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Water Quality 
Indicators Guide: 

Surface Waters 



AD-33 Bookplate 




All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service 
are available without regard to race, color, religion, sex, agi 
marital status, handicap, or national origin. 



United States 
Department of 
Agriculture 



Soil 

Conservation 
Service 



Water Quality 
Indicators Guide: 
Surface Waters 



Charles R. Terrell 
National Water Quality Specialist 
Ecological Sciences Division 
Soil Conservation Service 
Washington. D.C. 



Dr. Patricia Bytnar Perfetti. Head 

Departments of Geoscience and 

Environmental Studies 

Physics and Astronomy 

University of Tennessee — Chattanooga 

Chattanooga. Tennessee 




Issued September 1989 




Soil 

Conservation 
Service 



P.O. Box 2890 
Washington, D C. 
20013 



FOREWORD 



With more than fifty years of experience in soil and related 
resources, the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) is actively involved in 
agriculturally related water quality issues. In recent years as the 
public has become concerned about surface and ground water problems, SCS 
has endeavored to meet water quality needs by developing and transferring 
new and innovative technologies. As part of that new effort the SCS has 
developed the Water Quality Indicators Guide: Surface Waters to aid in 
finding water quality solutions to problems from sediment, animal 
wastes, nutrients, pesticides, and salts. 

With the creation of new laws, such as the Food Security Act of 1985 
and the Water Quality Act of 1987, and many new regulations relating 
agriculture and water quality, SCS needs new tools to address water quality 
situations. The Water Quality Indicators Guide also helps fulfill the 
needs of educators for information and guidance to teach water quality in 
a clear and understandable manner. 

The Water Quality Indicators Guide employs a simplified approach, 
allowing the user to learn the fundamental concepts of water quality 
assessment quickly. The guide extracts basic tenets from many 
disciplines, such as geology, hydrology, biology, ecology, and 
wastewater treatment, and focuses those ideas in making decisions about 
water quality. With the guide the user can assess potential water 
quality conditions without elaborate chemical testing procedures or 
intricate species identification. Then, the user can determine 
possible sources of the problem on adjacent lands, and recommend 
practices for correcting the condition. 

The SCS has backed the guide's qualitative approach with the skills, 
knowledge, and experience of SCS biologists, hydrologists , water quality 
specialists and others from across the Nation. Our hope is that the 
Water Quality Indicators Guide: Surface Waters will prove to be a useful 
tool in making water quality assessments, leading to improved water quality 
and a better environment for all of us. 



ROBERT R. SHAW 
Deputy Chief for Technology 
July 18, 1988 




#V The Soil Conservation Service 
y( jt is an agency ot the 
^^£r Department of Agriculture 



WO-AS-1 
10-79 



i 



Preface 



The Water Quality Indicators Guide: Surface Waters is dedi- 
cated to Vernon M. Hicks, retired Soil Conservation Service 
(SCS) biologist, who fostered the idea of the guide when he was 
National Environmental Coordinator for SCS. As a result of 
many years of service in the South and the Northeastern United 
States, Mr. Hicks recognized the need for SCS field personnel to 
have a guide that allowed the user to recognize surface water 
quality problems easily but reliably, and to select conservation 
and best management practices that help remedy those problems. 
To date, few water quality publications have employed the 
indicator approach where environmental "surrogates" are used to 
represent pollution potentials. However, Mr. Hicks believed that 
environmental conditions could be surveyed without elaborate 
chemical testing procedures, and judgments made based on 
surrogates, concerning the quality of waters. 

The core of the Water Quality Indicators Guide is the field 
sheets and list of associated practices to remedy or abate agricul- 
tural nonpoint source pollution. The field sheets are arranged in 
matrix format with environmental indicators given for sediment, 
animal wastes, nutrients, pesticides, and salts. Each indicator is 
divided into descriptions of the environment from excellent to 
poor, and each description is given a weighted numerical rank- 
ing. The user matches the individual description with what is 
observed in the water or on the land. By totaling the individual 
rankings, a score is obtained indicating the potential for agricul- 
tural nonpoint source problems. Practices can be selected from 
the list to alleviate problem situations. 

With practice, the user of this guide will find that he or she 
can quickly learn water quality assessment procedures through 
the use of the guide's field sheets. With experience, the user's 
ability to assess water quality situations accurately with the field 
sheets will also increase. The guide is flexible, with places on 
the field sheets where the user can insert environmental sur- 
rogates representing local environmental conditions. 



Charles R. Terrell 

National Water Quality Specialist 

Soil Conservation Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington, D.C. 

July 18, 1988 



Contents 



943191 



Introduction iv 

Chapter 1 - Pollution Related to Agriculture 1 

Chapter 2 - Water Quality Field Analysis 9 

Chapter 3 - Ecology of Freshwater Systems 17 

Chapter 4 - Sediment 19 

Chapter 5 - Nutrients 23 

Chapter 6 - Pesticides 29 

Chapter 7 - Animal Wastes 33 

Chapter 8 - Salts 37 

Appendix A - Water Quality Procedures 43 

Appendix B - Aquatic Organisms 4M 

Appendix C - Glossary 78 

Appendix D - References 81 

Appendix E - Conservation and Best Management 

Practices 84 

Appendix F - Field Sheets 88 



iii 



Introduction 



Audience and Purpose of This Guide 

The Water Quality Indicators Guide: Surface Waters is in- 
tended for the district conservationists and other field personnel 
of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS). It is designed to help 
field personnel recognize agricultural nonpoint source problems 
and their potential causes, and to give corrective measures. The 
Indicators Guide is meant to complement SCS's previously pub- 
lished Water Quality Field Guide (SCS-TP-160). Together, these 
two guides provide a comprehensive examination of surface 
water agricultural nonpoint problems and possible solutions. 

The Role of the Soil Conservation Service in Water Quality 

Throughout the history of the Soil Conservation Service, 
Congress has authorized SCS to provide water quality improve- 
ments through flood and pollution control. Much of SCS's work 
in water quality began in the early 1970's as a result of growing 
public concern about agriculturally related pollution. SCS assist- 
ed State and local efforts to develop agricultural plans under 
Section 208 of the Clean Water Act of 1977. 

Both the Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act of 
1977 and the Agriculture and Food Act (1981 farm bill) 
strengthened SCS's role in setting clean water objectives. More 
water efforts are cited in the Food Security Act of 1985 (1985 
farm bill) that has important implications for SCS's future activi- 
ties concerning water quantity and quality. 

A Note to the User of This Guide 

The Water Quality Indicators Guide examines five major 
sources of agriculturally related nonpoint source pollution- 
sediment, nutrients, animal waste, pesticides, and salts. Field 
sheets are provided to enable the user to assess surface water 
quality problems easily and accurately and to select appropriate 
remedial practices. The field sheet concept was adapted from a 
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources methodology (ref. 
1-1). The field sheets are completed in the field through onsite 
observations, rather than chemical or physical measurements. 
Conservation and best management practices (BMP's) are 



recommended to reduce or eliminate nonpoint source pollution 
originating from agricultural lands. 

This type of approach may be sufficient in some instances to 
confirm that a particular nonpoint source pollution problem ex- 
ists. In other instances, it may lead you to suspect a given pollu- 
tant, which can then be confirmed or denied by additional 
scientific analysis. When available, dissolved oxygen meters, sa- 
linity and conductivity meters, and field test kits may be used to 
supplement the Water Quality Indicators Guide field sheets. 
However, acceptable determinations can be made by using the 
field sheets without test kits or meters. When a particular non- 
point source pollutant is identified, the user of this guide is 
directed to possible solutions (conservation and best management 
practices), which are listed by number on the field sheets. 

There are two types of field sheets: one type for receiving 
waters, including streams, rivers, lakes, and ponds; and another 
type for use on agricultural lands draining into the receiving 
waters. Chapter 1 reviews the overall distribution of agricultural 
nonpoint source problems. Chapter 2 gives a history of the 
water quality indicators approach and gives some general limita- 
tions of the Water Quality Indicators Guide: Surface Waters. In- 
structions for the water-based "A" type field sheets and for the 
land-based "B" type field sheets are contained in chapter 2. 
Chapter 3 presents background ecological information about 
aquatic ecosystems, especially stream systems. 

Chapters 4 through 8 discuss the five major pollutants- 
sediment, nutrients, pesticides, animal wastes, and salts. These 
chapters discuss in detail the water quality indicators enumerated 
in the water-based "A" series of field sheets. It is assumed that 
Soil Conservation Service district conservationists and other field 
personnel will be familiar with the terminology given in the 
land-based "B" field sheets, so few specific instructions are 
given for the "B" field sheets. The "B" field sheets are 
designed to assess the pollutant generation potential of a particu- 
lar field or pasture and are completed in the same way as the 
"A" field sheets. As an aid, a glossary of terms appears in ap- 
pendix C. 



IV 



Chapter 1 

Pollution Related to Agriculture 



Recent reports acknowledge that a principal water quality 
problem in our Nation is nonpoint source pollution. The U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency defines nonpoint source (NPS) 
pollution as precipitation-driven stormwater runoff, generated by 
land-based activities, such as agriculture, construction, mining, 
and silviculture. Agricultural nonpoint sources are crop and 
animal production activities. These activities result in diffuse 
runoff, seepage, or percolation of pollutants from the land to 
surface and ground waters (ref. 1-2). Problems relating to 
agricultural nonpoint source pollution can be observed in the 
entire range of water bodies from estuaries to lakes and 



impoundments, to rivers, streams, and even farm ponds. Ground 
water is also vulnerable to pollution. Contaminated wells and 
drinking water supplies are now being identified. 

In general, water quality problems result from five categories 
of agriculturally related nonpoint source pollution: sediment, 
nutrients, animal wastes, pesticides, and salts. Figure 1-1 shows 
the geographic potential for nonpoint source pollution of surface 
waters. The potential for agricultural nonpoint source pollution 
problems, according to SCS's Second Resources Conservation 
Act (RCA) Appraisal report (ref. 1-3), is shown in figures 1-2 
through 1-7: 



Figure 1 -1 

Composite Potential for Nonpoint Source Pollution of Surface Waters. 



Potential 



■ - High 

ESS - Medium 
□ - Low 



An area with a "low" composite rating could have a high 
rating for a specific contaminant. Ratings were made for multi- 
county watershed areas and do not identify more localized 
problems. 



1 



Figure 1-2 



Potential for Pesticide Problems. 




The potential for surface water pollution by pesticides was 
estimated by multiplying the crop acreages in each area by 
pesticide application coefficients for 184 pesticides. These values 
were multiplied by an availability factor that estimated the 
percentage of an application leaving a field and were adjusted by 
a runoff value for the growing season. Pollution potential is 
estimated for each watershed as a whole; localized conditions 
may be masked by aggregation. To confirm the existence of 
pesticide pollution, stream and lake monitoring would be 
necessary. 



2 



Figure 1 -3 



Tons of Manure Per Acre of Cropland and Grassland. 




The number of each type of animal in a county (from the 
1982 Agricultural Census) was multiplied by the appropriate 
manure production factor. The amounts of manure produced by 
all the county's livestock were totaled and aggregated by area; 
the total was divided by the acreage of cropland plus grassland 
(from the Agricultural Census) in each area. 



3 



Figure 1-4 



Potential for Animal Waste Problems. 




The figure shows potential for pollution resulting from 
animal wastes, taking into account percentage of manure 
needing improved management, percentage of cropland and 
grassland associated with animal enterprises, runoff from 
precipitation, ratio of feed purchased to feed produced on farm, 
and ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus available from manure to 
nitrogen and phosphorus needed by crops. 



4 



Figure 1 -5 



Potential for Nutrient Problems. 




Source: WATSTORE (U S Geological Survey data from water quality stations. Ref 1 -4) 



The potential for impairment of water quality was estimated 
by determining nutrient concentrations, by form, and comparing 
them with the respective threshold levels at which they threaten 
desired water uses. Data on nutrient concentrations were taken 
from WATSTORE (U.S. Geological Survey data from water 
quality stations). Stations were primarily National Stream 
Quality Accounting Network stations at the downstream and of 
hydrologic accounting units. Estimates of pollution potential are 
for the watershed as a whole and may not reflect localized 
conditions. 



5 



Figure 1 -6 



Estimated Sediment Yield. 




Sources: (1) 1982 National Resources Inventory (USDA-SCS, 1984, Ref. 1-5). 

(2) USGS Surface Soil Surveys (Ref. 1 -6). 

(3) USDA Soil Survey Laboratory Data State Reports (Ref. 1-7). 



Estimated sheet and rill erosion rates reported in the 1 982 
NRI were adjusted to county boundaries. Sediment delivery for 
each county and land use was estimated using state sediment 
delivery curves developed for the 1977 NRI. Sediment delivery 
rates are assumed to be higher in areas where streams are more 
numerous and closely spaced and where the surface soils have a 
higher percentage of fine particles (silt and clay). Data from 
USGS Surface Soil Surveys and USDA Soil Survey laboratory 
data were analyzed also. 



6 



Figure 1 -7 



Potential for Salinity Problems. 




Sources: (1) U S Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations in ASAs (Ref 1-8) 
(2) Published and unpublished data from EPA and USGS 



To assess potential, indicators of total dissolved solids, 
adjusted sodium adsorption, and chloride concentration were 
checked and total solid loads were analyzed using data for 
agricultural acreages, areas affected by saline or sodic soils, and 
irrigated acres as modifying and or contributing factors. Data 
analyzed were taken from the U.S. Geological Survey National 
Stream Quality Accounting Network stations and published and 
unpublished data from EPA and USGS. 



Chapter 2 

Water Quality Field Analysis 



History of the Indicators Approach 

Two centuries ago, when the U.S. population was small, the 
number of farmers and farm animals was also small. Agricultur- 
al wastes did not overload streams or other receiving water bod- 
ies. In those days, streams cleansed themselves naturally. Today, 
with the increasing complexity of farms, many watercourses and 
water bodies are unable to cope with the pollution loads being 
generated. 

The SCS Water Quality Indicators Guide: Surface Waters is 
designed to determine by means of an indicators approach 
whether farm-generated materials are a problem. Water pollution 
investigators have used this type of approach since the turn of 
the century. At the heart of this approach is a comparison of 
water quality conditions above and below a suspected source of 
pollution. In most instances, the suspected source may be a 
"point" source pollution: that is. a type of pollution that can be 
readily identified as coming from a discrete source, such as a 
discharging pipe (e.g., a sewage outfall). 

The Water Quality- Indicators Guide adapts this approach for 
use with nonpoint source pollution— pollutants whose sources are 
diffuse and not readily identifiable. Nonpoint source pollutants 
include those substances which run off, wash off. or seep 
through the ground into receiving watercourses and water bod- 
ies. Agricultural nonpoint source pollution tends to wash or run 
off large tracts of cropland, pastures, feedlots, etc., and the con- 
ditions leading to pollution are highly variable. 

One of the most important pollution variables is flow. In 
nonirrigated regions, loadings of the most common nonpoint 
source pollutants in a small stream tend to be proportional to the 
amount of runoff. Runoff, in turn, varies with conditions, such 
as: (1) amount of snow melt or rainfall; (2) rate of snowmelt or 
rainfall; (3) soil type, condition, slope, vegetative cover, and 
land use: (4) time elapsed since the previous storm; and (5) 
seasonal timing and intensity of storm events. 

Not only are the timing and extent of nonpoint source pollu- 
tion events highly variable, but the effects of nonpoint source 
pollutants, either singly or in combination, are also variable. 
The effect of a given pollutant on water quality depends upon 
local site-specific environmental conditions: that is, on the local 
geology and the physical chemical characteristics of the nearby 
water. 

Both water quality and rate of flow influence the types of 
organisms that inhabit a given watercourse or water body . Or- 
ganisms respond to many local environmental conditions, includ- 
ing climate, habitat availability, streambed type. etc. The 
ecology of watercourses is discussed in the next chapter. 

Limitations of the Water Quality Indicators Guide 

The Water Quality Indicators Guide was written to cover 
the entire United States, so it is general by intent. It can be ex- 
pected that a particular stream or pond may deviate from the 
norms presented and will require the user to make adjustments 
for local situations. However, the guide has been field tested in 
five States across the Nation and by individual Soil Conservation 
Service personnel from many other States. The ideas, sugges- 
tions, and comments from those tests have been incorporated 
into this version. The Indicators Guide is not a research tool, 
nor does it give quantitative data, but as a qualitative tool and as 
an educational or learning device, it will aid the user in evaluat- 
ing agricultural nonpoint source pollution problems. 



This guide is especially limited where water flow rates are 
excessively low or high. In ephemeral or intermittent streams, 
some parts of this guide, such as observing fish, vegetation, or 
bottom invertebrates, cannot be used. The guide's use may be 
limited in heavily silted, mud-bottom streams, where the silt's 
presence provides an unsuitable habitat for many species. Also, 
heavy siltation of the water can "mask" the effects of nutrients 
that may be present, by shutting out light that normally would 
reach aquatic vegetation, allowing its growth. Thus, the 
vegetational part of the nutrient field sheet may not work well in 
heavily silted waters. In these cases, chemical testing may be 
necessary to determine nutrient levels. 

Description of the Field Sheets 

The heart of the SCS W ater Quality Indicators Guide: 
Surface Waters is a series of field sheets (appendix F). The field 
sheets relate to surface water quality and are designed to help 
field personnel assess the degree of contribution to receiving 
waters from agriculturally related pollutants, namely sediment, 
animal waste, nutrients, pesticides, and salts. The receiving 
watercourses are natural streams, constructed channels, or 
receiving water bodies, such as ponds or lakes. 

The field sheets are of two types: "A" and "B." The five 
"A" field sheets are designed to assess the effects of pollutants 
to receiving waters. These are water-based field sheets and 
should be completed onsite. following visual inspection of the 
receiving water. 

By contrast, the seven "B" field sheets are land-based and 
are designed to assess the pollutant potential of a particular field 
or pasture: i.e.. how likely it is that an agriculturally produced 
pollutant will be carried from a given field or pasture to a 
receiving watercourse or water body, or to ground water. There 
are more "B" field sheets than "A" sheets, because some land- 
based activities or environmental conditions required special em- 
phasis. 

Procedure for Field Analysis 

NOTE: Do not write on the original field sheets. Make a copy 
of each field sheet before proceeding and write on the copies. 

Step 1. Begin by completing the background information section 
(part 1 ) of the "Watershed Assessment." Although the 
Watershed Assessment was designed to be used w ith natural 
perennial streams, it can be adapted for use on either inter- 
mittent or ephemeral streams or on constructed waterways. 

Please note that this evaluation cannot be made in the office. 
It must be made onsite. in the field. If you lack some of the 
necessary information, seek it from the landowner or opera- 
tor, county agricultural extension agent, biologist, or other 
knowledgeable person. 

Step 2. The "On-Farm (Ranch) Water Assessment" should be 
completed for each farm or ranch visited. 

Step 3. Next, do a preliminary assessment of possible nonpoint 
source impacts by answering the questions asked in the 
"Watercourses" or "Water Bodies" Field Sheet Selection 
(part 2). If any of the questions in pan 2 of the assessment 
receives a "yes" answer, then it is likely that the receiving 
water is being adversely affected by the pollutant indicated in 
the last column under the heading "Probable Cause." You 



9 



can verify this by completing the field sheets for this particu- 
lar pollutant. 

Please note that it is much easier to determine nonpoint 
source (NPS) pollution effects on standing (lentic) water, 
such as lakes or ponds, than for flowing (lotic) water, be- 
cause standing water has a longer residence time (time that 
water remains in the water body), giving pollutants time to 
react. 

Step 4. Proceed to the field sheets. If you are confident of your 
"no" answers in part 2 of the above assessment, you need to 
complete only those field sheets corresponding to the ques- 
tions (pollutants) for which you marked either a "yes" or 
"can't tell" answer. For example, there will not be an 
animal waste problem if a particular farm or ranch has no 
animals and the owner or operator does not import animal 
waste. Obviously, in this case, none of the animal waste field 
sheets (2A, 2B,, 2B 2 ) needs to be completed. If you are not 
confident that any of the pollutants should be eliminated as 
possible contributors of NPS pollution in a particular situa- 
tion, complete all of the field sheets. 

To learn how to use the sheets, it is recommended that you 
go through all of them at least once, including those for pol- 
lutants that have just a small possibility of affecting the 
watercourse or water body. This will allow you to gain 
familiarity with the sheets. With practice, using the sheets 
will become second nature to you, and you will complete 
them very quickly. 

Filling Out the Field Sheets 

TYPE A FIELD SHEETS 
If upon completing part 2 of the watercourse (or water 
body) assessment you determined that sediment is probably ad- 
versely affecting the water, you should begin by focusing on the 
water-based Field Sheet 1A: "Sediment Indicators for Receiving 
Watercourses and Water Bodies (fig. 2-1)." Please take time 
now to look at this sheet. Outlined below is how you should use 
it. The sheet has answers circled in the way that should be done 
in the field. 

For each field sheet, you are asked to complete the blanks 
at the top of the sheet which identify you, the evaluator, the 
county. State, etc. Notice that in the left column. Field Sheet 1A 
lists six different indicators or rating items with four possible 
options for item number 3. You will examine one indicator at a 
time and judge whether the water quality at this particular site 
ranks as excellent, good, fair, or poor regarding that particular 
indicator. Please note that these sheets should be completed in 
the field at the water's edge and not in the office. 

A standing water body is fairly easy to assess for nonpoint 
source pollutant impacts. Flowing waters are not as easy to 
evaluate. The best place to observe a receiving watercourse is 
downstream of the pollutant sources. The exact point down- 
stream from which to observe varies. If the water flow is very 
rapid, you may have to make observations at a distance down- 
stream where the flow is slower. This is especially true when 
using the Nutrient Field Sheet (3A) because the effects from ex- 
cessive nutrients often do not show in flowing waters until the 
flow rate is slow. 



In completing Field Sheet 1A, it would be best to station 
yourself beside the stream (fig. 2-2) at the spot indicated by the 
*A. If the stream is flowing rapidly, flushing away pollutants 
very quickly, it may be necessary to walk downstream or up- 
stream, observing indicators as you go. For ponds and lakes, it 
is best to observe from a site that allows a bird's-eye view of 
the whole water body, as well as from the water's edge. 

The first indicator or ranking item on Field Sheet 1A for 
sediment is turbidity. Note that an indication of nonpoint source 
sediment pollution can most accurately be assessed only during 
or immediately following a storm event. Ask yourself, "What 
does the water look like at this particular site immediately after 
a storm?" Do you see "conditions normally expected under 
pristine conditions in your geographic region?" Is the water 
"clear or very slightly muddy after a storm event" or are "ob- 
jects visible at depths greater than 3 to 6 feet (depending on 
water color)," such as described under the EXCELLENT head- 
ing? Or do the descriptors under the GOOD category more 
closely approximate conditions in your area; i.e., the water is 
' 'what is expected for properly managed agricultural land in 
your geographic region?" Is the water "a little muddy after a 
storm event but clears rapidly" or are "objects visible at depths 
between 1-1/2 to 3 feet (depending on water color)?" Are the 
conditions at this site better described by the descriptors under 
the headings of FAIR or POOR? Having read all four definitions 
under each of the four ratings, decide which of the four BEST 
describes the condition of the watercourse or body which you 
are evaluating and circle the number in the bottom of the box 
for that particular rating. 

Follow the procedure outlined above for the turbidity 
parameter with each of the other five rating items on the Sedi- 
ment Field Sheet 1A. When you have completed the entire 
sheet, add the circled numbers to obtain a total for the entire 
field sheet. This total should fall into one of the four ranking 
categories (excellent, good, fair, or poor) given at the very bot- 
tom of each field sheet. For example, if the total score was 
"8," record an "8/Poor" in the upper right-hand corner of the 
field sheet by "Total Score/Rank." What this says is that the 
water being evaluated is in a "poor" condition relative to 
sediment— or that sediment is greatly impacting the water at this 
site. 

Design and Tailoring of the Indicator Guide Field Sheets To 
Fit Your Region 

Please note that the field sheets are designed to be used for 
both flowing water and standing water across the entire United 
States. To use the sheets throughout this exceedingly diverse ge- 
ographic area and for flowing and standing waters, it was neces- 
sary to include several descriptors per indicator (rating item) in 
each of the four categories (excellent, good, fair, and poor). 
These descriptors will rarely fit all given situations in a particu- 
lar geographic area. In fact, some of the options within the same 
rank might at first appear contradictory if you fail to distinguish 
between standing and flowing water. Be especially careful when 
reading these descriptors and be sure to select the option which 
BEST or most closely matches the site specific conditions of the 
water you are assessing. 

If the condition of the water in your locality really falls be- 
tween two options or has about half of the characteristics of two 
options, you may "split" a score. You may want to add one or 
two other descriptors to all four options of a rating item. These 



10 



Figure 2-1 



Sediment Page i of 2 



FIELD SHEET 1A: SEDIMENT 
INDICATORS FOR RECEIVING WATERCOURSES AND WATER BODIES 



Evaluaior 
Water Body 
Rating Item 



ly Evaluated r&nOL 



Excellent 



Water Body Location 
Good 



County/ State DuL^fikifj j PA 



Fair 



Let. 40° 

Urn. 76' 40'00' 

Date 

Total Score/Rank 

Poor 



(Circle one number among the four choices in each row whic 
water body being evaluated If a condition has characteristics 



h BEST describes the conditions 
of two categories, you can "split 1 



of the watercourse or 
' a score.) 



1 Turbidity 
(best 
observed 
immediately 
following a 
storm event) 


-- What is expected under 
pristine conditions in 
your region 

-- Clear or very slightly 
muddy after storm event 

-- Obiects visible at depths 
greater than 3 to 6 ft 
(depending on water color) 

-- OTHER 

9 


-- What is expected for 

properly managed 

agricultural land in 

your region 
— A little muddy after storm 

event but clears rapidly. 
-- Objects visible at depths 

between 1 V4 to 3 ft 

(depending on water color). 

-- OTHER ^_ 


-- A considerable increase 
in turbidity for your 
region. 

-- Considerable muddiness 

after a storm event 

Stays slightly muddy most 

of the time. 
-- Objects visible to depths 

of Vi to 1 '/2 ft 

(depending on water color). 
- OTHER 

3 


-- A significant increase 

in turbidity for your 

region. 
-- Very muddy — sediment 

stays suspended most 

of the time. 
-- Objects visible to 

depths less than Vi ft 

(depending on water 

color). 
- OTHER 




2. Bank 
stability in 
your viewing 
area 


-- Bank stabilized 

-- No bank sloughing. 

-- Bank armored with vegetation. 

roots, brush, grass, etc 
-- No exposed tree roots 

-- OTHER 

10 


-- Some bank instability. 
-- Occasional sloughing 
-- Bank well-vegetated 
-- Some exposed tree roots 

- OTHER / « N 

CD 


-- Bank instability common. 

-- Sloughing common. 

-- Bank sparsely vegetated 

-- Many exposed tree roots & 
some fallen trees or 
missing fence corners, etc. 

-- Channel cross-section 

becomes more U-shaped as 
opposed to V-shaped 

-- OTHER 

4 


-- Significant bank 

instability. 
-- Massive sloughing. 
-- No vegetation on bank. 
-- Many fallen trees. 

eroded culverts, downed 

fences, etc. 
-- Channel cross-section 

is U-shaped and stream 

course or gully may be 

meandering. 
-- OTHER 

1 


3 Deposition 
(Circle a number 
in only A, B. 
C. or D) 

3A Rock or 
gravel 

511 era 1 1 19 

OR 


SELECT 3A OR : 

A. For rock and gravel 

bottom streams: 
-- Less than 10% burial of 

gravels, cobbles, and rocks 
-- Pools essentially sediment 

free. 

9 


SB OR 3C OR 3D 

A. For rock and gravel 

bottom streams 
-- Between 10% & 25% burial 

of gravels, cobbles. & 

rocks. 

— Pools with light dusting 
of sediment 

7 


A For rock & gravel 

bottom streams. 
-- Between 25% and 50% burial 

of gravels, cobbles and 

rock 

-- Pools with a heavy coating 
of sediment 

3 


A For rock & gravel 

bottom streams: 
-- Greater than 50% burial 

of gravels, cobbles and 

rocks. 

-- Few if any deep pools 
present 

1 


3B Sandy bottom 
streams 

OR 


B. For sandy streambeds: 

-- Sand bars stable and com- 
pletely vegetated 

-- No mudcaps or "drapes" 
(coverings of fine mud). 

-- No mud plastering of banks; 
exposed parent material. 

-- No deltas 

9 


B For sandy streambeds 
-- Sand bars essentially 

stable and well, but not 

completely, vegetated 
-- Occasional mudcaps or 

"drapes " 
-- Some mud plastering of 

banks. 
-- Beginnings of delta 

formation 

7 


B For sandy streambeds: 
-- Sand bars unstable with 

sparse vegetation. 
-- Mudcaps or "drapes" 

common 
-- Considerable mud plastering 

of banks. 
-- Significant delta 

formation 

3 


B For sandy streambeds: 
-- Sand bars unstable and 

actively moving with 

no vegetation 
-- Extensive mudcaps or 

"drapes " 
-- Extensive mud plastering 

of banks 
-- Extensive deltas. 

1 


3C Mud-bottom 
streams 

OR 


C. For mud bottom streams: 
-- Dark brown/black tanic- 

colored water (due to presence 

of lignins and tanins) 
-- Abundant emergent rooted 

aquatics or floating 

vegetation 

9 


C For mud bottom streams: 
-- Dark brown colored water 

7 


C. For mud bottom streams: 
-- Medium brown water, muddy 
bottom. 

3 


C. For mud bottom streams: 
-- Light brown colored, 
very muddy bottom. 

1 



11 



Figure 2-1 



Sediment Page 2 of 2 



FIELD SHEET 1A: SEDIMENT, Continued 
INDICATORS FOR RECEIVING WATERCOURSES AND WATER BODIES 



Rating Item 


Excellent 


Good 


Fair 


Poor 


3D. Ponds 


-- Ponds essentially sediment 
free. 

-- No reduction in pond 
storage capacity 


-- Ponds with light 
dusting of sediment. 

-- Very little loss in pond 
storage capacity. 


-- Ponds with a heavy 
coating of sediment. 

-- Some measurable loss in 
pond storage capacity. 


-- Ponds filled with 

sediment. 
-- Significant reduction in 

pool storage capacity. 




-- OTHER 

9 


-- OTHER 

7 


-- OTHER 

<D 


-- OTHER 

1 


4. Type and 
amount of 
aquatic 
vegetation & 
condition of 
periphyton 
(plants, 
growing on 
other plants, 
twigs, 

stones, etc.) 


-- Periphyton bright green to 

black. Robust. 
-- Abundant emergent rooted 

aquatics or shoreline 

vegetation. 
-- In ponds, emergent rooted 

aquatics (e g cattails, 

arrowhead, pickerelweed, 

etc.) present, but in 

localized patches 

-- OTHER 

9 


-- Periphyton pale green and 
spindly 

-- Emergent rooted aquatics 
or shoreline vegetation 
common. 

-- In ponds, emergent rooted 
aquatics common, but 
confined to well-defined 
band along shore 

-- OTHER 

0) 


-- Periphyton very light 
colored or brownish and 
significantly dwarfed. 

-- Sparse vegetation. 

-- In ponds, emergent rooted 
aquatics abundant in wide 
bank, encroachment of dry 
land species (grasses, 
etc ) along shore 

-- OTHER 

5 


-- No periphyton. 
-- No vegetation 
-- In ponds, emergent 

rooted aquatics 

predominant with heavy 

encroachment of dry 

land species. 

