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No. 36 



Trees and 
Tree Drawing 



EDWARD C. CLIFFORD, R.I., R.D.S. 



SIXTH EDITION 



LONDON : 

GEORGE ROWNEY & CO.. LTD. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2010 



http://www.archive.org/details/treestreedrawingOOclif 



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[Frontispiece. 



TREES 



AND 



TREE DRAWING 



WRITfEN AND ILLUSTRATED 



EDWARD C. CLIFFORD, R.I., R.D.S. 



SIXTH EDI no X 



PfBLISHED BV 

GEORGE ROWNEY AND COMPANY, 

ARTIS'IS' COLOURMEN AND PENCIL MAKERS, 

LONDON, W., ENGLAND. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 

Anatomy and Structure . . . . . . . . 14 

Tree Drawing . . . . . . . . . . 35 

The Trees of Britain . . . . . . . . 50 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING 



CHAPTER I. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The student who would become a figure painter goes 
through a course of drawing from the life and devotes 
considerable time to the study of anatomy. The 3^oung 
landscape painter is apt to confine his studies, if he 
make any at all, to effects of light and colour and notes 
of composition.. The anatomy and construction of the 
component j)arts of his subjects are often not seriously 
considered. He too often forgets that buildings and 
trees and rocks are formed upon fixed principles and 
governed by set laws in their relationship to each other. 
In almost all picture exhibitions examples may be found 
of houses of impossible architectural construction, rocks 
foreign to their surroundings, and trees which are 
unrecognizable, or growing under unnatural conditions. 
The figure painter knows that inaccuracies in drawing 
will be readily discovered and condemned ; the landscape 
painter is aware that a general ignorance of tree forms 
has hitherto permitted ill-drawn landscaj)es to pass 
muster. The former has brought the study of anatomy 
to his aid ; to the latter it is becoming more and more 
necessary to derive assistance from architecture, geology, 
and botan3^ 



8 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

Here it is purposed to deal with trees only, and it 
should at once be pointed out that trees have an 
anatomy, individual and class characteristics, limits to 
their areas of growth and to their endurance of certain 
conditions and changes of appearance under the in- 
fluences of season, situation, and climate. As the figure 
painter studies the nude that he may be able to paint 
the costumed figure, as he must know the figure within 
the clothes, so should the landscape painter study the 
naked tree in winter, that he may be able to paint it 
rightly in its summer dress of foliage. He must know 
the construction of the tree beneath the veiling leaves, 
or the tree is likely to be a mere anomaly. 

One more comparison of the painter of figure subjects 
with the painter of landscape may be of use. The former 
does not people his rustic cottages with dainty ladies 
and fine gentlemen, or his palaces with ragged beggars ; 
he does not make a group of foreign faces serve for a 
British crowd, or represent a Saxon hero as a negro ; 
neither should the latter plant his wastes with exotics, 
his trim gardens with weather-beaten trees of the 
mountains, his British forests with foreign growths, nor 
make a Maidenhair tree the principal feature of a truly 
English scene. Nor must he use for background of a 
sixteenth-century incident a tree that was not introduced 
till the eighteenth. 

In much of the landscape work produced in the 
earlier portions of the nineteenth century, trees, so called, 
were merely conventional symbols, and the masters of 
that time taught patent " foliage touches," that were 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. U 

only mechanicalh^ multiplied to represent a " tree." In 
these conventions many painters and draughtsmen were 
so exceedingly dexterous and the general ignorance of 
tree form was so great, that their productions were 
accepted and admired. So much was this the case that 
an honest representation of a naturall}^ growing tree 
would have been entirely rejected as bad art. Many 
influences have happily now changed all this. Much is 
due to Constable and to the xore-Raphaelite movement, 
and of late years the study of botany, which has taken 
a place in the curriculum of the schools, has made old 
conventional rendering of trees imx^ossible of acceptance. 
And as knowlege of the vegetable world progressed, 
the artists enlarged the number of forms portrayed — the 
typical Oak and Elm and Pollard Willow could no longer 
form the limit, and the modern French school of 
landscape painting has done much to popularize the 
introduction of the lighter-foliaged trees, such as Poplars 
and Willows. It may be safely assumed that as time 
goes on the love of nature study will increase, producing 
increased knowledge of the visible forms of nature, and 
as a result more power of criticizing the painter's pro- 
ductions, so that the artist, without lessening his art in 
any way, must found it on a more scientific basis. 

Landscape painters who sit down before a subject and 
paint directly from nature, if they put down exactly 
what they see, would, one would think, hardly go far 
wrong ; yet they even, from want of knowledge of the 
ways of nature, sometimes fail to give the essentials. 
And it is generally admitt(Ml that the highest form of 



10 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

landscape art cannot be produced by merely copying a 
given subject — it is a matter of composition, of selection, 
it necessitates many sketches and studies and much 
labour of elaboration in the studio. Here the painter 
has to draw largely upon his stores of knowledge, and 
guard against anachronisms and the erroneous juxta- 
position of objects. He must be correct in his tree 
anatomy and character, he must know the requirements 
and the natural environment of the kind of tree he 
would introduce. A Silver Birch, however beautifully 
painted, must necessarily offend if it be placed where it 
could not possibly grow. Not many years ago in one 
of our exhibitions might have been seen a picture of a 
Beech wood, and amongst the Beeches, presumably to 
break the monotony of their heavy foliage, the artist had 
introduced some young Silver Birches, with their whita 
bark and dainty leafage ; so planting the tree which 
demands the most light under the tree that casts the 
densest shadow. Such mistakes, though not always, or 
perhaps often, so markedly wrong as this, are frequently 
to be met with. The angle at which a tree's branches 
grow from the stem is frequently wrongly stated ; a tree 
with a deep root system is sometimes represented on a 
shallow soil, a valley-loving tree placed high on the 
hillside. All these errors are the more inexcusable in 
that there is almost always another tree that could be 
substituted to supply the mass needed for the com- 
position, if only the artist knew. It must be admitted 
that no young tree will grow in the darkness of dense 
forest or in the shadow of a Beech wood. When a tree 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 11 

has been felled, making a gap in the wood's roof, 
seedlings will spring up and make a sickly reach for the 
light, only to die as the open space of sky narrows and 
closes up, and a pathetic group of these dead saplings, 
cut off in their youth, may occasionally be seen, mere 
bare sticks falling into decay. But if the artist need a 
tree on shallow soil, he may choose from several having 
a shallow root system ; or, if he would have a tree on 
the mountain side, there are those natural to such a 
situation. If errors are to be avoided, it is absolutely 
necessary that an artist must not only study tree form 
but must also learn something of their habits and 
requirements. 

Besides such knowledge being necessary to the 
landscape painter, it is equally necessary to the tree 
draughtsman. There is now a growing taste for tree 
drawings pure and simple, without the accompaniment 
of landscape or colour. Since the late Lord Leighton's 
drawing of a Lemon tree was first exhibited, the finely 
decorative structure of trees has been more and more 
appreciated ; since the first handbooks on trees appeared, 
the development of the taste for these beautiful growths 
has created a demand for drawings of them to hang 
upon our walls. To the collectors of such drawings 
accuracy of detail is of as' much importance as delicacy 
of execution, and for the drawing of an individual tree 
to find a place in a collection of any worth it must 
possess the quality of absolute truth lovingly rendered. 
The old shibboleths no longer avail, the tree portrayed 
must have the characteristics of its kind ; while as a 



12 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

work of art it must give pleasure to the connoisseur, 
it must no less satisfy the nature lover. 

On the other hand, the botany necessary to the artist 
is fairly elementary ; the microscope need not be used, 
the cellular system, the complex questions of germina- 
tion and fertilization need not be deeply gone into. If 
the study of the science prove so interesting that the 
student be led to continue it for its own sake, well 
and good ; but what it is imperative he should know 
are just those things that affect the outward appearance 
of a tree. If the anatomy of the commoner trees, with 
their habits and requirements, be mastered, the student 
will know enough to prevent his making such mistakes 
as have been mentioned in ordinary landscape work. 
To the acquirement of such knowledge it is the purpose 
of this little book to assist the student, but he is warned 
that it cannot be got entirely from books. To go to 
nature, study her, commune with her, is the only way 
to know her ; all a book can do is to point out the 
path of study and suggest the train of thought. 

Some little knowledge of the classification of trees 
will be found of use, as it will the better enable the 
student to realize the various structures if he compare 
the differences of one family with another and the 
similarities of several belonging to one group. It will 
also help in a case of further research, which is often 
needful in these days of the painting of gardens, where 
so many foreign trees are being introduced and hybrids 
grown. And although the members of one family may 
at first sight seem quite dissimilar, it must be remem- 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 13 

bered that they resemble each other in many essentials 
of growth. Thus in the Olive family the study of its 
peculiarities will help the student to understand the 
construction of the Ash, the Lilac, and the Privet, all 
commonly met Avith members of it. To the painter of 
many gardens this additional study is quite necessary, 
and though Latin names may seem useless to the artist, 
he will, if he learn them, find them the shortest, 
simplest method of expressing the nature of the trees, 
giving as they do the name of the family and individual 
in two words, and the more easily enable him to make 
further researches in the case of the less common trees 
now so generally planted in our woodlands as well as 
our gardens. 



14 TREES AND THEE DRAWING. 



CHAPTER II. 



ANATOMY AND STRUCTURE. 



A TREE is a living being, feeding, digesting, breathing, 
transpiring, reproducing its kind, having power of hold- 
ing itself erect and resisting the wind, of repairing 
injuries, and even, in a small degree, of moving certain 
of its parts. 

It feeds by its roots and leaves, digests in its wonder- 
ful internal system, breathes through its bark, transpires 
by its leaves, and by flowering produces seeds, that 
scattered, often by elaborate means, become in time 
trees like itself that shall perpetuate the processes. 

Trees always fighting against adverse conditions, 
suffering by many foes, have great powers of repairing 
injuries and of adapting themselves to circumstances. 
They can within limits largely alter their character and 
growth to enable them to live under conditions which 
are unfavourable to them, so much so indeed that though 
they still retain the essentials of their kind, they are 
without careful examination unrecognizable, as when 
the Spruce, so well known to us in the form of the 
Christmas tree, becomes in more northern latitudes a 
mere creeping plant, upon which one can walk as upon 
turf. 



TKEES AJND TEEE DRAWI^'G 15 

A tree consists of many parts, but of these the follo\\- 
ing are those that principally concern the artist : 



1. 


The root. 


2. 


The stem. 


3. 


The branches, 


4 


The leaves. 


5. 


The flowers. 


6. 


The fruit. 



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1. — Little, perhaps, need be said of the root ; it is 
mostly out of sight in the earth ; yet it does affect the 
form of the stem in many trees and in some to a large 
extent. A root is either a main root, diving straight 
down into the earth and throwing out branches, or a 
lateral root, spreading out in the ground as the aerial 



16 TIIEES AND TIIEK DKAWING. 

branches do above it. All trees of a certain age have 
a tendency to spread out at their jun(ttion with the 
earth's surface ; but a tree with a strong main root and 
few lateral ones does so very little, while a tree with a 
strong lateral root system, like the Beech, shows a 
marked spreading at the base of the trunk, and in some 
cases, as in the Hornbeam, the form of the trunk itself 
is largely affected. Some roots, too, are so shallow as in 
mature age to show for some distance above the ground ; 
and often in situations where the ground has been 
washed or worn away, large tangled masses of root may 
be exposed, which may form a picturesque feature in a 
hollow lane or on the bank of a watercourse. 

The character of the root is of importance to the artist 
from the fact that to a large extent it limits the power 
of the tree to grow only under suitable conditions of 
soil and situation. The roots not only hold the tree in 
its place, but absorb food from the soil ; they have 
therefore not only to grip the ground firmly enough to 
enable the tree to resist the wind, but have to search for 
and reach the right place from which they can procure 
water and food matter. A tree growing in sand must 
send its root deep down till it come to the necessary 
moisture, and if it be unable to do this, then it is 
incapable of living in such a situation. On shallow soil, 
it must, on the contrary, send its lateral roots far afield 
and at the right depth. Some roots, however, have a 
limited power of adapting themselves to conditions, as 
in the Scots Pine. Some roots have the power of send- 
ing up shoots or " suckers," and so gradually making 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 17 

the tree the centre of a grove of young ones, and even, 
as one may say, of traveUing considerable distances, 
as in the case of the Ehn. 

Some trees love to grow near water and in moist 
earth, but no British .tree wdll grow^ in water or water- 
logged soil, as their roots need oxygen. There are some, 
however, that are able to endure occasional or even 
regular flooding, like the Willows, and there are soiiie 
foreign trees occasionally seen in England that have 
the 130 wer of sendng up ventilating branches from 
their roots — knee-roots as they are called. 

Thus it is seen that the artist must not altogether 
ignore the tree's root, for though it is but seldom 
visible, it has a considerable influence on the tree. 

2. — Stems are " True " or " False." In the Conifers 
they are "True" — that is to say, the terminal shoot, 
often growing upwards during the summer season, 
rests during the winter, and resumes its upward growth 
again in the spring. In the dicotyledonous trees (in- 
cluding practically all our outdoor trees except the 
Conifers) the stems are " False " — the terminal bud 
after growing for a season dies, and the stem is con- 
tinued the following spring by the highest lateral bud. 
The " True " stem, therefore, is one continuous piece of 
timber, while the " False " stem is a succession of branches 
strung end to end; and it will be found that in some 
trees, more especially when young, the effect of this 
difference is quite noticeable in the superior straight - 
ness of a " True " stem over the " False " stem, which 
shows, as it were, a slight hesitation in its growth, or 
which gets divided and lost. 



18 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING 



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TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 




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TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 21 

Passing from the outside, inwards, the stem of a tree 
consists of the outer dead bark, the inner Uving bark, 
the outer hving wood, and the inner dead wood — the 
heart wood, as it is called. The outer dead bark mainly 
concerns the artist, but that bark is largely affected by 
the internal working of the tree as well as by outside 
influences. Trees breathe through their bark by means 
of little holes or lenticels, and while these lenticels are 
invisible on some trees, or minute spots on others, on 
some they are very noticeable, and largely affect the 
appearance of the bark, notably the horizontal lenticels 
of the Birch and Cherry. 

The bark is affected also by the swelling of the tree., 
as may be seen easily by the opening vertical cracks in 
the bark of the Black Poplar towards autumn. Out- 
wardly it is affected by light and shade. If a tree stem 
is much in shade, it needs but thin bark to protect it ; if 
it has to endure the strong rays of the sun, it needs 
either a thick bark as a shield, or a light coloured one 
to throw them ofE. Some light-enduring trees protect 
themselves with thick corky bark, adding to it each year 
from within, so of necessity causing and increasing 
fissures in the outer portions as the circumference of 
the tree gets larger. The character and direction of 
these fissures and corrugations vary very much in 
different tress, as in the Chestnut, Elm, &c. In some 
thin-barked trees, as the inner bark is produced the 
outer peals off, as in the Birch and Plane. Bark may 
be smooth on the young tree and get thick and corky 
as the tree gets older, as may be seen in some of the 



22 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

Poplars and in the Birch, which has a white thin bark 
with rough dark places, and gets more thick bark as it 
gets on in years, more especially at the base of the stem. 

Some tress, like the Lime and the Oak, have great 
power of sending out numerous shoots from the trunk, 
raising on the stem great bosses that spoil its symmetry. 
Others, like the Hornbeam, are often deeply divided 
owing to the influence of strong lateral roots. The 
Yew is also much divided, its trunk being often com- 
posed by the fusion with it of strong base shoots. 

The stem changes its character with changed con- 
ditions. A tree that in the open carries its branches 
fairly low down the stem, in close forest becomes a tall 
straight pole with a comparatively small crown of 
branches and foliage at the top. But on that tall bare 
trunk are dormant buds, which, if the surrounding trees 
be felled, letting in the light, will develop and become 
branches. This power is great in some trees, like the 
Hornbeam, on which a bud that has remained dormant 
for over half a century will grow on the accession of 
light. On others, like many of the Conifers, the power is 
but small. This power and the power of creating new 
buds, which some trees have, applies to the stump of 
a fallen or felled tree; and though the artist may be 
quite right in putting young shoots growing on many 
kinds of old stems, he must not suggest their so 
growing on the stump of a Conifer, which dies when 
the whole of its top is cut off. 

