forest Trees. 


Rose Mildew, Sphcerotheca pannosa, is undoubtedly the most prevalent 
and destructive of all Rose pests. Its dirty-white felted mycelium of inter- 
woven threads clothes the leaves, shoots and flower-stalks of all kinds of 
Roses. The mycelium sends up short branches, which produce conidia attached 
to each other in a chain. They are produced in rapid succession during the 
summer months, and, unless kept in check by frequent spraying or the use 
of sulphur, will soon give rise to an epidemic beyond all control. No fungoid 
disease can be cured by spraying, but it may be prevented from extending, 
by killing the spores which alight on the leaves. 

As the season advances winter spores are produced. They consist of 
small dark brown globose receptacles scattered about upon the whitish 
mycelium. When mature each receptacle encloses a single globose trans- 
parent sac, or ascus, containing numerous spores which will germinate in 
the following spring. This winter fruit is found in the mycelium growing 
on the young wood, or rarely on the fruit, but not on the leaves. It is 
essential that every patch of mycelium should be carefully scraped off and 
burned, doing this early in the season, before the spores have a chance 
of falling to the ground. 

Rose Rust, Uredo Bosce, occurs during the summer on the leaves, petioles, 
and stems of wild and cultivated Roses, bursting through the cuticle as 
an orange-coloured powder. The patches on the underside of the leaves are 
small, or may coalesce to form a larger patch, while on the stems they 
may extend to an inch in length. When the rust disappears wounds or 
canker spots remain, which favour the growth of other fungi. 

The rust patches on the wood may be treated with a solution of equal 

parts of methylated spirit and water, rubbing in with a piece of sponge. 

lxiii g 2 

iiJ-.-"" '<" 


Plants which have been attacked the previous season should be sprayed 
with a solution of potassium sulphide, or copper sulphate just before the 
leaves expand. 

Hose Brand, Phragmidium mbcorticium, is the advanced stage of the 
Kose Rust. It forms minute blackish projecting tufts on the under surface 
of the leaves, taking the place of the gradually disappearing Rust in autumn. 
Each point is a long and cylindrical teleutospore, of a very dark brown 
colour, divided transversely into 3-7 cells. In the spring they produce 
secondary spores which again give rise to the orange summer form. 

Preventive measures consist of collecting and burning all infected leaves, 
not only those that are dead and fallen, but any that remain on bushes that 
have been infected. 

Rose-leaf Rlack Blotch, Actinonema lioscv, is a common fungus, appearing 
as somewhat rounded spots on the foliage, being at first purplish, and then 
black. Radiating from the black spots are flexuous threads of a delicate 
mycelium, and scattered among them are small black conceptacles contain- 
ing sporules. The mycelium permeates the leaf tissues, causing premature 

Badly diseased leaves should be removed from the bushes and burned, 
together with all diseased leaves lying on the ground. Spraying with potas- 
sium sulphide, early in the season, and continued at intervals has been recom- 
mended, but does not seem to have much effect when the disease has once 
gained a foothold. Dilute copper sulphate, and Eau Celeste or Blue Water 
are also used for spraying. 

Rose Leaf-spot or Leaf-scorch, Septoria Rosarwn, not only disfigures 
the leaves, but seriously weakens the plant through premature defoliation, 
badly diseased plants being often quite leafless by the end of July. The 
fungus appears as rounded spots on the upper surface of the leaf, yellowish- 
green at first, becoming pale brown later, and bordered by a dark purple 
ring. The brown patches usually fall out, leaving holes in the leaf, but 
they may remain fixed, and will sometimes be studded with minute black 

points, the perithecia or reproductive bodies of the fungus, containing thread- 



like sporules consisting of a chain of six cells. The disease is very prevalent 
on wild Roses and Brambles, and is difficult to eradicate. 

All diseased leaves should be collected and burned. Where the disease 
has existed the sulphate of copper solution may be used to drench the 
bushes and the surrounding ground. Spraying with " liver of sulphur " 
(potassium sulphide) should be done when the leaves are half grown, and 
repeated at intervals. 


We will next mention a few of the more common Fungoid Pests to be 
found in the Orchard and Fruit Garden, and for convenience of reference 
will place them in alphabetical order, without regard to any scientific classi- 

Apple-leaf Spot, Septoria pyricola, occurs on the upper surface of the 
leaves of Apple and Pear. The substance of the leaf within the spot is 
killed by the mycelium and bleached, and the surface is dotted with minute 
black points. Each point is a tiny receptacle with a minute pore at the 
apex, out of which the fungus spores issue and spread themselves over the 

Apple-tree White Mould, Oidium farinosum, covers the young twigs and 
leaves of Apple trees with a mealy coating, causing the leaves to curl, and 
distorting the tender twigs, at the same time giving them the appearance 
of having been dusted with flour or powdered chalk. Fertile branches arise 
from the profuse mycelium, and give a continuous crop of conidia, causing 
the disease to rapidly spread. Dusting with "flowers of sulphur" is the 
most effectual treatment. 

Apple-tree Canker, Nectria ditissima, is the most frequent and destructive 

form of canker attacking Apple trees in this country. The fungus gains 

admission to the living tissues through a wound, and then spreads rapidly 

in the living bark, which becomes eaten away in patches, leaving the wood 

exposed, and in very young branches even the wood itself may be destroyed. 



Where the bark is destroyed all round the branch, the portion above the 
wound is at once killed. On older parts of the tree the fungus will often 
gain an entrance through a crack in the fork of a branch, and after becoming 
well established will travel up the branch and cause its destruction by burst- 
ing through the bark at different points along its course. If the cracks con- 
taining the fungus be examined in spring there will be seen minute red dots 
growing in clusters on a white mycelium. These smooth spherical dots are 
the perithecia or conceptacles, and contain a pulpy nucleus consisting of a 
great number of long cylindrical tubes, or asci, each enclosing a row of eight 
spores. On germinating these spores give rise to the summer stage of the 
fungus, which may be seen as minute white specks nestling in the crevices 
of the rugged bark surrounding the wounds. 

The white stage of the fungus can be killed by applying with a brush 
a solution of sulphate of iron — 1 lb. to a gallon of water. Young branches 
that are attacked should be cut off. In older branches the diseased parts 
should be cut away, and the cut surface carefully anointed with gas tar. 

The canker fungus is said also to attack Pear, Plum, Oak, Beech, Ash, 
Hazel, Alder, Maple, and Lime. 

Apricot Brown Rot, Monilia fructigena, attacks the fruit of Apple and 
Pear in England, and of Apricot, Peach, and Cherry in the United States 
of America. The disease appears as a discoloured brownish spot, soon followed 
by the growth of dull grey tufts arranged in irregular concentric rings. The 
tufts are composed of dense masses of spores arranged in long branched chains. 
Although most conspicuous on the fruit, the fungus usually attacks the leaves, 
forming thin, velvety, olive-green patches, and from these the spores are carried 
to the blossoms or young fruit. If allowed to follow its course undisturbed 
for some years, the fungus may attack and kill the young shoots. The in- 
fected fruit becomes dry and mummified, like a large mouldy Plum, and in 
the spring produces a copious supply of spores to carry on the disease. The 
second or ascigerous stage of the disease has been found in the United States 
growing abundantly on old half-buried peaches. 

All dead twigs and shrivelled fruit should be collected and burned during 



the winter, and the ground thoroughly drenched with a solution of sulphate 
of iron. The solution may also be used for spraying in January or early 
February, before the buds begin to swell. When the buds are expanding 
the trees may be sprayed with very weak Bordeaux mixture. 

Fruit-tree Pustule, Eutypella prunastri, is a fungoid disease which attacks 
young fruit-trees and nursery stock, Plum and Apple suffering most severely, 
and Peach, Apricot and Cherry to a less extent. It is often abundant on 
Wild Plum, Bullace, Blackthorn, &c. In the orchard it probably enters the 
tree through wounds made by pruning. In the first stage there is a drying 
up, browning, and shrivelling of the bark, and threads bearing conidia ooze 
out through minute elongated cracks. These are followed in the second 
season by larger transverse cracks or perithecia from which asci are produced, 
each containing eight sporidia. These are ripe in late spring or early summer, 
and carry on the infection. The fungus growing in the bark and cambium 
must ultimately kill the young tree. All diseased plants should be burned, 
and wounds on the stem should be coated with gas tar. 

Gooseberry Mildew, Microsphcera Grossitlarhc, forms white patches on 
both sides of the leaves, giving them the appearance of having been sprinkled 
with flour. The powder consists of myriads of spores or conidia, which, unless 
destroyed, will rapidly spread the infection. When the disease is severe the 
leaves die and fall early, hindering the development of the tree. Later in 
the season minute black points are seen among the mycelium. These are 
the globose receptacles, each furnished with 10-15 colourless radiating fibres, 
and containing 4-8 sacs, or asci, each enclosing four or five sporidia. 

Being an epiphyte, the disease may be checked by the application of 
sulphur, but the most effective treatment is spraying with a solution of 
potassium sulphide. All dead fallen leaves should be burned in winter, and 
the ground around the bushes should be well dug to bury stray spores. 

American Gooseberry Mildew, Sphcerotheca Mors-uvce, usually makes its 

appearance on the expanding leaf-buds, extending later on to the young 

wood and fruit. It has a cobwebby appearance, becoming white and powdery, 

and may be readily peeled off. In this country the fungus appears to be 



mostly confined to the tips of the shoots, causing them to become brown 
and shrivelled. The life-history resembles that of the previous speeies. To 
combat the attack spray with potassium sulphide, one ounce to two gallons 
of water, repeating every ten days till the fruit is nearly mature. 

Peach-leaf Blister or "Curl," Exoascus deformans, causes the leaves to 
become blistered and contorted in various ways, presenting an appearance 
as though suffering from an attack of aphis. Such a case of distortion might 
well have been placed in the chapter on Galls, especially as the curling of 
the leaves is often accompanied by an abnormal swelling of the young 
shoots, but owing to the serious nature of the disease we have preferred to 
describe this and some few others as true Fungoid Pests. The fungus in 
this instance causes the under surface of the leaves, in the hollows of the 
blisters, to assume a hoary or frosted appearance, the interior being closely 
packed with cylindrical cells, or asci, containing sporidia, the whole being 
covered with a transparent membrane. 

Diseased or fallen leaves should be burned. The mycelium is perennial 
in the branches, following the young growth, producing the disease in 
the leaves each year, and preventing the ripening of the wood. Branches 
bearing diseased leaves should be pruned back beyond the point of in- 

Pear-leaf Cluster-cups, Rasstelia cancellata, is a parasite which thickens 
Pear leaves at the infected spots by the internal growth of the mycelium, 
and the " cups " are flask-shaped brown bodies containing secidiospores. The 
cups, or peridia, split into numerous thread-like filaments, which for some 
time are united at the apex. The diseased leaves fall early in the autumn, 
resulting in a lack of reserve food for the following season, and if the attack 
occurs two or three years in succession, the tree will probably perish. All 
diseased leaves should be burned. By some authorities the Puccinia gene- 
ration of this disease is said to be found in the Savin Jelly-rust. 

Pear-leaf Blister, Exoascus bullatus, or Taphrina bullata, distorts the 

foliage in a similar manner to the "curl" on Peach leaves, but in this case 

the leaves remain flat. All blistered leaves should be burned, to check re- 



production. In the case of young trees frequent spraying with dilute Bor- 
deaux mixture may be a preventive. 

Plum-tree Mildew, Podosphcera tridactyla, attacks the foliage of Plum 
and Cherry trees, and resembles the Gooseberry Mildew in appearance. The 
receptacles in the case of the Plum have usually six or seven radiating arms, 
while those of the Cherry have from eighteen to twenty of these appendages. 
The disease may be checked by the application of sulphur. 

Plum Pockets, Eccoascus Pruni, is a disease easily recognised by reason 
of the familiar " Bladder Plums " which are the result of the attack. These 
galled and swollen fruits, as well as Witches' Brooms, are frequently found 
on the Bullace, the fungus being known as Exoascus insititice. In the case 
of this tree the diseased fruits may attain dimensions three or four times 
larger than that of a normal-sized fruit. The mycelium is perennial in the 
twigs, and from these travels to the ovaries of the flowers, taking possession 
of the young fruit, diverting and absorbing the supplies of nutriment, pre- 
venting the formation of seed, and causing considerable malformation of the 
fruit. Growing from the mycelium are closely-packed cylindrical asci, each 
containing eight sporidia, which, escaping from the infected fruit, may carry 
on the disease. The diseased fruits, after going through various changes of 
colour, become shrivelled, and fall to the ground. All " pockets " should be 
collected and burned, and the branches may with advantage be cut back 
beyond the point of infection. 

Witches' Broom of Cherry is caused by the fungus Exoascus Cents/. The 
disease shows itself in the production of dense tufts of branches, growing 
apparently from a central point, very similar to those already described in 
the chapter on Galls, under the title of " Witch Knots." In the present 
case the fungus appears as a hoary bloom on the branches. The slender, 
club-shaped asci enclose nearly globose sporidia. The only known remedy 
is to cut out the disease tufts and burn them, so as to prevent propagation 
by spores. 




Barberry Cluster-cups, Au-idium Berberidis, is a disease which attacks 
the Common Barberry. The cluster-cups are to be seen during the summer 
on the leaves, peduncles and fruit. They are rather elongated and packed 
closely side by side in sub-rotund or oval patches. The margin of the cups 
is white and toothed, and the interior is rilled with chains of globose orange- 
coloured spores. Some authorities consider this pest as one stage in the 
life-history of the Wheat mildew. 

Barberry Leaf Mildew, Microsphceria Berberidis, is a common pest of 
Berberis vulgaris, and resembles the Gooseberry Mildew in appearance. The 
globose receptacles are surrounded by a circle of about ten appendages, each 
beautifully forked in a dichotomous manner. Each receptacle encloses about 
six asci, and each ascus contains G-8 sporidia. The mildew may be checked 
by the application of sulphur. 

Ivy leaves are attacked by at least three species of Spot. Dotted about 
in the discoloured patches are small receptacles enclosing thread-like sporules. 

Leaf Sooty Mould, Capnodium Footii, is a very common black mould 
forming thin sooty spots on the leaves of many plants, and often to be seen 
on Holly, Ivy and Cherry Laurel. The creeping mycelium consists of colour- 
less or brownish threads, each divided into a chain of cells. The perithecia 
or receptacles are erect and bristle-like, and fringed at the mouth. All sooty 
leaves should be picked off and burned. 

Phillyrea Rust, Uredo PhiUyrece, is sometimes found on the leaves of 
Mock Privet, and takes the form of round, yellow pustules filled with orange- 
coloured uredospores, each with a thick hyaline outer coating. 

Rhododendron Galls are often to be seen on the leaves of Rhododendron. 

ferrugineum, and similar gall-like swellings are produced on Bay-Laurel. They 

are caused by a fungus, Exobasidiiuii Rhododendri. They vary in size from 

f in. to about f in., and are at first yellowish-green, becoming reddish later, 

and covered with a delicate bloom. The mycelium traverses the interior of 

the gall, and the " bloom " consists of the fungus fruit. The naked spores 



are borne at the apices of stout erect spore-bearers called basidia, there being 
usually four basidiospores to each of the basidia. Diseased leaves should be 
burnt as soon as seen, in order to prevent the production of spores. 

Savin Jelly-rust, Gymnosporanginm Sabince, causes gouty swellings in the 
branches of the Savin (Juniperits Sabina). These swellings burst through as 
an orange-coloured gelatinous mass consisting of teleutospores. These are 
two-celled, and each cell may give rise to a thread-like promycelium which 
divides at the extremity into three or four cells, each producing a secondary 
spore. Some mycologists consider this disease to be a stage in the life of 
the Pear Cluster-cups, and strongly deprecate the growing of Savin bushes 
in the neighbourhood of Pear trees. 


Ash-leaf Spot, Septoria Fraocini, affects almost every leaf if once it attacks 
a tree. It takes the form of irregular discoloured patches, sometimes covering 
the entire leaflet. The minute conceptacles are immersed in the substance 
of the leaf, and contain numerous cylindrical sporules. 

The Beech-tuft, A r miliaria mucida, is a handsome Toadstool which is often 
seen growing in clusters on the trunks and branches of old Beech trees. It 
is greyish-white in colour, with a slender stem 3-5 ins. long, and a hemi- 
spherical, flattened cap, 1-4 ins. in diameter. It is of a slimy character, but 
delicious when properly cooked. It is said to be a wound parasite, capable 
of attacking a healthy branch, causing death and decay. All wounds and cut 
branches should be protected with a coating of tar. The Agarics should be 
eaten or destroyed. 

Birch-leaf Rust, Melamspora betulina, is common from May to November. 

The pustules are of two kinds. Those which contain uredospores are pale 

orange, the spores being orange-yellow, and ovate. The teleutospores are 

pale yellow-brown, cylindrical, slightly wedge-shaped, and closely packed side 

by side, the pustules changing from yellow to brown, and finally becoming 




Birch-leaf Blotch, Dothidella betulina, appears as small hlotches containing 
white cavities or cells in which the fruit of the fungus is developed after 
the leaves have fallen to the ground. The asci enclose eight sporidia. 

Birch Polypore, Polyparus betuUnus, is a hoof-shaped fungus often found 
on dead Birch-trees, and sometimes attacking and destroying living trees. It 
measures .*5-8 ins. across, and is soft and whitish when young, becoming firmer 
and brown with age. The mycelium is probably perennial, so there is no 
hope of saving a tree when once attacked. To prevent the dispersion of 
spores, all specimens of the fungus should be destroyed. 

Crack Willow Bust, Melamspora epitea, is found on the foliage of several 
species of Salix, in the form of minute orange powdery pustules. The 
globose uredospores are pale yellow, and the cylindrical teleutospores are 
at first brown, then nearly black. Both are present on the underside of 
the leaf. 

Conifer Boot Bot, Trametes radiciperda, is the most dangerous of all the 
parasites met with in coniferous woods. It attacks Scots Fir, Weymouth 
Pine, Norway Spruce Fir, Silver Fir, and other conifers, causing the worst 
form of red-rot. The mycelium forms a felted mass between the bark-scales 
of the roots, scarcely as thick as the finest tissue-paper, and the sporophores 
appear as small cushion-like structures, coalescing to form a thin white cake, 
usually 1-2 ins. in diameter, but sometimes measuring as much as 16 ins. 
across. The spores may possibly be disseminated by mice or other burrowing 
animals, but usually the disease spreads by means of the mycelium travelling 
from a diseased root to any sound root which may be in contact. Having 
gained an entrance between the bark-scales of the root, the mycelium finds 
its way into the wood and travels up the stem, causing decomposition of 
the tissues, and the ultimate death of the tree. All diseased trees should 
be removed, great care being exercised to take from the ground every portion 
of the old stump and diseased roots. 

Elm-leaf Phloeospore, Phleosporu Uhni, is one of the commonest parasites 

on Elm leaves, sometimes attacking nearly every leaf on a tree. The small 

brownish spots are dotted with pustules from which there exude whitish threads 



of conidia, each divided into five cells. This is supposed to be the first stage 
of the Elm-leaf Blotch. 

Elm-leaf Scab (Piggotia astroidea) is thought to be the second stage. It 
occurs as small blackish scabs on the upper surface of the leaves. The scabs 
are composed of minute tubercles, from which conidia exude. 

Elm-leaf Blotch (PhyUachora Vlmi) is not unusual on Elm-trees, taking 
the appearance of rounded, convex, nearly black blotches on the upper surface 
of the leaves. The fungus matures after the fall of the leaves, the cavities 
containing numerous cylindrical sacs or asci, each enclosing eight sporidia. 

Hawthorn Powdery Mildew (Podosphcera Oxyacanthce) frequently whitens 
the leaves of Hawthorn, powdering them with the fallen conidia. The minute 
receptacles have 8 10 shortly branched appendages, about equal in length to the 
diameter of the receptacles. Each of the latter contains only one ascus, enclos- 
ing eight sporidia. 

Hawthorn Cluster-cups (RcesteUa lacerata) is a species of fungus found 
on the leaves, petioles, and fruits, taking the form of tufts seated on orange spots. 
The flask-shaped or cylindrical peridia are much lacerated and fringed at the 
margins, and ultimately split nearly to the base in reflexed thread-like filaments 
of attached cells marked with wavy lines. The yellowish aecidiospores are nearly 
spherical and warted. These cluster-cups are believed to be the first stage in 
the life of the Juniper Jelly-rust (Grymnosporangium clavariiforme), and are often 
now called by this Latin name. 

Hornbeam-leaf Blotch (Gnomoniella fimbriata) attacks the living foliage 
in the form of black convex blotches containing receptacles, each terminating in 
a spine-like neck, and enclosing oblong asci with eight sporidia. The conidial 
stage is believed to be the Glceosporium Carpini, a form of anthracnose in which 
the cylindrical conidia are expelled in whitish tendrils. 

Laburnum Leaf-spot (Phyllosticta ( 'ytisi) takes the form of brownish, circular 
spots, over which are scattered the dot-like receptacles containing curved 

Larch Canker (Dasyscypha calycina or Peziza Willkommii). The Larch 

disease is thought to be caused by this Peziza, which is found on the twigs and 

lxxiii h 


branches, especially when the Larches are growing in low, damp situations. 
The fungus is a wound parasite, its spores entering by wounds caused by insects, 
hailstones, or the fracture of a branch through excessive weight of snow. It 
consists of tiny white cups of a waxy consistency, having an orange-yellow disk 
formed of closely packed asci, or spore eases, each containing eight sporidia. 
Mixed with the cylindrical asci are erect sterile filaments known as paraphyses. 
The hark is destroyed above the area occupied by the mycelium of the fungus, 
and when the diseased spots spread so far as to girdle the trunk or branches, the 
part beyond will die. In damp localities the mycelium appears to spread rapidly 
through the entire plant, and the cups, or ascosphores, may be developed over 
every part of the tree. 

As a preventative plantations of Larches should not be made in damp, 
lowland localities. To check the disease all canker spots should be removed on 
their first appearance, and the wound dressed immediately with a wash of cor- 
rosive sublimate in methylated spirit, or with a strong solution of sulphate of 
iron, and then painted over with tar. 

Maple-leaf Blotch (Rhytisma punctatu/m) occurs as yellow spots nearly 1 in. 
in diameter, and dotted with disconnected portions of a black scab or crust. 
The final stage is passed on the fallen leaves, and consists of clavate asci contain- 
ing eight needle-shaped sporidia. 

Maple Mildew ( Uncinula Aceris) sometimes covers the foliage of Hedge 
Maple so completely as to give it the appearance of having been drenched with 
a thin coating of whitewash. The appendages of the receptacles are hooked at 
the apex. The receptacles enclose eight asci, each containing eight sporidia. 
The pest may be kept in check by the application of sulphur and lime. 

Mountain Ash Cluster-cups [Rcestelia cornuta). The peridia occur in 

tufts on rusty orange-coloured spots on the under surface of the leaves. 

They are long, cylindrical, horn-like, curved tubes, serrated at the margin, 

but do not split into threads. They are whitish at first, and then become 

yellowish-brown or reddish, and contain brownish-yellow secidiospores. The 

teleutospore stage is said to be the Juniper Jelly-mass (Gym/iosporaHgium 

juniperinum), and the fungus is sometimes described under this name. 




Pine Cluster-cups (Peridermium Pint). The cluster-cups, which appear in 
May or June, usually on the Scots Pine, and sometimes on the Weymouth 
Pine, are of two forms, those found on the leaves being cylindrical or 
laterally compressed, and having an irregularly torn margin ; others, found 
growing in crevices of the bark on the young twigs, are larger and inflated, 
and have the mouth spreading and much torn. The powdery a?cidiospores 
are orange coloured. The mycelium is perennial in the bark, bast, and wood. 
The cells attacked by the haustoria or minute suckers of the mycelium 
lose their contents, and afterwards secrete turpentine in considerable quantity, 
which escapes through cracks in the bark. When the disease encroaches on 
the wood, and checks the flow of sap, the branches die. The uredo and 
teleutospore stages are thought by some authorities to be the Senecio Rust, 
(Coleosporium Senecionis), and this name is sometimes applied to the cluster-cups. 

Black Poplar Rust (Melamspora populina) occurs on the leaves of the 
Black, Balsam, and Lombardy Poplars. The brown pustules of the uredo 
are roundish, and contain orange-yellow spores, mixed with capitate para- 
physes. The flat pustules of the teleutospores are generally crowded and 
often confluent, reddish-brown at first, and afterwards forming blackened 
crusts. The cylindrical pale brown teleutospores are closely packed side by 
side, becoming angular by compression. 

Sulphury AVood-rot (Polyporus mlfereus) is a large and showy poisonous 

fungus found as a parasite on the trunk of various trees, such as Oak, Alder, 

Willow, Poplar, Pear, Apple, and Larch. In the young state it is a round 

fleshy knob, but soon grows into an irregularly flattened body, crisped and 

waved on the margin, often with several overlapping portions or pilei, one 

above the other. A well-grown specimen may measure a foot in expanse, 

and weigh several pounds. The fungus is a bright sulphur-yellow, becoming 

paler on the smooth upper surface when old. It is brittle, with a soft 

whitish flesh and a disagreeable smell. Beside the usual reproduction by 

basidiospores, there are also conidia produced in abundance from the mycelium 

growing in cavities of the wood, or sometimes in the flesh of the polypore. 

The fungus is an annual, growing rapidly, and decaying in the autumn. 

lxxv h 2 


The spores gain access through a wound, such as a broken branch or an 
unprotected surface exposed by pruning. The mycelium attacks the heart- 
wood, changing its colour to a clear reddish-brown, and causing it to crack 
and decay. 

Parts exposed by pruning, and the ends of broken branches, should be 
protected by the use of a fungicide. All specimens of the polypore should 
be removed and burned, and the surrounding wood cut away to the depth 
of an inch, the cut surface being washed with a saturated solution of cor- 
rosive sublimate in methylated spirit, and afterwards painted over with tar. 

The Spruce Nectria (Nectria cucurbitula) attacks the Norway Spruce, 
and sometimes the Silver Fir and Scots Pine. It is a wound parasite, gaining 
entrance by means of cracked branches, bruises caused by hail, and on the 
Continent through wounds made by the larvae of a Tortrix moth (GraphoMtha 
pactolina). The fungus chiefly affects the cortex, but when this is killed 
the wood may also dry up and wither, and in this way the top of a tree 
often becomes yellow, withers and dies. The mycelium is most active in 
the soft bast ; and when the dead bark is almost constantly damp, numerous 
small cushion-shaped or mushroom like bodies called stroma burst through 
to the surface. These at first bear numerous conidia, followed at a later 
period by red perithecia, which produce colourless sporidia contained in asci. 
To prevent the spread of the disease it is considered advisable to cut off 
and burn the tops of dead trees. 

Sycamore-leaf Blotch (Rhytisma acerinum) is common on the upper surface 
of the leaves of Sycamore, as well as at least three other species of Acer, 
viz. the Common, Norway, and Red Maples. On their first appearance in 
June or July the blotches are yellow, but soon change to pitch-black, the 
surface becoming wrinkled or corrugated and scab-like. Within the scab- 
like covering or stroma are cavities from which there ooze out minute curved 
spores or spermatia. During the winter an ascigerous form of fruit is pro- 
duced on the fallen leaves, the sporidia being needle-shaped and colourless. 
All diseased leaves should be collected and burned before the ascospores are 

liberated in the spring. 



The Vegetable Beef-steak or Oak Tongue (Fistuhna hepatica) is found 
on living Oaks, not infrequently in the same position, year after year. It 
first appears as a reddish knob, rather like a strawberry, but soon enlarges, 
becoming darker in colour, sticking out horizontally from the tree, and 
much resembling the tongue of an animal in shape and appearance. As it 
ripens it becomes more succulent, being soft and easily cut, internally 
mottled somewhat after the manner of beetroot, and though it perhaps 
more closely resembles a piece of bullock's liver, it is not difficult to 
account for its common name of Vegetable Beef-steak. It usually 
weighs from three to four pounds, but specimens have been found weighing 
as much as thirty pounds. Though bitter and astringent when young, it 
is said to be quite nice if stewed with butter when thoroughly mature. 
The under surface is perforated with innumerable minute holes — the mouths 
of the closely packed tubes — which bear the salmon-coloured spores on their 
inner sides. Being always found on the dead parts, it is doubtful to what 
extent the fungus is a cause of injury to the tree. 

Willow-leaf Blotch (Rhytisma salicinum) is found on the Goat Willow 
and several other species of Salix. The blotches are large, circular, or 
irregular, rather shining and pitchy-black, the internal stroma being white. 
The ascigerous stage is found on the fallen leaves which have passed the 
winter on the ground. The clavate asci contain eight needle-shaped, curved 
sporidia. Diseased leaves should be collected and burned. 

Willow Mealy Mildew or Blight (Uncinula adunca) attacks the foliage of 
Willows, Poplars, and sometimes Birch. The mycelium is rather thin and 
white, and the falling conidia increase the mealy appearance of the leaves. 
The minute, dot-like receptacles are surrounded by a rather dense circle 
of unbranehed, hooked appendages. Each receptacle contains 8-12 asci 
furnished with four spores. 

Witches' Broom of Birch (Exoascus turgidus). This is a somewhat similar 

growth to the " Witch Knots " already described in the chapter on Galls, 

but in this case the abnormal growth is the result of a fungus belonging 

to the great group of Ascomycetes. In the genus Exoascus the asci, or spore 



sacs, are quite exposed, instead of being enclosed in a perithecium. The 
asci arc developed in spring and summer on the under surface of the leaves, 
which curl up, lose their fresh green colour, becoming sickly in appearance, 
and covered with a velvety, greyish-white hoariness. The contained sporidia 
are globose. 

Witches' Broom of Hornbeam is produced by Exoascus Carpi ni. 

Witches' Rroom of Pines {Peridermium {JEcidium) elatinum). This fungus 
is parasitic on the Stone Pine and various species of Silver Firs. The 
mycelium causes fusiform swellings or canker knobs, from which often arise 
the deformed shoots, bearing pale green swollen needles. It is perennial in 
the cortical and bast tissues of the stem, and even penetrates the cambium 
and wood ; in the latter case giving rise to canker-swellings, with or without 
the witches' broom. The leaves of the latter remain yellowish, and towards 
autumn they bear two rows of whitish recidia or " cluster-cups " on their 
underside. After the discharge of the Eecidiospores, the leaves die and fall 
off. Each year the mycelium advances into the new shoots, and the 
witches' broom increases in size, its growth continuing for perhaps twenty 
years. In young woods all trees that show cankerous swellings should be 



The following Formula. 1 have been compiled from many sources, several 
of the most common being derived from the leaflets issued by the Board 
of Agriculture and Fisheries. By the kind permission of the editor several 
others have been taken from volume xxxiv. part iii. of the Journal of the 
Royal Horticultural Society ; these are marked with an asterisk (*). Many of 
the variations of Formula? are the results of years of patient experiment, 
and experts are agreed that we have yet much to learn in the matter of 
spraying for the eradication of pests. In the meantime there is great truth 
in the remarks of two of our well-known experts when they say, " The 
grower must know what to spray for, what to spray with, and when to do 
it." It is hoped that this chapter will give a few useful hints to those who 
may be on the look-out for simple remedies. Those more especially in- 
terested in the question of spraying of fruit-trees may be referred to the 
above-mentioned Journal, which contains a full account of the admirable 
papers read at the Conference held in October 1908. 