-- OTHER 

2 



OPTIONAL: 



5 Bottom 


- Stable. 


-- Slight fluctuation of 


-- Considerable fluctuation 


-- Significant fluctuation 


stability of 


-- Less than 5% of stream reach 


streambed up or down 


of streambed up or down 


of streambed up or down 


streams 


has evidence of scouring or 


(aggradation or degrada- 


(aggradation or degrada- 


(aggradation or degra- 




silting 


tion). 


tion). 


dation). 






-- Between 5-30% of stream 


-- Scoured or silted areas 


-- More than 50% of stream 






reach has evidence of 


covering 30-50% of 


reach affected by 






scouring or silting. 


evaluated stream reach. 
-- Flooding more common than 
usual. 

-- More stream braiding than 
usual for region 


scouring or deposition. 
-- Flooding very common. 
-- Significantly more 

stream braiding than 

usual for region. 




-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 




9 


7 


3 


1 


OPTIONAL: 










6 Bottom 


-- Intolerant species occur: 


-- A mix of tolerants: 


-- Many tolerants (snails, 


-- Only tolerants or very 


dwelling 


mayflies, stonefiles, 


shrimp, damselflies, 


shrimp, damselflies, 


tolerants: midges. 


aquatic 


caddisflies, water penny, 


dragonflies, black flies. 


dragon flies, black flies). 


craneflies, horseflies, 


organisms 


riffle beetle and a mix 


-- Intolerants rare. 


-- Mainly tolerants and some 


rat-tailed maggots, or 




of tolerants. 


-- Moderate diversity. 


very tolerants. 


none at all. 




-- High diversity. 




-- Intolerants rare. 

-- Reduced diversity with 
occasional upsurges of 
tolerants, e.g. tube worms 
and chironomids. 


-- Very reduced diversity; 
upsurges of very 
tolerants common. 




-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 


- OTHER 


-- OTHER 




9 


7 


3 


1 



1 . Add the circled Rating Item scores to get a total for the field sheet. 2^ 

2. Check the ranking for this site based on the total field score. (Check "excellent" if the score totals at least 32. Check "good" if the score falls between 21 and 31 , etc.) 
Record your total score and rank (excellent good, etc.) in the upper right-hand corner of the field sheet. If a Rating Item is "fair" or "poor," complete Field Sheet 1 B. 



RANKING 

OPTIONAL RANKING 
(with #5 OR #6) 
OPTIONAL RANKING 
(with #5 AND #6) 



Excellent (32-37) | 
Excellent (40-46) | 

Excellent (48-55) | 



Good (21-31) [ 24 
Good (26-39) [ 

Good (31-47) [ 



Fair( 9-20) [ 
Fair (11 -25) | 

Fair (13-30) [ 



Poor ( 8 or less) [ 
Poor (10 or less) [ 

Poor (12 or less) [ 



12 




& complete "A" 
sheets here 



Sediment deposits cause shallow, wide watercourse 
(braided condition) 



13 



other options apply to your particular geographic region and pre- 
cisely define particular water quality situations. The word 
"OTHER" that has been included in each block on each field 
sheet means that you are free to adapt the field sheets to your 
particular region or locale. Note also that if none of the descrip- 
tors fit, you can resort to rankings relative to your geographic 
region, such as the first ones given for the turbidity indicator on 
Field Sheet 1A: Sediment. 

One last point— A field sheet, like any other tool or instru- 
ment, is only as good as the person using it. This is true of the 
use of these field sheets. Those who take the time to learn how 
to use the Water Quality Indicators Guide field sheets will 
quickly become proficient in their use. Based on your experience 
with the sheets, you will start to make judgments about water 
quality and will develop an "intuitive feel" for the water's con- 
dition. Rely on this judgment, even if it means altering the field 
sheets. 

Remember that the field sheets are only as good a tool as 
you make them, especially concerning local conditions. 

Given that water is severely polluted by sediment, how can 
we know that the sediment is coming from agriculturally related 
activities? If it is related to agriculture, how can we correct the 
problem and improve water quality? To answer these questions, 
turn to the "B" field sheets. 

TYPE B FIELD SHEETS 

Assumption. Before using the series "B" field sheets, it is 
important to recognize that underlying the design of the overall 
field analysis is the assumption that we are striving for water of 
fishable/swimmable qualities— a goal established in the Federal 
Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and iterated in the 1987 
Water Quality Act Amendments. While geographic and site- 
specific conditions might cause us to accept a "good" rating in 
some instances, we should not be satisfied with a water quality 
rating of "fair" or "poor." 

The "B" field sheets should be completed in all cases 
where water quality ranks lower than what is expected regional- 
ly under naturally occurring pristine conditions for any of the 
five major agricultural pollutants. While in many cases the 
pristine condition will receive an excellent rating, in other cases 
naturally occurring conditions (geologic, topographic, etc.) pre- 
vent the waters from ever being "excellent" (fishable/swimma- 
ble). It is important to be able to distinguish between naturally 
occurring and human-induced limitations to water use. It may be 
difficult to determine what constitutes "pristine" conditions for 
your area. If you do not know or are not sure, be sure to con- 
sult with local experts in the water quality field. Call the SCS 
State Office Water Quality Specialist or Biologist or the 
specialists at the SCS National Technical Centers. Every State 
has a water pollution control agency, although the names vary. 



Specialists in these offices are most willing to assist. Additional- 
ly, many local colleges and universities have environmental and 
water quality experts who can be of great help. 

The "B" field sheets allow an on-farm or on-ranch assess- 
ment (fig. 2-3) of the five major agriculturally related contribu- 
tors of pollution. Recommendations for improving problem 
situations are given in the last column of each sheet under 
"Practices from appendix E" (conservation and best manage- 
ment practices, ref. B-6). Figure 2-3 is completed with circled 
answers in the way that was done on Field Sheet 1A. 

Other than the list of conservation and best management 
practices (BMP's) in the last column, the format for the "B" 
series is identical to that for the "A" series. Therefore, the 
procedure outlined above for use with the "A" field sheets 
should also be used in completing the "B" sheets. 

The "B" sheets should be completed onsite. If a conserva- 
tion plan exists for a given property, it would be helpful to have 
it in hand while completing the "B" field sheets. A soil survey 
of the area would also be helpful if you are not familiar with the 
land tract. You may want to briefly reconnoiter the tract of 
land. Previous experience with this particular property owner or 
manager and prior knowledge of the property will prove in- 
valuable. 

Based on your previous knowledge of the land or your re- 
cent reconnaissance, define a "representative" field which 
drains into a watercourse or water body you have judged to be 
polluted by use of the "A" field sheets. That is, choose an area 
large enough to give an appropriate numerical weighting to both 
properly and poorly managed areas. Then proceed to complete 
the appropriate "B" field sheet relative to the field that you just 
defined. While a sample field size should be representative, it is 
recommended to select for your observation site a location 
where you could expect to find a pollutant. For example, if you 
were assessing nutrients or pesticides, you might stand in the 
middle of the row crops, as shown in figure 2-2, where the B* 
is indicated. If you were interested in sediment pollution, you 
might position yourself in or near a recently plowed field. 

If scores for any of the indicators (rating items) were ranked 
less than "good" or "excellent," you will want to consider 
recommending to the property owner or user one or more of the 
conservation or BMP's listed in the right-hand column of the 
sheet for that particular rating item. The practices listed are by 
no means exhaustive and may not be entirely suitable to your lo- 
cality. Therefore, you will need to evaluate the suggested prac- 
tices, selecting those that you consider to be appropriate to the 
given situation and adding others that may be lacking. 



14 



Figure 2-3 



Sediment 



FIELD SHEET 1 B: SEDIMENT 
INDICATORS FOR CROPLAND. HAYLAND OR PASTURE 



Ut. 40' 37' JO" 
Ion. 76* 40' OO- 



Evaluator 



Field Evaluated WilSOA 
Rating Item 



Excellent 



Field Location _ 
Good 



. County/StateDan^K'n, PA 
L yk £A S,PA 



Fair 



Date is Apr. 83 

Total Score/ Rank3£6fl<?flt 

Poor 



Practices 
from 
Appendix E 



(Circle one number among the four choices in each row which BEST describes the conditions of the field or 
area being evaluated. If a condition has characteristics of two categories, you can "split" a score.) 



1. Erosion 
Potential 



2 Runoff 
Potential 



Not significant 
Less than T (tolerance); little 
sheet, rill, or furrow erosion. 
No gullies. 



OTHER 



10 



Low: 

Very flat to flat terrain (0- 
0.5% slope) 

Runoff curve number (RCN) 
61 - 70 

Dry. low rainfall (less than 20" 
Even, gentle impact 
(scattered shower-type) 
rainfall 
OTHER 

10 



Some erosion evident. 
About T; some sheet, rill, 
or furrow erosion. 
Very few gullies. 



OTHER 







Moderate: 

Flat to gently sloping (0 5- 
2.0% slope). 
RCN 71 - 80. 
Semidry (20-30"). 
Even, gentle to moderate 
intensity rainfall. 



OTHER 



Moderate erosion 
T to 2T. 

Gullies or furrows from 
heavy storm events 
obvious. 
OTHER 

3 



Considerable: 
Gently to moderately 
sloping (2.0-5.0% slope). 
RCN 81 - 90. 
Semiwet (30-40"). 
Even to uneven intense 
rainfall. 



OTHER 



Heavy erosion. 

More than 2T. 

Many gullies or furrows 

& presence of critical 

erosion areas 

OTHER 





High: 

Moderately sloping to 
steep terrain (greater than 

5%). 

RCN greater than 90 
Wet (more than 40"). 
Intense uneven rain- 
fall, especially in seasons 
when soil is exposed 
OTHER 





1.3,5.7,8. 

9.10.11. 

15.16.17, 

18.19,20. 

21.22.23. 

24.25,26, 

2729.30. 

31 .32.33. 

37,38,40. 

45.46.54. 

61,62.65. 

69.70.73. 

75.79.85. 

87,95.97. 

99.102 



6.9.88,95 



3. Filtering 


-- Intervening vegetation 


-- Intervening vegetation 


-- Intervening vegetation 


-- Cropping from less 


5.1825. 


effect or 


between cropland & water- 


between cropland & 


between cropland & 


than 50 ft up to 


27.79.107 


sedimentation 


course greater than 


watercourse 100 to 200 ft 


watercourse 50 to 100 ft 


water's edge 




potential of 


200 ft 


-- Type of intervening vege- 


-- Type of intervening vege- 


-- Type of intervening 




a vegetated 


-- Type of intervening vegeta- 


tation grazed woodland. 


tation high density 


vegetation low density 




buffer or 


tion ungrazed woodland. 


brush, or herbaceous 


cropland 


cropland or bare soil. 




water/sedi- 


brush, or herbaceous plants 


plants or range 


-- Water & sediment control 


-- No water & sediment 




ment collect- 


-- Water & sediment control 


-- Water & sediment control 


basins poorly installed & 


control basins. 




ing basin 


basins properly installed & 


basins properly installed. 


poorly maintained. 






maintained 


but poorly maintained 










-- OTHER 

8 


-- OTHER 


- OTHER 


-- OTHER 






6 


o 
c 




4 Resource 


-- Excellent management 


-- Good management 


-- Fair management 


-- Poor management 


Practices 


management 


-- RMS's always used as 


-- Most (80%) of the needed 


-- About 50% of the needed 


-- Few. if any. needed 


same as 


systems 


needed 


RMS's installed 


RMS's installed 


RMS's installed 


Rating 


(RMS's) 






-- Cropping confined to 


-- Cropping not confined 


Item #1 


on whole farm 






proper land class 


to proper classes. 




(combined 












value for all 












agricultural 


-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 

o 


-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 




areas 


9 


3 







5. Potential 


LOW: 


MODERATE: 


CONSIDERABLE: 


HIGH: 


See animal 


for ground 


-- Soils rich to very rich in 


-- Soils rich to moderate 


-- Soils moderate to low 


-- Soils low to very low 


waste. 


water con- 


organic matter (greater than 


in organic matter (3.0 to 


in organic matter 


in organic matter 


nutrients. 


tamination 


3.0%). 


1 .5%). 


(1 .5 to 0.5%). 


(less than 0.5%) 


pesticide, 




-- Slow to very slow percolation 


-- Slow to moderate percola- 


-- Moderate to rapid 


-- Rapid percolation in 


& salt "B" 




in light textured soils such 


tion in clay loams or 


percolation in silty 


coarse textured loamy 


Field 




as clays, silty or sandy clays. 


silts. 


loams, loams, or 


sands or sands 


Sheets for 




or silty clay loams. 


-- Perched water table 


silts. 


-- In protected bedrock 


practices 




-- Perched water table present 


present 


-- In protected bedrock 


areas, well depth is 






-- In protected bedrock areas 


-- In protected bedrock 


areas, well depth is 


less than 15 ft 






(50 ft of soil & shale cap), 


areas, well depth is 


15-29 ft 


:-- In protected bedrock 






well depth is 75-100 ft. 


30-74 ft. 


-- In protected bedrock 


areas overlain with 






-- In protected bedrock areas 


-- In protected bedrock 


areas overlain with 50 ft 


50 ft of sand or 






overlain with 50 ft. of sand 


areas overlain with 50 ft 


of sand or gravel, well 


gravel, well depth is 






or gravel, well depth is 


of sand or gravel, well 


depth is 50 - 99 ft. 


less than 50 ft. 






greater than 1 50 ft 


depth is 100-149 ft 


-- In shallow bedrock areas. 


:-- In shallow bedrock 






.-- In shallow bedrock areas (25- 


-- In shallow bedrock areas. 


well depth is 25-49 ft 


areas, well depth is 






50 ft. soil & shale cap), well 


well depth is 50-199 ft 


-- In Karst areas, well 


less than 25 ft 






depth greater than 200 ft. 


-- In Karst areas, well depth 


depth is 100-499 ft 


.-- In Karst areas, well 






:— In Karst areas, well depth is 


is 500-999 ft 




depth is less than 






greater than 1,000 ft., if 






100 ft 






aquifier is "confined." 












-- OTHER 


:-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 

CD 


-- OTHER 






9 


6 








1 Add the circled Rating Item scores to get a total for the field sheet 

2 Check the ranking for this site based on the total field score Check "excellent" if the score totals at least 40 Check 
etc Record your total score and rank (excellent, good, etc ) in the upper right-hand corner of the field sheet. If a Rati 
the right-hand column to help remedy the conditions. 

RANKING Excellent (40-46) [ ] Good (26-39) [ 30 ] Fair (10-25) 



TOTAL [ JO } 
"good" if the score falls between 26 and 39. 
ng Item is "fair" or "poor," find the practices in 



Poor (9 or less) [ 



15 



Chapter 3 

Ecology of Freshwater Systems 



To assess properly whether or not a watercourse or water 
body is polluted or potentially could become polluted, you will 
need to know the basic ecological principles covered in this 
chapter. 

Freshwater systems can be divided into lentic (standing) and 
lotic (flowing) water. Lotic systems are less prone to stress from 
sediment, nutrients, and pesticides because the running water 
flushes away pollutants. Lentic bodies, such as ponds and lakes, 
are more prone to pollutant stress because they retain many pol- 
lutants within their system. Impounded or dammed rivers flush 
out pollutants at rates which are between those for lakes and 
free-flowing rivers. 

Lentic Systems (Lakes or Ponds) 

The naturally occurring geologic process whereby lakes fill 
with sediment and eventually become dry land is termed "lake 
succession." Sediment is deposited concentrically from the outer 
edges to the center of the basin. Thus, a transect from the 
shoreline to the lake center crosses successively younger geolog- 
ic sediment deposits. This concentric or horizontal zonation of 
sediment is reflected in concentric bands of vegetation. 

Rooted aquatic plants progressively encroach toward the 
center from the shoreline. Large plants (macrophytes), such as 
cattails, alligator weed, and smartweed, generally occur in a 
band along the water's edge. Floating, leaved, emergent plants, 
such as waterlilies and American lotus root, (fig. B-7; see ap- 
pendix B) occur in the bottom muds at shallow depths (0-5 
feet). These plants are flanked on the inside (toward the 
lake/pond center) by a band of submerged rooted weeds, such as 
watermilfoil, coontail. and pondweed (fig. B-7). The submerged 
plants usually grow to a depth of about 10 feet, depending upon 
wave action and turbidity of the water. The region of open 
water is inhabited by nonrooting plants of two types, 

(1) microscopic floaters or plankton species (fig. B-l to B-6), 
and (2) macroscopic floating species, such as duckweed (ref. 
3-1, 3-2). 

Associated with lake succession is eutrophication or lake en- 
richment by nutrients. The nutrient load of a water body is not 
directly observable. However, since nutrients stimulate plant 
growth, the biomass (total weight) of lake or pond aquatic vege- 
tation can serve as an indirect indicator of nutrient levels. Since 
plants serve as food for animals, an abundance of plants often 
means there will be an abundance of fish and other animals. The 
biomass of plants and animals living in a given water body area 
in a unit of time is called "biological productivity." 

Lentic (standing) waters are classified in biological produc- 
tivity terms as: (1) "oligotrophic" (young, low productivity); 

(2) "mesotrophic" (middle aged, medium productivity); or 

(3) "eutrophic" (old. high productivity) (ref. 3-3). 
Oligotrophic lakes are those which are young, geologically 

speaking, or are located in an infertile watershed. They are 
characterized by low levels of nutrients and consequently low 
levels of biological productivity. Having a low volume of plants 
(phytoplankton) contained in a large volume of water, these 
water bodies appear crystal clear. Since there is not much plant 
food at the base of the food chain, top predators, such as prized 
sport fish, are not abundant. Lake Superior, Lake Tahoe. and 
Crater Lake are examples of oligotrophic lakes. In these deep 
blue, clear waters fish can be seen at considerable depths from 
the surface. 



Mesotrophic lakes are the so called "middle-aged" lakes 
which have a greater amount of nutrients per unit volume of 
water compared to oligotrophic lakes. They are more productive 
and have quite an abundance of organisms that are high on the 
food chain. For example, a 50 million pound catch of the highly 
edible lake trout, whitefish. blue-pike, and walleye from Lake 
Erie was recorded in 1920. Many of the lakes, bays and estu- 
aries prized for their fisheries are mesotrophic (ref. 3-4, 3-5). 

Eutrophic lakes have great productivity and high nutrient 
turnover. Water quality in these lakes with excessive nutrients 
can deteriorate so much that the lakes become unfit for human 
use. Human-induced (cultural) eutrophication may result in un- 
sightly scums of surface algae, dead fish, and weeds washed up 
in mounds along the shoreline. The noxious smell of rotten eggs 
may result from hydrogen sulfide bubbling to the surface from 
the decaying organic matter. 

The process of natural versus human-induced eutrophication 
and the presence of eutrophication indicators are discussed in 
more detail in Chapter 5. 

Lotic Systems (Streams or Rivers) 

As with plants and animals, watercourses progress through a 
natural life cycle from youth to old age. A young stream flows 
in a fairly straight path and cuts deeply into its parent soil 
material. In hilly terrains, it produces a narrow V-shaped valley 
with steep-sloped banks. As the stream matures, its path begins 
to meander, cutting into adjacent slopes and widening the valley. 
By old age. the stream has created a broad V-shaped valley and 
meanders back and forth within a broad flood plain (ref. 3-6). 

Thus, a stream is not static, but is a delicately balanced sys- 
tem, ever changing in response either to natural events or to hu- 
man activities. In a well-balanced "ideal" condition a stream 
has smooth, gentle banks— well vegetated banks free from ero- 
sion or failure— and a channel bed that is neither scouring nor 
building up with sediment. However, this situation seldom oc- 
curs in nature. Instead, we find streams in a continual state of 
adjustment, responding to the environment. It is not uncommon 
to find in riparian (stream bank) areas, cattle-grazing, fallen 
trees, or debris. Fallen trees or debris can deflect water from its 
main course, causing it to undercut the bank and lose vegetation. 
Protective vegetative cover in the watershed may be lost as land 
is converted to cropland or to urban development. The water- 
course's adjustment to these ecological disturbances usually oc- 
curs not just at the site of the disturbance, but in domino-like 
fashion along a significant stretch downstream from the activities 
(ref. 3-7). 

A watercourse adjusts to environmental effects by changing 
the shape of its bed. banks, or both. In an unbalanced condition, 
the bed will be either degrading (being scoured out) or aggrad- 
ing (depositing excess sediment). Either situation is unstable and 
can lead to significantly adverse conditions. For example, if the 
bank toe is eroding, bank failure can result. If the streambed is 
rising, channel capacity will be reduced. In the next flood, the 
stream will attempt to stabilize and restore itself to its original 
capacity by scouring out the bed and in many cases eroding the 
banks as well (ref. 3-7). 

Watercourse bottom materials (substrates) will vary depend- 
ing upon regional geology and topography. In steep terrain, 
swiftly flowing waters often cut deep channels and keep the 
streambed scoured of sediments. By contrast, slowly flowing 
streams in level terrain are usually characterized by shallow beds 



17 



and substrates composed mainly of sediment. Exceptions exist to 
the above situation, reflecting the geology of a region. For ex- 
ample, there are some high-velocity watercourses possessing fine 
bottom materials and some low-velocity watercourses with 
coarse bottom materials. 

In general, stream flow or velocity varies according to the 
shape, size, slope, and roughness of the channel. Velocities 
range from slow (0.1 m/sec or 0.3 ft/sec); to moderate 
(0.25-0.5 m/sec or 0.8-1.6 ft/sec); to swift (1.0 m/sec or 3.2 
ft/sec), depending on channel characteristics. Stream velocity de- 
termines in large measure the type of bottom materials present, 
which in turn influence the kinds and number of organisms that 
can live on the streambed. Erosion of sand and gravel river beds 
occurs at velocities greater than 1.7 m/sec (5.6 ft/sec). Gravel 
settles at velocities ranging from 1.2-1.7 m/sec (3.9-5.6 ft/sec). 
Sand settles at velocities of 0.25-1.2 m/sec (0.8-3.9 ft/sec), and 
silt and organics deposit when velocities drop to 0.2 m/sec (0.7 
ft /sec) and less (ref 3-8). 

Biology of Streams 

Watercourses having cobble and gravel beds (i.e., those that 
are degrading or eroding) support the greatest diversity of inver- 
tebrate life. The cobble or gravel bottom is stable and provides 
hiding places that bottom-dwelling animals need for protection. 
Usually, these streams have alternating pools (deep, slow- 
moving water) and riffles (shallow, fast-moving water). The 
greatest insect production occurs in riffles with rocks of 6 in. to 
12 in. on a side (ref. 3-9). 

The presence of larval insect species, such as stoneflies, 
caddisflies, and mayflies in riffle areas of cobble/gravel bottom 
streams, is an indicator of "clean" water. Although the 
presence of these species indicates "clean" waters, absence of 
these species does not always mean polluted water. There are 
many reasons why the species might be absent. For example, 
they may have been exterminated by a recent flood or drought 
and not have had time to recolonize. Or recolonization may be 
impossible due to limited flight range of the insect or simply be- 
cause there may be no individuals available to recolonize the lo- 
cation. No single insect or other invertebrate by itself can 
indicate pollution, but a group or association of indicator organ- 
isms can indicate the presence or absence of pollution (ref. 
3-10). Refer to appendix A for biological index methods. 

Aggrading or depositing streams with silt or mud bottoms 
support invertebrate species, such as tube-building worms, bur- 
rowing mayflies, "blood worm" midges (chironomids), mussels, 
and clams. The deepest parts of very large rivers, such as the 
Mississippi and its large tributaries, support few, if any, bottom- 
dwelling species because their silty bottoms are unstable. 



Intermediate between cobble/gravel and mud/silt streambeds 
are sandy beds. Sandy bottoms support very few, if any, inver- 
tebrate species because shifting sands provide few stable surfaces 
to which organisms can attach. 

Watercourses with slow, relatively clear waters or pools 
support the greatest amount of plant growth. Plants common to 
these waters include submerged periphyton species, such as algal 
or vegetative masses growing on bottom substrate materials, on 
twigs, or on larger rooted aquatic plants. Rooted aquatics can be 
either submergent species, such as Elodea (American water- 
weed), or emergents, such as the broad leaved species of 
Potamogeton (pondweed) (fig. B-7) and Nasturtium (watercress). 
These species root in the fine sediments of pools or along 
stream margins (ref. 3-1). 

The kind and amount of aquatic vegetation in watercourses 
or bodies depend on a variety of factors, including flow rate, 
bottom type, sunlight amount, nutrient levels, and water depth. 
While the amounts of nutrients coming from agricultural lands 
might be significant, any pollutional effects from the nutrients 
might be minimized or "masked" by too little sunlight reaching 
aquatic plants for photosynthesis. Reduced sunlight can be 
caused by many factors, including heavy siltation of the water, 
dense vegetative canopy over watercourses, depth of water, etc. 

Watercourses may be classified on the basis of the type of 
fishery they support. There are cold water, cool water, and 
warm water fisheries. Cold water fish include salmonid species, 
such as trout and salmon (fig. B-12), which are members of the 
trout family. These species occur in well oxygenated streams 
that have a swift current. Trout grow best in waters between 50 
and 65 degrees Farenheit. They are insect-feeders, eating species 
such as mayflies and stoneflies. 

The smallmouth bass (fig. B-12) is typical of cool water 
fisheries and is found in lower stream reaches that are marginal 
for trout. The bass prefer a habitat of riffles and deep pools. 
Home range is normally restricted to one pool where the bass 
feed on insects or crayfish flushed out by turtles and bottom- 
feeding fishes. 

Where water temperatures are higher, warm water species, 
such as largemouth bass, crappie, bluegill, and catfish are found 
(fig. B-12). The largemouth bass is a predator that feeds on 
almost any animal which swims or falls in the water (fish, 
crayfish, large insects, frogs, snakes, mice). It is one of the 
most popular warm water fish in North America. These fish are 
mainly invertebrate eaters except for the catfish, which eats both 
plants and animals (ref. 3-11, 3-12). See appendix B for fish il- 
lustrations and descriptions. 



18 



Chapter 4 
Sediment 



In the United States today, watersheds are adversely affected 
by agriculturally related pollutants. Sediment, probably the most 
common and most easily recognized of the nonpoint source pol- 
lutants, ranks first in quantity among pollutants contributed by 
agriculture to receiving waters. Cropland erosion accounts for 
40 to 50 percent of the approximately 1.5 billion tons of sedi- 
ment that reaches the Nation's waterways each year. Streambank 
erosion accounts for another 26 percent (ref. 4-1). The amount 
of sediment eroding from agricultural areas is directly related to 
land use— the more intensive the use. the greater the erosion. 
For example, in a given locality more sediment erodes from row- 
crop fields than from pastures or woodlands. 

Sediment lost from agricultural sites varies significantly with 
the presence or absence of management practices. Figure 4-1 
shows that considerably more sediment is lost from agricultural 
land in row crops without management practices than in row 
crops with management practices. The least amount of sediment 
is lost from agricultural lands that have conservation cropping 
systems, i.e., practices such as cover crops and conservation til- 
lage (ref. 4-2). 



Sediment Indicators for Receiving Waters 
1. Turbiditv (Refer to Field Sheet 1A, rating item I, figure 
4-2.) 

To assess sediment pollution, it is necessary to observe 
receiving waters during or immediately following a storm 
event. Sediment-laden runoff, whether from overland flow or 
bank erosion, muddies receiving waters, and turbidity in the 
form of suspended solid matter increases. As turbidity in- 
creases, light penetration decreases, making objects less visi- 
ble at greater depths. 

If the receiving waters appear turbid, the cause must be 
determined. Problem sources may be overland flow paths or 
channels that drain from fields and pastures into receiving 
waters. The muddier (thicker and denser) the overland flows, 
the greater the sediment load. Evidence of bank erosion 
should be noted. 

If receiving waters are turbid, but runoff water from 
overland flow is essentially clear (e.g., runoff from a densely 
vegetated pasture), and there appears to be no bank erosion 



Figure 4-1 

Sediment Losses Related to Land Use Practices. 



2200 



Suspended sediment load 
(pounds/acre/ year) 
4400 6600 



8800 



Land use 




Low density 
residential 



-<l Agricultural land in 
rotation crops 



Agricultural land in row crops 
with management practices 



Medium density 
residential 




Agricultural land in row crops 
without management practices 




Areas under 
development 



Source: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Ref. 4-2. 



19 



Figure 4-2 



Sediment Page 1 of 2 

FIELD SHEET 1A: SEDIMENT 
INDICATORS FOR RECEIVING WATERCOURSES AND WATER BODIES 

Evaluator County/State Date 

Water Body Evaluated Water Body Location Total Score/Rank 

Rating Item Excellent Good Fair Poor 



(Circle one number among the four choices in each row which BEST describes the conditions of the watercourse or 
water body being evaluated. If a condition has characteristics of two categories, you can "split" a score.) 



1. Turbidity 
(best 
observed 
immediately 
following a 
storm event) 


-- What is expected under 

pristine conditions in 

your region 
-- Clear or very slightly 

muddy after storm event. 
-- Objects visible at depths 

greater than 3 to 6 ft. 

(depending on water color) 

-- OTHER 

9 


-- What is expected for 

properly managed 

agricultural land in 

your region. 
-- A little muddy after storm 

event but clears rapidly. 
-- Objects visible at depths 

between 1 Vi to 3 ft 

(depending on water color). 

-- OTHER 

7 


-- A considerable increase 
in turbidity for your 
region. 

-- Considerable muddiness 

after a storm event. 

Stays slightly muddy most 

of the time. 
-- Objects visible to depths 

Of Vl to 1 '/2 ft. 

(depending on water color). 
-- OTHER 

3 


-- A significant increase 

in turbidity for your 

region. 
-- Very muddy — sediment 

stays suspended most 

of the time. 
-- Objects visible to 

depths less than '/z ft. 

(depending on water 

color). 
-- OTHER 




2 Bank 
stability in 
your viewing 
area 


-- Bank stabilized. 

-- No bank sloughing. 

-- Bank armored with vegetation, 

roots, brush, grass, etc. 
-- No exposed tree roots. 

-- OTHER 

10 


-- Some bank instability. 
-- Occasional sloughing. 
-- Bank well-vegetated. 
-- Some exposed tree roots 

-- OTHER 

7 


-- Bank instability common. 

-- Sloughing common. 

-- Bank sparsely vegetated 

-- Many exposed tree roots & 
some fallen trees or 
missing fence corners, etc. 

-- Channel cross-section 
becomes more U-shaped as 
opposed to V-shaped 

-- OTHER 

4 


-- Significant bank 

instability 
-- Massive sloughing. 
-- No vegetation on bank. 
-- Many fallen trees, 

eroded culverts, downed 

fences, etc 
-- Channel cross-section 

is U-shaped and stream 

course or gully may be 

meandering. 
-- OTHER 

1 


3. Deposition 
(Circle a number 
in only A, B, 
C, or D) 

3A. Rock or 
gravel 
streams 

OR 


SELECT 3A OR C 

A. For rock and gravel 

bottom streams: 
-- Less than 10% burial of 

gravels, cobbles, and rocks. 
-- Pools essentially sediment 

free. 

9 


IB OR 3C OR 3D 

A. For rock and gravel 

bottom streams: 
-- Between 10% & 25% burial 

of gravels, cobbles. & 

rocks. 

-- Pools with light dusting 
of sediment. 