A tree has a main stem from which the branches 
grow. A bush has many stems. Iii a tree the strongest 



TREES A:ND tree DRAWING. 23 

shoots grow on the branches and become branches ; on 
a bush the strongest shoots grow from the base and 
become new stems. Thus a bush should never be drawn 
as a miniature tree in a natural landscape, though in 
cultivation, by continually cutting away all the base 
shoots but one, the gardener sometimes gives it that 
appearance. 

3. — Branches are " True " or " False " in the same 
manner that has just been described in regard to stems ; 
they grow from the tree at varying angles and in vary- 
ing numbers. In Conifers, such as the Spruce, they grow 
from the topmost whorl or circle of buds of the previous 
year's growth, so that the age of the tree may be 
approximately reckoned by counting the whorls of 
branches. On dicotyledonous trees they may grow 
in pairs or be arranged spirally, but to all practical 
purposes they are irregularly placed, because of some 
developing more than others, and some dying and 
falhng off. In the younger trees the method of branch- 
ing is, of course, more regular and in keeping with the 
habit of the tree, they not having had so much time to 
suffer adversities ; so it is well for the student to study 
young trees, as from them the true methods of growth 
can be better learnt. 

The current year's shoot bears leaves, but no branches ; 
in the axils of the leaves are produced the buds for 
next year's growth. These buds the following season 
develop into long shoots, or short shoots, or they remain 
dormant. In some trees, as has been said, the terminal 
bud of a shoot dies and the growth is continued the 



24 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

next year by the highest lateral bud, but in some the 
terminal bud develops into flowers. A short shoot has 
short internodes, that is, short spaces between the more 
or less swollen places whence the leaves spring ; it may 
produce leaves or flowers. A long shoot has long inter- 
nodes and carries the foliage out into the light, as may 
be well seen in the long feathery shoots of the Beech. 

From the artist's point of view the branches are the 
tree itself in winter, except with evergreens, and it is 
therefore essential for him to study them carefully ; 
not only is it necessary to know the angle at which 
the main branches leave the stem, but the way the 
lesser branches are set upon them, and how they, again, 
produce smaller branches and final twigs. And by 
studying them in winter it will be easier to understand 
them in summer : how they thrust the foliage out or up, 
how they spread out fanwise, making flat masses, or 
by many reticulations cause the masses to be more 
globular, and how in weeping trees the branches tend 
upwards before they droop, it being only the mass of 
final twigs, or " spray," which hangs down. 

4. — The leaf is the key to the texture of the foliaged 
tree, and the foliage is necessarily of the greatest 
importance to the tree draughtsman, seeing that in 
summer little else is seen in most trees. It is therefore 
necessary for the artist to know the shape of the leaf of 
the tree he would represent, and some description of the 
main forms are now given. A simple leaf may be of 
various shapes — oval, oblong, heart-shaped, lanceolate, 
or needle-like ; it may be toothed round the edge in 



TEEES AND TEEE DRAWING. 



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A. 


BLACK POPLAR. 


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CHESTNUT 


B. 


CRACK WILLOW. 


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ALDER. 


F. LABURNUM. 







26 TREES AND TREE DKAWING. 

various ways, mostly too small in detail to affect the 
appearance of the foliage as a mass ; and it may also be 
lobed with round or pointed divisions. A compound 
leaf is practically a number of simple leaves attached 
to a common leaf stalk, and they may be arranged in 
rows down the stalk or radiating from its uppermost 
end. The compound leaf may also be made up of 
groups arranged symmetrically upon the main and 
subordinate leaf stalks.' Further mention of the form 
of leaves will be made in the notes on the different 
trees, but it cannot be too strongly impressed on the 
student that the shape and the size of the leaf largely 
affect the texture of the foliage, as the comparison of 
such extremes as the Horse Chestnut and the Cedar will 
definitely prove. 

Leaves on long shoots are placed at greater intervals 
than those on short shoots, and trees like the Beech 
(see Fig. 7), which throw out numerous long shoots, 
with leaves spreading out horizontally on either side, 
have a waving, feathery appearance, which is not seen 
on the Oak (see Fig. 6), which has more short shoots, 
on which the buds towards the- end only develop, 
making a cluster, and giving the tree a more tufted 
appearance. 

The leaves of trees are either stalked or stalkless, and 
where it is present the character of the stalk is another 
element in the general character of the tree. For as a 
stalked leaf is more easily moved by the breeze than 
one without a stalk, so the longer the stalk the 
more movennent it is capable of. Beyond this a stalk 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 



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Figs. 6 and 7. 



28 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

like that found on some of the Poplars, flattened verti- 
cally for part of its length, allows the leaf a lateral 
motion and gives the tree a peculiar sparkle. This 
sparkle of a tree in a breeze is greatly enhanced where 
the- leaf has a light underside, as in the White Poplar 
and some of the Willows. The whitening of trees 
under the influence of the wind is often found useful 
by artists, and the effect of a prevalent wind continually 
bending the twigs and foliage one way has been used 
to give a wild look to a landscape. This appearance of 
a tree, so often seen at the seaside, is not due only to 
the bending of the twigs, for that side of the tree facing 
the quarter whence the wind and strong air come will 
be found to have shorter shoots and sparser foliage. 
This is due to over-rapid transpiration of the exposed 
parts, preventing their growth. 

Trees are either evergreen or deciduous, either they 
keep their leaves through the winter or they lose them in 
autumn and put out a fresh crop the following spring, 
and it will be noticed that the leaves of evergreens are 
of a thicker and more leathery nature than those of 
deciduous trees. By far the largest class of evergreen 
trees is the Pine family, whose leaves, being very 
narrow, are called needles, and grow mostly in bundles 
of two or more. As in the broad-leaved families there 
are often evergreens, so in the Pine family may be found 
some that are deciduous ; as there are evergreen Oaks, so 
the Conifers number in their ranks the deciduous Larch. 

Leaves also vary under other influences. Holly, above 
the reach of cattle, changes its prickly leaves for spineless 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 29 

ones, and Ivy where it grows free on its own branches 
has unlobed leaves, while those of the same plant where 
it clings to tree stem or wall are divided, to allow of 
light passing to the under ones, 

5. — The flowers of our forest trees are naostly incon- 
spicuous ; being wind-fertilized, thej^ have no need to 
put out advertisements for honey, or, indeed, to offer 
honey at all, for the sake of attracting insects to carry 
their pollen, and, being inconspicuous, are of little 
moment to the artist. Yet there are some which, 
though not conspicuous, do nevertheless, by their great 
number, affect the appearance of the tree ; more 
especially is this the case with the large inflorescences 
of the Sweet Chestnut and the Sycamore. ' The largest 
tree with consj)icuous flowers common in England is 
the Horse Chestnut, though the Catalpa often becomes 
a large tree in this country. Then there are several 
trees of the Pea family whose flowers must be noted ; 
the Robinia or False Acacia and the Laburnum are, 
perhaps, the commonest of them. Be^^ond these, there 
is a large group of the smaller trees belonging to the 
Rose family having beautiful flowers worthy of study ; 
the wild fruit trees, Apples, Pears, Plums, and Cherries, 
the Hawthorn and the bushes. Wild Roses and Brambles. 
The Holl}^, too, is often almost covered with bunches 
of white blossom, as is also the Privet, and in the 
hedgerow we have the Guelder Rose, the Wayfaring 
trees, and the Elder. So that, as a rule, for flowers it is 
necessary to go to the smaller trees, and for these it is 
of no use to search in close forest, they must be sought 



30 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

at the edge of the wood and in the hedges. Some trees 
have flowers that are both male and female, some 
separate male and female flowers, and some have the 
male and female flowers on different individuals. 

0. — The remarks on the flowers of trees apply largely 
to their fruits. The most conspicuous fruits will be found 
on the smaller trees. Nevertheless, the fruits of forest 
trees are more visible than their flowers. A thick crop 
of acorns will give an Oak the appearance of being 
studded with points of light ; the fruits of the Sweet 
Chestnut dots the tree with spiky globes ; the winged 
seeds of the Hornbeam, and the keys of the Ash, the 
ripening Beech nuts, the white downy seeds of the 
Poplar are distinct features, as are the cones of the 
Conifers. Then, too, the female Yew is often studded 
all over with pink or orange " berries," and the Spindle 
tree hung with delicate pink and scarlet fruits that are 
flower-like in form. Trees that have only male flowers, 
of course, bear no fruit. 

The miniature apples of the Crab and the tiny 
plums of the Sloe, the little wild cherries and the 
Hawthorn berries, the crimson and black fruits of the 
Wayfaring tree, and the berries of the Guelder Rose are 
lovely features of the hedgerow that appeal as much by 
their colour as their form — in a wood a dark green 
foliaged Holly laden with scarlet berries certainly 
does — yet these little fruits are all beautiful in form 
and grouping. The little cones on the Larch and the 
Alder form some of the most decorative features of 
those highly decorative trees. 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 31 

Besides the foliage, flowers, and fruits, the beauties of 
trees, there are other distinctive features to be noted 
which are — at least from the point of view of the 
forester and the gardener — defects. The parasite 
Mistletoe will sometimes be more in evidence than the 
foliage of the tree itself, and in winter will make a 
deciduous tree almost appear an evergreen. It grows 
on many of our broad-leaved trees, though very rarely 
upon Oak. In the drawing given of Lime trees may 
be seen near the top of the right-hand tree a small 
plant. The trees in Windsor Great Park are much 
infested with Mistletoe. On some trees those masses 
of little twigs known as witches' brooms are prevalent 
and are very conspicuous; they most affect Birches, 
Cherries, and Hornbeams. The Oak, which suffers 
from more insect pests than any other tree, is, especially 
when pollarded, often heavily laden with bunches of 
marble galls, and the foliage of the same tree is some- 
times so covered with the little spangle galls as to 
appear red when the wind shows the underside of the 
leaves. The Oak apples are generally too few and 
the Currant galls too inconspicuous to affect the 
appearance of the tree. On decaying trees may often 
be found large and conspicuous fungi ; but these 
show only when there is no foliage to hide them, as 
they are almost always on the stem where the branches 
start out. 

Such, then, are the more salient features of trees to 
which the attention of the student should be directed, 
but beyond this he must consider their habits and 
distribution. 



32 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

Some trees demand a great deal of light, whereas 
some will endure a large ainoimt of shade, and these 
qualities almost always carry others with them. The 
typical light-demanding tree is the Birch, which casts 
but little shadow itself and grows rapidly upwards 
when young ; its bark is very light in colour, throwing 
off the sun's rays, and where it is dark it becomes thick 
for protection against them. The typical shade-endur- 
ing tree is the Beech, which casts a dense shadow itself, 
grows upward but slowly when young, and has thin 
bark of dark colour. The student may generally feel 
certain that a tree having the qualities of the Birch as 
■given above is a light -demanding tree that must be 
represented as growing in the open, and one having 
the qualities as giv^en to the Beech is a shade -enduring 
tree, and may be represented in a more shady place. 

Though having great powers of adaptation, trees yet 
demand a suitable soil if they are to flourish, and 
though they will live in a kind not natural to them 
they will never be at their best in it, but will be stunted 
and changed in appearance. 

So, too, each tree has its own particular area and its 
own particular altitude in which it flourishes, and even 
at the extremes of such area and altitude will be found 
much deformed by its surrounding conditions. 

All these points given in this chapter must be studied 
of trees in general, being the more salient features of 
the tree system as it affects the artist ; it remains to 
give under the heading of the separate trees a few 
notes as to which are the principal features of each, 



TREES AND TiiEE DRAWING. 33 

and how far each cnnfonns to. oi- tleparts from, llie 
general rules. 

In a little book like this it is, of course, impossible 
to deal with anything like all the varieties or even all 
the familiar trees. Just a few of the commoner and 
more typical ones only can be given ; but as far as the 
landscape painter is concerned, the commoner kinds 
are those which he will generally have to represent in 
English landscape, being those that most frequently 
grow wild in our woodlands ; and it is to be hoped that 
the particulars given of t3'pes of families will the more 
readily enable the student to understand the less 
common members of those families when he couies 
across them. 

The list of our native trees is but meagre, but we 
have many that, though not native, have become more 
typical of our scenery than their relatives that are 
actually indigenous. Thus the common Elm, though an 
introduced tree, is far better known than the Wych 
Elm, which is native to the soil ; indeed, it has become 
one of the typical trees of England, and is very 
generally called the English Elm. The Romans began 
the work of adding new trees to our limited number, 
and their introductions have in man}' cases been of 
great value to the country. After them, perhaps, the 
greatest impetus the work received was in the seven- 
teenth century, when Evelyn did so much for forestr}', 
not only by the publication of his " Sylva," but by the 
study of, and addition to, the trees of the countr}-. 
Since his time many new kinds have been intro- 
o 



34 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

(lucecl, and many hybrids produced and established as 
permanencies, and the multiphcation of kinds still 
progresses. It will be observed, however, that the 
majority of the new trees planted are but slight varia- 
tions of those already known, and it is hoped that the 
types here given will supply the key to the knowledge 
of most of them. The main principles only have been 
given, as it is not necessary for the landscape painter to 
know all the plants that belong to one family, for their 
identification would need much more minute study, 
and, as in the case of the Willows, the overcoming of 
difficulties which even the botanists find appreciable. 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 35 



CHAPTER III. 

TREE DRAWING. 

The best medium for tree drawing, whether it be for 
studies only or for producing drawings to be kept 
as pictures, is undoubtedly the lead pencil. Some 
French masters have produced very beautiful pictures 
of trees in charcoal, but they are rather elaborated 
indoor productions than outdoor studies, and are, 
moreover, complete landscape compositions rather than 
drawings of trees for* the tree's sake. Charcoal is at 
best a troublesome medium out of doors, being so easily 
damaged and so difficult to carry. Some beautiful 
drawings of trees have also been produced with pen 
and ink — by Alfred Parsons, for example, that master 
of plant form and of the pen — but, as a rule, they are 
hardly satisfactory as representing trees. The use of 
the pen necessitates too many conventions for the true 
rendering of stem and branch and foliage, and the 
line the pen makes is a line with sharp, hard edges ; 
whereas the pencil line is far more sympathetic by 
reason of its soft edges, which make it more resemble 
the etched line. Chalk is out of the question for most 
tree work, as its point wears down so rapidly, caus- 
ing a wide touch, and, also, it cannot be properly 
rubbed out. 

On all counts it seems that the pencil has the advan- 
tage ; it is sympathetic to the touch, makes a soft -edged 



36 TREES AN J) TREE DRAWING. 

line, js easily effaced, has a wide range of tone, b}^ the 
aid of (he pa))er ean uuike a fhit tint witliout hne, and, 
a thing not to be forgotten in these dayn of many 
})ubhcations, can be beautifully reproduced. Pencil, too, 
has an indefinable charm of its own in its sympathetic 
quality, and to preserve that charm shoidd be the aim 
of the student. To this end he must strive for absolute 
directness, avoiding all alterations and rubbings out 
as far as may be, for all smearing and changing robs 
a drawing of its freshness. He should proceed from 
the beginning with certainty and precision. 

The materials for pencil drawing are very simple, 
and have the additional advantage of being easily 
carried. A B pencil will do almost all that is required, 
but the student is advised to carry with him also an 
HB and some softer ones, say, BB and BBBB. These 
can be easily carried in a small pencil-case in the 
pocket ; to carry pencils loose is very extravagant 
because of the amount lost in broken points. Be sure 
to use only round pencils ; many flat and hexagon 
pencils are now sold, but the round ones only are 
suitable for tree drawing ; for to draw a long line of 
the same thickness all through the pencil has to be 
very gradually turned in the fingers, and any angles 
on the wood will be found to interfere with this. The 
pencil draughtsman must always carry a penknife, and 
it must always be sharp — a blunt knife wastes the 
pencil and produces but a poor point — so that the 
student should provide himself with a small serviceable 
hone, not necessarily to take out with him, but to keep 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 6i 

haiid}^ at lioiiie, so that he may alwaj^s keep a keen 
edge on his blade. A piece of soft white rubber 
completes the list of necessary tools, always remember- 
ing that this last is to be used as little as possible. 

With regard to the paper to be worked upon, one 
kind ma}^ suit one person and another kind ma}^ suit 
some one else. The writer, after many trials and 
experiments, finds hot-pressed A.C.M. paper of 140 
pounds to the ream the most suitable. It has a smooth 
surface with yet sufficient " tooth " ; it is hard, taking 
a very light touch, yet bearing a heavy pressure, and it 
is thick. This last is an advantage if a sketching folio 
is used, and exjjerience has proved this to be the most 
convenient appliance for the work. It will carry several 
pieces of paper and drawings without rubbing, any one 
of which can be slipped beneath the frame to be A\'orked 
on in a moment. Except on a very small scale, the 
sketching folio is luisuitable for thin paper, which 
would not lie fiat enough. A camp stool completes the 
tree draughtsman's equipment, and the whole of it 
may be had of Messrs. George Rowney & Co. at a 
small cost. 