Ammoniacal Carbonate of Copper. Useful in epiphytic diseases, such as 
Rose Mildew. 

I. Dissolve 5 ozs. carbonate of copper in 14 pint water; slowly add 3 
pints strong aqua ammonia ; dilute with water to 45 gallons. 

II. Mix 1 oz. carbonate of copper and 5 ozs. carbonate of ammonium, 
and dissolve in 1 quart hot water; add 1G gallons cold water. 

III. Mix 3 ozs. sulphate of copper and 3 ozs. carbonate of soda with 
1 quart concentrated ammonia ; when all action ceases dilute with 22-28 
gallons water. 

Arsenate of Lead. Destruction of caterpillars. 

I. Roses. Arsenate of lead (98 per cent.), 2| ozs. ; arsenate of soda 



(98 per cent.), 1 oz. ; water, 10 gallons; place chemicals in some of water and 
stir till dissolved; add rest of water; use as fine spray. 

II. Tent caterpillars on fruit-trees. Dissolve 1 oz. arsenate of soda in 
warm water; add to 1<> gallons soft water; dissolve 3 ozs. acetate of lead 
in water; pour into the 1G gallons; add 2 lbs. treacle, or mix with paraffin 
emulsion ; use as fine spray. 

III. Saw-fly larvae, Magpie Moth, &c. Dissolve 4 ozs. arsenate of soda 
(40-50 per cent.) in little water; dissolve 12 ozs. white commercial acetate of 
lead in water; add dissolved arsenate of soda to 100 gallons soft water; mix 
well and add dissolved acetate of lead, and stir ; add 2 lbs. treacle. Do not 
use on ripe or ripening fruit for four weeks previous to gathering. 

Bisulphide of Carlton. Useful in subterranean attacks of Woolly Aphis 
or Apple Root Louse. 

One fluid ounce of bisulphide is sufficient for a good-sized tree. Inject 
into soil in four places 2 ft. away from trunk of tree. 

Bordeaux Mixture. The cheapest and best all-round fungicide. 

I. Dissolve 6 lbs. sulphate of copper in 25 gallons water in a barrel; in 
another vessel dissolve 4 lbs. unslaked lime, adding water slowly, and making 
up to 25 gallons; when cold mix the solutions, and stir well during 
spraying. Never use air-slaked lime, as it injures the foliage. 

* II. Woburn Recipe. Copper sulphate, 10 ozs. ; lime-water, S\ gallons ; water 
to make 10 gallons. Dissolve the copper sulphate in ^ gallon of water ; 
run in 8} gallons clear lime-water; add water to make 10 gallons. To make 
lime-water gradually slake | lb. quicklime, add 12-15 gallons water, stir 
once or twice, and allow to settle. The mixture is not fit for use until 
addition of a few drops of potassium ferrocyanide produces no red colour; 
if necessary add lime-water until red colouration ceases on testing. 

Caustic Alkali Wash. I. Beneficial where fruit-trees are infested with 
moss and lichens, or with AVoolly Aphis. Use as spray in February. 

Dissolve 1 lb. commercial caustic soda in water ; dissolve 1 lb. crude 
potash (pearl-ash) in water; mix solutions, and add f lb. soft soap or agricul- 
tural treacle ; stir well and dilute to 10 gallons. 



* II. Destruction of Apple Sucker. 3 lbs. caustic soda (98 per cent.), 3 lbs. 
caustic potash, 2 lbs. soft soap, 1 gallon petroleum, 30 gallons water. 

Hellebore Wash. Destruction of Saw-fly larvae. 1 oz. fresh ground helle- 
bore, 2 ozs. flour, 3 gallons water. Mix hellebore and flour with a little 
water, then add rest of 3 gallons. Constantly stir while using as fine spray. 
For fruit-trees it must not be used on ripe or ripening fruit for four weeks 
before gathering. 

Iron Sulphate. Destruction of resting spores of fungi. Spray before 
leaf-buds begin to swell. In a barrel pour 1 pint sulphuric acid upon 25 
lbs. sulphate of iron ; add 50 gallons water by degrees. 

Lime Wash. Useful for " painting " fruit-trees. Make a whitewash of 
8 lbs. lime, 1 lb. soft soap, a small quantity of size, 4 gallons water. 

* Lime and Salt Wash. For cleaning trees of moss and lichens, and pre- 
vention of hatching of eggs of Apple-Sucker, Plum-Aphis, and Mussel- 
Scale. Spray from end of February to beginning of April, ceasing as soon 
as buds open. 

I. Lime, 1-1| cwt. ; salt, 30-40 lbs. ; water, 100 gallons. 

II. Lime, 1-1^ cwt. ; salt, 30-40 lbs. ; water-glass, 5 lbs. ; water, 100 gallons. 

III. Lime, 1-1. V cwt. ; salt, 30 lbs. ; washing-soda, 3 lbs. ; water, 100 gallons. 
Gradually slake best fresh lime; mix with water in which salt has been 

dissolved ; strain through sieve or sacking. If using water-glass or soda, 
previously dissolve in water and add to strained wash. Water-glass is said 
to make wash hold better on trees. 

* Oregon Wash, or Lime-Sulphur-Soda Wash. Destroys Pear-leaf Blister 
Mite. Spray on dormant wood ; in pear spraying cease as soon as bud- 
scales are fully opened. 

Lime, 3 lbs. ; sulphur, 3 lbs. ; salt, 3 lbs. ; caustic soda, 1 lb. ; water, 10 gallons. 
Mix soda and lime, and slake with hot water in which sulphur has been in- 
corporated ; stir and add salt ; boil and then add rest of water. 

Paraffin Emulsion. I. Destruction of Aphides on Roses. Boil I lb. soft 
soap in water; remove from fire, and while still boiling add J pint paraffin; 
dilute to 10 gallons. 

6 l 



II. For Gooseberry Saw-fly and Apple Sucker, (> lbs. soft soap, 4-G 
gallons paraffin, 100 gallons water. Prepare as in No. I., thoroughly churning 
in order to incorporate the soap and oil. 

III. For Ermine Moth Caterpillars. 7 lbs. soft soap, I gallon paraffin, 
dilute to 25 gallons. Prepare as before. 

* IV. For Winter use. Destroys Mussel-Scale ova, Oyster-shell Park 
Louse, and Brown Currant Scale. Paraffin (Tea Pose), 10 gallons; soft soap, 
15 lbs. ; water, 100 gallons. 

* V. For Summer use on fruit-trees. Paraffin, 3 gallons ; soft soap, 12 lbs. ; 
water, 100 gallons. 

* Paraffin Metal Emulsion. For Summer use. A fungicide and insecti- 
cide ; kills Aphides, Leaf-hoppers, and Thrips, and perhaps Caterpillars. 
Apply as a fine spray when buds are bursting, and again when blossom 
has fallen. 

Copper sulphate, 10 ozs. ; lime-water, 8 gallons 3 pints ; paraffin (Solar 
distillate), 24 ozs. Dissolve copper sulphate in water, add lime-water or 
lime, churn in oil, add water to make 10 gallons. Arsenate of lead may 
be added. 

Paris Green. Destruction of Caterpillars and Saw-fly larva?. Use as spray. 

Add 1 lb. Paris green to 200 gallons water, and stir in 2 lbs. lime. 
Paris green in the form of Blundell's paste is more easily mixed with water 
than the fine powder. 

Potassium Sulphide. Popularly known as "liver of sulphur." Useful for 
checking fungoid disease. Dissolve ^V lb. potassium sulphide in 2 gallons hot 
water ; dilute to 20 gallons. 

* Self-boiled Lime-Sulphur Spray. Useful for checking fungus diseases, 

including Apple Scab and Apple Leaf-spot. " Flowers of sulphur," 10 lbs. ; 

quicklime, 15 lbs. ; water, 50 gallons. Place lime in wooden barrel, pour in 

2-3 gallons boiling water ; add sulphur and 3 gallons hot water ; cover 

barrel with cloth, and let action continue for 20 minutes, occasionally stirring ; 

when boiling ceases add water to make 50 gallons. 

Soft Soap and Quassia. I. Spray for Currant Aphides. Boil for two 



hours 5-10 lbs. quassia chips in just sufficient water to maintain the extract 
as a liquid ; dissolve 6-8 lbs. soft soap in water ; add to quassia extract, well 
mix, and dilute to 100 gallons. 

II. For Gooseberry Saw-fly and Apple Sucker. 6-8 lbs. quassia, 6 lbs. 
soft soap, 100 gallons water. 

III. For Winter Moth Caterpillars. 6 lbs. quassia, 7-8 lbs. soft soap, 
100 gallons water. 

IV. For Winter Moth Caterpillars. 4 lbs. quassia, 6 lbs. soft soap, 5 
pints paraffin, 100 gallons water. 

V. For Winter Moth Caterpillars. 4 lbs. quassia, 6 lbs. soft soap, 4 pints 
Calvert's No. 5 Carbolic acid, 100 gallons water. 

VI. For Aphis or Scale on Roses. 1 lb. quassia, | lb. soft soap, 10 
gallons water. 

Soft Soap and Sulphur. For Woolly Aphis. 1 lb. soft soap, £ lb. " flowers 
of sulphur," 7 gallons water. 

Sulphate of Copper. Spray for Fungi. Dissolve 1 lb. sulphate of copper 
in 25 gallons water. 

Sulphur. Use as a dry powder in form of "flowers of sulphur"; some- 
times mixed with fine-powdered quicklime. Very effective in arresting 

Tobacco and Soft Soap. I. For Aphis on Fruit-trees. Pour 4-6 gallons 
boiling water on 1 lb. tobacco ; when cool, add \-\ lb. soft soap. Syringe 
with force. 

II. For Thrips, Leaf-hoppers, and Cuckoo-spit on Roses. \ lb. tobacco, 
1 lb. soft soap, 12 gallons water. 

* III. Destruction of Aphis, Psylla, Cuckoo-spit, Leaf-hoppers, and Thrips. 
Tobacco powder, 3 lbs. ; soft soap, \ lb. ; water, 10 gallons. Infuse tobacco 
powder in water for about six hours, strain oft", press tobacco and infuse 
again ; add the extract to dissolved soap and water. 

* Woburn Winter Wash. A caustic alkali wash for cleansing trees of 

moss, lichens, and Mussel-Scale. 

I. Non-fungicidal. Soft soap, }, lb.; paraffin, 5 pints; caustic soda, 2 lbs. ; 



water, 9£ gallons. Dissolve soap in warm water, churn paraffin into it, shake 
in caustic soda. 

II. Non-fungicidal Will destroy ova of Mussel-Scale and Oyster-shell 
Hark Louse. Use November to February. 

Iron sulphate, \ lb. ; lime, \ lb. ; caustic soda, 2 lbs. ; paraffin, 5 pints ; 
water. 10 gallons. Dissolve iron sulphate in 9 gallons water; slake lime 
in little water, and add more to make milk of lime ; run milk of lime into 
dissolved iron sulphate through a fine sieve ; churn paraffin in the mixture, 
and add caustic soda. 

III. Fungicidal. Removes moss and lichens; destroys Mussel-Scale ova 
and Oyster-shell Bark Louse, and is valuable where Apple-scab occurs on 
the wood. 

Copper sulphate, lj lb.; quicklime, \ lb.; paraffin, 5 pints; caustic 
soda, 2 lbs. ; water, 10 gallons. Dissolve copper sulphate in 8-9 gallons 
water, slake lime in water, add to dissolved copper sulphate, running through 
fine sieve ; add paraffin and churn, add caustic soda and water to make 
10 gallons. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division I Thalamiflorce 

Natural Order . . . Ranunculacece 

Herbs or climbing shrubs, with an acrid juice ; Leaves radical or alternate, 
rarely opposite, generally sheathing at base ; Sepals usually 5, deciduous, 
often petaloid ; Petals usually 5, sometimes wanting, often deformed and 
serving as nectaries ; Stamens indefinite, hypogynous, anthers basifixed ; 
Carpels numerous, l-celled ; Fruit an etasrio of achenes or follicles, or rarely 
a berry. 

Distinguished from Rosacea; by the hypogynous stamens and deciduous 

The Crowfoot or Buttercup Family comprises many hundreds of species 
arranged in thirty genera, most of them being herbaceous plants, distributed 
throughout cool and temperate climates. The shrubby plants in cultivation 
consist of about thirty-five species of Clematis (mostly woody climbers), two 
Tree Pasonies, and the American Shrubby Yellow Root. Some members of 
the Order are extremely poisonous, and the juices of most are acrid. 

The name Ranunculus (L. rana, a frog) is said to have been applied 
by Pliny to the chief genus, from the fact that some of the aquatic species 
grow where frogs abound. 

TRAVELLER'S JOY, Clematis Vitalba. 

A native of Britain, especially favouring dry, chalky soils, climbing over 
our hedgerows, and in woods and thickets. Being a quick-growing climber, 
it is suitable for covering unsightly objects, and its small greenish-white 



flowers are followed by the 1 -seeded fruits, from which hang long whitish 
feathery, hair-like tufts, very attractive in winter, and making its popular 
name of Old Man's Beard most appropriate. June — August. 

The genus Clematis consists chiefly of deciduous shrubs, many of which 
are planted in the garden for the variety, size, and brilliancy of their 
gorgeous flowers, the rapidity of growth, and the ease with which they 
may be trained to trellises or walls, or made to climb up stumps of old 
trees or over rockeries. Their height may range from 1 to 30 ft. ; and their 
white, blue, purple, or yellow flowers are in evidence from April to October. 
They thrive best in a rich loamy soil with a fair share of leaf-mould and 
decayed manure, with an addition of road grit to keep the whole open 
and allow the free ramification of the roots. The genus has been greatly 
improved by hybridisation, and the number of varieties is ever increasing. 
Many do well on chalky soils. 

The species and varieties are mainly propagated by grafting small scions 
on pieces of roots of old plants in spring. Cuttings also are taken in 
spring, and shoots may be layered at all periods. Seeds are sown in light 
sandy soil in gentle heat in March, and the seedlings transplanted outdoors 
in June or July. 

Flowers 1 in. diam. ; honeyless, with sweet almond scent ; borne in a 
panicle at ends of short axillary or terminal branches ; pedicels shorter than 
leaves ; Sepals 4-5, petaloid, valvate, pubescent ; Petals ; Stamens indefinite, 
hypogynous; Carpels numerous, 1 -celled ; Fruit an etaerio of 1-seeded achenes, 
with the persistent styles transformed into long feathery awns. 

Leaves opposite, pinnate or ternate, leaflets 3-9, usually 3-5, ovate- 
cordate, entire, toothed or lobed, downy beneath, veins prominent, petioles 
persistent when twining. 

A deciduous shrub, climbing by its twisted petioles ; Stem woody, young 
stems 6-angled, dark olive-green, downy. 

Generic name derived from Gr. klema, a twig or tendril ; specific " Yitalba," 

in a contraction of vitis alba, meaning " white vine," both names referring 

to its trailing habit. Juice of leaves said to be employed by beggars to 






produce artificial sores ; dried leaves used as fodder for cattle, the acrid juice 
disappearing after drying. 

VIRGIN'S BOWER, Clematis Flammula- 

Gardens. Very ornamental and useful for covering arbours, trellises, or 
walls ; generally grown from seed. July — October. 

Flowers creamy- white, fragrant, small, solitary or panicled ; Fruit an 
etasrio of achenes. 

Leaves imparipinnate, leaflets very variable, entire or 3-lobed, glabrous, 
acute, dark green. 

A deciduous climbing shrub, 15 ft. ; Roots answer well for grafting. 

Introduced from S. Europe, 1596. Specific name from L. Flammula, 
a little Q&m.Q—flamma, blaze, flame ; also called Sweet-scented Clematis. 

MOUNTAIN CLEMATIS, Clematis montana. 

Walls, roofs, trellises. This is the best of the hardy early flowering 
species. May, June. 

Flowers white, tinged with pink, fragrant, 2-3 ins. diam. ; on wood of 
previous year ; peduncles usually one-flowered, in axillary fascicles ; pedicels 
longer than leaves ; Sepals petaloid, oblong and narrow ; Fruit an etaerio of 

Leaves trifoliate, fascicled on arrested branches, leaflets ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely toothed at base, glabrous, 1 |~2| ins. 

A deciduous climbing shrub, 20 ft. 

Native of Nepaul ; brought from India by Lady Amherst, 1831. 

VINE BOWER, Clematis micella. 

Gardens, arbours. It is the parent of many garden varieties. June — 

3 A 2 


Flowers blue, purple, or rose, large, drooping ; solitary on the young wood ; 
peduncles longer than leaves ; Sepals petaloid, obovate, spreading ; Fruit an 
etaario of achenes. 

heaves simple or ternate, entire, acute or obtuse. 

A deciduous climbing shrub. 

Introduced from S. Europe; cultivated in 1.509 by Hugh Morgan, 
apothecary to Queen Elizabeth. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division I Thalamifloroe 

Natural Order . . . Magnoliacece 

Trees or shrubs, with alternate, simple leaves, often coriaceous ; leaf 
buds enclosed in convolute membranous stipules ; Sepals 3, usually petaloid, 
deciduous ; Petals 6 or more, 3 in a whorl, imbricate ; Stamens indefinite, 
hypogynous ; Carpels numerous, free, or cohering at base ; Fruit an etaerio 
of follicles or achenes ; seeds with an aril- like testa. 

The Order much resembles Ranunculacea?, but the members are always 
trees or shrubs. The name was given in honour of Pierre Magnol (1638- 
1715), Professor of Medicine and Prefect of Montpellier Botanic Gardens. 

CUCUMBER TREE, Magnolia acuminata. 

Gardens, shrubberies. Makes a handsome tree when planted singly in 
the park or pleasure ground. May — July. 

The Magnolias or Water-lily Trees comprise about a dozen distinct 

species of ornamental hardy deciduous trees or shrubs, besides which there 

are some half-dozen others of garden origin. They thrive best in a rich, 

deep sandy loam, of free and open texture, and when in a sheltered position 

or against a south or south-west wall. They are somewhat impatient of 

root disturbance. They are propagated by layering in summer or autumn, 

grafting in heat in July or August, and by seeds sown in sandy soil in 

spring or autumn. Seeds should be sown as soon as ripe. 




z t 



Flowers green, tinged with yellow, solitary, terminal, only slightly 
scented, 2 ins. high, 3-4 ins. diam. ; Sepals acute, spreading, soon reflexed, 
deciduous, 1-1 1 ins. long ; Petals 6-9, obovate or oblong ; Fruit an etasrio 
of follicles, ovate or oblong, 3 ins. long, 1 in. diam. ; in young stage some- 
what resembling a small cucumber, rose-coloured when ripe, aromatic, 
fragrant ; seeds ovate, acute, \ in. long. 

Leaves oblong, petiolate, entire, acute or acuminate, thin, upper surface 
shining, dark green, underside pubescent ; 6-9 ins. long, 3-4 ins. broad. 
Autumn tint bright brown. 

A deciduous tree, 30-60 ft. ; Brandies spreading ; growth rapid ; Buds 
silky pubescent ; Baric furrowed, dark brown ; Wood dark brown or mahogany 
colour, soft, close-grained, durable, not strong. 

The hardiest species ; discovered by Bartram in Pennsylvania, and intro- 
duced from N. America by Collinson in 1763 ; there reaches 80-120 ft. 

YULAN, Magnolia conspicua. 

Whether growing in the open as a standard, or under the protection of a 
wall, this handsome species may be generally considered as the earliest and 
most beautiful of flowering trees. In mild seasons it may be laden with 
blossoms as early as February, its waxy-white flowers making it appear as 
if a heavy fall of snow had settled on its spreading branches. It likes a 
warm, open, and rich soil with abundant moisture, and requires protection 
north of London. February — May. 

Flowers waxy-white, sometimes suffused with purple, tulip-shaped, solitary 
and terminal, opening before leaves expand, very fragrant ; Petals 6-9 ; Fruit 
an eta?rio of follicles. 

Leaves alternate, obovate, entire or slightly sinuate, abruptly acuminate, 
petiolate, young leaves pubescent. 

A deciduous tree, 20-50 ft. ; bluntly conical. 

Introduced from China by Sir Joseph Banks, 1789 ; name " Yulan " from 
yu, purple, and Ian, lily, probably given to a purple variety. 31. Soulangeana 


is believed to be a chance hybrid between this species and M. obovata, first 
appearing in the garden of Mons. Soulange-Bodin at Fremont, near l'aris. 


Gardens. Needs shelter from strong winds. Makes a very striking speci- 
men when in full leaf. May — July. 

Flowers creamy-white, 6-8 ins. diam., very sweet-scented, solitary and ter- 
minal, peduncles stout, glabrous ; Sepals 9, obovate, narrow, rounded at apex, 
4-5 ins. long, early deciduous ; Petals 6 or 9, obovate, acuminate, membranaceous, 
spreading; Fruit an etaerio of follicles, oblong, 4-5 ins. long, 1^-2 ins. wide, 
rose-red, glabrous ; Carpels with subulate tips ; seeds § in. long. 

Leaves alternate, obovate-spathulate, cordate and auricled at base, acute or 
obtuse, glabrous, bright green above, slightly glacuous beneath, 10-12 ins. long 
6-7 ins. wide ; petioles slender, 3-4 ins. long. 

A deciduous tree, 30-50 ft. ; Branches erect, spreading, contorted ; Twigs 
stout, brittle, shining, red-brown ; Buds terminal, glabrous, purple, axillary, 
minute ; Bark dark brown, smooth, small excrescences ; Wood light, soft, 
spongy, not strong, light brown. 

Introduced from N. America, 1786 ; discovered by Bartram 1776, and intro- 
duced into France by Michaux. Syn. M. auriculata. 

Specific name in honour of John Fraser, a collector who sent home many 
plants from America between 1780 and 1810. 

LAUREL MAGNOLIA, Magnolia glauca. 

Gardens, lawns. Thrives in a moist peaty soil. June — August. 

Flowers creamy-white, fragrant, 3 ins. diam., solitary, terminal, peduncles 
glabrous; Sepals membranaceous, obtuse, concave; Petals 9-12, ovate, con- 
cave ; Fruit an etrerio of follicles, oval, dark red, glabrous, 2 ins. long, h in. 
broad ; seeds suspended, ^ in. long. 

Leaves variable, broadly oval or oblong, or lanceolate ; obtuse, entire, 



under surface glaucous or nearly white, upper side light green, glabrous, 
aromatic, 4-6 ins. long, ^-2^ ins. wide ; petioles slender. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, nearly evergreen in mild seasons, 15 ft. ; 
Branches erect, spreading ; Twigs hoary pubescent when young, afterwards 
glabrous, red-brown ; Buds silky ; Wood aromatic. 

Native of N. America ; there reaches 70 ft. ; in swampy places used by 
beavers in construction of dams — hence names of Swamp Magnolia and 
Beaver- wood ; introduced 1688. 

GREAT LAUREL MAGNOLIA, Magnolia grandifolia. 

This handsome species is usually treated as a wall plant, but in the south 
of England it grows and flowers well in the open. It is the largest leaved 
and noblest of our hardy evergreen trees. May — October. 

Flowers white, lemon scented, 6-9 ins. diam., solitary, terminal, erect ; 
Petals 9-12; Fruit an etaerio of follicles cohering in a kind of cone; seeds 
with an aril-like scarlet testa, suspended by slender threads. 

Leaves alternate, oval-oblong, petiolate, exstipulate, entire, coriaceous, 
glabrous, upper surface bright green and shining, reddish-brown beneath, 
6-12 ins. long, 4 ins. broad. 

An evergreen shrub or small tree, 20-30 ft. ; freely branching and forming 
a pyramidal head ; Branehlets green to brown ; Bark rough ; Wood soft 
and white. 

Known also as Evergreen Magnolia and Bull Bay ; in forests of North 
Carolina and adjacent States grows to height of 100 ft. ; introduced 1737. 

GREAT-LEAVED MAGNOLIA, Magnolia macrophylla. 

Gardens. A handsome tree, possessing the largest flowers and largest 
leaves of any tree brought from America. Here it is somewhat tender. 
May, June. 

Flowers white, fragrant, 8-10 ins. diam., solitary ; Petals 6-9, ovate- 



oblong, obtuse, three times as long as sepals, purple blotch at base ; Fruit an 
etserio of follicles, cone ovoid-cylindrical, 4-6 ins. long, bright rose at 

Leaves alternate, obovate-oblong, cordate at base, obtuse, glabrous and 
green above, hairy and white beneath, 2\-3X ft. long, 8-10 ins. wide; 
petiole stout, 2-4 ins. long. 

A deciduous tree, 30-40 ft. ; Bark smooth, white or grayish ; Buds 
pubescent ; heart-wood brown, satiny, hard ; sap-wood light yellow. 

Discovered by Michaux in Carolina in 1789; introduced 1800. 


Gardens, walls. This is a dwarf species except when grown on a wall. 
April, May. 

Mowers purple outside, white within, large, fragrant, tulip-like, solitary ; 
Petals 6 ; Fruit an eterio of follicles. 

Leaves alternate, obovate, acute, wavy, dark green, small. 

A deciduous shrub, 5-8 ft. ; forming dense bush 8-10 ft. through, or tree 
20-30 ft. ; Shoots having odour of camphor. 

Native of China and cultivated in Japan ; introduced 1790. Syn. 31 
purpurea, 31. discolor, &c. 

SMALL-LEAVED MAGNOLIA, Magnolia parviflora. 

Gardens. April — July. 

Flowers white, 3 ins. diam., almost globular, solitary ; Sepals 3, drooping ; 
Petals 6-7, 2 ins. long, rosy-tinted externally; Anthers red; Fruit an eta?rio 
of follicles. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, cuspidate, wavy, 5 ins. long, 4 ins. wide, principal 
veins and petioles pubescent, reddish hairs \ in. long. 

A deciduous shrub. • 

Native of Japan ; introduced about 1893. 



STARRY MAGNOLIA, Magnolia stellata, 

Gardens. The glistening star-shaped flowers, borne in great profusion, make 
this a very desirable subject for a specimen bed. March — May. 

Flowers white, star-shaped, fragrant, 4 ins. diam., appearing early, before 
leaves develop, solitary and terminal ; Sepals shorter than petals, oblong, hairy 
outside; Petals 12-15, narrow, linear-oblong, obtuse, reflexed, external stripe 
of pink, 10-12 ins. long; Stamens bright yellow, shorter than pistil; Carpels 
green ; Fruit an etaerio of follicles. 

Leaves alternate, obovate, obtuse to elliptical, acuminate, membranaceous, 
2-5 ins. long. 

A deciduous shrub, 4-8 ft. ; much branched. 

Native of Japan ; introduced 1862. Syn. 31. Halleana ; this name given in 
compliment to Mr. Hall, who introduced the species to the United States. 

UMBRELLA TREE, Magnolia tripetala, 

Gardens. Best in sheltered spot. April — July. 

Floivers creamy-white, having disagreeable odour, 7-8 ins. long, 4-6 ins. 
diam., solitary, terminal, at extremities of previous year's shoots; peduncles 
slender, glabrous, glaucous, 2-21 ins. long ; Sepals broad, reflexed, early 
deciduous, 5-6 ins. long; Petals 9-12, exterior ones pendent, 4-5 ins. long, 
2 ins. wide, coriaceous, ovate ; Stamens with bright purple filaments ; Fruit 
an eta?rio of follicles ; cone 4-6 ins. long ; rose, ovate, glabrous ; seeds 
I in. long. 

Leaves clustered near ends of branches, oblong or obovate lanceolate, 
narrowed at base, acute, spreading, young ones pubescent beneath, old ones 
smooth, 1-2 ft. or more long, 7-8 ins. broad; petioles stout. 

A deciduous tree, 15-30 ft., straggling growth ; Buds glabrous, glaucous, 
terminal bud purple ; Wood dark brown or mahogany colour, soft. 

Introduced from N. America, 1752 ; attains 40 ft. in native habitat. 

Name tripetala is in allusion to three petaloid sepals. 



TULIP TREE, Liriodendron tuhpifera. 

Gardens. June, July. This elegant, hardy, deciduous tree, with fragrant, 
tulip-like flowers, somewhat resembles a Plane in growth. It thrives best 
in a deep loamy soil and a sheltered, sunny position. Seeds are sown in 
a rather moist sandy soil in a shady spot in autumn ; layering may be done 
in October or November. 

Flowers greenish-yellow, spotted with various colours, tulip-like, very 
fragrant, 2 ins. high, solitary, terminal, with two deciduous bracts ; Sepals 3, 
petaloid, rerlexed ; Petals 6, in two series ; Stamens indefinite, hypogynous ; 
.liit hers linear, extrorse ; Carpels in an oblong spike, 2-seeded ; Fruit a cone- 
like eta;rio of achenes, samaroid, indehiscent, never ripening in England. 

Leaves alternate, simple, saddle-shaped, 3-lobed, terminal lobe emarginately 
truncate, lateral lobes with two sinuses, glabrous, bright green above, lighter 
beneath, stipulate in bud. Autumn tint brilliant golden yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 75-100 ft. ; Branchlets pendent ; Bark thin and scaly 
on young trees, on older trees deeply furrowed, brown ; Buds compressed 
laterally, dark red, glaucous; Wood white, light and tough, taking a good 
polish ; used for flooring and inside work. 

A native of N. America, where it attains a height of 150-200 ft. ; intro- 
duced 1688 ; also known as Saddle Tree, from shape of leaves. Generic 
name derived from Greek lirion, a lily, and dendron, a tree. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division I ThalamiflorcB 

Natural Order . . . Calycanthacece 

Shrubs with square stems, and opposite, entire, extipulate leaves; Flowers 

solitary and lurid; numerous Bracts, Sepals, and Petals, similar and merging 

into each other, springing from fleshy receptacle which surrounds the carpels ; 

Stamens numerous ; Ovary inferior by up-growth and adhesion of receptacle ; 

Fruit a capsule. 


» o 

























a s 




CAROLINA ALLSPICE, Calycanthus faridus. 

Gardens, shrubberies. May be grown against a wall, or as a shrub in the 
open in a moist spot. May — August. 

The genus Calycanthus contain three hardy deciduous shrubs with lurid 
purple or red sweet-scented flowers. They thrive best in a mixture of peaty 
loam and leaf-mould in the sheltered shrubbery or against a south or west 
wall. Layering of shoots may be done in July or August ; seeds sown as 
soon as ripe, or in spring in a cold frame. 

Floivcrs lurid purple, solitary and terminal, H in. diam., strongly aro- 
matic when crushed, like Strawberries, Apples, or Quinces ; Bracts, Sepals, 
and Petals numerous, similar, and merging into each other, linear-oblong, 
acute or obtuse, i-| in. long ; Stamens numerous, inserted on top of recep- 
tacle, filaments all but obsolete ; Fruit rare ; a capsule. 