7 


A. For rock & gravel 

bottom streams: 
-- Between 25% and 50% burial 

of gravels, cobbles and 

rock. 

-- Pools with a heavy coating 
of sediment. 

3 


A. For rock & gravel 

bottom streams: 
-- Greater than 50% burial 

of gravels, cobbles and 

rocks 

-- Few if any deep pools 
present. 

1 


3B Sandy bottom 
streams 

OR 


B. For sandy streambeds: 

-- Sand bars stable and com- 
pletely vegetated 

-- No mudcaps or "drapes" 
(coverings of fine mud). 

-- No mud plastering of banks, 
exposed parent material. 

-- No deltas. 

9 


B. For sandy streambeds: 
-- Sand bars essentially 

stable and well, but not 

completely, vegetated. 
-- Occasional mudcaps or 

"drapes " 
-- Some mud plastering of 

banks. 
-- Beginnings of delta 

formation. 

7 


B. For sandy streambeds: 
-- Sand bars unstable with 

sparse vegetation 
-- Mudcaps or "drapes" 

common. 
-- Considerable mud plastering 

of banks. 
-- Significant delta 

formation 

3 


B. For sandy streambeds: 
-- Sand bars unstable and 

actively moving with 

no vegetation. 
-- Extensive mudcaps or 

"drapes." 
-- Extensive mud plastering 

of banks. 
-- Extensive deltas. 

1 


3C. Mud-bottom 
streams 

OR 


C. For mud bottom streams: 
-- Dark brown/black tanic- 

colored water (due to presence 

of lignins and tanins). 
-- Abundant emergent rooted 

aquatics or floating 

vegetation. 

9 


C. For mud bottom streams: 
-- Dark brown colored water. 

7 


C. For mud bottom streams: 
-- Medium brown water, muddy 
bottom 

3 


C. For mud bottom streams: 
-- Light brown colored, 
very muddy bottom. 

1 



20 



Figure 4-2 



Sediment Page 2 of 2 



FIELD SHEET 1A SEDIMENT. Continued 
INDICATORS FOR RECEIVING WATERCOURSES AND WATER BODIES 



Rating Item 


Excellent 


Good 


Fair 


Poor 


3D Ponds 


-- Ponds essentially sediment 


— "UflUb Willi liyill 


t (JIIUo Willi a llcd»y 


" unua iintrtj wun 




free 


UUoUliy Ul MCI II- 


LUd 11 11 y u 1 icu unci h. 


scU 1 1 1 It; I 1 L 




-- No reduction in pond 


vtriy nine lUbo 111 ljlmiu 


OUIDc 'McdbUidU'C lUoo 111 


-- Significant reduction in 




storage capacity 


biui dye i/d^/dLuy 




puui blUldytr UdpdL'ly 




OTHER 

Q 


-- OTHER 

7 


-- OTHER 

3 


-- OTHER 


4. Type and 


Periphyton bright green to 


-- Periphyton pale green and 


-- Periphyton very light 


-- No periphyton. 


amount of 


black Robust 


spindly. 


colored or brownish and 


-- No vegetation 


aquatic 


Abundant emergent rooted 


-- Emergent rooted aquatics 


significantly dwarfed 


-- In ponds, emergent 


vegetation & 


aquatics or shoreline 


or shoreline vegetation 


-- Sparse vegetation. 


rooted aquatics 


condition of 


vegetation 


common. 


In ponds, emergent rooted 


predominant with heavy 


periphyton 


-- In ponds, emergent rooted 


In ponds, emergent rooted 


aquatics abundant in wide 


encroachment of dry 


{plants. 


aquatics (e g cattails. 


aquatics common, but 


Udlm Bflwl vadllllCI II Ul U'y 


land species 


growing on 


arrowhead, pickerelweed, 


rAnfmoH tr* uloI 1 - r\ of i norl 
lui H 1 1 icu iu w tr 1 1 u tr 1 1 ' ' "<J 


idiiu oftrccD yi d33C3 




other plants, 


etc ) present, but in 


band along shore 


etc J along shore 




twigs. 


localized patches. 








stones, etc.) 












-- U 1 Men 


OTHER 


OTHER 


-- OTHER 




A 

y 


j 


c. 


e 


OPTIONAL. 










5. Bottom 


-- Stable 


-- Slight fluctuation of 


-- Considerable fluctuation 


-- Significant fluctuation 


stability of 


-- Less than 5% of stream reach 


streambed up or down 


of streambed up or down 


of streambed up or down 


streams 


has evidence of scouring or 


(aggradation or degrada- 


(aggradation or degrada- 


(aggradation or degra- 




silting 


tion). 


tion) 


dation). 






Between 5-30°'o of stream 


-- Scoured or silted areas 


More than 50°^ of stream 






reach has evidence of 


covering 30-50^> of 


reach affected by 






scouring or silting. 


evaluated stream reach. 


scouring or deposition. 








Eln^Hmn mf\ra ff\fr\ m /■"* r\ than 
— r IUUUIIiU fllUlc CUIIHilLMl lllall 


Flooding very common. 








usual. 


-- Significantly more 








— Wore stream braiding than 


stream braiding than 








iiciiail f/tr roninn 
usual lui 1 cyiui 1 


iiCiiqI frtr ronii^n 
usual i\j> itrynjii 




-- OTHER 

a 


-- OTHER 

7 


-- OTHER 




-- OTHER 

1 


OPTIONAL 










6 Bottom 


-- Intolerant species occur 


A mix of tolerants: 


-- Many tolerants (snails. 


-- Only tolerants or very 


dwelling 


mayflies, stonefiles. 


shrimp, damselflies. 


shrimp, damselflies. 


tolerants: midges. 


aquatic 


caddisflies. water penny, 


dragonfhes, black flies. 


dragon flies, black flies). 


craneflies. horseflies, 


organisms 


nffle beetle and a mix 


-- Intolerants rare. 


-- Mainly tolerants and some 


rat-tailed maggots, or 




of tolerants. 


-- Moderate diversity. 


very tolerants 


none at all 




-- High diversity. 




-- Intolerants rare. 


-- Very reduced diversity; 








-- Reduced diversity with 


upsurges of very 








occasional upsurges of 


tolerants common. 








tolerants. e g tube worms 










and chrionomids 






-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 




9 


7 


3 


1 



1 Add the circled Rating Item scores to get a total for the field sheet ' 

2 Check the ranking for this site based on the total field score. Check "excellent" if the score totals at least 32. Check "good" if the score falls between 21 and 31 , etc 
Record your total score and rank (excellent, good, etc ) in the upper right-hand corner of the field sheet If a Rating Item is "fair" or "poor." complete Field Sheet 1 B. 



RANKING 

OPTIONAL RANKING 
(with #5 OR #6) 
OPTIONAL RANKING 
(with #5 AND #6) 



Excellent (32-37) [ 
Excellent (40-46) [ 

Excellent (48-55) [ 



] Good (21 -31 )[ 
] Good (26-39) [ 

) Good (31 -47) [ 



Fair( 9-20) [ 
Fair (1 1 -25) [ 

Fair (13-30) [ 



Poor ( 8 or less) [ 
Poor (10 or less) ( 

Poor (12 or less) [ 



21 



(e.g., banks well vegetated), the turbidity may be due to 
stirred-up mud deposits of the stream bottom. This is com- 
mon in regions characterized by muddy-bottom streams. In 
this situation, the regional environmental quality would be 
considered "excellent" despite the muddiness because condi- 
tions match what is expected under pristine conditions in that 
particular geographic region. 

2. Bank stability (Refer to Field Sheet 1A, rating item 2, figure 
4-2.) 

To determine if streambanks are contributing sediment to 
receiving waters, look for the following indicators: 

• Evidence of bank instability — cracks, rills, and gullies. 

• Evidence of bank sloughing or chunks of soil dropping 
into the stream. 

• Extent of vegetative protective cover or "armoring." 

• Extent of exposed tree roots, fallen trees, missing fence 
posts, etc. 

• The appearance of the channel in cross-section (adapted 
from Keown, ref. 3-7). 

3. Deposition (Refer to Field Sheet 1A, rating item 3, figure 
4-2.) 

Watercourses are distinguished on the basis of their type 
of bottom substrate — rock, gravel, sand, or mud. Deposition 
occurs when water flow is insufficient to remove sediment 
entering receiving waters. 

Note that this field sheet gives four choices for deposi- 
tion. Items 3A, 3B, and 3C refer to streams or flowing 
waters, while item 3D refers to ponds or stationary waters. 

Indicators of deposition vary with the type of bottom 
substrate. In rock and gravel streams, the relative degrees of 
burial of gravels, cobbles, and rocks in riffle (fast-flowing, 
shallow) areas are important as well as the thickness of sedi- 
ment coatings in pool areas (see item 3A). For sandy stream- 
banks the condition and stability of sandbars and the presence 
and frequency of mudcaps (drapes), mud plastering, and delta 
formation are important (see rating item 3B). For mud- 
bottom streams, water color is especially important (rating 
item 3C). In this case, it is essential to be familiar with 
waters of your region. You can gain familiarity with the 
"normal" color of local streams quickly by several onsite 



visits before and immediately following a storm event. Final- 
ly, indicators of pond degradation are thickness of the sedi- 
ment coat and the relative degree of reduction in permanent 
pond storage capacity (see rating item 3D). 

4. Type and amount of aquatic vegetation and condition of 
periphyton (plants growing on other plants, twigs, stones, 
etc.) (Refer to Field Sheet 1A, rating item 4, figure 4-2). 

In those waters where aquatic vegetation is typical of that 
expected under pristine conditions in your geographic region, 
sediment load may become great enough to interfere with 
plant growth and reproduction. For example, periphyton 
(small aquatic plants that grow on submerged plants, twigs, 
stones, etc.) may create a "dusting" or coating on aquatic 
plants, reducing their photosynthesis. Sediment (silt) may also 
accumulate on aquatic plants and add to the poor environ- 
mental conditions. Aquatic plants may appear to be paler 
green and more spindly than the robust green condition that 
is found where light penetration is maximal. Where there is 
considerable sediment deposition, aquatic plants may never 
reach full size and are not able to reproduce. Eventually, as 
occurred in the Chesapeake Bay, an entire population of 
aquatic plants may smother and die. 

5. Bottom stability of watercourses (Refer to Field Sheet 1A, 
rating item 5, figure 4-2). 

In instances where historical records are available, bot- 
tom stability might serve as an indicator of sediment pollu- 
tion. For example, aggradation (raising of streambeds) is an 
indicator of sediment deposition. Deposition is sometimes 
greatly accelerated by logjams or other stream obstructions. 
These obstructions can slow water to an extent that sediment 
that usually is flushed through the system has time to settle 
out. Given enough time, this type of deposition can lead to a 
significant rise in the streambed with a number of attending 
consequences. One consequence is that the flow becomes 
shallow and spreads out over a wide area, resulting in in- 
creased flooding and increased stream "braiding," the forma- 
tion of many small rivulets. It may also result in the death of 
economically valuable bottomland hardwood trees. In such in- 
stances, it may be necessary to dredge or dynamite a channel 
to restore water flow to its original depth. An increased need 
for dredging is a good indicator that sediment deposition has 
increased (ref. 4-3). 



22 



Chapter 5 
Nutrients 



Natural and Human-Induced (Cultural) Eutrophication 

Eutrophication is a natural aging process that occurs as a 
lake or pond becomes increasingly enriched with nutrients. The 
rate of eutrophication varies, depending upon the relative fertili- 
ty of the watershed. It proceeds most slowly in big lakes situat- 
ed in relatively infertile watersheds and most quickly in small 
ponds in fertile surroundings. 

Eutrophication can be natural or human-induced (fig. 5-1). 
Eutrophication. resulting from human activity, such as fertilizing 
fields or converting forest or pasture to cropland, is termed 
human-induced (cultural) to distinguish it from natural eutrophi- 
cation. In most instances, the rate of human-induced eutrophica- 
tion is many times faster than the natural process. For example, 
in a span of about 25 years (1950-1975). Lake Erie aged to 
about the same degree under human influences as would have 
occurred in 15.000 years naturally (ref. 5-1). Today, some 75 
percent of the large lakes in the United States are considered to 
be eutrophic (ref. 5-2). 

Eutrophication rates are increased by agricultural inputs of 
nutrients— phosphorus and/or nitrogen. Usually, these inputs 
come from either fertilizer runoff or erosion from fields or 
pastures. 



Indicators of Excessive Nutrient Input for Receiving Waters 

***LIMITA TIONS OF NUTRIENT FIELD SHEET 3 A *** 
Nutrient indicators may not be perceptible in certain 
watercourses, especially if flow is 0.5 feet per second or greater or 
if sediment "masks" the effects of nutrient enrichment. Appendix 
A contains a procedure ("Floating Body Technique") that can be 
used to obtain water flow rate velocity. With rapid water flow, a 
watercourse could be rated "good" or "excellent" according to the 
3A Nutrient Field Sheet (fig. 5-2). when in fact it could contain 
high nutrient levels. 

In the above situations it may be advantageous to use the 
3B Nutrient Field Sheet first to determine if present agricultural 
management practices may be contributing to nutrient enrich- 
ment in the nearby watercourse. 

Additionally, it may be necessary to conduct or have con- 
ducted nutrient chemical analyses or to contact the State water 
quality agency to get nutrient values for the watercourse being 
examined. 



Figure 5-1 



Advanced Eutrophication of a Pond. 




23 



Figure 5-2 



Nutrients 

FIELD SHEET 3A: NUTRIENTS 
INDICATORS FOR RECEIVING WATERCOURSES AND WATER BODIES* 

Evaluator County/State Date 

Water Body Evaluated Water Body Location Total Score/ Rank 

Rating Item Excellent : Good : Fair : Poor 



(Circle one number among the four choices in each row which BEST describes the conditions of the watercourse or 
water body being evaluated. If a condition has characteristics of two categories, you can "split" a score ) 



1 Total amount 


-- Little vegetation, uncluttered 


-- Moderate amounts of 


-- Cluttered weedy conditions. 


Choked weedy conditions 


of aquatic 


look to stream or pond. 


vegetation. 


Vegetation sometimes 


or heavy algal blooms 


vegetation at 


OR 


OR 


luxurious and green 


or no vegetation at all. 


low flow or 


What's expected for good 


What's expected for good 


-- Seasonal algal blooms. 


-- Dense masses of slimy 


in pooled 


water quality conditions in 


water quality conditions 




white, greyish green, 






in your region. 




n iQtv hrrnA/n nr hla^U 


Includes rooted 


-- Usually fairly low amounts of 






water molds common on 


and floating 


many different kinds of 






bottom 


plants, algae, 


plants. 








mosses & 










periphyton 


-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 


- OTHER 




10 


6 


3 





2. Color of 


-- Clear or slightly greenish 


-- Fairly clear; slightly 


-- Greenish Difficult to 


-- \/gry, very green pond 


water due to 


water in pond or along the 


greenish 


get pond sample without 




plants at 


whole reach of stream. 




pieces of algae or weeds 


-- Pea green color or pea 


base or low 






in it. 


soup condition during 


flow 








seasonal blooms of 










microscopic algae in ponds. 










-- "Oily-like" sheen when 










pea soup algae die off. 




- OTHER 


-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 




9 


6 


3 





3. Fish 


-- No fish piping or aberrant 


In hot climates, occas- 


-- Fish piping common just 


-- Pronounced fish piping. 


behavior in 


behavior. 


sional fish piping or 


before dawn. 


-- Pond fish kills common. 


hot weater 


-- No fish kills. 


gulping for air in ponds 


-- Occasional fish kills. 


-- Frequent stream fish 


fish kills, 




just before dawn. 




kills during spring thaw. 


especially before 




-- No fish kills in last two 




-- Very tolerant species 


dawn 




years. 




(e.g. bullhead, catfish). 




-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 




9 


5 


3 





4 Water use 


-- None. 


-- Minimal, such as reduced 


A couple of the following: 


Several of the following: 


impacts, 




quality of fishing. 


-- Algal clogged pipes. 


-- Algal clogged pipes. 


health 






-- Algal related taste, color, 


-- Algal related taste, color, 


effects for 






or odor problems with 


or odor problems with 


whole sub- 






human or livestock water 


human or livestock water 


watershed 






supply. 


supply. 








-- Cattle abortion. 


-- Cattle abortion. 








-- Reduced recreational use 


-- Reduced quality of fishery. 








due to weedy conditions, 


-- Reduced recreational use 








decay, odors, etc. 


due to weedy conditions, 










decay, odors, etc. 










-- Blue babies — incidence 










of methemoglobinemia due 










to high nitrate levels. 










-- Property devaluation. 




-- OTHER 

8 


-- OTHER 

7 


-- OTHER 

4 


-- OTHER 

2 


5. Bottom - 


-- Intolerant species occur: 


-- Intolerants common. 


-- Mainly tolerants: snails, 


-- Mainly very-tolerants: 


dwelling 


mayflies, stonefiles. 


-- A mix of tolerants: shrimp, 


shrimp, damselflies. 


midges, craneflies, horseflies, 


aquatic 


caddisflies. water penny, 


damselflies, dragonflies, 


dragonflies, black flies. 


rat-tailed maggots, or no 


organisms 


riffle beetle. 


black flies. 


-- Mainly tolerants, but some 


organisms at all. 




-- High diversity. 


-- Moderate diversity. 


very-tolerants. 


-- Very reduced diversity, 








-- Intolerants rare. 


upsurges of very-tolerants 








-- Reduced diversity with 


common 








occasional upsurges of 










tolerants. e.g. tube worms, 










and chironomids. 






- OTHER 


-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 


-- OTHER 




9 


7 


3 


1 



*The effects of nutrients may be "masked" by high sediment loads, creating sufficient turbidity to shade light-dependent aquatic vegetation This may cause aquatic 
vegetation, a water quality indicator, to die and disappear from the watercourse. To obtain accurate nutrient levels in high sediment situations, chemical testing may 
be necessary. Under these circumstances you should contact a local or other water quality specialist. 

1 . Add the circled Rating Item scores to get a total for the field sheet. TOTAL [ 

2. Check the ranking for this site based on the total field score. Check "excellent" if the score totals at least 38. Check "good" if the score falls between 23 and 37, 
etc Record your total score and rank (excellent, good, etc.) in the upper right-hand corner of the field sheet. If a Rating Item is "fair" or "poor,"complete Field 
Sheet 3B. 

RANKING Excellent (38-45) [ ] Good (23-37) [ ] Fair (9-22) [ ] Poor (8 or less) [ 



24 



1. Total amount of aquatic vegetation (Refer to Field Sheet 
3A. rating item 1. figure 5-2.) 

Aquatic vegetation must be supplied with a sufficient 
quantity of nutrients to grow and reproduce. Vegetative 
growth in many waterways and bodies is held in check by a 
limited amount of an available nutrient, i.e., the limiting 
nutrient. Typically, waters are phosphorus limited, although 
in some areas the waters naturally contain hjgh phosphate 
levels and nitrogen is the limiting nutrient. 

Agriculturally related inputs of phosphorus, nitrogen, or 
both to nutrient-limited waters promote aquatic plant growth. 
With minimal additions of nutrients, plants may appear even 
more robust and luxurious than usual. For example, water- 
cress that has additional nutrients may be darker green than 
normal. By contrast, moderate amounts of nutrients may 
result in noticeable increases in plant biomass. Stands of 
watercress under this condition might enlarge considerably in 
surface area. Heavy additions of nutrients can stimulate 
weedy proliferations or extensive algal blooms. Sometimes 
this potential is not realized, such as when sediment loads are 
so great that light becomes the limiting factor for plant 
growth. In this instance, sediment masks the expected effects 
of nutrient enrichment. 

When a watercourse or water body regularly displays 
symptoms of heavy nutrient enrichment, such as extensive al- 
gal slimes (scums) or weedy proliferations, it is labelled "eu- 
trophic." It is common for these eutrophic waters to be 
clogged with vegetation. In general, standing bodies of water 
are more prone to eutrophication than flowing waters, 
although even streams may appear quite clogged during peri- 
ods of low flow. 

Many types of aquatic vegetation, such as watermilfoil 
and many algae, die back at the end of summer in response 
to unidentified seasonal environmental influences. When sig- 
nificant masses of vegetation die simultaneously, the bio- 
chemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the water increases 
dramatically and the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) drops 
precipitously as oxygen-requiring (aerobic) micro-organisms 
begin the process of decomposition. These lowered DO levels 
stress all aquatic organisms, both animals and plants, and 
may lead to fish kills and the elimination of all vegetation. 
This is discussed further in the next section. 

2. Color of water (Refer to Field Sheet 3A. rating item 2, 
figure 5-2). 

Excessive growth of microscopic plants or algae 
(phytoplankton. figs. B-l to B-6) often manifests itself as a 
change in the color of the water. Ponds in particular might 
assume a deeper color of various shades of green, blue- 
green, red. gray, or yellow depending upon the phytoplank- 
ton species present. Blue-green algae can undergo tremendous 
growth in numbers when phosphorus is added, so that the water 
can become like pea soup. Furthermore, blue-greens can survive 
nitrogen deficient conditions because they are able to utilize 
atmospheric nitrogen in much the same manner as soil bacteria 
in the nodules of legumes. In addition, many blue-greens secrete 
toxins or foul-tasting chemicals, making them most unattractive 
as food to other organisms. 



Animal plankton (zooplankton— small, floating or feebly 
swimming animals), such as water fleas, rotifers, and cope- 
pods, which usually graze on the phytoplankton (plant plank- 
ton) avoid blue-green algae. As a result, blue-green algae can 
grow unchecked by predators until the algae die in massive 
amounts. The decay of algal overgrowths leads to fluctuating 
oxygen levels and to periodic oxygen depletions (anoxia) that 
sometimes result in fish kills (fig. 5-3). During extended 
periods of anoxia, vegetation of all types is destroyed during 
the nights, when photosynthesis does not occur (ref. 5-3). 

3. Fish diversity, behavior and fish kills (Refer to Field Sheet 
3A, rating item 3. figure 5-2.) 

Nutrient enrichment can lead to the simplification of food 
webs by the elimination of sensitive species, w hich are the least 
able to cope with adverse conditions. Long-lived organisms 
that reproduce slowly and require extended periods of stable 
conditions fare worst in unstable eutrophied waters. In partic- 
ular, fish populations often shift from dominance by larger, 
top predator game species to dominance by smaller, less 
desirable forage (rough) species. For example, in Lake Erie 
the long-lived highly edible sport fish, such as lake trout, 
whitefish. pike, and walleye, were replaced by "rough" 
fish— carp, smelt, drum, and alewives (fig. B-12. ref. 5-1.) 

Sensitive species, such as sport fish, decline because they 
cannot tolerate the periodic episodes of: 

• Low dissolved oxygen levels (anoxia) due to the decom- 
position by micro-organisms of massive amounts of dead 
plants; 

• Toxicity due to the release of the poisonous gases (hydro- 
gen sulfide and methane) by anaerobic micro-organisms 
during anoxic conditions; 

• Toxicity due to secretions from some blue-green or 
dinofiagellate algal blooms: or 

• Some combination of the above activities with other 
major agricultural pollutants (adapted from Luoma. ref. 
5-3). 

The loss of species diversity, as sensitive species die, is 
undesirable for both economic and ecological reasons. The 
loss of sport fish from a lake may constitute a major eco- 
nomic loss to sport fishermen and local businesses dependent 
upon the fishermen. 

Ecologically , simplification of a food web is a "warning 
signal" or indicator that the whole ecosystem is unhealthy 
and may be in jeopardy. An unhealthy system is more vul- 
nerable than a healthy "diverse" system to further disrup- 
tions or disturbances, whether natural or caused by human 
activities. 



25 



Figure 5-3 

l-.-.l- - " - - -v. " 

The Eutrophication Process. 




26 



Fish kills can occur in ponds that receive excessive 
nutrient inflows. Three common scenarios for eutrophied 
ponds are described below, namely: 

• Floating Plant (macrophyte) Infestation 

• Algal Mats (filamentous) Infestation 

• Pea Soup (phytoplankton) Infestation 

Floating plant (macrophUe) infestation. In the summer 
months, floating plants, such as duckweed (Lemna. fig. B-7), 
can proliferate in ponds enriched by the runoff from fertilized 
fields or pastures. If left unchecked, these plants can multiply 
and cover the entire pond surface. When this happens, light 
cannot penetrate through the surface plant cover. Without 
light, the naturally occurring phytoplankton (microscopic al- 
gae) at the base of aquatic food chains cannot carry on pho- 
tosynthesis, and little or no oxygen is produced. The 
protective cover of floating plants also reduces wave action, 
an important source of oxygen. Oxygen is depleted by the 
respiration of plants, animals, and micro-organisms. 

Hot weather intensifies the problem by accelerating both 
the rate of respiration of the organisms and the chemical oxi- 
dation of many substances. Eventually , fish and other 
oxygen-requiring (aerobic) organisms suffocate from a lack of 
dissolved oxygen, and fish kills occur. 

Algal mat (filamentous) infestation— fish piping com- 
mon. Many farmers routinely treat ponds for floating plants 
before the plant populations reach nuisance proportions. 
However, some ponds that appear "clear"' (you can see to 
the bottom) will have significant amounts of filamentous al- 
gae (pond scum) growing along the bottom and sides or at- 
tached to rocks or other larger plants (fig. B-7). In response 
to an unidentified trigger, these filamentous algae rise to the 
surface in mats and die. creating decaying odors and 
nuisances. 

The sudden existence of such large quantities of dead al- 
gae in a pond pollutes the pond by increasing oxygen- 
demanding organic matter, which increases the biochemical 
oxygen demand (BOD) of the decay micro-organisms. This 
results in an immediate drain on the dissolved oxygen (DO). 
DO levels in the pond become critical at night when photo- 
synthesis by any remaining living plants comes to a halt. 
The lowest DO levels occur at dawn. 

At sunrise, fish in a pond with insufficient DO can be 
observed congregating at the edge of the water where DO 
levels are highest. The fish usually assume a hanging position 
at approximately a 45 degree angle and pipe (suck or gulp) 
air. Under these critical DO concentrations, fish begin to die 
slowly. It takes about a week of nightly DO levels dropping 
to levels of less than 2.0 parts per million (ppm) to achieve a 
total kill. 

Under highly enriched conditions, aerobic decay micro- 
organisms may become too overworked to handle the in- 
creased organic load and may die of suffocation when DO 
levels approach zero. The decomposition process is then 
taken over by much less efficient anaerobic bacteria that do 
not require oxygen. These bacteria release a gas that smells 



like rotten eggs (hydrogen sulfide), as well as other 
poisonous breakdown products. The bacteria contribute to the 
ultimate decline of a lake or pond, which then is most unap- 
pealing in terms of sight, smell, and taste. This situation can 
be particularly dangerous in lakes or ponds used as reservoirs 
for drinking water. 

Pea soup (phytoplankton) infestation. Farm ponds, 
which become highly enriched with nutrients may undergo 
much photosynthesis and take on a pea soup appearance to a 
depth of more than 1 ft. During summer, in some farm ponds 
in the South, SCS personnel have recorded supersaturated DO 
levels ranging up to 28 ppm at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, 
dropping to near ppm by an hour after sunrise of the 
following day. Fish kills are common under such conditions. 

The organisms responsible for the fish kills in the pea 
soup condition are phytoplankton (small, floating plants), 
which are so small that they can be observed only with a 
microscope. The phytoplankton consist of a variety of algae, 
including diatoms and green and blue-green algae (cyanobac- 
teria. fig. B-l to B-6). Despite their small size, populations 
of these plankton can reach proportions that color the water 
pea green and thicken it to resemble soup. 

4. Hater use impacts (Refer to Field Sheet 3A. rating item 4, 
figure 5-2). 

Agricultural^ related nutrient enrichment and eutrophica- 
tion can adversely affect a number of water uses. For exam- 
ple, eutrophied water can alter the color, taste, and odor of a 
drinking water supply . The removal of excessive algal slimes 
may also increase the cost of water treatment. Nuisance levels 
of vegetation or algae may detract from the aesthetic quality 
of the water, clog pipes and intakes, and reduce property 
values and recreational use. 

Finally , high nitrate levels in drinking water are known 
to affect adversely the health of babies and the elderly. Ba- 
bies who receive too much nitrate from the water used in 
preparing formula may suffer from methemoglobinemia, or 
blue baby syndrome. Some babies have died from this condi- 
tion, when it was not treated in time. These same conditions 
can affect the young of cattle. 

5. Bottom-dwelling aquatic organisms (Refer to Field Sheet 
3A, rating item 5. figure 5-2). 

As waters become increasingly eutrophied. the abundance 
and species composition of bottom organisms change. Waters 
receiving few. if any. excess nutrients from agricultural or 
other sources are characterized by a high diversity of bottom- 
dwelling organisms. Generally, in these very pristine waters, 
the diversity of bottom species is high, but the number of 
each type is low. 

Among bottom organisms found to be sensitive to or in- 
tolerant of nutrient excesses are mayflies, stoneflies. caddis- 
flies, water-penny, and riffle beetles (ref. 5-4). Generally, as 
nutrient quantities increase, populations of these intolerant 
species recede. They are replaced by expanding populations 
of nutrient-tolerant species, such as chironomids and black- 
flies. The usual pattern is that as nutrients increase over 



27 



time, the number of species (species diversity or richness) 
decreases, while the population growth of a few species in- 
creases. 

An excellent tool for determining the diversity of bottom- 
dwelling invertebrates is the Sequential Comparison Index 
(SCI, appendix A), which is designed for nonprofessionals 
and assumes no background knowledge of biology or taxono- 
my (ref. 5-5). Appendix A also contains Beck's Biotic Index 
procedure, which requires the identification of pollution- 
tolerant and intolerant species to make a water quality deter- 
mination. Appendix B contains pictorial keys for common in- 
vertebrates and another procedure entitled "Simple 
Assessment of Bottom-Dwelling Insects." 



28 



Chapter 6 
Pesticides 



Most agricultural pesticides are either herbicides, which 
make up approximately one-half of the U.S. pesticide usage, or 
insecticides, which make up about one-third of the pesticide 
usage. 

Effects of Pesticides on the Aquatic Environment 

The effect of a pesticide on the aquatic environment depends 
upon many factors, including the physical, chemical, and biolog- 
ical properties of the pesticide: the amount, method, and timing 
of application: and the intensity of the first storm event follow- 
ing application. In general, pesticide effects on aquatic organ- 
isms vary with the relative toxicity of the pesticide, its 
persistence or how long it remains active in the environment, 
and its tendency to accumulate in the food chain. The longer 
a pesticide persists in the soil, the greater the opportunity for it 
to be transported from the crop area to receiving waters or to 
ground water, or for it to affect nontarget organisms, such as 
animals, humans, and noncrop plants adversely. 

Insecticides: Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, such as 
DDT. which appeared after World War II. are of low-to- 
moderate toxicity and are termed '"wide-spectrum*' (i.e., they 
kill a wide variety of insects). These insecticides severely affect- 
ed many environments, killing top-of-the-food-chain predator 
birds, such as the bald eagle, brown pelican, and peregrine fal- 
con. 

The most infamous of the synthetic organics was DDT. 
DDT is very persistent, with a half-life in sediments of greater 
than 10 years. The half-life is how long it takes for half of a 
compound to decay . Since DDT is fat soluble, it concentrates in 
the fat of organisms. Figure 6-1 illustrates the increase in con- 
centration of DDD. a close relative of DDT. as DDD is passed 
from one organism to another up the food chain in a lake. 

