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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) 

Situation Report - 71 


St World Health 
Organization 


fS 


Data as reported by national authorities by 10:00 CET 31 March 2020 


HIGHLIGHTS 

• No new countries/territories/areas reported cases of COVID-19 in the past 24 
hours. 

• As mentioned by the Director-General in his regular media briefing yesterday, 
ensuring free movement of essential health products is vital for saving lives 
and curbing the social and economic impacts of the pandemic. WHO is 
working intensively with partners to increase access to life-saving products, 
including diagnostics, PPE, medical oxygen, ventilators and more. For more 
information: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general- 
s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19—30-march-2020 

• Operations support and logistics continues to monitor critical markets and in 
partnership with the Pandemic Supply Chain Network, has increased 
engagement and coordination with private companies. Since the beginning of 
the outbreak, OSL has shipped more than 800 000 surgical masks, 54 000 N95 
masks, 873 000 gloves, 15 000 goggles and 24 000 face shields to 75 countries. 
OSL has also shipped COVID-19 testing kits to 126 countries. For more details, 
please see 'subject in focus'. 


SITUATION IN NUMBERS 

total (new) cases in last 24 hours 

Globally 

750 890 confirmed (57 610) 

36 405 deaths (3301) 

Western Pacific Region 
104 868 confirmed (1093) 

3671 deaths (22) 

European Region 
423 946 confirmed (31131) 

26 694 deaths (2733) 

South-East Asia Region 

4215 confirmed (131) 

166 deaths (8) 

Eastern Mediterranean Region 

50 349 confirmed (4020) 

2954 deaths (142) 

Region of the Americas 
163 014 confirmed (20 935) 

2836 deaths (379) 

African Region 
3786 confirmed (300) 

77 deaths (17) 

WHO RISK ASSESSMENT 

Global Level Very High 


Figure 1. Countries, territories or areas with reported confirmed cases of COVID-19, 31 March 2020 


Countries, areas or territories with COVID-19 cases reported in the last 7 days, WnrIH Health 

as of 31 March 2020, 10:00 (CET) Organization 



Number of cases of Serbia and Kosovo (UNSCR 1 244, 1999) 
have been aggregated for visualization purposes. 


Data Source- World Health Organization 

Map Production ■ WHO Health Emergencies Programme 


Country, area or territory with no cases reported 
in the last 7 days 

Country, area or territory without cases 


The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply the expression of any 
opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of ony country, 
territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted 
and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. 


Not applicable 


©World Health Organization 2020, All rights reserved 







SUBJECT IN FOCUS: WHO Strengthens supply chains and releases guidance on setting up 
treatment centres 

WHO Operations Support and Logistics (OSL) continues to support the COVID-19 emergency operations despite 
continued disruption to critical supply markets where demand outpaces global supply. 

Since the beginning of the outbreak, OSL has shipped more than 800 000 surgical masks, 54 000 N95 masks, 873 000 
gloves, 15 000 goggles and 24 000 face shields to 75 countries. OSL has also shipped COVID-19 testing kits to 126 
countries. 

A Supply Chain Inter-Agency Coordination Cell (SCICC) has been established to provide an overview of supply chain 
requirements and ensure that COVID-19 needs are prioritized within the wider humanitarian response. The SCICC has 
established a Supply and Market Working Group to streamline procurement of critical supplies and equipment to 
address global shortages. 

A common platform for private-sector donations of critical items in support of the COVID-19 response will be 
announced shortly. The list of critical items is available online. 

OSL continues to monitor critical markets and has increased engagement and coordination with private companies, 
in partnership with the Pandemic Supply Chain Network. 

OSL has released the first edition of a practical manual to set up and manage a Severe Acute Respiratory Infection 
(SARI) treatment centre and a SARI screening facility in health-care facilities. The manual is available online, and 
accompanying training modules are available to the public through Open WHO. 

■ Module 1: Overview of basic operational and IPC principles in COVID-19 context 

■ Module 2: Designing a SARI screening area and treatment centre 

■ Module 3: Repurposing an existing building into a SARI treatment centre 


An additional module for WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene), waste management, energy requirements and 
installations for SARI facilities is currently under development. 