Leaves opposite, oval, obtuse, entire, coriaceous, deep green, downy 
beneath, shortly petiolate, 1-11 in. broad. 

A deciduous shrub, (5-8 ft., forming a dense, round-headed bush ; branch- 
lets downy; Branches and roots smelling of camphor when bruised; Bark 
used as substitute for cinnamon. 

Introduced from Carolina, 172G. 

GLAUCOUS-LEAVED ALLSPICE, Calycanthus glmccus. 

Gardens, shrubberies. May. 

Flowers greenish-purple, almost scentless, solitary and terminal ; Sepals and 
Petals linear or linear-lanceolate, acute ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate, tapering acuminate, flattened, green 
above, glaucous and pubescent beneath. 

A deciduous shrub, 4-8 ft. ; Branchlets glabrous. 

Introduced from Carolina, 1726. Syn. C. fertilis. 



WESTERN ALLSPICE, Calycanthus Occident aUs. 

Gardens, shrubberies. Best on wall ; grows best in a compost of peat. 
.June — October. 

Flowers lurid purplish-red, only slightly scented, 3 ins. diam., solitary 
and terminal, pedicels stout ; Bracts, Sepals, and Petals numerous, similar, 
densely pubescent ; Stamens numerous, inserted on top of ovary, filaments 
all but obsolete ; Ovary spuriously inferior ; Fruit a capsule, many seeded. 

Leaves opposite, broadly ovate or elliptical, entire, obtuse or acute, scabrous, 
veins and midrib downy underneath, shining green both sides. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-12 feet; Bark smooth; Suckers freely produced; 
Buds' small ; Wood aromatic. 

Native of California; discovered by Douglas, 1831. Syn. C. macrophyllus. 

WINTER FLOWER, Chimonanthus fragrans. 

Gardens, walls. November — February. The delicious fragrance of its 
blossoms makes this winter flowering shrub a general favourite. Near the 
metropolis it flowers well in the open, but is more often trained to a wall 
having a south or west aspect. It thrives in a deep, rich, sandy soil. The 
blossoms being produced on the previous season's wood, it is necessary to 
cut away, to within one inch of base, all shoots that have flowered, except 
the leading ones, which only need shortening. This pruning should be done 
in February, when flowering is finished. Propagation is effected by layering 
shoots in September or October. 

Flowers yellow or cream, purplish inside, in axils of leaves of preceding 
year, fragrant, 1 in. diam., appearing before leaves unfold, perfume re- 
sembling Jonquil ; Sepals, Petals, and Stamens numerous ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves opposite, lanceolate, entire, acuminate, scabrid, slightly hairy 

beneath, petiolate, exstipulate, 5-6 ins. long. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-8 ft. ; Branches slender ; Bark inodorous. 


COMMON BARBERRY (Berbei-is vulgaris) 

A. Branch with mature fruit. B. Flower. C. Seed. /'. Section of berry. 
E. Vertical section of flower. F. Stamen dehiscing. <J. Longitudinal section of berry. 

Plate VI. 


Native of China and Japan; introduced 1766. Specific name from Gr. 
cheimon, the winter, and anthos, a flower. Syn. Calycanthus prcecox. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division I Thalarnifiorce 

Natural Order . . . Berberidece 

Shrubs or herbs with alternate exstipulate leaves and regular flowers ; 
Calyx petaloid ; Sepals in 2 or more whorls of 2-4 each, imbricate ; Petals 
hypogynous, in whorls of 2-4 ; Stamens as many as petals, opposite to 
them, filaments sometimes irritable ; Anthers basifixed, dehiscing by recurved 
valves ; Ovary 1-celled, of 1 carpel ; Fruit a berry or capsule. 

This Order contains some of our showiest of spring and summer flower- 
ing shrubs, over forty species being grown at Kew, where there are also 
fifty slightly different forms of the Common Barberry. The blossoms are 
of all shades of yellow, and the flowering period ranges from May to 
October. Most of them will thrive in ordinary garden soil, but the rarer 
kinds require a compost of two parts loam and one part of peat and sand. 
Suckers and layers are put down in October ; ripened cuttings in sandy 
soil in a cold frame in September ; seeds fresh from the pulp or berry in 
a sheltered border in October or November. 

CORAL BERRY, Berberidopsis cor a /Una. 

This handsome evergreen climbing shrub does well in sandy soil when 
planted against a south or west wall, and needs protecting with straw or 
mats in winter, being fairly hardy in the south of England, and half-hardy 
in the north. Layering is done in autumn ; cuttings inserted in sandy soil in 
spring ; seeds sown in spring in well-drained pots of sandy soil. 

The deep crimson or coral-red flowers, globular in shape, and hanging 

from long, slender stalks, form a contrast with the dark green foliage, and 

make this a very ornamental shrub. July. 

Flowers deep crimson, in a terminal drooping raceme, leafy at base ; 

13 B 


Sepals 9-15, petaloid, in 3 whorls; outer small, spreading; intermediate 
orbicular, concave; inner obovate-cuneate, erect, inserted on fleshy thalamus; 
Si a mens 8-9 ; Fruit a berry. 

Leaves alternate, 8 ins. long, oblong-cordate, obtuse or acute, spiny-toothed, 
glabrous, coriaceous, dark green ; petioles long. 

An evergreen climbing shrub, 5-10 ft. 

Introduced from Chili, 1862. Generic name from Berberis, the Barberry, 
and opsis, like = resembling the Barberry. 

COMMON BARBERRY, Berberis vulgaris. 

Copses, hedges, gardens. The flowers, foliage, and fruit are all handsome. 
May, June. 

Flowers golden yellow, sub-globoid, almost bell-shaped, J— i in. diam., 
protandrous; in a pendulous raceme of 15-20, or more, flowers, terminating 
the dwarf shoots ; pedicels short ; bracts short ; triangular ; Sepals 6, in 2 
whorls, petaloid, 2-3 minute bractlets ; Petals 6, in 2 whorls, orange-coloured, 
nectaries at base ; Stamens 6, hypogynous, filaments irritable, anthers dehisc- 
ing by valves, which open upwards ; Ovary superior, 1 -celled, stigma sessile, 
broad, sub-peltate, green ; Fruit a berry, oblong, £ in. long, orange-scarlet, 
1-2 seeded ; excellent for preserves, candy or pickle. 

Leaves alternate, tufted, obovate or oblong-ovate, attenuated below, obtuse, 
spinose-serrate or dentate, glabrous, thin, dark polished green, paler beneath, 
1-1 £ in. long; petiole short. Autumn tints red and yellow. 

A deciduous shrub, 4-7 ft. ; Branches grey-white to grey-brown ; Twigs 
tawny or grey, bright yellow inside ; Dwarf shoots in axils of 3-7 fid tawny 
yellowish spines, which are modified leaves ; Buds short, obtuse, scales 
brown ; Wood yellow ; inner bark gives yellow dye for tanning. 

Native of England, naturalised in Scotland and Ireland. Fungoid Pests — 
Barberry Leaf Mildew (MicrospJwera Berberidis), Barberry Cluster Cups 
(jEcidium Berberidis). 




Gardens, banks, woodlands. Grows well under trees, and is an excellent 
covert plant. It is very useful for beds in winter, its dark shining leaves 
looking all the brighter after rain. In a poor dry soil and rather exposed 
it will colour most brilliantly. March — May. 

Flowers orange-yellow ; Racemes crowded, nearly erect, 4 ins. long, pedicels 
\—h in. ; bracteate and bracteolate ; Fruit a berry, globular, large, dark purple, 
with glaucous bloom, 1-2 seeds. 

Leaves imparipinnate, leaflets 7-9, ovate, slightly cordate at base, approxi- 
mate, sessile except the terminal, distantly spinescent, serrated, coriaceous, 
dark green, shiny, petioles vinous red ; leaves rosy in spring, purplish, bronze, 
or crimson in winter. 

An evergreen shrub, 3-8 ft. 

Introduced from Western N. America, 1823. Also called Ash Barberry. 
Syn. Mahonia aquifolia. 

BOX-LEAVED BARBERRY, Berberis buxifolia. 

Gardens. This is one of the prettiest of the deciduous species. April, 

Flowers deep yellow, fragrant, solitary and axillary, on long slender 
peduncles. Fruit a berry, blue-black. 

Leaves nearly sessile, simple, resembling Box, ovate or oblong, spiny 
pointed, toothless, coriaceous, dull dark green above, glaucous beneath, veins 
indistinct, h in. long, older leaves obovate, toothed. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, 5-8 ft. ; erect, straggling, tripartite spines on old 
bushes, longer than leaves. 

Introduced from Chili (Strait of Magellan), 1828. Often called B. dulcis. 

15 B 2 

f f\ 

• '.-> 





DARWIN'S BARBERRY, Berberis Dartmnu. 

Gardens, lawns, shrubberies. This is an evergreen shrub of extreme beauty, 
and conspicuous from its ferruginous shoots, by which it is at once recognised. 
It is an excellent covert plant. Its slender spreading shoots are wreathed in 
deep orange-coloured blossoms, making a striking contrast with the dark ever- 
green foliage. April, May ; sometimes again in autumn. 

Flowers deep orange-yellow, in dense erect racemes ; Fruit a berry, purple. 

Leaves simple, oval or oblong, f-1 in. long, obtuse, usually 3 large spiny 
teeth at the end, and 1 or 2 near middle, very shiny, deep green above, paler 
beneath, principal veins conspicuous. 

An evergreen shrub, 6-10 ft. or more ; densely branched, spreading ; Shoots 

Introduced from S. Chili, 1847; discovered by Charles Darwin when 
voyaging in the Beagle. 


Gardens. Does well in sandy peat, and flourishes on rockeries in a mild 
climate. It is a little trailing shrub, with stiff spines and pungent 
leaves. April, May. 

Flowers yellow, in a sub-umbellate terminal cluster of few flowers on 
slender pedicels ; Fruit a berry. 

Leaves in fascicles of about 7, linear, mucronate, closely revolute. 

An evergreen shrub, 1^-2 ft. ; slender, trailing. 

Introduced from Chili (Strait of Magellan), 1827. 

JAPANESE BARBERRY, Berberis japomca. 

Gardens. This is the earliest to flower in the open ; it likes fairly good 

soil, and is fond of a little shade. February, March. 






y i 


[Berberis vu 


Flowers lemon-yellow, in erect racemes, 4-6 ins. long, in terminal clusters ; 
Fruit a berry, bluish-purple. 

Leaves imparipinnate, 1 ft. or more long, leaflets usually 9, about 3 ins. 
long, sessile, broadly cordate, or rotundate at base, oblique, spiny, coriaceous. 
Autumn tint red. 

An evergreen shrub, 4-8 ft. ; Stems unbranched. 

Native of China and Japan ; introduced 1845. Syn. Mahonia japonica. 

ASH BARBERRY, Bcrbeiis nepalensis. 

Gardens. Best in South and West of England ; does well against a wall. 
April, May. 

Floivers yellow, in a cluster of erect racemes ; Fruit a berry, ovoid or globose, 
blue glaucous. 

Leaves imparipinnate, 1-2 ft. long, leaflets 5-12 pairs, 3 ins. x 1 in.; obovate- 
oblong, cuspidate, obliquely cordate, repand-toothed, 5-10 spiny teeth on each 
side, tricuspidate at apex, sessile, upper leaves often reduced to sheathing bracts. 

An evergreen shrub, 4-6 ft. 

Native of Nepaul ; introduced 1850; raised from seed supplied by the East 
India Company. Syn. Mahonia nepaulensis. 

WALLICH'S BARBERRY, Berberis walUchiana. 

Gardens. A beautiful shrub, with brown branches and very dark green 
foliage, turning a claret colour in winter. April — June. 

Floivers sulphur-yellow, in a drooping axillary cluster of 6-8, or more, flowers 
on slender pedicels ; Fruit a berry, \ in. long, deep blue-black. 

Leaves in alternate fascicles, lanceolate, 3-4 ins. long, sharp prickly pointed, 
finely serrated, spreading or recurved, rigidly coriaceous, rich green above, pale 
shining below. Autumn tint claret. 

An evergreen shrub, 2-5 ft., at times up to 10 ft.; Branches brown; spines 

3-7 -fid, long, slender. 



Native of Himalayas and China; introduced from Nepaul, 1820; sent home 
later by Hooker, and known by his name in some gardens. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division 1 Thalamiflorce 

Natural Ordeb . . . Cistinece 

Mostly herbs or low shrubs, often viscid, with opposite, entire leaves and 
showy, regular flowers, usually yellow ; Sepals usually 5, the 2 outer rarely 
wanting ; Petals usually 5, very fugacious, convolute in bud ; Stamens inde- 
finite, hypogynous ; Ovary 1-celled, or divided into 3 or more cells by parietal 
placentas ; Fruit capsular. 

Distinguished from Papaveracea? by the permanent calyx. 

CORBIERE'S GUM CISTUS, Cistus corbariewis. 

Gardens, walls. June, July. 

The genus Cistus consists of elegant evergreen shrubs or sub-shrubs, with 
large and handsome, but fugitive, flowers, borne in great profusion throughout 
the summer. They do well in ordinary soil, but best on sunny rockeries or 
against south Avails, and need protection in severe weather. Cuttings 4 
ins. long may be struck in pots of sandy soil in September in a cold frame or 
greenhouse ; seeds are sown in March in boxes or pans, covering ^ in. deep with 
sifted sandy mould ; they are potted when 1 in. high, and planted outdoors 
in June. 

Flowers white ; margins and buds tinged with rose, on long axillary 
peduncles, 1-3 flowered ; Petals marked at base with yellow, imbricate ; Fruit 
a capsule. 

Leaves opposite, cordate-ovate, petioles long, fringed on margins, acute 
or acuminate, reticulate, wrinkled, light green, glutinous. 

An evergreen shrub, 2J-3 ft. 

Native of Sicily, Spain, and S. France; introduced 1656; hybrid between 

C. salvifolius and C. populifolius. 



CRETAN GUM CISTUS, Cistus crispus. 

Gardens. A very beautiful shrub, with a bushy habit ; exceedingly orna- 
mental on a rockery. June, July. 

Flowers reddish-purple, saucer-shaped, H-2i ins. diam., solitary, almost 
sessile, 3-4 together, somewhat umbellate ; Sepals acute, villous ; Petals 5, 
yellow mark near base, fugacious, convolute in bud ; Stamens numerous, 
hypogynous ; Ovary superior, divided into 5 cells by parietal placentas, style 
single, exserted ; Fruit a 5-valved capsule. 

Leaves opposite, exstipulate, sessile, linear-lanceolate, linear-oblong, or oblong- 
elliptic, tapering towards base, wrinkled, waved, three-nerved, pubescent. 

An evergreen shrub, 2 ft. ; Brandies procumbent, ascending tortuous, often 

Native of Greece, Syria, and Crete; introduced 1656. 

GUM CISTUS, Cistus ladaniferus. 

Gardens, walls. This is one of the most valuable of wall shrubs, of 
robust growth in a dry and fairly rich soil. A well-drained mixture of rich 
loam and leaf-mould suits it best. June — August. 

Flowers white, 3 ins. diam., terminal, solitary, 3-4 together, bracteate, on 
shoots of previous year ; Petals yellow at base, large brownish-crimson, fringed 
spot above yellow base, imbricate ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves opposite, almost sessile, connate at base, oblong-lanceolate, entire, 
acute or obtuse, three-nerved, coriaceous, upper surface glabrous, deep shining 
green, underside tomentose, petiole short. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, 4-6 ft. 

Native of Spain, Portugal, and Southern France ; introduced 1629. 

LAUREL-LEAVED GUM CISTUS, Cistus laurifolius 

Gardens, walls. The hardiest of the Rock Roses, doing well in a sunny, 

dry spot not exposed to cold winds. June — August. 



Flotoers white, .'3 ins. diam., in a terminal, long-stalked umbellate cyme; 
sometimes distant pairs lower down ; peduncles tomentose ; bracts light red ; 
Calyx hairy, lobes acute, often tinted with purple; Petals with yellow mark 
at base; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves, opposite, large, Laurel-like, broadly ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 
petioles long, dilated, connate at base, margins undulated, three-nerved, 
coriaceous, upper surface viscid and glabrous, deep green, underside 
tomentose with pale brownish felt. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, 5-6 ft. 

Native of S. France and Spain ; introduced 1731. 

PORTUGUESE GUM CISTUS, Cistus lusitanicus. 

Gardens. June, July. 

Flowers white ; Calyx 4-5 lobed, thickly covered with long, silky white 
hairs ; Petals 5, yellow at base, above which is a feather-edged, reddish- 
crimson spot ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves opposite, linear-lanceolate, entire, acute, glabrous, deep green, 
three-nerved, reticulate on under side, sessile. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-5 ft. ; much branched. 

Native of Portugal ; possibly a garden hybrid. 

MONTPELIER GUM CISTUS, Cistus monspeliensis. 

Gardens. This is a handsome species, with clammy foliage. June, July. 

Flowers white, 1 in. diam., in a terminal close cyme ; peduncles pilose ; 
Petals broadly cuneate, crenate, imbricate, yellow blotch at base ; Fruit a 

Leaves opposite, linear-lanceolate, sessile, obtuse or acute, three-nerved, 
clammy, villous both surfaces. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-6 ft. 

Introduced from S.W. Europe, 1656. 




Gardens, walls. Requires dry, well-drained soil. June, July. 

Flowers reddish-purple, large, terminal, 1-6 together; peduncles short, 
hairy, sheathing stem ; bracts sessile, foliaceous, pubescent, broad, acute, 
concave and connate at base ; Calyx hairy ; Petals 5-0, obovate or cuneate, 
imbricated, more or less crumpled, yellow spot at base, above which is a 
large, velvety, maroon blotch, slightly branched ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves opposite, oblong-lanceolate, wavy, obtuse or acuminate both ends, 
wrinkled, reticulate ; petioles short, hairy, sheathing the stem ; dark green. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, 2-4 ft. ; much branched ; Branches erect, with 
brownish pubescence. 

Introduced from the Levant, 1659. 

SHOWY SUN ROSE, Helianthemum formosum. 

Gardens. June. This beautiful bushy shrub thrives well in a rich, dry 
soil on sunny banks or rockeries. It may be propagated by division in 
October or April; by cuttings, 1-2 ins. long, in well-drained pots of sandy 
soil in cold frame in August or September; and by seeds in bed of light 
soil outdoors in April. 

Floivers yellow, in a raceme ; peduncles villous ; Sepals 5 ; Petals 5, large, 
marked with purplish-brown spot at base ; Stamens numerous, hypogynous ; 
Ovary superior ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves opposite, obovate-lanceolate, shortly petiolate, entire, three-nerved, 
tomentosely villous ; young ones hoary. 

An evergreen shrub, 4 ft. ; erect, much branched ; Branches canescent. 

Introduced from Portugal, 1780. Specific name from Gr. helios, the 
sun, anthemon, a flower; generic name from L. formosum, beautiful. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division I Thalamiflorce 

Natural Ordeb . . . Tamariscinece 

Shrubs or small trees, with minute alternate, exstipulate leaves and regular 
flowers ; Sepals and Petals 4-5 ; Stamens as many or double, inserted on 
glandular disk, anthers versatile ; Ovary superior, syncarpous, 3-5 carpels ; 
Fruit a capsule, 3-5 valved. 

Distinguished from Caryophyllacea? by the alternate leaves and the ovules 
inserted on three basal placentae. 

The hardy shrubs of this order thrive well on sunny banks or in sheltered 
shrubberies inland in the Midlands and South of England, and around the 
sea-coasts, in ordinary or sandy soil. They are propagated by cuttings of 
shoots 4-6 ins. long inserted in sandy soil in sheltered position under a hand- 
light or in a cold frame, September or October. 

TAMARISK, Tamarix gallica, 

Sea-coasts, gardens, shrubberies ; will thrive under almost all conditions. 
It makes a good hedge plant, its feathery sprays of delicate foliage forming 
a pleasant screen. July — September. 

Flowers white or rosy-pink, \- £ in. diam., in a dense paniclcd-spike, 
cylindrical ; bracts shorter than flowers ; Sepals 4-5, lanceolate, imbricate ; 
Petals 4>-5, persistent ; Stamens as many or twice as many, usually 5, hypo- 
gynous, anthers versatile, apiculate, red ; Disk hypogynous, 10-glandular, acutely 
5-angled; Ova7-y superior, 1 -celled, styles 3-4 short, thick, stigmas nearly 
sessile ; Fruit a capsule, trigonous, 3-valved ; seeds several, crowned with 
tuft of cottony hairs. 

Leaves alternate, exstipulate, those on branchlets minute, closely imbricate, 
triangular, auricled, keeled; those on branches \ in. long, subulate, acuminate, 
glaucous, dotted, greyish-green, margins white and membranous. Autumn 
leaves brown. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, or small tree, 5-10 ft. ; Branches slender, erect, or 

9 '2 


slightly pendulous at extremities ; Branehlets very slender, feathery, glabrous, 
red ; Buds minute, curved, scales few, red-brown ; Wood greenish-white when 
young, afterwards rose or reddish ; not valuable. 

Native of Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts ; planted in East and South 
of England. 

PALLAS'S TAMARISK, Tamarix Pallasii. 

Gardens, shrubberies. August — October. 

Flowers pinkish-white, forming a panicle of dense racemes ; Calyx urceo- 
late, 5-partite, segments linear, green ; Petals 5, free ; Stamens 5, apiculate, 
filaments twice length of petals ; Ovary superior, style thick, stigmas 2 ; 
Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves alternate, subulate, very acute, decurrent. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, 8-10 ft. ; Branches elongated, erect ; Branehlets 
numerous, very slender ; Bark reddish-fuscous. 

Native of Eastern Europe and Asia (Afghanistan) ; introduced from 
Odessa, 1891. Syn. T. odessana. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division I Thalamiflorce 

Natural Order . . HypericineoB 

Herbs, shrubs, or rarely trees, with opposite or rarely whorled, exstipulate, 
often glandular leaves, and regular flowers, usually yellow or white, mostly 
panicled or in dichotomous cymes ; Sepals 5, rarely i, imbricate, with 
glandular dots ; Petals 5, rarely 4, hypogynous, unequal-sided, dotted, im- 
bricate, often twisted ; Stamens indefinite, hypogynous, filaments united at 
base into 3 or 5 bundles ; Ovary 3-5-celled, styles 3-5 ; Fruit a capsule 
or berry. 

Distinguished from all other Orders by the polyadelphous stamens and 

unequal-sided, dotted petals. 



TUTSAN, Hypericum Androscemum. 

Thickets, shrubberies. Thrives in sandy soil; grows well in shade. June — 

The St. John's Worts, of which we have about twenty shrubby species, 
are among the handsomest of our summer yellow flowers, being laden with a 
wealth of golden blossoms from June to October. They mostly prefer sunny 
borders, but a few will do well under the shade of trees. They are propa- 
gated by cuttings of firm shoots 3 ins. long inserted in sandy soil outdoors 
in August or September. 

Flowers yellow, regular, ^— f in. diam., in a few-flowered terminal corymbose 
cyme; Sepals 5, unequal, obtuse, glandular, but not on margins, J— \ in. long; 
Petals 5, hypogynous, oblique, twisted in bud, deciduous, not much longer 
than sepals ; Stamens indefinite, hypogynous, slightly connate at base into 5 
bundles, anthers versatile ; Ovary superior, styles 3, recurved ; Fruit a berry, 
globose, black, slightly succulent, incompletely 5-celled. 

Leaves opposite, somewhat decussate on young shoots, lying in one plane 
in older stems, ovate, subcordate, entire, obtuse or acute, sessile, glabrous, 
minute pellucid dots, aromatic when crushed or dried, 2-3 ins. or more, rich 
dark green. 

A deciduous shrub, erect, 1-3 ft. ; Stem 4-angled. 

Native of Britain. English name probably a corruption of Fr. toute saine, 
heal all — leaves formerly applied to open wounds. Generic name from 
Hypericon, old Greek name used by Dioscorides ; specific name Androsazmum 
— men's blood — dark red fluid from fruit. 



Hedges, thickets, gardens. July — September. Does well in shade, and 

is easily cultivated in almost any ordinary garden soil, but prefers a sandy 

loam. It may be raised from seeds or cuttings. 






Flowers bright yellow, 3-4 ins. diam., solitary and terminal, 1-2 at top of stem, 
shortly pedicelled ; in gardens, a corymb of 5-6 ; Sepals 5, nearly ]. in. long, 
outer ones orbicular, | length of petals, longitudinal glandular lines ; Petals 5 ; 
Stamens numerous, long, slender, connate at base in 5 bundles ; Ovary superior, 
styles 5, straight ; Fruit a capsule ovoid, 5-celled towards base. 

Leaves opposite, ovate or oblong, sessile, obtuse, coriaceous, scattered 
pellucid dots, glossy, dark green, 2-4 ins. long. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, 10-16 ins. ; Stem creeping, compressed, quad- 

Native of S.E. Europe; naturalised in many parts of England, Scotland, 
Ireland, and Channel Isles. Known also as Rose of Sharon and Aaron's Beard. 

HOOKER'S ST. JOHN'S WORT, Hypericum Hookerianum. 

Gardens. Cut specimens in the bud state will last in water for a consider- 
able time, opening the polished buds in succession. It does well on a dry soil. 
July — October. 

Flowers yellow, resembling //. palatum, but larger, more than 2 ins. diam. ; 
fine waxy texture ; inflorescence corymbose, terminal ; styles not longer than 
ovary ; Fruit a capsule, 5 persistent styles. 

Leaves opposite and crowded, ovate-lanceolate, obtuse or acute, tapering 
at base, margins entire, slightly revolute, full of fine pellucid dots, dark glossy 
green above, paler beneath, 1-4 ins. Autumn tint red. 

An evergreen shrub, 6-8 ft. ; Branches round, slender, reddish-brown ; 
Buds polished, green, scales lanceolate. 

Native of mountains of N. India; introduced by Lobb, 1823. Synonymous 
with H. oblongifoliuvi. Also called Glossy-flowered Tutsan. 

MOSER'S ST. JOHN'S WORT, Hypericum moserianum. 

Gardens, shrubberies. The handsome blossoms of this dwarf hardy shrub 

produce a very bright effect throughout the late summer. It likes a moist, 

but not too heavy soil. July — September. 

25 C 


Flowers rich golden-yellow, 2 ins. or more diam., solitary ; Calyx persistent ; 
Petals of good substance; Stamens polyadelphous, anthers crimson; Fruit a 
capsule, 5-celled, 5-valved. 

Leaves opposite, oblong, entire, obtuse, dark green, pale beneath, sessile. 

An evergreen shrub, 1-2 ft. ; Branches arching; Twigs green. 

A garden hybrid between H. calycinum and H. pa/u/um, raised by Mons. 
Moser, of Versailles, about 188G; introduced about 1891. 

SPREADING ST. JOHN'S WORT, Hypericum patulum. 

Gardens. A fine hardy shrub, with a straggling habit. July — October. 

Floweis bright yellow, 1-2 ins. diam. ; inflorescence corymbose ; peduncles 
bibracteate ; Sepals 5, obtuse ; Petals 5, twice length of stamens ; Stamens 
numerous, connate in 5 bundles ; Ovary superior, styles 5 ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves opposite, elliptical-lanceolate, tapering at base, sessile, acute, margins 
revolute, without dots, dark green. 

A deciduous shrub, 1-3 ft. ; Branches spreading, arching, round, red or 
purple, 2-edged. 

Native of India, China, Japan ; first discovered by Thunberg in Japan ; 
seeds sent from Japan by Richard Oldham about 1862. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division I Thalamijiorce 

Natural Order . . . Ternstrczmiacece 

Trees or shrubs, with alternate, rarely opposite, coriaceous or rarely 

membranous leaves ; stipules wanting or rarely minute and caducous ; Floxvers 

regular, usually hermaphrodite ; Sepals 4-7, usually 5 ; Petals 4-9, usually 5, 

hypogynous, imbricate ; Stamens numerous, usually united by their filaments 

into 1, 3, or 5 bundles, anthers basifixed and erect, or versatile; Ovary 

superior, 2-7-celled ; Fruit fleshy, coriaceous, or slightly woody and inde- 

hiscent, or a capsule ; seeds few, usually arillate. 



COFFEE BUSH, Stuartia pentagyna. 

Gardens. A handsome erect growing shrub, with white, shell-like flowers 
peeping out from a mass of deep green leaves. It should be given a sunny 
spot in order to ripen the wood. May — August. 

The genus Stuartia contains three handsome flowering shrubs, with 
blossoms resembling a single Camellia. They thrive best in open sunny 
borders sheltered from north and east winds, in compost of two parts sandy 
loam and one of peat. They are slow-growing when young, and impatient 
of root disturbance. Propagated by cuttings of firm shoots in sandy soil under 
hand-light in sheltered position in autumn, or by layers of shoots in 
September or October. 

Flowers creamy-white tinged with red outside, solitary and axillary, 
peduncles short, slightly larger than S. virginica ; Sepals 5-6 ; Petals 5-6, 
obovate, edges jagged ; Stamens reddish-purple, longer than S. virginica ; 
Carpels free. 

Leaves alternate, oval, acute, less hairy than S. virginica. 

A deciduous shrub, 10 ft. ; forming a wide-spreading bush. 

Introduced from N. America, 1785. Syns. Malachodendron ovatum, 
S. montana, and Stewartia Malachodendron. 

FALSE CAMELLIA, Stuartia Pseudo-camellia. 

Gardens. A very beautiful shrub, with fine crimson tints on the autumn 
foliage. July, August. 

Flowers creamy-white, 3 ins. diam., solitary and axillary ; Sepals 5, dull 
reddish-brown above, finely serrulate ; Petals 5 ; Stamens numerous, hypo- 
gynous, golden. 

Leaves alternate, oval-elliptic, somewhat like Camellia, acuminate, shortly 

dentate, attenuated at base, petiole short, reddish. Autumn tints crimson 

and gold. 

27 C 2 


A deciduous shrub, 12 ft.; Branches erect, flexuose ; Bark reddish-brown, 

Native of Japan; introduced into France from Japan, 1868. Syn. 
S. grandiflora. 

VIRGINIAN COFFEE BUSH, Stuartia virginica. 

Gardens. This is one of the most beautiful of all summer-flowering shrubs, 
the large white blossoms being made especially attractive by contrast of their 
purple and reddish filaments and greenish anthers. It does well in peat and 
loam, or in pure loam, and even in sandy soil if moist at the roots. April — 

Flowers white, 3^-4 ins. diam., solitary and axillary, shortly pedunculate, 
resembling a single Camellia; Sepals 5, ovate; Petals 5, round-ovate, 1 in. long, 
imbricate ; Stamens numerous, hypogynous, filaments purple or reddish, anthers 
greenish ; Ovary superior, styles 5, consolidated into 1. 

Leaves alternate, oblong-ovate, obtuse or acuminate, serrulate, softly downy 
beneath, reticulate, membranous. 

A deciduous shrub, 8 ft. 