It is presumed that the student who makes use of 
this book is not an absolute beginner in drawing 
generally, though he may be so with regard to trees. 
He is, no doubt, able to make an accurate drawing of a 
single leaf — he should now proceed to make a careful 
study of a small spray having a few leaves upon it. 
If he has one tree more easilv' within reach than 
another, it would be well that the twig should be of 



38 TREES AND TKEE DRAWING. 

that kind, so that after he has carefully drawn it with 
all its details, he may readily pass to a study of a 
larger branch having more foliage, then to one ol 
several branches, and finally one of the whole tree. 
The first spray should be drawn the size of nature, then 
as he takes in more, and moves farther from the tree, 
he will of necessity gradually reduce the scale. When 
the whole series is complete, the character of the leaves 
of the first twig should be recognizable in the rendering 
of the whole tree. 

To go back to the beginning, in drawing the spray 
a light line should be drawn to indicate where the twig 
itself comes, and a slight indication of where each leaf 
is to be x^laced may be made by faint dots and strokes, 
but nothing should be put down so strongly that if 
found afterwards . to be outside the boundary of the 
subject will necessitate the use of the rubber. This 
done, begin at the top left-hand corner and draw care- 
fully, putting in all that may be seen, and graduallj^ 
working downwards and towards the right. This is 
advisable because by so doing the working hand will 
not smear the work ; but on no account let the student 
become a slave to any such rule, as hand-paper may be 
used if it is found more convenient, as it sometimes is, 
to draw the centre or some other part first. Try always 
to draw so that what is drawn is complete, and. needing 
no return to it later to touch up, or tone down, or alter, 
as all retouching is apt to take away from the freshness 
of the work. In drawing the spray, keep the line light 
for the light edges, and use more pressure to accentuate 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 39 

the darker. Put in also the principal darks, and mark 
delicately the veining. When the sprig is complete 
and the form of the leaves and their setting on to the 
stem is well learnt, go a little farther from the tree and 
try a branch, proceeding in the same way as with the 
twig. In this study, the drawing being on a smaller 
scale and the artist further from his subject, less detail 
is possible ; nevertheless, put in all that is possible 
considering the scale. That which is left out has been 
learnt in the first study. The student knows what is 
there, though he cannot, perhaps, see it, and though 
he may not put in, he will find the knowledge a quite 
wonderful aid to keeping the character of the tree. It 
has been wisely said you cannot leave out correctly 
unless you know that which joii leave out. The third 
study, that of a group of branches, again reduces the 
scale and the amount of detail, and the same mode of 
procedure should be adopted. Finalh^, in the study of 
the whole tree, the knowledge and experience gained in 
the earlier ones will enable the student to grasp at once 
the character of the growth and of the foliage, but here 
the subject has fresh points to investigate, the massing 
of the foliage and the grouping of the masses. The 
knowledge of the shape of the leaf and its setting on to 
the twig gained in the first lesson, and that of the 
method of branching learnt in the two following, shoukl 
readily enable the student to grasp the arrangement of 
the masses of foliage and the shape of their edges. In 
addition to these studies, let the student make a careful 
shaded drawing of the trunk, striving after the texture 



40 TREES AND TKEE DRAWING 

of the bark, the shai)e of the fissures, if any, and the 
rounding of the soHd mass. 

The more trees treated in this progressive manner 
the better, and if done carefully and sincerely, the 
student will find that not only does he thereby store 
up knowledge of the construction and growth of the 
trees dealt with, but that he also accumulates a 
collection of studies that will be invaluable to him 
afterwards as documents for reference. 

For the drawing of the spray a fine point will be 
found advisable. The work need not therefore be light 
while it may be more delicate. For the next two 
drawings a fine point may also be used, and every effort 
should be made to copy all the forms that can be seen, 
even at some sacrifice of effect. In the earher stages of 
this work it will be necessa^ry for the student to remind 
himself that he is making these studies for the sake 
of accumulating facts — of storing up knowledge rather 
than making pictures. Later it will be found that these 
studies can be made artistic by the accentuation of 
certain details and the omission of others ; at first 
the student is counselled not to think of this, but to put 
down everything, even if the result bs little more than 
a diagram. It is necessary to learn grammar before 
attempting a poetic flight. After the facts have been 
realized, a selection of those facts may be made — but 
not before. 

The same earnest study is necessary for the draw- 
ing of the whole tree, but in that^ the foliage being 
reduced to so small a scale, it has become impossible 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 41 

to draw it leaf for leaf. It has therefore to be 
represented by some generalizing touches or strokes, 
and here arises the great danger of developing a 
mechanical style. 

The earlier masters of tree drawing were so wonder- 
fully dexterous that they often lost themselves in sheer 
dexterity. They invented " styles " and " foliage 
touches" ; one patent touch was to be used for one class 
of tree, another for another class, and they became so 
clever with these touches, and so enamoured of them, 
that the touch often became to them of more importance 
than the charactpr of the tree. And as the touch came 
to be of a set pattern so did the tree. If thev drew an 
Oak, it must be an old, partially decayed tree, not an 
Oak in its full glory and prime. The old Oak in their 
dra,wings was as frequent as the woman in a red cloak 
used to be in landscape painting. This slaver}^ to style 
and touch and set pattern must be avoided at any cost, 
and it will be if the student will concentrate his 
faculties on representing the texture of the tree before 
him accurately as he sees it. 

The actual shape of the leaf may be seen as it cuts 
against the sky on the margin of the tree, or where the 
edge of a light mass overlaps a dark one ; here, then, 
the touch must be of the form of the leaf itself as it was 
learnt in the earlier drawings. But the leaves seen are 
in varied positions and one set touch cannot represent 
full view and side view, bent and straight. A \'aried 
touch is therefore absolutely necessary if the character 
of the foliage is to be preserved — in fact, they must be 



42 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

drawn. It is the more important that these marginal 
leaves should be carefully drawn, as by them the leaves 
of generalized masses are suggested. That is to say, 
the spectator realizing the leaves of the margin, 
imagines those of the mass by suggestion. 

Where the leaves strike dark against light they may 
be drawn, but where they strike light against dark they 
must be shown by drawing the spaces between and 
around them. The student will do well to give this 
point his fullest consideration, for in tree drawing it is 
largely the drawing of spaces, and so letting the leaves 
find themselves. Here, again, it will be readily under- 
stood that the spaces will be of all shapes and sizes, even 
in one tree, and that no conventional touch can draw 
them all. 

Nevertheless, the leaves are impossible to nujnber, 
and therefore to draw. The foliage, instead of a 
number of units, becomes a mass, and it is only by 
suggestion that it is possible to indicate that the masses 
are really leaves. The spaces betAveen the masses in a 
well-covered tree are too many and too small to draw- 
one by one, so these, too, can only be suggested. This 
being the case, some generalized " surface description " * 
is absolutely necessary, and it was this fact that caused 
the invention of the foliage touches. As has been 
pointed out, these became so mannered that one 
pattern came to be accepted as one tree, and another 



* " Surface description," the registered phrase of the Royal Drawing 
Society, is used here as the most apt expression. 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 



43 



/ M / 



4' 




!5 
/ J > 






OAK LEAVES. 



f /# 




l^'igs. S ami n. 



•UIVKT LEAVES. 



44 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

as another tree, regardless of the real character of 
the tree portrayed, and ignoring all accidentals, a 
state of things that coidd not have existed but for 
the general profound ignorance of tree form. A 
generalizing " surface description," then, must be 
used, but it must he a'' surface description " made for each 
dr airing of each tree. 

In beginning a drawing of a tree, take a typical piece, 
copying as nearly as may be that which is seen, and it 
will be found that as from this piece the hand passes 
over the next it acquires a method of suggesting the 
forms by what, for want of a better word, may be 
called a kind of scribble. This " scribble " must be 
kept always intelligent, always a servant obedient to 
each fresh impression gathered by the eye. Never let it 
become a master, but subservient to the student's 
knowledge of construction, of the grouping of the 
leaves on the shoots, and the shape of the leaves 
themselves. With the attention concentrated on these 
forms, and on the forms of the masses, let the hand work 
as freely as possible, and it will be found that after a 
httle while the latter will instinctively folloAv the 
working of the mind. 

In commencing with a typical piece as suggested, 
the pencil should have a fine point, and as it wears 
down, the student will find that one stage is just 
suitable to the work in hand. To keep the point at 
this suitable thickness, let him slightly roll it in 
his fingers ; it will be found that by this means the 
])oint can be kept in the requisite state for a con- 



TKEES AND TREE DRAWING. 45 

siderable tiiuc. Directly, liowever, the point no 
longer responds in the same way, it should be cut, 
as naturally a thicker ])oint cannot continue the same 
strokes in the "surface description" that have been 
made by a hner one. 

In the case of large-leaved trees a finer ])oint is 
generally needed, as the larger leaves need more definite 
suggestion of their form, whereas the difference of one 
small-leaved tree from another lies more in the character 
of the grouping of the leaves than of the leaves them- 
selves. 

Light shows form and shadow hides it, but form is 
best seen in the half tones. The masses of light may 
often have to be left white, that is, without any 
markings upon it to indicate foliage. The dark masses 
may have to be flat shading without detail, but where 
the dark masses meet the light, and in all the parts in 
half tone, the foliage must be suggested. Care must, 
of course, be taken that the masses of light and dark 
be neither too large nor too empty, and it must always 
be borne in mind that the way in which flat surfaces, 
whether of light or dark, come to represent foliage is 
by the accuracy of their outlines, or, in other words, 
by the way in which the dark breaks into the edge 
of the light or the light into the edge of a dark mass. 

Here comes in again that important point made 
farther back — the spaces between the leaves are to he 
drawn rather than the leaves themselvef^ . On a grey day 
a tree will show much the same amount of detail all 
over, or, at least, the detail will be much more evenly 



40 THIOKS AND TREE J)HAWJNC3. 

distributed on the surface of the tree than is the case 
on a day of bright sunshine. The same evenness of 
detail may, however, be fomid on a sunny day on some 
of the Hght-fohaged trees, more especially if the sun 
be directly behind the artist. For instance, the Black 
Poplar will sometimes seem to hold the light in a 
wonderful way without a single dark of any depth. 
When this evenness of texture exists, care must be 
taken not to allow the drawing to become flat ; the 
darks and lights may be somewhat accentuated, and 
the main masses insisted on, while some of the detail 
within them may be omitted. 

When possible, a sunlight effect of broad masses of 
light and shade should be chosen, as the strong 
contrasts allow of bold treatment, and the variety 
caused by the light reflected from the variously turned 
upper sufaces of the leaves makes it possible to put 
more sparkle into the drawing. In the tree in sunshine 
the effect is there to be copied ; in a grey effect, it has to 
be created by sufficient exaggeration of light and dark, 
of detail and empty space. 

To return to our tj^^pical piece, drawn as an absolute 
likeness, it is done before the hand has found the 
method of description of the surface of the particular 
tree, and before the pencil -point has reached its state of 
best expression of that method ; therefore it is likely to 
be a little tight and hard, a little tentative, and lacking 
the certainty of the later work. For this reason it 
should be placed where it can most conveniently be 
lost in its surroundings, or it may be done on a separate 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 47 

piece of paper, provided it be of exactly the same kind. 
The unsympathetic quahty of this first piece is due not 
only to the searching for method and suitable pencil- 
point, but to the fact that the student had not then got 
into touch with his subject. 

Feeling enters largely into tree drawing, as into all 
other forms of art, and sometimes it will be possible to 
get the right methods at once, at others only after 
several attempts. On one day the tree grows rapidly and 
sympathetically under the hand, on another slowly and 
with a bitter struggle ; at one time mind and hand seize 
instinctively on all the essentials, at another all is 
labour and slow-paced progression. Sheer hard work 
and keen concentration are always necessary, but there 
are days when the harness fits easily and others when 
it galls, and therefore the stages of progress are sure 
to be unequal ; but the student need not feel discouraged, 
for b}^ perseverance the happy hours will soon far out- 
number the hours of struggle. 

In summer, in full-foliaged trees, the branches are 
sometimes quite unseen. When this is the case it is 
always worth while to walk under the tree and look up 
at the branching, provided, of course, that the tree per- 
mits of doing so. The grouping of the foliage masses 
will always be better understood if the angle at which 
the main branches spring from the stem, and how they 
divide and subdivide, be known, for it is always easier 
to draw what is understood than what is merely seen. 
In some trees short portions of the branches are seen in 
places through the screen of foliage, and it may be 



4S TUEKS AND TREE DILWVINC; 

thought that in siicli a vhhv it is not iicct'ssary 1(j Nlutly 
the growth of the w liolc })raii('li. I'his is a mistake ; the 
poitioiis seen are parts of a whole, and nuist be so drawn 
as to suggest that they join the other portions, or the 
stem, in a manner consistent with the natural growth of 
the tree. 

The limited size of this manual makes it impossible 
to give both the summer and Avinter aspect of the trees 
represented ; they have been drawn in their sunnner 
garb. The student is, however, strongly urged to study 
the naked trees for himself, that he may thoroughly 
understand their construction. He should proceed in 
the manner suggested for the foliage, drawing first a 
small twig life size, then a branch, then a portion of the 
tree, then the whole tree, and, in addition, a study of 
the stem. He will also find it of great use to draw a 
branch in several positions, from the side, from above 
and below, and foreshortened in a position directly 
pointing at him. He should study the angles of 
growth, the placing of the buds, and the texture of the 
bark. In drawing a branch, a fine line has to mark 
each side of it, and the utmost care and patience is 
needed in drawing the httle branches as they cross each 
other. When a light branch crosses in front of a dark 
one, its path has to be left clear ; the dark must not be 
allowed to break through its outline. When a dark one 
crosses a light one, it is a much simpler matter, as it 
may be simply drawn through. It must be always 
remembered that in pencil work all lights must be left, 
as they cannot be taken out afterwards. If a mistake is 



TREES AND TREE DRAWESTG. 49 

made, no attempt to remed}' it with the rubber should 
be made, but the whole passage should ))e taken out and 
re-drawn. When the branches are too small to allow 
of their being drawn with a double outline, and so have 
to be drawn bj^ one solid line, the stroke should always 
be commenced at the tip of the branch, letting the 
thickening of the pencil-point graduate the thickening 
of the branch. This thickening can be regulated to a 
nicety by the turning of the pencil in the fingers. 

The student must always bear in mind the limita- 
tions of his material and keep within them, and he 
must never forget that tree drawing demands keen 
concentration, j)atience, and hard work. 



50 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE TREES OF BRITAIN. 



It has been pointed out that though the Ust of native 
trees is but a small one, there are many introduced 
kinds that are more or less common in our scenery. 
There are also many others that are grown in our 
gardens, a knowledge of which is becoming more and 
more necessary, as the cult of garden painting increases. 
It is^palpably impossible in a small handbook to deal 
with all or even a large proportion of these. It must 
suffice to give some particulars of the more usually met 
Avith kinds, and a bare mention of a few others that are 
already a good deal planted, leaving out altogether 
numbers that are less common. 

The vegetable kingdom is divided into four sub- 
kingdoms by the botanists, in one of which, that of the 
flowering, seed-bearing plants, all our trees are included. 
This sub-kingdom is again divided into two divisions, 
that of the fruit-bearing plants, in which are found all 
our trees, except those that are popularly known as Firs; 
and that of the naked seed-bearing plants, in which are 
found these latter, including the Yew. Both these 
divisions are again subdivided into classes and orders 
and families. The botanical definition of these sub- 
divisions need not trouble the artist. It may be roughly 



TREES AND TEEE DRAWING. 51 

stated that some twenty odd families contain all our 
trees and shrubs of any size. 

Of the fruit-bearing families are the following : — 

1. The Lime family {Tiliacece) inchides three kinds 
of Lime, differing chiefly in the size of their leaves, two 
of which are possibty indigenous. 

2. The Holly [Aquifoliacece) is a native. 

3. The Spindle tree family (Celastraceoe) includes 
the Spindle tree, a shrub found in our hedges, and the 
evergreens Euonymus, so common in gardens. 

4. The Buckthorn family [Rhamnacece) includes our 
tw'O Buckthorns. 

5. The Maple family {Aceracece), which includes not 
only the Maple and Sycamore, but many cultivated 
trees and shrubs commonly planted in our gardens. 