OSL is also working to build tactical infection prevention and control (IPC) surge support to hospitals with an aim to 
help improve infectious disease management protocols, limit nosocomial transmission and support rational 
consumption of personal protective equipment. 





SURVEILLANCE 


Table 1. Countries, territories or areas with reported laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths. Data as of 
31 March 2020* 


Reporting Country/ 
Territory/Area + 

Total 

confirmed 
* cases 

Total 

confirmed 

new cases 

Total 

deaths 

Total 

new 

deaths 

Transmission 

classification 9 

Days since last 
reported case 

Western Pacific Region 

China 

82545 

98 

3314 

4 

Local transmission 

0 

Republic of Korea 

9786 

125 

162 

4 

Local transmission 

0 

Australia 

4359 

393 

18 

2 

Local transmission 

0 

Malaysia 

2626 

156 

37 

3 

Local transmission 

0 

Japan 

1953 

87 

56 

2 

Local transmission 

0 

Philippines 

1546 

128 

78 

7 

Local transmission 

0 

Singapore 

879 

35 

3 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

New Zealand 

600 

48 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Viet Nam 

203 

15 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Brunei Darussalam 

127 

1 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Cambodia 

107 

4 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Mongolia 

12 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

3 

Lao People's 

Democratic Republic 

8 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Fiji 

5 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

5 

Papua New Guinea 

1 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

10 

Territories" 

Guam 

58 

2 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

French Polynesia 

36 

1 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

New Caledonia 

15 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

3 

Northern Mariana 

Islands 

(Commonwealth of 
the) 

2 

0 

0 

0 

Under investigation 

2 

European Region 

Italy 

101739 

4050 

11591 

810 

Local transmission 

0 

Spain 

85195 

6398 

7340 

812 

Local transmission 

0 

Germany 

61913 

4615 

583 

128 

Local transmission 

0 

France 

43977 

4335 

3017 

415 

Local transmission 

0 

The United Kingdom 

22145 

2619 

1408 

180 

Local transmission 

0 

Switzerland 

15412 

1138 

295 

38 

Local transmission 

0 

Belgium 

11899 

1063 

513 

82 

Local transmission 

0 

Netherlands 

11750 

884 

864 

93 

Local transmission 

0 

Turkey 

10827 

1556 

168 

37 

Local transmission 

0 

Austria 

9618 

805 

108 

22 

Local transmission 

0 

Portugal 

6408 

446 

140 

21 

Local transmission 

0 

Israel 

4831 

584 

17 

2 

Local transmission 

0 

Norway 

4226 

124 

26 

4 

Local transmission 

0 

Sweden 

4028 

328 

146 

36 

Local transmission 

0 

Czechia 

3002 

173 

24 

8 

Local transmission 

0 

Ireland 

2910 

295 

54 

8 

Local transmission 

0 

Denmark 

2577 

182 

77 

5 

Local transmission 

0 

Poland 

2055 

193 

31 

9 

Local transmission 

0 

Luxembourg 

1988 

38 

22 

1 

Local transmission 

0 


































































Romania 

1952 

192 

44 

4 

Local transmission 

0 

Russian Federation 

1837 

303 

9 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Finland 

1313 

95 

13 

2 

Local transmission 

0 

Greece 

1212 

56 

43 

5 

Local transmission 

0 

Iceland 

1086 

66 

2 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Croatia 

790 

77 

6 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Serbia 

785 

44 

13 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Slovenia 

763 

33 

11 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Estonia 

715 

36 

3 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Ukraine 

549 

69 

13 

2 

Local transmission 

0 

Lithuania 

484 

0 

7 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Armenia 

482 

0 

3 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Hungary 

447 

0 

15 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Latvia 

376 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Andorra 

370 

29 

8 

2 

Local transmission 

0 

Bosnia and 

Herzegovina 

359 

34 

9 

3 

Local transmission 

0 

Bulgaria 

359 

13 

8 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Slovakia 

336 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Kazakhstan 

312 

18 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Republic of Moldova 

298 

35 

2 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

North Macedonia 

285 

26 

7 

1 

Local transmission 

0 

Azerbaijan 

273 

83 

4 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Cyprus 

230 

16 

7 

1 

Local transmission 

0 

San Marino 

230 

1 

25 

1 

Local transmission 

0 

Albania 

223 

0 

11 

1 

Local transmission 

1 

Malta 

156 

5 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Belarus 

152 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Uzbekistan 

149 

4 

2 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Kyrgyzstan 

107 

23 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Georgia 

103 

5 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Montenegro 

91 

6 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Liechtenstein 

64 

2 

0 

0 

Under investigation 

0 

Monaco 

49 

3 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Holy See 

6 

0 

0 

0 

Under investigation 

1 

Territories” 

