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TREES AND SHRUBS OF THE 
BRITISH ISLES 



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USEFUL INSECTS. 

1. Lace-wing Ely (Chkvsopa (NoTiioCHRYSA) VULGARIS). I A. Eggs. Hi. Larva. 

2. Two-spot Lady-bird Beetle (Coccinella ijipunctata). 2A. Larva;, with one enlarged. 

3. Seven-spot Lady-bird Beetle (CocciNELLA .SEPTEMPUNCTATA). 

4. Spiny Fly (TacMINA (EcHINOMVIA) GKOS.SA). 

5- Spiny Fly (Taciiina (Faekicia) EEROX). 5A. Larva. 

6. Hover Fly (SvKPUUS (Catabomba) PVKA.STKI). 6a. Larv.L-. 

7. Hover Fly (SvKPHUS RIHESII). 

8. Hornet (Vespa crabko). 

9. Sun Beetle (Pterosticiius vulgarls). 

10. Green Tiger Beetle (Cicindela CAMPESTRI.S). ioa. Larva, in burrow. 

1 1. Devil's Coach-horse Beetle (OCYPUS OLENS). 

12. Glow-worm Beetle (Male) (La.MPVRIS NOCTILUCA). 12A. Female. 

13. Violet Ground Beetle (Carabus violaceu.s). 

14- Bracon Fly (MicR(j(;aster GLomeratus. 14A. Cocoons, spun by larv:t emerged from 
Caterpillar of Common Cabbage White Butterfly, with enlarged cocoon below, showing lid. 
15. Ichneumon Fly (PiMPLA instigator). 



^ 



TREES 




SHRUBS 



OF THE 



BRITISH ISLES 

NATIVE £^ ACCLIMATISED 



BY 



C. S. COOPER, F.R.H.S. 

AND 

W. PERCIVAL WESTELL, F.L.S. 



SIXTEEN FULL- PAGE COLOURED PLA i 

AND 

70 FULL-PAGE BLACK AND WHITE P .AlES 
DRAWN DIRECT FROM NATURE 

BY 

C. F. NEWALL 
VOL. n 






'IS 



/;rrrX./sZ^ 



65813 








LONDON 

J. M. DENT Sf CO. 



NEW YORK: E. P. DUTTON 

MCMIX 



CO. 



CONTENTS 



NATURAL ORDERS— 
Rosacese (^continued) 
Saxifragacere 
Hamamelidese 
Myrtaceie 
Passiflorese 
Ai-aliacese 
Coi'naeere 
Caprifoliaceje 
Rabiacere 
Compositfe 
Ericaceae 
StyracejB 
Jasminese 
Oleacese . 
Apocynacese 
Loganiacese 
Solanacere 
Scrophularinea' 
Bignoniacese 
Verbeuaceaj 
Labiatas . 
Laurineaj 
Thymelseaceaa 
Eheagnacese 
Loranthacere 
Euphorbiaceie 
Urticacea; 
Platanaceje 
J uglaudeffi 
Myricaceae 
Cupuliferse 
Salicinese 



1 

34 

42 

45 

40 

47 

49 

53 

69 

70 

73 

97 

99 

101 

112 

114 

116 

117 

120 

123 

124 

126 

127 

130 

133 

134 

130 

142 

140 

148 

149 

109 



CONTENTS 



NATURAL ORDERS {continued)— page 

Empetracere .............. 190 

Liliacece ............... 191 

Gramineaj .............. 195 

Coniferse 196 



INDICES 

INDEX OF NATURAL ORDERS AND SPECIES 241 

INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 246 

INDEX OF POPULAR NAMES 251 

COLOUR INDEX 259 



VI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



COLOURED PI-ATES 



USEFUL INSECTS 

JAPANESE ROSE (Rosa rugosa) . 

DOUBLE-FLOWERED JAPANESE APPLE or 
japonica, v. flore pleno) 

LILAC (Syringa vulgaris) . . • • 

DWARF SALLOW (Salix repens) . 

ASPEN (Populus tremula) .... 

BUTCHER'S BROOM (Ruscus aculeatus) . 

YEW (Taxus baccata) .... 



QUINCE (Cydonia 



Frontispiece 
To face jw/e 6 

„ „ 26 

„ „ 102 
„ „ 170 

180 
„ „ 192 

200 



BLACK AND WHITE PLATES 

PLATE 

XIX. DOG ROSE (Rosa canina) 

XX. SWEET BRIAR (Rosa rubigincsa) 

XXI. WHITE BEAM (Pyrus Aria) 

XXII. ROWAN TREE or MOUNTAIN ASH (Pyrus Aucuparia) 

XXIII. MEDLAR (Pyrus germanica) 

XXIV. HAWTHORN (Crataegus Oxyacautha) .... 
XXV. SMALL-LEAVED COTONEASTER (Cotoneaster microphylla) 

XXVI. MOCK ORANGE (SYRINGA) (Philadelphus coronarius) 
XXVII. FLOWERING CURRANT (Ribes sanguineum) 

XXVIII. IVY (Hedera Helix) 

XXIX. DOGWOOD (Cornus sanguinea) 
XXX. VARIEGATED LAUREL (Aucuba japonica) 
XXXI. ELDER (Sambucus nigra) .... 
XXXII. WAYFARING TREE (Viburnum Lantana) . 
XXXIII. GUELDER ROSE (Viburnum Opulus) . 
XXXIV. SNOWBALL TREE (Viburnum Opulus, var. sterile 
XXXV. LAURUSTINUS (Viburnum Tinus) 

vii 



3 
5 
8 
10 
17 
20 
29 
32 
41 
44 
49 
50 
53 
56 
59 
60 
63 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATE 

XXXVI. SNOWBEREY (Symphoricarpus racemosus) . 
XXXVII. HONEYSUCKLE (Lonicera Periclymenum) . 
XXXVIII. STRAWBERRY TREE (Aibutus Unedo) 
XXXIX. BILBERRY or WHORTLEBERRY (Vaccinium Myrtilhis) 
XL. LING OR HEATHER (Calluna vulgaris) 
XLI. PONTIC RHODODENDRON (Rhododendron pouticum) 
XLII. SNOWDROP TREE (Halesia tetraptera) 
XLIII. WHITE JASMINE (Jasminum officinale) 
XLIV. LILAC (Syringa vulgaris) ...... 

XLV. ASH (Fraxinus excelsior) ...... 

XLVI. PRIVET (Ligustrum vulgare) 

XLVII. TEA TREE (Lycium halimifolium) .... 

XLVIII. SWEET BAY (Laurus nobilis) 

XLIX. COMMON BOX (Buxus sempervirens) .... 
L. COMMON ELM (Ulmus campestris) .... 
LI. BLACK MULBERRY (Morns nisra) . 

LII. FIG (Ficus Carica) 

LIII. ORIENTAL PLANE (Platanus orientalis) 

LIV. WHITE BIRCH (Betula alba) .... 

LV. ALDER (Alnus glutinosa) 

LVI. HORNBEAM (Carpinus Betulus) 

LVII. HAZEL (Covylus Avellana) 

LVIII. HOLM OAK or EVERGREEN OAK (Quercus Ilex) . 
LIX. BRITISH OAK (Quercus robur, var. pedunculata) . 
LX. SWEET CHESTNUT (Castanea sativa) .... 

LXI. GREAT SALLOW (Salix Caprea) 

LXII. CRACK WILLOW (Salix fragilis) 

LXIII. BLACK POPLAR (Populus nigra) 

LXIV. ADAM'S NEEDLE (Yucca gloriosa) .... 

LXV. YELLOW CYPRESS (Cypressus nootkatensis) 
LXVI. NORWAY SPRUCE FIR (Picea excelsa) . 

LXVII. LARCH (Larix europa3a) 

LXVIII. SCOTCH PINE (Pinus sylvestris) 

LXIX. TWIGS AND WINTER BUDS (No. 1) . 
LXX. TWIGS AND WINTER BUDS (No. 2) . 



To face 



2^age 



64 
67 
74 
77 
80 
8.5 
96 
101 
104 
107 
112 
123 
130 
135 
138 
141 
142 
14.5 
148 
151 
154 
159 
160 
165 
168 
175 
182 
187 
194 
211 
218 
223 
230 
235 
238 



vm 



TREES AND SHRUBS 



ROCKY MOUNTAIN BRAMBLE, Ridms delidosus. 

Gardens, lawns, walls. May, June. This very distinct and most beautiful 
Bramble has well been called the Queen of the genus. It delights in sunshine, 
making a handsome shrub in the open, but producing its handsome blossoms in 
greater profusion when on a wall. It is propagated by layers in late summer. 

Floweis white, resembling Dog Rose, 2\ ins. diam., solitary ; Sepals ovate- 
oblong, with dilated acumination ; tomentose, shorter than petals ; Petals ovate, 
margins wavy ; Stamens numerous ; Ovarij superior, carpels numerous ; Fruit 
an etaario of drupels, delicious flavour. 

Leaves alternate, reniform-orbicular, resembling Currant, 3-5-lobed, wrinkled, 
finely serrated, acute, tomentose when young. If in. long, 1^ in. broad ; 
stipules persistent. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-6 ft. erect, or 8 ft. against a wall ; Brandies without 
prickles, tomentose. 

Native of Rocky Mountains; discovered by Dr. James in 1822; introduced 
to Britain, 1870, by JNIr. Anderson-Henry of Edinburgh. 

BLACKBERRY, Rubus fruticosus. 

Woods, hedges. July — September. A well-known fruiting shrub of the 
country-side, of which many varieties and hybrids are in cultivation. Pro- 
pagated by suckers and layers in October or November ; seeds sown in shady 
border as soon as ripe, or in shallow pans filled with sandy peat and leaf- 
mould in a cold frame 

Flowers white or pink in terminal racemes ; lateral branches corymbose ; 
Calyx reflexed, 5-lobed, persistent ; Fruit an etserio of drupels, black or 
reddish-purple, without bloom, not readily separating from receptacle, sweet 
or acid-sweet. 

VOL. II. A 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Leaves alternate, 3-5 foliate, pinnate, very variable, leaflets ovate or obo- 
vate, petiolate, coarsely irregularly serrated, acute, glabrous and dark green 
above, white and downy beneath, midribs and petioles with small hooked 
prickles ; stipules subulate or linear, inserted short way up stalk ; leaves sub- 
persistent. 

A deciduous shj'ub ; Stems prickly, bristly, glandularly hirsute, or downy, 
sometimes sub-erect, often rooting from a callus at extremity, straggling, or 
prostrate, furrowed, aculeate ; flowering stems biennial, or a few years old ; 
Buds long, pointed ; scales imbricated, hairy. 

Native of Britain. Irregular, spindle-shaped swellings on stems, 1-7 ins. 
long, produced by larva^ of a Gall-fly [Diastrophus rubi). 

RASPBERRY, Rubus Idteus. 

Woods, cultivated in gardens. Propagated by suckers and seeds. June — 
August. 

Floroers white, honeyed, in long pendidous panicled cymes, axillary and 
terminal, few-flowered ; Calyx somewhat campanulate, 5-lobed, inferior, per- 
sistent, lobes ovate-lanceolate, tips long ; Petals 5, short, linear-obovate ; 
Stamens indefinite ; Ovary superior, carpels several, distinct, styles many ; 
Fruit an etferio of succulent 1 -seeded drupels, on a dry conical receptacle, 
forming a kind of granulated berry, usually separating from the receptacle 
when ripe ; red. 

Leaves alternate, 3-5 foliate, often 3 in upper, 5 in lower, leaflets ovate 
or oblong, 3-5 ins. long, coarsely serrated, acute, light green above, downy 
beneath ; stipules small, subulate, often adnate half-way up stalk. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-5 ft. ; Stem shrubby, erect, terete, downy, sterile 
first year, bearing flowers and fruit in second, then dying ; prickles straight 
and slender ; flowering shoots with curved prickles ; Suckei's freely produced. 

Native of Britain. 

Injurioiis Lisects : — Blossoms, Bud'i, and Fi-uit — Raspberry Beetle {Byturus 

tomentosus) ; Leaves — Weevils {Otiorhynchus); Roots — Weevils {Otiorhynchus); 

Garden Swift Moth {Hcpiahis lupulinus). 

2 




DOG ROSE {Rosa canina) 

A. Flowering branch. B. Flower, with petals removed. C. Seed. I>. Section of flower. 
E. Section of fruit. P. Fruit. 



Plate XIX. 



ROSACEA 

NOOTKA SOUND RASPBERRY, Rubus nutkanm. 

Gardens. Prefers a moist soil and partial shade. May — August. 

Floivei's white, large, 1-2 ins. diam., in a terminal corymbose cluster, few- 
flowered, 1-2 ins. broad ; Sepals cuspidate, appendage long and slender ; Fruit 
an etaerio of drupels, red, hemispherical. 

Leaves alternate, 3-5-lobed, resembling Vine, 3 lobes nearly equal, broad, 
coarsely and unequally serrated, acute. 

A deciduous shrub, 1-10 ft. ; Stems flexuous, glandularly hirsute ; sends 
up annual shoots like Raspberry. 

Introduced from N.W. America, 1826 ; discovered by Douglas growing 
wild from North California to Nootka Sound. Known in America as Salmon 
Berry. 

PURPLE-FLOWERED RASPBERRY, Rubus odoratus. 

Gardens and shrubberies. June — ^August. Thrives best in partial shade. 
A handsome shrub of very robust growth. Old flowering stems should be cut 
away in December. Propagate by layers and seeds. 

Floivei's purple-red, showy, 2 ins. diam., in a corymbose cluster ; peduncles 
many-flowered, bracts membranous ; Calyx lobes with narrow appendage ; 
Petals 5, rounded, broad ; Fruit an etaerio of drupels, reddish-yellow or amber, 
flat, broad, velvety, seldom ripening in England. 

Leaves alternate, palmately 3-5-lobed, sometimes 6 ins. diam., lobes minutely 
serrated, acute, glabrous above, viscid beneath, sweet scented ; larger ones on long 
viscid petioles, those near ends of shoots nearly sessile and 3-lobed. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-8 ft. ; Stem glandularly hirsute, without prickles, 
erect ; suckers freely produced ; Buds ovoid, scales hirsute. 

Introduced from N. America, 1739. Called Flowering Raspberry in U.S.A. ; 
in England also known as Virginian Raspberry and Scented Bramble. 



A 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

JAPANESE WINEBERRY, Bubus phcenicolasius. 

Gardens, rockeries. A handsome straggling Bramble of vigorous growth, 
well suited for low fences or bold rockwork. It has large handsome foliage, 
and its somewhat unique blossoms are followed by large scarlet fruits, which 
are very sweet and juicy. June, July. 

Flowers pale pink or whitish, inconspicuous in a terminal raceme; Calyx 
1^-2 ins. diam., covered with reddish glandular hairs ; Petals minute, erect ; Fi'uit 
an etasrio of some forty ellipsoid drupels ; scarlet, ovoid-oblong, f in. long, edible. 

Leaves alternate, 5-7 ins. long, upper ones simple, others pinnately trifoliate, 
leaflets crenate, white tomentum beneath, glandularly hirsute. 

A deciduous sh?'ub, 10 ft. ; sub-scandent ; Stems covered with stiff, long, red- 
purple glandular hairs and prickles. 

Introduced from Japan, 1877. 

SALMON BERRY, Bubus spectabiUs. 

Gardens. April, May. 

Flowers purple, large, fragrant, peduncles solitary or in pairs, 1-2 flowered, 
drooping ; Sepals hairy at base, shorter than petals ; Fr^dt an et«rio of drupels, 
yellow or red, ovoid, acid, ripe in June or July. 

Leaves alternate, trifoliate, lateral leaflets distant from terminal, often 
deeply 2-lobed, ovate, serrate, acuminate, membranous, nearly glabrous, downy 
when young. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-10 ft. ; Stems erect, terete, unarmed or with deciduous 
prickles, flexuose, thin ; Suckers freely produced. 

Native of California; introduced from N. America by Douglas, 1827. 

SHRUBBY CINQUEFOIL, Pot ent ilia fruticosa. 

Rocky banks, gardens. June — August. Thrives in fairly light, loamy soil, 

with plenty of moisture at roots. A charming small shrub, bearing a profusion 

of bright golden-yellow blossoms. Seeds are sown in shallow pans or boxes 

4 




Plate XX. 



SWEET BRIAR {liot>a rulnyuumi) 



ROSACEA 

of light sandy soil in gentle heat in March, transplanting seedlings outdoors 
in May or June, or in partially shaded border outdoors in April. 

Floioers golden-yeUow, 1-1^ in. diam., in a few flowered terminal sub- 
corymbose cyme ; Calyx inferior, 5-lobed, lobes ovate-lanceolate, valvate in bud, 
persistent ; Epkalyx of 5 lanceolate bracteoles, longer than sepals ; Petals 5, 
orbicular ; Stamens numerous, perigynous ; Ovary superior, carpels many ; 
Fruit an etterio of achenes, hairy, on hispid receptacle. 

Leaves alternate, petiolate, sub-digitately pinnate, leaflets 3-5, oblong or 
lanceolate, ^-f in. long, entire, revolute, glabrous above, silky when young; 
stipules narrow, thin, entire, adnate to petiole. 

A deciduous erect sJwub, 2-4 ft. ; or spreading undershrub, much branched ; 
Bark flaking. 

Native of N. England, and Clare and Galway in Ireland. Generic name 
from L. pot ens, entis, powerful, from the medicinal effects ascribed to some of 
the genus; specific name ./)//^/fo*a = shrubby ; 'L. jrutex, -ids, a shrub or bush. 



FIELD ROSE, Rosa arvensis. 

Hedges and thickets ; gardens. .Tune, July. The Ayrshire Roses of gardens 
are the offspring of this native species. They are extremely hardy, of rapid 
growth, useful for poor soils, and of great value for covering rough buildings, 
ugly fences, trunks of trees, banks and mounds. They require but little pruning 
or training, but should have all dead wood cut out in February or JMarch. 

Floivers white, scentless, in a 1-6 flowered corymb, or rarely solitary, 
peduncle setose ; Calyx-tube globoid, glabrous, sepah purple, short, broad, 
naked at back, shghtly pinnate, reflexed, deciduous; Styles glabrous, united 
into an exserted column; Fruit a cynarrhodium, sub-globose, small, naked, 
sessile, or stalked ; disk convex, much thickened. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, eglandular, glabrous, or slightly pubescent, 
glaucous beneath. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-6 ft. ; Stem arched or trailing ; Branches purple, 
glaucous ; prickles strong, often large, equal, hooked ; Buds ovoid, glabrous. 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Native of England and Ireland, rare in Scotland. Known as Ayrshire Rose. 
Syn. B. repens. 



DOG ROSE, Rosa canina. 

Hedges, thickets, gardens. Useful for covering unsightly fences or vfdXh. 
It is a valuable stock for grafting purposes. June, July. 

Flozvers pink or white, usually fragrant, solitary or 3-4 in a corymb; 
Sepals 5, pinnate, reflexed, tube persistent, lobes imbricate in bud ; Petals 
5; Stamens numerous, inserted on the disk; Carpels many, sunk in calyx- 
tube, styles distinct, hirsute, stigma thickened; Frtiit a cynarrhodium, ovoid 
or sub-globose, scarlet-crimson, polished, cavity hairy, containing 20-25 achenes 
("stones"), each angular, yellowish, hairy, flesh-orange, sepals deciduous, bracts 
persistent. 

Leaves alternate, leaflets 5-7, ovate, acute, serrate or biserrate, eglandular, 
glabrous beneath. 

A deciduous sknob, 3-6 ft. ; Branches arching, prickles falcate or equal, 
hooked ; Rootstock woody, suckers often produced ; Buds flattened, scales 
green, tipped with red. 

Native of Britain. Hooker says, " In its common form this is the largest 
and freest growing of British roses, and may be distinguished from R. spinosis- 
sima by the hooked prickles and habit, from B. pilosa by being more 
glabrous, from R. rubiginosa by being eglandular, and from R. arvensis by 
the free styles." 

Insects injurious to Roses, wild and cultivated : — Floive^s — Rosechafer 

{Centonia atirata). Garden Chafer {Phyllopertha horticola). Brown Weevil 

{Otiorhynchus sulcatus); Leaves and Shoots — Green Fly {Siphonophora 7-osce), 

Leaf-cutter Bee {Megachile ceiituncularis), Banded Saw-fly {Empkytus cinctus). 

Leaf-rolling Saw-fly {Lyda inariita), many other Saw-fly larvae, including the 

Genera Eriocampa, Blcnmocampa, and Hylotoma ; among Moth larviK are 

the Lackey Moth {Bombyx neustria), Vapour Moth {Orgyia a?ttiqua), \^'^inter 

Moth {Cheimatobia brimiata), and several Tortricina and T'ineina. 

6 




^f?^''!^ 




JAPAN i:SK KOSK. 
{ Kosa nigosa ) 



ROSACEi^ 

The most common Gall is the Rose Bedeguar or Robin's pin-cushion, 
produced by the larvte of a Gall-gnat {R/iodites ?-osce) ; other species of the 
same genus produce Pea-like Galls on the foliage, especially of wild roses. 



MUSK ROSE, Rom moschata. 

Gardens. July, August. A fine climbing species with clusters of large 
single flowers having a very characteristic scent. Shoots should be shortened 
in April. 

Floicers yellowish-white, very fragrant, 1.^-2 ins. diam., in a compound 
terminal corymb, pubescent ; Calyx hoary pubescent, tube small, obovoid, 
lobes 2-3 times length of tube, glandularly serrate, often pinnatifid ; Petals 
orbicular-obovate ; Styles united into a hairy clavate column ; Fruit a 
cynarrhodium, globose or ovoid, \ in. diam., dark-brown, crowned by base 
of deciduous calyx-lobes. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 2-6 ins. long, leaflets 3-9, ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate, acute or acuminate, acutely serrated, puberulous beneath. 

A deciduous climbing shrub, 18-20 ft. ; Prickles scattered, stout, recurved. 

Native of S. Europe, N. India, Afghanistan, and China; introduced 1.590. 
Specific name from Iv. moschus, musk. 



SWEET BRIAR, Rosa rubiginosa. 

Chalky hills, gardens. A native Rose, justly prized for the delightful 
fragrance exhaled from the glands of its leaves. It is a good hedge plant. 
June, July. 

Floxvers pink, small, solitary or corymbose, 1-3 flowers, peduncles setose; 
Calyx pinnate, sub-persistent, densely glandular ; Styles free, hairy ; Fruit a 
cynarrhodium, sub-globose or oblong, glabrescent, or with few small prickles, 
disk small. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, leaflets 5-7, small, oval or sub-orbicular, 

round at base, acute or obtuse, biserrate, shining and glabrous or slightly 

7 









TREES AND SHRUBS 

hairy above, glandular-pubescent beneath, fragrant, petiole glandular. Autumn 
tint purplish-brown. 

A deciduous sh-nb, 5-6 ft. ; Branches sub-erect, slender ; prickles stout 
at base, curved or hooked, slender, scattered, mixed with glandular hairs and 
bristles, giving rusty appearance ; Buds ovoid, glabrous. 

Native of Britain. Hooker says, " Best distinguished by its sub-erect 
habit and copious glandular pubescence, which gives out the strong sweet- 
briar odour." Specific name = rusty-leaved (Ij. rohigo or 7iibigo, -mis, rust). 
Known also as Eglantine. Syn. R. Eglanteria. 

Leaves and shoots attacked by Green Fly {Siphotiophora), Pea-like Galls 
produced by R/iodifes eglanterice. 



JAPANESE ROSE, Rosa rugosa. 

Gardens. June. A very robust shrub, noteworthy for its handsome 
foliage, large single flowers, and fine orange-red, apple-like fruits. It makes 
a good hedge plant. Thin out shoots in April. 

Flmvers rosy-red, large, solitary, ebracteate ; peduncles with straight, short, 
scattered prickles ; Sepals lanceolate, entire, reflexed, hairy ; Petals emarginate ; 
Fruit a cynarrhodium, large and showy, 1 in. or more in diam., resembling 
apples, orange-red to deep red, depressed-globose, glabrous, pendulous ; 
persistent sepals, erect, foliaceous, 1|^ in. long. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, leaflets 5-9, obtuse, ovate, serrate, wrinkled. 

A deciduous shrub, 4-6 ft. ; Branches slender, prickles very dense, straight, 
nearly equal. 

Introduced from Japan, 1845. 

SCOTCH ROSE, Rosa spinosissima. 

Open places, especially sandy seashores; gardens. May, June. A small- 
leaved, prickly little bush-rose, bearing a profusion of white blossoms. Thin 

out shoots in November. 

8 




WHITE BEAM (Fyrus Ai-ia) 

A. Flowering branch. B. Fruit. C. Flower, with petals removed. I). Flower. 
E. Transverse section o£ fruit. F. Longitudinal section of fruit. 



Plate XXI. 



ROSACEA 

Flowers white or pink, 1-1 1 in. diam., solitary or in cortjmbs of rarely 
more than 3 ; Calyx-tube usually glabrous, globoid, sepals simple, lanceolate, 
acuminate, persistent, eglandular ; Styles free ; Fruit a cynarrhodium, globose, 
glabrous, purple to black, disk very small. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, leaflets 7-9, small, rounded, serrate, glabrous 
above, eglandular. 

A deciduous shrub, 1-4 ft. ; Branches short, erect ; Tivigs rounded, 
setigerous ; prickles crowded, unequal, subulate, expanded at base. 

Native of Britain. Also called Burnet Rose. Red galls in leaves and other 
young parts formed by a mite {Rhodites spinosissimcc). 

DOWNY ROSE, Rosa villosa. 

Hedges and thickets. June, July. 

Flowers rose, solitary or in small terminal corymbs; Calyx-tube globose, 
sepals copiously pinnate, long, persistent, glandular hairs black ; Corolla often 
ciliate and glandular ; Styles free, sUghtly protruding from the mouth of 
calyx in a dense tuft ; Fruit a cynarrhodium, globoid, bright red, sepals erect, 
prickles small. 

Leaves alternate, leaflets 5 7, oblong or elliptical, biserrate, downy above, 
eglandular, or nearly so beneath. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-G ft. ; Branches erect, or elongate and arching, rigid, 
slender, prickles scattered, nearly straight. 

Native of Britain. Hooker says, " Chiefly distinguished from R. spinosissima 
by its larger size, equal prickles, fewer very downy leaflets, which are more 
constantly doubly serrate, and the more glandular fruit ; and from R. caiiina by 
the straight prickles, and globose, glandular fruit." 

WILLOW-LEAVED PEAR, Pyms amygdaliformis. 

Gardens, plantations. May. 

Flowers white, in a lax corymb ; Fruit a pome, oval, small, woody, yellowish- 
green, pedicel shoi-t. 

9 

^ ' '• * 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Leaves alternate, linear, acute, hoary on underside with silky, silvery 
hairs. 

A deciduous tree, 15-20 ft. ; inclined to be pendulous. 
Native of the Levant and Siberia. Syn. P. salicifolia. 

WILD PEAR, Pyrus communis. 

Woods, hedgerows. The parent of our cultivated Pears, of which there 
are nearly 700 varieties. April, May. 

Floxvers white, 1-1^ in. diam., in corijmhoid or racemose cymes of 6-10 on 
wood of previous year ; proterogynous, attracting flies ; Calyx-tube (receptacle) 
adhering to ovary, becoming fleshy in fruit, limb 5-lobed, persistent; Petals 5; 
Stamens numerous ; anthers purple, then black ; Ovary 5-celled, spuriously in- 
ferior by up-growth of receptacle, 3-5 styles, distinct ; F.ruit a pome, pyriform, 
2 ins. long, 5-celled, gritty, walls cartilaginous ; green till November, then 
turning yellow. 

Leaves alternate, on shoots, fascicled on previous year's wood, ovate or 
obovate, petiolate, obtusely serrated, acute, glabrous, slightly downy in young 
stage, 1-1| in. long. Autumn tint yellow, dead leaves black. 

A deciduous tree, 20-60 ft. ; somewhat pyramidal ; Tivigs drooping, some- 
times ending in a spine ; Bark rough ; Dwa7-f shoots sometimes thorny ; Buds 
glabrous, brown ; Wood fine-grained, strong, reddish tinge ; used for instruments 
and small cabinet and turnery work. 

Native of Britain. 

Name Pear from A.S. j)erii, pere ; 1^. pirum, a pear. 

Insects injurious to Pears : — Bark — American Blight {Schhoncura lanigera). 

Fruit-tree Bark Beetle {Scolytus rugulosus). Mussel Scale {Mitilaspis pom- 

orum) ; Blossom and Fruit — Pear Gnat Midge {Diplosis pyrivora), Apple 

Blossom Weevil {Anthonomus pomorum) ; Leaves — Apple Aphis {Aphis mali), 

Pear Leaf-blister Mite {Phytoptus pyri). Leaf Weevils {Phyllobiiis), Cherry 

and Pear Saw-fly {Selandria at?'a), Lackey Moth {Bombyx neustria), Mottled 

Umber Moth {Hybernia defoliai'ia), Winter Moth [Cheimatobia brumata) ; 

10 



J^ 




ROWAN-TKKK, or MOUNTAIN ASH (fyc«s Aucuparia) 

A. riuwering branch. B. Fruit. C. Single (lower, enlarged. I). Flower, after removal of petals. 

£. Transverse section of fruit. 



I'LATE XXII. 



ROSACEA 

Wood — Goat Moth [Cossus Ugnipcrda, Trijpanus cossus). Wood Leopard Moth 
{Zeuzera cescuU, Z. pryiiia). 

Ftingoid Pests: — Pear-leaf Cluster-cups {Roestelia cancellatia). Pear-leaf 
Blister [Exoascus hullatus). Apricot Brown Rot {3Ioitilia jructigcna). 



SIBERIAN CRAB, Pyrus baccata. 

Gardens, lawns. April, ]May. A handsome tree when in flower, M'hich few 
can surpass for beauty, and conspicuous in autumn when laden with its cherry- 
like fruits. It does best when grafted on the apple or pear. 

Flowers white, in a sessile umbellate corymb ; pedicels long and slender ; 
Calyx lobes spreading, deciduous, lanceolate, equal to or longer than tube, 
cottony inside ; Petals with dark veins ; Styles 3-5, nearly free, woolly at 
base ; Fiuit a pome, globose, sometimes pyriform, bright red or yellow 
tinged with red, about size of cherry ; used for jelly. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, acute, serrated, glabrous, petioles of same length, 

A deciduous tree, 15-30 ft.; dense, round-headed. 

Native of Siberia, China, .Japan, and Himalayas ; introduced 1784. 

SWEET-SCENTED AMERICAN CRAB, Pyms coronaria. 

Gardens. May, June. A very beautiful and ornamental tree. The 
flowering species of Pyrus are propagated by cuttings 8-12 ins. long, 
inserted in ordinary soil outdoors in autumn ; layers in autumn ; budding 
on Pear or Quince in July ; grafting in March ; seeds sown in sandy soil in 
a sunny position outdoors in March. 

Floivers rosy, fragrant with the scent of Violets, 12 ins. diam., in lax 
corymbs, pedicels glabrous ; Calyx slightly pubescent, lobes acute ; Petals 
obovate, often serrate or dentate ; Styles woolly or tufted at base ; Fruit a 
pome, roimd, flat, 1-1^ in. diam. ; fragrant, grass-green, glossy, very acid. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, cordate at base, angularly-lobed or serrated, glabrous, 

appearing late in spring, more or less sub-evergreen in mild seasons, 13 ins. 

11 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

long, 1 2^ 2^ ins. wide ; petioles slender, sometimes glandular ; stipules acumi- 
nate. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 15-30 ft. ; Twigs tomentose, pubescent or glabrous, spiny, 
red-brown ; Bark red-brown, fissured ; Btids minute, obtuse ; scales red, 
scarious, ciliate; Wood soft, reddisli. 

Introduced from N. America, 1724. Syns. Cratcegus coro?ia?ia, Blalus 
coroncu'ia. 

CORAL-BUD APPLE, Pyrus floribunda. 

Gardens, lawns. April, May. This is one of the most ornamental of 
hardy flowering shrubs, its slender, green, arching branches being almost hidden 
beneath a wealth of crimson buds or soft rosy-white blossoms. It makes a 
handsome specimen when planted singly on a lawn. It is usually grafted on 
Pijr%i,s communis. 

Flowers white, suffused with rose, in the bud stage a deep rich crimson, 
borne in cymosc clusters, completely covering the shoots ; Calyx 5-lobed ; Petals 
5, tapering and widely separated at base ; Stamens numerous, perigynous ; 
Ovary inferior, carpels 5 ; Fruit a pome, yellow, nearly spherical, about size 
of a pea, pedicel long. 

Leaves alternate, elliptical-lanceolate, petiolate, stipulate, serrated, acumi- 
nate, 1-1|^ in. long. 

A deciduous shrub or small ti'ce, 10-15 ft. ; Shoots long and flexible. 

Native of Japan. Considered by some to be a variety of P. spectabilis. Syn. 
3Ialus floribunda. 

CRAB APPLE, Pyrus Malus. 

Woods and hedges. May, June. 

Flowers white, streaked with pink, li in. diam., proterogynous, entomo- 

philous, few, in a sessile umbel, 5-6 flowered ; Calyx-lobes broad, downy ; Styles 

shortly united at base ; Fruit a pome, 1 in. diam., sub-globose, indented at 

base and apex, smooth, very acid, yellow or red, 5-celled. 

12 



ROSACEiE 

Leaves alternate, and tufted on dwarf shoots, ovate-oblong, shortly petiolate, 
serrated, acuminate or cuspidate, glabrous above, generally downy beneath when 
young, 12 ins. long ; stipules subulate, downy, deciduous. Autumn tint brown. 

A deciduous tree, 20-30 ft. ; Branches spreading when young, more 
drooping later, giving a rounded head ; trunk unsymmetrical ; Barh rugged : 
Twigs round, shining, red-brown; Buds small, somewhat triangular; Wood 
hard, heavy, fine-grained, slightly brown, taking high pohsh. 

Native of Britain. Syn. Malus comiminis. Name Apple from A.S. appcl, apl. 

Chief insects injurious to cultivated Apple : — Bark — American Blight 
{Schizoneura lanigera), Fruit-tree Bark Beetle {Scolytus riigidosus), Mussel 
Scale {3Iijtila,spis poniorum) ; Blossom and Fruit — Codlin Moth {Carpocapsa 
pomonella), Apple Weevil {Anthonomus pomorum), Apple Sawfly {Hoplocampa 
testudinea), Apple Chermes (Psijlla ma/i) ; Leaves— A^ple Aphis {Aphis mali). 
Garden Chafer {Phyl/opc/iha horticola). Lackey JNIoth {Bombyx neustria). 
Winter Moth {Cheimatobia brumata). Small Ermine INIoth {Hyponomeuta 
padcUa); JFood— Goat Moth {Cossus ligniperda, IVypanus cossus). Wood 
Leopard Moth {Zcuzera cvsculi, Z. pijrinu). 

Fungoid Pests: — Apple-leaf Spot {Scptoria pyricola), Apple-tree White 
Mould {Oidiu?n farinosum). Apple-tree Canker {Nectria ditissima). Apricot 
Brown Rot {Monilia fructigena). 



CHERRY CRAB, Pyms pruni/hlia. 

Gardens. April, IMay. ^V'^hen laden with its phikish flower buds in spring 
this makes an ornamental tree, but is chiefly grown for the sake of its hand- 
some fruits, which are yellowish flushed with red, and of an agreeable flavour. 

Flowers white, resembling Common Pear, in cyinQse clusters; peduncles 
pubescent ; Calyx-lobes persistent ; Styles woolly at base ; Fruit a pome, 
globose, yellowish and red, decaying like Medlar. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, acuminate, serrate, glabrous, petioles long. 

A deciduous tree, 20-30 ft. 

Native of Siberia ; introduced 1758. Syn. Malus pi-unifolia. 

VOL. II. 13 B 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

SHOWY CHINESE CRAB, Pyms spcctabllis. 

Gardens, lawns, shrubberies. April, May. Pruning should be done 
December to February, cutting back previous year's shoots to within 2 ins. 
of base, and leading shoots to 8-12 ins. 

Flowers pale rose, semi-double, 2 ins. or more in diam., in a many- 
flowered, terminal, sessile umbel, buds deep red ; Calyx-tube glabrous ; Petals 
ovate, unguiculate ; Stamens numerous, sometimes over 40 ; Styles woolly 
at base; Fniit a pome, irregularly globose, greenish-yellow, pedicels long. 

Leaves alternate, oval-oblong, acute, serrated, glabrous. 

A deciduous tree, 20-30 ft. ; Branches crowded, erect when young, after- 
wards spreading and slender. 

Native of China and Japan ; introduced 1780. Specific name from L. 
spectabilis, worth seeing — specfo, I look at. 



WHITE BEAM, P/jrus Aria. 

Woods, borders of forests, gardens. Common on chalky soils. ]\lay, June. 
The group Aria, which includes the present species and the Wild Service, is 
distinguished by broadly ovate or oval leaves, and flattened corymbs of 
white blossoms. 

Flowei's white, I in. diam., in a loose corymb at the ends of short leafy 
branches ; inflorescence covered with soft, white cotton ; Calyx-tube adhering 
to carpels, becoming fleshy in fruit, lobes 5 ; Petals 5 ; Stamens numerous, 
anthers white ; Ovary becoming spuriously syncarpous and inferior ; Styles 
usually 3, sometimes 4, hairy at base; Fr^iit a pome, sub-globose, \ in. diam., 
bright red dotted with brown points, ripe in September, orange flesh sharp 
and rough to taste, usually 3-celled, 2 seeds in each cell. 

Leaves ovate or obovate, very variable, sometimes pinnately lobed, petiolate, 
coarsely and irregularly serrated, glabrous and shining green above, white 
and flocculent beneath, 2-6 ins. long. Autumn tints yellow, brown, orange- 
scarlet. 

14 



ROSACEi^ 

A deciduous pyramidal tree, 20-40 ft. ; or a low bush ; Branches slender, 
having an upward tendency, young shoots cottony ; Bark smooth, reddish- 
brown ; Tidgs shining, red-olive-brown to grey ; Buds ovoid, scales green, 
margins brown, pubescent ; Wood fine-grained, hard, white, inclining to 
yellow ; used for small cabinet and turnery work. 

Indigenous throughout Britain ; several more or less cut-leaved forms 
are found in various parts of the British Isles, and are considered by some 
botanists to be species or sub-species. 



WILD SERVICE, Piims Torminalis. 

AVoods, hedges ; will grow in dry situations ; prefers strong clay soil. 
April, May. 

Flowers white, more numerous and smaller than P. Aria, J in. diam., in 
a corymbose cyme, at ends of short leafy branches ; young inflorescence clothed 
with loose down ; Calyx pubescent, tube hemispherical, teeth triangular ; 
Anthers white ; Styles usually 2, united to above middle ; Fruit a pome, 
pyriform or sub-globose, greenish-brown, \ in. diam., dotted with lenticels, 
juiceless, usually 2-celled, ripe in November, flesh becomes brown and ahnost 
friable after bletting by frost. 

Leaves oblong-ovate or cordate, G-10 lobed, lobes triangular, acuminate, 
lower ones spreading, serrated, glabrous on both surfaces, 2-4 ins. long, 
3 ins. broad, young leaves downy, underside bluish or grey, petioles slender. 
Autumn tint yellowish-brown. 

A deciduous tree, 40-50 ft. ; growth slow ; Branches spreading, forming 
large head ; Tzcigs sub-angular, reddish-brown, polished ; Barh smooth, grey ; 
Buds globoid, obtuse ; scales broad, scalloped, bifid ; ]Fuod flne-grained, red- 
tinted, susceptible of high polish ; used for small cabinet and turnery work. 

A native of Southern and Central England. Some specimens said to 
be 1000 years old. Skeat says name Service is corruption of serves = 
M.E. plural of serf or serve, the name of the fruit; A.S. syrf=^innl of 
service-tree — syrf-trcovc, a service-tree — L. sorbus, the tree ; sorl)um, its fruit. 

15 1! 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

NEPAL WHITE BEAM, Pyms vestita. 

Gardens, A handsome Indian species with long, silvery leaves. May, 
June. 

Floxvers white, in a branched terminal corymb, woolly ; Cahjx tomentose ; 
Petals woolly inside; Styles 3-5, woolly at base; Fruit a pome, globose, 
tubercled, glossy, ?, in. diam., greenish-brown, ripe in October. 

Leaves alternate, ovate or elliptical, acutely crenated or coarsely serrated 
towards point, very woolly in young stage, glabrous when older, glossy green, 
sometimes 10-12 ins. long, petioles long. Autumn tint pale yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 20-30 ft. ; Branches tomentose when young, glabrous 
later. 

Native of Nepal ; introduced 1820, Syns. P. crenata, lanatu, nepalensis. 



AMERICAN MOUNTAIN ASH, Pyrus amerkana 

Gardens. June. The group, including the Mountain Ash and True 
Service, is characterised by pinnate foliage, flat corymbs of white blossoms, 
and showy fruits. 

Floivers white, in a large terminal corymbose cyme, 3-G ins. broad ; bracts 
and bracteoles minute ; Calyx 5-lobed ; Petals 5, spreading, short clawed, 
Stamens indefinite ; Ovary inferior, styles usually 3, distinct, stigma truncate ; 
Fruit a pome, globose, red, not larger than peas, very numerous, in large 
terminal corymbs. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 6-8 ins. long, leaflets 13-15, lanceolate, 
tapering at apex, sharply serrated with acute teeth, glabrous, shining above, 
slightly paler beneath, 1^-4 ins. long; petioles grooved, green or red; stipules 
nearly triangular, caducous. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 15-20 ft. ; erect, fastigiate ; Park smooth ; Buds acute, 
scales vinous red, acuminate ; Wood soft, light brown. 

Introduced from N. America, 1782; native of Canada, Newfoundland, 

and sub-Alpine prairies of northern United States 

16 




MEDLAR {Pyrus gennanica) 
A. Flowering branch. B. Two of the stamens. C. Fruit. D. Section of flower. 



Plate XXIII. 



ROSACEi^ 

MOUNTAIN ASH, Ptp-us Aucuparia. 

Woods, hillsides, gardens. May, June. This tree is especially handsome 
in early autumn when laden with its orange-scarlet berries. It is not parti- 
cular as to soil or aspect, and is therefore specially suitable for town gardens. 
Any necessary thinning of branches should be done December to February. 
Propagated by cuttings, layers, budding and grafting ; seeds sown in ordinary 
soil outdoors October or November. 

Flowei's cream-white, numerous, \ in. diameter, proterogynous, in a 
corymbose cyme, 4-6 in. diam., at ends of short leafy branches, peduncles 
downy, dense-flowered ; Calyx downy ; Styles short, usually 8, almost glabrous 
and free from base ; Fruit a pome, small, \ in. diameter, globose, orange- 
scarlet, flesh orange-yellow, ripe in September, usually 3-celled ; a favourite 
with Finches and Thrushes. 

Leaves imparipinnate, petiolate, 5-8 ins. long, leaflets 11-19, linear-oblong, 
serrate, sub-acute, glabrous or nearly so above, pale beneath, hairy along 
midrib and nerves, glabrous when old or nearly so, 1-11 in. long. Autumn 
tints yellow, red, brown. 

A deciduous tree, 30-50 ft. ; rapid in growth ; Branches with an upward 
tendency ; Barh smooth, grey, scarred horizontally ; Buds violet-black or 
grey, and downy ; Wood tough, elastic ; used for small cabinet and turnery 
work. 

A native of Britain. Also known as Rowan Tree. 



TRUE SERVICE TREE, Pyms Sorbus. 

Parks, Gardens. Requires deep, dry soil and shelter. May. 

Floivers cream- white, larger than P. Aucupaiia, in a corymb ; Calyx-lobes 
reflexed ; Ovary of 5 carpels, styles 5, often woolly ; Fruit a pome, apple- 
shaped or pyriform, 1 in. long ; greenish-brown, with rust-red spots ; very 
austere when unripe, somewhat resembling a medlar when mellowed 

by age. 

17 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Leaves imparipinnate, petiolate, leaflets 13-17, oblong, acuminate, serrated 
towards point, downy when young, becoming glabrous, paler beneath. Autumn 
tints yellow to purple-brown. 

A deciduous tree, 30-60 ft ; Branches with an upward tendency ; Bark 
rugged ; Buds green and smooth, viscous, scales olive-green with brown 
border ; Tiv/gs stout, round, glabrous, olive-green to brown or grey ; Wood 
reddish, close-grained, takes high polish ; said to be hardest and heaviest of 
European woods ; used for wright-work. 

Not an indigenous species ; thought by some to be a product of cultivation ; 
Synonymous with P. domestica and Sorbus domestica. 



RED CHOKE-BERRY, Piims arbutifolia. 

Gardens. May, June. 

Floxvers white, or tinged with purple, in a few-flowered co?~y>/ibose cyme, 
woolly ; Calyx tomentose ; Fritit a pome, pyriforin or globular, small, dark 
red or purple, persistent through winter. 

Leaves alternate, ovate or obovate, 1-3 ins. long, acute, finely serrated, 
petiolate, downy beneath. Autumn tints deep red and purple. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-10 ft., twiggy. 

Introduced from N. America, 1700 : found throughout Canada and New- 
foundland. Also known as Arbutus-leaved Aronia. Syns. Aronia arbutifolia, 
Soi -b us a I -b iitifolia . 



MEDLAR, Pyrus germanica. 

Hedges, thickets, gardens. May, .June. 

Flowers white, H in. diam., solitary, sessile on short leafy branches, 

peduncle l in. ; Ccdyx 5-lobed, divisions foliaceous, woolly, persistent ; Petals 

5 ; Stamens numerous ; Ovary spuriously syncarpous and inferior ; styles usually 

.'5, distinct, glabrous; Fruit a pome, J,-l in. diam.; nearly globular or pyriform, 

" 18 



ROSACEi^ 

large depressed area at top, surrounded by a hairy disk formed of persistent 
calyx lobes ; 5 bony cells slightly protruding, and readily separable ; ripe in 
October and November. 

Leaves alternate, simple, lanceolate or oblong, nearly sessile, finely serrated, 
sub-acute and slightly downy, especially beneath. Autumn tints yellow, orange, 
russet, and red. 

A deciduous shrrtl), or small tree, 10-20 ft. ; Bravclicfi more or less thorny 
when wild, but losing thorns in cultivation. 

Apparently wild in several localities in southern England, but probably 
only escapes from cultivation. " Fruit called medles ; M.E. medler, the tree, 
also called mcdle-tree ; O.F. mesle, a medlar {whence mcslier, the tree); L. 
mcspilum; Gr. jnespiloti, a medlar'' (Skeat). Siyn. Mespilus germanica. 



JAPANESE QUINCE, Cijdonia japonica. 

Gardens, walls, fences. March, onwards through greater part of year. 
This handsome shrub is easy of culture, doing well in good garden soil, but 
thriving best in that of a rich, moist, loamy character. It does well on a 
south wall, and makes one of the loveliest hedges. The fruit should be 
gathered in October, and stored in a cool room till yellow. Propagated by 
cuttings of the year's shoots with portion of old wood attached ; inserted in 
ordinary soil outdoors in October ; layering of shoots in October or November ; 
seeds sown outdoors in November. It may be transplanted in early autumn, 
and the suckers used for propagation. 

Floivers deep scarlet, solitary, or ciji/iose clusters of 2-3 ; Ca/ij.v glabrous ; 
lobes short, obtuse, entire; Fruit a pome, .5-celled, 1^ in. long, 11 in. diam. ; 
yellow, spotted, about GO seeds ; an excellent preserve. 

Leaves alternate, simple, oval, somewhat cuneate, crenated, glabrous both 
surfaces ; stipules reniform, serrated. 

A deciduous shrub, 5-8 ft. ; Titigs brown. 

Introduced from Japan, 181.5. Syns. Mahis japonica, Pi/rus japonica. 

Specimen at Aldenham, Herts, 22 ft. through, 8 ft. high, 60-70 years old. 

19 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

MAULE'S QUINCE, Cydonia 3Iaulei. 

Gardens, walls. April. 

Flowers bright red, 1 in. diam., in dense cymose clusters; Fruit a pome, 
about size of small Apples, bright gold, suffused with red, very abundant, 
fragrant, very acid ; an excellent conserve. 

Leaves resembling P. japonica, but smaller ; crenate-dentate, petioles long. 

A deciduous shrjob, 3-4 ft. ; Branches slender, spreading ; Titigs brown. 

Introduced from .Japan, 1874. Syn. Pyrus Maulei. 

COMMON QUINCE, Cydonia vulgaris. 

Gardens, orchards. INIay, June. 

Flowers white or pale red, in a few- flowered umhellate cyme ; pedicels 
downy ; Calyx downy, lobes leafy, glandular-serrate, longer than tube ; Ovary 
5-celled ; styles 5, connate at base, woolly ; Fruit a pome, varying in shape, 
oblong, ovate or obovate, 2 ins. long, li in. diam., fragrant, acid, astringent, 
5-celled, cells cartilaginous, many seeded ; ripe in October ; used for preserves. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, blunt at base, entire, acute, tomentose beneath ; 
petioles short ; stipules oblong, obtuse, glandular-serrate. 

A deciduous tree, 20 ft. ; Branches spreading, contorted ; bravchlets 
tomentose. 

Native of Asia ; naturahsed in S. Europe. Specific name from Kydon, in 
Crete, where tree has long been plentiful. Syn. Pyrus Cydonia. 

Injurious Insects: — i?rtr/,— Fruit-tree l?ark Beetle {Scolytus rugulosus); 
Fruit — Codlin Moth {Carpocapsa pomonclla); Leaves — Large Tortoiseshell 
Butterfly ( Vanessa polychloi'os). 

SCARLET THORN, Crataegus coccinea. 

Parks, gardens. April, INIay. This fine oramental species does best in 

good loamy soil, and then forms a vigorous growing tree amply furnished 

with bright green foliage and large flattened corymbs of white blossoms. 

20 




B-« C 

HAWTHORN (Craicegus Oxyaeantha) 
A. Flowering branch. B. Flower, with petals removed. C. Fruit. D. Section of fruit. 



TK XXIV. 



ROSACEA 

The various species of Cratcegus, popularly known as Thorns, are pro- 
pagated by grafting on the Hawthorn in INIarch, or budding in July ; seeds 
(berries) are stored in sand for a year before sowing, being then put in the 
open garden in November, transplanting largest seedlings in the following 
October, and the remanider the next year. 

Flowers white, ^— | in. diam. ; in a many-flowered loose corymb; pedicels 
slender ; villose or tomentose ; Calyx-tube hairy, lobes acute, glandular serrate ; 
Petals orbicular ; Stamens 10, anthers pale yellow ; Ovary inserted at bottom 
of calyx-tube ; styles 3-4 ; Fruit a pome, sub-globose, 1 in. diam. ; scarlet, 
dark dots, calyx enlarged, lobes bright red ; flesh yellow, dry ; nutlets 3-4. 

Leaves alternate, elliptical or obovate, acute or acuminate, cuneate and 
entire at base, finely serrate and glandular above, several acute lateral lobes, 
coriaceous, dark green, smooth and lustrous upper surface, paler below, 11-2 
ins. long, 1-l.V in. wide; petioles glandular. Autumn tints yellow and 
yellowish-scarlet . 

A deciduous bushy-headed tree, 20-30 ft. ; Branches stout, ascending ; 
branchlets slender, glabrous; spines stout, straight or curved, 1-1 i in. long; 
Bark red-brown, scaly; Wood hard, reddish-brown. 

Introduced from U.S.A., 1G83. Syn. Mespilus coccinea (iNIarsh). 



WASHINGTON THORN, Cratcvgus cordata. 

Parks, gardens. This, the latest flowering of the Thorns, makes a small 
tree, rather compact and regular in outline, well clothed with dark shining 
green leaves, and bearing dense clusters of white blossoms. May, .Tune. 

Flowers white, in a compact many-flowered terminal corymb, glabrous, 
pedicels slender; Calyx-tube glabrous, lobes short, nearly triangular, ciliate, 
pubescent inner surface; Stamens 20, anthers rose ; Styles 2-5, tufts of hairs 
at base ; Fruit a pome, small, depressed globose, scarlet ; calyx deciduous, 
nutlets 3-5 ; ripe in September or October, persisting through winter. 

Leaves alternate, broadly ovate or triangular, truncate, rounded or cordate 

and entire at base, acute or acuminate at apex, coarsely glandular serrate, 3-lobed 

21 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

or more, thin, dark shining green above, pale below, lJ-2 ins. long, 1-1^ in. 
wide ; petioles .] -li in. long, terete. Autumn tints bright scarlet and orange. 

A deciduous tree, 10-30 ft.; or hu^hy shnib ; Branches slender; branchlets 
glabrous, grey, or red-brown ; spines l|-2 ins. long ; Wood hard, reddish-brown. 

Introduced from U.S.A., 1738. 

COCKSPUR THORN, Cratxegns Crus-galU. 

Parks, gardens, lawns. May, June. Given sufficient space, as on a lawn, 
this forms a shapely tree with wide spreading branches, well armed with 
sharp spines, and clothed with shining foliage. The autunm tints are brilliant, 
and the large red fruits hang on the branches throughout the winter without 
diminution of brightness. 

Flowers white, tinged with red, in a many-flowered glabrous corymb ; 
pedicels slender ; Calyx-tube glabrous, lobes linear-lanceolate, entire or glan- 
dular serrate; Stamens 10, anthers rose; Styles usually 2, tufts of pale hairs 
at base. Fruit a pome, oblong to sub-globose, | in. long, deep red, flesh dry 
and mealy ; nutlets usually 2 ; ripe in October, persistent through winter. 

Leaves alternate, obovate, cuneate and entire at base, acute or rounded 
at apex, serrate, usually glandular teeth, thick, coriaceous, glabrous, dark 
shining green above, pale below, 1-4 ins. long, ^-1 in. wide, nearly sessile. 
Autumn tints bright orange, scarlet, red and bronze. 

A deciduous tree, 10-30 ft. ; Branches stout, spreading, rigid ; branchlets 
light grey or brown ; spines sharp, 3-4 ins. long, on trunks and large 
branches 8 ins., with lateral spines; JFood hard, satiny, reddish-brown. 

Introduced from N. America, 1691. Also called Newcastle Thorn. There 
are several varieties in cultivation. 

DOUGLAS'S THORN, Cratccgus Douglasii. 

Parks, gardens. May. 

Flowers white J-^ in. diam., in a broad many-flowered corymb, glabrous; 

Calyx-tube glabrous, lobes acute or acuminate, glandular serrate, hairy on inner 

22 



ROSACEA 

surface ; Stamens 20, anthers yellow ; Styles 2-5, tufts of hair at base ; Fruit 
a pome, oblong, truncate at apex, ^ in. long, black or dark purple ; calyx 
deciduous ; flesh thick, yellow ; nutlets 3-5 ; ripe in September. 

Leaves alternate, ovate to obovate, cuneate and entire at base, glandular 
serrate, acute, lobed, subcoriaceous, glabrous, dark green and lustrous above, 
paler beneath, 1-2 ins. long, l-l^ ins. wide ; petioles glandular. 

A deciduous tree, 20-30 ft. or shrub ; Branches ascending, spreading ; 
hranchlets slender, rigid, glabrous, bright red, shining ; spines bright red or 
brown to grey, f-1 in. long, rigid. 

Introduced from Western N. America, 1827. 



RED HAW, Cratwgus mollis. 

Parks, gardens. May. " The large flowers and brilliant scarlet fruits 
of this tree make it very ornamental in spring and early autunm, and when 
young the intricate branches, covered with lustrous chestnut-brown bark, 
render it interesting in winter." 

Floivcrs white, 1 in. diam., in a many-flowered compound corymb, tomentose, 
bracteate and bracteolate ; pedicels stout ; Calyx-tube hoary-tomentose, lobes 
narrow, acuminate, glandular-serrate ; Petals with small red mark at 
base ; Stamens 20, anthers large, yellow ; Styles 4-5, hoary-tonientose at 
base ; Fruit a pome, oblong to sub-globose, pubescent, 2-1 iu- diam. ; scarlet 
with black dots; flesh thick, yellow, mealy; nutlets 4-5; ripe August- 
September. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, cordate or rounded at base, acute, glandular- 
serrate, 4 5-lobed, thick, Arm, dark yellow-green, paler and pubescent on 
lower surface ; 3-4 ins. long and broad ; petioles terete, often glandular ; 
stipules lunate, serrate. Autumn tints yellow, orange and scarlet. 

A deciduous tree, 15 ft., spreading head; Branches smooth; Tidgs 

pubescent; Bark ashy grey; Spines straight, 1-2 ins. long ; Jf^ood hard, light 

reddish-brown. 

Native of U.S.A. Syn. jMcspilus coccinca (Schmidt). 

23 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

EASTERN THORN, Cratwgus orientalis. 

Parks, gardens. May, June. 

Floxvers white, fragrant, corymbose; Fruit a pome, globose, yellowish- 
red or purple, 5-cornered. 

Leaves alternate, 3-lobed, lobes ovate, deeply toothed at apex, middle 
lobe trifid, pubescent, stipules broad. 

A deciduous tree, 15 ft. ; flat-headed ; Bnutdws with hoary tomentum. 

Introduced from the Levant, 1810. Syn. Mcspilus Aronia (Willd). 



HAWTHORN, Crattcgus Oxyaccmtha. 

Woods, hedges, gardens. May, June. " Our hedges in May can boast 
no ornament at all comparable to the Hawthorn, whose blossoms, by their 
exquisite fragrance, their snowy beauty, and their early blooming, render it 
the universal favourite among our wild shrubs ; while poets have long sung 
the praises of the sweet May-blossom, identifying it even in name with the 
fair month of its birth." The Glastonbury Thorn, which blossoms at mid- 
winter, is the variety prcecox, of the sub-genus monogyna. 

Floivers white or pink, f in. diam., sweet-scented, attracting flies, protero- 
gynous, m a sessile corijmbose cyme, on short leafy branches, pedicels glabrous, 
many-flowered ; Calyx glabrous or slightly downy, tube urceolate, segments 
acute ; Petals broad ; Stamens numerous, anthers pinkish-brown ; Ovary 1-3 
carpels, styles 1-3 ; Fruit a small pome, globular or ovoid, crowned by 
small divisions of persistent calyx, dark red or sometimes yellow, mealy, 
insipid, containing a hard, bony 1-2-celled nut, each cell with a single seed. 

Leaves obovate cuneiform, very variable, 3-5 segments, petiolate, obtuse, 
glabrous, shining, lobes serrated or entire, stipules leafy, ^ sagittate, toothed. 
Autumn tints brown, orange, yellow, crimson. 

A deciduous thorny shrub or small tree, 10-40 ft.; Tivigs red or brown, 

forming a dense network; Bark dull grey, smooth, tendency to flaking in 

old trees ; Buds short, ovoid-pohited or conic, scales red brown, smooth ; Wood 

24 



ROSACEiE 

hard and tough, used as a substitute for Box-wood in engraving, and for 
small turnery and cabinet-work. 

Indigenous throughout Jiritish Isles ; makes a good hedge plant ; said 
to live perhaps 200 years. English name from A.S. hcvgc, a hedge, and 
thorn; Generic name from Cir. kratos, strength; specific name from Gr. oxys, 
sharp, and acantha, a tliorn. 

Injurmis Insects: — Thorn Fly {Aphis Cratccgi), Lackey Moth {Bombijx 
neustria). Mottled Umber Moth {Hybernia defoUaria), March Moth {Anisop- 
teryx ccscidaria). Brown-tail Moth {Poiihesia chrysoJ'?'hcea), Ermine Moths 
( Hyponomeutidce). 

Fungoid Pests: — Hawthorn Powdery Mildew {Podosphccra Oxyacanthce). 

Gall consisting of a tuft of leaves at the summit of a shoot is produced 
by a Gall-gnat {Cecidomyia crativgi) allied to the Hessian-fly (C destntcto?'). 



LARGE-FRUITED THORN, Cratcvgus punctata. 

Parks, gardens. JSIay. 

Floivers white, ^f in. diam., in a many-flowered compound corymb, 
tomentose or villose ; Calyx-tube villose or tomentose, lobes narrow, acute, 
entire or glandular serrate ; Stamens 20, anthers rose or j'ellow ; Styles 5, 
tufts of white hairs at base ; Fruit a pome, oblong or sub-globose, ^-1 in. 
long, red, or sometimes yellow dotted, flesh thin and dry ; nutlets 5. 

Leaves alternate, obovate, cuneate and entire at base, rounded or acute 
at apex, serrate, glabrous, thick, firm, grey-green, villose beneath, 2-3 ins. 
long, f- 1^ in. wide ; petioles stout, winged. Autumn tints orange and 
scarlet. 

A deciduous t?-ce, 15-30 ft. ; Branches stout, spreading, nearly at right 
angles ; Twigs light orange-brown or ashy-grey ; Spines slender, 2-3 ins. 
long. 

Introduced from U.S.A., 174G. 

VOL. II. 25 c 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

EVERGREEN THORN, CraUegiis Pyracantha. 

Walls, gardens. May. This is one of the most showy of all evergreens 
in winter, and when covered with its large clusters of brilliant orange-scarlet 
berries, so beloved of birds, is well deserving of its name "Fire Thorn," or 
the " Buisson-ardent " of our Gallic neighbours. Pruning should be done in 
February, cutting away those shoots that have borne berries. 

Flowers white, in a dense corymbose cyme; Fruit a pome, globose, size 
of pea, orange-scarlet, persistent through winter. 

Leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, acute, crenate, petiolate, stipulate, 
glabrous. 

An evergreen wall-shrub, 20 ft. ; or dense busk, 10 ft. 

Introduced from S. Europe, 1629. Syns. Mespilus Pyi'acantha, Cotoneaster 
Pyj-acantlui, Py7ricantlia coccinea. 

TANSY-LEAVED THORN, CraUvgus tanacetifblia. 

Gardens. May, June. The large, much-divided leaves and the densely 
hairy twigs and fruits give this tree a character of its own. 

Flowers white, fragrant, in a corymbose cyme; Calyx-lobes acute, reflexed, 
hairy, much divided, epicalyx glandular ; Stamens small, brown ; Fruit a pome, 
I in. diam., globose, often 5-ribbed, greenish-yellow, hairy, 5 bony seeds. 

Leaves alternate, deeply pinnatifid, lobes oblong, acute, glandular, serrate, 
downy on both surfaces, dark green above, lighter below, 2} ins. long, 1] in. 
broad, petioles downy. 

A deciduous tree, 12-30 ft. ; Tzvigs densely hairy ; Bark corky and flaking. 

Introduced from the Levant, 1789. 

SMALL-FRUITED COTONEASTER, Cotoneaster affinis. 

Gardens. April, May. The Cotoneasters vary from large shrubs or small 

trees to dwarf or prostrate bushes. All are useful for the shrubbery, and some 

26 




DOrHLK-FLOWI'.KKI) JAPANESE APPLE OR QUINCE. 

( Cydoniajaponica, v, Jlore plena. ) 



ROSACEi^ 

are well adapted for covering walls or fences, or trailing over tree roots, rocks, or 
bare ground under trees. They are propagated by cuttings inserted in sandy 
soil outdoors in October ; layering of shoots in October ; grafting on the 
common species, or Quince or Hawthorn in March ; seeds sown outdoors 
in March. 

Flowers white, in lateral coi-ymbose cymes; Calyx woolly, 5-lobed, 
persistent ; Petals 5 ; Stamens indefinite ; Ovaries 2-5, adnate at back to 
calyx-tube; Fniit a drupe, small, spherical, bright red, 2 5 bony 1 -seeded 
stones ; ripe in September, persistent through winter. 

Leaves alternate, ovate or obovate, attenuated at base, mucronate, ciliate, 
bright green above, woolly beneath, 3^4 ins. long, 1-| in. broad, petioles woolly. 

A sub-evergreen tree, 10-15 ft. ; Bi-anches somewhat horizontal ; Jhvigs 
terete, red-brown ; lenticels well shown ; Buds acute. 

Native of Lower Nepaul ; introduced 1828. Specific name said to be given 
from close affinity to C.frigida, of which some regard it as a variety. 



ROD COTONEASTER, Cotoneaster bacillaris. 

Gardens. April, IVIay. 

Flowers white, \ in. diam. ; in a short, many flowei'ed, divaricate cyme, pilose ; 
Calyx segments 5, short, persistent ; Petals 5 ; Stamens numerous. Ovary 
inferior, carpels 2-5 ; Fruit a drupe, \ in. long, in axillary cymes, on long 
slender pedicels, smooth, purplish-red, black or brown; 2-5 bony 1 -seeded 
stones. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, obovate or oblong, lanceolate, tapering towards 
base, mucronate or obtuse, entire, ciliate, coriaceous, glabrous above, woolly 
or glabrescent beneath, 21 ins. long. If in. broad; petioles red, long, and 
slender ; stipules subulate, caducous. 

A deciduous slirub, or small tree, sub-evergreen in mild seasons, 8-10 ft., 

spreading head; Brunchlets slender, twig-like, glabrous, red; Wood white, 

strong, elastic. 

Native of Nepaul ; known as Twig-branched Cotoneaster. 

27 c 2 

Ci.liiltfi lb 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

BOX- LEAVED COTONE ASTER, Cotoneaste?- buxifoUa. 

Gardens, walls. April, May. This is a vigorous and free-growing species, 
doing well in any garden soil, useful for the rock garden or for covering 
walls. Seeds may be sown as soon as ripe in gentle heat, or outdoors in 
the following spring. 

Flowers white ; in a compact, short, terminal cyme, at ends of short lateral 
shoots, 2-G flowered, usually 5 ; tomentose ; Calyx tomentose ; F?-ui.t a 
drupe, usually in fives, globular, smooth, deep crimson, ripe in September. 

Leaves alternate, ovate or elliptical, entire, ciliated, acute, tapering towards 
base, downy on underside when young, glabrous when mature, 1^ in. long, 
f in. broad, petioles long. 

An evergreen shrtib, 4-12 ft. ; twiggy, straggling. 

Native of Neilgherry Mountains; introduced 1824. Also called Box-leaved 
Rose-box. 



ALPINE COTONE ASTER, Cotoneaster frigida. 

Gardens. April, May. A very ornamental hardy shrub of robust 
growth. 

Floxvcrs snow-white, in a small, terminal, corymbose cyme, woolly ; Calyx 
woolly; Friiit a drupe, small, spherical, bright red, borne in great profusion, 
ripe in September, persisting through great part of winter. 

Leaves alternate, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, tapering towards base, 
slightly crenulated, mucronate, coriaceous, glabrous above when mature, silvery 
tomentose beneath, 4-5 ins. long, l.V in. broad, dark shining green above, 
lighter below. 

A sub-evergi-een sin-ub or tree 15-20 ft., or more ; Branchlcts woolly when 
young, smooth later. 

Native of Nepaul ; introduced 1824. 



28 




SMALL-LEAVEIJ COTONEASTEK (Coioneaster mirmphylla) 

A. Flowering branch. B. Transverse section of fruit. C. Flower (longitudinal section). 
D. Flower. E, Fruit. P. Longitudinal section of fruit. 
Plate XXV. 



ROSACEi^ 

Cotoneaste?' horizontaUs. 

Gardens, walls, rockeries. May, June. A very attractive and decorative 
species with dense branches growing in a horizontal position. It is almost 
sub-evergreen, the leaves being retained well on to winter. They are at first 
suffused with bronze, and then take on varying shades of red, those at the end 
of the shoots lasting; the longest. 

Flowers white or rose ; Fruit a drupe, ovoid, scarlet, \ in. diam., 
2-seeded. 

Leaves alternate, or fascicled on dwarf shoots, ovate-oblong, acuminate, 
points recurved, entire, ciliate, glabrous and dark glossy green above, hoary 
beneath, \-4^ in. long ; petioles short. Autumn tint bright red. 

A deciduous shrub, 2 ft., or 12 ft. on wall ; Branches stout, very dense, 
horizontal, somewhat frond-like ; Ttdgs brown ; Ba7-k scaly. 

Native of Himalayas ; introduced 1879. 



COMMON COTONEASTER, Cotoneaster intcgerrima. 

Great Orme's Head. It is the only native species. May, June. 

Flowers pink, small, 1 in. diam., solitary, on short downy peduncles, or 4-5 in 
short lateral cymes, on very short leafy branches, bracts minute ; Calyx gamo- 
sepalous, turbinate, 5-lobed, persistent, lobes obtuse, margins woolly ; Petals 5, 
small, persistent ; Stamens numerous, inserted in mouth of calyx ; Ovary inferior, 
carpels 2-5, styles usually 3, stigma truncate; Fruit a false drupe, | in. diam., 
globose, shining red, pubescent, pendulous, 2-5 bony 1-seeded stones cohering 
only to sides of fleshy receptacle of calyx-tube {hypa/itliium). 

Leaves alternate, broadly elliptical-oblong, ovate or orbicular, 1-2 ins. long, 
shortly petiolate, entire, rounded or acute, coriaceous, glabrous upper side ; short, 
dense, white cottony down beneath ; stipules scarious, deciduous, minute. 
Autumn tint brown. 

A deciduous shrub, 1-2 ft. ; or 3-5 ft. under cultivation ; liraiichlets 

ruddy, pubescent, tortuous. 

29 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Confined in wild state to Great Orme's Head. Usually known as C. vulgaris. 
Used as a stock for grafting the dwarf species. Dr. Lindley says, Generic name 
signifies quince-like ; in Latin Quince was Cotonea ; and aste?- is a corruption of 
ad insta?' or instar, " according to the likeness of." 



LOOSE-FLOWERED COTONEASTER, Cotoncaster laxiflora. 

Gardens. April — June. 

Mowers pink, in a loose forked many flowered panicJed-cyme, pilose ; Calyx 
glabrous ; Fruit a drupe, oblong, glabrous, black, with bluish tint ; ripe in 
September. 

Leaves alternate, oblong or ovate-elliptic, obtuse at both ends, or mucronate 
at apex, glabrous above, woolly beneath, 2 ins. long, \\ in. broad. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-5 ft. ; straggling. 

Native of N. Asia ; found among rocks in Soungarian desert ; introduced 
182G. 



SMALL-LEAVED COTONEASTER, Cotoneaster micropkylla. 

Gardens, walls. May, June. This is probably the best known species, and 
is well suited for rockwork, or as a standard on a Thorn, and will even do well 
on a north-east wall. Rambling over rocks, fences, or hanging over walls, it 
is particularly attractive in early summer, when its small white flowers are 
put forth in abundance, and in autumn it is made equally interesting by its 
brilliant red berries. 

Floxvers white, resembling Hawthorn, I in. diam., solitary or 2-3 together, 
terminal on short lateral branches ; Fruit a drupe, globular, rather large, bright 
red, ripe in August, persistent through winter. 

Leaves alternate, very variable, ovate, obovate, or oblong, cuneated, acute, 
obtuse, or retuse, margins recurved, coriaceous, glossy green and smooth on 
upper surface, pubescent or tomentose beneath, persistent, rigid, i in. long, 



\ in. broad. 



30 



ROSACEA 

An evergreen tihrub, 3-4 ft., or 8-10 ft. on a wall, dense, spreading, some- 
what trailing; Stems wiry. 

Native of Nepaul ; introduced 1824. Specific name from Gr. micros, 
little, and phyllon, a leaf. 



MONEYWORT-LEAVED COTONEASTER, Cotoncaster Num- 

mtdaria. 

Gardens. April, May. 

Floicers white, in an axillary cyme, 2-5 flowered, very short, woolly ; 
Calijx Avhite, woolly ; Fricit a drupe, small, numerous, black, ripe in 
September. 

Leaves alternate, orbicular or obovate, entire, flat, mucronate, somewhat 
emarginate, tomentose in young state, glabrous on upper side when older, 
distantly placed. If in. diam., petioles hairy when young. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, or small tree, 10-15 ft. ; round-headed, spreading ; 
Brancklcts slender, twiggy, hairy when young; Buds hairy. 

Native of Kashmir, Nepaul, and Thibet; introduced 1824. 



ROUND-LEAVED COTONEASTER, Cotonecistcr rofumiifo/kt. 

Gardens. April, May. 

Floxcers white, solitary and terminal, on short lateral branches, subsessile ; 
backs of Petals often pinkish ; Fruit a drupe, oblong, glabrous, bright scarlet ; 
ripe in August, frequently persistent till March. 

Leaves alternate, orbicular or broadly ovate, obtuse or slightly mucronate, 
coriaceous, glabrous or sparsely hairy, and deep glossy green above, pilose 
beneath, somewhat sparse, I in. long, I in. diam. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, 3-4 ft., dense ; Shoots spreading, rigid, distichous. 

Introduced from Nepaul, 1825. 



31 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

SIMON'S COTONEASTER, Cotoneaster Simonsii. 

Gardens. April — June. This is one of the most effective and charming 
shrubs in the autumn when the long slender branches are wreathed with 
orange-scarlet berries and the foliage is a glowing crimson. The plants are 
inclined to become " leggy " and bare at the base, but if cut down to the 
ground vigorous shoots will quickly spring up, and will be laden with 
berries in the second year. 

Floxvers white, deeply tinted with pink when young and in bud ; solitary 
and terminal, or in cijmcH of 2-4, on short lateral branches, nearly sessile ; 
Fruit a drupe, turbinate, abundant, orange-scarlet, ripe in September, per- 
sistent all winter. 

Leaves alternate, ovate or rhombic-orbicular, acuminate, mucronate, ciliated, 
glabrous and dark green upper surface, silky beneath, f in. long. Autumn 
tint crimson. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, 5-8 ft. as a standard, or 12 ft. on a wall ; young 
shoots hairy. 

Native of Himalaya; introduced 1850. 



SERVICE BERRY, Amelanchier ahifoUa. 

Gardens. This deciduous shrub is distinguished from the next species 
by its denser racemes of white blossoms, its larger fruits, and its dark green, 
broader and shorter leaves, the blades of which are toothed on the terminal 
half only. April, IMay. 

/^/oitrr.y white, in an erect, rather dense raceme, \-l\ in. long, pedicels short, 
villose, bracteoles acute; Calyx 5-partite, cup-shaped, persistent, tomentose to 
glabrous, lobes linear, acute ; Petals 5, oblong to obovate, rounded or acute, 
glabrous, ^-1 in. long ; Stamens about 20, in 3 rows, filaments subulate, anthers 
oblong; Ovarij inferior, adnate to calyx-tube, 5-celled ; Fruit a pome, sub- 
globose, ^-1 in. diam. ; dark blue to nearly black, glaucous bloom, sweet, 

juicy ; seeds 5-10, red-brown. 

32 




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ROSACEiE 

Leaves alternate, resembling Alder, ovate or orbicular, usually obtuse, 
rounded or sub-cordate at base, entire below, coarsely serrated above, tomen- 
tose wben young, afterwards glabrous, membranaceous to subcoriaceous, dark 
green above, paler beneath, 1-1 1 in. long ; petioles slender ; stipules linear, 
acute, red-brown. 

A deciduous shrub, 8-15 ft. ; Branches spreading, slender, glabrous ; Bark 
light brown, tinged red ; Buds acute, chestnut-brown, glabrous. 

Native of western parts of N. America (tree 20-40 ft.). Fruit largely 
eaten by Indians of S.^V. America. Discovered in 1804; introduced from 
Oregon by David Douglas, 182G. 

GRAPE PEAR, Amelandncr canademis. 

Gardens. April. The nodding racemes of snow-white flowers, borne in 
profusion by even young specimens, make this one of the most beautiful and 
showy of spring-flowering trees. It may be grafted on the Quince or Hawthorn 
in March. 

Floivers snow-white, appearing when leaves are one-third grown, in an 
erect or nodding raceme, 3-4 ins. long ; pedicels slender ; Calya: campanulate, 
lobes lanceolate, acute, villous inner surface ; Petals 5, ligulate or obovate, 
rounded or acute, thin, ^-1 in. long, J-^ in. wide ; Fruit a pome, globose, 
^-^ in. diam. ; bright red, becoming dark purple with glaucous bloom. 

Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, cordate at base, acute, serrated, thick, 
glabrous, dark green above, pale beneath, pilose when young, 3-4 ins. long, 
1-1^ in. wide, midrib prominent, petiole slender; autumn tints deep golden 
yellow and brilliant crimson. 

A deciduous t?rc, 40 ft. ; with bushy head ; Branches spreading ; Txvigs 
slender, light green to dark red, becoming dark brown or reddisli brown ; 
Bai'k red brown, longitudinal fissures, scaly ; Buds small, acute, scales chest- 
nut-brown, pubescent, ciliate ; Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, dark 
brown, tinged red. 

Introduced from eastern parts of N. America, 174G; known also as 

June-Berry and Shad 13ush. 

33 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Ci-Ass 1 Dicotyledons 

Division II Calyciflorce 

Natural Order . . . SaxifragacecB 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with alternate or opposite leaves, usually exstipu- 
late ; Flowers regular ; Calyx of 4-5 sepals, free, or more or less adnate to 
the ovary ; Petals 4-5, perigynous or epigynous, sometimes wanting ; Stamens 
usually as many, or twice as many as sepals, perigynous or epigynous, anthers 
dorsifixed ; Ovary 1-4 celled, superior, or inferior, usually of 2 carpels, more 
or less connate at base, but diverging at the apex ; Fridt a capsule or berry. 

All European plants with polypetalous flowers, and 2 divaricating many- 
seeded carpels belong to this Order. 

COMMON HYDRANGEA, Hydrangea hortensis. 

Gardens. April — September. Best in rich loamy soil ; requires protection 
during winter, except in warmer counties ; partial shade is beneficial. Cut 
out old wood in winter. Cuttings may be taken at almost any time with 
the aid of a little bottom heat. 

Flowers varying in colour according to soil. Fertile flowers few ; Inflorescence 
a large corymbose cyme ; sterile flowers consisting of much enlarged calyces ; 
Fruit a membranaceous capsule. 

Leaves opposite, broadly ovate, acuminate, serrate, shining green. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-5 ft. 

Native of China, introduced 1790 ; Generic name from Gr. liydor, water, 
and aggeion, a vessel, a capsule, in allusion to the cup-shaped fruit ; Specific 
name from L. hortus, a garden. 

Hydrangea paniculata. 
Gardens. September, October. Prune rather severely in winter, and mulch 
with well-rotted manure. 

Flowers greenish white, nearly all perfect, in a terminal corymbose panicle ; 

34 



SAXIFRAGACEi^ 

sterile flowers few, on long pedicels ; peduncles white, downy ; Calyx superior, 
5-toothed, white ; Petals 5, ovate, rose-tinted outside, especially in bud ; Stamens 
10, perigynous ; Ovary half-inferior, styles 3, connate ; Fruit capsular. 

Leaves opposite, ovate-oblong, acute, glandular- serrate, glabrous, paler on 
underside, veins prominent, pubescent. 

A deciduous sh)-ub, 4-6 ft. ; Branches terete, brown. 

Introduced from Japan, 1874. 



PLUMED HYDRANGEA, Hydrangea paniculata v. grandiflora. 

Gardens. July — September. This magnificent variety is the finest form 
in cultivation. The flowers, after lasting for several weeks, die off a rich 
reddish hue. 

Floivers white. Fertile flowers small, star-shaped ; Inflorescence a terminal, 
corymbose panicle, 1 ft. long ; small flowers intermixed with sterile ones, 1 in. 
or more in diam. ; Calyx superior, 5-toothed, white, teeth rose-coloured ; Petals 
5, valvate, rose on outside ; Stamens 10, perigynous ; Ovary half-inferior, styles 
3, stigmas sessile ; Fi-uit capsular. 

Leaves opposite or in threes, ovate-oblong, acute, serrate, pubescent, 5-G ins. 
long, midrib prominent. 

A deciduous shrub, 4-6 ft. ; Branches terete, brown ; old stems with 
scaly bark. 

Introduced from Japan, 1874 ; there forms a tree 25 ft. high ; discovered 
by Dr. Von Siebold. 

HIMALAYAN SNOW-FLOWER, Deutda corymbosa. 

Gardens. May. Best in a warm and sheltered position. All the Deut- 

zias prefer a well-drained, rich and rather sandy soil, and respond to a 

mulch of manure at times. They are propagated by cuttings of young shoots 

3 ins. long inserted in sandy soil under a bell-glass in a cold frame in June 

or July, or of firm shoots 10-12 ins. long in ordinary soil outdoors, November- 

35 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

January ; also by layers and division. Old wood should be cut out in June ; 
but do not shorten young shoots. 

Mowers white, in a trichotomous, corymbose panicle ; Calyx 5-partite, teeth 
ovate, shorter than tube, dotted ; Petals 5, obovate, nearly glabrous, imbri- 
cate, I in. long; Stameiis 10, filaments broadly winged; Ovary inferior, 
3-5-celled, placentation axile, styles 3-5, filifoi-m ; Fruit a capsule, separating 
into 3-5 cocci. 

Leaves opposite, oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, serrate, scabrous 
with stellate hairs, underside green. 

A deciduous slirub, 5 ft. ; Branches opposite ; Bark peeling in long thin 
shining rolls. 

Native of Himalayas, introduced 1830 ; Genus named in honour of 
Johann Deutz, a Dutch naturalist, a friend and patron of Thunberg. 

JAPANESE SNOW-FLOWER, Deutda crenata. 

Gardens. May, June. This is one of the hardiest of dwarf white-flowering 
shrubs, and looks well as a single specimen on the grass, in a sheltered position. 

Floivers white, in a terminal panicle, pedicels scabrous; Calyx 5-toothed, 
scabrous with stellate hairs; Petals 5, ovate, obtuse; Stamens 10, peri- 
gynous, filaments white, broad, horned ; Disk pink ; Ovary inferior, 3-celled, 
styles 3, white, stigmas recurved ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate, crenate-dentate, obtuse, scabrous, lighter 
green underside. 

A deciduous shrub 4-10 ft. ; Stems slender ; Bark peeling. 

Native of Japan, introduced 1833 ; known in gardens as D. scabra, the 
Rough-leaved Deutzia ; leaves used for polishing ivory. 

SLENDER DEUTZIA, Deutzia gracilis. 

Gardens. April, May. Being somewhat tender, this is most frequently 

seen under glass, but will grow luxuriantly outdoors in a warm, sheltered 

position. 

36 



SAXIFRAGACEi^ 

Floicers pure white, in dense axillary panicles ; Calyx small, sepals triangular ; 
Petals ovate ; Disk yellow ; Styles 3 ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves opposite, small, ovate, acuminate, serrated. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-3 ft. ; Branches erect ; Buds small, scales tinged 
with red. 

Introduced from Japan, 1843. 

MOCK ORANGE, or SYRINGA, Philaddphns corouarius. 

Gardens. June. This is a favourite garden shrub, very floriferous and 
fragrant, of easy culture in any ordinary soil. Careful pruning after flower- 
ing will encourage new growth, which will flower in the next year. It may 
be propagated by cuttings of young shoots in sandy soil in gentle heat in 
April, or in a close cold frame in May ; suckers or layers may be taken 
in spring. 

Flowers white, fragrant, orange-like odour, 1-li in. diam., axillary, or in 
small cymes at the ends of branchlets ; Calyx 4-partite, lobes ovate, acute, 
tube turbinate, adnate to ovary ; Petals 4, obovate, convolute, ^ in. long ; 
Stamens 20-40, epigynous, filaments subulate ; Ovary inferior, 4-celled, 4 
placentas protruding into the cell from the inner angle, styles 4, stigmas 
capitate ; Fruit a capsule, top-shaped, 4-celled, 4-valved, many-seeded. 

Leaves opposite, exstipulate, ovate, acuminate, distantly serrate, glabrous, 
dark green above, paler and pubescent beneath, 2-4 ins. long, odour and 
taste of cucumber, when crushed. 

A deciduous shrub, 10-12 ft. ; Stems erect, rigid ; Bark light grey, peeling 
in narrow longitudinal strips. 

Native of S. Europe and Asia; introduced 159G. 

CALIFORNIAN MOCK ORANGE, Carpenteria cali/brnica. 

Gardens. .June, July. The pure white flowers, resembling those of the 

.Japanese Anemone, render this a shrub of great beauty. It is best when 

sheltered by a south or south-west wall, and in a well-drained loamy soil. Prune 
VOL. H. 37 u 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

away shoots that have flowered as soon as blossoms fade. Propagate by cuttings 
of young shoots in cold frame in April ; tongued layers with moss and damp 
sand pressed into cut and kept moist in September ; suckers removed in autumn. 

Floivers white, fragrant, 2,^ ins. diam., axillary, panicled, usually in fives, 
pedicels long ; Cdlyx inferior, 5-lobed ; Petak 5, obovate ; Stamens very 
numerous, perigynous, anthers golden ; Ovary superior ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves opposite, broadly lanceolate, entire or serrated, recurved, acute, 
petiolate, exstipulate, pinnately veined, pale green, whitened beneath with dense 
pubescence, 2-4 ins. long. 

A deciduous sh?'tch, 6-15 ft. ; Branches slender. 

Native of Sierra Nevada, California ; introduced 1880 ; said to have first 
flowered here in 1885. Named after Professor Carpenter of Louisiana. 

MOUNTAIN CURRANT, Ribes alpimm. 

Woods. April, May. 

Flowers yellowish-green, dioecious ; 3Iale racemes erect, 1-2|^ ins. long, 20-30 
flowered, pedicels slender, shorter than bracts ; Females shorter, often nearly sessile, 
8-10 flowered, more green; bracts linear; Calya: glabrous; Petals much shorter than 
calyx-lobes ; Styles very short, cleft ; Fruit a berry, globose, i in. diam., scarlet, 
tasteless, racemes erect. 

Leaves alternate, broadly ovate, 3-5-lobed, lobes acute, serrate, nearly glabrous, 
1^-2 ins. diam. ; petiole slender. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-4 ft. ; Branches slender. 

Probably indigenous in North of England. 

MISSOURI CURRANT, Ribes anreum. 

Gardens, shrubberies. April, May. Best in an open, sunny situation. The 

flowering species of Ribes should be pruned only directly after the blossoms have 

withered. They may be propagated by cuttings 6-8 ins. long inserted in ordinary 

soil outdoors, October to February ; layering in autumn ; suckers November to 

February ; seeds in ordinary fine soil outdoors in September or October. 

38 



SAXIFRAGACE^ 

Floxvcrs golden-yellow, fragi'ant, in a many-flowered drooping raceme ; Petals 
much shorter than calyx segments, bordered with red ; Stamens bright red ; 
Fruit a berry, yellow, seldom black, glabrous. 

Leaves alternate, 3-lobed, lobes divaricate, pale green, glabrous, shining; 
petioles long, ciliated at base. Autumn tints bright purple to brilliant vermilion. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-8 ft. ; Tivigs straw-coloured, slender, straggling. 

Introduced from N. America, 1812. Known also as Buffjdo Currant and 
Golden-flowered Currant. Specific name = golden (L. aurum, gold). 

GOOSEBERRY, Rlbes Grossidaria. 

Hedges, copses, gardens. April, IVJay, Prune weak shoots of current 
year's gro-wi^h to within 1 in. of base in June or July; thin out remaining 
shoots in winter, shortening those left to 4 or 6 ins. 

Flowers greenish-white, i in. diam. ; proterandrous, in racemose groups of 
1-3 flowers on laterals and dwarf shoots, pedicels short, 2-3 ovate bracts; 
Cahjx-tube campanulate, 5-toothed, erect or spreading, then reflexed, epigynous, 
violet glandular hairs; Corolla small, erect, pale greenish-white; Stamens 
epigynous; Ovai-y inferior, style 1, stigma bifid, 2 parietal placenta?; Fruit 
a berry, ellipsoid or globoid, i-li in. long, glabrous, pubescent or glandular, 
juicy pulp ; seeds several, small. 

Leaves alternate, fascicled on dwarf shoots, f-l^ in. diam., sub-orbicular 
or ovate, 3-5-lobed, crenated, pubescent, nearly glabrous above, paler beneath. 
Autumn tints yellow and brown. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-4 ft. ; Branches spiny, grey to brown ; spines 
single or triple, both at leaf-scars and scattered along internodes ; Tivigs 
slender, grey ; Buds pointed, scales brown, cihate. 

Native of Britain. 

Chief insects injurious to cultivated Gooseberries :—7?arA— Gooseberry and 

Currant Scale {Lecanium ribis) ; Leaves— Cuvvant Aphis {Aphis ribis). Magpie 

Moth {Abraxas grossulariata). Winter Moth {Cheimatobia brumata), V-Moth 

{Thamnonoma ivauaria, Halia vauaria). Gooseberry and Currant Saw-fly 

{Nematus ribesii) ; Shoots— Quxrant Clearwing Motli {Sesia tipuliformis). 

39 D 2 

♦^ - - *^A. 



</Ji<l#f lb 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Fungoid Pests: — Gooseberry JNlildew {^licTosjj/icera Grossulaiice), American 
Gooseberry Mildew {Sphcerotheca Mors-uva;), Gooseberry Polypore {Forties 
Ribis). 

BLACK CURRANT, Ribes nigrum. 

Woods, gardens. April, May. Prune November — February, tliinning 
out old shoots only. 

Flowers yellowish -green, \-\ in. diam., in a lax pendulous raceme, few 
flowered, tomentose, pedicels glandular, bracts subulate ; Calyx campanulate, 
4-5-fid, glandular pubescent ; Petals 4-5, minute ; Stamens 4-5 ; Ovary 
inferior, 1-celled, 2 parietal placentas, styles terete, capitate ; Fruit a berry, 
globose, black, gland-dotted, odorous glandular hairs. 

Leaves alternate, pentagonal, cordate, 3-7-lobed, serrate or biserrate, 
acute, dark green, glabrous, shining, or slightly pubescent, coarse and rough 
above, paler and yellow glandular hairs beneath, aromatic when bruised, 
lf-2f ins. long, 3i-4^ ins. broad ; petiole slender, pubescent. Autumn tints 
yellow and brown. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-5 ft. ; Tivigs grey tawny, yellow glandular hairs, 
odorous ; Buds greenish, tinged red, scales loosely imbricated, golden glan- 
dular hairs. 

Native of Britain. 

Chief insects injurious to Currants: — Bark — Gooseberry and Currant Scale 
{Lecanium ribis), Mussel Scale {Mytilaspis pomorum) ; Buds — Currant Gall 
Mite {Phytoptus ribis) ; Leaxies — Currant Aphis {Rhopalosiphum ribis), Comma 
Butterfly {Vanessa c-album). Gooseberry and Currant Moth {Abraxas gros- 
sulariata). Gooseberry and Currant Sawfly {Nematus ribcsii) ; Shoots — Currant 
Clearwing Moth {Sesia tipuliformis). 

RED CURRANT, Ribes rubrum. 

Woods, thickets, gardens. April, May. Pruning: — Select strong shoots 

for forming new branches, and shorten others to within 1 in. of base 

40 




Platk XXVII. 



FLOWERING CURRANT (Ribes sanguineum) 
Flower and fruit. 



SAXIFRAGACEi^ 

in June or July ; cut back selected shoots to within 4-8 ins. November — 
February, and cut out old and distorted branches. 

Mowers greenish-white, ] in. diam., in a pendent axillary raceme, 1-3 ins. 
long, many-flowered, glabrous or pubescent, never glandular, bracts ovate; 
Cahjx cup-shaped, 4-5-fid, spreading, lobes obovate or rounded, twice length 
of petals ; Petals 4-5, minute, inserted at base of calyx-segments ; Stamens 
4-5, perigynous, filaments short; Ovari/ inferior, 1-celled, styles 2, stigmas 
divided, spreading; Fruit a berry, globose, ] in. diam., thin skinned, red, 
acid, 1-celled. 

Leaves alternate, 2-4 ins. long, 2-3 J ins. broad, palmately 3-5-lobed, 
cordate at base, obtuse, irregularly and coarsely serrated, usually glabrous 
above, paler beneath, tomentose, inodorous, young leaves pubescent, especially 
beneath, eglandular; petiole pubescent or setose. Autumn tints yellow and 
brown. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-5 ft. ; Branches grey ; T'wigs brown or grey ; 
Buds pale brown, scales densely imbricated. 

Native of Britain. The name CuiTant is a corruption of Corinth, a small 
gi-ape at one time principally produced near Corinth, the fruit being formerly 
known as Uvce Corinthiacece. Leaves attacked by an Aphis {Myzus rihes). 

FLOWERING CURRANT, Rihes sanguineum. 

Gardens, shrubberies. April. Best in a sunny position. 

Florvers rose, fragrant, in a drooping raceme, twice length of leaves ; 
Calyx-tube campanulate, 5-fid, bright rosy-red, glandular pubescent ; Petals 
5, white, inserted at throat of calyx ; Stamens 5, inserted with petals, alternate ; 
Ovarij inferior, 1-celled, styles 2 ; Fruit a berry, turbinate, purplish, glaucous 
bloom, bitter ; seeds numerous. 

Leaves alternate, cordate, 5-lobed, serrate, glabrous above, villous tomentum 
beneath. 

A deciduous shrub, 4-8 ft. ; Tidgs orange-brown ; Bnd'i pointed, scales red. 

Native of North-west America ; discovered l)y Menzies ; introduced by 

Douglas, 1820. Specific name is Latin for " blood -red." 

41 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

FUCHSIA-FLOWERED GOOSEBERRY, Ribes speciomm. 

Gardens, shrubberies, walls. April — June. A rather hairy shrub with 
small clusters of Fuchsia-like blossoms. Best on a wall in cold districts. 

Flowers deep red, 1-3 on axillary peduncle, which is longer than leaves; 
Calyx cylindrical, lobes often 4, linear-lanceolate, acute, glandularly pubescent, 
hairs red; Petak red, linear-lanceolate, as long as sepals; Stamens protruding 
beyond calyx for 1 in. or more, filaments red, anthers purplish-black ; Fruit 
a berry, red, rather dry, few-seeded. 

Leaves fascicled, indistinctly 3-lobed, cuneate at base, acute, crenate, glabrous, 
shining, petioles short. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-8 ft. ; much higher on walls, 15-20 ft. ; Brandies 
glandular hispid, spines triple, infra-axillary. 

Introduced from California, 1829. Syns. R. stamineum. (long stamens), 
R. fuchsioides (resembling Fuchsia). 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division II. . . . Calyciflorce 

Natural Ohder . . . HamamelidecB 

Trees or shrubs with watery juice, alternate, petiolate leaves, and 
deciduous stipules ; Floxvers perfect or unisexual ; Cabja' 4-partite or 0, 
more or less adnate to ovary ; Petals usually 4 or ; Stamens 4-8, anthers 
basifixed, introrse ; Ovary inferior, 2-celled ; Fri/it a woody capsule opening 
at summit, usually 1 -seeded. 

Co7'ylopsis spicata. 

Shrubberies. February, March. Rest in sandy loam, and warm, sheltered 

situations. Propagated by cuttings of well-ripened shoots in summer in 

heat ; also by layers. 

Floivers pale yellow, fragrant, appearing before leaves, resembling Cowslips 

42 



HAMAMELIDEi^ 

in odour, in a pendulous raceme, 2-3 ins. long, 8-12 flowered, bracts greenish- 
yellow ; Petals 5 ; Stamens 5, exserted, anthers red ; Fruit a capsule, woody ; 
seeds ellipsoid, shining black. 

Leaves alternate, orbicular, cordate, resembling Hazel, mucronately serrated, 
hoary beneath, petioles long. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-4 ft. ; Biub large, ovate, green, young scales red, 
brown later. 

Introduced from .Japan by Fortune, 1864. Generic name from Gr. Korylos, 
the Hazel tree, and opsis, like. 

ARBORESCENT WITCH HAZEL, HamamcUs arborca. 

Gardens. January — March. In the early part of the year this shrub 
presents a striking appearance, its curious blossoms looking like rolls of 
ribbon before they expand, and when fully open resembling twisted strips 
of gold leaf. The species are propagated by layering of branches in October 
or November. 

Flowers yellow, on the bare branches, in axils of leaves of previous 
year ; Calyx 4-partite, adnate to ovary, deep claret-coloured ; Petals 5, re- 
sembling short twisted threads, clear, rich primrose-yellow. 

Leaves alternate, sub-rotund, unequal at base, crenate, penni-nerved, 
petiolate, stipules deciduous. 

A deciduous tree, 15-20 ft. 

Introduced from .Japan, 18G2 ; there called " Mansak." 

AMERICAN WITCH HAZEL, Hamamelis virginica. 

Gardens. October — February. Does well in bold groups planted in 

rich loam. " During autumn and winter the plant is profusely covered with 

its fine rich yellow flowers, which begin to expand before the leaves of 

the previous summer drop oft*, and continue on the bush throughout the 

winter ; after the petals drop oW, in spring, the persistent calyces remain 

on till the leaves reappear in April or JNIay." — Dictionary of Gardening. 

43 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Floxvers yellow, in axillary clusters ; Calyx 4-partite, adnate to lower 
part of ovary, lobes spreading or recurved, oval, ciliate, pubescent ; Petals 
4, linear, persistent ; Stamens 4, alternating with 4 scale-like staminodes, 
filaments short, anthers dehiscing by a valve ; Ovary 2-celled, styles 2, 
subulate, spreading, persistent ; Fndt a capsule, woody, 2-valved, beaked 
with the 2 persistent styles, densely pubescent, orange-brown, 1 -seeded. 

Leaves alternate, obovate, acuminate or rounded, acutely serrated, entire 
or dentate at base, dark green and usually glabrous above, lighter beneath, 
pubescent on midribs and principal veins, 4-6 ins. long, 2-2J ins. broad ; 
petioles short ; stipules deciduous. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-12 ft. ; or small tree, 20-30 ft.; Branches spreading; 
Twigs flexible, orange-brown to reddish-brown, rusty stellate hairs when 
young ; Bark brown, smooth, scaly ; Buds acute, orange-brown, pubescent ; 
Wood hard, light brown, heavy, cross-grained. 

Introduced from N. America, 1736. Generic name from Gr. hama, 
together, and melon, a fruit; the fruit accompanies the flower. 



SWEET GUM, Liqjiidamhar styraciflua. 

Parks, gardens, plantations. April. Best in moist loamy soil in sheltered 
position. Propagated by layering of shoots, September — November; seeds 
sown in sandy soil outdoors October, November, March or April, transplanting 
2 3 years afterwards. 

Floivers greenish-yellow, inconspicuous, monoecious ; 3Iales in terminal 
racemes, conical or sub-globose, surrounded by 4 deciduous bracts ; Females 
in solitary and axiUary sub-globose heads on long pedicels; 3fales without 
calyx and corolla; Stamens indefinite, interspersed with minute scales, fila- 
ments shorter than anthers ; Females without sepals, calyx-limb nearly 
obsolete; Stamens usually 4, and abortive; Ovai-y partly inferior, 2 united 
carpels; styles subulate, recurved, persistent; Fruit a woody capsule, 1-1 J in. 
diam., crowned by hard curved styles, consolidated into globose head ; seed 

winged. 

44 




IVY (Hedera Helix) 

A. Flowering shoot. B. Fruit. C. Flower, enlarged. D. Transverse section of ovary. 
E. Longitudinal section of Uower. 



Plate XXVllI. 



MYRTACEi^ 

Leaves alternate, palniately 5-7-lobed, lobes acuminate, glandular-serrate, 
glabrous, villose in axils of principal veins, briglit shining green, resinous 
fragrance when bruised, G-7 ins. wide ; petioles slender, 5-6 ins. long ; stipules 
entire, glabrous. Autumn tint deep crimson, after sunless sunnner a dull 
purple. 

A deciduous tree, 30-50 ft. ; Branches slender ; Tidgs angled, hairy at 
first, light orange to reddish-brown, corky ; Buds acute, scales ovate, acute, 
orange-brown ; Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, not strong, brown tinged red. 

Introduced from N. America, 1681 ; there reaches 140-160 ft. Generic 

name from L. lujuidus, flowing, liquid, and Arabic amhar ; a terebinthine 

gum exudes from members of the genus, smelling like Balsam of Tolu. 

Specific name from Gr. styrax, the tree yielding storax, a resin, and L. 

Jitia, fiuo, I flow. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division II. . . . CalyciflorcB 

Natural Order . . . Myrtacece 

Trees or shrubs, with opposite or alternate, usually entire and exstipulate, 
leaves, often dotted with pellucid glands ; Calyx superior, 4-5-lobed, valvate ; 
Petals 4-5, imbricate, sometimes obsolete ; Stamens 8-10, or indefinite, rarely 
4-5, filaments free or united in bundles ; Ovary inferior, 1-6 celled, style 
and stigma simple, placentation axile, or rarely parietal ; Fruits various, 
dry or succulent. 



MYRTLE, Myrtus communis. 

Gardens, shrubberies. July. Hardy in the south of England, but needs 

shelter from cold winds. Best in sandy loam and leaf soil, and requires 

water in summer. Propagated by cuttings of young shoots 2 ins. long 

inserted in sandy soil under bell-glass in a little heat, in spring or summer; 

45 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

cuttings of firm shoots 2-3 ins. long in sandy soil in cool greenhouse, June 
or July ; seeds sown in sandy soil in little heat, autumn or spring. 

Floivers white, fragrant, solitary, pedicels about as long as leaves, bracteoles 
linear ; Calyx 4-5-lobed, tube turbinate ; Petals 4-5, ovate, spreading ; Stamens 
numerous ; Ovary inferior, style long, placentation axile ; Fruit a berry. 

Leaves opposite, exstipulate, ovate or lanceolate, sub-sessile, acute or 
obtuse, entire, glabrous, dark glossy green above, paler beneath, full of 
pellucid dots, fragrant. 

An evergreen shrub, 3-10 ft. ; Tivigs angled. 

Introduced from S. Europe, 1597. Generic name from 3Iyrtos, the old 
Greek for Myrtle. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division II. ... Calyciflorce 
Naturai. Order . . . Passiflorece 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, with watery juice, usually climbing or twining 
by means of tendrils; Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple or com- 
pound, sometimes glandular; Calyx tubular below, lobed, usually with a 
corona at throat, simple, duplex, tubular, or cut into radiating filaments ; 
Petals as many as calyx-lobes, usually 5, inserted outside corona ; Stamens 
usually 5, and the filaments united around the gynophore ; Ovary superior, 
supported on a long gynophore, 1 -celled, 8 parietal placentas, 3 clavate, 
spreading styles ; Fruit a many-seeded, dehiscent or indehiscent, berry or 
capsule. 

BLUE PASSION-FLOWER, Passijlora ca:rulea. 

AValls. June — October. Best in turfy loam and peat. Propagated by 

cuttings in cold frame in summer ; layering young shoots in summer. 

Flowers blue, faintly scented, lasting but one day, solitary, bracts 3, ovate, 

entire ; Calyx-tube short, urccolate, lobes 5, linear oblong, pale greenish- 

40 



ARALIACE^ 

white ; Rays of corona in two series, purple at bottom, white in middle, 
blue at ends; Petals 5, resembling the sepals; Stamens 5, filaments adnate 
to gynophore, anthers large, 1-lobed, spreading horizontally; Ovary supported 
on gynophore, styles purplish ; Fruit a berry, egg-shaped, yellow. 

Leaves alternate, 5-partite, lobes oblong, entire, glabrous ; petioles with 
4 glands at apex ; stipules falcate. 

A climbing shrub. 

Native of Brazil, Uruguay, and Peru; introduced 1G99. Generic name 
from L. passio, passion, pattior, passus, to suffer, and jlos, Jioris, a flower ; 
specific name from L. cceruleiis, sky-blue, ccelum, the sky. Common name 
given by missionaries in S. America from fancied resemblance to a halo 
and crown of thorns, the emblem of Christ's Passion. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division II. . . . Calycijlorce 

Natural Okdeii . . . Araliacece 

Shrubs or trees, sometimes climbing, rarely herbs ; Leaves alternate, 
usually exstipulate ; Floivcrs in simple umbels, sometimes paniculate ; Cahjoj- 
limb superior, very short, entire, toothed or lobed ; Petals 5, deciduous, 
valvate or slightly imbricate in bud, inserted under an epigynous disk ; 
Stamens 5, anthers versatile ; Ovary inferior, 2 or more celled ; Fruit a 
berry-like drupe, with as many seeds as there are carpels. 

CHINESE PAPER-PLANT, Ara/ia chinensis. 

Gardens. July, August. The pinnate leaves, often 8 ft. long, with 
their prickly petioles, give a beautiful fern-like aspect to the plant. It is 
best in a well-drained loamy soil, and requires water in summer, and some 
protection in winter. Propagated by cuttings and root-cuttings. 

Fknvers creamy-white, inconspicuous, in a terminal umbellate panicle; 

Petals 5, inserted on margin of disk ; Fruit a berry, black. 

47 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Leaves alternate, bipinnate, 2-3 ft. long, pinnae imparipinnate, leaflets 
15, ovate, acute, serrated at apex, coriaceous, woolly both surfaces when 
young ; petioles spiny ; leaf scars 3 ins. in circumference. 

A deciduous shrub, 5-1 2 ft. ; T'wigs purple. 

Introduced from N. China. Syn. Dimorphantlms niandschuricus. 



HERCULES' CLUB, Aralia spinosa. 

Gardens. Best in sheltered spots. September, October. 

Floivers white, perfect or unisexual, in a terminal compound umbcUate 
panicle ; pedicels pubescent ; Calyx gamosepalous, tube coherent with ovary ; 
Petals 5, acute, inflexed at apex ; Stamens 5, inserted on margin of disk, 
alternate with petals, filaments filiform, anthers introrse ; Ovary inferior, 
2-5-celled ; styles 2-5, connivent ; stigmas capitate ; Fruit a berry, globose, 
3-5-angled, i in. diam., crowned with blackened styles, purple, juicy ; seeds 
2-5, small. 

Leaves alternate, tripinnate, 3-4 ft. long, 2J ft. wide, pinnaj imparipinnate, 
leaflets 11-13, ovate, acute, dentate or crenate, rounded at base, membranous, 
dark green above, pale beneath, 2-3 ins. long, Ij in. wide ; petioles stout, 
18-20 ins. long, usually with slender prickles; leaf-scars 3 ins. in circum- 
ference ; stipules acute, 1 in. long, ciliate. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 30-35 ft. ; or shrub, 6-20 ft. ; Branches stout, spreading, 
armed with stout prickles ; Txcigs orange to light brown ; Bark dark brown, 
fissured ; Suckers freely produced ; Buds triangular, flattened ; scales brown ; 
Wood light, soft, brittle, close-grained, brown streaked with yellow. 

Native of N. America; introduced 1088. Also called Angelica Tree. 

IVY, Hedera Helix. 

Hedgerows, trees, walls. October, November. Propagate by cuttings of 

firm shoots in ordinary soil outdoors, September — November ; in well-drained 

pots in cold fi-ame in October, or in little heat, September — November. 

48 




D E F G 

DOGWOOD [Cornits sanguinea) 

A. Flowering branch. B. Fruit. C Section of fruit (transverse). D. Flower. 
E. One of the stamens. F. Flower with stamens removed. 0. Part of the cyme, showing braDching, 



Plate XXIX. 



CORNACE.^ 

Floivers yellowish-green, with unpleasant odour, attractive to flies ; pro- 
terandrous; Umbels often grouped into mb-racemose panicles, sub-globose, 
stellate hairs; bracts small, concave; Calyx 5-toothed, minute; Petals 5, broad, 
short, triangular ovate, epigynous, not cohering at top, valvate in bud ; 
Stamens 5, epigynous, anthers yellow; Ovary inferior, 5-10-celled, styles 
united into one, very short ; Fruit a berry-like drupe, ^ in. diam., blue-black, 
pruinose, flesh green, 2-5 seeds. 

Leaves alternate, exstipulate. petiolate, very variable, palmately 3-5-lobed. 
ovate or angular, cordate at base, acute or obtuse, entire or sinuate, thick, 
coriaceous, upper side deep green, polished, paler beneath ; dying leaves 
brown. 

An evergreen sivub, climbing by small root-like excrescences, main stems 
woody ; Branches spreading along ground ; Buds conical, pointed, naked, 
sessile, green. 

Native of Britain. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division II. . . . Calycijiorce 

Natukai. Ordeii . . . Cornacece 

Shrubs, trees, or rarely herbs, with usually opposite, exstipulate leaves, 
and small, regular flowers ; Calyx-limb minute, superior, 4-5-toothed ; Petals 
4-5, valvate ; Stamens 4-5. alternating with petals ; Ovary inferior, usually 
2-celled ; Fruit a drupe. 

Distinguished from Caprifoliacefe by the distinct petals, and from AraliacetE 
by the usually opposite leaves. 



WHITE FLOWERING DOGWOOD, Comus jlorida. 

Gardens, shrubberies. April, May. Requires a warm and sheltered 

situation. Propagated by cuttings of firm shoots in sandy soil outdoors in 

November ; layering of slioots in October ; suckers in November. 

VOL. n. 49 ■ E 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Flowers greenish-yellow, appearing after leaves, very small, in centre 
of large white involucre, in a dense cymose head surrounded by a corolla- 
like involucre of 4 white bracts, each 1-lJ in. wide, the whole measuring 
3-4 ins. diam. ; bracts round, retuse, or nearly obcordate ; Calyx light green, 
4-lobed, urceolate ; Corolla ; 4 petals, valvate in bud, lobes strap-shaped, 
green tipped with yellow ; Stamens 4, alternate ; Ovary inferior, 2-celled ; 
stigma truncate ; Fruit a drupe, ovoid, ^ in. long, bright scarlet, thin, mealy 
flesh, 1-2-seeded ; ripe in October. 

Leaves opposite, ovate to elliptical, acuminate, narrowed at base, slightly 
crenulate, thick, firm, bright green above, pale and pubescent beneath, 
3-6 ins. long, 1|— 2 ins. wide ; petioles grooved. Autumn tints yellow, 
scarlet, purple. 

A deciduous shrub, or bushy tree, 20 30 ft., of slow growth ; Branches 
slender, spreading or erect ; Tivigs yellow-green, or red to brown or grey ; 
Bark red-brown, scaly, very bitter ; Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, 
brown shaded green and red ; takes good polish. 

Introduced from U.S.A., 1731. 



LARGE-LEAVED DOGWOOD, Comus macrophylla. 

Gardens. July. Likes deep, fairly moist soil. 

Floxvers white, in a terminal dichotomous cyme, 4-5 ins. diam., peduncles 
short, pedicels white tomentose ; Calyx urceolate, teeth minute, white adpressed 
hairs ; Petals white tomentose, valvate ; Stamens alternating with petals, 
anthers oblong; Ovary 2-celled; Fi-uit a drupe, globose, I in. diam., 
2-celled, 2-seeded. 

Leaiies opposite or alternate, ovate, acuminate, dark green above, pale 
glaucous beneath, 4-6 ins. long, 3| ins. broad, or larger. Autumn tint 
orange-red. 

A deciduous ti-ee, 40 ft. ; Branches nearly horizontal ; Tivigs purplish ; 

Bark smooth. 

Native of Asia, N. India to Japan ; introduced 1827. Syn. C. brachypoda. 

50 




Plate XXX. 



VARIEGATED LAUREL {Acuha japonica) 
A. Brand), with male flowers. B. Female flowers. C Single male flower (enlarged). 






CORNACE^ 

CORNELIAN CHERRY, Comns Mas. 

Shrubberies. A very beautiful early-flowering shrub, made especially 
attractive by having a background of dark evergreens. February — April. 

Flowers bright yellow, small, appearing before leaves, in an umbel, involucre 
4-leaved ; Fruit a drupe, cornelian-red, oval, \ in. long ; used for marmalade 
and jelly. 

Leaves oval, acuminate, pubescent on both surfaces. 

A deciduous shrub, 15-20 ft. ; Branches smooth. 

Introduced from Europe (Austria), 1596. 



CORNEL OR DOGWOOD, Comus sangumea. 

Woods and hedgerows. June, July. The red bark makes this an attractive 
shrub in winter. 

Flowers greenish-white, small, regular, having an unpleasant odour, in a 
dense-flowered terminal corymbose cyme, without bracts, pedicels long ; Calyx 
4-toothed, covered with down ; Petals 4, lanceolate, downy, valvate ; Stamens 4, 
subulate, alternating with petals, inserted under yellow epigynous disk ; Ovary 
inferior, 2-celled, style simple, terete ; Fruit a drupe, globular, almost black, 
with whitish dots, very bitter, stone 2-celled. 

Leaves opposite, broadly ovate, shortly petiolate, entire or waved, acute, 
hoary or silky when young, glabrous later, green, turning to red in autumn, 2-3 
ins. long, petiole short. 

A deciduous shrub, 5-8 ft. ; Branches opposite, straight, dark-red when old ; 
young shoots briglit red, pubescent ; Buds sessile, slender, pubescent ; Bark 
scaly, fetid odour when bruised ; Wood used for skewers, and in manufacture of 
gunpowder. 

Native of Britain. 



51 E 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

RED OSIER DOGWOOD, Comns stolonifera. 

Shrubberies. May. Likes damp spots, and makes a good cover plant for 
game. 

Flowers white, inconspicuous, in a small flat cyme, pubescent, 1-2 ins. diam. ; 
Petals ovate-oblong ; Fruit a drupe, white, globose. 

Leaves ovate, acute, pubescent, light green above, hoary beneath, 1-5 ins. 
long, petioles slender. 

A deciduous shrub, 5-10 ft. ; usually stoloniferous ; Bi-anchlets glabrous, 
bright red-purple, youngest pubescent ; Bark red-purple. 

Introduced from N. America, 1741. Syn. C. alba (Wangenh). 

VARIEGATED LAUREL, Aucuba japonka. 

Slu'ubberies. JMay. To develop the full beauty of its variegated foliage, 
this attractive shrub should be planted in an open space where it may obtain 
plenty of liglit and air. In order to ensure a plentiful supply of the scarlet 
berries it is necessary to have the male plants in close proximity to the females, 
or artificial pollination may be resorted to, placing among the pistillate flowers 
some branches bearing staminate blossoms. If left to Nature, it will be 
sufficient to have one male plant in tlie vicinity of several females. Propagated 
by cuttings in sandy soil in sheltered border or cold frame, September to 
November ; layering in autumn ; seeds in cold frame in October. 

Floivers white, small, inconspicuous, di(£cious, visited by pollen-eating flies ; 
Inflorescence a branched dichasial cyme, terminal and axillary ; 3Ialcs, Calyx 
gamosepalous, 4 minute teeth ; Corolla of 4 petals, epigynous, ovate to lanceo- 
late, valvate ; Stamens 4, alternate with petals, filaments subulate ; Disk 
4-angled and fleshy ; Females, Calya: with 4 minute teeth, tube ovoid or nearly 
cylindrical; Petals A^; Ovary inferior, 1-celled, style short, stigma slightly 
bifid; Fruit an oblong, scarlet drupe, \ in. long, 1-seeded. 

Leaves decussate, ovate lanceolate or elliptical, petiolate, exstipulate, entire 

or slightly toothed, acuminate or obtuse, coriaceous, glabrous, green mottled 

with yellow, midrib prominent ; dead leaves brown. 

52 




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CAPRIFOLIACEi^ 

An evergreen shrub, 6-10 ft.; Branches green, terete, smooth ; Buds large; 
young wood tender, easily destroyed when exposed to strong winds. 

A native of Japan. Female introduced in 1783, male in 18.50 (by Fortune). 



Gan-i/a elliptica. 

Shrubberies, walls. October — March. The male plant is more usually grown, 
and is by far the more handsome. In most districts it is best against a south or 
west wall. Prune after flowering. Propagated by cuttings of half-ripe wood in 
sandy soil under hand-light or cold frame, August or September; layering 
of shoots, September or October ; seeds in well-drained pans of sandy soil in cold 
frame, September — October. 

Flowers greenish-white or yellowish, dioecious ; Males in slender pendulous 
catkins, 6-10 ins. long, persistent through summer, bracts densely hairy ; 
Females in dense catkins, 3-4 ins. long ; Bracts connate ; Fruit a drupe, black, 
pulp purple, 2 bony seeds. 

Leaves opposite, oblong or elliptical, acute, entire, wavy when young, 
thick, coriaceous, shortly petiolate, dark shining green above, hoary beneath, 3 
ins. long. 

An evergreen sk7'ub, 8-10 ft. ; head dense, spreading ; shoots slender, downy 
when young, glabrous when mature. 

Native of N.W. America; males discovered by Douglas, 1828; females 
by Hartweg, 1848 ; first fruited in 18.50. Genus named in honour of Michael 
Garry, Secretary to the Hudson's Bay Company. 



Class T Dicotyledons 

Division III. . . . Gamopetalce 
Natuuai, OuuEit . . . Caprifoliacece 

Trees, shrubs, or rarely herbs, with opposite, usually exstipulate leaves, 

and regular or irregular cymose flowers, terminal or rarely axillary ; Calyx 

superior, 2-5-lobed or toothed ; Corolla gamopetalous, epigynous, 4-5-lobed, 

53 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

imbricate in bud ; Stuiiiens 4-5, or rarely double the niniiber, epipetalous, 
alternate witli lobes, anthers versatile ; Ovary inferior, 1 5-celled ; Fruit a 
berry or drupe. 

CANADIAN ELDER, Samhucm canadensis. 

Gardens. July, August. A moist soil being most favourable to luxuriant 
growth, this shrub is useful for growing in groups near ponds and streams. 
The shrubby species of Elder may be propagated by cuttings of branches 
or shoots in moist soil outdoors, October — March. 

Floivcrs dull white, almost scentless, in a terminal panicled cyme, 5 main 
branches ; Fruit a berry-like drupe, deep bluish-black. 

Leaves opposite, imparipinnate, leaflets 5-11, mostly 7, oblong-elliptical, 
acuminate, sometimes appendiculated at base, pubescent beneath, rigid, ser- 
rate, 2-5 ins. long ; heavy scented when crushed. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-10 ft. ; usually glabrous. 

Native of Canada and eastern U.S.A. ; introduced 1761. 

GLAUCOUS ELDER, Sambucus glauca. 

Gardens. .June. The distinctive character of this species is the glaucous 
covering of the fruits. The plant will stand severe pruning. 

Floivers yellowish-white, in a cyme, 4-6 ins. wide, glaucous, bracts and 
bractlets linear, caducous ; Calyx 5-cleft, ovoid, lobes acute, red-brown ; Corolla 
rotate, 5-lobed, lobes oblong, rounded at apex, as long as stamens ; Fruit a 
drupe, sub-globose, ^ in. diam., blue-black, with mealy, glaucous bloom, juicy. 

Leaves opposite, imparipinnate, 5-7 ins. long, leaflets 5-9, ovate or oblong, 
cuneate or rounded at base, acuminate, coarsely serrate, glabrous, thm, firm, 
bright green above, pale below, 2-6 ins. long, ^-l^ in. wide ; petioles stout, 
grooved. 

A deciduous s/irub or small tree, 6-18 ft. ; liranclies spreading, glabrous ; 

Ticigs red-brown ; Bark fissured, brown ; Buds axillary, scales ovate, brown ; 

Wood light, soft, weak, yellow tinged with brown. 

54 



CAPRIFOLIACEi^ 

Native of N. America ; there a tree 30-50 ft. Discovered early in the 
nineteenth century in Oregon by a party under the leadership of Lewis and 
Clark. 



COMMON ELDER, Smnhucus nigra. 

Woods, coppices, hedgerows, gardens, waste places. June. Thrives best 
in good loamy soil, with moisture. 

Floweis cream-white, in a fiat corymbose cyme, G ins. or more in diam., 
much branched, 5 primary brandies ; Calyx .5-cleft, with small teeth ; CoroUa 
rotate, 5-lobed, \ in. diam., tube very short ; Stamens 5, inserted at base of 
corolla, filaments slender ; Ovary 3-celled, inferior, stigma sessile, 3-lobed ; 
Fruit a berry-like drupe, small, globular, succulent, aromatic, purplish-black, 
usually 3 stone-like seeds. 

Leaves opposite, imparipinnate, petiolate, exstipulate, leaflets 5-9, ovate- 
oblong, 1-3 ins. long, serrate, acute or acuminate, nearly glabrous, having an 
unpleasant odour, stipules small or absent. Autumn leaves yellow-green. 

A deciduous shrub or small ti-ee, 20-25 ft. ; gro\vi;h very rapid when 
young ; Stem and branches full of pith ; branchlets angular, gi-ass-green, show- 
ing lenticels well, juicy ; Bark grey, rough, corky ; Bud-scales olive or greenish- 
brown, membranous ; Lenticels conspicuous ; Wood hard, heavy, used for small 
turnery and cabinet work. 

Indigenous in England and Ireland. Specific name from Gr. sambyke, 
a musical instrument, probably a liarp ; L. sambuca, a triangular stringed 
instrument with a sharp, shrill note ; English name from A.S. ellcern, the 
hollow tree. 

SCARLET-BERRIED ELDER, Sambucus raccmosa. 

Gardens, shrubberies. April, May. The bunches of scarlet berries make 

this a very attractive shrub in late summer. Moisture at the roots is essential 

for its perfect development, and when in such positions, as on river-banks or at 

pond-heads, the running roots help to bind the soil. 

55 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Flowers greenish-wliite, in a terminal panicled ci/»ie, o\'ate, racemose in 
appearance ; f '«///.( 5-cleft ; Corolla 5-lobed ; Staincits 5 ; Ovarij inferior ; Fruit 
a berry-like drupe, globular, large, resembling bunch of Grapes, 4-6 ins. in 
length, scarlet, ripe in August. 

Leaves opposite, imparipinnate, leaflets 5-7, oblong-elliptic, serrated, acute, 
unequal at base, bluish-green above, light glaucous green beneath, glabrous, 
membranous ; petioles glabrous. 

A deciduous sh7-ith or small tree, 10-20 ft. ; Branches numerous, arching ; 
liark dark, smooth, few fissures. 

Native of S. Europe and Siberia; introduced 1596. Known also as Hart's 
Elder. 

WAYFARING TREE, Viburnum Lantana. 

AVoods, hedges, gardens. May, June. This is plentifully met with on 
chalky or limestone soils. It may be distinguished by its pliant mealy branches 
and its ovate, cordate leaves covered with mealy down. It is most conspicuous 
when the berries are partially ripe, for they are then seen in all stages of 
transition from coral red to purplish-black. Old wood should be cut out 
occasionally. The species of Viburnum are propagated by cuttings of half- 
ripened shoots, inserted in sandy soil, under handlights, in a somewhat 
shady position, September or October; layering of shoots, September 
or October. 

Flowers white, all small and perfect, J in. diam., 2 bracteolate, in a 
dense corijv/boid cyme, 2-3 ins. diam., fiat-topped, pedicels scurfy ; Cahj.v 
5-toothed ; Corolla 5-lobed ; Stamens 5, shortly exserted ; Ovary inferior, 
1-ceUed, stigmas 3, sessile; Fruit a drupe, J in. diam., somewhat oblong, 
turning from coral-red to purple-black, fiesh dryish, friable : seeds grooved 
ventrally. 

Leaves ovate, cordate at base, petiolate, exstipulate, toothed or entire, 

obtuse, rugose, soft and velvety on upper side, dull yellow-green, very 

downy beneath with stellate hairs ; 3-5 ins. long, veins prominent beneath. 

Autumn tint deep red. 

56 




8 



tlO 

a 



O be 
Cm m 









CAPRIFOLlACEi^ 

A deciduous sh-iib or small ti'ee, 10-20 ft, ; Branches opposite, pliant, 
young shoots brown, covered with down ; Bark grey-brown, fissured ; Buds 
long, narrow, naked ; Leaf-scars crescent. 

A native of Britain. 



SHEEP BERRY, Viburnum Lentago. 

Gardens. May — July. This is a fast-growing and attractive shrub, having a 
great tendency to assume a tree-like form, and well suited for the lawn or 
the margin of a wood. 

Floxvers pale cream or white, all perfect, J in. diam., in a flat terminal 
umbellate cyme, 3-5 ins. diam., bracteate and bracteolate ; Calyx-tube slender, 
ovoid, lobes triangular acute ; Corolla lobes ovate, acute, toothed ; Stamois 5 ; 
Ovary inferior, 1-celIed, style thick, light green, stigma broad ; F?-uit a 
drupe, oval, black or dark blue, glaucous bloom, sweet, juicy, ripe in 
September. 

Leaves opposite, ovate or lanceolate, acute or acuminate, sharply serrate, 
deep shining green abo\'e, yellow-green with black dots beneath, 2i-5 ins. 
long, 1-1 i in. wide ; petioles grooved, wing margined. Autumn tints purple, 
red, yellow. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, 10-20 ft. ; Brandies slender ; 2\vigs 
green to red, scurfy, sometimes with glaucous bloom ; Ba?-k red-brown ; 
Buds long-pointed, scurfy pubescent ; JFood heavy, hard, close-grained, bad- 
smelling, dark orange-brown. 

Introduced from N. America, 1701. 



LARGE-HEADED GUELDER ROSE, Viburnum mucrocephalum. 

Gardens, shrubberies, walls. J\Iay, June. The large rounded or pyramidal 

trusses make this unequalled among the Mburnums. It comes to greatest 

perfection against a wall. It is a sterile form of V. Keteleeri, a species 

in cultivation. 

57 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Flowers pure white, all neuter, If in. diam., in a terminal compound, 
sub-globose or pyramidal cyme, 8 ins. diam. ; peduncles with stellate scales. 

Leaves opposite, 3 ins. long, ovate, obtuse, denticulate, flat, slightly 
scabrous, stellate furfuraceous pubescent beneath, and on sliort petioles. 

A deciduous shmh or small tree, 20 ft. ; Branches spreading, terete, stellate 
furfuraceous ; Buds elongated, flattened, scaleless. 

Native of China and Japan; introduced from former by Fortune in 1844. 
Specific name from Gr. makros, long or great, and kephale, a head. 



GUELDER ROSE, Fibumum Opuhs. 

Copses, hedges, gardens. June, July. In its native haimts it brightens 
the countryside by its fine autumn foliage and blackish-red berries. 

Floivers creamy-white, in a dense corymbose cyme, sub-globose, 2-4 ins. 
diam. ; outer flowers large, neuter ; inner ones perfect, J in. diam. ; Calyx 
superior, 5-toothed ; Corolla rotate, .5-lobed. Stamens 5, epipetalous, alter- 
nate with lobes, exserted, anthers versatile ; Ovary inferior, 1-celled, stigmas 
3, sessile ; Fruit a drupe, globular, blackish-red ; seed compressed, keeled 
on faces. 

Leaves opposite, 3-5-lobed, coarsely toothed, acute or acuminate, glabrous, 
2-3 ins. broad ; petiole glandular, stipules small, glandular, adnate to petioles. 
Autumn tint crimson. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-1.5 ft., in cultivation growing to a small tree; 
always glabrous in all parts ; Bark brown ; Branches slender, lenticellate ; 
Twigs brown or grey, glabrous, angular ; Buds small, oval, apparently only 
one scale, red, coriaceous. 

Native of Britain. English name said to be corruption of Dutch 
" Gheldersche Rose," a name applied to a sterile variety first cultivated at 
Gueldres, in Holland ; also called Cranberry Tree, Dog Elder, Dog Rowan 
Tree, Marsh or AVater Elder, and Snowball Tree. 



58 




GUELDER ROSE {Viburnum Upiilus) 



A. Flowcriiig brancLi. II. Fruit. ^C. Oi^e-of the inner flowers. D. Portion of tlie cymi'. i'. Transverse section of fruit. 

i" - "iP. Eongitudinal section of fruit. 

Platu XXXIII. ^^' 



CAPRIFOLIACE^ 

SNOWBALL TREE, nhimnm Opulus, V. sterile. 

Gardens, shrubberies. It loves a good soil and abundant moisture. June. 
F'lowers white, all neuter, in a globular corymbose cyme. 
Leaves opposite, 3-lobed, coarsely and unevenly serrated, veins prominent 
on underside. 

A deciduous shrub, 10 15 ft. ; young hvigs green, brown when older. 
Origin unknown. 



LAURUSTINUS, rihvrmim Tinns. 

Gardens and shrubberies. October — March. The briglit glossy evergreen 
foliage and pinkish-white flowers place this in the first position among the 
winter-flowering shrubs. A rather light warm soil brings it to the greatest 
perfection. 

Flowers white, rose-coloured before expansion, in a flat corymbose cyme; 
Calyx gamosepalous, 5-toothed, superior; Corolla gamopetalous, epigynous, 
rotate, 5-lobed ; Stamens 5. epipetalous, alternate with lobes, anthers versatile ; 
Ovary inferior, 1 -celled, stigma sessile; Fruit a drupe, dark blue. 

Leaves opposite, ovate-oblong, petiolate, entire, acute, bright glossy green, 
glabrous, exstipulate, veins glandular, hairy, 2^ ins. long. 

An evergreen shrub, 6-10 ft. ; Branches erect ; Tivigs red ; Bark 
smooth ; Lenticels conspicuous. 

Native of S. Europe; introduced 1596. It was the "Wild Bale" of 
Gerarde. 



PLAITED GUELDER ROSE, ribumum tomentosum, v. plicatum. 

Gardens, shrubberies. This is commonly considered the best of the 
Viburnums. May, June. 

Flowers snow-white, turning pmplish when fading, all neuter, in a 

C7, 



',)■<■■■ 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

globular terminal corymbose cyme, 3 ins. diam., arranged in a double row 
along the branches. 

Leaves opposite, ovate or ovate-orbicular, cuspidate, obtuse, coarsely 
serrated, somewhat plicate, scabrous, dark green above, veiny and tomentose 
beneath, 3 ins. long. 

A deciduous s/n-uh, 4-6 ft. ; Branches glabrous, red-brown ; Buds brown. 

Native of N. China and Japan ; introduced 1844. Also called Chinese 
Guelder Rose. 



SNOWBERRY, Syinphoricarpus racemosus. 

Gardens and shrubberies. August, September. This is a general favourite, 
well able to adapt itself to circumstances. It will grow in town or country, 
in rich soil or poor, in the open or under trees. Old and decayed wood 
should be cut out, October — February. Propagated by cuttings, 6-8 ins., 
of firm wood in ordinary soil in shady position outdoors, October — February; 
suckers, October — February. 

Flowers pink, small, in a loose and somewhat leafy, interrupted spike at 
ends of branches, each flower with 2 or more minute bracteoles ; Calyx 
4-5-toothed, sub-globose ; Corolla funnel-shaped, 4-5-lobed, bearded within ; 
Stamens 4-5, epipetalous, filaments short ; Oxnry 4-celled, ovoid ; style 
glabrous, stigma dilated ; Fruit a drupe, baccate, globose, white, 2-celled, 
2-seeded, persistent through winter. 

Leaves opposite, ovate-oblong, shortly petiolate, acute, entire, glaucous 
or downy beneath, 2 ins. by \^ in. Autumn tint brown. 

A deciduous shrub, 4-7 ft. ; much branched ; Suckers in abundance ; 
Twigs pale grey to brown, glabrous, terete, hollow at internodes ; Buds 
minute. 

Introduced from N. America, 1817. Flowers mucli visited by bees ; 
fruits form excellent food for game. 



60 




Pi,AT|.; XXXIV. 



SNOWBALL TREE (Vihunnim Uptiliis, vmi-. sterile) 
A. I'lowering branch. B. Single llower, from below. 



CAPRIFOLIACEiE 

COPIOUS-FLOWERING ABELIA, Abelia Jioribimda. 

Gardens, walls. March. Hardy only in favoured situations ; best as a 
greenhouse plant. Outdoors requires sheltered position, and best in equal 
parts of loam and peat with some sharp sand. Propagated by cuttings of 
firm shoots in cold frame in July ; layers in JNIarch. 

Floivers rosy-purple, in axillary cymose clusters of 2-3 flowers ; Calyx 
gamosepalous, .5-lobed, persistent, lobes nearly equal, oblong, fringed ; Corolla 
gamopetalous, infundibuliform. .5-lobed, tube about 2 ins. long, slender; Stamens 
5, epipetalous ; Ovary inferior ; Fruit a berry. 

Leaves opposite, ovate-oblong, petiolate, acute, crenated, small, glabrous. 

An evergreen shrub, 3 ft., sub-erect ; Branches straggling. 

Native of Mexico ; introduced to Europe by Belgian nurserymen ; reached 
England about 1847. Genus named after Dr. Clarke Abel, Physician to Lord 
Amherst's Embassy to China, 1817; died 1826. 

PERFOLIATE HONEYSUCKLE, Lonkera Caprifolium. 

Hedges, copses, gardens. ]May, June. This is a robust deciduous twiner, 
which favours chalky districts. All the Honeysuckles like a light good soil 
and sunny position, seldom flowering in the shade. Thinning out old wood 
after flowering encourages growth, but as the flowers are borne on the young 
wood which has ripened in the previous year, little pruning should be done. 
The species are propagated by cuttings of firm shoots, 8 ins. long, in sandy 
soil in sheltered position outdoors, October or November ; layering of shoots, 
August — November. 

Flowers yellowish and red, fragrant, pollinated by moths, sessile in 
terminal xvhorls in axils of upper connate leaves ; Calyx-limb short, 5-toothed, 
persistent ; Corolla irregular, f-l|^ in. long, tubular, ringent, curved, limb 
bilabiated, upper lip 4.-lobed ; Stamens 5, exserted ; Ovary 3-celled, style 
green ; Fruit a berry, globoid, red, 1-celled, 1-seeded, mass of berries sessile 
in axils of connate leaves. 

VOL. II. 61 F 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Leaves opposite, elliptic to obovate, hardly acute, entire, glabrous, white 
or glaucous beneath, upper ones connate, 1^-2^ ins. long. Autumn leaves 
brown. 

A deciduous hvining shrub, 15-20 ft. ; glabrous. 

Naturalised in some English counties, and in the south of Scotland. 



ITALIAN HONEYSUCKLE, Lonkera etrusca. 

Walls. May, June. 

Floive?-s purplish outside when expanding, yellowish-white inside, finally 
becoming yellow, fragrant, in veiiiciUate heads, usually 3 heads at top of 
each branch ; Fruit a berry. 

Leaves opposite, obovate, entire ; upper ones connately-perfoliate, cup- 
shaped, acute, hairy ; lower ones shortly petiolate, obtuse. 

A deciduous txdning shrub, 15 ft. ; Stems reddish-purple. 

Native of S. Europe. Known in gardens as L. gigantea. 



YELLOW TRUMPET HONEYSUCKLE, Lonicera flava. 

Arbours. A strong grower in warm situations, as against a south wall. 
June, July. 

Floxvers bright yellow, fading to orange, very fragrant, in an interrupted 
spike of large terminal verticillate heads ; Corolla ringent, tube 1-1^ in. long, 
lobes oblong-obtuse, about half as long as tube ; Filaments and style glabrous, 
exserted ; Fruit a berry, \ in. diam. 

Leaves opposite, obovate or oval, entire, obtuse, thin, pale and glaucous, 
upper ones connately-perfoliate, sometimes cup-shaped. 

A deciduous twining shrub. 

Native of N. America; discovered by John Fraser on Paris Mountain, 
South Carolina; introduced 1810. Specific name from L,. Jlavus, yellow. 



62 




LAURUSTINUS • ( Vilmrnum Tinu,<) 

A. B'lowering shoot. B. Fruit. U. Flower, from above. 
D. Longitudinal section of flower. 



Plate XXXV. 



CAPRIFOLIACEi^ 

VERY FRAGRANT HONEYSUCKLE, Lonkera fragrantissima. 

Walls. January — March. This may be pruned a little after flowering. 

Florvers white, appearing before leaves are developed, in axillary pairs on 
long peduncles, enclosed at base by two long, narrow bracts; Corolla nearly 
1 in. across, tube short, tinged with pink towards base, mouth expanded; 
Fruit a berry, glabrous, 2 united at base. 

Leaves opposite, oblong-obovate, entire, petiolate, acute, rounded at base, 
glabrous, deep shining green on upper surface, pale or slightly glaucous 
beneath. 

A sub-evergreen climbing shrub, 6 ft. ; or small bush, 3 ft. ; leading shoots 
brown, slender. 

Native of N. China; discovered by Fortune; introduced 1845. Specific 
name from L. fragrans, antis, sweet-scented, — fragro, to smell, to be 
fragrant. 



JAPANESE HONEYSUCKLE, Lonicera Japonica. 

Arbours. July — September. This is a very valuable species, being a 
strong grower, retaining its leaves through most winters. 

Floxicrs white at first, changing to yellow, very fragrant, in terminal a.ril/ari/ 
pairs, sessile ; Corolla tubular, 1 in. long, white inside, villous outside ; 
Fruit a berry. 

Leaves opposite, ovate, petiolate, entire, acute, bright green, villous, pale 
beneath, 1-3 ins. long, upper ones small, larger leaves having a tendency 
to become pinnatifid. 

An evergreen climbing shrub, 6-15 ft. ; Branches opposite, flexuous, twining, 
very hairy. 

Native of China and .lapan ; introduced 1806. Synonymous with L. 
chine nsis. 

63 F 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

SHORT -STALKED HONEYSUCKLE, Lonkera Japonica, V. 
jiexuosa. 

Arbours. This is one of the best for pillars and archways. June, July. 

Flowers pale red outside, white within, few, usually in axillary pairs, almost 
sessile, very fragrant ; Calyx inferior, 5-toothed ; Corolla gamopetalous, tubular, 
5-lobed; Stamens 4, epipetalous ; Ovary inferior, 2-3-eelled, style long, stigma 
capitate ; Fj-uit a berry, globose, glabrous, acute, black when ripe. 

Leaves opposite, ovate-oblong, acute, entire, shortly petiolate, glabrous, 
villous and purplish below when young, dark green when older. 

A deciduous tivining shrub, 4-5 ft. ; Steins flexuous, slender, villous at 
apex, dark red. 

Native of Japan ; introduced 1806. Genus named after Adam Lonicer, or 
Lonitzer, a German botanist (1528-1586). Specific name from L. jlexilis, bent, 
curved. Synonym, Lonicera Z>/-ac%^oc?a = short-stalked, from Gr. bj-achys, 
short, potts, podos, a foot. 

BLACK-BERRIED HONEYSUCKLE, Lonicera nigra. 

Gardens. March — May. 

Flowers reddish and pubescent outside, white within, in axillary pai?-s, 
peduncles shorter than leaves ; Fruit a berry, black, globose, pairs connate 
at base. 

Leaves opposite, oval-oblong or elliptic. 

An erect, dwarf, deciduous shrub, 3-4 ft. 

Native of Europe, in sub-alpine woods. 

WOODBINE OR COMMON HONEYSUCKLE, Lonicera Peri- 
clymcnnm. 

Hedges, copses, gardens. June — September. This is one of the most 

beautiful and most exquisitely fragrant of oiu- native climbers. It is a great 

favourite for covering arbours or trellises. 

64 




SNOWBERRY {Sijniphoricarjjus racemusus) 

A. Branch, in full flower. B. Flower. C. Flower, with corolla opened to show stamens. 
1). Transverse section of fruit. £. Seed. F. Fruit-bearing branch. 
Plate XX.WI. 



CAPRIFOLIACE^ 

FJoicers fragrant, in a terminal stalked ovate head, flowers sessile, bracts 
persistent ; Calyx 5-toothed ; Corolla tubular, ringent, 1-1| in. long, glandular 
pubescent, red outside, yellow within, limb 2-lipped, 5-lobed ; Stamens 5, 
exserted ; Ovary 3-celled, style filiform, stigma capitate ; Fri/if a berry, globose, 
1-celled, 1-seeded, fleshy, crimson, bitter and nauseous, mass of berries 
pedunculate. 

Leaves opposite, ovate to oblong, entire, obtuse, attenuated at base, glabrous 
above, glaucous beneath, 1-3 ins. long, upper leaves sessile, lower ones shortly 
petiolate, all distinct at base. 

A deciduous tzv'uiing shrub, 1 0-20 ft, ; glabrous or slightly pubescent. 

Native of Britain. 

Flowers sometimes stunted and distorted by an Aphis {Siphocoryne xylostei). 



EVERGREEN TRUMPET HONEYSUCKLE, Lonicera semper- 
virens. 

Gardens, walls. Requires light rich soil and open sunny situations, dis- 
liking clay and the smoke of towns. It is one of the best for lawns. May — 
August. 

Flowers scarlet outside, yellow within, inodorous, in a series of ivhoi'ls on 
long axillary peduncles ; Corolla tube ventricose on upper side, 1 in, long, 
narrow, limb short, nearly regular ; Stamens and Style scarcely exserted ; Fi-uit 
a berry, reddish-yellow, \ in. diam., ripe in September. 

Leaves opposite, ovate or obovate, petiolate, entire, obtuse, glabi'ous, and 
deep green above, glaucous beneath, upper ones connately-perfoliate, 2 ins. 
long, 1 in. broad. 

A sub-evergreen shrub ; Branches slender, twining, brown, glabrous. 

Introduced from N. America, 1656. Specific name from L. semper, always, 
vii'ens, green ; but not strictly evergreen in this country. 



65 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

TARTARIAN HONEYSUCKLE, Lonivem tartarica. 

Gardens, shrubberies. April, May. Its freedom of growth, early leafing 
habit, abundant blossoms, showy fruit, and perfect hardiness, all tend to make 
this the most popular of the Bush Honeysuckles. Old and weak wood may 
be thinned out in winter. 

Flowers rose, in axillary pairs, pedimcles shorter than leaves ; [Corolla 
infundibuliform, short, slightly gibbous at base ; Anfliers yellow ; Fruit a 
berry, red, nearly globose when young, pairs connate at base when ripe. 

Leaves opposite, cordate-ovate, slightly acute. 

An erect deciduous shrub, 4-8 ft. ; glabrous. 

Native of Tartary and Siberia ; introduced 1752. 



FLY HONEYSUCKLE, Lomcera Xylosteum. 

Copses, gardens. May, June. 

Floxvers white to yellow, dashed with red, inodorous, pollinated by bees, 
sessile in aivillary pairs, 2 small linear bracts, bracteoles minute ; Caly.v-limb 
deciduous, 5-toothed ; Corolla infundibuliform, slightly 2-lipped, saccate at base, 
pubescent, | in. long; Stamens 5, exserted, curved, downy, anthers yellow; 
Ovaries connate, 3-celled, style downy; Fruit a berry, globoid, size of pea, 
purple-red, fused below in pairs, bitter, 2-celled, 2-6 seeds, ripe in September 
or October. 

Leaves opposite, elliptic or ovate to obovate, base rounded, apex acute or sub- 
mucronate, entire or serrate, dark green above, paler grey-green beneath, velvety 
pubescent, l.i in. long, shortly petiolate. Autumn leaves brown. 

An erect deciduous shrub, 3-5 ft. ; much branched ; Tivigs grey, slender, 
glabrous or slightly hairy ; Bud-scales numerous, triangular, downy. 

Naturalised in England. 



66 



o==^^^' 




CD E "P 

HONEYSUCKLE, OR WOODBINE {Lomcera Peridymenum) 

A . Flowering branch. B. Fruit. C. Transverse section of fruit. 
D. Flower with corolla opened to show stamens. E. Flower. P. Vertical section of fruit, 

Plate XXXVII. 



CAPRIFOLIACEi^ 



HIMALAYAN HONEYSUCKLE, Lcycesteria formo.m. 

Gardens, shrubberies. jMay — August. The pecuhar disposition of the 
blossoms and the leaf-hke purphsh bracts make this an attractive shrub in 
summer, whilst in winter attention is still drawn to it by the bright green bark. 
It makes a good co\'ert plant, increasing itself rapidly from self-sown seed. It 
is easily propagated from cuttings of side shoots in light soil in temperature of 
45°-50° in April, or of half-ripe shoots in sandy soil under handliglit in autumn ; 
layers in autumn ; seed may be sown in light soil in temperature as above in 
March or April. 

Floicers white Avith tinge of purple, in a short, leafy, drooping raceme, 
flowers sessile, in fascicles, disposed in approximate whorls of 5-6, subtended by 
foliaceous purple bracts, pubescent, usually 6 under each whorl ; Calyx 5-toothed, 
superior, persistent ; Corolla infundibuliform, ^1 in. long, tube gibbous at base, 
limb campanulate, 5 ovate lobes ; Stameiis 5, epipetalous ; Ovary inferior, 
5-celled, style slender, stigma capitate ; Fruit a berry, 5-celled, many-seeded, 
J in. long, glandular-hairy, purplish ; said to be sought after by pheasants. 

Leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate, petiolate, acuminate, entire, smooth, 
flaccid, pale green underneath, 3-5 ins. long ; petioles connate at base. 

A deciduous shrub, with rambling habit, 4-10 ft. ; Stems woody, hollow, 
green ; Bra?iches slender, fistular, young shoots pubescent ; Grmdh rapid. 

Native of N. India; introduced by Dr. Rayle, 1824; named after AVilliam 
Leycester, Chief Judge of the principal native Court in Bengal. Also called 
Flowering Nutmeg. 



ROSY WEIGELA, DierviUa florkla. 

Gardens. April — June. This free-growing and profuse-flow^ering shrub 

forms a graceful and well-furnished bush in almost any soil. The Weigelas 

or Bush Honeysuckles may be pruned after flowering. They are propagated 

by cuttings of young shoots in pots of sandy soil under bell-glass in cool 

67 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

greenhouse in spring, or of firm shoots 6 ins. long inserted 3 ins. deep in 
north border under handlight in October or November ; suckers in autumn. 

Flowers rose, or white, pinkish in interior sliading into rose, in dense 
axillary and terminal cijmes ; buds deep rose ; Calij.v 5-toothed ; Corolla funnel- 
shaped, 5-lobed; Stamens 5; Ovary inferior; Fruit a 1 -celled, 1-seeded 
berry. 

Leaves opposite, sessile or shortly petiolate, ovate-lanceolate, serrulate, 
acute. 

A deciduous shrub, G-10 ft. 

Native of China; introduced by Robert Fortune, 1844. Synonymous with 
Weigela rosea (Lindl.), D. rosea (Walp.), Weigela amabilis of gardens. 

LARGE-FLOWERED WEIGELA, DierviUa grandiflora. 

Gardens. May, June. 

Flowers pink-rose, regular, in axillary and terminal cymes, extremely 
floriferous; Caly.v gamosepalous, 5-lobed, superior; Corolla gamopetalous, 
epigynous, 5-lobed ; Stamens 5, epipetalous, anthers versatile ; Ovary inferior, 
large nectary at side of style easily mistaken for a superior ovary ; Fj-uit a 
1-celled, 1-seeded berry. 

Leaves opposite, serrated, strongly reticulated, veins very prominent on 
underside, under- surface white. 

A deciduous shrub, 8-10 ft., often assuming a climbing habit. 

Native of Japan. Synonymous with D. amabilis (Carr). Generic name in 
honour of M. Dierville, a French surgeon. 

MIDDENDORF'S WEIGELA, DierviUa middendorfiana. 

Gardens. 

Flowers yellowish- white, in a terminal panicled cyme; Lower petal dotted 

with pink, or darker yellow ; Stigma large, inverted cup-shaped ; Fruit a 

1-celled, 1-seeded berry. 

68 



RUBIACE^ 

Leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate, nearly sessile, finely reticulated, hairy 
on nerves. 

A deciduous shrub. 

Native of Siberia. Syn. Weigela middendorjiana. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division III. . . . Gamopetalce 
Natural Order . . . Rubiacece 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs; Leaves opposite, with interpetiolar stipules, or 
apparently whorled, usually entire, the stipules sometimes resembling the leaves ; 
Floxcers hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual, usually regular ; Calyx 3-6-lobed 
or toothed or obsolete, tube adnate to ovary ; Corolla 3-6-lobed ; Stamens 
usually as many as corolla lobes, inserted in the throat or tube ; Ovary inferior, 
2 or more celled ; Fr^iit a capsule, berry, or drupe. 



BUTTON BUSH, Ceplialanthus occidentalis. 

Gardens, shrubbery borders, or woods. July. Best in peaty soil. Propa- 
gated by layers in early autumn. 

Floxcers yellowish-white, small, very fragrant, in dense terminal globose 
pujiicled heads, 1-1^ in. diam., bracts glandular ; Calyx 4-5-lobed, lobes 
rounded, villose at base ; Corolla tubular, infundibuliform, 4-5-lobed, glandular 
or eglandular ; Stamens 4-5, inserted on throat of corolla, anthers sub-sessile, 
included, dehiscing before flower opens ; Ovary inferior, 2-celled ; style filiform, 
stigma clavate, entire ; Fruit a capsule, coriaceous, dark red-brown ; seeds 
2, Avith white spongy arillus. 

Leaves opposite, or verticillate in threes, ovate or lanceolate, acute or 

acuminate, rounded or cvmeate at base, membranaceous, dark green above, 

paler below, 4-7 ins. long, 1-3 A ins. wide ; petioles stout, grooved ; stipules 

minute, nearly triangular. 

69 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

A deciduous shrub, 2-7 ft. ; Branches ascending, spreading ; Baik grey- 
brown, scaly ; Buds minute. 

Introduced from N. America, 1735. Generic name from Gr. kephale, 
a head, and anthos, a flower. Also called Globe-bush, Little Snow-balls, 
and Snowy Globe-flowers. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division III. . . . Gamopetalce 
Natural Order . . . Compositce 

Herbs or shrubs, with usually alternate, exstipulate leaves, and flowers 
mostly white or yellow, usually small, crowded in dense capitula surrounded 
by involucral bracts ; Calyx superior, completely united with the ovary, and 
undistinguishable from it, its limb wanting, or consisting of a border of 
minute teeth, scales, or pappus of hairs, simple or feathery ; Corolla gamo- 
petalous, epigynous, either all tabular and 5-toothed, or all ligulate, or with 
a central disk of tubular florets and a ray of ligulate ; Stamens 5, or rarely 
4, epipetalous, anthers syngenesious and basifixed, sometimes tailed ; Ovary 
inferior, 2 carpels, 1-celled, stigmas 2; Fruit a cypsela, often crowned by a 
pappus. 

The most extensive Order in the vegetable kingdom, containing over 
10,000 species. Distinguished from \\alerianeffi and Dipsacea; by the syn- 
genesious anthei's. 



NEW ZEALAND DAISY-BUSH, Okaria Haastii. 

Gardens, shrubberies, rockeries. July— September. This is the hardiest 

of the Olearias, and will do well as far north as the Midland counties. In 

smoky districts it does better than most evergreens, and is also an excellent 

seaside shrub. It makes a dense Box-like bush, well suited for forming a 

hedge, and may then be pruned in early spring or after flowering. In late 

summer it is almost completely covered with little Aster-like blossoms. 

70 



COMPOSITE 

The Olearias may be propagated by cuttings of firm shoots in sandy soil 
under handhght in a warm sheltered spot or cold frame, September — October ; 
layers in autumn. 

Flowers white, in a lax or dense, sub-terminal, corymbose, hoary cyme 
of capitula ; cymes 1^-3 ins. diam. ; pedicels short, hoary ; peduncles hoary, 
longer than leaves, involucre campanulate ; Ray florets 4-5 ; Fruit a cypsela. 

Leaves alternate, crowded, elliptic or ovate-oblong, obtuse or sub-acute, 
entire, wrinkled, coriaceous, dull green above, white beneath, |-1^ in. long. 

An evergreen shrub, 5 ft. ; Branches woody, thick ; branchlets hoary. 

Native of New Zealand ; introduced 1858. 



NEW ZEALAND DAISY-TREE, Olearia macrodonta. 

Gardens. July. August. This is one of the most handsome of all shrubs, 
happiest in the Southern counties, especially when against a south or west 
wall. It makes a good hedge plant. 

Floivers white, Daisy-like, 1^ in. diam. ; Capitula in large terminal hemi- 
spherical corymbs; Fruit a cypsela. 