6. The Horse Chestnut {Hippocastanacece), with white 
or pink flowers. 

7. The Pea family [Leguminosce), to which belong 
the Locust tree, the Laburnum, the Wistaria, and all 
the peas and vetches of meadow, hedgerow, and garden. 

8. The Rose family {Rosacece), to Avhich belong not 
only the Strawberry and many a lowl}- flower, but 
numerous small trees and shrubs common in our wood- 
lands that form essential items of many foregrounds. 
The Roses and Brambles and fruit trees, Spireas and" 
Laurel, the Hawthorn and the Rowan are all included. 

9. The Ivy {Araliacece), sometimes a bush but almost 
always a climber, figures largely in the hedgerow, and 
whose dark masses of foliage, high up in the bare trees, 
form a conspicuous feature in winter. 



52 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

10. The Dogwood family {Cornaceoi) includes many 
shrubs of our gardens, besides the couirnon hedgerow 
])ush of that name. 

11. The Honeysuckle family {Cayrijoliacece) nmst 
be noted, not only for the Honeysuckles, but for the 
Elder, the Wayfaring tree, and the (hielder Rose, all 
of Avhich are coinmon. 

12. The Heath family {Ericacece). Though the 
Heaths are too small shrubs for our present subject, 
the Arbutus, a member of this family, must be noted. 

13. The Olive family (Oleacece) embraces the Ash 
tree and the Manna Ash, as well as the Ijilac and the 
Privet. 

14. The Nettle family {Uiiicacece) includes the Fig 
and the Hop and the Nettles, but boasts also of the 
Elms. 

15. The Box {Buxacem), a native tree. 

10. The Plane (Platanacece), of three kinds. 

17. The Walnut {Juglandacece) has man}^ foreign 
cousins cultivated in gardens. 

18. The Mast-bearing family {Cupulifercp), the most 
important group of all, including, as it does, the Chest- 
nut, the Oak, the Beech, the Hornbeam, the Birch, the 
Alder, and the Hazel, with all their varieties. 

19. The Willow family [Salicacece), in which are 
included both the Poplars and the Willo^^'s. 

Of the naked seed -bearing families are :— 

1. The Pine family [Pinacece), in which are the 

natives the vScots Pine and the Junix^er, and the many 

foreign Conifers. 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 53 

2. The Yew {Taxacece), which has a family to itself. 
The Maidenhair tree {GingJcoacece) may also be 
referred to, as it is being more planted now, and is one 
of the most interesting trees grown. 

These families contain, then, the trees and shrubs a 
knowledge of which will be found most useful to the 
artist. .Some are, of course, of far greater importance 
than others, and of the most important it is proposed to 
deal with some detail. Departing from the order in 
which botanists place the plants under notice, and while 
recognizing that no arbitrary division of them can make 
them into groups that have no overlappmg peculiarities, 
it will be convenient here to take them in three 
classes : — 

Trees with conspicuous flowers, that is to say, trees 
that might be preferably painted in the 
fl()\\ering season ; 
Deciduous trees with inconspicuous flowers ; and 
Evergreens. 
It may be mentioned that the illustrations given are 
of trees chosen to illustrate their characteristics, and not 
either as perfect specimens of their kind, or as eminently 
picturesque examples. 

The KoiiSE C^hestxut {Msculus Hippocastanum). 

It was once said that the reason the Horse Chestnut 
has been so little painted is because it does not lend 
itself tf) the ordinary methods of the landscape painter 
but needs drawing, and it is (piite true that its stiff 



54 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 






#r#.^^^'"'^ 






.if' 















HORSR GHESTNT7T. 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 55 

upright spikes of flower must be very carefully indi- 
cated if the character of the tree is to be preserved, 
and its leaves are too large and too easily recognizable 
to permit of their being massed in the way smaller 
leaves may be treated. 

There seems some doubt as to when this tree was 
first grown in England, but it was probably introduced 
from Asia Mnor about 1550. It is rather a tree of the 
park than of the wilder woodlands, and is only planted 
for ornamental purposes, its timber and fruit being of 
little or no use. 

The stem grows fairly straight to a good height, 
diminishing noticeably where it throws out a large 
limb. The bark is smooth when young, becoming 
in age furrowed and somewhat scaly. It has sometimes 
young shoots starting from the base of the trunk. 

Although the branching of the final twigs is horizontal, 
the tree in winter has a rather clumsy appearance from 
the way in which the main branches, after first rising, 
dip considerably and then turn upwards. A noticeable 
feature in winter is the number of large buds which 
catch the light, being protected by balsam-coated scales. 

The leaf (see Fig. 5) consists of from three to nine 
leaflets, radiating from the end of the leaf stalk. The 
leaflets are broader towards the end. The largest is 
that in a line with the stalk ; the smallest are the two 
turned back towards the tree. The long leaf stalks 
thrust the leaves well out to the light, spreading them 
horizontally, though when young they droop, looking 
like a half-closed parasol. The leaves are arranged in 



56 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

pairs, forming four rows on the branch, those springing 
from the underside being generally largest. 

The flowers, which are many, branch from an upright 
stalk ; they are irregular, white with pink spots, and 
the inflorescence springs from the terminal bud of 
the branch. 

The fruit — the well-known " conker " of the school- 
boy — needs no description. The prickly globes may be 
seen, but can hardly be called conspicuous features of 
the tree. 

A good specimen will grow to a height of sixty feet, 
with an oval pyramidal mass of foliage and flower. 

There are several cultivated varieties, having red, 
purple, or double flowers. 

The example drawn shows how the branches will 
grow right down to the ground where there are no 
cattle. 

The Locust Tree and the Laburnum. 

The Locust tree, or False Acacia {Robinia Pseud- 
acacia), and the Laburnum {Laburnum vulgare) belong 
to a subdivision, Papilionacece, of the large family 
Leguminosoe, another subdivision of which includes the 
Judas tree, sometimes found in gardens, and yet another 
of which the Acacia and the Mimosa are members. 

The Locust tree was introduced early in the seven- 
teenth century, though it was much more freely 
planted about 1820. It is of a light, graceful growth, 
with long, slender branches, Jong, narrow compound 



TREES A:ND tree DRAWING. 57 

leaves, having sometimes as many as twelve pairs of 
opposite leaflets with .a final one, and pendant flowers 
resembling those of the Laburnum, but white. The 
seed -pods hang down from the twigs right through the 
winter, and, when plentiful, form a noticeable feature of 
the tree when bare of leaves. The stem, which in old 
trees has very rough and corrugated bark, has a great 
power of sending up shoots from its base. The tree 
attains sometimes the height of eighty feet. When old, 
the ends of the upper branches, especially near towns, 
are apt to project dead and leafless from the main mass 
of foliage. 

The Laburnum is a much smaller tree, and is seldom 
seen outside the park or garden, for though it seeds 
freely, and readily germinates, it is said that the young 
plants are in the open always eaten by rabbits, who are 
very fond of its bark. Its general height is from 
fifteen to thirty feet. The branches go upwards, but 
often bend and droop at their ends. Its growth is 
described as " fountain-like," because from the middle 
of the branches shoots go straight up to again bend down 
like a squirt of water. The leaf (see Fig. 5) is a com- 
pound one, having three leaflets radiating from the end 
of the leaf stalk. The flowers are pea-shaped, and 
grow in pendant clusters, many branching from a 
common flower stalk. The bark is smooth. 

The Wild Fruit Trees and the Hawthorn. 

The Rose family is a large one, and only a few of 
its members can be dealt with. Of the subdivisions, 



58 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

Prunae includes the Plums and Cherries ; Rubeae, the 
Brambles ; Roseae, the Roses ; Pyrus, the Pears, Rowan 
and Service trees ; and Crataegus, the Hawthorn. 

The commonest of the Prunae is the Sloe or Black- 
thorn {Prunus spinosa), a native wild plum, one of the 
best known features of our hedgerows, where in March 
numbers of white blossoms on the black barked twigs 
appear, notwithstanding frosts and cold winds. It is 
but a small tree, with a mass of small branches growing 
at a wide angle, and therefore crossing and re-crossing 
each other, and many spines. The leaves, which come 
out after the flowers, are simple, and the fruits, which 
cluster round the branches, are miniature dark plums, 
having a beautiful grey bloom. In Cornwall, where it 
is very plentiful, the stem and branches are often much 
covered with lichen. 

The BuUace [Prunus institia) has brown bark, 
straight branches, and fewer spines. The petals of the 
flowers are broader, and the plums are a good deal 
larger, and may be either black or yellow. This is 
also a native, and fairly common in some parts of the 
country. 

The Wild Plum [Prunus domestica) is the tree from 
which the orchard plums are derived. It is not so 
common, but is found in the hedgerows, where it may 
be known by its larger fruit and by being spineless. 

Of the Wild Cherries the Gean [Prunus avium) is 
the largest, growing to a height of nearly seventy feet, 
and when in the open becomes a fine tree, almost 
covered as it sometimes is with bunches of drooping 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 59 

white blossom. Its branches are mostly short and 
stout, with an upward tendency. It is a native tree. 
The stem has smooth bark, showing horizontal lenticels. 
When it gets old the bark at its base becomes thick and 
rugged, with longitudinal furrows, which, dividing up 
panels, as it were, of horizontally lined smooth bark, 
gives the tree stem a somewhat artificial appearance. 
The Wild Cherry is more subject to the disease known 
as ^vitches' brooms than any tree, except the Birch, 
which it also resembles in its lenticels and thin peeling 
bark. The leaves are simple and drooping, the flowers 
white with five rather papery petals, and have long 
stalks. The fruit is either black or red, and very 
glossy. 

The Bird Cherry {Prunus padus) is a smaller tree, 
also a native, which grows only to between ten and 
twenty feet. Its leaves are more elliptic, its flowers, 
which are much smaller, hang by their stalks from a 
common stalk, making the inflorescence a spike of 
flower, more especially when, as is sometimes the case, 
it stands erect. In the spring, when the leaves are 
still in their pale, vernal green, and the dark branches 
are hung with white blossoms, this tree has a very 
pretty and highly decorative appearance. There are 
other forms of Cherry cultivated, with pink and double 
flowers, and some that are mere bushes throwing up 
many suckers from their roots. The Garden evergreen 
Laurel and the Portugal Laurel are members of the 
Cherry group, while the Almond, which is so generally 
known, also belongs to the Prunus division. 



60 



TREES AND THEE DRAWING. 









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TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 61 

The most frequently met with member of the Pyru.s 
group is the (Vab Apple {Pyrus malus), the tree whose 
masses of pink blossom beautify our hedges iu the 
spring. It sometimes becomes a tree of thirty feet in 
height, with s])i-ea(ling branches that make the head so 
large that it is often wider than the tree is high. Its 
often crooked stem is covered with brown bark, and in 
winter the head is a tangled mass of twigs. Its flowers 
are pink, an inch in diameter, and its fruits are minia- 
ture apples. It is a native wild tree, though doubtless 
many in our hedges may be escapes from cultivation. 

The Wild Pear {Pyrus communis) is less connnon than 
the Crab, and is only to be found in the southern half 
of Britain. It grows to a height of from t^^^enty ta 
sixty feet, and is more pyramidal in form, having 
generalh^ a definite stem running up through it nearly 
to the top. The simple leaves are variable, as in the 
Wild Apple. The flowers are white, and the fruits are 
miniature pears. It grows well in groups on dry plains. 

The Rowan or Mountain Ash {Pyrus ancuparia) 
reaches a height of from ten to thirty feet. It is a 
native \vhose natural place is on the hillside, growing 
in vScotland at a height of 2,600 feet, but it seems to l)e 
very indifferent to place and soil. It has a straight stem, 
and smooth grey bark showing horizontal lenticels. Its 
branches have an upward tendency. Its com] x )u nd leaves 
have some six pairs of kniflets, with an odd terminal one. 
and its inflorescences are flat -topped bunches of tiny 
cream-coloured flowers, which open in May or June, and 
are followed by clusters of scarlet fruit. 



62 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

The example drawn shows the drooping nature of 
some of the branch ends, which under the weight of 
fruit in September will bend still more. 

The Service tree [Pyrus sorhus) is not a native, nor 
is it very common, but it grows well in Cornwall and 
Worcestershire. It resembles the Rowan a good deal, 
but has larger flowers and fruit, the latter being 
greenish-brown in colour, and its leaflets are broader. 

The White Beam {Pyrus aria) is indigenous, and 
is an erect, graceful tree that grows to a height of 
forty feet. The bark is smooth. The branches have 
a strong upward tendency. The leaves are broadly 
oval in shape, strongly ribbed, with a dusty appearance, 
and light cottony undersides. Its flowers are white 
in dense clusters, and its fruit is scarlet. It frequently 
varies in its form, sometimes having more the character 
of a bush. 

The wild Service tree {Pyrus torminalis) is another 
native, growing wild as far north as Lancashire. It 
differs from the others of the group by having deeply 
lobed leaves. 

The Medlar {Pyrus germanica) is a doubtful native, 
but it was culivated here before 1596, and grows wild 
in the hedges of south and central England. It is 
a much-branched tree, like so many of its relatives, and 
has spines. It grows to from ten to twenty feet high. 
It has large simple leaves and solitary white flowers. 
Its brown fruit is well-known. 

Almost all our cultivated fruit trees belong to the 
Prunus or Pyrus groups, and, of course, cultivation 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 



63 



alters their appearance to a large extent, almost always 
increasing the size of the fruit, and doing away ^^'ith 
the defensive spines of the wild tree. 












^^t^ 
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K 



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HAWTHORN. 



The third group that concerns us is the Crataegus, 
which is represented by the well-known indigenous 
Hawthorn {Cratcegus oxyacantha), whose masses of 



64 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

white scented blossom are so conspicuous a feature of 
our hedges and commons in May and June, and 
whose fruit is ruddy in autumn. Its rugged trunk 
and tangled mass of twigs and spine sometimes are 
allowed to become a tree of some thirty feet high, 
but is found broken or cut into all kinds of forms, and 
perhaps more often than any as a hedge plant. One 
peculiarity must be noted : the stipules, or little leaflets, 
that grow at the foot of the leaf stalk are large, are 
shaped like a leaf, and do not fall off as in so many other 
trees ; they are quite noticeable enough to be indicated 
in a drawing of any size. 

There are red and pink and double varieties culti- 
vated, and the Glastonbury Thorn has a peculiarl}" 
rugged growth. The drawing given is of a specimen 
having rather pendant branches, 

There are several other flowering trees and shrubs 
that remain to be mentioned. The Spindle tree 
{Euonymus europceus) will be drawn and painted more 
for its fruit than its flowers, for while the latter are 
small and of a greenish white, and so not conspicuous, 
the former are one of the autumn glories of the woodland 
and hedgerow. A w^ell-ladened Spindle tree is a thing 
of great beaut}^ : the purplish pink fruits gradually 
open into four divisions, showing within the brilliant 
orange berries, and make a colour note like nothing else, 
more especially when, as is often the case, the leaves 
have already fallen. The growth of the tree is also 
curious — branches, twigs, and leaves all grow in pairs. 
It is a native of Britain, but rarer in Scotland and 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 65 

Ireland than in England, and though it is often a 
mere hedgerow bush, will grow into a tree up to twenty 
feet high, with a straight stem covered with smooth 
grey bark, which after a few years becomes furrowed 
longitudinally. It is the only indigenous representative 
of its family, but its relative, the evergreen Euonymus 
{Euonymus japonica), is found in almost all town 
gardens, and in southern England is often trained 
right up the houses. 

The two Buckthorns lend themselves well to drawing, 
being of a quaint and decorative character. They are 
both natives, and are found in the hedges. The Alder 
Buckthorn {Rhamnus frangula) is hardly a thorn, for 
it has no spines. It is generally of bush-like habit, 
while the Common Buckthorn {Rhamnus catharticus) 
is armed, and is sometimes found as a tree twenty feet 
high. The shoots of both are straight ; the Common 
Buckthorn somewhat resembles the Blackthorn, but 
that the leaves are more bunched at the end of the 
twigs. In both the small greenish-white flowers grow 
in the axils of the leaves, and both they and the 
succeeding berries have a curious appearance from their 
position. 

One of the commonest shrubs in our hedges is the 
Dogwood {Cornus sanguinea), usually a bush. It will 
occasionally become a small tree of six to fifteen feet. 
Its straight shoots with opposite leaves topped with 
bunches of opaque white flowers in June, and with 
bluish-purple berries in September, make it a most 
useful plant to the artist. 