Introduced from N. America, 1743. Syn. S. Malachodendron. Genus 
named in honour of John Stuart, Lord Bute (1713-1792). 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division I Thalamijlorce 

Natural Order . . . Malvacece 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, with alternate, stipulate, simple leaves, entire or 

pahnilobed, usually with stellate hairs ; Floxvers regular, often showy ; Calyx 

gamosepalous, valvate, often with an epicalyx of 3 or more bracts ; Petals 5, 

hypogynous, twisted in bud ; Stamens indefinite, hypogynous, monadelphous ; 

Ovary superior, many-celled, placentation axile, styles united, stigmas free; 

Fruit usually a carcerulus, splitting into as many mericarps as there are 




Distinguished from all other Orders by the valvate calyx and columnar 

VINE-LEAVED ABUTILON, Abutilon vitifoUum. 

Gardens. Hardy in Ireland and S. of England ; best against a wall, and in 
many parts needs protection in winter. May — July. 

The genus Abutilon contains several species of showy shrubs usually 
grown in the greenhouse, two of which are hardy in the south of England. 
They are propagated by cuttings of the young wood inserted in a compost 
of peat, leaf-mould, loam and sand, and placed in a temperature of 70° in 

Flowers porcelain-blue, cupped, 3 ins. diam., axillary; Sepals 5, united 
at base ; Petals 5, margins waved ; Stamens numerous, united at base ; Ovary 
superior, style multifid at apex, violet ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves cordate, 5-7-lobed, lobes coarsely serrated, acuminate, reticulate, 
bright green, paler beneath, petioles long. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, 15-30 ft. 

Introduced from Chili, 1837. 

SYRIAN HIBISCUS, Hibiscus syriacus. 

Gardens, shrubberies. August. This handsome shrub is seldom planted now, 
being for the most part replaced by some of the many garden varieties. They 
thrive best in a sunny situation, and with a fair amount of moisture. Propagated 
by cuttings under glass in spring. 

Floxvers white, 2 ins. diam., axillary, pedicels hardly longer than leaves ; Calyx 
5-lobed, valvate in bud ; epicalyx of 5-7 bracts ; Petals 5, twisted in bud, blotched 
at base with red or purple ; Stamens numerous, monadelphous ; Carpels 3-5 ; 
Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, cuneate, 3-lobed, serrated, petiolate, stipulate, dark 

A deciduous shrub, G-8 ft. ; Branehes erect, straight. 



Introduced from Syria, 1596; the Althaea frutex of old botanists; many 
varieties sold by nurserymen under name of Shrubby Hollyhocks. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division I Thalamiflorce 

Natural Order . . Sterculiacece 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, sometimes climbing, with usually alternate leaves 
and deciduous stipules at base of petioles, rarely Avanting; Flowers regular 
or irregular, hermaphrodite or sometimes unisexual by abortion ; Calyx 
gamosepalous, usually persistent, usually 5-eleft, lobes valvate ; Petals 5, 
hypogynous, free or adnate at base to staminal tube, or wanting ; Stamens 
very variable, sometimes accompanied by staminodes, anthers 2-celled ; Ovary 
superior ; Fruit dry or rarely baccate. 

SLIPPERY ELM, Fremontia californica. 

Shrubberies, walls. April, May. This beautiful hardy deciduous shrub 
thrives in a sandy soil, and does best on a west or north wall, but will 
succeed in shrubberies in the south of England. It is propagated by cuttings 
of young shoots in sandy soil in a cold frame or under a bell-glass in March 
or April ; seeds may be sown in pots of sandy soil in a cold frame in spring 
or autumn. 

Flowers bright yellow, 2 ins. diam., solitary at extremities of short spur- 
like branches ; Calyx campanulate, 5 sepals ; Petals ; Stamens 5, opposite 
sepals, hypogynous ; Ovary superior, 5-celled. 

Leaves alternate, orbicular, 3-7-lobed, few serratures, bright shining green 
above, tomentose beneath, 3 ins. diam. ; petiole 3 ins. long. 

A deciduous shrub, 12 ft. ; young shoots brown tomentose. 

Native of California; named after Colonel Freemont (1813-1890) the dis- 
coverer ; introduced 1851 ; first flowered 1854. ; seeds afterwards sent to England 

by William Lobb. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division I Thalamifloroe 

Natural Order . . Tiliacece 

Trees, shrubs, or rarely herbs, with usually alternate, simple, stipulate leaves 
and regular flowers, hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual, often cymose and 
protandrous ; Sepals 5, rarely 3-4, often valvate ; Petals usually equal in 
number to sepals, alternating with them, imbricate, sometimes wanting ; 
Stamens usually indefinite, filaments free or united in 5-10 bundles, opposite 
petals, anthers 2-lobed ; Ovary free, sessile, 2-10-celled or more; Fruit dry 
or pulpy, sometimes 1 -celled. 

Distinguished from Malvaceae by the imbricate petals, the stamens free 
or slightly united into several bundles, the 2-celled anthers and the united 
carpels forming a several-celled ovary. 

AMERICAN LIME, Tilia americana. 

Parks, gardens. .July, August. 

The Limes are handsome, lofty-growing trees, inhabiting the temperate 
regions of the northern hemisphere. Their flowers are noted for their delicious 
perfume, and the honey is said to excel all other kinds in delicacy of flavour. 
Their timber has been noted since the days of the Romans for its " thousand 
uses," and is specially adapted for the purposes of the carver. The liber or 
inner bark readily separates into thin layers, and constitutes the well-known 
Russian bast or bass. 

The species prefer a sunny situation and a moist soil, and are not very suitable 
for dry soils or exposed places. Propagation is usually effected by the layering 
of shoots in the autumn. 

Flowers yellowish-white, in a cyme; bract 4-5 ins. long, 1-1^ in. broad, 

peduncle glabrous, 3} -4 ins. long, pedicels angled ; Sepals 5, ovate, 

acuminate, pubescent, | in. long; Petals 5, truncate, crenate ; Stamens 

numerous, hypogynous, filaments united in 5 bundles, a staminodium opposite 



. - • - 


- .; .« 


each petal, filaments filiform, forked, each branch bearing one anther-cell ; 
Ovarii 5-celled, stigmas 5 ; Fruit nnt-like, indehiscent, oblong to oblong- 
ovate, \ A in. long, rufous tomentose. 

Leaves alternate, oval, obliquely cordate at base, acuminate, coarsely 
glandular serrate, thick, firm, glabrous, tufts of rusty hairs in axils of 
principal veins below, dark dull green above, shining and lighter green 
below, 5-G ins. long, 3-4 ins. broad ; petioles slender. Autumn tint pale 

A deciduous tree, 60-70 ft. ; Branches small, often pendulous ; Tivigs 
smooth, light grey to brown ; Bark deeply furrowed, light brown ; Buds 
ovate, dark red ; Wood light brown tinged with red. 

Introduced from N. America, 1752. 

SMALL-LEAVED LIME, Tilia cordata. 

Woods, parks, gardens, avenues. July, August. 

Flowers yellowish-white, fragrant, regular, proterandrous, } in. diam., 
in small umbellate cymes on axillary peduncles, adnate for about half their 
length to a leafy bract ; Sepals 5, valvate in bud ; Petals 5, without scale 
at base ; Stamens numerous, cohering in bundles ; Ovary superior, globular, 
5-celled, style single, stigma 5-lobed ; Fruit a small nut (carcerulus), \ in. 
diam., globose or ellipsoid, yellow, pubescent, thin-shelled, brittle, faintly 
ribbed, indehiscent, 1-2 seeds ; seeds produced after about thirty-five years. 

Leaves alternate, cordate, unequally sided, petiolate, finely serrated, 
acuminate, glaucous beneath, pubescent in axils of nerves, stipulate, 2-2 J 
ins. long, 2 ins. across ; upper leaves have tendency to lobing. Autumn 
tints yellow, yellowish-brown. 

A deciduous tree, G0-1 20 ft. ; Branches strong, somewhat erect ; Shoots 

drooping; Twigs smooth, yellowish-brown, pliant; Bark ash-grey, tough, 

smooth; inner bark = " bast"; Roots extending a considerable distance; Wood 

soft, light, smooth-grained, yellowish-white ; well withstands atmospheric 




Synonymous with T. parvifolia; native of Britain; the latest to flower; 
long-lived, probably 500 years. 

Insects injurious to Limes : — Foliage — Silvery Weevil (Phyllobius argen- 
tatus), Red Spider (Acarus telarius), Mottled Umber Moth (Hybernia 
dcfoUaria), March Moth (Anisopteryoc cescularia) ; Wood — Goat Moth 
(Cos-sits ligniperda, Trypanus cossus). 

Leaves often blackened by Lime-tree Sooty Mould (Fumago vagans) ; 
commonly preceded by honey-dew, upon which it thrives ; also occurs on 
Oak, Elm, Birch, and Willow. 

BROAD-LEAVED LIME, Tilia P latyphyUo s . 

Woods, parks, gardens, avenues. June. 

Floxcers yellowish-white, resembling T. cordata; Inflorescence a cyme, 
peduncle 3-fid ; Petals without a scale ; Fruit globose or obovoid, woody, 
3-5 prominent ribs. 

Leaves large, 4 ins. across, always downy beneath, and sometimes both 
sides, axils pubescent. 

A deciduous tree, 80-90 ft. ; Twigs hairy ; Bark rough ; Wood white, 
smooth, light ; used for carving, turnery, and musical instruments. 

Synonymous with T. grandifolia ; the earliest to flower ; indigenous in 
the west of England. 

COMMON LIME, Tilia vulgaris. 

Woods, parks, gardens, avenues. June, July. 

Floivers yellowish-white, like T. parvifolia; Inflorescence a cyme; Petals 
without a scale; Fruit a nut, coriaceous, pubescent, not ribbed. 

Leaves alternate, cordate, glabrous above, pubescent in axils of veins 

beneath, intermediate in size. Autumn tints yellow and brown. 

A deciduous tree, 80-100 ft. Terminal branches and spray upright, 



lower side branches drooping, turning upwards at points ; Twigs smooth ; 
Wood white, soft ; used for furniture, carving, and turnery. 

Synonymous with T. intermedia and T. europcea ; naturalised in Britain ; 
the species most commonly planted ; some believed to be 900 years old. 
Name Lime is corruption of "line," which is corruption of "lind"; "linden" 
= the adjective. 

Nail-galls, looking like the points of tacks projecting through the leaves, 
are produced by the larvae of a Mite (Erioplnjcs tilice) ; flower-bracts curled 
and distorted by Eriophyes tiliarius. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division I ThalamiflorcB 

Natural Order . . . Rutacece 

Shrubs or trees, rarely herbs, with usually opposite, exstipulate leaves, 
and usually hermaphrodite flowers, regular or irregular ; Sepals 3-5, free or 
connate, imbricate ; Petals 3-5 or 0, hypogynous or perigynous, usually 
imbricate, rarely valvate ; Stamens equal to or 2-3 times as many as petals, 
inserted on a hypogynous disk ; Ovary superior, 2-5 carpels, distinct or 
united, sessile or raised on a short gynophore ; Fruit a capsule or berry, 
rarely a drupe, and in Ptelea a samara. 

HOP TREE, Ptelea trifoliata. 

Parks, open shrubberies, plantations or woods. May, June. Best in a 
damp or rather shady spot. The peculiar winged fruit gives the tree a very 
striking appearance after the flowering period. Layering of shoots may be 
done at any time ; seeds are sown in a sunny position in March or April. 

Flowers greenish-yellow, polygamous, fragrant, in a compound cyme; 

pedicels pubescent, bracteolate ; Calyx 4-5-partite, pubescent ; Petals 4-5, 

pubescent, hypogynous ; Stamens 3-4, hypogynous, alternate with petals ; 

filaments pilose, short in female flowers; Ovary superior, 2-3-celled, puber- 



ulous ; style short ; stigma 2-3-lobed ; Fruit a samara, nearly orbicular, 1 in. 
diam. ; wings thin ; dense drooping clusters persistent through winter. 

Leaves alternate, trifoliate, leaflets ovate boro long, sessile, acute, entire or 
finely serrate, coriaceous, glabrous, pubescent when young, dark shining green, 
paler below, 4-6 ins. long, 2^-3 ins. wide ; petioles stout, 2^-3 ins. long. 
Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous shrub, 4-8 ft. ; or small tree, 20 ft. ; Branches small, 
spreading or erect ; Twigs glabrous, dark brown ; Buds nearly round, almost 
white ; Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, yellow-brown. 

Introduced from N. America by Bishop Compton, 1704; re-introduced by 
Catesby, 1724. Generic name was ancient Greek name for the Elm — applied 
to this plant from resemblance of fruit. 

FRAGRANT SKIMMIA, Skimmia fragrant. 

Gardens. April. The Skimmias are valuable on account of their brilliant 
red fruits, which, growing in profusion, remain on the plants all the year 
round, giving them a very ornamental appearance, especially in winter. They 
thrive best in a compost of peat and loam in shady or sheltered borders. 
They are propagated by cuttings of firm shoots inserted in sand under a 
bell-glass in spring or autumn ; by layering in autumn ; and by seeds sown 
when ripe in sandy loam and peat in a cold frame. 

Flowers white, tinged with yellow, scented, in a terminal thyrsoid panicle, 
5 ins. or more long, 3-4 ins. diam,, rounded at apex, numerous dichotomous 
branches, buds appearing in late autumn ; Males, Petals 4-5, obovate, nearly 
erect ; Stamens as many as petals, filaments white, anthers large ; Ovary 

Leaves alternate, elliptic-oblong, thick, entire, acute or obtuse, glabrous, 
petiolate, exstipulate, coriaceous, slightly arched, sometimes slightly twisted, 
deep shining green, 5-6 ins. long, 2 ins. broad. 

An evergreen shrub, 3 ft. 

Native of Himalayas ; said to be the male plant of Skimmia japonica. 



JAPANESE SKIMMIA, Skimmia japonka. 

Gardens. An excellent specimen for town gardens. March. 

Flowers white, usually dioecious, scented, somewhat resembling blossom of 
Holly; Inflorescence a thyrsoid panicle, .pedunculate, broadly-oblong, many- 
flowered ; Calyx short, 4-lobed ; Petals 4, oblong, spreading, longer than 
calyx : Disk inconspicuous ; Stamens equal in number to and opposite petals, 
hypogynous; Ovarii superior, style 3-lobed ; Fruit a drupe, about size of a 
pea, red, persistent all the year. 

Leaves simple, alternate, crowded in parts so as to appear sub-verticillate, 
oblong, entire, acuminate, pellucid-dotted, tapering into short petioles, ex- 
stipulate, glabrous, coriaceous, deep lustrous green. 

An evergreen shrub, 3-4 ft. ; Braneldets green, glabrous. 

Native of Japan ; name from Japanese skimmi, a poisonous fruit. 

Skim mi a ha areola. 

Gardens. Needs shelter in winter. The flowers have a strong citron 
scent. March. 

Flowers pale yellow, polygamous, fragrant, in a dense terminal panicle, 
rachis and peduncle purple-dotted ; Sepals 5, Petals 5, Stamens 5, alternating 
with petals ; Fruit a drupe, ovate, smooth, nearly size of Olive, 1-3 cartila- 
ginous 1-seeded kernels. 

Leaves alternate, sub-opposite, oblong-lanceolate, attenuated at base, entire, 
acute, petiolate, dark green above, yellowish beneath, 3-5 ins. long. 

An evergreen shrub, 4 ft. ; glabrous, aromatic. 

Native of Nepaul. 


Gardens. March. 

Flowers white, fragrant, in a thyrsoid panicle, short, terminal; Females, 

Calyx 4-5-lobed; Petals 4-5, red on outside in bud; Stamens rudimentary 



= small white filaments ; Ovary large, stigma 4-lobed ; Fruit a drupe, 
oblate, glossy, in panicled clusters, bright vermilion-red. 

Leaves alternate, elliptic-obovate, entire, firm, smooth, bright green, 
slightly arched, shortly petiolate or sub-sessile, 3-5 ins. long, 2 ins. broad. 

An evergreen shrub. 

Introduced from Japan, 1864; male plant said to be S. fragrans, known 
in gardens as S. Jragrantissima. 

REDDISH SKIMMIA, Skimmia rubella. 

Gardens. March. 

Flowers greenish -white, odorous, buds tinted with red; Infloreseence a 
dense thyrsus ; Fruit a drupe. 

Leaves alternate, lanceolate -elliptic, coriaceous, entire, acute, petiolate, 

Native of China; introduced 1874; a seedling form of *S'. Fortune'/. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division I Thalamiflorce 

Natural Order . . . Simarvtbeo? 

Trees or shrubs, with usually alternate, exstipulate, pinnate leaves, and 
hermaphrodite, sometimes polygamous, flowers ; Calyx 3-5-lobed or partite ; 
Petals 3-5, or rarely wanting ; Stamens as many, or twice as many, as petals, 
rarely indefinite, inserted at the base of a hypogynous disk ; Ovary superior, 
4-5 lobed and celled ; Fruit a drupe, capsule, or samara. 

TREE OF HEAVEN, Ailantkus ghndulosa. 

Parks, gardens, avenues. August. This handsome tree, with its pinnate 

leaves 2-3 ft. long, is a desirable specimen to stand singly on a lawn. It 

grows with great rapidity for the first 10-12 years, but afterwards its 

37 d 


•Towth is slower. It thrives best in a light rich soil, somewhat moist, 
and in a sheltered position. It is propagated by cuttings of roots in pots 
of light, soil in a warm greenhouse in March, planting out in the following 

Flowers whitish-green, polygamous, with disagreeable odour ; Inflorescence 
a terminal erect branched panicle; Calyx 5-partite, segments half ovate, 
united below ; Petals 5, hypogynous, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, margins 
indexed, hairy at base, valvate ; Stamens in hermaphrodite flowers 2-3, in 
females 0, in males 10, hypogynous, filaments hairy below, anthars ovate 
to ovate-lanceolate; Disk 10-lobed; Ovarii superior, syncarpous, carpels 5, 
styles 5, united, stigmas 5, oblong, reflexed ; Fruit indehiscent, each carpel 
separating and forming a samara, 1-2 ins. long, linear-lanceolate, compressed, 
thin, winged, twisted at top, 1-seeded. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 20-30 ins. long, leaflets 12-25, ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate, entire, or with a few glandular teeth at base, coriaceous, 
glabrous, dark green above, paler beneath, 2-6 ins. long, 1^-2^ ins. wide, 
petiolule short ; leaves red when young, falling with first frosts. Leaves 
on vigorous young trees said to reach 6 ft. in length. 

A deciduous tree, 70-100 ft. ; hemispherical head ; Tzvigs glabrous, 
shining yellowish-green to reddish-brown or olive ; Buds small, red-brown, 
grey tomentose ; Lenticeh long ; Bark smooth ; Wood white, soft. 

Native of China ; seed sent from Nankin to Collinson by Father d'Incar 
ville in 1751. 

Class I. . . . Dicotyledons 

Division I Thalamiflorce 

Natural Order. . . Aquifoliacece 

Trees or shrubs, with alternate, simple leaves, often evergreen and cori- 
aceous, sometimes stipulate ; Flowers white, often small, sometimes in axillary 

cymes, sometimes unisexual ; Calyx 3-6-partite ; Petals 4-5, distinct or slightly 


D E 

HOLLY (Ilex aquifolium) 

A . Flowering branch. B. Fruit. C. Calyx. D. Flower. E. Longitudinal 
section of ovary. F. Transverse section of " berry." 

Plate VII. 


connate at base ; Stamens 4-5, alternate with petals ; Ovary superior, 3 or 
more celled ; Fruit a drupe. 

Distinguished from Celastrineft chiefly by the absence of a disk. 

HOLLY, Ilex AquifoUum. 

Woods, hedges, gardens. May — August. A handsome tree, and valuable as 
a hedge plant. It is long-lived, but slow of growth. The branches, with then- 
dark green foliage and red berries, are in great request for Christmas decorations. 

The genus Ilex comprises about 145 species of mostly hardy shrubs and 
trees. They are propagated by seeds. These are buried 4-6 ins. deep in 
sandy soil in October, and sown in ordinary soil outdoors in the following 
spring or autumn, transplanting the seedlings when two years old, and again 
moving after another two years. For hedges they should be planted 18 
ins. apart in May or September. Varieties are grafted on the Common Holly 
in March, or budded in May or August. 

Flowers white, small, \ in. diameter, sometimes unisexual, and fertilised by 
bees ; Inflorescence a dense axillary umbellate cyme ; peduncles short, many- 
flowered ; Calyx 4 5-toothed, ovate, persistent ; Corolla rotate ; Petals 4, slightly 
connate or free, obovate, concave ; Stamens 4, attached by base to corolla ; Ovary 
superior, 4-celled, 4 small sessile stigmas ; Fruit a drupe, with four 1 -seeded 
stones ; bright red or yellow, flesh thin ; seeds bony, furrowed, angular. 

Leaves alternate, oval, shortly petiolate, coriaceous, glabrous, shining 
pale beneath, some entire, others with prickly teeth, wavy, acute or acuminate, 
2^-3 ins. long, persistent more than one year, falling in summer. 

A deciduous tree or bushy shrub, 10-50 ft. ; Bark smooth, pale grey, 
often used for making birdlime ; Shoots slightly pubescent ; Buds minute ; 
Wood finely grained, hard, white ; used for inlaying, and as a substitute 
for Box and Ebony. 

Native of Britain. English name from A.S. holen, holegn, the holly-tree. 

Leaves often disfigured by larva? of Holly Fly (Phytomyza aquifolia), and 

by spots of the Leaf Sooty Mould {Capnodium Footii). 

39 D 2 


Hex crenata. 

Gardens. May. A dwarf shrub of compact habit and slow growth, but 
sometimes rising to a height of 20 ft,, and having the general appearance 
of a Box-tree. The black fruit in autumn adds materially to the beauty 
of the plant. It strikes readily from cuttings in autumn. 

Flowers white ; peduncles drooping, scattered along the branches, usually 
3 flowered ; Fruit a drupe, black. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, obtuse, crenate, revolute, light green and lustrous, 
usually under 1 in. long. 

An evergreen shrub, 3-4 ft. or sometimes 10-20 ft. ; much branched. 

A native of Japan ; there the most widely distributed, and most popular, 
of all the Hollies, being often used as a hedge plant. 

HIMALAYAN HOLLY, Ilex dipyrena. 

Gardens. A species with very distinctive Willow-like leaves, hardly 
wavy, with short spiny teeth. April, May. 

Floxvers white, small, £ in. diam. ; sub-sessile in axillary, sub-globular 
fascicles ; pedicels short, stout ; Calyx 4-partite ; Petals 4 ; Stamens 4 ; Ovary 
2-celled, or rarely 3-4-celled ; Fruit a drupe, \ in. long, dark brown 2-seeded. 

Leaves elliptical-lanceolate, mucronate, entire or remotely spiny-serrated, 
hardly wavy, dull green, shortly petiolate, 31 ins. long, 1 in. wide. 

An evergreen shrub, 12 ft. ; Brauehlets angular. 

Introduced from N. India, 1840. Specific name from Gr. di, twice, and 
pyren, pyrenos, a kernel, a fruit-stone, referring to the 2-seeded fruit. 

AMERICAN HOLLY, Ilex opaca. 

Parks, gardens. May, June. 

Flowers white, dioecious; Male flowers in short peduncullate 3-9 flowered 

cymes, axillary, or scattered on base of young shoots; Females 1-3 flowered; 



pedicels slender, puberulous ; Calyx 4-partite, lobes acute, ciliate, hypogynous, 
imbricate in bud ; Petals 4, imbricate ; Stamens 4, alternate with petals, 
adnate to base of corolla, anthers introrse ; Ovary 4-celled, style 0, stigmas 
broad and sessile ; Fruit a drupe, ovoid or spherical, \ in. diam. ; red or yellow ; 
1 -seeded nutlets ribbed. 

Leaves alternate, elliptical to obovate-oblong, acute, wavy with few 
scattered spiny teeth, or entire, thick, coriaceous, dull yellow-green, paler 
beneath, 2-4 ins. long; petioles short, grooved above; stipules minute, 
persistent ; leaves falling after three years. 

An evergreen tree, 20-40 ft. ; pyramidal head ; Branches short, slender ; 
Twigs glabrous, pale brown ; Bark light grey, warty excrescences ; Buds 
obtuse or acuminate ; scales ciliate. 

Introduced from U.S.A., 1744. Specific name from L. opacus, dark, 
shady, opaque. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division II. . . Calycifiorce 

Natural Order . . . Celastrinece 
Shrubs or small trees, with alternate or rarely opposite leaves, and small 

deciduous stipules ; Flowers small, regular, cymose, greenish or purplish ; 

Calyx small, 4-5-fid, imbricate ; Petals 4-5, inserted under margin of disk, 

imbricate ; Stamens 4-5, alternate with petals, inserted on flat disk ; Ovary 

superior, 3-5-celled, immersed in disk ; Fruit dehiscent or indehiscent ; seeds 

usually with an arillus. 

Distinguished from Rhamneae by stamens opposite petals ; from Rosacea? 

by the definite stamens ; and from Onagrarieae usually by parts not being 

in powers of 2. 

AMERICAN BURNING BUSH, Euonymus americanus. 

Shrubberies. Generally as a wall plant; made handsome in autumn by 

the crimson fruit. May, June. 

The genus Euonymus contains several useful trees and shrubs which 



thrive in ordinary garden soil. The deciduous species are suitable for the 
shrubbery. Those of an evergreen nature should be planted against south 
or west walls, or as edgings to beds, or in front of shrubberies. They are 
propagated by cuttings of shoots of previous year's growth, 3 ins. long, inserted 
in sandy soil in a frame or cold greenhouse in early autumn. 

Floxvers greenish-purple, small, in a 1-3 flowered panicled cyme ; peduncles 
slender ; Petals nearly orbicular, claw short ; Fruit a capsule, 3-5-lobed, prickly, 
waited, deep crimson ; seeds white, with scarlet arillus, ripe in October. 

Leaves elliptical-lanceolate, shortly petiolate, serrated, coriaceous, acute, 
deep shining green above, more or less persistent. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-6 ft. Branches slender, spreading ; shoots smooth, 
quadrangular, deep green when leafless. 

Sometimes called " Strawberry Bush," because fruit resembles that of 
Common Arbutus. 

Introduced from N. America, 1686. 

BURNING BUSH, Euonymus atropnrpureus. 

Shrubberies. The scarlet arillus makes the fruit very attractive in autumn. 
May, June. 

F/ozvers dark purple ; nearly I in. diam ; Inflorescence a trichotomous cyme, 
axillary peduncles 5-15 flowered, compressed. Calyx lobes 4, rounded or 
acute ; Petals usually 4, nearly orbicular, often erose at margins ; Stamens 4, 
alternate with petals, anthers spreading ; Capsules light purple, smooth, 
4-celled, deeply 3-4-lobed, ^ in. diam. ; seeds 2 in each cell, chestnut-brown 
wrinkled coat, scarlet aril ; ripe in October. 

Leaves oval-oblong, petiolate, serrated, acuminate, thin, puberulent beneath, 
1^-5 ins. long, 1-2| ins. wide. Autumn tint pale yellow. 

A deciduous shrub, 5-12 ft.; Branches spreading, slender, terete; Twigs 

4-angled ; Bark thin, ashy-grey ; Buds acute, scales purple, scarious, glaucous ; 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, white tinged with orange. 

Introduced from N. America, 1756. 



SPINDLE TREE, Euonymw europceus. 

Hedges, thickets, shrubberies. A native shrub of rather straggling habit, 
made attractive in autumn by the fine tints of the foliage and the bright 
orange-coloured covering of the seeds. May, June. 

Flowers greenish-white, proterandrous, in a dichasial cyme; peduncles 
axillary, 1-2 ins. long, 3-5 flowered ; Calyx small, 4-cleft ; Petals 4, obovate, 
imbricate; Stamens 4, alternate with petals, inserted into glands on a 
flat fleshy disk, half as long as petals ; Ovary superior, 4-celled, style 1 , stigma 
4-lobed ; Fruit a 4-lobed, 4-celled capsule, pale crimson, fleshy ; seeds with 
a bright orange-coloured arillus ; ripe in October. 

Leaves opposite, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 1 j— 5 ins. long, shortly petiolate, 
finely serrated, acute or acuminate, glabrous, stipules small, caducous. Autumn 
tints crimson and gold. 

A deciduous shrub, 5-10 ft. ; or a tree, 20 ft. ; Twigs opposite, square, 
smooth, green, fetid ; Bark grey, smooth ; Buds sub-opposite, short, slightly 
4-angled bud scales, glabrous, green, margins and tips red ; Wood hard, 
tough ; used for skewers, turnery, drawing-charcoal, and finer kinds of gun- 

Native of Britain. English name refers to time when the wood was used 
for making spindles ; other common names are Skewerwood, Pegwood, and 
Prickwood ; also sometimes called Dogwood. Leaves often stripped by gre- 
garious larva- of Small Ermine Moth (Hyponomcuta padella). 

JAPANESE SPINDLE TREE, Euonymus japonieus. 

Gardens. Thrives well near sea, and is a very useful plant for hedges in 
towns. It is not hardy in the north. April. 

Floxvers white, small, in a many-flowered dichotomous cyme; axillary 
peduncles flattened ; Petals orbicular, fringed ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves oblong, sharply serrated, acuminate, dark glossy green. 

An evergreen shrub, 10-20 ft. ; Branch-lets pendulous, slightly compressed. 



Introduced from Nepaul, 1804. One of the most ornamental of evergreen 
shrubs. Several varieties with variegated leaves are in cultivation. 


Shrubberies, gardens, lawns. June. 

Flowers white, becoming purple as they fade ; Inflorescence a many- 
flowered trickotomous cyme ; Petals oval, ovate ; Fruit a 4-lobed capsule, 
somewhat winged, purple, with orange arillus. 

Leaves oblong-elliptical, serrated, glabrous, glossy green. 

A deciduous shrub, 0-8 ft. ; Branches smooth, somewhat compressed ; Buds 
opposite, acute. 

Introduced from Europe, 1803. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division II. . . . Calyciflorce 
Natural Order . . . Rhamnece 

Trees or shrubs with alternate, stipulate leaves, and small green or yellowish 
cymose flowers, sometimes unisexual ; Calyx 4-5-toothed, valvate in bud ; 
Petals 4-5, minute, or obsolete ; Stamens 4-5, epigynous, opposite petals, alter- 
nate with calyx lobes, other versatile ; Ovary 3-4-celled, free or sunk in fleshy 
disk ; Fruit a capsule, or drupaceous and indehiscent. 

ALATERNUS, Ehamnus Alaternus. 

Shrubberies. A shrubby evergreen, in general appearance resembling a 
Phillyrrea. It succeeds well in all but heavy, wet soils. April — June. 

The genus Bhamnus contains some sixty species, of which about thirty are 

hardy shrubs or trees, but few are valuable from a garden standpoint. They 

do well in sunny or shady shrubberies in ordinary soil. They are propagated by 

cuttings in ordinary soil in September; by layering in March or September; 

or seeds sown outdoors in autumn. 