Faroe Islands 

168 

9 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Kosovo 111 

106 

12 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Gibraltar 

69 

4 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Jersey 

63 

0 

2 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Guernsey 

45 

6 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Isle of Man 

42 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Greenland 

10 

0 

0 

0 

Under investigation 

2 

South-East Asia Region 

Thailand 

1524 

0 

9 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Indonesia 

1414 

129 

122 

8 

Local transmission 

0 

India 

1071 

0 

29 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Sri Lanka 

120 

0 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Bangladesh 

49 

0 

5 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Maldives 

17 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Myanmar 

10 

2 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Nepal 

5 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

2 

Bhutan 

4 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

1 

Timor-Leste 

1 

0 

0 

0 

Under investigation 

10 











Eastern Mediterranean Region 

Iran (Islamic Republic 
of) 

41495 

3186 

2757 

117 

Local transmission 

0 

Pakistan 

1865 

240 

25 

7 

Local transmission 

0 

Saudi Arabia 

1453 

154 

8 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Qatar 

693 

59 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Egypt 

656 

47 

41 

1 

Local transmission 

0 

Iraq 

630 

83 

46 

4 

Local transmission 

0 

United Arab Emirates 

611 

41 

5 

2 

Local transmission 

0 

Morocco 

574 

58 

33 

6 

Local transmission 

0 

Bahrain 

515 

0 

4 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Lebanon 

446 

8 

11 

1 

Local transmission 

0 

Tunisia 

362 

50 

9 

1 

Local transmission 

0 

Jordan 

268 

9 

5 

2 

Local transmission 

0 

Kuwait 

266 

11 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Oman 

179 

12 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Afghanistan 

166 

52 

4 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Djibouti 

26 

7 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Syrian Arab Republic 

10 

1 

2 

1 

Imported cases only 

0 

Libya 

8 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Sudan 

6 

0 

2 

0 

Imported cases only 

1 

Somalia 

3 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

4 

Territories” 

occupied Palestinian 
territory 

117 

2 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Region of the Americas 

United States of 

America 

140640 

17987 

2398 

286 

Local transmission 

0 

Canada 

6317 

662 

66 

5 

Local transmission 

0 

Brazil 

4256 

352 

136 

22 

Local transmission 

0 

Chile 

2449 

540 

8 

2 

Local transmission 

0 

Ecuador 

1962 

127 

60 

12 

Local transmission 

0 

Mexico 

993 

145 

20 

4 

Local transmission 

0 

Panama 

989 

88 

24 

7 

Local transmission 

0 

Dominican Republic 

901 

320 

42 

22 

Local transmission 

0 

Peru 

852 

181 

11 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Argentina 

820 

75 

20 

1 

Local transmission 

0 

Colombia 

702 

94 

10 

4 

Local transmission 

0 

Costa Rica 

314 

19 

2 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Uruguay 

309 

6 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Cuba 

170 

51 

4 

1 

Local transmission 

0 

Honduras 

139 

29 

2 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Venezuela (Bolivarian 
Republic of) 

129 

16 

3 

1 

Local transmission 

0 

Bolivia (Plurinational 
State of) 