Leaves alternate, very variable, elliptic-oblong, elliptic-ovate, or cordate- 
ovate, obtuse, crenate or coarsely toothed, undulate. Holly-like, 1+-2 ins. 
long, silvery-green above, almost white beneath, smelling faintly of Musk. 

An evergreen shrub, 3-5 ft. ; or small t7-ee, 20 ft. ; flat -topped ; Branches 
stout. 

Native of New Zealand ; introduced 1886. Syn. O. dentata. 



TASMANIAN DAISY-BUSH, Olearia stelhlata. 

Gardens. Best when sheltered by wall. .lune — September. 

Floivers white, J-1 in. diam. ; Ray floj'ets about 12, in a capituhim, borne in 

great profusion ; involucral bracts scabrous, persistent, forming a silvery star J in. 

diam. ; Fruit a cypsela, with pappus. 

Leaves alternate, oblanceolate, obtuse, coarsely toothed, upper side dark green 

71 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

and with stellate hairs, underside hoary with stellate hairs ; leaf |— 2 ins. long, 
^^g in. wide, petiole short. 

An evergreen shrub, 3-5 ft. ; Branches hoary. 

Native of Tasmania and Australia. Syn. Enrjibia giinniaua. Also called 
^^ictorian Snow Bush. 



SNOW IN SUMMER, Helichrysum rosmarinifoUum. 

Gardens. June, July. Requires shelter ; hardy in South and West of 
England. It does best in a light loamy soil and plenty of air. If the flowers 
are hung up and dried they will last for many months, forming a charming 
winter decoration. Any necessary pruning may be done in April. Propagate 
by cuttings of half-ripened shoots in sandy soil under handlight in shady position 
in summer. 

Flowers white, small, like Daisies ; flower heads (capituht) in dense corymbs, 
usually terminating small leafy branches, forming a large leafy panicle ; Fruit 
an achene (cypsela). 

Leaves alternate, Rosemary-like, lanceolate, obtuse, revolute, ^1^ in. long. 

A deciduous shrub, 3-10 ft. ; Branches long, arching. 

Native of S. Australia and Tasmania; introduced 1827. Also known as 
Rosemary Everlasting Flower. Syn. Ozothamnus 7-osmarinifolius. Generic name 
from Gr. ozein, to smell, and thamnos, a shrub. 

SOUTHERNWOOD, Artemisia Abrotanum. 

Gardens. August — October. This is one of our oldest garden favourites, 
doing well in any dry soil. Propagated by cuttings in shady border, July — 
September ; seeds in light soil in cold frame in INIarch. 

Flowers yellowish, small, in small capitula, racemose-paniculate, involucral 

bracts with slightly scarious margins, outer lanceolate, acute, inner obovate ; 

Florets all tubular, anemophilous, central flowers fertile, marginal ones 

pistillate ; Fruit an achene (cypsela), narrow at top. pappus 0. 

72 



ERICACE/E 

Leaves alternate, lower ones bipinnate or tripinnate, upper pinnate, seg- 
ments hair-like, fragrant, glabrous or soiiiewhat pubescent, deep green. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-4 ft. ; Stem straight, puberulent or glabrous, much 
branched ; Branelies short, erect or ascending. 

Native of S. Europe; introduced about 1548. Also called I^ad's-love and 
Old Man. Generic name Artemisia derived from Artemis, one of the names 
of Diana. 



SAGE BUSH, Artemisia tridentata. 

Gardens. A small erect bushy shrub covered with a dense silvery-grey 
tomentum, and exhaling a strong and agreeable odour. August. 

Fknvers yellowish, all perfect and fertile, in a dense pauiele of eapitula, 
5-8-flowered ; sessile or nearly so ; involucre oblong, tomentose ; inner bracts 
oblong ; outer short, ovate, obtuse ; Anthers obtuse, entire at base ; Fruit a 
cypsela. 

Leaves alternate, 3-7-toothed, apex truncate, narrowly cuneate at base, 
^1| in. long, |-i in. wide, silvery tomentose. 

An evergreen shrub, 4-5 ft. ; much branched, silvery canescent. 

Native of Western U.S.A. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division III. . . . Gamopetalce 
Natural Order . . . Ericaceae 

Mostly evergreen shrubs, occasionally growing into small trees, with 
simple, exstipulate leaves and hermaphrodite flowers, regular or nearly so, 
mostly white or red ; Ca/i/.r gamosepalous, 4-5-toothed or lobed, superior or 
inferior; ('o/o/la usually gamopetalous, 4-5-cleft or toothed, sometimes per- 
sistent ; Stanieiis usually twice as many as corolla lobes, hypogynous or 
epigynous, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, often appendiculate ; Ovary 
superior or inferior, 4-5-celled, placentation axile ; Fruit a capsule or berry. 

VOL. II. 73 G 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

An Order of about 13,000 species, often favouring peaty soils, and having 
mycorhiza on their roots. Distinguished from Campanulacea? by the apical 
pores or shts of the anthers. The Ericacea3 and Campanulacea; are the only 
gamopetalous orders in which the stamens are not inserted on the corolla. 



BILBERRY or WHORTLEBERRY, racchmm iMyrfilhs. 

Heaths, moorlands, rockeries. April — .June. A pretty little shrub, admired 
in spring for its rosy waxen flowers and fresh green foliage, and in autumn for 
its refreshing fruit. No pruning is necessary. The species are propagated by 
cuttings of shoots in sandy moist peat under handliglit in shade in summer ; 
layers in autumn ; division in September or March ; seeds in shallow boxes or 
pans filled with moist sandy peat in temperature .5,5°-65^ in spring, transplanting 
outdoors in summer. 

Flowers rose tinged with green, solitary and axillary, pedicels i in. ; 
Calyx turbinate, 5-lobed ; Corolla urceolate-globoid, 2^-2J ins. long, epigy- 
nous, 5 small teeth ; Stamens 10, epigynous, anthers awned. dehiscing by 
pores ; Ovarij inferior, 4-5-celled, style filiform, stigma obtuse ; Fruit a 
berry, globoid, 4-5-celled, blue-black, pruinose, size of pea, many-seeded, edible ; 
used as preserve. 

Leaves alternate, ovate or eUiptical, acute, serrulate, thin, pale green, 
glabrous, |-1 in. long, petiole short. Autumn tints cherry-red, scarlet, crimson, 
brown. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, 6-18 ins.; Stem erect, rigid, angular; Branches 
ascending, angular, glabrous; Buds scaly; Rootstock creeping. 

Native of Britain. Also called Blueberry. 



BOG WHORTLEBERRY, Vaccinum uliginosum. 

Mountain heaths and bogs. A useful trailing shrub for the rock-garden. 
May, June. 

Floxvers pale pink, solitary, on axillary peduncles. 1-3 together; Cahj.v tube 

74 




K 

STRAWBERRY TREE {Arbutus Unedo) 

A. Branch, with cluster of fruit. B. SingUi flower. C. Flower, with front part of corolla and two front stamens removed. 

D. Flower showing calyx. E. One of the stamens. P. Section of flower (two stamens in position). G. Pistil. 

H. Longitudinal section of fruit. 1. Transverse section of fruit. 



ERICACEi^ 

hemispheric, 4-5-toothed, obtuse; CoroUa sub-globose, \ in. long; Stamens 8-10, 
epigynous, dorsal awns ; Ovary inferior ; Fruit a berry, dark blue, with glaucous 
bloom. 

Leaves alternate, obovate or orbicular, obtuse or acute, entire, thin, 
coriaceous, glaucous beneath, ^-1 in. long. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-10 ins.; Stem procumbent, woody, rigid, glabrous; 
Branches cylindrical or slightly angled, ascending ; Buds scaly. 

Native of Britain. Specific name = swamp-loving ( Iv. uligiuosus ; uUgo ; 
uvere, to be wet). Also known as Great Bilberry and Bleaberry. 

COWBERRY, raccinum Vitis-klKa. 

Woods, heaths, rocky moors, gardens. May — August. A native of the 
peaty moorland, good for the rock-garden. 

Flotcers red. in a short, dense, terminal, drooping raceme, pedicels 2, 
bracteolate ; Ca/i/.v ti//>e hemispheric, 4-lobed, lobes ovate, ciliate ; Coi'olla 
campanulate, 4-lobed, spreading; Stamens awnless ; Ovary inferior; Fruit a 
berry, globose, coral-red, i in. diam. ; acid ; ripe August — October. 

Leaves alternate, resembling Box, obovate or oblong, margin thickened, 
entire or serrulate, revolute, coriaceous, glossy green above, pale beneath, \-l\ 
in. long. 

An evergreen shrub, G 18 ins. ; Stem procumbent, much branched, wiry, 
tortuous ; Bratiches pubescent, trailing or ascending. 

Native of British Isles. Known also as Mount Ida ^^'hortleberry, 
Flowering Box, and Brawlins. Specific name = Vine of Mt. Ida (L. vitis, a vine). 

CRANBERRY, O.rycoccus palustris. 

Peaty bogs. June — August. 

Floxi-crs red, solitary and jixillary, drooping ; peduncles 1-3. slender, 1 in. 
long, puberulous, bracteate; Caly.v limb minute; CoroUa rotate, \ in. diam., 
4-lobed, lobes linear-oblong, reflexed ; Stamens epigynous, exserted, filaments 
purple, pubescent, anthers yellow ; Ovary inferior ; Fruit a berry, globular, red, 
\ in. diam. ; very acid ; used for jam and tart making. 

75 G 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Leaves alternate, ovate or lanceolate, cordate at base, entire, revolute, deep 
green above, glaucous beneatli, J-?, in. long, petiole short. 

An evergreen shrub, 3-4 ins. ; Stem creeping, filiform, wiry, puberulous ; 
Buds scaly. 

Native of Britain. Syns. O. vulgaris and raccinium O.vycoccus. Known 
also as Marsh AVhortleberry. 



STRAWBERRY TREE, Arbutus Unedo. 

Parks, gardens, lawns. September — November. Unlike most of the 
Heath family this will grow in a soil containing a little chalk or hme, but 
it does best in sandy peat. When laden with its waxy blossoms and the 
Strawberry-like fruits of the previous year, this forms one of our most 
striking shrubs. Propagated by seeds in well-drained pots of sandy peat in 
cold frame in March ; it is used as a stock. 

Floxvers cream-white, often flushed with pink, in a drooping terminal 
panicle, glabrous, lax ; pedicels short, bracts deciduous ; Ca/i/<v inferior, sepals 
5, small ; Coro/la 5-fid, ovately campanulate, hypogynous ; Stamens 10, 
hypogynous, filaments short, villous at base, anthers with 2 pores at tip, awned ; 
Ovary superior, 5-celled, style simple, stigma obtuse, viscid ; fertilised by 
bees ; F)'uit a berry, globular, granulated, 5-celled, and many-seeded, 
resembling a strawberry, but ratlier dry, friable and flavoui'less, red, takes about 
14 months to reach maturity, edible, H in. diam. ; seeds angled, testa coriaceous. 

Leaves alternate, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, shortly petiolate, acute, bluntly 
serrated, glabrous on upper side, 2-3 ins. long ; coriaceous, dark glossy green, 
petioles glandular ; dying leaves reddish. 

An evergreen shrub, 10-15 ft., or small tree; branchlets clothed w^ith 
glandular hairs ; Bark rough, twisted, scaly, tinged with red ; 2\dgs red. 

Indigenous in S.W. Ireland, there a tree of 40 ft. Generic name possibly 

from li. arbor, a tree. Specific name a contraction of unum edo ; u/ium, 

one, edo, I eat, i.e. one is sufficient at a time. 

I^eaves sometimes attacked by Arbutus Purple Spot (Sepforia U/iedonis). 

70 




BILBERRY, on WHORTLEBERRY (VarriHmm Mijrtillus) 

A. Flowering branch. B. Leaf. C Pistil and calyx. D. Corolla, 
E. Flower after removal of corolla (sliowiiig stamens with appendages). 



Platb XXXIX. 



ERICACEi^ 



BLACK BEARBERRY, Arctosiap/n/hs alpina. 

Dry barren Scotch mountains, rockeries. May — August. The species 
are propagated by seeds and layers. 

Flowers white or flesh-coloured, resembling Arbutus, in a small terminal 
reflexed raceme, 2-3-flowered, appearing with the young leaves ; pedicels short, 
rather hairy ; bracts ciliated ; Cali/d' gamosepalous, inferior, 5 minute sepals ; 
Corolla gamopetalous, hypogynous, -t-5-lobed, J in. diam., pubescent within ; 
Stamens 10, hypogynous, filaments subulate, anthers brown, awns very short ; 
Ovarii superior, 5-10-celled ; disk of 3 fleshy scales; Fruit a berry (drupe), 
\ in. diam., black, 5-10 stones ; berries eaten by Grouse ; ripe in September. 

Leaves alternate, obovate, or spathulate, shortly petiolate, exstipulate, 
narrowed towards base, wrinkled and coarsely serrated above middle, ciliated, 
acute, thin, prominently veined, |-1 J in. long. Autumn tint fiery red, 

A deciduous shrub, 3-4 ins. ; procumbent ; J3ra?iches short, stout, inter- 
laced ; Bai-k scaly. 

Native of central and northern mountains of Scotland. Badge of the Clan 
Ross. Synonymous with Arbutus alpina. Generic name from Gr. arktos, 
a bear, and stajjliyle, a grape, the fruit of some species being eaten by bears. 



POINTED-LEAVED BEARBERRY, Arctostaph/hs pungens. 

Rockeries. February. 

Floivers white, tinged with rose, in a drooping raceme of 8-10 flowers ; 
pedicels short ; Fruit a drupe, smooth, glabrous. 

Leaves alternate, ovate-oblong, entire, acute, mucronate, coriaceous, downy 
when young both surfaces, glabrous later, greyish, rather pungent, 1-1 i in. 
long. 

An evergreen slinih, 1 ft. ; much branched, erect ; BraiicJilcts angular, 
downy. 

Introduced from Mexico, 1839. 

77 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

COMMON BEARBERRY, Arctostaphi/Ios- Uva-nrsi. 

Dry, heathy, locky hills, or mountains ; rockeries. Best in sandy peat. 
April — June. 

Floxvers pink, or flesh-coloured with red mouth, in a very short, few- 
flowered, crowded, terminal raceme; Sepals short and broad; Corolla urceolate, 
I in. diam., teeth 4-5, hairy within; Staineiis 10, anthers with long awns; 
Ovary superior ; Fruit a drupe, globular, smooth, shining, insipid, pulpy, mealy, 
red, \ in. diam. ; ripe in September. 

Leaves alternate. Box-like, obovate, spathulate, or oblong, entire, ciliate, 
obtuse, coriaceous, glossy deep green, reticulately nerved both surfaces, J-1 in. 
long, petiole and margin finely woolly. Autumn tints bright red to purplish- 
brown. 

An evergreen shrub, 4-0 ins. ; procumbent ; Branches scandent. 

Native of N. England, Scotland, and Ireland ; leaves and branches used for 
dye. Syn. Arbutus Uva-ursi. Specific name from L. uva, a bunch or 
cluster of grapes, and ursa, a bear. Known as Red Bearberry. 

SHOWY ZENOBIA, Zeiwbia spedosa. 

Gardens. June, July. Thrives in peaty soil, and warm but open situation, 
liking plentj^ of moisture at the roots. Propagate by layers September or 
October. 

Floiccrs white, waxy in texture, resembling Lily of the ^'^alley, in an umbellate 
axi/larij cluster; pedicels drooping; Cali/.v gamosepalous, 5-lobed, lobes short, 
triangular; Corolla gamopetalous, campanulate, 5-lobed, I in. diam.; Stamen) 
10, anthers with awns; Ovarij 5-celled ; Fruit a capsule, depressed-globose, 
obtusely 5-lobed, 5-celled. 

Leaves alternate, oval or oblong, crenulated or slightly serrulated, coriaceous, 
silvery, glabrous, 1-2 ins. long. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, 3-4 ft. ; glabrous, often glaucous. 

Introduced from Southern U.S.A., 1800. Syn. A/idromeda spcciosa Also 

called Silvery Andromeda. 

78 



s 



ERICACEi^: 



MARSH ROSEMARY, Andromeda poUfoUa. 

Peaty bogs, gardens. May — August. Requires peaty soil. It is a lovely 
dwarf rock plant, best in the South of England, where it flowers as early 
as April. Propagated by layers of shoots pegged down till rooted, detached 
after 12-18 months; seeds in peaty soil in autumn or spring. 

Floxvers pink, drooping, in a short terminal raceme or cluster, pedicels 
^-1 in., slender, red; Calyx small, deeply 5-lobed, obtuse ; Corolla hypogynous, 
ovoid, \ in. long, 5-lobed, reflexed ; Stamens 10, hypogynous, included, 
filaments bearded, awned ; Ovary 5-celied, superior, stigma simple ; Fruit a 
capsule, erect, 5-lobed, 5-celled, 5-valved, sub-globose. 

Leaves alternate, oblong-lanceolate, acute, revolute, coriaceous, dark glossy 
green above, glaucous beneath, |^-1| in. long, petiole short. 

An evergreen s/niib, G-18 ins.; glabrous; Stem ascending, rooting at base; 
Branches sub-erect, twiggy ; Bark smooth, brown ; Buds scaly. 

Native of Britain. Known also as Moorwort. Generic name is mythical, 
referring to Andromeda, the daughter of an Ethiopian king, rescued from 
a sea-monster by Perseus, who married her. Syn. Andromeda rosmarinifoUa. 



AMERICAN ANDROMEDA, Pieris floribunda. 

Gardens. April — June. Tiiis handsome evergreen spring-flowering shrub 
is best in a ftiirly rich loam or moist peat, and sheltered from cutting winds. 
Tt may be propagated by seed, layers, or cuttings, but the last two methods 
are slow, layers usually requiring 12 months before transjilanting. 

Floivers pure white, resembling Lily of tlie ^^alley, formed in autumn, 
expanding in April, in an axillary and terminal panicle of dense secund racemes ; 
Corolla urceolate, 5-angled ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, or oblong-lanceolate, acute, finely serrulated, 

adpressedly ciliated, glabrous, coriaceous, deep glossy green, 1^-2 ins. long. 

79 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

An evergreen shruh, 2-6 ft. ; much branched. 

Native of N. America; introduced by Lyon, 1811. Known also as Lily of 
the Valley Tree. Syns. Andromeda floribiinda and Zenobia flor'ibunda. 

JAPAN ANDROMEDA, Pieris japonica. 

Gardens, ^Larch — June. Thrives in sandy peat. During the growing 
season this ornamental evergreen is made especially attractive by the beautiful 
crimson tint of its shoots, bark, and leaves. Cuttings of young shoots strike 
readily. 

Floivcrs waxy-white, in a pendulous pcmicle of dense racevies, shortly 
pedicellate, bracteate and bracteolate ; Calyx 5-fid, persistent, segments ovate 
acute ; Corolla urceolate, 5-toothed, lobes recurved ; Stamens 10, included ; 
F7-uit a capsule. 

Leaves alternate, lanceolate, narrowed at base, serrated, rather thick, 
dark green, 2 ins. long. 

An evergreen shrub, 3-10 ft. ; much branched ; glabrous ; growth slow. 

Native of Japan (tree 30 ft.); introduced 1882. Syn. Andromeda japonica ; 
described under this name by Thunberg in 1784. 

LING, CaUitna vnlgayis. 

Heaths, moors, gardens, July — September. Thrives in peaty soil. It 
may be propagated by division in October or April. Cut out straggling 
shoots after flowering. 

Floicers rose or white, small, numerous, slightly proterandrous, in a 

terminal and lateral leafy raceme ; pedicels short, drooping ; 2 pairs of opposite 

bracts, outer foliaceous, inner scarious ; CaJijX 4-partite, rosy, longer than 

corolla, embracing it, scarious, lobes obtuse; Corolla bell-shaped, deeply 

4-cleft, hypogynous, persistent, enclosing capsule, lobes triangular ; Stamens 8, 

inserted on disk, anthers short, dorsal, awned ; Ovarij 4-celled, superior, 

pubescent, style exserted, stigma dilated ; Fr}iit a capsule, 4-celled, 4-valved ; 

seeds 1-2 in each cell. 

80 




B CD 

LING OR HEATHER {Calluna ru!gans) 



E 



A. Flowering branch. B Flower, enlarged. C. The same, from below. /;. Section ot flower, showing 
two of the stamens in position. £. A stamen. 



Plate XL. 



ERICACEi^ 

Leaves opposite, decussate, small, sessile, slightly auricled or spurred 
at base, linear or linear-lanceolate, obtuse, revolute, convex above, slightly 
grooved beneath, shining green or glabrous, or sometimes pubescent or hoary. 

An evergreen shrub, 1-3 ft. ; lira/ic/ies elongate, red-brown. 

Native of Britain. Generic name from Gr. kallino, the twigs being used 
for sweeping. 

WINTER HEATH, Erhu camea. 

Gardens. January — April. This compact little shrub is one of the brightest 
ornaments of rockeries and gardens in winter and early spring. It is best 
in peat, but will grow in sandy loam. The hardy species of Erica are 
propagated by cuttings in sandy peat imder bell-glass or handlight outdoors 
in September or October ; layering shoots September — November ; division 
in October. 

Floivers pale pink or reddish, axillary, drooping, forming leafy secund 
racemes either terminal or below the ends of the branches ; Sepals 4, linear- 
lanceolate, red, glandularly hairy ; Corolla 4-lobed, narrow-ovoid, \ in. long, 
persistent, lobes broad ; Stamens 8, anthers slightly protruding, oblong, 
inserted by their lower ends on flattened filaments, 2-fid at top, without 
appendages ; Ovarij superior, 4-celled, style long ; Fruit a capsule, 4-celled, 
many-seeded. 

Leaves 3-4 in a whorl, linear, obtuse, revolute to midrib, glabrous. 

An evergreen shrub, G ins. ; Stem erect, glabrous or glandularly-hairy. 

A native of Europe ; introduced 1763. Also known as Alpine Forest Heath. 
Syn. K. herbacca. 

CILIATE HEATH, Erica ciliaris. 

Sandy heaths, gardens. This has the largest blossoms of all our native 

heaths. It will thrive in a loamy soil as well as in peat. June — September. 

Floxvcrs rose, dying off a russet-brown, in a terminal unilateral racevie ; 

pedicels short; Sepals small, ciliatc, pubescent; Corolla ovoid, nearly \ in. 

«1 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

long, oblique at mouth, 4-lobed ; Stamens included, anthers awnless ; Ovary 
globose, style exserted ; Fruit a 4-valved capsule. 

Leaves 3-4 in a whorl, ovate, sub-sessile, ciliate, recurved, pubescent 
above, glaucous beneath. 

An evergreen shruh, 12-18 ins.; Stem slender; branchlets many, erect, 
pubescent. 

Native of S.W. England (Cornwall and Dorset) and parts of Ireland. 
Called Dorset Heath and Fringed Heath. 

FINE-LEAVED HEATH, Erka dnerea. 

Heaths, commons, gardens. July — September. When planted in masses 
it makes an attractive shrub in early autumn. 

Floxvers reddish-purple, fading to bluish-lilac, drooping, in a dense 
elongated or oblong terminal whorled raceme ; pedicels short, puberulous ; 
bracteoles under calyx ; Cahjd' deeply 4-partite, segments linear-lanceolate ; 
Corolla ovate-urceolate, slightly 4-lobed, straight at mouth, ^ in. long, per- 
sistent ; Stamens 8, hypogynous, enclosed in corolla, anthers small, toothed 
appendages ; Ovanj superior, 4-celled, glabrous, style long, exserted, stigma 
capitate ; Fruit a 4-celled capsule. 

Leaves crowded in whorls of 3, minute, ^-.^5 ins. long, linear, acute, minutely 
serrated, margins revolute, cartilaginous, whitish, dark shining green above, 
glabrous and furrowed beneath. 

An evergreen shrub, 1-2 ft. ; much branched ; Branches slender, red- 
brown, pubescent ; shoots glabrous. 

Native of Britain. Known also as Scotch Heather, Bell Heath, and Grey 
Heath. 

MEDITERRANEAN HEATH, Erica mcditerranm. 

Boggy heaths of Mayo and Galway ; cultivated in English gardens. 

March — May. 

Flowers pink, axillary, in dense secund, nodding racemes, pedicels solitary 

82 



ERICACEAE 

or in pairs, short, 2-bracteolate in the middle ; Sepals ovate-lanceolate ; Corolla 
cylindric-campanulate, J in. long, lobes broad ; Stamem 8, anthers dark, 
half-exserted, 2-fid at tip, awnless ; Ovary superior, 4-celled ; Fruit a capsule, 
4-eelled, 4-valved, many-seeded. 

Leaves 3-5 in a whorl, crowded, linear, margins revolute to midrib and 
connate to the under-surface, shortly petiolate, glabrous, \-l in. long. 

An eveigreen shrub, 2-G ft. ; bushy, glabrous. 

Native of AYestern Europe. Considered by some as a variety of K. carnea. 
Syn. E. hibcrnica. 

CORSICAN HEATH, Erka strk-ta. 

Gardens. A wiry-looking shrub of compact habit. August — November. 
Flowers purple-red, in a terminal umbellate cluster ; Corolla urceolate, 
^ in. long, segments reflexed ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves 4 in a whorl, linear, obtuse, glabrous, warm green, ] in. long. 

An evergreen s/irub, 8-6 ft. 

Native of S. Europe (Corsica) ; introduced 1765. 

CROSS-LEAVED HEATH, Erica Tctrali.v. 

Heaths, gardens. This likes an open situation, and will thrive in moist 
or boggy places. -luly — September. 

Flowers rose-red, in a terminal sub-umbellate cluster, flowers drooping ; 
pedicels short ; Sepals oblong-lanceolate, downy ; Corolla ovoid-globose, I in. 
long; Anthers included, awns long, sul)ulate ; Ovary pubescent, glandular 
hairs ; Fruit a 4-valved capsule. 

Leaves cruciate, 4 in a whorl, acicular or linear-oblong, revolute to mid- 
rib, ciliatc, stiff glandular hairs, downy, dark green above, blue glaucous 
beneath. 

^\.n evergreen shrub, 12-18 ins.; Stems wiry; Branches rarely glabrous; 

shoots dow^ny. 

Native of Britain. 

83 



TREES AND SHRUBS 



CORNISH HEATH, Erka vagans. 

Heatlis, gardens. This makes a vigorous bush, and thrives in ahiiost 
any soil. July — September. 

Flowers pink, in a dense terminal axillary leafy raceme, flowers erect; 
pedicels long, usually twin, slender, bracteolate ; Sepals ovate, ciliate, obtuse; 
Corolla campanulate, ^ in. long, lobes short ; Anthers exserted, filaments 
slender, awnless ; Ovary globose, style exserted, stigma capitate; Fruit a 
capsule. 

Leaves 3-5 in a whorl, hnear, recurved, revolute to midrib, obtuse, 
glabrous, \ in. long. 

An evergreen shrub, 1-3 ft. ; Stem stout, woody ; Branches stiff', erect, 
fascicled, densely leafy. 

Indigenous in Cornwall and parts of Ireland. 



CREEPING AZALEA, Loiseleurea procumbcns. 

Scotch mountains ; rock gardens. May — August. Being a natural bog plant, 
it does best in deep sandy peat. It may be propagated by layering shoots, 
September — November; or slowly by seed. 

Flozvers rose-pink, proterogynous, in a siib-corijmbose terminal cluster of 
2-3 flowers ; peduncle red, ebracteolate ; Sepals 5, ovate-lanceolate, red ; 
Corolla campanulate. 5-lobed, hypogynous, obtuse, deciduous ; Stamens 5, 
hypogynous, slightly adnate to corolla ; Ovarij superior, 2-3-celled, sub- 
globose, style short, stigma capitate ; Fruit a capsule, minute, 2-3-celled, 
2-3-valved, valves 2-fid ; seeds several, ovoid, pitted. 

Leaves opposite, crowded, petiolate, ovate to linear-oblong, entire, 
revolute, coriaceous, thick, obtuse, convex and grooved, midrib prominent, 
glabrous, shining deep green above, and channelled, pubescent beneath. 

An evergreen Alpine sub-shrub, 2-3 ins. ; Stem glabrous, woody ; Branches 

spreading, procumbent, red-brown ; Buds scaly. 

84 




rOXTIC RHODODENDRON {Rhododendron ponticum) 

A. Flowering branch. B. Longitudinal section of frnit. C. Flower, with petals removed. 
1). Fruit. E. Transverse section of fruit. 



Plate XLI. 



ERICACE^ 

Indigenous in Scotch Highlands. Known also as Alpine A/alea. Generic 
name after Ijoiseleur Deslongchamps, a French botanist. Syn. Azalea 
procumbens. 



SCOTTISH MENZIESIA, RnjantJms taxifhKus. 

Mountainous heaths in Scotland ; gardens. May — July. Propagated 
by layers in autumn. 

Floxvers lilac, drooping, in terminal umbellate eorymbs of 3-4 flowers, 
pedicels ^-1|^ in. long, bracteate and bibracteolate ; Sepals 5, ovate-lanceolate, 
glandular-pubescent ; Corolla .'; in. long, ovoid, urceolate, deciduous, 5-cleft, 
lobes short; St am ens 10, hypogynous, filaments slender, anthers purple, 
truncate, open by pores, awnlcss ; Ovarij .5-celled, glandular, pubescent, 
style slender, stigma capitate ; Fruit a capsule, erect, 5-celled, 5-valved, 
many-seeded, seeds shining. 

Leaves alternate, crowded, spreading, linear-obtuse, glandularly serrate, 
rigid, coriaceous, glabrous, margins reflexed to midrib, glossy green both 
surfaces, \-lj in. long ; petioles short. 

An evergreen shrub, 5-10 ins. ; much branched ; Braiiehes tubercled ; 
Buch scaly. 

Native of Scotland ; found in Perthshire. Known also as Blue Menziesia. 
Syns. Andromeda eccrulea, A. taxi folia, Menziesia ca?rulca, Plnjllodoee taxifolia, 
P. c(crulea. 



ST. DABEOC'S HEATH, Daboeeia polifolia. 

Moist heaths in Ireland ; gardens in England. May — September. Needs 
peaty soil. Cut away old flowering stems in early winter. 

Floivers crimson, purple, or white, in a lax, terminal, drooping raceme 
of 5-10 flowers ; pedicels short, stout, curved ; bracts leafy ; Cahjx 4-partite, 
lobes ovate-lanceolate, ciliate ; Corolla urceolate, ventricose, deciduous, shortly 
4.-clcft, lobes broad, slit, reflexed, 5 in. long; Stamens 8, included, anthers 

VOL. II. 85 H 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

purple, awnless ; Ovary superior, 4-celled, villous and glandular, style simple, 
stigma dilated ; Fruit a capsule, 4-celled, 4-valved. 

Leaves alternate, oval, shortly petiolate, ciliutc, revolute, bright glossy 
green above, downy beneath, J-i in. long. 

An evergreen slirub, 1-2 ft.; decumbent; liranchcs erect, slender, glan- 
dularly hairy ; Bark flaking ; Buds scaly. 

Native of Ireland; found in Connemara and Mayo. Syn. A//dro//ieda 
Daboccia. 



SHEEP LAUREL, Kahda angustifoUa. 

Gardens, shrubberies. May — luly. Best in cool damp soil, especially of 
peaty nature. The species are propagated by cuttings of young shoots in 
pots of sandy peat under bell-glass in shady cold frame, April — August ; 
seeds in well-drained shallow pans of sandy peat in cold frame, April or 
October. 

Floxvers purple or rose, in lateral corymbs, usually 3-flowered ; Caly.v 
gamosepalous, 5-partite, persistent; Corolla gamopetalous, saucer-shaped, 
5-lobed, tube short, 10 pouches just below limb; Stamens 5, hypogynous, 
deshiscing by pores; Ovary superior, sub-globose, 5-celled ; style filiform, 
exserted; stigma capitate; Fruit a capsule, depressed-globose, 5-celled, 5-Iobed, 
woody, valves crustaceous ; seeds minute. 

Leaves alternate, mostly in twos or threes, oblong, entire, revolute, obtuse, 
exstipulate, petiolate, light green above, dull, pale or rusty beneath, 12 ins. 
long, coriaceous. 

An evergreen slirub, 1^-8 ft.; Branches often in threes, ascending, terete; 
Bark brown, scaly ; Buds minute. 

Introduced from Canada, 1736. Also known as Lambkill. Generic name 
in honour of Peter Kalm (1715-1709), an eminent botanist of Finland, who 
became Professor at Abo. 



80 



ERICACE^ 



GLAUCOUS AMERICAN LAUREL, Kalmh gJanca. 

Gardens, shrubberies. April, May. 

Flotveis purplish-pink, ^-r. in. diam., in a terminal vntJ)eUatc corymb, 
1-13 flowers, pedicels filiform ; Calijx 5-partite, lobes ovate, scarious-coriaceous, 
much imbricated, persistent ; Corolla 5-lobed, with cavities for anthers ; 
Stamens 10, anthers brown ; Ovarii .5-celled ; Fruit a capsule, .5-valved. 
depressed-globose, glabrous. 

Leaves opposite, or rarely in threes, 1 in. long, oblong or linear-oblong, 
nearly sessile, obtuse or acute, margins entire, strongly revolute, dark green 
above, glaucous white beneath, 1-2 ins. long, ^ in. wide. 

An evergreen shrub, 1-3 ft. ; Stem straggling ; Bra?ic/ies opposite, or Avhorls 
of three ; Bark greenish-brown, smooth. 

Introduced from N. America, 1767. 



CALICO BUSH, Kalmia latifoUa. 

Gardens, shrubberies. INIay — July. " Few flowering shrubs can surpass this 
Kalmia for beauty when at the zenith of its loveliness. Each delicately 
fashioned, cupped blossom, of which Ruskin wrote so appreciatively, is 
a marvel of perfect form, and the large clusters, ranging in colour from 
white to soft pink, almost hide the shining, lance-shaped leafage in their 
profusion." — llie Garden, liest in sandy peat, or light, friable loam and 
leaf soil. 

Floivers white, tinted with pink, nearly 1 in. diam., in a many-flowered 
compoiuid terminal corymb; pedicels red or green, covered Avith dark sciu-fy 
scales ; glandularly hirsute ; bracts persistent, acute ; 2 minute bracteoles ; 
Calyx 5-partite, rose-coloured, segments linear, acute, viscid-pubescent ; 
Corolla sub-hypocrateriform, 5-lobed, each lobe with 2 small pockets for 
anthers, viscid-pubescent ; Stamens 10, epipetalous, filaments white, anthers 
rose, pores at apex, immature anthers held down in pockets ; Ovary 5-celled 



S7 H 2 






^ '^f^ * 






TREES AND SHRUBS 

superior, style long, stigma rose ; Fniit a 5-valved capsule, crowned with 
persistent style, depressed-globose, glandular. 

Leaves in twos or threes, oblong or elliptical-lanceolate, acute or obtuse, 
narrowed at base, entire, thick, coriaceous, rigid, bright green, glandular white 
tomentose when young, 3-4 ins. long, 1-1^ in. wide, petioles stout, red. 

An evergreen sliruh, 3-10 ft. ; forming large, round-headed bush, resembling 
Rhododendron; Branches stiiF; Twigs terete; lia?-k brown, tinged red, scaly; 
Suds ovate, acute, glandular. 

Introduced from N. America, 1734 ; there forms tree 30-40 ft. high, 
trunk 18-20 ins. diam. Known also as Spoonwood and Mountain Laurel; 
called by Indians " Clamoun." 



LABRADOR TEA, Ledum laiifolium. 

Gardens, shrubberies. April — June. Best in peaty soils, cool and moist. 
Propagated by layers in September ; division of roots, September or October ; 
seeds in well-drained pans of sandy peat in cold frame in March. 

JFlotcers white, |^-f in. diam., in a many-flowered terminal uinhcUatc cluster ; 
pedicels bracteate at base, tomentose ; Calyx 5-fid ; Petals 5, obovate, obtuse, 
spreading; Stamens 5-7, as long as petals, exserted; Ovary 5 - celled ; Fruit 
a capsule, dry, oblong, 5-celled, 5-valved, opening from base. 

Leaves alternate, linear-oblong, exstipulate, shortly petiolate, entire, revolute, 
coriaceous, upper side with globules of odoriferous gum, under side covered with 
thick brownish or rust-coloured down, slightly fragrant when bruised, pale dull 
green, l-2i ins. long, |-f in. wide. 

An evergreen shrul}, 2-3 ft. ; young stems downy. 

Native of Northern U.S.A. ; introduced 1763. I^eaves used as substitute 
for tea. Generic name from Gr. ledoii, a species of Cistus which produced 
the ledoiion, a resinous substance. Specific name from L. latus, broad, wide, 
and folium, a leaf. Known also as W^ild Rosemary. 



88 



ERICACE^ 

MARSH LEDUM, Ledum palustre. 

Gardens. A compact shrub, succeeding best in cool, damp, peaty soil, but 
will grow in sandy loam with a little leaf-mould. April — June. 

Ftoweis white, tinged with pink, smaller than L. latifol'mm, in a terminal 
7/ ?«/W, pedicels pubescent ; Calij.v teeth ovate, obtuse; Stamens 10, longer than 
corolla ; Fruit a capsule, oblong or oval, scurfy, nodding, 5-celled, 5-valved ; 
seed ripened freely. 

Leaves alternate, linear, distant, exstipulate, petiolate, entire, revolute, 
coriaceous, under side with rusty brown tomentum, ^-1+ in. long, J in. wide. 

An evergreen slinib, 2-3 ft. ; Ticigs rusty tomentose. 

Native of northern part of Eastern hemisphere; introduced 1762. 

FLAME-COLOURED AZALEA, Ehododendron calendulaceum. 

Gardens, shrubberies. May — June. This is perhaps the most beautiful 
of any of the American types of Azalea. The various species of Azalea are 
propagated by cuttings in sandy soil under bell-glass in temperature of G0°-70° 
in March ; by grafting in same temperature in March. 

Lloivcrs yellow, red, orange, or copper-coloured, not clammy, appearing 
before leaves, in a terminal umbel ; pedicels short, pilose or glandular; Calyx 
inferior, gamosepalous, 5-fid ; Coi'olla gamopetalous, 5-lobed, tube shorter than 
segments, hairy ; Stamens 5, long exserted ; Ovary superior, 5-celled ; Fi-uit 
a capsule, linear-oblong, erect, pubescent, t in. long. 

Leaves alternate, oblong, exstipulate, petiolate, entire, pubescent both 
surfaces, at length hairy. 

\ deciduous shrub, 4—8 ft. ; Trv/gs mostly glabrous. 

Native of Alleghany forests ; said to be handsomest shrub in N. America. 

Discovered by Bertram in Georgia in 1774 ; introduced by I. yon in 1806. 

Generic name from Gr. r/iododeudro/i, the Rose Bay or Oleander — 

rhodon, a rose, dendron, a tree, in allusion to rose-red flowers of many 

species. Specific name = Marigold-like, from I^. calendula, the marigold, — 

89 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

L. kaleudw, the first day of each month ; Gr. kalcni, to call, because 
beginning of month was proclaimed ; name of flower {calendula) in allusion 
to almost perpetual flowering. Common name Azalea, from Gr. azaleos, 
dry, — aza, dryness, in allusion to habitat. 



PONTIC AZALEA, RJauhdcndron JJavum. 

Gardens, shrubberies. May. This is the only Azalea indigenous to Europe, 
and is probably the commonest of the recognised species. It is of free growth 
in good light peaty or sandy soil. 

Floivers yellow, fragrant and clammy, proterandrous, in terminal umbellate 
chisfei'ft, pedicels clammy ; Calyx 5-lobed, glandular-viscid ; Corolla infundibuli- 
form, tube long, narrow, hairy outside, viscid ; limb spreading, 5 segments, 
ovate-lanceolate ; Stamens 5, very long exserted, anthers orange ; Fruit a 
capsule. 

Leaves alternate, ovate-oblong, ciliated, shining, pilose, clammy. 

A deciduous shrub, G-10 ft. 

Native of the Caucasus; introduced by J. Bell, 1793. Synonymous with 
Azalea pontica. Honey collected by bees is said to have narcotic properties. 



PINXTER FLOWER, Rhododendron nudiflorum. 

Gardens, shrubberies. April — June. 

Flowers pink, red, or white, appearing before or with tlie leaves, rather 
naked, not clammy, \\-'2 ins. diam., in a terminal nmbel ; Calyx lobes 
short, rather rounded ; Corolla slightly glandular, hirsute, tube scarcely 
longer than lobes ; Stamens nuich exserted ; Fruit a capsule, linear-oblong, 
erect, hairy. 

Leaves alternate, lanceolate-oblong, acute at both ends, nearly smooth 
and green both surfaces, entire, ciliated, midrib bristly above, downy be- 
neath, 2-4 ins. long. 

A deciduous shrub, ft. ; spreading ; Ihiuichlets hairy or glabrous. 

90 



ERICACEiE 

Native of hilly districts of Canada and U.S.A. ; introduced by Collinson, 
1734. Specific name from L. nudus, naked; Jloriim, of floAvers. Also called 
Naked-flowered Azalea. 

JAPANESE AZALEA, Rhododendron sinen.^e. 

Gardens, shrubberies. INIay. This is a general favourite, and of all the 
species of Azalea it is perhaps the most showy to the eye. Its seed is pro- 
duced freely, and is most satisfactory for raising fresh stock, but the process 
is a long one. 

Flowers orange, suffused with red, appearing before or with leaves, almost 
scentless, in a terminal duster, pedicels pilose ; Corolla campanulate, downy ; 
Stamens equal in length to petals ; Frii'it a capsule. 

Lecwes clustered, elliptic, entire, acute, ciliated, pinnately nerved, pilosely 
pubescent, greyish beneath, slowly deciduous. 

A deciduous sliritb, 4-5 ft. ; fioung branches hairy. 

Native of China and .Tapan ; introduced by Loddiges, 1823, and by 
Fortune, 184.5. Synonymous with Azalea japonica. Better known in gardens 
as Azalea n/oll/s. 

VASEY'S AZALEA, Rhododendron Fasei/i. 

Gardens, shrubberies. April — ^lay. This is one of the prettiest and most 
distinct species, of robust growth, flowering freely even in the young state, 
and well suited for the rock garden. 

Flo-ccrs pale pink, becoming white, in lax uiiibellaie clusters, appearing 
before leaves ; Corolla lA in. diam. ; three upper petals spotted with reddish- 
brown ; Stamens long exserted ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaxx's clustered, oblong-lanceolate, acute, cuneate at base, entire, sparsely 
hairy, thin, li-3 ins. long. 

A deciduous sJirub, 2-3 ft. 

Native of North Carolina, growing 15-18 ft. Discovered by G. R. Vasey 

near Webster, in Jackson County, 1878; introduced 1888. 

01 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

CLAMMY AZALEA, Rhododendron viscosum. 

Gardens, shrubberies. Julj' — August. This is the latest flowering of the 
deciduous Azaleas, one of the hardiest, most floriferous, and easily managed. It 
is best in rather moist peat. 

Floivers white, sometimes pink, fragrant, appearing after leaves, in a 
terminal niiibelhtte cluster; pedicels glandular ; Calyx small; Corolla l|-2 ins. 
long, viscid, tube densely glandular, longer than lobes, limb 1-2 ins. broad, 
2-lipped ; Fruit a capsule, glandular-bristly, h in. long. 

Leaves oblong-ovate, entire, acute, or obtuse, ciliated, glabrous, green 
both surfaces, midrib bristly, 2-4 ins. long. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-4 ft. ; shoots bristly. 

Introduced from N. America by Peter Collinson, 1734. Known in U.S.A. 
as Swamp Honeysuckle. Syn. Azalea xiscosa. 

CALIFORNIAN RHODODENDRON, Rhododendron californicum. 

Gardens, shrubberies. June. Rhododendrons are better for a mulch of 
well-decayed manure in INIay ; even decayed leaves or grass cuttings are 
beneficial if covered with soil. All seed-pods should be removed directly 
the flowers fade. The species are propagated by cuttings of firm shoots, 3 
ins. long, in sandy peat under bell-glass in temperature of 45°-55', ultimately 
raising this to G5° ; layering in September or March ; grafting on common 
species in close frame in JNIarch ; seeds sown on the surface of finely prepared 
sandy peat under bell-glass in cold frame. 

Floivers rose-purple, 2^-3 ins. diam., in a terminal umbel ; Calyx 
gamosepalous, 5-toothed, small, slightly pilose; Corolla broadly campanulate, 
5-lobed, upper petal spotted greenish-yellow, tube very short ; Stamens 10, 
shorter than corolla; Fruit a capsule, woody. 

Leaves alternate, obovate-elliptical, entire, acute, coriaceous, glabrous, 
shortly petiolate, dark-green, paler beneath. 

An evergreen shrub, 6-8 ft. 

Native of California. 

92 



ERICACEiE 



CATAWBAN RHODODENDRON, Rhododendron cataxMense. 

Gardens, shrubberies. INIay— July. This is extremely hardy, and is used 
as a stock. 

Flowers lilac-purple, in a corymbose cluster, pedicels rusty pubescent, be- 
coming glabrous ; Calyx lobes small, triangular-ovate, acute ; Corolla broadly 
campanulate, .5-lobed, U-2 ins. long, 2-2^ ins. broad; Fruit a capsule, linear- 
oblong, rusty pubescent, J in. long. 

Leaves oval or oblong, rounded both ends, entire, mucronate, incurved, 
glabrous, deflexed, pale beneath, 3-5 ins. long, 1^-2 ins. wide. 

An evergreen shriib, 4-12 ft. ; Branches stout. 

Introduced from river Catawba, in mountainous regions of Southern 
United States, 1809. 



ALPINE ROSE, Rhododendron jcrrugineum. 

Rock gardens. May — July. This does best in light sandy peat or 
leaf-mould. 

Flowers rose or scarlet, small, less than 1 in. diam., in a terminal umbel ; 
Calyx lobes 5, short, obtuse ; Corolla infundibuliform, marked with asli-coloured 
or yellow dots ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves small, oblong, attenuated both ends. Box-like, glabrous and 
shining above, ferruginous spots beneath, ciliated and slightly hairy beneath 
when young. 

An evergreen shrub, 1-3 ft. ; compact, forming a low spreading 
bush. 

Native of European Alps; introduced 1752. Leaves subject to Rhododendron 
Galls, caused by a fungus {Exobasidium Rhododendri). 



93 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

FORTUNE'S RHODODENDRON, Rhododendron Fortunei. 

Gardens, shrubberies. May. 

Floivers pale rose, fragrant, 3-5i ins. diam., in a loose, pendulous duster' 
of 8-10 flowers ; Calyx discoid, small ; Corolla shortly canipanulate, lobes 
7, rounded ; Stamens 14 ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leavca oblong or linear-oblong, entire, acute, rounded or cordate at 
base, bright green above, glaucous below, .5-7 ins. long ; petioles red-brown, 
^-1 in. long. 

An evergreen shrub, 10-12 ft. ; Branches very stout, terete. 

Introduced from China, 18.50. 



PONTIC RHODODENDRON, Rhododendron ponticum. 

Woods, gardens, shrubberies. May, June. This is the most largely grown 
and most popular of Rhododendrons. It is the hardiest and least exacting of 
the large-flowered species, and is used as a stock for the less hardy. 

Flowers purple, proterandrous, in a sliort terminal corymb ; Calyx lobes 5, 
sub-acute, very short; Corolla campanulate-rotate, 2 ins. diam., 5 lobed, lobes 
lanceolate and acute or obtuse, upper lobe often spotted ; Stamens 10, filamentous, 
pink, anthers red ; Ovary cylindroid, 5-celIed ; style filamentous, red ; stigma 
capitate, pink ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves clustered, oblong-lanceolate, acute or obtuse, entire, attenuated both 
ends, glabrous, pale or slightly ferruginous beneath, coriaceous ; petiole short, 
thick ; dying leaves yellow. 

An evergreen shrub, 6-20 ft. ; spreading ; Shoots rigid, brittle ; Buds 
ovoid-conic, pointed, viscid, ferruginous ; scales spirally imbricate, triangular- 
ovate, acuminate. 

Native of Spain, Portugal, and Asia Minor; introduced 1703. Known as 
Rose Bay. 



94 



ERICACEi^ 

Rhododendron, raccmosum . 

Rock gardens. April, May. A species of dwarf and compact habit, 
flowering when only a few inches high ; very suitable for rockwork or the Alpine 
garden. 

Flowers pinkish-white, edged with deeper pink, 1 in. diani., slightly fragrant, 
in axillary and terminal clusters ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves alternate, small, oval, entire, acute, or obtuse, coriaceous, bright green, 
tomentose beneath, 1 in. long. 

An evergreen shrub, 1-2 ft. ; Stems erect, brown. 

Native of Western China ; introduced by Messrs. \'eitch, 1880 ; first 
exhibited, 1892. 



Hhododendron iju/inanense. 

Gardens, shrubberies. INIay. This makes a freely-branched, yet some- 
what loose-growing bush. 

Floive7's white or pale lilac, in a loose cluster of 4-G ; pedicels 1 in. long ; 
Calyx small, lobes almost obsolete ; Corolla spreading, 2 ins. diam. ; lobes deep, 
upper petal with blood-red spots ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves lanceolate, dark glossy green, hairy above, glaucous beneath, 
glandularly dotted, 1^-4 ins. long, 2-2| ins. wide. 

An evergreen shrub, 2^-4 ft. ; erect, shoots slender. 

Native of China. Discovered by the Abbe Delavay at Houanglipin in 
Yunnan; introduced 1894; first flowered at Kew, 1897. 



GLOBE-FLOWERED MENZIESIA, Mcndesia globularis. 

Gardens. May, June. Moist peaty soil. Propagate by cuttings in sandy 

soil under bell-glass in summer ; layers in autumn ; division of plants in autumn. 

Flowers pink, solitary, axillary, pendulous ; Corolla globose, lobes rounded ; 

F7'uit a capsule. 

95 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Leaves fascicled at ends of branches, ovate, pale beneath. 
An evergreen slinib, 3-5 ft. 

Introduced from N. America, 180G. Named after Archibald INIenzies (1754- 
1842), surgeon and naturalist to the expedition under Vancouver. 



WHITE ALDER-BUSH, Ckthra acuminata. 

Gardens, shrubberies. July — October. Thrives best in loam and sandy peat, 
and is invaluable for the lake-side. Propagated by cuttings in sandy soil under 
bell-glass in October ; layering in October ; seeds sown outdoors in March, or 
in boxes of light soil in temperature of 55° in February. 

Floxvers w^hite, fragrant, in a terminal, drooping raceme, 2 8 ins. long, almost 
solitary, bracts longer than flowers, tomentose, caducous ; Calijx 5-fid ; Corolla 
gamopetalous, 5-lobed, so deeply cut as to appear like 5 separate petals ; 
Stamens 10, filaments hirsute; Ovarij superior, 3-celled, style long; Fruit a 
capsule, 3-celled, 3-valved. 

Leaves alternate, oval or oblong, acuminate, bluntish at base, serrated, thin, 
glabrous both surfaces, glaucous beneath, 5-7 ins. long, 3-31 ins. wide. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, 12-15 ft. 

Native of Eastern U.S.A. ; introduced by Lyon, 180G. 'J'he common name 
is that used in America. 



SWEET PEPPER-BUSH, Clethra alnifolia. 

Gardens, shrubberies. July — September. A rather stiff-growing shrub, with 
leaves resembling our Common Alder, and thriving in damp swampy ground. 

Floxvers white, fragrant, in a terminal erect raceme ; bracts shorter than 
flowers, tomentose, deciduous ; Calij:v deeply 5-fid, hoary, lobes oblong, obtuse ; 
Petals 5, ovate; St<uiiens 10, filaments glabrous, antliers appendiculate, de- 
hiscing by pores ; Stijlc longer than Stamens ; Fruit a capsule, sub-globose, 
3-celled, 3-valved. 

Leaves alternate, cuneate-obovate, entire near base, coarsely serrated above, 

96 




1^' 



.Q 

a 



o 






STYRACEi^ 

prominently strai<^ht - veined, glabrous and green both surfaces, 1-3 ins. 
long. 

A deciduous shrub, 3 4 ft. 

Native of Eastern U.S.A. ; introduced 1731. 



Class I. . . . . Dicotyledons 
Division III. . . . Gamopetaloe 
Natukai. Okdkk . . . Styracece 

Trees or shrubs, with alternate, exstipulate leaves ; F'/oive?-s regular, usually 
hermaphrodite ; Cafi/.v gamosepalous, 4 .5 teeth or lobes ; Corolla 4-5 petals ; 
Stamens as many, or twice as many, as corolla lobes, sometimes indefinite and 
polyadelphous ; Ovary superior or inferior ; Fruit baccate or drupaceous, 
1 -seeded. 



SNOWDROP TREE, Haksia tetraptera. 

Gardens. April, May. Best in rich, moist, loamy or peaty soil, and liking 
moisture at the roots. Well adapted for a sheltered lawn. Prune into shape 
in November. Propagated by root-cuttings in sandy soil outdoors in March 
or October ; layering of shoots in October or November. 

Floxvcr.s white, resembling common Snowdrop, 9 or 10 in a lateral fascicle, 
drooping, racemose ; Corolla monopetalous, ventricosely campanulate, deep 
4-lobed border ; Stamens 8 ; Ovary superior, 4-celled ; Fruit a drupe, dry, 
corticate, oblong, 4 winged angles, 1-2 ins. long, cells 1-seeded. 

Leaves alternate, ovate- lanceolate, sharply serrated, acuminate, glabrous, 
2-G ins. long, 1-3 ins. wide, petioles glandular. 

A deciduous tree, 20-30 ft. ; round-headed ; Bark corky, furrowed ; 2\vigs 
brown ; liuds pointed, scales rosy-purple. 

A native of N. Carolina; introduced 1756. Also called Silver- Bell Tree. 
Genus named after Dr. Stephen Hales. Specific name from Gr. tctra, four, and 
pteron, wings, referring to the four-Avingcd fruit. 

VOL. IL 97 I 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

JAPANESE STORAX, Styrax japonicum. 

Gardens. June — August. Best in moist light loam. With its tiny 
Snowdrop-like bells hanging abundantly on slender stalks, this makes one 
of the most beautiful of summer-flowering shrubs, and in autumn, its branches 
laden with clusters of seed-pods present a charming appearance scarcely equalled 
by any other shrub. The species are propagated by cuttings of half-ripe shoots 
in spring ; layering of shoots in autumn. 

Flowers white, Snowdrop-like, '-^ in. diam., depending from the undersides 
of the shoots, in a many-flowered axillary raceme, buds pinkish ; Calyx glabrescent ; 
Corolla 5-6-lobed, pubescent; Statnciis yellow; Fruit a drupe, 1-seeded, rarely 
ripening. 

Leaves alternate, oblong, or ovate, acuminate, acute at base, usually widest 
below middle, serrulated or entire, glabrous and bright green above, paler 
and powdery beneath, 2-3 ins. long. 

A deciduous shrub, 8-12 ft.; or small tree, 20-25 ft.; Branches slender; 
branchlets flattened and spreading. 

Introduced from Japan, 18G8. 

Styrax Ohassia. 

Gardens. June — July. This makes charming masses for beds or borders. 

Floivers white, fragrant, 1-lJ in. diam., in a nodding raceme, G-9 ins, 
long ; Fruit a drupe, ovoid-oblong, size of Hazel-nut. 

Leaves alternate, elliptical to orbicular, cuspidate, denticulate, hoary- 
tomentose beneath, 3-8 ins. by 3-8 ins. Autumn tint yellow blotched with red. 

A deciduous shiiib or small tree, 4-6 ft. 

Introduced from Japan by Maries, 1888. 

MEDICINAL STORAX, Styrax ojficinak. 

Gardens. June — July. Requires rich soil ; best on south wall. 

Flowers white, resembling Orange-blossom, in an axillary raceme, 

3-5-flowered, shorter than leaves ; Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed ; Corolla 

98 



JASMINE.^ 



5-lobed, often 6-7-partite, segments erecto-patent ; Stamens 10 ; Fruit a drupe, 
globose, 1-celIed, generally 3-sided, green, ripe in October. 

Leaves alternate, oval-obovate, entire or serrated, often rounded at apex, 
sub-acute at base, bright shining green above, hoary-tomentose beneath, 1^2 
ins. long. 

A deciduous slniib or small t7-ee, 4-10 ft. ; rooAy very fine. 

Native of Levant; naturalised in S.W. Europe; introduced 1.597. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division III. . . . Gamopetalce 
Natural Order . . . Jasminece 

IMostly twining shrubs, with opposite or alternate, exstipulate leaves, ternate, 
imparipinnate, or simple ; Floxvers regular, often fragrant; Cali/.v 5-8-fid; Corolla 
5-8-lobed, often hypocrateriform or infundibuliform, imbricate in bud ; Stamens 
2, epipetalous ; Ovarij superior, 2-celled ; Fruit baccate or capsular. 

Closely related to, and often included in, the Order Oleaceic, differing 
from them only by the imbricated {estivation of the corolla, and the ovules 
being erect instead of pendulous. 



SHRUBBY JASMINE, Jasminum fruticans. 

Gardens, walls. .Tune — August. Prefers sunny situation, and shelter in 
cold districts. The species are propagated by cuttings in well-drained pots 
of sandy soil in cold frame or in sheltered border September — December ; 
layering of shoots in summer. 

Flowers golden-yellow, in a terminal corymb ; Petals oblong, obtuse ; Fruit 
a berry, blackish-purple. 

Leaves alternate, ternate, leaflets obovate or cuniform, obtuse. 

An evergreen shrub, 10-12 ft.; liranclics angular; Suckers numerous. 

Native of S. Europe; introduced 1.570. 

99 I 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

YELLOW JASMINE, Jasminum vudiftornm. 

Shrubberies, walls. December — March. Prefers sunny situations. During 
the winter months this charming species has its branches wreathed with star-shaped 
golden blossoms. It is not particular as to soil, but likes ample supplies of water 
during summer. Being practically surface rooting, it should not be disturbed by 
digging. It may be pruned moderately after flowering, removing only shoots 
that have flowered. 

Floivers yellow, fragrant, solitary, opposite throughout length of branches ; 
Calyx gamosepalous, G-fid, inferior; Corolla gamopetalous, hypocrateriform, 
1 in. diam., G-lobed, imbricate in bud; Stamens 2, epipetalous ; Ovary superior, 
2-celled ; Fruit a berry, 2-celled. 

Leaves very small, numerous, resembling bi-acts, ternate, leaflets bluntly 
ovate, deep glossy green. 

A sub-evergreen s/iriib with rambling habit ; Stems 10-20 ft. long, slender, 
numerous, flexible, green, small twiggy branches ; growth rapid. 

Native of China; introduced 1844. "Jasminum" is the Arabic name, — 
Persian, "yasmin." Known also as Cliinese W^inter Jasmine. 

WHITE JASMINE, Jasminum officinale. 

Walls, bowers, verandahs. .June — September. Best in a dry soil and sunny 
aspect. It will stand hard pruning. 

Flowers waxy-white, fragrant, in a terminal corymbose cyme at ends of 
young shoots, pedicels longer than calyx ; Calyx gamosepalous, deeply 4-5-fid, 
inferior ; Corolla gamopetalous, 4-5-cleft, hypocrateriform, lobes acuminate ; 
Stamens 2, epipetalous ; Ovary superior, 2-celled ; Fruit a berry. 

Leaves opposite, iniparipinnate, leaflets ;5-9, ovate, entire, acuminate, 
terminal the largest, bright green. 

A sub-evergreen climbing shrub, 20-30 ft. ; Branches flexible, angular, shoots 
slightly pubescent, deep green ; growth rapid. 

Native of S. Asia ; introduced 1548. 

too 




Platk XLIII. 



WHITE JASMINE {Jasminum otHcniah) 



OLEACEi^ 

CURLED-LEAVED JASMINE, Jamiinum revohUnm. 

VV^alls, arbours. May— October. Requires warm, sunny aspect. 

Flowers bright yellow, fragrant, in a compound terminal cort/mbose panicle, 
pedicels longer than calyx ; Caly.v teeth 5, shorter than tube ; CoJ'olla salver-shaped, 
lobes 5, obtuse, ovate, shorter than tube ; Fruit a berry, globose, didymous. 

Leaves- alternate, imparipinnate, leaflets 5-7, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, 
shortly petiolate, coriaceous, glabrous, dark glossy green, i-2 ins. long. 

A sub-evergreen cliiubing shrub, 10-20 ft. ; Branches angled. 

Native of N. India ; introduced 1812. A form of J. humile. 



WALLICH'S JASMINE, Jasminum ■wallichianum. 

Walls, arbours. June— October. Best in sunny situation. 

Floivers bright yellow, smaller than J. revolutiim ; InJJorescence terminal, 
sub-corymbose ; peduncles elongated, one-flowered ; Corolla lobes 5 or G, obtuse ; 
Fruit a berry. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, leaflets 7-9, ovate-lanceolate or oblong- 
acuminate, sessile, pubescent Avhen young, dark green. 

An evergreen climlnng shrub, 10-20 ft. ; dense, softly tomentose. 

Native of N. India ; introduced 1827. Named in honour of Dr. Wallich. A 
form of ./. humile. Synonymous with ./. pubigcriim (L. pubes, eris, downy 
pubescent). 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division III. . . . Gamopetalce 
Natural Oudeu . . . Oleacece 

Shrubs or trees with usually opposite, exstipulate, simple, or pinnate leaves, 

and regular flowers, mostly hermaphrodite, rarely dioecious or polygamous ; 

Calij.v inferior, 4, or many, tootlicd or lobed, sometimes wanting ; Corolla 

101 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

hypogynous, 4-G-partite, or of free petals ; Stamens usually 2, epipetalous or 
hypogynous ; Ovarji superior, 2-eelled ; Fruit 1-2-celled, indehiscent, or a 
capsule, berry, or drupe. 



GOLDEN BELL, Forsijthia siispensa. 

Gardens, shrubberies, walls, fences. March — April. This is one of the 
most charming of early flowering shrubs, its exceedingly graceful and slender 
shoots being wreathed with blossoms, so closely set as to look like a stream 
of gold. It is a delightful plant when trained on a wall, and gives a 
fine effect when planted in a mass in a sunny position where it can ripen 
its young wood. Old wood should be cut out after flowering, and shoots 
cut back where necessary. Propagated by cuttings inserted in sandy soil 
under bell-glass or handlight in autumn ; layering in autumn ; grafting on 
Privet in March or April. 

Flowers yellow, appearing before leaves, solitary, drooping, scattered, in 
axils of previous year's leaves, peduncle slender ; Ca/i/.v 4-partite, segments 
linear-oblong ; Corolla 4-partite, 1 in. long, lobes linear-oblong, orange lines 
at base inside ; Stamens 2, hypogynous ; Ovary superior, 2-celIed, stigma 
lobed. 

Leaves opposite, simple and trifoliate on same branch, central leaflet largest, 
serrate, acute, glabrous. 

A deciduous sbnib, 8-12 ft.; rambling; Branches long, slender, pendulous, 
easily rooting when meeting the ground ; Tivigs brown ; Ends pointed, scales 
brown ; Suckers freely produced. 

Native of China and Japan. Said to have been introduced into Holland 
from China 1833, and to England 1850; also to have been sent home 
from .Japan by Fortune, 1861. Generic name in honour of William Forsyth 
(1737-1804), the King's gardener at Kensington. Syns. F. Fort unci and 
F. Sieholdi. 



102 




LILAC. 
{Syringa vulgaris. ) 



OLEACE^ 

GOLDEN BELL, Forsythia viridissima. 

Gardens, shrubberies. March — April. This is a species of more compact, 
erect, and bushy growth than the former. It likes full sun and air, and does 
well either in masses or on a wall or trellis. 

Flowers greenish-yellow, resembling F. SH.yyensa, appearing before leaves, 
solitary, numerous, peduncles much shorter than flowers, bracteolate. 

Leaves opposite, simple, linear-lanceolate or oblong, entire, acute, dark 
green. 

A deciduous shruh, -1-10 ft.; erect; Branches erect, very green, terete. 

Introduced from China, 1845. Specific name = very green (L. viridis, green). 

HIMALAYAN LILAC, Syringa Emodi 

Gardens. July — August. Its spotted shoots make this a very distinctive 
species of Lilac. It is the last to flower. The various species should be kept 
free from suckers. They may be pruned moderately after flowering, removing 
or shortening only shoots that have flowered. They are propagated by layering 
of shoots in September ; suckers planted October — February ; choice varieties 
by budding on common species in July ; seeds sown in sunny position outdoors 
in spring or autumn. 

Floivers white, small, \ in. diam., very fragrant, in a rather large terminal 
thyi-soid panicle, 3-5 ins. long, pubescent ; Calyx minute, 4-tootlied ; Corolla 
tube I in. long ; Fruit a 2-valved capsule, coriaceous, almost cylindrical, often 
curved, f in. long. 

Leaves opposite, oblong-elliptical, acute, tapering towards base, entire, 
deep green above, glaucous beneath, glabrous, 4 ins. or more in length, 
secondary nerves prominently reticulated beneatli, petioles |-f in. long. 

A deciduous shrub, G-10 ft., or small tree; Shoots bronze-green, spotted 
with white ; liuds acute. 

Introduced from the Himalayas, 1840. Seeds first sent home by Dr. Royle. 
Syn?. S. Bretschneideri and S. villosa. 

^' v^X^. ^ 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

JAPANESE LILAC, Syringa japonka. 

Gardens. July. This is the most robust species, being almost indifferent as 
to soil, but preferring a sunny position. In appearance and scent it somewhat 
resembles the Privet. 

Floivers creamy- white, very small, i-J in. diam., in a large, dense-flowered 
thyrsus, 12 ins. or more long; Coi'oUa tube included in calyx ; Stamens exserted ; 
Fruit a capsule, oblong, obtuse, smooth. 

Leaves broad ovate, with a round or sub-cuneate base, obtuse or acuminate, 
glabrous above, dark green, thick, coriaceous, 5-8 ins. long, 3-3^ ins. wide, 
midrib and veins pubescent beneath. 

A deciduous shrub, 15-25 ft. ; Braiiches slender ; Bark light red, occasionally 
scaly ; Trunk and Branches marked with raised, white, oblong dots (lenticels) ; 
Buds very small. 

Synonymous with Ligustrina amurensis v. Japonica. Native of China, 
Japan, Manchuria ; introduced 1885. 

LILAC, Syiinga vulgaris. 

Gardens. May. " No flowering shrub, eitlier native or foreign, except the 
Rose, has become more closely identified with English gardens and English 
country scenes." — The Garden. 

Flowers lilac or white, very fragrant, in a terminal thyrsoid panicle ; Calyx 
campanulate, irregularly 4-toothed, persistent ; Corolla regular, 4-partite, limb 
slightly concave ; Stamens 2, inserted near apex of tube ; Ovary superior, 2-celled, 
stigma bifid ; Fruit a woody capsule, ovate-oblong, much compressed, 2-valved ; 
seeds about 4, with membranous wing. 

Leaves opposite, ovate or ovate-cordate, petiolate, exstipulate, entire, acute, 
glabrous, thin, paler beneath, 2-4 ins. by 2-3 ins. Autumn tint brown. 

A deciduous shrub, 8-20 ft. or more ; Branches grey to brown ; Tzcigs 

smooth, round, yellowish-grey to olive or brown ; Baric scaly ; Buds ovoid, 

quadrangular, glabrous ; IFood used for small turnery. 

104 




LILAC (Si/rinija vuh/arin) 

vl. Fruit. B. Longiturlinal section of fruit. C. Lonoritudiiial section of flower. i>. Single fruit capsule 
£. Fruit capsule dehiscing. F. Transverse section of fruit. 



Plate XLIV. 



OLEACE^ 

Native of Persia ; introduced from S. Europe, 1597, under name of Pipe-tree 
Name Lilac is Spanish, — Arab. " lilak," a lilac; Persian, — " lilaj, lilanj, lilang " 
= indigo plant. The Arab, "lilak (nilak)" = bluish ; named from bluish tinge of 
flowers (Skeat). 



MANNA ASH, Fraxinus Ornus. 

Gardens, lawns. ISlay, June. The dense waving plumes of greenish-white 
blossoms make this one of the most ornamental and desirable of hardy deciduous 
trees. It is propagated by layering in autumn, and grafting on the common 
species in March. 

Floxvas greenish-white, very sweet-scented, in a dense pendulous paitide of 
axillary clusters, peduncles shorter than leaves ; Calyx gamosepalous, •1-partite, 
inferior ; Corolla i free petals, only slightly united at base, linear, hypogynous ; 
Stamens 2, hypogynous ; Ovarij superior, 2-celled, stigmas 2 ; Fruit a samara, 
brown. 

Leaves opposite, imparipinnate ; leaflets lanceolate or elliptic, attenuated, 
serrate, entire at base, petiolate, villous or downy beneath. Autumn tint 
bronze. 

A deciduous tree, 20-30 ft. ; round-headed ; Branelies when young purplish or 
livid, with yellow dots; growth slow. 

Introduced from S. Europe, 1730. Synonymous with Onnis europcea and 
F. paniculata. 



ASH, Fraxinus excelsior. 

\\^oods, hedges, parks, and gardens. March — INIay. " While the oak has been 

justly called the Hercules of the forest, the Ash has equally merited the title of 

the Sylvan \"enus, from the elegance of its form, the feathery lightness of its 

foliage, and the graceful waving of its branches — qualities especially to be 

appreciated when it is grouped with other trees of more massive character, or, as 

we have frequently seen and admired it, growing, as it loves to do, l)y brook or 

105 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

river side." It prefers cool and damp situations. Propagated by seed, which 
should be mixed with sand and laid in an open pit till February, being 
occasionally turned over to prevent heating ; sow in sandy soil, and transplant 
after two years ; after another two years permanently plant in mild weather of 
autumn or early spring. 

Floivers greenish-yellow, polygamous or dioecious, proterogynous, without 
perianth, appearing before leaves, in a short, dense, RxWXaxy panicle, arising from 
sides of leaf-buds near tips of young shoots ; Stamens 2, opposite, hypogynous, ! 
purple ; Ova7-y 2-celled, stigmas sub-sessile, bifid, purple ; Fruit a samara (key), 
in drooping bunches, compressed, linear-oblong, winged upwards, slightly notched 
at tip, 1-1| in. long, glossy green streaked with black ; produced after forty 
years ; ripe in October, often persisting through winter. 

Leaves opposite, imparipinnate, 12 ins. long or more, petiolate, exstipulate, 
leaflets 7-13 or more, oblong-lanceolate, serrate, acuminate, almost sessile, 3 
ins. long, thin, glabrous ; petiole and midrib grooved. Autumn tints brown and 
yellow ; leaflets disarticulating as they fall. 

A deciduous tree, 60-80 ft. ; Branches often turning downwards and then 
upwards at extremities ; Tivigs somewhat dichotomous, compressed, usually only 
one shoot in each pair coming to maturity, often the lower one, giving rise to 
pendent boughs ; Buds large, quadrangular, protected by very dark oli\'e-green 
scales, which are modified petioles ; Bark, pale grey, grooved ; JFood hard, light, 
strong ; toughest and most elastic of 13ritish timber ; used for coach and wheel- 
wrights' work, agricultural implements, domestic arts, and turnery ; in young 
state (ground Ash) for walking-sticks, hoops, and hop poles. 

A native of Britain ; lives to about 200 years. Common name from A.S. 
(CSC, the Ash-tree. 

Timber bored by larvae of Goat IMoth {Cossus ligniperda) and Wood Leopard 
JNloth {Zeuzera ccsculi). 

Fungoid Pests: — Ash-leaf Spot {Septoria Frajcini), Heartwood-rot {Polij- 
porics hispidus). 



106 




ASH {Fraxinus excelsior) 

A. Branrli, wiLli fruit at, early sta<;p. B. Flowers at early stage. C. Hermaphrodite flower. D. Flower cluster. 
E. Staininate flower. F. Mature flowers. 6". Fruit (keys). 

Platu XLV. 



OLEACEi^ 

'^ARROW-LEAVED JASMINE BOX, Philhinva angustifoUa. 

Gardens, shrubberies. April — May. Requires shelter in north of England. 
The species of Phillyrgea are propagated by cuttings of firm shoots in sandy 
soil in cold frame in September ; by grafting on the Common Privet in 
March. 

Flowers white, inconspicuous, fragrant, in an axillary clmter ; Calyx inferior, 
!4-lobed ; Corolla 4-lobed, lobes obtuse, imbricate ; Stamens 2 ; Ovary superior, 
2-ceIled ; Fruit a drupe, 1-2 seeds. 

Leaves opposite, linear-lanceolate, entire, glabrous, obsoletely veined, deep 
green, 1^-2 ins. long. 

An evergreen shrub, 8-12 ft. ; Branches with elevated dots (lenticels). 

Native of Italy and Spain ; introduced 1597. Sometimes known as Mock 
Privet. Generic name from Philyra, the old Greek name used by Theophrastus 
for the Privet. 



VILMORIN'S MOCK PRIVET, PhiUyrcea decora. 

Gardens, shrubberies. May, June. This is a beautiful free-growing shrub 
of somewhat spreading habit. The small white flowers usually commence at 
about 6 inches from the end of the shoot, and from that point extend for about 
a foot in dense axillary clusters, forming a perfect wreath of blossom. It is the 
best of the species, well withstanding frost, and does well in smoky districts, but 
will not thrive in cold, heavy soil. It is sometimes grafted on the Privet, but is 
better on its own roots. 

Floivers white, small, fragrant, numerous, in axillary clusters ; Fruit a drupe, 
oblong, reddish-purple to black, | in. long, ripe in September. 

Leaves opposite, resembling Portugal Laurel, ovate, acuminate, entire, slightly 
revolute, stiff, coriaceous, glabrous, dark green, 4-6 ins. long, If in. wide. 

An evergreen shrub, 3-10 ft. ; much-branched. 

Introduced 1885. Discovered by Ralansa in mountain valleys of liazistan. 

Known in gardens as P. vilnioriniana and P. laurifolia, 

107 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

BROAD-LEAVED JASMINE BOX, Phillnrmi latifoUa. 

Gardens, shrubberies. May. A species of somewhat bushy habit, well 
adapted for the seaside garden. 

Floivers white, inconspicuous, mcuvillarij clusters ; Fruit a drupe. 

Leaves opposite, ovate, rounded at base, acute or obtuse, obsoletely serrated, 
glabrous, dark green above, lighter below, veiny, 1 in. long; young leaves 
orbicular, sub-cordate at base ; petioles cano-pubescent. 

An evergreen shrub, 20-30 ft. ; Tivigs pubescent, beset with elevated dots 
(lenticels) ; Buds minute, scales violet. 

Introduced from S. Europe, 1.597. Subject to Phillyra^a I^eaf-spot 
{PhijUosticta Philhjrcca ). 

MOCK PRIVET, Philliiraa media. 

Gardens, shrubberies. May. 

Flowers white, inconspicuous, in axillary clusters; Fruit a drupe. 

Leaves opposite, lanceolate, acuminate, entire, or slightly serrated in 
middle, veiny. 

An evergreen shrub, forming a dense bush, 10-18 ft. high. 

Introduced from S. Europe about 1597. INIost common species in English 
gardens ; several varieties of all three species are grown, often grafted on 
the Privet. I>,eaves subject to Phillyrjea Leaf-spot {Phyllosticta Phillyram) 
and IMiillyra^a Rust {Urcdo Phillyrcea). 

HOLLY-LEAVED OLIVE, Osmanthus Aqioifolium. 

Gardens, shrubberies. August, September. A rich loamy soil and warm 

position is desirable. It is a beautiful, iree-growing shrub, rather like a Holly, 

and often mistaken for such. Propagated by cuttings of firm shoots in sandy 

soil luider handlight outdoors, or in frame in summer ; seeds in sandy peat 

in cold frame in spring or autumn. 

