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1^ 

\ 

rus? 



THE 



UNITED SERVICE 



JOURNAL 



AND 



i^abal and iDdilitars iD^tagajint 




1831. PART II. 



LONDON: 

HENRY COLBURN AND RICHARD BENTLEY, 

NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 



LONDON : 

PRINTAO BY SAMUEL DBKTLEY, 

Dorset Stieet, tlcctStieet. 



CONTENTS 



OF THE 



SECOND PART OF 1831. 



PACK 



1 

94 

36, IS6, 319 

43 



. Bridgewater, 



Tactics, with reference to impending War 

Song of a Peasant Girl after the Battle of Leipsic 

On the Discipline of the Mercantile Marine 

Survey of the West Coast of Africa in 1825-6 

On the State of Efficiency of the British Army 

On the Organization of the British Artillery, No. II. 

Narrative of the late disastrous Vo3rage of the H. C. S 

1829-30 . • . . 

Marshal Beresford — Battle of Salamanca 
On condemning Smugglers to serve in the Fleet 
The British Cavalry in the Peninsula 
Yacht Clubs and Regattas . 

Lancers and Light Dragoons .... 
The Drummond Lig^t for illuminating Light-houses, &c 
Memoir of Field Marshal Count Von Diebltsch Sabalkanski 
On the Mode of Arming and Fighting Steam Ships of War 
Cigar-Smoking ..... 

Naval Reminiscences. — Dining out-'Min Adventure in Portugal 
Reviews and Critical Notices . . 94^ 234, 3T5, 537 

On the Constitution and Practice of Courts Martialr^Bourienne's 
Life of Napoleon-~-£ducation of the Sons of Officers . . 94 



47 

49 
54 
67 

59 
66 
69 
77 
81 
89 
91 
92 



General Correspondence . 

Military Superannuation and Widows' Fund 

J. M. on Duelling, in Reply to his Critics 

Capt. Cook and Sir Joseph Banks 

Case of the Naval Architects 

Yeomanry Cavalry . 

State of the British Artillery - 

Medical Department 

A Grievance of Mates in the Navy 

'' Radical'' and the Foot Guards 

Contagion and Malaria in Cases of Fever 

The Band of Gentlemen Pensioners 

Proposition for a United Service Medical Society 

The Editor's Portfolio 

A 2 



98, 248, 393, 538 
98 
100 
. 108 
103 
. 10S 
106 
. 107 
107 
. 108 
109 
. 110 
111 
113, 257, 409, 553 



r\ 



■'^'.hj<^r^ 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



Changes in the Stations of Corps 

Arrivals, Sailings^ and Incidents in the Fleet 

Prize Money 

Parliamentary Proceedings 

Promotions and Appointments 

Annals of the British Fleet 

Births^ Marriages^ and Deaths 

Meteorological Register 

To Readers and Correspondents 

Naval Battles 

Recollections of the late American War 

On the Defence of Jersey 

Reminiscences of a Suhaltern 

Stand for a Mercurial Horizon 



PAGE 

121, 268, 558 
122, 268, 429, 560 
12i, 560 
125, 561 
126, 277, 431, 569 
131, 572 
142, 285, 438, 580 
144, 288, 440, 584 
144, 288, 440 
. 145 
162 
. 173 
No. V. 177, No. VI. 328 

. 193 



A Recent Visit to several of the Polynesian Islands . .194, 473 

On the Equipment of the British Infantry . . . 202 

Distribution of Light Cavalry and Infantry in the Field 205 

The Veteran to. his Sword ..... 209 

Yeomanry Cavalry . . , . .210 

The Services of the late Admiral Sir Joseph Sidney Yorke, K.CB. . 215 
The Services of the late Vice- Admiral the Right Hon. Sir William 

Johnstone Hope, G.CB. . . '. . . 218 

The Services of the late Rear-Admiral George Sayer, C JB. 221 

Lithuania ....... 223 

Formation of a Naval and Military Museum . . 225 
On the Distribution and Duties of the Unattached Medical Staff of the 

Army at Home ..... 227 

Reviews and Critical Notices. — On a New Armament for Ships of War, 
and Razeeing — Standard Novels — Cabinet CyclopaBdia— Cabinet 
Library — The Twelve Nights — Views in the Burman Empire — 
Panorama of Constantinople — Family Classical Library — Hinton's 
United States — The Harmonicon — Cabinet Atlas — New Sporting 
Magazine — The Scientific Gazette — The Edinburgh Cabinet Li- 
brary — Haverhill; or Memoirs of an Officer in the Army of Wolfe 234 
Experiments at Brest on Marshall's Gun-Carriages . . 242 
Lord Camelford ..... 245 

Suggestion for a Cipher to be employed on Service . . 246 

Remuneration for Shipwreck, &c. . . . • 247 

Means of Preserving the Health of Soldiers . . . 247 

India Army — Tardy Promotion .... 250 

Uniform of the Unattached ..... 250 

Deccan Prize Money . . . . .251 

A Point of Etiquette . . . . .251 

Remarks on the Proposition for a United Service Medical Society 251 

Addresses and Orders on the 16th Regiment leaving Ceylon . 252 

Quere as to First Naval Engagement in the French War of 1744 253 

Murder of Capt Logan, 57th Regiment . . . 253 



CONTENTS. 



PAOK 

270^ 568 

871, 567 

S80 



289 
300 

305 
318 
338 

339 

343 
349 
350 

354 



Courts-Martial .... 

General Orders, Circulars, &c. 

Annals of the British Army .... 

Reform ....... 

Letters from Constantinople, No. I. 

Theory of the Universe ; comprising Strictures on Commander Wood- 
ley's ** Divine System" ..... 

The Soldier's Bride ..... 

Singular Order of Lieut.-6en. Prescott in 1794 . . • 

The Services of the late Admiral the Right Hon. the Earl of Northesk, 
G.C.B. and Rear-Admiral of Great Britain . 

Remarks on the Comparative Services and Rewards of the several 
Branches of the Army ..... 

United Service Recreations at Portsmouth 

Thoughts on the Systematic Practice of Naval Manoeuvres . 

The Effects of Inexperience in Naval Affairs on the Part of the Army 
— with a Remedy ..... 

Actions of the British Cavalry .... 357, 522 

The Services of the late Admiral Sir John Knight, K.C.B. . . 363 

The Services of the late Vice- Admiral Viscount Torrington . 365 

The Niger . . . . .367 

Observations on Naval Gunnery .... 369 

Reviews and Critical Notices. — Colonel Napier's History of the War 
in the Peninsula, Vol. III. — Capt. Hall's Fragments of Voyages 
and Travels ...... 375 

Queries .... 

Yeomany Cavalry .... 

The Twenty-third Light Dragoons at Talavera 

Yacht Clubs and Regattas 

United Service School — Naval and Military Museum 

Masters in the Navy 

Mates in the Navy without Rank 

Medical Department 

Army Medical Department 

State of the Royal Marines 

The Corps of Gentlemen Pensioners 

Suggestions on Drill . • 

Commander Lawrence on Leather Storm Sails 

Indian Army versus that of St. Helena . 

Trisection of an Angle 

Stations of the Army on the 1st of July 1831 

A Voice from the Army . 

On the Military Organization of Switzerland 

Hints on Naval and Military Policy 

On Naval Timber 

Recollections of a Visit to Warsaw in 1828 . 

Skirmish in Persia .... 





. 393 




396 




. 396 




398 




. 399 




399 




. 400 




401 




. 402 




403 




. 404 




405 




. 405 




406 




. 435 




441 




. 453 




455 




. 457 




467 




. 483 



VI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Epitaph on the late Colour-Serjeant Rohinson^ 5th Regiment . 487 

Target Practice . . . . . . 488 

The late Voyage of H.M.S. Chanticleer . ^ . . 489 

JSlFects of Intemperance in the Fleet and Army — and its Remedy . 497 
An Improved Log-Ship . . . • . .501 
Chain Messengers . . . . . .503 

A Popular View of Fortification and Gunnery, No. IX. . 505 
The Thirty-fifth Regiment . . . . .512 

Rifle Cartridges . . . .513 

Services of the late Capt. Sir Murray Maxwell^ Rnt. and C.B. 531 

Plan of Illuminating the Semaphore Telegraph . 535 

Remarks on Lieut. Raper's Method of Working a Day's Work . 536 
Reviews and Critical Notices. — Life of Sir Thomas Lawrence — Brooke's 
Travels in Spain and Morocco^Life and Adventures of Nathaniel 
Pearce — Fletcher's History of Poland — Classical Library — Epi- 
tome of fioglish Literature — Cabinet Cyclopaedia and Library — 

Cabinet Library — The Sunday Library — Sporting Magazine 537 

Suggestion for preventing accidents by Steamers . . . 538 

Judge Johnson's Military Law . . . . 540 

Comments on *' The Distribution and Duties of the Medical Staff of 

the Army" ....... 541 

Comforts of Midshipmen Afloat .... 545 

Charge of the 23rd Light Dragoons at Talavera . . 545 

Suggestion for a United Service Retreat .... 546 

The British Cavalry . . . . . ' 548 

Case of John Shipp^ late 87th Regiment . . . 548 

Badge of Merit . . . . . 549 

Abstract pf Officers who served in the Army on the Peninsula and at 

Waterloo ...... 550 

The *' Micee'' of Hindostan . . . . . 552 

Military Punishments . . . . . 552 

Staff Changes and Alterations — 1830 .... 558 



ERRATA. 1831, PART I. 

Page 435, lines 10 and 20 from the bottom.' There should not be a ftiU stop or new paragraph, 
the sentence should mn on from the quotation. 

In the Yeomanry Paper, page 500, line 12 from the bottom, for " pretty wvll" read " fitted well." 
Ditto page 502, line 21 from the bottom, for " position " read " formation." 
Ditto page 502, line 18 froifi the bottom, for "their" read "this." 
Ditto page 504, line 8 firom the top, for " horse" read *' honr." 
Ditto page 505, line 10 flrom the bottom, for ** first rank " read " front rank." 
Ditto page 505, lines 23 and 20 from the top, for "division" read "divisions." 

ERRATA. 1831, PART II. 

Page 0, line 34 firom top, for " second battalion " read " two battalions." 
Page 0, line 25 from top, for " by mere prtsswre" read " by the mere preisare." 
Page 70, line 10 from bottom, for " Dmidar's" read " Duodas's." 
Page 330, line 3 ft-om bottom, for " 29th of January" read " 21st of January." 
Page 304, line 7 from bottom, for " Lucca" read ** Queen.'' 
Page 364, l|ne 12 from bottom, for " 1790" read " 179r." 
Page 305, line 12 from bottom, for " Warmer" read " Wallace." 
Pagraoe, line 23 from bottom, for " Schweling" read " Scheyeling." 

In our report of the Library and Museiun Meeting, for " Capt. Blackhonse, R.N." read " Capt. 
Backhouse, Unattached." 



THB 



UNITED SERVICE JOURNAL, 

AND 

NAVAL AND MILITARY MAGAZINE. 



TACTICS. 
WITH aEFEREKCK TO IMPENBIKO WA&. 

^^ C'^tait de tous les arts le plus funeste, mais 

Celui qu'il £allait le plus perfectionner.'*— Voltaire. 

The peace which had been purchased for liberated Europe by so 
much blood and treasure^ is again drawing to a close. A factious press, 
conducted by ignorant and designing inen^ more frequently than mis- 
guided enthusiasts^ has at last succeeded in calling forth the fierce and 
destroying spirit of Democracy, 

" Whose wild incessant cravings spur 
From crime to crime its wor3iipper/' 

and has at the same time, as a necessary consequence, infused fresh 
vigour into that antiquated absolutism which was gradually giving way 
before the increasing light and wisdom of the age, but which is now 
roused to fury by the necessity of self-defence. Continental Europe is 
thus divided between two hostile principles, that, like Milton's fiends, 
en the verge of battle, frown on each other 

ft ■ As when two black clouds 

With Heaven's artillery fraught, come rattling on 
Over the Caspian, then stand front to front 
Hovering a space, till winds the signal blow 
To join their dark encounter in mid air.'' 

In such a state of affairs the sword alone can be leaned upon with 
safety; for though our own shores may not be immediately assailed, 
yet it will become our duty to protect Europe, and the cause of free- 
dom and civilization, from the rum that must follow any decisive victory 
gained by either of the contending parties. We must be alike prepared 
to say to autocrats or demagogues, ''Thus far shall ye go, and no farther:" 
and this is what we can say by the aid of arms alone. But as we can 
do this vriXh. confidence, whenever our military policy and method of 
war shall do justice to the power and the energy of our people, it may 
not, under such circumstances, be amiss to institute some inquiry into 
the efficiency of the system of war on which such mighty interests will 
soon be staked. And as the only mode of conducting such an inquiry 
is to " begin at the beginning, we shall for the present leave mili- 
tary policy and organization entirely out of the question, and merely 
ask in the plain and soldier-like language, best befitting the subject, 

U. S. Jo URN. No. 30. May 1831. b 



2 TACTICS. 

and without any attempt to gain by sophistry or evasion a victory of 
words, but with the honest view of arriving at just professional prin- 
ciples>— -what is the object of Tactics, and how far does the modern 
science of Tactics attain its object, and do justice to the character and 
energy of the people of these islands ? 

That the object of tactics is to arm, train, and instruct the soldier in 
such a manner as to render him, when contending against the enemy, 
as formidable an engine of destruction as is compatible with poor human 
nature, will probably be allowed on all hands ; so that we have at pre- 
sent only to inquire how far that object is attained. We shall first 
confine ourselves to the infantry, not only because it is the principal 
arm, and must always constitute the main strength of armies, but be- 
cause cavalry tactics are in principle less faulty ; so that the weakness 
of that force has been owing less to its constitution than to the manner 
in which it has beeii understood and used ; whereas the strength of 
the infantry, such as it is, has resulted from causes over which tactics 
had no control, but which not being understood by tacticians, have led 
them into a belief of the wonder-working powers of their boasted 
science ; and has thus tended to keep up a system of delusion that has 
cost the country millions of treasure and thousands of valuable lives. 

The modern science of tactics teaches the soldier his position under 
arms, his facings and marching ; and it enables a commander to give to 
any number of men a uniform and simultaneous impulse and move- 
ment. But it contributes in nothing to develope or increase the per- 
sonal strength, energy, and activity of the soldier, from whom, of all 
men, the most active of exertions are demanded ; and not only may its 
exclusive use of the musket and bayonet be questioned, but it does not 
even instruct the soldier in the skilful use of those arms, and leaves 
him consequently destitute of that confidence in his mode of fighting 
which is always the surest forerunner of victory. Our present system 
of tactics is, in point of principle and with few variations in detail, ex- 
actly what Prince Leopold of Dessau introduced into the Prussian 
army about a century ago ; it teaches men to act together, and is very 
well as far as that goes ; but it is still far behind the Koman system, 
which not only tauj^t men to act together, but to act boldly ana ener« 
getically : that system which led to the conquest of the known world, 
developed in men of rather small stature a degree of personal strength 
that enabled them to perform marches, and to construct works, that 
astonish us even at this day, and rendered them above all, so confident 
and skilful in the use of arms, that they never met their match in equal 
combat. And why do we remain so far behind the Romans? Is a 
musket an easier weapon to wield than a sword or a hasta ? Are mo- 
dcKja soldiers taken from a class of men more inured to athletic exercises 
than the ancients? Or are the toils and difficulties of modern war 
inferior to those the ancients had to contend with ? Verily I should 
think not. The cause of our inferiority must, therefore, be sought for 
in the opinion entertained by tacticians of the excellence of their art ; 
for no mere acknowledgment of its difficulties could have kept it sta- 
tionarv for such a length of time. Let us try that boasted excellence 
therefore, and see what are the destructive powers possessed by an art 
whose object is destruction itself. They will probably be found less 
fcHrmidabfe than might at first be suspected. 



TACTICS. 3 

Supposing that 20,000 French were killed and wounded at Water- 
loo> and allowing 5000 of these to have fallen by the fire of the artil- 
lery and the sabres of the cavalry, it leaves 15,000 to the shore of the 
infantry ; and counting the latter at 30,000 only, though the number 
present was certainly greater, it required an entire day's hard fighting 
before the 30,000 had disabled 15,000 adversaries : that is, all the ex- 
ertion of two men during an entire day only brought down one 
enemy ! ! ! Let not the reader here think of two fencers who by equal 
skill and courage foil each other's exertions ; there is no such thing bA 
parrying a musket-ball when properly aimed, nor is there any defen- 
sive power in modem armies beyond what they derive from their offen- 
sive strength ; for with modern arms all fighting is purely offensive. 
The above estimate of the efficiency of modern tactics may, indeed, be 
considered as highly overrated, because it applies only to the most san- 
guinary battles fought during the war, such as that of Marengo, Tala-* 
vera^ Borodino, and others, but by no means to actions of minor note : 
at Roli9a only a few hundred French were put k^rs-de-combat, and at 
Vimiera 16^000 British onlv killed and wounded 2000 French, after 
what was called a smart action. 

Now, we are allowed on all hands to be more able-bodied men than 
the French, and illiberal as it may sound in these liberal days, we are 
also individually a far more active and resolute people. The army that 
fought at Vimiera was composed of as fine men as ever left £ngland, 
80 that we may take it for granted that they were, on an average, su- 
perior to the men of the French army. Let us suppose then for a mo- 
ment, that both parties had, by mutual consent, divested themselves of 
their arms and tactics, and fairly fought it out with no other aid but 
their natural strength and courage, does it not follow, as a matter of 
course, that the 16,000 stronger must have so pounded the 14,000 
weaker men; as to have rendered the latter totally incapable of im- 
peding the progress of the former towards Lisbon. If so, tactics, in- 
stead of strengthening the strong in proportion to their strength, must 
be something that principally favours the weak; an exceeding good 
reason, one would think, why the strong should look twice at the sys- 
tem before they adopt and follow it with blind adoration. That it has 
made us victorious, proves in itself nothing until it is shown that the 
success was the most decisive^ and attended with the least possible 
loss ; but twenty-five years of dubious war, the convention of Cintra, 
and the lists of killed and wounded that were at times not much infe- 
rior to those of the vanquished enemy, form a sufiicient quietus to all 
speculations upon those points. Achilles would have been formidable 
even with the arms of Thersites, but it was only in the Vulcanian 
arms suited to his strength and power, that the Groddess-bom became 
invulnerable and invincible : it is even thus with British soldiers ; they 
are as formidable as men can be with the present system of tactics, but 
it is only by a system capable of doing justice to their energy and reso- 
lution, that, like Pelides rising in his strength, their full power of action 
can be displayed. 



B 2 "Throw 



4 TACTICS. 

"'Throw your plaids, 
Draw your blades, 

Every man to set ; 
Pybroch of Donald Dhu 
Now for the onset." — Sir W. Scott. 

Having seen what is the destructive, or as political economists would 
say, productive power, possessed by modern infantry, when contending 
against those who are about their equals in point of science, let us next 
see what they can effect when opposed to men who have followed a 
more energetic mode of action, or when contending against those who, 
by accident or design, have evaded the only strong point of modern 
tactics, and struck at one of its ninety-nine weak sides. The result 
will not be very flattering to the " King making" science. 
. At Prestonpans, 2000 highlanders, armed only with broad swords 
and targets, overthrew at the very first onset nearly 3000 British in- 
fantry, and completed their defeat in about a quarter of an hour : the 
same was the case at Falkirk : and even at Culloden every point of 
the line that the highlanders reached in their charge was completely 
overthrown. As we may be told that the infantry of 1745 was not 
equal to that of the present day, and as any person making such an ob- 
jection could probably not point out the dinerence, we shall ourselves 
show in what it . consisted. The infantry in 1745 could neither move 
nor form with the rapidity of modern infantry ; they used wooden ram- 
rods, that during a quick and protracted fire were liable to break ; and 
they fought three deep as all continental armies do to this day ; but in 
every other respect they were trained on the same principles, and 
fought exactly in the same manner that we do now ; nor did the defeats 
above stated result from the wooden ramrods or from aiiy tardiness of 
movement, for the Kins's troops were all drawn up and formed when 
assailed by the highlanders, and a charge could leave no time for more 
than one or two volleys. Though lowlanders, we are proud of having 
worn the tartan, and we love the mountaineers, but we cannot claim 
for them any superiority of personal courage over the English ; for as 
yet no men of women born can make such a claim, nor are they in 
general considered equal to the Southerons in point of strength ; and 
as generalship was entirely out of the question in these front to front 
onsets, their victories must be solely attributed to their superior and 
more energetic mode of fighting, and to the skilful use of a more effi- 
cient weapon. 

That the King's troops were ultimately victorious at Culloden, 
proves nothing in favour of their tactics ; for not only were they vastly 
superior in number, but they were aided by a succession of faults on 
the part of the highlanders that sets all speculation. utterly at defiance. 
The latter had made a long and fatiguing; night-march towards Nairn 
and back again ; they had been without food on the previous day, and 
were without provisions on Che morning of the battle; they had 
neither cavalry nor artillery worth noticing ; and though their retreat 
was perfectly open, though there were strong positions all around, and 
reinforcements on the march to join them, they yet drew up on the 
open heath of Culloden to fight an enemy nearly double their number, 
(=9 : 5) and well provided with both cavalry and artillery. Where is- 
the strategus, who, with the best drilled soldiers to back the pride of 



TACTICS. 5 

modern science^ would^ on level ground, have ventured to eneage the 
overwhelming superiority of regular troops, that these poor higolanders 
here so fearlessly encountered, and whom their good claymores would 
perhaps have overcome, had the leaders been at all worthy of the men. 
But, as if the faults that led to the battle had not of themselves been 
sufficient to ensure defeat, the battle itself completed the measure <^ 
all imaginable follies ; for the clans, instead of making immediate use 
of their own formidable and only mode of fighting, remained for up« 
wards of an hour perfectly inactive under the heavy and discouraging 
fire of the King's artillery ; and when, after sustaining a heavy Toss, 
they did advance, the charge was but partially made even by the first 
line, the second and third taking no share whatever in the action, and 
leaving those of their comrades who had been successful entirely un- 
supported. The Prince too, with the feebleness of spirit that distin- 
guished him, and which was so ill-suited to his enterprize, remained 
perfectly inactive, forgetting that the second line is no place for him 
who would win a crown at sword's point. Had he known how to do 
justice to the qualities of his followers, and had he, as in duty bound, 
led the charge sword-in-hand, not a man of his army would have re^ 
mained behind, and, independently of the chances of victory such con- 
duct would have given him, the battle, if lost, would have been lost 
with honour, and the loss such a contest must have inflicted on the 
King's troops would at least have put all serious pursuit out of the 
question. 

The idea of conquering England, before whose strength the mightiest 
of the earth have fallen, at the head of a few thousand of half armed 
mountaineers, seems now something more than ridiculous: and yet it 
is really difficult to say what the result might have been if the high- 
landers had followed up the victory of Falkirk with vigour and celerity. 
Their army was then at ita greatest height in point of numbers, they 
were elated with success, and their enemies depressed by constant 
defeat : neither the Scotch lowlanders nor the people of England took 
any active share in the contest, and the Irish rather favoured the Ad- 
venturer : a rapid return into England at the head of a more numerous 
and victorious army, would have dismayed the adherents of the house 
of Hanover, and inspired the partisans of the old dynasty with a degree 
of confidence, which the previous unsupported advance and quick 
retreat from Derby could not call forth, so that the invaders would 
have had every thing in their favour, and the English army only to 
contend with. That army was not numerous ; it was probably as in- 
different to the cause as the rest of the nation ; there was no leader 
capable of inspiring it with enthusiasm, and worse than all, it had been 
defeated in every encounter, and in a manner too that could not fail to 
convince both parties of the decided superiority of the highland mode 
of fighting. The mountaineers indeed were in the highest degree con- 
fident, and feared no odds whatever : and men whose confidence results 
not from mere vanity, nor from an ignorant undervaluing of their ene- 
mies, but from a just appreciation of their own daring and energetic 
mode of warfare, may be considered, when justice is done to them, as 

Sretty nearly invincible. Had a man like Charles XII. led such sol- 
iers, he would have fought the battle fbr the crown of England, not 
at Culloden but on Houndow Heath, where in the person of George II. 



6 TACTICS. 

Jie would^ hand to hand perhaps, have encountered no unworthy Com- 
petitor. But Charles Edward was unequal to such an undertaking ; 
ne retired when he should have advanced, forsook the cause on the 
Jrst turn of fortune, and abandoned his devoted followers, without 
even offering his own worthless life in ransom for their blood, to the 
savage cruelty of a conqueror, whose defeats were less disgraceful than 
his triumph, whose brows victory crowned with asphodels instead of 
laurel, and whose name will be handed down to posterity as the ex- 
terminator of an erring and misguided race, distinguished for a degree 
of gallantry and of devoted attachment to their ancient line of kings, 
that would have ensured for them the generous forgiveness and admi- 
ration of all who had either the head to appreciate or the heart to feel 
the value of such rare and noble qualities. 

Trusting to the reader's indulgence for this short digression, we 
return to the thread of our subject, and proceed to bring forward 
other proo& of the weakness of modem infantry, as by tactics esta- 
blished. 

It is well known that till within these few years the Russians never 
ventured, unless when covered by chevaux-de-frise,* to await the 
sword-in-hand onsets of the Turks. As soon as the turbaned warriors 
had been brought up by the iron spikes of the firm-footed Friezelauders, 
and had inhaled a little sobriety from the well-plied muskets ranged 
behind, then the victory was complete, the Faithful went to the right 
about, and leaving tents, guns, Pashas, and Viziers alike in the lurch, 
every man betook himself, for that year at least, to his own home. If 
on the other hand they broke in among the forefinger tacticians, 
which but for the chevaux-de-frise could hardly fail to happen, then 
the scymetar raged quick, fierce, and masterly, till che<;ked only by the 
want of victims, or by the excess of the very fury that brought it into 
action. 

In the war of 1778 two scenes of this kind took place near Chotsin, 
in the first of which three Russian regiments were completely destroyed 
before they could be supported, though forming one of the centre 
squares of the army ; and in the second, the second battalion of the 
grenadiers of St. Petersburgh were cut up to a man by a similar sword- 
in-hand onset, and with a degree of celerity that was not the least 
astonishing part of the whole transaction. We are indebted for a 
knowledge of these facts to the memoirs of Prussian officers sent on one 
or two occasions by Frederick II. to accompany the Russian armies : 
for the Russians themselves never mentioned these " untoward events," 
a sufficient reason perhaps for our not having a longer list of them, as 
the Turks, to whom the trouble of fighting was enough, never ^vrote 
bulletins till they lately took up the science as part of the European 
system of tactics ; forgetting, unfortunately, that a good blow of a scy- 
metar is worth at least nine-tenths of la grande science. It was during 
the same war that the celebrated Hassan Pascha raised the siege of 

* For the manner in which the chevaux-de-frise were carried, put together^ 
and actually manoeuvredy see Manstein's Memoirs ; for the Russians, with charac- 
teristic ingratitude, never mentioned the services of these useful allies. As to the 
general fact that most of the Russian and Austrian victories were owing, not to 
their tactics, but to their chevaux-de-frise, it may be gathered even from the 
writings of our own countrymen Bruce and Crawford. 



TACTICS. 7 

ihe castle of Lemnos in such a gallant manner. He crossed over from 
the Troad in open boats during the nighty and landed on a retired part 
of the island with only 1500 men^ few of whom had even pistols in 
addition to their swords. Having set his skiffs adrift, he told his fol- 
lowers that victory was their onlv resource^ and immediately led them 
against the well-disciplined Russians, men who had fought with success 

r'nst the armies of Frederick himself; but who were here so com- 
^ ely routed bv the superior courage and energetic mode of fighting 
of a handful of desperaidoesy that those who escaped the scymetar, 
owed their safety less to tactics and science, than to the speed of their 
ignominious flighty and the vicinity of the boats of their fldet consisting 
of seven sail of the line besides transports and other vessels. 

The affair of Dubitza is still more striking, and is thus related in 
Bushen's Memorabilia (Merkwiirdigen Welthandel) of modem times : 
" A breach in the strong rampart that forms the only defence of 
Dubitza having been effected, the assault was attempted. But the 
Turks, making at the same moment a sortie, and also forcing their 
way sword-in-hand through the breach, inflicted so heavy a loss on the 
Imperial army, that the latter, owing also to the appearance of another 
party of Turks who showed themselves at a distance, were forced to 
raise the siege and retire from before the place. The liistory of Poly- 
bius records the only other instance of similar daring to be met with in 
the annals of war." What Marshal Lascy says of tibe Turks and their 
mode of fighting, is too much to the purpose to be here passed over. 
" The Turks," says he, *' are proud, most of them are also personally 
brave, and their very principles (grundsatze) make them hate their 
enemies. From this it results, that the actions fousht against them 
are generally very sharp ; their great skill consists m the dexterous 
use of the sword, so that whenever they are successful they invariably 
kill and wound a vast number of men." Against such a mode of fight- 
ing, the Field Marshal, himself one of the founders of the present s(£ool 
of tactics, knows no remedy but to cover his battalions with chevaux- 
de-firise. It is only behind the iron spikes of these faithful allies that 
cuirassiers and bayoneteers^ the pink and pride of modem tactics, are 
deemed safe from the simple scymetars of the bold and the resolute. 
Might not the Marshal's own wc^ds serve as a funeral oration for his 
science ; and can its utter insufficiency be more strongly illustrated. 

That the Turks have of late years been constantly the losers in their 
wars against the Christian powers, has been owing less to their want 
of tactics, than to their want of organization, method, and subordination : 
without these all other military qualities are, in the present systematic 
mode of warfeure, perfectly unavailing, and of these the Moslems have 
been totally destitute. Iiad they combined these qualities with their 
former mode of fighting, and known its full value and efficiency, the 
late bold coup^de^pointe across the Balkan, would probably have been 
paid for in Kussian heads in place of Turkish piasters ; for, as far as 
we can make out, it was an enterprize founded upon no strategical 
principles whatever : but was merely risking an army, in the real Na- 
poleon style, on the chance of events that rortune might bring about, 
but which the strength of the invaders could not effectuate. It proved 
successful ; for war, like all other lotteries, has its prizes, whose glit- 
tering rewards offer tempting inducement to the leaders, though nnfor- 




tunately the pour soldiers invariably pay the forfeiture of the blankli i 
that in such mere games of chance follow pretty close behind. 

To the instances above quoted one of a later date must be added, be- 
cause it is only by being made to pay for the impressive lessons of ex- 
perience, that our vanity allows ua to profit by them. After the lirst 
expedition to the Persian gulf, 500 sepoys, trained and instructed in 
the European manner and commanded by English officers, were left 
behind in order to check the marauding propensities of some of the 
native tribes. This detachment was attacked by a party of Arabs, 
who Eword-in-hand rushed upon them in the real Turkish and high- 
land style, and cut them down almost to a man. We appeal to the 
officers of the 65th regiment, ivho were subsequently sent to avenge ■ 
this insult, whether that gallant corps ever witnessed a more precarious f 
contest than thnt in which they were engaged \vith the tribe of Ben- i 
Ali : let them say what the result would have been, if the Arabs, who J 
were far inferior in numbers to the total of the British force, had, 1 
instead of opening out from the fire of the 65th regiment, borne straight I 
down upon them, or had been so judiciouslv led as to arrive una- ] 
wares on the British line, in the manner in wJiich they came upon the i 
picquets the night after the landing. I 

But bow, it niay be asked, does it happen that soldiers regularly I 
trained to war should be inferior to men who have nothing but native j 
daring in their favour ? Simply because there is nothing energetic in I 
modern tactics : the men have uo skill in the use of the clumsy arm I 
placed in their hands ; they are not trained to individual e^certion; ] 
have, consequently, no confidence in their individual power, and only 
look to the mass for results ; an error amply shared by all modern tac- 
ticians, who entirely forget that a mass of men has strength and value 
only in proportion to the strength of the individuals composing it. 
Nothing is so easj, therefore, as to account on just princijdes for the 
overthrow of the infantry in the cases above cited. We have seen "— 
comparing the number of killed and wounded in modern battles « 
the number of combatants, that it requires, on an average, more than A i 
day's exertion to enable an infantry soldier to put an enemy koTS-de^ I 
combat! or we may say, that it requires 100* musket-shots to produ< 
that effect. At all events the duration of a modern action, and tli 
numbers ensaged when compared with the execution done, amply ] 
proves how slowly regular infantry perform their work of destruction. I 
On the other hand, men who fi^ht as the Turks and highlanders once i 
fought, perform their work of destruction in a very expeditious man- J 
net ; they cau hardly be exposed during more thou a minute to the fire 1 
of their enemies ; for 250 or 300 yards is the greatest efficient range of I 
musketry-fire, and this is a distance that active men ^vill easily travene r 
in about a minute without suffering much loss, we may presume, fron j 
those who, as we have seen, require a day each before they bring dowtt'l 
an adversary. And when they close, what can modem infantry oppose f 
to the bold and spirit-stirring onset of enemies, skilful in the use of an j 
arm whose every blow tells, and whose blows are dealt with a rapidity I 
that soon puts all idea of priming and loading out of the question? 

• By BOUiB laJciilatiouB nn leaa Ihan 200 tliula are rei|nired. We take 100 p 



TACTICS. 9 

Their bayonets, perhaps, — "risum teneatis amici!" Let any one hold 
up at arm's length a musket and a bayonet, feel its weight and handi- 
ness, and look at its form ; he will first see the thick and clumsy butt 
bending downwards, then the straight line of the barrel with its heavj 
lock, next the arm of the bayonet standing off at a right angle, ana, 
lastly, the shaking blade itself again slanting away to the right ; the 
entire of the rickety zig-zag instrument measuring from butt to point 
six feet two inches, projecting, at the position of the charge, about 
three feet and a half from the soldier's person, and weighing twelve 
pounds ; and this is the sort of thing with which soldiers, totally un- 
trained to its use as an arm of personal combat, are expected to oppose 
the sword, the handiest and most efficient weapon ever put into the 
destroying hand of man; and the very wave of which acts as an 
electrifying power on the spirit of the brave. 

The bayonet may in fiill truth be termed the grand mystifier of 
modern tactics. Musket-balls have brought thousands and thousands 
of men to the ground, because hundreds of thousands of shots are fired 
on every occasion; round and grape have also helped to irrigate the 
thirsty earth with the blood of her children ; the sabres of the cavalry 
have occasionally dealt efficient blows, and the spears of the lancers may 
at times have overtaken some wretched fugitives, who had not sufficient 
courage to face even so paltry an arm ; but the bayonet shines in virgin 
brightness, hailed as the victor of every field, and yet undimmed by 
the blood ofjighting men : it is the arm, par excellence, of an age whose 
power of intellect wins battles by mere pressure of a fore-finger and by 
the bloodless display of this Mesmerian arm, before which the heads of 
the mighty are bowed to the dust, and the backs of the fierce turned 
to hasty and ignominious flight. 

That men have fled before our bayonet proves nothing. The science 
of tactics, rendered necessary in order to curb the evil propensities of 
mankind, can rest with safety on the sad and melancholy power of de- 
struction alone. The effect produced on the imagination can never be 
relied upon, because the effect produced one day may not follow on the 
next : the French cavalry generally stood the charge of the British ; 
why then should the infantry always be expected to run away ? and 
what would have been the consequence if in some of the headlong 
attacks made by British infantry upon vastly superior numbers, they 
had come against foes provided with efficient arms, well-skilled in their 
use, and closing as boldly as the French cavalry generally did ? If by 
good fortune this has not yet happened, it may happen, and should, 
' therefore, be provided against ; for military history is little more than 
a succession of delusions that disasters have alone dispelled. 

Having seen how far tactics and training qualify the soldier for close 
fighting, let us next see how he gets on in distant and other occasion^ 
modes of combat. 

After the unfortunate attack on Rosetta in 1807, three companies of 
the 7Bth and some other detachments, whilst attempting to effect their 
retreat to Alexandria, were defeated and taken by a party of Alba- 
nians, who surrounded them, and kept them constantly at long shots, 
without ever attempting to come to close quarters : it was, on a small 
,scale, an exact renewal of the defeat of Crassus and his legions, without 
the Roman skill in hand-to-hand combat, could the action have been 



10 TAOTICS* 

brou^t to that issui?. The Albanians^ owing to the wretched eons^rnc- 
tion of their lonff and unwieldy muskets, uid to the badness of their 
ammunition, their balls beine inrariably cut or hammered into any 
i^pe but a round one, are well known to be even worse shots than the 
trained soldiers of Europe, and their only mode of fighting consists, 
like that of the Parthians, in keeping their enemies at a distance. 
Yet before such men was a strong detachment of the proved soldiers of 
Eneland forced to lay down their* arms! Totally unskilled in any 
mode of individual contest, they sought shelter only in a square, and 
thus presented an almost infiEdliole mark to the aim of their unskilful 
enemies : their own fire being at the same time too inefficient to make 
any impression on their scattered foes, who, it is well known, would 
not have remained in the open field exposed to much danger; for the 
Greek revolution war, the heroic struggle par excellence, offers no in- 
stance of a Greek or Albanian force ever risking the loss of even fifty 
men in the open plain as long as the means of flight were in their 
power. That the Albanians far out-numbered our troops on this occa- 
sion is very true, but it is the object of tactics to render the few 
capable of contending against the many. 

Several of the actions, or skirmishes rather, fought durine our last 
American war in Upper Canada, furnish ample proof of the disadvan- 
tage under which mere tactical soldiers fight when contending against 
men who, however inferior in every essential military quality, happen 
to be individually superior in the use of arms. Owing to our firmness 
and discipline, we were generally victorious in those actions ; but as the 
actual fighting took place with arms in the use of which we were far, 
and needlessly inferior, our success was always attended with a greater 
proportionate loss than what we suffered when contending against the 
disciplined armies of Europe : a loss much greater too than what should 
have been experienced from enemies who, however brave and superior 
in point of numbers, were yet far from being our equals as soldiers. 

One of the actions of this ill-conducted war* is too strikingly illus- 
trative of the effects of tactical training to be here omitted. 

An American army, that in European warfare would have been 
d^ed a corps, was surprised by the 49th and 89th r^ments, at a place 
called Stoney Creek. The attack was made by ni^ht ; the sentmels 
were cut down before they could give the alarm, and so well was every 
part of the onset conducted, that the enemy were literally found fast 
asleep in their tents and bivouacs : the victory was actually gained be- 
fore a single man had been lost. But the evil genius of modern tactics, 

** That pagod thing of sabre swav. 
With front of brass and feet ot day,'' 

grants no bloodless victories, and was not to be defrauded by either 
party of its usual share of slaughter : the men, totally unusea to the 
bayonet as an arm of persimal contest, began to fire ; the Americans 
sprang to their arms, a desultory night-action commenced in the woods, 
ail the advai^Ages of the surprise were completely frustrated, and the 



* Ill-conducted bv ^e English and Canadian Governments. The defence of the 
immense frontier of Canada by a few w^ battalions and untrained provincials, 
reflects the highest credit on the iwtoal defenders. 



TA0TIC8. 11 

British, tliough as usual victorious, lost by friends and foes, nearly as 
many men as their defeated adversaries. 

The skill of the Americans in the use of the rifle was very conspi- 
cuous during the late war, and, as brave men, they naturally made the 
most of the advantage. But the tales of wonder related of that skill, 
prove how ignorant men generally are of the real power of fire arms ; 
for no arms ever constructed by human htods could, if fixed and level- 
led with mathematical precision, come within fifty degrees of what ia 
told of every Kentucky rifle. Nothing can give a more striking proof 
of this than the fact, that in all the actions fought on open ground, 
where the fire of both parties could tell, the fire of the common ISnglisk 
shots invariably produced a greater efiect than that of the most skilful 
Americans. This assertion is not to be turned against us ; for it must 
be recollected, that owine to the many advantages we possessed over 
the Americans, we should, in spite of their superior numbers, have in- 
flicted a heavy loss on them with little risk to ourselves, had we been 
at all their equals in the use of arms. 

In both our wars with America we have suffered from their supe- 
rior skill with the rifle, not so as to influence ultimate results certainly ; 
for ill as those wars were conducted on our part, it was only a factious 
press and opposition that forced the Government to make peace when 
success was actually within their grasp ; but the fall of every soldier 
who is lost owing to the superior skill of the enemy in the use of arms, 
is a reproach to the system under which he is trained, and which leaves 
him inferior to those against whom he is called upon to contend. It 
is a double reproach upon us, because Englishmen are particularly apt 
at learning all military and athletic exercises : and there is certainly 
no witchcraft in good rifle or musket shooting ; it is an art that all men 
of ordinary nerve and powers of vision may easily acquire, but as our 
soldiers are not like the back- woodmen of America, and the foresters 
of Germany, trained to the practice from infancy, good instruction 
must make up for that disadvantage ; but the present mode of drill only 
tends to maice men bad shots, as Fromm, in his *^ Direction for the 
Instruction of the Infantry in the use of fire-arms," very clearly proves. 
We have as yet derived no benefit from the experience so dearly pur- 
chased in those two wars ; and were we again <^ed upon to take the 
field in Canada, our soldiers would be individually found just as unfit 
for that peculiar warfare as ever. 



'^ The charge once made no warrior turn the rein, 
But fight or fall a firm embody'd train.'~-~Iliad, Book iy. 

There is another, and to us a very important point of view in which 
the insufficiency of modern tactics must be considered : and that is the 
helpless condition in which it will always leave the infantry when ex- 
posed in the* open field to the attacks of cavalry who shall know and do 
their duty. Many will no doubt term this perfect heresy, and refer 
the writer to the Book of Regulations for the various pretty and inge- 
nious modes ef forming squares, and to the events of the last war as 
ample proofs of their efficiency. The Book of Regulations we honour 
to the full extent of its value, but are not disposed to take it for two- 



12 TACTICS. 

thirds more than its worth. A complete system of tactics^ as complete 
as such a science can be, must commence by a mode of training capa- 
ble of developing all the strength and activity the recruit may possess : 
it should then instruct the soldier in formation, movement, and the 
simultaneous power of action : and lastly, it should render him skilful 
in the use of arms. Of these three parts of such a system, we have as 
yet the second part only ; so that a reference to the book had better be 
delayed till the first and last chapters are added to the volume. 

But the events of last war, it may be said, amply establish the effi- 
ciency of infantry squares. The events of last war, when duly consi- 
dered, only prove that the general failure of the cavalry, which we 
admits has, instead of leading to a due investigation of the causes 
of such failure, tended, on the contrary, to disseminate and foster 
one of the most palpable, and to us, who from our insular situa- 
tion must generally be weak in cavalry, one of the most dangerous 
delusions that ever yet perverted military vision. The proofs of the 
assertion are not difficult to find.* 

Supposing a body of cavalry to charge a square of infantry, to do 
their duty and not to open out from the fire of the infantry as is gene- 
rally the case, one of three things must follow as a matter of course,*— 
either they must fall by the fire of the musketry, be arrested by the 
bayonets, or they must, dead or alive overthrow the opposing ranks of 
the infantry. Now without again reverting to the number of musket- 
shots that tell, we know very well that, to the utter astonishment of 
many officers present, entire volleys were fired at Waterloo and at 
Fuente de Quinaldo, without apparently bringing down a man, how- 
ever many might have been hit. We also know that not a single one 
of the enemy*s horsemen perished on the bayonets of the kneeling rank 
in either of these actions : and it is of course perfectly evident that a 
horse at full speed, even if killed by the projecting bayonets, which is 
possible though not probable, would still by his very impulse overthrow 
all the files opposed to him ; and thus make an opening for those 
who followed. In the present state of military training and opinion, 
the infantry could offer little or no resistance, when once broken, be- 
cause their crowded formation would not only prevent them from evad- 
ing the shock of the horses, but render it impossible for them to use their 
arms, even if they possessed any skill or confidence in such a close mode 
of fighting. At Albuera, a splendid brigade of British infantry was 
destroyed by the French cavalry without offering any effectual resist- 
ance with tne bayonets : and on the retreat from Madrid, twelve of the 
23rd Fnsileers allowed themselves to be taken by five French Dra- 
goons, without so much as pulling a trigger or presenting a bayonet, 
because they were conscious of possessing no skill in the use of arms, 
and had never been led to look for safety from individual exertion 
against cavalry. As squares only fight, at the option of the enemy, a 
quarter of the number of their men ; and as the front of cavalry is as 
three to two, (thirty-four to twenty-two) to that of the infantry ; thirty 



* Count Bismark, in his Cavalry Tactics, also says, that when cavabry are deter^ 
minedy they must prevail over infantry. His translator, Major Beamish, takes a 
different view, and in a clever note, to which we refer those who take an interest 
in the subject, combats the Count's opinion. 



TACTICS. 13 ' 

horsetnen two deep, might, with about equal front, assail any face of a 
square consisting of 400 men. Coming on at full speed, they could 
be exposed to one volley only, that is, to the effects and chances of 
one hundred musket-balls ; of these not many would hit, still fewer 
would hit the men, and the horses that were not actually brought down 
would not complain, but go on till arrested by the riders. So that if 
the latter did their duty, a feeble half squadron of thirty men would 
have a fair chance of breaking a moderate battalion of infantry ; for 
surely no one can well maintain with ordinary gravity, that the 
bayonets of the kneeling ranks form a barrier capable of arresting by 
its consistency a body of determined horsemen arriving at full speed 
against them, so that whatever might be the loss of the leading assail- 
ants, the boasted formation would at least be thrown open, and the 
crowded and helpless mass of defenders exposed without any means of 
resistance to the hoofs and sabres of the succeeding centaurs. There 
is hardly an opinion, connected with tactics, in favour of which more 
evidence might be obtained than the supposed heresy here advanced^ 
We appeal to the officers who were present in those unshaken squares, 
that foiled so many charges of French cavalry* during the long and 
arduous day of Waterloo : let them divest themselves of the received 
opinion on this subject, and frankly say, what would, nay what must 
have been the result, if the French horsemen, instead of constantly 
opening out from the fire of the British infantry, had stood with 
loosened rein and '' spur of fire" right down upon their close and corn- 
pact formation ? must not the whole have been completely overthrown ?* 
Let it not be supposed, that there is any thing derogatory to their gal- 
lantry in this assumption. On the contrary, the greater and more evi- 
dent the danger, the greater was the honour of manfully facing it at 
duty's call. 

Hitherto the cavalry have failed, (though there are brilliant excep- 
tions,) from want of confidence in their own prowess ; they did not 
expect to succeed, and generally edged away to the risht or left, and 
often, after receiving the fire from the point attacked, and when the 
principal danger was over, exposed themselves to greater loss from the 
fire of the other faces of the square, than they would have sustained 
had they rushed boldly on as a proper knowledge of their duty should 
have taught them ; for nothing is more true than what is stated in the 
old Regulations, *' the spur as much as the sword tends to overset an 
opposing enemy." The conduct of the French cavalry at Waterloo, in 
gaflopinff round the squares to look for an opening, instead of attempt- 
ing to rorce one, was, notmthstanding the praise bestowed upon it, a 
proof of professional ignorance or insufficiency of courage ; for there is 
a sort of three-quarter courage, if we may so graduate it, that will 
gallop up to the bayonet> and even bravado round the squares, and yet 
wants the resolution to dash, at less ultimate risk, perhaps, into the 
midst of levelled muskets and presented bayonets ; but those who can- 
not set an example of such resolution have no business on horseback, 
for daring is the soul of cavalry ; and what is, after all, the single 

* We are speaking of the squares mo6t exposed to the ill-combined and worsd 
directed attacks of the French cavalry ; and are not at present giving any opinion 
as to the result of battle. Waterloo deserves a section of itself. 



14 TACTICS. 

wretched Tolley of musketry, fired from the face oi the infEiiitry 
square, compared to what the infantry are exposed to in assailing a 
breach, St. Sebastian, for instance, or other post of difficult access ? 
Opinion has rendered infantry squares formidable, and, whilst that 
opinion remains, they may continue so ; but formidable as the arm of 
opinion is, it is not of a texture on which to rest a system of tactics. 

The Marquis of Londonderry, in his History of the Peninsular War, 
in speaking of an action fought near Almeida, says, that some soreness 
was felt at head-quarters in consequence of the defeat of six squadrons 
of British cavalry by about 200 French infkntry, though, as he asserts, 
some of the horsemen did not turn till the *' bridles touched the bay- 
onets." Why the men turned at the very time when the danger was 
over, and when they should have given spur and rein, the noble Mar- 
quis, though as brave a soldier as ever drew sword, does not tell us, 
nor do we recollect any order issued by the Adjutant-General of the 
Peninsular army, reproving the cavalry for edging-off, or instructing 
them how to act in similar circumstances for the future. But most of 
us may well guess in what thundering terms the " sore feelings" of 
head- quarters would have been expressed, if a column of infantry had 
edged-away, not from fifty or sixty musket-shots, which, had duty been 
done, was all that these horsemen could have been exposed to, but 
from some dangerous and difficult point of attack, defended by thou- 
sands of infantry and entire brigades of artillery. Why so much more 
daring should be expected from infantry than from cavfOry, is of course 
not easy to understand, particularly if we consider that the very canter 
of a horse tends to raise and fire the soul of the rider. On fair and 
level ground, nothing but some obstacle capable of checking a horse at 
speed should ever be allowed to arrest the progress of cavalry ; a pro- 
position that gentlemen will do well to consider, before they allow 
Polish caps, hussar jackets, and " plumed helms," to lure them from 
the safer pursuits of peace into so dangerous and neck-breaking a 
branch of the service; for the time may come, when the chance of 
fifty or sixty musket-shots, and the branaishing of a few foolish bay- 
onets, will not be received as an excuse for the defeat of an entire 
brigade of cavalry. 



*^ To the changes resulting from bitter experience is the science of war con- 
stantly subject." — Gersdorff. 

It must not be thought, that in this endeavour to point out the in- 
sufficiency of infantry tactics, we are, therefore, advocating any of 
those methods of war that, as we have before shown, have on many 
occasions proved superior to our own. On the contrary, we are con- 
vinced that an army trained on European principles and conducted 
with ordinary talent will always, in the end, prove victorious over 
enemies possessing merely the wild energy displayed by the Turks 
and highlanders, or the skill of the Americans in distant fighting. 
But it must be perfectly evident, that an army, which should add to 
modem tactics the skill of the Turks in close combat, and that of the 
Americans in distant fighting, would naturally possess an incalculable 



TACTICS. 15 

advantage over a mere tactical army as now oonstitnted. And it is in 
the firm conviction that British soldiers possess above all other men 
the qualities necessary for the attainment of such skill in arms> that 
we venture to denounce the insufficiency of that mode of training^ 
which^ take it as you will> goes no farther than to make a man come 
into position and pull a trigger; a thine that^ at the best, requires 
passive courage only ; leaving energy and active courage, as well as 
personal strength and activity, those noble qualities of British soldiers, 
totally dormant, till called forth, under every disadvantage, in moments 
of extremity and in scenes of carnage, when the humbled pride of science 
is forced to rely for success and safety on the mere untrained and neg^ 
leeted gallantry of the soldier. 

Most of us have at times had occasion to witness the active energy 
displayed by sailors in situations of difficulty ; this has always struck 
foreign ersj who are generally little used to naval habits, even more 
than ourselves, and those among them who fought in our ranks, and 
who have done Justice to the gallantry of our soldiers, have never- 
theless expressed a much higher admiration of our sailors. Heus- 
singer, a German officer, who served with the Brunsmck Hussars in 
Catalonia, says, in speaking of the quickness with which the batteries 
were raised and armed at the siege of Tarragona :— -*^ It was owing 
principally to the almost superhuman exertion of the men-of-war's* 
men, that this was effected with such celerity under the heavy and 
constant fire of the fortress ; but no labour was too great, and no situa- 
tion too dangerous for these daring and undaunted men." No method 
of mere training can be expected to render the landsman equal, in 
point of handiness, to the seaman, whose entire life is a course of train- 
ing, yet a great deal might be done by a good system of athletic and 
gymnastic exercises, were the advantages to be derived from individual 
exertion once fairly avowed. We have no means of accounting for the 
superior efficiency of the ancient armies in the field, unless by attri- 
buting it to their superior training ; with them this resulted, no doubt, 
in a great measure from national habit, but exactly in proportion as 
the habits of our population unfit us for the toils of war, so should our 
mode of training make up for the deficiency. Polybius, himself a 
soldier of experience, estimates at only 3300 the greatest number of 
men that, from all different causes, could be supposed absent from the 
army of Alexander at the time of the battle of the Issus, though that 
Prince had entered Asia two years before at the head of 44,000 men, 
and had afterwards received a reinforcement of 6000 more.* Whilst 
the British army in the Peninsula, of inferior strength and the best 
equipped and the best provided for of any modern army, had seldom 
less than 10,000 men away from the ranks, mostly sick in hospital. 
And none who witnessed will easily forget the scenes of suffering that 
the track of wretched stragglers exhibited in rear of the newly-arrived 
corps during a long and fatiguing day's march ; these men were only 
then banning part of that course of military training which should 
have b^n completed before they were called upon to take the field* 
The men of the 5th division, who came to Quatre Bras, had been under 
arms the greater part of the previous night, had marched upwards of 

* Polybius, Book XII. remarks on. 



16 TACTiCS. 

twenty-four miles oti one of the hottest days of summer^ each man 
carrying a weight of forty-six pounds^ independent of what provision 
he might have in his havresack^ and found at the end of such a 
^larch, not rest, but the deadly and desperate conflict that ensued. 
•Yet this is the profession that requires no previous trainings and that 
seems now destined to obtain no ultimate reward ! 

But the system, it seems> works too well to be changed : indeed ! 
Did it work well when an entire battalion of regularly-drilled Sepoys 
were cut down to a man by a party of wild Arabs ? Or, did it work 
well, when a strong detachment of the trained soldiers of England 
were forced to lay down their arms before a miserable crew of cowardly 
Albanians? Was its excellence particularly conspicuous, when the 
grenadier company of the 8th regiment were nearly all killed or 
wounded in skirmishing with some American Militia who were ad- 
vancing towards York, and who, it is well known, would not have 
purchased the mighty honour of burning an old town-house at any 

freat loss, had the followers of the system known how to inflict it ? 
ailors, or other men trained to active habits, would probably have 
succeeded in the attacks of Fort Christoval, Burgos, and in the first 
attack of St. Sebastian ; but what did the wonder-working system do to 
aid the mere helpless courage of the soldier on these unfortunate occa- 
sions ? At the battle of Aulroy, fought in 1364, the English archers, 
though unprovided with arms of length, rushed fearlessly on the French 
men-at-arms, tore the battle-axes from their saddles, and " did gallant 
execution with them." But on the 16th May 1811, an entire brigade 
of British infantry were defeated and taken by a body of French 
cavalry, who were not like the horsemen of former times, provided 
with defensive armour, whilst the infantry had muskets and bayonets ; 
yet, owing to the immaculate system that works so well, the followers 
of that system were to a man cut down or taken, whilst their ancestors, 
listening only to the dictates of courage, and well knowing that an 
active man on foot must at all times, when he has room to move, be 
superior to a horseman, gained a complete victory. In war, the want 
of success is not always a proof of bad management, because in the 
greatest of all fames of chance, fortune will at times turn even against 
the bravest and the best. But, in the cases above quoted, it was the 
system, and the system alone, that led to disaster, and, under similar 
circumstances, the same causes will lead to exactly the same results. 
Nor is it in these occurrences of minor importance that the insufli- 
ciency of modern tactics is alone to be discovered ; for its evil influence 
naturally accompanied all our military operations from first to last, and 
made us fight long, and pay dearly for our ultimate triumph. 

Owing to the bravery of our soldiers and the conduct of our ofli-' 
cers, victors in every battle, we generally gained little more than the 
Spartan honour of maintaining the field of battle. At Vimiera, two- 
thirds of the British troops present defeated the entire of the French 
army, yet such was the system according to which these victors had 
been trained, that they allowed the vanquished to make good their 
retreat in open day, to dictate the convention of Cintra, ana to return 
to the charge a few months afterwards. As this particular instance 
will, however, be ascribed to a curious and accidental succession of 
commanders, we may cite the battle of Vitt^oria as the most striking 



TACTICS. J 7 

of many other cases in point. The gallant onset of the British drove 
upwards of 50^000 French^ with the loss of the whole of their materiel^ 
from the field of Vittoria ; but the system^ the precious system, that 
confines the training of the soldier to the pulling of a trigger, prevented 
the victors from inflicting any heavy loss on the vanquished, of whom 
one-tenth only were killed, wounded, or taken, whilst the other nine« 
tenths were allowed to come back with fresh maUriel, and renew the 
fight at Pampeluna; and again, after a proportionate succession of 
losses at Bayonne, Orthez, and Thoulouse. On all these, and many 
other occasions, one party constantly illustrated the truth of the 
Hudibrastic lines, that 

'^ He who fights and runs away. 
May live to fight another day,'' 

whilst the other party as constantly forgot that only 

" Those who are in battle slain, 
Will not return to fight again ;" 

for the men who ran away returned to fight again and again ; but the 
brave and greatly daring too often sufiered a tremendous loss, which, 
owing to their system of tactics,' they had no means of avenging on 
their defeated foes. At Fuentes d' Onor, the Allies rested quietly on 
their arms as soon as the French called '' Hold — enough." At Albuera 
the gallant remnant of the victors had no means of inflicting any pro- 
portionate loss on their defeated adversaries ; nor could they have stood 
a renewal of the onset; in the Pyrenees many difficult positions 
were carried in the most heroic manner, notwithstanding a heavy loss 
inflicted hv the fugitives from Vittoria and Pampeluna, who were 
generally allowed to retire almost unmolested from the field, in order 
to return " and fight another day." 

There is yet a stronger proof to be adduced of the value of the 
system. 

The numerous Austrian and Prussian armies that took the field at 
the commencement of the revolution- war, were trained and drilled ex« 
actly according to the system that we now pursue ; and not a little 
proud the well-powdered and well-buttoned Soldadoes were of the 
supposed advantages their system and savoirfaire gave them over the 
republican sans-culottes, who had no other tactics but Ca-ira, and no 
strategy but en avant ; and who could only move in crowded masses, 
which they called columns, and from which, when they came to action, 
the boldest and most enterprising started forward to act as tirailleurs. 
Yet what was the result } The French soldiers, " bold with the 
strength that" fancied " freedom gave," overcame the men of science^ 
who were not a little surprised at su^h a result, but who, instead of 
looking for the cause in the natural intelligence and new elans of the 
French troops, attributed it to this new mode of fighting ; and instead 
of calling forth and properly employing the native courage of the Ger- 
mans, they took up the uncongenial system of their enemies, and natu- 
rally found themselves nothing the better for it. The French on their 
side, not wishing to owe their success solely to the gallantry of their 
soldiers, determined that their gSnie militaire should come in for a 
share of the honour ; and thinking that some great physical force was 
mysteriously concealed in their unwieldy masses, they reduced the for- 

U. S. JouRK. No. 30. May 1831. c 



18 TACTICS, 

infltion and mode of attacli to a regular system, at a time too when 
artillery was constantly increasing, and when the number of guns was 
already reckoned by hundreds in every field. This system, the most 
outrageous that ever entered into the heads of men, performed wonders 
by the aid of the conscription, and by the boundless rewards bo libe- 
rally bestowed on the victors out of the spoils of the vanquished, wbo, 
on their side, were generally inferior in numbers and resources, and 
not nnfrequently worse commanded eveij than the conquerorH. TJ» 
banner of Eiiropeon independence was about to be struck to folly and 
presumption, when the soldiers of England, ridiculed abroad, insulted 
and despised at home, appeared in the arena with the very same sys- 
tem of tactics so easily overthrown at the commencement of the war. 
But that system was now in different hands, and it soon became appa- 
rent that victory was to the strong and the valiant, and not to the fee^ 
ble or worthless method of war that either of the parties followed. 
The stubborn courage of the British was not to be shaken by the lierM 
onset of the French colunms. On the contrary, they generally reserv^^ 
ed their fire with great coolness, a thing very trying to an advancing 
enemy, and though individually very bad shots, they could not atto^ 
gether miss the entire of the masses that were moving against themj 
The consequence always was, that the assailants halted in order to (ire^. 
and as the A-ont ranks only could use their muskets, the rest, left inac^ 
tive and uselessly exposed, were naturally shaken ; so that a charge of 
bayonets, a thing totally out of the conventional rule of European war- 
fare, invariably put the whole to flight, though generally with vrhal 
might be deemed a trifling loss. This was the constant tale from Vi- 
miera to Waterloo, whenever the French were the assailants ; and when 
the British were the attacking party, they had, from the natural hat* 
dihood of the men, still greater advantages. The approach of a hostiM 
army, whose columns, jittering with arms, are seen advancing aloi 
the plain, and gradually expanding and taking post preparatory to t: 
attack, is an imposing and majestic sight, and well calculated ta au^ 
ment the danger in the excited imagination of those who are quietqp' 
waiting the onset. Then the increasing report of artillery, follow- 
ed by the sound of the balls fiercely forcing their way through the 
resisting air, and every now and then striking down a file or two, 
*bose mangled limbs and agonized features add fearfully to the trying 
nature of the scene. The steadier the enemy, whose losses and waver- 
ings are no longer discernible as soon as the (ire of musketry begins, 
advances, the more the hearts of the defenders sink and cool, the idea 
of danger quickly augments, and poor human nature directs all powers 
of thought to the means of safety. The assailants, on the other hand, 
derive a sort of wild courage from the very circumstance of advancing ; 
the mere idea of attacking is " spirit stirring," and inspires British 
soldiers with a species of enthusiasm that constantly rendered them 
victorious, even under the most difficult circumstances, whenever the 
foe was (airly accessible. 

Let it not be thought that a more energetic mode of warfare would 
be more sanguinary and destructive than the insufficient system we are 
here condemning. Alas I the reverse is the case; for modern tactics, 
by making battles less decisive, hare rendered wars much longer, and 



I 
I 



TACTICS 19 

infiiiitdf more dtttmetiTe. Jm ancieni timt», when tbt vmntmfimt§ 
came to close quarters, a defeated araciy wm aanibilated ; lb«re was «9 
escaping from the ii|)lifted sword or lanoe ; and a general e^tfoa alixMil; 
always settled die question at tsmie. Nwr, «n the contrary, baltlw aro 
i^R^t tft a distance ; if aa army finds itself getting tb^ worse« j| 
makes a skilful retreat, keeps the enesiiy at tbe respec&ul distaiaco of 
grape smd canister, and if ably commanded, frequently regains in de« 
tail, before the end of the oampugn, what had been lost by an uns^MV 
oess^ little at the commenoement. Thu8> hsttles and alUrmisbes 
snoceed each other with fearful rapidity^ campaign fbUows campaign in 
melancholy succession ; as the enemy is never destroyed, no rest nan 
be giren to the soldi^; constant fiitigne and exposure wear out the 
brarest and the best ; aad gaunt hunger, with its aecon^nnying crin>«B 
and diseases, nil the nnturdi attendants of laigo nrmins and protraeted 
eampaigns, far exceed in their sweeping ravage, and n tbousand^fqU 
in ^ir henrors, the more {tf^unpt and hwaaane eilaots produced by tho 
sword or oarissa on the field of battle. 

How £ur now does the system, whose insufi&ciency we have beou at^ 
tempting to .show, snit the character of our populntion-Hinit the sort ^ 
mmi who cut out the Hermione ; who» in spite of boardii^ netting, and 
of every other preparation made to oppose them, col ofbt the Chi?vrettn 
finm nnder all the battneries of Gamarette Bav ; who boaWM ibe Ch^ 
sapeake, and, sword in hand^ carried a Russian Astilla against count* 
lecB odds in Port Baltic ; who escaladed Badsjos, where not a stone of 
thB fortifications had been injured, and where the most expeneoond 
adbdiers, the conquerors of continental £ur<me, wnre waiting to reoeivn 
thtm; who stormed St, Sebastian in open oa^, and calmly waited m^ 
poaed to all the fire of the fortress, under an tmjpracticable Iwea^, till 
the ^ot of their own guns, striking only a few feet above their heada^ 
rendered the passage practicable, nnd then rushed upon the astonished 
enemir with a deg^ree of fiiry, that neither the skilful contrivancen, 
nor the avowed courage ^ the defenders could resist,— deaving it 
doubtful whether their stem nomposure, whilst ealmly waiting amidst 
the heaps of dead and dyin^ or their subsequent impetuosity, was west 
to be wonderoi at> but leaving no doubt as to the invincibility of Kuch 
men, whenever their training and syst^oei of war should do justicie to 
their unconquerable qualities ? If such actions weace p^ornSted at the 
cM caM oi unrejinarded duty fdnne, let those who know the inflanuna'^ 
ble m^erials of whseh the human heart is composed, say what might 
not have been done by these sridiers, if they had been taught to tako 
a pride in tiieir prnnonal strength, activity^ and J^dll in arms, and on- 
oouraged to look for results and honest applause from th^ individnal 
gallantry and exerti<ms. Recollect Crastinuis before the battle of 
Phassaiia„ " This day, Caesar, thou ahalt praise me dead or alive." * I^ 
us never hear ike unworthy assertion so often repeated, that British 
soldiers are incapable of enUiusiasm ; for, notwithstanding the blight* 
ing effects of many parts of our system, <M»uitless instances of heroic 
devotion on the part of private soldiers may be adduced. Our limits 



H I I I* i .H II I w^«»>^»P#t«»»iw»»'^^f-^W»l>l ■■ I > II ^^»»»i 



• Be BeUo Civili, Ub. 3. 
c 2 



20 TACTICS* 

prevent Qs from quoting more than one case, but it is sufficiently to 
the purpose* During the war in Upper Canada, two soldiers of the 
49th Regiment were posted in front of a small bridge that crossed a 
ravine or rivulet, and were ordered, for what reason we know not, to 
defend it to the last. They were there surrounded by an entire divi- 
sion of the American army, and asked to surrender, but regardless of 
the inevitable consequence of resistance, and mindful only of their or-^ 
ders, these brave men rejected the offer, and fell nobly fighting on the 
post intrusted to their charge. Greece would have erected statues to 
their memory, and Leonidas has been justly immortalized for doing 
nothing moire. 

Without, at present, entering into any discussion as to the improve^ 
ments that might be made in our mode of tactical training, we may 
simply ask whether the actions above cited would not furnish better 
hints for a British system of tactics, than the old German Regulations 
of L$iscy and Saldem, remodelled in 1824, and so erroneously called 
new, though not containing a single new principle ; that is, containing 
nothing that any one praperii/ acquainted with Dundas's book might 
not easily have performed off-hand on any morning parade. 

Many of the causes of that insufficiency, of which we have been 
speaking, lie beyond the sphere of our present inquiry ; but the principal 
blame for having occasioned so much weakness and bloodshed, must be 
ascribed to that factious opposition which, aided by an ignorant and 
libellous press, strove from the very commencement of the war, to em*- 
barrass the Government, and to crush the rising spirit of the army by 
every measure of insult and oppression. One set of men were found 
sufficiently ignorant of the constitution of their country, to suppose 
that the liberty of England could be overthrown by English* soldiers, 
who were consequently looked upon as enemies, and treated accord- 
ingly. Another set, in utter defiance of all history, ridiculed the idea 
of an English army being able to contend against the legions of 
France, laughed at our pretensions to military knowledge, prophesied 
only disaster, ruined the army in the estimation of the country, and 
forced upon the Government, never distinguished for the vigour of its 
foreign or military policy, a line of conduct towards the profession, that 
£oi a long time renaered the developement of all military talent, pride, 
and exertion, ne^t to impossible. To husband our resources, in order 
probably to allow the enemy to gain strength, was the constant cry, 
but net a single voice was raised in favour of a bold and noble system 
of military policy becoming our former deeds in arms and national 
fame. One brave and generous spirit who, by mere appeals to history, 
and to the actions of our seamen, should have put down these mouth- 
ings of the pompous, and the sneers of the supercilious, would then 
have been worth a hundred thousand men ; but none such appeared : 
and though the British army that landed in Egypt was proclaimed by 
that BCtion alpne the first army that Europe had seen since the fall of 
the Roman legions, still it could not shake the cowardly spirit that 

* They have done su before, it may be said. No, they only overthrew a Parh'a- 
ment that had usurped all the power of the Government, and overthrown the 
liberties of the country. 



TACTICS. 21 

Tears of fdsehood and misrepresentation had cast over the country at 
large } and the empires of the Continent were one after the other 
allowed to fall under the blows of France, whilst the British Qoremm 
ment was shamefully forced to keep the never-conquered soldiers of 
England idling at home out of harm's way. What was the end of a 
drama now about to be acted over again ? After armies had been firit« 
tered away in distant enterprises^ that, till the Spanish revolution, lefd 
to no efficient result, the tide of war, as if in awful mockery of the 
feebleness with which it had been conducted, rolled back again to tho 
Very spot that a quarter of a century before had witnessed its *com« 
mencement; and where at last 25,000 British soldiers, aided by the 
very same allies at whose side they had fought at the Outset of the 
contest, decided its fate in one single battle ; leaving the torrents of 
gallant blood that had been shed, and the millions of treasure that had 
beeri expended from the day of Valmy to that of Waterloo, a reproach 
to the pasty and a warning to the future. But the warning is not at« 
tended to ; for though the army haVe by their gallantry fought them- 
selves into favour with the nation at large, yet there is still a numerous 
party, who, with the facts just stated mil iu their recollection, are 
endeavouring to force the country into the same line of conduct that* 
led to so much loss and suffering. Every measure that can directly or 
indirectly detract from the honour or character of the army, every 
piece of penny wisdom that can diminish its number or comforts^ 
though sure to end in pound folly, is, year after year, and day after 
day, forced upon the Government. No circumstance, however trifling, 
that exaggeration can raise or stupidity construe into a charge against 
them is passed over ; not an apple-stall can be accidentally overset by 
a passing relief in the streets of London, but the dutcry of military 
oppression is raised and repeated even by grave magistrates on the 
bench.* In a riot, a soldier cannot use the right undeniable to all 
God's creatures of defending himself, but the yell of military outrage 
is repeated from dunce to dunce ; men who have served with honour 
and distinction in the profession of arms, the best school perhaps for 
most officiial situations, cannot be appointed to any civil department of 
the State, but the shout of a military government is set up by the 
whole enlightened crew of modern philosophers. According to them, 
honour, loyulty, gallantry and patriotism, are public nuisances,t and 
should be scouted out of society : we are a naval and commercial 
people, and require no such articles, for they are not exchangeable in 
the public market. But Tyre, Carthage, Venice, and Genoa, were 
commercial nations, and what are they ? What would our naval. and 
commercial friends the Dutch be, but for that very army it is so much 
the fashion of a certain set of writers and speakers to traduce? Dis« 
band the army,^ or, what is the same thing, destroy the spirit that alone 
renders it formidable, and the loss of the East and West Indies, Ca« 
nada, the Cape, and our Mediterranean possessions are the instanta- 
neous results ; for no one who has ever seen a weather-cock veer about 
upon a London steeple, can well be so simple as to suppose that any 

'™ ■ ■■■»■■■■■■ ■ ^ — ■ ■■■■■--■!■ ■■ ■■■^^^^^1 ■ ■■ ^i^m* ■■■■■ ^111 ■ pi 

• jSee London Police Reports for 1828. 

•f Westminster Review. Mill's History of Chivalry. 



spot on earth can now be defended hf Heeta alone. But if ttie firnij 
eannot be altogether reduced, its priile may be broken and a cheaper 
commodity may be obtained. Easily, no doubt ; but " as ye sow so 
Ahftll ye reap." Deprire tlie military profession of the halo that but- 
founaB it ; destroy all these encTgiEing sentiments and feelings, (the 
result; of illusion, pMliaps,) that still attach themselves in the breast of 
the soldier, and of the better part of mankind, to the " pride, pomp and 
ciFctimstiince of glorious war," and there is an end to the army. Take 
bf^t honour out of the scale, extinguish thnt aspiration after fame 
SBA distinction, that lon^ng for danger and the Iwuiidless elasticity it 
eonferR, and before which obstacles vanish that would make mere cal- 
culation shrink back appalled, and the profession of arms becomes 
one of unrewarded Buffering and danger, and the most ungrateful to 
whieh men can devote themselves. 

What is to be expected from such degraded armies, destitute alike of 
murage, discipline, and patriotism, may he learned from the late re- 
volutions in Spain, Portugal, and Naples. The records of mankind 
furnish hut one continued proof of the melancholy fact, that armies and 
arms alone have been able to protect inen, whether living in great or in 
Innall communities, from the rapacity of those who were strong enough 
to despoil them. Turn the blood-stained page of historv which way 
you will J let sophiMtry misrepresent, and party spirit falsify, still Is 
this the grand and leading truth that everywhere presents itself, and 
naluraUy calls aloud to arms. Tile last age witnessed the reign of 
Catherine the abhorred, and saw her constant aggressions on unolTend- 
ing Turkey, and the dismemberment of Poland :^^t we have, in our 
day. seen the wars " for power, for plunder, and extended rule," car- 
ried on by the different demagogues of France, from the imbecile men 
of blood, who governed by the guillotine, down to the mightv man of 
little mind, who reigned by the sword. The very same principles that 
tkuR deluged the East and West with blood, and ultimately brought the 
French to Moscow, and the Tartars from the ^ntiers of China to the 
banks of the Seine, are again opposed to each other on more distinct 
and avowed grounds of hostility. A war of extermination is about to 
be waged, and it behoves us to ask ourselves what we have to expect 
from the com^nerors. If the autocrates prove victorious, as with ordi- 
nary conduct they probably must, will they not strive to extinguish in 
this country the last sparks of European freedom f If the French pre- 
vail, have they not the long and rankling list of defeats from Cressy to 
unf^rgiven Vvaterloo to avenge i Did our boundless aid in the day of 
danger and adversity make the Continental Sovereigns our friends ? or 
did our generous forgiveness in the hour of victory soothe the wounded 
pride of vain-glorious France ? To talk of the principle of non-inter- 
vention nnder such circumstances, is an idle waste of words, and to 
act up to it would be criminal. We are the last stay of European 
liberty and civilization, and must no longer allow ourselves to be guid- 
ed by the Utopian doctrines of itinerant spouters, or by the idle theo- 
ries of an ignomnt and factious press. We must took to history and 
experience, 
' " And learn to guide the future by the past." 

J. M. 



k 



83 



SONG OP A PBA6ANT GIRL AFTBR THE BATTLB OP 

I.BIPSIC. 

YoD sometimes indulge^ Mr. Editor, in a stray song or sonnet. The en- 
closed is from the Grerman ; and if you think it worth a place in your Journal, 
it is infinitely at your service. 

I do not plague you with the original, but will only obserre, that the 
translation is almost literal, and that iSte only difficulty has been in approach* 
ing the former's plaintiveness and nmpKdty. Yours, 

Amicus. 

The fight is won ! the foe is flyings— 

Humh, my girl ! my father cries ; 
Away Tain fears and useless sigfaingw*. 

For Freedom is the battle's prize. 

True to his home and country's altars. 

Each German lifts the sword to save ; 
And think, ye maidens, what an honour ! 

My Henry fights among the brave. 

Ah ! who shall teU my parting sadness 

When glory call'd him to the field ; 
But now mv heart is fiUM with gladness. 

Because his courage was our shield. 

How often when the news was brought us 

Of many a gallant action done, 
I said, " Our bands must needs be noble, 

Few Henry, my beloved, is — one.*' 

Butyesterday my joy was doubled. 

When down the printed tidings came ; 
My father read and cried delighted. 

And call'd me loudly by my name. 

My child — ^my Berthar^'tis decided ! 

Again our father-land is free ; 
And now the terms of peace are settled-^ 

And Henry 's surely there to see. 

On Saxon ground the foe was routed. 

And Leipsic saw the battle's shock ; 
I scarce can number all the trophies. 

Or count the captive crowds we took. 

How many waggons deeply laden 

With powder and with ball were won ; 
How many cannon there were taken — 

While Henry in the strife was— one. 



In every eye it joy and gladnt 
The shout of Freedom fills the air ; 

Yet, there be maids who pine in sadness. 
Because tihey had no Henry there. 

But hold, my heart ! what fearful numbers 
I hear of slaughter'd in the fray ; — 

How, if my Henry's name's among them — 
Ah^ no ! he was not ther^ that oay ! 



24 



ON THB DISCIPLINE* OP THE MERCANTILE MARiNB. 

^* White is the glassy deck without a stain, 

Where on the watch the staid Lieutenant walks : 

Look on that part which sacred doth remain 

^or the lone chieftain, who majestic stalks, 

Silent and fear*d by aU— not oft he talks 

With aught beneath him, if he would preserve 

That strict restraint, which broken, ever balks 

Conquest and Fame ; but Brit'on& rarely swerve 

From Law, however stem, which tends their strength to nerve." 

Byrok. 

We have just risen firom the perusal of a work on this subject writ- 
ten by Capt. Christopher Biden, an old and meritorious officer of the 
East India Company's service ; and who, from having progressively 
advanced to his present rank and held the command of two fine ships, 
may be presumed to understand well what he writes upon. The book 
is rather discursive in its arrangement, but it presents an aggregate of 
facts which fully merit the attention of our Government and the public 
at large. To the gallantry and general merits of. our Indiamen, of 
which he adduces many instances, we willingly add our warm testi- 
mony ; for certainly, no such efficient traders ever floated upon the 
waters: and their discomfiture of Admirals SuflPrein, Sercey, and 
Linois, — ^their ready co-operation in various expeditions, — and their 
resolute encounters with formidable frigates, have stamped them with 
unfading credit. Nor can we forget the glow of gratification with 
which we observed the astonishment of some Spanish prisoners on 
board a frigate we then served in, at being told that a fleet which we 
met ofl^ Lintin, consisted of British merchantmen only ; for they might 
easily have been palmed oflT as line^of-battle-ships. Capt. Biden after 
reciting several spirited actions, remarks : 

*' The high order and warlike appearance of the China ships frequently 
drew forth the highest encomiums from admirals and captains in the navy, 
and the distinguished approbation of Admirals Cornwallis, Rainier, Sir S. 
Hood, Lord £xmouth, Ferrier; Captains Pym, Austen, Sir Henry Heath- 
cote, &c. I well remember the favourable notice bestowed on the China 
fleet by the late Capt. Bissell, who convoyed us an eastern passage to China, 
in the most able manner. His subsequent melancholy fate off the Isle of 
France, with the gallant Sir T. Troubridge, deprived the navy of a brave 
and most able officer. 

" The Royal George, in which ship I sei'ved for seven successive voyages, 
was frequently taken for a frigate; and when we fell in with Sir £, Pellew's 
squadron, the sloop of war sent by the Admiral to speak us, delivered the 
following messa£fe : — ' Tell the Captain if he had not bis main-top-mast stay- 
sail in the brails, I should have taken his ship for a frigate ;' this trifling 
incident was not lost upon me, and is worthy the notice of every young 
officer, who should keep his ship in that ship-shape order, and ever do his 
duty as if all eyes were upon him, particularly when falling in with a ship at 
sea : sailors are severe critics J* 

Nor has the gallantry of the mercantile seamen been confined to the 
floating castles of India ; for innumerable encounters with privateers, 

* Naval Discipline, &c. &c., by Christopher Biden, late Commander of the Hon. 
East India Company*s Ships Royal Gfeorge, and Princess Charlotte of Wales. 



ON THB DlSClPLkNB OP THB MRRCANTILB MARINB. 25 

and successful stratagems, have distinguished our trading vessels over 
the whole globe* When Lord Howe, in 177H, was menaced by the 
powerful fleet of M. d'Estaing at Sandy Hook, he moored his ships in 
the best order for defence, but still had the mortification, during several 
days, of seeing captures made, without a possibility of affording relief. 
Upon the appearance of the enemy, 1000 volunteers from the trans- 
ports immediately offered their services to man the m^n-of-war ; and 
such was the ardour among these brave fellows/ that even many of 
those who it was necessary should remain to take care of their re- 
spective vessels, were found concealed, in the boats which were em- 
ployed to convey their more fortunate companions on board the ships. 
The zeal displayed by the masters and mates of the merchant vesseb 
at New York, was equally meritorious ; they earnestly solicited em- 
ployment, and cheerfully took their stations at the guns, and assisted 
in all the duties of foremast-men : others put to sea in light craft to 
watch the motions of the enemy, performing various essential services ; 
and one in particular, with a noble disinterestedness, offered to convert 
his vessel, which was the whole of his fortune, into a fire-ship, to be 
conducted by himself. In the wars which arose out of the French 
Revolution, a similar energy has been frequently manifested ; and we 
have personally witnessed the conspicuous public spirit, and voluntary 
bravery, with which many were actuated on the expeditions to the 
Scheldt/ and the Tagus v at Cadiz, and in the Mediterranean. 
' Such being the claims of our mercantile marine, we are now called 
upon to express our regret on witnessing the recent attempts,— at leasts 
as far as they can be accomplished by general assertions and indiscri- 
minate abuse — to disparage oUr commercial interests, by maudlin news- 
papers palliating the mutinous conduct of a gang of refractory seamen. 
It is in evidence that the crew of the Ingus dictated to their com- 
mander and officers ; that the ringleader incited his shipmates " away 
to the arm-chest;*' and that another clapped the Captain on the 
shoulder, telling him, " here's three cheers for you, by way of defiance !" 
There can be but one sound opinion as to this heinous misconduct ; and 
if such inflammatory language and action do not meet with exemplary 
punishment, the most ruinous consequences are inevitable. But how 
does that dictatorial monster " the press'' take up the matter ? In-^ 
stead of advocating the cause of order, and upholding that source of 
employment which fosters our naval strength, the newspapers in gene- 
ral have poured forth a sentimental diatribe on the wickedness of retri- 
bution ; -and with calumnious clamour have thrown down the gauntlet 
in favour of drunkenness, insolence, and disobedience. By their states 
ments it would appear to have been given in evidence that the pri- 
soners sent from St. Helena, in the Vansittart, were seventy-two days 
in irons ; whereas, Capt. Scott, Commander of that vessel, declares that, 
on the fifth or sixth day subsequent to their departure from that island, 
these men were released from irons, and only re-confined when the ship 
entered the river Thames. Nor should it be omitted that the term 
used is, "sent home heavily ironed," by which, instead of merely being 
moored by the leg at a bilbo-bolt, the credulous landsmen would receive 
an impression that the '^ unoffending" scamps of the Inglis were mana- 
cled and fettered, like the felons in Newgate. 
„ But it is not with a view of noticing such licentious distortion of 



H« 



ON THE DISCIPLINE OF THE 



cases, or to dwell upon the real and assumed state of tlie fucts in ques- 
tion, that we are now writing. Our object is to assert the Decessity of 
inquiring into tbe causes of the progressive insubordination on board 
our trading ships ; and also to point out the truly defenceless condition 
of the officers and passengers of a ship in a state of mutiny. As to 
wanton severity in the Company's officers, it is ratber invective than 
argument ; for, however an individual or two may have misbehaved, 
there can be no reflection on the humanity of the commanders of that 
service at large. Harsh and unjust officers can always be made respon- 
sible, and no tyranny can ever palliate disaffection, or be made the plea 
for piracy or murder. It is certain, that evil passions have been ez- 
cited and pampered, and the sovereignty of brute force appealed to; | 
and it is also clear that the general interests and character of the coubc I 
try should no longer be trifled with. The spring of industry which 1 
unites the entire human race in common wants and mutual obligationa, 1 
by overcoming the obstacles of distance and climate, and which au^. 1 
ments at once tbe wealth of the state and the comfort of its inhabitnnbl I 
by " bringing into it whatever is wanting, and carrying out of it whab> I 
ever is superfluous," — this spring should be an object of the greateet j 
national solicitude. And we trust that an occasional exposure of fl»> I 
grant grievances will draw attention in the proper quarters; thereby I 
proving, that neither the goverumeat nor the public are regardless--* I 
the first of its most sacred duties, the last, of its best interests. 

The nature and extent of our mercantile marine are not, perhaps, i . 
generally appreciated as they should be ; fur sliips being machines of I 
national power, and means of civilization, are the noblest property J 
which a country can possess, independent of tbe soil. At the close of J 
1828, the number of trading vessels actually belonging to British porta, 1 
was 24.280, with a capacity of 2,553,685 tons ; giving employment t« ' 
166,583 sailors and boys. In addition to these, the British em)Hre 
possesses 3,679 ship {many of them of force as well as burthen) which 
belong to her colonies, — and when we further consider the vast numbers 
of persons on our quays, docks, and rivers, who derive their subsistence 
by attending them, the magnitude of the object must rise in estima- 
tion. Yet England, whose principal moving power is commerce, is 
the only maritime nation without a legalised code of regulations for the 
discipline of those engaged therein ; no law defining the extent of 
obedience that is due by tbe sailor to his superior, or the protection 
which he ought to receive against the abuse of autlioritv ; — in fact, no 
recognized bond or principle to govern their mutual relations. It has 

" Captain, louk out, 'tis your concern. 
To gorem well from stem to sl«m." 

but how can he manage it without legal authority f And considerii^ 
the discordant elements often found on his decks, it is matter of maiw 
vel bow any semblance of order has been maintained at all. It will ba 
a cause of gratulation' when onr Government can quit abstract theories 
and descend to affairs of practical utility, amongst the first of which ia 
the unprotected situation of the commercial marine; for unless some 
recognized formularies can be adapted and adopted, ttie litigious spirit 
abroad will stiike at our maritime greatness. Nor is he altogether 
wool-gathering who has pronounced, that as mutineers must not be 



I 



MRRGANTILR MARINE. S7 

confined^ tfor sallorB coerced^ — ^tbe captain of a ship will shortly be 
expected to take off his hat to the watch, and saj, ^ Gentlemen, if yam 
please, that is, if yon consider it quite consistent with the principles of 
Magna Charta and the liberty ca the subject, I should ^1 particu- 
larly obliged to you, if you would do me the favour to go aloft and take 
in top-gallant-sails." And in the twelfth century, the Oleron laws 
actually enforced something very like this, for it was expressly (mt- 
dained z-^^' If a ship or other vessel be in a port, waiting for weather 
and a wind to depart ; the master ought when that comes, before his 
departure to consult his company -and say to them : — ' GkntlemeB, 
what think you of this wind ?' If any of them see that it is not 
settled, and advise him to stay till it is ; and others on the contrary 
would have him make use of it as fair, he ought to follow the advice of 
the maJOT part." Who would return to this absurdity ? 

Method, in naval affairs, has been compared to salt in seasoninff— as 
too little m insipid, so too much is offensive. Now it strikes us, uiat a 
principal cause of the demoralization of our seamen, sprang from the 
impolitic and disgraceful practice of foisting common felons, and United 
Irishmen, throughout our fleet ; and that the gradual relaxation which 
has taken place in our men-of-war, has occasioned the entire absence of 
discipline m the merchant service; — an absence which debases the 
seaman, and is at once the cause of his petulance, and the intemperate 
endeavours to enforce authority im the other side. It has been decided 
that a captain is justified in using illegal means to enforce a legal order; 
bat there are fbw commanders who do not quail before the heavy ex- 
penses of a legal justification. Most of them would rather clear for 
action with an enemy, than engage in a court of law : what with jargon 
and technical riddles, delays, and vexations, they would prefer the 
battle and the hurricane to the quibbling sons of sophistry, with their 
b^ wigs and parchment. In fact, the service is pestered as with a gan- 
grene by the pettifogging outsoouts of Doctors' Commmis — that anti- 
^«ated sink of precedents and heavy charges ! And the route of these 
carrion crows may be traced by the withmng mildew visible in their 
wake: to these ^the sea-attorneys" make their court, and the mischief 
begins, — for the most indolent and worthless of those embarked, have 
been often known purposely to provoke the anger of their betters, with 
a view to law and future dami^es. Generally speaking, our commei^ 
dal system is founded on more enlarged and liberal principles than 
that of any other Eitf opean country ; but in the particular department 
of Marine Law, it can lay claim to no such distinction. On the con- 
trary, this supposed aegis of a most important department of industry 
smd finance is subjected to very oppressive regulations. Of the eviw 
which masters labour under, Capt* jBiden cites numerous cases, from 
which we will submit one at random : 

** Shipped on board the Lady Raffles, bound to Bombay, in the month of 
March 1^8, at Gravesend, fifteen men, that had been just paid off from the 
AlMon seventy-four» at Portsmouth. l*he ship anchored in the Downs 
about three days after the men had been on board. After the ship had 
received her passengers and provisions on board, the hands were turned up 
to get the snip under weigh (the wind being fair) when the fifteen men 
alnmdy mentk>ned, r^sed' to assist in manning the capstan. Capt. Tucker 
called l^ni aft, when tkef stated Ihail they were willing to go in the 



28 ON THB DISCIPLINE OF THB 

bat that they did hot intend to put their hands to a rope, or assist int any 
way to do the duties of the ship during the voyage, unless they could be 
allowed one pint of rum per day ; which Capt. Tucker then refused. He 
applied to Capt. Pigot of tne Ramilies (the ^ard-ship) for his assistance, to 
compel the men to go to their duties, they having signed the ship's articles, 
and received, each man, his tv^o months' advance in cash. Capt. Pigot 
stated that he dared not even punish a man on board his own ship, as she 
was under the district of a magistrate, and therefore, he was sorry he could 
do nothing to assist him in the business, but advised Capt. Tucker to apply 
to the magistrate at Deal ; he did so, when the magistrate told him that if 
his people, after having signed articles, had refused to go in the ship, or 
deserted the ship, he could punish them, but he was not authorized to com- 
pel them to do the duties oi the ship, neither could he assist Capt. Tucker 
in the case. Upon this, Capt. Tucker went off to the ship, and called the 
men aft again, and told them he would give them a pint of rum per day, if 
they would return to their duties, when twelve of them stated that, if he had 
conceded to their wishes at first, they would have assisted to get the ship 
under weigh, but they would not do so now ; upon which, after the ship had 
been detained three or four days in the Downs, with a fair wind, twelve 
fresh hands were sent down from London at a great expense, and the twelve 
offenders allowed to quit the ship unpunished. 

'' Mr. Richard Green, owner of the Lady Raffles, who furnished me with 
this statement, applied to the Thames Ponce for the apprehension of the 
above men, and was recommended to prosecute them ; the magistrate could 
suggest no other remedy. 

'' The valuable time already sacrificed by such infamous conduct as the 
seamen of this ship betrayed, besides the considerable expense that was in- 
curred, stamp the whole affair with the greatest disgrace, and is an excellent 
commentary on the oft-told tale, that subordination is to be sustained by an 
appeal to the civil power. 

" Let it be considered who are the partv which a zealous owner is required 
to prosecute : a few sailors without a shilling beyond their ill-ffot plunder 
from the Lady Raffles. And have owners of ships no other duty to per- 
form } In this case, a valuable ship, full of passengers, bound to Bombay, 
having a fair wind, had already been shamefuUy detained ; a prosecution 
would have been followed by further and more serious detention ; the Cap- 
tain must have been detained as a witness, or bound over to appear : in fact, 
such proceedings, warped as justice is by the knavery of pettifogging law- 
yers and perjured clients, are all a farce. 

As to the moral operation of the Admiralty Court, nothing can be 
-worse, — for it is a scourge on the ship-owners, as well as the masters, 
from its expensive and inquisitorial ex-parte mode of procedure, and 
the meretricious stages by which it pursues its inquiries, — running up 
■Steam-boat accidents for decisions under the Rhodian laws. Thus a 
case has come within our cognizance, of the owner of a brig from 
Smyrna, who by searching after the relations of a deceased seaman, in 
order to deliver to them the clothes, and balance of wages, awoke one 
of the sharks which infest the eastern regions of London. This fellow, 
with the utmost effrontery, produced a paper, evidently just written, 
by which the deceased bequeathed every thing to him. The gentle- 
man was resolved to treat this iniquitous attempt with utter disdain, 
if not to punish it : but the wretch, aware of the nature of troubled 
waters, exclaimed,—*' No, no ! Prove me in the wrong first. Pay 
me, or I'll have you into Doctors' Commons. Where are your proofs 
of this paper being forged ? Produce them, else my story remains 
good." Our friend writhed from the bottom of his heart, for he saw no 



MBRGANTILE MARINE. 29 

mode of resisting the infamous extortion, and he well knew that h» 
could not get out of that courts even with an acquittal^ under an ex«> 
pense of fifty pounds. He accordingly delivered up the property^ with 
a resolution of giving the sailor's relations a similar amount from his 
own purse if they should ever come forward. A day or two after the 
transaction had taken place> he was called upon by another man» one 
of the crew of the vessel, to acknowledge that he had confederated in 
drawing up the forgery , but that the principal had defrauded him of 
his share of the spoil! 

Our author also adduces instances of compromises being made, rather 
than incur expenses, of which we will cite one of Capt. Driver : 

'^ When I commanded the Clyde, in the free trade, one of the seamen 
stabbed my chief mate. I considered myself fully justified in flogging him ; 
but one of the rascals attempted to rescue this blood-thirsty vifiain. To 
preserve any thing like discipline, I fLogged him also, but only inflicted eight 
lai^es. However, on my arrival, I had- one of those hornets after me, called 
proctors. I employed another ; who said, if I gained the suit, the expenses 
would be heavy ; and by his advice, I gave the informer ten pounds ; this I 
did, which, in reality, is paying a man for behaving ill, ana rewarding a 
fellow for attempting to rescue an assassin." 






England is a land which can never be conquered," says Raleigh, 
whilst the Kings thereof keep the dominion of the sea ;" and that 
dominion is only to be maintained by unceasing vigilance to nautical 
interests in all their ramifications. Now it appears that the only 
control over merchant seamen consists in their signing certain articles, 
and if they desert, forfeiture of wages ; but this has no weight in pre« 
venting neglect of duty, provoking behaviour, or mutiny. On arrival 
in port, in nine cases out of ten, the magistrates decline interfering, 
and nothing is left but to be saddled with a lawyer's bill. And after 
all, what are fine and imprisonment to men, who disregard expenses, 
and are inured to confinement? It is therefore clear that distinct 
legislative enactments, and a methodized system of action, are abso- 
lutely necessary ; and that a temperate discipline is requisite for the 
support and encouragement of willing good men, against lazy skulkers. 
For real order does not wholly consist of mere passive obedience to 
arbitrary regulations; laws must be portioned and adapted to the 
various wants and exigencies of all classes concerned, since they may 
become a poison or a panacea, according to the judgment with whicn 
they are administered. To accomplish such an end, there may be 
many prejudices to overcome; but the subject, being fraught with 
serious consequences to the national prosperity, is too important to be 
glozed over. When seamen were less instructed, they were more easily 
moulded to customs and usages, which they never thought of scru« 
tinizing. Sunday papers, and designing sea-lawyers, however, have 
made the restless spirits quibble without reason or moderation. Now 
when men question quarter-deck authority, and assume the right of 
measuring out their employment, so as to accord with their own crude 
ideas, the necessity is evinced of establishing into laws whatever is 
permanently necessary. In strict justice we would advise that skulk- 
ing, <x)ntempt, and refusal of duty, quitting the ship without leave, 
habitual drunkenness, and theft, should be severely punished ; — always 
bearing in mind the Nelsonian axiom that*-*^^ lenity at first, is severity 



aO ON THB DlSCtPI^NA OF THB 

at hat:** on die other band, we adrocate tliat tlwre be a oontnlHiK 
pewer orer the rictiialliiig of merdumt ships ; fior short alhnraaeey had 
profisioiis, and rartoiis irregiUarities in tliat department^ haTe been « 
nerer-failing spring of discontent. The ratings and wagef: ^theold be 
sempiUoaslT classined according to indiridnal merits^ and the statioaa 
of pettjr officers awarded to those only who are remarkable for enuu 
, lation and excellence. Trifling and Texations modes of carrying on 
duty ought to be avoided, nor should the hands ever be tnrned>np, 
when the watch is capable of performing what is required to be done. 
And to rivet the links of that chain of willing obedience which is the 
soul of good order, indiscriminate abuse, and blasphemous oaths, must 
be abolished on both sides ; though we cannot bring ourselves to believe 
the feelings of sailors so sensitive, as to suflTer unc^r a hearty damn, as 
hath lately been pithily shown by the hue and cry hounds of the 
^' Press." Contemptuous treatment rankles more than all the curses 
and myriamorphons execratiims which could be heaped upon them in 
ihe heat pi hurry ; for they never hold with JVIaw-worm that they 
^' likes to be despised/' 

In the executi\re movements of a ship, mudi of the disposition aaod 
tact of a good officer is apparent. Thirst for popularity is apt to warp 
the judgment, and we would strongly recommend every one in charge 
of the deck duties, to act with circumspect impartiality, as the best 
mode of insuring subordination and smartness. By fully endeavourijaig 
to ascertain enm man's individual qualifications, an officer can make 
bis arrangements accordingly ; his system should be clear and method* 
ioal ; the execution of it precise and regular. Let him be mindful to 
afford leisure at stated periods ; and as £»: as service admits, to promote 
a pride of ship, by permitting the music, dandng, and active festivities, 
in which every seaman delights: thus — 

" Teach him fati^e and labour to despise. 
Nor heed or boisterous winds, or frowning skies.'' 

In the preamble to the Act of Parliament passed when William and 
Mary gave up the palace at Greenwich, for a naval hospital, this ap- 
propriate eulogy occurs.^-"'' And wherefis the seamen of this kingdom 
nave for a long time distinguished themselves throughout the worlds 
by their industry and skilfiuness in their employments^ and by th€ar 
oourage and constancy, manifested in engagements, for the defence and 
honour of their native country." Such was the proud character of 
our tars at the close of the seventeeth century : and we need not 
qypeal to the names of Leeke, Rooke, Hawke, Howe, or Nelson, £or 
evidence of their having stric^y maintained their credit: it is im» 
perishably written an the annals of nations. 

And here let us dwell a numient upon the character of the British 
sailor, — not the grass-combing squad whidi is found intermixed, but the 
r^ttlar buUt water-dog— the " pitcht peece of reason" of Sir T, Over- 
bmrv* Unlike the mariners of most other nations, who merely bear 
\irita the privations of sea-life for the sake of its emoluments, the 
Briton is almost the only o«e who betakes himself to the ocean fimn 
his tenderest vears '^ for uetter for worse," and can hardlv be tempted, 
even in his old age, to live on shore, « at least, out of sk^t of salt- 
water. He is iaBved to withstand Uie various assaults el heat, and 



MBRCANTILB MARIN B. 31 

cold,— wiiid^ waves, And enemies ; and whether in the h«ttle or the 
k'eeze, will stick to his duty like a barnacle to a ship's bottom, under 
the axiom that if he is to strike^ it k better to die ^' doing somethinp^." 
He will no more think of shrinking or dodging than the mainmast. 
His life is one of high occasional excitement, and prolific enoneh from 
time to time in occurrences <^ deep interest. From the i^ayfiuness of 
his disposition, he has been described as the oldest '* boy" wno wears a 
j«cket-*-"a sort of child on man's scantling ; but whether in a lark, a 
sheere-o, or a bit of mischief, he never fergets the deeply-implanted 
creed,-—*' messmate before a shipmate, shipmate before a straneer, 
stranger before a dog." He is as innocent of logic as an archbi^op 
is of nayigaticm, jet becomes argute upon some points, and will spin 
you a yam as long as a lead line, wherein he advances many matters 
not laid down in Sooks ; if he has occasion for raking, he seldom fires 
wadding only, and if hard pushed, throws his ashes to windward, and 
runs his cable to the very clinch. He likes that every thing should be 
above-board, and in its regular channel ; and though he can batten on 
provisions which are neither wholesome nor toothsome, still he does 
not relish banyan days, nor six- water grog, because, he will tell you, 
he merelylikes grog for the sake of the spiritual liquor that is put 
into it. With this capacity of endurance, and a thoughtless indiflerenee 
to self, he becomes familiarized to danger, and his thoughts on th» 
head rarely ^ve much trouble to his ttmgue. Thus inured from early 
age, he is fit for any service, evei^ for that lingering harassment — the 
blockade of northern pcHrts^ 

^' Where clouds, and fogs, and darkness drear. 
Obscure and sadden half the year." 

Nevertheless it must be confessed, that his frank disposition, hie 
staunch courage, his headlong desperation in following an officer, and 
his steadiness in danger, are partly counterbalanced by occasional dis* 
content and improvidence. This may in some degree originate in the 
restraint over his actions when afloat, want of reflection, and the limited 
nature of his shore-going cruises: but this we will vouch for, that 
when a sailor deviat(ss from his wontoi honesty, his vices seldom p«r- 
ta]»e of turpitude ; and it will be found that some seU'latvyer is at the 
bottom. A thorough sailor once sailed with us, as a quarter-master, 
and on our return to England, it appeared thsd: he had served the 
time etrpukted for a pension, except that the three first years w^e 
lost, by his having run from the service. Yet, as his subsequent con- 
duct had drawn the warm approbation of his several oommi^ers, we 
did all in our power to get the obnoxious B. taken from his name ; but 
the Admiralty were inexorable: on pleading his excellent behaviour 
under our own eye for four years, it was properly ^lOQgh remarked 
that, " the better the man, the stronger the example." On informing 
him of the result, we questioned him as to how he came to be so silly 
as to desert ? had he been harshly treated ? or what ? *' No, Sir 1" 
was his reply, ^ I never was more comfortable, but a galley -yowling 
chap persuaded me." '' But," demanded we, '* why did you alter your 
name ?" ** Oh, it was the fashion then. Sir !" 

Sudi being the rarv material, is it to be wondered at, that, subject 
to frequent and irregukr chaises from deprivation to enjoyment^ and 



32 ON THE DISOIPLINJS OF THE 

influenced by various deep-rooted habits engendered on the ocean^ 
sailors should be stamped with a generic character^ eccentricity of 
manner, utter carelessness about the present, and utter fearlessness 
about the future ? The navy watches them with paternal care^ as can 
be testified by many a " goose" at Greenwich. But far different is the 
fate of merchant seamen. They are turned adrift the moment their 
ship gets into dock, their places are supplied by lumpers, and they are 
no more regarded by either master or owners than so many bags of 
shakings would be: and it has been established by evidence before 
Parliamentary Committees, that this custom, in one branch alone, the 
coal trade, adds more than a hundred thousand a-vear to the amount of 
the consumer's expenses ; for the crews of colliers are absolutely pre- 
vented from performing the delivery of their cargoes, which ought to 
constitute an independent part of their peculiar duty. On landing, it 
may be that Jack's purse is tolerably ballasted with rhino ; his first 
object is to purchase a watch, which he insists shall be a strong one ; 
his next is to rig himself with true-blue, and long-quartered shoes, in 
all the taste of a Sea-Adonis. Perchance he mounts a horse, when 
away they go with more velocity than discretion, and he is lucky if not 
speedily thrown on the mane,^ for the steed is usually some rip too 
well known to be bestrode by any but a stranger, and either as frblick- 
some and wild as Mazeppa's, or as ill-conditioned as Rozinante. The 
cruise and all its nameless consequences rapidly follow— *a southerly 
wind enters the pockets, and in a few days the ephemeral Crcesus is 
taken in tow by the heartless crimps ; and so far from the burnt child 
dreading the fire, this is repeated each voyage, with little variation ; for 
the unreflecting tar, acquiring no experience from the past, is ever open 
to fresh temptation. 5^ow we maintain that it will be a worthy legis- 
lative enactment which will bind the employers and the employed by 
stronger ties, and thereby rescue the latter from the snares of the un- 
principled scoundrels who snap them up. Still more lamentable is the 
shameless destitution of their old age, which, from the alternating 
vicissitudes of their avocation, is too frequently premature. When 
worn out, gaunt misery ''marks them for her own." See the con- 
trast of the man-of-war's man : at comfortable moorings, he still 
associates with his kind, fights his battles o'er again^ and may even 
find messmates with whom he had joined in the shout of victory. We 
recollect a picture of touching interest in Noble's didactic poem 
'*' Blackheath," where a veteran sailor is described sitting under an 
elm in Greenwich Park, and watching the ship, in which he had fought^ 
coming up the Thames to be broken up : — 

'' On his rough brow, remembrance fondly gleams : 
His brighten'd cheek through all its wrinkles smiles : 
Wlule frequent cross his eye, his moisten'd sleeve 
Drawn hastily, wipes off some starting tear." 

It must be admitted that though our tars are as brave as lions, yet 
like those noble animals^ they are unmanageable by greenhorns. 
Indeed their reckless bluntness of manner very frequently leads them 
into serious dilemmas ; but their rage, like that of the scorpion, mostly 

■■■ ■ ' -■ ■ . ■ — ■ ■ - ■ ^ ^ ^^ 

* Quere, ought not this to be main^ as the sailor's place ? — Printer *s D. 



MBRCANTILE MARINE. 33 

recoils on themselves. In the heat of the moment they will follow 
any example, however outrageous ; and therefore those who " go down 
to the sea in ships and occupy their business in great waters," ought 
to be duly organized. Captain Biden relates numerous anecdotes of 
this refractory spirit, of which we will extract one, by way of instance. 

" Captain W. H. Biden, commanding the Thalia, going upon deck on 
the 14th of October, at sea, observed several of his crew swimming under 
the bows and alongside ; he questioned the officer of the watch about allow- 
ing such impropriety, considering the danger from sharks, &c., who replied 
he had ordered them in, but they would not obey ; the boatswain had en- 
deavoured to prevent the men going overboard, without effect : the captain 
then ordered them on board. After some hesitation on the part of Thomas 
Rogers, (seaman,) this order was obeyed ; the hands were then turned up, 
and the ship's company were made acquainted that swimming or goinff over- 
board was contrary to the regulations of the ship ; a spirit of disaffection 
betrayed itself among several of the men, and Rogers came forward in the 
most daring manner, declaring he would go overboard in spite of the Cap- 
tain or any one else. This man*s insolence became so inflammatory, that he 
was ordered on the poop, which he reluctantly obeyed, but burst out into 
mutinous language. Captain Biden then ordered him to be placed in con- 
finement; he then became outrageous, seized an iron belaying-pin, and 
threatened to knock down the first person who attempted to put him in 
irons, and made all the resistance in his power. The Captain then endea- 
voured to wrench the belaying-pin from him, and succeeded, at length, in 
securing this turbulent fellow, upon which two other seamen declared they 
would also go in irons ; they were in consequence 6ent as prisoners on the 
poop. This was not the first or second offence Rogers ban been guilty of, 
particularly on one occasion, in a heavy gale of wind, when the strops of dead- 
eyes of the main rigging broke, and all the hands were ordered up to secure 
the mainmast ; this skiukinff vagabond refused, until his captain went down 
to send him up, and then, like a lubberlv scoundrel as he must have been^ 
falsely declared he had been on deck all day, and was knocked up; what 
seaman, even in such a case, would have so excused himself when the main- 
mast was in danger ? 

** An inquiry was afterwards held into the conduct of these men. Rogers 
declared he had a right to go overboard to bathe when he pleased, and that 
he took the belaying-pin to defend himself, suspecting it was the captain's 
intention to flog him. 

'' J. Maclellau declared if ^ some people were put in irons, others must do 
their duty ; to avoid which he would rather be a prisoner than do the duty 
of others.* 

" Thomas Thomas was most insolent, declaring, if Rogers went into irons, 
he would be d — d if he would not go. This fellow had been guilty of theft, 
and pardoned upon promise of future good behaviour ; being charged with 
this breach of promise by his present misconduct, he replied Captain W. H. 
Biden was as bad as himself, for not punishing him, and was most violent 
and contemptuous in his conduct. 

'' Maclellan was ordered to be suitably admonished ; Thomas Thomas to 
be punished with three dozen ; T. Rogers to be confined in irons, and de- 
livered over to the civil power at the first English port the ship touched at. 
This mutinous fellow appealed to the ship's company to rescue him, to resist 
the captain's authority, and try which party was the strongest. 

" My brother laid this case before the magistrates at Calcutta, who would 
not interfere in the matter, and observed that he should have flogged him at 
sea, and that he wa^ vested Mjith full power for so doing. 

" On one point I fully agree with the magistrates, that such outrageous 
characters as Rogers and Thomas should have been flogged. I would advise 
every commander to punish, in the most exemplary manner, on the spot, 

U. S. JouRW. No. .30. May, 1831. n 



34 ON THB DISCIPLINE OP THR 

eyery daring attempt to dispute his authority, or excite, in any way, others 
to follow an example which may, hy ill-timed lenity and foriiearance, he 
followed hy open mutiny. In the case I have described^ the majority of 
the crew were well inclined, which induced my brother to stay the hand of 
severity ; but how mortiMng to submit to sudi contumely, and seek redress 
in vain, where we are told a remedy is always at hand, and where justice 
should ever preside." 

We once witnessed a scene of a similar kind in a West Indiaman : 
the commander, who was an active naval officer, being treated with 
contempt by a kind of " twice-laid" sailor, as great a rascal as ever 
swung at a fore-yard, and not recollecting the eastern axiom that '' a 
man should denounce no more than he can perform," threatened to 
dap him into irons : the fellow walked up, squared his arms, and with 
an aggravating tone and gesture, strengthened with such emphatic 
asseverations as seamen love to employ, bellowed — '' bring them here ! 
I'll throw 'em overboard, and perhaps you after them." Yet this 
blatant blusterer, who might have distressed a mild or weak com- 
mander^ being firmly collared and well shaken, was instantly proved 
to be a spiritless bragadocio ; and his insolence originated in the ill- 
defined extent of power which can be exercised in trading-vessels. 