97 

23 

5 

5 

Local transmission 

0 

Trinidad and Tobago 

82 

6 

3 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Paraguay 

64 

5 

3 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Guatemala 

36 

2 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Jamaica 

36 

4 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Barbados 

33 

7 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

El Salvador 

30 

6 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Haiti 

15 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

1 

Bahamas 

14 

4 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 















Cayman Islands 

12 

4 

1 

0 

Imported cases only 

0 

Grenada 

9 

2 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Saint Lucia 

9 

5 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Guyana 

8 

3 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Suriname 

8 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

3 

Antigua and Barbuda 

7 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

3 

Nicaragua 

4 

0 

1 

0 

Imported cases only 

2 

Belize 

3 

1 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Saint Kitts and Nevis 

2 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

0 

Saint Vincent and the 

Grenadines 

1 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

18 

Territories** 

Puerto Rico 

174 

110 

6 

4 

Imported cases only 

0 

Martinique 

111 

6 

2 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Guadeloupe 

106 

10 

4 

2 

Imported cases only 

0 

Aruba 

50 

4 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

French Guiana 

43 

12 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

United States Virgin 
Islands 

30 

8 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

0 

Bermuda 

22 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Saint Martin 

18 

12 

1 

1 

Under investigation 

0 

Curasao 

11 

4 

1 

0 

Imported cases only 

0 

Dominica 

11 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

4 

Saint Barthelemy 

6 

1 

0 

0 

Under investigation 

0 

Sint Maarten 

6 

3 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

0 

Montserrat 

5 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

3 

Turks and Caicos 

Islands 

5 

1 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Anguilla 

2 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

4 

British Virgin Islands 

2 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

4 

African Region 

South Africa 

1326 

46 

3 

2 

Local transmission 

0 

Algeria 

511 

57 

31 

2 

Local transmission 

0 

Burkina Faso 

246 

24 

12 

9 

Local transmission 

0 

Cote d'Ivoire 

169 

4 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Senegal 

162 

20 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Ghana 

152 

0 

5 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Cameroon 

139 

26 

6 

4 

Local transmission 

0 

Nigeria 

111 

46 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Mauritius 

107 

5 

2 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Democratic Republic 
of the Congo 

98 

17 

8 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Rwanda 

70 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Madagascar 

46 

9 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

0 

Kenya 

38 

13 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Zambia 

35 

19 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Togo 

34 

6 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Uganda 

33 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Ethiopia 

23 

2 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Niger 

20 

0 

3 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Congo 

19 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

3 

United Republic of 
Tanzania 

19 

5 

0 

0 

Under investigation 

0 

Mali 

18 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

2 











Guinea 

16 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Equatorial Guinea 

14 

1 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

0 

Namibia 

11 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

1 

Eswatini 

9 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

3 

Mozambique 

8 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

2 

Seychelles 

8 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

1 

Gabon 

7 

0 

1 

0 

Imported cases only 

3 

Benin 

6 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

4 

Central African 

Republic 

6 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

3 

Eritrea 

6 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

4 

Cabo Verde 

5 

0 

1 

0 

Imported cases only 

3 

Chad 

5 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

4 

Mauritania 

5 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

2 

Zimbabwe 

5 

0 

1 

0 

Local transmission 

3 

Gambia 

3 

0 

1 

0 

Imported cases only 

2 

Liberia 

3 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

9 

Angola 

2 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

9 

Guinea-Bissau 

2 

0 

0 

0 

Imported cases only 

5 

Territories” 

Reunion 

207 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Mayotte 

82 

0 

0 

0 

Local transmission 

1 

Subtotal for all 
regions 

750178 

57610 

36398 

3301 



International 
conveyance (Diamond 
Princess) 

712 

0 

7 

0 

Local transmission 

15 

Grand total 

750890 

57610 

36405 

3301 




Numbers include both domestic and repatriated cases 

+ The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on 
the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its 
frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. 
♦Case classifications are based on WHO case definitions for COVID-19. 

transmission classification is based on WHO analysis of available official data and may be subject to reclassification as additional data become 
available. Countries/territories/areas experiencing multiple types of transmission are classified in the highest category for which there is 
evidence; they may be removed from a given category if interruption of transmission can be demonstrated. It should be noted that even within 
categories, different countries/territories/areas may have differing degrees of transmission as indicated by the differing numbers of cases and 
other factors. Not all locations within a given country/territory/area are equally affected. 

Terms: 

Community transmission is evidenced by the inability to relate confirmed cases through chains of transmission for a large number of cases, or by 
increasing positive tests through sentinel samples (routine systematic testing of respiratory samples from established laboratories). 

Local transmission indicates locations where the source of infection is within the reporting location. 