Flowers green, dioecious, honey-scented, in a short axillary raceme ; Fruit a 

Leaves alternate, ovate-elliptical or lanceolate, very variable, slightly toothed, 
glabrous, coriaceous, deep glossy green. 

An evergreen shrub, or small tree, 20 ft. 

Introduced from S. Europe, 1629. Leaves sometimes attacked by Buck- 
thorn Leaf-spot {Phyllosticta Rhami). 

PURGING BUCKTHORN, Bhamnus cathartica. 

Woods, thickets, hedges. Prefers chalky soils. May, June. 

Flozvcrs yellowish-green, dioecious, small, entomophilous, proterandrous, soli- 
tary or in axillary cymose clusters, on previous year's wood ; pedicels short ; Calyx 
4-cleft, valvate ; campanulate in males, cupular in females ; Petals 4, very 
narrow, as large as calyx teeth ; Stamens 4, on perigynous disk, opposite 
petals ; Ovarii superior, 4-celled, stigmas 4 ; Fruit a drupe, about size of pea, 
globose, enclosing four small 1 -seeded nuts, blue-black; ripe in September; 
seeds obovoid, grooved at back. 

Leaves alternate, fascicled at ends of shoots, sub-opposite lower down, ovate 
or oblong, shortly petiolate, minutely serrated, acuminate, veins prominent, di- 
vergent, yellowish-green, young ones downy beneath, 1-2 ins. long; stipules 
subulate, deciduous. Autumn tint yellowish-green. 

A deciduous shrub, 5-10 ft. ; Branches spreading, opposite, smaller ones with 
terminal thorns ; Bark black ; Dwarf shoots strongly ringed ; Buds erect, sub- 
opposite, ovate-pointed, dark brown to blackish ; scales smooth ciliate ; Lenticels 
large ; Wood hard ; heart-wood reddish-yellow, sap-wood whitish-yellow ; used 
for turnery ; juice of berries used for sap-green of painters ; bark yields 
yellow dye. 

Native of Britain. English name said to be a corruption of German Biuvdorn, 
the Thorn-bearing Box ; Rhamnos was old Greek name used by Theophrastus ; 
specific name is Latin for purging, or purgative. 



ALDER BUCKTHORN, Bhamnus Franguh. 

Woods, thickets, hedges. Prefers clay or damp soil. May — July. 

Flowers greenish-white, all hermaphrodite, protandrous, \ in. diam., in 
an axillary cyme, two or three in each axil, peduncles longer; Calyx cam- 
panulate, 5-cleft ; Petals 5 ; Stamens 5 ; Ovary superior, style simple, stigma 
undivided ; Fruit a drupe with 3 stones, glohose, at first green, then red, 
finally a dark purple, nearly I in. diam. ; seeds compressed, broadly obovoid. 

Leaves alternate, obovate or elliptical, shortly petiolate, entire, obtuse or 
acuminate, thin, sometimes downy on under side, veins numerous, diverging 
equally from midrib ; stipules subulate, minute, caducous. Autumn tints 
reddish and green. 

A deciduous shrub, 5-10 ft. ; Branches more erect, alternate, slender, 
without thorns, purplish-brown ; Bark black ; Buds hairy, no scales ; Lcnticcls 
whitish ; Wood known as Black Dogwood, soft, spongy ; used in manufacture 
of gunpowder ; heart-ivood yellowish-red, sap-wood light yellow ; Bark yields 
yellow colouring matter; unripe drupes yield green. 

Native of Britain. Called Black or Berry-bearing Alder. Leaves sometimes 
attacked by Buckthorn Leaf-spot (Phyllosticta Rhamni). 

NEW JERSEY TEA, Ceanothus americanus. 

Gardens, shrubberies. One of the hardiest of the genus, free flowering, 
doing well against a wall in a light, well-drained soil. June — August. 

The Ceanothuses are propagated by cuttings in pots of sandy soil in a 
cold frame or cool greenhouse in October. The readiest way of obtaining 
strong plants is by layering of shoots in autumn. 

Flozvers white ; Inflorescence an axillary and terminal cymose panicle ; 
rachis pubescent, elongated, pedicels i_i } n> long; Calyx tube 5-lobed ; 
Petals 5, claw narrow; Stamens 5, filaments filiform ; Ovary immersed in 
disk, 3-lobed, style short, 3-cleft ; Fruit dry, 3-lobed, separating into 3 nut- 
lets, depressed, nearly black, J in. long. 


Plate VIII. 

SPIISTDLE TREE {Euonymotts europcBus) 
A. Flowering branch. B. Fruit. 


Leaves alternate, ovate, acute or acuminate, obtuse or sub-cordate at base, 
serrated, pubescent beneath, strongly 3-nerved, 1-3 ins. long, l-l in. wide ; 
petioles ^— J in. long. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-4 ft. ; Stem erect or ascending, branching, puberu- 
lent ; Root deep red. 

Introduced from Eastern N. America, 1713. Also called Red Root and 
Mountain Sweet. 

BLUE BUSH, Ceanothus azureus. 

Gardens, shrubberies, walls. This is a beautiful shrub for planting in 
masses in large beds, or for clothing a wall, but is best sheltered from cold 
winds. It likes a light, porous soil. June — September. 

Flowers azure-blue, in an axillary thyrsoid cyme ; rachis downy ; pedicels 
smooth ; Fruit a drupe. 

Leaves alternate, ovate-oblong, obtuse, acutely serrated, glabrous above, 
hoary and downy beneath. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-10 ft. 

Introduced from Mexico, 1818. Also called Blue-flowered Red Root. 

Ceanothus dentatus. 

Gardens, walls. Requires southern aspect ; one of the earliest to flower. 
May, June. 

Floivers blue, in cymose clusters ; peduncles naked ; Fruit a drupe, 3-lobed. 
Leaves fascicled, obovate or oblong-elliptic, acute, undulate or revolute. 
A deciduous climber or erect shrub, 4-10 ft. ; nearly glabrous. 
Introduced from California, 1848. Syn. C. Lobbiamis. 

STRAGGLING BLUE BUSH, Ceanothus divaricatus. 

One of the best for covering walls. Requires southern aspect. When 

in a favourable situation will make shoots 6 ft. long in a season. May — 




Flowers pale blue : Inflorescence racemose : Fruit a drupe. 

Leaves alternate, oblong or oblong-ovate, rounded at base, obtuse or acute, 

An evergreen climber, 10 ft.; or small shrub, 3-4 ft.; Brandies spinose 
and straggling. 

Native of California and Oregon ; introduced 1848. 

Cea not It us papiJIosus. 

Walls. Somewhat tender, but very beautiful, its numerous branchlets 
being clothed with small deep green leaves, and its flowers, borne in dense 
clusters, being of a pleasing shade of pale blue. May, June. 

Flowers pale blue, in a terminal panicle ; peduncles naked ; Fruit a drupe. 

Leaves alternate, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse both ends, glandular-serrulate, 
upper surface glandular, viscid, deep green. 

An evergreen climbing shrub, 12 ft.; or small shrub, 2-3 ft. 

Introduced from California, 1848. 

Ceanothus rigidus. 

Walls. Requires sunny aspect. Forms a freely-branched shrub, clothed 
with small, deep green leaves. April — June. 

Flowers purplish-blue, in a terminal panicle ; Fruit a drupe. 

Leaves alternate, obovate, cuneate, often emarginate, slightly serrated, 
rigid, deep green. 

A deciduous climber, 6-8 ft. 

Introduced from California, 1848. 

CALIFORNIAN LILAC, Ceanothus thyrsiflorus. 

Gardens, shrubberies. Best on wall, but will grow as a standard in favoured 

localities. Its foliage is glossy, and its blossoms intensely blue. June — 



C D 

ALDER BUCKTHORN (Rhamnus frangula) 
A. Fruiting branch. B. Flowers. C. Single flower, enlarged. D. Section of flower, enlarged. 

Plate IX. 


Flowers blue, in a thyrsoid cluster of small corymbs, 2-3 ins. long, in axils of 
upper leaves or small bracts ; Calyx 5-lobed, petaloid, lobes triangular ; Petals 5, 
inserted under margin of disk, unguiculate, spreading, deciduous ; Stamens 5, 
inserted on perigynous disk, opposite petals ; Ovary immersed in disk, 3-celled, 
styles short, united below, stigmas 3-lobed, spreading ; Fruit a drupe, 3-lobed, 
sub-globose, black, separating into three 2-valved nutlets. 

Leaves alternate, oblong or oblong-ovate, obtuse, glandular serrate, glabrous 
on upper surface, paler and pubescent below, 1-1 .\ in. long, i-1 in. wide; 
petioles stout, stipules acute. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree , 9 ft. ; Branches spreading, angled ; Twigs 
pubescent when young, yellow-green ; Bark thin, red-brown, scaly. 

Introduced from N. America, 1861. 

VEITCH'S BLUE BUSH, Ceanothus veitchianus. 

Walls, gardens. Requires sunny aspect. Best on a wall, in light, porous soil. 
May — July. 

Flowers bright blue, in dense terminal clusters ; Fruit a drupe. 
Leaves alternate, oblong-ovate or oval, glandular serrulate. 
An evergreen shrub, 6 ft. 
Introduced from California. 

Class I. . . . . Dicotyledons 

Division II Calycifloroe 

Natural Order . . . Ampelidece (The Vine Order) 

Shrubs with a watery acid juice in the leaves, stems, and unripe fruits ; usually 

climbing by means of tendrils arising opposite the leaves ; Flowers small, green, 

regular ; Calyx minute ; Petals 4-5, inserted on a disk, valvate in bud, usually 

separating at the base and remaining connate above ; Stamens 4-5, opposite 

petals, anthers versatile ; Ovary superior, usually 2-celled ; Fruit a succulent 


49 E 


Distinguished from Celastrinese and Rhamneae chiefly by their climbing 
habit, and the stamens being more decidedly hypogynous. 

VIRGINIAN CREEPER, litis guinguefolia. 

The genus Jit is contains many species of Vines, over forty of which are given 
in the Kew Hand-list. 

Walls. June. This is a luxuriant and rapid-growing creeper, climbing by 
means of tendrils, but requiring a support. It is useful for covering walls, 
arbours, verandahs, old stumps, &c. It has a most striking appearance in 
autumn, when its foliage turns to brilliant shades of crimson and scarlet. It is 
propagated by cuttings of firm shoots 6 ins. long inserted in pots of sandy soil 
in a cold frame or greenhouse in September. 

Flowers greenish-purple, fertilised by bees ; Inflorescence a corymbose 
raceme ; peduncles and pedicels red ; Calyx minute, slightly 4-5-toothed ; 
Petals 4-5, concave, thick, expanding before they fall ; disk none ; Stamens 4-5, 
opposite petals, anthers versatile ; Ovary superior, 2-celled. Fruit a small 
drupe, blue-black, 2-3-seeded. 

Leaves compound, palmate, 3-5 oblong leaflets, 2-6 ins. long, acute or 
acuminate, mucronately toothed, glabrous on both surfaces ; brilliant scarlet and 
crimson in autumn. 

A deciduous climber, 30-60 ft. ; Branches furnished with tendrils, whose apices 
expand into sucker-like disks. 

Introduced from N. America, 1629. Sometimes called American Ivy. 
Synonymous with Ampelopsis quinqucfolia and A. hederacea. Generic name 
ampelopsis, from Gk. ampelos, a vine, and opsis, resemblance. 

GRAPE VINE, Vitis vinifera. 

Walls, fences. June. This well-known tendril-bearing woody climber is 

useful for covering walls or pillars. The leaves are handsomely tinted in 

autumn, and the fruit is edible. Many varieties are grown. Outdoor Vines are 



grown best in a compost of two parts sandy loam and one part in equal pro- 
portions of wood ashes, old mortar, bones, and rotten manure. They are pro- 
pagated by cuttings of shoots 6 ins. long with a slice of an older branch 
attached at the base, inserted in a shady position outdoors in October or 
November ; layering of shoots may be done in summer or autumn ; also by 
seeds sown in heat, " eyes " in sandy soil in heat, " in arching " and grafting. 

Flowers yellowish-green, small, regular, entomophilous, in a corymbose 
raceme, opposite a leaf; Calyx minute, mitrseform, 5-toothed, limb wanting; 
Petals 5, distinct at base, united at apex, thrown off as a small 5-rayed star ; 
Stamens 5, opposite petals, inserted around a sub-hypogynous disk, anthers 
versatile ; Ovary superior, style short, stigma simple, lobed ; Fruit a succulent 
berry, 1-celled, 2-4-seeded ; seeds hard, pyriform, grooved. 

Leaves simple, alternate, 3-5 lobed, variable, cordate at base, margins 
coarsely toothed, glabrous, pubescent beneath, 2|-5^ ins. diam., stipules scaly, 
caducous. Autumn tints orange and red. 

A deciduous climber, 20-50 ft. ; easily trained ; tendrils twining, opposite 
leaves ; Branches woody, tough ; Twigs knotted ; Buds conical, glabrous. 

Found wild in Asia Minor. Has been cultivated for 5000-6000 years. 
Currants, raisins, and sultana raisins are dried varieties of grapes. 

JAPANESE CREEPER, Vitis inconstans. 

Walls. June. The most rapid-growing plant for covering walls, climbing by 
means of branched tendrils provided with suckers, which attach the plant so 
firmly to the surface that no nailing is required. The autumn foliage is a 
brilliant crimson. It is easily propagated by cuttings from young wood in 
spring, placed in gentle heat. 

Floivers green, small, inconspicuous, resembling those of Virginian Creeper, 
arranged in a raceme ; Fruit a small drupe. 

Leaves simple, alternate, very variable, young leaves cordate, toothed, teeth 

mucronate ; older leaves deeply divided into three palmate lobes, coarsely 

toothed, glabrous, flushed with red in summer, brilliant crimson in autumn, 

51 E 2 


3— .*3 .'. ins. diam., petioles long, tendrils opposite leaves, expanding at ends into 
a group of suckers. 

A deciduous climber, 20-60 ft.; Stems pliant. 

Introduced from Japan by Mr. J. G. Veitch, 18(>8. Synonymous with 
Ampelopsis tricuspidata and A. VeitcMi; known also as small-leaved Vir- 
ginian Creeper. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division II. ... Calyciflorce 

Natural Order . . . Sapindacece 

Usually trees or shrubs, rarely herbs, with mostly exstipulate, alternate 
leaves, either simple and lobed, or compound, digitate or pinnate ; Floivers 
mostly irregular, small for the size of the plant ; Sepals usually 4-5, sometimes 
wanting, free or connate, often unequal, imbricate ; Petals usually 4-5, some- 
times 0, imbricate; Stamens very variable, usually 8, sometimes 2-12 or 
indefinite, inserted within, on, or around a disk ; Ovary 2-3-celled and lobed ; 
Fruit capsular or indehiscent, drupaceous, baccate, or sometimes a samara. 

An Order of 600-700 species divided into several tribes, some of which, 
as Acerinea? and Staphylea?, are sometimes considered as separate Orders. 

This Order contains many handsome deciduous shrubs or trees suitable 
for parks, plantations, shrubberies, and gardens. Among the best known are 
the Horse-Chestnuts, Buckeyes, and the innumerable Maples. 



Parks, gardens. May — June. A handsome tree, which will grow in most 

soils, but prefers that of a loamy character. The Horse-Chestnuts and 

Buckeyes are propagated by layers in February ; by grafting in March, and 

budding in July, on the Common Horse-Chestnut ; seeds are sown 3 ins. deep 

in a shady border in March. 

Flowers scarlet; Inflorescence a thyrsus, shorter than jE. Hippocastanum ; 



HORSE CHESTNUT {^Esculus Mppocastanum) 

A. Section of twig. B. Twig in winter. C. Opening leaf bud. D. Fruit in early stage. 
E. Section of same. F. The horseshoe mark. G. Flower after removal of petals. 
//. Flower. /. Mature fruit, in husk. 

Plate X. 


Calyx 4-lobed ; Petals 4, claws shorter than calyx ; Stamens 8 ; Fruit a capsule, 
not so spinous as yE. Hippocastanum. 

Leaves compound, opposite, petiolate, digitate ; leaflets 5-7, obovately 
cuneate, unequally serrated, acute, deep green. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 20 30 ft. ; Bark lighter ; Buds with little resin. 

Introduced from N. America, 1820. A hybrid between JE. Hippocastanum 
and jE. Pavia (P. rubra). Synonymous with uE. rubicunda. 

FETID BUCKEYE, Msculus glabra. 

Parks, gardens. April, May. 

Flowers pale yellow-green, polygamous ; Inflorescence a thyrsus, 5-6 ins. 
long, pubescent, pedicels short ; only lower flowers perfect and fertile ; Calyx 
5-lobed, campanulate, imbricated in bud ; Petals 4-5, imbricated, nearly 
equal, puberulous, limb about twice as long as claw ; Stamens usually 7, 
exserted, filaments long, pubescent, orange, anthers hairy ; Ovary sessile, 
3-celled, pubescent ; style slender, curved ; stigma entire ; Fruit a capsule, 
1-2 ins. long, ovate or obovate, pale brown, prickly ; seeds 1-li in. broad. 

Leaves opposite, exstipulate, digitate, leaflets 5-7, usually 5, oval-oblong 
or obovate, acuminate, finely serrated, entire at base, pubescent when young, 
yellow-green, paler beneath, 4-6 ins. xll -2.1 ins. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 20-30 ft. ; Branches spreading ; branchlets orange-brown, 
pubescent, to reddish-brown and glabrous ; Bark ashy-grey, furrowed, broken 
into thick rough plates ; Twigs dark brown, scaly ; Buds acuminate, jj in. 
long, not resinous, scales triangular; Wood light, soft, close-grained, not 
strong, nearly white. 

Native of N. America ; also called Ohio Buckeye. 

HORSE-CHESTNUT, Msculus Hippocastanum. 

Parks, gardens, avenues. April, May. This, the most showy of all our 

flowering trees, is equally at home in park, garden, or avenue, " a thing of 



beauty, and a joy for ever." It thrives best in a rich loamy soil in level, 
well sheltered situations. It is easily raised from seed. 

Flowers white, tinged with crimson, dotted with yellow ; irregular, 
entomophilous, proterogynous ; InHoreseenec a thyrsus, upper Mowers usually 
males, lower hermaphrodite ; Calyx 5-lobed ; Petals 5 ; Stamens 7, curved, 
inserted on a fleshy disk ; Ovary «3-celled, style long, curved, glabrous ; 
Fruit a .'J-valved capsule, thick, leathery, spinous, usually containing two 
dark-red glossy seeds ; produced after twenty years. 

Leaves opposite, compound, digitate, petiolate, exstipulate ; leaflets 
usually 7, obovately cuneate, acuminate, unequally serrated, thin, downy 
in young stage, disarticulating from the rachis, at times 1 ft. long ; leaves 
sometimes 1 ft. across, usually lying somewhat horizontally. Autumn tints 
yellow, orange, golden-brown. 

A deciduous tree, 80-100 ft. ; Branches in opposite pairs, curving down- 
wards, the extremities curling upwards in winter ; Trvigs very stout, smooth ; 
Bark greenish-grey, somewhat smooth and flaking, bitter, used for tanning 
and yellow dye ; Trunk sometimes twisted ; Buds ovoid-acute, reddish- 
brown, covered with thick coat of varnish ; scales are modified petioles ; 
Leaf-scars like a horse-shoe with nails ; Wood soft, weak ; used for packing- 
cases, blind-wood, and moulds. 

A native of Greece, Persia, and N. India ; introduced about 1550 ; lives 
to about 200 years. 

Foliage subject to Horse-Chestnut Leaf-spot (Septoria Hippocastani) ; 
timber bored by larva of Wood Leopard Moth (Zeuzera cesculi, Z. 
pyrin a). 


Gardens. Prefers moist situation, and thrives well in strong, clay soil. 

July, August. 

Flowers white, in a long dense thyrsus ; Calyx tubular, obconical ; Petals 

4, nearly similar, erect, narrow, claws long ; Stamens 6-7, three times as 



long as petals, giving a fringed appearance ; Fruit a capsule, small, smooth, 
without prickles, seldom ripening in England. 

Leaves opposite, palmate, petioles long, reddish-brown, leaflets 5 7, 
oblong-lanceolate, bright green above, downy beneath, minutely serrated, 

A deciduous shrub, 3-9 ft. ; or small tree, 10-15 ft. ; several stems and 
stoloniferous shoots ; Branches slender, spreading, turning upwards at ex- 
tremities, or rooting if touching the ground. 

A native of N. America; introduced 1820. Known in America as Buckeye; 
often called Pavia alba or P. macrostachya ; genus Pavia, in honour of Peter 
Paiv, Professor at Leyden, seventeenth century. 

YELLOW HORN, Xanthoceras sorbij 

Gardens. A fine shrub or small tree, in it's foliage resembling the 
Mountain Ash. It does well in light garden soil, but best against a wall. 
It is propagated by seeds sown in light soil outdoors in spring or autumn. 
April, May. 

Flowers ivory-white, large, regular, polygamous, in a terminal raceme, 
8 ins. long ; pedicels long, bracteate at base ; Sepals 5, equal, boat-shaped, 
imbricate ; Petals 5, elongated, clawed, without scales, reddish streaks at 
base, slightly deflected when expanded ; Disk cup-like ; Stamens 8 ; Ovary 
superior, 3-celled ; Fruit a 3-valved capsule, resembling a Peach in shape 
and texture, 2 ins. long, 1-i- in. diam. ; ripe in July. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, stipulate, leaflets 7, ovate-lanceolate, 
sharply serrated, acuminate. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, 5-15 ft. ; Branches erect ; Twigs brown ; 
Buds green. 

Native of Mongolia; introduced about 1870. Generic name from xanthos, 

yellow, and keras, a horn, in allusion to the yellow, horn-like glands or 

nectaries between the petals ; specific name from resemblance of leaves to 

those of the True Service Tree (Pyrus Sorbus). 



COMMON MAPLE, Acer campestre. 

Thickets and hedgerows. Will grow in dry situations, and under the 
shade of other trees. May, June. 

The Maples, of which there are about thirty species in cultivation, succeed 
best in a well-drained, loamy soil, and they prefer a sheltered position. They 
are propagated by layers in October ; grafting in March ; budding in August ; 
and seeds sown in a sheltered position in October. 

Flowers green, { in. diam., regular, entomophilous or anemophilous, 
lower ones staminate, upper bisexual, sometimes proterandrous, in a short, 
erect, terminal, loose corymb-like panicle of cymes, pedicels short, hairy ; 
Sepals 5, linear-oblong, hairy ; Petals 5, narrower than sepals ; Stamens 8, 
inserted on a hypogynous disk ; Ovary 2-lobed, glabrous or downy, style 1, 
stigmas 2 ; Fruit a samara, 2-seeded, wings horizontal, slightly curved, linear- 
oblong, 1.1 in. long, red in late summer, brown when ripe, glabrous except 
at seed-vessel, which is pubescent. 

Leaves opposite, palmately 5-lobed, lobes and sinuses rounded, crenate, 
exstipulate, rarely 4 ins. across, petioles red. Autumn tints rich yellow, 
red, golden-brown. 

A deciduous tree, 20-30 ft. Branches spreading ; Twigs brown ; Bark 
corky, deeply fissured, brown, Buds ovate, scales green, ciliate ; Wood soft, 
close-grained, beautifully veined. 

Native of Britain. Known also as Field Maple ; common name from 
A.S. mcepel, mapul, whence mapul-treo, mapuhler, the maple-tree ; Latin 
name from acer, eris, maple-tree, and campester, tris, tre, belonging to a 
field — campus, an open field. 

Leaves often hoary with Maple blight or mildew (Uncinula Accris), or 
spotted with Maple-leaf Blotch (Rhytisma punctatum). Small pimple-like galls 
produced by Mites (Eriopfiyes maerorhyncus and E. macrochclus). 


A. Cherry Gall. B. Oak Apple ; its gall- wasp (Teras termindlis or Cynips folii) shown above, enlarged. C, Blister Gall — gall of 
Spathcgastcr vinicatrix. D. Spangle Gall — gall of Newoterus lenticularis, shown above, enlarged. E. Marble Gall — gall of 
Cynips Kollari, with one of the galls cut open, showing larva in its central chamber. F. Artichoko Gall — gall of Cynips 
gemnue, with wasp shown below, enlarged. O. Gall of A euroterus fumipennis (to left of leaf), if. Currant Gall — gall of Spathe- 
yaster baccarum, on calkins, and above on under side of leaf ; its insect below, enlarged. /. Gall of Biorhiza aptcra, on roots. 

Plate XI. 


ROUND-LEAVED MAPLE, Acer circinatum. 

Gardens. Needs a sheltered situation. April, May. 

Floxvers greenish-white, monoecious, in a terminal, stalked corymb, nodding, 
10-20 flowers ; Sepals purple or red, oblong to obovate, acute, villous, longer 
than petals ; Petals- cordate ; Stamens 6-8, filaments slender, exserted in males ; 
Ovary glabrous, style divided nearly to base, stigmas exserted ; Fruit a 
samara, smooth, carpels thick, oblong, wings widely extended, bright red when 
young, purplish-brown when ripe. 

Leaves orbicular, cordate at base, 7-9-lobed, lobes nearly all one size, 
sinuses not deep, but acute, serrated, glabrous, pale reddish-green at first, 
bright green later; 3.V ins. by 3^ ins., petioles stout, grooved, clasping stem. 
Autumn tint scarlet. 

A deciduous shrub, 5-6 ft. ; or a small tree, 20-40 ft. ; round headed ; 
Branches spreading, contorted ; young shoots slender, frequently tinged with 
red ; Bark thin, smooth, red-brown ; Buds obtuse, scales bright red ; Wood 
hard, heavy, fine-grained, not strong, light brown, sometimes nearly white. 

A native of N.W. America; introduced 1826. Also known as the Vine 

SILVER-LEAVED MAPLE, Acer dasycarpum. 

Parks, gardens. Soil must not be too dry. A fine handsome tree, with 
foliage having a bluish-white or silvery bloom on the under surface. April. 

Floivers greenish, appearing before leaves, in a lateral corymb with short 
pedicels ; Petals ; Ovary tomentose ; Fruit a samara, large, broad-winged, 
pubescent, dropping when leaves are fully developed ; wings divaricating, 
sometimes -l in. wide. 

Leaves palmately 5-lobed, truncate at base, recesses blunt, unequally and 
deeply serrated, pale bluish-white underneath, rich green above, 4-0 ins. 
long, petioles and veins on upper side crimson. Autumn tints scarlet and 




A deciduous tree, 30-40 ft. ; semi-pendulous, much branched ; growth 
rapid ; 7\oigs red ; Buds carmine ; Wood soft, little value. 

Introduced from N. America, 1725. Synonymous with A. eriocarpum 
(Michaux) and ./. saccharinum (Linna'us). 

JAPANESE MAPLE, Acer japonieum. 

Gardens. Requires protection from cold winds in spring. April. 

Flowers deep purplish -red, large ; Fruit a samara. 

Leaves usually 10-lobed, small, in early spring a very light green, colouring 
well in autumn. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, 10-20 ft. ; very slow in growth. 

Introduced from Japan, 1863. Many varieties with deeply cut and highly 
coloured leaves. 

CALIFORNIAN MAPLE, Acer macrophyUum. 

Parks, gardens, avenues. A tree of rapid growth, elegant in aspect, but 
requiring shelter for its leaves to come to perfection. May. 

Floivers greenish-yellow, fragrant, conspicuous, monoecious, appearing after 
leaves are full grown ; Inflorescence a drooping compound raceme, 4-6 ins. 
long, pedicels slender, pubescent ; Sepals petaloid, obovate, obtuse ; Petals 
spathulate ; Stamens 9-10, filaments, long, slender, hairy at base, exserted in 
males, anthers orange ; Ovary hoary, tomentose, styles united at base, 
stigmas long, exserted ; Fruit a samara, 2 large, widely extended winged 
carpels, stiff, stinging hairs at base ; ripe in September. 

Leaves digitately 5-lobed, roundish deep sinuses, lobes slightly 3-lobed, 
6-8 ins. across, nearly 1 ft. long, glossy green, pubescent, lobelets acute, 
petioles long. Autumn tint yellowish-brown, orange. 

A deciduous tree, 50-90 ft. ; ample head, rounded ; Trunk 10-15 ft. in 

circumference ; Twigs purplish ; Bark brown, deeply furrowed, square plate- 



like scales ; Buds obtuse ; Wood soft, close -grained, markings like Bird's-eye 
Maple, polishes well. 

Introduced from N. California, 1826. Also known as Large-leaved 
Columbia Maple and Oregon Maple. 

MONTPELIER MAPLE, Acer monspessulanum. 

Rarely grows beyond the size of a shrub. May. 

Flowers pale yellow, expanding just before leaves ; in a loose corymb of 
6-10 flowers, on long, slender, forked peduncles ; Fruit a samara, small, 
smooth, wings parallel ; peduncles slender, 1 .V in. long. 

Leaves cordate, 3-lobed, lobes equal, entire, oval, glabrous, downy in 
axils of principal veins on under side, small, shining dark green, petioles 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, 10-30 ft. ; dense round head ; Branches 
forked, much ramified ; Bark reddish-brown. 

Introduced from S. Europe, 1739. 

BOX ELDER, Acer Negundo. 

Parks. This differs from other Maples in having pinnate leaves. The 
variegated forms are among the most common of all trees in town gardens. 

Flowers yellow-green, dioecious, very small, appearing a little before 
leaves ; Males in fascicles, on filiform pedicels ; Females in racemes ; Calyx 
5-lobed, campanulate ; Petals absent ; Stamens 4-6, filaments slender, hairy, 
exserted, anthers linear, surmounted by connective ; Ovary pubescent, on rudi- 
mentary disk ; style divided into two long stigmatic lobes ; Fruit a samara, 
1-1| in. long, glabrous, slightly incurved, wing finely veined ; racemes 6-8 
ins. long. 

Leaves imparipinnate, 3-5 leaflets, ovate or oval, acute or acuminate, 

coarsely and deeply serrated, odd leaflets usually 3-lobed, pubescent when 



young, nearly glabrous when old, 2-5 ins. long, 1-53 ins. wide, white mottled 
with green, petioles 2-.*{ ins. long. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 80-40 ft.; Branches stout, wide spreading; brancklets 
pale green, glabrous ; Bark pale grey or light brown, deeply furrowed, short 
thick scales ; Buds acute or obtuse, scales tomentose ; Wood soft, weak, 

Introduced from U.S.A., 1688. The variegated varieties are more 
usually grown. Synonymous with Negundo fraocimfolium and A r . aceroides. 
Known as Ash-leaved Maple. 

ITALIAN MAPLE, Acer opuKfoUvm. 

Parks, gardens. May. 

Flowers greenish-yellow, small, in a nearly sessile, lax, terminal, branched 
corymb; pedicels hairy, short; Ovary smooth; Fruit a samara, large, bright 
green, glabrous, thin ; wings broad, horizontal. 