In some ecosystems, DDT can become concentrated at the 
top of the aquatic food chain in quantities great enough to inter- 
fere with reproduction or cause death. Consequently , decline or 
death of birds of prey at the top of aquatic food chains (e.g., 
bald eagle or fish hawk) may be an indicator of pesticide 
damage to an aquatic ecosystem. 

The decline or death of sensitive fish species and other 
aquatic organisms also serves as an indicator of pesticide pollu- 
tion. Salmonids (rainbow trout, brown trout, and salmon) are the 
most sensitive to chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. Redear 
sunfish. bluegill. and largemouth bass are intermediate in 
sensitivity, with channel catfish and black bullheads being the 
least sensitive (ref. 6-1). 

Today, most synthetic organic insecticides have been 
replaced by the organophosphate insecticides (e.g.. malathion 
and diazinon) and by carbamates (e.g.. carbaryl). Organo- 
phosphate insecticides are much less persistent, with half- 
lives from 1 to 12 weeks. The main feature of organophosphate 
insecticides is their rapid degradability (ref. 6-1). Some carba- 
mates persist only a few days. 

Since carbamates and organophosphates are not fat soluble, 
they do not concentrate in organisms nor do they accumulate up 
the food chains. Consequently, the compounds are much safer 
environmentally. However, while organophosphate compounds 
are safer environmentally, a toxic organophosphate compound 
can kill fish in a water body and quickly degrade with no 
detectable chemical trace a few weeks later. Fish families still 
show the same types of sensitivity to the organophosphates that 
they did to the chlorinated hydrocarbons, with salmonids being 



Figure 6-1 

Biomagnification of DDD in the Food Chain 
at Clear Lake, California. 

Numbers are times amount in water. 



Concentration 




(Fhnt and van den Bosch. 1977) (Ref. 6-10) 



the most sensitive and catfish the least sensitive. Carbamates and 
organophosphates are soluble in water and can be easily 
transported in water. Thus, these compounds may increase the 
potential for ground water contamination. 

Herbicides: Herbicides vary considerably in their persis- 
tence. Herbicides, such as 2.4-D and alachlor. are considered to 
be nonpersistent. with half-lives of less than 20 days. They sel- 
dom remain in the soil for longer than a month to 6 weeks when 
used at the recommended levels for weed control. Atrazine is 
considerably more persistent, remaining in the soil for as long as 
17 months. Others such as monuron. picloram. simazine. and 
paraquat are very persistent, remaining in the soil from 2 to 4 
years. Most herbicides are nonpersistent. breaking down by the 
end of the growing season (ref. 6-2, 6-3). 

In general, when compared to insecticides, herbicides in use 
today rank lower in relative fish toxicity and the potential for 
environmental impact. Many herbicides do not appear to have a 



29 



permanent impact on aquatic ecosystems and appear to be only 
moderately toxic to fish. 

Pesticide Indicators for Receiving Waters 

1. Presence of pesticide containers (Refer to Field Sheet 4A, 
rating item 1, figure 6-2). 

Evidence of careless and haphazard disposal or dumping 
of pesticide containers in or near sink holes, streams, or 
water bodies should be a warning of possible adverse pesti- 
cide effects on the aquatic ecosystem. 

2. Appearance of nontarget vegetation (Refer to Field Sheet 
4A, rating item 2, figure 6-2). 

By definition, herbicides are toxic to plant life. Herbi- 
cides draining from agricultural fields can result in the death 
of aquatic vegetation. This is especially true if a storm occurs 
immediately following spraying and washes the newly applied 
pesticide into nearby waters. Also, aerial drift that carries 
pesticide away from the field, and "overspray" by the spray 
plane beyond the field edge can damage or kill aquatic 
vegetation by landing directly on it. Large (macroscopic) 
aquatic plants are particularly sensitive. Microscopic 
phytoplankiton appear to be less sensitive, although the effects 
on plankton have not been extensively studied (ref. 6-3). 

Leaf burn and evidence of vegetative dieback on nontar- 
get vegetation, whether aquatic or terrestrial, are indicators 
of herbicide damage. Care should be taken to look for this 
type of evidence in or along ponds, drainage ditches, and 
streams. Examine floating species, such as pond lilies and 
duckweed. Also examine emergent rooted aquatics, such as 
watercress, watershield, and spatterdock, and marginal 
weeds, such as alligator weed, smartweed, arrowhead, pick- 
erelweed, and cattails (fig. B-7). 

3. Overall diversity of insects, presence of "fish bait types" 

(Refer to Field Sheet 4A, rating item 3, figure 6-2). 

Insecticides kill nontarget, as well as target insects and 
other closely related species. It is not uncommon to observe 
reduced species diversity and reduced populations of aquatic 
bottom-dwelling organisms in waters that receive pesticide 
runoff. Diversity is reduced as sensitive species, such as 
some types of mayflies, dragonflies, water mites, or beetles, 
decline or die off. As sensitive species die, populations of 
insecticide-tolerant species, such as blackflies and 
chironomids, expand to fill the void vacated by the sensitive 
species. Ask the landowner if there have been any insect 
population upsurges or decreases in the local area. An excel- 
lent tool for determining the diversity of bottom-dwelling in- 
vertebrates is the Sequential Comparison Index (SCI) shown 
in appendix A. 



4. Overall diversity of fish (Refer to Field Sheet 4A, rating 
item 4, figure 6-2). 

Chronic sublethal effects of pesticides in waters are 
difficult to observe. Chronic effects include: 

• Fish avoidance of contaminated watercourse areas. This 
may result in their absence in a localized area or prevent 
their swimming into these areas to spawn. 

• Altered reproduction due to toxicity or avoidance. Trout 
do not naturally reproduce in some agriculturally drained 
streams common to their range. 

• Lowered fish productivity. 

• Young fish mortality (decreased survival of newly 
hatched fish; adapted from Pimentel, Brown, Cross, ref. 
6-4, 6-5, 6-6). 

These subtle effects, combined with the dieback of fish 
food (fish bait) organisms as described in number 3 above, 
manifest themselves in altered or degraded fisheries. In 
general, the greater the input of pesticides, the less diverse 
the fishery. Salmonids appear to be most sensitive and 
decline or are eliminated first. Next in sensitivity are the in- 
tolerant centrachids, such as longear sunfish, striped bass, 
smallmouth bass, crappie, redfin pickerel, and bluegill. These 
are followed by the more tolerant centrachids (blacknose 
dace, common shiner, sculpin, creek chub, madtom, golden 
shiner, largemouth bass, blueback herring and alewives). In 
the worst of the chronically polluted pesticide waters, there 
are only the very most tolerant species of cyprinid minnows 
and ictalurids. Typical species include brownhead carp, bull- 
heads, white sucker, shad and catfish, or no fish at all. See 
appendix B for a brief summary of fish species (ref. 6-7, 
6-8). 

5. Fish kills, animal teratology (Refer to Field Sheet 4A, rat- 
ing item 5, figure 6-2). 

Acute effects of lethal concentrations of pesticides result 
in insect kills (mayfly, dragonfly, etc.) or fish kills or both. 
These kills are usually of a limited nature and are easy to ob- 
serve. They frequently occur after routine spraying of barns 
or feedlot areas that are in close proximity to a watercourse or 
pond, or from the improper washing of spray equipment and 
containers. Massive kills are rare. 

Chronic sublethal concentrations of pesticides are some- 
times teratogenic; that is. they produce birth defects or 
tumors. One type of birth defect that might be observed is 
broken-back syndrome in fish (vertebral deformities and 
scoliosis). Other types are deformed bird beaks or the ab- 
sence of ears or eyes, resulting from elevated levels of 
selenium or other trace elements or toxic ions. 



30 



Figure 6-2 



Pesticides 



FIELD SHEET 4A: PESTICIDES 
INDICATORS FOR RECEIVING WATERCOURSES AND WATER BODIES 



Evaluator — County/State Date 

Water Body Evaluated Water Body Location Total Score/Rank 

Rating Item Excellent : Good : Fair : Poor 



(Circle one number among the four choices in each row which BEST describes the conditions of the watercourse or 
water body being evaluated If a condition has characteristics of two categories, you can "split" a score.) 



1 Presence of 
pesticide 
containers 


-- No containers in or near 

water 
-- OTHER 

9 


-- No containers in or near 

water 
-- OTHER 

9 


— ^iji I la < IICI5 ULa 1CU i iCai 

the water 
-- OTHER 

5 


fr\nta i n^rc in tho utafpr 

\/Ui itaii ici 9 iii u ic waic! 

-- OTHER 

3 


2. Appearance of 
non-target 
vegetation 


-- No leaf burn 

-- No vegetation dieback 

- OTHER 

9 


-- Some leaf burn. 

-- No vegetation dieback. 

- OTHER 

6 


-- Significant leaf burn. 

-- Some vegetation dieback. 

-- OTHER 

4 


-- Severe dieback of 

vegetation 
- OTHER 

1 


3. Overall 
diversity of 
insects 
("fish bait") 


-- High diversity including 
dragonflies. stoneflies. 
mayflies, caddisflies. water 
mites or beetles. 

-- OTHER 

10 


-- Average diversity of 
insects — some of those 
listed under excellent 

- OTHER 

8 


-- Occasional insect kills. 

Reduced numbers and kinds. 
Upsurges of blackfhes & 
chironomids. 

-- OTHER 

3 


-- Insect kills common Not 
many fish-bait types such 
as hellgrammites (the 
larvae of dobsonflies). 
aiderfhes. or fishflies 

- OTHER 

1 


4. Overall 
diversity 
of fish 


-- Excellent fish diversity— 
what's expected in the area 

-- Presence of intolerants such 
as brook, brown or rainbow 
trout salmon or stickleback 

- OTHER 

9 


-- Good fish diversity. 

-- Native salmonids (trout & 
salmon) begin to die out 
first The least tolerant 
centrarchids (longear sun- 
fish, rock bass, small- 
mouth bass, crappie. 
redfinned pickerel and 
bluegill) begin to decline. 

-- OTHER 

: 7 


-- Reduced fish diversity 
-- The more tolerant centrar- 
chids die off— blacknose 
dace, common shiner, 
sculpin. creekchub. 
madtom. golden shiner, 
large mouth bass, blueback 
herring, and alewives. 
-- Larger proportion of green 
sunfish. 

-- Occasional (once every 1-2 

years) pond fish kills. 
-- OTHER 

4 


-- Extremely reduced fish 
diversity. 

-- Only very tolerant 
species of cyprinids & 
ictalurids (such as 
brownhead carp, bull- 
heads, white sucker, 
shad, and catfish 

-- Some highly polluted 
waters (usually ponds) 
may lack fish entirely 

-- OTHER 

1 


5 Fish kills; 
animal 
teratology 
(birth 
defects & 
tumors in 
fish & other 
animals) 


-- No fish kills in last 2 years 
-- No birth defects of tumors. 

-- OTHER 

9 


-- Fish kills rare in last 
2 years. 

-- Minimal birth defects & 
tumors occurring in the 
population randomly. 

-- OTHER 

5 


-- Occasional fish kills. 
-- Some birth defects & 
tumors. 

- OTHER 

3 


-- Fish kills common in 
last couple of years. 

-- Frequent fish kills 
during spring thaws 

-- Yearly pond fish kills 
following aquatic vegeta- 
tion dieback not uncommon. 

:— Considerable numbers of 
birth defects & tumors. 

-- OTHER 





Normal behavior, e.g. fish 
seen breaking the surface for 
insects 

No evidence of 

disease, tumors, fin damage. 

or other anomalies 

No fish piping or aberrant 

behavior. 

No fish kills. 



OTHER 



Behavior as expected, e g 
evidence of fish, such as 
water rings or bubbles 
Little if any evidence of 
disease, tumors, fin 
damage, or other anomalies. 
In hot climates, occasional 
fish piping or gulping for 
air in ponds just before 
dawn 

No fish kills in last 2 

years 

OTHER 

7 



-- Behavioral changes in 
fish — swimming near 
surface, uncoordinated 
movements, convulsive 
darting movements, erratic 
swimming up & down or in 
small circles, hyperexcita- 
bility (jumping out), 
difficulty in respiration. 
More likely seen in ponds 

-- Fish piping common. 

-- Occasional fish kills. 

- OTHER 

4 



Fish avoidance or be- 
haviors, such as erratic 
swimming near surface & 
gulping for or piping 
for air More likely 
seen in ponds. 
Pond fish kills common 
Frequent stream fish 
kills during Spring thaw 
Very tolerant species 
(e.g. bullhead, catfish). 

OTHER 



1 Add the circled Rating Item scores to get a total for the field sheet TOTAL [ 

2 Check the ranking for this site based on the total field score Check "excellent" if the score totals at least 40 Check "good" if the score falls between 27 and 39. 
etc Record your total score and rank (excellent, good, etc ) in the upper right-hand corner of the field sheet If a Rating Item is "fair" or "poor." complete Field 
Sheet 4B. 

RANKING Excellent (40-46) [ ] Good (27-39) [ ] Fair (12-26) [ ] Poor (1 1 or less) [ 

OPTiONAL RANKING Excellent (48-55) [ Good (32-47) [ Fair (14-31) [ Poor (13 or less) [ 



31 



6. Fish behavior and condition (Refer to Field Sheet 4A, rat- 
ing item 6, figure 6-2). 

In addition to a degraded (less diverse) and less productive 
fishery, chronic sublethal doses of pesticides can lead to the 
following conditions, which are more likely to be observed in 
standing waters than in flowing waters: 

• Increased susceptibility to attack by parasites and disease, 
such as infection by the aquatic fungus, Saprolegnia; 

• Increased incidences of tumors; 

• Behavioral changes in fish: 

- uncoordinated movements; 

- convulsive darting movements; 

- erratic swimming up and down or in a small circle; 

- sluggishness (nonresponsiveness) alternating with hyper- 
excitability (jumping out); 

- difficulty in respiration (adapted from Pimentel, Brown, 
Cross, ref. 6-4, 6-5, 6-6). 

Frog tadpoles display some of the same aberrant types of 
behavior as fish; that is, hyper-irritability, spastic activity, 
and rhythmic muscular contractions that produce a whirling 
motion (ref. 6-9). 



32 



Chapter 7 
Animal Wastes 



Animal Waste Pollutants: Micro-organisms, Organic Matter, 
and Nutrients 

Surface runoff of animal wastes contaminates a receiving 
body of water with four types of pollutants: ( 1 ) pathogenic and 
nonpathogenic micro-organisms; (2) biodegradable organic mat- 
ter; (3) nutrients; and (4) salts. Ground water can be adversely 
affected by animal-waste nutrients and salts. Only organic matter 
can be seen with the naked eye. but it. too, may be degraded 
into fine particles that dissolve or remain suspended in the 
water. These particles color the water, increase its turbidity, and 
increase the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Refer to figure 
7-1 for a comparison of typical BOD concentrations in municipal 
and agricultural wastes. Effects of the bacteria, nutrients, and 
salts may be observed indirectly, such as human-health effects 
from shellfish contamination or as eutrophication. 

Micro-organisms. Animal wastes are potential sources of 
approximately 150 diseases. Illnesses that may be transmitted by 
animal manure include bacterial diseases, such as typhoid fever, 
gastro-intestinal disorders, cholera, tuberculosis, anthrax, and 
mastitis. Transmittable viral diseases are hog cholera, foot and 
mouth disease, polio, respiratory diseases, and eye infections 
(ref. 7-3). 



Figure 7-1.— BOD concentrations in municipal and agricultural 
wastes (ref. 7-1 . 7-2). 

All values are BOD5* in milligrams per liter (mg 1 ). 



Raw domestic (municipal) sewage 200 
Treated sewage with secondary treatment 20 
Milking center wastes 1,500 



Influent source Effluent source 

to a lagoon from a lagoon 

Dairy cattle 6.000 2.100 

Beef cattle 6,700 2.345 

Swine 12.800 4.480 

Poultry 9.800 3.430 



*The determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand as an empirical test- 
ing procedure to determine relative o.xvgen requirements of wastewater, 
effluents, and polluted waters using a 5-day incubation period. 

Numerous factors influence the nature and amount of 
disease-producing organisms that reach waterways. Some of 
these factors are climate, soil types and infiltration rates, topog- 
raphy, animal species, animal health, and the presence of "car- 
rier" organisms. These latter organisms carry disease-causing 
micro-organisms in significant numbers, but do not contract the 
disease themselves. Manure, applied to the land in solid or slur- 
ry form or stored in lagoons, poses varying public health haz- 
ards, depending on the distance to watercourses, nature of the 
soil overlying aquifers, etc. When manure is applied on hot. 
sunny days, harmful bacteria die quite rapidly, virtually 
eliminating any potential health threat. However, rain falling on 
freshly applied manure may yield 10.000 to 10 million bacteria 
per milliliter in runoff waters. The public health hazard in- 
creases if manure is applied onto frozen ground or in the rain. 



or if a lagoon overflows. Direct disposal into water represents a 
significant threat to animals, or to humans swimming in or 
drinking the water (ref. 7-4). 

Public health departments test for the presence of Es- 
cherichia coli (E. coli) to determine if waters classified for 
swimming are contaminated by organic pollution. The most 
commonly used indicator species of organic pollution is E. coli. 
It is generally nonpathogenic and is a member of a group of fe- 
cal coliforms. bacteria that reside in the intestine of warm 
blooded animals, including humans. The presence of E. coli does 
not by itself confirm the presence of pathogens. Rather, it 
indicates contamination by sewage or animal manure and the 
potential for health risks. Unfortunately, there is still no easy 
method for distinguishing between human and animal coliform 
bacteria (ref. 7-5). 

For this reason and because bacterial identification requires 
the use of sterile technique and incubation, field offices general- 
ly have not used bacteria as pollution indicators. However, those 
individuals interested in using bacteria as pollution indicators 
should refer to the last page in appendix B and to Standard 
Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water (ref. B- 
5) for details. 

Organic Matter. Animal waste contaminates receiving 
waters with oxygen-demanding organic matter, including organic 
nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. When manure enters a 
standing water body, such as a pond, it is subject to natural de- 
cay. As decomposition occurs, BOD increases, dissolved oxygen 
(DO) decreases, and ammonia is released. Low DO levels and 
increased ammonia cause stress to stream inhabitants. Fish, in 
particular, are sensitive to ammonia. Nonionic (un-ionized) 
ammonia (NH,) concentrations as low as 0.2 ppm may prove 
toxic to fish (ref. 7-6). 

Animal manure is commonly spread on frozen ground in 
cold regions. When snowmelt runoff occurs in early spring, 
some of the manure washes away in the runoff from the frozen 
ground, contaminating nearby watercourses and bodies. Fish 
kills are common under these circumstances. Frequently, the 
receiving waters are the farm's own pond or stream. 

It is only later in the spring after a complete thaw that ma- 
nure nutrients are able to seep into the soil. Even then, since the 
crop has not been planted, or if planted, is immature and lacks 
extensive root systems, more than half of the nutrients can wash 
through the soil or run off it. Since surfaces coated with \ery dry 
or very wet manure repel water, there is greater runoff in range 
areas or feedlots under these conditions compared to less runoff 
from water-absorbing, moderately moist manured areas. In 
general, from 0.22 to 0.5 in of rain is necessary to produce runoff. 
Monitoring has shown that manure solids in late-February and 
early-March runoffs can be ten times more concentrated than 
summer rain-storm runoffs (ref. 7-3, 7-4, 7-7). 

Fast-moving (lotic) waters usually can effectively degrade 
moderate amounts of manure and organic matter w ithout severe 
declines in water quality. However, since lakes and ponds (lentic 
waters) are characterized by lesser flows, they often have less 
dissolved oxygen. They usually degrade less manure and organic 
matter and can be easily overloaded. 

Nutrients. The effects of nutrient enrichment on receiving 
waters, whether nutrients come from fertilizers or manure, are 
the same. Since this is the case, the effects of nutrients on 
receiving waters discussed in Chapter 5 are applicable here. 



53 



Salts. Salts are added to animal feeds to maintain the 
animal's chemical balance and increase weight. Excess salts pass 
through the animals and are eliminated in the wastes. When 
manure accumulates, salt leaching becomes a potential pollution 
problem. With sufficient rainfall and runoff, salts can contribute 
to surface and ground water pollution (ref. 7-8). 

Animal Waste Indicators for Receiving Waters 

1. Evidence of animal waste: visual and olfactory (Refer to 
Field Sheet 2A, rating item 1, figure 7-2). 

The most obvious indication of fresh manure, even at a 
distance, is the unpleasant odor and the smell of ammonia. 
Closer visual inspection of the water and the water's edge is 
necessary to locate dried sludge, which may be fairly 
odorless. 

2. Turbidity and color (Refer to Field Sheet 2A, rating item 2, 
figure 7-2). 

When manure enters water, it disintegrates fairly rapidly 
into small particulate matter. When the manure input is heavy 
and the rate of water flow is low, a noticeable increase in 
turbidity might occur (i.e., water may appear more opaque or 
cloudy). 



Nutrients contained in the manure eventually dissolve and 
are taken up by plants. The indirect effects of increased 
nutrients manifest themselves in both the vigor and amount of 
aquatic vegetation. For a detailed discussion of these effects, 
refer to chapter 5. 

3. Aquatic vegetation; fish behavior; bottom-dwelling organ- 
isms (For rating items 3, 4, and 5 on Field Sheet 2 A, see items 
1, 3, and 5 in Chapter 5). 

Some of the same water-use impacts noted for nutrients 
in item 4, chapter 5 are also true for manure. For example, 
waters having excessive inputs of manure are often character- 
ized by reduction in fishery quality. These waters also have 
reduced recreational use because of odors, muddy conditions, 
decay of massive amounts of vegetation, etc. Property near 
or adjacent to these waters is often devalued. 

Health effects, such as blue baby syndrome or water- 
borne bacterial and viral diseases sometimes occur. The clos- 
ing of bacterially contaminated areas to fishing or recreation 
by public health agencies is sometimes due to animal waste 
pollution from agricultural sources. Drinking water may also 
be impaired by taste, color, odor, or turbidity problems. 



34 



Figure 7-2 



Animal Waste 

FIELD SHEET 2A: ANIMAL WASTE 
INDICATORS FOR RECEIVING WATERCOURSES AND WATER BODIES 

Evaluator County/State Date 

Water Body Evaluated Water Body Location Total Score/ Rank 

Rating Item Excellent Good Fair Poor 



(Circle one number among the four choices in each row which BEST describes the conditions of the watercourse or 
water body being evaluated If a condition has characteristics of two categories, you can "split" a score.) 



1. Evidence of 
animal 
waste: 
visual and 
olfactory 


-- No manure in or near water 

body 
-- No odor. 

-- OTHER 

9 


-- Occasional manure 
droppings where cattle 
cross or in water 

-- Slight musk odor 

- OTHER 

6 


-- Manure droppings in concen- 
trated localized areas 

-- Strong manure or ammonia 
odor. 

-- OTHER 

2 


-- Dry and wet manure all 
over banks or in water 

-- Strong manure & ammonia 
odor. 

-- OTHER 




2 Turbidity & 
color 

(observe in 
slow water) 


-- Clear or slightly greenish 
water in pond or along the 
whole reach of stream 

-- No noticeable colored film on 
submerged objects or rocks 

-- OTHER 

9 


-- Occasionally turbid or 
cloudy Water stirred up & 
muddy & brownish at animal 
crossings 
-- Pond water greenish 
-- Rocks or submerged obiects 
covered with thin coating 
of green, olive, or brown 
build-up less than 5 mm 
thick. 

-- OTHER 

6 


-- Stream & pond water bubbly, 
brownish and cloudy where 
muddied by animal use 

-- Pea green color in ponds 
when not stirred up by 
animals. 

-- Bottom covered w/green or 
olive film Rocks or sub- 
merged obiects coated with 
heavy or filamentous build- 
up 5-75 mm thick or long 

-- OTHER 

3 


-- Stream & pond water 

brown to black. 

occasionally with a 

manure crust along banks. 
-- Sluggish & standing 

water— murky and bubbly 

(foaming). 
-- Ponds often bright 

green or with brown/ 

black decaying algal 

mats 
-- OTHER 




3 Amount of 
aquatic 
vegetation 


-- Little vegetation— uncluttered 

look to stream or pond 
-- What you would expect for a 

pristine water body in area 
-- Usually fairly low amounts 

of many different kinds of 

plants. 

-- OTHER 

8 


-- Moderate amounts of 
vegetation; or 

-- What you would expect for 
the naturally occurring 
site-specific conditions. 

-- OTHER 

6 


-- Cluttered weedy conditions. 
Vegetation sometimes 
luxurious and green. 

-- Seasonal algal blooms 

-- OTHER 

3 


-- Choked weedy conditions 
or heavy algal blooms 
or no vegetation at all 

-- Dense masses of slimy 
white, greyish green, 
rusty brown or black 
water molds common on 
bottom. 

-- OTHER 




4. Fish behavior 
in hot weather; 
fish kills. 

especially before 
dawn 


-- No fish piping or aberrant 

behavior. 
-- No fish kills. 

-- OTHER 

8 


-- In hot climates, occas- 
sional fish piping or 
gulping for air in ponds 
lust before dawn 

-- No fish kills in last 
two years 

-- OTHER 

5 


-- Fish piping common just 

before dawn 
-- Occasional fish kills. 

-- OTHER 

3 


-- Pronounced fish piping. 
-- Pond fish kills common. 
-- Frequent stream fish 

kills during spring thaw 
-- Very tolerant species 

(e.g.. bullhead, catfish) 
- OTHER 




5 Bottom 
dwelling 
aquatic 
organisms 


-- Intolerant species occur 
mayflies, stoneflies, 
caddisflies. water penny, 
riffle beetle and a mix 
of tolerants 

-- High diversity. 

-- OTHER 

9 


-- A mix of tolerants: 
shrimp, damselflies. 
dragonflies. black flies. 
-- Intolerants rare 
-- Moderate diversity. 

-- OTHER 

5 


-- Many tolerants (snails. 

shrimp, damselflies. 

dragonflies. black flies) 
-- Mainly tolerants and some 

very tolerants 
-- Intolerants rare 
-- Reduced diversity with 

occasional upsurges of 

tolerants. e g tube worms. 

and chironomids. 
-- OTHER 

3 


-- Only tolerants or very 
tolerants: midges, 
craneflies. horseflies, 
rat-tailed maggots, or 
none at all 

-- Very reduced diversity, 
upsurges of very 
tolerants common. 

-- OTHER 





1 Add the circled Rating Item scores to get a total for the field sheet TOTAL [ ] 

2. Check the ranking for this site based on the total field score. Check "excellent" if the score totals at least 35 Check "good" if the score falls between 21 and 34. 

etc Record your total score and rank (excellent, good, etc I in the upper right-hand corner of the field sheet If a Rating Item is "fair" or "poor," complete Field 

Sheet 2B 1 or 2B ? 

RANKING Excellent (35-43) [ ] Good (21 -34) [ ] Fair (7-20) [ ] Poor (6 or less) [ 



35 



Chapter 8 
Salts 



More than 90 percent of the total irrigated land in the Unit- 
ed States is distributed in 8 major river basins of the West, en- 
compassing parts of 17 States (fig. 8-1). California and Texas 
lead the Nation in the number of irrigated acres. The major 
water quality problem identified in seven out of the eight basins 
is salinity or salt pollution (ref. 8-1). Half of the 90 to 100 mil- 
lion tons of salt delivered annually to watercourses comes from 
agriculturally related activities (ref. 8-2). Salinity is commonly 
measured and expressed as milligrams per liter (mg 1) or parts 
per million (ppm). 

Approximately one-fourth of all irrigated land (about 10 mil- 
lion acres) suffers from salt-caused crop yield reductions (ref. 
8-3). Although the most severe salt problems occur in the arid 
and semiarid West (fig. 8-2), increasing salinity is symptomatic 
of water use and reuse. 



Figure 8-1 



Salinity Indicators for Receiving Waters 
1. Geology of area and geochemistry of water (Refer to 
Field Sheet 5A. rating item 1. figure 8-3). 

Salts come from natural sources and result from human 
activities. Natural sources include geologic formations of ma- 
rine origin, soils with poor drainage, salty ground water, and 
salty springs. The salinity of the soil is increased primar- 
ily by overapplying irrigation water to areas where drainage 
is inadequate. The salinity of receiving waters is increased 
primarily by over-irrigating lands underlain with salt-bearing 
layers. 

Saline waters contain a number of salts whose relative 
proportions reflect the geology of the region as well as 
seasonal changes in hydrology. Consequendy. salt propor- 
tions tend to be site-specific. The primary components of the 
dissolved solids that constitute saline water are chlorides, sul- 
fates, and bicarbonates of the following elements: sodium, 
calcium, magnesium, and potassium (ref. 8-3). 



Hydrologic Divisions. 1 




'Source EPA - Pollution Control Manual for Irrigated Agriculture (Ref 8-1 ). 



37 



Figure 8-2 



Levels of Dissolved Solids (Mg/1) in U.S. Streams. 2 




200 or less 



201-500 501-1000 
Milligrams per liter (Mg/1) 



Over 1000 



2 Source: EPA - Council on Environmental Quality. Analysis of U.S. Geological Survey data of the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (Ref. 8-4). 



Precipitation and irrigation requirements (Refer to Field 
Sheet 5A, rating item 2, figure 8-3). 

The salinity of both water and soil is increased by salt 
concentration and salt loading. High salt concentrations are 
more likely to occur in semiarid and arid regions where 
evaporation exceeds precipitation. In these regions of salt- 
bearing layers, the usual salty water becomes even saltier as 
water is lost by evaporation from soil and plants (evapotran- 
spiration). Salt pollution is even more likely to occur in these 
regions when drainage is inadequate or if water tables are 
"perched" close to the surface (5 feet or less). 

Salt "loading" occurs when irrigation water percolates 
through a salt-laden soil profile or geologic layer on its way 
back to a river or stream, or when irrigation return flows ac- 
cumulate salt as they run over the soil surface. The greater the 
irrigation requirements, the greater the opportunity for salt 
loading of soils. 



For example, of the 10 million metric tons of salt annual- 
ly reaching the Lower Colorado River Basin, 600,000 to 
700,000 metric tons are annually contributed by the Grand 
Valley. The salt-load contribution from the Grand Valley is 
the result of saline subsurface irrigation return flows reaching 
the Colorado River. The alluvial soils of Grand Valley are 
high in natural salts. However, the most significant salt source 
is the Mancos Shale geologic formation, which underlies these 
alluvial soils and which contains crystalline lenses of salt that 
are readily dissolved by subsurface return flows (ref. 8-3, 8-5). 

In this area, the irrigation water applied is at least three 
times greater than the crop water requirements. Although 
much of this excess water returns to open drains as surface 
runoff, having negligible effect on the Colorado River salinity, 
significant water quantities still reach the underlying Mancos 
Shale formation and pass to a near-surface cobble aquifer, 
where the water is returned into the Colorado River (ref. 8-5). 



38 



Figure 8-3 



Salinity 

FIELD SHEET 5A SALINITY 
INDICATORS FOR RECEIVING WATERCOURSES AND WATER BODIES 

Evaluator County/State Date 

Water Body Evaluated Water Body Location Total Score/Rank 

Rating Item Excellent Good Fair Poor 



(Circle one number among the four choices in each row which BEST describes the conditions of the watercourse or 
water body being evaluated If a condition has characteristics of two categories, you can "split" a score.) 



1. Geology 
of area 

geochemistry 
of water 


-- Agricultural area overlies 
formations of igneous or 
m eta m Orphic origin. 