Imported cases only indicates locations where all cases have been acquired outside the location of reporting. 

Under investigation indicates locations where type of transmission has not been determined for any cases. 

Interrupted transmission indicates locations where interruption of transmission has been demonstrated (details to be determined) 

** "Territories" include territories, areas, overseas dependencies and other jurisdictions of similar status 

[1) All references to Kosovo should be understood to be in the context of the United Nations Security Council resolution 1244 (1999). 

Due to differences in reporting methods, retrospective data consolidation, and reporting delays, the number of new cases may not always 
reflect the exact difference between yesterday's and today's totals. WHO COVID-19 Situation Reports present official counts of confirmed 
COVID-19 cases, thus differences between WHO reports and other sources of COVID-19 data using different inclusion criteria and different 
data cutoff times are to be expected. 


















































Figure 1. Epidemic curve of confirmed COVID-19, by date of report and WHO region through 31 March 2020 



2019 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 

Date of report 


WHO region 

I Africa 
Americas 

■ Eastern Mediterranean 

■ Europe 
South-East Asia 
Western Pacific 
Other 


STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES 

WHO's strategic objectives for this response are to: 

• Interrupt human-to-human transmission including reducing secondary infections among close contacts 
and health care workers, preventing transmission amplification events, and preventing further 
international spread*; 

• Identify, isolate and care for patients early, including providing optimized care for infected patients; 

• Identify and reduce transmission from the animal source; 

• Address crucial unknowns regarding clinical severity, extent of transmission and infection, treatment 
options, and accelerate the development of diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines; 

• Communicate critical risk and event information to all communities and counter misinformation; 

• Minimize social and economic impact through multisectoral partnerships. 

*This can be achieved through a combination of public health measures, such as rapid identification, diagnosis 
and management of the cases, identification and follow up of the contacts, infection prevention and control in 
health care settings, implementation of health measures for travelers, awareness-raising in the population and 
risk communication. 
























PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE 


• To view all technical guidance documents regarding COVID-19, please go to this webpage . 

• WHO has developed interim guidance forjaboratory diagnosis, advice on the use of masks during home care and 
in health care settings in the context of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak, clinical management, 
infection prevention and control in health care settings, home care for patients with suspected novel 
coronavirus, risk communication and community engagement and Global Surveillance for human infection with 
novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). 

• WHO is working closely with International Air Transport Association (IATA) and have jointly developed a 
guidance document to provide advice to cabin crew and airport workers, based on country queries. The 
guidance can be found on the IATA webpage . 

• WHO has been in regular and direct contact with Member States where cases have been reported. WHO is also 
informing other countries about the situation and providing support as requested. 

• WHO is working with its networks of researchers and other experts to coordinate global work on surveillance, 
epidemiology, mathematical modelling, diagnostics and virology, clinical care and treatment, infection 
prevention and control, and risk communication. WHO has issued interim guidance for countries, which are 
updated regularly. 

• WHO has prepared a disease commodity package that includes an essential list of biomedical equipment, 
medicines and supplies necessary to care for patients with 2019-nCoV. 

• WHO has provided recommendations to reduce risk of transmission from animals to humans . 

• WHO has published an updated advice for international traffic in relation to the outbreak of the novel 
coronavirus 2019-nCoV . 

• WHO has activated the R&D blueprint to accelerate diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics. 

• OpenWHO is an interactive, web-based, knowledge-transfer platform offering online courses to improve the 
response to health emergencies. COVID-19 courses can be found here and courses in additional national 
languages here . Specifically, WHO has developed online courses on the following topics: 

o A general introduction to emerging respiratory viruses, including novel coronaviruses (available in 
Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish, Hindi, Indian Sign Language, Persian, Portuguese, 
Serbian and Turkish); 

o Clinical care for Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (available in English, French, Russian, Indonesian 
and Vietnamese); 

o Health and safety briefing for respiratory diseases - ePROTECT (available in Chinese, English, French, 
Russian, Spanish, Indonesian and Portuguese); 

o Infection Prevention and Control for Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (available in Chinese, English, French, 
Russian, Spanish, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese and Serbian); and 

o COVID-19 Operational Planning Guidelines and COVID-19 Partners Platform to support country 
preparedness and response (available in English and coming soon in additional languages). 