108 



OLEACEiE 

Flowers greenish-white, small, very fragrant, axillary ; Calyx 4-lobed ; 
Corolla 4-lobed, imbricate; Stamens 2 ; Ovary superior; Fruit a drupe. 

Leaves opposite, oval or oblong, prickly -toothed, resembling Holly, 
coriaceous, glabrous, shining deep green, 3-4 ins. long. 

An evergreen shrub, 6 ft. ; Bark of young shoots almost black. 

Native of Japan. Generic name from Gr. osme, perfume, and anthos, a flower. 

WHITE FRINGE TREE, Chlonanthus virginka. 

Gardens, shrubberies. May — July. ^Vill flourish in moist, sandy peat 
or loam, in somewhat shady position. Propagated by grafting on Ash in 
March ; budding on Ash in July ; seeds in sandy soil in cold frame in April. 

Flowers white, fragrant, perfect and andro-dioecious, in a drooping panicle 
of 3-flowered clusters, pubescent, 4-6 ins. long, bracteate and bracteolate ; 
Calyx minute, 4-partite, inferior; Petals 4, long and narrow, fringe-like, 
hypogynous ; Stamem 2-4, inserted on base of corolla, anthers yellow, connective 
green ; Ovary ovate, style short, stigma fleshy, 2-lobed ; Fruit a drupe, purple, 
glaucous, oval or oblong, 1 in. long, flesh thin and dry, stone thick-walled, 
crustaceous, foliaceous bracts 2 ins. long ; ripe in September. 

Leaves opposite, oval, oblong, or obovate-lanceolate, entire, ciliate, acute 
or obtuse, glabrous, petiolate, exstipulate, dark shinmg green above, pubescent 
on veins below, 4-8 ins. long, i-4 ins. wide. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, 10-15 ft. ; Branchlets angled, compressed 
at top ; Bark smooth, light-coloured ; Buds ovate, acute ; scales brown, 
ciliate ; Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, light brown. 

Introduced from N. America, 1796 ; there reaches 30 ft. Generic name 
from Gr. chio7i, snow, and anthos, a flower, referring to snow-white flowers. 

IBOTA PRIVET, Ligustrum Ibota. 

Gardens. August. The Privets are most suitable for growing in town 

gardens, and make good hedges. The deciduous kinds may be pruned in 

autumn, and evergreens in April. Propagate by cuttings of young shoots 
VOL. II. 109 K 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

2-4 ins. long in shady position outdoors or under handlight in summer ; 
cuttings of firm shoots 8-12 ins. long in shady position outdoors, September — 
November; layering of shoots, September or October; seeds (berries) in open 
ground in November, transplanting largest seedlings in following October, 
and remainder next year. 

Flowers white, in a large thyrHoid "panicle ; Calyx 4-toothed ; Corolla salver- 
shaped, 4-lobed ; Stamens 2 ; Ovary superior, 2-celled ; Fruit a berry, round, 
shining, black. 

Leaves ovate or elliptical, rarely lanceolate, obtuse, thick, fleshy, glabrous, 
principal vein hairy beneath. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-8 ft. ; Branches long, slender, arching ; Twigs terete. 

A native of Japan and China; introduced 1861. 



JAPANESE PRIVET, Ligustrum japonicuvi. 

Gardens, shrubberies. June, July. Prefers dry soil and shelter. It 
makes a good hedge. 

Flowers white, slightly fragrant, in a large, lax, thyrsoid panicle; Fruit 
a berry. 

Leaves ovate or oblong-ovate, acuminate, dark glossy green, glabrous, 
coriaceous, 2-3 ins. long, young leaves tinged with purple. 

An evergreen shrub, 5-10 ft. ; or tree, 30 ft. 

Introduced from Japan by Siebold, 1845. 

SHINING PRIVET, Ligustrum luddum. 

Gardens, shrubberies. September — October. The large glossy evergreen 
leaves and Lilac-like panicles of sweet-smelling flowers make this perhaps the 
handsomest and most striking of the Privets. Best in rich soil, well drained, 
near sunny wall. 

Flowers white or cream, fragrant, in a much-spreading terminal thyrsoid 

panicle, 6-8 ins. long and broad ; Fruit a berry. 

110 



OLEACEiE 

Leaves oval, oval-lanceolate, elliptical or nearly rotundate, acute, dark glossy 
green above, paler below, veins prominent, coriaceous, 6 ins. long, 2 ins. 
wide. 

An evergreen shrub, 8-12 ft. ; or a tree, 20 ft. ; erect, twiggy ; Branches 
specked with lenticels. 

Introduced from China by Sir Joseph Banks, 1794. Known as the Woa 
Tree. Specific name, L. luddum = shining. 



OVAL-LEAVED PRIVET, Ligustrim ovalifoUum. 

Gardens, hedges. June, July. A vigorous town shrub of somewhat erect 
and stiff habit, very valuable as a hedge plant. 

JFlowe7's yellow-white, as in L. vidgai-e, in a terminal thyrsoid panicle, 
small, dense, odour heavy, somewhat unpleasant ; Fruit a berry. 

Leaves oval, oval-elliptical, or obovate, shortly petiolate, reticulately veined, 
dark green above, lighter beneath, almost persistent. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, 6-10 ft. 

A native of Japan ; introduced 1877. 

CHINESE PRIVET, Ligustrum sinense. 

Gardens. July, August. Needs a well-drained soil. Thrives best when 
sheltered by other trees. 

Flowers white or cream, small, very abundant, in a feathery panicle, com- 
pressed ; Fruit a berry, black-purple. 

Leaves decussate, ovate-lanceolate, shining above, hairy beneath, light green, 
petioles twisted so as to give the appearance of a distichous arrangement. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, 12 ft. ; or tree, 20 ft. ; Branches arching, smaller 
branchlets frond-like, pubescent. 

Introduced from China by Fortune, 1874'. 

Ill K 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

COMMON PRIVET, Ugustrum vulgare. 

Thickets, hedgerows, gardens. June, July. Best in a moist and strong loamy- 
soil. 

Flowers white, changing to reddish-brown, fragrant, in a panicled, thyrsoid 
cyme, 1-3 ins. long ; Calyx slightly 4-toothed ; Corolla 4-lobed, short tube ; 
Stamens 2, short, within tube ; Ovary superior, 2-celled, ovoid, stigma bifid, 
obtuse; Fruit a berry, purple-black, globular, 2-celled, ^ in. diam., flesh oily; 
seeds ovoid ; ripe in November, persistent through winter. 

Leaves nearly evergreen, opposite, elliptical-lanceolate or oblong, acute, 
entire, glabrous, shortly stalked, 1-2J ins. Autumn tint purplish. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, 6-10 ft. ; Branches slender, wiry ; Tivigs smooth. 

Common in S. England ; especially favours chalk districts and coast cliffs ; 
also indigenous in S. Ireland. 



Class I. . . . . Dicotyledons 
Division III. . . . Gamopetalce 
Natural Ohdek . . Apocynacece 

Trees, shrubs, or rarely herbs, usually with milky juice ; Leaves opposite, 
rarely whorled or alternate, entire, exstipulate ; Calyx 4-5-fid, salver-shaped or 
campanulate ; Corolla hypogynous, 4-.5-lobed, twisted in bud ; Stamens 5, rarely 
4, included within corolla tube, anthers sometimes adhering to the stigma; 
Ovary superior, 2-, or rarely 1 -celled, of 2 carpels, sometimes distinct below, but 
united in the style and stigma ; stigma often swollen above or below, constricted 
in middle ; Fruit of 1 or 2 follicles, or a capsule, berry, or drupe. 

Distinguished from Gentianacese chiefly by the ovary completely divided 
into 2 cells, or more frequently into 2 distinct carpels, with the style, or at least 
the stigma, entire. 



112 




PRIVET {Liijustrum vulrjare) 

A. FloworinfT branch. B. Fruit. C Flower. D. Stamen, opening along sides. 
K. Section of drupe. P, Flower opened to show stamens and pistil. 



Plate XLVI. 



APOCYNACEiE 

GREATER PERIWINKLE, rinca major. 

Woods, shady banks, gardens. April, May. This makes a useful trailer 
for rough banks or stumps. Propagate by division in March or April. 

Floivcrs blue-purple, solitary and axillary, pedicels shorter than leaves ; 
Calyx .5-partite, segments narrow, equalling corolla tube, eiliate on margins, 
glandular at base inside ; Corolla 5-lobed, tube almost campanulate, slightly 
contracted at mouth, hairy inside, limb flat, spreading, lobes broad, almost 
angular ; Stamens 5, epipetalous, enclosed in tube, filaments short, anthers 
inflexed, tipped with membrane, bearded ; Ovary of 2 carpels, distinct at base, 
connate at apex, style 1, stigma oblong; Disk of 2 glands alternating with the 
carpels ; Fruit of 2 follicles, oblong, terete, each of 1 cell, greenish ; seeds several, 
seldom ripened. 

Leaves opposite, broadly ovate, or cordate at base, entire, eiliate, shining 
green. 

An evergreen under-shrub ; Barren shoots long, trailing, not tough ; flowering 
stems nearly erect in flower, afterwards elongating, rooting at tip only ; Root-stock 
creeping. 

A native of Britain. Known also as Rand-plant and Cut-finger. 

LESSER PERIWINKLE, Finca minor. 

Woods, copses, hedge banks, gardens. April, May. 

Flowers blue-purple, solitary and axillary, peduncles short ; Calyx 5-partite, 
segments broad, .\ length of corolla tube, glabrous ; Corolla 5-lobed, tube more 
open than in V. major ; Fruit of 2 follicles, rare. 

Leaves opposite, elliptic-ovate or oblong, narrow, glabrous, 1-1^ in. long, 
petioles short. 

An evergreen nnder-shruh ; Barren shoots trailing, tough, 1-2 ft. long, 
rooting ; flowering stems short, erect, 

A native of Britain. 



118 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division III. . . . Gamopetalce 
Natural Order . . . Loganiacece 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, mostly with a very bitter juice ; Leaves opposite, 
entire, and usually stipulate ; petioles sometimes dilated and connate at base, 
with the stipules reduced to an obsolete border ; Calyx 4— 5-partite, sepals 
sometimes distinct ; Corolla 4-5 or 10-cleft ; Stamens epipetalous, equal in 
number to lobes of corolla, alternate with lobes when 4-5, opposite when 
10 ; Ova?'y superior, usually 2-celled, rarely 3-4-celled ; Fruit drupaceous, 
capsular, or baccate. 

COLVILLE'S BUDDLEIA, Buddleia CohiUei. 

Gardens. June — August. Hardy in West of England. Best against a south- 
west wall, or as a bush in a warm corner in well-drained soil. Sir J. Hooker 
calls this the handsomest of Himalayan shrubs. Prune away dead or straggling 
shoots. Propagated by cuttings of firm shoots with heel in sandy soil in 
cold frame in September ; seeds in light soil in temperature of 60° in March. 

Flowei's rosy-purple or crimson, resembling a small Pentstemon, in a 
thij7'siform panicle, 1-1^ ft. long, drooping pedicels } in. long, bracteoles small, 
setaceous ; Calyx broad-campanulate, \ in. long, lobes hairy ; Corolla in- 
fundibuliform, 4-lobed, 1 in. long, f in. diam., white ring round mouth ; Sta?nens 
4, anthers on short filaments ; Fruit a capsule, 2-valved, lanceolate, tomentose, 
i— I in. long. 

Leaves opposite, elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, serrate, glabrous and dark 
green, stellate-rusty tomentose or nearly glabrous beneath, 5-7 ins. long, 
petiole short. 

A deciduous shrub, or small tree, 10-12 ft. 

Native of Sikkim, there grows to 30 ft. Raised from seed by Messrs. \' eitch 

and Sons ; probably flowered for first time in Europe at Queenstown, Ireland, 

1892; first flowered at Kew, 1900. 

114 



LOGANIACE^ 



ORANGE-BALL TREE, Buddkia globosa. 

Gardens. May, June. Warm soils in S. England, on south or south- 
west walls in colder districts. In the neighbourhood of London it is the 
handsomest and most useful of the Buddleias. It prefers a rich, moist 
soil. 

Flowers orange-yellow, in a terminal, globose, cymose cluste?; 1 in. diara., 
pedunculate ; Calyx equally 4-toothed ; Corolla tubular-campanulate, 4-cleft, 
limb spreading ; F?-uit a capsule. 

Leaves opposite, lanceolate, acuminate, crenate, 6 ins. long, upper side 
dark green and wrinkled, under side pale brown hoary tomentose, reticulately 
veined, petioles short. 

A deciduous sliruh, 10-20 ft.; Branches sub-tetragonal, hoary tomentose; 
growth rapid. 

Native of Chili and Peru ; iTitroduced by Messrs. Lee & Kennedy, 1774. 
Genus named in honour of Rev. Adam Buddie, at one time V^icar of Farnbridge, 
in Essex (died 1715). 



Buddleiu paniculatu. 

Gardens. INIay, June. Thrives in loamy soil. 

Flowers lilac, fragrant, in a dense terminal panicle, flowers nearly sessile, 
bracts lanceolate ; Calyx 4-partite, persistent, tomentose, lobes short, obtuse ; 
Corolla 4-cleft, tube \ in. long, tomentose, imbricate ; Stamens 4, inserted 
on corolla tube, anthers nearly sessile ; Ovary superior, 2-celled, style clavate ; 
Fruit a 2-valved capsule. 

Leaves opposite, very variable, oblong-lanceolate, entire, or hastate and 
deeply sinuate-dentate, greyish-tomentose, petiole sometimes winged. 

A deciduous shrub, G-8 ft. ; Branchlets tomentose ; Bark peeling. 

Native of Afghanistan, Baluchistan, N. India, and China. Discovered by 

Dr. \Vallich in Kumaon ; seeds sent to Great Britain by Major Maddon. 

115 






U-->tttfilU 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division III. . . . GamopetalcB 
Natural Ordek . . Solanacece 

Herbs, erect or climbing shrubs, or rarely trees, with alternate, exstipulate 
leaves, sometimes with a smaller leaf below ; Flotvers regular or slightly 
irregular, hermaphrodite, solitary or in cymes, either axillary or extra-axillary ; 
Calyx usually 5-partite, inferior, persistent ; Corolla usually 5-lobed, regular or 
slightly irregular, hypogynous ; Stamens 5, epipetalous, alternating with corolla 
lobes ; Ovary superior, 2-celled, placentation axile ; Frmt a berry or capsule. 

Distinguished by the regular flowers with epipetalous stamens equal in 
number to the corolla lobes, and the superior many-seeded ovary Avith axil 
placenta?. The epipetalous stamens mark them off from the Ericaceae, the 
axile placentation and leaves without ribs froin the Gentianacea;, the regular 
symmetrical flowers from the Scrophularinea;, and the axile placentation and 
stamens alternating with petals from the Primulaceee. 

TEA TREE, Lycium halimifolium. 

Walls, trellis-work. May — August. " Though not a very showy flowering 
shrub, it is not without value, as there are few others that are so rapid in growth, 
so graceful, and so indifferent to the nature of the soil ; it will, in fact, grow 
anywhere, and there is not a better shrub for clothing an ugly steep bank, where 
little else in the way of shrubs would thrive. It is also a capital shrub for 
covering porches, pergolas, arbours, verandahs, and such like, and in late summer 
and autumn, when every long, drooping branch is thickly hung with small 
orange-scarlet berries, it has an extremely pretty appearance." — JVie Garden. 

Flowers purple or lilac, changing to greenish-yellow at base inside, twin, 
extra-axillary, pedicels long, slender ; Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped ; Corolla infundi- 
buliform, tube as long as limb, \ in. diam., lobes ovate-oblong, hairy at margin, 
honey guides ; Stamens 5, exserted, spreading, filaments long and slender ; 
Ovary superior, '2-celled, style filiform, stigma dilated ; Fruit a berry, orange- 
scarlet, ovoid-oblong, persistent cup-like calyx below, seeds numerous. 

116 



SOLANACEi^ 

Leaves alternate, sub-sessile, lanceolate or elliptical lanceolate, acute, at- 
tenuated both ends, entire, flat, glabrous, 2-4^ ins. long, 1-1 i in. wide. 
Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous climbing shrub, 6-12 ft. ; Branches angular, long, slender, 
arched, sometimes axillary thorns ; 2\mgs grey ; Buds naked. 

Sometimes called Barbary Box Thorn. Generic name from Gr. Lukion, 
name given to the Rhamnus by Dioscorides, as coming from Lycia, in Asia 
Minor. Syns. L. barbarum (Alton), L. europceiim (Gouan). 

CHINESE BOX THORN, Lydum chinense. 

Gardens. May — July. A hardy, straggling climber, good for the wild parts 
of the garden or old walls. Pruning may be done, October — February, remov- 
ing weak shoots, and shortening vigorous ones. Propagated by cuttings of firm 
shoots 6-8 ins. long in shady position, September or October ; layering of shoots, 
September — November; suckers, October — February. 

Flowers purple, sohtary or twin ; Corolla tube short, constricted in middle ; 
Stamens with filaments fringed at base, closing tube ; Fruit a berry, orange- 
scarlet. 

Leaves alternate or in threes, 1 large and 2 much smaller, ovate, acute, 
attenuated at base, entire, glabrous, paler green beneath. 

A deciduous climbing shrub, 6-8 ft. ; Branches pendulous, prostrate, striated, 
grey. 

Native of China. 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division III. . . . GamopetalcB 
Natural Order . . . Scrophularinece 

Herbs, shrubs, or small trees, with various exstipulate leaves, and usually 

irregular flowers ; Calyx 4-5-toothed or lobed, inferior, persistent ; Coi'olla 

usually 4-5-lobed, often bilabiate, sometimes personate, saccate and spurred ; 

Staviens often 4, didynamons, rarely 5, or 2 alternating with corolla lobes, 

117 



TREES AND SHRUBS 



inserted in the corolla tube ; Ova7-y superior, 2-celled, many-seeded ; Fruit a] 
2-celled, usually many-seeded capsule. 

An Order of about 1900 species divided into 12 tribes; distinguished from 
Labiatse by the 2-celled ovary, and from Verbenacge by the ovules being more 
than one in each cell. 

VANILLA TREE, Pauloivnia iinperialis. 

Shrubberies, lawns. June. A fine deciduous tree with the habit of a 
Catalpa. The blossoms are borne only in the warmer counties, being formed 
in autumn, and usually injured by frost. Propagated by cuttings of firm 
young shoots in sandy soil in cold frame in summer ; seeds in sandy loam 
in cold frame in spring or autumn. 

Floiveis pale violet, with dark purple spots inside resembling Gloxinia, 
in a many-flowered terminal pcuiicle ; Calyx 5-lobed ; Corolla l|-2 ins. long, 
tube elongated, limb 5-lobed, irregular, spreading ; Stamens inserted in corolla 
tube ; Ovary superior, 2-celled ; Fruit a capsule, 2-valved, 2-celled, 1 in. long, 
ovoid, acuminate, rarely produced. 

Leaves opposite, ovate-cordate or 3-lobed, entire, wavy with a few acute 
points, villous or pubescent, 6-12 ins. long, petioles downy ; when kept to 
one stem and cut down annually leaves may be formed 2-3 ft. long, and 
broad in proportion. 

A deciduous t7'ee, 30-40 ft. ; round-headed ; Bra?iches few, horizontal, 
tortuous, velvety, lenticels conspicuous ; Bark on old stems rough. 

Introduced from Japan, 1840. Named in honour of Anna Paulowna, 
Princess of the Netherlands, daughter of Paul I., Emperor of Russia. 

BOX-LEAVED SPEEDWELL, Veronica huxifoUa. 

Gardens. June, July. Requires partial shade. The New Zealand Speed- 
wells form a large group of very attractive evergreen shrubs. The hardy 
species are suitable for sunny rockeries or borders and beds near the sea coast, 

and in somewhat sheltered positions inland. They are easily propagated by 

118 



ci 



SCROPHULARINE^ 

cuttings in sandy soil under bell-glass in spring, or under handlight or in cold 
frame in summer. 

Floivers white, slightly odorous, in short, dense ixicemes, sub-capitate at 
ends of branches, puberulous or glabrous, pedicels short, bracts nearly equal 
to sepals ; Calyx 4-5-cleft ; Corolla 4- 5-lobed, tube short, limb \-\ in. diam. ; 
Stamens 2, exserted ; Ovary superior, 2-celled ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves Box-like, oblong-obovate, obtuse at apex, cordate at base, entire, 
thick, coriaceous, concave, midrib prominent beneath, \-\ in. long, \-\ in. 
wide, vivid green ; petiole short, thick. 

An evergreen shrub, 2-3 ft. ; stout, glabrous, erect. 

Native of New Zealand. 

Veronica cupressoides. 

Gardens. July. Best in a shady, peaty spot, or on rockwork. It is 
fairly hardy, and easily propagated by cuttings. 

Flowers violet, 3-4 at extremities of branchlets, bracts larger than sepals ; 
Sepals oblong, obtuse ; Corolla ^V in- diam. ; Stamens 2 ; Ovary 2-celled ; Fruit 
a capsule. 

Leaves in opposite pairs, ovate-oblong, obtuse, scale-like, adpressed to 
branches, glabrous, fleshy, yellowish-green, ^^^ in. long. 

An evergreen shrub, 6 ins.-4 ft. ; much branched. 

Native of New Zealand ; introduced 1876. Specific name from resemblance 
to a dwarf prostrate Cypress. Known in gardens as V. salicornoides, from 
resemblance to Salicornia, the Glass-wort or Marsh Samphire. 

Veronica pinguifolia. 

Gardens, rockeries. June, July. This forms a compact little bush, so 
full of blossom as to give the appearance of a fall of snow. 

Floiveis wiiite, in a short, dense-flowered, erect spike at tips of branches, 
pilose and pu})escent, .50-100 blossoms ; Sepals obtuse, ciliated ; Capsule hairy. 

Leaves oval or obovate-oblong, obtuse, entire, very thick, coriaceous, 

glaucous, light green, sessile, imbricated, J-J in. long. 

119 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

An evergreen shrub, 6-18 ins. ; erect or decumbent, much branchetj 
Branches pubescent, scarred transversely. n. 

Introduced from New Zealand, 1870. Syn. V. carnosula. Specific narej 
from Latin pingtds, fat, referring to the thickness of the leaves. 



TRAVERS' SPEEDWELL, Feronica Traversa. 

Gardens, shrubberies. June — August. One of the best and hardiest o 
the shrubby Speedwells, and the one most frequently planted. It is of rapid 
growth in almost any soil, and will thrive even in barren sandy spots. It 
may be propagated by cuttings in spring, summer, and autumn, and by seed- 
in light soil outdoors in April. In favourable situations the ground round 
old bushes becomes carpeted by self-sown seedlings. 

Flowers white or pale lilac, in a many-flowered sub-terminal raceme, 1-2 
ins. long, puberulous ; Calyx 4-5-partite ; Corolla 4-5-lobed, lobes \ in. across ; 
Stamens 2, exserted, anthers purplish ; Ovary superior, 2-celled ; Fruit a 
capsule. 

Leaves spreading, arranged cross-wise, sessile, obovate or linear-oblong, 
acute or obtuse, entire, coriaceous, flat, deep green, glossy. 

An evergreen shrub, 2-6 ft. ; Branches terete. 

Introduced from New Zealand, 1873. 



Class 1. . . . . Dicotyledons 
Division III. . . Gamopetalce 

Natural Order . . . Bignoniacece 

Trees or shrubs, often twining or climbing. Leaves usually opposite, ex- 
stipulate ; Floxvers large, handsome, irregular, usually trumpet-shaped, mostly 
in terminal or axillary panicles ; Corolla 5-lobed ; Ovary superior, usually 
2-celled, placentation axile or parietal ; Fruit a capsule. 

An exotic Order, mostly tropical, furnishing several greenhouse climbers. 

120 



m 



BIGNONIACEi^ 

INDIAN BEAN, Cntafpa bignonioides. 

Parks, gardens, lawns. July — August. This is perhaps the most beautiful 
flowering tree to be met with in British gardens, and one of the latest to 
blossom. Good loamy soil is most suitable, and it does best on a sheltered 
lawn. Being smoke-resisting, it is a good town tree. The species of Catalpa 
are propagated by cuttings of Arm shoots in sandy soil under bell-glass in 
temperature of 55°-G5° in summer ; seeds in spring ; layers in autumn. 

Flowers white speckled with purple and yellow, in a terminal compound, 
many-flowered, trichotomous panicle 8-10 ins. long and broad, bracts and 
bracteoles linear-lanceolate, deciduous ; Calyx 2-lobed, .V in. long, glabrous, 
green or light purple ; Corolla campanulate, tube broad, 2-lipped, 5-lobed, 
2 ins. long, 1^ in. wide, edges of lobes recurved and slightly frilled ; Stamens 
2, staminodes 3, inserted near base of corolla ; Ovary superior, 2-celled ; style 
filiform ; stigma 2-lobed, exserted above anthers ; Fruit a pod-like capsule, 
2-valved, 6-20 ins. long, somewhat flattened, valves meeting at an angle, 
usually light brown ; seeds l-l^^ in. long, \ in. broad ; wings pointed, ending 
with tuft of hairs. 

Leaves opposite, or 3 in a whorl, ovate, cordate at base, entire, waved, 
acuminate, thin and firm, green and glabrous on upper surface, pale and 
pubescent beneath, glandular in axils of veins, disagreeable, almost foetid 
odour when touched, 5-10 ins. long, 4-7 ins. wide ; petioles terete, stout, 5-6 ins. 
long. Autumn tint yellow 

A deciduous tree, 20-40 ft. ; massive head, growth rapid ; Branches long, 
heavy, brittle ; Tivigs thickened at nodes, slightly puberulous, glaucous, 
purplish to orange and brown ; Bark light brown, peeling ; Bud-scales 
ovate, brown ; Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, durable, light 
brown. 

Discovered by Catesby in S. Carolina; introduced 1726. Syn. C. syringcEJolia. 
" Catalpa " is an Indian name for the tree. 

VOL. II. 121 L 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

WESTERN CATALPA, Catalpa cordijhlia. 

Parks, gardens. JNIay, June. 

Floivers white, in a few-flowered terminal panicle, 5-6 ins. long, pedicels ik| 
purple, glabrous, bracteoles 1-3 ; Cahj.v purple, pubescent ; Corolla 2 ins. long, ] 
2J ins. wide, 2-lipped, throat marked yellow and purple ; Stamens and stami- 
nodes as long as tube of corolla, filaments with purple spots at base ; Ovary 
superior, 2-celled ; Fruit a pod-like, 2-valved capsule, 8-20 ins. long, J-f in. 
broad, usually dark brown, with parallel grooves ; seeds 1-lf in. long, \ in. wide, 
winged and fringed both ends, wings and seeds about equal in length. 

Leaves opposite, oval, cordate at base, slenderly acuminate, entire, thick, 
firm, dark green above, pubescent below, glandular in axils of principal veins, 
inodorous, 10-12 ins. long, 7-8 ins. wide; petioles terete, stout, 4-6 ins. long. | 
Black in autumn. 

A deciduous tree, 20-40 ft. ; erect, broad round head ; Branches slender ; | 
Ticigs purplish and pilose at first, afterwards orange to brown ; Bark brown 
tinged red, thick scales ; Bud-scales brown, keeled ; Wood like C. bignonioides. 

Introduced from U.S.A., 1879; in forests grows 120 ft. high; planted in 
streets. Syn. C. spcciosa. 

JAPAN CATALPA, Catalpa Kcvmpferi. 

Gardens. July. 

Flowers yellow, spotted with reddish-brown and purple, small, 1 in. diam., 
sweet-scented, in a much-branched terminal panicle ; Corolla lobes toothed ; 
Fruit a pod-like capsule, more slender and more numerous than in C. bignoni- 
oides and C cordifolia. 

Leaves ovate, cordate at base, acuminate, sometimes with one or more acute 
lobes, darker green, 6 ins. long and broad, petioles 2-5 ins. 

A deciduous tree, 10-12 ft. 

Discovered by Engelbert K;empfer in Japan, 1693 ; seed introduced to 

Belgium by Siebold, 1849. 

122 



f 




/2 






VERBENACEi^ 

Class I Dicotyledons 

Division III. . . . Gamopetalce 
Natural Order . . . Verbenacece 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with generally opposite or whorled, exstipulate leaves, 
and irregular or nearly regular flowers ; Calyx inferior, tubular, and persistent ; 
Corolla 4-5-fid, usually more or less bilabiate ; Stamens usually 4, didynamous ; 
Ovary 2-4-celled, cells with 1 ovule, style teiminal ; Fruit usually a carcerulus 
I of 4 nutlets, but sometimes drupaceous. 

Distinguished from Labiatfe by the entire ovary and terminal style, and from 
Scrophularinea? by the single ovule in each cell. 

STINKING CLERODENDRON, Clerodeudronfcetidum. 

Gardens. August, September. Requires rich warm loam. This is easily 
recognised by its downy heart-shaped leaves, which emit a peculiarly foetid odour 
when bruised. It is sometimes cut down in severe winters, but will shoot forth 
again in the following spring. 

Flowers lilac-rose, fragrant at a distance, unpleasant when nearer, in a dense 
terminal corymb; Calyx tubular, 5-fid ; Corolla gamopetalous, 5-lobed ; Stamens 
4 ; Ova7'y superior, style terminal ; Fruit a carcerulus of four 1 -seeded nutlets. 

Leaves opposite, cordate, acuminate, serrated, dark green, pubescent, exsti- 
pulate, petioles slender. 

A deciduous shrub, 5 ft. ; with short rigid prickles. 

Introduced from China, 1820. Generic name from Gr. klcros, cliance, 
dendron, a tree, said to be owing to uncertainty of medicinal qualities. 
Specific name from L. fcetidus, fetid, stinking. Syn. C. Buiigci. 

KUSAGI, Clerodendron trichotomiom. 

Gardens. August, September. Requires rich warm loam. The reddish- 
purple calyx and white petals make this one of the most beautiful and distinc- 
tive of hardy shrubs. 

123 L 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Floivers white, in a loose, terminal, trichotomous cyme, peduncles long ; Cahjx 
inflated, 5-lobed, lobes reddish-purple; Corolla hypocrateriform, 5-Iobed, tube 
purple, 1 in. long; Stamens 4, inserted at throat of corolla tube, filaments white, 
1 in. long ; Ovary superior ; Fruit a carcerulus of 4 nutlets, purple. 

Leaves opposite, ovate, tapering at both ends, acuminate, petioles purplish, 
exstipulate, serrated, downy beneath, foetid. 

A deciduous shrub, 6-12 ft. ; or small t7-ee, 20 ft. ; JB?-anches terete, hairy ; 
Suckers freely produced ; Bark rough, furrowed ; Buds black, small. 

Native of China and Japan ; introduced 1800. 

MOUSTACHE PLANT, Caryopteris Mast acanthus. 

Gardens. October. Best if sheltered by a wall; requires plenty of water 
during summer. Propagated by cuttings of young shoots or division of roots in 
INIarch or April ; seeds in light soil in temperature of 55" in spring. 

Flowers light blue, in axiUary clusters ; Calyx deeply 5-cleft ; Corolla 
bilabiate, tube short, middle lobe of lower lip larger, crisped or fimbriate ; 
Stamens 4; Ovary superior; Fj-uit a carcerulus of four 1 -seeded nutlets, 
winged. 

Leaves opposite, ovate-oblong, coarsely serrated, obtuse or acute, petiolate, 
exstipulate, downy, fragrant, minute glandularly dotted. 

A sub-evergreen shrub, 3-4 ft. ; young shoots with a Sage-like fragrance. 

Introduced from China, 1844. Generic name from Gr. karuon, a nut, 2}teron, 
a wing. Specific name from mastax, mastakos, the upper lip. 



Class I. . . . . . Dicotyledons 

Division III Gamopetalce 

Natural Order . . . Labiatce 

Trees, shrubs, or sub-shrubs, with usually square stems and opposite, 

decussate, exstipulate leaves ; Flowers in axils of leaves or bracts, solitary or 

geminate, or in cymose clusters forming verticillasters ; Calyx tubular, of 5 

124 



LABIATiE 

sepals, 2-lipped or 5-toothed, persistent ; Corolla hypogynous, imbricate, some- 
times bilabiate, ringent, upper lip entire or bifid, lower 3 -fid ; Stamens usually 
4, didynamous, outer anterior stamens usually the longest, inserted on corolla 
tube ; Ovarij superior, of 2 carpels, becoming deeply 4-lobed and 4-celled, style 
gynobasic, stigma bifid ; Fruit a carcerulus of 4 nutlets. 

Distinguished from all other Orders by the square stems, opposite, decussate 
leaves, verticillaster inflorescence, and bilabiate ringent corolla. 



LAVENDER, Lavandula vera. 

Gardens. June — August. This is one of the oldest favourites of English 
gardens, and makes a charming hedge. Propagated by cuttings of old stems 
in sunny position outdoors in August or September. 

Floivers blue, rarely white, fragrant, in a verticillaster, 6-10-flowered, spike 
somewhat interrupted ; Calyx tubular ; Corolla bilabiate, tube exserted, dilated 
at throat, limb oblique ; Stamens 4 ; Ovary superior ; Fruit a carcerulus of 4 
glabrous nutlets. 

Leaves opposite, oblong-lanceolate, attenuated at base, entire, somewhat revo- 
lute, hoary grey both surfaces. 

An evergreen shrub, 1-2 ft. 

Introduced from S. Europe, 1568. 

COMMON ROSEMARY, Rosmarinus ojicinulis. 

Gardens, shrubberies. February. Best in dry border near wall ; flourishes 
on the coast. Propagated by cuttings in shady border in spring or summer ; 
layering of strong shoots in summer ; seeds in sunny border outdoors in 
April. 

Flowers pale bluish-purple, in short, few-flowered racemes, approximating, 

opposite, sub-sessile ; Calyx ovoid-campanulate, bilabiate, 5-toothed, purplish ; 

Corolla bilabiate, tube shortly exserted ; Stamens 4 ; Ovary superior ; Fruit 

a carcerulus. 

125 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Leaves opposite, linear, entire, revolute, caneseent beneath, sessile, fragrant, 
grey-green. 

An evergreen sltrub, 3-8 ft. ; dense growth. 

Introduced from S. Europe, 1548. Generic name from Gr. ros, dew, and 
marinus, the sea. 



JERUSALEM SAGE, Phhmis fruticosa. 

Gardens. June, July. This will grow in dry soil, and does well on wild 
banks. Propagated by cuttings in cold frame in August. 

Flowers yellow or dusky yellow, very showy, ivhorls twin, terminal, 
20-30-flowered ; Cahjiv 5-toothed, as long as corolla tube, acuminate, thick, 
coriaceous, scabrous, densely hairy ; Corolla bilabiate, velvety, tube inclosed, 
upper lip compressed, notched, lower lip large, 8-cleft, spreading; Ovary 
superior, style gynobasic, curved, stigma bifid; Fruit a carcerulus of 4 
nutlets, ovoid-triquetrous. 

Leaves opposite, ovate or oblong, acute, roundly cuneate at base, entire, 
wrinkled, green above, white tomentose beneath, 2| ins. long, j-1 in. wide. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-4 ft. ; Branches clothed with tomentum, usually 
yellow. 

Native of Mediterranean region ; introduced 1596. 






I 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division IV. . . . Incompletce 
Natural Ordek . . . Laurinece 

Trees or shrubs, aromatic or sometimes foetid ; Leaves alternate or rarely 

opposite, exstipulate, usually coriaceous and evergreen, often with pellucid dots ; 

Flowers 2-sexual, or imperfectly 1 -sexual; Sepals 4-G, in 2 whorls, coloured, 

imbricate in bud ; Stamem definite, perigynous, some barren, filaments often 

glandular at base, anthers opening by valves ; Ovary superior, 1-celled ; Fruit 

a berry or drupe. 

126 



LAURINE^ 

SWEET BAY, Laurus nohilis. 

Shrubberies, gardens. April, May. Needs shelter. Any necessary pruning 
should be done in April. Propagated by cuttings in sandy soil under handlight 
in shady position outdoors, August — October ; layering of shoots in September 
or October. 

Flowers yellowish-white, inconspicuous, dioecious, in axillary clusters ; Calyx 
4-partite, imbricate ; Stamens opposite segments of calyx ; Ovary single, superior, 
1 -celled, style simple, stigma obtuse; Frjiit a berry, oval, dark purple, ripe 
in October. 

Leaves alternate, oblong-lanceolate, wavy, acute, pinnately veined, coriaceous, 
aromatic, shortly petiolate. 

An evergreen ti'ee or shrub, 30-60 ft. ; Branches arching ; Tivigs smooth ; 
Bark smooth. 

Native of S. Europe ; introduced about 1562. It is the Bay tree, or true 
Laurel, used in ancient times to form wreaths for poets and conquerors. Name 
Bay = a berry tree; M.E. bay, a berry ; F. baie ; L. baca, a berry. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division IV. , . Incompletce 

Natural Order . . . Thymelceacece 

Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs, with acrid juice, and tough inner bark ; 
Leaves opposite, alternate or scattered, exstipulate, entire; Flowers usually 
hermaphrodite, sometimes polygamous or di(£cious ; Perianth inferior, green 
or petaloid, 4-5-lobed, imbricate in bud ; Starnens usually twice as many as 
calyx lobes, in two series, adnate to and included in perianth tube, often 
an annular disk of hypogynous scales or glands ; Ovary superior, usually 1-celled ; 
Fruit usually a berry or drupe. 

Chief characteristics acridity and toughness of bark. Distinguished from 

Elaeagnaceae chiefly by tlie one suspended ovule. 

127 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

BLAGAY'S DAPHNE, Daphne bhgayana. 

Rockeries. March, April. Loves shade and rocky places ; requires stones 
laid on branches. Propagated by cuttings of side shoots in well-drained pots or 
pans of sandy peat under bell-glass in temperature of 50°-55°, October or 
November ; layers in March or April. 

Flowers ivory-white, fragrant, in a dense terminal umbellate chiste?- ; Perianth 
4-lobed, tubular ; Fruit a drupe. 

Leaves whorled, oblong-elliptical or lanceolate, entire, obtuse, glabrous. j 

A dwarf evergreen shrub, 1 ft. 

Discovered by Count Blagayana in Carniola, 1837; introduced 1872. 

GARLAND FLOWER, Daphne Cneorum. 

Gardens, rockeries. April, May ; again in September. 

Floxvers reddish-pink, sweet-scented, small, in a terminal, sessile, flattened 
head or umbelliferous cyme, closely surrounded by leaves ; Perianth of 4 ovate 
lobes, smooth on upper surface, tube thickly covered externally with short, silky, 
white hairs ; Fruit a drupe, white, globose. 

Leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate, sessile, entire, mucronate, glabrous, \ in. 
long, ^ in. broad, thickly set upon young shoots. 

An evergreen trailing shrub, 6-12 ins. 

Native of Europe ; introduced 1752. 

SPURGE LAUREL, Daphne Laureola. 

Copses and hedge banks in stiff soils. January — April. It is useful for 
growing under trees. 

Flowers yellow-green, faintly fragrant, honeyed, entomophilous, in sub-sessile 

axillary cluste?'s or very short drooping racemes of 3-5 flowers, both bisexual 

and staminate ; bracts conspicuous, oblong, deciduous ; Perianth lobes half the 

length of tube ; Fruit a drupe, oval, bluish-black, \ in. long. 

128 



THYMELi^ACE^ 

Leaves in tufts at ends of shoots, oblong or lanceolate, acute, very coriaceous, 
glossy, shining, dark green above, paler below, 1^-31 ins. long, f-1^ in. wide ; 
dying leaves brown. 

An evergreen shrub, 2-4 ft. ; Branches few, erect, glabrous, leafless below, 
r Of pliant, tough. 

Native of Britain. Berries poisonous to man, favourites with small birds. 



or 



Mk 



MEZEREON, Daphne lUezereum. 

Copses and woods in hilly districts, gardens. February — April. 

Flowers purplish-red, odorous, honeyed, appearing before leaves are fully 
out, in a few-flowered ci/me below leaves on shoot of preceding year, flowers 
usually in threes, sometimes pairs or fours, bracts small ; Perianth deciduous, 
tubular, i-^ in. long, 4-cleft, slightly hairy, lobes spreading, as long as tube ; 
Stamens 8, sub-sessile, at top of tube, in 2 series ; Ovary superior, 1 celled, style 
short, stigma capitate; Fruit a drupe, bright red, ovoid, h in. long, 1 -seeded, 
very acrid and poisonous, ripe in September. 

Leaves alternate, oblong-lanceolate or spathulate-lanceolate, exstipulate, 
shortly petiolate, entire, obtuse or acute, membranous, glabrous, 2-3 ins. long, 
glaucous or pale green above, bluish beneath. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous shrub, 1-3 ft. ; Branches few, erect, glabrous ; Tivigs slender, 
flexible ; Bark acid, smooth, yellowish-grey. 

Native of Britain ; somewhat rare. Berries poisonous to man, but favourites 
with finches and robin. Bark and branches yield yellow dye. Daphne was Greek 
name of the Bay-tree, Laurus nobilis, and originally of the nymph who was 
changed into a laurel-tree when fleeing from Apollo. 



PONTIC SPURGE LAUREL, Daphne pontica. 

Gardens. April — May. This and the previous two species are used as 

stocks for grafting. 

Floivers yellowish-green, very fragrant in evening, bractless, glabrous, in 

129 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

a many-flowered upright cluster, flowers in pairs ; Pejiaiith lobes long, reflexed-i 
Fruit a drupe. 

Leaves alternate, obovate-lanceolate, petiolate, entire, glabrous, glossy, 
light green. 

An evergreen shrub, 4-5 ft. ; Branches spreading. 

Native of E. Europe; introduced 1759. First discovered by Tournefort on 
coast of Black Sea. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division IV. . . . Incompletce 
Natural Order . . . Elceagnacece 

Trees or shrubs with alternate or opposite exstipulate leaves, entire, with 
silvery or brown scurfy scales; Floivcrs 1-2-sexual, white or yellow, regular, 
axillary, fascicled or cymose ; Calyx 2-4-lobed, or 2-4 distinct sepals ; Stamens 
adnate to calyx tube, in males twice as many as lobes, in 2-sexual flowers 
as many as lobes and opposite to them ; Ovarjj superior, enclosed in thickened 
base of calyx tube, 1-celled ; Fruit indehiscent, enclosed in tube, 1 -seeded. 

In Europe, the only Order containing shrubby plants with scurfy leaves. 
They differ from Thymelaaacea? chiefly in having 1 erect ovule. 

OLEASTER, or WILD OLIVE, Elo'agnus angustifoUa. 

Parks, gardens, shrubberies. May. Prefers a rather dry soil. The species of 
Elajagnus are very ornamental shrubs or small trees, with conspicuous silvery 
foliage. Useless growth may be cut away in late summer. They are propa- 
gated by cuttings in sandy soil in cold frame in September ; layering in October ; 
seeds sown in boxes of light soil in temperature of 55° in March. 

Flmvers yellow within, silvery scales outside, fragrant, usually bisexual, in 

solitary or axillary clusters of 1-3 ; Perianth canipanulate, 4-lobed ; Stamens 4, 

alternating with perianth lobes ; Ovary superior, 1-celled, style linear, long ; 

Fruit a fleshy drupe, ovid-oblong, red, sweet, mealy. 

130 




3 ^^-^^-^^-^^x \'ft fr D 

SWEET BAY (Launch nohilis) 
A. Flownring brancli. B. Fruit. C. One of the stamens (anthers dehiscing). D. Flower, enlarged. 
Plate XLVIII. 



ELi^AGNACEi^ 

Leaves alternate, lanceolate, often ovate on young trees and vigorous shoots, 
icute, serrate, upper surface dull greyish-green, scattered stellate scales, under- 
side silvery -grey, densely covered with stellate scales, blade 2-3 ins, long. 

A deciduous tree, 15 20 ft. ; Branches glabrous, thorny, shining reddish- 
brown ; hranchlets silvery-grey. 

Native of Asia; naturalised in S. Europe; introduced 1633. Syn. E. 
hortensis. 

SILVER BERRY, Elccagnus argcntca. 

Gardens, shrubberies. July, August. 

Floivers yellow, small, fragrant, silvery, |-| in. long, in an a.villarij cluster, 
nodding ; Perianth lobes ovate, J^ in. long ; Fruit a drupe, roundish-ovate, J-^ 
in. long, ribbed, silvery scales, stone 8-striate. 

Leaves alternate, oval-oblong, acute or obtuse, waved, glabrous both surfaces, 
silvery scales, shortly petiolate, 3 in. long, li in. wide. 

A deciduous shrub, 8-12 ft.; Branches spreading, rusty-brown, becoming 
silvery. 

Introduced from N. America, 1813. 

LARGE-LEAVED OLEASTER, Ekmgnus vmcrophylla. 

Gardens, shrubberies. October. This is a distinctive species, with large 
roundi.sh silvery leaves having a tendency to curl at the edges, and silvery- 
white blossoms emitting a perfume like Gardenia. It makes a good specimen 
for a west wall, and does well in sandy peat. 

Floivers silvery- white, fragrant, ^ in. long, densely clothed with silvery scales, 
axillary, solitary or forming clusters, pedicels silvery-white ; Perianth campanu- 
late, 4-lobed, lobes ovate, as long as tube ; Stamens 4, alternate with lobes, 
filaments very short ; Ovary superior, style curved ; Fruit a drupe, scarlet. 

Leaves alternate, roundish-ovate, obtuse or acute, margin wavy, glabrous, 

dark glossy green above, bright silvery scales beneath, 2\ ins. long, 1^ in. wide, 

petioles silvery. 

131 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

An evergreen shrub, 6 8 ft. ; Branches erect, spreading, angled ; 2\vigs covered 
with silvery and ferruginous scales ; Buds small, scales ferruginous. 

Native of China and Japan. Known in Japan as "Fon Gumi." i 



LONG-STALKED OLEASTER, E/ceag,ms nmltiflora. 

Gardens, shrubberies. May. The silvery leaves are in striking contrast 
with the dark reddish-brown twigs, and make this a very desirable species ; 
indeed, it is one of the best. 

Fhxvers whitish, in axiUary clusters, pedicels long ; F^ruit a drupe, oblong, 
orange-red, transparent, small ferruginous scales, pedicels long ; used for jelly. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, acute or obtuse, entire, green above, silvery-white 
beneath, dotted with ferruginous scales, 2 ins. long, 1 in. wide. 

An evergreen shrub, 8-15 ft. ; Branches erect; Twigs reddish-brown, scurfy 
with ferruginous scales ; Buds ovoid, reddish-brown with similar scales. 

Native of China and Japan; introduced 1873. Syns. E. edulis and 
E. longipes. 

SEA BUCKTHORN, Hippopha; rhamnoides. 

Sandy shores and sea cliffs. May, June. A handsome berry-bearing 
shrub, which grows remarkably well in rich damp soil near ponds, lakes, or rivers. 
Propagated by cuttings of roots in ordinary soil outdoors in February or March ; 
layering of shoots in autumn ; suckers in autumn ; seeds sown outdoors when 
ripe, November or December. 

Floxvers yellow, dioecious, appearing with young leaves on erect dwarf shoots, 
small and inconspicuous. Male flowers in small catkin-like spikes in axils 
of lowest scale-like bracts, perianth of 2 ligulate lobes ; Stamens 4, filaments 
short, anthers yellow. Females, crowded, solitary in each axil, perianth tubular, 
minutely 2-lobed, beset with speltate scales ; Ovari/ superior, 1-celIed, style 
shortly protruding, stigma erect ; Fruit a drupe, berry-like, a membranous 
utricle enclosed in succulent calyx tube, globose or oblong, } in. diam., orange- 
yellow, spotted. 

132 



I 



LORANTHACE^ 

Leaves alternate, linear to oblong-lanceolate, entire, obtuse, sub-coriaceous, 
dull green above and nearly glabrous, or white scattered stellate hairs above, 
silvery -grey, with scaly scurf beneath, midrib with rusty scales, shortly petiolate, 
^-2 ins. long, lengthening after floweruig to 3 ins., ^ in. wide. Autumn 
tint yellow. 

A deciduous shrub, 1-8 ft. ; or Willow-like tree, 10 ft. ; Branches slender, 
sub-pendulous, or short and spinescent ; Shoots with rusty bronze scales ; Buds 
rusty-brown. 

Native of East and South England ; naturalised in Scotland and Ireland. 
Hippophaes was old Greek name used by Hippocrates for a prickly spurge. 
Specific name from Rhammis, the Buckthorn, from resemblance of spinous 
branches. Known also as Sallow-thorn. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division IV. . . . Incompletce 
Natural Order . . Loranthacece 

Evergreen shrubs, with jointed stems, parasitic on the branches of trees ; 
Leaves usually opposite, exstipulate, thick and coriaceous ; Floxveis usually 
dioecious ; Calyx 4-8-lobed, valvate in bud ; Stamens 4-8, adnate to calyx lobes ; 
Ovary inferior, 1 -celled; Fruit a 1 -seeded berry. 



MISTLETOE, Viscum album. 

Parasitic on trees, especially apple. March — May. 

Flowers yellowish-green, dioecious or rarely monoecious, entomophilous, 
small, in a dense cymose cluster between the forks, or at the apex of, dichasial 
shoots; Males 3-5, in a cup-shaped fleshy bract; Females solitary, or 2-3 in bract; 
3Iales, perianth of 4-6 triangular segments on margin of hollow receptacle ; 
Stamens 4-6, anthers sessile, cells adnate to the inner faces of sepals, dehiscing 
by pores ; Females, 4 segments, sunk in receptacle, crowning the ovary, stigma 

VOL. II. 133 M 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

sessile, thick ; Fruit a 1-seeded pseudo-berry, ovoid or globose, greenish-white, 
semi-transparent, pulp viscid. 

Leaves opposite, or 3 in a whorl, exstipulate, oblong to nearly ovate, entire, 
obtuse, narrowed at base, thick, fleshy or coriaceous, green or yellow -green, 1-3 
ins. long, |-f in. wide ; dead leaves yellow. 

A deciduous parasitic shrub, 1-3 ft. ; Stem becoming woody when old ; 
Branches dichotomous, smooth, green, terete, knotted ; Buds small, green. 

Native of Britain. Generic name from L. viscum, bird-lime, mistletoe ; cog. 
with Gr. ivos or biskos, mistletoe; English name from A.S. mistel-tan ; viistcl, 
mistletoe ; tan, a twig ; mist el is dim. of mist, darkness = anything which darkens 
the sight or judgment. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division IV. . . . Incontpletce 
Natural Order . . Euphorbiacece 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees with entire leaves, usually alternate, often stipulate, 
stems often with lactiferous vessels ; Floivers usually 1 -sexual, monoecious 
or dioecious, bracteate, sometimes with a calyx-like involucre, occasionally 
without a perianth ; Calyx 3-5-lobed or wanting ; Corolla usually absent, 
sometimes represented by scales or petals ; Stamens 1 or more, distinct or 
united, sometimes branched ; Ovary superior, 2-3-celled, 2-3-lobed, styles 2-3, 
often branched ; Frnit a schizocarp, separating elastically into 3 cocci, or 
succulent. 

Distinguished from other Orders by the unisexual flowers and tri-coccous 
fruit. 

MINORCA BOX, Buxus bakarica. 

Gardens. July. Requires dry porous soil, and does best in well-sheltered 

situations. The species are propagated by cuttings of young shoots 3 ins. long in 

shady border, August or September ; division of old plants, October or March ; 

layers in September or October. 

134 




J50X (/!u.ni:^ sciiqierrireii.t!) 

/. Flmvt'i-ing branch, i?. Fruit. C Single male Hower. Z». Single female flower. ^. Section of female flower. F. Seed. 
O. Capsules partly and fully open, showing seeds. //. Section of male lluwer, showing nectaries. 



Plait. XI.IX, 



EUPHORBIACE.^ 

Floivers light yellow, small, inconspicuous, monoecious, in a glomerule ; 
Males, Sepals 4 ; Stamens 4 ; Females, Ovary 3-celled ; Fruit a 3-valved 
capsule. 

Leaves opposite, oblong-elliptical, emarginate, coriaceous, cartilaginous 
margin, yellowish-green, 1^-2 ins. long. 

An evergreen shinib or small tree, 15-20 ft. 

Native of Balearic Islands and other parts of S. Europe ; introduced 
1780. 



COMMON BOX, Buxiis sempervirem. 

Parks, gardens, chalk hills. April — June. 

Flowers greenish-white, monoecious, usually entomophilous, small, incon- 
spicuous, in an axillary cluster {glomei-ule), several unibracteate male flowers, and 
1-2 females with 3 bracteoles ; Males, Perianth small, 4 segments ; Stamens 4, 
opposite perianth lobes, hypogynous, around a rudimentary ovary, anthers didy- 
mous, introrse, filaments stout ; Females, Perianth 6-12 segments in whorls of 3 ; 
Ovary globose, superior, 3-ceUed, styles 3, stigmas 3, obtuse, proterogynous ; 
Fruit a 3-valved capsule, ovoid, sessile, hard, coriaceous, ^ in. long, ending in 
3 stiff' short beaks, 1-2 black shiny seeds in each cell. 

Leaves sub-opposite, ovate or oblong, sub-sessile, obtuse or retuse, convex, 
coriaceous, shining, exstipulate, ^-1 in. long ; petioles slightly hairy at 
edges. 

An evergreen shrub, or small tree, 15-20 ft. ; slow of growth ; Branches 
slender, glabrous, downy when young, erect or drooping ; Tivigs more or less 
4-angled ; Bark rough, grey ; Old Stems often twisted ; Buds very small ; 
Groivth very slow; JFood yellow, with very fine grain, hard, heavy, will not 
float, susceptible of high polish ; used for engraving, tools, and carving. 

Indigenous in chalky districts of Southern and Central England. 

Name is A.S. box = Box-tree ; L. buxi/s ; Gr. pyxas. 

Leaves sometimes sprinkled with Box Leaf-rust {Puccinia Buxi). 

135 M 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

SIOUMI, Daphmphyllum macTopodum. 

Gardens. September. The compact growth and large foliage give this shrub 
a striking resemblance to a Rhododendron. Propagated by layers or cuttings of 
ripe shoots. 

Flowers small, dioecious, apetalous, in a short axillary raceme ; Sepals small, 
3-8, connate; Stamens 5-18, anthers large, basifixed ; Ovary superior, imperfectly 
2-celled, stigmas short, thick, recurved ; Fruit a drupe, ellipsoid, J in. long, 
black. 

Leaves alternate, elliptic, or lanceolate, obtuse, base acute, entire, dark green 
above, pale and glaucous beneath, 3-8 ins. long, 2 ins. wide, petiole long, reddish- 
purple. 

An evergreen shrub, 6-8 ft. ; Bark reddish. 

Native of India, Ceylon, China, and .Japan. Known in gardens as D. 
glaucescens. Generic name from Gr. Daphne, the Bay-tree (Laurus nobilis), 
and phyllon, a leaf = resembling the Laurel. " Sioumi " is the Oriental name. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division IV. . . . IncompletcB 
Naturai, Order . . . Ufticacece 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with usually alternate and stipulate leaves, often 
with stinging hairs ; Floivers usually small, vmisexual or rarely polygamous, 
monoecious or dioecious ; Perianth in the males equally lobed or partite ; in 
the females often unequally lobed, or consisting of a scale-like sepal ; Stamens 
usually equal hi number to perianth segments, and opposite to them ; Ovary 
superior, or in a few genera more or less inferior, 1 or 2-celled ; Fruit in- 
dehiscent, 1-seeded. 

Distinguished from Euphorbiaceas by the 1-seeded fruit, and from Cupuli- 

ferfu by the regular perianth of the male flowers. Tiie Nettles (Urticeaj) are 

distinguished from Chenopodiacea' by their stipulate and rough leaves with 

stinging hairs ; the Elms (Ulmea;) often form a separate Order. 

136 



URTICACE.^ 



WINGED ELM, Uhms alata. 

Parks, gardens. March, April. The curious ridge-like corky excres- 
cence on the branches makes this one of the most distinct and conspicuous 
of hard-wooded trees. The species of Ulmus are propagated by suckers, 
October or November ; layering of shoots, September or October ; seeds 
gathered as soon as ripe and sown in light soil in shady position outdoors. 

Floweis reddish, in a few-flowered fascicle, pedicels drooping; Perianth 
5-lobed, lobes obovate, glabrous ; Ovary hoary tomentose, raised on short 
slender stipe ; Fruit a samara, oblong, I in. long, hirsute, tipped with in- 
curved awns, wing narrow. 

Leaves alternate, ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, unequal at base, acute 
or acuminate, coarsely doubly serrate, firm or sub-coriaceous, glabrous and 
dark green above, pale and soft pubescent below, 12^-2^ ins. long ; petioles 
pubescent, stipules linear-obovate, thin, scarious. 

A deciduous tree, 30-40 ft. ; Branches erect ; branchlets glabrous or 
puberulous, often with 2 thin corky wings, reddish-brown to ashy-grey ; 
Baj-k with shallow fissures, light brown tinged with red ; Buds slender, 
acute, scales glabrous or slightly puberulous ; Wood heavy, hard, not strong, 
close-grained, not easily split, light brown. 

Introduced from N. America, 1820. Specific name from L. ala, a wing. 
Known in America as the ^^'^ahoo. 



AMERICAN OR WHITE ELM, Uhms americana. 

Parks, gardens. INIarch, April. Best in moist loamy soil. 

Flowers greenish-red, appearing before leaves, in a 3-4-flowered cyviose 

fascicle, pedicels slender, drooping; Perianth 7-9-lobed, ciliate ; Stamens 5-6, 

anthers bright red ; Ovary light green, ciliate with white hairs, styles light 

green ; Fi-uit a samara, ovate to obovate-oblong, ciliate, 1 in. long, wing 

broad. 

137 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Leaves alternate, obovate-oblong to oval, unequal at base, acute, coarsely 
doubly serrate, dark green and glabrous or scabrate above, usually pale and 
pubescent below, 2-4 ins. long, petioles stout, stipules linear-lanceolate. 
Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous t7-ee, 80-100 ft. ; Branches spreading, not corky ; hranchlets 
glabrous, destitute of corky wings, reddish-brown to ashy-grey ; Bark fissured, 
ashy-grey ; Buds ovate, acute, flattened, scales glabrous, brown ; Wood heavy, 
hard, strong, tough, difficult to split, coarse-grained, light brown ; used for 
coach-making, turnery, and boat-building. 

Introduced from N. America, 1752. Known as Canada Rock Elm. 



COMMON ELM, Ulmus campestris. 

Woods, fields, hedgerows, gardens. March, April. 

Flowers reddish-brown, in dense clusters, appearing before leaves, anemo- 
philous, proterogynous, often males only by abortion ; Perianth small, 
4-8-lobed ; Sta?nens often 4, sometimes 5-8, opposite lobes, anthers rusty ; 
Ova7-y 1-celled, stigmas 2 ; Friiit a samara, winged all round, obovate, 
notched ; seeds above centre, rarely ripening. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, variable, unequal at base, narrow, 2J-4 ins. by 
1-2 ins., serrated, acute, scabrous above, pubescent beneath, or nearly glabrous, 
hairs with irritating properties, petiole short, stipules caducous. Autumn 
tint yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 125 ft., shedding leaves very early; usually taller and 
straighter than U. montana ; Suckers abundant; Bai'k rough, corky, with 
vertical furrows ; Branches mostly projecting upwards ; Tivigs given off 
alternately at acute angles, smooth ; Buds smooth, reddish -brown, scales are 
stipules ; Wood brown, heavy, hard, tough, porous, twisted in grain ; used 
for piles, pipes, pumps, blocks, ships' keels and planks, carpentry, wright- 
woi'k, turnery, and cabinet-making. 

Not indigenous in Britain ; the most frequent in fields and hedgerows ; 

lives to about 500-600 years. Also called Small-leaved Elm. 

138 




KIjM (Ulmua campestns) 
A. Leaf. D. Flowerinj,' brancli. C. Flower (enlarged). 1). Fruit (samaras). 



Plate L. 



URTICACEiE 

Insects injurious to Elms : — B(vk — Elm Tree Destroyer {Scolytus dest?-ucto?-) ; 
Foliage — Comma Butterfly {J''a?tessa c-album), Large Tortoise-shell Butterfly 
{Vanessa jjolychlorus). Mottled Umber {Hybernia defoliaria), March Moth 
{Anisopteryx cescularia). Tree Lackey {Bomby.v neiistria) ; Wood — AVood 
Leopard Moth {Zeuzera cescidi). 

Fungoid Pests: — Elm-leaf Phloeospore {F/ileospora Ulmi), Elm-leaf Blotch 
{Pliyllaclto?-a Ulmi). 



WYCH ELM, Ulmus montana. 

Woods, parks, gardens. Best in good fertile soils and good light. March, 
April. 

Flowers reddish-brown, appearing before leaves, borne in dense clusters 
on sides of branches, surrounded by brownish bracts ; Perianth campanulate, 
4-7-toothed, lobes obtuse; Stamens as many as lobes of perianth, and opposite, 
anthers purple; Ovary flat, 2-celled, styles 2, diverging; Fruit a thin, flat 
1 -seeded samara, broadly ovate or orbicular, glabrous, small notch at top ; seed 
in centre or below, produced after thirty years. 

Leaves alternate, nearly sessile, broadly ovate, doubly and trebly serrated, 
unequal at base, rough on upper side, downy beneath, 3-G ins. long, 3 ins. diam. 
Autumn tint golden-yellow. 

A deciduous ti'ee, 80-120 ft. ; Branches long, diverging like letter Y, ascend- 
ing and pendulous ; Tiags pubescent ; Bark rough, often corky ; Trunk often 
having excrescences ; Buds brown, with rusty hairs ; Wood hard, straight- 
grained, flexible when steamed, stands alternate wetting and drying ; inferior to 
that of Common Elm, and more liable to split ; used in boat-building. 

The common wild Elm of North and West England, Scotland, and Ireland ; 
rare in South-east England. Known also as Scotch Elm, Mountain Elm, and 
Broad-leaved Elm. Several varieties in cultivation. Name from A.S. elm, the 
Elm-tree. 

Ijcaves often rolled, blistered, and thickened by an Aphis {Schizoneura 

Ulmi). 

139 



TREES AND SHRUBS 



PAPER MULBERRY, Bromsonetia papyrifera. 

Gardens. May. An ornamental tree which thrives best in well-drained, 
rather open ground. Propagated by cuttings of ripe wood in sandy soil in cold 
frame in October; suckers in October or November; seeds when ripe or in the 
following spring. 

Floivers greenish, dioecious; Males in pendulous, cylindrical catkins, each 
flower in the axil of a bract ; Females in peduncled, axillary, erect globular 
heads ; Fruit an eta^rio of spurious drupes (sorosis). 

Leaves alternate, ovate or deeply lobed, margin entire, acute, hairy. 

A deciduous tree, 10-20 ft. 

Native of India, China, and Japan; introduced 1751. Genus named after 
Broussonet, a French naturalist. Inner bark used for paper-making. 



BLACK OR COMMON MULBERRY, Moms nigra. 

Gardens. June, July. Prefers deep, light, somewhat moist soil in sunny 
position sheltered from north winds. In the young state it makes a fine speci- 
men shrub, and later grows into an imposing and ornamental tree. Straggling 
branches may be shortened, or crowded ones thinned in February. Pro- 
pagated by cuttings 6 8 ins. long, partly current growth and partly two 
years old, from upper part of tree, inserted half their depth in light soil in 
sheltered position outdoors, September, October, or March ; layering of shoots 
in September ; seeds in light sandy soil in temperature of 55°-65° in March, 
transplanting seedlings outdoors in June or July ; or seeds sown outdoors 
in May. 

Flowers greenish-white, monoecious, sometimes dicecious, anemophilous, 

inconspicuous, in short thick catkin-like spikes of cymes on receptacle, becoming 

succulent when fruit ripens ; 3lales, Calyx 4-partite, yellowish-green ; Stamens 

4 ; Females, Sepah 3-4, greenish, persistent ; Ovary 2-celled, styles short, 

stigmas 2, spreading ; Fruit an oblong mass of spurious drupes (sorosis), com- 

140 



) 







!3 W 



> . 

* • I- 

O aj 

. o 

t- qi] 

« a 

« ° 

a; -^ 

.5 o 



be 

a 

3 









>^' 



\^cE 



URTICACE.^ 

posed of the receptacle, calyces, and utriculi, all succulent and consolidated, 
very juicy, sub-acid, turning from green to crimson, then red, finally reddish- 
black ; ripe in August. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, cordate, or 3-5-lobed, petiolate, irregularly serrate, 
acute, dark green, upper surface hispid, 4 ins. by 4 ins., young leaves pilose 
beneath ; stipules lateral, small, linear, caducous. Autumn tint yellow^. 

A deciduous tree, 20-30 ft., with large round head ; JBra/iches horizontal ; 
Bark rough, reddish-brown ; Buds seldom open before May ; tree slow of growth, 
but long lived ; Wood used for cabinet-work. 

Native of Persia and Armenia ; introduced 1548. First planted at Syon 
House. 



FIG, Ficus Caiica. 

Gardens, walls. May. In mild districts of the south this will grow as 
a standard, but generally is best against a south or south-west wall. The best 
crops of fruit are usually secured from trees planted in a compost of fibry loam, 
brick rubbish, and old mortar by the side of a hard walk into which the roots 
cannot easily ramify. Deformed, dead, or weak branches should be removed in 
April or July, and the points of vigorous young shoots pinched in July. Any 
fruits sufficiently advanced in early autumn to show the shape of the Fig should 
be pinched off. Propagated by cuttings of previous year's growth, 6-9 ins. 
long, in sandy soil under bell-glass in temperature of 65°-75° in spring ; layering 
of shoots, October or November ; suckers in autumn ; seeds carefully cleaned 
from pulp and kept till early spring, then sown in light soil in temperature 
of 75^ 

Floxvers monoecious, entomophilous, proterogynous, minute, appearing 

with the leaves, enclosed, and hidden, in a pyriform hollow Heshy receptacle 

(hypanthodium) formed of the swollen floral axis, the sides of which have grown 

up around it, meeting at the top, forming an inverted flask-like spike with sessile 

flowers, in which the outside bearing the flowers has become introverted ; 3lalc 

flowers mostly in upper part ; Perianth 3-5-fid ; Stamens 3-5 ; Females in lower 

141 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

part ; Perianth 5-partite ; Ovary superior, 1-celled, style lateral, stigma bifid ; 
Fruit a syconus, consisting of achenes immersed in pulpy receptacle, greenish- 
yellow to violet-brown, 2-3 1 ins. long, one or two together in axils of leaves, 
orifice at tip closed by small scales ; seeds very numerous. 

Leaves alternate, very variable, 3-6 ins. by 2^-7^ ins., palmately 3-7-lobed, 
5-partite, or entire, lobes variously cut, base cordate, thick, dark green and 
scabrous above, paler and pubescent beneath, petiole 1-2 ins. long, stout. 
Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 15-30 ft. ; Branches spreading ; Biids large ; Sucke?'s 
abundant. 

Native of Mediterranean regions, Syria, Persia, Afghanistan ; re-introduced 
to Britain by Cardinal Pole, 1525. In Italy fertilisation is brought about 
through the agency of a small wasp {JBlasfophaga grossorum), which lays its eggs 
in the ovules of the abortive female flowers, producing galls, and afterwards 
carries pollen to other female flowers. Ficus is the old Latin name for a fig-tree, 
and is akin to the Greek sickon, a fig. 



Class 1 Dicotyledons 

Division IV^. . . . Incompletce 
Natural Order . . Platanaceoe 

Trees, usually tall, with flaking bark, and without milky juice; Leaves 
alternate, palmately nerved and lobed, petiolate, with sheathing stipules ; 
Flowers small, monoecious, in globose, densely-crowded heads, the male and 
female heads on separate pendulous peduncles, usually 3 heads on each ; Pei'ianth 
0, or replaced by scales or bristles; Ovary 1-celled, style persistent; Fruit 
a head of 1 -seeded nuts. 

Readily distinguished from the Sycamores or False Planes by the alternate 
leaves. 



142 




FIG {Ficus Carira) 

A. Leaf. B. Section of hypanthotlinm. C. Portion ot inner surface nf samp, slinwinp; pistillate Mowers (enlarged). 
D. Staminate, or uialu flower (enlarged). E. I'ruit (green fig). 



T>I ITB. T II 



PLATANACEiE 



LONDON PLANE, PManus acerifolia. 

Parks, gardens, avenues. April. This is one of the most suitable of trees 
for town planting, having the property of resisting fumes in a high degree. 
The species of Platanus thrive best when their roots have access to water. They 
may be pruned into shape, October — February. Propagated by cuttings of 
shoots 6-8 ins. long in moist soil in sheltered position in November ; layering of 
shoots in autumn or spring ; seeds merely pressed into surface of soil, and kept 
moist and shaded, in November. 

Floivers greenish, as P. orientaUs, in globular heads on axillary peduncles, 
generally in threes, sometimes two or four, regular distances wide apart ; Fruit 
a globular head, bristly. 

Leaves alternate, resembling those of Common JNIaple, broadly and acutely 
3-5-lobed or angled, a few remote coarse serratures, nearly straight at base, 
petiole long and slender, leaves 6| ins. long, 8 ins. broad, stipules auricled, lobes 
acuminate, deciduous. 

A deciduous tree, 50-60 ft. ; Branches mostly straight, not very stout, 
uniform in size, lower ones horizontal or declining, upper ones more or less 
erect ; Tivigs slender ; Stems of young trees smooth, dark greenish-brown ; 
Ba7-k in old stems scaling in small, thin pieces. 

Native of Asia; introduced 1724. This is the Maple-leaved Plane; the 
P. orientaUs var. acerifolia of Loudon, and the P. vulgaris var. acerifolia of 
gardens. 



WEDGE-LEAVED PLANE, Platamis cuneata. 

Parks, gardens. April. 

Flowers greenish, resembling P. orieutalis; Fruit a globular head of small nuts. 

Leaves palmately wedge-shaped, very variable ; on old or stunted plants 

often 3-lobed, lobes angular, few small teeth ; on young and vigorous plants deeply 

5-lobed, few small serratures, terminated by hard points, all tapering towards 

143 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

base, covered with down when young, ghibrous when old, 4^ ins. long, 3| ins. 
broad ; petiole very short. 

A deciduous bash or low tree ; Branches tortuous, somewhat ascending. 

Native of I^evant ; introduced 1739. Sometimes called P. u?idul.ata, and 
considered by some as a stunted variety of P. oiientalis. 



WESTERN PLANE, Platanus occidentalis. 

Parks, gardens, avenues. May. This is usually larger and more rapid in 
growth than its relative of the East. Its leaves are larger and less deeply 
lobed, and its seed-balls are larger, and usually hang singly on the slender 
peduncles. 

Floxveis as in P. orie?italis, in globular heads, 2-4, more commonly only 1, on 
long slender peduncles, larger than P. 07~ientulis ; 3Iales axillary, dark red; 
Females terminal, light green, tinged red; Fruit a globular head of 1 -seeded 
nuts ; balls large, smoother than P. orientalis, brownish, ripe in October or 
November, persistent through winter ; seed-fibres said to cause irritation of the 
mucous membrane of the eyes, nostrils, mouth, and probably the lungs. 

Leaves alternate, broadly 5-lobed or angled, a few large acute serratures, 
cordate or truncate at base, when young scurfy with rusty-coloured tomentum 
or silky down, glabrous when older, bright green above, paler beneath, slightly 
hairy in axils of veins and on principal ribs, petiole purplish-red, leaves up to 
8 ins. by 8 ins., stipules brown, woolly, caducous. Autumn tints yellow to red- 
brown. 

A deciduous tree, 70-80 ft. ; Bark smooth, light ash-colour, flaking off in 
small pieces ; Br-anches tortuous, axillary buds concealed within hollowed base 
of petioles, conical, pubescent, pale brown or olive ; Twigs rounded, olive-green ; 
Wood used for cabinet-work. 

Introduced from N. America about 1636 ; there called Button-wood ; reaches 
height of 140-170 ft. Probably lives more than 600 years. 



144 




ORIENTAL PLAKE (I'latanus oneniali.-=) 
A. Female flower clusters. S. Fruit cluster. C. Male flower cluster. 



Plate LUI. 



PLATANACEiE 



ORIENTAL OR COMMON PLANE, Platanus orientalis. 

Parks, gardens, avenues. April. The Plane-tree has been employed for 
giving shade since the days of the Greeks, and few trees are better adapted for 
planting as specimens upon the lawn or elsewhere when the site is moderately 
sheltered. 

Floiters greenish-yellow, small, monoecious, anemophilous, appearing before 
leaves, in a globular head, males and females on separate peduncles, 2-5, usually 
3, heads on each axillary peduncle ; Stamens in male flowers mixed, without 
definite order, with scales, which may be bracts, perianth segments, or stami- 
nodes ; Females, Ovary 1-celled, style persistent ; Periantlt replaced with 
scales, which may be bracts, segments, or abortive ovaries ; Fruit a globular 
head of small 1 -seeded nuts, ball covered with bristly points, ripe in October, 
brown, persistent through winter. 

Leaves alternate, palmately 5-lobed, wedge-shaped at base, divisions lanceo- 
late, sinuated, upper surface glabrous, shining green, Tv ins. long, 7| ins. 
broad ; petiole green ; stipules sheathing, nearly entire. Autumn tints yellow 
to orange-brown. 

A deciduous tree, 60-80 ft. ; Branches widely-spreading, lower ones horizontal ; 
Bark flaking in larger pieces, whitish-grey, on young branches more persistent, 
brown, sometimes tinted with purple ; Buds concealed by petioles ; Wood 
pale-brown, fine-grained, tough, hard ; soon perishes if exposed to sun and 
atmosphere. 

Introduced from the Levant some time previous to loiS ; possibly lives 
2000 years. Generic name is from old Greek for the Plane {Platanos) — • 
platijs, broad, probably referring to foliage. Specific name is Latin for Eastern. 



vol.. u. 1-45 N 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Ci-Ass I Dicotyledons 

Division IV. . . . Incompletce 
Natural Order . . . Juglandece 

Trees with alternate, pinnate, exstipulate leaves ; Flowers uni-sexual, 
inconspicuous ; 31ales in catkins ; Cahjx irregular, 2 6-partite, or a single scale ; 
Stamens 3 or many ; Females solitary or a terminal cluster ; Calyx regular, 
8-5-lobed; Omry inferior, imperfectly 2-4-celled, w^ith a single ovule; Fruit a kind 
of drupe, 2-valved, 1 seed with large oily cotyledons, divided into 2 or 4 
lobes. 

Distinguished from Cupulifera? chiefly by the solitary ovule, and in the 
absence of a cupule. 



SHELL-BARK HICKORY, Canja alba. 

Parks, gardens. May. Needs good loamy soil ; very impatient of removal. 
I'ropagated by nuts sown where trees are intended to remain. 

Flowers greenish ; Males in threes at base of shoots of same year, peduncled, 
glabrous ; Perianth adnate to bracts, 2-3-lobed, middle lobe linear, much longer 
than laterals ; Stamens 3-10, filaments short ; Females 2-6 on terminal peduncles ; 
Perianth 4-toothed, petals 0, styles 2-4 ; Fruit a nut, globose or depressed, li 
in. long, husk thick, freely splitting at base into four valves ; nut greyish-white, 
angled, barely nmcronate, 4-celled, sweet, shell somewhat thin. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, exstipulate, leaflets 5-9, lower ones oblong- 
lanceolate, upper obovate-lanceolate, sessile, acuminate, narrow or rounded at 
base, finely serrate, pubescent, fragrant. Autumn tint golden-yellow. 

A deciduous shrub or tree, 50-80 ft. ; Tivigs tomentose-pubescent, fragrant 
when cruslied ; Bark rough ; Bud-scales very large ; Wood hard, close-grained, 
elastic ; used in carriage-building. 