It is but just that the situation of mastei', on board merchant-men, 
should be so filled as to guarantee the proper fulfilment of any enact- 
ments which the government might be pleased to make. And re- 
flecting on the command of a ship having been deemed, by maritime 
nations^ an affair of such importance as to have been regulated by 
express ordinances, we have felt mortified at the disgraceful manner 
in which hundreds of our ships have ploughed the oce^n. Where ig- 
norance, incapacity, intemperance^ and cupidity, are united in him who 
holds an apparent command, it is not unreasonable to expect the con- 
sequent degradation and demoralization of the seamen. With shame 
we confess to have met no such analogous absurdity among other 
nations. Examinations for estimating the qualifications of candidates 
for such appointments took place in Spain so far back as 1530, and in 
France from 1584. The Hanse Towns were also particularly scru- 
pulous, for they not only demanded the proper experience, biit also 
certificates of honesty and morality. Why then should England, the 
'' gem of the ocean," be the only country where the too confident ship- 
owners are at liberty to make the dirtiest bargain they can, and place 
a needy lubber in a responsible and honourable berth ? Formerly there 
was much more care in the disposal of these commands, and there were 
few English masters who were not proprietors as well of a portion at 
least of their vessels. 

From the tone and temper observable on these pages, our readers 
will acquit us of being innovators, or partisans of wholesale reforms, 
whether brewed by saints or by sinners. Yet we are not so blindly 
jealous of the institutions of our ancestors, as to deem it sacrilege to 
improve whatever may be found bad ; or to provide for present and 
future exigencies, with due regard to the policy of other powers, as 
affecting our security and welfare. While, ^therefore, we detail the 
inc(mveniences which necessarily result from the present mystified 
way of managing our marine affairs, it is with a view to taking effectual 
steps for removing them. This is a task of no common difficulty, and 
not to be accomplished by merely falling back upon the costly 



MERCANTILE MARINE. 35 

ill-digested statutes of the Admiralty Court ; for tbese^ however par- 
tially adapted to the ages through which they have been endured^ are 
confessed to be utterljr unfit for grappling with the present state of 
commerce and navigation. As the arguments for furbishing up this 
farrago are more specious than valid^ arrangements must be made^ as 
sweeping as those by which Louis XIV. quashed the troublesome 
compound of quibbles and quiddities which debilitated the marine 
strength of France^ when he politically gave his country an entire new 
body of mercantile and naval laws. 

Authority and precedent are the avowed foundations of our Ad- 
miralty jurisprudence ; yet new decisions of individual judges^ grounded 
upon fanciful analogies to some former case^ are constantly erected 
into maxims of law ; and an adherence to remote sources of authority^ 
in opposition to the plain standard of reason and common sense^ involves 
every fresh question in inextricable confusion. While the stability of 
the law is relied upon in theory, its uncertainty in practice is notorious ; 
and in fact^ decisions depend more upon the personal character of the 
judge, than upon any fixed or ascertained principles. Thus right or 
wrong become subordinate considerations ; the question is, not what is 
justj but what is law ! and that law is not to be found in any written 
enactment^ but in the ever- varying opinion of presiding judges. 

When we hear ignorant men murmuring about " good old times^" 
and the like^ we hardly know what they are driving at, except that 
the simplicity of the cry creates a smile. Do they wish for the times 
of religious intolerance, of political persecution^ of forced service, of 
burnings for witchcraft, of such trials and executions as those of 
Ealeigh and Doughty ? It is clamoured by some of the scribes of " the 
Press/' on the topic in question, that the ancient Rules and Customs 
of the sea are quite sufficient for the well-being of the merchant 
service. We should be glad to know which of those *' Rules and 
Customs" appeared to them so efficient. They could hardly mean the 
obsolete rigmarole for coasting craft, contained in the Rhodian and 
Oleron laws ; still less can they allude to those of Wisbuy, or of the 
Hanse Towns, because they are mere fudges from the former. Few, 
we think, would desire the restoration of the discipline which, as the 
Harleian MSS. inform us, was prevalent in the golden days of Queen 
Elizabeth, when ducking, keel-hauling, beaching, and cutting ofiT 
hands, were amongst the minor punishments; and when it was deemed 
propitious of fair winds, to have all the ** shippe-boys" soundly flogged 
every Monday morning. According to this summary code, *' If anye 
one slept in his watche, for the first time he was to be headed with a 
bucket of water ; for the second time, he was to be haled upp by the 
wrysts, and to have two buckets of water poured intoe his sleeves ; for 
the third time, he was to be bounde to the mayne-mast with plates of 
iron, and to have some gunn chambers, or a basket of buUetts tied to 
his armes, and so to remaine at the pleasure of the captaine ; for the 
fourth time, he was to be hanged at the boltsprite with a can of beere 
and a biscott of breade, and a sharpe knife, and soe to hange, and chuse 
whether he woulde cutt himself downe, and fall intoe the sea, or hange 
still and starve.*' Here 's a pretty alternative ! Why modern black- 
listing, polishing, swab wringing, and diluting of grog — the cat — the 
rope's end — the bilbo — the scraper — the bear — the holy-stone — are to 
this as a mosquito-bite is to an ulcer ! 

D 2 



36 

SURVEY OF THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA IN 1826-6.* 

The harbour of Angola is very extensive, with a great depth of 
water. I should, however, recommend all European vessels not to 
anchor within one mile and a half of the town ; for, as the nights are 
in general calm and oppressively hot, the sea-breeze becomes of the 
utmost importance, and by lying close under the island, it may be en- 
joyed with some degree of regularity. Numerous fortifications com- 
mand the bay at every point. The strongest and principal garrison is 
situated on the brow of a hill on one side of the town, mounting nearly 
eighty guns. In addition to this are three others ; one built on a rock 
communicating with the main land by a drawbridge, having also a very 
strong battery of sixty-four guns, commanding the harbour in every 
direction. The town of Angola is the most extensive settlement 
which the Portuguese possess on this coast. When approached from 
the southward it presents rather a grand and pleasing appearance, 
being situated on an eminence, surmounted by the garrison before 
mentioned. The houses are of stone, spacious an^ substantial, as Por- 
tuguese dwellings on this coast generally are ; regularly and even 
tastefully built, with several churches and a cathedral. The market is 
tolerably supplied during the season, but iilthy in the extreme. It is 
singular they do not take a greater pride in this one particular, for 
I believe, from the principal market-place of Lisbon, to that of their 
smallest settlement, they are noted for the dirty state of their towns, 
and the various offensive effluvia which they constantly inhale. Nu- 
merous military are stationed here ; the privates composed chiefly of 
convicts from Portugal ; many of the oiiicers are also sent to this coun- 
try for trifling ofl^ences committed at home. Two instances came to 
my knowledge, the one was merely for murdering a padr^, the other 
for putting a sister, who was a bit of a shrew, upon the Are, which was 
the natural cause of her becoming a cinder. For these trifling oflTences, 
being men of some interest, they suflTered the penalty of transportation, 
and here appeared to enjoy themselves despite of padres and sisters ! 
Many of them are, however, most gentlemanly men and good officers, 
having served, in several instances, with our army when on the Pen- 
insula. We invariably experienced the greatest politeness and atten- 
tion from them whenever we were on shore. 

Every description of provisions was at this time selling for the 
most exorbitant prices ; even water is very scarce, on account of having 
no springs or rivers in the neighbourhood. In order to obviate this in- 
convenience, a number of large boats are constantly employed in 
fetching it from Bengo River, which is about nine miles to the north- 
ward, and upon them the town and ships depend entirely for their 
supply. We were informed that every description of tropical fruit was 
abundant here during the summer months ; and the oranges are said to 
be flner at this place than any other along the coast. We had not, 
unfortunately, an i>pportunity of judging, in consequence of the rainy 
season having set in. The only thing we found at all plentiful were 
herrings, which our people caught so fast, that we were compelled to 
throw them overboard by boatsfull. The zoological productions in the 

— - - - ^ _ ^ ^^ — 

* Continued from page 463. 



SURVEY OP THE WEST COAST OP APRICA. 37 

immediate vicinity are lions, tigers, hyenas, wolves, zebras, and ele- 
phants, of a prodigious size. Tlje soldiers have also some pretty horses 
of a Spanish breed. A great variety of serpents, scorpions, and nu- 
merous venomous insects bring up the rear, to give their gentle tor- 
ments, if you be fortunate enough to escape the more ferocious violence 
of the larger inhabitants. 

The unblushing effrontery with which the slave-trade is here carried 
on, surprises the unsophisticated eye of a European. The civilized in- 
habitant of an enlightened country naturally wonders how the sovereign 
of a Christian state can thus openly violate every tie of humanity and 
affection ! The throne's lustre is tarnished by the tears of misery, and 
the King who countenances so inhuman a traffic, will tremble when 
called to receive that mercy which he showed to others. His hands 
will be too deeply stained by the blood of his victims, to hope that 
years of penitence and tears can ever wash it out ! Is it not a stigma 
on the Powers which rule £urope, that they permit those who are 
compelled to obey, thus to obtain riches by breaking every law of 
religion and Nature ? Twenty-four ships were at this time lying in 
the harbour of Angola waiting for cargoes of human misery. One brig, 
«f not more than 180 tons, had on board above four hundred slaves, 
with which she went to sea ! thus closely packed, to be tossed about 
probably for weeks, before they tasted the comparative, but Merile 
happiness of domestic slavery ! 

Having remained here for about a week, and completed a survey of 
the bay, we worked-out and proceeded to the northward. As we met 
with many contrary currents outside, and the wind was very light, we 
made but little progress for some days ; this gave us an opportunity of 
observing the coast> which presented a particularly beautiful appear- 
ance, being thickly wooded, and varied with numerous hills, valleys, 
and rivers. We were led to suppose this line of country was plen- 
tifully inhabited, as every night we could ])erceive fires extending over 
a great distance. 

About four days after leaving Angola, we arrived off a small place 
called Ambriz, where we found five vessels at anchor under Brazilian 
colours. This town is situated on a hill, which forms the south point 
of the bay, from which it takes its name : a reef extends some distance 
out from the land, affording good shelter for boats. This place is also 
supported by the slave-trade; and as there are no Portuguese inha- 
bitants, the traders obtain them at a lower price than at other towns 
along the coast. 

In the bay, a little above the town, is the mouth of a small river, 
which runs through a very extensive and fertile valley, presenting a 
most beautiful piece of scenery, the distant hills forming a rich and 
abrupt back-ground. Having passed the town of Ambriz, we came 
upon a very remarkable range of hills, covered with immense blocks of 
granite, looking, at a distance, like a number of large stone buildings, 
one performing the part of a church with much propriety, being formed 
by a large mass towering over all, in the shape of a mod.ern steeple. 

We passed numerous villages, which appeared thickly inhabited; 
from one we saw a boat standing off shore apparently full of people, 
and when she passed close under our stern, we found that she was 
loaded heavily with slaves. It appeared that she belonged to one of 



38 SURVEY OP THB WEST COAST OP APRIGA. 

the ships lying at Ambriz, where she was then g€^ng^ having come 
from Kabenda^ a distance of one hundred and twenty miles. These 
wretched beings had thus been exposed in an open boat for about ten 
days, writhing beneath a burning sun, without a particle of covering to 
protect their parched and ulcerous skins from the maddening bite of 
the musquito ! We could only regret that we were not authorized to 
take them from their inhuman masters, and give them once more to 
their homes and liberty. The general face of this coast is a kind of 
red sand-stone clfff, from sixty to one hundred feet in height, parts of 
which are curiously excavated by the never-ceasing inroads of its bois- 
terous assailant; numerous caves and fissures offer splendid accom- 
modations to the various amphibious monsters that abound here. We 
frequently saw fires along the beach at night, probably with the in- 
tention of enticing us on shore, which is a very common custom on the 
east coast. The natives appear to live in a great measure upon fish, 
as a great many canoes were constantly seen near every village in the 
act of fishing. 

As we approached the Congo, the water for some distance was much 
discoloured. This is caused by the body of that immense river running 
so far into the sea. We felt the effects of it several miles before 
making Cape Padron, which forms the southern entrance. When we 
hauled round the Cape, we found the current setting strong against us, 
which scarcely allowed of our making any way. Having tried in vain 
for some hours to get a-head, we were at length compelled to anchor, 
when we found the current was running past us at the rate of about 
four miles an hour. 

On the fbllowing morning two boats were sent away, for the purpose 
of measuring a base line, and to procure soundings. The one in which 
I went proceeded towards Cape Padron : as we came near the land, we 
saw several Natives, who appeared greatly alarmed at our presence. 
We tried every means to give them confidence, but could not prevail 
upon them to approach, fearing we should seize and carry them off ; a 
species of depredation which is frequently practised upon this coast 
both by the Portuguese and French. Their plan is to go on shore and 
mix with the natives, to whom they are apparently very generous, 
giving them in the first instance all kinds of trinkets and baubles ; 
when they imagine their suspicions are removed, they introduce spirits, 
which they commence drinking, and soon persuade their intended 
victims to join in their revelry. The effect upon their unaccustomed 
natures is speedy intoxication, when their treacherous friends entice 
them to their boats. Returning reason finds the once free savage 
groaning in chains, with a mind torn by recollections of those ties of 
nature and affection, which are thus so violently and for ever broken ! 
Hundreds are in this manner annually entrapped into perpetual exile 
and slavery ! 

We made another attempt to gain the entrance of the river, but 
although a breeze was blowing sufficiently strong to send us five knots 
a-head, yet we lost ground at the rate of about three miles an hour. 
The pinnacei which had left the ship at the same time with me, was 
absent the whole night, in conseouence of getting into a current at the 
mouth of the river, which carried her to the northward at the rate of 
about six knots an hour. On the following morning she contrived to 



SURVEY OP THK WEST COAST OF AFRICA. 39 

reach the ship^ all hands being in a state of great exhaustion from the 
constant laboar to which they had been exposed. 

For four days we made numerous attempts to enter the river with 
the sea-breeze^ and were as constantly drifted back to our starting 
place. On the fifth, the wind having increased^ we contrived to get 
within half a mile of Shark Pointy which forms the southern entrance^ 
where we continued under all sail for several hours^ durins which 
time we did not get one inch a-head ; and^ as the wind was fallings we 
were compelled^ in order to keep what we had gained^ to come to an 
anchor. On the following morning, as the sea-breeze set in strong, we 
got under all sail^ and in about six hours rounded Shark Point, where > 
we found the water quite fresh ; then proceeded slowly up the river, 
sometimes within twenty yards of the shore, in eight or nine fathoms. 
The width at the mouth is about three miles and a half, but it gets 
rapidly narrower upon ascending. A quarter of a mile off Shark 
Point we tried soundings with two hundred fathoms line without find* 
ing any bottom. After passing this point, the coast on both banks is 
composed entirely of mangroves, with the exception of a few sandy 
bays up some of the numerous creeks on the south side of the river. 
Before coming to an anchor, we observed a schooner lying about two 
miles higher up, under Portuguese colours. In the evening a boat 
was seen a short distance from the ship, with four black men in her; 
upon being hailed, one of the party said they were going to Kabinda^ 
a distance of forty miles. Immediately after answering, they begged 
permission to come on board, when we found, by a few interrogatories^ 
that she was a Portuguese boat sent by the above-mentioned schooner 
for the purpose of discovering our character and intentions. It ap- 
peared that she was in great alarm respecting a pirate, under Spanish 
colours, which had lately been committing devastations upon the slavers 
by coming up the river, when they had got a cargo, and robbing them 
of their slaves; — a species of piracy which, according to report, ap- 
peared by no means of uncommon occurrence upon this lawless coast. 
It forms a strange anomaly, that these spoilers should thus again be 
subject to the attacks of others so soon as they have obtained their 
prize — like the ferocious hawk, preying upon the smaller birds of the 
air — and immediately afterwards becoming himself a mouthful to the 
lordly eagle. 

On the following morning, as we were taking in wood and water, 
for which this is a very convenient place, several canoes came off with 
numbers of inhabitants. The costume of these people was entirely 
that of our first parents, with the exception of some of the noliility, 
who have picked up an occasional jacket. This they wear without any 
other garment than the bunch of leaves or old piece of dungaree round 
the middle. These are, perhaps, the most superstitious savages to be 
met with, relying almost entirely upon their charms for the success of 
every event of their lives. They are all abundantly supplied with 
them^ and if they find one will not produce the desired effect, they 
substitute another, until the effect %s produced i These creatures 
thought we admired their mode of conducting the ways of Providence, 
and wondered how " white man," who, they say, " is very big in all 
tings, no make Feteish !" They are a fine race of blacks, but I believe 
very treacherous. Their strongest attachment appears' to be towards 



40 SURVEY OP THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA. 

brandy, and I firmly believe any one of them would sell his whole 
generation for a single bottle of that stimulating cordial. Several of 
tiiem speak broken English^ which they have picked up from the 
trading-vessels touching here, and mentioned, amongst other topics^ 
the ill-fated expedition of Captain Tuckey, in His Majesty's ship 
Congo. 

Some of the chiefs, upon coming on boards and having a little brandy 
given them, seemed to consider it in the same light as the Arab does 
his salt, and insisted upon our firing a gun to let all around know that 
we were friends, and come, as they expressed it, " to make trade," 
under the impression that we intended traiiicking for slaves. The gun 
appeared to be well understood, for immediately afterwards numbers 
came on board. Their first request was always for a little brandy, 
which, if complied with, was sure to be followed by *' a little more," 
until David's immortal sow would have been a sober brute by the side 
of these. When given to understand that we intended proceeding up 
the river upon the sea-breeze setting in, one of them stood forward and 
said^ that he would immediately bring the wind for us, (having, I 
suppose, previously observed that it was coming,) at the same time 
wishing to know whether we should prefer a gentle breeze or a strong 
one; having received some description of answer, he immediately 
mounted the poop, and took out one of his Feteish, or charms. He 
then gave several loud blasts, throwing his arms about in the most 
violent manner; then' paused for a few minutes, standing in the most 
ridiculous attitude, when he commenced expostulating warmly %vith 
Mr. Feteish for not obeying his first commands. His stony-hearted 
hearer was not, however, to be bullied out of a breeze ; this our in- 
terceder determined to turn to his own advantage by requesting a 
little] brandy to coax him into good-humour. Upon our indulging his 
whim, it was highly ridiculous to see the vagabond take a mouthful, 
and go through all the motions of spitting it on his charm, taking at 
the same time the greatest care not to expend more than one drop 
upon the obstinate Feteish ; who, in spite of his eloquence and libe- 
rality, would not exert himself in our cause. Having continued this 
mummery for some time, and finding no more brandy was to be 
obtained, he left off his incantations, with an assurance that the breeze 
had been sent for, and would shortly be with us. Patience fortunately 
did more for us than the antics of the savage, and in an hour or two we 
obtained the requisite gale, when we proceeded up the southern side of 
the river to a place called Scotchman's Nose, a distance of seventeen 
miles. 

Monkeys are extremely numerous at this place^ each of the banks 
being a perfect colony of these intellectual brutes, who here shine in 
society by comparison with their human relatives. In many instances^ 
I have seen more sagacity displayed by this animal, than the other 
natives of the woods which they inhabit ; they keep a day and night 
watch constantly on the look-out^ who, immediately upon any stranger 
appearing in their domain, gives a signal to all friends and relations to 
be on the qui vive I When this has been given, it becomes a most difli- 
cult matter to see one, although they can be heard around in every direc- 
tion, and an occasional pair of eyes, or bit of a tail may be seen peeping 
from bel^jind some neighbouring branch or tree. Having the organ of 



SURVEY OP THE WEST COAST OP APRICA. 41 

" destructiveness" very prominent^ I was induced upon one occasion to 
shoot at an impertinent fellow^ who, I could not help thinkings had 
been amusing himself at my expense quite long enough, chattering on 
each side of me without my getting a glimpse of him during the whole 
of my walk. At one unlucky moment, he appeared before me with a 
most malicious grin upon his countenance^ when I levelled my gun and 
fired ; immediately after the report^ I thought all the imps of darkness 
were rebuking me for my cruelty, by the various discordant sounds 
which broke out on every side. When silence ensued^ I heard gentle 
wailings of so pitiable a description^ and so much like those of a human 
beings that it was some time before I could convince myself I had not 
wounded one of my boat's crew. At firsts I thought the unfortunate 
little object of my aim had escaped from the fate which I had intended 
him^ when^ after a slight effort to retain his hold^ I observed him fedl 
to the earth from the bough on which he had been perched. Upon 
going to the spot^ I found the wounded animal moaning in the agonies 
of death with a hand placed upon its bleeding side. When I ap- 
proached, it did not attempt to move, but fixed a large pair of eyes 
upon me with a look which I never shall forget, and I thought^ 
painted to the wound, as if to reproach me for the act. As the appeal 
came home to my feelings, and the poor little victim of my cruelty 
appeared in great pain, I sent another ball into its head to end at once 
its sufiTerings, and then turned from the spot^ leaving the lifeless little 
body with a determination never again to amuse myself at the expense 
of humanity. 

Wild parrots^ and many other birds of beautiful plumage, are here 
found in great numbers, a few of which we procured. 

Upon arriving at Scotchman's Nose, two boats were dispatched ; my- 
self in the gig to survey the southern shore, and Lieut. Boteler in the 
pinnace to Cape Palmeiro, which forms the northern entrance of the 
river. The breadth at Scotchman's Nose is not more than one mile 
and a half^ with rather shallov/ water. As the weather was fine^ and 
the Barracouta had dropped down with the stream for the purpose of 
taking soundings^ at sunset I anchored my boat about two hundred 
yards off shore for the night, and in the morning continued the survey. 
We entered a small river to breakfast, where we observed several 
canoes making for the opposite side, in levident fear at our approach ; 
they got quickly to land, and leaving their boats on the beach, took to 
the bush, where they resisted all our attempts to draw them out. On 
leaving this river we met another of our boats, which had been sent to 
assist me in the survey. 

Going on board in the evening, I was much surprised to hear that 
the natives had attempted an attack upon Lieut. Boteler and his crew, 
particularly as they are in general considered very docile and friendly 
upon this coast. It appeared that when near Cape Palmeiro, the pin- 
nace, whilst running along shore, got into shoal water, and shortly 
afterwards took the ground, when they had some difliculty in getting 
off. The inhabitants of a small creek just by, observing her so close 
in^ and some apparent confusion existing, immediately took to their 
canoes, and in a few minutes about thirty of them, mustering in all 
one hundred and twenty men, came round the point of the creek, 
pulling with great velocity towards the boat ; fortunately for her^ she 



42 SURVIBY OP THE WEST COAST OP AFRICA. 

Lad by this time contrived to gain deeper water, as, when just within 
musket-shdt, they set up a most horrid war-whoop, and dashed on 
nearly in a line towards the pinnace. Lieut. Boteler by this time had 
no doubt of their hostile intentions, and desired his men to fire a volley 
of musketry over their heads, as a kind of notice to quit ; this, however, 
produced no effect, and they still continued pulling on, upon which he 
fired another volley ; this producing no more eflTect than the f(Hiner, 
and as his small party, only twelve men, would have had no chance at 
close quarters against their numbers, he ordered a long one-pounder to 
be fired at them ; this appeared to astonish the natives amazingly, and 
they began quickly to disperse, a few only continuing their course, but 
a musket or two soon produced the same effect upon them. To secure 
their retreat and prevent a rally, the long gun was again fired amongst 
them by way of farewell, which intimidated them so effectually, that 
they all pulled towards the shore with the utmost speed. It was for- 
tunate they were so easily disheartened, as had they got alongside, 
their increasing numbers must ultimately have overcome the boat*s 
crew, and a general massacre would have been the consequence. As 
neither thm Morning Post or Gazette ever mentioned the loss sustained, 
we had no opportunity of learning what execution our guns did amongst 
these hostile savages ; but as our men were well practised in the use 
of their arms, they no doubt got a lesson which may prove serviceable 
to European ships visiting this coast in future. In justice to our Com- 
manders, I must here state, that we had the most positive orders never 
to fire a shot at the natives, unless the most urgent necessity required 
it. This principle of humanity was strictly attended to ; and I feel 
confident in stating, that during our constant intercourse with these 
ignorant and generally treacherous savages, not one drop of blood was 
shed which was not justified by self-preservation. 

Numerous islands are seen constantly floating down the Congo, some 
of which have rather a picturesque appearance. They are formed by 
mangrove bushes and other loose trees, which collect upon the banks, 
and are then carried away by the rush of water, which generally takes 
place after heavy rains. The inhabitants of the upper part of the 
river make use of these by fastening their canoes to them, when they 
gain an easy and expeditious passage down at the rate of six or seven 
miles an hour. Vessels on this coast are frequently deceived with 
regard to their situation by these apparent islands, which sometimes 
drift a long way to seaward, at the same time they serve as guides to * 
those who are acquainted with their situation, and from whence they 
come. 

It is extremely difficult to set any provisions at this part of the 
river, the natives are in so miserable a state of poverty ; if you can 
persuade them to procure some, two or three days must elapse before 
they can be obtained. The principal rendezvous of slavers is a place 
named Talltrees, situated about forty miles up this river. 

xl. B. Iv. 

(To be continued.) 



43 

ON THE STATE OP EFPICIENCY OF THE BRITISH ARMY. 

' The existing and relative state of the several powers of Europe^ and 
the vast armaments of France called into being by a government 
neither fixed in principle nor consolidated as to power, if they do not 
importunately demand an increase of our army^ must yet imperatively 
dictate that its organization should^ to the extent of its numbers^ be 
complete ; that it should possess the utmost possible facility of expan- 
sion on an emergency^ and ihat our navy should be adapted to render 
abortive any aggression on the part of an enemy on the first' ebullition 
of hostilities. In this view^ the remarks of the United Service Journal 
for the month of March^ on the application of steam as the propelling 
power to ships of war^ and the observations of a correspondent on the 
organization of the British artillery, must be admitted as important ; 
stilly farther discussion on these points may be admissible; as much^ 
far more than can now be ofiTered, remains to be said on either subject. 

The present organization of the British infantry leaves little to 
desire ; the reserve companies of regiments on foreign service (though 
the system for certain reasons is liable to objection) are admirably 
calculated for facilitating the formation, in the least possible time^ of 
as many battalions ; the number of ofiicers required to render them 
complete being easily obtained from the half-pay. Under experienced 
officers, and with a nucleus such as the reserve companies afibrd, a few 
weeks would render recruits respectable and efiicient infantry. But 
cavalry^ whatever be its organization, however ample the means at its 
command, both as to men and horses^ requires considerable time to 
derive from an extension of its numbers a corresponding accession of 
strength. A dragoon when complete in his drills as an infantry sol- 
dier, has still to be instructed in the sword exercise^ to be made a good 
groom and an expert horseman ; his horse, too, requires to be brought 
into condition, and to be trained for the purposes of war. The British 
cavalry, to the extent of its numbers, may confidently face the best 
cavalry in Europe, but it cannot be hastily augmented. An opinion 
may be hazarded^ that the horses, generally speaking, are too aged, and 
it IS perhaps to be regretted, that breeding studs under military con- 
trol do not exist ; the general application of steam to public carriages 
would probably compel the adoption of that measure. 

Since the sudden creation of efiicient cavalry is from its very nature 
impracticable, the want of it can only be remedied (as it ever has been 
by able generals) by a numerous, well-appointed, and highly instructed 
artillery ; such an artillery as Great Britain cannot now bring into the 
field, but which she, in limited numbers^ possessed at the conclusion 
of the late war. At that period, the British artillery was admitted by 
all foreign armies to be the first in Europe, both as concerned its mati^ 
riel and personnel. The ofiicers might, perhaps, be best judged of by 
the efficiency which their arm had attained. The gunners were the 
finest body of men in the service, and never failed either in zeal, acti- 
vity, gallantry^ or devotion to their officers and to their duty ; they were 
intelligent in a degree which no other branch of the service had ever 
attained ; their esprit du corps could not be exceeded ; they were not 
less remarkable for their admirable bearing in the fields than for their 
orderly and respectable conduct in quarters. The drivers were a class 
of men particularly fitted for their duties; they were gallant soldiers^ 



44 ON THE STATE OP EFPIGISNGY 

their intrepid stoicism under fire was often the admiration of every 
branch of the service, they were admirable grooms, light weights, (a 
matter of infinite importance,) and as to the degree of skill which 
they had acquired in the management of their horses in the field, no 
soldier of a similar class in any foreign army ever came near them ; 
indeed, the construction of the limbers of the British artillery ad- 
mitted a rapidity in any change of direction, and a celerity in limbering 
up, which, in superseding the prolonge used by the artillery of other 
nations, afforded all the opportunity a driver could desire for evincing 
superior art. The horses of the British artillery were worthy of the 
nation which had long been pre-eminent for the superiority of its pri- 
vate studs and its attention to this breed of animals. The uniform 
construction of its carriages, their strength and simplicity, the harness 
and horse appointments were all unrivalled in Europe ; its general supe- 
riority was such as to have been closely imitated by the French. The 
ammunition, and the manner of making it up and packing it, were in 
many respects superior to the modes adopted by other armies; its 
spherical case shot, imagined upon a principle which, if not scientific, 
is yet so ingenious as to have baffled to this day the inquiries of the 
French, though they have often recorded its effects in the day of battle, 
may be noticed. Without entering at greater length into the subject, 
it may confidently be asserted, that at the close of the war, which 
pinioned the arms of the greatest General the world ever saw, the 
British artillery, though in proportion to the other arms in the same 
service numencally inferior to any in Europe, was yet in quality 
superior; so said the Austrians, so said the Prussians, so said the 
French. 

€i Qualis erat ! quantum mutatus ab illo 

Hectore, qui redit exuvias indutus Achillis.'' 

The reverse of the picture is painful. 

As to the officers of artillery in the present day, though part of the 
old stuff still remains, and may yet be roused to energy, it is to be 
feared that Mbntob, in the March Number of the U. S. J., adhered 
but too rigidly to truth, when he asserted *^ that the prospects of their 
profession are so bad as to make them as nearly as possible indifferent 
to its study or practice." As to the old gunners, they are for the most 
part gone, the drivers entirely so, and instead of the athletic, proud, 
and intelligent race afforded by the first, and the light, active, and 
efficient body by the latter, an amalgate or amphibious genus has arisen, 
possessing none of the qualities of the other two in any degree of per- 
fection. The present artillery soldier knows his inadequacy to perform 
well all that is required, and therefore feels degraded by the mass of 
heterogeneous duties forced upon him ; the appellation by which he is 
now mustered, {gunner and driver,) has gone far to eradicate the most 
desirable pride of a soldier. Indeed, if it be deemed essential that the 
appellative of the artillery soldier should describe the duties heaped 
upon him, or rather convey an idea of his multifarious employments, he 
should, for some time since, have been termed gunnero-drivero- 
waggon'trainerO'infanterist, 

The horses of the corps were, with the drivers, annihilated at the 
peace, six hundred being retained out of fourteen thousand ; it will 
be long before the utmost care and the most lavish expenditure could 
in any degree, in this respect, replace the artillery on the footing of 



OF THB BRITISH ARMY. 45 

1814. The fnatSfiel remains the same^ or has in some respects, par« 
ticularly in the howitzers, been improved; but what energy, what 
devotion, can, under the present system, animate this inert matter? 
The only attempt which could fairly promise any beneficial result 
would be to hark-back upon old times, a measure directly the reverse 
of that which would be resorted to in seeking improvement in any 
other art or tnitier. But this resort must fEiil, for though the officers 
(the springs and sinews to animate the matter) remain, they are, alas, 
for the most part, withered and grown old, or such an excess of super- 
annuation is visible, as must paralyze the renascent efforts of the few. 
On this subject, see a work published some years since, entitled " Re- 
marks on the promotion of the officers of artillery, and on the applica- 
tion of that arm in the field." 

Mentor would advise, as a panacea for the deep-seated and long 
standing disease of the artillery, which has existed independent of the 
aggravating causes arising from the change in its organization, the 
purchase of commissions and the removal of superannuated officers. 
A long, intimate, and attentive observation of the machinery of the 
corps would lead to the belief that the most threatening symptoms would 
be palliated, and the difficulties soon removed, if the artillery were 
withdrawn horn the control of the Ordnance Office, and placed under 
the direction of the Horse-guards. No rivalry would then exist, the 
jealousies which operate so matei^ially to the prejudice of the artillery 
would vanish. The Commander-in-Chief, for his own sake, as well as 
for the interest of the country and the reputation of the army, would 
adopt measures which are within his grasp, that the efficiency of an 
arm so important may be preserved. The corps of engineers, being so 
constantly employed on works connecting them with the Ordnance, 
might continue subject to that Board ; but it is difficult to imagine a 
reason why the artillery should be denied that wholesome control and 
that fostering care which the Commander-in-Chief of the army can 
alone afford ; that they employ vast quantities of stores, the particular 
charge of the Board of Ordnance, can be no sufficient reason ; the re- 
sponsibility of the artillery officer would be the same, although placed 
under the Commander-in-Chief. An army, to be efficient, must con- 
sist of the three arms, each in a corresponding state of discipline, and 
in proportionate numbers; identity of D(ianagement and unity of in- 
terests should pervade ; it is inseparable from perfection. 

The ever-to-be-lamented Duke of York, and the highly gifted Duke 
of Wellington, acting in the spirit which can alone render the artillery 
efficient, afforded great facilities for the removal of officers of artillery 
to other branches of the service, and if the offers which were made to 
the artillery officers on the augmentation of the army in 1825 were not 
more generally accepted, it can only be attributed to the comparative 
backwardness of their rank, which would have deeply told on joining 
other regiments, and to the novelty of the proposal. 

Of the many advantages which the country would derive from the 
union of the artillery to the administration at the Horse-guards, relief 
from the expense of two Military Colleges, when one would more effec- 
tually attain the object for which they are designed, may be named. 
Cadets selected for the artillery service, after completing their studies 
at Sandhurst, may be sent, previous to receiving their commissions, to 
Woolwich, to be instriieted under the superintendence of an officer in 



46 ON THE BFPIGIENGY OP THE RRITISH ARMY. 

the practical and peculiar parts of their intended profession ; they 
might go through what is commonly termed a repository and laboratory 
course; in the one, the use of all engines employed by the artillery, 
the application of mechanical powers to the necessities and difficulties 
of artillery, and the construction of batteries and bridges, are professed 
to be taught ; in the other, the mode of preparing and making up the 
several fire works and ammunition used in the service. Cadets leaving 
the Military College for the engineers, may complete their education at 
Chatham, and on the military survey of Great Britain. The course of 
instruction at Sandhurst is well designed, but perhaps practical me- 
chanics, chemistry, mineralogy and geology, may with advantage be 
introduced as another step from which a cadet may select the number 
entitling him to a commission, and this may be made essential, as well 
as the second, or perhaps still higher step in mathematics, to the ac- 
quirement of commissions in the artillery and engineers. As to the 
practical use of guns and mortars, so little time is necessary to devote 
to this exercise, when a cadet is once drilled as n soldier, that all the 
cadets at the College may be beneficially required to attend to it, and for 
this purpose an officer of artillery should be attached to the establish- 
ment ; a non-commissioned officer can scarcely be expected to blend the 
necessary science with practical instruction, when it is considered that 
the exercise of artillery may for the most part be referred to the laws of 
mechanics ; and its practice at a target to some of the most refined and 
elaborate researches of the best mathematicians of the day. 

Again, recurring to the existing state of the artillery as affecting the 
question of the general efficiency of the army, it must be admitted that 
the horse artillery is the only part which can be deemed efficient. 
This corps, too, is not what it was ; the disease, which is endemic in 
the artillery, has here made great ravages ; it may, however, still bring 
into the field eiohtern guns ! ! ! The field artillery is actually inca- 
pable of turning out a single battery at all on a footing with those of 
olden times : the organization is defective, the system inefficient, and 
neither does or can work satisfactorily. As to expansion, according to 
the present efficiency of the artillery, it certainly possesses that pro- 
perty ; for as the fiat of a superior, and expediency arising from an eX" 
travagant economy, is made to supersede the necessity of good riding, 
driving, and grooming in a driver, or target practice in a gunner, it 
may also render unnecessary the condition and training of horses, and 
the happy ensemble which has hitherto been deemed essential to per- 
fection in a machine composed of so many complicated parts as a bat- 
tery of artillery; but can such an artillery, by the rapidity of its 
movements and the ubiquity of its. fire, make up for the want of a nu- 
merous cavalry ? Could it support and give confidence to the newly 
raised regiments of militia, and of other less regular forces, if suddenly 
called to the field. This duty hitherto has not happily been the lot of 
the British artillery, but the 300,000 infantry, the 65,000 cavalry, and 
the 1200 field guns of the French, with their recent establishment for 
steam-vessels on the Loire, certainly would indicate the necessity of 
preparation without the taunt of M. Mauguin in the Chamber of 
Deputies, adverted to in the recent Number of the Journal. 

On steam-boats and their armament it was intended to offer some 
observations, but the length to which the preceding remarks have ex- 
tended, at present forbids our entering on the subject ; we may recur 
to it hereafter. 2. 



• 47 

ON THE ORGANIZATION OP THE BRITISH ARTII.LBRY. 

NO. II. 

Ik my last Essay on the Organization of the British Artillery, I proposed 
that each company should become an independent corps, containing within 
itself all that is necessary to its discipline and efficiency. I consider this to 
be the organization which results naturally from its service, which is the 
simplest, the cheapest, and the most applicable to all its varieties of duty. 

There are some principles which, as it appears to me, should always be 
strictly attended to in the formation of all military bodies. 

First, each regiment, or integral part of an army, must be under the uni~ 
form command of one man, interested in its good appearance, efficiency, and 
success y who must he responsible for his charge, and removable when not found 
equal to his duty. 

Secondly, its size should not be too great to admit of his personal inspec- 
tion and superintendence, under all the circumstances of its ordinary situa- 
tion, so as that he may be thoroughly acquainted with every officer, and generally 
wUh the men. 

Thirdly^ promotion should be confined, as much as the interests of the 
service will permit, within each regiment, so that those who share equally in 
the perils oj any duty, should also share equally in the advantages resulting 
therefrom. 

Fourthly, this promotion should be at such a rate as to prevent men 
arriving at commands requiring much energy and exertion, only when they 
are in mind and body too much debilitated for either. 

In conformity with the first principle, I make each company of artillery 
an independent corps, with its captain as its commanding officer. The se- 
cond principle seems equally to require the same system of organization. 
The tnird principle can scarcely be uniformly acted upon but under this 
system. The fourth principle seems to require one of two methods of pen- 
sioning off superannuated officers : either that of making them a permanent 
charge on the pension-list of the country, or of furnishing them with the 
means of retirement from the private purses of those who succeed them. 
This last method could only be introduced gradually, a^ no officer, having 
entered the service on the principle of promotion by seniority^ could be reason- 
ably called upon to purchase in order to prevent a junior parsing over his head. 
In the first instance^ and until the corps be filled by officers who have entered 
on the principle of purchase, the money of those who buy commissions must 
be thrown into a common purse, to aid in pensioning off those whose retirement 
should be required by the service. 

In a subject so speculative as that of the proposed new organization of the 
artillery, an attempt to trace some of its probable consequences may be 
allowable. In the first place, the greatest possible emulation, and the high- 
est state of military appearance and discipline, may be expected to result from 
it. Each company, distinguished by its number in large characters on the 
ornaments of its chako and appointments, would become known for its ex- 
cellence in some or many respects; or, otherwise, as the case might be. The 
actions also in which it had figured might be commemorated, and their 
names be borne upon the appointments of the officers. A high character, 
once obtained by a company, would, as in the case of the crack regiments of 
infantry, be not easily lost, and care would be taken to maintain that charac- 
ter by the selection of officers to command it. Its instruction also, as well 
as its appearance and discipline^ would be advanced by the anxiety excited 
in companies to rival each other in the estimation of those officers entrusted 
with the various branches of instruction. 

In the second place, every defect would be more obvious, its cause more 
immediately discerned, and more easy of cure. 

In the tmrd, an equipment for active service would become much more 
umple and ready. The artillery part of each company being alwajrs in a 
state of the highest completeness and perfection, it would owVn T^xoskvcw \,^ 



48 ORGANIZATION OP THB BRITISH ARTILLERY. 

attach to it from the depots the drivers and horses necessary to its field 
establishment, and the field battery would be complete. The detachment 
of drivers so told off to companies should consist only of non-commissioned 
officers and drivers. The officers of drivers should always remain with the 
depots. As during peace^ some companies are placed to the field service for 
instruction^ and note is taken of those which have been qualified for it^ there 
are always some ready for immediate service. 

In the fourth place, every improvement in the equipment and arming of 
the artillery soldier^ would be more likely to suggest itself from the emula- 
tion excited by the new system, and would be more easily tried from the 
small size of the corps to which, in the first instance^ it might be applied. 

The separating tne gunner from the driver would have two desirable 
effects. First, each man could by the recruiting parties be obtained good 
of his kind, and suited for his particular service. At present^ there is at 
least a tendency to introduce only an inferior style of men to perform both 
duties, without being well qualified for either. Secondly, the duties both of 
gunner and driver would be much better performed than they can be at 
present. 

By bringing all the recruiting service under the management of a Board 
of officers stationed at head-quarters, this might, perhaps, be conducted at 
less expense and with more advantage than it is at present by independent 
battalions. In every way, it appears to me that the organization by batta- 
lions is no more suitable to the artillery than it has been found to be to the 
sappers and miners. 

Having thus concluded my observations on the organization of the British 
Artillery, I have only to remark farther, that whatever may be their recep- 
tion, whether they be considered wise or foolish, feasible or not, they seem 
to result legitimately from principles, whose truth appears proved by the 
gystem and practice of the British Infantry.* l*hey seem to result as natu- 
rally as do the operations of Nature from its laws. Mentor. 

* The present system of battalion organization in the Artillery is probably in- 
tended as an assimilation to that of the Une, but the nature of the Artillery service, 
in its necessary distribution and movement by companies, is not anali^ous to that 
of thq line, and the organization of the latter is, therefore, faulty when applied to 
the former. In like manner, the manoeuvres of field artillery, in which each gun 
of ,a battery of six or eight pieces may be the pivot of movement, or the point of 
formation, cannot be reasonably conducted upon a system minutely copied from the 
manoeuvres of infantry, in which every file of from three to four or five hundred 
may be a pivot upon which to turn, or a point to form upon. There is not the 
•ame intricacy, the same danger of confusion, and consequently not the same occa- 
sion for the strict preservation of relative situation in the one case as the other. A 
battery may come into action to the rear, and by so doing, make that gun which 
but just now was the right, at this moment the left gun of the battery. The 
ohange in the arrangement of the parts of the battery is so quickly and clearly to be 
seen, that it is of no importance : the right or left flank is that which is so at the 
instant of command, and on this principle manoeuvres may be conducted much 
more rapidly and easily than on any other ; and which is a great desideratum, 
their number may be as few as possible ; not so with the line. These are in- 
stances in which to endeavour to assimilate the services is, in reality, to act upon 
different principles in regard to them : it is to study utility and the fitness of 
means to their end in one instance, and to forget them in the other. So, if it 
should be proposed to reduce the proportion of officers to men in the artillery to 
the standard of the line, it would only be necessary to show the nature of the 
artillery service to prov$ that such a proposition rested upon an erroneous notion of 
analogy between the artillery and the line. In the artillery a small detachment of 
men often has charge of very extensive and important stores and magazines, be- 
sides batteries. In this case the necessity for the superintendence of an officer is, 
not only, as in the line, founded upon the number of men under him, but also, and 
much more, upon the quantity of material in his charge. In the fidd service the 
charge of horses is also added to that of material, all of which, to a person acquaint- 
ed with the service, shows a necessity for a greater proportion of officers in the 
arttVery than in the line. 



49 

A NAftRATIVB OP THE LATE DISASTROUS V6VARE OF 
THE H. C. 8. BRIDGEWATKR. 1829-1830. 

BY AN OFFICEft OF THE SHIP. 

Considering the almost unparalleled extent of the disasters that 
befell the H. C. S. Bridgewater on her late voyage to India and China, 
and> fi'om her having been so long missing, the anxiety that must have 
been felt by many, who, either fi'om family connexions or commercial, 
speculations, were interested in her safety, it cannot be but a matter of 
surprise that no detailed account should as yet have found its way to 
the public. In order to remedy this deficiency, (however incompetent 
to the task,) I have been induced to draw up the following statement^ 
conceiving that a faithful record of the events attending this disastrous 
voyage may not oi^y prove acceptable to those connected with the ship, 
but likewise be perused with interest by the general reader. The cir- 
cumstances attending the accidents that befell us during the former 
part of the voyage, are not, perhaps, sufficiently marked either by no- 
velty or incident to justify a minute detail ; I shall, therefore, rapidly 
glance at them, and then proceed to give more copious particulars of 
the hurricane which we encountered off the Isle of France, when home- 
ward bound,-— a hurricane which, judging fi'om what I have heard and 
read, I believe to have been unexampled either in duration or violence. 
The effects of it on the ship have been manifested by her subsequent 
condemnatibn, and nothing, I am convinced, (under Providence) but the 
adoption of every precaution which judgment or experience could sug- 
gest, to put her in a state to sustain the reiterated shocks, enabled her 
to survive it. 

The misfortunes of the Bridgewater may be said to have commenced 
from the time of her leaving England ; not a week had elapsed, when, 
in a violent squall, she lost her mizen-mast ; this was, however, speed- 
ily replaced, and with the exception of a very heavy gale of wind of 
twenty-four hours' duration in Latitude 19° 00' S., Longitude 84° OO' 
£ast, we may be said to have had a very fair passage to Bengal. 

After completing our lading there, and attempting to sail, we were 
subjected to some of that dreadful weather which is so often experienced 
off the sandheads in the south-west monsoon, and having lost three 
anchors, we were obliged to put back to await the result of the next 
spring tides, when we succeeded in getting to sea. Things now went 
on well until our arrival in China, when, in consequence of a misun- 
derstanding between our Grovemment and the Chinese, we received 
orders to make sail for Tonkoo Bay, instead of proceeding to the usual 
anchorage at Whampoa. In carrying these orders into effect, we were 
overtaken by a most violent typhoon. We had anchored the evening 
before, the weather fine and the ^vind light, without any appearance of 
a change : as the night advanced, however, the sky assumed a very 
squally and threatening aspect, and before daylight appeared, we had 
our lesser yards and masts on deck. The wind now increased in vio^ 
lence, and soon blew mth great fury. We soon perceived that the ship 
was driving, and although every exertion was made to bring her up, by 
letting go other anchors, it had no effect, and when close on the ec^ 
of Lintin Sondy we were obliged to cut away our masts in order to 
U. S. JouftK. No. 30. May 1831. e 



60 A NARRATIVE OF THE bATK DISASTROUS VOYAGE 

save the ship. For a ship in such a situation^ no country possesses 
fewer facilities for remasting and refitting than China, both &om the 
scarcity of wood and stores. Accordingly, in carrying this into execu- 
tion, we had the greatest difficulties to contend with^ and which 
nothing but the most determined activity and perseverance enabled us 
to overcome ; whilst this was in progress, we had been at the Wham- 
poa anchorage alone, and^ therefore^ little or no assistance could be 
given us by the other ships, which were still detained in Tonkoo Bay^ 
the disagreement with the Chinese not being yet settled. Immediately 
as the ship was in a state for moving, we were ordered to rejcMn the 
fleet. On our arrival we found that it had been determined to send 
h(Mne . one of the ships with despatches, and from the primty of our 
arrival in China^ we were selected. We were now the envy of the 
whole fleet, and we ourselves thought that it was^ in some measure, a 
compensation for the difficulties which we had before experienced ; but 
Providence had ordained it otherwise; and five weeks after our de- 
parture from China^ having advanced as fur as the twentieth degree of 
southern latitude^ the poor Bridgewater was retracing her steps to In- 
dis^ a perfect wreck, not, however^ without having given indubitable 
proofs that she had originally been as fine a ship as had ever been put 
together by British artists. 

We left China on the 1st of February 1830, and could the good 
wishes of those whom we left behind have availed, we certainly should 
have had a most delightful passage. We had several passengers, many 
who had taken their passages in other ships, but who, ^m having 
been detained six months in China, had become heartily sick of Macao> 
and were glad to avail themselves of the opportunity now offered. 
£very thing went on smoothly until our departure from the Straits t/E 
Sunda, when our troubles may be said to have commenced. For the 
first eight days we had nothing but light winds and calms, the annoy- 
ance of which may be easily imagined. For some days after we had 
frequent hard squalls &om the north-west, with heavy rain. This cir- 
cumstance, from its being very uncommon in those latitudes, together 
with the state of the atmosphere, which was of the most dense and 
close description, impressed Capt. Manderson with an idea that some- 
thing very unusual was about to happen : how abundantly this was 
verified, the subsequent account will amply testify. On the 4th of 
March the hurricane may be said to have commenced, for although on 
the previous day we had reduced our sails, and got our top-gallant 
yards and masts on deck, yet it was nothing more than what seamen 
might term a fresh gale. On that day, however, the barometer still 
falung^ and the wind increasing in violence, indicated something se- 
rious, and here I feel that I cannot convey a more clear or perspicuous 
account of each succeeding event, than is recorded in log oi the difi^er- 
ent days. 

** March 6th. — (Jot the jib-boom and spritsail-yard in. Throughout a very 
strong gale from the eastward, with violent gusts and heavy ram ; the ship 
taking a great quantity of water on board, and labouring very deep. Hove-^ 
to under the trysail until midnight, when it was Uown to pieces. Conti- 
nued hove-to under bare poles. Got the fore-tackles forward^ um} secured 
the fore-mast and extra tackles on the main-mast and lower yards. 3 p.m. 
Hove three of the quarter-deck guns overboard. At midnight, barometer 
still falling, cut away the sheet and stream anchors, and started the water 



OF THB H. G. S. fiRlDGBWAT^R. 51 

on the gun-deck. At 4 a.m. a sea struck the ship^ and carried away the 
quarter-boats; the pumpd fore and aft constantly working to keep the ship 
free. 

" Saturday March 6th. — These twenty-fours commenced with a violent 
hurricane, a north-east. The sea too hi^h to allow the ship being steered. 
'Continued hove-to under bare poles, witn hammock cloths in the weather 
mizen rigging to keep the ship to the wind. p.m. The ship labouring very 
deep, and taking on board immense quantities of water, cut away the small 
bower anchor. At ten a sea struck the ship, and washed away the starboardr 
quarter galley. At midnight the barometer still falling, and the appearance 
very threatening, the pumos barely keeping the ship free, with sometimes 
two feet water in the hold. Daylight dawned without any prospect of a 
change, and the ship not keeping to the wind, cut away the fore-top-mast, 
which we considered made the ship a little more easy. At noon, still 
sbipoing much water, and everj prospect of a dreadful gale. 

''doAay March 7th. — The hurricane still blowing with the greatest fury, 
and the sea rolHnff constantly over the ship, having washed away the ham- 
mock nettings ana some part of the bulwarics : the hatchways all battened 
down wi^h t^aulins and eitra hammock cloths. The ship now a complete 
wreck, and the ship's company nearly exhausted, having from the com- 
mencement of the gale worked with the greatest cheerfulness. It was now 
evident Uiat unless an alteration took place in a very short time, the ship 
must foundei-. The greater part of the people at the pumps, and using 
every exertion. About four p.m. the main rigging went, and the mast rolled 
over the side, taking with it the head of the mizen-mast and crossjack-yard. 
About this time the violence of the gale appeared to abate ; by eight it was 
decidedly more moderate, the wind during the night having veered to northr 
west. Found the ship had strained and suffered severely in the hull ; still 
oblk;ed to keep the large pumps going; found that the tiller was very loose 
in tne rudder-nead; too much sea on to repair it.*' 

i^rom this statement it will be seen, that we had abundant reason 
throughout to dread the consequences, but for ray own part I had no 
serious apprehensions as to the result until the afternoon of the last day, 
when, however, I found that at that time the violence of the hurricane 
did not abate, and that with our utmost exertions at the pumps, we 
could not keep the ship free, and that in consequence of the immense 
quantity of water in the hold, the teas had become so saturated, and 
acquired so much additional weight, as caused her to labour exceed- 
ingly, and tremble at every successive shock, occasioned by the tremen- 
dous seas that struck her, as if it were the last that she could possibly 
sustain. I confess that all hope of ultimate preservation entirely left 
me ; to our being efficiently prepared in every possible way, for the 
hurricane, can alone be attributed (under Providence) our unexpected 
deliverance. Had we been less so, or had had any heavier cargo than tea, 
I am firmly persuaded that the consequences would have been fatal. 
With the exception of a little biscuit and a glass of spirits occasionally, 
not a man in the ship had, throughout the three days, either sustenance 
<Nr sleep. Owing to this, togeUier with the ffreat exertions required of 
tbem at the pumps, they had become completely exhausted and dis- 
pirited, and at length betrayed an utter indifference to life. One of 
ny messmates at this time said to me, ''How dreadful this uncertainty 
is! I wish the crisis was come." My feelings accorded with his, for I 
fancied that a prolongation of pur lives was only a hopeless protraction 
of oar miseries and sufferings. When the main-mast was blown over 
tlie side, I was near the cabin to which the ladies had been removed 

2 E 2 



w. 



^ 
^ 



1 DO 



A NARRATIVE OF THK LATB DISASTROUS VOYAGE 

for safety, from its being leas exposed, their own cabins having been 
rendered uninhabitable bj^ the aea making through them direct breaches; 
never shall I forget tlieir piercing and heaTt-rending shrieks. The 
blast that assailed us was most awful, and the tremendous crash and 
uproar caused by the falling of the masts, led one to imagine that all 
Vas over. Who can but feel for females in such a situation ? and yet 
tow constantly in times of extreme emergency do they exhibit the moat 
heroic fortitude. 

Throughout the gale they had no occupation, as we had, to divert 
their attention, nothing to employ their minds but the horrors of the 
situation in which they were placed, and yet never to the last did I 
hear a murmur escape them. Well may they be said to be a succour 
and comfort unto man. The main-mast and part of the mizen-mast 
having gone over the side, and the wind, having as it were attained its 
utmost degree of violence, and exhausted on us all its fury, becoming 
apparently satiated with the destruction which it had occasioned, gra- 
dually subsided, and the morn discovered the Bridgewater a complete 
wreck, her yards and masts (with the exception of the foremast) over 
the side, the bulwarks all washed away, all our live-stock drowned, 
and every thing bearing ample testimony to the contention that bad 
been sustained with the boisterous elements. It was indeed a melan- 
choly and appalling sight, and nothing but a feeling of thanksgiving 
to the Almighty for such a miraculous preservation, could have recon- 
ciled one to a calm review of such tremendous havoc. 

On looking back and reflecting on the events that had occurred in 
this dreadful period, a recollection of the thoughts that agitated one's 
mind, acquires a peculiar interest. One circumstance in particular 
made a more than ordinary impression, and although it may appear 
unimportant in itself, still I hope that I may be pardoned for having 
entertained for a moment a superstitious feeling at such a time. The 
bell, by the striking of which we regulate the time, was suspended in 
the fore-part of the ship, and near it, amongst other places, my pre- 
Bfluce was frequently required. On my approach each time, my ear 
was assailed with the most melancholy forebodings, from the excessive 
rolling of the ship causing the bell to toll exactly as if it were fur a 
funeral ; my mind misgave me, I fancied that I heard my funeral knell. 

On the morning after the gale had subsided, Capt. Manderson held 
a consultation with the officers, and likewise with Mr. Plowden, the 
President of the Select Committee in China ; the Hon. Mr. Gardner, 
of the Bengal Civil Service, and Jlr. Anderson of the Penang Civil 
Service, (Passengers,) when, after maturely considering the state of 
the ship, her hull being visibly much strained and damaged, and like- 
ivise still making a great quantity of water, added to which having 
only the foremast and stump of the mizen-mast left standing, it was the 
general opinion that she would not be able to stand another hurricane, 
and consequently that it was running too great a risk tu attempt 
fetching the Isle of France at this season of we year. It was, there- 
fore, deemed necessary for the preservation of the lives of those on 
board, to endeavour to gain the nearest port in India, and that the guns 
Rhould be thrown overboard, as well as part of the cargo from the orlop 
deck, as soon as the weather would permit. In furtherance of these 
vc shaped a course for Madras, which we readied in five 



OP THB H. C. S. BRIDGEWAT£R. 53 

weeks afterwards^ having in the mean time suffered serious privations 
from the scarcity of water, a greater part of which had been started in 
the ^hurricane^ in order to lighten the ship^ as also great anxiety from 
the state of the ship^ well knowing that it was impossible that she 
could survive another gale. From the scarcity of materials we had 
great difficulty in providing temporary expedients for carrying sail; 
we^ however^ by d^prees^ succeeded extremely well, and the Captain 
of a French ship, which we spoke two days before our arrival at Ma- 
dras, expressed himself much surprised and delighted at the appear- 
ance which we, in this respect, presented. On reaching Madras, we 
were immediately supplied with anchors and other necessaries, and 
shortly proceeded to Bengal, accompanied by a Bengal pilot vessel. 
Fortunately we found at Madras, a ship on the point of sailing for 
England, and thus had the means of conveying information to our 
friends of the situation we were in. 

Unhappily we had not spoken a single ship homeward bound from 
the time of our leaving China, and therefore we well knew the anxiety 
that would be felt from the length of time that would elapse before 
any information could be received respecting us. On our arrival at 
Calcutta, after discharging our cargo, the ship was hauled into the dry 
dock, and after a survey held on her by order of Gk)vernment, consist- 
ing of professional and scientific men, the Bridgewater was condemned. 
Never did a ship present more melancholy demonstration of the wea- 
ther she had experienced ; every iron knee in the hold and orlop deck 
was started fi'om its original situation, and stanchions and beams were 
in a like state. ,It was evident that she had received the greatest sup- 
port from a tea cargo on board, which is extremely buoyant, and like- 
wise added stability to the ship. Her stern frames presented a most 
singular appearance, being completely separated from the main, and 
Mr. Seppings, the Hon. Company's Surveyor, gave it as his opinion, 
that in another hour she would have there parted. 

In reading the preceding narrative, how manifest is the finger of 
Providence ! for had but a port been burst open, or a gun ^ot adrift, 
utter destruction must have been our inevitable fate ; instead of which 
not a single man lost his life, and we were enabled to bring the ship 
into a port of safety. We may, indeed, well say that God was better 
to us than our fears. After the survey, the foUomng letter was 
addressed by Commodore Sir John Hayes, as President, to the Secre- 
tary to the Board of Trade in Calcutta. 

SERVICE. 

^' Calcutta, May Slst, 1830. 

« Sir,— With reference to the Board's commands contained in your letter 
of the 24th instant, I have now the honour to submit the proceedings of the 
Committee of Survey held upon the Hon. Compan/s Ship Bridgewater, for 
the final determination of the Board and his Lordship in CounciL In for- 
warding the proceedings alluded to, I deem it my duty to recommend to the 
especial consideration of the Board and of Grovernment,'the present unfor- 
tunate situation of Capt. Manderson, the officers and crew of the H. C. S. 
Bridgewater, who have suffered so much by their exertions, zeal, perseve- 
rance, and endurance, under circumstances without parallel, during her last 
most disastrous voyage. 

** First. In saving the ship and cargo after being stranded and dismasted 
at the entrance of Canton River. 



£4 MARSHAL BER£SFORD — 

'' Secondly. In remasting^ refitting, and lading the ship under unprece« 
dented difficulty and disadvantages ; and lastly in conducting the Bridge-i 
water safe into port^ after encountering a hurricane of unequalled violence 
eastward of the French Islands, which arduous service could only have been 
effected (unider the Deity) by the skill, ability, and unconquerable courage 
of British officers and crew. In conclusion, I should hope that under a libe- 
ral view of all the sufferings of the parties in question, his Lordship iii 
Council will be pleased to direct the whole to be sent to England as passoi- 
gers at the expense of the Hon. Company, as they are eminently entitled to 
their highest Consideration. 

I have the honor to be, Slr^ 

Your faithful servant^ 



For C. Lindsay, Esq. Secretary to the Board of Trade. 



(Signed) JoiIn HayeS. 
lofT " 



MARSHAL BBRESFORD — BATTLE OF SALAMANCA. 

In thstt In'illiant scene of the great Peninsular drama enacted <m the 
hills of the Arrepi)es> now nineteen years ago, I performed the humble 
part of A^istant-Surgeon in the ■ Regiment of Foot. Like all 

military men, I was anxious for pi'omotion, and had been long trying, 
through erery interest I could move, to obtain a staff'-surgeoncy in the 
Portuguese army, — an appointment then open to officers of my rank. 
My exertions, however, had proved i^itless, and I had almost given 
up the pursuit. 

' It was near sunset ; the opposing armies were in fierce collision, and 
as detached masses from eitner side rushed forward to occupy the va* 
rious vantage-grounds of the position, the two lines seemed to mingle, 
yet for a moment, to repel each other, like meeting torrents. A lo6g 
and twisted stream of grey curling smoke marked the indentations ijf 
the combat, whilst the sharp continuous tearing of the musketry, and 
the deep interrupted roar of the cannon, formed an awful conceii;. 

The Surgeon of my regiment and myself had held a little council-of<k 
war in the rear of our division, then moving into the fight, and it was 
settled by mutual con8ent,*that be should remain where he then was, 
with the main body and reserve of our ^sculapian stores, to receive 
the more serious casefs from the fronts whilst I was to keep dose in 
with the regiment, to afford the ^' premiers secours" ix^ our wounded 
comrades before they passed to the rear. I happened to be tolerably 
well mounted. En croupe, I carried a pair of capacious '^ Alforges" or 
Spanish saddle-bags, containing, on one side, a plentiful supply of the 
nlinor apparatus of surgery, and on the other, such *' provent" as Capt. 
Dougald Dalgetty would have laid in for a like occasion. Suspended 
tb my saddle-bow was a *' borackio" or leathern->bag, ef country indne. 
Thus accoutred, I rode on with my iregiment. 

We had just turned a rising ground, and had como into near view of 
the lesser Arrepiles, which was still crowned by a strotu? body of 
French infantry. A Portuguese brigade was in the ftct of storming 
the hill as we came up, and were ^lautly mounting its side; but 
that most commanding point of the adverse position was quite as gal- 
lantly defended by the enemy, who as yet maintaided their ground on 



B^TTUS OF SALAMANCA. 56 

its crest. A division of the Portuguese army, led on by Sir William 
Carr B^esford in person, was closely engaged at its base, nobly rival- 
hns the feats in arms of their British Allies. 

As we ^pressed on towards this interesting scene, a mounted officer, 
in Portuguese staff uniform, galloped towards us from the front, shout- 
ing at the top of his voice, *^ A surgeon, a surgeon — a British surgeon !*' 
In an instant I was at his side, and recognised him to be Colonel Warre, 
one of the Marshal's Aides-de-Camp. " Follow me," were the only 
words pronounced' by him, as he wheeled round his charger, and again 
-spurred him towards the line of fire. 

After a few minutes' gallop we drew up at a covered waggon, to 
which the Colonel pointed with eagerness as he dismounted. I had 
already drawn the curtains of the vehicle aside, and perceived that it 
contained two persons : one in the uniform of a serjeant, the other I 
immediately recognised as the Marshal himself. He was lying on his 
back, dressed in a blue frock-coat and white waistcoat. Just b^ow the 
left breast was a star of blood, bright and defined as a star of knight<- 
hood. It was about the size of that chivalrous decoration, and occupied 
the exact spot where it is usually fixed. There was a small rent in its 
centre, black and round. The eyes were half-closed ; the countenance 
in perfect repose, perhaps a little paler than when I had last seen it. 

The situation of the wound just over the very fountain of life ; the 
stillness of the wounded General ; the appearance of his companion, 
whose lower limbs were literally mashed; the Commander-in-Chief 
and the non-commissioned officer laid side by side, silent, motionless, 
and bloody ; — ^all struck me at the moment as a prelude to the equality 
of the grave. I asked no questions, for I had come to the conclusion 
that there might be no tongue to move in answer. In an instant tlie 
Marshal's dress was torn open, and my fore-finger, that best of probes, 
was deep in his side. Not a muscle m^ved, not a sound was uttered ; 
I felt the rib smooth and resisting below, whilst the track of the bullet 
led downwards and backwards, round the convexity of his ample chest. 
I now spoke fpr the first time since I had entered the waggon, and 
said, ^' General, your wound is not mortal.*' This observation of mine, 
which I made quite sure could not fail to be particularly interesting to 
my patient, seemed to have been heard with perfect indifference ; for 
without taking the slightest notice of the very agreeable intelligence I 
had just communicated, he looked up and a^ked, ** How does the day 
go?" *' Well," said I, " the enemy has begun to give way." " Hah !" 
rejoined the Marshal, '^ it has been a bloody day." 

During this brief conversation, I had traced the course of the ball by 
a reddish wheal, which marked its trajet, and I felt the missile itself 
deeply lodged in the flesh of the left loin. The preliminaries for cut- 
ting out were arranged in a moment, and the Marshal had turned on 
his right side> when the wounded Serjeant, having by this time, as I 
suppose, disovered my trade, began most lustily to call upon '^ Nossa 
Senhora" and the Doctor in the same breath. I requested of him, in 
his own language, io be silent ; telling him, at the same time, that his 
General was lying wounded by. his side. Upon this the Marshal 
tumedlround his head, and with a reproving look, said to me, " Sir, if 
that poor fellow's wounds require dressing more than <nine, dress him 
first." Both the words and the manner in which they were spoken. 



56 MARSHAL BBRBSFORD-— BATTLB OP SALAMANCA. 

made a strong impression on me at the time^ and impressions stamped 
on the field of battle are not easily erased. I assured his Excellency 
that nothing but amputation couid be of any sendee to the Serjeant^ 
and that I had not the necessary instrument^ by me for such an 
operation. 

All parties were again silent^ and I proceeded to cut out the bullet. 
My knife was already buried in the fleshy its point grating against the 
lead^ when the Marshal feeling that I had ceased to cut, and calculat- 
ing^ perhaps^ that my steadiness as an operator might be influenced by 
the rank of my patient, again turned round, and with as much sang" 
froid as if he haa been merely a spectator, said in an encouraging tone> 
^^ Cut boldly, Doctor ; I never fainted in my life ;" almost at the same 
instant I placed the bullet in his hand. 

When the wounds had been bound up, the patient demanded what 
steps he should next adopt. To this I replied that it would be prudent 
to have himself bled after some hours. " But who is to bleed me ?" 
quickly rejoined the Marshal. I was in some measure prepared for 
this question, and had already determined on the course I should follow. 

From the moment I had recognised the Commander-in-Chief of the 
Portuguese army lying wounded in a waggon, close in with the enemy, 
and had ascertained that his wound was not necessarily mortal, I saw 
that my being on the spot, at such a moment, might lead to my pro- 
motion. A fair, unimpeachable opportunity of tendering fresh services 
to him on whom the accomplishment of my ambition seemed to depend^ 
was now afforded me. But such is the influence of an unflindiing^ 
unaffected firmness of character in a chief over those below him, and 
such the impression left on my mind by what I had just witnessed, 
that I felt convinced I should establish a higher place in the Marshal's 
good opinion by remaining in the fight, than by volunteering to leave 
it, even for the purpose of attending to his own wound. I, therefore, 
respectfully submitted to his Excellency, that my regiment was then 
probably in action ; that I should be sorry to be out of the way, when 
my Mends and comrades might need my assistance, and that I hoped 
he would be kind enough to permit me to join them. '^ Most 
certainly," was the reply. 

I saw no more of the Marshal for many weeks> and when I had the 
honour of being again presented, I found him very ill, suffering much 
fi'om inflammation in his side^ and a profuse discharge ^om his wounds, 
kept up, as was afterwards discovered, by some portions of woollen 
cloth, which the bullet had carried forward from the breast of his coat, 
through the loose folds of which the missile had passed before it entered 
the flesh. 

In auitting the Marshal on the field, under the circumstances and 
with the impressions I have just described, I followed the course most 
consonant to my feelings, my sense of duty, and even my views of my 
own interest at the time. Whether I judged rightly upon the latter 
point or not, certain it is that when I appeared in the next great battle- 
scene at Vittoria, the following year, I had already, for some months, 
filled the station of Staff-Surgeon in the Portuguese army. 

D. B. 

London, 2nd April, 1831, 



57 



OH CONDEMNING SMUGGLERS TO SERVE IN THE FLEET. 

TO THE RIGHT HOKOURABLE THE COMMISSIONERS FOR EXECUTINO THE 

OFFICE OF LORD HIOH ADMIRAL. 

Mr LoRos^— The interest which your Lordships have taken in 
every thing which relates to the welfioure and concerns of the British 
Navy, and which has been so recently evinced after your accession to 
office, induces an old officer to hope you will not think him presumptu- 
ous in bringing before your Lordships' notice, a subject which has been 
long felt by the whole service, not only as the greatest d^radation, 
but also as being most injurious both to its discijuine and welfare. I 
allude to the practice of sending smugglers, sentenced to banish- 
ment for a violation of the laws of their country, to serve on board His 
Majesty's ships of war in commission. 

The ^stigma which must consequently be attached to such a custom, 
does in fact place the British seaman on a level with felons — and has 
long been felt, though silently, yet not the less acutely, and the sea- 
men naturally ask what they have done to merit so severe and cruel 
a reflection. 

It is impossible that the Lords of the Treasury can be aware of the 
serious blow it is to His Majesty's naval service, and what the feelings 
of the captains and officers are at seeing their ships so degenerated as 
to be converted into gaols. The sailors feel it, if possible, more severely 
than even the officers, from being obliged to mess and associate with 
men who have been convicted as felons. — It damps the pride and ar- 
dour both of officers and men.- Common sense and experience point 
out, that men so sent on board must be expected to take advantage of 
any opportunity that may occur to sow the seeds of discontent and 
sedition. This dangerous custom was first resorted to during war, 
when £ngland had a very large navy in commission, and when seamen 
had become $o scarce that it was difficult to man the fleets, and they 
were glad to get any description of persons. Such times plead an ex- 
cuse for sending on board ships of war any men who had been bred to 
the sea ; besides which, in war, smugglers were not so numerous, and 
your fleets being very considerably larger than on peace establishments. 
It was not of so much consequence. But now, when British seamen 
are so abundant, that they are starving in the streets for want of em- 
ployment, it is unjust and cruel to deprive them of their bread, by 
forcibly putting into their situations men whom the law regards as 
convicts, and thereby, instead of relieving the seamen, adding to their 
miseries and distresses, and that at a time when seamen should receive 
every encouragement to enter into your ships of war, instead of those of 
foreigners; — ^besides, reconciling men to your ships of war in peace, 
might, in a great measure, if not wholly, do away with the necessity of 
pressing in time of war, and at all events greatly reduce or assist in 
abolishing by degrees the necessity for corporal punishments ; but this 
can never be expected to take place so long as discontented and despe- 
rate characters are sent on board, and that £^ainst their will, to serve 
as part of the ship's company. In short, both Reason and Justice are 
against -the continuance of such an unjust practice ; and if the wel- 



58 ON CONDEMNING SMUGGLERS TO SERVE IN THE FLEET. 

fare of the British Navy is of any consideration^ there cannot be one 
refison brought forward in support of this custom. A very heavy and 
disagreeable responsibility attaches to the officers from having charge 
of a set of smugglers whenever a ship arrives in port> where the 
companies of all ships of war, both English and Foreign, go on shore 
on leave. The orders received with the smugglers are such, that to 
prevent their escaping, they are put in irons every night, which gives 
the impression to our countrymen and foreigners, that the greatest 
tyranny and oppression exist on board British ships of war, and gives 
-seamen such a dread of our naval service. 

In the army, military 'delinquents, that they may not dis^srace 
any regiment, are formed into a separate corps for the coast of Amca ; 
but in the navy^ civil delinquents are forced upon them, as if the wel- 
^e, credit, and purity, of the British Navy were not of equal importance 
te that of the army. Happily the day is gone by, and it is to be hoped 
for ever, when the Board of Admiralty was so degenerated as to be 
formed by what was called a nursery for young statesmen. • 

The Navy hailed with joy and satis&ction the appointment of His 
Most Gracious Majesty, as Lord High Admiral ; and the Navy, always 
neglected till then, now see with the greatest delight four naval Lords 
and one naval Secretary appointed to that Board, and the eyes of both 
seamen and landsmen are watching what will be the first steps of a 
Board composed of five professional men towards bettering the condi^ 
tion of the service, and putting it on a footing suitable to the dignity 
of this great country. If 'your power to do good and benefit the coun- 
try is equal to your kind intentions, we shall not be disappointed. 
'Your Lordships are capable of judging of the hardships and aj»grada- 
tion of the grievances here complained of. If the authority of the 
Admiralty is so circumscribed as not to be able to prevent British 
men-of-war from being made a receptacle for convicts, and that in a 
time of profound peace, as every part of England is now about to be- 
nefit by obtaining a reform — if an appeal is made to the highest powers . 
in behalf of the grievances of the seamen, it is impossible that they 
would refuse to extend the same indulgence to the British Navy which 
is going to be extended to every individual on shore ; and tike great 
interest which the liberal and high-minded nobleman at the head of the 
present Administration has ever taken in our Naval service, makes me 
feel confident that we should have his Lordship's support. 
' In making this appeal, it is only with the sense of public duty to 
the service to which I have the honour to belong, and trust, for the 
honour of that service and for the good of the country, and for the sake 
of British seamen on whose behalf it is made, that it will not be made 
in vain. 

I am, my Lords, 
Your Lordships most obedient and faithful servant, 

John Phillimorb. 

The Ray, Maidenhead, 
15th March, 1831. 



THE BRITISH CAVALRY ON tH« PENINSULA.* 

BT AK OFFICK& OF DRAG6OK8. 

Thb short campaign tennlnating with the battle of Corunna^ fonns 
an epoch in the Peninsular war. It was called disastrous, and perhaps 
such is not altogether an undue epithet ; the blame was naturally laid 
to the charge of the gallant chief; considering^ however, the circum- 
stances of the case, we cannot accuse the Goyernment of speaking very 
strongly on the subject. The officers of the crown naturally wished to 
shift the opprobrium from their own shoulders, where we candidly 
think it ought to rest ; but with this opinion we have no wish to accuse 
those ministers of high crimes ; they were mistaken as to the state of 
Spain ; they mistook popular feeling for 'physical power and warlike 
capability ; they were not happy in their choice of political aeents ; 
from some of their military emissaries they received valuable in- 
formation which they disregarded ; and this was to be expected, for 
having fixed upon Spain as a good field on which to oppose the over- 
whelming power of the French, in which they probably judged cor- 
rectly, and having determined to seize on the opportunity offered by 
the patriotic insurrection, they overrated the power of the patriots, and 
sought only the advice which a man wishes who has made up his mind 
—confirmation. The disasters of Gallida have been greatly overrated ; 
the retreat was rapid, and the army, in some measure, disorganized; 
but not more than might have been fairly expected with so young an 
army; perhaps not more than occurred in the retreat from Burgos, 
when our army had become accustomed to war. But taking a fair 
view of the subject, what was the loss ? what the sum and substance 
of the disaster ? The enemy could boast of no military trophy ; neither 
British gun nor standard fell into their hands ; no officer of distinction 
was taken. It is unnecessary to except Major Napier, who was left 
for dead on the field of battle. 

In the petite guerre, we were eminently successful; the chosen 
squadrons of the enemy had gallantly attacked and had been bravely 
repulsed, while in the numerous affairs of posts, the French could not 
boast of one favourable issue. During the course of retreat from As- 
torga to Lugo, when the rear was most closely pressed, the enemy never 
gained even the most trifling advantage, and when the campaign was 
closed by the battle of Corunna, the British army, suffering from sick- 
ness and exhaustion, in great want of shoes and many other necessaries, 
victoriously repelled the attack of an amw superior in every arm, 
especially m that of artillery, the French having delayed the attack 
till the arrival of a numerous battery, which did great execution, and 
among its effects, was the immediate cause oi the heavy loss we susi- 
tained in the gallant Moore. 

The fear of fatiguing the reader prevented us from commencing this 
sketch of cavalry actions by an inquiry into the comparative materiel 
of the British and French cavalry. lie must, however, submit to the 
infliction, and may, perhaps, find a mere statement of facts with which 
he is well acquainted. We also find a difficulty in speaking of the 

* Ckmtinued from page 310, Part X. for 1831. 



I 

I 



60 THE BRITISH CAVALRY ON THE PENINSULA, 

French cavalry: we know aomething about them, and perhaps overrate 
our knowledge ; but we feel assured that the majority of British 
officers who give opinions on this subject are not well informed. Some 
retain the good old English mode of despising all foreigners: we re- 
member our own hoyish opinion, that one Briton could beat two 
Frenchmen at any time, and more on an emergency. Most boys have 
a confused idea of little finical men, with poivdered heads and pigtails, 
when they think of French soldiers. We recollect, while at Marlow, 
speaking in derision to a Frenchman who had served — his only answer 
was "wait till you meet Frenchmen." Hia words were soon recalled 
to our recollection on the field of Vimeira, when the French at least 
mode an attack worthy of men who meant to do or die. We have 
descended from our high ground j but although we cannot enjoy this 
paradise of fools, we heartily disagree with those worthies who see un- 
mixed excellence in the French horseman. The French cavalry has 
proved itself a moat efficient body. It has been more left to the 
guidance of its own otHcers than is the case in our service ; and in the 
neld of battle, detachments of cavalry have been more scattered 
throughout the different parts of the position than has been usual 
with us. 

The French cavalry enjoys the favourable opinion of their army, 
among whom the chasseurs and husards are preferred to the dragoons ; 
from our own experience we should be induced to dispute the justice 
'of this preference. The dragoons appeared to perform all the duties 
usually allotted to horse soldiers, and to share equally with the light 
cavalry, the duties of the outposts. There is perhaps a greater dif- 
ference between the heavy and light dragoons in the French than in 
'cnr service. The dragoon horses are stronger and taller, and this was 
'system atically arranged at the cavalry depots, and not left, as in our 
service, to the caprice of the Colonel. At one time the light dragoons 
were most esteemed in our own service; military opinion has changed, 
and it is pretty generally believed that the success of charges depends 
principally on the weight of the horses : it may be so, although we 
have never witnessed any charge in which the weight seetned to have 
much to do with the matter, nor da we think it has, always mipposing 
that ilte dragoon hat a stifficient horse under him, and feels confident 
that his steed can cany him well into the fray and tafely out of it, in 
case of repulse. It is also thought by some that the heavy dragoon is 
not fitted for the outpost duty ; this opinion is (juite unfounded ; for a 
long time the Royal dragoons were brigaded with a light regiment, 
and shared equally with it in all outpost duties, and in doing so with 
their black horses, acquired the name of " Wbitbread's Hussars." The 
equipment of the French cavalry is in many respects preferable to that 
of our own. The Frenchman's horse-gear, though very homely, is 
equally useful \rith ours, and much more easily kept in order. In 
dress there is no marked superiority on either side ; the English dress 
is far more splendid and costly ; in point of use and comfort they are 
pretty much on a level. In point of armament the French establish- 
t IB greatly superior to ours. To compare the several weapons : 
" -Our" '■■ ■' ■ .. ^ . . ., „ 



Carbine. — Our heavy dragoon carbine is pretty efficient ; the French 
!avy dragoon carbine is too long. The chasseur carbine is excellent, 

is light, and will carry a ball at least twice as far as is necessary ■ 



TH£ BRITISH CAVALRr ON THB PENINSULA. 61 

our light dragoon carbine is so decidedly bad in all respects, that we 
have only patience to say, the sooner it is got rid of the better. 

Pistol. — A pistol is usually considered as a necessary part of a horse 
soldier's armament : we have not been informed why an old German 
writer (perhaps Lloyd) says, *' never fire a pistol till you feel your 
antagomst's nbs with the muzzle." Why then not use the sword ? 
Marshal Saxe, in his reveries, of which we have only a translation, 
says, " Pistols are to be totally laid aside, they are only a superfluous 
addition of weight and incumbrance." We never saw a pistol made 
use of except to shoot a glandered horse. 

Sword. — The main dependance of a horseman is the sabre ; as to its 
construction, we prefer giving Marshal Saxe's opinion, with which our 
experience perfectly agrees. *' The sword should be three square, 
(t. e. bayonet-shaped,) and carefully blunted on the edges, that the 
soldier may be effectually preventea cutting with it in action, which 
method of using the swora never does execution. It should be four 
feet in length." 

The French dragoon has a long straight sword, the handle is heavy 
and the blade lights by which adjustment the point is naturally raised 
without effort, while it feels light and manageable in the hand. The 
chasseur sabre, although not quite so long, and slightly curved, is, in 
point of fact, much the same as the heavy dragoon sword, as it is 
equally applicable to the thrust and is equally handy. The sword of 
the British heavy dragoon is a lumbering, dumsy, ill-contrived machine* 
It is too heavy, too short, too broad, too much like the sort of weapon 
with which we have seen Orimaldi cut off the heads of a line of urchins 
on the stage. The old light dragoon sabre (for we hear that they have 
got a new one) is constructed in utter defiance of Marshal Saxe and 
his reveries, and as nearly as possible the reverse of what he suggests. 
We can answer for its utility in making billets for the fire. We 
recollect congratulating a dragoon who at a rencontre, in our absence, 
had sacrificed a French officer : '* Yes, said my friend," who, by-the- 
by, was a most gallant fellow, *' I had not room to cut, so I ran him 
through.*' What would the Marshal have said to the education which 
had prompted such an apology. There can be no doubt that thrusting 
is the proper use to make of the sword ; it is a brutal operation ; that 
is not our business ; let those who md^e war look to this and much 
more. We only wish to see our cavalry efficient when they are em- 
ployed, and we can see no reason why a heavy dragoon should have a 
straight sword and a light dragoon a curved one. 

The Lance.— Of this queen of weapons we know little ; in single 
combat it is undoubtedly most formidable, and in squadrons, perhaps, 
it is most useful in the hands of a cuirassier. All the European powers 
concur in having cuirassiers, dragoons, light dragoons, hussars, and 
lancers; grenadiers a cheval may perhaps be added; but in all armies 
there is virtually but two classes, cuirassiers and dragoons, the former 
alone being never employed on the outposts. 

We wisn that the advantage of defensive armour was more fairly 
considered, as we feel convinced that its utility is underrated in our 
service. Instead of a tedious quotation, we beg to refer the reader to 
Oeneral Rogniat*s work *' Considerations sur la Guerre." 

The French cavalry appeared to move more compactly than ours, 



I 



• 



62 THB BRITISH CAVALRY ON THIi PENINSULA. 

and such la probably the case. The superior breeding of the English 
horses renders them more unsteady than the half cart-horse of the 
Frenchman. Let any one obaerve the steady charge of a squadron of 
yeomanry ; one half of the horses were but a few days before in the 
plough, yet they keep their line, and halt in as good order as a squa- 
oron of dragoons, whose horses have been trained to this work alone. 

The accT>unt was closed at Cuninna. The war was commenced de 
novo by augmenting the small force at Lisbon, which army was placed 
under the command of Sir A. Wellesley, who landed at Lisbon in 
April 1809. That officer had been wisely chosen, on account of the 
talent he had shown in the short campaign of the preceding year. 
Pity that the same principle of selection had not been adopted with 
regard to Lord Paget. The cavalry of Sir Arthur's army appears to 
have amounted to about fifteen hundred swords, nnder command of 
Lieut.-Gea. Payne. The whole force was put in motion on Sir Arthur's 
arrival, and moved towards the nurth, to dislodge Soult, whose head- 
quarters were lit Oporto, where he was surrounded by most part of his 
army. The French cavalry was greatly superior to ours in point of 
numbers, and the light horse, under the distinguished Franceschi, was 
RCtively employed against the Portuguese insui^nts, or jmtriots. On 
the 4th of May, a post of the French was attacked, and 4000 men 
dislodged from a strong position at Grrijon ; on the retreat of the 
memy, two British squadrons charged and secured many prisoners. 
On the following day, the brilliant passage of the Douro was effected. 
Without entering into the detail of this most interesting operation, 
Vre shall merely notice that part of it which afforded an opportunity of 
employing cavalry. 

Brig.-Gen. Murray was ordered to cross the river five miles above 
Oporto, at Barca d'Avintas, \vith a view to intercept the retreat of the 
French along the right bank, and also to prevent their crossing over to 
the province of Beira. This force came too late for the first of these 
objects, as the enemy had for the most part passed on, and when it 
came did nothing. We beg to cite the following passage from Colonel 
Napier's admirable work ; 

" M^or-Gen. Charles Stewart, and Major Hervey, Hth Light Dragoons, 
impatient of this inactivity, chared wit'h two squadrons, rode over the 
enemy's rear-guard, as it was pushing through a narrow road, to gain an 
open space beyond ; Laborde wag unhorsed, and Foy badly wounded. On 
the English side. Major Hervey lost an arm, and his galtaiit horsemen receiv- 
ing no support from Gen. Murray were obliged to fight their way back with 

It is difficult to imagine any thing more satisfactory than this little 
attack. The small force of cavalry, unsupported, was unable to hold 
die ground it had gained, far less could it secure prisoners, which is 
■Iways a difficult task for cavalry. It is not proposed to give any con- 
tinuous account of the war, this is not our uDJect — it is also unneces- 
sary, it has been done, and is doing over and over again ; to those who 
wish valuable information on the subject of the Peninsular war, as 
well as military instruction. Colonel Napier's book is complete. At 
the battle of Talavera, we have to record the very gnUant conduct of 
the British cavalry, at least of one regiment, and we do this with 
great pleasure, as we consider the services of that regiment to have 



THB BRITISH CAVALRY ON THB PENINSULA. 63 

been greatly nnderrated ; wbile it is some pledge of onr candonr that 
we believe we are nnknown^ even by name, to any officer who served 
with the 23rd Light Dragoons at the battle of Talavera. The French 
cavalry force on that occasion amounted to seven thousand swords, 
nnder the command of a highly distinguished officer, Latour Maa« 
bourg. ' 

A division of dragoons under Milhaud, was employed to keep the 
Spaniards in check, another division was in reserve, the remainder was 
divided among the different columns formed for the attack on the Bri- 
tish position. 

A valley, which in accounts of the battle is usually called *^ the 
Great Valiey/' passed in front of the left and centre of the British line. 
On the 28th of July, two divisions of French infantry were marched 
up this valley, threatening the left of the position so much as to in- 
duce Sir Arthur to send an order for the caVairy to charge : the order 
was transmitted to Gten. Anson, commanding a brigade composed of 
the 23rd Light Dragoons, and 1st German Hussara 

The ground was very unfavourable for cavalry movements ; and had 
the Colonel of the 23ra been consulted as to the expediency of the mea^ 
sure, he would probably have explained the obstacles which were most 
manifest. Colonel Seymour received a simple order, and he at once 
obeyed it, leading his regiment to almost certain destruction, over 

f round nearly impassable to a single horseman ; many fell in the 
escent into the valley. Colonel Seymour among the number. The 
remainder were rapidly formed by Major P<ms<mby, and gallantly 
charged the French infantry, who threw themselves into squares to 
resist the 23rd. The original attack of the French, which had occa- 
sioned the greatest alarm, was paralyzed, and the attempt was not re- 
newed, even after the destruction of the 23rd, which proceeded to 
charge a regiment of chasseurs, upset them, and was only repulsed by 
a brigade of fresh dragoons sent to the relief of their comrades, and 
who charged and nearly destroyed this gallant regiment. We shall 
now quote from three very high authorities : first, from " Victoires et 
Conquetes" (resumes), which after giving an account of the repulse of 
the division La Jusse, continues : 

^' Les divisions Villatte et Rufin re^urent ordres de se dirig^ la premiere 
dans le vallon, et la seconde par la chaine de montagnes de la CastiUe, et de 
chercher k faire une troupe. Ces divisions ^toient suivies par la cavalerie, qui 
devait saisir le moment favorable pour deboacher dans la plaine sur les der- 
rieres de I'ennemi. ' 

'^ Deux rumens de cavalerie Anglaise cha»gerent alors les Fran^ais, 
passent sous k feu de Tinfanterie entre les divisions Villatte et Rufin, et 
vont attaquer le lOme et 26me Chasseurs-a-chevaL Le lOme r^;iment, trop 
faible pour soutenir le c^ocq, ouvrit ses rangs et laissa passer la cavaleri^ 
ennemie, mais se reformant sur-le-champ, 11 coupa la retraite aux Anglais, 
et prit ou tua presqu'en totality le 23me de Dragons, qui etoit a leur tite." 

The Frenchman fairly avows, that the French brigade was too weak 
to withstand the charge of the two British r^ments, as he styles the 
dibrie of the 23rd. We shall next quote Colonel Napier : 

'' Villatte's divisions, supported by two r^ments of cavalry, was seen ad- 
vancing up the great valley against the left, and beyond villatte, Rufin's 



I 

I 



6* THE BRITISH CAVALRY ON THE PENINSULA. 

division was discovered marching towards tha mountain. Sir A, Wellesley 
ordered AiiBDn'a brigade to charge the head of the column. 

" This brigade coining on at a coriter, and increasing ita speed as it ad- 
vanced, rode headlong against the enemy, but in a few moments came upon 
the lirinlt of a hollow cleft, which was not perceptible at a distance ; the 
French throwing themselves into sijuarep, opened their lire, and Colonel 
Arenchild commanding the Ilnssars, whom forty years' experience had made 
master of his art, promptly reined up, exclaiming, ' I will not kill my yonng 
men)' The English blood waa hotter. The S3rd rode wildly down the 
hollow, — men and horses fell over each other in dreadful confusion; the 
EFurvivors mounted the opposite bank by twos and threes. Colonel Seymonr 
was wounded ; but Major Ponsonby, a hardy soldier, rallying all who came 
np.pnssedthroughRufin'sandVillatte'sdiviBion, and reckless of the musketry 
m)meach side, f^ with inexpressible violence on the cbasseursia thereai*; the 
Combat was fierce but short. Victor had perceived the lirst advance of the 
Xiiiglish, and detached his Polish lancers and Westpbalian light horse to the 
support of Villatte ; these frSsh troops coming up, u-hen the 33rd was already 
overmatched, entirely broke them, and they retired leaving nearly half their 
numbers." 

We have next to refer to Colonel Junes, whose book, though only an 
outline of the war, is highly esteemed for its accuracy nnd clearness ; 
after mentioning the charge of the 23rd, Colonel Jones adds, 

" The regiment was almost entirely destroyed, notwithstanding which, the 
enemy was so astonished at the boldness of the attempt, that the columns 
lialted, and the division of Spaniards under Bassecourt, detached for that 

Sirpose, holding the light troops in check — this imposing monemeat, whick 
reatened the destruction of the army , produced no result whatever." 

Such is the cursory rien* of this gallant charge as it is given by three 
very high authorities. Colonel Jones alone has given an opinion prc-tty 
enerally held in the army, viz. that this charge not only checked 
'illatte's movement, which of itself was a service of vital importance, 
by giving Sir Arthur time to manteuvre his forces ; but farther, as for 
as could be judged, prevented a renewal of the attack in that quarter, 
which was not repeated. We think Colonel Napier has given short 
measure of praise to the 23rd; indeed, justice demanded a more lauda- 
tory detail of the case. He again alludes to it in his " Observations." 
"The whole of Villatte's nnd half of Rufin's divisions were paralyzed by 
the charge of a single regiment." 

We are convinced that the writer of the " History of the Peninsular 
War" wishes to deal fairly with all, and faithfully to record the events 
of the war ; while writing the above we were informed that this part 
of his work had been already attacked, and we sympathize ivith the 
gallant Colonel on the many attacks he will receive from wounded 
pride during the pr(^reBS of his labours, and which may be some small 
offset against the satisfaction which he will experience in the enjoy- 
ment of his well-earned fame. We have read accounts of this charge 
by several authors, in most of which exceptions are taken against the 
23rd ; one we remember is, that the cavalry had not reconnoitred their 
front, another, that they had no reserve; but these and many other 
objections are very idle specimens of the easy art of finding fault. It 
18 not the prorince of an officer of cavalry in position to reconnoitre his 
iront; at least, it is theefpectaiduty of thestatFor engineer officer who 



fl 



THE BRITISH CAVALRY ON THE PENINSULA. 65 

takes up the ground, to point out any peculiar features in the probable 
line of action ; and this is evident, when we consider that a corps, 
and especially one of cavalry, is frequently moved up and ordered to 
take part in a battle, when no time can be allowed for reconnoissance, 
and where the best hopes of success would be lost by a moment's delay. 
Had the Greys reconnoitred the ground when they made that gaUant 
and decisive charge against D'Erlon's corps at Waterloo ? It is well 
known that they were ignorant as to what tney were charging, yet Pon- 
sonby*s brigade by their charge also contributed greatly to the security 
of the position. The position at Talavera ^as, at least, equally threat- 
ened by two French corps, yet the charge which paralyzed the attack 
has been judged ill-advised and rash. The 23rd had no share in the 
motives whi<m led to the order to charge, they received the order and 
obeyed it ; Seymour aud Ponsonby did theii; duty, and did it well ; 
these officers had no desire to '' kill their young men," but relying on 
the Commander-in-Chief as to the expediency of his orders, they al- 
lowed no obstacles to impede them. We truly think that the 23rd may 
challenge the world to produce an instance of greater effect produced 
on a well-disciplined enemy by so small a body of men. 

The only parallel which occurs to us is the charge of the Polish 
Lancers at Somosi^rra, which Napoleon probably ordered under a chi- 
valrous excitement, risking most unfeurly the brave lancers, who would 
have been destroyed had a single Spanish regiment kept their ground ; 
and this dangerous measure was adopted most gratuitously, when there 
were large corps of infantry at hand. We hear nothing in the French 
accounts of ill-advised attacks. The Emperor did not consider such 
language likely to edify the chivalry of his dragoons ; he covered them 
with glory. We pursued another course, and the above and another 
instance of unjust censure had a very bad effect on the spirit of the 
British cavalry. We do not believe that Napoleon would have thanked 
Arenchild for the fruits of his forty years' experience ; that officer pro- 
bably did what he considered his duty, and he had many other oppor- 
tunities of evindng his valour and skill. We would be among the last 
to derogate from the merit of that gallant veteran ; but on this occa- 
sion, we must give undivided praise to Ponsonby and his people, who 
gave a different interpretation to the order. We have little hope of 
reclaiming any slanderer of the British cavalry, who, it appears, are 
generally accused of charging too much or too little.* In the arrange- 
ments of the army, it unfortunately happened that the 23rd was soon 
afterwards sent home. 



♦ The French cavalry, although so yastly superior in nnmb^^ wppext to have 
taken no active share in the battle. 



U. S. JouRN. No. 30. May, 1831. 



m 

YACHT CLUBS AND REGATTAS. 

The History of Nayal Architecture has not^ since the commence- 
ment of our commercial greatness, manifested so many decisive proofs 
4f( masterly research as it has within the last half-century. It has 
been allowed to occupy that distinguished place which it has so long 
and justly deserved^ as a science of the utmost possible importance to a 
maritime people^ — while its principles have been studied and professed 
by men well known in the naval circles for their scientific acquirements 
and their recondite learning. Within this limited period^ not only have 
the most valuable improvements been effected in the construction^ speedy 
and general equipment of our naval force^ but men, who from early life 
have been attaining, in actual service, a practical knowledge of their 
profession, have been encouraged to communicate to their country the 
result of their experience. The situation of England, the unparalleled 
glory of her victories, the success and the extent of her commerce, all 
tend to prove that the pride and the honour, the wel&re and the pros- 
perity of the nation, depend materially on the practical efficiency of her 
navy. We have been led into these remarks on considering the pro- 
gress and prospects of the Yacht Clubs, and as the time is not far dis- 
tant when the squadrons of these little navies will be preparing for 
their annual expeditions, and for the great festivals connected with 
them, we propose to devote a few pages to a brief inquiry into the 
actual merits and utility of these institutions. There are, we believe, 
few seamen of judgment and experience who have not admired the 
beautiful vessels of the '' Experimental Squadron," and no one, we 
imagine, will say that those built subsequently on the plans of different 
officers, as well as those now constructing in the public yards under 
their superintendence, do not at the same time confer honour on the 
service to which they belong, and hold out a cheering prospect of future 
-and incalculable benefit. We sincerely trust, that the different naval 
administrations will readily encourage every such developement of 
talent, — that they will afford our heroes every possible opportunity 
of ascertaining in the dock-yards the comparative value and utility 
of ai^y improvement that may suggest itself to their observation, and 
that they will promote the ends of science by honouring these mani- 
festations of research with their immediate support and patronage. 
- But while this laudable spirit of amendment has been sensibly 
spreading in the public service, the zealous superintendents of the 
private yards have evidently kept pace with the progress of improve- 
ments. To effect this object, the Yacht Clubs nave afforded them 
abundant opportunities of acquiring knowledge, and of applying the 
results of their practice to the advancement of a great public cause ; 
for the improvement of naval architecture is unquestionably a public 
cause of the utmost magnitude, and we know no measure so calculated 
to promote the enlightened views of the scientific members of our navy 
as the establishment of Yacht Clubs. On these grounds, especially, 
do we advocate their eeneral encouragement. There are, we are con- 
vinced, few seamen who are not familiar with the splendid models of 
many vessels of the Royal Yacht Club, and every succeeding year 
brings us fresh proofs of some important advantage gained either in 



YACHT CLUBS AND REGATTAS. 67 

construction or in speed. The Royal Yacht Club is supported by 
noblemen and gentlemen of the first rank and opulence^ and con- 
sequently no expense is spared in the equipment of their vessels. The 
pride of the club^ this year, may probably be beaten next season by a 
new competitor^ built purposely to oppose her ; and what one gains at 
one period by superior speed> is done away at the succeeding contest^ 
by another more decisive and important improvement. Hence^ it must 
be evident that a continual emulation is excited among all classes^ £rom 
the opulent proprietor to the practical artisan^ — and the beneficial re- 
sults of this praiseworthy rivalry are far too obvious to require anj 
comment. That these advantages were fully foreseen by the pro- 
moters of Yacht ClobSj there can be little doubt ; they could not have 
be«x ^ninruit that^ in establishing on a permanent and regular scale a 
society so characteristic of this nation^ they were effecting a gradual 
but marked benefit for the country at large. But this is neither a 
question of taste nor opinion^-— if we appeal to facts which cannot be 
misunderstood^ we see the measure supported by the first naval heroes 
of the day^ by men who are regarded by the public as the brightest 
ornaments of our annals of maritime achievement. That these men 
are more qualified than any other body to decide on the advantages of 
such institutions^ is a proposition which it requires no reasoning to 
demonstrate, — and their names would certainly not be enrolled on the 
list of the Honorary Members of the Royal Yacht Club of Cowes, if 
they thought these clubs of no public utility. We have, however^ the 
distinguished authority of one of our most experienced officers^ who has 
served most actively in the fleet of this country ; who has shared the 
perils of those whose home is on the waters ; who has given additional 
lustre to that national banner under which he sailed^ and whose name 
is identified with the British seaman; — we say it with pride — with 
that pride which the circumstance must always excite in the mind of 
an Englishman, that the Royal Yacht Club of England is honoured 
with the exalted patronage of King William the Fourth. 

But it must not be considered that the encouragement of naval archi- 
tecture is the only advantage effected by the yacht clubs ; money, in 
consequence of their , establishment, is extensively circulated in the 
commercial world ; while trade, more especially that connected with 
shipbuilding and the equipment of vessels^ is excited and supported. 
In a time of war also, the advantage of commanding the services of a 
well-disciplined and orderly body of seamen^ such as is employed in 
the clubs, must be allowed to be incalculable by all who understand 
the machinery of naval governments. We have, therefore, seen that 
the merits of Yacht Clubs are great and important, and that they are 
entitled to the cordial and consistent support of the British people. 

We have now to discuss the utility of Regattas. We are fully aware 
that on this subject there exists a great diversity of opinion ;-^the re- 
gatta has been decried as an idle amusement, interesting only to those 
concerned, and it has been asserted that its observance is a waste of 
time and of money. This certainly appears to us a very narrow view 
of the question ; if regattas were discontinued, it is by no means pro- 
bable that the proprietors of yachts would reject altogether the esta- 
blishment of a contest Among themselves to determine the comparative 

r 2 



68 YACHT CLUBS AND REGATTAS. 

merits of their several vesdels, and to excite a degree of emulation 
among their seamen. NoWj we would ask> why should not the public 
take a part in the festival ? why should a commercial people withhold 
their tribute of support from an amusement so characteristic of the 
national taste ? Who is there who has witnessed a regatta, such as 
that annually observed at Cowes^ at Plymouth, at Belfast^ or in the 
Bay of Dubhn, (for we speak only of those conducted on a liberal and 
extensive scale^) — ^who is there> we repeat^ who has witnessed that im- 
pressive scene^ and not felt his heart expand^ when the conquering 
hero of the wave returned^ greeted with the applauding cheers of the 
beholders^ and welcomed to the shore by music? The competition 
of a boat-race is precisely what is required to fulfil the intentions of 
the advocates of yacht clubs^ and even if they were recommended by 
no other circumstance than the emulation and pleasure excited among 
the seamen of the vessels themselves^ we should consider their claim 
pn public notice fully established. Is the sailor who has fought his 
country's battles to have no season of relaxation from toil ? Is the 
'* nursling of the storm" to be denied even this gratification^ so conge- 
nial to his feelings and so appropriate to his calung ? We are not^ on 
the other hand, unmindful that the measure has been condemned as 
Inimical to the interests of morality. We despise such sophistry.' Are 
labour and toil for ever to be the portions of the children of men ? Is 
rational pleasure prohibited by the fundamental laws of moral philoso- 
phy ? '' Away," to use the words of an elo(]uent modern writer, 
^' away with this sullen, this morose, this unnatural philosophy, if it 
deserve the name, which would pluck every flower from the thorny 
wreath of mortal destiny ; which, with presumptuous hand, would tear 
from creation the resplendent robe with which the Deity Himself has 
invested her, and cry shame on the very sun as he pursues his course in 
triumph through the heavens.". 

In whatever point of view we examine the measure, either as the 
means of exciting emulation in the yacht clubs, as a national festival, 
or as the grand holiday of the seamen, we are more and more convinced 
of its public utility. We call, therefore, on the people, and on our 
naval heroes, to support these pursuits in every possible way ; and 
we earnestly recommend them to establish regatta clubs in different 
parts of the kingdom, which will ensure a repetition of the festivsd, 
and provide the necessary funds by a less fluctuating method than 
public subscription, which must cease with the period prescribed and 
the object specified.* By these means we may venture to affirm that 
the country will reap much and valuable benefit, and learn to entertain 
^ proper and legitimate value for. the interests of that navv, which 
numbers among its heroes the names of Howe, Rodney, and Nelson. 

O. B. 

* A dub of this descriptien has been established at Plymouth, chiefly through 
the indefatigable exertions of Giq>t. William Brooking DoUing, R.N., R.YC, to 
whom, it is but just to s^y^ the advocates of these pursuits owe a deep obligation, 
for his assiduous and patriotic zeal in behalf of this important national cause. The 
club is under the immediate patronage of His Majesty, and is supported not only 
by the most opulent residents and the naval and military officers in the neighbour- 
hood, but by Uie noblemen and other influential individuals in different parts of the 
county. 



69 



LANCERS AND LIGHT DRAGOONS. 

* 

Tab observations on Light Cavalry in the Fields by the officer who 
siens himself Vanguard in the United Service Journal for Aprils are 
full of such good sense, and are written in such a candid ana liberal 
spirit, that they have deservedly attracted the attention of all officers 
of the cavalry who are readers of that well conducted publication. 
From several of his terms and expressions, however, it may be inferred 
that Vanguard is an infemtry officer, and though he seems extremely 
conversant with the nature of the duties of cavsdry in the iield, still he 
is in error as to some points, on which, to judge from his candour, he 
will not disdain to be set right. In the first place, he really is quite 
mistfiken in supposing that the ^Eishion of mounting our light cavalry 
upon very slight horses any longer exists ; on the contrary, it has been^ 
and is the earnest endeavour of both the late and present Inspector, as 
well as of the Lieutenant- Colonels of the light cavalry, to obtain the 
strongest horses that the Government allowance can procure, which 
allowance is the very same both in light and heavy cavalry. A good 
judge of horses would probably pronounce those of the 9th Lancers 
and 8th Hussars, for instance, to be as strong and serviceable animals 
as can be wanted for any description of service. 

Then, as to the fire-arms of the cavalry, it is very true that hitherto 
they have not been, until of late years, considered enough as to their 
quality or weight. The light-dragoon carbine was certainly an inefficient 
weapon, and had also the fault of a bore which admitted of no bullet 
except those expressly intended for it, a great disadvantage when em- 
ployed in front of the army. The carbine of the heavy cavalry was 
again a still more inferior weapon, with a loose ramrod, not secured in 
any way to the piece, or to any part of the man's accoutrements, so 
that, at common held days, nothing was more common than for the sol- 
diers to drop and lose their ramrods altc^ether. There was also the 
appendage of a bayonet to the heavy-dragoon carbine, than which a 
more useless accompaniment to a weapon already very weighty and 
awkward, could hardly have been imagined. As heavy cavalry, if 
strictly considered as such', are less liable to be employed at the out- 
posts than the light, one does not see either for what possible reason 
they were to have a heavier carbine than the others, because it is na- 
tural to infer that the carbine which carries sufficiently far to be for'% 
midable at the outposts, must be equally fit for the verv few occasions 
where cavalry could be liable to use it elsewhere. All these points^ ^ 
however, were brought under the consideration of the authorities more 
than a year ago. Several pattern carbines were made by the best ^n- 
smiths; a great many experienced officers, and even old private soldiers^ 
(opinions never to be despised,) were consulted upon tne details of all 
that regards the efficiency of the weapon ; and a series of very 8atisfiEU>» 
tory trials was made with the utmost exactness and patience^ under the 
direction of the Ordnance Department, who decided upon a carbine 
which had the merit of carrying fiill as far as the French one, was 
much more handy and convenient, and was constructed upon superior 
principles, as regards the quality and durability of the loos. To have 
issued a complete supply of these new carbines to the cavalry in time 
of peace would have lieen a needless waste of public money ; but 



70 LANC£RS AND LIGHT DRAGOONS. 

Vanguard will no doubt be happy to learn that^ whenever wanted, 
there is this weapon prepared for the use of the cavalry^ which must 
give them a great advantage whenever they shall again appear at the 
outposts before their Continental rivals. There is but one amendment 
which, some officers would have preferred as regards the new carbine^ 
but which has been rejected^ perhaps from some pardonable prejudice 
for old habits. It is the method used by the French Chasseurs of 
wearing the ramrod^ instead of having it fixed to the carbine by a 
swivel^ stuck through leather loops sewed about twelve inches apart 
upon the front of the pouch belt. By this arrangement, when the 
man is not using it, he puts it through the loops and it lies across his 
breast, with one end elevated in a line with his left shoulder, and the 
other depressed towards his right hip ; in short, following the direc- 
tion of the pouch belt. A slight leather thong by which it hangs 
suspended from the pouch belt when skirmishing, effectually prevents 
the French Chasseur from losing it ; he has it always convenient and 
ready to his hand ; and the carbine is of course all the lighter and 
more simple in construction, from not having the ramrod permanently 
attached to the barrel with a swivel and iron loops. It is said that 
even a still greater improvement, if possible, than giving them an ex- 
cellent carbine, is contemplated by the authorities for the accoutrement 
of the cavalry, namely, the suppression of that most unnecessary of the 
dragoon's incumbrances, the holster pistols ; so useless are these articles, 
indeed, that it is ten to one that Vanguard, if he is an infantry officer, 
scarcely knows of their existence ; at all events, he never can have seen 
them used, except to shoot a lame or glandered horse, for it would be 
difficult to produce an instance of a cavalry soldier having on any one 
occasion fired his pistol at an enemy. 

There is but one more error in which Vanguard will, no doubt, allow 
himself to be set right, as regards the existmg state of things in the 
cavalry. He observes, that the British army is incomplete as regards 
our having neglected to organize a certain number of our regiments as 
Chasseurs ; now so far from this being the case, it has been thought 
of 80 much importance for our cavalry to be able to act as light infantry, 
when occasion requires, that in the Book of Instructions and Move- 
ment, issued for trial early in 1829, and still in practice with the 
cavalry, a chapter is entirely set apart for the service of dismounting to 
act on foot with carbines; and among the numerous officers of all ranks 
who were consulted upon all its details by the able and experienced 

« general officer who compiled and issued that book, there were none 
who did not concur in the necessity of such a practice being laid down 
in the most explicit manner. Experience had long since made them 
well aware of the absurdity of Druidar's directions for dismounting to 

form battalion, an operation by which half the officers were changed in 
their places and in their commands, the horses were fastened together 
in such a way as would be most daneerous when in the presence of an 
enemy, and so much time was wasted in a complete new telling ofiT and 
other ceremonies, that, for any emergencv of real service, the attempt 
would have been absolutely riaiculous. According to the new practice, 
the centre man of each three holds the bridles of his two neighbours, 
b^ which means a squadron of sixty files will furnish forty files to act 

as light infantry ; and being all rights and lefts of threes, the dismount- 



LANCERS AND LIGHT DRAGOONS. 71 

ed men require no fresh tellings for moving by tiles while they lemain 
on foot. Thus, although a larger proportion of light infantry is fur- 
nished by each squadron than Vanguard himself contemplates^ the 
horses are left in a perfectly manageable state, and each man who re- 
mains mounted^ having only a couple of horses to lead in their usual 
places by threes, no difficulty whatever would occur in marching off 
the whole of the horses either to the flank or rear, if it should be ad- 
visable to alter their position, in order to avoid cannon-shot or other 
danger during the absence of that proportion of their riders who had 
dismounted to act as light infantry. Vanguard may then reassure 
himself as to the strength and size of our light dragoon horses ; as to 
the certainty of an admirable carbine being ready in case of a war ; and 
as to the attention now paid to the practice of dismounting cavalry 
rapidly and easily, to act m the same way as the French Chasseur,— a 
practice which he is fully justified in considering of the very utmost 
importance. 

As to that part of his judicious paper in which he speaks more par- 
ticularly about the disadvantage of Laflcer regiments in the British 
service, many farther arguments may be adduced to show how correct 
and practical a view he has taken of his subject. The greatest of all 
military authorities has frequently declared his opinion, that in our 
service all cavalry should be cavalry of the line, that is to say, fitted 
equally for all purposes of service. 