-- Few fractures or faults 
in the area 

-- Very low to low mineral 
content— soft waters of the 
East and Southeast 

-- OTHER 

10 


-- Agricultural area 

primarily overlies forma- 
tions of igneous or 
metamorphic origin with 
occasional areas above 
marine deposits 

-- Few fractures or faults. 

-- Low to moderate mineral 
content — soft waters. 

-- OTHER 

7 


-- Agricultural area overlies 

marine deposits 
-- Faulting common. 
-- Moderate to high mineral 

content — hard waters of 

mountain states, deserts. 

and Great Plains 

- OTHER 

3 


-- Agricultural area overlies 
marine deposits of recent 
origin. 

-- Fractures and faulting very 

common in the area 
-- High to very high mineral 

content Soils of manne origin. 

Salty ground water and springs. 

Mineral springs. 

Saltwater intrusion. 
- OTHER 


2 Precipitation 
and 

irrigation 
requirements 


-- Average crop water consumption 

is equal to or less than 

average precipitation. 
-- Minimal irrigation required 

-- OTHER 

8 


-- Average crop water 
consumption is between 
5 & 10% more than average 
precipitation. 

-- Moderate irrigation req'd 

-- OTHER 

6 


-- Average crop water consump- 
tion is between 10 & 25% 
more than precipitation 

-- Considerable irrigation 
required. 

- OTHER 

4 


-- Average crop water consump- 
tion exceeds average 
precipitation by more than 
25%. 

-- Maximal irrigation required 
- OTHER 




3. Location of 
watercourse 
in watershed 


-- Near headwaters 
-- OTHER 

9 


-- Not far from headwaters 
-- OTHER 

7 


-- Moderate distance from 

headwaters 
- OTHER 

5 


-- Far from headwaters 
-- OTHER 

3 


4 Appearance 
of water's 
edge (shore- 
line or 
banks) 


-- No evidence of salt crusts 
-- OTHER 

9 


-- Some evidence of white, 
crusty deposits on banks. 

-- OTHER 

6 


-- Numerous localized patches 
of white, crusty deposits 
on banks. 

-- OTHER 

4 


-- Most of the pond or stream 
bank covered with a thick, 
white, crusty deposit Salt 
"feathering" on posts abundant 

-- OTHER 

1 


5 Appearance 
of aquatic 
vegetation 


-- No evidence of wilting, 
toxicity, or stunting 

-- OTHER 

10 


-- Minimal wilting and 
toxicity, bleaching, 
leaf burn. 

Little if any stunting. 
-- OTHER 

7 


-- Stream or pond vegetation 
may show wilted and toxic 
symptoms— bleaching, leaf 
burn. 

-- Presence of some 

salt-tolerant species. 
-- OTHER 

3 


-- Evidence of severe 
wilting, toxicity, or 
stunting 

- - Presence of only 
the most salt-tolerant 
species or complete 
absence of vegetation 

-- OTHER 


6 Streamside 
vegetation 


-- Very few species. 
-- OTHER 

8 


-- Few salt tolerant species. 
Refer to list below*. 

-- OTHER 

7 


-- Increasing dominance of 
salt-tolerant species 

-- OTHER 

5 


-- Vegetation almost totally 
salt-tolerant species or 
absence of vegetation 

- OTHER 

3 


OPTIONAL 

7. Animal 
teratology 
(birth defects 
& tumors in 
fish and 
other animals) 


-- No birth defects or tumors 
-- OTHER 

10 


-- Minimal birth defects & 
tumors occuring in the 
population randomly. 

-- OTHER 

6 


-- Some birth defects & 
tumors. 

- OTHER 

1 


-- Considerable numbers 
of birth defects & 
tumors. 

-- OTHER 





*Salt-tolerant species include greasewood. alkali sacaton. fourwing saltbush. shadscales. saltgrass. tamarisk (salt cedar), galleta. western wheatgrass. crested 
wheat, mat saltbush. reed canarygrass. and rabbitbrush. 

1 Add the circled Rating Item scores to get a total for the field sheet TOTAL [ 

2 Check the ranking for this site based on the total field score Check "excellent" if the score totals at least 47 Check "good" if the score falls between 32 and 46. 
etc Record your total score and rank (excellent good, etc ) in the upper right-hand corner of the field sheet If a Rating Item is "fair" or "poor." complete Field 
Sheet 5B, or 5B 2 

RANKING Excellent (47-54) [ ] Good (32-46) [ ] Fair (15-31) [ ] Poor (14 or less) [ 

RANKING (optional) Excellent (55-64) [ Good (35-54) [ Fair (16-34) [ Poor (1 5 or less) [ 



39 



Figure 8-4 



Salinity 

FIELD SHEET 5B 2 : SALINITY 
INDICATORS FOR SALINE SEEPS 

Evaluator County/State Date : Practices 

Saline Seep Evaluated Seep Location Total Score/ Rank : from 

Rating Item Excellent Good Fair : Poor Appendix E 



(Circle one number among the four choices in each row which BEST describes the conditions of the field or 
area being evaluated If a condition has characteristics of two categories, you can "split" a score.) 



1. Geology 


-- Agricultural area overlies 
formations of igneous or 
metamorphic origin. 

-- Few fractures or faults 
in the area. 

-- OTHER 

10 


-- Agricultural areas 

primarily overlies forma- 
tions of igneous or 
metamorphic origin with 
occasional areas above 
marine deposits. 

-- Few fractures or faults. 

-- OTHER 

7 


-- Agricultural area overlies 

marine deposits. 
-- Faulting common 

-- OTHER 

3 


-- Agricultural area over- 
lies marine deposits of 
recent origin. 
Fractures and faulting 
very common in the 
area. 

-- OTHER 






2. Precipitation 
and irrigation 
requirements 


-- Average crop water 
consumption is equal to 
or less than average 
precipitation. 

-- OTHER 

8 


-- Average crop water 
consumption is between 
5 and 10% more than 
average precipitation. 

-- OTHER 

6 


-- Average crop water 
consumption is between 
10 and 25% more than 
precipitation. 

-- OTHER 

4 


-- Average crop water 
consumption exceeds 
average precipitation by 
more than 25%. 

-- OTHER 






3 Cropping 
system 


-- Crop rotation consists of 
annual crops with maximum 
consumptive water use. 

-- OTHER 

8 


-- Crop rotation consists of 
annual crops. 

-- OTHER 

6 


-- Crop rotation contains a 
biannual fallow period. 

-- Crops with maximum 
water consumptive use 
grown. 

-- OTHER 

4 


-- Crop rotation contains 
a biannual fallow 
period. 

-- OTHER 

2 


17,37,68, 
72 


4. Field 

appearance, 
including 
salt crusts 


-- Downslope fields exhibit 
even-appearing crop growth. 
High yields are common for 
the area. 

-- OTHER 

9 


-- Downslope areas of field 
or downslope fields 
exhibit even crop growth, 
but of reduced yield for 
the area. 

-- OTHER 

7 


-- Downslope areas of field 
or downslope fields have 
uneven growth of crops 
with patches of crops 
significantly stunted. 

-- Occasionally white crust 
occurs in these patches. 

-- OTHER 

3 


-- Downslope areas of 
fields have bare spots 
not accounted for by 
soil variations. Bare 
spots occur in highly 
saline soils. White 
crust common. 

-- OTHER 

1 





1 Add the circled Rating Item scores to get a total for the field sheet. TOTAL [ ] 

2. Check the ranking for this site based on the total field score. Check "excellent" if the score totals at least 30. Check "good" if the score falls between 20 and 29. 

etc Record your total score and rank (excellent, good, etc.) in the upper right-hand corner of the field sheet. If a Rating Item is "fair" or "poor," find the practices 

in the right-hand column to help remedy the conditions 

RANKING Excellent (30-35) [ ] Good (20-29) [ ] Fair ( 8-19) [ ] Poor ( 7 or less) [ ] 



40 



3. Location of watercourses in watershed ( Refer to Field Sheet 
5A, rating item 3. figure 8-3). 

In geologic regions where the soils are underlain by salt- 
bearing layers, the salinity of receiving watercourses in- 
creases with the distance from the headwaters. The salinity is 
least near the headwaters, where there has been little oppor- 
tunity for salt loading or salt concentration, and greatest 
downstream, where effects of these two processes are max- 
imized. Generally , salt loading is the major cause of salinity 
increases in the arid and semiarid regions of the United 
States. Salinity in the Colorado River ranges from an average 
of less than 50 milligrams per liter (mg/1) in the headwaters 
to 825 mg/1 at Imperial Dam and 950 mg/1 in Mexico (ref. 
8-3. 8-6. 8-7). 



4. Appearance of water's edge (shoreline or banks) (Refer to 
Field Sheet 5A. rating item 4. figure 8-3). 

The most obvious indicator of excessive salinity is the 
presence of white, crusty deposits of salts. These deposits 
may occur at the high water mark along the banks of a 
stream or river, or at seepage points along a high bank or 
cliff. "Salt feathering." the crystallizing of salt in feathery- 
like patches on posts and tree stumps, is another indicator of 
highly saline conditions. 

5. Appearance of aquatic vegetation (Refer to Field Sheet 5A. 
rating item 5. figure 8-3). 

Salt pollution becomes a problem when the concentration 
of salts in the soil/water solution interferes with the growth 
of plants. Table salt (sodium chloride) is often the dominant 
salt present. It affects plants in two ways: (1) By increasing 



Figure 8-5 

Generalized Diagram of Saline Seep, Recharge Area, and the Substrata Formation That Contributes to a 
Saline Seep (Ref. 8-10). 

Precipitation 

(in excess of crop use) 




RECHARGE AREA 



SALTY SUBSTRATA 




permeability yg\:>»f^-->' «. » * 

F^^IP^^WATER TABLE 

7 ^^y^ -ff^HT *~ 



LOW HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY ZONE 

/'//'///////////'/// 



41 



the osmotic pressure, it reduces the amount of water that 
plants can take up, leading to stunted growth and reduced 
yields; (2) At high concentrations it causes toxic effects, such 
as leaf tip and marginal leaf burn, chlorosis (bleaching), or 
defoliation (ref. 8-8). 

6. Streamside vegetation (Refer to Field Sheet 5 A, rating item 
6, figure 8-3). 

As the salinity of water increases, salt-intolerant species 
die and are replaced by more salt-tolerant types. Examples of 
the latter are greasewood, alkali sacaton, fourwing saltbush, 
shadscales, saltgrass, tamarisk (salt cedar), galleta, western 
wheatgrass, mat saltbush, reed canarygrass, and rabbitbrush. 
Some emergent rooted aquatics, such as cattails, appear to be 
tolerant of even the highest concentration of salts. 

7. Animal teratology (birth defects) (Refer to Field Sheet 5A, 
rating item 7, figure 8-3). 

Severe toxic effects and birth defects or tumors in 
animals have been observed in isolated areas (e.g., Kesterson 
Reservoir in California) because of high concentrations of 
toxic compounds, selenium, or flouride. Some newly hatched 
ducks and other birds in the Kesterson Reservoir, which had 
elevated levels of selenium, lacked ears, eyes, beaks, wings, 
or legs (ref. 8-9). 

8. Salinity indicators (Refer to Field Sheet 5B2, figure 8-4. 
Field Sheet 5E$2 should only be used in areas where the geol- 
ogy makes saline seeps possible.) 



A white salty crust can be an indicator of a saline seep. 
Saline seeps are in those localities where saline water sur- 
faces downslope of its recharge area. The seeping water 
results from excess root zone moisture that percolates 
through salt-bearing layers. Water, leaching below the root 
zone, carries dissolved salt to the surface downslope of the 
area of infiltration. These areas are common in the Northern 
Great Plains Region (Montana, North Dakota, and South 
Dakota), where precipitation percolates through salt-laden 
glacial till into ground water, emerging later in a discharge 
area at another location (fig. 8-5). 

Indicators for saline seeps are land-based, not water- 
based. Rating items 1 and 2 approximate those discussed 
above in field sheet 5A, "Salinity Indicators for Receiving 
Waters." Other indicators include the type of cropping sys- 
tem (rating item 3) and the appearance of field crops down- 
slope of the recharge area (rating item 4). Saline seep areas 
will have uneven growth of crops with some significantly 
stunted patches or bare spots. White salt crusts occur in oc- 
casional patches in areas considered to be "fair," and are 
common under "poor" conditions. 

Since saline seeps result from excess moisture in the soil 
profile, it is important to consider the cropping system 
thoroughly. There will be less "seeping" when crops with 
the maximum consumptive water use are planted. This is es- 
pecially true when crops are grown on an annual basis; i.e., 
when the fields are not allowed to lie fallow. 



42 



APPENDIX A 



Water Quality Procedures 

• Sequential Comparison Index 

• Beck"s Biotic Index 

• Floating Body Technique 

Sequential Comparison Index 

The Sequential Comparison Index (SCI) is a simple stream 
quality method, based upon distinguishing organisms by color, 
size, and shape, and requires no taxonomic expertise (ref. 8-4). 
The only needs are to be able to distinguish the number of 
different types (taxa) of organisms and the number of "runs" in 
samples containing less than 250 organisms. A diversity index 
(DI) is obtained by dividing the number of runs by the number of 
specimens. This index is multiplied by the number of taxa to give 
the final DI. DI values of 12 or above are indicative of healthy 
streams with high diversity and a balanced density. Polluted 
streams typically have DI v alues of 8 or less. 

Sample analysis. There are many methods of biological speci- 
men analysis. Diversity indices are useful because they condense 
considerable data into a single numerical value. The SCI is a 
simple diversity method which can be used by a non-biologist. 
The following is a brief summary of the SCI evaluation. For 
detailed information see Cairns" article on simple biological as- 
sessment (ref. 5-5). 

Bottom sample collection and preservation. Bottom samples 
from a watercourse or water body should be collected w ith an 
appropriate sampler. If a bottom sampler is not available, 
trowels or shovels can be used to collect the sample. Place the 
material collected into a tub or bucket. Dilute the material with 
water and swirl. Pour it through a U.S. Standard #30 sieve or a 
30-mesh screen. Remove rocks, sticks, and other artifacts after 
carefully checking for clinging organisms. Wash the screened 
material into a container and preserve it in 10 percent formalin 
or 70 percent ethanol (ethyl alcohol). Organisms may be sorted 
from the sample detritus in the field with forceps or at the 
laboratory. It is often desirable, prior to preserving the sample, 
to place rocks, sticks, and other objects in a white pan partially 
filled with water. Many of the animals will float free from the 
objects or can be removed with forceps. All samples should be 
stored in a suitable container and preserved with 10 percent for- 
malin or 70 percent ethanol. The samples should be labeled with 
the location, date, type of sampler used, name of collector, and 
other pertinent information. 

SCI Procedure. 

1 . Randomize specimens in a jar by swirling. 

2. Pour specimens into a lined white enamel pan. 

3. Disperse clumps of specimens by pouring preservativ e or 
water on the clumps. 

4. Determine the number of runs in the sample by comparing 
two specimens at a time. The current specimen need only be 
compared with the previous one. If it is similar, it is part of 
the same run. If not, it is part of a new run (fig. A-l). A 
2X magnifying glass or a low-powered binocular microscope 
is needed for this operation. 



5. Determine the total number of specimens in the sample. 

6. Calculate DI ! : 

_ number of runs 
DIj = 

number of specimens 

7. Record the number of different taxa observed. This does not 
require a specialist in taxonomy. Most bottom fauna organ- 
isms are fairly easily div ided into recognizable entities by 
non-biologists. Identification of the organisms is not neces- 
sary: A 2X magnify ing glass or a low powered binocular 
microscope is needed for this operation. 

8. Determine from figure A-2 the number of times (N) the SCI 
examination must be repeated on the sample to be 95 percent 
confident that the mean DI] is within a desired percentage 
of the true value for DIj. In most pollution work involv ing 
gross differences, line A of figure A-2 should be used. 

9. After determining N from figure A-2. rerandomize the sam- 
ple and repeat the SCI examination on the same sample N-l 
times. Calculate the average DI j by the following equation: 

N 

10. DI-p is a diversity index value. It represents species diversity 
and. therefore, health of a watercourse. Calculate DIj by 
the following equation: 

qj^. = DIj x No. of Taxa 

1 1 . Repeat the above procedure for each sample collection. 

The above procedure should only be used on samples containing 
fewer than 250 specimens. Healthy streams with a high diversity 
and a balanced density tend to have DIj values above 12. Pol- 
luted communities tend to have DIj values of 8 or less. Inter- 
mediate values have been found in semipolluted streams. 

To determine if different bottom-fauna community structures 
are significantly different from each other, calculate the 95 per- 
cent confidence intervals around each DIj value. If the intervals 
do not overlap, then the community structures are significantly 
different. For example, if sampling station "A*" has a DIj 
value of 25, station "B*' has a DI-p value of 10, and line A of 
figure A-2 is used, then the 95 percent confidence interval 
would be 20 percent, or 10 percent on either side of the deter- 
mined DI-j- value. Station "A" has 95 percent confidence inter- 
val for the DIj value from 22.5 to 27.5 (20 percent of 25 =5). 
Station "B" has a 95 percent confidence interval for the DIj 
value from 9 to 1 1 (20 percent of 10 = 2). The 95 percent con- 
fidence intervals do not overlap, and therefore the bottom fauna 
communities at the two stations are significantly different. 

The SCI examination is a useful tool. It requires no taxo- 
nomic expertise. It is easy to perform and produces results 
quickly. It should not be used to represent or replace other more 
accurate techniques requiring a person trained in aquatic 
biology. 



43 



Figure A-1 



Determination of Runs in Sequential Comparison 
Index 




Figure A-2 



Confidence Limits for Dl 1 Values. 



Dl 



1.0 - 

0.9 - 

0.8 

0.7 

0.6 

0.5 

0.4 

0.3 

0.2 - 

0.1 - 

o 



A: use line A to be 95% 
confident the mean 
of is within 20% 
of true value. 

B: use line B to be 95% 
confident the mean 
of is within 10% 
of true value. 



1 2 3 4 5 



6 7 
(N) 



8 9 10 11 12 13 14 



Beck's Biotic Index 

Beck's Biotic Index (ref. 3-10) was developed primarily for 
use in Florida and assumes taxonomic expertise, but it can be 
used with generic level identification when less sensitivity is ac- 
ceptable. This system can be used to indicate both the magnitude 
and probable cause of environmental stress. Beck developed the 
methodology to categorize stream macro-invertebrates (large 
animals without backbones, ref. A-1). 



Three categories (table A-3, fig. A-4) are defined below: 

Class I Organisms (Sensitive or Intolerant) 

Organisms that exhibit a rapid response to aquatic environ- 
mental changes and are killed, driven out of the area, or as a 
group are substantially reduced in number when their environ- 
ment is degraded. 

Class II Organisms (Facultative) 

Organisms that have the capability to live under varying 
conditions; e.g., a facultative anaerobe is an organism that 
although usually and normally lives in the presence of free oxy- 
gen, can live in absence of free oxygen. Most survive in areas 
where organic pollution is producing eutrophication or "enrich- 
ment" of the aquatic ecosystem. 

Class III Organisms (Tolerant) 

Organisms capable of withstanding adverse conditions within 
the aquatic environment. 

According to this approach, which assumes that there are 
not naturally occurring limiting factors, an undisturbed commu- 
nity will include representatives of the majority of the groups 
contained in Class I as well as some representatives of Classes 
II and III. By contrast, a sample which consists mainly of Class 
II organisms is being "limited or impacted by either natural 
factors, such as low flow, homogenous substrate, etc. or is im- 
pacted due to human activities. Waters dominated by Class IE 
organisms are probably adversely affected by organic pollution. 

The structure of the benthic (bottom) invertebrate com- 
munity in waterways polluted by organic waste differs quanti- 
tatively from invertebrate communities in unpolluted waterways. 
That is, organic pollution results not just in a reduction in species 
richness (the total number of benthic groups), but also in a 
stimulation in density (the total number of organisms collected 
per sample). 

By contrast, waterways impacted with toxic materials, such 
as pesticides or acid mine drainage, show decreases both in rich- 
ness and density. Sediment causes a greater reduction in density 
than in richness. Because of the above differences and because 
there are often dominant organisms characteristic of sediment 
pollution, it is possible to differentiate sediment stress from the 
stresses of toxic materials and organic wastes. 

For this type of investigation, a dip net is used to take a 
"kick" sample, which is sufficient to obtain a representative 
sample of the organisms present. With this procedure the net is 
placed upright on the bottom in an area of swift water, and the 
stream bottom upstream of the net is sufficiently disturbed to 
dislodge any organisms located there. The dislodged organisms 
will be carried by the current into the net and captured. Any 
rocks that can be overturned should be turned and any clinging 
organisms collected. 

Mathematical expression. 



BI 

where: 



2nj + 



n II 



BI = Beck's Biotic Index 

nj = the number of Class I species identified from the 
samples 

njj = the number of Class II species identified from the 
samples 



44 



Table A-3.— Benthic macroin vertebrates classed according to 
Beck's Biotic Index Classes (ref. A-2) 



Invertebrate Form 



Caddisflies: Trichoptera 

Hydropsychidae 1 

Hydroptilidae 1 

Limnephilidae 1 

Leptoceridae 1 

Helicopsychiade 1 

Psychomyiidae 1 

Goeridae 1 

Stoneflies: Plecoptera 

Perlidae 1 

Perlodidae 1 

Mayflies: Ephemeroptera 

Baetidae 1 

Heptageniidae 1 

Ephemeridae 1 

Helligrammites 

Corydalidae 1 

Freshwater Naiads (Clams) 

Unionidae 1 

Beetles: Coleoptera 

Elmidae (Riffle Beetle) 1 

Psephenidae (Water Penny) 1 



Damselflies: Odonata 

Coenagrionidae 2 

Agrionidae 2 

Dragonflies: Odonata 

Aeschnidae 2 

Comphidae 2 

Libellulidae 2 



Recommended Level of Taxonomic Identification. This index 
should be used in conjunction with species level identification to 
enhance the sensitivity of the index in detecting ecosystem per- 
turbations. The use of generic level identification requires the 
assignment of a tolerance classification to a genus, correspond- 
ing to the most tolerant species within that genus, and leads to 
decreased index sensitivity. Generic level identification can be 
utilized when less sensitivity is acceptable or when species iden- 
tification is not possible. For example, species taxonomy within 
the Chironomidae (midges) can be so difficult as to preclude its 
use. 

Geographic Applicability. This index has not been widely 
employed outside of the State of Florida. 

Computational Devices Required. A simple desk-top calcula- 
tor is recommended for the calculation of values. 

Statistical Evaluation. Statistical evaluation of index values 
can be inappropriate or present interpretation difficulties. Tests 
of raw data (Chi square, correlation, t-test, etc.) are recom- 
mended. 



Class 



Crayfish 

Astacidae 2 
Flatworms 

Planaridae 2 
Crane Flies 

Tipulidae 2 
Gill Snails 

Pleuroceridae 2 
Horse Flies 

Tabanidae 2 

Isopods 
Asellidae (Aquatic 

Sowbugs) 2 
Blackflies 

Simuliidae 2 

Air-Breathing Snails 
Physidae 3 
Ancylidae (Limpets) 3 

Aquatic Earthworms 
Oligochaeta 3 

Midges 

Chironomidae 3 
Leeches 

Hirundinea 3 
Moth flies 

Psychodidae 3 



Use of the index. 

1. Level of sampling required. Sample size can be limited, de- 
pending on the degree of organic pollution encountered. Or- 
ganically polluted conditions demand more extensive and 
precise collection and analysis of data to ensure that sensitive 
animals have not been overlooked. 

2. Recommended form of data reduction. Absolute estimates of 
generic and/or specific representation should be entered 
direcdy into the computational formula. 

3. Modes of data display. Index values can be displayed in 
either tabular and/or graphical form in a site or locale- 
specific manner. 

4. Interpretation. Index values will range from to approxi- 
mately 40; the lower the index value, the greater the organic 
stress. See table below. An index value of 10 is the lowest 
value accepted as indicative of clean water without additional 
discussion. 



Class Invertebrate Form 



45 



Figure A-4 



Macroinvertebrates According to Beck's Biotic Index Classes (Ref. A-2). 

1 . Intolerant (sensitive) to pollution: 




2. Facultative - Can tolerate some pollution: 



2 




ingernail 
Clams 



3. Tolerant to pollution: 




46 



Beck's Bio tic Index Values 



Index Value Description 



Stream grossly polluted 

1 to 5 Stream moderately polluted 

6 to 9 Stream clean, but with a monotonous 

habitat and instream velocity 
10 or greater Stream clean 



Floating Body Technique 

The Floating Body Technique measures water flow velocity, 
which is calculated by measuring the time taken for a marker to 
travel a known distance downstream. 

Procedure. A stretch of a watercourse should be selected which 
is approximately straight. The compass direction of this stretch 
should be measured. Using the compass direction, a 90 degree 
angle is laid out so it crosses the stream. This is most con- 
veniently done by locating a landmark on the distant side of the 
stream, and moving up- or downstream to locate (and mark) the 
point at which a 90 degree angle exists. A distance should then 
be measured downstream to the other end of the straight stretch, 
and a similar 90 degree angle laid out. The marker or dye is 



tossed into the stream above the initial point and then timed to 
see how long it takes to get from one point to the other. If dye 
is used, the time is measured until the front part of the dye stain 
arrives. Velocity is calculated as distance divided by time. 

When the velocity measured is the peak velocity of the 
stream (usually at the surface in the center), it is possible to cal- 
culate an approximate average for velocity for the stream, as- 
suming typical cross section. A common average is 85 percent 
of the maximum current velocity. 

Accuracy. This technique can be moderately accurate. The 
major sources of error are caused by the marker floating out of 
the desired path. If the maximum current velocity is desired, the 
marker may tend to end up in eddies along the way, rather than 
staying in the maximum velocity portion of the stream. This 
source of error can be reduced by making repeated measure- 
ments or by using dye as the marker. Calculations of average 
stream velocity from a measured maximum velocity are in error 
if the correction factor is inappropriate. Deviations from the 85 
percent factor mentioned above are common. 

Application Notes. This technique is inexpensive. A crew size 
of one is suitable for slow moving streams, but a crew size of 
two is necessary to signal when the marker has passed the end- 
ing point if the stream moves too fast for one crew member to 
move from the starting point to the ending point. It is most ap- 
propriate where streams are relatively large and have a smooth 
slope. 



4- 



APPENDIX B 



Aquatic Organisms 

Algae Important in Water Supplies (ref. B-l). 

• Taste and odor algae 

• Filter clogging algae 

• Polluted water algae 

• Clean water algae 

• Plankton and other surface water algae 

• Algae growing on reservoir walls 

Types of Freshwater Algae (ref. B-2). 

Simple Assessment of Bottom-Dwelling Insects (ref. A-2). 

SCS Key to the Major Invertebrate Species of Stream Zones 
(ref. B-3). 

Diagrams of Common Fish Species (ref. B-4). 
Detection of Escherichia coli in water samples (ref. B-5). 



Table B-l. — Taste and odor algae. 





Linear 


Species Names 


Magnifications 


Anabaena plactonica 


250 


Anacystis cyanea 


250 


Aphanizomenon flos-aquae 


250 


Asterionella gracillima 


250 


Ceratium hirundinella 


250 


Dinobryon divergens 


250 


Gomphosphaeria lacustris, 




kuetzingianum type 


500 


Hydrodictyon reticulatum 


10 


Mallomonas caudata 


500 


Nitella gracilis 


1 


Pandorina mo rum 


500 


Peridinium cinctum 


500 


Staurastrum paradoxum 


500 


Synedra ulna 


250 


Synura uvella 


500 


Tabellaria fenestrata 


250 


Uroglenopsis americana 


125 


Volvox aureus 


125 



Table B-2.— Filter clogging algae 





Linear 


Species Names 


Magnifications 


Anabaena flos-aquae 


500 


Anacystis dimidiate 


1000 


Asterionella formosa 


1000 


Chlorella pyrenoidosa 


5000 


Closterium moniliferum 


250 


Cyclotella meneghiniana 


1500 


Cymbella ventricosa 


1500 


Diatoma vulgare 


1500 


Dinobryon sertularia 


1500 


Fragilaria crotonensis 


1000 


Melosira granulata 


1000 


Navicula graciloides 


1500 


Oscillatoria princeps (top) 


250 


Oscillatoria chalybea (middle) 


250 


Oscillatoria splendida (bottom) 


500 


Palmella mucosa 


1000 


Rivularia dura 


250 


Spirogyra porticalis 


125 


Synedra acus 


500 


Tabellaria flocculosa 


1500 


Trachelomonas crebea 


1500 


Tribonema bombycinum 


500 


Table B-3.— Polluted water algae. 




Linear 


Species Names 


Magnifications 


Agmenellum quadriduplicatum, 




tenuissima type 


1000 


Anabaena constricta 


500 


Anacystis montana 


1000 


Arthrospira jenneri 


1000 


Carteria multifilis 


2000 


Chlamydomonas reinhardi 


1500 


Chlorella vulgaris 


2000 


Chlorococcum humicola 


1000 


Chlorogonium euchlorum 


1500 


Euglena viridis 


1000 


Gomphonema parvulum 


3000 


Lepocinclis texta 


500 


Lyngbya digueti 


1000 


Nitzschia palea 


2000 


Oscillatoria chlorina (topi 


1000 


Oscillatoria putrida (middle) 


1000 


Oscillatoria lauterbornii (bottom) 


1000 


Phacus pyrum 


1500 


Phormidium autumnale 


500 


Pyrobotrys stellata 


1500 


Spirogyra communis 


250 


Stigeoclonium tenue 


500 


Tetraedron muticum 


1500 



48 



Figure B-1 



Algae Important in Water Supplies. 

Taste and Odor Algae 




49 



Figure B-2 




50 



Figure B-3 




Figure B-4 



Clean Water Algae. 




52 



Table B— 4.— Clean water algae 



Table B-6.— Algae growing on reservoir walls. 





Linear 


Species Names 


Magnifications 


: : ; 

Agmenellum quadnduplicatum. glauca type 


250 


Ankistrodesmus falcatus var. acicularis 


1 LOAJ 


Calothnx parietina 


son 


Chromuhna rosanoffi 


AHfY) 


Lrirysococcus rutescens 


1 fWl 

4uuu 


Cladophora glomerata 


1 Cif\ 

1 uu 


Coccochloris stagnina 


1 IHJU 


Cocconeis placentula 


1 aah 


Cyclotella bodanica 


JUU 


Entophysalis lemaniae 




Hildenbrandia rivularis 




Lemanea annulata 


1 


Meridion circulare 


1UUU 


Micrasterias truncata 




Microcoleus subtorulosus 


son 


Navicula gracilis 


luou 


Phacotus lenticulans 




Rinnulana nobihs 




D hi7nnrlnnni m h m ol \. nh i c\ i m 

XXlllZ-LMlLlOillUlll llldUtil>LllllLUlll 


250 


Rhodomonas lacustris 


3000 


Staurastrum punctulatum 


1000 


Surirella splendida 


500 


Ulothrix aequalis 


250 



Table B-5.— Plankton and other surface water algae. 