Native of U.S.A. and Canada; introduced 1G29. Syn. Hicoria uvata. 

Aboriginal name Hico7'i. 

146 



JUGLANDE^ 

WALNUT, Juglans regia. 

Parks, gardens. March. Propagated by nuts sown in light soil outdoors 
in November, transplanting seedlings following October. 

Flowers greenish, moncecious, anemophilous, appearing before leaves ; Blale 
catkins cylindrical, slender, 3 ins. long, drooping, on shoot of previous year; 
Cahjx of 2-5 greenish scales ; Stamens numerous, 5-20 ; 1 bract, 2 bracteoles ; 
Females solitary, or in clusters at end of shoot of the year ; Calyx 4-5-lobed ; 
Ovary inferior, 2-4 carpels, 1 -celled, stigmas 2-3, purplish, fleshy ; Fruit a drupe, 
sub-globose, epicarp fleshy, fibrous, bursting irregularly, endocarp woody, 
furrowed, 2-valved ; ripe in October. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, exstipulate, petiolate, 8-10 ins. long; leaflets, 
5-9, oval, obscurely serrated, acute, glabrous, odorous, shining dark green 
above, paler beneath, fragrant. Autvunn tint brown. 

A deciduous tree, 40-60 ft. ; large spreading head ; Branches twisted, 
upward tendency ; Timgs glabrous, shining, lenticels long ; Bark grey, smooth 
when young, rugged when older, deep longitudinal furrows ; Wood white when 
young, brown when older, coarse grained, beautifully marked, light, tough, takes 
a high poUsh ; much used for cabinet-work and gun-stocks ; burrs or excrescences 
valuable. 

Native of Persia, the Himalayas, and Western Asia ; introduced about 
fifteenth century. Name a contraction of Walsh-nut = foreign-nut. Latin name 
Jugla/is is probably a contraction of Jovis Glans, the Nut of Jupiter. Timber 
bored by larva of Wood Leopard Moth [Zeuzera ccscuii) ; Leaves subject to 
attacks of ^Valnut Anthracnose {Marsonia Juglandis). 

CAUCASIAN WALNUT, Pterocarya caucasica. 

Gardens. May. Its grand symmetrical proportions, fine foliage, and unique 

fruit make this one of the most beautiful of exotic trees. Being one of the 

first of deciduous trees to burst into leaf, it is apt to be damaged by late frosts, 

and should, therefore, be in a sheltered position. It may be propagated by 

layers, suckers, or seed. 

147 N 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Flowers greenish, unisexual, monoecious ; Males in a pendulous catkin 5-6 
ins. long; Female catkins 10-12 ins. long, sometimes as much as 20 ins.; 
Fruit drupaceous, dry, angled, 2-winged, much tapered at tip, seldom ripening 
in this country. 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, leaflets about 19, ovate-oblong, acuminate, 
acutely serrate, glabrous, sessile, bright green above, paler or glaucous beneath, 
12-18 ins. long, sometimes more than 2 ft., width 18 ins. 

A deciduous tree, 20-50 ft. ; Branches widely spreading ; Trunk with large 
excrescences ; Roots extending to great distance ; Suckers abundant when near 
water ; Wood used for veneering and cabinet-making. 

Introduced from the Caucasus about 1800. Generic name from Gr. pteron, 
a wing, and caryon, a nut, referring to winged fruit. Syn. P. fraxinifoUa. 
Specific name from L. Fraxinus, the Ash, and j'olius, a leaf, from resemblance 
of foliage. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division IV Incompletce 

Natural Okdek . . . Myricacece 

Trees or shrubs, with alternate, usually exstipulate, resinous leaves ; Fhxcers 
in catkins or catkin-like spikes, monoecious or dioecious; Male Jloivers of 2-16 
stamens, inserted on base of a bract, sometimes Avith 2 lateral bracteoles ; anthers 
basifixed, extrorse ; Females, Ova?-i/ 1-celled, sessile at base of the bract, usually 
2-4 bracteoles ; Fruit drupaceous. 

BOG MYRTLE, Mijrica Gale. 

Bogs and wet moors, gardens. May — July. Thrives well in moist peaty 

soil in shaded parts of the rockery or border. Propagated by cuttings in sandy 

soil in sheltered position outdoors, vSeptember or October ; layers of shoots, 

September or October ; division of plants, October to INIarcli ; seeds sown as 

soon as ripe in ordinary soil in sheltered position outdoors, 

148 




WHITE JURCH (IlrJu/a n/ha) 
A. Twigs with male ami female catkins. Jj. Male flower. 0. Bract scale with three female flowers. C Seed. 
Plate LIV. 



MYRICACEi^ 

Flowers brownish-green, dioecious, anemophilous, appearing before the leaves ; 
3Iale catkins, l-\ in. long, ovoid, dense, sessile, erect; Stamens 4, free, filaments 
adnate to base of bracts, anthers red, basifixed, extrorse, scales broad-ovate, 
concave, eitire, shining; Females J in. long; Ovary ovoid, sessile at base of 
bract, 1-celled, styles 2, red, filamentous, divaricating ; Fruit an indehiscent 
nutlet, drupaceous, jV in. long, adnate to persistent fleshy bracteoles, densely 
sprinkled with golden glands, stone 1 -seeded. 

Leaves alternate, exstipulate, variable, lanceolate or cuneate-oblong, entire or 
minutely toothed at apex, slightly revolute, obtuse or acute, coriaceous, shortly 
petiolate, matt green above, paler and often pubescent beneatli, dotted with 
golden, resinous, aromatic glands, 2-3 ins. long, J-lj in. broad. Autumn tints 
fawn or purplish-brown. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-4 ft. ; twiggy, sub-erect, resinous, fragrant. 

Native of Britain. Generic name from Gr. Myrike, used by Homer for the 
Tamarisk. Also called Sweet Gale. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division IV^. . . . Incompletce 
Natural Order . . . Cupuliferce 

Trees or shrubs, with alternate leaves and deciduous stipules ; Floxoers 
monoecious, bracteate and bracteolate, usually in catkins or small heads ; Males 
with or without a perianth of 1-5 or more segments or distinct sepals ; Stamens 
few or several, on a disk, or adnate to bases of sepals, anthers 2-celled ; Females 
with or without a minutely-toothed perianth adnate to the ovary, which is 
superior or inferior, and usually 2-3-celled, styles 2 or 3 ; Fruit a nut (glans), 
1-celled, 1 -seeded, inclosed in a cupular involucre formed of the hardened 
accrescent bracts and bracteoles (Oak, Beech, Chestnut), or enclosed in large 
leafy bracts (Hazel and Hornbeam), or a winged samara (Birch), or a nut 
without wings (Alder). 



149 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

SILVER BIRCH, Betula alba. 

Woods, commons, parks, gardens. April, May. Prefers sandy and loamy 
soils in cold situations. The "Lady of the Woods" is perhaps the most 
picturesque of British trees. It makes a good hedge or screen. The species of 
Betula are propagated by layers in October ; seeds sown in pans or boxes of 
sandy soil in cold frame in autumn or spring, simply pressing seeds into soil, and 
not covering ; or in sheltered borders in March. 

Flowers whitish, monoecious, appearing before leaves are fully out ; Male 
catJihis at ends of shoots of previous year, no winter buds-scales, cylindrical, lax, 
with broad, short-stalked peltate bracts, catkins 1-2 ins. long ; Stamens 6 to each 
bract, in 3 pairs (flowers), with a scale-like sepal opposite each pair, filaments 
forked, each branch bearing a single anther lobe ; Female catkins terminating 
lateral dwarf shoots, enclosed by winter bud-scales, cylindrical and compact, \ in. 
long, shortly stalked, erect at first, bracts usually 3-lobed and 3-flowered, 
without perianth ; Ovary 2-celled, styles 2, stigmas 2, purple ; Fruit a small, 
flat, broad-winged samara, with spreading side lobes, 1-celled, 1-seeded, ripe in 
September — October. Bears usually after the twenty-fifth year. 

Leaves rhomboid-triangular, small, deeply serrated, glossy, coriaceous, 
petioles long and slender, causing leaves to droop ; young leaves emit balsamic 
odour ; stipules broad. 

A deciduous tree, 50-60 ft. ; Branches slender ; Tivigs numerous, small ; 
Le?iti.cels on trunk |-4 ins. ; Ba7-k smooth, silvery-white, peeling in horizontal 
bands, reddish-brown in young trees, corky on old trunks ; Wood light brown, 
hard, even-grained, easily worked ; used for turnery, chair-making, cabinet-work, 
hoops, barrels ; twigs for brooms ; bark for tanning. 

Native of Britain ; very hardy ; last to disappear in high latitudes or high 
mountains. Name Birch from A.S. hirce, here, beorc, the Birch-tree. 

" Witch Knots," confused clusters of short twigs resembling a rook's nest, 

are produced by the fungus Exoascus turgicbis ; a somewhat similar growth, 

starting in axillary buds, is the work of a Gall-mite {Phijtoptus rudis ) ; Foliage 

destroyed by \\'^inter Moth {Cheimatobia brnmata), Mottled Umber Moth 

150 




ALDER (Aluus (jhuinosa) 

A. Immature male catkins. B. Mature mrilo catkins. C. Female flowers. D. Female clusters of last year, after shedding 

seeds. E. Female clusters of present year. F. Scale with two female Dowers. 0. Male flowers. 

//. Section of cone, showing insertion of seeds. /. Seed. 



ri.ATt; LV. 



CUPULIFER^ 

{Hybei-nia defoliaria), and Oak Beauty {Amphidasiis stratmia) ; Timber by 
Goat-moth [Cossus Ugniperda) and Wood Leopard Moth {Zeuzera cesculi). 

Fungoid Pcsfs: — Birch-leaf Rust {Melamsp07-a betulina), Birch-leaf Blotch 
{DotJiideUa betulina), Birch Polypore {Pohjporus betulinus). 



CHERRY BIRCH, Betula knta. 

Parks, gardens. May, June. Best on a dry soil and in a moderately 
sheltered situation. 

Floiveis monoecious, aromatic ; 3Iah' catkins 3-4 ins, long, scales ovate, 
reddish-brown ; Females |^-| in. long, scales ovate, pale green, smooth, styles 
light pink, stigmas persistent ; Fruiting cone oblong-ovoid, sessile, erect, 
glabrous, 1-1^ in. long, samara obovate, pointed at base. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, cordate or rounded at base, 2^-0 ins. long, lJ-3 
ins. wide, serrated, acute or acuminate, silky pubescence when young, thin, 
membranaceous, aromatic, dark dull green above, paler beneath, 9-11 pairs 
of prominent veins, petiolate ; stipules ovate, acute, scarious, ciliate. Autumn 
tint yellow. 

A deciduous tree, GO 80 ft. ; By'anches slender, spreading, pendulous at 
extremities ; Tivigs viscid, pilose, light green to orange-brown, afterwards brown 
tinged red ; Bark dark reddish-brown, furrowed, thick irregular plates ; young 
stems and branches smooth, aromatic, sweet ; Buds ovate, acute, scales brown, 
loosely imbricated ; Wood heavy, strong, hard, close-grained, dark brown tinged 
red ; sometimes called Mountain Mahogany and American Birchwood ; used 
for furniture and turnery. 

Introduced from N. America, 1759. Known as Black Birch. 



YELLOW BIRCH, Betula lutea. 

Parks, gardens. May. Best in cold latitudes and moist position ; thrives 
well near London. 

Flowers monoecious; ]\[ale catkins 8-3 ^ ins. long, scales ovate, brown, 

151 " N 3 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

ciliate ; Females f in. long, scales acute, pilose, green below, red above ; 
Fniiting cone erect, sessile, pubescent, 1-1 ^ in. long, nut slightly broader 
than wing. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, cuneate or cordate at base, usually oblique, acute or 
acuminate, doubly serrated, teeth glandular, pilose, dark green above, yellow- 
green below, aromatic, 3-4 J ins. long, 1 1-2 ins. wide ; petioles slender, hairy, 
yellow ; stipules ovate, acute, green tinged with pink. Autumn tint bright 
yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 70-80 ft. ; Branches spreading, pendulous ; Twigs pilose 
when young, becoming glabrous, green to orange-brown ; Bark reddish-brown, 
large thin plates ; on young stems and branches silvery-grey or orange, thin 
loose scales, aromatic, bitter ; Buds acute, brown, viscid, hairy ; Wood heavy, 
hard, strong, close-grained, light brown tinged with red, taking fine polish. 

Introduced from N. America, 1767. 



DWARF BIRCH, Bctula nana. 

Mountainous districts, rockeries, and shrubberies. April, IMay. In a wild 
state it affects wet situations, and will grow well in fairly moist ground. 

Floivers whitish-green ; 3[alc catkins small, i in. long, sessile ; 31ales erect, 
lateral, axillary, oblong or shortly cylindrical ; Females terminal, very small, 
bracts 3-lobed, 3-flowered ; Fruit a samara, narrowly winged, bracts broadly 
obcuneate, 3-lobed. 

Leaves orbicular, very shortly petiolate, crenated, smooth, dark green, 
reticulate, J in. long ; stipules lanceolate, brown. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-5 ft. ; sometimes up to 20 ft. ; Stem creeping ; 
Branches numerous, slightly downy when young ; Bark reddish when young, 
silvery when old. 

Native of Britain ; confined to mountains of Northumberland and Scotland. 
Also called Marsh Eirch. 



152 



CUPULIFER^ 

RED BIRCH, Betula nigra. 

Parks, gardens. May. This is a water-loving tree of singular beauty, 
the thin broad flakes of red bark producing a wild and very picturesque effect 
during the winter months. 

Flowei'S monoecious ; 3Iak' catkins clustered, 2-3 ins. long, scales ovate, 
brown ; Females \ in. long, scales green, ovate, rounded or acute, pubescent, 
ciliate ; Fruiting cone cylindrical, 1-1^ in. long, pubescent, erect, peduncles 
tomentose, samara puberulous, nut ovate or oval, as broad as wing, ripe in 
May or June. 

Leaves alternate, rhombic-ovate, cuneate, acute, doubly serrated, on young 
branches often lobed, thin, tough, tomentose when young, 11-3 ins. long, 1-2 
ins. wide, dark shining green ; petioles slender, flattened, tomentose ; stipules 
ovate, rounded or acute, pilose. Autumn tint dull yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 60-70 ft. ; Branches slender ; Twigs tomentose, red-brown ; 
Trunk often dividing not far from ground into several erect limbs ; Bark red- 
brown, deeply furrowed, scaly ; young stems and branches reddish-brown or 
silvery-grey, large thin papery scales, peeling, remaining on tree for several 
years ; Buds ovate, acute, brown, glabrous or slightly puberulous ; Wood light, 
hard, strong, close-grained, light brown. 

Introduced from N. America by Peter CoUinson, 1736. Also called River 
Birch. 



CANOE BIRCH, Betula impyrif era. 

Parks, gardens. April, May. 

Floiccrs monoecious ; Male catkins clustered, bright yellow, 3^-4 ins. long, 
scales ovate, acute, brown; Females 1-1 i in. long, scales lanceolate, light 
green, styles bright red ; Fruiting cone cylindrical, l.l in. long, glabrous, nut 
oval, narrower than wing. 

Leaves alternate, ovate, acute or acuminate, cuneate or cordate at base, 

serrated, entire at base, glandiilar and pubescent when young, later usually 

153 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

glandular on lower surface, dark green above, light yellow-green below, 2-3 ins. 
long, l|-2 ins. wide ; petioles yellow, glandular, glabrous or pubescent ; stipules 
ovate, acute, ciliate. Autumn tint light yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 60-70 ft. ; Branches short, pendulous ; Tivigs viscid and 
pubescent when young, orange-brown ; Bark brown or nearly black, separating 
into thin layers ; on young trunks and branches creamy-white to brown, orange 
on inner surface, thin papery layers ; Buds ovate, acute, resinous, pubescent to 
glabrous ; Wood light, strong, hard, tough, close-grained, light brown tinged red ; 
used in turnery ; Bark used for Indian canoes. 

Native of North America. Known also as Paper Birch. Said to have been 
introduced by the Duke of Argyll, 1750. 



NEAPOLITAN ALDER, Ahms cordi 



Parks. March, April. Thrives in dry soil, but also very suitable for plant- 
ing by water or in damp situations. The species are propagated by suckers in 
November ; seeds sown in damp soil in INIarch, transplanting the seedlings when 
one year old. 

Flowers greenish-brown, appearing before leaves ; Fruit a small woody cone. 

Leaves alternate, cordate, acuminate, serrated, glabrous, dark glossy green. 

A deciduous tree, 15-50 ft. ; round-headed, pyramidal, growth rapid ; Bark 
light-coloured. 

Introduced from S. Europe, 1820. 



ALDER, Alnus glutinosa. 

Wet woods, borders of streams, wet pastures. March, April. Best in good 
soil little above level of water ; useful for the sides of ponds or streams. 

Floivers greenish, moncccious, appearing before leaves fully out ; 3IaJe 

catkins autumnal, lasting through winter, opening in spring, cylindrical, 

drooping, 2-4 ins. long, peltate reddish bracts 3-flowered, perianth 4-cleft ; 

Stamens 4 to 6 each flower ; Female catkins in spring, short, ovoid, closely 

154 



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CUPULIFERiE 

imbricated, resembling fir-cone in shape, red-brown Israels or scales, smaller 
inner scales or bracteoles with 2 ovaries (flowers) in each ; Ovarii 2-celled, 
styles 2 ; Fruit a small 1-celled, 1-seeded nut, without wings ; fruiting catkin 
erect, woody, resembling miniature fir-cone, black, h in. long, ripe in October 
or November ; seed not produced till twenty years old ; seed-vessels often 
persisting after escape of seed, and then black in colour. 

Leaves broadly ovate or orbicular, cuneate, sharply serrated, shortly petiolate, 
stipulate, 2-4 ins. long, glutinous in young stage, shining above, underside having 
tufts of whitish down in angles of veins ; stipules ovate to lanceolate, glandular 
hairs. Autumn tints deep brown to black. 

A deciduous tree, 30-60 ft. ; Bark rough, black, full of clefts ; Buds stalked, 
large, obtuse, triangular in section, brown, with tinge of violet ; Lenticels reddish ; 
Wood soft, light, very lasting under water, white when alive, red when freshly 
exposed, pinkish when dry ; sometimes called Scottish mahogany ; used for 
carpentry, poles, packing-cases, turnery. In Scotland dyes obtained from tree, 
— green from flowers, pale brown from twigs, dark red from bark. 

Native of Britain. Common name from A.S. alor, aler, air, the Alder-tree. 

Pimple-like galls on leaves produced by a Mite {Eriop/ti/es Icevis). 



OREGON ALDER, Ahms oregona. 

Parks. Moist soil. March. 

Flowers monoecious, opening before unfolding of leaves ; 3Iale catkins 2-3 
ins. long, becoming 4-6 ins. long, perianth lobes ovate ; Stamens 4, scales 
dark red-brown ; Females ^-| in. long, styles bright red, scales dark red, 
acute ; Fruit a cone of small 1-seeded nuts, ovate or oblong, ^-1 in. long, 
peduncles stout, orange, nuts surrounded by membranaceous wing. 

Leaves alternate, ovate to elliptical, acute, narrowed towards base, crenately 

lobed, teeth glandular, tomentose when young, glabrous or pilose above, rusty 

pubescence beneath, 3-5 ins. long, \l~\i ins. broad, sometimes 8-10 ins. long, 

stipules ovate, acute, tomentose. 

A deciduous tree, 20 ft. ; Branches slender, somewhat pendulous ; Twigs 

155 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

green to bright red, ultimately ashy-grey ; Bark rough, pale grey or nearly white ; 
Bicds dark red, pale scurfy pubescence ; IVood light, soft, brittle, not strong, 
close-grained, brown tinged red. 

Native of Western North America (40-80 ft.). 



SEASIDE ALDER, Ahms maritima. 

Parks. Moist soil. September. 

Flowers monoecious, appearing in summer ; 3Iale catkins li-2| ins. long, 
in axils of upper leaves, scurfy pubescent, glandular pitted, peduncles slender, 
scales orange-brown, stamens bright orange ; Females solitary, in axils of lower 
leaves, bright red at apex, light green below before opening, scales ovate, acute, 
ciliate, peduncles stout, pubescent ; Fruit a cone of small 1-seeded nuts, ovate, 
f in. long, 2 in. diam., scales thin, dark reddish-brown to nearly black, 
persistent. 

Leaves alternate, very variable, oblong to obovate, acute, acuminate, or 
obtuse, narrowed at base, glandularly serrate, scurfy pubescence above, dark 
green, 3-4 ins. long, l|-2 ins. broad, midrib, veins and petiole hairy and 
glandular ; stipules oblong, acute, caducous. 

A deciduous tree, 20-30 ft.; or shrub, 15-20 ft. ; Branches spreading, slender ; 
Tidgs yellowish-green, becoming orange or reddish-brown in winter, afterwards 
ashy-grey; Buds acute, dark x*ed, scurfy pubescence; Bark smooth, brown; 
Wood light, soft, close-grained, light brown. 

Native of N. America. 



WHITE ALDER, Almis rhombijblia. 

Parks. Moist soil, INIarch. 

Floivers monoecious, opening before leaves ; 3Iale catkins 40 ins. long ; 

Perianth 4-lobed ; Stamens 2-3, scales orange-brown ; Females, scales ovate or 

rounded ; Fruit a cone, \-\ in. long, scales lobed, nuts ovate, margin thin. 

Leaves alternate, ovate to orbicular, rounded or acute, narrowed towards 

156 



CUPULIFER^ 

base, serrated, margins slightly thickened and reflexed, tomentose when young, 
dark green and glandular above, paler and puberulous beneath, 2-3 ins. long, 
1^-2 ins. broad ; petioles slender, hairy, flattened and grooved ; stipules ovate, 
acute, scarious, puberulous. 

A deciduous tree, 20 ft. ; Branches slender, pendulous at extremities ; Tivigs 
pubescent when young, becoming dark orange-red and glabrous ; Buds dark red, 
pale scurfy pubescence ; Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, 
light brown. 

Native of N. America. 



HORNBEAM, Carpinus Betulus. 

Woods and hedges. May. Best on strong porous soil; grows well in 
partial light ; makes a good hedge. Propagated by seeds sown in ordinary soil 
outdoors in autumn, transplanting when one year old. 

Flozvers yellowish, monoecious, anemophilous, appearing as leaves come out ; 
Male catkins sessile, pendulous, 1| in. long, bracts ovate, acute, imbricate, 
ciliated, each containing 5-14 stamens, forked anthers with tufts of hairs ; 
Female catkins 2-4 ins. long, lax, terminal, cylindrical, flowers in pairs, each in a 
3-lobed bracteole, entire or toothed; Ovary 2-celled, stigmas 2, styles long; 
Fruit a small ovoid, brown nut, 7-11 -nerved, within a large leafy 3-lobed, entire 
or serrated bracteole, 1-1| in. long, catkins several inches long, ripe in 
October — November. 

Leaves alternate, elliptical-ovate, acute or acuminate, doubly serrated, shortly 
petiolate, pubescent beneath, 2-3 ins. long, stipules large, linear-oblong, 
withered leaves persistent through winter. 

A deciduous tree, 30-70 ft.; Trunk usually flattened; Branches twiggy; 
Bark smooth, light grey ; Buds short, adpressed, scales brown, ciHate, pubescent 
at tips ; Wood yellowish-white, hard, tough, close-grained, strong, light, flexible ; 
used for cogs, agricultural tools and implements, parts of pianos, also for gun- 
powder charcoal. 

Native of England and Wales. 

157 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

" Witch Knots " produced by E.voascus Carpini ; Leaves subject to 
Hornbeam anthracnose [Gloeospojium Carpini) and Hornbeam-leaf Blotch 
( Gnomoniella jimbriata). 



AMERICAN HORNBEAM, Carpinus caroliniana. 

Parks, gardens. May. 

Flowers monoecious; 3Iale catkins \\ in. long, scales ovate, acute, boat- 
shaped, lower half green, upper bright red ; Females \-^ in. long, scales green, 
ovate, acute, hairy, styles scarlet ; Fridt a nut, bracteole, 2-3-lobed, serrated, 
1-lJ in. long, 1 in. wide, catkin 5-6 ins. long. 

Leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, doubly serrated, glandular, 
entire at base, thin, firm, dull blue-green above, light yellow-green below, 
tomentose in axils of veins, 2-4 ins. long, 1-lf in. wide; petioles slender, terete, 
hairy ; stipules ovate-lanceolate, acute, pubescent, ciliate. Autumn tints scarlet 
and orange. 

A deciduous t7-ee, 30-40 ft. ; Branches long, slender, spreading, pendulous at 
extremities ; Ttvigs silky when young, orange-brown to dark red, finally grey 
tinged red ; Bark grey-brown ; Buds ovate, acute ; scales brown, scarious 
margins ; Jf^ood light brown. 

Native of N. America. 



COMMON HAZEL, Cori/lus Avelkma. 

Woods, copses, hedges. February — April. Propagated by layering of 
strong shoots in November, removed and planted in following autumn ; suckers 
in October ; seeds (nuts) sown 2 ins. deep in open ground in October or Nov- 
ember, transplanting seedlings two years afterwards. 

Floivers grey-green, monoecious, anemophilous, appearing before leaves are 

out; Male catkins cylindrical, drooping, I2-2 ins. long, without perianth; 

Stamens 8, filaments short, anther-cells separate, tips hairy, bracts sessile, broad, 

cuneate, with 2 scale-hke bracteoles ; Female catkins small, bud-like, crimson ; 

158 




HAZEL {Coryhis dcellana) 

A. Male catkins. 7?, B. Female flowers. C. Female flowers enlarged. D. Enlarged apex of female flower clusters. 

E. Fruit. F. Enlarged male flower. 



Plate LVII. 



CUPULIFER.E 

sub-sessile, outer scale-bracts empty, inner upper 3-lobed bracteoles each con- 
taining 2 flowers ; Perianth with a minute filiform toothed border ; Ovary 
2-celled, styles 2, stigmas red ; Fruit a hard brown nut enclosed in a leafy, 
canipanulate bract (cupule), which is unequally lobed and jagged, ripe in 
October. 

Leaves alternate, orbicular, obliquely cordate, acuminate, doubly serrated, 
2-4 ins. long; petiole short, pubescent when young, coarse and glabrous after- 
wards ; stipules oblong, obtuse, petioles and stipules with reddish glandular haiis. 
Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous shruh or small tree, 20-30 ft. ; Shoots flexible and tougli, brown, 
hairy, glandular ; Bark spht, ash-grey on stem ; Buds compressed, scales ciliate, 
reddish glandular hairs ; IVood whitish-red, close-grained, soft, very elastic. 

Native of Britain ; seldom allowed to develop into tree of any size. Name 
from A.S. haesel. 

Injurious Insects : — Bud Galls — Hazel and P'ilbert Bud JNIite {Phytoptus 
avellana) ; Fruit — Nut Weevil {Balaninus nucum) ; Leaves — Garden Chafer 
{Phyllopertha horticola). Cockchafer [Melolontha vulga?-is), Mottled Umber jNIoth 
{Ilyberiiia defoliuria), Nut-tree Tussock JMoth {Demas coryli) ; Wood — Wood 
Leopard Moth [Zcuzcra cesculi). 



CONSIANTINOPLE HAZEL, Corylus Colurua. 

Gardens, plantations. March, April. This is one of the strongest-growing 
of all the Hazels, and seedlings are used as standards for grafting varieties in 
March. 

/^/orcrr.? green, longer and larger than Cor^/«,y ^t'c//««rt; Fruit a small nut, 
involucre double, exterior bract many-partite, interior 3-partite, divisions pal- 
mate ; seeds insipid. 

Leaves alternate, roimdish ovate, cordate, serrated, stipules lanceolate, 
acuminate. 

A deciduous tree, 40 60 ft. ; with broad spreading head ; Branches horizontal. 

Introduced from Asia Minor, 1605. Also called Turkish Hazel. 

159 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

TURKEY OAK, Querc7is Cerris. 

Parks, gardens, plantations. April, May. A tree with handsome foliage and 
peculiar mossy-cupped acorns. The species of Oak are propagated by seed 
(acorns) gathered in autumn, stored in sand till March, and then sown, trans- 
planting seedlings when one year old ; choice kinds are grafted on the common 
species in March. 

Floivers greenish-white ; 3Iale catkins pubescent, 1-3 ins. long, flowers distant ; 
Females sessile, at sides of short peduncle, single or groups 2-4 ; Perianth usually 
4- partite ; Stamens 4, hairy ; Ovary grey-tomentose, stigma lobes often 4, 
sessile, reflexed, linear, pointed ; Fruit a glans (acorn), solitary or twin, sessile, 
cylindrical, brown, f-lj in. long, cup hemisplierical, with bristly or moss-like 
scales, rarely ripening till second year, acorn long ovoid, dark brown, tomentose 
at apex. 

Leaves oblong or obovate, variable, shortly petiolate, 2-3 ins. long, sinuate or 
pinnatifid, lobes lanceolate, unequal, acute, angular, sliglitly pilose both surfaces, 
stipules narrow-linear, pilose, persistent on leaf-bases. Autumn tints russet- 
brown to dull grey. 

A deciduous tree, 50-60 ft. ; pyramidal outline ; Branches erect, generally in 
long straiglit linei, spray small, young branches pubescent; Buds with few 
ciliate, pubescent scales ; Wood coarser and straighter in grain than English Oak ; 
used for all kinds of constructive work. 

Native of S. Europe and Levant ; introduced 1735. Also called Mossy- 
cupped Oak. 

SCARLET OAK, Quc/rus cocdnea. 

Parks. May. In the early days of autumn tliere is perhaps no more 
beautiful tree. 

Florvers monoecious; 31alc cafhins 3-4 ins. long, slender; Perianth 

4-5-partite, lobes acute, shorter than stamens, red ; Females on pubescent 

peduncles, perianth lobes acute, scales red, ovate, acute, stigmatic arms 

160 




HOLM OAK, OH EVERGREEN OAK {Quercus ilex) 
A. Branch with male catkins (to right) and small female flowers (at apex). B. Shoot, with miniature acorns. C. Fruit. 



Plate LVIII. 



CUPULIFERi^ ' 

elongated, linear ; Fridt a glans (acorn), turbinate or hemispherical, \-^ in. 
long, projecting \-\ its length from cupule. 

Leaves alternate, 5-8 ins. long, 4—5 ins. broad, broad oval to obovate, deeply 
pinnatifid, sinuses deep, rounded, lobes divergent, sparingly toothed, teeth 
prolonged into subulate filament, thin, glabrous, briglit green, or somewhat 
yellowish-green beneath, young leaves tomentose in angles of veins, petiole 
\~2\ ins. Autumn tints brilliant scarlet and crimson. 

A deciduous tree, 50 ft. ; Tzvigs olive-green or brown ; Bud-scales glabrous, 
ciliate, red- brown; JFood heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, reddish-brown 
used for window-sills, door frames, mallets, &;c. 

Introduced from N. America, 1691. 



EVERGREEN OAK, Quercus Ilex. 

Parks, gardens. April, May. Best in good deep sandy loam. This is the 
best known of the Evergreen Oaks, and a very handsome tree for landscape 
purposes, greatly resembling the Olive trees of the Italian coast and of the 
French Riviera. 

Floioers monoecious ; 3I(ile catkins l-2i ins. long, flowers distant, few on 
a peduncle ; Perianth 6-partite, tomentose ; Stamens 6, anthers tipped with 
a short point ; Females in racemose groups of 4-8, peduncles tomentose, as long 
as leaves ; Stigmas short, broad, reflexed ; Fruit a glans (acorn), twice as long as 
calyx, sessile, ripening in second year, cup liemispiierical, velvety, erect, scales 
slightly adpressed, tomentose. 

Leaves very variable, elliptical, oblong, ovate, or lanceolate, serrated or 
entire, acute, lower ones coriaceous, glabrous, sometimes spiny, deep glossy 
grey-green, hoary l)eneath. 1^-5 ins. long, persisting nearly three years, stipules 
linear, purplish, dying leaves dirty brown. 

An evergreen s/irnh or small tree, 20-40 ft. ; seldom single-stemmed in 

England, but when so may reach 70-85 ft. ; Tivigs ash-grey ; liai'k ash-grey to 

black, thin, not corky ; Tap-roots very long, lateral roots few ; Wood hard, 

close-grained, heavy, brown, taking high polish, hable to .split in drying. 

VOL. II. 1(!1 1' 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Native of S. Europe and N. Africa; introduced about middle of sixteentli 
century. Also called Holm or Holly Oak, from its leaves sometimes resembling 
the Holly ; a corruption of M.E. holin, a holly ; A.S. holen, holegn. 



BLACK JACK, Querciif; marilandica. 

Parks, gardens. May. 

Flowers monoecious ; 3Iale catkins 2-4 ins. long, hoary ; Perianth 
4-5-partite, thin, scarious, pale-pubescent, lobes ovate ; Females on short 
rusty-tomentose peduncles ; Stigmas dark red, scales rusty ; Fruit a glans, 
solitary or in pairs, usually pedunculate ; acorn oblong, f in. long, enclosed for 
nearly | its length in cup, scales reddish-brown, often ciliate and tomentose, 
upper rows forming a thick rim. 

Leaves alternate, broadly obovate, rounded or cordate at base, 3-5-lobed, 
pink and tomentose when young, afterwards firm, thick, or sub-coriaceous, 
dark lustrous yellow-green above, yellow, orange, or brown below, 6-7 ins. 
long and broad, petioles stout, yellow. Autumn tints brown and yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 30-50 ft. ; Branches short, spreading, often contorted ; 
Tivigs tomentose, with stellate hairs when young, becoming glabrous or 
puberulous, brown or grey ; Bark deeply divided into quadrangular plates ; 
Buds ovate or oval, angled, red-brown, hairy ; Wood heavy, hard, strong, 
dark brown. 

Native of U.S.A. 



SWAMP OAK, Quercus palustris. 

Parks, plantations. May. Though most at home in swamp and low ground, 
it will thrive in any good rich soil. 

Floivers monoecious ; Catkins pilose ; Fruit a glans (acorn), ovoid or globose, 

solitary or pairs, '^\ in. long, cups sub-sessile, fiat, shallow, saucer-shaped, 

scales closely packed, 5 in number. 

Leaves alternate, elliptical-oblong, deeply and widely sinuated, cuneate at 

162 



CUPULIFERi^ 

base, thin, deep green above, pale shining green beneath, glabrous both surfaces, 
small tufts of tomentum in axils of prominent veins underside, lobes ovate- 
acute, sinuses deep, round, few very acuminate bristly-pointed serratures, 6 ins. 
long, 4 ins. broad ; petioles long, slender. Autumn tints bright purplish-red, 
purplish underneath. 

A deciduous tree, 80 ft. ; dense-headed, pyramidal when young ; Branches 
when older spreading and drooping, secondary branches numerous, smooth, 
slender, densely intermingled, giving the appearance of many pins ; Bark 
smooth when young, scarcely corked when old ; IVood used for furniture. 

Native of N. America, in marshy places ; introduced 1800. Known as Pin 
Oak. 



BRITISH OAK, Quercus pedunctilata. 

Woods on clay soils. April, JNIay. Thrives best in deep fresh soil and 
abundance of light. The British Oak is the emblem of majesty, strength, and 
durability. 

Floivers monoecious, anemophilous, proterogynous, appearing as leaf-buds 
open ; 3Iale catkim pendant, 2-3 ins. long ; Floicers isolated, sessile ; Perianth 
4-7-lobed, yellowish-green, ciliate ; Stamens 4-12, sulphur-yellow; Females 
inserted singly or in groups on long stalks, in axils of uppermost leaves ; 
Invohicre of small reddish bracts ; Pcriantli 3-8-toothed ; Ovary 3-celled, 
stigmas 3, short, spreading, red ; Fruit a glans (acorn), oblong, cupule imbri- 
cated, scales triangular-ovate, very numerous, small, peduncle 16 ins. long; 
acorns seldom produced till after sixty years. 

Leaves alternate, oblong-obovate, shortly petiolate or sub-sessile, auricled at 
base, sinuses rather acute, lobes obtuse, downy beneath when young, glabrous 
when old, coriaceous, 3-6 ins. long, 1-2| ins. broad ; withered leaves frequently 
retained till spring, especially yoiuig trees. Autumn tints golden, russet, bronze 
or red. 

A deciduous tree, 60-130 ft. ; Branches spreading, tortuous, running liori- 

zontally, breaking out at right angles ; Shoots glabrous ; Buds brown, crowded, 

163 1' 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

ovoid-conoid, slightly 5-angled, scales are stipules ; Bark thick, rough, dark, 
deeply furrowed, net-like ; Wood hard and durable. 

Native of Britain ; common over greater part of England, Ireland, and 
Scottish Ijowlands ; by many regarded as a distinct species. English name Oak 
from A.S. ac, the oak. Probable age of some specimens is 2000 years. Bark used 
for tanning, and " Oak-w^ood extract" obtained from sawdust and waste 
pieces. 

Insects injurious to Oak: — 1500 species of insects have been described as 
subsisting on the Oak. The following are some of the most common : — Sap — 
Plant Bugs ; Bark — Bark-mining Beetles {Scot ijt idee), Death-watch Beetles 
{Anobiidce) ; Fruit — Acorn Weevil {Balaninus glandium) ; Leaves — Cockchafer 
{3Ieloh»itha vulgaris), Leaf Roller Moth ( Tortrix viridana), Oak Eggar INIoth 
{Bombyx quercus). Mottled Umber {Hybernia defoliaria), Winter Moth 
{Cheimatobia brumata), Vapourer Moth {Orgyia antiqiui). Oak Beauty {Amphy- 
dasis strataria), Peppered Moth {A. bctularia); Wood — Stag Beetle {Luca/ms 
cervus), Lesser Stag Beetle {Dorcus paruUelopipedus), Goat Moth (Cossus 
ligniperda), Wood Leopard Moth {Zeuzera cBsculi). All parts of Oak attacked 
by Gall Flies, giving rise to Oak Galls of various forms, most common being : — 
Oak Apples produced by Teras terminalis. Marble Gall {Cynips kollari). 
Artichoke Gall {Apldlothrix fecundatrix), Currant Gall {Spathegaster baccarum). 
Oak Spangles {Neuroterus lenticularis), and Silky Button Gall {Neuroterus 
miinismatis). 

Fungoid Pests: — \'egetable Beef Steak {Fistulina hepatica) always found on 
dead parts of tree, Sulphury VV^ood-rot {Polyporus sidfureus), Sooty IMould 
(Fumago vagans). 



RED OAK, Qncrvus rubra. 

Parks. April, May. 

Flowers moncecious ; Females, lobes of stigma elongated, linear and style- 
like, at least as long as the rest of the Hower and its cupule ; Fruit a glans 

(acorn), long ovoid, cylindrical above, 1 in. long, sessile or very shortly 

164 




BRI'l'liSK OAK (Qiierrut: robur, rai: pedunculala) 

A. Flowering branch, with male and female flowers. B. Kruil. C. Single male flower. I). Suijjle female flower, longitudinal 
section. £. Cups or cupules of acorn. F. Half-grown acorns. G. Longitudinal section of mature acorn. 

//. Transverse section of young acorn. 



Tlate LIX. 



CUPULIFERi^ 

pedunculate, in axils of fallen leaves, cupule hemispherical, |— 1 in. diam., 
shallow, scales small, triangular-ovate, closely adpressed. 

Leaves alternate, elliptic or oblong, 3^-4^^ ins. long, 2-2J ins. broad, coarsely 
sinuate-dentate or pinnatifid, sinuses broad and shallow, lobes triangular- 
acuminate, coarsely toothed, acute or obtuse at base, glabrous, shining green, 
thin, petiole j-J length of midrib. Autumn tints orange, scarlet, brown, 
dull red. 

A deciduous iree, 60-80 ft. ; Tivigs olive-brown ; Bark dark grey, smooth ; 
Bud-scales pubescent ; JVood reddish, coarse-grained. 

Introduced from N. America, 1769. Known as Champion Oak. 



SESSILE-FLOWERED OAK, Quercus sessiUflora. 

Woods and parks. April, May. Prefers high ground with southern or 
western aspect. 

Floivers monoecious ; Females crowded on short stalks in uppermost leaf-axils ; 
F?-nit a glans (acorn), 1-celled, 1-seeded, peduncle very short. 

Leaves alternate, oblong-obovate, petiole -^-^ the length of midrib, tapering 
below without forming auricles, sinuses opposite, lobes more triangular and 
acute, somewhat pubescent beneath, coriaceous, 3-6 ins. long, pale green. 

A deciduous tree, 60-130 ft.; Branches and spray less tortuous; Twigs 
downy ; Buds large, crowded, scales cihate ; Bark light in colour ; Wood darker, 
heavier, more elastic than Q. peduncnlata. 

Native of Britain ; common in Forest of Dean ; plentiful in N. Wales and 
N. England. 

CORK OAK, (Quercus Suber. 

Parks. April, May. This makes a handsome tree, and does well on 

chalky soil. 

Flowers monoecious ; M(de catkins l\ in. long, lax ; Perianth 6-partite, 

reddish-tomentose, pedicels long; Slaniens short, anthers ovoid-acute; Females 

165 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

white-tomentose, single or grouped, sessile, stigmatic arms 3-4, broad, linear, 
sessile, reflexed ; Fruit a glans (acorn), cylindric-oblong, |-1| in. long, sub- 
sessile, ciipule hemispherical or turbinate, scales loose, grey-tomentose, nut 2-3 
times as long as cupula, acute, polished pale brown. 

Leaves alternate, 1-2 ins. long, \-\^ in. broad, ovate, oval, or oblong, 
toothed or entire, acute, glabrous, grey-green above, stellate-velvety-hoary 
beneath, coriaceous, petiole |-j in. long. 

An evergreen tree, 25-70 ft.; Branches much contorted; b?rmc Mets hoavy ; 
Bnrix rough, thick and corky, cream-coloured. 

Native of S. Europe; introduced 1581. 



YELLOW-BARK OAK, Qucrcus velutina. 

Parks. April, May. 

Floivers monoecious ; Male catkins 4-G ins. long ; Perianth covered with pale 
hairs, lobes ovate, acute ; Females on short peduncles ; Perianth lobes acute ; 
Stigmas red, scales ovate ; Fruit a glans, sessile or short-stalked, solitary or 
in pairs, acorn ovate-oblong to hemispherical, light red-brown, ^-f in. long, 
enclosed for half its length in a thin red-brown cup. 

Leaves alternate, ovate or oblong, cuneate or truncate at base, usually 
7-lobed, sinuses wide, rounded, thick, firm, or sub-coriaceous, tomentose when 
young, dark shining green above, yellow-green or brown below, usually 5-G ins. 
long, 3-4 ins. wide, sometimes much larger, petioles stout, yellow, 3-G ins. 
long. Autvunn tints dull red, orange, and brown. 

A deciduous tree, GO-80 ft. ; Branches slender, spreading ; Tivigs red or 
reddish-brown ; Bark on young stems and branches smootli, dark brown, 
on old trunks deeply divided into broad rounded ridges ; Buds ovate, angled, 
tomentose ; Wood heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, brown tinged with 
red. 

Native of N. America. 



l(i(> 



CUPULIFERi^ 



GOLDEN-LEAVED CHESTNUT, Castmwpsis rkri/mp/>i///a. 

Parks, gardens. May. Prefers a rather deep, loamy, but well-drained soil. 

Flowers monoecious, densely bristly, maturing in the second year ; Catkins 
2-2| ins. long ; 3Iales, Perianth campanulate, tomentose, 5-6-lobed, lobes ovate, 
shorter than stamens; Stamens 10-12, filaments filiform, exserted, anthers 
oblong ; Females, Calyx oblong-campanulate, 6-lobed, free from ovary, lobes 
short, rounded, hoary tomentose ; Ovarij sessile on disk, 3-celled, styles 3, 
stigmas 3, spreading ; Fruit a 4-valved cupula, globose, sessile, solitary or 
clustered, tomentose, spiny, 1-li in. diam,, nuts 1-2, ovate, acute, 3-angled, 
yellow-brown, lustrous. 

Leaves alternate, simple, lanceolate or oblong, acuminate, acute at base, 
entire, slightly revolute, thick, coriaceous, dark green and lustrous above, 
golden-yellow scales below, scattered white scales above, 2-6 ins. long, \-2 ins. 
broad, petiolate, stipules ovate, acute or obtuse, brown, scarious, puberulous, 
leaves persistent 2-3 years. 

An evergreen shrub, or small tree ; Branches stout, spreading ; Twigs 
with golden-yellow scurfy scales, brown and scurfy later ; Bark scaly, red- 
brown ; Buds ovate or sub-globose, scales brown, puberulous, ciliate ; JFood 
light, soft, close-grained, not strong, light brown tinged red. 

Native of Western N. America, sometimes growing to height of 150 ft.; 
introduced through William Lobb, 1848. Syn. Castanea chrysophijlht. 



SWEET CHESTNUT, Castanea sativa. 

Parks, plantations. May — July. Prefers deep, porous soils and good light ; 
best in sandy loam. Propagated by nuts sown in open ground in November or 
February; transplant when one year old. 

Fluivers greenish-yellow, with a powerful and disagreeable odour ; Catkins 

cylindrical, erect, 5-6 ins. long, males in upper part, females in lower ; Perianth 

of males 5-6 lobed, yellowish ; Stamens 5-20 ; Females green, 2 3 enclosed in a 

167 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

4-lobed involucre ; Perianth investing a tapering 6-celled inferior Ovarij, stigmas 
5-8, reddish ; Fruit 1-celled, greenish, containing 13 brown nuts enclosed in a 
spiny involucre or cupule, ripe in October ; bears after about twenty-five years. 

Leaves simple, alternate, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, mucronate serratures, 
glabrous on botli surfaces, veins running straight from midrib to margin, 
9-10 ins. long. Autumn tints yellow, orange, brown. 

A deciduous tree, 60-80 ft. ; Branches growing horizontally and downwards, 
thickened towards side spray ; Bark of young wood smooth and brown, 
becoming grey later, splitting into longitudinal fissures, which later on have 
a spiral twist ; Buds with 2 scales, yellowish-green ; Wood durable ; useful 
for beams, posts, fences, &c. ; more durable when young, sap-wood soon 
changing into heart -wood. 

Supposed to have come from Asia Minor ; probably introduced during 
Roman occupation ; average age about .500 years ; specimens on Mount Etna 
2000-2500 years old. 

Name Chestnut is short for chesten-nut = nut of the cliesten= M.E. chestei/i, — 
O.F. chastaigne, — L. castanea, the Chestnut-tree. — Gr. kastanon, chestnut. 
Sometimes said to be derived from Kastanum, in Thessaly ; more probably from 
Armenian kaskeid, a chestnut-tree, — kask, a chestnut. 



BEECH, Fagns sylvatica. 

Woods, paiks, gardens. April, May. Prefers limy soils, or clays con- 
taining lime ; requires deep soil to do well. Propagated by seeds in March 
or April ; transplant when two years old. 

Floivers greenish-yellow, monoecious, anemophilous ; 3la/e.s on slender, 

drooping, globose catkins, 1-1+ in. long, usually 4 in a bud, each with about 

a dozen flowers; Perianth campanulate, 4 7-lobed ; Stamens 8-12, filaments long, 

anthers yellow, small ; Females in erect catkins with short peduncles, 2-4 in a 

cupule of imbricated bracts ; Perianth 4-5-tootlied ; Oi^arij 3-celled, styles 8 ; 

Fruit 2-3 triangular, 1 -seeded nuts (masts) enclosed in a 4-valved bristly, 

woody, tough, reddish-brown capsule, ripe in October. 

168 




SWEET CHESTNUT {Castanea mtiva) 



K 



A. Female flowers. B. Male catkins. C. Leaf. D. Male (lower. K. Fruit- (3 nuts rncln.se(l in prickly involucre or oupulo). 
F. Nuls removed from cupule. U. Section of cluster of female llowers. Jl. Female llowers. 



A-rn LX. 



SALICINE.^ 

Leaves ovate-oblong, l^-Sj ins. long, entire or slightly toothed, ciliate, 
shortly petiolate, acuminate, glossy, silky and yellowish-green when young, 
deep green when older. Autumn tints yellow, orange, gold, purple, finally a 
fiery brown. 

A deciduous tree, 60-130 ft.; Branches with an upward tendency, side 
spray at acute angles ; Ticigf; smooth, polished ; Bark smooth, leaden-grey ; 
Buds long, cone shaped, sharp pointed, 18 20 brown, slightly fringed scales 
whicli are modified stipules ; Wood light brown, hard, close-grained, rather 
brittle ; used for tools, cabinet- and chair-making, piles, wedges, turnery, 
carpentry, and fuel. 

Indigenous in England ; extensively planted throughout Britain ; lives 
200-300 years. The English name is derived from the A.S. here, boece, 
the Beech-tree, so called from the fact that the nuts were eaten (formerly by 
men, now only by pigs). The Latin name Fagus has somewhat the same 
meaning, being derived from the Greek phcgos — phugo, to eat. 

Injurious Insects: — Foliage — Cockchafer {Melolontha vulgaris). Silvery 
Weevil {Phjjlloljius argentatus), Tree Lackey Moth [Bomhyx neustria). Mottled 
Umber Moth [Hyt>ernia defoliaria) ; Timber — Wood Leopard Moth {Zeuzera 
cesculi). 

Fungoid Pests: — Beech Agaric [Armillaria mucida), Apple Tree Canker 
( Xectria ditissima ) . 

Galls on leaves produced by a Gall-gnat {Hormomyia piligera). 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division IV. . . Incompletce 

Natural Oudek . . Salicinece 

Trees or shrubs with watery juice, and alternate, petiolate, and stipulate 

leaves, stipules scaly and deciduous or foliaceous ; Floxvers dictcious, appearing 

before leaves, borne in catkins in axils of leaves of previous year ; Perianth : 

IGl) 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Stamens 2 or many ; Stjilcs usually short or obsolete, stigmas 2-4, often 2-lobed ; 
Fruit a capsule, 1 -celled, 2-4-valved ; seeds furnished with an arillus of 
silky hairs. 

WHITE WILLOW, SalLv alba. 

Marshes, moist woods and meadows, and banks of streams. April, May. 
The Willows are propagated by cuttings, 9-15 ins. long, inserted for two-thirds 
their length in moist soil, October — March ; choice kinds may be budded on 
the Goat Willow in July, or grafted on the same in March. 

Flowers dioecious, appearing with leaves ; Catkins erect, sub-sessile, on short, 
leafy laterals of preceding year's shoots ; Males l|-2 ins. long, l-\ in. diam., 
cylindrical, lax, often curved ; Stamens 2, free, hairy, anthers yellow, scales 
greenish-yellow, white-silky above, glands 2 ; Females 2-2^ ins. long, {-^ 
in. diam. ; Ova?'ij almost sessile, smooth, style short, stigmas short, deeply 
bifid, recurved, glands 1 or 2 ; Fruit a capsule, ovoid-conic, sessile or sub-sessile, 
glabrous, pedicel shorter than gland. 

Leaves alternate, elliptical-lanceolate, finely serrated, lower serratures 
glandular, acuminate, tapering at base, densely silky when young, glabrous 
when old, ashy-grey or whitish, never bright green, 2-4 ins. long ; petioles short, 
glandular ; stipules minute, ovate-lanceolate, pubescent, caducous. Autumn 
tints yellow and brown. 

A deciduous tree, 60-80 ft. ; Trunk up to 20 ft. girth ; Bark thick, deeply 
fissured ; Young twigs slender, supple, not easily detached, silky pubescence 
at tips, polished, olive-brown, purplish, or yellow ; older twigs orange ; Buds 
silky, Hattened, small ; Wood light, tough, easily worked ; much used for cricket- 
bats ; well adapted for a variety of wright-work ; used especially for poles ; much 
attacked by larva of Goat Moth. 

Native of Britain ; one form called Huntingdon Willow ; specimen at 
Haverholme Priory pi-obably 1000 years old. Name Willow from A.S. icelig, 
wilig, pliancy, willingness. 

"Rosette" Galls (found on several species of AVillow), consisting of 30-60 

aborted leaves, produced by larva of Cecidomi/ia rosaria. 

170 



-A i 




E 





DWARF SALLOW. 

{Sa/tx repens ) 

A. Brancli with youni; Catkins, Male. 15. Branch with adult Male Catkins. C. Branch with adult Female Catkins 
I). Branch with foliage. E. Male flowers. F. Female flower. 



'■■■ \'^.n^' "':■ 



SALICINEiE 



GOLDEN OSIER, Sa/Lv alba, V. vitellina. 

Osier grounds, lakes-sides. April, INIay. The yellow and red bark makes 
this a very effective shrub in winter, especially when planted in masses. To 
obtain the brightest colours the plants should be cut back in February, thus 
encouraging a growth of vigorous shoots. 

Floivers dioecious ; Scales linear-lanceolate, acute, fringed at base, longer than 
pistil ; Ovary sessile, ovate-lanceolate, smooth. 

Leaves lanceolate, acute, cartilaginous, serrate, smooth above, glaucous and 
somewhat silky beneath ; stipules minute, lanceolate, smooth, deciduous. 

A deciduous shrub, cultivated as an Osier ; or tree, 30-40 ft. ; Tivigs pliable, 
smooth, polished, bright golden-yellow or reddish ; older branches orange ; Bzids 
small, elongated, flat, silky. 

Considered by some to be a distinct species. Specific name from L. vitcllus, 
yolk of an egg, in reference to yellow bark. 



BUSHY WILLOW, Salix Arbuscula. 

Scotch mountains. .Tune, July. 

Flowers di(Ecious, not specially fragrant, appearing before or just after leaves 
open, lateral, sessile, or on leafy peduncles ; Male catkins ^—1 in. long, ),-?, in. 
diam. ; Stamens 2, free, glabrous, anthers orange, scales obtuse, spathulate, 
yellowish to rusty-red, ciliate ; Females, Ovary ovoid-conic, tomentose, pedicel 
shorter than gland, style long, stigmas often divided, filiform ; Fruit a capsule, 
sessile, conical, reddish, tomentose, style long, deeply cleft, stigmas thick, 
notched. 

Leaves alternate, very variable, ovate-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, finely 

glandular-serrated, acute or aciuninate, glabrous, dark green and shining above, 

pale and glaucous beneath, silky wlien young, veins prominent, midrib yellow, 

J-1.', in. long, \-^ in. broad, petiole short. iVutuum tint yellow. 

171 

^^ '^ '« 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

A deciduous shrub, 1-2 ft. ; Stem procumbent and rooting, sending up erect, 
rigid branches ; 2\vigs downy, yellow at first, reddish-brown later. 
Native of Scotland ; rare. 



ROUND-EARED SALLOW, Sallx cmrita. 

Damp copses, moist thickets, and moist places on heaths. April, JNIay. 

Floivers dioecious, appearing before leaves ; 3Iale catkius ^— f in. long, sessile, 
ovoid, dense, silky; Stamenfs 2, free, pubescent below, scales velvety both surfaces ; 
Females |— f in. long, cylindrical, shortly stalked, peduncle villous, stigmas sessile ; 
Fruit a capsule, ^-4- in. long, oval to oblong, conic, tomentose or pubescent, 
pedicel 3-5 times as long as gland, style short, stigmas short, emarginate, 
divaricate. 

Leaves alternate, variable, obovate, oblong-obovate to sub-rotund, crenate 
or nearly entire, wavy, slightly revolute, cuneiform below, acute, obliquely 
cuspidate or obtuse, v.^rinkled, grey-green and downy above, tomentose beneath, 
reticulate, 1-2 ins. long, ^Ij in. broad ; stipules large, half cordate, persistent. 
Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-4 ft. ; Twigs slender, caducous, pubescent at tips, 
brown, passing to greenish-grey ; Buds red-brown. 

Common in Britain. Attacked by Goat Willow Rust {Mclampsorafarinosa). 

WEEPING WILLOW, Salix babuhnica. 

Kiver-side lawns. Maj^ This graceful tree shows to best advantage on the 
river-bank or beside some glassy pool, where its pendent boughs may be seen 
" stooping as if to drink." 

Flowers unisexual, appearing with leaves or just after, on lateral leafy 

peduncles ; Male catkins rarely seen, 1-li in. long, l-l in. diam. ; Stamens 2, 

scales ovate-lanceolate, glabrous ; Females greenish-yellow, slender, compact, 

shortly curved ; Ovary sessile, ovate, glabrous, style short, stigmas forked, gland 

broad, rounded ; catkins with males and females mixed occm- ; Fruit a capsule, 

172 



SALICINE/E 

.small, sessile, glabrous, oblong, pale green, style short, stigmas emarginate, 
seldom, if ever, produced in this country. 

Leaves alternate, lanceolate, finely and sharply serrated, rather obliquely 
acuminate, glabrous and dark green above, glaucous beneath, 3-0 ins. long, 
|-1 in. broad; petiole short, \ in., hairy above; stipules minute, semi-lunar, 
serratulate, caducous. 

A deciduous tree, 40-70 ft. ; Branches long and slender, hanging down 
almost perpendicularly, slightly twisted at nodes, pale green ; Ticigs brittle ; 
Buds very acute. 

Native of Japan and other parts of Asia ; introduced from Levant. 



COMMON SALLOW or GOAT WILLOW, Salix Caprea. 

Woods, thickets, hedges, dry pastures, banks of streams. April, May. 
Grows well by the sea. 

Flozvers dioecious, appearing before leaves ; the earliest to flower ; Male 
catkins sessile, oblong-cylindrical, very stout, 1-14 in. long, golden, very silky, 
few spathulate scale-like bracts ; Stamens 2, free, glabrous ; Female catkins 
nodding, lengthening to 3 ins., bracts more leaf-like, hairy, tips black, silvery ; 
Ovary stalked, stigmas bifid, nearly sessile ; often fertilised by insects ; pedicel 
3 times as long as gland ; Fruit a capsule, ^-}^ in. long, downy-white, tapering 
to long beak ; pedicels slender, as long as scale. 

Leaves alternate, ovate-elliptical, very variable, entire or crenated, narrowly 
recurved, acute or acuminate, wrinkled, rough, greyish-green above, cottony 
beneath, 2-4 ins. long, stipules half-reniform or absent. 

A deciduous tree, 30 ft. ; or bushy shrub ; Stem erect ; Branches purplish- 
brown ; Tivigs and Buds downy; Wood tough and elastic, taking fine 
polish. 

Native of Britain. Commonly called Saugh. Name Sallow from M.E. sahve, 

— O. Mer. salh ( A.S. scat//), willow. IMoom called Palm — great favourite of bees 

and moths. 

Insects injurious tu IFil/ows: — The larvic of iimumerable Moths feed on 
VOL, n. 173 Q 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

foliage, but not often in such numbers as to be a pest ; larva of more 
than fifty species of Saw-flies (chiefly of genus N'ematus) also attack foliage, 
many being Gall-makers. Stems of Sallows bored by larvae of Osier Hornet 
Clearwing {T'rochiUum crabi-oniforme). Wood bored by Goat Moth (Cossus 
ligniperda). 

Grt//*.— I^arge swellings on twigs caused by larva of a Gall-gnat {Cecidomyia 
salicipei-da) ; I^eaves distorted by larvae of Hormomyia caprea {C. cap?'ea), also 
galled by a Mite {Eriophyes tetanothrix) ; Pea Galls formed by Ncmatus 
pedu7icuii and others. 

Fungoid Pests: — Sulphury Wood Rot {Polyporus siilfm-eus), Sooty Mould 
{Fumago vagans), Goat Willow Rust {Melampsoi'a farinosa). Willow Leaf 
Blotch {Rhytisma salicinum). 

GRAY SALLOW, Salix dnerea. 

Moist situations. April, May, and again in September. 

Floxvers dioecious, appearing before leaves ; Catkins less thick and silky 
than Common Sallow, opening later ; 3Iales, Stamens 2, pubescent at base, 
anthers pale yellow, scales velvety ; Females, peduncle densely velvety ; 
Ovary silky, style half as long as scales, stigma short ; Fruit a capsule, small, 
narrow. 

Leaves alternate, variable, elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-obovate, undulate, 
serratulate, acute or shortly acuminate, pubescent above, glaucous, with reddish- 
brown hairs beneath, venation prominent both surfaces ; petiole pubescent, 
dilated below, 2-5 ins. long, 1-2 ins. broad ; stipules large, half-reniform, 
serrated . 

A deciduous tree, 20-30 ft. ; Stem erect ; Twigs tomentose, passing to 
smooth, tawny ; Buds large, ovoid, pilose. 

Native of Britain. Foliage attacked by Willow Leaf -spot (Septoria salicieola) 
and Goat Willow Rust [Melampsora farinosa). Twigs distorted by larvae of 
Gall-gnats {Cecidomyia salicis and Agromyza schinei'i). 



174 




GREAT SALLOW {.Salix Capmi) 
A. Branch with female catkins. £. Branch with male catkins. C. Female Qower. D. Male flower. 



Plate LXI. 



SALICINE^ 



CRACK WILLOW, Sa/iv fragtlis. 

Marshes. April, May. 

Flowers yellow, dicecious, lateral, appearing with leaves ; Male catkins 1-2 
ins. long, stout, spreading, stalked, scales glabrous, or hairy on upper side, 
linear-lanceolate, yellowish-green, entire, deciduous ; Stamens usually 2, distinct, 
hairy below ; Female catkim I-4— 2J ins. long, slender ; Ovary ovate, smooth, 
style short, stigma bifid, curved, longer than style, glands 2 ; mixed catkins 
sometimes occur; F?yiit a capsule, pedicelled, tapering at top, glabrous, or 
slightly hairy, scales caducous. 

Leaves alternate, elliptical-lanceolate, glandularly serrated, acuminate or 
acute, glossy, glabrous, pale or glaucous beneath, slightly silky when young, 
3-6 ins. long ; petioles glandular at top ; stipules slightly cordate, very 
deciduous. Autunm tints yellow and brown. 

A deciduous t7-ee, 80-90 ft. ; Tiicnk sometimes 20 ft. in girth ; Branches 
spreading obliquely, liable to become " stag-headed," i.e. dead in top shoots ; 
Shoots yellow-brown, smooth, polished, frequently crossing, tough and pliant, 
but easily broken off at base ; Bark- rough, thick, deeply scored, on small twigs 
very bitter — containing salicine ; Buds pointed, smooth, reddish to deep brown 
or nearly black ; Wood light, tough, elastic, durable. 

Indigenous in England, doubtfully so in Ireland and Scotland. Called Red- 
wood Willow. Specific name from L. frugilis, brittle, referred to in common 
name of Crack Willow. 

" Horse-bean galls " found on this and other species, produced by larva; of 
a Gall-wasp [Nematus gallicola). 



DWARF WILLOW, AW/m hcrbacca. 

High mountains. .June. 

Flozocrs dioecious ; Ma/e catkins \-\ in. long, ovoid, few-fiowered, nearly 

sessile or on short sub-terminal leafless and pubescent peduncles, appearing after 

175 U 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

leaves, scales obovate, obtuse, glabrous ; Stamens 2, free, glabrous, anthers 
yellow-brown or purple; Females ^-\ in. long; Oi'a?-y ovoid-conic, sub-sessile, 
style short, stigma bifid ; Fi'uit a capsule, sub-sessile, nearly globose, ^ in. long, 
glabrous or rarely pubescent, style short. 

Leaves in terminal tufts, very variable, obovate or orbicular, obtuse, finely 
crenate, curled, reticulation prominent beneath, shining green both sides, glabrous, 
sometimes silky when young, J-f in. long, !|-* in. wide ; petiole very short ; 
stipules minute, ovate, or obsolete. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-6 ins. ; Stems seldom above 2 ins., creeping under ground, 
rooting ; Tivigs scantily-leaved ; Bud-scales brown, persistent. 

The smallest of British shrubs, common at high elevations (2000-4500 ft.) 
throughout British Isles. 



WOOLLY BROAD-LEAVED WILLOW, Saha: lauata. 

Rocky alpine glens in Scotland. May, June. 

Floivers dioecious, appearing before leaves, terminal, sessile, stout, dense ; 
Scales obtuse, discolour, with long silky golden-yellow hairs; Stamens 2, 
glabrous, free ; Ovary sessile, stigmas slender, bifid, divaricate, 1 gland ; Fruit 
a capsule, tapering, shortly pedicelled, cottony, style very slender, stigmas 
filiform, notched or bifid. 

Leaves broadly ovate or obovate, acute, entire, sub-coriaceous, silky wool on 
both surfaces, golden shimmer, 2-3 ins. long, shortly petiolate, veins prominent, 
reticulate beneath ; stipules large, half-cordate, entire or glandular serrate. 
Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous shrub ; Branches twisted, twigs silky ; Buds large, black, 
hirsute. 

A i-are species ; conspicuous in spring by its golden catkins. Specific name 
from L. lanatus — hina, wool. 



176 



SALICINEi^ 

DOWNY MOUNTAIN WILLOW, SalLv Lappomm. 

Scotch mountains. June, July. 

Flowers dioecious, fragrant, appearing before or with foHage ; 31ale catkins 
lateral, dense-flowered, sessile or sub-sessile, tomentose, 1-1|- in. long, \ in. diam. ; 
Stamens 2, free, glabrous, anthers yellow, becoming violet and brown ; scales 
spathulate. hairy, deciduous ; gland linear-oblong ; Females stalked, few basal 
leaves ; Ovarii sessile, woolly, style long, stigma divided ; Fruit a capsule, 
sub-sessile, conical, cottony, \ in. long, style long, stigma filiform, cleft, catkins 
1|— 3 ins. long. 

Leaves alternate, 1-3 ins. long, \-\ in. broad, very variable, elliptical to 
lanceolate, margins recurved, entire or sinuate, rugose, silky when young, white 
cottony beneath when old, nearly glabrous and bright green above, reticulation 
prominent beneath, veins straight, stipules minute or obsolete. Autumn tint 
yellow. 

A deciduous shrub, 2-3 ft., or low and scrubby ; Branches stout, brown ; 
Buds woolly. 

Native of Scotland ; rare. 

WHORTLE-LEAVED WILLOW, Salix Miirsimtes. 

Scotch and Irisla mountains. .Tune, July. 

Flowers dioecious ; Catkins terminal, on stout leafy peduncles, appearing with 
the leaves or after ; Males loosely cylindrical, \-\ in. long, \ in. diam. ; Stamens 
2, free, glabrous, anthers globose, purple, turning black, scales spathulate, 
pilose, blackish-purple, disk large ; Females, Ovaiy shortly pedicellate, 
elongated, reddish or claret-coloured, pubescent, style split, purple-red, stigmas 
divided ; Fruit a capsule, nearly sessile, hairy or pubescent, \ in. long, catkins 
1^-2 ins., stigma thick. 

Leaves alternate, very variable, lanceolate to ovate, attenuate below, acute 

or obtuse, entire or finely serrated, glandular, firm, rigid, shining green, veins 

prominent, reticulate, long silky liairs when young, glabrous when old, ^~\ in. 

177 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

long, |-f in. broad ; petiole short ; stipules ovate-lanceolate, serrated, or 
obsolete. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous shrub, much branched, closely procumbent, or sometimes rising, 
\\-'l ins., young shoots with silky pubescence. 

Native of Britain ; restricted to higher parts of mid-Scotland, and Sligo in 
Ireland. 



DARK-LEAVED SALLOW, SalLv nigrkam. 

River-banks. April — .Time. 

Floxvers dioecious, appearing before or after leaves ; Male catkins i-l in. 
long, ovate-cylindrical, erect, sub-sessile ; Stamens 2, free, 3 times as long as 
scales, scales linear-oblong, acute or obtuse, pilose, red below, brown tips ; 
Females lax, slender, style long ; Fruit a capsule, narrowly conical, glabrous or 
tomentose, pedicel and style slender, stigma bifid, spreading. 

Leaves alternate, very variable, ovate-elliptical to obovate, entire or crenate- 
serratulate, acute or shortly acuminate, attenuate, rounded or cordate below, 
pubescent when young, afterwards glabrous above, glabrous or glaucous beneath, 
reticulate, blackening when dried, thin, 1|— 4 ins. long, ^-2 ins. broad ; petiole 
velvety pubescent ; stipules half-cordate or obsolete. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous s/irub, or small t?-ce, 10 ft. ; Tzvigs velvety, purple-black or olive 
when young, afterwards smooth, shining, purple-black ; Buds- convex, velvety. 

Native of Britain. Closely allied to jS. p//i//icif'o/ia, perhaps only a form of it. 
Also called Black Willow. 



BAY WILLOW, S'a/i.r pentandra. 

Banks of rivers and streams, damp open woods, especially in hilly districts. 
May, .lune. A valuable tree, with broad shining foliage resembling that of the 
Portugal I^aurel ; Avell suited for planting in masses by lake or pond. 

Floioers dioecious, appearing with foliage, fragrant ; Male catki/is 1 j-2 ins. 

long, ?, ;,' in. diam.. cylindrical, dense, erect, shortly pedunculate ; Stamens usually 

178 



SALICINE^ 

5, may be 4-12, hairy below, anthers large, yellow, glands 2, scales oblong, 
yellowish-green, ciliate, caducous ; Females \-'2\ ins. long, \-\ in. diam. ; Ovary 
sub-sessile or shortly pedicellate, cylindroid-conic, glabrous, style short, divided, 
stigma bifid, yellow, glands 2 6 ; Fruit a capsule, ovoid-conic, pedicelled, 
glabrous, yellowish-green, J ] in. long, style short. 

Leaves alternate, very variable, 1-4 ins. long, 1-2 ins. broad, elliptic-ovate to 
obovate-lanceolate, or oblong-lanceolate, finely glandular-serrate, acuminate, 
thick, glabrous, dark shining green, paler and reticulate beneath, viscid wlien 
young, fragrant with I.aurel-like odour, midrib yellow ; petiole short, glandular 
at summit ; stipules ovate-oblong, glandular, caducous, or obsolete. Autumn 
tint yellow. 

A deciduous sliruh, G-8 ft. ; or small tree, 8-20 ft., erect ; 7\vigs glabrous, 
polished, greenish-brown ; Buds erect, ovoid, polished brown, base greenish. 

Native of North Wales, the Midlands, and North England ; planted in 
South Scotland ; rare in Ireland ; the latest flowering. Known as Five-stamened 
Willow {Gr. pente, five ; aner, andros, a male). 



TEA-LEAVED WILLOW, Salir pinjimfolia. 

Woods, thickets, waste places near mountain streams. April, May. 

Flowers dioecious, appearing with the leaves ; Male catkins sessile or sub- 
sessile, ovoid to cylindrical, '-1 in. long, i-f in. broad ; Stamens 2, free, glabrous, 
anthers yellow, changing to rosy, scales linear-oblong, acute, black, hairy ; 
Females %-l\ in. long, ^-^ in. broad ; Ovary ovoid-conic, tomentose, style long, 
stigmas thick, bifid, pedicel shorter than gland ; Fruit a capsule, shortly 
pedicellate, l~\ in. long, glabrous, silky or cottony, valves re volute, catkins 
1-2 ins. long. 

Leax!cs alternate, very variable, elliptic-lanceolate to ovate or obovate, acute 

or acuminate, entire or crenate, often downy when young, glabrous when old. 

not wrinkled, shining green above, bluish-glaucous beneath, venation prominent 

on upper surface, not turning black when dried, 1-2;^ ins. long, j-lf in. broad; 

petiole short, villous ; stipules sinall, lanceolate, or absent. 

17!> 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

A deciduous shrub, n-10 ft. ; Branches twiggy, glabrous, shining, olive-green, 
chestnut, or reddish ; Buds convex, obtuse, silky pubescent, greenish-orange or 
yellow. 

Native of Britain ; found in Scotland, North England, and North 
Ireland : many varieties are found, and are sometimes considered as distinct 
species. 



PURPLE OSIER, SalLv purpurea. 

Marshy places, river-banks, osier beds. March — Maj'. 

Flowers dioecious, lateral on branches of preceding year, appearing before 
leaves ; Male cntkivs sub-sessile, erect, then spreading or recurved, cylindrical, 
dense, seldom 1 in. long ; Stamens united into an entire filament, or filament 
forked, witli a purple-red anther on each bi-anch, scales short, obtuse, green at 
base, reddish in middle, tipped with purple, brown, or black, hairy or woolly both 
surfaces ; Females, Ovary sessile, or on pedicel shorter than gland, ovoid, blunt, 
tomentose, style short or absent, stigmas slender, ovate, purple-red, becoming 
black ; mixed catkins occur ; Fruit a capsule, ^-^ in. long, broadly ovoid, obtuse, 
sessile or on pedicel not longer than gland, valves spreading, style short, stigmas 
entire or cleft. 

Leaves sub-opposite, variable, oblong to linear-lanceolate, or oblong-ovate to 
obovate-lanceolate, entire at base, upper part eglandular serratulate, glabrous, 
shining green above, usually somewhat glaucous with bluish bloom beneath, few 
silky hairs, especially when young, 3-6 ins. long, petioles short, stipules half- 
ovate or absent. Autumn tints brown to black. 

A deciduous slirub, 5-10 ft. ; Txdgs erect, long, slender, tougii, glabrous, 
yellow, green, red, or purple ; Buds sub-opposite, long, narrow, fiat, red-violet or 
shining red to purple-black, one scale, easily detached. 

A doubtful native ; fairly common over England, Ireland, and South 
Scotland. " American " Weeping Willow is a form of this. 



180 




ASPEN. 

(Po/>iiliis tyeiini/a.) 



n 



SALICINE^ 



DWARF SILKY WILLOW, Salix repens. 

Heaths and commons. April, ]May. 

Flowers dicecious, appearing with leaves ; Male catkhis cylindrical-oblong or 
ovate, J— I in. long, j-J in. diam., erect, sessile or sub-sessile, with foliaceous 
bracts ; Stamens 2, free, filament long, glabrous, anther ovoid, yellow, turning 
to black after dehiscence, scales spathulate or obovate, yellowish-green or purple, 
with dark tips, dense long velvety hairs ; Females \-^ in. long, l-^, in. diam. ; 
Ovary pedicellate, conoid, silky or glabrous, style short, stigmas yellow, rosy 
or purple, entire or split, diverging or not ; Fruit a capsule, 3J times as large 
as gland, pedicelled, usually silky, catkins 1 in. long. 

Leaves alternate, very variable, oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, or 
elliptic to ovate, 1-li in. long, 1-J in. broad, margins entire or serratulate, 
recurved, obtuse or acute, glabrous and dark green above, silky beneath, or 
sometimes both sides : petiole short ; stipules minute, lanceolate, or obsolete. 
Autumn tints yellow and brown. 

A deciduous shrub; Stems ascending 1-3 ft., or procumbent, creeping 
under ground and rooting at base ; Young shoots and leaf-buds densely silky 
white. 

Common in all parts of British Isles. Some botanists make many varieties, 
each with minor characteristics. 



OSIER, Salix viminalis. 

Wet places, osier beds. April, June. 

Flowers dioecious, appearing before leaves ; Male catkins |-1 in. long, ^-f in. 

broad, sessile, cylindrical; Stamens 2, free, glabrous, anthers golden-yellow, 

scales obovate, silky, brown, gland slender ; Females ^— J in. broad, sub-sessile ; 

Ovary sub-sessile, ovoid-conic, silky, style hnear, stigma yellow, deeply bifid; 

Fruit a capsule, sessile or shortly pedicelled, tapering, base broad, downy, stigmas 

rarely bifid, valves widely divaricate. 

181 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate, tapering both ends, acuminate, entire or 
obscurely serrated, wavy, revolute, glabrous and grey-green above, silvery silky 
or grey tomentose beneath, venation prominent above, midrid often orange ; 
petiole very short, 4-10 ins. long, \-\^ in. broad ; stipules lanceolate, sometimes 
glandular serrated, caducous. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous shrub, or small tree, 30 ft. ; Braiu^hes long, straight, twiggy, 
velvety when young, afterwards polished, greenish -yellow, olive, and brown ; 
Buds small, thin, narrow. 