E 



66 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

The Elder {Sambucus nigra) is, perhaps, one of the 
best known of our trees, affecting as it does the way- 
side rather than the hedge. Its large flattened cymes of 
creamy scented blossom, its purple berries and its 
compound leaves are its principal features, but its 
grey corky bark should be noted. It is found all over 
England, seldom reaching higher than twenty to 
thirty feet. Its habit of growth is curious : it is a 
weej^ing tree, the branches, after reaching upwards, 
bend over and droop, and it sends up strong shoots 
from its base after the manner of a bush. 

Belonging to the same family are the two Viburnums 
— the Wayfaring tree {Viburnum lantana) and the 
(xuelder Rose {Viburnum opulus). 

The Wayfaring tree is a shrub with broad, simple 
leaves that have a whitish, dusty appearance, rounded 
head of white flowers and fruit, that first resemble 
coral beads and afterwards become like beads of jet. 
It is wild south of Yorkshire, and fairly common, 
being at its best on chalky ground. 

The Guelder Rose, though also found in the hedge- 
row, will grow in the copse. Its leaves are lobed 
and paired, and its fruit bunches of translucent red 
berries. The flowers are in rounded heads, like the 
Wayfaring tree, but have this peculiarity, that while 
the inner ones are small and insignificant, but fertile, 
the outer ring are large and sterile, being merely adver- 
tisements to attract the insects to the inner ones. This 
gives the inflorescence an appearance of being merely 
a ring. In the Ciuelder Rose, or Snowball tree of the 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 67 

garden, the inner fertile flowers have been cultivated 
out of existence, and the whole head consists of a globe 
of white, sterile flowers, so that it cannot bear fruit. 

The i\.rbutus, or Strawberry tree {Arhutus unedo), 
is indigenous in Ireland, and is a good deal planted 
in England. It seldom exceeds ten to twelve feet in 
height. Its twistsd stem, with its reddishj scaling bark, 
often assumes a beautiful bloom of waxy character. 
Its leaves, large and leathery, give the impression of 
forming rosettes. The flowers are pendant sprays of 
creamy coloured bells, and may be seen upon the tree 
at the same time as the crimson globular fruit, as this 
latter takes more than a year to ripen. 

There are three kinds of Lime tree {Tilia platyphyllos), 
of which two are possibly indigenous, while the third, 
which is the Common Lime, is believed to be an 
introduced tree. From an artist's point of view, the 
main difi:erences between them are in the size of the 
leaf. The small-leaved tree does not attain so great 
a size as the others ; the large-leaved kind has rougher 
bark, while the Common Lime, having leaves of 
intermediate size, is the beautiful tree of our parks, 
and also the much clipped and trained tree of our 
gardens. 

The bark of the stem (see Fig. 3) is rough and 
corrugated, and is often entirely hidden by a mass of 
shoots from its lower portion, which form large bosses 
on the trunk, as may be plainly seen when they are 
cut. Its branches are long and tapering, having a 
sharp upward tendency. Its foliage (see Fig. 5) 



68 



TKEEvS ANJ) TREE DRAWING. 












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LIME THEE. 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 69 

forms beautiful broken masses of pale green, not as 
stiff as the Sycamore, but less defined, more feathery, 
and holding more light. The flower, when at its best, 
gives a pale golden colour to the tree, but is not 
conspicuous. Its seeds, two or three little pea-like nuts 
at the end of a thin pendant stalk, which latter grows 
from a leaf -like bract, often hang on the tree late into 
the winter. 

The Lime grows best in good loam, and reaches a 
height of eighty to ninety feet, and lives to an age 
approaching five hundred years. The two trees drawn 
are fairly old, and show some signs of the wear of time, 
more especially the one on the right. 

There are many members of the Maple family 
grown in this country, the greater number being 
garden plants, of which the commonest are the Norway 
Maple, which has bunches of greenish-white flowers 
showing while the tree is yet bare of leaves, and the 
Box Elder, noticeable for its irregular compomid leaves, 
which are often variegated. But the two most grown 
trees of the family are the Common Maple and the 
Sycamore. 

The Common Maple {Acer cmnpestre) is a native 
tree, very commonly found as a bush in the hedgerow, 
but also as a tree of twenty -five to thirty-five feet. Its 
bark is scaly, and it is rough when j^oung, getting 
smoother afterwards. Its branches spread a good deal, 
and the twigs multiply greatly at a small distance from 
the outhne of the tree. The leaves (see Fig. 5) are 
simple, but deepl}^ iobed, with several blunt points. The 



70 



rUEES AND TJIEE DRAWING. 






'-^.^ ■ -rly ? ■■ 



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TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 71 

flowers are inconspicuous. The winged seeds in pairs are 
only noticeable enough for a decorative draughtsman. 
It is found as far north as Durham, and also in Ireland. 
The foliage forms rounded masses fairly strongly 
defined, as may be seen in the tree illustrated. 

The Sycamore {Acer pseudo-pla amis) is not a native 
tree, but was introduced in the fifoeenth century, so 
that it may be safely introduced into historical pictures, 
the incident of which dates back as far as the 
middle of the sixteenth century. Its stem is covered 
with grey bark, which flakes off in small patches, showing 
the fighter coloured bark beneath, but not to the extent 
a Plane does. The lobed five-pointed leaves are larger 
and darker in colour than those of the Maple. Its large 
pendant bunches of flowers are noticeable features, 
though green, and later its winged seeds are so also. 
The Sycamore grows to a height of sixty feet. Its 
branches leave the stem at an acute angle, but bend 
and twist a great deal, the lower ones often drooping 
somewhat. The foliage assumes rounded forms, the 
masses being strongly defined. Though in winter it is 
not one of our handsomest trees, in summer it is often 
very shapely and dignified. 

The Ash [Fraxinus excelsior), the " Queen of the 
Woods," is one of our most graceful native trees. It 
grows to the height of a hundred feet. Its stem is covered 
by a beautiful grey bark. Its branches, long and tapering 
as they are, are apt to be broken in line by short, sharp 
curves ; their final twigs are somewhat few and thick, 
and the buds are dead black. The leaves (see Fig. 5) 



72 



TREES AKD TREE DRAWING. 



■^M^'P^^-^:': 













W. 



^W. 




1< 



SYCAMORJi. 



TREES AKD TREE DRAWING. 



73 



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74 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

are compound, having four pairs of opposite leaflets and 
a final one, and the foliage generally has a light, feathery 
character ; the flowers are inconspicuous, but the 
bunches of keys or winged seeds are often quite a marked 
feature of the tree in late summer, a heavily laden tree 
sometimes losing all its foliage. The root system of the* 
Ash is deep and large, and it is therefore limited to 
deep soil. It favours the north and east sides of hills, 
and grows at an altitude of 1,350 feet in Yorkshire. 
Little will grow beneath its drip, and its fibrous roots, 
by draining the soil, will starve other trees growing near 
it. Its foliage comes late and goes early. The Ash 
of the copse and hedgerow throws up remarkably strong 
shoots from the stump, which are straighter and thicker 
than almost any other tree commonly found in such 
situations. 

The Ash has garden relatives in the Privet and the 
Lilac. 

The Nettle family claims as members of it two large 
trees, the Common Elm and the Wych Elm. 

The Common Elm {Ulmus campestris) has become 
known as the English Elm, and is almost typical of 
English xDastoral scenery, but it is not a native. It was 
introduced by the Romans, so has had time to get 
accUmatized, but even now, it seldom, if ever, produces 
fertile seeds. It makes up for this by its very great 
power of throwing up suckers. It will grow at a con- 
siderable altitude, but prefers valleys. It becomes 
often a tree of great size, sometimes reaching a height 
of one hundred and twenty feet. Its stem (see Fig. 2) 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 



75 






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76 TREES AMD TKEE DRAWING. 

is covered with rough bark. Its great branches ascend 
at a sharp angle, and the twigs multiply considerably 
at their outward extremity, making its winter outline 
fairly distinct. The leaves are small, rough, and simple, 
the foliage forming large solid clumps and masses. The 
flowers coming before the leaves give the tree a glow 
of crimson in the early spring, though individually 
they are quite small, and the flat seeds are incon- 
spicuous. 

The Wych Elm {Ulmus montana), notwithstanding 
its name, does not affect mountains more than the 
Common Elm. It is a native tree, growing to a height 
of one hundred and ten feet ; is generally broader in 
the crown, and has more spreading branches than its 
relative. It also differs from the latter in having larger' 
leaves and more pendant growth, which two character- 
istics are noticeably exaggerated in the cultivated 
Weeping Elm. The fohage masses are less solid, and 
in some trees very much smaller. 

Many Elms with " silver," " gold," and variegated 
foliage are cultivated in gardens. 

The Plane is pre-eminently the tree of towns. Its 
way of shedding its bark as the new bark forms 
beneath, and the easily Avashed leaves, enable it to 
bear the infliction of soot and dust better than any 
other tree. 

The London Plane {Platanus acerifolia) is a variety 
of the Oriental Plane, and is the commonest kind in 
this country ; though it has been known for 200 years, 
its origin is unrecorded. Its stem (see Fig. 4) is covered 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 



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WYCH ELM. 



78 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 






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TREES A^D TREE DRAWING. i\) 

with thin bark which flakes off freely. Its branches 
have a strong upward tendency. Its leaves are very 
large and are lobed. Its flowers are round spiked 
balls on a long pendant stalky and it fruits, which 
answer the same description, but that the balls are 
larger, form a very decorative feature of the tree in 
winter. 

The Oriental Plane itself has more subdivided and 
more sharply pointed lobes to its leaves, and but rarely 
bears more than one seed-ball on a stalk. The masses 
of foliage are much broken in appearance, and have a 
flashing character, due to the light being caught by the 
large flat leaves. 

The Occidental Plane is not very frequently met 
with. 

The Walnut [Juglans regia), the only representative 
of its family common in this countrj^, was probably 
introduced here in the middle of the fifteenth centur}-. 
Its stem is covered with bark of a cool gre}^ colour, its 
corrugations assuming a beautiful net-like character, 
though in old trees becoming very rugged. The 
branches shoot upwards from a soon divided stem, 
and are long and tapering, with many bends. The 
leaf is compound, with some four pairs of opposite 
leaflets and a final one, and is of considerable size. 
The flowers are inconspicuous, the male being in green 
catkins and the female a little bunch of two or three 
tiny flowers ; a plentiful crop of nuts is naturally a 
visible feature in September. The tree has a wide 
crown, the masses of whose foliage are of some\\'hat 
broken character. 



80 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

The great Mast-bearing family includes almost all 
of our great forest trees, and is consequently the most 
important of all groups to the painter of forest scenery, 
and to the tree draughtsman. It will be well here to 
reiterate the fact that a tree in dense forest is very 
different from the same tree in the open, for the reason 
that the semi-darkness ot the close-growing wood 
causes the trees to stretch upwards to the light and 
to lose all their lower branches — they become, in fact, 
high poles with leafy crests. In this work the tree 
is considered growing in the open, but it must be 
remembered that in forest they undergo the change 
indicated by cause of the changed conditions. 

The tree that has become almost a symbol of England, 
the tree whose timber, built into ships, was for centuries 
the country's main defence, and which was therefore 
the tree of greatest consequence, shall be taken first. 
The tree, the Oak {Querciis robur), enjoys a very wide 
area, of which the British Isles are but a portion. In 
its northern limits, or in bleak, exposed places, it is but 
a dwarf, but in favourable situations it becomes a giant, 
being one of the greatest and longest-lived of all the 
denizens of our woods. It grows to its greatest height 
in close forest, with a tall, straight baulk of timber, 
which in the open is replaced by a somewhat short, 
thick stem, from which spread at right angles its mighty 
limbs, often making its crown as wide as the height of 
the tree. 

The stem (see Fig. 4) is coated with thick, rough 
bark, and it spreads out at its base to its lateral roots, as 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 



81 



m0 










82 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

it spreads out above to its aerial branches. The root 
system is both deep and massive ; the enormous strength 
of its great descending lateral roots enable it to with- 
stand the strain of the gale on its vast head of foliage. 
Most trees compromise with weight and wind, by either 
sending their branches upward or letting them droop, 
but the Oak often seems to scorn all risk, and sends 
its branches out horizontally, regardless of strain. 
From the failure of the leading bud an Oak branch is 
often found to bend sharply off to right or left, making 
the "elbows" so much sought by shipbuilders: this 
is more especially noticeable in the hedgerow Oaks. 
The Oak leaf is simple, but deeply lobed. The foliage 
grows in tufts (see Fig. 6) rather than long sprays from 
the buds, being clustered closer together towards the 
end of the twig. The flowers are inconspicuous, little 
affecting the ai^pearance of the tree, though a heavy 
crop of male catkins when full out are quite a noticeable 
feature. When the tree is bearing a large quantity 
of acorns it has the appearance of being studded with 
little points of light, considerably altering its surface 
texture. The Oak will live in various soils an:l situa- 
tions, but grows best in deep sandy loam. There are 
three varieties of the Common Oak : the pcJunculate, 
which has stalks to its acorns, but not to its leaves ; 
the sessile which has stalks to its leaves, but not to its 
acorns ; and the intermediate " Durmast," which has 
short stalks to both leaves and acorns. The first is 
most usual in England, the second in Wales, and the 
third is onlv found in a few locahties. The fact of 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 



83 









fefc: V-. >^&-V 









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84 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

having stalks to the leaves makes the foliage more 
easily stirred by the wind, a feature to be noted by the 
painter. The pedunculate form is found more in the 
moister lowland soil, and loses its leaves before winter, 
whereas the sessile Oak grows higher on the hillsides, 
and will often keep its leaves, which are thicker, risht 
through to the following spring. 

The Oak develops a second crop of shoots in one 
season, so that it is not wrong to represent a tree with 
young leaves at midsummer, and in some cases where 
the tree has been stripped of its foliage by the larvae of 
certain moths, as sometimes happens, it will the same 
season put on an entirely new vesture of foliage, and 
have once more the appearance of spring. 

The Oak is more attacked bj'- insects than any other 
tree, and of these the gall insects affect its appearance 
in varying degree, as described in Chapter 11. 

Several other kinds of Oak are grown, the most 
important of which is the Turkey Oak, which has a 
spiny acorn cup and sharper points to the lobes of the 
leaf. Some varieties of Oak have foliage that takes a 
crimson hue late in the summer, and there is also a 
Scarlet Oak. 

There is, besides these, the Holm, or Holly Oak 
{Quercus ilex), an evergreen form that is fairly common. 
It has small, shiny, simple leaves of dark green, and 
little, long-shaped acorns, and from its short stem and 
large head has frequently the appearance of a vast bush. 
The Cork Oak is also an evergreen, but not much met 
with in this country. 



TRKES AN J) TREE DRAWING, 



85 






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TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 87 

The Beech {Fagits sylvatica) is, perhaps, the next most 
important tree of this group, it being native, very 
common in our landscape, and growing in most places 
where the Oak grows, though it has not (juite so wide 
an area. It is very commonly planted as a nurse tree 
for the Oak, but it is well known that if it be not cut 
in time, but is left to grow with the Oaks, the wood 
will soon become pure Beech. There are two reasons 
for this. Nothing will grow in the shade of the 
Beech, and the Beech roots being shallow and spread- 
ing, absorb all the moisture and food of the soil 
before it can sink to the deeper roots of the Oak. 
The stem of the Beech (see Fig. 3) is covered with 
smooth grey bark ; it spreads out towards its base 
to its shallow lateral roots (see Fig. 1), and in the 
open branches fairly low down. Its branches have 
an upward tendenc}^, though the ends of them may 
droop slightly, especially the lower branches, which, 
if there be no cattle or other animal to injure them, 
will lie upon the earth. The branches are long 
and thin, very thin for their length, and are round, 
having a snake-like appearance. The leaves (see Fig. 7) 
are simple, and grow along the twigs in feathery sprays 
rather than in tufts, Uke in the Oak. The flowers are 
inconspicuous, as are also the fruits ; the empty husks 
of these latter will, however, often be conspicuous when 
the leaves have fallen. 

The Beech is the typical shade -enduring tree. It 
grows upwards but slowly in its early years. It has 
thin bark of dark colour, and it casts a shadow so dense 



88 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 



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HORNBEAM. 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 89 

as to make it practically impossible for anything to 
live beneath it. 

The Purple Beech is a well-known garden variety 
that has foliage ranging from the colour of copper to 
that of claret. 

The illustrations are taken, one from some distance, 
the other from almost under the tree. 