Is not the reason obvious ? An English army takes the field with 
the smallest proportion of cavalry of any European power. How can 
it then be possible to divide a force scarcely sufiicient for the ordinary 
and necessary duties dependent on the infantry, and requisite for -their 
* security and safety, into the various separate departments, if such an 
expression is applicable, of first, the heavy dragoon or cuirassiers ; se- 
condly, the lancer ; and thirdly, the light dragoon or hussar ? out of 
these three descriptions of cavalry enumerated, only the latter can in 
strictness, and supposing us in this respect to adhere to the customs of 
the other European cavalry, be called proper for out-post duty. Now 
let us examine our disposable force, in which the regiments in India 
must not be reckoned of course. We have, including the Life Guards 
and Blues, thirteen regiments of heavy cavalry, three regiments of lan- 
cers, and six regiments of hussars and light dragoons. If our army, 
when called upon to take the field, is to depend, for its outpost service 
on the six last-named regiments, supposing them all ready for instant 
embarkation, it would, as to numbers, be poorly provided, especially 
when their very weak strength is considered. But the fact is, that the 
distinction of heavy and light dragoon in the British service is only in 
dress and equipment, and it is rather a singular anomaly, that the heavy 
dragoon, from being lighter equipped, and without the sheepskin, is 
rather of the two better fitted for outpost duty than the light dragoon 
and hussar. In the late war, the Royals and other heavy cavalry re- 
giments, necessarily took their share of outpost duty along with the 
other cavalry, and gained well-merited praise for their activity in its 
performance. 

The employment of lancers in the Continental armies is quite a dif- 
ferent case from arming British regiments in that manner. The Rus# 
sians, Prussians, and Austrians, have plenty of light cavalry for all the 



72 LANCKKS AND LIGHT DRAGOONS. 

purposes of a great army ; they can afford to set apart the cuiraaaiera for 
the reserve, and to have their lancers held in readiness to complete the 
successes over inbntry which may have been gained by other troops ; 
nor are they ever obliged, by want of other descriptions of cavalry, to 
expose lancers in situations where the carbine wotild be necesaary for 
their efficiency or protection. 

At the termination, however, of the late war, when the French 

anniea were entirely reorganized uoder the Bourbon dynasty, it was 

decided by the opinion of a Board, composed of some of the first cavalry 

officers who had been formed undei the master-hand of Napoleon, that 

it was not desirable to retain the system of lancer regiments ; and they 

recommended instead, that each regiment of chasaeurs should have one 

of its four squadrons armed and trained as lancers, for which squadron 

the most suitable men and horses should be selected. This arrange- 

t was accordingly adopted, one complete regiment only of lancers 

■.being still retained, and embodied as such in the royal guard. 

J It waa well known among the superior officers of the French cavalry, 

Ldint Napoleon had the intention of making an arrangement regarding 

I Iwcers very much of the same sort. He proposed, instead of whole re- 

I giments, to have independent lancer squadrons of about sixty tiles, one 

r attached to each brigade or division of infantry, when on service. 

F These squadrons were to furnish orderlies to the general officers to 

r -whose brigades or divisions they were attached; they were also to take 

L aU letter parties and other duties required for the communication of 

I orders, &c. between the stations or positions of the infantry corps ; 

tbey were, in abort, to undertake all that kind of work in attendance 

I Bpon the infantry, by which the regular cavalry regiments are so much 

\ weakened and harassed on service. The squadron, after furnishing 

men necessary for the performance of these duties, was to follow 

[ oU movements of the infantry division to which it belonged ; it was to 

, be employed in protecting its retreats, in examining the roads by which 

it might have to advance, and, above all, in following up its successes 

sgaiust an enemy's infantry, upon which, when broken and thrown into 

' disorder by musketry or the bayonet, these lancer squadrons were to be 

F let loose, in order to complete their confusion and defeat. 

I Independent of the high authority by which this plan was counte- 

ft'iianced, it seems very obvious that great advantages must hove resulted 

K.£rom its adoption in the French service, and it may admit of a question 

V-whether such an arrangement, notwithstanding the smallness of our 

Posvalry force, might not be followed with much benefit by our own 

E-anuies in the field. How often was the Duke of Wellington obliged 

1 to reiterate hia orders in the Peninsula for limiting the number of 

I wderlies, by whose absence, in attendance upon the stalf of the army, 

L tbe cavalry regiments had become too much weakened and harassed ; 

[ and yet how very necessary it is for the staff to be well attended by 

mounted men for the circulation of orders, and many other equally 

important purposes. Suppose these men then to be taken from a small 

corps permanentlv attached to each division of infantry, their services 

would be perfectly available for the staff, and yet they might, at any 

moment, join their sqnsdrons for an attack. 

. Of one point there can at all events be little doubt, viz. that the 
time when the lancer is most formidable, is in the melie of broken in- 
fantry, whether their disorder baa arisen from defeat or from a success 



|>ANCBR8 AND LIGHT DRAGOONS. 73 

too rashly followed ; and both on this ground and beeanse lancers muel 
rely so frequently on the fire-arms of the infantry for their protection, 
it seems advisable that the lance should never be at any considerable 
distance from her best friend the musket. 

As to the notion that in ordinary charges the lancer has any ad- 
vantage over the swordsman^ Vanguard's remarks are absolutely con* 
elusive. Nobody but Dundas ever supposed the possibility of two 
lines of cavalry coming in positive and simultaneous contact ; one of 
other must ^ther give way^ turn about, and fly, or else, fedling into 
disorder, be penetrated and passed through, so as to produce a complete 
meUe, in which that party which first regains any degree of order, will 
have the instant advantage. This is the moment when the arme 
blanche, as the French call it, reaUy comes into play, and by no means 
in the act of charging, when the strength of the horse's legs has a far 
greater effect than the vigour of the rider's arm. Now, in this melee, 
^t us consider which wiS be best off; the lancer or the swordsman? 
the long weapon or the short? opinions, and good opinions, too, are 
much divided upon this point. It has been proved by several trials, 
that a single lancer on a very well-broke horse, is more than a match 
for a single swordsman, supposing them both expert at their respective 
arms, and fairly pitted one against the other, without the presence 
of other combatants, in a clear space, and on even ground, where the 
lancer can have the full benefit of his horse's activity. In these mock 
combats f<Mr the sake of trial, the lancer has not, however, been allowed 
all those advantages which he would have hcid in the field of battle, 
because with the mil-lance, used on such occasions, he cannot of course 
be permitted to strike his adversary's horse, but only that adversary 
himselL Now, there is hardly any horse that could be brought again 
to face the lancer, or even prevented frt)m turning short round, and 
completely exposing his own rider to his attack, when once it has- 
received upon the nose one of those tremendous blows which can be 
given with the staff of the lance by swinging it round with the whole 
strength of the arm, and by means of which men who are good masters* 
of the weapon will actually strike a man clean off his horse if they get 
a fair stroke at him in this manner. 

Having now given feur credit to the lance as opposed to the sword, 
when both are wielded by skilful antagonists, let us consider the much 
more ordinary case of an indifferent lancer opposed to an indifferent 
swordsman, both mounted on horses hastily trained, as must often' 
happen in time of war, perhaps equally fatigued with long marching 
and out of heart by scanty forage and exposure to weather. A wide: 
difference will be found in this case from that which we just now: 
proposed for consideration. A bad lancer is a mudi more clumsy 
fellow than a bad swordsman ; not only is his weapon by far the most 
difficult to manage, but his powers of horsemanship are materially 
affected by his awkwardness in attempting to wield it ; and if in addi- 
tion to this, the scene of the combat happens to be in deep and uneven 
ground, his chance of success against the swordsman, however indif-> 
ferent may be the skill of the latter, becomes more than questionable. 

As to the idea of lancers being at all more formidable than any 
other cavalry to infantry in square, as long as that square maintains its. 
formation, every officer of service or judgment must at once agree fully 
in Vanguard's observation, as to the invincibility of a square by any 



74 LANGBRS AND LIGHT DRAGOONS. 

cavalry weapon, whether long or short. If lances could be carried 
twice or even three times as long as at present, still the storm of ^' iron 
sleet " issuing from the square, must reach the lancer before his point 
can reach its ranks ; and even if he could pike one man in the kneel- 
ing* rank, there are more behind to avenge their comrade's fall, by 
returning lead for steel with good interest. 

But, besides the lancer and his infantry antagonist, there is yet ano-> 
ther party concerned in the matter, who is of considerable importance. 
This is no other than the lancer's horse, who, though by the force of 
habit, and the nobleness of his docile, but undaunted spirit, he is rea- 
dily trained by gentle treatment 



" Sub armis, 

Insultare solo, et gressus glomerare superbos,** 

in the serried squadron, against the ordinary array of war in almost all 
its forms ; yet, when he is urged against the terrible face of the in- 
fantry square, more resembling a living volcano than any phalanx of 
human invention, when his sight is obscured by clouds of rolling 
smoke, only broken by the quick flash of the musket and the occa- 
sional gleam of the bayonet, the animal becomes bewildered with 
terror, and wheeling round, in spite of reign and spur, rushes from 
th^ unequal conflict, where he seems to know almost by instinct that 
his destruction is instant and inevitable. Let any one, officer or sol- 
dier, who has ever charged a square, deny, if he can, the truth of this 
picture. Nay, let the experiment be tried of how near a squadron of 
cavalry can be brought to a square of the foot-guards, firing blank 
cartridge in Hyde Park, and the thing will speak for itself, putting 
out of the question the concentrated and incessant shower of bullets by 
which that square has before now taught the finest cavalry of France a 
severe and bloody lesson. 

By those few officers of either arm, who deny the invincibility of the 
square, the extraordinary and solitary instance is quoted of the charge 
of Bock's heavy Germans in Spain ; but be it recollected that, in that 
desperate aflair, the French square, before it gave way, laid sixty of 
its assailants upon the ground, and was itself under the discourage- 
ment of retreat, and attempting to continue its march towards the 
rear, so that its order was by no means perfect ; indeed, it is said, that 
the front rank could not be induced to kneel by their officers, who 
used the strongest entreaties and threats to prevail upon them to do so. 

The lance then, in ordinary hands, and on ordinary occasions, cannot 
claim any advantage over the sword, either for the charge against 
cavalry, or for the attempt at breaking into the infemtry square. 
Against broken and fugitive infantry, there can be no doubt, however, 
that it is the most destructive of weapons. But does this counter- 
balance, as regards the British cavalry service, the great evil of being 
without fire-arms? for the pistol is, as has been before observed, a very 
bad substitute, or rather no substitute at all, for the carbine. This 
question would soon be decided by the officers themselves of our lancer 
regiments, after a very short period of continental war. Mortified as 
they would soon find themselves in being debarred by the nature of 
the weapon carried by their men, from those active duties of the out- 
posts, which, besides forming the young officer in the most essential 
business of his profession, give him frequent opportunities of advan- 



LANCERS AND LIGHT DRAGOONS. 75 

tageously displaying his zeal and intelligence, the officers of the lancer 
regiments would very soon ask, as the greatest favour, to be allowed to 
lay aside the lance for the carbine, in order to obtain an equal chance 
of distinction with the rest of the cavalry. 

Now it may, perhaps, be answered that, as the lancer regiments are 
in all other respects admirably equipped as regards both man and horse 
for the purposes of light cavalry, it will be time enough when the day 
of trial comes to exchange the lance for the carbine, if the experience 
of service should prove the necessity of such an alteration. But this 
is a dangerous reasoning. The war in the Peninsula gave a very fair 
test of what is wanted of our cavalry ; and would the Duke of Wel- 
lington at any period of that war have consented to exchange a regi- 
ment of dragoonsj either heavy or light, for a regiment of lancers ? 
This is a proper opportunity, by the by, for calling the notice of our 
cavalry chiefs to a point which, in time of peace, is never sufficiently 
considered — namely, the sreat importance of giving more time and at- 
tention in our dragoon and hussar regiments to the use of the carbine 
on horseback. One of our huss^ colonels has invariably followed the 
judicious practice of making all his men act in their turn as skirmishers 
at field days; but a great number of regiments content themselves 
with merely selecting in each troop a few of the most active men and 
horses as permanent skirmishers, to rush out from the ranks at full 
gallop for mere effect and display, and return, after firing off their car- 
bines half a dozen times in the air, at the same unnecessary speed with 
which they went out. This method of skirmishing affords no instruc- 
tion whatever towards making even the selected soldiers good shot* 
with their fire-arms; and as in the riding-school the pistol alone is 
used in firing at a mark, the greater proportion of each troop may go 
on from one year's end to another without a single opportunity of even 
knowing whether they have any dexterity or not in the use of the car- 
bine on horseback. There are, no doubt, a certain number of parades 
for ball-practice on foot, but a man who is a tolerably fair shot pA his 
own legs, may find himself as much puzzled upon a shy or hot-tem- * 
pered horse, as a horse-artillery-man would be perplexed to take a good 
aim with an 18-pounder in a heavy sea on board of ship' 

At many of our cavalry stations there is no ground where, even on 
foot, this ball practice can take place ; but surely, wherever it is pos- 
sible, the men should invariably fire at the target firom on horseback^ 
instead of being dismounted for that purpose. 

Some of our officers, who are aq^thiug but deficient in either theory 
or experience, have answered these remarks upon making the men 
marksmen with the carbine, by saying that the horses soon get steady 
enough after undergoing a few of the fatigues and privations of service, 
and the soldiers learn better from the enemy how to skirmish, and use 
their weapons, than they can possibly be taught at home ; but surely 
it should not be forgotten that, from our situation as an insular nation, 
the campaigns of our armies most frequently begin on the very beach 
where our armies disembark, and that the first success, however tri- 
fling, is of the utmost moral value as regards its effect upon the troops 
in general. Now the outpost cavalry are in all likelihood the first who 
will be engaged; and to find themselves possessed of a decided supe- 
riority in skirmishing, from expertness previously acquired in the use of 
their fire-arms, must naturally be of the greatest encouragement to 



76 LANGBRS AND LIGHT DRAGOONS. 

them ; wbile^ on the other hand^ to fiiid by an unpleasant sort of proofs 
that they have been neglecting a point of instruction upon which they 
BOW discover that so much of their success must -depend^ cannot fail to 
produce a disheartening effect. " Fas est et ah hosle doceri" is a very 
wise maxim, no doubt ; but to learn to shoot by being shot, is a kind of 
inslructum mutuel which can never be made at all palatable. To re- 
turn, from what it is hoped will be considered a pardonable digression, 
to the subject of lancer regiments, aqd their utility for general purposes 
of service, it may be well to notice, that suggestions have lately been 
made, by good authorities, of the propriety of supplying the lancers 
m'ith a certain number of carbines to each troop, by which arrangement 
those regiments would certainly be rendered much more available than 
at present, and at all events would be able to protect themselves in 
marching through difficult or enclosed country, unaccompanied by other 
troops. 

Still this would not enable them to be as useful as dragoons or hus- 
sars, when forming part of an army in the field. It is not only neces- 
sary for cavalry to be able to take care of themselves, but their princi- 
pal use is, after all, to watch over the security of the infantry, who 
look to the patrol and picquet of cavalry for relief from fatigue, and 
for repose from the harassing watchfulness which would otherwise be 
required of them/without any intermission, in the presence of an active 
and enterprising enemy. 

Before taking leave of a discussion which contains much of interest 
for the cavalry officer, there is one great merit of the lance which must 
not be foreotten. Of all the means of making a man active and well- 
seated on horseback, the use of this weapon in the riding-school is be- 
yond comparison the best. A man who, without stirrups, and mounted 
en a horse with a fine mouth, can wield a lance with facility, and go 
throuffh the exercise, without disturbing his bridle hand, or in any way 
agitating the animal by want of balance in his saddle, must of necessity 
be aa excellent military rider ; and yet it requires no very tedious pro- 
cess ta bring a recruit to considerable proficiency in using the lance 
sufficiently well on horseback to make him derive great advantage from 
it in this respect. To alter this, or any other part, (except, perhaps, 
the slow canter,) of our present riding-school system, would be a great 
pity. Those officers who are either so prejudiced or so ignorant as to 
despise the art of military, horsemanship, are little aware of the asto- 
nishing improvements that have been produced by its study of late 
years in the British cavalry ; improvements from which many excellent 
results may be anticipatea whenever they again are summoned to the 
field, as well from a mild mode of treatment of the horse, which must 
greatly tend to his duration, as from the much greater steadiness in the 
ranks, and susceptibility of control, which is the consequence of giving 
the soldiers good hands and increased ease and readiness in the manage- 
ment of their horses. Both to Vanguard and the lancers some apology 
is, perhaps, due, for the freedom with which the remarks of the former, 
and the arms of the latter, have been discussed ; but a moment's consi- 
deration will convince them that the views here offered to the military 
public, can <Hily arise from a zeal of which they themselves so largely 
partake, for the advantage of one of the most important branches of the 
service. 

W. 



ID, of tbe Bo]>al Eiwineen, has the m«rit of 
having diaoovered s combimition by which a light la prodneed, ao intente 
and pure as to promise the moat fortunate reniltt in ita application to the 
important object of light-hoiues. This valttable diaoorerv has been aub- 
mitted to the teat of experiment with complete cueceM ; Ha Bupeiiority to 
light produced bj any previously eziBting proceea, aa well as ita praoticsl 
effecta, having been triumphantly eatabliBhed. 

In a paper aubmitted to the Ruyal Society by Colonel Colby, Mr. Orum- 
mond deacribea his invention, suggested by his previous attempts to produce 
a light sufficiently brilliiuit tu mark distant etations in aurveya, firat tracinr 
the various clumsy modes of illuminating light-houaes, dovn to the improved 
method by MM. Arago and Fresnel, recently introduced in France. The 
latter plan consists of an octagonal arcsngement of powerful lenses ronnd a 
large Argand lamp, of four concentric wicka, the light of which, by meana 
of a coping or roof of minor lenses in the form of trapezoids, inclining at 
angles till tbey meet above, is thus completely enclosed. We must repeat 
by the way, the iust aaimHdver«ioD of that officer upon the retention of a 
defective principle in the solitary instance of the North Foreland Light, where 
theeipedlent of a glass lens placed before a parabolic reflector (or rather viae 
versd, according to the original device,) is still suffered to mar the intended 
result, the effect of the reflector alone doubling that of the reflector and lent 

After detailing the two methods at present in use^viz. 1st, Parabelic 
reflectors, illuminated by an Argand lamp, the proceaa being modified to 
meet the construction of the light, whether lizM or revolving ; and HaA, 
the French mode of M. Arago, referred to above, — Mr. Dnimmond observea : 

" Such are the methods at present in use in the beit light-houles of Great Bri- 
tain or France. Tbe thii-d and last method ia that which I hare ventured to pro- 
poee, and in which the light ia derived from a source altogether different from the 
pteceding two ; a ball or cylinder of lime, intensely ignited," by directing upon it 



ningled oiygea and hydrogen gaiei, 

" Elg. 1. repreBCDt* the lamp. Thetwagaies, 
oxygen and hydn^n, proceeding fr ' ' ' 



luhatituted for the Argand 



It do ni 



they arrive at the small chamber e, of which fig. 
2. is a section ; into this chamber the oxygen 
gas from tbe inner tube is projected horizontally 
through a series of very small apertures, and the 
hydrogen gas riaea vertically through a series of 
aimilar apertures at d. The united gssex then 
pass through two or three pieces of wire-gauze 
placed at e, and lieing thus thoroughly mixed, ''g- !• 
issue through the two jets againit tbe ball i. To 
prevent the wasting of the ball opposite the two 
Jets, and at the same time to diffuse the heat 
more equably, it is made to revolve once in a 
minute, by meana of a movement placed under- 
neath the plate n, and with whidi the wire /, 
carrying the ball and pasiing through the stem, 
ia connected. Not wi tils tanding, however, this 
arrangement, the effect of the heat ia auch aa 
gradually to cut a deep groove in the ball, so that 
at the end of about forty-five minutes itbecomea 
necessary (o change it. In a light-house, where 
it ia of essential oinaeciuence to maintain a con- 
Btant .light, it would be unsafe to entrust this to 




78 TUB DRUMMOND LIGHT 

an attendant, and henoe the neoesnty of devising some means for remedying this 



inconvenience.*' 



This has heen done by an ingenious and effectual contrivance. 

Having described his apparatus, which is accurately designed to combine 
the medianical action of his plan, Lieut. Dnimmond next details the results 
of experiments, made at the i rinity House, on 'the intrinsic intensity of the 
different lights. These highly favourable results, — deduced from exact com- 
parative calculations, which are given, and from which we learn that the 
fight emitted by a lime-ball only three-eighths of an inch in diameter^ heated 
by two jets, is equal to thirteen Argand lamps — 

^< Were obtained by screening the different lights, and then placing equal aper- 
tures opposite each, changing the apertures and taking the mean to destroy the 
effect of any inaccuracy in size. The intensity of the lime-ball being therefore 
264 times that of the Argand lamp, a single reflector illuminated by the former 
will be equal to 264 reflectors illuminated by the latter ; but the divergence of 
the reflected light, depending upon the size of the luminous body in the focus, will 
be smaller with the ball than with the lamp in the proportion of about thi^ee to 
eight : hence, in such a light-house as that of Beachy Head, eight reflectors may be 
substituted for thirty, and yet an effect would be produced twenty-six times greater 
than that of the present light, the most perfect of its kind in this ooontry. 

" By similar experinaents it was found that the French lens was equal to 9.1 
reflectors ; and if the effect of the additional lenses and reflectors which ought to 
accompany it, and which has been estinuited at one-sevenUi, be added, then the 
lens is equal to 10.4 reflectors. In like manner, therefore, the effect of a single 
reflector with a lime-ball would be equal to twenty-five times that of such a combi- 
nation of lenses. 

^' It mi^ now perhaps be asked, at what expense can such a light be main- 
tained ? Can the gases by which the requisite heat is produced be procured at 
such a price as to compete with oil or ooal gas ? The data I possess for forming 
an estimate of the expense of the gases are very scanty, but the quantity consumed 
was accurately determined ; at the same time the consumption of the other lights 
was afiM tried, and the results are as follow : — 

Consumption Expense 

An Argand lamp seven -eighths of 1 
an inch in diameter . . j 

The same placed in a reflector 

The French lamp 

*•*• The lime requires four cubic feet of hydrogen and two of oxygen per hour, and 
the probable expense is 5^ per hour. 

^^ In a revolving light of the first class, containing thirty reflectors, the expense 
per hour would therefore be about 2s. Id, If the French method were employed, 

the increase of light would be ^ th, and the expense only Is, 2^d. per hour. If six 

reflectors illuminated with lime-balls were used, which would probably be sufficient, 
the probable expense would be 2s. 6d» per hour, and the increase of light twenty- 
six times. 

^^ The experiments at the Trinity House being concluded, the whole of the ap- 
paratus was removed to Purfleet, where on a knoll of chalk about 100 feet above 
the river a temporary light-house had been erected, and being fitted with the re- 
q^isite machinery, the different lights were made to revolve in succession, and the 
appearance which they presented, as well as the duration of the light, were observed 
from the Trinity Wharf at Black wall, a distance in a straight line of 10^ miles. 

^^ The four faces of the revolving machine were thus occupied : 

^' No. 1. A single reflector twenty-one inches diameter, three inches focal dis- 
tance, with an Argand lamp. 

«^ No. 2. Seven reflectors, with ditto. 

«« No. 3. French lens, with its lamp. 

<« No. 4. Single reflector with limie-ball. 

<^ The respective lights were accurately placed in focus. 

<^ When No. 4, the reflector lighted with the lime-ball, was turned towards the 



in 3^ hours. 


per hour. 


1 gill 


0.69 penny 


. l]giU . 


0.83 penny 


2 qts. |pt. 


is, 2ltd. 



FOR ILLUMINATING LIGHT-HOUSES, &C. TO 

Wharf, the light was m great that the shadow of the hand and Angers was dis- 
tinctly visible even on a dark brick wall^ while no such effect was discernible when 
the other lights were turned in the same direction. 

*•* In order more justly to estimate their comparative effects, No. 4, was removed 
to a temporary tent about twenty-five yards to the right of die light house, as far 
as the edge of the cliff would permit, and .on the evenings of the 25th and Slst 
May regular series of experiments were made. Being engaged at Purfleet, direct- 
ing these exhibitions, I never had an opportunity of witnessing their effects at 
Blackwall ; but Captain Basil Hall, R.N., who from the interest which he took 
in these experiments was an attentive observer of all that occurred, has at my 
request kin<Uy favoured me with the following interesting account : — 

" ' My dear Sir, « ' 4, St. James's Place, 1st June, 1830. 

'^ ' You wished me to take particular notice of last night's experiments with the 
different kinds of lights exhibited at Purfleet, and observed at the Trinity Wharf, 
Blackwall ; but I have little to add to what I told you respecting those on the 
evening of the 2dth instant : indeed it is not within the compass of language to 
describe accurately the details of such experiments, for it is by ocular evidence alone 
that their merits can be understood. 

'^ ^ Essentially the experiments of last evening were the same as those of the 
25th, and their effects likewise. The degrees of darkness in the evenings how- 
ever were so different, that some particular results were not the same. The moon 
last night, being nine or ten days old, lighted up the clouds so much, that even 
when the moon herself was hid, there was light enough to overpower any shed 
upon the spot where we stood by your distant illumination : whereas on the 2b\h, 
when the night was much darker, the light cast from the temporary light-house at 
Purfleet, in which your apparatus was fixed, was so great that a distinct shadow 
was thrown upon tne wall by any object interposed. Not the slightest trace of any 
such shadow, however, could be perceived when your light was extinguished, and 
any of the other lights were exposed in its place. 

' '^ In like manner on the evening of the 2dth, it was remarked by all the party 
at the Trinity Wharf, that, in whatever direction your light was turned, an im- 
mense coma, or tail of rays, similar to that produced by a beam of sun-light in a 
dusty room, but extending several miles in length, was seen to stream off from 
the spot where we knew the light to be placed, although, owing to the reflector 
being turned too much on one side, the light itself was not visible. 

^' < Now, last night there was none of this singular appearance visible ; but whe- 
ther this was caused by the presence of the moonlight, or by the absence of the 
haze and drizzling rain which fell during the evening of the 2dth, I cannot say. I 
had hoped that the appearance alluded to was to prove a constant accompaniment 
to your light, in Avhich case it might, perhaps, have been turned to account for the 
purposes of light-houses. If in hazy or foggy weather this curious effect of reflected 
light from the atmosphere be constant, it may help to point out the position of 
light-houses, even when the distance of the observer is so great that the curvature 
of the earth shall render it impossible for him to see the light itself. 

(( i Xhe following experiments tried last night weie the same as those of the 
2dth, and certainly no comparative trials could be more fairly arranged. 

'^ ' Experiment I. The first light exposed was the single Argand burner with 
a reflector. This was quite distinctly seen, and all the jutrty admitted it to be a 
good light. , After several minutes this was put out. 

'^ *• Exp. II. The seven Argand burners were next shown, each in its reflector : 
and this was manifestly superior to the first ; but how much so I cannot say, per- 
haps four times as conspicuous. Both these lights had an obvious tinge of brown 
or orange. 

*' < Exp. III. The third light which was exposed, (on the seven Argands being 
put out,) was that behind the French lens ; and I think it was generally admitted 
by the party present, that this light was whiter and more intense than that from 
the seven Argands, though the size appeared very much the same. 

" ' Exp. IV. The fourth light was that which you have devised, and which, in- 
stead of the clumsy word *• Ijime,' ought to bear the name of its discoverer. The 
Drummond light, then, the instant it was uncovered, elicited a sort of shout of 
admiration from the whole party, as being something much more brilliant than we 



80 THE DRUMMOND LIGHT. 

liad looked for. The light was not only more Tivid and oontpicaooa, but was peoa- 
liarly remariuble from its exquisite wmteness. Indeed there seems no great pre- 
sumption in comparing its splendour to that of the sun ; for I am not sure that the 
eye would be able to look at a disk of such light, if its diameter were made to sub- 
tend half a degree. 

«< « The next series of experiments was the most interesting and decisive of alL 
Eadi of the lights above enumerated, viz. the sin^^e Aigand burner, the seven 
Azgands, and the Frendi lens, were exposed, one at a time, in company with your 
light, in order to try their relative brilliancy. 

'< *■ First comparative Experiment-— The single Aigand burner was first exposed 
to this comparative ordeal, and nothing could be more pitiable than the figure it 
cut. Many of the party could not see the Argand light at all ; while others could 
just detect it * away in a comer,' as some one described it. It was also of a dusky 
orange tinge, while your light was of the most intense whiteness.^ 

'^ ^ Second comparative. Experiment. — The seven Argand burners were now 
substituted in place of the single light. All the party could now see both lights, 
but the superiority was not miu^ less obvious. I reaJly cannot affix a proportion 
either as to size or brilliancy ; but I should not hesitate to say that your light was 
at least six or eight times as conspicuous ; while in brilliancy, or purity, or inten- 
sity of lig^t, (for I know not precisely what word to use to describe the extreme 
whiteness,) the superiority was even more remarkable. All this which I have 
been describing was expressed, and appeared to be quite as strongly felt by the rest 
of the company, to the number, I should suppose, of five-and-twenty or thirty per- 
sons, who were all closely on the watch. 

** ' Third comparative Experiment. — The next comparative trial was between 
the French lens and your light. The superiority here w|» equally undeniable ; 
though the difference in the degree of whiteness was not so remarkable. The 
Frendi light, however, is so nearly similar to that from the seven Argands, that 
the comparison of each of- them wiUi your light gave nearly the same results, and 
all equally satisfactory on the score of your discovery. 

*' *> Final Experiment. — The flashes with which tilie experiments concluded were 
very striking, and might, I think, be turned to great account in rendering light- 
houses distinct from one another. The revolutions were not effective, and, as I 
said before, there was no appearance last night of those enormous comets' tails 
which swept the horizon on the night of Uie 25th, to the wonder of all who beheld 
them : neither could there be detected the slightest trace of any shadow from the 
light thrown towards us, and I suspect none will ever be seen, when the moon, 
whether the night be clouded or not, is of so great a magnitude. 

** ^ Such is the best account I can give of what wb witnessed ; and I need only 
add, that there seemed to be amongst the company but one opinion of the immense 
superiority of your light over all the others brought into comparison with it. 

" * I am, Ac. 

*" Basil Hall.'" 

From the vivid and peryading quality of this light, it becomes a question 
worth consideration, whether it might not be applied, in a more permanent 
form, to the purpose so incompletely effected by fire-balls in the defence of 
beaieffed fortresses. Might not Drummond lanterns or reflectors be so con- 
triyea as to search the defences obliquely, without exposing their disks to 
the view and aim of the assailants ? 

It is unnecessary to remark that these experiments and testimonies are 
concltudye as to tne principle and practical effects of Lieut. Drummond's 
diseovery. To smootn all diflloulties of execution, reduce expense, and 
divest his plan of technical intricacy, so as to render the superintendence 
of his lights nearly as rimple a task as the trimming of a lamp, are objects 
which, we have reason to oelieve, at present engross the attention of that 
meritorious ofllcer. Of his complete success we have no doubts and heartily 
congratulate him upon havhig conferred a benefit upon his country and 
laankind. 

* To many, the rays fW>m the brighter light appeared, when seen with the 
naked eye, to extend across and envelope the fainter light, though the perpendicu- 
lar distance between them was twenty-five yards. 



81 



MEMOIR OP 
FIELD-MARSHAL COUNT VON DIEBITSGH SABALKANSKI. 

While we have gathered from public repords a portion of the details 
traced in the following memoir, we acknowledge ourselves still more in- 
debted to communications derived from some of the nearest relatives of its 
subject. 

. John Charles Antony Von Diebitsch and Narden^ is descended from 
an ancient and noble Silesian famiUr, and was born on their estate at Gross- 
leippe, on the 13th of May 1785. His father^ John Ehrenfried von DieMUch 
and Narden, had made the campaigns of the Seven Years* War on the staff 
of Frederick the Greats and, after having been promoted by his successor to 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel and adjutant on his staffs had retired to his 
patrimonial estates, when he was induced to accept the superintendence of 
the manufactory of arms at Toula, from which appointment he was subse- 
quently raised to the rank of major-general. By a first marriage he had 
two sons^ one of whom is at this day a colonel in the Russian service ; and 
by a second, three daughters, and a third son, the individual, with whose 
fortunes we shall proceed exclusively to engage the reader's attention. 

. In his earliest years, John Von Diebitsch displayed not only an ardent 
thirst for information, but so singularly retentive a memory, that, when but 
in his fourth year, he was capable of resolving arithmetical questions with 
greater readiness than most adults. His first rudiments of knowledge were 
acquired from a village schoolmaster, whose capabilities soon proved insuffi- 
cient for the stripling's ardent intellect; his parent, therefore, a man of no 
mean attainments, was compelled to undertake the duty of an instructor, 
and evinced his fitness for the office by gliding the mind of his pupil in those 
paths of geographical, historical, and mathematical knowledge, to which he 
sacrificed even the hours of daily recreation. No pursuit, however, so ex- 
cited young Diebitsch's ardour as that memorable episode in the annals of 
his native country — the Seven Years' M^'ar ; and hence undoubtedly arose 
his early predilection for a military life. It was natural that his teacher, 
himself a soldier, as well as a sharer in the exploits of the first soldier of 
his a^e, should foster this predilection, and avail himself of so auspicious an 
occasion for exhibiting the theories of physical and mathematical science in 
the perfection of their practice. 

As he advanced in years, the youth felt anxious for a society more con- 
^nial with his favourite pursuits, and his father, at length yielding to his 
importunities, removed him to Berlin, with a view to procure his admission 
into the corps of Cadets. This occurred in 1797. His age, however, which 
was not much beyond twelve years, threw such difficulties in the way, as 
nothing but the perseverance of the youth himself, combined with his attain- 
ments, of which he gave the most unexpected proofs when under exami- 
nation, could have overcome. But the mere wearing of a sword and 
military frock, though it gratified his pride, had no value in his eyes ex- 
cept as the first step towards distinction : he devoted himself with single- 
hearted assiduity to an arduous course of regular study ; and raised Imn- 
-self into notice among his comrades by the rapidity of his progress in 
acquiring military knowledge, and into respect with his superiors by the 
exemplary regularity of his conduct and his amiable deportment. In the 
course of two years he became a subaltern officer in the corps, and, soon 
afterwards, was honoured with an ensign's sword. 

In the mean time, his father had accepted a major-generalship on the staff 
of Paul of Russia, upon whose personal intercession, the King of Prussia 
allowed young Diebitsch to resign his commission as a second-lieutenant, in 
the early part of 1801. He had quitted the corps of Cadets in the preceding 
yjear, and it is a curious fact, that, on this occasion, he should have inscribed 

U. S. JouRK. No. 30. May 1831. g 



82 MEMOIR OP FIELD-MARSHAL 

the undermentioned lines in the album of his favourite tutor^ Bardeleben, 
one of the council to his Prussian Majesty. 

Ja, vergehen muss, vergehen Yes ! Papal Rome and Mahmoud*s pride (!) 

Pfaffenthum und Mahomed ; Shall from this scene be swept away ; 

Rauchen werden ihre Triimmer And from their waste the smoke ascend 

Wenn die Freundschaft noch besteht. Ere friendship's glow has lived its day ! 
Berlin. Anno 1800. 

His relinquishment of the Prussian service was accompanied by the sin- 
cere regret of his superiors and tutors, and he carried with nim an honourable 
testimonial to his character and uncommon attainments, under the hand of 
Gen. Von RQchel^ the commandant of- the corps of Cadets. From Berlin^ he 
proceeded to Stettin with his father, who had come to that city for the pur- 
pose of conveying his sister and himself to Russia^ and thence embarkea for 
St. Petersburgh^ where they arrived shortly after the accession of the Emperor 
iUexander. The elder Diebitsch's merits were not unknown to that sove- 
reign^ and the best proof he could afford of his esteem^ was the permitting 
his son to make choice of the regiment in which he would be posted. The 
i^ult was an ensign's commission in the Semenoff regiment of Grenadier 
Guards, which Alexander had commanded when Grand-^uke. Diebitsch at 
once determined upon becoming a Russian in word as well as in deeds, mas- 
tered the peculiar difficulties of the language so as to speak and write it like 
a native, and thus identified himself with his brother soldiers. His first 
active service was to attend the Emperor's coronation at Moscow, whence 
he returned with his regiment to garrison duty at St. Petersburgh ; here he 
devoted every leisure hour he could spare from military avocations to sci- 
entific and professional pursuits, until the war of 1805 c^ed him to the 
field of battle^ and raised him to a lieutenancy. The sanguinary day of 
Austerlitz was the dawn of his martial feats ; but here he was doomed to 
behold the Muscovite eagle laid prostrate ; an untoward introduction to so 
early a noviciate in arms. His own Company was involved in the beat of 
the ocmflict, during which a spent ball lodged in the palm of his right hand; 
he was observed to bind the wound quietly with his handkerchief, remove 
his sword into his left hand, and^ regardless of pain and loss of blood, to 
rally his men, who had been bereft of their leaders by the fortunes of the 
day, and lead them out of the fields upon general orders being given for the 
army's retreat. Diebitsch's gallantry on this occasion was rewarded by 
Alexander with a sword of honour^ bearing the words, ^' Conferred for* 
bravery.'' The unfortunate issue of this battle brought the campaign to a 
sudden close, and the disappointment of the soldier was rendered still more 
bitter by the affliction which he endured as a son, on learning that his mother 
had breathed her last shortly before his return to St. Petersburgh. 

In 1807, the Russian hosts were apdn in the field ; a new opportunity of 
distinguishing himself presented itself on the plains of Eylau and Friedland; 
and in both actions his conduct was so exemplary, as to induce the Emperor 
to raise him to a captaincy over the heads of his brother-officers, and honour 
him with the Order of St. George of the Third Class; to which the Prussian 
Sovereign soon afterwards added the order of *' Merit.'' Thus had Diebitsch 
scarcely reached his twenty-second year^ when four distinct acknowledge- 
ments of meritorious service had been conferred upon him. From this 
period until the eventful year 1812, his chief employment consisted in sedu- 
lously prosecuting those studies which, conjointly with the aptitude of his 
natural talent, were to form the corner-stone of his rapid advancement. 

Napoleon was already on the march with his m3rriad8 towards the Russian 
frontier, when young Diebitsch, resting his claim on his attalmhents and 
former services, solicited a post on the general staff. This request was 

granted, and, with it, the rank of a lieutenaat-coJonel, in which character 
e was attached to the division under the orders of his <^d and esteemed 
friend Gren. Wittgenstein. From this point we nay .date the commence- 



COUNT VON DIEBITSGH SABALKANSKI. 83 

ment of his more brilliant career. His station on the staff placed within his 
reach abundant opportunities of acquiring quick-sightedness, caution, and 
experience ; qualities, in the absence of which, the most consummate theore- 
tical acquirements are but of indifferent value and restricted usefulness. 

Wittgenstein's corps was pitted against the superior force under Oudinot, 
and speedily constrained to fall bade from Wilkomirz upon a positimi, in 
which it was enabled both to coyer the Russian capital and obstruct the in- 
Testment of Riga. In this position he had to contend against the combined 
efforts of the Dukes of Tarentum and Reggio, with both of whom it was an 
object of the deepest moment to possess themselves of the great northern 
inlet to St. Petersburgh. The Russian commander, however, skilfully con- 
trived to interpose between the two lines of his adversaries' movements, to ' 
maintain his ground upon the Dwina, and, in the conflicts of Jacubowo, 
Obojarzina, and Kliastizza, to bridle the impetuosity as effectually as he had 
baffled the skill of his assailants. The French were driven back upon 
Polozk, and whilst honours were heaped upon the victor, Diebitsch, the life 
and soul of his ^tat-major, was not forgotten. A major-generalship and the 
ribbons of more than one order were his reward. 

Towards the close of October, Wittgenstein received sufficient reinforce^ 
ments to enable him, as a step towards forming a junction with the Finnish 
tM>rps under Gen. Stringel, to act upon the offensive ; accordingly, he ad- 
vanced against Polozk, expelled the French, of whom Marshal St. Cyr had 
taken the command, from that town, and obl^ed them to recross the Dwina, 
after a sanguinary action, in which Diebitsch, by gallantly forcing and 
maintaining a brieve at the head of 3000 raw peasantry, entirely disconcert- 
ed the French plan of attack, and, by this service, is oonsiderea to have de- 
cided the i^ue in favour of the Russian arms; in fact, it was on this spot 
that he earned his commission of Major-General. The severe conflicts of 
Czasnicki and Smoliani subsequently contributed to the precipitate retreat 
of the enemy, who were pursued by Wittgenstein to Studzianka, and were 
unable to prevent Parthonneaux's division from falling into his hands. The 
French and their Allies were now flying in all directions; the Prussian 
corps alone remained together to cover them in their retreat, and upon Gen. 
Diebitsch devolved the painful duty, not only of measuring weapons with 
his own countrymen, but of entering his native land as a victorious adver- 
sary. It is needless to say, that he acquitted himself in this trying circum- 
stance with a caution and delicacy to which his natural sovereign has since 
rendered ample justice ; indeed, they pointed him out soon afterwards as 
the fittest individual who could be selected to open and conduct a negotia- 
tion with the Prussian commander. Previously, however. Gen. lyYork, 
whose force constituted the third column, or rear-guard, of the feeble rem- 
nant of the French army, had been driven out of Mietau, and on the 27th of 
December following, forced to evacuate Memel; fMb this place Diebitsch 
kept close upon his heels, having an internal presentiment that the Prus- 
sian possessed secret instructions, which would justify him in seeking the 
first lavourable opportunity of arresting any farther effusion of blood. The 
uncertainty, in Uiis respect, called for the exercise of much discretion; 
Diebitsch made his dispositions accordingly, and, indeed, with so happy an 
effect, that, although at the head of no more than 1800 horse« he deceived 
D'York into an impression that, when he was signing the celebrated capitu- 
lation of the 30th of December 1812, the whole corps of Wittgenstein stood 
before him. It subsequently appeared that D^York had no instructions from 
his cabinet, but acted, on this occasion, upon his individual responsibility^ 
and a personal conviction that a close alliance with Russia would best con- 
ciliate the interests wiUi the avowed prepossessions of their common country. 
For this service Diebitsch received the cordial thanks of the Emperor 
Alexander, accompanied by the insignia of the Order of St. Anne, of the 
first class ; and he entered Berlin with the rank of Quarter-Master-Gene- 
raL Here was no slender proof, that if he had been blessed with those op- 

G 2 



84 MEMOIR OF FIELD-MARSHAL 

portunitiegr which a soldier covets^ he had wanted neither the good sense 
nor ability to turn them to a rich account. Of eight-and-twentv years of a 
well-spent life, thirteen had elapsed since he had visited the land, of his 
birth; and under what stirrinff circumstances of delight and satisfaction 
with the fruits of his toil^ must he not once more have trodden its soil ? 

In the year 1813^ he replaced Gen. Dauvry as chief of Wittgenstein's 
staff; the Russian army was, however^ checked in its career by the loss of 
the battle of Bautzen, and a change in its organization, after it had fallen 
back upon Silesia, brought Diebitsch under Barclay de Tolly's orders, as 
Quarter-Master-General of the first carps d'arm^e. But the armistice which 
ensued afforded him full occupation in another sphere of action. It was 
required of the Emperor Francis to decide, whether he would persist in sup- 
porting his son-in-law, or make common cause with those who had confede- 
rated to rid themselves of the galling yoke of French domination } Dieb- 
itsch's adroitness as a negotiator had been tried and proven; he was entrust- 
ed with full powers on the part of Alexander, repaired to Reichenbach, and, 
on the 14th of June 1813, was a subscribing party to the secret treaty 
between Austria, Russia, Great Britain, and Prussia, which was finally set- 
tled and ratified at Trachenberg on the 9th, 10th, and 11th of July follow- 
ing. On the latter, occasion, he was likewise instrumental in arranging the 
I dan of operations for the ensuing campaign ; and his me;rits were acknow- 
edged so liberally by the Austrian and Prussian courts, that on his return 
to head-quarters, no fewer than eleven Orders glittered upon his breast. 

This peaceful scene of diplomatic triumphs was succeeded by the cares 
and tumults of war. Napoleon quietly waited the advance of the confede- 
rates upon Dresden; the hard-fought contests of the 26th and 27th of 
August revived his drooping hopes, and ridded him of a hated and powerful 
rival, — ^the lamented Moreau. In this conflict, Diebitsch distinguished him- 
self by his usual gallantry ; after having had two horses killed under him 
and received a severe contusion, he continued at his post in the thickest of 
the fray, and took a conspicuous lead in superintending the retreat. At the 
subsequent battle of Culm, he was placed in the singularly-painful predica- 
ment of being checked in a charge at the head of some regiments of cavalry, 
by the murderous fire of a division of Prussian infantry, who mistook them 
for their French opponents; and in the memorable '^ struggle of nations,'' 
as our German neighbours term it, which was held in the plains of Leipzig, 
the skill, precision, and intrepidity, with which he led the movements 
entrusted to him, were of so distinguished a character, as to induce the Em- 
peror Alexander to name him one of his lieutenant-generals on the field of 
battle, and procure him additional marks of princely favour, amongst which 
was the Prussian Order of the Eagle of the first class. 

The war was now transferred into the bosom of the oppressor's dominions. 
In March 1814, the Allies had penetrated as far as Provins; but St. Priest 
had been worsted and Rheims retaken; they retreated to Arcis-sur-Aube; 
and here, in a moment of panic, Alexander and Frederic William consented, 
in a council of war, that Schwartzenberg should fall back upon Bar and be- 
hind the Aube. The head-quarters were consequently removed to Troyes, 
and the whole army had orders to follow on the ensuing day. Diebitsch 
was one of the very few who foresaw the inevitable perils of so precipitate a 
change from the offensive to the defensive; to retreat was to throw ttie 
whole moral and physical resources of the country once more into the adver- 
sary's scale. In vain had he urged remonstrance after remonstrance upon 
the Generalissimo ; he sought his own Sovereign, and, with the eloquence of 
deep conviction, succeeded in persuading him that '^ to fail before Paris 
would be less costly in consequences ihan to retire behind the Rhine, and 
that, in the worst event, a retreat upon the Dutch frontier remained at 
their command, where they would effect a junction with the unenfeebled 
forces under Billow.'' A second council was called together, and in that 
e\'entful night, of which Alexander declared that '' he thought his hair 



COUNT VON DIBBITSCH SABALKANSKI. 85 

would have grown half-grey/' the retreat was countermanded, and orders 
for resuming the offensive were given. On the 3l8t of March, the Allied 
army marched through the gates of Paris, and on the summit of Mont 
Martre, the Emperor Alexander clasped IDHebitsch in his arms, expressed 
his grateful acknowledgment of the eminent services he had rendered to 
the common cause, and with his own hand invested him with the ribbon and 
insignia of St. Alexander-Newsky,~ the highest distinction which Russian 
chivalry affords. 

As soon as peace was concluded, Diebitsch found his way back to Warsaw, 
and on the Slst of March 1815, he married Jane Baroness de Tornau, a 
daughter of the Baron and Privy-Counsellor of that name, and niece to the 
lady of Prince Barclay de Tolly, under whose immediate eve the latter 
years of his bright career had been passed. Of this marriage tnere has been 
no issue ; and he is at this moment in the first year of his widowhood. 

On Napoleon's return from Elba, Alexander called him to his side at the 
cosigress of Vienna, and then sent him to Join the first corps of the Russian 
army, as chief ofiicer of the general staff. After the battle of ^Waterloo, 
Count Woronzow's division being left to form part of the army of occupa- 
tion, the remainder of the Russians bent their way homewards, and Dieb- 
itsch proceeded with his corps to the Dnieper, where he remained in head- 
quarters at Mohilew, until the Emperor gave him a farther proof of his con- 
fidence by appointing him Adjutant-general. When the Spanish and Italian 
revolutions called the Sovereigns together at Laybach, Diebitsch was spe- 
cially summoned to accompany his Monarch to the congress, and was one of 
his principal advisers throughout its proceedings. Upon their termination, 
he returned to Mohilew, where he remained stationed, until he was ordered 
to St. Petersburgh in the year 1820, and placed at the head of the Imperial 
staff. In this capacity, and as Adjutant-General, he was attached to hia 
Sovereign's person in the strictest sense of the word, accompanied him on 
all' his journeys, and was consulted upon every occasion where the army or 
military affairs were concerned. His influence was also enhanced by his 
appointment to the Major-Generalship of the Russian forces. 

In the autumn of 1825, the Emperor Alexander set out upon a tour of in- 
spection through Podolia, Wolhynia, and Bessarabia, and having joined the 
Empress at Taganrog, on the Sea of Asoph, thence made excursions into 
the Crimea and several adjacent provinces. Diebitsch was his favourite 
companion. Sebastopol was one of the places they visited, and its rich and 
delightfully romantic scenery excited the Emperor's admiration in so lively 
a degree, that he suddenly turned round to Gen. Diebitsch^ and exclaimed 
— " Should I ever withdraw from the cares of government I should wish to 
dose my days on this spot.'' He had not been long at this place before he 
complained of cold and general indisposition, returned in consequence to 
Taganrog, and, after some fourteen days' illness, expired, on the 1st of De- 
cember, m the arms of his exemplary consort. Diebitsch, having witnessed 
this scene with a sorrowing eye, and wept many a bitter tear over the. last 
remains of a kind and beloved master, hastened back to the Russian capital. 

The faithful servants of the elder were welcome guests in the presence of 
the younger brother, and Diebitsch found in Nicholas a patron who was 
capable of appreciating his meril^ and devotion. The young Prince was 
scarcely engaged in providing for the conduct of the Government, when he 
was called upon to defend the throne against a widely-ramified conspiracy, 
of which the seeds had been laid so far back as the year 1821. It was, how- 
ever, averted by the resolute energy of the Regent, and Miloradovitsh, Go- 
vernor of St. Petersburgh, who feu its first and most distinguished victim. 
Among the numerous list of those who were thus rescued from its ven- 
geance, was Gen. Diebitsch, who seems to have shared the hatred of Bestu- 
sheff and Murawiew, in common with the Imperial brothers and the most 
eminent of the Russian nobility. That this treasonable design was conceived 
ia a purely selfish spirit, became abundantly manifest from the discordance 



w. 



MBMUIR OP FIELD-MARSHAL 



I 



I ulifiui 



of rieH-s which prevailed amongst its originators ; some of whom i 

establishing a republiu, others a limited ' " " 

athers again a middle syBtem between a 
most were incapable of designating for what direct end they liad conspired. 
Immediately previous to this explosion. Gen. Diebitsch had been dispatched 
to Warsaw to notify the demise of the late Sovereign to the Grand'Duke 
Constantine, he was accompanied by Prince Wolkonski, and returned in a 
short time with letters from the Ceearowitsh, in which he declared himEelf 
ready to take the first oath of allegiance to his brother Nicholas, as Auto- 
crat of all the RuEsias; thereby conlirming the Bolemo renunciation which 
he had made on the S4th January 1833. By activity and dexterous manatee- 
ment in this negotiation, no lees than zeal and resolution in suppressing the 

Sirit of turbulence which at that time manifested itself in the second corps, 
iebitsch established himself firmly in the favour of the new Sovereign, was 
[ OOnfirmed in the post of chief of the Imperial staff, and, in a general order 
^ the day issued hy Niuholas, was distlnguislied by as honourable a mention 
m was ever conferred by a Monarch on his subject. 

'^ Among the servicesj which you have rendered to your country," says tiie 
order, "poalericy will justly account among the moat imporiant, the decision and 
y wilt which you conducted yourself at a time when we were weighed down 
B great calamity which bad befallen the whole uacion, and when you come 
forward tingteJumded Co meet the approach of danger. In the name of the coun- 
try at large, accept, through me, the tribute of our unmlogled gratitude; and 
believe me to be, " Your moat offectionale, 

"NlCB0(.A8." 

It was no trifling pledge of hb Sovereipi's esteem to be entrusted shortly 
after with the duty of receiving the remains of the late Emperor at Moscow, 
and cooveyiw them to St, Petereburgh, where, upon the solemn obsequies 
which took place on the aeth of March 1826, he followed, at Uie head of the 
general staff, immediately ne^ct to his Grace of Wellington. And again, in 
the September of the succeeding year, he had the high Ratification of being 
chosen as the medium through whom his Imperial Majesty extended a free 
pardon to those, who, by reason of their participation in the late conspiracy, 
bad been condemned to hard labour, or exiled to the mbre distant provinces. 

The connexion between Russia and Turkey had for years been gradually 
■Esuming- a more unfriendly, if not a decidedly hostile character; the nego- 
tiations, which had long been pending between both powers, involved points, 
-whence either of tliem could readily derive a plausible pretext for bringing 
that connexion to a precipitate tercninatiun ; and it was unlikely that ad- 
vantage would not be taken of them, whenever it might be convenient to 
ituBsia to give farther effeut to her favourite yearning for aggrandizement in 
the South. On the 14th of April 1828, she therefore put forth a thundering 
vanifeato of wrongs and outrages done to her by the Ottoman, and forth- 
with set her armies in motion. The indifferent result of the first campaign 
received, however, some compensation Irom the capture of Varna ; and this 
was abundantly needed to revive the sinking spirits of the Muscovite sol- 
diery, after their sanguinary miscarriage before Brailow, and the discom- 
fiture of their attempts upon the entrenchments of Shumla. Diebitsch's 
friends have invariably repudiated the plan of this campaign, so far as he 
bas been charged with having been its author ; and this accusation bears its 
own refutation with it, if it i>e true, as it has been confidently alleged, that 
he had previously insisted upon the urgency of making Varna the basis of 
any aggression upon Turkey. The experience of preceding t^mpaigns 
must, indeed, have convinced so wary a soldier as Diebitsch, that SounJa 
and the Balkan are nothing less than the Thermopyln of the Turkish 
dominions on their northern side; and it is impossible but that he must 
have felt, with a brother soldier, that '' after inspecting its natural and 
artificial strength, the visitor will acknowledge he could not have set UmA 



COUNT VON DIEBITSGH SABALKANSKI. 87 

within it, save and except by ihe permission of its custodians.'^* At all 
events^ the fall of Varna was the work of Genearal Diebitsdi^ and virtuallf 
acknowledged as such by an eye-witnessr— his own Sovereign^ in the Im« 
perial rescript issued on the 12th of November, to which was added the 
grand-cross of ihe order of St. Andrew. His subsequent operations were 
confined to the establishing of the Russian forces, which continued under 
the chief command of Count VTittgenstein^ in safe and comfortable winter 
quarters on the northern side of the Danube. Having effected this im« 
portant object^ and consulted with his brother-officers on the subject of the 
campaign for the following year^ he followed the Emperor Nicholas to St* 
Petersburgh ; and, upon his return to Jassy, was appointed commander-in- 
chief with unlimited powers ; an honour which he intimated to the army by 
his General-order of the 27th of February 1829, wherein a respected and 
affectionate testimony is borne to the services of his predecessor. Between 
this time and the 20tii of March, he was indefatigably occupied in the equip- 
ment, renovation, and reorganization of the Russian forces, and, in the same 
interval^ had removed his head-quarters from.Jassy to Isaaktsha. In the 
following month the campaign opened with desperate, though unavailing, 
sallies on the part of the Turkish garrisons in Widdin, Giurgewo, and Silii- 
tria, under the walls of which latter fortress their onset was so formidable as 
to impel him, though labouring under a severe fever, to animate his men to 
victory by his own presence, where the contest raged with greatest fiiry. 
May was si^alized by an abortive assault upon the same stronghold ; but, 
on the thirtieth of the month ensuing, the intrepid obstinacy of his oppo^ 
nents gave way, and the Russian e^e replaced the crescent within its 
frowning battlements. 

This event left him with the unincumbered means of effecting an enter- 
prise, which has deservedly placed him on a level with the first captains of 
tbe present day. He knew that the Grand Vizier, in command of '' Shumla 
the inexpugnable,^' would concentrate his attention on the defence of that 
important stronghold, and foresaw, that if threatened in that quarter, he 
would leave every other point, especially that below Kamtshik, uncovered, 
rather than expose it even to the remotest prospect of danger. Diebitsch, 
therefore, moved up the main body of his torces in front of Shumla ; then 
directed Gen. Rudi^er to advance to Kiuprikioi, on his right, and cover 
Roth's division on his left, which had orders to force the pass over the lower 
Kamtshik ; both were to be supported by Count Pahlen with the reserve, 
aQd whilst this operation was proceeding, Gren. Krassowski, at the head of 
40,000 infantiv and cavalry, had it in charge to keep the Grand Vizier in 
check, and defend the line of operations until the passage of the Balkan had 
been effected. The circumstances, however, of tms brilliant and successful 
achievement are of so recent a date, as to render it unnecessary for us to 
dwell upon its details. It wiU be sufficient to observe, that Diebitsch, 
having mastered every obstacle, and given a signal overthrow to the Grand 
Vizier, who had issued from his entrenchments with 40,000 Turks on the 
road to Paravadi, forced his way through the mountain-bulwarks of the 
Balkan, assaulted and carried Mesambri and Burgas, repulsed the gallant 
attack made upon him before Aides by Ibrahim Pasha, and on the 31st of 
July, issued from that town a proclamation, which converted even Mussul- 
man prejudice into respect and amity, by guaranteeing to all entire safety of 
persons and property : an act of grace unknown to the ferocious character of 
Mahomedan warfare. Eleven days after this, the victor's name was enrolled 
by his Imperial Master's hand in the annals of Russian glory, under the title 
of*' Iwan Iwanowitsh Sabalkansi^y," (the forcer of the Balkan,) in per- 
petual remembrance of his lofty enterprise and splendid triumphs." 

The difficulties of the ground between Aides and Adrianople would have 

* Colotiel Rottier*! Itinerary from Tiffis to Constantinople. 



88 COUNT VON DIEBITSGH S^BALKANSKI. 

required as many months, as it occupied him days to compass them, had he 
been called upon to encounter them in the presence of a less panic-struck 
antagonist. On the 19th of August, Eski-Sarai and the heights which com- 
mand the ancient and splendid city of Adrianople, were in the possession of 
the victors. There were means of defence at hand ; regular troops and 
militia to the extent of nearly 30,000, and approaches rendered tenable by 
deep ditches, numerous gardens, and close-set hedges ; but a deputation o£ 
Turks presented themselves at the outposts to negotiate a capitulation, 
and Diebitsch required an unconditional surrender within the next fourteen 
hours. At five in the morning of the 20th, the columns of attack were on 
the march, and two hours before the expiration of the breathing-time 
allowed, the Russian commander was seen heading the right column within 
gun-shot of the walls. Another proposal for obtaining terms was summarily 
rejected — and the assailants were again in motion. At this sight, both sol- 
dier and citizen threw away their arms, and rushed out to welcome their 
invaders ; whilst some of the Pashas advanced to offer greetings to Count 
Diebitsch, and others clapped spurs to their chargers that they might avoid 
taking a part in this scene of national humiliation. Fifty-six cannon, five- 
and-twenty standards, and five horse-tails, besides a rich booty in neces- 
saries and munitions of war, fell a prize to the victors. 

On the following day, Rirklissa, Lull^Burgos, and Iniadi having been 
entered^ the Russian advance was pushed as far as Tshatal-Burgas on the 
road to Silivria. Th us established in the very heart of European Turkey, where 
could Diebitsch have been placed in a more auspicious position for exacting 
what has passed into the nomenclature of diplomacy — ^ indemnity for the 
past and security for the future }*' The negotiations were opened by envoys 
dispatched from Constantinople ; and, after they had spun them out until 
he threatened to break them off altogether, and dictate narder terms before 
the gates of Constantinople, a treaty of peace was ultimately signed at 
Adrianople on the 14th of September, and on the 28th of October following 
the ratifications by each Sovereign were exchanged on the same spot. 

Of this treaty we have only space to remark, that, in proportion as it 
crippled the power and independence of the Ottoman empire, it extended 
the dominion and cemented the preponderance of Russia, to a degree, in- 
deed, which has rendered her an object of new alarm and jealousy to every 
state in Europe. 

Since the close of the Turkish campaign, Field-Marshal Diebitsch has 
been occupied in military avocations at St. Petersburgh, with the exception 
of a few months in the autumn of last year, which he has chiefly spent on a 
visit to his patrimonial estates in Silesia. His health had been much im- 
paired by tne toils of war, and it was generally believed that this circum« 
stance, combined with the undissembled jealousy he was exposed to endure 
from many of the native officers in the Russian service, had inspired him 
with a determination to retire from public life. But Poland has sounded 
the tocsin of independence, and he nas been summoned to an inglorious 
task ; — a task, in which whatever fame he may acquire, will be blotted out 
in abhorrence of the means through which he will have purchased it. 

In personal appearance, Diebitsch is of diminutive stature ; his complexion 
is sunburnt, and he walks with his head bent downwards; his eye is busy 
and full of fire ; his forehead high ; and there is something about his look 
which forbids familiarity. His person exhibits the vivacity of an active and 
stirring temperament, and his manners betray the man of the world and ihe 
warrior. 

s S. 



89 



ON THE MODE OF ARMING AND FIGHTING 
STEAM SHIPS OF WAR. 

Mr. Burke says, that before a great change takes place, men's 
minds must be prepared for it ; and the maxim holds good in war, as 
well as in politics. Since the peace of 1815, the opinion seems to have 
been gradually gaining ground, that a considerable change must take 
place in naval warfare by the application of steam power. The 
French and Americans have accordingly been preparing for that event; 
and the latter^ it appears from the President's speech, have suspended 
the building of line-of-battle ships for the present; Great Britain 
alone has been resting upon her arms ; it having been a maxim of a 
late Board of Admiralty, that she owes her naval superiority to the 
yard'arm-and-yard'arm system, and that she ought not to be the first 
to introduce any change. 

Now this policy, I am inclined to think, will appear somewhat proble- 
matical to most people, who naturally imagine that statesmen, as well 
as soldiers, ought never to be. taken by surprise, but to see their way 
clear before them. If a change is to take place when war arises, it na- 
turally follows that large sums of the public money have been expended 
since the peace in objects worse than useless. Far be it from me to wish 
to detract from British courage in any way ; but at the same time I 
think it may be considered as a fundamental principle never to be lost 
sight of, that the nation which excels in jtre mill he ultimately victo^ 
rious in mar. And I am very much mistaken if war will not become 
a much more mechanical operation than it has hitherto been, in which 
although personal courage may still be very influential, yet, at the 
same time, its relative importance will be greatly diminished. In 
other words, it will be expedient to trust more to science, and less to 
physical force. 

But to come to the matter more immediately at issue : Horn are 
steamers to be equipped and fought? This becomes a question of 
some importance ; and under the existing circumstances, the Govern- 
ment <:an hardly be expected to be able to give an answer to it. Velo- 
city and efficiency will evidently be the principal things to attend to ; 
and it is in the just combination of these two qualities that their ad- 
vantages will probably be found to consist. If two steamers came to 
close action, broadside to broadside, there can be little doubt that they 
would immediately disable the paddles of each other, and that they 
would then become the most helpless of all vessels. If this reasoning 
be correct, it follows that close action must be evaded, and accuracy of 
fire will then become an object of paramount importance. By a parity 
of reasoning, I think it will follow, that large steamers, independent 
of their enormous expense, will be a positive incumbrance ; as at a long 
range, the advantage of fire is on the side of the smaller vessel, from 
having a much larger object to fire at. 

Under these circumstances, the plan I beg leave to submit for the 
arming of steamers, will be with two short 24-pounders, working in 
grooves on either side of the foremast, parallel to the keel of the vessel, 
so as to throw either shot or shells. Similar grooves to be placed in the 



90 ARMING AND FIGHTING ST£AM SHIPS OP WAR. 

stern of the sbip^ for the guns to be run aft if necessary. The vessel 
would thus be fought by the head and stern only. The laying of her 
guns would become a very simple operation^ and might easily be done 
by a bombardier, from the opposite end to where they happened to be 
placed ; while the gunners could give the elevation by quoins fitted for 
the different ranges. The bearing of the guns would^ of course, be 
regulated by the helm^ and the vessel would thus present the smallest 
possible front for an enemy to fire at. In addition to this, I would 
recommend that a gun-barrel be attached to the boiler, for the purpose 
of throwing musket- balls on Mr. Perkins's principle ; for most of those 
who have witnessed that gentleman's experiments, will probably be 
satisfied that that invention will yet come into operation, whatever 
ofiicial reports may have stated to the contrary. It will at once be 
perceived^ that the efiiciency of the proposed plan depends more upop 
an accurate than a heavy fire ; and although I am aware how difiicidt 
it is to procure that at sea, from the roll of the vessel^ yet I am by no 
means disposed to reckon it impracticable. 

The Woolwich Committee has at last discovered that u1;illery may 
be fired by percussion^ without which^ I conceive, the object in view 
to be utterly hopeless. Perhaps that body may also in time find out 
that the best powder may be used at a cheaper rate, than what is now 
issued both to the army and navy, as half the quantity answers the 
purpose. Its other advantages are so apparent that it may be unne- 
cessary here to enumerate them. It aoes not foul the gun half so 
much ; it does not produce half the smoke in action, and it dimi- 
nishes the recoil more than a half. Coarse powder burns so slowlv 
that the shot is half-way down the bore before it is all ignitea. 
Hence the use of long guns arises. Fine powder, on the contrary, 
ignites instantaneously, and we accordingly find that the barrels of 
fowling-pieces have been shortened^ exactly in proportion as gun- 
powder has been improved; and it is upon this principle that I 
have recommended short gun^ instead of long ones, as being much 
easier worked, and much more handy in every respect. I have to 
apologise for stating this to any one acquainted with the first prin- 
ciples of gunnery : but it is by overlooking it, that the decks of our 
men-of-war are lumbered with many hundred tons of useless metal, 
and the tumbrils of our artillery with double the weight of powder 
that is necessary. 

The French, it appears^ have fitted up some of their steamers with 
Paixhan's guns, ten and twelve inches in the bore. We also are 
getting some of tolerable dimensions. There is one now at Woolwicb> 
a coustn-german to the great Turkish gun which was fired at the siege 
of Constantinople in 1453. Its bore is amazing. Its weight^is 90 cwt. 
besides the carriage, and that of its shell 112 lbs. When once we see 
this instrument in full operation on board of a steamer, we shall be 
able to determine whether it is likely to prove more formidable to 
friends or foes. In the mean time prudence bids us to suspend our 
judgment. 

Ben Bobstay. 



91 



CIGAR-SMOKING. 



Thk Surgeon-General of the Forces has recently made public his 
belief^ that never^ till within the last twenty years^ did he see so many 
young men with pale faces and emaciated figures, and he attributes 
the existence of the evil to the use of Cigars. The unreflecting ser- 
vility with which men adopt new and foreign practices^ is fully exem- 
plified in the present case ; for it is notorious that th^ practice of cigar* 
smoking, the modern foppery from Regent-street to Cheapside and Corn- 
hill, was an importation of the Peninsular War ;—- the imitation having 
been begun by the Spaniards^ whose models are what are usually called 
the savages of America. The dietetic mischief, and consequent pale- 
ness of complexion and emaciation of muscle^ which are attributable 
to the use of cigars, belong, no doubts to an injury inflicted^ perhaps^ 
in more ways than one upon the aids and organs of digestion ; nor is 
that hypothesis at all inconsistent with what we hear from so many 
cigar-smokers^ namely, that their cigar is their dependence for diges- 
tion ! That, after having impaired the organ^ or weakened its tone, or 
dried up the salival menstruum, they should need a stimulant, even in 
the very form of the bane which injures them, is only of a piece with 
all that has been said of drinkins, and especially of dram-drinking, 
with which latter debauch, the debauch of cigar-smoking has the 
closest possible alliance. We never pass one of those stifling rendezvous 
in the metropolis— « cigar-shop^ open till the latest hours— without 
mentally classing it with the gin-shops, its only compeers ! 

Exclusive of the low habit of imitation, a dullness and feebleness of 
understanding, an absence of intellectual resources, a vacuity of 
thought, is the great inducement to the use of this, as of all other 
drugs, whether from the cigar-shop, or the snufi^-^shop, or the gin-shop, 
or the wine-cellar ; a truth by no means the less certain, because it 
happens that men of the highest powers of mind are drawn into the 
vice, and made to reduce themselves, by their adoption and depen- 
dence upon it, to the lowest level of the vulgar ; but, at the same 
time, it is not to be denied, that a great support in defence of cigar- 
smoking is found in the medical opinions sometimes advanced as to its 
salutary influence. Now, if we admit, broadly and at once, that there 
may be times and circumstances in which the inhaling the hot smoke 
of a powerful narcotic drug is useful to the human body, must it follow 
that the habitual resort to such a practice, and this under all circum- 
stances, is use^ also, and even free from the most serious inconve- 
niences ? 

It is the admitted maxim, that if smoking is accompanied by spit- 
ting, injury results to- the smoker ; and the reason assigned is, that 
the salival fluid, which should assist digestion, is in this manner dissi- 
pated, and taken from its office. But may not the habitual application 
of the narcotic influence to the nervous system have its evils also? 
May it not weaken or deaden the nervous and muscular action which 
is needful to digestion ? And may not even the excessive quantity of 
the matter of heat, thus artificially conveyed into the body, tend to a 
desiccation of the system, as injurious under general circumstances, as 
it may be beneficial under particular ones ? 



02 NAVAL REMINISCENCES. 

Smoking invites thirst ; and there is little risk in advancing^ that 
whatever superinduces an unnatural indulgence in the use of liquids is 
itself^ and without farther question, injurious, even if the liquids re- 
sorted to are uf the most innocent description ; but, in point of fact, the 
dgar-smoker will usually appease his thirst by means of liquors in 
themselves his enemies ! 

It is said, however, that the use of cigars is beneficial when we find 
ourselves in marshy situations, with a high temperature, and generally, 
whenever the atmosphere inclines to the introduction of putridity and 
fever into the system. We believe this ; and perhaps a useful theory 
of the alternate benefit and mischief of cigar-smoking may be offered 
upon the basis of that proposition. When and wherever the body re- 
quires to be dried, cigar-smoking may be salutary; and when and 
wherever that drying, or desiccation, is injurious, then and there cisar- 
smoking may be -to be shunned. We know that, while surrounded by 
an atmosphere overcharged, or even only saturated with moisture, moist 
bodies remain moist, or do not part with that excess of moisture from 
which a drier atmosphere would relieve them ; and that living bodies/ 
so circumstanced, are threatened with typhus and typhoid fever. It is 
highly probable, therefore, that narcotics, in such cases, may allay a 
morbid irritability of the nerves, or effect a salutary diminution of 
healthful sensibility ; under such circumstances, the desiccating and 
sedative effects of tobacco-smoking may prove beneficial; while, in all 
ordinary states of th^ system and of the atmosphere, the same desicca- 
tive and sedative influences may produce immediate evil consequences, 
more or less readily perceptible, and undermine, however gradually, 
the strength of the constitution. 

E. A. K. 



NAVAL REMINISCENCES. 

NO. VIII. 
DININO OUT — AN ADVENTURE IN PORTUGAL. 

At the close of 1810, 1 was a youngster in an 80-gun ship lying in 
the Tasus, one of the squadron which formed a retreating point for 
Lord Wellington, in case of need. Our boats, with those belonging to 
the rest of the ships, some of them carrying guns, were detached up 
the river to aid the operations of the army, then, I believe, near Torres 
Vedras. They were occasionally employed in transporting, foraging-, 
and skirmishing parties, and nrequently conveyed large bodies of 
troops ; at other times, they were firing upon and clearing French 
redoubts, or conveying dispatches, or sick and wounded men down to 
Lisbon. Near both armies, we had a full view of what was going on, 
though we generally kept at a respectful distance from the enemy ; 
except when ordered to make a dash, at which times we were occa- 
sionally saluted with a dropping fire of musketry. However, a per- 
fectly good understanding was kept up between the enemy's picquets 
and ourselves, and although a large squadron of English boats, a single 
French sentry would come down and drink, or offer his canteen with 



NAVAL REMINISGBNGES. 93 

the most perfect confidence^ close to the water side. We had often 
immense labour in pulling up against the stream, and at times carry- 
ing or dragging our boats^ which, from our ignorance of the river, were 
constantly grounding over sand-banks and shoals, half-a-mile long, and 
scarcely was one of these obstacles overcome, when another of the same 
kind presented itself ; the current all the time running like a sluice. 

It sometimes occurred that we lay idle for days together^ and during 
one of these cessations from work, Lieut. E , who commanded our 
division of boats, received an invitation from an English general 
officer, to dine with him in his tent. Away went the gay Lieutenant^ 
a very fine young man, though somewhat, perhaps, too much of the 
beau. At this time the full dress of the navy, unlike the present com- 
modious and really serviceable uniform, w^ the absurd attire of tight 
white breeches and silk stockings, a fine open waistcoat^ showing a 
yard of frill, with a neckcloth that took a particular man at least ten 
minutes to tie. Then there were brooches and buckles of all kinds, 

and I know not what other follies. Well, imagine Lieut. E in 

full dress, having escaped from his boat with, perhaps, only one leg of 
his white pipe-clayed breeches dirtied by a muddy grapnel-rope, and 
not more than one of his silk stockings torn by the ragged tin on the 
blade of an oar ; or let him, an active fellow as he Was, have sprung 
clear out of the boat, in perfect order, and fit for the Queen's drawing- 
room. This, one would think, was but a bad dress for climbing trees ; 

however, Lieut. E >> having to walk some short distance before he 

could reach the English lines, felt thirsty, and seeing a most inviting 
fig-tree near, he ascended it, and regaled himself, till a thought pro- 
bably crossed him that he was spoiling his appetite for the general's 
dinner ; one, alas, that he was not destined to eat, for as he looked 
down ^om *' his pride of place," he espied the glitter of arms, and 
beheld the tree surroundea by a French picquet, who were much 
amused at finding an officer so situated, en grande tenue, or as we 
might term it, in full Jig. They invited him to join their party, and 
carried him to the commanding officer on duty. He was then taken 
before Masse na, and he confessed having felt some apprehension of 
being shot as a spy ; but the farce, so near becoming a tragedy, ended 
fortunately for him, in a much more agreeable manner. He was put 
on his parole, and handsomely entertained by the French Marshal for 
several days. Furnished by him with ^ horses and servants, supplied 
from his wardrobe, and commended to the care of a staff-officer, he 
was allowed to ride over all parts of the camp, and even to visit the 
adjacent country. At the expiration of a week he was dismissed, on 
giving his parole that he would not serve until duly exchanged, which 
did not happen for a month. In the mean time he remained on board 

the T 1, but did no duty, and was fortunate enough to escape 

all inquiry as to the cause of his absence by the Admiral. 



9i 

REVIEWS AND CRITICAL NOTICES. 

cm THB COIttWTTTUTlOV ASTD PKACTXCX OV COUBTS-MASTIAI*.* 

Many eatues hare eoDtribnted to lesre that pertioa ef tke pabHe body, 
more immediate iotemted in this sol^ect, dcstitiite of adequate in^nrma« 
tion QpoD the laws hf which Iheir dSaagBoB m upheld. The habits of the 
lawrer and those ei the raifitaiy officer hare (as ma author jostiy remarks 
in his orefaee) eadi their drawhadc, dis%«al[ii7iB|^, to a certain extent, 
c^er the one or the other, firom prodncin^ that peiliect treatise on military 
law, which might be ezpe<^ed onlj in ike snppoaed case of eagnftii^ npoo 
a soldier of observation and ezperienee the JEBowMce peasemcd by a good 
legal practitioDer. Meanwhile, as this romhinatiea of character is not to be 
looked for, the thinking part of tt« wMmj hare had to drudge on with the 
aid of the now obsolete trgniye of Tftlcr, and the work (in some respects 
more nsefbl on accooot of its official information) of M' Arthur. Of late 
years, indeed, mwenl attearots hare been made to supply the defect com- 
|4ained of; wv hare a eolleetion of adjudged cases poblidied by Major 
James ; a cumbersome rolunie by Mr. Samuel (rather on wmtrtiai than on 
fHMarplnw;) and the treatise,-— good so £ur as its object extends,— of Major 
Kennedy of the Company's service ; but to say of these that the^ have fail- 
ed in conveying either in nature or extent the information required on the 
subject o( courts-martia), is in no way to detract from the merits of the 
several authors by whom they have been compiled. 

The work now before us is intended to supply what has been so long 
wanting, vis« practical and tangible information, by which the young officer 
may be instructed, and those older in the service may be assisted, in fiMining 
thdr iadgment on particular points. It is a gratifying duty to direct 
attention to any work having a tendency to advance the character of 
the profession; and this must be the effect of promoting the study of 
those laws and practices by which the discipline ot the army is to be main- 
tained. We, therefore, notice, though for the present hastily, the work of 
Capt. Simmons with mudi pleasure. It forms an octavo volume of nearly 500 
pages, replete with useful matter, divided into thirteen chapters, to which is 
adided an appendix, oontaining official documents and forms of warrants, 
some of whicn were never before brought under the public eye. Its l^Mling 
divisions^ as the title-page indicates, are the practice of court^-martialj t& 
law of evidence, which obtains or should obtain in such courts, and some no- 
tices on a branch of this subject little understood, we mean the 102nd Arti' 
ek of War, bv which courtfi^'martial are, in certain cases, .bound to adminis- 
ter Justice abroad, according to the criminal code in force in this country. 
The difficulties with which a writer on this subject has to contend are many. 
The freonent alteration of the Mutiny Act and Articles of War is, in itsecT, 
a great aiseoursgement to a commentator who would hazard observations on 
the intent of the legislature, or the meaning aflixed by His Majesty to the 
articles framed pursuant to the legislative act. Our author has, however, 
we feel bound to say, argued many obscure points in a calm, accurate, and 
perspicuous form, and many of his hints deserve to be acted on in future 
provisions made for the regulation of the army. The most useful part of the 
work is, we think, found in that relating to evidence^ and in the cases con- 
tinually brought forward, in which, upon the approval or revision of courts- 
martial, strong opinions have been expressed by the superior authorities. 
These are, indeed, to be found in the general orders, but are only met with 
casually; it is, therefore, fortunate that a military man has been found, 
who, in his lebure hours, has been induced to condense, for the information 
of others, that which, from his compass of mind, education, and habits of re- 
flection, he was well qualified to explain and illustrate ; whilst his reading, 

* Remarks on the Constitution and Practice of Courts-Martial, with a Summary 

of the Law of Evidence, as connected with such Courts ; also, some Notice of the 

Criminal Law of England, with reference to the 102nd Article of M^ar. By Thomas 

Frederick SJ/nmons, Esq. Captain, Royal Artillery. Egerton, Whitehall, 8vo. 1830. 



REVIEWS AND CRITICAL NOTICES. 96 

and the experience which he evidently possesses, have enabled him to bring 
forward much which is entirely new. We shall recur to this volume and 
the subject in general as one of the highest importance. 



bourienne's life of napoleon.* 

In the by-gone times of Humphry Ravelin^ economy il^as wont to revel at 
the mess, and be quite at home over black tea and dry toast at a sub's 
breakfast-table, but in these '* piping times of Peace/' forsooth, she seems to 
have deserted the cloth, and flown ror refuge to the ** Libraries.'' We have 
before us an illustration. Three volumes, each consisting of between four 
and five hundred well-printed and closely-packed pages, substantially put 
together, and seventeen graphic embellishments, all creditably executed, 
particularly the three portraits of the Emperor and his two Empresses, for 

the inconsiderable amount of as we were about to proceed, a friendly 

whisper in our ear, not unlike that of the Chief Baron of the Exchequer, 
recommended us to refer this point to the Publishers, or to our own advertis- 
ing columns. Suffice it, therefore, that we have often sacrificed more at one 
night's sitting than has here afforded us some nights' entertainment, much 
food for reflection, and no inconsiderable quantity of new information. 

The biography of men who have played prominent parts on the stage of 
life, whether for good or for evil, teaches useful lessons, nor is it to be won- 
dered at, in this book-reading age, that one who ma^ be said to have wield- 
ed the sceptres of many nations should have many biographers, or that each 
should have drawn a different picture, according to nis own political bias. 
It is for posterity alone to determine. 

To perform the duties of a faithful chronicler, requires far more than an 
honest intention ; an intimate acquaintance with the tone of mind^ private 
habits, and natural disposition, are also essentially requisite, and with 
these Bourienne, .it must be admitted, had superior opportunities of ac- 
quainting himself, as he tells us in his preface — *' My long intimate con- 
nexion with > Buonaparte from boyhood, my particular relations with him 
when Qeneral-Consul and Emperor, enabled me to see and appreciate all 
that w^as projected, and all that was done, during that considerable and mo- 
mentous period of time." To obtain credence for the other quality, he 
says in his introduction— '^ 1 am confident that all I state is true. I have 
no interest in deceiving, no di^^ce to fear, no reward to expect. I neither 
wish to obscure nor embellish his glory. However great Napoleon may have 
been, was he not also liable to pay his tribute io the weaKness of human 
nature ? 1 speak of Napoleon such as I have seen him, known him, fre- 
quently admired, and sometimes blamed him. I state what I saw, heard, 
wrote, and thought at the time, under each circumstance that occurred. I; 
have not allowed myself to be carried away by the illusions of the imagina- 
tion> nor to be influenced by friendship or hatred. I shall not insert a sin- 
gle reflection which did not occur to me at the very moment of the event 
which gave it birth." 

In the e^xecution of his task we find no good reason to impeach these de- 
clarations. Substantiating, as he has done, most of the principal features by 
authentic documents, Bourienne has painted his hero neither as a demi-god 
nor a monster. 

This English translation, which has been very faithfully rendered, is still 
more valuable than the original work, as upon all points where any obliquity 
from other published recital occurs, the translator has given the several ac- 
counts ; and thus, in the form of notes, we are presented with the state- 
ments obtained from Napoleon's own dictation at St. Helena, from the 

♦ The National Library, Vols. VII. Vill. and IX. The Life of Napoleon 
Buonaparte, by M. de Bourienne, his Private Secretary, with Notes, now first 
added from the dictation of Napoleon, at St. Helena, from the Memoirs of the 
Duke of Rovigo, of Gen. Rapp, of Constant, and of numerous other autheDtic sources. 
Colburn and Bentley. 



96 REVIEWS AND CRITICAL NOTICES. 

Memoirs of the Duke of Rovigo, of Gen. Rapp, of Constant^ from the writings 
uf the Marquis of Londonderry, &c.* 

It is unnecessary to give an analysis of this biography, or to enter upon 
a comparison of the publication in its present form, with others; it has 
nothing to lose and much to gain from rivalry. These volumes are emi- 
nently calculated both to entertain and be consulted ; for the latter 
purpose the comprehensive index at the termination of the third volume will 
prove of considerable use. 

PLAN FOR THE EDUCATION OF THE SONS OF OFFICERS OF THE 

ROYAL NAVY AND MARINES. 

Iir a former number of this Journal, we inserted the Prospectus of a Pro- 
ject for the education, at a moderate expense and in a systematic manner, 
of the sons of Naval and Marine officers We have now the pleasure to 
notice the matured plan which, ere the appearance of our present Number, 
will have been submitted to the approbation and adoption of a preliminary 
Meeting, presided over by Admiral Sir Joseph Yorke. 

The motives and general principles of such an establishment have been al- 
ready set forth in the Prospectus alluded to. Its details and organization are 
embodied in a Pamphlet now before us, proceeding from Commander Dixon, 
the author of the project, whose zeal and perseverance in so beneficial a 
cause, encouraged by the warm approval of many of the most distinguished 
officers of the Service, entitle him to the respect of his profession. 

We have only to suggest that, as the plan in question is equally appli-' 
cable to the Army, a combination of the Services for its conjoint prosecution, 
might be attended with most advantageous results to both. 

We extract from Commander Dixon's Pamphlet the general rules pro- 
posed for the adoption of the Meeting, and shall be happy to record the 
inauguration of so useful an Institution. 

(( ABSTRACT OF THE PRINCIPAL BULES TO BE PROPOSED TO TH 

GENERAL MEETING. 

^^ That the King having been graciously pleased to signify his approval of the 
prindple of this Institution, and that it was deserving of the encouragement it had 
experienced^ his Majesty be most respectfully requested to take it under his Royal 
Patronage.. 

^^ That the Institution be designated the _« 

^' That its object be to afford to the Sons of Naval Officers, a sound elementary 
Education, at a moderate expense, combined with religious and moral Instruction, 
according to the principles of the Established Church ; and to give to the parents 
of the €&ldren a salutary voice in the appointment of their teachers, and in the 
companions of their studies. 

<^ That those pupils who are intended for the naval or sea service^ shall receive 
an efficient nautical education. 

*^ That the Masters shall receive liberal salaries ; and in the selection of indivi- 
duals to fill this highly responsible office, particular attention shall be paid to their 
love for teaching, as well as to the depth of their attainments. 

^^ That a person be appointed under the name of ^^ Superintendent of the House,** 
who shall be a half-pay commissioned officer and a married man ; to him shall be 
intrusted the entire management of the establishment out of school hours ; he shall 
likewise keep the accounts, and in general do all the duties of a derk ; — and that the 
wife of the Superintendent shall undertake the duties of housekeeper. 

^^ That if uecessar}', a naval Surgeon, with the use of a small dispensary, be at- 
tached to the Institution. 

^^ That a drill Sergeant or Master of Oymnastics be attached to the Institution, 
for the purpose of accustoming the pupils to carry themselves erect, and to acquire 
ease of deportment. 

*\ That no pupil be admitted at an earlier age than 10 years, nor after the age of 
fourteen years. 

«^ That the Head Master, who shall be a Clergyman of the Church of England, 

* We perceive that these notes are also inserted in the French Edition of this 
Work, in Five Volumes, just issued by the same Publishers. 



EDUCATION OF THE SONS OF OFFICERS. 97 

and graduate of one of the three Universities, shall every Sunday perform morning 
and evening service, according to the rites of the Established Church, and read 
also a short form of morning and evening prayer daily. 

" That a Public Examination of the pupils shall take place previous to the Mid- 
summer vacation, as to their intellectual and moral acquirements. 

" That a Reward or Medal be conferred on those pupils who most distinguish 
themselves at these examinations. 

*« If required by the parents, children may remain at the Institution during the 
half-yearly vacation, at a proportionate increase of expense. 

COMMITTEE. 

^' That this Institution be under the direction of a Committee of Management, 
elected annually by the members. 

^ «< That this Committee have the entire management of the affairs of the Institu- 
tion, and nominate the Masters on testimonials, and after public advertisement. 

'^ That from among those members who may reside near the school visitors be 
nominated, who shall have authority to inspect every department of the Institu« 
tlon, and to report its state to the Committee. 

'^ That in order to place the salaries of the Officers and Masters of the School on 
as economical a scale as possible, they will be allowed the privilege of the gratuit* 
0118 board and education of one or more of their children. 

^^ That all Servants of the Institution be selected, when practicable, from the 
naval service ; and that all fees be prohibited. 

^' That in the adnaission of pupils, preference shall be given to the sons of officers 
who may be made prisoners of war, or who may be slain or drowned, to whose 
oomf<Nrt the attention of the Committee shall be especially directed. 

^< That admission be then given to the diildren of shareholders in rotation. 

^* The Building (capable of enlargement) is to afford accommodation for the 
lodging, education, and board of two hundred students, and to be erected on a site 
which will unite the advantages of a clear and healthy atmosphere, with facility of 
communication with the capital and principal sea-ports. 

^*' That application be made to his Majesty*s Government for a grant of any 
vacant g^und that might appear adapted for the purpose. 

<^ That thie funds be raised by donations, annu^ subscriptions, and 400 shares of 
25/. each, to be taken by naval officers, two hundred of which shares shall bear 
interest at 4 per cent, per annum ; and the remaining two hundred shall entitle 
the holders to send one pupil to the school for each share so held by them. 

'< That the shares be transferable with the sanction of the Committee. 

*< That the annual charge for the board and education of each pupil, including 
every expense, as well as the cost of books, stationery, and washing, shall be 261. 
subject to a reduction in proportion to the accumulation of funds arising from be • 
quests, donations, or subscriptions. 

^^ That when the annual diarge for board and education shall have been reduced 
to /., the surplus funds shall be appropriated to the redemption of the shares. 

^^ That when such redemption shsJl have been accomplished, the annual surplus 
shall be appropriated to the support and enlargement of the orphan foundation. . 

^' Tliat the treasurer, trustees, and auditors, be appointed at the general meeting. 

*-* That the treasurer be required to deposit in the Bank of England from time to 
time, such monies as shall come into his hands in his own name, and those of the 
trustees ; and that he be empowered to draw checks on the same, such checks to 
be signed also by one or more of the trustees, and that he keep a regular account 
of the funds of me Institution. 

^< The work not to be commenced until the whole sum given or subscribed for 
amount to /. 

'^ That all flag officers, generals of marines, subscribing one gtiinea annually ; 
captains, colonels, and majors of marines, commanders, physicians, and secretaries 
to commanders-in-chief, subscribing half-a-guinea, and all ouer officers (wardroom), 
subscribing five shillings and upward, be mraibers of the Institution, who shall 
have the privilege of voting at all general meetings.; and that none but their chil- 
dren shall be eligible to the benefits of this Institution, or be placed on the list of 
candidates for election for the orphan foundation. 

'' That all subscribers, to the amount of half-a-guinea annually, shall be entitled 
to one vote at elections on the orphan foundation ; and those subscribing one 
guinea, to two votes.** 

U. S. JouRN. No. 30. May. 1831. k 



98 

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE. 

TO THE EDITO& OF THE UNITED SERVICE JOURNAL. 

Military Superannuation and WidowsH Fund, 

Mr. Editor, — May I be permitted to bring under your notice the accom- 
panying copy of a letter, dated so far back as the month of April last, 
addressed by me to a distinguished officer, then at the head of an important 
military department. 

You will perceive that it suggests the idea of forming a fund for the 
benefit of the army, but more immediately for the benefit of the widows and 
orphans of military officers. I am in possession of the answer which I had 
the honour to receive from the officer already referred to ; but, not having 
applied for permission to give it publicity, I do not feel myself at liberty to do 
80 without nis previous sanction. I may, however, add, without any breach 
of courtesy, that the answer conveys an entire approval of the principle and 
advantages of such establishment, if carried into effect. 

The object is well worthy of the British army, — it is identified with its 
honour — it is associated with its best and noblest feelingis. The subject, 
too, has acquired an intense and fearful interest, from the regulations, 
recently issued by the War Office, relative to the Half-Pay, and Widows* 
Pensions. 

I cannot err in persuading myself that the suggestion will receive your 
best cdnsideration. In your hands I place it, reiterating the hope that the 
army will see what honour and humanity demand. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your most obedient and humble servant, 

Chatham. A Retired Officer. 

(Copy.) 

Sir, — It has long been matter for deep reflection, — painful as it affects the 
objects, — painful as it affects the army, — that the widows and orphans of 
military officers should be cast entirely upon the bounty of the country, and 
that not one single source of relief to mitigate the sorrows of those who have 
the most sacred claims to our sympathy, can be spared by the army. £very 
reflecting mind must feel this ; and the army, jealous of its honour, must 
be anxious to redeem itself from a reproach too justly attaching to it. 
While every profession, — the humble as well as the most libera^ — con- 
siders it a sacred obligation to provide, out of its own resources, for its 
widows and orphans, it is painful to think that the army stands unmoved, 
and forms almost the only exception. It were difficult to share in that 
feeling, which is content to leave the dearest and most valued ties as a 
legacy upon the justice and gratitude, of the nation. The country does its 
dutv to the army, — let the army do its duty to itself. 

Those must, indeed, be little taught by passing events, who do not foresee 
that we are verging towards that point when the reduced officer will be 
thrown upon his own resources, and the widow and orphan shielded only by 
the united sympathies of the armjr. The Government, it is not questioned, 
seriously ^x>ntemplate the regulation, by which no reduced officer, under a 
certain prescribea length of service, shall be allowed hsdf-pay, and no widow 
or (Hrphan entitled to a pension, whose husband or father, unless killed in 
luittle, had not served for a stated period of years. The imperative wants 
«f a country may, perhaps, force sucn a measure upon its Government; but 
few minds will contemplate, without painful and mingled feelings the indi- 
vidual suffering, and even misery, which sudi a regulation is but too well 
calculated to spread throughout the service. To avert such a state of 
thingSt I would appeal to the best feelings of the army, — I would aw^en it 
to a sense of what it owes to itself— to its own honour ; I would make the 
army worthy of the country — I would also make it no less worthy of itself. 



GORRESPONDENGB. 99 

Influenced by these considerations, I ani induced to propose that a Mili- 
tary Fund be established, to be founded and supported by the army itself. 
The fund to be called '* The Militaiy Superannuation and' Widows' Fund/' 
And having the following objects in view : — 

1st. — To grant annuities to the widows of officers. The claimants under 
this head to consist of two classes — 1st. Widows having no pensions from 
the country ; Snd. Widows having pensions. 

2nd. — To grant allowances, in the shape of yearly income, to reduced and 
retired officers. The claimants under this head to consist of three classes. 
1st. Officers reduced, having^ no half-pay. 2nd. Officers placed on half- 
pay by reduction, or from loss of health contracted in the service. 3rd. 
Officers retired on full pay, from length of service^ or from total loss of 
health contracted in the service. 

3rd. — To grant pensions to the orphan daughters of officers, and to found 
a military orphan school for boys. 

I would make the provision for the widow and orphan form the first and 
primary object of the fund ; the other objects to be carried into effect as 
soon as the capital of the fund, and the monthly subscriptions, shall autho- 
rize the appropriation. 

To the principle of the measure every heart must accede : it is founded 
in the best feelings of the human heart, and claims the support and pro- 
tection of all those who feel for suffering humanity, and who wish to alle- 
viate the anguish and distress of their less fortunate companions. It would 
be a monument to the honour of the British army, as miperi&hable as its 
laurels ; nor can any moment be more propitious than a moment of profound 
peace. 

The principle, as far as regards the Widows' Pension, has been adopted 
by the Medical department of the army, and also, on a limited scale,* by the 
officers of the Navy, under the express sanction of H. R. H. the Duke of 
Clarence, who felt all its inestimable advantages to that branch of the 
service; and the munificent provision which the Indian army makes for its 
companions in arms, and for its widows and orphans, will only serve as a 
noble example for our own army. 

If it is practicable then for detached branches of the service, it is practi- 
cable for the whole ; and few wiU think, in the face of some recent estar^ 
blishments, — good in themselves, but certainly of minor and subordinate 
intent, — that the army does not possess, within itself, abundant resources 
for founding and supporting a Permanent Military Fund. 

My profession excludes the expectation that I »iould be qualified to enter 
into all the niceties of arithmetical calculations connected with the plan : 
this part of the duty essentially belongs to the professional accountant or 
actuary ; and I am persuaded the able actuary employed by the Grovemment 
would willingly give his aid in making the neeessary calculations and tables. 
It appears to me that the Table of Rates and Subscription, the mode of 
Management, and the Rules and Regulations of the Bengal Military Fund^ 
might be adopted with great advantage, subject, of course, to such modifi- 
cations as the difference between the two services might render necessary, 
in the opinion of a special board of officers, to whom, under the sanction and 
authority of the General Commanding in Chief, the details of the plan 
would be referred. 

Such is the plan which, with all its imperfections, I take the liberty of 
submitting to your deliberate consideration. I address myself to you, on 
this occasion, less from regard for the high official situation which you hold 
at head-quarters, than for the enlarged and benevolent feelings which attract 
your mind to all and every thing which can promote the honour and interest 
of His Majesty's service. 

The present feelings of the country, naturally anxious for every possible 
reduction of its expenditure, and the policy of a just and humane Uovern- 
ment, (I speak of^ no particular ministry,) must be interested in giving 

H 2 



100 CORRESPONDENCE. 

effect to a measure which, by its operation^ may ultimately render a dimi- 
nution of what is called the Dead Weight less impracticable, and, I fear not 
to add, less incompatible with what the Nation and the Government owe to 
the army. I know the fact, that the Government contribute 10 per cent, 
out of the revenue of the Island of Ceylon, yearly, towards the Civil Super- 
annuation Fund of that colony ; and I am yet to learn that the services of 
the army give it a less claim to an equally liberal and grateful consideration. 

Can I nope that the object I have in view will plead my apology for 
breaking in upon your time at so great a length ? When you are freed 
from the pressure of official duties, you will, perhaps, not be unwilling to 
devote your attention to its consideration ; and 1 shall feel honoured by the 
expression Qf your opinion, and your views and sentiments. 

I have the honour to be, 

Chatham, April 20, 1830. Yours, &c. &c. &c. 

%♦ Some objections to such a provision as the foregoing might certainly 
be stated ; but they are not of weight to counteract the beneficial principle 
of a plan which we recommend to general consideration. — £d. 



,J. M. on Duelling, in reply to his Critics* 

M«. Editor. — Will you permit me to say a few words in reply to your 
Correspondent A. B. who, in the last number of the Journal, charges me 
with '^ a marvellous confusion of ideas,'' for having asserted, whilst attempt- 
ing to lay down some rules on the subject of Duelling, that a second in a 
duel *' is answerable to God and his country for any loss of life that by tem- 
perate, judicious, and conciliatory conduct might have been avoided;*' 
arguing that this is sanctioning a breach of the Commandments, at the same 
time that we are acknowledging our responsibility to God, &c. &c. Such 
sweeping charges are more easily made than proved. 

As self-defence for the protection of property as well as life is allowed by 
Scripture* and the law of England, on what principle shall we be prevented 
from defending our honour and character, that must be dearer to us than 
life itself? If a man is permitted to defend a little paltry gold at the risk 
of slaying the aggressor, on what around can he be prevent^ from defend- 
ing the reputation of those whose fame must be dearer to him than his own ? 
Still, men must be answerable to God for any blood so -shed, ** that, by tem- 
perate and judicious conduct, might have been avoided." Dr. Johnson says, 
** I do not see that fighting is forbidden in Scripture ; I see revenge forbidden, 
but not self-defence. A man may shed the blood of a man who invades his 
character^ as he may shoot him who attempts to break into his house. "f 
Lord Kames, in the Sketches of Man, takes the same view of the subject ;]: 
so that I share the ** marvellous confusion of ideas" attributed to me not 
only with the great moralist himself, but also with a great ju<^e and histo- 
rian — I am verily not ashamed of the fellowship. 

In consequence of the fatal termination of many duels, owing to the very 
improper manner in which they had been conducted, (I referred to an in- 
stance in which life had actuliQy been tossed up for, and might have added 
the case of Philips and many otn«rs,) I thought it right, whilst writing on 
the subject, to propose a few common-place rules in the avowed hope of 
averting similar misfortunes for the future, and also with a view of correct- 
ing a dangerous error, that a book, termed *< The British Code of Duel," had 
tended to promulgate. This Sir Lucius O'Trig^er kind of pedantry would, 
DM^aps, have exposed the writer to a little ridicule from tnose who know 
now peaceful and unwarlike are his own habits and pursuits, had not the 
object, in some measure, sanctified the motive ; but 1 certainly never ex- 

* Exodus, xxii. 2. -f Boswell^s Life of Johnson. 

4 Sketches, vol. i. 



CORRESPOND BNCE. 101 

peeled to have seen it made the subject of a grave charge ; for surely no 
one will seriously maintain that gentlemen are likely to go out and nght 
merely in order to practise these rules ; so that they can by no possibility do 
harm, but may perhaps, at a future time, do good. If a man cannot 
suppress an evil, is he, therefore, prevented from striving to alleviate its 
effects? Nor were they principally intended, as supposed by A. B. for the 
United Services : because, as far as my own observation goes, there is much 
less duelling in the Army and Navy than in civil life : a circumstance highly 
honourable to the services, as it shows that they are setting an example of 
that high and gentlemanlike conduct which should always form a distin- 
guishing mark of the professions. 

It was the object of the article that has led to this discussion, to check, as 
much as possible, the practice of duelling, by making seconds, on whom 
much depends, attentive to their duty and responsibility; by calling on 
society, so far at least to assert its own dignity, as not to allow the mere 
standing of a paltry shot to constitute a proof oi gentlemanlike conduct and 
sentiment ; and, above all, by divesting the duellist of any claim to courage 
which he could pretend to found even on the " fighting of fifty duels." Yet, 
in the face of this very sentence, and much more to the same purpose, your 
Correspondent A. B. goes over the ground I had taken, proves, in a very 
able manner, that a duellist is not to be considered a man of courage, never 
states that I had taken the same view of the case, but, as he has been at.- 
tacking my opinions, leaves it to be inferred, as a matter of course, that I 
had attempted to '* class the gallantry of the duellist with that of the 
soldier/' though exactly the reverse happens to be the case. 

I mention this without comment, for I cannot suspect of wilful misrepre- 
sentation a writer whose general sentiments entitle him to respect, and who 
almost begins his letter by a quotation from that book which is the source of 
pure and unsophisticated truth alone. 

Another contributor, who, in the same Journal, signs himself C. D. says, 
'* To the remark of J. M. that * it is only by raising the standard of polite- 
ness and moral conduct, and insisting on its being acted up to by all parties, 
that the abolition of duelling can be effected ;' it might be suggested that, 
to the standard to which he refers, it is the object of Christian education to 
raise us," &c. Yes, certainly, *' to raise us ;" but the question is how far; 
has it raised us ? Are there no coarse, envious, licentious, and bad-hearted 
m^n in the most polite society ? Is l^avarice, enfin, mere de tous les crimes, 
already banished from the world ? Do we not, on the contrary, behold the 
worship of Mammon openly carried on, from the splendid salons where the 
high and the noble may be seen bartering independence and parliamentary 
votes for places to themselves, and preferment for their sons, and fortune- 
hunting mothers parading their daughters for sale to the highest bidders, 
down to filthy scenes lately exhibited in the streets of Liverpool, where men 
brought that liberty to market which thousands are now yelling out for, 
many of them with no other view than to have more of the same commodity 
to dispose of? At every ordinary dinner-party you may easily tell the rela- 
tive wealth and influence of the guests by the general respect shown to 
them, as well as by the smiles of the " courteous host " and hostess ; but 
where is the distinguishing mark that society sets upon worth and virtue ? 
A fifty-power reflecting lantern would hardly, ,in these days, enable Dio- 
genes to discover an honest man, not so much for want of worth and honesty — 
for there is, after all, perhaps, more virtue in the world than the world gets 
credit for — but because vice is forward and presuming, and constantly 
throws virtue, which is humble and retiring, into the shade, and never 
scruples, in its greedy course of low ambition, to trample it down whenever 
it can be done with impunity. In such a state of society, which besides pu- 
nishes the presumed absence of honour without rewarding the reality, repu- 
tation and character cannot possibly be left unguarded ; for men of high and 
generous feelings have, after all, little left to lose in this world when they 



102 CORRESPONDENCE. 

have once lost even this world's esteem. And what protection is there in 
many cases but what is afforded by the precarious and uncertain law of 
battle : itself avowedly an evil, rendered necessary by the evil passions of 
the human breast^ that too often leave us nothing but a choice of evils. 

I here close the subject. I have proposed the best remedy in my power - 
it was not very well timed^ I allow, for times of revolutionary tendency are 
not well adapted for the advancement of moralitv, but it leaves the field just 
as open as it was before^ to the exertion of abler hands. As to your two 
correspondents, I can only add that the sentiments they express will ensure 
jfor them the respect of all well-thinking men, even of those who may lament 
that the honest views and wishes contained in the writings here replied 
to, cannot, in the present state of society, be carried into practical effect. 

Without again alluding to the writers above spoken of, for it would 
not be applicable, I may mention, en passant, that to place any particular 
words or sentences of a modern essay in opposition to scriptural quotations, 
is not a fair way of judging of its merit ; the entire must be looked at, as it 
Is only by trying the object and tendency of the first by the spirit of the 
second, that justice can be done. 

I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, 

J. M . 

*^*It was our intention to have offered a few observations upon this 
subject, so sensibly and tejnperately handled by our several contributors; 
but J. M., to whose opinions, and for the reasons he assigns above, we de- 
cidedly lean, has saved us the trouble. We claim, however, the merit of 
impartiality, in having fairly submitted both sides of the qu^ion to judg- 
ment. — £o. 



Captain Cook and Sir Joseph Banks. 

Mr. Editor, — I observe your correspondent D., in his ''defence of 
Captain Cook,'' in your number for March last, is unacquainted with the 
true cause why Sir Joseph Banks did not accompany Captain Cook on his 
second voyage, which circumstance is readily accounted for, without refer- 
ence to the unhandsome manner in which the great navigator is mentioned 
in the Report of the Geographical Society of Paris. 

My information is derived from an individual who accompanied Cook in 
his first and second voyages, and was otherwise intimately acquainted with 
his character in all its bearings. 

Sir Joseph Banks did fully intend to proceed on the second voyage — 
80 much so, that all his preparations were completed, and every thing he 
considered essential for the voyage was actually on board the Resolution. 
At Captain Cook's particular desire, a poop-cabin was built on the Resolu- 
tion, which he intended to occupy himself, giving up his proper cabin for 
the accommodation of Sir Joseph Banks, and the other scientific men who 
were to have accompanied him. On the passage down the river Thames to 
the Nore, the Resolution was discovered to be so very crank, that it was 
deemed expedient to take the poop off her, thus obliging Captain Cook to 
resume his proper cabin. Sir Joseph Banks, in consequence of this arrange- 
ment, finding himself deprived of the expected accommodation, finally de- 
termined on not proceeding ; and this was the sole cause of Sir Joseph 
Banks not accompanying Captain Cook on his second voyage. 
. The Forsters did not join the Resolution till she had reached Plymouth 
Sound, and their accommodations were not so comfortable as would have 
been the case, had the poop remained on the ship— they were, however, the 
best that could be afforded, under the circumstances. — Their complaints 
against Captain Cook are principally in reference to the badness of their 
accommodation, and which it was out of his power to remedy. 

With reference to the ravages of disease, said to have been inflicted on the 



GORR^SPONDBNGB. 103 

natives of the South Sea Islandaby the crew of Captain Cook, there is now in 
the possession of one of the Commissioners of Greenwich Hospital, an original 
order from Cook on this subject, strictly prohibiting every person diseased^ 
or suspected to be so, from leaving the ship on anv pretence whatever^ or 
having any communication with the natives. Tnis, though inefficient, 
clearly proves his great anxiety to prevent the spread of that devastating 
malady among the natives. Can a sunilar order be produced from Bougain- 
ville, or any other of the French Navigators^ who visited those Islands? 
. That his crew entertained a most aroctionate regard for their commander 
ma^ be gathered from the extreme anxiety they evinced at one period of 
their voyage, when he was seriously ill ; their nrst and constant query at 
the relief of each watch was after the health of their beloved commander^ 
whom they always considered as their father and their friend : and finally^ 
at his lamented death, so enraged and infuriated were they at the loss of 
* their revered chief, that it was with great difficulty they were restrained 
within the bounds of subordination, because they were restricted, very pro- 
perly however, from proceeding on shore, and taking instant and ample 
revenge for their irreparable loss. I could add many anecdotes, from the 
very best authority, to prove his goodness of heart and benevolence of dis- 
position; but as they were communicated in confidence, and without an 
idea of their being made public, and would moreover be unpleasing to an 
amiable and venerable female closely connected with him, if seen by her, 
I will therefore abstain. Indeed, I consider his character established on so 
firm a basis, as to stand in no need of my weak vindication ; and I trust that 
it will not^ be affected by the unjust and illiberal remarks contained in the 
Report of the Geographical Society of Paris. ^ 

I will, however, add to the character of our navigator, quoted from Cap- 
tain King by your correspondent D. (and which, 1 think, conveys a just 
estimate of it in a few words,) one from the pen of Dr. Reinhold Forster, 
who certainly cannot be accused of partiality towards him. " If we con- 
sider his extreme abilities, both natural and acquired, the firmness and 
constancy of his mind, his truljr paternal care for the crew entrusted to 
him, the amiable manner with which he knew how to ^in the friendship of all 
the savage and uncultivated nations, and even his conduct towards his 
friends and acquaintance, we must acknowledge him to have been one of 
the greatest men of his age, and that reason justifies the tear which friend- 
ship pays to his memory. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servantj, 

London, April 19, 1831. Q. 



Case of the Naval Architects. 

Mr. Editor, — I shall be obliged if you will allow me to call the atten- 
tion of the pubHc, through the medium of your paj^, to an act of extreme 
injustice committed against a certain class of the public servants by the 
present Naval Administration, — I mean those called Naval Architects; a 
short account of the cause of whose institution, and present state, I gave in 
your number for February last. 