• WHO is providing guidance on early investigations, which are critical in an outbreak of a new virus. The data 
collected from the protocols can be used to refine recommendations for surveillance and case definitions, to 
characterize the key epidemiological transmission features of COVID-19, help understand spread, severity, 
spectrum of disease, impact on the community and to inform operational models for implementation of 
countermeasures such as case isolation, contact tracing and isolation. Several protocols are available here . One 
such protocol is for the investigation of early COVID-19 cases and contacts (the " First Few X (FFX) Cases and 
contact investigation protocol for 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection "). The protocol is designed to 
gain an early understanding of the key clinical, epidemiological and virological characteristics of the first cases of 
COVID-19 infection detected in any individual country, to inform the development and updating of public health 
guidance to manage cases and reduce the potential spread and impact of infection. 














RECOMMENDATIONS AND ADVICE FOR THE PUBLIC 


If you are not in an area where COVID-19 is spreading or have not travelled from an area where COVID-19 is 
spreading or have not been in contact with an infected patient, your risk of infection is low. It is understandable that 
you may feel anxious about the outbreak. Get the facts from reliable sources to help you accurately determine your 
risks so that you can take reasonable precautions (see Frequently Asked Questions ). Seek guidance from WHO, your 
healthcare provider, your national public health authority or your employer for accurate information on COVID-19 
and whether COVID-19 is circulating where you live. It is important to be informed of the situation and take 
appropriate measures to protect yourself and your family (see Protection measures for everyone) . 

If you are in an area where there are cases of COVID-19 you need to take the risk of infection seriously. Follow the 
advice of WHO and guidance issued by national and local health authorities. For most people, COVID-19 infection 
will cause mild illness however, it can make some people very ill and, in some people, it can be fatal. Older people, 
and those with pre-existing medical conditions (such as cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease or 
diabetes) are at risk for severe disease (See Protection measures for persons who are in or have recently visited (past 
14 days) areas where COVID-19 is spreading ). 


CASE DEFINITIONS 

WHO periodically updates the Global Surveillance for human infection with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) 
document which includes case definitions. 

For easy reference, case definitions are included below. 

Suspect case 

A. A patient with acute respiratory illness (fever and at least one sign/symptom of respiratory disease, e.g., cough, 
shortness of breath), AND a history of travel to or residence in a location reporting community transmission of 
COVID-19 disease during the 14 days prior to symptom onset. 

OR 

B. A patient with any acute respiratory illness AND having been in contact with a confirmed or probable COVID-19 
case (see definition of contact) in the last 14 days prior to symptom onset; 

OR 

C. A patient with severe acute respiratory illness (fever and at least one sign/symptom of respiratory disease, e.g., 
cough, shortness of breath; AND requiring hospitalization) AND in the absence of an alternative diagnosis that 
fully explains the clinical presentation. 

Probable case 

A. A suspect case for whom testing for the COVID-19 virus is inconclusive. 

a. Inconclusive being the result of the test reported by the laboratory. 

OR 

B. A suspect case for whom testing could not be performed for any reason. 

Confirmed case 

A person with laboratory confirmation of COVID-19 infection, irrespective of clinical signs and symptoms. 

• Technical guidance for laboratory testing can be found here . 


Definition of contact 


A contact is a person who experienced any one of the following exposures during the 2 days before and the 14 days 












after the onset of symptoms of a probable or confirmed case: 

1. Face-to-face contact with a probable or confirmed case within 1 meter and for more than 15 minutes; 

2. Direct physical contact with a probable or confirmed case; 

3. Direct care for a patient with probable or confirmed COVID-19 disease without using proper personal 
protective equipment 1 ; OR 

4. Other situations as indicated by local risk assessments. 

Note: for confirmed asymptomatic cases, the period of contact is measured as the 2 days before through the 14 days 
after the date on which the sample was taken which led to confirmation. 


1 World Health Organization. Infection prevention and control during health care when COVID-19 is suspected 
https://www.who.int/publications-detail/infection-prevention-and-control-during-health-care-when-novel-coronavirus-(ncov)- 

infection-is-suspected-20200125