Native of Britain ; the most commonly cultivated Osier. Specific name = 
twiggy (L. vimen, a twig, an osier, a pliant twig for plaiting or binding). 
Attacked by Willow Leaf-spot {Septoria salicicola) and Crack Willow Rust 
{Melampsora epitea). 

Margins of leaves rolled by larvte of a Gall-gnat {Cecidomyia marginem- 
torquens). 



RETICULATE WILLOW, Salix reticulata. 

Scotch mountains. Jime — August. 

Floivers dioecious, appearing after leaves ; 31ale catkins cylindrical, lax- 
flowered, on rather long, leafless peduncles at ends of short branches opposite to 
last leaf, downy, |— J in. long, \ in. diam. ; Stamens 2, free, glabrous, anthers 
red-violet or purplish ; glands disk-like and slit, or bifid ; scales small, 
obovate, purple or brown, villous inside, ciliate ; Feinales ^--| in. long, | in. 
diam. ; Ovary sessile, ovoid, obtuse, white tomentose, style very short, often split, 
stigmas short, thick, purple-red, often bifid ; Fruit a capsule, sessile, obtuse, 
purple, cottony, J in. long, stigma notched. 

Leaves alternate, exstipulate, |-1| in. long, ^-1 in. broad, very variable, 

obovate to orbicular, firm, entire or waved, obtuse or slightly retuse, glabrous, 

shining green, and rugose above, glaucous beneath, reticulation prominent both 

surfaces, young leaves silky ; petiole long and slender, channelled, pubescent at 

base, reddish. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous shrub ; Stem woody, murli branched, prostrate, often spreading, 

182 




Plate LXH. 



CRACK WILLOW {^Salix fmjiUs) 

A. Branch, with female catkins. B. Single female flower. C. Single male flower, 
D. Male catkin. E. Capsule open, liberating one of seeds. 



I 



1 



SALICINEi^ 

rising only a few inches above ground ; Branches 2-8 ins. long, tortuous, 
sparingly leafy, glabrous or hairy when young ; Buds few, 2-4, terminal. 

Native of Britain ; confined to loftiest Scotch mountains. Attacked by Goat 
Willow Rust {3Iela7npsora far-inosa). Specific name refers to the prominent 
netted veins on the leaf (L. reticulum, diminutiv^e of 7-ete, a net). 



ALMOND-LEAVED WILLOW, Salia^ triandra. 

Banks of rivers and streams, and osier beds. April — June. 

Floicers yellow, dioecious, on lateral, short shoots appearing with leaves ; 
3Iale catkins oblong-ovate, slender, 1-3 ins. long, shortly pedunculate, scales 
glabrous, ciliate, persistent, disk 2 glands ; Stamens 3, long, anthers golden, 
filaments hairy ; Females lj-2f ins. long, I in. diam. ; Ovary pedicellate, oblong, 
smooth, stigmas sessile, thick, diverging, 1 gland ; Fruit a 2-vaIved capsule, 
glabrous, pedicelled, style thick, short. 

Leaves alternate, linear or oblong-lanceolate, serrated, acuminate, glabrous, 
tough, sub-coriaceous, gi'een above, glaucous beneath, midrib prominent, 2-4 ins. 
long ; petiole short, glabrous, grooved ; stipules large, slightly cordate, pointed, 
toothed, persistent. Autumn tint yellow. 

A deciduous tree, 20-30 ft. ; Bark in flakes ; Tivigs glabrous, terete, easily 
snapped above articulation ; produces long stout shoots when stumps cut down, 
nmch used for wicker-work ; Buds elongated, flat at apex, smooth. 

Of frequent occurrence in England, Scotland, and Ireland. Known as French 
Willow and Three-stamened Osier (Gr. treis, tria, three ; a/icr, andros, a male). 



BEDFORD WILLOW, Salix viridis. 

Woods. JNIay, .Tune. Grows well in cold upland situations. 

Flozvers dicccious ; Qifki/ts on short, leafy, lateral branches, spreading or 

recurved, cyhndrical, dense in flower, lax in fruit ; Ovarij tapering, stalked, 

longer than scales, style as long as stigmas. 

Leaves lanceolate-elliptic, petioles sometimes glandular, attenuated at base. 

183 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

acuminate, or equally attenuated at each end, glandular-serrated, glabrous, 
glaucous beneath, young ones silky, 4 ins. long, | in. broad. 

A deciduous tree, 30-50 ft. ; Branches long, straight, slender, young branches 
downy ; Timgs green, flexible, glabrous ; growth very rapid ; salicine abundant ; 
Bark used for tanning ; Wood said to be more valuable than any other species, 
light, tough, elastic, unlikely to crack or split, uninflammable. 

Called Bedford Willow after Francis, Duke of Bedford, who first brought 
it into notice. Synonymous with S. Russelliana. By some considered a hybrid 
between S. fragilis and S. alba. 



GREAT WHITE POPLAR, Populm alba. 

Moist woods, borders of streams. INIarch. April. Prefers open soil, well 
exposed to air and sunlight. Does well in smoky towns, and in poor sandy soil. 
The Poplars are propagated by cuttings of firm shoots, 8 ins. long, in ordinary 
soil outdoors, October or November ; layering of shoots in October ; suckers. 
October— February ; seeds in ordinary soil in moist border in autumn. 

Flowers dicecious, anemophilous, terminal on dwarf shoots ; 3£alc catkins 
2-4 ins. long, drooping, membranous, very deciduous, scales jagged, hairy ; 
Perianth (or inner united scales) a small, flat, oblique cup; Stamens about 8, 
anthers purple; Females shorter, dense ; Ovary 1 -celled, placentation parietal, 
styles 0, stigmas 2, bipartite, segments linear, yellow ; Fruit a small oval, glabrous, 
recurved capsule, opening in 2 reflexed valves ; seeds small, black, oval, with a 
tuft of long silky hairs, ripe in .June. 

Leaves alternate, very variable, roundish cordate, those of young shoots 
5-lobed, acute, margin sinuate, upper surface smooth, underside white and 
cottony, 1-3 ins. long, 2J ins. broad, shed early ; petioles slender, flattened 
from sides. Autumn tints dark brown. 

A deciduous ti-ee, 60-100 ft. ; Branches spreading, slender, rod-like, with 

upward tendency ; growth rapid ; Bark smooth, light grey or ash-coloured, 

young shoots hairy ; Buds cottony, not viscid ; suckers freely produced, bearing 

lobcd and toothed leaves, 2-4 ins. broad ; Wood white, soft, light, not easily 

184 



SALICINEi^ 

splitting when nailed ; does not easily burn ; used for utensils and trays, paling 
rails, and general carpentry. 

Very generally planted, and probably indigenous. 

Name Poplar from O.F. poplicr, F. peuplie?- ; L. popuhim, ace. o? popidus, 
'a poplar. Also known as Abele; said to be derived from Aheel, the Dutch 
name of the tree ; said by some to take its name from Arbela, in plains of 
-Nineveh. 

Injurions Insects : — Foliage — Red Spider {Acarus telcvrius) ; Wood — Goat 
Moth {Cossus ligniperdu); innumerable moth-larvae feed on leaves. 

Fungoid Pest : — Sulphury AVood Rot {Polyporus sidfvreus). 



BALSAM POPLAR, Popnlus bahamifera. 

River banks, moist places. March, April. Best not exposed, owing to 
brittle character of the branches. 

Flowers dioecious ; Male catkins, disk oblique ; Stamens 20-30, filaments 
short, anthers red; Females lengthening to 4-5 ins., disk cup-shaped; Ovary 
ovate, 2-lobed, stigmas 2, sub-sessile, lobes broad ; Fruit a capsule, 2-valved, 
ovate-oblong, acute, often curved, light brown, shortly pedicelled. 

Leaves alternate, oval, approaching lanceolate, acuminate or acute, finely 
crenately serrated, revolute, upper side yellow-green, smooth, underside whitish, 
3-.5 ins. long, \\~Z ins. broad, very fragrant, expand very early; petioles 
terete. 

A deciduous tree, 40-70 ft. ; Branches round, stout, erect, contorted at 
extremities, very brittle ; Txvigs red-brown and orange to grey tinged yellow- 
green ; Buds large, ovate, covered with fragrant resin, scales brown, shining ; 
Wood comparatively worthless, light brown. 

Introduced from N. America, 1692. Leaves attacked by Black Poplar Rust 
{Mclampsora populina). 



vol,. 11. 18.5 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

ONTARIO POPLAR, Populus bahamifera, v. candicans. 

Parks, gardens. March, April. Best in moist situations, as on margins of 
lakes. 

Floxvers dioecious ; Stamens 20-30, red ; Fruit a 2-valved capsule. 

Leaves alternate, more or less cordate, broader than P. baJsamifera, acute, 
coarsely glandularly serrate, ciliate, pubescent when young, and later along 
principal veins, underside pale, 7 ins. long, 5 ins. wide ; petioles usually 
hairy. 

A deciduous tree, 50-70 ft. ; broad and open head ; Branches spreading, some- 
what brittle ; Buds pointed, viscid, scales red-brown ; growth rapid ; Ba?-/x 
greyish ; JFood heavier than the type. 

Naturalised in some parts of Northern U.S.A. and Canada ; very commonly 
planted in Britain. Also called Balm of Gilead. Name candicans presumably 
refers to the hoary appearance of tlie under surface of the leaves. 



GREY POPLAR, Populus cancscens. 

Moist woods in S. England, parks, gardens. March, April. Propagated by 
suckers. 

Flowers dioecious ; 31ale catkins dense, scales obovate-cuneate, incised, 
ciliate, bright brown; Stamens 4-12; Females, Styles 2, stigmas purple or 
greenish, 2-8 lobed, wedge-shaped ; Fruit a capsule. 

Leaves alternate, roundish cordate, thin, toothed, waved, grey-cottony or 
glabrous beneath, leaves of young shoots entire, those of young suckers cut 
into angles and teeth. 

A deciduous tree, 80-90 ft. ; Shoots and buds cottony ; Wood not liable 
to split. 

Indigenous in S. England. A supposed hybrid between P. alba and 

P. tremida. Possible age one hundred years. 

Shoots distorted by silvery-white galls, the work of Hedya aceriana. 

186 




BLACK rOPLAR {r<>j>ii/.iis „i,/r,i) 

J. Foliage. VJ. Male catkin. C. Young fein.ile catkin. 7). Jlafnve female catkin. A. Male Uower. 

P. Female flower (longitudinal section). 



I'LATK LXIII. 



SALICINEi^ 

COTTONWOOD, Popnhs ddtoidea. 
March, April. 

Flovcers dioecious ; Male catkins dense, 3-4 ins. long, \ in. diam., disk 
oblique, revolute ; Stamens 60 or more, filaments short, anthers dark red ; 
Females lax, lengthening to 12 ins., disk cup-shaped; Ovary sub-globose, 
stigmas 3-4, sub-sessile, dilated or lobed ; scales scarious, light brown, glabrous, 
filiform lobes ; Fruit a capsule, 3-4-valved, oblong-ovate, pitted. 

Leaves alternate, broadly deltoid-ovate, acuminate, truncate, slightly cordate 
or cuneate at base, coarsely crenately serrate, teeth glandular, thick, firm, 
pubescent when young, fragrant, 3-5 ins. long and broad, bright shining green, 
paler beneath ; petioles slender, laterally compressed, 2\-S\ ins. long, stout. 

A deciduous tree, 150 ft. ; Branches large, pendulous at extremities, on 
young trees nearly erect above, spreading almost at right angles below ; 
branchlets terete or angled ; Bark on old trunks somewhat rough, ashy-grey 
or yellow tinged with green on young stems ; Buds ovate, acute, resinous, 
scales brown. 

Native of North America. 

CANADIAN POPLAR, Populus moniUfera. 

River banks, moist places. March, April. Resists smoke and chemical 
fumes. The wood is short grained, and the tree hable to be damaged in stormy 
weather. " The male displays a vigour and attains to a size which the female 
never equals, and is for this reason frequently looked upon as belonging to a 
different species, and has become known as the Virginian or the Swiss Poplar." 
— The Garden. 

Flowers dioecious, appearing before leaves ; Male catkins sessile, glabrous, 

5 ins. long, ^ in. diam. ; Stamens 20-30, anthers red ; scales triangular, yellow, 

incised, ciliate ; Females 2-3 ins. long ; Ovary stalked, globose, stigmas usually 4, 

sessile, deeply lobed, reflexed ; scales very caducous; Fruit a capsule, globoid, 

naked, 3-4-valved, catkins up to 10 ins. long. 

187 R 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Leaves alternate, on young plants and suckers cordate, 7-8 ins. long and 
wide ; those on older trees about \ the size, commonly without sinuses, crenate, 
with obtuse teeth. 

A deciduous tree, 120-150 ft. ; very erect, rapid in growth ; Brcmches acutely 
angled or winged. 

Native of N. America ; introduced to Europe 1769, and to England from the 
Continent 1772. Probably a variety of P. nigra ; given in Kew Hand-list as 
synonymous with P. canadensis and P. deltoidea. Called Necklace Poplar from 
the fact that the female catkins resemble a string of beads ; also sometimes 
called Black Italian Poplar. 



BLACK POPLAR, Popuhs nigra. 

River banks and moist places. March, April. Will grow in damp, boggy 
soil and on exposed sites. 

Flowers dioecious, appearing before leaves ; Male catkins lax, pendulous, 
dark red, 2-3 ins. long, drooping, scales hairy at tips; Stametis 12-30, usually 
8, anthers purple ; Female catkins shorter, not drooping, greenish, cylindrical, 
4 ins. long; Ovary ovoid-conic, stigmas 2, sessile, 2-8-lobed at apex, lobes 
short and broad, yellow ; Frnit a capsule, ovoid, J in. long, glabrous, pedicelled, 
2 valves, recurved, widely divaricating ; seeds cottony, ripe in May. 

Leaves alternate, nearly triangular, crenated, teeth small, acuminate, thick, 
tough, green on both sides, glabrous beneath, rhombic, silky and ciliate in 
young state, 1-4 ins. long, 2 ins. broad ; petioles slender, compressed, 1^2 
ins. long. 

A deciduous tree, erect, 50-80 ft. ; Branches large, massive, ascending, 

smaller ones ramifying, greenish-white, young shoots smooth, shining yellow 

or light bronze ; Bark dark ash-grey, with large swellings, yellowish on young 

trees; Buds very viscid, sharp-pointed, thick, yellowish ; Suckers rarely produced ; 

rapid in growth; Wood white, soft, tough, not easily split; used for carving 

and charcoal ; bark for tanning. 

Not indigenous, but long naturalised. 

188 



SALICINEiE 

Leaves attached by Black Poplar Rust {3Ielampsora populina) and Poplar- 
leaf Blister {2\iphrina aurea). Large green and pinkish galls on petioles 
produced by an Aphis {Pemphigus bursa7-ius). 



LOMBARDY POPLAR, Populus nigra, V. pijramidalis. 

Parks, gardens, hedges. March, April. It is characterised by rapid growth 
and early decay. 

Trees in England almost invariably bear male catkins only ; Stamens 12-20. 

Leaves resembling P. nigra ; young leaves glabrous. 

A deciduous tree, 100-150 ft. ; Branches growing straight upwards, giving a 
spire-like shape, young shoots smooth ; growth very rapid ; Barh rough, deeply 
furrowed ; Buds viscid ; Wood tough and light, of little value ; trees often 
unsound, though apparently healthy, and liable to fall without warning. 

Native of Asia ; thought to be a variety of P. nigra ; introduced to England 
from Italy by Lord Rochford in 1758, and planted near the priory of St. Osytli, 
not far from Clacton-on-Sea. Syn. P. fastigiata, from \j. fastigiatus, sloping 
up to a point, — -fastigo, to make pointed. 

ASPEN, Populus tremula. 

Moist woods, gardens. March, April. 

Flowers dioecious ; Catkins sub-sessile, curved, dense, cylindrical, 2-3 ins. 
long, scales ciliate, with jagged edges ; Stamens 6-12, anthers purple-red ; 
Stigmas 2, deeply bifid, purple-red, arms radiating crosswise ; Fruit a capsule, 
stalked, greenish-brown, valves recurved, catkin 5 ins. long. 

Leaves scarcely cordate, nearly orbicular or rhomboidal, small, often not 

1 in. broad, 1— t ins. long, irregularly and rather coarsely sinuate, with 

incurved teeth, acute, thin in texture, underside glabrous and sometimes 

pale, but not cottony ; petiole slender, causing constant trembling ; leaves 

on suckers cordate, entire, acute. 

A deciduous tree, 40-80 ft. ; Branvhes slender, spreading, compressed ; shoots 

189 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

downy, generally reddish ; Bai-k grey, smooth ; Buds pubescent, not viscid ; 
Suckers numerous, pubescent ; JFood white, soft, not very useful ; employed for 
paper-pulp. Heartwood begins to decay after about 50 years, often hastened by 
larvje of Goat Moth and Wood Leopard Moth. 

Indigenous throughout British Isles ; somewhat slow of growth. Galls on 
petioles produced by larvae of Diplosis t?~e?tmlce, a Gall-gnat. Name Aspen from 
A.S. fesjJC, ceps, the Aspen-tree. 



AMERICAN ASPEN, Populus tremuloides. 

March, April. 

Floicers didecious ; Male catkins 1J-2J ins. long; Stamens 6-12, inserted on 
disk, disk oblique, entire, scales acute, 3-5-lobed, hairy ; Females lengthening to 
4 ins. ; Ovai-y conical, nearly sessile in bottom of crenate disk, style short, 
thick, stigmas 2, erect, club-shaped, each 2 linear diverging lobes ; Fruit a 
1 -celled, 2-valved capsule, oblong-conical, green. 

Leaves alternate, ovate or nearly orbicular, acute, glandular, serrate, thin, 
firm, glabrous, dark shining green above, pale yellow-green below, l-J-2 ins. 
long and broad ; petioles slender, laterally compressed. 

A deciduous tree, 20-50 ft. ; Branches slender, often contorted, pendulous at 
extremities, glabrous ; Tivigs red-brown to grey ; Bark thin, pale, roughened ; 
Buds conical, acute, resinous, scales red-brown, glabrous ; Wood light brown. 

Native of North America. 



Class I Dicotyledons 

Division W. . . . Incompletce 
Natural Ordeh . . . Empetracece 

Heath-like evergreen shrubs, with alternate, exstipulate leaves, and small, 

regular, unisexual axillary flowers ; Perianth of 4-G persistent scales, in 2 

whorls, often considered as sepals and petals ; Stamens 2-3, alternate with petals, 

hypogynous ; Ovarij 2-9-celled ; Fruit a drupe, with 2-9 bony, 1 -seeded stones. 

100 



EMPETRACEi^ 



CROWBERRY, Empetrum mgrum. 

Mountain heaths, bogs, gardens. May, June. Thrives in damp peaty soil. 
Propagated by cuttings in sandy peat under bell-glass, June — August. 

Floivers purple, dioecious, minute, sessile, in the axils of the upper leaves ; 
Perianth of G segments, in 2 whorls, scale-like ; Sepals (the outer whorl) 
rounded, concave, entire ; Petals sub-spathulate, scarious, reHexed, hypogynous ; 
Stamens 3, alternate with petals, hypogynous, exserted, filaments long, anthers 
red ; Ovary superior, on fleshy hypogynous disk, 6-9-celled, globose, style short, 
stigma with 6-9 radiating arms ; Fruit a fleshy drupe, globose, J- J in. long, 
brownish-black or purple, edible, 2-9 bony, 1-seeded stones. 

Leaves in whorls of 3-4, or crowded and alternate at the tips of shoots, 
linear, linear-oblong or acicular, \~\ in. long, sub-sessile, semi-terete, revolute, 
margins recurved to midrib, glabrous or slightly ciliate and coriaceous, shining 
green above, paler beneath, with whitish midrib. 

An evergreen shrub, 6-18 ins. ; Stem procumbent, much branched, glabrous ; 
Branches slender, wiry, spreading, trailing, red-brown. 

Native of British Isles. Generic name from Gr. eii pet7'on ; en, upon, petros, 
a rock, from growing in stony places. Also called Crakeberry. It is the badge 
of the clan M'l^ean in Scotland. 



Class II Monocotyledons 

Division I Petaloidce 

Natural Order . . . LiliacecB 

Usually herbs, sometimes frutescent and arborescent ; Leaves usually 

narrow, flowers showy ; Perianth usually 6-partite in two series, rarely 4, 8, 

or 10 segments; Stamens 6, hypogynous or epiphyllous. anthers usually introrse ; 

Ovarij superior, 3-celled, placentation axile ; Fruit a capsule or berry, usually 

3-celled. 

191 R 3 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

An Order of nearly 200 genera and about 2500 species. 

Distinguislied by the 3-celled, superior ovary and the 6 stamens with introrse 
anthers. 

COMMON BUTCHER'S BROOM, Rusms acukatus. 

Copses, woods, gardens. February — April. The bright red berries make this 
an ornamental shrub in autumn. It will thrive under the shade of trees where 
little else will flourish. Pruning should l)e done in April. Propagated by 
suckers, September or October ; division of roots in October. 

Floxvers greenish, dioecious, 1-2, borne on a pedicel arising from axils of 
minute scales — the true leaves, but apparently sessile on the middle or margin of 
broad, flat, leaf-like branches {cladodes). The true upper surface on which the 
flowers rest is usually turned downwards by a twist at base. Perianth \ in. 
diam., of 6 segments, spreading, inner ones smaller ; Males on narrower cladodes ; 
Stamens 3, filaments connate in a short column, anthers sessile ; Females, 
stamens sterile ; Ovary 3-celled, superior, style short, stigma capitate ; Fruit a 
globose, succulent berry, bright red or rarely yellow, ^ in. diam., usually 1-ceIled, 
sometimes 3-celled, 2 seeds in each cell. 

Leaves (cladodes) alternate, ovate, acuminate, mucronate (spinescent), rigid, 
parallel-veined, ^-1^ in. long, coriaceous, pungent. 

An evergreen shrub, 1-2 ft. ; Stem much branched, tufted, erect, stout, rigid, 
angled, green, young shoots scaly. 

Native of England and S. Wales ; naturalised in Scotland and Ireland ; the 
only woody Monocotyledon indigenous in Britain. Specific name L. actdeatus 
= prickly, pointed, sharp, — acidens, a prickle, — acus, a needle, — acies, a sharp 
point. 

DOUBLE TONGUE, Ruscus Hypophyllum. 

Gardens. May, June. A valuable shrub for shady spots. 

Floxvers 5-G, in an umbel, in middle of under surface of lower cladodes ; 

Fruit a berry. 

192 




BUTCHER'S BROOM. 

{Ruse IIS actilea/iis.) 



LILIACE^ 

Leaves [cladodes) oblong or oblong-lanceolate, upper ones alternate, lower 
ones opposite, ternate or verticillate, distinctly ribbed, 3-5 ins. long, rigidly 
coriaceous. 

An evergreen shrub, 1-1^ ft. 

Native of JNIediterranean region; introduced 1G40. li. Hijpoglossum is 
thought to be a form of this species, having the flowers on the upper side of the 
cladode. 



ALEXANDRIAN LAUREL, Damva Laurus. H 

Gardens. May. 'J'his does well in sheltered gardens near the sea. The 
graceful leafy stems will last several weeks if cut and placed in water 
indoors. 

Floxoers greenish-yellow, hermaphrodite, in a terminal raceme ; Fruit a 
berry, red. 

Leaves {cladodes) alternate, oblong-lanceolate, acute, rounded at base, 
glabrous, lucid green, .sessile, rigidly coriaceous, 2 ins. long. 

An evergreen shrub, 4 ft. 

Native of Portugal ; introduced 1739. Syn. Ruscits raccmosus. 



NARROW-LEAVED YUCCA, Yucca angustifoUa. 

Gardens. July, August. This is well suited for sunny nooks and rock- 
work. The Yuccas are all hardy, but do best in sunshine and loamy soil. They 
are propagated by cuttings of roots in sand in bottom heat in spring ; offsets 
or suckers in March or April ; division in March. 

Flowers white, greenish outside, campanulate, in a terminal panicle or simple 

j-aceme, 3-5 ft. long, branches ascending, pedicels ^—1 in. long, stout, erect ; 

Pcriauth segments oblong, acute, 2-2.^ ins. long, |— 1^ in. broad ; Stjilc short, 

stigmas shorter than ovary ; Fruit a capsule, 2-3 ins. long, 1 in. diam., 6-sided ; 

seeds very flat, | in. broad. 

Leaves 100 or more, in a dense rosette, linear, pungent, pointed, channelled 

193 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

above, rigid, thick, smooth, pale green, 1^-3 ft., long, J-J in. wide, margins 
pale reddish-brown, copiously filamentose, threads 4 ins. long. 

An evergreen shrub, nearly stemless, 3 ft. 

Introduced from Western N. America, 1811. 



SILK GRASS, Vucca filanientosa. 

Gardens. June — August. A very distinctive and attractive species, with 
a rosette habit. 

Floivei's white tinged with green ; Panicle rhomboid, much branched, 4 8 ft. 
long, branches flexuous, ascending, 6 ins. long, pedicels drooping, ^-\ in. long ; 
Perianth segments oblong or oblong-lanceolate, li-2^ ins. long ; Stigmas slender, 
shorter than ovary ; Fruit a capsule, oblong, 1^-2 ins. long, f in. diam. 

Leaves 30-50, in a dense rosette, outer ones spreading, central ones erect 
or sliglitly curved, ensiform, acuminate, firm, apple-green, slightly glaucous, 
lJ-2^ ft. long, l|-2 ins. broad, margins whitish with grey filaments 2-3 ins. 
long. 

An evergreen shrub, stemless or nearly so, 2 ft. ; Suckers freely prod uced. 

Introduced from N. America, 1675. 



ADAM'S NEEDLE, Yucca gloriosa. 

Gardens, lawns. July, August. The hardiest and most popular of the 
Yuccas ; it sometimes bears blossoms in mild winters. 

Flowers white, tinged with red, green, or purple, campanulate, lj-2^ins. 

long, 8|-4 ins. diam., eiitomophilous, in a panicle, 4-9 ft. long, of perhaps 250 

blossoms, branches 1-1 i ft. long, glabrous or pubescent, pedicels 4-12 ins. 

long, bracts small ; Perianth of 6 segments, in two series, slightly united 

at base, thin, ovate, acute ; Stamens 6, in two series, as long as ovary, filaments 

fleshy, Iiispid or papillose, slightly 3-lobed, anthers deeply emarginate, attached 

at back ; Ovarij superior, 3-celled, 6-sided, nectar-glands between partitions, 

narrowed towards apex, stigma 3-lobed ; Fruit baccate, seldom produced. 

194 




ADAM'S NEEDLE {Ywr.a ,j/orw.sa) 
/I. Tree, with flower spikes in bud. Ji. Flower, open. f. Flower in usual half-closed state. IK Fruit dehiscing 
Plate LXIV. 



GRAMINEt^ 

Leaves 100 or more, in a dense rosette, 1^-3 ft. long, 2-3 ins. broad, 
gradually narrowed above the broad clasping base, widest near middle, thin, 
flat, or concave towards apex, rigid, erect, pungent pointed, serrulate towards 
base, teeth deciduous, scabrous at back, dull green, often glaucous, margins 
red-brown. 

An evergreen shrub, or small tree, 4-6 ft. ; few branches ; Bark smooth, 
light grey. 

First plants said to have been received by Gerarde from the AVest Indies, 
1593. Also called JMound Lily. 



Class II Monocotyledons 

Division II Nudiflorce 

Natural Ordeu . . . Graminece 

Usually herbaceous plants, rarely suffrutescent or arborescent ; Stems fistular, 
septated at nodes ; Leaves alternate, narrow, with a ligule at base of blade, and 
a sheath forming a tube enclosing the stem ; Flozveis usually hermaphrodite, 
seldom moncecious (as in Maize), mostly arranged in a panicle or spike, bearing 
spikelets enclosed by bracts or glumes ; Perianth absent or represented by scales ; 
Stamens 1-6 or more, usually 3, anthers versatile; Ovary superior, 1 -celled 
stigmas 1-3 ; Fruit a caryopsis. 



GREAT REED, Arundo Dona.v. 

Gardens. September, October. Requires protection during winter in colder 
counties. 

Flowers reddish, ultimately whitish, in a compact payiicle, 12-16 ins. long, 
of numerous spikelets enveloped in silky hairs and containing 2 or more perfect 
florets, florets awned, lower palea entire ; Fruit a caryopsis, free from palea. 

Leaves alternate, lanceolate, acute, entire, glaucous green, arching. 

A hardy ornamental grass, 10-12 ft. 

Native of S. Europe, Egypt, and Asia; introduced 1648. 

10.5 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Group Gymnospermce 

Natural Order . . . Coniferce 

Trees or slirubs, usually resinous, with rigid, linear, subulate or scale-like 
leaves; Flowers monoecious or dioecious, without perianth; 31ales (in catkins) 
of numerous closely-packed scales, bearing two or more anther-cells ; Females 
(cones) of ovuliferous scales and bract-scales ; ovules and seeds naked, either 
concealed by scales or solitary and exposed. 



MAIDEN-HAIR TREE, Ginkgo biloba. 

Parks, gardens. April, May. The glossy green fan-shaped leaves, cut up 
like some of the species of Adiantum Ferns, make this a very distinctive tree. 
It does well in smoky towns. Propagated by seeds sown in pans of light sandy 
soil in cold frame, October or March. 

Flowers dioecious; Male catkins axillary, slender, sessile, yellow, H in. long; 
Females solitary or terminal clusters, foot-stalks long ; Fruit drupaceous, 
globular or ovate, 1 in. diam., light green or yellowish fleshy pulp, edible, sweet ; 
seed globular, hard bony shell. 

Leaves clustered on branchlets, distinct and alternate on young shoots, 
broadly fan-shaped, cuneate at base, 2-4-lobed, lobes toothed or irregularly 
notched, resembling Maiden-hair Fern, flat, coriaceous, glabrous, margins 
thickened, numerous parallel nerves ; foot-stalk as long as blade, yellowish-green, 
glabrous, glossy. 

A deciduous tree, 60-80 ft. ; Branches alternate, mostly ascending or hori- 
zontal ; branclilets terete, very short, spur-like ; Bark rough, furrowed, scaly, 
greyish. 

Native of China and .lapan ; introduced 1754. Chinese name Ginkgo = ivi\\ of 
leafless buds in winter. Also named Salisburia adiantifolia, in honour of R. A. 
Salisbury, F.R.S., an eminent English botanist ; acliantifolia = leaf like Maiden- 
hair Fern, the specific name of which is Adiautum. 

196 



CONIFER/E 

PLUM-FRUITED CEPHALOTAXUS, Cephalotaxus drupacea. 

Shrubberies, gardens, sheltered borders or lawns. April. The curious 
purplish, plum-like fruits render this both distinctive and interesting. It 
is best in equal parts of loam and peat. Propagated by cuttings of shoots 
3 ins. long in sandy soil in shady cold frame or under bell-glass or handlight 
outdoors in autumn ; seeds in light soil in cold frame, September or March, 
transplanting outdoors a year after. 

Flowers dioecious; Males 6-11, in axillary globose heads (compound 
catkins), with involucre of small bract scales, flowers in axils of membranous 
bracts ; Stamens 7-12, each with 2-3 anther cells ; Females, small pedunculate 
cones in axils of bracts at base of terminal shoots, scales 6-20, on fleshy axis 
of cone ; Fruit drupaceous, fleshy, purplish, elliptical, 2-3 in a head, IJ in. 
long, I in. diam. ; seeds solitary, nut-like, shell hard, bony. 

Leaves linear, crowded, in 2 rows, opposite, stiff", falcate, twisted, coria- 
ceous, yellowish glossy green above, nerved along middle, glaucous green 
below, with 2 silvery bands, 1-2 ins. long, much resemble the Yew. 

An evergreen tree, 6-8 ft. ; Branches horizontal, whorled, spreading, flat, 
stiff"; Buds small, scales acute, imbricate. 

Native of China and Japan ; introduced 1844'. In Japan called Kaja. 
Generic name from Gr. kephale, a head ; taxis, arrangement. 

FORTUNE'S CLUSTER-FLOWERED YEW, Cephahtaxus 

Fortuni. 

Shrubberies, gardens. April. Best in light, peaty soil, and sheltered. 

Flourrs dioecious ; Males in axillary globular heads, shortly pedunculate ; 
Fruit a drupe, fleshy, purplish, elliptical, tapering both ends, 1;^ in. long, 
f in. diam. ; seeds solitary, shell thin, brittle. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, on principal branches mostly alternate, scattered, 

on laterals and branchlets in tAvo rows, mostly opposite, acute, straight, flat, 

deep glossy green above, ribbed, glaucous Avhite below, margins bright green, 

3 ins. long. 

197 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

An evergreen tree, 6-8 ft, ; Branches horizontal, wliorled, slender, spreading, 
pendent, laterals and branchlets in 2 rows, frequently in opposite pairs, filiform. 
Introduced from N. China by Fortune, 1848. 



LORD HARRINGTON'S YEW, Cephalotaxm pedunculata. 

Shrubberies, gardens. April. 

Flowers dioecious ; Males pedunculate, oval, in globular heads shorter 
than bracts ; Females in axillary heads, peduncles 4-angled ; F?-uit drupaceous 
2-3 in a head, peduncles long ; seeds solitary, erect, shell smooth, hard, thin. 

Leaves linear, in 2 rows, mostly opposite on branchlets, spiral and alter- 
nate on principal branches, slightly falcate, thick, coriaceous, revolute, bright 
glossy green above, raised straight nerve, 2 broad glaucous white bands 
below, li-2| ins. long. 

An evergreen t7-ee, 6-8 ft. ; Branches numerous, spreading, mostly in whorls, 
branchlets in 2 rows, horizontal, mostly opposite ; Buds with persistent imbri- 
cated scales. 

Cultivated in Japan under name of Inukaja ; introduced to Britain, 1837. 
Syn. Taxus Harringtoniana. 



YEW, Taxus baccata. 

Mountainous woods, parks, gardens. February, March. Prefers limy soils. 
Valuable for forming hedges or planting under the shade and drip of larger trees. 
Very attractive when laden with its bright red fruits. Hedges may be trimmed 
in April or September. Propagated by cuttings in sandy soil in cold frame or 
under handlight, September ; layering in September ; seeds in light soil 
outdoors in March, or in pans or boxes of light soil in cold frame or greenhouse 
in March, transplanting to nursery bed when large enough to handle. 

Flowers dioecious, very occasionally monoecious ; Male Jloivers almost 

spherical, \ in. diam., clustered in axils of leaves, bending backwards so as to 

appear on under side of branch, scales dry, imbricated, about 6 stamens, each 

198 



CONIFERi^ 

with 3-8 anther-cells, yellow ; Females solitary, on sides of branches, 1 ovule, 
surrounded by fleshy disk enclosed by small scales ; Fruit a hard seed, olive- 
green, ovoid, with bony testa imbedded in a red wax-like cup, mucilaginous 
and sweet. 

Leaves in 2 rows, lying in 1 plane, linear, flat, thin, h-\h in. long, coriaceous, 
acute, convex and shining above, pale and unpolished below ; petiole very short, 
with half twist. 

An evergreen tree, 15-50 ft. ; T'runk massive by coalescence of numerous 
shoots ; Branches spreading, nearly horizontal ; Txcigs numerous ; Bark red, 
thin, flaking ; growth very slow ; JFood liard, close-grained, elastic, heartwood 
red. 

Native of Britain. Latin name baccata from bacca, a berry ; English name 
from A.S. eozc, the Yew. Reputed to be the longest-lived tree. Leaves 
poisonous. 



PLUM FIR, Frumnopitijs elegaus. 

Parks, gardens. j\Liy. Will thrive satisfactorily in smoky and dusty 
localities. Its Yew-like appearance has earned for it the name of the Plum- 
fruited Yew. Propagated by cuttings in pots of sandy loam under bell-glass 
in 60°-70" in summer. 

Flowers in an axillary spike, peduncle 2-3 flowered, 1 -fruited by abortion, 
antheriferous scales numerous, imbricate, 2 cells on the under side, bract scales 
small, sessile, receptacle oval, on end of long neck, slightly 3-lobed, smooth, 
purple, persistent ; Fruit drupaceous, globular, smooth, fleshy, succulent, dark 
purple, without foot-stalk, size of Cherry ; seed with hard bony shell. 

Leaves scattered or in 2 rows, linear, tapering both ends, appressed, 
coriaceous, rigid, glabrous, deep glossy green above, edges rusty, glaucous 
beneath, |-li^ in. long. 

An evergreen tree, 40-50 ft. ; pyramidal ; Brauehes numerous, erect, 

spreading, lower ones drooping and often sweeping tlie ground ; branehlets 

short, stout, spreading ; Bark brown ; JVood hard, yellow, beautifully veined. 

199 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Native of Southern Chile ; introduced by Messrs. A^eitch, 1860. Generic name 
from Gr. pons, podos, a foot ; karpos, a fruit, the fruits in most species having a 
foot-stalk. Syn. Podocarpus andijia. 



CHINESE JUNIPER, Juniperm chinenm. 

Parks, gardens. April. The most beautiful of the Junipers, the male 
plants growing erect, and the female specimens being more spreading in habit. 
The Junipers are propagated by cuttings of young branches in sandy soil in 
cold frame or under handlight in September or October ; seeds in light soil in 
cold frame in April, transplanting into pots when 2 inches high, planting out a 
year afterwards. 

Floivers usually dioecious ; 31ale catkins very numerous, bright orange- 
yellow ; Females axillary, bracteate ; Fruit baccate, very small, variable in 
shape, glaucous, violet-brown, 1-2-seeded. 

Leaves in male form in whorls of 3, lanceolate, acute, stiff, channelled 
upper side, convex below, glaucous or bright green, without foot-stalks ; on 
female plants in twos, opposite, four-rowed, scale-like, ovate, acute, oblong 
sunken gland on back, closely imbricated ; the leaves are often much alike on 
both sexes when young, and when mature exhibit transition from one form to 
another. 

An evergreen tree, 20 ft. ; Branches in males numerous, irregularly alternate, 
spreading, higher ones nearly erect ; in females scattered, spreading, smaller ones 
quadrangular, seldom forked, often pointing downwards. 

Introduced from China and Japan in 1804. 



SAVIN, Juniperus Sabina. 

Gardens, rockwork. April. Thrives best in hght soil and dry situations. 
F/oxvers dioecious; Fruit a berry (galbule), oval, smooth, generally 
1-seeded, blackish-purple, somewhat glaucous, about size of small currant, 



in. diam. borne on recurved peduncle-like branchlets. 

200 




YEW. 

( Taaiis haccala. ) 



CONIFERS 

Leaves in opposite pairs, scale-like, imbricated, oval, acute, keeled, or 
subulate and minute, disagreeable odour, bitter to taste. 
An evergreen shrub, 6-8 ft. ; Branches trailing. 
Native of S. Europe; introduced 1548. 



RED CEDAR, Junipertis virginiana. 

Parks, gardens. April. The largest of the .Junipers grown in this country. 

Flowers dioecious, or rarely monoecious, in minute axillary cones ; 31ales 
solitary, oblong-ovate, stamens 10-12, each with 4-6 anther cells; Females 
ovoid, seminiferous scales violet, acute, spreading, 1-2 ovules, bract scales 2-6 ; 
Fruit a cone, baccate, sub-globose, \-}^ in. diam., greyish-brown, glaucous 
bloom, sweet, resinous, usually 1-2 seeds. 

Leaves in opposite pairs, united at bases, usually subulate and spreading in 
young plants, minute, scale-like, closely imbricated, glandular or eglandular at 
back, usually acute or acuminate, ^jr in. long, dark blue-green or glaucous, 
persistent for several years, on young plants and branches J-f in. long, linear- 
lanceolate. 

An evergreen shrub or tree, 30-50 ft. ; usually somewhat pyramidal outline ; 
Branches at first erect, ultimately decumbent ; braiichlets numerous, crowded, 
4-angled ; Trunk erect, varying shades of brown and red, scaly ; Wood bright 
red, close, firm, easily splitting, aromatic ; much used for cedar pencils. 

Native of N. America, West Indies, and Japan, reaching 60-90 ft. in U.S.A. ; 
introduced 1664. Known as V^irginian .Juniper. 



COMMON JUNIPER, Juniperus communis. 

Downs, and rather dry, barren hills. May. ^'ery variable as regards height, 
shape, and foliage. 

Floivers dioecious ; Male flowers axillary, solitary or crowded ; Stamens 
numerous, about 15, anthers 3-6-celled, pollen pale yellow ; Females in axils, 3-6 
scales, fleshy, 1-2 ovules under each, several empty scaler at base; Fruit a cone 

VOL. II. 201 . ,,r ^^ s 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

of false drupes (each a galbulus), baccate, globose, sub-sessile, very fleshy, 4-6 
rudhnentary, scarious, emptj^ scales at base, blue-black, glaucous bloom, pun- 
gent, ripe in second year, 3 angular, hard seeds, each with several resin 
blisters. 

Leaves opposite or whorls of 3, subulate, rigid, concave, margins thickened, 
sharply pointed, glaucous above, green below, \-\ in., fragrant when bruised. 

An evergreen shrub, much branched, 2-5 ft. ; or small tree, 10-25 ft. ; Hark 
fibrous, red-brown, flaking ; IVood finely-veined, yellowish-brown, aromatic. 

Native of Britain. Name .Tuniper a corruption of Fr. gcnevrier ; L. 
juni'perus, — -juvenis, young, and par ere, to bring forth, because it brings forth 
younger berries while those of previous year are ripening. 



MONTEREY CYPRESS, Cupressus macrocarpa. 

Parks, gardens. February, March. Grows exceptionally well near sea ; 
suitable for damp or marshy ground. The species are propagated by cuttings of 
young branchlets 2 ins. long in sandy soil in cold frame or under handlight, 
September or October ; seeds in pans of light soil in cold frame in April, trans- 
planting into small pots in following spring, planting out a year afterwards. 

Flowers monoecious, minute, terminal, yellow, on separate branchlets ; Males 
with 6-8 stamens, connectives bearing 4-5 anther cells ; Females oblong, scales 
6-10, tliick, decussate, seminiferous scales bearing numerous ovules in several 
rows ; Fruit a cone, \\-2 ins. long, 1 in. diam., light brown, clusters of 3-4, 
bosses of scales prominent, scales 8-12, ovate; seeds about 20 under each scale, 
angled, chestnut-brown. 

Leaves closely imbricated, very dark grass-gi-een, | in. long, on young plants 
5^-2 in. long, ovate, thickened, rounded, glandular on back. 

An evergreen tree, 50-60 ft. ; Branches reddisli, close set, numerous, hori- 
zontal, extremities ascending ; branchlets generally lateral, opposite, long ; 
growth very rapid ; Barh- dark red-brown on young stems and branches, white 
on old trunks ; Wood heavy, hard, strong, durable, close-grained, yellow, takes 

fine polish. 

202 



CONIFERS 

Native of California; seeds first sent to Europe, 1838; said to grow better 
here than in its native home on Pacific Coast. Syn. C. LambertiaTia. Specific 
name from Gr. makros, long, karpos, fruit. 



EVERGREEN CYPRESS, Cupressus sempervirens. 

Parks, gardens. May. Thrives best in warm, sandy, or gravelly soil. 

F/oive?-s monoecious; Males numerous, yellow, ^ in. long, stamens 10-12. 
decussate, bearing 3 pollen-sacs; Females fewer, 2-5 polyhedral, about 12 poly- 
gonal scales in decussate pairs, ovules several ; Fruit a cone, globular, 1-lJ in. 
diam., light brown, scales angular, peltate, corky outside, woody within, arranged 
in whorls separating at maturity ; seeds several under each scale, yellowish- 
brown, angular, \ in. long, covered with thin membranous skin. 

Leaves small, closely imbricated, in opposite pairs, smooth, shining, 
yellowish-green, persistent 5-6 years, acicular on main stem. 

An evergreen tree, 50-60 ft. ; usually flame-shaped, tapering, stem below 
branches very short ; Branches erect, close to trunk, much divided, in one plane, 
forming frond-like sprays; br-anchlets quadrangular; Bark scaly, reddish- 
brown ; Wood hard, close-grained, resinously fragrant, reddish-brown, practically 
indestructible. 

Native of S. Europe, Asia Minor, and Persia. Believed to have been brought 
from Italy by Turner and planted at Syon House sometime before 1548 ; in 
Italy reaches 120 ft. ; two specimens still living planted by Michael Angelo 
(1475-1563). 



LAWSON CYPRESS, Cupressus Imisomana. 

Parks, gardens, plantations. April, May. 

Floivers minute, monoecious, terminal, on separate branchlets ; Male flowers 

numerous, at tips of short branchlets of previous year, cylindrical, bright crimson, 

stamens with 2-6 antlier cells, usually produced when tree is young ; Females of 

few alternating whorls of small dark, ovate, acute bract scales, ovules several 

203 s 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

(2-4) ; Fruit a cone, about size of large pea, clustered on upper lateral branchlets, 
8 peltate, angular scales, very numerous, persistent ; seeds slightly winged, 3 or 
more to each scale. 

Leaves very minute, closely imbricated, in alternate opposite pairs, obtuse or 
acute, usually an obscure tubercle towards apex, dark glossy green tinged with 
glaucous hue, persistent for 3-4 years. 

An evergreen tree, 75-100 ft. ; Branches short, spreading, horizontal, much 
divided at extremities, curved, feathery, drooping; Bark brown, thick, round 
scaly ridges ; Trunk comparatively slender. Wood yellow, light, close-grained ; 
much used in N. America. 

Native of N. America, where it reaches height of 120-200 ft. Believed to 
have been first discovered by Jeffrey, 1852-53. Named after Charles Lawson of 
Edinburgh, who first raised trees from seed. Synonymous with Chamwcyparis 
hvwsoniana (Gr. chamai, the ground, i.e. dwarf, and kuparissos, the Cypress). 



YELLOW CYPRESS, Cupressus nootkateusis. 

Parks, gardens. April. 

Mowers monoecious, minute ; Males on lateral branchlets of previous year, 
8-10 stamens, sulphur-yellow ; Females clustered near ends of upper branchlets, 
dark reddish-brown, scales bearing 2-4 ovules ; Fruit a cone, sub-globose, | in. 
diam., nearly sessile, red-brown, scales 4-G, peltate, angular bosses erect, 
prominent ; seeds 2-4 under each scale, \ in. long, red-brown, wings 
broad. 

Leaves opposite in pairs, rounded, closely appressed, dark blue-green, some- 
times glandular-pitted on back, ] in. long, on leading branchlets elongated, 
acute, begin to die end of second year, fall in third, pungent when 
crushed. 

An evergreen tree, 50-100 ft. ; with narrow pyramidal head ; Branches 

horizontal, spreading, ramifying, distichous, terete or flattened ; branchlets 

drooping, light yellow tinged red at first, afterwards red-brown, very aromatic 

resinous exudation ; Bark light grey tinged brown, fissured, scaly ; Wood 

204 



CONIFER.^ 

hard, brittle, close-grained, durable, yellow, fragrant with resinous odour, takes 
good polish. 

Native of N. America, 120 ft. high. Named from Nootka Sound. Introduced 
in 1851 from Botanical Gardens, St. Petersburg. 

OBTUSE-LEAVED JAPAN CYPRESS, Cnpressns obtnsa. 

Parks, gardens. April. 

Flowers monoecious ; 3fa/es terminal, cylindrical ; Females solitary at ends 
of same branclilets ; Fruit a cone, globular, about size of a grape, scales 8-10, 
cuneate at base, brown ; seeds short winged, 2 at base of each scale, in sunken 
grooves. 

Leaves mostly in whorls of 4, decussate, ovate-rhomboid, blunt, seldom 
pointed, closely adpressed, adhering nearly to points, only lower part visible, 
light green, persistent on young plants for several years. 

An evergreen tree, 30 ft. ; Branches spreading, laterals fan-like, shining green ; 
Wood heavy, fine-grained, white, taking high polish. 

Introduced from .Tapan, 1850 ; there 70-100 ft. Called by Japanese " Fu- 
si-no-ki," tree of the Sun, and dedicated to God of the Sun. Syn. ChanKrcijparis 
obtusa. Generic name from Gr. chamai, on the ground, and kuparissos, the 
Cypress. Known in gardens as Betinospora obtusa. 

PEA-FRUITED RETINOSPORA, Cupresms pisifera. 

Parks, gardens. April. 

FloxveTS monoecious ; Males terminal on upper branclilets, cylindrical, obtuse ; 
Females terminal ; Fruit a cone, ovate-globose, about size of large pea. scales 
10-12, in opposite cross pairs, imbricated, ovate-rhomboid, acute, crenulatcd, 
cuneate, resinous, woody, smooth, yellowish- brown ; seeds, 2 at base of each 
scale, wings membranous, brown. 

Leaves in 4 rows, decussate, upper and lower ones ovate-lanceolate, tapering 

to hard point, keeled on back, smooth, lateral ones falcate, acute, 2 white 

glaucous bands beneatli, all scalc-Hke. imbricated. 

205 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

An evergreen tree, somewhat pyramidal ; Branches numerous, thickly 
covered vpith slender, feathery, light-green branchlets. 

Introduced from Japan, 1850. Name Retinospora from Gr. rJietine, resin, and 
sporos, seed, speiro, to sow, the seeds being coated with resin. Generic name 
from L. pisum, a pea, and /fro, to bear. Syn. Chamcecyparis p'lsifcra. 



AMERICAN ARBOR-VITtE, Thuya occidentalis. 

Parks, gardens. April, May. Will thrive in damp soils. Pruning may 
be done in April or September. The species are propagated by cuttings in 
sandy soil under bell-glass or in cold frame in September ; seeds in sandy 
soil in temperature of 55° in spring, transplanting to open ground when large 
enough to handle. 

Flowers monoecious, minute, terminal, solitary, on different branchlets ; 
3Iales ovoid, stamens 4-6, sub-orbicular, peltate, anther cells 2-4 ; Feinales 
oblong, scales 8-12, oblong, acute, in opposite pairs, seminiferous scales 
bearing 2 ovules ; Fruit a cone, ovoid-oblong, ,\-J in. long, pale cinnamon- 
brown, scales oblong, acute, thin, coriaceous ; seeds ^ in. long, wings 
thin. 

Leaves scale-like, decussate, acute, yellowish-green, j^^ in. long, on leading 
shoots appressed or spreading, rounded or keeled on back, acuminate, usually 
glandular, on laterals compressed, prominently keeled, brownish-green in 
growing season, brownish-purple in winter. 

An evergreen sh?-ub or tree, 40-60 ft. ; Branches stout, distant, horizontal ; 
branchlets spreading, lateral short and pendulous, yellow-green to cinnamon- 
red, then dark orange-brown, smooth, lustrous ; Bark red-brown tinged orange, 
fissured, scaly ; Wood light, soft, brittle, coarse-grained, durable, flagrant, 
pale yellow-brown ; sometimes called AAHiite Cedar. 

Native of N. America; introduced 1596. Thuia is old Greek name used 
by Theophrastus. 



206 



CONIFERiE 

GIGANTIC ARBOR-VITiE, Thuya plkata. 

Parks, gardens. April. A fine graceful tree, which does well on exposed 
ground. 

Flowe7's monoecious ; 31ale catkins oval ; Females solitary and terminal 
Fruit a cone, solitary at extremities of small branchlets, \ in. long, oval, 
tapering both ends, scales tapering, rounded or obtuse at apex ; seeds in 
twos at base of scales, little shorter than wings. 

Leaves in alternate opposite pairs, scale-like, closely imbricated, without 
gland on back, those on branches distant, decurrent, acute, on branchlets 
very flat, in 4 rows, short, rounded, spiny pointed, glossy green above, 
silvery beneath. 

An evergreen tree, 50-150 ft. ; Branches spreading, flat, horizontal, scattered, 
slender, deep brown ; branchlets crowded, flattened, 2 rowed, slender, flexible, 
straight, undivided ; Wood fine-grained, yellow, soft, easily worked, moderately 
durable. 

Introduced from N.W. America, 1851. Syns. T. gigantca (Nutt.), T. 
Lobbi, and T. 3Ienziesii of gardens. 



HATCHET-LEAVED ARBOR-VIT.E, Thuyn dolabrata. 

Parks, gardens. April, May. Prefers cool, moist soil and shade ; hardy 
in south of England ; must be sheltered from cold winds. 

Flowers moncecious, solitary and terminal ; Fruit a cone, sessile and 
terminal, ovate, squarrose, small, J in. diam., scales 8-10, woody. 

Leaves in 4 rows, decussate, scale-like, broad, thick, ovate, rounded at 
point, hatchet-shaped, adpressed, imbricated, flat, furrowed along middle, 
margins concave, deep shining green above, silvery-white beneath. 

An evergreen tree, 40-50 ft.; pyramidal; Branches vertical, pendulous 

at ends ; Inaiichlcts 2-rowed, 2-edged, alternate, flattened. 

Introduced from .[a])an, ISOl. Syn. Thiiijopsis dohdirata. 

207 



TREES AND SHRUBS 



CHINESE ARBOR- VIT.E, Thuya orientalis. 

Parks, gardens. April. 

Flowers monoecious, terminal and solitary ; Fruit, a cone, solitary at ends of 
branchlets, ovate-elliptic, 6-valved, ^ in. long, light brown, scales 6, 2 central 
and 4 around sides. 

Leaves in 4 rows, ovate-rhomboid, scale-like, imbricated, adpressed, decurrent, 
acute, shining green and glaucous when young, afterwards dull green, 
glandless. 

An evergreen tree, 18-20 ft. ; or pyramidal bush ; BrancJies at first horizontal, 
afterwards fastigiate ; branchlets in 2 rows, flat. 

Native of China and Japan. Many varieties in cultivation. Known in 
nurseries and gardens as Biota orientalis. 



INCENSE CEDAR, Libocedms decurrens. 

Parks. January. Best on deep moist loam. Propagated by cuttings of 
firm shoots or branchlets in sandy soil in cold frame or under handlight, 
August or September ; seeds in pans of sandy soil in cold frame or greenhouse, 
October — April. 

Flowers monoecious, solitary, terminal, on different branchlets ; Males ovate, 
nearly \ in. long, stamens 12-16, connectives with 4 anther cells; Females 
oblong, seminiferous scales, bearing 2 ovules, bract scales 2-6 pairs, ovate, 
acute, yellow-green ; Fruit a cone, oblong, 1 in. long, erect, light red-brown, 
scales 2-3 pairs, sub-coriaceous ; seeds oblong-lanceolate, \—\ in. long, ripening 
in 1 year. 

Leaves in 4 ranks, oblong-obovate, scale like, small, decurrent, adnate to 
branches except at apex, deep glossy green, }, in. long on leading shoots, those of 
lateral ranks keeled and glandular on back. 

An evergreen tree, 35-40 ft. ; columnar ; Branches slender, erect, lower ones 

curved ; branchlets flattened, laterals 4-0 ins. long ; Bark cinnamon-red, scaly ; 

208 



CONIFER.^ 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, durable in contact with soil, light reddish- 
brown. 

Native of N. America, reaching 150 ft. in height. Discovered by Colonel 
Fremont; seeds sent home by Jeffrey, 1853. Generic name from Gr. libanos, 
incense, and cedrus, a Cedar, in reference to the resinous character of the wood. 
Specific name from L. decurro, I run down, referring to leaves. Known in 
nurseries as Thuja gigantea. 



UMBRELLA PINE, Sdadopitys verticiUata. 

Parks, gardens. May. Requires leaf-soil or peat and moisture. Propagated 
by imported seeds sown in pots of moist sandy loam in cold frame or greenhouse, 
transplanting outdoors in following spring ; or sown outdoors in moist sandy 
loam in April, transplanting one year afterwards. 

Floivers monojcious ; Male catkins terminal, somewhat globular, anther 
lobes 2 ; Females solitary, bract scales arranged spirally, seminiferous scales 
growing out from them and exceeding them in length, ovules 6-9 ; Fmit 
a cone, elhptical or cylindrical, obtuse, '2^-'6 ins. long, l^ in. diam., scales 
regularly imbricated, thin, bracts shorter tlian scales, cones produced after about 
20 years ; seeds seldom ripening in England. 

Leaves alternate, 30 40 at extremities of shoots, forming a sort of whorl like 
an open parasol, linear, 2-4 his. long, J in. broad, sessile, slightly falcate, blunt 
or slightly notched, glabrous, coriaceous, double ribbed channel underside, yellow- 
green when young, afterwards deep green, persistent about 3 years. 

An evergreen tree, 70-80 ft. ; conical ; Stem straight ; Branches horizontal, 
spreading, mostly in whorls, stiff, twiggy, young shoots cylindrical, leaves only 
at top, growth very slow. 

Native of Japan; seeds first sent to England by Mr. J. G. Veitch, 1861 ; 
attains height of 120-150 ft. in native country. Name from Gr. scias, sciados, 
a shade, an umbrella ; pitijs, pifijos, a Pine-tree ; Low Latin verticlllatus 
— vcrticiUns, dim. of vertex, a whirl. 



209 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

WELLINGTONIA, Sequoia gigantea. 

Parks. April, May. A very ornamental tree in the early stages of growth. 
Propagated by cuttings of shoots in sandy loam under bell-glass, handlight, or 
cold frame, September or October ; seeds in well-drained pans of sandy loam in 
cold frame in spring, transplanting to nursery bed when large enough to handle. 

Flowers monoecious ; Males terminal, in great profusion all over tree ; 
Females with 25-40 pale yellow scales, keeled, slender points; Fruit a cone, 
ovate-oblong, 2-3| ins. long, 1^2 J ins. diam., dark reddish-brown, 25-30 
scales with long reflexed tip ; seeds linear-lanceolate, J -| in. long, light brown, 
wings broad, solitary at ends of branchlets, maturing in second year. 

Leaves spirally arranged, lanceolate or ovate and acuminate, rounded and 
thickened on lower surface, concave on upper surface, midrib obscure, rigid, 
acute, decurrent below, \-\ in. long, light bluish-green on young plants, 
on leading shoots becoming dull grass-green, \ in. long. 

An evergreen tree, 100 ft. or more ; conical ; Branches short, thick, horizontal ; 
branchlets slender, slightly drooping, reddish-brown tinged purple ; BarJx red, 
scaly ; Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained ; some from trees 
grown in England has proved to be firm and tough, not easily cut with a chisel. 

Native of California, 270-320 ft. ; introduced by WiUiam Lobb, 1 853. 
Known as Big Tree or Mammoth Tree. Synonyms S. WcUingtonia, Well- 
iiigtoiiia gigantea. 

RED WOOD, Sequoia sempervirens. 

Parks. April. Best in deep, rich soil, and sheltered. 

Floxmrs monct'cious, minute ; Males terminal, in axils of upper leaves, ovate, 

obtuse, numerous filaments bearing 2-5 globose 2-valved anther cells, bracts 

imbricated, ovate, acute ; Females terminal, ovoid or oblong, seminiferous scales 

bearing in 2 rows 5-7 pendulous ovules, bract scales about 20, ovate-acute 

with incurved points; Fruit a cone, oblong, solitary, terminal, 1 in. long, 15-20 

scales, cuneiform ; seeds xV in. long, light brown. 

210 




YELLOW CYPRESS {Ciijir/'s:gus noofkatensis) 
A. Frond, showing cones. B. Longitudinal section of cone. C. Transverse section of cone. 



Plate LXV. 



CONIFER.^ 

Leaves linear, falcate, resembling Yew, spirally alternate, spreading in 2 
ranks by half-turn at base, acute or acuminate, slightly thickened on revolute 
margins, obscurely keeled, midrib conspicuous, decurrent at base, ^—J in. long, 
on leading shoots in many ranks, ovate or ovate-oblong, rounded and thickened 
on lower surface, concave, dying and turning brown at least two years before 
falling. 

An evergreen tree, 80-100 ft. ; Branches slender, horizontal, much divided, 
frequently pendulous ; Bai'k thick, spongy, scaly, inner bark cinnamon-red ; 
Bud-scales ovate-acute, imbricated ; Suckei's produced ; Wood light, soft, not 
strong, close-grained, easily split, durable in contact with soil, light red. 

Native of California, there reaching height of 200-340 ft. ; free of branches 
for 75-100 ft., 90-100 ft. circumference, bark 18 ins. thick; some probably 1300 
years old. Specimens brought home by Menzies, 1795 ; seeds first sent to Europe 
by William I^obb in 1853. Generic name in honour of Seequayah, a Cherokee 
Indian chief (1770-1843). 



JAPAN CEDAR, Cryptoueria japonica. 

Parks, gardens. May. Best in deep, rich soil with abundant moisture, and 
sheltered from cold winds. Propagated by cuttings of side shoots 2-3 ins. long 
in sandy soil under handlight or cold frame, September or October; seeds in 
sandy loam in temperature of 55° in March, or outdoors in April. 

Flowers monoecious ; 3Ia/cs in axillary spikes at ends of branchlets, mixed 
with young cones, oval or oblong, anther cells 3-5 at base of scales ; Females 
mostly solitary, some in clusters at extremities of branchlets, sessile, erect, 
globular, about size of a cherry; Fruit a cone, globular, f in. diam., erect, 
singly or in clusters, scales cuneate, loose, brownish-red, margins rough and 
fringed ; seedi 3-5 under each scale, crustaceous, ripe in September, October. 

Leaves spirally arranged in 5 rows, linear, 4-angled, falcate, rigid, sessile, 
decurrent at base, glabrous, l)right bluish-green in summer and spring, bronzy- 
green in winter, | in. long. 

An evergreen tree, 50-100 ft. ; Branches erect or horizontal, spreading, 

211 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

frondose, brittle ; b7-anchlets usually alternate, bright green ; Bark brownish- 
red ; Wood heavy, soft, yellowish-white, easily worked, fragrant. 

Introduced from Japan, 1844; there called " Suga " = evergreen, or " Suga- 
mats " = evergreen fir. 



DECIDUOUS CYPRESS, Taxodiuvi distklmm. 

Parks and gardens by banks of sti'eams or marshy ground. May. A tree 
of great beauty, distinct among Conifers by reason of its red autumn foliage 
and peculiar root protuberances. Propagated by cuttings of shoots in sandy 
soil imder handlight or in cold frame in September ; layering in September ; 
seeds in light soil outdoors in March, or pans or boxes of light soil in cold 
frame or greenhouse in March, transplanting to nursery bed when large enough 
to handle. 

Floxvers monoecious ; Males in long, flexible, pendulous panicles, 4-5 ins. 
long, pyramidal ; Stamens 6-8 ; Females 2-3 together near males, semini- 
ferous scales formed by an outgrowth from the upper side of the bract scale, 
each bearing 2 erect ovules ; Fruit a cone, ovate, about as large as pigeon's 
egg, pendent at ends of branches, scales thick, dull brown ; seeds ^ in. long, 
2 at base of each scale. 

Leaves deciduous, in 2 opposite rows (distichous), linear-lanceolate, flat, 
rather distant, pectinate, horizontally spreading, twisting at base, linear, sharply 
pointed, somewhat arching, convex outwards, bright yellow-green, ^ in. long, 
jig i»- broad. Autumn tint dull red. 

A deciduous tree, 80-90 ft. ; Brandies stout, stiff", horizontal, ascending at 

ends, laterals rather pendulous ; hranchlets short, very slender, feathery ; Stem 

usually liollow at base, deep longitudinal furrows ; Roots with conical 

excrescences l|-2 ft. high, 4-.'5 ft. thickness, always hollow (cypress knees), 

smooth, soft, reddish bark, produced in greatest abundance in situations subject 

to inundations ; Heartxvood of reddish colour, light, not strong, soft, durable, 

little resin. 

Native of N. America, in swampy regions, hence name of Swamp Cypress ; 

212 



CONIFERi^ 

introduced 1G40. Name from Tuxus, the Yew; eidos, appearance or re- 
semblance, from similarity of leaves ; disticlios, arranged in 2 rows ; dis, twice ; 
sfic/ios. a line. 

CHILI PINE, Araucaiia imhricatu. 

Parks, lawns, shrubberies. June. Requires sun, moisture, and drainage. 
Propagated by seeds sown in light soil in temperature of 65°, February — 
April. 

Flowers usually dioecious; Male Jlotvers cylindrical, 4-5 ins., pedunculate, 
singly or clusters of G-7, yellow, scales numerous, long, imbricate, recurved, 
sometimes persistent for several years ; Females at ends of branches, 4 ins., 
almost spherical, broader at base, scales wedge-shaped, narrow, imbricate, 
brittle points; Fruit a cone, 6 ins. diam., globular, dark brown, scales easily 
detached, falling to pieces when ripe, 1 -seeded, 200-300 seeds, 1^ in. long, 
thin, hard shell, winged, inverted, partly attached to scales. 

Leaves verticillate, 7-8 in a whorl, ovate-lanceolate, sessile, I5 in. long, 
imbricate, closely encircling branches, thickened at base, coriaceous, stiff, keel- 
shaped below, sharp-pointed ends turned towards bi-anches, concave, glabrous, 
shining, marked with longitudinal lines, dotted on both surfaces, persisting 
15 years. 

An evergreen tree, 80-100 ft. ; Branches in whorls, curved, with upward ten- 
dency, entirely covered by leaves, lower branches often dying off, general outline 
pyramidal ; Bark thick, corky ; Wood white, hard, heartwood bright yellow. 
Native of S. Chili ; discovered by Don F. Dendariarena, 1780 ; introduced 
by Arch. Menzies, 1790. Generic name from Arauco, in Chili. 

INDIAN HEMLOCK FIR, Tsu^^u hrunoniana. 

Parks, gardens. April. Requii'es a sheltered position. Propagated by 

seeds in sandy loam in temperature of 55" in March, or outdoors in April. 

Flowers monftcious ; Males lateral ; Females terminal ; Fruit a cone, 

solitary and terminal, sessile, pendent, ovoid, pale brown, J 2 "'• long, scales 
VOL. II. 213 T 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

broadly elliptic, obtuse, loosely imbricated, persistent ; seeds small, angular, 
wing obovate. 

Leaves solitary, somewhat distichous or scattered, linear, flat, spreading, 
obtuse or slightly acute, minutely toothed towards apex, margins reflexed, 
glossy green above, silvery white-mealy beneath, \-\ in. long, easily detached by 
winter winds. 

An evergreen tree, 70 80 ft. ; pyramidal, with round head ; Branches 
numerous, slender, pendent. 

Native of Bhotan ; introduced 1838. Syns. Abies {Pinus) hrunoniana, 
A. {Pi mis) diimosa. 



HEMLOCK SPRUCE, Tsuga canadensis. 

Parks, gardens. April. Best in rather strong, damp loam ; good by a 
lake side. " Few evergreen trees can surpass the Hemlock Spruce for beauty 
and richness of foliage, or distinct and pleasing outline ; and during spring and 
early summer the young drooping shoots, of a lively yellowish-green, contrast 
nicely with the dark and sombre hue of the older foliage, and form a com- 
bination that for beauty of effect is certainly hard to match." — Webster. 

Mozvers monoecious ; Males sub-sessile, solitary, in axils of upper leaves, 
globose, light yellow ; Stamens numerous, anther cells sub-globose with short 
gland-like tips ; l^emales solitary, terminal, erect, globose, pale green, scales 
nearly circular, stipitate, bracts shorter than scales, lacinate ; Fruit a cone, 
ovate-oblong, acute, T^-f in. long, pendulous, stalks puberulous, scales about 
2.5, orbicular-oblong, obtuse, minutely lacerate or entire ; seeds very small. 

Leaves spirally disposed, irregularly distichous, oblong, rounded at apex, 
rough at margins, obscurely grooved on upper surface, dark green above, 
silvery stripes beneath, downy when young, ^-J in. long, deciduous in third 
year, woody bases persistent. 

An evergreen tree, 60 70 ft. ; pyramidal, with rounded or flattened head ; 

liranches slender, horizontal or pendulous, rather flat, downy when young ; 

branchlets light yellow-brown, becoming glabrous and dark red-brown tinged 

214 



CONIFERi^ 

purple ; Bark cinnamon-red to grey, tinged purple, narrow rounded ridges, 
scaly ; Buds obtuse, puberulous, chestnut-brown ; Wood light, soft, not 
strong, brittle, coarse-grained, liable to wind-shake and splinter, not durable 
when exposed to air, light brown tinged red ; astringent inner bark much 
used in U.S.A. and Canada for tanning. 

Introduced from N. America, 173G. Tsuga is the Japanese name. 



MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK, Tmga merteimana. 

Parks, gardens. April. 

Flowers monoecious ; Males on slender, pubescent, drooping stems, violet- 
purple ; Females erect, bracts larger than scales, dark purple or yellow-green, 
tips slender, reflexed ; Fruit a cone, sessile, oblong-cylindrical, }^-3 ins. long, 
scales thin, cuneate, puberulous, margins erose, 4-5 times as long as bracts ; 
seeds light brown, wings ^ in. long. 

Ijcaves spiral, 2-ranked, remote on leading shoots, crowded on laterals, 
sometimes grooved on upper surface, slightly ribbed on lower, bluntly pointed, 
bluish-green, \ in. long, persistent 3-4 years. 

An evergreen tree, 70-150 ft. ; Branches slender, pendant ; brancldets thin 
and flexible, or stout and rigid, light reddish-brown, pubescent, becoming 
greyish-brown and scaly ; Bark with rounded ridges, scaly, dark cinnamon-red 
tinged blue or purple ; Buds acute, slender, deciduous subulate tips ; growth 
rapid ; Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, pale brown or red. 

Introduced from N. America, 1851. 



JAPAN HEMLOCK SPRUCE, Tsuga sicholdl 

Parks, gardens. April. A species of neat and elegant habit, suitable for 

planting in confined spaces. 

Flowers montt'cious ; Fruit a cone, terminal and solitary, elliptic, blunt, 

1 in. long, J in. diani., scales 20-30, imbricated, coriaceous, slender at base, 

215 T 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

obtuse at apex, thin, shining pale brown, bract scales narrow, truncate, 
irregularly bifid ; seeds small, wings thin, membranous. 

Leaves solitary, somewhat distichous, frequently alternate, slightly linear, 
flat, obtuse, rarely acute, entire, smooth, dark shining green above, 2 white 
glaucous bands beneath, short round foot-stalks. 

An evergreen tree, 80-100 ft. ; Branches numerous, irregularly spreading, 
drooping at extremities ; branchlets slender, recurved ; Buds minute ; growth 
slow. 

Native of Japan; introduced 1853. Syn. Abies Tsuga. Japanese name 
Tsuga = Yew-leaved. 

ALCOCK SPRUCE, Picea akocMana. 

Parks, gardens. May. The species of Picea are propagated by cuttings 
in sandy soil in cold frame, or in pots under bell-glass or handlight outdoors, 
August or September ; layering of shoots or branches in autumn ; grafting 
on Norway Spruce in INlarch ; seeds sown in sandy loam in temperature of 55° 
in March, or outdoors in April. 

Flowers monoecious ; I^?-uit a cone, solitary or sub-aggregate, oblong-cylindri- 
cal, obtuse both ends, 2 ins. long, scales oblong-ovate, loosely imbricated, 
cartilaginous, margins denticulate, shining ; seeds small, cinnamon- coloured, wing 
obovate, }j in. long. 

Leaves spirally arranged, linear-oblong, 4-sided, falcate, rigid, mucronate, 
concave and deep green above, glaucous bands below, twisted at base, ^ in. long. 

An evergreen tree, 90-120 ft. ; pyramidal. 

Native of Japan ; introduced by Messrs. \^eitch, 1861. Named in compliment 
to Sir Rutherford Alcock, British Minister at the Court of Yeddo, Japan. 

NORWAY SPRUCE FIR, Picea exceka. 

W^oods, parks, plantations. May. Prefers moist soil and cold situation. 

Floxvers moncjecious ; Males on long stalks, isolated in leaf axils, J in. long, 

divoo or sub-globose wlieti young ; Stamens red, pollen-sacs yellow, scales thin, 

21G 



CONIFERS 

notched, striate, loosely imbricated ; Females sessile at tips of preceding yeai-'s 
shoots, IJ-^ ins. long, cylindrical, erect at first, scales thin, emarginate or 
toothed, purplish-red ; Fruit a cone, terminal, cylindrical, pendent, 5-7 ins. long, 
lJ-2 ins. broad, brown, scales 160-180, persistent, thin, flat, naked, truncate at 
summit, 1-1^ in. long, \ in. broad ; seeds small, 2 at base of eacli scale, wing 
five times as long, brown. 

Leaves acicular, spirally scattered, quadrangular, persistent, needles |-1 in. 
long, very sharp, persisting 6-7 years ; petiole short. 

An evergreen tree, 80-100 ft. ; Branches in regular tiers, ascending towards 
extremities when young, drooping when older, spray drooping, giving feathery 
appearance, leading slioot in young trees very prominent ; Bark thin, smooth, 
brown in young stage, warty and shed in irregular scales later : BiuU conical, 
not resinous : Roots given off horizontally very near surface ; fVood light, even- 
grained, elastic, durable ; used for masts, ladders, scaffolding, telegraph poles, 
deals, wood-pulp, &:c. k.c. ; also furnislies Burgundy pitch ; young plants often 
used for Christmas trees. 

Native of mountainous parts of Europe and Asia ; introduced about 
1.548. 

Name Spruce Fir possibly of German (Prussian) origin, meaning the Fir- 
tree whose shoots were most used for making spruce-beer (Ger. sprossen-bier — 
sprossen, young shoots of trees — spriessen, to sprout). 

Pine-apple Galls resembling imperfect cones, bearing shoot at summit, 
produced by Spruce Cone Aphis Adclges {Chermcs) abietis ; shoots often dis- 
torted, sometimes killed; most frequent on young trees; galls said to be eaten 
by Laplanders. 



HIMALAYAN SPRUCE, Picea iMorinda. 

Parks, gardens. April. Best on cold soils. 

Flowers montccious ; ]\[ale catkins usually solitary, cylindrical, sessile, 1 in. 

long; Fruit a cone, ovate-oblong to nearly cylindric, 4-6 ins. long, 1| in. diam., 

pendulous, scales obovate, rounded, coriaceous, margin thin, dark brown, 

217 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

glaucous when young ; sccch small, nearly black, wing obliquely spathulate. 
ripening in February of second year. 

Leaves spirally arranged round branches, 4-sided, stiff, acutely pointed, 
scattered, 1-1^ in. long, dark green. 

An evergreen tree, 80-120 ft. ; pyramidal ; Brcmchcs horizontal ; h'anclilets 
pendulous, tassel-like ; Bark greyish-brown, divided into small rounded or 
quadrangular scales. 

Native of tlie Himalayas from Bhutan to Kafiristan ; introduced 1818. Syns. 
Abies Smitldana and Pinus Smithiana. 

BLACK SPRUCE, Pkea nigra. 

Parks, gardens. May. Succeeds best in cool, moist loam. 

Floxoers monoecious, axillary ; Males sub-globose ; Stamens numerous, 
anthers dark red ; Females oblong-cylindrical, scales obovate, purple, bracts 
oblong, purple, glaucous, rounded at apex ; Fruit a cone, 1-1| in. long, ovate, 
scales puberulous, rounded, toothed, purple when young, sometimes persistent 
20-30 years ; seeds oblong, J in. long, dark brown, wings \ in. by i in. 

Leaves spirally disposed round branches, linear, slightly incurved above 
middle, quadrangular, pale blue-green, glaucous, J-f in. long, hoary on upper 
surface. 

An evergreen tree, 50-80 ft. ; Branches short, drooping, lower tier often 
resting on ground ; hranchlets light green, pale pubescence, scaly ; Bark grey- 
brown, scaly ; Buds ovate, acute, reddish-brown ; Wood light, soft, not strong, 
pale yellow-white. 

Introduced from N. America, 1700. 