Previous to Lord Melville's quitting the Admiralty, an order was issued 
to the several dock-yards, that all new appointments to situations below 
the rank of foremen of the yard, should be held by persons who were to 
receive day pay, leaving those, however, in the present possession of those 
situations, tneir yearly salary as heretofore : so far, right ; any person re- 
ceiving such an appointment knew under what circumstances it was to be 
held, and had the option of accepting or rejecting it. On the change in the 
Admiralty^ this act, which was intended to be prospective, was made to in- 
clude those who had for many years been in the receipt of an annual income, 
and was even extended to those students who had from their entrance into 



104 CORRKSPONDBNOK. 

the seiTice been on salary, and which was an express condition of their 
entering it. In a copy of the regulations established relative to the admis- 
sion of students into the School of Naval Architecture, now before me, the 
sixth article says, ''they will be allowed the following salaries in quar- 
terly payments ;'' this refers to the seven years of study. The seventh 
article s^ys, -'6n the expiration of theii' apprenticeship the students will be 
BH^ble to all ^tuationis in the ship-building department of his Majesty's 
service, and in tlie event of there being no vacancy in any of his Majesty's 
yardd, they shali be employed as supernumeraries in the yards until vacan^ 
ciea* do occur , ai^d be sulowed the yearly salaries recommended in the third 
report of the Commissioners for revising the civil affairs of the Navy. The 
next and last Regulation relates to a bond for 500/., entered into by two 
sureties for each student, that he should not quit the service under a period 
of setenteen years, on pain of the forfeiture of the amount of this bond, in 
oifder that the expense of the education of those students might not be lost 
to the Government. Here then there is a mutual agreement between the two 
turtles, and the willingness of one party to give up his part does not free 
^im from his responsibility to fulfil the other ; or m other words, the Ad- 
ini^ty, after CanceUing this bond by which the students were tied to the 
^rvice for a term of seventeen years, are not at liberty, in justice and 
iBuuity, to shake off that tie by which they bound themselves to the students. 
Tnose regulations I speak of were formed by the King and Council, and 
upon the faith of them many persons entered the service, who never would 
have done so under the degrading terms now forced upon them. It may 
appear very fair to say, '* If you are dissatisfied with the present conditions, 
we are willing to free you from your bond, and you may then apply for 
your dismissal, which will be granted to you," — but after devoting nearly 
seventeen years of the best period of their lives (as some of those students 
who have not yet been appointed to situations have done), and having 
arrived at the age of thirty-three or thirty-four years, with families depend- 
ing on them for support, to have to submit to any terms which the caprice 
of this or any other Board of Admiralty may dictate, or the alternative of 
seeking at that time of life new means of subsistence, is, to say the least of 
it, hard indeed. If the alteration of circumstances, since the formation of 
this establishment, has rendered the number of those admitted to it too 
great, and the Lords of the Admiralty are desirous of reducing the number 
of claimants for situations, a fair and honourable way is open to them to do 
80, by allowing those supernumerary students to retain their present incomes 
(which are guaranteed to them by the regulations 1 have quoted above) 
and endeavour to provide for themselves in private employment, under this 
condition, that if, when called on to accept of appointments in the dock- 
yards, they are unwilling to do so, they shall forfeit all claim to a con- 
tinuance or their salary. By this means there would be no increase to the 
public burthen, but a constant tendency to its diminution. If it be lawful 
for one party to reverse the acts of their predecessors in office, and the 
Lords of the Admiralty thus to cancel the decisions of the King and Coun- 
cil, who will place I'eliance in public faith? who will enter that service, 
where, after having faithfully discharged his duty until old age approaches, 
he may be displaced without any cause assigned but the will of tnose who 
have Xhe power to act unjustly ? I would not wish it to be understood that 
I think the present Admiralty mean to go to this extent, but every measure 
which tends, however remotely, to such an end, should be viewed with the 
greatest jealousy, and checked before it attains to too great a head. 

I am Sir, your obedient servant, 
April 19, 1831. . Piiilo-nauticus. 



* Even the filling these vacancies by persons not educated at the school, is there, 
fore a breach of their agreement. 



CORRBSPONOKNCB. 105 

Yeomanry Cavalry, 

Mk. Editor, — Since you condescend to notice a branch of military service 
so humble as the Yeomanry Cavalry, I request the attention of those among 
your readers, whom such subjects concern, to a few remarks upon one or 
two points which you have not touched; at the same time tendering you 
my warmest thanks for the excellent observations contained in your last 
Number. 

It is generally reported that some instructions are being drawn up by 
authority for the movements of Yeomanry Cavalry ; that these instructions 
will be different from the elucidation of Sir David Dundas's regulations; 
and that the practice recently adopted in the regular cavalry, will be en- 
joined In the yeomanry also. I do not presume to offer an opinion upon 
their propriety for regiments of the line ; but having an experience of twenty 
years to enable me to form a judgment upon their advantage for regiments, 
or smaller corps of yeomanry, I venture to submit the reasons for consider- 
ing them inapplicable to the latter service, in the hope that these observa^ 
tions may meet the eyes of those who have it in their power to give them 
effect if found to be valid. 

The present practice of regular cavalry places the officers in line in front 
of the men. The officers have nothing to do but to dress themselves: they 
do not, and cannot dress the men who are in their rear : these must be 
dressed by the non-commissioned officers, or other flank men of the divisions 
into which each troop has been told off. 

The objections to this for yeomanry are manifold. The horses of yeo- 
manry officers are not so steady as the horses of officers in regular cavalry ; 
from not being so well broke in the school, they seldom stand quiet, and con- 
sequently do not preserve a correct line. This is, however, of minor import- 
ance. A more serious objection is, that the officers are thereby not in a 
situation to direct their men. It is possible that the commissioned officers 
of the regular cavalry may not be more efficient than the Serjeants and cor- 
porals ; nay, it is possible, that the non-commissioned officers in regular 
regiments may be more steady, and aufait, at regimental movements than 
their superiors ; but I am quite certain that such is not the case in yeomanry 
regiments ; and that the commissioned officers take greater pains to acquire 
a knowledge of their duties, and are to all intents and purposes better sol- 
diers, than their Serjeants and corporals. Iri all movements from line into 
column, the correctness must depend upon the individuals on the flanks, both 
pivot and wheeling : and also the accuracy with which the proper wheeling 
distances are preserved between one division and another ; and it is of great 
importance to have officers on these flanks, because they are the most intel- 
ligent men of the regiment; so that, if I were to suggest any alteration 
from Dundas, it should be to place the serrefile officers on flanks of all divi- 
sions in line, rather than in the rear. An officer, when abreast of his men, 
can preserve them in much better order than when in front of them. When 
a line is ordered to advance, some horses rush forward, and some hang back> 
so that for the first few paces the line is always irregular. An officer on a 
flank can easily and quickly correct this irregularity ; but the men will not 
pay the same ready attention to a serjeant or corporal. It is useless to say 
that they ought to do so : we must make use of a force as it is, and as it can 
be used ; and not attempt to make it according to an Utopian standard, that 
can never be attained. It is owing to this irregularity in starting, that a 
good yeomanry officer is cautious of executing his charges too quickly ; and 
therefore he will not give the order to trot or gallop, until he sees the line 
perfect at the slower pace ; and hence, however well drilled a regiment of 
yeomanry may be, its movements are always slower than those of a regiment 
of the line. The Yorkshire Hussars of Lord Grantham, and the Cheshire 
Yeomanry, which were as perfect as any regiments of the line, were never- 
theless slower in their evolutions, owing to this cause. 



106 CORRBSVONDBNCK. 

Another objection to placing the officers in front is^ that the line is there- 
by diminished. It is true that the diminution is very small ; but since troops 
of yeomanry seldom muster for drills above half their strength of privates^ 
after the novelty of the first year has subsided, even that sm& diminution is 
inconveniently felt, and no one advantage gained. 

Every description of military force possesses advantages and disadvan- 
tages peculiar to itself. Heavy cavalry cannot perform dlthat light cavalry 
can, and vice versd, as Lord Anglesey learned to his cost at Waterloo. Each 
roust be made perfect in its kind. If yeomanry are inferior to regulars in 
some things, there is the greater necessity for rendering them perfect, as 
far as it is possible, in other things. One of the good ingredients in yeo- 
manry, is the intelligence from superior education in the men ; one of the 
bad ingredients is want of smartness and attention in small points of disci- 
pline. The great object to be obtained by a commander is precision ; quick- 
ness comes next ; and thoueh rapidity is valuable, it is inferior to correct^ 
ness. No word of command ou^nt ever to be given to a yeoman, without 
his being made thoroughly acquamted with the object which the commander 
wishes to attain by it. It is of comparatively little importance whether the 
commanding officer utters one, or twenty syllables : the only point worth 
considering is, by which means he gets his commands most efficiently exe- 
cuted. In the new regulations, the words of command are much abbre- 
viated ; but I am perfectly certain, that those yeomanry corps which shall 
adopt them, will not be so correct in the field as those which adhere to the 
apparently longer, but really more rapid orders of Dundas. 

I am. Sir, your obedient servant, 

April 18th, 1831 A Field Officer of Yeomanry. 

%* We are not aware of any forthcominff instructions such as those 
alluded to bv our Correspondent ; indeed, till the revised movements for the 
cavalry shall have been officially adopted, no con^esponding rules can be 
issued by authority for the guidance of the yeomanry. Meanwhile, the 
observations offered in our last Number, will, we think, be found sufficient 
for all general purposes. — Ed. 



Stale of the British Artillery. 

Mr. Editor, — I have perused with considerable interest and attention, 
. the able article under the signature of " Mentor," in your last Number, 
*' On the Organization of the British Artillery," and I rejoice that the sub- 
ject is taken up by so zealous and judicious a correspondent. I entirely 
concur with him in lamenting the present deplorable state of the British 
Artillery, and, let me add. Engineers department. Though myself in a dif- 
ferent branch of the service, jret as a British officer, and from having served 
much in conjunction with artillery, I feel very forcibly the absolute and im- 
mediate necessity of some change being effected respecting artillery pro- 
motion, and I feel as forcibly the absolute necessity of putting this ''right 
arm of war*' of one service on a footing to meet the oattle-storm, whose 
dusky clouds are now ^thering fast over the horizon of Europe. The 
present inefficiency of this service is most glaring, both in number of men 
and practice. I am the more led to offer these remarks from having been a 
late witness to the excellent and *• workmanlike state'' of the artillery of 
France. I allude especially to the force in that branch that I saw embark at 
Toulon for the African expedition, and which force alone comprised very 
nearly as many men and guns as England can now call ejffective in the same 
branch ! No officer in the service is a better judge than the gallant and dis- 
tinguished officer now at the head of the ordnance, of the vital importance 
ofthis peculiar arm of the service > he welj remembers the cheers of his 
gaUant origade, at the splendid manner in which the guns attached to it 



CORRESPONDENCE. 107 

were served at Waterloo ; he well remembers the dying testimony of the 
glorious Picton, (to the command of whose division, he. Sir James, suc- 
ceeded) as to good service done by those guns ; and he will doubtless put the 
ordnance department in such a state, that it may in future days a^ain draw 
forth such words as these from a defeated enemy : *' The Imperial Guard 
made several charges, but was constantly repulsed, crushed by a terrible 
artillery, that each minute seemed to multiply. These invincible grenadiers 
beheld the grape-shot make day through their ranks."* 

I have the honour to be, Sir^ yours^ &c. &c. 

Dux. 



Medical Deparlment, 

Mr. Editor, — The last number of the United Service Journal contains a 
letter from an old medical officer, (Medicus Senex,) with a schedule of pay 
and allowances, &C4 as laid down, he says, by H. M. Warrant, May 29, 1804. 

With the observations contained in that letter I fiiUy coincide, and hold no- 
thing to be better established in law and in equity, than the right of the me- 
dical officers of the Army to all the advantages hitherto enjoyed under that 
warrant. Of course I mean all officers in the service previously to July 
1830; all who have entered, or who may enter subsequently to that period, 
must claim under the late warrants. Should any officer, however, of the 
former class, accept of any advantage whatsoever under the late warrants, 
he must be considered as thereby relinquishing all right to claim at any 
future period under the warrant of 1804. 

It is a painful thing to find that any doubts or difficulties should have 
been started on these subjects, and that persons in subordinate situations 
should have been compelled to struggle individually, each in defence or 
vindication of his own just claims. But so it is, unfortunately, in our depart- 
ment, between the head of which and the members no common feeling of 
confidence or cordiality seems to exist, — no sympathy, as we say. 

My object, however, at present, is not to discuss these matters, but to 
warn your readers not to place implicit reliance on the schedule given in 
the last Number, as some of the rates therein specified are subject to deduc^ 
tions, of which no notice is taken by your Correspondent. 

The gross full-pay of Regimental Surgeons also is overstated, the true 
rate under the warrant being 128. and not 128, 6d, 

Should any of your Correspondents have in their possession copies of the 
schedule of 1814, or of any circular or general order connected with it, or 
with the present subject generally, it would be an act of kindness and 
justice to the profession to give them publicity through your pases. 

April 10, 1831. Medicos. 

A Grievance of Mates in ike Navy, 

Mr. Editor. — The warranted class of Mates in the Navy have but of 
late years sprung up, and I make no doubt the undermentioned grievance 
must have been entirely overlooked, or certainly it could not have remained 
so long unheeded. 

It is that second masters take precedence to mates; on what principle, I 
am at a loss to comprehend ; but it is a circumstance that creates much 
ill-will between the two ranks, more particularly in vessels commanded by 
lieutenants, where mates are placed so frequently under the orders of the 
second master. The midshipman, previous to passing, is senior to the 
master's assistant, although but two years in the service. On his under- 
going the examination to qualify him for a lieutenant, he takes the name of 

* Vide *•*' Relation fid^e et d^taill^e de la demi^re campagne de Buonagarte, par 
un t^moin oculaire.** Paris, 1815. 



108 CORRESPONDENCE. 

mate^ and^ if by good fortune he obtains his commission, be takes rank over 
■both the second master and master. 

The examinations midshipmen now undergo both at the Naval College 
and before three captains, with the experience they obtain^ fit them more 
particularly for the situation of Commanding Officer : while many from the 
merchants service, undergoing an examination for a second master, are at 
once appointed to that rank. Fancy, then^ a mate of ten years passed so 
situated, how can he perform his duty with the least zeal or pleasure under 
the orders of one so new to the profession, and possessing so little knowledge 
of the service? It is a grievance, if once remedied, would call forth the 
thanks of a large proportion of young officers^ and ultimately prove of real 
benefit to the profession. G. G. 

*' Radical" and the Foot Guards. 

Mr. Editor, — I am induced to direct your attention to a letter in the 
Times newspaper of the 18th instant, signed *< Radical,'' in which, after 
much profession of being a '^ brave man, the writer, who I hear is a Mr. 
Jones, states that he was driven from the profession, in which thirty years 
of his life had been passed, and, as he hopes, without a stain, in consequence 
of an order he had given for the maintenance of discipline, which order the 
Duke of York directed to be torn from the orderly-book in the presence of 
his own officers and the field officers of the garrison of Dublin. 

Proud testimonial to the memory of the illustrious Duke !— 1 have never yet 
been so fortunate as to meet with a Radical who was not a tyrant ; and I there- 
fore consider this act of his Royal Highness to be in accordance with all his 
other proceedings, in support of the rights of the soldier and of humanity, 
and which line of conduct so justly entitled him to the appellation of the 
" Soldier's Friend." 

But frail mortals are liable to err — " facts are stubborn things," and^' Radi- 
cal*' promises to convince the public that he was right and the Duke wrong. 
Of Mr. Jones's services I do not pretend to know any thing except from his 
own trumpeting : there are men oi his name who reflect honour on the military 
profession, from whom our hero must be distinguished in future story, as *' Ra- 
dical Jones,'' or " Orderly Book Jones/' and thus, at least, enjoy an inglorious 
immortality apart from his laurelled fellows. The Jones, in the shyness of his 
modest nature, promises in his said letter, that '^ at some future and be- 
fitting period^' the Order shall be given to the public. Surely this ^' honour- 
able man" cannot consider any time so befitting as the present ; for Cassar, 
or somebody else, says '^ he is ambitious" — let him now prove to the world, 
and especially to that portion of it classed as *' worthy and independent 
electors,'' his own ** purity" as a soldier when in command, and then his 
attacks upon all persons and characters will have greater weight : the pub- 
lication of this testimonial of '* discipline" and humanity would ensure him 
respect or contempt. 

I am sure. Sir, you will not hesitate to do justice to Mr. Jones by insert- 
ing the Order, if he sends it to you. Your pages are required, 1 admit, for 
valuable information, but recollect this Oraer has been torn from the Or- 
' derly Book of the Guards ; and, therefore, it is something to put on record, 
and it is something that will do justice to the military career of so renowned 
a '' Radical and Emancipator." 

I have already observed, that of the services of this said Mr. Jones I know 
nothing, but I hear that he was at Bergen-op-Zoom, which brings to my 
recollection an anecdote I have heard connected with that unfortunate 
affair. At Bergen-op-Zoom an officer had to deliver a message to the 
enemy. Meeting witn a French grenadier, be attempted to communicate 
his instructions, but not being understood, the grenadier took him by the 
shoulder, and, with a contemptuous — allezfoutre, 

<^ Poured his foot in thunder on his rear*' 
and thus sent him forward on his errand. Anti-Radical. 



CORRBSPONDBNGB. 109 

*^* While the individual who is understood to scribble under the signa- 
ture of " Radical/' confined himself to the usual topics of pot-house decla- 
mation, his grotesque exhibitions concerned us not; but that ex-officer 
having thought proper, with edifying simplicity^ to reveal the cause of his 
own degradation^ and, thereupon, to assail the memory of a Prince, who, by 
common consent of officer and soldier, was regarded as the truest friend of 
both, and is reverenced as such in his premature grave, we shall feel it to 
be our duty to expose the exact pretensions of his slanderer. £d. 



Contagion and Malaria in cases of Fever. 

Mr. Editor, — I have this moment read the very interesting article 
respecting the Gibraltar Epidemic contained in your Number for Februar}'. 
I had never previously read one line relative to the point at issue between 
the contagionists and tlie non-contagionists, nor do I know aught of Dr. 
Smith, or of his pamphlet. I am not a medical person, but a humble Com- 
mander in the Royal Navy^ and consequently have no other view than a de- 
sire to assist in the investigation of truth, by stating some circumstances 
which have occurred under my own experience, materially tending to con- 
firm the hypothesis of malaria, and not contagion, being the cause of infection 
in cases of the West India yellow^ or black vomit fever. The instances I 
shall adduce may be readily authenticated by documents registered at the 
Admiralty Office ; therefore, perhaps, I may be excused for not signing my 
name to this communication, particularly as I might by so doing incur the 
risk of giving offence to Dr. Pym, with whom I am slightly acquainted^ and 
for whose character I entertain the highest respect. 

In the year 1804 or 1805, His Majesty's sloop-of-war the Kingfisher 
entered Demerara river on the coast of Guiana^ with scarcely a sick person 
on board, and certainly without any case of fever. The vessel had not been 
long, however^ at this anchorage before numbers fell ill^ and the men began 
to die rapidly, — ^most of them exhibiting the black vomit symptom. We 
sailed almost immediately, and although most of those on the sick-list pe- 
rished, — including the Commander, Capt. Cribb, the Carpenter, Mr. Su- 
therland, and a great number of the ship's company, — yet the disease was 
instantly checked by leaving Demerara^ and no fresh case occurred after we 
got fairly out to sea. 

Now, if this black vomit fever had been propagated by contagion alone, 
why should it not have gone on spreading as rapidly at sea as in the river ? 
and if it did not originate in local malaria, why should mere change of place 
have arrested its progress ? 

In 1808 or 1809, a few frigates cruising off Guadaloupe summoned the 
small Island of Mariegalante to surrender ; and, quite unexpectedly I be- 
lieve, the Governor capitulated. The place was hastily garrisoned by Ma- 
rines, who fell sick in vast numbers — men and officers dying rapidly. 
Nearly every case of this deadly distemper was characterised by the fatal 
symptom of black vomiting. The temporary Governor, Capt. Hugh Pigot, 
Royal Navy, now commanding H. M. Ship Talavera in the Downs, alarmed 
at the dreadful ravages of this fever, did all he could to check its career. 
As it was generally thought that the disease proceeded principally from 
some lagoons, or small lakes, surrounded by trees and underwood, bodies of 
negro slaves were employed to fell timber, bum the bushes, and make a 
freer passage for the circulation of air. Whether these precautions had any 
effect or not, is, perhaps, immaterial, so far as relates to the question of con- 
tagion or malaria: but one fact respecting this epidemic is remarkably 
applicable, namely, that in the instances of a few officers who were so fortu- 
nate as to get on board some of the ships-of-war, the fever was instantly 
checked, and they were almost the only cases of recovery. It should also 
be observed, that notwithstanding many of these sufferers were taken on 



110 GORRESPONDENGB. 

board in nearly the last stage of the disease^ yet in no case did they com- 
municate the fever to the shipping. One marine officer, (whose name I 
cannot at this moment recollect^ but which might easily be found by refer- 
ring to the ship's books at the Admiralty,) being very ill with the fever at 
a detached station called Vieux Fort, gave orders to his men to put him 
into a canoe, in which he was rowed on board the Ulysses, of 44 guns, com- 
manded by Capt. C. J. W. Nesham, who now commands the Melville. The 
patient declared that he began to revive while in the canoe, as he believed 
nrom the effects of sea air, and he recovered rapidly after reaching the ship. 
Yet no officer or seaman belonging to the Ulvsses had any attack of fever — 
Where then was contagion ? The patients who remained on shore nearly all 
perished, while those who were lucky enough to reach the shipping recover- 
ed invariably — Can any thing but malaria account for this ? 

In 1807 or 1808, H. M. Ship Ulysses, of 44 guns, Capt. Nesham, reached 
Barbadoes with a convoy from England. One of the midshipmen named 
Thomas Wood, with whom I was most intimate, went on shore to look at 
Bridge Town, and was immediately seized with yellow fever. The next 
morning I attended him to the hospital. My poor friend was in a ragine; 
delirium, and as I held him partly in my arms while in the boat, the black 
vomit came on, which he ejected over my hands and clothing. Yet I had no 
attack. Where then -was the contagion ? — When Capt. Bourchier com- 
manded the Medina sloop-of-war in the West Indies, he anchored upon one 
occasion in Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes, close in under the land, opposite to the 
old naval dock-yard. Here his men fell sick so fast, that he was induced to 
move the vessel to another anchorage at a considerable distance farther from 
the shore, when the fever immediately abated I Was it not, therefore," oc- 
casioned in the first instance by malaria, the influence of which ceased upon 
changing the ship's position ? or if the disease was propagated by contagion,. 
why should it abate upon merely shifting the anchorage } 

1 remain, &c. 

S£NEX. 



The Band of Gentlemen Pensioners. 

Mr. Editor. — Some discussion having arisen lately as to the corps of 
Gentlemen Pensioners, allow me to observe that in the present days cf 
economy and retrenchment, it is really '' too bad'' that the country should 
be put to a heavy expense in paying a party of London tradesmen for acting 
as Crardes du corps to his Majesty, whilst so many hundreds of veteran 
officers, who have spent the best part of their lives in his service abroad, 
and therefore are his fittest guards at home, would be proud and delighted 
to be allowed that privilege. Let the vacancies, as they occur, be filled up 
in future by his Majesty in person from amongst the veteran half-pay 
officers of the Line and Marines ; let none be appointed who have not been 
more than once actually engaged with the enemy ; let them be officered by 
retired general officers, and, if it should be thought advisable, let them be 
under the same restrictions as to personal appearance, height, &c. as the 
picked corps in the army; and then the Sovereign would be guarded by the 
Hite of his veteran soldiers, and we need not be ashamed of pointing out to 
foreigners our British Gardes du corps for fear of exciting their laughter at 
such an awkward squad of respectable citizens as now do that honourable 
duty. Our kind-hearted Monarch would be delighted to have it in his 
power thus to reward those who have deserved so well of their country, 
whilst the people would see with pleasure that those who had done their 
duty in the camp were still distinguished at the court. H. 



. CORRESPONDBNCB. Ill 

Proposition for a United Service Medical Society, 

Ma. Editor^ — Will you permit me to recommend^ through the medium 
of your Journal, the establishment of a society consisting of the medical 
officers of the army on full and half-pay, which might be denominated, 
" The Medical and Physical Society of the British Army." A similar 
society or association was established a few years since^ viz. ** The Me- 
dical and Physical Society of Calcutta^'' which comprehends a very con- 
siderable portion of the Medical Department of Bengal^ and several mem- 
bers of the Madras and Bombay Presidencies, amounting altogether to from 
200 to 300 members. The society is^ I believe^ patronized by the members 
of the Medical Board of Bengal, a patronage which does the Board much 
honour ; it evinces a liberal spirit^ and a disposition to encourage measures 
which have a direct influence in promoting the improvement of the officers 
under their superintendence, and the advancement of medical science. The 
Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta has already published four volumes 
of Transactions. When so much has been effected in so short a time by the 
Medical Establishment of the Bengal Presidency^ what ma^ be expected 
from a society embracing the Medical Department of the British Anny ? 

<^ The benefits of occasional publication are in no case more evident than in the 
science of medicine. Amidst the varied opportunities for observation which its 
unbounded sphere of action developes, many circumstances of a peculiar character, 
many conclusions of wide applicability must occur to individual practitioners. The 
experience of its professors is the common property of the profession ; but incidental 
reflections may be too brief for formal record — a solitary fact too unsafe a base for 
generalization, and therefore neither the one nor the other would be communicated 
to the world, unless there existed some unpretending repository in which they 
might be registered for farther verification or correction. Periodicals are to ns 
what the tables in the temples of Esculapius were to his ministers, with all the 
advantages derivable from the improved nature of the medium, and the more justly 
grounded doctrines of modem practice.*' — Preface to the Xst volume of the Traruao" 
Hons of the Medical Society of Calcutta, 

The primary purpose of medical societies is professional improvement, viz. 
improvement oi the individual members, and improvement of the science of 
medicine. The general amount of improvement will, perhaps, depend more 
on the numbers that write, than upon the quantity written. Medical men, 
whether they belong to the army or not, should consider it an incumbent 
duty to record whatever remarkable facts may come under their observa- 
tion, which they may think entitled to the attention of other members of 
the profession. Those who endeavour to improve themselves in this way, 
cannot fail to promote the welfare of their patients, and advance medieval 
science. Those who record facts will carefully observe phenomena ; patients 
will be benefited in the first instance by assiduous observation, and even- 
tually the advantages will extend to the profession. 

Tiie society might be so constituted as to include the medical officers of 
the Royal Navy, when it should be denominated ^^ The United Service 
Medical and Physical Society." 

The following is an estimate of the probable number of medical officers 
entitled to become members of the society, viz.— 

Regimental Medical Staff, full-pay . . 350 

Ditto half-pay . 264 

General Medical Staff, full-pay . . 140 

Ditto half-pay . . 254 

Ordnance Medical Department, full-pay . 38 

Ditto half-pay . . 54 • 

Medical Officers of the Royal Navy . . 1100 

2200 



112 CQRRBSPONDBNCE. 

This is a very extensive field for recruiting a numerous and efficient 
society. When we witness a few medical practitioners in provincial towns 
supporting respectable periodical publications, can it be doubted that the 
combined exertions of tne medical officers of the army and navy would pro- 
duce a body of transactions that might reflect the highest credit upon the 
members of the departments to which they belong ? The literary and pro- 
fessional attainments of the medical officers of the army and navy are not 
inferior to the qualifications of practitioners in civil life. During peace 
they have commonly more time at command, and in many other respects 
they have infinitely better opportunities for collecting and communicating 
interesting information. Why should these excellent, and in some mea- 
sure, peculiar advantages^ be thrown away or allowed to remain inoperative ? 

The leading object of the society should be the advancement of profes- 
sional knowledge^ more especially in regard to the means of preserving the 
health of soldiers and sailors, and of treating them under disease. Natural 
history would, almost as a matter of course, receive a considerable degree of 
attention. Under these general heads are included. Military and Naval 
Hygiene, the Meteorology and Medical Topography of different countries, 
the diseases of particular races of mankind and climates, descriptions of 
animals and their diseases^ &c. &c. &c. 

Our medical literature is remarkably deficient in general practical in- 
structions regarding the initiation and conduct of young men who are 
entering upon the practice of the medical profession. For example, we 
have no work which comprehends a full detail of the duties of an assistant- 
surgeon in the army or navy, calculated to instruct a young medical officer 
upon entering either of the services to which he may belong. To be more 
specific, — where will he find instructions respecting the duties of a medical 
officer upon a *' punishment parade,^' or when a sailor is *^ brought to the 
gangway." I need not point out how important it is for a young medical 
officer to be instructed in the nature of those duties before he is called on to 
execute them — how apt he is to go wrong — and how culpable he may appear 
to be, when he is only uninformed. 

Essays or observations on these topics by Veterans of the army and navy 
are much wanted, and would perhaps appear upon the formation of a United 
Service Medical Society. 

A library and a museum might eventually form part of the establishment. 

Every facility should be afforded, not only for the publication of the ela- 
borate communications of mambers, but even for single facts derived from 
cases, which in other respects may not be verv remancable, or detached ob- 
servations upon points of duty, more especially when communicated by 
officers of lon^ experience. . 

I sincerely hope that the members of both establishments, who are anxious 
for their own improvement, and the respectability of the service in which 
they are engaged, will bestir themselves for the purpose of forming an asso- 
ciation, and I trust its promoters may reckon on your assistance to circulate 
an address to the meaical officers of the army and navy in your excellent 
periodical. 

As the object of a United Service Medical Society would be intimately 
connected with the public ^ood, perhaps tilie Secretary-at-War would frant 
permission for the communications of members being conveyed throu^ his 
office, for the purpose of saving postage. There can be no harm, at least, in 
soliciting this ooon, and a great boon it would be. 

DuKUM Dakah. 



113 



EDITOR'S PORTFOLIO; 

OR 

NAVAL AND MILITARY REGISTER. 



Affairs at Home and Abroad. Belgium, still blatant and blun- 

— -The majority of the House of dering, has thought to redeem her 

Commons having persevered with follies, and console herself for re- 

fiuccess in maintaining what they jection where her affections were 

conscientiously considered to be the bestowed, by offering her tinsel 

rights and interests of their con- crown, as a pis-aller, to Prince 

stituents^ and the integrity of the Leopold. Whether His Royal 

British Constitution, the Parliament Highness will consent to unite him- 

was precipitately, and, on the part self to so rieketty a partner is not 

of the Ministers, oppressively and yet positively announced, 

insultingly dissolved. The predica- The Italian insurgents have, in 

ment of His Majesty, thus rashly the late, as in former instances, 

and incapably advised, has awakened played the part of Punch with cha- 

the fears and roused the vigilance of racteristic felicity. They ran away, 

his loyal subjects. as a matter of course, from the 

The truth appears to be, that a Austrians, and now complain, with 
new {^ase of government exercises some show of reason, that their* 
a direct influence upon the affairs Gallic neighbours, having first ex- 
of this moon-struck nation. The cited them to revolt^ left them at * 
British People, of a noble but ere- last in the lurch. Italy, for the 
dulous nature, has virtually passed present, is appeased ; and the Pope 
under the domination of a trading promises to ameliorate the political . 
Oligarchy, represented by the News- condition of his States. His Holi- 
paper Press. Abroad, this novel and ness, we hope, will keep his word, 
absolute Power has been inaugu- however unworthy of the boon his 
rated as the Reign of Journalism : recreant flock may be. 
in England, our " Thirty Tyrants" Poland alone, setting aside the 
are less royally inducted as the proximate causes of her revolt, pre- 
printing House Parliament. sents a spectacle claiming unmixed 

Ireland, more liberal than Li- admiration. To the soldier's glanc^^ 

Leralism, is busily occupied with the attitude of her martial people is 

her own " Dissolution," both social especially striking, and replete with 

and politicaL ' interest. Proposingto give, from our 

France has at least succeeded in own sources, a complete narrative 

discovering a perpetual motion in of the illustrious transactions of this 

politics. Fresh emeutes have been national war, divested of the absur- 

only suppressed by military force, dities with which exaggeration and 

somewhat more vigorously applied prejudice obscure its passing details, 

than usual by the Perrier Ministry, we shall offer only a few general 

who are also about to give a fresh remarks on a subject so familiar, 

impulse to the '* Mouvement" by The breaking up of the frost, by 

dissolving the French Parliament. which the roads and rivers of 

U. S. JouBN. No. 30. May 1831. i 



114 editor's portfolio. 

Poland were rendered difficult or ing a position still farther in the 
impassable, was a providential in- rear, over which he also gained 
terposition for its defenders, who, advantages on the first of April at 
in the ardour of patriotism still ad- Dembi-Wielki. 
here to the spirit of Religion and Since those events, a series of 
the dictates of common sense. Its active operations have ensued, and 
duration for another week would an important diversion has at least 
inevitably have put the Russians been secured by Zkrzynecki in the 
in possession of Warsaw, and de- partial revolt of the Polish Pro- 
dded the subjection of Poland, vinces in the rear of and around 
The delay has been of incalculable the Russia^ armies. In a military 
benefit, in a moral sense, to that view, however, the advanced posi* 
gallant People, although no efforts, tion of the Polish General, operat- 
however heroic, on their part, can, ing on a line perpendicular to that 
we fear, ultimately arrest the mi- of his opponent, • his flanks exposed 
litary success of their adversaries, and his communications liable to 
It will be seen, by an original and be cut off, while Warsaw is un- 
authentic Memoir of Count Die- covered, cannot be considered other- 
bitsch, given in our present Num- wise than critical ; — ^assuming that 
ber, of what stuff that General is his skilful adversary has not alto- 
' made ; nor are we justified in as- gether lost his head, that he com- 
suming, that a commander, so prac- mands superior resources, that his 
tised and endowed, should suddenly principal masses are unbroken and 
Cease to give proofs either of abi- re-uniting, the first corps and 
lity or experience ; — especially be- Guards not having, in fact, been 
fore an antagonist, who, however engaged, and that thf season once 
brilliant in sudden action, and fa- more favours their concert and 
voured by circumstances, is yet offensive operations. General Ro- 
wholly unused to direct systemati- sen had fallen back on a fresh 
cally the great operations of his art. corps, taken post on the Lieviecz, 
It appears that in the latter end and checked the farther advance of 
of March, Count Diebitsch, foiled the chivalrous Pole, 
by the thaw, having made demon- A decisive shock of some kind 
strations of manoeuvring to his left between the contending parties 
upon the Upper Vistula, and de- must speedily take place^ if the 
tached, with that view, the First war be prosecuted, 
corps under Count Pahleu and Royal Astronomical Society. 
the division of Guards of the Grand T^pril 8.— Francis BaUy, Esq. V.P. 
Duke Constantine, while his head- *? *^® chair.— A communication from 
quarters remained at Zelichow and T?. Astronomer Royal was read on the 
ib«i,5 «« 4-1,^ oOfV, «u onJ Q«^ obhquity of the Echptic. The cor- 
Ryki on the 29th ult. and 3rd. rectfons hitherto used'^ln the calcula- 
. April ; the Polish Generalissimo, tions of the sun's dedination, were by 
with equal enterprize and judg- the tables drawn up by Bradley. Mr. 
ment,effected a forward night move- Pond having found some small dif- 
ment from Praga with great se- ferences, has constructed new tables, 
crecy, and succeeded on the 31st which were presented to the Society 
March in surprising and defeat- ^^^^ ^^ ^^I® communication. A 
ing the corps of General Geismar 1^1:-,'^ ^^^fol^^^'^^et 
posted at Wawer. Following up Communicated by a French artist, 
his success, lie also, after some The progress made in this art, and 
prudent hesitation, fell upon the the extent at which it has anived, were 
corps of General Rosen, occupy- detailed, as well as the desiderata 



NAVAL AND MILITARY REGISTER. 115 

which were still required to render it mation regarding it, they are invited 
perfect. In alluding to the works of by the council to do so, and the meet- 
the British manufacturers^ it was ob- ing will be happy to attend to them, 
served^ that our countrymen were too Both these measures are^ we believe, 
fond of*aiming at being, mathemati- close copies of what has been long 
cians^ instead of opticians^ and that practised, and with excellent effect^ in 
the consequence was the backward the Geological Society. The Com- 
' state of art in this country. A letter mittees, by bringing the working 
from M. Cauchoix to Mr. R. Sheep- members of the Society together, have 
shanks^ was read, informing him of given unity of purpose to their indi- 
his having completed an achromatic vidual labours: and their viva voce 
telescope^ with an object glass of thir- communications with each other at 
teen inches and a ^fraction in dia- the ordinary meetings, have both dis- 
ipeter. The focal length of this tele- seminated information among the other 
scope is twenty-four feet, exceeding by members, and greatly extended the 
six feet that of Sir James South at interest taken by them in the general 
Kensington. It was also stated that proceedings of the Society. Three 
it had been examined and approved by Committees were afterwards men- 
the French astronomers. Part of a tioned as at present more immediately 
paper was also read on La CaiU^s contemplated; and the utmost readi- 
Catalogue of Stars, communicated by ness was at the same time expressed 
Mr. Baily, — this gentleman having to form others, if members would come 
accidentally met with a. copy of this forward to suggest and join them. 1. 
very scarce work, and aware- of its A statistical Committee, which should 
value, presented it to the Society with make the vast subject of statistics its 
the above paper. The indefatigable especial object, and thus supply, in 
labours of this French astronomer this country, the place of a statistical 
'were carried on at the Cape of Good Society, as established in Paris. 2, A 
Hope under no favourable circum- colonial Committee, which should di- 
stances, about the middle of the last rect its attention either to the British 
century ; and in consequence of his colonies alone, or to colonies generally, 
want of money, few copies of his work as might afterwards be agreed on. 
were given to the world. A general 3. A Committee which should take 
review was taken of his works by Mr. up some one kingdom or province 
Baily, which will be concluded at the in the world, and compile a complete 
next meeting. account of it in every respect, as an 

Royal Geographical Society, example on which others might be 
— At a meeting of this Society, Lord afterwards similarly proceeded with. 
Goderich^ president, in the chair — April 11. — W, R. Hamilton^ Esq. 
Two very important intimations were V. P. in the chair. A letter addressed 
read from the chair. 1. It having to the Society by Mr. Jones, was read^ 
been suggested to the council^ by se- explaining the construction of a port- 
veral members of the Society, that its able barometer, lately invented by 
objects would be materially advanced him, made entirely of metal, conse- 
if committees were formed for the quently not so liable as the ordinary 
prosecution of particular branches of glass ones to be accidentally injured 
research, and tne council highlv ap- or destroyed ; and possessing, at the 
proving of this suggestion, resolved, same time, some other advantages, 
that members who may feel inclined The height of the mercury, although 
to . assist in carrying the plan into enclosed in an opaque tube, is ascer- 
effect be invited to communicate with tained by means of a float on its sur- 
the secretary regarding it. And, 2. face, having a needle which rises 
That if any of the members present at through a small hole in the otherwise 
the ordinary meetings of the Society, close cover of the tube ; and a double 
wish, after the business of the evening stop-cock nearly in the neck of the 
is concluded, to make brief remarks, siphon^ either entirely closes in the 
or put inquiries, respecting the subject mercury when thie instrument is put 
of the paper which has been read, or away, or more or less, at will, con- 
are able to communicate further infer- tracts its thread when about to be 

I 2 



116 editor's portfolio. 

consulted at sea, and when, conse- or thirty acres, and conspicuous above 
quently, the motion of the vessel may all from its lofty square tower, rising 
make the use of the entire column in- to the height of 220 feet. Being of 
convenient. The thanks of the Society the same dimensions from its base to 
were voted to Mr. Jones for his com- its summit, it has a very peculiar effect, 
munication : and the invention appears It is divided into seven stories, and its 
c^culated to be a real improvement in height is about seven times its dia- 
the equipment of scientinc travellers, meter. Traces were found of much 
A paper was then read, giving an in- greater population than the present ; 
teresting account of a visit to the city and the effects of the plague and 
of Marocco and the Atlas mountains, famine, by which Marocco was visited 
with observations made during a a few years since, are proved by the 
month's residence at the former place, numerous untenanted nouses and va- 
in the winter of 1829-30, by Lieut, cant spaces. Not more than half the 
J. Washington, R,N. Leaving the space within the walls is now inhabited, 
town of Tangier, after passing over a The height of Mount Atlas, according 
country with few signs of cultivation, to Lieut. Washington, is 11,400 feet 
and only varied by an occasional Arab above the level of the sea; in which he 
village, the party forming the embassy differs widely from Jackson, who esti- 
which Mr. Washington accompanied, mates it at more than double that 
about dusk reached their first encamp- height. In ascending this range, a 
ment, which they found already pre- race of people were found of a charac- 
pared for them. The tents were ar- ter very different from the Moors or 
ranged in the form of a circle, with Arabs. The contrast between these 
the baggage placed in the centre, primitive mountaineers and the apa- 
Conspicuous above the rest was the thetic Moors is remarkable : they have 
tent of the Moorish leader, striped an air offreedom about them, are well- 
blue and white, and surmounted by a formed athletic men, not tall, and with 
gilt globe, — horses and mules were light-coloured complexions; they do 
picketed around — here and there not understand Arabic, and mix very 
were scattered groups of Moors, their little with the inhabitants of the plains, 
swarthy faces lighted up by the watch- Their chief occupation is hunting, and 
fires over which they were reclining, they dwell in cottages built of stones 
assisted by the light of the broad full and mud, with slated roofs, lliey 
moon, rising above the distant moun- are considered by Lieut. Washington 
tains; and the scene completed by the as a very interesting race of men, of 
moslems chanting their evening pray- whom, like the recesses of the Atlas 
er. The town of Al Ksar, through wherein they dwell, nothing is known, 
which the embassy passed, is remarked The party ascending the Atlas were 
by Lieut. Washington as the only town disappointed in their hopes of reach- 
in Barbery where houses have ridged ing the summit ; for, having fairly at- 
roofs of tile. The population of Ma- tained the region of snow, the guides 
rocco is estimated by Lieut. Washing- refused to attend them further, and 
ton at from 80,000 to 100,000, 5000 of they reluctantly halted, at an elevation 
which are Jews. The vast plain on of only 6400 feet. The geological 
which it stands extends in an east and formation of the Atlas is described as 
west direction, between a low range of consisting of hard sandstone strata, 
hills to the north, and the lofty Atlas lying in an east and west direction, 
to the south, rising abruptly to the dipping at an angle of 10° to the 
height of 11,000 feet, its summits co- southward. Limestone, schist, and 
vered with snow. This plain, which sandstone were only seen, but with no 
has no limit east and west as far as the traces of primitive rock, excepting a 
eye can reach, is 1500 feet above the boulder of granite, or rather gneiss, in 
level of the sea. The city is sur- the valley below, and veins of foliated 
rounded by a wall, and is about six quartz in the schistose hills. The ten- 
miles in circuit. Nineteen mosques dency of the formation is to table land, 
wereobserved,the principal one stand- ridges, and rounded summits, not to 
ing in a deserted space of about twenty sharp peaks. No trace of volcanic 



NAVAL AND MILITARY REGISTER. 117 

agency was seen, nor^any'^thing in'^the not knocked away before firing the 

Qutlinejof the Atlas indicating, the stern guns, are sure to take nre. — 

formation of a crater. The whole ex- In short, the circular stern is now 

tent of country^f rom the foot of the as it should be ; its pleasing simplicity 

Atlas range to the sea, is one vast excites admiration, and defies criti- 

pjain, which it would be easy to cul- cism, leaving us only to regret and 

tivate. Mr. Washington observes, wonder it had not been sooner adopted, 

that if a proper direction were given to the saving of so much time, expense, 

to the water, which is not wanting on and efficiency. 

its surface, abundance would spring The Officers of the East In- 
i^p where weeds only prevail, affording dia Company's Service, and the 
food to millions of inhabitants. He is Junior United Service Club. — 
a^so strongly of opinion that attention In conseauence of no less than six 
'should be directed to opening a trade officers of the East India Company's 
with this countr)', the effects of ^^hich Service having been black-balled at 
\FOuld be most beneficial to England, the Junior United Service Club, a re- 
The thanks of the Society were voted quisition for a General Meeting was 
for these very interesting papers. A sent to the Committee, and a Meet- 
map of Marocco, constructed by Lieut, ing to discuss the subject was held 
Washington from his own observa- on the 12th of April. We subjoin 
tions and the best maps and charts the address of an old and gallant ve- 
extant, together with panoramic views, teran officer. Colonel Nugent; as it 
taken during his journey, of the coun- was received with extraordinary en- 
try through which he passed, as well thusiasm by the Meeting, and may be 
as of Mount Atlas, were laid before productive of more cordiality for the 
the Society during the reading of the future. 

above paper. « Mr. Chairman,—! do not believe any 

Circular Sterns. — It will doubt- person can address you with more pro- 

lessly be a source of satisfaction to our priety than I can on the subject of this 

naval readers to be informed, that after Meeting, having had the honour to serve 

all the controvei*sy, extensive aJtera- both His Majesty and the East India 

tions, and melancholy results, attending Company, and bearing the most sincere 

the attempts hitherto made, at an effi- regard and respect for both services. Se- 

cient and ship-shape circular stern, that ^enteen years of the early part of my life 

great object is at length satisfactorily ^«^« ?^««^ '''/?^'t' "^^^^^^ ^""^^^/^ 

attained, and applied to the Chi- years, I commanded what is now called a 

Chester, 62, at Woolwich. The ad- ^^^"^f."*' ^^* ^«« \lf ^ ^^^^ a battalion 
^A. n .1 . , 7l of native troops. It was my lot during 
vantages of the circular over the that period, on one memorable occasion, 
square stern are, that in action it t^ serve with His Majesty's troops, with 
leaves no point of impunity m attack the 2d battalion of that glorious regiment 
or defence, and that the vessers frame the 42nd, now named the 73rd, and bear- 
is bound firmer together, thereby ing on its colours the word Mangalore, 
adding force, with reference to the as an honourable memorial of their ser- 
guns, and strength, as regards archi- vices. It was commanded by Lieut.- Co- 
tecture. The circular stern hitherto lonel John Campbell, who also command- 
fitted to some of our best ships, has, ed the garrison, and whose name deserves 
in the opinion of good judges, actually to ^e immortal, though he only survived 
injured them, in consequence of taking ^^r three weeks the extraordinary perils 
from their length, and exposing the *^^ fatigues he had undergone, and his 
rudder head ; as also being loaded with "^^f ^'"^ l« ^^ ^ ^^^'T British soldier, 
cumbrous stern -valks. The stern of , ' Gentlemen we were besieged, in a 
the Chichester has nonP of these oh- ^^^^ scarcely defensible, by Tippoo, with 
we i^nicnester nas none or tnese on- ioO,000 men and 100 pieces of cannon, 
jections ; she is more roomy than if ^^.^^^ ^y a French re/ment and French 
htt^ with a square stern, houses her engineers. He failed, by breaching and 
rudder head, works her stern guns repeatedly storming, to take the place ; 
equally well with those on the broad- but we were the victims of a treacherous 
side, and has no heavy gingerbread cessation of arms during negotiations for 
nonsense in the shape of those more peace, and were literally starved out of 
-than ridiculous stern walks, which, if the place, when, of 2700 men, of which 



118 editor's portfolio. 

the garrison originally consisted, only 3&0 itself, and with an opulent and spi* 

marched out bearing their arms. Gen- rited city to back it with subscriptiona 

tlemen, had you witnessed, as I did, the to any amount^ it is only astonishing 

harmony and cordiality that existed not that the most valuable prizes in the 

only between the King's and Company's United Kingdom have not been of- 

officers, but also between the brave High- f^^ed to our nautical amateurs from 

landers and the poor Sepoys; had you ^^^^ port.— Dublin Bay is a centre 

seen them fighting in the same battle, ^^erein vessels from Scotland-the 

^^'^l^^'^n!/ wnnld n^t S In ^l North of Irelaud-Liverpool-the Isles 

same grave ; you woula not refuse to the r** ja i xi m/-^i„u 

Company's officer returning to this coun- «^ ^an and Anglesea-the H^elsh 

try with a limited income, and often a «?»!* ^ ^^J «« Milford, and the South 

shattered constitution, a happy home Hke of Ireland, could conveniently meet 

this. And 1 can assert, from my own and enter into honourable competition, 

personal knowledge, that there are many, to say nothing of vessels from the 

a great manv more officers in that service South of England and the '^ Royal 

who would be equally distinguished had Yacht Club, whose attendance has 

they the same opportunities. hitherto been numerous. It is fully 

I have heard it observed that the Com- expected that his most gracious Ma- 

pany's officers have the Oriental Club to jesty, the Sailor King, will be pleased 

go to, and so. Gentlemen, have they the to present a most splendid challenge 

Albion tavern to go to, if their purses can cup, to be run for by vessels of all 

afford it. But 1 am sure you will be glad Masses 

to learn from me, who belong to the RECRUITING.-The standard of re- 

Oriental, that, by the good management j^ ^ ^^ g ^ j^ National Regi- 

of your officers, your annual subscription \ A "T- ^ ZZ^ , ^ no ^ i?« 

and coffee-room charges are at least fifty V"^""^^' ^}^ «i^*' ^f "^ V ^^^^^^'^^^ ^^ 

per cent, below those of the Oriental. ^^^n reduced to five feet five inches 

« But there is another point of view, ^^ » '^^^* 

Gentlemen, in which I must beg you to Strength and Organization op 

consider this subject. the Russian Army. — The Emperor 

" By your Prospectus, and by your Re- is the supreme chief of the Russian 

gfulations, you invite the officers of the army, and he takes the command him- 

Company's army to join you. Several of self of it in time of war. The Field 

them assisted in forming this Club, and Marshals are under his immediate 

some on your Committee have assisted to orders. The allowanced of the supe- 

conduct it. Now I will only put it to nor officers are very moderate ; they 

your feelings whether it is just, or I might have, however, certain expenses al- 

^most say honourable, to refuse them, in i^y^.^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^ table, and some other 

this pointed manner, admission to your ho- emoluments, which are augmented in 

ciety. Your Army List will show you various ways ; for in this venal nation, 

the proud list that have adorned that ser- iVr J^^' I. , ,, _•!•* 

vice" and 1 am certain there is not, in * P^.Ml^ functionary whether mihtary 

this room, one who has not heard of Sir «^ ^'^^^ '^""^^y ^^ts slip an occasion of 

Thomas Munro, Sir John Malcolm, t^rmng to account the opportuniUes 

Sir David Auchterlony, Sir Barry Close, afforded by his station. The pay of 

ani many others equally distinguished. ^^^ subaltern officers is remarkably 

«♦ I am therefore fully satisfied, that, on insufficient, and many must in some' 

all future ballots, you will not make the shape make a sacrifice to their coun- 

smallest difference in your election be- try in serving as lieutenants or cap- 

tween the services, and prove to the Com- tains of cavalry, especially in the 

pany's officers that no hostile feeling to- Guards. In order to become an officer 

wards them prevails in the United Service there must be proofs of nobility, and 

^^^** T, of having been previously admitted to 

Dublin Bay Regatta.— The in- a military institution ; but private 

habitants of Dublin purpose giving a soldiers, nevertheless, may become 

most splendid Regatta, towards the officers, and even the higher military 

end of June, to compliment the Mar- honours are not inaccessible to this 

quis of Anglesey, on his return to class. The sub-officers of the Guard 

Ireland. Avith so magnificent a Bay frequently pass into the army of the 

as that of Dublin— abounding with line with the rank of ensign, and every 

•scenery, only inferior to that of Naples officer of this rank may become a ge- 



NAVAL AND MILITARY RKGISTER. 119 

neral. The pay of a private eoldier army as it was in 1827. Sinoe the 

does not exceed 30 francs (1/. 5s.) per Turkish war Russia has made the 

annum, out of which there are several greatest efforts to repair its losses^ and 

reductions. He receives^ besides, some the army may be now considered as 

articles of food, and every year a uni-* on the same footing as at that epochs 

form. The Russian soldier, however^ its operations being directed by the 

with his miserable pittance^ is happier same Generals-in-Chief : — 

than if he had remained a slave. This Ist^ Imperial Guards. 

feeling greatly facilitates the recruit-* 8 regiments of infantry, each 

ing otthe army. consisting of 3 battsdions. 

The recruiting is carried on^ gene- comprising 2,400 . . 19,200 

rally, every three years, amongst the Battalionsof sappers and foot 

artisans and peasants. The army is artillery .... 2,000 

only composed of freemen, and every 8 regiments of cavalry, each 

serf is emancipated by the simple fact 800 . . . . . 6,400 

of his entering into the service of the Cossacks and petards, 3 squa- 

state. The yoke, however, is in re- drons .... 800 

ality not got rid of, but merely chang- Pioneers and horse-artillery 800 

ed irom that of the glebe to a harass- 

ing, and frequently capriciously cruel Total Imperial Guards . 29,200 

discipline. The ordinances for, re- 

cruitmg affect all men indiscriminately 2nd, Infantry of the Line. 

belonging to the two classes pointed 127 regiments of grenadiers, 

out, if under forty years of age, whe- fusileers, and chasseurs, 

ther married or not. Sometimes, how- each three battalions, 2,400 

ever, some of the tribes are exempted men .... 304,800 

from this operation, in consequence of 36 battalions of garrison troops 77,000 

their being either too distant or too few . 

to be exhausted by recruiting. In or- Total Infantry . 381,800 

dinary times one out of every 500 males 3rd, Cavalry. 

is taken, but during war, two out of 16 regiments of Cuirassiers, 

every 500, and, in case of urgency, each 5 squadrons and 1,000 

four out of the same number. The men .... 16,000 

ordering these levies is regulated by 52 regiments of Dragoons, 

the last census, which is sometimes Hussars, Hulans, and Chas^ 

that of eight or nine years previous. seurs, each from 5 to 10 

The Cossacks, whose obligations and squadrons and 1,000 men 52,000 
privileges are regulated by treaties, 32 regiments of regular Cos- 
place at the disposal of the Emperor sacks, 18 of Cossacks of the 
the number of troops which they un- Don, 10 of Cossacks of the 
dertake to furnish, and are not in- Black Sea, 10 of Cossacks 
eluded in the recruitment. of the Ural, 3 of Cossacks 

The German colonists in Russia are of the Volga, and the Cos- 

also, in general, exempted; and, like sacks of Siberia, the Kal- 

the privUeged classes, only enter the mucks, the Tartars, the 

service when it suits them. The males Bachkins, and Caucasians 100,000 

who furnish the new levies do not ex- 

ceed 24,000,000, from which must be Total Cavalry, regular and 

deducted all those whom the Govern- irregular . . . 168,000 

ment send to their lords, for a sum of 4th, Artillery. 

from 1,500 to 2,000 francs. A levy, 60 companies of artillery for 

therefore, of two in every 500 males, sieges, 200 each . . 12,000 

does not produce more than about 60 companies of field artil- 

90,000 men. At any particular crisis lery, 200 each . . 12,000 

the militia can be summoned under 22 companies of horse artil- 

arms, which, in case of need, can be lery, 200 each . • 4,400 

increased to 250,000 men. 12 companies of pioneers, 200 

The following list gives the Russian each .... 2, K>0 



120 editor's portfolio. 

K) companieft of pontoneers, land« amongst the Tartar tribes of 

200 each .... S,000 Casan and the Crimea, in Cancasas, 

12 companies and 62 artillery and amonggt the Nomades of Northern 

commands in interior gar- Asia, bat the population in these ter- 

risons .... 11,500 ritories must be kept down by oorps 

of troops more or less considerable. 

Total artillery 44,300 In Asia detachments are stationed 

Extra corps 27,000 along an immense line at two or three 

leagues' distance from eadi other, from 

Total of the Russian army 650^300 Kasan to Kamschatka. Russia is, be- 

■ sides, obliged to watch her neighbours 

Add to this number about by means of great oorps a'armee. 

20,000 officers of all ranks. Thus, for instance, the Russian Am- 

gives a general total of . 670,000 bassador at the Court of Tdieran had. 

This number was borne upon for some time, the command of the 

the registers of the army military forces stationed on the finm- 

before the extraordinary tiers of Persia, in order that he might 

levies of 1827 and 1828. make an impression on that Power in 

■ The number was then ra- his double cnaracter. 

ther nominal than effective, Russia, therefore, notwithstanding 

but it was then carried on the apparent number of her fighting 

to its completion, and the men, can scarcely bring into the field 

Russian army was increas- so many soldiers as Prussia. In 1813, 

ed by 200,000 men, making when ^e made the greatest efforts, 

the whole . . 870,000 she had not more than 300,000 men 

This immense number, which is at disposable, and even that was not ef- 

present under arms, is divided into fected but by the aid of subsidies from 

^ght armies, each consisting of three Great Britain. 

or more corps. That of the Imperial The Russian officers, to dee out 
Guards are under the orders of the their pay, endeavour to raise money 
Grand Duke Michael ; the army of the from merchants and travellers ; and it 
south, quitted by Count Witgenstein, is not uncommon to see an old Co- 
is commanded by Count Diebitsch; lonel, with four decorations, receive 
that of the west by Count Osten- from a traveller what our mere cus- 
Sachen ; the Lithuanian army by the tom-house-officers would reject with 
Grand Duke Constantino ; the sepa- indignation. The recruiting in Ros- 
rate corps of Caucasus by Count Pas- sia is effected by means of throwing 
kewitch-Erivanski ; the army of the the responsibility of furnishing the 
Grand Duchy of Finland by General men upon the landed proprietors, upon 
Zakrefski ; the military colonies by whom it becomes a serious buroen. 
General Tolostoi. There are also By paying from 1,500 to 2,000 firancs 
corps de reserve in the environs of per man, they can purchase an exemp- 
Moscow and St. Petersburgh, in- case of tion ; and in the Turkish war sevend 
emergency. From the whole amount courtiers made a traffic of these tick- 
must be deducted about 60,000 men, ets of exemption, the price of which 
the contingent of the new kingdom of was then raised to nearly 3,000 franes. 
Poland now in arms against Russia, Extraordinary Length op Ser- 
and also the Lithuanian army and the vice.— The foUowing letter has ap- 
other ti-oops levied in the ancient ter- g^red in a London Paper :— 
ntones of the Polish republic, which «, ^ . '^ , . 
can now scarcely be included in the list. J^Z?!t^T^ a paragraph m your 
,«! '^'. c r o • 1- valuable paper a few days smce, I per- 
The military force of RuKia, how- ^^^ .^ f/^^j^ ^^^^ ^^ distinguished 

ever, is not near so great as it appears officer Sir George Don, now at Gibraltar, 

upon paper, it being a monstrous aggre- is about to be relieved by Sir WilUam 

gation of conquered nations, a part of Houston, and that he will shortly return 

whom must necessarily be employed to to England, after having been in actual 

keep the others in subjection. Russia, employment sixty-two years, without any 

no doubt, recruits in Poland, in Fin- interval — a droumstanoe which has no 



NAVAL AND MILITARY REGISTER. 121 

Kapalld in the records of the service of boiling of water. In a short time 

*ny general whose name is now to be after, a second flash was seen, by the 

found in the English Army List. In officers on the quarter-deck, to strike 

gl*^"«^^f^^°^*^^^rr'^,^^TrV "P«" ^^^ mizen-mast,* which passed 

leg leave to remark, that of the late In- ^^ eof^i^ k..* «♦♦«« j«^ - u r ^ ^u 

•^Dtor-General of tWtifications (General ^^^.^f^^' ^,".* attended as before with 

Jtfann,) is much more extraordinary, as * ^"nilar wh,zzing noise. It does not 

he was actively employed, without any JPP^^f. *^»* ^^f conductors sustained 

interval, for sixty-seven years; and, what J"® slightest deterioration or marks 

is remarkable, during that period never "'<^™ ^® passage of the electrical fluid, 

had a month's leave of absence. The This account from the Dryad goes to 

General's first commission was dated Feb. prove, that the conductors do not draw 

28, 1763, and he died on the 27th March, down upon a ship any dangerous conse- 

1830. quences, or 'attract^ as some persons 

Norton's Rifle Shell. — We were imagine, more electric fluid than they 
witness to an experiment made by can transmit. Of course, in the tor- 
Capt. Norton, at Moore's Shooting nado mentioned above, there must 
Ground, Notting-hill, with his Per- necessarily have been plenty of elec- 
cussion Rifle Shell, on the 23rd ult. trie fluid present- to be attracted ; so 
before the Master-General of the that either the conductors discharged 
Ordnance, Major-General Sir Andrew the whole of it, or otherwise only as 
Barnard, Major-General Norcott, Co- much as they attracted ; if they dis- 
lonel Fox, and -several other offi- charged the whole, with so little efliect, 
cers. The result was quite satisfac- there surely can be nothing to appre- 
tory as proving the utility of these hend. There caa be no question but 
projectiles. The object fired at was that the Dryad's masts were saved by 
a small box, of about a foot square, the rapidly equalizing power of the 
its front being of oak, one inch in conductors, by which the dense, and 
thickness, and back of elm, of an inch otherwise overwhelming, stroke was 
and quarter; between these was an passed. We have only to reflect on 
inclosed space of one inch, filled with the frightful electrical action of a tor- 
powder. The shell was discharged nado on the (i^ast of Africa, to con- 
m>m a military regulation rifle, hav- elude that the ship, enveloped (as she 
ing the head of its ramrod hollowed must have been) in electric matter, 
out, to prevent pressure on the per- was entirely protected from damage 
eussion cap ; the distance about fifty by the influence of her lightning con- 
yards. The first and second shots ductors. — Hampshire Telegraph. 
missed the object, and the shells pass- C/Hanges in the Stations of 
ed clear through a broad iron-plate. Corps since our last. — ^*4th Dra- 
which clamped together a three-inch goon Guards at Glasgow ; 5th Dragoon 
boarded screen, against which the ex- Guards from Bath to Dublin; *10th 
periments were made. The third dis- Hussars from Wigan to Prescott ; 
charge carried the shell dear through 17th Lancers from Newbridge to Lim- 
the box, and caused an instant explo- erick; 2nd Battalion Grenadier Guards 
sion. from the King's Mews to Upnor Cas- 

LiOHTNiNG Conductors. — Most tie; 4th Foot from Northampton to 

satisfactory accounts have been re- Chatham ; 5th Foot from Buttevant 

eeived from His Majesty's ship Dryad, to Ennis; 11th Foot from Corfu to 

on the coast of Africa, of a trial of Santa Maura ; 18th Foot from Corfii 

Harris's lightning conductors, in which to Vido ; 18th Foot Depot from Stock- 

their utility was manifested beyond a port to Bolton ; 19th Foot Depot from 

doubt. There had been a great deal Gosport to Weedon ; 30th Foot from 

of lightning on the coast, and in one Manchester to Ashton and to Dublin; 

instance, the Dryad encountered the 34tli Foot Depot from Naas to Clare 

fury of a tornado. A heavy flash of Castle and to Limerick; S^th Foot 

lightning struck the foremast, which Dep6t from Plymouth to Davenport ; 

was seen distinctly to pass down the 

conductor; at the same time a whiz- 
zing noise was heard, resembling the * Under orden for Ireland. 



122 BDITOR^S PORTFOLIO. 

4Srd Foot from Portsmouth to Man- April la. Arrived the Starling cotter, 

Chester ; 49th Foot Depot from Upnor ^ ^JT???*^- ., , , „.^^ 

Castle to Chatham ; 5l8t Foot I>ep6t „ ApnlI5t^ Sailed the Highflyer and 

from Weedon to Bolton and Stock- ^I®^/f«.u ^"ST .u a -.^ «o 

port; 57th Foot from New South r1:F^^}u^' ^.J^i^^^J^ 

Walei to Madras; 60th Foot ist Bat. JS^jS^ii^SS^^ 

teUon Dei^t from ClonmeU to Dub- ^ord Geo. Paulet T^d Sa^ 10, Com- 

bn ; 76th Fo^ from Dublin to Lame- ,^^ ^^ g^,^ Russdl^ with sealed 

nek; 82nd Foot Depfit from New- orders, which are to be opened off the 

eastle-on-Tyne to Sunderland ; 87th Lizard. The Starling cutter to the East- 

Foot on passage to Mauritius; 87th ward. The Actcon, 28, Capt. Hon. F. 

Foot Dep6t Davenport ; 91st Foot W. Grey, went out of harbour. 

Jamaica— on passage home ; 97th Foot April 17th. Arrived the Highflyer and 

Depot from Charles Fort to Clonmell ; Raven cotters, from Newhaven. 

98th Foot Depot from Plymouth to April 18th. Sailed the Idnnet cutter, 

Davenport; 99th Foot Depot frt>m and Meteor steam-vessel, for the eastward. 

Clare Castle to Naas. April 19th. Sailed the Highflyer and 

Raven cutters, for Newhaven. 
April 20th. Arrived the Meteor steam- 



vessel ; sailed H. M. S. Act»on, Capt. 

ARRIVALS, SAILINGS, AND IN- Jl"^ J"' ^^- ^J' ^^"^ ^* ^^*f^«^*' 

CIDENTS IN THE FLEET. ^^^^ ^A^^:;^u'^^ f^ 

PorUffunith. — March 27th. Arrived Tynemouth CasUe. 

the Cracker cutter, from Jersey, and the April 22nd. Arrived the Highflyer and 

Supply, naval transport, with stores, fnmi Raven cutters, frtmi Newhaven, and the 

Deptford. Snipe cutter, from a cruise. 

March 28th. Arrived the Quail cutter, April 23rd. Sailed the Highflyer and 
from Dublin, and the Highflyer, from Raven cutters, for Newhaven. 
Newhaven ; sailed the Snipe cutter, to the In the Harbour — Asia, Royal George, 
Eastward. St. Vincent, Wellesley, Pallas, Rattle- 
March 30th. Arrived the Starling and snake, Pearl, Brisk, Recruit, Meteor. 
Raven, from Newhaven; sailed the QuaU, Plymouth. -^Miictk 24th. Sailed the 
for Dublin. Gannet, 18, Commander Sweney, for 

March 31 St. Arrived the Royalist, Bermuda. 

10, from Plymouth, and returned on the March 2dth. Arrived the Royalist, 

same day ; sailed the Cracker, for Guem- tender to the Caledonia, from Portsmouth, 

sey. with the marines lately belonging to the 

April 2nd. Safled the Highflyer. Thetis. 

April 3rd. Arrived H. M. S. Rattle- March 27th. Sailed the Briseis packet 

snake^ 28, Capt. Graham, from Malta, for Falmouth, 

and the Raven tender, from Newhaven. March 29th. Arrived the Trinculo 

April 4 th. Arrived H. M. gun -brig from Cork, and came into harbour to be 
MaiUy, Lieut. John Wheatley, from Ber- paid off, having been on shore, and 
muda, after four years* service in North damaged her hiUl, &c. Also the Co- 
America and the West Indies ; sailed the lumbia, Lieut. Ede, from Falmouth. 
Starling cutter, on a cruise. April 2nd. Arrived the Martial, gan- 

April 6th. Arrived the Pearl, 18, brig, Lieut AI*>Kirdy, from the Coast of 
Commander Blake, from Cork, to be paid ScoUand ; and sailed on the 3rd for Sheer- 
off, ness. 

April 7th. Sailed the Meteor steamer, April 3rd. Arrived the African steam- 

for Plymouth. vessel, Lieut. Harvey, from Woolwich | 

Apnl 8th. Arrived the Linnet cutter, and sailed on the 4th for Falmouth, 

from Jersev. April 6th. Sailed the Sandwidi Packet 

April 9tn. Sailed the Belvidera, 42, for Falmouth. 
Capt. Hon. R. S. Dundas, with the Con- April 7th. Arrived the Meteor, steam- 
sul for Smyrna on board, for Malta. vessel, Lieut. Symons ; and Starling ten- 
April 1 1th. Arrived the Highflyer and der, from Portsmouth. 
Raven cutters, from Newhaven. April 17th. Sailed H. M. steam- vessel, 

April 12th. Arrived the Meteor Carron, Lieut. M^. F. Ijapidge, for Lisbon. 

Steam-Vessel, from Plymouth. April 19th. Arrived the Royalist, 10, 



NAVAL AND MILITARY REGISTER. 123 

(tender to the Caledonia,) from Fal- Romania, 14th of February. The Echo 

mouth. steamer, arrived at Gibraltar from Fal- 

Remaining in Hamoaze — Caledonia, mouth and Cadiz, 17th of March, and 

Revenge, Dublin, Druid, Stag, Orestes, sailed on the 18th for Malta. The Me- 

and Columbia steam-vessel. teor. Mastiff, and Philomel, were at 

At the Island— Royalist. Smyrna 19th of February ; the Alligator 

Falmouth, — March 26th. Arrived Hope had sailed for the Dardanelles, 

packet, Lieut. Wright, from Tampico — The Cordelia arrived at Bermuda from 

sailed 25th Jan. ; Vera Cruz, 2nd Feb. ; England 28th of February. The Galatea 

and from the Havannah, 23rd Feb. sailed from Jamaica for Vera Cruz 24th 

March 27th. Arrived the Briseis, of January. The Childers arrived at 

Lieut. Downey, from Plymouth. Sailed Lisbon from Portsmouth, 20th of March ; 

H. M. Ketch, Vigilant, Lieut. Loney, for and the Cygnet from Falmouth, 25th of 

Lisbon, with a mail. March, 

March 28th. Arrived H. M. Steamer 

Columbia, Lieut. Ede, from the Mediter- — — — 
ranean— .sailed from Corfu, 6th March ; 

Malta, 12th ; Gibraltar, 2l8t ; and from The Gloucester, 74, Capt. Coffin, was 

Cadiz, 22nd. paid off at Chatham on the 28th of March^ 

Mux^ 29th. Sailed H. M. Steamer Letters from Barbadoes to the middle 

Columbia, Lieut. Ede, for Plymouth. of February state that a court-martial 

April 6th. Arrived the Emulous pack, had been held on board his Majesty's 

et, Lieut. Croke, from Carthagena — sailed ship Shannon, 46, Capt. B. Clement, by 

the 1st Feb. ; Jamaica 22nd ; and from order of Vice- Admiral Colpoys, to try 

Crooked Island, the 3rd of March. Also Commander Charles H. Williams, of his 

H. M. Steamer African, from Plymouth. Majesty's ship Racehorse, 18, on chaises 

April 8th. Sailed the African Steam- preferred against him by supernumerary 

er, Lieut. Harvey, with mails for the Commander William Oldrey, who was 

Mediterranean. ordered a passage in the Racehorse, to 

April 9th. Sailed the Hope, Lieut, join his Majesty's ship Winchester, at 

Wright, for Jamaica and Carthagena ; Jamaica, for conduct towards Commander 

and Briseis, Lieut. Downey, for Halifax Oldrey, having a tendency to bring him 

and Bermuda. into disrespect as an officer of his Ma- 

Foreign, — The Britannia (with the jesty's navy^ Several of the officers of 

flag of Sir Pulteney Malcolm), Melville, the Racehorse were examined by the 

Scylla, Ferret, and Rapid were at Malta court, which, after sitting four days, ad- 

on the 12th of March. The Raleigh sail- judged Commander Williams to be fully 

ed on that day for Tunis and Naples, acquitted. 

The Procris was at Corfu. The Pelican The Revenge, 76, was undocked at 

sailed from Malta, on the 28th of March, Plymouth on the 29th Afarch, having 

with dispatches. The Rapid, from Archi- undergone a thorough repair, 

pelago to Malta, experienced a heavy gale The captain and Officers of his Ma- 

of wind, lasting five days, under storm jesty's late ship Thetis have presented to 

top-sails. The Alligator, and Meteor Mr. Jacob Geach, boatswain, a very ele- 

(surveying-ship) were at Smyrna. gant silver cup ; and to John Langley, 

The Tyrian arrived at Honduras from Captain of the Foretop, a handsome silver 
Falmouth 24th January. The Hope ar- tobacco box, for their manly and intrepid 
rived at Tampico from Falmouth and Vera conduct on the night of the 5th of De- 
Cruz 12th January. cember. The petty officers and seamen 

The Dryad, 42 guns, Commodore of the Thetis' also presented a gold chain, 
Hayes, and the Favourite, 18 guns. Com- call, and plate with an inscription ex. 
mander Harrison, were at Sierra Leone pressive of their gratitude to Mr. Geach, 
on the 20th January. The Plumper, for his exertions in saving the lives of the 
gfun-brig, had arrived there with a Por- crew on the occasion, 
tuguese ^ver, having on board 500 slaves The Grand Cross of the Guelph has 
and 40 Portuguese. At the time of the been conferred by his Majesty, on Ad- 
capture, the Plumper had only six white miral Sir William Hargood, and that of 
men on board. Knight Commander of the same order, on 

The Lyra arrived at Aladeira from Capts. Usher, and George Seymour, C. B. 

Falmouth, 22nd of February, and sailed The following order has issued from 

on the 23rd for Brazils. The Hind ar- the Royal JMarine Office, to the several, 

rived at Constantinople from Napoli di commandants of that corps :r-~ 



124 PRIZB MONEY. 

Royml Marine Office, 3l8t March, 1831. H. M. S. Rattlesnake, 28, Capt. Gra- 

Brigade Order.—His Majesty having ham, and the Manly, 10, Lieut. Wheat- 
been plea«ed to appoint Major-General ley, were paid off at Portsmouth on the 
Sir James Cockburn, Bart, to be Inspec- 20th ult. The former was reoommia- 
tor- General, and to command the brigade sioned by Capt. Graham, and taken into 
of Royal Marines, the Major-General dock on the 22nd, and the latter placed in 
cannot assume the command without ex- Ordinary. 

pressing to the several divisions of Marines Captain Thomas Huskisson is appointed 
and Royal Marine Artillery the gratifi- to superintend the lower school in Green- 
cation which he feels in having his con- wich Hospital, in the room of the late 
nexion thus strengthened and continued Captain Donald M'Leod ; and it is un- 
with a corps of whose merit he has already derstood that the vacancy as Captain of 
had such long and satisfactory experience. *^at establishment, vacant by the death 
He begs they will collectively and indivi. of the latter officer, will not be filled up. 
dually be assured of his earnest disposi- The Lords of the Admiralty have taken " 
tion, upon all occasions, to promote their under their patronage the appointment 
interest and welfare, and to direct the o{ all surgeons and assistant-surgeons to 
discharge of the high duties with which His J\Iajesty's ships, 
his Majesty has been graciously pleased to The Queen has appointed Captain 
honour him, to the maintenance and ex- Pechell, R.N. to be one of her Majesty's 
tension of the honourable fame which the Equerries. Vice Capt. T. Usher, C. B. 
corps of Royal Marines l^ave so invariably resigned, 
and eminently established. 

By command of the Major-General, — — 
John Wright, Ass. Adjt.-General. 

To the Commandants. PRIZE MONEY. 

Sir James Graham, Bart. Admirals Sir rnizKs advertised for payment in the 

Thomas Hardy and Dundas, accompanied london gazettes, as reported to the 

by the Hon. Capt. Elliot, embarked at treasuher of the navy, down to the 

Woolwich on the 4th ult. to inspect the 19th of march 1831. 
dock- yard at Sheemess. 

H. M. S. Dublin was commissioned at ^"^^ ®^ 1793. 

Plymouth on the 15th ult. by Lieut. Montague, for L' Aviso La Dorade, 

Mure, for Capt. Henry Hope. Capt. capt. 3rd June 1799. — Pay. 27th Jan, 

Giles, Second Lieut. WilUam F. Hppkins, 1831. — Agt. John Copland, 23, Surrey- 

R. M« and forty marines, embarked on street. Strand, 

board this ship on the 19th. Phcsnix, for Purissima Conception, capt. 

The Pearl, 18, Commander Blake, was .9th March 1800.— Pay. 6th Jan. 1831.— 

paid off at Portsmouth on the 16th ult. Agt. John Hihxman, 72, Great Russell- 

and re-commissioned by Commander street, Bloomsbury. 

Broughton. Ditto, for Le Revanche, capt. 17th 

The Brisk gun brig was commissioned June 1800.— Pay. 6th Jan. 1831. — Agt. 

at Portsmouth on the 18th ult. by Lieut. John Hiiixman, 72, Great Russell-street, 

£. H. Butterfield, late First Lieut, of the Bloomsbury. 

Primrose. war of 1803. 

H. M. S. Stag was commissioned at Active, for Three Gun.Boats, capt. 27th 

Plymouth on the 18th ult. by Lfeut. July 1811.— Pay. 27th Jan. 1831.— Agt, 

F. D. Hastings, for the broad pendant John Copland, 23, Surrey-street, Strand, 

of Commodore Sir Thomas Troubridge, Ditto, for Madona D'ldra, capt. 1st. 

Bart. She is to relieve the Semiramis, April 1807 Pay. 27th Jan. 1831 Agt. 

Rear- Admiral the Hon. Sir C. Paget, at J. Dufaur, 13, Clement's-Inn. 

Cork. Gleaner, (Hired Armed Ketch), for 

H. M. S. Pylades, 18, Commander P. Adelaide, capt. 27th March 1813.— Pay. 

D. H, Hay, ran on the rocks at Roona 24th Jan. 1831.— Agt. J. M'oodhead 1 

Point, about five miles beyond Old Head, James-street, Adelphi. ' ' 

about nine o'clock on the morning of the Grasshopper, for XerxQs, capt. 27th 

13th of April, and, by the last ajxounts, June 1828; and II I-irme, capt. 22nd 

was high and dry upon the reef, lying Nov. 1828— Pav. 2nd March 1831.— Agt. 

upon her side. John Copland, 2*3, Surrey-street, Strand. 

TheTrinculo, 18, Commanders. Price, IMoselle, for Ynez, capt. Jltli April 

was paid off at Plymoutli on the 20th ult. 1808. — Pay. 27th Dec. 1830 — AgU 



PARLIAMENTARY PAPERS. 



125 



Mandes and Co. Great George-street, 
Westminster. 

Monkey, for Midas, capt. 27th June 
1829 ; and Josefa, capt. 7th April ] 829.^ 
Pay. 2l8t Feb. 1831. — Agt. John Cop- 
land, 23, Surrey-street, Strand. 

Nimble, for Gallito, capt. 16th Nov. 
1829.— Pay. 21st Feb. 1831.— Agt. John 
Copland, 23, Surrey-street, Strand. 

Plumper, for Ceres, capt. 6th Aug. 1829. 
— Pay. 6th Jan. 1831 — Agt. John Hinx- 
man, 72, Great Russell-street, Bloomsbury. 

Redwing, for Anna and Teresa, capt. 

6th and 11th Oct. 1825 Pay. 9th April 

1831. — Agt. F. M. Ommanney, 22, Nor- 
folk-street, Strand. 

Salsette, for La Comete, capt. 21st 

April 1812.— Pav. 15th March 1831 

Agts. Cooke, Halford, and Son, 41, Nor- 
folk-street, Strand. 

Topaze, for La Centinelle, capt. 24th 
Aug. 1810.— Pay. 15th March 1831.— 
Agts. Cooke, Halford, and Son, 41, Nor- 
folk-street, Strand. 

PRIZES ADJUDICATED IN THE HIGH COURT 
OF ADMIRALTY, AS. REPORTED TO THE 
TREASURER OF THE NAVY, DOWN TO THE 
19tH OF MARCH 1831. 

Castor, for Le Minuit, capt. 22nd Jan. 
1814.— Cond. 21st Jan. 1831. Head 
Money pronounced for 25 men. 

Fairy, for Na Sa del Pont St. Bonaven- 
ta, capt. 11th Feb. 1799.— Cond. 12th 
Nov. 1830. Head Money pronounced for 
40 men. 

Laura (Cutter), for Rhone, capt. 4th 
Aug. 1807. — Cond. 12th Nov. 1830. 
Head Money pronounced for 26 men. 

Magicienne, for Adeline, capt. 14th 
March 1814.— Cond. 2nd March 1831. 
Head Money pronounced for 31 men. 



ABSTRACT OF PARLIAMENTARY 

PROCEEDINGS CONxNECTED 

WITH THE NAVY AND ARMY. 

House of Commons, April 13. 

Ordnance Estimates Mr. Tennyson 

said, that the perusal of the printed esti- 
mates would preclude the necessity of his 
going at much length into the details. 
The sum to be expended this year was 
1,714,999/. from which was to be deduct- 
ed, for the value of stores, 296,182/. leav- 
ing only the sum of 1,418,817/. to be pro- 
vided for. "Last year the amount was 
1,689,444/. so that between the estimates 
of the last and the present year, there Was 
a difference of 270,627/. less charge on the 



public. Deducting, however, the balance 
m hand, the actual induction was 166,000/. 
Respecting the college at Sandhurst, he 
stated that Government contemplated some 
alterations. It was intended to admit pu- 
pils into the academy at Woolwich oa 
their paying a certain sum. There was 
every disposition on the part of the Mas- 
ttf -General of the Ordnance to pay as 
much attention to economy as possible : 
much had been done in that way by the 
late Government, and he hoped the pre- 
sent administration would receive ci«dit 
for following the example o£ their prede- 
cessors. He then moved that a sum not 
exceeding 80,649/. be granted to His Ma- 
jesty for salaries of the Master-General 
and principal officers and clerks of the 
Ordnance Departments at the Tower, 
Pail-Mall, and Dublin, for the year 1831. 
Sir Henry Fane declared his satisfac- 
tion at the candid and honourable manner 
in which the hon. gentleman had express- 
ed himself with respect to the conduct of 
the late Board of Ordnance under the 
head of economy. 

Sir H. Hardinge thought the present 
arrangement of the estimates a very good 
one upon the whole, and was disposed to 
admit that some of the alterations were 
likely to be beneficial. He contended, 
however, that the real saving to the pub- 
lic on the present estimate, would be only 
about 3000/. and that all the rest of the 
diminution of charge arose from the post- 
ponement of works to be performed, or 
from allowances on account of balances of 
stores. He did not approve of the aboli* 
tion of the office of Lieutenant- General of 
the Ordnance ; and argued, that with re- 
spect to the Marines and the Navy Board, 
the present Government had pursued a 
course similar to that which they censured 
their predecessors for adopting in reference 
to the Ordnance. So much for the differ- 
ence between the professions of gentlemen 
when out of office, and their practice when 
in the possession of power. 

Mr. Tennyson denied that the right 
honourable and gallant member was cor- 
rect in describing the saving as being only 
3000/. — the right honourable gentleman 
might just as well have assert^ that it 
did not exceed 3/. He (Mr. Tennyson) 
thought that the details into which he 
had before entered, must have satisfied 
the committee that the actual saving 
would be, stating it at the lowest, 100,000/. 
if not 166,000/. 

Sir H. Hardinge contended that a dimi- 
nution, on account of money not drawn for 
works, the progress of which was suspend- 
ed, could not be considered as a real saving 



126 PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 

of expenditure. With respect to the raili- about that measure of reform which he so 

tary schools, those establishments were all much deprecated. 

of a military nature, and if they were Mr. Tennyson said that the present 

once let down, Ministers, he was sure, Government had not . begun the ordnance 

would not be able easily to raise them up estimates, they had only reviewed them, 

again. When they should have an opportunity of 

Sir H. Fane said, that 53,000/. was forming estimates of their own, a greater 

called for on account of repairs. Now he reduction might be expected, 

doubted the adequacy of that sum, because The motion was then agreed to. 

he understood that a most experienced The other items were agreed to without 

and intelligent officer had stated, that observation, 

there were at present, no less than 10,000 April 20th 
gun-carriages out of repair, and for which 

he could not answer. Situated as Europe Ordnance Estimates. — Mr. Tennyson 

was at present, this was a matter of most T^oved various items of the ordnance esti- 

serious importance. mates, which were agreed to without any 

Mr. Hume censured the plan which observation. At length 

Government had long adopted, of collect- ^^- Hume said that he would not 

ing large quantities of stores to perish and oppose any of the items of these estimates, 

decay. Here it appeared, from the state- because, after the vote of the previous 

ment of the honourable baronet, that there ^^'^^^ P^ ^^^ Reform Bill, he was anxious 

were 10,000 rotten gun-carriages in store. ^^ assist Ministers in getting through the 

The saving proposed in these estimates by necessary business, in order that a dissolu- 

His Majesty's Government were very ^^^^ might take place. Running neck and 

trifling, but he trusted that they would be "^eck as parties were in the house, it was 

greater hereafter. delusion to suppose that the Reform Bill 

Sir H. Fane denied that he had spoken could pass in the present Parliament. For 

of rotten gun-carriages. He said it was ^^ese reasons he gave his hearty concur- 

reported that a most experienced officer rence to the estimates proposed by Govern- 

had represented that there were 10,000 ™*^"t ^^^ the first time in his life, 

gun-carriages which were out of repair. * Colonel Trench observed, that the last 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer con- Administration had effected a reduction 

tended, that a very considerable saving of 47,000/. per annum in tin's department, 
had been really effected in these estimates. < whilst the present Administration had 

He considered' the not calling for a grant, retrenched only to the extent of 4,000A 

on account of certain works, as a saving. ^^ 5,000/. 

Some of those works might hereafter be ^'* Tennyson said that he hoped to be 

deemed unnecessary. *hle to effect a much greater reduction 

Sir H. Hardinge maintained that a great '^ext year, 

saving had been made under the Duke of The remaining items were agreed to, 

Wellington. In the salaries of civil offi- a»d the House resumed, 
cers alone^ it was 47,000/. The number 

of stations now was one or two more than 

in 1792, though we had now seven or 

dght powder-magazines included amongst PROMOTIONS & APPOINTMENTS. 

tliem. NAVV 

Mr. Maberly said, that the late Govern- i.^-f»^ v x . 

ment had acted in the teeth of the report PROMOTIONS 
of the Committee of Finance, which had 

reicommended the abolition of the office Commanders — W. Gibbons (retired); W. 

of Lieutenant General of the Ordnance. Gilchrist (retired). 

The present Government immediately Lieutenants — Mr. J. G. Diclc; J. H. Wind- 
abolished the office, and yet it was ad- ^^"** 
mitted the service was as well carried on Master — W. E King. 
without that office. Surgeon Dobbs. 

Sir H. Hardinge said the recommenda- 
tion of the committee was contrary to the APPOINTMENTS. 
evWence given before Aem. CAPTAiNS-Hen,y Hope, to the Dublin ; David 

Sir G. Warrender admitted and praised Dunn, to the Cara9oa; John Clavel, to the Ordi- 

the economy of the present Government, nary at Sheerness. 

«iid said that the conduct of the late ad- Commanders- W. Broughton, to the Pearl ? 

jnimstration, in resisting reductions which John Sliephaitl (b), to the Donegal; WiUiam 

J|(Bd been recommended to them, brought Smith, to the Philomel ; Powney, to tlie Pre. 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



127 



ventive Service, Aldboroagh, Norfolk ; Robert 
M'Coy, to dittOj Poole ; Reuben Paine, to ditto ; 

^Douglas to ditto ; J. PuUen, to ditto; W. Allen, 

to ditto; Hellard, to ditto; Hatclilnson, 

Inspector of the Coast Guard Service at Plymouth ; 
Ferris, ditto, at the Pendennis station ; Tho- 
mas Mansel and Richard Barton, to the Prevent- 
ive Service on the Coast of Kent 

Lieutenants J. F. Stirling (1824) Flag 

Lieot. to Vice-Admiral Sir Henry Hotham, the 
Commander-inXlhief for the Mediterranean ; 6. 
Caswell, trom the Asia to the Pallas ; C. Walcott, 
to the Asia ; N. W. Chambers, to the Prince 
Regent; J. R. R. Lilburn, to the Savage; T. 
Henderson, John Wise-, and John Steane, to the 
Preventive Service ; T. Renon, to the Wickhani ; 
W. Prowse, to the Rose; R. Butcher, to the 
Tartar ; C. Byne, to the Sprightly ; G. Hales, to 
the Eagle Revenue Cruiser ; W. H. H. Caiew, to 
the Barham; Hon. C. B. Carey, to the Dublin; 
A. C. Duncan, to the Prince Regent; R. B. Bea- 
chy (sup.) to the Belvidera, to join the Blonde ; 
Edward Dixon, to the Cura9oa ; T. L. Massie, to 
the Prince Regent ; J. P. Pritchard, to the Done- 
gal ; W. Stnrgess, to the Ordinary at Sheernesn ; 
Cleorge Williams, to the Ordinary at Chatham ; 
E. Medley and John Goldie, to the Ordinary at 
Sheerness; G. Goldfinch, to the Pearl; J. P. 
Baker, to the Coast Guard Service; E. H. But- 
terfield, from the Pallas to the Brisk ; F. D. 
Hastings and William O'Brien Hoare, to the Stag ; 
T. E. Smith and W. J. Williams, of the Trinculo, 
to the Druid ; James Mure, of the Caledonia, to 
the Dublin ; B. Watson, to the Caledonia, vice 
Mure. The follo\ving Lieutenants are appointed 
to the Preventive Service on the Sussex Coast, 
viz. :— F. Phillips, A. Kortright, T. M. Williams, 
G. Howes, James Pratt, W. Maxwell, T. Eve'rs- 
field, E. C. Earle, J. M. Motley, R. Joachim, W. 
Winniett, J. Rawstone, H. J. Carr, W. A. Ferrar, 
A. M'Tavish, J. Prattent, H.Conrtnay, J. Conjuit, 
J. O'ReiUy, G. J. Smyth, J. G. Raymond, F. 
Hire, J. J. Nicholls, R. J. Woolver, J. Hills, F. 
Collins, H. Leeworthy, S. Connor, T. Pennington, 
G. Palmer, C. M. M. Wright, E. Franklin, C. A. 
Fetch, J. Bowden, C. Servante, J. W. Crispe, W. 
Stone, J. W. Tomlinson, H. D. Foster, W. Ball, 
G. Mason, J. Stewart, T. Carey, and (^F. Walker. 

Masters — W. E. King, to the Victor; W. 
Aykbone, to the Dublin ; G. B. Hofimaister, to 
the Cura^oa ; John Thomas, to the Stag. 

Surgeons — J. Isatt, to the Barham; St. 

Irvine, M.D., to the St. Vincent; Thomas Miller, 
to the Dublin ; John Dmmmond, to the Curafoa ; 
Dobbs, to the Lightning. 

AssisTANT-SuROEONs — Clfarles Smith and 
John Christie, to the Dublin ; H. Amot, to the 

Messenger, Steamer ; Elliott, to the Prince 

Regent ; William Macauley, to the Sylvia ; David 
Jardine, to the Stag. 

Pursers — T. Giles, to the Orestes; John 
Chimmo, to the Dublin ; T. Jessopp and Thomas 
Stones, to the Ordinary at Sheerness; John 
Richards, to the Ordinal y at Portsmouth; W. 
Williams, to the Cura^oa ; James Wise, to the 
Stag. 

Chaplains — The Rev. James Surridgc, to the 
Druid ; the Rev. John Baker, to the Dublin ; the 



Rev. T. Ferris, to the Astrea ; the Rev. John 
Marshall, to the Barham. 

ROYAL MARINES. 
PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 

The following removals and exchanges in the 
Royal Marines have taken place, consequent on 
the promotion in that corps: — 

Captains — J. G. Richardson, re-appointed to 
Woolwich on his promotion ; Charles Morgan, to 
Plymouth, on his promotion ; J. Husband, ap- 
pointed to Chatham Division on promotion. 

FiRST-LiBUTENANTS — Ralph Carr, to Chat- 
ham on his promotion, vice F. Hamilton, removed 
to the Plymouth Division, in the room of First- 
Lieut. Henry Savage, (late of the Royal Marine 
Artillery,) whose appointment there has been 
cancelled in favour of the Woolwich Division ; 
Edmund Nepean, of the Portsmouth Division of 
Royal Marines, to the Plymouth Division, vice 
Charles Robinson Miller, whose appointment to 
the Plymouth Division from the Royal Marine 
Artillery has been cancelled in favour of Ports- 

n^outh Division ; Farrant, R. M. A. to the 

Excellent. 

Second-Lieutenant — ^Thomas Eraser, to the 
Wellesley. 



ARMY. 



WAR OFFICE, March 12. 

13tb Regt. Light Drs. — Lieut. Thomas Earle 
Welby, from 26th Foot, to be Lieut, vice NeviUe, 
who exc. 

3rd Regt. Foot Gds. — Ens. and Lieut. Beresford 
B. M'Mahon, to be Lieut, and Capt. by p. vice 
Hood, who ret. ; Guilford James Hillier Onslow, 
gent, to be Ens. and Lieut, by p. vice M'Mahon. 

1st Regt. Foot. — Capt. Charles Chidley Coote, 
from 49lh Foot, to be Capt. vice Pasley, who exc. 

3rd Ditto. — Eric Mackay Clarke, gent, to be 
Ens. without p. vice Ludbey, who res. 

I3th Ditto. — Ens. Hamlet Wade, to be Lieut, 
without p. vice Chambre, dec. 

To be Ensigns. — Ens. Henry Thomas Hutchins, 
from 14th Foot, vice Spread, who exc. ; Thomas 
Sewell, gent, vice White, whose app. has not 
taken place ; George King, gent, vice Wade, 
prom. 

14th Ditto.— -Ens. Robert Deane Spread, from 
13th Foot, to be Ens. vice Hntchins, who exc. 

16th Ditto.— To be Lieuts. without p. — Ens. 
Francis Fairtlough, vice O'Dwyer, dec; Ens. 
John Bruce, vice Whitaker, who ret. 

To be Ensigns without p. — Sir William Ogilvie, 
Bart, vice Urquhart, dec. ; William Robert Lyon 
Bennett, gent, vice Bruce. 

26th Ditto. — Lieut. Parke Percy Neville, from 
13th Light Drs. to be Lieut, vice Welby, who 
exc. 

31st Ditto. — Ens. Thomas Pender, to be Lient. 
without p. vice Booth, dec. ; Patrick Thomas 
Ramsay White, gent, to be Ens. vice Pender. 

33rd Ditto. — Ens. George Augustus Vernon 
Graham, to be Lient. by p. vice Paterson, prom. 
' 35th Ditto. — Major George Teuton, to be Lieut.- 
Col. by p. vice Macdonald, who ret. ; Capt. Henry 
Semple, to be Major, by p. vice Toulon. 



las 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMRNTS. 



40th Foot. — John Stewart Wood, gent, to he 
Ens. without p. vice Alsop, dec. 

4l8t Ditto. — Lient. Percival Browne, to be 
Capt. vice Dawson, dec. 

To be lieuts. withont p — Ens. William Morris, 
vice 'Boaltbccy dec. ; Ens. Amelios Fry, vice 
Smith, dec. ', Ens. William May, vice Browne, 
prom. 

To be Ensigns, withont p. — John Lawrie, gent, 
vice Morris; George Montizambert, gent, vice 
Fry ; Robert Butler, gent, vice May. 

To be Surgeon. — Staff-Surg. Alexander Hamil- 
ton, M.D. from h. p. to be Surg, vice Thomas 
Montgomery Perrott, who exc. 

44th Ditto. — Lieut. William Boxall Scott, to be 
Capt. without p. vice Andrews, dec. 

. 48th Ditto. — William George White, gent, to be 
Ens. without p. vice Campbell, app. to 49th Foot. 

40th Ditto. — To be Captains.— Capt. Gilbert 
Pailey, fix>m Ist Foot, vice Coote, who exc; 
Lieut. WilUam Pitman, from 99th Foot, withont 
p. vice Leith, dec. 

To be Lieuts. without p. — Ens. John Leslie 
Dennis, vice Fleming, dec. ; Ens. John Malcolm, 
vice Matbew, dec. 

To be Ensigns, withont p. — Ens. CoHn Camp- 
, bell, from 48th Foot, vice Dennis ; Henry Rainey, 
gent, vice Malcolm. 

57th Ditto. — Mi^or Humphrey Robert Hartley, 
to be Lieut.-Col. by p. vice Shadforth, who ret. ; 
Capt. Philip Aubin, to be Major, by p. vice 
Hartley;. Lieut. Tliomas Shadforth, to be Capt. 
by p. vice Aubin ; Ens. William Tranter, to be 
Lieut, by p. vice Shadforth. 

50th Ditto. — Gent. Cadet Adam John Laing 
Peebles, from Rl. Mil. CoL to be Ens. witliout p. 

60th Ditto.— Capt. Joseph Clavell Sladden Sly- 
field, to be M^or, by p. vice Macpherson, who 
ret. ; Lieut. Francis Marlton, to be Capt. by p. 
▼ice Slyfieid ; Sec.-Lieut. Charles Orgell Leman, 
to be First- Lieut, by p. vice Marlton; Richard 
Byrd Levett, gent, to be Sec.-Lieut. by p. vice 
Leman. 

Olst Ditto. — Ens. Henry Vicars, to be Lieut, by 
p. vice Heylaind, prom. ; Charles Frederick Majne, 
gent, to be Ens. by p. vice Yicars. 

05th Ditto. — Quar.-mast. James Elliott, from 
h. p. 43rd Foot, to be Quar.-mast. vice Coleman, 
ret. with a com. allow. 

82nd Ditto. — Capt. Edward Grant Stokes, from 
h. p. to be Capt. vice Charles Mortimer, who 

€XC. 

87th Ditto. — Ass.*Surg. James Walsh, from 89th 
Foot, to be Ass.-Snrg. 

00th Ditto. — Bellingham George Fenton Gra- 
ham, gent, to be Ens. by p. vice Hobart, who ret. 

2nd West India Regt. — Robert Hunter, gent, to 
be Ens. without p. vice Croinpton, dec. 

Unattached. — Lieut. John Royley Heyland, 
firom 61st Foot, to be Capt. of Inf. by p. 

Memoranda. — The Christian names of Ens. 
Elliot, of 79th Foot, are Edmund James, and not 
Edmund John, as formerly stated. 

Capt. Edward Powell, upon h. p. unat. has been 
allowed to retire flrom the service, by the sale of 
an unat. com. 

The app. of Brevet Lieut.-Col. Robert Jones, 
from h. p. 1st Gar. Bat. to be Major in the 69th 
Foot, as stated in the Gazette of the 5th inst. has 
not taken place. 



ST. JAMES'S PALACE, March 23. 

The King was this day pleased to confer the 
honour of Knighthood upon Capt. George Francis 
Seymour, of the Royal Navy, Knight Copi. of the 
Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order. 



OFFICE OF THE MASTER OP THE HORSS 
TO THE QUEEN, March 24. 

The Queen has been {leased to appoint Capt. 
the Hon. S. Hay, Royal Funleers, to be one of 
Her Majesty's Equerries, vice Lient.-Col. Fox, 
app. to the King's Household. 



WAR-OFFICE, Marc^h 24. 
Memorandum. — His Majesty has been pleased 
to nominate Lieut.-Col. Thomas Lord Grantham, 
of the Yorkshire Hussar Yeomanry Cavalry, and 
Lieut.-Col. Edward Baker, of the Royal Wiltshire 
Yeomanry Cavalry, to be His Majesty's Aides-de- 
Camp for the service of his Yeomanry Ci^valry. 

March 29. 

Memorandum. — The h. p. of the ander-men- 
tioned officers has been cancelled from the 29th 
inst. inclusive, upon their receiving a commuted 
allowance for their commissions : — 

Ens. Dudley Costello, h. p. unat. ; Ens. William 
Wade Leslie, h. p. 69th Foot ; Asa.-Surg. Rode- 
rick Macleod, h. p. lOOth Foot ; Ens. James Bir- 
ney, b. p. 49th Foot ; A8s.-Surg. Thomas Howetf, 
h. p. Hosp. Staff; Lieut. Richard Gregory, h. p. 
49th Foot; Lieut. Edward Lewis, h. p. unat.; 
Ens. Thomas Woodroffe Craig, h. p. 35th Foot ; 
Ens. James Atkinson, b. p. unat. ; Lieut. Jona- 
than Warner, late of the New South Wales Vet. 
Coms. ; Lieut. Maurice FitaGerald, h. p. unat. ; 
Ens. Thomas Knox Holmes, h. p. nnat; Sarg. 
James George Playfair, b. p. Hosp. Staff; licnt. 
Elliot Armstrong, h. p. 6lh Drs.; Ens. Hercules 
Henry Slade, h. p. 43rd Foot; Lieut. William 
Warren, h. p. 37th Foot ; Lieut. John Currie, h. 
p. 60th Foot ; Lieut. Arthur Gambell Lewis, h. p. 
68th Foot ; Lieut. John Sankey Kelly, h. p. 4th 
Foot; Lieut. Alexander Macfarlane, h. p. 57th 
Foot ; Lieut. Charles Irwin, h. p. Rl. Wag. Train ; 
Lieut. Charles de Merwede, h. p. 2nd Light Inf. 
Bat. King's Ger. Leg. ; Ass.-Surg Robert Moor- 
head, h. p. 23rd Light Drs. ; A9s.-Surg. John Ni- 
choUs Ashwood, h. p. 28th Foot ; Ens. Frederick 
de Ronne, h. p. 3rd Line Bat. King's Ger. Leg. ; 
Lieut. Alfred William Honne, h. p. 1st Foot ; Ens. 
William Constantine, h. p. 8th Foot; Ass.-Snrg. 
David Browne, h. p. 1st West India Kegt. ; Lient. 
Robert Henry Dwyer, h. p. unat.; Lieut. Hon. 
Edmund Sexton Pery, h. p. 7th Light Drs. ; Cornet 
James Sparrow, h. p. 17th Light Drs. ; Ens. and 
Lieut. Sir Thomas Elmsley Croft, Bart. h. p. 1st 
Foot Gds.; Lieut. John Francis Sabin L'Ecolier, 
h. p. Bourbon Regt. ; Ass.- Surg. William Moffatt, 
h. p. 48th Foot; Lieut. Robert Stephenson Amiel, 
h. p. 25th Foot; Ens. Robert Blake, h. p. 4th 
West India Regt. ;. Lieut Robert Dering, b. p. 
Rl. York Rangers; Ens. John Carysfort Proby, 
h. p. 24th Foot; Staff-Surg. James Beresford, h. 
p. Hosp.-Staff ; Ens. Justin De Courcy, h. p. 2nd 
Greek Light Inf.; Ens. Sir George Rich, h. p. 
5th Gar. Bat.; Lieut. John Canny, h. p. 30th 
Foot ; Ens. George Arundel Hill, h. p. 27tfa Foot. 



MILITARY PROMOTIONS. 



129 



April 1. 

OFFICE OF THE MASTER OP THE HORSE 
TO THE KING, March 24. 

The King has been pleased to appoint Lieut.. 
Col. Fox, to be one of His Majesty's Eqnerries in 
the room of the Hon. J. Kennedy Erskine, dec. 



WHITEHALL, April 4. 
The King has been pleased to constitute and 
appoint Sir Henry Brook Parncll, Bart, to be 
His Majesty's Sec.-at-War. 



WAR OFFICE, April 4. 

2nd Regt. Dr. Gds. — Lieut. Frederick Charles 
Griffiths, to be Capt. by p vice Davies, who ret.; 
Cornet William Brandling, to be Lieut, by p. vice 
Griffiths ; Richard Dann, gent, to be Cornet, \fy p. 
vice Brandling. 

2nd Regt. Drs. — Cornet St. VincenJ William 
Rlcketts, to be Lieut, by p. vice Cr.tjifurd, prom. 
4th Regt. Light Drs. — Ass.-Snrg. John Graves, 
from 38th Foot, to be Ass. Surg, vice Francis 
G«0!ge Walbram, who ret upon h. p. 48th Foot. 

9th Ditto. — Cornet and Adjt. Robert Cooke, to 
have the raok of Lieut. 

l7tk^)itto.— Frederick James Parry, gent. Jo 
be Cor. by p. vice Walker, who ret. 

12th Regt. Foot. — Lieut. Henry Yarburgh Gold, 
to be Capt. by p. vice Prideaux, prom. ; Ens. 
Frederick Bell, to be Lieut, by p. vice Gold ; 
James Lloyd Phillips, gent, to be Ens. by p. vice 
Bell. 

Mth Ditto. — Gent. C»det Charles R. Knight, 
from Rl. Mil. Col. to be Ens. without p. vice 
Lomax, who res. 

35th Ditta — Ens. John Gordon, to be Lieut, by 
p. vice Best, who ret. ; ^ns. Henry Edward Ren- 
wick, from h. p. 73rd Foot, to be Ens. without p. ; 
James Eraser, gent, to be Ens. by p. vice Gordon. 
38ih Ditto. — A8S.-Surg. James Robertson, from 
h. p. 45th Foot, to be Ass. Surg, vice Greaves, 
app. 4th Light Drs. 

39th Ditto. — Gent. Cadet Marmaduke George 
Nixon, from Rl. MiL Col. to be Ens. without p. 

40th Ditto. — Staff Ass.- Surg. John Archibald, to 
be As8.-Surg. vice John Loftus Hartwell, whose 
app. has not taken place. 

43rd Ditto.— Lieut, the Hon. William Sydney 
Clements, to be Capt. by p. vice Wrottesley, 
prom. ; Lieut, the Hon. Aud^stns Almeric Spen- 
cer, to be Capt. by p. vice Harris, who ret.; 
Ens. William Frederick Campbell, to be Lieut, by 
p. vice Clements ; Ens. Jonathan Alderson, to be 
Lieut by p. vice Spencer; Ens. Hon. Henry 
Cavendish Grey, from 90th Foot, to be Ens. vice 
Campbell ; William Dixwell Oxenden, gent, to be 
Ens. by p. vice Alderson. 

45th Ditto. — Lieut. William Henry Butler, to 
be Capt. without p. vice Archer, prom. 

55'th Ditto. — Ens. John Horner, to be Lieut, by 
p. vice Logan, prom. ; Ens. Thomas Ancrum 
Heriot, to be Lieut, by p. vice Palmer, prom. ; 
Thomas De Havll«ind, gent, to be Ens. by p. vice 
Homer ; George Greene, gent, to be Ens. by p. 
vice Heriot. 

60th Ditto. — Brcv. Lieut.-Col. Alexander Mac- 
pherson, from h. p. 5'Jth Foot, to be Major, vice 
Shee, prom. 
U. S. JouRN. No. 30. May 1831. 



62nd Foot. — Ens. Henry Cooper, to be Lient. 
by p. vice Baynes, who ret. ; Henry Jackson, 
gent, to be Ens. by p. vice Cooper. 

66ih Ditto. — George Longworth Dames, gent, 
to be Rns. by p. vice Dickinson, who ret. 

69th Ditto. — Brevet Lieut.-Col. Robert Johns, 
from h. p. Ist Qar. Bat. to be Major, vice Loid 
Edward Hay, prom. 

79th Ditto. — Lieut. Andrew Brown, to be Capt. 
by p. vice Maule, who ret.; Ens. Thomas Ishaui, 
to be Li^ut. by p. vice Brown ; Edmund John 
£]liott,>gent. to be Fjhs. by p. vice Isham. 

83r^ Ditto. — Lieut. Henry Francis Ainslie, to 
be /Capt. by p. vice Renwick, who ret. ; Ens. 
Qharles Troubridge Egerton, to be Lieut, by p. 
vice Ainslie ; Henry Lloyd, gent, to be Ens. by 
p. vice Egerton. 

85th Ditto.— Lieut. George Brockman, to be 
Capt. by p. vice Hopwood, who ret. ; Ens. Miles 
Charles Selon, to be Lieut, by p. vice Brockman ; 
George Cochrane Dickson, geut. to be Ens. by p. 
vice Seton. 

90th Ditto. Lord Charles Lennox Kerr, to be 
Ens. by p. vice Grey, app. 43rd Foot. 

Ceylon Regt. — Lieut. John Hewitt, from h. p. 
of Dillon's Regt. to be Lieut, vice Keogh, prom. 

Unattached. — ^To be Lieut.-Col. of luf. by p. — 
Major Charles Shee, from 60th Foot. 

To be Majors of Inf. by p. — Capt. Edmund 
Saunderson Prideaux, from 12th Foot; Capt. 
Charles Alexander Wrottesley, from 43rd Foot. 

To be Major of Inf. withoat p. — Brevet Major 
Edward Caulfield Archer, from 45th Foot. 

To be Capts. of Inf. by p. — lieut. Robert Gre- 
gan Cranfurd, from 2nd Drs. ; Lient. John Pal- 
mer, from 55th Foot ; Lient. James Patterson, 
from 33rd Foot ; Lieut. Robert Logan, from 55th 
Foot. 

Brevet. — ^To be Majors in the Army.— Capt. 
Walter Sweetman, Rl. New. Vet. Coms. ; Capt. 
Anthony Alexander O'Reilly, Brig.-Major to the 
Forces ; Capt. Denis Mahon, 4th Foot. 

Memoranda. — ^The exchange between Ass.-Snrg. 
CoUis, of 15th Foot ; and Ass.-Sarg. Caldwell, on 
h. p. 31 St Foot, was dated 25th September 1S30, 
and not the 9th of July 1830, as formerly stated. 

The undermentioned officers have been allowed 
to retire from the service by the sale of unat- 
tached commissions : — 

Major-Gen. William Stewart (Ist,) late 40tb 
Foot; Capt. Malcolm Ross, h. p. unat.; Capt. 
John Eraser, h. p. 76th Foot ; Brevet Uent.-^ol. 
the Duke of Richmond, Capt. h. p. 62nd Foot { 
M^or William Stanhope Taylor, h. p. una!.; 
Capt. Robert Newland, h. p. Rl. Art. 



LORD CHAMBERLAIN'S OFFICE, April 15. 
The Lord Chamberlain has appointed William 
Attree, Esq. Surgeon Extraordinary to His Ma- 
jesty's Establishment at Brighton. 



WAR OFFICE, April 19. 

4ih Regt. Dr. Gds. — Major Henry Pratt, from 
h. p. to be Major, vice Thomas Hutton, who exc. 
rec. the diff. 

13th Regt. Light Drs.— Lieut. James Boalfh, 
from h. p. 22nd Light Drs. to be Lieut, vice 
Henry Elton, who exc. 



130 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMBNTS. 



9tli Regt. Foot. — Lieut. Gilbert Champaln, to 
'ye Capt. by p. vice Bent, who ret.; Ens. Beres- 
ford William Shawe, to be Lient. by p. vice 
Cbampain; Samncl George Beamish, gent, to be 
Ens. by p. vice Shawe. 

mh Ditto.~>Ens. Stndfaolme Henry Metcalfe, to 
be laeat. by p. vice Hilton, who ret. ; Mordaunt 
Glasfe, gent, to be Ens. by p. vice Metcalfe. 

37th Ditto. — Gent. Cadet John Richard Shep- 
pard Wilson, from Rl. Mil. Col. to be Ens. by p. 
vice Ward, who ret. 

70th Ditto. — Lieut. George B. Mathew, to be 
Capt. by p. vice Kirk, who ret. ; Lieut. Frederick 
Bccher Rocke, from h. p. 24th Light Drs. to be 
Lieiit. vice Bealth, whose app. has not taken 
place; Ens. John G. Corry, lo be Lieat. by p. 
vice Mathew ; William Matthew Bigge, gent, to 
be Ens. by p. vice Corry. 

88th Ditto.»SerJ. -Major Thomas Mills, to be 
Qnar.-mast. vice Stewart, dec. 

Rl. Staff Corps. — ^To be Majors, without p. — 
Capt. Thomas Geoi-ge Harriott; Capt. Henry 
Piers. 