Linear 


Species Names 


Magnifications 


Actinastrum gracillimum 


1000 


Botryococcus braunii 


1000 


Coelastrum microporum 


500 


Cylindrospermum stagnale 


250 


Desmidium grevillei 


250 


Euastrum oblongum 


500 


Eudorina elegans 


250 


Euglena gracilis 


1000 


Fragilaria capucina 


1000 


Gomphosphaeria aponina 


1500 


Gonium pectorale 


500 


Micractinium pusillum 


1000 


Mougeotia scalaris 


250 


Nodularia spumigena 


500 


Oocystis borgei 


1000 


Pediastrum bory anum 


125 


Phacus pleuronectes 


500 


Scenedesmus quadricauda 


1000 


Sphaerocystis schroeteri 


500 


Stauroneis phoenicenteron 


500 


Stephanodiscus hantzschii 


1000 


Zygnema sterile 


250 





Linear 


Species Names 


Magnifications 


— Z . : " 

Achnanthes microcephala 


1500 


Audouinella violacea 


250 


Batrachospermum moniliforme 


J 


Bulbochaete insignis 


125 


Chaetophora elegans 


250 


Chara globularis 


4 


Cladophora crispata 


125 


Compsopogon coemleus 


llj 


C \ mbella pn istrata 


-\ c r\ 

25U 


Draparnaldia glomerata 


125 


Gomphonema geminatum 


250 


Lyngbya lagerheimii 


1000 


Microspora amoena 


250 


Oedogonium suecicum 




Phormidium uncinatum 


250 


Ph> toconis botry oides 


1000 


Stigeoclonium lubricum 


250 


Tetraspora gelatinosa 


125 


Tolypothrix tenuis 


500 


Ulothrix zonata 


250 


Vaucheria sessilis 


125 



53 



Figure B-5 



Plankton and Other Surface Water Algae. 




54 



Figure B-6 




55 



Figure B-7 




Types of Freshwater Algae. 




Algal scums (various species) grow on the bottom or on and 
around objects. Later, they rise to the surface in large mats, 
whereupon they die and decay. Two forms are present, the 
branched form (upper) and the single filamentous (below). The 
branched form is green to grayish-green and coarse feeling 
like wet cotton. The single filament is slimy to the touch and 
green-to-brown in color. 




Waterlily (Nymphaea) 

The large, circular, waxy floating leaves are deeply notched 
and borne on tough, elastic stems. The large white, pink, 
yellow, or blue flowers, with 12^40 petals, float on the sur- 
face with the leaves. The thick inter-twining roots of this 
plant form extensive mats over the bottom. 



56 



Figure B-7 




Leaf and stem 



Lotus 

Leaves. Circular 12-24 in. in diameter, with the centers 

"cupped." Usually they stand up out of the water, but im- 
mature leaves lie flat on the surface. 

Stem. 1/4 to 1/2 in. in diameter, stiff and upright. 

Flowers. 4.5 to 10 in. in diameter, pale yellow in color. 

Special characteristics. The large, cupped leaves which stand 
upright are distinctive and characteristic of no other native 
plant. 




WatermUfoil (Myriophyllum) 

Leaves. Upper aerial ones elliptical with scalloped edges, giving 
it a prickly appearance, and dark green in color. Late in 
summer they turn red. Submerged leaves much longer and 
wider. Finely divided, giving the leaves a feather-like ap- 
pearance. 

Stems. Thick, reddish to brown, hollow or loosely pith filled. 

Special characteristics. The upper leaves of this plant projecting 
3-5 inches above the surface of the pond make it easily iden- 
tified and separated from Parrots Feather. 

Habitat. Shallow water 0-5 ft. deep. 



57 



Figure B-7 



Continued. 






Coontail (Ceratophyllum) 

A submerged, brittle herb with leaves in whorls about the 
main stem, which is generally forked once to several times. 
The leaves are very fine and forked (sometimes divided into 
threes) at the tips. These "tiplets" have a "spiny" appear- 
ance because of their wavy margins. This plant is "rooted" 
in the spring and early summer and free-floating in the late 
summer and early fall. The seeds of this plant are taken by 
waterfowl. 



Naiads (Najas) 

Submerged herbs with opposite or whorled, narrow to thread- 
like leaves. The bases of the leaves sheathe the stem. The 
main stem is branched and has fibrous roots. The seeds are 
small and ellipitical and are found in the axil of the leaves. 
This plant is a favored food of many ducks. 

Fan wort (Cabomba) 

Delicate, branched, submerged herbs with finely divided 
leaves that are opposite or in whorls. Occasionally, the upper 
floating leaves are produced. These are small, oblong, and 
attached at the center of the blade. The flowers are small and 
have three white to yellow petals. 



58 



Figure B-7 




Pond Weeds (Potamogeton) 

Leaves. Upper floating ones elliptical to oval, generally small 
(1/2-2 in). One species has very large leaves (3-10 in long). 
The surface is waxy. In some cases, the upper leaves may be 
missing. Lower leaves are very narrow. 1-2 mm (0.04-0.08 
in) or less and strap-like. 

Stems. Thin, but strong, varying in length, according to water 
depth. Always rooted. 

Fruit. The small, cylindrical seed heads are on separate stalks, 
sometimes appearing above the water or generally found in 
the axil of the leaves. These seeds are avidly taken by ducks. 

Special characteristics. The only plant having leaves this small 
floating on the surface of the water. 

Habitat. Any body of water. 




Free Floating Plants 

Duckweeds, (Lemna and Spirodela spp.) 

Small. 1-12 mm (0.04^.7 in) long, free floating green 
plants of various shapes, generally oblong, that have one to 
many small rootlets hanging in the water and 1-15 "'nerves" 
appearing on the top of the plants. Spirodela is larger and 
may be purple on the underside. These plants are 1-8 mm 
(0.04-0.3 in) long, oval in outline with a small pointed tip, 
have many rootlets, and have 5-11 "nerves"' on the upper- 
side. Lemna has 1-5 "nerves." one rootlet, and is green on 
the underside and smaller, being 1-5 mm (0.04-0.2 in). Un- 
der some conditions, these plants may have a reddish color. 
It would be best to check them to prevent confusion with 
water fern. 

Duckmeal, (Wolffia and Wolfella spp.) 

The tinest flowering plant in the world. 0.5-2mm (0.04-0.08 
in) long, rootless, globular to ellipsoid in outline. 

Waterfern (Azolla sp.) 

Larger than the above. 0.5-1 cm (0.2-0.4 in) long, having 
small overlapping leaves borne on a once-to-several times 
forking stem. Several small roots hang in the water. At matu- 
rity these plants are red. rosy pink, or reddish brown. Young 
plants are green. 



59 



Figure B-7 



Continued. 




Elodea, or Waterweed (Anacharis) 

Leaves. Narrow, gradually tapering to the tip. Borne either op- 
posite each other in pairs, or in whorls of 4-5. Leaves of E. 
densa are large and coarse; those of the other two species 
smaller and more delicate. 

Stems. Herbaceous, lax, and generally rooted; sometimes form 
floating mats. 

Flowers. Arise between the stem and leaves. Three petals are 
present, and these are white or pinkish. Mainly spreads 
vegetatively. 

Special characteristics. These are the same plants sold in pet 
stores for use in aquariums. Perennial, does not die back in 
the winter. 

Habitat. Shallow water of lakes or ponds. 




Watershield (Brasenia) 

The floating leaves are oval and the undersides reddish and 
covered with a shiny covering. The stems are usually covered 
with this coating also. The small flowers are reddish to pur- 
ple and have 3-4 petals. Prefers ponds or slow-moving acid 
water with a sandy bottom. Some diving ducks readily take 
the seeds of this plant. 



60 



Figure B-7 




Spatterdock, Yellow YVaterlily (Nuphar) 

The large, waxy leaves are heart-shaped and may be upright 
or floating on the surface. The stems are thick, strong, and 
elastic. The small flowers are yellow and waxy in appear- 
ance. This plant is found in the shallows out to a depth of 
feet. 




Alligatorweed {Alternanthera) 

May be found growing upright on damp soil or growing as a 
floating mat in water. Leaves roughly oval and opposite one 
another on the stem. The bases of the leaves merge to form a 
sheath which is slightly swollen. Leaves and stems succulent 
and fleshy. Flowers white and resemble the flowers of white 
clover. These are borne on a long stalk growing between the 
stem and leaf. Seeds are not viable, and this plant reproduces 
vegetatively from the nodes. 




Carolina Watergrass i Hxdrochloa) 

Leaves small (1-2 in long x 1/4 in wide), elliptical, grayish- 
green to green in color. These are found mainly towards the 
end of the stem and float on the surface. This plant can be 
found growing next to the shore or in shallow water. May 
form floating mats which can cover up small ponds. Rarely 
fruits. 



61 



Figure B-7 



Continued. 




Smartweeds, Water Pepper (Polygonum) Plants inhabiting the 
shallow water of a pond, with lance-shaped, alternate leaves. 
At the base of each leaf is a sheath going around the stem 
and topped with long, fine hairs. The flowers are pink, 
white, or greenish and found in terminal spikes or on short, 
lateral spikes originating between the leaf and the stem. The 
seed is either triangular or lens-shaped in cross-section. 
These seeds are a choice food for ducks. 

Lizardstail (Saururus) 

Succulent herbs with jointed stems and alternate drooping 
heart-shaped leaves, found along the edges of the water. The 
long, nodding, white-flowered spike is present during the 
summer and easily distinguishes this plant. 

Cattail (Typha) 

Long, narrow, veinless, bluish-green leaves, sheathing at the 
base of the plant, and the familiar seed head are enough to 
identify this plant. 



Arrow-arum (Peltandra) - Upper Left 

The leaves are shaped like a barbed arrowhead and are borne 
on thick fleshy stems. The yellow "flowers" are enclosed in 
a green, partly opened, sac-like structure which terminates in 
a wrinkled tip. The skin of the fruit is green, purplish, or 
brown, and the seeds are enclosed in a gelatinous mass with- 
in the fruit. 

Arrowhead (Sagittaria) - Upper Right 

The leaves are highly variable, but are generally arrowhead- 
shaped, though the "barbs" may or may not be present, ac- 
cording to the species and water depth. The small white 
flowers are in whorls of three along the main stalk. 

Pickerelweed (Pontedeiia) - Lower Left 

The leaves are heart-shaped and are borne on thick stems. 
The flowers are bluish and found in a terminal spike. 

Note: In the case where the flowers are absent, these plants may 
be differentiated by the veination of the leaves. See the illus- 
tration. 



62 



Figure B-7 




Stoneworts Muskgrass (Chara) 

Actually a higher form of perennial algae. The 6-12 leaves 
are cylindrical and arranged in whorls around the stems and 
branches. Stems, branches, and leaves are very brittle, and 
when crushed, emit a strong musk-like or ■"skunky" odor. 
The "fruit" or oogonium appears as small black dots scat- 
tered over the leaves of the plant. Variable in height but 
generally not reaching the surface of the water. All parts of 
the plant are eaten by waterfowl. 



Simple assessment of bottom-dwelling insects (ref. A-2). 

Immature forms of bottom-dwelling stream insects live 
primarily in riffles— shallow, swift-flowing portions of a water- 
course. Two major groups of aquatic insects should be present 
in the upper watercourse reaches of all unpolluted waterways: 
mayflies (fig. B-8) and caddisflies (fig. B-9). Mayflies have a 
roachlike body , a thin hairlike tail, and six jointed legs. Caddis- 
flies have a maggotlike body, no tail, and six jointed legs. 

To sample these insects, use the following simple technique. 
Remove three stones from a shallow , swift-flowing portion of 
the watercourse. Each stone should be about six inches in di- 
ameter. Place the stones in a bucket filled with stream water. 
Brush the entire surface of each stone with your hands. If after 
carefully examining the surface of each, you are satisfied that no 
insects remain, then discard the stone. Pour the contents of the 
bucket through a white handkerchief. Count the number of may- 
flies and caddisflies. Using the following illustrations, identify 
and count the number of insects belonging to the various groups. 

If both mayflies and caddisflies are absent from the water- 
course, then the watercourse is severely polluted. If only may- 
flies or caddisflies are present, then the watercourse is probably 
moderately polluted. If both may flies and caddisflies are present, 
along with stoneflies (fig. B-10). then the stream is probably in 
good-to-excellent condition. Stoneflies resemble mayflies in hav - 
ing a roachlike body. tail, and six jointed legs. Mayfly legs 
come to a fine point at the tips, whereas stonefly legs are tipped 
with two hooks or claws. 

Insect larvae, which are tolerant of pollution and might be 
found in either clean or moderately polluted water, are black- 
flies, bloodworm midges (chironomids). rat-tailed maggots, and 
others. See also fig. A-4. 



65 



Figure B-8 



Mayflies (Ephemeroptea). 




3.183 



Figures 3.183 through 3.188. Heptageniidae. 3.183 Spinadis, 
lateral aspect (shown without legs and gills); nymph, dorsal 
aspect: 3.184 Epeorus, 3.185 Arthroplea bipunctata; 3.186 
Pseudiron, gill of 3rd abdominal segment; Anepeorus: 3.187 
mandible, 3.188 dorsal aspect and left abdominal gill (3.183 af- 
ter Flowers and Hilsenhoff 1975; 3.184 through 3.186, 3.188, 
Illinois Natural History Survey, (INHS)). 




3.250 3.251 3^252 




' 3.253 



Figures 3.250 through 3.254. Baetidae. Baetis nymph, dorsal 
aspect: 3.250 B. macdunnoughi, 3.251 B. pygmaeus, 3.252 B. 
intercalaris, 3.253 B. propinquus, 3.254 B. tricaudatus (all after 
Morihara and McCafferty, 1979). 



64 



Figure B-9 



Caddisflies (Tricoptera). 




9.15 



Figures 9.7 through 9.18. Family characters. Helicopsyche 
borealis larva: 9.7 anal claw, lateral aspect. 9.8 larval case; 9.9 
Brachycentrus, anal claw of larva, lateral aspect; 9.10 Leu- 
cotrichia pictipes larva, dorsal aspect; 9.11 Limnephilus sub- 
monilifer, head and thorax of larva, dorsal aspect; 9.12 




9.17 918 9.1 



Polxcentropus larva, lateral aspect; 9.13 Lepidostoma , head and 
thorax of larva, dorsal aspect; 9.14 Hydroptila larva, lateral 
aspect; 9.15 Ochrotrichia larva in purse case, lateral aspect; lar- 
val head, dorsal aspect: 9.16 Leptocerus americanus, 9.17 Lim- 
nephilus, 9.18 Lepidostoma (all INHS). 



Figure B-10 

Stoneflies (Plecoptera). 



Antenna 

Epicranial Arm 
Epicranial Stem 
Marginal Groove - * 
Marginal Flange - - 

Thoracic 



2 claws — ~ ' 



No abdominal 
gills 



- Maxillary Palpus 
Labrum 
Median Ocellus 
- -* Lateral Ocellus 
^> > -.' Transverse 

Occipital Ridge 



Anal Gill - -f~- 
4 

Only 2 tails 




r 1st segment 
If- 2nd segment 
" r 3rd segment 

- Tarsus 



fyHlw'ttr oiiifff* 

^frflflniir'fV^iHi^T 



5.2 




5.3 



Figures 5.1 through 5.3. Stonefly structure. 5.1 generalized 
stonefly nymph, dorsal aspect. Abdominal segments 8 and 9 of 
Phasganophora capitata nymphs, ventral aspect: 5.2 male, 5.3 
female (all courtesy of the INHS). 



65 



Figure B-10 



Stoneflies, continued. 




Figures 5.87 through 5.91. Perlidae. Acroneuria nymph, dorsal 
aspect: 5.87 A. mela, 5.88 A. lycorias, 5.89 A. evoluta, 5.980 
A. perplexa, 5.91 A. filicis (all INHS). 



66 



Figure B-1 1 



Key to the Major Inverte 



CI.: PELECYPG 



DOUBLE SHEL 

l_ 



ABOUT V 2 INCH 2 1 



7. Pill clam 
Fa.: Sphaeriidae 

(Spherium simile) 
2. Ge.. Pisium 

Fingernail clam 



Freshw 
Fa.: Un 
Sub Fa 
(Lamps 



TWO PAI 



FRONT PAIR OF WINGS 

HORNY; CHEWING 

MOUTHPARTS 
I 

Or.: COLEOPTERA 



LARGE 
POWERFUL 
DIVER AND 
SWIMMER 



SMALL 
VERY ACTIVE 
AT SURFACE 





24^ 

Dytlscus beetle 
(Diving beetle) 
Fa.: Dytiscus 



Whirligig beetle 
Fa.: Hydrophilid 



Or.: HEMIPTEF 



POSTERIOR BREATHING TUBE 




Water scorpion 
Fa.: Nepidae 



UP TO 3 INCHES 




SWIMS 



Giant water bug 
Fa.: Belostomidae 



Backswit 
Fa.. Noto 



Figure B-11 



Key to the Major Invertebrate Species of Stream Zones. 



Ph.: 



CI.: PELECYPODA 



MOLLUSCA 
I 

WITH SHELLS 
' 



MACRO ORGANISM 



CI.: GASTROPODA 



DOUBLE SHELL 



Sub CI. PROSOBRANCHIA 



SINGLE SHELL 



I 

SEGMENTED BODY 



1 

WITHOUT SHELLS 
I 



ABOUT Vi INCH 

1. Pill clam 

Fa: Sphaeriidae 
(Spherium simile) 

2. Ge.: Pisium 

Fingernail clam 





Sub CI. PULMONATA 



SPIRAL SHELL 




COILED SHELL 
I 



CONICAL SHELL 




Freshwater mussel 
Fa.: Unionidae 
Sub Fa.: Lampsilinae 
(Lampsilis siliquoides) 



Pond snail 
Fa.: Bulimidae 
Ge.: Paludestrina 



Pouch snail 

Fa.: Physidae (left) 

Fa.: Lymnaea (right) 



Orb snail 

Fa.: Planorbidae 

Ge.: Helisoma 



Limpet 

Fa.: Lancidae 
Ge.: Lanx 



UNSEGMENTED BODY 
' 



ASYMMETRICAL 

. — L 



ROUGH -TEXTURED; 
PORES 



SMOOTH; 
NO PORES 



RADIAL SYMMETRY: 
FREE SWIMMING 
I 



RADIAL SYMMETRY 
SESSILE 
I 

(I 



BILATERAL SYMMETRY 



Freshwater sponge 
Or.: MONAXONIDA 
Fa.: Spongillidae 



Bryozoan colony 
Ph.: BRYOZOA 



Freshwater 
jellyfish 
(Medusa) 

Or.: HYDROIDA 




Hydra 



Threadworm 
Ph.: NEMATA 
CI.: NEMATODA 



Planarian 
Or.: TRICLADIA 
CI.: TURBELLARIA 
Fa.: Planariidae 



Ph.: 

r 



ARTHROPODA 



OBVIOUS LEGS 
I 



Ph.: ARTHROPODA 



THREE PAIRS OF LEGS 
CI.: INSECTA 



FOUR PAIRS OF LEGS 
1 

SMALL LARGE 



TWO PAIRS OF WINGS 



NO WINGS 



FRONT PAIR OF WINGS 
HORNY; CHEWING 
MOUTHPARTS 
■ 

Or.: COLEOPTERA 



ONLY HALF OF FRONT 

WINGS HORNY; 
SUCKING MOUTHPARTS 



LARGE 
POWERFUL 
DIVER AND 
SWIMMER 



I 

SMALL 
VERY ACTIVE 
AT SURFACE 



Or.: HEMIPTERA 
I ' 



FOUND ON 
SURFACE FILM 
I 





Whirligig beetle 
Fa:. Hydrophilidae 



LIVES IN 
TUBES OR 
CASE 



FREE-LIVING 



FOUND 
UNDERWATER 



Or.: HEMIPTERA 
I 



Watermite 
Or: ACARINA 
Fa.: Hydrachnidae 




Fisher Spider 
Or.: ARANEAE 
Fa.: PISAURIDAE 



TWO HOOKS 
ON LAST SEGMENT 



Caddislly larva 
Or: TRICOPTERA 
Fa.: Phreiganeidae 



FIVE PAIRS OF 
FALSE LEGS ON 
ABDOMEN 

Aquatic moth caterpillar 



NO OBVIOUS LEGS 
I 



SOME APPENDAGES 
I 

CI.: INSECTA 



NO OBVIOUS APPENDAGES 
CI.: HIRUDINEA I CI.: OLIGOCHETA 



POSTERIOR 
BREATHING 
TUBE 
I 



Or.: DIPTERA 
BRIGHT 
RED BODY 



1 



Mosquito laiva 
Or.: DIPTERA 
Fa.: Culicidae 



Midge larva 
("Bloodworm") 
Fa.: Chironomidae 



CI: CRUSTACEA 



TRANSPARENT 
BODY: SILVERY 
AIR SACS 

Phantom midge 
larva L 
(Glassworm) 
Fa : Culicidae 
Sub Fa.: Chaoborinae 
I 



SMOOTH 

BODY: 
SUCKERS 



ROUND 



BODY WITH 
BRISTLES: 
NO SUCKERS 



"UBE-DWELLING 



Rat-tailed midge 

(Drone Fly) 
Or.: DIPTERA 
Fa.: Syrphidae 



A. 
Tubilex 
("Bloodworm") 



Bristle worm 
Fa.: Naididae 



MORE THAN FOUR PAIRS OF LEGS 



LOBSTERLIKE 
SIZE TO 5 INCHES 



CYLINDRICAL BODY 



CLAMLIKE 'SHELL' 



POSTERIOR BREATHING TUBE 




NO TAIL APPENDAGES 

I Or.: NEUROPTERA 



1 

ONE TAIL APPENDAGE 



NO BREATHING 
TUBE 



Wafer scorpion 
Fa: Nepidae 



UP TO 3 INCHES 



LARGER: FOUND ON 
OR IN SPONGES 




LESS THAN INCH 



Hellgrammite 
(Larvae-Dcbson fly) 
Fa.: Corydalidae 



Spongillally larva 
Sub Or: PLANIPENNIA 
Fa.: Sisyridae 



Alderlly nymph 
Sub Or.: SIALODEA 
Fa.: Sialidae 




Crayfish (Gambarus) 
Or: DECAPODA 
Fa.: Astacidae 




Ostracod 

Or.: OSTRACODA 

Fa.: Cypridae 



BODY FLATTENED 
TOP TO BOTTOM 



BODY 
FLATTENED 
SIDE TO SIDE 



Copepod 

Or: COPEPODA 

Fa.: Cyclopidae 



Isopod 

Or: ISOPODA 
Fa.: Asellidae 
(Asellus-Sowbug) 



THREE-TAIL APPENDAGES 




! Giant water bug 
Fa: Belostomidae 



I 

SWIMS ON BACK 

A 

Backswimmer 
Fa: Notonectidae 




TWO-TAIL APPENDAGE 




LONG. BRISTLELIKE 
TAIL APPENDAGES 



Corixid water boatman 
Fa: Corixidae 



Stonefly-larva 

Or: PLECOPTERA 

Fa.: Perlidae 



Mayfly nymph 
Or: EPHEMERIDA 
Fa.: Ephemeridae 



PLATELIKE 
TAIL APPENDAGES 



Damselfly nymph 
Or: ODONATA 
Fa.: Agrionidae 



SHORT, INCONSPICUOUS 
TAIL APPENDAGES 



SWIMS WITH Y-SHAPED 
ANTENNAE 



Cladoceran 

Or: BRANCHIPODA 

Sub CI: ENTROMOSTRACA 

Fa: Daphniidae 



1 

SWIMS WITH LEGS 



Fa 




Amphipod 
Or: AMPHIPODA 
Gammaridae 
(Shrimp- scud) 



Dragonfly nymph 
Or: ODONATA 
Fa.: Libellulidae 



= Sensitive 
= Intermediate 
= Tolerant 



LEGEND 

Ph. = PHYLUM 
CI. = CLASS 
Or. = ORDER 



Fa. = Family 
Ge. = Genus 



USDA - Soil Conservation Service 4-28-75 



Figure B-12 



Some Common Freshwater Fishes (Ref. B-4). 

Alosa aestivalis (Mitchill) 
Blueback herring 

TYPE LOCALITY: New York (Mitchill 1815. Trans. Lit. Philos. 
Soc. N.Y. 1:355-492). 

SYSTEMATICS: Formerly placed in Pomolobus, synonymized 
most recently under Alosa by Svetovidov (1 964. Copeia: 1 1 8-30). 
Often confused with A. pseudoharengus. 



Order Cluperformes 
Family Clupeidae 




Washington, D.C.. market ca. 23 cm SL (Jordan and Evermann 
1900). 



Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson) 
Aiewife 

TYPE LOCALITY: Probably Delaware River at Philadelphia. 
Philadelphia Co., PA (Wilson ca. 1811 in Rees' New Cyclopedia 
9: no pagination). 

SYSTEMATICS: Formerly placed in Pomolobus, most recently 
synonymized with Alosa (Svetovidov 1964. Copeia: 118-30). 
Often confused with A. aestivalis. 



Order Clupeiformes 
Family Clupeidae 




Washington, D.C.. market ca. 26 cm SL (Jordan and Evermann 
1900). 



Alosa sapidissima (Wilson) 
American shad 

TYPE LOCALITY: Probably Delaware River at Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia Co., PA (Wilson ca. 181 1 . in Rees' New Cyclopedia 
9: no pagination). 

SYSTEMATICS: Forms geographically disjunct species pair 
with A. alabamae (Berry 1964. Copeia: 720-30). Menstic dif- 
ferences seen between spawning populations inhabiting 
various river systems (and their tributaries) along Atlantic coast 
(Carscadden and Leggett 1 975. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 32:653- 
60 and included references). 



Order Clupeiformes 
Family Clupeidae 




VA: Norfolk, ca. 43 cm SL (Jordan and Evermann 1900). 



6? 



Figure B-12 



Continued. 

Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum) 
Pink salmon 

TYPE LOCALITY: Rivers of Kamchatka, USSR (Walbaum in 
Artedi 1772. Genera Piscium 3:4-723). 

SYSTEMATICS: Essentially unstudied, apart from Rounsefell's 
(1962. Fishery Bull. 62:237-70) work on relationships between 
Oncorhynchus species. Vladykov (1962. Bull. Fish. Res. Board 
Can. 136:1-172) compared pyloric caeca in specimens from 
North America and Japan. Taxonomic comparisons between 
even and odd year stocks seem warranted. 



Order Salmoniformes 




ca. 53 cm SL (NMC). 



Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum) 
Chinook salmon 

TYPE LOCALITY: Rivers of Kamchatka, USSR (Walbaum in 
Artedi 1792. Genera Piscium 3:4-723). 

SYSTEMMATICS: Broad meristic variation within species, but 
individual stocks usually uniform. Scott and Crossman (1973. 
Freshwater Fishes of Canada) provided comparison of variation 
between Pacific and introduced Lake Ontario populations. 



Order Salmoniformes 
Family Salmonidae 




CA: Sacramento Co., American River, male, 64 cm SL (Moyle 
1976). 



Salmo gairdneri Richardson 
Rainbow trout 

TYPE LOCALITY: Mouth of Columbia River at Fort Vancouver, 
WA (Richardson 1836. Fauna Boreali- Americana). 

SYSTEMATICS: The "rainbow trout" is comprised of two major 
groups, coastal rainbow trouts and redband trouts. The redband 
trout, native to headwaters of McCloud River, CA, is closely 
related to the golden trout of Kern River drainage, CA, S. 
aguabonita. Oldest name for any member of redband trout group 
is S. newberryi. Oldest name applied to any member of either 
group is S. mykiss, proposed by Walbaum in 1792 for the 
Kamchtakan trout. Many practical difficulties are involved if 
gairdneri becomes synonym of mykiss. 



Order Salmoniformes 
Family Salmonidae 




(N.C. Wildl. Resour. Comm. and NCSM) 



70 



Figure B-12 



Salmo trutta Linneaus 
Brown trout 

TYPE LOCALITY: "Europe" (Linneaus 1758. Systema naturae, 
Laurentii Salvn, Holmiae. 10th ed.. 1:1-824). 

SYSTEMATICS: Subgenus Salmo. Rather variable within native 
range and number of subspecies recognized. Hybridizes with 
Salvelinus fontinalis in nature (hybrids called "tiger trout") and 
artificially hybridized with other salmonids (Scott and Crossman 
1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada; Buss and Wright 1958. 
Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. [1957] 87:172-81). 



Order Salmonrformes EXOTIC 
Family Salmonidae 




(N.C. Wildl. Resour. Comm. and NCSM) 



Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 
Common carp 

TYPE LOCALITY: Europe (Linneaus 1758. Systema naturae, 
Laurentii Salvn. Holmiae 10th ed., 1:1-824). 

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily Cyprininae, which does not include 
native North American cyprinids. Hybridizes with goldfish. 
Carassius auratus, another exotic cyprinine (Scott and Cross- 
man 1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada). Hubbs (in Blair [ed.] 
1961. Vertebrate Speciation: A Symposium.) discussed Asiatic 
genus Carassiops, possibly of ancient hybrid origin between C. 
carpio and C. auratus. 



Order Cypriniformes EXOTIC 
Family Cyprinidae 




MD: Charles Co.. Community Lake. 151 mm SL (NCSM). 



Notemigonus crysoleucas (Mitchill) 
Golden shiner 

TYPE LOCALITY: New York (Mitchill 1814. Rept on Fishes of 
New York: 1-30). 

SYSTEMATICS: Possibly more closely related to certain 
Eurasian cyprinids than to any North American group (Gosline 
1974. Jap. J. Ichthyol. 21: 9-15). Three subspecies have been 
recognized — N. c. crysoleucas in northeast and N. c. auratus 
and N. c. bosci in south — but recent authors have not con- 
sidered these valid. Variation in anal fin ray count appears to be 
influenced by water temperature during development (Hubbs 
1921. Trans. III. State Acad. Sci. 11: 147-51: Schultz 1927. Pap. 
Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Letts. [1 926] 7:41 7-32). Scott and Crossman 
(1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada) discussed and provided 
additional data on geographic variation in this character. 



Order Cypriniformes 
Family Cyprinidae 




MD: Anne Arundel Co.. Lake Waterford, 101 mm SL (NCSM). 



_ 1 



Figure B-12 



Continued. 

Notropis cornutus (Mitchill) 
Common shiner 

TYPE LOCALITY: Wallkill River, 4.8 km sw of New Paltz, Ulster 
Co., NY (Mitchill 1817. Am. Mon. Mag. Crit. Rev. 1:289-90). 

SYSTEM ATICS: Subgenus Luxilus, Gilbert (1 964. Bull. Fla. State 
Mus. Biol. Sci. 8:95-194) reviewed systematics of species. 
Hybridizes extensively with N. chrysocephalus (Gilbert 1961. 
Copeia:181 -92). Based on blood protein patterns Menzel (1976. 
Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 4:281 -93) considered N. cornutus and N. 
chrysocephalus as subspecies. N. albeolus is also closely 
related to N. cornutus and replaces it on middle Atlantic coast. 



Order Cypriniformes 
Family Cyprinidae 




MD: Harford Co., Swan Creek, male, 88 mm SL (NCSM). 



Rhinichthys atratulus (Hermann) 
Blacknose dace 

TYPE LOCALITY: "North America" (Hermann 1804. Observa- 
tions Zoologicae, quibus novae complures, aliaeque anamalium 
species descibuntur et illustrantur 31:1 -332). 

SYSTEMATICS: Three subspecies distributed about as follows: 
R. a. atratulus on Atlantic slope; ft a. meleagris in central and 
northern interior; and ft a. obtusus (including nominal form 
simus) from lower Ohio basin to upper Mobile drainage (Hubbs 
1 936. Copeia: 1 24-25; Matthews et al. ms). Matthews et al. (1 979. 
Abstr. 59th Ann. ASIH meetings) discussed intergradation be- 
tween R. a. atratulus and ft a. obtusus in James River drainage, 
VA. 