EASTERN SPRUCE, Pivea orientalis. 

Parks, gardens. May. Thrives on sandy soil ; well suited for exposed 
situations. 

Floivers monoecious; Fruit a cone, sub-cylindrical, tapering towards apex, 

3 ins. long, f in. diam., scales loosely imbricated, broad at base, rounded at 

218 



1 

I 

I 



CONIFERt^ 

apex, sub-entire, bracts shorter than scales; seeds very small, nearly black, 
wing short and broad. 

Leaves solitary, covering branches on all sides, sub-quadrangular, acute, deep 
green both sides, h, in. long. 

An evergreen tree, 70-80 ft. ; Branches straight, slender, stiff. 

Native of the Caucasus; introduced 1825. 



TIGER'S-TAIL SPRUCE, Pkca poUta. 

Parks, gardens. May. This is one of the handsomest and hardiest of the 
Japanese Conifers, admirably suited for the lawn or park. 

Florvers monoecious ; Frnit a cone, solitary and terminal at ends of branchlets, 
ovate or ovate-oblong, rounded at both ends, glabrous, 3-4 ins. long, 2 ins. diam., 
erect at first, pendent later, scales numerous, persistent, closely imbricated, 
coriaceous, obovate, cuneate at base, entire, chestnut- brown ; seeds small, nearly 
black, wings thin. 

Leaves arranged round branchlets, straight or slightly falcate, stiff, somewhat 
quadrangular, acute or acuminate, entire, glabrous, glossy dark green, f-1 in. 
long. 

An evergreen tree, 40 ft. ; Branches horizontal, stiff; branchlets pendulous; 
Bark yellowish ; Buds large, globose, reddish-brown ; Wood almost white. 

Native of Japan ; there 80-100 ft. ; introduced 1861. Japanese call it 
" Toi'ano-wo-momi " (the Tiger's-tail Fir), because long pendulous branches on 
old trees bear resemblance to a tiger's tail. 



BLUE SPRUCE, Plcea pnngens. 

Parks, gardens. May. 

Flowers mon(x.'cious ; Males yellow tinged red ; Females, scales oblong or 

obovate, pale green, apex denticulate, truncate or emarginate, bracts acute ; 

Fruit a cone, oblong-cylindrical, ',\ ins. long, sessile or short-stalked ; seeds I in. 

long, wings | in. long, rounded at apex. 

211) 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Leaves stout, rigid, strongly incurved, acuminate, \-\^ ins. long on sterile 
branches, on fertile branches about half as long, bluish-green or steel-blue, 
changing to blue-green after 3 4 years. 

An evergreen tree, 50-80 ft. ; Branches horizontal ; branchlets short, stout, 
glabrous, bright orange-brown to light greyish-brown ; Bark grey tinged 
cinnamon-red ; Buds stout, obtuse or acute, \-\ in. long, scales chestnut- 
brown ; Wood light, soft, close-grained, weak, pale brown or nearly white. 

Native of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. Syn. P. paiyyana. It is the 
Abies (Picea) Engelmanni of gardens. 



MOUNT ATLAS CEDAR, Cedms atJantica. 

Parks, gardens. September, October. Suitable for limestone soils, doing 
well on bleak and exposed ground, and thriving in seaside towns. In its 
early stage it is much like the Cedar of Lebanon, but later is to be recognised 
by its more erect habit and rigid branches. The species are propagated by 
seeds sown in well-drained pans of hglit soil in cold frame in April, transplanting 
outdoors in following spring. 

Flowers monoecious ; 3Ia/es solitary and terminal, cylindric, erect ; Females 
solitary, erect, oval, obtuse ; Fruit a cone, chocolate-brown when ripe, ovate, 
flattened or depressed at ends, erect on upper sides of branches, light brown, 
resinous, 2J-3 ins. long, scales closely appressed, smooth, broad, coriaceous, tliin 
edges ; seeds in twos under each scale, irregular or angular, wing thin, 1 in. 
or more long. 

Leaves in tufts or singly on young shoots, cylindrical or flattened, acute, 
furrowed, rigid, straight, glaucous green or silvery hue, ^-J in. long. 

An evergreen tree, 80-120 ft. ; erect, pyramidal ; Branches slender, ascending 
to horizontal, mostly opposite, terminal shoots not pendulous, growth rapid ; 
Wood compact, fine-grained, durable. 

Native of Atlas Mountains, Algeria; introduced 1843. 



220 



CONIFERi^ 



DEODAR OR INDIAN CEDAR, Cedrus Beodara. 

Parks, gardens, shrubberies. September. October. This is a handsome 
tree at all times, but in the young stage it is made especially ornamental by 
reason of its pendulous leader and gracefully drooping branch-tips. It is not 
particular as to soil, but will not thrive in cold and exposed situations. 

Flowera monoecious or dioecious, resembling C. IJbani, at ends of arrested 
branchlets ; Males erect, 2-3 ins. long ; Fruit a cone, narrower and more lax 
than C. Liba/ii, ovoid-cylindrical, shortly stalked, often in pairs, usually on 
upper sides of top branches, 3-5 ins. long, bluish when young, pale reddish- 
brown when mature, scales closely imbricate, deciduous ; seeds .\-| in., wing 
triangular, | in. long. 

Leaves fascicled, triquetrous, rigid, larger than C Libani, dark bluish-green, 
light glaucous bloom. 

An evergreen tree, 60-80 ft. ; elongated pyramidal or conical outline ; 
terminal shoots of branches slender, pendulous ; Branches of young trees slender, 
very flexible, drooping. 

Native of Western Himalayas, where it attains a height of 150 ft. or more, 
its timber being very durable, lasting for hundreds of years ; used for railway- 
sleepers, bridges, &c. ; owing to fragrance, Hindus burn wood as incense ; seeds 
first introduced to England by Hon. W. L. Melville, 1831. 



CEDAR OF LEBANON, Cedms Libani. 

Parks, gardens. May. Hest in deep soil where roots have access to water. 

Flowers monoecious, not usually produced under 25-30 years ; 3Iales 

isolated, i? in. long, erect, ovoid, yellowish, mostly near apex of tree, scales 

broad, thin, closely imbricated : Females 31,-4 ins. long, ellipsoid-oblong, purple 

when young ; Fruit a cone, erect, oblong, oval, pedunculate, purplish-brown, 

resinous, 3-li ins. long, H-2| ins. diameter, scales woody, thin, margin 

somewhat membranous, very compact, in young stage greyish-green tinged 

221 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

with pink ; seeds angular, wing cuneate, at least two years to ripen, persistent 
for several, \ in. long, wings 1^ in. long, rounded cuneate. 

Leaves singly on elongated branches, or fascicled on dwarf shoots, arranged 
spirally, but mostly on upper side, short, rigid, nearly cylindrical, acute, 1 in. 
long, dark green, persistent for 2 years, very slow in decaying. 

An evergreen tree, 60-80 ft. or more under favourable conditions ; Branches 
horizontal, large, rigid, in distinct layers or stages, forming a broadly pyramidal 
head or flattened top ; branchlets flat, fan-like, numerous, thickly set ; Bark on 
branches greyish-brown, smooth, peeling in thin flakes, on trunk thick, rough, 
deeply fissured ; Wood in this country reddish-white with streaks, soft, apt to 
shrink and warp, not durable, sweet-scented for only first year after being felled. 

Native of Lebanon and Taurus in Syria ; introduced about 1860. Name from 
O.F. cedre ; L. cedrus ; Gr. kedros, cedar-tree. 



COMMON LARCH, Larix enropcea. 

Woods, plantations, gardens. April, May. Best in elevated open situa- 
tions, preferring alluvial sandy loam. Propagated by seeds sown in sandy 
soil in November, transplanting when two years old. 

Flowers monoecious ; Males isolated, sessile, ovoid-globose to shortly 
cylindrical, pale green passing to yellow, jL-| in. long, scales thin, stamens 
almost peltate ; Females cylindrical, blunt, solitary, f^-^ in. long, crimson- 
purple when young, pale brown later, scales thin, pointed ; Fruit a cone, 
lax, ovate, erect, l>rown, red when young, 1 in. long, ripe in late autumn, 
persisting for a long time, scales persistent, roundish, reddish-brown ; seeds 
ovate, winged ; cones along twigs in rows, numerous. 

Leaves fascicled, 30-60 in a bundle, linear, soft, blunt, or rounded at 
point, spreading, slightly recurved, bright green, deciduous. 

A deciduous tree, 80-100 ft. ; Branches spreading, horizontal, lower ones 

with a downward tendency, turning upwards at tips ; Twigs mostly pendulous ; 

Bark brown, separable into thin layers, deep longitudinal fissures ; quick in 

growth ; fTood reddish-brown or yellowish-white, durable, tough, witli but 

'222 




LAllCJI (Larix eurojiwa) 

A. Braiicli sliuwing cones. II. Kcmaln flowers. C. Scale of cone, sUowiug 2 winged seoi Is. 

D. Hale flowers. 



CONIFERS 

few knots, withstanding alternation of wet and dry, susceptible of high polish ; 
used in carpentry and joinery, and for poles ; trunk furnishes Venice tur- 
pentine ; bark used in tanning. 

Native of Europe; introduced somewhere about 1629. Name Larch from 
Old French lai-ice ; L. laricem, ace. of larix ; Gr. huix, a larch. 

Bark attacked by a beetle known as Larch Blight {Bostrichus laricis) ; 
Foliage — Larch Aphis {Chermen lands), Larch Miner (Colcop/iora laricclla) ; 
Timber — Giant Sirex {Sirex gigas). 

Fungoid Pests: — Sulphury Wood Rot {Pohjporus sidfureus), Larch Canker 
{Dasyscyphu calycina), probably caused by Peziza Jflll/iommii. 



GOLDEN LARCH, Pseudolarix Kcvmpferi. 

Gardens, plantations. May. " This is a distinctly ornamental Conifer, 
and that at three different periods of the year — early spring, when the tender 
green leaves are unfolding ; autumn, when they put on tlie lovely golden 
colour ; and during the leafless period, when the yellowish-green or golden- 
brown bark of the younger branches shows ofi' to perfection, and renders 
the tree distinct from almost every other species in cultivation." — VV^ebster. 
Propagated by seeds sown in well-drained pots of sandy loam in cold 
greenhouse or frame in April, transplanting outdoors in following spring ; or 
sown outdoors in inoist sandy soil in April, transplanting in following year. 

Flmccfs moncecious ; Male catkins shortly stalked, 20 or more, clustered in 
umbellate pendulous tufts at extremities of side shoots ; Fruit a cone, pendulous, 
3 ins. long, 2\ ins. diam., scales 50-60, triangular, deciduous, diverging, cordate, 
woody ; seeds as large as scales ; cones break up at the least touch. 

Leaves slender, linear-lanceolate, clustered on the adult branches, singly 
on leading shoots and young plants, \^-'2l ins. long, pale green when young, 
golden-yellow in autumn, deciduous. 

A deciduous tree, 120 ft.; liranclics resembling L. curopau; liurk dark 

grey, young shoots yellowisli-green or golden-brown. 

Native of China; introduced 184G. P'irst discovered by Kcumpfcr (16.51- 17 10), 

223 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

and subsequently by Fortune. Name from Gr. pseudo, false, and Lari.r, a 
larch. Chinese call it Kara-mats (Pine full of buds) and Kin-le-suiig (Com- 
mon Golden Pine) ; Japanese name is Seosa-mats (deciduous Fir). 



SHORT-LEAVED SILVER FIR, Abies braclnjphfilla. 

Parks, gardens. May. The species of Abies are propagated by seeds 
sown in sandy loam in temperature of 55° in March, or outdoors in April. 

Flowers moncecious ; Males axillary or terminal ; Females solitary on 
short branchlets, cylindrical ; Fruit a cone, solitary, purplish, oblong-cylin- 
drical, obtuse at apex, sessile, erect, 31 ins. long, 1;^ in. diam., scales reniform, 
resinous, margins entire, bracts cuneate, dentate ; seeds cuneate, angular, full 
of turpentine, wings broad at top. 

Leaves ci'owded, linear, straight or curved, flat, enlarged at base, obtuse or sub- 
emarginate, furrowed upper side, white glaucous stripes beneath, J—}, in. long. 

An evergreen t7-ee, 40 ft. ; pyramidal ; Branches horizontal, whorled. 

Native of Japan (120 ft.); introduced 1870. 



MOUNT ENOS FIR, Abies cephahnica. 

Parks, lawns. May. Grows well in exposed situations ; best in good clayey loam. 
A handsome tree, well adapted for the woodland, or as a specimen on a lawn. 

Flowers monoecious; Fruit a cone, erect, cylindrical, green when young, 
reddish when maturing, brown when ripe, 5-G ins. long, \\ in. diam., scales 
broad, thin, rounded, shorter than bracts, bracts linear-oblong, attenuated 
below, unequally toothed, point sharp, reflexed. 

Leaves regularly disposed, like stiff bottle-brush, around branches, subulate, 
flat, acute, dark olive-green above, two silvery lines beneath. 

An evergreen tree, 50 80 ft. ; Branches numerous, wliorled ; Buds quad- 
rangular, acute, resinous ; Wood, hard, very durable, extremely resinous. 

Introduced from Greece, 1824. Found on Mount Enos, or the Black 

Mountain, Cephalonia. Seeds first sent home by General Sir Charles Napier. 

224 



I 



CONIFERS 

CILICIAN SILVER FIR, Abies dlidca. 

Parks. ]\Iay. A tree resembling the Common Silver Fir {A. pectinata), 
but with branches and foliage less plentifully produced ; it is not very hardy. 

Flowers moncecious ; Male catkins pedunculate, cylindrical, rounded at ends ; 
Fruit a cone, cylindrical, G-8 ins. long, scales broad, entire, thin, coriaceous, 
bracts ligulate, crenated, hidden by scales ; seeds three-cornered, full of turpen- 
tine, wings cuneate. 

Leaves crowded in 2 ranks, linear, slightly curved or straight, dark green 
above, glaucous beneath, l-lj in- long. 

An evergreen tree, 40 GO ft. ; Branches mostly in whorls, lower ones hori- 
zontal ; branchlets slender, short, flat, spreading, in 2 horizontal rows. 

Introduced from Mount Taurus, in Asia Minor. 

COLORADO WHITE FIR, Abies concolor. 

Parks, gardens. May. The yellow bark on the young branches makes this 
a very attractive tree. It is distinguished by its leaves being nearly of the same 
colour on both surfaces. It thrives well in exposed situations. 

Flowers monoecious ; 3Talcs red or rose ; Females, scales broad, rounded ; 
Fruit a cone, cylindrical, produced singly, obtuse both ends, 3-5 ins. long, 2-21^ 
ins. diam., scales numerous, imbricated, lai-ger than short-pointed bracts; seeds 
^^ in. long, dark dull brown, wings rose. 

Leaves distichously arranged in double rows, those in lower rows 2-3 ins. long, 
upper ones shorter, channelled above, linear, flat, obtuse or emarginate on vege- 
tative shoots, acute on shoots bearing cones, glaucous green, those on fertile 
branches often falcate. 

An evergreen t7^ee, 80-150 ft. ; 7iar/i' on young branches yellow or orange, 
turning reddish-brown, then grey or greyish-brown, on old trunks thick, 
furrowed, irregular plate-like scales ; lii/ds globose ; JFood very light, soft, 
coarse-grained, not strong, pale brown, sometimes nearly wiiite. 

Native of Colorado, Utah, and Arizona; introduced 1851. Syn. Picea 

lasiocarpu (Balfour). In California reaches height of 200-250 ft. 

VOL. II. 225 U 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

JAPAN SILVER FIR, Abies fa-ma. 

Parks, gardens. May. Thrives best in light, rich loam, and sheltered from 
cold winds. 

Flowers monoecious ; Fvjiit a cone, cylindrical, stalked, blunt, slightly 
curved, 3-5 ins. long, 1 in. diam., scales cuneate at base, rounded and crenulate, 
membranaceous, deciduous, bracts acute ; seeds triangular, wings broad. 

Leaves solitary, somewhat 2-rowed, linear, flat, blunt at apex or bifid, 
slightly falcate, smooth, coriaceous, rich green above, silver lines below, 1 in. 
or more long, sometimes cleft at tips in young stage of growth. 

An evergreen tree, 40-30 ft. ; Blanches whorled, horizontal, spreading, 
flat ; branchlets opposite ; Buds oval, smooth, in threes, scales imbricate, 
membranaceous. 

Native of Japan; there called "Uro-Siro" (leaves white beneath) and 
" Sjura-Momi " (White or Silver Fir); introduced 1861. Syn. A. bifida. 



GREAT SILVER FIR, Abies grandis. 

Parks, gardens. May. A handsome Conifer, well adapted for ornamental 
planting, and growing well on poor soils. 

Flowers moncecious, usually on upper branches of tree ; Males pale yellow, 
sometimes tinged purple ; Females light yellow-green, scales semicircular, 
bracts short, oblong, apex broad, obcordate, emarginate, reflexed tip ; Fruit 
a cone, cylindrical, bronzy-green, 2-4 ins. long, usually in pairs, \\ in. diam., 
scales broad at apex, 3-4 times length of bracts ; seeds § in. long, light brown, 
wings |— g in. long, nearly as broad at apex. 

Leaves thin, flexible, deeply grooved, dark green above, silvery-white 
beneath ; on sterile branches remote, terete, emarginate ; on fertile branches 
crowded, nearly erect, obtuse or notched at apex ; on young trees acute or 
acuminate. 

An evergreen t?ce, 70-100 ft. ; Branches in flat horizontal tiers, somewhat 

pendulous ; branchlets glabrous, pale yellow-green to brown ; Bark smooth, 

226 



CONIFERS 

grey-brown or yellow-brown, broken into oblong plates ; BuiU globose ; Wood 
light, soft, coarse-grained, not strong nor durable, light brown, very resinous, 
taking good polish. 

Native of N. America, there attaining height of 250-300 ft. ; seeds sent 
home by Douglas, 1831. 



BALSAM FIR, Abies bakamca. 

Parks. June. Does well in cool, rather moist soil. 

Flowet's monoecious ; Males dark indigo-blue, turning violet ; Females, 
scales obovate, dark violet-purple, bracts long, reHexed, tips slender ; Fi'uit 
a cone, oblong-cylindrical, truncate or depressed at apex, dark purple, 2-0-4 ins. 
long, 1-1^ in. diam., scales rounded and broad at apex, 3 times length of 
bracts, bracts obovate, red-brown, lacinate, long slender tips ; seeds \ in. long, 
wings nearly covering scales. 

Leaves crowded, nearly erect by twist at base, on lower branches 1— If in. 
long, sometimes emarginate at rounded apex, on upper branches shorter, 
thickened, usually acute, pale blue-green. 

An evergreen tree, 40-70 ft., with dense spire-like head ; Branches crowded, 
short, tough, somewhat pendulous ; Bark fissured, roughened with red scales, 
resin known as Canada Balsam ; Buds sub-globose, scales orange-brown ; growth 
slow ; JVood light, soft, not strong, pale brown or nearly white. 

Native of Canada and North-East U.S.A. ; introduced 1696. Known also 
as Ealni of Gilead. 



RED FIR, Abies nobilis. 

Parks. May. 'I'he deep silvery glaucous foliage and regular branches make 
this perhaps the most beautiful of tlie Silver Firs. 

Flowers monoecious; Males icddish-purple; Females scattered over upper part 

of tree, scales shorter than bracts, toothed, slender reHexed tips, bracts nearly 

orbicular ; Fruit a cone, oblong-cylindrical, obtuse both ends, 4-6 ins. long, 

227 u 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

purple or olive-brown, pubescent, scales narrowed towards base, bracts spathulate, 
recurved, pale green; seeds \ in. long, pale red-brown, wings about as long 
as seeds. 

Leaves crowded in several rows, two ranked on lower side of branches, 
others incurved; on sterile branches 1-1 i in. long, flat, rounded, notched at 
apex ; on fertile branches usually 4-sided, acuminate, two glaucous bands 
beneath. 

An evergreen tree, 80-90 ft. ; Branches short, rigid, laterals at right angles ; 
branchlets slender, reddish-brown ; Bark 1-2 ins. thick, fissured, scaly, red- 
brown ; Buds ovoid-oblong, red-brown ; Wood hard, light, strong, close-grained, 
pale brown streaked red ; sapwood darker. 

Native of N. America, where it attains lieight of 150-250 ft.; intro- 
duced 1831. 



NORDMANN'S SILVER FIR, Abies nordmanniana. 

Parks, gardens. April, May. Prefers deep, heavy, rich loam on clay or 
rock. It is one of the finest and most valuable of the genus, scarcely to be 
surpassed as a park or lawn tree. 

Floxvers monoecious ; Males in groups or clusters, generally pendent, abundant 
on old trees ; Females generally solitary, erect, produced on young trees some 
years before males appear ; Fruit a cone, erect, slightly ovoid, pedunculate, 4-6 
ins. long, 2J-2| ins. diam., scales obtuse, recurved, smooth, entire, deciduous, 
bracts large, coriaceous, 3-lobed, greatly exceeding scales ; seeds triangular, about 
IGO, 2 under each scale, wings membranous. 

Leaves single, arranged spirally on shoots, on yoimg trees spreading in 
2 rows, with half-twist at base, linear, rigid, flat, minutely bifid at apex, dark 
shining green above, silvery beneath, 1 in. long. 

An evergreen tree, 80-100 ft.; resembling Silver Fir; Branches wliorled, 
lower ones horizontal, upper erect ; Wood hard, closed-grained, durable. 

Named after I'rofessor Nordmann, who discovered the species in the Crimea, 

1848. 

228 



CONIFERS 

SILVER FIR, Abies pectinata. 

Parks, plantations. May. Best in moist, open soil ; will grow beneath the 
shade and drip of other trees. 

Flowers monoecious ; Blalcs crowded in leaf axils of shoots of preceding 
year, especially at tip of tree, | in. long, 2-3 whorls of overlapping pale green 
scales, enclosing greenish-yellow stamens ; Females cylindrical, erect, on upper 
side of apex of last year's shoots of top branches (August), 1-1| in. long, 
numerous pale green bracts, scales pale green, obovate, toothed, tip prolonged 
beyond seminiferous scales ; Fruit a cone, axillary, erect, cylindrical, 6-8 ins. 
long, l|-2 ins. broad, brown, seminiferous scales falling with seeds, bract scales 
^Ij in. long, \\ in. broad ; seeds triangular, abounding in balsam. 

Leaves linear, solitary, flat, twisted at base so as to lie in two horizontal rows, 
obtuse, stiff, turned up at points, shining green above, two silvery-white lines 
for 6-9 years, one on each side of midrib beneath, ^-1 in. long, persistent, 
brown scale-like leaves on buds, persisting at base of each year's growth. 

An evergreen tree, 80-120 ft. ; Branches horizontal, lower ones shed after 
40-50 years ; Bark smooth, greyish-brown, in old trees rugged, fissured longitudi- 
nally, silvery-grey ; slow growth when young ; Wood yellowish-white, strong, 
not warping, does not withstand weather ; used for masts and in building, also 
for wood-pulp in paper-making ; Strasburg turpentine obtained from resin 
cavities under bark. 

Native of Central and S. Europe; introduced about 1603; lives about 400 
years ; specimens on Continent nearly 200 ft. high. Specific name from L. 
pecfcii, iiiis, a comb ; pecto, I comb. 

liaiL- and Buds attacked by Fir \\''eevil {lljilohius ahictis). Typographer 
Bark Beetle (Bust ric/ius typographus). 

Fungoid Pest: — Spruce Nectria {Xectria cucurbit ula). 

SPANISH SILVER FIR, Abies Pinsapo. 

Parks, lawns. May. Well adapted for planting on chalk or hmestone, doing 

well on exposed ground. 

229 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Plowers mona?ciou.s ; Fruit a cone, sessile, oval or oblong, 4-5^^ ins. long, 
2 ins. diam., purplish-green, scales rounded, entire, cuneate at base, bracts short, 
concealed by broad rounded scales ; seeds angular, wings membranaceous. 

Leaves disposed around branches, linear, rigid, thick, almost fleshy, nearly 
terete, entire at apex, prickly, bright green, faint silvery lines on inner side, 
x\ in. long. 

An evergreen tree, 50-100 ft. ; regular and symmetrical; Branches whorled, 
densely clothed with laterals ; Bark darker and more scaly than Common Silver 
Fir ; Wood hard, close-grained. 

Introduced from S. Spain, 1839. 



DOUGLAS FIR, Pseudotsuga Doiiglasii. 

Parks and plantations, gardens. May. Propagated by seeds sown in sandy 
loam in temperature of 55° in March, or outdoors in April. 

Floxvers monoecious ; Males long-ovoid, orange-red, clustered at intervals 
on underside of previous year's shoots, anthers numerous, globose ; FeJiiales 
small, at tips of lateral branches, pendulous, isolated or grouped, bracts 
acute, 2-lobed, midrib prolonged ; Fruit a cone, ovate-oblong, pendulous, 
terminal, '2%-^ ins. long, IJ-lf in- broad, reddish- brown, scales broad, rounded, 
bracts large, 3-clawed. middle awn long ; bears after about 25 years ; 
seeds reddish-brown, wings dark brown, rounded at apex, \ in. long. 

Leaves flat, linear, falcate, blunt, entire, pectinate, 2-rowed, rich green 
above, two silvery lines beneath, l-lj in. long, persisting 0-7 years. 

An evergreen tree, 80-120 ft.; pyramidal outline; Brunches at lowest 

part bending downwards, those higher spreading horizontally, uppermost 

slightly ascending ; bra/ichlets mostly in opposite pairs ; Bark thick, scaling, 

reddish-brown, deep irregular fissures ; Wood hard, durable, susceptible of fine 

polish ; heartwood yellow, fine-grained, light weight, or red, coarse-grained, 

and heavier ; sapwood yellowish ; used in shipbuilding ; timber known as 

Oregon Pine. 

Native of N. America; seeds first sent to England by Douglas, 1826: 

230 




SCOTCH PINE {Fimis sijlvestris) 

A. Br.-inch wilh female llowcrs. £. Uranoh witli male flowers. C. A stamrn. I). Female (lowers, enlarged. 

E. Scale of cone, showing the 2 winged seeds. 



Platk LXVIII. 



CONIFERS 

in America reaches height of 300 ft.; mast in Kew Gardens 159 ft. long; the 
tree probably lives 750 years ; most widely distributed of American trees. 
Originally called Abies taxifoUa; afterwards named by Dr. Lindley as Abies 
Douglasii, in memory of Douglas, still often described under that name ; more 
recently changed to P. Douglasii (Gr. pseudcs, false, and Tsiiga, a genus of 
Conifera?). 

COULTER'S PINE, Pinus Conlteri. 

Parks. June. Best in deep sandy loam, and sheltered from south-westerly 
winds. The Pines are propagated by seeds sown in well-drained pots of sandy 
loam in cold greenhouse or frame in April, transplanting outdoors in following 
spring ; or in moist sandy soil outdoors in April, transplanting one year afterwards. 

Flowers monoecious ; Males yellow ; Females dark reddish-brown ; Fruit 
a cone, oval, acute, pendant, 10-14 ins. long, 6 ins. diam., weight 4-5 lbs., 
yellow-brown, scales thick, woody, broad, ending in flattened knobs, armed 
with incurved spines \-\^ in. long; seeds oval, I in. long, chestnut-brown, 
tliick shell, wings about 1 in. longer tlian seed, i in. wide. 

Leaves in tufts, usually 3, sometimes 4 or 5, terminal, stout, rigid, 
triangular, flattened, incurved, 9-12 ins. long, dark blue-green, persistent for 
3-4 years. 

An evergreen free, 50-70 ft. ; Branches wide apart, long and pendulous 
below, short and ascending above; branchlets stout, few, orange-brown, 
becoming nearly black ; Bark dark brown, fissured, scaly ; growth rapid ; 
JVood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, light red. 

Native of X. America; introduced 1832; seeds sent home by Douglas. 
Named in lioiiour of Dr. Coulter. Also called P. i/iacrocarpa (Large-coned Pine). 

CORSICAN PINE, Pinm Laricio. 

Parks, gardens. May. Suited for deep, rich soils. This liandsome species 

may be recognised by the straight and finely-rounded trunk and the narrow 

spread of the branches. 

231 u 3 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

Floxvers monoecious; Male catkins at extremities of shoots, 6-15 in a 
cluster, 1-1+ in. long, yellow; Females solitary or 2-3 in cluster, ovoid, 
reddish, scales with blunt triangular point, bract scales scarious ; Fruit a 
cone, solitary, or in pairs, or sometimes 3-4, pointing horizontally or slightly 
downwards, conical, straight or curved, yellowish-brown or tawny, 2-4 ins. 
long, 1|^ in. diam. at base, bosses on young cones reddish-purple, scales 
elliptic, convex, short point ; seeds oval, greyish, with black spots, ripe in 
third year, wing 3-4 times length of seed. 

Leaves 2-5 in a sheath, slender, ascending, spreading, curved or wavy, often 
twisted, finely striated, finely serrated, obtuse at apex, flat on one side, convex 
on other, dark green, glaucous, 4-8 ins. long, persistent 3-4 years. 

An evergreen ti^ee, 80-140 ft.; ei-ect, pyramidal; Branches not numerous, 
in whorls of 5-6, often twisted at extremities, with tendency to curve round 
tree and upwards ; Bark reddish-grey, large plates ; Buds ovate, acute, 
resinous ; Wood white, becoming brownish-yellow when seasoned, coarse- 
grained, elastic, resinous, easily worked, durable, takes high polish. 

Native of S. Europe; said to have been introduced in 1814, but probably 
first planted at Kew in 1759 ; said to live 000 years. 

Bark and leading shoots attacked by Pine Beetle [Hijlesinus piniperda). 



AUSTRIAN PINE, Pinus Larido, v. nigricans. 

Parks, plantations. May. Does well on poor soils and in bleak and exposed 
situations, making an excellent seaside tree ; best on chalky soil. This is 
distinguished from the Corsican Pine by the much greater spi'ead of the brandies, 
the shaggy dark green foliage, and the light grey buds. 

Floivers monoecious ; Male flowers %-\ in. long, brilliant yellow, cylindrical, 

sub-sessile in axils of scale-leaves ; Stamens shortly stalked ; Female cones on 

sides of shoots, sub-terminal, 1-3, sub-sessile, bright red ; Fruit a cone, 2-3 ins. 

long, sessile, erect, with rounded base, lying almost horizontal, scales smooth 

and shining, bosses strong, yellowish-brown ; seeds ripened in about \\ year. 

Leaves in ])airs, dense, rigid, erect, straight, rounded on one side, slightly 

232 



CONIFER.^ 

channelled on tlie other, sharp-pointed, ricli, dark glossy brownish-green, 2|-5 
ins. long, toothed margins, sheaths persistent. 

An evergreen tree, 60-80 ft. ; somewhat pyramidal ; Branches long, stout, 
lower ones horizontal or slightly pendulous ; Bark dark, coarse ; Buds light 
grey ; IVood coarse-grained, very resinous, knotty, durable. 

Native of Austria; introduced by Messrs. Lawson, 1835. A variety of 
the Corsican or Larch Pine {Phms Laricio). Sometimes called the Black Pine. 

Bark and shoots attacked by Pine Beetle {Hylesinus piniperda). 



CLUSTER PINE, Piuus Pinaster. 

Parks, gardens. April, May. Grows well near the sea, and will grow 
on shingly gravel inland. 

Flowers monoecious ; 3Iales crowded, ovoid, % in. long ; Stamens golden- 
yellow, much rounded, irregularly toothed anther processes; Females small, 
lateral, in pseudo whorls of 4-8 at tips of shoots, red-violet, seminiferous scales 
slightly longer than bracts; Fruit a cone, nearly sessile in lateral clusters of 
2-4, or whorls of .5-8, cylindric-ovoid, tapering at apex, base oblique, purplish to 
green to shining yellowish-brown, 4-6 ins. long, 1\ ins. diam. at broadest part, 
bosses prominent, scales pyramidal, 1-1] in. long, f in. broad, umbo ash- 
grey, ending in sharp spine ; seeds oblong, wings \\ in. long, nearly 1 in. broad. 

Leaves in twos, stiff, broad, fleshy, acute, slightly serrated, dark green, white 
lines beneath, 6-12 ins. long, sheaths J in. long, pale yellow, turning nearly black. 

An evergreen tree, 60-80 ft. ; round-headed ; Stem with tendency to grow 
crooked; Branches slender, in whorls, turning upwards at extremities; Bark 
purplish, deeply fissured, plates 4-6 ins, long, 2 ins. wide ; Buds whitish-brown, 
woolly, non-resinous, \ in. long ; Wood soft, reddish, not very durable ; used 
in Naval work and carpentry. 

Native of S. Europe; introduced about 159G. Called Cluster Pine from 

whorled clusters of cones. Specific name of Pin-aster or Star Pine said to 

have been given for same reason. Known in France as Maritime Pine, from 

extensive planting on coast. 

233 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

STONE PINE, Pinm Pinea. 

Parks, plantations. May, June. Best in sandy soil near sea, sheltered. 

Floivers monoecious ; Male Jlorvers in axils of lower scale-leaves, forming 
a cylindrical, spicate cone, \-^ in. long, each flower consisting of several 
yellow stamens ; Female flourfs solitary, or two together at top of lateral 
shoots, erect at first, pendulous afterwards, f in. long, scales pale green ; 
Fruit a cone, solitary, orbicular, 4-6 ins. long, 3 ins. diani., red-brown, 
ripening in third year, scales stout, ligneous, hard, 2 ins. long, 1-1:|^ in. wide, 
cuneate, with a rhomboid boss and broad blunt prickle ; seeds f in. long, 
very short wing, enclosed in bony shell, ripening in fourth year. 

Leaves on young trees single, short, later on in pairs, united at base by 
a pale sheath, semi-cylindrical, apex sub-acute, rigid, edges slightly scabrous, 
6-8 ins. long, bright green, persisting 2-3 years. 

An evergreen tree, 30-35 ft. ; with rounded umbrella-like head ; Branches 
spreading, mostly at top, stumps left as laterals decay ; branc/ilets generally 
ascending ; Bark red-grey, thick, rough, fissured longitudinally, often deeply 
peeling in patches ; JFood soft, light, fine-grained, not durable ; used in 
carpentry. 

Native of Mediterranean, reaching 80 ft. in height. Often called Umbrella 
Pine. In Italy seeds eaten at dessert, and preserved as sweetmeats. 

YELLOW PINE, Pinus ponderosa. 

Parks. May. 

Floivers monoecious ; Males yellow, persistent 4-5 years ; Females clustered 
or in pairs, dark red; Cones 3-G ins. long, ovoid, sub-terminal, singly or clusters 
2-4, generally at extremities of smaller branches ; bosses of scales with small 
recurved triangular subulate spines; seeds ovate, acute, | in. long, wings 1-1 j 
in. by 1 in. 

Leaves in twos or threes, 0-12 ins. long, sometimes twisted at base, 

rather rigid, 3-angled, compressed, edges rough, deep glaucous green, persistent 

sheaths 1 in. long, shrivelled on older ones, mostly deciduous in third season. 

234 



\ 




TWIGS AXD \YIXTER BUDS (Xo. 1) 

A. Kim. Ji. Plane. C. Laburnum. CK Section of bud. D. Sycamore. X»'. Section of bud. J-:. Asb. EK Section of bud. 
F. Aspen. F'. Section of bud. 0. Oak. 6'. Section of bud. i/. Lilac, i/'. Section of bud. /. Lime. J. Elder. 



CONIFER.^ 

An evergreen tree, 100-150 ft., with tendency to twist ; Bark light yellowish- 
brown (cork colour), large plates, 4-8 ins. broad, flat, smooth ; Branches few, 
stout, in regular whorls, drooping when old ; smaller branches widely spreading 
or somewhat drooping, marked with scales of fallen leaves ; young trees of 
rapid growth ; Buds bluntly domed, prominent point, very resinous, Ijrown ; 
Wood highly resinous, heavy, brittle, close-grained, said to sink in water. 

Native of N. America, where it reaches 100-250 ft. ; introduced by Douglas 
from California, 1827. 

SCOTS PINE, Pinus sijlvestris. 

Parks, gardens, plantations. INIay, June. Best in peaty soils. 

Flowers moncecious ; Males in spikes, \ in. long, ovoid, shortly stalked, 
at base of young shoots, pollen pale yellow ; Females egg-shaped, \ in. long, 
reddish, tapering, at first erect and stalkless, usually 2-3, scales few ; Fruit a 
cone, solitary, or 2-3 together, 2 ins. long, ovoid, conical, acute, recurved when 
young, shortly stalked, scales few, ends thickened into a quadrangular boss, 
small shield with deciduous poizit, persistent, ripe in about 18 months ; seeds \ in. 
long, wing cuneate, 2-3 times as long as seed, scales disarticulating from axis 
of cone. 

Leaves in pairs, dense, 2-3 ins. long, shorter on old trees, acicular, acute, 
grooved above, convex beneath, glaucous in first year, dark green in second, 
shed in third, sheaths small, fimbriate, persistent, nearly black. 

An evergreen tree, 50-100 ft. ; Hat topped, rapid in growth ; Branches short, 
spreading, lower soon dying; Bark rough, red-brown, scaling; Wood in this 
country not very dural)le, red or white ; tree yields pitch, tar, resin, turpentine. 

Naturalised all over Britain, indigenous in Scotland. Often called Scots Fir. 
Name Pine from A.S. pin-treo, a Pine-tree ; L. pinus, a pine. 

Bark and leading shoots attacked by Pine Beetle {Hjileshms piniperda), 

shoots by species of Pine Shoot Moths {Retinia), which live in terminal buds and 

in resinous exudations from young branches ; Foliage — Pine Beauty {Panolis 

piniperda). Pine Saw-fly {Lophyrus pini). 

Fungoid Pest: — Pine Cluster Cups {Peridermium Pini). ^^""^ '^■^^^ 

235 ^ i'HH 'l 



TREES AND SHRUBS 

SWISS STONE PINE, Pinus Cembra. 

Parks, gardens. May. Best in a deep, rich loam on a porous subsoil. 

Floivers monoecious ; Male catkins sessile, ellipsoid, | in. long ; Stamens 
bright yellow, anthers reddish-violet; Females long-ovoid, violet, ovuliferous 
scales ovate, closely imbricated ; Fruit a cone, ovate, obtuse, erect, violet when 
young, brown Avhen old, 3-4 ins. long, 2-2^ ins. diam., scales smooth, broad 
obtuse spine ; seeds nut-hke, edible, wingless, i in. long, ripening in November 
of second year. 

Leaves usually in clusters of 5, sometimes 4 or 6, slender, flexible, triquetrous, 
3-ribbed, one rib shining green, the other 2 white opaque, edges rough, sharp- 
pointed, 2-5 ins. long, sheaths small, deciduous. 

An evergreen tree, 50 ft. ; erect, blunt, pyramidal, slow of growth ; Branches 
from base to summit, short, erect, shoots pubescent ; Bark grey-brown, fissured, 
scaly ; Buds globose, long narrow point, whitish, within resin ; Wood soft, fine- 
grained, fragrant, resinous ; much used in manufacture of Swiss toys. 

Native of mountains of S. Europe. Known also as Arolla. First planted by 
Duke of Argyll, 174G ; seeds introduced by Lawson, 1828. 

BHOTAN PINE, Pinus excelsa. 

Parks, gardens. May. Best on light gravelly loam, well drained. 

Floivers monoecious ; Blale catkins narrow-cylindrical, 1 in. long, dense 
clusters ; Fruit a cone, in pairs, or whorls of 4, rarely solitary, conoid-cylindrical, 
obtuse, curved, smooth, erect at first, purple or violet-rose, afterwards pendulous 
and dull green, foot-stalk nearly 1 in. long, cone 6-9 ins. long, 2^ ins. broad at base, 
slightly recurved, rich bronze when ripe, lunipe cones glaucous, full of turpen- 
tine and resin, scales wedge-shaped, loosely imbricated, thin, l-2i ins. long ; 
seeds small, ovate, wing obliquely truncate, Ij in. long, ripe in October or 
November of second year. 

Leaves in fives, slender, flexible, drooping, triquetrous, rough edges, glaucous 

on inner side, bluish-green and convex on outer, 4-8 ins. long. 

230 



CONIFERiE 

An evergreen tree, 60-150 ft. ; Branches whorled, spreading, upper ascending, 
lower somewhat pendulous; Bark grey-brown, rough, scaly, on young stems 
smooth and nearly black, somewhat shiny, rapid of growth. 

Native of the Himalayas. Discovered by Dr. Hamilton, 1802 ; and intro- 
duced by Dr. Wallich, 1827- 



WEYMOUTH PINE, Pinus Strohns. 

Parks. June. Best in a gravelly loam, and sheltered. 

Flowers monoecious ; Males in pseudo whorls of 5-0 at base of young shoots, 
cylindrical, i— | in. long, stalked, stamens numerous, yellow, scale bracts 3-G ; 
Females singly or in pairs, slightly longer than males, scales thick, margins 
purple-red ; Fruit a cone, 4-G ins. long, loose, stalked, pendulous, cylindrical, 
acute, slightly curved, dark violet to brown, scales smooth, thickened at apex ; 
seeds J in. long, narrowed at ends, red-brown mottled black, wings long and 
narrow. 

Leaves in fives, acicular, 3-5 ins. long, slender, soft, bluish-green, silvery lines, 
glaucous, turning yellow, sheaths loose, deciduous. 

An evergreen tree, 1 20 ft. ; Brandies horizontal or slightly ascending in 
regular whorls ; branchkts slender, glabrous ; Bark at first thin and smooth, at 
lengtli rugged, ash-grey-slaty ; Wood light, not strong, straight-grained, easily 
worked, light-brown tinged red ; much used for masts and spars. 

Native of N. America, 100-250 ft. ; introduced by Lord Weymouth, 1705. 

Bark and shoots attacked by Pine Beetle ( Hylesinus piniperda). 



237 



BOOKS OF REFERENCE 

British Flora. Bentham & Hooker. 

British Oak Galls. E. T. Connold. 

British Vegetable Galls. E. T. Coiu;olil. 

Diseases of Plants. H. Marshall Wanl. 

Encyclopmdia of Gardening. T. W. Sanders. 

Fungoid Pests of Cultivated Plants. Dr. M. C. Cooke. 

Handbook of Orchard and Bush Fruit hisects. E. A Ormerotl. 

Hardy Conifei'ous Trees. A. D. Webster. 

Indian Trees. D. Brandis. 

Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening. G. Nicholson. 

Illustrated Flora of the U.S.A., Canada and British Possessions. Britton ck Brown. 

Manual of the IVees of N. America. (J. S. Sargent, 

Practical Forestry. A. D. Webster. 

Students' Flora of the British Isles. Sir J. D. Hooker. 

The Garden. Vols. 1-70. 

The Gardener's Assistant. R. Thompson. 

I'he Pinetum. G. <_<oi'don. 

Timber and Timber Trees. Laslett. 

Trees. H. Marshall Ward. 

Trees and Shrubs for English Gardens. E. T. Cook. 



238 








If 






mh 



f/ 









^> 



H 



TWIGS AND WINTER BUDS (No. 2) 



A. Sweet Chestnut. B. Mtzereon. C. Black Poplar. I). Tree of Heaven. E. Birch. /■". Mountain Ash, 

(i. Beerh. //. Alder. /. Hawtlinrn. 



INDEX OF NATURAL ORDERS 
AND SPECIES 



Ranunculaceae 

Clematis Vitalba 
„ Flammula 
„ montana 
„ Viticella 
Magnoliacese 

Magnolia acuminata 
conspicua 
Fraseri 
, , glauca 

grandifolia 
macrophylla 
,, obovata 
parviflora 
stellata 
tripetala 
Liriodendron tulipifera 
Calycanthaceaj . 

Calycanthus floridiis 
glaucus 
occidentalis 
Chiraonanthus fragrans 
Berberidefe 

Berberidopsis coiallina 
Berberis vulgaris 

Aquifolium 
buxifolia 
,, Darwinii 

empetrifolia 
japonica 
iiepalensis 
wallichiaua 
Oistiuete .... 
Cistua corbariensis 
„ crispus 
„ ladaniferus 
„ laurifiilius 
„ lusitanicus 
„ monspolionsis . 
„ purpureus 
Huliaiithemuin formosum 
'I'aniarisciiie.'e 

Tamarix gallica . 
„ Palasii . 
Hyporiiincio 

llypiMicuin Androssemum 
calycinum 
,, hookeriaiiuin 

,, moseriaiium 

,, patulum . 



ol. 


Fuse 






1 


Ternstrctmiaceoe 




1 


Stuartia pentagyna 




3 


Pseudo-camellia 




3 


virginica 




3 


Malvaceae .... 




4 


Abutilon vitifolium . 




4 


Hibiscus syriacus 




5 


Sterculiaceaa 




G 


Fremontia californica 




G 


TiliacBi-e .... 


I. 


7 


Tilia americana . 




7 


,, cordata 




8 


,, platyphyllos 




8 


,, vulgaris 




9 


Rutacere .... 




9 


Ptelea trifoliata 


I. 


10 


Skimmia fragrans 




10 


japonica 


J, 


11 


Laureola 




11 


oblata . 




12 


rubella 




12 


Simarubeaj 


I. 


13 


Ailanthus glandulosa . 




13 


Aquifoliacefe 




14 


Ilex Aquifolium . 




15 


,, orenata 




15 


,, dipyrena 


1. 


16 


,, opaca . 




IG 


Celastrinese 




IG 


Euonymus auiericanus 




17 


atropurpurfu.s 


I, 


17 


europajus . 




18 


japduicus . 




18 


latifolius . 




19 


Rhamnere .... 




19 


Rhamnus Alaternus . 


I. 


19 


cathartica . 




20 


Frangula 




20 


Ceanothus aniericanus 




21 


azureus 




21 


dentatus . 




22 


divaricatus 




22 


papillosus . 




23 


rigidus 




23 


thyrsitlorus 




24 


voitcliianus 




24 


Ampolideie 




25 


Vitis quinquefolia 




25 


viiiifera 




26 


,, inconstaiis 



Vol. 


Page 




26 




27 




27 




28 




28 




29 




29 




30 




30 




31 




31 




32 




33 




33 




34 




34 




35 




36 




36 




36 




37 




37 




37 




38 




39 


I. 


40 




40 




40 




41 




41 




42 




43 




43 




44 




44 




44 




45 




46 




46 




47 




47 




47 




48 




48 




48 




49 




49 




50 




r)0 




51 



239 



INDEX 



Sapindacese 

^'Escuhis carnea . 
f^labra . 
Hippocastauum 
parvifldia 
Xauthoceras sorbiColia 
Acer campostre . 
„ circinatum . 
„ dasycarpuin 
,, japDiiicuiii . 
„ macropliyllum 
„ nionspessulanum 
„ Negundo 
„ opulifoliiim 
„ palmatum . 
„ pennsylvanicum . 
„ platanoidfs 
„ Pseudo-platanus 
„ rubruui 
„ sacchaiinuin 
„ tartarioum 
Staphyleaceaj 

Staphylea colchica 
„ pinnata 

Auacardiacea! 

Rhus copalliua . 
„ cotinoides . 
„ Cotinus 
„ glabra 

„ Toxioodendron . 
„ typhina 
„ venenata . 
Leguminiisttf 

Laburnum alpinum 
„ vulgare 

Genista sethnensis 
„ anglica . 
„ hispanica 
„ pilusa 
„ sagittalis 
„ tinctoria 
„ virgata . 
Spartium juncoum 
Ulex europajus 

„ nanus 
Cytisus albus 
„ Ardoini . 
„ scoparius 
Amiirpha canescons 
„ fruticoaa 
Indigofera gerardiana 
Wistaria chinonsis 
„ nuiltijuga 
Robinia hispida 

„ noomexicana . 
„ Pseudacacia . 
„ viscosa . 
Oolutea arborescens . 

„ cruenta . 
Caragana arborescens . 
Coronilla pjinorus 
Hedysaruni niultijnguin 
Cladrastis araurensis . 

„ tinctoria 

Sophora japonica 
Cieaalpiiiia japonica 
Gyinnocladus canadensis 



I 



Pnge 






52 


Gleditschia triacanthos 


52 


Corcis canadensis 


53 


J) 


Siliquastrum 


53 


Rosaceas 




54 


Prunus Amygdalus 


55 


n 


conmmnis 


56 


)i 


insititia . 


57 


1) 


spinosa . 


57 


lj 


Avium . 


58 


5) 


Gerasus . 


58 


yj 


Padus . 


59 


n 


Laurocerasus . 


59 


»i 


lusitanica 


60 


Nuttalia cerasiformis . 


60 


Spirica boUa 


61 


^, 


bullata 


61 


j» 


canescens 


62 




cliamsedrifolia . 


63 


n 


discolor . 


63 


)t 


Douglasi . 


64 


»i 


japonica . 


64 


)) 


lindle}'ani\ 


65 


>i 


media 


65 


51 


prunifolia tiore- 


66 


1> 


salicitolia 


66 


)) 


sorbitolia 


67 


)» 


Thunl)orgi 


68 


Neill 


ia opulifolia 


68 


Stop 


lanandra Tanakas 


69 


Korria japonica . 


69 


lib.... 


otypos kerrioides 


70 


Noviusia alabamensis . 


71 


Eucr 


yijhia pinnatifolia 


71 


Rnbus biliorus . 


72 


)t 


Ciesius 


72 


)) 


deliciosus 


73 


)» 


fruticosus 


73 


jT 


Id;Bus 


74 




nutkanus . 


74 


}i 


odoratus . 


74 


»j 


phccnicolasius 


75 


i» 


spectabilis 


75 


Potentilla fruticosa . 


76 


Rosa 


arvensis 


77 


»> 


canina 


77 


jf 


moscbata 


78 


yi 


rubiginosa . 


78 


»i 


rugosa 


79 


11 


spinosissima 


79 


1) 


villosa 


80 


Pyrus aniygdaliforniis 


80 


)) 


communis . 


81 


n 


l)accata 


81 


»j 


coronaria . 


82 


n 


Iloribuiida . 


82 


11 


Mahis 


83 




jirunifolia . 


81 


11 


sjiL'ctabilis . 


84 


1) 


Aria 


85 


11 


TorminaHs 


85 


11 


vestiUi 


8:! 


11 


finiericana . 


86 


11 


Aucuparia . 


86 


11 


Soi bus 


87 


11 


arbulifolia , 


88 




germanica . 


88 


Cydonia japonica 



pleno 



k'ol. 


Page 




89 




90 




91 




91 




92 




93 




93 




94 




95 




95 




96 




97 




98 




98 




99 




99 




100 


J, 


100 




100 




101 




101 




102 




102 




103 




103 




103 




104 




104 


J, 


105 




105 



I. 106 
I. 106 
I. 107 



I. 


107 


I. 


107 


TI. 


1 


n. 


1 


II. 


O 


11. 


3 


II. 


3 


II. 


4 


II. 


4 


II. 


4 


II. 


5 


II. 


6 


II. 


7 


II. 


7 


II. 


8 


II. 


8 


[I. 


9 


II. 


9 


11. 


10 


II. 


U 


II. 


11 


II. 


12 


II. 


12 


II. 


13 


11. 


14 


II. 


14 


II. 


15 


11. 


k; 


II. 


10 


II. 


17 


II. 


17 


II. 


18 


II. 


18 


11. 


19 



240 



NATURAL ORDERS AND SPECIES 



Vol. Paffe 



Rosacere — continued 
Cydonia Maulei . 
,, vulgaris 
CratTBgus coccinea 
,, cordata 
,, Crus-galli 
,, Douglasii 
,, mollis . 
orientalis 
Oxyaoantha . 
,, punctata 

Pyracantha . 
, , tanacetif olia 
Cotoneaster affiiiis 

,, bacillaris . 

buxifolia . 
, , frigida 

horizoutalis 
,, integerrinia 

,, laxiflora . 

microphylla 
,, Nummularia 

,, rotund i folia 

, , Simonsii . 

Araelancliier alnifolia 
,, canadensis 

Saxifragaceai 

Hydrangea Iiortensis . 
,, paniculata 

,, ,, V. srandiflora 

Deutzia corymbosa 
„ crenata . 
,, gracilis . 
Philadelphus coronarius 
Carpenteria californica 
Ribes alpiuum 
,, aureum 
,, Grossularia 
„ nigrum 
rubrum 
sanguineum 
speciosum . 
Hainamelidece 

Corylopsis spicata 
Hamamelis arborea 

virginica 
Liquidambar styraciflu; 
Myrtaceae . 

Myrtus communis 
Passiflorene . 

Passiflora c£erulea 
Araliacese . 

Aralia chinensis . 

,, spinosa 
Hedera Helix 
ComaceoB . 

Cornns florida 

,, macrophylla 
„ Mas 
„ sanguines 
„ stolonifera 
Aucuba japonica . 
Garrya elliptica . 
t!aprifoliaceiB 

Sambucus canadensis 
,, glauca . 
,, nigra . 



II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
11. 
11. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
11. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
11. 
II. 
II. 
II. 



20 
20 
20 
21 
22 
22 
23 
24 
24 
25 
26 
26 
26 
27 
28 
28 
29 
29 
30 
30 
31 
31 
32 
32 
33 
34 
34 
34 
35 
35 
36 
36 
37 
37 
38 
38 
39 
40 
40 
41 
42 
42 
42 
43 
43 
44 
45 
45 
46 
46 
47 
47 
48 
48 
49 
49 
50 
51 
51 
52 
52 
53 
53 
54 
54 



Caprifoliacepe — continued 
Sambucus racemosa 
Viburnum Lantana 
Lentago 
macroceplialum 
Opulus 

,, V. sterile 
Tinus 

tomentosum r. plicatu 
Symplioricarpus racemosus 
Abelia floribunda 
Lonicera Caprifolium . 
etrusca . 
,, (lava 
„ fragrantissima 
„ japonica 

V. flexuosa 
,, nigra 
,, Periclymenum 
,, sempervirens 
, , tartarica 
,, Xylosteum 
Leycesteria formosa 
Diervilla florida . 

granditlora . 
,, middendorfiana 
RubiaceiB .... 

Cephalantlius occidentalis 
Compositie 

Olearia Haastii . 
„ macrodonta 
„ stellulata 
Helichrysum rosmarinifolium 
Artemisia Abrotanum 
„ tridentata . 
Ericacese .... 
Vaccinum Myrtillus . 
„ uliginosum . 

„ Vitis-idiea . 
Oxycoccus palustris 
Arbutus Unedo . 
Arctostaphylos alpina . 
„ pungens 

„ Uva-ursi 

Zenobia speciosa . 
Andromeda polifolia . 
Pieris floribunda 

„ japonica . 
Calluna vulgaris . 
Erica caruea 
„ ciliaris 
„ cinerea 
„ mediterranea 
„ stricta 
„ Tetralix . 
,, vagans 
Loiseleuria procumbens 
Bryanthus taxifolius . 
Daboiicia polifolia 
Kalmia angustifolia 
„ Klauca . 
„ latitolia . 
Ledum latifolium 
„ palustro . 
Rhododendron calondulaeeii 
„ flavum . 

,, nudiflorum 



Vol. 


P.vge 


II. 


55 


11. 


56 


II. 


57 


II. 


57 


II. 


58 


II. 


59 


II. 


59 


IT. 


59 


II. 


60 


II. 


61 


II. 


61 


II. 


62 


II. 


62 


II. 


63 


II. 


63 


II. 


64 


II. 


64 


II. 


64 


II. 


65 


II. 


66 


II. 


66 


II. 


67 


II. 


67 


II. 


68 


II. 


68 


II. 


69 


II. 


69 


11. 


70 


n. 


70 


n. 


71 


n. 


71 


IL 


72 


n. 


72 


II. 


73 


n. 


73 


II. 


74 


n. 


74 


II. 


75 


u. 


75 


u. 


76 


II. 


77 


II. 


77 


n. 


78 


n. 


78 


u. 


79 


n. 


79 


n. 


80 


n. 


80 


n. 


81 


n. 


81 


II. 


82 


II. 


82 


II. 


83 


II. 


83 


II. 


84 


II. 


84 


II. 


85 


11. 


85 


II. 


86 


II. 


87 


II. 


87 


II. 


88 


II. 


89 


11. 


89 


II. 


90 


[I. 


90 



241 



INDEX 



Vol. PaLje 



Ericace.'e — rontinued 

Rhododendron sinense 
„ Vaseyi . 

„ viscosum 

„ californicum 

„ catawbiense 

,, fernigineum 

„ Fortune! 

„ ponticum 

„ racemosum 

„ yunuanense 

Menziesia globularis 
Clethra acuminata 
„ alnifolia . 
Styracese 

Halesia tetraptera 
Styrax japonicum 
„ Obassia 
,, officinale . 
Jasminese . 

Jasminum fruticans 
„ nudiflorum 

„ officinale 

„ revolutum 

„ wallichianum 

Oleaceoe 

Forsytliia suspensa 

,, viridissima 
Syringa Emodi . 
„ japonica . 
„ vulgaris . 
Fraxinus Ornus . 
„ excelsior 

Phillyrrea angustifolia 
„ decora 
„ latifolia 

„ media . 

Osmanthus Aquifolium 
Chionanthus virginica 
Ligustrum Ibota . 

„ japonicum 

„ lucidum 

„ ovalifolium 

,, sinense 

„ vulgare 

Apocynaceffl 

Vinca major 
„ minor 
Logan iaceoe 

Buddleia Colvillei 
„ globosa 

„ paniculata 

Solanaceaj . 

Lycium chinense . 
„ halimifolium 
Scrophularinere . 

Paulownia imperialis 
Veronica buxifolia 
„ cupressoides 
„ pinguifolia 
„ Traversii 
Bignouiacese 

Catalpa bignonioides 
„ cordifolia 
,, Ksempferi 
VerbenacesB 

Clerodendron fcetidum 



II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 

n. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
n. 
II. 
II. 
n. 
II. 
n. 
II. 
II. 
n. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
u. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
11. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
n. 
II. 
II. 
11. 
II. 
11. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
11. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 



91 
91 
92 

92 
9.3 
93 
94 
94 
95 
95 
95 
96 
96 
97 
97 



98 
99 
99 

100 
100 
101 
101 
101 
102 
103 
103 
104 
104 
105 
105 
107 
107 
108 
108 
108 
109 
109 
110 
110 
HI 

111 

112 
112 
113 
113 
114 
114 
115 
115 
116 
117 
116 
117 
118 
118 
119 
119 
120 
120 
121 
122 
122 
123 
123 



Verbenacese — continued 

Clerodendron trichotomum 
Caryopteris Mastacanthus 
Labiatse 

Lavandula vera . 
Rosmarinus officinalis 
Phlomis fruticosa 
Laurinefe 

Laurus nobilis 
Thymelfeacere 

Daphne blagayana 
„ Cneorum 
„ Laureola 
„ Mezereum 
„ pontica . 
Elfeagnacese 

Elseagnus angustifolia 
„ argentea 
„ macrophylla 
„ multiHora 
Hippophae rhamnoides 
LoranthacccB 

Viscum album 
EuphorbiacesB . 

Buxus balearica . 

„ sempervirens 
Daphniphyllum macropodum 
Urticaoese . 

Ulmus alata 

„ americana 
„ campestris 
„ montana . 
Broussonetia papyrifers 
Morus nigra 
Ficus Carica 
Platanacese 

Platanus acerifolia 
„ cuneata 
,, occidentalis 

„ orientalis 
Juglandese . 

Carya alba . 
Juglans regia 
Pterocarya caucasica 
Myricacese . 

Myi'ica Gale 
Cupuliferie 

Betula alba 
„ leuta 
„ lutea 
„ nana 
„ nigra . 
„ papyrifora 
Alnus cordifolia . 
,, glutinosa . 
,, oregona 
„ maritima . 
,, rhombifolia 
Carpinus Betulus 

,, caroliniana 

Corylus Avellana 
„ Colurna 
Quercus Cerris 
„ coccinea 
„ Ilex 
„ marilandica 
„ palustris 



Vol. 


Page 


IL 


123 


II. 


124 


n. 


124 


II. 


125 


II. 


125 


II. 


126 


II. 


126 


II. 


127 


IL 


127 


IL 


128 


II. 


128 


U. 


128 


II. 


129 


II. 


129 


II. 


130 


II. 


130 


II. 


131 


n. 


131 


II. 


132 


II. 


132 


II. 


133 


II. 


133 


II. 


134 


n. 


134 


n. 


135 


II. 


136 


II. 


136 


II. 


137 


II. 


137 


IL 


138 


n. 


139 


IL 


140 


n. 


140 


n. 


141 


n. 


142 


II. 


143 


u. 


143 


n. 


144 


II. 


145 


u. 


146 


II. 


146 


II. 


147 


II. 


147 


IL 


148 


II. 


148 


IL 


149 


II. 


150 


II. 


151 


II. 


151 


II. 


152 


II. 


153 


II. 


153 


II. 


154 


II. 


154 


II. 


155 


II. 


156 


II. 


156 


II. 


157 


II. 


158 


II. 


158 


IL 


159 


II. 


160 


n. 


160 


II. 


161 


n. 


162 


u. 


162 



242 



NATURAL ORDERS AND SPECIES 



Vol. Page 



Cupulifer;e — coiUinued 
Quercus pedunculata 
„ rubra 
„ sessiliilora 
,, Saber . 
,, velutina 
Castanopsis chrysophylla 
Castanea sativa . 
Fagus sylvatica . 
Saliciuece . 

Salix alba . 

„ „ V. vitellina 
„ Arbuscula . 
„ aurita 
„ babylonica . 
„ Caprea 
„ cinerea 
,, tragilis 
„ herbacea 
„ lanata 
„ Lapponum . 
„ Myrsinites 
„ nigricans . 
„ pentandra . 
„ phylicifolia 
„ purpurea . 
„ repens 
„ viminalis . 
„ reticulata . 
„ triandra 
„ viridis 
Populus alba 

,, balsamiferr 
„ ,, V. candicans 

„ canescens 
„ deltuidea 
,, nionilifera 
„ nigra . 
,, ,) 1^- pyramidal: 

„ tremula . 
„ tremuloides 
Empetracese 

Empetrum nigrum 
Liliaceje 

Ruscus aculeatus 

„ Hypophyllum 
Danasa Laurus 
Yucca angustifolia 
„ tilamentosa 
„ gloriosa 
Grainineie . 

Arundo Donax 
Coniferffi 

Ginkgo biloba 
Cephalotaxus drupace 
„ Fortuni 

„ pedunculata 

Taxus baccata 
Prumnopitys elegans 
Juniperus chinonsis 



11. 
II. 



II. 
II. 
II. 



II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 



II. 

n. 



u. 
u. 
II. 



II. 

II. 



n. 
II. 



163 
164 



II. 165 
II. 165 



166 
167 
167 



II. 168 

11. 169 

II. 170 

II. 171 

II. 171 

II. 172 

n. 172 

II. 173 



174 
175 
175 
176 
177 
177 



II. 17.S 
11. 178 



179 
180 



II. 181 

II. 181 

II. 182 

II. 183 

11. 183 

II. 184 

II. 185 

II. 186 

II. 186 

II. 187 

II. 187 

II. 188 

II. 189 

II. 189 

II. 190 



190 
191 
191 



II. 192 

II. 192 

II. 193 

II. 193 

II. 194 

U. 194 



195 
195 



II. 196 
II. 196 



197 
197 



II. 198 
II. 198 



II. 
11. 



199 

200 



Coniferse — continued 
Juniperus Sabina 
„ virginiana 

„ coniminiis 

Cupressus macrocarpa 
„ sempervirei 

,, lawsoniana 

„ nootkatensis 

„ obtusa 

„ pisifera 

Thuya occidentalis 
„ plicata 
„ dolabrata . 
,, orientalis . 
Libocedrus decurreiis 
Sciadopitys verticillata 
Sequoia gigantea . 

„ sempervirens 
Or3q5tomeria japonica 
Taxodium distichum 
Araucaria imbricata 
Tsuga brunoniana 
„ canadensis 
„ mertensiana 
„ Sieboldi 
Picea alcockiana . 
„ excelsa 
„ Morinda 
,, nigra . 
„ orientalis . 
,, polita . 
„ pungens 
Cedrus atlantica . 
„ Deodara . 
„ Libani 
Larix europjea 
Pseudolarix K»mpferi 
Abies balsamea 
„ brachyphylla 
„ cephalonica 
„ cilicica 
„ concolor 
„ firma . 
„ grandis 
„ nobilis 
„ nordmanniana 
„ pectinata . 
„ Pinsapo 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii 
Pinus Coulteri 
,, Laricio 

„ „ r. nigricans 

„ Pinaster 
„ Pinea . 
„ ponderosa . 
„ sylvestris . 
„ Cembra 
„ excelsa 
„ Strobus 



Vol. 


Page 


. II. 


200 


. n. 


201 


. II. 


201 


. 11. 


202 


. II. 


203 


. II. 


203 


. II. 


204 


. II. 


205 


. II. 


205 


. II. 


206 


II. 


207 


II. 


207 


. II. 


208 


. II. 


208 


. II. 


209 


. II. 


210 


. II. 


210 


. II. 


211 


. II. 


212 


. II. 


213 


. II. 


213 


. II. 


214 


. II. 


215 


. II. 


215 


. II. 


216 


. II. 


216 


. II. 


217 


. II. 


218 


. II. 


218 


. II. 


219 


. II. 


219 


. II. 


220 


. II. 


221 


. II. 


221 


. II. 


222 


. II. 


223 


. 11. 


227 


. II. 


224 


. II. 


224 


. II. 


225 


, II. 


225 


. II. 


226 


II. 


226 


II. 


227 


II. 


228 


II. 


229 


II. 


229 


II. 


230 


II. 


231 


II. 


231 


II. 


232 


II. 


233 


II. 


234 


II. 


234 


II. 


235 


II. 


236 


11. 


236 


. II. 


237 



243 



X 2 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Abelia floribunda 
Abies balsamea . 
„ brachyphylla 
„ cephalonica 
„ cilicica 
„ concolor . 
„ firma 
„ grandis 
„ nobilis 
„ nordmanniana . 
„ pectinata . 
„ Pinsapo 
Abutilon vitifolium . 
Acer campestre . 
„ circinatum . 
„ dasycarpum 
„ japonicum . 
„ macrophyllum 
„ monspessulanum 
„ Neguiido 
„ opulifolium 
„ pahnatum . 
„ pemisylvanicum . 
„ platanoides 
„ Pseudo-platanus 
„ rubrum 
„ saccharinum 
„ tartaricuni . 
^sculus carnea . 
„ glabra . 
„ Hippocastanuni 
„ parvifloni 
Ailaiithus glandulosa . 
Alnus cordifolia . 
„ glutinosa . 
„ maritima . 
,, oregona 
„ rhombifolia 
Amelanchier ahiifolia 

,, canadensis 

Amorpha canescens . 

„ fruticosa 
Andromeda polifolia . 
Aralia chinensis . 

,, spinosa 
Arauoaria imbricata . 
Arbutus Unedo . 
Arctostaphylos alpina 

,> pungens 

„ Uva-ursi 

Artemisia Abrotanum 
„ tridentata . 

Arundo Donax 
Aucuba japonica . 
Berberidopsis corallina 
Berberia Aquifoliuni . 



Vol. 


page 


II. 


61 


II. 


227 


II. 


224 


n. 


224 


n. 


225 


II. 


225 


II. 


226 


n. 


226 


II. 


227 


II. 


228 


II. 


229 


II. 


229 


I. 


29 


I. 


56 


I. 


57 


I. 


57 


I. 


58 


I. 


58 


I. 


59 


I. 


59 


I. 


60 


I. 


60 


I. 


61 


I. 


61 


I. 


62 


I. 


63 


I. 


63 


I. 


64 


I. 


52 


I. 


53 


I. 


53 


I. 


54 


I. 


37 


II. 


154 


II. 


154 


II. 


156 


II. 


155 


II. 


156 


II. 


32 


II. 


33 


I. 


79 


I. 


79 


II. 


79 


II. 


47 


II. 


48 


II. 


213 


II. 


76 


II. 


77 


II. 


77 


II. 


78 


11. 


72 


II. 


73 


11. 


195 


11. 


52 


1. 


i:i 


I. 


15 



Vol. Page 



Berberis buxifolia 
,, Darwinii 
,, empetrifolia . 
„ japonica 
„ nepalensis 

vulgaris 
„ wallichiana . 
Betula alba 
„ lenta 
,, lutea 
,, nana 
,, nigra 
„ papyrifera 
Broussonetia papyrifera 
Bryanthus taxifolius . 
Buddleia Colvillei 
„ globosa 
„ pimiculata . 
Buxus balearicu . 

,, sempervirens . 
Cfesalpinia japonica . 
Calluna vulgaris . 
Calycanthus floridus . 
„ glaucus . 

„ occidentalis 

Caragana arborescens 
Carpenteria californica 
Carpinus Betulus 

„ caroliniaua . 
Carya alba . 

Caryopteris Mastaoanthus 
Castanea sativa . 
Oastanopsis clirysophylla 
Gatalpa bignonioides . 
„ cordifolia 
„ Kwmpferi 
Oeanotlius americanus 
,, anureus 

„ dentatus . 

„ divaricatus 

„ papillosus . 

„ rigidus 

„ thyrsiflorus 

„ veitcluanus 

Cedrus atlantica 
„ Deodara . 
„ Libani 
CepUalanthus occidentalis 
Ceiihalotaxus drupacea 
„ Fortuni 

„ pedunculata 

Cercis canadensis 

„ Siliquastrum . 
Chimonanthus fragrans 
Chionantbus virginica 
Cistus corbariensis 



I. 


15 


I. 


16 


1. 


16 


I. 


16 


I. 


17 


I. 


14 


I. 


17 


II. 


150 


II. 


151 


II. 


151 


II. 


152 


II. 


153 


II. 


154 


II. 


140 


II. 


85 


II. 


114 


u 


115 


II. 


115 


II. 


134 


II. 


135 


I. 


88 


II. 


80 


I. 


U 


I. 


11 


I. 


12 


I. 


85 


II. 


37 


II. 


157 


II. 


158 


II. 


146 


11. 


124 


II. 


167 


II. 


167 


II. 


121 


II. 


122 


II. 


122 


I. 


46 


I. 


47 


I. 


47 


I. 


47 


I. 


48 


I. 


48 


I. 


48 


I. 


49 


II. 


220 


II. 


221 


II. 


221 


II. 


69 


II. 


197 


II. 


197 


11. 


198 


I. 


90 


I. 


91 


I. 


12 


11. 


109 


I. 


18 



244 



LATIN NAMES 



Cistus crispus 
,, ladaniferus 
,, laurifolius 
,, lusitaiiicus 
,, monspeliensis . 
„ purpureus 
Cladrastis amurensis . 
„ tinctoiia . 

Clematis Flammula . 
,, montana 
„ Vitalba 
„ Viticella 
Clerodendron fcetidum 

„ trichotomum 

Clethra acuminata 

„ alnifolia 
Colutea arborescens . 

„ cruenta . 
Cornus florida 

„ macrophylla . 

Mas 
„ saiiguinea 
„ stolonifera 
Coronilla Emerus 
Corylojisis spioata 
Corylus Avellana 
„ Colurna . 
Cotoneaster atfinis 

„ baeillaris 

„ buxifolia 

„ frigida . 

„ horizontalis 

,, integerrima 

„ laxiflora . 

„ microphylla 

„ Nummularia 

„ rotundifolia 

„ Simonsii 

Cratsegus cocci nea 
„ cordata 

„ Crus-galli . 

„ Douglasii . 

„ mollis 

„ orientalis . 

„ Oxyacantha 

„ punctata 

„ Pyracantha 

„ tanacetifolia 

Oryptomeria japonica 
Cupressus lawsoniana 
,, macrocarpa 

„ nootkatensis 

„ obtusa 

„ pisifera 

„ sempervirens 

Cydonia japonica 
„ Mauloi . 
„ vulgaris 

Cytisns albus 
„ Ardoini . 
„ scoparius 
Daboi'cia polifolia 
Daiiii'.a Laurus . 
Daplino lilagayana 
„ Cneorum 
„ Laureola 
„ Mezoroum 



VtA. 


Page 




I. 


19 


Daphne pontica 


I. 


19 


Daphniphyllum macropoduni 


I. 


19 


Deutzia corymbosa . 


I. 


20 


„ crenata .... 


I. 


20 


„ gracilis .... 


I. 


21 


Diervilla florida .... 


I. 


86 


„ grandiflora . 


I. 


86 


„ middeiidorfiana . 


I. 


3 


Eloeagnus angustifolia 


I. 


3 


„ argentea . 


I. 


1 


„ macrophylla 


I. 


3 


„ multifiora . 


II. 


123 


Empetrum nigrum 


II. 


123 


Erica carnea .... 


II. 


96 


„ ciliaris .... 


11. 


96 


„ cinerea .... 


I. 


84 


„ mediterrane.i . 


I. 


84 


„ stricta .... 


II. 


49 


„ Tetralix .... 


II. 


50 


„ vagans .... 


II. 


51 


Eucryphia pinnatifolia 


II. 


51 


Euonymus americanus 


II. 


52 


„ atropurpureus . 


I. 


85 


„ europasus . 


II. 


42 


„ japonicus . 


II. 


158 


„ latifolius . 


II. 


159 


Fagus sylvatica .... 


II. 


26 


Ficus Oarica .... 


II. 


27 


Forsythia suspensa . 


II. 


28 


„ viridissima . 


II. 


28 


Fraxinus excelsior 


II. 


29 


„ Ornus .... 


II. 


29 


Fremontia californica 


II. 


30 


Garrya elliptica .... 


II. 


30 


Genista fethnensis 


II. 


31 


„ anglica .... 


II. 


31 


„ hispanica 


II. 


32 


„ pilosa .... 


II. 


20 


„ sagittalis 


II. 


21 


„ tinctoria 


II. 


22 


„ virgata .... 


II. 


22 


Ginkgo biloba .... 


II. 


23 


Gleditschia triacanthos 


II. 


24 


Gymnocladus canadensis . 


II. 


24 


Halesia tetraptera 


II. 


25 


Hamamelis arborea . 


II. 


26 


,, virginica . 


II. 


26 


Hedera Helix .... 


II. 


211 


Hedysarum multijugum . 


II. 


203 


Helianthemum formosum . 


II. 


202 


Helichrysuni rosmarinifolium . 


II. 


204 


Hibiscus syriacus 


II. 


205 


Hippophae rhamnoides 


II. 


205 


Hydrangea hortensis . 


II. 


203 


„ paniculata 


II. 


19 


„ „ V. grandiflora 


11. 


20 


Hypericum Androsiemum . 


II. 


20 


„ calycinum 


I. 


77 


„ liookerianum . 


I. 


78 


„ mosorianum 


I. 


78 


„ patulum , 


II. 


85 


Ilex Aquitolium 


II. 


193 


„ cronata .... 


II. 


128 


„ dipyreua .... 


II. 


128 


„ opaca .... 


II. 


128 


Indigofera gorardiana 


II. 


129 


Jasminimi frutica is . 



Vol. 


Page 


II. 


129 


II. 


136 


II. 


35 


II. 


36 


II. 


36 


II. 


67 


II. 


68 


II. 


68 


II. 


130 


II. 


131 


11. 


131 


II. 


132 


II. 


191 


II. 


81 


II. 


81 


II. 


82 


II. 


82 


11. 


83 


II. 


83 


II. 


84 


I. 


107 


I. 


41 


I. 


42 


I. 


43 


I. 


43 


I. 


44 


II. 


168 


II. 


141 


II. 


102 


II. 


103 


II. 


105 


II. 


105 


I. 


30 


II. 


53 


I. 


72 


I. 


73 


I. 


73 


I. 


74 


I. 


74 


I. 


74 


I. 


75 


II. 


196 


I. 


89 


I. 


88 


II. 


97 


II. 


43 


II. 


43 


II. 


48 


I. 