To be Capts. withoot p. —Lient. William Dil- 
lon ; Lieut. Edmund Martindale ; Lieut. Thomas 
William Coleton; Lieut. Enest Christian Wil- 
fonl. 

Memoranda. — The names of the Ens. app. to 
ilie^ 4.3rd Foot on the 5th Jnst. are Hon. Harry 
Cavendish Grey. 

The name of the Ens. app. to the 55th Foot, on 
the 5th inst. is Thomas De Haviiland, and not 
Thomas De Haviland. 

The Christian names of Comet Parry, of the 
l7th Light Drs. are Frederick John, and not 
Frederick James, as before stated. 
' His Majesty has been pleased to approve of the 
5th Regt. Foot resuming the motto, ** Quo fata 
voeaot," formerly borne im its colours and ap- 
pointments. In addition to its ancient badge of 
" St. George and the Dragon." 



WAR OFFICE, April 3S. 

81st Regt. Foot. — Gen. Sir Henry Warde, 
K.C.B. f^m 08th Foot, to be Col. vice Gen. the 
Earl of Mnlgrave, dec. 

09th Ditto. — Lient..GcB. Sir John Keane, 
K.C.B. from 94th Foot, to be Col. vice Sir Henry 
Warde, app. to the com. Slut Foot. 

04th Ditto — Major-Gen. Sir James Campbell, 
K.C.B. to be Col. vice Sir John Reanc, app. to 
the com. -OSth Foot. 

Gttrrisons — Gen. Sir Creorge Don, G.C.B. to 
be Gov. of Scarborough Castle, vice the Earl of 
Mulgrave, dec 



DOWNING-STREET, April 23. 
The King |mm been pleased to appoint Colonel 
Stephen Remnant Chapman, C.B. to be Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief Qf the Bermudas or 
Somers Islands. 

WAROPFICE, April 26. 

2nd Regt. of Life Gds. — Cor. John Eden Spald- 
ing, from »th Li';ht Drs. to be Cur. by p. vicu 
Vansittart, who ret. 

0ib Regt. Dr. Gds. — Lient. Joseph Deane 
Bi-owne, to be Capt. by p. vice Porter, who ret. 



Cor. Tliomas Edward Taylor, to be Lieut, by p. 
vice Browne; Hon. Augustus George Fivdcrick 
Jocelyn, to be Cor. by p. vice Taylor. 

2nd Regt. of Drs. — Ens. Lachlan Macqnairc, 
from 42nd Foot, to be Cor. by p. vice Rickctts, 
prom. 

9th Regt. Light Drs. — Charles Joseph Trueman, 
gent, to be Cor. by p. vice Spalding, app. to the 
2ud Regt. of Life Gds. 

22nd Regt. Foot. — Lieut. David Rea Smith, to 
be Capt. by p. vice Jessopp, who ret. ; Ens. 
Thomas Sydenham Conway, to be Lieut., by p. 
vice Smith ; William George Ansten, gent, to be 
Ens. by p. vice Conway. 

35lh Foot. — Lient. Edward Davis, to be Capt. 
by p. vice Semple, prom. ; Ens. John Hildebrand 
Cakes Moore, to be Lieut, by p. vice Davis. 

To be Ensigns by p. — Charles Beamish, gent; 
vice Moore ; Charles Mil bank Peirse, gent, vic^ 
Alleyne, who ret. 

42nd Ditto. — ^Andrew David Alston Steward, 
gent, to be Ens. by p. vice Macquaire, app. to 
2nd Drs. 

45th Ditto. — Ens. Magens Mello, to be Lieut, 
by p. vice Bntler, prom. ; Jocelyn Ingram Oak- 
ley, gent, to be Ens. by p. vice Mello. • 

46th Ditto. — Lieut. Donald Stuart, to be Capt. 
without p. vice Edwards, dec; Ens. James 
Campbell, to be Lieut, vice Stuart. 

49th Ditto. — Lieut. Thomas Scott Keignokls, to 
be Capt. by p. vice Ball, prom.; Ens. Allen 
Marshall, to be Lieut, by p. vice Reignolds; 
Henry Ronth, gent, to be Ens. by p. vice Marshall. 
56th Ditto. — Major Howell Harris Prichard, 
to be Lient.-Col. by p. vice Barclay, who ret. ; 
Capt. William Mitchell, to be Major, by p. vice 
Prichard ; |iieut. Charles John Henry, to be Capt. 
by p. vice Mitchell; Ens. Francis Thomas Meecb, 
to be Lieut, by p. vice Henry ; Lewes Eraser, 
gent, to be Ens. by p. vice Meecb. 

69th Ditto. — Brevet Lieut.Col. Robert J<.hns, 
from h. p. of Ut Gar. Bat. to be M^jor, vice Lord 
Edward Hay, prom. 

71st Ditto.— Ens. Henry Tristam Beresford, to 
be Lieut, by p. vice Dalton, prom ; Richard 
Thomas William Lambart Brickenden, gent, to be 
Ens. by p. vice Beresford. 

Rifle Brigade. — Staff-Ass.-Surg. William Par- 
dey, to he As8.-Surg. vice William Henry Fryer, 
who ret. on h. p. 

Rl. African Colonial Corps. — Ens. William 
Shaw, to be Lieut, without p. ; Ens. John Hodsoa 
-Fearon, from b. p. to be Ens. vic^ Shaw. 

Unatt — Major Lord Edward Hay, from 60th 
Foot, to be Lieut.-Col. of Inf. by p. ; Brev. Lieut.- 
Col. John William O'Donoghne. from 47th Foot, 
to be Lieut.-Col. of Inf. without p. ; Capt. Wil- 
liam Hawkins Ball, from 40th Foot, to be Major 
or Inf. by p. ; Ueut. William Serjeantson Dalton, 
from 71st Foot, to be Capt. of Inf. by p. 

Staff. — Richard Armstrong, gent, to be Adjt. of 
a Recruiting District, with the rank of Lieut, vice 
Moss, dec. 

Mem. — ^The undermentioned Officers have been 
allowed to ret. from the service, by the sale of 
nnat. coms. :— rCen. John Lord Crewe ; Capt. Alex- 
ander Roxburgh, h. p. Gleugary FeuQible Inf. 

*«* Lieut.-Gen. Hawker, although not yet Ga- 
zetted, has been app. Col. of the 3rd Dr. Gds. 







anKals 





F THE BRITISH PLBBT. 










1805.' 

Holl<.«l..Bd 
KlMUl. 


Lonli Cuiiiuiliiioni'ii of the Adiiilralti'. 






Fim Lord— VlKOdni McLHIIe.i 

Sir !■ p BT,.pl,^n.. Bar>. 

SirJ^I.„Colp»^..K.B. 
Philip Pation. 
William DicklMon, Jan. 
Sir Enn Nepcan, Bart. 
Lord Oirliet mm lolj vice Sir Juliii Col- 
poji, K. B. 


CUaiii*!.— Ailm. lion. W. Cora- 

(■Ijmonlh^VlK- Admiral yoanB. 
Cork.— .Vdm. Lonl GirdDcr, 
'^'"n„5'^"^ i Adm. Lord Ktlth. 
Halittt- VIre Admiral Sir 
Andrew Milchcll. 

Dter, K. Adm. 
Sir E. Pi'llew, 
Etix InJiH. — i B«r-Admlnl Sir 
ThiH. Tr.™liriaBr, 
Rcir-Admlmi 

Jamaica.— Adm. Sir ).' T. Dneli. 
xorlh. 

M«ltwi™o«n.- j ^ "'j™- g.^ 




DUT-LUnCH. Of THI B1.ITI.H N.T.t PoSCH IS £.CH MoKTB OP 1803.1 




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In the EnRliih and Iriih Chaiineli 

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by Mr. Wblimcad, i>n'di> IHb April, and Ihc re»lutloDi of Ili< Hobk thcn-npon. 



ANNALS OF THB BRITISH FLBRT. 

■B (au, ihlpi Irmn 44 lo M, Mgatn, iliMpi, Ac. on Ibe 



«of 


Ju 


.ry 


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H Of July, IMS, 












LnuarymiSOS. 


Sll<inn> or Iht Brlltil. Navy in iKa iDonlhl 
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la Iha EilglUb hlirt Iriih ChaBnelt 

In Ihi^ IJo^ni adil Norlli Suas. 

Wcil India liUnrli, and Dn Ike pauage. 

Ea« India lilaDlll, aiid on Hie paMagc, 

Spain, Pormgal, and Glbrillar. 
In ihc Medlrerrancan. 

Kospllal and Pdtaa Stiipi. 

SEcn^I ExiKdiUon. 

HEceivine Shlpi. 
Serviceable and rfpairinj Tor Ser«lcs. 

Sulllliui. 

GnrndToWl. 


No. 
40 

OK 


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No, 


No. 


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iIh, llidinar> ■! each Fort, lododiH] tn the abere • 

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Jaaairy — . Uddeo Park aalM fiom PonaiDDnlh an Ui ■•.(ond cipedlUoa Inio Ihc Inlcijor o[- 
AMca.*— 11. Onliin liued b; Greal Britain f« miUnf (CDcral reprlialiiEalDt Spain. — 18. Lt 
TlmtRui (French Ingg'r], IS (nni, 6i iDtn, caplired by ibe GreybouiKl, 31. C. ElpdlmloDE, In Ibe 

atniy«l, la Qnlberon Bay, crtw Hitd.— U. A Fnncb felucca, 1 pm, I iwliel, «r men, UliIB by 
Ibt Pitetell {Iloapl, 18, J. Umberl. Jamilu SliHon.— M. I/Elliabelb, Fr«ucb Kbwner, 4 gant, M 
mea, Uken by the Bpervler (brig). 10, John Impey, Letnanl laliud Stnllon. Flip, la mtn, (Datch) 
Ukta by the Swan (hired ontwr), Ueat. W. R. Wallice.~lB. The Raven (brig), WiUlam Layman, 

mtn, taken by Ike Ktag Ribtr (iloop), 18, R. W. Cnbb, Jnn. — ao. TLe Londoa Dock! opened. 
Febmary. The Altbnc (lotmerly Venai) CDtler, Uenl. R. Cooban, S. hired, taken by a French 
leaa. A French BIluadcoB of three : 



made aa attack oa ihe lo 

lawn cBpltnlattd. bol In a fen dayi Ihe French aba 

4. Ihe Arrow (lUwp). of Ineoly^fllkt Sl-paandcr 



—Set MUllary Aouli.- 
teu, Capl. H. B. Vlncini 



a dvtacbmept af nldlcra, ai 



ANNALS OP THfi BRITISH FLBBT. 133 

•Dd th« Acheron (bomb), of eight carronad^s, two bombs, and 67 men, A. Farqahar, having charge of 
convoy from Malta, boand to England, were captured by the French frigates Hortense, of 48 guns and 
340 men, and Incorraptible, of 42 guns and 320 men, off Cape Caxine.* El Fnerte de Gibraltar, 4, 
Spanish, taken by the Mercory, D. P. Bonverie. — 7. Madame Ernoaf (French), 16 guns, 120 men, 
taken by Le Carienx (sloop), 16, G. E. B. Bettesworth, Leeward Island Station. — 8. Carmerara 
(Spanish) schooner, 16 gans, taken by the Lark (sloop), 18, Frederick tiangford. Bay of Senegal. 
Orqalio,t 18, (Spanish) taken by the Peqne, 36} C. H. B. Ross, off the Havanna. — 13. The Melam- 
pos, 36, S. Points, captured near the Passage *dn Raz, two gun brigs, carrying tygo 24 and one 18- 
ponnder each ; and four loggers mounting one 18 pounder each. The Rhoda and Faith armed cutters, 
the latter commanded by Lieut. J. Nicholson, captured two luggers also of the same description. 
General Augereau (French), 14 guns, 88 men, taken by the Topaze, 38, W. T. Lake, Irish Channel. — 
14. La Psyche, 36, (French) taken by the St. Fiorenoo, 36, H. Lambert, East Indies, after a very 
spirited resistance of three hours and a half. — 23. Ville de Milan^ 48, (French) taken by the Lean- 
der, 50, John Talbot, on the Halifax Station. The Bouncer (gun brig), Lieut. S. Bassan, 14, B. 1804, 
wrecked oS Dieppe, and crew made prisoners. 

March 1. La Farina (Spanish) schooner, 4 guns, 62 men, taken by the Circe, 32, J. Rose, off 
Oporto. Imogene (sloop), H. Yaughan, 18 Pr. P. 1804; foundered on her passage from Leeward 
Islands, crew saved. Redbridge (schooner), 8, B. 1804, lost at Jamaica, crew saved. — 7. Santa Ro- 
salia Galundrina (Spanish), 57 men, taken by the Rein Deer, 16, J. Fyffe, Jamaica Station. Elln- 
trepide, corvette (Spanish), 14 guns, 66 men, taken by the Immortalite, 36, E. W. C. B. Owen, at 
•ea.— 10. Mr. Thomas Mosgrave, Commander of the Kitty, private sloop of war, after an action of 
one hour and a half, captured the Spanish private ship of war. Felicity, of 20 guns and 170 men ; one 
of the Kitty's men was killed and two dangerously wounded. This action was highly creditable to 
British valour, as nut 20 of the Kitty's crew ever saw a gun tired before, and not twice that numtwr 
were ever at sea before, leaving the Downs on the 3rd of the month. — 16. I/Intrepid (schooner), 4 
guns, 6^ men, taken by the Grenada (schooner), 10, Lieut. John Barker, Leeward Island Station.—- 
23. Antelope (Dutch), 5 guns, 154 men, taken by the Stork (sloop), 18, G. Le Geyte, Jamaica Station. 

April 2. Empereur (French), 14 guns, 82 men, taken by the Eagle, 14, David Colby, Leeward 
Island Station. — 3. L'Elizabeth,'10, (Spanish), taken by the Bacchante, 20, Chaj-les Dashwood, off 
the Havannah. Capt. Dashwood after this capture, having information that there were three French 
Privateers in the harbour of Mariel, determined to rout them. Lieuts. Oliver and Campbell volun- 
teered their services, and were dispatched on the evening of the 5th in two boats ; and as it was ab- 
solutely necessary to gain possession of a round tower, near 40 f$et high, on the top of which were 
three long 24 pounders, with loop holes round its circumference for musketry', and well manned, they 

* The noble defence made by this sloop and bomb- vessel, enabled thirty-one out of thirty-four mer- 
chantmen to escape. At a quarter past four a.m. the Hortense, after hailing, opened a fire of round 
and grape on the Acheron^ which she retarned with her starboard guns, then tacked and discharged 
her opposite ones. The Arrow, which had in the mean time bore op, raked the Hortense. Daylight 
showed to the British the force with which they had to contend. The Arrow made signals to the 
convoy, and hauled the wind, followed in close order by the Acheron. About five minutes after 
seven, being abreast of the Arrow, and within half-musket shot distance, the Incorruptible opened her 
broadside, and received that of the Arrow in return. In a few minutes more this frigate arrived up 
with, and began engaging the Acheron ; and the Hortense having closed with the Arrow, the action 
then became general. From being exposed to the fire of both frigates, the Arrow became unmanage- 
able, and in this state was warmly engaged with the Incorruptible. At length, having four of her 
guns dismounted, her rudder machinery disabled, her lower masts and yards badly wounded, several 
shot between wind and water, 13 of her crew killed, and 27 wounded, the colours were hauled down, 
. after being engaged more than an hour. In twenty minutes after, the Acheron, who, on the Arrow's 
surrender, had made all sail to the southward, having also been much disabled in masts, sails, trnd rig- 
ging, struck her colours to the Hortense. Scarcely had the surviving crew been removed from the 
Arrow, than she sank ; and the shattered state of the Acheron induced the captors to set her on fire. 
The French frigates had each about 300 troops, exclusive of their crews. 

t Afterwards foundered, see October. 

X The Yille de Milan had previously taken the Cleopatra, 32, Sir Robert Lawrie, after a long and 
most determined resistance, which latter was also retaken by the Leander. Sir Robert Lawrie did not 
surrender until he had so completely disabled his huge opponent, as to render both vessels (now French) 
an easy capture to the Leander, Capt. Talbot, one of the most promising yoong officers in the service, 
who, by this means, and scarcely firing a gun, bad the option of commanding one of the finest frigates 
in the French Navy ; but with that generous spirit, the characteristic of a brave officer, he deferred 
this material object to Sir Robert Lawrie, to whose spirit, bravery, and perseverance alone, he gene- 
rously ascribed the double capture of the Ville de Milan and her prize the Cleopatra, as, if the French- 
man had not been so beaten, she certainly would not have proved so ea»y a prize. Sir Robert in his 
dispatch observed, that immediately after the surrender of the Cleopatra, " she became a perfect 
wreck, not a spar standing but the mizenmast, the bowsprit, and other roasts gone by the board, and 
I fully expected she would have foundered before both ships could get clear of each other." — " More 
gallantry and bravery could not have been displayed than by both officers and men of so yoimg a ship's 
company, many being under twenty years of age, and only three marines who had joined that corps 
more than two weeks before they embarked."— Dispatch. 



184 ANNALS OP THB BRITISM FLEBT. 

had to carry the fort previoas to their entering the harbodr, so as to secure a tafe retreHt. tiientS 
Oliver being in the headmost l>oat, findinj; himself discovered, and as not a moment was to^be lost at 
such a critical period, *' most nobly advanced, without waiting for his flriend, landed in the face of, 
and in opposition to, a most tremendoas fire, withoot condescending to retnrn the salntation, moanted 
the fort by a ladder, and fkirly carried it by a coop^e main."* " Having been rejoined by Lient. 
.Campbell, he dashed on to attack the privateers, bnt found they had sailed the day previous on a 
omise. He was therefore obliged to be content with taking possession of two schooners laden with 
sugar." — Dispatch. — 4. La Hazard (French) schooner, 6 guns, 80 men, taken by the Blanche, 36, 
Zelladge, Jamaica Station.— 0. Mr. Whitbread, in the House of Commons, brought forward charges 
Against Lord Melville, for misapplication of the public money, when Treasurer of the Navy, and in 
consequence of the resolutions of the House, bis Lordship t resigned the office of First Lord of the 
Adiniralty4 — 8. La Desir^ (French) schooner 14 guns. 71 men, taken by the Barbadoes, 93, Joseph 
Nourse, at sea. — 9. French schooner, name unknown, 7, sunk by the Graciense, 14, T. B. Smith, 
Jamaica Station. — 11. Treaty of Concert concluded between Great Britain and Russia against 
France : Austria, and Sweden, shortly after Joined in the league. — 12. L' Alert, (French) 4 gnntf, 
92 men, taken by the Inflexible; 64, T. Bayley, at sea.— 13. Capt. P. Carteret of the Scorpion brig, 
(18) in company with the Providence, (16) Capt. Rye, captured L'Honneur,^ Dutch schooner of 12 
guns. — 14. Orestes, 1 gun, 6 swivels, 36 men, and Pylades, same force, (both French) taken by the 
Mnsquito sloop, 18, S. Jackson, in the Channel. — 15. Conception, (Spani^) felucca, 1 gun, 20 men, 
taken by the PapiUon, 16, W. Woolsey, Savannah La Mar. — 24. Seven Dutch Schuyts taken by 

Rear-Admiral Douglas's squadron off Cape Grisnez. — 27. General , (French) taken by the 

Renard sloop, 14, Jeremiah Coghlan, Jamaica. — 39. The Commons of England impeach Lord Mel- 
ville at the Bar of the House for malversations during his tenure of the Office of Treasurer of the 
Navy. — 30. La Perseverance (French) schooner, 5 guns, 84 men, taken by the Seine, 36, D. Atkins, 
Jamaica Station. 

May 4. Le Temprebort (French) cutter, 4 gins, 35 men, taken by the Unicom, 32, L. Hardyman. 
— and 7. hn. Renomee (French) 3 gnns, 06 men. La Rencontre (French) 2 guns, 4Sb men, and 
Venus (French) 1 gun, 35 men, taken by the SandMrich cutter, 10, Lieut. Benardiney, Bahama Banks. 
I^s Amis Reunis, (French) 2 gnns, 38 men, taken by the Victor sloop, 18, Lieut. Bell, at the entrance 
of the Persian Gulf. Santa Rosa (Spanish) schooner, 3 guns, 57 men, taken by the Hunter, 18, S. H. 
Ingle0e)d. — 7. Napoleon, (Spanish) 20 guns, 108 men, taken by the Topaze, 36, W. J. Lake, at Sea. 
—8. Capt. C. Boyle, of the Seahorse, 38i having observed a Spanish convoy go into the anchorage 
of St. Pedro, to the eastwaid of Cape de Gatt, where they were protected by a fort, two armed 
schooners, and three gun and mortar launches, determined to attempt their destruction. The vessel of 
greatest consequence to get out was an ordnance brig, laden with 1170 quintals of powder, and vari- 
ous"^ other stores for the gun boats on the coast, which was effected by Lieut. Downie, in a six-oared 
cattery assisted by Mr. T. Napper, midshipman, in a four-oared boat. The Seahorse daring the time 
kept up a weHdirected fire on the fort, gun vessels, and convoy, and having sunk one of the gnn- 
launches, and damaged 'and sank several others of the convoy, night coming on, with light winds, the 
main-top gallant masts, sdils, braces, and bowlines shot away by the fire of the gim-Iaunches, she 
hauled off. — ^9. La Trav«la (Spanish) lugger, 3 guns, 40 men, taken by the Millbrook, schooner, 14, 
John C. Carpenter, Bayonne Islands. — 11. Damas, (Spanish) 4 guns, 57 men, taken by the King, 
flaher, sloop, 18, W. R. Cribb, off Cape St. Julah. Hawke, sloop, J. Tippet, 18, P. P. 1803, missing 
aioce May, supposed to have foundered in the channel. Sea Gull, brig, H. Barke, 18, B. 1705, and 
Mary, (hired) Lieut. T. S. Pacy, foundered in a cruise, with all the crews, time unknown. Fly, 
sloop, T. B. Pellew, 18, B. 1804, lost-on the Carysfort Reef in the Gulf of Florida, crew sived.-l- 
12. Cyane,|| sloop, 18, Hon. G. Ca^ogan, B. 1796, (since Cerf) taken by the t'rench frigates Hor- 
tense and Hermione, near Martinique. Orestes, sloop, T. Browne, 16, P. 1803, ran aground on a 
sand-bank near Gravelines, and a:terwards burnt, to prevent capture ; crew saved. — 13. Santa Anna 
(Spanish) schooner, 5 guns, 108 men, taken by the Petcrell, 18, J. Laraborn, off Cuba. — 14. Orestes 
(French) 1 gon, 6 swivels, 34 men, taken by the Inspector, sloop, 16, E. J. Mitchell, Channel. Le 
Flelix (Spanish) schooner, 6 guns,, 42 men, taken by the Bacchante, 20, C. Dasbwood, off the Ha- 
vana. — 16. Justicia (Spanish) schooner, 4 gnns, 95 men, taken by the Cyane, 18, G. Cadogan. — 
17. Le Teazer (French) 7 guns, 61 men, taken by the Osprey sloop, 18. T. Clinch, Leeward Island 
Station. — ^20. El Fanix (Spanish) brig, 14 guns, 85 men, taken by Topaze, 36, W. T. Lake, at sea. 



• <' I wish to mark my admiration of the noble conduct of Lieut Oliver in so gallantly attscking and 
carrying a fort mrhich, with the men it contained, ought to have mnintained its position against fifty 
limes the number that were opposed ; but nothing could withstand the prompt and manly steps taken 
by that <^cer and his gallant crew on this occasion." — Dispatch. 

t On the 6th May, the Chancellor of the Exchequer acquainted the House that His Mj^esty had 
emsed Lord Mt-lville's name from the list of the Privy Council. 

X Lord Melville was succeeded by Sir Charies Middleton, newly created a Baron of the Realm by 
the title of Lord Barham. 

$ She had on board 1000 stand of arms, a complete set of clothing for that number of men, and a 
considerable quantity of warlike stores; she had besides, two field pieces, and two mortars, tents, &c. 
for tioops. Jtan Saint Faust, noted for his successfol depredations on the British commerce, was a 
passenger on board of her, 

[| Retaken by the Princess Charlotte, see October 5. 



ANNALS OF THK BRITISH KLKKT. 135 

-^96. Sun F^x El Soeoro (Spanish) fefoccai 1 gun, 40 men, taken by Racoon, 18, K. Croflon, off 
Jamaica.-^ 27. Conception (Spanish) felucea, ftgunn, 10 men, taken by Seine, 30, D. Atkins, off 
Puerto Rico.— 28. De Zenno (Dutch) 13 men, taken by the Charger, brig, 14, J. A. Blow. North 
Sea Station. — 31. French Privateer, name unknown, 1 gun, 25 men, taken by the Trinidad, schooner, 
10, Lieot. Stont. La Desiree (French) felucca, 1 gun, 40 men, taken by the Heurenx, 24, G. Young- 
faesband. West Indies. 

June 2. Capt. Maitland, of the Loire (40), sent the launch and two cutters, under his first Lien- 
tenant, Yeo, to bring out a small vessel which was discovered standing in the Bay of Camarinas, to 
the eastward of Cape Finisterre ; from the intricacy of the passage, the boats did not get up till break 
of day, when they found two small privateers moored under a battery of 10 guns. Lieut. Yeo, un- 
daunted by a circumstance so little expected, ordered the launch, commanded by Mr. Charles 
CUnch, Master's Mate, to board the smallest, whilst hcf with the two cutters attacked and carded the 
largest, the Esperanaa, alias San Pedro, a felucca of 3 guns, 4 swivels, and 50 men ; the launch had 
the same success, the fort opening a fire so ill-directed as to do little damage. Being perfectly calm, 
close under the guns of the enemy's battery, and no possibility of receiving assistance f^om the Loire« 
Lieut. Yeo was compelled to abandon the smallest vessel, a lugger of 2 guns, and 32 men, to secure 
the felucca.* — 3. Capt. Maitland being informed there was a French Privateer of 26 guns fitting out 
at Elburos, appointed Lieut. Yeo to head the boarders, amounting, officers Included, to 50 men. On 
faanling round the point of the road, a small battery of 2 guns opened a fire on the ship, which was 
returned ; bat perceiving it would be a considerable annoyance, Lieut. Yeo pushed on shore alid 
Slaked the guns. As the ship drew in, and more fully opened the bay, Capt. Maitland perceived a 
very large corvette, (die Confiance of 26 poits) and a large brig (Le Seller of 20 ports), but neither 
of them firing, he concluded they had not their guns on board. The so!e object of his attention there- 
fore was the fort, which began a well-directed fire, every shot taking place on the hull. The fire was 
reCnmed with great effect, and the fort would have been soon silenced, notwithstanding its spirited 
defence, had it not been completely embrasured. Lieut. Yeo soon put an end to their fire ; after 
taking the small battery on the point, he perceived at the distance of a quarter of a mile a regular 
fbrtf ditched, and with a gate, which the enemy (not suspecting his landing) had neglected to secure, 
and wliich was firing upon the ship. Without waiting for orders he pushed forward, was the first in, 
aad after a dreadful slaughter on the part of the enemy, the remainder surrendered, and the British 
colours were immediately hoisted.-t— 4. Confiance (French) 26 guns, and Belier (French) brig, taken- 
by Loire, 40, F. Maitland, Elburos. The British fleet under Admiral Lord Nelson, arrived at 
Birbadoes in pursuit of the Toulon French tieet, which after being joined by the Spanish fleet at 
Cadiz, had sailed from the latter place for the West Indies. His Lordship, on first learning that the 
Toolon fleet had put to sea, conjectured that the destination was Egypt, and he immediately sailed for 
Alexandria ; but on his return, learning their true destination, and having hastily provisioned at Pa- 
lermo, he again departed in pursnit.| — 5. Santa Leocadia (Spanish) 14 ^uns, 114 men, taken by the 
Helena, 18, Woodley Losack, at sea. — 10. L'Amitie, 14, (French) schooner, taken by the Blanche, 
36, Z. Mudge, Jamaica Station.-— 11. The House of Commons agree to a criminal prosecution of 
Lord Viscount Melville. — 13. Maria (Spanish) schooner, 14 guns, 64 men, taken by the Cam- 
brian, 38, J. P. Beresford, at sea. — 18. La Colombia, 16, (French) corvette, taken by the En- 
dsrroion, 44, Hon. C. Paget. — 21. Constance, (French) 10 guns, 75 men, taken by the Circe, 32, 
Jonas Rose. — 25. Valiant (French) 30 guns, taken by the Loire, 40, F. Maitland, at sea. The 
House -of Commons change their mode of proceeding, and resolve on impeaching Lord Molville. — 
26. Amotellan (Dutch) 12 guns, 60 men, taken by the Rosamond sloop, B. Walker, Home Station. 

July 3. Matilda (French) schooner, 20 guns, 95 men, taken by the Cambrian, 38, J. P. Beresford, 
at sea 7 Josefine, (French,) 2 guns, 35 men, taken by the Ramilies, 74, F. Peckmore, and Illus- 
trious, 74, W. Shield. — 10. La Hirondelle (French) brig, 16 guns, 00 men, taken by the Venus, 82, 
H. Matson, off Ireland. — 11. In the House of Commons an address to His Majesty was resolved 
upon for copies of the correspondence between the British and French Governments relative '* to the 

* When the crew of the felucca were mustered, 19 out of 50 were missing, some of them had jumped 
overboard ; but the greater part were killed by the pike, there being no weapon used but that and the 
sabre. The Loire's men, including officers, only amounted to 35 opposed to 80 Spamards, with their 
vessels moored to the walls of a heavy battery. 

f The British had 15 wounded ; the Governor of the fort, and a Spanish gentleman who had volun- 
teered, the second captain of the Confiance, and nine others of the Spaniards, were killed ; thirty, 
amongst whom were most of the officers of the Confiance, were wounded. The enemy's force at the 
commencement of the action was a fort of 12 guns, 22 soldiers, several Spanish gentlemen and towns- 
men volunteers, and about 100 of the ships' company of the Confiance. Capt. Maitland and bis crew 
manifested so much humanity to the inhabitants, as to call forth the personal thanks of the Bishop of 
the Diocese, conduct which must have impressed the Spaniards with the most exalted ideas of tha 
nobleness of character and heroism of British seamen. 

X The combined fleets of France and Spain, on the arrival of Lord Nels<m in the West Indies, not- 
withstanding their numerical superiority, immediately sailed for Europe ; a transaction which, while 
It stamps the highest reputation upon the British name and arms, covers with indelible disgrace the 
naval charactCi- of the enemy. The unceasing activity of Nelson compelled him to, what even his 
modesty could not refuse the term of, a pursuit, and the novel scene presented itself to an admiring 
world of 17 sail 'of Fretich and Spanish ships of the line, flying before a force of the same class bear- 
ing the British ensigns. • ' " 



136 ANNALS OF THE BRITISH FLBET. 

trestment or excliMift of CapC. Wrtght/ of Hit Mij)efty's tloop Vkenw/' and m»w a prtaoMr of war 
in close confioemeat U Fmpce. — 18. Hydra (Spanish) sehoooer, 38 gons, 192 men, taken by tbc 
Melampas, 36, S. Points, at sea. — 17. Ranger, sloop, Charles Coote, 10, B. 1796, captured by the 
Rochfort squadron, being previously so damaged by her crew that the enemy were obliged to bum 
her.~l9. Blanche, Z. Mndge, 36, B. 1801, taken and afterwaids bnmed in laU 20 deg, N. long. 66 
dej;. W. after a most gallant resistance against a French squadron, consisting of two frigates, and two 
sloops. — 32. Vice Admiral Sir Robert Calder, with a detachment of the Channel fleet, consistinjs of 
15 sail of the line, 2 frigates, and a lugger, defeated t oflf Femd the c<Mnb'med fleets of France and 
Spain, 20 sail of the line, 3 fifty gun ships, 5 frigates, and 3 brigs, capturing two Spanish ships of the 
line, vis. the San Rafael, 84, and El Fimee, 74. The action lasted four hours. The fleets remained 
in dght till the 34th, when the French got into Ferrul, and from thence some time after they put into 
Gadis4 — ^24. La Petite Aricere, (French) 4 guns, 35 men, taken by the Grenada brig, 10 guns, Uent. 
J. Burke. El Santa Maria Magdalena (Spanish) felucca, 1 gun, taken by the Superieure, schooner, 13, 
W. C. Fromow, West indies. 

August 9. Dove cutter, A Boyack, 6, taken by the Roehfort squadron. Sheerness, Lord 6. Stnart, 
44, B. 1787, lost in a gale of wind off Trincomalee Bay, Ceylon, crew saved. — 11. L'Hazard (Flench) 
gun boat, 14 men, taken by the Dominica doop, H. Peter, Leeward Island Sution. — 13. La Cari- 
dad Perfecta, 12, (Spanish) schooner, taken by the Marianne schooner, Lieut. James Smith, under 
the batteries of TruxUlo, after sustaining a very heavy and constant fire from the fort, in addition to 
the resistance of La Caridad. — 19. La Fanne, 10, (French) corvette, taken by the CUrfiah, H. Bar- 
ton, and Camilla, B. W. Taylor, Channel. — 16. La Touche, 18, (French) corvette, taken by the 
Goliah, 74, R. Barton, Channel. Plumber, gun brig, Uent. H. Garrety, 14, B. 1804, and Teaxer,gan 
brig, Lieut. 6. L. Ker, 14, B. 1804, taken off St. Maloes by five French gun brigs. Pigmy, Uent. 
W. Smith, (2) 14, T. 1779, wrecked in St. Anbin's Bay, Jersey, crew saved. Althorpe cutter, Uent. 
W. Scott, 16, (hired) foundered in the Channel. — 19. Capt. Balcer of the Phoenix, (36), captured the . 
La Didon, of 44 guns and 330 men, a remarkably fine frigate, and the fastest sailer in the French 
navy. The action commenced at a quarter past nine in the morning, and lasted three hours, witliin 
pistol shot, during which all the ropes of the Phoenix were cut to pieces, her main-topsail yard shot 
away, and most of her masts and yards severely wounded. The necessity for Capt. Baker enga^ng 
to leeward, in order to prevent the possibility of the enemy's escape, exposed the Phoenix to several 
raking broadsides before it was prudent to return the fire ; and the superiority of La Didon's sailing, 
added to the adroit manoeuvres of her Captain, Milins, showed the skill and gallantry with which 
Capt. Baker had to contend. Owing to the lightness of the wind, and La Didon's attempt to board, 
the starboard quarter of the Phoenix was brought in contact with her larboard bow, in ii^hich position 
she remained full three quarters of an hour, subject to a galling fire of musketry, which robt>ed Capt. 
Baker of such support of officers and men as could not be compensated but by the complete victory 
which crowned this bloody conflict.^ — ^29. Sir Sidney Smith attempted to burn the Boulogne flotilla, 
by means of fire machines, called Carcases or Catamarans. La Ravancbe, (French) row boat, 14 
men, taken by the Dominica sloop, R. Peter, Leeward Island Station. 

September. L'Hy polite, 4, (French) corvette, and armed with 8 swivels, run ashore and destroyed 
ori the Isle of Bourbon, by the Duncan, 18, Lieut. Sneyd (acting). — 2. La Prndente, (French) 
row boat, taken by the Dominica sloop, H: Peter, Leeward Island Station. — 12. Capt. 
Parke, of the Amaeon, (38,) captured the Principe de la Paz,|| a Spanish corvette Privateer of 24 

* Sir Sidney Smith, a friend of Capt. Wright, read a letter descriptive not only of the situation of 
Capt. Wright, and also of the engagement in which the Yicenzo was captured, but likewise of the 
sntMequent hardships the gallant captain and his brave oSicers and crew had suffered, and were then 
suffering ; towards the conclusion of his speech, Sir Sidney was so overcome by his feelings that he 
way at times deprived of articulation, and in the end obliged to break off abruptly. 

i See note to December 23. 

X The following are the names of the ships which composed the British line of battle on this occa- 
sion, with the names of their commanders, and the number of killed and wounded in each, via; — 
Hero, 74, Hon. A. H. Gardner, 1 killed, 4 wounded ; Ajax, 80, W. Brown, 2 killed, 10 wounded ; 
Triumph, 74, H. Inman, 9 killed, 6 wounded ; Barfleur, 96, G. Martin, 3 killed, 7 wonnded ; Aga- 
memnon, 64, J. Harvey, 3 woanded ; Windsor Castle, 98, C. Boyles, 10 killed, 35 wounded ; Defiance, 
74, P. C. Durham, 1 killed, 7 wounded ; Prince of Wales, 98, Vice-Admiral Sir R. Calder, Capt. W. 
Cuming, 3 killed, 20 wounded ; Repulse, 74, Hon. A. K. Legge, 4 wonnded ; Raisonable, 64, J. Row- 
ley, 1 -killed, 1 wounded ; Dragon, 74, R. Griffiths, none; Glory, 98, Rear- Admiral C. Stirling, Capt. 
S. Warren, 1 killed, 1 wounded ; Warrior, 74, S. H. Unaee, none ; Thunderer, 74, W. Lechmere, 
7 killed, 11 wounded ; MalU, 84, E. Buller, 5 killed, 40 wounded ; frigates, Kgyptienue, 40, Hon. C. 
E. Fleming; Sirins, 36, W. Prowse, 3 killed, 3 wounded ; Brisk cutter, Uent. J. Nicholson, none ; 
and Nile lugger, G. Fennel, none. Total 41 killed, 158 wounded. The enemy's fleet consisted of 
thirteen French and seven Spanish ships of the line : of the former there were one of 84 guns, four of 
80, and nine of 74 guns ; of the Utter, one of 84 guns, four of 80, two of 74, and two of 64 ; beskles 
the three ships armed en flute, five frigates, and three brigs, above mentioned. 

§ The Phoenix had 13 killed and 28*wounded, amongst the former were Lieut. Borinton, George 
D'onelan, Master's Master, and John Powers, Quartir Master. La Didon had 47 killed and 44 
wonnded. 

II This ship had taken the Prince of Wales Packet, and the Lady Nelson, Letter of Marque ; part 
o{ the crew of the latter was found on board the privateer, and a considerable sum in specie. 



ANNALS OP THB BRITISH FLRET. 137 

gans and 4 brass swivels, with 100 men on board, chiefly French.— 13. Renom^, (French,) 9 guns, 
40 men, taken by the Rein Deer sloop, 16, J. Fy fie. West - Indies. — 18.*^-S6. Calcutta, Daniel 
Woodriffe, 50, P. 1793, taken, after a determined^ resistance, by a French sqoadron on passage as 
convoy, from St. Helena, near Scilly. — 30. £1 Galgo, pierced for 14, (Spanish) schooner, taken by 
the Port Mabon, 18, S. Chambers. 

October 2. — L'Actseon, 16, (French,) taken by the Egyptienne, 40, Hon. C. E. Fleming, off 
Rochfort. Baracouta, schooner, Lieut. J. Orchard, 4, B. 1804, wrecked on the Jordan Kay, off 
Cuba, crew saved, but made prisoners. Gen. Ferrand, (French,) felucca, 1 gnn, 2 swivels, taken by 
the Franchise, 36, Capt. Macdonnell, iLeeward Island Station. — I. San Benite, (French,) 1 gnn, 18 
men, taken by the Netley, schooner, 14, Lieut. Carr. — 5. Cyane,t 34, (French,) corvette, taken 
near Tobago, by the Princess Charlotte, 38, C. Tobin, and carried into Grenada. — 6. Mestno la 
Solidad, (Spanish,) 6 guns, taken by the Eurydice, 24, W. Hoste. — 11. A Spanish gon-boat, No. 4, 
taken by the Dexterous gun-brig, 14, Lieut. R. Tomlinson, off Gibraltar. Squib, (F. V.) 4, (hired,) 
driven on shore and bilged near Deal, crew saved. — 13. Naiade, 22, (French,) corvette, (since 
Melville,) taken by the Jason, 32, W. Cham pain. Leeward Island Station. Orqulio^ (S.) C. Balder- 
son, 18, foundered in a gale, Jamaica Station ; Oft of her crew lost. — 10. La Preciensa, (Spanish,) 
cntter, 3 guns, 27 men, taken by the Wolf, 18, C. C. Mackenzie, Jamaica Station. — 21. The greatest 
Naval Victory on record obtained by the British fleet, of 27 sail-of.ttae line, including 3 sixty-fours, 
commanded by Vice- Admiral Lord Viscount Nelson, off Cape Trafalgar, near Cadiz, over the United 
French and Spanish squadrons, consisting of 33 ships, (of which 18 were French, and 15 Spanish,) 
commanded by Admiral Villeneuve. The Spaniards, under the direction of Gravina, wore, with 
their heads to the northward, and formed their line of battle with great closeness and correctness ; 
but as the mode of attack was unusual, so the structure of their line was new — forming a crescent 
convezing to leeward, so that in leading down to their centre, Vice-Admiral Collingwood, the second 
in command, had both their van and rear abaft the beam. Before the flie opened, every alternate 
ship was about a cable's length to windward of her second ahead and stern, forming a kind of double 
line, and appeared, when on their beam, to leave a very little interval between them, and this without 
crowding their ships. Admiral Villeneuve- was in the Bucentanre, in the centre, and the Prince of 
Ajitnrias bore Gravina's flag in the rear ; but the French and Spanish ships were mixed, without any 
apparent regard to order of national squadron. Lord Nelson, in the Victory, led the weather column ; 
and Admiral CoUingwood, in the Royal Sovereign, the lee. The action $ began at twelve o'clock, by 
the leading ships of the columns breaking through the enemy's line. Lord Nelson about the tenth ship 
from the van. Admiral CoUingwood about the twelfth from the rear, leaving the van of the enemy 
unoccupied, the succeeding ships breaking through in all parts astern of their leaders, and engaging 
the enemy at the muzzles of their guns : .the conflict was severe ; the enemy's ships were fought with 
a gallantry highly honourable to their officers ; but the attack on them was irresistible, and ended 
in a complete and glorious victory.|| About three p.m., many of the enemy's ships having struck 

This capture was the more satisfactory, as her Captain, Fran9ois Beck, was an experienced cruiser, 
who commanded the French privateer Le Brave^ during the late war, greatly to the annoyance of 
the trade. 

* An action which Admiral Rdinier, commanding in the Indian Seas, characterized " as ranking 
with the most famous of the defensive kind ever recorded in the Annals of the British Navy," should 
have appeared under date 18th Sept. in our Annals of 1804, but we were misled, it having been 
noticed as occurring in 1805, in a record to which we referred. ' It was fought by the Centurion, 50 
guns, Capt. James Lind, acting commander, in Vizagapatam Road, in charge of a convoy, with the 
Marengo, 81, Admiral linois, and two frigates. After two hours cannonading, vigorously continued 
on both sides, the Marengo, with the frigates and prize Indiaman, stood to sea. The Centurion was 
much damaged in her masts, yards, and rigging, but no men were killed, and only nine wounded, one 
of whom died soon after. The gallant Capt. Lind received the honour of Knighthood on his return to 
England in the spring of 1805 ; was made a K. C. B. in 1815 ; and died 12lh June 1823. 

t Formerly British. See May 12. 

X Taken by the Pique. See February 8. 

$ The order in which the British squadron attached the combined fleets was as follows :-— The ships 
which composed the van were the Victory, 100, Vice-Admiral Viscount Nelson, Capt. T. M. Hardy ; 
Temeraire, 06, E. Harvey ; Neptune, 06, T. Fremantle ; Conqueror, 74, J. Pellew ; Leviathan, 74, 
U. W. Bayntun ; Ajax, 74, Lieut. J. Pilfold (acting) ; Orion, 74, Edward Codrington ; Agamemnon, 
64, Sir E. Berry ; Minotaur, 74, C. J. M. Mansfield ; Spartiate, 74, Sir F. Laforey, Baronet ; 
Britannia, 100, Rear- Admiral Earl of Northesk, Capt. d. Bnllen; Africa, 64, Henry Digby. Th« 
frigates, &c. were the Euryalns, 36, Hon. H. Blackwood ; Sirius, 36, W. Prowse ; Phoebe, 36, Hon. 
T. B. Capel; Naiad, 38, T. Dundas; Pickle (sch.), 10, Lieut. J. R. Lapenotiere ; Entreprenante 
(cut.), Lient. John Pnver. The fear was composed of the Royal Sovereign, 100, Vice-Admiral 
CoUingwood, Capt. E. Rotherham ; Mars, 74, G. Duff; Belleisle, 74, W. Hargood ; Tonnant, 80, C. 
Tyler ; Bellerophon, 74, J. Cooke ; Colossus, 74, J. N. Morris ; Achille, 74, R. King ; Polyphemus, 
64, R. Redmill; Revenge, 74, R. Moorsom ; Swiftsure, 74, W. G. Rutherford; Defence, 74, G. 
Hope; Thunderer, 74, Lieut. J. Stockham (acting); Defiance, 74, P. C. Durham; Prince, 08, R. 
Grindall ; Dreadnought, 08, J. Conn. 

II The battle of Trafalgar is justly ranked as the most glorious, whether in respect to the science 
and judgment with which it was conducted, the bravery and spirit with which it was fought, or its 
t'orinnate and brilliant result to the conquerors, ever recorded in the naval annals of our country. 



135 



ANnALS op TliR BRITISH PLBBT/ 



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Disposition of the British and Gooibined Fleets 
immediately before the Battle off Cape Trafalgar. 



R Le Redoiitable. I L'Intrepide. 

1 Victory, 100, Lord Nelson. 
11 Britannia, 100, Rear-Adm. Earl of Northesk. 
13 Royal Sovereign, lOO, Vice-Adm. Earl of 
Colling wood. 



theiir cOlonrs, their line gave way ; Admiral Gravina, with ten ships, joining their frigates to leeward, 
stood towards Cadiz.* The five headmost ships in their van tacked, and standing to the soathward, 
to windward of the British line, were engaged, and the sternmost of them taken ; the othersf went 
off, leaving to His Majesty's squadron 19 ships-of-the-iine, (of which two were first rates, the Santis- 
slma Trinidad, and the Sadta Anna,) with three flag officers, viz. Admiral Yilleneoye, Don Ignatio 
Ifaria D'Aliva, Vice-Admiral, and the Spanish Rear-Admiral Don Baltazar Hidalgo Cisneros. Such 
a battle coald not be fonght without a great loss of men. The Commander-in-Chief, Lord Nelson, 
received a masket-ball in his left breast, and soon after expired.^ Capts. Doff, of the Mars, and Oooke, 



The enemy had a superiority of 6 sail-of the-line, were fresh from port, and in the most perfect state 
of eqhipmfeilt, and against snch odds, this splendid victory was gained throngh the transcendant 
abilities of Nelson, and the bravery of his officers and men, and which would probably have been 
extended to the captnre or destrnction of every vessel of the enemy, had not the wind been so dnll as 
to prevent the rear of the British fleet from coming up in proper time. The coolness, intrepidity, 
and bravery of the British seamen on tliiv occasion, exceed all praise ; the result of the admirable 
discipline which prevailed in the fleet, and which, ct-mbined with their native conrage, gave them a 
decided and terrible superiority over their adversaries during the conflict, who nevertheless evinced 
uncommon resolution and firmness: indeed, the shattered condition of the captured ships, and tlieir 
dreadfbl loss in killed and wounded, sufficiently prove this fact. 

■ * On the return of Gravina to Cadiz, he whs immediately ordcreil to sea again, and came out, 
which made it necessary for Admiral Collingwood to form a line, to cover the disabled hulls ; but 
blowing bard at night, Gravlna's ship, the Prince of Asturias, was dismasted, and he returned into 
port^ 

t See November 3rd. 

X At about 15 minutes after one, standing on the quarter-deck, moving, as was his custom when- 
ever he was much pleased, the shoulder or rather sleeve of his right arm np and down with great ra- 
pidity, he received a wound from a musket htlf'ttiefaarged by a marksman on the poop of th^ 
Bucentaurc, which entered his left breast, and which he immediately declared to be mortal. To the 



ANMALS OF THB BRITISH FLBET.- 



im 



of ;tbe- BeUerophoa, were likewise amongst the slain. " After siich a victory, it may appear unne-- 
cewary to enter into encomiams on the particalar parts taken' by the several Commanders ; the 
coQcluMon says more on tDe sabject than I have language to express ; the spirit which animated all 
was the same ; when all exert themselves zealously in their country's service, all deserve that their 
high merits should stand recorded ; and never was high merit more conspicuous than in the battle I 
have described." — Admiral CollingwoodS Dispatch. ITie weather became so boisterous on 
the 22nd and 23rd, two days after the battle, as exposed tlie fleet to great danger ; many of Uie prises 
(13 or 14 in number) broke the tow rope, and drifted far to leeward before they were got hold of 
again ; ^nd some of them drifted upon the shore and sank. Admiral CoUingwood, in these clrcnra- 
stances, determined to destroy all the captured ships that could be cleared of the men, considering- 
that keeping possession of them wa» a matter of little consequence, compared with the chance of their 
falling again into the enemy's hands. This was accordin<;ly effected. Four ships only of the many' 
captured were brought into port.* There were 4000 troops embarked, under the command of Gen. 

' : 

laat moment of his life, which now. ebbed fast, his solicitude for the event of the action never ceased ;• 
every consideration, save the anxious wish for the gioi*y of bis country, being dormant in him. He 
constantly, while below, demanded the news of ihe battle, and expressed the most lively satisfoction 
QB being told it went well. About four his anxiety became extreme, and he repeatedly sent for Capt. 
^ardy, who fought his ship. This ofhcer, however, could not consistently with prudence then qnlt 
the deck ; at length, however, seeing the enemy s.riking their colours on every side, or flying the 
scene of action in confusion, assured of victory, Capt. Hardy carried the glad tidings to the dying 
hero, who after thaplcing God most fervently for the event, that he had survived long enongfa to have 
it made known to him, and that he had been enabled once more to do his duty to his country,-^ 
shortly after expired without a groan 1 

In this place we consider the prayer of the immortal Nelson, on goin^ to battle, may be most ap- 
propriately introduced. A beautiful letter written by the late King, when Prince Regent, on the death 
ctf this hero, is given in our bst volume, p. 132. 

." May the great God whom I worship, grant to my country, and for the benefit of Europe in 
general,' a great and glorious victory! and may no misconduct in any one tarnish it! and may 
humanity, after victory, be the permanent feature in the British fleet. For myself, individually, 1 
qnmmit my life to Him who made me, and may his blessing light upon my endeavours for serving 
my king and country faithfully. To Him I resign myself, and the just cause which is entrusted to 

me to defend.— Amen." 

""** Air the virtues which could adorn human "nature were to be found in the illustrious Nelson. The 
attribute of mercy was what nwst eminently distinguished him. In the language of the poet, it was 
not his wish to 

< Wade through slaughter to a throne. 
Or shut the gates of mercy on mankind.' 

It was impossible the glorious example of such a man could be without a corresponding effect on the 
ctiaracter of others. In this way was to be considered the conduct of many of those who were placed 
under his command."— Lord Hawkesbury's Speech, Parliamentary Debates, Vol. fl, 1806. ** the 
life and achievements of Lord Nelson would continue to animate the British Navy to the end of 
time." — Lord Castlereagh's Speech, ib. ; 

• Abstract, showing how the combined fleet was disposed of: — Sent to Gibraltar 4 ; destroyed 16} 
in Cadiz, wrecks 6 ; ditto serviceable 4 ; escaped 4; total 33. Names and Rank of the flag-officers of 
the combined fleets: — Admiral ViUenenve,+ Commander in-Chief, Bucentaure, taken; Admiral Don 
Fre^erico Gravina, Principe de Asturias, escaped. into Cadiz, wounded in the arm; Vice-Admiral 
Don Ignatio Maria D'Aliva, Santa Ana, severely wounded in the head, taken, but was driven into 
Cadiz; Rear- Admiral Don Baltazar Hidalgo Cisneros, Santiasima Trinidada, taken; Kear-Admiral 
Magon, Algesiras, killed ; Rear Admiral Dumanoir, Formidable, escaped. 

SHIPS TAKEN OR DESTROYED. 



French. • 
Swiftsure, 74, (formerly British). 
Pougenx, 74. "^ 
Indomptable, 84. | 

Bucentaure, 80. ^ Afterwards wrecked. 
Berwick, 74. | 

VAigle, 74. J 

L'Aitulle, 74. Blew up during the action. 
Hedoubtable, 74. Sunk after the action. 
Intrepide, 74. Burned. 



Spanish. 
San Ildefonso, 74. 
San Juan Nepomaceno, 74. 
Bahama, 74. 
Monarca, 74. "^ 

Sjn Francisco de Asia, 74. Ufterwards wrecked, 

El Rayo, 100. j * 

Neptuno, 84. J 

San Angustin, 74. Burned. 

Santissima Trinidada, 136. > Sunk after the 

Argonauta, 80, S action. 



f On Admiral Villeneuve's return from the West Indies, the French official paper, the Moniteur, 
bad severely glanced at his conduct. Buonaparte had also spoken sarcastically of him, and it was 
generally understood that his command was about to be taken from him. Stung and mortified by 
these circumstances, he determined, contrary to the wish of the Spaniards, to give battle to Lord 
Nelson, who anxiously awaited him. He considered that a victory over the greatest naval hero 
of the age would have ledeemed his character and covered him with glory, while a defeat could have 
added but little additional disgrace to his state of humiliation. 



140 ANNALS OP THE BR1T18H PLBBT. 

CoBtamin, who was Uken, witb Admiral ViUeneiiTe, in tbe BncenUnre. The lom on board the 
Yictory, Lord Neboo's flap-ihip, was niore severe than that pf any ocber riiip ; Vioe-Adnriral Col- 
Ungwood*s ship was the next greatest sufferer. The total loss of the English in this dreadfnl battle 
was :— <>ficers 30 kiUed, 08 wounded; seamen, &c. 387 killed, 1056 wounded ; making 4Z3 Inllcd, 
and 11S4 wounded ; Total 1587. The number of killed, wounded, and drowned of the combined fleeU 
is not known, but must have been immense. Admiral (kWngwood issued a General Order for a 
ThanksgiTing Day on account of this glorious victory.* — St. Pedro, (Spanish,) corvette, 16 guns, 70 
men, uken by the Iris, 3«, T. Lavre,at sea.— 22. Amphion, (Spanish,) ketch, W guns, 70 men, 
taken by Latona, 38, T. L. M. Gosselin, at sea< — ^29. Le President, (French,) brig, 4 guns, 70 men, 
taken by tbeiNnrciamu, 32, R. Donnelly, coast of Africa. 

November 3. — The four French ships of-the-line which bad escaped from the battle of Trafalgar, 
taken by Commodore Sir Richard Strachan, off Cape OrtegaLf *' At half-past three the action 
ceased, the enemy having fought to admiration, and not surrendering till their ships were unmanage- 
aUe." ** If any thing could add to the good opinion I had already formed of the officers and crew 
of the Caesar, it is their gallant conduct in this day's battle." ** The Captains of the shipa-of theline 
and frigates speak in high terms of their officers and ship's companies." — Dispatch. — 5. A 
Thanksgiving^lay was ordered for the victory uf Trafalgar. Golondrina, (Spanish,) lugger, 4 guns, 
SO men, Uken by the Pomone, 38. W. G. Lobb, coast of Spain. — 10. Biter, gun brig, Lieut. T. 
Wingate, 14 B. 1801, run aground and destroyed near Calais, crew saved. — 13. The Vengeur, 
(French,) brig, 14 guns, 56 men, taken by the Cruiser, sloop, 18, J. Hancock, ChanneL— 18. Wood- 
lark, gun^Hig, lieut. Thomas Innes, 14 B. 1788, run aground and destroyed near St. Valery ; crew 
lavetL Les Dos Azares, (Spanish,) schooner, 2 gons, 36 men, taken by the Bacchante, 20, R. 
Ifacdoonell, Jamaica Station. — ^21. Bellona, (Frenrh,) schooner, 4 guns, 50 men, taken by the 
Renaid, sloop, 18, Jeremiah Coghlan. — 25. Brilliano, (Spanish,) lugger, 5 guns, 55 men, taken by 
the Anrieue, 18, J. Johnstone, off Portugal. 

December. — Pigeon, schooner, J. S. Bnckraft, 4 P. 1805, lost off the Texel; crew saved, but 
made prisoners. — 10. Andr(mieda, (French,) 4 gans, 43 men, taken by the S|rider, schooner, 14, 
Ueut. H. Shaw, Mediterranean. — 16. L/Eliaabeth, (French,) 14 guns, 102 men, taken by the 
Kingfisher, sloop, 18, N. D. Cochrane, Leeward Islands.— 23. Sir Robert Calder tried by court- 
martial for not bringing the French fleet a second time to action.^ — 24. La Febre, 40, (French,) 
Uken by La Loire, 40, F. L. Maitland, and L'Egyptienne, 40, lient. P. C. Handfiekl, (acting,) off 
Rochfort. Napoleon, (French,) diip, 32 guns, 250 meta, driven on shore and wrecked near die Cape 

* The honour of an Earldom to the represenUtives of the revered Nelson, widi the accompaniment 
of a national residence and the means of due dignity, and a liberal provision to Ijady Nelson, were 
quickly accorded by the King and Parliament. An annuity of 20001. per annum, and a Peerage, 
were awarded to Admiral Collingwood, which the duration of a life worn out in the service did not 
permit him to enjoy ; and the Order of the Bath to the third in command, who, already ennobled by 
birth, now doubly sealed it in glory. The City of London voted its freedom and a sword of 200 
guineas value to Admiral CoUingvood, and the freedom and a sword of 100 guineas value to Lord 
Northesk. 

t Sir Richard Strachan's squadron conristed of the Caesar, 80 guns ; Hero, 74, Hon. A. H. Gardi- 
ner ; Courageux, 74, Richard Lee ; and Namnr, 74, L. W. Halsted ; accompanied by the Santa 
MargariU, 36, W. Rathbone ; .Solus, 32, Lord William Fitsroy ; Phoenix, 36, Thomas Baker ; and 
Revolationaire, 36, H. Hotham. The French consisted of the Daguay Tronin, 74, (since Implacable,) 
Capt. Toufflet ; Formidable, 80, (since Braave,) Rear-Admiral Damanoir ; Mont Blanc, 74, Capt. 
Yillegrey ; and Scipion, 74, Capt. Baronger. llie action began abont noon, and ended at half-past 
three o'clock. The British had only 24 killed and III wounded. This small loss arose, as exf^ned 
in the dispatches, fiom the enemy having (a usual fault with French sailors) " fired high,'* and the 
Ei^;lish (a corresponding virtue in our seamen) having " qaickly closed." The thanks of Pariiament 
were given for this service ; also a pension of lOOOf. to Sir Richard ; and the City of London voted 
him its freedom and a sword of 100 guineas value. 

X That 15 sail-of-the-line (See Jaly 22nd), should not only withstand 20 of those of the enemy, and 
three large 50 gun diips, but also capture two of their largest vessels, was an event certainly well 
calculated to maintain the character of superiority which the Navy of England so jusdy challenges. 
It had happened, onfortanately, that the Admiral's dispatches, as well as the verbal report of the 
officer who brought them home, gave the strongest fonndation for the belief that the action would be 
renewed upon the following day ; the result of which, to an enemy already beaten, must be deemed 
almost total destruction. The public disappointment was, therefore, extreme, when intelligence 
arrived which put an end to all hopes of the kind, and led to the belief that the shattered squadrons 
of the enemy had gained, without farther molestation, a Spanish port. The murmurs of disapprobu- 
tion at the conduct of the British Admiral were so little restrained, that Sir Robert Calder returned 
to England to demand an Investigation of his proceedings. He was accordingly tried by court- 
martial, and the Court decided that the Admiral had not done bis utmost to take or destroy every 
ship of the enemy which it was his duty to engage, bat at the same time ascribed such condact to 
error in Judgment, and sentenced him to be severely reprimanded. Sir Robert had at this time 
meritoriously served for forty years, and was Captain to Earl St. Vincent on the proud day which 
gave that brave officer his title. 



ANNALS OP THB BRITISH FLBET. 

of Qood Ho)K by Ibe Nuclusi, aa, R. DDDselly.— IS. Ix Otmrid Blinchin 
IMncD, litra by Ihe FivouiUe. iloop, Is, J. Divle, Coiu of Africa. 

hmipg laogMo men fncwnpn) on (be Fitocb corn, wbllc bit flotlUa* wu ui 



OBITUARY, 18011. 






October 13. Rear-Adminl B. FilliKr Cwptr. on the Bvftnaiai 






NoTcmbtr 13. At hll k11 it S[lTaioIiToli, Hinli, Adnilnl Sir Ricb 


>rd KlDI« 


Dill, But. >|ed T*. 








Tl«.Admina K(hl Hod. Lori ViKount Nel.on, Vklo.,, IM, kllh 






PoM.CipUln WlUiain Kfiiry Jervi., TonMnt, Ml, drowwd.t 












































li todei 


«m«e to j-lD hi> 


•Up from Nfw SDnibeDd, EtK., the Jolly bmt apMtting. 






litDlEmnl Jimci MinbaU.t WiKhnU gan-biig, 14, drowned. 












LKaleDim T. S. Facer, Uiry, (hired cniler] druHntd. 







French f oiti) ibal liad hmui. 


Total 


Ordrred to be con 
■vejedbythe Flo. 
,i,la..u. 


Foru- N-me., vii. 


To,.l 


1 


1 


1 




? 


! 


1 
3 


her or 
Ve.. 

la. 


WllQf 

lilli. 


Soldiel., 

and ' 
M^iclnei. 


«f Caval- 
ry and 
Atlilicry 

UoiK. 


Bomberdea, P.qae Bmh, ) 
GiudToul .) 


z 


No. 

BB,B85 


No. 


No. 


J 


No.l No 
14 ^IM 


» 


i3 


™ 


M4 

13» 

6S4 


''^ 


'T^fin 


aC 


Sflia 


101,313 
S,43(» 


B,OSB M 


.» 


...3 


"• 




^ 


- 



Twelve regimcDIa al cavalry and twenty.thrte of inhnlry wen ordered to be itatloBed oh Oie 
caaitl Df France, and none are Included In the aboie llatemenl, aixt ■)» the dllTerent veaieli bought, 
bnllt, and the gnat nnmber of Rlbil^hboaU ordered to he ready to embarli Iroopa, At to Dieppe, 
Hatie.de.Giacc, Rocbetle, Rochfon, St. Halo, all not iKlnded In the jHvcedlng accoonl ; aeciHdiag 

waa aactrlakoed to be, via. 331,0<io voluuteeit, M,lll>* regnlar Irtnpi, 87,000 militia, 73flQ0 Irish to- 

t By the npieiiing of tall barge ai be wii proceeding u> Sir Cbatlca Cotton (who coDiDiBiided be- 
fote Breu In the abaence of Admiral Coraoallii) iritb iinUicence nipecring the euemj^i aqDidroa. 

: He wu killed by a cannonball off (he coiM of Boulogne, at the moment ba vig ordering Ui meB 
toeheer. The abot entered hia right iMe.Jnal above tta( hlp.boiw, carrying away hit bonela ash 



142 



BIRTHS. 



BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS. 

Id Wexford, Lient. Henry Lyster, R. N. to 

Elizabeth, second daaghter of the late Qen. Hattofi. 

March 25lh. At Noyadd Trefawr, in the connty April 14th. At Richmond, Capt. Henry Jelf, 

nt' Cardigan, the Lady of Capt. Charles Hope, of SOth Regiment, third son of Sir James 'Jelf, to 

H. M. S. Tyne, of a daaghter. Miss Clarissa Amelia Sharp, of Kincarrochy> 

March 27th. The Lady of Lient. W. H. Lloyd, Perthshire, daughter of the late Mi^or Sharp, of 

R. N. of a daaghter. that place. 

March 29th. The Lady of Capt. Serjeantson, April i6th. At Stonehoase Chapel, Lient. R. 



59th Regiment, of a daughter. 



W. Tracey, R.N. to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 



At Stoke, the Lady of Charles Brown, E#q. W. Dowand, Esq. of Cork. 
Master of H. M. S. Caledonia, of a son. April 18th. At Athlone, Capt. Thomas Walsh, 

The Lady of the Hon. Capt. Maude, C.B., R.N. of the 5th Regiment, to .Anne, eldest danghtur of 
of a daughter. 

April 2nd. At Knowhead Cottage, Airshire, the 
Lady of Lieut. W. Rowley Wynyard, R.N. of ason 



April loth. At Edinburgh, the Lady of Rear- 
Admiral Campbell, of a son. 

April 10th. At Brighton, the Lady of Capt. 
Townshcnd, late of H. M. S. Columbine, of Ball's 
Park, Hertfordshire, of a son and heir. 

April 12th. The Lady of Capt. Whylock, R. M. 
•f a daughter. 

Apriliath. The Lady of Lieut. Ellis, of a 
daughter. 

April 19th. At Eastbonrn, the Lady of D. B. 
Conway, Esq. Surgeon, R.N. of a son. 

April 19th. At Plymouth, the Lady of Lieut. 
Edward Tyndali, R.N. of a daughter. 

April 22nd. The Lady of Capt. Parke, late Pay- 
master, R. M. of a son. 

. April 22nd. At Elm Grove, Southsea, the Lady 
of Lieut, and Quartermaster Hewett, R. M. of a 
daughter. 

MARRIED. 

, March 26th. At Up Marden, Arthur Vansit« 
tart, Esq. of the 2nd Life Guards, son of Lord 
Beacley, to Diana Sarah, third daughter of Gen. 
Crosbie, of Watergate Park. 

At Bath, Lieut. John Tylden, of the Royal Ar- 
tillery, to Catherine, eldest daughter of the late 
Colonel F- Williams, of the Royal Marines. 

April2nd. At Manchester, Capt. W. D. Davies, 
of the Queen's Bays, to Susan Jane Forbes, only 
daughter of the late John Abemethie, Esq. 

Capt. Fox Maule, late of the 79th Cameron 
Highlanders, eldest son of the Hon. William Ram- 
sey Maule, M.P. and nephew to the Earl of Dal- 
iionsie, to the Hon. Miss Abercromby, eldest 
daughter of Lord and Lady Abercromby, and 
niece to Yiscoant Melville. 

April 5th. At Blatberwycke Park, Northamp- 
tonshire, by the Rev. J. Irvine Irvine, Com. Jc^n 
King, K. N. to Margaret, daughter of the late 
Joseph Harrisson, Esq. of Tidd Mansion, Cam- 



bridge, and sister to Kvierson Harrisson, Esq. of Waggon Train. 



William Spread, Esq. of that town. 

DEATHS. 

March 24tb, 1831* M Wexham Lodge, Bucks, 
Lieut.-Geo* Roberts, East India Company's Ser- 
vice. ' 

Jan. lotb. At Dahlia, Lieat.-Colonel Tncker, 
late Royal Irish Artillery. 

CAPTAINS. 

Sept. 20th, 1830. Peers, h. p. 92nd Foot. 

Sept. 25th. At Canada, Lilievre, h. p. New- 
foundland Fencibles. 

Nov. 24th. Vassar, h. p. 1st Provisional Batta^ 
lion of Militia. 

Feb. 18th, 1831. At Liverpool, Ridgeway, h. p^' 
36th Foot. 

March 6th. At Dungannon, Speer, h. p. 1st 
Foot. 

Oct. 16th, 1830. At Kirkee, Bombay, Tbomj^ 
son. Surgeon, 4th Dragoons. 

LIEUTENANTS. 

August I5th,l330. At Dominica, De Ravariere, 
h. p. 60th Foot. , 

Sept. 2l8t. At Bcrhampore, Bengal, Fleming, 
49th Foot. 

Sept. 26tli. At Berhampore, Bengal, Mathew,. 
40th Foot. 

Oct. 22nd. At York, Upper Canada, Brookej 
late 5th Royal Veteran Battalion. . » 

Oct. 3ist. At Quebec, Weatherstone, h. p« 
Canadian Fencibles. 

Jan. 17th, 1831. Moorhead, h. p. 60th Foot. 

M'Kay, h. p. .3rd West India Regiment. 

Feb. 7th. Hnggif p, b.- p. 7th Foot. 

Feb. 0th. At B^urdeaux, Walker, h. p. 7th 
Foot. 

March 2nd. Raymond, h. p. 57th Foot. 

March 6th. At Leeds, Moss, ( Adjutant of Leeds 
Recruiting District.) 

March 7th. Butljer, 39th Foot, on passage (torn 
New South Wales. 

Champion, h. p. I2th West India Regiment. 

August 1880. At Jersey, Comet GriflHths, h. p. 



Tolethorpe HaU, Rutlandshire. 

April 6(b. At Plymouth, H. Caswell, Esq. Sur- 
geon, of H. M. S. Druid, to- Miss Susan Truman. 

April 9th. At St. Martin-in-tbe-Fields, Lieut. 
B. ' P. Uoyd, Queen's Royal Regiment, son of 
Qapt. William Uoyd, R.N. to Dorothea Maria, 
second daughter of the late Lient.-Gen. Sir Henry 
Cakes, Bart. Mitcham HaU, Surrey. 

At Yonghal, Capt. T. O. Partridge, 77th Regi- 
inent, to Rfary Ann, youngest daughter of the 
late J. Bateman, Esq. of that town. 

Lieut. Kelsall, 83rd Regiment, to Arabella, only 
daughter of Joseph Lipsctt, Esq. of Ballyshanon. 



July 8th. Armstrong, h. p. 21st Foot. 

QUARTBR-MASTBRS. 

Feb. 1831.. Davenport, h. p. 16th Dragoons. 
Feb. 8th. Kenny, h. p. 32nd Dragoons. 
March 1st. Hayes h. p. 2nd Fencible Cavalry. 
March 11th. Christian, h. p. 2nd Manx Penc. 

COMMISSARIAT DBPARTMBMT. 

Jan. 21st. 1831. At Corfu, Assistant-Commis- 
sary Pecco, fa. p. 

Jan. 28th. At Gnemsey, Assistant Commissary 
Gen. Corbin, h. p. • 

Capt. John Hamilton Edwards, 46th Reg. 



DEATHS. 



143 



March 20th. At Bilding, near Kilhla, Irelantl, 
Lieut. Henry Fitzmaaiice, R.N. of the Preventive 
Service. 

At Sonthseaj Lieut. Nelson CoUingwood Sim- 
monds, R.N. 

At Cork, Mr. Gun, Purser R.N. 

At Bosham, Lieut. Cook, R.N. 

March 3lst. Lost in a Steam-Packet off 
Swansea, Major-General M<Leod, C.B. Ap- 
pointed Ensign in the 78th Foot in 170^ and Lieu- 
tenant in 1704. He served at the Cape of Good 
Hope in 1795, and was present in the three ac- 
tions, and at many skirmishes : he was also present 
at the capture of the Dutch squadron in Saldan- 
ia Bay. He was appointed to a company in 
the 05th Foot, and subsequently returned to Eng. 
land ; the regiment being drafted, and the officers 
placed on half-pay, and from thence appointed in 
t799 to the 4th Foot. He served on the staff in 
]^ngland and Ireland ; afterwards in the Helder 
expedition ; and was in the actions of the 2nd and 
^tli of October in Holland. In 1802, he obtained 
a majority in the 4th Foot, and was placed on 
half-pay at the peace. In 1803, he was restored 
to ftiU-pay, and employed on the staff in England 
till June 1804, when he was appointed to the 95th 
Foot. He next served in the expedition to South 
America, and was engaged in the attack upon 
Bnenos Ayres. He afterwards served in Spain 
And Portugal, and was present at the battle of 
Comnna. In 1809, he received the Brevet of 
lieatenant-Coloncl ; in 1810, was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-CoJonel of the Royals ; in 1819, Colonel in 
the army; and in 1830, Major-General. 

April 1st. At Plymouth, Com. Thomas Bond, 
R.N. (retired.) 

April 3rd. Capt. Mudie, R.N. in the 76th year 
of his age. 

April 4th. At his apartments in the Ayslum at 
Greenwich Hospital, Capt. Donald M'lieod, R.N. 
C.B., aged 54 years. This officer entered the 
Navy at an early age, and after having served the 
nsnal perioi, passed his examination for Lieute. 
nant, to which rank he was promoted Jan. 2nd, 
1794. He subsequently served in the Namnr and 
several other ships ; and on the 29th April, 1802, 
wasj>romoted to the rank of Commander. At the 
renewal ot hostilities in 1803, he was in May of 
that year, appointed to command the Sulphur 
Bomb-vessel, in which he assisted at the attack on 
the gun-vessels and other craft and batteries on 
the pier of Granville, by Sir James Saumarcz, in 
the Cerberus, Capt. Selby, on the 13th Sept. 1815. 
tn the Catamaran expedition, (as it was termed,) 
against the Boulogne flotilla, he was the senior 
commander, and although the attempt was not 
attended with any favourable results, yet it afford. 
ed Capt. M'Leod an opportunity of displaying 
much ability. Capt. M<Leod was next appointed 
to command the Cygnet ; and on the 22nd Jan. 

1806, he was promoted to the rank of Captain. 
During the expedition agaipst Copenhagen, in 

1807, he commanded the Superb, (74,) bearing the 
pendant of Commodore (now Sir Richard) Keats ; 
and Jie afterwards served, on rtie promotion of 
that gallant officer to the rank of Rear-Admiral, 
as his Flag-Captain, and also to Rear- Admiral 
William A. Otway, and to Vice-Adrairal John 
Holloway, when the latter commanded at New- 
foundland. In 1810, Capt. M'Leod superintended 



tire impress lervtce at Liverpool-, where- he- re- 
mained until the termination of hostilities. On • 
the escape of Buonaparte from Elba, Rear-Admi-. 
ral W. H. Scott hoisted his flag as Commander- ' 
in-Chief in the Downs, and Capt. M'Leod became 
his Flag-captain ; and in Dec. 1815, after the ex-* 
tension of the Order of the Bath, Capt. M'Leod. 
was nominated one of the Companions. After 
Admiral Scott struck his flag, Capt. M'Leod was 
not employed until 1819, when he was appointed 
to superintend the ships in ordinary at Chatham, 
where he remained until 1822 ; and on the 10th 
April, 1824, was appointed one of the Captains of 
Greenwich Hospital, when on the promotion last 
year of Capt. M'Kinley to the rank of Rear-Ad-' 
miral, he succeeded that officer as superintendant 
of the boys in the lower school of that establish- 
ment. Capt. M'Leod has left a widow and family 
to lament his loss. 

At his residence near Clifton, Capt.Waltcm, R.N. 

Mr. S. Cooke, Master, R, N. 

April 6tb. Mr. James B. Sandercomb, late 
Purser, of H. M. S. Chanticleer. 

April 6th. At Whitehill, near Glasgow, in con- 
sequence of the wounds which he received at the 
battle of Arganni, in the East Indies, in 1803, 
James Donald, Esq. formerly Captain and Pay- 
master of His Majesty's 94th Regiment. 

April 7th. General the Earl of Mnlgrave, 
G.C.B. His Lordship's military career com- 
menced during the American War : he arrived at 
the rank of Lieutenant- Colonel in 1780 ; and in 
1809, became a full General. He served in Ame- 
rica from early in 1776 to the end of 1778 ; in the 
West Indies in 1780 ; and in 1703, commanded at 
Toulon. In the following year he served in Zea- : 
land ; and in 1799, he was employed on a mili- 
tary mission to the Archduke Charles and Marshal . 
Suwarroff. He was a principal member of the 
Pitt, Perceval, and Liverpool Administrations,: 
filling in succession the offices of Chancellor of 
the Duchy of Lancaster, Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs, First Lord of the Admiralty, and'^ 
Master-General of the Ordnance, the last he re- 
signed in 1818, when he was succeeded by the 
Duke of Wellington. His Lordship had been for 
some years in a declining state of health, and at 
length closed a meritorious lite in bis 77 th year, 
at his seat, Mnlgrave Castle, Yorkshire. Lord 
Mulgrave, at the time of his death, was Colonel of 
the 31st Foot, and Governor of Scarborough Cas- 
tle. He is succeeded in his title and estates by 
his eldest son Viscount Normanby. 

April 11th. Colonel Robert Murray Macgregor, . 
late of the East India Company's Service. 

April 14th. At Haslar Hospital, Lient. C. Ro- 
bertson, R. M. 

April 16th. At his house in Wigmore-street, 
Lient.-Gen. Sir William Payne Gallwey, Bart. 
Colonel of the 3rd Dragoon Guards. — Obituary * 
next month. 

April 22nd. Capt. Thomas G. Watson, late of 
the 3rd King's Own Light Dragoons, aged 59. 

April 22nd. At his residence, in Godalming, 
Lieut.-Golonel Fielder King, in his 78th year. 

A pril 23rd. At Portsmouth, Lieut. John Derby, "' 
(1795) Warden of that Dock-yard. 

April 26th. In Harley street, Lieut.-General ' 
Lord Walslngham, Lieut.-CoIonel of the 1st Dra- 
goons. (An Obituary in our next.) 



144 



METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER, 

KEPT AT THE OBSERVATORY OF CAPT. W. H. SMYTH, AT BEDFORD. 



MAR. 


SIs'b Thermometer. 

1 




At S P. M. 


• 


1 

PluTia- 
meter 


Evapera. 
tor 




1 








1831. 


Maxim. 


Minim. 


Barom. 


Tnermo. 


Hrgrom. 
Farts. 


Inches. 


Inches. 




Degree*. 


Degree*. | 


Inches. 


Degrees. 






$ 1 


51-8 


35*3 


29-62 


49-6 


630 


— 


*080 


S 3 


47-4 


878 


29*65 


46-8 


830 


•100 


*064 


X 8 


50*2 


49*2 


29*68 


49-2 


809 


*056 


*080 


9 4 


63-0 


47-4 


89*87 


52-8 


740 


•333 


*050 


T? 5 


63-2 


47-8 


29 58 


49*2 


804 


— 


•038 


6 


530 


47-2 


29*20 


49*9 


803 


*105 


•040 


1> T 


51-2 


45-2 


2977 


490 


475 


•150 


•060 


$ 8 


550 


432 


2915 


48-3 


621 


— 


•055 


$ 


49*6 


400 


29-27 


46*4 


814 


— 


•070 


% 10 


53'2 


40*3 


29*18 


51*3 


560 


— 


'090 


9 11 


52-0 


47*1 


2916 


504 


730 


*100 


*078 


1^ 12 


54*8 


42-0 


29*95 


62*6 


090 


- - 


*090 


© 18 


522 


43-8 


89*84 


52*5 


790 


•210 


*080 


}) 14 


58*0 


41*8 


89*64 


45*9 


611 


•518 


•0^8 


^ 15 


45*2 


40*9 


8J*57 


44*6 


803 


•285 


•070 


$ 16 


51*0 


41-7 


29-76 


51-4 


871 


•085 


*070 


X 17 


59-8 


491 


29*89 


643 


435 


— 


*065 


9 18 


55-1 


487 


3014 


48-2 


395 


— 


*080 


]^ 19 


60*1 


43*0 


30*12 


47-2 


510 


— 


•070 


© 80 


50*8 


440 


30 04 


48-3 


596 


— 


'065 


}) 21 


54-7 


468 


30*10 


50-2 


677 


^^^ 


*080 


$ 22 


54*8 


44-5 


30*30 


51*5 


493 


— 


•070 


^ 83 


52*8 


37*2 


80*30 


50*0 


435 


— 


*060 


1^ 24 


44*2 


33*4 


29*91 


43*4 


635 


— 


'044 


9 25 


47*0 


43-2 


89-24 


46*3 


630 


0070 


•059 


T? 2a 


48-2 


40*0 


29*77 


47-8 


850 


0*630 


•080 


© 27 


56*3 


44-9 


29*92 


56-3 


454 


•020 


•100 


}) 28 


50-8 


45*0 


80*06 


55*7 


497 


^^^ • 


*100 


^ 89 


55-7 


41-3 


3017 


46*3 


673 


— 


•090 


§ 30 


46*8 


44-0 


30*27 


46*8 


620 


— 


•066 


1 U 81 


48-5 


410 


30-40 


47*3 


536 


— 


•080 



Winds at 8 P.M. 



N.W. fresb breeses, fine. 
S.W. squally, with rain. 
W. by S. li^t br.,cloady. 
S.W. light airs, fine mom. 
S. cloody, with fine rain. 
W.N.W. sq., threatening. 
I N.W. light airs, fine day. 
S.W. light breezes, clouds. 
jS.E. fresh breezes, cloudy. 
S. light breezes, clouds low. 
S.E. Aresh breeze, and fine. 
jS.W. a gale, but clear. 
S.W. squally weather. 
I S.W. fr. breezes, and clear 
I S.W. blowing hard, rain. 
'S.W. by S. wind, abated. 
S.W. fresh breezes, fine. 
W. light breezes, hazy. 
S.S.W. very light breezes. 
S.S.W. blowing hard. 
N. by E. fine breezes, hazy. 
N.E. to E. light breezes. 
N. fresh bretrzes, and hazy. 
N,E. fresh breeze, snow. 
E. by N. blowing hard. 
S.E. blowing firesh, showers. 
S.W. light air, fine day. 
N. by E. fkresh breeze, fine. 
N.E. by N. blowing fkvsh. 
N.N.E. very squally. 
N.E. by N. a gale, cloudy. 



TO READERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 



The unusual length of .some of our articles, and the quantity of technical matter, 
of immediate interest, pressing for insertion, obliges us to postpone many narratives — 
also our Reviews of Colonel Napier*s Third Volume — Capt. HalPs Fragments of 
Voyages, &c. ; together with our Literary Notices. 

'^ Suum Cuique.'* — The remainder of the Paper will enable us to form a judgment. 
We have seen, however, sufficient to induce us to encourage future contributions from 
the same pea. There can be no objection to the other arrangements proposed. 

We regret that the article communicated by ^^ O. C." does not suit us. It will be 
returned if required. 

The subject alluded to by ^^ An Old Officer** had by no means escaped our attention. 
On the contrary, our sense of its importance had alone induced us to delay bestowing 
such notice upon it as the subject appeared to us to merit, and which, when duly con- 
sidered, it shall receive. 

Will '< H. B. R.** acquaint us through what channel we may ttddress him, with a 
view to a compliance with his request ? 

'* W. R. F.** has reached us too late for our present Number. The irregularity of 
which he complains is of antient standing. 



145 

NAVAL BATTLES. 

*' Palmam qui meruit ferat." 

We have just scrutinized a sound little volume* of inquiry into 
the conduct of Byron^ Graves, Hood, and Rodney,— -those gallant 
chieftains of the good old school, which Nelson justly boasted to have 
been nursed in. Capt. White writes with a manly firmness, yet so free 
from egotism, that we scarcely perceive him to. have been an eye-^ 
witness of what he describes : and although we are not absolutely taken 
in tow by him, yet we cordially approve of the clear and tactical course 
of reasoning by which he has divested some generally received opinions^ 
on certain naval movements, of the intricacies and contradictions which 
have hitherto enveloped them. The first duty which devolved upon 
the author, was a serious one,-— no less than to refute the statements of 
Ekins, Clerk, and others, who have fought the battles of those brave 
leaders upon conceptions of their own : and in this he has completely suc<^ 
ceeded. Nay more,— he has exposed, by positive proof, that garbled do- 
cuments have been imposed on the public ; and it must make the gallant 
Admiral ride rather uneasy at his moorings, on discovering how impli. 
citly he has steered by a false light, and thereby been the involuntary 
means of scattering unmerited obloquy on officers, whose memory should 
be embalmed in their country's pride and gratitude. Nor is this the 
only objection we have to his desultory quarto on " Naval Battles." A 
work which is likely to be studied as a pilot by those naval youths who 
are preparing for the momentous duties which await them, should bear 
fewer marks of negligence in detail, and obscurity in deduction, than 
unfortunately it now possesses. As an instance, we would demand 
who could, uppn that evidence alone, estimate the disparity between 
the glorious battle of the Nile, and the destruction of the Turks at 
Navarino ? But we trust the able and gallant author may yet give the 
Service a revised edition. 

We consider the " Naval Researches" as a remarkably useful pub- 
lication, because, there being always many more readers than reasoners, 
prejudices may, unless such pertinent criticisms are hove in, easily be- 
come so rooted as to baflie the ardour of inquiry. Now we have always 
deemed the extravagant claims set forth by the crafty scribes of the 
north, to their technical Magnus Apollo having caused the maritime 
greatness of these realms, to be a conspiracy against naval talent ; or, 
as Mr. Burchell would have elegantly expressed it — " downright 
fodge." With equal assumption might the hint in our last number be 
grappled at, and some future '^Heathen" declare to the world the 
obligations which Wellington, Picton, and Anglesea, owe to the mili- 
tary genius of Hogg, North, and Sir Walter Scott ! The work which 
forms the basis of their adulation has acknowledged merits ; but they 
usually overlook that it assumes an enemy incapable of exertion, and 
discards the agency of circumstance and seamanship : for such a system 
the manageable ships which Mi*. Clerk was wont to carry in his pocket, 
and absolute control over the evolutions of both fleets, are requisite : 



• " Naval Researches ; or a candid inquiry into the conduct of Admirals Byron, 
Graves, Hood, and Rodney." By Capt. T. White, R. N. 1830. 

U. S. JoiJHN. No. 31. June 1831. l 



146 NAVAL BATTLES. 

and the battles must first be fought, in order to be dilated upon, — in 
the style of antiquated damsels during the deal at whist, doling out 
reasons for trumpmg in the previous hand. 

Without refusing a just proportion of approbation to Mr. Clerk, we 
own to the " soft impeachment" of differing from his indiscreet friends, 
and utterly disbelieving that his book has been the means of working 
any. change in naval tactics. Our scepticism is grounded upon some 
acquaintance with sea-life and studies. We cannot credit its marvel- 
lous influence, because we personally know that so far from having be- 
come a " Manual" in the British Navy, it has been but little read by 
sailors ; — ^because its first edition does not convey the slightest concep- 
tion of the operation in question ; — ^because its twaddle upon Rodney's 
victory was written for a second impression, after the fight was fought ; 
because it was absolutely impossible for so old a manoeuvre as breaxizig 
the line, to have been totally unknown in 17H2 ; — ^because we do not 
perceive that any battle of our time has been gained according to Mr. 
Clerk's system, as shown in the edition of 17^* unless the accidental 
affinity of that of Sir John Jervis, which arose from wind and weather, 
be -adduced ; — because the injudicious preface t6 the Tactics, reported 
to be written by a Naval Officer, contains assertions which are not 
borne out by naval testimony ; and finally, because the candid exposi- 
tion of Sir Howard Douglas, is equally unshaken by the flippancy of 
the Quarterly Review, and the insidious sophisms of the Edinburgh. 

Many illustrious commanders were induced by entreaty to read the 
book, and every encomium which politeness dictated was duly display- 
ed, while the animadversions of candour were as duly suppressed. 
^^ After studying the whole work," says the veteran Howe, " I think it 
very ingenious ; but for my part, when I meet with an enemy, I am 
still resolved to fight him in the old way." And in this his lordship 
uttered the sentiments of every British seaman ; for with whatever 
advantage the Man of Eldin may be consulted, every contest must con- 
tinue to be regulated, " in the old way," according to wind, wave, force, 
and all the train of accidents which prevent sea-tights from being re- 
duced to dynamic dreamings. 

It is due to this greatly agitated question to state, that Sir Gilbert 
Blane positively declares, though he spent a great part of his time in 
the Admiral's cabin, that neither in the course of the voyage, nor at 
any subsequent time, did he ever hear the name of Mr. Clerk pro- 
nounced, either by Lord Rodney, or Sir Charles Douglas; that he 
never saw his book in their possession ; and that he never heard of it 
till his return to England. And the gallant Admiral must also spedc 
for himself. At the request of the late Gen. R. Clerk, who asked his 
opinion on the '' Naval Tactics," his Lordship wrote the following note, 
amongst others : — 

" And it is well known, that attempting to bring to action the enemy, 
ship to ship, is contrary to common sense, and a proof tliat that Admiral is 
not an officer, whose duty is to take advantage of an enemy, and to bring, if 
possible, the whole fleet under his command to attack half^or part of that of 
the enemy, bv which he will be sure of defeating the enemy, and taking the 
part attacked, and likewise defeating the other part by detail, unless they 
make a timely retreat. During all the commands Admiral Rodney had 
been intrusted with, he made it a rule to bring his whole force against part of 
the enemy's, and never was so absurd as to bring ship against ship, when the 



NAVAL BATTLES. 147 

enemy gave him an opportunity of acting otherwise ; and, as he told the 
King^ before any of his actions took place, that he would silways take the 
lee-gage ; first, because it prevented the enemy's retreat ; secondly, because 
if any of his ships were disabled^ by putting their helm a- weather^ the next 
ship closed the line, and secured the disabled ship." 

Capt. White's '* Researches" open with a disquisition on the en- 
gagement between Byron and D'Estaing^ off Grenada ; and he warmly 
controverts the sarcasm in Admiral Ekins' work^ that " with British 
intrepidity it might have ended gloriously/* by demonstrating^ that 
neither skill nor energy were wanting. He then justifies all the steps 
which were adopted ; shows that both Clerk and Ekins have mis- 
conceived the mode and intention of the manoeuvres of our fleet ; and 
proves that the conduct displayed by its excellent commander-in-chief 
— ^though he fought with more heroism than fortune — was entitled to 
admiration. With respect to the plan of attack proposed by the author 
of *' Naval Battles/' it is only necessary to observe that, as the two 
fleets were never situated as the proposer assumes, refutation is unne- 
cessary : nor indeed need a moment be lost in considering a plan which 
suggests no proceedings ulterior to assault^ in case of difliculty or re- 
pulse: and which supposes the adversary to be unversed in tactics. 
The sketch is concluded by an exposition of the art by which the mis- 
representations relative to this affair have been supported ; and as Capt. 
White's pages may not fall into all naval hands^ which by the by they 
ought to do^ we subjoin the whole passage^ with a view of pointing out 
the injurious tendency of the curtailments. 

" In order to place the subject fairly before the reader^ I will subjoin 
those parts of Admiral Byron's public letter which have been so unceremo- 
niously abridged^ distinguishing those passages which Rear- Admiral Ekins 
has omitted, by printing them between brackets thus [ ]. 

" EXTRACTS, WITH OBSERVATIONS THEREON. 

^* ' The signal was made for a general chase [in that quarter,* — as well as 
for Rear^Admiral Rowley to leave the convoy ;'\ and [as not more than four- 
teen or fifteen of the enemy's ships appeared to be of the line, from the position 
they were in, the signal was made] to form and engage as they could get up.'f 

'' The enemy appearing not to exceed, at that time, fourteen or fifteen 
ships of the line, I cannot but think that the signals to chase, to form, as 
convenient, and to engage as the ships could get up with the enemy, were 
decidedly the most judicious that could have been made, under the above 
circumstances ; even if it had been the Commander-in-Chief's intention to 
attack. the enemy's van — which it was not ; — but which both Mr. Clerk and 
Rear-Admiral Ekins seem determined to maintain as an incontrovertible 
.foct,t or else, why was the above passage rejected by the latter writer ?* 

" EXTRACT. 

'^ ^ But the enemy getting the breeze [of wind about that time,^ drew out 
their line [from the cluster they were m,] by bearing away and forming to 
leeward on the starboard tack, [which shewed their strength to be very diffe- 
rent from our Grenada intelligence ;\\ for] it was plainly discovered they had 

• " The S.W. quarter, doubtless.'* 

t '« Clerk's Tactics." 

t *' See the first » Observation' in page 78 of ' Naval Battles.' " 

§ '^ The time alluded to was when the weather ships of the enemy's fleet began 
to fire at the Sultan^ Prince of WaUs^ and Boyne ; the Three Ships that led into 
actum.** 

II " This intelligence, as before described, was communicated by the two sdioon. 

L 2 



148 NAVAL BATTLES. 

thirty-four ships-of-war^ [twenty-six or twenty-seven of which were o/theliney 
and many of these appeared of great force. However] the general diase was 
continued, and the signal was made for close engagement ; [but our utmost 
dforts could not effect that;'\ the enemy industriously avoided it, hy always 
hearing up when our ships got near them ; [and I was sorry to ottserve, thai 
their superiority over us in sailing , gave them the option of distance, which 
they availed themselves of, so as to prevent our rear from ever getting into 
action/*'] 

" As the importance or non-importance of the omitted passages given 
ahove sp^k for themselves, they stand in need of no observation to 
strengthen their claim to the reader's attention, except to notice the gallant, 
though proscribed ' however/ 

'^ EXTRACT. 

'^ * The ships that suffered most were the ships the action began with,t 
[and] the Grafton, Capt. Collingwood, Cornwall, Capt. Edwards, and Lion, 
Capt. Comwallis. The spirited example of Vice- Admiral Harrington [with 
the former three] exposed them to a severe fire in making the attack ; [and 
the latter three happening to be to leeward, sustained the fire of the enemy's 
whole line, as it passed on the starboard tack/X] 

" As some of my readers may not have it in their power to refer to the 
work entitled ' Naval Battles,' &c. I shall take the liberty of transcribing 
the above extract as it is given by Rear- Admiral £kins, to enable them to 
form a comparison. 

" ^ The ships that suffered most were those the action began with ; the 
ships of Captains Collingwood, Edwards, and Comwallis: the spirited 
example of Admiral Barrington exposed them to a severe fire in making the 
attacK.'§ 

■ " How could that be the case when Captain Collin^wood's ship was next 
to the Princess Royal in the centre, and Captains Edwards and Comwallis 
were in the rear with Rear-Admiral Parker ? That these ships sustained 
injury in making the morning attack is very certain, but from very different 
causes than those assigned by the above extract ; unless it were possible for 
them to be in the van, centre, and rear at the same moment of time. 

" Mr. Clerk speaking of this action says, ' the ships in the van were 
exposed, for a long time, to a heavy fire, they could not return.' 

'* Admiral Barrington could have immediately returned the fire of the 
enemy, but as it would have been throwing away powder and ball, he very 
wisely delayed doing so for ten or twelve minutes, wnen having got closer, he 
opened a destructive fire on the French centre, || and a still more destmctive 



era that escaped from (Grenada on the approach of the French fleet ; which intel- 
ligence at the time they left the island might have been correct, as the vessel sent 
to reconnoitre Fort Royal Bay, Martinique, on the Ist or 2nd of July, reported to 
Admiral Byron that thirteen large ships were seen there, with a flag at the fore on 
board one of them ; no doubt to deceive. These ships might have been De la 
Motte Piquet's squadron, who had only arrived . there three days before D'Estaing 
sailed for Grenada, and might have remained for a day or two after." 

• « Clerk's Tactics." 

f <« Viz. the Sultan, Prince of Wales, and Boyne. By the omission of the 
conjunction — and, — the laurels these ships acquired are transferred to the Grafton, 
Cornwall, and Lion." 

X '< Clerk's Tactics." 

§ «' « Naval Battles,* &c. &c. &c." 

II " Forty minutes only elapsed between the time of the French beginning to 
flre, at the greatest possible distance a shot would go, and the Sultan passing close 
a-stem of the last ship in their lin^,— during thirty of which the British van were 
t^^sj^ engaged while erotsing/' 



NAVAL BATTUES. 149 

one on their rear, his line of march taking him very close to them. How 
lon^ Mr. Clerk's * long time' lasted he has not condescended to inform his 
reader. Had the attack been in the manner he supposed it to have been, 
doubtless a ' long time* would have elapsed ere Admiral Barrington could 
have returned the enemy's fire. 

" Had Admiral Byron, as Mr. Clerk represents him to have done^ chased 
N.W. in order to bring on the engagement, when the French fleet were first 
seen, he would have been running away from, instead of advancing towards 
the enemy. 

'^ As Mr. Clerk's remaining observations on this action, are founded on 
the erroneous idea that Admiral Byron brought on the engagement by mak- 
ing an attack on the enemy's van, when he in fact began it by assailmg the 
enemy's rear, it would be a waste of time to attempt to refute arguments 
grounded on such false data. I cannot, however, but remark, that he has 
&own 80 much ingenuity in the erection -of a superstructure on so sandy a 
foundation, that none but those who have the opportunity to obtain better 
information than fell to his lot to be furnished with, could doubt of its 
authenticity, or question its correctness." 

The action off the Chesapeak is then critically investigated ; and the 
writer, in a fair and impartial analysis, completely exonerates Sir 
Samuel Hood from the charge of dilatoriness in obeying the signals of 
his commanding officer, — as also Admiral Graves from that of not 
having exerted himself in aid of the British army. And here, besides 
exposing the mutilation of the official report, he has to reprove Admiral 
Ekins for quoting that party-pander, the " Political Magazine," as 
sufficient authority for censuring the conduct of a commander, who was 
expected to refit where no resources existed, and who, to catch the 
enemy at anchor, must have rendered himself invisible. By a conve- 
nient mode of argument, this writer assumes, as incontrovertible posi- 
tions, that which nobody else admits, and then boldly deduces such 
conclusions from them, as will best accord with, and establish his state- 
ments. 

It should be remembered that Admiral Graves, in taking up Ar- 
buthnot's command, did not find it a bed of roses : the auspices were 
unfavourable in our land operations ; and the fleet of De Grasse was 
hourly expected, to co-operate with that of Count de Barras, at Rhode 
Island. Aware that such an overwhelming superiority would defy 
opposition, the British Admiral, with only nineteen sail of the line, 
put to sea, in hopes of preventing the junction of the enemy's two 
divisions, and even of eflPecting their discomfiture in succession. Steer- 
ing for the mouth of the Chesapeak, the foe was seen on the morning 
of the 5th of September 1781, and Admiral Graves, with the cool gal- 
lantry which always distinguished him, stood onwards, under courses, 
top-sails, and top-gallant-sails, with a fresh steady breeze. In the 
afternoon, when the tide served, the enemy got under way, and ran 
to leeward of the British fleet, forming the line of battle as they drew 
from the land. They were now discerned to consist of twenty-four 
heavy men-of-war, a circumstance which first convinced the English 
that Count de Grasse was actually arrived. Meantime, our fleet boldly 
advanced, until its van had passed so far on the contrary tack to that 
of the French, that the enemy's headmost vessel was almost abreast of 
our flag-ship, the London. The signal was then made to wear ; and 
the English fleet approached that of the enemy as fast as De Grasse, 
who repeatedly edged away, would permit it. At a quarter past four 



m 



k 



I 



b' 



'ftO NAVAL BATTLES. 

o'clock a cannonading began between the van of each fleet, and extend- 
ed progressively. The contest continued till sunset, whea the French, 
thougli not ahsolutely^ defeated, sheered off, and left us in possession of 
the^eld. The rival fleets continued five days in sight of each other, 
repairing their damages, and manoeuvring, until Count de Grasse had 
obtained his object, by covering the arrival of M. de Barras, when be 
retired with his fleet into the Chesapeak, and nnchored across that 
river, so as to block up the passage. No want of skUl or gallantry was 
imputable ; but the mortifying surrender of Earl Cornwallis, with 4017 
men, to an army of 21,000, gave this event all the inconvenience of a 
discomflture, — though clamour even could not colour it with disgrace. 
We are of opinion that the manner in which Admiral Graves led his 
deet into action, was one of very doubtful merit ; and the too early 
lasking away of some of the van ships, was an adverse circumstance. 
He hud however a very superior foe to contend with ; and the critical 
j)re3SUTe of the times was such, as permitted hut little exercise of dis- 
cretion whether to fight, or avoid it. Aware that on him depended the 
fete of the American Colonies, his card was a difficult and perplexing 
one to play ; had he decided upon attempting to intercept the Rhode 
island squadron, instead of running direct for the Chesapeak, more ad- 
vantage to the cause might have resulted, — but as it was, he acquitted 
himself like a gallant and skilful officer. Yet the tavern politicians of 
London were loud in their invectives, that nineteen indifferent ships, 
did not sink, burn, capture, or destroy, twenty-four of the finest ships 
that had ever sailed from the ports of France ! 

In the diatribes of the day it was asserted, that Sir Samuel Hood, 
and his gallant division, had been tardy in coming into action ; this 
our author indignantly refutes, and demands where Rear Admiral 
£kins got his information : " Did that writer ever consult the Lon- 
don's Log lodged in the Navy Office? and will that Log, or the Log 
of any other individual ship in the fleet, confirm the statement thns 
published to the world? If they do, I shall be induced to fancy that 
what I that day saw and heard, was a mere chimera of the brain, and, 
that what I believed to be the signal for the line, was not a Union- 
jack, but an ignii-fatuus conjured up to mock mc." 

Gapt. White nest proceeds to discuss the unusually bold measure by 
which Sir Samuel Hood attempted to preserve the valuable island of 
St. Christopher's from its beleaguers. This was a proud epoch in our 
naval annals, and equally independent of Mr. Clerk and his system. 
The act of compelling an enemy of vastly superior force to quit an 
advantageous anchorage, dexterously snapping up his berth, and intre- 

Jidly defeating every attempt to force him from it, was an admirable 
isson in tacticsj and in studying the details, our admiration is 
divided, between the skill displayed by Sir Samuel in directing this 
masterly manceuvre, and the bravery and precision with which it was 
esecuted by those under his orders. 

When Count de Grasse had accomplished his intended operations in 
the Chesapeak, he proceeded to the West Indies ; though previous to 
attacking our interests in that quarter, he detached seven or eight sail 
of the line to escort a convoy to £urope, which had been detained at 
Cape Fianfois, ever since the preceding July, in order that he might 
keep his fleet entire. " If the British Government," says Capt. 



NAVAL BATTLES. 161 

White, ^^ had sanctioned^ or a British Admiral had adopted such a 
measure, however necessary to carry on an important political opera- 
tion, the one would have been turned out, and the other would have 
been hung : no wonder that they succeeded, and we failed.*' 

De Grasse was speedily followed by Sir Samuel Hood, who imme- 
diately repaired to Barbaaoes, and moored in order of battle, in daily 
expectation of a hostile visit. But the opportune arrival of this 
squadron, small as it was, frustrated the designs of the French, who 
thereupon stood for St. Kitts, and there landed a force of 8,000 men. 
• Hood having received intelligence that Gen. Fraser, with his small 
garrison of 600 men, had retreated before the invaders, and were 
closely pressed in the fortress at Brimstone-hill, determined upon a 
casting die for their preservation. Instead therefore of awaiting the 
approach of an enemy, rendered arrogant by a successful warfare of 
four years, he resolved to confound his powerful antagonists by attack- 
ing them as they rode at their anchors. For this purpose, he put to 
sea, on the 14th of January 1782, and having embarked Gen. Prescott 
and 700 soldiers — all that could be spared from Antigua— expedi- 
tiously bent his way, with a force of twenty-two sail of the line ; of 
these several were crazy, and six were of 64 guns, mounting only 24- 
pounders on their lower decks. 

On the night of the 23rd, as the fleet was sailing before the wind, 
the Nymph frigate most improperly hove-to, right a-head of the star- 
board division. The Alfred, which was the leading ship, not perceiv- 
ing or expecting such a lubberly proceeding on the part of the frigate, 
had almost cut her in two before any preventive measures could be 
adopted. This accident sorely galled the ardent feelings of Sir Sa- 
muel ; but it is more than probable, that like the shower on the bow 
of the robber, in the fable, it was a providential mischance ,* for an 
engagement with the French fleet at anchor, might have produced a 
disastrous result. At day-break, on the 24th, the signal was thrown 
out, to form the line ; but the squadron was obliged to lie-to, through- 
out the day, to effect the repairs of the Alfred. This delay induced 
the Count de Grasse, who was nowise deficient in courage, coolness, 
or conduct, to quit his anchorage towards evening, and stand into the 
ofling, that his ships might have full room to act, and thus secure the 
advantages of their superiority in point of numbers. His force was no 
less than twenty-nine sail of the line, of which the majority were the 
.finest vessels in the world. 

Early on the 25th, the French fleet were formed in dose order of 
battle, on the larboard tack, and about three leagues to leeward. 
Hood, whose promptitude always equalled the urgency of the occa- 
sion, instantly perceived the advantage he could take of this move- 
ment ; and in order to ensure it, made every demonstration for imme- 
diate encounter, by several baffling evolutions, which had the effect of 
perplexing the enemy, and driving him still farther to leeward. Yet 
it was an anxious suspense for Sir Samuel, between the hope of being 
able to gain the anchorage, and the probability of a compulsory battle, 
on very unequal terms, under sail. But the consummate spirit of the 
hero, and his reliance on his companions in arms, supported his firm- 
ness ; and his high feelings cannot be better pourtrayed than in his 
oflicial report. ** Would the event of a battle," he writes, " determine 



152 NAVAL BATTLES. 

the fate of the island, I would without hesitation have attacked the 
enemy, from a knowledge of how much was to be expected from an 
English squadron, commanded by men^ among whom there is no other 
contention, than who should be most forward in rendering service to 
his King and country ; herein I placed the utmost confidence, and 
should not, I trust, have been disappointed." 

About one o'clock in the afternoon, the French had dropped to a 
considerable distance, in hopes of profiting by the usual change of 
wind, when, watching the decisive moment, the British Admiral filled, 
rounded Nevis so closely, that the enemy could not get within him, 
and pushed at once for Basseterre roads. It does not appear that 
Count de Grasse, wary as he was, had the slightest conception that so 
inferior a force would attempt to occupy his situation ; but quickly 
perceiving the excellent feint which had been practised, and appre- 
hensive that alL communication with his army would thereby be cut 
off, he adroitly tacked the whole fleet together, and made a most furi- 
ous assault on his sagacious opponent. Not at all disconcerted, the 
English ships anchored in their proper stations in Frigate Bay, with 
the sailor-like precaution of dropping their anchors so close to the edge 
of the bank by which the road is formed, that the French could not 
bring up outside of them. We cannot but here submit Capt. White's 
delineation of the affair, 

" Their van ship boldly advanced towards the Barfleur, who reserved her 
fire until the brave Frenchman approached within musket-shot, when she 
opened such a wellrdirected and quickly repeated fire^ that in a few minutes, 
the French ship had her jib-boom shot away, her sails nearly cut into 
ribands, and her rigging so cut up, that she quid^ly put her helm a-weather, 
and bore away from her redoubted antagonist.* 

'* De Grasse, perceiving an opening in our line between the Canada and 
Prudent, in consequence of the inferior sailing of the latter ship, boldly 
attempted to sever it, and thereby cut off the Prudent, Montagu, Alfred, 
and America; but Cornwallis, with his accustomed promptitude, threw his 
after sails a-back, and thereby placed him in the breach, which he so nobly 
defended, that his gigantic opponent was glad to relinquish the hazardous 
enterprise, either through apprehension of himself being cut off, or of the 
Ville de Paris getting a-ground, should the attempt be persevered in.f 

'' The gallant conduct of Capt. Cornwallis was immediately followed by 
Commodore Affleck in the Bedford, and Lord Robert Manners in the Reso- 
lution, who also threw all a-back, by which, time was given to the Prudent 
and Alfred, &c. to recover their relative position in the line, and other ships 
of the enemy, of easier draft of water than the Ville de Paris, were pre- 
vented from attempting to break through the interval occasioned by the 
Prudent's bad sailing. Sir Samuel Hood looked on undismayed at this 
attack upon his rear, knowing that he could confide in every individual Cap^ 
tain ; and very coolly ordered the signal to be made for the ships a-head to 
make more sail, in order to hasten their anchoring as much as possible. In 

-- ■ ■ ■ 

• '* A tolerable proof of the dexterity of our seamen in the use of the great gun, 
although then unassisted by loc]&s or sights, to aid their aim or accelerate their 
operation.** 

-(- ^^ I jiave been informed by a brother officer who was in one of the ships that 
had just anchored, that for a moment he could perceive the Ville de Paris 's jib on 
the inside of the British line. Had our fleet been situated as represented by Mr. 
Clerk and Rear Admiral Ekins, in their extraordinary plates of this action, the 
dbov^ four ships would have been cut off." 



NAVAL BATTLES. 153 

the mean time the St. Alban's had taken up her station^ and anchored at 3 
P.M. just within Green-point, but not quite so near to it as was intended^ 
and the other ships did the same in succession^ while the centre and rear 
were closely.engaged with the enemy, who pressed them close until every 
ship was anchored,* when the French wore in succession and stood out to 
sea, where we will leave them to their own reflections for the present, that 
the true position of the British fleet may be exhibited to the view of the 
reader, who, if his knowledge of it has been only obtained from the works 
and plates of Mr. Clerk and Rear- Admiral £kins, can have no idea what- 
ever of its actual position. 

^* In the first place^ instead of anchoring nineteen ships in a straight line, 
as by these writers they are most unaccountably represented, having the 
Alfred, Canada, and Resolution, placed at a right angle thereto, and a-breast 
of the centre ship in the British line, where they could have been of no 
earthly use, and would have been exposed to the enemy's fire without the 
possibility of returning a shot, and could not have contributed to prevent the 
French fleet from anchoring close to the town of Basseterre, Sir Samuel 
Hood in the most judicious and seaman-like manner, anchored his ships in 
an irregular curve from the head-most ship to the twelfth in the line, 
whence, in conformity with the edge of the bank, the line assumed the form 
of a semi-crescent, without the slightest interruption from the first to the 
last ship in the whole line. 

" But before I proceed further, it will be necessary to observe that the 
Admiral, perceiving the St. Alban's had not anchored near enough to the 
shore^ ordered the Bedford, Russel, and Montagu, from the rear to anchor 
a-head of that ship, which effectually shut out the approach of the French 
fleet in that direction/' 

By these tactical developements the British line was eflTectually pre- 
vented from being doubled with impunity, at either extreme ; nor 
could the enemy assail it, except while under canvass, when our ships^ 
from having springs upon their cables, could concentrate or diff'use 
their fire according to exigencies : a mortifying lesson to De Grasse. 
Several of our men-of-war were considerably cut up by the incessant 
fire of the French, particularly the Prudent, whose wheel was shot 
away, and rudder choked by a shot which had lodged between it and 
the stem-post, whence her loss exceeded that of any of her companions. 
A judicious order was then promulgated, which was, for every ship to 
repair her damages in the night, that the enemy might remain ignorant 
of the extent of injury sustained. 