Order Cyprinformes 
Family Cyprinidae 




MD: Charles Co., Zekiah Swamp, 51 mm SL (NCSM). 



Catostomus commersoni (Lacepede) 
White sucker 

TYPE LOCALITY: None given (Lacepede 1803. Histoire 
Naturelle Poissons 5:1 -803). 

SYSTEMATICS: No comprehensive analysis of systematics 
over entire range published, although numerous dwarf popula- 
tions have received individual recognition (McPhail and Lindsey 
1970. Freshwater Fishes of Northwestern Canada and Alaska). 
Beamish and Crossman (1 971 . J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 34:371 - 
78) concluded dwarf form C. commersonii utawana not valid 
subspecies. Metcalf (1966. Univ. Kans. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
17:23-189) suggested that three geographical forms from east- 
ern, Plains, and Hudson Bay drainages existed in past. 



Order Cypriniformes 
Family Catostomidae 




MD: Frederick Co., Glade Creek, 96 mm SL (NCSM). 



72 



Figure B-12 



Ictalurus catus (Linnaeus) 
White catfish 

TYPE LOCALITY: "Northern part of America" (Linnaeus 1758. 
Systema naturae Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae, 1 ed., 1 :1 -824). 

SYSTEMATICS: No definitive study; no subspecies recognized. 
Phylogenetic relationships to other ictalurids presented by 
Taylor (1969. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 282:1-315). 



Order Siluriformes 
Family Ictaluridae 




CA: Lake Co., Clear Lake. 11 cm SL (Moyle 1 976). 



Ictalurus melas (Rafinesque) 
Black bullhead 

TYPE LOCALITY: "Ohio River" (Rafinesque 1820. Q. J. Sci. Lit. 
Arts 9:48-55). 

SYSTEMATICS: Two subspecies sometimes recognized: /. 
Melas catulusirom Gulf coast states and northern Mexico, and /. 
m. melas horn farther north (Smith 1979. The Fishes of Illinois; 
Scott and Crossman 1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada). List of 
synonyms provided by Scott and Crossman (1973). Phylo- 
genetic relationships with other ictalurids presented by Taylor 
(1 969. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 282:1 -31 5), and Lundberg (1 975. Univ. 
Mich. Mus. Zool. Pap. Paleo. 11). 



Order Siluriformes 
Family Ictaluridae 




MD: Anne Arundel Co., Annapolis Reservoir, 99 mm SL(NCSM). 



Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque) 
Channel catfish 

TYPE LOCALITY: "Ohio River" (Rafinesque 1818. Am. Mon. 
Mag. Crit. Rev. 3:354-56). 

SYSTEMATICS: Bailey et al. (1954. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
106:109-64) discussed geographic and clinical variation but did 
not recognize subspecies. Possibly name-worthy forms were 
originally present, but situation has become greatly (perhaps 
hopelessly) confused by extensive introductions within and 
outside original range. Several closely related Mexican species, 
but precise relationships yet to be delineated. Most closely 
related United States species is /. lupus of TX and Mexico. 
Phylogenetic relationship to other ictalurids presented by Taylor 
(1969. U.S. Nat Mus. Bull. 282:1-315). 



Order Siluriformes 
Family Ictaluridae 




MD: Cecil Co., Susquehanna River, 127 mm SL (NCSM). 



_ 3 



Figure B-12 



Continued. 



Noturus gyrinus (Mitchill) 
Tadpole madtom 

TYPE LOCALITY: Wallkill River, NY (Mitchill 181 7. Am. Monthly 
Mag. Crit. Rev. 1:289-90). 

SYSTEMATICS: Subgenus Schilbeodes. Appears to be most 
closely related to N. lachneri (Taylor 1969. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 
282:1-315). 



Order Siluriformes 
Family Ictaluridae 




MD: St. Mary's Co., St. Mary's River (NCSM) 



Morone saxatilis (Walbaum) 
Striped bass 

TYPE LOCALITY: "New York" (Walbaum in Artedi 1 792. Genera 
Piscium 3:4-723). 

SYSTEMATICS: Appears in earlier literature as Roccus lineatus. 
Whitehead and Wheeler (1 966. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova 
76:23-41) showed that Morone has priority over Roccus. 



Order Perciformes 
Family Percichthyidae 




(N.C. Wildl. Resour. Comm. and NCSM) 



Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque 
Bluegill 

TYPE LOCALITY: "Ohio River" (Rafinesque 1819. J. Physique 
88:417-29). 

SYSTEMATICS: Three subspecies are recognized. Lepomis m. 
macrochirus occurs in the Great Lakes and north Mississippi 
basin, L.m. speciosus in TX and Mexico and L.m. purpurescens 
on the Atlantic slope from coastal VA to FL (Hubbs and Lagler 
1964. Fishes of the Great Lakes Region). Widespread intro- 
ductions have resulted in extensive mixing of these gene pools. 
Avise and Smith (1974. Evolution 28:42-56) studied geographic 
variation and subspecific intergradation, and Avise and Smith 
(1977. Syst. Zool. 26:319-35) studied relationships to other 
centrarchid species using electrophoretic data. Commonly 
hybridizes with several other species of Lepomis, particularly in 
areas of ecological disturbance. Considered to be most closely 
related to L. humilis (Branson and Moore 1962. Copeia:1 -108). 



Order Perciformes 
Family Centrarchidae 




(N.C. Wildl. Resour. Comm. and NCSM) 



74 



Figure B-12 



Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede) 
Largemouth bass 

TYPE LOCALITY: "les rivieras de le Carolina": Charleston, SC, 
regarded as probable type locality (Lacepede 1802. Histoire 
Naturelle des Poissons 4:1 -728). 

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily Lepominae, tribe Micropterini. 
Formerly placed in monotypic genus Huro (Hubbs 1926. Misc. 
Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 15:1-77; Hubbs and Bailey 1940. 
Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 48:1-51). Hubbs and Bailey 
(1940) reviewed systematics. and Bailey and Hubbs (1949. 
Occas Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 516:1-40) defined and 
mapped distinctive subspecies, M. s. flondanus, endemic to 
peninsular FL. 



Order Perciformes 
Family Centrarchidae 




(N.C. Wild). Resour. Comm. and NCSM) 



Pomoxis annularis Rafinesque 
White crappie 

TYPE LOCALITY: "Ohio River" (Rafinesque 1818. Am. Mon. 
Mag. Crit. Rev. 4:39-42). 

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily Centrarchinae, tribe Centrarchini. 
Branson and Moore (1962. Copeia: 1 -108) studied morphology 
of acoustico-lateralis system and determined closest generic 
relationships to be with Centrarchus. Avise et al. (1 977. Copeia: 
250-58), based on electrophoretic data, sugested relationships 
might be closer to Lepomis and Micropterus. subfamily Lepo- 
minae. Bailey (1938. Ph.D. diss., Univ. Michigan) reviewed 
systematics. Known to hybridize naturally with P. nigroma- 
culatus; artificially crossed with other genera (Schwartz 1972. 
Publ. Gulf Coast Res. Lab. Mus. 3:1-328). 



Order Perciformes 
Family Centrarchidae 




MD: Garrett Co.. Pmey Creek, 165 mm SL (NCSM). 



Lepomis megalotis (Rafinesque) 
Longear sunfish 

TYPE LOCALITY: Kentucky, Licking, and Sandy rivers. KY 
(Rafinesque 1820. Ichthyologia Ohiensis). 

SYSTEMATICS: Closest relative L margmatus. these two 
species comprising subgenus Icthelis. Hybridizes extensively 
with other Lepomis. Most polytypic member of family Cen- 
trarchidae, consisting of from four to six subspecies. Presently 
under study by compiler. 



Order Perciformes 
Family Centrarchidae 




(NMC) 



_ 5 



Figure B-12 



Continued. 

Lepomis microlophus (Giinther) 
Redear sunfish 

TYPE LOCALITY: St. Johns River, FL (Giinther 1 859. Catalogue 
of the Fishes in the British Museum 1:1 -524). 

SYSTEMATICS: Bailey (1938. Ph.D. diss., Univ. Michigan) 
concluded that L. microlophus comprises two distinct sub- 
species. Extensive introductions of stocks into ranges of each 
other have obscured natural relationships. Avise and Smith 
(1977. Syst. Zool. 26:319-35) on basis of electrophoretic data 
determined that most closely related species of Lepomis likely 
are L. megalotis and L. marginatus. 



Order Perciformes 
Family Centrarchidae 




(N.C. Wildl. Resour. Comm. and NCSM) 



Micropterus dolomieui Lacepede 
Smallmouth bass 

TYPE LOCALITY: None given (Lacepede 1802. Histoire 
Naturelle des Poissons 4:1 -728). 

SYSTEMATICS: Hubbs and Bailey (1940. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. 
Univ. Mich. 48:1 -51 ) recognized two subspecies: M. d. dolomieui 
east of Mississipi River and from central MO north; and M. d. 
ve/oxfrom middle Arkansas River drainage. Intergrades identi- 
fied from White and Black river drainages, AR and MO, and 
Ouachita River system, AR. Widely introduced and genetic 
integrity of original stocks may no longer be valid. Summary of 
nonmenclature in Scott and Crossman (1 973. Freshwater Fishes 
of Canada). 



Order Perciformes 
Family Centrarchidae 




(N.C. Wildl. Resour. Comm. and NCSM) 



Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur) 
Black crappie 

TYPE LOCALITY: Wabash River, OH (Lesueur in Cuvier and 
Valenciennes 1829. Histoire Naturelle des Poissons 3:1 -500). 

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily Centrarchinae, tribe Centrarchini. 
Branson and Moore (1962. Copeia:1 -108) studied morphology 
of acoustico-lateralis system and determined closest generic 
relationships to be with Centrarchus. Avise et al. (1977. Copeia: 
250-58), based on electrophoretic data, suggested relationships 
might be closer to Lepomis and Micropterus, subfamily Lepo- 
minae. Bailey (1938. Ph.D. diss., Univ. Michigan) reviewed 
systematics. Known to hybridize naturally with P. annularis; 
artificially crossed with other genera (Schwartz 1972. Publ. Gulf 
Coast Res. Lab. Mus. 3:1-328). 



Order Perciformes 
Family Centrarchidae 




(N.C. Wildl. Resour. Comm. and NCSM) 



76 



Figure B-12 



Cottus bairdi Girard 
Mottled sculpin 

TYPE LOCALITY: Mahoning River, OH (Girard 1850. Proc. Am. 
Assoc. Adv. Sci. [1849]:409-11). 

SYSTEMATICS: Bailey and Bond (1 963. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. 
634:1-27) presented summary of species included in C. bairdi 
group. Considerable geographic variation throughout wide 
range of species, and overall systematic picture unresolved. 
Some populations classified as C. bairdimay be distinct species. 
Scott and Crossman (1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada) noted 
that Canadian populations have received insufficient attention 
for subspecific recognition. Robins (1954. Ph.D. diss., Cornell 
Univ.) studied systematics in eastern United States. McAllister 
(1964. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 21:1339-42) discussed 
separation of C. bairdi horn C. cognatus. 



Order Perciformes 
Family Cottidae 




(NCSM) 



Detection of Escherichia coli in water samples. The presence 
of E. coli is detected by the following procedure: 

A water sample is collected in a sterile bottle and poured into 
a filtering apparatus. When water is drawn through a sterile 
filter, the bacterial contaminants are left behind on a piece of 
filter paper. This filter paper is placed in a sterile Petri plate 
containing a nutrient broth, which the bacteria will use to 
grow. The plate is incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 hours. 
Portable incubators are available that run off a car's cigarette 
lighter and can be used until a source of electricity is availa- 
ble. By the end of this 24-hour period, individual E. coli or- 
ganisms have divided to produce metallic-green colonies 
visible to the naked eye. The log. or geometric mean of 200 
fecal coliform colonies per five 100 ml samples collected 
over 30 days, is the allowable limit for fresh waters used for 
sw imming. See Standard Methods for the Examination of 
Water and Wastewater (1985) for details (ref. B-5). 



APPENDIX C 
Glossary 



Acute toxicity. A relatively short-term lethal or other adverse 
effect to a test organism caused by pollutants, and usually de- 
fined as occurring within 4 days for fish and large inver- 
tebrates, and shorter times for smaller organisms. 

Alluvial soil. A deposit of sand, mud, etc., formed by flowing 
water. 

Animal waste. Either solid or liquid products, resulting from 
digestive or excretory processes, and eliminated from an 
animal's body. 

Aquifer. Any geological formation containing water, especially 
one that supplies water for wells, springs, etc. 

Bedrock. Unbroken solid rock, overlain in most places by soil 
or rock fragments. 

Best management practice. An engineered structure or manage- 
ment activity, or combination of these, that eliminates or 
reduces an adverse environmental effect of a pollutant. 

Bioaccumulation. The process of a chemical accumulating in a 
biological food chain by being passed from one organism to 
another as the contaminated organism is preyed upon by 
another organism. 

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). An empirical test in 

which standardized laboratory procedures measure the oxygen 
required for the biochemical degradation of organic material, 
and the oxygen used to oxidize inorganic materials, such as 
sulfides and ferrous iron. 

Biomass. The total weight of all living organisms or of a desig- 
nated group of organisms in a given area. 

Birth defect. A deformity of an organism at birth that results 
from a biologic infection, genetic anomaly, or presence of a 
pollutant during the gestation period. 

Chronic toxicity. A relatively long-term adverse effect to a test 
organism caused by or related to appetite changes, growth, 
metabolism, reproduction, a pollutant, genetic mutation, etc. 

Cobble streambed. A watercourse predominately lined with 
naturally rounded stones, rounded by the water's action. Size 
varies from a hen's egg to that used as paving stones. 

Conservation practice. An engineered structure or management 
activity that eliminates or reduces an adverse environmental 
effect of a pollutant and conserves soil, water, plant, or 
animal resources. 

Confined aquifer. An aquifer bounded above and below by im- 
permeable beds of rock or soil strata or by beds of distinctly 
lower permeability than that of the aquifer itself. 

Cultural eutrophication. The process whereby human activities 
increase the amounts of nutrients entering surface waters, 
giving increased algal and other aquatic plant population 
growths, resulting in accelerated eutrophication of the water- 
course or water body. 

Delta. A nearly flat, often triangular, plain of deposited sand, 
mud, etc., between diverging branches of a river mouth. 



Dissolved oxygen (DO). The amount of oxygen dissolved in 
water. Generally, proportionately higher amounts of oxygen 
can be dissolved in colder waters than in warmer waters. 

Emergent rooted plant. An aquatic plant whose roots are in the 
watercourse or water body's bottom and whose upper part 
emerges from or lies on top of the water. 

Ephemeral stream. A watercourse that flows briefly only in 
direct response to precipitation in the immediate locality, and 
whose channel is at all times above the water table. 

Escherichia coli (E. coli). A bacterium of the intestines of 
warm-blooded organisms, including humans, that is used as 
an indicator of water pollution for disease-producing or- 
ganisms. 

Eutrophication. A natural process whereby a watercourse or 
water body receives nutrients and becomes more biologically 
productive, possibly leading to a water body clogged with 
aquatic vegetation. 

Feathering. The process whereby dissolved salts move upward 
through a wooden post or stake and become deposited on the 
structure's outer surface, yielding a white, fluffy, "feathery" 
appearance. 

Fertilizer. Any substance used to make soil or water more 
productive. Fertilizers may be commercially produced or be 
the result of animal or plant activities. 

Food chain. The transfer of food energy from plants through a 
series of organisms by repeated eating and being eaten. 

Food web. An interlocking pattern of several to many food 
chains. 

Herbaceous vegetation. Plants having a stem that remains soft 
and succulent during the growing season, not woody. 

Herbicide. A type of pesticide, either a substance or biological 
agent, used to kill plants, especially weeds. 

Insecticide. A type of pesticide, either a substance or biological 
agent, used to kill insects or insect-like organisms. 

Intermittent stream. A watercourse that flows only at certain 
times of the year, receiving water from springs or surface 
sources; also, a watercourse that does not flow continuously, 
when water losses from evaporation or seepage exceed avail- 
able stream flow. 

Invertebrate. An organism without a backbone. 

Karst topography. An area of limestone formations character- 
ized by sinks, ravines, and underground streams. Areas with 
less than 20 feet of soil over fractured limestone. No shale 
layers present, capping the top aquifer, but shale layers can 
separate the top aquifer from deeper ones. 

Lake. A body of fresh or salt water of considerable size, whose 
open-water and deep-bottom zones (no light penetration to 
bottom) are large compared to the shallow-water (shoreline) 
zone, which has light penetration to its bottom. 

Lentic water. Water that is standing, not flowing, such as that 
in a lake, pond, swamp, or bog. 



78 



Lotic water. Water that is flowing or running, such as that in a 
spring, stream, or river. 

Macrophyte. Any large plant that can be seen without the aid of 
a microscope or magnifying device. Examples of aquatic 
macrophytes are cattail, bulrush, arrowhead, waterlily. etc. 

Mancos shale. A geologic formation, remnant of an ancient sea. 
which exists in many parts of the western United States. 
When irrigation waters flow through the formation, salts be- 
come dissolved in the water, increasing its salinity. 

Mesotrophic water body. A water body classified midway be- 
tween oligotrophic and eutrophic; characterized by moderate 
amounts of nutrients entering the water body, a moderate 
number of shoreline aquatic plants, and occasional plankton 
blooms. 

Methemoglobinemia. The presence of methemoglobin in the 
blood, making the blood useless as a carrier of oxygen. 
Methemoglobin. a compound closely related to oxy- 
hemoglobin, is found in the blood following poisoning by 
certain substances, such as nitrate. Young babies, both hu- 
man and animal, are particularly susceptible to 
methemoglobinemia, leading to a condition known as "blue 
baby.'" which if untreated can cause death. 

Mudcap. A thick deposit of mud or fine sediment lying over 
permeable materials. 

Mud plastering. Mud deposited by force of water against the 
sides of a watercourse, sealing them. 

Nonpathogenic organism. An organism that does not produce 
disease. 

Nonpoint source pollution. 'Diffuse"" pollution, generated 
from large areas with no particular point of pollutant origin, 
but rather from many individual places. Urban and agricul- 
tural areas generate nonpoint source pollutants. 

Nontarget organisms. Plants or animals that inadvertently are 
sprayed by pesticide when "target" vegetation or animals are 
missed by the spraying operation. 

Nutrient. Any substance, such as fertilizer phosphorous and 
nitrogen compounds, which enhances the growth of plants 
and animals. 

Oligotrophic water body. A water body characterized by few 
nutrients entering the water body, few to no shoreline aquatic 
plants, and rarely any plankton blooms. 

Overland flow. Water flow over the land, often in "sheet" 
flow or in small rivulets before emptying into a defined 
watercourse. 

Pathogenic organism. An organism that produces disease. 

Periphyton. Small-to-microscopic aquatic plants, which grow on 
stones, submerged twigs, and other plants. Their appearance 
may be that of a coating on these objects. 

Perennial stream. Watercourse that flows continuously through- 
out the year and whose upper surface generally stands lower 
than the water table in the area adjacent to the watercourse. 



Pesticide. Any chemical or biological agent that kills plant or 
animal pests. Herbicides, insecticides, nematocides, miticides, 
algicides, etc., are all pesticides. 

Photosynthesis. The process by which plants manufacture their 
own food (simple carbohydrates) from carbon dioxide (COt) 
and water. The plant's chlorophyll-containing cells use light 
as an energy source and release oxygen as a byproduct. 

Phytoplankton. Small-to-microscopic, aquatic, floating plants. 

Piping. Under low dissolved oxygen conditions, the act of fish 
coming to surface of the water and capturing a bubble of air 
in their mouth. 

Plankton. Small-to-microscopic, floating or feebly swimming, 
aquatic plants and animals. 

Point source pollution. Pollutants originating from a "point" 
source, such as a pipe, vent, or culvert. 

Pond. A body of fresh or salt water, smaller than a lake, and 
where the shallow-water zone (light penetration to its bottom) 
is relatively large compared to the open water and deep bot- 
tom (no light penetration to the bottom). 

Pool. In a watercourse, an area often following a rapids (riffle), 
which is relatively deep with slowly moving water compared 
to the rapids. 

Protected bedrock. Areas w ith 50 feet or more of fine-to- 
medium textured soils and a shale layer capping the topmost 
bedrock aquifer. 

Receiving waters. Waters of a watercourse or water body that 
receive waters from overland flow or other watercourses. 

Resource Management System (RMS). A combination of con- 
servation practices and management identified by the primary 
use of land or water. Under an RMS. the resource base is 
protected by meeting acceptable soil losses, maintaining 
acceptable water quality, and maintaining acceptable 
ecological and management levels for the selected resource use. 

Riffle. In a watercourse, an area often upstream of a pool, 
which is relatively shallow with swiftly moving water com- 
pared to the pool. 

Riparian zone. An area, adjacent to and along a watercourse, 
which is often vegetated and constitutes a buffer zone be- 
tween the nearby lands and the watercourse. 

Runoff. Water that runs off the land in sheet flow , in rivulets, 
or in defined watercourses. 

Runoff curve number. An index number, used to approximate 
the amount of runoff resulting from a given rainfall event. 

Saline seep. Water, carrying salts, rising to the surface usually 
in a localized area, after traveling subterraneously from 
another location. Saline seep salts can reduce productivity or 
kill plants, leaving a barren place in the field or landscape. 

Scoliosis. A vertebral deformity, such as "broken back" syn- 
drome in fish, resulting from a biologic infection, genetic 
anomaly, or the presence of a pollutant. 



_ 9 



Shallow bedrock. Areas having 20 to 50 feet of soil capping the 
topmost bedrock aquifer. No shale layer present, capping the 
topmost aquifer, but shale layers may separate top aquifers 
from deeper ones. 

Sinkhole. A circular depression, commonly funnel-shaped, in a 
Karst area. Drainage is subterranean; size is measured in 
meters or tens of meters. 

Submergent rooted plant. An aquatic plant whose roots are in 
the watercourse or water body's bottom with the upper part 
of the plant submerged below the surface of the water. Pond 
weeds (Potamogeton) and muskgrass (Chara) are examples. 



Teratology. The science or study of monstrosities or abnormal 
formations in animals or plants. 

Turbidity. The presence of sediment in water, making it un- 
clear, murky, or opaque. 

Water body. An enlargement of a watercourse or a geologic ba- 
sin filled with water, such as a lake or a pond. 

Watercourse. A linear depression containing flowing water, 
such as a stream, creek, run, river, canal, ditch, etc. 

Woody vegetation. Plants having a stem or trunk that is fibrous 
and rigid. 

Zooplankton. Small-to-microscopic, aquatic, floating animals. 



80 



APPENDIX D 

References 



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Resources on Nonfederal Land in the United States — 
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1-4. WATSTORE— The National Water Data Storage and 
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1-5. Basic Statistics— ] 982 National Resources Inventory. U.S. 
Dept. of Agriculture. Soil Conservation Service. Statistical 
Bulletin No. 756. 1987. 

1-6. Surface Soil Surveys. U.S. Geological Survey. Reston. 
VA. 

1-7. Soil Survey Laboratory Data State Reports. U.S. Dept. of 
Agriculture. Soil Conservation Service. Soil Survey Div.. 
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1-8. National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN). 
U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Div.. Reston. 
VA. 

3-1. J.M. Lawrence and L.W. Weldon. •'Identification of 

Aquatic Weeds."' Hyacinth Control Jour, (now Jour, of 
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and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. 
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3-3. E.L. Horwitz. Our Nation's Lakes. U.S. Environmental 
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3-8. J.G. Needham and P.R. Needham. A Guide to the Study 
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3- 9. L.D. Marriage and R.F. Batchelor. "Ever-Changing Net- 

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3-10. W.M. Beck. Jr. "Studies in Stream Pollution Biology." 
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3-11. K.F. Lagler. Freshwater Fishery Biology. 2nd Ed. Wm. 
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3-12. G.W. Lewis. Common Freshwater Sportfishes of the 

Southeast. Cooperative Extension Service, U. of Georgia. 
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4- 1. Soil Conservation in America. American Farmland Trust. 

Washington. D.C. 1984. 

4-2. D. Marsh. "When a Watershed is Gripped by Nonpoint 
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5-2. J. Turk and A. Turk. Environmental Science, 3rd Ed.. 
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5-4. D.R. Lenat. L.A. Smock, and D.L. Penrose. "Use of 

Benthic Macroinvertebrates as Indicators of Environmental 
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5- 5. J. Carins. Jr. and K.L. Dickson. "A Simple Method for 

the Biological Assessment of the Effects of Waste Dis- 
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6- 1. J.B. Weber. "The Pesticide Scorecard." Environ. Sci. & 

Technol. 1 1(8):756-761 . 1977. 

6-2. B. Hileman. "Herbicides in Agriculture." Environ. Sci. 
& Technol. 16(12):645A-650A. 1982. 

6-3. W.R. Mullison. "The Significance of Herbicides to Non- 
target Organisms." Dow Chemical Co.. Midland. MI. no 
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6-4. D. Pimentel and CA. Edwards. "Pesticides and 
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6-5. A.W.A. Brown. Ecology of Pesticides. John Wiley & 
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6-6. F.L. Cross, Jr. Handbook on Environmental Monitoring. 
Technomic Pub. Co., Inc.. Westport. CT. 1974. 

6-7. J.R. Karr. "Assessment of Biotic Integrity Using Fish 
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81 



6-8. K.D. Fausch, J.R. Karr, and P.R. Yant. "Regional Ap- 
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Fish Communities." Trans. Am. Fish Soc, 113:39-55, 
1984. 

6- 9. R.J. Hall and D. Swineford. "Toxic Effects of Endrin 

and Toxaphene on the Southern Leopard Frog, Rana 
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1980. 

6-10. D.R. Bottrell. Integrated Pest Management. Council on 
Environmental Quality, Washington, D.C., 1979. 

7- 1. "Background Paper— Pollutants Causing Water Use Im- 

pairments: Animal Wastes." Water Quality Training 
Facilitator's Guide. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Con- 
servation Service, unpublished document, 1984. 

7-2. Agricultural Waste Management Field Manual. U.S. Dept. 
of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Engineering 
Div., Washington, D.C. 1975. 

7-3. J. A. Moore, M.E. Grismer, S.R. Crane, and J.R. Miller. 
Evaluating Dairy Waste Management Systems ' Influence 
on Fecal Coliform Concentration in Runoff. Agricultural 
Experiment Station Bulletin No. 658, Oregon State 
University, Corvallis, OR, 1982. 

7-4. E. Moore, E. Janes, F. Kinsinger, K. Pitney, and J. 
Sainsbury. Livestock Grazing Management and Water 
Quality Protection. U.S. Environmental Protection Agen- 
cy, Seattle, W A, 1979. 

7-5. B.J. Nebel. Environmental Science: The Way the World 
Works. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1981. 

7-6. "Background Paper — Pollutants That Cause Water Use 
Impairments: Nutrients and Sediment." Water Quality 
Training Facilitator's Guide. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 
Soil Conservation Service, unpublished document, 1984. 

7-7. State-of-the-Art Review of Best Management Practices for 
Agricultural Nonpoint Source Control: Vol. I. Animal 
Waste. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, 
Raleigh, NC, 1982. 

7- 8. J. A. Krivak. "Best Management Practices to Control 

Nonpoint Source Pollution from Agriculture." Jour. Soil 
& Water Conserv., 33:161-166, 1978. 

8 1. K. Kepler, D. Carlson and W.T. Pitts. Pollution Control 
Manual for Irrigated Agriculture. U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, Denver, CO, (EPA-908/3-78-002), 
1978. 

8- 2. Resources Conservation Act (RCA) Potential Problem Area 

IT. Water Quality; Problem Statement and Objective De- 
termination. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation 
Service, Washington, D.C, 1979. 

8-3. 



8^L W.Y. Bellinger and B.S. Bergendahl. Highway Water 

Quality Monitoring Manual. Federal Highway Administra- 
tion, U.S. Dept. of Transportation, (Report No. FHWA- 
DP-43-2), Arlington, VA, 1979. 

8-5. "Best Management Practices" for Salinity Control in 
Grand Valley. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 
(EPA-600/2-78-162), Ada, OK, 1978. 

8-6. M.B. Holburt. "The Lower Colorado— A Salty River." 
California Agriculture, 38(10):6-8, 1984. 

8-7. J. van Shilfgaarde. "Colorado River: Life Stream of the 
West." Using Our Natural Resources, Yearbook of 
Agriculture, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, 
D.C, 1983. 

8-8. T.W. Edminster and R.C Reeve. "Drainage Problems 
and Methods." Soil, Yearbook of Agriculture, U.S. Dept. 
of Agriculture, Washington, D.C, 1957. 

8-9. D.D. Chiras. Environmental Science: A Framework for 
Decision Making, 2nd Ed., Benjamin/Cummings Pub. 
Co., Inc., Menlo Park, CA, 1988. 

8-10. Saline-Seep Diagnosis, Control and Reclamation. Agricul- 
tural Research Service, Conservation Research Report No. 
30, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1983. 

A-l. W.M. Beck, Jr. "Suggested Method for Reporting Biotic 
Data." Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 27(10), 1955. 

A-2. D. Wilson. A Method for Determining Organic Enrich- 
ment of Surface Waters by Identification of Benthic Mac- 
roinvertebrates. Tennessee Div. of Water Management, 
1984. 

B-l. CM. Palmer. Algae in Water Supplies: An Illustrated 

Manual on the Identification, Significance, and Control of 
Algae in Water Supplies. U.S. Dept. of Health, Education 
and Welfare, Public Health Service, Div. of Water Supply 
and Pollution Control, Public Health Service Pub. No. 
657, Washington, D.C, Reprinted 1962, no date. 

B-2. P.M. Brady. Pond Management for Sport Fishing in Ar- 
kansas. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation 
Service, Little Rock, AR, 1981. 

B-3. "Key to the Major Invertebrate Species of Streams." 

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, no 
date. 

B-4. D.S. Lee, C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. 
McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. Atlas of North American 
Freshwater Fishes. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and 
North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, North 
Carolina Biological Survey Pub. No. 1980-12, 1980. 

B-5. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and 

Wastewater, 16th Ed., Am. Public Health Assoc., Am. 



M.T. El-Ashry, J. van Shilfgaarde, and S. Schiffman. 
"Salinity Pollution from Irrigated Agriculture." Jour. Soil 
& Water Conserv., 40(l):48-52, 1985. 



Water Works Assoc. and Water Pollution Control Federa- 
tion, Washington, D.C, 1985. 

B-6. A.B. Bottcher and L.B. Baldwin. "BMP Selector: Gener- 
al Guide for Selecting Agricultural Water Quality Prac- 
tices." Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 
University of Florida-Gainsville, Flordia Cooperative Ex- 
tension Service Pub. N. SP-15, no date. 



82 



A Word of Thanks 

Any effort to implement an idea involves a sound concept, a 
need to be filled, the dedication of many people, a little luck, 
and hard work. All these elements came together to complete 
the Water Quality Indicators Guide: Surface Waters. If any one 
of the above had been lacking, the guide would never have been 
finished. Each of the following people contributed in his or her 
own way. Four individuals deserve special thanks: 

Dr. Patricia Bytnar Perfetti. Head of the Geoscience and 
Environmental Studies Department, and the Physics and As- 
tronomy Department of the University of Tennessee at Chat- 
tanooga, researched and wrote much of the manuscript. Her 
assistance on the guide made it a reality. Selene Robinson of 
Trandes. Inc.. not only typed the manuscript, but translated the 
field sheet format concept into a real, workable tool. Richard 
Francoeur. at the time in 1983 a graduating senior from Cornell 
University, made the first "'cut'" at a water quality indicator 
guide by doing initial research and developing the environmental 
cause effect relationships that are present in the guide. Finally, 
my wife. Sandra, maintained her patience and good humor 
through many hours and days of proofreading. 