The Hornbeam {Carpinus hetuhis) from some slight 
superficial resemblances is often popularly called Beech, 
but the artist will do well to note more carefully its 
pecuUarities. It is indigenous, and grows much where 
Beech will grow, as far north as North Wales, though 
not quite so far up the hillside, preferring low ground 
and rich loam, where it will reach a height of some 
seventy feet. The stem (see Fig. 2) is covered by a 
dark coloured thin bark like the Beech, but is varied by 
flashes of lighter, silvery colour, and the trunk itself is 
much more divided, especially where it spreads out to 
its lateral roots. Its leaves are much the same shape as 
the leaves of the Beech, but more ribbed and not so 
glossy ; they, too, are arranged on feathery twigs 
horizontally. The branches are long and thin, growing 
with an upward tendency, but with somewhat eccentric 
bends and quirks. The flowers are not conspicuous, 
though the males are in a fair-sized catkin, but the 
fruits are quite different to Beech-mast, and, indeed, 
unlike those of any other tree. They consist of bunches 
of single small nuts partly concealed each by three leaf- 
like bracts, and a fully laden tree, when the leaves are 
faUing, sometimes assumes a golden hue in the sunshine, 



90 TltKKS AND TKKIO DliAWINC. 

from the colour of these growths, which arc tikiji to the 
outer leafy covering of a filbert. The general appear- 
ance of the tree is a lighter version of that of the Beech ; 
its foliage in more or less horizontal strata like that 
tree, but without the outstanding sprays that break 
its outline, and generally in lighter and thinner 
layers. 

It will be as well here to refer to the Hazel {Corijlus 
avellana), which is a near relative of the Hornbeam. 
It is a native, generally a bush, though occasionally a 
tree of some thirty feet high. It has large simple 
leaves. Its bark is smooth and glossy brown, with 
horizontal lenticels. Its male flowers are in catkins, 
which are formed in the previous summer, remain 
closed till January, when they open and become what 
the children call " lambs' tails." They form a distinctly 
decorative feature of the leafless bush. The fruit, the 
well-known nut, is also, when plentiful, easily seen. 
The feature of the Hazel to be noted is its capacity for 
sending up strong straight shoots from its base. 

Another nut -bearing member of the same group is 
the Sweet Chestnut {Castanea sativa), a tree which will 
attain a height of ninety feet. It is not indigenous, 
but was introduced by the Romans, so it may be painted 
as a background for any episode of English history. 
Its stem (see Fig. 3) is covered with thick bark having 
deep fissures, which latter almost always twist round 
the tree in the manner of a screw. In the open it 
branches fairly low down, even sometimes drooping 
its terminal twigs on to the ground. The leaves are 



TREES AM) TREE DRAWING 91 

large, handsome, simple ones, strongly ribbed, and 
with sharpty toothed edges. The flowers are as nearly 
conspicuous as any forest tree of this country, for a 
plentiful crop of male catkins, when fully opened, not 
only give the tree a golden hue, but quite change its 
surface texture. The fruit also is quite noticeable 
when plentiful, being spinj^ balls that are in strong 
contrast with the surface of the large leaves. The tree 
grows best in the south of England, and in deep, porous 
loam. Its general aspect in winter is a little clumsy, 
from its large branches ending rather suddenly in small 
twigs, but in summer it is one of the most beautiful 
trees, its somewhat tufted foliage forming irregular 
and broken masses. 

The tree that is very generalh^ considered the most 
graceful of all belongs also to this group. The Birch 
{Betula alba) is a native tree, having a wide area, which 
includes the length and breadth of these islands. It 
will grow at a great altitude, endure great heat and 
cold, live on dry heaths or marshy moors, but it must 
have plenty, of light. The stem (see Fig. 2), which 
runs fairly straight to the top of the tree, is coated 
with thin peeling bark, with horizontal lenticels, and of 
a very lighi colour. Near the base, and in places 
higher up, are dark patches of thick corky bark, which 
spread as the tree gets older. The root system is weak 
and shallow, the leaves are simple, broad at the base 
and pointed at the end. The flowers are catkins, the male 
ones pendant, the female ones erect. The fruit, also in 
catkin form, remains hanging on the tree for months, 



92 



'REES AND TKEE Dl^AVVLNO 






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TREES AND TREE DRAWtNG. 93 

after its ripening in the late autumn. The whole 
appearance of the Birch is light and graceful, both in 
winter and summer. The drawing given is of a tree in 
the fullest of its summer foliage, when the leaves form 
pendant masses ; but perhaps when the leaves turn 
yellow, and are sparsely scattered on the brown hanging 
twigs, and the fruit catkins are seen amongst them, 
then is the tree's most exquisite period. 

The Birch has several varieties, the differences being 
mainly in the browner or whiter colour of the bark, of 
the angle of the leaves, whether held out horizontally or 
hanging down, and the course of the branches, whether 
running upwards as they start from the stem, or whether 
the ends droop, making it a " weeping " tree. 

This tree is often much infested with the disease 
known as " witches' brooms," more so, in fact, than 
any other of our trees, though it is common on the 
Wild Cherry and the Hornbeam. 

The Birch is the typical light-demanding tree. It 
grows upward with great rapidity in its early years. 
Its bai-k is light in colour, to throw off the heat of the 
sun, or where it is dark, is thick as a protection against 
it, and it casts but little shadow — in all these points 
differing strongly from the Beech and Hornbeam. 

Considering that this tree being a native, and 
therefore has always been with us, and that it grows 
practically everywhere, it is curious that it was so long 
ignored by our landscape painters, though it is not 
surprising that having once been represented it became 
highl}' popular. 



94 



TREES AM) TREE 1)RAW1>J(:! 






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BLACK POPLAR. 



TKEES AND TREE DRAWING. 95 

One more tree of this group remains to be mentioned, 
the Alder (Alnus ghitinosa), an indigenous tree common 
in lowlands as far north as Caithness. It likes the 
water-side, where it will grow to a height of from thirty 
to forty feet. Its stem is coated with rough, nearly 
black bark. Its leaves (see Fig. 5) are simple, oval, 
with the broader outer end slightly cleft and strongly 
ribbed. The flowers open in February or March, the 
male catkins having been formed during the preceding 
sunnner. The fruits resemble little cones. The main 
branches leave the stem at a wide angle and with crooked 
bends and curves, and the sudden ending of a thick 
branch in a number of thin twigs gives the tree a quaint 
appearance when stripped of its foliage, which is made 
still more striking by the hanging catkins and loose 
bunches of the little empty cones. 

Very different to the Mast -bearing family is that 
group that has for its members the Poplars and 
Willows, being as a class more lightly foliaged and 
smaller trees, of shorter life, more rapid growth, and 
softer wood. 

Of the Poplars, five are connnon in our woodlands, 
though not in our woods, and of the five, three are 
natives of this country. 

The Black Poplar {Populus nigra) is not indigenous, 
but has been known in the coiuitry for some centuries, 
though the date of its introduction is unrecorded. It 
is the largest of the Poplars, but rarely exceeds one hun- 
dred feet in height. It has a deeply descending root 
system, and also shnllow , hoiizontal roots that throw u[) 



96 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

suckers. Its stem is clad with thick bark, furrowed 
longitudinally, and has the power ot throwing out 
many shoots. Its branches are long and tapering, 
which throw off smaller branches and twigs at intervals, 
all having an upward tendency ; and its leaves (see 
Fig. 5) are simple, wide at the base, and tajoering to a 
rather elongated tip; they are joined to the twigs by 
long leaf stalks, flattened laterally, which allows them 
much freedom of movement from side to side. 

The flowers of the Black Poplar are unisexual, each 
sex being upon a different tree. In the early spring, 
before the leaves appear, the male tree opens its crimson 
catkins, and, if plentiful, they give the tree a striking 
appearance, and as they drop off, having done their 
work, they colour the ground beneath. In like manner, 
when the female catkins have developed into fruit and 
ripened, in May or June, they open and scatter white 
downy seeds till all the ground beneath the tree is 
covered as with snow. 

Being of rapid growth, having rough bark, and 
casting little shadow, it has the characteristics of a 
light-loving tree. Its general appearance, especially in 
sunshine, is light and sparkling. The large leaves, 
waving in the slightest breeze, reflect each its ray of 
light like a moving mirror, and, as may be seen in the 
illustration, it has no dense shadows by way of contrast, 
its very darks quivering with reflected light. 

A variety of the Black Poplar is the Lombardy 
Poplar {Popidus fastigiata), its rough-barked stem being 
almost hidden by its branches, which grow up parallel 



TREES AXD TREE DRAWING 



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^•^..■v^?i\J4v>*^^^i^1^^?^^■ 




LOMBARDV POPLAR. 



08 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

to the main stem, having the most vertical branching of 
all deciduous trees. It was introduced into England in 
1758, and it grows to a height of from one hundred to 
one hundred and fifty feet, preferring moist situations. 
As the trees introduced were apparently all males, it 
never produces fruit here. 

The Aspen {Populus tremula) is a native tree. Its 
root system is shallow and spreading. Its stem is coated 
with smooth bark, which only becomes rough in its full- 
grown state. It will grow to. a height of eighty feet, 
preferring moist, light soil, and be found as far north as 
Orkney. The leaves are smaller and rounder than 
those of the Elack Poplar ; they are on long stalks, but 
in place of the waving of the latter in a breeze, the 
movement is slighter, giving almost the appearance of 
shivering. Both the male and female catkins have 
a reddish appearance, but are smaller, and the female 
ones scatter their cottony seeds in less profusion than 
the Black Poplar, The general appearance of the tree 
is light and graceful in winter, while in summer the 
twigs seem to be bending under the foliage as if the 
masses were too heavy for them. 

The White Poplar or Abele {Populus alba) differs 
very much from the foregoing in its bark, which is 
smooth and light in colour, and has horizontal lenticels, 
till it becomes rough in later life. It also varies very 
much in the leaf from the other Poplars, having leaves 
generally (though not always) lobed, and with white 
undersides, that change the light effect of the tree with 
every breeze. Its male catkins are large and of a 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 99 

purple colour, while the female ones show yellow stigmas. 
Its fruits are cottony seeds. The Abele grows very 
rapidly, reaching in favourable soil the height of one 
hundred feet in forty years. Its branches grow strongly 
upwards till they curve towards their ends. The masses 
of foUage are broken and full of light. 

The Grey Poplar [Popuhts canescens) is indigenous, 
but is believed to be a hybrid of the Aspen and the 
Abele. Its stem (see Fig. 4) resembles that of the latter, 
as do its leaves, though their undersides are greyer. 
It is beheved to grow wild only in the south-east of 
England. 

There are other Poplars occasionally met with, of 
which may be mentioned the Black ItaHan Poplar, 
which has the most rapid growth of all Poplars, and the 
Balsam Poplar, which is slender and has egg-shaped 
leaves. 

Of Willows there are many, but for the artist the 
differences between them, that are often so slight as to 
puzzle botanists, need not greatly trouble him. For 
his purpose there are three main kinds, the Willows 
that grow upwards, the Weeping Willows, and the 
broader-leaved WiUows. Like the Poplars, the Willows 
are dioecious, having each sex on a different tree. They 
are light-demanding trees, of rapid gro^\i;h, and they 
generally favour the waterside or moist places. They 
all have simple leaves, flowers in catkins, and fluffy 
seeds. 

Of the upright Willows the Crack Willow {Salix 
fragilis) attains the greatest size, as it will sometimes 



100 



TREES AND THEE DRAWING. 



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TREES AND TREE DRA^YING. 101 

reach a height of neady ninety feet. It is usualty a 
tree of about forty feet, having a stem coated with 
rough furrowed bark, branches ha\dng an upward 
tendency, and ending in long yellow shoots. The 
leaves (see Fig. 5) are long and narrow, like a lance 
head, and the flowers open when the tree is in leaf, 
and are therefore not so conspicuous as they are in the 
Poplar. It. is, as its name implies, verj^ brittle, and is 
therefore not grown so much for basket-making as some 
other kinds, or, in other words, the artist will not so 
often find it in the pollarded form. 

The White Willow {Salix alba) differs in having 
white undersides to its leaves, causing it to change 
in colour and tone in the breeze. Its twigs are more 
olive in colour. 

The Weeping Willow {Salix babylonica) is a familiar 
tree of comparatively recent introduction. It much 
resembles the foregoing trees, except for the bending of 
the branches, and the pendant position of the long final 
shoots and the leaves. The Weeping Willow has often 
a much heavier look than the others ; it has apparently 
denser foliage, which frequently entirely hides the 
branches ; but some, as in the tree drawn, are divided 
more into clumps, between which are hollows, in which 
may be seen the form of its limbs. 

The Sallow or Goat Willow {Salix caprea) will grow 
into a tree of some thirty feet in height, but is more 
often met with in the form of a bush. It differs 
considerably from the other Willows in having oval 
leaves of roughish texture, in flowering before the 



102 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 



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WEEPING WILLOW. 



TREES AND TEEE DRAWING. 103 

leaves open, and in the absence of those long shoots 
that are used by basket makers. The Sallow is more 
often found in the copse and even dry hedgerows than 
the narrow-leaved kinds, its flowers being quite a feature 
in some of our hedges, and it is much gathered about 
Palm Sunday by people who call it palm. The male 
catkin is golden with pollen-cOvered anthers when 
full out, the female is more slender and silvery. 

The Larch {Larix europcea) belongs to the great Cone- 
bearing group, but is the only one of that group 
commonly met with in this countr}^ that is not ever- 
green. It is sometimes the embodiment of grace and 
elegance, while at others it is an example of the rugged 
and battered picturesque. Its stem is straight and 
continuous to its top, a true stem like all the Conifers ; 
it is coated with thick dark grey and reddish bark, 
which is deeply fissured. Its root system is mainly 
lateral, causing the stem to splay at its base and en- 
abling the tree to live on rocky ground by its power 
of sending down root branches at some distance from 
the tree itself, and its branches leave the tree at an 
obtuse angle. It is the tree with the most downward 
growing branches of any of our trees. Its leaves are 
" needles " growing in tufts. The male flower is yellow 
and the female purplish. They are placed on the 
downward -growing final twigs. The fruits are small 
cones, which, although growing on the twigs that hang 
straight down, always point upwards. The tree is not 
a native of England, but was introduced before 1628. 
The winters of this country are not long or severe 



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TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 






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LARCH 



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TEEES AND TREE DRAWING . 105 

enough to make its timber of the best quahty, so it is 
not so generally planted here as it might otherwise have 
been. It will, however, sometimes pass the height of one 
hundred feet, and, though a mountain tree, it grows on 
various soils and situations, provided always that it has 
plenty of light. It has all the character of a hght- 
loving tree — thick bark, rapid growth when young, and 
thin foliage that casts but little shadow. 

The general appearance of the Larch in winter is highly 
decorative, with its upright stem and downward tending 
branches, which, rising again towards their outer ends, 
are hung with long pendant twigs, studded with tiny 
cones ; but it is in the early spring that it becomes the 
wonder of the woodlands, when it covers itself with a 
miraculous green mist of needles, a green so vivid as to 
have nothing that approaches it on the palette, but that 
can only be suggested by juxtaposition of other tints. 
It is much attacked by disease, and often loses branches 
and becomes more or less dilapidated, as may be seen 
in the accompanying drawing, but it is always 
picturesque, even when showing many scars. 

The great Cone-bearing family, with the exception 
of. the Larch, and some foreign trees rarely met with, 
are all evergreens. There are many of them grown in 
this country, but few natives ; indeed, there are but 
two — the Scots Pine and the Juniper. 

The Scots Pine {Pinus sylvestris) grows occasionally 
to one hundred and fifty feet, but usually does not 
quite reach one hundred feet. It has a wide area, and 
will grow at a great altitude, but in the extremes 



106 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 






# 











SCOTS PINE. 



. TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 107 

becomes but a dwarf. Its stem is clothed mth a 
reddish bark, which peels off in flakes, more especially 
on the upper portions of the branchless stem. Its 
root system consists of a deep descending main root, 
that branches laterally, so that it can live on sandy 
soil. The branches have an upward tendency and grow 
regularly, but in the trees usually met with the branch- 
ing has lost its regularity, for the Scots Pine has manj^ 
foes and but small power of repairing injury or replacing 
lost limbs and buds. The leaves are " needles," from 
one to two inches in length, arranged in pairs. The 
flowers are unisexual, the male being yellow and 
quite small ; the female, which are also small, develop 
into pendant cones, generally in clusters of two or 
three. 