Not yet discouraged, though astonished and mortified, De Grasse 
ventured, two more desperate but inefl^ectual attempts to make an 
impression ; and here again we are happy to quote a spectator. 

^' On the morning of the 26th, at half-past eight, the French fleet was 
seen coming, as close as possible, round Nevis Point, in compact and regular 
order, intending to attempt a passage between Green Point and the Bedr 
ford, now the headmost ship in the British line. But, so singularly felicit- 
ous was the position taken up by the British Admiral, that when the ene- 
my's leading ship t approached Green Point, the wind headed her, so that 
she could not fetch above the third ship in our line. The springs of our 
van ships were so admirably attended to, that the broadsides of four of them 
were brought to bear at the same time upon the unfortunate Frenchman, 

• «' The moment each ship struck soundings on the edge of the bank, she imme- 
diately anchored— how then could the French fleet have anchored without them V 

t « Supposed to be the Pluton,- whose Captain gave during the war repeated 
proofs of valour." 



164 NAVAL BATTLES. 

and were opened with tremendous effect^ when the wind headed Lim, which 
it did when he got the length of Green Point. 

" The crash occasioned by their destructive broadsides was so tremendous 
on board the Pluton^ that whole pieces of plank were seen flying from her 
off-side^ ere she could escape the cool concentrated fire of her determined 
adversaries. This ship being more distinctly marked as she proceeded along 
the British line, received the first fire of every ship in passing. She was, 
indeed^ in so shattered a state, as to be compelled to bear away for St. Eus- 
tatius ; it was even asserted that she struck ner colours, but that was denied 
on their part. The French ships generally approached the British van 
with more caution, and bore away sooner than tneir leader had done^ with 
the exception of a few, among whom the Ville de Paris was one. De Grasse, 
in order to prolong the individual encounter as much as possible, counter- 
braced his after-yards, in order to retard his ship's way through the water 
while running with the wind on the starboard quarter^ along the British 
line. But as he hauled to the wind in rounding the British rear, where it 
formed the inner horn of the crescent, these sails, from becoming more 
a-back^ detained the French Admiral a considerable time a-breast of the 
Resolution, Prudent, Canada^ and Alfred, in succession, as the Ville de Paris 
dowly forged a-head, and fired upon them : in this De Grasse was supported 
by those ships which were a-stern, or immediately a-head of him. During 
this short but tremendous conflict between the respective combatants^ in that 
part of the field of battle^ nothing whatever could be seen of them for up- 
wards of twenty minutes, save De Grasse's white flag at the main-top gal- 
lant-mast-head of the Ville de Paris^ gracefully floating above the immense 
volume of smoke that enveloped them^ or the pendants of those ships which 
were occasionally perceptible when an increase of breeze would waft away 
the smoke that had screened them from our ardent gaze. 

'^ In the afternoon of the same day^ the French made a second attack on 
our line. It commenced at fifty minutes past two, and was principally 
directed against the centre and rear — the morning attack having convinced 
them that the British van was not to be assailed with impunity. 
' '^ The damage sustained by the enemy's fleet was of that nature^ that 
when they stood towards us the next day, men were seen over very many of 
their ^ip s sides, for the purpose of stopping the numerous shot-holes that 
were very visible. And the Ville de Pans had received some between wind 
and water, so low as to be obliged to be heeled at least three streaks to 
windward when standing off on the larboard tack^ she having engaged on 
the starboard side in the* three attacks^ above described.'^ 

The enemy's fleet, which received a strong reinforcement from 
France, under the Marquis de Vaudrevil, made frequent demonstra- 
tions of attacking, but never went near enough to engage. Mean- 
time every attempt was made to relieve the fortress of Brimstone-hill, 
but without success. The enemy prosecuted the siege, with unabating 
vigour, till the 13th of February, when a practicable breach being 
made in the works, and no hopes of succour remaining, Brig.-G^n. 
Fraser reluctantly consented to capitulate. 

From this misrortune, the situation of the British squadron became 
useless and dangerous ; not only from the vast superiority of De 
Grasse, but also because the french army were constructing gun 
and mortar batteries on a hill commanding the anchorage. In this 
dilemma Sir Samuel displayed his usual tact, by issuing orders to 
the respective captains to slip or cut their cables, without signal, at 
1 1 P.M. on the l4th, the sternmost and leeward most ships first, and 
so on in succession; then to proceed under easy sail, till otherwise 



NAVAL BATTLES. 155 

directed. That this order might he punctually oheyed^ the captains 
were desired to set their watches hy the admiral's time-piece. The 
whole was performed with the utmost silence and regularity ; nor 
were they molested by the French fleet, which was lying within ^ve 
miles, and must have witnessed the manoeuvre. 

In these recitals, we have merely intended to mark our dissent from 
the arrogant pretensions, and special quibbling, of the so called " Athe- 
nians" — ^marshalled under the learned and logical Dean of the Fa^ 
culty: but lest what we have uttered of Mr. Clerk should be mis- 
construed into undue disrespect for his actual judicious qualities, we 
subjoin with real pleasurje, the following candid eulogium on Hood's 
measure, from his '^ Essay on Naval Tactics." 

^' Sir Samuel, disappointed in his intended attack, but confident that the 
obtaining a communication with, and supportins the same, was the only 
chance left him of saving the island, by a dannff stroke in seamanship, 
seldom before this time attempted, in the face of this enemy, and even 
while in the act of sustaining a furious attack from the enemy, brings his 
fleet to an anchor, in the self-same position, or station, which they but a 
little before, and with a fleet so very much superior, had quitted, as thinking 
it untenable. 

^* On the part of the enemy there were here no accidents, which, as in 
all other former cases, might be laid hold of, and held up as an excuse for 
want of success ; nothing from winds, tides, or blowing up of particular 
ships ; not the loss of a sinffle mast or yard ; to furnish the shaoow of an 
excuse, either for quitting their anchorage, or, after they had, for not over- 
powering with their numbers so inferior a fleet, occupying and even fixed to 
an anchorage, and affording an equal opportunity of being attacked for 
twelve successive days. 

*' On no occasion whatever has one, and the same fleet, been so fortunate, 
as in this of Sir Samuel Hood forcing their o{)ponents to so complete and 
vmequivoc^ acknowledgment of their superiority in both cases, whether we 
eh all consider their courage and perseverance, or their skill and seamanship." 

We now approach the close of our Author's work, where the ex- 
ploits of Rodney are related— exploits which have been so frequently 
fought and refought, that we should have had some doubt as to the 
necessity of our proceeding further, but that the authoritative and illu- 
sory tone of the " leading Journal" prompts lis to show that, however 
it may ^^ preach to the marines," — its splashing and floundering are 
laughed at by sailors. We also object to the invidious strain in which 
the '^ blue and yellow squad" mention the claims of their clans-men in 
general, as tending to make a distinction where there is scarcely a dif- 
ference. For ourselves, and we believe we may add for the majority 
of the United Service, we trust that England and Scotland may row 
together, with a long and strong pull, to the end of time ; and we see 
with gratifying pride, that this opulent and potent country is capable 
of having such numbers of her Northern brethren billeted upon her. 
With Newton, Bacon, Locke, Shakspeare, Milton, Nelson, Marl- 
borough, and other first-rates in abstract science, knowledge of nature, 
and eminence in arms, she can easily permit the stars of '' Athens" to 
fall into the British line of second and third rates ; — ^nay more, we can 
even make accommodation for most of the heavy transports, repeaters, 
and small craft, composing the '^ absolute wisdom" of the North : nor 
need the proudest names which blazon the Caledonian annals blush to 



156 NAVAL BATTLES. 

be coupled with our Halley, Flamstead, Young, or Davy ; our Dryden, 
Pope, Addison, Fielding, or Byron ; our Talbot, Clive, or Peter- 
borough; our Drake, Blake, Raleigh, Hawke, or Howe.* Indeed, 
had not such a kindly feeling been extensive amongst us, " Athenian" 
talent could not have flourished so luxuriantly; for what would the 
immaculate Review have been, but for English purchasers and English 
writers.^— or what would have rewarded *' Athenian" labourers in general 
literature, had they gained no readers south of the Tweed ? With 
such palpably liberal ideas on the score of nationality, we entertain no 
doubt of being heard with complacency, by all hands. We therefore 
beg to avow, that, looking upon '^ breaking the line" as an evolution 
which has ever been practised where it should be, we cannot but smile 
at the gravity with which Playfair, Jeffry, Walter Scott, and other 
redoubtable civil land-o' -cake-men, claim the naval glories of the na- 
tion, for an abstract book of t'other day. On the contrary, from every 
testimony gathered together in a life mostly passed at sea, we verily 
believe that on the memorable 12th of April, this '' magnificent ifi- 
vention" was put into practice at the suggestion of Sir Charles 
Douglas ; though we are also '' free to confess,*' that the occasion re- 
sulted from mere accident. And " we do further declare," that, in 
our opinion, there is little merit in breaking the enemy's line, un- 
less circumstances both demand and favour it, as in that successful in- 
stance. With this preliminary explanation, we shall proceed to give a 
general view of the importance of the contests, and afterwards cite the 
evidence of Capt. White, he having been an actor in the scenes which 
he describes. 

After the fall of St. Kitt*s, Great Britain retained, of all her former 
West India possessions, only the islands of Jamaica, Barbadoes, St. 
Lucia, and Antigua ; and of the possibility of preserving these, great 
doubts were entertained. Jamaica in particular, which had been fre- 
quently threatened, now appeared to be in greater danger than ever : 
for, whilst the Count de Grasse was riding superior in the Caribbean 
Sea, the Spaniards were in great strength at Cuba and Hispaniola ; 
and the fleets of the two nations, if combined, would have consisted of 
no less than sixty ships of the line; while their land forces would have 
constituted a powerful army. 

It now only remained for us to force a battle with the French, be- 
fore they should form a junction with the Spaniards at Hispaniola. 
Our fleet accordingly laid in wait at St. Lucia, having stationed active 
out-scouts to report the enemy's movements in Port Royal Bay. On 
the Stli of April, 1782, the glad tidings were signalized, that thirty- 
four sail-of-the-line, two fifties, several frigates, and a large convoy, 
were sailing close under the islands ; — tidings which were received 
with the most animating cheers. In fact, so prompt were our zealous 
tars, that the Count was overtaken that very night, ofl^ Dominica. 
Such a sudden attention was as little expected by the French Admiral, 
as it was unwelcome ; but he lost no time in accommodating himself 
to the emergency ; and early on the morning of the 9th, formed the 

* It is a singular fact that all the Flag Officers, in the battles alluded to, were 
Englishmen. 



NAVAL BATTLES. 157 

line of battle to windward^ to afford bis convoy an opportunity of pro- 
ceeding on its course. 

Meantime our fleet was becalmed under the land^ till about half- 
past seven, when the van division caught the breeze^ and though 
the centre and rear continued without wind^ Sir Samuel Hood 
pursued fourteen of the enemy's ships with only eight of his own divi- 
sion. A French straggler which got the breeze at the same time, 
boldly stood for, and endeavoured to weather the British advance, as 
the only means of regaining her own fleet. To such a length did she 
carry her audacity, that she compelled the Alfred to bear up out of 
her way ! As soon as she had got beyond the reach of the Barfleur's 
guns, she hoisted her colours, and hauled up her lower-deck ports. 
Every eye was fixed on the gallant Frenchman, and each of the ships 
she passed were ready to '' let slip the dogs of war ;" but such was the 
discipline in the fleet, that, as Rodney made no signal to engage, not a 
shot was fired at her. 

At half-past nine, De Grasse impetuously attacked our dashing divi- 
sion, which sustained the disproportionate encounter with inflexible 
resolution, for upwards of an hour ; during which the Barfleur, Sir 
Samuel's own ship, had at one time seven, and generally three ships, 
pouring in their lire at once. His captains crowded under a press of 
sail to support him ; amongst the rest was the Royal Oak, whose crew, 
while passing under his lee, filled the lower, topmast, and top-gallant 
rigging, to give their Admiral three hearty cheers. These are the 
bursts of feeling which attach us to the Service ! 

The wind now gradually reaching the centre, Sir G. Rodney, in the 
Formidable, followed by his two seconds, the Namur, and Duke, all of 
ninety guns, opened a tremendous discharge ; when De Grasse, to pre- 
vent the fight from becoming decisive, availed himself of his conimand 
of the wind, to retreat to his usual long-shot distance. The rear was 
coming up fast, but the cautious Frenchman had withdrawn his fleet, 
and eluded all the efforts of the English commander to renew the ac- 
tion. The enemy appear to have received much more damage than 
they produced to their opponents, and two large ships were so much 
disabled, that they were obliged to run for Guadaloupe. - On our side, 
the effect of the fire was serious, and amongst others, Capt. Bayne, of 
the Alfred, gallantly lost his life, in this, his sixth encounter with the 
same antagonist. 

Capt. White, after giving De Grasse great credit for his seamanlike 
attack, of which it seems neither Clerk, nor Rear- Admiral Ekins had 
had a clear conception, remarks, 

'' From what has been said, the reader cannot, I should think, arrive at 
any other conclusion than this — that no advantage was offered in that day's 
battle, to either the centre or rear division of the British fleet, that they 
did not avail themselves of to the utmost of their power ; and it is beyond a 
question that Sir George Rodney, had his wily enemy given him the oppor- 
tunity, would have cut in between the ships engaged with Sir Samuel Hood's 
division, and the rest of the French fleet, which but for his approach would 
have continued to make the circular attack on the British van division. 

^' It is too frequently the case in the accounts given of naval transactions 
which are compiled by landsmen, and perhaps naval authors themselves are 
not altogether exempt from the defect, that sufficient allowance is not made 
for the difference existing between different ships of the same class, and 



158 NAVAL BATTLES. 

consequently one ship is considered by their readers as good as another. 
This relative difference between the ships composing the fleets of France 
and England seems to have been completely overlooked in all the narratives 
which have reached us of the events in question, although a due considera- 
tion of it is so necessary to a correct view of the movements of the respective 
fleets. The French naval architecture had attained a degree of excellence 
in the construction and capacity of the ships of that nation, which gave 
them serious advantages over us in point of sailing, either on a wind, or 
going large ; and from their having a greater depth of hold^ they possessed 
a decided superiority in the most essential point of keeping a better wind. 
The fineness of their construction gave them important faculties in smooth 
water ; hence in a fine weather clmiate, where nautical skill is not so fre- 
quently required as under our inconstant sky^ and on our more boisterous 
ocean, they could at all times either commence or avoid close action at plea- 
sure ; hence also the facility with which they got away to windward or our 
fleets when they no longer wished to engage; and most likely had it not 
been for the accidents which happened to some of their ships, in conse- 
quence of the battle of the ninths Sir George Rodney might not have been 
able to overtake the fleet of the enemy, even had both been equally in 
possession of the breeze." 

Both parties had full employment that night, and the following day, 
in repairing their damages ; yet our ships neglected no endeavour, not- 
withstanding their inferior knowledge of the locality in which they 
were working, to get to windward of the enemy, but without success ; 
so determined was the latter to avoid a renewal of the contest. Mean- 
time, most of the disabled vessels got tolerably refitted : and to promote 
efliciency, the order of the line was inverted, by which the rear under 
Admiral Drake, which had no share in the action of the 9th^ became 
the van. 

On the II th, the enemy had gained such a distance, that the body 
of the fleet could only be discerned from the mast-head of the British 
centre, when two of their damaged ships were perceived to fail off from 
the rest to leeward. A detachment now pursued them so vigorously, 
that they would necessarily have been cut off, had not De Grasse borne 
down with his whole force, to their rescue ; but having perceived that 
their retreat into Basseterre roads was effected, he again hauled his 
wind. This accident, however, had scarcely been eluded, when another 
occurred, which proved more effectual, for during the night the Zele, 
a French seventy-four, lost her foremast and bowsprit, a circumstance 
which impeded the progress of their fleet, and was the immediate cause 
of the general engagement that ensued. 

On the morning of the glorious 12th of April, four ships having been 
sent in chase of the Z^le and the frigate which was towing her, De 
Grasse edged away to induce their recall. But Rodney, who always 
acted upon the decision of the understanding, and not from impulse, 
formed his line, and having met the hostile fleet on opposite tacks, 
threw out the signal for a close action — a signal which every vessel 
obeyed with scrupulous alacrity. The scene was an extensive basin, 
bounded by the 'islands of Guadaloupe, the Saintes, and Marie Galante, 
with dangerous shores, both to windward and to leeward. The British 
line, instead of the usual interval of two cables' length between every 
ship, was formed at the distance of only one. As each came up, she 
ranged close under her opponent's lee, giving and receiving, while 
thus taking her station, a most tremendous cannonade. Drake's divi- 



NAVAL BATTLES. 169 

sion forming the van» was led by the Marlborough^ which vessel mira- 
culously received and answered the broadsides of twenty-three men-of- 
war^ at the nearest distances^ with the loss of only three killed^ and 
sixteen wounded. As the Hercules ran alongside of an antagonist^ of 
far superior force, her captain coolly jumped on an arm chest, and 
cheered up his men by gaily singing a few lines of 

*^ O what a charming thing's a battle !''"* 

The action was thus commenced at half-past seven o'clock, and in 
about two hours the whole of our fleet, from van to rear, was engaged. 
The flght was most obstinately maintained on both sides ; and from 
the number of troops crowded into the French ships, the carnage in 
them was prodigious. 

We now approach a perplexing moment— one which is really the 
very pons asinorum of naval battles ; viz. " on what manoeuvre the fate 
of the day turned ?" Our own judgment rather cuts than disentan- 
gles the knot : it bears strongly to the simple statements made long 
ago by Beatson and Matthews, confirmed by Capt. White, and corro- 
borated by oral evidence, of frequent recurrence in sea life. From 
such testimony it appears, that the derangement in both lines, and the 
opening which Rodney found his ship in at ten o'clock, were occasioned 
by change of wind alone — this it was that broke both fleets into three 
unequal portions, instead of being cut in twain according to Clerk's sys- 
tem ; and all things considered, it may even be doubted whether availing 
himself of it was a really fortunate occurrence. But we differ from Capt. 
White in its being a heinous offence for so confidential an ofiicer as the 
Captain of the fleet to advise his Admiral on points of service, it being 
his express duty so to do ; or that expostulation between such official 
friends need be under the terror of the Articles of War. We have 
constantly heard in the navy, that the prompt and murderous use which 
the Formidable made of her position, however gained, was owing to the 
advice of Sir Charles Douglas '^ on the spur of the moment ;" and we 
certainly see nothing inconsistent, disrespectful, or derogatory to the 
Admiral in the transaction. We can also assert without fear of con- 
tradiction, that they were both men, whose heads were rather replete 
with profound professional knowledge, than turgid with visionary 
theories. We beg moreover to repeat, that we have never heard any 
sound seaman advocate the Eldin story : — as well might Dr. Eady, or 
any other notorious quack, claim the improved health of the British 
metropolis, as owing to his advertisements. » 

Whatever created the disorder and confusion, victory was not the 
immediate consequence. On the contrary, the action continued till 
dark, and the enemy fought with courageous firmness ; each of the 
ships which struck, had been defended to desperation, nor did De 
Grasse lower his flag, till 400 of his crew had perished, and only two 

* The highly exhilarating effect of incidents of this nature, at sucba moment, 
and the additional confidence reposed in the commander, can scarcely be imagined 
but by those who have felt the proud glow. It is said that when Admiral De Win- 
ter's fleet was being closed, off Gamperdown, Duncan laconically addressed those 
around him with, " Gentlemen, you see a severe Winter fast approaching ; I have 
only to advise you to keep a good fire ;" a pleasantry which spread over the 
Venerable like wild-fire. 



160 NAVAL BATTLES. 

men besides himself were left unhurt on his quarter-deck : a different 
combat to the piff'poff predicted by M. Maurepas. 

'' Record it in the fairest light 
Of faithful history's page ; 
They only triumphed whust they shunn'd the fight^ 
We, when we forced them to engage/' 

We would fain dwell longer upon the details of this brilliant action, 
but that Capt. White's clear statement ought to be universally read ; 
and that we hope a full account of the battle will be produced by Sir 
Howard Douglas, whose talent and competent knowledge of the sub- 
ject can furnish a full exposition of its merits, and give a quietus to 
the question. Though we wish not to spoil the interest of the Cap- 
tain's *' Researches/' by making copious extracts, we cannot but sub- 
join the following pointed reflections. 

'< I have also, I trust, satisfactorily shown that the battle of the 12th was 
brought on by the French Admiral having borne up before the wind for the 
purpose of affording protection to the disabled French ship Le Z<k\4, and not 
by &e British fleet having stood to the southward till two in the morning, 
as is most unaccountably stated in Sir George Rodney's public letter, and 
repeated by Mr. Clerk and Rear Admiral Ekins in their description of this 
eng^ement. 

*^ 1 have not allowed myself to be biassed by any consideration but facts^ 
in bringing forward the statements I have ventured to lay before the public. 
On this principle also I have endeavoured to place in its due light, the so 
much vaunted measure of breaking the enemy's line. The boldest assertors 
of the claims of Mr. Clerk to the honour of this celebrated discovery, have 
not yet presumed to enumerate Commodore Aflieck, of the Bedford, among 
his pupils, and yet it is true, that the Bedford, as well as the Formidable, 
made her way between two of the enemy's ships, but in a diiFerent part of 
what is called their line of battle. Owing to this circumstance the French 
fleet was, as has been already observed, broken into three parts instead of 
two as is commonly imagined, though we do not find that the g^lant Aflieck 
took any share of merit for achieving an exploit precisely similar to that 
which has been bruited with so much industry from John o' Groat's house to 
the Land's End. The victorjr of the 12th of April, however, was so far from 
arising from this movement either of the Formidable or the Bedford, that 
tbe circumstance of the disjointed parts of the British line getting between 
equal portions of the enem/s fleet, produced only the effect of allowing 
seventeen or eighteen sail, to avoid the cannonade they must have encoun- 
tered in weathering the ships of the British rear, which they must have 
done had they had to pass our whole line. How far they would have suc- 
ceeded in doing so is another question, but the strong probability is, that 
had they, in the state in which they then were, been exposed to this addi- 
tional ordeal, they would have shared the fate of their five captured com- 
rades. It seems evident then that we must ascribe the victory, under Pro- 
vidence, to the circumstance of the contending fleets being brought into 
close combat by Sir George Rodney tacking at the precise moment he did, 
and by a subsequent change of wind. This position gave to our brave coun- 
trjnnen an opportunitv of exerting those qualities which are the result of 
firmer nerve and cooler courage, while it deprived their enemy of the 
advantage he was generally so fond of deriving from his superiority in 
sailing, and consequently in manoeuvring, of which he availed himself when- 
ever he could fight at long-shot distance.'' 

It were unjust to dismiss this article without a parting word. In 
Studying these encounters, it is impossible to overlook the admirable 



NAVAL BATTLES. 161 

discipline and fighting order which must have pervaded our fleets^ to 
enable them to sustain so harassing a warfare ; while the destructive 
havoc dealt to the enemy^ proves that naval gunnery was more eflfect- 
ively plied then, than it has been latterly; owing, perhaps, to the 
remissness arising from constant success. On the other hand, the very 
defective state of our ships in those days, is frequently dwelt upon in 
the ^' Researches," as an evidence of what kind of tools the British 
Admirals had to work with ; and to enable the tyro to form a more 
correct judgment on the exertions of the officers of that day — the " old 
school" of our Bobadils — than other productions aflford him the means 
of doing. Through the misconduct of our Ministers, the advantages 
we gained were isolated, and the result of the war unfortunate, for 
they did not seem to be aware, that to attempt an object with smaller 
means than we can command, is a profligate waste of life and treasure. 
Thus, though it was well known that the French were about to make 
the West Indies the theatre of war, they were always allowed to out- 
number us ; and the best ships we had, were carefully preserved in 
England. We therefore esteem it as one of the grand causes of Rod- 
ney's glorious success,* that he had more efficient means at his dis-> 
posal than his predecessors. Another inference we gather is, that a 
true*bred tar was then, as now, and we hope for ages to come will con- 
tinue to be, the merry, dare-devil, happy-go-lucky being, we have 
always found him when, as he says, " there *s any thing for a fel- 
low to do." Of the gallant recklessness of sailors, in the proud mo- 
ment, when the flag of their country is displayed to an enemy, the tes- 
timonies are universal : Nelson was wont to say, ^^ They mind shot no 
more than peas ;" and to their intrepidity Lord Howe attributed all his 
success. But fpr their unwearied zeal, whether braving the Pole or the 
Equator, England must inevitably have tasted of the horrors of war at 
home, instead of participating in every domestic comfort, while scenea 
of blood and terror were afflicting all the surrounding nations. 

French sailors are also unquestionably brave; but their bravery 
being an affair of mere impulse, is more frequently manifested by im- 
petuosity of attack than fortitude in defence. We wish to avoid the 
charge of prejudice, but from closely studying their own reports of bat- 
tles, breezes, and wrecks, we can pronounce that, though Crapaud is 
more buoyant in success than Jack^ he is more dejected under reverses ; 
and he altogether yields to the Briton in that resolute courage which 
instantly applies resources against impending danger. 

Futurity is inscrutable— but is such a matchless display of human 
art as a Grand Fleet, in line-of-battle, together with all the patriotic 
daring and practical energy of British sailors, doomed to succumb ta 
some gigantic wedge, propelled, under the direction of a dozen stoakers> 
by a hw chaldron of coals ? Ohe ! 



* In commenting upon tliis memorable battle, we have felt, as we hinted above, 
the want of more positive deUa respecting the most important feature of the con- 
test, viz. the real cause of the opening in the enemy's line, and its direct conse* 
quences. We understand, however, that Sir Howard Douglas is furnished with 
tangible evidence on this head, and we shall look to the final statement of that ac- 
complished and patriotic officer for proofs, if such exist, to influence our decision 
upon a point still susceptible of doubt. 

U. S. JouRW. No. 3L June 1831. m 



162 



RECOLLECTIONS OP THE LATE AMERICAN WAR. 

BY A CRUISER. 

It was at the commencement of the month of January 1815, that a 
squadron of frigates and smaller vessels, with a line-of-battle ship, (the 
Dragon of 74 guns,) were assembled off Amelia Island, situated at the 
entrance of the river St. Mary's, in South Carolina, for the avowed 
purpose of capturing the town, and merchant- vessels lying off it, nearly 
thirty miles distant from the sea. Capt. Somerville, of the Rot» 
frigate, wa^ the senior officer of the squadron, but in consequence of 
having been confined to his cot for several months by severe illness, he 
delegated the command of the expedition to Capt. Barrie of the Dragon. 
The ships' boats, manned and armed, (with a party of marines in each,) 
were dispatched to the rendezvous at Amelia Island, where. several 
companies of the West India Rangers (who are all blacks) were already 
assembled. Point Petre, which forms the starboard entrance of St. 
Mary's river, was distant from us about four miles, and was very 
strongly defended by a battery mounting six long thirty- six pounders ; 
added to which ^ strone and rapid current constantly prevailed, setting 
from this point towards Amelia Island, at the rate of mcnre than two 
knots an hour. 
* We remained several days encamped upon the island, making every 

Preparation to storm the fort, (if necessary,) and also with a lingering 
ope, that the wind which had hitherto blown dead in our teeth, would 
shift to a favourable quarter : in fact the weather was occasionally so 
rough and squally, that it was with considerable difficulty the boats 
could maintain their position at anchor during the night, their light 
grapnels being insufficient to prevent their drifting, and consequently 
every expedient was resorted to, by sinking heavy iron kettles laden 
with stones, &c. to effect this purpose; but notwithstanding these 
efforts, our Lilliputian fleet, amounting to upwards of fifty sail of 
'' small craft," would on the morrow's dawn frequently present rather 
a confused and scattered line. Our launch, which pulled eighteen 
oars, and mounted an eighteen-pound carronade forward, a brass four- 
pounder abaft, with two swivels on each side her gunwale, cut rather 
a formidable appearance among the host of pigmy satellites by 
which we were surrounded ; and it was laughable to observe how fre- 
quently the pressing calls of hunger would relax the haughty bear- 
ing of military rank, for we had the advantcige of possessing a very 
compact set of coppers and cooking apparatus that had been taken out 
of a small schooner we had captured and burnt a few days prior to our 
arrival, which of course enabled us to provide a sumptuous meal in 
comparison to our less favoured brethren. From this circumstance it 
may be surmised, we had generally a pretty strong muster at our din- 
ner hour, and many a gallant captain, when pulling past us in his gig, 
could not resist the temptation of the savoury steams acting upon his 
olfactory nerves. He would lie upon his oars, and hailing our " luff," 
demand what we had for dinner, then without ceremony step into ofir 
boat, sit down, and with as much gout as if in a club-house at St. 
James's, help to demolish a huge assemblage of lobskous, composed of 
stewed geese, fowls, salt junk, &c., the feathered part of the re- 



RECOLLECTIONS OP THR LATK AMERICAN WAR. 163 

past being neither very delicately drawn nor plncked ; howeVer^ hard 
service created a sooa appetite, and a glass of grog^ With agreeable 
companions, served to render a meal tmly delicious and acceptable, 
that under other circumstances an epicure would have turned from in 
disgust. 

la after-years, when fondly dwelling upon the early scenes of my 
boyish days, how often have I reflected into what artificial beings the 
habit of luxury has moulded us — ^when tossing, wearied, and feverish 
on a bed of down, how often have I brought to mind the delicious 
slumber I have experienced in the bottom of a boat^ with nought save 
the canopy of heaven for a covering, even when the warring elements 
were pouring down a deluge of rain upon my weakly frame : — so true it 
18^ that the real comforts of this world can only be felt and duly appre^ 
eioted by those who have been enabled to form a just comparison be^ 
tween the superfluity of wealth, and the miseries of deprivation ! 

The evening before the intended attack displayed a most imposing 
and enthusiastic scene ; the arms of the marines and soldiers were piled 
in fendfiil groups, whilst their gallant owners, indiscriminately mixed 
with the seamen, were reclining around the largje fires which were kin- 
dled at various distances, (they having taken the liberty of cutting 
down sundry huge trees to make a blaze,) and all hands were drinking 
their grog, and singing in full chorus the burthen of our beautiful na- 
tional airs. Rule Britannia, &c. until the very woods reverberated the 
echoes which rung from the iron but loyal throats of the assembled 
throng. The splendour and beauty of the passing seene, might even 
have tended to inspire the veriest craven upon earth, '^ to screw his 
eoiin^e to the sticking point," and at least become a hero in imagination. 

At length it was fully determined to wait no longer than the mor*^ 
f ow*8 da^vn for the destined attack of the fort, which commanded the 
entrance of the river. Still, as the wind continued to blow very hard, 
it wa» doubtless rather a perilous enterprise ; however, by eight o'clock 
in the morning, the boats were formea into three divisions : the vein 
being composed of a very large barge, pulling twenty -six oars, (named 
the Snap Dragon,) bearing the Commodore's pendant, the Dragon's 
launeh, and our own, whose force I liave previonsly stated : then came 
all the barges which mounted carronades, and the remaining cutters* 
jolly-boats, &c. brought up the rear. The whole of this foree wAs 
flanked by those distinguished officers Captains Barrie and Jackson (of 
the Lacedaemonian,) in their respective gigs. The West India Rangers' 
aod a party of marines had been already landed to attack a portion of 
militia that had been stationed in a wood for the defence of the fort on 
ah<Mre« I need scarcely states that when the arrangements were com*' 
pleted, and the wished-for orders given to starts every nerve was strain^* 
ed^ every sinew put in requisition, to endeavour to reach the wished*' 
for goal as speedily as possible. But still our progress was tedious and 
disheartening in the extreme— the breeze was strong, and the current 
rapid ; when however, by dint of incredible exertion, onr three head^ 
9i0st boats approached witliin point-blank range of the battery, they 
opened upon ns with their heavy artillery, and as the men responded 
wHba hearty and deafening cheer to the welUknown salutation of their 
ofl^rSt ^' Give way, my lads 1'^ the shot whistled over our heads, of 
splashed our faces with the spray of the sea as they fell into the water. 

M 2 



164 RBCOLLBCTIONS OP THE 

In this pleasant predicament^ we continued several minutes^ and had 
the Americans persevered, they must inevitably have sunk one half of 
the invading force ; but when we approached within half a mile, vol- 
leys of musketry were heard in the direction of our troops, and tlie 
enemy, no longer waiting to be assailed in their strong hold, hauled 
down their star-spangled banner, and fairly took to their heels. A 
general cheer was now given by our seamen, who made a simultaneous 
effort to be foremost in getting ashore to plant the Union Jack on their 
fort. The guns were quickly spiked and dismounted, whilst orders 
were issued to make the best of our way up to the town. In the mean 
time, our soldiers and marines had a smart skirmish with the Ameri- 
can militia, who were speedily routed ; but I was informed, that it 
was with the greatest difficulty the officers of the West India Ran- 
gers could curb the rancour and animosity their men bore to the name 
of an American : they did not exactly comprehend the system of giving 
quarter to a conquered foe, especially as numbers of them had been held 
m bondage from infancy in this country, and many an unfortunate 
Yankee that fell into their hands in the woods narrowly escaped being 
butchered in cold blood. 

Notwithstanding every exertion, we did not reach the to^vn until 
past midnight, and found that it had been taken possession of with- 
out striking a blow ; most of the inhabitants had quittted their resi- 
dences for the country, taking with them their most available effects, 
and in the morning it bore a melancholy aspect. Valuable furniture 
of all description was scattered about the streets in profusion; the 
majority of the doors were left standing open, while occasionally a few 
stray citizens might be discerned, whose habitual anxiety for the riches 
of this world overcame the fear which was strongly depicted in the coun- 
tenances of those who remained to guard them. Heaven be praised ! 
the inhabitants of our happy nation are ignorant of the desolation and 
horror of warfare carried into the heart of a peaceful country : they 
cannot appreciate the riven feelings of him who is driven from his 
home a wretched wanderer upon the face of the earth. The Com- 
modore was most anxious that private property of every description 
might be respected, and held sacred from depredation ; but he had a 
bounden duty to perform, which was to take possession, in the name of 
his Majesty, of 6very 8tore containing merchandize, and a broad arrow 
was ledbly impressed upon all such that had the misfortune to fall 
ynder Uiat class: we also captured ten or twelve merchant vessels, one 
^f them an East Indiaman of nearlv six hundred tons. It may not be 
generally known, that the town of l^t. Mary's is situate on the north 
bank of the river, and that the southern shore is in the dominions of 
the King of Spain, consequently, many vessels had succeeded in gain- 
ing the neutnd side of the river, (which is very narrow in this position,) 
and their crews, not a little elated with the success of their expedient, 
frequently taunted our men as they passed in the boats, with the most 
elegant sneers and witticisms to be mnd in the Yankee vocabulary. 

Although terms were entered into with the proper authorities 
for the peaceable occupation of the town until the vessels were laden, 
very few of the inhabitants could be induced to return to their dwell- 
ings ; in deep and striking contrast to the melancholy gloom which per- 



LATB AMERICAN WAR. 165 

Vaded the streets^ on the quay all was life, soul, spirit, and activity. 
Jack was really and truly in his element, lading American ships with 
American property in the heart of their own country, and it would 
have provoked the risible fieiculties of the most saturnine philosopher to 
have observed our seamen at the conclusion of each meal, with the 
characteristic thoughtlessness of their profession and genersd aptitude 
for a lark, toss the fine china plates and dishes into the river with the 
most provoking wantonness and nonchalance, not caring for the trouble 
of cleaning their culinary articles, when so many large china stores 
stood most invitingly open to furnish a fresh supply : during the por« 
tion of time allotted to our meals, I frequently wandered through this 
beautiful little town, and boy as I then was, could not help feeling a 
compunctious twinge of conscience in aiding and assisting to carry the 
desolation of warfare into the bosom of a district so remote from the 
strife and contention of the great world. One morning, taking advan- 
tage of the stowage of the vessel that I was ordered to superintend 
being completed, I went down to our launch and pulled off my shirt, 
that the boat-keeper might wash it, and whilst he was performing the 
process of ablution, I reposed myself quietly in the bottom of the boat, 
anticipating in imagination the comfort of once more enjoying the luxury 
of clean linen ; but I had only settled myself a few minutes in this 
dream of enjoyment, when I was disturbed in my reverie by the Com- 
modore hailing our boat, requesting to know where the Midshipman 
was ; up I started like a culprit, and buttoning up to my throat to 
conceal my shirtless appearance, hastened to receive his orders. My 
pride would not suffer me to reveal the truth, so I made a lame ex- 
cuse by stating I was rather unwell ; he desired me to take a few 
hands and fill the launch with oranges from a lovely grove that stood 
to the southward of the town. Our men clambered the trees like 
monkeys, and showered down the delicious fruit in abundance, whilst I 
stood discomfited and shivering (although unable to repress a hearty 
laugh) until the sun's rays had enabled me to resume my inner gar- 
ment. This little anecdote serves to show the hard rubs all ranks on 
service are occasionally subject to, for on quitting our ship I had not 
hve minutes preparation to proceed on the expedition. 

Every vessel being nearly <;ompleted with the motley description of 
merchandize found in the several stores, we received orders to make the 
best of our way down the river and join our ship, where, on our ar^* 
rival, we found the Albion, 74, which had joined tne squadron, bearing 
the flag of Rear- Admiral George Cockbum. Not having been in bed 
for more than a fortnight, I need not state that I slept for twelve 
hours without rocking, and heartily wished the quarter-master in the 
Styx when he aroused me in the morning with the unwelcome tidings 
that six bells had struck. To our great surprise, in a couple of days, 
we received forty or fifty American prisoners on board, the Commodore 
having detained the whole of the inhabitants who had returned to their 
dwellings (as hostages) in consequence of the enemy having broken 
the armistice by marching various bodies of troops to the relief of 
St. Mary's; and late in -the evening we received orders to weigh and 
cruise between Charleston and Savannah. At this period we were ex- 
cessively short of water, but acting on the maxim of old Earl St. Vincent^ 



iCfG BBCOLLEOTIONS OP TUB 

'' Never make a difficulty/' our captain put to sea and proceeded to Ida 
deatination. We soon found that no American vessels dared attempt 
to enter these ports, consequently there was little hope of making 
prices by merely standing off and on shore ; we therefore pursued the 
daring plan of remaining out of sight of land during this day> then at 
night running the ship close in, and dispatching our boats with orders 
to cut out any vessels that might be running down in shore of the 
numerous islands that skirt the coast in this part of the country. Our 
^rst essay was crowned with complete success, by capturing a flat* 
bottomed schooner, laden ^vith three hundred bales of cotton and thirty 
Jbogsheads of tobacco. Eaiboldened by this stroke of luck, we prevailed 
upon the skipper of a schocmer, whose vessel we had destroyed, (taking 
put the crew) to pilot our boats into Savannah. They reached the bar- 
i)our (favoured by the darkness of the night) in perfect safety, and had 
succeeded in carrying a very large schooner with a cargo of five hundred 
bales of cotton and tobacco ; the wind was very light, the ears were 
muffled, and their splash was scarcely discernible as they towed the 
vessel towards Tybec Lighthouse ; every thing promised complete sue* 
cess^ when the envious streaks of light that chequered the grey dawn 
in the East, betrayed our manoeuvres to a large cutter lying in the 
}iarbour. The report uf a gun soon alarmed all the vessels m the port, 
and lour large gun«boats, in conjunction with the cutter, soon made all 
sail in chase ; our prize was speedily relinquished, and our men pulled 
fur life or death. Fortunately the winA dropped to a perfect calm and 
the boats soon got out of gun-shot of the enemy ; but the poor Yankee 
skipper did not easily forget the fright that electrified his whole frame ; 
death stared him in the face ; he declared he expected they would hang 
him upon the spot, and most earnestly conjured our lieutenant to state, 
in his justification, that he was forced to enter the boat through the 
terror of a loaded musket. 

During this cruise we had to undergo the most severe privation for 
want of water, and at length were reduced to the pressing necessity' of 
putting all hands upon a pint per diem, and even this was only accom- 
plished by breaking up our hold and starting the small portion that 
remained in the bottom of the tanks, which of course was mixed with 
a considerable quantity of mud and dirt. For several days we continued 
in this wretched situation ; the miserable quantum of water used to be 
served out to each individual in the middle watch, and frequent 
instances occurred of the men saving their rum, which they offered to 
exchange for an equal quantity of this unpurified liquid, and a seaman 
must be hard up indeed when he will voluntarily part with his grog. 
Of course in this extremity the officers shared equaUy with the men, 
and it was truly heart-rending to observe with what avidity and eager* 
ness the poor fellows seized their allowance and quaffed it off at a 
draught ; with what anxiety we were accustomed to watch the revolv* 
ing circle of time that would again present to our parched lips one 
sofitarv pint of water. Never until this period did I fully appreciate 
the value of a draught of that pure element which constitutes the 
primary support of every species in the animated creation. We began 
to despair of falliiig in with any of our cruisers to gain a supply, and 
therefore turned our wits to work. la every relation oi life what will 
liot resolution and perseverance effect ? We dispatched the launch. 



LATB AMERICAN WAR, 167 

barge^ and cutter^ well-manned and armed (under the command of 
Lieut. Wentworth) on shore to the Hunting Islands^ with implements 
to dig wells on the beach^ in the ardent hope of discovering fresh water ; 
nor were we disappointed : after much toil and trouble we succeeded 
in two or three places where it flowed pretty freely, although rather 
brackish. The cutter was immediately dispatched to the frigate with 
the joyful intelligence ; in the mean time we anxiously reconnoitred the 
adjacent coast, and destroyed a small battery of two guns that Bred upon 
us. At night we came to an anchor, surprised to And that two of our 
marines had deserted, and, as subsequent circumstances proved, had pro-* 
ceeded to Charleston, and, in the hopes of gaining a large reward, had 
given exact intelligence of our fprce. This circumstance made all hands 
rather uneasy, and tended to damp the flow of spirits which otherwise 
prevailed during each night, for sleep was out of the question, situated 
as. we were on the coast of an enemy, >vith the broad Atlantic ocean 
staring us in the face. As the kannikin of grog flowed freely round, 
many a song and tale of by-gone deeds of glory enlivened our hours of 
darkness until the morning's dawn made us prepare for the duty of the 
coming day. 

We were speedily rejoined by the cutter and our flat-bottomed 
prize, laden with tanks and water-casks in lieu of her cargo which 
had been taken out. She was armed with a long nine-pounder, and 
placed under the command of a very gallant young master's mate, Mr. 
James Creagh. To avoid incurring the slightest suspicion, our frigate 
kept at a considerable distance in the oifing, so that her hull was 
not discernible from the shore ; and we all turned to with a good will 
to fill the water casks, that our poor shipmates might once more enjoy 
the luxury of quenching their burning thirst. £very circumstance 
seemed to augur success ; we had just completed the stowage of the 
casks in the launch, and were actually parbuckling the lacst cask on 
board, when unfortunately she grounded in a hollow of the beach. The 
tide, which was ebbing very fatit, left her high and dry in the space of a 
few minutes, and notwithstanding the united efforts of the whole body of 
our seamen, we could not succeed in launching her. This was mortify- 
ing enough ; but in our case the old adage was completely verified of 
*' Alisfortunes never coming single," for at this critical juncture, four 
large gun-boats, (each pulUng from thirty to forty oars,) and a row- 
boat, were discovered standing out of North Eddisto Inlet, situate at 
the northern point of the island, and about three miles distant from the 
position we occupied ; large parties of horse and foot, composed of 
militia, now rapidly advanced along the beach. All hands were instantly 
on the alert, our men waded through the surf into the boats, the barge 
received all our launch's crew, and immediately pulled on board the 
schooner, then about one mile to the southward and dead to leeward of 
us, whilst the cutter remained to spike the guns and drown the maga- 
zine ; but the gun-boats advanced so rapidly that we thought it high 
time to regard our own safety. Fearful of our cutter grounding, Lieut. 
Morgan was very cautious how she came in-shore, and it was with con- 
siderable difficulty I reached her, wading up to the chin and holding a 
short musket in one hand and a cutlass in the other, and in this con- 
dition was hauled into the stern sheets by our cockswain. 

Away we pulled right athwart the gun-boats^ (now within three. 



168 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Suarters of a mile) ; they immediately opened a heavy and well-directed 
re upon us^and made every exertion to cut us off. The barge perceiving 
our imminent danger hastened to rejoin us, and the schooner (for whose 
safety not the slightest apprehension was felt) saluted the enemy with 
her nine-pounder^ firing over our heads and at the same time making 
all sail to join our frigate, that was now observed standing in under a 
heavy press of canvass; with the general recall up. In this position we 
continued several minutes^ doubtful whether we should escape^ but our 
gallant fellows laughed and joked as if they were engaged m a simple 
rowing match, or pulling ashore at Point to enjoy a glorious cruise. As 
the enemy neared us, and each shot that they nred either whistled over 
our heads or falling between our boats splashed each individual^ it only 
gave rise to fresh mirth and a new jest at the Yankees' expense^ for 
being such bad marksmen. At lengthy perceiving that we had succeeded 
in crossing their hawse and that our frigate was closing fast^ they 
dropped the chase and turned their attention to our schooner, whidi 
had been strenuously endeavouring to gain protection of the ship ; but 
as fortune would have it^ the wind now fell calm and she had no alter- 
native but to engage the whole of this unequal force^ having made 
an impregnable barrier with some bales of cotton. At this period 
the scene was vivid and imposing. in the highest degree; our frigate 
having stood into four fathoms water^ hove-to and fired whole broad- 
sides over our heads at the gun-boats^ which unfortunately were just 
out of range of her artillery. The captain , perceiving the unequal contest 
to which the schooner was exposed^ hauled down the recall and dis- 
patched the first lieutenant with the remaining boats to her assistance. 
Immediately we perceived this manoeuvre^ every nerve was strained^ 
every faculty was roused to reach the gun-boats before they should suc- 
ceed in boarding our prize. We were coming up with them fast^ and 
congratulating each other upon carrying the enemy and rescuing our 
shipmates^ when, to our extreme mortification^ the breeze freshened and 
we perceived our gallant young officer* under the humiliating necessity 
of striking his colours^ having expended all his ammunition^ and, as he 
subsequently informed us^ committed his gun to the deep with the 
usual ceremonies. A fine steady breeze had now succeeded^ and in spite 
of every exertion the gun-boats towed, our schooner triumphantly into 
South £ddisto Inlet> amid the gratulations of their countrymen who 
had assembled on the beach to witness the engagement^ while with the 
deepest silence and regret we pulled on board not only with the loss of 
our launch^ schooner^ assistant-surgeon^ master's mate^ and thirty- two 
men, but what was of infinite consequence^ we had to regret the cap- 
ture of all the water which had cost us such vast pains to procure. All 
this, as we subsequently learnt, was the consequence of the treacherous 
desertion of our two marines, the gun-boats having been sent expressly 
from Charleston to capture our watering party. 

Notwithstanding we had now been upon this extremely short allow- 
ance upwards of a fortnight^ our captain was unwilling to quit his 



man 



"* Mr. James Creagh elicited the most enthusiastic praise from every officer and 
•^an who beheld his cool and determined conduct upon this occasion. It is gratify- 
ing to state that his gallantry met with due reward ; he served on board the same 
frigate at Algiers, and at the captain's particular recommendation was promoted to 
t^e rank of lieutenant, and is now very deservedly on the list of commanders* 



LATB AMURIGAN WAR. 169 

cruising-ground without orders^ especially as we were not without a 
lingering hope of falling in with an American frigate^ an idea being 
prevalent both among the officers and men that it was expected one 
would cross this tracks and spite of our previous loss^ we still imagined 
we might be enabled to maintain the honour of our country in the en- 
counter; and I am confident that our gallant first lieutenant* was 
haunted night and day with the spirit-stirring idea: himself a most 
scientific and accomplished officer^ he had trained our crew to a degree 
of skill and precision in the use of the great guns and small armsi^ 
which was rarely to be equalled^ perhaps never to be excelled ; the 
result of which was mutual confidence to an unlimited extent between 
the officers and crew. At length every soul on board really began to 
be seriously alarmed for the want of water ; we had not more than one 
ton remaining in the ship, which^ as I have previously stated^ was the 
drainings of the tanks and casks. However^ Providence befriended u% 
One morning a large ship hove in sights which we chased under all 
sail. When her hull became visible it was fully apparent that she was 
a frigate of the largest class ; the private signal was made^ to which no 
answer was returned^ consequently we immediately cleared ship for 
action^ knocked down the bulk heaas^ took in our small sails> and stood 
under easy sail for the chase^ which neared us very fast. At this period 
of the war it was confidently surmised that the Americans had gained 
possession of our signals ; the telegraphic code had been already changed^ 
and little reliance was placed even on the exchange of private signals ; 
circumstances at all events rendered it very suspicious that the chase 
did not answer us, and, as a ruse de guerre, we hoisted a large American 
ensign ; the frigate did the same. Our officers and crew were now in 
that highly wrought state of excitement^ which even the oldest veterans 
experience^ *' when the blast of war once more blows in their ears ;" 
both vessels steered direct for each other^ and it was apparent that our 
antagonist was a frigate of the heaviest description : our long sought for 
opportunity seemed within our grasp^ the guns were primed, the lockid 
were cocked^ not the slightest whisper was audible among the crew^ 
whose steady and determined looks augured well for the object in 
view. '' Stand by^ my lads/' echoed along the deck in the well-known 
deep-toned voice of the first lieutenant^ while the practised eye of the 
captain eagerly sought a confirmation of his wishes^ as he glanced 
through a telescope at the hull and rigging of the stranger. It was a 
period of the deepest interest ; a few moments and the battle's din 
might succeed to this picture of repose. As if by magic^ the American 
ensigns at the peak of each vessel vanished^ and the proud colours of 
Britain waved in their place. Our yard-arms nearly touched ; both 
captains hailed in breathless expectation^ " What ship is that ?" mutual 
recognition and a friendly salutation followed. By what a frail thread 
is our destiny in this strange world suspended ! the slightest error ^ or 
mistake, and- the blood of a hundred gallant hearts would instantly 
have flowed. The guns were secured^ and the stately fabric in the 

* The late Commander Robert Pearce, who died in the arms of Capt. Clapper- 
ton, whom he accompanied to Africa, where he fell a victim to the insidious climate, 
whilst endeavouring to penetrate the interior and reach the far-famed city of Tim- 
buctoo. In every branch of his profession he was a most scientific^ .zealous, and 
accomplished officer, and truly an ornament to the service. 



170 RfiCOLLBCTIONS OP THK 

space of five mintttes was lying in as quiet and deep repose^ ivith her 
maintop-sail to the mast^ as if the preceding scene had been an illusion 
of the senses ; our gallant tars consoled themselves under their disap* 
pointment^ that at least they should be enabled to have a good ^' blow^ 
out" of water. Our captain proceeded on board the stranger^ H. M. 8. 
Severn^ of fifty guns^ and returned with the gratifying intelligence 
that she would supply us with eight tons. It is impossible to paint th^ 
lively and extravagant joy demonstrated by every individual in the 
«hip'; they all literally danced and capered at the welcome news, and 
diiribg this afternoon many a parched and burning throat was plenti* 
fully moistened ; hunger may be borne fur days without exciting a 
murmur^ but thirst is excruciating^ especially when heightened by the 
stimulating auxiliaries of salt junk and pork* 

In the afternoon we parted company with the gallant vessel that 
came so opportunely to our relief, and in the course of a few days 
boarded a Swedish schooner^ which had an English newspaper on 
board stating that peace had been signed at Ghent on the 24th of De- 
cember. It was I20W approaching to the close of February^ and we dis- 
patched our third lieutenant in the vessel to apprise Rear-Admiral 
Cockburn of the fact. On his return we received orders to proceed to 
Bermuda and refit^ prior to sailing for England ; our prisoners were 
naturally rejoiced at the news^ and in our berth, where a dozen of the 
most respectable took up their quarters^ their return to the land of 
their nativity, was the constant and unremitting theme. Poor fellows i 
during the whole cruise, we endeavoured, to the utmost, to render their 
lot as comfortable as circumstances would permit : they seemed fiilly to 
appreciate our kindness, especially when they observed the luxury they 
enjoyed in comparison with their less favoured brethren, who at night 
were constantly confined in the fore-liold ; it was an act of necessity, 
but their f^te really excited the deepest commiseration, not being 
used to the hardships and vicissitudes consequent on a maritime life. 
They repeatedly declared, that every soul in America had long been 
tired of the war and most ardently prayed for the blessings of peace. 
On our ]>assage we recaptured a prize brig called the Hope; we 
boarded her under American colours, and it was with considerable 
difiiculty the prize master could be made to comprehend that the whole 
affair was not a joke, as he strenuously insisted that our frigate was 
the Macedonian. When he came up the side, he advanced with an air 
oi the most consummate gravity towards the captain, saying, '' I guess, 
captain, if the Warrior privateer had been here, we should have shown 
you a little play for it; I calculate as how we should have knocked 
away a few of your fine spars and fiying kites ; but, however, captain, 
I surrender my sword," at the same time suiting the action to the word 
with a most ridiculous mock-heroic bow. The captain coolly ordered' 
the quarter-master to tiike possession of it, and the discomfited prize- 
master retreated over to the lee-side of the quarter-deck amidst the 
general titter of the assembled Mids, whilst the crest-fallen Yankee 
conceived himself treated with the grossest indignity and contempt. 

In the beginning of March, we arrived at Bermuda, which is one of 
the loveliest spots in the creation to behold from the sea, but the mo- 
ment you step uu terra-firma the illusion vanishes— barrenness predo- 



LATE AMERICAN WAS. 171 

minates amidst picturesque scenery, and the grossest imposition of 
every description supersedes the benevolent hospitality one is led to 
expect in a Bntitih colony, which has attained a high degree of cele* 
brity from the supposition of its being the spot where Shakspeare has 
laid the scene of his immortal Tempest ; and although Prospero no 
longer waived his magic wand, yet at this period the island was enli^ 
vened by the presence of the President, American frigate, which had 
been captjired by the Endymion, in company with a squadron of fri- 
gates under the command of Capt. Hayes. Only having once previously 
visited an American frigate, (the Chesapeak in Halifax harbour,) (» 
course I very soon took an opportunity of gratifying my curiosity by 
inspecting the President. She was certainly a noble ship, having 
beams and scantling fully equal to those of a 7^ ; her store-rooms were 
magnificent, and her lower yards and masts were on equally as grand a 
scale ; she had been dreadfully cut up in her hull, while her antagonist 
chiefly suffered in the rigging. Of course the American pride was 
deeply hurt at the result of this action, but they strenuously denied 
being defeated by the Endymion singly, and said they had not struck 
until the Pdmone had fireil two broadsides into them ; however, this 
point might be disputed. I happened to be on board the Endymion all 
night on duty, and in the gun-room heard the whole account of the 
action related to our surgeon, whose brother, Mr. Boyter, was serving 
on board as a master's-mate, by which it clearly appeared that if she 
had not already struck to the Endymion, the superior fire and dia* 
cipline of the British frigate over the American was fully apparent, 
as well by instituting a comparison of the loss each ship incurred, as 
from the circumstance of the Endymion bending a new suit of sails in 
little more than half an hour, and this too, accomplished in the dark* 
ness of night, immediately after a severe action : however, every officer 
on board the British frigate fully concurred in opinion, that the Ame« 
rican had already struck, prior to the arrival of the Pomone. Among 
the President's crew were several Englishmen, who made no mystery 
of having even served on board our men-of-war, for when lying along- 
side the Guard-ship, I heard frequent conversations carried on between 
our boat's crew and the prisoners at the grated ports. 

We were now gladdened by the arrival of our gallant fellows who 
had been captured by the gun-boats; they had been conveyed to 
Charleston, and had been exceedingly well treated, the master's-mate 
and assistant-surgeon being allowed their parole, and were invited to 
the houses of many of the principal inhabitants, where they had balls 
and evening parties. The Americans were excessively proud of the 

capture they had made, and' christened our launch the H junior; 

every expedient was resorted to, every temptation held out to our men 
to induce them to enter, but it is gratifying to record, that every soul 
was loyal to his country. They were frequently visited in their con- 
finement by an old Irish lady, who constantly exnorted them tp be true 
to their King and the land of their birth. She frequently furnished 
them with various necessaries and comforts, of which they stood much 
in need. 

I cannot refrain from mentioning one act of grateful recollection 
that does honour to the human heart. After the battle and bombard* 



172 RBCOLLBCTIONS QP THU LAT£ AMERICAN WAR. 

• 

ment of the dty of Baltimore, among several other prisoners who were 
confined on board our frigate^ was a gentleman named Wills ; he was 
a respectable stationer^ and had been captured while serving in the 
National Militia ; he messed in our berths and partook with several 
others of such homely fare as the mids of a cruising frigate were ac-» 
customed to provide. After being conveyed to Bermuda^ he had been 
sent home in a cartel to Baltimore. The moment the newspapers 
informed him of the capture of our officers and' men^ he addressed a 
letter to Mr. James Creagh> regretting that the fortune of war had 
made him a prisoner^ and requesting him to draw upon him for any 
sums of money that he might require^ and stating that he should never 
forget the kindness he had experienced on board our ship^ and as a 
feeble return he mi^ht depend upon being furnished with every neces« 
sary his situation demanded. However the peace might have neu- 
tralized this worthy man's intentions^ these are valuable traits, and 
tend to soften the asperities of war. Being ready for sea> the body of 
the late Capt. Qir Peter Parker^ Bart.* was disinterred from a vault 
in St. George's town^ and once more transferred to the custody of our 
gallant captain^ (who had been his friend and messmate in early 
youthj) that the mortal remains of this lamented officer might slumber 
m his native land^ honoured by his friends^ his country^ and the pro* 
fession to which he was so bright an ornament. As a tribute of re- 
spect to the manes of this young hero^ our ship was put into mourning 
by painting her sides a deep grey, and all her masts black. 
, Elate at the idea of once more revisiting the white cliffs of Britaiuj 
our anchors were weiehed, the fluttering canvas swelled proudly to the 
breeze^ whilst the gallant vessel ploughed the bosom of the main^ until 
the Mudian shore sank beneath the glittering horizon. Joy was in 
every eye — ^for our destined haven was Old England. 

R. J. B. 

* Capt. Sir P. Parker, Bart, commanded the Menelaus frigate in August 1814, 
when he was ordered up the Patapsoo River, near Baltimore. He landed at the 
head of a division of seamen and marines in the night, to attack a portion of the 
enemy that had assembled a few miles from the beach. Whilst traversing a wood to 
l^in their position, the enemy, in treble the force he had been led to expect, sud- 
denly opened a tremendous fire ; the gallant and heroic Parker received a buck-shot 
in the Uiigh which pierced the femoral artery, but still continued to cheer on his 
men ; in five minutes he fell faint and exhausted in the arms of Lieut. Robert 
Pearce, and in the space of few minutes more the vital spark had fled. He had 
bled to death. His gallant seamen and marines fought like tigers : they succeeded in 
carrying off all their killed and wounded. The body of Sir Peter was embalmed, 
and when he was removed on board our ship, the rugged countenances of his gal- 
lant crew betrayed manly grief for their heroic Captain, who fell at the early age 
of 29. We conveyed him to Bermuda preserved in spirits, where he was interred 
with all the honours due to his rank, and on being conveyed to England a party of 
seamen and marines, attended by the officers of our ship, rollowed his second funeral 
to St. Margaret's,' Westminster* 



173 



ON THB DEFENCE OF JERSEY. 

. In the event of a War with France^ which sooner or later must be 
deemed unavoidable^ an attack upon the Norman Isles is highly proba- 
ble. That the defence of these islands has been thought of before 
can be no matter of doubts when the importance of their possession to 
Great Britain and their vicinity to France are considered ; and that 
characters of high military talent and reputation have also presided at 
those councils which devised the meansresorted to for their protection^ can 
no less be questioned when reference is made to the list of the Lieut.* 
Gk)vernors of those Isles^ as well as to the names of the officers who 
have been successively attached to their Staffs^ or again occasionally 
sent over by the Government for the immediate purpose of securing 
those islands from foreign aggression. 

But let not the soldier be hereby deterred from investigation^ or 
from delivering his sentiments on an object at once so important to the 
country^ and of so general an interest to the JMilitary Art, since, while 
he is attempting to trace a proper mode of defence for Jersey, his en- 
deavours will serve equally to illustrate the defence of small islands in 
genera] ; besides the means suggested, if differing from those already 
recommended mav lead to disquisition, and this disquisition tend either 
to modify or confirm the measures previously determined on. 

Without farther remarks, we shall, therefore, at once proceed to our 
design, by establishing, that the defence of Jersey, like that of all 
small islands, consistSr— on the principle of the defence of great river&^« 
first in preventing the enemy from landing ; and secondly, should he 
succeed in landing, in preventing the troops, as they successively 
arrive on shore, from forming. 

It is to the batteries erected along the shore we have principally to 
look for the attainment of the iirst object. They are to be so situated^ 
after a careful survey of the coast and sounding along the same, that 
by their cross fire they may baffle approach to any place accessible to 
an enemy, as well as injure the enemy's shipping. The erecting of 
these batteries, and the selection of the spots where their effects will 
be most destructive, becomes a province of the artillery officer and 
engineer, assisted by the Naval department, which latter is to point 
out the several landing-places, together with the courses necessarily to 
be pursued for disembarkation. The assistance which would be de« 
rived here from the Light Brigade of Artillery will clearly appear ; 
while the reflection, how desirable the presence of a British fleet would 
be at the time, will naturally suggest the advantage that would result 
from a harbour capable of containing a naval force (and which that of 
Boulay at a moderate expense would afford,) particularly when the ex- 
tensive works erected at Cherbourg — calculated to shelter, I believe, the 
entire French fleet — ^are taken into consideration, as well as the num- 
berless works in progress at the various harbours lying along the Bay 
of Cancale. 

.The second object, that of preventing the enemy from forming while 
landing, by driving the men back into the sea as thev successively 
reach the shore, must depend on the united efforts of the Light BrisBLoe 
of Artillery, a rapid iire of musketry, and brisk charges of a body of 
Cavalry or Infantry. 



174 ON THE DEFENCE OP JERSEY. 

It becomes, therefore, obvious that the instruction of the Militia of 
the Norman Isles should be directed to the few evolutions which, in con- 
formity with the above premises, it may be called upon to perform. The 
existing system of warfare scarcely leaves a doubt, that a hostile enter- 
prise against Jersey by the French will never be ventured on, except 
by a considerable and overwhelming force, which if landed and formed 
would preclude resistance, nnless in the instance of Fort Regent* to 
which the defending troops must, in that case, immediately withdraw. 
The small extent of the island and its high state of cultivation com- 
bine to negative any attempt at warlike operations. It is true that 
the bold scenery of some of the small Bays might, at first sight, favour 
the martial sentiment of a protracted warfare, but the idea is sooii 
aband6ned when it is observed that this favourable state of locality is 
of no extent, and that, seldom continuing for the space of a mile, it 
sii\ks, after two or three hillocks have been passed, into a rich and cul- 
tivated country, the general aspect of Jersey* 

Assuming this mode of defence to be adopted, the expediency of the 
Light Bri^ide of Artillery, as formed by Major General Sir Colin 
Halkett, will be clearly seen. It consists at present of 34 Six- 
Iwunders ; were it increased in number, and the pieces, at least partly, 
of a heavier metal, still greater benefit would most likely result from 
this salutary measure. 

The next object for con^deration is the body of Cavalry, which the 
raising of a corps of Yeomanry, from three to four hundred strong, will 
effectually supply. The necessity on the part of each man for keeping 
ar horse would naturally render the composition of this corps respecta- 
ble, and of that valuable class of men, who cannot well be provided 
with commissions in the Militia, yet who, from their state of indepen- 
dence, hold a certain rank in their parishes. 

The expected duty of this body of Cavalry would be, by repeated 
charges, to prevent the enemy from forming as they successively reach 
the shore, and to drive them back into their boats or the sea ; it might 
likewise, as well as the Light Brigade of Artillery, be of great advan* 
t^e in covering the retreat by checking the enemy's advance as much 
as possible. l%ese corps, the Light Artillery and Cavalry, should be 
severally divided into three bodies, which, in the event of alarm, 
should repair, each to its appropriate station, namely, the three prin- 
cipal landing^laces, St. Ouen, Granville, and St. Aubin Bays : and 
here, the advanti^e of dispatch which would immediately result from 
the suggestion ofJSir Colin Halkett to erect the sheds or stores for 
the use of the Artillery, and to keep the pieces, at these three 
principal points at which attack may be apprehended, is manifest. 
Were, in war time, a few large waggons also, kept in readiness within 
these stores or sheds, capable of conveying bodies of Infantry from one 
Bay to another, as circumstances may render urgent, additional benefit 
would accrue, while the appropriate situation of these warlike stores 
at the three chief points of assault, would become still more con- 
spicuous. 

It will be evident that the proximity of the inhabitants to St. Ouen, 
Granville, or St. Aubin's Bay, and the local situations of their abodes, 
must chiefly infiuence their appointments to the particular division of 
the corps of Light Artillery and Horsci to which they belong ; and 



ON THB DBFBNCB OF JERSEY. 175 

that the same principle should be acted on iu directing the individuals 
to their respective batteries. 

The Brigade of Light Artillery, and corps of Yeomanry Cavalry 
being filled up, and the persons to be attached to the several batteries 
along the coast appointed — these principal objects of defence provided 
for — ^the remaining part of the inhabitants may be distributed into 
four raiments of infantry, of which one would likewise, in case of 
alarm, assemble at St. Ouen, one at Granville Bay, and one at St. 
Aubin's Bay and the town. The fourth, destined to the defence of 
.the smaller accessible harbours, — Greve de Lecq, Bonuit, Boulay Bay, 
Roselle, and St. Catharine, and to re-inforce the detachments of regu- 
lars stationed at those posts, might, by companies, repair to the churches 
of St. Mary, St. John, Trinity, and St. Martin, to proceed from thence 
io their respective destination, or wherever their services may be re* 
quired. 

The same precautions should be taken to provide for the defence of 
St. Brelade's Bay, and the eastern coast of St. Clement, by directing 
thither detachments of the Granville, and St. Aubin regiments^ or ap- 
pointing those posts as rendezvous for one or two companies of those 
regiments. 

That such an arrangement/ though deemed fundamental, should un* 
dergo occasional alteration, and, that in the case of invasion, the seve- 
ral corps once assembled, should be liable to leave their stations to re- 
pair to the points attacked, need scarcely be observed ; but this be- 
comes th6 province of the General commanding, who, prepared against 
surprise, and knowing where his forces lie, will direct them where 
threatened, so as to act in mass against the assailant. 

The distribution of the inhabitants into the foot regiments again, 
should be chiefly determined by their proicimity to the assembling 
posts, without any attention being paid to the boundaries of the pa- 
rishes, or in fact^ any other consideration whatever, but that which 
promotes the defence of the island, the great, and indeed, the sole ob^ 
ject, to which every other must give way. 

It may not be altogether inappropriate here to say a few words re- 
specting the movements to which the Militia of the Norman Isles 
might be trained, according to the view we have taken of the defence 
of the island ; namely, to prevent the hostile troops, while landing, 
from forming, and to repel them from the shore. These movements 
we shall readily find to be the charge in line, snd the charge of a line 
of central double columns^ as practised by the Russians ; the instruc- 
tion of the Militia should accordingly be principally confined to the 
advance and charge in line, to the formation of the close column in 
i^eor of the right division, and that in front of the left company ; and, 
while in mass> to marching to the front, to the rear, to either ^ank, and 
wheeling in all directions ; and they should particularly be rendered 
familiar with the centre double column, which, formed by the com- 
panies of the right wing moving rapidly behind the right centre com- 
pany, and companies of the left wing behind the left centre company, 
is immediately to be advanced to the charge, which is here efiected on 
the front of a grand division. The instant preceding collision, a dis- 
charge of the two front ranks may be directed ; and while rushing for- 
ward to the shock, the two companies in rear may file out, to act as 



176 ON THE DEFENCE OF JERSEY. 

tirailleurs, or form in line on each flank. The latter are to pursue the 
flying enemy^ while the double column^ after its successAil charge, 
halts^ rapidly deploys into line, to fire by half battalions^ or to give a 
volley as soon as extended. 

The firings in which the militia-men are to be practised, might be 
reduced to the volley, the firing by half battalions, and that by alter- 
nate companies, in which two companies acting independently and to^ 
gether, tne one fires as soon as the other is loaded. 

In conclusion, we shall venture a few remarks respecting the roads,, 
which, as they were established by General Don, as a means of defence, 
(by facilitating the rapid march of the troops, and conveying the artil* 
lery to the points of attack,) cannot well be left unnoticed. Without 
entering into tactical discussions respecting their military advantages, 
or balancing the benefits they procure by promoting the conveyance of 
troops to the threatened points, against the disadvantages they present, 
by favouring the advance of an enemy, after he has efiected a landing ; 
and admitting. such roads to be of general utility to the island, it i& 
impossible to forbear remarking how much the object of facilitating the 
progress of troops might have been promoted, had a more regular sys- 
tem been pursued in the cutting of the roads. For instance, had a 
main road been constructed in as straight a line as circumstances would 
permit, from St. Ouen's Bay to Granville Bay, it would have accele- 
rated the removal of troops from one of the principal points of attack 
to the other ; and this road, by dividing the island, 'would have admit- 
ted of several cross roads to the churches of St. Mary, St. J6hn, Tri- 
nity, and St* Martin, and from thence continuing to the harbours of 
Greve de Lecq, Bonuit, Boulay, Roselle, and St. Catharine ; as well 
as allowed on the southern sidie a cross road to St. Brelade, and two 
broader ones, the one to St. Aubin's Bay, the other to St. Helier : the 
latter would have joined the main road, about half a mile or a mile be- 
yond St. Saviour's church. The road from St. Ouen's, round the island, 
and passing through St. Mary, St. John, Trinity, St. Martin, Gran- 
ville, St. Clement, to town, might have been preserved, as well as the 
road along the shore from St. Helier's to St. Brelade. 

On the roads leading to St. Helier's, from the main road, at about a 
mile or a mile and a half from town, slight works, capable of arresting 
the enemy for a while, might have been erected, and this might have 
been likewise repeated on the St. Brelade road leading to town. The 
advantages which would accrue from thus delaying the enemy, were it 
even but for half an hour, would be exceedingly great ; as whatever 
might be the precautionary measures taken to put Fort Regent into 
a state of defence, the influx of troops and inhabitants pouring toward 
the town, must lead to some disorder, which the temporary retardment 
the assailant experiences in his progress, by the necessity of carrying 
these works, might afford time to repair. 

Lupus. 



177 

REMINISCENCES OF A SUBALTERN. 

NO V. 

We occupied our old quarters at Nave-d'-Aver, and were well 
received by the inhabitants^ who preferred taking a quiet view of the 
combats of the 3rd and 5th to taking a part in both or either ; their 
plan of operations was of a far different sort, and, although unattended 
with any danger to themselves, was fraught with the most disastrous 
consequences to their foes, which is, no matter what may be urged 
against it, the very essence of the art of war. 

It may perhaps be asked what their method was ? or why I, a mere 
subaltern, should take upon myself the censorship of the art of war } 
My answer to the former «hall be plain and I hope conclusive. To 
the latter, that having served during part of the year 1809, the entire 
of 1810, 11, 12, and part of 13, in the third division (commonly desig- 
nated the Jighting division) of the Peninsular army — and the division 
never having, during the period alluded to, squibbed off as much as one 
cartridge without my being in my place — I had opportunities of gain- 
ing, and I think I did g«in, a little insight into military tactics. If, 
however, the view I have taken of the subject upon which I am speak- 
ing, be an erroneous one, I fear my readers will come to the conclusion 
that I have lost some time which might have been better employ- 
ed, or to speak more plainly, that I have mistaken my profession. 
Marshal Saxe used to say, that a mule which had made twenty cam- 
paigns ui|der Csesar would still be but a mule. 

I have digressed thus far before touching on a subject that no doubt 
(although I l|ave not seen any work of the kind) has been written upon, 
and upon which much diversity of opinion did exist at one time in 
England ; whether it still exists or no I shall not pretend to say, not 
havmg b^en in the United Kingdom for some years ; but certain it is 
that a vary general opinion was prevalent that the war in the Penin- 
sula was carried on, on the part of the peasantry, in a spirit bordering 
more on a crusade, than the ordinary exertions of a brave people strug- 
gling for liberty; and that those heroes fought more like a parcel of 
devils incarnate than mortal men. Indeed the engravings struck off 
at Lisbon in commemoration of those days, certainly represented them 
as a gigantic, ferocious people, while the few British, that were thrown 
into the back-ground, looked like so many dwarfs, who were afraid to 
come to close quarters with the French. I have ever combated this 
mistaken opinion, nor does the recollection of the hundreds of those 
heroes that I have seen marched to the different depots, handcuffed 
like a parcel of criminals, weaken the view I have taken of the volutin 
tary part the Peninsular People took in the contest. In a word, their 
plan was this. 

The moment our troops had completely routed a parcel of the 
enemy's infantry, strewing the ground with dead and wounded, dis- 
organized a park of artillery, or unhorsed some squadrons of dragoons, 
then, and then only would these gallant fellows sally forth from their 
lurking-places, and, first taking the precaution to put a stop to any sort 
of parley from their unfortunate victims by knocking them on the head, 
completely rifle them of every thing they possessed. On the contrary, 

U. S. JouRN. No. 31. June 1831. n. 



178 RBMINISGBNCES OF A SUBALTERN. 

if our troops met with any reverse, as in the case of Don Julian San- 
chez and his ragged band, our allies would take advantage of every 
accident of ground, and make one of those rapid retrograde movements, 
sufficient to baffle the evolutions of the most redoubtable legere regi- 
ment in the French army. This, I say, is the true harassing sys- 
tem, and the one suited to the genius of the Peninsular nations. It 
weakens your enemy, and is attended with no risk to yourselves or 
your friends, which is the same thing ; for in £ngland many think that 
the Portuguese and Spaniards did as much, if not more, during the 
Peninsular contest, than the British army. 

I remember once, upon my return home in the year 1813, getting 
myself closely cross-examined by an old lawyer, because I said I thought 
the Portuguese troops inferior to the French, still more to the British. 
*' Inferior to the British, Sir ! I have read Lord Wellington's last dis- 
patch, and he says the Portuguese fought as well as the British, and I 
suppose you won't contradict him /" I saw it was vain to convince 
this pugnacious old man of the necessity for saying those complimentary 
things, and we parted mutually dissatisfied with each other ; he taking 
me, no doubt, for a forward young ignorant puppy, and I looking upon 
him as a monstrous old bore. 

After the affair of Pombal, Gen. Beresford was detached with the 
second division to the province of Alentejo. He passed the Tagus at 
Villa Velha, and reached Portalegre on the 20th of March. On the 
> 24th he advanced to Campo-Mayor ; this town was occupied by three 
thousand French troops, under th^ command of Gen. Latour Maubourg. 
On perceiving the advanced guard of Gen. Beresford's army, he quitted 
the town, and established his troops on the heights in its rear. The 
13th regiment of light dragoons gallantly charged the cavalry of Latour 
Maubourg and overthrew them at the first onset, but the French infantry, 
which were posted behind their cavalry, formed into square, and not only 
protected their own horse, but drove back ours with considerable loss. 
The bravery of the Infantry saved their cavalry from total defeat and 
disgrace, and gave them time to reform and advance again to the com- 
bat. The infantry, with that promptitude which characterizes French 
troops, took advantage of this change in their favour, and continued 
their march upon Badajoz, repeatedly performing this fine manoeuvre, 
and at last succeeded in reaching the Guadiana unbroken, and un- 
questionably with the honours of the day on their side. They neither 
lost baggage or cannon, and not more than twenty prisoners fell into 
our hands. The conduct of the I3th Light Dragoons in this affair 
was particularly dashing. 

Gen. Beresford quartered his army in the neighbourhood of Elvas, and 
made preparations to act on the left bank of the Guadiana. On the 
4th of April he passed that river with little opposition. He reconnoi- 
tred Olivenza, and was informed by his spies that the garrison consist- 
ed of only five hundred infantry. This was doubtless an oversight on 
the part of the Duke of Dalmatia, because a town of such extent re- 
quired a force of at least three thousand men. No time was lost in in- 
vesting it; the first parallel was completed on the 12th of April; 
on the 15th the batteries opened, and on the same day Olivenza sur- 
rendered ; but the power of the enemy was still unshaken ; the sur- 
prise of a single garrison, though a aistinguished evidence of what 



REMINISCENCES OF A SUBALTERN, 179 

migitt be done by our troopR> was trivial in the scale of a war to be 
conducted against the whole power of France. 

Matters remained thus in this quarter^ and Lord Wellington^ after 
the battle of Fuentes-de-Onore, and the retreat of the army of Portu- 
gal across the Agueda^ employed himself in giving directions for the 
repairs of the injury inflicted by Brennier upon Almeida previous to his 
evacuation of that fortress. 

The troops had recovered from their fatigues and were fresh again, 
and ready for any things when accounts' reached us from the Alentejo 
that Gen. Beresford was carrying on the siege of Badajoz, in which ope- 
ration he was likely to be disturbed by Marshal Soult^ who was on his 
march from Seville. Our division broke up from its cantonments on 
the 16th of May, and Lord Wellington^ who rode at a rapid pace, 
reached Elvas in three days. There he received the report of the battle 
of Albuera. 

The weather was fine and we continued our route without any forced 
marches, taking the old beaten track through Castello Branco, Niza, 
and Portalegre. Our march was uninterrupted by any particular 
incident ; we had no enemy near us, and were therefore left to 
ourselves. The soldiers were gay as was usual, full of that humour 
and anecdote which none but those who have served with an Irish 
regiment can estimate ; and the dead Frenchman on the banks of the 
Duos Casas still afforded amusement to the women. " Well, yees 
may all be talking," said -Mrs. Murphy of the grenadier company : 
" Yees may all say what yees like, but he was the boy after all ; 
Och ! 'twas he, when he was alive, (the Lord be marciful to his soul !) 
it was he that wouldn't be long coaxing a girl out of her sarvice." 
" Well, a'tanny rate, Mrs. Murphy," said Tim Muldoon, the tailor of 
the company, ^' he had a mighty ugly big head." " A big head ! faith 
and every thing about him was big," rejoined she ; *' but what the devil 
are you but a tailor, and that 's the ninth part of a man." A shout 
followed this hit of Mrs. Murphy's, and poor Muldoon was mum for 
the remainder of the day. 

I pressed Bell, our staff-surgeon, to preserve the skeleton of this 
herculean figure, but he said it was too cumbrous, and that besides he 
had enough of living subjects to occupy him, without attending to dead 
ones. The Turk that assassinated Kleber at Cairo, and whose skele- 
ton they show in the Museum at the Garden of Plants in Paris, was a 
large man, but he was a mere pigmy as compared with this fellow. 

The French army have the character of being the best marchers in 
Europe, and I know from experience that no men, to use a phrase of 
the ** Fancy,"' understand better than they do, how to " hit and get 
away ;" nevertheless, I would say, that an army composed exclusively 
of Irishmen would outmarch any French army, as much as I know 
they would outfight them. The quality which carries a Frenchman 
through, and enables ' him to overcome obstacles trul^ formidable 
in themselves, is his gaiety, and his facility of accommodating not 
only his demeanour but his stomach also, to circumstances as they 
require it. An Irishman is to the full as gay as a Frenchman ; if he 
does not possess his piquant wit, — - and I don't say that he does 
not, — he has in a paramount degree the rich humour of his own coun- 
try, which is no where else to be found. He can live on as little 

V 2 



180 RBMINISGBNGES OF A SUBALTERN. 

nourishment as a Frenchman ; sWe him his pipe of tobacco^ and he will 
march for two days without food and without grumbling — give him^ in 
addition^ a little spirits and a biscuit, and he will work for a week. 
This will not be a task so easy of accomplishment to the English sol- 
dier ; early habits have given him a relish for good eating, and plenty of 
it too : if he has not a regular allowance of solid food^ it is certain he 
will not do his work well for any great length of time. But an Irish 
fellow has been accustomed all his life to be what an Englishman 
would consider half-starved;* therefore quantity or quality is no 
great consideration with him ; his stomach is like a corner cupboard — 
ifou might throw any thing into it I Neither do you find elsewhere the 
lively thought, the cheerful song^ or pleasant story to be met only 
in an Irish regiment. We had a few Englishmen in my corps^ and I 
do not remember ever to have heard one of them attempt a joke. But 
there are those who thin]^ an Irish regiment more difficult to manage 
than that of any other nation. Never was there a more erroneous idea. 
The English soldier is to the full as drunken as the Irish^ and not 
half so pleasant in his liquor. 

These opinions are, however^ mere matter of fancy. Some of our 
best regiments were English^ and one, to please me, decidedly the 
finest in the Peninsular army^ the 43rd^ was principally composed of 
Englishmen. Then there was that first-rate battle regiment^ the 45th, 
a parcel of Nottingham weavers, whose sedentary habits would lead 
you to suppose they could not be prime marchers^ but the contrary was 
the fact^ and they marched to the full as well as my own corps^ which 
were all Irish save three or four. But if it come to a hard tiig, and 
that we had neither rations or shoes, then, indeed, the Connaught 
Rangers would be in their element, and outmarch almost any battalion 
in the service ; and for this plain reason, that scarcely otie of them wore 
many pair of shoes prior to the date of his enlistment, and as to the 
rations, (the most part of them at all events) a dozen times had 
been in all probability the outside of their acquaintance with such a 
delicacy. 

But the grand secret, in a good marching, good fighting, or loyal 
regiment, one not given to a habit of deserting, is being well command^ 
ed ; because the finest body of men may be ruined, the efforts of the 
bravest regiment paralyzed, and the best disposed corps become ma- 
rauders and deserters, from having an inefficient man at their head. 

At a period later than the one I am touching upon, my regiment 
was placed in a situation where the greatest facilities were afforded, 
and tne strongest temptation made use of, to induce the men to desert. 
Several regiments lost from one to three hundred men each ! but not- 
withstanding that we were stationed on the bank of *b river, within a 
few hours' sail of the American territory — notwithstanding that the 
river was crowded with their trading vessels, and that more than one 
third of the* battalion were allowed daily to work on board those ships, 
which were hourly arriving and departing, — and notwithstanding that 
we had no possible means of preventing the desertion of the entire 
regiment in a night if they chose it — we never lost one man ! 

This is a fact that I take the greatest pride in recording of my old 
comrades, and a point that in my opinion is worthy the attention of 
officers at the head of regiments. It may not be amiss to add that the 



REMINISCENCES OF A SUBALTERN. 181 

men, generally speaking, were in debt in consequence of the arrival of 
a detachment from Ireland ; the company I paid owed about fifty pounds, 
and the other companies averasjed the same amount. But by a good 
commanding officer, I do not mean one too fond of quackery — quite 
the contr£u*y. Too much training, is as bad as too little; we had no 
fuss with our men — ^no chocolate breakfast, and we had but few, as com- 
pared with others, on the sick list. We generally turned out half as 
strong again as other regiments ; but ours was no rule to go by, be- 
cause the soldiers were too hardy to be overcome by any ordinary 
fatigue, and too good-humoured, if they were, to let their officers 
know it. Poor Joe Kelly used to call us the united Irishmen, 

Colonel Alexander Wallace, who commanded us for so many years, 
and under whom the regiment repeatedly covered itself with glory, 
was the very kind of man we wanted. Although a Scotsman himself, 
he was intimately acquainted with the sort of men he had under him> 
and he dealt with them, and addressed their feelings, in a way that was 
peculiar to himself, and suited to them. In action he was the same as 
on parade, and in either case he was as he should be. If we were 
placed (as we often were) in any critical situation, he would explain 
to the soldiers what he expected them to do ; if in danger of being 
charged by cavalry, he would say, " Mind the square ; you know I 
often told you that if ever you had to form it from line, in face of an 

enemy, you'd be in a d d ugly way, and have plenty of noise about 

you ; mind the tellings off, and don't give the false touch to your right 
or left hand man; for by G — d, if you are once broken, you'll be 
running here and there like a parcel of frightened pullets /" But 
Colonel Wallace was out of his place as a mere commander of a 
regiment; he was eminently calculated to head a division, because 
he not only possessed that intrepidity of mind which would brave 
any danger, but genius to discover the means of overcoming it. 
It was by his foresight that our brave companions, the 45th, were 
sustained in their unequal contest with Heignier s division at Bu- 
sacco ; and Lord Wellington who saw, and fully appreciated the ma- 
noeuvre, rode up to the 88th Regiment, and seizing Colonel Wallace 
by the hand said — " Upon my honour, Wallace, I never witnessed a 
more gallant charge than that just now made by your battalion." The 
dead and wounded of the 2nd, 4th, 36th, and Irish brigade, (four 
French regiments which were opposed to the 88th singly,) lay thick on 
the face of the hill, and their numbers gave ample testimonv that we 
deserved the praises bestowed upon us by our General. The 45th 
also came in for their share of praise, and no battalion ever merited 
it better than they did, — at one time they were engaged with nearly 
ten times their own numbers. 

It was the fashion with some to think that the 88th were a parcel of 
wild, rattling rascals, ready for a row — but loosely officered. The 
direct contrary was the fact. Perhaps in the whole British army there 
was not one regiment so severely arilled. If a man coughed in the 
ranks, he was punished ; if the sling of the firelock, for an instant, left 
the hollow of the shoulder when it should not, he was punished ; and 
if he moved his knapsack when standing at ease, he was punished, more 
or less, of course, according to the offence. The consequence of this 
system, exclusively Colonel Wallace's, was that the men never had the 



182 REMINISCENCKS OF A SUBALTERN. 

appearance of being fatigued upon a march, and when they halt^, you 
did not see them thrusting their firelocks against their packs ta support 
them. Poor Bob Hardiman of the 45th said, the reason the Con- 
iiaught Rangers carried their packs better than any other regiment 
was, that thei/ never had any thing in them ! and, to speak candidly, 
we nerer had more than was necessary, and in truth it was very little 
that satisfied our fellows. A wi-iter of celebrity so strongly bears me 
out in what I have been saying, that I shall take leave to quote a few 
lines of hi9 opinion of my old corps. 

'* Our division continued to march in pursuit of the enemy till near dark^ 
when we took up onr quarters in some villages and farm-houses. In one of 
these latter, where I was proceeding to quarter some of my company, I 
found a party of the light company of the 88th or Connaught Rangers, wh« 
after the pursuit of the enemy had brought ^up there for the night. Thejf 
were aU tolerably fresh, as may be supposed) and were seated round the fire 
cutting their jokes, as they contemplated with greedy looks the culinary 
process which was taking place in a targe cauldron depending from the roof 
of a kitchen chimney. The first salutation I received on entering was, 
' Plase your honour, you will be after taking some of onr stt)>per; we have 
got 8 couple of geese boiled in wine Y This invitation, however my curio- 
sity might have dbposed me to taste of so novel a dish, I could not accept ; 
hut I left a party of my soldiers to assist them in discussing the banquet, 
which 1 have no doubt was highly palatable. This 88th, although from 
their name one would suppose them to be a rollicking set, was a very good 
regiment and iu excellent order. They had always a soldier-like look, and 
they carried their packs well, which, trifling as the circumstance may 
appear, is a sure sign of a good service regiment.^'* 

At drill our manceuvres were chiefly confined to line marching, 
echellon movements and formation of the square in every possible 
way ; and in all those we excelled. Colonel Wallace was very unlike 
an old Major, who having once got his battalion into square, totally 
forgot how to get it out of it. Having tried several ways, each time 
more efl^ectually clubbing the sections, he thus addressed his officers 
and soldiers. ^' Gentlemen I I can clearly discern that there is a 
something wanting, and I strongly recommend you, when you reach 
your barracks, to peruse Dundas ! — Men, you may go home" — ^and he 
thus dismissed them. 

I never remember our having as much as one adjutant's drill; all 
was done by the commanding officer himself. Our adjutant was left ill 
at liisbon, and he that acted, was more of a good pen-man (an essential 
point) than a drill. I forget now how the circumstance of our having 
been sent an adjutant from the Guards occurred ; but one of their ser- 
jeant-majors did reach us in the capacity of adjutant : on his arrival at 
head-quarters he dined with the Colonel, who invited him to attend 
parade the next morning. We were under arms at ten, and never 
once ordered arms until two ! not a man fell out of the ranks, not a 
man coughed, and not a man moved his pack. When the drill was 
over, " Well," said Colonel Wallace, " what do you think of the state 
of the battalion ?" " Very steady indeed. Sir," replied the guards- 
man. He left us that night, and we never saw him afterwards ! no 
one knew where he went, but it was conjectured that he was unused 
to the mode of discipline he had just witnessed, and that he was un- 

♦ Twelve Years' Military Adventure, Vol. II. p. 330. 



REMINISCBNCKS OP A SUBALTERN. 183 

willing to embark in an undertaking that most unquestionably would 
be no sinecure. I was not sorry for this, because I always had, and 
have, an aversion to adjutants raised from the ranks. An adjutant is, 
' properly speaking, the mouth-piece ot his commanding officer, and 
should be a gentleman capable of writing a good official letter ; and 
surely this cannot be expected or looked for in a man raised from the 
station of a private soldier. 

I knew two persons of this description : one commenced an official 
letter, and concluded with stating that his wife and children were 
quite hearty. The other, one evening in a large company, hearing an 
argument carried on as to the different merits of Virgil and Homer, 
said, '^ They might be fine fellows for aught he either knew or cared, 
but that he would lay a bet neither of them ever smelt powder" and he 
would, without doubt, have won his wager. 

On the 22nd of May, our division reached Niza. Any person who 
has ever had the misfortune to remain an hour in that filthy place, 
must, no doubt, remember the squalid appearance of its inhabitants ; 
perhaps the world does not contain a more wretched race than those 
beings. The Portuguese nation are at best rather a dirty race, but 
Niza as compared with other towns, is like a filthy puddle, in compa- 
rison to a clear stream. It is one of those antiquated, fortified, and 
neglected towns, which, like Aronches, Portalegre, and Campo-Mayor, 
was once of some importance. At present, it is remarkable but for 
two things — the dirt of its inhabitants, and the number of storks that 
inhabit an old Moorish castle which stands in the centre of the town. 
Notwithstanding the countless number of those birds, and the vo-. 
raoious attacks which they make upon frc^s, toads, serpents, and 
other reptiles, (I wish they would attack the people !) the ditches 
were filled with the latter. Several of the soldiers were stung by 
vipers and centipedes, and although I escaped both, I was frightfully 
bitten by fleas. 

On marching out the following morning, we had not proceeded more 
thaii a league on the Portalegre road, when Mrs. Howley, the black 
cymbal-man's wife, ran up to our Assistant-Surgeon, who was walking 
with me, and accosted him thus : " Och ! Doctor Jewel, what wifl 
become of me } a great haste of a santepetre (the woman meant a cen- 
tipede !) has bit my poor infant in the " The screams of young 

Sambo effectually drowned the last word delivered by Mrs. Howley ; 
but it was too evident., from appearances, that the part she alluded to 
was high up on the back of the thigh, where a large protuberance was 
visible. The colour of the skin was much altered ; it could scarcely 
be said to be for the worse; but black as the little creature's hide 
was, it was manifest that Mrs. Howley, as well as her "infant," had 
ample cause for complaint. 

On the 24th of May, we reached Campo-Mayor, and here I became 
acquainted with Maurice QuiU. It would be quite idle in me to attempt 
giving any very detailed account of a character so well knovm ; one, 
who whenever he opened his mouth was sure to raise a laugh, and 
often before he had time to speak ; and he by whom I was introduced 
(Dr. O'Reily) was little, if any thing, inferior to Quill in either eccen- 
tricity or humour. 

The first question Quill asked O'Reily was, if we all slept soundly 



184 REMINISCBNGES OF A SUBALTERN. 

the night Brennier got away from Almeida. O'Reily replied, that 
some of our army certainly slept sounder than was desirable ; but that 
in their affair at Albuera, they did seem to have had their eyes per- 
fectly open^ not only during the action^ but after it ;"'^-^t this mo- 
ment^ a couple of hundred of those troops that had been broken by the 
Polish horse> having escaped from the enemy^ passed us. 

During our conversation^ O'Reily^ as was customary with him> be- 
came quite abstracted^ and apparently absorbed in his own reflections, 
and upon our turning round, we discovered him in one of Mendoza's 
attitudes ! ** What are you squaring at ?" demanded Maurice. " My 
good friend Quill," replied O'Keily, " I have long felt the difficulty of 
coming to a satisfactory conclusion as to the probability of scietwe being 
eventually able to overcome saVage strength. There is much, Sir^ to 
be said on both sides of the question^ and I have great doubts concern- 
ing the battle about to be decided."— '' What battle ? why sure we are 
not going to fight another so soon .^** said Quill.'' The fight to which I 
allude^ Sir/' said O'Reily, with Quixote^like gravity,— for he paused 
between every word — '' is the one pending between Crib and the black 
man Molineaux ; it will be a contest of science against brute strength" 
— and he threw himself into one of the finest defensive attitudes I 
ever saw; "there," said he, "^ there is the true science for you; 
nevertheless, it might be overcome by savage strength, apd there is the 
rub. Sir. I have devoted much time in endeavouring to come to a 
satisfactory conclusion on this point, but hitherto without effect ; so I 
must await the issue of this fearful encounter ; and my dear Quill, 
having said so much on the subject, allow me to wish you a very good 
morning." It was evident, that although Quill was no novice, O'Reily 
had taken a rise out of him, and it afforded us matter of amusement 
f(H* many a day after. 

We remained in Campo-Mayor until the 27th of May» (in order to 
allow the stores and battering-train from Elvas to arrive,) on which 
day we passed the Guadiana at a ford, distant from San Christoval 
about three cannon-shots : we received no interruption in our passage 
i>f the river, and the operation was performed \vithout loss. The 28th, 
29th, and 30th, were taken up in marking out our camp and con- 
structing huts ; and as the weather was beautiful, and our camp abun- 
dantly supplied by the peasantry, we passed a very agreeable time 
of it. 

The river ran within a few yards of us ; its marshy banks being 
thickly covered with plantations of olives, afforded a delightful shade 
to us when we either went to fish or bathe. Its breadth at this point 
might be about sixty toises, and it was well stocked with fine mullet 
We had several expert fishermen amongst us, and they contrived not 
only to supply their own tables with fish, but also to increase the com-> 
forts of their friends. 

(To be continued.) 



185 

SURVEY OP THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA IN 1825-6.* 

Having accomplished the principal object of our coming into the 
river Congo^ which was to procure wood, water, and such fresh provi- 
sions as could be met with, on the fourth day we weighed anchor, 
and continued our course to the northward ; but as the wind was too 
light to admit of our making much progress, we sent the pinnace in 
shore to survey. The country from the Congo to Kabinda is particu- 
larly fertile, and has a most luxuriant appearance, with, I should ima- 
gine, a large population, as we observed numerous canoes fishing. In 
the evening of the second day from our leaving the Congo, we anchored 
off Kabinda, and on the following morning got into the bay with the 
sea-breeze. This is a small but very good harbour for moderate-sized 
vessels, being one mile and a half in length, with about five fathoms 
water in the deepest part. Situated at the head of the bay is a large 
town^t where the king resides. The huts here are well-built and ca- 
pacious, and we found the natives very desirous of " making trade." 
The surrounding country, as seen from the anchorage, appeared in a 
high state of cultivation ; but whether the soil is indebted to the inha^- 
bitants, or Nature, we could not determine. The latter is whimsically 
prolific on some parts of this coast, while at others her sterile frown 
withers every bud of vegetation as it shoots forth. We were here told 
many instances of treachery practised by the tribes upon the northern 
shora of the Congo. They were represented as watching every oppor- 
tunity to attack the Portuguese boats, when, in case of their succeed- 
ing^ they use their prisoners in the most inhuman manner, torturing 
the unfortunate whites, and ultimately burning them ; while the blacks 
are preserved to be sold as slaves. We found five vessels at anchor in 
the harbour, and as the principal traffic of the place is in slaves, we had 
little doubt of their intentions, in spite of their vehement assertions 
that ivory was the sole object of their desires. In fact, had we believed 
on^ half the vows and protestations made by the various masters of 
traders upon this coast, we and the poor elephants would have had 
enough to do ; for the vilest slaver that plods his blood-stained way:|; 

* Continued from page 42. 

-)• When a town is spoken of in this journal as being large, the reader must not 
picture to his imagination a city of streets, squares, and palaces, but a few rudely- 
formed huts, projected by necessity, and constructed by instinct, unassisted by art ; 
yet in a country where the most important is not larger ^an a European village, 
such a distinction serves in some measure as a guide to their relative sizes. 

:{: This must not be considered a mere figure of speech, as an extraordinary saga- 
city in the shark renders it a horrible reality. These destructive animals appear 
to know the cargo which the vessel is freighted with, and are constantly in attend* 
ance during their course, looking out with the voracity so justly attributed to them 
for their duly meal ; nay, I have heard many who were likely to be well acquaint- 
ed in such matters state, that they had not a doubt but that frequently the same 
sharks have followed slave-ships the whole of their voyage from Africa to the 
Brazils, and as seldom many hours passed without a fresh bait to entice them, 
this is not at all improbable. Their meal is provided by the sufferings of human 
nature overcoming the fortitude of despair ; when the miserable victim sinks be- 
neath the accumulated load of woe and disease, to regain his liberty by the hand of 
death ! The body is then thrown overboard to the expecting shark, who, as he 
greedily carries off his prey, leaves a slight eddy, tinged with blood, to mark his 
course. This is the tomb of many thousand slaves ! — their only requiem the 
rolling billow and the howling wind, — their only sepulchre the monster's jaws ! 



186 SURVEY OP THE WEST COAST OP AFRICA. 

along these seas> will swear to you by all tlie numerous saints and sin- 
ners the Catholic calendar can boast of, that he comes for ivory ; and 
^^ because it is a pleasant cruise from the Brazils," as one fellow had 
the impudence to tell me, without stirring a muscle of his cut -throat, 
Portuguese-looking countenance. I feel confident, that if but one- 
third of the vessels got any supply who profess being in the ivory 
trade, not a tooth would be left in the head of any elephant or hippopo- 
tamus upon the coast ! 

Several canoes came alongside with stock, which met with a ready 
sale at moderate prices : for an old calico shirt or pocket-handkerchief 
we procured a pair of large fowls, and sweet potatoes enough for a 
week. The natives were very desirous of procuring tobacco, but as our 
crew were not overstocked^ we did not barter much in that article. 
Parrots are very numerous here, enlivening the woods with the most 
shrill and discordant noises. The boats having surveyed the whole of 
this harbour in the course of a day, we proceeded along the coast, which 
continued to bear the most fertile appearance, terminated by high red 
cliffs seen in the distance. Just before making Loango Bay, we passed 
several small villages, and the country became very low and woody. 
Observing an English schooner at anchor up the bay, we hauled in for 
her, and sent a boat on board, which shortly returned with the master. 
She proved to be a vessel from Liverpool, had been on the coast fifteen 
months, really trading for ivory, and had succeeded in procuring ten 
tons. This bay is about two miles and a half in depths and affords 
good anchorage, but we were led to believe very thinly inhabited^ as 
not a single canoe came off with stock. We continued our course^ 
surveying along shore, and coming to at night, until we made Point 
Matoote, which forms the southern extremity of Mayumba Bay. 
Just off this place there is a most dangerous ridge of rocks, partly visible 
above water, with a channel of three fathoms and a half between it 
and the Point; but it is advisable to avoid it entirely, if possible, 
by going outside. Mayumba was formerly a place of much trade, but 
is now in a wretched state of poverty and dilapidation. The probable 
cause of this is the anchorage not being good, as a heavy swell gene- 
rally sets in when the wind blows on shore^ in consequence of there 
being no shelter, unless by lying close in upon the southern side of 
the bay, which for many reasons is not advisable. We now came upon 
a very fiat swampy coast, passing the Sette, a small river with a bar at 
its entrance ana numerous small creeks covered on each side with 
thick jungle, which almost gave us the fever to look at, so humid 
and pestiferous did they appear. We next came to off Camina, a 
small bight, with a town of the same name, where several canoes came 
alongside with stock. These were the first we met with rowing oars 
instead of paddles ; they introduced themselves, by asking if we came 
to traffic in slaves, and expressed much astonishment and dissatisfac- 
tion upon being informed that such was not our object. The fol- 
lowing morning we again weighed, and passed a very low sandy country, 
with numerous small creeks, apparently forming woody islands in the 
interior. The next place we made was Cape Lopez, which we hauled 
round, and then came to, it being nearly dark. At daylight the 
following morning, sent boats away surveying, and to cut wood; 
they met with many large herds of buffaloes, but very wild and shy. 



SURVEY OF THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA. 187 

The Doctor contrived^ however, to shoot one, which being high in per- 
fection, proved a great acquisition to our fresh stock. Some of the 
party brought on board various specimens of beautiful shells, which 
had been picked up on the beach ; fish and turtle were also found very 
abundant at this part of the bay. During the night we had a storm, 
accompanied with the most vivid and terrific thunder and lightning. 
In the morning we stood across the bay ; when about five miles and a 
half from the Cape, we met with a very dangerous shoal, extendinr 
nearly two leagues seaward from Prince's Point, some parts of which 
can be distinguished by a ripple : between this and the Cape the water 
is very deep with a muddy bottom. When we hauled round this shoal, 
we observed a brig at anchor, and shortly afterwards a small schooner. 
As we continued beating up to the head of the bay against a strong 
tide, all the boats were dispatched to survey. I took the pinnace and 
went on the eastern coasts but a heavy rain prevented my making much 
progress. We passed several hippopotami, considerably larger than, 
those we had generally seen. Finding the rain continue, I made the 
boat snug for the night, taking every precaution to keep out the torrent 
which came down with soaking violence, and succeeded so far, as only 
to find my nightcap quite wet upon awaking in the morning, my head 
having, it appeared, occupied the only spot through which a drop had 
penetrated. Having fortified the inward man, we commenced our 
work, and in the course of the day were enabled, with the assistance 
of a fresh breeze, to complete nearly thirteen miles of coast. This side 
of the bay is one continued mangrove, with the exception of about 
three quarters of a mile, consisting of a sandy beach. These mangroves 
bear the most feverish-looking aspect it is possible to conceive, and are 
the general boundary of all rivers upon this part of the coast. Their 
being composed entirely of mud, prevents the possibility of any landing 
being efiPected in the neighbourhood ; they are the resort of every dis- 
gusting and venomous insect and reptih 



'^ With all the infections that the sun sucks up 
From bogs, fens, flats, !*' 

The efiluvium from these pestilential marshes, when the burning sun has 
been upon them for a few hours, is of the most revolting nature, being 
an exhalation from all the filth which has accumulated for centuries in 
the river, and here undergoes the gradual process of decomposition. 
They are the dread of Europeans, and to us, who had frequently to 
sleep in boats for many nights together, surrounded by them on all 
sides, they proved very fatal ; seldom were we fortunate enough to 
escape from fever, or other sad memento to remind us of their • 
deadly influence. Towards sunset, I anchored for the night ofl^ the 
town, which is called Feteesh Town, situated just by the before-men- 
tioned small sandy beach ; while running down for this spot, we found 
a brig at anchor, and were informed that she was French, trading for 
ivory, {doubtless black,) and tortoiseshell. Upon coming to oflT the 
town, we observed several people waving handkerchiefs : this being an 
article of civilization not yet known amongst the natives*, nay, not even 
the receptacle from which it receives its cognomen, I concluded the 
proprietors must be of European extraction. How strange that such a 
conclusion was inevitable ! Is it not also strange, that Nature, when 



188 SURVEY OF THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA. 

she made noses^ omitted to make pocket-handkerchiefs ? She surely 
must have thought we could do without them, or she would at least 
have made pockets. The inference was ahout as flattering to our en- 
lightened nasal organs, as that of the traveller who was delighted at 
seeing a man upon a gibhet, because it convinced him that he was in a 
civilized country : so we hailed the pocket-handkerchiefs as an em- 
blem of civilization. But the most satisfactory conclusion we can come 
to is, that white, or cultivated noses, require more attention than the 
black, unsophisticated proboscis, of rude uncultivated nature ! 

These cogitations induced me to hoist an ensign, upon which a 
canoe came off with a Frenchman in her, who stated upon coming 
alongside, that he belonged to the brig before mentioned; and on 
getting into my boat, farther informed me, that the natives had in- 
sisted upon his coming off to discover our character and intentions, as 
they were greatly afraid we were pirates. Seeing a large boat well 
manned with white faces was certainly enough to raise their suspi- 
cionsv however little we might feef it as a compliment. Many things 
combine in this country to deprive a man of his vanity, and make him 
almost wish to possess the perfections so much prized in the land he 
is. Some of our handsome fellows, in their own conceit, including 
myself, were much wonder-struck at finding that Nature had not one 
standard of beauty for all the world. I used to consider myself an un- 
common good'looking fellow ! and when walking down Bond-street upon 
half-pay, counted on numerous conquests en passant; but when we 
arrived on this tasteless coast, I could produce no effect upon the 
Venuses of Hottentot ; their black hearts, hard as the forehead of Satan, 
resisted the light darts of a northern Cupid ; each charm here lost its 
power : lips formed like the urchin's bow, and red as meltiug cherries, 
were eclipsed by the letter-box pouters of the native Adonises; the 
nose of sculptured beauty gave place to the bisected baking-pear; 
while the hair of glossy brightness lost every charm when put in 
competition with the roasted, wool-looking stuff, on the head of their 
beaux. This was another attack upon our vanity, because our faces 
were white, these discerning natives thought we must be thieves ! To 
continue. 