Susan Alexander. EPA. Dallas 
Malvern Allen. NTC*, PA 
Mike Anderson, NE 

Joseph Arruda. KS Dept. Health & Envrmt. 
Donald Bivens, TN 
Valerian Bohanty, NE 

James Boykin, Ofc. Gov't & Pub. Aff.. USDA 

Bill Brown. CO 

Gary Bullard. CA 

John Burt. NTC. TX 

Gerald Calhoun. MD 

Sam Chapman. TX 

Douglas Christensen. NHQ 

Toby Clark. The Conservation Foundation. DC 

Ellen Dietrich. PA 

Thurston Dorsett, TN 

Robert Drees, KS 

Steven Dressing. EPA. NHQ 

Paul DuMont. NHQ 

Thomas Dumper, NTC, NE 

Dennis Erinakes. NTC. TX 

Robert Francis. NTC. PA 

Robert Franzen. NTC. PA 

Larry Goff, TN 

Pat Graham, MO 

Gary Gwinn, WV 

Timothy Hall. FWS** MD 

Thomas Hamer. NE 

Howard Hankin. TN 

James Hannaham. DC Water Resources Resrch. Ctr. 
Leaman Harris. EPA. Dallas 
John Hassell. OK Conservation Commission 
Steven Henningen. KS 



Robert Higgins. KS 

Patricia Hood-Greenberg. NHQ 

Robert Hummel. KS 

Thomas Iivari. NTC. PA 

Barry Isaacs. PA 

David Jones. MT 

James Kaap. WI 

Arnold King. NTC. TX 

Susan King. EPA, Dallas 

Judith Ladd. NHQ 

Mary Landin. CE***. MS 

Sarah Laurent. NHQ 

Ronald Lauster. NM 

Jerry Lee. TN 

James Lewis. NHQ 

Jeff Lozer. MD 

Gary Margheim. NHQ 

David McCalley, Univ. of No. Iowa 

James Meek. EPA. NHQ 

Daniel Merkel. NHQ 

Milton Meyer. NHQ 

Kent Milton. LA 

David Moffitt. NTC. OR 

Gerald Montgomery . TN 

John Moore, NTC. PA 

Robert Moorehouse, MA 

Eldie Mustard. CO 

Joel Myers. PA 

James Newman. NHQ 

Victor Payne. AL 

Frank Resides, NTC. PA 

Walter Rittall. NHQ 

Larry Robinson. SC 

Marc Safley. NHQ 

Donald Schuster. MN 

Jane Sisk. Calloway Co. Pub. Schools. KY 
Daniel Smith. NHQ 

Donald Snethen. KS Dept. Health & Envmt. 

Frank Sprague, NTC, TX 

Lyle Steffan. CA 

James Stiebing. EPA. Dallas 

Billy Teels, NHQ 

Mark Waggoner. MN 

Clive Wafker. NHQ 

Gerald Welsh. NHQ 

Robert Wengrzynek, ME 



Charles R. Terrell 

National Water Quality Specialist 

Soil Conservation Service. Washington. D.C. 



* SCS National Technical Center 
** U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 
*** U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 



Appendix E 

Conservation and Best Management Practices 



List of conservation and best management practices (BMP's) 
that can be employed to reduce or eliminate nonpoint source 
water pollution problems. 

1 . Access Road— A road located and constructed to provide 
needed access, but built with soil conservation measures to 
prevent soil erosion caused by vehicular traffic or animal 
travel. 

2. Alternative Pesticides — Pesticides other than chemical types 
traditionally used on a crop. 

3. Bedding— Plowing, blading, or otherwise elevating the sur- 
face of flat land into a series of broad, low ridges separated 
by shallow, parallel channels. 

4. Biological Control Methods— Use of organisms or biological 
materials to control crop pests. Integrated Pest Management 
(IPM) is an example of biological control that can reduce the 
amounts of chemical pesticides needed to grow a crop. 

5. Brush Management — Management and manipulation of 
brush to improve or restore plant cover quality in reducing 
soil erosion. 

6. Chiseling and Subsoiling— Loosening the soil to shatter com- 
pacted and restrictive layers to improve water quality, in- 
filtration and root penetration, and reduce surface water runoff. 

7. Conservation Cropping— Growing crops in combination with 
needed cultural and management measures to improve the 
soil and protect it during erosion periods. Practices include 
cover cropping and crop rotation, and providing vegetative 
cover between crop seasons. 

8. Conservation Cropping Sequence— A sequence of crops 
designed to provide adequate organic residue to maintain and 
improve soil tilth. 

9. Conservation Tillage— In producing a crop, limiting the 
number of cultural operations to reduce soil erosion, soil 
compaction, and energy use. Usually involves an increase in 
the use of herbicides. 

10. Contour Farming— Farming sloped land on the contour to 
reduce erosion, control water flow, and increase infiltration. 

1 1 . Contour Orchard and Other Fruit Areas— Planting or- 
chards, vineyards, or small fruits, so all cultural operations 
are done on the contour. 

12. Correct Fertilizer Container Disposal— Following accepted 
methods for fertilizer container disposal, keeping containers 
out of sinkholes, creeks, and other places adjacent to water 
to reduce the amount of fertilizer that reaches waterways. 

13. Correct Pesticide Container Disposal— Following accepted 
methods for pesticide container disposal, keeping containers 
out of sinkholes, creeks, and other places adjacent to water 
to reduce the amount of pesticide that reaches waterways. 

14. Cover and Green Manure Crops — Use of close-growing 
grasses, legumes, or small grain for seasonal soil protection 
and improvement. 

15. Critical Area Planting— Planting vegetation to stabilize the 
soil and reduce erosion and runoff. 



16. Crop Residue Use— Leaving plant residues after harvest to 
protect cultivated fields during critical erosion periods when 
the ground would otherwise be bare. 

17. Crop Rotation— Planting different crops in successive sea- 
sons in the same field. Procedure can reduce pesticide loss 
significantly. There are some indirect costs if less profitable 
crops are alternated. 

18. Debris Basin— A barrier or berm constructed across a water- 
course or at other suitable locations to act as a silt or sedi- 
ment catchment basin. 

19. Deferred Grazing— Postponing grazing for a prescribed peri- 
od to improve vegetative conditions and reduce soil loss. 

20. Diversion— Channels constructed across a slope to divert 
runoff water and help control soil erosion, and having a 
mound or ridge along the lower side of the slope. 

2 1 . Drainage Land Grading— Reshaping the surface of land to 
improve surface drainage and /or water distribution. 

22. Emergency Tillage— Roughening soil surfaces by methods, 
such as listing, ridging, duck-footing, or chiseling. Procedure 
is done as a temporary protection measure. 

23. Farmstead and Feedlot Windbreak— A strip or belt of trees 
or shrubs, established next to a farmstead or feedlot to 
reduce wind speed and protect soil resources. 

24. Fencing— Enclosing an environmentally sensitive area of land 
or water with fencing to control access of animals or people. 

25. Field Border — A border or strip of permanent vegetation, es- 
tablished at field edges to control soil erosion and slow, 
reduce, or eliminate pollutants from entering an adjacent 
watercourse or water body. 

26. Field Windbreak— A strip or belt of trees or shrubs, estab- 
lished in or adjacent to a field, to reduce wind speed and 
protect soil resources. 

27. Filter Strip— A strip or section of land in permanent vegeta- 
tion, established downslope of agricultural operations to con- 
trol erosion and slow, reduce, or eliminate pollutants from 
entering an adjacent watercourse. 

28. Fishpond Management— Developing or improving impound- 
ed water to produce fish for consumption or recreation. 

29. Grade Stabilization Structure— A structure to stabilize a 
streambed or to control erosion in natural or constructed 
channels. 

30. Grasses and Legumes in Rotation— A conservation cropping 
system that establishes and maintains grasses and/or legumes 
for a definite number of years. 

31. Grazing Land Mechanical Treatment— Renovating, con- 
touring, furrowing, pitting, or chiseling native grazing land 
by mechanical means to improve plant cover and water avail- 
ability. 

32. Heavy-Use Area Protection— Establishing vegetative cover 
or installing structures to stabilize heavily used areas. 



84 



33. Hillside Ditch— A channel constructed to control the water 
flow and erosion by diverting runoff to a protected outlet. 

34. Integrated Pest Management Program— Use of organisms 
or biological materials for effective pest control with reduc- 
tion in amounts of pesticides used. "Scouting" of insect pest 
populations is necessary to determine when pest management 
actions are necessary to reduce pests. 

35. Irrigation Field Ditch— A permanently lined irrigation ditch 
that conveys water from a supply source to fields, preventing 
erosion, infiltration, or degradation of water qual it\ . 

36. Irrigation Water Conveyance— A pipeline or lined waterway 
constructed to prevent erosion and loss of water. 

37. Irrigation Water Management— Determining and controlling 
the rate, amount, and timing of irrigation water applied to 
crops to minimize soil erosion, runoff, and fertilizer and pes- 
ticide movement. 

38. Land Absorption Areas and Use of Natural or Construct- 
ed Wetland Systems— Providing adequate land absorption or 
wetland areas downstream from agricultural areas so that soil 
and plants receive and treat agricultural nonpoint source pol- 
lutants. 

39. Listing— Plowing and planting done in the same operation. 
Plowed soil is pushed into ridges between rows, and seeds 
are planted in the furrows between the ridges. 

40. Livestock Exclusion— Excluding livestock from environmen- 
tally sensitive areas to protect areas from induced damages. 
Also, excluding livestock from areas not intended for 
grazing. 

41. Precision Application Rates— Within a particular field, ap- 
plying precise amounts of fertilizer and pesticide according to 
the soil plant needs in specific parts of the field. Generally, 
lower rates can be applied, especially where tests show 
residues are present from previous applications. 

42. Managing Aerial Pesticide Applications— Having pesticides 
applied when winds are low and when they are in a direction 
away from watercourses and riparian areas. This can reduce 
contamination in these nontarget areas. 

43. Mechanical Weed Control Methods— Using mechanical or 
biological, instead of chemical, weed control can reduce sub- 
stantially the need for chemicals. Costs will have to be care- 
fully computed to make the operation economically feasible. 

44. Minimizing Number of Irrigations— Carefully monitoring 
crop water needs and soil water availability minimizes the 
number of irrigations necessary 7 to produce a crop. This may 
yield higher profits at harvest and reduce water pollution and 
soil erosion. 

45. Mulching— Applying plant residues or other suitable materi- 
als to the soil surface reduces evaporation, water runoff, and 
soil erosion. Plastic sheeting can increase runoff, but will 
reduce nutrient leaching. 

46. No-till or Zero-tillage— Tilling the soil with minimal distur- 
bance and utilizing a fluted colter or double-disk opener 
ahead of the planter shoe to cut through untilled residues of 
the previous crop. 



47 Optimizing Crop Planting Time— Planting a crop at a time 
other than when the crop's specific pest enemies would be 
present can reduce the need for pesticides and lower costs. 

48. Optimizing Date of Application— Changing a pesticide ap- 
plication date to avoid impending rain or winds can improve 
effectiveness of the pesticide application and avoid environ- 
mental problems. Application can only be done when pest 
control effectiveness is not adversely affected. Process in- 
volves little or no cost. 

49. Optimizing Pesticide Formulations— Pesticides come in 
several formulations with different half-lives. If a formulation 
with a shorter half-life than one normally used by the farmer 
is chosen, the pesticide will be less available to cause en- 
vironmental damage. Also, some formulations require fewer 
applications for the same pest protection, so costs are 
reduced and less is available to the environment. 

50. Optimizing Pesticide Placement— Direct application of a 
pesticide on the field and plants rather than aerial spraying is 
more effective, reduces costs, and protects nearby environ- 
ments from accidental spraying. 

5 1 . Optimizing Time of Day For Application— Applying pesti- 
cide at times of low winds, often early and late in the day. 
can reduce amounts needed for the crop, reduce costs, and 
reduce pesticide that could adversely affect adjacent en- 
vironments. 

52. Pasture and Hayland Management— Proper treatment, in- 
cluding fertilizing, aerating, and harvesting can protect soil 
and reduce water loss. 

53. Phreatophyte Water Losses— Elimination of nonbeneficial 
uses of water by phreatophytes (plants getting water from 
deep roots) not only lessens the concentration of salts through 
transpiration, but conserves water as well. Lowering the 
water table and developing mechanical and chemical tech- 
niques for elimination of phreatophytes ensures more efficient 
water use and minimizes salt hazards. 

54. Planned Grazing Systems— A system in which two or more 
grazing units are alternately grazed and rested from grazing in 
a planned sequence to improve forage production, maintain 
vegetative cover, retain animal wastes on the land, and protect 
animals from polluted waters. 

55. Plant Between Rows in Minimum Tillage— Applicable only 
to row crops in non-plow-based tillage: may reduce amounts 
of pesticides necessary. 

56. Plow-Plant— Crop is planted directly into plowed ground 
with secondary tillage. This system increases infiltration and 
water storage. 

57. Pond — A water impoundment made by constructing a dam or 
embankment or by excavating a pit or "dugout." 

58. Pond Sealing or Lining— Installing a fixed lining of impervi- 
ous material or treating the soil in a pond to reduce or pre- 
vent excessive water loss. 

59. Precision Land Forming— Reshaping the surface of land to 
planned grades to give effective and efficient water 
movement. 



85 



60. Proper Fertilizer Applications — Selecting the proper time 
and method of fertilizer application to reduce losses through 
leaching and soil erosion, and ensure adequate crop nutrition. 

61. Proper Grazing Use— Having no more animal units than will 
allow grazing areas to maintain sufficiently healthy, productive 
vegetative cover to protect the soil from eroding and protect 
the water quality of adjacent watercourses. 

62. Proper Timing of Irrigation Sprinklers— Using irrigation 
equipment when plants need moisture, and controlling the 
amount of moisture delivered to the plants by avoiding over- 
irrigating to conserve water, protect soil from eroding, and 
protect the water quality of adjacent watercourses. 

63. Pumped Well Drain— A well sunk into an aquifer to pump 
water to lower the prevailing water table. 

64. Pumping Plant for Water Control— A pumping facility in- 
stalled to transfer water for a conservation need. 

65. Range Seeding— Establishing adapted plants on rangeland to 
reduce soil and water loss and produce more forage. 

66. Reducing Excessive Insecticide Treatment— Applying exact- 
ly the correct amounts of insecticide recommended by the 
manufacturer for the crop and soil types. Refined predictive 
techniques required, such as computer forecasting. 

67. Reduction of Weed Growth— Reducing number of weed 
plants to reduce water loss from evapotranspiration. 

68. Reduction or Elimination of Irrigation of Marginal 

Lands— Taking irrigated marginally productive lands out of 
production to reduce water losses and salt pollution. 

69. Regulated Runoff Impoundment— Retention or detention of 
water with infiltration prior to discharge to reduce runoff 
quantity, retain nutrients and pesticides, and prevent pollu- 
tants from reaching watercourses. 

70. Regulating Water in Drainage Systems— The use of water- 
control structures to control the removal of surface runoff 
waters or subsurface flows. 

71. Reservoir Evaporation— Controlling, through design or prac- 
tices, the evaporation rate of water from reservoirs. If not 
controlled, evaporation tends to increase the salt content of 
the reservoir waters. 

72. Resistant Crop Varieties— Use of plant varieties that are 
resistant to insects, nematodes, diseases, salt, etc. 

73. Return Flow Regulation— Regulating the type and quantity 
of water return flows as a means of maintaining and improv- 
ing irrigation water quality. 

74. Ridge Tillage— Tillage producing a row configuration similar 
to listing, but planting is done on the ridges year after year 
with no seedbed preparation preceding planting. 

75. Rock Barrier — A rock retaining wall, constructed across the 
slope, forming and supporting a bench terrace to control the 
flow of water on sloping land. 



76. Roof Runoff Management— A facility for collecting, con- 
trolling, and disposing of rainfall/snowmelt runoff water from 
roofs. It keeps animal holding areas free of excess water and 
helps to maintain water quality of adjacent watercourses. 

77. Row Arrangement— Establishing crop rows on planned 
grades and lengths to provide drainage and erosion control. 

78. Runoff Management System— A system for controlling ex- 
cess runoff from a development site during and after con- 
struction operations. 

79. Sediment Basin— A basin constructed to collect and store 
sediment from runoff waters associated with nonpoint source 
pollutants. 

80. Slow Release Fertilizer— Applying fertilizers that release 
nitrogen slowly to soil and plants, to minimize rapid nitrogen 
losses from soils prone to leaching. 

81. Soil Testing and Plant Analysis— Testing soils and determin- 
ing plant fertilizer requirements to avoid overfertilization and 
subsequent nutrient losses to runoff water. 

82. Split Applications of Nitrogen— "Splitting" or dividing a 
set amount of fertilizer into two or more applications in the 
same season for the same crop. 

83. Spring Development — Improving springs and water seeps by 
excavating, cleaning, capping, or providing collection and 
storage facilities for the water. 

84. Spring Nitrogen Fertilizer Application— Applying nitrogen 
fertilizer in the spring, instead of autumn, to avoid fertilizer 
losses from heavy late winter and early spring runoff events. 

85. Streambank Protection— By vegetative or structural means, 
stabilizing and protecting banks of watercourses, lakes, estu- 
aries, or excavated channels against scour and erosion. 

86. Strip Tillage— A narrow strip, tilled with a rototiller gang or 
other implement. Seed is planted in the same operation. 

87. Stripcropping— Growing crops in a systematic arrangement 
of strips or bands to reduce water and wind erosion. 

88. Stripcropping, Contour— Growing crops on the contour to 
reduce erosion and control water. 

89. Stripcropping, Field— Planting large sections or entire fields 
in a systematic arrangement to help control erosion and 
runoff on sloping cropland where contour stripcropping is not 
a practical method. 

90. Structure for Water Control— A structure to control the water 
stage, discharge, distribution, delivery, or direction of water 
flow in open channels or water use areas. 

91 . Subsurface Drain — A conduit, such as tile or plastic pipe, 
installed beneath the ground surface to control water levels for 
increased production. Net runoff and leaching are reduced, 
but nitrate concentrations may be increased. 

92. Surface Drainage— A conduit, such as tile, pipe, or tubing, 
installed beneath the ground surface to collect and/or convey 
drainage water. 



86 



93. Surface Roughening— Roughening the soil surface by ridge 
or clod-forming tillage. 

94. Sweep Tillage — Using a "sweep'" on small-grain stubble to 
kill early fall weeds. The practice shatters and lifts the soil, 
thus enhancing infiltration while leaving residue in place. 

95. Terrace— An earth embankment, channel, or a combination 
ridge and channel constructed across a slope to control 
runoff. 

96. Timing and Placement of Fertilizers— Delaying timing or 
using proper placement of fertilizers for maximum utilization 
by plants and minimum fertilizer leaching or movement by 
surface runoff. 

97. Tree Planting— To establish or reinforce a stand of trees to 
conserve soil and moisture and help protect water leaving 
agricultural areas by "■filtering"" pollutants from the water 
flow. 

98. Trickle Irrigation — Using trickle irrigation equipment to 
deliver small quantities of water to irrigate crops. 

99. Trough or Tank— Locating watering facilities a reasonable 
distance from watercourses and dispersing the facilities to en- 
courage uniform grazing and to reduce livestock concentra- 
tions, particularly near watercourses. 

100. Underground Outlet— A water outlet, placed underground to 
dispose of excess water without causing damage by erosion 
or flooding. 

101. Uniformity of Irrigation Water Quality— Uniform irrigation 
water quality can be achieved through water flow regulation 
by controlling the release of water from storage reservoirs. 



102. Waste Management System— A planned system to manage 
animal wastes in a manner that does not degrade air. soil, or 
water resources. Often wastes are collected in storage or 
treatment impoundments, such as ponds, lagoons, or stacking 
facilities. 

1 03 . Waste Storage Pond— An impoundment for temporary- 
storage of animal or other agricultural waste. 

104. Waste Storage Structure— A fabricated structure for the 
temporary storage of animal wastes or other organic agricul- 
tural wastes. 

105. Waste Treatment Lagoon— An impoundment for biological 
treatment of animal or other agricultural waste. 

106. Waste Utilization— Using wastes for fertilizer or other pur- 
poses in a manner which improves the soil and protects water 
resources. May also include recycling of waste solids for 
animal feed supplement. 

107. Water and Sediment Control Basin— An earth embankment 
or a combination ridge and channel to form a sediment trap 
and a water detention basin to prevent soil erosion losses and 
improve water quality. 

108. Water Supply Dispersal— A well which is constructed or 
improved to provide water for irrigation and livestock and 
which enhances natural livestock distribution or improved 
vegetative cover. 

109. Water Spreading— Diverting or collecting runoff and spread- 
ing it over relatively flat areas. 



87 



APPENDIX F 

Soil Conservation Service 



Water Quality Indicators Guide: Surface Waters 
Field Sheets 

Note: Copy the assessment and field sheets before proceed- 
ing! Write on the copies. 

Part 1: Background information for the watershed assess- 
ment needs to be completed only once for each watershed. The 
assessment gives general information about the watershed and 
may serve for several watercourses or water bodies within the 
watershed. The on-farm (ranch) water assessment will have to 
be completed for each farm or ranch evaluated. 

Part 2: Field sheet selection of nonpoint source pollutants 
will have to be completed for each watercourse or water body 
evaluated. This preliminary decision about pollutants will deter- 
mine which field sheets will need to be completed (sediment, 
animal wastes, nutrients, pesticides, or salts). 



88 



Part 1: Background Information 



Watershed .Assessment 

Evaluator's Name 

Location 



Date. 



State County 



Watershed (basin) 



.Township Range 



Subwatershed _ 
(if applicable) 



Watercourses/Water Bodies 
1 . Size of watershed 



2. Number of major watercourses. 



3. Watercourse names. 



4. Types of watercourses. 



ephemeral' 



5. Average watercourse gradient (feet per mile) 



6. Watercourse bottom (predominant type): 

CH bedrock L_l boulder I 1 cobble 



7. Frequency of flooding: 

8. Watercourse channel alteration: 



□ 



□ 



dredged 



intermittent" or 



□ 
□ 



perennial* 



eravel 



rare 



I 1 sand I 1 silt-clay 

I 1 occasional 



□ 



channelized 



□ 



□ 



organic 



frequent 



other (alteration date if known) 



9. Watercourse primary uses: 

( 1 ) I 1 Domestic drinking water supply 

(2) I 1 Industrial water supply 

□ Agricultural water supply: I 1 Irrigation I 1 Livestock I 1 Other (explain) 



(3) 



(4, □ Recreation: Swimming I 1 Fishing I 1 Other 

(5) Other uses (explain) 



(explain). 



*Stream definitions: See Glossary in Appendix C. 



89 



Watershed Assessment (Continued) 



10. Water use impairments (watercourses): Are there water use impairments or restrictions of the watercourses in the watershed? Is 
there something "wrong" with the water? Has it been degraded by acid mine drainage, industrial discharge, etc.? 

□ no.D Yes. If Yes, explain. The impairment(s) is/are due to: 

□ I I I I Inadequate or overloaded 

Agricultural runoff I — I Logging runoff I — I wastewater treatment facilities 

□ Industrial discharge Urban or other construction Irrigation problems 

□ Mining runoff Failing septic tanks Other (explain) 



If the impairment(s) is/are due to a combination of factors, what is your best estimate of the relative contribution of agricultural 
operations to the watercourse impairment(s)? 

CH Total LJ About half 

d Most d Small portion 

11. Names of major ponds or lakes 

12. Names of minor ponds or lakes 

13. Sizes of individual ponds or lakes in acres 



14. Primary uses of pond or lake water: 
(!)□ Domestic drinking water supply. 

(2) Industrial water supply. 

(3) Agricultural water supply: Irrigation Livestock Other (explain). 

(4) Recreation: Swimming Fishing Other (explain) 



(5) I 1 Other uses (explain) 



15. Water use impairment (ponds or lakes): Are there any water use impairments or restrictions of the ponds or lakes in the 

watershed? Is there something "wrong" with the water? Has it been degraded by acid mine drainage, industrial discharge, etc? 

Yes. If Yes, explain. The impairment(s) is/are due to: 

□ I I I I Inadequate or overloaded 

Agricultural runoff I 1 Logging runoff I — I wastewater treatment facilities 

□ Industrial discharge Urban or other construction Irrigation problems 

□ Mining runoff Failing septic tanks Other (explain) 



90 



If the impairment s) is/are due to a combination of factors, what is your best estimate of the relative contribution of agricultural 
operations to the pond/lake impairment(s)? 

d Total d About half 

d Most d Small portion 

Land uses in watershed: (check appropriate categories) 

1. Farming: I 1 Pasture /grazing Dryland cropping Irrigated cropping Woods 

Other (explain) 

2. Urban areas: Homes Stores Other (explain) 

3. Industrial areas: Factories Small shops Other (explain) 

4. Mining: Surface d Deep d Other (explain) 

□ Clearcut Selective cut Other (explain) 



5. Logging: 



6. Other uses (explain) (e.g.. sanitary landfill) 



9i 



On-Farm (Ranch) Water Assessment 

Surface Watercourses 

1 . Number of watercourses (streams or drainage ditches) 



□ Perennial Intermittent □ 



2. Types of watercourses: I 1 Perennial I 1 Intermittent I 1 Ephemeral. (If applicable, check more than one). 

3. Location of watercourses on property* 

Wetlands 

1. Acres of wetlands 



2. Location of wetlands on property* 



□ Sediment sink □ Water storage Flood control □ 
Other (explain) 



3. Uses: Sediment sink l_l Water storage L_J Flood control L_l Irrigation 

□ 



Ponds 

1 . Farm ponds: d Rare d Common Abundant (Number ) 

2. Other water bodies: Number ; Surface area (natural lakes and impounded bodies). 

3. Uses 



□ no.D Yes. If 



4. Are any of the uses impaired? I — I No. I — I Yes. If yes, what type of impairment? 

5. Location on property* 

Ground Water 



: EH None O Rare D Common □ 



1 . Number of springs (wet weather or year-round): I 1 None I 1 Rare I 1 Common I — I Abundant 

2. Total number of wells 



3. Population served 

4. Primary uses of ground water: 

□ Domestic water supply □ Industrial water supply Recreation 

□ Fish and aquatic life Irrigation 

□ Livestock watering & wildlife □ Other (explain) 

5. Number of sinkholes on or near property: CZI None CZ1 Rare d Common Abundant 

6. Location of ground water features on property* 



*Optional: If feasible and not already present, add these locations to the farm's map. 



92 



Part 2: Field Sheet Selection of Nonpoint Source Pollutants 



Watercourses 

Evaluator's Name Date. 

Location 

State/County Township Range 



Watershed (basin) Subwatershed . 

(if applicable) 

Watercourse location 



Note: If there is a natural or constructed watercourse on or near the farmer or rancher's property', complete this form for a preliminary 
decision about nonpoint source pollutants. If your answer is "Can't Tell" or "Yes," you must complete the field sheets for that 
particular pollutant. 

Probable Cause 

1. Is the watercourse bottom coated with sediment? Or is there evidence that the watercourse bed is aggrading or degrading? Or has 
flooding increased over the last several years? Or is there evidence of bank sloughing? Or is the water turbid or muddy after a 
storm event? 



d CAN'T TELL LJ YES d 



NO (Field Sheets 1A, IB) Sediment 



2. Do you see or smell evidence of manure in or along the watercourse? Or is there evidence of bank trampling? Or is the water- 
course bottom coated black or with a whitish or grayish "cottony" mold? 

□ CAN'T TELL □ yes □ NO (Field Sheets 2A. 2Bi. 2B 2 ) Animal Wastes 

3. At low flow is the color of the water greenish? Or is there an increase in rooted aquatic vegetation or seasonal algal blooms that 
can be linked to the timing of fertilizer application? 



□ CANT TELL □ yes □ 



CANT TELL I 1 YES I 1 NO (Field Sheets 3A, 3B) Nutrients 

4. Is there evidence of leaf-burn or a sudden dieback of vegetation that does not seem to be due to natural causes? Has this happened 
after pesticide application Or has fish productivity declined or a fishery been degraded from cold or warm water sport fish to 
predominately rough (trash) fish? Or has a fish kill occurred in an apparently fertile watershed? Or do fish avoid this particular 
reach of the watercourse or exhibit strange or erratic behavior such as gulping for air. swimming in circles, jumping out of water, 
etc? 



□ CANT TELL □ yes □ 



NO (Field Sheets 4A. 4B) Pesticides 



5. Is the watercourse reach located in a naturally occurring salt-laden geologic area and far downstream from the headwaters? Or is 
there evidence of white salt crust on the watercourse banks? 



□ CAN'T TELL □ yes □ 



CANT TELL I 1 YES I 1 NO (Field Sheets 5A, 5B,. 5B 2 ) Salts 



After completing this preliminary decision about pollutants, complete the appropriate field sheets. 



93 



Water Bodies (Ponds or Lakes) 



If there is a natural or constructed pond or lake on or near the farmer or rancher's property, complete this form for a preliminary decision 
about nonpoint source pollutants. If your answer is "Can't tell" or "Yes," you must complete the field sheets for that particular pollutant. 

Water body location Probable Cause 

1. Is there evidence of sediment from field erosion or bank erosion getting into the pond from rills or gullies; muddiness after a large 
storm? Or has the pond changed in size over the years? (Pond surface area may become smaller or larger as sedimentation 
occurs.) 



□ CAN T TELL □ yes □ 



NO (Field Sheets 1A, IB) Sediment 



2. Is there visual or olfactory evidence of manure in or around the pond? Or is the pond covered with an organic ooze or black 
mayonnaise-like coating? 

□ CAN'T TELL □ yes □ NO (Field Sheets 2A, 2B,, 2B 2 ) Annual Waste 

3. Have there been seasonal algal blooms or fish kills or evidence of oxygen depletion (fish gulping for air near the surface of the 
water at dawn)? Or is there evidence of greener, more robust vegetation along the pond edge? Or is the pond choked with vege- 
tation? 



□ CAN'T TELL □ yes □ 



NO (Field Sheets 3A, 3B) Nutrients 



Is there evidence of leaf-burn or a sudden dieback of vegetation that does not seem to be due to natural causes? Has this occurred 
after pesticide application? Or has fish productivity declined or a fish kill occurred in an apparendy fertile watershed with good 
pond management practices? Or has abnormal fish behavior been observed, such as uncoordinated movements, convulsive darting 
movements, erratic swimming up and down or in a small circle, sluggish movements alternating with jumping out of the water, or 
difficulty in respiration? 



d CAN'T TELL d YES d 



NO (Field Sheets 4A, 4B) Pesticides 



5. Is the pond or lake located in a naturally occurring salt-laden geologic area and far downstream from the headwaters? Or has there 
been a significant amount of irrigation drainage to the pond and a need to increase the number of evaporation ponds in a given 
area? Or are pond shorelines covered with white, crusty salt deposits? 

□ CANT TELL □ yes □ NO (Field Sheets 5A, 5Bi, 5B 2 ) Salts 

After completing this preliminary decision about pollutants, complete the appropriate field sheets. 



94 



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