The general appearance of the tree is rugged and 
strong, a straight stem crested with twisted branches 
and dark green masses of foliage, which take a grey 
tint as the light plays upon them. When the tree is 
in flower the yellow pollen from the male blossoms ialls 
to the ground in large quantities, collecting in hollows, 
and noticeable to such an extent as to bring forth the 
letters which sometimes appear in the papers relating 
to showers of sulphur. 

The other Conifers growing in England must be 
dealt with briefly. They resemble the Scots Pine and the 
Larch in their sinall power of repairing injury, but 
having perhaps fewer enemies, and being planted where 
there are fewer adverse circumstances, the specimens 
generally seen are more perfect in their growth and 



108 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

more formal in their ap])earance, and they are, perhaps 
for these reasons, less favoured by the landscape painter. 
They differ from the foregoing Conifers in the length 
and grouping of their needles, the size and position of 
their cones, and the angle of branching. 

The Silver Fir [Abies pectinata) has all its evergreen 
needles solitary, arranged spirally on the twigs, not in 
tufts. It is a large tree, rarely reaching a height of 
two hundred feet, and in the open its branches will 
remain intact almost to the ground. The Spruce 
{Picea excelsa) shares with the Silver Fir the arrange- 
ment of its needles, but its branches have a more 
upward tendency. Though its remains are found bj- 
geologists in the upper beds of the tertiary formation, it 
apj)arently must have died out in this country, for it 
was re-introduced, about the fourteenth century. Its 
form when young is well known, owing to the number 
of young trees sold for Christmas trees. It preserves its 
pyramidal form for very many years in the open. The 
cones of the Spruce are pendant, but those of the Silver 
Fir are erect. The Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga douglasii), 
another great tree, reaching in its American home a 
height of three hundred feet, also has its needles 
solitary and spirally arranged, whereas the Corsican 
Pine [Pinus laricio), whose needles are some three or 
four inches long, has them arranged in pairs, as has 
also the Cluster Pine {Pinus pinaster). The Weymouth 
Pine {Pinus strobus) also has long needles, but in 
bunches of five, and the short needles of the Cedars are 
in tufts of many. These varieties give different textures 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 109 

to the trees.' Of their form the Chister Pine is, perhaps, 
generally the most irregular, the others being of formal 
build, with a straight stem and more or less regular 
rings of branches. 

The Cedars, of which three are fairly common, 
have distinctive form. The Cedar of Lebanon 
[Cedrus lihani) is a flat-topped tree, with wide- 
spreading horizontal branches ; the Deodar, or Hima- 
layan Cedar {Cedrus deodar a), has branches with 
a downward tendency, and often the final shoots 
pendant ; and the Atlantic Cedar {Cedrus atlantica) 
has branches that have a sharp upward tendenc3\ 
The cones of all three are erect and somewhat flat- 
topped. 

The Jumper {Juniperus communis), our second native 
Conifer, is a shrub, occasionally a tree of twenty to 
thirt}' feet in height, and in many places has many 
shapes. It has reddish bark, narrow evergreen leaves, 
arranged on the branches in whorls of three ; male and 
female blossoms usually on separate individuals, both 
tiny, and its fruits are little purple " berries." 

Of our British Evergreens none is better known or a 
greater favourite than the Holly, with its glossy leaves 
and coral berries. The Holly {Ilex aqui folium) is 
found all through these islands. It reaches a height of 
from forty to fifty feet in favourable positions. Its stem 
is coated with smooth grey bark. Its branches have a 
slight upward tendency , and its leaves are glossy, thick, 
simple, and wav}^ On the lower part of the tree the 
hard border of the leaf develops into spines, but above 



110 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

the reach of cattle, where this protection is' not needed, 
the leaf is a simple oval, without spines. The flowers of 
the Holly are small and white, but they are often so 
numerously clustered round the twigs as to be quite the 
feature of the tree. The fruits are the well-known 
berries, generally scarlet, though sometimes yellow. 
As may be judged from its bark and from the strong 
shadow it casts, it will endure a good deal of shade, and 
may be painted in a wood, 

Another well-known evergreen is the Box {Buxiis 
semper vir ens) ; but it is known more as it is seen in 
gardens clipped into hedges and fantastical forms than 
as a small tree. It only grows wild in some few 
southern counties, and is seen at its best on Box Hill 
in Surrey. It seldom reaches more than twelve to 
eighteen feet in height. Its stem is covered with thin 
yellowish bark. The branches have an upward tendency, 
but at various angles. It is thickly branched, and the 
final twigs are often pendant. The leaves are small, 
oval, and leathery, and the flower and fruit small and 
inconspicuous. 

A word may be said here of the Ivy {Hedera helix), 
the common climber, though its many forms cannot be 
enumerated. Its stem, which will grow to the great 
thickness of over ten inches in diameter, is coated with 
a bark that seems to possess in some degree the power 
of assuming the appearance of that of the tree it climbs 
upon. When slender, the stem throws out rows of 
rootlets, by which it fixes itself to its support, but as it 
gets stouter it no longer clings. Its leaves are deeply 



TREES AND TREE DRAWING. Ill 

lobed where it is growing against wall or tree, but 
above, on its free branches, they are of a simply pointed 
oval. Its flowers, which are balls of green blossoms, 
open in October. Its fruits are black berries of a 
curious urn shape. It is a very conspicuous object on 
a naked tree in winter, its masses of dark glossy f ohage 
telhng strongty against the sky 

The Yew (Taxus baccata) is associated with church- 
yards, and owing to the poisonous character of its 
leaves is seldom allowed to grow in fields where cattle 
may be. It is found fairly plentifully in woods, and is 
much growii in gardens for hedges and ornament. Its 
stem, which is often much increased in size by shoots 
from its base which have in course of time fused with it, 
is covered with thin reddish flaking bark. Its branches, 
though starting from the trunk with an upward 
tendency, grow at many angles, and its leaves are Uke 
fir needles broadened and flattened. The male and 
female flowers are upon different individuals ; the males, 
thoughinconspicuous little globes, are sometimes notice- 
able because of their number, and when ripe they 
burst and scatter their pollen in great quantity, making 
the ground beneath golden. The female tree has still 
smaller flowers, but in October may be studded all 
over with its dainty jewel -like berries of pink or 
orange. 

The drawing used for a frontispiece represents the 
Yew in Selborne Churchyard, of which Gilbert White 
wrote some 150 years ago. It is a male tree, and 
though reckoned to be 1,300 years old, is still 



112 TREES AND TREE DRAWING. 

full of vitality and flowers plentifully. It measures 
25 feet 9 inches round the stem at three feet from the 
ground. 

The Irish Yew, a native of Ireland but much planted 
in England, resembles the Common Yew except in the 
upward growth of the branches, which are practically 
perpendicular. 




By Appointment to 




M.n. The King. 



GEORGE ROWNEY & CO., LTD, 
PENCIL MAKERS & ARTISTS* COLOURMEN. 

Artists' Depot and Head Office : 
ID AND II, PERCY STREET, LONDON, W.i. 

PRIZE MEDALS AWARDED:— 

Exhibition of all Nations, 1851, Prize Medal. 

Paris Universal Exhibition, 1855, Two Prize Medals. 

International Exhibition, 1862, Two Prize Medals. 

Dublin International Exhibition, 1865, Prize Medal. 

Paris Universal Exhibition, 18.67, Two Silver Medals. 

Lyons Universal Exhibition, 1872, Two Silver Medals. 

Philadelphia International Exhibition, 1876, Prize Medal 

Paris Universal Exhibition, 1878, Prize Medal. 

Paris Universal Exhibition, 1889, Silver Medal. 

Paris Exhibition, 1900, Gold Medal. 

Franco-British Exhibition, 1908, Diploma of Honour and Gold 

Medal. 
Japan-British Exhibition, 1910, Gold Medal. 
Turin Exhibition, 191 i. Two Diplomas of Honour. 




THE PRICES IN THIS CATALOGUE ARE THOSE CURRENT 
ON MARCH 1ST, 1928. 

These prices are subject to alteration without notice, and orders 
can only be accepted at the rates current at the time of dispatch. 



GEORGE ROWNEY & CO/S 
ARTISTS' WATER COLOURS 




Whole Tube. 


Half Tube^ 

SERIES A 


Half Pan. 


Antwerp Blue 


Gamboge 


Permanent Blue 


Bistre 


Hooker's Green, i 


Prussian Blue 


Blue Black 


Hooker's Green, 2 


Prussian Green 


Brown Ochre 


Indian Red 


Purple 


Brown Pink 


Itahan Ochre 


Raw Sienna 


Burnt Sienna 


Itahan Pink 


Raw Umber 


Burnt Umber 


Ivory Black 


Red Lead 


Charcoal Grey 


Lamp Black 


Roman Ochre 


Chinese White 


Light Red 


Sap Green 


Chrome i, Lemon 


Magenta 


Terra Vert 


Chrome 2, Yellow 


Mauve 


Trans. Gold Ochre 


Chrome 3, Orange 


Naples Yellow 


Transparent Umber 


Chrome 4, ,, Deep 


Neutral Tmt 


Vandyke Brown 


Cologne Earth 


New Blue 


Venetian Red 


Dragon's Blood 


Olive Green 


Yellow Lake 


Emerald Green 


Payne's Grey 


Yellow Ochre 


Flake White 


Peach Black 


Zinc Yellow 


French Ultramarine 






Whole Tubes, 


gd. each. Half Tubes, 6d. each. 


Whole Pans, 


Qd. „ Half Pans, 6d. „ 



*Chinese White, whole Tubes, 6d, each. Half Tubes, 4d. each. 



GEORGE ROWNEY & CO.'S 
ARTISTS' WATER COLOURS (continued). 



SERIES B. 



Alizarin Green 
Alizarin Yellow 
Azo Yellow 
Black Lead 
Brown Madder 
Chinese Orange 
Crimson Alizarin 
Crimson Lake 
Cyanine Blue 
Geranium Lake 
Indian Lake 
Indigo 



Whole Tubes, 
Half 



IS. 3d. each. 
OS. 8d. „ 



Lapis Grey 
Mars Yellow 
Neutral Orange 
Orange Vermilion 
Purple Lake 
Scarlet Alizarin 
Scarlet Lake 
Scarlet Vermilion 
Sepia 
Vermihon 
Violet AUzarin 
Warm Sepia 

Whole Pans, is. 3d. each. 
Half „ os. 8d. „ 



SERIES C. 



Azure Cobalt 
Cadmium, Pale 
Cadmium, Yellow 
Cadmium, Orange 
Cadmium, Orange Deep 
Cadmium, Red 
Cobalt Blue 
Cobalt Green, light 
Cobalt Green, dark 

Whole Tubes, is. 8d. each. 
Half „ os. lod. „ 



Cobalt Violet- 

Cceruleum 

Indian Yellow 

Lemon Yellow 

Mars Orange 

Opaque Oxide of Chromium 

Trans. Oxide Chrom. 

Violet Carmine 

Viridian, or Veronese Green 

Whole Pans, is. 8d. each 
Half ,, os. lod. „ 



SERIES D. 



Aureolin 

Burnt Carmine 

Carmine 

Deep Madder 

Extract Madder Carmine 

Whole Tubes, 2s. 6d. each. 
Half ,, is. 3d „ 



Gallstone 
Madder Lake 
Purple Madder 
Rose Dor6 
Rose Madder 

Whole Pans, 2s. 6d. each. 
Half „ is. 3d. ,, 



Ultra Ash 

Whole Tubes, 
Half 



SERIES 



gd. each, 
od. „ 



E. 

Smalt 

Whole 
Half 



Pans, 



3s. gd. each, 
2s. od. .. 



GEORGE ROWNEY & Co/s 
ARTISTS' OIL COLOURS. 



{All these Colours are guaranteed of the finest quality and ground 
extra-fine). 

NET PROFESSIONAL PRICES. 

EXPLANATION OF SIZES OF TUBES. 

No. 2 Tube signifies a tube 2 inches long. 
„ 3 Tube signifies a tube 3 inches long. 
„ 4 Tube, containing twice the quantity of No. 2. 
„ 8 Tube, " Double " or " Small Studio," containing four times the 

quantity of No. 2. 
„ 12 Tube, or " Large Studio," containing six times the quantity of 

No. 2. 
See illustrations page 7. size of tubes. 



Name of Colour. 


No. 2 


No. 3 


No. 4 


No. 8 No. 12. 






1 




Small Studio ot 










Studio or 


Treble 


SERIES A. • 








Double 










u. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


Bitumen 












Brown Ochre 








, 








Burnt Sienna 








, 








Burnt Umber 








^ 








Cologne Earth . . 
















Flake White 
















Indian Red 
















Itahan Ochre 








1 








Ivory Black 








1 








Lamp Black 
















Light Red 
















McGuilp 










5 


10 


I 2 


Raw Sienna, No. i Light. 
















„ „ No. 2 Dark. 
















Raw Umber 
















Roman Ochre . . 
















Silver White 
















Sug.ar of Lead . . 
















Vandyke Brown 
















Venetian Red 
















Verona Brown . . 
















Yellow Ochre . . 
















Zinc White 












' 





No. 24. Flake White or Zinc White,Tubes 5 in. x i^'^in. (nominal | lb.) 2/- 
.» 48 „ „ „ „ ,, s^in.xi^in. ( „ I lb.) 4/- 

Foundation White No. 8, 7d., No. 12, gd., No. 24, 1/4. 



GEORGE ROWNEY & Co.'s 
ARTISTS' OIL COLOURS. 



Continued. 






SIZE OF TUBES. 




Name of Colour. 


No. 2 


No. 3 No. 4 


No. 8 


i No. 12 


SERIES B. 


s. d. 


s. d. 




Small 


j Studio or 


Antwerp Blue . . 






\ 




Studio or 
Double 


1 Treble 


Black Lead 










s. d. 


5. d. 


Blue Black 














Brown Pink 














Cappagh Brown . . 














Chrome Green, No. i . . 
„ 2 .. 














„ 3 •• 
Chrome Lemon, No. i 














,, Yellow, „ 2 














Orange, „ 3 






5 


, . 


I I 


I 6 


Deep, „ 4 














French Naples Yellow 














Naples Yellow, No. i . . 

„ 2 














„ 3 
Neutral Tint 














Payne's Grey 














Prussian Blue . . 














Terra Vert 














Transparent Gold Ochre 














Transparent Umber 




. 


/ 








Zinc Yellow 




1 










SERIES C. 


\ 










Cinnabar Green, No. i 
M 2 

„ 3 




















Crimson Lake . . 












Emerald Green . . 












French Ultramarine 












Gamboge 












Hooker's Green, No. i 












„ 2 
Indigo 


/ ° 5 






I 6 


2 3 


Italian Pink 










Magenta 












Mauve 












Olive Green 












OHve Lake 












Permanent Blue 


i 










Purple Lake 


1 










Sap Green 




i 








Scarlet Lake 




1 








Yellow Lake 












SERIES D. 


• 










Alizarin Green . . 












Ahzarin Yellow . ., 


•0 6 


1 




I q 


2 6 


Azo Yellow 








7 




Crimson Ahzarin ..| 




i 


1 









GEORGE ROWNEY & Co.'s 
ARTISTS' OIL COLOURS. 



Continued. 




SIZE 


OF TUBES. 




Name of Colour, i 


No. 2 No. 3 


No. 4 ! 


No. 8 No. 12 




' 


Small 


Studio 


1 




Studio or 


or 


SERIES D— (continued). ^ ^ 






Double 


Tieble 


Geranium Lake . . | 


I.7* ■%»• 




I 


s. d. 


s. d. 


Indian Lake 












Lapis Grey 






j 






Madder Brown . . 


6 








2 6 


Rubens Madder 






I 9 


Scarlet Alizarin 












Sepia 


t 










Violet Alizarin . . 


1 










SERIES E. , 












Azure Cobalt 












Chinese Orange . . 












Cobalt 












Cobalt Green, Light 












„ Dark .. 












Cobalt Violet . . 












Deep Madder 












Indian Yellow . . 












Lemon Yellow . . 












Madder Lake 












Malachite 


II 


.. 




3 


4 6 


Mars Orange . . . . ! 












Opaque Oxide Chromium 












Purple Madder . . 












Rose Dor6 












Rose Madder 












Transparent Oxide of 












Chromium 












Viridian 












Chinese Vermiliun 












Orange Vermihon 












Scarlet Vermihon 












Vermihon 


/ 










SERIES F. 












Aureohn 












Cadmium, Pale 


\ 










Yellow 












Orange 












Deep 












Red 


r ^ 


, , 


, , 


3 9 


5 6 


Carmine 










Coeruleum 












Extract of Madder j 












Carmine .'. ' 












Violet Carmine . . 