The^ Frenchman, having convinced himself of our honesty and 
peaceful intentions, went on shore and reported to that effect; this 
I afterwards learnt gave great satisfaction to the hearers. Having 
received an invitation from my visitor to come and see him, I went on 
shore in the evening, previously taking every precaution to guard 
against any attack, which the treacherous character of the natives 
upon this coast always rendered probable ; for, with every appearance 
of friendship and good- will, they are sometimes watching a favourable 
opportunity to knock you on tke head for the sake of your buttons and 
scalp. Upon landing, and having sent the boat from the beach, several 
people came from the bush, who, I have no doubt, were stationed 
there in order to make observations upon our conduct. These fellows 
seeing only one man leave the boat besides myself, concluded we 
had not any hostile intentions, so came forward and joined us, shaking 
hands in the most cordial manner ; they then led me to the house of 
my friend the Frenchman, which was a native hut provided for him by 
the king ; and as most of these habitations were very well built, and 



SURVEY OF THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA. 189 

• 
spacious^ lie was pretty comfortably lodged. Upon entering^ I found 
four other Frenchmen belonging to the brig with my introducer, all 
of whom said they considered themselves as perfectly safe on shore, 
the natives being extremely docile and friendly. But I was led to 
imagine this civility only lasted so long as they could get any thing by 
their visitors ; and I was farther convinced of this by the very familitur 
manner in which they helped themselves : any one of these polite vaga- 
bonds would walk in without the least ceremony, and pour himself out 
a tumbler of brandy, or whatever else happened to be upon the table ; 
then leave the hut, without expressing a sound or sign of thanks for 
the honour which he did himself; and as the Frenchmen did not con- 
sider it politic to interfere, they had plenty of visitors. Some of the 
natives understand a little English, which they have acquired from an 
intercourse with our traders, many of whom make annual calls here 
to obtain ivory and palm-oil, (say slaves,) About ten o'clock I left 
the Frenchmen, and took a walk into the town, surrounded by an im- 
mense concourse of the inhabitants ; some requesting me to sleep at 
their house, others to come and drink, many begging for presents, and 
aferu offering them. Amidst this turbulent crew, who became at last 
rather hot-pressive, I could not observe much, and in fact, soon con- 
sidered it advisable to be off*, therefore directed my steps as quickly as 
possible, towards the beach, which I had some difficulty in reaching. 
I found the boat lying a little way from the shore, waiting my arrival ; 
upon her landing, all the natives stood some distance back, but imme- 
diately the oars were out, they came running to the water's edge, call- 
ing in numerous different keys, and modes of expression, to beg I 
would come on shore again; amongst this variety of sounds, one 
voice above the rest, said in good English, and rather a sepulchral 
tone — *' If you don't come on shore in the morning, we will come off 
and murder you all !" This friendly notice did not cause me much 
uneasiness, such threats seldom being made when it is intended to 
execute them; I therefore considered it as merely intended to 
alarm us, and determined to make farther inquiry as to the author, 
it appearing quite evident that none but an English tongue could 
possibly have given so good a pronunciation. I accordingly went on 
shore the next day to breakfast : upon my landing, a vast number .of 
the inhabitants were on the beach, waiting, my arrival, many with 
fowls, tortoiseshell, sweet potatoes, &c. for sale, and others merely to 
gratify their curiosity, which feeling we found as prevalent in the 
wilds of Africa, as all know it to be amongst the enlightened sons 
and daughters of Europe. I purchased a pair of beautiful grey par- 
rots, for a yard or two of coarse calico, and a couple of hippopotamus's 
teeth, for another fathom of the same stuff. After breakfast, I went 
with my friend the Frenchman to pay a visit to the king, who resides 
in a part of the town walled in for his seraglio and household. Hav- 
ing arrived at the palace^ we had to mount a rudely constructed ladder, 
which required great care in handling to avoid a precipitate retreat ; 
we were then ushered into a spacious levee-room, very neatly built of 
plank, the walls being partly covered with pieces of looking-glass, and 
numerous little pictures and prints, most of which were turned upside 
down ! He also possessed several chairs of European manufacture : 
these costly articles were held in great estimation, and were the envy 



190 SURVEY OF THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA. 

of surrounding princes ! they bad been given to him as a kind oi boaus, 
previous to commencing traffic^ by the masters of slave and other tra- 
ders^ having in his royal will establi^ied it as a law^ that no " cap- 
tain of any vessel shall make trade^ until he has paid an introduc- 
tory or retaining fee f* After waiting in this room a few minutes, his 
majesty eiitered-*-without a flourish of trumpets ! His royal niggership 
lyppeared verging on sixty, extremely stout, and suffering greatly from 
elephantiasis, each of his legs being the size of a moderate man's body. 
The whimsicality of his costume produced, I fear, an evident commo- 
tion in my risible faculties, which I was apprehensive might hurt the 
royal feelings : it was composed of a long coarse robe, or piece of cloth, 
which after the manner of the cobbler's stall, served him for jacket, for 
waistcoat, for trowsers and every thing. This garment of many occu- 
pations was wrapped loosely round his corpulent figure, with his bare 
arms hanging outside, bavins forced their way out by means^ of a 
couple of slits in the cloth ; sleeves being too great an effort of inge- 
tiuity for the tailors of Fetee&h Town. Through an occasional opening 
might be observed a sad lack of Irish, or if any existed, it was of the 
same texture and complexion as his face. The majestic head was 
partly covered, by an old brown beaver-hat, with a portion of the run 
hanging over one ear, and the front strangely distorted, the hat being 
squeezed on to a head about twice as large as it was originally in- 
tended for. His royal feet were destitute of any covering whatever, 
not having yet added a pair of shoes to his regalia ; this was the whole 
of his gear, and most probably his wardrobe ; the unnatural proportion 
of his limbs, having prevented him from dazzling our sight by the 
splendour of his crown jewels, we therefore saw him ^i naturel ! It 
was highly ridiculous to see his efforts at dignity, which certainly ter- 
minated in a most ludicrous failure ; and from this I am strongly led 
to suspect, that nature, at least black nature, is not dignified in her 
unadorned or primitive state. But to continue a description of our 
interview, his majesty very graciously shook me by the hand, and then 
conducted me to the head of the room, where seating himself, he 
desired an attendant to bring me a chair, which being done, a short 
pause ensued as usual, when he commenced by asking through an in- 
terpreter, '' what news there was abroad ?" This was uttered in a 
very mild, friendly tone, as if about entering upon a long conversation. 
I must confess this general question rather puzzled me at first, but 
feeling confident the inquirer did not know France from America, I an- 
swered in the first words that came, to the effect, that nothing new 
had transpired since the Dutch had taken Holland ! He appeared 
much pleased with this answer, and, I have no doubt, thought I took 
him for a very well-informed erudite king, as he was evidently gra- 
tified at having asked a question that admitted of a reply, and like a 
wise general, he said no more lest he should lose the laurels he had 
gained. I now opened my business, by first requiring an expla- 
nation of the threat that had been held out on the previous evening, 
which his majesty expressed much surprise and anger at. The in- 
terpreter informed us that he had no doubt this observation was 
made, in order to alarm us, by a white boy, who had been living in the 
town for about seven years, and gave me to understand I might see 
him at the house of a Capt. Brandy. Having been satisfied upon this 



SURVEY OF THE WKST COAST OF AFRICA. 191 

point, I next stated my expectation of the ship's arrival in the afternoon^ 
when most probably the captain would pay his most gracious majesty 
a visit. He observed in answer to this^ that he should be very happy 
to see him^ and would supply us with any thing he might require, 
and the place afforded ; here our conferent;e ended, and having again 
shaken hands we descended the ladder. This kingly personage is, it 
appears, a great bon vivant, and drinks brandy by tumblers full with 
as much satisfaction as any young lady sips her toast and water. He 
is also possessed of about three hundred wives, with nearly as many 
etceteras, some of whom, report said, were very fine women ; but report 
here is htack, and as thick lips and fiat noses are the fashion in this 
part of the world, my curiosity was not sufficiently excited to induce 
me to risk my head, in order to obtain a peep at the dismal beauties of 
his harem. I had no other opportunity of judging, as only one anti<« 
quated nigger lady, — ^black, and shining as jet, — entered during my 
audience, who, I afterwards learnt, was the eldest of his fair stock of 
frail ones. The government of this despot is of the most arbitrary' 
nature, and he takes off heads for the most trifling offences ; nay, I 
was informed that, when in the humour, he is not very particular whe- 
ther the unfortunate victim has committed any. He has one very, 
striking peculiarity for majesty, which is, a great delight in performing 
with his own hand the part of executioner ;* whether this arises from 
principles of economy, or a natural taste for such refined amusements, 
I am not able to determine; but this kingly jack- ketch frequently de- 
capitates half a dozen «f his loving subjects before breakfast. His 
sway extends over a very large territory, which produces a great quan- 
tity of ivory, tortoiseshell, and every description of tropical fruit. The 
town is situated on the right entrance of the river Nazareth, and con- 
tains about three hundred houses neatly built of cane ; the inhabitants 
are all armed with either a spear or musket, which latter they obtain 
from the traders, and much value. Buffaloes are very numerous in the 
neighbourhood, together with elephants, lions, tigers, and other wild 
beasts, while the bay abounds with plenty of fish, and its shores with 
birds of beautiful plumage. 

I had the white boy, mentioned by the interpreter, brought to me at 
the house of the Frenchman ; he appeared about fourteen years of age, 
bom of English parents. The account given by himself was, " That 
he had come out in a merchant ship, where he was very badly treated ; 
this induced him to run away, and getting into the woods he remained 
there until the vessel left; he then came into the town and told his 
story to the king, who put him under the care of a Capt. Brandy, by 
whom, as well as the rest of the natives, he had been, and still was, 
treated with the greatest kindness. He spoke the native language, 
and had in fact assumed the dress and manners of the inhabitants in 
every particular, having like them no covering, but a small piece of 
cloth fastened round the loins. I tried to persuade him to come on 
board, and return to England in the ship, but without success, as 

* This, in a country where the expenses of the state call for retrenchment, 
would be a great annual saving, worthy the attention of a certain calculating 
Member of Vulgar Fractions^ whose eloquence and talents have found their level 
in an accurate knowledge of subtraction, and upon whom it is proposed to confer 
the raither humorous degree of L, S. D, ! 



192 SURVBY OP THR WEST COAST OP AFRICA. 

nothing would induce him to leave these people who had treated him 
so kindly. 

Having had my gun brought on sliore^ I walked into the woods^ with 
dozens of the natives at my heels^ to see if I could procure some rara 
avis, as an addendum to my humble boat fare ; but having beat about for 
some hours without any success^ I steered my course towards the boat. 
On my way — disappointment having, I suppose, made me pugnacious—- 
I saw several monkeys, who all commenced chattering in the most pro- 
voking manner, as if in derision of my empty game-bag ; I bore it for 
some time like a philosopher, but at length losing all patience^ and 
having forgot my former resolutions about humanity, monkeys, &c* 
I raised my gun in order to pepper one young rascal, who, I fsaicied, 
was pursuing me with his impertinence; and in the malice of my 
heart, I had resolved to have the fellow hashed, and eat him out cw 
revenge. Just as I was about to pull, one of the natives knocked 
down my arm, begging at the same time that I would not fire, saying, 
'' No shoot, dat me God, dat me Feteesh !" — This saved master pug 
from mixing in the society of pickled walnuts, and me from partaking 
of hashed monkey. I afterwards learnt that these people worship this 
animal, as one of their principal Feteesh, and trust greatly to it in any 
matter relating to life or death ; the consequence of this respect being 
paid them is, that they lose all fear, and never meeting with injury 
from mankind, are much more domesticated than those which are sub- 
ject to their cruelties. Upon my return to the town, after shaking hands 
with about 200 of the natives, a work of some time, I contrived to 
reach my boat, and shortly afterwards perceived the Barracouta stand- 
ing down; I therefore got under way, and in about three hours 
arrived on board. 

The following morning Capt. Vidal went on shore to visit the king ; 
upon his return we made sail, and stood across the bay towards Cape 
Lopez ; the wood is very thick near this Cape, but the trees mostly de- 
ciduous, on account of the swampy soil in which they grow : this in- 
duces me to think the country about here is very unhealthy, but the 
natives contradict it. We sent a party brooming, and another to cut 
wood, for which this place is particularly convenient. Various beauti- 
ful shells were picked up by several of the people employed on shore ; 
and one of our young gentlemen observed a large alligator. The ento- 
mologist would find much at this place to attract his attention, but our 
short stay allowed no time for collecting. The principal object of our 
again visiting this Cape was to obtain some necessary observations ; 
which having done, we again stood over towards the town, and anchored 
near the French brig, about four miles from the shore. We sent boats 
away to survey the river Nazareth, which runs through a very fertile 
country, and empties itself into this bay near Feteesh Town. A boat 
was also sent on shore to obtain stock ; one of the crew produced 
a knife before the natives, that appeared to strike their fancy imme- 
diately. The man offered it for some fowls, upon which it was handed 
over for examination, when they commenced passing it from one to the 
other with rather suspicious quickness, and suddenly a fellow from 
the mob started into the bushes. Jack not seeing his knife, suspected 
instantly that he had carried it off*, so without any hesitation gave 
chase, and after a short time returned leading the culprit by th^ ear. 



STAND FOR A HBRCURIA'L HORIZON. 193 

wbicli he called collaring, with the stolen property in his hand: first 
giving him a short lecture upon the impropriety of his conduct, which 
was like throwing pearls to swine, he next deprived him of the knife, 
and then commenced hsmmering his thick hide with a hearty good will, 
until he was tired, when he allowed him to depart spporently not much 
blacker than when tirst caught. This wholesome correction was a salu- 
tary lesson to the others, and was not the first occasion upon which we 
found a. rogue amongst honest men : the following instance in parti- 
cular came under my own observation. Whilst in Deiagoa Bay, on 
the east coast, numhers of the natives would come on board daily and 
form a regular market, bringing all descriptions of stock, which they 
bartered with the crew, when we sometimes had above an hundred on 
board at the same time. Upon one occasion as a canoe was leaving us, 
crowded with natives going on shore, some of their countrymen were 
looking over the ship's side at them ; one of these spectators, whilst 
speaking to a friend in the canoe, observed something bright in the 
tye* of another ; he instantly descended to the boat, and very soon had 
a fellow handed on board, upon whom we found a part of the copper 
binnacle lamp, which had been lying somewhere near the compass- 
box : the whole of the people from the canoe immediately returned, 
and about sixty of them fell upon the culprit with any thing that came 
to hand, and would very soon have dispatched him to the other world, 
or rendered blm of no use in this, had not Gapt. Owen humanely in- 
terfered to stop their desperate castigation. H. B. K. 
(To be continued.) 

STAND FOR A MERCURIAL HORIZON. 

I BSO to recommend for the consideration of persons in the habit of 
using the mercurial horizon, a contrivance that su^ested itself, and 
was found from long experience and repeated trials to be most useful, 
it having been the means of procuring many observations that might 
otherwise &om unavoidable obstacles have been lost. 

It consists of a piece of lead nine inches long, by seven and a half 
wide, and half an inch in thickness, having three legs, each about an 
inch in length, to stand upon, and placed as per figure. 





By which means, however uneven the ground, a place will immediately 
be found for placing it nearly on a level : in soft or sandy soil, also, it 
forms a firm bed ; and the upper part being covered with chamois lea- 
ther or cloth, entirely prevents any air from affecting the mercury, as 
well as any dew appearing on the glasses, from the effect of the sun's 
rays over a damp surbce, as is too often the case when the cover is plnced 
on the ground. Thomas Qravbb, Lieut. R. N. 



194 

• - • 

A RECENT VISIT TO SEVERAL OF THE 
POLYNESIAN ISLANDS. 

BY GECmOE BEKKETT, MEMBER OF THE BOYAL COLLEGE OF SUBGEOll^ 

IN LONDOK, &C Sui» 

During a recent visit to several of the beautiful islands of Poly- 
nesia^ I recorded all the information that I could collect respecting 
them^ and my observations thereupon. The following sketches are an 
attempt to describe what I beheld of the scenery of these islands, 
together with the manners, customs, manufactures, &c. of the people. 
Formerly I had read much respecting the South- Sea Islands, and their 
scenery, productions and inhabitants, as described in the various works 
that I perused, captivated my imagination. I had previously visited 
several parts of India ; I had witnessed many remarkable scenes, and 
the impressions that remained on my imagination were very vivid ; the 
scenery, the inhabitants, oriental pomp and splendour are too captivat- 
ing to be easily forgotten ; but when my route extended to Polynesia, 
when I viewed its scenery, peculiar customs of the people, the ship 
crowded with natives, their arts, manufactures, &c. how Afferent were 
these impressions ! 

The importance of these islands as respects their capability of pro- 
ducing those articles of commerce which are peculiar to tropical climates, 
has not sufficiently excited the attention of the mercantile community 
of Great Britain. As by our commerce we have attained that prosperity 
which ranks our country so high among European nations, every sub- 
ject, which is connected with it, ought to be considered of importance; the 
commerce of the Sandwich Islands alone, by the industry and persever- 
ance of the enterprising people of the United States of America, is calcu- 
lated at a million and upwards of dollars annually, and may be considered 
to be gradually on the increase. This commerce, through our neglect, has 
for years been enjoyed solely by the American mercfhants ; even now, ex- 
cepting two or three mercantile speculators, but of trivial importance, 
who are British subjects, the trade is exclusively confined to the mer- 
chants of the United States, who have laudably permitted no oppor- 
tunity to escape by which their commerce might be extended, and it is 
gradually now on the increase over the Polynesian Islands. Not only 
in a mercantile point of view are the Sandwich Islands of importance ; 
their geographical situation renders them an acquisition when politi- 
cally considered, more particularly since the South American States have 
gained their independence. The Americans view those islands with a 
jealous eye, and dread seeing them in the possession of a foreign power ; 
they are well aware of their importance, and the visits of their ships 
of war for the purpose of keeping up a close intercourse with the king 
and native chiefs has become of late very frequent. The following ac- 
count of the visit of the American ship of war Vincennes, with the ac- 
companying document sent by the Government of the United States to 
the King of the Sandwich Islands, sufficiently demonstrates the interest 
taken by them in these islands. 

^' The ship of war Vincennes, Capt. Finch, arrived at Hilo Hawaii, on the 2nd, 
and at Honolulu, Oahu, on the 14th of October. (1829) 



A RECENT VISIT TO THE POLYNESIAN ISLANDS. 195 

On the 15th Capt. Finch and his officers met the king and chiefs at the palace of 
Kauikeoauli, where they were gratified with a friendly reception. 

The commander of the Vincennes then read a communication of his own to the 
king, and gave him hoth the original and a translation in the native language. He 
then read also the communication from the President of the United States to the 
King of the Sand>vich Islands, which he had brought ; the same being read also 
from a translation into the native language, was delivered into the hands of the 
king. 

This being finished, Capt. Finch delivered the presents which the President had 
Mnt. A pair of globes, terrestrial and celestial, and a map of the United States, to 
the King. A silver vase to Kaahumanu, with her name and the American arms 
upon it. Two silver goblets to Nahienaena, with her name and the American 
arms. A map of the world to Governor Boki ; and also a map of the world to 
Governor Adams. 

The following are the above named communications which are now published by 
the request of the King and Chiefs, and with the consent of Capt. Findi. 

King Tamaamahah : — The President has confided to my care a written com- 
munication for yourself, and such counsellors as you rely upon ; accompanying it 
with various presents for each ; in testimony of the good opinion he entertains for 
you individually, and to evince his desire for amity and confidence, in all inter- 
course that may subsist between your people and my countrymen. 

That the genuineness of the letter may not be questioned, which might have 
been the case, if the transmission had been intrusted to casual conveyance ; and to 
make it the more honourable to yourself, he has dispatched a ship of war for this 
and other purposes ; and it is enjoined upon me as the commander, to deliver it in 
person into your keeping ; to reiterate the expressions of good will which it con- 
tains ; and to exhibit by my own deportment, the sincerity of the motives which 
has actuated him. 

The friendly and kind reception afforded to one other national ship, the Peacock, 
has been most favourably represented by her commander, and doubtless has con- 
duced greatly to the visit which I now make. 

The improving state of your people has also been so interei^tingly described by 
one of your friends. Rev. Mr. Stewart, now beside me, as to awaken among my 
countrymen at large, great benev(^ence of feeling towards you ; and it will be my 
duty, and I trust I shall be warranted on my return among them, to strengthen 
their prepossessions in your favour, and to confirm the accounts of the good traits 
of character of our new acquaintances the islanders, subject to your authority. 

With your leave I will now acquit myself of the pleasing duty devolving upon 
me, by reading and handing the document adverted to, which illustrates the light 
in wluch the President wishes to hold your nation, and upon which you will, I 
hope, ponder often, deliberately and fully. 

The presents I also ask permission to distribute amongst those of your faithful 
friends for whom they are intended, trusting that they will tend to enlai^ment of 
knowledge, invite to social and rational enjoyments ; and farther, secure enduring 
recollections of the assurances which I give of the disinterested friendship of the 
President and Government of the United States, and of their inclination to perpe* 
tuate the peaceable condition, happiness, and well-doing, individually and collec- 
tively, of those who by your wisdom are supported ; and whose support will in- 
crease by a sense of their necessities and your justice. 

14th October, 1829. W. B. Finch. 

TO TAMHAMEHA IIL KING OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

Navy Department of the United States, City of Washington, 
20th Jammry, A, D. 1829. 

By the approbation and direction of the President of the United States, I address 
^ou this letter, and send it by the hands of Capt. William Bolton Finch, an officer 
m our Navy commanding the ship of war Vincennes. 

Capt. Finch also bears to you from the President certain small tokens of regard, 
for yourself and the chiefs who are near to you, and is commanded to express to 
you in his name the anxious desire which he feels. for your advancement in pros- 
perity and in the arts of civilized life, and for the cultivation of harmony and good 
will between your Nation and the people of the United States. He has heard with 

o 2 - 



196 A RECENT VISIT TO SEVERAL OP THE 

admiradon and interest of the rapid progren which has been made by your people 
in acquiring a knowledge of letters and of the true religion — the religion of ihe 
Christian's Bible. These are the best and the only means by which the prosperity 
and happiness of nations can be advanced and continued, and the Presid^t and bM. 
men everywhere, who wish well to yourself and your people, earnestly hope you 
will continue to cultivate them, and to protect and encourage those by whom they 
are brought to you. 

The President also anxiously hopes that peace, and kindness, and justice, will 
prevail between your people and those citizens of the United States who visit your 
islands, and that the regulations of your Government will be such as to enforce 
them upon all. 

Our citizens who violate your laws, or interfere with your regulations, violate at 
the same time their duty to their own government and country, and merit censure 
and punishment. We have heard with pain that this has sometimes been the case, 
and we have sought to know and to punish those who are guilty. Capt. Finch is 
commanded diligently to inquire into the conduct of our citizens, whom he may 
find at the islands, and as far as he has the authority to ensure proper conduct and 
deportment from them. 

The President hopes, however, that there are very few who so act as to deserve 
censure or punishment, and for all others he solicits the kindness and protection of 
your Government, that their interest may be promoted and every facility given to 
them in the transaction of their business. Among others he bespieaks your favour 
to those who have taken up their residence with you to promote the cause of reli- 
gion and learning in your islands. He does not doubt that their motives are pure 
and their objects most friendly to the happiness of your people, and that they will 
so conduct themselves as to merit the protecting kindness of your Government •- 
One of their number, the Rev. Charles Samuel Stewart, who resided for a long timo 
with you, has recdved the favour of his Government in an appointment to an office 
of rel^on in our Navy, and will visit you in company with Capt. Finch. 

The President salutes you with respect, and wishes you peace^ happiness, and 
prosperity. 

[L. S.] SAMUEL L. Southard, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

The missionaries at tbe Sandwich Islands are now solely Americans^ 
and all communication with the government being carried on through 
them as interpreters, all their acts must naturally tend to benefit that 
country alone of which they are citizens. Civilization and commerce 
will gradually advance^ if the first undertakings in the latter are not 
commenced on too extensive and too expensive a system. The value 
now attached to coco-nut oil^ since the late valuable discovery of its 
capability of being manufactured into candles^ will render it an exten- 
sive article of commerce, and the tree is abundantly produced over 
nearly the whole of Polynesia ; varieties offlax, Beche de mer, tortoise- 
shell, &c. are now procured, and, by attention, sugar, cotton, and other 
tropical produce might be readily cultivated ; the sugar manufactured 
by Mr. Bicknell and my friend Mr. S. P. Henry, at Tahiti, was of a 
superior kind and of a remarkably fine flavour, and affords an instance 
of what these islands are capable of producing. 

A great benefit would be conferred on the navigators of the South- 
em Pacific, studded as it is with an infinite number of islands, 
reefs, &c. and the anxiety and danger would be diminished^ if the 
British Government would send annually a small vessel of war from 
Sydney, for the purpose of surveying and ascertaining accurately the 
positions of the various islands, ^oups of islands and reefs. The 
number of new discoveries annually made by the English and Ame- 
rican whalers are very numerous, but the situations as laid down by 
them, are seldom to be depended on. A vessel appointed for the 



POLYNESIAN ISLANDS. 197 

purpose of survey should touch at Oahu^ Sandwich Islands^ and Bay 
of Islands^ New Zealand^ those being the principal ports of resort for 
the whalers and other vessels frequenting this sea ; every information 
respecting recent discoveries could be readily obtained at those places, 
and of which, durins my visit to the former port in December 1829^ 
there existed a long list, most of which were not to be found in the 
charts. A surveying vessel might also correct the latitude and lon- 
gitude, which are generally very inaccurately laid down in the exist-* 
ing charts, of the various islands they might visit, and estimate the 
commercial advantages to be derived from an intercourse with them. 
It is for the '^ Ruler of the Ocean" to take the lead in enter- 
prises of this description ; it is for him to render that navigation safe 
where his flag predominates, and where commerce can be extended it 
ought to be ever found. It is therefore to be hoped, that the British 
Gk)vernment will turn their attention to such a desirable object, and 
this dangerous sea be rendered safe to the navigator. 

I commence with an account of Independence Island, followed with 
that of Rotuma, one, I believe, but little known, and of which no de- 
scription, to my knowledge, has been hitherto published ; these will be 
followed by others forming part of the New Hebrides Group, &c. 

INDEPENDENGB ISLAND. 

On the 19th of February 1830, this island was in sight about 10 
A.M. bearing south-south-east, and at noon it bore south by east. 
It is small, but densely wooded, and one of those apparently 
risen from the labours of the industrious but minute tribe of Zoo- 
phytes. About 2 P.M. when but a few miles distant, a boat was low- 
ered, and I accompanied the Commander for the purpose of landing and 
inspecting its productions. We were soon in with the south-west point, 
but found a landing there impracticable on account of the surf, which 
broke with tremendous fury over the coral rocks. We pulled round the 
island with the expectation of finding some opening by which the boat 
could enter and a landing be efl^ected; no place, however, could be found ; 
a heavy surf rolled over the rocks, by which the island seemed to 
be surrounded, and which had a reddish colour occasioned by the 
growth on them of a species of coralline. On the south side of the 
island, there seemed to be an opening between the rocks, by which 
a boat might enter when the surf was moderate, but at this time it 
raged with so much fury, as to render an attempt dangerous. After 
pulling round the island, and finding the impossibility of effecting a 
landing, we returned on board. The island is, I should suppose, 
about two or three miles in circumference, uninhabited excepting by a 
multitude of various kinds of oceanic birds, among which the magnifi- 
cent man-of-war hawk, Pelicanus Aquila, and the Booby, Pelicanus 
Sula, were most numerous, the island affording them an excellent place 
of refuge for the purpose of incubation, seldom or never disturbed by 
man. The beach is bold and sandy, and the numerous trees impart 
a verdant and beautiful appearance to this otherwise insignificant 
coral reef; some of the trees being of lofty growth, causes the island 
at a distance to have a slightly elevated appearance, which it does 
hot possess. Among the trees, I could only recognise the Pandanus. 
Turtle abounded in great quantity on the reefs, and if a landing were 



198 A RECENT VISIT TO SEVERAL OP THE 

effected, a quantity- could no doubt be obtained, whicb would be valu- 
able as a retreshment for the numerous wlialers and other ships fre- 
quenting this sea. During the time the ship lay off smd on, a bank 
of coral rocks was discovered by Mr. W. Warden, the chief officer, em 
which soundings were obtained of from twelve to seventeen fsithoms, 
the centre of the island then bearing south-west, about four miles distant. 
This island was made by our observations in latitude 10* 41' south, and 
ion^tude by chronometer 179* 15' east. It is placed in the late charts 
in latitude 10* 25' south, longitude 179* O' east. Our observations 
we consider correct, as on the day preceding, (Feb. 18th,) Mitchell's 
group was seen bearing from south by east to south-south-east, about 
seven or eight miles distant, and on the second day, (Feb. 21st,) we 
made the island of Rdtuma. Independence Island was discovered 
a few years ago by an American ship, whose Commands so named it. 
When at Rotuma, I saw an American who had left a whaler and 
was residing there ; he informed me that he had visited this island, 
and described its appearance accurately ; he gave me also the following 
information respecting it. The ship to which he belonged having kill- 
ed a whale off die island, and during the time that she lay-to for the 
purpose of '^ cutting in," as it is technically termed, one of the boats 
went to endeavour to land : the first attempt, from the surf raging with 
great fury, did not succeed ; but on a second attempt, at high water, 
the surf being quite moderate, they succeeded in discovering a 
passage between the reef by which the boat could enter, and a land- 
ing was effected, (on which side of the island he did not recollect) ; 
there was at the time hardly any surf; they procured a quantity of 
turtle and sea birds' eggs. 

THE ISLAND OF ROTUMA. 

This interesting and fertile island was discovered bv the Pandora in 
the year 1791, and has been since occasionally visited by English and 
American whalers, and a few other ships, for the purpose of procuring 
water and a supply of vegetable productions, with which it abounds. 
It is situated in latitude 12* 30^ south, and longitude 177*" 0' east, and is 
distant about 260 miles from the nearest island of the Fidji group. It 
is of a moderate height, densely wooded, and abounding in cocoa-nut 
trees, and is about from thirty to thirty-five miles in circumference. 
Its general appearance is beautifully picturesque, verdant hiUs gradu- 
ally rising from the sandy beach, giving it a highly fertile appear- 
ance. It is surrounded by extensive reefs, on which at low water 
the natives may be seen busily engaged in procuring shell and other 
fish, which are abundantly produced on them, and constitute one 
of their articles of daily food. At night, they fish by torch-light, 
lighting fires on the beach, by which the fisn are attracted to the 
reefs. The torches are formed of the dried spathes or fronds of the 
cocoa-nut tree, and enable them to see the fish, which they take witli 
hand-nets. It is by these lights that the fish are attracted, but 
not so in the opinion of the natives, who say, " they come to the 
reef at night to eat, then sleep, and leave again in the morning." 
The numerous lights flickering about have a beautiful effect dur- 
ing a dark night, and might resemble the illuminated halls of Pan- 
demonium. On these reefs, an infinite variety of fish is pro- 



POLYNESIAN I81.ANDS. 199 

cured, but generally af small size ; a display of colours of the most 
vivid description^ as well as extraordinary forms, also occur amongst 
them. We made this island on the 21st of February 1830 ; it bore 
^vest by south-half-sputh, about twenty-five miles distant ; at 11 a.m. 
when close in^ standing for the anchorage, we were boarded by several 
natives, who came off in their canoes, and surprised us by their acquaint^ 
ance with the English language ; this it seems they had acquired iron? 
their occasional intercourse with shipping, but principally from the 
European seamen, who had deserted from their ships and were residing 
on the island in savage luxury and indolence. One of the natives acting 
as pilot, we rounded the islets named Owa by the natives, and anchored 
in Onhaf Bay, (which is situated on the north-east side of the island,) in 
fifteen fathoms, sand and coral bottom, about two miles distant from ^he 
shore. When at anchor, the extremes of the land bore from east by north 
to west by compass. An island rather high, quoin shaped, and inhabited, 
situated at a short distance from the main land, (between which there 
is a passage for a large ship,) was at some distance from our pre- 
sent anchorage, and bore west-half-north by dbmpass ; it was named 
Ouer by the natives. Close to us were two rather high islands, or 
islets, of small extent, planted with coco-nut trees, and' cdmost con^ 
nected together by rocks, and to the main land by a reef; they shelter 
the bay from easterly winds. Their bearings are as follow : — the first 
centre bore east-half-north; the second centre bore east-half-south, 
extreme of the main land east-south-east by compass. One of the 
chiefs, on our anchoring, addressing the Commander made the fallowing 
very humane observation, " If Rotuma man steal, to make hang up 
immediately." Had this request been complied with, there would 
have been a great depopulation during our stay, and it is not impro- 
bable that a few chiefs might have felt its effects. 

On a second visit to this island in March 1830, we anchored in a 
fine picturesque bay, situated on the west side of the island, named 
Thor, in fourteen . fathoms, sand and coral bottom, about three miles 
distant from the centre ; but I should strongly recommend ships not to 
anchor here during the months of February, March, April, and the 
early part of May, the prevailing winds blowing strong from west 
and north-west, which we had the misfortune to experience, being 
driven on shore during a gale on the 30th of March, an account of which 
will be given in the course of the ]Qiarrative. Ships should prefer 
lying off and on at the lee-side of the island, where they will be able 
readily to procure their supplies. A reef extends out some distance 
from the beach at this bay, almost dry at low water, and with much 
surf at the entrance, from which cause the procuring of wood and water 
is attended with more difficulty than at Onhaf Bay. There is another 
place on the south side of the island named Fangwot, the residence of 
the king, or principal chief. It affords anchorage for shipping, but 
from its exposed situation, a ship should prefer lyin^ off and on to an- 
choring ; this is the best part of the island for procuring a large supply 
of provisions. About five or six miles distant from the main land to the 
south-west, are several small uninhabited islands, or islets, which are 
occasionally visited by the natives from the main, for the purpose of 
procuring from and in their vicinity, shell and other fish. These inlets 
bear the native appellations of Ofliwa, Athana, Hothahoi ; and a rock 



soo 



A RECENT VISIT TO SEVERAI. OF THE 



I 
I 



or rocks above water, on which tlie sea breais, named Hoth-fakteringa. 
The first has a remarkable appearance, resembling a rock divided in 
two portions, excepting at nne part, where th^y are joined by a portion 
of rock forming a natural bridge. The following diagram gives the 
appearance of the island, bearing west- sou th-(vest, about five miles 
distant ; it has a verdant appearance, ivith several coco-nut trees 
growing on the summit. 



tlSKkS^&im^ 






The others have nothing remarkable in their appearance. 

On landing, the beautiful appearance of the island was rather in- 
iCreased than diminished ; vegetation appeared most luxuriant, and the 
trees and shrubs blooming with various tints, spread a gaiety around ; the 
.dean and neat native houses were intermingled with the waving plumes 
of the coco-nut, the broad spreading plantain, and other trees peculiar 
.to tropical climes. That magnificent tree the callophyllnm inophyl- 
lum, or tifau of the natives, was not less abundant, displaying its shining 
dark green foliage, contrasted by beautiful clusters of white Howers 
teeming ivith fragrance. This tree seemed a favourite with the natives, 
on account of its shade, fragrance and ornamental appearance of 
the llatvers. When one was cut down by the carpenter of a ship, a 
young tree was brought and planted close to the place where the old 
one iormerly displayed its wide spreading branches, thus showing a 
desire of securing for posterity a similar shade and fragrance to that 
afforded by the one which had fallen ; an example well worthy of imita- 
tion in every country. When I extended mj rambles more inland, 
through narrow and sometimes rugged pathways, the luxuriance of 
vegetation did not decrease, but the lofty trees, overshadowing the 
road] defended the pedestrian from the effects of a fervent sun, ren- 
dering the walk under their umbrageous covering cool and pleasant. 
The gay flowers of the hibiscus tiliaceus, as well as the splendid huth 
or Barringtonia speciosa, covered with its beautiful flowers, the 
petalsof which are white, and the edges of the stamina delicately tinged 
with pink, give to the trees when in full bloom a magnificent appear- 
ance ; the hibiscus rosa-chinensis, or kowa of the natives also grows in 
luxuriance and beauty. The elegant flowers of these trees, with others 
of more humble and less beautiful tints, everywhere meet the eye near 
the paths, occasionally varied by plantations of the ahan or tare, arum 
esculentum, which, from a deficiency of irrigation, is generally of the 
mountain variety. Of the Bugar-cane they possess several varieties, 
and it is eaten in the raw state ; a small variety of yam, more commonly 
known by the name of the Ro'tuma potato, the ule of the natives, is 
very abundant; the ulu or bread-fruit, pori or plantain, and the vi, 
(spondias dulcis, Parkinson,) or Brazilian plum, with numerous other 
kinds, sufficiently testify the fertility of the island. Occasionally the 



POLYNESIAN ISLANDS. 201 

mournful toa or casuarina equisetifolia^ planted in small clumps near 
the villages or surrounding the burial-places^ added beauty to the 
landscape. A few days after my arrival I by chance visited a spot 
which formed a combination of the picturesque and beautiful. I had 
passed through a village named Shoulnau^ and having ascended a hill 
overshadowed as usual by magnificent trees^ I descended towards the 
beach^ when a beautiful view appeared before me ; it was a tranquil 
piece of water formed by the sea> on one side inclosed by a high island 
covered with coco-nut and other trees^ and nearly joining the main 
land^ leaving on each side small passages for canoes> one opening 
rather more extended than the other ; the opposite banks were covered 
with native houses^ intermingled with trees and various kinds of 
flowering shrubs: the placidity of the water^ the tranquillity that 
reigned around^ interrupted only occasionally by the chirpmg of bird8> 
produced an effect approaching enchantment. After remaining for some 
time viewing with mingled admiration and delight this interesting spot^ 
I left it with regret ; it is situated on the south-east part of the islan^^ 
and named Shaulcope by the natives. I subsequently visited this tran- 
quil piece of water in a native canoe ; as we passed through the open- 
ings before mentioned^ the natives commenced singing a monotonous but 
pleasing song> (consisting of a sentence frequently repeated^) keeping 
accurate time with the strokes of their paddles ; the effect as the voices 
reverberated around^ could be felt> but cannot be described. 

The native houses are very neat ; they are formed of poles and logs, 
the roof being covered with the leaves of a species of sagus palm^ named 
boat by the natives^ and highly valued by them for that purpose on 
account of their durability ; the sides are covered .with the ^ited 
sections of the coco-nut branches^ which form excellent coverings. 
They have commonly two entrances^ one before^ the other behind; 
these entrances are very low, and have a door hung horizontally^ which 
is raised and kept open by a prop during the day^ but closed at night. 
The houses are kept very clean^ the floors being covered either with 
the plaited branches of the coco-nut tree> or the common kind of 
mat^ named ehap^ most commonly the former. Near their houses they 
have generally some favourite trees planted ; the tobacco plant also> 
recently introduced^ flourishes luxuriantly, but as yet they have not 
learned the art of preparing it. The landing is easy, on a sandy beach. 
Fire- wood can readily be procured at a short distance from the beach ; 
the water is of excellent Quality, but from there being no running 
streams, (excepting a few of very trivial importance situated inland>) 
the supply is procured from wells. 

The natives are a fine-looking and well-formed people, resembling 
much those of Tongatabu in their appearance ; they are of good dis- 
positions, but are much addicted to thieving, which seems indeed to be 
a national propensity; they are of a light copper colour, and the 
men wear the hair long and stained at the extremities of a reddish 
brown colour ; sometimes they tie the hair i^ a knot behind, but the 
most prevailing custom is to permit it to hang over the shoulders. 
The females mav be termed handsome, of fine forms, and although 
possessing a modest demeanour, flocked on board in numbers on the 
ship's arrival ; their garrulity when there sufiiciently prove that even 
in this remote part of the globe, there was no deficiency of volubility 
of the lingual organ, amongst the fair portion of the creation. The 



202 ON THB BQUIPMBNT OP THE BRITISH INFANTRY. 

women before marriage have the hair cut close and covered with the 
shoroi^ which is burnt coral mixed with the gum of the bread-fruit 
tree; this is removed after marriage and their hair is permitted to 
grow long^ but on the death of a chief or their parents it is cut dose 
as a badge of mourning.- Both sexes paint themselves with a mixture 
of the root of the turmeric plant (curcuma longa) and coco-nut oil^ which 
frequently changed our clothes and persons of an icteroid hue> from our 
curiosity to mi.ngle with them in the villages — theirs to come on board 
the ship. This paint> which is named Rang by the natives, and which is 
also the appellation of the turmeric plants is prepared in the fc^owing 
manner : — The root of the turmeric^ after having been well washed^ 
is rasped into a bowl to which water is afterwards added, it is then 
strained^ and the remaining liquor is left some time for the fecula to 
subside ; the water is then poured off, and the remaining fecula is dried 
and kept in sections of the coco-nut shell or in balls ; when required 
for use it is mixed with coco-nut oil^ and when recently laid on has a 
bright red appearance, which I mistook at first for red-ochre. 

(To be continued.) 



ON THE EQUIPMENT OF THE BRITISH INFANTRY. 



reputation of the British infantrv stands high among the 
of the earthy and the ideas of excellence and perfection are so 



The 

nations of the earthy and the ideas of excellence and perfection 
intimately connected^ that we frequently hear it stated, that this in- 
fantry is susceptible of no farther improvement. To differ from public 
opinion must at all times subject the writer to considerable obloquy ; 
and we find that the Newtonian theory was at first reckoned by many 
nothing less than the dream, of a madman.' Yet notwithstanding these 
difficulties, I shall now proceed to state what I conceive to be the im- 
perfections of our system. 

The first view in which the infantry soldier presents himself to our 
notice^ is as that of a beast of burthen, loaded with more than his 
strength enables him to carry ; or if he contrives to wag under it^ his 
powers are so crippled in the day of action, as in a great measure to 
paralyse his efficiency. How many thousands sunk under their load 
in the Peninsular war ? The Duke of Wellington, the Commander of 
the Forces, or any officer who served there, may answer the question. 
The fact I believe to be as clear as any axiom in Euclid, and therefore 
I take it for granted will not be disputed. The next question that 
naturally follows is, how is this to be remedied ? As I conceive the 
object to be practicable, I shall now point out what appears to me to be 
the best means of attaining it. 

The Musket. — There is no country where the manufacture of arms 
is so well understood as in England. The beauty and excellence of 
our arms for sporting are accordingly unparalleled. When a s]>orts- 
man examines his arm, the first thing he does is to satisfy himself that 
the action of the lock is quick and easy ; that the piece shoots with the 
necessary accuracy ; that it comes cleverly up to sight ; that the bend, 
length, and thickness of the stuck suit him exactly ; that the weight is 
precisely what he requires it to be, and that it is well poised in the 



ON THE EQUIPMENT OF THE BRITISH INFANTRY. 203 

hand. If the arm is deficient in any of these particulars^ he immedi- 
ately rejects it as unserviceable. Let us now try the musket by this 
standard^ and we shall find it deficient in every one of them. They 
may seem trifles to many^ to me it appears that the fate of king- 
doms depends much upon them ; and that the most extravagant ecom 
nomy that has ever been thought of^ is that of giving inferior arms 
to troops, even upon the score of profit and loss. A member of the 
Chamber of Deputies lately produced an English and a French mus- 
ket> to show the superiority of the latter ; and although it seems to 
have caused some surprise to see such a weapon in such a place, his 
conclusion was quite correct. But it is not enough that we should be 
equal to other nations in the arming of our troops, we ought to be deci- 
dedly superior to them, because we have the means of being so ; and the 
•British musket in its present state can be regarded in no other light 
than as a reflection upon the age in which we live. 

Under these circumstances, as the principles upon which a soldier and 
sportsman act are precisely the same, I conceive that they should be 
armed as much alike as circumstances will permit. I would therefore 
give to the former a light percussion gun, thirty inches long in the 
barrel, and weighing from seven to eight pounds, which experience has 
proved to be the most handy for an or£nary-sized man. The calibre to 
be reduced to twenty-two balls to the pound, and loaded with a dram 
and a half of the best cylinder powder. The ramrod not to be turned 
in loading, but used as that of a rifle. Instead of a bayonet, I would 
recommend a very light rifle sword ; iox as soon as a bayonet is fixed, 
accuracy of fire is at an end. Also a light, water-proof cover> to be 
drawn over the barrel, and tied round the small of the stock. 

The advantages that would result from the proposed plan I conceive 
to be the following :— -The fire of the soldier would be infinitely more 
accurate ; he would fire three rounds instead of two ; he would carry 
one hundred rounds of ammunition instead of sixty ; and by usine one 
and a half drams of good powder instead of six of bad, h6 would see 
distinctly what he was about, and not be enveloped in a dense cloud of 
«moke^ so as to be under the necessity of firing at random. Both ranks 
might also load and fire kneeling,' by which means they would be less 
exposed to an enemy's fire. 

I am aware it will be immediately objected by many, that by shcnrt- 
ening the musket, the efficiency of the bayonet, that irresistible weapon 
in the hands of an Englishman, is at once destroyed. In reply to this 
objection, I may at once frankly state, that I have no great faith in the 
bayonet. To trust to the bayonet, instead of fire, is to go back to an 
age prior to the invention of gunpowder. I believe that a superiority 
of fire will carry everything before it, and that a bayonet charge dare 
not be attempted against it. I believe also, that what is generally 
termed a charge, is nothing more than a simple advance of the line, 
after the efifect has been produced by fire: and when a charge does 
take place, I am satisfied it is the countenance of the troops that pro- 
duces the effect, and not the bayonet. 

Another objection may, perhaps, also be stated to reducing the 
calibre of the musket. The ball now used of fourteen to the pound, 
will, no doubt, inflict a more severe wound than one of twenty-two. 
But we find from experience, that sixty rounds of ammunition is not 



204* ON THE BQUIPMBNT OP THE BRITISH INFANTRY. 

enougli> and the soldier cannot carry more of that size. In skirmish- 
ing, it is fired away in an hour and a half ; and at Waterloo some regi- 
ments had to stop their fire in the heat of the action : even when a 
supply is at hand^ the difficulty of distributing it to troops in action 
is very great. 

CarUmch'boxj'^The construction of this^ also^ appears to me to be 
very defective. The flap descends to the bottom of the box^ and being 
placed behind the soldier in action, it is with great difficulty he can 
raise it^ so as to get out his ammunition ; and as he works in the dark^ 
he frequently pulls out a number of cartridges together^ and drops 
them without perceiving it. The sole use of the flap is to exclude 
the wet> so that if it descended an inch or so from the top^ it would be 
quite sufficient for that purpose ; and the cartouch-box itself ought to 
be brought in front of the soldier in action^ so that he might see dis->* 
tinctly what he was doing. 

Serjeants* Pikes.^-'PosteTitj will hardly believe, that four centuries 
after the invention of gunpowder, the non-commissioned officers in the 
British army were still armed 'with pikes. In an army of 80,000 men, 
we have thus a body of between 4 and 5,000, the most intelligent and 
the most expert in the use of arms, left totally without the means of 
defence. Considerable improvement might also be made, I conceive, 
in the clothing of the soldier, by reducing the weight of every article 
he has to carry as much as possible ; as every ounce that can conve- 
niently be taken from him adds so much to his efficiency. All super- 
fluous buckles and belts ought, therefore, to be done away with, as also 
the grenadier cap, which is but little adapted for a bivouac. Expei- 
rience has proved, that a blanket is absolutely necessary for a solcuer 
in the field. But a blanket and great-coat are more than he can carry. 
The Duke of Wellington tried it the year that his army entered France, 
but it distressed the troops greatly. The latter ought, therefore, in 
that case to be left behind. 

Knapsack. — ^The French knapsack * is decidedly the best, which opens 
at the top. One man can thus open it for another without the trouble 
of taking it ofl^ It is also packed in much less time than ours, and the 
time required for troops to get under arms depends very much upon 
that. £very soldier ought to fire at least one hundred rounds at tar- 
get-practice annually. It requires much practice to make him expert 
in the use of fire-arms, and still more so to make him sensible of the 
power of them. According to thie Horse-guards' calculation, the effi- 
ciency of a regiment can only be increased by increasing its numbers. 
No computation was ever more erroneous. 

The aifference in the efficiency of a soldier who is expert in the use 
of fire-arms, and one who is not so, is so great, that no comparison can 
be instituted between them. In fine, I conceive that the load which 
an infantry soldier has to carry, may be reduced by eight or ten 
pounds, and his efficiency fairly doubled, by arming him in a superior 
manner. Even upon the score of profit and loss, shillings and pence, 
so many muskets for a man's life, the problem may perhaps in time be 
deemed worthy the solution of the government. Militaris. 

* The Knapsack invented by Captain Heise, of which we gave a detailed ac« 
count in a former Number, appears to us to obviate more of the defects generally 
complained of, and to combine more recommendations tlum any other with which 
we are acquainted. — £d. 



205 

DISTRIBUTION OP LIGHT CAVALRY AND INFANTRY 

IN THE FIELD. 

BY VANGUARD. 

I DERIVED much satisfaction from the perusal of an article in the 
United Service Journal for the month of May, by your correspondent 
W. in reply to some obse]:;yations of mine on the comparative merits of 
the lance and fusee for light cavalry ; on the necessity of organizing 
corps of chasseurs a cheval ; and on certain alterations being made in 
the fire-arms of the light dragoon ; by which I find that the system 
for which I have ever been so great a stickler has actually been adopt- 
ed within the last two years; and that when again called into the field, 
our cavalry will meet their enemy on equal terms^ as far as regards 
fire-arms and dismounting to act as light infantry^ if required to do so. 

Without taking great credit to myself, I will avow that my opinions 
on this subject have not been borrowed, but that experience has many 
a long year since convinced me, that in having neglected formerly to 
arm and organize our light dragoons in the manner recently introduced, 
they laboured under great disadvantages, and had not fair play at the 
out-posts, when removed at any distance from the support of the in- 
fantry ; which, during the last war, was often unavoidable, and ^vill 
be so again on very many occasions. 

Your correspondent has judged rightly in conjecturing that I am an 
Officer of Infantry ; and I will add, that I am an old Light Division 
man. Whether I wore the uniform of the 43rd, the 52nd, or of the 
95th rifle corps, (the three British, regiments which composed that 
division,) it is unnecessary for me to declare. This will, perhaps, at 
once account for my not having known, until so recently informed of 
it by your correspondent W., that the very inefficient carbine formerly 
used by our light dragoons has been set aside, and a much better de- 
scription of fire-arm substituted for it ; and, moreover, that the men 
are now instructed to dismount and to act as light infantry ; a system 
which, however unpalatable it may be to cavalry soldiers, will' give 
them a confidence in their own strength at the out-posts, when unsup- 
ported by infantry, which heretofore most assuredly they could not 
always have felt. Your correspondent has misunderstood me in one 
point, on which I am sure he will allow me to set him right. 

In alluding to the kind of horse best adapted for lancers, I observed, 
if it was not intended to employ that description of cavalry at out-post 
duty, but to fiold it in reserve for the purpose of acting in more com- 
pact bodies, my own humble opinion was^ that their charge would be 
much more formidable if they were mounted on the same class of ani- 
mals as those used by our heavy dragoons, instead of those of a slighter 
sort, such as a few years since were certainly much the fashion in our 
hussar and lancer regiments. I am happy to find that it is intended 
to give both hussars and lancers a stouter horse than that liitherto in 
use ; and I will candidly confess, that I was not until now aware of 
its beine in contemplation. We of the infantry, are either not inform- 
ed of all the changes which take place in the rules and regulations for 
€he cavalry, or we do not give them much attention, I fear, if we are 
made acquainted with them. The same observation equally applies 
with regard to the change of tactics in the infantry. Few cavalry offi- 



206 CAVALRY AND INFANTRY. 

cersy I fancy, give themselves much trouble on that score. All that 
can be said therefore on both sides is, the more is the pity. 

Your correspondent W. is undoubtedly aware, that during the whole 
of the war in the Peninsula, the light division had a front seat in the 
play ; and, that we were so frequently at the elbows of those inimita- 
ble regiments of light cavalry, the 1st German hussars, the 14th and 
16th light dragoons, (more particularly with the two former) and so 
constantly intermixed with them on pickets, and a multiplicity of 
duties which fell to our lot as light troops, that a man with common 
observation could not shut his eyes to the glaring fact, that the fire- 
arms of the French chasseur, and his capability of acting on foot in 
cases of emergency, gave him vast advantages over our light dragoons 
at the out-posts. In this school, then, did I catch that smattering of 
the duties of cavalry in the field, for which your correspondent has 
been pleased to give me credit. It is satisfactory to me to find that 
the view which I have taken of the lance, from the first momeot of its 
introduction in the British army, coincides not only with the opinion of 
many experienced officers in our own army, but moreover with that of 
the highest authorities in the French. I think it the duty of every 
soldier to communicate any plans which may suggest themselves to 
him as likely to prove beneficial to the service ; tdthough it must be 
confessed, that nineteen times in twenty it is a most thankless under- 
taking. Having premised thus much, I beg leave to offer a few hints, 
picked up here and there during a tolerably long apprenticeship in 
the army. 

It was very generally the custom in the last war, although I am 
aware that there were exceptions to the contrary, to brigade the heavy 
cavalry together, and, in like manner, the light. * 

It has, however, frequently occurred to me, that brigades consisting 
each of two regiments of heavy dragoons and one of light, would be an 
arrangement worth the consideration of our cavalry chiefs, in the event 
of the British army again taking the field in sufficient numbers to 
admit of the formation of several separate brigades. 

A brigade thus constituted, would, I conceive, be of the most effi- 
cient description, and be enabled to penetrate a difficult country when 
at a distance from the infantry of the army ; the light dragoons form- 
ing the advance-guard, and clearing the front when an intersected 
tract of country presented itself, by dismounting a part of that force 
and using them as tirailleiirSf if so opposed, whilst the heavy dragoons 
would be at hand to support them, in the French army it was like- 
wise much the custom to form brigades of heavy cavalry, and also of 
hussars and chasseurs. Gen. Franceschi, for instance, commanded a 
division composed entirely of light cavalry in 1809, under Marshal 
Soult, in the north of Portugal, or I am greatly mistaken. Gen. 
Milhaud's division at Waterloo, on the other hand, consisted of 
cuirassiers and horse-grenadiers. ^ I shall therefore most undoubtedly 
be accused of the height of presumption, if I question the policy of 
invariahly keeping the light and heavy cavalry separately brigaded; 
more particularly as I have always served with the infantry. Fran- 
ceschi's light cavalry were admirably suited to the description of war- 
fare likely to be encountered in the rough and mountainous regions of 
the north of Portugal (if all his regiments had been chasseurs, the 



CAVALRY AND INFANTRY. 207 

more easily and effectually could they have been applied) ; and Gen. 
Milhaad's heavy cavalry again were much better adapted than any 
other for trampling down squares of infantry on the plains of Wa- 
terloo. Although it was a perfect failure with the latter force^ in spite 
of the most determined and enthusiastic bravery of the French cuiras- 
siers^ who were slaughtered in heaps^ in their reiterated attempts to 
annihilate the immoveable British squares of infantry ; yet I cannot 
but thinks that taking the whole year rounds from the 1st of January 
to the 31st of December^ and one description of country with another, 
the plan which I have suggested of giving one regiment of light dra- 
goons, or hussars to every brigade^ may, by possibility, prove worthy of 
.being taken into consideration. 

I have a similar proposal relative to the formation of divisions and 
brigades of infantry, which, I beg leave to observe, is one borrowed 
from our French neighbours. 

After the cessation of hostilities between the armies of the Duke of 
Wellington and Marshal Soult in 1814, near Toulouse, I made many 
excursions across the Tara, (that river being the line of demarkation 
between the two armies,) and had frequent communication with 
French officers. I attended their company and regimental parades; 
and I was present when a considerable part of Soult's army, and one 
or more divisions of Marshal Suchet's, passed in review before the Duke 
D'Angouleme at Montauban ; and highly gratified I was at being ena- 
bled \/6 make so minute an inspection of those veterans with whom 
we had been scuffling and fighting from the Guadiana to the Garonne. 
I ascertained that every division, and in many instances each brigade of 
infantry, had one light infantry battalion belonging to it,' independent 
of the light companies of each battalion of the line ; and that this was 
a rule from which Napoleon allowed no deviation, if it could be pos- 
sibly avoided. The policy of this system must be so apparent to every 
military man who has served in the field, as to render any comment on 
it unnecessary. 

Every division of our army in the Peninsula had on^ or more regi- 
ments of Portuguese light infantry, (Ca9adores,) who soon became 
very respectable troops ; so that they, together with the British light 
companies of each brigade, furnished a force of light infantry suffi- 
ciently numerous and efficient in most cases for the operations of their 
respective divisions. But it should not be forgotten, that if the British- 
army is again called into the field, the chances are fifty to one against 
its divisions of infantry being mixed up and chequered with foreign 
troops in the same manner as was the case with its Portuguese Allies ; 
and it niust therefore necessarily rely on its own resources for a due 
proportion of light troops ; which, the practical soldier will not deny, 
are of the first importance in every situation in which an army can 
possibly find itself placed. 

As we ought not to be too proud to borrow the opinions of an. en- 
lightened and experienced antagonist, nor fail to oppose him with his 
own weapons if we find them formidable, I trust that our light in- 
fantry battalions will, in future campaigns, be equally distributed 
amongst the different brigades and divisions. Should this appear a 
strange doctrine to emanate from the pen of a light-division-man, 
let it be borne in mind, that during the six latter campaigns in the 



208 CAVALRY AND INFANTRY. 

Peninsnla, no less than six British battalions of light infiEUttiy and rifle- 
men — Yiz. 43rd^ 52nd^ (at one period the 52nd had two battalions in 
Spain^) and the three battalions of the 95th rifle corps->-were together ; 
and^ idihongh particularly calculated^ from their composition and organi- 
zation^ for the arduous duties of the out-posts^ advance^ and rear-guards. 
Sec. &c and however laudable the pride which men naturally felt 
at belonging to a dirision which^ as a matter of course, always held a 
prominent station in the army; it may be questioned, whether to have 
given each of the eight divisions an equal proportion of British light 
troops would not have been desirable. 

The Duke of Wellington has since said, or it has possibly been said 
for him, that in the event of another war on a large scale, he would 
not form a whole division of light troops, as he considered them too 
Taluable to be kept together. If I am accused of trumpeting the fame 
of my old division, I flatly deny the charge ; yet I will say, that its 
very name warms Uie blood, and recalls to mind a thousand scenes not 
likely to be forgotten. Your correspondent W. gives some useful 
hints as to the necessity of obliging each troop of cavalry to take its 
turn in performing the duty of skirmishing, instead of selecting a few 
smart fellows as standing dishes, who are invariably called on at drills 
and Jield'days to gallop furiously out to the front, to fire, and to 
resume their original positions in the line afterwards. 

The same observation is applicable to the drill of infantry, where it 
is too common a custom to cover the advance of a battalion, or its 
retreat, invariably with one or other of the flank companies. This may 
do very well for battalions of the line, but it is a grievous mistake 
when adopted by light infantry, or rifle battalions, where each company 
Is equally liable, when in front of the enemy, to be called on to per- 
form that duty. 

Having taken the liberty of giving an opinion on the comparative 
merits of the arms of light cavalry, I would offer, in conclusion, a 
remark or two on the weapons of our light infantry. 

Some men have not hesitated to object to the rifle, to pronounce it 
an imperfect arm, and to propose that it should be entirely abolished in 
the British army ; assigning as a reason, that it requires more time for 
the rijleman to load after firing, than the ligh^-infantry-man with his 
smooth-bored musket. Admitting that a very trifling time longer is 
required for the rifleman to re-load than the light infantry soldier, 
still, in ninety-nine cases out of an hundred, two i^fle shots shall cause 
more death and destruction than three or Jour discharges from a mus- 
ket, allowing both the rifleman and light bob to be tolerably fair 
artists in their way. Perhaps the following fact, to which I was an 
eye-witness, may have a tendency to convince those who are sceptical 
on that point. A short time before the commencement of the war in 
the Peninsula, when stationed in Kent with- some battalions of the 
43rd, 52nd, and 95th rifle corps, notes were compared, and the targets 
of a rifle company and one of the light infantry were examined on their 
return to barracks from practice at the target. 

The strength of the two companies was equal, being about eighty 
men each. Six rounds had been fired by every man of both parties ; 
the rifle company having its target placed at two hundred yards, (the 
usual distance) and the light infantry company at between eighty and 



THE VETERAN TO HIS SWORD. 209 

ninety yards. The contingefit allowance of the rifle captain suffered 
severely on that occasion^ as the target was so riddled and cut to pieces^ 
that it was with difllculty brought home ; whilst the target of the light 
infantry was, comparatively, in a good state of repaii^. I have given 
HfHe and pla^e ; and, if necessary, I could name the captains of the 
tW companies. 

In covering a retreat, I awl of opinion that the rifleman should by nd 
m^m attempt to keep up the same random^ and too often, ineffectual 
Arid, which I have ofl^n witnessed by light companies ; but that if, oii 
the Contrary, he takes proper advantage of the weapon he bears, arid 
e^cpends few shots without either actually hitting or going very near hii 
pwrsuers, nothing will so much tend to make them keep at a respeet'<i^ 
fnV distance, or to cool their ardour. I know of nothing that makesf 
skirmishers mind their business^ more than being actually opi^osed to a 
scattered line of good marksmen. 

Before the cominenc^ment of the Peninsular War, thtf comtnslndsint' of 
one of the battalions of the 95th idfle corps had ntotieabld targets c6h-^ 
structed, at which the men practised when adepts at the standing mark. 
The idea was a capitsd one; but the ropes aflUxed to the targets, by* 
which they wefe pulled and tugged along the sea-beach near Hyth[^ 
barracks, were coritinually cut iri two bv the bullets. The whole t6¥p^ 
shortly afterwards found itself in tbe teninsula, wher^ moveable tart^ 
gets of another description were found in great abundance, ready madi^ 
to t^idf hands, at which they had unremitting practice frotn 1808 to^ 
the dose of the war in 1815 at Waterloo. VaKowaru: 



THE VETERAN Ta HIS SWORD. 

Dear art thou still, my trusty sword. 

Though dimm'd is now thy shine ; 
Thou' an my sgtuFs last cherish'd hoard, 

My deeds are blent with thine. 
There 's rust upon thy gleaming blade ; 

The stain will not depart ; 
And I have felt tiie same dark shade : 

But mine is on my heart ! 

We 've fought in aiany a goodly field 

Amid the combat's yell ; 
And proud was I a blade to wield 

Which wrought its part so well. 
Now — ^thou art but a harmless thing. 

Which women dare to touch. 
And smile, amid their marvelling. 

That men are slain with such f 

Back to thy sheath— the day may come. 

That 1 shall grasp thee yet 
To strike for my own hearth and home. 

Where armed hosts are met. 
What ! though our brightest years are o'er, 

Let but the tmmpet peal, 
We 'U blithely to the fight once more. 

My old, my trusty steel ! . p. 

U. S. JouRN. No. 31. June 1831. p 



210 

YEOMANRY CAVALRY. 

WITH REMARKS ON THE REVISED CAVALRIf iCOVEMEyTS. 

Thb importance of making this description of force thoroiig]il7 
available and effective^ mast be evident to all persons^ whether civil 
or military, who reflect that yeomanry are in fact almost the last 
resource of the magistracy, after all ordinary methods for restoring 
tranquillity in times of disturbance have fiedled and been found ins^if- 
ficient, and when, unless yeomanry are at hand, the awful respon- 
sibility must be incurred of calling out troops to act against their 
countrymen. In the U. S. Journal for April, there appeared a letter 
signed by a field officer of yeomanry, concerning the merits of the 
revised system of movement which has been on trial for the last two 
jean in the regular cavalry, and expressing his fears lest that system 
should be adopted also in the yeomanry. 

Now, if the experience of an old troop officer of a regiment wh|ch 
bas invatkbly been remarked both abroad and at home for its steadi- 
ness and ffooa instruction in the field, may be allowed to weigh in the 
aaUi against the twenty years' experience announced by the field 
iftkeer of yeomanry, it will not be thought presumption to ofiTer a 
pfW remarks in reply, particularly as he not oidy makes some unmean- 
ing criticisms upon the revised system which has been practised for 
these two last years by the regulars, but also ventures some sneering 
comments on the efficiency of the commissioned officers of the cavalry, 
as compared with that of their Serjeants and corporals, a subject upon 
which he is evidently as much in the dark as in his attempts as a field 
critic. 

Whatever may be the decision of the Board, which is shortly ex- 
pected to assemble and investigate the system alluded to, my brother 
officers of the cavalry of the Bne who have practised its principles, 
have, as far as I have been able to learn, but one voice on the subject. 
They hare found the movements easy to acquire and easy to execute, 
every point of instruction being laid down in plain language, divested 
of tactical pedantry, and yet mathematically as well as practically 
correct, so that it is an officer's own fault if he ever finds himself at a 
loss at a field-day. Silence and order are of course the necessary con- 
seouences, and both young officers and recruits are fit for squadron in 
half the time they used to be. But to come to a few details, and to 
show how frivolous and ill-founded are the objections of our yeoman 
critic, I would in the first place inquire where he obtained his infer* 
mation, that '* The officers of regular cavalry, when placed in fronts 
have nothing to do but to dress themselves, and can have no iufloence 
upon the ranks behind them, who must be therefore dressed by the 
non-commissioned officers upon the flanks." Does he then forget, or 
is he altogether ignorant of the fact, that whether troop officers are in 
front or on the flank, still, according to all regulations, whether old or 
revised, the dressing of the squadron when ordered to advance has in- 
variably been to its centfe; and for an officer upon the 'flank of a 
squadron to call to the men to dress towards him, or by his direction, 
would be a flagrant violation of the principles of Dundas, who so fre- 
quently urges the necessity of ail dressing proceeding from that point 



YEOMANRY CAVALRY. 211 

to which the eyes of the men are turned^ and which^ in this case^ is of 
course the centre. To dress the squadron from its two flanks at the 
same time^ on the supposition that the squadron officer cannot see any- 
thing of his men^ because his back is turned towards them^ would have 
the effect of making him a complete cipher^ and frequently of actually 
disjointing the squadron in its very centre^ where of air places it ought 
to be most solid and compact. We are next informed^ that from the 
circumstance of the yeomanry officers' horses being unsteady^ and not 
well broke^ those officers will be disadvantageously placed in front and 
out of the ranks ; and oughts on the contrary^ to be in the ranks^ and on 
the flanks of their half squadrons ; and then Immediately follows the 
declaration that '^ the correctness of all movements in column depends 
dn the flank leaders ;" from which one arrives at the strange conclusion^ 
that because yeomanry officers' horses are unsteady and unquiet^ they 
will be best placed at those very points where steadiness and correct- 
ness are announced to be of such exceeding importance. From what 
part of his twenty years' experience the fleld officer of yeomanry has 
discovered " that the officers of regular cavalry are less efficient than 
their Serjeants^" it is not easy to guess ; but> before he pays such com- 
pliments to the acquirements in the field of his brethren of the regu- 
lars^ he had perhaps better make himself a little more conversant with 
their movements^ and the principles upon which their execution is 
made to depend. When he has done this^ he will perhaps* find out 
that an officer in front of his men can control them if they rush irre- 
gularly forward^ much more effectually in his own person than when 
placed upon the flank^ to which the men are ordered not to look, and 
where he can only exert his influence and authority upon the few men 
immediately next to him ; as if any good commanding officer would 
permit all the flank officers to be bawling to the men during an 
advance in line^ when the utmost silence should be preserved, and 
no voice ought to be heard but his own and that of the squadron 
leaders. 

The field-officer proceeds in his observations by saying, that a good 
yeomanry officer does not set his line a galloping till they are steady 
at their walk and trot. Does he really imagine that this is a discovery 
peculiar to himself, and that the officers of regular cavalry have not 
long ago considered this as an established and standard principle of the 
service to which they belong ? He is very right in saying that some 
yeomanry corps have arrivea at surprising perfection in movement; 
but it certainly admits of much question how far that style of move- 
mient to which he alludes is a useful exercise for yeomanry. To go 
through a number of complicated manoeuvres, all written down in a 
particular routine and order, and prepared for a length of time before- 
hand for the purpose of accomplishing one brilliant review, perfbrmed 
in strict and peaantic mimickry of the regular cavalry, appears by no 
means a judicious employment of the short period available for their 
training. Many a troop of yeomanry has played its part with perfect 
success in these exhibitions, without a single man or officer knowine 
the object and intention of the manoeuvres they were going through 
with such " rapidity and precision ;" and when marching home in high 
spirits at the encomiums of the reviewing- officer, has been grievously 

p2 



212 YROMANRY CAVALRY. 

puzzled^ officers and all^ by Having to pass icome sach unavoidable 
defile as is caused by an overturned waggon in a confined road^ where 
the common and really useful operation of diminishing their front iu a 
regular and systematic way^ and again increasing it after the obstacle 
was passed, would have obviated all difficulty. But the field-officer 
would probably disclaim anv such simple exercises, and would Iwik. 
upon this and all the other details of what is usually called squadron 
drill as extremely tiresome, quite beneath the notice of a tactician, and 
by no means so well calculated for astonishing the minds of spectators 
at a review, as some grand movement, such as a *' formation of close 
column right in front facing to the rear at a canter," with all the half 
squadrons curling round in a countermarch like so many great cater- 
pillars, and then scrambling off for their places in column, preceded by 
a whole flock of markers, led by the adiutant, riding as if his life de« 
pended up<Mi it. Let us fisure to ourselves the progress of the. scene— ^ 
we will suppose these markers, being even better acquainted with the 
manoeuvre than he who commanded it, are all arrived in safety, and 
after a great deal of waving to and ho of swords, accompanied by not a 
£ew smothered, imprecations, finally planted, according to the adjutant's 
intentions, as pivots of the column. The half-squadnms, meantime, 
begin to approach, and audible whispers are circulated among the 
officers of— ^'' Which is my marker ?" '' When am I to lead ?" '' Am 
I to stop short, or go straight up to him ?" " Do we go round him ?" 
" Which way do we turn ?" '' Which is to be the front ?" and a 
thousand other equally agitating questions. For one officer that is 
answ^ed right by his neighbours, two are answered wrong, but under 
the protection of a cloud oE dust, like the heroes in the Iliad, and being 
now within reach of their markers, who are generally old sdidiers of 
the line, and on the look-out for the approach of their officers, like 
pilots off a harbour, the whole bundle into column, and settle down 
into something like order and regularity ; the dust clears away, and 
there they stand glittering in their glory, while the bewildered spec- 
tators declare their unmixed admiration of the splendid manoeuvre it 
has been their good-fortune to behold. 

Now, that this picture of a yeomanry field-day of the eld school is. 
not overcharged, let any unprejudiced person who may have attended 
such reviews deny if he can. No ridicule is intended to be thrown 
upon the yeomanry, whose zeal, intelligence, and patriotic sacrifice of. 
time and expence entitle them to every praise from their fellow-coun- 
trymen and brethren of the regulars ; but it is merely wished to prove 
the absurdity of some of their chieft and instructors in teaching them, 
as it were, to dance before they can walk, and in accustoming them, as 
certainly used to be the case, to mistake the performance by rote of a 
certain series of manoeuvres selected from Dundas, and which never 
yet were, nor ever could be employed by cavalry on service, for that 
perfection in which the field-officer asserts that two very good yeo- 
manry corps, the Cheshire and Lord Grantham's, were fuUy equal to 
the regiments of the line. The practice of the cavalry of the line 
during the last two years has shown, that among many advantages of 
placing officers in front of their half-squadrons, it is one of the principal 
that they have much better control over their men, and can more ea^y 



YBOlifANRY CAVALRY. 213 

Irestrain those who from the impetaosity of their horses, or their own 
eagerness, are disposed to break the regularity of the line by rushing 
too forward, a fault which was always too prevalent in the British 
cavalry, and which not only led to unsteady advances in line, but also 
to the line being frequently overshot by troops coming up successively 
in formations to the ^ont, from echellon or open column, as well as in 
the important manceuvre of deploying. This advantage and the get- 
ting rid of a host of markers, which is a main result of having officers 
in front, have simplified the movements of the regular cavalry to a 
greater degree than can be at all appreciated by those who have never 
practised them ; at the same time by not employing at field-days that 
number of detached markers who could not be so employed before the 
enemy, the evolutions of the cavalry are made more like what they 
ought to be, namely, a preparation for what is likely to be required of 
them on real service. Now, every one of these arguments for abolish- 
ing the use of detached markers, and for placing officers in a situation 
to control their men and preserve the lines from being broken and over- 
shot by the unsteadiness of either man or horse, applies with double 
force to the yeomanry cavalry ; not to mention that the officers are 
spared the difficulty and inconvenience of constantly shifting flanks, to 
do which at the proper instant, and without making mistakes, was 
always, even in the best-drilled regiments of the line, one of the most 
intricate points of the troop officer's field duty, as every one must well 
recollect who, before the late revision was introduced into practice, 
served as a subaltern in the cavalry, or who, in the situation of adju- 
tant, has been conversant with the instruction of the young officers. 
The abbreviated words of command are the next subject of the animad- 
version of the field-officer, and he carefully explains that no word of 
command ought to be given to the yeomen with the meaning of which 
word they are unacquainted ; as if it ever were intended or could be 
thought properithat unintelligible commands should be given to any 
cava&y in the world. The whole object of words of command is to 
convey a distinct and plain meaning, but is it by lengthy sentences 
that such meaning is best conveyed ? Will not a hien wind, or the 
slightest confusion, affect the circulation of long words of command ? 
Will the squadron officers who repeat them, as easily catch and pass a 
long sentence as a shwt one ? Are not short commands sooner made 
familiar to the ear, and such words as are lost in noise or wind more 
easily supplied by the officers most distant from the commanding officer? 
Above ail, are not common and plain terms better understood by young 
soldiers than technical and scientific phrases, which seem intended for 
no other purpose than to make a mystery of an art whose chief merit 
must always be extreme simplicity ? For instance, when a division or 
troop is to make a partial turn towards its right hand, is it not more 
in accordance with the ordinary expressions of our language to say 
" right" followed by '^forward," when the division has wheeled as 
much as is intended by its officer, than to say *' left shoulders forward/' 
followed by "forward" in order to accomplish the very same thing? 
In the latter command, the term " left" seems resdly introduced 
merely to puzzle the cause. Suppose you lost your way in travellings 
and were to ask the first man you met to direct you, would he desire 



214 YKOMAl^RY I^VALRY. 

yoa to bring your left shoulder forward at the next cross road^ or 
would he not plainly tell you to turn to your right ? There is no need 
of twenty years' experience in the yeomanry service to solve such a 
question. Indeed^ the field-officer answers it himself better than any 
one could answer it for him^ by observing with much truth, '' that it is 
of little importance how many syllables are uttered by a commanding 
officer ; the only point worth considering is^ by what means he gets hu 
commands most efficiently executed." 

The words of command in the revised movements lately practised 
by the cavalry^ have certainly a few variations from Dundas^ but it 
\mi hardly be denied^ that such a word as change front to the left on 
the second squadron, is more simple than, " The regiment will change 
position to the left, right brought forward, left thrown hack, upon the 
left half squadron of the right centre squadron ; and since the regi- 
ments have found no difficulty whatever, but on the contrary much 
advantage from the abbreviation of these long and puzzling sentences, 
and execute their purport quite as efficiently and correctly, there 
really seems no reason for preferring them to shorter and equally 
plain commands, especially when Dundas himself, speaking of com- 
mands, recommends that they should be— -^' short, clear, and expressive 
of what is to be done." 

The field-officer concludes his remarks by saying, that '* if the yeo- 
manry are inferior to regulars in some things, there is the greater 
necessity for rendering them more perfect in other things"— «nd this 
remark, if properly applied, is an extremely just one, but for yeomanry 
to aim at this perfection by Ions and difficult words of command, and 
still more long and compucated manoeuvres, is the very last means of 
arriving at excellence of any kind. Yeomanry are never wanted in 
great lines for any purposes except the empty ones of parade. It is 
in separate squadrons and smaller detachments that their real services 
are generally required, and if they can execute the simple formations 
of the troop and squadron readily, and without confusion, to either 
front, flank, or rear, and can also with equal readiness increase and 
diminish their front while upon the march at a moderate trot, they will 
find themselves much more efficient, as a military force in the hour of 
trial, than they can ever be made from imitating the parade move- 
ments and reviews of the regular cavalry, to which, in these matters, 
tl^eir want of habitual practice must always render them inferior, how- 
ever plausibly they may perform a prepared field-day ; while by ad- 
hering to those simple exercises above mentioned, they may not only 
rival the regulars in points which are of the first importance on service, 
but also wul make themselves a truly efiective and formidable force, 
able to render the most essential and valuable aid for the preservation 
of internal peace, and forming a patriotic and efficient safeguard for 
the liberties of themselves and their fellow-countrymen. 

(Signed) A Cavalry Captain. 



215 



THB SERVICES OF THE LATE 
ADMIRAL SIR JOSEPH SYDNEY YORKE, K.G.B. 

The melancholy event which occurred on the 5th of May^ and which 
deprived Sir Joseph S. Yorke of his life^ has heen the subject of uni- 
versal regret^ not only in the naval circles, but among all classes where 
he was known; for it cannot be denied that he possessed feelings 
actively alive in the cause of benevolence, and which he fulJy exercised 
whenever an object at all worthy of his interference solicited his 
assistance. 

It seems that Sir Joseph Yorke had been with Capt. Mathew Bar- 
ton Bradby, in the latter officer's vessel, of fourteen tons burthen, 
accompanied by Capt. Thomas Young, on board the St. Vincent at 
Spithead, whicn ship is fitted for the iiag of Vice- Admiral Sir H. Ho- 
tham, who is about to proceed to the Mediterranean as Commander-in- 
chief. On their return, a sudden and violent gust of wind came on in 
Stokes Bay, which upset the vessel, and all on board perished.* The 
bodies of the unfortunate sufferers were found, and on the following 
day, the Coroner held an inquest, when a verdict of '* accidental death" 
was recorded.t 

The Admiral was bom in London, 6th June 1 7^> ^nd entered the 
Navy as Midshipman on board the Duke, (98,) Feb. 15th 1780, then 
commanded by Capt. Sir Charles Douglas, with whom he joined the 
Formidable, the flag ship of Admiral Lord Rodney, and was in the 
celebrated actions with the French fleet under Comte de Grasse, on 
the 9th and 12th of April 1782. The peace which was soon after con- 
cluded caused Mr. Yorke to return to £ngland, and the Formidable 
being put out of commission, he after a short time joined the Assist- 
ance, Commodore Sir Charles Douglas, and then the Salisbury, Capt. 
Sir Erasmus Gower, as Master's Mate, and remained on the New- 
foundland Station nearly three years. 

June 16th 1789, Mr. Yorke was promoted to the rank of Lieute- 
nant, and served with Admiral Sir Richard Hughes on board the 
Adamant of 50 guns. He subsequently served as Lieutenant of the 
Thisbe, and Victory, and in the latter during the armaments against 
Spain and Russia. In February 1791, he was promoted to Master and 
Commander, and to the Rattlesnake sloop cruising in the Channel, 
until the war with the French Republic commenced. Capt, Yorke 
was promoted to Post-rank Feb. 4th 1793, and to command the Circe 
frigate, under the orders of Admiral £arl Howe; he was actively em- 



* Little doubt exists of the Yacht having been struck by lightning. 

t Capt. Bradby, who thus lost his life, was the son of Rear-Adnoiral Bradby, 
who died on the Superannuated List of Admirals in 1809. Capt. Bradby was 
made a Lieutenant, July 1796^ and a Commander, 29th of April 1802. He after- 
wards commanded the Calypso, of 18 guns, in the North Sea, and was made Post- 
Captain, June 28th, 1810. He has left a widow, who was daughter of Vice- 
Admiral Billy Douglas. 

Capt. Thomas Voung, the other unfortunate sufferer, was made Lieutenant, 
October 8th 1801 ; promoted to Commander, November 5th 1806 ; and to Captain^^ 
January 1st 1817* 



216 TUB SBRVICKH OF THB LATB 

ployed in the Channel ; and chwe to Brest harhour^ captured L'Espiegle 
conrette. 

In Angost 17^4, Capt. Yorke was appointed to the Stag £rigate^ em- 
ployed in the Channel and North Sea ; and on the 22nd August, the 
next year, when in company with a small squadron under Capt. Alms' 
orders^ chased two large ships and a cutter, the stemmost of which he 
brought to action. After an hour's engagement, the vessel struck, and 
proved to be the Alliance, Batavian frigate, of 36 guns and 240 men, 
several of whom were killed and wounded. The others, which escaped, 
were the Argo of the same force, and the Nelly Cutter, of 16 guns. 
In March ISK), Capt. Yorke was removed to the Jason, of 36 guns; 
and in the following year to the Canada, 74, which he commanded 
until the peace. 

On the recommencement of hostilities, Capt. Yorke received an ap- 
pointment to the Prince George, from whence he was removed to the 
Barfleur, and then to the Chri^ian VIL a lai^e Danish ^p wiUi 
round quarters. 

On the 2l8t of April 1805, His Majesty George III. was gradons^ 
pleased to confer on Capt. Yorke the honour of Eoiighthood. This 
was preparatory to the Installation of the Knights of the Garter, thait 
took place in St. George's Chapel on the 23rd of the same month, and 
upon which occasion Sir Joseph Yorke went through the ceremonies 
as the representative of his brother the Earl of Hardwicke, at that time 
the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and therefore incapable of attending 
at that splendid ceremony. 

Upon the appointment of Lord Mulgrave, as Master-General of the 
Ordnance, in 1810, the Right Hon. Charles Yorke became First Lord 
of the Admiralty, and Sir Joseph was nominated to a seat at the Ad- 
miralty Board, in the room of Capt. Robert Moorsom, and in conser 
quence relinquished the command of the Christian VII. 

Sir Joseph was promoted to the rank of Rear- Admiral of the Blue, 
July 31 St 1810 ; and in January following hoisted his flag on board 
the Vengeance, 74, in which he proceeded to the Tagus with a lar^ 
body of troops in transports, to re-inforce the army under Lord Wd- 
llngton ; he afterwards sailed to the Western Isles, with three sail-of- 
the-line and two frigates under his orders, for the protection of an 
homeward-bound fleet from the £ast Indies. 

In the promotion of Flag-officers, which took place 4th June 1814^ 
Sir Joseph Yorke obtained the rank of Vice- Admiral, In April 181 q 
he resigned his seat at the Admiralty, and held no public situation 
afterwards. 

On the organization of the Order of the Bath in 1815, Sir Joseph 
Yorke was nominated a Knight Commander. At the promotion which 
took place on the ascent of his present Majesty to the throne. Sir 
Joseph Yorke became an Admiral of the Blue, 22nd July 1830. 

Sir Joseph Yorke commenced his Parliamentary career in 1790, 
when he was returned for Reygate, Surry, while he was Lieutenant of 
the Victory. This place he continued to represent until 1806, when 
he was returned for St. Germain's, in Cornwall, which he vacated in 
1810 in favour of his brother. 

At the general election in 1812, Sir Joseph Yorke was returned for 



ADMIRAL SIR JOSEPH SYDNEY YORKB, K.G.B. 217 

Sandwich, but again vacated his seat in 1818 ; in the same year he was 
returned for Reygate, w;hich he continued to represent until the recent 
dissolution of l^arliament, and had been re-elected for that place to 
serve in the New Parliament. 

Sir Joseph Yorke married in April 1798, Elizabeth, daughter of 
James Rattray, of Atherston, North Britain, Esq. by which Lady, who 
died Jan. 20th, 1812^ he had several children, one of whom, Ch«rles 
Philip, is now Captain of the Alligator frigate in the Mediterraneao, 
and served as Midshipman in the Queen Charlotte before Algiers. Sir 
Joseph Yorke married secondly. May 22nd, 1813, Urania, Dowager 
Marchioness of Clanricarde, daughter of George, the twelfth Marquess 
of Winchester, who survives him. By this marriage there is no issue. 

Sir Joseph Yorke was the youngest son of the Right Hon. Charles 
Yorke, who filled the high office of Lord Chancellor in 1770, and was 
created a Peer of the Realm, by the title of Baron Morden ; but dying 
before the patent had passed the Great Seal, the Peerage did not take 
place. 

The present Earl of Hardwicke succeeded his uncle in the titles and 
estates. Both his Lordship's sons, Philip, Viscount Royston, who was 
lost on board the Agatha, merchantship, near Memel, April 7th, 1808^ 
and Charles James, who then became viscount Royston, and died May 
1st, 1810, being the only male heirs, the Earldom devolves on the 
Right Hon. Charles Philip Yorke, his Lordship's brother, should be 
survive him, but if not, then it descends to the eldest male survivor of 
the Admiral's children. 

Sir Joseph Yorke was diairman of the Waterloo Bridge Company, 
in the management of whose qpncerns he took a very active part. 

The last public act of the lamented Admiral's life was the presiding 
at a meeting at the Thatched House Tavern, on the 29th April, for 
considering a plan for carrying into effect ^^ A School for the Elducation 
of the Sons of Naval and Marine Officers, together with an Orphan 
Foundation, under the sanction of the King's Most Excellent Ma- 
jesty," an institution that promises to be of essential service, and which is 
highly creditable to its projector. Commander Dickson. 

The lengthened parliamentary career of Sir Joseph Yorke was distin- 
guished by sound and constitutional views, unflinching zeal for the in- 
terests of his profession, and invincible and irresistible good humour. 
In the tumult of the most stormy debates, his voice was wont to appease 
the conflicting senate, and restore at least a momentary harmony by the 
quaint phraseology and shrewd observations he brought to bear upon 
the' discussion. His loss is doubly to be deplored at the present crisis, 
when his attachment to the constitution, and unswerving honesty, would 
have rendered him a valuable ally to the cause of rational freedom, and 
the menaced institutions of his native land. 

The remains of Sir Joseph Yorke were deposited in the family vault 
at Wimple^ near Arrington, Cambridgeshire, not far from Wimple 
Hall, the seat of the Earl of Hardwicke. 



THE SERVICES OP THE LATE VICE-ADMIRAL 
THE RIGHT HON. SIR WILLIAM JOHNSTONE HOPE, G.C.B. 

Fkw officers of either service have passed through their professional 
career less marked by the tongue of calumny than the late Sir Wil- 
liam Johnstone Hope. This estimable and good man was supposed 
by many to have been a native of Scotland, which was not the fact^ 
as he orew his first breath at Finchley, in the county of Middlesex^ 
on the 16th August 1766. He is descended from John de Hope^ 
who^ it is said^ came from France in the retinue of Magdalene^ Queen 
to James V. in 1537* The father of Sir William^ was John Hope^ a 
merchant of London^ who married Mary^ daughter of £liab Breton^ of 
Enfield^ Esq. and was their third son. 

At the early age of ten years he entered the Navy, under the 
patronage of his uncle Capt. Charles Hope, (who was subsequently 
Ck>mmissiofaer of Chatham Dock-yard^ and died September 16th, 1808,) 
on board the Weazel of 14 gnns^ and accompanied him into the Hind^ 
Crescent^ Iphigenia, and Leocadia, successively employed in the West 
Indies^ coast of Guinea^ North Sea, and Newfoundland. From the 
latter ship, Mr. Hope removed into the Portland of 50 guns, the flag- 
ship of vlce-Admiral Campbell^ then at Newfoundland. In October 
1782, he obtained the rank of Lieutenant, and was appointed to the 
Dsedalus. After the peace in 1783, this frigate was paid off; but 
being again put into commission, Lieut. Hope was appointed to her^ 
and proceeded to the coast of Scotland ; but in the following year the 
ship was paid off at Chatham. After this, Lieut. Hope received an 
appointment as Flag-lieutenant to Admiral Milbanke, commanding at 
Plymouth. In April 1786, he joined the Pegasus, commanded by his 
present Majesty, (then His Royal Highness Prince William Henry,) 
and proceeded to Newfoundland, Halifax, and the West Indies, at 
which place he exchanged into the Boreas of 28 guns, commanded by 
the gallant Horatio Nelson, from which ship he was paid off at Sheer- 
ness in November 1787> 

The Victory being fitted for the flag of Earl Howe, in consequence 
of the disturbances in HoUand, which were speedily suppressed, Lieut. 
Hope received an appointment to that ship, but was soon afterwards 
paid off> and placed upon half-pay. 

The Adamant of 50 guns being fitted for Sir Richard Hughes, Lieut. 
Hope was appointed to that ship, and sailed in June 1789 to Halifax^ 
where the Admiral had been appointed Commander-in-chief. 

In the following year, Lieut. Hope was promoted to the rank of 
' Master and Commander, and to the command of the Rattle, sloop-of- 
war. In June of the same year, Capt. Knox of the Adamant, was 
compelled through illness to resign the command of that ship> and the 
Admiral (Sir Richard Hughes,) gave Capt. Hope an order to act in 
her. Soon after, Capt. Lindsay retired from the command of the 
Penelope through ill health, and Capt. Hope took the command, which 
appointment was not, however, confirmed by the Admiralty, and he 
returned home in the Adamant^ and paid her off at Plymouth in 1792. 

Capt. Hope's next appointment was to the Incendiary fire-ship, 
which he commissioned in January 1793, and from which he was on 



VIOB-ADMIRAL SIR WILLIAM JOHNSTONE HOPE, K.C.B. 219 

January 9th, J 794, promoted to the rank of Post Captain, and to the 
command of the Bellerophon of 74 guns, the flag-ship of Rear-Ad- 
miral Sir Thomas Pasley, but who then had a broad pendant «a iiBaal 
as OoBuiMMlore, which ship was particiiiaity di a tiBgpm lied hi ^ke -uewmB. 
engagements with the French fleet on the 28th and 29th of May, and 
glorious 1st of June 1794. For Capt. Hope's services, he was pre- 
sented with a gold medal, the same as the other Captains on that 
memorable occasion, by His Majesty George III. 

In March 1795, Capt. Hope having quitted the Bellerophon in the 
January preceding, was appointed to the Tremendous, belonging to the 
Channel fleet ; and in May following, at the request of Admiral Dun- 
can, he joined the Venerable, the flag-ship of that gallant and heroic 
oflicer in the North Sea. In consequence of an accident on the head, 
Capt. Hope met with on board one of the Russian line-of-battle ships^ 
at that time in company with the British fleet, he was reluctantly 
obliged to resign the command of the Venerable, and owing to that 
unfortunate circumstance was prevented sharing the glories of the 
action with the Dutch fleet, under Admiral DeW'inter, off Camper- 
down, the 11th of October, 1797* Capt. Hope's next commission was 
to the Kent, 74, in February 1798, a new ship, and fitting for the flag 
of Lord Duncan. In this ship, he assisted in the combined expedition 
against Holland, by this country and Russia, and was present at the 
capture of the Helder, and the surrender of the Dutch squadron under 
the orders of Rear- Admiral Storey. With this important intelligence, 
Capt. Hope arrived in London, for which he received the usual gra- 
tuity of 500/. ; and was soon after presented by the £mperor of 
Russia with the riband and cross of the Knight of Malta. 

Admiral Lord Duncan having resigned the command of the North 
Sea squadron, the Kent was sent to the Mediterranean in June 1800, 
to join the fleet under the orders of Admiral Lord Keith. In the same 
year, an attack was meditated upon Cadiz, and Capt. Hope was nomi- 
nated to command a detachment of seamen to be so employed. A 
violent epidemic disease was, however, found to be raging in the place, 
and the enterprise was therefore abandoned, and the ships to have been 
employed returned to Gibraltar. 

The expedition against the French, under Buonaparte in Egypt, 
having been determined upon, Lieut.-6en. Sir Ralph Abercrombie, 
with his staff, embarked on board the Kent, at Gibraltar, and Capt. 
Hope had the honour of conveying the gallant hero to that country 
where his military career so nobly terminated. Capt. Hope remained 
on the Egyptian coast until the surrender of Cairo, when the service 
requiring that the Kent should be an Admiral's ship. Sir Richard 
Bickerton hoisted his flag accordingly, and Capt. Hope returned home, 
after the former had offered him the situation of Captain of the Fleet ; 
and for his services on the coast of Egypt, he receivied by command 
of the Sultan, the Turkish order of the Crescent. 

Capt. Hope remained unemployed until early in 1804, when he was 
appointed to the Atlas at Chatnam, but was soon after, through ill 
health, compelled to relinquish the command, and which was the last 
he held as Captain. 

In 1807, when Lord Mulgrave became First Lord of the Admiralty^ 



220 VICB-ADMIRAL SIR WILLIAM JOHNSTONE HOPE, K.C.B. 

Capt. Hope> (who bad prerioosly assumed the name of Johnstone^ in 
adaition to that of Hope,) was appointed one of the commissioners oi 
that Board, where he remained until 1809, when he resigned, and 
was succeeded by Capt. Robert Moorsqm, then private secretary to 
Lord Mulgrave. 

Capt. Hope was on the 1st of August 181 1, appointed one of the 
Oolonels of the Royal Marines ; and on the 12th of August, the follow- 
ing year, promoted to the rank of Rear- Admiral ot the Blue. In 
November 1813, he was appointed Commander-in-chief at Leith, and 
on the extension of the Order of the Bath to three classes in 1815, 
was nominated a Knight Commander. Rear- Admiral Sir W. J. Hope 
was a second time appointed to the command at Leith in 1616, and 
hoisted his flag accordingly. 

August 12th, 1819, he was promoted to the rank of Vice-Admiral ; 
and in January 1820, on the appointment of Sir Graham Moore to the 
Mediterranean command, he again became a Lord of the Admiralty ; 
and when his present Majesty, then Duke of Clarence, was appointed 
Lord High Admiral, was named one of the Council to His Royal 
Highness. 

In March 1828, Sir William J. Hope was appointed by the Lord 
High Admiral, on the^ death of Sir Thomas B. Thompson, Treasurer 
of the Royal Hospital, GreeuAvich, and resigned his seat at the Admi- 
ralty. Great frauds and neglect being discovered and committed by 
individuals employed in the office belonging to the Treasurer of the 
Hospital, an Act of Parliament was obtained for the better regulation 
of that noble establishment, and the whole placed under the direction 
of the Board of Admiralty. In consequence of this alteration, the 
office of Treasurer was abolished, and Sir William Johnstone Hope was 
appointed one of the five Commissioners for managing the affairs of 
that excellent institution. 

On the death of Admiral Lord Radstock in 1825,'Sir William John^ 
stone Hope, was, 4th of October of that year, created a Grand Cross 
of the Bath, and about five months since, by the command of his pre- 
sent Majesty, was sworn in one of the members of the Privy Council. 

In 1800, while upon service, Capt. Hope was elected Member of 
Parliament for the Dumfries district of Burghs ; and in 1804 Member 
for the County on the death of Gen. Sir Robert Laurie, and which 
place he continued to represent until 1830, when, at the general ele^ 
tion, he declined the honour of again doing so, and was succeeded by 
Ids eldest son John James Hope Johnstone, Esq. 

Sir William Johnstone Hope married July the 8th, 1792, Lady 
Anne Johnstone Hope, the eldest daughter of James, third Earl m 
Hopetoun, who died at Raehill, near Moffatt, August 1818, and had 
issue four sons and two daughters, one of whom is maid of honour to 
her present Majesty. The eldest son is claimant for the disputed title 
of Marquis of Annandale, through his mother, and who with his bro* 
thers and sisters, place the name of Johnstone after that of Hope, 
while Sir William prefixed it before that of Hope the same as his wife. 
The three youngest sons of this marriage are all captains in the navy, 
one, William James Hope Johnstone, is now captain of the Britannia, 
the flag-ship of Sir Pulteney Malcolm in the Mediterranean , and the 
others both on half-pay. 



THE LATB REAR-ADMIRAL GEORGE SAYERjC.B. 221 

Sir William Johnstone Hope^ married secondlj> October the 30th^ 
1821, Maria> daughter of Sir John Eden^ and widow of Frederick 
William, seventh Earl of Athlone, who survives him. 

Sir William Johnstone Hope had been for some months in a declin- 
ing state of health, and upon the recommendation of the faculty pro- 
ceeded to Bath for his recovery, at which place he died May the znd, 
1831, sincerely regretted by all who knew his worth : his remains were 
interred on the 2l8t of May, in the family vault in Johnstone Church; 
Dumfries. 



THE SERVICES OF THE LATE REAR-ADMIRAL 

GEORGE SAYER, C.B. 

Rbar-Admiral Satbr was a native of Deal, where he was born 
in 1773. At an early age he commenced his career as a midshipman 
on board the Phcenix frigate, Capt. G. A. Byron, in which he pro- 
ceeded to the East Indies with the ships under the orders of Com- 
modore the Hon. William Comwallis, and was employed with a 
detachment of seamen and marines at the reduction of Tippoo Saib'S 
forts, &c. on the coast of Malabar. Mr. Sayer returned home in the 
Pheenix in July 17^3, and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant, 
into the Carysfort, Capt. (now Admiral l^r Francis) Laforey, and was 
present at the capture of the Castor, on the 29th May 1794, formerly 
an English frigate, but which had been taken by a division of the 
French fleet on the 10th of the same month, while convoying a fleet of 
merchant ships to Newfoundland ; the Castor being then commanded 
by Capt. Thomas Troubridge. 

The action between the Carysfort and the Castor continued one hour 
and fifteen minutes, and many were killed and wounded on both sides. 
The latter ship was commanded by M. L'Huillier. 

Lieut. Sayer subsequently served as first lieutenant, with Capt. 
Laforey, in the Beaulieu frigate, and the Ganges, 74, until his promo- 
tion from the latter to the rank of master and commander, in March 
1796, by Admiral Sir John Laforey, and to ccmimand the Lacedae- 
monian sloop-of-war on the Leeward island station; and was present 
at the capture of St. Lucia. He then was appointed to the Albacore 
sloop, where he remained but a short time. His next command was 
to the Xenophon, on the North Sea station, and in 1799 he brought 
^m Hamburgh to England in that vessel, Napper Tandy, the Irish 
rebel, and his companions, as state prisoners. Capt. Sayer was after- 
wards appointed to the Inspector, of 16 guns, from which he was 
removed, upon being promoted to the rank of post-captain, February 
14tb, 1801. Capt. Sayer remained upon half-pay until 1804, when he 
was appointed to the Proselyte of 28 guns, and sailed in the following 
year with a convoy under his orders to the West Indies, safely eluding 
a French squadron of five sail of the line and some frigates, which haa 
sailed from Rochfort, to intercept him. 

In July 1805, Capt. Sayer was appointed to command the Galatea 
^gate, and was present at the surrender of the Danish Islands of St. ' 
Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix, and several merchant vessels, in. 



222 THB LATB REAR-ADMIRAL GE0R6R SJ^l«r, C.B. 

December 1807 i and the boats of iim CUatea boardedT and captured 
the French corvette le Lynx, flf 18 guns, off the Coast of Caraccas^ 
after having been twior repulsed in their attempt. The Galatea re- 
turned home is 1S09, and upon examination was found so defective^ 
and in WMit of such extensive repairs^ as to cause her being put out of 
ttmitaamaon ; and in November following^ Capt. Sayer was appointed 
fo the Leda, a new frigate of 42 guns. In the following year^ the 
Leda conveyed some transports^ with troops on board, to Cadiz, and 
returned from thence with Vice-Admiral Purvis, who had been re- 
lieved in the command by Admiral Sir Charles Cotton. The Leda 
subsequently convoyed a fleet of Indiamen to Bengal, and joined Vice- 
Admiral W. O'Brien Drury, at Madras, in January 1811 ; from whence 
he was sent with some ships, having troops on board, to pave the way 
far the reduction of Java ; and the services rendered by Capt. Sayer at 
this place were of the utmost benefit. After its surrender, Capt. Sayer 
remained as senior officer of the ships employed there, and in June 
1812 the Gk>vemment of India forwarded to him their ^' particular 
acknowledgments" of the very high sense entertained of his services 
since the capture of the island. 

Rear- Admiral Sir Samuel Hood having arrived in India, in January 
1813, dispatched Capt. Sayer on an expedition to Borneo, and, in con- 
junction with some troops under the orders of Colonel James Watson, 
succeeded in subduing the whole province of Sambas. Sir Samuel 
Hood dying at Madras, December 24th, 1814, after a short illness, the 
command of the ships devolved on Capt. Sayer, and he hoisted his 
broad pendant as such on board the Leda. On the death of Sir 
Samuel Hood being known in England, Rear-Admiral Sir George 
Burlton was appointed to the command, and he arrived at Madras in 
June following, and dispatched the Leda to the straits of Sunda, and 
the China sea. On Capt. Sayer's return from the latter, he expe- 
rienced a very severe Ty-foong, in which the Leda received great 
damage and was nearly lost, by which event he did not enter the 
Straits of Malacca until the 19th of November 1815, when he received 
the intelligence of the death of Sir George Burlton at Madras 21st of 
September, when he again hoisted a broad pendant, and became a 
second time commodore on that station. 

In November 1816, Rear-Admiral Sir Richard King arrived at 
Madras as Commander-in-Chief, and Capt. Sayer relinquished the 
command and returned home in the Leda. For his services in India, 
Capt. Sayer was honoured with a gold medal, and was nominated a 
Companion of the Bath in 1815. At the promotion of flag-officers 
which took place 22nd of July 1830, on his present Majesty's acces- 
sion to the throne, Capt. Sayer was promoted to the rank of Rear- 
Admiral of the Blue. 

The extensive and arduous services Admiral Sayer had been 
employed on in the East and West Indies had made great inroads 
upon his health, and after an illness of a few weeks, he died in 
Craven-street, Strand, 29th of April 1831, aged 58 years. He was 
unmarried, and has left two brothers to lament his loss, as also an 
extensive circle of friends, to whom he had endeared himself by his 
amiable disposition. 



223 

LITHUANIA. 

FORMING THE CEKTRE OF THE REVOLUTIOKARr DISTRICTS. 

Samogitia, called by the natives Szamais, and in the PoHsh language 
Smuidsj is a duchy which has long formed part of Lithuania. It has been 
governed in common with that Grand Duchy, and has from time to time 
had its own Dukes. The countrv, although covered with forests, is remark- 
able for the fertility of its soil ; is rich in corn, flax, hemp, and honey ; 
affords game in abundance, and is noted for its fine breed of horses. Samo- 
gitia, which at present belongs to the Russian Government of Wilna, abounds 
in lakes and marshes, that render the communications extremely difficult. 
To the south is the Niemen, which separates it from Prussia, and into 
which fall the Wilia, the Neweja, the Dubira, and the Joura. The northern 
part of the country is watered by the Moucha and the Weta, or Wind«^ 
the first of which, under the name of Aa, falls into the Dwina near l^ft; 
whilst the latter runs into the sea, a little below Windau. 

Samogitia is inhabited by two distinct races of men; the fat of lofty 
stature, and descended from the Weudes, who in remote wget occupied the 
country ; the latter, diminutive, but hardy and robtiity^ffire the Lettonians. 
The fertility of the soil might suffice to render the iflluibitants rich, but for 
their inactivity, and their Slavish subjection W sncient prejudices ; many of 
the farmers, for instance, obstinately make nm of a plough entirely composed 
of wood, unde^ the idea that one furslidied with the smallest particle of 
iron is unlucky ; consequently it olten happens, that the total failure of 
their harvest compels them to siriNdst on radishes and turnips, which in this 
country grow to an enormous size. Their sowing season seldom commences 
till about three weeks after Whitsuntide, but the excessive heat of their 
summers usuaU^ ripen* the grain in six or seven weeks. 

In point of civilization, the inhabitants of Samogitia, are, perhaps, less 
advanced than any oth^r people of Europe. Though converted to Christian- 
ity in 1413, ihev still retain many of their ancient Pagan superstitions, be- 
lieving im^ieitly in sorcerers, demons, and spirits. The village curates ^e 
their otmes, and posi^ess incalculable influence over the lower classes of the 
poprface. 

When Samogitia was under the dominion of the Poles, the capital of the 
isdimtry was the little town of Rosienne, at present the capital of a district 
situate on the Dobisza, forty-three leagues north-west of Wilna. This 
town, which is now the residence of the Catholic bishops of Samogitia, is 
built of wood, and contains two churches and a college or Piarists. Keida- 
my, in the district of Rosienne, belongs to the Radziwill family, and is the 
capital of their immense possessions in Lithuania. It contains a Carmelite 
monastery, two Protestant churches, a Russian church, and a g3rmnasium. 

Telch or Telcha, and Chawle, formerly two inconsiderable towns, are 
at present raised to the importance of capitals of districts. The latter was 
once a commandery of the knights of the Teutonic order, and was after- 
wards governed by the Grand Dukes, of Lithuania. But Jourberg, or Geor- 
l^enbourg, in the Polish dialect Jurbok, must now be considered the most 
important town of Samogitia. It is a bustling commercial town belonging 
to the district of Rosienne, and built on the Niemen; it possesses a good 
harbour, and a custom-house established by the Russians. The remainder 
of the Russian Grovernment of Wilna is situate to the east and the south of 
Samogitia, extending to the south as far as the Niemen and the Meranganka. 
The soil, though marshy, is in general fertile, and is well adapted for the 
breeding of cattle, particularly sheep. The inhabitants devote themselves 
with much success to agriculture, and to the rearing of bees. Their com- 
merce is carried on with Prussia, Riga, and Libau. The population of the 
place is composed of Lithuanians, (who form the majority,) of Russians, 
roles, and Jews; also of 1300 Tartars who have forgotten their native 
dialect. The number of the inhabitants of the government of Wilna, Samo- 
gitia included, may be estimated at one million of souls. 
Wilna, the capital, id built upon a number of little eminences «X \IbA cncL« 



224 LITHUANIA. 

fluence of the Wilia and the Wilika. Its foundation is ascrihed to Gedi- 
min, Grand-Duke of Lithuania in 1305. Previously to its union with Rus- 
sia, it was the capital of the Graod^Duchy, and gave name to a Palalinat«. 
The ancient ducal chateau, which is now in a ruinous state, is remarkable 
for its arsenal, the hall of its former tribunal ; and opposite, the handsome 
church built in 1386. In the latter, treasure to a large amount is deposited : 
it also contains the marble chapel of St. Casimir, whose shrine of solm silver 
is said to weigh upwards of 3300 pounds. In the town, which is extensive, 
and to which l^ve oeen added two suburbs named Autokolla and Roudaiaszka 
there are several convents, and more than forty buildings devoted to public 
worship, including a Lutheran^ a Reformed, and a Greek church ; a Tartar 
mosque, and a Jewish s3magogue. The remaining churches are Polish. Wilna 
also contains some handsome souares, adorned with houses built of stone. 

The Catholic bishoprick of W ilna was founded in 1387. The university 
founded by Bishop Valerien Szuskovski in 1570, and confirmed by King 
Stephen, holds its sittings in the ancient college of Jesuits. The Emperor 
Alexander conferred a new organization on this establishment, of which 
Prince Adam Czartoryski, now President of the National Grovernment of 
Warsaw, was for many years the principal Director. Wilna also possesses 
a college of Piarists, a Greek school for speculative theology, a Catholic se- 
minary, a gymnasium, and fiveprinting establishments. It is celebrated as 
birth-place of the Polish bard CTasimir Sarbiewgki, whose poetry Hugo Gro- 
tius compared to that of Horace. The population of the town is estimated 
at 25,000 inhabitants ; the number of houses at upwards of 3000. 

Troki, founded in 1321 by Gedimin, is another town belonging to the 

S>vernment of WUna, and situate five leagues to the west, on alake named 
ressale, which communicates by means of a canal with the Wilia. In 1390^ 
it was consumed by fire, and having been rebuilt, was in 1655 destroyed by 
the Russians. It was formerly the residence of the Grand-Dukes of Lithu- 
ania, who subsequently removed their seat to Wilna. It is sometimes, for 
the sake of distinction, called New Troki, as at the distance of a short league 
is a village named Old Troki, in which may be seen a Benedictine abbey. 
In Troki there are two chateaux, one of which is built on an island of the 
lake Bressale. The town, all the houses of which are built of wood, is of con- 
siderable aze, and has three parishes ; in the largest is a miraculous image 
of the Virgin, to which a number of Pilgrims from all parts are accustomed to 
pay their devotions. In the district to which the town belongs, is a large glass 
manufactory, which supplies a considerable portion of Lithuania with bottles. 
Amongst the rivers of European Russia, one of the most useful is the 
Niemen, called in German, the Memel. This river, the greater part of 
whose course is through Lithuania, takes its rise south of the Russian govern- 
ment of Minsk, whence it enters the districts of Wilna and Grodus, and 
afterwards, pasdng the Russian frontier, enters Prussia, and flows through 
several channels into the gulph of the Baltic called Curisch-Haff. It greatly 
facilitates the trade of LiUiuania, and even of a part of Volhynia. By means 
of the canal of Oginsky, a communication is established between the Ukraine, 
Little Russia, the Black Sea, and the Baltic. This canal established be- 
tween the rivers Chara and Yatsolda, for the purpose of uniting the Dniper 
and the Niemen, was commenced by Count Oginsky, Mar^al of Lithuania, 
and called after his name : the undertaking was afterwards interrupted, but 
was resumed under the Russian Government in 1798, and terminatea in 1812. 
The utility of this channel of communication will be still further increased 
on the termination of another, which has recently been projected, and by 
which it has been proposed to unite the Niemen with the Dwina. More 
than six hundred barges annually descend the Niemen with the productions 
of Lithuania and Poland, and return laden with foreign merchandize. The 
navigation, however, is at times rendered dangerous by shoals, of which, 
during the reign of the last King of Poland, a fruitless attempt was made to 
clear the current of the river. Should a more favourable destiny await 
the hitherto ill-fated Poles, the undertakings recommenced under happier 
auspices!, may, it is hoped, he crowned with success. 



225 



FORMATION OF A NAVAL AND MILITARY MUSEUM. 

Whilst other professions have establishments in which their members 
may prosecute the studies which their particular objects require^ and find 
facilities for the acquisition of general knowledge and useful information, 
according to the actual state and progress of science, the improvements of 
art, and the changes or modifications which ^e continually taking place 
in the practice of all professions^ the Nav>l and Military Services, 
though affording peculiar facilities for the formation of such an establish- 
ment, and greatly susceptible of being benefited by it, have provided no in- 
stitution in which their members, when not actively employed, may im- 
prove, through their own exertions, the special, elementary education which 
they may have originally received, 

For want of such an Institution, the Officers of the Army and Navy have, 
in general, neglected to avail themselves of the opportunities which their 
services in every quarter of the world afford, for collecting and recording 
much valuable information ; whilst others who, with great ability, skill, and 
industry, have improved those opportunities, find no means of rendering 
their jresearches, their collections, and their studies accessible to the Ser- 
vices at large, and consequently useful, in the most appropriate manner, to 
the nation. 
To remedy this, it is proposed to establish, in London, a Naval and Mili- 
tary Museum, for the use and benefit of the United Service, to contain 
Models, Plans, and Memoirs connected with the Naval and Military Ser- 
vices, interesting Trophies, the Arms and Armour of all ages and countries, 
rumens of Natural History from all quarters of the Globe, and whatever 
may be instructive and curious, or in any way contribute to the im- 
provement of the mind, furnish it with matter tor rational pursuit in retire- 
ment, or augment professional resources when actively employed. 

It is also intended to collect a library of History, Science, Tactics, and 
especially of books of professional reference.* To this important branch of 
the Institution, there is no doubt that large donations will be made by the 
members, and that all works connected with Naval or Military matters 
will be cheerfully presented by their authors. 

It will be a subject for future consideration, whether Officers may not be 
invited to give Lectures on specific points of Naval and Military science, 
whereby much practical knowledge may be most beneficially preserved and 
communicated, and from which an identity of general views and principles 
may be happily diffused through both branches of His Majesty's Service. 

The great aim of this Institution will be, to foster the desire of useful 
information, and to facilitate its acquisition ; it is therefore proposed to 
admit Officers of all ranks belonging to the Army, Navy, and Marines, the 
Militia, regular and local, and Yeomanry, the East India Company's Land 
and Sea Forces, and the Civil Functionaries attached to these departments. 

Since such an Institution was first suggested, its completion has been 
warmly urged by intelligent members of every department of the United 
Service, whilst the means of carrying it into effect with the best prospect of 
fulfilling its objects, have been unceasingly kept in view. 

This important undertaking has received the gracious sanction of the 
Kin^, who has condescended to become its pAtRON. His Grace the Duke of 
Wellington has accepted the office of Vice-Patron, and the Institution 
already enrolls amongst its Presidents and Vice-Presidents many of the most 
distinguished names in both arms of the United Service. 

■ ■ ■ ■ I 

* Messrs. Colburn and Bentley have already offered copies of the Naval and 
Military Works of which they are the Publishers, to the intended Library. 

U. S. JouRK. No. 31. June 1831. a 



226 FORMATION OF A NAVAL AND MILITARY MUSEUM. 



PATRON. 

THE KING. 

vice-patrok. 
The Duke of Wellington. 

presidents. 



Right Hon. Sir James Graham, Bart. 
First Xiord of the Admiralty. 

Admiral Sir J. Saumarez, Bart. G.C.B. 
Vice Admiral of Great Britain. 

Admiral Sir Sidney Smith, K.C.B. Ge- 
neral of Marines 



General Lord Hill, G.C.B. and G.C.H. 
Commander of the Forces. 

Lieut. >Gen. Sir J. Kempt, G.C.B. and 
G.C.H. Master General of the Ord- 
nance. 

Marquisof Anglesey,K.G.K.S.P. G.C.B. 
and G.C.H. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



Gen. the Earl of Rosslyn, G.C.B. 

Gen. Lord W. Bentinck, G.C.B. and 

G.C.H. 
Gen. Hon. Sir Edward Paget, G.C.B. 
Gen. Lord Viscount Combermere, G.C.B. 

and G.C.H. 
Gen. Lord Viscount Beresford, G.C.B. 

and G.C.H. 
Gen. Hon. Sir A. Hope, G.C.B. M.P. 
Lieut..Gen. Sir Rufane Shaw Donkin, 

K.C.B. and G.C.H. 
Lieut.-Gen. Sir George Murray, G.C.B. 

and G.C.H. M.P. 