86 


I. 


21 


II. 


72 


I. 


29 


II. 


1.32 


II. 


34 


II. 


34 


II. 


35 


I. 


24 


I. 


24 


I. 


25 


I. 


25 


I. 


26 


I. 


39 


I. 


40 


I. 


40 


I. 


40 


I. 


80 


11. 


99 



245 



INDEX 



Jasrainum nudiflorum 

„ officinale . 

„ revolutum 

„ wallichianura 
Juglans regia 
Juniperus cliinensis . 

„ communis . 

„ Sabina 

„ virginiana . 

Kalmia angustifolia . 
,, glauca 
„ latifolia . 
Kerria japonica . 
Laburnum alpinum . 

„ vulgare 

Larix europrea . 
Lavandula vera . 
Laurus nobilis . 
Ledum latifolium 
,, pal list re . 
Leycesteria formosa . 
Libocedrus decurrens 
Ligustrum Ibota 

„ japonicum 

,, lucidum . 

„ ovalifolium 

„ sinense 

„ vulgare 

Liquidambar styraciflua 
Liriodendrou tulipifera 
Loiseleuria procumbens 
Lonicera Caprifolium 

„ otrusca 

„ tiava . 

„ fragrantissima 

„ japonica 

„ „ V. flexuosa 

nigra . 

,, Periclymenum 

,, sompervirens 

„ tartarica 

,, Xylosteum . 
Lycium chinense 

„ halimifolium . 
Magnolia acuminata . 

„ conspicua . 

„ Fraseri 

„ glauca 

„ grandifolia . 

„ macrophylhi 

„ obovata 

„ parviflora . 

„ stellata 

„ tripetala 
Menziesia globularis . 
Morus nigra 
Myrica Gale 
Myrtus communis 
Neillia opulifolia 
Noviusia alabamensis . 
Wuttalia cerasiformis 
Olearia Haastii 

„ macrodonta . 
,, stollulata 
Osmantluis A(|uifoliuni 
Oxycoccus jialustris . 
Passiflora cmrulea 



Vol. 


Pagis 




Vol. 


Page 


II. 


100 


Paulownia imperialis 


IL 


118 


II. 


100 


Philadelphus coronarius . 


. IL 


37 


II. 


101 


Phillyrfea angustifolia 


. II. 


107 


II. 


101 


„ decora .... 


. n. 


107 


II 


147 


„ latifolia .... 


. II. 


108 


IL 


200 


„ media .... 


. IL 


108 


II. 


201 


Phlomis fruticosa .... 


. II. 


126 


II. 


200 


Picea alcockiana .... 


. II. 


216 


II. 


201 


„ excelsa ..... 


. II. 


216 


II. 


86 


„ Moriuda 


. II. 


217 


II. 


87 


>. nigra , 


. IL 


218 


II. 


87 


„ orientalis ..... 


. IL 


218 


I. 


105 


„ polita 


. II. 


219 


I. 


71 


„ pungens 


. II. 


219 


I. 


72 


Pieris floribunda .... 


. II. 


79 


II. 


222 


„ japonica 


. II. 


80 


II. 


125 


Pinus Cembra 


. II. 


23G 


II. 


127 


„ Coulteri 


IL 


231 


II. 


88 


„ excelsa ..... 


. II. 


236 


n. 


89 


„ Laricio 


. II. 


231 


II. 


67 


,, „ V. nigricans . 


II. 


232 


IL 


208 


„ Pinaster 


. II. 


233 


II. 


109 


„ Pinea ..... 


. II. 


234 


II. 


110 


„ pondorosa .... 


. II. 


234 


n. 


110 


„ Strobus 


. II. 


237 


II. 


111 


„ sylvestris ..... 


. II. 


235 


n. 


111 


Platanus acerifolia .... 


II. 


143 


II. 


112 


„ cuneata .... 


II. 


143 


II. 


44 


,, occidentalis 


II. 


144 


I. 


10 


„ orientalis .... 


II. 


145 


II. 


84 


Populus alba 


II. 


184 


IL 


61 


,, balsamifera .... 


II. 


185 


IL 


62 


„ „ V. candicans 


IL 


186 


II. 


62 


„ canescens .... 


II. 


186 


II. 


63 


„ deltoidea .... 


II. 


187 


IL 


63 


„ monilifera .... 


II. 


187 


II. 


64 


„ nigra . . . 


II. 


188 


IL 


64 


„ „ V, pyramidalis 


IL 


189 


II. 


64 


„ tremula .... 


II. 


189 


IL 


65 


„ tremuloides .... 


IL 


190 


IL 


66 


Potentilla fruticosa .... 


IL 


4 


IL 


66 


PruniiKipitys elegans 


II. 


199 


II. 


117 


Prunus Amygdalus .... 


I. 


92 


II. 


116 


„ Avium 


I. 


95 


I. 


4 


„ Cerasus ...... 


I. 


95 


I. 


5 


„ communis . . . . . 


I. 


93 


I. 


6 


„ insititia .... 


I. 


93 


I. 


6 


,, Laurocerasus . . . . 


I. 


97 


I. 


7 


,, lusitanica 


I. 


98 


I. 


7 


„ Padus ...... 


I. 


96 


I. 


8 


„ spinosa 


I. 


94 


I. 


8 


Pseudolarix K;empferi 


IL 


223 


I. 


9 


Pseudotsuga Douglasii . . . . 


II. 


2,30 


I. 


9 


Ptelea tritoliata 


I. 


34 


II. 


95 


Pterocarya caucasica 


IL 


147 


II. 


140 


Pyrus americana . . . . . 


IL 


16 


II. 


148 


„ amygdaliformis . . . . 


II. 


9 


II. 


45 


„ arbutifolia . . . . . 


II. 


18 


I. 


104 


„ Aria ...... 


II. 


14 


I. 


100 


„ Aucuparia . . . . 


II. 


17 


I. 


98 


„ baccata ...... 


IL 


11 


II. 


70 


,. communis . . . . . 


IL 


10 


II. 


71 


„ coronaria ...... 


II. 


11 


II. 


71 


floribunda 


II. 


12 


II. 


108 


germanica . . . . . 


II. 


18 


II. 


75 


Malus 


IL 


12 


II. 


40 
24 


,, prunifolia 


II. 


13 



LATIN NAMES 



Pyrus Sorbus 
„ speotabilis 
„ Torminalis 
„ vestita 
Queicus Cerris . 
„ coccinea 
Ilex . 
„ marilandica . 
„ palustris 

„ pedunculata . 

„ rubra . 

„ sessiliflora 

„ Suber . 
„ velutina 

Rhamnus Alaternus . 
„ cathartica . 
„ Frangula 
Rhodendron calendulaceum 
„ californicum 

„ catawbiense 

„ ferrugineum 

„ flavum . 

„ Fortune! 

„ nudiflorum 

„ ponticum 

„ raceraosum 

„ sinense . 

„ Vaseyi . 

„ viscosum 

„ yunnanense 

Rhodotypos kerrioides 
Rhus copallina . 
„ cotinoides . 
„ Cotinus 
„ glabra 
., Toxicodendron . 
„ typhina . 
„ venenata . 
RibbS alpinuni 
„ aureuni 
„ Grossularia 
„ nigrum . 
„ rubrum 
„ sanguineum 
„ speciosnm 
Robinia hispida . 
„ neo-mexicana 
„ Pseudacacia . 
„ viscosa . 
Rosa arvensis 
„ canina 
„ moschata . 
„ rubiginosa . 
„ rugosa . 
„ spinosissima 
„ villosa 
Rosmarinus officinalis 
llubus biflorus . 
„ cicsius 
„ deliciosus 
„ fruticosus 
„ Ida!U8 
„ nutkanus 
„ odoratus . 
„ plici-niccilasius . 
„ spcctabilis 
Ruscus aculeatus 



Vol. 


Page 


n. 


17 


II. 


14 


II. 


15 


n. 


16 


n. 


160 


II. 


160 


II. 


161 


II. 


162 


11. 


162 


II. 


163 


II. 


164 


n. 


165 


n. 


165 


n. 


166 


I. 


44 


I. 


45 


I. 


46 


II. 


89 


II. 


92 


n. 


93 


II. 


93 


II. 


90 


II. 


94 


u. 


90 


II. 


94 


II. 


95 


II. 


91 


II. 


91 


n. 


92 


II. 


95 


I. 


106 


I. 


66 


I. 


67 


I. 


68 


I. 


68 


I. 


69 


I. 


69 


I. 


70 


n. 


38 


n. 


38 


n. 


39 


II. 


40 


n. 


40 


n. 


41 


II. 


42 


I. 


81 


I. 


82 


I. 


82 


I. 


83 


II. 


5 


II. 


6 


n. 


7 


n. 


7 


II. 


8 


II. 


8 


II. 


9 


II. 


125 


I. 


107 


I. 


107 


IT. 


1 


ir. 


1 


11. 


2 


11. 


3 


11. 


3 


II. 


4 


II. 


4 


TI. 


192 



Ruscus Hypophyllum 
Salix alba . 

„ „ V. vitellina 
„ Arbuscula . 
„ aurita 
„ babylonica . 
„ Caprea 
„ cinerea 
„ fragilis 
„ herbacea . 
„ lanata 
„ Lapponum 
„ Myrsinites 
„ nigricans . 
„ pentandra . 
„ phylicifolia 
„ purpurea . 
„ repens 
„ reticulata . 
„ triandra 
„ viminaLis . 
„ viridis 
Sambucus canadensis 
„ glauca 

nigra . 
„ racemosa 

Sciadopitys verticillat 
Sequoia gigantea 

„ sempervirens 
Skimmia fragrans 
„ japonica 
„ Laureola 
„ oblata . 
„ rubella . 
Sophora japonica 
Spartium junceum 
Spirsea bella 

„ bullata . 
„ cauescens 
„ chamsedrifolia 
„ discolor . 
„ Douglasi 
„ japonica . 
„ lindleyana 
„ media 
„ prunifolia rtore-plen 
„ salicifolia 
„ sorbifolia 
,, Thunbergi 
Staphylea colchica 
„ pinnata 

Steplianandra Tanak 
Stuartia pentagyna 

„ Pseudo-camellia 
„ virginiea 
Styrax japonicum 
„ Obassia . 
„ officinale . 
Symphoricarpus racemosus 
Syringa Emodi . 
„ japonica 
„ vulgaris 
Tamarix gallica . 
Pallasii 
Taxodium distiilnini 
Tax us baccata 
Thuya dolabrata 



Vol. 


Paac 


11. 


192 


II. 


170 


II. 


171 


n. 


171 


n. 


172 


n. 


172 


II. 


173 


II. 


174 


n. 


175 


n. 


175 


n. 


176 


n. 


177 


u. 


177 


11. 


178 


II. 


178 


II. 


179 


II. 


180 


11. 


181 


n. 


182 


n. 


183 


n. 


181 


II. 


183 


u. 


54 


II. 


54 


II. 


55 


n. 


55 


11. 


209 


11. 


210 


II. 


210 


1. 


35 


I. 


36 


I. 


36 


1. 


36 


I. 


37 


I. 


87 


1. 


75 


1. 


99 


I. 


99 


I. 


100 


I. 


100 


I. 


100 


I. 


101 


I. 


101 


I. 


102 


I. 


102 


I. 


103 


I. 


103 


1. 


103 


I. 


104 


I. 


65 


T. 


65 


I. 


105 


I. 


27 


I. 


27 


I. 


28 


11. 


98 


11. 


98 


11. 


98 


II. 


60 


II. 


103 


IT. 


10 1 


TI. 


104 


I. 


22 


I. 


23 


U. 


212 


TI. 


198 



1 1. 207 



247 



INDEX 



Thuya occidentalis 
orientalis 
plicata 
Tilia americana . 
„ cordata 
, , platyphyllos 
„ vulgaris 
Tsuga brunoniana 
,, canadensis 
,, mertensiana 
,, Sieboldi . 
Ulex europanis . 

„ nanus 
Ulmus alata 
„ americana 
„ eanipostris 
„ montana 
Vaccinum Myrtillus 
uligiuosum 
Vitis-idsea 
Veronica buxifolia 

cupressoides 



fo\. 


Page 


II. 


206 


II. 


208 


II. 


207 


I. 


31 


I. 


.32 


I. 


.33 


I. 


33 


II. 


213 


II. 


214 


II. 


215 


II. 


215 


I. 


76 


I. 


77 


II. 


137 


II. 


137 


II. 


138 


II. 


139 


II. 


74 


II. 


74 


II. 


75 


II. 


118 


II. 


119 



Veronica pinguifolia . 

„ Traversii 
Viburnum Lantana . 
Lentago . 
macrocephalum 
Opulus 

V. sterile 
Tinus 
toraentosum v. plicat 
Vinca major 
minor 
Viscum album . 
Vitis inconstans 
„ quinquetolia 
„ vinifera 
Wistaria chinensis 
„ multijuga 
Xanthoceras sorbifolia 
Yucca angustifolia 
,, filamentosa 
,, gloriosa 
Zenobia speciosum 



Vol. 


raae 


II. 


119 


II. 


120 


II. 


56 


II. 


57 


II. 


57 


II. 


58 


II. 


50 


II. 


59 


II. 


59 


II. 


113 


II. 


113 


II. 


133 


I. 


51 


I. 


50 


I. 


.50 


I. 


80 


I. 


81 


I. 


55 


II. 


193 


II. 


194 


II. 


194 


II. 


78 



248 



INDEX OF POPULAR NAMES 



Abele .... 
Abelia, Copious-flowering 
Abutilon, Vine-leaved 

„ Rose . 
Adam's Needle . 
Alabama Snow Wreath 
Alaternus . 
Alcock Spruce . 
Alder. 

„ Buckthorn 
Alder-bush, White 
Alder-leaved Clethra . 
Alder, Neapohtan 
„ Oregon . 
„ Seaside . 
„ White 
Alexandrian Laurel . 
Allspice, Carolina 

„ Glaucous-leaved 
„ Western 
Almond 

Almond-leaved Willow 
Alpine Cotoneaster . 

„ Rose 
American Andromeda 
„ Arbor-vitse 
„ Aspen 
,, Burning Bush 
„ Crab, Sweet-scent 
„ Elm . 

Holly 
„ Hornbeam . 
,, Laurel, Glaucous 
„ Lime . 
„ Mountain Ash 
Witch Hazel 
Amur Yellow Wood . 
Andromeda, American 

„ Japan 

Apple, Coral-bud 

„ Crab 
Arborescent Witch Hazel 
Arbiir-vitaj, American 
„ Chinese . 

„ Gigantic . 

„ Hatchet-leaved 

Ardoino's Broom 
Arrow-jointed Genista 
Ash .... 
,, Barberry 
„ Manna . 
„ Mountain 
„ American Mountain 
Aspen 

„ American 
Austrian Pine . 



Vol, 


P.T,ge 






II. 


184 


Azalea, Clammy 


IL 


61 


,, Creeping 


I. 


29 


„ Flame-coloured 


I. 


81 


Japanese 


II. 


194 


„ Pontic . 


I. 


106 


„ Vasey's . 


I. 


44 


Balsam Fir 


II. 


216 


„ Poplar . 


II. 


154 


Barberi-y, Ash . 


I. 


46 


Box-leaved 


II. 


96 


„ Common . 


II. 


96 


„ Crowberry-leaved 


n. 


154 


Darwin's 


II. 


155 


„ Holly-leaved 


IL 


156 


,, Japanese 


IL 


156 


Wallich's . 


II. 


193 


Bastard Indigo . 


I. 


11 


Bay, Sweet 


I. 


11 


„ Willow 


I. 


12 


Beam, Nepaul AVhito . 


I. 


92 


„ White 


II. 


183 


Bean, Indian 


IL 


28 


Bearberry, Black 


II. 


93 


,, Common . 


II. 


79 


„ Pointed-leaved 


II. 


206 


Beautiful Nepal Spiraja 


II. 


190 


Bedford Willow . 


I. 


41 


Beech . 




II. 


11 


Bell, Golden 




II. 


137 


" ''. 




I. 


40 


Bhotan Pine 




II. 


158 


Bilberry 




II. 


87 


Birch, Canoe 




I. 


31 


„ Cherry 




IL 


16 


„ Dwarf 




II. 


43 


„ Red 




I. 


86 


,, Silver 




II. 


79 


„ Yellow 




II. 


80 


Bird Cherry 




II. 


12 


Black Bearberry 


IL 


12 


Black-berried Honeysuckle 


IL 


43 


Blackberry .... 


II. 


206 


Black Currant . 


IL 


208 


„ Jack 


IL 


207 


„ Mulberiy 


II. 


207 


„ Poplar . 


I. 


78 


„ Spruce . 


I. 


74 


Blackthorn 


II. 


105 


Bladder Nut 


I. 


17 


,, „ Colchican 


II. 


105 


„ Senna . 


IL 


17 


,, „ Oriental 


11. 


10 


Ijlagay's Daphne 


IL 


189 


Blue Bush .... 


IL 


190 


„ Straggling 


U. 


232 


„ Veitc 


h'.i . 



Vol. 


Page 


IL 


92 


II. 


84 


II. 


89 


II. 


91 


II. 


90 


n. 


91 


IL 


227 


II. 


185 


I. 


17 


I. 


15 


I. 


14 


I. 


16 


I. 


16 


I. 


15 


I. 


16 


I. 


17 


I. 


79 


II. 


127 


IL 


178 


II. 


16 


II. 


14 


IL 


121 


IL 


77 


n. 


78 


II. 


77 


L 


99 


IL 


183 


IL 


168 


IL 


102 


IL 


103 


IL 


236 


IL 


74 


IL 


153 


IL 


151 


II. 


152 


IL 


153 


IL 


150 


IL 


151 


I. 


96 


IL 


77 


IL 


64 


II. 


1 


II. 


40 


IL 


162 


IL 


140 


IL 


188 


n. 


218 


I. 


94 


1. 


05 


1. 


65 


1. 


84 


1. 


84 


li. 


128 


1 


47 


t. 


47 


1. 


49 



249 



INDEX 



Blue Passion Flower . 

„ Spruce 
Bog Myrtlo 

„ Whortleberry 
Bower, Vine 

„ Virgin's . 
Box, Broad-leaved Jasmine 
„ Common 
„ Elder 
Box-leaved Barberry . 
„ „ Cotoneaster 
„ „ Speedwell 
Box, Minorca 

„ Narrow-leaved Jasmine 

„ Thorn, Chinese . 

Bramble, Rocky Mountain 

„ White-stemmed 

Brasiletto ... 

Briar, Sweet 

British Oak 

Broad-leaved Jasmin^; iJox 

„ „ Lime . 

„ „ Spindle Tree 

Broom, Ardoino's 

„ Common 

„ White Spanish 

„ Yellow . 

Brush Bush 

Buckeye, Fetid . 

Buckthorn, Alder 

„ Purging . 

„ Sea 

Buddleia, Colville's . 
BuUace 
Burning Bush . 

„ „ American 

Bushy Willow . 
Butcher's Broom 
Button Bush 
Calico „ 
Californian Lilac 
„ Maple 

„ Mock Orange 

,, Rhododendron 

Camellia, False . 
Canadian Elder . 
„ Poplar 
Canoe Birch 
Carolina Allspice 
Catalpa, Japan . 
,, Western 
Catawban Rhododendron 
Caucasian Waliuit 
Cedar, Incense . 
,, Indian 
„ Japan 
,, of Lubanon 
„ Mount Atlas . 
„ Red 
Cephalotaxus, Plum-fruited 
Cherry, Bird 
,, Birch 
„ Crab 
„ Cornelian 
„ Dwarf or Wild 
„ Laurel . 
Chestnut, Golden-leaved 



Vol. 


Page 




II. 


46 


Chestnut, Horse 


II. 


210 


„ Scarlet Horse 


n. 


148 


„ Smooth-fruited Horse 


11. 


74 


„ Sweet 


I. 


3 


Chili Pine . . . . . 


I. 


3 


Chinese Arbor-vitie . 


II. 


108 


„ Box Thorn 


II. 


135 


„ Crab, Showy . 


I. 


59 


„ Juniper 


I. 


15 


„ Kidney-bean Tree 


II. 


28 


„ Paper-plaut . 


II. 


118 


„ Privet . . . . 


II. 


134 


Chittam Wood . . . . 


II. 


107 


Choke-berry, Red 


II. 


117 


Ciliate Heath . . . . 


II. 


1 


Cilician SilvL>r Fir 


I. 


107 


Cinquefoil, Shrubby . 


I. 


88 


Cistus, Corbiere's Gum 


II. 


7 


„ Cretan Gum . 


II. 


163 


„ Gum . . . . 


II. 


108 


„ Laurel-leaved Gum 


I. 


33 


,, Montpelier Gum . 


I. 


44 


„ Portuguese Gum . 


I. 


78 


„ Purple-flowered Gum 


I. 


78 


Clammy Azalea . . . . 


I. 


77 


„ Locust . . . . 


I. 


75 


Clematis, Mountain . 


I. 


107 


Clerodendron, Stinking 


I. 


53 


Club, Hercules' . 


I. 


46 


Cluster-flowered Yew, Fortune's 


I. 


45 


Cluster Pine 


II. 


132 


Cockspur Thorn . 


II. 


114 


Coffee Bush 


I. 


93 


„ „ Virginian 


I. 


42 


Coffee-tree, Kentucky 


I. 


41 


Colchican Bladder Nut 


II. 


171 


Colorado White Fir . 


II. 


192 


Colville's Buddleia 


II. 


69 


Constantinople Hazel 


II. 


87 


Copious-flowering Abelia . 


I. 


48 


Coral Berry 


I. 


58 


Coral-bud Apple 


II. 


37 


Corbiere's Gum Cistus 


II. 


92 


Cork Oak . 


I. 


27 


Cornel .... 


II. 


54 


Cornelian Cherry 


II. 


187 


Cornish Heath . 


II. 


153 


Corsican Heath . 


I. 


11 


Pine . 


II. 


122 


Cotoneaster, Alpine . 


II. 


122 


„ Box-leaved 


II. 


93 


,, Common 


II. 


147 


„ Loose-flowered 


II. 


208 


„ Moneywort-leaved 


IL 


221 


„ Rod 


II. 


211 


„ Round-leaved 


II. 


221 


,, Simon's . 


IL 


220 


„ Small-fruited . 


II. 


201 


,, Small-leaved . 


IL 


197 


Cottonwood 


I. 


96 


Coulter's Pine . 


II. 


151 


Cowberry .... 


IL 


13 


Crab Apple, American 


II. 


51 


„ Cherry . 


I. 


95 


„ Showy Chinese . 


I. 


97 


„ Siberian 


IL 


167 


„ Sweet-scented . 



V„l. 


Pa^'f 


I. 


53 


I. 


52 


I. 


54 


II. 


167 


IL 


213 


II. 


208 


II. 


117 


II. 


14 


II. 


200 


I. 


80 


II. 


47 


II. 


HI 


I. 


67 


II. 


18 


IL 


81 


II. 


225 


II. 


4 


I. 


18 


I. 


19 


I. 


19 


I. 


19 


I. 


20 


I. 


20 


I. 


21 


II. 


92 


I. 


83 


I. 


3 


II. 


123 


IL 


48 


II. 


197 


II. 


233 


II. 


22 


I. 


27 


I. 


28 


I. 


88 


I. 


65 


IL 


225 


II 


114 


II. 


159 


II. 


61 


I. 


13 


II. 


12 


I. 


18 


IL 


165 


II. 


51 


II. 


51 


II. 


84 


II. 


83 


II. 


231 


II. 


28 


IL 


28 


II. 


29 


IL 


30 


II. 


31 


IL 


27 


IL 


31 


n. 


32 


IL 


26 


n. 


30 


IL 


187 


IL 


231 


IL 


75 


IL 


12 


II. 


13 


IL 


14 


II. 


11 


II. 


11 



250 



POPULAR NAMES 



Crack Willow 
Cranberry . 
Creeper, Japanese 
„ Virginian 
Creeping Azalea 
Cretan Gum Cistus 
Cross-leaved Heath 
Crowberry . 

Crowberry-leaved Barberry 
Cucumber Tree . 

„ ,, Long-leaved 

Curled-leaved Jasmine 
Currant, Black . 
„ Flowering 
„ Missouri 
„ M'ountain 
Red . 
Cypress, Deciduous 
„ Evergreen 
„ Lawson 
„ Montery 
,, Obtuse-leaved Japan 
Yellow 
Daisy-bush, New Zealand 
„ „ Tasmanian 
„ Tree, New Zealand 
Daphne, Blagay's 
Dark-leaved Sallow . 
Darwin's Barberry 
Deciduous Cypress 
Deodar 

Deutzia, Slender 
Dewberry . 
Dog Rose . 
Dogwood . 

„ Large-leaved 

„ Red Osier . 

„ White-flowering 

Double Tongue . 
Douglas Fir 
Douglas's Spiriea 
Thorn 
Downy Mountain Willow 

„ Rose 
Dwarf Birch 
„ Cherry 
„ Furze 
„ Silky Willow . 
„ Sumach . 
„ Willow . 
Dyer's Green Weed . 
Eastern Spruce . 
Thorn . 
Elder, Box 

„ Canadian . 
„ Common . 
„ Glaucous 
„ Scarlet-berried 
Elm, American . 
„ Common . 
„ Slippery 
„ White 
,, Winged 
„ Wych 
Evergreen Cypress 
Oak 
„ Thorn 



Vol. 


P-age 






U. 


175 


Evergreen Trumpet Honeysuckle 


II. 


75 


False Camellia .... 


I. 


51 


Fetid Buckeye . 




I. 


50 


Field Rose 




II. 


84 


Fig 




I. 


19 


Fine-leaved Heath 




II. 


83 


Fir, Balsam 




u. 


191 


„ Cilician Silver 




I. 


16 


„ Colorado-White . 




I. 


4 


„ Douglas 




I. 


6 


„ Great Silver 




n. 


101 


„ Hemlock Indian . 




II. 


40 


„ Japan Silver 




n. 


41 


„ Mount Enos 




II. 


38 


„ Nordmann's Silver 




II. 


38 


„ Norway Spruce . 




n. 


40 


„ Plum .... 




II. 


212 


„ Red .... 




n. 


203 


„ Short-leaved Silver 




II. 


203 


„ Silver .... 




II. 


202 


„ Spanish Silver 




II. 


205 


Flame-coloured Azalea 




II. 


204 


Flowering Currant 




II. 


70 


„ Dogwood, White 




II. 


71 


Fly Honeysuckle 




II. 


71 


Fortune's Cluster-flowered Yew 




11. 


128 


„ Rhododendron . 




II. 


178 


Fragrant Skimmia 




I. 


16 


Fringe Tree, White . 




II. 


212 


Fuchsia-flowered Gooseberry 




II. 


221 


Furze 




II. 


36 


„ Dwarf 




I. 


lOS 


Garland Flower . 




II. 


6 


Gean 




II. 


51 


Genista, Arrow-jointed 




II. 


50 


„ Mount Etna . 




II. 


52 


Twiggy. 




n. 


49 


„ Gerard's Indigo . 




II. 


192 


Germander-leaved Spir.tja . 




II. 


230 


Gigantic Arbor-vitfe . 




I. 


101 


Glaucous American Laurel . 




II. 


22 


Elder . 




II. 


177 


Glaucous-leaved Allspice . 




II. 


9 


Globe-flowered Menziesia . 




IL 


152 


Goat Willow 




I. 


95 


Golden Bell 




I. 


77 


») n ... 




11. 


181 


„ Larch .... 




I. 


66 


Golden-leaved Chestnut 




II. 


175 


Golden Osier .... 




I. 


74 


Gorse 




II. 


218 


„ Spanish .... 




II. 


24 


Gooseberry .... 




I. 


59 


„ Fuchsia-flowered 




II. 


54 


Grape Pear 




II. 


55 


„ Vine .... 




II. 


54 


Gray Sallow 




II. 


55 


Greater Periwinkle 




II. 


137 


Great Laurel Magnolia 




II. 


138 


Great-leaved ,, . . . 




T. 


30 


Great Reed .... 




11. 


137 


„ Silver Fir .... 




11. 


137 


Green Weed, Dyer's . 




II. 


139 


„ Tlairy . 




IL 


203 


Guelder Rose .... 




II. 


161 


„ „ Large-headed 




H. 


26 


„ I'laited . 





Vol. 


Page 


II. 


65 


I. 


27 


I. 


53 


II. 


5 


II. 


141 


IL 


82 


II. 


227 


II. 


225 


II. 


225 


n. 


230 


IL 


226 


n. 


213 


n. 


226 


n. 


224 


IL 


228 


IL 


216 


IL 


199 


n. 


227 


IL 


224 


n. 


229 


II. 


229 


II. 


89 


II. 


41 


II. 


49 


II. 


66 


IL 


197 


II. 


94 


I. 


35 


II. 


109 


n. 


42 


I. 


76 


I. 


77 


II. 


128 


I. 


95 


I. 


74 


I. 


72 


I. 


75 


I. 


80 


I. 


100 


II. 


207 


II. 


87 


II. 


54 


I. 


11 


IL 


95 


II. 


173 


II. 


102 


II. 


103 


IL 


223 


II. 


167 


n. 


171 


I. 


76 


I. 


73 


II. 


39 


II. 


42 


II. 


33 


I. 


50 


II. 


174 


II. 


113 


1. 


7 


I. 


7 


II. 


195 


II. 


226 


I. 


74 


I. 


74 


u. 


58 


11. 


57 


11. 


59 



251 



INDEX 



Gum Cistus 

„ „ Coibiere's 
„ „ Cretan 
„ „ Laurel-leaved . 
,, ,, Montpelier 
„ „ Portuguese 

Purple-flowered 
„ „ Swoet 
Hairy Green Weed 
Hatchet-leaved Arbor-vitie 
Haw, Red .... 
Hawthorn . . . • 
Hazel, American Witch 
„ Arborescent „ 
,, Common . 
„ Constantinople 
Heath, St. Dabeoc's . 
„ Ciliate 
„ Cornish . 
„ Corsican . 
„ Cross-leaved . 
„ Fine-leaved 
„ Mediterranean 
„ Winter . 
Hemlock, Mountain . 
„ Fir, Indian . 

„ Spruce 

„ „ Japan 

Hercule's Club . 
Hibiscus, Syrian . 
Hickory, Shell-bark . 
Himalayan Honeysuckle . 
Holly . . 
„ Lilac 

„ Snow-flower 

„ Spruce 

Hoary Spirasa 
Holly . . 
„ American . 
„ Himalayan . 
Holly-leaved Barberry 

Olive 
Honey Locust 
Honeysuckle, Black-berried 
„ Common 

„ Evergreen Trumpet 

Fly 

„ Italian . 

„ Japanese 

„ Himalayan . 

„ Perfoliate 

„ Short-stalked 

„ Tartarian 

„ Very Fragrant 

„ Yellow Trumpet 

Hooker's St. John's Wort . 

Honey Locust 

Hop Tree .... 

Hornbeam .... 
„ American . 

Horse Chestnut . 
„ „ Scarlet 

„ „ Smooth-fruited 

Hydrangea, Common 
,, Plumed . 

Ibota Privet 

Incense Cedar 



Vol. 


Page 




I. 


19 


Indian Bean . . . . 


I. 


18 


„ Cedar . . . . 


I. 


19 


„ Hemlock Fir . 


I. 


19 


Indigo, Bastard . . . . 


I. 


20 


„ Gerard's 


I. 


20 


Intermediate Spirsea . 


I. 


21 


Italian Honeysuckle . 


II. 


44 


„ Maple . . . . 


I. 


74 


Ivy 


II. 


207 


.lapan Andromeda 


II. 


23 


„ Catalpa . . . . 


II. 


24 


„ Cedar . . . . 


IL 


43 


„ Cypress, Obtuse-leaved . 


II. 


43 


„ Silver Fir 


IL 


158 


Japanese Azalea 


II. 


159 


,, Barberry 


n. 


85 


., Creeper 


II. 


81 


„ Honeysuckle 


IL 


84 


„ Lilac . . . . 


II. 


83 


Maple 


II. 


83 


„ Pagoda Tree 


II. 


82 


,, Pr vet 


II. 


82 


Quince 


n. 


81 


Rose . 


II. 


215 


Skimmia 


II. 


213 


Snow-flower 


II. 


214 


Spindle Tree 


II. 


215 


,, Spirjea 


II. 


48 


Storax 


I. 


29 


Wine-berry 


II. 


146 


Jasmine Box, Broad-leaved 


II. 


67 


Narrow-leaved 


I. 


40 


Curled-leaved 


II. 


103 


Shrubby 


II. 


35 


WaUich's . 


II. 


217 


White . 


I. 


100 


Yellow 


I. 


39 


Jerusalem Sage . 


I. 


40 


Jew's Mallow 


I. 


40 


Judas Tree 


I. 


15 


Juniper, Chinese 


II. 


108 


Common 


I. 


89 


Kentucky Cofl'ee-tree 


II. 


64 


Kerria, White . 


II. 


64 


Kidney-bean Tree, Chinese 


II. 


65 


Kusagi .... 


II. 


66 


Labrador Tree . 


II. 


62 


Laburnum .... 


II. 


63 


„ Scotch 


II. 


67 


Larch 


II. 


61 


„ Golden 


II. 


64 


Large-flowered St. John's Wort 


II. 


66 


„ „ Weigela . 


II. 


63 


„ „ Wistaria . 


II. 


62 


Large-fruited Thorn . 


I. 


25 


Large-headed Guelder Rose 


I. 


89 


Large-leaved Dogwood 


I. 


34 


„ Oleaster 


IL 


157 


Laurel, Alexandrian . 


II. 


ir>8 


„ Cherry . 


I. 


53 


,, Glaucous American 


I. 


52 


Laurel-leaved Gum Cistus 


I. 


54 


„ Magnolia 


U. 


34 


„ „ Great 


IL 


35 


,, Pontic Spurge 


IL 


109 


„ Portugal 


II. 


208 


„ Sheep 



Vol. 


Page 


II. 


121 


II. 


221 


II. 


213 


I. 


79 


I. 


80 


I. 


102 


IL 


62 


L 


60 


II. 


48 


II. 


80 


IL 


122 


II. 


211 


II. 


205 


II. 


226 


II. 


91 


I. 


16 


I. 


51 


II. 


63 


II. 


104 


I. 58-60 


I. 


87 


IL 


110 


n. 


19 


II. 


8 


I. 


36 


II. 


36 


I. 


43 


I. 


101 


II. 


98 


II. 


4 


II. 


108 


II. 


107 


II. 


101 


II. 


99 


II. 


101 


II. 


100 


II. 


100 


II. 


126 


I. 


105 


I. 


91 


II. 


200 


IL 


201 


I. 


88 


I. 


106 


I. 


80 


II. 


123 


IL 


88 


I. 


72 


I. 


71 


IL 


222 


II. 


223 


I. 


24 


II. 


68 


I. 


81 


IL 


25 


II. 


57 


IL 


50 


II. 


131 


II. 


193 


I. 


97 


II. 


87 


1. 


19 


I. 


6 


I. 


7 


IL 


129 


I. 


98 



252 



POPULAR NAMES 



Laurel Spurge . 

„ Variegated 
Laurustinus 
Lavender 
Lawson Cypress . 
Lead Plant 
Ledum, Marsh . 
Lesser Periwinkle 
Lilac . 
„ Californian 
„ Himalayan 
„ Japanese . 
Lime, American . 

„ Broad-leaved 

„ Common . 
„ Small-leaved 
Lindley's Spiraea 
Ling . 
Locust 

„ Clamni}- . 

„ Honey 

„ Tree 
London Plane 

Long-leaved Cucumber Tree 
Long-sta'iked Oleaster 
Loose-flowered Cotoneaster 
Lord Harrington's Yew 
Magnolia, Great Laurel 
„ ( ireat-leaved 

„ Laurel 

„ Purple-flowered 

„ Small-leaved 

„ Starry 

Maidenhair Tree 
Mallow, Jew's 
Manna Ash 
Maple, CaUforniau 

„ Common 

„ Italian . 

„ Japanese 

„ Montpelier 

„ Norway . 

„ Red 

„ Round-leaved 

,, Silver-leaved 

,, Striped . 

„ Sugar . 

„ Tartarian 
Marsh Leduni . 

„ Rosemary 
Maule's Quince . 
Medicinal Storax 
Mediterranean Heatli 
Medlar 
Menziesia, Globe-flowered 

„ Scottish 

Mezoreon . 
Middendorf's Weigela 
Minorca Box 
Missouri Currant 
Mistletoe . 
Mock Orange 

„ „ Californian 

„ Privet 

„ „ Vilmorin's 

Moneywort-leaved Cotoneaster 
Monterey C3fpress 



i-ol. 


Pime 






II. 


128 


Montpelier Gum Cistus 


II. 


52 


„ Maple 


n. 


59 


Moose Wood 


n. 


125 


Moser's St. John's Wort . 


IL 


203 


Mountain Ash . 


I. 


79 


„ „ American . 


II. 


89 


,, Clematis 


n. 


113 


„ Currant 


II. 


104 


„ Hemlock 


I. 


48 


Mount Atlas Cedar . 


II. 


103 


„ Enos Fir 


II. 


104 


„ Etna Genista . 


I. 


31 


Moustache Plant 


I. 


33 


Mulberry, Black 


I. 


33 


„ Paper 


I. 


32 


Musk Rose 


I. 


102 


Myrtle .... 


II. 


80 


„ Bog ... 


I. 


82 


Narrow-leaved Jasmine Box 


I. 


83 


„ Yucca 


I. 


89 


Neapolitan Alder 


I. 


82 


Needle, Adam's . 


II. 


143 


Nepal White Beam 


I. 


6 


„ Spiraja, Beautiful . 


IL 


132 


New Jersey Tea 


II. 


30 


„ Zealand Daisy Bush . 


n. 


198 


„ Tree . 


I. 


7 


Nine-l)ark .... 


I. 


7 


Nootka Sound Raspberry . 


I. 


6 


Nordmann's Silver Fir 


I. 


8 


Norway Maple . 


I. 


8 


„ Spruce Fir 




I. 


9 


Oak, British 




IL 


196 


„ Cork . 




I. 


105 


,, Evergreen . 




II. 


105 


„ Red . 




L 


58 


„ Scarlet 




I. 


56 


„ Sessile-flowered 




I. 


60 


„ Swamp 




L 58-60 


„ Turkey 




I. 


59 


„ Yellow-bark 




I. 


61 


Oblate-berried Skimmia 


I. 


63 


Obtuse-leaved Japan Cypress 


I. 


57 


Oleaster .... 


I. 


57 


„ Large-leaved 


I. 


61 


„ Long-stalked 


I. 


63 


Olive, Holly-leaved . 


I. 


64 


„ Wild 


IL 


89 


Ontario Poplar . 


U. 


79 


Orange-ball Tree 


n. 


20 


Orange, Mock 


II. 


98 


„ Californian Mock . 


II. 


82 


Oregon Alder 


u. 


18 


Oriental Bladder Senna 


II. 


95 


„ Piano . 


II. 


85 


Osier 


IL 


129 


„ Dogwood, Red . 


u. 


68 


„ Golden 


n. 


134 


„ Purple 


n. 


38 


Oso Berry .... 


II. 


133 


Oval-leaved Privet 


II. 


37 


Pagoda Tree, Japanese 


II. 


37 


Pailas's Tamarisk 


II. 


108 


Paper Mulberry . 


II. 


107 


Paper-plant, Chinese . 


II. 


31 


Passion Flower, Blue . 


u. 


202 


Pea-fruited Retinoipe 


ra . 



Vol. 


Page 


I. 


20 


I. 


59 


I. 


61 


I. 


25 


II. 


17 


IL 


16 


I. 


3 


II. 


38 


II. 


215 


II. 


220 


II. 


224 


I. 


72 


II. 


124 


n. 


140 


II. 


140 


II. 


7 


II. 


45 


II. 


148 


II. 


107 


n. 


193 


II. 


154 


II. 


194 


IL 


16 


I. 


99 


I. 


46 


II. 


70 


II. 


71 


I. 


104 


II. 


3 


U. 


228 


I. 


61 


u. 


216 


n. 


163 


II. 


165 


II. 


161 


II. 


164 


11. 


160 


II. 


165 


n. 


162 


II. 


160 


II. 


166 


I. 


36 


IL 


205 


II. 


130 


II. 


131 


II. 


132 


II. 


108 


II. 


130 


II. 


186 


II. 


115 


n. 


37 


II. 


37 


II. 


155 


I. 


84 


II. 


145 


II. 


181 


II. 


52 


II. 


171 


II. 


180 


I. 


98 


II. 


111 


I. 


87 


I. 


23 


II. 


140 


II. 


47 


II. 


46 


II. 


205 



253 



INDEX 



Pea Tree, Siberian 
Pear, Grape 

„ Wild 

„ Willow-leaved . 
Pepper-bush, Sweet . 
Perfoliate Honeysuckle 
Periwinkle, Greater . 

„ Lesser 

Petty Whin 
Pine, Austrian . 

„ Bhotau 

„ Cluster 

„ Corsican 

„ Coulter's . 

„ Scots . 

„ Stone 

„ Swiss Stone 

„ Umbrella . 

„ Weymouih 

„ Yellow 
Pinxter Flower . 
Plaited Guelder Rose . 
Plane, London . 

„ Oriental . 

„ Wedge-leaved . 

„ Western . 
Plumed Hydrangea . 
Plum Fir . 
Plum-fruited Cephalotaxiis 
Plum, Wild 

Pointed-leaved Bearberry 
Poison Ivy . 

„ Sumach . 
Pontic Azalea 

„ Rhododendron 

„ Spurge Laurel. 
Poplar, Balsam . 

„ Black 

„ Canadian 

„ Grey . 

„ Great White . 

„ Lombardy 

„ Ontario . 
Portugal Laurel 
Portuguese Gum Cistus 
Prunus-leaved Spiraea 
Purging Buckthorn 
Purple-flowered Gum Cistu 

„ „ Magnolia 

„ „ Raspberry 

Purple Osier 
Privet, Chinese . 

„ Common 

„ Ibota 

„ Japanese 

„ Mock 

,, Oval-leaved . 

,, Shining . 

„ Vilmorin's Mock 
Quince, Common 

„ Japanese 

„ Maulu's . 
Raspberry . 

„ Nootka Sound 

,, Purple-llowered 

Red Birch . 
Redbud 



Vol. 


Page 


I. 


85 


II. 


33 


II. 


10 


II. 


9 


11. 


96 


II. 


61 


II. 


113 


II. 


113 


I. 


73 


II. 


232 


II. 


236 


IL 


233 


II. 


231 


II. 


231 


II. 


235 


II. 


234 


IL 


236 


II. 


209 


IL 


237 


IL 


234 


II. 


90 


11. 


59 


IL 


143 


IL 


145 


II. 


143 


II. 


144 


II. 


35 


n. 


199 


II. 


197 


I. 


93 


II. 


77 


I. 


69 


I. 


70 


II. 


90 


IL 


94 


II. 


129 


II. 


185 


II. 


188 


II. 


187 


II. 


186 


II. 


184 


II. 


189 


II. 


186 


I. 


98 


I. 


20 


I. 


103 


I. 


45 


I. 


21 


I. 


8 


11. 


3 


II. 


180 


IL 


HI 


II. 


112 


II. 


109 


IL 


110 


IL 


108 


II. 


HI 


II. 


110 


II. 


107 


IL 


20 


II. 


19 


IL 


20 


II. 


2 


II. 


3 


II. 


3 


II. 


153 


I. 


90 



Red Cedar . 
„ Choke Borry 
„ Currant 
„ Fir . . 
„ Haw 
„ Maple . 
„ Oak 

„ Osier Dogwood 
Reddish Skimmia 
Redwood 
Reed, Great 
Reticulate Willow 
Retinospera, Pea-fruited 
Rhododendron, Cidiforniai 
„ Catawban 

„ Fortune's 

„ Pontic 

Rocky iiountain Bramble 
Rod Cotoneaster . 
Rose, Acacia 
„ Alpine 
„ Dog . 
„ Downy 
„ Field 
„ Guelder 
,, Japanese . 
„ Musk . 
„ Scotch 
„ Showy Sun 
Rosemarj', Common 

„ Marsh 

Rosy Weigela 
Round-eared Sallow 
Round-leaved Cotoneaster 

„ Maple 

Sage Bush . 

„ Jerusalem . 
St. Dabeoc's Heath 
St. John's Wort, Hooker's 

„ „ Large-flowered 

„ „ Moser's 

„ „ Spreading 

Sallow, Common 
„ Dark-leaved 
„ Gray 
„ Round-eared 
Salmon Berry 
Satin Flower 
Savin . 

Scarlet-berried Elder 
Scarlet Horse Chestnut 
„ Oak 
„ Thorn . 
Scorpion Senna . 
Scotch Laburnum 

„ Rose 
Scots Pine . 
Scottish Menziesia 
Sea Buckthorn . 
Seaside Alder 
Senna, Bladder . 

„ Oriental Bladder 
„ Scorpion . 
Service Berry 

„ Tree", True . 
„ Wild . 
Sessile-flowered Oak . 



fn}. 


Page 


II. 


201 


11. 


18 


IL 


40 


II. 


227 


II. 


23 


I. 


63 


II. 


164 


IL 


52 


I. 


36 


II. 


210 


IL 


195 


II. 


182 


II. 


205 


IL 


92 


II. 


93 


II. 


94 


IL 


94 


IL 


1 


IL 


27 


I. 


81 


II. 


93 


IL 


6 


II. 


9 


II. 


5 


II. 


58 


II. 


8 


II. 


7 


II. 


8 


I. 


21 


II. 


125 


II. 


79 


II. 


67 


II. 


172 


II. 


31 


I. 


67 


II. 


73 


II. 


126 


II. 


85 


I. 


25 


I. 


24 


I. 


25 


I. 


26 


II. 


173 


II. 


178 


II. 


174 


IL 


172 


II. 


4 


I. 


86 


11. 


200 


11. 


55 


I. 


52 


II. 


160 


U. 


20 


I. 


85 


I. 


71 


II. 


8 


II. 


235 


II. 


85 


II. 


132 


IL 


156 


I. 


84 


I. 


84 


I. 


85 


11. 


32 


II. 


17 


II. 


15 


II. 


165 



254 



POPULAR NAMES 



Sheep Berry 
„ Laurel 
Shell-bark Hickory 
Shining Privet . 
Short-leaved Silver Fir 
Short-stalked Honeysuckle 
Showy Chinese Crab . 
„ Sim Rose . 
„ Zenobia . 
Shrubby Cinquefoil . 

„ Jasmine 

Siberian Cralj 

„ Pea Tree 
Silk Grass . 
Silky Willow, Dwarf . 
Silver Berry 
„ Birch 
„ Fir . . 
„ ,, Cilician 
„ „ Great . 
„ „ Japan . 
„ „ Noidmann's 
„ „ Short-leaved 
„ „ Spanish 
Silver-leaved Maple . 
Simon's Cotoneaster . 
Sioumi 

Skimmia, Fragrant 
„ Japanese 
„ Oblate-berried 
„ Reddish 
Slender Deutzia . 
Slippery Elm 
Sloe .... 
Small-fruited Cotoneaster 
Small-leaved „ 

„ „ Lime 
„ „ Magnolia 
Smoke Plant 
Smooth-fruited Horse Chestnut 
Smooth Sumach . 
Snowball Tree 
Snowbeny . 
Snowdrop Tree . 
Snow-liower, Himalayan 

,, „ Japanese 
Snow-in-Summei- 
Snow Wreath, Alabama 
Sorbus-leaved Spiriiea . 
Southernwood 
Spanish Broom, White 
„ „ Yellow 

,, Gorse 
„ Silver Fir 
Speedwell, Box-leaved 
„ Traver'B . 

Spindle Tree 

„ „ Broad-leaded 

„ „ Japanese 

Spirrea, Beautiful Nepal 
„ Douglas's 
„ Gerinander-leaved 
„ Hoary 
„ Intermediate . 
„ Japanese . 
,, Lindley's 
„ Prunus-leaved 



k'ol. 


Pa^e 




II. 


57 


Spiraea, Sorbus-leaved 


II. 


86 


„ Thunberg's 


II. 


146 


„ White-beam-leaved 


II. 


110 


„ Willow-leaved 


II. 


224 


Spreading St. John's Wort 


II. 


64 


Spruce, Alcock . 


II. 


14 


„ Black . 


I. 


21 


„ Blue 


II. 


78 


„ Eastern . 


u. 


4 


„ Hemlock 


II. 


99 


„ Himalayan . 


II. 


11 


„ Japan Hemlock 


I. 


8.5 


„ Tiger's Tail . 


11. 


194 


Spurge Laurel . 


II. 


181 


„ „ Pontic 


II. 


131 


Staghorn Sumach 


II. 


150 


Starry Magnolia 


n. 


229 


Stinking Clerodendrou 


II. 


225 


Stone Pine . 


II. 


226 


„ „ Swiss 


II. 


226 


Storax, Japanese 


II. 


228 


„ Medicinal 


II. 


224 


Straggling Blue Bush 


II. 


229 


Strawberry Tree 


I. 


57 


Striped Maple . 


II. 


32 


Sugar 


II. 


136 


Sumach, Dwarf . 


I. 


35 


„ Poison . 


I. 


36 


„ Smooth 


I. 


36 


,, Staghorn 


I. 


37 


Sun Rose, Showy 


II. 


36 


Swamp Oak 


I. 


30 


Sweet Bay . 


I. 


94 


,, Briar 


II. 


26 


„ Chestnut . 


II. 


30 


„ Gum 


I. 


32 


,, Pepper-bush 


I. 


8 


Sweet-scented American Ci 


I. 


68 


Swiss Stone Pine 


I. 


54 


Sycamore . 


I. 


cs 


Syrian Hibiscus 


II. 


59 


Syringa 


II. 


60 


Tamarisk . 


II. 


97 


Pallas's 


II. 


35 


Tansy-leaved Thorn . 


II. 


36 


Tartarian Maple . 


II. 


72 


„ Honeysuckle 


I. 


106 


Tasmanian Daisy Bush 


I. 


103 


Tea, Labrador . 


II. 


72 


Tea-leaved Willow 


I. 


77 


Tea, New Jersey 


I. 


75 


„ Tree . 


I. 


73 


Thorn, Chinese Bo.x . 


II. 


229 


„ Cockspur 


II. 


118 


„ Douglas's 


II. 


120 


„ Eastern . 


I. 


43 


„ Evergreen 


I. 


44 


„ Large-fruited . 


I. 


43 


„ Scarlet . 


I. 


99 


„ Tansy-leaved . 


I. 


101 


„ Washington 


I. 


100 


Thunberg's Spiraja 


I. 


100 


Tigei^'s Tail Spruce . 


I. 


102 


Traveller's Joy . 


T. 


101 


Traver's Speedwell 


I. 


102 


Tree of Heaven . 


I. 


103 


True Service Tree 



ab 



Vol. 


Page 


I. 


103 


I. 


104 


I. 


100 


I. 


103 


I. 


26 


II. 


216 


n. 


218 


II. 


219 


IL 


218 


II. 


214 


II. 


217 


II. 


215 


II. 


219 


IL 


128 


n. 


129 


I. 


69 


I. 


9 


II. 


123 


IL 


234 


II. 


236 


11. 


98 


IL 


98 


I. 


47 


II. 


76 


I. 


61 


I. 


63 


L 


66 


I. 


70 


I. 


68 


I. 


69 


I. 


21 


II. 


162 


II. 


127 


n. 


7 


n. 


167 


II. 


44 


II. 


96 


n. 


11 


II. 


236 


I. 


62 


I. 


29 


II. 


37 


I. 


22 


I. 


23 


II. 


26 


I. 


64 


IL 


66 


n. 


■ 71 


II. 


88 


II. 


179 


I. 


46 


II. 


116 


n. 


117 


IL 


22 


II. 


22 


II. 


24 


IL 


26 


IL 


25 


II. 


20 


II. 


26 


II. 


21 


I. 


104 


11. 


219 


l. 


1 


II. 


120 


I. 


37 


U. 


17 



25.5 



V 2 



INDEX 



Trumpet Honeysuckle, Evergreen 

„ „ Yellow . 

Tulip Tree . 
Turkey Oak 
Tutsan 

Twiggy Genista . 
Umbrella Pine . 
Tree . 
Vanilla Tree 
Variegated Laurel 
Vasey's Azalea 
Veitcli's Blue Bush 
Very Fragrant Honeysuckl 
Vilraorin's Mock Privet 
Vine, Bower 
„ Grape 
Vine-leaved Abutilon . 
Virginiau OoftVe Bush 
„ Creeper 
„ Yellow Wood 
Virgin's Bower . 
Wallicli's Barberry 
,, Jasmine 
Walnut 

„ Caucasian 
Washington Thorn 
Wayfaring Tree . 
Wedge-leaved Plane . 
Weeping Willow . 
Weigela, Large-Howered 

„ Rosy 

„ Middendorf's 
Wellingtonia 
AVestern Allspice 
,, Catalpa 
„ Plane . 
Weymouth Pine . 
White Alder 

„ Alder-bush 

„ Beam 

,, Beam-leaved Spirtea 

„ Beam Nepal 

„ Birch 

„ Elm . 

„ Fir, Colorado 

„ Flowering Dogwood 

,, Fringe-Tree 

„ Jasmine . 

„ Kerria 

„ Poiilar, Great . 

„ Spanish iiroom 

,, Stemmed Bramble 



Vo\. 


Page 


II. 


65 


II. 


62 


I. 


10 


II. 


160 


I. 


24 


I. 


75 


II. 


209 


I. 


9 


n. 


118 


II. 


52 


II. 


91 


I. 


49 


II. 


63 


II. 


107 


I. 


3 


I. 


50 


I. 


29 


I. 


28 


I. 


50 


I. 


86 


I. 


3 


I. 


17 


II. 


101 


II. 


147 


II. 


147 


II. 


21 


II. 


56 


II. 


143 


II. 


172 


II. 


68 


II. 


67 


II. 


68 


II. 


210 


I. 


12 


II. 


122 


II. 


144 


II. 


237 


II. 


156 


II. 


96 


II. 


14 


L 


100 


II. 


16 


II. 


150 


II. 


137 


II. 


225 


II. 


49 


II. 


109 


II. 


100 


I. 


106 


II. 


184 


I. 


77 


I. 


107 



White Willow . 
Whortleberry 

Bog . . 
Whortle-leaved Willow 
Wild Cherry 

„ Olive .... 
„ Pear .... 
„ Plum 
„ Service 
Willow, Almond-leaved 

„ Bay . . . 

„ Bedford . 

„ Bushy . 

„ Crack . 

„ Dwarf . 

„ Silky . . 

,, Downy Mountain . 

„ Goat 
Willow-leaved Pear 

„ „ Spiraea 

Willow, Reticulate 

,, Tea-leaved 
Weeping 

„ White . 

„ Whortle-leaved 

„ AVoolly Broad-leaved 
Wine-ljerry, Japanese . 
Winged Elm 
Winter Flower . 

„ Heath 
Wistaria, Large-flowered 
Witch Hazel, American 

„ „ Arborescent . 

Woodbine .... 
Woolly Broad-leaved Willow 
Wych Elm . 
Yellow Bark Oak 

„ Birch 

„ Cypress . 

,, Horn 

„ Jasmine . 

„ Pine 

,, Spanish Broom 

„ Trumpet Honeysuckle 

„ Wood, Amur . 

V „ Virginian . 

Yew ..... 

„ Fortune's Cluster-flowered 

,, Lord Harrington's 
Yulan .... 
Zenobia, Show}' . 



Vol. 


Page 


II. 


170 


n. 


74 


IL 


74 


11 


177 


I. 


95 


II. 


130 


IL 


10 


I. 


93 


II. 


15 


IL 


183 


II. 


178 


II. 


183 


II. 


171 


II. 


175 


II. 


175 


IL 


181 


IL 


177 


II. 


173 


II 


9 


I. 


103 


II. 


182 


II. 


179 


II. 


172 


II. 


170 


II. 


177 


IL 


176 


IL 


4 


II. 


137 


I. 


12 


II. 


81 


I. 


81 


II. 


43 


II. 


43 


II. 


64 


II. 


176 


II. 


139 


n. 


166 


II. 


151 


II. 


204 


I. 


55 


IL 


100 


II. 


234 


I. 


75 


n. 


62 


I. 


86 


I. 


86 


II. 


198 


II. 


197 


II. 


198 


I. 


5 



II. 



78 



256 



COLOUR INDEX 



BLUE. 



Abutilon vitifoliiim . 

Amorpha cferulea 

Caryopteris Mastacantlius 

Ceanothus azmeus 
„ dentatus . 

„ divaricatus 

„ papillosus . 

„ rigidus . 

„ th3Tsif)orus 

,, veitchianus 

Clematis Viticella 

Lavandula vera . 

Passiflora cterulea 



Ulmus campestris 
„ inoiitana . 



Spiraea bullata 



BROWN. 



CARMINE. 



CRIMSON, 



Acer rubrum 
Berberidopsis coraUina 
Buddleia Colvillci 
Daboecla polifolia 



GREEN. 



Acer camjiestre . 

„ dasycarpuni 

„ Negundo 

„ tartaricum . 
jEscuIus glabra . 
Ailantbus glandulosa 
Broussonetia papyrii'era 
Carya alba . 
Daphne Laureola 
„ pontica . 
Gleditsclua triacanthos 
Hedera Helix 
Juglans regia 
Magnolia acuminata . 
Myrica Gale 
Platanus acerifolia 
„ cuneatji 
„ occidentalis . 
Pterocarya caiicasia 
Rliamnus Alati-rnus . 

„ cathartica 
Rhus venenata . 



Vol. 

I. 
I. 

II. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 
II. 
II. 



II. 
II. 



29 
79 

124 
47 
47 
47 
48 
48 
48 
49 
3 

125 
46 



13S 
139 



I. 99 



I. 


63 


I. 


13 


II. 


114 


IL 


85 



I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 
n. 
II. 
II. 

IL 

1. 

ir. 
II. 

T. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
IL 

I. 

I. 

I. 



56 

57 

59 

64 

53 

37 

140 

146 

128 

129 

89 

48 

147 

4 

148 

143 

143 

144 

147 

44 

45 

70 



Ribes alpinum . 

„ nigrum 
Ruscua aculeatus 
Viscum album . 
Vitis vinifera 

„ inconstans . 



LILAC. 



Bryanthus taxifolius . 
Buddleia paniculata . 
Lyoium halimifolium 
Rhododendron yunnanense 
Syringa vulgaris 
Veronica Traversii 
Wistaria chineiisis 

„ multijuga . 

ORANGE. 

Rhododendron calendulaceuni . 
„ sinense 

PINK. 

Andromeda polifolia . 
Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi 
Cotoneaster integerrinia 

„ laxiflora . 

Cratpegus Oxyacantha . 
Daphne Cneorum 
Erica carnea 

„ mediterranea . 

„ vagans 
Kalmia glauca . 
Loiseleuria procumbena 
Menziesia globularis . 
Rhododendron nudiflorum 
„ Vaseyi 

„ vi3co.sura 

Piosa canina 

„ rubiginosa . 

„ spinosis8ima 
Rubus fruticosus 

„ phanicolasius . 
Spiraea caneacens 
„ salicifolia 
Symphoricarpus raceniosus 
Taniarix gallica . 
Vaccinum uliginosum 



PURPLE. 



Abelia floribunda 
Amorpha fruticosa 
Buddleia ColviLei 



Vol. 


Pao:e 


II. 


38 


II. 


40 


n. 


192 


IL 


133 


I. 


50 


I. 


51 


II. 


85 


11. 


115 


II. 


116 


II. 


95 


II. 


104 


IL 


120 


I. 


80 


I. 


81 


II. 


89 


11. 


91 


II. 


79 


II. 


78 


II. 


29 


II. 


30 


IL 


24 


II. 


128 


11. 


81 


IL 


82 


II. 


84 


II. 


87 


II. 


84 


II. 


95 


II. 


90 


II. 


91 


II. 


92 


II. 


6 


II. 


7 


II. 


8 


II. 


1 


II. 


4 


I. 


100 


I. 


103 


11. 


60 


I. 


22 


II. 


74 


11. 


01 


1. 


79 


II. 


114 



2.57 



INDEX 



Calycanthus floridus . 
„ glaucus . 

Cercis Siliquastnim . 

Cistus crispus 
„ piu-pureus 

Clematis Viticulla 

Daboiicia polifolia 

Enipetniin nigrum 

Erica ciiierea 

Euonymus amyricamis 
„ atropurpureiis 

Hedysaiiim inultijiiguni 

Iiidigofera g«rardiaiia . 

Kalmia angustifolia . 

Lyciuiu chinense 

„ halimifolium . 

Magnolia obovata 

Neillia opulifolia 

Rhododendron oalifornicuni 
„ catawbiense 

„ ponticum . 

Rosmarinus officinalis 

Rubus spectabilis 

Vinca major 
„ minor 

Vitis quinquefolia 



RED. 

Acer japonicum . 
Calycanthus oocidentalis 
Cercis canadensis 
Colutea cruenta . 
Cydonia Maulei . 
„ vulgaris 
Daphne Mezereuiii 
Erica striata 

„ Tetralix 
Louicera Oaprifolium 

„ japonica v. flexuosa 
nigra . 

„ Periclymenum 
Oxycoccus palustris . 
Rhododendron calendulaceum 

„ nudiflorum 

Ribes speciosura . 
Rosa rugosa 
Rubus odoratus . 
Spiioea bella 

„ Douglasi 

„ japonica . 
Ulmus alata 

„ americana 
Vaccinuni Vitis-ida;a . 



ROSE. 



Calluna vulgaris 
Clematis Viticella 
Clerodendron fcetidum 
Cotoneaster liorizontalis 
Dicrvilla llorida . 

„ grandiflora . 
Erica ciliaris 
Kalmia angustifolia . 
Ijoniccra tartarica 
Prunns Amygdalus . 



Vol. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 
II. 
II. 
II. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 
II. 
II. 
II. 

I. 

I. 
II. 

n. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
I. 



I. 

I. 

I. 

I. 
II. 
11. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 

I. 

I. 

I. 
II. 
II. 
II. 



II. 

I. 
II. 
II. 
n. 
II. 
II. 
II 
II. 

I. 



Page 

n 
11 

91 
19 
21 
3 
85 

191 
82 
41 
42 
86 
80 
86 

117 

IIG 
8 

104 
92 
93 
94 

125 
4 

113 

113 
50 



Pyrus coronaria . 

„ spectabilis 
Rhododendron ferrugineum 

„ Fortune! 

Ribes sanguineum 
Robinia hispida . 

„ neo-mexicana 

„ viscosa . 
Rosa villosa 
Spira-a salicifolia 
Vaccinum Myrtillus . 



SCARLET. 



Acer rubrum 
jEscuIus carnea . 
Cydonia japonica 
Lonicera sempervirens 
Rhododendron ferrugineum 



VIOLET. 



Amorplia canescens 
Paulownia imperialis . 
Veronica cupressoides , 



WHITE. 



Acer circinatum . 

58 jEscuIus Hippocastanum 
12 „ parviflora 

90 Amelanchier alnifolia. 
84 „ canadensis 

20 Aralia chinensis . 
20 „ spinosa 

129 Arbutus Unedo . 

83 Arctostaphylos alpina . 
83 „ pungons 

61 Buxus sempervirens . 

64 Carpeuteria californica 

64 Calluna vulgaris . 

64 Catalpa bignonioides . 
i'5 „ cordifolia 

89 Ceanothus americnnus 

90 Cepbalanthus occidentalis 
42 Chionanthus virginica 

Cistiis corbariensis 
3 „ ladaniferus 

99 „ laurifolius 

101 „ lusitanicus 

101 „ nionspeliensis . 

137 Cladrastis amurensis . 
137 „ tinctoria 

Clematis Flammula . 
„ montana 
Vitalba 
{-Mfrodendrou trichotomum 

80 Cletlira acuminata 
3 „ alnifolia . 

123 Cornus niacrophylla . 
29 „ sanguinea 

67 „ stolonifera 

68 Cotoneaster affinis 

81 „ bacillaris . 
80 „ buxifolia . 
60 „ frigida 
92 „ liorizontalis 

258 



Vol. 


Pao-e 


IL 


11 


II. 


14 


II. 


93 


II. 


94 


II. 


41 


I. 


81 


I. 


82 


I. 


83 


II. 


9 


I. 


103 


II. 


74 


I. 


63 


I. 


52 


II. 


19 


IL 


65 


IL 


93 


I. 


79 


IL 


118 


II. 


119 


I. 


57 


I. 


53 


I. 


54 


IL 


32 


II. 


33 


IL 


47 


II. 


48 


II. 


76 


II. 


77 


IL 


77 


IL 


135 


IL 


37 


IL 


80 


II 


121 


IL 


122 


I. 


46 


II. 


69 


II. 


109 


I. 


18 


I. 


19 


I. 


19 


I. 


20 


I. 


20 


I. 


86 


I. 


86 


I. 


3 


I. 


3 


I. 


1 


II. 


123 


II. 


96 


II. 


96 


II. 


50 


II. 


51 


II. 


52 


II. 


26 


II. 


27 


II. 


28 


IL 


28 


II. 


29 



COLOUR INDEX 



Cotoneaster microphylla 
„ Nummularia 

„ rotundifolia 

„ Simonsii . 

Cratsegus coccinea 
„ coi'data 
„ CruB-galli . 
„ Douglasii . 
„ mollis . 
„ orientalis . 
„ Oxyacantha 
„ punctata 
„ Fyiacantha . 
„ tanacetifolia 
Cydonia vulgaris 
Cystisus albus 
Daboeeia polifolia 
Daphne blagayana 
Deutzia corymbosa 
„ crenata . 
„ gracilis . 
Diervilla florida . 

„ middendortiana 
Elaaagnus macrophylla 
,, multiilora . 

Eucryphia pinnatifolia 
Euonymus europaeus . 
„ japonicus . 

„ latifolius . 

Fraxinus Ornus . 
(iarrya elliptica . 
Gymnocladus canadensis 
Halesia tetraptera 
Helichrysum rosmarinifolium 
Hibiscus syriacus 
Hydrangea paniculata 

„ „ V. grandiflora 

Ilex Aquifolium . 
„ crenata 
„ dipyrena 
„ opaca . 
Jasminum officinale . 
Kalmia latifolia . 
Laurus nobilis 
Ledum latifolium 
,, palustre . 
Leycesteria formosa . 
Ligustrum Ibota 

„ jap.micum 

„ lucidura 

„ ovalifolium 

„ sinense 

„ vulgare 

Lonicera fragrantissima 
Magnolia conspicna . 
„ Fiaseri 
„ glauca. 
„ grandifolia . 
„ macropliylla 
„ parviflora 
„ stollata 
„ tripetala 
Moms nigra 
Myitus comnmnis 
Noillia opulifolium 
Noviusia alabamonsis . 
Nuttalia cerasiformis . 



V,)l. 


Pn.se 








II. 


30 


Olearia Haastii . 


II. 


31 


„ 


macrodonta . 


II. 


31 


;) 


stellulata 


II. 


32 


Osmanthus Aquifolium 


II. 


20 


Philadelphus coronarius 


II. 


21 


Philh 


r;ea angustifolia 


II. 


22 


IJ 


decora 


II. 


22 




latifolia 




II. 


23 


JJ 


media 




II. 


24 


Pieris 


floribunda 




II. 


24 


» 


japonica . 




II. 


25 


Prunus Aniygdalus . 




II. 


26 


)j 


Avium . 




II. 


26 


IT 


Cerasus . 




II. 


20 


JJ 


communis 




I. 


77 


IJ 


iusititia . 




II. 


85 




Laurocerasus . 




II. 


128 


ti 


lusitanica 




II. 


35 


)) 


Padus 




II. 


36 


» 


spinosa . 




II. 


36 


PjTUS americana 




II. 


67 


1) 


amygdaliformis 




II. 


68 




arbutifolia 




II. 


131 


j; 


Aria . 




II. 


132 


» 


Aucuparia 




I. 


107 


)» 


baccata 




I. 


43 


)j 


communis 




I. 


43 


)) 


floribunda 




I. 


44 




germanica 




II. 


105 


J) 


Malus 




II. 


53 


)1 


prunifolia . 




1. 


88 


;i 


Sorbus 




II. 


97 


)) 


Torminalis 




II. 


72 




vestita 




I. 


29 


Rhamnus Frangula 




II. 


34 


Rhododendron nudiflon;m 


II. 


35 




„ racemosum 


1. 


39 




„ Vaseyi 


I. 


40 




„ viscDSUm 


I. 


40 




,, yuunanense 


I. 


40 


IlhodotYX)Os kerrioides 


II. 


100 


Eibes 


Grossularia 


II. 


87 


)j 


rubrum 




II. 


127 


Robinia Pseiidacacia 




II. 


88 


Rosa arvensia 




II. 


89 


„ 


:anina 




II. 


67 


»j 


Dioschata 




II. 


109 


55 


spinosissima 




n. 


110 


Rvibus bitlorus 




II. 


110 


J7 


caesius 




11. 


111 


jy 


deliciosus 




II. 


111 


^j 


fruticosus 




II. 


112 


IT 


Idiieus 




II. 


63 


jj 


nutkanus 




I. 


5 


If 


phoenicolasius 




I. 


6 


Sambncus canadensis 




I. 


6 


) 


glauca 




I. 


7 


J 


nigra 




I. 


7 


J 


racemosa 




I. 


8 


Skimmia fragrans 




I. 


9 


i1 


japonica 




I. 


9 


)) 


oil lata . 




II. 


140 


jj 


rubella 




II. 


45 


Sophora japonica 




I. 


104 


Spiraea canescens 




I. 


106 


1} 


cbamajdrifolia 




I. 


98 
2. 


iy 

59 


discolor . 





Pol. 


Piiue 


II. 


70 


II. 


71 


II. 


71 


II. 


108 


n. 


37 


II. 


107 


II. 


107 


II. 


108 


n. 


108 


n. 


79 


II. 


80 


I. 


92 


I. 


9e 


I. 


95 


I. 


93 


I. 


93 


I. 


97 


I. 


98 


I. 


96 


I. 


94 


n. 


16 


n. 


9 


n. 


18 


II. 


14 


n. 


17 


II. 


11 


n. 


10 


n. 


12 


n. 


18 


II. 


12 


II. 


13 


II. 


17 


II. 


15 


II. 


16 


I. 


46 


n. 


90 


IL 


95 


n. 


91 


II. 


92 


n. 


95 


I. 


106 


n. 


39 


II. 


40 


I. 


82 


II. 


5 


II. 


6 


II. 


7 


n. 


8 


I. 


107 


I. 


107 


n. 


1 


n. 


1 


II. 


2 


II. 


3 


n. 


4 


II. 


54 


n. 


54 


n. 


55 


II. 


55 


I. 


35 


I. 


36 


I. 


36 


I. 


37 


T. 


ST 


1. 


llKJ 



I. 100 
I. 100 



INDEX 



Spirtea lindleyana 
,, media 

„ prunifolia flore-pleno 
„ sorlii folia 
„ Tlnmbergi 
Stapliylea colchica 
„ pinnata 

Stephanandra Taiiakre 
Stuartia pentagyna 
„ Pseudo-camellia 
„ virginioa 
Styrax japonicum 
„ Obassia . 
„ officinale . 
Syriiiga Emodi . 
,, japonica 
„ vulgaris. 
Tamarix gallica . 
,, Palasii . 
Tilia americaua . 
„ cordata 
» platypliyllos 
„ vulgaris 
Veronica buxifolia 
„ pingiiifolia . 
,, 'I'ravursii 
Vilinrniim Lantana 
„ Leiitago 
„ niacroceplialum 
„ Opulus 
„ „ r. sterile 

,, Tinus 
„ tomentosum v. plicatuiii 
Xanthoceras sorbifolia 
Yucca augustifolia 
„ filiimentosa 
,, gloriosa 
Zeiiobia speciosa 



YELLOW 



Acer m,icroj)liyllum 
,, mouspessiilanum 
,, opidifolium 
,, penusylvanicuni 

lilatinoidca 
,, Pseudo-plat an us 
,, sacchariuum 
Artemisia Abrotanum 

tridentata 
Berberis Aiiuifoliuni 
,, buxifolia 
Darwinii 
empetrifolia 
japonica 
nepalensis 
vulgaris 
wallicliiaua 
Buddleia globosa 
Buxus balearica 
Cajsalpinia japonica 
Caragana ai-ljorescens 
Catalpa Kjompferi 



Vol. 


Pane 


I. 


102 


I. 


102 


I. 


103 


I. 


103 


I. 


104 


I. 


65 


I. 


65 


I. 


105 


I. 


27 


I. 


27 


I. 


28 


II. 


98 


II. 


98 


II. 


98 


II. 


103 


II. 


104 


II. 


104 


I. 


22 


I. 


23 


I. 


31 


I. 


32 


I. 


33 


I. 


33 


II. 


118 


IL 


119 


11. 


120 


II. 


56 


II. 


57 


II. 


57 


II. 


58 


II. 


59 


II. 


59 


II. 


59 


I. 


55 


II. 


193 


II. 


194 


11. 


194 


IL 


78 





58 




59 




GO 




61 




61 




62 




63 


IL 


72 


IL 


73 




15 




15 




16 




16 




16 




17 




14 




17 


IL 


115 


II. 


134 




88 




85 


IL 


122 



Chimonanthus fragrans 
Colutea arborescens 
Cornus tlorida 

Mas 
Coronilla Emerus 
Corylopsis spicata 
Cytisus Ardoini . 
,, scoparius 
Dan;ea Laurus 
Elsagnus angustifolia 

argentea 
Fagus sylvatica . 
Forsythia suspensa 

viridissima 
Fraxinus excelsior 
Frenioutia californica 
Garrya elliptica . 
Genista icthnensis 
anglica . 
hispanica 
pilosa 
.sagittalis 
, , tinctoria 
,, virgata . 
Hamamelis arborea 

„ virginica 

Helianthemum foimosum 
Hippophae rhamnoides 
Hyperirum Andros;emum 
„ calycinum 

„ hookerianum 

„ patulnm . 

Jasminum fruticosus . 
„ nudillorum 
„ revolutum . 

„ wallichianum 
Kerria japonica . 
Laljurnuni alpinum . 

„ vulgare 

Liijuidambar styraciflua 
Liriodeiidron tulipifera 
Lonicera Cajirifolium , 
„ etrusca . 
„ flava 
„ jajionica 
„ Xylosteum 
Phlomis fruticosa 
Platanus orientalis 
Potentilla fruticosa 
Ptelea trifoliata . 
Rliododendrou calendulaceum 

„ flavum 

Rhus copallina . 
„ cotinoides . 
„ C'otiuus 
„ glabra 
„ Toxicodendron 
„ typhina 
Ribes aureum 
Skimniia Laureola 
Spartiuni junceum 
Ulex europaeus . 



Vol. 


Page 


I. 


12 


I. 


84 


II. 


49 


IL 


51 


I. 


85 


IL 


42 


I. 


78 


I. 


78 


II. 


193 


IL 


130 


n. 


131 


II. 


168 


II. 


102 


II. 


103 


IL 


105 


I. 


30 


II. 


53 


I. 


72 


I. 


73 


I. 


73 


I. 


74 


I. 


74 


I. 


74 


I. 


75 


IL 


43 


II. 


43 


I. 


21 


II. 


132 


I. 


24 


I. 


24 


L 


25 


I. 


26 


IL 


99 


II. 


100 


II. 


101 


II. 


101 


I. 


105 


I. 


71 


I. 


72 


II. 


44 


I. 


10 


IL 


61 


II. 


62 


IL 


62 


II. 


63 


II. 


66 


IL 


126 


IL 


145 


IL 


4 


I. 


34 


IL 


89 


IL 


90 


I. 


66 


L 


67 


I. 


68 


I. 


68 


I. 


69 


I. 


69 


II. 


38 


L 


36 


I. 


75 


I. 


76 


I. 


77 



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