, 










SERIES G, 












Ultra Ash . . . . 20 


.. 


.. 


•• 



GEORGE ROWNEY & CO.'S 
ARTISTS' OIL COLOURS. 



Illustrations of the sizes of the Tubes. 

See Prices, pages 4, 5 and 6, 




No. 3 



No. 4 



No. 8 

7 



No. 12 



r'''™i"''5^^'^'T^'^Tr 



IMNDAHAR 

PENCIL 



Made in alt Degrees for all Purposes. 
From 6B to 6H. 

A PENCIL OF UNIFORM EXCELLENCE. 

No. 750. 

"KANDAHAR" Pencils are Smooth, durable 
and a pleasure to use. One " Kandahar " 
Pencil will outlast a dozen ordinary pencils. 

" KANDAHAR" PENCILS 
ARE BRITISH MADE 

BY 

George Rowncy & Co., Ltd. 
Established 1789. 
4cl. each, 3 '9 doz. 




THESE PENCILS ARE THE FINEST THAT BRAINS, 
MACHINERY AND MATERIAL CAN PRODUCE. 



GEORGE ROWNEY & CO.'S 
BLACK LEAD PENCILS. 




^*^^^^>^- 






MANUFACTURED BY ^'O 



No. 800. "IMPROVED" DRAWING PENCILS, round natural 
polished cedar, stamped in silver — No. 800 '* George Rowney 
& Co. British Make," made in the following 12 degrees : 



H 

HH 

HHH 

HHHH 

HHHHHH 

HB 

B 

BB 

BBB 

BBBB 

BBBBBBB 

F 



Hard for Sketching. 

Harder for Outlines. 

Very Hard for Architects. 

Extra Hard for Engineers. 

Hardest. 

Hard and Black. 

Black for Shading. 

Softer and very Black. 

Extra Soft and Black. 

Softer and very Black. Double Thick Lead. 

Very Broad and Black Lead. 

Firm for Ordinary Drawing. 

3d. each ; 2s. gd. per dozen. 




No. 805. " VICTORIA " DRAWING PENCIL, round, with round 
lead, natural polished cedar, stamped in silver, made in 6 
degrees, H, HH, HB, F, B and BB. 

2d. each ; is. gd, per dozen. 



GEO. ROWNE7 & CO.'S BRITISH MADE 
ERASING RUBBER. 



Iljllllllllll iS. ROWNEY*CO:_S 

""^'ARTISTS" 





G. ROWNEY & CO.^S 
ARTISTS' RUBBER. 



GEORGE ROWNEY & CO/S ARTISTS* RUBBER. 

Rowney's Artists' Rubber is made of the best vulcanized rubber : 
erases pencil marks cleanly and quickly, 
id., i^d., 2d., 3d., 6d. and ad. pieces are kept in stock. 




BRITISH MANUFACTURE 
GEORGE ROWNEY & C9 

PENCIL MANUFACTURERS 

BY SPECIAL APPOINTMENT TO 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 



GEO. ROWNEY 

& CO/S 

^ MYSTIC^ ERASER, 



s. d. 

II 3 per gross 



id. pieces 

Packed in half gross boxes. 



s. d. 
2d. pieces 22 6 ,, 

Packed in quarter gross boxes. 

S. d. 
3d. pieces 33 9 ,, 

Packed in boxes of 2 dozen pieces. 

s. d. 
6d. pieces 67 6 ' ,, 

Packed in boxes of i dozen pieces. 



Standard Sizes. 



George RawNEY&C^-^ 



A< 



%»i^ 



-BRITISH MANUFACT^URE 



Size of Penny Piece. 



George RowNEY&C°;.s 

' BRITISH MANUFTVCTURE 



GEORGE ROWNEY & Go's 
JAPANNED TIN WHOLE PAN 
SKETCH BOXES. 

(WITH SPRING CLIPS) 








FIRST QUALITY. 




Price 








Price 


fitted with Whole Pans 








Empty. 


of Artists' Colours. 








s. d. 




i s. d. 




6 Whole 


Dan Box 


each 7 6 


eacl 


I 12 6 




8 


,, 


„ 8 




15 3 




lo .. 


,, 


,,90 




17 9 




12 


,, 


,, 10 




I I 




14 


,, 


,, 10 6 




I 3 3 




i6 




,, II 




I 7 




i8 




„ II 6 




I ID 




20 ,, 


,, 


,, 12 6 




I 12 6 




24 


,, 


„ 13 6 




I 18 




1 6 Whole and 


10 Half -pan Box with Thumb Hole 


, 2IS. empty. 






CONTENTS OF BOXES. 






I 


Gamboge 


9 


Ivory Black 


17 


Chrome No. 3 


2 


Yellow Ochre 


lO 


Raw Sienna 


18 


Viridian 


3 


Light Red 


II 


Vermilion 


19 


Emerald Green 


4 


Cr. Alizarin 


12 


Madder Brown 


20 


Indian Red 


5 


Bt. Umber 


13 


Chrome No, i 


21 


Lemon Yellow 


6 


French Ultra 


14 


Prussian Blue 


22 


Neutral Tint 


7 


Cobalt 


15 


Rose Madder 


23 


Sepia 


8 


Bt. Sienna 


16 


Indigo 


24 


Naples Yellow 




The 8 Whole 


Pan Box contains the first 8 colours on the list, the 



10 Wliole Pan Box the first 10, and so on. 

Any colour may be replaced by any other and the difference in 
price charged or allowed for. 

II 



GEORGE ROWNEY & Co/s 
JAPANNED TIN HALF-PAN 
SKETCH BOXES* 

WITH SPRING CLIPS TO HOLD THE COLOURS IN 
THEIR PLACES. 




FIRST QUALITY 

















"cPrice 








Price 


fitted with half-pan 








empty. 




3f Artists' Colours. 








S. 


d. 




/ s. d. 




6 Half-pan Box 




each 6 


6 


each 9 9 




8 






7 


6 




, 12 




lO ,, 






„ 8 







13 6 




12 ,, 






„ 9 







, 16 




14 






„ 9 


6 




17 6 




i6 ,, 






,, 10 







, 19 6 




i8 






,, 10 


6 




,116 




20 ,, 






,1 II 


6 




,136 




24 






M 12 


6 




.170 






CONTI 


iNTS OF BOXES 


* 






I 


Gamboge 


9 


Ivory Black 




17 


Chrome No. 3 


2 


Yellow Ochre 


10 


Raw Sienna 




18 


Viridian 


3 


Light Red 


II 


Vermilion 




19 


Emerald Green 


4 


Cr. Alizarin 


12 


Vladder Brown 




20 


Indian Red 


5 


Bt. Umber 


13 


Chrome No. i 




21 


Lemon Yellow 


6 


French Ultra 


14 


Prussian Blue 




22 


Neutral Tint 


7 


Cobalt 


15 


Rose Madder 




23 


Sepia 


8 


Bt. Sienna 


16 


[r 


digo 




24 


Naples Yellow 



The 12 Half-pan 
16 Half-pan Box the 
24 colours as above 



Box contains the first 12 colours on the list, the 
first 16 colours, and the 24 Half-pan Box the 



*Any colour may be replaced by any other and the difference in 
price charged or allowed for. 




GEORGE ROWNEY & CO/S 
BRISTOL BOARDS. 



Price per dozen Boards net. 



Foolscap 

Demy 

Medium 

Royal 

Imperial 



Size. 

I5jin. by 12J . 


2 
s 

• 4 


Ply. 
d. 




3 Ply. 

s. d. 

6 


4 Ply 
». d. 
8 


6 Ply 

s. d 

12 


iSJin. „ 14^ .. 


. 6 





8 6 


12 


17 


2o|in. „ 16^ .. 


. 8 


6 


12 


17 





22J in. ,, 17^ .. 


. 10 





15 


20 


30 


28i in. „ 21 .. 


. 18 





27 


36 


54 




FASHION PLATE (THIN) 

BOARDS or TURKEY 

MILL (THICK) BOARDS 

FOR ALL WASH AND LINE 
WORK. 



Fashion Plate 
Boards, 
per dozen, 
s. d. 



Turkey Mil 
Boards 
Each 
s. d 



Imperial, 



Royal, 



Half 
4to. 
8vo. 

Half, 
4to. 



29 by 21 1 inches 

22^ „ 18 
18 „ iii 
iii M 9 



20 

II 

5 

3 

14 



o 5^ 



The Imperial sizes are kept in two surfaces : Smooth and Abraided. 
The Royal sizes are kept in Smooth surface only. 



CLIFTON BOARDS. 



CLIFTON I Blue Shade White. 

These boards have a fine surface, similar to a Bristol 
^Oa^5/ Boa-rd, and are suitable for Pen and Ink Drawings and 
Press Illustrations generally. 

Royal size 25 by 20 inches, thin equal to 2 ply 3s. od. per dozen. 

•» »» »» thick ,, 3 ply 3s. od. „ 



13 



GEORGE ROWNEY & Go's 

** KANDAHAR" 

WATERPROOF DRAWING INKS. 




^^Kandahar" Waterproof Ink. 

A superior solution of Carbon ; when dry will 
stand colour washes. This ink is a more 
intense black than any in the market; flows 
freely, and leaves no sediment in the bottle. 



GEORGE ROWNEY & CO.'S 
"Kandahar" Waterproof Drawing Inks 

are made in the following Colours : — 



Black 


Crimson Scarlet 


Brick Red 


Green Ultramarine Tint 


Brown 


Indigo * Vermilion 


Burnt Sienna 


Lemon Violet 


Carmine 


Orange Viridian Tint 


Cobalt Tint 


Prussian Blue "White 




Yellow 


^ oz. bottles 7|^d. each. 6s. gd. per dozen. 


*i „ 


IS. od. ,, los. 6d. „ 


4 „ 


38. od. 


8 „ „ 


58. 6d. „ 


i6 „ 


I OS. od. ,, 


*The I oz. bottle has a 


quill attached to the stopper. 



14 



GEORGE ROWNEY & CO.'S 

FINTEST RED SABLE HAIR BRUSHES. 

In Seamless Plated Ferrules, Polished Black Handles, 
For Water Colour. Finest Quality. 



c» G.RowNe: 




^^^^^^J^NEY 8c 



^^^^^^^O^R^NEY: &. CO 



Q, ROWNEY 8^ C2 LO 



^^^^^M^mm^Mmsm 



'=- — - ,1 



JMk^^L,::^ R O WtSi E Y &JZ^±Ol± 



G.ROWNEY^&GOLCma^ 



Red Sable 
Round 
Series 40. Each 
s. d. 

No. GO, o I 

and I ) 

2 



Red Sable 

Flat 

Each 

s. d. 



No. I 



3 
4 
5 
6 

Series 30. 



loi 



7 

lO 

I 
3 
7 



Red Sable 
Round 
Each 
s. d. 



No. 7 
8 
9 

ID 
II 
12 



Red Sable 
Flat 
Each 
s. d. 



Red Sable Hair Brushes, in seamless ferrules, polished 
walnut handles, for Water Colour. Round onlv. 



No. r 

2 

3 
4 



s. d; 

o 5 
o 6 
o 8 
o lo 



No. 5 
6 
7 



s. d. 

I o 

I 3 

1 9 

2 6 



GEORGE ROWNEY & CO.'S 
TREATIES ON THE FINE ARTS. 



No. of /» ordering it ts sufficient to mention the number which Price 

Guide. ts attached to each book, s. d. 

1 •Hints on Sketching from Nature. Part I. By N. E. Green. Illuitrated by the 

Author. 31st EditioQ .. .. .. .. .. ..16 

2 ♦Hints on Sketching from Nature. Part II. By N. E. Green. Illustrated by the 

Author. 29th Editiou . . . . . . . • . • . . i 6 

8 ♦Hints on Sketching from Nature. Part III. By N. E. Green. Illustrated by the 

Author. 37th Editiou. .. .. .. .. •• ..16 

4 Guide to Landscape Animal Drawing. By N. E. Green. With numerous illustra- 
tions by the Author. 7th Edition. .. .. .. .. ..16 

6 Guide to Figure Painting in Water Colours By Sydney T. Whiteford. 12th Edition i 6 

7 Guide to Sketching from Nature in Water Colours. By L. C. Miles. With num- 

erous illustrations by the Author. 13th Edition. . . . . ..16 

8 Principles of Perspective. By Henry Lewis, B. A. 26th Edition. .. ..16 

9 Guide to Water Colour Painting. By R. P. Noble. With an illustration in 

colours. 39th Edition. . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 

10 Hints for Sketching Trees from Nature, in Water Colours. By Thomas Nation. 

i8th Edition. Illustrated .. .. .. .. .. ..16 

1 1 Guide to Oil Painting. Part I. By /. S. Templeton. 62nd Edition . . ..16 

12 Guide to Oil Painting. Part II. (Landscape from Nature). By A. Clint. 37th 

Edition .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..16 

13 Guide to Light and Shade Drawing. By Mrs. M. Merrifield. With illustrations. 

i8th Edition .. .. .. .. •• .. ..16 

14 Guide to Pencil and Chalk Drawing. By G. Harley. With illustrations. 20th 

Edition . . . . . . • . • ■ • • • • ..16 

16 Guide to Pictorial Perspective. By B. R. Green. With illustrations. 17th Edition i 6 

17 Guide to Figure Drawing. By G. E. Hicks. With illustrations. 17th Edition i 6 

18 Guide to Flower Painting in Water Colours. By G. Rosenberg. With illubtratione. 

2ist Edition .. .. •• .. •• -. ..16 

20 Guide to Miniature Painting and Colouring Photographs. By /. S. Templeton. 20th 

Edition . . . . . . . . • • • • • • ..16 

21 Guide to Animal Drawing. By C. H. Weigall. With numerous illustrations. 

16th Edition .. ' .. .. .. •• •• ..16 

23 Theory of Colouring. By /. Bacon. With illustrations in Colours. 23rd Edition i 6 

24 Guide to Porcelain Painting. By S. T. Whiteford. With illustrations by the Author 

7th Edition . . . . . . • . . • • • ..16 

25 Guide to Modelling and the Principles and Practice of Sculpture. By George Halse. 

With illustrations. 9th Edition . . . . . . . . ..16 

29 Guide to Pastel Painting. Bv /. L. Sprinck, and How to Paint a Head In Pastels. 

By Leon Sprinck. 13 th Edition. With illustrations in Colours .. .. r 6 

80 Guide to Landscape Figure Drawing. By N. E. Green. With illustrations by th« 

Author. 7th Edition .. .. .. .- •• ^ •;, ^ ^ 

81 tPractical Manual of Painting In Oil Colours. By Ernest Hareux. Part I. Sttll 

Life, Flowers, Fruit and Interiors. Illustrated, nth Edition .. ..16 

82 tPractical Manual of Painting In Oil Colours. By Ernest Hareux. Part II. Land- 

scape and Marine. Illustrated. loth Edition . . . . . . ..16 

88 tPractical Manual of Painting In Oil Colours. By Ernest Hareux. Part III. Figures 

and Animals. Illustrated. 7th Edition. .. .. .. ..16 

34- tPractical Manual of Painting In Oil Colours. By Ernest Hareux. Part IV. The 

Art of Making a Picture. Illustrated. 5th Edition .. .. ..16 

85 Black and White. A Manual of Illustration. By Steven Spurrier, R. 0. I. With 

numerous illustrations bv the Author. loth Edition .. .. ..16 

36 Trees and Tree Drawing. Bv Edward C. Clifford, R. I., R.D.S. With numjerou* 

illustrations bv the Author. 6th Edition .. .. .. •• i 6 

87 Hintsto Students and Amateurs. By Mrs. L. Jopling, R.B. A. Illustrated. With 

a Preface bv Sir W. B. Richmond, K.C.B., R.A. 7th Edition . . •.' ^ ^ 

88 Guide to the Art of Illuminating. Bv G. A. Audsley, LL.D. Illustrated 5th Edition i 6 

39 Marine Painting in Water Colours. By David Green, R.I. With illustrations m 

colour. 6th Edition .. .. .. .. •• •• ," ^ 

40 Arehlteeture and how to Sketch It. Illustrated by Sketches of Typical Examples 

Bv H. W. Roberts. 3rd Edition .. .. .. •. ..16 

41 Stenellllng on Fabrics, etc. By R. W. Newcomhe. With numerous illustrations, 

6th Edition .. .. .. .. .. •• •• ..16 

♦The three Parts bound in one, cloth and gilt, 7/6. 
tThe four Parts bound in one, cloth, 7/6 



Illii