Lieut.- Cten. Sir 

G.C.H. 
Major-Gen. Sir 

K.C.B. M.P. 



Herbert Taylcnr, 
Heniry Hardinge, 



Admiral Hon. Sir R. Stopford, K.C.B. 
Vioe-Admiral Sir Thomas Byam Mar- 
tin, G.C.B. 
Vioe-Admiral Right Hon. Sir George 

Cockbum, G.C.B. 
Vice Admirkl Sir Henry W. Bayntun, 

K.C.B. 
Vice- Admiral Sir Edward Griffith Col- 

poys. K.C.B. 
Vice-Admiral Hon. Charles Elphinstone 

Fleming. 
Vioe-Admiral the Hon. Sir Henry Ho- 

tham, K.C.B. 
Vice-Admiral Sir £. Codrington, G.C.B. 
Vice-Admiral Sir Henry Blackwood, 

Bart. K.C.B. 
Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas Masterman 

Hardy, Bart. K.C.B. 

At a meeting of the Provisional Committee, held on the 2l8t of May^ 
Major-Gen. Sir Howard Doufflas, Bart, in the chair. It was resolved, that 
a General Meeting of those eligible to become members, at which it is ex- 
pected that an Officer of the highest rank will preside, do take place 
at the Thatched-House Tavern, St. James's Street, London, at two o'clock 
P.M. on the 25th of June, to adopt resolutions for the definitive establish- 
ment of the Institution, and to take into consideration the best mode of pro- 
viding a Building for the reception of several extensive collections wnfch 
have been already presented ; those by Capt. W.H.Smyth, and Commander 
Downes, and, through Colonel Freeth, that from the late Royal Staff Corps, 
containing upwards of one thousand specimens in various branches of natural 
history, are here particularly referred to. 

Under such auspices, and with such favourable prospects, the Provisional 
Committee fully rely that this call on the United Service will be anxiously 
responded to by each department, and by every individual officer. 

In considering the amount of subscription to this highly important object, 
the Provisional Committee propose that it should be at the lowest possi- 
ble rate, so that the smallness of the amount might render it a matter of 
trifling import to the very junior officers of the Service, while the number 
of Subscribers should produce a revenue equal to the wants of the establish- 
ment ; they therefore recommend that it shall be fixed at ten shillings an- 
nually for each member, or six sovereigns as a life subscription. 

It becomes highly desirable that in the interval before the General 
Meeting on Saturday the S5th of June, all officers, at least all such as may 
be withm the United Kingdom, should communicate to either of the Secre- 
taries, Commander Henry Downes, R. N. and Lieut. Hall, H. P. Royal Irish, 
4) Carlton Chambers, Regent-street, their intention of forwarding this design, 
and give general directions to their agents in London for the payment of the 
annual subscription, to Charles Downes, Esa. No. 8, Carlton Chambers, 
RegeDt^Btreet, the Provisional Treasurer. Other facilities will hereafter be 
propoged to render communications more complete. 



The following Table presents an exact view of the Distribution of 
the unattached Medical Officers of the Amw employed. at present at Home, 
whilst in the obsebtations which aucceed, the Duties these officers have 
to perform at their respective stations are indicated and occasionally com- 
mented upon. 

In the column of stations in the Table will be found the name «f evety 
place in these kingdoms at which a Military Medical Officer is placed, and 
^n the Hucceedinf^ columns the title of every Rank now recognized in tiie 
Medical Department of tbe Army.* 

The reader may thus embrace at one view the whole of our domestic etita- 
.hlishments as above referred to, and compare together without trouble tbe 
staff at different stations both with respect to rnnk and uumbers. 

As the Officers are thus arranged in a double order, by rank and station, 
so are the Obsarvationa also; one following another in such a manner that 
easy reference may be made from tbe table to the observations, or 'the 

With these ezi'lanatory remarks no difficulty can he found in tradi^ 
the connection which exists between the different parts of this commu- 
nication, and therefore we shall add nothing further in the way of in- 
troduction. 

(ADE UP TO *pr;l 18S1. 



* AmoDgsC these tbe titln of Dirtctor Gtnerol, Fr'mctpal Intpector General^ 
PAgtiman General, and Surgeon General will not be meC with, sa belonging rather 
to individuals (under special appoinunents ) than to the Department. The indivi- 
duals at presenC distinguisbed by those titles are however included under [he class 
of Inspector General, the higheaC Rank admitted by His Majtnty's Warrant of tbe 
W^ July 1830. 

t This Table has cost us aome trouble, tbe information contained in the Army 

lita with reapect to the Medical Department being ao arranged, as Co render it 

rather difficult to auertain the exact nnmber employed, Ac We ihall point oat 

hereafter a mode of correcting this deficiency. 

tt 2 



228 DISTRIBUTION AND DUTIES OF THE UNATTACHED 



OBSERVATIONS. 
LONDON — HEAD-QUARTERS. 



Inspector General, — This being the highest rank now recognized in the 
Medical Department of the army^ we have included under it^ as already 
intimated, the Director-General Sir James M'Grigor, and the Principal 
Inspector-General Sir William Franklin, who hold their respective offices 

^ special appointment, 
y ith respect to the duties of these officers it will be sufficient to observe 
that they embrace every thing connected with the superintendance and 
patronage of the Department,^ and that in the discharge of these duties the 
parties sometimes appear to act independently of each other, and sometimes 
in conjunction as a Board. Whether acting separately or in conjunction 
however, every thing seems in reality to be regulated by the Director-Ge- 
neral, as indeed it ought to be ; nor have we ever been able to discover that 
the Principal-Inspector has any duties to perform, which an officer of infe- 
rior rank might not discharge with equal propriety and advantage. We 
might perhaps go farther and say, with greater propriety to himself, and 
greater advantage to the service; for the Principal-Inspector-General ap- 
proaches so nearly in rank to the Director-General that he can scarcely be 
called upon to discharge any subordinate duties, and must therefore be in a 

great measure unemployed, or voluntarily engaged in a manner not quite 
efittinff his rank and station. 
For these reasons it has sometimes occurred to us that it might perhaps be 
worth while ob the part of those in authority to inquire, whether the busi- 
ness of the office in Berkeley Street might not be conducted in a more 
efficient manner if the services of a Staff-Surgeon were substituted for those 
of a Principal-Inspector-General there. A more due degree of subordina- 
tion would thus be obtained amongst the members of the Board, to each of 
whom distinct and peculiar duties might be allotted, whilst the whole re- 

rnsibilitjT of regulating and conducting the business of the office would be 
own as it ought to be on the Head of the Department. Nor should it be 
forgotten in these times of economy and retrenchment that a considerable 
pecuniary saving might thus be effected for the public, an object always de- 
sirable wuen as in the present instance it can be attained without injury to 
the service. Thus the highest pay a Staff-Surgeon can claim will not with 
his allowances amount to more than about 500/. per annum, whilst a Prin- 
cipal-Inspector-General receives by special appointment an annual salary of 
1200/. And if at some future period an officer with the rank and pay of 
Inspector-General be placed at the head of the Medical Department of the 
Army, a still greater saving may thus be effected for the public, without im- 
pairing in any degree the efficiency or the respectability of the office.f 



* Superintendence and Patronage. — Between these two classes of duties no 
necessary connexion exists, except in the very highest department of the service. 
Any such connexion therefore in any other quarter must be defended if questioned 
on the grounds of expediency alone. Now we much doubt whether in the Medical 
Department such a defence could be successfully maintained under existing cir- 
cumstances. 

t The present Board (Medical Officers) costs the country about 3800/. per Ann. 
thus,— Director-General, salary, £2000. 

Principal-Inspector, do. 1200. 

Assistant-Inspector, pay, &c. «ay, 600. 
A Board constituted as here proposed* would not cost at the utmost more than 
£2100 per Ann. thus,— 

Inspector-General, pay, &c. say, £1200. 

Assistant-Inspector, do. 600. 

Staff-Surgeon, do. 500. 



MBDIGAL STAFF OF THE ARMY AT HOME. 229 

Before quitting this topic we cannot help adverting to another medi- 
cal appointment^ which though not strictly within our present limits is 
yet too closely connected with the object we have in view to escape notice 
altogether ; we mean that of Director-General of the Ordnance Medical 
Department. It cannot however be necessary for us to enter into any 
details upon this subject here, it having been already announced in the most 

Sublic and authentic manner that the whole department, as a distinct esta- 
lishment^ is to be broken up and its members incorporated with the 
general Medical-Staff of the Army, on the Jirst convenient opportunity,* 
Opportunities of this kind however seldom come unsought for, and are never 
long absent when anxiously desired. 

Assistant-Inspector, 1. — This officer is called Professional- Assistant to the 
Board, of which he thus in a manner constitutes a part; of his duties it is 
not necessary to say anything further at present. 

SUiff-Surgeon, 1 ; Assistant-Surgeon, 1. — These officers constitute pro- 
perly speaking the London Medical-Staff, for all the others located there 
belong to the army in general, rather than to the particular district in 
which they are placed. As London is a great. Recruiting station, the seat 
of a General Hospital,f and the resort of sick officers and soldiers from 
all parts of the world, it ma^ be easily imagined that the services of these 
two officers cannot well be dispensed with. We are indeed strongly inclined 
to believe the number ought rather to be augmented, and that a second As- 
sistant-Surgeon might with great propriety and advantage be added to the 
Staff of London. 

Purveyor, — There is no officer of this rank now employed in Great Bri- 
tain, nor indeed on any station either at home or abroad. Nor is there in 
London even a Deputy-Purveyor, although we have here a small General 
Hospital already referred to, and although an officer of that rank is supposed 
to be necessary at Chatham, and at Dublin, and at Cork, llie truth is. 
Purveyors and Deputy-Purveyors are not Medical Officers, and never should 
have been so classed ; but are to all intents and purposes Commissaries, as 
every one acquainted with their respective duties must be perfectly aware.J 
With the Commissaries therefore they ^ould be incorporated, and an officer 
from that Department of suitable rank might then be attached to each Gene- 
ral Hospital or medical station where such aid was deemed necessary. 

Apothecary, l.§ — This officer belongs, properly speaking, to the Medical 
Board, and should be so considered and enumerated, his duty being to retain 
in charge and issue under orders from the Director-General, the medicines 
and medical stores collected in London for the use of the army at large. 

As the rank and title of Apothecary was abolished in the army by the 
Warrant of the 29th of July last, it is time we should think to discard the 
term altogether, and introduce that by which those officers are hereafter to 
be distinguished. Let them then at once be assimilated and identified with 
the Surgeons or Assistant-Surgeons of the army according to their claims 
and services, for to one or other of these two classes must the duties hitherto 
discharged by the Apothecary be ultimately transferred. 

, I I - - ■■ ■ ■ IIIMI -I -■ ■ . ■ — .,■ ,, ._^^ ^ 

♦ Vide Speech of Sir H. Hardinge, then Secretary-at-War, in debate on Ord- 
nance Estimates, Feb. 1829. The whole of the Ordnance Medical-Staff on full- 
pay at present amount only to thirty-eight, and of these, if incorporated, some pro- 
bably might be spared. 

t The York Hospital at Chelsea. • 

X The Purveyor has charge of and is responsible for the care, management and 
issue of all provisions and stores, medicines excepted, belonging to the Hospital ; 
and for the due supply of the same by contract, purchase, 'or requisition.-^In- 
structions for General Hospitals, p. 79. — Horse-Guards, June 1824. 

g Apothecary. — This being the title of a class and still continued in the Army 
Lists, we have been obliged to admit it into the Table, though it must now be 
considered as obsolete, and deservedly so. 



230 DlSTKl'IIUTlON AND DUTIES 09 TH« VfKiAVIPJiCHED 

CBATHAM, 

AsHHant-Inspector, 1. — Chatham ma^^ with great propriety Be con^derecf 
aa the Head-Quarters of the Medical-Staff of Eii^nd, the number of ofS- 
oers there being* always greater than at any other station, and the establish- 
ment itself more complete and more extensive than any other of the kind in' 
these kingdoms^* Under these circumstances one' would expect to find at 
title head of this establishment an officer of higher rank than an Assistant- 
kispector. And no doubt such would have been the case if the appoint- 
ment and distribution of Medical Staff-Officers were regulated in our service 
by any fixed or general principles. For Diiblin and Cork has each at this 
moment a Deputy-Insueetor-General, to execute or tu superintend the ex- 
ecution of duties much less- onerous and much less important, than thiofse 
confided at Chatiiam to an Assistant-Inspector. But sometimes, as it would 
appear, men are selected for stations^ whilst at others stations are selected 
for men. 

Staff SurgeiojiSy ^••--One of tfiese* officers has^ generally charge of the 
Lunatic A'sylam; the- other of die sui^cal oases m the General fTospitall 
Two are necessary and' perhaps sufficient fbr the duties of the plkce; but the 
number ought not to be too sttictly limited, as one or two supernumeraries 
of Uiis rank might occasionally be emplbyed at Chatham with much advan- 
tage to themselves and to the service. 

Assistant Surgeons, 10. — One half at' least of these gentlenren' may be 
oonsideiied as supernumeraries,! that is, persons whose presence is not abso- 
lutely necessary here for the purposes of duty, but who are retained at the 
place either as a' reserve to meet contingencies or for the purposes of instruc- 
tions, &c. It would indeed be very 'desirable that every Medical Officer on his 
first appoititment to Hie service should be permitted or rather obliged to pass' 
a few m6nths> at Chatham, for the purpose of receiving instruction and' 
acquiring information with respect to 'tliose duties of which, as peculiar; to 
the amiy, no knowledge can be obtained' in the' schools and coUbges of civil' 
life. We may even' add that this< object is one of the most important 
which' an establishment like that at Chatham might be rendered subservient 
to, and that- too widiout inteifering- in' any manner with the treatment of 
the sick> or throwing upon* the public any additional expense whatsoever; 
Nor should this routine of duty be confined to officers on their first appoint^ 
ment, for allMtedicalOffieem should at one time or other be permitted to 
make themselves acquainted, as favoumble opportunities ofier, with the 
mode of conducting- the business of a Greneral Hospital; which differs in so 
many respects from that which' necessity compels- us to observe in Regiment 
£stablishnientSi - 

Apothecafiy— Deputy Purveyor,-- We have nothing to add to th e obsen'a- 
tions already made* with respect to those officers under the head of Londbn. 

BRISTOL, COVENTRY, EDINBURGH, GLASGOW, LEEDS^ AND LIVEBPOOL. 

These are all Recruiting depdts, to each of which under the present system 
a Staff Surgeon is necessarily attached^ fbr the purposes of inspection and- 
attendahce on the recruits and parties, &c.:J: 

Of these stations it is not now necessary to say any thing particular with 

the exception of Liveq>ool, of which we may mention that the duties of the 

- - - — — • ——' - - — - 

* In fact the Hospital at Chatham may be considered as the only specimen of a 
General Hospital in these kingdoms, and as such should be supported, were it 
only for the purposes alluded to in the text. 

-f* Some officers of this rank must^ c^ways be retained on full-pay a^ supernu- 
meraries, were it only to take charge of transports' proceeding with troops to foreign 
stations^ But the number should be limited^ and die duty at Chatham be taken in 
rotation throughuhe whole dass. 

j: There are four other Recruiting' DepOts in these kingdoms besides those above 
mentioned, with each a Staff-Sui^eon' attached; viz. Vtondon, Oublluj Cork and' 



MEDICAL STAFF OP THB ARMY AT HOME. 231 

Surfii^eon there are much more heavy than at any of the others ; so much so 
indeed as to render in our opinion the presence of an Assistant Surgeon very 
desirable. For Liverpool, be it remembered, is not only a Recruiting depot 
for the King's army and for the £ast India Company's service also, but it is 
moreover the great place of transit for recruits and deserters and troops of 
all kinds to and from Ireland ; so that it is never perhaps without some sick 
soldiers, and these often of the worst and most intractable description. 

MAIDSTONE. 

This is the Cavalry Dep6t, on the staff of which a Veterinary Surgeon is 
also borne in addition to the Assistant Surgeon noticed in the Table. 

PORTSMOUTH. 

Whenever troops are about to embark on board of transports or other 
vessels in any port of the United Kingdom, the General or other officer 
commanding at such port is directed to cause the senior officer of the Me- 
dical Staff at or near the station, to repair on board each vessel, and make 
a most minute and particular inspection of the same, and report thereon 
to him previously to the embarkation of the troops. And similar visits^ 
inspections, and reports are directed to be made whenever troops arrive in 
any port of these kingdoms for the purpose of disembarkation. 

General Regulations ^ &c. 1822, pp. 309. 

The preceding paragraph explains sufficiently the nature of the duties 
which the Staff Surgeon stationed at this place has to perform. After per- 
using it the professional reader^ military or medical, will probably feel 
inclined to ask, by whom are those duties performed at Plymouth, where 
troops so frequently embark and disembark, but where, as may be seen 
by the Table, no Staff Medical Officer of any kind is at present stationed ? 
To make amends for this, however, more than a double portion, both as to 
rank and numbers, is assigned to Cork, another station of the same kind.* 

SANDHUBST — B.0YAL MILITARY COLLEGE. 

The establishment at this station consists of a Surgeon and Assistant-Sur- 
geon ; and less we presume would not be sufficient for the duties of the 
place^ as an attempt made in 1829 to do away with the latter appointment, 
was abandoned as being, no doubt, found inexpedient. 

As the Royal Military College is thus supplied with Medical officers from 
the regular Staff of the Army, we should like to know why the other Mili- 
tary Establishments of the empire are not placed upon the same footing with 
respect to medical aid. We allude here to Chelsea Hospital^ to the Mili- 
tary Asylums at Chelsea and at Southampton, and to the Military School in 
Dublin; the medical officers of which all seem to hold their respective 
appointments rather as civilians than as military menf^that is, these ap- 
pointments seem to be considered by all parties as permanent ones, and the 
services of the individuals holding them do not seem to be available for any 
other duties.;]: 

* We have not thought it necessary to indude in the Table the sinecure ap- 
pointments of Physician and Sturgeon tO the Garrison of Portsmouth ; the former 
of which, with a salary of 9^. Gd, per day, has been held for the last twenty years, 
(since June 1811,) by the present Director-General, Sir Jsmes M*'Grigor. 

i- These officers are, at Chelsea Hospital, a Physician^ Surgeon, and Assistant- 
Surgeon; at the Military As^um, Chelsea j a SUrgeon and Assistant- Surgeon ; at 
the Military Asylum, Southampton, an Assistant-Surgeon ; and at the Military 
Schofi^ Dublin, a Surgeon. 

X The Medical Officers of our domestic Military Establishments should either 
be permanently attached to those institutions, in which case they can have no claim 
to increase of pay or to promotion in the anny ; or they should be drawn in rota- 
tion from the unattached Staff Of the ariUy, and appointed to those institutions for 



232 DISTRIBUTION AND DUTIES OP TUB UNATTACHBD 

Now if these things he so^ the sooner they are corrected the hetier, for 
such anomalous distinctions are not only unjust in themselves but decidedly 
injurious to the public service— and the same may be said with tmth of 
other medical appointments both at home and abroad^ which though held 
by men under commissions purely military, are yet held hj them for a long 
succession of years, to the exclusion of others equally entitled to share in 
their advantages. 

IRELAKD — DUBLIK. 

InspectorS'General, or Officers of the highest ranky* 3. 

D^mty^lnspector^Generai, 1. — Ireland has been emphatically called the 
land of jobs^ and the Military Medical department, as we shall presently 
see, furnishes no exception to the general rule. For what but a system 
of jobbing could maintain in Dublin at this moment a medical establish- 
ment consisting of a Director-General, a Physician-General, a Surgeon- 
General, and a Deputy-Inspector-General ; and all these appointments 
moreover (the first always exceptedf) held by men whose tmie is and 
always has been devoted to private practice, and who have in reality no 
military duties of any kind to perform. - It is true there is a General hos- 
pital in Dublin whidh these dignitaries occasionally condescend to visit ;t 
and now and then perhaps one or other is called upon to go through the 
ceremony of presiding at a Medical Board on some sick officer or sol- 
dier; or invited to meet some Regimental Surseon of the Garrison in 
consultation on some doubtfiil or daneerous case of disease — but beyond this 
we assert these gentlemen have nouung to do with the Army, and if they 
had, their time is too much occupied with other matters to admit of their 
attending to it. Let the whole uien be swept away, and let the Medical 
officers of the Army be no longer insulted by seeing men without claims and 
without duties exalted over their heads, and endowed vrith the possession 
of rank and emoluments, for which those who have grown old in the ser- 
vice might vainly aspire.§ 

Nor must the hand of reform be checked until all traces of a distinct and 
independent establishment are entirely done away with ; and an efficient, 
uniform, and responsible system of medical government introduced, instead 
of the anomalous and unsatisfactory system which now prevails. Instead 
of a provincial Director-General then with undefined and in some respects 
unlimited authority, let us have an Inspector-General, or even a Deputy- 
Inspector-General, drawn from the ranks of the Army, and in all respects 
subordinate to the head of the Department in London. And instead of 
the Physician-General, the Surgeon-General, and the Deputy-Inspector- 
Generai, who have hitherto done so little for the public and for whom the 
public has already done so much, let us have one or two Staff Surgeons, to 
take charge of the Royal Hospital and attend upon the unattached Staff of 
the Garrison who may require their aid. 

Staff*' Surgeon, 1. — ^This officer is attached to the Recruiting Depot at this 
station, for the purposes already noticed under the head of Bristol. 

limited periods, as officers now are, or ought to be, to other stations. Between 
these two there is no middle course, for no man belonging to one class can have 
any just daim to participate in advantages peculiar to the other. 

* Viz. Director- General, Physician-General, and Surgeon-General.— Fuiff In- 
troductory Remarks, and Observations under the head of London. 

t Viz. the Director- General Doctor Renny ; who has long been at the head 
of the Medical Department of Ireland, and whose zeal, ability and integrity as a 
public officer have never been impeached or suspected. 

X General Hospital, viz. the Royal Military Hospital in the Phoenix- Park. 

§ The Physician-General and Surgeon- General hold their offices by patents, the 
first of which was issued so early as 1660, and the last so late as 1820 ! ! ! The pay 
of each, originally ten shillings per day, is now about twenty ; that is, about what a 
regimental Surgeon receives after twenty years of actual service. 



MEDICAL STAFF OF THE ARMY AT HOME. 233 

Assistant-Surgeon, Deputy Purveyor, and Apothecary, 1. — These gentle- 
men are all employed at the Royal Hospital^ where they no doubt enjoy very 
comfortable berths. • It is time however the advantages they enjoy should 
be extended to others, and that they in turn should be permitted to see a 
little of the world elsewhere. 

With respect to the offices of Purveyor and Apothecary we have nothing 
to add to the observations already made on these points under the head of 
London. 

CO&K. 

Deputy-Inspector-GeneraL — We have here another Medical officer, in« 
vested with high rank, in the receipt of full-pay, and at the same time 
quietly and permanently settled in private lire as a resident inhabitant. 
Surely such examples as these sdiould be sufficient to attract the attention 
of those in authority, and bring forth a peremptory order, for nothing else 
will do, that no medical appointment on the Staff shall be held by any one 
individual longer than for a given period, and that all officers on fim-pay 
shall pass in rotation from one station to another, and each in turn be 
employed abroad as well as at home, ' 

With respect to the medical duties to be discharged at Cork, we may con- 
fidently say there are none which require the presence of a Deputy-Inspec- 
tor-General — a Staff-Surgeon being employed at Portsmouth tor the very 
same purpose, namely the inspection of Troops and Transports on their 
arrival and departure, &c It is true there is a subordinate Staff at Cork 
which Portsmouth has not, and an officer of superior rank, it may be all^;ed^ 
is required there in, consequence. But we doubt much the necessity of 
maintaining any such establishment as that here alluded to, and deny alto- 
gether that a Deputy-Inspector should be at the head of it, under existing 
circumstances, if it be maintained. — Vide Chatham and Portsmouth. 

Staff'-' Surgeon, — This officer is attached to the Recruiting Depot at this 
station, for the purposes already noticed under the head of Bristol. 

Assistant-Surgeons, 4 ; Deputy-Purveyor, 1 ; Apothecary, 1. — ^We have 
already expressed our doubts as to the necessitv of retaining all these gentle- 
men at Cork, there being no General Hospital there, nor any duties uiat we 
are aware of for them to discharge, except perhaps when troops are about 
to embark or sail thence for some foreign station. If this be true, Dublin 
perhaps would be a better place for the residence of any supernumerary 
Assistant Surgeons it may be deemed necessary to retain in Ireland, as their 
leisure hours might there be more usefully employed, and their services 
rendered more available for general purposes. With respect to the Pur- 
vejror and Apothecary we must refer to what has been already said on these 
pomts under the head of London ; but may add that two such officers cannot 
well under any existing circumstances be deemed necessary at this station. 

NEWEY. 

This is our last station, a Recruiting Depot with its Surgeon, and as usual 
in Ireland with the same Surgeon for a long period of time — Is not this too 
bad? 

We must here bring to a conclusion for the present the observations we 
have to offer on our Medical Establishments. The subject however is by no 
means exhausted, nor have we, any intention of abandoning it in its present 
state. On the contrary much still remains to be investiga^d and made 
known with respect to the Home Department, whilst the Foreign is as yet 
altogether untouched. To this last then we shall next direct the reader's 
attention, .as the present communication would be in a manner imperfect if 
not accompanied, or followed, by a similar view of our foreign Medical 
Establishments. 

London, May 1831. M. M. 



284 



REVIEtrS AND CRITICAL NOTICES. 

OV A KCW ASHAKEVT FOS SHIPS OP WAM^AVD MASEBIire 

The science of Naval architecture is a study of paramount importance 
to the British nation ; nor is the most suitable and effective equipment of 
our ships a question less important than their perfect construction. Upon 
these grounds, and especially at the present moment, the opinions of scien- 
tific men, deduced from experiment and applicable to practice, are entitled 
to impartial consideration. 

Two Pamphlets* oo the structure and annament of our ships of war, hare 
been recently put forward by Mr. S. Read, of Chatham Dodc-jrard, avow- 
edly irith the double view of suggesting a more efficient artillery for frigates 
and ships of the line, and of showing cause against the system of razeeing ; 
the autnor proposing to obviate the latter by a modification of the former: 
Thiff he would efiect by diminishing tlie number of the guns, and- increasing 
their range and weight of metal. 

in the course of the American war, the lamentable effects of arming our 
^ps witSi carronades and guns of small calibre were apparent ; the enemy, 
by the superiority of their sailing, chose their own distance, and kept out of 
reach of our 3S-pounder caironades until they had completely disabled our 
riiips with their long 94^pounders, and then taking a position on the quar- 
ter, had' an ensy conquest ; what must have been the mortification of our 
brave; but unfortunate seamen, to find they had been reduced to a perfect 
wreck, scarcely returning a diot, ^ile their enemy remained in every 
Inspect uninjured^ Sir James Yeo, in his letter to the Secretary of the Ad- 
miraty, dated 12th Sept. 1813, when on Lake Ontario, states that, 

^<*The enemyV fleet, conmsting of eleven sail) having a partial wind, succeeded 
in getting witlun range of their long 24 and 32'pounder»y and having obtained the 
wind of Uf , I found it impotsible to bring them to close action. We remained in this 
mortifying dtnaUanfive hourr^ having only six guns in theJUet that wauid reach the 
enemy. Not a carromade was fired. At sunset, a breeze sprung up from the west- 
ward, when' I manoeuvred to oblige the enemy to meet us on equal terms. This, 
however, he carefully avoided." 

In thib gallant officer's dispatch of the 15th of November following, he 
also mentioiis in strdng terms ^' the deficiency of long guns in the Lake £rie 
squadron.'* 

Tupinier, in his memoir on the French Navy, frequently refierred to by 
the Author, affordsr a clue to the rage for razSeing ; but his views would ap- 
pear to have been misinterpreted by our Naval Administration ; far from 
advocating the system, he pointedly condemns it ; and after having obti«ined 
the " Guerriere K& a base for a construction de novo, proceeds in the follow- 
ing terms : " Renouncing henceforward the construction of 74-gun ships of 
the line; the best use to- make of those which we possess ^ready, whether 
afiodt or on the stocks, will be to arm such as are in good condition, &c. ;" 
and then details a new armament for them, recommending *' to convert into 
36<^pounder frigate^ like the Guerriere, such as stand in need of a thorough 
repair;-' well knowing that the 74-gun dbips, with their present armament, 
Would be overmatched by the 84 and 92-gun ships of the present day, and 
that^it would' be advisable to let them be worn out in the service ; and not 

• ■ I — - — ______ 

*" Memoir on a iCeW AnUsonent for the 42'and'46.^n Frigates. By S. Reaid, 
one of the Foremen of Chatham Dock-yard, and foilnerly of the School of Navd 
Aidiitecture^ 

Observations illustrative of a Memoir on a New Armament for the 42 and- 4^ 
gun Frigates ; also strane Remarks on furnishing these, arid other Ships, with a 
proportion of Bomb Cannon, in the sliaiie of 68-pounder Carronades. By S. Read. 



RSVrBWS AND GRITICAL NOTICES^ 23a 

after the French system, to repair them as frigates. For Tupinier evidently 
acknowledges such a make-shift to be much inferior to frigates expressly 
constructed. In comparing French seventy-fours with English of the same 
dimensions, we should not lose sight of the inestimable advantage the former 
possess in having their hulls* 380 tons %^^er. 

Our Author, after detailing a new armament for our seventy-fours^ goes 
on to say^ 

<' But although according to the scale of building now adopted by our rivals, it 
would be the height of absurdity to perpetuate them as a numeroiis class of ships ; 
yet, they may be still worn out as effective ships of the line. The ships of the 
British Navy should be remodelled, but Hot after the designs of foreigners ; they 
should, on the contrary, take the lead in construction and equipment by a bold and 
scientific mode of proceeding founded on facts : never building more than one ship 
from a new design, before it has been ascertained how far the qualities of that ship 
have been found to answer the written estimates and expectations of its constructor, 
who should likewise be required to state his riBa^wis for the same." 

The Author here informs us in a note, that he is nrepared to put into the 
field of liberal and open competition a construction araft for a corvette, car- 
rying long 32-pounders. 

'( The most exact account of such an experiment should be registered ; for if we 
do not know upon what grounds our /ufur« proceedings ought to be founded, how 
can we expect to regulate their elBTects any more than the effects of our previous 
actions ? Without datay Navid • Gonstruction, as well as every other department of 
science, notwithstanding general principles may be known, must be attended in its 
operations with an uncertainty as to the results of our proceedings highly to be 
deprecated. It is not in this way that a steady^ or indeed, any progress can ever 
be reasonably expected to take place. It' is not in this way that the illustrious 
Newton and his followers have gradually unfolded the mechanical laws of the uni- ' 
verse. They have not achieved this splendid victory of mathematical science by the 
indulgence of baseless imaginations, but by the severe and patient study of /acto, 
and by a constant reference to the motions and magnitudes of the heavenly bodies. 
In like manner, the true knowledge of the properties of ships can only be acquired 
by patiently collecting facts ; bringing these facts under the dominion of mathe- 
matical analysis ; and constantly referring' the deductions made therefrom to the 
actual performance of these vast machines-at sea.-' 

Whilst we see our great rivals, the French, conoentratiDg the e!fforts of 
their naval engineers For the improvement of their marine, (among whom 
may be mentioned Barons Lain^, Dupin, Holland, Pestel, Forfait, Tupinier, 
&c.) we have left ours to the sole direction of one man. With the data, 
however, furnished by Tupinier, there is less chaace of failurei unless he get 
entangled in some fanciful theory, such as fish-like and duck-like forms for 
the bottoms of ships, fancies so fully exposed by Knowles.t 

Our author goes on at some length to confute an objection' that has been 
raised against his measure, that by the mixture of metal of the same calibre, 
but of different denominations, a mistake might arise in the* cartridges; that 
one intended for a gun might be put into «• carronade and vice-versa ; but 
supposing such might be the case, thecarronlide has been repeatedly tried 
with a' much larger quantity of powder, and is^ well able to bear the charge. 
A mixture of carronades and long guns^has constantly, existed in our service. 

The comparative calculations oH his proposed armament are^ shown ito the' 
following table. 

- - *■ — ^ '■ — - — — --^- — ^ — •— . - ^ 

* Brand's Quarterly Journal of Science, No. 12^ last series. 
t See that Gentleman's Lectures on Naval' Architecture, delivered at the- Royal: 
Institution, May 1828, and published in Morgan and Creuze*8 Naval Papers; 



RBVIBW8 AND CBITICAL NOTICBS. 



i i 

r r 






1=1 ■ 

In: 



J^" 



REVIEWS AND CRITICAL NOTICES. 237 

The Memoir proceeds — 

'' As the expense of trying the author*s principle must be very inconsiderable, 
compared with that of cutting down a frigate to a corvette, there can be no pos- 
sible objection to prove, by an experiment, the truth of a proposition which, upon 
every rational view, will give one hundred 32-pounder frigates to the British navy, 
perfectly unconquerable by any 32-pounder corvette, at distant fighting ; and pos- 
sessing, in close action, half as mudi force again in ordnance ; besides having in all 
circumstances the inestimable advantage of the main-deck guns^ amongst which are 
eight or nine long S2'pounders of a side, being secure from falling masts and yardsy 
&c. These frigates* hulls cannot have cost the nation less than two and a half mil- 
lions of money y or about 25,000/. apiece; and therefore, supposing that the ex- 
pense of cutting down be only 500Z., we have to add this to the original cost ; hence 
every corvette obtained in tliis way will have cost the nation 25,500/.^ whilst one 
of the same force might be built from an original construction for about 19,000/., 
taking the quantity of materials that would be required as a standard of compa- 
rison. Thus an expensive corvette has been obtained (putting aside all considera- 
tion as to its sailing qualities), and a frigate lost to the navy, although capable of 
bearing from twenty-two to twenty-four long 32-pounder guns, and also from ten to 
twelve carronades of the same calibre." 

Thus, it would appear, we have obtained a corvette at a waste ofSdOOL every 
way inferior to an original construction. We have already diminished our 
line-of-battle by ten smps of seventy-four guns, and replaced them with ten 
frigates, incapable of outsailing those of the enemy ; and are we as rapidly, 
and with the same result, to diminish our frigates, by converting them into 
corvettes? 

Force is neutralised without velocity, as humiliating experience proved in 
the case^ of the Majestic, raxied 74, in the chase and capture of the Ame- 
rican frigate President in 1815. 

" No fairer field of trial can be imagined"— says our author, *' four British 
ships in chase of an enemy, whose sailing was such as to render the utmost exer- 
tion necessary in each pursuing vessel, the American ship having the start by about 
five miles. The Majestic was at the outset the nearest ship, but was soon dis- 
tanced, and was obliged to give up the pursuit to the Endymion, &fac simile of the 
French Pomone 24-pounder frigate. The American frigate, alUiough out of trim 
at the time, and overloaded with stores, was brought to action by the Endymion 
with difficulty, and would most probably have ultimately escaped, had not the two 
other frigates of the British squadron' come into action at the critical moment. As 
for the raxcCy not one shot from her ever reached the President, or had the remotest 
chance of doing so, throu^out the whole affair, which lasted from 5 a.m. to mid- 
night.* Lastly, the velocity of the razeed Barham, is but very trivial in excess 
over the same ship in its original state as a seventy -four; and compared with the 
Blenheim, a seventy-four built from the same draft, about equal in point of sailing. 
Now, if the 32-pounder frigate, obtaineH by razieing, cannot outsail the 24 or 
32-pounder frigates of original design, — and in the chase of the American Pre- 
sident, we have ample proof that it cannot, — to what purpose have we diminished 
the line-of-battle by a ship of seventy-four guns, and gone to the additional ex- 
pense of converting it ?" 

To what purpose indeed! we have obtained an expensive ship, of less 
force, and not superior in velocity. 

Admiral Duperr^ after his sojourn in the Chesapeake in 1819, says, — 

'^ The Americans calculate by the adoption of their system of building, on com- 
pelling the European navies to do away with their present ships of the line (at least 
those of seventy-four and eighty-four guns), and to construct new ones. In this 
case they will have the advantage of priority." 

Similar reflections are also found in Dupin's work on Great Britain. 
The French and other nations will not belieye that we are perpetuating 

* See James* Naval History and Naval Occurrences. 



SSB JMVI^W^ AISD CRITICAL NOTlCfiS. 

the dass of 46-gun frigates in our navy^ whilst ^ur eaemies are 4)mldin^ 
none but 60-^n frigates ; they tell ns^ we only call them so in our Njivy 
List, as a blind: verily they give us credit for more sagatdty tium w.e 
4eserve. 

*' That the French will oomUruet corvettes carrying sudi a high calibre as their 
•30-poiinder, is clear from M. Tupinier's opinions. He does not, in the remotest 
way, hint at <uch a step as cuUmg the French 18-pounder frigates even into 
^-pounder corvettes, although they are comparatively few; but endeaveocs to 
#ave them to the French marine, by giving them a more powerful armament. The 
46 .gun frigates of the British navy axe bmlt alter the lines of these French vessel. 
Those known as the *■ Hebi class' are ccmstructed by Baron L'Ain^. Those knaakt 
after the ^ PretidetUe^^ such as the Seringapatam, Africaine, &c. are doe eilher^o 
lif . Rolland, or M. Pestel, two other eminent French constructors. Tupinier pro- 
nounces them all to be very fine ships, and well adapted to fill up the interval b«^ 
iween his d6-pounder frigate of 184 feet long, and the 24* pounder corvettes itf .the 
French navy.'* 

This beinff the case, what vessels shall we have in our service able to com^ 
pete with tnem? our razeed corvettes being inferior In velocity, will not 
oe able to overtake them, and if indeed they should, unless the guns be 
mouDted on Marshall's carriages they will only be able to carry 24-pounders^ 
consequently will be not of sufficient force. Would it not, therefore, be ad- 
visab^ to construct 32-pounder frigates carrying sixty guns, and S2-pounder 
corvettes carrying twenty-eight or thirty guns ? these with the increased 
armament for the 42 and 46-gun frigates might be sufficient to regain m^a 
former superiority. 

Our author plausibly exhibits the superiority of his armament by 
estimating the quantity of shot thrown at a broadside both in close and 
distant action; he increases the force of single-shotted guns in distant aetkm, 
the 42-gun frigate 130 pounds, and the 46 by 147 pounds; and in dose ac^ 
tUniy with double-shotted guns and single-shotted carronades, the former 
172 and the Utter 230 pounds; these being all 32-pounders, the devastating 
effect of the ^ot is much greater. 

<« The diameter of the 32-pounder shot is 6*105 inches, whilst that of the 18- 
pounder shot is 5-04 ; hence the siae of the hole made by the former will be to Uiat 
made by the latter as 37 '27 : 25*4, or nearly half as large again. It will only be 
neoessar}' to indicate this circumstance to prove the devastating effects of the broad- 
side of the new armament, to which the present could offer no adequate return ; 
for example, in the 46-gun frigate only fourteen eighteen-pound shot could be 
opposed to twelve of thirty-two pounds, and one of twenty-four pounds, in distant 
action : and it is also well known how soon a ship's masts are cut down by laige 
shot. In dose engagement, this disparity would be still more fearfully increased ; 
for whilst the old armament could rnily bring eight thirty-two pound shot into her 
broadside, the new would discharge no less t^m thirii/ shot of the same nature." 

The destructive effect of one large shot compared with a number of 
smaller ones is amply proved bv the experiments of Robins and Hutton ; 
those of the latter are particularly valuable, having had the whole resources 
of the Ordnance department at his command, and been aided by several of our 
ablest artiUery officers. After having established the fact that the velocity of 
the ball is totally independent of the weight of the gun, and that the range and 
initial velocity depend solely on the length (the charge of powder and weight 
of shot being equal in each ease) ; how in the name of common sense could 
the Board of Ordnance, from the mere whim of a late Surveyor«>general, 
having these facts before their eyes, and after having exploded the 42- 
pounder guns from the service, as being too heavy and cumbersome ; how, 
we ask, could they have expended a large sum for the purpose of casting 
82-pounder guns of Uie sanoe weight as the late 42-pounders, viz. 6S ewt.? 
Possessing, moreover, no greater range and velocity than the nine and a 
half feet 32-pounder of 56 cwt. We have heard, but cannot vouch for the 



R£VIEWS AND CRITICAL NOTICBS. 239 

fact, that after having expended some thousands, the Board have as sud- 
denly relinquished their determination as they had hastily adopted it. 

The Author, having supported by practieal data his propositions for 
arming the 42 and 46-gun frigates, with lon^ 32-pounders and 32-pounder 
carronades, proceeds to reform the armaments of our 74 and 84-gun ships, 
on the same principles; but he has not stopped here, and at a moment 
when it appears to be resolved to introduce Domb cannon into Naval war- 
fare, by means of steam-vessels, and. thereby place in jeopardy even the 
largest ships of the line, by the employment of such novel means of destruc- 
tion, he proceeds to show that a simple modification of his principles 
will invest all our frigates and ships with a formidable number of bomb can- 
non, in the shape of 68-pounder carronades, which are capable of projecting 
8-inch shells. This description of ordnance has been well proved in actu^ 
service, whether projecting solid 68-pounder-shot, or 8-inch shells. We are 
of opinion that any increase of size above the calibre of eight inches, 
however desirable and practicable on land will, -at sea, be found to be an 
evil. In this view the Author, it would appear, remarks that the 8-inch 
shell " is not beyond the ready management of one man.'' A very intelli- 
gent and scientific officer of the Marine Artillery, Lieut. Stevens, has also 
pointed out the necessity of restricting these bomb cannon to the calibre of 
eight inches. Lieut. Stevens, in his '* Remarks on arming Steam and Gun 
Bt>ats/' very judiciously says, *' that to use a 12 or 10-inch gun effectively 
with shot, or to insure the bursting of its projectile as a shell, it must be 
made to strike the object without previously grazing ; to effect this, such 
ordnance must be elevated from ten to twelve degrees,'' and consequently 
*' the practice against a ship would be very uncertain." 

Now, although the 68-pounder carronade ranges well, yet it cannot pre- 
tend to such long horizontal ranges as an 8-inch bomb-cannon ; still as it 
is protected at the longest ranges with such a powerful calibre as the 39- 
pounder, the armament which Mr. Read has proposed for ships appears, to 
possess advantages deserving attention. By nis plan each broadside, «ven 
of the 42-gun frigate, will have four carronsides of 8-indi bore, and eleven 
long 32-pounder guns. 

We must, however, refer our readers to the " Memoir" and ** Observa- 
tions" for a variety of facts and considerations^ which our limits do not permit 
us to notice. 

We close this article in the emphatic language of the Author. 

'' Let it be remembered, that the importance of the British Navy, is ^/Sntte in 
comparison with the Navies of other Powers : without its Naval preponderance, 
this vast empire becomes immediately contracted to an isolated spot on the surfaoe 
of the globe ; and sinks, not only into geographical insignificance, but, what is still 
worse, into political nothingness. If that gigantic arm which embraces both hemi- 
spheres, and by which alone the power of Napoleon was foiled, is once paralysed, 
through a mode of proceeding founded on mistaken views, who will pretttid to say, 
that it can ever, in the present state of the maritime world, be restored to its neces- 
sary vigour ? Let us beware then, and not be less ready than the French and 
other nations are to cherish genuine science, and follow its sound dictates ; and, 
above all, let us inquire seriously, whether it be probable that there can be a royal 
road to the science of Naval Construction, so that those who travel it may, without 
study or labour, acquire that knowledge, whose attainment, to use the words of 
Chapman, the celebrated Swedish Naval Architect^ ^ seems almost to exceed the 
powers of human understanding.' " 



240 RBVIBWS AND CRITICAL NOTICES. 

Stakdard Novels. — We gave a cognized as Laving already appeared in 

passing notice in our last Number of the our pages. The author is evidently 

re-appearance of The Pilot, as the a military man, who, from an occasiomu 

precursor of a complete series of the asperity observable in his language, 

most esteemed Novels in the English when speaking of his vocation and 

Language ; and also intimated that this its votaries, has not, we fear, been for* 

first-born of a very extensive prc^ny tunate in his career. There is, however, 

was immediately to be followed by God- abundant evidence in these his lucubra- 

win*s Caleb Williams, who has since tions, that there was no lack, at least, of 

made his welcome entree. The third abitlty, to have commanded success.' We 

number,containing the whole of Cooper's shall probably make extracts upon a 

Spy, has also appeared, and will be future occasion, and strongly recommend 

followed by Miss Porter^s celebrated the Twelve Nights to the perusal of 

Novel, Thaddeus of Waksaw, a those who love a clever and dramatic 

work of peculiar interest at the passing Tale, 

period. Views in the Burmak Empire. 

We cannot speak in terms of too high By Capt. Kershaw, 13th Light Infantry, 

praise of this design, nor of the manner —We feel particular satisfaction in no- 

in which the spirited publishers are per- ticlng these splendid views, both for their 

forming their part of it. The high price unquestionable merit and as the produc- 

at which good novels are usually pub- tion of a Cadet and Student of the Royal 

lished, exclude them from a permanent Military College. Their conception and 

place in most private libraries; yet we execution reflect infinite credit upon the 

do not know more delightful companions source of Capt. Kershaw's instruction, 

to have constantly within call, to while as well as upon his own taste and 

away a vacant hour, or relieve the la- ability. 

hours of severer study. Here then we Haviiigservedinthe Burmese war, Capt. 

have in |;hree volumes the condensed Kershaw availed himself of his opportu- 

(not abridged) matter of nine, most nities to sketch the most striking scenes 

neatly printed with frontispiece and which presented themselves on the route 

vignettes, of most convenient size, and and during the encampment of the army, 

also most conveniently cheap. We can attended, where practicable, by the Na- 

add no stronger recommendation of the val armament. The landscape is strik- 

Staxdard Novels. ingly drawn and richly coloured, while 

Cabinet Cyclopaedia. Vols. 17 figures and objects connected with both 

and 18. — The Seventeenth Volume of services are blended and introduced with 

this series consists of a Treatise on Hy. the happiest effect. The plates are ex- 

drostatics and Pneumatics, by the Editor, quisitely engraved by Daniell, and no 

Dr.JLardner. It is written with a fami- labour or expense appears to have been 

liar knowledge of the subject and in a spared in giving to the intrinsic novelty 

popular style, abounding in practical 11- and interest of the subject, the highest 

lustrations of the abstruser operations finish of accessory art. An explanatory 

of these imporjAnt sciences. Appendix accompanies the Views. 

Volume Eighteenth is the second of Panorama of Constantinople. 

Sir James Mackintosh's History of Leigh. — The most picturesque city in 

EnoHand. Taking up the thread of the world is here elaborately and strik- 

his Narration at the Wars of the rival iugly represented. A single coup-d'cnl 

Roses, the. learned Author brings down embraces the whole various and thickly- 

the History of these Realms to the Re- studded expanse, fringing the sea of 

formation and the Accession of Eliza- Marmora from the shores of the Bos- 

beth. The style of this work is elabo- phorus to the Strait of the Dardanelles, 

rate, but, we think, dry. The scene is busy and beautiful, and 

The Fourth Volume of The Cabinet is explained by a descriptive '^ Com- 

Library completes The Retrospect panion.*' 

of Public Affairs for 1831. This The Family Classical Library 

useful Summary is composed with clear- has reached its Seventeenth Volume, 

ness, and on the whole with imparti- comprising since our last notice (No. 9) 

ality. the works of Tacitus, Pindar, Anacreon, 

The Twelve Nights. — The un- Theophrastus, and Horace. The Vo- 

pretending Volume bearing the above lume (Sixteenth) containing the charac- 

title consists of a Series of Twelve ters of Theopnrastus, illustrated by 

Tales, written with c«jnsiderable talent. Physiognomical Sketches, is especially 

One — ** My First Affair/*will be re- calculated to attain popularity. 



REVIEWS AND CRITICAL NOTICES. 241 

Hiktoh's United States. — The of the Upper Nile, for a future Volume, 
Numbers of this work (up to the 9th) the compUer fulfils the object of the 
now before us, promise a valuable and present in a very satisfactory manner, 
complete History of the North Ameri- A Map and several well-executed En- 
can Provinces. We have seldom seen gravings illustrate the text, 
more beautifully executed Views than Haverhill ; or, Memoirs or an 
those by which these numbers are adorned. Officer in the Armt of Wolfe. 
The edifices are in a style of art hardly By James Athearn Jones. — We recollect 
to be looked for in so young a country a Work by the same Author, entitled 
. as the United States. The historical " Tales of an Indian Camp," which dis- 
portion of the work exhibit^ research played much imagination and ability of 
and correctness. a peculiar description. The present pub- 

The Harmonioon. — This is the lication relates to matters of fact rather 
most instructive and entertaining pub- than fancy, and presents a lively and 
lication of its class with which we are accurate picture of North-American life 
acqu^nted. In its pages the History and in its rude stages, and amidst the savage 
Study of Musical Science are agreeably grandeur of luxuriant forests, the prime- 
elucidated by anecdote, precept, and val tenants of the soil. The expedition 
examples. of Wolfe, terminating in the death of that 

Cabinet Atlas. — The Twelfth Hero, forms a large portion of the ac- 
Part completes the Cabinet Atlas, tion of these volumes, and is related in 
one of the most exquisite Specimens of a very spirited and characteristic man- 
Modern Art. A Biblical Series, to cor- ner. The Author, from his familiarity 
respond, is announced. and perfect acquaintance with the scenes 

The New Sporting Magazine — and habits of a country in which he had 

First Number. — ^We are fond of the passed several years of his life, was more 

manly Sports of our Country, and are than usually qualified to fill up the ge- 

fascinated by their details. We neither neral outline of such a story by the 

ride Races nor frequent Melton ; yet minor and local details necessary to its 

has the cry of a hound or the rush of a due keeping. For the same reasons, the 

racer a spell for our ear and eye. The practical commentary introduced by the 

New Sporting Magazine fell refreshingly Author on the subject of Negro Slaveryj 

upon our path : it is full of promise. and the endless cant to which it gives 

The Scientific Gazette, whidi rise, merits attention at a moment when 
was established at the close of last year, the mischievous meddling of a maudlin 
as a Weekly Record of Improvements and sanctified class threatens to plunge 
and Discoveries in Science, embraces a our West India possessions into the 
useful principle, and, as far as we have horrors of massacre and irretrievable 
seen of its numbers, is creditably con- anarchy. The political opinions of Mr. 
ducted. We do not, however, agree^ Jones, are marked by practical good 
either as to cause or effect, with its as- sense, and are avowed with a manliness 
sumption that the vices and misfortunes in striking contrast with the servility 
of Great Britain are owing to the Decline to mob-govemmeiit so much in vogue 
of Science within its realms. Science for the passing season, 
and ELnowledge were never more gene- Notice. — Sir Howard Douglas is 
rally cultivated amongst us. The mis- preparing a New Edition of his Essay 
chiefs of '^a little Learning*' amongst on Military Bridges and the Passage of 
the mass may, we admit, afford matter Rivers. Much new matter will be in- 
fer just animadversion at the present troduced, together with the valuable 
moment. Notes given in the French Translation, 

The Edinburgh Cabinet Li- by M. Vaillant, Chef de Battalion au 

BRART, Vol. III. — Egypt. — This is Corps de G^nie, relating to operations 

amongst the best of its numerous Fa- treated of in the text. 

mily and is confined to Geographical We have still many Reviews and No- 

and Topographical Subjects. The First tices, unavoidably postponed ; but as far 

Volume, which we formerly noticed, re- as the immense mass of matter on our 

lated to the . Polar Regions ; the Second hands will permit, we hope to do justice 

we have not seen ; the Third, now before to all in due season. Brooke*s Travels, 

us, contains a View of Antient and Mo- the Life of Sir Thomas Lawrence, and 

dern Egypt, by Dr. Russell. Reserving other productions of a teeming press 

Nubia, Abyssinia, and the vast countries have reached us. 

» 

U. S. JouRN. No. 31. June 1831. R 



242 



GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE. 

TO THE EDITOB OF THE UNITED SERVICE JOURNAL. 

Experiments at Brest on MarshalVs Gun Carriages. 

Mr. Editor, — Having lately made some stay at Brest^ the principal 
naval station in France, I had the good fortune to be present at the very 
able trials which were made there of Capt. Marshall's gun-carriages. These 
experiments lasted several days; and as the public have^ through your 
Journal^ become acquainted with many interesting facts relative to uiese 
carriages^ perhaps the following account of what has taken place in France 
will be acceptable to you. 

In the beginning of 1830^ the attention of the French Government was 
first drawn to this decided improvement in mounting ships* guns. A very 
able and scientific naval officer at Brest, Capt. Gicquel des Touches^ trans- 
lated Capt. Marshall's publication, and pointed out so forcibly the merits of 
this invention to the Minister of Marine, that he ordered a 36-pounder to 
be mounted forthwith, and directed a Commission to examine and report 
upon its capabilities. The report was so favourable, that it was expected 
some of the vessels fitting out for Algiers would have been armed with these 
carriages, but time did not admit of this being done. 

In France, however, they do not do these things by halves : towards the 
latter end of the year the Grovemment decided on having a more extensive 
trial of this invention, but circumstances delayed it till Feb. 1831, when a 
commission of nine naval, artillery, and engineer officers, during four days, 
put this carriage to the severest tests which they could devise, and it was 
completely successful in all points. In elevation and trainage it obtained 
double the angle which was got on the old carriage, and in depression, more 
than treble ! It was fired double-shotted without breechinffs or tackles 
after being heated by several hours' firing; and, to wind up the whole, was 
fired seVeral rounds double-shotted without any breast carriage at all, the 
gun merely running in and out on a batten nailed to the port-sill; in fact, 
its total superiority over the old carriage was established in every point in 
the most decided manner. 

Of the very able report of Capt. Gicquel des Touches, the President of the 
Commission, occupying nearly twelve sheets of paper, I could only copy the 
conclusion, as follows: — 

^' It results from these experiments made by the commission charged with ex- 
amining the gun-carriage invented by Commander Marshall, that this carriage pos- 
sesses a great number of advantages over the old, namely : — 

^'^ 1st, It gives infinitely greater angles, which would always give a ship armed 
with these carriages an incontestable superiority over one which had only the old 
ones, whatever may be her position, to windward or to leeward, when the breeze is 
fresh and the ship much heeled over, in chasing or being chased ; these results are 
of the highest importance, and are not to be compared with the trifling incon- 
venience which we found in moving the breech to the right or left. 

*•*■ 2nd, The great facility of getting the extreme angle of trainage of the guns. 

^' 3rd, The incomparable advantage of being able gradually, and steadily, and 
without shaking the decks, to point the gun at any required object'. 

'< 4th, Its being always ready for loading, under whatever angle it may have 
been fired, and its never moving its bed or quoin, however it may have been heated 
in a long cannonade. 

^' 5th, The gun cannot kick or recoil in any but a uniform and steady course, 
which does not, therefore, fati^e the decks like the old one, and would permit a 
more rapid fire to be kept up. 

^^ 6th, This carriage being in two parts distinct from one another, it may be 
much more I'eadily mounted and dismounted than the old one, if injured in action. 



. CORRESPOND£NC£. 243 

" 7tli, There are several methods proposed for securing it as a lower-deck gun, 
and all of them are preferable to the old carriage, as they permit the whole of the 
guns, when it is wished for the safety of the ship, to be secured a great deal nearer 
the deck than before. 

'^ 8th, It is worked with less men, viz. one-fifth in guns of large calibre, and in 
a greater proportion for smaller guns, and still less if a little grease is put on the 
crutch. 

<' 9 th, No attention whatever need be paid to the breechings or tackles in run- 
ning the gun in or out. 

'^ 10th, The great advantage of being able to fire the gun with its fore part 
running in and out on the sill of the port, presuming the breast-carriage is entirely 
shot away and cannot be replaced by a spare one. 

'*" II th, Spare ones, however, take up much less room on board than on the old 
plan, as the breast-carriage stows inside the breech-carriage. 

^' The Commission, viewing all these advantages, are fully satisfied with the ex- 
periments which have been made under their eyes, but before recommending the 
definitive adoption of this carriage, they think it should be tried at sea ; in con- 
sequence, they conclude by unanimously recommending that a line -of -battle ship 
and two frigates be armed with half their guns on Marshall's carriages, and fur- 
nished with the spare articles recommended by the inventor ; and above all, that 
the captains may be ordered to profit by all occasions of bad weather at sea to try 
them. But in lieu of placing one of the new carriages between two of the old, the 
Commission think it will be preferable to place three of each together, as affording 
a better opportunity of viewing their manoeuvring ; and they also think that, where 
so many advantageous circumstances present themselves as do in this system both 
for attack and defence, all possible activity should be used to make these last deci- 
sive experiments. 

^' They also think the breeching bolts should be the same as are used for the 
carronades on the non-recoil principle, as they are much stronger. That the port 
scuttles should be placed opposite the mouth of the guns when placed horizontally 
in their crutches. That the hand-spikes for 36-pounders should be from thirty-six 
to forty centimetres longer. That improvements may, perhaps, be made in filxing 
the breast-carriage to the side, which would render it still more unlikely to be shot 
away. That the breeching should be rove through a hole in the carnage instead 
of going round the breech of the gun, and that a preventive breeching will not be 
needed ; this will be less expensive and more simple, and do away with any like- 
lihood of the breeching chafing against the trunnion clamps or sides of the carriage. 
<< (Signed) Gicquel des Touches, Capt. de Vaisseau, President. 

De Rault La Hurie, Capt. de Vaisseau. 

Kerdrain, Capt. de Vaisseau. 

Lunean, Capt. de Vaisseau. 

Andrea de Nerciat, Capt. de Vaisseau. 

lie Gal de Kervin, Capt. de Fregat. 

Tronde, Capt de Fregat. 

Laonenan, Lieut de Vaisseau, Rapporteur. 

Fabre d'Eglantine, Engineer of Naval Constructions. 

Taillefer, Chef de Bataillon, Artillery of the Marine. 

Conseil, Capt. Artillery of the Marine. 
« Brest, March 1st, 1831.' 



»» 



No heavier gun than a 32-pounder had been before tried on these car- 
riages; the one reported on above was about equal to an English 42-pounder, 
and during the whole of the four days it was put through all its facings most 
completely, in presence of a number of naval and military officers, and eli- 
cited the most marked approbation from all the scientific people present ; 
eleven men were the crew, and fourteen worked a similar gun oh the old 
carriage. When the crutch was greased, four men run Marshall's gun out, 
and three run it in. They were rather unhandy in training it ; the French 
have no sailors. The crew of both this gun and the one on the old carriage 
which was worked against it, were raw conscripts belonging to thu -corps 
formerly called cannoniers. 

B 2 



M4 CORRBSPONDBNCB. 

Here, then, Twmatt bas, alter the lirvt cipciiumi t on a fvoper aealey at 
onee eome up to what Knrfand has been four years mnvring at, alter having 
tried these carriages in adQ shapes and maimers, at sea and in harhour, and 
th(rir decided merits haTin^ been warranted to her by names enrolled ftr 
ever in the deathless pages of her history as the first of her naval heroea. 
C^oL MaishaD details in his publication the experiments made under tlie 
oroers of Sir Robert Mooaom, Sir Pulteney Malcolm, Sir Thomas Staines, 
Sir Thomas Hardy, &e. &c and since that time. Sir Jahleel Brenton offi- 
cially reported to the Admiralty of that day as follows. 



** I was presented at first from making an application for them by objectians 
iHiidi I had beard urged against them on aereral points, and which appeared to me 
well founded.** ^ On readUng the report made by Sir Pulteney Malmhn and Cap- 
taint Campbdl, Thomson, Maitlandj and BouTerie, of a trial which took pboe in 
their pretence of two 24-poundert on thete carriaget in H. M. S. Isis in the Medi- 
terranean, I £dt latitfied that it would be expedient to have some of the Donegal's 
ri fitted on thete carriages with a view to farther experiments, and applied 
them.** ^* During the summer I have caused almost daily e xp e rim ents to be 
made.** 

Sir Jahleel then arranges the results alongade of the objections he had 
heard against them, fully di^roving every one of them ; and by this report 
alone, if there were no others, the entire success of these carriages would be 
for ever established. 

Sir Jahleel then goes on to state with respect to securing tbem — 

^ In order to remove every possible objection, I caused the gun to be lifted off its 
breast-carriage, amd the mwme to be laid on deck, where it was effectually secured, 
with the additional advantage of having the weight so much lower and brought 
into contact with the strongest part of the ship, not only rfimini i iliing the weight 
aloft, but affording so much more room for the hammocks. It was at first thouf^t 
that guns secured in this manner would require too much time to replace them 
upon their breast-carriages, but this was done to a 24-pounder by its crew in the 
pretence of Sir Henry Hackwood and Sir John Gore in #100 mintUes." 

^ Having, at I conceive, ditpoted of the objections, I think it right to mention 
what appears to me the decided advantages of the new over the old carriages, vis. 
The power of giving a much greater ai^e of elevation, depression and trainage ; 
the great dispatch in firing; the faolity and accuracy of pointing; the ease 
with which the muzzle is placed for loading ; their being worked with at least one 
fifth fewer men than the old ; the facility of replacing a disabled carriage, and 
their never displacing their bed or quoin, a very material object in the night or in 
smoke. The difficulty in transporting them has entirely vanished by using the 
spare axletree as done by Sir Thomas Staines. 

*' (Signed) Jahleel Brentok." 

What can the Government of any country want more than this ? Here 
is a distinguished naval officer coming forward with all the characteristic 
candour of his profession, and stating to the Admiralty, first his prejudices, 
and then the incontrovertible facts which have, after totally removine them, 
caused him warmly to point out that there are no objections, and uiat the 
advantages are numerous and decisive. It is also a curious fact, that the 
President of the French Commission, Capt. Gicquel des Touches, also at 
first sight conceived a strong prejudice against these carriages, which was 
entire^ removed from his mind by reading Capt. Marshall's book, detailing 
the invention. This distinguished French officer was in the battles of Alge- 
siras, and in the ship which engaged the present Admiral Sir £. Codrington, 
at Trafalgar, &c. and is, I think, as sound a practical sailor and scientific 
man as I ever had the pleasure of conversinc^ with. Just at the conclusion 
of the trials at Brest, he was appointed to the Guerriere of sixty guns, and 
immediately applied for her to be fitted with these carriages. 



GORRBSPONDBNCB. 245 

Since Sir Jahleel's report, another Committee have been ordered, who 
state — 

<' After having given them every investigation in our power, we are of opinion, 
that they are worked with greater facility, (with fewer men,) easier pointed and to 
a greater extent forward and aft, and give more elevation and depression than the 
carriages now in use. Twenty rounds were fired double-shotted, and the^^ an* 
swered in all respects. We fired them double-shotted without either breechings or 
side tackles, so as to allow them to recoil off the crutch and fall on the deck, nei- 
ther the carriage or deck were in the slightest degree injured ; the 24'pounder 
was remounted in two minutes and a half by seven men, and the 32-pounder in 
one minute and a half by nine men. On the lower-deck, the method of housing 
them is preferable to the old, from their being placed lower on the deck, and allow- 
ing a greater circulation of air and room for the crew." " We beg leave to suggest 
that one line-of-battle-ship and two frigates on active service be fitted with the 
new carriages for half the guns on board, and placed alternately on the ship's decks, 
that the captains be directed to try them on every occasion of bad weather at sea ; 
and that such ships be allowed a certain number of spare articles as proposed by the 
inventor. 

^^ (Signed) Ben Hallowel Carew, Admiral. 

J. P. Beresford, Vice- Admiral. 

John Gore, Vice- Admiral. 

T. M. Hardy, Rear-Admiral. 

Samuel Warren, Commodore. 

J. W. Dundas, Captain. 

William Cuppage, Lieut. -Gen. Artillery. 

William Millar, Major. Gen. Artillery. 

J. S. Williamson, Colonel, Artillery. 

J. May, Colonel, Horse- Artillery." 

To arrive at the above point has taken England four years, and France 
a few months. I suppose, then, that France must win the laurel, and that 
England must wear it second-hand. Can this be true ? Will she again be 
left in the back-ground ? When one nation adopts these carriages, all the 
others must, unless they mean to give away their ships to the first enemy 
who can get alongside of them. The cradle of mechuiical genius, how 
often does she leave other countries to father the best of her children, and 
is at last obliged to take them back and cherish them, although she is shorn 
of the honour of their adoption : we need only look to «team-boats, for one 
among the many proofs of this melancholy fact, yet she still heedlessly for- 
gets that '* Palmam qui meruit ferat" the motto which she gave to her 
greatest warrior, would wave as grace^lly over the crown of a nation, as it 
would float round the coronet of a hero. 

Let us hope, however, that we are falling upon other days; I cannot bear 
to think that any but the parent country should in this case earn the pakn. 
Thus much at any rate is certain; that splendid frigate, the Barham, is 
ordered to be entirely fitted with Marshall's carriages, of course embracing 
all the inventor's latest improvementSj^ drawn from the extensive experience 
which he has acquired during the numerous trials they have undergone for 
more than two years: report says, this is to be the omega; I trust so; 
among the many reforms of the day, this one at least will not be proble- 
matical. 

\ 

Lord Camelford, 

Mr. Editor,— You have laid before us some able papers on Duelling, — 
pray could you prevail on J. M., or any of his friends, to favour your readers 
with a memoir of the eccentric but gallant Lord Camelford ? It would be 
an excellent illustration. 

X. Y. Z. 



246 CORR£SPONDBNCE. 

Suggestion for a Cipher to he employed on Service, 

Ma. Editor, — ^As in military and naval operations it is often of the ut- 
most importance to possess a cipher which can he easily varied, so as to pre- 
vent all possibility of interpretation if despatches should fall into the hands 
of the enemy, I beg to suggest the following as one which will answer the 
purpose^ hoping that some of your correspondents will employ some of their 
leisure hours either in improving it, or inventing others more useful. Let 
some word or sentence be agreed on between the parties themselves only, 
but not committed to writing. Take^ for instance, Nelson; then let an 
alphabet be numbered as follows : — 

13 14 15 16 1718 19 20 2122 23 24 25 26 123456789 10 11 12 

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2122 23 24 25 26 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 U 12 13 
12345678 9 10 1112 13 14 15 16 1718 19 20 2122 23 24 25 26 

ABCDEF GH I JKLMNO PQRS TUVWXYZ 
23 24 25 26 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 
16 17 18 19 20 2122 23 24 25 26 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 14 15 
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 

Then the first letter (N) is to be the key of the first despatch, or the first 
line of such despatch if preferred ; the second letter (£) of the second^ and 
so on. It will be seen that the letters of the Alphabet are first numbered 
according to their proper order, then N is taken as No 1, O 2, P 3, and so 
on up to 26. The same thin^ is done with each letter of the word, which is 
to be the key-word previously agreed upon. When any communication is 
to be made, it is only necessary to see what number the nrst letter would be 
in the natural order of the Alphabet, and then to see what number will cor- 
respond with it when thejirst letter of the key-word is taken as No. 1. Then 
substitute for the letter intended to be expressed, the letter correspcmdinff 
to the last mentioned *' number.'' For instance, '' March to-morrow mom, 
is to be conveyed. Nelson the key-word. " M " is the thirteenth letter of 
the Alphabet, but '^ N" being the key letter, and taken as No. 1, '' Z" will 
(by this arrangement) be the thirteenth letter, and consequently be substi- 
tuted for ^' M/' and so on with the rest. The key letter of the next line or 
next dispatch, as the case may be, will be E, and so on. Thus, " March 
to-morrow mom," will be in cipher, 

(« N*' being key) " Znepu gbzbeebj zbea." 

'^ March to-morrow mom." 
Or, ('^ E" being key) " Qevgl xsqsvvsa qsvr." 

I hope I have made this plain enough to be understood by the help of the 
numbered alphabet above. But to remove all difficulties, let us suppose a 

Eerson receiving the first cipher communication znepu gbzbeebj zbea, N 
eing key, he will thus proceed. Counting (see alphabet above) N as 1, he 
will find Z to be the thirteenth letter : the uiirteenth letter of the common 
alphabet being M, he will read M for Z : counting N as 1, A being the first 
letter of the common alphabet, instead of N, he will read A, and so on. In 
order to render detection still more difficult, the letters may be written con- 
tinuously without dividing the words, or even dividing the words wrong, so 
as to read when interpreted ^' march tomorrowmorn,'' or " ma rchtom or 
rowm orn ;" this would easily be read with a little practice. 

It will be seen that this cipher may be greatly varied, but its chief 
advantage is that the key will always be a word, sentence, verse, &c. agreed 
upon previously, and which need never be written, so that its discovery will 
be impossible. I rather think Napoleon used with success whilst at' Elba 
a cipher of this kind, but 1 never saw it, so cannot be certain. There will 
be no papers to be kept secret, as unless the key-word be betrayed, vvhich 
may be different for every day in the year, it cannot be deciphered. 



CORRESPON DfiNCE. 247 

Remuneration for Shipwreck ^ S^c. 

Ma. £ditor, — Can any of your numerous readers assign the reason why 
no remuneration is given to those who lose all, except their lives, by ship- 
wreck ? A military officer is very properly paid for any losses which he 
may suMain either on shore or on board ; but a naval officer never receives 
one farthing, whether he loses his whole stock by shipwreck, or has* the 
standing part of them destroyed by shot or sheU, as has happened to me 
more than once, including valuable nautical instruments^ and telescopes^ 
perhaps of " 100-horse power." 

Some people say, *' They don't give you an^hing when you ar0 ship- 
wrecked^ because if they did, you would not mind losing a ship^ in a com- 
fortable way, every time you wanted a new set of rigging ; and as to the 
shot holes, your prize-money will find you plugs enough for them." With 
respect to the first part of the argument I should say, *' No, messmate, just 
the reverse; those who like may care for the ship when she ^ets on'shore^ 
let me save my chest if you please ; there are plenty more ships to be had 
for commissioning, but a new chest of traps, to my sorrow, must be paid for;'* 
and as to the latter part of the reason, do not the hardest knocks generally 
accompany the smallest pickings?. What prize-money do we get for 
engaging stone walls for instance ? or does a hard-fought action against a 
superior force, line the pocket so well as one of your Yankee Bordeaux-men, 
who are to be had for tne catching? ' 

No, let the enemy's men-of-war alone, say I ; let them take all they can ; 
my business is to re-capture them : the salvage of a recovered friend, is worth 
more than the whole hull of a foe, and is to be had without any unshipping 
of legs and wings. Many a good hammering have I had, without even the 
hopes of any blunt ; and in one of my first cutting-out expeditions, I had a 
new pair of blue trousers done for (price thirteen doUars,) while ^ny prize- 
money was three pistareens (two shillings and five-pence^ ; I might have had 
them mended, to be sure, but I did not like to say much aoout it, because, like 
the old Polyphemus, I was shot in the — --. 

If no better reasons than these can be given for such a mode of treatment, 
I hope among the other improvements of the day, that this matter will get 
a little overhauling. I should have lost more than I did, at Algie];s in 1816, 
if I had not slued my chest three times during the action, to keep it end-on 
to the batteries ; but one does not always have the chance of doing this. I 
tracked a four-and-twenty pounder afterwards, and found that if I had not 
taken the above precaution, my gentleman would just have astonished my re- 
maining three plean shirts and two pair of white mustering trowsers ; and 
somehow or other, I never knew one of these intruders enter a midshipman's 
chest without breaking his blacking-bottle ; dad may therefore think himself 
lucky if he gets off with a pound in hard cash for every pound weight of 
the shot. 

What is harder than ever3i;hing, although we seldom think much about 
it, is, that when we lose the number of our mess, as well as our kit, our heirs 
are never paid a single farthing for the latter loss, even when they are not 
entitled to any pension. 1 think when a man rigs his son decently out in 
the world, to be Killed like a gentleman, the least which the country could 
do, would be to pay the old boy for the damages done to his departed brat's 
stock in trade, after he has been at such an expense to enable him, as the 
boatswain says, to *' extinguish" himself." 

Yours, &c. L. 



Means of Preserving the Health of Soldiers. 

Mr. Editor, — It is not perhaps generally known to the readers of the 
United Service Journal, that in the year 1763, Dr. Richard de Hauterscerk, 
Inspector of Hospitals in the French Army, represented to the Due de Choi- 



248 CORRBSPONDBNCB. 

seul, Secretary of State for the War Department^ that it would be of much 
advantage to the service if the medical officers attached to the hospitals were 
obliged to render a re^^ar account of their practice^ and to correspond with 
the Inspector respecting the health concerns of the troops under their me- 
dical charge. The Duke soon perceived the utility of tne measures which 
had been suggested, and directed that it should be carried into effect. Dr. 
Richard was appointed to collect the various communications from the 
medical officers^ with authority to publish those which he might deem of 
sufficient importance. In 1766, the Inspector published a ouarto volume 
containing sdections from the communications of the medical officers, entitled 
Eecueil (T Observations de Medecine des Hospitatix MUitaires, This volume 
contains an excellent code of instructions to medical officers ^m the pen of 
Dr. Richard; he stronffly recommended that they should devote much 
attention to the study of medical topography, and especially to make them- 
selves intimately acquainted with the salubrity or msalubrity of garrison 
towns^ barracks, prisons^ and hospitals. He publidied also models for dn^w- 
ing up cases, describing epidemics, &c. and a few topographical essays. 
The second and last volume of this series, which appeared in 1772, contained 
four topographical memoirs, five memoirs upon epidemical diseases, and a 
number of valuable papers on the practice of medicine and surgery, with 
several communications on pathological anatomy. 

Dr. Richard had thus the merit of drawing the attention of Government 
to the importance of the medical branch of the service, and of showing that 
the talents and usefulne^is of medical officers may be greatly improved by the 
publication of an account of their professional labours. The judicious exer- 
tions of the Inspector seem to have been duly appreciated by the King of 
France ; he was made a Knight of the Order of St. Michel, and his estate of 
Hauterscerk was entered into a Barony, In 1781, Mareschal de Seguin^ Mi- 
nister at War^ directed that the publication of selections from the corre- 
spondence of the medical officers of the army should be recommended, and 
that the communication should appear in the form of a Journal, to be pub- 
lished every three months, under the following title. Journal de Medecine, de 
Chirurgie et de Pharmacie Militaire, This periodical was intended to be 
solely devoted to reports on the means of preserving the health of soldiers, 
and of treating them under disease. The first number appeared in 1782, 
and the last of the series was published in 1789. The collection consists of 
seven volumes in 8vo ; many of the communications in this series are very 
. valuable^ more especially those that relate to the means of preserving the 
health of soldiers, and of rendering an army efficient. The publication of 
the communications from the medical officers was suspended until 1815, 
when the Minister at War decided that they should appear in a Journal to 
be published every two months. He addressed the medical officers by a cir- 
cular letter, in which he assured them that their communications would be 
carefully examined, and that the merits of each should be impartially esti- 
mated. The avowed object of the Journal was, 

1st. To promote the improvement of the art of healing in as far as re- 
garded the treatment of soldiers, and to circulate useful information among 
physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries belonging to the army. 

2ndly. To excite and preserve a spirit of emulation among medical officers 
by affording them an opportunity of^displaying their talents and zeal. 

The Journal was to contain the official communications which regarded 
the medical department, issued by the Minister at War, and a portion of 
each number was to be devoted to medicctl intelligence, such as short notices 
of new works, recent discoveries connected with military medicine, biogra- 
phical sketches, &c. Two volumes of this series were published in the n>rm 
of a Journal in 1815 and 1816, the succeeding volumes have been published 
entire, under the title of Recueil des Memoires de Medecine, de Chirurgerie et 
de Fharmacii Militaire, This series is still in progress. The last volume 
I have seen is the twentieth, which was published in 1826, so that about two 
vuhimes appear annually. The current series contains, a vast collection of 



CORRBSPONDBNCK. 249 

valuable information upon the various topics connected with the health con- 
cerns of an army. It is impossible to estimate too highly the contribution 
of Dr. Birou (^Secretaire du Consul de SaiitSj, They comprehend an excel- 
lent code of instructions for preserving the health of soldiers, and for ren- 
dering an army efficient. It is greatly to be regretted that a similar plan 
for diffusing useful information among medical officers of the British army 
has never been adopted ; and the object of the present communication is to 
excite attention to this subject. The advant^es and practicability of the 
measure are so obvious, that it would be a work of supererogation, and no 
compliment to the understanding of your readers^ were I to obtrude argu- 
ments in its favour : we are, it must be admitted, seventy years behind the 
French in this respect ; now we ought to anticipate them. The medical offi- 
cers of the British army are not individually inferior to the French in tdents, 
professional acquirements, or zeal ; all they require is a facility of communi- 
cating information, and a ^' new excitement to emulative exertion." *' No 
man is independent of external stimulus, and the surest method of annihi- 
lating energy is to leave it to prey upon itself." From the varieties of 
countrieSi occupied by the British army, and the different races of mankind 
which compose it, medical officers have a much more extended field of inves- 
tij^tion than the French. There is not a military hospital in France whidi 
affords such excellent opportunities for the study of chronic diseases, as the 
general hospital at Chatnam. Money is useful omv when it becomes current, 
and its usefulness is in proportion to the extent of the circulation ; the same 
may be said of intellectual wealth. 

The East India Company deserves the thanks of the public for having 

Srinted three volumes upon the epidemic cholera, being an account of this 
isease as it appeared in the Bengal, Madras, and Bombay Presidencies ; 
but why were tnese volumes not published ? Was it intended that the iufor« 
mation they contained should be limited to a few favourites, on whom thev 
were bestowed as presents? This is not the plan adopted by the Frencn 
Government under similar circumstances. 

In 1828, an 8vo. volume was printed, containing '^ a series of tables ex- 
hibiting the results of disease in the different European regiments serving 
under the Madras Presidency and in the garrison hospitals of Madras and 
Poonamalie, from the commencement of the year 1820 to the end of the year 
1826, with observations on the practice employed in fever hospitals and 
dysentery, extracted from the half yearly reports of medical officers in charffe 
during the periods embraced by these tables respectively. The whole 
arranged by the medical board, and published under the authority of Go- 
vernment." 

This volume was printed, but if my information be correct, it was not in 
the ordinary sense of the term published ; for what reason its circulation was 
so limited 1 cannot conjecture. The following inscription I find on the fly 
leaf of a copy now lying before me, ** Presented by the sanction of Government 
to (name of the donor) by the Madras Medical Board,* from which I infer 
that no individual is entitled to procure a copy without ** the sanction of 
Government" This is a novel mode of publication. In the '* prefatory me- 
morandum" to this volume, the Madras Medical Board professes to " have 
it in view to prepare for publication a series of tables, exhibiting the general 
results of disease in the European regiments serving under this Presidency 
from the year 1803 to the commencement of the period embraced by the 
present publication, accompanied with abstracts of such information from 
the cases and reports connected with these tables, as may be found calcu- 
lated to illustrate the practice in use at the time in the principal diseases.'* 
I sincerely hope this projected series of tables will not only be printed but 
published^ so as to enable the members of the medical profession in this 
quarter of the world to procure copies, although they may not have it in 
their power to obtain the *' sanction of Government^* for that purpose. 

I remain, &c. 

Blank. 



250 



CORRESPONDBNCB. 



India Army — Tardy Profnotion. 

Mr. Editor, — An extraordinary contrast exists between the promotion 
of the officers at St. Helena and those of the three Presidencies in India. 
St. Helena can^ I regret to say^ boast of the senior officers in the following 
grades: — 

ST. HELENA. BENGAL. 

Lieut.-Colonel, 8th June 1815 
Major, 30th November 1811 
Captain, 10th January 1808 
Lieutenant, 1 7th April 1814 



MADRAS. 



Lieut.-Colonel 
Major . 
Captain 
Lieutenant 



1824 
1824 
1816 
1817 



Lieut.-Colonel 
Major 
Captaia 
Lieutenant . 


1824 
1825 
1817 
1818 


BOMBAY. 




Lieut.-Colonel 
Major 
Captain 
Lieutenant . 


1824 

1825 
1818 
1818 



Although in the three Presidencies of India the number of officers amounts 
to 4707, and at St. Helena to no more than 37 ; we are, I am grieved to say, 
nine years behindhand with the Lieut.-Colonel, thirteen with the Major, 
eight with the Captain, and three with the Lieutenant ; and what is exceed- 
ingly humiliating, we are not allowed any Brevet Rank excepting that of 
Captain to Subalterns of fifteen years standing. The Brevet of 1830 in- 
cluded all Captains up to December 1812; but poor St. Helena is deprived 
of this advantage, though we have a Captain whose commission bears date 
January 1808, and who served the Honourable Company in a military capa- 
city upwards of forty years in this island. Our limited enjoyments of Brevet 
Rank is certainly a severe case, as the Crown is willing to grant this boon with- 
out incurring any additional expense to our honourable employers. And far- 
ther, if the Captain above mentioned had been in the King's Service, he would 
have been a Brevet Major in July 1821, when Captains of 1808 received 
that rank ; and in consequence of this benefit not extending to St. Helena, 
this old meritorious officer was superseded in the garrison by an officer 
thirteen years junior to him in the service. I think it also a singular cir- 
cumstance, that although the officers of the Royal Artillery and of the Artil- 
lery in India receive greater pay than those of the line, yet at St. Helena 
there is no difference made between the salaries of the Artillery and the In- 
fantry. Why is this ? 

I am yours, &c. 
St. Helena, 19th March 1831. Miles. 



Uniform of the Unattached. 

Mr. Editor, — Having been repeatedly asked by foreigners, whether the 
'* Unattached'' was not an inferior branch of the service, from the circum- 
stance of its being the only British uniform without lace, I beg to suggest, 
through the medium of your popular Journal, that it should be so far assi- 
milated to the line, as to prevent the possibility of such a mistake in future, 
and also to leave no excuse for making ^tu;^ additions to it, which most offi- 
cers are now in the habit of doing on goin^ abroad. The expense of such 
an improvement would be too trifling to merit consideration, and if it should 
be thought that the button does not sufficiently distinguish the '^ Unattached*' 
from their more fortunate brethren " in activity," the lace or embroidery 
might be put on round the collar and cuff, as it used to be on that much 
admired uniform the old undress of the Guards. 

I am. Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

London, May 12th, 1831. One of the Unattached. 



CORR£SPONDKNCB. 251 

Deccan Prize- Money, 

Mk. Editor, — Iq your valuable Journal for March you did me the fa- 
vour to insert a few lines respecting the non-payment of the Deccan prize- 
money. To whatever cause the delay is owing, it is justly due to the pub- 
lic that it should be explained. The most anxious expectation has been en- 
tertained for the last six months that the distribution would have been 
made, in pursuance of the order of the 20th of October last, and in accor- 
dance with the answer given by Mr Arbuthnot in the House of Commons. 

I cannot doubt that if a proper representation was made on the subject, 
by those more immediately interested, to the Lords of the Treasury, it 
would be the means of producing an early performance of the order that has 
been issued, or the assignment of an adequate reason for the postponement. 
By throwing out this hint, you will confer a great obligation on every one 
concerned. Yours, &c. 

London, 15th May 1831. An Officer. 

A Point of Etiquette, 

Dear Mr. Editor, — I appeal to your sensibility and justice, to put the 
newspaper people right, in their reports of court-days ; for this is the order 
in which these stupid men marshal the gentlemen officers. 

1 Admirals. 5 Commanders. 

2 Generals. 6 Captains. 

3 Colonels. 7 Lieutenants. 

4 Majors. 

Now, dear Sir, as they put all the Post-Captains on No. 6, pray how is 
Mrs. Grundy to know the respective ranks of their ladies and th^ wives of 
ensigns of the militia, or volunteers? who you know, dear Sir, are all called 
Captains. 

Trafalgar-Place, Devonport. A Post-Captain's "Wife. 

We have also observed that, of late. Naval and Military Officers have 
been hustled from their former station in the aforesaid lists, and placed be- 
low the mob of *' Messieurs." Is this a sign of the Times ? — Ed. 

Remarks on the Proposition for a United Service Medical Society, 

Mr. Editor, — I was much gratified on perusing in your last Number, the 
proposals for the establishment of a United Service Medical Society, conceiv- 
ing that were such an institution formed, great benefits would take place 
from the constant interchange of opinion that would necessarily arise in the 
discussions of the cause and treatment of various diseases, particularly those 
of foreign climates, respecting which, I am 'sorry to say, veiy few young 
medical officers on their leaving England have any acquaintance, and this 
defect of professional knowledge is only felt at the time it is required. Now^ 
a great improvement in this respect would take place from their being able 
to obtain the advantages arising from the experience of their seniors, who 
have spent, in all probability, a long series of years in practically acquiring 
this information. But I would take the liberty of suggesting to the pro- 
moters of this measure, the propriety of admitting as members, the medical 
officers of merchant- vessels, for example, those of the East and West India 
Companies, South Sea Vessels, Hudson's Bay Company, the Greenland 
and Davis's Straits Vessels engaged in the Whale Fishery. Most of these 
gentlemen being employed for many months in the year, and several for 
three or four years in a single voyage, must be men of practical information, 
which, if but concentrated under the same roof, would speedily lead to the 
improvement of the healing art. By your inserting this in tKe next num- 
ber of your valuable Journal, you will oblige. 

Your obedient servant, 

H. W. Duohdrst, 
Surgeon, Lecturer on Human and Comparative Anatomy. 

May 5th, 1831. 



252 CORRBSPONDBNCB. 

Addresses and Orders on the occasion of the 16/A Regiment 

leaving Ceylon, 

Mr. Editor, — As all records of the good conduct and discipline of our 
regiments on foreign stations should possess an interest with the service 
generally, and be recorded to the credit of the particular corps, perhaps you 
will have the kindness to insert the following addresses to Colonel Ximenes, 
on the 16th Regiment's leaving the inland of Ceylon, with his replies, and 
the accompanying General Order issued on the occasion, in an early number 
of your professional Journal ; by doing which, you will much oblige 

A Friend to the Corps. 

*' To Colonel Ximenes^ Commanding H, M.^s I6th Regiment^ and Commandant of 

Point de Galle, 

^< Sir, — We, the undersigned Burgher inhabitants of Oalle, respectfully beg leave 
to present this our humble address to you, on your approaching departure for Cal- 
cutta, expressing our heartfelt thanks for the kind protection we have gladly ex- 
perienced since your arrival in this place as Commandant of the garrison, for a 
period upwards of two years, during which time we have, to our great satisfaction 
and comfort, lived in profound peace and harmony, without meeting with the most 
distant interruption from any one individual of the corps you have the honour to 
command ; owing to the strict observance of discipline you have happily established 
in the regiment, which we heartily hope they will always continue to evince proofs 
of their exemplary conduct to your approbation. 

^' We cannot conclude this our imperfect address without most sincerely assuring 
you that we unfeignedly regret your departure and that of the regiment, as we are 
perfectly aware that they cannot be easily equalled ; and we beg that our warmest 
thanks be .given to the officers and men of the' regiment. Wis&ing you and Mrs. 
Ximenes and family health and prosperity for a series of years, and that your pre- 
sent voyage be attended with every happiness and a speedy passage to your des* 
tined port, is the earnest prayer of, 

^^ Sir, your most humble and very obliged servants." 
(Here follow forty signatures.) 

'< To the Burgher Inhabitants of Point de Galle, 

'^ The address which you have been good enough to present to me, on the occa- 
sion of the approaching departure of the 16th regiment for Bengal, affords me the 
highest gratification. 

'^ I derive peculiar satisfaction from the encomium which you have bestowed on 
the regularity and good behaviour of the corps which I have the honour to com- 
mand ; a tribute of applause, the value of which is much enhanced in my estima- 
tion, by the great respectability of conduct and character which distinguishes the 
individuals from whom it proceeds. 

V' The officers of the regiment unite with me and Mrs. Ximenes in returning 
our best thanks for your obliging address, and we bid you farewell, with the most 
sincere good wishes for your happiness and prosperity. 

(Signed) '< D. Ximenes, Colonel and Commandant. 

" Point de Galle, Nov. 17th, 1828." 

^' The Address of the undersigned Dutch Inhabitants of Oalle. 

" To Colonel Ximenes^ H, M/s \6th Regiment, Commanding Galle. 

'' Sir, — Allow us the liberty we take in expressing to you our deep r^^et at 
your approaching departure. The exemplary manner in which you have exercised 
the duties of your high station as commandant of this town, calls forth the univer- 
sal acknowledgment of the community, and we, as a part of it, beg to assure you of 
the general satisfaction it has yielded ; and we beg to add, that while we contemplate 
you in your private character^ the whole tenour of it was such as to have left in 
our hearts indelible impressions of your worthiness, and has raised in our minds 
an esteem for your person, which it will be long ere it be effaced. 

" We avail ourselves of this opportunity to wish you and family health and 



CORRBSPONDENGB. 25S 

every happiness, and that you may speedily and safely reach your destined place, is 
the sincere prayer of those who have the honour of ciJling themselves, 

'' Sir, your most obedient and very humble servants, 
(Here follow thirty-six signatures.) 
'* Galle, 14th Nov. 1828." 

BEPLY. 

^* The tribute of respect and esteem which I have just had the gratification of 
receiving from so large and respectable a portion of the Dutch conmaunity of Galley 
has afforded me such pleasure as I find it difficult to express. 

<^ I feel truly happy, that my humble endeavours, in my situation as Command- 
ant of this garrison, to ensure the peace and comfort of its inhabitants, have met 
with success ; and I trust they will believe, that in whatever part of the world I 
may chance to be thrown in future, it will be a source of extreme satisfaction to 
me, to h;ear of the happiness and prosperity of themselves and families. 

(Signed) ^< D. Ximenes, Colonel and Commandant. 

« Point de GaUe, Nov. 15th, 1828." 

«^ GENERAL ORDERS. 

" Head-Quarters, Colombo, 22nd Nov. 1828. 
'^ No. 1. The Lieutenant-General cannot allow the 16th Regiment to leave the 
island, without an expression of his high approbation of their conduct and discipline 
during the period of nearly nine years that they have been stationed in it under 
its zealous and able Commanding-officer, Colonel Aimenes, aided and supported by 
so excellent a corps of officers, and with so^ much esprit de corps pervading all ranks. 
The liieutenant-General feels confident that the 1 6th will continue to maintain 
the high reputation which it is so justly entitled to. T. B. Gascoyne, 

D. C. C. G. 



Quere respecting the First Naval Engagement in the Frefich 

War of 1744. 

Mr. Editor. — I have heard it stated, that the first sea engagement in 
the French war of 1744, was fought by Capt. John Emerton, in command of 
one of the Honourable South Sea Company's ships, and that, after an action 
of some hours' duration, the enemy was beat off with great loss ; if you, or 
any of your naval correspondents, can give any information on the subject 
with respect to ships' names, number of guns, men, loss, or other particulais, 
it would afford much satisfaction to a member of the family, and confer a 
particular obligation on, Mr. Editor, 

Your humble servant, 

March 16th, 1831. Investigator. 

Murder of Captain Logan blik Regiment^ by the Natives of New 

South Wales. 

Mr. Editor, — The accompanying documents, relating to the melancholy 
death of Captain Logan, of the 67th Regiment, recently murdered by the 
Natives of New South Wales, having just reached this country, 1 beg to put 
them into your hands for insertion m the United Service Journal, 

Your obedient servant, 

27th May, 1831. T. W. 

Moreton Bay, 8th November, 1830. 

SiR,-^I have the honour to communicate to you the painful and distress- 
ing inteUigence of the death of Captain Logan, who was surprised and killed 
by the Blacks, while on a journey of discovery, about three weeks since. 

As the only remaining 57th Officer now at Moreton Bay, I thought it my 
duty to communicate to you at length the following melancholy particular 
of the last days of a much-lamented friend and officer of the regiment. 

Captain Logan's object on the late journey was, to lay down correctly on 
his chart the windings of the river betwen the Pine Ridge, Lockyer's Creek, 
ai^d the Brisbane Mountain, and to ascertain more correctly the course and 
termination of a creek striking out of the main river at the foot of the BriB- 



254 CORRESPONDBNCB. 

bane Mountain, in a North Easterly direction, and afterwards, (if he met 
with no obstacles,) to proceed to the Pumice Stone River, and the Glass- 
houses, and from thence back to the Settlement. On Saturday 9th of 
October, he left this place, and reached the Limenstone station the same 
night, distant overland twenty-five miles. The next day (Sunday the 10th) 
they all set out upon their journey. The party consisted of Captain 
Logan, Private Collison, 57th regiment, his sen^ant, five prisoners, (all good 
Bushmen) with two pack-buUocks. They travelled fourteen miles this 
day, in a North Westerly direction, and encamped on the Lime-stone side 
of the river. Two or three Blacks were seen near the camp place at night. 
On Monday, the 11th, at seven in the morning, the party left their encamp- 
ment, which was near the river, but they had to proceed four miles further 
up before they could ford it. On approaching the river bank at the ford- 
ing place, the Blacks assembled in great numbers, upwards of 200, and co- 
vered the hill close to where they had to pass, which was on the Lime-stone 
side of the river, and at this place they began to show a hostile feeling, by 
throwing and rolling down large stones on the party on passing, but no 
spears were thrown. At this time Captain Logan was in advance, and find- 
ing he could not proceed, on account of the Natives, he was obliged to fall 
back, and wait the coming up of the party. Collison, his sen^ant, seeing what 
was going forward, fired a shot over their heads to frighten them : this for a 
time had the effect, and they kept more aloof, but while the party were in the 
act of fording the river, the Blacks closed on them again ; he fired another 
shot while in the river, which again had the effect of keeping them off. The 
Natives appeared to know Captain Logan, for as soon as he had crossed, 
they repeatedly called out '^ Commidy Water,'' intimating thereby, it is sup- 
posed, he should go back over the water. They followed at a distance all 
this day, hiding themselves occasionally behind trees, and in the long grass. 
The party then proceeded on to the place where his own horse was lost, on 
the former journey, and encamped about ten miles to the Northward of 
Lockyer's Creek, about half-way between that and Mount Irwin ; here the 
tent was pitched for three days and two nights. On the Tuesday and Wed- 
nesday, the 12th and 13th, no Blacks seen, and nothing of any consequence 
occurred during this time ; the men were distributed in twos in search of the 
lost horse, and Captain Logan was alone exploring in a North-easterly di- 
rection from the Brisbane Mountain. On the morning of Thursday the 14th 
the tent was struck, and all went on towards the Junction, and encamped 
about half a mile from it. No Blacks seen, and nothing particular occurred 
this day. The next day, (Fridiiy,) was employed in traversing a newly-dis- 
covered Creek. On Saturday, the 16th, Captain L^an left the party early 
in the morning on horseback, to explore the new Creek ; he was alone on 
this duty all the day, and in traversing the first, he discovered a second 
Creek ; this perplexed and retarded him for a time, and it was late when 
he returned from the examination of both. On Sunday, the 17 th. Cap- 
tain Logan said he had accomplished all that he could accomplish 
at this time, and by his directions, about seven o'clock this morning, they all 
commenced their return-journey back to the Lime-stone station. At eight 
he left the party, and went away alone, after having previously told Collison 
to make the nearest way for the junction of the river, and that he should 
find the party somewhere about that spot. He fell in with them betwixt 
twelve and one o'clock, much sooner than was expected, and remained with 
them about two hours, travelling in company. No Blacks had then been 
seen ; and on crossing the river a track was perceived, which resembled that 
of a bullock or horse : he then told Collison to go on and pitch the tent on the 
side of a creek, at a spot where they had encamped twelve months before. 
Captain Logan then, for the last time, parted with them to trace the horse 
or bullock track, which led him away in the direction of Mount Irwin ; at 
which place he had been desirous of getting some basaltic formations. 
Collison and the party reached the tent-spot, and encamped about four 
o'clock this afternoon (Sunday,) on the ground previously pointed out by 



CORRESPONDENCE. 255 

Captain Logan : soon afterwards^ the men thought they heard him ** cooey f ' 
they answered him^ and then waited abgut half-an-hour^ when they thought 
they heard him " cooey'' again : he was again answered, and four or five 
shots were fired at intervals during the evening, and the men fancied 
they heard him ** cooey'* in reply two or three times between the shots^ but 
he did not return. The n^xt morning early, (Monday, the 18th,) two men 
were sent down the creek to search, because it was known he must cross 
the creek on returning home ; the men saw the track of his horse in the 
direction of the Lime-stone. It was then taken for granted he had gone 
a-head, towards the above place, after missing the party. The tent was 
then struck, and all pursued their journey back. On this day, Monday; 
about twelve o'clock, nfty or sixty Blacks made their appearance with spears, 
shields, and waddies. They hovered about the party shouting, getting 
behind trees, and endeavouring to close upon the party undiscovered. No 
shots were fired : they continued their course, and, in an hour or two after 
the Blacks went off towards Mount Irwin, which was the direction Captain 
Logan had taken the preceding evening. Nothing more occurred this day ; 
and the partv reached safely the same fording-place they had crossed on 
the Monday before. The encampment this night was chosen on the Pine- 
ridge side of the river, thinking some signs of Captain Logan's track might 
be found on that side ; but nothing was seen. The men then marked the 
trees, and made marks in the sand at the crossing place, to attract his notice 
(if he had not already passed,) that he might find and know the party had 
gone a-head. The men walked one by one after the bullocks, to make their 
track more distinct : this encampment was left on Tuesday morning, and 
nothing occurred between this place and the Lime-stone Station, which the 
party reached on Wednesday aJfternoon. 

Not finding Captain Logan at the above station as was expected, Collison, 
four prisoners, and private Hardacre, 57th regiment, started the next 
morning on a second journey to search for him. The party had light bag- 
gage, and travelled between thirty and forty miles this aay (Thursday 21st), 
and about five o'clock in the evening, they arrived at the camp, where 
Captain Logan's horse was lost on the former journey. The first thing seen 
on reaching the ground, was the saddle laying beside a tree, with the 
stirrup-leathers cut asunder, evidently by a stone tomahawk, and the 
stirrup-irons gone. The saddle was about thirty yards from the remains of 
a fire ; and it appeared to have been taken there by the Blacks, for the pur- 
posiB of cutting it on a fallen tree. A space had been eaten round where 
the horse had been tethered — and there were marks where Captain Logan 
had taken the horse to water. It also appeared that he had roasted some 
chesnuts at this fire : the remains of the roasted chesnuts lay about the 
stump of a tree that had been burning ; and it was at this place the Blacks 
must have surprised him, for his foot-marks were very distinct, with long 
strides, where ne had rushed from the fire to his horse. A further search 
was then made, to see if any signs of struggling or violence could be found ; 
but nothing of the sort appearing, it was then evident he must have jumped 
on his horse bare-backed, and made his escape : the pai-ty then returned to 
the Lime-stone Station, without having seen a Black on the whole journey. 
Being disappointed a second time in not finding him there, another 
party went out, consisting of five soldiers of the 37th and twelve prisoners, to 
traverse the country all about the junction. The second day, (Tuesday,) 
after leaving the Limestone Station, they fell in with another traversing 
party under the direction of Doctor Cooper. Both parties united and tra- 
velled together. On Wednesday they reached the place where the saddle 
was found : Collison, two prisoners, and one soldier, then separated from the 
rest, and on searching about this part they found a place where the Blacks 
had resorted to, but there had been no camp : it was on this plain that the 
back part of Capt. Logan's waistcoat was found covered with blood : part of 
his compass was also found, as well as some leaves of his note-book. Nothing 
else being discovered at this spot, they returned back to the remainder of 



256 CORRBSPONDKNCB. 

the party. On the fullowing morning, (Thursday,) Doctor Cooper, Collison, 
and five or six men, left the camp on another search, and after travellings 
about a mile, the Doctor smelled something very unpleasant ; he made to- 
wards it, and on approaching a small creek with shallow water, he discovered 
the horse dead in the bottom, covered over with boughs ; it appeared a leap 
had been attempted over the creek, and from the way the horse lay he could 
not have reached the other side. The Blacks must have pursued him to this 
place, and the marks were those of a horse in full gallop. One broken spear 
only was found in the opposite bank, and at this spot the Blacks must have 
certainly closed upon him The party then went over the creek, and about 
seven or ten yards from the opposite bank, the body of poor Capt. Logan 
was found. The back of his head appeared to have been much beaten about 
by waddies. The Blacks made him a grave about two feet deep, and buried 
him with his face downwards. The body had been carefully covered over 
by them, but the native dogs had scratched away the earth from his feet, 
which were found quite exposed. No clothes, or any of his covering, was 
found, except his shoes, which were left near him : the grave appeared to 
have been made with some care, and long sticks were laid on each side 
of it. The body was then taken up, put into blankets, and by stages 
brought to the Lime-stone Station, and afterwards by water to the settlement. 
His afflicted family return to Sydney by the '' Governor Phillip." 
To Lieut.-Col. Allan, 1 have the honour to be, &c. 

Commanding 57th Regiment, Signed George Edwards, 

Sydney. Lieut. 57th Regiment. 

GOVERNMENT ORDER. 

Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, 
Sir, Nov. 17, 1830. 

His Excellency the Governor publishes, with feelings of deep concern, the 
following copy of a letter from Capt. Clunie, 17th regiment conveying in- 
telligence of the melancholy fate oi Capt. Logan, 57th regiment, late Com- 
mandant at Moreton Bay, who was murdered by the natives when com- 
pleting a survey which he had commenced last year. 

It would be painful to dwell on the particulars of this distressing event. 
Every one who is capable of estimating Capt. Logan's character, his zeal, 
his chivalrous and undaunted spirit, will deplore it. 

He had held for a period of four years the command at Moreton Bay, a 
situation, from the character of the Settlement, of the most troublesome and 
arduous description. 

He did not, however, confine himself to the immediate duties of his com- 
mand, but had on several occasions, at great personal risk, explored the 
Qountry to a considerable extent. And on one of these discovered a river 
which, in compliment to his services, was named the '^ Logan," as will be 
seen by the Government order of the 16th July 1827. No. 27. 

The circumstances of Capt. Logan's death prove the ai'dour of his charac- 
ter was not to be restrained by personal considerations. His life was de- 
voted to the public service ; professionally he possessed those qualities whidi 
distinguish the best officers, and in the conduct of an extensive public esta- 
blishment, his services were highly important to the Colony. 

The Governor, though he deeply regrets the occasion, is gratified in ex- 
pressing his sentiments of Capt. Logan's character and services. He is 
assured that evenr feeling mind will sympathize with the afflicted widow, 
who, with her infant family, has, by an act of savage barbarity, sustained a 
loss which cannot be repaired. 

As a tribute to the memory of this meritorious officer. His Excellency re- 
quests that the gentlemen of the Civil Service will join the military in at- 
tending the funeral, of which due notice will be given. 

By His Excellency's command, 
(A true Copy.) (Signed) Alexander M*Leay. 

J. Allan, Lieut.-Col. 
Commanding 67th Regiment. 



257 
EDITOR'S PORTFOLIO; 

OR 

NAVAL AND MILITARY REGISTER. 



Affairs at Home and Abroad, under a bushel ? Is there no room 
— The Dissolution of Parliament for Reform amongst the immaculate 
has suspended the principle and JElectors, and must the Constitution 
beaten down the practice of Free alone suffer for the vices of a Con- 
Representation in these Realtns. stituency betraying the most flag- 
In a vast majority of the New rant corruption in those ranks which 
Elections the Mob have been the are the most clamorous for the 
Nominees, returning, at the point " Reform" of every thing — but 
of the bludgeon, a herd of pliant themselves? 

Creatures, " bound hand and foot " As an offset to the preponder* 
to serve as the passive instru- ance of mere unreasoning clamour, 
moots, and syllable the will and and the logic of physical force dur«> 
wisdom, of their Liege Lords. The ing the nomination of the New 
New Parliament will consequently Parliament, the decided verdict of 
resemble rather a Convention of the three Universities — Oxford^ 
Delegates representing a single and Cambridge, and Dublin— each re- 
the lowest order, than a Delibera- turning Constitutional Representa* 
tive Assembly constituted by the tives, affords ground of congratula- 
various classes of the nation. How tion. This honourable fact proves, 
far its decrees may be sanctioned by that where the exercise of deliberate 
the great body of the British Peg- opinion was permitted, reason as- 
PLB (in the true sense of that much sorted its just predominance over 
abused term,) remains to be seen. transient passion. 

One singular result of the New It is especially painful to note 
Elections, contradictory in a signal the moral degeneracy and political 
manner of the avowed objects of Decline of a Great Nation ; but we 
" Reform," appears in the fact, that are bound to record that our Revo- 
the existing system has proved in lution has commenced amidst scenes 
the lat^ struggle sufficiently elastic of savage atrocity and sanctioned ih« 
for the utmost , elans of the '^ Li- timidation at Home: while Abroad 
beral" or Democratic principle, itishailedwith complacent scoffs and 
Here, at least, it has '^worked malicious anticipations by our chuck- 
well" — Reformer and Reformer at ling and no longer envious Rivals, 
one and the same time ! This is as- The state of Ireland generally is 
suredly an unexpected property of a unsettled, that of certain districts 
system so '^ rotten." But is there no is frightful. The fruits of eternal 
rottenness in the puppets of the sys- agitation are apparent in a state of 
tem ? Where has lain the vaunt- excitement now beyond the power 
ed " virtue" of " The People" on even of the Ardi-Agitator to con- 
former occasions? Dazzled as we trol. In Clare and the adjoining 
are, forsooth, by its present blaze. Counties the combined Peasantry 
how comes it that a light so pure have displaced the authority of the 
should have been hitherto hidden Law, and exercise a despotic and 
U. S, Jouhk. No. 31. June 1831. s 



258 editor's portfolio. 

almost undisputed control over the tween France and Austria appears 
lives and properties of the respect- to gain ground, 
able inhabitants of all persuasions. The Sceptre of Belgium re- 
in other times^ perhaps^ this Re- mains still in the market^ neither 
bellion would have been suppressed finally rejected nor accepted by 
with a prompt and strong hand ; Prince Leopold. In consequence 
but in the liberal spirit of the hour^ of the restlessness of the Belgians 
indiscriminate murder and incen- with regard to the Duchy of Lux- 
diarism exercised upon every ob- emburg> and their incessant aggres- 
noxious resident^ the massacre of sions on the Dutch frontiers^ the 
devoted soldiers and policemen^ the Commissioners of the Mediating 
suspension of business and labour^ Powers have addressed a Paper to 
and^ to crown all^ pestilence and the Belgian Congress, couched in 
famine, produced by these very stronger and more explicit terms on 
causes in combination, are looked those points. At Antwerp, some 
upon with folded arms as harmless offensive works having been carried 
ebullitions or wholesome eruptions on towards the citadel, contrary to 
which purify the Body Politic ! In the spirit of the Armistice, General 
this philosophic course shall we pro- Chasse, with the decision which has 
bably proceed till the Body Politic stamped his command throughout^ 
itself be dismembered, and the iso- made a sortie from the citadel, and 
lated Heart of the System, bereft of took possession of the Lunette of 
sound support and vital energy, be St. Laurent upon which those works 
paralyzed and stagnate ! were appuyed. That commander has 

France. — Each revolution of fartherthreatened to repeat the bom- 
the moon produces some new move- bardment of An twerp, should fiurther 
ment— some clash and culmination provocation justify such a measure, 
of the troubled waters of society in Poland. — Circumstances have 
France. The squabbles of children again retarded the decisive shock 
for their brittle baubles are not more between the Russian and Polish 
inept and restless than the caprices armies — ^but the relative situation 
and conflicts of this crazy People, of each proves both that it cannot 
An Ordonnance of the King for re- be far distant, and that the supe- 
gulating the Distribution of a cer- riority rests with the former, 
tain Decoration, to be conferred After the operations described in 
upon the hole and corner Heroes of our last. Count Diebitsch, having 
the '' Three Days," and meant to made fresh arrangements, again ad-» 
produce a highly popular effect, was vanced upon Warsaw, threatening, 
interpreted of course in a different as we anticipated, the right flank of 
spirit by the patriots aforesaid, who Skrzynecki, who retreated with de- 
made the Revolution, as they frank- liberation before him. The Russian 
ly proclaim, by no means for King Commander, however, at the mo- 
Philip, but for certain little pro- ment when his adversaries had sum- 
jects of their own. Hence, another moned their best energies and last 
trooping of the Mob, and a counter- resources for a iinal struggle, and 
display of force and gasconade on when the prize appeared at least 
the part of the Perrier Government, in view, was compelled by the ex- 
La Vendee is again in arms, and hausted state of the country, and 
the French King has been making the prevalence of disease amongst 
a Tour of Conciliation through the his troops, suddenly to discontinue 
Northern Provinces. his forward movement, and again 

The probability of a war be- retire upon his convoys. 



NAVAL AND MILITARY REGISTER. 259 

In the mean time, the corps of Rotal Geographical Society 

the enterprizing Polish partisan, -—April 25th. — Uent. Washington's 

Dwernicki, who had been operating paper on Morocco was concluded. Its 

a successful diversion in Volhynia, inhabitants he divides into six classes 

^11 ji u ^v, Ty • — Moors, Arabs, Shelluhs, Berebbers, 
was hard pressed by the Russian j^^^^ ^^^ Negroes, of each of which 
General Rudiger ; and having been he gives a description. No govern- 
forced to retire within the Neutral mentis more despotic than that of the 
Territory of Gulicia, was constrained Sultan of Morocco, and fortunately for 
to lav down its arms, according to the country, his judgment, which in 
international law, and submit to *^e capital is always passed in person, 
the Austrian Authorities. Having ^^ generally as correct as it is sum- 
placed his opponent Aor.-(fe.com5fl/, Jf^y; They have no standmg army 
fi v> A' » • e but the Sultan s body guard : and when 
Gen. Rudiger 8 corps is of course troops are required, they are called out 
disposable for the general purposes from among the people, but receive no 
of the campaign, while the loss of pay for their services. They carry a 
the forme