Leaves opposite, variable ; on stronger spray and near base of young 
shoots they are lai^ge, nearly orbicular, cordate at base, 5-lobed, 1-2 obtuse 
serratures ; at ends of branches more pointed and more deeply divided, 
glabrous, deep green above, pale and downy beneath, especially the veins 
and axils of ribs, 4 ins. long, 5 ins. broad ; petiole long. 

A deciduous tree, 8-20 ft. ; dense round head ; lower branches slender, 
much divided, horizontal ; Wood hard and compact ; best of Maples. 

Native of Corsica, Pyrenees, and Alps; introduced from Fiance, 1823. 
Often called French or Guelder Rose-leaved Maple. 

JAPANESE MAPLE, Acer palmatum. 

Shrubberies. Requires protection from cold winds in spring. May. 

Flowers in a 5-7 flowered umbel ; Fruit a samara. 

Leaves palmate, 5-7-lobed ; lobes oblong, acuminate, serrated. 







A deciduous shrub or small tree, 15-20 ft. ; slow in growth. 
Introduced from Japan, 1820. Many varieties of different colours, often 
divided into three groups : 5-lobed, 7-lobed, and much dissected. 

STRIPED MAPLE, Acer pennsylvanicum. 

Parks. The peculiarly striped bark makes this a very distinctive tree. 
May, June. 

Flowers canary-yellow, monoecious, appearing when leaves are nearly 
full grown ; Inflorescence a slender, drooping, terminal raceme, 4-6 ins. long ; 
pedicels \-l in. long; Sepals linear-lanceolate to obovate, ] in. long; Petals 
smaller, obovate ; Stamens 7-8, shorter than petals ; Ovary purplish-brown, 
glabrous ; style stout ; stigmas spreading, recurved ; Fruit a samara, glabrous ; 
wings thin, spreading. 

Leaxics opposite, rounded or cordate at base, 3-lobed at apex, finely 
serrated or serratulate, acuminate, thin, membranous, ferruginous pubescence 
when young, glabrous when old, except in axils of principal veins, pale 
below, 5-6 ins. x 4-5 ins.; petioles stout, grooved, H-2 in. Autumn tint 
light yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 20-30 ft. ; Branches erect ; branchlets pale greenish- 
yellow to bright red-brown ; Trunk, and branches after 2-3 years, striped 
with broad, pale longitudinal lines ; Bark rough ; Buds stalked, scales red ; 
Wood light, soft, close-grained, satiny, light brown. 

Introduced from U.S.A., 1755. Known also as Moose Wood and Snake- 
barked Maple. 

NORWAY MAPLE, Acer platanoides. 

Parks, gardens, avenues. A rapid-growing and very handsome tree, with 
foliage resembling the Plane. April, May. 

F/ozvcrs bright yellow, appearing just before leaves, smooth ; early 

flowers mostly female, later ones males by abortion ; Inflorescence a nearly 

erect-stalked corymb-like panicle of cymes ; Stamens in males as long as 

61 F 


petals ; Ovary glabrous ; Fruit a samara, large, flat, thin, smooth ; wings 
slightly curved, nearly horizontal, each 2] ins. long; seed not usually produced 
till between forty and fifty years old. 

Leaves palmate, angularly 5-lobed, cordate at base, lobes broad, acuminate ; 
thin, deep glossy green above, glabrous, shining, few coarse, sharply-pointed 
serratures, shortly petiolate, 4 ins. long, 7 ins. broad. Autumn tint yellow, 
or yellow tinged with red. 

A deciduous tree, 50-60 ft., with dense round head ; Bark of young shoots 
bright green, afterwards changing to reddish-brown dotted with white points ; 
bark of trunk fissured, not scaly ; Buds scaly, quadrangular. 

Introduced from Europe, 1G83. 

SYCAMORE, Acer Pseudo-platamis 

Looked upon in the fourteenth century as a rare exotic, this tree is 
now common in parks, gardens, and avenues, where, as Gerard and Parkin- 
son both have told us, " it specially is planted for the shadowe-sake." No tree 
propagates itself more readily in this country. May, June. 

Flowers greenish-yellow, protandrous, staminate or bisexual, visited by 
bees; Inflorescence a pendulous raceme of umbellate cymes, pedicels short; 
Sepals 4-9 ; Petals 4-9 ; Stamens 8, rather long, hairy, inserted on a fleshy 
hypogynous disk; Ovary 2-lobed, tomentose, style 1, stigmas 2, curved; 
Fruit a samara, scimitar-shaped, wings divergent, red-brown, U ins. long; 
produced after twenty years. 

Leaves opposite, palmately 5-lobed, cordate at base, unequally serrated, 
lobes acuminate, glabrous beneath ; exstipidate, 4-8 ins. across, dark shining 
green above, paler, sometimes reddish beneath, often viscid with honey dew; 
petiole slender, green or red. Autumn tint brown. 

A deciduous tree, 40-60 ft. ; Branches large, massive, rounded ; branchlcts 

turned upwards and slightly thickened ; Bark ash-grey, flaking, smooth ; 

Buck ovoid-pointed, scales olive-green with brown border ; young ivood soft, 

white, older a yellowish tint ; used for furniture. 



Introduced from Central Europe ; extensively planted, seeding freely in 
Britain ; often called the Great Plane, and known in Scotland as the Plane ; 
ordinarily lives 150-250 years; growth rapid. 

Autumn leaves often disfigured by black blotches of a fungus (Rhytisma 
acerinum). Leaves devoured by Cockchafer (Mehlantha vulgaris). Globular 
pimple-galls on foliage produced by a Mite (Phyllocoptes acericola). 

RED MAPLE, Acer rubrum. 

Parks. Need fairly moist soil somewhat sheltered. March, April. 

Flowers crimson or scarlet, appearing before leaves, in sessile corymbose 
clusters, lateral ; Sepals oblong, obtuse ; Petals narrowly oblong ; Stamens 3-8 ; 
Fruit a samara, |—1 in. long ; wings straight, extended, small, smooth, bright 
red, maturing in spring ; pedicels elongated. 

Leaves palmate, 5-lobed, cordate at base, deeply and unequally serrated 
sinuses acute, glabrous and bright green above, downy and glaucous beneath, 
3^ ins. x 3^ ins. petioles, slender, reddish. Autumn tints red and yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 30-40 ft.; Branches diverging, slender, red; Trunk smooth ; 
Twigs red ; Bark smooth, flaky ; Wood hard, fine-grained, not strong, light 
reddish-brown ; little value. 

Native of N. America ; introduced from Canada, 1G56. 

SUGAR MAPLE, Acer saccharinum. 

Thrives in deep, free, rich soil. April, May. 

Flowers greenish-yellow, small, monoecious or dioecious, unfolding before 
leaves ; Inflorescence a drooping corymb ; peduncle short, pedicels pilose ; 
Calyx 5-partite; Petals 0; Stamens 7-8, filaments slender, glabrous; Ovary 
obtusely 2-lobed, pale green, hairy ; styles united at base ; Fruit a samara ; 
wings small, falcate, smooth, diverging, pubescent when young ; pedicels 
elongated ; ripening before leaves. 

Leaves cordate, variable, palmately 5-lobed ; lobes sinuate, acuminate, 

03 F 2 


glabrous, glaucous beneath, 4 ins. long, 5 ins. broad ; petioles slender, red 
on upper side. Autumn tint orange-scarlet. 

A deciduous tree, .'$0-80 ft.; Branches loose; tree broad-base, round- 
topped ; growth slow ; Bark on young steins and branches smooth, grey, 
tinged red ; old trunks red-brown, furrowed, thin scales ; Buds small, scales 
ovate, bright red, ciliate ; Wood hard, strong, light-coloured; used for 
veneer ; maple sugar from sap in small quantities. 

Introduced from N. America, 1735, probahly by Peter Collinson. Also 
known as 15irds-eye Maple. 

TARTARIAN MAPLE, Acer tartaricum. 

Shrubberies. May. 

Flowers pale yellowish-green, sometimes tinged with red ; Inflorescence 
a crowded erect, compound raceme ; Fruit a samara, downy and tinged with 
red when young, smooth and brown when ripe, in August, thin, wings 
parallel, only slightly separated. 

Leaves cordate, sometimes 3-lobed, acuminate, serrated, reticulated on 
upper side when young, glabrous on both sux*faces later, bright green above, 
4 ins. long, 21 ins. broad. Autumn tint reddish-yellow or brown. 

A deciduous tree, 12-30 ft. : round head, sometimes 20 ft. diam. 

A native of Tartary and south of European Russia ; introduced 1759. 
One of the earliest to expand its leaves. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division II. . . . Calycijlorce 
Natural Order . . Staphyleacece 

Branched shrubs with opposite, stipulate, 3-5 foliate or pinnate leaves, 

and regular, white flowers in axillary racemes or panicles ; Sepals 5, equal, 

deciduous ; Petals 5, erect, about as long as calyx, imbricated ; Stamens 5, 

perigynous ; Ovary superior ; Fruit a membranous capsule, bladder-like. 

A small Order, sometimes placed with the Celastrinea? or Sapindaceae. 



JEscultts Hippd astanuw 


COLCHICAN BLADDER-NUT, Staphylea cokhica. 

Gardens, shrubberies. Best in fairly moist, loamy soil. June. 

The genus Staphylea contains five species of hardy, branched shrubs. 
They are propagated by cuttings of firm shoots 6-8 ins. long in sandy soil 
in a cold frame or in a sheltered position in September ; by layers of shoots 
in September or October ; or suckers in October to February. 

Flowers white, § in. long, in a terminal corymbose panicle, erect or slightly 
nodding ; Sepals 5, petaloid, white, linear, spreading, united only at base ; 
Petals 5, linear-spathulate, erect; Stamens 5, perigynous; Ovary superior, 
2-celled, stigma 2-lobed ; Fruit a membranous capsule, green, 3 ins. long, 
l.\ in. broad, flattened, 3-seeded. 

Leaves opposite, ternate or 5-foliate, leaflets approximate, ovate-oblong, 
acuminate, serrulate, glabrous above, dark green, paler and puberulous towards 
base beneath, petioles long, leaflets sub-sessile. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-8 ft. ; Tieigs green ; Buds opposite, flattened, acute, 
without scales. 

Introduced from the Caucasus. Also known in gardens as S. regeliana. 
Generic name from Gr. staphyle, a cluster of grapes; specific name from 
Gr. colchicon, meadow saffron — Colchicus, relating to Colchis, the native 
country of the sorceress Medea, who assisted Jason to obtain the Golden 
Fleece, and afterwards became his wife. 

BLADDER-NUT, Staphylea pinna/a. 

Gardens, shrubberies. The bladder-like capsules, witii their white seeds, 
make this a very distinctive shrub. May, June. 

Flowers white, small, in an axillary panicle, bracteate ; Sepals 5, equal, 

deciduous ; Petals 5, erect, imbricated ; Stamens 5. inserted on perigynous 

disk ; Ovarii superior ; Fruit a membranous bladder-like capsule ; seech globose, 

white, pistachio-flavoured, used for rosaries. 



Leaves opposite, imparipinnate, leaflets 5-7, elliptical-oblong, serrate, 
accumulate, glabrous, stipulate, petiole long. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-12 ft.; Suckers freely produced; Branches ascending; 
Twigs brown ; Bark smootli ; Buds acute, flattened. 

Native of S. Europe. Known also as Job's Tears and St. Anthony's Nuts. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division II Calycijiorce 

Natural Order . . . Anacardiacece 

Trees or shrubs with resinous, acrid, or milky juice, alternate, simple or 
compound, exstipulate leaves, and small, regular, minute, dioecious or 
polygamous flowers ; Calyx usually 5-lobed, imbricated in bud ; Petals usually 
5, imbricated ; Stamens usually 5, alternate with petals, inserted on margin or 
under an annular, fleshy, 5-lobed disk ; Ovary usually superior, 1-celled, styles 3 ; 
Fruit drupaceous. 

DWARF SUMACH, Rhus eopallina. 

Gardens. A handsome shrub in autumn, easily distinguished by its petioles 
being winged between the leaflets. July. 

The genus Rhus contains about 120 species, of which less than twenty are 
hardy shrubby plants in cultivation. Some contain poisonous properties, and 
require very careful handling. They are suitable for sunny borders or 
shrubberies, and some are remarkable for their brilliant tints in autumn. They 
are propagated by cuttings of firm shoots 6-8 ins. long in ordinary soil in a 
cold frame or under a hand-light in October or November; by cuttings of 
roots 2-3 ins. long planted 3 ins. deep in sandy soil in October or November; 
or by layers of shoots in autumn. 

Flmvers greenish-yellow, dioecious, minute, in a compact thyrsoid panicle, 4-6 
ins. long, bracteate and bracteolate ; Calyx puberulous, lobes ovate, acute, one- 
third as long as petals ; Petals rounded, reflexed above middle, deciduous ; 

Stamens longer than petals, filaments slender, anthers orange ; Ovary ovate ; 



Fruit drupaceous, obovate, flattened, red with glandular hairs ; stone orange- 
brown, bony. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 6-8 ins. long, leaflets 9-21, ovate-lanceolate, 
acute, entire or serrate, lower pairs smaller and shortly petiolulate, subcoriaceous, 
dark shining green above, pale and pubescent beneath, 2-2J ins. long ; petioles 
winged between leaflets. Autumn tint dark rich maroon. 

A deciduous shrub, 1-8 ft. ; Branches spreading, erect, downy ; Twigs 
reddish-brown ; Bark brown tinged with red ; Buds minute, rusty-brown 

Introduced from N. America, 1088. Common name "Sumach" derived 
from sumac or shuntac, a dye made of powdered leaves of R. Coriaria. 

CHITTAM WOOD, Rhus cotinoides. 

Gardens. Said to colour best in poor soil, and certainly one of the most 
lovely of autumn-tinted shrubs. April, May. 

Flowers greenish-yellow, dioecious, minute, in a slender terminal panicle, few- 
flowered, flowers 3-4 together in loose umbels at ends of pedicels ; Calyx lobes 5, 
ovate- lanceolate, obtuse, persistent ; Petals 5, oblong, acute, twice as long as 
calyx, deciduous, inserted under margin of disk ; Stamens 5, shorter than petals ; 
Ovary sessile, obovate ; styles 3, short, spreading, stigmas large ; Fruit drupace- 
ous, smooth, in feathery panicles 8-12 ins. long, pedicels 2-3 in%. long, hairy; 
drupe compressed. 

Leaves alternate, simple, oval or obovate, obtuse or slightly emarginate, 
tapering towards base, margins wavy, revolute, membranaceous, dark green 
on upper surface, paler below, silky when young, 4-6 ins. long, 2-3 ins. wide ; 
petioles stout. Autumn tints orange and scarlet. 

A deciduous shrub, 8-15 ft. ; Branches brittle ; Twigs dark red ; Bark light 
grey ; Buds small, scales dark red-brown ; Wood light, soft, coarse-grained, 
bright orange. 

Native of Southern U.S.A. ; discovered by Nuttall on the Grand River, 1819 ; 

there grows as tree, 35 ft. Specific name = like the Rhus Cotinus (Gr. cidos, form). 



SMOKE PLANT, Rhus Cotinus. 

Gardens, shrubberies. This is one of the most curious and remarkable of 
hardy shrubs. Some of the pedicels are fiowerless and reduced to mere threads, 
giving the inflorescence a wig-like appearance. In late summer and autumn the 
leathery panicles take on a beautiful fleshy tint, and the glaucous round leaves 
become a rosy-crimson, giving the whole plant a very striking character. It 
will grow in some of the poorest soils. June, July. 

Flowers yellow, polygamous, minute, in a loose panicle ; some of the pedicels 
transformed into white awns, giving a feathery appearance; Calyx 5 -partite ; 
Petals 5 ; Stamens 5, filaments rose-red ; Ovary 1-celled ; Fruit drupaceous, 
white, smooth, half-heart shaped ; 1-seeded, stone triangular ; pedicels long, 
hairy ; ripe in September. 

Leaves alternate, simple, obovate or orbicular, acute, entire, stiff, coriaceous, 
bright glossy green, strongly aromatic, 3 ins. x 2 ins. ; petioles long, slender. 
Autumn tint reddish-yellow or crimson. 

A decidiious shrub, 6-8 ft. ; rambling ; branchlets pubescent, olive-green or 
red ; Buds minute ; Wood yellow or greenish ; used in cabinet-work and turnery ; 
young twigs yield yellow dye. 

Introduced from S. Europe, 1G56. Called also Wig- tree and Venetian 

SMOOTH SUMACH Rhus globra. 

Gardens. The bright red fruiting panicles are very handsome, and retain 
their beauty well into the winter. It may be distinguished from the Staghorn 
Sumach by the smooth wood and leaves and the more or less glaucous leaflets. 

Flowers — Males greenish-yellow ; Females greenish-red, with crimson hairs ; 

Inflorescence a terminal panicle ; Fruit a drupe, with bright red hairs ; stone 


Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, leaflets 17-31, lanceolate-oblong, serrate, 



nearly glabrous, deep glossy green above, whitish beneath, 2-4 ins. long. 
Autumn tint rich red. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, 12-18 ft. ; Branches glabrous. 

Introduced from N. America, 172G. 

POISON IVY, Rhus Toxicodendron. 

Gardens. Well adapted for growing over low walls or stumps, but requires 
very careful handling. Contact between any portion of the plant and the bare 
skin causes poisoning, the parts affected becoming greatly swollen and inflamed ; 
some persons appear to be immune, but others are affected even by walking 
near the plant. June. 

Flowers greenish-yellow, in a loose, slender, axillary panicle, 1-3 ins. long ; 
Calyx 5-partite ; Petals 5, elliptical ; Stamens 5 ; Ovary superior, ovoid, styles 
3 ; Fruit a drupe, red. 

Leaves alternate, leaflets 3, rhombic-ovate, 1-4 ins. long, acute, notched, 
sinuate or lobed, downy beneath. Autumn tint purplish-red. 

A deciduous twining 1 shrub, climbing by adventitious rootlets over rocks and 
stones ; sometimes erect and bushy. 

Native of N. America and Japan; introduced 1640. Also called Poison Oak. 
The generic name is from lihous, the old Greek name used by Theophrastus ; 
specific name from Greek toxicon, poison, and dendron, a tree. Syn. R. 
radicans. Known also in gardens as Ampelopsis japonica and A. Hoggii. 

STAGHORN SUMACH, Rhus typkina. 

Gardens, shrubberies. This is the species most frequently seen in gardens, 

and is a very handsome plant in autumn. The young shoots are always 

hairy, and their curious appearance has given the plant its common name. 

If cut back and reduced to one or two shoots in the spring, the plant will 

produce immense leaves, giving a splendid effect in autumn. June. 

Flowers greenish-yellow, polygamous, small ; Males — Calyx 5-partite, 



persistent, hairy, lobes acute, shorter than petals, fused to hypogynous disk; 
Petals 5, yellow-green, sometimes tinged red, strap-shaped, inserted under 
margin of disk, deciduous; Stamens .5, alternate with petals, on margin of 
disk; filaments subulate, anthers ovoid, orange; Females— Calyx lobes nearly 
as long as petals ; Petals green, narrow, acuminate, erect ; Ovary ovoid, 
1 -celled, styles 3, connate at base, stigmas capitate; Inflorescence a terminal 
thyrsoid panicle, males 8-12 ins. long; females £-2 ins.; Fruit a dry drupe, 
in dense erect panicles 6-8 ins. long, 2-3 ins. wide, covered with crimson- 
purple tomentum. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 16-24 ins. long, leaflets 11-31, oblong- 
lanceolate, acute, serrate, rarely lacinate, nearly sessile, dark green above, 
paler beneath, glabrous, pairs near middle 2-6 ins. long, 1-1^ in. wide; 
petioles hairy. Autumn tints scarlet, crimson, purple, orange. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, 10-30 ft. ; Branches stout, tortuous, 
velvety hairy ; Twigs pilose, stout, terete, olive-brown ; Bark thin, brown, 
smooth ; Buds conical, very short, blunt, hairy ; Wood light, brittle, soft, 
coarse-grained, orange streaked with green ; tree abounds in white viscid 
juice, turning black on exposure to air. 

Introduced from U.S.A., 1629. Also called Vinegar Tree. 

POISON SUMACH, Rhus venenata. 

Gardens. The autumn foliage is of " unparalleled splendour." The 
plant easily bleeds when bruised, and the sap is extremely poisonous and 
irritating to the skin. July. 

Flowers yellow-green, polygamous, minute, in a loose, slender, axillary 
panicle ; pubescent, bracteate, bracteolate, bibracteolate near middle ; Calyx- 
lobes acute, erect, reflexed at apex ; Petals 3 times length of calyx-lobes ; 
Stamens twice as long as petals in males, filaments slender, anthers large, 
orange ; Ovary ovoid-globose ; styles short, spreading, stigmas capitate ; 
Fruit drupaceous, ovate, acute, glabrous, white, sometimes tinged yellow ; 

stone thin, grooved. 



Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 7-14 ins. long, leaflets 7-13, obovate- 
oblong, acute or rounded, entire, pubescent when young, afterwards glabrous, 
dark shining green above, pale below, revolute, 3-4 ins. long, H-2 ins. wide ; 
petioles slender, red or green. Autumn tints scarlet and orange. 

A deciduous shrub, 12ft.; Brandies slender; Twigs glabrous, reddish- 
brown to orange-brown and grey ; Bark thin, grey, smooth ; Buds acute, 
scales purple, ciliate. 

Introduced from N. America, 1713. Syn. R. vernisc. Known as Poison 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division II Calycijioroe 

Natural Order . . . Leguminosce 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs with alternate, stipulate leaves, usually ternate or 
pinnate, sometimes tendrilled ; Calyx inferior, 5-partite, often irregular, the 
odd lobe anterior ; Petals usually 5, papilionaceous or irregular, inserted at 
bottom of calyx-tube ; Stamens 10 or indefinite, inserted in calyx-tube or 
rarely hypogynous, free, diadelphous, or rarely in 3 bundles ; Ovary superior, 
usually monocarpellary ; Fruit a legume, or sometimes a lomentum, rarely 
a drupe. 

All the British species have papilionaceous flowers, and the anterior position 
of the odd lobe of the calyx distinguishes the Order from all others. 

SCOTCH LABURNUM, Laburnum alpinum. 

Gardens. Laburnums thrive in almost any soil or situation. They may 
be propagated by seeds sown outdoors in March or April. June. 

Flowers yellow, smaller than L. vulgare, in a pendulous raceme, longer 
than L. vulgare, pedicels downy ; Calyx downy ; Fruit a pod shorter than 
L. vulgare, smooth, upper suture winged. 

Leaves trifoliate, petiolate, glabrous, leaflets ovate-lanceolate, rounded 

at base, green both surfaces, glabrous, or bordered with short spreading hairs. 



A deciduous tree, 15-20 ft; Branches terete. 
Introduced from Europe about 1596. 

LABURNUM, Laburnum vulgare. 

Parks and gardens. This species and its varieties are common in town 
gardens. It will readily propagate itself by seed. April — June. 

Flowers yellow, papilionaceous, proterandrous, nearly 1 in. long, visited 
by bees ; Inflorescence a pendulous terminal raceme ; pedicels pubescent ; Calyx 
shortly toothed, pubescent ; standard of Corolla veined with dark lines ; 
Stamens monadelphous ; Style ascending ; Fruit a legume, downy ; upper suture 
thickened and keeled, but not winged ; green, becoming black ; seeds 2-7, 
kidney-shaped, poisonous. 

Leaves trifoliate, petiolate ; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, entire, pubescent 
beneath, acute or mucronate ; stipules small, filamentous, persistent. Autumn 
tint yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 20-25 ft. ; Branches terete, whitish ; Bark smooth, 
grey-green, poisonous to cattle, but eaten by rabbits ; Twigs olive, smooth, 
silky Lcnticels conspicuous ; Buds silky, scales few ; Wood hard, dark, coarse- 
grained, taking a good polish ; sap-wood yellow, heart-wood yellow-brown, 
greenish-brown to black ; used in turnery and cabinet-work. 

A native of S. Europe ; introduced 1596. Foliage destroyed by larva of 
Laburnum Moth (Gemiostema laburnella) ; also subject to Laburnum Leaf-spot 
( Pli if/lost icta Cijtisi) . 

MOUNT ETNA GENISTA, Genista cethnensis. 

Gardens. A handsome species, well suited for groups or in borders. The 

genus Genista contains about a dozen hardy flowering shrubs. They thrive 

in almost any well-drained soil, and are easily raised from seed sown outdoors 

in March or April. The dwarf species do well on rockeries, and the taller 

are suitable for shrubberies. June — August. 



Flowers golden - yellow, papilionaceous in a terminal raceme; Fruit a 

Leaves alternate, simple, linear, few, entire, silky. 

A deciduous shrub, 15-18 ft. ; Branches long, slender, terete, arching or 

Native of Sicily and Sardinia; introduced 1816. Also called Rock Broom. 

PETTY WHIN, Genista anglica. 

Heaths, moist moors, bushy pastures. Very suitable for the rockery or 
wild garden. May, June. 

Floivers yellow, papilionaceous, | in. long, in a short, leafy raceme, 
axillary, shortly pedicelled ; Calyx persistent, teeth short, triangular ; Corolla 
glabrous, petals narrow ; Fruit a legume, | in. long, broad, acuminate both 
ends, glabrous, deciduous, compressed ; seeds shining, olive. 

Leaves alternate, simple, ovate-lanceolate, entire, acuminate, sessile, 
t\ ™. long. 

A deciduous shrub, 1-2 ft. ; Stem slender, spreading, ascending, curved ; 
lower branches converted into slender, recurved, simple or branched spines, 
^-1 in. long. 

Native of Britain. Called also Needle Green Weed, Needle Furze, and 
Heather Whin. 

SPANISH GORSE, Genista hispanica. 

Gardens. This is a dense, spiny undershrub, well suited for the rock- 
garden. June. 

Floivers golden-yellow, papilionaceous, in a terminal raceme, somewhat 
capitate ; Fruit a legume. 

Leaves alternate, lanceolate, entire, villous. 

A deciduous shrub, 1-2 ft. ; Spines branched, stiff, tloriferous branches 

Native of South-western Europe ; introduced 1759. 

73 G 


HAIRY GREENWEED, Genista pilosa. 

Heaths, thickets, waste places. A delightful little rock-garden plant, 
which grows freely and blossoms abundantly. May — September. 

Flowers bright yellow, papilionaceous, I in. long; Racemes short and 
leafy ; pedicels short, in axils of previous year's leaves ; Calyx silky, 2 
upper lobes lanceolate, 3 lower subulate ; keel of Corolla pubescent ; Fruit 
a legume, jj in. long, hairy, flat, valves bulging over seeds, deciduous. 

Leaves alternate, simple, obovate-lanceolate, entire, obtuse, recurved, silky 
beneath, \ in. long, petioles very short, stipules ovate, obtuse. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-12 ins. ; Stem prostrate, much branched, tortuous, 

Native of Britain. 

ARROW-JOINTED GENISTA, Genista sagittate. 

Gardens, rockeries. This is suitable for undergrowth or as edging for a 
bed, and does well on rock-work. May, June. 

Flowers yellow, papilionaceous, in an ovate, terminal, leafless raceme; 
Fruit a legume. 

Leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, few, entire. 

A deciduous shrub, 6 ins. ; Stems prostrate ; Branches herbaceous, ascend- 
ing, winged and jointed, membranous. 

Introduced from S. Europe, 1750. 

DYER'S GREENWEED, Genista tinctoria. 

Thickets and pastures. Very useful for growing on dry soils. July — 

Flowers yellow, papilionaceous, \ in. long, not honeyed, in a terminal, 

short, slender raceme, pedicels short ; Calyx shortly 2-lipped, much shorter 

than corolla, glabrous, 2 upper teeth broadly lanceolate, 3 lower shorter 


LABURNUM {Laburnum vulgare) 
A. Flowering shoot. B. Petals of flower. C. Pistil. D. Seeds. E. Fruit. F. Flower, with petals removed. 

Plate XIII. 


very narrow, acuminate, deciduous above base ; Petals 5, standard oblong ; 
wings gibbous at base, adnate to staminal tube ; keel petals clawed, separating 
and not resilient after deflection ; Stamens 10, monadelpbous, anthers alter- 
nately short and versatile, and long and basifixed, outer 4 ripening first ; 
Ovary superior, 1 carpel, style incurved, stigma oblique ; Fruit a legume, 
glabrous, narrow, much flattened, nearly 1 in. long, 5-10-seeded. 

Leaves alternate, simple, lanceolate to elliptical or nearly ovate, sessile, 
entire, nearly glabrous, often shining; 1-11 in. long, £-§ in. broad; stipules 
minute, subulate. 

A deciduous shrub, 1-2 ft. ; Stem woody, branched, decumbent at base ; 
flowering branches erect or ascending, hard, rigid, no spines, green. 

Native of Britain. Yields a yellow dye. Specific name from L. tingo, 
tinetuin, to dye, to stain. 

TWIGGY GENISTA, Genista virgata. 

Gardens, shrubheries. One of the most beautiful of the genus, doing 
well in a poor, sandy soil. It is useful for house decoration. June, July. 

Flowers yellow, papilionaceous, silky ; Inflorescence racemose ; Fruit a 

Leaves alternate, oblong-lanceolate, entire, silky pubescence, \ in. long. 

A deciduous shrub, 10-15 ft. ; liranehes twiggy, terete, striated. 

Introduced from Madeira, 1777. 


Gardens. This very ornamental shrub is easily grown in a poor soil 
and exposed situation. It is best increased by seed sown in fine soil out- 
doors in autumn or spring. July — September. 

Flowers golden-yellow, papilionaceous, large, fragrant, in a terminal raceme ; 
bracts and bracteoles minute, very caducous ; Calyx somewhat spathaceous ; 
standard large ; wings obovate ; keel incurved, acuminate ; Fruit a legume. 

75 G 2 


Leaves few, alternate, l -foliate, exstipulate. 

A deciduous shrub, 6 12 ft.; Branches green, slender; young shoots 
dark green, Hush-like. 

Native of Mediterranean and Canary Isles; introduced 1548. Generic 
name used by Dioscorides, derived from Gr. spartos, a shrub growing in 
Spain, used for making cords or ropes ; specific name from L. juncus, 
a rush. 

FURZE or GORSE, Ulex europants. 

Heaths, commons, and sandy wastes. This showy spring shrub is useful 
for covering sandy banks, and does well near the sea. It is propagated by 
cuttings inserted in ordinary soil in a shady position outdoors in spring or 
autumn, or in a cold frame in August; seeds sown in light soil outdoors 
in April, best where plants are to remain. February, March; August, 

Flowers yellow, odorous, entomophilous ; Inflorescence a raceme formed of 
flowers solitary in the axils of spines on the preceding year's shoots; Calyx 
gamosepalous, nearly as long as corolla, membranous, yellow, black spreading 
hairs, deeply 2-lipped, upper lip with 2, lower lip 3, minute teeth, 2 lax 
ovate bracts at base ; Corolla papilionaceous, f in. long, petals narrow, clawed, 
standard ovate, wings and keel obtuse, wings longer than keel ; Stamens 10, 
monadelphous, anthers alternately short and versatile, and long and basifixed ; 
Ovary superior, included in staminal sheath, 1 carpel, 1-celled, style smooth, 
stigma capitate ; Fruit a legume, oval-oblong, f in. long, turgid, black, 
villous with brown hairs, few-seeded. 

Lower leaves sometimes 1 -foliate and lanceolate, but mostly reduced to 
spines or small scales, exstipulate. 

A densely spinous shrub, 2-5 ft., sometimes up to 10 ft. ; Stem erect, 

downy, angular ; Branches spreading, ending in a stout thorn ; spines 

furrowed, rigid, 1-2 ins. long. 

Native of British Isles. 



.1. Flowering Branch. /.'. Seedling, showing ovate leaves. C. I 

I). Flower, sprung after rifling by Bi Pod, 


DWARF FURZE, Ukx nanus. 

Heaths, commons, and wastes. Useful for growing on semi-wild banks, 
and is better when planted in rather poor, dry soil. July — November. 

Flowers yellow ; Inflorescence more racemose than in U. europceus ; 
Calyx | in. long, pubescent with adpressed hairs, or glabrous, teeth minute; 
Corolla \ in. long, wings usually shorter than keel ; Fruit a legume, h in. 
long, persistent till following season. 

Leaves mostly reduced to spines. 

A spiny shrub, 1-3 ft. ; Stem procumbent ; Branches drooping ; spines 
weak, deflexed, |— H in. long. 

Native of British Isles. Specific name is Latin for a dwarf. Known as 
Cat Whin. 

WHITE SPANISH BROOM, Cytisus albus. 

The genus Cytisus contains about twenty hardy shrubs, many of which 
are showy species, and mostly bearing yellow flowers resembling the 
Laburnums and Genistas. They are inclined to become leggy with age, so 
should have the old wood cut out occasionally, that they may produce young 
flowering shoots. They may be propagated by cuttings in March or April ; 
by layers in October or November; or seeds sown outdoors in March 
or April. 

Cytisus albus is an extremely beautiful shrub of rapid growth, thriving 
best on rather light sandy soils. It makes handsome groups in the shrubby 
border, or looks well on a lawn. May. 

Flowers white, papilionaceous, in fascicles disposed in long racemes ; Fruit 
a legume. 

Leaves alternate, simple and ternate, sessile, leaflets linear-oblong, entire, 

A deciduous shrub, G-10 ft., or more in sheltered position ; Branches 

terete, twiggy. 



Native of Spain and Portugal; introduced 1752. Also called White 
Portugal Broom. Syns. Genista multiflora, Sarothamnus aUms, Spartium 
allium. &c. 

ARDOINO'S BROOM, Cytisus Ardoini. 

Rockeries. Thrives in dry soil and sunshine. April, May. 

Flowers golden-yellow, papilionaceous ; 1-6 in axils, usually secund; pedicels 
hairy, ebracteolate, about twice length of calyx; Calyx campanulate, scarious 
in upper half, hairy ; Fruit a legume. 

Leaves alternate, trifoliate, leaflets obovate, small, hairy, silky when 

A deciduous shrub, 4-12 ins. ; Stems decumbent, rod-like, springing from 
a knotted and twisted stock. 

Native of Maritime Alps, Italy ; introduced 1867. 

COMMON BROOM, Cytisus scoparius. 

Heaths, commons, gardens. Requires soil well drained and open, growing 
well on banks, and in situations too dry for other plants. Its flowers are the 
largest of the genus. May, June. 

Flowers bright yellow, rarely white. 1 in. long, not honeyed, papi- 
lionaceous, axillary, solitary or in pairs ; pedicels short, slender ; Calyx cam- 
panulate, much shorter than Corolla, slightly 2-lipped, upper lip minutely 
2-toothed, lower minutely 8-toothed, ebracteate ; Petals all broad, standard 
broadly orbicular, marked with honey guides, wings oblong, keel obtuse, often 
deflected, claws free ; Stamens 10, 5 long, 5 short, monadelphous, tube entire ; 
Ovary superior, 1 carpel ; style very long, spirally incurved, smooth or slightly 
hairy ; stigma terminal, minute, capitate ; Fruit a legume, 1 -i— 2 ins. long, 
flat, hairy on edges, glabrous on sides, black, valves twisted after dehiscence ; 
seeds shining, olive. 

Leaves alternate, 1-3 foliate, leaflets obovate, |— £ in. long, entire, shortly 

petiolate, upper ones sessile, silky ; stipules minute ; dead leaves brown. 



A deciduous shrub, 2-6 ft. ; Branches straight, erect, rigid, prominently 
angled, without thorns, glabrous or nearly so, green. 

Native of Britain. Described by some botanists under name of Sarothamnus 
scoparius. Syns. Genista scoparia, Spartium scoparium. 

LEAD PLANT, Amorpha canescens. 

Gardens. Light loamy soil and sunny position ; frequently cut by winter, 
but reviving in spring. Propagated by cuttings in autumn, layers in summer, 
or suckers in winter. July, August. 

Flowers dark purplish-blue or violet, in terminal elongated spicate raceme, 
2-7 ins. long ; Standard nearly orbicular or obcordate, concave, I in. long ; 
Anthers golden ; Fruit a legume, slightly longer than calyx, 1 -seeded. 

Leaves imparipinnate, 2-4 ins. long, leaflets 21-49, l~l in. long, ovate- 
elliptical, approximate, sub-sessile, obtuse or acute, rounded or truncate at 
base, densely white tomentose, pellucid dots. 

A deciduous shrub, 1-3 ft. ; densely white canescent all over, somewhat 

Native of N. America; introduced from Missouri, 1812. Also called Shoe- 

BASTARD INDIGO, Amorpha fruticosa. 

Gardens, shrubberies. Requires a sheltered situation. June, July. 

F/ozvers dark bluish-purple, small, in a spicate raceme, elongated, usually 
in fascicles at tops of branches, pedicels short ; Corolla of only one petal — 
the standard, ovate, concave, emarginate, 2-3 times as long as calyx ; Stamens 
exserted, monadelphous below ; Ovary sessile, 2-celled, style curved, stigma 
terminal ; Fruit a legume, |— J in. long, oblong, acute, curved, glabrous, 
glandular, thick-stalked, usually 2-seeded, nearly indehiscent. 

Leaves imparipinnate, 6-16 ins. long, leaflets 17-21, 1-2 ins. long, elliptic- 
oblong, obtuse, entire, pellucid dots, lower ones distant from stem ; petioles 

swollen at base. 



A deciduous shrub, <i 10 ft.; very straggling; Stems glabrous or slightly 
villous ; suckers abundant. 

Native of N. America; discovered in Carolina, 1724. Generic name from 
Gr. a, not ; morphe, form, referring to the incomplete formation of the 
flowers. Known in gardens by sixteen synonyms. 

GERARD'S INDIGO, Indigofera gerardiana. 

Shrubberies, walls. July, August. Requires loamy soil ; best in equal 
parts of loam, leaf-mould and peat. An elegant, slender, much branched 
shrub, suitable for planting against a south wall. In the open it is usually 
cut back to the ground in winter. It is propagated by cuttings of firm 
shoots 2-3 ins. long in pots of sandy peat under bell-glass in heat in summer ; 
seeds are sown in well-drained pots of sandy soil in heat, February-March. 

Flowers rosy-purple, papilionaceous, in an axillary raceme of 12-20 flowers ; 
Calyx oblique, teeth lanceolate, as long as tube ; Stamens diadclphous, anthers 
apiculate ; Ovary superior, sessile, style short, stigma capitate ; Fruit a legume, 
cylindric, straight, slightly hairy. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, leaflets elliptic-oblong, obtuse, pale grey- 
green, glaucous and hoary beneath ; stipels setaceous, persistent. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-3 ft. ; much branched. 

Native of Himalayas; introduced 1842. 

CHINESE KIDNEY-BEAN TREE, Wistaria chinerms. 

Walls, arbours, sometimes climbing over trees. One of the most beautiful 
of climbing shrubs, doing well in any good garden soil. Propagated by 
layers of young shoots in summer, detached in following year. May, June ; 
sometimes again in August. 

Flowers bluish-lilac, large, inodorous, in a pendant terminal raceme; bracts 

very caducous ; Calyx 5-toothed, 2 upper teeth short and sub-connate, lower 

ones usually longer ; Corolla papilionaceous, standard large, 2 parallel ridges 



at base, wings oblong-falcate, each with one auricle ; Fruit an elongated 
pod, torulose, 2-valved ; seeds ripen only after warm summers. 

Leaves imparipinnate, leaflets ovate, entire, acuminate, in distant pairs, 
slightly silky. 

A deciduous climber, 20 ft. 

Introduced from China, 1816. Named in honour of Caspar Wistar (1761- 
1818), Professor of Anatomy in University of Pennsylvania. 

LARGE-FLOWERED WISTARIA, Wistaria multyuga. 

Walls. May, June. 

Floivers lilac, with purple wings and keel, smaller than in W. chinensis ; 
borne in terminal racemes 1 3, -2 i ft. long, somewhat lax ; Fruit a pod. 
Leaves pinnate ; leaflets numerous, elliptic-ovate, acuminate. 
A deciduous climber. 
Introduced from Japan, 1874. 

ROSE ACACIA, Robinia hispida. 

Gardens. A rather spiny shrub which flowers profusely, and does well on a 
trellis or wall. It will thrive in almost any soil except a wet and stagnant one. 
It is usually propagated by grafting on the False Acacia. May, June. 

Floxvers deep rose, papilionaceous, large, very showy, inodorous, borne in 
a loose, nodding, axillary raceme; peduncle hispid; Calyx hispid; Fruit a 
legume, compressed, almost sessile, hispid, glandular, many sided ; valves 
thin, flat ; seeds rarely ripened in Britain. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 6 ins. long, leaflets 11-19, ovate or oblong- 
ovate, rounded or slightly cordate at base, glabrous, shortly petiolate, tipped 
with long bristle, deep green, 1-2 ins. long. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, 6-12 ft. ; Branches spreading, tortuous, 

very brittle ; Shoots hispid, purplish-brown. 

Native of N. America. 



LOCUST, Robinia neomeocicana. 

Gardens. June — August. Robinias may be propagated by cuttings of 
shoots (5-8 ins. long in ordinary soil in sheltered position outdoors in autumn ; 
layers in September or November; suckers in October or November; seeds 
in ordinary soil outdoors November or March. 

Flowers deep rose, 1 in. long, papilionaceous, in a raceme ; pedicels slender, 
\ in. long, glandularly hairy ; Standard and wing petals broad ; Fruit a legume, 
glandularly-hispid ; seeds brown, slightly mottled. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 6-12 ins. long, leaflets 15-21, elliptical- 
oblong, cuneate or rounded at base, apex mucronate, thin, glabrous above, 
puberulous on midribs beneath, pale blue-green, l£ in. long, 1 in. broad ; 
petioles pubescent ; stipules developing into spines. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, 15-20 ft. ; Twigs reddish-brown, puberulous ; 
Hark thin, furrowed, brown. 

Native of N. America. 

LOCUST TREE, Robinia Pseudacacia. 

Parks, gardens. A very useful tree for town gardens, many handsome 
old trees being scattered throughout the country. April, May. 

Floxvers white, papilionaceous, protandrous, fragrant, borne in a loose, 
pendulous, slender axillari) raceme, 3-5 ins. long ; bracts membranous, very 
caducous ; Calyx inferior, 5-partite, spotted, teeth short and broad, 2 upper 
ones sub-connate ; Petals 5, standard large, rerlexed, naked within ; wings 
falcate-oblong, free; keel incurved, obtuse; Stamens 9 united, 1 free; Ovary 
superior, 1 -celled, style bent at right angles to ovary, stigma capitate; Fruit 
a legume, 2-3 ins. long, very thin, smooth, dark brown, usually 4-8 seeded, 
persistent through winter ; seeds brown, streaked witli black. 

Leaves imparipinnate, 4-12 ins. long, leaflets 9 19, shortly petiolate, oblong- 
ovate or elliptical, entire, obtuse or acute, thin, soft, bright green above, 


COMMON BROOM (Cytisus scoparius) 

A. Fruit-bearing branch. B. Flower. C. Pistil. I). Flower, with petals removed, 
showing the 10 stamens and curved style. 

Plate XIV. 


glabrous, glaucous or bluish below, stipules spiny, strong, sharp, persistent 
for several years. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 30-60 ft. ; Branches long, slender, tortuous, zigzag ; 
Branchlets and spray short; Twigs olive-brown, very brittle; Bark brown, 
longitudinally furrowed; Buds minute, naked, 2-5 hidden in base of petiole; 
Wood hard, strong, fine-grained, durable, but liable to crack ; liea?i-wood 
yellow or greenish. 

Native of N. America; introduced 1640-1646. Generic name in honour 
of Jean Robin, herbalist to Henry IV. of France, and Professor of 
Botany at the Jardin des Plantes, Paris ; he received the first seed from 
N. America in 1601 ; the cultivation was continued by his son Vespasian 

CLAMMY LOCUST, Robinia viscosa. 

Parks, gardens. May, June. 

Floivers rose, papilionaceous, nearly inodorous, § in. long, in a crowded 
axillary raceme, glandularly-hispid ; pedicels slender, hairy ; bracts lanceolate, 
acuminate, dark red, deciduous ; Calyx dark red, lobes subulate, hairy ; Standard 
of Corolla with a pale yellow blotch, wings broad ; Fruit a legume, linear- 
lanceolate, glandularly-hispid, 2-3^ ins. long. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 7-12 ins. long, leaflets 13-21, ovate, acute, 
acuminate or mucronate at apex, cuneate or slightly cordate at base, dark 
green and glabrous above, pale and pubescent beneath, li 2 ins. long; petioles 
and petiolules glandularly-hispid. 

A deciduous tree, 20 40 ft.; Branches slender, spreading; l\dgs reddish- 
brown, glandularly-hispid, clammy, viscid ; Bark smooth, brown tinged with 
red ; Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, brown. 

Introduced from N. America, 1797. 



BLADDER SENNA, Colutea arborescens. 

Gardens, shrubberies, plantations. May — August. Does well in sandy 
soil. A quickly-growing shrub with yellow flowers succeeded by bladder- 
like pods with a reddish tinge. Propagated by cuttings of firm shoots in 
sandy soil in October; seeds sown outdoors October or March. 

Flowers yellow, papilionaceous, in an axillary raceme of about G flowers 
on long peduncles ; Calyx campanulate, teeth acuminate ; Stcmdard orbicular, 
with orange blotch, wings small, oblong-lanceolate ; Stamens diadelphous ; style 
long, curved, hairy ; Fruit a legume, inflated, tinged with red. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, leaflets 9-15, elliptical, refuse, entire, 
ciliate, underside paler green, densely hairy. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-12 ft.; rapid in growth; Twigs terete, green; 
Bark smooth ; Lenticels numerous, horizontal. 

Native of Mediterranean region ; introduced 1570. 


Gardens, shrubberies. June, July. 

Flowers copper-red, papilionaceous, in a 3-6 flowered axillary raceme, 
little shorter than leaves ; Standard with yellow spot at base ; Fruit a 
legume, dry, membranous, oval, inflated, opening at the point, green; tinged 
with red, ripe in August. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, leaflets 9-13, obovate, emarginate or 
slightly lobed at apex, rounded at base, bright glaucous green above, downy 
beneath, inserted widely apart ; petiole pubescent ; stipules small. 

A deciduous shrub, 4-8 ft. ; many stemmed, round headed ; young shoots 

Native of Iberian Peninsula and Levant; introduced 1731. Syns. 
C. orientalis, C. sanguinea. 



SIBERIAN PEA TREE, Caragana arborescens. 

Gardens, shrubberies. April, May. Thrives in sandy soil, and in dry, 
gravelly situations, and succeeds better than most shrubs in smoky districts. 
Propagated by cuttings of roots inserted 3 ins. deep outdoors in October; 
layers of strong shoots in September ; seeds sown outdoors in November 
or March. Used as a stock for grafting in March. 

Flowers yellow, papilionaceous, in a fascicle; pedicels 1 -flowered ; Calyx 
cylindrical teeth acute. Claws of petals nearly as long as calyx ; standard 
broad, edges reflexed ; keel obtuse, equal in length to wings and standard ; 
Stamens diadelphous, anthers uniform ; style glabrous, stigma terminal, minute. 
Fruit a legume, linear, valves convex, glabrous, 2 ins. long. 

Leaves alternate, paripinnate, leaflets 8-14, oval-oblong, villous, mucronate ; 
petiole unarmed : stipules spinescent. 

A deciduous tree, 15-20 ft.; Branches olive-green; Buds chaffy. 

Introduced from Siberia, 1752. Called Caragan by the Monguls. 

SCORPION SENNA, Coronilh Emcrus. 

Gardens. April — -September. Needs well-drained soil and sunny position, 
doing well on rockwork. Propagated by cuttings in well-drained pots of sandy 
soil under bell-glass, March-May ; seeds in light soil in heat in March. 

Flowers bright yellow, reddish before opening, papilionaceous, in 3-5 
flowered umbels on axillary peduncles ; Petals with long narrow claw ; Fruit 
a lomentum, cylindrical. 

Leaves alternate on young shoots, crowded together on other parts, 
imparipinnate, 2 ins. long, leaflets small, 5-9, obovate or oblong, mucronate, 
entire, odd leaflet largest. 

A deciduous shrub, 4-6 ft. ; sub-evergreen in mild seasons ; Shoots slender, 
green, angled ; Buds flattened, darkened, hirsute. 

Native of S. Europe; introduced 1596. Generic name from L. corona, 

a crown, in reference to the umbellate inflorescence. 

85 H 


SATIN FLOWER, Hedysarum mubyugum. 

Gardens. May — August. Requires a sunny position. Seeds ure sown 
outdoors in April, and seedlings transplanted in June. 

Flowers rosy-purple or pale vermilion pink, in an elongated axillary, 
erect raceme of 8-10 flowers ; Fruit a lomentum. 

Leaves alternate, iniparipinnate, leaflets 20-40, obovate or oblong, obtuse, 
underside and petioles silky pilose. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-5 ft. ; loose-growing ; Bra?iches silky pilose, tortuous ; 
Bark scaly; Twigs reddish-brown. 

Introduced from S. Mongolia, 1883. Generic name from the Greek, used 
by Dioscorides ; specific name = consisting of many pairs of leaflets — L. multus, 
many; jugum, a yoke, a pair; jugo, -are, I join. 

AMUR YELLOW WOOD, Cladrastis amurensis. 

Gardens. July. Does well in sandy soil in open shrubberies or against 
walls. Propagated by cuttings of roots outdoors in spring ; seeds in ordinary 
soil outdoors in March. 

Flowers greenish-white, papilionaceous, small, in a long, dense, erect 
raceme ; pedicels short ; Fruit a legume ; seeds ripen only in hot seasons. 

Leaves alternate, iniparipinnate, leaflets 7-9, ovate-oblong, greyish-green, 
silky pubescent when young. 

A deciduous shrub, 8 ft., or small tree; Bark olive-green, peeling in 
old trees. 

Introduced from Amur Valley, 1878. 

VIRGINIAN YELLOW WOOD, Cladrastis tinctoria. 

Gardens. Does well in warm moist soil, in open shrubberies or singly on 

lawns. May. 

Floivers white, papilionaceous, in a dense drooping panicled raceme, 12-14 


BLACKTHORN (Primus spinosa) 

Flowers and fruit. 

Plate XV. 


ins. long, bracteate and bracteolate ; Calyx persistent, teeth 5, short, obtuse; 
Stamens 10, all distinct, filaments slender; anthers versatile; Ovary sub- 
sessile ; style incurved. Fruit a legume, ripening only in hot summers, 2 ins. 
long, flat. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 12-18 ins. long in young specimens, in 
older trees about half that size, leaflets 5-11, oval or ovate, entire, acuminate, 
shortly petiolate, nearly glabrous, bright green. Autumn tints bright golden- 
yellow, orange, crimson. 

A deciduous shrub, 8 ft. ; Branches slender, spreading, pendulous ; Bark 
silvery-grey or light brown, smooth ; Buds concealed in petioles ; Wood clear 
yellow colour, splitting with difficulty ; valuable as fuel, yielding yellow dye. 

Introduced from N. America, 1812; there makes a round-headed tree, 

20-30 ft. Synonymous with Virgilia lutea. £ > 


JAPANESE PAGODA TREE, Sophora japonica. 

Parks, gardens. August, September. This forms a beautiful dense, round- 
headed tree, somewhat resembling a Robinia, showing to best advantage on an 
open sheltered lawn. It likes a deep, rich, loamy soil. It is the latest flowering 
of our large trees, noticeable in spring through its graceful bluish-green foliage, 
and made conspicuous in winter by the deep green of its young shoots. Pro- 
pagated by cuttings in sandy soil in March ; seeds in light soil in April. Used 
as a stock for grafting the weeping variety in March. 

Flowers creamy-white, papilionaceous, in a loose terminal panicle, bracts 
small ; much sought after by bees when fallen to ground ; Calyx oblique, 
teeth short ; Ovary shortly stipitate, stigma terminal, minute ; Fruit a pod, 
moniliform, indehiscent ; seeds rare in Britain. 

Leaves imparipinnate, petiolate, exstipulate, leaflets 9-15, oblong-ovate, 
entire, acute, dark bluish -green. 

A deciduous tree, 30-80 ft. ; Branches spreading, massive, naked young 

wood dark green ; Roots deep ; Bark rough ; growth rapid. 

Native of China ; seeds first sent by Father d'lncarville to Bernard de 

87 H 2 


Jussien (1747); first grown in England by Gordon at Mile End Nursery, 
1753. Generic name altered from Sophero, the Arabic for a papilionaeeous- 
flowercd tree. 

BRASILETTO, Ca'salpinia japonica. 

Gardens, shrubberies. April — June. Best on wall; prefers loamy soil. 
This is a very attractive and beautiful loose rambling shrub, the long flexible 
shoots being furnished with reddish hooked prickles. It is propagated by 
seeds sown in sandy soil in a cold frame at any time. 

Flowers bright canary-yellow, in a terminal erect raceme; pedicels 
alternate, filiform ; Calyx 5-cleft, turbinate, imbricate ; Petals 5, nearly equal, 
upper shortest; Stamens 10, free, anthers uniform, reddish; Ovary superior; 
Fruit a legume, compressed, not winged, coriaceous, indehiscent. 

Leaves alternate, bi pinnate, 1 ft. long, leaflets sub-sessile, oblong, obtuse, 
entire, glabrous, bright green ; petioles prickly. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-8 ft. ; Stems with curved spines ; Branches 
straggling, spiny ; Twigs reddish-brown. 

Introduced from Japan, 1888. Named in honour of Andreas Cassalpinus, 
an Italian botanist (1519-1603). 

KENTUCKY COFFEE-TREE, Gymnocladus canadensis. 

Parks, gardens. May — July. A handsome deciduous tree, made attractive 
by the size and elegance of its leaves. It prefers a well-drained loamy 
soil, and does best in a shady shrubbery or on a lawn. It is propagated by 
root- cuttings inserted 2 ins. deep in a shady position in October or March ; 
seeds are sown in light soil in a shady position outdoors in autumn 
or spring. 

Flowers greenish -white, regular, dioecious ; Males in a short terminal 

racemose corymb, 3-4 ins. long; Females in a raceme, 10-12 ins. long; bracts 

scarious, caducous ; Calyx tubular, 10-ribbed, 5-lobed, lanceolate, acute ; 



Petals 4-5, oblong, keeled, pilose on back, grooved, tomentose inner surface ; 
Stamens 10, free, shorter than petals, on margin of disk, anthers orange ; 
Ovary 1-celled, hairy; stigma 2-lobed ; Fruit a legume, 6-10 ins. long, 1^-2 
ins. wide, dark red-brown, glaucous, 2-valved, pulpy; seeds f in. long; 
formerly used as substitute for coffee. 

Leaves 5-9 pinnate, 1-3 ft. long, 18-24 ins. wide, pinnae with 6-14 
leaflets, usually alternate, ovate, acute or mucronate, cuneate or rounded at 
base, shining bronze-green, paler beneath, 2-2^ ins. long, 1 in. wide ; petioles 
long ; stipules lanceolate or obovate, glandular-serrate. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 50-60 ft. ; Branches few, thick ; Twigs pubescent ; 
Ba?-k deeply fissured, dark grey tinged with red ; Wood heavy, strong, coarse- 
grained, durable, light brown tinged with red. 

Introduced from U.S. America, 1748; there reaches 110 ft. Generic name 
from Gr. gymnos, naked, and klados, a branch ; referring to naked appear- 
ance of branches in winter. 

HONEY LOCUST, Gleditschia triacanthos. 

Parks, gardens. June. This is a handsome tree, whose trunk and branches 
are armed with formidable spines, often 3 ins. long. It thrives well in the 
neighbourhood of smoky towns, doing best in sheltered borders or shrubberies. 
It may be propagated by seeds sown in light soil outdoors in March, the 
young plants being transplanted when two years old. 

Flowers greenish, regular, polygamous, minute ; Male racemes many-flowered, 
pubescent, 2-2^ ins. long, often fascicled ; Female racemes few-flowered, 2^-3^ 
ins. long, usually solitary ; Calyx campanulate, 3-5-lobed, lobes acute, revolute, 
ciliate, villose ; Petals 3-5, nearly equal, erect ; Stamens 6-10, inserted on margin 
of disk, filaments pilose, anthers green ; Ovary sub-sessile, rarely of 2 carpels ; 
style short, stigma terminal; Fruit a legume, linear-oblong, 12-18 ins. long, 
many-seeded, indehiscent, dark brown, pilose, twisted, succulent pulp. 

Leaves paripinnate, leaflets 18-28, or sometimes bipinnate with 4-7 pairs 

of pinnae, leaves 7-8 ins. long ; leaflets obtuse or acute, crenate, linear-oblong, 



dark shining green above, dull yellow green below, 1-1 J ins. long, } in. wide; 
petioles long ; stipules minute, caducous. Autumn tint pale yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 30-50 ft. ; Branches slender, spreading, somewhat pen- 
dulous ; branch-lets red to greenish-brown; spines simple or trifid ; Ba?-k deeply 
fissured ; Wood hard, strong, coarse-grained, durable, red or red-brown. 

Introduced from N. America, 1700; there reaches 140 ft. Generic name 
in honour of Johann Gottlieb Gleditsch (1714-1786), Director of Botanic 
Gardens at Berlin; specific name from Gr. tri, three, and akanthos, a prickly 
plant ; said to be the only leguminous plant without root-tubercles of nitrifying 

REDBUD, Ccrcis canadensis. 

Gardens, shrubberies. April, May. An ornamental tree with leaves of a 
very uncommon shape. It prefers a rather light, rich soil, doing best in a warm, 
sheltered shrubbery, and in the north should have the protection of a wall. 
The species are propagated by layers of strong shoots in September or October ; 
or better still by seeds sown in light sandy soil in gentle heat in March, 
transplanting seedlings outdoors in June. 

Floxvers red, papilionaceous, ^ in. long, in umbellate fascicles, less crowded, 
4-8 together, pedicels longer than C. Siliquastrvm ; Calyx campanulate, 
5-toothed ; Keel of Corolla longer than wings ; Stamens 10, free ; anthers 
versatile ; Fruit a legume, thin, flat, pink or rose, 2-3 ins. long, ^ in. wide, 
pedicels short. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, cordate at base, entire, acute or acuminate, petio- 
late, petioles 2-5 ins. long, thick, glabrous, villous in axils of veins beneath, 
rich dark green, 2-6 ins. broad ; stipules small, membranous, caducous. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, 12-20 ft.; Branches stout; Twigs 
slender, glabrous, angled ; Bark red-brown, fissured, scaly ; Wood hard, weak, 
dark reddish-brown. 

Native of N. America; introduced 1730. Also called American Judas 







JUDAS TREE, Cercis Siliquastrum. 

Gardens, shrubberies. Thrives in rich sandy loam, and best on a wall 
in cold localities. This is one of the oldest of exotic trees, and is a most 
beautiful object in May, when its twigs, and even large branches and trunk, 
are wreathed with rose-purple flowers, while later on its long red-brown pods 
form a striking contrast with the bluish-green foliage. May, June. 

Flowers rose-purple, papilionaceous, -j? in. long, appearing before leaves 
are fully developed ; buds pale red ; pedicels 1-flowered. arising from trunk 
and branches in densely-crowded fascicles ; Fruit a legume, thin, flat, 4-6 
ins. long, red-brown ; seeds rarely ripening in this country. 

Leaves alternate, simple, cordate, irregular, somewhat reniform, obtuse, 
emarginate, glabrous, bluish-green, petioles long. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, 20-35 ft. ; Branches erect, head flat, 
spreading ; Bark rough, furrowed ; Lenticels numerous ; Buds obtuse, scales 
brown ; Wood hard, marked with black, green, and yellow on a grey ground ; 
susceptible of high polish. 

Native of S. Europe and W. Asia; cultivated by Gerard in 1596. Called 
also Red-bud and Love-tree. Generic name from Gr. kerMs, a shuttlecock, 
name given by Theophrastus. Specimen at Bath possibly 300 years old. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division II. . . Calyciflorce 

Natural Order . . . Rosacece 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with usually alternate, stipulate leaves, sometimes 

glandularly serrate, simple or compound ; stipules usually 2, petioles often 

glandular ; Flowers usually regular and hermaphrodite, mostly red, white, or 

yellow ; Calyx usually inferior, gamosepalous, and 5-lobed, with the odd lobe 

posterior ; imbricate, and persistent, sometimes with an epicalyx ; a disk 

usually lining the calyx or surrounding the orifice ; Petals as many as calyx- 



lobes, sometimes wanting, perigynous, imbricate, deciduous; Stamens usually 
indefinite ; perigynous Ovary superior, or becoming inferior by upgrowth and 
adhesion of receptacle, carpels 1 or numerous ; Fruit variable, superior or 
more or less inferior, naked or included within the persistent calyx-tube ; a 
cynarrhodium of achenes, an etaerio of follicles or drupes, or a pome. 

An order of 1000-1500 species. Distinguished from Ranunculaceae by the 
perigynous stamens and persistent calyx, and from Leguminosse by the pos- 
terior odd calyx-lobe. 

ALMOND, Prunus Amygdalus. 

Gardens, shrubberies. March, April. One of the earliest and loveliest of 
spring-flowering trees. It will flourish in any garden soil, preferring that in 
which there is lime. Old and dead wood should be removed in December. 
Propagated by stones sown 6 ins. deep in open ground in October, and by 
grafting on young seedling plum-trees in March. 

Flowers white or rose, appearing before leaves, protogynous, solitary 
or in pairs, pedicels short, axillary, Calyx green, 5-iobed, tube purplish, lined 
with a wavy disk; Petals 5; Stamens indefinite; Ovary superior, 1 -celled; 
Fruit a drupe ; epicarp a dry fibrous husk, with velvety pubescence, separating 
irregularly into two valves ; stone pitted with irregular furrows. 

Leaves alternate, oblong-lanceolate, petiolate, serrated, lower teeth glandular, 
glabrous, hairy beneath when young, lf-4 ins. x f-1 in. Autumn tints red 
and yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 10-30 ft. ; Branches slender, spreading ; Twigs brown ; 
Bai'k rough and peeling ; Buds small, conical, scales red-brown. 

Introduced from Barbary, 1548; Syn. Amygdalus communis. Specific name 
from Gr. Amygdale, an almond, amysso, to scratch, referring to channel 
in stone of fruit. 



WILD PLUM, Primus communis. 

Copses, hedgerows. March, April. 

Floxoers white, appearing with leaves ; pedicels solitary or in pairs, glabrous ; 
Fruit a drupe, oblong, variable in shape and colour, pendent, 1-1^ in. diam. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate ; downy on ribs beneath, convolute, acute, crenated 
or biserrate, petiolate ; stipules linear, persistent. 

A deciduous tree, 20 ft. ; Branches straight, without spines ; shoots glabrous ; 
Bark brown ; Twigs glabrous, slightly angular above, red, passing to grey ; 
Buds conoid-pointed ; Wood used in small turnery. 

Found in an apparently wild state, being self-sown, but not truly indigenous ; 
Syn. P. domestica. Name Plum from A.S. plume, a plum ; L. prunus, a plum. 

Insects injurious to Plums: — Bark — Fruit-tree Bark Beetle {Scolytus 
rugulosus), Mussel Scale (Mytilaspis pomorum) ; Leaves — Plum Aphis (Aphis 
pruni), Oblong Weevil {Phyllobius oblongus), Vapourer Moth (Orygia antiqua), 
Winter Moth (Cheimatobia brumata), March Moth {Anisopteryx cescularia), 
Cherry and Pear Saw-fly (Selandria atra); Wood — Shot-borer Beetle (Xyle- 
borus dispar), Goat Moth (Cossus ligniperda or Trypanus cossus), Wood 
Leopard Moth (Zeuzera oesculi or Z. pyrina). 

Fungoid Pests: — Plum-tree Rust (Puccinia Pruni), Plum Pockets or 
Bladder Plums (Exoascus insititice), Plum-tree Mildew (Podosphcera tridactyla). 

BULLACE, Prunus insititia. 

Woods, thickets, hedges. March, April. 

Flowers white, as in Sloe, but appearing with leaves ; pedicels in pairs, 
downy ; Petals broader ; Fruit a drupe, globose, glabrous, black or yellow, 
drooping, f— 1 in. diam. 

Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, downy beneath, larger, broader, more 

coarsely toothed, convolute, acute, serrate, pubescent, become glabrous above, 

If— 2^ ins. x 1-1} in. ; stipules linear, pubescent. 

A deciduous shrub, 10-15 ft. ; Branches round, only slightly spinous, 



straight; Bark brown: Twigs pubescent, red, green, passing to grey; Buds 
long conoid, scales ciliate. 

A questionable native of Britain ; probably in many instances an escape 
from cultivation. 

Name from Middle English bolas ; Old French beloce, a bullace. 

•• Witch Knots " sometimes caused by presence of Eocoascus insititice. 
" Bladder plums" produced by the same fungus. 

BLACKTHORN or SLOE, Prunus spinosa. 

Woods, thickets, hedges. Gilbert White remarks that "this tree usually 
blossoms while cold north-east winds blow, so that the harsh, rugged weather 
obtaining at this season is called by the country people blackthorn winter." 
In places where the Blackthorn grows abundantly, as in the impenetrable 
undergrowths of Epping Forest, its effect is singularly striking, large tracts 
appearing as if a snowstorm had passed over, loading the branches with a 
white mantle. March, April. 

Floioers white, appearing before or with the leaves, protogynous, -|-f in. 
diam., single or two together, on short glabrous peduncles ; Calyx 5-lobed, 
inferior, glabrous, deciduous; Petals 5, obovate ; Stamens 15-20, perigynous ; 
Ovary of 1 carpel, superior, 1 terminal style ; Fruit a globose, fleshy 
drupe, erect, with a hard, smooth, or rugged stone ; nearly black, with 
bluish bloom, \ in. diam., very astringent. 

Leaves alternate, variable, ovate or oblong, petiolate, finely serrated, 
usually glabrous, acute or obtuse, 1 J-2^ ins. x £-lf in. Autumn tints yellow to 

A deciduous shrub, 10-15 ft.; much branched; Branches irregular, spinous, 
very tough ; Bark black ; Twigs red-brown passing to black, rigid, much 
branched ; Buds minute, scales nearly glabrous, brown-red ; Stems used 
as walking-sticks. 

Indigenous in Britain. Some authorities consider this to be the parent 

of the Damson. 


COMMON LAUREL (Prunus Lauroe, rasus) 

A. Flowering branch. B. Fruit. C. Longitudinal section of drupe. 

Plate XVI. 


Insect Pests: — Mottled Umber Moth (Hibernoma defoliaria), March 
Moth (Auisopterijx cescularia). 

Leaves attacked by Plum Powdery Mildew (Uncinula Prunastri), Plum- 
leaf Blotch (Polijstigma rubra). Galls occur on the leaves of Sloe, Bullace, 
Damson, Greengage, and Plum, caused by a Mite (Eriophyes similis). 

GEAN, Primus Avium. 

Woods. May, June. 

Flowers white, up to 1J in. diam., in an umbel ; Calyx tube contracted 
at mouth, lobes entire ; Corolla open, petals deeply notched, almost obcor- 
date, flaccid ; Stamens and Pistil maturing simultaneously ; Fruit a drupe, 
heart-shaped, black or red, sweet or bitter, not very juicy, staining. 

Leaves broadly oval, large, drooping, acuminate, sharply serrate, pubescent 
beneath, flaccid, thin, two glands at base, pale green, 2-5 ins. x lf-2| ins., 
petiole long. Autumn tints orange-red, yellow, crimson-red, brown. 

A deciduous tree, 10-40 ft. ; Branches short, stout, satiny, peeling, erect ; 
no suckers ; a fast-growing tree ; Wood reddish, fine-grained, tough, used 
for tool-handles and cabinet-work. 

Native of Britain. Thought by some to be the parent of our Black 
Heart Cherries. 

WILD OR DWARF CHERRY, Primus Ccrasus. 

Woods, thickets, hedgerows. This light and graceful tree, with somewhat 
scanty foliage, is made conspicuous in spring by its beautiful clusters of white 
blossoms, and again in autumn, when the crimson hue of its fading foliage 
irresistibly catches the eye. May, June. 

Flowers white, protogynous, resembling Blackthorn, flowering before 

leaves, in an almost sessile umbel of 2, 3, or more flowers on pedicels 1-2 

ins. long ; buds surrounded by brown scales, the inner ones often becoming 

leaf-like ; Calyx tube not contracted, lobes crenate ; Corolla cup-shaped ; Petals 



slightly notched, oval, firm, sub-erect; Fruit a drupe, globular, red or black, 
without bloom, acid, juicy, not staining. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, or ovate-oblong, shortly petiolate, erect, crenate- 
serrate, acuminate, glabrous, coriaceous, 2-4 ins. long; usually 12 glands 
at top of petiole, or base of blade, dark blue-green, stipules narrow, often 
toothed and glandular, very deciduous. Autumn tint crimson. 

A deciduous shrub, 8 ft., or a tree, 30 80 ft. ; Suckers produced freely 
from the rhizomes ; Branches red, slender, and drooping ; Bark reddish ; 
Twigs glabrous, slender, pendent ; Buds small, scales brown, smooth ; Wood 
strong, fine-grained, reddish, easily polished, used for small turnery and pipes. 

Thought to be the parent of our Kentish and Morello cherries. English 
name Cherry derived from Old Northern French cherisc ; Old French cerise ; 
L. cerasus ; Gr. kcrasos. 

Chief insects injurious to cultivated Cherries : — Bark — Fruit-tree Bark Beetle 
{Scolytus rugulosus) ; Fruit — Garden Chafer {Phyttopcrtha horticola), Mottled 
Umber Moth {Hybernia defoliaria) ; Leaves — Cherry Aphis (Myzus cerasi), 
Cockchafer {Mehlantha vulgaris), Winter Moth (Cheimatobia brumata), Cherry 
and Pear Saw-fly {Selandria atra). Fungoid Pest : — AVitches Broom (Exoascus 

BIRD CHERRY, Prunus Padus. 

Woods, thickets, hedges. In its wild state this rarely attains the dimen- 
sions of a tree, but in cultivation may reach a height of 30 ft. or more. 
Some of the varieties have racemes of blossoms 6-8 ins. in length. May, June. 

Flowers white, resembling the Blackthorn, £-§ in. diam., erect when first 

open, drooping after fertilisation, of short duration, protogynous ; Inflorescence 

a loose pendulous axillary raceme, 2-6 ins. long, on previous year's wood ; 

pedicels J in. long, erect in fruit, bracts linear, deciduous ; Calyx lobes obtuse, 

glandular-serrate; Petals notched at edges; Fruit a small drupe, globular, 

black, polished, very bitter-sweet, not very juicy, staining ; stone wrinkled. 

Leaves oval or ovate-lanceolate, slightly cordate at base, biserrate, acuminate, 



thin, glabrous, serrations not glandular, 2-4 ins. long ; 2 glands on petiole, 
stipules linear-subulate, glandularly serrate. Autumn tints greenish -yellow to 

A deciduous shrub, 6-8 ft., or a tree, 10-30 ft. ; Bark glabrous, grey, astrin- 
gent ; Twigs red-brown, stiff, erect, glabrous ; Buds large, ovoid, pointed, scales 

Indigenous in various parts of Britain ; not found in south of England ; 
leaves often eaten by gregarious larvae of Small Ermine Moth {Hypouomeuta 

COMMON OR CHERRY LAUREL, Primus Lauro-cerams. 

Shrubberies, gardens. April, May. Best in sheltered situations and in 
deep rather light soil. Propagated by cuttings of ripe shoots 6 ins. long 
in cold frame in September ; pruning should be done in April. 

Flowers white, small, fragrant, produced after young leaves, in an erect 
axillary raceme, shorter than leaves; Calyx tubular; Petals spreading; Stamens 
numerous ; Carpels superior, solitary ; Fruit a drupe, ovate-acute, green at 
first, afterwards black, bitter, ripe in October. 

Leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, petiolate, distantly serrated, slightly 
acuminate, glabrous, coriaceous, shining, lighter green beneath, 4-6 ins. long, 
1^-lf in. wide ; smelling of bitter almonds when crushed ; 2 4 glands near 
base of lamina ; dying leaves yellow and brown. 

An evergreen shrub, 10-12 ft., or sometimes 20-30 ft. ; Bark dark 
green ; Shoots green ; Buds small, green. 

A native of Asia Minor; introduced about 1576; liable to be cut down 
by severe frosts ; growth rapid. Name Laurel from " M.E. lorel, lorer, laurer ; 
O.F. lorier (F. laurier), a laurel-tree; L. laurum, ace. of laurus, a laurel- 
tree" (Skeat). Insects may be killed by being dropped into a closed box or 
bottle containing the bruised leaves. 



PORTUGAL LAUREL, Prunus lusitanica. 

Shrubberies. A fine evergreen of very hardy growth, able to resist severe 
frost. June. 

Flowers white, resembling Common Laurel, in an erect axillary raceme, 
longer than leaves ; Fruit a drupe, ovate, red. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate petiolate, serrated, thin, hard, not glandular, dark 
green, pendent, not scented of almonds, petioles purplish. 

An evergreen shrub, or tree, 10-25 ft. ; Branches erect, spreading ; Buds 
and twigs purple-red ; Bark on old trees rough. 

A native of Portugal; there 40-60 ft.; introduced, 1648. More hardy 
than Common Laurel ; and one of the most elegant shrubs. 

OSO BERRY, NuttaUa cerasiformis. 

Gardens, shrubberies. February, March. A very pretty and exceptionally 
free-flowering shrub, one of the first to bloom. Its short, stiff, pendulous 
racemes have much the appearance of a Currant. It likes a rich soil and 
sheltered position. It is usually propagated by suckers planted in October or 
November ; seeds may be sown in shady position outdoors in spring or 
autumn. Necessary pruning should be done immediately after flowering. 

Flowers dull white, dioecious in an axillary drooping raceme; Calyx 
gamosepalous, 5-lobed, inferior; Petals 5, perigynous ; Stamens 15, perigynous; 
Ovary superior, carpels 5 ; Fruit a drupe, coriaceous, purple bloom, 5 carpels, 
2-3 seeds ; not often fruiting in England. 

Leaves alternate, obovate, petiolate, obtuse or acute, entire. 

A deciduous shrub, 5-8 ft. ; nearly globose, branching freely ; Suckers 
abundant ; Twigs brown ; Buds yellow-green. 

Native of California ; introduced 1848. Genus named after Thomas 
Nuttall, a North American botanist ; died 1859. 


DEWBERRY (Eubus ecetius) 
Flowor and fruit. 

Tlatk XVII. 



Gardens. The genus Spiraea contains many hardy shrubs, of which about 
sixty are given as being cultivated at Kew. They thrive well in open sunny 
borders or shrubberies. Straggly shoots should be cut back moderately short 
directly after flowering. Propagation is carried on by means of cuttings of 
young shoots inserted in sandy soil under hand-light or in a frame in shade 
in summer; also by offsets planted in autumn. May, June. 

Flowers rosy-red, unisexual, in a loose terminal corymbose cyme, pubescent ; 
Calyx lobes deflexed, persistent ; Stamens indefinite, on a fleshy disk ; disk 
adnate to calyx ; Carpels 5 ; Fruit an etserio of follicles, 5 reddish, shining 
glabrous carpels, ripe in September. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, sharply serrated, acute, light green, glabrous on 
upper surface, glaucous beneath, principal veins on underside pubescent, 
^-2 ins. long, petioles long. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-4 ft. ; Stems flexuose, glabrous, red ; Branches loose, 
slender, spreading, downy. 

Native of Nepal and Bhootam ; introduced 1820. 

Spircea bullata. 

Gardens, rockeries. A good dwarf shrub for the rock-garden or sunny 
banks. July. 

Flowers rosy-carmine, in a terminal corymb, much branched ; pedicels 
short, villous ; bracteolate ; Fruit an etrerio of follicles. 

Leaves alternate, sub-sessile, ovate-oblong, crenate, dark green and bullate 
above, paler beneath, coriaceous, glabrous, nerves pinnate, prominent on 

A deciduous shrub, 1-1 J ft. ; Branches erect, wiry, cylindrical, red-brown 

Native of Japan. Syns. S. crispa, S. crispifolia. Specific name refers 

to the blistered or puckered leaves (L. bulla, a bubble). 

99 i 2 


HOARY SPIRAEA, Spircea canescens. 

Gardens. A very free-flowering shrub with hoary stems. June, July. 

Flowers white or pale pink, in a corymb, pedicels slender, unibracteate ; 
Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed, green, yellowish-green ring at base of sepals; 
Corolla of 5 petals, obovate ; Stamens indefinite, perigynous, inserted under 
yellow disk, filaments white, anthers yellow ; Styles 5 ; Fruit an etaerio of follicles. 

Leaves alternate, oval or obovate, obtuse, entire, villous. 

A deciduous shrub, 5-8 ft. ; Stems erect, branched, arching, hoary. 

Introduced from Himalayas, 1879. Twenty-four synonyms in Kew List. 

GERMANDER-LEAVED SPIR^A, Spircea chamoedrifoUa. 

Gardens. June, July. 

Flowers white, in a terminal hemispherical corymb ; pedicels slender, 
elongated ; Sepals reflexed ; Fruit an etasrio of follicles. 

Leaves alternate, exstipulate, petiolate, ovate, acute, deeply serrated at apex, 
pubescent, pale green. 

A deciduous shrub, 1-2 ft. ; dense, twiggy. 

Widely distributed through Europe, Asia, America ; introduced 1789. 

WHITE-BEAM-LEAVED SPIRiEA, Spircea discolor. 

Gardens, shrubberies, lawns. This most graceful of all Spiraeas, when 
covered with its plume-like panicles of creamy-white blossoms, is indeed 
worthy of its name of Spray Bush. Its silvery foliage makes it a very 
distinct species. It is easily established in almost any soil, and makes 
strong and rapid growth. July. 

Flowers creamy- white, in a many-flowered, terminal, nodding panicle; 

Calyx inferior, 5-lobed, persistent ; Petals 5 ; Stamens numerous, perigynous, 

longer than petals; Ovary superior, carpels 5, 1-valved, cartilaginous, 

free ; Fruit an etasrio of follicles. 



Leaves alternate, cuneate at base, petiolate, rigid, dark green above, silvery 
beneath ; those on young shoots resembling the Hawthorn. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-12 ft.; much branched; Brandies erect; Twigs light 
brown ; Buds reddish, hirsute. 

Introduced from N.W. America, 1827. Synonymous with S. aricefolia. 

DOUGLAS'S SPIR^A, Spircea DougUm. 

Gardens. July, August. Prefers damp soil. A very desirable, hardy, 
and free-growing shrub, throwing out young shoots from the base of the 
stem, so that by lifting and dividing a plant great numbers of young 
specimens may be obtained. 

Flowers rosy-red, in a dense, terminal, thyrsoid panicle 6 9 ins. long ; 
flowers nearly sessile ; Calyx golden ; Corolla rose-red ; Stamens inserted on 
calyx, long exsersted, filaments and anthers rose-red ; Styles 5, white, stigmas 
capitate ; Fruit an etserio of follicles. 

Leaves alternate, simple, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, serrulated towards apex, 
downy beneath, dark green above, petioles short. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-6 ft. ; Branches erect, young shoots pubescent. 

Introduced from N.W. America, 1840. 

JAPANESE SPIR./EA, Spircea japonica. 

Gardens. A handsome species of erect growth, and probably the best 
known. June — September. 

Flowers rosy-red, in a terminal flat corymb ; Fruit an etEerio of follicles. 

Leaves alternate, simple, lanceolate, acute, serratures thickened at tips, 
glabrous, young leaves red. 

A deciduous shrub, 4-6 ft. ; young shoots red. 

Native of Japan ; introduced 1859. Synonymous with *S'. callosa and S. 
Fortunei. Many varieties in gardens. 



LINDLEY'S SPIRAEA, Spircea Undleyana. 

Gardens. July — September. One of the largest and most handsome 
species, thriving best in a deep, moist soil, but also doing well on warm 
chalky soils, especially near water. It produces suckers freely, and may be 
easily propagated from seed. 

Flowers white, small, in a large terminal vanicle, very feathery, 2-3 ft. 
long, overhanging ; Calyx white, campanulate, 5-toothed, recurved ; Stamens 
numerous, filaments white ; Styles 5, capitate, spreading ; Fruit an etaerio 
of follicles ; carpels coriaceous, cohering at base, completely splitting into two 
halves, prominent smooth keel down back. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 1 ft. or more in length, leaflets 11-23, 
3 5 ins. long, 1±- in. wide, sessile, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely ser- 
rated, glaucous beneath, membranous, petioles stout, purplish-red. 

A deciduous shrub, 4-15 ft., pyramidal; Branches ascending; Twigs green; 
Bark rough ; Lenticels conspicuous ; Buds ovoid, scales green. 

Native of Nepaul ; introduced 1840. 


Gardens. This forms a somewhat erect, freely-branched shrub, clothed 
with rather pale glaucous green leaves, and studded with corymbs of white 
blossoms. May, June. 

Floivers white, in a terminal corymb, 12 ins. or more long ; Stamens longer 
than petals ; Fruit an etajrio of follicles. 

Leaves alternate, elliptic-lanceolate, acute, slightly serrated, rarely entire, 
hairy beneath, leaves on flowering and sterile branches similar. 

A deciduous shrub, 5-8 ft. dense ; Branches terete, sub-erect. 

Native of Europe and Northern Asia. Syn. S. confusa. 



PRUNUS-LEAVED SPIR^A, Spircea prunifoUa Jlore-pleno. 

Gardens. A very beautiful early-flowering shrub, more often grown 
than the single type. April. 

Floxvers white, doubled like little rosettes, in fascicles along branches ; pedicels 
1-flowered, of unequal length. 

Leaves alternate, small, connate at base, irregularly serrated in upper 
half, glabrous. Autumn tint scarlet. 

A deciduous shrub, 3 ft. ; Brandies long, slender, arching. 

Introduced from Japan, 1845. 

WILLOW-LEAVED SPIRAEA, Spircea salicifolia. 

Moist woods, plantations. June — August. 

Floxvers pink or rosy, small, in a dense, terminal, sub-cylindric racemose cyme ; 
Calyx inferior, 5-lobed, persistent ; Petals 5 ; Stamens numerous, perigynous ; 
Ovary superior, carpels 5, free ; Fruit an eteerio of follicles. 

Leaves alternate, simple, oblong-lanceolate, serrate, glabrous, green on 
both sides, 2-3 ins. long. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-5 ft., erect ; Stem, stoloniferous ; Slickers numerous ; 
young shoots glabrous. 

Naturalised in N. England and S. Scotland ; used in hedges in N. Wales. 
Generic name from Gr. speiras, to wind (garlands) ; specific name from L« 
salix, -icis, the willow ; folium, a leaf. 

SORBUS-LEAVED SPIR^A, Spircea sorbifolia, 

Gardens. Prefers cool, moist soil. July, August. 

Flowers white, in a thyrsoid panicle ; Sepals reflexed ; Petals spreading ; 

Stamens numerous, nearly I in. long; Styles 5, one-third the length of stamens; 

Fruit an etajrio of follicles ; keel indistinct, hairy. 

Leaves alternate, stipulate, imparipinnate, 6-10 ins. long, leaflets 13-25, sessile, 



lanceolate, doubly and sharply serrated, bright green. 2-4 ins. long, petioles 
purplish-red on upper side. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-6 ft ; Brandies stiff", spreading; Suckers freely pro 
duced ; Twigs terete. 

Native of N. Europe and Asia; introduced 1759. 

THUNBERG'S SPIRiEA, Spircea ThunbergL 

Gardens. The earliest to flower. It likes a rich open soil, with plenty 
of moisture and full sunshine, and will then produce its blossoms literally 
in thousands. February — May. 

Flowers white, very small ; resembling Hawthorn ; axillary, mostly temate, 
along length of shoots ; Ovary free, not inflated ; Fruit an etaerio of follicles. 

Leaves alternate, simple, linear or linear-lanceolate, acute, attenuated 
both ends, serrulated, rarely entire, glabrous both sides, exstipulate. Autumn 
tint crimson. 

A deciduous shrub, 1-3 ft. ; Branches very slender, slightly drooping ; Buds 

Native of China and Japan. 

NINE-BARK, Neillia opuUfolia. 

Shrubberies. June. A handsome shrub with flowers resembling a Spiraea. 
It does well in open sunny shrubberies or on banks, and should be moderately 
pruned after blooming. Propagated by cuttings of firm shoots, 2-3 ins. long, 
inserted in sand under bell-glass at any time ; seeds may be sown in sandy 
soil in sheltered position outdoors in autumn or spring. 

Floivers white or purplish, in a terminal umbellate corymb, nearly spherical, 

many flowered, 1-2 ins. diam. ; pedicels slender, glabrous, or slightly pubescent, 

^— | in. long ; Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed, glabrous or nearly so, persistent ; 

Petals 5, inserted at throat of calyx ; Stamens 20-40, inserted with petals ; 

Pistil of 1-5 carpels, shortly stipitate, stigmas terminal, capitate ; Fruit of 

3-5 follicles, purplish, membranous, glabrous, shiny, obliquely- subulate tipped, 

twice length of calyx. 



Leaves alternate, ovate or orbicular, resembling Guelder Rose, 1-2 ins. long, 
3-lobed, obtuse or acute at apex, cordate, truncate, or cuneate at base, crenate- 
dentate ; stipules caducous. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-10 ft.; Branches recurved, twigs glabrous; Bark 
peeling in thin strips. 

Native of N. America ; introduced 1690. Genus named after Patrick 
Neill, Secretary to Caledonian Horticultural Society in early nineteenth century. 
Syn. Spircea opulifolia. 

Stephanandra Ta nakce. 

Gardens. June. A shrub resembling a Spiraea. Propagated by cuttings 
under a hand-light in August. 

Flowers greenish-white, very small, puberulous, in a terminal pendulous 
panicle, 3-4 ins. long ; Sepals 5, petaloid ; Petals 5 ; Stamens numei'ous ; 
Ovary superior. 

Leaves alternate, triangular-ovate, 3-lobed, lobes acuminate, serrated, bright 
green, 2 ins. long, 2 ins. wide. Autumn tint golden-yellow. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-8 ft. ; Branches brown ; Buds rose-coloured, pointed. 

Introduced from Japan, 1893. Syn. Neillia Tanakce. 

JEW'S MALLOW, Kerria japonica. 

Gardens and shrubberies. April, May. This is not so well known as 
the double variety, but is of more graceful habit, and has a longer flowering 
period. It does well in a good loamy soil, and is excellent for a south or 
west wall or on a trellis. Old and weak shoots should be cut out after 
flowering. Propagated by cuttings of young shoots 2-3 ins. long, inserted 
in sandy soil under a hand-light or in cold frame in summer ; layering of 
shoots in October ; division of roots in autumn. 

Flowers orange-yellow, 1 in. across ; solitary, terminal, peduncles about 

\ inch long, glabrous ; Sepals 5 ; Petals 5, oblong-elliptical, obtuse, spreading ; 

Stamens indefinite ; Ovary superior. 

Leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, petiolate, sharply and deeply serrated, 



acuminate, bright green and almost glabrous above, paler and slightly hairy 
beneath, exstipulate, thin. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-4 ft. ; Branches slender, twiggy, round, bright 
green, glabrous ; Buds pointed, red-brown, scales ciliate. 

Named after M. Kerr, sometime Superintendent of the Botanic Garden 
in Ceylon. Introduced from China. Better known in its double-flowered 
form (A", jap. flore-pleno) ; introduced from Japan 1700. The latter grows 
to a height of 8 ft., and does well on a wall. It was at one time erroneously 
named Corchorus japonicum. 

WHITE KERRIA, Rhodotypos kerrioides. 

Gardens, shrubberies. A handsome shrub, resembling Kerria japonica, but 
white. It requires the same treatment, and is propagated in the same 
manner. April, May, 

Flowers white, resembling a single Rose, nearly 2 ins. diam. ; solitary 
and terminal, shortly pedicellate ; Calyx persistent, villous within ; Petals 4, 
orbiculate, shortly clawed ; Stamens indefinite ; Ovary superior, several free 
carpels. Fruit an etasrio of fleshy drupels, usually 4, brilliant black. 

Leaves decussate, simple, ovate-acuminate, argutely serrated, petiolate, 
silky beneath, 3 ins. long, 1| in. wide, stipules free, membranous, much 

A deciduous shrub, 4-15 ft. ; Branches decussate, twiggy. 

Introduced from Japan by Siebold, 1866 ; there known as Jamabuki. 
Generic name from Gr. rhodon, a rose, and typos, a model or type; specific 
name from resemblance of foliage to Kerria japonica. 

ALABAMA SNOW WREATH, Neviusia ahbamensis. 

Gardens. May. Requires a sunny position, and prefers a rather free, rich 
loam. Propagated by cuttings under a hand-light in summer ; layering of 
shoots in October. 

Flowers white or yellowish-green, 1 in. diam., in axillary clusters. 


BRAMBLE or BLACKBERRY (Rubus fruticosus) 

A. Quinquefoliate leaf. B. Flowering stem, with ternate leaves. C. Fruit. 
D. Section of tiower, transverse. E. Section of fruit, transverse. 

Plate XVIII. 


Leaves alternate, petiolate, serrate, acute, glabrous, 2-3 ins. long. 
A deciduous shrub, 4-6 ft. ; Branches bright brown ; Twigs red-brown. 
Native of Alabama; introduced 1880. Named after Rev. R. D. Nevius, 
who discovered it in Alabama, 1857. 

BRUSH BUSH, Eucryphia pinnatifolia. 

Gardens. July, August. Thrives best in peaty loam and sheltered position. 
One of the most handsome of summer flowering shrubs, its four large shell-like 
petals reminding one of a Stuartia, while its cluster of stamens gives it a close 
resemblance to the St. John's Worts. Propagated by cuttings of young shoots 
in pots of sandy soil in cold frame in summer ; layering of shoots in October. 

Flowers white, 2^-3 ins. diam.; usually borne in pairs near upper part of 
branches; Calyx 5-lobed; Petals 4, obovate; Stamens numerous, anthers red 
at first, afterwards bright yellow; Fruit a capsule (follicle), hard, woody. 

Leaves alternate, pinnate, leaflets 3-5, acute, serrate, dark glossy green. 
Autumn tints crimson, scarlet, and gold. 

An evergreen shrub, 10-20 ft.; growth slow. 

Native of S. Chili; first discovered by Gray, 1845; introduced about 
1877. Generic name from Gr. eu, well, and kryphios, covered, referring to 
the imbricate calyx. 


Gardens, shrubberies. May. The finest of the White-stemmed Brambles, 
made conspicuous by the waxy bloom secreted on the bark. It thrives best 
in a good loamy soil. Old flowering stems should be cut out in December. 
Propagated by division, October to May ; seeds sown in shady border as 
soon as ripe, or in shallow pans with sandy peat and leaf-mould in a cold frame. 

Flowers white, |-f in. diam., 1-3 together on axillary, slender, drooping 

peduncles, the last armed with prickles ; Calyx 5-lobed, pubescent, persistent ; 

Petals 5 ; Stamens numerous, perigynous ; Ovary superior, carpels numerous, 

inserted on a convex receptacle ; Fruit an etaerio of fleshy drupels, 20-30, 

golden-yellow, globose, J in. diam. 



Leaves alternate, palmately compound, leaflets 3-5, ovate, lobed, doubly 
serrated, acute, white and tomentose beneath, pubescent or hairy above, 
1-1 1 in. long, stipules adnate to petioles, lanceolate. 

A deciduous shrub, 10 ft. ; Stems and branches rambling, white with 
glaucous bloom, giving appearance of having been whitewashed ; prickles 
very strong, recurved. 

Native of Himalayas; introduced 1818. In gardens is often confused with 
R. lettcodermis, a North American species. 

DEWBERRY, Rubus coesius. 

Open fields and stony wastes, occasionally hedges and thickets. July, 
August. Cultivated in peaty soil on sunny rockeries. Propagated by division 
in October to May. 

Flowers white, in a short corymbose panicle, few flowered ; Sepals narrow, 
spreading, fused below, tomentose; Fruit an eta?rio of small drupels on a 
conoid receptacle, large, black, pruinose, acid, adherent to receptacle. 

Leaves alternate, 3-5 foliate, 3-7 ins. long, leaflets l^-3f ins. long, 1-3 ins. 
wide, terminal on long petioles, ovate or 3-lobed, laterals sub-sessile, ovate 
or 2-lobed ; unequal and coarsely serrated, prickles on petioles and ribs, pale 
green. Autumn tint purplish. 

A deciduous shrub, scrambling; Shoots slender, prostrate, seldom arching, 
glabrous, waxy bloom ; prickles unequal, small. 

Native of Britain. 


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